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Full text of "Communist activities among seamen and on waterfront facilities. Hearing before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-sixth Congress, second session, .."

COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 
AND ON WATERFRONT FACILITIES 

PART 1 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMmXTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 6, 7, 8, AND 23, 1960 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(Including Index) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
87727 WASHINGTON : 1960 



HARVARD COLIBGE LIBRARY 
DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT A 



AUG 12 196a 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

RiCHAED Arens, staff Director 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1747 

June 6, 1960: Testimony of — 

Admiral James A. Hirshfield 1758 

Commander Lawrence D. Connor 1758 

Albert E. Green 1758 

Kenneth S. Harrison 1758 

Shea Gorden Trosten 1769 

Donald William Jackson 1778 

Rudolf Kaunitz 1780 

Louis Becker 179 1 

William Henry Thompson 1796 

June 7, 1900: Testimony of — 

Loron Whitney Wardwell 1799 

Peter Goodman 1805 

Stanley Milton Hauser 1815 

Henry Bernard Kasbohm 1822 

Charles Malvern Swan 1823 

William Henry Thompson (resumed) 1825 

June 8, 1960: Testimony of — 

Hugh Mulzac 1827 

Charles Everett Colcord 1831 

June 23, 1960: Testimonv of — 

Rav R. Murdock__.'. 1835 

H. Howard Ostrin 1835 

Hovt S. Haddock 1835 

Ralph E. Casey 1847 

Rear Admiral Halert C. Shepheard 1851 

Marion Chrusniak 1854 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. m. STANDING COMMITTEES 

* m * * * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

Id * He * * * • 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

iK 4< * >« * * • 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

17 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

* * ■!< * * • 4> 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congre.-;? 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

2G. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

▼ 



SYNOPSIS 

Public hearings on Communist activities among seamen and on 
waterfront facilities were held in Washington, D.C., on June 6, 7 and 
8, and on June 23, 1960. 

In opening the hearings, the chairman of the committee stated: 

In Parker v. Lester^ decided October 26, 1955, and 
in Graham v. Richmond^ decided November 5, 1959, the 
Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and the Court of Appeals 
for the District of Columbia, respectively, following a series 
of decisions by the Supreme Court, for all practical pur- 
poses ruled invalid the entire security screening procedures 
administered by the United States Coast Guard. Prior to 
these decisions, under the Mercliant Marine screening pro- 
gram which had been authorized by law in 1950, the United 
States Coast Guard had screened off over 1,800 seamen from 
merchant vessels. Since these court decisions and subse- 
quent rulings following them by the Federal district courts, 
hundreds of seamen wlio had been screened off merchant 
vessels as security risks have procured seamen's documents. 
Numerous other seamen heretofore screened off merchant 
vessels have now applied for seamen's papers. In other 
words, our entire seamen security program has been virtually 
destroj^ed. 

The chairman also explained the provisions of a bill introduced by 
him as follows : 

Under date of April 5, 1960, I introduced in the House 
H.R. 11580, which is pending before the Committee on Un- 
American Acti^dties, to amend the Subversive Activities 
Control Act of 1950 so as to provide that no individual who 
wilfully fails or refuses to answer, or falsely answers, certain 
questions relating to Communist activities, when summoned 
to appear before certain Federal agencies, shall be employed 
on any merchant vessel of the United States or within cer- 
tain waterfront facilities in the United States. This bill is 
patterned after a California statute which was held valid 
by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Nelson 
and Globe v. County of Los Angeles^ decided February 29, 
1960. In this case, the Supreme Court examined a provi- 
sion of the California code which made it the duty of any 
public employee when summoned before an appropriate 
Government agency to give the information of which he was 
possessed on communism and other subversive activity. The 
California code provides for dismissal of any such public 
employee who fails or refuses to appear or to answer tlie 
{|uestions propounded. 

1747 



1748 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

In sustaining the validity of the California statute, the 
court found that, notwithstanding the public employee's in- 
vocation of the fifth amendment, his refusal to reply to the 
questions propounded was sufficient basis for his discharge 
because the State may legitimately predicate discharge on 
refusal of a public employee to give information touching 
on tlie field of security. 

My bill not only attempts to deal with the problems of 
Communists on vessels, but also a related area in which it 
would appear that legislation is needed, namely, on water- 
front facilities which, if in the hands of Communists or if 
penetrated by Communist agents, could create a grave threat 
to our internal security. 

Vice Admiral James A. Hirshfield, Assistant Commandant of the 
Coast Guard, accompanied by Commander Lawrence D. Connor and 
the Chief Counsel and Assistant Chief Counsel of the Coast Guard, 
testified on the history of the screening progTam of merchant seamen 
and the impact on that program of certain com-t decisions. He 
pointed out that approximately 1,800 seamen whose applications for 
seamen's papers have been denied by the Coast Guard are, pursuant 
to these court decisions, now eligible on application to be issued sea- 
men's papers. Admiral Hirshfield expressed the view that the legisla- 
tion mtroduced by the chairman of the committee would help the 
screening program. 

Respecting the threat to the internal security posed by Communists 
on ships or waterfront facilities, he stated : 

Anyone familiar with the work of men who follow the sea 
must agree with the conclusion of the Court as expressed in 
Parker v, Lester that merchant seamen are in a sensitive po- 
sition in that opportunities for serious sabotage are nu- 
merous. Furthermore, because of the vei-y nature of their 
occupation, seamen may be used easily as links in a world- 
wide Communist communication system and a worldwide es- 
pionage network. 

Shea Gorden Trosten, an instrument worker, of Bridgeport, Con- 
necticut, testified that he had been a member of the Communist Party 
from 1943 to 1951, and that lie had subsequently served as an under- 
cover operative for the FBI until his appearance before the com- 
mittee. AVhile in the Communist Party, he said, he had been a 
rank-and-file member of its Waterfront Sections in New York City 
and Port Arthur, Texas, and that he had attended Waterfront Sec- 
tion meetings in New Orleans and in England, Belgium, and France. 
He had also attended the Communist Party Jefferson School of So- 
cial Science in New York City and had been a member of the Na- 
tional Maritime Union. 

The major activities of Communist seamen, Trosten stated, were 
to get Comnmnist Party membei^ elected to positions of influence 
in the union and to carry out Communist Party policy aboard ship. 

He also testified that Communists carried American Communist 
Party propaganda to Europe, where they delivered it to party con- 
tacts. 

It was common practice, he said, for Communist cell meetings to 
be held on ships. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1749 

Asked for appraisal of (lie threat to the security of the United 
States posed by Communists on merchant vessels or waterfront fa- 
cilities, Mr. Trosten replied : 

I feel this way : It is a line of communication, one of our 
first lines, on merchant ships, and to have Communists 
aboard ship is naturally a dangerous thing at a time now 
when the cold war is still going on. It is not difficult for a 
Communist to go to sea with all the restrictions. There are 
Panamanian seamen's books, there are still passports. I 
remember when my papers were taken away I went to a Pan- 
amanian consul in Houston, Texas, I had an American pass- 
port, I paid my passage and shipped out on a Panamanian 
flagship. 

Wlien asked how Communist seamen could be used for smuggling 
of couriers or espionage agents, he replied : 

It is not too difficult to cover a man up on a passenger ship 
where you have a crew of about 600 or 700, like the United 
States or the America or the Constitution. You fuid them 
in the steward's department, and he can ride over and back 
with practically no detection by anybody, because there are 
so many aboard. 

In reply to a question as to whether Communist Party members were 
increasing or decreasing in numbers in the maritime industry, Mr. 
Trosten expressed the view that — 

at the present time the party is campaigning to increase its 
membership more openly than they have in the past 7 or 8 
years, and I definitely think that they will try to establish 
or reestablish themselves a lot more firmly along the water- 
front in the near future. 

Mr. Trosten identified a number of seamen known by him to be 
members of the Communist Party. 

Loron Whitney Wardwell, a chef, of Eochester, New York, testified 
that he had served in the merchant marine as chief steward, chief 
cook and second cook, and butcher and baker from 1945 to 1953, at 
which time he was expelled from his union as a "left- winger" when it 
was taken over by the American Federation of Labor. He was then 
imable to obtain employment on merchant ships. He also testified that 
he had been a member of the Waterfront Section of the Communist 
Party from 1949 to 1953 and an informant for the FBI in the Com- 
munist Party until 1954. 

Mr. Wardwell testified that it was extremely serious to national 
security for Communists to have access to merchant vessels and port 
facilities; that they could tie up waterfronts and could also serve as 
a "perfect front" for Communist courier services to Europe and the 
Far East at any time. 

He testified that Conununist Party propaganda was distributed 
on every ship he had ever worked on and that the function of the 
Waterfront Section of the Communist Party — 

was to take complete control of unions, various committees, 
to disrupt various organizations and to, I would say, create 
havoc on the waterfront. 



1750 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

He also testified that it was not difficult for Communists to obtain 
seamen's papers when Communists held positions of influence in 
unions : 

It is common knowledge that seamen's papers are very 
easily acquired as long as you have one or two comrades that 
are in the higher units of your union. They are given letters 
to various comrades and sent to the Coast Guard, and thereby 
issued seamen's papers. Then they are able to ship out. 

Mr. Wardwell testified that he had known two or three hundred 
seamen who were Communist Party members. He identified ten such 
seamen who had been screened ofi' American merchant ships under 
the Coast Guard security program and who had recently been issued 
seamen's papers as a result of court decisions. 

Donald William Jackson, of New York City, appeared in response 
to a subpena. He invoked both the first and fifth amendments in re- 
fusing to testify whether he presently held seaman's papers; if he 
was currently a member of the Communist Party ; if he had arranged 
to ship out as a seaman in the next few days ; and if he had worked as 
a seaman in the last few years. 

There was displayed to Mr. Jackson a document from the United 
States Coast Guarcl certifying that he had recently procured sea- 
man's papers, but Mr. Jackson refused to answ^er any questions con- 
cerning the document. 

Rudolf Kaunitz, of New York City, appeared in response to a 
subpena. He invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to testify as 
to whether or not he was currently a member of the Communist Party ; 
if he held seaman's papers ; if he was a member of the Seamen's De- 
fense Committee ; and if he proposed to ship out within the next few 
weeks. He admitted attending a meeting of the Youth Against the 
House Un-American Activities Committee held at the Woodstock 
Hotel in New York City the previous Friday, June 3, 1960. He said 
that Frank Wilkinson had addressed the meeting concerning the riots 
which occurred during committee hearings in San Francisco, but in- 
voked the fifth amendment when asked if he knew Wilkinson as a 
member of the Communist Party. Kaunitz attacked the committee 
and in doing so quoted from literature he had obtained at this 
meeting. 

There was displayed to Mr. Kaunitz a document from the United 
States Coast Guard certifying that he had recently procured seaman's 
papers, but Mr. Kaunitz refused to answer any questions concerning 
the document. 

Louis Becker, recently a clerical worker in New York City, invoked 
the fifth amendment in refusing to state whether or not he was cur- 
rently a member of the Communist Party or whether he had been a 
seaman during the past 5 years and planned to resume this occupation ; 
Avhether he held seaman's papers; whether he had knowledge of ac- 
tivities of persons known to him to be Comnnmist Party members, 
which activities were carried out under direction of the Communist 
Party; and whether he had attended the Youth Against the House 
Un-American Activities Committee meeting at the Woodstock Hotel. 

There was displayed to Mr. Becker a document from the United 
States Coast Guard oprtifving that he had reoently procured seaman's 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1751 

papers, but Mr. Becker refused to answer any questions concerning 
the document. 

Peter Goodman, of New York City, who was identified in the in- 
stant hearings by Loron Wardwell as a person known by him to be a 
Communist Party member, testified that he had been a pLastic mold- 
maker for the Last 5 years. Pie invoked the fifth amendment in refus- 
ing to testify if he was presently a member of the Communist Party 
and if he currently had seaman's papers. He also invoked the fifth 
amendment in refusing to testify whether witness Loron Wardwell's 
identification of him as a Communist Party member was true; 
whether he had told the youth attending the Woodstock Hotel meet- 
ing that he was not a member of the Communist Party and whether, 
in addressing that meeting, he had expressed the hope that Commu- 
nist-inspired demonstrations against the committee during the cur- 
rent hearings would exceed those which took place in San Francisco. 
During the course of his testimony the following excerpt from the 
speech he delivered at the Woodstock Hotel was introduced into the 
record : 

Some of us who have carried this fight over a period of 
time have learned not to stand in the way of history. We 
expect to get ourselves back into the industry — reestablish 
ourselves — and in the long run I think that the maritime 
industry is meant to be one of the militant sparkplugs of the 
labor movement as it was in time gone by. 

There was displayed to Mr. Goodman a document from the United 
States Coast Guard certifying that he had procured seaman's papers, 
but Mr. Goodman refused to answer any questions concernmg the 
document. 

