(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Communist activities among Puerto Ricans in New York City and Puerto Rico. Hearings"

^Vf/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



lis Doc 2.791 



Committee on Un-American Activities 
House 
86th Conc^ress 



Table of Contents 

(Since these hearings are consecutively paged 
they are arranged by page number, instead of 
alphabetically by title) 



1. American National Exhibition, Moscow, ■^/t/6> 
July 1959 

2. Communist Training Operations, pt.l Vu < 

5. Testimony of Clinton Edward Jencks ^H^. 

^4-. Testimony of Arnold Johnson, Legislative -^iui 
Director of the Communist Party, U.S.A. 



5-7. Western Section of the Southern California 
District of the Communist Party, pt.1-5 



V'->- 



I. Issues Presented by Air Reserve Center ^iu> 
Training Manual 



9-10. Communist Training Operations, pt. 2-5 

11-12. Communist Activities Among P\ierto Ricans in 
New York City and Puerto Rico, pt.1-2 



^»v6 






OS Doc iM^\ 
COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS IN 
NEW YORK CITY AND PUERTO RICO 

(SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO— Part 2) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE or REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



NOVEMBER 18, 19, AND 20, 1959 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



MAY 25 1960 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1960 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 (NEW YORK CITY, N.Y.) P«g« 

Synopsis 1505 

November 16, 1959: 
Testimony of — 

Sergei ButenefT , 1517 

Donald F. Barnes 1520 

Mildred Blauvelt 1526 

Jesus Colon 1537 

Afternoon session — 

Felix Ojeda Ruiz .- 1548 

William Norman 1553 

Stanlej^ L. Weiss 155'* 

Jorge W. Maysonet-Hernandez 1560 

Ramon Acevedo 1565 

Victor Agosto 1568 

Michael Crenovich 1569 

Angel Rene Torres 1572 

Armando Roman 1578 

November 17, 1959: 
Testimony of — 

William Lorenzo Patterson 1589 

Richard Levins 1591 

Jose Santiago 1594 

Index i 

PART 2 (SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO) 

Synopsis 1605 

November 18, 1959: 

Testimony of — 

Irving Fishman, Eleanor Suske, and John Pelaez 1618 

Afternoon session — 

Restituto Ortiz 1635 

Jose Enamorado Cuesta 1638 

Manuel Arroyo Zeppenfeldt 1655 

November 19, 1959: 

Testimony of — 

Juan Saez Corales 1662 

Mildred Blauvelt 1668 

Afternoon session — 

Juan Emmanuelli Morales 1677 

George C. Williams.- 1678 

Juan Emmanuelli Morales (resumed) 1682 

Gertrudis Melendez Perez 1684 

Consuelo Burgos De Pagan 1687 

Pablo M. Garcia Rodriguez 1690 

Cesar Andreu Iglesias 1695 

Ramon Diaz Cruz 1697 

John Peter Hawes 1700 

Frank Ruiz 1703 

November 20, 1959: 

Testimony of — 

Juan Santos Rivera 1707 

Diego L. Martin, Jr 1714 

Cristino Perez Mendez I7l5 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Qn-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House oS Representatives of thi United States 
oj America in Congress assembled, * * ♦ 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

BEC. 121, STANDINO COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
Rule XI 

POWEBS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

t ***** * 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
tlie principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. , ^ xu 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
t;ation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

• *♦♦•♦• 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BT STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
ti<ni of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

♦ *♦♦*♦♦ 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

*****«♦ 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

* POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans in New York City 
AND Puerto Rico 

(San Juan, Puerto Rico — Part 2) 

Public hearings on Communist activities among Puerto Rican na- 
tionality groups in New York City and in Puerto Rico were held 
in New York Citv on November 16 and 17/ and in San Juan, Puerto 
Rico, on November 18, 19, and 20, 1959. 

In opening the hearings in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Congressman 
William M. Tuck, chairman of the subcommittee which conducted 
the hearings, stated : 

This subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities has come to Puerto Rico to discharge a duty im- 
posed by the United States Congress, namely, to develop 
factual information for the Congress in its endeavors to cope 
with the Communist conspiracy. We come here as friends 
in an enterprise which ought to be the concern of all freedom- 
loving people everywhere irrespective of wherever they may 
reside. 

From past experience we know that the Communist propa- 
gandists will attempt to pervert the purpose of these hear- 
ings into an investigation of Puerto Ricans. We are not 
investigating Puerto Ricans as Puerto Ricans. We are pur- 
suing the trail of the few dangerous Communists who are 
part and parcel of a world conspiracy which would destroy 
freedom. 

One of the most insidious aspects of communism is its de- 
ceit. It pretends to be the friend of the workingman but 
where it has seized power the workingman is crushed under 
its despotic heel. He finds himself regimented and dis- 
ciplined. He may find himself in a slave labor camp. It pre- 
tends to seek peace and yet it is at war with free people 
everywhere. Communism masquerades behind a facade of 
humanitarianism but it has caused more bloodshed and 
misery than any other force in the history of civilization. 

The strength of the Communist operation in any area is 
not in proportion to its numbers. A conspiratorial force 
may actually weaken itself when it increases its size. It 
takes only one or two holes in a ship to sink it. It, likewise, 
takes only a few trained, disciplined zealots to undermine 
and weaken a nation or a free society. 

Irving Fishman, Deputy Collector of Customs at the port of New 
York, accompanied by his administrative assistant. Miss Eleanor 

1 See "Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans in New York City and Puerto Rico" 
<New York City, Part 1). 

1605 



1606 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Suske, and by John Pelaez of the office of the Collector of Customs 
at New York, testified that pursuant to a request by the chairman of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, the Customs Service made 
a detailed study of Communist propaganda coming into Puerto Rico, 
both for in-transit purposes, that is, for dissemination elsewhere, and 
for the purpose of dissemination in Puerto Rico. Mr. Fishman dis- 
played to the subcommittee numerous Communist propaganda pub- 
lications in Spanish which had been sent to Puerto Rico either for 
dissemination there or in transit for other Spanish-speaking coun- 
tries of the Western Hemisphere. 
Mr. Fishman stated : 

From an examination of this material, we have gathered 
that current plans are to increase the publishing and print- 
ing of all types of propaganda materials in the Spanish 
language and to send millions of these publications into 
South America and the Caribbean area. 

The current propaganda apparatus is directing a con- 
centrated attempt to subvert South American governments 
and secure Communist victories in these areas. The main 
theme of the material issued is anti-United States. This 
stepped-up drive is reported to involve a cost of over $100 
million. 

Mr. Fishman characterized Puerto Rico as "a nerve center for the 
transhipment or dissemination of Communist propaganda in the 
Spanish language to South American countries." 

Restitute Ortiz, an mspector at the United States Customs Office 
in San Juan, testified that he recently inspected certain property 
which was being brought into San Juan by Jose Enamorado Cuesta,. 
who was returning to Puerto Rico from Europe. He identified as 
part of tliis property, the custody of which he had transferred to the 
committee pursuant to a subpena, a number of Communist propa- 
ganda publications, diary of Jose Enamorado Cuesta, and the minuteS' 
of a meeting in Moscow in which was formed a new international 
organization, the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Co- 
operation With the Countries of Latin America. 

Jose Enamorado Cuesta appeared in response to a subpena. There 
was displayed to Mr. Enamorado Cuesta his diary, handwritten in 
Spanish, which had been taken from him at the time of his return to 
Puerto Rico from Europe, and Mr. Enamorado Cuesta was asked a 
number of questions respecting a series of entries in the diary. These 
entries included an account of a recent trip by him in which he was in 
Communist sessions in Paris, Stockholm, ELelsinki, various cities in 
Soviet Russia, and in London. 

There was likewise displayed to Mr. Enamorado Cuesta the min- 
utes, which had been taken from him at the time of his return to 
Puerto Rico from Europe, of a meeting in Moscow in which was 
formed the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Coopera- 
tion With the Countries of Latin America, and Mr. Enamorado 
Cuesta was asked a number of questions based on the minutes which 
reflected that the purpose of the association was the Communist 



COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES AMOXG PUERTO RICANS 1607 

penetration of the Spanish-speaking countries of the Western 
Hemisphere. 

Speaking through an interpreter, Mr. Enamorado Cuesta refused 
to answer all the foregoing questions, alleging that the committee 
had no jurisdiction in Puerto Rico. He likewise refused to answer 
-whether he was at the time of the hearing a member of the Commu- 
nist Party and questions respecting his current activities. 

Manuel Arroyo Zeppenfeldt appeared in response to a subpena and, 
testifying through an interpreter, identified himself as a commission 
agent. Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt's attention w^as directed to certain 
.entries made in the diary of Jose Enamorado Cuesta indicating that 
during Mr, Enamorado Cuesta's recent trip to Moscow he had been 
in frequent correspondence, exchanging information with "Manuel 
Arroyo." Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt was asked if he had been in con- 
tact with Mr. Enamorado Cuesta during the latter's recent trip to 
Moscow, but he refused to answer alleging that the committee had no 
jurisdiction in Puerto Eico. 

There was displayed to Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt a copy of Pueblo^ 
:and he was asked if he was the printer, publisher, or producer of the 
publication. ]\Ir. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt refused to answer the question 
and also the question as to whether he w^as, at the time of the hearing, 
^ member of the Communist Party, alleging that the committee had 
no jurisdiction in Puerto Rico. 

Juan Saez Corales appeared in response to a subpena and, testify- 
ing through an interpreter, identified himself as a salesman of office 
equipment and conunercial machinery. There was displayed to Mr. 
Saez Corales a copy of an application filed by him for a post office 
l>ox, pursuant to which a specific box number W' as issued to him. Mr. 
Saez Corales w^as questioned respecting a number of messages re- 
•ceived by him via the post office box from Communist functionaries in 
New York City, Bucharest, Buenos Aires, and Vera Cruz, Mexico. He 
was likewise questioned by the committee respecting a number of 
Communist publications sent to him via said box. Mr. Saez Corales 
refused to answer all of the questions of the committee alleging that 
the committee had no jurisdiction in Puerto Rico. 

Detective Mildred Blauvelt, of the Bureau of Special Services of 
the New York City Police Department, testified respecting her prior 
service as an undercover agent of the New York Police Department 
in the Communist Party, in which she acquired vital information re- 
specting Communist activities among Puerto Ricans. Her testimony 
in the instant hearings was based not only on her one-time service 
as an undercover agent in the Communist Party (until November of 
1951) but also on extensive experience as a student of the Communist 
conspiracy. 

Detective Blauvelt explained the function and objective of each of 
several Communist propaganda publications which were in circula- 
tion in Puerto Rico. Based upon her extensive background and 
experience. Detective Blauvelt warned that the Soviet Association of 
Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With the Countries of Latin 
America "is meant to be a party front propaganda organization dom- 
inated by Moscow and is meant to be a link between the party and 
the people of Latin America." 



1608 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Detective Blauvelt discussed the pattern of operation which could 
be expected to be followed by this new organization in the further- 
ance of Moscow's designs on Latin America. She stated: 

For instance, such an organization would have to be broad 
enough in scope to appeal to the masses to meet with any 
degree of success, and the party apparatus would be put into 
motion to achieve that success. National organizations 
would have to be established in each country to be involved, 
and branches would have to be established in various sections 
of these countries, particularly in large cities. 

Individuals other than party members would be invited to 
head this organization at its various levels for the purpose 
of giving this organization the aura of legitimacy and re- 
spectability, and well-meaning individuals who are well 
known to the public at large would be solicited to lend their 
endorsement, tlieir support, aiid sponsorship to such an or- 
ganization to add to the prestige of the organization. 

However, in all of this, the party would see that its party 
members who are well versed in party organizational work 
would be placed in the executive positions in this organiza- 
tion, so that the organization would have the proper guidance 
to follow the party line and thus guarantee that party poli- 
cies were being carried out within the organization and that 
its activities reflected party propaganda. 

Continuing, Detective Blauvelt said : 

The branches which this organization would necessarily 
have to establish in the various parts of the country might 
appear to be autonomous in their particular area, but they 
would be subject to the control of the national organization, 
and they would have to receive their directives, obey and fol- 
low the directives from the national body, make their reports 
to the national body, and even remit a certain percentage of 
any money which they collected on behalf of this front or- 
ganization. 

In order to launch this organization properly, it would 
have to be brought to the attention of the public, and this 
would be done either through the Communist press, itself, 
or through those publications which have a very liberal view- 
point, or even in any other paper which is willing to accept 
their material. 

Communist Party members would be mobilized to distrib- 
ute leaflets which would be in advertisement of such an or- 
ganization. The organization itself would issue a pamphlet 
explaining its policies. Now, of course, all press releases, 
all leaflets, all pamphlets, would describe the organization in 
the broadest terms of the peoples' desire for friendship and 
cultural relationships with the Soviet Union. 

Juan Emmanuelli Morales appeared in response to a subpena. Mr. 
Emmanuelli Morales was asked a series of questions respecting his 
recent voluntary appearance at the offices of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities in Washington, D.C., in which he offered himself 
as a friendly witness to testify in the instant hearings respecting the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1G09 

activities of a number of people Iviiowii by him to be nieml)er.s of the 
Communist Party. In the instant hearinj^s, however, Mr. Emmanuelli 
Morales refused to answer all questions on the ground that the com- 
mittee had no jurisdiction in Puerto Pico. Mr. Eimnanuelli Morales 
was asked a series of questions in an attempt to elicit from him the 
reasons for his change in position in regard to his testimony, but 
he persisted in his refusal to answer the questions. 

George C. Williams, an investigator of the committee, testified that 
Juan Emmanuelli Morales voluntarily appeared at the offices of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities in Washington, D.C., a few 
days prior to the instant hearings and that during the ensuing inter- 
view Mr. Emmanuelli Morales stated that he had been a member of 
the Communist Party working among Puerto Picans in Xew York 
City mitil 1949 or 1950, when he returned to Puerto Kico where he 
joined the Communist Party of Puerto Kico, in wdiich he served until 
1953. Mr. Williams further testified that among the persons whom 
Mr. Emmanuelli Morales identified in the interview as members of 
the Communist Party was Gertrudis Melendez Perez. Mr. Emmanu- 
elli Morales agreed, during the interview, to a subsequent meeting 
wdth Mr. Williams in Puerto Rico in advance of the instant hearings 
in order to discuss further the testimony which he expected to give; 
and although Mr. Williams made several attempts to reach Mr. 
Emmanuelli Morales to conduct the interview in Puerto Rico, he 
was unable to make contact with him. 

Gertrudis Melendez Perez appeared in response to a subpena and, 
testifying through an interpreter, stated that her occupation was a 
domestic employee. Her attention was directed in the interrogation 
to the fact that Juan Emmanuelli Morales had identified her in an 
intei^view as a member of the Communist Party, but Miss Melendez 
Perez refused to comment when asked if Mr. Emmanuelli ]\Iorales' 
identification was true. She likewise refused to answer whether she 
was, at the time of the hearing, a member of the Communist Party 
and to acknowledge authorship of certain articles appearing with her 
byline in Pueblo^ alleging that the committee had no jurisdiction to 
hold the investigation. 

Consuelo Burgos De Pagan appeared in response to a subpena and 
stated that she was a lawyer admitted to practice in Puerto Rico. 
There was displayed to the witness a series of articles appearing in 
Commimist publications during the last several years in which she 
w^as identified as educational director of the Puerto Rican Commu- 
nist Party and in which were set forth a number of Communist activ- 
ities by her. In response to all questions, including the question as 
to whether she was, at the time of the hearing, a member of the Com- 
munist Party, Mrs. Burgos De Pagan refused to answer alleging 
that the committee had no jurisdiction to conduct the investigation. 

Pablo M. Garcia Rodriguez appeared in response to a subpena and 
identified liimself as an attorney living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 
There were displayed to Mr. Garcia Rodriguez articles from the 
Communist Daily Worker bearing his byline and identifying him as 
a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, but 
Mr. Garcia Rodriguez refused to answer questions respecting his 
activities or meml>ership in the Communist Party, alleging that the 
committee did not have jurisdiction to conduct the investigation. 



1610 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Cesar Andreu Iglesias appeared in response to a subpena and, testi- 
f j^ing through an interpreter, stated that he was a writer by profes- 
sion. There were disphiyed to Mr. Andreu Iglesias articles bearing 
his byline in the Communist Daily Worker, but Mr. Andreu Iglesias 
refused to answer questions respecting the articles, whether he was at 
the time of the hearing a member of the Communist Party, or with 
respect to contacts by him with the high echelon of the Connnunist 
Party in New York City, alleging that the committee did not have 
jurisdiction to conduct the investigation. 

Ramon Diaz Cruz appeared in response to a subpena and, testifying 
through an interpreter, stated that his principal occupation is "to 
struggle for the independence of Puerto Rico, for the welfare of the 
working class, and for world peace." The attention of Mr. Diaz Cruz 
was directed tx) an article from Pueblo in which he is identified as the 
editor of a publication entitled "La Paz." Mr, Diaz Cruz refused to 
answer questions respecting his identification as editor or director of 
La Paz, whether he was at the time of the hearing a member of the 
Communist Party, and whether, as indicated in an article appearing 
in Pueblo^ he attended the World Peace Congress in Stockholm, 
Sweden, alleging that the committee did not have jurisdiction to 
conduct the investigation. 

John Peter Hawes appeared in response to a subpena and stated 
that his occupation was a builder of musical instruments. Mr. Hawes' 
attention was directed to a bulletin of the Samuel Adams School for 
Social Studies, in which he was listed as a onetime lecturer on Latin 
American affairs. Mr. Hawes' attention was also directed to the 
report made to the committee by former F.B.I, undercover agent Her- 
bert Philbrick that he knew Hawes as a member of the white collar 
professional group of the Communist Party in Boston, Massachusetts. 
Mr. Hawes refused to answer all questions, including the question as 
to whether or not he waSj at the time of the hearing, a member of the 
Communist Party, allegmg that the committee had no jurisdiction 
to conduct the investigation. 

Frank Ruiz appeared in response to a subpena and, testifying 
through an interpreter, stated that he was secretary-treasurer of the 
Packinghouse Workers Union, AFL-CIO. In response to the ques- 
tion as to whether he was, at the time of the hearing, a member of 
the Communist Party, Mr. Ruiz refused to answer, alleging that the 
committee lacked jurisdiction to conduct the investigation in Puerto 
Rico. 

Juan Santos Rivera appeared in response to a subpena and, testify- 
ing through an interpreter, stated that he was a carpenter by occu- 
pation. Mr. Santos Rivera's attention was directed to a number of 
Communist publications in which he was identified as delegate from 
Puerto Rico to the Communist International in the Soviet Union, 
where he remained for almost 2 years; as chairman of the Communist 
Party of Puerto Rico; and as the current president of the Central 
Committee of the Puerto Rican Communist Party. 

There were likewise displayed to Mr. Santos Rivera copies of 
articles authored by him in Communist publications attacking the 
Government of the United States and propagating the Communist 
Party line. In response to all questions, however, Mr. Santos Rivera 
refused to answer, alleging that the committee had no jurisdiction 
to conduct the investigation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1611 

Diego L. Martin, Jr., a Deputy United States Marshal in Puerto 
Rico, testified that there were transmitted to him by the Committee 
on Un- American Activities a number of subpenas, commanding the 
appearance of persons in the instant hearings; that included in the 
subpenas to be served were subpenas for Eugenio Arbona Cuevas, 
Ramon Mirabal Carrion, and Juan A. Corretjer; that from confiden- 
tial sources of information he learned that Juan Antonio Corretjer 
had gone first to Venezuela and later to Cuba ; that Eugenio Arbona 
Cuevas and Ramon Mirabal Carrion had gone to Cuba; but that all 
three were nevertheless residents of Puerto Rico. 

Cristino Perez Mendez appeared in response to a subpena and, testi- 
tying through an interpreter, stated that his occupation was a car- 
penter. Mr. Perez Mendez was informed by the committee that it was 
tlie committee's information that he is part of the group of 12 activists 
of the Communist conspiracy in Puerto Rico of the more fanatical 
fringe, who are dedicated to pursuing a course of activity, with no 
restraint whatsoever, in accordance with any directive received. Mr. 
Perez Mendez was then asked a series of questions respecting his ac- 
tivities and whether he was, at the instant of the hearings, a member 
of the Communist Party. In response to all questions, however, Mr. 
Perez ]\Iendez refused to answer, alleging that the committee had no 
jurisdiction to conduct hearings in Puerto Rico. 

CONCLUSION 

The evidence is clear that the international Communist conspiracy 
is intensifying its efforts to penetrate Puerto Rican nationality groups 
in New York City and Puerto Ricans on the island of Puerto Rico. 
This operation is one maneuver in a master campaign to further Com- 
munist objectives among Spanish-speaking peoples in the Western 
Hemisphere. The artillery in this campaign, involving an estimated 
expenditure of $100 million, is Communist Spanish-language propa- 
ganda which is being disseminated, with Puerto Rico as a nerve center 
for its dissemination. 

It is likewise clear from the evidence that the Soviet Association of 
Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With the Countries of Latin 
America is a new international Communist front created and con- 
trolled by the Kremlin as a vehicle for accomplishing its objectives in 
Latin America. While the association masquerades behind the facade 
of "cultural cooperation," it is designed by the Kremlin to extend 
Commimist influence into every fabric of Latin America. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS IN 
NEW YORK CITY AND PUERTO RICO 

(San Juan, Puerto Rico — Part 2) 



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 18, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

San Juan^ Puerto Rico. 

public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a. m. in the U.S. Courthouse, San Juan, 
Puerto Rico, Hon. William M. Tuck (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives William M. Tuck, of 
Virginia, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
Williams and William Margetich, investigators; and Fulton Lewis 
III, research analyst. 

Also present: Donald F. Barnes, senior interpreter, U.S. Depart- 
ment of State, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Comisel, let there be incorporated in the body of the record the 
resolution of the Committee on Un-American Activities authorizing 
and directing the holding of the instant hearings in San Juan. 

(The resolution referred to follows :) 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities or a subcommittee thereof, to be held in Puerto Rico, in New York City, and 
elsewhere as the Chairman may direct, on such date or dates as the Chairman 
may determine, be authorized and approved, including the conduct of investiga- 
tions deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, relating 
to the following matters and having the legislative purposes indicated : 

1. Entry and dissemination in Puerto Rico of foreign Communist Party propa- 
ganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the necessity for, and advisa- 
bility of amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act designed more 
effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices now used in avoiding 
the prohibitions of the Act. 

2. Receipt of information relating to persons engaged in foreign travel, the 
legislative purpose being : 

(a) Committee consideration of amendments to Sec. 21.5 of the Immigration 
and Nationality Act as contained in Title IX — Immigration and Passport Secu- 
rity — of H.R. 2232, introduced on January 12, 1959, and referred by the House 
of Representatives to the Committee on Un-American Activities ; 

1613 



1614 COMMUNIST ACTWITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

(b) Consideration of legislative recommendations expressing the will andl 
intent of Congress spelled out in direct and positive form, granting authority 
to the Secretary of State to issue, withhold, or limit passports for international 
travel of adherents to the Communist Party, and the granting of specific statutory 
authority, to the Secretary of State to issue substantive regulations in the pass- 
port field, as set forth in the annual reports of the Committee on Un-Americani 
Activities for the years 1956-1958. 

3. The extent, character and objects of Communist infiltration and Communist 
Party propaganda activities in Puerto Rico, the legislative purpose being to add 
to the Committee's overall knowledge on the subject so that the Congress may 
be kept informed and thus prepared to enact remedial legislation in the national 
defense and for internal security. 

4. The execution by the administrative agencies concerned of all laws andi 
regulations relating to the Internal Security Act, the Communist Control Act, the- 
Foreign Agents Registration Act, Passport Regulations, and all other laws, 
the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the Committee, the 
legislative purpose being to exercise continuous watchfulness over the execu^ 
tion of these laws to assist the Congress in appraising their administration, and 
in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary. 

5. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or 
any subcommittee hereof appointed to conduct these hearings may designate. 

Mr. Tuck. Let there likewise be incorporated in the body of the- 
record the order of appointment of the subcommittee to conduct the- 
hearings, the order of Chairman Walter. 
(The order referred to follows :) 

October 6^, 1959. 
To: Mr. Richard Aj*ens, staff director, House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities. 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Representative William M. Tuck, as Chairman, and Representatives- 
Morgan M. Moulder and Gordon H. Scherer as associate members, to conduct 
hearings in New York, New York, Monday and Tuesday, November 16 and 17,^ 
1959, at 10 : 00 a.m., and in San Juan, Puerto Rico, AVednesday, Thursday, and 
Friday, November 18, 19, and 20, 1959, at 10 :00 a.m., on subjects under investi- 
gation by the Committee and take such testimony on said days or succeeding 
days as it may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 6th day of October 1959. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Tuck. The hearings which begin today in San Juan are in- 
furtherance of the powers and duties of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, pursuant to Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress 
which not only establishes the basic jurisdiction of the committee, but 
also mandates this committee, along with other standing committees 
of the Congress, to exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution 
of any laws the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of 
the committee. 

In response to this power and duty, the Committee on Un-American' 
Activities is continuously in the process of accumulating factual in- 
formation respecting Communists, the Communist Party, and Com- 
munist activities which will enable the committee and the Congress tO' 
appraise the administration and operation of the Smith Act, the In- 
ternal Security Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, and 
numerous provisions of the Criminal Code relating to espionage,, 
sabotage, and subversion. 

In addition, the committee has before it numerous proposals to 
strengthen our legislative weapons designed to protect the internal' 
security of this Nation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1615 

In the course of the last few years, as a result of hearings and in- 
vestigations, this committee has made over 80 separate recommen- 
dations for legislative action. Legislation has been passed by the 
Congress embracing 35 of the committee recommendations and 26 
separate proposals are currently pending in the Congress on subjects 
covered by other committee recommendations. Moreover, in the course 
of the last few years numerous recommendations made by the com- 
mittee for administrative action have been adopted by the executive 
agencies of the Government. 

This subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
has come to Puerto Rico to discharge a duty imposed by the United 
States Congress, namely, to develop factual information for the Con- 
gress in its endeavors to cope with the Communist conspiracy. We 
come here as friends in an enterprise which ought to be the concern 
of all freedom-loving people everywhere, irrespective of wherever they 
may reside. 

From past experience we know that the Communist propagandists 
will attempt to pervert the purpose of these hearings into an investi- 
gation of Puerto Ricans. We are not investigating Puerto Ricans as 
Puerto Ricans. We are pursuing the trail of the few dangerous Com- 
munists who are part and parcel of a world conspiracy which would 
destroy freedom. 

We do not expect to interrogate here every Communist on the 
island. We only expect to make a sampling oi Communist activity 
here so that we will be able to know the pattern of the Communist con- 
spiracy's efforts in this area and its connections with the Communist 
conspiracy on the mainland. 

One of the most insidious aspects of communism is its deceit. It 
pretends to be the friend of the working man, but where it has seized 
power the working man is crushed under its despotic heel. He finds 
himself regimented and disciplined. He may find himself in a slave 
labor camp. It pretends to seek peace and yet it is at war with free 
people everywhere. Communism masquerades behind a facade of 
humanitarianism but it has caused more bloodshed and misery than 
any other force in the history of civilization. 

The strength of the Communist operation in any area is not in 
proportion to its numbers. A conspiratorial force may actually 
weaken itself when it increases its size. It takes only one or two holes 
in a ship to sink it. It, likewise, takes only a few trained, disciplined 
zealots to undermine and weaken a nation or a free society. 

What are the present strategies and tactics of the Communist oper- 
ation in this general area ? What techniques are the hard-core Com- 
munists pursuing in order to avoid detection as they pursue their 
nefarious work? Wiat are the lines of control and communication 
between the various Communists' nests here and on the mainland? 
What loopholes or weaknesses exist in our present security laws? 
How may those laws be strengthened ? 

These questions shall be uppermost in the minds of the committee 
as we elicit testimony during these hearings. 

May I emphasize* that the purpose of the subcommittee here in 
San Juan is to sample factual material with reference to types and 
patterns of activity, and not to attempt to exhaust the subject matter. 
We have not subpenaed witnesses for these hearings merely to put 

50974— 60— pt. 2 2 



1616 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

on a show, nor shall we attempt to interrogate in these hearings even 
a significant percentage of all possible witnesses on whom we have 
compiled information. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person identified 
as a member of the Communist Party during the course of the com- 
mittee hearings will be given an early opportunity to appear before 
this committee, if he so desires, for the purpose of denying or explain- 
ing any testimony adversely affecting him, or which he may think 
adversely affects him. 

It is also the policy of the committee to accord any witness the 
privilege of being represented by comisel ; but within the provisions of 
the rules of this committee, counsel's sole and exclusive prerogative 
is to advise his client. 

I would remind those present that a disturbance of any kind, or 
an audible comment during the hearings, will not be permitted. This 
is a serious proceeding in which we are earnestly trying to discharge 
an important and arduous duty. 

Does the gentleman from Ohio at this time care to make any 
comment ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, while you have mentioned it, I do 
not think we can emphasize too strongly that we are not engaged 
in investigating Puerto Ricans as such, or any political activity or 
any organization within the Puerto Rican community, as such. 

As you pointed out in your statement we are primarily interested, 
as this committee has always been, in investigating the activities of 
members of the Communist conspiracy as they operate within the 
different fields of activity in American life. There are no more, or 
less, Communists in Puerto Rico than there are in the United States. 
United States. 

This committee has sat in all of the principal cities of the United 
States, and wherever it has gone, as you pointed out, the Communist 
apparatus has attempted to pervert the purposes of this committee. 

I remember when we went into Gary, Indiana, the Communists 
there said that we were investigating labor, as such. When we went 
into one of the smaller towns and investigated the penetration by 
Communist agents into the field of education, we were charged with 
interfering with education, and so it was when we went into Holly- 
wood — we were charged with investigating the entertainment field 
in this country. 

As an example, there is an organization on the mainland called 
the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. That committee is Com- 
munist dominated, Conamunist controlled. Its president is Harvey 
O'Connor, a dedicated, hard-core, identified Communist. He is now 
under indictment. 

The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee has followed the Un- 
American Activities Committee into almost every city in which it 
has had hearings in the continental United States. In fact, it has 
come there in advance. Its agent came into Puerto Rico and he is 
here today. He has been here. He is Clark Foreman. 

His purpose is to come into this community, as he has into almost 
every conununity in which this committee has had hearings, and 
misrepresent the purposes of this committee, to stir up hatred and 
ill will against the Congress of the United States. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1617 

I consider that man more dangerous and disloyal to the United 
States than any witness we might question here, and he is not a Puerto 
Rican. 

I just wanted to make it clear, the purpose of this investigation. 

Mr. Clark Foreman. May I object to this defamation without 

Mr. Tuck. The gentleman is out of order. If you care to testify, 
you will probably be summoned. 

Mr. ScHERER. I would like, in view of what I have said, to ask our 
counsel, Mr. Arens, to just tell briefly what this Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee is, its histoi-y, and what we know about it — this 
committee which has its representative here and who just violated the 
rules of this committee by making the outbuilt in the committee 
room. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, pursuant to the request of the Congress- 
man from Ohio, I am pleased to respond that the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee is one of numerous organizations which has been 
created by the Communist conspiracy. The title, Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee, is very appealing. 

The Communists do just that. They pick out appealing titles to 
give to what have been called front organizations. A front organiza- 
tion is a group which has been created or controlled by the Communist 
conspirators. Not all people in the front organizations are Com- 
munists: indeed, the practice is for the Communists to try to get into 
this organization, or a front organization, as many non-Communists as 
they can fool or deceive. 

The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, which is today repre- 
sented on the island by Clark Foreman, and who has been making 
statements, we understand, on the radio, in the press, and else Where, 
has been carefully investigated by the United States Senate Committee 
on Internal Security, and that committee, after a careful investiga- 
tion, made a finding that the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 
is controlled by the Communist conspiracy. 

The House Un-American Activities Committee likewise made a 
study of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee and made a finding 
that it is controlled by the Communist conspiracy, that it is a Com- 
munist front. The House Committee on Un-American Activities 
issued several years ago a pamphlet entitled "Operation Abolition," 
in which it tells in detail about the activities of the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee, w^hose principal aims are to destroy the security 
system of the United States, and to hamstring the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and this Committee on Un-American Activities in their 
work against the Communist conspiracy. 

The principal driving force of the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee is a man by the name of Frank Wilkinson, who has been re- 
peatedly identified under oath by responsible witnesses of unim- 
peachable integrity as a Communist agent. Frank Wilkinson has been 
indicted, tried, and convicted, and sentenced for contempt of this 
committee in proceedings in Atlanta, Georgia. 

There are others who are Communists who are the driving, control- 
ling force of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. 

I think, Mr. Chairman, that would fairly well characterize this or- 
ganization which has come to the island here, as it has other places, 
prior to the committee hearing in order to pervert the purposes of this 



1618 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

committee and to try to create a sentiment among the fine people of 
Puerto Rico hostile to the work of this committee — a work that is 
tedious, frustrating, and in w^hicli we are dealing with dangerous 
people who would deprive the good people of Puerto Rico, as well as 
the good people of the continental United States, of their liberties. 

Mr. Foreman. Now may I object, Mr. Chairman, to this defamation? 

Mr. Tuck. You are out of order. If you get up again, I am going- 
to ask the marshal to eject you from this room. 

Counsel, call your first witness, please. 

Mr. Arens. The first witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be- 
Mr. Irving Fishman, who is accompanied by two of his associates. 

Mr. Irving Fishman, as he will identify himself in a moment, is 
with the United States Customs Service, in charge of the study of" 
Communist propaganda as it crosses the borders of the United States. 

Mr. Fishman, will you and your colleagues kindly stand while the- 
chairman administers an oath? 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hands, please ? 

Do you and each of you solemnly swear that the testimony you are- 
about to give before this subcommittee of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities of the United States House of Representatives 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help- 
you God? 

Mr. Fishman. I do. 

Miss SusKE. I do. 

