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Full text of "Communist activities among Puerto Ricans in New York City and Puerto Rico. Hearings"

/f/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



lis Doc 2.791 



Committee on Un-American Activities 
House 
86th Congress 



Table of Contents 

(Since these hearings are consecutively paged 
they are arranged by page number, instead of 
alphabetically by title) 



1. American National Exhibition, Moscow, ^/H*^ 
July 1959 

2. Communist Training Operations, pt.l "^IQ •' 

5. Testimony of Clinton Edvard Jencks %l<^^ 



^4-. Testimony of Arnold Johnson, Legislative 
Director of the Communist Party, U.S.A. 



5-7. Western Section of the Southern California 
District of the Communist Party, pt.1-3 

8. Issues Presented by Air Reserve Center ^jy- 
Training Manual 

9-10. Communist Training Operations, pt. 2-5 



11-12. Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans in 
New York City and Puerto Rico, pt.1-2 



^1^6 






COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS IN 
NEW YORK CITY AND PUERTO RICO 

(NEW YORK CITY— Part 1) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



NOVEMBER 16 AND 17, 1959 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 




m^yvniid COLLEGE LIBRARY 

D£>^U3IT£D BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

MAV 20 I960 

UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1960 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Are'^s, Staff Director 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 (New York City, N.Y.) 

Pag* 

Synopsis- -- l^^-^ 

November 16, 1959: 
Testimony of — 

Sergei Buteneff 1^1^ 

Donald F. Barnes 1520 

Mildred Blauvelt 1526 

Jesus Colon 1537 

Afternoon session — 

Felix Ojeda Ruiz ..___ 154S 

William Norman 1553 

Stanley L. Weiss 1557 

Jorge W. Maysonet-Hernandez 1560 

Ramon Acevedo 1565 

Victor Agosto 1568 

Michael Crenovich 1569 

Angel Rene Torres 1572 

Armando Roman 1578 

November 17, 1959: 
Testimony of — 

William Lorenzo Patterson 1589 

Richard Levins 1591 

Jose Santiago 1594 

Index i 

PART 2 (San Juan, Puerto Rico) 

Synopsis 1605 

November 18, 1959: 
Testimony of — 

Irving Fishman, Eleanor Suske, and John Pelaez 1618 

Afternoon session — 

Restituto Ortiz 1635 

Jose Enamorado Cuesta 1638 

Manuel Arroyo Zeppenfeldt 1655 

November 19, 1959: 
Testimony of — 

Juan Saez Corales 1662 

Mildred Blauvelt 1668 

Afternoon session — 

Juan Emmanuelli Morales 1677 

George C. Williams 1678 

Juan Emmanuelli Morales (resumed) 1682 

Gertrudis Melendez Perez 1684 

Consuelo Burgos De Pagan 1687 

Pablo M. Garcia Rodriguez 1690 

Cesar Andreu Iglesias 1695 

Ramon Diaz Cruz 1697 

John Peter Hawes 1700 

Frank Ruiz 1703 

November 20, 1959: 
Testimony of — ■ 

Juan Santos Rivera 1707 

Diego L. Martin, Jr l7l4 

Cristino Perez Mendez I7l5 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

• *•**** 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 
I? 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

CoM3iuxiST Activities Among Puerto Ricans ix Xew York City 

AND Pl'EKTO KiCO 

(New York City — Part 1) 

Public hearings on Communist activities among Puerto Rican 
nationality groups in New York City and in Puerto Rico were held 
in New York City on November 16 and 17 and in San Juan, Puerto 
Rico, on November 18, 19, and 20, 1959/ 

In opening the hearings in New York City, Congressman William 
M. Tuck, chairman of the subcommittee which conducted the hearings, 
stated in part : 

At the outset, may I disclaim any notion that the Committee 
on Un-American Activities is investigating Puerto Ricans en 
masse. It is our duty to investigate Communists and Com- 
munist activities, and we follow these trails wherever they 
may lead. 

Preliminary investigation by the staff indicates that the 
Communist conspiracy is attempting to penetrate Puerto 
Rican nationality groups in New York City and to establish 
conduits between these groups in the United States and Com- 
munist conspiratorial operations in Puerto Rico. 

We are confident that the overwhelming majority of Puerto 
Ricans are loyal and patriotic, but the power of the Com- 
munist conspiracy stems not from numbers, but from the 
dedication and zeal of the few disciplined conspirators who 
wield an influence far disproportionate to their numbers in 
the total war which communism is waging against freedom 
everywhere. 

As a background for the hearings there were inserted in the record 
excerpts from Communist publications and international broadcasts, 
reflecting the design which the international Communist conspiracy 
has on Puerto Rican nationality groups in the United States and 
Puerto Rico and the interlocking relationship between these groups. 

Sergei Buteneft', a supervisor in the New York office of the United 
States Customs Service, displayed to the subcommittee numerous 
Communist propaganda publications in Spanish which are being sent 
to Puerto Rican groups in New York City. 

Donald F. Barnes, a senior interpreter of the United States Depart- 
ment of State, translated and analyzed a number of articles from the 
Communist propaganda publications displayed by Mr. Buteneff. A 
principal line of these publications extols the visit of Nikita 
Khrushchev to the United States and commends the cultural achieve- 
ments of the Soviet Union. A typical article indicating the current 
designs of the international Communist conspiracy in Latin America is 



1 See "Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans in New York City and Puerto 
lieo" (San Juan, Puerto Rico-Part 2). 

1505 



1506 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

reflected in the following excerpt from the Spanish translation of a 

current issue of New Times : 

For a long time, the Latin American rulers have followed 
Wasliington with docility. The majority of these countries 
were enslaved by Yankee monopolies. The Organization of 
American States was founded in 1948 at the prodding of 
Washington. Official propaganda represented it as the per- 
sonification of the theory of national solidarity of the coun- 
tries of the Western Hemisphere, which was very much in 
style in those years, but that theory was false. In reality, this 
new organization was nothing more than a means of the sub- 
jugation of the peoples of Latin America by the monopolies 
from the north. Behind that screen, the Department of 
State interfered in the internal affairs of the signatory nations 
to snuff out the least sign of independence. The OAS also 
had the mission of protecting dictatorial regimes installed 
with the assistance of Yankee monopolies and the Department 
of State. But it made no move in the face of the bloody 
reprisals which the democratic government of Guatemala 
suffered. 

Detective Mildred Blauvelt of the Bureau of Special Services of the 
New York City Police Department, testified respecting her activities 
as a onetime midercover agent of the New York Police Department 
in the Communist Party in which she served in the Boro Hall Section 
in Brooklyn. The Boro Hall Section included the La Pasionaria Club 
which was composed of Puerto Rican comrades. Detective Blauvelt's 
testimony respecting Communist infiltration in the Puerto Rican 
nationality groups in New York City was based not only on her expe- 
rience as an undercover agent in the Communist Party (until Novem- 
ber of 1951) but also on current information developed from confiden- 
tial sources in the course of her present duties. In regard to the 
means through which the Communist conspiracy attempts to organize 
the Puerto Ricans in New York City, Detective Blauvelt stated : 

The Communist Party attempts to organize the Puerto 
Ricans through what it calls its "concentrations." According 
to Communist definition, a "concentration" is a Leninist 
method of work, that is, party activities are to be conducted 
in specified areas, such as working-class areas, nationality 
groups, racial groups, and so on, for the purpose of propa- 
gandizing the party line. An area where the majority of the 
residents is Puerto Rican presents itself as a concentration 
to the Communist Party because here, in a designated area, 
the party will find practically all the elements upon which it 
can spew its propaganda of the class struggle. 

Here the party finds the working-class group, the low- 
income group, and those on relief. Because of the fact that 
they are a Spanish-speaking people, they take on the aspects 
of a nationality group, and because of the fact that they are^ 
as a whole, just a small part of our population, they become 
a minority group. 

With this combination in their social and economic status, 
the party hopes to convince them that they are being ex- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1507 

ploited, and thus nurture the seeds of discontent so that 
they will turn to the party as the defender of their human 
rights and as the only organization, according to party repre- 
sentations, which is interested in their welfare — their welfare 
for jobs, higher wages, and equality for all. 

Continuing, Detective Blauvelt said : 

The party has no real sympathy with these people. It is 
using them for its own purposes, for its own propaganda 
purposes. It wishes to recruit them into the party, and if 
it can't do that, it wants to use them to gain support for any 
of its propaganda campaigns for the purposes of the party, 
to project the aims of the party. 

******* 
The party was concerned sometimes not so much in gaining 
these people as party members, but in gaining their support, 
because the sheer weight of niunbers in support of any propa- 
ganda campaign on the part of the party would give the im- 
pression that this was the actual will of the people, and thus 
implement and project the aims of the party. 

In the course of her testimony. Detective Blauvelt identified the 
following persons : 

Caryll Lasky, financial secretary of the Boro Hall Section of the 
Communist Party ; 

Bea Sacks, one of the executive members of the Kings County 
Committee and acting as the organizational director of the Boro Hall 
Section of the Communist Party ; 

Jesus Colon, a member of the Communist Party, who was active in 
Puerto Eican work and regarded also as the leader of both the La 
Pasionaria Club and the Puerto Rican branch of the IWO ; 

Abe Osheroff, the organizer of the Boro Hall Section of the Com- 
munist Party ; 

Eleanor Woolman Schor, organizational secretary of the Boro Hall 
Section ; 

Carl Vedro, a member of the Executive Committee of the Kings 
Comity Committee of the Brooklyn Communist Party; 

Emilia Giboyeaux, membership director of the La Pasionaria Club; 

Jose Giboyeaux, a member of the La Pasionaria Club and delegate 
to the American Peace Crusade ; 

Margery de Leon, membership director of the Boro Hall Section ; 

Harry Shapiro, alias Harry Brockman, acting organizer of the 
La Pasionaria Club. 

Carlos Dore, organizer of the La Pasionaria Club ; 

Ruth Perloff, the area director of the Jay-Smith Clubs of the Com- 
munist Party ; and 

Charles Marshall, the area director of the La Pasionaria Club and 
present director of the Boro Hall Section. 

In concluding her testimony Detective Blauvelt described the pur- 
pose of Communist interest in Puerto Rican nationality groups as 
follows : 

It is a party tactic to foster resentment on the part of any 
minority group for the purpose of causing further dissension 



1508 COMJVIUNIST ACTWITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

among the people in this country. In many cases, where no 
resentment exists, the party will strive to create it. For ex- 
ample, a routine arrest of some lawbreaker will be labeled 
persecution, police brutality, violation of civil rights, and 
it will be seized upon by the party as an excuse to initiate an 
intensive petition or leaflet campaign or to initiate the forma- 
tion of a peoples civil rights or defense committee. 

The issues about which everyone is concerned, such as hous- 
ing, rents, wages and prices, are used by the party as an enter- 
ing wedge, magnified greatly out of proportion, and then fol- 
lowed by propaganda for the party's own purposes. In all of 
its literature, the party pretends that it is the one which has 
initiated concern over these issues. It tries to present the 
assumption that it is the party which is the only organization 
that can ameliorate these conditions and that it is only 
through support of the party that these conditions can be 
satisfactorily resolved. 

Jesus Colon, who had been identified by Detective Blauvelt as a 
member of the Communist Party who was active in Puerto Rican 
work and regarded also as the leader of both the La Pasionaria Club 
and the Puerto Rican branch of the lAVO, appeared in response to a 
subpena and identified himself as a writer for The Worker. Mr. 
Colon testified that he was born in Puerto Rico where he attended 
grammar school; that he came to Brooklyn, New York, in 1917, and 
was educated in high school and at St. John's Law School. He re- 
counted various occupations in which he had been engaged, including 
employment in the United States Post Office Department. 

There was displayed to Mr. Colon an article in The Worker pertain- 
ing to Puerto Ricans and Puerto Rico, but he refused to answer all 
questions regarding his ^oi-itings on the ground that his answers might 
tend to incriminate him. On similar grounds he also refused to answer 
whether he writes for a publication in San Juan, Puerto Rico, known 
as Pueblo; whether he disseminates and distributes among Puerto 
Rican nationality groups in New York City, Communist proi)aganda 
emanating from behind the Iron Curtain and from San Juan ; whether 
he is an instructor in the Faculty of Social Science; - whether he was 
at the time of the hearing a member of the Communist Party ; and 
whether he had information of current Communist activities among 
Puerto Rican nationality groups in New York City and in Puerto Rico. 

Felix Ojeda Ruiz appeared in response to a subpena and stated that 
he was born in Puerto Rico where he was educated through the first 
year of high school ; that he came to the United States for permanent 
residence approximately 4 years ago. There was displayed to Mr. 
Ojeda Ruiz an article from the New York Daily Worker in which he 
is identified under date of April 1054 as editor of a publication in San 
Juan known as Pueblo, but Mr. Ojeda Ruiz refused to acknowledge 
his one-time status on the ground that his answers might tend to 
incriminate him. 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz refused, on the same ground, to say whether he was 
a member of the Communist Party ; whether he was, at the time of the 
hearings, engaged in any Communist Party activities; whether he is a 



^ Cited by the House Committee on Un-American Activities as an adjunct of the Com- 
munist Party for the purpose of indoctrinating Communists and Communist sympathizers. 
(See: "Communist Training Operations," pt. 1, hearings before House Committee on 
Un-American Activities, July 21 and 22, 1959.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1509 

distributing a<>ent of Pueblo among Puoii o llican groups in Xew York 
City; and wlietlier lie cui-rently maintains contacts with any persons 
known by him to be in the (\)nununist operation in Puerto Rico. 
There was displaced to Mr. () jeda Kuiz a ])hotostatic reproduction of a 
United States passport ai)])lication filed by him in 1052 for a passport 
to go to Spain, but he refused to answer any questions concerning the 

{passport or whether he traveled to Spain in 1952 on Communist Paity 
)usiness. 

"William Xoi-man appeared in response to a subpena and stated that 
he lived in Flushing, New York; that he was born in Russia; came to 
the United States as a child; that his education included 2 years of 
work at City College in Xcav York; and that he is a citizen of the 
United States by derivation. He refused, on the ground that it might 
tend to incriminate him, to answer questions respecting: his occupa- 
tion and whether he is, or in the recent past was, executive secretary of 
the New York Pueito Rican Communist Party. 

Mr. Norman's attention was directed to the fact that Charles Regan 
testified before the Committee on Un-American Activities in Butfalo. 
New York, in October 1957, that he (Regan) knew William Norman 
as a member of the Communist Party. Mr. Noiman refused to state 
whether ISIr. Regan was in error in his identification or was telling 
the truth on the ground that his answer might incriminate him. 

Stanley L. Weiss appeared in response to a subpena and stated that 
he was born in the Bronx, New Yoik, and that his education included 
2 years of high school in Brooklyn, New York. Mr. Weiss refused, 
on the ground that his answers might tend to incriminate him, to an- 
swer questions as to whether he had ever traveled to Puerto Rico; 
whether he maintains contacts with people in San Juan, Puerto Rico; 
and whether he was, at the time of the hearings, a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Jorge W. ^Nlaysonet-Hernandez appeai-ed in response to a subj^ena 
and testified that he was born in Puerto Rico, where he attended high 
school. There was displayed to Mr. iNIaysonet- Hernandez an article 
appearing in the American press which reads, in part, as follows : 

Jorge W. Maysonet-Hernandez, 40. Has serv^ed as secre- 
tary of labor of the Municipal Committee of the party in San 
Juan, Puerto Rico. A member of the party since 1943. 

Mr. Maysonet-Hemandez declined to answer questions with respect 
to the article on the ground that his answer might tend to incriminate 
him. He, likewise on the same ground, refused to answer whether he 
had been one of the top Communists in San Juan prior to coming to the 
United States; whether he presently maintains contacts with members 
of the Communist Party in Puerto Rico: and whether he was, at the 
time of the hearings, a member of the Communist Party. 

When asked if the Communist Party is an organization dedicated 
to the overthrow of the United States Government by force and vio- 
lence, Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez replied : 

I believe that the Communist Party of Puerto Rico, as is the 
case with any other organization that is fighting for the freedom 
of Puerto Rico, has a right to do so, because force and violence 
and their existence are determined by circumstances and by the 
position of reaction. That is my answer. 



1510 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

iRamonAcevedo appeared in response to a subpena and testified 
that he resided in Brooklyn, New York. He described his occupation 
as a manual laborer. Mr. Acevedo was asked a number of questions by 
the committee but evaded answering, although he did not invoke con- 
stitutional privileges. 

Victor Agosto appeared in response to a subpena and testified that 
he was born in either Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands and that he 
had attended primary school. He stated that he came to the conti- 
nental United States in 1943 and was currently employed as a general 
worker. 

He refused, on the ground that it might tend to incriminate him, to 
answer questions concerning his current membership in the Com- 
munist Party; his presence at the Sixteenth National Convention of 
the Communist Party in February 1957 in New York City ; and con- 
cerning his current activity among Puerto Rican nationality groups 
in New York City. 

Michael Crenovich appeared in response to a subpena and testified 
that the was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1925 and left for Argen- 
tina in 1929, where he was educated and where he learned to speak 
Spanish. Mr. Crenovich stated that he returned to the United States 
for military service in 1946, and in 1947 received his discharge. He 
stated that the only occupations in which he has been engaged were 
office clerk and printing pressman. 

When confronted with a document listing him as an instructor in a 
course on "Latin America Today" at the Faculty of Social Science, 
Mr. Crenovich refused to comment, basing his refusal on the ground 
that his answer might tend to incriminate him. Wlien confronted with 
the May 7, 1949, issue of the publication, Liberacion, in which "Miguel 
Crenovitch" is listed as business manager, the witness refused to com- 
ment, basing his refusal on the ground that his answer might tend to 
incriminate him. 

Mr. Crenovich refused on the ground that it might tend to incrimi- 
nate him to answer questions concerning his May Day speech in 
Spanish, his work among the Puerto Rican nationality group in New 
York City, and his membership in the Communist Party. 

Angel Rene Torres appeared in response to a subpena and testified 
that he was born in Puerto Rico and came to the continental United 
States at the age of four. Mr. Torres stated that he had attended 
high school for 2 years in Brooklyn, New York, and that he was "a 
blacklisted seaman by profession." 

Mr. Torres refused to answer, on the ground it might tend to in- 
criminate him, when asked whether he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time he was a seaman. Mr. Torres added that he 
had done a little free-lance writing and had written a little poetry. 
When confronted with a copy of Vanguard of October 1959, he re- 
fused to answer questions concerning his editorship of the publication 
on the ground that his answers might tend to incriminate him. 

Wlien confronted with a publication entitled, "Port-Light," of 
April 1959, on the masthead of which appears "Issued by Communists 
on the Waterfront," Mr. Torres refused to answer a question con- 
cerning his connection with the publication, basing his refusal on the 
ground that his answer might tend to incriminate him. 

Mr. Torres refused to answer questions, on the ground that it might 
tend to incriminate him, concerning his knowledge of the publications, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1511 

"Voice of the Membership" and "The Independent Caucus"; his cur- 
rent membership in the Communist Party; and his use of the alias, 
Annando Marino. 

Armando Roman appeared in response to a subpena and testified 
his occupation was a food worker. There was read to Mr. Roman 
excerpts from a report received by the committee respecting a meet- 
ing held in New York City on November 6, 1959, in which the follow- 
ing appears : 

Armando Roman was the last speaker. He spoke on the 
Soviet Seven Year Plan. He predicted that in the Soviet 
Union there would soon be no difference between town and 
countiy and that the different "Republics" of the Soviet 
Union would merge, Russian, Ukrainian, Turman, etc. And 
that soon the "People's Democracies" of Eastern Europe 
would also merge with them. At the end of the Seven Year 
Plan, said Roman, Soviet production would match that of 
the U.S. At that time the Communists would no longer be 
in favor of "Peaceful Co-Existence". After the Soviet Union 
overtakes the U.S., the Capitalist nations will commit suicide 
or otherwise fall into the hands of the workers. 

When interrogated respecting the meeting as to whether he was a 
member of the Communist Party at the time of the meeting, under 
whose auspices the meeting was held and who was in attendance at 
the meeting, Mr. Roman refused to answer on the ground that it 
might incriminate him, but commented regarding his remarks as 
follows : 

I said that the peoples of the Soviet Union, 87 nations and 
nationalities, have been welded together under the state of 
the working class in the Soviet Union, and they have forced 
miity and they are marching togetlier. 

For instance, the Soviet np^^ionalities and nations that were 
very backward at one time now are an integral part of the 
Soviet state, respected as citizens, with full rights — eco- 
nomic, political, and otherwise — in contrast with my own 
counti-y, Puerto Rico, which is the most oppressed nation 
in the Western Hemisphere. The fact is that all Latin 
Americans exist as oppressed nations under the heel of Amer- 
ican imperialism. That is one thing I said. Let me continue. 

I also said that, as a result of the attainment and achieve- 
ment of the 7-year plan, the Soviet Union and the other social- 
ist countries would surpass the per capita production of all the 
capitalist world and that, as a result, the capitalist imperial- 
ists would have no recourse but die as a result of a war that 
they would start or explode as a result of economic pressure 
that would occur. 

I also said at that time when I spoke there, and I am telling 
you what I said, I am not pulling any punches, I am respon- 
sible for what I say and I said it. I also said that the Latin 
American peoples have joined together with the whole colo- 
nial peoples of the world and refuse to be chattels any more 
for any imperialism, not even American imperialism. That I 
said. 



1512 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

There was displayed to Mr. Roman a copy of the Coimiiunist Daily 
Worker of June 25, 1957, in Ayhich Armando Eoman is described as a 
Puerto Eican Communist leader in Xew York City, but Mr. Roman 
refused to comment on the article on the ground that his answer might 
tend to incriminate him. He likewise refused to answer whether he 
was at the time of the hearing a member of the Communist Party. 

William Lorenzo Patterson appeared in response to a subpena. Al- 
though Mr. Patterson was requested to identify himself by name, resi- 
dence, and occupation and was asked whether, in the course of the 
recent past, he made a trip to San Juan, Puerto Rico, in behalf of the 
Communist Party, his only response was to challenge the jurisdiction 
of the committee. 

Richard Levins appeared in i-esponse to a subpena and testified that 
he was a graduate student of genetics at Columbia University. He 
refused to answer all other questions and subsequently withdrew from 
the hearing on the ground, among others, that a quorum was not 
present during his testimony. 

Jose Santiago appeared in response to a subpena and identified him- 
self as a "blacklisted diamond cutter." There was read to Mr. San- 
tiago excerpts from a report of a meeting held in New York City on 
May 1, 1959, in which directives Mere revealed from the Communist 
operation in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and in which meeting the follow- 
ing was reported to have occurred : 

Santiago stated that the Puerto Rican Liberation Front had 
about 2000 members and had a chapter in New York. * * * 
He calls for a united front of negro and white workers, and 
stated that the 3rd Congress for Puerto Rican Independence 
would take place this Fall, and that unity of the Puerto Rican 
workers and peasant was developing and would lead to the 
same sort of success that has been gained in the Cuban Revolu- 
tion. 



This report further quoted Santiago as say 



mc;: 



There are two things that are a cause for hope, the help of the Soviet Union 
for the colonial people, and the Cuban Revolution. * * * the Cuban Revolu- 
tionary Movement leaders did not heed the Communist warnings until late in 
the game, but when they did heed the Communists, the 6,000 members of the 
Popular Socialist Party of Cuba provided the leadership for the fight against 
BATISTA. 

Mr. Santiago refused to answer questions respecting the meeting or 
with respect to his present membei-ship in the Communist Party on 
the ground that it might tend to incriminate him. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS IN 
NEW YORK CITY AND PUERTO RICO 

(New York City— Part 1) 



MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 1959 

United States House of Eepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Actr^ities, 

New York, N .Y . 
public hearings 

A subcommittee of tlie Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m. in Courtroom 36, United States Courthouse, 
Foley Square, New York City, Hon. William M. Tuck (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiclmg. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives William M. Tuck, 
of Virginia, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
W^illiams and William Margetich, investigators; and Fulton Lewis 
III, research analyst. 

Also present : Donald F. Barnes, senior interpreter, United States 
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will be in order. 

The hearings which begin today in New York City and will be con- 
tinued in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on November 18, 1959, will deal in 
general with the subject of interlocking Communist activities among 
Puerto Rican nationality groups in New York City and in Puerto 
Rico. 

At the outset, may I disclaim any notion that the Conitnittee on 
Un-American Activities is investigating Puerto Ricans en masse. It 
is our duty to investigate Communists and Communist activities, and 
we follow these trails wherever they may lead. 

Wlien the Communist trails lead into educational institutions. Com- 
munists and Communist apologists proclaim that the Coimnittee on 
Un-American Activities is investigating education. lYlien these trails 
lead into labor unions, they then proclaim that the committee is in- 
vestigating organized labor. '^Ylien we pursue the trails of spies 
operating out of the diplomatic establishments of the Iron Curtain 
countries, the committee is accused of investigating embassies and 
consulates. 

This type of perversion of the work of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities of the House of Representatives will not dissuade us 
from our duty. 

1513 



1514 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

We seek only the facts. In so far as it is within the power of this 
committee, as a part of the United States Congress, we shall obtain 
the facts and we shall do so within the framework of carefully pre- 
scribed procedures of justice and fair play. 

The hearings which begin today in New York City are in further- 
ance of the powers and duties of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities pursuant to Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, which 
not only establishes the basic jurisdiction of the committee, but also' 
mandates this committee, along with other standing committees of 
the Congress, to exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution of 
any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the 
committee. 

In response to this power and duty, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is continuously in the process of accumulating factual infor- 
mation respecting Communists, the Communist Party, and Commu- 
nist activities which will enable the committee and the Congress to 
appraise the administration and operation of the Smith Act, the 
Internal Security Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, 
and numerous provisions of the Criminal Code relating to espionage, 
sabotage, and subversion. In addition, the committee has before it 
numerous proposals to strengthen our legislative weapons designed to 
protect the internal security of this Nation. 

I shall now read the resolution of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities authorizing and directing the holding of the instant 
hearings : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities or a subcommittee thereof, to be held in Puerto Rico, in New York City, and 
elsewhere as the Chairman may direct, on such date or dates as the Chairman 
may determine, be authorized and approved, including the conduct of investiga- 
tions deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, relating 
to the following matters and having the legislative purposes indicated; 

1. Entry and dissemination in Puerto Rico of foreign Communist Party propa- 
ganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the necessity for, and advisa- 
bility of amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act designed more 
effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices now used in avoiding- 
the prohibitions of the Act ; 

2. Receipt of information relating to persons engaged in foreign travel, the 
legislative purpose being: 

(a) Committee consideration of amendments to Sec. 213 of the Immigration 
and Nationality Act as contained in Title IX — Immigration and Passport Secu- 
rity — of H.R. 2232, introduced on January 12, 1959, and referred by the House 
of Representatives to the Committee on Un-American Activities; 

(b) Consideration of legislative recommendations expressing the will and 
intent of Congress spelled out in direct and positive form, granting authority to 
the Secretary of State to issue, withhold, or limit passports for international 
travel of adherents to the Communist Party, and the granting of specific statutory 
authority, to the Secretary of State to issue substantive regulations in the pass- 
port field, as set forth in the annual reports of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities for the years 1956-1958. 