Stanley Milton Hauser, a student at the City College of New York, 
also invoked the fifth amendment wiien asked if he was a member of 
the Communist Party at "this instant," and if he held papers as a 
ship's radio operator. After witness Loron Wardwell identified 
Hauser as a person known to him as a Communist Party member and 
a member of the goon squad of the Waterfront Section of the Com- 
munist Party of New York City, Hauser invoked the fifth amendment 
in refusing to affirm or deny these identifications. He also invoked 
constitutional privileges when asked if he had ever transmitted radio 
messages at the direction of a person known to him to be a member 
of the Communist Party. There was displayed to Mr. Hauser a docu- 
ment from the United States Coast Guard certifying that he had been 
issued seaman's papers in 1957, but Mr. Hauser refused to answer any 
questions concerning the document. 

Henry Bernard Kasbohm, of Great Neck, New York, testified that 
he had been employed as a building superintendent since 1950. He 
invoked the fifth amendment, however, when asked if he now held, 
but had previously been denied, seaman's papers ; if he was currently 
a member of the Community Party ; if he had attended Communist 
Party training schools ; and if he intended to ship out as a seaman in 
the near future. There was displayed to Mr. Kasbohm a document 
from the United States Coast Guard certifying that he had procured 
seaman's papers, but Mr. Kasbohm refused to answer any questions 
concerning the document. 



1752 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Charles iSIalvern Swan, of Baltimore, invoked the fifth amendment 
when asked if he was currently a member of the Communist Party ; 
if he had been denied seaman's papers in the past; if he presently 
held them and if he intended to ship out in the foreseeable future. 
He also invoked the fifth amendment Avhen asked if, in connection 
with Communist activities, he had been involved in a fracas with the 
Baltimore police. There was displayed to Mr, Swan a document from 
the United States Coast Guard certifying that he had procured sea- 
man's papers, but Mr. Swan refused to answer any questions concern- 
ing the document. 

William Henry Thompson, seaman of Baltimore, invoked the fifth 
amendment when asked if he was presently, or if he had been, a 
member of the Communist Party. He also invoked constitutional 
privileges when asked if he had been in the offices of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities the previous day ; had conf en-ed with the 
staff director at that time, had told something of his background, and 
revealed that he had recently broken with the Communist Party. In 
addition, he invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he had talked 
with the staff director and planned to testify and if he had been 
threatened since his visit to the committee offices the previous day. 
There was displayed to Mr. Thompson a document from the United 
State Coast Guard certifying that he had procured seaman's papers, 
but Mr. Thompson refused to answer any questions concerning the 
document. 

Hugh Mulzac, of Jamaica, New York, who commanded a Liberty 
ship in World War II, testified that he had last acquired papers as a 
seaman and steward-cook in 1956. lie invoked the fifth amendment 
when asked if he was a member of the Communist Party ; if he had 
been screened off merchant vessels in the past under the Coast Guard 
security program ; if he had made arrangements to resume his career 
as a seaman: and if, as reported in the Communist press, he was 
chairman of the Seamen's Defense Committee. 

Charles Everett Colcord, of Brooklyn, New York, invoked the fifth 
amendment when asked his occupation; whether he was a member of 
the Communist Party; and held seamen's papers and a radio oper- 
ator's license. He also invoked constitutional privileges when asked 
if, within the last 5 years, he had transmitted any radio messages 
given to him by members of the Communist Party. There was dis- 
played to Mr. Colcord a document from the United States Coast 
Guard certifying that he had procured seaman's papers, but Mr. Col- 
cord refused to answer any questions concerning the docunient. 

Ray R. Murdock, Washington counsel. Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, accompanied by H. Howard Ostrin. gen- 
eral counsel. National Maritime Union, and Hoyt S. Haddock, di- 
rector. Seafarers' Section, Maritime Trades Department, AFIj-CIO. 
testified in support of the legislation introduced by the chairman of 
the committee to cope with Communists on merchant vessels and on 
waterfront facilities. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1753 

Testifying respecting the existing situation in which the Coast 
Guard screening program has been ruled invalid by the Federal 
courts, Mv. Murdock stated : 

The result is that subversives have free access to ships and 
port facilities hi this country. 

He continued : 

Let me emphasize that, under existing conditions, the ship- 
ping industry constitutes a convenient conduit b}^ which 
subversives from foreign countries can pour into this coun- 
try. The dangers inherent in this situation cannot be over- 
emphasized. The National Research Council of the National 
Academy of Sciences recently issued a report known as 
"Project Walrus." We do not agree with some of the conclu- 
sions in this report. However, it does set forth some facts 
which should be alarming to the Congress and to the public. 

It points out that, in the event of general war, "merchant 
shipping is very likely to be the least damaged physical re- 
source" (p. 8). This is because railroad and highway sys- 
tems are extremely vulnerable to atomic attack. In the event 
of such an attack, our main reliance, at least in the early 
stages, would be on the merchant marine. 

But it must be remembered that the merchant marine is 
peculiarly vulnerable to sabotage. One skilled man can para- 
lyze a great ship. If we are not able to prevent the infiltra- 
tion of our merchant marine by subversives, then the hazards 
become incalculable. If our merchant marine can be para- 
lyzed by sabotage, then all the billions we are spending for 
defense still leave us woefully unprepared. 

Mr. Murdock and his associates protested that the American mer- 
chant marine is being driven from the seas by "flag-of-convenience" 
ships which are owned and operated by American citizens but wliich 
sail mider foreign flags. He continued : 

These "flag-of-convenience" ships are manned by foreigners 
recruited in manj^ different areas. Some of them have Italian 
crews. Many of them have crews recruited in Latin America. 
Some of them we have examined are manned almost exclu- 
sively by Cubans. No security check whatever is made on 
these foreign seamen. The Coast Guard has no jurisdiction 
over them. They represent a potential plague of security 
risks who will have easy access to our w^aterfront facilities. 
If the process is allowed to continue, soon there will be many 
more foreign seamen working on American-owned ships than 
American seamen. We do not believe that foreign Com- 
munists and foreign subversives are any more desirable than 
American subversives. 



1754 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

He and his associates accordingly proposed an amendment to the 
bill introduced by the chairman which would extend the bill's cover- 
age to seamen employed on any merchant vessel owned by a citizen of 
the United States. 

Kalph E. Casey, president, American Merchant Marine Institute, 
Inc., representing 45 American-flag shipping companies, testified in 
support of the bill introduced by the chairman to cope with Commu- 
nist activities among seamen and on waterfront facilities. 

Rear Admiral Halert C. Shepheard, who prior to his retirement was 
chief of the Office of Merchant Marine Safety, United States Coast 
Guard, testified respecting the threat to the mtemal security of the 
Nation posed by Communist seamen and Commimists on waterfront 
facilities. 

Marion Chrusniak, president. Local 829, International Longshore- 
men's Association, Baltimore, testified on behalf of the 5,000 long- 
shoremen from the port of Baltimore in support of the chairman's 
bill. He likewise pointed out the threat posed by Communist activi- 
ties on merchant vessels and on waterfront facilities. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN AND ON 
WATERFRONT FACILITIES 

PART 1 



MONDAY, JUNE 6, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, 
at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, House Office Building, Washington, 
D.C, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania ; Morgan M. ]\Ioulder, of Missouri ; Clyde Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia; Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan. 

Statf members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and William 
Margetich, investigator. 

The Chairman. In Parker v. Lester, decided October 26, 1955, and 
in Graham v. Richmond^ decided November 5, 1959, the Ninth Circuit 
Court of Appeals and the Court of Appeals for the District of Co- 
lumbia, respectively, following a series of decisions by the Supreme 
Court, for all practical purposes ruled invalid the entire security 
screening procedures administered by the United States Coast Guard. 
Prior to these decisions, under the Merchant Marine screening pro- 
gram which had been authorized by law in 1950, the United States 
Coast Guard had screened off over 1,800 seamen from merchant ves- 
sels. Since these court decisions and subsequent rulings following 
them by the Federal district courts, hundreds of seamen who had been 
screened off merchant vessels as security risks have procured seamen's 
documents. Numerous other seamen heretofore screened oft' mer- 
chant vessels have now applied for seamen's papers. In other words, 
our entire seamen security program has been virtually destroyed. 

Under date of April 5, 1'960, 1 introduced in the House H.R. 11580, 
which is pending before the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
to amend the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 so as to pro- 
vide that no individual who wilfully fails or refuses to answer, or 
falsely answers, certain questions relating to Communist activities, 
when summoned to appear before certain Federal agencies, shall be 
employed on any merchant vessel of the United States or witliin cer- 
tain waterfront facilities in the United States. This bill is patterned 
after a California statute which was held valid by the United States 
Supreme Court in the case of Nelson and Gloie v. County of Los An- 
geles, decided February 29, 1960. In this case, the Supreme Court 

1755 



1756 coM]vnjNiST activities among seamen 

examined a provision of the California code Ayhich made it the duty 
of any public employee when summoned before an appropriate Gov- 
ernment agency to give the information of which he was possessed 
on communism and other subversive activity. The California code 
provides for dismissal of any sucli public employee who fails or re- 
fuses to appear or to answer the questions propounded. 

In sustaining the validity of the California statute, the court found 
that, notwithstanding the public employee's invocation of the fifth 
amendment, his refusal to reply to the questions propounded was 
sufficient basis for his discharge because the State may legitimately 
predicate discharge on refusal of a public employee to give informa- 
tion touching on the field of security. 

My bill not only attempts to deal w4th the problems of Communists 
on vessels, but also a related area in which it would appear that legisla- 
tion is needed, namely, on waterfront facilities which, if in the hands of 
Communists or if penetrated by Communist agents, could create a 
grave threat to our internal security. 

I recall that a little over a year ago this committee interrogated 
Communist agent, Harry Bridges, who, together with other Commu- 
nists, controls the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 
Union. At that time Bridges had just returned from a trip to Europe 
on a United States passport where he liad been in conferences with 
leaders of other Communist-controlled longshoremen groups. Shortly 
after the hearings, which were held here in "Washington, Bridges left 
again on a United States passport for Tokyo, Jaj^an, where he parti- 
cipated in the Pacific- Asia Dock Conference with representatives of 
Asian Communist-led longshoremen groups. I recall that Bridges 
defiantly asserted in his testimony before our committee that in the 
event of war in the Far East, he would do all in his power as head of 
the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union to im- 
pede shipments of supplies going from the United States to our allies. 

I say without apology that my bill would, in addition to providing 
for an effective screening program for seamen, also provide an effec- 
tive program whereby Communist agents could be screened off our 
docks and other waterfront facilities. 

Since the introduction of H.R. 11580, pursuant to the suggestions 
of some of the experts on security screening procedures, particularly 
as they would be applicable to seamen, I have prepared two amend- 
ments relating to procedural matters concerning which we hope to 
develop information of a clarifying nature during these instant hear- 
ings. While I am not wedded to the precise language of my bill, I 
am determined that there shall be effective legislation providing for 
a strong program to screen Communists from our merchant vessels and 
waterfront f aciUties. 

In that connection, I would like to state that I have just received 
information that there are several bus loads of young Communists on 
their way to Washington from New York. The mere fact that these 
yoimg people are attempting to prevent or to influence the enactment 
of legislation is a very strong argument in favor of the enactment of 
this legislation. 

In the course of tlie next few days we expect to develop on this 
public record factual material on Communist activities among seamen 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1757 

and on waterfront facilities. A number of oroups and or2;anizations 
liaA^e manifested an interest in testifying before the committee on the 
proposed letrislation itself, but I felt that their testimony should be 
deferred until this record reflects the existino; situation. Therefore, 
after we have completed the record this week, we will suspend the 
hearin2:s for a week or so and then resume on the proposed legislation 
itself, at which time we will receive the testimony of these groups and 
organizations. 

Tvet there now be inserted in the record the resolution, dated April 5, 
1960, authorizing and directing the holding of the instant hearings, 
together with the order dated May 23, 1960, designating the sub- 
committee to conduct the hearings. 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activities 
or a subcommittee thereof, to be held at such place or places as the Chairman 
may direct, on such date or dates as the Chairman may determine, be authorized 
and approved, including the conduct of investigations deemed reasonably neces- 
sary by the staff in preparation therefor, relating to the following matters and 
having the legislative purposes indicated : 

1. All factual material which may be necessary or desirable to assemble to 
enable the Committee to appraise the bill, H.R. 11580 of the 86th Congress, 
Second Session, to amend the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 so as to 
provide that no individual who willfully fails or refuses to answer, or falsely 
answers, certain questions relating to Communist activities, when summoned 
to appear before certain Federal agencies, shall be employed on any merchant 
vessel of the United States or within certain waterfront facilities in the United 
States ; 

2. Strategy, tactics and activities of members of the Communist Party in 
connection with seamen, shipping, or waterfront facilities; 

3. The execution by the administrative agencies concerned of all laws and 
I'egulations relating to the Internal Security Act, the Communist Control Act, 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Passport Regulations, and all other laws, 
the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the Committee, the 
legislative purpose being to exercise continuous watchfulness over the execution 
of these laws to assist the Congress in appraising their administration, and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary ; 

4. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or 
any subcommittee thereof appointed to conduct these hearings may designate. 