Mr. Pelaez. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN, ELEANOR SITSKE, AND JOHF 

PELAEZ 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, will you please on this record identify 
yourself by name, residence, and occupation ? 

Mr. Fishman. My name is Irving Fishman. I live in New York,, 
and I am Deputy Collector of Customs at the Port of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a word about your background and your- 
duties, please, sir. 

Mr. Fishman. I have had some 30-odd years of service in the United! 
States Treasuiy Department. My function on behalf of the Treasury 
is to set up procedures and methods of enforcing those provisions of 
law which deal with the importation into the United States of sub- 
versive material. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, may I pause and ask each of your col- 
leagues to identify themselves. 

The lady on your left — would you kindly identify yourself? 

Miss SusKE. My name is Eleanor Suske. I reside in New York 
City, where I am employed in the office of the Collector of Customs as; 
administrative assistant to Deputy Collector Irving Fishman. 

Mr. Arens. So that the record will reflect the correct spelling of" 
your name, how is your last name spelled ? 

Miss Suske. S-u-s-k-e. 

Mr. Arens. And will the gentleman on Mr. Fishman's right, like- 
wise identify himself by name, residence, and occupation ? 

Mr. Pelaez. My name is John Pelaez. I live in New York. I anr 
assigned to the Collector's Office in the Port of New York, and I trans- 
late 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1619 

Mr. Arens. Would you raise your voice, please ? 

Mr. Pelaez. I examine and report on foreign publications in my 
particular language jEield. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly, for the record, spell your last name? 

Mr. Pelaez. P-e-1-a-e-z. 

Mr. Arens. And your first name is John ? 

Mr. Pelaez. John. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that as I pose 
the questions on this subject matter, that any one of the three wit- 
nesses who have all been sworn might respond, if the information 
which they have is responsive to the question. 

Mr. Fishman, may I proceed first of all by asking you if the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, in the discharge of its official duties 
to develop factual information on this Communist conspiracy, did 
some several months ago solicit your good offices and the Office of the 
United States Customs Service to make a detailed study of Com- 
munist propaganda which is coming into Puerto Rico, both for in- 
transit purposes, that is, for dissemination elsewhere, and for the 
purpose of dissemination here on the island? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Before you give us any information on the results of 
your study, give us just a word about where you went or had your 
people go, and the essence of your study techniques. 

Mr. Fishman. The United States Customs Service, in conjunction 
w'ith the Post Office Department, has set up three major control units 
in the United States. The one we operated from is the control unit 
at New Orleans, Louisiana, through which most of the mail matter 
destined for the island of Puerto Rico flows. 

So we made our investigation in New Orleans, came through Tampa 
and Miami into San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I believe the most expeditious manner in 
which you can present the facts of your study and investigation and 
the study and investigation which the United States postal authorities 
conducted in connection with the request of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, would be to permit you, if you please, sir, and 
invite you to proceed with the presentation of the factual material. 

Again I say if either of your colleagues can implement or supple- 
ment what you are saying, we certainly invite them to do so at the 
appropriate time. 

Mr. Fishman. As the Committee on Un-American Activities is 
aware, the United States Customs Service concerns itself with the ex- 
amination of merchandise imported into the United States. The Post 
Office Department has similar responsibilities with regard to the mails. 

In the course of our work, the Customs Service has, as a matter of 
law, the responsibility for enforcing those prohibitions contained in 
Federal statutes which deal with imported merchandise. As an ex- 
ample, there is a provision in the Tariff Act of 1930 which prohibits 
the importation of treasonable material, material wliich invites insur- 
rection against the United States or advocates the overthrow of the 
United States Government. 

There is also a responsibility with respect to printed materials and 
other publications determined to contain foreign political Communist 
propaganda. This responsibility, we believe, is shared with the Post 



1620 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO EICANS 

Office Department and is based to a degree upon the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act. 

This Act is directed primarily at forcing disclosures by persons who 
act within the United States as propaganda agents for foreign govern- 
ments or foreign political parties. A second purpose, more relevant 
here, is to require the proper labeling of foreign political propaganda 
in order to insure that the American public can properly appraise and 
evaluate this material disseminated by these agents in the light of their 
foreign relationships. 

Based upon the Foreign Agents Registration Act and decisions 
of the Attorney General supplementing and explaining the provi- 
sions thereof, registered agents who disseminate political propaganda 
are required to identify the same as to source. 

It may be of interest to the committee to know that during the 
first half of 1959, 4,500,000 items of printed political propaganda from 
the Soviet bloc countries were reviewed by our control units. This 
volume is easily understood when we observe from reports of the 
United States information Agency that the U.S.S.R. has indicated 
a proposal to increase its printing plant in the Soviet Union by an 
expenditure of over $200 million. 

So much for the background of the activity of our respective 
agencies. 

I would like to note here for the committee's information that we 
have just installed a control unit at the Port of New Orleans, La. 
This arranagement was made necessary in order to cope with the in- 
creasing quantities of propaganda materials shipped through this 
port. I shall expand on this problem somewhat later. 

At the request of the chairman of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities, a survey has just been completed of the mails 
directed from the Soviet Union and from friendly countries to the 
island of Puerto Rico. The situation here in Puerto Rico is some- 
what unusual in that a great deal of the propaganda mail directed to 
this area originates in Latin American countries, particularly 
Mexico. 

Such mail is sent, for example, from Mexico through New Orleans, 
La., to Puerto Rico. It may be of general interest to the committee 
to know that foreign mail is carried in-transit through the United 
States pursuant to a principle of the Universal Postal Union Conven- 
tion. This, in effect, guarantees the freedom of transit for such parcels 
or packages of mail from a foreign country into Puerto Rico. 

In-transit mail is considered to be closed mail, and is required under 
the principles of this convention to be dispatched or cross our country 
without examination. This is by a reciprocal agreement, and mem- 
bers of the Universal Postal Union pay each other for the handling 
of in-transit mail according to an established schedule. 

The Soviet Union is a member of this convention. In conducting 
the survey requested by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, we selected for a sample some 300 sacks of mail en route 
through New Orleans, La., to this area. 

Mr. AuENS. By that you mean to Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. To Puerto Rico, There was available for examina- 
tion during this period some 8,000 sacks. We also selected, for sam- 
pling, mail destined for Puerto Rico directly from Soviet Union 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1621 

countries, and samples of this material are available for examination 
by members of the subcommittee. 

We would like to point out that a more extensive sampling? would 
have been difficult unless additional personnel were assigned to the 
project. The committee will appreciate that as a result of testimony 
previously given before it, a great deal of mail flows through the 
Port of New Orleans. 

We estimate from surveys made that some 150,000 packages con- 
taining 300,000 items of political propaganda are sent in transit yearly 
through the Port of New Orleans. An examination of the samples 
available here would indicate that many are in the Spanish language. 

In order that the committee may be in a position to read some of 
the material, we have included translations and also sample publica- 
tions in the English language. In almost every instance, major 
propaganda periodicals and publications are printed in practically 
every language known in the world. 

The contents of current propaganda publications have changed 
considerably in recent weeks, due in a great measure to the pi-opof<ed 
summit meetings. This change is reflected mainly in the pronounce- 
ments of the Soviet Government. It is interesting, for example, to 
note a statement in tlie newspaper Moscow News of September 'I. 11>.^)0. 
This is headed "No Anti-American Propaganda in the U.S.S.R." 
Mr. Khrushchev asserted : 

It is absolutely wrong to assert that propaganda has been conducted in the 
Soviet Union against the United States of America. I am stating this now, 
and I shall repeat it during my visit to the United States. Never has there 
been any propaganda in the Soviet Union against the U.S.A. We have carried 
on propaganda, and shall continue to do so in the future only against the 
militarists, against the saber rattling generals, and the monopolists advocating 
cold war. Soviet newspapers, statesmen and the Soviet people have spoken 
out against them. However, no one in the U.S.S.R. has ever spolsen out against 
the U.S.A. as a state, or against the American people. We have never had 
such propaganda and never shall have. 

Although many of the Soviet publications now adhere to the above 
principle, insofar as the Soviet Government is concerned, the fact is 
that tlie party press publications still continue to spread Communist 
doctrines through its front organizations. 

The press section of the Department of Agitation and Propaganda 
of the Central Committee in Moscow, as well as the corresponding 
sections of the subordinate committees, are in full operation. The 
products of these organizations are the so-called "Agitprop" mate- 
rials, directed to the uneducated masses and making single, important 
points. 

There are three sections of this Agitprop. One takes care of central 
publications. The second is concerned with publications of the 
federated republics and other territories, while the third deals with 
the local press. 

The central section of agitation and propaganda in Moscow exercises 
continual supervision of these three functions. Each Commmiist 
Party has its own Agitprop section so that a great deal of the material 
which emanates from Mexico, for example, is prepared by the Com- 
munist Party. The balance of the material is of the information bul- 
letin variety, published by the U.S.S.R. Embassy in Mexico. 

From an examination of this material, we have gathered that cur- 
rent plans are to increase the publishing and printing of all types of 



1622 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

propaganda materials in the Spanish hmguage and to send millions of 
these publications into South America and the Caribbean area. 

The current propaganda apparatus is directing a concentrated at- 
tempt to subvert South American governments and secure Communist 
victories in these areas. The main theme of the material issued is 
:anti-United States. This stepped-up drive is reported to involve a 
<;ost of over $100 million. 

Mr. Arens. $100 million over what period of time? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. For this present campaign, which is right now in 
force. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your estimate that the present propaganda cam- 
paign by the international Communist apparatus directed to the Latin 
American countries costs approximately $100 million ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. As authority for it, U.S. News & World Re- 
port, November 2, 1959, in a dispatch from Montevideo, Uruguay, 
■states : 

Working quietly in the free-and-easy atmosphere of Uruguay, the Russians 
^re speeding a build-up of Communist subversion and sabotage throughout the 
whole of South America. 

At least 70 Russian oflScials are busy in seven different buildings in Monte- 
video. 

The article then continues that the build-up has reached such pro- 
portions that the Government of Uruguay is getting ready to crack 
'down and the statement is made that truckloads of pouches stamped 
"USSR" arrive every day, supposedly containing propaganda ma- 
terials for distribution throughout South America. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say that was from U.S. News & World 
Report? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. The article is an interesting one, 
;and some of the highlights referred to include Communist penetration 
in major South American countries, including Argentina and Bolivia, 
'Chile, Peru, and so forth. The article notes that the Caribbean area 
lias not been ignored. 

As we have previously informed the committee, we are in no posi- 
tion to take action against the tremendous influx of in-transit mail. 
Since we have considered the policy and purpose of the act under 
wdiich we operate to be for the protection of the national defense and 
internal security of the United States, it is doubtful whether our in- 
terest should extend to dissemination of political propaganda in coun- 
tries other than the United States, except, perhaps, as it reflects anti- 
American actions created in these friendly countries by this material 
shipped through our territory. 

In concluding this report, I would like to direct the attention of the 
-committee to a provision in the Universal Postal Union Convention 
of Brussels in 1952, article 59, paragraph 5, which provides: 

Moreover, the right is reserved for any country not to convey in-transit in open 
Tnail over its territory, articles, other than letters and postcards, in regard to 
which the legal provisions regulating the conditions of their publication or cir- 
culation in that country have not been observed. Such articles must be re- 
turned to the administration of origin. 

There is also a proviso in the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 
1938 which the House Un-American Activities Committee may wish 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1623^ 

to examine. It is section 8(d), which deals with the same subject. It 
reads : 

The Postmaster General may declare to be non-mailable any communication or 
expression falling within clause (2) of section l(j) hereof in the form of prints 
or in any other form reasonably adapted to, or reasonably appearing to be 
Intended for, dissemination or circulation among two or more persons, which is 
offered or caused to be offered for transmittal in the United States mails to any 
person or persons in any other American republic by any agent of a foreign 
principal, if the Postmaster General is informed in writing by the Secretary of 
State that the duly accredited diplomatic representative of such American re- 
public has made written representation to the Department of State that the 
admission or circulation of such communication or expression in any such Amer- 
ican republic is prohibited by the laws thereof and has requested in writing 
that its transmittal thereto be stopped. 

In other words, the action that could be taken against this tre- 
mendous volume of in-transit mail which we carry through our shores 
can only be controlled through the Secretary of State and tlirough 
the Secretary of State to the Postmaster General. 

It is only in tliat way that Customs and Post Office can interest 
themselves in making any attempt to control this flow. At the present 
moment, we have absolutely no control. We must just watch the ma- 
terial flow by, carried through New Orleans, for example, from rail- 
road to ship and into South America and into this area. 

We have some control over material which comes into this area, 
but not to any South American republic, no matter how anti-Ameri- 
can or how vicious the material may be. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I have a number of questions to ask you 
in order to clarify the record. 

Thank you for your statement. The committee is deeply apprecia- 
tive of your cooperation, the cooperation of the U.S. Customs Service 
and tlie postal authorities in developing this factual material. 

Am I clear in my impression from what you have said in your 
statement that your study of the material coming via the island of 
Puerto Rico was just a sampling of a few hundred mail sacks? 

Mr, Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage, roughly speaking, of the propaganda 
which actually arrives at the shores here in San Juan, or in Puerto 
Rico, is in transit to other areas of the Caribbean, and w^hat percentage 
is for dissemination or distribution here ? 

We have to, of course, proceed on the basis of percentages, because 
since you took just a sampling, you don't have total figures. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Miss Suske has a report on statistics which will give 
you some idea of the entire volume. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest, then, that Miss Suske proceed and give 
us those statistics or the essence of those ? I have notes on a number 
of questions which I want to propose to you. 

Miss Suske. From our survey that we had made at the Port of 
New York, New Orleans and here in San Juan, we would estimate 
that the amount of Communist propaganda material sent to the island 
of Puerto Rico in individually addressed mail packages runs about 
1,000 pieces a month. However, since most of the mail with which 
we are concerned originates in New Orleans, the statistics should show 
that, based on a yearly average, over 260,000 sacks of mail are carried! 
in-transit througli the Port of New Orleans. 



1624 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. These 260,000 sacks are sacks of Communist propa- 
ganda? 

Miss SusKE. Yes; that is right. This includes material destined 
for Puerto Rico. 

Mr. ScHERER. Two hundred how many ? 

Miss SusKE. 260,000 sacks. 

Mr. ScHERER. For Puerto Rico alone ? 

Miss SusKE. No, this comes in transit through New Orleans from 
the South American countries and from Mexico. Included in the 
260,000 sacks is the material that is actually destined for the island 
of Puerto Rico. 

In addition to other merchandise, these sacks are estimated to con- 
tain over one million j^arcels of printed material. 

Mr. Arens. When you say "material" you mean Communist propa- 
ganda ? 

Miss SusKE. Yes ; that is right. The overall figure of 260,000 sacks, 
of course, would carry other material in addition to the printed Com- 
munist material. 

I believe Mr. Fishman may have mentioned these figures, that the 
survey reflected that in this printed material there was included 
150,000 packages of Communist propaganda, or an estimated 300,000 
individual items. 

Mr. Ajrens. Have you concluded on your statistical presentation for 
the moment ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Then I would like to ask this: You have discussed 
primarily, as I have gathered from your testimony which the commit- 
tee will want to study with greater care, the Communist propaganda 
originating in Mexico and coming through the Port of New Orleans, 
much of which comes in transit through Puerto Rico, some of which 
is destined for Puerto Rico. 

In addition to this propaganda, is Puerto Rico the recipient either 
for in-transit purposes or for consumption here of Communist prop- 
aganda originating not in Mexico, but originating in Europe, behind 
the Iron Curtain ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes, there is a considerable quantity of such mate- 
rial which regularly is destined for this area. 

Actually, it is pretty difficult to pin some of this down in the way 
of statistics. The committee may or may not be aware of the mail situ- 
ation here on the island. Actually, mail is shipped here by air or 
by ship, mostly by ship. Generally, ship mail from South America 
in transit to Puerto Rico is collected at the Port of New Orleans and 
sent in sealed containers or lift vans by vessel to this area. 

The average ship to Puerto Rico brings between 12 and 16 vans 
containing approximately 100 mail sacks each. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately how often do they arrive ? 

Mr. Fishman. Twice a w^eek. In the three-month period our sur- 
vey estimated over 120,000 such packages were sent here. To break 
it down a little better for the island, we took several of these ships, 
and tried to get an idea of the addressees. Seven of these, or 50 per- 
cent of the mail, were destined to the area of San Juan, one for Ponce, 
one for Santurce, and five, or 26 percent, for the island post offices. 

In other words, 12 percent of the mail is destined for the city of 
Ponce, and 50 percent for San Juan. Actually, our observation is that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1625 

the amount of propaganda material sent here is not numerically large 
in relation to other areas of the United States, where people have 
heritage in Soviet-bloc countries. Material sent here is on a more 
selective basis and we think intended definitely for dissemination and 
redistribution. 

Mr. Arens. "WHien you say "a more selective basis,"' you mean the 
key personnel and organizations, do you not? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. You won't get the vast bulk of mate- 
rial here, but you will get it sent to individuals who will really redis- 
tribute this material, republish it and get it out to the comrades in 
whatever fashion they see fit. 

But compared to what we receive in some of the other areas, like Illi- 
nois, New York, Wisconsin, and so on, this area receives a very small 
quantity. 

Mr. Arens. jNIr. Fishman, may I ask you, so that the record will be 
clear, a few^ elemental questions with respect to the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act and the prol)lems of control. 

As I understand it, both from working with you and from your 
testimony in other areas of the United States, the Foreign Agents Reg- 
istration Act is designed to cause Conmiunist propaganda which is 
disseminated to be labeled so that the recipient of the propaganda will 
know he is reading Communist propaganda, the same as poisonous 
medicines are so labeled ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. The law does not contemplate that the material will 
be censored or confiscated, does it ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. Our ])osition has been, and is, and 
always will be, that the United States Government, through the Post 
Office and Customs Service, does not intend to ban this material from 
entering the United States. "We see no objection at all to anyone receiv- 
ing this material for his own purpose, provided it is clearly marked or 
identified in such a way that he may have an oppoi'tunity to evaluate 
its source and understand from where it has emanated. 

Mr. Arens. The same way that we do on food and drug laws. 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. You made a good point that poisons 
are labeled, so that some of this material should be labeled. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in the course of your many years of ex- 
perience in the United States Customs Service, of the millions of pieces 
of Communist propaganda that have arrived at the shores of the 
United States, have you ever seen a single piece, one piece, that is 
labeled according to the law ? 

Mr. Fishman. With the possible exception of official material sent 
to the Library of Congress, I have never seen any of it labeled. 

Mr. Arens. This material which you have displayed on the table 
here today is typical Communist propaganda which is either for dis- 
semination here in Puerto Rico or for transhipment from Puerto 
Rico as a nerve center to the South American countries ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. The material submitted consists of 
Communist political propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. On any of this Communist material which you have 
displayed to the committee on the table as specimens, does there ap- 
pear any label that the material is Communist propaganda as the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act requires? 



1626 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. I have yet to see some of it sent regularly 
through the mails or by air or freight or by vessel. 

Mr. Arens. It is for that reason, among others, that the Committee 
on Un-American Activities, as you know, has been pursuing this sub- 
ject, to try to devise legislation so that this material will be labeled 
as the law now requires ; is that correct ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

]Mr. SciiERER. In other words, you want to plug up the loopholes in 
the present Foreign Agents Kegistration Act. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. INIr. Fishman, will you or one of your colleagues tell 
us if Communist propaganda originates, say, in Moscow, directed to 
a designated recipient here in the" United States, Mr. X, we will say, 
in San Juan, Puerto Rico, under the present law does the Customs 
Service have a right to stop that propaganda or to inspect it? 

Mr. Fishman. If he has requested it or solicited it or ordered it^ 
we do not stop it. 

Mr. Arens. So none of this propaganda which you are displaying 
falls in the category of Communist propaganda which emanates be- 
hind the Iron Curtain and goes to an individual who has requested 

Mr. Fishman. Most of this present lot arrived in bulk shipments.. 

Mr. Arens. This bulk material will be redistributed by some Com- 
munist agent or someone in the conspiracy in all probability ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is probably so. 

Mr. Arens. Under the present law, does the Customs Service or 
the postal authorities have a right to inspect or intercept mail that 
comes in through the diplomatic immunity ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. 

Mr. Arens. The diplomatic pouch ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. 

Mr. Arens. That is another area in which Communist propaganda 
comes in ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Does the U.S. Customs Service have any control over 
Commmiist propaganda which is disseminated in either Puerto Rico 
or continental United States which is developed from printing plates, 
which are first developed in Soviet Russia or in some other Commmiist 
country ? 

Mr. Fishman. Neither the Post Office Department nor the Cus- 
toms Ser^dce has any control over that material. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't have any control either over propaganda 
that comes by first-class mail ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. We have no control over that either. 

Mr. Arens. You are familiar, are you not, with some of the legisla- 
tive proposals that are pending before the committee, so that we can 
tighten up, or try to tighten up, at least, on this dissemination of 
Communist propaganda. 

One of the principal proposals, as you know, and I want our record 
today to reflect, is a proposal to require this material to be labeled 
before it actually arrives on the shores of the United States or Puerto 
Rico. 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1627 

Mr. Arens. In your judf^nnent, based upon your many years of ex- 
perience in studyin<^ tiiis Communist propa<j;anda whicli is coming 
into the United States, would that help make available to the recipi- 
ents information that he is readin<? Communist propaganda? 

Mr. FiSHMAisr. We believe so. We think it will give us the authority 
we need to exercise proper control. 

Mr. Arens. Most of this Connnunist propaganda is rather subtle, 
is it not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. The individual recipient may be a person who does not 
know much about communism, may not know much about the woi'ld 
Communist conspiracy, and might read any one of these publications 
and think he is reading something that is for the good of hmnanity. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. He would not realize that he is reading something that 
is subtly designed to woo him within the orbit of this force which 
has caused so much human suti'ering over this world ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It would be pretty difficult unless he had a knowl- 
edge of the entire propaganda program. For example, here is a piece 
of printed material of the type which is distributed freely. It has 
absolutely no identification whatever. To look at it, you might think 
it was printed across the street here. 

It is entitled ''South Korean Women'" and is a diatribe against what, 
supposedly, the United States Army has done in South Korea. 

Here is another one, "Facts Indict Atrocities Committed by the 
U.S. Aggressive Army in South Korea." 

Mr. Scherer. I think I have seen that publication before, the one 
pertaining to alleged atrocities of American aggressors against Korean 
prisoners of war. 

Did you refer to that one ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. There have been some new ones issued since then, 
■Congressman. 

Mr. Scherer. Since the one in 1955 ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. These were printed in 1959 : "War 
Provocation Maneuvers of U.S. Imperialists in South Korea." "Sub- 
ordination, Militarization, and Irrecoverable Bankruptcy." 

Mr. Scherer. These are printed in what language ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. In English. 

Mr. Scherer. Obviously for consumption in the United States and 
not in Asia. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Here is one, "South Korea, a Huge Prison ; a Review 
of South Korean Political Situation." 

Mr. Arens. There is no indication on any of the material on this 
table — this sampling — no indication at all that this material has been 
labeled Communist propaganda as the law requires ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. I believe the pamphlet I am referring to that I saw 
:some time ago was printed in 1955 in Peiping, was it not? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It may have been. 

Mr. Scherer. This is not printed in the United States ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No, it is not. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, will you be good enough to direct the 
•committee's attention, and be sure that our record reflects what you 



1628 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

are doing, to some of the typical material which you have there? I 
see your labels. You have "Material directed to students," "Material 
coming from the Soviet Union," "Material from Germany," appar- 
ently material even from Korea, "Material from Red China," material 
apparently, from the covere there, directed to women's groups. 

In any of this material, do you see any advertising, as you see in a 
typical American publication ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. These publications are very obviously subsi- 
dized by the Soviet Government or the respective satellite government. 
There is absolutely no advertising. The subscription price is very 
nominal and could hardly cover the cost of printing. 

It is also apparent that some of these publications resemble our pub- 
lications in fonnat and also in paper material, and probably are very 
costly. 

Mr. Arens. Now will you and your associates — I don't know 
whether you personally speak Spanish, but I know you have transla- 
tions here — will you give us just a brief resume of the typical material 
in each of the many classes, particularly with reference to the sources 
of origin and the content of the material ? 

Mr. FisHiMAX. We have chosen for exhibition a great deal of ma- 
terial in the English language. Some brief reference to this material — 
I think the committee members have some examples. A publication 
which was published as a supplement to New Times, which is a Soviet 
publication, we have on exhibition — here it is — entitled "The Slums 
of New York — Facts About the American Way of Life." 

]Mr. Arens. jNIr. Fishman, you live in New York City. Is it basi- 
cally a perversion of the facts ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It sure is. 

Mr. Arens. So as to have a negative impact on the mind of the 
recipient ? 

Mr. Fishman. It is at least a misstatement, shall we say, of some 
of the facts. 

Mr. Arens. There is nothing on that document so that the recipient, 
when he reads it, will know that the author of it was a Communist 
dedicated to the destruction of freeclom^ — ■ — - 

Mr. Fishman. Absolutely not. 

Mr. Arens. Part of this Godless conspiracy known as interna- 
tional coimnunism ? 

Mr. Fishman. Absolutely not. 

We can select at random. There are hundreds of examples. Here 
is a publication from East Berlin entitled "Unity." It contains nu- 
merous articles glorifying East Germany for the progress and happi- 
ness achieved during her present existence. One article is entitled 
"Imperialist Misuse of the Liberty Notion." It strongly attacks the 
United States, and glorifies Red China. It ridicules our attempts to 
launch satellites, and so on and so forth. 

International Affairs gives us quite a beating in connection with 
SEATO, and the collapse of the cold war, for example. More recently, 
as I mentioned before, there has been a cessation of the hostile attitude, 
and we thought it might be interesting to prepare a very brief sum- 
maiy of the Soviet newspapers issued when Mr. Khrushchev returned 
from the United States. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1629 

This is a summai-y. I will read a part of it : 

Part 1 deals with the Aniei'icaii masses, that is, the simple American 
people. Part 2 deals with the capitalists, politicians and their serv- 
ants, and the press, who are supposedly the servants of the politicians. 
Part 3 deals with President Eisenhower. 

In referring to Part 1, the American people are described as 
obviously for Khrushchev. They meet him everywhere with great 
enthusiasm. Thousands line the streets for hours to catch at least a 
glimpse of the great leader and to shout "Peace." 

In Part 2, the capitalists and their servants are described as the dark 
forces of reaction. They are accused of interfering with Mr. 
Khrushchev's desire to see the people of America. The })ress is ac- 
cused of distortion of facts and of Khrushchev's statements and of 
minimizing the effect produced by his visit. Big business is accused 
of trying to sabotage peaceful missions, and so on. 

Of course, President Eisenhower has been treated very well in the 
press. He is singled out as a fine gentleman with high principles, de- 
sirous of coming to terms and understanding. He is never criticized. 
On the contrary, he is spoken of with a great deal of respect. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Fishman, do you have a copy of the one you fur- 
nished the committee, "Information Bulletin No. 5," published in Red 
China? There is a summary of what this bulletin contains, printed 
in English, which you furnished the committee : 

Violent attack on U.S. American imperialists are plotting to sell Koreans as 
slaves. Their brutal, inhuman treatment of children is most violently exposed. 
South Korean Government is a tool of U.S. imperialists who ravage Snuth 
Korea and create a desperate and critical economic situation. "Hundreds of 
thousands of abandoned orphans are groaning from hunger and sickness and 
are dying one after the other by the roadside" * * *. "This acute crisis is an 
aftermath of the vicious colonial rule pursued by the U.S. imperialist ag- 
gressors * * *." 

Then there is another chapter under the title "U.S. Beasts Again 
Shoot Korean Children." It states, "The U.S. mercenary soldiers in 
South Korea committed shuddering atrocities of shooting at random 
Korean children as targets for hunting practice with their hunting- 
guns." 

Did you furnish this summary of this pamplilet ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. I have a copy before me. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that a correct summary of this pamphlet ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is a correct summary of the contents of that 
publication. 

Mr. ScHERER. And that was printed in Red China and printed in 
English and distributed in the United States ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr, Scherer. Did any of these reach Puerto Rico, do you know? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Accusing American boys of shooting Korean children 
as targets for hunting practice. 

Mr. Arens. But the recipient of that material would not know he is 
reading Communist propaganda because there is no label? 

Mr. Fishman. There is no label, as required by the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you allude, please, Mr. Fishman, to some 
of the other typical publications ? I see, for example, some there ap- 
parently directed to youth groups. Would you tell us about those? 



1630 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. FisHMAN. Well, the program directed to the youth groups has 
continued unabated. As you know, this type of material comes from 
two sources, sponsored almost entirely by the Soviet propaganda 
movement. 

The first group, supposedly the larger, is the World Federation 
of Democratic Youth. The second group is the International Union 
of Students. Both of these organizations publish many individual 
pamphlets and booklets directed to school and secondary school and 
college level institutions. 

This type of material is sent free for the most part, although it is 
indicated m the material that for tlie subscription price of $1 a year 
you can receive it directly at your home. But every college and mii- 
versity in the United States and its possessions receives this material 
on a continuing basis. 

It is addressed generally to student organizations, to the library, 
to the university fraternity groups, and so on and so forth. Our ex- 
perience is that it has been directed to the universities here in this area 
also. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have illustrations of material in the Spanish 
language which is directed to appeal to women's groups ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word about that ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. The propaganda movement, as I explained before, 
omits absolutely no angle, so that there is a specific group of magazines 
directed to the women of the United States, published in the Soviet 
Union. These publications for the most part deal with peace appeals 
to take action in the United States against atomic testing. 

Similar peace movements are discussed. The general idea is to unite 
women in the United States, to bring pressure upon them to form 
organizations of all kinds, to fight for various causes sponsored in these 
publications. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be a fair characterization, Mr. Fishman, to say 
that Puerto Rico, because of the fact that it is operating, as the con- 
tinental United States does, under the rather liberal laws governing 
this flood of Communist propaganda, that Puerto Rico is a nerve 
center for the transhipment or dissemination of Communist propa- 
ganda in the Spanish language to South American countries ? 

Mr. Fishman. Because of the care in selection of addressees, that 
would probably be a good summary. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, do you have any observation or comment 
to make further respecting the Communist propaganda which 
emanates from behind the Iron Curtain? I observe you have one 
publication from Germany. Can you give us a word about that ? 

Mr. Fishman. These reflect the front organizations in the satellite 
countries. The German publications, of course, are directed to criti- 
cism of West Germany, to the efforts to unite Germany, and so on. 
In other words, there is no question at all that each publication has a 
purpose. It is selected for a particular reason and sent to the United 
States to cover a problem at issue in the United States. 

These German publications are obviously directed to people who 
have backgrounds in Germany. We have, for example, the problem, 
as the committee may be aware, of controlling this material which 
comes from friendly countries. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1631 

Mr. Arens. I believe it would be well for our record if you would 
pursue that theme for a few minutes and let the record be clear. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Under the Forei<i^n Agents Kegistration Act and on 
advice from the Department of ,Justice, we may presume that any- 
thing which comes from a Soviet-bloc country emanates from govern- 
ment control, so under the act, we may concern ourselves with that 
type of publication. 

On the other hand, similar material shipped from friendly coun- 
tries is not under our jurisdiction or control unless we can establish a 
relationship between the sender and the foreign government. So for 
the most part it has been our position that this material may be f i-eely 
imported into the United States. 

The propaganda organizations have not been entirely unaware of 
this, so as our controls on sliipments directly from the Soviet-bloc 
countries have been strengthened, the voliune of the material shipped 
from the foreign countries has increased. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, we just came, as you know, a day or so 
ago, from hearings in New York City, at which time we were develop- 
ing facts with resi)ect to the Communist conspiratorial activities aimed 
at the Spanish-speaking people there. 

Again the committee made it clear that the overwhelming major- 
ity of the Puerto Ricans in New York City are loyal, fine people, but 
that the small number of dedicated fanatics of the Communist con- 
spiracy are the ones who are causing so much trouble on behalf of 
the world revolution. 

Is any of the material which you see here, which is being distributed 
liere on this island and being transhipped from this ishmd out to otlier 
Spanish-speaking countries, likewise being sent into New York City 
by the Communist conspiracy to attempt to undermine and weaken 
and pervert the Spanish-speaking people there ? 

Mr. Fishman. I had mentioned earlier in my statement that a good 
deal of the material directed to this area and also to South America 
comes from friendly countries and from the embassies of the Soviet 
Government in these countries, so that to a great extent we do see a 
good deal of material on its way from a friendly country to the 
South American countries. 

Mr. Arens. We had displayed in New York City a couple of days 
ago by one of your associates some of the Communist propaganda 
which he said he had tested there, which is destined to the Spanish- 
speaking people in New York City. 

Is that the same type of propaganda, Communist propaganda, that 
is being disseminated here on this island and via this island en route 
to other Spanish-speaking countries ? 

Mr. Fishman. Tliat is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Counsel, you mentioned the fact that the com- 
mittee recognized that in New York the great mass of the people of 
the Puerto Rican community were fine, loyal, patriotic American 
citizens, but that there was a small group, as was shown by the evi- 
dence, of dedicated, fanatical Communists working among them. 

It was shown by the evidence also, was it not, that these were not 
necessarily all Puerto Ricans, but there were others of other extrac- 
tions, working in the Puerto Rican community as agitatore ? 

Mr. Arens. And we also developed there, and the record should 
reflect it here in Puerto Rico, that there is a direct tie-in between the 

50974— 60— pt. 2 3 



1632 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Communist operation in New York City and the Communist opera- 
tion on this island ; indeed, on the very airplane, Mr. Scherer will re- 
call, that we took to come to Puerto Rico just last night, there were, I 
believe, three, and I am sure two, of the Communists whom we had 
as witnesses in New York City, and one of whom I have seen in the 
courtroom today. 

Mr. Scherer. As an example, we mentioned before the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, which is represented here by Mr. Fore- 
man, who is not a Puerto Rican, who came into this community in 
advance of this committee's appearance as he has in various cities 
in the United States. He was here before we arrived ; he is stirring 
up agitation here and he is not a Puerto Rican. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I would like to pursue one other area of 
inquiry, and then I believe we have made a record here that is clear 
from your presentation, for which we thank you. 