3. The extent, character and objects of C/Ommimist infiltration and Communist 
Party propaganda activities in Puerto Rico, the legislative purpose being to add 
to the Committee's overall knowledge on the subject so that the Congress may 
be kept informed and thus prepared to enact remedial legislation in the national 
defense and for internal security. 

4. The execution by the administrative agencies concerned of all laws and 
regulations relating to the Internal Security Act. the Communist Control Act, 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Passport Regulations, and all other laws,. 
the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the Committee, the 
legislative pui*pose being to exercise continuous watchfulness over the execu- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1515- 

tion of these laws to assist the Congress in appraising their administration, and 
in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary. 
5. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Conmiittee which it, or 
any subcommittee hereof appointed to conduct these hearings may designate. 

I shall now read the order of appointment of the subcommittee to 
conduct these hearings, made by Chairman Francis E. Walter : 

OcTouEK 6, 1959. 
To: Mr. Richard Arens, staff director. House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities. 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Representative William M. Tuck, as Chairman, and Representatives 
Morgan M. Moulder and Gordon H. Scherer as associate members, to conduct 
hearings in New York, New York, Monday and Tuesday, November 16 and 17, 
1959, at 10 : 00 a.m., and in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Wednesday, Thursday and 
Friday, November 18, 19, and 20, 1959, at 10 : 00 a.m., on subjects under invest- 
gation by the Committee and take such testimony on said days or succeeding 
days, as it may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 6th day of October 1959. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Preliminary investigation by the staff indicates that the Com- 
munist conspiracy is attempting to penetrate Puerto Eican nationality 
groups in New York City and to establish conduits between these 
groups in the United States and Communist conspiratorial operations 
in Puerto Kico. 

We are confident that the overwhelming majority of Puerto Ricans 
are loyal and patriotic, but the power of the Communist conspiracy 
stems not from numbers, but from the dedication and zeal of the few 
disciplined conspirators who wield an influence far disproportionate 
to their numbers in the total war which commmiism is waging against 
freedom everywhere. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person identified as 
a member of the Communist Party during the course of the committee 
hearings will be given an early opportunity to appear before this 
committee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explaining any 
testimony adversely affecting him. 

It is also the policy of the committee to accord any witness the 
privilege of being represented by counsel ; but, strictly within the 
provisions of the rules of this committee, counsel's sole and exclusive 
prerogative is to advise his client and not to testify or make motions. 

I would remind those present that a disturbance of any kind or an 
audible comment during the hearings will not be permitted. This is 
a serious proceeding, in which we are earnestly trying to discharge 
an important and arduous duty with the general objective of main- 
taining the security of this great United States of America. 

The staff director will proceed to call the first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, before calling the first witness, if it 
meets with the pleasure of the chairman, I should like to cause to 
be incorporated by reference in this record certain documents which 
are Communist publications reflecting the design which tlie interna- 
tional Communist conspiracy has on Puerto Rican nationality groups 
in tlie United States, and upon the island of Puerto Rico. 

50974—60 — pt. 1 2 



1516 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

The first 2 documents, excerpts of which I should like to cause to 
be inserted by reference in this record, are copies of Moscow Radio 
broadcasts beginning back in November of 1950 which were moni- 
tored by a United States Government agency. In these broadcasts, 
the Moscow Radio charges that Puerto Rico is the victim of Ameri- 
can oppression and imperialism. 

In these broadcasts, references are made to what the Moscow 
Radio regards as the police suppression of people in Puerto Rico, 
with the apparent, avowed design to deprive Puerto Ricans of cer- 
tain rights. In this broadcast, or in these series of broadcasts which 
I am asking to be incorporated by reference in this record are con- 
tentions of slave-state existences, of mass unemployment, of merci- 
less oppression by American imperialism, and the like. 

(Documents marked "Committee Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

The next document which I should like to cause to be incorporated 
by reference in this record are copies of statements issued by Politi- 
cal Aft'airs, which is a well known Communist publication, regarded 
as the theoretical organ of the Communist Party. In Political Af- 
fairs of February 1951 begin a series of articles indicating the degree 
to which the Communist conspiracy covets the Puerto Ricans. The 
February 1951 article, entitled "The Rising Tide of Struggle in 
Puerto Rico," is written by Cesar Andreu who identifies himself as 
the Chairman, Communist Party of Puerto Rico. It is the tran- 
script of Andreu's speech at the 15th Convention of the Communist 
Party of America. He lists himself and Juan Santos Rivera as 
Puerto Rican delegates to that convention. The speech is a bitter 
attack against United States "imperialism" and against American 
"aggression" in Korea. The article of November 1954, entitled 
"Free the Puerto Rican Smith- Act Victims!" is evidence of the de- 
gree to which the Commmiist conspiracy is attempting, and has been 
attempting through the years, to let loose its artillery barrage of 
propaganda in order to soften up the victims of its regime. 

(Docmnents marked "Committee Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Next I should like to cause to be incorporated by reference, copy 
of an article appearing in Political Affairs, November 1955. This 
article contains a statement by a member of the Central Coimiiittee of 
the Communist Party of Puerto Rico, who has been subpenaed to 
testify before our committee at its forthcoming hearings in a few 
days in San Juan. 

This article charges that the United States has established a regime 
in Puerto Rico based on force and violence and that the United States 
is suppressing the people of Puerto Rico. 

(Document marked "Committee 'Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

The next excerpts which I should like to cause to be incorporated 
by reference in this record, showing the designs of the Comniunist 
conspiracy on Puerto Ricans and upon Puerto Rico, are copies of 
articles from the Communist Daily Worker and The Worker, pub- 
lished here in the United States, in which it is alleged that concepts 
of justice, equality, and fraternity for people of Puerto Rico are 
mockery; that justice there is a farce, and the like. These articles 
appeared in the Jan. 2, 1956 (p. 6) issue of the Daily Worker and the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1517 

Dec. 7, 1958 (p. 10) issue of Tlie Worker, respectively, and both were 
written by Jesus Colon. 

(Documents marked ''Committee Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Xext I should like to cause to be inserted by reference in the record 
excerpts from a publication of the Communist Party of Puerto Kico. 
This publication is entitk»d *'Pueblo," The first is the issue of Octo- 
ber 1958 M'hich lets loose a propaganda barrage that the United 
States is an imperialistic oppressor and exploiter of the Puerto Rican 
jDeople. 

The next is an article from the same publication, the issue of De- 
cember 1958, in which appears an editorial commending the visit of 
the Ambassador of the Soviet Union in Washington to Puerto Rico, 
and whose visit, whose objectives, whose motives, whose arrangements, 
were highly commended. 

In this same publication, to which I have just alluded, is an article 
referring to a new publication being developed by the Communists 
entitled "La Paz." 

Finally, I should like, if it meets with the pleasure of the chairman, 
to cause to be inserted by reference in this record another copy of an 
excerpt from the Communist publication Pueblo of January 1959, 
again revealing Comnuniist designs on Puerto Ricans and upon the 
island of Puerto Rico. It also reveals the interlocking relationship 
between this publication and the Daily Worker in the United States, 
because articles from the Daily Worker published in the United States, 
which is a Communist paper, appear in Pueblo and authors or the 
writers for the Communist Daily Worker for the United States have 
their columns reproduced in Pueblo. 

(Documents marked "Committee Exhibit No. 5" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the articles to which I 
have alluded and which I have tried to summarize be incorporated at 
this point by reference in our record. 

]Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs that the documents and 
newspaper articles so described and identified by the director be incor- 
porated by reference as exhibits in the record of proceedmgs of these 
hearings. 

Mr. Arexs. ]\Ir. Chairman, if it meets with your pleasure, I respect- 
fully suggest that the first w-itness to be called is Mr. Buteneff, of the 
United States Customs Service. 

Would you kindly come forward and remain standing while the 
chairman administers an oath to you ? 

Mr. Tuck. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give before this subcommittee of the United States House of Repre- 
sentatives will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Buteneff. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SERGEI BUTENEFF 

^Ir. Arens. Mr. Buteneff, will you kindly identify yourself by 
name, residence, and occupation ? 

Mr. Buteneff. My name is Sergei Buteneff. I am a resident of 
New York City. I am employed by the United States Customs in the 



1518 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

capacity of a supervisor of the office through which all the material 
coming from behind the Iron Curtain goes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Buteneff, how long have you been engaged in this 
activity ? 

Mr. Buteneff. I have been engaged in this activity approximately 
7 years. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have in your possession now typical examples 
or illustrations of Communist propaganda coming from behind the' 
Iron Curtain which has been observed by the U.S. Customs Service 
here in New York City ? 

Mr. Buteneff. Yes, sir; I do. Of course, these are just part of the 
samples, mostly concerned with Spanish language, but these are th& 
typical samples we see going through our office. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us a word about the titles of these publi- 
cations ? 

Mr. Buteneff. We have here Soviet literature in Spanish. We 
have the labor union magazine from Bulgaria. We have the woman's 
magazine called "The Soviet Woman," coming from Kussia — also in 
Spanish. 

Mr. Arens. All of these publications to which your attention is now 
directed are in Spanish ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Buteneff. That is correct ; yes. 

We also have the magazine called "New Times — ^Tiempos Nuevos,"" 
which is a publication printed in many languages, and these are tlie- 
copies in Spanish. 
_ Also, we have numerous publications which are student publica- 
tions, the World Youth News, which is also in Spanish, but which is 
published in many languages. Again, we have a bulletin of the World 
Council of Peace, also in Spanish, which also is printed in other lan- 
guages. 

We have the magazine called the "Soviet Union," which is also- 
published in many languages, but these are also Spanish copies. 

Besides the periodical magazines and dailies or weeklies, there are 
also pamphlets which now and then arrive through New York, and 
actually the subject of which is really hard to describe. I mean, it 
could be on any particular issue of the day — any political issue. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Buteneff, this Communist propaganda, illustration& 
of which you have presented to the committee, is destined principally 
to the Spanish-speaking Puerto Kican bloc in New York City ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Buteneff. I would say so ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Some of it also goes through the United States in 
transit, does it not ? 

Mr. Buteneff. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What is the ultimate destination of that material which 
is going in transit? 

Mr. Buteneff. Most of it, of course, goes to Puerto Rico, through 
New York, and then also to South America. 

Mr. Arens. As you know, Mr. Fishman, who is your immediate 
supervisor, will be testifying in Puerto Rico in another 2 or 3 days, 
giving the specifics on this material and the statistics. Without at 
this time undertaking to trespass upon the territory which he will cover 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1519 

in his testimony, may I ask you : Is this Communist propaganda which 
is destined and directed at the Puerto Rican nationality bloc in New 
York City of significant, substantial volume? 
Mr. BuTENEFF. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever seen a single copy of this Communist 
propaganda destined to the Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican nation- 
ality bloc in the United States which has been labeled at the port of 
entry in accordance with the provisions of the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act ? 

Mr. Buteneff. No, sir ; I have not. 

Mr. Arens. And you have been with the Customs Service how long ? 
Mr. Buteneff. For almost 8 years ; 7 years, I should say. 
Mr. Arens. You understand, of course, Mr. Fishman will likewise 
get into that subject matter. I do not want at this time to trespass 
upon the specifics of his testimony. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will be the only area that 
we will want to cover with Mr. Buteneff at this time. 
Mr. Tuck. Have you any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 
Mr. Scherer. Do you read Spanish ? 

Mr. Buteneff. No, sir ; I don't read Spanish. I understand it, be- 
cause I understand many Latin languages, like French, Italian, and 
soon. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest that the next witness is a translator who 
is prepared to give us an English translation of the essence of tliis 
particular propaganda. 
Mr. Tuck. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Donald F. Barnes. 

Before he is sworn, may I make an observation and then a request ? 
Mr. Barnes, Mr. Chairman, is a translator of Spanish into English, 
and English into Spanish. We expect in the course of these hearings 
that there will be some witnesses who will not speak English. So I 
respectfully suggest that you administer two oaths to Mr. Barnes, 
first an oath in the customary form to testify to the truth on his own 
testimony and, secondly, a translator's oath which will carry forward 
with reference to the t^estimony of other witnesses who will only speak 
Spanish. 

Mr. Tuck. Will the witness be sworn? Will you raise your right 
hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Barnes. I do. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you further solemnly swear that you will truly and 
accurately interpret into the Spanish language the questions pro- 
pounded by the committee or a member of its staff and that you will 
make a true and accurate interpretation into the English language of 
the replies made by the witness in the Spanish language, so help you 

Mr. Barnes. I do. 

Mr. Scherer. May we ask that Mr. Buteneff sit next to Mr. Barnes? 
We may have questions to ask. 



1520 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD F. BARNES 

(Senior Interpreter, Department of State, Washington, D.C.) 

Mr. xVrens. Will you kindly identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation ? 

Mr. Barnes. My name is Donald F. Barnes. I reside in Washing- 
ton, D.C, and I am a senior interpreter in the U.S. Department of 
State. 

Mr. Arens. How lou": have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Barnes. I have been engaged in language work for about 9 
years, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Barnes, did you, at the request of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities, make a study of certain documents, maga- 
zines, and other publications published in Spanish ? 

Mr. Barnes. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Are those documents before you at the present time ? 

Mr. Barnes. Yes, sir ; they are. 

Mr. Arens. Those ai'e the same documents which Mr. Buteneff 
described as documents which were observed as typical illustrations of 
what he has described as a substantial volume of Communist propa- 
ganda destined to the Spanish-speaking Puerto Eican group in New 
York City ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Barnes. Yes ; they are. 

Mr. Arens. Were you requested by the staff of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities to prepare yourself to give us a brief, succinct, 
resume of the content of these various documents ? 

Mr. Barnes. Yes, sir; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Would you then, please, sir, at your own pace, proceed 
to testify with regard to the principal publications which have been 
identified as Communist Spanish publications? 

Mr. Barnes. Yes, sir. I will take a few at randon, if I may, just 
to illustrate what they are all about. 

This one is entitled "Soviet Union,"' issue No. 111. It is a monthly 
magazine. It has no subscription price or newsstand price. It an- 
nounces that it is published in a number of languages. It has in it 
articles — for instance, a string of great achievements, and right at the 
beghming you have an article on the visit of the president of the 
Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of the People's Demo- 
cratic Republic of Korea to Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet 
Union; announcements of the Lenin prizes given to Soviet scientists; 
articles on the Soviet aviation industry, on Soviet industry and agri- 
culture, on Soviet cultural achievements, Soviet fashions and ath- 
letics, and humor. 

Mr. ScHERER. Does that magazine to wliich you just referred have 
any advertising in it at all ? 

Mr. Barnes. No, sir ; it does not. 

This next one is a bulletin of the World Peace Council, published 
in the sixth year. It has no subscription price, no advertising. I 
haven't been able to detect a city of origin or publication. It has an 
article on disarmament, on the visit of the Soviet chief of state to 
the United States, an article opposing nuclear tests in the Sahara. 

Mr. Arens. What is the essence of the article appearing in this 
Communist publication respecting the visit of Khrashchev to the 
United States? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1521 

Mr. Bakxes. Well, it considers that it was a visit of ji2:reat impor- 
tance and that the bad indications that preceded that visit "vvere in 
vain, because it says AIi-. Kliruslichev's visit was a success, not only 
for liimself — wlio is a man praised by the majority of the U.S. news- 
papermen — but also for tlie peo])le of the Soviet Union and for the 
people of the United States, and, finally, in general, for all peoples and 
for peace. 

It says the American people wish for peace, as do other peoples, and 
therefore the suggestions made by the president or the head of the 
American Eussian Institute of San Francisco or of the citizens of Xew 
York who have greeted Mr. Khrushchev with the cry "Long live 
peace," have had more success than the agitation of certain people who 
want the cold war to be extended. 

Then it goes on to express support of a disarmament plan consisting 
of five points : A zone of control and inspection in Western Europe 
and reduction of foreign troops stationed there, the creation of a de- 
militarized zone in Central Europe, withdrawal of the armed 
forces from all bases on other countries' territory, the signing of a 
nonaggression pact between the members of NATO and those who 
signed the "Warsaw Pact, and signing of an agreement to prevent 
surprise attacks. 

This one is entitled "Youth of the World." It is published in Buda- 
pest, Hungary, M'ith its public relations and distribution center in 
Berlin. It does not indicate which sector of Berlin. It is published 
in several languages. It is the world youth organization publication. 

The first article that I see is the Vienna Festival, "A Success for 
Peace and Friendship." It has articles and pictures of various people 
who attended this congress, which was held in Vienna, 

We have an article on the German writer Schiller, "Knitting the 
Two Germanies." Going back to the Vienna Festival, it has the head- 
line of "100,000 Persons in the March of Peace and Friendship.-' 

There is a signed note — printed, but from a signed facsimile, ap- 
parently — by Mr. Paul Robeson, "With Best Wishes to the Congress."' 
There are articles on various nationalities and racial groups and how 
they got along together in this congress held in Vienna. 

It also has a list on the last page of what you might call "pen pals," 
people who wish to correspond with people of other countries and 
the subjects they would like to discuss, with the names and addresses 
of these people. 

The next one, ]\Ir. Chairman, is IS^ew Times, the translation of the 
title Tiempos Nuevos, called a weekly magazine on foreign policy. 
This is called the edition of the newspaper Tnid, from ^Moscow, which 
comes out in eight or ten languages. It is printed in the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics. It gives the places where you can subscribe 
to this magazine, without giving a price. There is no advertising in it. 

This has a series of articles "Let Us Make Our Swords Into Plows," 
"The War Projections of the Visit of Nikita Khrushchev to the Iniited 
States," and a series of articles — I will read the titles briefly, unless 
you wish to go into them further — "Khrushchev Has Inaugurated a 
New Period of Peaceful Cooperation," "The Great Powers Cannot 
Refuse These Offers, These Proposals," "Point of Departure for Fu- 
ture Negotiations," the next one is by a Finnish writer "As a Repre- 
sentative of a Smaller Nation." 



1522 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

These quotations are from a number of sources, including Bertrand 
Russell and even Members of the United States Congress, but they 
are short quotations. 

There is an article about European integration in the small coun- 
tries, and one "Latin America in Search of a New Policy." If I may 
just read a line from this : 

For a long time, the Latin American rulers have followed Washington with 
docility. The majority of these countries were enslaved by Yankee monopolies. 
The Organization of American States was founded in 1948 at the prodding of 
Washington. 

There is another article concerning travel to the moon or rockets to 
the moon. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me just a minute. You were referring to the 
article in the magazine relating to the exploitation of South American 
countries by the United States. 

Is there anything else in that article that might interest us, par- 
ticularly in view of what is happening in the Caribbean and South 
America today ? 

Mr. Barnes. In this one article, which I picked out at random, it 
says: 

The desire of Latin America to follow an independent foreign policy is being 
■seen day by day in its relations with the United States, 

and then the passage which I read a while back. 
Mr. ScHERER. Repeat that. 
Mr. Barnes. [Reading:] 

For a long time, the Latin American rulers have followed Washington with 
'docility. The majority of these countries were enslaved by Yankee monopolies. 
The Organization of American States was founded in 1948 at the prodding of 
Washington. OflScial propaganda represented it as the personification of the 
theory of national solidarity of the coimtries of the Western Hemisphere, which 
was very much in style in those years, but that theory was false. In reality, 
rthis new organization was nothing more than a means of the subjugation of 
'the peoples of Latin America by the monopolies from the north. Behind that 
screen, the Department of State interfered in the internal affairs of the signatory 
nations to snuff out the least sign of independence. The OAS also had the mis- 
sion of protecting dictatorial i-egimes installed with the assistance of Yankee 
monopolies and the Department of State. But it made no move in the face of 
the bloody reprisals which the democratic government of Guatemala suffered. 

Mr. Scherer. Thank you. 

Mr. Barnes. This is another edition of New Times. It has a 
further analysis of the visit of Mr. Khrushchev to the United States ; 
an analysis of the space situation; ideas on disarmament; an article 
criticizing the government attitude in the strikes in Argentina; and 
one note on the recent meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Cen- 
tral Treaty Organization, called a rusty link; Congo clamors for its 
liberty. 

This next one is called "Soviet Woman." It says it is published by 
the Committee of Soviet Women and the Central Council of Soviet 
Unions, 15th year, published in a number of languages. There is no 
subscription price that I can see or newsstand price. There is no 
advertising. 

These are articles of interest to women. There is a brief note on 
the first page of the visit of former President Lazaro Cardenas of 
Mexico to the Soviet Union; in defense of all the children of the 
earth 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1523^ 

Mr. ScHERER. May I interrupt ? 

Mr. Barnes. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sciierer. You mentioned, Mr. Witness, that two of the publi- 
cations you are examining had no advertising. Do you have approxi^ 
mately two dozen publications before you ? 

Mr. Barnes. About a dozen, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. What about the previous ones, Mr. Barnes ? 

Mr. Barnes. These are pamphlets. I haven't seen any advertising 
in any of these. 

Mr. Scherer. Do any of the publications before you contain any 
advertising ? 

Mr. Barnes. No, sir ; not that I have seen. 

Do you wish me to continue? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you have hesitated in your presentation, may I 
pose a question, too, please sir ? 

Do you see, or have you seen, on any of these publications any 
labeling, as the law requires, under the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act that this is propaganda ? 

Mr. Barnes. No, sir ; I have not. 

This is called "Bulgarian Unions, publication of the Central Coun- 
cil of Bulgarian Unions," dated December 1959 — the lead editorial 
"Fifteen Years of Free Unions," referring to unions in the Peoples 
Republic of Bulgaria in the last 15 years; pictures of a coal mine 
and an atomic energy plant, metallurgy. They are mostly pictures 
with a few figures on production and consmnption — production, 
rather, of various articles, including consumer goods ; rural economy, 
national income, culture, recreation, playgrounds, safety devices in 
factories, workers dining halls, libraries for workers, amateur artistic 
events, international connections or links with Bulgarian unions, 
culture and sports. 

These five magazines are entitled "Soviet Literature." It is a 
monthly publication. It bears the name "Moscow" on the cover. 
It has, again, no advertising that I can discern. It is called the "organ 
of the Writers Union of the Soviet Union." 

There is fiction ; poetry ; a series of articles on the Third Congress of 
Soviet Writers, including an address to that Congress by Mr. Klirush- 
chev ; literature and art ; articles on letters from writers and artists ; 
book reviews; magazine reviews; short articles on cultural life; and 
short biographies of some of the writers ; plus a few reproductions of 
paintings and prints. 

These five are all the same. They are various editions of this same 
magazine. 

This last batch of pamphlets, all of these with the blue and white 
cover, are entitled "The Woman in the Bulgarian Peoples Republic."^ 
It is published by the Foreign Languages Publishing House in Bul- 
garia, in Sofia, and bears no advertising and no price. 

Here is an article about how happy women are in Bulgaria. There 
is a final one from the same publishing house. Foreign Languages 
Publishing House in Bulgaria, report by Comrade — well, his name is 
full of consonants— before the third regular session of the National 
Assembly on the speeding up of the developments of the national 
economy, on the improvement of the material and cultural situation 



1524 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

of the people, and on the reorganization of state and economic direc- 
tion. 

It gives no further identification. It doesn't say wliat the National 
Assembly is. It gives the speech following the outlines of the title 
that I have read. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you have any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Barnes, I believe you said you are the senior 
translator for Spanish in the Department of State ? 

Mr. Barnes. My title is senior interpreter ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know whether there are any appreciable num- 
ber of Spanish-speaking people in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Barxes. No, sir; I don't know anything about that. I did 
notice that in some of these, in Soviet Literature, for example, the 
articles are originally written in Russian, apparently, and translated 
by people with Spanish names. But that might not mean anything. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know any Spanish-speaking country that is 
now designated as an Iron Curtain country ? 

Mr. Barnes. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, since a number of those articles which 
the witness referred to deal with the effect that the recent visit of Mr. 
Khrushchev had in tlie United States and throughout the world, I 
think it would be a])pro]3i'iate to include in the record of these hearings 
at this time an editorial from the New York Daily News of November 
9th. This article entitled "The Crimes of Khrushchev,-' discusses a 
publication of this committee by the same title which was recently 
issued in four parts. 

If there are no objections, Mr. Chairman, I would like to have this 
editorial introduced at this point as part of the record. 

Mr. Tuck. The editorial will be incorporated at this point as part 
of the exhibits in the record of these hearings. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 6'' follows :) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

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1526 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of Mr. Barnes. 

Mr. Tuck. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Detective Mildred Blauvelt, of 
the New York City Police Department. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I ask another question before the next witness f. 

Mr. Tuck. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. These magazines, which are a sample of many that 
have come into the country recently through the mail, are they ad- 
dressed to individuals or to distributors in this country, Mr. ButeneJff ? 

Mr. BuTENEFF. Both, sir. I would say there are some of both. The 
bulk is actually to individuals, and there are some packages containing 
several copies to distributors. 

Mr. ScHERER. Does your investigation disclose whether or not the 
individuals who received these publications have subscribed for them, 
or whether they are sent to them free of charge or without their solici- 
tation ? 

Mr. BuTENEFF. It would be very hard for me to say, sir, right now. 
I haven't looked into this particular Spanish part of my work. May- 
be Mr. Fisliman would be more prepared to speak about the statistics 
on that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Very well. 

Mr. Tuck. Come forward, please, Mrs. Blauvelt. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly remain standing while the chaiiTtian 
administers an oath to you ? 

Mr. Tuck. You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give before this subcommittee of the House of Kepresentatives will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you. 
God? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MILDRED BLAUVEXT 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I am Detective Mildred Blauvelt, of the New 
York City Police Department, assigned to the Bureau of Special 
Services. I reside in the Borough of Brooklyn, tlie City of New 
York. 

Mr. AjtENS. How long have you been connected with the Police. 
Department of New York City? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I was appointed to the Police Department in De^ 
cember of 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Detective Blauvelt, you have, on a previous occasion,, 
testified before this Committee on Un-American Activities on another 
subject matter, at which time you gave considerable detail about your 
own life and activities as a one-time undercover agent in the Ck)m- 
munist Party. 

In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, I should like to have 
you now, if you please, give us a brief account of your career as an 
undercover agent in the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I was assigned by the Police Department to become 
an undercover operative in the Communist Party in the beginning of 
1943. I became a member of the Commimist Party on the Upper 
West Side in Manhattan in April of 1943. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1527 

I was expelled from that section of the party in September of 1043, 
but gained reentrance into the Communist Party in Brooklyn in April 
of 1944, and remained there until my expulsion in November of 1951. 

Mr. Arens. What name did you use, or did you use a pseudonym, 
to gain entrance into the party? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. During my first period in the Communist Party I 
used the alias of Mildred Brandt, and during my second session with 
the party I used the alias of Sylvia Vogel. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your career as an undercover 
operative in the Communist Party, you were a member of the Jay- 
Smith Club of the Boro Hall Section of Brooklyn, were you not? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. That is correct. 

Mr. Ajrens. Was La Pasionaria Club a part of the Boro Hall 
Section ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes, it was, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description about the La Pasionaria 
Club. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The La Pasionaria Club was one of the clubs in 
the Boro Hall Section of the Communist Party in Brooklyn. It 
was composed of the Puerto Rican comrades in the Brooklyn party 
in the Boro Hall Section. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I proceed to interrogate you, if you please, 
with respect to tlie attempts and efforts and achievements of the Com- 
munist conspiracy to organize the Puerto Ricans? 