May 23, 1960. 
To : Mr. Richard Arens 
Staff Director 

House Committee on Un-American Activities 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Representatives IMorgan M. Moulder, Clyde Doyle, Donald L. 
Jackson and Gordon H. Scherer, as associate members, and myself, Francis E. 
Walter, as Chairman, to conduct hearings in Washington, D.C., Monday through 
Friday, June 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, 1960, at 10 :00 a.m., on subjects under investigation 
by the Committee and take such testimony on said days or succeeding days, as 
it may deem necessary. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 23d day of May 1960. 

( S ) Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Arens, will vou call vour first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Admiral James A. Hirshfield, accompanied, 
if you please, Mr. Chairman, by colleagues from the United States 
Coast Guard. 

Admiral, will you kindly come forward with your colleagues and 
all remain standing while the chairman administers the oath? 

57727— 60— pt. 1 2 



1758 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

The Chaikman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. I do. 

Commander Connor. I do. 

Mr. Green. I do. 

Mr. HLvRRisoN. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ADMIRAL JAMES A. HIRSHFIELD, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CDR. LAWRENCE D. CONNOR, ALBERT E. GREEN, ASSISTANT 
CHIEF COUNSEL, AND KENNETH S. HARRISON, CHIEF COUNSEL, 
UNITED STATES COAST GUARD 

Mr. Arens. Admiral Hirshfield, before you proceed further, would 
you kindly identify yourself on the record, and identify, if you please, 
sir, the names and titles of your colleagues ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. I am Vice Admiral James A. Hirshfield, As- 
sistant Commandant of the Coast Guard. To my right is Cdr. 
Lawrence D. Connor, who is the Assistant Chief of the Merchant Ma- 
rine Personnel Division in Coast Guard Headquarters. The next gen- 
tleman to my right is Mr. Kenneth S. Harrison, who is the Chief Coun- 
sel of the Coast Guard. On my left is Mr. Albert E. Green, who is 
Judge Harrison's principal assistant. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Admiral, we understand that yon have, in the first instance, a pre- 
pared statement which you would like to submit to the committee. 
If it meets with the pleasure of the chairman, I respectfully suggest 
you proceed at this time to read your prepared statement and then in 
all probability the committee or I will have some additional ques- 
tions to submit to you. 

Admiral Hirshfield. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Chairman and members of the connnittee, I feel privileged to 
appear before vou todav in connection with vour consideration of 
H.R. 11580, a bill "To amend the Subversive Activities Control Act 
of 1950 so as to provide that no individual who willfully fails or re- 
fuses to answer, or falsely answers, certain questions relating to Com- 
munist activities, when summoned to appear before certain Federal 
agencies, shall be employed on any merchant vessel of the United 
States or within certain waterfront facilities in the United States." 

The Commandant of the Coast Guard, Admiral Richmond, is 
presently in Europe and expresses his regrets in not being able to 
serve this committee personally in its consideration of this proposed 
legislation. 

Since my statement was originally prepared Friday afternoon we 
received two copies of proposed amendments to H.R. 11580. While I 
have not had time to make a detailed study of the amendments, they 
Avould seem to supply the deficiencies noted in the letter of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury relating to the bill which was delivered to the 
cliairman of this committee on Fridav. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1759 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I Avonder if you could interrupt to re- 
quest at this time that the record now reflect the body of the letter 
which was received by the chairman of the Committee of Un-Ameri- 
can Activities from the United States Department of the Treasury 
on the i)roposed le<2;islation so that the record will reflect the coumient 
of Admiral Hirshheld with reference to these suggested amendments 
which were first developed in my convei'sations with the Coast Guai/d. 

Mr. Moulder (presidmg) . Without objection, it is so ordered. 
(The letter referred to follows :) 

June 3, 1960. 

My Dear Mr. Chairman : 

Reference is made to your request for the views of this Department on H.R. 
11580, a bill to deny employment to certain persons who do not respond to agency 
subpena or order. 

The purpose of the proposed legislation is to deny employment aboard United 
States vessels or on United States waterfront facilities to any person who will- 
fully fails or refuses to appear before any Federal agency, when subpenaed or 
ordered to appear, or to answer under oath before such agency questions relating 
to his or any other person's membership or activities in the Communist Party. 

Although the Department favors the effective security screening of merchant 
seamen and waterfront workers, and accordingly endorses the apparent objec- 
tives of the bill, it is doubtful that the consequences of Federal court decisions 
in Parker v. Lester and Graham v. Richmond would be overcome by passage of the 
bill in its present form. 

In order to be effective with respect to any particular agency's program, the 
provisions i)ertaining to failure or refusal to appear, in response to subpena or 
order, or to answer, would require authority in the agency to issue the subpena 
or order. The Coast Guard does not have such authority in connection with 
the security screening program which it conducts under the Magnuson Act and 
Executive Order 10173, as amended. Hence the bill would not appear to broaden 
the power of the Coast Guard to deny employment through its screening pro- 
gram, except to the extent that employment might be denied to a few persons 
for lack of response to the proces.s of other agencies. 

The bill does not relate denial of employment to the grant or denial of security 
clearance by the Coast Guard. Nevertheless it would appear that this latter 
program could provide the machinery for a partial enforcement of the provisions 
of the bill. With respect to employment which does not require Coast Guard 
security clearance, however, it does not appear that the bill would provide 
either machinery or sanctions for enforcement. 

The Department has been advised by the Bureau of the Budget that there is 
no objection to the submission of this report to your Committee. 
Very truly yours, 

A. GiLMORE Flues, 
Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 

Admiral Hirshfield, In my statement today I shall endeavor to 
cover the four broad topics upon which the committee has expressed in- 
terest and has requested Coast Guard views. These topics are as 
follows : 

( 1 ) The 1950 merchant seaman screening program ; 

( 2 ) The legal problems encountered in this program ; 

(3) The potential threat to internal security posed by Communists 
on ships or waterfront facilities ; and 

(4) Procedures contemplated in the event that H.R. 11580 is 
enacted. 

The first topic of my discussion relates to the 1950 merchant seaman 
screening program. 



1760 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

HISTORY OF SCREENING PROGRAM 

Although H.R. 11580 is addressed both to merchant seamen and 
workers in waterfront facilities, this discussion is directed to that phase 
of the screening program dealing with merchant seamen, since it is 
in this area that the courts have directed their attention. 

Waterfront Exclusions World War II ; termination of 

During World War II there was in eifect a so-called Waterfront 
Exclusion Program based on the Espionage Act of 1917. This pro- 
gram ended in July 1947 at the termination of the state of war and 
national emergencies. During World War II, when we were allied 
M'ith Kussia, the Communists made their greatest infiltration into sea- 
faring and waterfront unions. In a few of these unions Communists 
obtained complete control and domination. As Communist aggres- 
sion in South Korea grew, so did the realization that Communists 
and Communist sympathizers on vessels carrying critical supplies pre- 
sented a grave threat to national security. 

Magnuson Act and Executive Order 10173 

The Act of August 9, 1950, popularly known as the Magnuson Act, 
amended Title II of the Espionage Act of 1917 and enabled the Presi- 
dent to institute such measures and issue such rules and regulations 
as necessary for security of vessels and waterfront facilities, whenever, 
by Proclamation or Executive Order, the President declares an emer- 
gency to exist. Acting under this Act, the President, on 18 October 
1950, issr.ecl Executive Order 10173, which declared in part that the 
security of the United States was endangered by reason of subversive 
activity. Presidential regulations followed wliich implemented the 
Executive Order, and authorized the Commandant of the Coast Guard, 
among other things, to require the issuance of specially validated docu- 
ments as evidence of security clearance, and to deny the issuance of 
such documents to individuals whose character and habits of life were 
such as to authorize the belief that his presence on vessels and water- 
front facilities would be inimical to the security of the United States. 
Provision was also made for the right to appeal before appeal boards 
appointed by the Commandant. Penalties were also provided for 
failure to comply with any regulation promulgated thereunder. 

Coast Guard Regulations (33 CFR 121) 

The Coast Guard Regulations for the security of vessels and water- 
front facilities were published in December 1950, after j^ublic hearing, 
and further implemented the Presidential regulations by supplying the 
details necessary for the operation of the Program, such as : validation 
of documents; vessels to which the regulations applied; the criteria 
or basis of rejection- and appeals procedure. Validation was ac- 
complished by stampmg on the document the legend "Validated for 
Emergency Service." The criteria or basis for rejection is: (a) 
advocacy of the overthrow of government by unconstitutional means; 
(b) espionage, sabotage, sedition or treason (c) serving interests of 
other governments to^the detriment of the United States (d) unau- 
thorized disclosure of classified information (e) membership in, or 
affiliation or sympathetic association with any foreign or domestic 
organization, movement, group or combination of persons designated 
by the Attorney General pursuant to Executive Order 10450. The 



COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1761 

first four categories are comparatively rare and rejection is generally 
based on convictions of record. The fifth category (e), represents 
the criteria applied to the bulk of the rejectees, and the most difficult 
(o prove. The hearings are conducted before local tripartite boards, 
with further appeal to the National Appeal Board in Washington. 
These boards make recommendations to the Commandant, whose 
decision is final. 

The Parker vs. Lester Decision 

In October 1955 the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held 
that the screening regulations fell short of furnishing the minimum 
requirements of due process in respect to notice and opportunity to be 
heard, and that the plaintiffs were entitled to an injunction against 
further enforcement of the regulations. The Court criticized the 
Coast Guard's use of "confidential information," the failure to afford 
confrontation and cross-examination of witnesses, and the fact that the 
Commandant made an initial determination prior to any hearing. 
It was urged that the Supreme Court be petitioned for certiorari, but 
the Solicitor General decided against this action. 

New Eegulations as a result of Parher vs. Lester 

The Coast Guard's procedures had been designed as they were be- 
cause it must rely on information obtained from other agencies, classi- 
fied as confidential by them, in determining whether persons are poor 
security risks. These agencies normally will not reveal the names 
of informants, and therefore they cannot be produced at the hearing. 
Even if the agencies would disclose the names, the informants are 
generally persons (often itinerant seamen) who furnished the infor- 
mation years before, and it would be an all but impossible task to 
locate them, and without funds for paying expenses, produce them 
at the hearing. Despite these obstacles, the Coast Guard on May 1, 
1956, adopted new regulations designed to meet the Court's objection. 
Under these regulations : No determination is made before the hearing ; 
they do not, on their face, prohibit the disclosure of the source of 
derogatory information ; tliey do not deny the right to confrontation 
and cross-examination; and they cannot be interpreted as placing a 
burden on the person involved to clear himself. 

Interpretation of Eegulations by District Court 

The new regulations were effective prior to the issuance of an injunc- 
tion by the District Court pursuant to Court of Appeals opinion, and 
in the argument before the Court, the Government contended that the 
new regulations eliminated all features of the program which gave rise 
to the adverse decision. The District Court did not accept this con- 
tention. Instead, it issued an extremely broad injunction, the effect 
of which is to require the Coast Guard to permit plaintiffs and all 
persons similarly situated to go to sea notwithstanding determinations 
of the Commandant that they are security risks. As a result of the 
decree of the Court, a new security stamp was adopted bearing the 
legend "Validated. Issued pursuant to decree of DC ND Cal 7/12/56 
and to be given same effect as all similar documents issued without 
such order." Currently the issuance of documents to 327 seamen foi-- 
merly found to be security risks has been authorized. To date 298 of 
these seamen have been issued documents bearing the above legend, 



1762 COAOIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

indicating that pursuant to the court order they were not to be denied 
access to vessels and waterfront facilities. 

Summation 

In administering the Port Security Program to date the Coast Guard 
has processed over a half million applications for seamen's documents. 
Of this number about 1,800 are in a denied status. When it is con- 
sidered that only 327 court order documents have been authorized, and 
only about 60 seamen are shipping out on these documents, it would 
appear that the bulk of the rejectees were screened at the outset of the 
program. 

LEGAL PROBLEMS INVOLVED 

Legal problems, I believe, are best discussed in relation to the litiga- 
tion in which the Coast Guard has been involved. Reference has been 
made earlier in my testimony to the case of Parker v. Lester^ 227 F 2d 
708 (1955) U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. The appellants as 
plaintiffs below in the District Court sought to enjoin the Coast 
Guard's port security screening program. The plaintiffs were sea- 
men who had been denied security clearance by the Commandant, and 
therefore, lacking documents evidencing security clearance they could 
not, under Coast Guard regulations, be employed aboard merchant 
vessels of the United States. The District Court restrained the Coast 
Guard from denying them clearance and from preventing their em- 
ployment unless the Coast Guard furnished to the plaintiffs bills of 
particulars setting forth the content of the testimony against them 
held by the Coast Guard and unless the Coast Guard afforded the 
plaintiffs an opportunity to rebut specific allegations. (112 Federal 
Supplement 433 N.D. Cal. D.C. 1953). In passing it is interesting to 
note that the Court did not believe that the plaintiffs were entitled to 
a hearing before they were denied security clearance. 