The U.S. mails are not self-sufficient, are they, Mr. Fishman? In 
other words, the postage which is paid iDy the sender of material isn't 
sufficient to defray the costs to the Post Office ? 

Mr. Fishman. That, I believe, is public knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Every year the Congress is obliged to appropriate from 
the taxpayers millions and millions of dollars to sustain the U.S. 
mails. 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. With that as a fact, it is then likewise a fact, is it not, 
Mr. Fishman, that the U.S. taxpayers who contribute to sustain the 
mails are, by that very contribution, assisting in the transportation of 
this Commmiist propaganda which is designed ultimately to destroy 
our country ; isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would respectfully suggest that that 
would conclude the staff interrogation of Mr. Fishman and his col- 
leagues at this time. 

We are, of course, aware of the fact that in a relatively brief pres- 
entation of this kind we cannot exhaust the subject matter. But as 
the committee knows, Mr. Fishman and his colleagues are in frequent 
contact with the staff, constantly supplying us with detailed informa- 
tion which will ultimately be incorporated in appropriate reports. 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask just one question or two? 

Mr. Fishman, both here, as I see from the exihibits, and in New 
York, we had Communist propaganda coming from Iron Curtain 
countries in the Spanish language. 

Do you know of any so-called Iron Curtain country where Spanish 
is the language that is spoken ? 

Mr. Pelaez. No, I don't Imow. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand that this propaganda is printed in about 
13 different languages. 

INIr. Fishman. That is right ; in every language. 

Mr. Scherer. I remember in Buffalo we showed that some of the 
propaganda was distributed to the Polish community there. 

]\Ir. Fishman. Yes. Tliere is no question at all but that this 
material is prepared specifically for this area. We have made our 
observations from a study of the individual pieces of mail. I think 
we mentioned how it is distributed. 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1633 

Mr. SciiERER. Isn't it a fact when the Soviet propagandists want a 
certain nationality group within the United States to take a certain 
point of view on a current political issue, that that particular group 
is then flooded with propaganda in the language of that particular 
group ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Absolutely. That represents one of our major prob- 
lems, the unsolicited material which is sent to a complete listing of 
people, taken from a teleplioiie book or an organization guide. 

Mr, ScHERER. You recall, I think, in one of the other hearings that 
we had volumes of mail from people in the United States who are of 
foreign extraction, protesting the sending of this literature to them 
through the United States mails. 

Mr. FisHMAN. We still receive that type of protest. Many of them 
are referred to us by Members of the Congress, received by them from 
their constituents. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Scherer, I am not certain that our record is abso- 
lutely clear on the point which I know you were trying to develop on 
the Spanish language, and with your permission I would like to make 
an observation and see if Mr. Fishman does not agree with it. 

Mr. Fishman, the Congressman asked you if it is not a fact that 
there is no country which is presently controlled exclusively by the 
Communists, such as Hungary or the Soviet Union or East Germany, 
which has a Spanish language. 

Mr. Fishman. As far as I know, and Mr. Pelaez would be familiar 
with that, and he knows of no country. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, this material developed here is not ma- 
terial which is just circulated within the Iron Curtain in the Spanish 
language ? 

Mr. Fishman. We wouldn't suspect so. 

Mr. Arens. It would have to be material which is developed with 
the design of the conspirators to send into the Spanish-speaking 
countries their poison in order to attempt to condition their minds ; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. A reading of some of the titles of 
these publications would make that apparent. 

Mr. Arens. This material which is sent from the Communist coun- 
tries in Spanish to Spanish-speaking countries does not, any place, 
say, "We are conspirators," does it ? That is absurd, isn't it? It does 
not say any place in it, "We are Communists who are seeking to con- 
trol the world," does it? 

Mr. Fishman. We have never seen it. 

Mr. Arens. It is all subtle. Thank you. We have no further ques- 
tions at this time of Mr. Fishman. 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Fisliman, I want to take this opportmiity of ex- 
pressing the appreciation of this committee on the investigation which 
you and those associated with you have conducted, and the informa- 
tion which you have made available to this committer, which will be 
veiy helpful to us in our deliberations and in our studies of legislation 
along the lines of your testimony, so as to enable the coimtry to deal 
more effectively with the problem which you have so clearly described. 

We particularly want to thank Miss Suske and Mr. Pelaez, asso- 
ciated with you, for coming here and giving us this testimony. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Inspector Ortiz. 



1634 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that the morning has just about 
transpired, it is now approximately 11 :30, I respectfully suggest that 
the chairman consider a recess at this time, and we will start this 
afternoon with the witness who was just called. Then we will not be 
confronted with the possibility of breaking in the middle of his 
testimony. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you think we will have ample time for the after- 
noon ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Before you recess, I wanted to respectfully 
bring to the attention of the committee — my name is Abraham Diaz 
Gonzalez, for the record. I am one of several counsel appointed by 
the Bar Association of Puerto Rico to assist whatever witnesses were 
subpenaed before the committee who needed some legal advice, and 
there are several statements which I have here which I want to file with 
the committee on behalf of these witnesses in advance. 

I wrote to you ; I cabled you a week ago, you will probably remem- 
ber, in Washington, requesting a copy of the resolution, a copy of the 
rules of the committee, and Mr. Arens was kind enough to mail them 
to me. I received them yesterday noon. 

Yesterday I cabled you again, stating that we had just received 
the rules. Of course, this morning is the first opportunity which we 
have had to file the statements with the committee. I respectfully 
convey to the committee now that we have the statements here of those 
witnesses who have come this morning. Some we haven't seen and as 
soon as they come, I will file them with you. 

Mr, Tuck. You may file the statements with the counsel. 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 11:28 a.m. Wednesday, November 18, 1959, the 
subcommittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of recess: Repre- 
sentatives Tuck and Scherer.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 18, 1959 

(Tlie subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Hon. William M. Tuck, 
chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of reconvening: 
Representatives Tuck and Scherer.) 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Inspector Ortiz, please come forward and remain stand- 
ing while the chairman administers an oath, please. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ortiz. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1635 

TESTIMONY OF RESTITUTO ORTIZ 

Mr. Akkx.s. riciise idtMitify Yourscll" by ikuuc, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Ortiz. My name is Restituto Ortiz. I live in San Juan and I 
work as an inspector at the Customs House. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at the Customs 
House, Inspector ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Twenty-one years. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your duties, please, sir. 

Mr. Ortiz. Well, inspecting the baggage of the incoming passen- 
gers, and inspecting cargo and ships' documents, and taking care of 
inspecting outgoing cargo for foreign countries. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of the last few months, did you have occa- 
sion to inspect certain property which wa^s being brought into San 
Juan, Puerto Kico, by a man by the name of Jose Enamorado Cuesta? 

Mr. Ortiz. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. You might spell that for the purpose of this record. 

Mr. Ortiz, C-u-e-s-t-a. 

Mr. Arens. And his first name and middle name, please ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Well his middle name, E-n-a-m-o-r-a-d-o. Tlie first I 
don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, as I say, have occasion in the course of the 
last few months to inspect certain property which was in the process 
of being brought into San Juan by Jose Enamorado Cuesta? 

Mr. Ortiz. I did. I was the inspector assigned to examine his bag- 
gage on his coming in from Europe. 

Mr. Arens. He was arriving here from Europe ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Aboard what vessel was he arriving ? 

Mr. Ortiz. The steamship Antilles. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own words what property you inspected 
that was being brought into Puerto Rico by Jose Enamorado Cuesta. 

Mr, Ortiz. As a matter of fact, he only had two baggages, one small 
valise full of books, periodicals, magazines, and very little, if any, 
wearing apparel. So I had to look through all of them. 

Mr, Arens. Do you have here in the courtroom today some of the 
material which Jose Enamorado Cuesta was bringing into Puerto 
Rico ? 

Mr. Ortiz. That is part of it. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly display some of it before the com- 
mittee now and tell us what it is? 

Mr. Ortiz. Well, if I can, because this is mostly in foreign lan- 
guage, Chinese, Russian, Hungarian, French, so I couldn't verv well 
tell. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description of it, please, sir. 

Mr. Ortiz. Well, these are all periodicals and books wdth neAvs of 
meetings and gatherings of foreign people in foreign countries. 



1636 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. I have one I have just taken from a box entitled "Soviet 
Woman." Was that part of the material which you inspected ? 

Mr. Ortiz. That is right. 

Mr. Akens. Here is another one entitled "Soviet Books." Here is 
another one entitled "The Rise of the Chinese People's Communes," 
by Anna Louise Strong. 

Are all of these periodicals and books which I am now taking from 
this box part of the material which you inspected when Jose 
Enamorado Cuesta was coming into San Juan some few months ago ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Yes, they are all, and there are some more around here. 
There should be more. 

Mr. Arens. There are others, but these are typical illustrations of 
the material ? 

Mr. Ortiz. They are. 

Mr. Arens. The other is in like character, is it not? 

Mr. Ortiz. They are. 

Mr. Arens. We have here "China Reconstructs," which tells about 
the operations in Communist Red China, June of 1959. We have one 
here "USSR — Lenin's Ideas." We have one about North Korea. We 
have others in like vein. But all of this material was material which 
you inspected ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Which I took from the passenger. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to that material, I have two documents 
which I want to be sure that you give careful attention to as I present 
them to you. Here is a document in Spanish which I would like to 
direct to your attention. It is a diary covering some months. 

Was tliat part of the property being brought into San Juan in the 
custody of Enamorado Cuesta which you inspected ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Yes, it was part. 

(See Enamorado Cuesta Exhibit No. 1, pp. 1643-1649.) 

Mr. Arens. This second document consists of the minutes of a 
meeting in Moscow. It is in a foreign language which we have had 
translated. These minutes tell of a meeting in Moscow in which was 
formed a new international organization for the purpose, according 
to the minutes, of penetrating all the Spanish-speaking countries of 
this hemisphere. 

Was this document which I now display to you part of the material 
which you inspected in the custody of Enamorado Cuesta ? 

Mr. Ortiz. It is. 

(See Enamorado Cuesta Exhibit No. 2, pp. 1649-1652.) 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Arens, may I ask when did the minutes of that 
meeting indicate that it was held in Moscow ? 

Mr, Arens. This year, in 1959 ; Moscow, 1959. 

Now, Inspector, did a representative of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, in due process of law, serve upon you what we 
call in the law a sub]:>ena duces tecum, pursuant to which you trans- 
ferred custody of certain of these documents to the committee for 
committee purposes? 

Mr. Ortiz. I didn't receive anything. 

Mr. Arens. Well, that was served on your superior officer, then ? 

Mr. Ortiz. It might have been. 

Mr. Arens. And did you know we have had these documents 
translated ? 

Mr. Ortiz. I did have knowledge. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1637 

Mr. SciiERER. Before we go any further, wliere did this man from 
whom you seized this material come from ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Europe. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know what country in Europe he came from ? 

Mr. Ortiz. Well, the ship on which he arrived sailed from Vigo, 
Spain. That is the last port in leaving Europe. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat was the name of that ship? 

Mr. Ortiz. Antilles. 

Mr. Scherer. Under what nation does it sail? 

Mr. Ortiz. French. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I have in my hand at the present time 
the return of the subpena duces tecum which was served by a repre- 
sentative of the Committee on Un-American Activities on the Col- 
lector of Customs at San Juan, Puerto Rico, pursuant to which cus- 
tody of a number of these documents which were in the possession of 
Enamorado Cuesta were transferred — custody was transferred to the 
Committee on Un-American Activities. I respectfully suggest that 
the subpena itself and the return of the subpena, be incorporated by 
reference in this record. 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Ortiz Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions. 

Thank you, sir, 

Mr. Tuck. We thank you very much, Mr. Ortiz. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, sir, will be Jose Enam- 
orado Cuesta. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Would you raise your right hand ? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you shall give before this 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I do. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully want to convey 
to you that the witness at this time has informed me that he doesn't 
have enough of a command of English to understand exactly the 
nature of the questions. 

Mr. Arens. We have brought with us an official translator who has 
been sworn on this record. 

Mr. Tuck. We have an interpreter from the State Department. 

Did I understand that he answ^ered the oath in the affirmative? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the interpreter 
be requested to seat himself near the witness so that he may interpret 
into Spanish the English questions and into English the Spanish 
response. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. I would respectfully request at this time, if it 
does not inconvenience the committee, as far as we are concerned it is 
perfectly all right for the interpreter to remain where he is, and I 
am sure it will be better because he is half away from you and half 
away from us, and at the same time it will be much better for us to 
communicate with the witness. 



1638 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO EICANS 

Mr. Arexs. That is perfectly all right. 

Xow, ]Mr. Chairman, so that there will be no question of this wit- 
ness being administered an oath, I respectfully suggest that the chair- 
man cause an oath to be administered to him via the translator who 
has already been sworn in this record, made in New York City, to 
truly and correctly make his translations and interpretations. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand ? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
in this case will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. ExAMORADO CuESTA. All the truth. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSE ENAMORADO CUESTA, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ AND GERARDO ORTIZ DEL 
RIVERO (DONALD F. BARNES, INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, occupation, and resi- 
dence. 

Mr. ExAMORADO CuESTA. I wisli to consult my counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Arens, in what language is this publication that 
was seized from this witness, that is, the minutes of the meeting? 

Mr. Arexs. In Spanish. We have it translated into English. 

Mr. ExAMORADO Cuesta. My name is Jose. Actually, my surname 
is Enamorado. My first surname and the maternal surname is Cuesta. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by tlie (Committee on Tin-American 
Activities ? 

May I interrupt to ask if you are reading from a prepared state- 
ment ? 

Mr. ExAMORADO Cuesta. No, Senor 

Mr. Scherer. Did he say "No, Senor," to Mr. Arens' question? 

Mr. ExAMORADO Cuesta. I have respectfully come here in response 
to that subpena befoi-e this subcommittee, but I would like to say at 
the outset that I will refuse to answer any and all questions that are 
posed to me by the members of this committee because I believe that 
this committee has no jurisdiction in Puerto Rico, nor any moral force 
of any kind. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you understand the English language ? 

Mr. ExAMORADO Cuesta. Some. 

I respectfully refuse to answer that question because I refuse to 
accept the jurisdiction of this committee in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arexs. You are represented by counsel in tliis proceeding? 

Mr. ExAMORADO Cuesta. I respectfully give the same answer as I 
did in the previous question. 

Mr. Sciierer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you dii-ect the Avitness to 
answer tlie question if he is represented by counsel. 

Mr. Tuck. I respectfully order and direct the witness to answer the 
question. Without making any threat or doing anything to intimi- 
date the witness, I feel it is my duty to warn him that he may find 
himself involved in a serious criminal matter by reason of liis con- 
tempt before a committee of the Congress of the United States. 

In respect to the question that he raised regarding jurisdiction, if 
there is any merit at all to that question it will ultimately, of course. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1639 

have to be decided by (lie court. This coininittoe o\eri(des the 
objection. 

Tlie ishmd of Puerto Kico was ceded to the United States as a result 
of tlie Avar with Spain in 1898. In 1917 by the Jones Act, and inci- 
dentally, a con<>;ressnuiii from the Connnonwealth of Vir<>;iiiia, from 
Avhich I come, o-ave them citizenship, and in 1952, by a unilateral 
compact and agreement between the United States and Puerto Kico, 
they became a commonwealth, and received their independence but 
became a commonwealth, ahhongh nevertheless a part of the United 
States. 

Their Governor attends the Governors' conferences of the United 
States. The last National Governors' Conference was held here in 
San Juan in Puerto Rico. This committee has held hearings all over 
the United States. We held hearings in Hawaii some years ago, and 
Hawaii occupied a status at that time not dissimilar to the status now 
occupied by Puerto Rico. 

In the light of those statements, the Chair again orders and directs 
the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Enamokado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answer this ques- 
tion because I maintain and insist that this committee has no jurisdic- 
tion to hold this investigation, and this is supported by the statement 
which I have already handed to the committee in writing. 

Mr. Tuck. Let me interject that the committee does not accept the 
excuses which he has given. On the contrary, it rejects them. For 
the reasons heretofore stated by me, I again order and direct the wit- 
ness to answer the question. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully insist on my position that 
the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the 
reason that I have already outlined in the written statement already 
submitted to the committee. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you noM', this minute, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully wish to give the same an- 
swer that I gave to the previous question. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request the witness now^ 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether or not he 
is now, this minute, a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair rejects and does not accept the reasons as- 
signed by the witness for not answering that question, and the Chair 
orders and directs the witness to answ^er the question. 

The Chair warns the witness that he may find himself involved in 
serious trouble with the courts and wdth the Department of Justice 
of the Ignited States for his failure to answer that question. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. With all due respect, Mr. Chairman, my 
answer to this question is the same as it was to the previous one. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I am going to request tlie interpreter or 
translator to read an article from a recent issue, October 1959 issue, of 
a Communist publication published here on the island of Puerto Rico. 
This publication is entitled '•'■PuehloP I am going to ask the inter- 
preter to read one little article running about the equivalent of a 
normal half page. 

I am going to ask him to translate it from the Spanish in which it 
appears, into English, and then I am going to lay the Spanish original 
publication before your eyes for you to read. 



1640 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Now, Mr. Interpreter, please read this article beginning as marked 
in Pueblo of October 1959. 

Mr. Barnes. The magazine is called Pueblo^ wliich is, in English, 
"People." The date it bears is October 1959. The title of the article 
says "Enamorado Cuesta Becomes a Member of the Communist 
Party." Then it bears a subtitle, "The entire press of the country has 
received a copy of this resolution of the Puerto Kican Communist 
Party. Due to its importance, we published it in its entirety as it has 
been requested of us." 

Jose Enamorado Cuesta, 68 years old, is known in Puerto Rico and in the 
world because of Ms literary works as a writer, a poet and a newspaperman, 
because of Ms selfless patriotic struggle of 17 years in his newspaper Puerto 
Rico Libre 

Which means Free Puerto Rico — 

because of his untiring struggle for the independence of Puerto Rico, for social 
justice and world peace, for which reasons he has been unjustly persecuted and 
jailed. 

Enamorado is a veteran of the anti-Fascist war which the Spanish people 
waged in defense of the Spanish Republic. He has always been an admirer 
and defender of the struggles of liberty of the colonial peoples and those who 
are in a semi-colonial status of democracy for the great working masses of 
Soviet power and of socialism. 

For a long time he played an outstanding part in the ranks of the Puerto 
Rican Nationalist Party in Puerto Rico and abroad. His ideological prepa- 
ration befits that of a national revolutionary patriot who is honest. His past 
ideological instability has given rise to the fact that some of his friends pointed 
out that he was a nationalist, others as a Communist, and others as an an- 
archist. 

In spite of these concepts, all of these people will esteem him, respect him 
and express towards him some sort of solidarity. This is the Enamorado 
Cuesta who deserves this resolution to admit him into the ranks of the Puerto 
Rican Communist Party. 

In making his request for admission, Enamorado Cuesta has expressed a 
great desire to better assimilate the Marxist-Leninist theory in order to more 
effectively serve the working class in its struggle for the independence of Puerto 
Rico, for the highest standard of living of the great working masses for world 
peace, and for the eventual establishment of a Socialist system in our country 
which will guarantee the broadest democracy and prosperity to the Puerto 
Rican people. 

He accepted with pleasure the constructive criticisms made by some comrades. 
In his self-criticism, he pointed out the origins of his ideological preparation, 
his effort to become a Marxist and a member of the party, and the desire to 
make further political progress. 

In admitting Enamorado Cuesta to the ranks of the Puerto Rican Commu- 
nist Party, all of its members congratulate him warmly and at the same time 
feel great joy because of having among their ranks such an outstanding intel- 
lectual. 

The entrance of Jose Enamorado Cuesta to our party should stimulate the 
entrance to our ranks of other honest Puerto Rican patriots who occasionally 
assume Marxist positions but who have stayed outside of the party. 

San Juan, Puerto Rico, October 16, 1959, Puerto Rican Communist Party. 

Juan Santos Rivera, President. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I am going to lay before you, as I promised 
to do, the original document from which the interpreter just trans- 
lated into English from this Communist publication, Puehlo, October 
1959. 

Please, in your own tongue, Spanish, read this publication and 
tell us whether or not the facts recited there respecting your mem- 
bership in the Communist Party are true and correct. 

Mr. SciiERER. I don't see how he can listen to the translator when 
he is talking to his counsel. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1641 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Would you wait a moment? 

Mr. Barnes. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I wish permission to again consult my 
counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Certainly, at any time. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully insist on the answer I gave 
to the preceding question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee again wishes to state that they do not 
accept, but on the contrary reject, the reasons which he gave for not 
answering the question, and again orders and directs him to answer 
that question. 

Mr. ENAMORiVDO Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, I would like to save time 
for this committee, and I say this with all due respect and for all 
of the persons who are present here, and insist on the reply that 
I gave to the previous question, and also insist, Mr. Chairman, that 
I will give the same reply to all other questions that are posed to me. 

Mr. Arens. May it be understood, then. Counsel for the Witness, 
that the Chair and the committee insist upon an answer to each of 
these questions which we are posing to the witness because, in the 
judgment of the committee, the information is vital for committee 
purposes in assembling factual information to be used by the commit- 
tee in its legislative objectives as a committee of the United States 
Congress. 

Mr. Tuck. The director will proceed to examine the witness. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Excuse me, Mr. Chairman. Am I to under- 
stand that that question is addressed to me by counsel for the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; if you please. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Should I answer his question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Tuck. No. Under the rules of this committee, your sole func- 
tion as counsel is to advise your client. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Your Honor, I posed the question to you 
whether I should answer it, because the staff director made it to me 
and I wanted to know if he had the authority to pose the question 
to me. 

Mr. Arens. I will accept the responsibility for that, Mr. Chairman. 
I may have misled, erroneously, the counsel. The witness, as I under- 
stood via the interpreter, was requesting a curtailment of his rather 
lengthy answer, that he would just say "The same answer," and obvi- 
ate the necessity for reading this paper before him in response to 
each question. 

I wanted to be sure that his counsel understood that, and that 
counsel also understood that the committee was insisting upon replies 
to the questions, and that by agreeing to the witness just saying the 
words "same answer" rather than reading a lengthy statement, the 
committee was not in any sense waiving its right to insist upon an 
answer. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Your Honor, may I at this point convey to 
the committee that the witness has repeatedly stated respectfully that 
he declines to answer any question posed by this committee on the 
grounds that this committee has no jurisdiction to conduct this in- 



1642 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

vestigation, as stated, for the reasons which he conveyed, to the com- 
mittee in the statement which has already been jfilec! with the com- 
mittee. 

The statement by the witness was to the eti'ect that he respectfully 
wanted to consider yonr time, and he didn't want the committee to 
lose time by making him two, four, eight, 100 questions, when he 
has respectfully repeated to the committee 

IVIr. Arens. We understood tliat. We want to be certain that the 
committee is not in a position of agreeing to waive its rights to an 
answer, because this committee insists upon answers to these questions, 
and we didn't want the committee to be jilaced in the position of a 
waiver. 

Mr. Tuck. This committee is thoroughly accustomed to the ob- 
jections which the witness and his counsel have raised. They are 
respectfully overruled. The counsel will proceed to examine the wit- 
ness. 

Mr. Arens. Witness, what was your last service for the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, if they could translate that 
for the witness, your last statement, so that he can have the benefit 
of your statement. 

]\Ir. Tuck. The interpreter will repeat what I said, in Spanish. 

(The translation was delivered by the interpreter.) 

Mr. Arens. My question is, ]Mr. Witness, what was your last service 
that you have performed for the Comn^unist Party? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully insist, Mr. Chairman, on 
my reply to the previous question. It is the same reply. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that your last service to 
the Communist Party occurred in the course of the last few hours, 
when you were participating in a picket demonstration against the 
Committee on Un-American Activities here in San Juan. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta, With all due respect, Mr. Chairman, my 
reply is the same one I gave to the previous question. 

Mr. Arens. And you understand, Mr. Witness, that the committee 
insists in this question, as well as all questions, on its right to an 
answer ? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, my reply is the same as 
the one I gave to the other questions, 

Mr, Arens, Did you make known to your fellow demonstrators 
that your participation, at least in that demonstration, was as a mem- 
ber of that conspiratorial organization known as the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta, With all due respect, Mr. Chairman, my 
reply is the same as the one I gave to the previous question. 

Mr. Arens. And I want the witness, if you please, sir, to under- 
stand. Counsel, that the committee insists upon an answer to that 
question. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Excuse me ? 

Mr. Arens, I want the witness to please understand that the com- 
mittee insists upon an answer to that question. 

]\Ir. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs the witness to answer the 
question, 

]\Ir. Enamorado Cutesta, Mr, Chairman, with all due respect, I am 
not going to change my answer to your questions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1643 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you, Mr. Witness, a docuinent [diary] 
which has been identified by the United States Customs Inspector a 
few moments ago as a document intercepted by liim from you a few 
months ago when you Avere an-iving here at San Juan with a number 
of documents. 

Please look at this document and tell this committee whether or not 
the testimony of the inspector identifying this document is true and 
correct. 

Mr. ExAMORADo CuESTA. I glve the same reply I gave to the ])re- 
ceding questions, JNIr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ahexs. My. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the chairman 
now again order the witness — and direct the witness to answer this 
question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee orders and directs the witness to answer 
(his question. The committee does not accept the reasons which he 
has given for not answering the question. The committee feels it 
should again warn the witness of the fact that he may find himself in 
serious difficulties with tlie Department of Justice of the United 
States by reason of his failure to answer these questions. 

Mr. ExAMORADO CuESTA. Mr. Chairman, I also respectfully refuse 
to answer this question because I feel that this committee does not have 
the jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the reasons that I have 
already given the committee in a written statement. 

Mr. 'Arexs. Xow, Mr. Witness, I have in my hand an English trans- 
lation of this diary. I expect to interrogate you with reference to 
each of several items entered in the diary. It is a diaiy of J. Enamo- 
rado Cuesta, 1959. 

Mr. Witness, on Januaiy 1, 1959, in the diary as it is translated, you 
make reference to a contact which you have with a man by the name 
of Compostila, who is described by yourself in the diary as one of your 
comrades in the Spanish war. Based upon that item of information, 
I now ask you did you participate in the Spanish Civil War? 

Mr, ExAMORADO CuESTA. Rcspectfully, Mr. Chairman, I refuse to 
to answer this question for the same reasons I gave in refusing to 
answer the previous question. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Now, 5lr. Interpreter — I respectfully request the chair- 
man, if you please, by the interpreter, to inform the witness, so that 
there will be no possible slip, of the insistence of the connnittee on 
answers to these questions, that the committee insists on an answer 
to each and every one of these questions. 

We don't want the witness to be in a ludicrous position in reference 
to ever}" answer of going through a lot of words here. I respectfully 
suggest that any reasonable person would translate the position of this 
committee as an insistence for answers on each of the questions we are 
posing to the witness. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair wishes to inform the witness that the com- 
mittee insists upon his giving a direct answer to each and every 
question that is asked, and whether or not the insistence is made at 
his failure to reply to any particular question, the position of the 
committee, nevertheless, is that they insist that he give a tnie answer 
to each and every question that may be pro})ounded here. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, Mr. Chairman, I would also like to inform the 
witness via the interpreter that if in reference to any question which 
I have ])osed or intend to pose or do pose to the witness, he is uncer- 



1644 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

tain about the question or if he does not understand its relevancy or 
pertinency, we will be glad to explain it to him, because assuming 
that this proceeding finds its way into the courts, we do not want the 
witness to undertake to put the committee in the position of not mak- 
ing clear the pertinency or relevancy of any particular question. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair further wants to make certain that the 
witness understands he may inquire at any time as to the pertinence 
of any question that may be asked. He is free to confer with his 
counsel. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I would like to consult with my counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, may I respectfully submit at 
this time that in consideration of the many duties of this committee 
and the need which there is to save time for all of us, the committee 
has made distinctly clear in the record that it poses the witness a 
number of questions and the witness has repeatedly conveyed to the 
committee that he respectfully declines to answer the question on the 
ground that he challenges the jurisdiction of the committee to carry 
on this investigation. 

The committee has once and again, over and over, conveyed to the 
"witness that he is directed to answer the next question, and the witness 
has restated time and again that he does not answer the question 
because it is his position that the committee doesn't have jurisdiction. 

I do believe in due fairness to the committee and in due fairness 
to everyone concerned that the position has been made clear to the 
effect that it is just a question of challenging the jurisdiction, and 
that it will not be possible to elicit any answer from the witness, 
because he will restate time and again the position which he has made, 
I think, respectfully, distinctly clear, that he does not believe that 
this committee has jurisdiction to conduct the investigation. 

Therefore, I respectfully submit that as far as keeping on with the 
examination is concerned, it would, in a certain way, be a waste of our 
time because he has respectfully submitted that the committee has no 

i'urisdiction, has no power, within the law, to elicit any answers from 
lim. 

Therefore, in a way, the best thing probably would be to admit 
that the witness doesn't recognize the jurisdiction of this committee 
and that, therefore, he refuses, as he has refused in the past, to an- 
swer the questions which have been posed to him and any more that 
may be posed to him, with due respect. That is his position. 

Mr. Tuck. We can well understand the position taken by the wit- 
ness and by his counsel and the committee has already ruled on 
that. 

Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. "Witness 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. May I convey to the witness what has just 
transpired ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, I direct your attention to two entries 
in your diary, one on January 3 and the other on January 4, in which 
you state that a group of Yankee pacifists arrived in San Juan, 
and that you and Manuel Arroyo called on this group of Yankee paci- 
fists and had certain sessions with them. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1645 

Will you now recount to the committee the facts and circum- 
stances surrounding the session which you and Manuel Arroyo had 
in January with this group which you have described in the diary 
as Yankee pacifists, who arrived here in San Juan in Januai-y? 

Mr. Enamokado Cuesta. With all due respect, IVfr. Chairman, my 
answer is the same one that I gave to the preceding question. 

Mr. Arens. Is Manuel Arroyo in truth and in fact Manuel Arroyo 
Zeppenfeldt, of the Communist Party of Puerto Rico? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Cliainnan, I didn't understand the 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. My reply is the same, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention to an entry in your diaiy 
of Januaiy 26, 1959, in which you speak of sending an emissary to 
Havana, Cuba. I ask you now if the emissary who was sent on or 
about January 26, 1959, from San Juan to Havana, Cuba, was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of Puerto Rico, who was sent on a 
mission of the conspiracy ? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. The same reply, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. I invite your attention to an entry of February 10, 
1959, in your diary, and of March 2, 1959, and of March 17, 1959, in 
your diary, in which you tell of the solicitation for funds to finance a 
mission to Stockholm, Sweden. 

Please tell this committee while you are now under oath the facts 
and circumstances pursuant to which you solicited and collected, ac- 
cording to your diary, several hundred dollars to finance a mission 
from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to a meeting in Stockholm, Sweden. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Respectfully, Mr. Chairman, my reply is 
the same. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention to an entry in your diaiy of 
April 23, 1959, in which you state that "We left San Juan on the 
20th at noon aboard the Antilles, headed for Paris," and which you 
follow with a number of items in succeeding days respecting what 
you are going to do when you arrive in Stockholm. 

Please tell this committee the facts and circumstances, in toto, which 
are reflected by these item entries in your diary. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. With all due respect, Mr. Chairman, I 
would like to give the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention to an entry in your diary 
of April 28, 1959, specifically to this language: 

We were sailing all day and arrived at Le Havre at 5 p.m. There, two 
French comrades were waiting for me at the pier, one of them speaking Spanish 
very well — as he was born in Spain — by order of the Vice President of the 
Conseil National, Mr. Souccer. I continued my trip to Paris by train and we 
arrived at 10 p.m. I registered at the "Hotel du Casino" at 41, ru de Chichi, 
just a step from the Council, by recommendation of my comrade at Le Havre. 

Please tell this committee while you are under oath the facts and 
circumstances, and the facts in toto, which are itemized on this entry 
of your diary for April 1959. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. My reply is the same, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite vour attention to an entry in your diary 
of May 1, 1959. 

Today was a big day in Paris. The P.O. [Communist Party] held a big mass 
meeting at the "Bourse des Travailleurs" [Labor Exchange] and there was an 



1646 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

enormous crowd iu front of the building on the big square there — * * * Maurice 
Thorez, the Secretary-General of the CGT, spoke, who closed the meeting, and 
two or three other speakers. It ended at 6 p.m. or at 18 :00 o'clock as they say 
here. I was there and said hello to many comrades and bought the newspapers 
they were selling. I cabled Arroyo today [saying] only "O.K." 

Please tell this committee whether or not the facts and circumstances 
recited in this diary are true and correct, and please give the committee, 
while you are under oatli, a complete account of the facts respecting 
your sojourn in Paris in contact with the Communist conspiracy 
there. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully insist on giv- 
ing the same answer tliat I gave to the previous question. 

Mr. Arens, Now, I invite your attention to your diary of May 2, 
in which you state that : 

This morning I called at L'Humanite and gave them my books — * * * also 
a copy, in Spanish, of my Message to the [Peace] Congress. * * * 

Please tell the committee while you are under oath the complete 
facts and circumstances of your call at this Communist entity in 
Paris. 

Mr, Enamokado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully refuse to 
answer this question for the same reasons that I refused to answer 
the ]3revious questions. 

Mr. Arens. Now, in summary, on a number of items, I invite your 
attention to entries made during tlie course of the montli of May, in 
which you state that you had now arrived at Stockholm, Sweden, 
and in which you tell of sessions in which you have been engaged 
with Chinese, Vietnamese, Latin Americans, and others, and in which 
you tell in detail of certain sessions in which you partici])ated in a 
conference there with others. 

Please tell this committee while you are under oath the complete 
facts and circumstances of these sessions. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answer, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention in all earnestness to an 
entry made on May 9, 1959, in which you recite, among other things, 
as follows : 

This morning I received a cable from Puerto Rico, announ<?ing a shipment, 
by registered mail, of a "Single Message" as they said, with vitally important 
questions which cannot be put off. 