First of all, through what means does the Communist conspiracy 
attempt to organize the Puerto Ricans ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The Communist Party attempts to organize the 
Puerto Ricans through what it calls its "concentrations." Accord- 
ing to Communist definition, a "concentration" is a Leninist method 
of work, that is, party activities are to be conducted in specified areas, 
such as working-class areas, nationality groups, racial groups, and 
so on, for the purpose of propagandizing the party line. An area 
where the majority of the residents is Puerto Rican presents itself 
as a concentration to the Communist Party because here, in a desig- 
nated area, the party will find practically all of the elements upon 
which it can spew its propaganda of the class struggle. 

Here the party finds the working-class group, the low-income group, 
and those on relief. Because of the fact that tliey are a Spanish- 
speaking people, they take on the aspects of a nationality group, and 
because of the fact that they are, as a whole, just a small part of our 
population, they become a minority group. 

With this combination in their social and economic status, the party 
hopes to convince them that they are being exploited, and thus 
nurture the seeds of discontent so that they will turn to the party as 
the defender of their human rights and as the only organization, ac- 
cording to party representations, which is interestecl in their wel- 
fare — their welfare for jobs, higher wages, and equality for all. 

Mr. Arens. Detective Blauvelt, I should have asked you earlier, 
but in addition to the information which you have acquired as an 
undercover operative in the Communist Party with intimate con- 
nections with the Puerto Rican gi^oup of Communists working among 
the Puerto Rican nationality group in New York, do you, in your 
daily work in tliis bureau of the Police Department, dedicate your- 



1528 CO]VIMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

self to the acquiring of information about Communists and Communist 
activities from day to day ? 

Mrs. Blaih ELT. Yes, sir ; tliat continues to be my assignment. It 
is a continual process. 

Mr. Arens. It is your assignment now ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How does the Communist Party carrv out its activities 
among the Puerto Ricans ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Party activity among the Puerto Ricans is con- 
ducted through the technique of agit-prop. 

Mr. Arens. What is meant by "agit-prop"? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Agit-prop is the tactic of first educating the people 
how to think on a particular issue and then agitating them into tak- 
ing specific action. 

Issues around which activity is conducted include the basic issues 
of their daily living, such as housing, rents, wages, prices, the so- 
called issues of civil rights, and the issue of peace. Tlie activity, itself, 
takes the form of the distribution of leaflets and the circulation of 
petitions on issues of particular concern to tlie party; sending dele- 
gations to Washington or to other authorities on housing, rent and 
price controls ; holding demonstrations ; canvassing with the worker to 
disseminate the party line and to secure subscriptions; and conduct- 
ing election campaigns for candidates approved by the party. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience, both as 
a former undercover operative in the Communist Party here, and now 
as a detective whose daily job is acquiring information about Com- 
munist activities and techniques, may I ask you this : 

Is the Communist Party sincerely interested in better housing for 
Puerto Ricans, sincerely and honestly interested in higher wages, sin- 
cerely and honestly interested in peace, or does the Communist Party 
use these issues for the purpose of gaining support, gaining pene- 
tration of this gi'oup ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The party has no real sympathy with these peo- 
ple. It is using them for its own purposes, for its own propaganda 
purposes. It wishes to recruit them into the party, and if it can't 
do that, it wants to use them to gain support for any of its propa- 
ganda campaigns for the purposes of the party, to project the aims 
of the party. 

Mr. Arens. How did you learn of the Communist Party's attempts 
to organize the Puerto Ricans? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. It was during my membership in the Communist 
Party as an undercover operative for the New York City Police Depart- 
ment that I learned of the party's attempt to reach or organize the 
Puerto Ricans living in the various parts of the city and particularly 
in the Boro Hall Section of Brooklyn where there is a large Puerto 
Rican community. 

Mr. Arens. AVliat is the importance to the world Communist con- 
spiracy of this Puerto Rican concentration to the party ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The party uses such a concentration to deA^elop its 
own objectives to get these people into the party proper, and to use 
them to influence others to follow the party line. 

I became aware of the importance with which this La Pasionaria 
Club and this Puerto Rican concentration was regarded by the Boro 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONfi PUERTO RICANS 1529 

Hall Section when I tirst went into tlie Boio Hall Section. 1 was 
transferred tliere in June of 1947. I attended my first meeting there 
on June 20, and it was at tliis nieetin*:: that I learned that tlie La 
Pasionaria Club was composed of the Puerto Rican comrades and 
had the specific task of dissemiiiatini>: Conununist propaganda among 
the Puerto Rican people living in tlie neighborhood. 

This particidar meeting was chaired by a woman member fi'om the 
La Pasionaria Club. 

Mr. Arexs. Detective Blauvelt, it has been the experience of this 
committee during its years of studying the Communist operation in 
the United States that the effectiveness of the Conmmnist work bears 
no direct relationship to members; that within any group or entity 
or area, if the Communist Party can establish a relatively small but 
highly disciplined and dedicated core of zealots, it can accomplish 
its objectives more etl'ectively than if it has a mass group of people 
who are less dedicated, less disciplined, and less active. 

Is that the situation from your experience within the Puerto Rican 
nationality group in New York City '. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes; I would say so. The party was concerned 
sometimes not so much in gaining these people as party members, 
but in gaining their support, because tlie sheer weight of numbers 
in support of any propaganda campaign on the part of the party 
would give the impression that this was the actual will of the people, 
and thus implement and project tlie aims of the party. 

Mr. Arexs. In other words, from your experience as a student of 
tlie Communist penetration of Puerto Rican groups in New York City, 
is it true that the party has not actually solicited bulk numbers within 
the Communist conspiratorial operations, itself, but only solicited the 
support on individual issues which the Communist Party was devel- 
oping ? Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes ; that is quite correct. 

Mr. Arexs. How is the party work in this Puerto Rican concentra- 
tion financed ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The activity in the Puerto Rican concentration was 
financed by the finances of the Boro Hall Section. This fact was 
established at a meeting of the functionaries of the clubs in the Boro 
Hall Section which I attended on March 28, 1949, when Caryll Lasky, 
the section's financial secretary, discussed the finances of the section, 
and stated that a great deal of money would go into the activities of 
press and leaflet distributions in \h^ Puerto Rican concentration. 

Previous to this meeting, the Boro Hall Section had held a meeting 
at the beginning of the month, actually on March 1, 1949. This was 
at the time when the Communist Party had decided upon a complete 
reorganization based on industrial units. The Boro Hall Section held 
this meeting for the purpose of informing the membership as to the 
particular application of this reorganization to the Boro Hall Section. 

Bea Sacks, who was one of the executive members of the Kings 
County Committee and who was acting as the organizational direc- 
tor of the Boro Hall Section, informed the comrades that it had been 
decided that the Boro Hall Section would devote itself to four major 
concentrations, one of them being activity among the Puerto Ricans, 
the others being longshore, Negroes, and the industries. 



1530 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

It was at this meeting that Jesus Colon, who was active in Puerto 
Rican work, stated that he approved of the return to industrial and 
longshore activity, but felt that the pendulum might swing too far in 
that direction and that conmiunity work would be neglected. 

Mr. Arens. Jesus Colon will be a witness here today. 

Do you here and now, to a certainty, identify Jesus Colon as a per- 
son known by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I do. 

Mr. Arens. How did the Communist Party use the Puerto Ricans 
in its election campaigns ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The Puerto Rican concentration was considered 
extremely important when the party engaged in its election campaign 
work. This fact was stressed by Abe Osheroff, the organizer of the 
Boro Hall Section, at a membership meeting which the section held 
in September of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt to ask if you here and now, to a cer- 
tainty, identify Abe Osheroff as a person known by you to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs, Blauvelt. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly proceed. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. This membership meeting was held for the purpose 
of drawing up plans for the party's campaign for Ada B. Jackson, 
a Negro who was running as a candidate for the city council on the 
American Labor Party ticket and to whom the Conununist Party in 
Brooklyn was giving its support. 

It was felt that the Puerto Ricans w^ould be a very excellent subject 
for concentration activities in this particular election campaign, be- 
cause the comrades could do a great deal of canvassing among them, 
get them out to register and then out to vote the American Labor 
Party ticket. 

Two points were to be made to them : that they must vote for Ada 
B. Jackson and that tliey must vote for the retention of proportional 
representation, which was advocated by the party because it presented 
the party with the means of getting Communist candidates upon the 
ballot and getting them elected to office. 

The purpose of this election campaign activity among the Puerto 
Ricans was twofold, because the party hoped not only to obtain a sub- 
stantial vote for the American Labor Party in 1947, but also that 
contacts made among the Puerto Ricans would provide support for 
the third party movement which they were initiating, looking to 1948, 
with Henry Wallace as the presidential candidate. 

Then in 1948, when Henry Wallace was running as the presidential 
candidate under the banners of the Progressive Party, the Boro Hall 
Section held a membership meeting in September of 1948, which I 
attended and at w^iich the plans for the section's campaign activities 
were discussed. 

Again it was stressed — this time by Eleanor Woolman Schor, who 
was the organizational secretary of the Boro Hall Section — that a spe- 
cial concentration job would l3e conducted among the Puerto Ricans, 
that there would l^e door-to-door canvassing, campaign buttons and 
leaflets would be distributed, and outdoor rallies would be held. The 
Puerto Ricans were to l)e reminded during registration week to regis- 
ter, and thev were to be taken for literacv tests, if necessary. They 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1531 

were also to be given copies of the Daily and Sunday Worker, with the 
explanation that these were the only papers which would tell them 
anything about Wallace. 

Again in 1949 the Puerto Ivicans were emphasized as a concentra- 
tion in the election campaign activity. 

At another meeting held in September of 1949, the Boro Hall Sec- 
tion had, as its guest, Carl Vedro, a member of the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Kings County Committee of the Brooklyn Communist 
Party ; and at this meeting Vedro stated that in this election the party 
had prescribed for itself a policy of stopping what it called the drive 
toward war and fascism and that, to accomplish this, it would be nec- 
essary to win over labor, the middle class, the Jews, the Negroes and all 
exploited groups and that it would be necessary to raise the domestic 
issues of housing and unemployment and yet not separate them from 
the issues of foreign policy. 

Vedro said that, in order to accomplish this, it had been decided to 
campaign for Vito Marcantonio as mayor and that it would be neces- 
saiy to build as broad a coalition around him as possible. He said 
that, to translate this party policy into action, it would be necessary to 
get to the people in specific issues. He cited as an example for the 
party in Brooklyn the issue of what he called police bnitality, around 
which, he said, the Communist Party could fight with the American 
Labor Party. 

He said it was necessary for the Communist Party to fight with the 
American Labor Party for such candidates as Marcantonio and Ada 
B. Jackson, who was rmming as the ALP candidate for borough 
president in Brooklyn. 

He also said that the Communists must be determined to develop 
mass understanding in struggle and to show how this struggle could 
be advanced. Bea Sacks, who was then the organizer of the Boro 
Hall Section, stated that, in this election campaign, the Boro Hall 
Section would do a special concentration job among the Puerto Ricans 
and that it would have a special mobilization to distribute copies of a 
new Spanish language newspaper, Ahora, when it was ready in about 
2 weeks' time. 

Mr. Arens. That Spanish language newspaper was to be published 
and developed here in New York City ? 

Mrs, Blauvelt. Yes. Bea Sacks also stated that they would get 
a place on Atlantic Avenue where the Puerto Eicans could come for 
information on the election and where they would be coached for 
literacy tests and for voting. 

Mr. Arens. How were fronts used in this concentration effort by the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. One of the methods by which the Communist Party 
hopes to recruit members is through its front organizations. One such 
front which directed its appeal to nationality groups was the Inter- 
national Workers Order. There was a Puerto Eican branch of the 
IWO in the Boro Hall Section of the party ; and triie to party policy 
of placing its members in key positions, the executive members of the 
party's Puerto Eican club, the La Pasionaria Club, were also the ex- 
ecutive members of this Puerto Eican branch of the IWO. 

I was at a meeting of membership directors and financial secretaries 
of the clubs in the Boro Hall Section on March 23, 1949, at which 

50974— 60— pt. 1 3 



1532 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Emilia Giboyeaux, the membership director of the La Pasionaria 
Club, stated that she had a list of the membership of this Puerto Kican 
branch of the IWO in her home. She was instructed by both Mar- 

fery de Leon, the section's membership director, and by Gary 11 
iasky, the section's financial secretary, to destroy this list, inasmuch 
as she was a known Communist and it was known that her house 
was being watched. 

Emilia said that her husband, Jose, who was a also a member of 
this branch of the IWO and the party club, refused to do so. But 
she was instructed that, notwithstanding his objections, she must 
destroy any list of names in her possession so as not to involve any 
of the members of the IWO should tlie Communists get into trouble. 
She was also reminded that the IWO had been cited as a subversive 
organization. 

The manner in which this Puerto Rican branch of the IWO was uti- 
lized by the Communist Party in the furtherance of party activities 
and propaganda can be illustrated by instructions which were given 
to the comrades at a meeting which I attended at section headquarters 
on May 12, 1950. 

Jesus Colon, who was on his way to chair a meeting of this Puerto 
Rican branch of the IWO, made an appearance; and while he was 
there, Bea Sacks, the organizer of the section, informed the com- 
rades that this IWO branch was going to hold a Mother's Day meet- 
ing on May 14. She instructed the comrades to attend this meeting as 
a gesture of cooperation to the Puerto Rican comrades who always 
attended party meetings, and also because it would give Ihem the 
opportunity of speaking to non-Communists about the imprisonment 
of Eugene Dennis, the general secretary of the party, which had taken 
place that day. May 12. 

Also at section headquarters was Harry Shapiro, also known as 
Harry Broclonan in the party, who was acting as the organizer of 
the La Pasionaria Club. He had some material which had to be 
translated, stenciled, and mimeographed for distribution by the La 
Pasionaria Club at the Mother's Day meeting on May 1-1. 

He reported that he had asked Emilia Giboyeaux to do it, but that 
it had been too difficult for her. Jesus Colon 'suggested that he go to 
the IWO meeting, where somebody could be found to do the transla- 
tion. Harry came back later to headquarters, saying that he now 
needed it stenciled and mimeographed ; and Caryll Lasky stated she 
would do it, but he would have to check with Jesus Colon's wife, 
Conchita, to see whether the translation would be ready for her in the 
morning. 

The manner in which this Puerto Rican branch of the IWO was 
used by the La Pasionaria Club for its activities was brought out at 
the area committee meeting of Jay-Smith Clubs 1 and 2 and the La 
Pasionaria Club, which I attended on May 8, 1951, in the home of 
Carlos Dore, who was then the organizer of the La Pasionaria Club. 

At this meeting, we discussed the organization of these clubs, the 
most pressing problem being the organization of the La Pasionaria 
Club. Carlos Dore reported that ever since the Insurance Depart- 
ment of New York State had instituted proceedings against the IWO 
to liquidate it, the La Pasionaria Club had lapsed into inactivity. 

Ruth Perloff, the area director of the Jay-Smith Clubs, stated that 
this indicated that the La Pasionaria Club had been functioning in- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1533 

correctly by depeiKling- on its activities in tlie Puerto Eicaii briuu-li of 
the IWO to carry it, Dore also reported that both he and Jesns 
Colon were members of the Cervantes Fraternal Society of the IWO 
and that Jasns Colon was a member of the National Board of the IWO 
and was involved in the proceedings against the IWO. 

Carlos Dore stated that he felt one of the reasons why the La Pasio- 
naria Club was failing in its activities was due to the lack of leader- 
ship on the part of Jesus Colon, who had been so busy with the 
Cervantes Society and with the IWO that he had been unable to at- 
tend any party club meetings, 

Charles Marshall, the area director of the La Pasionaria Club, stat- 
ed that he felt Jesus Colon should be called into the section to straight- 
en out the situation in the La Pasionaria Club, which I think indi- 
cates the discipline to which the party members were subjected. 

You asked about front organizations. There was also a branch of 
the American Labor Party which occupied the same premises at 131 
Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn as this Puerto Rican branch of the IWO. 
I had attended a committee meeting of the executive members of the 
Jay-Smith Clubs 1 and 2, at which Bea Sacks, the organizer of the 
Boro Hall Section, distributed invitations to the opening of a branch 
of the American Labor Party at 131 Atlantic Avenue on February 
18, 1950, She stated that this was the first branch of the ALP which 
had been established for the Puerto Ricans. 

Mr, Arexs, l\niat about the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mrs, BLArvELT. This Puerto Rican concentration was included in 
plans which the Boro Hall Section made in August of 1950 to estab- 
lish a branch of the Civil Rights Congress. 

The purpose of this activity was to provide the party with the 
means of reaching the people through the medium of a mass organi- 
zation, should the party be made illegal through the enactment of the 
McCarran Act. It w^as felt that such an organization w^ould be suc- 
cessful among the Puerto Ricans, because they were workers in the 
low-income bracket and, according to the party, were the victims of 
discrimination and persecution and could be persuaded that they 
needed the protection of such an organization. 

Mr, Arens. May I interpose a question there ? Since the enactment 
of the Internal Security Act, has the Communist operation among 
Puerto Ricans gone underground? 

Mrs. Blattvtelt. The party at that time was in the process of going 
underground for the very specific reason of avoiding any action 
against party members, and it felt that the best way to avoid sucli 
action was to break the party up into very small clubs and very small 
groups in order to avoid detection. 

During this period of reorganization, activity even among the 
Puerto Ricans declined to some extent, because there was a period o.:' 
disorganization in the reorganization period. But from the literature 
which I have read, I would say that there has been an ebb and flow in 
the activities which the Communist Party has conducted among the 
Puerto Ricans. 

Sometimes they seem to be a little more successful than at other 
times. I think their success depends on just what issues they are able 
to present to the Puerto Ricans. 

Mr. Arens. How was the party press used ? 



1534 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The party has always considered its press as one of 
the most effective means of reaching the people. Press drives were 
held constantly, at which times the comrades endeavored to get just 
as many subscriptions to the Daily and Smiday Workers as they 
possibly could, as well as renewals. 

The Boro Hall Section had a meeting on March 7, 1950, when 
Cliarles Marshall, the section's new press director, annomiced that 
the Boro Hall Section had received a plaque for the good work it 
had done in the press drive which had just ended, and he announced 
that Jose Giboyeaux, of the La Pasionaria Club, had taken first place 
in the section, having obtamed 53 subscriptions. 

However, at a section memberehip meeting held on January 30, 
1951, when the then current press drive was discussed, Jose Giboyeaux 
stated that he doubted he would get as many subscriptions as in the 
previous year because the Spanish-language paper Ahora was no 
longer being printed, but nevertheless he pledged to get about 15. 

It was at this same meetmg that Jesus Colon, who was regarded 
as the leader of both the La Pasionaria Club and the Puerto Kican 
branch of the IWO, recommended that a Spanish-language column be 
placed in the Daily Worker, with a special insert in the Sunday 
paper, based on the needs of the Puerto Rican people and the prob- 
lems confronting the Puerto Eicans here m New York. 

Mr. Akens. You spoke a little while ago. Detective Blauvelt, about 
the fraud of the party, how the party uses various issues, humani- 
tarian issues and the like, in order to entrap and ensnare people, and 
how the party, itself is insincere in using those issues. 

How did the party use, and how does the party cun-ently use, the 
issue of peace in order to attempt to ensnare the Puerto Rican 
groups ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The issue of peace has been one of the major propa- 
ganda activities of the party for many, many years, and it was also 
used as the basis for activity among the people in this Puerto Rican 
concentration. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us some illustrations ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes. At the time when the Stockholm Peace 
Petition was being circulated by the party in June and July of 1950, 
Jose Giboyeaux, of the La Pasionaria Club, secured between 200 and 
300 signatures to this petition, leading all of the other comrades in 
the Boro Hall Section. 

This issue of peace was discussed at a memberslii]^ meeting of the 
Boro Hall Section held on January 30, 1951, at which Philip Bart, 
the business manager of the Daily Worker, was the guest speaker. 
He reported on the national convention which had been held by the 
Communist Party during the last days of December 1950, at which 
he said the issue of peace was the main feature. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt you to ask you this : All of us, every 
sane person, wants peace. Is it a fact, based on your background, 
experience, and study of the Communist operation, that the Commu- 
nist conspiracy is, by its writings, by its teachings, by its practices, 
at total war with the free world ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. It most certainly is. 

Mr. Arens. It is a war in which they use intrigue, subversion, de- 
ceit, force as necessary, and the like, with the goal being complet-e 
world domination ; is that true ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1535 

Mrs. Blauvei.t. That, is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Then is it true to conclude that in the party's protesta- 
tions of peace, from Khrushchev on down, are a monumental fraud? 

Mrs. Blaits^elt. It most certainly is. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any further illustrations of the Avay in 
which the Cominunist Party conspirators amon^ the Puerto Ricans 
discuss the peace issue for the purpose of using that appeal to worm 
their way in and influence Puerto Rican nationality groups? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes. The American Peace Crusade was used to 
very great advantage by the Communist Party. This Peace Crusade 
was launched in February of 1951, and it gave added impetus to the 
party's peace drive. 

The American Peace Crusade held a peace congress in the latter part 
of June 1951; and at one of my party club meetings, when it was 
reported that certain comrades were going, it was announced that Jose 
Giboyeaux, of the La Pasionaria Club, would be the delegate from 
that club to this peace congress. 

Mr. Arens. What other activities did the conspirators of the Com- 
munist Party develop? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Another activity was the mobilization of the Puerto 
Ricans to participate in May Day parades. 

Mr. Ajrens. Give us on this record a word about the May Day 
parades. 

]\Irs. Blauvelt. The May Day parades were held annually, usually 
on INIay 1, or on a date very close to that. Party activity started about 
a couple of months before that to organize people in the community to 
participate. 

It was at the area committee meeting of Jay- Smith Clubs 1 and 2 
and the La Pasionaria Club, which I attended on May 8, 1951, that 
Jesus Colon spoke about his attempts to mobilize the Puerto Ricans 
for the May Day parade that year, that is, 1951 ; and he stated that this 
was the first year that he had encountered any difficulty in mobilizing 
the Puerto Ricans to participate. 

Mr. Arens. Did he indicate why ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. No, he didn't give any particular reason. I think, 
though, that it was because at that time the party was in a period of 
reorganization and the comrades were having a little difficulty in get- 
ting out and getting to the people. 

Also, I feel that at this period of time, the people had become a 
little more aware of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Arens. They began to see through the fraud of the party ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes, I believe that was true. And it became a little 
more difficult to involve them in party activities when they were aware 
that the party was behind these activities. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, that confirms the premise of the chair- 
man of this subcommittee in his opening statement, namely, that the 
overwhelmmg majority of the Puerto Ricans, as well as all of our 
society, are loyal and patriotic, but that they are subject to the con- 
stant penetration, influence, and persuasion of this small, dedicated, 
zealot group of conspirators ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. That is very true. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly proceed to tell us anything further 
about this May Day parade that you feel is of significance ? 



1536 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I think that is about all with particular reference 
to this May Day parade in 1951, except that Jesus Colon stated that he 
felt that in that year the contingent of the Puerto Ricans and Latui 
Americans had been a very negligible one. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I ask you this : What is the purpose of tliis 
activity by the Communist conspirators among Puerto Ricans ? Why 
do they seek out, penetrate, and attempt to penetrate, the Puerto Rican 
nationality group here ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The purpose of all of this activity is to recruit 
the Puerto Ricans into the party. But if that cannot be achieved, 
the very least they hope to accomplish is to gain support for party 
propaganda, either in the name of the party, but more usually in the 
name of a front organization, because, as I said before, the sheer 
weight of numbers supporting any propaganda campaign on the part 
of the party might give the impression that it is the actual will of 
the people and thus serve the party in projecting its own aims. 

It is a party tactic to foster resentment on the part of any minority 
group for the purpose of causing further dissension among the people 
in this country. In many cases, where no resentment exists, the party 
will strive to create it. For example, a routine arrest of some law- 
breaker will be labeled persecution, police brutality, violation of civil 
rights, and it will be seized upon by the party as an excuse to ini- 
tiate an intensive petition or leaflet campaign or to initiate the for- 
mation of a peoples civil rights or defense committee. 

The issues about which everyone is concerned, such as housing, 
rents, wages and prices, are used by the party as an entering wedge, 
magnified greatly out of proportion, and then followed by propaganda 
for the party's own purposes. In all of its literature, the party pre- 
tends that it is the one which has initiated concern over these issues. It 
tries to present the assumption that it is the party which is the only 
organization that can ameliorate these conditions and that it is only 
through support of the party that these conditions can be satisfac- 
torily resolved. 

It is quite satisfied when, through such a campaign, it can recruit 
a few members, but what is even more important is when it is success- 
ful in gaining the support of a large number of people, because then 
it has not only created a resentment which, under some other circum- 
stances, might flare up into civil strife, but it has also conditioned the 
minds of the people who have supported its campaigns to accept still 
others which may be purely political in their aims and not masked in 
the guise of interest in the people. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your current study of crime and your cur- 
rent study of Communist operations in New York City, what relation- 
ship do you, as an authority in this field, see between crime and the 
Communist conspiratorial operations here? 

Mrs. Blauv^elt. Let me answer your question this way: Crim- 
inology studies have stressed quite often that crimes against society 
are but the outward manifestation of inward resentments against so- 
ciety. It is my feeling that this constant pressure of the party upon 
the Puerto Rican people — this hammering away of party propaganda 
lines that the Puerto Ricans are an underprivileged, exploited group, 
that Puerto Rico, itself, is a colonial territory under the domination 
of an imperialistic United States, which wants to use them to enrich its 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1537 

own capitalistic system through the serfdom of the Puerto Ivicans — 
accomplishes exactly what the party desires. 

It succeeds in arousing class resentments, in creating a belief in ex- 
ploitation, and it creates a mental attitude which may express itself 
in crimes of violence and may even lead to the ultimate crime of vio- 
lence — the i-evolt not only against individuals of society, but against 
society itself and against the Government itself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. If there are no further 
questions by the membei-s, I would like to request a brief recess. 

Mr. Tuck. Very well. 

The Chair would like to take this opporunity of complimenting the 
detective for her fine testimony and for the great work she is doing 
to uncover the methods and operations of the conspiratorial agency. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, may we take a 5-minute recess ? 

Mr. Tuck. Very well. 

(A short recess was taken. Present at time of recess : Representa- 
tives Tuck and Scherer.) 

(At the conclusion of the recess Representatives Tuck and Scherer 
were present.) 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will please be in order. 

The director will call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Jesus Colon, kindly come forward. 

Remain standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore this subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities of 
the House of Representatives will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the trnth, so help you God ? 

Mr, Colon. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JESUS COLON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
lEA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Colon. Before I identify myself, I would like to know under 
what authority tliis conmiittee is calling me to this inquiry. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. Then we will proceed from there. 

Mr. Colon. My name is Jesus Colon. I live in Brooklyn, 482 
Pacific Street. I am a writer for The Worker. 