Immediately following this decision, the Coast Guard amended its 
regulations. Under the old regulations, a person denied security clear- 
ance was first notified of the basis for denial after he took an appeal 
to a Coast Guard Local Hearing Board. Generally, the amendment 
brought about by the District Court's decision provided that the noti- 
fication of initial denial of security clearance would set forth the basis 
for denial so as to afford reasonable notice thereof and an opportunity 
to marshal evidence in refutation. Also, provision was made that upon 
appeal a more specific statement or bill of particulars would be fur- 
nished the applicant setting forth the alleged acts, conduct or beliefs 
upon which the denial was made. 

Despite the amended procedures, imder which quite a few persons 
who had initially been denied clearance were subsequently cleared 
after hearing on appeal, the plaintiffs in the original Parker v. Lester 
case were not satisfied with the District Court's decision and appealed 
to the Circuit Court. They insisted that the Coast Guard port security 
screening procedures denied them due process in violation of the fifth 
amendment because they had not been given notice of specific charges 
and were refused the right to confront and cross-examine witnesses 
against them. 

The Circuit Court found the Magnuson Act (50 USC 191), the 
basic law, adequate. It is fair to say, I believe, that the Court did 
not question the constitutionality of the Presidential Executive Order, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1763 

tliat is Executive Order 10173, as amended, which inchides the Presi- 
dential regulations, Part G of Title 33, Code of Federal llegulations. 
On the other hand, the Circuit Court held that the regulations of the 
Coast Guard were null and void since they deprived appellants the 
right of employment without due process. It also held the appellants 
entitled to injunctive i-elief against enforcement of the regulations. 

While the Court did not say specifically that the Coast Guard must 
ati'ord an applicant the opportunity to be confronted with his accusers 
and to cross-examine witnesses, it seems clear, and it is generally 
accepted, that the sense of the decision requires such an opportunity. 
This is apparent even though the Court states that it does not hold 
that the Coast Guard could not adopt a program which in some degree 
would qualify the right of confrontation and cross-examination. 

It is these requirements which seriously hamper the Coast Guard 
in its administration of an effective port security screening program. 
For example, under the terms of the injimction issued by the District 
Court pursuant to the mandate of the Circuit Court in Parker v. 
Lester^ the Coast Guard has been forced to issue dociunents validated 
for security clearance to several hundred seamen previously deter- 
mined to be security risks. There is no doubt that except for the 
necessity of confrontation and cross-examination many of these sev- 
eral hundred documents would be revoked. These docmnents hav- 
ing been issued under compulsion of the injunction bear an endorse- 
ment showing that they were issued pursuant to court order. While 
the Coast Guard was prohibited from treating these docmnents any 
differently than those regularly issued and from interfering with the 
employment of the holders, several unions and shipping companies, 
knowing the circumstances of issuance, refused to employ these sea- 
men. A lawsuit followed — Berman et al v. National Maritime Union 
et al in the Federal District Court in New York. The litigation was 
settled on March 7, 1960. Under the terms of the settlement, as we 
understand it, the holders of these documents are to be treated as if 
they held regularly issued documents. The effect of the settlement 
upon the screening program is self-evident. 

The requirements of confrontation and cross-examination also con- 
stitute impediments in screening new applicants for security clear- 
ance. In the absence of available witnesses and having been precluded 
from using confidential information, the Coast Guard would be forced 
to issue a document evidencing security clearance even though the 
Commandant might not be satisfied as to the applicant's loyalty. For- 
tunately, experience has shown that the bulk of new applicants are 
not security risks; and prior to the recent decision of the Court, in 
the case of Graham v. Richmond (dc'd Nov. 5, 1959, Docket No. 14036, 
C.C./D.C.) the Coast Guard maintained some degi-ee of control by 
refusing to process applications in which the applicant failed or 
refused to answer inquiries necessary for a determination of his secu- 
rity status. Graham was such an applicant. He declined to answer 
three questions on the gi'ound of vagueness and on constitutional 
grounds. Briefly, the questions dealt with whether he was a sub- 
scriber to certain publications, whether he was or had engaged in 
their sale, distribution, or publication, and whether he had been or 
was a member of certain organizations. His application was denied 
further oonsirleration unless and until he answered the questions pro- 



1764 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

pounded. After his request for a statement of charges and for a 
hearing was rejected by the Coast Guard he instituted legal action. 

The District Court ruled that the questions were proper and that 
the Coast Guard was not required to proceed further with Graham's 
application. On appeal, however, the Circuit Court, even though it 
assumed the three unanswered questions to be relevant, held that the 
Coast Guard's refusal to consider the application was tantamount to 
outright denial and tliat, under Coast Guard's regulations, Graham 
was entitled to a hearing before he could be denied clearance. Judg- 
ment was entered accordingly, and the Coast Guard is presently con- 
ducting a hearing on the merits of Graham's application. 

The exact basis for the Court's ruling is not too clear. Since the 
majority opinion noted that the regulations did not specifically pro- 
vide that the questions must be answered as a condition precedent to 
further consideration of tlie application, the Coast Guard has amended 
the regulations in this regard and is continuing to require new appli- 
cants to respond to inquiries. Of course, this requirement is of no 
help in dealing with holders of clearances issued under the injunction 
of Parker v. Lester. 

THE POTENTIAL THREAT TO INTERNAL SECURITY POSED BY COMMUNISTS ON 
SHIPS OR ON WATERFRONT FACILITIES 

This committee, by reason of its extensive activities and experience 
over the years in the area of subversive activity, generally is in a much 
better position than the Coast Guard, whose knowledge is limited to 
that gained through administration of the screening program, to cor- 
rectly evaluate the danger to the national security. 

However, my own view is that conditions today are no less critical 
than they were at the time the President issued the Executive Order 
which authorized the program. Anyone familiar with the work of 
men who follow the sea must agree with the conclusion of the Court 
as expressed in Parker v. Lester that merchant seamen are in a sensi- 
tive position in that opportunities for serious sabotage are numerous. 
Furthermore, because of the very nature of their occupation, seamen 
may be used easily as links in a worldwide Commmiist communication 
system and a worldwide espionage network. 

PROCEDURES CONTEMPLATED IN THE EVENT THAT H.R. 11580 IS ENACTED 

Given implementation by the President of which the bill speaks, it 
might be feasible for the Coast Guard to so amend its regulations as 
to provide for the denial of the documents required for employment 
to any person, or to revoke such outstanding documents of any person, 
denied employment under the conditions described in the bill. I am 
not certain as to the precise methods or procedures. But I do believe 
that notice and hearing as required by Parker v. Lester would have to 
be afforded before docmnents could be denied or revoked even on the 
strength of the bill. 

It should be observed that the bill does not relate denial of employ- 
ment to the grant or denial of security clearance. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt, if you please. Admiral, without being 
discourteous to you? The matters which you are prepared to discuss 
now are matters which are the subject of the proposed amendments. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 17G5 

Admiral Hirshfield. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. I Avould suggest that you may modify your recommen- 
dations on the proposal in the light of the amendments, or omit the 
rest of your prepared statement, because you have already commented 
on them. 

Admiral Hirshfield, I think that is better. 

Mr. Arens. Admiral, this committee has under subpena, a number 
of persons who have been identified to the committee as Communists 
and as persons who either now are, or in the recent past have been, en- 
gaged as seamen. I should like to ask you if you can tell this commit- 
tee whether or not at the present time one Louis Becker has seaman's 
papers which were issued to him as the result of the court decisions';? 

Admiral PIirsiifield. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Does Charles Everett Colcord now have seaman's pa- 
pers wliich were issued to him by the Coast Guard as a result of the de- 
cisions of the courts ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. He does. 

Mr. Arens. Does the same situation prevail with reference to each 
of the following persons, and I announce to the record each one of 
these persons is presently under subpena before this committee. Peter 
Goodman ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Stanley William Hauser? 

Admiral Hirshfield. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Donald William Jackson ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. Yes. 

Mr. Arens, Henry Bernard Kasbohm ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. He does. 

Mr. Arens. Rudolf Kaunitz ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. He does. 

Mr. Arens. Hugh Mulzac? 

Admiral Hirshfield. He does. 

Mr. Arens. Henry Spira ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. He does. 

Mr. Arens. Charles Malvern Swan ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. He does. 

Mr. Arens. William Henry Thompson ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. Yes. 

j\Ir. Arens. Do your records, Admiral, reflect that these men to 
whom you have just said seamen's documents were issued because of 
court decisions, were at one time, prior to these court decisions, denied 
seamen's papers ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. They were. 

Mr. Arens. Under the present law, is the Coast Guard empowered 
I o screen off of a waterfront facility, as distinct from a vessel, a Com- 
munist or one whose activity might endanger the public safety? 

Admiral Hirshfield, I would say that the same situation applies 
(o them as to the seamen. We do have that under the Magnuson Act 
and Executive Order 10173. 

Mr. Arens. Under the operation of tlie bill which the chairman 
of this committee has introduced in the House, which is currently 
pending before the committee, if a witness were subpenaed before an 
agency of the Government of the United States and interrogated 
respecting his or other Communist activities, and if that witness 



1766 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

refused to answer questions before the agency, that would, in and of 
itself, be a sufficient ground for the Coast Guard to deny seaman's 
papers to him, would it not ? 

Mr. Harrison. We would have to amend our regulations to cover 
that situation. 

Mr. Arens. But the law would empower, or would lay a founda- 
tion or basis pursuant to which you could amend your regulations 
to cover that situation, isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Harrison. I think it would, yes. 

Mr. Moulder. You mean the bill pending before this committee? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. How many people, in toto, who were screened 
off of merchant vessels as seamen by the Coast Guard because the 
Coast Guard found them to be security risks have, since these de- 
cisions which you have alluded to, now received seamen's papers? 
Roughly speaking, unless you have the precise figure. 

Ad.miral Hirshfield. I would like to call on Cdr. Connor. 

Mr. Arens. Cdr. Connor, would you kindly address yourself to 
that question ? 

Cdr. Connor. There have been since May 1956, 90,765 approved 
issuances of validated documents. 

Mr. Arens. How many of the persons who were denied seamen's 
documents prior to these court decisions have now, pursuant to the 
rulings of the court decisions, been given seamen's documents ? 

Cdr. Connor. 298. 

Mr. Arens. How many applications do you have pending of per- 
sons who have been denied seamen's status on security grounds who 
are now seeking seamen's documents pursuant to the rulings in the 
courts ? 

Cdr. Connor. The court validated documents you are talking 
about ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Cdr. Connor. None. 

Mr. Arens. Were those applications of the category which I char- 
acterized a moment ago, namely, persons who have been denied status 
on security grounds but who are now seeking validation of their 
documents ? 

Cdr. Connor. No, sir ; they were not of that category. 

Mr. Arens. I think the record ought to be clear on this. Let me 
back up and try it again. Is the record clear, Admiral, that there are 
approximately 298 persons who were denied seamen's papers by the 
Coast Guard on security grounds, pursuant to the court decisions, 
who have since been given seamen's papers? 

Cdr. Connor. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. How many additional persons who have been denied 
seamen's documents by the Coast Guard on security grounds have 
filed applications which are pending with the Coast Guard ? 

Cdr. Connor. None. 

Mr. Arens. Do you want to strike that answer and reconsider it? 
I am afraid from what I gather here there may be a misconstruction 
of my question. 

Cdr. Connor. Would you restate that question sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. You have testified that approximately 298 
people who were in the first instance denied seamen's papers on secu- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1767 

rity grounds by the Coast Guard have now been issued their seamen's 
papers because of the court decisions. 

Cdr. Connor. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Akens. That is correct, is it not ? 

(/dr. Connor. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How many more people have applications pending 
beiore the Coast Guard for seamen's docmnents who heretofore had 
their applications denied on security gromids? Do you have that 
figure ? 

Cdr. Connor. None. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately 298 have received their papei"S back? 

Cdr. Connor. Court validated documents. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. How many of the remaining persons whose 
documents were denied have their applications pending? Do you 
have that figure? 

Cdr. Connor. I don't have that figure. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly, if it is available, get it and supply 
it for us later ? 

Cdr. Connor. Yes, sir. 

(The infoiTnation referred to follows :) 

UNITED STATES COAST GUARD 

Address Reply to: MVP 

Commandant File: CH (SD) 

U.S. Coast Guard 8 June 1960 

Headquarters 
Washington 25, D.C. 