And on which entry you likewise say — 

Today, Vadim Palekovsky, a young man from the Soviet Union and Spanish 
interpreter, invited me to record a talk by me, for Latin America, over Radio 
Moscow, which I did with great pleasure, and I sent him the rest on imi>erialism. 

While you are under oath, sir, please tell this committee the facts 
and circumstances of this session, particularly of your session with the 
man from the Soviet TTnion and the facts and circumstances of the 
broadcast whicli you made to be beamed to Latin America. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I refuse to answer, Mr. Chairman, for the 
same reasons that I gave in refusing to answer all of the preceding 
questions. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention to two entries, one made on 
May 18, and one on May 14,'tlie one of tlie VMh stating, ''Afterwards 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1647 

there was a nieetinfr,*' this being in Stockholm, "of the Latin Aineri- 
cans," and on May l-ith — 

I shall go to the U.S.S.R. ! It spenis like a dream! The comrades were very 
nice. They are paying my expenses from here, their home, to Moscow and 
back. I will be the tirst I'uerto Ricau sent on any mission. 

Now please tell this committee what mission it was that the comrades 
Avere sendmg: you on bej^inning on May 14. 

Mr. ExAMORADo CuESTA. I respectfully decline to answer, Mr. 
Chairman, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Xoav, ^Nlr. Witness, if there is one word, one line, one 
implication, one sugo-estion, in anythino- that I have said, as I have 
commented in interpreting your diary thus far, })lease deny it now 
Avhile you are under oath and correct me. 

Mr. Ena]morado Cuesta. I refuse to answer, Mr. Chairman, for 
the same reasons for which I refused to answer the preceding 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Xow, Mr. Witness, I invite your attention to entries 
in the middle of May, in which j^ou state, going from Stockholm to 
Helsinki, Finland, that you have gone from there, and you state: 

The "Intourist" agent received me, who had wired my departure to Moscow 
and would not let me pay the fare. 

And on May 19 : 

We arrived at Moscow at 1 p.m. I was received by Comrade Alexis Alexandro- 
vich Rabiuoskij, in perfect Spanish, who took me to the Hotel Ykpahz and put 
me in a luxury suite on the 9th floor overlooking Moscow. 

Please tell us the facts and circumstances indicated by these entries 
in your diary. 

Mr. Sciierer. This happened in May ; is that right? 

Mr. Arens. May 1959 ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And Khrushchev was here 5 months later, in 
September. 

5lr. Enamorado Cuesta. I refuse to answer this question, Mr. 
Chairman, for the same reasons I gave in refusing to answer the 
preceding ones. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to direct a question to our counsel, 

Mr. Arens, is this witness a citizen of the United States ? Does our 
investigation di.sclose him to be a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir, because as we will hope to show in a few 
moments, he has attained a United States passport. 

Mr. Sciierer. Let me ask you: What does the Constitution say 
constitutes treason ? Isn't it giving aid and comfort to the enemy in 
time of war ? 

Mr. Arens. The Constitution describes treason as giving aid and 
comfort to the enemy in time of war; yes, sir. 

Mr. Sciierer. We are not engagecl in an aggressive, shooting war, 
but certainly we are engaged in a cold war. 

That is nothing to laugh about. This man's loyalty is being pur- 
chased with extravagant suites in Moscow by the Soviet Union, by 
the payment of his expenses, and I don't know how much more money 
he got. I have no hesitancy in saying what I said. I think his own 
words out of his own diary indict him. 

50974— 60— pt. 2 4 



1648 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, I invite your attention to a number 
of entries which I shall try to summarize : the latter part of May, in 
which you describe in your diary a number of meetings and sessions 
in which you participated in Moscow, and in which you describe 
other sessions in which you participated in other cities within the 
Soviet Union. I specifically invite your attention to an entry which 
you made in July, July 24, in which you recount receiving money 
from Puerto Eico, from Manuel, and certain correspondence which 
you had with him and certain remittances made by him. 

Please tell us the full name of this pei-son in Puerto Rico with 
the name of Manuel, with whom you had this correspondence while 
you were in the Soviet empire, and who was making financial re- 
mittances to you. 

Mr. Enamorado Ctjesta. I simply refuse to answer for the same 
reasons I gave in refusing to answer questions before, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, in your diary there is a complete lapse 
from May 28 mitil July 12. We observe from the testimony of the 
United States Customs Inspector that when you returned to the 
United States you had certain publications wliich obviously emanated 
from Red China. 

Without in any sense suggesting that we have concrete informa- 
tion on that, I am asking you whether or not in the period between 
May 28 and July 12, which is completely without entry in your diary, 
you traveled from Soviet Russia into Red China. Please answer that 
question. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Respectfully, Mr. Chairman, I refuse to 
answer this question for the same reason that I refused to answer the 
preceding ones. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, I am skipping in the diary a number 
of days, and I am inviting your attention to July 27 and succeeding 
days, when, according to the diary, you attended — you were again in 
Paris and attended what you described as a session of the Communist 
group of the National Assembly in Paris. 

Please tell the committee the entire facts and circumstances sur- 
rounding that attendance by yourself of a Communist group in Paris 
in July of this year. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully refuse to 
answer for the same reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I respectfully invite your attention to an entry of 
August 3. I shall read an excerpt from it and try to summarize fairly 
the remainder. You were then, according to the diary, I should inter- 
pose because I have skipped a number of days, in London. The fol- 
lowing appears on August ?> : 

I called at the offices of the Daily Worker today, where I was very cordially 
received and where I met C [Comrade] Carritt, foreign editor, who offered me all 
kinds of cooperation, even financial, which I refused, of course, and made an 
appointment for me for Wednesday. 

Please tell the committee the facts and circumstances surrounding 
your visit to the office of the Communist Daily Worker of London 
on August 3 of this year. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully refuse to 
answer for the same reasons sdven before. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1649 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention to an entry of August 5, 
1959: 

I wrote an article for the Daily Worker, which Carritt had requested, on 
Puerto Rico, the Caribbean, and Latin America. 

Can't you tell us about that article that you wrote for this Commu- 
nist publication? Tell us whether or not that article was in behalf 
of freedom or in behalf of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully, Mr. Chairman, refuse to 
answer for the same reasons that I refused to answer the previous 
questions. 

Mr. Arens. I invite your attention to an item of August 6, 1959, 
and an item of August 7, 1959. In the first of which you speak of 
sending articles to Moscow, sending articles to The Worker m New 
York, and in which you speak, wliile you are in London, of a visit of a 
member of a commission from Japan. 

Please tell the committee the entire facts and circumstances sur- 
rounding this itemized entry. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answer, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention to remaining articles dur- 
ing the month of August in which you speak of a session with a Com- 
rade Jean Cockbum, a comrade whom you describe as a comrade from 
Spain, and in which you describe sessions with certain youth who 
had been in attendance at the Communist Youth Festival in Vienna. 

I ask you now to tell this committee the entire facts and circum- 
stances surrounding those various conferences and sessions. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answer, Mr. Chair- 
man, for the same reasons I have given before. 

(Document marked "Enamorado Cuesta Exhibit No. 1" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, I am going to interrogate you with 
respect to an item which this committee deems to be of deadly im- 
portance to the free world. It is a transcript [of the minutes] of the 
founding meeting of the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cul- 
tural Cooperation With the Countries of Latin America. 

The translation from which I shall be interrogating you is a trans- 
lation of the document which was identified earlier today by an agent 
of the United States Customs Service as one of the documents which 
was taken from yourself as you arrived from abroad some few months 
ago seeking admission to Puerto Rico again. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, may I ask this question of our counsel ? 

Is this the dociunent to which we referred before as the minutes of 
this organizational meeting? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. I propose to interrogate the witness on the 
basis of a translation of the minutes of the meeting held in Moscow in 
1959, which minutes in the original Spanish language were seized from 
the custody of this witness when he sought entry with them into Puerto 
Rico some few months ago. 

Mr. Scherer. The original minutes seized, were they in typewriting 
or in handwriting ? 

Mr. Arens. The original minutes are right here in Spanish. 

Mr. Scherer. In typewriting or handwriting? Was the diary in 
handwriting ? 



1650 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. In the liandwritiiig, presumably, of the witness? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Barnes. Mr. Chairman, the counsel for the witness has asked 
for a translation of what has been said. 

Mr. Tuck. Go ahead. 

( The translation was delivered by the interpreter. ) 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I would like to consult with my counsel, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tuck, You may. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answer this ques- 
tion, believing that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this in- 
vestio-ation for the reasons that 1 have already mentioned in my writ- 
ten statement. 

Mr. Arens. Xow, Mr. Witness, you can serve — and we say this 
Avithout any apology to a living soul — you can serve the cause of the 
freedom of the West if you will now- tell this committee all facts and 
circumstances in your possession respecting a session held in Moscow 
of the founding ineeting of the Soviet Association of Friendship and 
Cultural Cooperation AVith tlie Countries of Latin America. 

Will you now- impart to this committee in this public record, while 
you are on free soil, all information you have respecting the estab- 
lishment of that international organization? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully refuse to 
answer for the same reasons that I gave in refusing to answer the pre- 
ceding question. 

Mr. Scherer. I think I should make this observation for the wit- 
ness. If he has any fear of reprisals from the Soviet secret police — 
wait a minute — if he has any fear of reprisals from the Soviet secret 
police for what he might tell us, he might as well forget alx)ut that 
because already by his doing what he did, keeping this diary and al- 
lowing it to fall into the hands of the TTnited States authorities, and 
by doing what he did insofar as the minutes of this Communist meet- 
ing in Moscow is concerned, if I were he I w^ould not be so concerned 
as to what the Department of Justice might do in the way of contempt, 
but I would be concerned with what his Russian comrades are going 
to do for his foolishness in doing what he did insofar as this diary 
is concerned. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answ^er, Mr. Chair- 
man, for the same reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. Xow, I invite your attention, Mr. Witness, to state- 
ments made in this meeting. A man wiiose name I will have difficulty 
in pronouncing, but wdio is designated in the minutes as Deputy, 
Supreme Soviet, USSR, in wdiich he states that : 

* * * the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With the 
Countries of Latin Amerifa, which we are founding today, will take the necessary 
measures to initiate practical relations and contacts with the said organiza- 
tions * * *. 

Tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether or not it is or 
has been part of your assignment to develop the so-called initial, 
practical relations and contacts with certain organizations on behalf 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1651 

of the international Communist conspiracy's efforts through this So- 
viet Association of Friendship and Cultural ('ooperation. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I would like to consult with my counsel. 

(The Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Could I have the question repeated in English ? 
There is some data, and I don't know if it is correct. 

Mr. SrnEKER. Mr. ( -haii-man, he is not going to answer the question. 
They say we have no jurisdiction. I don't see any reason for reading 
the question. 

]\Ir. Diaz Gonzalez. There have been made some references to a 
document and I want to know if we have a i-ight to inspect that 
document. 

Mr. ScHERER. I should say not. If he answers the question, we 
might let you look at it. 

Mr. Tuck. The counsel is entitled to liave the question read to his 
client again. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. Xow, Mr. Witness, in these minutes of this organization 
which w^as created in Moscow\ we see the list of the officers, including 
the Commission for the Caribbean Countries. Curiously enough the 
chairman of the Commission for the Caribbean Countries is listed in 
this document as Nikolay Mkolaevich Diakonov, of Moscow. 

Did you, while you were in Moscow^ this year, have a session or 
sessions, or do you have information respecting a session or sessions, 
held by the Commission for the Caribbean Countries of this new 
organization under the chairmanship of this man whose name I will 
spell for you, D-i-a-k-o-n-o-v? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I would like to consult with my counsel, 
please. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I respectfully refuse to answer this ques- 
tion for the same reasons for which I refused to answer the previous 
questions. 

Mr. Arens. Now. Mr. "Witness, according to tlie minutes of this or- 
ganization, the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooper- 
ation With the (^ountries of Latin America, the president of the 
association and 15 of the vice presidents all come from l)eliind the 
Iron Curtain. 

Can you tell us, while you are presently under oath, if you, while 
you were in Moscow on this mission reflected in your diary, were 
in session either with the president or any of the vice presidents, with 
reference to your function or activity or any function or activity of 
this organization, under this or any name, to be operated in the 
Caribbean ? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, with all due respect, I re- 
fuse to answer that question for the same reason I gave in refusing 
to answer the previous ones. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I have only two more questions. 

Question No. 1 is : To your certain knowledge, is the operation of 
this association, created according to these minutes in Moscow, part 
and parcel of this program which Mr. Fishman of the Customs Serv- 
ice described this morning as a $100 million operation by the Commu- 



1652 COJVDvIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

nist empire to penetrate the Spanish-speaking countries of this 
hemisphere ? 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Respectfully, Mr. Chairman, and for the 
same reasons I gave before, I refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I have one final question. 

This final question is : How did you come by these minutes of this 
organization created in Moscow this year, which minutes were lifted 
from your possession as you sought entry some few months ago in 
Puerto Eico? 

Mr. Enamorado Ctjesta. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion as I have the previous ones. 

(Document marked "Enamorado Cuesta Exhibit No. 2" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I owe an apology to counsel. I neg- 
lected to cause them to enter their appearance on this record. It was 
genuinely an oversight. I am sure the committee would appreciate 
it if you make yourselves known on this record, giving your identifica- 
tions and addresses. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. I am Abraham Diaz Gonzalez, 1556 Ponce de 
Leon, Santurce, with Gerardo Ortiz Del Rivero, 650 Ponce de Leon, 
Santurce; Manuel Abreu Castilla, San Francisco 361, San Juan; San- 
tos P. Amadeo, University of Puerto Rico ; Benicio Sanchez Castano, 
Ochoa Building, San Juan; Felix Ochoteco, Jr., Banco Popular, San 
Juan; and Pedro Munoz Amato, 1557 Ponce de Leon, Santurce, 
Puerto Rico. 

Mr. TiTCK. How many lawyers did the witness have ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Some did not appear today. They were all 
here this morning, but we didn't enter the appearance this morning. 

Mr. Tuck. I am not able to understand or speak Spanish, but I 
would like to know how many lawyers are representing this one 
witness. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. How many ? All of us. 

Mr. Tuck. How many ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. This afternoon the four of us were here. 

Mr. Tuck. Any other lawyers besides yourself ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes. As of counsel this morning, appeared 
eight lawyers. It is a large group of witnesses and we are assisting 
them. So some lawyers assist some witnesses, and some other wit- 
nesses. 

Mr. Tuck. The question I asked was how many represented one 
witness. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. You can have for the record that I represent- 
ed him with Mr. Del Rivero. 

Mr. Del Rivero. Both of us. 

Mr. Tuck. Counsel, have you other questions? 

Mr. Arens. No more questions of this witness, Mr. Chainnan 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Scherer, have you any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask the witness a num- 
ber of questions, but obviously he would refuse to answer my ques- 
tions, the same as he has refused to answer all questions up to this 
point. 

Therefore, I am going to make a statement and an observation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1653 

If anytliiiiG" I say in this observation or statement is untrue, then I 
am going to ask the witness to be given an opportunity to say in what 
respect what I say is not in accordance with the facts. 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. I would like to consult with counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Enamorado Cuesta. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully refuse to 
answer for the same reasons I refused to answer preceding questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. This morning at the beginning of the hearings, Mr. 
Chairman, it was pointed out that: the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee was a Communist-controlled and Communist-dominated 
organization, operating in the continental United States; that its 
chairman is an identified Communist presently under indictment; that 
its executive director, Clark Foreman, came to San Juan prior to these 
committee hearings; and that he followed the usual course that the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee has followed in going into 
cities prior to the committee hearings and organizing groups to protest 
the meetings of the committee and to attack the committee. 

In Pittsburgh, as well as some other cities, it was clearly shown by 
the evidence that Clark Foreman, who has been here in San Juan 
for the same purpose, met a number of days in advance with the wit- 
nesses who had been identified as Communists, with their lawyers, 
to prepare the testimony and to advise them how to act before this 
committee. He did this in addition to arranging for the protest meet- 
ings, the picketing, and the other things that take place when this com- 
mittee meets in order to disrupt the hearings. I pointed out that 
Foreman is not a Puerto Rican. 

Yesterday he issued a press release, which I have here from the local 
press. This release says the director of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee, Clark Foreman, of New York, said in San Juan this 
morning that the House Un-American Activities Committee, due to 
start here tomorrow, is in for a surprise. 

It is obvious that he has again been cooperating with the Commu- 
nists in preparing the demonstrations against the committee, in caus- 
ing the agitation that has taken place up to this point here in San 
Juan, 

The surprise, to which Foreman refers, of course, is obvious to all 
people, namely, that the witnesses are going to take the position of 
refusing to answer any questions of this committee on the ground that 
the committee had no jurisdiction to meet in Puerto Rico. That is 
the surprise, because heretofore it was supposed that the witnesses 
would invoke the fifth amendment in refusing to answer. 

I have been reliably informed by members of this Bar, reputable 
members of the Puerto Rican Bar, that this same Clark Foreman, 
representing this Communist organization, participated in the prepa- 
ration, again — you have heard him on your radio — participated in the 
preparation of the documents which were submitted to this committee, 
in which the witnesses argue the point that this committee has no juris- 
diction in the island of Puerto Rico. 

I think the people of Puerto Rico would resent the intrusion of such 
an organization into Puerto Rico and its participation in broadcasts, 
in advance of the committee's appearance. He has a perfect right to 
do what he has done, but I think people should know who he is. 



1654 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

what he is, what his history is, and what this committee which he 
represents is, so that the people of Pnerto Kico will not be fooled by 
the name of the committee, which is an appealing one, namely, the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, and so that they might better 
evaluate what he says. 

Mr. Del Rr-ero. Do I have permission to address the Chair ? 

I am one of the lawyers assigned by the Bar Association of Puerto 
Rico. I wish to state something because Congressman Scherer 
stated 

Mr. Tuck. If you have any statement to make, you can make it in 
writing and file it with counsel. 

Mr. Del Rivero. This is a question 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully beg your atten- 
tion for a minute. We are members of the Puerto Rican Bar, and 
we have appeared before this committee, sir, to assist the witnesses, 
without compensation, by designation by the president of the Puerto 
Rican Bar Association. 

I wish to afford this committee the benefit of testimony under oath. 
I am willing to take the oath right now and declare to this committee 
micler oath, so that I may be prosecuted for perjury, that this is a lie, 
that anyone who comes here to take 

Mr. Tuck. Let us have order. It is against the rules of this com- 
mittee to have any such demonstrations as that. If the Chair hears 
any more noises of that kind, he will request the marshal to empty 
the room. The counsel has made a statement in which he denies, and 
that is all. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Sir, I do know that you have a sense of fair- 
ness, and I tnist the sense of fairness of this committee. I wish to 
convey to you that I am ready with all my friends and lawyers who 
assisted me in the preparation of the briefs, to testify under oath that 
there was no assistance whatsoever. 

Mr. Tuck. As a member of the Bar of Puerto Rico, we will accept 
your statements for whatever they will be worth. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. I respectfully state I am glad this corrects 
the wrong reflection that would have reflected on the Board, on the 
Bar, and this committee. I do know you have a great interest in 
preser\dng the sense of fairness. 

Mr. Scherer. What I said I got from two outstanding, reputable 
members of this Bar, who told me what I just repeated. There is 
nothing wrong in your accepting the suggestions of anyone as to what 
you should or should not do. There is nothing wrong in that. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. I think lawyers should, when drafting a legal 
document and assisting in a professional capacity, should accept no 
assistance except from lawyei-s. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair understands that the counsel takes full re- 
sponsibility for the statements filed with the committee. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will come to order. 

Before we call the next witness, may the Chair say that he does not 
understand Spanish at all and does not understand very much the 
English spoken by some of those in the room, but I was informed by 
one of the members of the Puerto Rican Bar Association that these 
gentlemen appearing as counsel for the witnesses are appearing here 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1655 

without compensation and are representatives in the court of record 
of the Bar Association. 

1 l)aj)peii to bo a nieinbei- of the Viroinia Stale I>ai- Associatir)n for 
40 years and tlie American Bar Association. I wcnild like to say that, 
in my opinion, these gentlemen have conducted themselves in a man- 
ner that meets the standards, the highest standards, set by the tradi- 
tions and the histoi-y of the American Bar Association and the law- 
yers who are members of that association. 

I would like also to say that it is the policy of tliis committee when 
persons appear without counsel, and they wish counsel but are unable 
to employ counsel, that we always make an effort to see that they have 
the benefit of counsel provided for them by members of the Bar Asso- 
ciation where the committee may be sitting. 

In this case, these gentlemen appear here as representatives of the 
Bar Association for all these people. I want the official record t» 
show that, and I want them to know, as well as others present, that 
we appreciate the high professional ethics demonstrated by them on 
this occasion by reason of that act. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. JDel Kivero. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, on behalf of all my 
brother attorneys. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Manuel Arroyo Zeppenf eldt. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give this 
subcommittee of the House of Kepresentatives will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, at this time in this proceeding 
I wish to convey to the committee that the witness has informed me 
that although he can read English and understand a little bit, when 
spoken in tlie usual fashion in which this proceeding takes place, he 
has some difficulty in grasping the meaning of the sentences. 

At this point I beg the committee to be kind enough to follow the 
same procedure with the use of an interpreter as in the first case. 

Mr. Tuck. We will do that. But do I understand that he answers 
the oath in the affirmative? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppeneeldt. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MANUEL ARROYO ZEPPENFELDT, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ (DONALD F. BARNES, 
INTERPRETER) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Diaz Goxzaeez. May I have a 5-minute recess? I haven't 
talked to him. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, any time, we are ready. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppeneeldt. Manuel Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I live in 
K-7, Las Lomas, Rio Piedras, and I am a commission agent. 



1656 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a snbpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion because I maintain that this committee has no jurisdiction to hold 
this investigation for the reasons set forth in the written statement 
that I gave to the committee. 

]Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion because I maintain that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold 
this investigation for the reasons set forth in the written statement 
that I gave to the committee. 

]\rr. Arens. Counsel who is sitting next to the witness, will you 
kindly identify yourself for this record and will you be good enough 
to announce to the committee that you represent the witness? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes. My name is Abraham Diaz Gonzalez 
and I represent the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, a few minutes ago we concluded the testi- 
mony of Jose Enamorado Cuesta, at which time we interrogated him 
with respect to a trip which he made to Moscow, 

In the course of that interrogation, we asked him about certain con- 
tacts he had, certain correspondence, and exchange of information 
with a man described in his diary by the name of Manual Arroyo. 

I asked Mr. Enamorado Cuesta if the man described in this diary 
was yourself and he refused to answer. I now ask jou, sir 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Excuse me, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Let me complete my question. 

I now ask you, sir, were you, during the course of the last several 
months, in continuous or almost continuous contact in Moscow and 
other places behind the Iron Curtain, exchanging information with 
Jose Enamorado Cuesta ? 

You are reading now from a prepared statement ? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion because I maintain that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold 
this investigation for the reasons that I set forth in the written state- 
ment that I gave the committee. 

Mr. Arens. You are reading your response from a prepared state- 
ment ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I refuse to answer that question for the 
same reasons. 

]Mr. Arens. Are you the publisher or the printer of Pueblo, one of 
the Communist Party publications distributed in San Juan, Puerto 
Kico? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that 
question for the same reasons I gave a few moments ago to another 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Now, we display to you an original edition of Pueblo of 
October 1959, and ask you to kindly glance at it and tell this committee, 
while you are under oath, if it is not a fact that you are the printer 
or the publisher, producer, of that publication ? 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

]Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion for the same reasons I have set forth before. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1657 

Mr. Arens. Did you, on January 4, 1959, in concert with Jose 
Enamorado Cuesta, have a session in San Juan with a group which 
came from New York City ? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tuck. The reasons which you have given are not satisfactory 
to the committee. We do not accept them. We reject them. The 
committee, therefore, directs and orders you to answer the last pre- 
ceding question, as well as all of the questions which counsel has pre- 
viously asked you. 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. Without indicating any lack of respect 
for this committee, I should like to refuse to answer this question and 
any others which might be posed to me. 

iVIr. Arens. Are you now, this very instant, a member of that con- 
spiratorial force known as the Communist Party? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that 
question for the same reasons. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I move that you direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee does not wish to be repetitious, but in 
order that the record may be entirely straight in this matter — and 
feeling, too, tliat the committee wants to warn the witness that he may 
find himself involved in some future difficulties of a criminal nature 
with the United States Department of Justice with the record that is 
now being made up — it will most likely be referred to them to mle 
on such action as they may deem appropriate. In the light of the 
preliminary statements, the committee now informs the witness that it 
does not accept his reasons and, therefore, orders and directs him to 
answer the question. 

Does the witness still refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I do not want my answer to be inter- 
preted as a lack of respect for this committee, but I respectfully refuse 
to answer this and any other questions which might be posed to me 
for the same reasons that I presented in the written statement given 
to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. INIr. Witness, this morning, Mr. Irving Fishman, of 
the United States Customs Bureau, testified based upon a study of 
that agency, the international Communist operation now has a cam- 
paign developing, costing in the neighborhood of $100 million, for the 
purpose of attempting to condition and penetrate the Spanish-speak- 
ing countries of this hemisphere, and he testified about Communist 
propaganda which is being disseminated in this area. 

In the course of the last hour or so, we likewise interrogated a man 
who brought into this country minutes of the meeting fonning an 
international organization, in which minutes it speaks of the develop- 
ment of relationships between this international Communist organi- 
zation and groups of organizations all through Latin America. 

I ask you now, sir, while you are under oath, if you have firsthand 
information respecting that program of penetration by this Godless 
conspiratorial force known as international communism and its 
efforts to penetrate Spanish-speaking countries of this hemisphere. 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 



1658 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO EICANS 

tion because I maintain that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold 
this investigation for the reasons that I have set forth in my written 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. iSIr. Chairman, I resiDectfully suggest that the witness 
now again be ordered and directed to answer the question, and that 
he be advised that if he does not understand the pertinency or rele- 
vancy of the questions we shall be glad to explain them to him. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is advised that if he does not understand 
the relevancy or the purpose of the question which has just been asked 
him, which he declined to answer, we will be glad to explain it to him. 

The committee further warns the witness, without any thought of 
threatening him in any manner, what may happen to him if he refuses 
to answer. Tlie chairman of the committee now directs and orders the 
witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. Without indicating a lack of respect for 
this committee, I refuse to answer this question and any other ques- 
tions which might be posed to me for the reasons I have already given. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, Mr. Fishman testified this morning that 
Puerto Rico is now a nerve center for the transhipment of Communist 
Spanish propaganda to other Spanish-speaking countries of this hemi- 
sphere. 

I put it to you as a fact, sir, based upon information which has come 
to this committee from investigative sources that you are one of the 
architects of the dissemination of that Communist propaganda which 
comes via San Juan to other Spanish-speaking lands of this hemi- 
sphere. 

If that is not a fact, sir, deny it now, please, while you are under 
oath. 

Mr. Arroyo Zeppenfeldt. I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion because I maintain that this committee, has no jurisdiction to hold 
this investigation for the reasons set forth in my written statement 
given to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. ISlr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. We didn't proceed quite 
as fast this afternoon as we had originally anticipated. There are 
some witnesses who were subpenaed for appearance today whom we 
will not reach today. 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the Chair announce and 
order that all witnesses wlio were subpenaed for appearance today 
who have not been called will be required to be present tomorrow. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders all witnesses who have been subpenaed 
for today, and who have not been called, to appear here tomorrow in 
this room at 10 o'clock. 

The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow at 10 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 4 :48 p.m. Wednesday, November 18, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Thursday, November 19, 1959.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of recess: Kepre- 
sentatives Tuck and Scherer.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS IN 
NEW YORK CITY AND PUERTO RICO 

(San Juan, Puerto Rico — Part 2) 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Actiyities, 

San Juan^ Puerto Rico. 

public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 :45 a.m., in the United States Courthouse, 
Hon. William M. Tuck, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives William M. Tuck, of 
Virginia, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
Williams and William Margetich, investigators; Fulton Lewis III, 
research analyst. 

AJso present: Donald F. Barnes, senior interpreter. United States 
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will be in order. 

The committee recognizes ]\Ir. Arens. 

Mr. AlRens. Mr. Chairman, we would like at this time to call Mr. 
Emmanuelli Morales. The first name, as I have it, is Juan. Juan 
Emmanuelli Morales. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Excuse me — — 

Mr. Tuck. Come forward. 

Mr. Arens. Juan Emmanuelli Morales. 

Will the marshal or the deputy marshal page him in the corridors, 
please ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Emmanuelli was sub- 
penaed for the 19th, which is today, isn't it? And it was understood 
yesterday that those subpenaed for the 18th were to be taken up 

Mr. Arens. Do you represent Mr. Emmanuelli Morales? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Emmanuelli ; yes. Therefore, we have the 
witnesses left over from yesterday here this morning, the ones that 
were subpenaed for the 18th. We have some left. That is why Mr. 
Morales and some of the others that were subpenaed for today haven't 
arrived, because we were luider the impression that today we were 
going to take up the following, which were left over f rom^ yesterday 
after the chairman announced that those who were not taken up yes- 
terday were going to be taken up today. That is, Juan Santos Rivera. 

Mr. Arens. Will Mr. Emmanuelli Morales be here this afternoon ? 

Mr. Gonzalez. He will be here this afternoon. 

1659 



1660 COISIMUXIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Tuck. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, before calling the next witness, if it 
meets with the pleasure of the committee, in order that the importance 
of the work which the committee is undertakino- to do here, and which 
it had heretofore been undertaking to do in New York City, on the 
problem of the Communist drive in Latin America, I thought it would 
be well, as something more than a coincidence, that our record today 
reflect two or tliree items which appear in the current press. 

In the Miami Herald, which is issued under the date of Thursday, 
Xovember 19, 1959, we observe a headline "U.S. Told to Brace for 
Reds' Latin Drive," with a Washington dateline. 

The following appears among other items, on the front page of the 
Miami Herald : 

A study prepared for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee warned the 
U.S. Wednesday to brace itself for increased Russian efforts to infiltrate Latin 
America "for an indefinite period" ahead. The study, prepared by the Uni- 
versity of New Mexico, said the social revolution now in progress south of the 
border not only will continue but will speed up because the people of the area 
are determined to catch up with more advanced nations. "Because this social 
upheaval will offer new opportunities for the Communists to exploit, the Soviet 
Union will place increased energies into turning this revolution of rising expec- 
tations to their own imperialistic advantage," the study said. 

Mr. Arens. My purpose in directing this article to the attention of 
the committee is to have the record show that another group is like- 
wise concerned over the Red drive for Latin America. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that in this morning's Miami Herald ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. Before you get away from that first article, do I under- 
stand that is a report made up by a committee that is independent 
of this committee — by the Foreign Relations Committee of the United 
States Senate ? 

Mr. Arens. This is a report prepared for the Subconmiittee on 
American Republics Affairs, a subcommittee of the Senate Forei^ 
Relations Committee, which warns of this Red drive for Latin 
America. 

I shall not impose on the time of the committee to read all of the 
article. I respectfully suggest that this article, in toto, however be 
incorporated in the record. 

Mr. Tuck. So ordered. 

(Committee Exhibit ISTo. 1 follows :) 

[The Miami Herald, Thursday, November 19, 1959] 
U.S. Told to Brace for Reds' Latin Drive 

Warned of Social Pressure 
study sights tension hike 

Washington (UPI). — A study prepared for the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee warned the U.S. Wednesday to brace itself for increased Russian 
efforts to infiltrate Latin America "for an indefinite period" ahead. 

The study, prepared by the University of New Mexico, said the social revolu- 
tion now in progress soutli of the border not only will continue but will speed up 
because the people of the area are determined to catch up with more advanced 
nations. 

"Because tb.is social upheaval will offer new opportunities for the Communists 
to exi>loit. the Soviet Union will place increased energies into turning this 
'revolution of rising expectations' to their own imperialistic advantage," the 
study said. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1661 

"The U.S., whose security interests will thereby be increasingly threatened, 
will have to intensify its efforts to resist this challenge, and, as a result, the 
prospect is for an indefinite period of cold war tension in the Latin American 
area." 

The report was prepared by Miguel Jorrin and Edwin Lieuwen of the univer- 
sity's School of Inter-American Affairs. It was the first of several commissioned 
by the Foreign Relations subcommittee on American republic affairs. 

The group, headed by Sen. Wayne L. Morse (D. Ore.), is making a $150,000 
study of the U.S.'s hemispheric relations. Morse said the report did not neces- 
sarily reflect the subcommittee's views but that it would be used as a basis for 
study. 

llie study charged that U.S. relations with Latin America since World War II 
have been characterized, by too much emphasis on military aid, too little concern 
with the problem of dictators and inadequate economic aid. 

To correct these situations, the report recommended : 

"A disarmament program fm- Latin America and abandonment of the use 
of military programs as a means to win the political support of the Latin 
American military leaders." 

"The U.S., both in its aid program and general attitude, (should) make more 
distinction between high-handed military dictatorship and struggling civilian 
democracy." 

"The U.S. should develop long-range economic assistance policies, based less 
upon a concern for sound banking and. business principles . . . and more upon 
the value to the U.S. security system of Latin America's friendship and 
cooperation. 

State Department oflBcials made clear they did not share many of the views 
expressed by the study. They have found little enthusiasm, for example, for 
unilateral disai-mament in Latin America and think the U.S. would be hurt if 
it proposed disarmament. 

The authors of the report also recommended that the U.S. continue to abide 
by the principle of non-intervention in the affairs of its neighbor republics and 
adopt a stronger anticolonialist point of view. 

The study said a policy of promoting disarmament in the hemisphere "would 
draw Latin American public opinion to our side, relieve us of much of the onus 
of supporting unpopular governments and allow the savings on arms to be 
plowed into economically productive endeavors." 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the Miami Herald likewise — I will not 
impose upon the committee's time to read the entire article — today 
carries on its front paire ""Mexico Welcomes Mikoyan"; also ''Reds 
Open Drive For Cuban Labor.'' 