Mr. Scherer. A writer for what ? 

Mr. Colon. For The Worker. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Colon. Under what authority is this committee acting? 

Mr. Arens. We will get to that in a moment, please. 

You are appearing today in response to a subpena which was 
served upon you ? 

Mr. Colon. Yes. 

IVIr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Colon. Yes. 



1538 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify youreelf . 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin, New York, N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. JSTow may I respond to yonr query ? 

This Committee on Un-American Activities was establislied by 
the United States Congi'ess pursuant to Public Law 601 of the 79th 
Congress. The powers, duties, and authority of this committee are 
a matter of public record. 

In this particular instance, this Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties passed a resolution directing that there be an investigation and 
hearings held concerning the operations by the world Communist 
conspiracy — of which the Communist operation in the United States 
is just one tentacle — among Puerto Rican nationality groups in the 
United States and the connections of that operation with the Com- 
munist operation on the island of Puerto Rico. 

The over-all objective is to assist the Committee on Un-American 
Activities in its legislative duties, legislative responsibilities, which 
consist, among other things, of the following: 

Under the Legislative Reorganization Act, each committee of the 
Congress is to maintain a continuing sui-^'eillance over the adminis- 
tration and operation of all laws within the jurisdiction of that com- 
mittee. The Committee on Un-American Activities, accordingly, has 
a duty to maintain a continuing surveillance over the administration 
and operation of the Internal Security Act, the Communist Control 
Act, the Foreign Agents Registration Act, and numerous laAvs per- 
taining to espionage, sabotage, and security matters. 

In the pursuit of that objective, many items of legislation have 
been recoixunended for enactment by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities. The Committee on Un-American Activities has pend- 
ing before it at the present time numerous legislative proposals, 
in addition to formal bills. Some of these proposals deal with Com- 
munist propaganda activities. Some deal witli the probability and 
possibility of legislation which would attempt to completely outlaw 
the Communist Party, as such, and the Communist Party activities, 
as such. Some of these proposals would attempt to tighten up on 
certain phases of use of passports by Communists to carry on their 
nefarious work. Some of these proposals would attempt to tighten 
up on other activities of Communists who are part of this world 
conspiracy that menaces freedom everywhere. 

Sir, you have been subpenaed and are before this committee because 
it is the information of this committee that you have knowledge which, 
if you will relate it to the committee, will bear upon the fimd of 
knowledge whicli the committee is attempting to accumuate in order 
to properly assess the various legislative proposals which are pending 
before it. 

With that explanation, I ask you to please tell us where and when 
you were bom. 

Mr. Colon. I was born in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. And when ? 

Mr. Colon. But before I go into that, may I present my point of 
view as to this 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the question, if you please. 

Mr. Colon. This basic question that was presented ? 

Mr. Arens. Wlien were you born in Puerto Rico ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1539 

Mr. Colon. I would like to present my point of view as to the right 
of this committee to bring me liere. I resent that. 

Mr. Arens. Under the rules of this committee, all presentations of 
that character are to be presented to the committee in writing, in ad- 
vance, so that they may be studied by the appropriate members of the 
staff who advise and counsel and work with the committee. Those 
rules have been a matter of public record for a long time. 
Now please answer the question. When were you born ? 

Mr. Colon. I just want to say 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to when he was 
bom. 

Mr. Colon. I will answer the question, but I think I have a right 
under my constitutional rights to resent this inquiry here. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly answer the question? Wlien 
were you born ? 

Mr. Colon. I was born on March 20, 1901. 

Mr. Arens. And tell us 

Mr. Colon. In Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us a word about your education. 

Mr. Colon. Well, I went to grammar school in Puerto Rico, to high 
school in Brooklyn, and I went to some years of college. 

Mr. Arens. What college did you attend ? 

Mr. Colon. St. John's Law. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate ? 

Mr. Colon. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien ? 

Mr. Colon. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a law degi-ee ? 

Mr. Colon. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you admitted as a member of the Bar in Puerto 
Rico? 

Mr. Colon. I just said that I didn't finish. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. I misunderstood you. 

When did you conclude j^our study of the law ? 

Mr. Colon. I don't recall exactly the yeai-s. 

Mr. Arens. Your best recollections. The approximate time. 

Mr. Colon. I don't want to guess, because I want to be as exact as 
possible in this inquiry. 

Mr. Arens. All right. 

Now, would you tell us what was your first principal vocation or 
occupation after you concluded your studies at the law school? 

Mr. Colon. The first what? 

Mr. Arens. T\Tiat was the first job or work that you engaged in after 
you completed your education ? 

Mr. Colon. Well, I had various jobs. I worked for the Federal 
Govermnent. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Colon. As a postal clerk in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Arens. Was that your first principal job after you concluded 
your formal education ? 

Mr. Colon. No. I worked in the longshore work. 

Mr. Arens. Was that all in Puerto Rico ? 



1540 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Colon. Eight here in New York. 

Mr. Ajrens. We would like to know the work that you engaged in in 
Puerto Eico, prior to the time you came to the United States. 

Mr. Colon. In Puerto Eico ? I was very young when I came here 
to this country. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Colon. Around 1917. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately how old were you then? 

Mr. Colon. I caimot recall. 

Mr. Arens. We can compute that from your birth date. Give us 
the principal occupations which you have had since you came to 
the United States. 

Mr. Colon. Well, I was a worker, a dishwasher, a coal passer, a 
longshoreman, a watchman, and general factory worker. 

Mr. Arens. When did you become employed by the Government of 
the United States? 

Mr. Colon. Around 1923, after I finished my high school. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Colon. First I was a laborer at the Navy Yard, and then I 
was — I came into postal work. 

Mr. Arens. After you left Puerto Eico to come to the United States, 
when you were a relatively young man, did you ever return to Puerto 
Rico to live there, or have you continuously lived in the United States 
since you came here ? 

Mr. Colon. If it pleases the committee, I would like to know what 
all this is focusing for ? I thought I was brought here to speak on the 
question of this literature, on Communist, so-called, relations with 
Puerto Eico. 

Mr. Arens. We are doing what lawyers call, and you probably 
learned this in law school, laying a fomidation. We want your back- 
ground. 

Mr. Colon. I don't see any connection. I don't want to waste the 
time of this very honorable committee. 

Mr. Arens. If you don't want to waste the time of this committee, 
restrain yourself from these asides. 

Mr. Colon. Then come to the point. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us if you have lived contmuously in the 
United States since you came here from Puerto Eico as a young man. 

Mr. Colon. More or less. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever resumed your residence in Puerto Eico ? 

Mr. Colon. No, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. You have taken trips to Puerto Eico, though, haven't 
you? 

Mr. Colon. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. Have you or haven't you ? 

Mr. Colon. I have; yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next principal occupation after you 
were in the Post Office Department ? 

Mr. Colon. From the Post Office Department I went as an or- 
ganizer. 

Mr. Arens. An organizer for what ? 

Mr. Colon. For the Spanish-speaking section of the Cervantes 
Society. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1541 

Mr. Arens. And where did you work there ? 

Mr. Colon. That is a fraternal organization. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work here on the island, in Manhattan ? 

Mr. Colon. I worked here in New York. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work in that capacity ? 

Mr. Colon. For a number of years. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately how many years ? 

Mr. Colon. I have a very bad memoiy. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work there as many as 5 years ? 

Mr. Colon. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work there as many as 10 years ? 

Mr. Colon. I don't know. I have to check on that. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be your best judgment that you worked there 
between 5 and 10 years ? 

Mr. Colon. I may say so. 

Mr. Arens. TVHiat was your next principal employment? 

Mr. Colon. Well, I was out of a job for a while. I tried to get 
here and there and passed examinations here and there and I couldn't 
get anything until an opening came in The Worker — the Daily 
Worker and The Worker in those days — in which I was 

Mr. Akens. How long have you been connected with The Worker ? 

Mr. Colon. I might say for the last 5 years. 

Mr. Aeens. And what do you do there ? 

Mr, Colon. I write a column. I worked around in the office. 

Mr. Arens. Do your columns pertain principally to Puerto Eicans 
and Puerto Rican gToups ? 

Mr. Colon. Not necessarily. 

Mr. Arens. Do they occasionally contain items of information 
respecting Puerto Eicans and Puerto Eican groups ? 

Mr. Colon. It has information of everything that is of actuality 
and that I tliinlv was of interest for the readers of The Worker, 
regardless of language or nationality, which has a news value. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I interrupt a minute? 

Did you write an article for the Sunday Worker of November 15, 
this last Sunday? 

Mr. Colon. November the what ? 

Mr. ScHERER. The 15th. 

Mr. Colon. November 15th? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes; 1959. 

Mr. Colon. Have you got a copy there ? Let's see how The Worker 
looks like, for all the people to Imow. 

Mr. ScHERER. If I want to do that, I will. I am merely asking if 
you wrote an article for the Sunday, November 15th 

Mr. Colon. I usually write an article for every Simday issue of 
the paper, unless I am sick or on vacation ; something like that. 

Mr. ScHERER. This last Smiday Worker, did you write an article? 

Mr. Colon. The last Sunday Worker ? I think I did. 

Mr. ScHERER. What article did you write? 

Mr. Colon. I think it would be easier if you show me the paper. 

Mr. ScHERER. Can't you remember what article you wrote for The 
Worker last Sunday ? 

Mr. Colon. You see, I write a series of articles, some are signed 
and some are unsigned. 



1542 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you write more than one article for the Sunday 
Worker this last Sunday ? 

Mr. Colon. I usually write news features and things that aren't 
signed on Latin America, and then I write an article for the Sunday 
Worker. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you write for any publications other than the 
Sunday Worker? 

Mr. Colon. When they ask for an article on cultural or general 
Latin American information or feature articles, I try to write, if I 
can. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have before me the Sunday Worker for which you 
write, of November 15th — this last Sunday. Did you write an ar- 
ticle which is headed "Hit Un- Americans' Hunt in Puerto Kico?" 
Did you write that article ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer that question on the gromids that 
it might tend to incriminate other people, me, the relationship of 
the 

Mr. ScHERER. You can use the fifth amendment if you think it is 
proper on the ground it might incriminate you, but not on the ground 
that it might incriminate other people. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I am so doing now. 

Mr. ScHERER. On the gromid that it might incriminate you? 

Mr. Colon. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. And not other people. Is that right ? 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct this witness to answer the ques- 
tion whether he wrote the article appearing in the issue of the Sunday 
Worker of November 15, headed "Hit Un- Americans' Hunt in Puerto 
Rico." He has said he has written articles for this paper. He has 
said voluntarily that he wrote an article, or one or more articles, for 
this last Smiday Worker, 

I think if he had any privilege to invoke the fifth amendment he 
has waived that privilege and, therefore, I ask that you direct him to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is directed and ordered to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Colon. No, I didn't write that article. 

Mr. ScHERER. You did not write that article? 

Mr. Colon. No. Is it signed by me? 

Mr. ScHERER. No. That is the reason I am asking you. If it had 
been signed by you, I wouldn't have asked you the question. 

Do you know who wrote the article ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is directed and ordered to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. ScHERER. The chairman has directed you to answer the ques- 
tion. You can't decline to answer on the ground that it might in- 
criminate someone else. 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the basis of the rights given to 
a citizen under the first amendment and on the rights that it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. ScHERER. Without asking you the name of the party, then, do 
you know who wrote the article ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1543 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. CoLON^. I decline to answer on the same grounds that I declined 
to answer previously. 

Mr. SciiERjni. Did you furnish the person who wrote the article 
with any of the information contained in that article? 

Mr. Colon. The same answer. 

Mr. SciiERER. You are familiar with the article, are you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you read tlie article in the Sunday Worker? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. You decline to tell us. Do you think it would in- 
criminate you to tell us whether you read an article appearing in the 
Sunday Worker ? 

Mr. Colon. On the grounds of the same answer I have given you 
on this point, I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I think that the article, since it deals 
with this committee's hearings in Puerto Rico the latter part of this 
week, should be incorporated in the record of these hearings at tliis 
point, and I so move. 

Mr. Tuck. The article referred to by the gentleman from Ohio 
will be recorded as an exhibit in the record at this point. 

(Document marked "Colon Exhibit No. 1" follows.) 

Colon Exhibit No. 1 
Hit Un-Americans' Hunt in Puerto Rico 

The national executive committee of the Communist Party last week "un- 
qualifiedly" condemned the proposal of the House Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee to "intervene in the domestic affairs uf the Puerto Rican commonwealth." 

The party demanded that President Eisenhower "act immediately to check this 
violation of our agreements with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, of our com- 
mitments under the charter of the United Nations, and of the Constitution of the 
United States." 

"At a time when throughout Latin America there are repeated protests against 
Yankee imperialism and the chauvinism of American monopolists in relations 
with the peoples of Cuba, Guatemala, Panama, and other countries to the south 
of our country," the party said, the committee "threatens to bring further dis- 
grace and shame to the American people by an invasion of Puerto Rico and in- 
quisition" of its people. "This irresponsible act of the infamous eommittee seeks 
to brand the Puerto Rican people as subservient to the committee without free- 
dom to think and act in their own interests." 

The House Committee refuses to investigate the White Citizens Councils and 
the Ku Klux Klan with tlieir terror practices against the Negro people, the 
Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans in the South," the party declared. "It refuses to 
investigate the slum and inhuman conditions in which Puerto Ricans are forced 
to live, and the brutal exploitation of them for the profit of monopoly business 
in the United States. 

"During its entire history, this unconstitutional House Committee has been 
condemned by organized labor, by leaders of the Negro people and advocates of 
civil liberty from every walk in American life as a menace to the freedoms of 
the American people. 

"It has no mandate from the American people to harass the Puerto Ricans in 
New York or to go to Puerto Rico. 

"It has no invitation from that Commonwealth. 

"Subpenas to some 150 Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and to a large number 
in New York for 'hearings' from Nov. 16 through Nov. 20 have already done 
damage. 

"The invasion has already begun and must be brought to a halt. Congressmen 
from every state should be called to protest this brazen imperialist cliauvinist 
act and demand that the inquisition be called off. Communists together with all 



1544 coMMUisrisT activities among Puerto ricans 

other Americans cannot remain passive while reactionary committees of a 
branch of the American government seek to do a grave injury to our national 
honor, morality, and prestige." 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other employment in addition to your 
employment with the Daily Worker and The Worker? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the basis that it will tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Mr. AuENS. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
about any other employment in which you are engaged, in addition to 
your employment as a writer for The Worker, you would be supplying 
information that could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer this last question. It is posed for 
the purpose of testing his good faith in invoking the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States. 

It is obvious from this record that in a preceding question he did 
not invoke the fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs the witness to answer the 
question and warns the witness that he may bring himself within 
contempt of a committee of the Congress of the United States unless 
he so answers. 

Mr. Colon. By the rights given me in all the constitutional rights 
to all citizens, especially on the fifth amendment, I decline to answer 
on the grounds that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Akens. Do you also write for a paper in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 
a publication there known as Pueblo ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you write for any other publications besides The 
Worker and Pueblo ? 

Mr. Colon. On the same grounds I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Detective Blauvelt, would you kindly stand? 

Now, Mr. Witness, would you please look to your left at the lady 
who is standing there. 

This morning, an hour or so ago, Detective Blauvelt testified under 
oath that while she was an undercover member in the Communist 
Party here in New York City, with principal concern in the Com- 
munist penetration of the Puerto Rican nationality group, she knew 
you, to a certainty, to be a member of that conspiratorial group known 
as the Communist Party. 

Kindly look at her while she is standing there and tell this commit- 
tee while you are under oath whether Detective Blauvelt told the 
truth in her testimony under oath, or whether she was in eiTor. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I would like to know if this is a grand jury and if I 
would have the opportunity to cross-examine the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed and warned to answer the question and to 
eliminate the theatrics. 

Mr. Colon. These are not theatrics. This is some information that 
I am trying to get, whether this is a grand jury, a court, or whether I 
would have the opportunity to cross-examine the witness. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1545 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment, 
that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, in addition to your work for The Worker, also 
disseminate and distribute among the'^Puerto Kican nationality group 
in New York City Communist propaganda emanating from behind the 
Iron Curtain and emanating from San Juan, Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the gromid that it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you also an instructor, in addition to your other 
duties, in an organization which has taken the name "The Faculty of 
Social Science'' here in New York City ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you now, if you please, a thermof ax re- 
production of a copy of your publication The Worker of October 18, 
1959, describing the activities of this Faculty of Social Science and 
listing the instructors, including Jesus Colon. 

Please look at that article and tell this committee while you are 
under oath whether or not that article's assertion that you are an 
instructor at the Faculty of Social Science is true and correct. 

(Tlie document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I exercise my privilege. 

Mr. Arens. What privilege ? 

(The witness conferred wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. Under the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Colon Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. You will recall some very few years ^go when a num- 
ber of Communist traitors were indicted in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 
Did you have anything to do with the committee which was set up 
on behalf of the Puerto Rican Communists who were indicted? 

Mr. Colon. I would like to know a little more about this so-called 
Communist traitors. Are you using the adjective, or whatever you 
call it, "traitors," for anybody who are exercising the rights as citizens 
to speak, to assemble, and so forth ? 

Mr. Arens. We don't regard people of that kind as traitors. 

Mr. Colon. It seems to me that this committee has a tendency to use 
adjectives out of the context. For example, the question of the word 
"peace" is being brought around here as if it were a dirty word. I 
resent that. 

Mr. Scherer. Let's eliminate the word "traitors." Did you have 
anything to do with the committee that was set up on behalf of some 
Puerto Ricans who were indicted? We will not use any of those 
words. That is all we want to know. 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the privilege given, me by the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you were the chairman 
of the committee for the so-called Puerto Rican Smith Act defendants 
in San Juan. If that is not true, deny it while you are under oath. 



1546 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Aeens. Do you, as part of your work as a writer for The Worker, 
reproduce the essence of articles appearing- in Pravda ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the same grounds given to me 
by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have information of current activities 
by this conspiratorial force known as the Communist Party, working 
among the Puerto Rican nationality group here in New York City? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the same gromids. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have information respecting the ac- 
tivities in Puerto Rico of this conspiratorial force known as the Com- 
munist operation, that is, information which you can supply your 
Government via this committee ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the same grounds that I did 
before. 

Mr. Arens. When was your last trip to Puerto Rico ? 

Mr, Colon. I think it was in 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have present contact with Communists who are 
operating in Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Can you supply this committee now with information 
respecting the couriers of the Communist conspiracy operating be- 
tween New York City and San Juan ? 

Mr. Colon. This looks like a Barnum and Bailey Circus. Couriers ? 
Ha ! I don't know why they get this crazy information. 

Mr. Arens. Let me be specific. 

Do you know a person by the name of Torres, T-o-r-r-e-s ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the rights given me by the first 
amendment of the Constitution and the fifth, that it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know, and are you in contact with, Juan 
Saez Corales in San Juan ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr, Arens. Are you now, or have you been in the recent past, in 
contact with Juan Santos Rivera in San Juan, Puerto Rico? 

Mr Colon. I decline to answer on the same grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. What courses do you teach at this Faculty of Social 
Science? 

Mr, Colon. I decline to answer on the same grounds that I have 
cited before. It might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, how could what you teach incriminate you 
unless you were teaching something that was illegal ? 

Mr. Colon, I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell this committee while you are under oath 
■what you have done in an attempt to raise funds in New York City 
to sustain the publication in San Juan known as Pueblo? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer. 

Mr, Arens, Why? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1547 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer. 

Mr. AmoNS. Why do you decline to answer? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Colon. I am exercising my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the leader of the Communist conspiracy 
in Puerto Kico, Juan Santos Kivera ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know^ an international Communist courier op- 
erating out of San Juan by the name of Jose Enamorado Cuesta? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Colon. On the privilege given to me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Ask him, Mr. Counsel, whether he knows tliis man, 
without attaching the appellation "international courier." 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Jose Enamorado Cuesta ? 

Mr. Colon. I decline to answer on the right given to me by the 
first amendment and on the right of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you have any further questions ? 

Mr. SCHERER. No. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to suggest, Mr. Chairman, if it meets 
with the pleasure of tlie chairman and Congressman Scherer, that this 
would be a very appropriate time, from the standpoint of our work, 
for the chairman to order a recess for lunch, and come back whenever 
it is appropriate. 

Mr. Patterson. I was subpenaed to appear today. I now under- 
stand that I will not be called today. I think the names of those 
who are to be called today ought to be read and that men and women 
who have business to attend to should not be held here illegally in this 
way. 

I ask if I am going to be called today and, if I am not, to be excused. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will call the witnesses whenever it is 
most convenient to call them. 

Mr. Patterson. I was given to understand by the staff director 
that I would not be called. Why, then, should I be forced to sit here 
all day? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I observe that in this hearing, as in 
all hearings, it is a little difficult to anticipate exactly how much time 
we will take with each witness. We cannot at this time say who will 
be heard this afternoon, but probably a few witnesses who have been 
subpenaed for today, because of the press of time, will be obliged to 
stay over. 

We regret that circumstance, but it is unavoidable. Therefore, I 
respectfully suggest that the committee continue in the normal coui-se. 
We always try to be cooperative with the witnesses and accommodate 
them by indicating approximately when they will be heard. 

With that observation, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that 
the committee be ordered into recess for lunch. 

Mr. Patterson. Mr. Chairman, I was informed, however, that I 
would not be called, by the staff director. Wliy go through these 
shenanigans now ? 

50974— 60— pt. 1 4 



1548 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMOXG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. I have told this witness that he would not be called 
today. We do not know how we will proceed this afternoon, Mr. 
Chairman. 

I suggest that it is no time for the gentleman who is speaking to 
undertake to offer the Committee on Un-American Activities advice. 
He will have ample opportmiities in a little while to speak before the 
conunittee. 

Mr. Tuck. That witness will be excused until tomoiTow morning. 

Mr. Colon. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer a statement on my 
behalf to be part of the record. 

Mr. Tuck. You may submit the statement and we will consider 
the statement and decide whether or not it is in order. If so, it will 
be filed as pai-t of the record. 

Mr. Colon. All right. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will now stand in recess until two o'clock 
this afternoon. 

(Wliereupon, at 12:20 p.m. the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 p.m. the same day. ) 

( Subcommittee members present at time of recess : Kepresentatives 
Tuck and Scherer.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 1959 

The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Hon. William M. Tuck, 
chairman of the subcommittee, presiding, 

(Present at time of convening: Representatives Tuck and Scherer.) 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will please be in order. Counsel will 
call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens, Felix Ojeda Ruiz, 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. LoEB. I have a translator for this witness. May he come for- 
ward ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. We have the translator who has been sworn by 
the committee. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you are about to give 
in this case before the subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ruiz. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF FELIX OJEDA RUIZ,* ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WERNER L. LOEB (DONALD F. BARNES, INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Barnes, the committee translator, will you please 
inform him to have a seat ? 

I will pose the question to the witness, Mr. Barnes, and you will 
repeat the question in the exact language I use to him. Then you will 
get back from him the exact language that he gives to us, only, of 
course, in the translated language. 

Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. My name is Felix Ojeda Ruiz. I live at 508 West 
139th Street, in New York. I am a carpenter, a cabinetmaker. 

*Member of a new Communist splinter group, the Provisional Organizing Committee for 
a Marxist-Leninist Communist Party or "POC," formally organized in August 1958 by 
extremists expelled from the main Communist Party for "disruptive" activities. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1549 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a siibpena 
•which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Ojeda Kuiz. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Loeb. Werner L. Loeb, Nyack, X.Y. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you bom ? 

Mr. Ojeda Rui 
abo, Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education ? 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I attended first through eighth grades in grammar 
school. I lived in the country in a very isolated area. I had to walk 
25 miles on foot to school, and then once again to my home after school 
hours. Under these conditions, I went to school through the seventh 
grade, and thereupon I moved to San Juan and did the eighth grade 
of grammar school in San Juan, and also the first year of high school. 

My economic conditions were such that I had to go to school with 
no lunch and barefoot and, also, that I could not continue my studying. 
This was all in public school. 

Mr. Scherer. He said he walked 25 miles to school and 25 miles back 
each day ? 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. That is right. No, it is 25 miles round-trip to 
and from the school. 

Mr. xVrens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
re,sidence ? 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. It was about more or less 4 years ago that I came to 
the United States to earn my living. 

Mr. Arens. Did you live continuously in Puerto Rico prior to 4 
yeai-s ago when you came to the United States ? 

Mr. Ojeda Rmz. Around 1930 or 1929 I lived for a year or two 
in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. \\^iat was your occupation in Puerto Rico prior to your 
coming to the United States 4 years ago ? 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I had a small carpenter shop. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at any time during your residency in Puerto 
Rico prior to coming to the United States editor of a publication 
there known as Pueblo ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
now, while you are under oath, if you were, prior to coming to the 
United States, editor of a j^ublication in San Juan know^n as Pueblo 
you would be supplying information which could be used against yon 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I believe that, according to the law, the question 
miglit tend to incriminate me and I, therefore, avail myself of the 
liftli amendment, wiiicli is a right I have as a citizen. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now for the perusal of yourself, via 
the translator, a copy of an article appearing in the New York Daily 
Worker of April 1954. 

This article is entitled "High Bail Set For Jailed Puerto Rico Com- 
munists.'' It lists a number of Communists, and the following ap- 



1550 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

pears: "The Communists in prison are: * * * Felix Ojeda, editor of 
Pueblo and president of the Partisans of Peace." 

You have your own translator to your right. 

Please display to him that article and have him display the article 
to you and tell the committee whether or not the facts recited there 
respecting your identification as editor of Pueblo and your connection 
with the group known as Partisans of Peace are true and correct. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Euiz. I avail myself of the fifth amendment in answer- 
ing this question. 

(Document marked "Felix Ojeda Euiz Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. That was a long consultation to get the fifth-amend- 
ment answer. You are not doing that deliberately, are you, to delay 
the hearing ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you. 
came to the United States for permanent residence 4 years ago ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I avail myself of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. What other occupation are you engaged in, in the 
United States, besides your occupation as carpenter? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I work 8 hours a day and sometimes 10, and that 
doesn't leave me any time for any other occupation. 

Mr. Arens. Are you engaged in any Communist Party activities? 

(The witness conferred witli his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received a United States passport ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a photostatic reproduction of a 
United States passport application filed in November of 1952 by your- 
self, in which you solicit a United States passport to go to Spain and 
state that you want to go to Spain for the purpose of visiting relatives. 

Kindly look at this photostatic reproduction of this aj^plication 
and tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether or not this 
is a true and correct reproduction of a passport application filed by 
yourself. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Felix Ojeda Ruiz Exhibit No. 2" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you have relatives in Spain ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you travel to Spain in 1952 on Communist Party 
business ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Were the statements made in that application for a 
passport truthful statements ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1551 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, are the statements in that passport 
made under oath ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Arens. We display to you now a copy of Pueblo, a publication 
of the Communist operation in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and ask you, 
while you are under oath, to tell this committee whether or not you 
are a distributing agent of Pueblo among the Puerto Rican group 
in New York City. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Felix Ojeda Ruiz Exhibit No. 3," and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you currently maintain contacts with any persons 
known by you to be in the Communist operation in Puerto Rico ? 