Mr. Richard Arens 

Staff Director 

Committee on Un-American Activities 

House of Representatives 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Dear Mr. Arens : 

This will serve to clarify and supply the information in response to your ques- 
tion before the Committee on 6 June with respect to the number of applications 
for "Court Order Docmnents" pending with the Coast Guard, in addition to 
those already authorized or issued. 

The answer is, there are none pending because if an application for such docu- 
ment is made, tlie Coast Guard has no discretion in the matter and must issue 
the document in response to the order of the court. This means the remainder 
of the approximately 1,800 seamen in a denial status would be eligible on appli- 
cation to be issued such documents. 
Sincerely youi's, 

L. D. CONNOR 
Commander, U.S. Coast Guard 
Acting Chief, Merchant Vessel Personnel 

Division 

By direction of the Commandant 

1300 E St. N.W. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the Admiral's 
statement is so clear and so comprehensive in its coverage that, aside 
from those one or two questions, we have no further questions except to 
express the staff appreciation for the splendid cooperation which the 
Admiral and his colleagues have given to us in our staff' consultations 
with them and in the preparation of suggestions we have now em- 
Ijodied m the form of amendments to the proposed legislation. 



1768 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Moulder. We thank you for your most interesting and infor- 
mative statement. 

Other members of the committee may liave some questions. Mr. 
Doyle, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. I think I have one, sir. If we have time, I have several. 

I notice on page 10, beginning at line 8 from the top, you state that 
"Fortunately, experience has shown that the bulk of new applicants 
are not security risks." How do you account for that condition ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. Sir, it would only be an educated guess, but 
perhaps they don't want to take a chance on those who might not 
qualify. They might not want to take a chance of having it denied or 
having their name mixed up in the mill somewhere. That is purely a 
guess on my part. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you able to get all the help you need from men who 
are not security risks ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. I think that the merchant marine presently 
has an adequate labor force. Let us put it that way, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps I could help by clarifying the question, if you 
please, Mr. Doyle. These applicants are not applicants for jobs with 
the Government or with the Coast Guard, are they. Admiral ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. No. 

Mr. Arens. These are applicants for seamen's papers so that the}^ 
can, in turn, be eligible for employment on a private basis with steam- 
ship companies flying the American flag. 

Admiral Hirshfield. That is exactly correct. 

Mr. Doyle. I realize that. Has this decision in the case of Graham 
V. Richmond had, in your judgment, any effect which results, as you 
state, in the bulk of new applicants not bemg security risks? They 
don't know of this decision, do they, these people that are making 
application ? 

Admiral Hirshfield. They may not, Mr. Doyle. But certainly 
they Iniow of other decisions. 

Mr. Doyle. Is it a different type of applicant who is making appli- 
cation, or what is it that is giving you a type of applicant who is not 
a security risk? 

Admiral Hirshfield. I think we said that the majority are not. Of 
course, if you figure that out of over a half million there were only 
about 1800 who were denied, we are not having anywhere near that — 
we have not had that number. Whether the percentage would be about 
the same or not at this time, I am not prepared to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Admiral, I understand from the full import of your 
prepared statement that the Coast Guard feels that legislation intro- 
duced by the chairman of this committee, together with the amend- 
ments suggested, is vitally necessary for the security of the Nation. 
Is that correct? 

Admiral Hirshfield. I think it certainly would help our program. 
There is not any question about it. As far as the intelligence informa- 
tion, as I indicated, is concerned, we don't have sources of our own. 
We have a little group, but most of our information comes from other 
agencies. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN ] 709 

As I indicated, the committee has a <^reat deal more access to know- 
ing what is important to the security than we do. So my opinion 
would not be too good on that. 

jNIr. SciiERER. In view of the decisions of the courts which have 
practically nullified your previous screening processes, legislation is 
needed so that you can carry out what you feel is necessary to preserve 
the security of the Nation, is that not correct ? 

Admiral Hirsiifield. I think that is correct, sir. Yes, I think so. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

JNIr. Moulder. Mr. Johansen ? 

Mr. Johansen. No questions. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Admiral. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Shea Gorden Trosten. 

Kindly come forward, Mr. Trosten, and remain standing while the 
chairman administers the oath. 

Mr. Moulder (presiding). Do you solemnly swear that the testi- 
mony which you are about to give before this committee will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Trosten. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SHEA GORDEN TROSTEN 

Mr. Arens. Just have a seat here, please, Mr. Trosten. Kindly 
identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

INIr. Trosten. Shea Gorden Trosten. I live in Bridgeport, Connecti- 
cut, and I am an instrument worker. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Trosten, you are appearing today in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Trosten, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trosten. Approximately 1943 to 1951. 

Mr. Arens. During part of that time, Mr. Trosten, did you serve 
as an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 
Communist activities among seamen ? 

Mr. Trosten. After 1951. 

Mr. Arens. But prior to 1951 you were an idealogically identified 
Communist? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Arens. You were a real Communist, in other words? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. A member of the Communist Party who believed in 
communism, is that right ? 

Mr. Trosten. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Then you broke with the Communist Party and there- 
after served your Government via the FBI in acquiring information, 
is that correct? 

Mr. Trosten. To the best of my ability. 

Mr. Ahens. Mr. Trosten, will you give us just the highlights of 
your career in the Communist Party in summary form ? 



1770 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Trosten. I was a rank-and-file member of the Waterfront Sec- 
tion in New York. Also in Port Arthur, Tex., also as a rank-and-file 
member. I was a member of the National Maritime Union. I was 
an active seaman for about 12 years. I attended the meetings of the 
Waterfront Section of New York, in the State of Texas, in various 
cities, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Also meetings in England, Bel- 
gimn, France, as a rank-and-file member of the party. Also attended 
the Jefferson School in New York. That just about covers it. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us just a thumbnail sketch of 
the Communist Party activities in which you and other Communists 
engaged as Communist seamen ? 

Mr. Trosten. Instances where we had Communists running for 
offices in the National Maritime Union, naturally we would try to 
get them elected. At times we took American propaganda over into 
Europe. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me, if I may interrupt you, please, sir. By 
what route did you take Communist propaganda from one counti-y to 
another ? 

Mr. Trosten. On board ship. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take it in sacks or parcels or on your pereon ? 
By what mode did you actually get it on the sMp and dump it off ? 

]Mr. Trositin. Take a package of propaganda, pamplilets. 

jNIr. Arens. Did you have contacts in the foreign ports with other 
comrades to whom you would deliver this Commmiist propaganda? 

Mr. Trosten. One specific instance in England, aboard the ship, 
the James G. Stohshelm, a person, Gerald Dardis; we did deliver 
pamphlets that were put out by the Waterfront Section concerning 
American seamen and the problems of American seamen in the States 
and dropped it off in Hull, England, in the party section. 

Mr. Arens. You are gi\dng one illustration of the process bj^ 
which seamen are utilized in the Communist conspiracy. 

Now, Mr. Trosten, what other activity did you, as a Communist, 
engage in, in addition to your participation in the seamen's union 
as a comrade and in the deliverance of Communist propaganda? 

Mr. Trosten. Aside from attending the meetings, carrying out 
party policy aboard ship, that was it. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge, do you know of any instances in 
which comrades would transport people at the behest of the Commu- 
nist Party, take them on board as seamen or something of that kind ? 

Mr. Trosten. I have not seen that ; no, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information from Communist sources 
respecting that type of activity? 

Mr. Trosten. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience in the 
Communist Party — first of all, for some period of time as a dedicated 
Communist and, thereafter, as an undercover agent of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation — do you have an appraisal to make to this 
committee of the threat to the security of this Nation which can be 
posed by Communists aboard merchant vessels or on waterfront facili- 
ties? 

Mr. Trosten. I feel this way : It is a line of communication, one of 
our first lines, on merchant ships, and to have Communists aboard ship 
is naturally a dangerous thing at a time now when the cold war is still 
going on. It is not difficult for a Communist to go to sea with all the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1771 

restrictions. There are Panamanian seamen's books, there are still 
passports. I remember when my papere were taken away I went to 
a Panamanian consul in Houston, Texas, I had an American pass- 
port, I paid my passage and shipped out on a Panamanian flagship. 

Mr. xVrens. Do you have any instances in mind in which comrades 
would exchange among comrades seamen's papers? 

Mr. Trostex. Very possibly. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a comrade a man by the name of Roy 
Rydell? 

Mr. Trostex. Yes, quite some years ago. 

Mr. Arexs. Does Roy Rydell, to your knowledge, presently have 
seaman's papers? 

Mr. Trostex. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Did j'ou know as a comrade a person by the name of 
Morton Jackson? 

Mr. Trostex. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arexs. Does Morton Jackson, to your certain knowledge, now 
have seaman's papers? 

Mr. Trostex. The last I heard, yes. 

Mr. Arexs. "\Ylien w^as that? 

Mr. Trostex. This is less than a year ago. 

Mr. Moulder. You referred to him as a comrade. 

Mr. Arexs. As a Communist. 

You knew Morton Jackson as a Communist ? 

Mr. Trostex. I knew Morton Jackson as a party member. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Charles Malvern Swan? 

Mr. Trostex^. I can't make identification. 

Mr. x4.RENS. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of John South wick ? 

Mr. Trosten. No, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Hector Manuel Monteverde ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Arens, may I suggest that there are two periods of 
time involved here. One is when he was a bona fide Communist be- 
tween 1943 and 1951 and the other time is when he was an undercover 
agent. I think it w^ould be helpful to have in the record the period of 
time he knew these people — while he was a bona fide Communist or 
while he was an FBI agent. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat period of time did you know Hector Monteverde 
as a member of the Comnmnist Party ? 

Mr. Trostex^. I have never been an agent for the FJ^I. I have been 
an informant for the FBI. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Trosten, during what period of time did you know- 
Hector Manuel Monteverde as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trostex. 1944 through 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a member of the Communist Party 
Lawrence John O'Toole? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Durmg what period of time did you know him as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Ml-. Trosten. 1942 to about 1953. 



1772 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a member of the Communist Party a 
person by the name of Morris Pinsky ? 

Mr. Trosten. I have met Morris Pinsky a few times. 

Mr. Arens. As a Communist ? 

Mr. Trosten. At party meetings. 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time did you know him ? 

Mr. Trosten. This was back in 1948, 1949, and 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a member of the Communist Party a 
person by the name of Lawrence Rosenkrantz ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time did you laiow him? 

Mr. Trosten. 1949-1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did you Imow as a member of the Communist Party 
Angel Torres? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time did you know him as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trosten. Right untill960. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a member of the Communist Party 
one William Shilling Milhouse ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. "VVliat period ? 

Mr. Trosten. 1948-1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a member of the Communist Party, 
Paul Palazzi? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time did you know him as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trosten. During my membership in the National Maritime 
Union. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any incident to report respecting the Com- 
munist Party activities of Paul Palazzi ? 

Mr. Trosten. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person as a member of the Communist 
Party by the name of Ted Salo ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat period of time did you know him as a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Trosten. 1947 to 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Trosten, are there any other persons who, to your 
certain knowledge, were active within the unit or units of the Commu- 
nist Party devoted to seamen's work whose names come to your mind, 
to a certainty, as members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trosten. One Leonard Lamb. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you know him as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Trosten. 1943 to 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about him, please ? 
Mr. Trosten. I think lie is a Spanish veteran from the war in 
Spain. He was up to the Waterfront Section very often. He gave 
the propaganda pampldets to sonmeu wlien they came up there and he 
also sailed actively. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1773 

Mr. iViiENS. Is there another person whose name comes to your mind 
who was known by you, to a certainty, to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party, active in the seamen's work of the Communist Party ? 

jNlr. Tkosten. Many of them. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Trosten. Tliere were so many. 

Mr. Arens. Any other principal ones ? I was under the impression 
from our conferences with you that we had received here from you 
at least the principal ones. 

]Mr. Trosten. Bob Deauchare. 

Mr. Arens. Was he known by you, to a certainty, to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will you give us a word about him, please ? 

Mr. Trosten. He Avas an important agent for the National Mari- 
time Union in Galveston, Texas. 

Mr. ArnsNS. Is there another person ? 

Mr. Trosten. Eight now I can't seem to remember too many more. 

Mr. iVRENS. Based upon your background and experience in the 
Communist Party engaged in seamen's work, how can the Communists 
utilize Communist seamen for smuggling of couriers or espionage 
agents ? Can you give us a word on that ? 

Mr. Trosten. It is not too difficult to cover a man up on a passenger 
ship where you have a crew of about 600 or 700, like the United States 
or the America or the Constitution. You find them in the steward's 
department, and he can ride over and back with practically no detec- 
tion by anybody, because there are so many aboard. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest tliat would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

INIr. Doyle (presiding) . Mr. Scherer, any questions? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

jMr. Doyle. Mr. Johansen ? 

Mr. Johansen. No. 

Mr. Doyle, I have just a few. 

You stated that you were a bona fide Communist, in fact, from 1943 
t o 1951. What caused you to leave the party ? 