On the second page we observe an article from the Miami Herald 
which, of course, is not evidence ; it is not evidentiary in the legal sense, 
and yet it is something that ought to give us a sober approach to the 
work which this committee is trying to accomplish. 

Pravda, which, of course, is a Communist publication in Moscow, 
"points out Soviet-Latin amity." It gives a Moscow dateline and 
says "Soviet leaders were told Wednesday 'revolutionary battles 
in Venezuela, and the heroic struggle of the Cuban people for their 
independence' show that Latin America is awakening to a big thaw 
in its relations with the Communist world." 

Tliose of us whio have spent some period of their lives studying 
this international Communist operation and Communist jargon real- 
ize what they mean when they speak of a thaw in the relations of 
Latin America with the Communist world. 

I hope I have not unduly trespassed on the time of the committee 
by calling the committee's attention to these current articles from 
authoritative sources, respecting the same general subject matter 
which is the concern of this committee in this hearing. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee feels that the material is very pertinent 
and will, therefore, be incorporated by reference in the record. 



1662 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

(Articles marked ''Committee Exhibits Nos. 2, 3 and 4," and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Juan Saez Corales. 

Mr. Tuck. Does he speak English^ 

Will yon raise your right hand. Be sworn, please. 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Saez CoPw^vles. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JUAN SAEZ CORALES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ; SANTOS P. AMADEO; PRAXELES 
ALVEREZ LEANDRI; MAX GOLDMAN; AND MARCOS A. RAMIREZ 
(DONALD F. BARNES, INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Saez Cor^^les. My name is Juan Saez Corales. I live in Baya- 
mon, and I sell office equipment and connnercial machinery. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Saez Corales. Yesterday I submitted a written statement to 
the committee in which I expressed my conviction that I was appear- 
ing in these hearings as a courtesy to the Congress of the United 
States, but tliat because of the fact that the committee has no juris- 
diction to hold this investigation in Puerto Rico, I would respectfully 
refuse to answer this or any other question that might be posed to 
me during this hearing. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer that question as 
I did the preceding one. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. My name is Abraham Diaz Gonzalez. I am 
representing this witness with the counsel which are here which, to- 
gether with me, were designated by the Bar Association to represent 
him. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you represent him ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes. 

Mr. Tuck. Name the counsel appearing with you. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. I have Mr. Max Goldman, Professor Santos 
Amadeo, Mr. Marcos Ramirez and Mr. Praxeles Leandri, whose ad- 
dresses have been already stated for the record yesterday. 

Mr. Tuck. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Saez Corales, I expect, in the course of this inter- 
rogation, to pose a number of questions to you which this committee 
feels must be asked in order to attempt to elicit infonnation from you 
for the legislative purposes of this committee. 

If there is any question which I ask you which you do not under- 
stand, or concerning the pertinency or relevancy of the question to the 
subject under inquiry, please ask me about them and I will be glad in 
response to any question which you pose — indicating uncertainty or in- 
dicating a lack of comprehension of its relevancy or pertinency — to 
give you a complete, detailed explanation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1663 

Mr. Saez Corales. Kespectf ully, I once again refuse to answer this 
question in accordance with my already established position that this 
committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation. 

Mr. Arens. I am uncertain, Mr. Keporter, whether or not the wit- 
ness has given us his address, because of the language problem here. 
I am not certain I got it. Can you tell me whether or not your notes 
reflect his address ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. He lives at J-7, Lomas Verdes, Bayamon, 
Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, do you receive your mail at this address 
which the counsel has just announced into the record ? 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer once again be- 
cause I believe that tliis committee has no jurisdiction to carry out 
this investigaton. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of an applica- 
tion filed by yourself on December 22, 1953, with the United States 
postal authorities, soliciting a post office box, in which the records re- 
flect here was given to you, Box No. 2583, bearing your signature, 
Juan Saez Corales. 

Please look at this document which is now being displayed to you 
and tell this committee whether or not that is a true and correct repro- 
duction of the application filed by yourself for a post office box. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. At any time, whenever you want to consult your coun- 
sel, you just consult your counsel; consult all five of them, anytime 
you want to. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
that this committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the 
witness be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair feels at this point that it should advise the 
witness or warn him — or issue a proclamation of warning — to the ef- 
fect that he may endanger his own liberty or become involved in some 
serious matter with the Department of Justice of the United States 
if he persists in refusing to answer this question. 

After giving that warning, I order and direct the witness to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully would like to state for the record 
that I will not answer any questions posed during these hearings to me 
because I consider that this committee has no jurisdiction to hold these 
hearings. 

(Document marked "Saez Corales Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, are you now, this instant, a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer that question be- 
cause I consider that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold these 
hearings in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

50974— 60— pt. 2 5 



1664 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Tuck. The reasons assigned by the witness for not answering 
the question are insufficient and do not satisfy the committee. The 
committee, therefore, orders and directs the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully would like to state once again 
for the record that yesterday I presented a document to the committee 
giving the reasons why I believe that the committee has no jurisdic- 
tion to hold these hearings and, therefore, for the same reasons I 
respectfully refuse to answer any question that might be posed to me 
during these hearings. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, over the course of 2 years' time 
in the investigative techniques of this Committee on Un-American 
Activities, the committee has been able to ascertain the messages which 
have been received by you at this Box No. 2583, and some of the mes- 
sages that have gone in the other direction. 

I should like now to ask you specifically respecting certain messages 
and certain material — which from the investigative techniques of this 
committee — you have received from known international agents of the 
Communist conspiracy as a Communist functioning here in San Juan, 
Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer this and any 
other questions that might be posed to me during the course of these 
hearings because I consider that the committee has no authority to 
hold these hearings. 

Mr. Arens. First of all I should like to inquire if you have a recol- 
lection of receiving on January 8, 1958, a message destined to you at 
Box No. 2583 from Bucharest, Rumania. I am not speaking now of 
literature. I expect to get into that later. But a message, a directive, 
from Bucharest, Rumania, on January 8, 1958. Please respond to my 
question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. For the same reasons that I have already given, 
I would respectfully refuse to answer this question and any others 
that you may ask of me. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that on January 8, 1958, 
you as a Communist functionary in Puerto Rico received a directive 
from Bucharest, Rumania, received via Box No. 2583. 

If that is not a fact, please deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer this question for 
the reasons that I have already stated, that this committee has no 
jurisdiction to hold this investigation. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, in New York City just a few days ago, this 
committee interrogated an identified functionary or agent of the Com- 
munist conspiracy by the name of Ramon Acevedo. I do not at the 
instant have before my eyes the specific dates, but from the investiga- 
tive techniques of this committee, this committee knows that you have 
been receiving and exchanging infonnation via Box No. 2583 here in 
Puerto Rico with Ramon Acevedo, whom the committee interrogated 
just a few days ago. 

I put it to you as a fact, sir, that what I have said is true and cor- 
rect. Please affirm or deny it wdiile you are under oath. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer this question for 
the reasons that I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. Now sir, I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the wit- 
ness be ordered and directed to answer that question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1665 

Mr. Tuck. The committee orders and directs the witness to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. The witness, consistent wdth the position he has 
ah-eady established, respectfully wishes to state again that he will not 
answer this question or any other that might be posed to him by the 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. Via the investigative techniques of this committee, this 
committee has learned tliat beginning on December 18, 1957, you have 
been in an exchange via Box No. 2583, of Communist directives, orders 
and exchanges of information with a Communist functionary in New 
York City whose address is 43 West 100th Street, New York, and 
whose name is Bill Albertson. 

While you are under oath, please affirm or deny that information. 
Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer that question 
because I consider that the committee has no jurisdiction to carry out 
this investigation in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be informed that his response is not accepted by the committee and 
that he is ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair at this point informs the witness that the 
committee is not satisfied with his reasons and does not accept his 
reasons for not answering these questions. 

The Chair now specifically orders the witness and directs him to 
answer the previous question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer this question 
and any other tliat might be posed to me by the committee because 
I believe that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold these hearings 
in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, via the investigative techniques of this 
committee, the committee has acquired information that beginning on 
January 10, 1958, you have been engaged in a series of exchanges of 
directives and messages with a functionaiy of the international Com- 
munist apparatus in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

While you are under oath, please afRiTn or deny the validity of that 
information. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer this question 
for the reasons that I have already stated several times. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be informed that his answer is not acceptable to the committee ami 
that he be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs the witness that his answer is 
not accepted and he is, therefore, ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully maintain my position that I will 
refuse to answer this question because the committee has no juris- 
diction to ask it. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, it is the information of this commit- 
tee, from its investigative techniques, that via Box No. 2583, you have 
been in an exchange of messages with an international Communist 
functionary in Vera Crnz, Mexico. 

Wliile you are under oath, please affirm or deny the validity of 
that infonnation. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer the question. 



1666 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Abens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
now be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is further informed that the committee does 
not accept his reasons for not answering the question. He is ordered 
and directed to answer the specific question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I would respectfully like to submit once more 
that since I consider that the committee does not have any jurisdic- 
tion to hold these meetings in Puerto Rico, I do not feel obligated to 
answer these questions. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, it is the information of this com- 
mittee through the use of its investigative teclmiques that using the 
facilities of Box No. 2583 over the course of the last several years, you 
have been a regular importer of Commmiist publications, principally 
from the mainland. 

These publications include the Communist Worker, they include 
Masses and Mainstream, subsequently retitled Mainstream; they in- 
clude Political Affairs, they include the National Guardian, and a 
number of publications issued by New Century Publishers in New 
York City, which is a Communist publishing house. 

I ask you please, sir, while you are mider oath, to confirm or deny 
the validity of that information. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer that question be- 
cause I consider that this committee does not have jurisdiction to hold 
these investigations in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, yesterday a reputable, competent servant 
of this Government, Mr. Irving Fishman, who has been making a study 
of Communist propaganda in connection with the Post Office Depart- 
ment, testified before this committee that, among other things, the 
Communists now have a $100 million campaign for Communist propa- 
ganda, anti-American propaganda, beamed at the Spanish-speaking 
countries of this hemisphere, and that Puerto Rico was a nerve center 
for the direction and control of the flow of that Communist propa- 
ganda. 

Do you, sir, presently have information respecting that operation 
which you can now make available to your Government via this com- 
mittee so that your Government can, in the discharge of its legislative 
functions, undertake to cope with this menace to freedom of the West- 
ern Hemisphere? 

Mr. Saez Corakes. I respectfully refuse to answer that question be- 
cause I maintain that this committee has no jurisdiction to hold this 
investigation in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be advised that his answer is not sufficient, the committee does not ac- 
cept it, and that he be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee reaffirms what it has already said, that 
the committee is not satisfied with the reasons assigned by the witness, 
and does not accept his answer as legally justifiable for his refusal 
to answer. 

The Chair directs the witness and orders him to answer the imme- 
diately preceding question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. The witness would like to reaffirm that this com- 
mittee has no jurisdiction, in the understanding of the witness, to liold 
these hearings in Puerto Rico and, therefore, respectfully refuses to 
answer this question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1667 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, when this committee left New York 
City some two or three days ago to come to San Juan on these partic- 
ular hearings, we noticed that on the very plane which brought us to 
San Juan, were two or three of the comrades whom we had inter- 
rogated in New York City, as hard-core members of the conspiracy. 
_ Have you, since this committee arrived in San Juan, been in ses- 
sion with any of the comrades who have recently arrived from New 
York City? 

Mr. Saez Corales. I respectfully refuse to answer that question be- 
cause I consider that the committee has no jurisdiction to carry out 
this investigation in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Aeens. One of the comrades, Mr. Witness, is seated here in 
the hearing room. I see him now in the second row, the third from 
my left. here. 

Would you kindly look over your right shoulder and view the man 
seated there, the second row, the third man from the wall, and tell 
this committee whether or not you have been in session with him since 
this committee arrived in San Juan ? 

Mr. Saez CoRales. In accordance with my position already estab- 
lished, I respectfully refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. I think there should be a direction by the chairman to 
have this man follow the instruction of at least looking. He didn't 
ask him to answer any question. He just asked him to look at the 
party. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair directs and orders the witness to respond to 
the question. 

Mr. Saez Corales. I would respectfully like to inform the commit- 
tee that in accordance with the position that I have already estab- 
lished, the committee has no jurisdiction to hold these hearings in 
Puerto Rico. I shall refuse to answer any questions or to look or to 
do anything else which the committee may direct me to do. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that will 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. I think the record should reflect the fact that the 
witness did not look 

Mr. Tuck. We are not going to have any demonstration here. 

Mr. Scherer. The record should reflect the fact that the witness did 
not look at the party designated by counsel. The record would not 
show that the witness failed to comply with the direction of counsel 
and the Chair. That is the reason I ask the record reflect it by my 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Detective Mildred Blauvelt. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give to the 
Committee on Un-American Activities will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I do. 



1668 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

TESTIMONY OF MILDEED BLAUVELT 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I am Mildred Blauvelt. I am a detective with the 
New York City Police Department, assigned to the Bureau of Spe- 
cial Services. I live in the city of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Detective Blauvelt, would you give us on this record 
just a brief resume of your career as an undercover agent in the Com- 
munist conspiracy at the behest and service of your Government? 

Mrs. Blau\t5lt. I became a member of the New York City Police 
Department in December of 1942, and upon entrance into the depart- 
ment was assigned by them to infiltrate the Communist Party as an 
undercover agent. 

I succeeded in doing so by becoming a member of the Communist 
Party in April of 1948. I was expelled from the Communist Party 
in September 1943, but gained reentrance into the party once again 
in April of 1944, and stayed in the Communist Party until my expul- 
sion in November of 1951. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, since your expulsion from the Communist 
Party, pursued your duties up to the present moment as one who is 
acquiring information by your investigative techniques of Communist 
Party infiltration and activities ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes. This has been a continuing assignment since 
the time of my expulsion. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chainnan, might I respectfully suggest that the 
Chair might call for order ? 

Mr. Tuck. Let us have order, please. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Detective Blauvelt, will you give us a word, based upon 
your experience in the party, and upon your experience as a detective 
presently studying the Communist operation, concerning each of cer- 
tain publications which I want to call to vour attention ? 

First of all, what is The Worker ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The Worker is the official organ of the Communist 
Party. It reflects the Communist Party line and is used by the Com- 
munist Party members as a means of receiving directives from the 
party as to the f)olicy to be pursued by them in the conduct of their 
activities. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to have you clarify that a little more, 
elaborate on it. 

Based upon your knowledge of Communist jargon and Communist 
techniques, how does any agent, functionary, or member of the Com- 
munist Party, when he gets the Worker, receive from it a directive? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Any Communist Party functionary, upon reading 
The Worker, will realize from his knowledge of Marxism-Leninism 
the precise manner in which a Communist Party directive is being 
given to him. That Communist Party directive will be given to the 
rank and file members at party meetings to be disseminated by them 
to the contacts which they have made on the outside of the party. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, a Communist who reads The Worker 
or any of the Communist publications, because of the disci- 
pline and training he has in communism, knows what he should do, 
what his cell, what his group should do in response to the directive 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUIORTO RICANS 1669 

announced in the publication, even though a non-Communist might 
not be able to perceive it or understand it; is that correct? 

Mrs. Bi.AUVEi/r. That is very correct. May I add that The Worker 
is required reading on the part of Communist Party member-s. 

Mr, Arens. Do you have information respecting the publication 
formerly known as Masses and Mainstream, now known as Main- 
stream ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes. That is the cultural organ of the Communist 
Party. That, too, is bought by the Commiuiist Party members at 
their party meetings, and, in turn, is supposed to be used by them for 
propaganda on the outside of the party, with the people with whom 
they come into contact. 

Mr, Arens. In other words, both The Worker and Mainstream are 
bibles, as it were, from which the Communists take action; is that 
correct ? 

Mrs. Blauvet.t. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. They are not so much a newspaper in the sense that one 
would read an ordinary newspaper published by non-Cormnunist 
people ? 

Mrs. Blau\'elt. That is correct. 

]\fr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the publication. 
Political Affairs? 

Mrs. Bl.avyejjt. Yes. Political Affairs is the theoretical organ of 
the Communist Party and I think you will find on its masthead that 
it describes itself as the magazine devoted to the theory and practice 
of Marxism-Leninism. This publication also is sold to the Communist 
Party members at party meetings and again is to be used by them on 
the outside for the dissemination of the party line among their con- 
tacts. 

Mr. Arens. Is it true that these publications which I have just men- 
tioned are principally, if not exclusively, for comrades, for Com- 
munists? 

jVIrs. Blauvelt. First and foremost they are, yes, but they are also 
supposed to be used by the comrades to influence those with w^hom they 
come into contact. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to this type of publication which the Com- 
munist conspiracy produces for the Communists themselves, does the 
conspiracy produce material which is designed to condition the mind 
of non-Communists so as to have a favorable reaction for the Com- 
munist Party program in any particular area? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes. I would say that that type of publication 
\vould come under the classification of front propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. But is it controlled by the conspiracy? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. It is controlled by the Communist Party; yes, 

Mr, Arens. In volume of material, does the conspiracy produce 
more of the material which is designed for the hard-core Communist 
or more of the material which is designed to have an impact on the 
mind of the non-Communist? 

Mrs. Blaua'elt. I think there probably might be some equalization 
between the two. The party members naturally must have as much 
party doctrine as possible fed to them, I would say daily, weekly, and 
monthly, and the Communist Party does so through the medium of 
The Worker and through the medium of monthly publications, such 
as Mainstream and Political Affairs. 



1670 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

However, in order to reach — as the party usually calls this tactic 
of getting to the people — in order to reach the general public to in- 
fluence them, it will very often publish a great bulk of material which 
is designed specifically to reach the people, masked in the subtleties 
of propaganda, as only the Communist Party is quite capable of doing. 

Mr. Arens. Detective Blauvelt, based upon your backgroiuid and 
experience, tell us what is New Century Publishei-s in New York City. 

Mrs. Blau\^elt. New Century Publishers is the successor to Inter- 
national Publishers. It publishes, I would say, the great bulk of 
Communist Party material which goes to party people and to the out- 
side — the people outside of the party. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party a political party ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. The Commimist Party is not a political party in 
the sense that we know a political party but, of course, it likes to use 
the term of political party. It is actually an organization based upon 
the principles of Marxism-Leninism, which it says are the scientific 
principles of socialism. 

Mr. Arens. Is a member of the Communist Party a member of a 
political party or is he, in effect, an agent of Moscow on the soil on 
which he functions ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. He is an agent of the Communist conspiracy witliin 
the organization in which he works in any particular country; for 
instance, in our country, the United States, it would be the Com- 
munist Party of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. The most shocking thing to those of us who spend full 
time in studying this conspiratorial operation, wliich we feel is win- 
ning on every front, both internationally and domestically, is the 
failure of the intellectuals of the free world to comprehend the signi- 
ficance of the relatively few dedicated hard-core members of the 
conspiracy. 

Within Puerto Rico it is our estimate that the numbers numerically, 
the Commmiist Party members, are relatively small, there is no ques- 
tion about that, as they are now numerically small in Soviet Russia, 
as they were numerically small in Guatemala, as they were numeri- 
cally small in every country which the conspiracy has taken over. 

Can you tell us, based upon your background and experience, the 
significance of a small, hard-core, dedicated number of conspirators 
and how they go about their work on behalf of the conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Blau\^lt. Yes. I would say that the Communist Party does 
not essentially depend upon volume of membership to project its aims. 
It will depend a ^-eat deal on just a handful of very active, very vo- 
ciferous Communists whom they can use as leaders of the people. 

This, I think, is particularly true of what are called minority 
groups. I know that in the Communist Party in New York, and par- 
ticularly in the Boro Hall Section of Brooklyn where I was active, 
that the party depended upon just a small number, maybe not even 
more than a half-dozen of hard-core Communists, to spew the propa- 
ganda of the party line among the Puerto Ricans living there, using 
as the basis for their entrance into the Puerto Rican community the 
socio-economic conditions with which the Puerto Ricans were con- 
fronted. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the relationship between the functions or activi- 
ties of a member of the conspiracy in San Juan and a member of the 
conspiracy in Moscow ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1671 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I would say that any f mictioiuiry, no matter where 
he is, whether it is New Yoi'k or San rJuan, is under the domination 
of party ])olicy as it is directed from Moscow, and there is no escape 
from that domination or control. 

Mr. Arens. Has the Comminiist Party in its history ever taken 
over a single country of the one-third of the globe they now control 
by the willing vote of its subjects ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. No, sir; I would say not, from my observation. 

Mr. Areists. What are the devices or means used by the conspiracy 
in order to attain its objectives ? 

Mrs. Blau^^elt. They use the very issues which are of particular 
interest to the people with whom they are dealing. If I may go back 
to my testimony in New York, I would say that among the Puerto 
Ricans there they use the very issues which are of daily concern to 
the Puerto Ricans, their housing, their rents, their wages, their jobs, 
and what they wish to impose upon them is the idea that they are 
being discriminated against and exploited by the imperialism of the 
United States. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Communist Party have a genuine concern 
for the plight of the underprivileged, a genuine concern for housing 
problems, for wage problems and the like ? 

Mrs. Blauv'Elt. No. I would say its concern is not a genuine one. 
It is merely a ruse on the part of the Communist Party to permit it to 
get into the confidence of these people, and more or less brainwash 
them to think as the party wishes them to think. 

Mr. Arens. A-V^iy. based upon your background and study, does the 
conspiracy covet, seek to inlluence, seek to penetrate the Puerto Rican 
nationality bloc in New York City and seek to exercise and influence 
and empower what Mr. Fishman described as this nerve center here 
in Puerto Rico ? 

Mrs. Blau\'elt. I think that its aim among the Puerto Ricans in 
New York as a nationality minority, as well as the Puerto Ricans in 
the island itself, is not interest so much in their welfare, so much 
concern about their welfare, but is more an interest in attempting to 
lead them to socialism through what the party calls the liberation of 
Puerto Rico from the yoke of United States imperialism. 

Mr. Arens. When you use the word "socialism," are you using 
Communist jargon ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes. That is the term that the party uses in the 
projection of communism as the ultimate result of the establishment 
first of socialism within a country. 

Mr. Arens. Detective Blauvelt, I think it needs no emphasis on 
my part that to be forewarned is to be forearmed. Yesterday we con- 
fronted a witness with the minutes — I believe you were present in 
the hearing room 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Arens. We confronted a witness with the minutes of an asso- 
ciation formed in Moscow recently called the Soviet Association of 
Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With the Countries of Latin 
America. 

Notwithstanding the fact that this committee was lambasted im- 
mercifully in the press this morning for what appeared to be, accord- 
ing to certain writers, figments of someone's imagination about this 



1672 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Communist operation, just this morning from Washington we have 
a dateline of a study made for the United States Senate Foreign Rela- 
tions Committee about the increased Communist efforts to infiltrate 
Latin America and the like. 

We turn the page, and we see an article from Pravda, a Communist 
publication in Moscow, speaking about the awakening to the thaw 
in its relations with the Communist world. 

Bearing in mind the testimony we have had thus far and these two 
news items which confirm the fundamental thesis of this committee 
that there is something to be definitely concerned about, and that the 
chief objective of the Communist Party at the moment is to create 
a spirit of apathy among the individuals, particularly the intellectuals 
and the opinion-formers, tell us, based upon your background and 
experience, how can we expect this program of the Communist con- 
spiracy — to undertake to penetrate Latin America — to progress? 
How will they go about it ? What can be done to try to head it off ? 

Tell, us if you please, based upon your background and experience, 
what your reaction is to this Soviet Association of Friendship and 
Cultural Cooperation With the Countries of Latin America created 
in Moscow this year. 

Mrs. BlaitV'Elt. From what I have heard presented in testimony 
here, it is clear that this organization is meant to be a party front 
propaganda organization dominated by Moscow and is meant to be 
a link between the party and the people of Latin America. 

Mr. iVRENS. Will the party never come out in Latin America and 
say, "We are Communists; we are part of a conspiracy; we want 
eveiybody to join the Communist Party ?" 

Mrs. Blau\'elt, Absolutely not. 

Mr. Arens. The objective of the Communist Party international 
operation is conquest of the world and not conversion to communism ; 
isn't that correct ? 

Mrs. Blair^elt. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is Soviet Russia today only 3-percent Communist? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience as a stu- 
dent of international communism, as well as one who served in the 
conspiracy at the behest of your Government, tell us what tactics w^e 
may expect in this new organization, w^hicli has been made light of 
by certain intellectuals who attempt to brainwash the people of this 
great island as to the serious menace which is developing in Latin 
America. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. From my experience within the party and also 
from my study of the Communist Party and its front organizations, 
I would say that Communist Party tactics in establishing such an or- 
ganization as this in Latin America, would follow the same basic pat- 
tern that has been used in the past. 

If you will bear with me as I go into the mechanics on the establish- 
ment of such an organization, probably I could illustrate just how it 
would be done. 

For instance, such an organization would have to be broad enough 
in scope to appeal to the masses to meet with any degree of success, 
and the party a]:)paratus would be put into motion to achieve that 
success. National organizations would have to be established in each 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1673 

country to be involved, and bnmclies would have to be established in 
varioiLS sections of these countries, particularly in large cities. 

Individuals other than party members would be invited to head this 
organizat ion at its various le\els for the purpose of giving this organi- 
zation the aura of legitimacy and respectability, and well-meaning 
individuals who are well known to the public at large would be solic- 
ited to lend their endorsement, their support, and sponsorship to such, 
an organization to add to the prestige of the organization. 

However, in all of this, the party would see that its party members 
who are well versed in party organizational work would be placed in 
the executive positions in this organization, so that the organization 
would have the proper guidance to follow the party line and thus 
guarantee that party policies were being carried out within the or- 
ganization and that its activities reflected party propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. While speaking of party propaganda, we hear the voices 
outside shouting in unison — as they have been picketing us in this pro- 
ceeding today — demonstrating out there. I am confident, based upon 
my background and experience studying this conspiratorial opera- 
tion for 13 years, very few of those people out there are actually dedi- 
cated members of the Communist conspiracy. They are being used by 
a few. 

Can you tell us how the Communist Party conditions such people 
as these folks who are now shouting out there ? How does the Com- 
munist Party, a few dedicated, trained technicians, affect these people 
to get them to do what they are doing ? 

Mrs. Blatr^lt. They do it through a very hard-core nucleus of the 
Communist Party, which operates either in the front organizations or 
in any group, for the purpose of influencing these people to follow 
the Communist Party line and to do the bidding of the party. 

For instance, in an organization such as the Soviet Association of 
Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With Countries of Latin Amer- 
ica, Communist Party members would be required to become members 
of the branches of this organization for the specific purpose of cre- 
ating this Communist nucleus within the organization, around which 
they may draw and activate non-party members and non-Communists 
whom they attract to the organization. 

Of course, these party members would be instructed to remember 
that they are first and foremost Communists, and that they must con- 
duct themselves within this front organization as Communists, and 
must see that the Communist Party line is carried out. 

Mr. Arens. Do true Commmiists ever make themselves known as 
Communists ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. No, they do not identify themselves as Commu- 
nists. But they do pursue the line of projecting the party line, pro- 
jecting the party aims, and drawing these people to them. They 
influence them to accept this propaganda as valid doctrine. It is 
phrased in veiy subtle forms of indoctrination. 

Let me say this also about the continuing attempt to establish such 
an organization within the free world. 

The branches which this organization would necessarily have to 
establish in the varioiLs parts of the country might appear to be 
autonomous in their particular area, but they would be subject to 
the control of the national organization, and they would have to re- 



1674 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

ceive their directives, obey and follow the directives from the national 
body, make their reports to the national body, and even remit a cer- 
tain percentage of any money which they collected on behalf of this 
front organization. 

In order to launch this organization properly, it would have to be 
brought to the attention of the public, and this would be done either 
through the Communist press, itself, or through those publications 
which have a very liberal viewpoint, or even in any other paper which 
is willing to accept their material. 

Communist Party members would be mobilized to distribute leaflets 
which would be in advertisement of such an organization. The or- 
ganization itself would issue a pamphlet explaining its policies. Now, 
of course, all press releases, all leaflets, all pamphlets, would describe 
the organization in the broadest terms of the peoples' desire for friend- 
ship and cultural relationships with the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, it is an appealing front- facade. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. That is correct. It would merely camouflage the 
true aims of the Communist Party in the type of lang-uage that it 
would use. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be like the article in Pravda to which I al- 
luded a little while ago, namely, that there is a thaw in the cultural 
relations, and that there is going to be an awakening and more friend- 
ship and the like ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. That is true. That is the type of language they 
would use. They phrase their words in such a manner as to make the 
issue seem highly laudatory, and, therefore, not only acceptable but 
very desirable, but it would conceal the true nature of the party's 
aims. 

I would say that in any organization such as this, the one we are 
discussing, the main line of its activities and policies would center 
around those of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you at this point : To what extent will this 
new organization, backed with these hundreds of millions of dollars, 
making its contact with groups and organizations throughout Latin 
America, as they say they are going to do or are doing, will they use 
non-Communists? 'Will they use people who probably think in their 
hearts they are anti-Communists ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes, they will, to a very great extent. In fact, 
that is where they find their strength, in the non-Communists, because, 
after all, the number of Communists, per se, is too small to carry the 
organization, and it would have to be done through people who are 
non-Communists, some of whom would believe that they are actually 
doing a service to their countiy to project the aims of this particular 
organization. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I don't think there is very much more I can add 
to the establishment of this particular organization within the realm 
of our continent, except to say that this organization would be used, 
not merely to entice the people of Latin America to support the Soviet 
in its aims and policies, but also it would be propagandized throughout 
the world so that the Soviet could use this organization as an example 
of friendship and cooperation of the Latin American people with the 
Soviet Union. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS lb75 

Mr. Arens. AVhat will be the attitude of this organization toward 
people such as the Committee on Un-American Activities, which 
through the years has been assembling information on communism, 
trying to make those facts known, trying to penetrate this conditioning 
of the minds of so many of tlie intellectual dupes ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Are you speaking about this committee itself ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, or any committee of like character, fighting com- 
munism. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Any committee, any agency, fighting communism, 
whether within the realm of the govermnent proper or a private organ- 
ization, would be used as a whipping boy. 

Mr. ScHERER. Such as the National Americanism Commission of the 
American Legion ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Yes, and there are several others in operation in 
the United States. They would feel the whiplash of Communist 
propaganda. They would be characterized as tools of imperialism 
and as enemies of the true feelings of the people as the Communist 
Party thinks that those feelings should be expressed. 

Mr. Arens. You would see nothing announced in this program re- 
specting the 12 million people who were murdered in Soviet Russia 
while this force ascended, would you? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. No. 

Mr. Arens. You would see nothing about the 40 million who were 
slaughtered in Red China ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Absolutely nothing. 

Mr. Arens. Would you see anything about the tens of thousands 
of American boys who were slaughtered by the Communists in Korea ? 

Mrs. BLAu^^LT. Nothing. 

Mr. Arens. Would you see anything about the deadly spy appa- 
ratus they have now on a wartime basis over the world ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Nothing. 

Mr. Arens. You would see nothing about their announced inten- 
tions to take over the world ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You would see nothing about the slave labor camps ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. No. 

Mr. Arens. And you would see nothing about the loss of freedom 
which communism means, would you ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Nothing. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you this question, on the assumption 
that to be forewarned is to be forearmed : What can or should the free- 
dom-loving people who are not the dupes of the free world attempt to 
do to meet this $100 million threat of the conspiratorial force known 
as communism which is operating now with this island as a nerve cen- 
ter for its direction and control ? 

Mrs. Blauvelt. I think those who are anti-Communist should or- 
ganize themselves just as well as the Communists organize themselves, 
and use counterpropaganda, emphasizing loyalty to the United 
States, loyalty to one's own coimtry, regardless of whether it is North 
America or South America, and emphasizing the true meaning of 
democracy. 

Mr. Arens. Does it help in this process to have a committee such 
as this bring the facts to light so that the committee can use them in 



1676 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

legislative purpose as well as to make the facts known to the patriots 
of the area ^ 

Mrs. Blau\-elt. Yes. I tliink it is particularly important to make 
the people of the United States and anywhere else in the world con- 
scious of the menace of communism. There are too many people who 
are apathetic about it, who don't believe it even exists, but it does exist 
to a great degree, especially in the cold war we have today. 

Mr. Arens. And they say we are hysterical when we get into the 
subject matter, and we are putting on a circus when we try to develop 
the facts, do they not ? 

Mrs. Blaua'elt. They do. 

Mr. Arens. I have no further questions, but to thank Detective 
Blauvelt and to commend her for the outstanding work she has been 
doing, developing facts on this conspiracy, and to compliment and 
sympathize with her, because we get plenty of barbs in tliis work 
ourselves by, principally, the dupes. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee expresses its appreciation to the witness 
for the information she has brought. 

Mrs. Blauvelt. Thank you. 

Mr. Tuck. Call your next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that it is after 12 
o'clock, I suggest the Chair might want to consider a recess until 2 
o'clock. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will now recess until two p.m. 

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p.m. Thursday, November 19, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of recess: Repre- 
sentatives Tuck and Scherer.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 1959 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Hon. William M. Tuck, 
chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of reconvening : Rep- 
resentatives Tuck and Scherer. ) 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is Juan 
Emmanuelli Morales. 

Please come forward. 

Mr. Tuck. Raise your right hand and be sworn. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee of tlie Committee on Un-Amer can Activities 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. Yes. 

Mr. Tuck. The answer is in the affirmative ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1677 

TESTIMONY OF JUAN EMMANUELLI MORALES, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps you do not understand. I hiven't asked a 
question yet. It was just to have you identified on this record. 

Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. For the purpose of the record, Mr. Chairman, 
I respectfully w^ant to inform this committee — my name is Abraham 
Diaz Gonzalez. I am of counsel from this morning, the same counsel 
representing the witness. 