(The w^itness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you maintain any contacts with any persons in 
Puerto Rico ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I have relatives in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you maintain contact with those relatives? 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. Naturally, in one way or another. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are any of them members of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. In that respect, I don't know how other people 
think. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. I think he should be warned, too, that he may find himself in 
trouble before the committee. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I would like to repeat that I don't know what the 
thinking is of any relatives that I might have that are not with me — 
what their thinking is in political affairs — because everybody has a 
right to think as he wishes. 

I know Avhat I think, but I would like to repeat I don't know what 
my relatives are thinking. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't care what his relatives think. I asked whether 
he knows whether they belong to the Communist Party. He has been 
directed to answer the question and hasn't answered it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I don't know and I can't say what the political 
affiliation of my relatives are or may be in Puerto Rico. I can't say 
it because I don't know. I don't know what relationship they might 
have and I can't say : I can't give any more information. 

Mr. Scherer. What are the names of the relatives with whom you 
do maintain contact in Puerto Rico ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1552 coM]\njNisT activities among Puerto ricans 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say you invoke the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you maintain any contact with persons in Puerto- 
Rico other than relatives ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. He said first that he maintained contact with only his 
relatives, didn't he ? 

Witness, didn't you tell us that, naturally, you maintained contacts 
with relatives ? Didn't you tell us that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I request that you repeat the question that you 
had asked first. 

Mr. ScHERER. The question Mr. Arens asked, as I recall it, was 
whether he maintains any contacts with persons in Puerto Rico who 
are members of the Communist Party, and he took the fifth amend- 
ment to that question. 

Then I asked him whether he maintained contacts with any persons 
in Puerto Rico, and he said, in effect, "Naturally, with relatives.'^ 
Then he was asked to name those relatives and he took the fifth 
amendment. 

He was asked whether any of those relatives were members of the 
Commmiist Party, I believe, and he took the fifth amendment. 

Now my question is whether he maintains contact with any persons 
in Puerto Rico other than relatives. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now let's get this straight. He said he doesn't know 
what the political affiliations of any of his relatives are. Specifically, 
he said he doesn't know what they tliink or believe. Of coui-se, that 
wasn't the question, but that is his answer as it stands. 

Then I asked him for the names of his relatives, and he took the 
fifth amendment. He refused to give us the names of those relatives 
whose political beliefs he has no knowledge of on the grounds it might 
tend to incriminate him. 

Now I am going to ask the chairman to direct this witness to give 
us the names of his relatives. Obviously, from his answers to the 
other questions, giving the names of his relatives couldn't possibly 
incriminate him. 

May I ask that you direct the witness to answer the question ? 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs the witness to answer the 
question as to who his relatives are with whom he maintains contact, 
and about whom he said he does not know what the political beliefs are. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. Using a right that is mine, I invoke the fifth 
amendment as to that question. 

Mr. Sciierer. I am not going to pursue this matter any farther 
except to make this observation : If this man's relatives with whom he 
maintains contact have political affiliations unknown to Mm, as he 
has stated, how could he possibly incriminate himself by telling us the 
names of the relatives with whom he has contact ? 

I put the question to both our counsel and the counsel for the witness 
and ask whether, under those circumstances, he is obviously not prop- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1553 

erly and not in good faitli invoking the fifth amendment and whether 
that doesn't subject him to contempt ? 

With tliat observation, I give counsel a chance to advise his witness, 
if he wants to, to possibly change his answer. 

:Mr. Tuck. I think it only fair to inform the witness at this time, too, 
that the Justice Department may very likely be. requested to review his 
testimony for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not he is in 
contempt of the committee by his refusal to answer the question 
directly. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Kuiz. I repeat that I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. I am sorry I took so much time, Mr. Chairman, but I 
]ust wanted to show liow improi^erly and without good faith the fifth 
amendment was so often used. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ojeda Ruiz. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be Mr. William 
Norman. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Norman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM NOEMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Norman. My name is William Norman. I appear under a 
subpena served by your committee. 

Mr. Arens. Ancl your residence and occupation, please ? 

Mr. Norman. I exercise the privilege of the fifth amendment. I 
refuse to answer on the gi-ounds it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that if you told this committee where you 
live, you would be giving information that might be used agianst you 
in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Norman. The answer is the same. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Norman. I exercise the privilege of the fifth amendment and 
decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you miderstand the question? The question is 
are you now, m this proceeding today, represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Norman. The answer is the same. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Tuck. You are ordered and directed to answer the question of 
counsel. 



1554 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Norman. I think this committee will — at least I hope this com- 
mittee will respect my constitutional rights. 

Mr. ScHERER. How could it incriminate you, sir, if you told this 
committee whether you do or do not have a lawyer ? 

Mr. Norman. I hope you will respect my constitutional rights. 

Mr. Arens. We will. We always respect constitutional rights, al- 
though the Communists so frequently pervert it and say we do not. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think he should be directed, Mr. Chairman, to an- 
swer the question as to where he lives. How can it possibly incrimi- 
nate him to tell us where he lives ? We have a right, for the purpose 
of identification, to know where this man lives. 

Mr. Norman. You served a subpena and I am here. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is one more reason why he should answer the 
question as to where he lives. I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs the witness to answer the 
question in respect to where he lives. 

Mr. Norman. I live in Flushing. 

Mr. SoHERER. Where in Flushing ? 

Mr. Norman. 150-42 75th Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Norman. I refuse to answer on the grounds I invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee what your occupation is, you would be giving information that 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Norman. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Norman. I exercise the privilege of the fifth amendment. I 
refuse to answer on the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to where he was born. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs the witness to answer the 
question as to where he was born. 

Mr. Norman. I refuse to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me and I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. This is almost unbelievable. Not by the widest stretch 
of the imagination could where a man was born be incriminating. 

How old are you ? 

Mr. Norman. I refuse to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me and I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I request that you direct the witness 
first to answer the question how old he is. 

Mr. Tuck. It is obvious to the presiding officer that the witness has 
not properly availed himself of the protection given witnesses under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. The witness is ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Norman. I am 57 years old. 

Mr. Scherer. Now I ask you to direct the witness to answer the 
question of where he was born. 

Mr. Norman. Kussia. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Norman. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 



COMI^IUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1555 

Mr. ScHERER. How could that incriminate yon if you are a citizen 
of the United States ? This is absurd. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you 
direct the witness to answer the question of whether he is a citizen 
of the United States. He said he was born in Kussia. We certainly 
have a rio:ht to know whether he is a citizen ; whether he is or is not a 
citizen couldn't possibly incriminate him, 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is directed and ordered to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Norman. I am a citizen. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't hear him. 

Mr. ScHERER. He said he was a citizen. 

Mr. Arens. AVlien did you you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Norman. I decline to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me and I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question as to when he came to the 
United States. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs you to answer the question 
as to when you came to the United States. 

Mr. Norman. I was 7 years old. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen by derivation or by naturalization? 

Mr. Norman. By derivation. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present occu- 
pation ? 

Mr. Norman. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me, 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation immediately prior to your 
present occupation ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment and refuse to answer on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Blauvelt, will you stand up, please ? 

Would you please look to your left at the lady who is standing there 
and tell us whether or not you know her, or have ever seen her before ? 

Mr. Norman. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to in- 
criminate me and I invoke the fif tli amendment. 

Mr. Arens. This lady has informed the Committee on Un-American 
Activities that while she was an undercover operative in the Com- 
munist Party she knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 
Was she telling the truth or was she in error when she identified you 
in that capacity ? 

Mr. Norman. I exercise the privilege of the fifth amendment and 
refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Charles Regan ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Charles Regan swore before this committee in hearings 
in Buffalo, New York, in October 1957, that he knew you as one of 
the members of the Communist Party who was sent in by the con- 
spiracy in that area to do some troubleshooting for the conspiracy in 
industrial establishments. Was he in error in that identification, or 
was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived here in New York ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 



1556 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question as to how long he has 
lived here. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs the witness to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that you are, 
or in the recent past were, the executive secretary of the New York 
Puerto Rican Communist Party organization. Is that information 
which the committee has correct, or is it in error ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are vou now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last leave the continental United States? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently, sir, have information respecting this 
conspiratorial organization known as the Communist Party which 
you could supply to the Government of the United States, under 
whose flag you, as a citizen, have protection ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Bella Dodd ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you engaged in any full-time occupation since 
you reached adulthood in the United States concerning which you 
could tell this committee without disclosing facts which could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. What is the first principal occupation you had after you 
reached adulthood ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the occupation you had immediately prior to 
your present occupation? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Charles Coe ? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. The Committee on Un-American Activites, through 
this subcommittee, is here trying to develop information which will 
assist the United States Congress in attempting to legislatively cope 
with this conspirtaorial force which has caused more bloodshed and 
human misery than any other force in the history of the globe — in 
which some 12 million people were slaughtered in Soviet Russia, your 
former homeland ; in which 40 million people were slaughtered in Red 
China ; in which people are held in bondage and deprived of the liberty 
and freedom wliich we in this country enjoy — and which we believe is 
presently attempting to penetrate Puerto Rican nationality groups in 
this country and in San Juan. 

Do you, sir, now have information which you can give this com- 
mittee under oath respecting that conspiratorial operation so that this 
committee can report to the United States Congress facts which will 
Tielp protect the freedom of this great Nation ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1557 

Mr. Norman. I exorcise the privilege of the fiftli nnienchnent and 
refnse to answer on the <>-roun(ls it may tend to inci-iminale me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you this instant a member of that con.spiratorial 
force known as the Connniinist Party '? 

Mr. Norman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the statf interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I just have one question. 

I do not recall whether counsel asked the witness anything about 
his educational background. In view of some of his answers, I think 
we should get something in the record on this man's educational back- 
ground or training. 

]Mr. Arens. Would you then, please, sir, give the committee at this 
time a brief summary of your educational background ? 

Mr. Norman. I went to public school, graduated from Public School 
109, graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School, attended City 
College for 2 years. 

Mr. ^Vrens. When did you complete your work at City College ? 

Mr. Norman. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. He has had 2 years of college, as I understand. 

Mr. Arens. Two years at City College. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all I wanted to know. It might appear from 
the record that the man had not had any educational background. 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Stanley Weiss. 

Please come forward and remain standing wdiile the chaimian 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Weiss. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STANLEY L. WEISS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL. 
WEENER L. LOEB 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Weiss. Stanley L. Weiss, 1236 Pacific Street, Brooklyn; sheet 
metal mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ^ 

Mr. Weiss. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Weiss. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself. 

Mr. LoEB. Werner L. Loeb. 

Mr, Scherer. What did you say your occupation was ? 

Air. Weiss. Sheet metal mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. For the purpose of identification, have you ever used 
any name other than the name Stanley Weiss, W-e-i-s-s ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1558 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Weiss. Yes, sir; I did. I worked under the name of Stanley 
Bianco for a number of years, for family reasons. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell Bianco ? 

Mr. Weiss. B-i-a-n-c-o. 

Mr. Arexs. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Weiss. I was born in the year 1930 in the Bronx, New York. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education. 

Mr. Weiss. I graduated P. S. 139 in Queens and did a few years in 
Brooklyn Tech. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Weiss. I did 2 years of high school in Brooklyn Tech. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your education ? 

Mr. Weiss. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the principal employments you have had since 
you completed your education. 

Mr. Weiss. Sheet metal mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled to Puerto Eico ? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Weiss. On the grounds that it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
about any trip or trips you have made to Puerto Kico, you would be 
supplying information which could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say the name you used was Bianco? 

Mr. Weiss. B-i-a-n-c-o, Bianco, sir. It is a direct translation from 
"Weiss" in Italian. 

Mr. Scpierer. It sounds to me like Puerto Rican. 

Mr. Arens. Have you traveled outside the continental United States 
any time in the course of the last year ? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you traveled to Puerto Eico in the course of the 
last few months ? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How many times have you traveled outside the con- 
tinental United Sattes in the course of the last year ? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for or received a United States 
passport? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weiss. The only thing that I recall, sir, is when I was some- 
where in the vicinity of 12 years old — and this I am not positive of, 
it may have been 11 or 13. My mother applied for a passport in 
which I think my name was included. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad to a country in which 
a passport is a prerequisite for admission ? 

Mr. Weiss. Sir, do you mean besides my service in the Armed 
Forces of the United States ? 

Mr. Arens. No, sir. Have you ever traveled outside the continental 
United States to a country which you must have a United States 
passport to enter? 

It is clear, is it not, a passport is not needed to go to Puerto Eico ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1559 

Mr. Weiss. I am sorry; I don't understand and I don't want to 
answer incorrectly. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever obtained a United States passport for 
the purpose of traveling to a foreign country ? 

Mr. Weiss. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you traveled outside the continental United 
States any time in the course of the last year ? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Akens. How many trips have you made outside the continental 
United States in the course of the last 2 or 3 years? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have contacts and do you maintain contacts 
with people now in San Juan, Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Weiss. I mvoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Weiss. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. IVIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Have you any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have associates in the Puerto Rican com- 
munity, Mr. Weiss, friends, associates? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weiss. Sir, would this infer like the fellows that I work with 
in the shop where I work ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. Do you generally associate with people of the 
Puerto Rican community either here in New York or in San Juan? 

Mr. Weiss. I will take my fifth amendment on that, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact. Witness, that you used the name 
Bianco to lead people in the Puerto Rican commmiity with whom you 
associated to believe that you are of Puerto Rican or Spanish origin ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weiss. Sir, on this question, as I said before, this is an Italian 
name, first of all; and, as I said, it was for a personal reason. I 
was having certain family difficulties and, as a result, I used another 
name strictly for that reason. 

Mr. Scherer. I just wondered. We are not interested in your 
family affairs, although you say that is the reason you used it. But 
let me ask you: During what years did you use that name — Bianco? 

Mr. Weiss. I will have to be somewhat vague on it, sir, but I would 
say between 19-1:7, perhaps, until about 1948, and mto a few months 
mto 1918 ; somewhere in that general period. 

Mr. Scherer. Just for a year ? 

Mr. Weiss. A year, year and a half, thereabouts. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Jorge W. IMaysonet-Hernandez. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand to be sworn ? 

You do solennily swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. Yes. 



1560 COISIMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

TESTIMONY OF JORGE W. MAYSONET-HERNANDEZ,* ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, WERNER L. LOEB (DONALD E. BARNES, INTER- 
PRETER) 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, addi^ess, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Maysonet- Hernandez. My name is Jorge W. Maysonet-Her- 
nandez. 

Mr. Arens. Yor,r residence and occupation? 

Mr. Matsonet-Hernandez. I live at 594 Marcy Avenue, Brooklyn 
6, N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Matsonet-Hernandez. My present occupation is a factory 
worker. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez, Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. JVIaysonet-Hernandez. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. LoEB. Werner L. Loeb, Nyack, N.Y. 84 Main Street. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I was born 14 years after Yankee in- 
vading troops entered Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. And what year was that, please ? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your education. 

Did he give the place of his birth ? I believe he gave the date by 
indirection. 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. In an American colony. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Scherer. Did he say so many years after Yankee troops — did 
he mean the United States troops ? 

Is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. Yes, 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean that as an insult to the country ? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. An insult to the American people ? No. 

Mr. Scherer. The chairman wants to know if he meant it as an 
insult to the American Government. We are in a quandary as to why 
he fixed his date of birth within so many years of his statement about 
the Yankee invading troops. 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. No; not as an insult to the United 
States Government. Just to point out a fact that took place over 50 
years a^o. 

Mr. Arens. Now give us a word about your education, please. 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I was educated in the colony of Puerto 
Rico and went through 2 or 3 years of high school under economic 
conditions equal to those suffered by the majority of the people of 
Puerto Rico. 

I had to abandon my high school studies because of those economic 
conditions which did not permit my mother, who was a widow with. 
14 children, to furnish me with the economic means to further my 
education. 



*Member of Provisional Organizing Committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1561 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us, please, the princii)al employments you had 
after you completed your educational pursuits. 

Mr. Maysonet- Hernandez. After I left hi^h school because of the 
economic situation which my family was going through, I went to 
work as an apprentice in a" movie theater, learning to be a movie 
projector, earning for 7 days a week work, $2.50 a week. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please? 

Mr. Maysonet-IIernandez. I graduated or obtained a full rating as 
a movie projector operator and I worked 22 years at that job. 

Mr. Sciierer. Where do you work at that job, in Puerto Rico or 
here ? 

Mr. Maysonet- Hernandez. In Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Was that your last employment prior to coming to the 
United States? 

Mr. Maysonet- Hernandez. Last and only. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any job in Puerto Rico, other than as a 
motion picture projector? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I would like to know what the commit- 
tee means by the word "job." What other job I had. Does it mean 
remunerative work, paid work ? 

Mr. Arens. Let's start with non-remmierative work. Did you have 
any other assigmnent, any other job, any other post, official or other- 
wise? 

Mr. ]\L4ysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth amendment because 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Were you secretary of labor of the Municipal Commit- 
tee o± the Communist Party in San Juan ? 

Mr. ]\L4ysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth and the first amend- 
ments on the ground that the answer to this may tend to incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now for translation by your transla- 
tor an article appearing in the American press, in October 1954, en- 
titled "Ten Top Reds In Puerto Rico Seized by FBI." 

In the course of the article, the following appears, in a list of the 
top Puerto Rican Reds who were rounded up by the FBI: "Jorge W. 
Maysonet-Hernandez, 40. Has served as secretaiy of labor of the 
Municipal Committee of the party in San Juan, Puerto Rico. A 
member of the party since 1943." 

Please ask your translator, who sits at your right, Mr. Witness, to 
translate the excerpt there which I read to you, and tell this committee 
while you are under oath whether or not those facts recited are true 
and correct, 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth amendment, and the 
first. 

(Document marked "Maysonet-Hernandez Exhibit No. 1" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you one of the top Reds, namely, Communists, 
in San Juan in 1954, prior to your coming to the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 



1562 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been convicted of a criminal offense? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been indicted ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matsonet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution of tlie United States on the grounds that the answer to 
this may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in the United States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. I am referring to the contniental United States. 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. Well, after the internal security laws 
of tlie so-called Commonwealth of Puerto Kico, which is really a title 
which is a screen that is used to hide the status of a colony under 
which Puerto Rico exists, and the fact that the American FBI made 
it impossible for me to earn a living in Puerto Rico, I was forced to 
come to the United States in order for myself and my family not to 
die of starvation. 

Mr. Scherer. That answer is a little hard to understand, namely, 
that the FBI made it difficult for him to live in Puerto Rico. If that 
charge were true, wouldn't they do the same thing in the United 
States ? Couldn't they do it more effectively in the United States ? I 
don't like that indictment of the FBI. 

Mr. Arens. What year was it when you came to the continental 
United States ? 

(The witnesse conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. About 2 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist conspiratorial 
operation at that time — when you came to the continental United 
States from San Juan ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) ^ 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. Well, my opinion and my point of view 
is that I am not a conspirator, as you have said. All of my life I 
fought to obtain freedom for my country, for the land in which I was 
born, and if we are going to view the struggle of the Puerto Ricans 
to obtain their independence from American imperialism as a con- 
spiracy, then we would have to come to the conclusion that George 
Washington, who created this great Republic and this great democracy, 
was also a conspirator against the English empire. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us if, when you came to the 
United States, you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth and first amendments 
to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently maintain contacts with persons known 
by you to be members of the Communist Party in Puerto Rico ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the first and the fifth amend- 
ments to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Conmiunist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IVIaysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth and first amendments 
to the Constitution of the United States. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1563 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowled<^e, is the Communist Party 
an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the Government of the 
United States by force and violence? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maysonet- Hernandez. I believe that the Communist Party of 
Puerto Rico, as is the case with any other organization that is fighting 
for the freedom of Puerto Rico, has a right to do so, because force 
and violence and their existence are determined by circumstances and 
by the position of reaction. That is my answer. 

Mr. Tuck. The words he uses are argumentative and not in re- 
sponse to the question. 

Mr. i^LRENS. Would you please announce to him the observation made 
by the chairman ? 

(Mr. Barnes, the interpreter, informed the witness.) 

Mr. Arens. I should say, how^ever, Mr. Chairman, it may have 
been most helpful, because by indirection he has given confirmation to 
information this conunittee has, that the Communist operation is 
dedicated to force and violence and that is the line which the party 
announces to the comrades, namely, that although they do employ force 
and violence to obtain their objectives, it is only a force and violence to 
meet a situation which is created by forces which they describe as im- 
perialistic forces. In other words, by undertaking to surround them- 
selves with the aura of respectability, the Communist Party is, by 
that type of answer, confirming the very fact which has been a funda- 
mental assumption of the congressional committees — that the party 
does engage in and advocate force and violence. 

Under what circumstances does the Communist Party, to your cer- 
tain knowledge, sanction the use of force and violence ? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth and the first amend- 
ment because I think that any answer I might give might tend to in- 
criminate me because this committee uses as a point of departure the 
premise that the Communist Party of Puerto Rico is a conspiratorial 
organization. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this very instant, a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

]Mr, Maysonet-Hernandez. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now currently engaged in Communist Party 
activities in and among the Puerto Rican nationality group in New 
York City and between that group and the Puerto Rican operation in 
San Juan? 

Mr. Maysonet-Hernandez. This is something that I see from a 
social viewpoint. Here in New York we have a Puerto Rican minority 
which, together with the American Negroes and all of the citizens 
from the Latin American countries, are living under extremely low. in 
an extremely bad economic situation. They are miserably exploited by 
industrialists, by ]:>eople who have the power of money in their hands, 
and they live in the utmost of miserable slums where they have rats 
that even get to kill their children. 

I participate in all of these straggles as a citizen in trying to defend 
the rights of all of these people. 

Mr. Scherer. Here is a man who makes that last statement, and he 
tells us just a few minutes ago that, in order to escape FBI persecution 
and American imperialism in Puerto Rico, he came 2,000 miles to the 

50974— 60— pt. 1 5 



1564 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

continental United States, He gets here and he has the same com- 
plaints. 

Then he also wants to leave the impression that the Government of 
the United States wants to keep Puerto Rico as a possession, that we 
are practicing imperialism. Eighty percent of the Puerto Ricans don't 
want their independence. 

This Member of Congress, and I know a lot more, feels that any 
time the people of Puerto Rico want their independence, we are ready 
to give it to them. 

But 80 percent of your people don't want it. It costs us a lot of 
money to have Puerto Rico as pait of the Government of the United 
States. No more do the people of Puerto Rico want their independence 
than the people of Alaska and Hawaii, who were for years petitioning 
this country for statehood. 

The Philippines wanted their freedom, and we gave it to them. 
Don't leave the idea here that Puerto Rico is being kept a possession 
of the United States against the will of the Puerto Rican people and 
that there is a practice of American imperialism. That is a line that 
the Communists are using all through the Caribbean today. Let's get 
the record straight. 

If you give it to them, they don't want it, and, as I say, 80 percent 
of these Puerto Ricans are loyal American citizens and they are the 
ones that insist on remaining part of the United States. 

I will point out to you that it would save us a lot of money and the 
City of New York a lot of money if you did have your independence. 
Don't come here and tell us that we are practicing imperialism and 
then complain about the conditions you create. 

Mr. Arens. This morning Detective Blauvelt, of the New York City 
Police Department, who is an expert on penetration by Communist 
conspirators of nationality bloc groups here in this area, stated that 
the Communists use issues, social issues, which they exploit for Com- 
munist objectives. 

You have recited here on this record, a few moments ago, your 
intense activities in the area of housing, poverty, and the like, endured 
by the Puerto Rican nationality group in New York City. 

Now tell this committee, while you are under oath, is your activity 
among Puerto Rican groups, on these various issues which you have 
announced, as a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel. ) 

Mr. May.'^onet-Hernandez. I invoke the fifth and first amendments 
to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. That will conclude the staff interrogation of this wit- 
ness, if you please. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arexs. The next witness will be Ramon Acevedo. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Acevedo. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1565 

TESTIMONY OF RAMON ACEVEDO,* ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify j-ourself by name, address, and occupa- 
tion. 

Mr. AcEVEDo. My name is Ramon Acevedo; I reside at 161 East 
36th Street, Canarsie, Brooklyn, New York. I am a manual laborer, 
working in New York City. 

I was born, as stated before, in a colony of the United States of 
America. I was born — let's see how well I remember — I was born, I 
believe, on a date that is very dear to the Irish people. It was near 
midnight I was born, so I believe my birth certificate states that I was 
born on the 18th of March, but my mother, I don't know, luckily or 
coincidentally, was born on the same date. When I was about four 
or five, when I began to know the facts of life, she used to say "Come 
here, Ramoncito, my little boy; I am going to tell you something." 

Mr. Areks. The question is when you were born, tell us that, and 
then you can go on with the other recitation. We would like to have a 
direct answer, if you please. 

Mr. Acevedo. I am getting to that. I believe that you need a cer- 
tain amount of morality and moral strength to get to your point. I 
am trying to help to give you a true and correct answer, but in my own 
way, and also in a way that might please you. 

Well, my mother said to me, "I am going to call you Patrick, or that 
is my intention, to call you Patrick." But I was' her first baby, and 
there is a Saint Raymond [Nonnatus] who is the patron saint of 
women who are pregnant. So instead of Patrick, she made a vow and 
called me Ramon after Saint Raymond. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us when you were born, please. 

Mr. Acevedo. Gentleman, I am coming to that, if you please. 

Mr. ScHERER. I hope you answer as fully when we get to the ques- 
tions about Communist Party activities. 

Mr. Acevedo. I will, if you allow me. You had some trained seals 
here who spoke for a half hour or so and never inten-upted them, so 
please let me talk. 

There is a story she told me in reference to my birth. 

Mr. Arens. Who are the trained seals you are talking about? 

Mr. Acevedo. Sir? 

Mr. Arens. Trained seals. 

Mr. Acevedo. Did I say trained seals? 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say "trained seals here." 

Mr. Acevedo. No. I must be thinking out loud. Excuse me. 

She said, "I wish I could call you Patrick because this Patrick was 
a gentleman who lived in Ireland many, many years ago, and he was 
quite a man. Ireland was full of snakes, rotten, bad snakes, who are 
devastating the farms and molesting the population." 

My mother said, "I like Saint Patrick veiy much, because Saint 
Patrick somehow didn't like the snakes. They were bad. They were 
intimidating the people, destroying crops." 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chainnan, 1 respectfully suggest this witness now 
at his peril be ordered and directed to answer the question directly and 
not to subject the Committee on Un-American Activities to this type 

♦Member of Provisional Organizing Committee. 



1566 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

of indirect harassing operation in which this man is undertaking to 
indulge. 

The question is perfectly clear, and the answer is perfectly simple. 
I will pose it one more time. Then I am going to request the Chair 
to order you to answer. If you do not, I am going to request the en- 
tire committee to refer this record to the Department of Justice. 

Please tell us when you were born. 

Mr. AcEVEDo. If you will let me. 

'- Mr. Tuck. The committee will not be subjected to a filibuster on 
the part of the witness. You are ordered and directed to answer the 
question. It is a direct question and can be answered in a few words. 

Mr. AcEVEDO. Are you trying to tell me that I came here to be 
browbeaten, to be intimidated, to be exposed ? 