Mr. Trosten. I went to Germany and I lived over there about 11 
months and I had a pretty good look at East and West. I had visited 
the East Zone of Germany right behind Lubeck, the dividing line. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you talk a little louder ? 

Mr. Trosten. I was living in Hamburg, Germany, and I had occa- 
sion to go into East Germany, and the difference in living between 
East and West, there is no comparison. I wish that all American 
Communists today would take a look at the Eastern Zone of Germany 
and then take a look at the Western Zone of Germany. They are 
state policed, there are government stores. That is the only place 
they can buy. The rubble is not cleared from the bombing yet. There 
is not such a thing as freedom in choice of job. That generally knocks 
all 3'our ideas out, if you had any idea of freedom underneath the 
Communist rule. 

57727—60— pt. 1 3 



1774 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

You would certainly lose it if you took a first-hand look at it. 

Mr. DoTLE. Did you attend any Communist meetings in East 
Germany ? 

Mr. Trostex. No, I did not, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you attend any Communist meetings in West 
Germany ? 

Mr. Trosten. No, I did not. 

Mr. DoYLE. I don't think I heard you state how many years you 
were an undercover agent of the FBI, 

Mr. Trostex. I was never an agent. 

Mr. Doyle. I beg j^our pardon, an informer. 

Mr. Trosten. Wlien I came back from Germany 1 wrote a letter 
to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and I offered them any service 
tliat I could give them. 

Mr. Doyle. How many years did you perform that service? 

Mr. Trosten". Eight up to the present day, 7 years. 

Mr. Doyle. Seven years ? 

Mr. Trosten. About 7 years. 

Mr. Doyle. "VVlien you say right up to the i)resent day, does that 
mean tliis minute ? 

Mr. Trosten. Right up to now. 

Mr. Doyle. At the present time you are an undercover 

Mr. Trosten. No. At the present time I am right out of cover. 

Mr. Doyle. I see. You are not paid a salary as such? 

Mr. Trosten. No, I am not paid a salary. 

Mr. Doyle, Were you paid any money as such ? 

Mr. Trosten. I have never been paid, with the exception of one time 
I had expenses that covered fares in New York and what-not. That 
was the only time I had taken any money from the Federal Govern- 
ment. 

Mr. Doyle. I am aware of the fact that informers, sucli as you have 
l)een, are not paid a salary, but I wanted the record to show what the 
fact is. 

Mr. Trosten. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. That is why I asked that question. 

You stated j^ou were a bona fide Communist when you went to 
England, Belgium, and France ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. At times you took Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Trosten, I have, 

Mr, Doyle, During the years 1943 to 1951, to foreign countries? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Were there other Communists aboard the ships with 
you? 

Mr. Trosten. Of course, 

Mr. Doyle. Did you hold Communist meetings aboard ship? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes, we did, 

Mr. Doyle. Was that a matter of common practice ? 

Mr, Trosten. Yes, it is, 

Mr, Doyle, How numy Communists, other tlian you, would be 
aboard tlie ship ordinarily ? 

Mr. Trosten. Sometimes there would be two or three or one, Some- 
(imes you would be alone. But wherever you liad a big sliip, a 



COMMUNIST ACTIvrTlES AMONG SEAMEN 1775 

)):issen<ior ship or :i tr(H>|) trjuisport, yon always had four or five or six 
or more. 

Mr. Doyle. How did you discover thai there were other Commu- 
nists aboard the ship, other than youi-self ? 

Mr. Trostex. Very simple. We attended meetings in the Water- 
front Section in New York or wlierever we happened to have known 
each other. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you were identified one to the other as 
(^ommunists before you went aboard sliip? 

Mr. Trosten. I didn't know specifically that so-and-so ^\■ho w'as a 
Communist was going to catch the same ship that 1 did; but at the 
time I was sailing, a tremendous amount of the officials of the Na- 
tional ^Maritime Union were members of the party. 

Mr. Doyle. What is the fact now, if you know ? 

Mr. Trosten. The fact now is that the Communists are no longer 
in the National Maritime Union due to a political internal struggle 
about 61/2 or 7 years ago. The known party members that were car- 
rying cards in the rank-and-file lost their seamen's papers. 

Mr. Arens. You heard the testimony of Admiral Hirshfield a few- 
moments ago that they are getting their papers back now ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Is the number of Communist Party members in your 
judgment increasing or decreasing so far as the maritime industry is 
concerned ? 

Mr. Trosten. I think at the present time the party is campaigning 
to increase its membership more openly than they have in the past 7 
or 8 years, and I definitely think that they will ti-y to establish or 
reestablish themselves a lot more firmly along the waterfront in the 
near future. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you familiar with the court decision ? 

]VIr. Trosten. Yes, I am. 

Mr. ScHERER. This court decision, unless corrected by the legisla- 
tion the committee now^ has before it, will enable them to much more 
readily establish themselves, will it not ? 

Mr. Trosten. That is an established fact. 

Mr. Scherer. You heard the testimony that there are about 300 who 
liad been screened off of ships who, since this court decision, have had 
their seamen's papers reissued to them ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You state that tlie Communist Party in this comitry 
is more active than it has been for several years in trying to increase 
its membership. 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. What are they doing along that line as far as you know ? 

Mr. Trosten. It is very indicative. It was right in the public eye 
in these sessions in California, where you had all your young people 
forming and raising a ruckus. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliat incident do you refer to ? 

]VIr. Trosten. This was the committee meeting on the West Coast 
not too long ago. 

Mr. Doyle. If you know, was that a result of the Communist 

Mr. Trosten. I believe it was staged. 

Mr. Doyle. As a result of the Communist influence ? 



1776 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 



Mr. Trosten. I believe it was. That is my personal opinion, but 
I think it was a staged riot. 

Mr. Doyle. You refer to the meeting being held by this committee 
in San Francisco a couple or 3 weeks ago ? 

JSlr. Trosten. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have knowledge of any Communist, to your 
knowledge, who was there ? 

Mr. Trosten. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Scherer. I can say that we just saw the pictures of the riots 
that INlr. Johansen and I Avitnessed, the movies, and there are seven 
well-known Communists in the front line of the demonstrations, Mr. 
Doyle, for your information, leading the demonstrations. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad the colleague has added that to the record. 

Mr. Scherer. I might say, also, Mr. Doyle, the movies Ave saAv of 
the demonstrations were not taken by the committee or at the direction 
of the committee. They were taken by the news media. 

Mr. Doyle. I am anxious to inquire again, if you knoAv or have 
an opinion as the result of the fact that you were an actual Commie 
for several years and then an informer for several years, since 1951 — 
you state the number is increasing and that the party is anxious to 
increase its membership and is more active recently than for years — 
in what way, could you tell the committee, are they emphasizing or 
trying to increase their members? What steps have they taken, or 
are they taking, to your knoAvledge? How do they propagandize? 

Mr. Trosten. They use so many instances. The integration 
problem. The minority groups, Puerto Ricans, Negroes, and the 
younger people with ideas miformed yet. This is the general tactic 
of the party. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Johansen. 

Mr. Johansen. Is there any question in your mind as to whether 
the removal of the safeguards with respect to security and the means 
of screening off known Communists as a result of the court decisions 
has an adverse effect on the security of the United States ? 

Mr. Trosten. It has an adverse effect, of course, because where a 
man has been screened off the ship, until it is definitely proven at a 
hearing that the man is not a security risk, it is dangerous to have the 
man on board ship in times like these. There is no question about 
that. 

Mr, Doyle. May I just ask one more question ? I see in the hearing 
room 50 to 75 young people of high-school age, or close to that age. 
I am asking you this question, not only because I want the record to 
show what your answer is, but because we want the benefit of your 
information. I would like you to talk up so that the people in this 
room can hear you, if you Avill. This is my question : You stated that 
the Communists have a line of communication, that is, the Communists 
that go to sea and seamen on the wharves and so forth, and you stated 
that is a threat to the security of the United States. You so stated ; 
did you not? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Tell us now so that we can all hear you, in what way 
is it a threat to the security of the United States ? 

Mr. Trosten. Communism is international, and if you are an Amer- 
ican you can't work for another government. A specific example of it : 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1777 

GoiiifT back to the Second World War when Russia marched alongside 
with Germany, at that particular time the Communist line was, let 
us say, ''out of it."' Then when Russia turned around and suddenlj^ 
came over to the Allies' side, then all the Connnunist line was, "We 
jump into the war." It is a simple matter. You can't play two sides. 
You can't be an American and you can't be a Russian. 

JNIr. SciiERER. You mean a Communist owes his primary allegiance 
to the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Trosten. That is right. 

Mr. SciTEitBR. Even though he might hold American citizenship? 

Mr. Trosi-ex. Tliat is the big factor. It fools people. It sounds 
good. Integration, minority group protection, 8 hours a day work, 
])aid holidays. We are getting all of that anyway without the 
Communists. 

^Ir. Doyle. Let me ask you a very personal question. You stated 
that the Communists are not loyal to the United States of America. 

Mr. Trosten. You can't possibly be loyal to the United States of 
America if you are going to follow the policy of the party line. 

Mr. Doyle. You were in the party from 1943 to 1951 ? 

Mr. Trosten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. During that period of time were you disloyal to the 
United States? 

Mr. Trosten. At the time, before I realized what I was doing, 
I think it was disloyal. Of course, it was disloyal, because I didn't 
understand the full implication of being a Communist. 

Mr. Doyle. "N^Hiat caused you to comprehend the full implication 
of being a Communist ? 

Mr. Trosten. Various reasons, aside from seeing communism in 
Germany. Being a Jew I understand that there are very few Jews 
left over there in Russia right now\ There has been a small pogrom 
there. I think that has hurt the party considerably where Jewish 
membership is concerned, especially in the East. It is impossible 
to go through the whole scope of this. I can't do it. I think I have 
expressed myself as best I could. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, your own experience from 1943 to 
1951 was such that you are testifying that it is impossible for an 
American Communist to be loyal to the United States Government, 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Trosten. I find it so. I don't &ee how it could be possible to 
turn around and work for two governments. I was particularly 
fortunate that Russia at the time was on the allied side. 

Mr. Doyle. I thank you. 

Mr. Scherer. Since we are talking about longshoremen, Mr. Chair- 
man, and the issue of the San Francisco demonstrations was raised, 
I might say that these movies and testimony showed that Harry 
Bridges, the head of the longshoremen's union, a well-known Com- 
munist, who was before this committee last year, participated along 
with some of his longshoremen in the demonstrations in California. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, ]\Ir. Trosten. 

The next Avitness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be Donald 
William Jackson. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers the oath. 



1778 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth so lielp you God ? 
Mr. Jackson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD WILLIAM JACKSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Jacksox. Donald Jackson, New York City, 648 West 160th 
Street. I am presently unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Jackson, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr, Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor RabinoAvitz. 

Mr. Arens. When were you last employed ? 

Mr, Jackson. I left the job last week. 

Mr, Scherer. I did not hear the answer, Mr. Are]is. 

Mr. Jackson. I left the job last week. 

Mr. Scherer. You left the job last week I 

Mr. Jackson, Yes, 

Mr. Arens. "VYliere was the job ? 

Mr. Jackson. In the building trades in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been engaged in the seaman vocation in the 
course of the recent past ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. No, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Do j^ou presently hold seaman's papers ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I refuse to answer the question because I consider 
it 

Mr, Arens. You are reading from a prepared statement ? 

Mr, Jackson. No, I prepared the notes. I consider it in this pro- 
ceeding a violation of my constitutional rights. Our Constitution was 
founded, and its guiding principles were forged, in i-evolution against 
tyranny and the system of suppression and star chamber proceedings 
that are tyranny's essential handmaidens. Thus it was with under- 
standing gained through bitter struggle that the f ramers of the Con- 
titution placed freedom of dissent at the head of the list of conditions 
vital to the survival of their hopes for free men. Our founders also 
fully understood that honest representative government is strength- 
ened by free and full discussion in the marketplace of ideas. Our 
Constitution will yet survive the attacks of these star chamber pro- 
ceedings if people once again understand the vital role of the first 
amendment in our concept of freedom and the immunity from unjust 
prosecution, which is the essence of the fiftli amendment. At a time 
when a wide cross-section of responsible opinion is calling for an 
abolition of tliis kind of i'oul notoriety-seeking, I can do no less than 
stand with those who choose to defend the Constitution. In particu- 
lar, I deplore any attempt to breatlie life into this connnitee by 
writing further legislation at a time when public aAvareness of the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1779 

list, of the actual crimes of this committee is growino- and it is be- 
comiiiiT doubtful that tlie committee will ai>ain venture outside the 
insulation from public scorn that exists here in a Government-em- 
ployed population. 