His name is Juan Emmanuelli. He is the person subpenaed, and he 
is represented by counsel. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer the 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to this committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Emmanuelli Morales, when did you last see me? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully 

Mr. Arens. That is, prior to the time that we arrived in San Juan, 
Puerto Eico ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I rspectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for tlie reasons which I conveyed to' the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Did you not, on last Friday, in Washington, D.C., enter 
my office and state voluntarily that you had been a member of the 
Communist Party, and that you had information respecting a number 
of people who were Communists, and that you proposed to testify 
before this committee as a friendly witness, and tell this committee 
about a number of people who, to your certain knowledge, are Com- 
munist conspirators on the island now ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Has anyone threatened you since you returned to the 
island in order to prepare the testimony which you stated you were 
going to give before this committee in response to the session w^hich 
we had in my office last Friday ? 



1678 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investit^ation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to this committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. First of all, Mr. Witness, I want to make one thing 
clear to you : That if you do not miderstand the import of any question 
which I ask you, if you do not understand its relevancy, if you do not 
understand its pertinency, if you have any question in your mind 
respecting the question, just ask us, and we will give you a full ex- 
planation on each question in every regard. 

With that explanation, I again ask you are you now or have you ever 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my 
written statement. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest now, Mr. Chairman, the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair informs the witness that the committee does 
not accept his reasons for refusing to answer the question as sound 
and sufficient. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
specific question last asked him. 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in the presence of this witness, I request 
that an investigator of this Committee on Un-American Activities who 
interviewed Mr. Emmanuelli Morales in my office last Friday at his 
solicitation after he came from San Juan to Washington, be sworn. 

Mr. George Williams, will you please stand up and be sworn? 

Mr. Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully want to be informed 
whether this means that the witness has been discharged. 

Mr. Tuck. No, he has not been. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Williams, will you be sworn ? 

Mr. Tuck. You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give before this subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities of the House of Representatives will be the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Williams. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE C. WILLIAMS 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Williams, just at your pace, give us a word about 
your own personal background. 

Mr. Williams, I was born in Pittsylvania County, Va. ; graduated 
from the University of Virginia; a special agent for the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation for several years ; subsequent to that time I 
have been employed on the staff of this committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1679 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Williams, on last Friday — I do not have the exact 
date, but on last Friday — Friday the 13th — I am advised — November 
13th were you, Mr. Margetich, and myself conferring in m;y private- 
office at the suite of offices of the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities in Washington, D.C. ? 

Mr. WiiJLiAMs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. About what hour of the day was it when we were in 
conference there ? 

Mr. Williams. As well as I can recall, it was approximately 6 
o'clock. 

Mr. Arens. In passing, I believe Mr. Le^\•is was also present, was 
he not, of our research staff ? 

Mr. Williams. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. What happened about 6 o'clock when we were in con- 
ference there, Mr. Williams ? 

Mr. Williams. Mr. Emmanuelli Morales came to the office and 
stated that he had come down to talk with us concerning the forth- 
coming hearings here in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose this question at that point: Had he 
been subpenaed by the committee for an appearance here ? 

Mr. Williams. To the best of my knowledge, he had. I did not 
issue the subpena. I think he had. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Then tell us what transpired there in my 
office. 

Mr. Williams. We spoke with Mr. Emmanuelli Morales concern- 
ing the forthcoming hearings here in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Would you excuse me for another interruption, if I 
may refresh your recollection ? 

Mr. Williams. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did I not at that time invite you and, I believe, Mr. 
Margetich, and one other gentleman of the office, to retire to another 
office in order to interview Mr. Emmanuelli Morales ? 

Mr. Williams. That is correct. After he made his initial appear- 
ance in the office, you asked us to take Mr. Emmanuelli Morales to 
another office, at which time we would interview him to get some idea 
of his information and the type of information he would furnish the 
committee here in Puerto Rico, 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Williams, was Mr. Emmanuelli Morales' ap- 
pearance completely and wholly voluntary ? 

Mr. Williams. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did we at any time undertake, what might be loosely 
characterized as any pressure tactics, on him? 

Mr. Williams. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. He walked in unaccompanied, did he not ? 

Mr. Williams. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed at your own pace to say what happened after 
you and one or two other gentlemen from the office retired to another 
office to visit with Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. 

Mr. Williams. We went in another office. I conducted the interro- 
gation, and notes were recorded at the time as a result of this interro- 
gation. I have these notes in front of me here now. 

Mr. Arens. You made those notes there, or they were made in your 
presence at the time of the conference with Mr. Emmanuelli Morales ? 

50974— 60— pt. 2 6 



1680 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Williams. That is correct, in our office in Washington, on the 
evening of Friday the 13th. 

Mr. Arens. I wasn't present so you tell us what happened. 

Mr. Williams. All right, sir. Mr. Emmanuelli Morales stated that 
he had been a member of the Communist Party ; that, by way of back- 
ground, he had gone to New York in 1928 for a visit ; remained in New 
York for a wliile, and then came back to Puerto Rico. In 1931 he 
moved to New York, more or less permanently. 

Mr. Arens. Did he make any reference to any Communist Party ac- 
tivities by himself in New York City during this period? 

Mr. Williams. Not up to that time. 

Mr. Arens. You mean in the chronology of his presentation ? 

Mr. Williams. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Williams. He returned, as I say, to New York around 1931. 
In 1938 he was living in New York, employed as a printer, lie was 
printing some, I believe, as well as I recall, and from the notes, some 
Spanish publications. 

At the time they were non-Communist publications. The party 
felt that — the Communist Party in New York felt that — this was a 
person who apparently could be of value to the party, so Mr. Em- 
manuelli Morales was approached, as I recall his statement to me, and 
in 1938 he joined the Communist Party and was assigned to the 
Harlem Section of the Communist Party in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Did he tell you that ? 

Mr. Williams. Yes, sir; he did. 

He remained in New York, and active — just a moment. Let me re- 
tract. He remained in the Communist Party up to 1941 when he 
entered the armed services of the United States. At that time he 
stated he resigned from the Communist Party. He was discharged 
from the service, I believe, in 1943 or 1944, at w^hich time he received 
an honorable discharge and rejoined the Communist Party and again 
was assigned to the Harlem Section of the Communist Party in 
New York. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask that date when he rejoined the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Williams. I have here, 1943 or 1944. He was not quite clear 
as to the exact date or the exact year. He remained in New York, 
active in the Communist Party until 1949 or 1950, he wasn't quite 
sure, when he returned to Puerto Rico. When he returned to Puerto 
Rico he joined the Communist Party of Puerto Rico here on the 
island. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about the activities he said he was en- 
gaged in as a Communist on the island here. 

Mr. Williams. Perhaps it would clarify the situation if I said 
here that our conference with Mr. Emmanuelli Morales in Washing- 
ton was not for a prolonged period of time. He had to come back to 
Puerto Rico, and we had other ]:)ressing matters. Mr. Emmanuelli 
Morales talked, I suppose, 30 or 45 minutes. 

Mr. Arens. You made arrangements at my request then to meet 
Mr. Emmanuelli Morales here on the island in advance of these 
specific hearings in which we are engaged now ? 

Mr. Williams. That is right. We set up a tentative appointment 
for Tuesday afternoon. As soon as I arrived in San Juan at the air- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1681 

port — my plane was a little late — I called his office immediately. He 
was out. 1 left word where I would be stayino;, and left word for him 
to call me. 

After I checked in the hotel, I made several attempts to call him 
again at his office. Each time he was out. I finally left word to ask 
him to be at my hotel at seven o'clock so we could continue the inter- 
view which we had started in Wasliington. 

I was in my room at 7 o'clock and waited until 8:30. Mr. Em- 
manuelli Morales did not show up. The same thing yesterday. I 
tried to get in touch with him through his office. I finally set an ap- 
pointment for last night, tlirough his office, for 8 o'clock. Once 
again I waited for Mr. Emmanuelli Morales and he did not show up. 

Mr. Arens. That was last night? 

Mr. Williams. Last night. At no time, though, have I been in di- 
rect contact with Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I have been unable to 
reach liim. I left my number at his office on numerous occasions. I 
talked to people in his office. I have not been able to talk with him, 
however. With that background, the interview in Washington was 
not as complete and as thorough as it would ordinarily be due to the 
lack of time. 

Mr. Arexs. Did Mr. Emmanuelli Morales during the course of the 
brief, preliminary interview which you had with him in the company 
of Mr. Margetich of our office, tell you the name of any person whom 
he knew who is now or currently a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Williams. As I said before, he stated he had left the Com- 
munist Party in 1953, but due to some knowledge that he had, he had 
reason to believe that people who were active then are still active. 
He gave one or two names at the time. 

Mr. Arens. In that interview? 

Mr. Williams. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Give us now the names which he gave to you of per- 
sons wliom he knew in 19.53 as Communists here, whom he, on the 
basis of his understanding of their activities, were currently active in 
the party. 

Mr. Williams. Mr. Arens, he gave me several different names. As 
I say, not realizing, of course, at the time that that would be the ex- 
tent of my interview with the gentleman 

Mr. Arens. So that we may be absolutely on sound ground in your 
presentation, give us now the names of one or two of the persons 
concerning whose membership in the Communist Party Mr. Em- 
manuelli Morales was certain in his preliminaiy interview about. 

Mr. Williams. Well, there is only one name that I have an absolute 
notation about that the person was active in 1953 and to the best of his 
knowledge was currently active. 

Mr. Arens. Who was that ? 

Mr. Williams. He indicated there were others, but, of course, an- 
ticipating a subsequent interview, I did not go into it at any great 
length at the time. 

Mr. Arens. You were under the impression that he was merely 
making his acquaintance known to us and his desire to cooperate with 
the committee in making information available to us on this vital 
conspiracy ? 



1682 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Williams. Yes; that is correct. The one name which he did 
give — which I have a notation by — is a name, Gertrudis Melendez 
Perez. 

As I said he mentioned several others, but I would be hesitant to- 
mention them as being active in 1953 or currently active. 

Mr. Arens. Have you covered the significant points of the inter- 
view? 

Mr. Williams. Yes ; I think I have. 

TESTIMONY OF JUAN EMMANTJELLI MORALES, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. You have just heard the testimony of this former FBI 
agent, Mr. Emmanuelli Morales, under oath. Is there any particular 
in which he has not told the truth? Is there any error in his testi- 
mony ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for tlie reasons that I conveyed to the committee in my 
written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee, just man to man, what happened 
after you walked out of that office. You came in and wanted to tell 
us about this deadly conspiracy which threatens freedom everywhere,, 
of which you were a part. What happened to change your position ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this; 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my 
written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been threatened by a member of the conspiracy 
since you left our office last Friday ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my 
written statement. 

Mr. Arens. If you fear the conspiracy, this committee is prepared to 
assure you all of the protection necessary. Do you understand that? 
Because these conspirators, although they are conspirators, they are 
cowards. 

Have you been contacted, Mr. Morales, since you arrived back at the 
island from Washington, D.C., last Friday. Have you been contacted 
by any person known by you to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. We were under the impression, Mr. Emmanuelli Mo- 
rales, at least I was, and I believe the investigators, that you had some 
information that would be of concern to this committee in its work in 
developing factual material to be used in trying to resist the encroach- 
ments of this conspiracy. Can't you tell us what happened ? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMOXG PUERTO RICANS 1683 

investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens, Why didn't you call us if you changed your mind? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. You indicated to us that after you got back to the island, 
you could have a chance to collect your thoughts on some matters, 
refresh your recollection on some matters, that you were pretty certain 
that you would be able to be considerably helpful to us, didn't you? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

"Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I see there is no use pursuing this fur- 
ther, I want to be certain, however, that this record reflects a direc- 
tive to him to answer the questions, because he is taking this course — 
I am sure he understands now — at his peril. 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be advised 
that his position is not acceptable to the committee, and that he be 
ordered and directed to answer the questions. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair informs the witness that his reasons for his 
refusals to answer the questions, and particularly the immediately 
preceding questions propounded to him, are not acceptable to the 
committee, and do not constitute valid grounds in the opinion of the 
committee for him to refuse to answer. 

The witness is ordered and directed to answer the questions pro- 
pounded by counsel for the committee, particularly the preceding 
question. 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer the 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Would you raise your eyes and look at nie before you 
leave? Don't you have information you can now publicly give this 
committee and the United States Congress for this Nation under 
Avhose flag you have protection, information about this conspiracy, of 
which you were a part and parcel until just a few years ago? 

Mr. Emmanuelli Morales. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the reavSons which I conveyed to the committee in 
my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Are there any questions? 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, sir, will be Gertrudis 
Melendez Perez. 

Mr. Tuck. Come forward. 

Will you stand and raise your hand to be sworn ? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Melendez Perez. I do. 



1684 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

TESTIMONY OF GEETEUDIS MELENDEZ PEREZ, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ, GERARDO ORTIZ DEL 
RIVERO, SANTOS P. AMADEO, PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI, 
AND MAX GOLDMAN (DONALD F. BARNES, INTERPRETER) 

Mr, Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Miss Melendez Perez. My name is Gertrudis Melendez Perez, Ca- 
serio Las Casa, Building 34. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Excuse me, Mr. Chairman. The witness left 
her purse and she wants to go back and get it. 

Miss Melendez Perez. My occupation is a domestic employee. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you? 

Miss Melendez Perez. I respectfully refuse to answer this question, 
believing that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investi- 
gation for the reasons which I set forth in my written statement 
submitted to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes, sir. I want to repeat now what I said 
a while ago. I don't know if I went on the record for this witness, 
but we are representing her; yes. 

My name is Abraham Diaz Gonzalez, here with Professor Amadeo, 
Praxeles Leandri, Mr. Max Goldman at this time, and Mr. Del 
Rivero. 

Mr. Arens. Witness, do you know the man who just preceded you 
to the witness chair, Juan Emmanuelli Morales — do you know him ? 

Miss Melendez Perez. I refuse to answer this question because I 
believe that this conmiittee has no jurisdiction to hold this investiga- 
tion for the reasons set forth in the written statement which I gave 
to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. You are reading from a prepared statement, and have 
been, as have most of the witnesses today, are you not? 

Miss Melendez Perez. I refuse to answer this question because I 
believe that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investiga- 
tion for the reasons set forth in the written statement which I gave 
to the committee. 

Mr. xIrens. The man who preceded you to the witness stand just 
last Friday was in the office — he came there voluntarily — the office of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities in Washington, D.C., and 
stated that he had a story to tell — that he wanted to tell this committee 
about tlie Communist machinations and operations on tliis island. 

He began speaking, talking to the investigators of this committee, 
and in that preliminary investigation he told about his own enmesh- 
ment in this conspiracy. He got to the point in his conversation 
where they were asking liim about Communists he knew, people who 
had been in this conspiracy, and in liis conversatiou lie got to the point 
where he named you as a person known by liim to be a member of the 
conspiracy, a member of tlie Communist Party. 

Was he lying to us or was he telling the truth ? 

Miss Melendez Perez. I refuse to answer this question because I 
believe that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1685 

for the reasons set forth in tlie written statement I gave to the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Arp:ns. "Witness, 1 want to make a statement ])i'('liminai"y to 
askino- yon a qnestion. 

This committee is confident it lias jnrisdiction to come here. It had 
no donbt in its mind at alh But notwitlistandino; the fact tliat the 
committee itself was confident, it had the qnestion researched, devel- 
oped, and studied by the ablest counsel we could possibly enlist. With- 
out dissent, the ablest counsel whom we could enlist to advise the 
committee advised us there is no question about the jurisdiction of 
this committee to come to Puerto Rico; no question; that if people 
can bo. indicted and tried under the Smith Act here, this committee, 
which has a mandate of the Congress to watch the administration of 
our laws, our security laws, has jurisdiction to come here. 

Also, it is the position of this committee that if you do not under- 
stand any question we ask — its pertinency to the subject under inquiry, 
namely, communism. Communist propao;anda, and its relevancy and 
the like — we want you to ask us. Say "I don't quite understand. Ex- 
plain why I am here. Explain what this question has to do with me, 
why it is relevant and the like," and then we will be glad to explain 
anything you want explained. 

In tlie meantime, we are engaged in the deadly serious work of 
trying to develop information on this Communist conspiracy. I think 
it is evident from this record how difficult it is to get this material. 

So with that background and that explanation, I am going to ask 
you a question now. That question is : Are you now a member of the 
Comminiist Party ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, with all due respect to the 
committee, before the interpreter proceeds to translate the question, 
I have listened first to the statement and second to the question which 
has been posed by Mr. Arens, and before it is translated to the witness 
that, by the way, is a woman who hasn't had the privilege of schooling, 
and she is just an ignorant housewife, I would like 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't think you want that on the record, that this 
woman is an ignorant woman. 

Mr. Arens. If she is ignorant, she has been writing an awful lot 
of articles for an ignorant woman. We are going to ask her about 
those in a few minutes, coimsel. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. If they are going to tell her that this commit- 
tee has the best counsel available 

Mr. Arens. You know your sole and exclusive privilege is to advise 
your witness. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. But the best counsel here feel otherwise. 

Mr. Tuck. Yon can tell her that. Your duty is to advise her. We 
have our own counsel. Your privilege is to advise your client. We 
have our own counsel. 

Proceed. 

(The witness conferred with her coimsel.) 

(The pending question was then put to the witness through the 
interpreter, Mr. Donald Barnes.) 

Miss Melendez Perez. I refuse to answer this question and any 
other questions which might be posed. I consider that the committee 
does not have jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the reasons 
set forth in the written statement which I have given to the committee. 



1686 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMOXG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Tuck. The committee at this point informs the witness that 
"the committee is not satisfied with and does not accept the reasons 
assigned by her for a refusal to answer this question. The committee 
likewise informs the witness that she may involve herself in criminal 
troubles with the Department of Justice of the United States by 
reason of her refusal to answer these questions. 

This information is given to her not with any idea of coercing or 
threatening her, or terrifying her in any way, but simply to let her 
know that the Department of Justice very likely may review her 
testimony with a view to determining whether or not she is in con- 
tempt of this committee. 

The committee chairman now orders and directs the witness to 
respond and to reply to the question asked by counsel, the question 
most lately propounded to her. 

Miss Melendez Perez. I refuse to answer this question because I 
consider that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investi- 
gation for the reasons that I have given in my written statement 
:given to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Witness, although your counsel is not as enthusiastic 
as somebody might be about your education or your educational 
attainments, we have here three articles written by yourself in Pueblo^ 
one entitled ''Wide Feminine Movement," which reports on the role 
of women in the fight for peace, independence, and socialism. 

Another article is "Women's Meeting in Favor of Unity," — another 
article of like vein appearing in Pueblo. 

Did you author the articles which I have alluded to which bear 
your name, or were they authored by someone else and your name 
just happened to get affixed to them ? 

Miss Melendez Perez. I refuse to answer this question and any 
-others that might be posed to me because I consider that the com- 
mittee has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the reasons 
«et forth in the written statement which I gave to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee. Witness, that 
you and others were participants in an exhibition film on alleged 
germ warfare in Korea, films which depict, falsely, of course, that 
the American Government and our boys who were dying and fighting 
in Korea were engaged in germ warfare. Those of us wlio have been 
engaged in this work know that is strictly Communist propaganda of 
the most insidious form. 

While you are under oath now, will you tell this committee what 
you know about the exhibition in San Juan of motion picture films 
allegedly depicting our boys, who were laying their lives down for 
:f reedom, using germ warfare ? 

Miss Melendez Perez. I refuse to answer this question because I 
insist that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation 
for the reasons set forth in the written statement which I gave to the 
■committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. I think I might say to this witness, as well as to her 
■counsel, that it is my purpose as chairman of this subcommittee to 
recommend to the full committee at its next regular meeting in Wash- 
ington in January that this witness, as well as the preceding witnesses 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1687 

who have been interrogated and wlio have declined to answer pertinent 
questions, be cited for contempt of this committee. 

We will thus soon get a determination if there is any question in 
the minds of anyone as to the validity of the grounds upon which they 
are relying. This committee does not intend to have its work sup- 
pressed or thwarted in any such fashion as that if it can be avoided. 

Call the next witness. 

(The statement of the chairman was put to the witness by the in- 
terpreter, Mr. Donald Barnes.) 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Consuelo Burgos De Pagan. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mrs. De Pagan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CONSUELO BURGOS DE PAGAN (CONSUELO BURGOS 
DE SAEZ PAGAN), ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ 
GONZALEZ, AND PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. De Pagan. My name is Consuelo Burgos De Saez Pagan. I 
live in 14 Arecibo Street, Hato Eey, Puerto Rico. I am a lawyer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you admitted to practice law here in Puerto Rico ? 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you ? 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. De Pagan, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written' 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you please identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. My name is Abraham Diaz Gonzalez, appear- 
ing with Mr. Goldman and Mr. Leandri, now on behalf of the 
witness. 

Mr. Arens. Whom do you represent ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Consuelo Burgos Pagan. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently educational director of the Puerto- 
Rican Communist Party ? 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written^ 
statement. 



1688 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question, but before doing so I wish to advise 
the witness that if she does not understand the pertinency or any 
questions, we are happy to explain them. We are engaged in serious 
business. 

It is the information of this committee that you are now a hard- 
core Communist, active in this conspiracy. We are trying to elicit 
from you information which this committee may use in its legislative 
purpose in trying to protect this great, free people. 

Jn ow, Mr. "Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer the question as to whether or not she is still 
educational director of the Communist Party of Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs the witness that her reasons 
assigned for not answering the question propounded by counsel are 
not satisfactory and not acceptable to this committee. Therefore, the 
witness is ordered to answer the last immediately preceding question 
propounded by counsel. 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you a photostatic reproduction of the 
Communist Daily Worker of some years ago. In fact, it is about 11 
years ago. I expect to pursue with you questions respecting your 
career up to the present time in the Communist Party. 

This issue of the Communist Daily Worker of March 16, 1948, has 
an article and a photograph. The photograph in this reproduction 
is rather blurred, but underneath the photograph appears the 
following : 

Consuelo Saez, educational director of the Puerto Rican Communist Party, 
will speak with Foster at Manhattan Center Thursday night. 

Then we observe likewise in this publication, in which it tells about 
William Foster's speech about Puerto Rico, that : 

Also speaking at the meeting will be Consuelo Saez, dynamic young educa- 
tional director of the Puerto Rican Communist Party, who accompanied Foster 
on his visit to Puerto Rico. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or 
not you still maintain the status indicated by that Communist publi- 
cation of some several years ago. 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

(Document marked "De Pagan Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Now, ma'am, I display to you a thermof ax reproduction 
of the Communist Daily Worker of May 20, 1954, issued in New 
York City, in whicli they are calling here for a liberation front policy, 
and speak of the Fourth Congress of the Puerto Rican Communist 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1689 

Party in session in San Juan; and tell of a number of people who 
were in attendance and participated there, including yon. 

Please look at this document which 1 display to you and tell this 
committee whether or not you are truthfully and accurately identified 
there. 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, ;Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs the witness that the reasons as- 
signed by the witness are not acceptable, are not satisfactory, to the 
committee, and the Chair therefore orders and directs the witness to 
answer the preceding question. 

Does the witness still refuse to answer ? 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

(Document marked "De Pagan Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I display to you an article written by yourself, Consuelo 
Saez, educational director of the Puerto Eican Communist Party, 
entitled "Puerto Kican Women Still Seek Emancipation.-' 

Please glance at that article [The Worker of April 11, 1948] and tell 
this committee whether or not that truly and accurately represents 
your autliorship. 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons wdiich I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

(Document marked "De Pagan Exhibit No. 3" ; and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mrs. De Pagan. For the same reasons, I will not answer this or 
any question, because I think you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
advised that the committee does not accept her reasons for declining, 
and tliat she be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs the witness that the reasons as- 
signed in declining to answer the question are not acceptable and she 
is therefore directed and ordered to answer the question propounded 
by counsel. 

Does the witnass still decline to answer ? 

Mrs. De Pagan. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation 
for the reasons which I conveyed to the committee in my written 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff interroga- 
tion of this witness. 



1690 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness. 

The witness may stand aside. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Pablo Rodriguez Garcia. 

Mr. Tuck. Stand and raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give this 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Garcia Eodriguez. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PABLO M. GAECIA RODRIGUEZ, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ, SANTOS P. AMADEO, 
PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI, MAX GOLDMAN, AND GERARDO 
ORTIZ DEL RIVERO 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. My name, sir, is Pablo M. Garcia Rodri- 
guez. I live at E-16, University Gardens, Rio Piedras, San Juan,, 
Puerto Rico, and I am an attorney. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer this 
question or any other question that you may raise during this hearing 
on the ground that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investiga- 
tion for the reasons that I have stated in the written statement that 
has been filed with you. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes, sir. Abraham Diaz Gonzalez, Mr. Del 
Rivero, Max Goldman, Praxeles Leandri, and Santos Amadeo. 

Mr. Arens. Mi'. Garcia, are you now or have you ever been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I respectfully, sir, decline to answer that 
question on the grounds that you have no jurisdiction to conduct this 
investigation for the several reasons that I have stated in the state- 
ment filed with you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
advised that his reason for refusing to answer the question is not 
accepted by the committee and that he be ordered and directed tO' 
answer the question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is informed that the reasons which he has 
assigned for declining to answer the question propounded by coun- 
sel are not acceptable to the committee, and in the opinion of the 
committee are not valid. The chairman, therefore, orders and directs 
him to answer the question last propomided by counsel. 

Does the witness still decline to answer ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I see myself compelled again, sir, to decline 
to answer, very respectfully, your question, because of the same rea- 
sons that I have already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a writer for the Communist Daily 
Worker in New York City ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I respectfully decline to answer, sir, for the 
same reasons that I have stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1691 

Mr. Arens. We display to you, sir, a photostatic reproduction of 
an article in the Communist Daily Worker [February 12, 1951] by 
Pablo M. Garcia. We ask you if you will kindly look at that article 
and tell this committee whether or not you have authored the article. 

Mr. Garcia Kodriguez. I refuse, sir, to answer that question on the 
same grounds that I have already stated. 

(Document marked "Garcia Rodriguez Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr, Arens. We display to you still another article in the Coinmu- 
nist Worker, Sunday, January 8, 1956, by Pablo M. Garcia. 

Kindly look at this document which is now being displayed to you 
and tell this committee whether or not you are truthfully and accu- 
rately described there as the author of the article. 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. Sir, I again see myself compelled to repeat 
that I respectfully decline to answer this or any other question that 
you may pose during the proceedings, during these hearings, because 
I honestly understand that you have no jurisdiction to carry out these 
hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons stated in the statement that 
I have already filed with you. 

(Document marked "Garcia Rodriguez Exhibit No. 2" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a copy of an article appearing in 
the Communist Daily Worker [May 20, 1954] respecting a Puerto 
Rican Communist Party adoption of certain policies [Fourth Con- 
gress] . In the course of the article, the following appears : "A nine- 
member Central Committee was elected;" and among those who were 
elected to the Central Committee of the Communist Party session, ac- 
cording to tliis Communist publication, was Pablo Garcia Rodriguez, 
as treasurer. 

Please look at this article and teU this committee while you are 
under oath whether or not that truly and accurately described your 
participation and status in that session. 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. Sir, I decline to answer this question for 
the same reasons that I have already stated to this committee. 

(Document marked "Garcia Rodriguez Exhibit No. 3" and retained 
hi committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad on a United States 
passport ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I again, sir, respectfully decline to answer 
this or any other question that you gentlemen may pose to me durmg 
the course of this hearing, because I am imder the firm belief that 
you have no jurisdiction to carry out this investigation in Puerto 
Rico. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair advises you that the reasons assigned by you 
for declining to answer that question are not satisfactory and not 
acceptable to the committee, and the Chair orders and directs you to 
answer the question. 

Do you stiU decline to do so ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I respectfully, sir, see myself compelled to 
differ from the opinion of Your Honor, and I must, therefore, refuse, 
respectfully, to answer tliis or any other question for the same reasons 
that I have already stated. 

Mr. Arens. This Committee on Un-American Activities interro- 
gated earlier a man by the name of Corales. We dispayed to him an 



1692 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

application, and the issuance of a certificate for Post Office 
Box 2583. We interrogated him respecting a number of messages 
from international Communist agents from various agents of the 
world which were processed through that Post Office Box 2583. 

We observe on here one of the reference signatures on the applica- 
tion as Pablo M. Garcia, San Juan, Puerto Kico. Please look at that 
application and tell this committee whether or not that is your signa- 
ture — a fair and honest reproduction of your signature on that docu- 
ment. 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. For the same reasons, sir, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer your questions, for the very same reasons that I have 
already stated in the course of the hearings. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a participant with Corales in the 
processing of these directives and the channeling of these directives, 
and the channeling of any of this Communist propaganda which we 
covered with him in his testimony ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I decline to answer, sir, on the very same 
reasons that I have already stated. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that you are or 
have in the past been not only connected, but actually a full-fledged 
member of the Communist Party of France. Will you kindly con- 
firm or deny that information ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I again, sir, see myself compelled to respect- 
fully decline to answer your question on the grounds that this com- 
mittee has no jurisdiction in Puerto Rico to carry out this investi- 
gation. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs the witness that the reasons 
assigned by him for declining to answer the question are not ac- 
ceptable arid not satisfactory to the committee, nor in the opinion of 
the committee is he on legal grounds upon which to rely. 

The committee, therefore, directs the witness and orders him to 
answer the last preceding question, which is a pertinent question. 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. With all due respect to you, Mr. Chairman, 
and to the rest of the members of this committee, and for the reasons 
that I have already stated, I see myself compelled, by my honest be- 
lief that this committee has no jurisdiction to carry out these proceed- 
ings in Puerto Rico, I therefore cannot answer it and will not answer 
your quastion. 

Mr. Scherer. Assuming that you were right that this committee 
had no jurisdiction, wouldn't you want to tell a committee of the 
Congress of the United States what you know about the operations 
of the Communist Party ? Why do you hide behind this question of 
jurisdiction? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. For the same reasons, sir, for the same rea- 
sons that I have already stated, and because I believe that this com- 
mittee has no jurisdiction whatsoever to carry out this investigation, 
I say I cannot honestly answer any of the questions that you may 
pose to me. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand that you believe that. My question is 
even though you do believe that this committee has no jurisdiction — 
of course, we think you are wrong, but assuming that you are right — ■ 
why would a man who has been educated at Harvard not give to the 
Congress of the United States, and your Government, information 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1693 

concerning the operation of a foreign power operating withiii the 
United States and in Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. Mr. Chairman, am I to understand that 
this question that he raises is out of the jurisdiction, out of the ques- 
tion of the proceedings of the committee ? 

Mr. ScHERER. No. It is part of the proceedings. 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I want to state, Your Honor and members, 
of this committee, that the greatest contribution that I can make to 
the Congress of the United States is to bring to your mind the sit- 
uation of injustice and inequality that exists in Puerto Rico, and that 
you are a committee coming to Puerto Rico exercising a legislative 
power appointed by a Congress in which the people of Puerto Rico 
are not represented, and I submit to you gentlemen that this is a 
situation w-hich is contrary to the principles of the Constitution of 
the United States of government by representation. 

Your fellow citizen from Virginia, sir, Mr. Patrick Henry, his 
words are as true today as they were before, and I am certain that that 
is the greatest contribution that I can make to the Congress of the 
United States, and I would feel proud if I could make that con- 
tribution to the Congress. 

Mr. Tuck. Another outburst of that kind and I am going to ask 
the marshal to remove those people from the room. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the reason for your refusal to answer that you 
have just given ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I refuse to answer any question, sir, on the 
ground that I have already stated. I respectfully refuse. 

Mr. Arens. I have here a photostatic reproduction of a form of the 
United States Post Office indicating that Pablo M. Garcia has now 
been issued a key under date of 1054, a key to Post Office Box 2583. 

Do you presently have a key to Post Office Box 2583 ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. For the same reasons that I have already 
stated, gentlemen, I refuse to answer this or any other question on 
the grounds that this committee has no jurisdiction to come to Puerto 
Rico and make this investigation. I respectfully submit to you the 
same reasoning as I did before. 

(Document marked "Garcia Rodriguez Exhibit No. 4" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information which you can supply this 
committee with now respecting an atheistic conspiracy — which threat- 
ens freedom everywhere — known as the Communist Party — threatens 
liberty that you were so generous in alluding to in Patrick Henry's 
statement? Do you have information now' respecting the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I refuse to answer, sir, on the same grounds 
that I have already stated. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is infonned that the committee does not 
accept the reasons assigned by him for his declination in answering 
that question. The witness is, therefore, directed to answer the ques- 
tion propounded by counsel. 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I respectfully, sir, gentlemen, decline to 
answer the question on the grounds that I have already stated, that 



1694 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

being that you gentlemen as a subcommittee have no jurisdiction to 
carry out this investigation in Puerto Rico for the reasons that I 
have already stated in my written statement. 

Mr. SciiERER. Let me ask you another question. Would you give 
to the Federal Bureau of Investigation the information that you have 
about the operations of the Communist Party ? Would you tell them 
about the key? Would you tell them whether you had signed this 
application for this fellow i Would you tell them about that ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I respectfully, gentlemen, decline to an- 
swer on the same grounds that I have already stated. 

Mr. Scherer. You wouldn't tell the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion? You feel that they occupy a similar status as does this com- 
mittee insofar as jurisdiction is concerned ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I decline to answer your question, sir, on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHEKER. Would you give any other agency of the Federal Gov- 
ernment any information that you might have ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I respectfully, sir, decline to answer your 
question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. When you took an oath to become a lawyer and be ad- 
mitted to practice law, did you take an oath to support and defend the 
Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and 
domestic ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I decline to answer your question, sir, on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Where you at the very time you took that oath a mem- 
ber of the atheistic conspiratorial force known as the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. I decline to answer, sir, your question on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. You have described here a number of issues which you 
regard as social injustices. Is the Communist Party's conspiratorial 
program the answer to these injustices which you allege exist in 
Puerto Rico ? 

Mr. Garcia Rodriguez. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer your 
question on the same gi'ounds that I have already stated for all of 
the preceding questions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness may stand aside. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Cesar Andreu Iglesias. 

Mr. Tuck. Will the witness stand and be sworn ? 