Mr. Arens. I shall not pursue the question further. The record 
is clear. You have declined to answer it. 

Now, sir, give us a word about your education. 

Mr. AcEVEDO. I would neA^er decline to answer your question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answ^er the question with respect to edu- 
cation. We will see whether or not this Committee of the United 
States Congress is going to be harassed by this witness in this smart- 
aleck procedure. 

Please tell this committee a word about your education, sir, and if 
you proceed in this arena of harassment, I will then proceed to the 
next question ; and this record, I tell you now, not in the nature of a 
threat, but as a warning, will be submitted to the Department of 
Justice with an appropriate recommendation by the committee. 

Give this committee, now, sir, a word about your education. 

Mr. Tuck. You are ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. AcEVEDO. Don't lose your head. What are you going to think 
with? 

Mr. Arens. Now I respectfully suggest the witness be asked one 
more question. 

"■' Please tell us when you came to the United States. If you do not 
answer that question, sir, directly, fairly, and with proper decorum, 
I respectfully admonish you that this record will be referred to the' 
Department of Justice with a recommendation for appropriate action. 

Now, sir, tell this committee when you came to the United States. 

Mr. AcEVEDO. Do you think that ethics is just 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be requested to answer still one more question. 

Please tell us, sir, where you are employed. 

Mr. Scherer. He hasn't been directed to answer the previous ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Tuck. I order and direct you to answer the question of coun- 
sel as to when you came to the United States. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. I request that he be ordered and directed to answer 
several of the preceding questions. 

Mr. Scherer. We have asked him. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. AcEVEDO. Where am I employed ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1567 

Mr. Akens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. AcEVEDO. Well, whei-e am I employed ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I request that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Tuck. I order and direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. AcEVEDO. I said I was in manual labor. 

By the way, may I have some water ? My lips are dry. 

Mr. SciiERER. Mr. Chairman, I move the witness be dismissed. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to pose one question with reference to Com- 
munist Party membership or activities. 

Mr, Tuck. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, you have deprived this committee of pre- 
liminary information which we felt was essential to the development 
of certain facts which we think you have. It is obvious on this record 
from your demeanor that you have done so with an attitude of con- 
tempt toward this committee of the United States Congress. 

I will ask you one question : Are you now, this instant, a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Acevedo. Am I a member of what ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. He asked you whether or not you are now a member of 
the Communist Party. The Chair orders and directs you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Acevedo. You know, I never thought 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Acevedo. Am I excused ? 

Mr. Tuck. The witness 

Mr. Acevedo. You people can't take it. 

Mr, Tuck, It is obvious that the witness does not intend to answer 
the questions, 

Mr, Arens, The next witness, if you please, Mr, Chairman, will 
be Mr, Victor Agosto, 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath to you. 

Mr, ScHERER, Mr, Chairman and counsel, before the next witness 
is sworn, I want to say that the preceding witness was so obviously in 
contempt, and the record shows it, that I move that this subcommittee 
recommend to the full committee that the witness be cited for contempt 
of Congress, 

Mr, Tuck, The motion of the gentleman from Ohio will be pre- 
sented to the full committee at the next regular session, 

I would like the record also to show the general demeanor of the 
preceding witness, the one who refused to testify, in order that that 
might be made a part of the record for consideration at the appropriate 
time, 

Mr, Arens, Please remain standing while the chairman administers 
an oath. 

Mr. Tuck, Do you solemnly swear the testimony yoii will give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Agosto. I do. 



1568 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

TESTIMONY OF VICTOR AGOSTO,* ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify youi'self by name, residence, and occupa- 
tion. 

Mr. Agosto. My name is Victor Agosto. I am a general worker. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence ? 

Mr. Agosto. 2310 Second Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Agosto. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you ? 

Mr. Agosto. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Agosto. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Comisel, please identify yourself. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Agosto. I was born in 1922, Jmie 1922, in Puerto Eico, or in 
the Virgin Islands. I am not sure because I don't have my record, 
but from what my mother said, I was in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Agosto. I believe around 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, a word about your education prior to 
the time that you reached adulthood. 

Mr. Agosto. Primary school and that is all. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present place 
of employment ? 

Mr. Agosto. Around two years and a half. 

Mr. Arens. What is your place of employment ? 

Mr. Agosto. How was that ? 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you working ? 

Mr. Agosto. 885 138tli Street. 

Mr. Arens. What do you do there ? 

Mr. Agosto. Anything. Everything. I am a general worker. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been here in the United States? 

Mr. Agosto. I would like to retract my previous statement where I 
said I think around 1946. I think it was 1943. 

Mr. Arens. You have lived here since 1943 ? 

Mr. Agosto. 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been back to Puerto Eico since 1943? 

Mr. Agosto. No, I have not. 

Mr. Abens. Have vou been in correspondence with anyone in Puerto 
Eico since 1943 ? 

Mr. Agosto. I would like, before I answer this question, to know 
what is behind the purpose to ask this question. 

Mr. Arens. This Committee on Un-American Activities — and I 
notice you liave been sitting there all day, so you heard what we are 
doing — is tiying to develop factual information pursuant to which this 
committee can report to the United States Congress on Communists 
and Communist activities, so that the committee can appraise the ad- 

* Member of Provisional Organizing Committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1569 

ministration and operation of our security laws and so that this com- 
mittee can consider proposals for changes in those laws. 

Now, answer the question. 

Mr. Agosto. I would like to know how will this help — the people I 
correspond with. 

Mr. Arp:ns. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Agosto. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, do you have, as a Communist, contacts which 
you are developing and operating with in Puerto Rico ? 

]\Ir. Agosto. Knowing that the committee is saying that it is trying 
to, let us say, unlock a conspiring of the Communist Party, knowing 
this to be just a persecution, I guess, against not only Communists, but 
against all progressive people, I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you get the idea that Communists are pro- 
gressive people ? Do you have that notion ? 

]\f r. Agosto, I have no such thing. That is your words. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Sixteenth National Convention of 
the Commmiist Party in February of 1957 held here in New York 
City? 

Mr. Agosto. I decline to answer that question because I know that 
it will tend to incriminate me, and it will serve no purpose if I answer 
either way. 

Mr. Scherer. What was the answer ? I didn't hear it. 

Mr. Arens. I couldn't get it. Something about it would serve no 
purpose. 

Are you active now as a Communist among the Puerto Rican na- 
tionality group in New York City ? 

Mr. Agosto. I decline to answer it on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the statf interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Counsel may call the next witness. 

Mr. Aeens. The next witness will be Michael Crenovich. 

Please come forward and remain standing to be sworn. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL CRENOVICH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Crenovich. My name is Michael Crenovich. I live in New 
York City. I am a printing pressman. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Since this question would obviously cause embar- 
rassment to my employer and might mean the end of my employment, 
I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Sorry. 



1570 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin. 

Mr. Arens. Do you speak Spanish ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Under what circumstances did you learn Spanish ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I was educated in South America. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere? 

Mr. Crenovich. Argentina. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Brooklyn, New York. 

Mr. Arens. "^Vlien did you leave Brooklyn for South America? 

Mr. Crenovich. Sometime in 1929. 

Mr. Arens. And what year were you born ? 

Mr. Crenovich. 1925. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you then live in South America, or in 
Argentina ? 

Mr. Crenovich. To about 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Were you educated there ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you return to the United States? 

Mr. Crenovich. 1946. I was drafted by the Army and I was 
brought back to the United States by the Army to serve in it. 

Mr. Arens. And when were you discharged from the Army? 

Mr. Crenovich. Fifteen months later; sometime in 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the principal employments you have had since 
1947. 

Mr. Crenovich. Office clerk and as a printing pressman. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Office clerk and printing pressman. 

Mr. Arens. Are those the only occupations in which you have been 
engaged ? 

Mr. Crenovich. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been an instructor in any institutions? 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

Mr. Crenovich. I will claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We will lay before you now, if you please, sir, a thermo- 
fax reproduction of The Worker of March 8, 1959, page 15, in which 
is set forth courses of instruction being taught at the Faculty of Social 
Science. 

Among the courses taught is a course on "Latin America Today" by 
Michael Crenovich. 

Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not that desig- 
nation of yourself as an instructor in "Latin America Today" at the 
Faculty of Social Science is a true and correct designation. 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you, or have you in the recent past been, business 
manager of a publication called "Liberacion" ? 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1571 

Mr. Ckenovicii. I decline to answer that question on the same 
ground. 

Mr. Arens. You didn't tell us about this professional activity when 
I asked you a little while iigo about all of your employments, did you? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Crenovich. I might not have recalled every instance, every job 
I might have had during that period. 

Mr. Arens. This was in 1949, when you were business manager of 
Liberacion; isn't that correct? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Crenovich. I will decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us that you speak Spanish and lived in 
a Spanish-speaking land for some time. Wliat does "Liberacion" 
mean ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Crenovich. It means "liberation" in Spanish, 

Mr, Arens, I lay before you now a thermofax reproduction of the 
masthead of this publication. We have the page from the May 7, 
1949, issue of Liberacion, in which "Miguel Crenovitch" is listed as 
business manager of this publication here in New York City, 

Please look at that and tell this committee while you are under oath 
whether or not that designation of yourself as business manager of 
this publication is correct, 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Crenovich, I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exhibit No, 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files,) 

Mr, Arens, Are you presently working among the Puerto Rican 
nationality group in New York City ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the gi-ounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Connnunist 
Party? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Puerto Rico ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Crenovich, I will decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens, When was the last speech you gave in Spanish to any 
group or organization? 

Mr, Crenovich. I will decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a speech on May Day in Spanish? 

Mr. Crenovich. 1 decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I observe in this exhibit, another issue of The Worker — 
April 26, 1959, a course that you teach on "U.S. and Latin America" 
at the Faculty of Social Science. It is a 5-week course. We wouldn't 
undertake to have you give us the entire course now, but could you 
give us the subject matter that you teach there at this Faculty of Social 
Science and some of the highlights of your course on Unified States 
and Latin America ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 



1572 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

(Document marked "Crenovich Exliibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you teach friendly relationship between your Na- 
tion, under whose flag you have protection, and Latin America? 

Mr. Crenovicii. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you teach the Communist line with respect to 
United States and Latin America ? 

Ml". Crenovich. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you teach any courses on the United States and the 
Caribbean area ? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline on the same grounds, 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Arens, at the beginning of your questioning of 
this witness you offered in evidence a magazine or a newspaper entitled 
"Liberacion," which means "Liberation." Have we had that pub- 
lication translated ? 

Mr. Arens. Not that particular publication. 

Mr. Scherer. Liberation from what ? 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps the witness can help. He was business man- 
ager of the publication. 

Mr. Scherer. "WHiat was the purpose of the title of that magazine 
or publication? 

Mr. Crenovich. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Would you submit that to the expert translator we 
have from the State Department ? Maybe he can look it over tonight 
and tell us about it tomorrow. 

Mr. Arens. I will be happy to do so. It may even have been trans- 
lated, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I would like to know the objective of that publication. 

Mr. Arens. We have not pursued that. We expect to do so, how- 
ever, as w^e get into this particular phase of the Communist operation. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that magazine or publication still in circulation 
today? 

Mr. Arens. We will have to ask the witness. 

Mr. CREN0^^CH. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Angel Eene Torres. 

Mr. Tuck. Raise your right hand to be sworn. 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Torres. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP ANGEL RENE TORRES,* ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Torres. My name is Angel Rene Torres. I reside at 42 Avenue 
B, New York City. I am a blacklisted seaman by profession. 

♦Member of Provisional Organizing Committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1573 

I have been a steelworker, carried bananas on the docks, worked at 
every trade that I could possibly make a living at as a result of the 
persecution I have undergone for my political views and for my 
opinions on general matters. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Torres, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Torres. Would you repeat that ? 

Mr, Arens. You are appearmg today in response to a subpena 
which w^as served upon you ? 

Mr. Torres. Yes, sir ; and I would like to 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Torres. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Torres. I was bom in the colony of Puerto Rico on the 30th 
year of the American occupation. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Torres. 1928. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you talking about American occupation ? 

Mr. Torres. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Puerto Rico was under Spanish rule at the same time 
Cuba was, wasn't it? 

Mr. Torres. Are you asking me ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. Didn't the Americans liberate Cuba and Puerto 
Rico from Spanish rule? 

Mr. Torres. We have an old saying in Spanish that says "You get 
off so I can get on," and I think that is w^hat happened. 

Mr. Scherer. I think Cuba got its independence and Puerto Rico 
could ha^'e, but it didn't want it. Isn't that the record ? 

Mr. Torres. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. It isn't ? 

Mr. Torres. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you studied your histoiy ? 

Mr. Torres. Not your history. The history of the people and of 
Puerto Rico. 

Mr. SoHERER. Isn't Puerto Rico part, of the United States ? 

Mr. Torres. It most certainly is not. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you consider yourself a citizen of the United 
States? 

Mr. Torres. I am a citizen by birth. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to clear up that occupation, but we can go 
ahead. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Torres. I was educated in the grammar schools of Brooklyn, 

Mr. Arens. '\Vlien did you come from Puerto Rico to New York ? 

Mr. Torres. I was approximately 4 years old. 

Mr. Arens. And proceM, if you please, to give us a word about 
your education. 

Mr. Torres. As I said, I was educated in the grammar schools of 
New York. I went to high school a couple of years in New York and 
then was forced, as a result of the economic situation in the family, to 
go to work at approximately the age of 15. 



1574 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

I then went to sea, and the rest of my education lias been picked up 
on board the ships throughout the world, as a worker, in general, in 
various trades, as I mentioned, and in particular through reading. 

Mr. SciiERER. You said you were blacklisted and that is the reason 
you can't work as a seaman anv more. Who blacklisted you ? 

Mr. Torres. Well, that case is a well-known, celebrated case. It has 
been ruled on by various courts of the comitry. It is the case of 
seamen who were denied due process and being deprived of their 
right to earn a living aboard American ships. The case has been in 
court for approximately 9 or 10 years. 

The Appellate Court, I believe, in California ruled that the defend- 
ants — of which I was one of the victims, and 1,800 other seamen — were 
not granted due process and ordered the Coast Guard to return us 
our seaman papers. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did this case arise out of Communist Party member- 
ship? 

Mr. Torres. Well, you will have to ask the Coast Guard that. 

Mr. Scherer. You know all about the case. You w^ere a defendant. 
I don't remember it, but I would like to know out of what it arose. 
You certainly weren't charged with smuggling, were you? What 
were you charged with ? 

Mr. Torres. We were charged with practically everything under 
the sun. That implies and denotes some kind of political sin in 
this country. Seamen are radical people because they get around; 
they see a lot. 

Mr. Scherer. "Everything under the sun" ? You were charged with 
everything under the sun ? One of the things you were charged with 
was being part of the Communist apparatus, were you not ? 

Mr. Torres. I don't know whether that was in it. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't know that ? 

Mr. Torres. I don't know whether that was in it. 

Mr. Scherer. You know you are under oath, don't you ? 

Mr. Torres. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you don't know. Wasn't that tlie basic 
charge ? 

Mr. Torres. The basic charge I don't recall. I would have to refer 
to my bill of particulars from the Coast Guard, and I don't have 
that available at the moment. 

Mr. Arens. Well, as of the time your papers were lifted as a sea- 
man, were you then a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me and the ground of the first amendment and 
every blessed amendment to the U.S. Constitution which I defend 
and uphold. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
were in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat other occupations have you engaged in, in addi- 
tion to these occupations which you have recited for the committee 
here today ? 

Mr. Torres. Could you read me back the ones I cited so I will Icnow 
which ones I did not cite ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1575 

Mr. Arens. "Well, you told about your longshoreman's activities, 
principally — or your maritime activity, I should say, principally. 
Have you had any occupations in the editorial field ? 

Mr. Torres. I have done a little free-lance writing. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about that ? 

Mr. Torres. Well, it was not very successful. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any other editorial occupations in which 
you have engaged ? 

Mr. Torres. I have written a little poetry. 

Mr. Arens. Anything else you have done in the editorial occupa- 
tion? 

Mr. Torres. Well, to the best of my recollection, that is about all 
the writing I have done. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been connected with Vanguard?* 

Mr. Torres, I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Was your memory just failing you there a few moments 
ago when I was asking you about your editorial occupations, or did 
you just not want to tell us about your connection with Vanguard? 

Mr. Scherer. He has a poor memory. He couldn't remember what 
the charges were arising out of which he said he was blacklisted. 

Mr. Arens. Were you editor of Vanguard ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a copy of Vanguard, wliich has as its 
masthead "The Marxist-Leninist Vanguard." "Without a Revolution- 
ary Theoiy There can be no Revolutionary Practice!" "Workere of 
the World Unite." 

Please look at that and tell us whether or not you were editor of that 
Communist publication. 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Torres Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. This particular issue, as you will observe, which was 
laid before you there, is relatively current. May I have it back, please ? 
This is the issue of October 1959, a short time ago. 

Have you been back to Puerto Rico since you left ? 

Mr. Torres. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Over how many times in the course of the last few years 
have you gone there ? Give us an idea. 

Mr. Torres. I have been there as a seaman in 1947 and I believe that 
was the last visit or— yes, 1947 or 1948, maybe. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about your activities in behalf of the 12 
who were in difficulty here at Foley Square some few years ago ? 

Mr. Torres. Twelve what? 

Mr. Arens. The 12 who were tried here at Foley Square some few 
years ago. 

Mr. Torres. Are you referring to the Communist leaders? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Can you tell us about your connection and activi- 
ties on their behalf? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question on the ground it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you now a thermof ax reproduction of an 
article in the Communist Daily Worker of June 22, 1949, entitled 

♦Official publication of the Provisional Organizing Committee. 



1576 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

"Form Maritime Body For Defense of '12'." The article states in 
part: 

A Maritime Committee for the Defense of the '12' has been organized * * *, 
it was announced yesterday. 

And you are among those listed who are participating in this move- 
ment. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or 
not the article refreshes your recollection with reference to your par- 
ticipation in behalf of the 12 Communists who were convicted here 
at Foley Square some few years ago. 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that on the grounds it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Torres Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Who was Al Lannon ? 

Mr. Torres. Is that a question? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that on the ground that it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. You were chairman of the committee to defend Al 
Lannon, were you not? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Lannon was chairman of the Maritime Commission of 
the Communist Party of America, was he not? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a thermofax copy of the West Coast 
paper of the Communist Party [Daily People's World, Dec. 18, 1951] 
in which it tells about your being chairman and your activities in be- 
half of the Maritime Labor Committee to Defend Al Lannon. 

Please look at that thermofax reproduction and tell the committee 
whether or not it refreshes your recollection with reference to your 
activities on his behalf. 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that on the grounds it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

(Dociunent marked "Torres Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Wliat have you done on behalf of the Communist Party 
south of the border? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that on the ground that it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a thermofax reproduction of an 
article in The Worker of April 27, 1952, telling about the activities 
of a number of people at a Western Hemisphere meeting held in Uru- 
guay that year, in which a number of people were participants, includ- 
ing Angel Torres. 

Tell this committee, were your activities in that meeting such that 
you have to invoke the fifth amendment to protect yourself against 
criminal prosecution ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Torres. Would you repeat the question ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1577 

Mr. Arens. Are you oblif^ed to protect yourself now by invoking 
tlie provisions of the fifth amendment against criminal indictment 
with reference to your activities in Uruguay ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Ton*es Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. What aliases have you used in the course of this career 
of yours over the world ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name Armando Marino ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you did use the name 
of Annando Marino in your acti\aties on behalf of this conspiratorial 
force known as the Communist Party. If that isn't true, deny it 
while you are under oath. 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever sign an article "A. Marino"? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
mcriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of a publication circulating among seamen 
entitled "Voice of the Membei-ship" ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Mr. Arens, Or a publication circulating among maritime people 
entitled "The Independent Caucus" ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the gromids it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. You were one of the sponsors of each of those publi- 
cations, were you not ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Both of those publications were Communist publica- 
tions, were they not ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. What has been your connection with a publication en- 
titled "Port-Light" ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a pliotostatic reproduction of a 
publication entitled "Port-Light," April 1959, and on the very mast- 
head appears this: "Issued by Communists on the Waterfront." 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee what has been 
your connection with this publication. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Torres Exhibit Xo. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Ml-. Arens. Do you presently have current information respectinir 
Communist activities, principally among the Puerto Rican nationality 



1578 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

group in the United States, in New York City, which you can now 
rehite to this Committee on Un-American Activities of the United 
States Congress so that this committee can report to the Congress 
those facts and help preserve this country against this conspiratorial 
force ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Torres. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness, 

Mr. Arens. Armando Roman, please come forward. 

Mr. Sciierer, Let me ask Mr. Arens a question. 

Am I correct that the definition of treason in the Constitution 
involves the giving of aid and comfort to the enemy in time of war ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. That refers, of course, to an actual shooting war ? 

Mr. Arens. I don't know that the actual definition of war has been 
construed by the courts. But it certainly is a fact to all those who 
know the nature and force of this Commmiist conspiracy that the 
Soviet empire, numbering 900 million they have in their grip, is at 
war with the world, with the United States as its principal target 
now. 

Mr. Scherer. It is what we refer to as a cold war. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And there has been no interpretation yet of that pro- 
vision of the Constitution, namely, that treason constitutes giving aid 
and comfort to an enemy, as applicable to a cold war ? 

Mr. Arens. I will have to confess I haven't pursued the cases on 
that, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Tuck. Will the witness be sworn ? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcominittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Roman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF AEMANDO ROMAN,* ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WERNER L. LOEB 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Roman. My name is Armando Roman. I live at No. 167 East 
Second Street in New York City. My occupation is food worker. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Roman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Roman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself. 

Mr. LoEB. Werner L. Loeb, 84 Main Street, Nyack, New York. 



♦Member of Provisional Organizing Committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1579 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Roman, before we proceed further, I would like to 
direct, your attention to a report of a nieetin<>;* held on November (>, 
1959, here in New York City, which this committee has by its investi- 
gative processes received from unimpeachable sources. 

I want to read you the essence of the report in so far as it is appli- 
cable to you. 

Armando Roman was the last speaker. He spoke on the Soviet Seven Year 
Plan. He predicted that in the Soviet Union there would soon be no difference 
between town and country and that the different "Republics" of the Soviet 
Union would mei-ge, Russian, Ukrainian, Turman, etc. And that soon the "Peo- 
ple's Democracies" of Eastern Europe would also merge with them. At the end 
of the Seven Year Plan, said Roman, Soviet production would match that of the 
U.S. At that time the Communists w^ould no longer be in favor of "Peaceful 
Co-Existence." After the Soviet Union overtakes the U.S. the Capitalist nations 
will commit suicide or otherwise fall into the hands of the workers. 

Now, sir, this has come to this Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties from an informant of unimpeachable integrity and reliability who 
was in attendance at that session. Please tell this committee, while you 
are under oath, whether or not the facts and words I just cited were in 
truth uttered by yourself on November 6, 1959. 

Mr. Roman. I w\ant to be permitted to say what I said at that time, 
and that Avill answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Roman. I said that the peoples of the Soviet Union, 87 nations 
and nationalities, have been welded together under the state of the 
working class in the Soviet Union, and they have forced unity and 
they are marching together. 

For mstance, the Soviet nationalities and nations that were very 
backward at one time now are an integral part of the Soviet state, 
respected as citizens, with full rights — economic, political, and other- 
wise — in contrast with my own country, Puerto Rico, w'hich is the 
most oppressed nation in the Western Hemisphere. The fact is that 
all Latin Americans exist as oppressed nations under the heel of 
American imperialism. That is one thing I said. Let me continue. 

I also said that, as a result of the attainment and achievement of the 
7-year plan, the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries would 
surpass the per capita production of all the capitalist world and that, 
as a result, the capitalist imperialists would have no recourse but die 
as a result of a war that they would start or explode as a result of eco- 
nomic pressure that would occur. 

I also said at that time w^hen I spoke there, and I am telling you 
what I said, I am not pulling any punches, I am responsible for what 
I say and I said it. I also said that the Latin American peoples have 
joined together with the whole colonial peoples of the world and re- 
fuse to be chattels any more for any imperialism, not even American 
imperialism. That I said. 

Mr. Arens. When you made that speech, were you then, on Novem- 
ber 6, 1959, a member of the Communist Party ? 

j\Ir. Roman. The first amendment of the American Constitution 
gives me the right to think, the right to free expression, the right to 
free association and, as such, I have a right to believe whatever I feel 
like. 



*0f the Provisional Organizing Committee. 
50974— 60— pt. 1 6 



1580 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

At tlie same time, because of the present persecution that exists, I 
will appeal to the fifth amendment as well. 

Mr. ScHERER. This Constitution which you now are invoking and 
which you talk so highly of is the very Constitution that you would 
destroy by a speech like that, the veiy speech you made. 

Do you know how much money the people of the United States liave 
taxed themselves in order to give to other peoples in the form of for- 
eign aid, mcluding the people of Puerto Rico and the people of South 
America ? 

Do you know how much we have taxed oui'selves in order to give of 
our substance to help these countries that you are talking about l>eing 
under the heel of American imperialism? I don't believe you even 
know. 

How much since 1945 have we given in foreign aid to South Ameri- 
can countries and to all of the countries of the world ? 

Mr. Roman. I will tell you, Mr. Chairman, how much help has been 
given. Latin America today, on direct investments alone, $11/2 billion 
are suctioned out of the people of South America. That is why you 
see the squalor and misery and that is what gives rise to the Nixon 
incidents south of the border. It is not the Communists. It is the 
imperialists. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the sources of your information. 

Mr. Roman. The peoples of Latin America. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the sources of your information. 

Mr. Roman. The sources of my information are the periodicals in 
Latin America, all over. 

Mr. Arens. What are your sources of information respecting the 
situation now in the Soviet Union, which you incorporated in your 
speech ? Tell us that, please. 

Mr. Roman. The sources of information? Your very Times, the 
Times of New York, publishes this thing eveiy day in the week. 

Mr. Arens. Have you any other sources of information respecting 
what is going on in the United States ? 

Mr. Roman. I gave you one source. I will give you the AVall Street 
Journal. 

Mr. Arens. Have you others ? 

Mr. Roman. Surely. I have the Soviet publications to read also. 

Mr. Arens. What publications do you read of the Soviets? 

]Mr. Roman. Whatever I can get my hands on. 

Mr. Arens. What are those ? 

Mr. Roman. I don't recall the titles. 

Mr. Arens. Do you read the Soviet publications that come into New 
York in the Spanish language ? 

Mr. Roman. I don't have to read it in Spanish language. It is 
chauvinism that you people have that you think I can't read any other 
language. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the publications that you read in the English 
language which emanate from the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Roman. I said I read the Times, any paper, including, yes, 
Soviet publications. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the names of the Soviet publications. 

Mr. Roman. I just told you, any publications. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of one ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1581 

Mr. Roman. Well, for instance, New Times ; that is one. 

Mr. Arens. What is another one that you read 'i 

Mr. Roman. I can't recall any other just now. 

Mr. Arens. Is New Times one of the sources of your information 
respecting what is going on in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Roman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other publications emanating from any 
Iron Curtain country which is a source of your information ^ 

Mr. Roman. I don't know what you call "Iron Curtain" country ; 
explain it to me. 