I stand on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you answered the last 
outstanding question truthfully, you would be supplying information 
that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I feel if I answered I might be subjected to unjust 
prosecution ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a document, a certificate from 
K. Y. Edwards, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Chief, Merchant Vessel 
Personnel Division, certifying that you, sir, have had recently, in the 
course of the last few years, seaman's papers validated, issued to 
yourself, Donald William Jackson. Kindly look at this document, 
which I now display to you, and tell this committee whether or not 
that reflects a true and correct statement of the facts respecting sea- 
man's papers have been issued to 3^ou. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I refuse on the same grounds as the previous question. 

(Document marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. AnENS. Do you have arrangements made presently to ship out 
as a seaman in the coarse of the next several days ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as the original 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, presently have current information re- 
specting Communist Party activities on merchant vessels which you 
can supply to your Government via this Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Jackson. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your last principal employment endure ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. Approximately 2 months. 

Mr. Arens. T^Hiat was your principal employment immediately pre- 
ceding your last principal employment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I was unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. "What was your last principal employment ]irior to the 
period in which you were unemployed ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I have been for the last number of years on various 
short-term jobs, mainly in the construction building. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a seaman in the course of the last several 
years ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I object on the same grounds as when this question 
was put previously. 



1780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. You say you object. Are you invoking that part of the 
Constitution which gives you the privilege of not giving information 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Jackson. Specifically the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. AVhich part of the fifth amendment do you invoke, that 
part which gives you the privilege of not giving information which, 
in your judgment, could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held a United States pass])ort ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as before. 

Mr. Arens. "^^Hien did you last travel abroad ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this w^itness. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No, thank you. 

Mr. Johansen. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. May I just ask, Mr. Jackson, you read a statement there. 
You were not interrupted and were allowed to read the complete 
statement. Was that a statement that you yourself wrote, or was it 
prepared for you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. It is my own statement completely. 

Mr. Scherer. I submit he has not answered your question, Mr. 
Chairman. He said it is his own statement. You asked him who 
prepared the statement. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you write it out yourself, or did someone prepare 
it for you ? 

Mr. Jackson. I prepared it myself. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no other questions. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be Eudolf 
Kaunitz. 

Kindly step forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers the oath. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RUDOLF KAUNITZ, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Kaunitz. Eudolf Kaunitz, 124 West SHth Street. Unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena served 
upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. That is correct. 



COISIAIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1781 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. IvAUNrrz. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself for tlie record. 

Mr. RABixowrrz. Victor Ivabinowitz. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been in an unemployed status? 

Mr. IvAUNrrz. A few days. 

]Mr. AitENS. Wliat was your employment immediately prior to your 
unemployed status? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I was an electrician. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your employment as electrician endure ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr, Kaunitz. I free-lance as an electrician and I am working on 
odd jobs off and on continuously. 

]Mr. Arens. AMiiat other employment have you been engaged in 
during the last few years ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. I\L\uNiTz. None. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently hold seaman's papers ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds that 
T feel this committee has no right whatsoever to exist in a demo- 
cratic society. It is a modern version of the Spanish Inquisition, both 
m composition 

Mr. Arens. You are reading from a prepared statement? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No, notes. 

Mr. Arens. You are reading from notes ? 

Mr. Ivaunitz. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Ivaunitz. Both in composition and in every action of this com- 
mittee it is in violation of the Constitution. Instead of burning its 
victims at the stake, the committee would deprive them of their liveli- 
hood and thus starve the dissenters and nonconformists. The com- 
mittee is trying to punish heretics, and the Constitution prohibits 
such punisliment expressly. 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt just a minute. I submit that the wit- 
ness is reading a statement. You have told the committee you are 
reading from notes. You are reading every word you utter from that 
statement ; are you not ? Why don't you tell us w^hat the fact is ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ivaunitz. I am not. These are just notes that I am using in 
order to refresh my memoiy. 

Mr. Doyle. May I seethe statement, please? 

Mr. ICvuNiTz. Certainly. 

(The Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. I am not objecting to your reading it, but I want you 
to tell us what you are reading from. I still tliink you are reading. 
We do not object to reading. I just wanted to get whatever the truth 
is. 

If you are just referring to notes, why don't jow look up once in 
a while ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I will be glad to. 

Mr. Doyle. Do that. 

Mr. Kaunitz. Like the Inquisition, this committee has many times 
overstepped its limitations, particularly T refer to the fact that the 



1782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

dossiers of teachers in California who were subpenaed were turned 
over to the local school boards, a matter which certainly has no con- 
nection with this conunittee whatsoeA^er. I also object to the fact 
that this committee has carried its witch hmit with the aid of Nazi 
collaborators, perjured witnesses, and faceless informers without giv- 
ing its victims a chance to defend themselves. Finally, as to the 
composition of this committee, I think the committee should disqualify 
itself due to the fact that most of the victims before this committee 
have been active in the struggle for the rights of the Negro people, 
while one member of this committee, Congressman Willis of Louisi- 
ana, was elected by 8,000 people in a district of 295,000 adults, which 
is approximately ?> percent of the population of that area. I am con- 
vinced that Mv. Willis could not get himself elected dog-catcher if 
it was not for tlie fact that the Negro people in that community are 
robbed of their rights. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to say I am sorry you make that statement when 
Mr. Willis is not here. He is perfectly able to defend himself, of 
course. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, may I say that is a familiar line that 
we heard in San Francisco day after day. So apparently it was 
coached from the same source. 

Mr. Doyle. Surely. 

Mr. ScHERER. In addition to that, I think we should say, being a 
Republican myself, that I consider Mr. Willis, who is a Democrat, 
one of the most able and conscientious Members of the Congress of the 
United States. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I associate myself with that statement. 

INIr. Doyle. You only handed me two pages. Now you are looking 
at page 3 ? 

Mr. KatjjStitz. I handed you three pages. 

Mr. DoYi>E. How many pages have you there ? 

Mr. Kaunitz, just refer to your notes. Don't read it. 

Mr. Kaunitz. While the victims fight for the proposition that all 
men are created equal, Mr. Arens has never denied being a paid 
consultant for Draper's Committee trying to prove Negro people 
genetically are inferior and send them off to Africa 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly pause there and tell me wliat the source 
of your information is 

Mr. Kaunitz. Absolutely. 

Mr. Arens. Respecting this subject matter, and tell tliis committee 
whether or not you have received directions from tlie Communist con- 
spiracy itself to make this attack ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. Could you kindly repeat the pending question ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you been in consultation with any person known 
by you to be a member of the Communist Party respecting the last 
obsei'vation made by yourself on this record ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Obviously he has. 

Mr. Kaunitz. I refuse to answer this on iho. ground stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead with your prepared statement. 

Mr. Doyle. May I see, please, the paper you nre just referring to? 
You are referring to cei'tain documents. May T see them, please? 

Mr. Rabtnowttz. This is a copy from 'V\w Nation foi- Saturday, 
May 14, entitled "Genetics and Subversion," by Roland May. The 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1783 

other article presented was an excerpt from the Congressional Record, 
entitled ''The Dranjon Slayers." 

Mr. SciiEKER. That is the famous Roosevelt speech. 

Mr. Rabixowitz. Yes, it is, Congressman. 

Mr. Doyle. This is the sort of garbage that goes around in the 
hands of Communists. 

]Mr. Arens. This first document which you just transmitted to the 
acting chairman of this subcommittee is a document which by its face, 
is being disseminated, compliments of the [Emergency] Civil Liber- 
ties Committee. Is that correct? 

Mr. Kauxitz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. A\^iere did you acquire this document ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. I was handed this document. 

Mr. Arexs. By whom ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaux'itz. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arex's. Was it in the course of the last few weeks ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaux'itz. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Was it in New York City ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. Yes. 

Mr. Abex^'s. Was it at a meeting ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaux'itz. Yes. 

(Members of the subcommittee present at this point: Represent- 
atives Scherer, Doyle, and Johansen.) 

Mr. Arexs. What meeting was it ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxtiz. It was the Youth Against the House Un-American 
Committee meeting. 

Mr. Arexs. Was that last Friday evening? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KAux^Tz. Yes, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Was it Fridav, June 3, at the Woodstock Hotel in New 
York City? 

Mr. Kauxitz. Yes. 

Mr. Arex-^s. While you Avere there did yoii see Paul Robeson, Jr. ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaux^itz. I decline to answer any questions concerning the 
names of people on the grounds stated previously. 

^Ir. JoHAxsEx. Mr. Chairman, what grounds have been stated 
previously ? 

Mr. Doyle. No grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this witness 
has opened this door himself. He produced a document from which 
he read an attack against me, a scurrilous attack, which the chairman 
of this committee has looked into and has announced repeatedly is 
nothing but Communist propaganda, is untruthful. He has then 
repeated on this record lies against this committee and against a 
member of this committee, and now he has, by pursuing his own 
ti^ail, led himself and this committee into a meeting of the Youth To 
Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee. I therefore 



1784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

feel he has waived any basis upon wMch he can now hesitate to answer 
questions respecting those who were in attendance at this meeting. I 
therefore, Mr. Chairman, respectfully suggest that the chairman 
now order and direct this witness to answer the question as to whether 
or not Paul Robeson, Jr., was in attendance at the meeting of the 
Communist front, the Youth to Abolish the House Un-American 
Activities Committee, at which he acquired this material from which he 
attacked me as staff director of this committee. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. May I say this to counsel: Perhaps I better instruct 
the witness so that you will loiow what my instructions are as you 
finish your consultation. I do not mean to interrupt you, Counsel, but 
I thought you should know. I now instruct you, Witness, to answer 
the question that Mr. Arens asked you. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. The question is ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you see at this meeting Paul Robeson, Jr. ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know. I didn't see Mr. Robeson there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see Frank Wilkinson there ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Frank Wilkinson ? 

(The witness conferred with his couiisel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't understand ^^•hat knowing a person means in 
this connection. 

Mr. Arens. Had you had his acquaintanceship? Did you knoAv 
him prior to the time you attended this meeting ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the first time that you had seen him, the time 
you saw him at the meeting ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was his part, or what participation did he de- 
velop, in the meeting ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. He spoke on the events that took place in San 
Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Did he identify himself as a person who was an officer 
of the Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know the name. He identified himself as a 
member of some committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Frank Wilkinson as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
I have previously stated and also on the reasons that I am about to 
continue to state it whenever I can continue my statement. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. I instruct the witness to answer that 
question. Pie has not stated any grounds of objection to answering 
the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I refuse to answer that question on all the grounds 
previously stated, and also on the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. How many people were in attendance at this meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COaiMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1785 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know. I didn't count them. 

Mr. Doyle. JNIay I ask about how many you observed ? Were there 
as many as 50? 

Mr. Iv^vuxiTz. I have no ability to judge, I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Were there more than 50 ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know. 

Mr. Arexs. Were there as many as a liundred ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Were there less than 50 ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Were there more than five ? 

Mr. I\L\UNiTz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were there more than 25 ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't Imow, 

Mr. Arens. Were there more than a dozen ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were there more than two dozen ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ICvuNiTZ. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hear Pete Goodman utter these words? 

"]\Ir. Walter, that is the chairman of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, is in for a surprise this time, during the seamen's 
hearings. I only hope we do as well as we did in San Francisco." 

Did you hear Mr. Pete Goodman utter those words ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hear Pete Goodman utter words substantially 
the same as those words w^hich I have just quoted ? 

]Mr. IvAUNiTz. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall Pete Goodman saying, in substance, that 
]Mr. Walter is in for a surprise and that we will do "as well as we did 
in San Francisco"? 

Mv. Kaunitz. I don't recall, no. 

Mr. Arens. Do 3- ou recall whether Frank Wilkinson, in his remarks, 
said anything about these hearings in which we are presently engaged ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. No, I don't. I only remember his remarks con- 
nected with the events in San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall anyone speaking besides Mr. Wilkinson 
v.ith reference to these seamen's hearings in which we are presentlj^ 
engaged, hearings about Communist activities among seamen? 

(The witness conferred wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. In view of the fact that the witness said Frank Wil- 
kinson was at the meeting, I tliink the record should show that Frank 
Wilkinson is an identified Communist. That he has been convicted 
and sentenced and his case is now on appeal for his refusal to answer 
questions of a congressional committee concerning his Communist 
activities; that he is the coordinator for the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee, the Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms, 
and the Youth To Abolish the House Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee. Frank Wilkinson was one of the leaders participating in tlie 
riots at San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Did you liear a Miss Miller speak at this meeting? 



1786 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't recall a Miss Miller. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall a young lady who spoke at the meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IvAUNiTz. I came late. No, I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall a person who spoke at the meeting who 
annomiced that the students present were to distribute 10,000 copies 
of Congressman Roosevelt's speecli against the Committee on Un- 
American Activities; that these were to be distributed in the New 
York area ? Do you recall reference to that ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where did you get your copy of the Roosevelt speecli 
that you brought with you and from which you said you were quoting 
in your testimony this morning ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IvAUNiTz. At the meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Who gave it to you at the meeting ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. An unidentified person. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the same person who gave you this document 
disseminated by the Communist front. Emergency Civil Libertie.s 
Committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I picked it up on a chair. 