You do solemenly swear the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the ti-uth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1695 

TESTIMONY OF CESAR ANDREU IGLESIAS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ, GERARDO ORTIZ DEL 
RIVERO, PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI, SANTOS P. AMADEO, 
AND MAX GOLDMAN (DONALD F. BARNES, INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Abens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. Mr. Chairman, my name is Cesar Andreu 
Iglesias, and by the way, I do understand English. I live on Lutz 
Street 358, in Santurce, Fuerto Rico, and I am a writer by profession. 

Mr. Arens. Do you speak English as well as understand it? 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. I understand English, but I also believe tliat 
the natural language in Puerto Rico is Spanish, and therefore believe 
that here and anywhere else I should speak only Spanish. 

Mr. Arens. Were these articles of yours in the Communist Daily 
Worker in Spanish or were they in English? I have an article 
here from the Sunday Worker magazine [August 22, 1948] "Puerto 
Rico Fights Back"; another one authored by yourself in the Com- 
munist Daily Worker of February [12], 1951. 

Did you write in the Communist Dailv Worker in Spanish or in 
English? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. For reasons set forth in a document which 
has been submitted to the committee, with all due respect to the Con- 
gress of the United States and to this committee, I respectfully refuse 
to answer this and any other questions which may be posed to me. 

(Documents marked "Andreu Iglesias Exhibit Nos. 1 and 2,"" and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. My reply is the same as before. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. The same reply as before. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. For the record, Mr. Chairman, my name is 
Abraham Diaz Gonzalez, my address is 1556 Ponce de Leon Avenue. 

I am here with Mr. Max Goldman, Mi: Leandri, Mr. Del Rivero, 
and Dr. Santos Amadeo, assisting the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Yon represent the witness, Andreu Iglesias, who is 
presently now testifying? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I propose to ask you in a few moments 
whether or not you are now a member of the Communist Party. If 
you will answer that question, I propose to pursue that principal 
question by undertaking to elicit from you information about your 
Communist Party activities, current activities, particularly propa- 
ganda activities, so that this committee can, with that information, 
which me might elicit from you, be able to have a fund of knowledge 

50974— 60— pt. 2 7 



1696 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO KfCANS 

with which we can appraise proposals pending in the United States 
Congress to protect this great Nation, including Puerto Rico, from 
this Godless conspiracy. 

If there is anything you do not understand in any question, either 
its pertinency or relevancy, if you have any doubts in your niind as 
to why we are asking the question — how it might relate to you, why 
it might or might not be germane to the subject matter under inquiry, 
the scope of the subject matter under inquiiy, you just stop me and I 
will be glad to explain to you. I do not want to give all of these 
detailed explanations though, and have it just be fruitless. 

With that background, sir, I ask you : Are you now a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. For tlie reasons set forth in the document 
bearing my signature, which was handed to the committee, with all 
due respect for the Congress of the United States, I refuse to answer 
this or any other questions which may be posed to me. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is informed, or you may inform the witness, 
that the reasons assigned by him for declining to answer the question 
are not acceptable to the committee, and he is therefore directed and 
ordered to answer the question, the preceding question, propounded by 
counsel . 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. I am appreciative of the words spoken by 
the chairman of this committee, but I would like to repeat that I will 
refuse to answer, with all due respect to the Congress of the United 
States, this or any other question that is posed to me. 

Mr. Arens. It is the infomiation of this conunittee that you have, 
over the course of the last several years, been in constant contact with 
the high echelon of the Communist Party in New York City ; that you 
have been a delegate to a number of the closed Conununist functions 
in that city. 

Would you please, sir, now provide the Coimnittee on Un-American 
Activities with such information as you possess respecting those 
sessions ? 

Mr. AxDRKU Iglesias. For the reasons already set forth in writing 
and given to the committee, and with all due respect to this committee 
and to the Congi^ess of the United States, I refuse to answer this 
and any other questions that are asked of me. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that because he contends that this committee does 
not have jurisdiction? 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. My reasons for refusing to answer questions 
have been set forth in writing elTectively and clearly and they are the 
same as for my refusing to answer this or any other question. 

Mr. Sciierer. I understand your reasons as set forth in writing are 
that this committee does not have jurisdiction to conduct this hearing 
in Puerto Rico. 

Would you be willing to tell the Internal Security Division of the 
Police Department of San Juan, of your activities in the Communist 
Party I 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. I believe that I do not have to repeat myself 
any furtlier in continuing to deny or refuse to answer any questions 
thnt ai'p asked of me by this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, sir, any information respecting any threats, 
any pressure of any kind, brought by any person known by you to 
be a member of the Communist Party against Juan Emmanuelli 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1697 

Morales in order to keep him from testifying fully and freely before 
this committee? 

Mr. Andueu I(;lesias. My reply is tlie same for the reasons already 
<:riven in writin*r to this connnittee. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been in contact in the course of tlie last sev- 
eral days here on the island with a man respresenting the Commu- 
nist front, known as the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee — a 
man by the name of Clark Foreman ? 

Mr. Andreu Iglesias. My reply is the same. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

I wonder, Mr. Chairman, if we could have about a 5-minute recess 
so that we may do some checking on some matters. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will stand in recess. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at this point: Representa- 
tives Tuck and Scherer.) 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, sir, will be Ramon 
Diaz Cruz, 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
adminsters an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn ? 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RAMON DIAZ CRUZ, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ, MAX GOLDMAN, SANTOS P. AMADEO, 
PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI, AND GERARDO ORTIZ DEL 
RIVERO (DONALD F. BARNES, INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Diaz Cruz, My name is Ramon Diaz Cruz. I live in AM — 28, 
Julio Street, Villa Rica, Bayamon, Puerto Rico. My principal oc- 
cupation is to struggle for the independence of Puerto Rico, for the 
welfare of the working class and for world peace. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I respectfully refuse to answer that question be- 
cause I maintain that this committee does not have jurisdiction to 
carry out this investigation for the reasons set forth to the commit- 
tee in writing in my statement handed to it. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. At this point, I want to respectfully inform 
the committee that my name is Abraham Diaz Gonzalez. My address 
is 1556 Ponce de Leon Avenue; that I, together with Mr. Max Gold- 
man, Mr. Leandri, Dr. Santos Amadeo, and Mr. Del Rivero, represent 
the witness. 



1698 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say a moment ago that one of your 
principal vocations was the struggle for world peace. Please tell us 
what you do in this struggle for world peace. 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I respectfully refuse to answer that question be- 
cause I maintain that this committee does not have jurisdiction to hold 
this investigation for the reasons set forth to the committee in my 
written statement. 

Mr. Arens. In this expenditure of your energies for world peace, 
are you the director of "La Paz ?" 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I respectfully refuse to answer this question be- 
-cause I maintain that this coimnittee does not have the jurisdiction to 
hold this investigation for the reasons expressed to the committee in 
the written statement which I gave to the committee. 

******* 

Mr. Arexs. I am going to ask the translator — the interpreter to 
read in English from "Pueblo" of December 1958, an article entitled 
"La Paz." Then I am going to lay the original before you in a few 
moments so you may check to be certain nothing is erroneously said 
in the translation. 

Mr. Translator, will you now kindly read the article running some 
few paragraphs entitled La Paz in the December 1958 issue of 
Pueblo? 

Mr. Barnes. This is from Pueblo, December 1958, page 3, an arti- 
cle entitled "Peace." 

The first edition of La Paz is already in circulation. It is a special edition 
dedicated to the memory of Frederic .Joliot-Curie and to the "Months of Com- 
mon Action," in common proposed and defended by the World Peace Council. 
It contains an appeal against the guided missile station in Ceiba, as well as re- 
flective expressions of opposition to this and other military bases by prominent 
sectors and persons, many of them concerued over the dark future which threat- 
ens to destroy us if a nuclear war conflict should take place. 

After denouncing to the world that "The conversion of our Island into a great 
military base, establishing by unilateral imposition and maintaining against the 
peaceful nature of our people, extensive and numerous naval, air and military 
units," in its vibrant editorial, it is said that "It is an abuse of power of a criminal 
nature to convert the Puerto Rican people into a forced target and a propitia- 
tory victim of any enemy of the United States." 

We cordially congratulate the able editor, the young and daring newspaper- 
man, Ramon Diaz Cruz, and we wish for La Paz future new triumphs. 

Mr. Ajrens. Mr. Witness, Mr. Lewis, of the staff, will display to 
you the article which the interpreter just read, so you may see in 
Spanish the article which you are identified as the editor or director 
of La Paz. Please look at the article and tell us whether or not it is 
a true and correct identification. 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I respectfully refuse to answer this question be- 
cause I maintain that the committee lacks and does not have any 
jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the reasons set forth to the 
committee in my written statements, and I would like to add that 
from now on when I am asked any question I will merely say "no 
jurisdiction," in order to avoid reading tliis long statement and thus 
save my voice. 

(Document marked "Diaz Cruz Exhibit No. 1" and retamed in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, it is the understanding of this committee 
that you are a member of this conspiratorial force that is at war with 
freedom everywhere, a conspiratorial force that moved its tanks into 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1699 

Hungary and mowed down men, women and children, a conspira- 
torial force that lias slave camps all over, that has agents on every 
continent on tlie globe, a conspiratorial force tliat by tlie pronounce- 
ments of its own leaders has warred to the hilt against the free world 
evei*y where. 

I propose to ask you in a few moments wdiether or not you are now 
a member of the Communist Party. Before doing so. I want to ex- 
plain to you that if you have any question in your mind respecting 
the pertinency or relevancy of the questions which I ask you, or the 
scoi^e of inquiry of this committee, or how these questions relate to 
you, and how your situation would relate to the legislative purpose of 
this committee, I will be glad to explain in detail every one of them. 
I don't want to do so unnecessarily, however. 

With that explanation, I am going to ask you now: Are you, sir, a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Would you wait until he interprets my question to you, please? 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I refuse to answer this question because I maintain 
that this committee does not have the jurisdiction to carry out this 
investigation for the reasons alread}^ set forth to the committee in a 
written statement. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs the witness that the reasons 
which he assigned are not sufficient, are not satisfactory to this com- 
mittee, and the committee refuses to accept the reasons which he has 
assigned. 

The committee also wishes to inform the witness that, by his re- 
fusals to answer these questions, he may be found guilty of criminal 
contempt of one of the committees of the Congress of the United 
States. 

This statement is being made to him through no effort to intimidate 
or to excite his apprehensions or fears unduly, but simply to give him 
this information in order that he might have it — so that he will be 
properly w^arned. 

The Chair now orders and directs the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I refuse to answer that question and all others that 
you may ask of me because I maintain that this committee does not 
have and lacks jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the reasons 
set forth to the committee in my written statement. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, it has been the experience of this commit- 
tee in our study of this conspiratorial force as it has moved from area 
to area over the world, that the first thing the Communists do wdien 
they move in and take over a country is to kill off those who helped 
them take it over, because they figure if they would betray their own 
country they wouldn't want to trust them either. 

It is our information that you, in July of 1958, went and represented 
3'ourself as the representative of Puerto Rico in Stockholm, Sweden, 
at a Communist-sponsored fraud known as a World Peace Congi-ess. 

That information comes to us, among other places, from the Com- 
munist publication — one of the Communist publications on this island, 
Pueblo, of October 1958, in which it says "We have been informed 
that following the Congress For Disarmament and International 
Cooperation, which was held at Stockholm, Sweden, last July 16 to 22, 



1700 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

and at which Puerto Rico was represented by Eamon Diaz Cruz, the 
World Peace Congress," and so forth. 

Please tell this committee, representing the nation that gives you 
protection against the onslaught of this awful force, known as interna- 
tional communism, about your participation in that Communist fraud 
in Stockholm, Sweden, in July of 1958. 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I respectfully refuse to answer this question and all 
other questions which the committee may ask of me because I maintain, 
as I have maintained and I shall maintain, that this committee has no 
jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the reasons set forth to the 
committee in my written statement. 

(Document marked "Diaz Cruz Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

_Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee informs the witness that the subcom- 
mittee does not accept the reasons which he has assigned in declining 
to answer this question. The chairman of the subcommittee orders 
and directs the witness to answer the question. 

Does the witness still decline to answer the question? 

Mr. Diaz Cruz. I refuse to answer this question, as I have the ones 
before, and I will refuse to answer the following questions, because I 
maintain and have maintained and will maintain that this committee 
has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation for the reasons expressed 
to the committee in the written statement signed by myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness may stand aside. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be John Peter Hawes. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand ? 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee of the House of Representatives will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hawes. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN (PETER) HAWES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ, GERARDO ORTIZ DEL RIVERO, 
SANTOS P. AMADEO, PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI, AND MAX 
GOLDMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Hawes. My name is Jolm Hawes. I live in Bayamon, in the 
municipality of Ciedra, in Puerto Rico, and I build musical instru- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Hawes, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Hawes. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
you have no jurisdiction to conduct this investigation and for the 
reasons that I conveyed in the written and signed statement which 
I submitted to the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1701 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairnuiii, to save time, I want to repeat 
that my name is Abraliam Diaz Gonzalez, and with Max Goldman, 
Mr. Del Kivero, Dr. Santos Amadeo and Mr. Leandri, I am assisting 
the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say you build musical instnunents ? 

Mr. Hawes. As I said, sir, I submitted a written statement to the 
comm i tt ee 

Mr. Arens. I know that. Did you a minute ago say that you build 
musical instnunents or you play musical instruments ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. He already stated that he makes musical in- 
struments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you also have a little avocation or vocation as a lec- 
turer and writer on Latin American atfairs? 

Mr. Hawes. I have already stated, sir, in this written statement 
handed in to this committee, that I do not believe that the committee 
has jurisdiction to hold hearings here in Puerto Kico and, therefore, 
I must decline to answer this and all other questions. 

Mr. Arens. According to the information of this committee, and 
we have here a bulletin of the Communist Samuel Adams School for 
Social Studies; you are or were a lecturer, "Peter Hawes, Lecturer and 
Writer on Latin- American Affairs." 

This Committee on Un-American Activities of your Government is 
here to develop factual information respecting the Communist pene- 
tration of Latin America. In view of the fact that you are a lecturer 
and writer on Latin- American affairs, we would like to have you tell 
us now if you have any information about Communist penetration of 
Latin xVnierica. 

Mr. Hawes. Once again, sir, on the same grounds that I used 
before, I must respectfully decline to answer this question. 

(Document marked "Hawes Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. You seem to have a Boston 

Mr. Tuck. Just one minute, counsel. 

The committee now informs you that the reasons which you have 
assigned for declining to answer the question are not acceptable to 
the committee and do not constitute valid gromids. The chairman 
now directs and orders you to answer the last preceding question pro- 
pounded to you by counsel. 

Mr. Hawes. With all due respect to tlie committee, Mr. Chairman, 
I stand on the written statement that I submitted to the committee and 
I must decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens, You seem to have a Boston accent. Did you live in 
Boston prior to coming to Puerto Rico? 

Mr. Hawes. I am sorry, sir; I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the same gi^ounds that I stated before. 

Mr. Arens. That is the information of this conunittee. We would 
like to have you help us with it^ — that you were a member of the Com- 
munist conspiratorial force — the Communist Party in Boston, until 
you moved here and transferred your membership down here. Can 
you help us on that, please? 

Mr. Hawes. As I stated before, sir, I do not believe that this com- 
mittee has jurisdiction to hold these hearings here in Puerto Rico, and 
I cannot, therefore, answ^er. 



1702 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Tuck. The committee now informs the witness that the com- 
mittee does not accept the reasons which he has assigned in declining 
to answer the question. He is, therefore, ordered and directed to 
answer the question. 

Does the witness still decline to answer ? 

Mr. Ha WES. With all due respect to the committee and to the chair- 
man, I still decline. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, there was a tine, patriotic, dedicated 
man, relatively yomig, by the name of Herbert Philbrick. For sev- 
eral years, at great sacrifice to himself, he served in the Communist 
Party ; reported regularly to liis Government what this conspiratorial 
force was doing, and he made clear to his Government the devastating 
nature of this force ; how the force tries to dupe people that it is hu- 
manitarian, that it is good, that it is for the working class and the like; 
but in truth and in fact how it is only an arm of a foreign power — it 
takes people and brainwashes them and conditions them as agents of 
its own objectives. 

He has reported to this committee that while he was serving his 
Government, sacrificially and patriotically acquiring information on 
this force, he knew you, sir, as part and parcel of this force in Boston, 
Mass., as a member of the so-called white collar professional group of 
the Commimist Party. 

Was Mr. Philbrick telling us the truth or was he in error when he 
told us about your participation in Boston in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hawes. As I previously stated, sir, I do not believe that this 
committee has jurisdiction to hold these hearings in Puerto Rico, 
and I therefore decline with all due respect to answer this or any 
other question. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs the witness that the reasons 
which he has assigned are not acceptable. He is, therefore, ordered 
and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Ha WES. With all respect to the committee, sir, and to its chair- 
man, I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Aeens. Now, sir, the Committee on Un-American Activities is 
here trying to develop factual inf onnation respecting the current oper- 
ations of the Communist Party so that it may take that information 
and return to Washington and use that information to develop laws 
and amendments to laws to help protect this country against the oper- 
ations of this conspiratorial force known as the Communist Party. 

I expect in a few moments to ask you if you are now a member of 
the Communist Party. If you will give us a truthful full answer with 
respect to that, I then expect to pursue the line of questioning to try 
to elicit from you information that can be helpful to this committee 
representing the Government of the United States in this legislative 
purpose. 

If there is anything which I have avsked you or which I do ask you 
which you do not understand — understand the relevancy or pertinency 
of any question, just ask me and I will be glad to explain it to you. 

With that as an explanation, I ask you now, sir, are you a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hawes. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
groimds that T do not believe that this committee has jurisdiction to 
hold this hearing in Puerto Rico. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1703 

Mr. Tuck. The committee informs you that the reasons which you 
have given are not acceptahle. You are ordered and directed to 
answer the question. 

Do you still decline? 

Mr. Hawes. With all respect to the committee, sir, and to you, sir, 
as chairman of the committee, I still decline. 

Mr. Arens. Are you also employed or liave you in the recent past 
been employed as a journalist with the Island Times? 

Mr. Hawes. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
same grounds that I stated before. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness may stand aside. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Frank Euiz, please come forward. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will go into executive session, but before 
doing so, we would like to announce that those witnesses who have 
testified either today or yesterday may see the clerk of the committee 
and sign their vouchers for their pay for attending the meetings of 
the committee. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, I was going to beg you for a 
6-minute recess. I haven't talked to Mr. Ruiz before. I asked him 
whether he had an attorney and he said no, that he wanted us to 
assist him. But I have just been informed about it. I would like to 
talk to him for 5 minutes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest we take a 5- 
minuto recess to enable the counsel to speak to the witness. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will recess for 5 minutes, and when it 
reconvenes, it will reconvene in executive session. No other persons 
except those authorized will be permitted to enter the room. 

We will reserve judgment as to whether or not we will be in 
executive session. I will make an announcement on that after the 
recess. 

(A short recess was taken, at which time the following members of 
the subcommittee were present: Representatives Tuck and Scherer.) 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will come to order. 

Please stand and be sworn. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ruiz. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK RUIZ (FRANK RUIZ MARTINEZ) ACCOM- 
PANIED BY COUNSEL, ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ. GERARDO 
ORTIZ DEL RIVERO, SANTOS P. AMADEO, PRAXELES ALVEREZ 
LEANDRI, AND MAX GOLDMAN (DONALD F. BARNES, INTER- 
PRETER) 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Ruiz. I was born. My christian name was Eusebio Ruiz Mar- 
tinez. I am known now as Frank Ruiz Martinez. I was born in the 
city of Ponce. I live at 67 Maestro Cordero Street, in Hato Rey, 



1704 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Puerto Rico. I am the secretary-treasurer of the Packinghouse 
Workers Union, AFI^CIO. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Ruiz. I respectfully refuse to answer that question because I 
maintain that this committee lacks jurisdiction to carry out this in- 
vestigation in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. You are represesented by counsel ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully want to request 
the record to show my name is Abraham Diaz Gonzalez, my address 
is 1556 Ponce de Leon Avenue, Mr. Ortiz Del Rivero, Mr. Max Gold- 
man Mr. Praxeles Leandri and Dr. Santos Amadeo assist me in the 
assistance to this witness. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been convicted of a criminal offense? 

Mr. Ruiz. I respectfully refuse to answer this question and any 
others that may be asked of me because I understand and I maintain 
that this committee of the U.S. Congress lacks jurisdiction to investi- 
gate anybody in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that you pled 
guilty to seditious conspiracy and received a 5-year suspended sentence 
and were placed on probation. 

Please confirm or deny the validity of that information. 

Mr. Ruiz. I respectfully refuse to answer this question or any other 
because I understand that this committee does not have jurisdiction 
to investigate anyone in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, this committee is here for the purpose of 
developing factual information which will assist it, and, via it, the 
U.S. Congress, in its legislative duties to protect this Nation against 
the Godless conspiratorial force known as the Communist Party. 

The committee is confident, not only on the basis of its own legal 
research, but on the basis of the advice of the most competent lawyers 
we can enlist., that the committee does have jurisdiction here without 
question. 

The committee needs the information which the committee thinks 
you have. I propose in a moment to ask whether or not you are now 
a member of the Communist Party. If you will answer that question, 
truthfully and fully, I expect then to pursue with you other lines of 
inquiry as to your activities in the Communist Party, as to the move- 
ments of the Communist Party in Puerto Rico, as to the connection 
between the Communist Party of Puerto Rico and the Communist 
Party working among Puerto Rican nationality groups in the con- 
tinental United States. 

If there is anything you do not understand about my questions, in- 
cluding their pertinency or relevancy, scope of inquiry, anything at all, 
just stop me and ask, and I will be glad to explain them to you. 

With that explanation, I now ask you, sir, are you a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ruiz. I maintain, as I did before, that I will refuse to answer 
any questions posed to me by this committee because, as I said pre- 
viously, I believe that this committee has no jurisdiction to investigate 
anyone here in Puerto Rico. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIB:S among PUERTO RICANS 1705 

Mr. Tuck. The reasons assigned by the witness for declining to 
answer the question propounded by counsel are not accepted. The 
witness is ordered and directed to answer the preceding question 
propounded by counsel. 

Mr. Kuiz. I maintain the position that I expressed before to this 
committee, that is, that I do not believe that this committee has juris- 
diction to investigate anyone in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the panel of witnesses we had for today. I respectfully suggest 
that the chaimian announce that any witness who was subpenaed 
who has not thus far been heard will be heard tomorrow. They 
should be here at the time of convening of the committee, which I 
suggest to the chairman be ten o'clock. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair wishes to announce that, but before making 
that announcement, the Chair wishes to state again that any witness 
who was smnmoned to testify, and who did so who has not claimed 
his fee for attendance, may do so by filing a voucher with the clerk 
of the committee. 

The committee will be in recess until ten o'clock tomorrow morning. 

C^Tiereupon at 4:45 p.m., Thursday, November 19, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Friday, November 20, 1959.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of recess : Repre- 
sentatives Tuck and Scherer.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS IN 
NEW YORK CITY AND PUERTO RICO 

(San Juan, Puerto Rico — Part 2) 



FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

San Juan^ Puerto Rico. 

public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in the United States Courthouse, 
Hon. William M. Tuck (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives William M. Tuck, 
of Virginia, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio, 

Stall' members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
Williams and William Margetich, investigators; Fulton Lewis III, 
research analyst. 

Also present: Donald F. Barnes, senior interpreter. United States 
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will come to order. Counsel will call 
the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, sir, will be Juan Santos 
Rivera. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JUAN SANTOS RIVERA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ, GERARDO ORTIZ DEL RIVERO, 
PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI, AND MAX GOLDMAN (DONALD F. 
BARNES, INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. My name is Juan Santos Rivera. I was born 
in the country of Betances, of Munoz Rivera de Hostos and Albizu 

1707 



1708 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Campos. I live at No. 18 Segarra Street, Stop 27, Hato Rey, Puerto 
Rico. I am a carpenter. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I refuse to answer that question because I un- 
derstand that this committee does not have the jurisdiction to hold this 
investigation for the reasons already established in a document which 
has been submitted for the consideration of this honorable committee. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, at this time I want to inform 
the committee that my name is Abraham Diaz Gonzalez. My address 
is 1556 Ponce de Leon Avenue ; that I, together with Mr. Max Gold- 
man, Mr. Leandri, and Mr. Del Rivero, are assisting the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other occupation besides the occupa- 
tion of carpenter ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera, No. I made an original statement under oath 
a few minutes ago, and I respectfully repeat it to the committee, that 
I don't think — I understand that the committee does not have juris- 
diction to hold any investigations here in Puerto Rico and I, therefore, 
refuse to answer this question. The reasons for this position appear 
in the document which has already been presented for the considera- 
tion of the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I expect, in the course of the next several 
minutes, to trace the highlights of your career in certain activities 
other than the carpenter trade. In order to do so, I expect to make 
reference to certain publications. The first publication which I want 
to allude to is the September 1959 issue of a publication on the island 
known as Puehlo. 

Beginning on page 3, there is an article entitled "The Party of the 
Workers, Part XIV," by J. Santos Rivera. I shall lay before you 
now the original publication in Spanish of Puehlo, and then I shall 
read to you in English excerpts from that publication which have 
been translated in English. 

Now, sir, if you w^ill kindly glance at Puehlo in the Spanish while 

1 read excerpts from this article, I will not try to read the entire 
article. 

After attending the Seventh Congress of the Communist International as 
fraternal delegate of Puerto Rico, I remained in the Soviet Union for almost 

2 years, 1935 to 1937, trying to understand, in practice and theory, wliat the 
people who are making up the U.S.S.R. — 200 million, inhabiting one-sixth of the 
globe — have been able to achieve under the wise leadership of the Soviet Com- 
munist Party. 

♦ ****♦* 

My conclusions are not inflated by an attempt to carry on propaganda in favor 
of my party and of m.v own Marxist ideolog.v. * * * 

Everyone can see for himself that in the Soviet Union there iis — 

And I will summarize at this point — there is plenty, that there is full 
educational facilities, religious freedom, no political discrimination, 
with the conclusion that abundance of democracy and freedom are 
enjoyed in all walks of life, and then a conclusion about the mortal 
wounds which will be inflicted upon the capitalistic system. 

I have read certain parts of this article and summarized other parts 
of the article. I ask you now, sir, during the 2 years in which you 
were, according to your article, a resident of the Soviet Union, from 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1709 

1935 to 1937, were you trained in the training schools of the Commu- 
nist empire to assume leadership jis an international agent of the 
international Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Santos Kivera. I respectfully refuse to answer, and insist that 
I will not answer this question because I understand that the com- 
mittee has no jurisdiction to intervene in these matters for the reasons 
set forth in the document which has already been submitted for the 
consideration of this honorable committee. 

(Document marked "Santos Rivera Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, based 

Mr. Tuck. I think we should inform you that if there is any ques- 
tion in your mind as to the pertinency of the question which has been 
asked of you by counsel, we will be glad to inform you as to the pur- 
poses of tiie question and the counsel's right to ask it. 

Also, I would say to you that the reasons -which you have given for 
declining to answer counsel's question are not accepted by the com- 
mittee, and you are ordered and directed to answer the question pro- 
pounded by counsel. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I would like to very respectfully insist that 
I understand that this committee has no jurisdiction to intervene in 
the matters that are being considered in this hearing and that the rea- 
sons for this have already been set forth in the document which has 
been presented for the consideration of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, based upon information 
coming to tliis committee from intelligence sources, that you were so 
trained as an international Communist agent, schooled in Communist 
political warfare, and sent by the conspiracy back to San Juan, Puerto 
Rico, for the purpose of carrying on the nefarious work of the con- 
spiracy against the free world. 

If that is not a fact, please, sir, deny it while you are presently 
under oath. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. Very respectfully I insist that I will refuse to 
answer this question and any other which might be asked of me because 
I understand that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold this in- 
vestigation for the reasons already set forth in the document which 
has been submitted for the consideration of this honorable committee. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee is not satisfied with the reasons which the 
witness has assigned for his refusal to reply to questions asked by 
counsel. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr, Santos Rivera. I very respectfully once again insist that this 
committee has no jurisdiction to hold this investigation in Puerto Rico 
for the reasons which have already been given in the document which 
is already in the hands of this honorable committee. 

Mr. Scherer. I think there should be a direction there. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Tuck did. 

Mr. Tuck. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I intend to cause our record from Communist 
sources to reflect another stage in your career as an international agent 
of the Communist conspiracy. I invite your attention to an article 
by Cesar Andreu, appearing in Political Affairs of February 1951, in 
which Cesar Andreu is identified as chairman of the Communist Party 
of Puerto Rico and in which he writes an article entitled "The Rising 



1710 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Tide of Struggle iii Puerto Rico.*' I shall read to you only the first 
paragraph : 

Two years ago I had the honor to attend the 14th Convention of the Commnnist 
Party of the United States as a fraternal delegate. I, together with the General 
Secretary of the Communist Party of Puerto Rico, Comrade Juan Santos Rivera, 
feel greatly honored today to be with you again. We bring you, at this 15th 
Convention, the warmest greetings, not only of the Communist Party but of the 
working class of Puerto Rico. 

Please confirm, while you are under oath, the characterization and 
identification of yourself made in this article by Cesar Andreu as then 
General Secretary of the Communist Party of Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I would like to repeat very respectfully that I 
will refuse to answer this question since I understand that the com- 
mittee has no jurisdiction to intervene through this investigation in 
Puerto Rico for the reasons already stated in a document which has 
been submitted for the consideration of this honorable committee. 

(Document marked "Santos Rivera Exhibit No. 2" and retained 
in committee files. ) 

Mr. Tuck. The chairman wishes to inform the witness that the 
committee is not satisfied with the reasons which he has assigned for 
refusing to answer the question and we do not accept the reasons. 

He is ordered and directed to answer the question asked of him by 
the counsel of the committee. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. Very respectfully I would like to insist that I 
will refuse to answer this question because I understand that the com- 
mittee lias no jurisdiction to intervene through this hearing in the 
business of Puerto Rico, for the reasons already stated in the docu- 
ment which has been presented for the consideration of this honorable 
subcommittee of the Congress. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, from still another Communist source, I de- 
sire to make reference to another phase, another status, of your ac- 
tivity as reflected in the Communist press. 

The Communist Daily Worker of May 20, 1954, of New York City, 
has an article entitled "Puerto Rico CP Adopts Liberation Front 
Policy." In the article appears the following : 

"Our party has come out stronger and with a higher fighting spirit for carry- 
ing out the line adopted here." 

A nine-member Central Committee was elected; among the members were 
* * *; Juan Santos, president; * * *. 

Please, sir, while you are under oath, tell this committee, is the 
characterization and identification and designation of yourself in the 
Communist press of May 1954 as then president of the Central Com- 
mittee true and correct ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I will insist that I refuse to answer this ques- 
tion because I understand that the committee has no jurisdiction to 
hold these hearings for the reasons that have already been expressed 
in a document that has been submitted to this honorable committee for 
its consideration. 

(Document marked "Santos Rivera Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Tuck. I have no desire to be repetitious, but in order that the 
record may show the true facts, I am saying that the committee is not 
satisfied by the reasons assigned by the witness, and we do not accept 
the statement. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 17U 

He is ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santos Riveka. I very respectfully insist that I will not answer 
this question because I understand tliat the committee has no jurisdic- 
tion to liold these hearings in Puerto Kico for the reasons that appear 
in the document wliich has already been submitted to this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, 1 display to you a document which has just 
been picked up on the streets in the course of the last several days. 
It is in Spanish, attacking this committee. It is a leaflet. It bears 
a photograph of Juan Santos Rivera, president of the Communist 
Party of Puerto Rico, according to the leaflet, and which leaflet was 
jniblLshed and printed, according to the leaflet, at the offices of 
Pueblo here in San Juan. 

In order that we may trace, then, your status as of October 23, 
1959, the date of this publication, please glance at this publication^ 
particularly the photograph and the designation under the photo- 
graph, and tell this committee whether or not you are truly and 
honestly characterized there. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Arens. State whether you are cliaracterized properly as presi- 
dent of the Communist Party of Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I insist that this committee has no jurisdiction 
to hold these hearings in San Juan and I, therefore, refuse to answer 
this question for the reasons already established in a document which 
lias been submitted to this honorable committee. 

(Document marked "Santos Rivera Exhibit No, 4"' and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. Very respectfully, I insist that I will refuse 
to answer this question, understanding that the committee has no 
jurisdiction to hold these hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons 
already set forth in the document which has been submitted to this 
honorable committee. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I invite your attention to an article by J. 
Santos Rivera, appearing in Pueblo^ San Juan, in January of 1959, 
beginning on page 1. 

I shall lay before you the original Spanish document, itself, and 
shall in English allude to certain of the language appearing in your 
article. I will allude to just two or three items in this article. The 
first is your charge in the article that the Government of the United 
States, by dropping an atom bomb on Hiroshima, had killed hundreds 
of thousands of innocent human beings ; that the Government of the 
United States had ordered the electrocution of the Rosenbergs ; that 
t he Government of the United States wants to unleash another world- 
wide slaughter; and that such a government has no right to lament 
the sentencing in Cuba of the war criminals and the revolutionary 
justice which Cuba is now administering. 

Please tell this committee, while you are under oath, if your state- 
ments appearing in the Communist publication Pueblo^ attacking 
the Government of the United States and defending the operation in 
Cuba, were made in concert under the direction that you received 
from the hierarchy of the international Communist conspiracy. 

50974— 60— pt. 2 8 



1712 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I insist that I will not reply to this question, 
understanding that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold these 
hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons already set forth in the docu- 
ment that has been submitted for the consideration of this honorable 
committee. 

(Document marked "Santos Rivera Exhibit No. 5" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Tucb:. For the reasons heretofore given, the committee orders 
and directs you to answer the question. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I insist very respectfully that I will not an- 
swer this question, understanding that the committee has no juris- 
diction to hold these hearings in Puerto Rico according to the reasons 
that I gave to this honorable committee. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently maintain contacts with Communist 
agents operating in Cuba ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I insist that I will not answer this question, 
understanding that this committee has no jurisdiction to hold these 
hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons that I have given in a docu- 
ment which has been presented to this committee. 