Mr. Arens. Any of the countries which are the captives of the 
Communist imperialism. Do you read any publications from 
Hungary ? 

Mr. Roman. Look, my country is captive. 

Mr. Arens. Do you read any publications from Hungary ? 

Mr. Roman. Latin America is captive nations. 

Mr, Arens. What is your country that is a captive ? 

Mr. Roman. Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Roman. I was born 7 years after the occupation. 

By the way, Mr. Committeeman said Puerto Rico was free. Puerto 
Rico w^as on the way to full freedom because they fought together 
with Cuba, and both of them were thrown back into slavery. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your study of what is going on in the Soviet 
empire, could you tell us whether or not Hungary is free ? 

Mr. Roman. Hungary is free, and my country is not, and Latin 
America is not. Just look 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say Hungary is free ? 

Mr. Roman. Hungary is free. And Cuba, you read in the Times 
the day before yesterday what was said about American imperialism. 

Mr. Arens. What is the source of your information that Hungary 
is free? 

Mr. Roman. My source of information ? What they are doing for 
themselves that I read over the American press. 

Mr. Arens. Is Hungary under any domination or control of the 
Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Roman. Not that I know of ; not at all. 

Mr. Arens. Is Czechoslovakia free ? 

Mr. Roman. Free, absolutely free. 

Mr. Arens. Is it under any domination of the Soviet empire? 

Mr. Roman. Not at all. 

Mr. Arens. Are the Baltic States ? 

Mr. Roman. No. But Ecuador, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, 
Colombia, all of these countries are under the heel. 

Mr. Arens. Is Poland free ? 

Mr. Roman. Not at all. Chile is. 

Mr. Arens. Is East Germany free of Soviet domination ? 

Mr. Roman. Free, absolutely. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you read East Germany was free of Soviet 
domination ? Did you read that in the New York Times ? 

Mr. Roman. Yes, I read it in the New York Times. I will tell you 
liow. The Soviet Union has receded all the way from Eastern Ger- 



1582 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

many, which the American imperialists have not done in Western 
Germany. 

Mr. Arens. Do they have slave labor camps in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. KoMAN. No, but I know this 

Mr. Arens. You know they do not have ? What is the source of your 
information? 

Mr. Roman. I do know this : 700 Puerto Rican kids were arrested 
only 3 weeks ago in New York, and you talk about labor camps. Don't 
talk to me about force and violence in this respect. I will recall to you 
the massacre of Puerto Ricans in 1935 at the University of Puerto 
Rico. I will recall to you the Sunday massacre of 1937, the Palm Sun- 
day massacre. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Communist Party advocate the use of force 
and violence ? 

Mr. Roman. It is the imperialists that use force and violence. Look 
what happened in 1936 in Morocco. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Communist Party advocate force and vio- 
lence ? 

Mr. Roman. The Algerian people called a march on Congress to 
petition, and what happened 'i De Gaulle shot down 24,000 Algerians, 
and when the Puerto Rican people are calling now in a Congress to 
petition in this Congress for a peaceful Congress for the 20th of No- 
vember, you call these meetings in order to squash that petition of 
freedom. 

Mr. Arens. Now please tell us does the Communist Party advocate 
the use of force and violence ? 

Mr. Roman. The Communist Party knows that the ones that use 
the force and violence are the imperialists, all the Communists of the 
world. 

Mr. Arens. Do the Communists use force and violence in Hungaiy ? 

Mr. Roman. I am telling you where they have been using force 
and violence, and threatening like they did, threatened Venezuela, 
when Nixon came in from Latin America. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, sir, did the Communist Party use force and 
violence in Hungary ? 

Mr. Roman. Tlie Communist Party was the victim of imperialist 
force and violence and Fascist force and violence in Hungary; yes, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us in view of all of the announcements you 
liave made what you and your associates are doing about the situation 
here in New York City ? 

Mr. Roman. I am telling you what we are doing. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to have you tell us what you are doing. 

Mr. RoaiAN. You should call to this committee Mr. Abe Stark, the 
president of the New York City Council. 

Mr. Arens. Let's start with you. 

Mr. Roman. I will tell you something. Only a week ago he pub- 
lished what you w^ould say came from Moscow, and what did he say ? 
He said the Puerto Ricans here, the Mexicans, the Negro, and the 
Indians are victimized all over the United States, and he also said the 
Puerto Ricans here in New York, being 10 percent, together with the 
Negroes, of the total population, have 40 percent of the debts. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1583 

Mr. ScnEREK. Wliy do you stay here ? AVliy don't you go over there 
where everything is perfect '? 

Mr. Roman. I bek)ng here. I am a worker. The American im- 
perialists got there. They didn't ask me. They didn't ask my fatlier. 
They threw him off the hind, together with thousands of Puerto 
Ricans, for the Southern Puerto Rican Sugar Company, for the 
Eastern Sugar Company. That is what the Cubans are protesting. 
That is what the Panamanians are doing also. 

Mr. Arens. Is your comitry Puerto Rico or the continental United 
States? 

Mr. Roman. My country is — I am right now an American worker 
because I came here from Puerto Rico when I was 15. But that is 
the country of my birth. I love that country as much as I love this 
one here. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you are doing here in New York City 
among the Puerto Rican groups ? Can you tell us ? 

Mr. Roman. Yes. I am telling you. 

Mr. Arens. First of all, tell us, if you please, what was the group 
before wdiich you made this address on November 6th ? 

Mr. Roman. That was a general group. Insofar as my activi- 
ties among the Puerto Ricans, I have more right to be among the 
Puerto Ricans than that lady over there. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of the group that you addressed on 
November 6, 1959 ? 

Mr. Roman. It is the people of New York that were called to that 
meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Where was the meeting held ? 

Mr. Roman. I don't know. Why don't jou ask the people who 
gave you that ? 

Mr. Arens. You were there, were you not ? 

Mr. Roman. Do you mean where it was held ? 

Mr, ScHERER. Just a minute. I ask that you direct this witness 
to answer the question where this meeting was held. 

Mr. TuoK. I order and direct you to answer where that meeting 
was held that you addressed and that you have been telling us so much 
about. 

Mr. Roman. I have answered all the questions I have been asked 
in a proper way. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee where the meeting was held. 

Mr. Roman. I am answering the question, Mr. Attorney, or what- 
ever it is. I say this : That this Congress is going through in Puerto 
Rico for independence despite the attempt to curtail it and intimi- 
date the people. 

Mr. Arens. Where was the meeting held on November 6, 1959? 

Mr. Roman. It was held — you have the leaflets. We spread them 
all over New York. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere was it held ? 

Mr. Roman. At East 7th Street in the City of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Under whose auspices was the meeting held ? 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment; due to the political 
climate that exists I have to appeal to the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. He cannot plead the fifth amendment. He has 
opened the door. He has waived the use of it. I ask that he be di- 



1584 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

rected to answer the question of under whose auspices that meeting 
was held. 

Let's apply some of these constitutional provisions and laws he 
has been talking about to this part here. 

Mr. KoMAN. Answering this question might tend to incriminate me, 
and I say I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. It is the desire and the purpose of this committee to 
protect all persons in their constitutional rights. In the opinion of 
the Chair you have opened up the subject and you have gone into it. 
You are not now entitled to rely upon the fifth amendment. You are, 
therefore, ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Roman. I have given my frank opinion of everything, of every- 
thing; and the question here will tend to incriminate me, because 
this is the purpose of saying that people like myself are enemies of 
the United States. It will incriminate me in that sense. 

Mr. ScHERER. What you said indicates that you are an enemy of 
the United States. 

Mr. Roman. You just said that the Puerto Ricans create the condi- 
tions here in the United States and blame imperialism. 

Mr. Tuck. Does the Chair understand that the witness refuses to 
answer the question as to the auspice-s under which this meeting was 
held? 

Mr. Roman. Yes. I reiterate. I base myself on the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. ScHERER. And for the purpose of this record, I submit he has 
waived, absolutely, any right to invoke the fifth amendment in refus- 
ing to answer that question. I think the record shows it. 

I think, Mr, Counsel, you should proceed further, make further in- 
quiry about that meeting. 

Mr. Arens. How many people were in attendance at that meeting ? 

Mr. Roman. We wanted to get as many people there as possible, 
to give them the truth of what is going on. And, yes, we made a 
special effort, you see, to bring this message to the workers in New 
York. 

Certainly my people, my oppressed people, they have to know, too. 
I don't care who says that we are infiltrated anywhere, because the 
ones that are infiltrating is somebody else that wants to keep the con- 
ditions of oppression of tlie Puerto Rican people and the Puerto Rican 
nation, as we are here in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Now will you answer how many people were at the 
meeting ? 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair directs and orders the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You say "we."' Who else was a participant in this be- 
sides yourself ? 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment, based on the possibilities 
of incrimination. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1585 

Mr, ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion as to who else participated with him in this meeting. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Roman. I still plead the fifth amendment, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make it clear to the audience when you were 
making your speech that you were speaking as a Communist, or did 
you hide that fact ? 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Roman, I plead the fifth amendment, Mr. Chaimian. 

Mr. SciiERER. Let me ask a question. 

Did you get any money from the Communist Party for making 
that speech ? 

Mr. Roman. Maybe people that go into the workers' organizations 
to spy get money and lots of it. Nobody gives me money for nothing. 
I have to sweat it, like the same as those I associate with. I am a 
worker. To tell you the truth, that is also why I am not afraid of 
you, either. 

Mr. Tuck. You still haven't answered the question. The question 
was, did you receive any money from the Communist organization 
for your services in making that speech. You can answer the ques- 
tion yes or no. 

Mr. Roman. I tliink I did answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you, or have you been, an instiTictor in the Faculty 
of Social Science ? 

Mr. Roman. I think I have the right to be a dishwasher, like I 
many times am, because of the darn colonial schooling that I got in 
Puerto Rico, 3i/^ yeare, that I told your committee in Washington. 
Fifty percent of the Puerto Rican children do not attend school. The 
other fifty percent, they have an educational life of 4 years of school- 
ing. I am that average. 

Mr. Arens. Do you tliink the Communist Party program is a solu- 
tion to the problems of the Puerto Ricans of New York City ? 

Mr. Roman. The workers themselves have to decide that, Mr. 
Chairman, or Mr. 

Mr. Arens. Are you advocating the Communist Party program as 
a solution to the problems of the Puerto Rican nationality group in 
New York City? 

Mr. Roman. I am advocating right now independence for Puerto 
Rico, that this committee doesn't want in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. I am on the record that any time the 
majority of the people of Puerto Rico want their independence, I am 
ready and willing to vote to give them their independence, the same as 
we gave independence to the Philippines when they wanted it. 

Mr. Roman. Isn't that the same as George V said in 1766, just 10 
years before the war broke out, about the American people ? Yes, it is 
the same thing. 

Mr. Scherer. You know that 80 percent of the Puerto Ricans do 
not want their independence. 



1586 COMMUlSriST activities among PUERTO RICANS 

Mr, EoMAN, Eveiy people wants their freedom. The American 
people wanted it and fought for it. The peoples of the world are 
fighting for it and they will get it, too, including Puerto Rico. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you telling me 

Mr. Roman. I am telling you. You don't know the Puerto Rican 
people. I do. 

Mr. ScHERER. I would be just as happy as I could possibly be to 
cast a vote to give Puerto Rico its independence. The fact is, I have 
been there and I have talked with the people, they do not want their 
independence. 

Mr. Roman. Yes, that is what th&y all say. In the meantime, you 
have that facade, which is a joke of freedom in this so-called free- 
state relationship, and besides that you have the so-called statehood 
party doing the dirty work, trying to give the impression that Puerto 
Rico could be a State. It could not be a State and you know it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Those are Puerto Ricans who are trying to give that 
impression that they want to be a State, aren't they? Some Puerto 
Ricans in good faith are advocating statehood, are tliey not ? 

Mr. Roman. No. That has been pushed from here. The so-called 
regime that exists today was proposed by Tugwell back in 1942, 

Mr. ScHERER. The truth is not in you. 

Mr. Arens. Did you equally advocate the freedom of the freedom 
fighters in Hungary when they were being mowed down by the Soviet 
tanks ? Were you for the freedom of the Hungarian freedom fighters ? 

Mr. Roman. I certainly was not. I certainly wouldn't have any- 
thing to do with that imperialist conspiracy to do away with the 
socialist state. I most certainly don't. I am for the freedom of the 
Cuban people, though, and the Algerian people and the African 
people. I say that frankly to you. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who isn't for them ? 

Mr. Roman. You aren't. 

Mr. Arbns, Would you kindly tell us whether or not you are an in- 
structor at the Faculty of Social Science here in New York City ? 

Mr, Roman, This so-called Faculty of Social Sciences went out of 
existence a long time ago. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been an instructor in that Faculty of Social 
Science ? 

Mr. Roman. I said before that the first amendment of the Consti- 
tution gives me the right to do this. At the same time I raise the 
fifth because I know the purpose. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. He said that the Faculty of Social 
Science went out of existence a long time ago. He waives his priv- 
ilege. He Imows about it. Therefore, if he Imows about the Faculty 
of Social Science, we want to know about it. I request that you 
direct the witness to answer Mr. Arens' question. 

Mr. Tuck, The witness is ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Roman. I got both questions in my mind very clearly, and still 
it is the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. In connection with the witness' refusal to answer the 
question, I would like the record to show his general demeanor, his 
defiance, his insolence. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1587 

Mr. Arens. Did you collect money for subscriptions to the Van- 
guard ? 

Mr. Roman. I claim the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Abens. I have here a copy of page 4 of the Vanguard of Febru- 
ary of this year, the column, "Letter to Our Readers." It states: 

"Subscribe now — Contribute now. The Vanguard. Make all 
checks and money orders payable to armando roman." 

Kindly look at that exhibit which is now being displayed to you and 
tell this committee whether or not it truthfully recites the facts with 
reference to solicitation by yourself of these checks for Vanguard. 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment. 

(Docmnent marked "Roman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Abens. Now will you kindly tell us whether or not you are 
accurately and truthfully described in the Communist Daily Worker 
of June 25, 1957, when they tell about a big rally to be held here in 
New York City? Among those who are going to participate is Ar- 
mando Roman, "a Puerto Rican Cbmmunist leader in New York 
City." 

Please look at that article as it is being displayed to you and tell 
this committee whether or not you are accurately and tinithfully 
characterized there. 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Roman Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness except this : Are you now, 
this instant, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Roman. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would respectfully suggest that will 
conclude the interrogation of witnesses for this afternoon. We have 
witnesses who are subpenaed today but whom we will be unable to 
reach. 

We just have three witnesses for tomorrow. We have told them 
that they will be interrogated tomorrow, so I respectfully suggest that 
all witnesses who have not signed their vouchers for the witness fees 
come forward, please. Mr. Lewis will take care of them. 

I respectfully suggest that will conclude our interrogation for this 
afternoon. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will stand in recess until ten o'clock in 
the morning. 

(Whereupon, at 4:35 p.m. Monday, November 16, 1959, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Tuesday November 17, 
1959.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of recess: Repre- 
sentatives Tuck and Scherer.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS IN 
NEW YORK CITY AND IN PUERTO RICO 

(New York City— Part 1) 



TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 17, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

New York, N.Y. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in Coui'troom 36, United States 
Courthouse, Foley Square, New York City, N.Y., Hon. Gordon H. 
Scherer, of Ohio presiding. 

Subcommittee member present : Representative Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
Williams and William Margetich, investigators; and Fulton Lewis 
III, research analyst. 

Also present: Donald F. Barnes, senior interpreter, United States 
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

JVIr. Scherer. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Call your first witness for this morning's session, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. William Lorenzo Patterson, please come forward and 
remain standing while the oath is administered to you. 

Mr. Patterson. Mr. Chairman, I will not take the oath, but I will 
affirm. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you raise your right hand, then ? 

Do you affirm that the statements you are about to give this commit- 
tee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the trutli, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Paiterson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM LORENZO PATTERSON 

Mr. Patterson. ]\Ir. Chairman, I ask you for a copy of the rule 
under which this committee was recreated. 

Mr. Arens. That is in all of our publications, Mr. Witness. 

Mr. Patterson. That is what I am asking for. 

Mr. Arens. Just have a seat, please, and identify yourself, if you 
please, by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Patterson. One second. I would like to look at the rules by 
which this committee was created before I enter into any of the pro- 
ceedings, if you don't mind. I thinl?; that privilege is mine. 

1589 



1590 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. ScHERER. The rules have been available for years, and if you 
wanted the rules you could have had them. If you want to object to 
any part of the procedure you can do so in a court. 

Mr. Patterson. I asked for a copy of the rules yesterday and did 
not get them. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Arens. Now pleas© identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Patterson. Just a second, if you will, please. 

Mr. Scherer. Is the witness a member of the bar ? 

Mr. Patterson. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. The witness has appeared before the committee before. 
He is thoroughly acquainted with the rules of the committee. 

Would you please identify yourself by name, residence, and occupa- 
tion? 

Mr. Patterson. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Scherer. Will you be seated and let's go ahead ? 

Mr. Patterson. I don't have to sit down, do I ? I can stand ? 

Mr. Scherer. You can stand if you want to. I direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Patterson. I want first, Mr. Chairman, if you will, to challenge 
this committee. The rules under which this committee was established 
firmly say that this committee has jurisdiction only in the United 
States. This committee that is sitting here has stated to the public 
that it is going to Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be admonished to restrain himself, to keep his voice down, and to 
proceed in an orderly manner. 

First respond to the question of identification. 

Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Patterson. Mr. Director, you don't have to teach me decorum. 
I think I have a 1 ittle court decorum. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. I have had enough out of you. You 
know the rules. You are a member of the bar. I am ashamed to say 
that you are a member of the bar. 

I direct you to answer. 

Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Patterson. I challenge the jurisdiction 

Mr. Arens. The next question is to please give your occupation. 

Mr. Scherer. You are directed to answer the question. 

Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is: Have you, in the course of tne 
recent past, made a trip to San Juan, Puerto Rico, on behalf of that 
conspiratorial organization known as the Communist Party? 

Mr. Patterson. Mr. Chairman, this committee is proceeding 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, so that this committee may assert itself 
and not be baited by known, identified Communists, 1 respectfully 
suggest that the witness now be admonished either to restrain himself 
and to comply with the rules of this committee, or to be excused from 
the witness stand. 

Mr. Scherer. I so admonish you, and I now direct you to answer 
the last question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1591 

Mr. Patterson. Mr. Chainnan, I want to first raise issues as to 
the record. 

Mr. ScuERER. You do not raise those here. You raise those in a 
court and you know it. 

Mr. Arens. This witness also knows the rules of the committee, that 
any legal matters of that character are to be presented to the com- 
mittee in writing in advance. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness again be admon- 
ished to answer the last outstanding question, namely, in the recent 
past did you, on behalf of that conspiratorial organization known as 
the Communist Party, make a trip to San Juan, Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is directed to answer the qestion. 

Mr. Patterson. As an American citizen, Mr. Chairman, I will not 
particij)ate 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

;Mr. Scherer. The marshal will ask the witness to leave the room, 
and I mean leave the room. 

Mr. iVRENs. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Richard Levins. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. Scherer. Will the witness raise his right hand ? 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give shall be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Levins. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EICHARD LEVINS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JACK B. WEINSTEIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Levins. I will answer this question, but by so doing and by an- 
swering any further questions put to me, I am not waiving any right 
now available to me under the Constitution, any statute, the rules^'of 
the House of Representatives, or the rules of this committee or sub- 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. We understand that. Proceed, please, and identify 
yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Levins. My name is Richard Levins. I reside at 45 Tieman 
Place in Manhattan. I am a graduate student of genetics. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you pursuing your studies ? 

Mr. Levins. Columbia University, Department of Zoology. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Levins. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

]\Ir. Levins. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Weinstein. My name is Jack B. Weinstein. My address is 
Kent Hall, the law school, Columbia University, New York 27, N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Levins, where and when were you born ? 

(Tlie Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 



1592 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Levins. I was bom in New York in 1930. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your preliminaiy edu- 
cation, 

Mr. Levins. Public school in Brooklyn, high school in Brooklyn, 
bachelor of arts deg-ree from Cornell L^niversity in 1951, and I am 
now pursuing graduate study. 

JNIr. Arens. After you received your bachelor of arts degree in 
1951, would you then tell us your principal vocation ? 
( The witness conferred with his comisel. ) 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer on each of the following grounds : 
One, my answer might tend to incriminate me ; two, the question vio- 
lates my rights under the first amendment; three, the question is 
not relevant to any question within the competency of this commit- 
tee; and four, this inquiry is being conducted in violation of the rules 
of the House of Representatives. 

Mr. Arens. Have you engaged in any principal vocation other 
than your studies at Columbia University since 1951, concerning 
which you can tell this committee without giving information that 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Levins. I i-efuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, since 1951, left the continental United 
States? 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in 1951, move to Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lived in Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Sciierer. Do you honestly feel that to answer the question as 
to whether or not you lived in Puerto Rico might lead to a criminal 
prosecution? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Levins. I i-ef use to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Scherer. The answer to that question, if you are properly in- 
voking the fifth amendment, should be "Yes." My question was 
whether you honestly believe that to answer the question as to whether 
you ever lived in Puerto Rico might lead to a criminal prosecution. I 
am merely trying to determine whether you are invoking the fifth 
amendment in good faith. 

You cannot invoke tlie fifth amendment to that question. Your 
answer must be either "Yes" or "No." 

(The witness conferred with this counsel.) 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Then I direct you to answer my question as to 
whether or not you honestly believe that to answer the question now 
pending would lead to a criminal prosecution. 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Levins, from investigative techniques of this com- 
mittee, it is the information of the committee that in 1951 you moved 
to Puerto Rico, where you engaged in Communist activities as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party for some several years, and that while 
there you were engaged in reproduction and production of Communist 
seditious literature which was disseminated in Puerto Rico. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1593 

Would you kindly accommodate this committee while you are under 
oath either by affirmin<? or denj'ing that assertion '( 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arens. It is the infonnation of this committee from its investi- 
gative techniques that in April of tliis year, as an operator of the (com- 
munist movement, you went again to Puerto Rico to confer w^ith 
Cesar Andreu Iglesias. While you are under oath, would you confirm 
or deny that infonnation ? 

Mr. Levins. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you leave the continental United States in April of 
this year? 

Mr. Le\ins. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arions. Do you know Cesar Andreu Ig^lesias ? 

Mr. Weinstein. Mr. Chairman, 1 must object 

Mr. Arens. Your sole and exclusive prerogative, as you know, un- 
der the rules of this committee, is to advise your client. 

Mr. Weinstein. May I address you ? 

Mr. Scherer. You may address the Chair through your witness, 
and if you want to have him ask a question or make an objection, you 
instruct your witness to do what you think he should do. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Levins. Mr. Chairman, I object to the continuation of this 
line of questioning in view^ of the fact that it has already been made 
clear that I am refusing to answer questions referring to the sub- 
ject here, and that the questioning is being continued only for pur- 
poses of punishment. 

Mr. Arens. We advise you, sir, that the sole and exclusive purpose 
of this line of questioning is for the purpose of attempting to elicit 
from you information which can be of service to your government in 
its attempts to protect itself against the international Communist 
conspiracy, which threatens freedom everywhere. 

Will you tell this committee, do you know a man by the name of 
Cesar Andreu Iglesias ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinstein. Mr. Chairman, I object to the staff director using 
the form of a question to introduce statements of opinion into the rec- 
ord. If he wishes to make statements, he may insert them directly 
into the record. 

Mr. Arens. As counsel knows, the conduct of this committee is not 
subject to counsel's control. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Levins. If this 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us whether or not you know 
Cesar Andreu Iglesias? 

Mr. Levins. Mr. Chairman, if this line of questioning continues, 
I will withdraw from the hearing on grounds that there is not a 
quorum present and it is not proceeding legall3^ 

Mr. Scherer. If you have any objections as to any of the proce- 
dures, they are properly made to a court. If you want to invoke the 
fifth amendment to any of the questions that are asked, you have a 
perfect right to do so. You have invoked the fifth amendment and 
we recognize your right to invoke the fifth amendment. 

But we are going to proceed to ask you the questions. 



1594 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Akens. "Would you kindly tell this committee whether or not 
you know Cesar Andreu Iglesias, of Puerto Rico? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Levins. On the basis of the previous grounds and the reasons 
I have already given, I am withdrawing from the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you some more questions. We have 
a number of items of information we want to elicit from you, sir, 
which we think are important to the legislative purposes of this com- 
mittee. 

In view, Mr. Chairman, of the fact that the witness has withdrawn, 
I am now precluded from asking a series of questions which I had 
intended. I said I intended, within the hearing of this witness while 
he was in the witness room, to undertake to elicit information from 
him respecting his active participation in the Communist conspira- 
torial operation, both in New York City and in San Juan, Puerto 
Rico; but because the witness has now absented himself, made him- 
self unavailable for the posing of these questions or the answering 
of these questions, I am precluded from continuing with the interro- 
gation. 

Mr. ScHERER. The record will so show. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that we call the 
next witness. 

Please come forward, Mr. Jose Santiago. 

Mr. Scherer. Will the witness be sworn ? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
shall be the truth, the whole tiiith, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Santiago. I do. 

TESTIMONY OY JOSE SANTIAGO,* ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WEENER L. LOEB 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. I could make an objection that there is no quorum of 
the committee, but I waive that objection. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation ? 

Mr. Santiago. Jose Santiago. I am a blacklisted diamond cutter. 

What is the other part of the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Your residence, please. 

Mr. Santiago. 1137 Ward Avenue, Bronx, New York. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Santiago, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Santiago. I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Santiago. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. LoEB. Werner L. Loeb, 84 Main Street, Nyack, N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born, and when, sir ? 

Mr. Santiago. I was born in a Latin American nation, for 16 years 
a captive nation under the heel of the most criminal and brutal im- 

*Member of Provisional Organizing Committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1595 

perialist American imperialists. In 1898, my country won an eco- 
nomic 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute, Witness. You are speaking about your 
country, but you still didn't tell us what the country is. 

Mr. Santia«o. The name of my country is a colonial way of life 
and I have to identify the country with the weaknesses. 

Mr. SciiERER. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. Puerto Rico, in 1898. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Santiago. I am a citizen of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Isn't the United States your counti-y ? 

Mr. Santiago. I am a Puerto Rican and I am an American. I am 
an American by an Act of Congress of 1917. I am an American be- 
cause for 33 years I have been working and exploited by the American 
bosses. That makes me a part of the American working part, for which 
I am very proud. 

In that sense, I consider myself an American, the type of American 
that are 

Mr. Arens. Before we go further, are you now a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Santiago. Do you see that woman over there and those two 
children ? She was asked the same question by the Immigration De- 
partment and she is about to be deported because she claimed her 
constitutional rights, because she claimed it was nobody's business 
to interfere, and she had a right to do so 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us, are you now a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Santiago. This woman is going to be deported and a home 
broken, with three American children. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I am answering the question, but I am answering 
it in the only manner I know how to answer it. 

Mr. Arens. You have not answered the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I am going to answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. You are directed to answer, and I will give you 30 
seconds to answer the question. Now, give an answer. 

Mr. Santiago. I think the United States should practice a little 
bit what they advise, and not tell people to be afraid of ideas. 

Mr. Scherer. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. The record is clear that you have not answered the 
preceding question. 

How long did you live in Puerto Rico before you came to the 
United States ? 

Mr. Santiago. I left Puerto Rico in, I think it was, 1926. I am 
not very sure. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lived in the United States continuously since 
you came here in 1926 ? 

Mr. Santiago. I lived in the United States continuously. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been back to Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Santiago. I went back to Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. When did you go back to Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Santiago. I went the first time in 1929. 

50974— 60— pt. 1 7 



1596 COMMUNIST ACTIVrriES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Abens. How many times, roughly speaking, have you been 
back there? 

Mr. Santiago. Well, I went the first time in 1929, the second time 
around 19 — I am not sure — 1932, I think. And I went again in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. And is that the last time you went back ? 

Mr. Santiago. No ; the last time I went back was 1949, I think. 

Mr. Arens. 1949 ? 

Mr. Santiago._ 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Since you arrived in the United States, in addition to 
the occupation which you described, I believe, as a diamond cutter, 
have you been engaged in any teaching work ? 

Mr. Santiago. Wliat type of teaching work ? 

Mr. Arens. Any teaching work of any character or description at 
any institution. 

Mr. Santiago. I have teached a lot of diamond cutters the trade. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been doing any teaching on the subject of 
the Puerto Eican nationality minority ? 

Mr. Santiago. In what manner? I can't get to the question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taught at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science ? 

Mr. Santiago. The school was closed many years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Did you teach at the Jefferson School of Social Science? 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question. Let's 
quit this sparring. Either answer or invoke the fifth amendment. 
You have a perfect right to do so if you want to. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. I decline to answer, invoking all my constitutional 
rights, especially the 

Mr. Scherer. I didn't hear the witness. 

Mr. Santiago. I decline to answer 

Mr. Scherer. Will you speak a little louder? I can't hear you. 
You were speaking a little louder before when you were makmg 
the speech. When you are invoking your constitutional rights, please 
speak up. 

Mr. Santiago. I decline to answer, claiming all my constitutional 
rights, especially the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. We display to you a thermofax copy of an article in 
the Communist Daily Worker of Wednesday, July 7, 1954, in which 
you are described as' one of the instructors at the Jefferson School of 
Social Science, teaching a course on "The Puerto Rican Nationality 
Minority." 

Kindly look at this article and tell the committee whether or not 
you are accurately characterized there as the instructor of that course 
at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 
(Tlie document was handed to the witness.) 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Can I make a request ? 

(Document marked "Santiago Exhibit No. 1, and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1597 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ask if you can make a request? Yes, you 
may make a request. 

Mr. Santiago. I would like to plead the fifth amendment on the 
question of "Are you a member of the Communist Party ?" 

Mr. ScHERER. The record will so indicate. I directed him to answer 
the question before, if you will recall, as to whether he was a member 
of the Communist Party, and he didn't answer. He now wants to 
invoke the fifth amendment to that question. 

Of course, the record will so indicate, that he has refused to answer 
on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. As to whether or not you are presently a member of 
the Communist Party, is that midei-stood ? 

Mr. Santiago. That is miderstood. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Guatemala ? 

Mr. LoEB. May I consult with him ? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

( The witness conferred with his comisel. ) 

Mr. Santiago. I never intended to refuse an answer to the question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Guatemala ? 

Mr. Santiago. Never, 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever made speeches on the subject of the 
Guatemalan story or addressed any groups or organizations on that 
subject? 

Mr. Santiago. The conditions of Guatemala are so similar to the 
conditions of Puerto Rico that no Puerto Rican that struggles for 
the independence of his country can ignore the Guatemalan question. 

Mr. AjtENS. Now please answer the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you feel that it is the Government of the United 
States that is preventing Puerto Rico from having its independence, 
or is it the fact that the majority of Puerto Ricans do not want inde- 
pendence ? 

Mr. Santiago. To accept the argument that the majority of the 
Puerto Ricans do not want independence is also to say that the Negro 
don't want integration because there is no integration, or to say that 
the Negro from the South has no political representation because 
there is no representation in Congress, and that they are satisfied with 
the representation on the thing as it is, I mean according to your logic. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is your argument with the people of Puerto Rico 
on the question of independence ? 

Mr. Santiago. The people of Puerto Rico want economic improve- 
ments, they want economic freedom. The Congress for Independence 
recognized that only through political freedom can economic freedom 
be achieved, that political freedom would give us the means to go into 
the national economy to fight the interests of the Puerto Rican people. 

Mr. Arens. Is the program of the Communist Party to the benefit 
of the Puerto Ricans ? 

Mr. Santiago. The Communist Party is part of the liberation move- 
ment in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. How do you know ? 

Mr. Santiago. How do I know ? By press reports. 

Mr. SciiERER. That is the most significant answer to come out of 
this hearine;. Let it stand. 



1598 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. We display to you, if you please, a tliermofax copy of 
an article from the Communist Daily Worker of April 23, 1954, 
in which you are listed as chairman of a Sunday forum, in Spanish 
or English, to be held at the Jeiferson School on the Guatemalan situ- 
ation — ^"The Guatemala Story." 

Kindly look at this article and tell the committee whether or not 
your participation in that enterprise at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science is accurately described. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. It is obvious now from his answer. Counsel, that this 
man, as a Coimnunist, is one of the agitators in the nationalist move- 
ment, like some of the others who have been here. The Communists 
are injecting themselves into Puerto Rican issues to start a pot of 
hatred boiling against the United States. 

This man is not basically an American or a Puerto Rican. He is 
basicoJly a Communist. 

Mr. Santiago. In spite of your argiunent, there is a concrete fact 
that I am a Puerto Rican, and as a Puerto Rican, I am concerned with 
the Puerto Rican, especially the fundamental problem of fighting for 
independence. 

The movement for independence is a democratic movement where 
all people gather. They speak democracy, not with one side of the 
mouth, and then stop it from the other side of the mouth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, in your program, advocate the use of force and 
violence ? 

Mr. Santiago. If you want to know about force and violence, recall 
the massacre of Puerto Rico, the Pahn Sunday massacre in Puerto 
Rico, recall the massacre at the university, the 18 American military 
interventions in Puerto Rico, the Little Rock situation, the lynchings 
in Mississippi. Then we can talk about violence. 

Mr. Arens. Please answer the question. You answered it on the 
other side of the coin. Tell us, do you advocate the employment of 
force and violence to attain your objectives? 

Mr. Santiago. The advocators of force and violence are tlie oppres- 
sors of my country, the ones that are keeping it, and I plead the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You plead the fiftli amendment to the question as to 
whether you advocate force and violence. Let's have the record clear. 

Ask the next question. 

Mr. Arens. I have the minutes — tlie report — made by a responsible 
person of integrity who attended a meeting* in which you were present 
on February 13, 1959, in New York City. The following was 
announced in the course of that session : 

In Puerto Rico, we have a battalion ready to so to Santo Domingo. But in 
New York we can not even get a battalion together to go liberate Puerto Rico. 

Do you have a recollection of those statements being made in a 
session in which you were present held in New York City on February 
13, 1959 ? 

Mr. Santiago. That is ridiculous. 

Mr. Scherer. He just said, "It is ridiculous." 

I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



*Of the Provisional Organizing Committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1599 

Mr. Santiago. I never make lliose i-einai-ks. 

Mr. ScHKRKK. Counsel did not ask you whether you made tliein. 

Mr. LoEB. Could we have a rlarilication ? 

Mr. SciiERER. Repeat so the record is clear. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Santiago. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you present in a session of your colleagues in 
New York City on February 18, 1959, when the statement which I 
just read to you was made by one of your associates ? 

Mr. Santiago. I don't — are you asking 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall a session in which you were present— 
a secret session, you thought it was secret anyway — held here in 
February of 1959? 

Mr. Santiago. I don't remember anybody making such remarks in 
any place. 

Mr. Arens. Were vou present in a secret session on February 13, 
1959 ? 

Mr. Santiago. 1959 ? 

Mr, Arens. February 13, 1959, here in New York City. 

Mr. Sciierer. Eead the statement again to him so there will be no 
question. 

Mr. Arens. A statement made by one of your colleagues in this meet- 
ing, which you thought was secret, was as follows : 

In Puerto Rico, we have a battalion ready to go to Santo Domingo. But in 
New York we can not even get a battalion together to go liberate Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Santiago. I never heard of any statement in any place. I don't 
recollect making 

Mr. Arens. Were you in a session of your colleagues in New York 
City on February 13, 1959 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. What is "colleagues"? What is my "colleagues"? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man whose last name is Garcia ? 

Mr. Santiago. Well, I know my brother-in-law by that name. 

Mr. Arens. Do you laiow a man by the name of Garcia who was in a 
meeting with you in February of 1959 ? 

Mr. Santiago. Well, I decline to answer that question, invoking the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in a session on February 13, 1959, in which 
Angel Torres participated ? 

Mr. Santiago. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the same session in February 1959 in which 
Armando Roman participated ? 

Mr. Scherer. Ask him, Coimsel, if he knows him. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Armando Roman ? 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. Let me have some water. 

Mr. Arens. Do you Iniow Armando Roman ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Santiago. I decline to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, I am sorry, but your voice is not carrymg. 

Mr. Santiago. I am sorry, Mr. Chairman. I say I decline to answer 
on the basis of the fifth amendment. 



1600 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting directives which a 
man by the name of Garcia brought from Puerto Eico to the Commu- 
nist nucleus here in New York City in February of 1959 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that in February of 1959, 
you and others in New York City assembled in what you thought was a 
secret session, at which time you received directives from the Com- 
munist conspiracy in San Juan, Puerto Rico, which directives included 
development of militant groups for the purpose of the employment of 
force and violence in Puerto Rico. 

If that is not a fact, deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Santiago, The force and violence in Puerto Rico comes out 
from imperialism. 

Mr. SciiERER. I can't hear you. 

Mr. Santiago. The force and violence in Puerto Rico comes from 
the oppressor nation. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are directed to answer the question. You are not 
answering the question. You are making a statement. 

The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I plead the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Santiago Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, presently, at this moment, have information 
respecting the current operations among the Puerto Rican colony in 
New York City of agents of the Communist conspiracy in Puerto Rico, 
which information you can, via this committee, supply to the Govern- 
ment of the United States ? 

Mr. Santiago. Is the committee saying that the Puerto Ricans are 
just a group of morons, waiting for anybody to whisper what they 
have to do ? 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. Would you mind repeating the question again? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Reporter, read the question to him. 

(The question was read b^^ the, reporter.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LoEB. Has the witness been directed to answer? 

Mr. Scherer. The witness was directed to answer that question. I 
so direct him again. 

Mr. Santiago. This Communist conspiracy is just a pure fabrica- 
tion. 

Mr. Scherer. I can't hear the witness. 

Mr. Santiago. I say that this so-called Communist conspiracy 
among the Puerto Ricans is a pure fabrication. Actually, to perse- 
cute the people that are there, to challenge the power of the oppres- 
sor — it is only the fact that so far they have succeeded in dividing 
the people. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness has been directed to answer. 

Mr. Santiago. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. In May of 1959 did you attend a session at 2061 Lex- 
ington Avenue, in New York City ? " 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1601 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read you an excerpt from a report from 
a reliable source of integrity respecting a statement you made in a 
secret session, or a session you thought was secret, at 2061 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City, in which a number of identified, hard-core 
Communists, including yourself, participated. I ask you to affirm or 
deny tliis statement : 

Santiago stated that the Puerto Rican Liberation Front had about 2,000 mem- 
bers and had a chapter in New York. * * * He calls for a united front of negro 
and white workers, and stated that the 3d Congress for Puerto Rican Inde- 
pendence would take place this Fall, and that unity of the Puerto Rican workers 
and peasant was developing and would lead to the same sort of success that 
has been gained in the Cuban Revolution. 

I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you made those statements in a 
session held on May 1, 1959, here in New York City, at 2061 Lexing- 
ton Avenue. If that is not a fact, if it varies from the truth in any 
manner, any particular, by direction or indirection, deny it while 
you are under oath. 

(The witness conferred wath his counsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. Will you repeat the question again, please? 

Mr. Arens. Would you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Santiago. I request a repetition of the question, please. 

I request the repetition of the question. 

Mr. Arens. Read the question, Mr. Reporter. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

Mr. Santiago. Before I answer the question, I believe in the unity 
of the Puerto Rican people to achieve independence 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is directed to answer. 

Witness, if you answer that question and tell us about this meet- 
ing, then I will let you make a speech for a half hour, but I don't 
think you are going to answer that question. I think you are going 
to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Santiago. I do invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I thought so. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to continue to read excerpts of the report 
from an unimpeachable source about the meeting of May 1, 1959, in 
New York City held at 2061 Lexington Avenue, in which you were in 
attendance. The report quotes you as saying : 

There are two things that are a cause for hope, the help of the Soviet Union 
for the colonial people, and the Cuban Revolution. * * * the Cuban Revolu- 
tionary Movement leaders did not heed the Communist warnings until late in the 
game, but when they did heed the Communists the 6000 members of the Popular 
Soocialist Party of Cuba provided the leadership for the final fight against 
BATISTA. 

Did you, sir, at that session, make that statement ? 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. There is a statement in the New York Times, a docu- 
ment of the Cuban Government to the United States. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, again I say if you answer the question I 
will let you make all the speeches you want, but now you are directed 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I feel that I am answering this question. 



1602 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. ScHERER. No, you are not answering the question. You 
answer the question first, and then you can make the speech. If you 
answer the question and do not invoke the fifth amendment, I will 
listen to you for a half hour. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you make tliat statement, sir, at that session, on 
May 1, 1959 ? 

Mr. Santiago. Well, I have the half hour. 

Mr. Areists. Please answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. You were here yesterday 

Mr. Arens. Please answer the question, sir. 

Mr. Santiago. And I am claiming 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you did make the 
statement. Now answer the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I plead the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Santiago Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information presently about the offer of 
participation by representatives of the Soviet Union in employment 
of force and violence in Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Santiago. We have seen plenty of force and violence in Puerto 
Rico on the part of the imperialists. We have seen plenty of it. The 
people are tired of it. They are beginning to realize, you know, that 
they have to fight for independence, the whole Latin Americans. 

Mr. Arens. They have realized what? 

Mr. Santiago. That they have to fight for their own liberation, 
their own independence. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say that they have to fight for independence ? 

Mr. Santiago. Tliey have to struggle for independence, achieve 
independence. 

Mr. Arens. Plow are they going to achieve it ? 

Mr. Scherer. This is typically a Communist line, the Communist 
program, the stirring up of animosities and hatreds by men like this. 

You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I am a man that works 6 days a week, 24 hours a 
day. 

Mr. Arens. How do you propose tliat they achieve this independ- 
ence? 

Mr. Santiago. I am not proposing. The people will determine how 
they will achieve it. 

Mr. Arens. Will they use force and violence ? 

Mr. Santiago. In tlie last instance, the imperialists will dictate 
the form. 

Mr. Arens. Will they use force and violence ? 

Mr. Santiago. They are trying to get it through legal means now, 
and they 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I invoke the fifth amendment on the question. 

Mr. Arens. What have you been doing from the standpoint of 
advocating the use of force and violence ? 

Mr. Santiago. Coming from the users of force and violence, it sur- 
prises me, because history is full of force and violence on the part of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1603 

American imperialism. There have been 18 American military inter- 
ventions in Latin America. There have been 171 acts of 

Mr. ScHERER. I am tired of these statements. Now let's answer the 
question. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Santiago. Speaking of violence, go to the Negro people, to 
the Latin American people, and they can answer the question on 
force and violence. 

Mr. ScHERER. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you, sir, the June 1959 issue 
of Vanguard. 

Mr. Santiago. They want to indict you by implication. 

Mr. Arens. Vanguard has as its masthead "The Marxist-Leninist 
Vanguard." "Witkout a Eevolutionary Theory There can be no 
Kevolutionary Practice!" "Workers of the World Unite." 

On page 2 of the June issue of the Vanguard, the following appears : 

The third strike was Jo Ann's choice of a man. She married Jose Santiago, a 
Puerto Rican Communist and a member of the POC, who has been a year's long 
participant in worlters struggles in New York and for the independence of Puerto 
Rico. He is the best known Puerto Rican Communist both in the United States 
and Latin America. 

Is that characterization of you in this issue of the June 1959 Van- 
guard true and correct ? 

Mr. Santiago. It is very important when you have the j)ower to 
indict by implication. It looks to me that I have a right to answer. 
Apparently the committee already expects the answer they anticipated. 
It is very difficult to give an answer because there is no right. 

We are supposed to give information, but we haven't the slightest 
right of debate, of projecting that information. If they are interested 
in information, there is plenty of information for decent legislation 
to improve the conditions of the Puerto Rican people. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santiago. I plead the fifth amendment. 

(Docimient marked "Santiago Exhibit No. 4" and retained in the 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is excused. 

The committee will recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken. ) 

Mr. Scherer. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Do you have any more witnesses, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr."^ Arens. That will conclude the staff interrogation here in New 
York City on this particular project, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. In concluding the hearings here in New York City, 
I should like to make a few comments. 

In the brief sampling which we have been able to make here there 
has been a verification and confirmation of information developed 
over the course of the last several months in our infomaal investiga- 
tions. Much of this verification and confirmation has come by in- 
direction from those witnesses w^ho in varying degrees have refused 
to answer questions posed by the committee. 

There are emerging in these hearings certain general patterns of 
Communist activity on which we hope to receive additional informa- 
tion in the course of the next few days during our continuation of 
these hearings in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 



1604 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

It is clear that the Communist conspiracy covets the Puerto Rican 
nationality group in New York City, and is attempting to develop 
alliances with Communists on the island of Puerto Rico in order to 
carry out the nefarious objectives of the conspiracy. 

After we have completed our hearings in San Juan, we will return 
to Washington with the information which has been developed and 
use it as part of the fund of knowledge which we are gaining to as- 
sist us in the discharge of our duties, which, under a mandate of the 
Congress, are in essence to maintain a continuing surveillance over 
the operation of our various security laws and to recommend, when 
necessary, amendments to those laws, or enactment of new laws. 

I should like to express the gratitude of the committee to all of the 
officials here who have cooperated with the committee, and particularly 
the United States marshal and his deputies. 

I cannot emphasize too strongly that the Puerto Ricans are fine, 
loyal Americans ; that we are not investigating Puerto Ricans or any 
group or political faction that may exist in Puerto Rico. What we 
are doing is showing that here in New York and in Puerto Rico there 
is a hard core of Communists who are neither loyal to the United 
States nor to the people of Puerto Rico, but are dedicated agents of 
the Soviet apparatus. 

They are surreptitiously injecting themselves into every activity, 
into every group, into every movement, wherever possible, for the pur- 
pose of stirring up dissension, hatred, and ill will toward the United 
States. These agents of the Kremlin have done it in Cuba, they are 
doing it in Panama, they are doing it in some of the countries in Latin 
America, and they are attempting to do it in Puerto Rico. 

This concludes the hearing. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :25 a.m. Tuesday, November 17, the subcommittee 
recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, November 18, 1959, 
in San Juan, Puerto Rico.) 

(Member of the subcommittee present at time of recess: Repre- 
sentative Scherer.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 



Page 

Acevedo, Ramon 1510, 1565-1567 (testimony) 

Agosto, Victor 1510, 1568-1569 (testimony) 

Audreu Iglesias, Cesar 1516. 1593, 1594 



Barnes, Donald F 1505, 1519, 1520-1526 (testimony) ; 1548, 1560 

Bart, Philip 1534 

Bianco, Stanley. {See Weiss, Stanley L.) 

Batista (Zaldivar Fulgencio) 1512, 1601 

Blauvelt, Mildred (also known as Mildred Brandt and Sylvia Vogel) __ 1506-1508, 

1526-1537 (testimony) ; 1544, 1555, 1564 
Brandt, Mildred. (See Blauvelt, Mildred.) 
Brockmau, Harry. (See Shapiro, Harry.) 
Buteneff, Sergei 1505, 1517-1519 (testimony), 1520, 1-526 

C 

Cardenas, Lazaro 1.522 

Churchill, Winston 1525 

Coe, Charles 1556 

Colon, Conchita (Mrs. Jesus Colon) 1.532 

Colon, Jesus 1507, 1508, 1517, 1530, 1532-1536, 1537-1548 (testimony) 

Corales, Juan Saez. {See Saez Corales, Juan.) 

Orenovich, Michael 1510,1569-1572 (testimony) 

Crocker, George N 1525 

Cuesta, Jose Enamorado. {See Enamorado Cuesta, Jose.) 

D 

de Gaulle (Charles) 1582 

de Leon, Margery 1507, 1.532 

Dennis, Eugene 1532 

Dodd, Bella (V.) 1556 

Dore, Carlos 1507, 1532, 1533 

E 

Eisenhower (Dwight D.) 1543 

Emmanuelli Morales, Juan 1546 

Enamorado Cuesta, Jose 1547 

F 
Fishman, Irving 1518, 1519, 1526 

G 

Garcia (Pelegrin) 1599, 1600 

Giboyeaux, Emilia (Mrs. Jose Giboyeaux) 1507,1532 

Giboyeaux, Jose 1507, 1532, 1534, 1535 

Gollobin, Ira 1537, 1565, 1568, 1569, 1572 

I 

Iglesias, Cesar Andreu. (-See Andreu Iglesias, Cesar.) 



ii INDEX 

J Page 

Jackson, Ada B 1530, 1531 

K 

Khrushchev, Nikita 1505, 1520-1525, 1535 

Kovago, Joseph 1525 

L 

Lannon, Al 1576 

Lasky, Caryll 1507, 1529, 1532 

Levins, Richard 1512, 1591-1594 (testimony) 

Loeb, Werner L 1548, 1557, 1560, 1578, 1594 

M 

Maleter, Pal 1525 

Marcantonio, Vito 1531 

Marino, Armando. (See Torres, Angel Rene.) 

Marshall, Charles 1507, 1533, 1534 

Maysonet-Hernandez, Jorge W 1.509, 1.560-1564 (testimony) 

Morales, Juan Emmanuelli. (See Emmanuelli Morales, Juan.) 

N 

Nagy, Imre 1525 

Nixon, (Richard M.) 1.580,1582 

Norman, William 1509, 1553-1557 (testimony) 

O 

Ojeda Ruiz, Felix 1.508, 1509, 1548-1553 (testimony) 

Osheroff, Abe 1507, 1530 

P 

Patterson, William Lorenzo 1512, 1547, 1589-1591 (testimony) 

Perloff, Ruth 1507, 1532 

R 

Regan, Charles 1509, 1555 

Rivera, Juan Santos. (See Santos Rivera, Juan.) 

Robeson, Paul 1521 

Roman, Armando 1511,1512,1578-1587 (testimony) ; 1599 

Roosevelt, Franklin D 1525 

Ruiz, Felix Ojeda. (See Ojeda Ruiz, Felix.) 

Russell, Bertrand 1522 

S 

Sacks, Beatrice 1507, 1529, 1531-1533 

Saez Corales, Juan 1546 

Santiago, Jo Ann (Mrs. Jose Santiago) 1603 

Santiago, Jose 1512, 1594-1603 (testimony) 

Santos Rivera, Juan 1516, 1546, 1547 

Schiller (Friedrich) 1521 

Schor, Eleanor Woolman 1.507, 1530 

Shapiro, Harry (alias Harry Brockman) 1507, 1532 

Stalin, Josef 1525 

Stark, Abe 1582 



Torres, Angel Rene (also known as Armando Marino) 1510, 

1546, 1572-1578 (testimony) ; 1599 

V 

Vedro, Carl 1507, 1531 

Vogel, Sylvia. {See Blauvelt, Mildred.) 

W 

Wallace, Henry (A.) 1530, 1531 

Weinstein, Jack B 1591 

Weiss, Stanley L. (also known as Stanley Bianco) 1509, 

1557-1559 (testimony) 



INDEX iii 

Organizations 

A 

Page 

All Union Central Council of Trade Unions, U.S.S.R 1522 

American Labor Party 1530, 

1531, 1533 

American Peace Crusade 1507, 1535 

American People's Congress and Exposition for Peace (June 29- 

July 1, 1951, Chicago) 1535 

C 

Central Council of Bulgarian Unions 1523 

Central Council of Soviet Unions. (See All Union Central Council of 
Trade Unions, U.S.S.R.) 

Civil Rights Congress 15.33 

Columbia University 1591 

Committee of Soviet Women 1522 

Communist Party, Puerto Rico 1516 

San Juan, Municipal Committee 1509, 1561 

Communist Party, U.S.A. : 

Executive Committee 1543 

Fifteenth National Convention, December 1950 1516 

National Maritime Commission 1576 

Sixteenth National Convention, February 1957, New York City__ 1510, 1569 
New York City Area: 
Kings County : 
Brooklvn : 

Boro Hall Section 1506, 1507, 1.527-1.534 

Jay-Smith Club 1.527 

Jay-Smith Club No. 1 1507, 1532, 1533, 1535 

Jay-Smith Club No. 2 1507, 1532, 1533, 1535 

La Pasionaria Club 1506-1.508, 1527-1529, 1531-1535 

County Committee 1507, 1529 

Executive Committee 1.507, 15,31 

Puerto Rican Section 1509, 1556 

F 
Faculty of Social Science 1508, 1510, 1545, 1570, 1571, 1585, 1586 

I 
International Workers Order : 

Cervantes Fraternal Society 1533, 1540 

National Board 1.533 

Puerto Rican branch 1507, 1508, 1531-1534 

J 

Jeffei-son School of Social Science 1596 

M 

Maritime Committee for the Defense of the "12" 1576 

Maritime Labor Committee To Defend Al Lannon 1576 

P 

Partisans of Peace 1550 

Provisional Organizing Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Communist 

Party (also known as POC) 1548, 

1560. 1565, 1568, 1572, 1575, 1578, 1579, 1594, 1598, 1603 
Puerto Rican Liberation Front 1512, 1601 

S 
Stockholm Peace Petition 1534 



iv INDEX 

U 

U.S. Government: 

Post Office Department 1508, 1540 

Treasury Department, Bureau of Customs 1505, 1517 

Union of Soviet Writers 1523 

W 

World Peace Council 1520 

Writers Union of the Soviet Union. {See Union of Soviet Writers.) 

Publications 

Ahora (newspaper) 1531, 1534 

Bulgarian Unions 1523 

Daily Worker 1517, 1534 

Independent Caucus, The 1511, 1577 

La Paz 1517 

Liberacion 1510,1570-1572 

New Times 1506, 1518, 1521, 1522, 1581 

Political Affairs 1516 

Port-Light 1510, 1577 

Pueblo 1508, 1509, 1517, 1544, 1546, 1549-1551 

Soviet Literature 1523, 1524 

Soviet Union (magazine) 1518, 1520 

Soviet Woman 1518, 1522 

Trlid (newspaper) 1521 

Vanguard - 1510, 1575, 1587 

Voice of the Membership 1511, 1577 

Woman in the Bulgarian Peoples Republic, The (pamphlet) 1523 

Worker, The - 1508, 1537, 1541, 1542 

World Youth News - 1518 

Youth of the World 1521 

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