Mr. Tuck. The reasons assigned by the witness are not acceptable. 
He is ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I insist very respectfully that I will not an- 
swer this question, understanding that the committee has no jurisdic- 
tion to hold these hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons set forth 
in a docmnent which has been submitted for the consideration of this 
honorable committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, sir, in the course of the last, several weeks, 
dispatch, firet to Venezuela, and then to Cuba, on Communist mis- 
sions, three persons who are now operating as Communist agents be- 
tween the Communist Party of Puerto Rico and the Communist opera- 
tion of Cuba ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I respectfully insist that I will not answer this 
question, understanding that this connnittee has no jurisdiction to 
hold these hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons already set forth to 
this committee in a document bearing my signature. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I very respectfully insist that I will not an- 
swer this question, understanding that this committee has no jurisdic- 
tion to hold these hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons already set 
forth in a document which has been submitted for the consideration 
of this honorable committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staif interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you have any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Sciierer. Witness, you have said repeatedly that you are refus- 
ing to answer tliese questions asked of you by counsel for the reason 
that you feel this conmiittee does not have any jurisdiction to hold 
these hearings in Puerto Rico. I am going to ask you whether or not 
you would answer particularly the question last asked you by Mr. 
Arens if it was asked you by the Police Department of the City of 
San Juan ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I insist very respectfully that I will not answer 
this question, understanding that this committee has no jurisdiction 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1713 

to hold these hearings in Sun Juan, Puerto Rico, for the reasons al- 
ready given in the document which has been submitted for the con- 
sideration of this honorable connnittee. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand his position thoroughly. 

1 am going to ask you : If tliese questions were asked you by the 
representatives of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, whether you 
would answer the questions 't 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I respectfully insist once again that I will re- 
fuse to answer this question, miderstanding that the committee has 
no jurisdiction to hold these hearings in San Juan for the reasons that 
have already been given in the document that has been submitted 
for the consideration of this honorable committee. 

Mr. ScHERER. I want to ask you again : If the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation asked you these questions that have been asked you by 
our counsel, would you answer the questions '{ 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I very respectfully insist that I will refuse 
to answer this question, understanding that this committee has no 
jurisdiction to hold these hearings in San Juan, Puerto Rico, for the 
reasons already set forth in the document that has been submitted 
for the consideration of this honorable committee. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you contend that neither the Commonwealth of 
Puerto Rico, the Police Department of the City of San Juan, nor the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation has authority or jurisdiction to ask 
you these same questions ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I respectfully insist that I will refuse to ans- 
wer this question, understanding that this committee has no juris- 
diction to hold these hearings in San Juan for the reasons already 
set forth in the document that is being considered by this honorable 
committee. 

Mr. ScHERER. You contend that the committee has no authority, 
according to your last statement and your previous statements, to hold 
these hearings in Puerto Rico. If you were subpenaed to New York 
City, would you answer these questions in a hearing before this com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Santos Rivera. I insist that I refuse to answer this question, 
understanding that this committee has no jurisdiction to hold these 
hearings in Puerto Rico for the reasons already established in the 
document which has been submitted for the consideration of this hon- 
orable committee. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness may stand aside. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, will be Deputy United 
States Marshal Diego L. Martin, Jr. 

Please remain standing, Marshal, while the chairman administers 
an oath to you. 

Mr. Tuck. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Martin. I swear, sir. 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Mr. Chairman, there are several other wit- 
nesses which have been subpenaed. I want to know if we are going 
to continue the hearings this afternoon. 

Mr. Arens. We will go right on until we conclude all witnesses 
who are under subpena. 



1714 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

TESTIMONY OF DIEGO L. MARTIN, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify youi-self by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Martin. My name is Diego L. Martin, Jr. I am a Deputy 
United States Marshal for the District of Puerto Rico. I live in San 
Juan, Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged as a Deputy United 
States Marshal ? 

Mr. Martin. Thirteen years, sir. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your 1'3 years' experience as a 
United States Marshal, you have, of course, developed aai intimate 
knowledge of the techniques of surveillance and have developed con- 
fidential sources of information ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I will, of course, not ask you in this public session to 
reveal any of your confidential souices of information or techniques. 
It is something that we will, of course, guard jealously. 

Marshal, did you in the course of the last few months receive from 
the Committee on Un-American Activities for service a nmnber of 
subpenaes ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Among the subpenaes which the conunittee sent to you 
for service, transmitted to you for service on people to appear here in 
this series of hearings, Avas there a subpena for Juan A. Corretjer? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir ; Antonio. 

Mr. Arens. Was there likewise a subpena for service by yourself 
on a person by the name of Eugenio Arbona Cuevas ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was there likewise a subpena for service by yourself on 
a person by the name of Ramon Mirabal Carrion ? 

Mr. Martin, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the discharge of your duties as the Deputy 
United States Marshal, undertake to locate these people ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. During the course of my investigation to 
serve these witnesses, I found out that Juan Antonio Corretjer was in 
Caracas, Venezuela, and that later he returned to San Juan and went 
to Cuba. As to the other two witnesses, Eugenio Arbona Cuevas and 
Ramon Mirabal Carrion, I found out that they were in Cuba. 

Mr. Arens. Your information came to you from investigative 
sources of unimpeachable integrity and reliability ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. By devices and techniques which would not be prudent 
to disclose in a public session? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are these three persons, notwithstanding their present 
locale in Cuba, are these three persons nevertheless persons who are 
residents of Puerto Rico? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness may stand aside, 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr, Chairman, will be 
Cristino Perez Mendez, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1715 

Mr. Tuck. Would you raise your right hand ? 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Perez Mendez. I swear. 

Mr. Tuck. Counsel, before you proceed to examine the witness, I 
would like to file with the committee a letter which we received this 
morning from a person in Puerto Rico in which he alleges that 15, 
or more than half of the '29 persons who signed the protest adveinise- 
ment against this committee coming to Puerto Rico are non-Puerto 
Ricans. 

I would like to ask the staff to determine whether or not that is 
true. 

(Document retained in committee files.) 

TESTIMONY OF CRISTINO PEREZ MENDEZ, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL. ABRAHAM DIAZ GONZALEZ, MAX GOLDMAN, AND 
PRAXELES ALVEREZ LEANDRI (DONALD F. BARNES, INTER- 
PRETER) 

Mr. Akens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Perez Mendez. My name is Cristino Perez Mendez. I live in 
Building 58, Apartment 1111, of the Caserio Luis Llorens Torres, and 
I am a carpenter. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Perez Mendez. I refuse to answer that question, understand- 
ing that this committee has no jurisdiction to hold these hearings in 
I*uerto Rico for the reasons that appear in a document which you 
have. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Diaz Gonzalez. Yes, sir. At this time I want the record 
to show that Mr. Abraham Diaz Gonzalez, 1556 Ponce de Leon Ave- 
nue, Santurce; Mr. Max Goldman; and Mr. Praxeles Leandri will 
go on record as assisting the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I want to pose to you, confront you with 
certain information which has come to this committee from its in- 
vestigative sources and ask you, while you are under oath, to please 
respond to the questions and give the Government of the United 
States such information as you have on the subject matter. 

It is the information of this committee that you are part of a 
group of 12 activists of the Communist conspiracy in Puerto Rico, of 
the more fanatical fringe, who are dedicated to pursue a course of 
activity, with no restraint whatsoever, in accordance with any di- 
rective received. 

Please now, while you are under oath, either affirm or deny the 
validity of that infomiation. 

Mr. Perez Mendez. I refuse to answer this question and any others 
because I understand that the committee has no jurisdiction to hold 
hearings in Puerto Rico and to investigate me for the reasons that ap- 
pear in the document which you have. 



1716 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that you have 
received, along with some others, specialized training by the Com- 
munist Party in revolutionai-y tecliniques of force and violence. 

While you are under oath, please affirm or deny the validity of that 
information. 

Mr. Perez ]\Iendez. I refuse to answer this question and all others 
that you may ask because I understand that you do not have any juris- 
diction to hold these hearings in Puerto Rico, and even less to investi- 
gate me, and my reasons are set forth in a document which you have 
already. 

Mr, Tuck. The committee declines to accept the reasons given by 
the witness for his failure to respond to the last preceding question, 
as well as the question prior thereto, and the committee orders and 
directs the witness now to answer both questions propounded by 
counsel. 

Mr. Perez Mendez. I will not answer this question asked by you 
because I think that this committtee has no jurisdiction to ask me any 
questions, and even less to hold hearings in Puerto Rico, for the rea- 
sons that I have given you in the document which you have. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, so that this record may be abundantly 
clear, I should like to make a statement. 

Tliis Committee on Un-American Activities is attempting to de- 
velop factual information which will enable it to discharge its legis- 
lative duties to maintain a continuing surveillance over the adminis- 
tration and operation of the internal security laws, and to suggest 
amendments or changes, legislative proposals, to the United States 
Congress. 

This Committee on Un-American Activities is confident that you 
presently have information respecting current Communist activities 
and designs here in Puei'to Rico, and from Puerto Rico to certain 
other areas in the Cnribbean. 

I expect in a moment to ask you a simple question, namely, are you 
now a member of the Communist Party. If you will give us a full and 
truthful answer to that question, I then expect to try to elict from you 
information respecting your knowledge of Communist techniques, 
Communist activities in Puerto Rico and in the Caribbean, so that this 
committee may take that information on this record back to Washing- 
ton to use it for its legislative purposes. 

If there is any ])hase of this inquiry which you do not understand, 
the pertinency or relevancy of any question, if you have any doubt in 
your mind about anything pertaining to this proceeding, just ask and 
I will be glad to give you a full and detailed explanation. 

Witli that background, I wnll ask you : Are you now a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Perez Mendez. I refuse to answer this question. I underetand 
that this committee has no jurisdiction to investigate anybody in 
Puerto Rico for the reasons set forth in a document that you liave. 

Mr. Tuck. For the reasons heretofore given, the witness is ordered 
and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Perez Mendez. The witness refuses to answer this question, 
understanding that you do not have any jurisdiction to investigate me 
or anybody else in Puerto Rico for the reasons appearing in a docu- 
ment which you already have. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1717 

Mr. Ahens. Mr. Chainiian, I respectfully su^f^est that will (conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck, Are there any questions ? 

The witness may stand aside. 

Mr. Arens. May we have a 5-minute recess ? 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will be in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken, witli the following members of Ihe sub- 
committee present: Representatives Tuck and Scherer.) 

Mr. Tuck. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Are there any further witnesses, counsel ? 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, although there are other witnesses who 
have been subpenaed for this proceeding, there are no other witnesses 
w^hom we at this time desire to interroj^ate. 

I respectfully suggest, therefore, that the Chair before making your 
closing remarks, let our record reflect that the witnesses who have not 
been heard and who have been subpenaed, are not to be heard and are 
released from their subpenas for appearance in this proceeding. 

Mr. Tuck. I will state that the witnesses who have been subpenaed 
and who have not been heard are released from their subpenas. They 
may, of course, file their vouchers with the clerk of this committee for 
their appearance and for their expenses in attending the committee. 

In concluding the hearings here in San Juan, I should like to make 
a few brief observations respecting the significance and accomplish- 
ments of this particular investigation. 

In the first place, we have seen both in New York City and here in 
San Juan a pattern of Communist activities and techniques which 
verifies and confinns similar patterns which we have been observing^ 
elsewhere. 

While many of the witnesss who have appeared before the com- 
mittee have not answered questions, have refused to answer the ques- 
tions, nevertheless there has been developed here new and convincing 
evidence regarding the problem of Communist propaganda. Com- 
munism derives much of its force and power from its ideology. It 
has long been the position of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties that our laws should be strengthened to require the labeling of 
Communist poisonous propaganda, in the same mamier that our laws 
require the labeling of poisonous drugs before they may be sold. 

As I stated in opening these hearings, we have not tried to probe 
beyond the development of facts which show patterns of Communist 
operation. We have not sought to run down all possible leads. We 
do believe, however, that the evidence which we have developed in 
these sessions adds materially to the fund of information already 
available and required by the committee as a fomidation for legis- 
lative action. 

There is a collateral result of these hearings, moreover, which I 
believe will have a salutary and important effect, namely, to again 
emphasize that the Communist Party operation is real; it is a con- 
tinuing, menacing, dynamic force of intrigue and subversion. Com- 
munism is not merely a philosophical concept. It is a scheme for 
total regimentation and enslavement of every mind and body in the 
entire world. 

We will return to Washington with the information which has been 
developed in New York City and here and use it as part of the fund 



1718 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMOXG PUERTO RICANS 

of knowledge which we are gaining to assist us in the discharge of our 
duties as Representatives in Congress which, under a mandate of the 
■Congi-ess, are, in essence, to maintain a continuing surveillance over 
the operation of our various security laws and to recommend, when 
necessary, amendments or new laws. 

The committee, in its session a few moments ago, has authorized the 
chairman to respectfully request the full committee at their first meet- 
ing to be held early in January 1960 to cite for contempt of this 
•committee those persons whose names the clerk will now read. 

Mr. Margetich. Jose Enamorado Cuesta, Ramon Diaz Cruz, Man- 
uel Arroyo Zeppenfeldt, Cristino Perez Mendez, Juan Saez Corales, 
Juan Emmanuelli Morales, Consuelo Burgos De Pagan, Pablo M. 
Garcia Rodriguez, John Peter Hawes, Cesar Andreu Iglesias, Juan 
Santos Rivera, Frank Ruiz, and Gertrudis Melendez Perez. 

Mr. Tuck. Before continuing further and before concluding, I 
would like to express the gratitude of the chairman and the members 
of the committee, as well as their counsel and members of the staff, 
to all of the officials here who have cooperated with the committee and 
to thank them for their numerous courtesies. 

In particular, we would like to thank Judge Clementes Ruiz Nazario 
iind the United States Clerk, Mrs. Pons; the United States Marshal, 
Mr. Buxo, and his deputies; the Superintendent of Internal Police of 
San Juan and his able assistants; the police force and all others who 
have been cooperative and helpful to us. 

I would like to include also among that number the Collector of 
Customs, Mr. Lopez-Dominguez, and the Inspector of Customs and 
his staff, Mr. Acosta. 

We thank all other good citizens for their kindness to us during 
our stay here in Puerto Rico. 

I will now call on the distinguished gentleman from Ohio, Con- 
gressman Scherer, for any statement that he might have to make at 
this point. 

Mr. ScHEKER. In my closing remarks I want to deal with two or 
three incidents that took place during the hearings which, in my 
opinion, have considerable significance. 

At the beginning of these hearings I made reference to the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee and the part that it has played in 
the hearings of tlie Committee on Un-American Activities in the past 
and here in San Juan. 

"Emergency Civil Liberties Committee" is an attractive, appealing, 
and high-sounding name. It was adopted by the organizers of this 
particular committee for the purpose of deceiving people as to its 
true identity and purpose. Two committees of the Congress, the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities, after careful study and investigation, have 
found that this committee is a Communist-front organization; and 
that it is today dominated and controlled by the Communist 
apparatus. 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities has issued a pub- 
lication entitled "Operation Abolition" which documents, among 
other things, the fact that the present chairman of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, Harvey O'Connor, is an identified Com- 
munist presently under indictment; that Frank Wilkinson, who is the 
moving force behind this committee, has for many years served the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 1719 

Communist conspiracy in numerous and sundry ways; that he is a 
Communist and has been recently convicted and sentenced for con- 
tempt of Congress by reason of his refusal to answer questions con- 
cerning his Communist activities. This report lists the Communist 
and Communist-front records of many of the leaders of this 
organization. 

The record shows that three of the objectives of this conimittee are : 
(1) to destroy the Committee on Un-American Activities and the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee; (2) to curb and weaken the 
powers of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and to discredit its 
great director, J. Edgar Hoover; and (3) to bring about the repeal 
of the Smith Act, the Internal Security Act, the Communist Con- 
trol Act, and other security legislation. 

In an attempt to accomplish its first objective, this Communist- 
controlled committee has sent its cohorts into cities throughout the 
United States in advance of hearings of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities. Its paid agents have done everything possible in ad- 
vance of and during such hearings to stir up animosity, contempt, and 
hatred for this congressional investigating committee. Its agents 
have circulated petitions; appeared on radio programs; set up meet- 
ings, rallies, and picket lines; issued press releases; and placed ads 
in newspapei-s. In all these instances the Committee on Un-American 
Activities has been viciously attacked, ridiculed, and denounced. Its 
purposes and procedures have been distorted and misrepresented. 

These paid hirelings of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 
have met with identified Communists who have been subpenaed as 
witnesses before the committee. They liave, among other things, in- 
structed them how to bait the committee and disrupt the hearings 
while on the witness stand. 

Mr. Clark Foreman is one of their principal advance agents. He 
has previously appeared in other cities where the Committee on Un- 
American Activities has conducted hearings and engaged in activities 
I have here described. He has been here in San Juan for at least a 
week prior to these hearings. He is in San Juan today. He has been 
in the court room during these hearings. His activities here in San 
Juan have followed a pattern similar to those in which he has en- 
gaged on previous occasions. 

One can only speculate as to the effect his activities have had on 
the picketing that has taken place liere in San Juan, the haranguing of 
the committee and its staff by the demonstrators who have spat on our 
automobiles as we arrived at this United States Court House. We 
can only speculate as to what part, if any, Foreman has played in 
the organized shoutings that have taken place, from time to time, 
outside this court room in an attempt to disrupt these hearings and 
intimidate members of the United States Congress. 

Now while the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee has a consti- 
tutional right to do some of these things, even to the extent of mis- 
representing the facts about the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, we in turn as members of the Congress have a right and 
duty to point out to the people of Puerto Rico the fact that this com- 
mittee with its high-sounding name is nothing more or less than a com- 
pletely Communist-dominated and controlled apparatus. We have a 
right to tell you what the real and true objectives of this group are so 



1720 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

that the people of this conimonweaUh and the rest of the ITnited 
Stat-es may better evahiate the real motives behind this connnittee's 
activities and the charges made by it against the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities. 

At the Tuesday afternoon session of these hearings, I stated that I 
had been reliably informed by two reputable members of the Puerto 
Rican Bar that Clark Foreman had assisted in preparing documents 
and recommending strategy used by hostile witnesses subpenaed be- 
fore this committee, as he had done in other instances. You will recall 
that, at the time I made this assertion, the lawyers representing the 
hostile witnesses, led by Abraham Gonzalez, indignantly and loudly 
contended that the information given to the committee by two mem- 
bers of the Bar was a lie. One of the six counsel shouted that he 
had never heard of nor seen Clark Foreman. They claimed their 
professional reputations had been impugned, etc., etc. 

Basically there is nothing wrong in any lawyer accepting help in 
the preparation of a matter in which he is involved as counsel. Law- 
yers do it all the time. They would be derelict in their duty to their 
clients if they did not take advantage of any infoi-mation or sugges- 
tions that were made by a person of experience who was in a position 
to assist. 

By the publicity that has been given this matter in the daily press 
and, further, in view of the fact that these lawyers by their actions 
and what they liave said both in and out of the hearing room make it 
appear that they had been in some way maligned, it is my feeling that 
the record should reflect the true situation by setting forth some 
things that do not appear in the transcript of the testimony. 

When I pointed out that I had been informed by two members of 
the Bar that Foreman had assisted in preparing documents and rec- 
ommending strategy used by hostile witnesses, I did so with no inten- 
tion of impugning the integritj^ of counsel in this case, but I did so 
solely for the purpose of showing a pattern of conduct which was 
being followed by the Emergency Civil Liberties Coimnittee, not 
only here in San Juan, but in other places, to hamper and disrupt the 
hearings. This record should show that, at the conclusion of the 
hearing at which the foregoing incidents took place, Mr. Abraham 
Gonzalez, chief attorney for the hostile witnesses, voluntarily came 
up to the bench after the hearings had been recessed and said that 
Clark Foreman had come to his office and that he had talked with him 
a few days before the hearings. Mr. Gonzalez reiterated that Clark 
F'oreman had nothing to do with the preparation of the briefs. 

I then asked Mr, Gonzalez what was the purpose of Mr. Foreman's 
visit to his law offices and what was said by Mr. Foreman. Mr. Gon- 
zalez refused to answer these questions. 

I think the record should further disclose that the next morning 
Mr. Gonzalez repeated to this committee and its staff, in the presence 
of four of his co-counsel, that he had talked with Foreman in his law 
office about the hearings, but again Mr. Gonzalez refused to tell the 
committee the circumstances under which Mr. Foreman had come to 
his office, the purpose of his visit, and what Mr. Foreman had said 
during the visit. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PI^ERTO RICANS 1721 

Now, as I said, I see nothing wi-ont^ in Mr. Gonzalez' talking to any- 
one whom he felt could be helpful to hiin or his clients in any way in 
the jjreparation for the hearing. lie would be derelict in his duty if 
he did not do so. My complaint is that, when Mr. Gonzalez indig- 
nantly and loudly charged that the information given me was a lie and 
one of his co-counsel shouted that lie did not know, nor had he ever 
seen, Clark Foreman, Mr. (ionzalez acted in bad faith in not disclos- 
ing at that moment in the hearing room and for- the recoi'd that ('lark 
Foreman had consuhed him about these hearings in his law offices; 
that the impression was purposely created, both in the heai'ing room 
and later in Mr. Gonzalez' attack on the committee in the press, that 
he had nothing whatsoever to do with Foreman, that counsel for the 
witnesses did not even know Foreman or why he was in Puerto Rico. 

The record was clear from what I had said earlier in the hearings 
that my purpose was to reveal the activities and motives of Clark 
Foreman and the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee and not to 
reflect on counsel in this case. It is obvious, however, that counsel saw 
an opportunity when I pointed out Foreman's participation to twist 
what I said as a reflection on counsel's integrity. 

I think the record should also disclose that most of the counsel who 
appeared on behalf of the hostile witnesses are members of a Civil 
Rights Committee of the Puerto Rican Bar Association; that this 
committee prepared a resolution prior to these hearings in San Juan 
and presented it to the Puerto Rican Bar Association; that this reso- 
lution which asked that the hearings not be held is a condemnation 
of the Committee on Un-American Activities and contains many false 
statements concerning the committee and its procedures; that Mr. 
Gonzalez was one of the leaders and spokesman in presenting this res- 
olution and urging its adoption by the Bar Association ; that the Bar 
Association rejected this resolution; that the Par Association did 
approve a resolution or request that membere of the Bar Association's 
Committee on Civil Rights represent at these hearings such witnesses 
who requested representation. 

I think it should be further noted in the record that two representa- 
tives of the Board of Governors of the Puerto Rican Bar Association 
voluntarily called upon the committee and stated that they wanted 
the committee to know that the Board of Governors of the Bar Asso- 
ciation was not opposed to the Committee on Un-American Activities; 
that they were not opposed to its conducting hearings in Puerto Rico ; 
and that they were of the opinion that the committee had legal 
authority to conduct hearings. 

Mr. Gilbert Concepcion de Gracia, I am the president of the Civil 
Liberties Committee of the Bar Association [of Puerto Rico], and I 
would like to send this committee also a copy of the resolution that 
was approved by the Bar Association, where the Bar Association said 
that the Bar Association congratulated the Civil Liberties Committee 
for its resolution, and appointed a staff of law^yers which was recom- 
mended by the Civil Liberties Committee. 

Mr. TiTCK. You may file the statement with the clerk of the com- 
mittee. 



1722 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

Mr. ScHERER. Let it be understood that he is talking about a differ- 
ent resolution than the one I am talking about. 

Mr. Gilbert Concepcion de Gracia. I have the resolution here, the 
same he is talking about, I think. 

Mr. Arens. There are no further proceedings which we care to 
submit for this record. 

Mr. Tuck. The hearing in San Juan will now be adjourned. 

CVVhereupon, at 10:55 a.m., Friday, November 20, 1959, the sub- 
committee adjourned, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of adjournment: 
Representatives Tuck and Scherer.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

A Page 

Abreu Castilla, Manuel 1652 

Aceveclo, Ramon 1664 

Acosta 1718 

Albertson, William 1665 

Alverez Leandri, Praxeles. 1662, 1684, 1687, 1690, 1695, 1697, 1700, 1703, 1707, 1715 

Amadeo, Santos P 1652, 1662, 1684, 1690, 1695, 1697, 1700, 1703 

Amato, Pedro Munoz. {See Munoz Amato, Pedro.) 

Andreu Iglesias, Cesar 1610, 1695-1697 (testimony) ; 1709, 1710, 1718 

Arbona Cuevas, Eugenio 1611, 1714 

Arroyo Zeppenfeldt, Manuel 1607, 1644-1646, 1655-1658 (testimony) ; 1718 

B 

Barnes, Donald F 1613, 1638, 1655, 1662, 1684, 1695, 1697, 1703, 1707, 1715 

Blauvelt, Mildred 1607,1608,1668-1676 (testimony) 

Burgos De Pagan, Consuelo 1609,1687-1689 (testimony) ; 1718 

Buxo, Santos, Jr 1718 

C 
Carrion, Ramon Mirabal. (See Mirabal Carrion, Ramon.) 

Carritt 1648, 1649 

Castano, Benicio Sanchez. {See Sanchez Castano, Benicio.) 
Castilla, Manuel Abreu. ( /See Abreu Castilla, Manuel. ) 

Cockburn, Jean 1649 

Concepcion de Gracia, Gilbert 1721, 1722 

Corales, Juan Saez. (See Saez Corales, Juan.) 

Corretjer, Juan A 1611, 1714 

Cruz, Ramon Diaz. ( See Diaz Cruz, Ramon. ) 

Cuesta, Jose Enamorado. (See Enamorado Cuesta, Jose.) 

Cuevas, Eugenio Arbona. {See Arbona Cuevas, Eugenio.) 



de Gracia, Gilbert Concepcion. {See Concepcion de Gracia, Gilbert.) 

Del Rirero, Gerardo Ortiz 1638, 1684, 1690, 1695, 1697, 1700, 1703, 1707 

De Pagan, Consuelo Burgos. {See Burgoe De Pagan, Consuelo.) 

Diakonov, Nikolay Nikolaevich 1651 

Diaz Cruz, Ramon 1610, 1697-1700 (testimony) ; 1718 

Diaz Gonzales, Abraham 1634, 1638, 1655, 1662, 

1677, 1684, 1687, 1690, 1695, 1697, 1700, 1703, 1707, 1715, 1720, 1721 

E 
Eisenhower, Dwight D 1629 

Emmanuelli Morales, Juan 1608, 1609, 1659, 1677-1678 (testi- 
mony) ; 1679-1681, 1682-1683 (testimony) ; 1684, 1696, 1697, 1718 

Enamorado Cuesta, Jose 1606, 1607, 1635- 

1637, 163S-1655 (testimony) ; 1656, 1657, 1718 

F 

Fishman, Irving 1605, 1606, 161&- 

1634 (testimony) ; 1651, 1657, 1658, 1666, 1671 

Foreman, Clark 1616, 1618, 1632, 1653, 1697, 1719-1721 

Foster, William Z 1688 



U INDEX 

G 

Page 

Garcia Rodriguez, Pablo M 160@, 169(V-1694 (testimony) ; 1718 

Goldman, Max 1662, 1684, 1687, 1690, 1695, 1697, 1700, 1703, 1707, 1715 

Gonzalez, Abraham Diaz. (See Diaz Gonzalez, Abraham.) 

H 

Hawes, John Peter 1610, 1700-1703 (testimony) ; 1718 

Hoover, J. Edgar 1719 

I 

Iglesias, Cesar Andreu. (See Andreu Iglesias, Cesar.) 

J 
Joliot-Curie, Frederic 1698 

Jorrin, Miguel 1661 

K 
Khrushchev, Nikita 1621, 1628, 162», 1647 

L 
Leandri, Praxeles Alverez. {See Alverez Leandri, Praxeles.) 
Lewis, Fulton, III 1679, 1698 

Lieuwen, Edwin 1661 

Lopez-Dominguez 1718 

M 

Margetich, William 1679, 1681 

Martin, Diego L., Jr 1611, 1714 (testimony) 

Martinez, Eusebio Ruiz. ( See Ruiz, Frank. ) 
Martinez, Frank Ruiz. (See Ruiz, Frank.) 

Melendez Perez, Gertrudis 1609, 1682, J 684-1687 (testimony) ; 1718 

Mendez, Cristino Perez. {See Perez Mendez, Cristino.) 

Mikoyan (Anastas I.) 1661 

Mirabal Carrion, Ramon 1611, 1714 

Morales, Juan Emmanuelli. (See Emmanuelli Morales, Juan.) 

Morse, Wayne L 1661 

Munoz Amato, Pedro 1652 

X 

Xazario, Clementes Ruiz. {See Ruiz Nazario, Clementes.) 

O 

Ochoteco, Felix, Jr 1652 

O'Connor, Harvey 1616, 1718 

Ortiz, Restituto 1606,1635-1637 (testimony) 

P 

Palekovsky, Vadim 1646 

Pelaez. John 1606. 1618, 1619, 1632, 1633 

Perez, Gertrudis Melendez. {See Melendez Perez, Gertrudis.) 

Perez Mendez, Cristino 1611, 1715-1717 (testimony) ; 1718 

Philbrick, Herbert 1610, 1702 

Pons, Mrs 1718 

R 

Rabinoskij, Alexis Alexandrovich 1647 

Ramirez, Marcos A 1662 

Rivera, Juan Santos. ( See Santos Rivera, Juan. ) 

Rodriguez, Pablo M. Garcia. {See Garcia Rodriguez, Pablo Manuel.) 

Rosenberg, Ethel 1711 

Rosenberg, Julius 1711 

Ruiz, Frank (also known as Eusebio Ruiz Martinez and Frank Ruiz 

Martinez) 1610. 1703-1705 (testimony) : 1718 

Ruiz Martinez, Eusebio. {See Ruiz. Frank.) 

Ruiz Martinez, Frank. (See Ruiz, Frank.) 

Kiii;^ Xazario, Clementes 1718 



INDEX iii 

S 

Page 

Saez Corales, Juan 1«07, 1()«2-1667 (testiinouy) ; lO'Jl, 1<V.>2, 1718 

Sanchez Castano, Benicio 1652 

Santos Rivera, Juau 1010, 1640, 1707-1713 (testimony) ; 1718 

Souccer 1645 

Strong, Anna Louise 1636 

Suske, Eleanor 1(J05, IGOO, KJIS, 1623, 1(524, 1633 

T 

Thorez, Maurice 1646 

W 

Wilkinson, Frank 1617, 1718 

Williams, George C 1609, 1678-1682 ( testimony ) 

Z 

Zeppenfeldt, Manuel Arroyo. {See Arroyo Zeppenfeldt, Manuel. ) 
Organizations 

B 
Bar Association, Puerto Rico. (See Puerto Rican Bar Association. ) 

C 

Communist International. [See International, III.) 

Communist Party, Puerto Rico 1609, 1610, 1640, 1680, 1687, 1688, 1709-1711 

Central Committee 1610, 1691, 1710 

Fourth Congress, 1954, San Juan 1688, 1689, 1691 

Communist Party, Soviet Union : 

Central Committee, Department of Agitation and Propaganda 1621 

Communist Party, USA : 

Central Committee 1609 

Fourteenth National Convention, August 2-6, 1948 1710 

Fifteenth National Convention, December 28, 1950 1710 

Massachusetts: Boston 1701, 1702 

New York City : 

Brooklyn, Boro Hall Section 1670 

Harlem 1680 



Emergency Civil Ldberties Committee 1616, 

1617, 1632, 1653, 1654, 1697, 1718-1721 

F 
French General Confederation of Labor (CGT) 1646 

I 

International, III 1610 

Seventh World Congress, July 25 to August 20, 1935, Moscow 1708 

International Publishers 1670 

International Union of Students 1630 

Intourist, Inc 1647 

N 
New Century Publishers 1666, 1670 



Packinghouse Workers of America, United, CIO 1610, 1704 

Puerto Kican Bar Association 1721 

Board of Governors 1721 

Civil Liberties Committee 1721 

Civil Rights Committee 1721 



iv INDEX 

S 

Page 

Samuel Adams School for Social Studies 1610, 1701 

Soviet Associatiou of Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With the Coun- 
tries of Latin America 1606, 1607, 1611, 1649-1651, 1671-1673 

Commission for the Caribbean Countries 1651 

U 
U.S. Government : 

Post Office Department 1619, 1620, 1623, 1626 

Senate, U.S. — Subcommittee on American Republics Affairs of the 

Foreign Relations Committee 1660 

Treasury Department, Bureau of Customs 1606, 1619, 1623, 1626 

Universal Postal Union 1620 

Convention, 1952, Brussels 1620, 1622 

University of New Mexico 1660 

W 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 1630 

World Peace Congress: 

Congress for Disarmament and International Cooperation, July 16- 

22, 1958, Stockholm, Sweden 1699 

Stockholm Conference of the Permanent Committee, March 1950 1610 

Publications 

China Reconstructs 1636 

Daily Worker 1609, 1610, 1649, 1690 

Facts Indict Atrocities Committed by the U.S. Aggressive Army in South 



Korea. 



1627 
Information Bulletin No. 5 1629 

International Affairs 1628 

Island Times I'^'^S 

La Paz 1610. 1698 

Mainstream 1666,1669 

Masses and Mainstream 1666, 1669 

Miami Herald 1660, 1661 

National Guardian 1666 

New Times 1628 

Political Affairs 1666, 1669 

Pueblo 1607, 1609, 1639, 1640, 1656, 1686, 1711 

Rise of the Chinese People's Communes, The 1636 

Slums of New York, The — Facts About the American Way of Life 1628 

South Korea, a Huge Prison; a Review of South Korean Political 

Situation 1627 

South Korean Women 1627 

Soviet Books 1636 

Soviet Woman 1636 

Subordination, Militarization, and Irrecoverable Bankruptcy 1627 

Unity 1628 

U.S. S.R.— Lenin's Ideas 1636 

W^ar Provocation Maneuvers of U.S. Imperialists in South Korea 1627 

Worker, The 1666, 1668, 1669 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

3 9999 05706 3149 



beyond the specified t.me^ 
'^Please return promptly.