Mr. Arens. Was it a man or a woman who gave you the first docu- 
ment? The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee document. 

Mr. Kaunitz. I picked that up on the chair. 

Mr. Arens. Did you pick both up on the chair ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No, no. The Roosevelt statement was given to me 
by an unidentified person. 

Mr. Arens. Was it a man or woman ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I believe it was a woman. 

Mr. Scherer. Under whose auspices was that meeting in New York 
held last Friday night ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I already pointed out it was under tlie Youth Against 
the House Un-American Committee. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know that the headquarters for the Youth 
Against the House Un-American Activities Committee is the same 
headquarters as the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't know tliat ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't know that they put ads in The Worker 
for this meeting, do you ? 

]\Ir. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. DoYUE. Did you receive a notice of the meeting? How did 
you happen to go? How did you happen to know the meeting was 
there? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. Or did you just di'oi) in as usual ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I was told about it. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio told you about it? 

INIr. Kaunitz. I don't recalh 

Mr. Johansen. Excuse me a nionuMit. Mr. Kaunitz, how old are 
you ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. 38. 



COMMUNIS r AC'I'IVI'l'IES AMONG SEAMEN 1787 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. How many persons were at this yontli meeting who 
were over 21, would you <rness? 

Mr. Kattxitz. I don't know. 

Mr. JoTT VNSEK. Wor(> tliore n nunil)er of older persons present? 

Mr. IvAi^Nrrz. T didn't notice any. 

Mr. ScTiERER. Wilkinson is over 21, isn't he? 

Mr. Kaunftz. Yes. 

Mr. SciTERER. He is a man about your age, is he not? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know his age. I would say he is over 21 . 

Mr. ScHERER. He is over 30, is he not ? 

Mr. Kafxitz. I don't know. I don't know the man's age. 

Mr. ScTiERER. He is as old or older tlian you, isn't he ? 

Mr. KATjxrrz. I don't know. 

Mr. ScHERER. He appears to be, does he not, when you look at him? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know. 

Mr. DoYT.E. IMay I ask the witness — a minute ago, in answering Mr. 
Arens, you said all that you recalled was what Wilkinson said about 
the San Francisco meeting. You remember saying that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes. 

JNIr. DoTLE. You do remember Avhat Wilkinson said about the San 
Francisco meeting ? Tell us what you heard him say. 

Mr. Kaunitz. He described the events. 

Mr. DoYLE. Tell us everything that he said. 

Mr. Kaunitz. He described events that took place prior and at the 
meetinof at that time in San Francisco. 

Mr. DoTLE. You give us the description he gave of those events. 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. Mr. Wilkinson, in my opinion, spoke over a half 
hour. I didn't take any notes and I cannot repeat his speech. 

Mr. SciiERER. Is a half-hour about right for the time he spoke on 
the hearings at San Francisco? He spoke for a half-hour? 

Mr. KAUNiTra. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You said he spoke about what transpired at and 
prior to the hearings in San Francisco. AVliat did he say about what 
liappened prior to the hearings ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. He mentioned tlie fact that a number of the people 
subpenaed called meetings in the college. He mentioned a mass meet- 
ing which was held, I believe, at Union Square in San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Did he mention his participation in these sessions prior 
to our hearings and this mass meeting ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did he mention, or did any one mention, in your pres- 
ence there that the Communist Youth Against the House Un-American 
Activities Committee is to send to these very hearings in process 
today two bus loads of young people to picket or to heckle the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't recall that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information, irrespective of the source, 
that groups of young people are to be sent here from New York City 
to be in attendance at these sessions tomorrow ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I have no information on that. 



1788 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. Now, during the course of the session did you see Jacob 
Rosen at the meetin<^ ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know Jacob Rosen. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see Cliarles Rosen ? 

Mr. Kai xiTZ. I don't know Charles Rosen. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see Joanne Grant ? 

Mr. Kauxitz. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see Pete Goodman ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. Who is Pete Goodman ? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. He is an acquaintance of mine. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the extent, just an acquaintance ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him in any capacity, or did you work with 
liim in any groups or organizations ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this conmiittee 
while under oath whether or not you have been active in any group 
or organization with Pete Goodman, you would be supplying inf ormn- 
tion that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz, I feel I might be subpenaed to an unjustified prosecu- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. Is Pete Goodman, to your certain knowledge, a mem- 
ber of the Seamen's Defense Committee ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did Pete Goodman speak at the meeting ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What did Pete Goodman say ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I left when Pete Goodman started to speak. I was 
interested in what Mr. Wilkinson had to say and then left. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat time did you arrive at the meeting ? 

Mr. Scherer. Before we get off Pete Goodman, how old is Pete 
Goodman ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't know. 

]\Ir. JoiiANSEN. Is he over 21 ? 

]Mr. Rabino^vitz. He will be here tomorrow. You will be able to 
judge for yourself. He is over 21. We all think of ourselves as youth. 
At least I do. 

Mr. SciiERER. Let us get some idea now on the record, while we are 
talking about Pete, how old he is. 

Mr. Arens. Is Pete approximately your own age? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I cannot judge his age. 

Mr. Arens. Is he older than teenage ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes. 

]Mr. Arens. Would you say he is old enough to vote ? Is he 21 ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is he perhaps older than 21 ? Is he 25 at least ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1789 

Mr, Rabinowitz. Are you interested in my guess, gentlemen ? 

Mr. Arens. No, Counsel, we are interested in tlie witness' guess. 

( Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. I nssumo Pote (loodman is over 21, j^es. 

Mr. SciiERER. What was that? 

Mr. Kaunitz. He is over 21. 

Mr, Arexs. Are j'ou, sir, a member of the Seamen's Defense 
Conunittee? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. Fifth. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a recent litigant involving problems and 
issues pertaining to seamen's documents? 

jNlr. Kauxitz. Fifth. 

Mr. Arexs. Do 3^ou propose and intend to ship out as a seaman with 
seaman's documents in the course of the next several weeks ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. Fifth. 

jNlr. Doyle. Fifth what? Is that the name of a street or what? 
Why do you not dignify the United States Constitution by saying "I 
claim the privilege of the fiftli amendment"? I do not recognize it 
when you sit there and just say "fifth." 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. I claim the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. DoTLE. All right, then, claim it in a dignified manner. I 
do not hear you when you just sit there and holler "fifth," 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Kaunitz, w- e display to you now a certain certificate 
transmitted to this committee and identified on this record this morn- 
ing by the Vice Admiral of the Coast Guard, certifying that a seaman's 
document was, pursuant to certain court order, issued to you, Rudolf 
Kaunitz. Kindly look at this document and tell us under oath whether 
the facts recited there are true and correct to your knowledge. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. I refuse to ans^ver on all the grounds pre^dously 
stated, and the fifth amendment. 

(Docimient marked "Kaunitz Exhibit No, 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Are you this very instant a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness confeiTed wdth his counsel.) 

Mr. Kauxitz. I invoke the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. That will conclude the staff' interrogation of this wit- 
ness, Mr. Chairman. 

Do you want these documents back ? 

Mr. Kauxitz. Yes. 

Mr. DoYUE. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Witness, referring back to the meeting of last Friday night at the 
Woodstock Hotel, 3^011 paid how much to get into the meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

JNlr. Kaux'itz, Fifty cents. 

Mr. Scherer. There was a collection taken at the meeting. Did 
you contribute? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

57727— 60— pt. 1 4 



1790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

]Mr. Kauxitz. Yes, I did. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you recall liow much you contributed ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. One dollar. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was it announced how much the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee Avas contributing to bring these youth to Wash- 
ington ? Was not that announcement made and then statements made 
in addition that more money was needed and therefore a collection 
was to be taken ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I don't recall that. 

Mr. ScHERER. You do not recall that ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. What was said by the person who announced that 
the collection would be taken? What was said by that person? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Eight before you gave your additional dollar? 

]\Ir. Rabinowitz. There is a pending question. Can we get the 
question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. What announcement was made prior to the 
time that the collection was taken with reference to the collection and 
what it was to be used for? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I didn't listen carefully. I believe, though, it was 
to further the work of the committee. 

Mr. ScHERER. For the work of the committee ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is this youth committee? 

Mr. Kaunitz. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. There was nothing specifically stated that you recall 
as to what the money was to be used for ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. You do not recall ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. You do not recall hearing them say that this Avas to 
be used as a supplementary amount to the amount contributed by the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee to bring these youth to Wash- 
ington on the buses today ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No. 

]Mr. ScHERER. You won't say that was not said ? 

Mr. Kaunitz. No, I can't. 

]Mr. JoiiANSEN. Mr. Chairman, I have one question. 

Did you hear anyone at the Friday night meeting say that he hoped 
or she hoped or they hoped that the group coming to the hearings 
here this week would do at least as well as tliey did in San Francisco? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I — just one second. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaunitz. I was walking in and out of the meeting and I don't 
recall anybody saying that. 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Nothing was said by Mr. Wilkinson on that score? 

Mr. Kaunitz. Not that I recall. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did vou hear Pete Goodman make a statement like 
tliat? 

Mr. Kaunitz. I pointed out before that I left the room when Pete 
was talking. 

Mr. ScHERER, You left the room while Pete was talking ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1791 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did you hear a young woman or a woman speaker 
say that ? 

Mr. IvAUNiTZ. As I pointed out before, I don't recall anybody 
saying that. 

Mr. ScHERER. If you heard Pete Goodman's and Wilkinson's voices 
again, would you recognize them ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IvAUNiTz. Maybe. 

Mr. Doyle. Are there any other questions 'i 

That is all, ]Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arexs. We have another witness whom we would like to hear, 
Mr. Chairman, but I want to call a name to see if another witness is 
present. 

Is William Henry Thompson in the hearing room ? 

Are you William Henry Thompson ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. We just want to know you are here. I doubt we will be 
able to hear you this morning. 

The next witness will be Mr. Louis Becker. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Becker. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS BECKER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Becker. My name is Louis Becker. I live at 71-23 Park Drive, 
East, Queens, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Becker. Clerical worker. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Becker. I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Becker. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself for the record. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Eabinowitz. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Becker, have you been a recent litigant respecting 
issuance of seaman's papers ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Becker. Mr. Arens, I refuse to answer that question on the fol- 
lowing grounds : By its own say-so here this morning, this committee 
is seeking to circumvent the decision of the Ninth Court of Appeals in 
Parker v. Lester in 1955, which court decision declared that screen- 
ing, that is blacklisting, the merchant service was based on talebearers 
and whisperers and the men involved were denied due process of law, 
particularly confrontation. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, we do not have time for you to nuike a speech. 
We will give you all the time you want to clearly state your reasons 
for not answering the question. Those are not constitutional grounds. 



1792 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Those are arguments. We will have to limit you to constitutional 
grounds. We do not have time to listen to a speech. 

i\Ir. Becker. Mr. Chairman, you allowed Admiral Hirshfield to 
make a full statement here which he had prepared and I am not even 
reading a prepared statement, and you refuse to allow me to speak. 

Mr. DovLE. You are making a speech and I am only going to listen 
to you give your constitutional privileges. 

Mr. Becker. I am going to tell you what I think is the reason why 
I cannot, Avhy I refuse to answer that question; and it will be based 
on constitutional grounds, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Those are not constitutional reasons. Be brief as you 
decently can. We are not going to permit you to make a 30- or 40- 
minute speech here. 

Mr. Becker. Eighteen hundred men were screened out of the mer- 
chant service, denied the right to work, and you people are planning to 
institute a blacklist again, based on an illegal subversive list enacted 
by Truman without law, and which men were screened out of the 
service. Admiral Hirshfield here this morning spoke about, and the 
witness here this morning, the friendly witness, so called, spoke about 
courier service. 

The entire screening program of the merchant marine was based on 
a political blacklist. Never was one man charged with being a con- 
niver and saboteur. Only political dissent. I take the first and fifth 
amendments of the Constitution 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. Witness. I am not going to warn you 
more than once more. Give your constitutional reasons. Counsel, 
will you reason with your witness to be reasonable, if you can ? 

Mr. Rabixowitz. All I can do is give advice. I can't testify. 

Mr. Doyle. All right, give him the advice. 

Mr. Becker. I take the first and fifth amendment on that question, 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed in your present 
occupation ? 

Mr. Becker. Approximately 7 months. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to your present 
employment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Becker. I had a series of clerical jobs over the past few years. 

]VIr. Arexs. Have you had any jobs over the course of the last few 
years other than these clerical jobs ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Becker. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a seaman in the course of the last 5 
years ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Becker.. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously cited and particularly the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you propose to resume the occupation of seaman in 
the near future ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]Mr. Becker. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
of the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have seaman's papers ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1793 

(The witness conrenvd with his counsel.) 
Sh\ Becker. A\'ould you kindly repeat the question? 
Mr. Arexs. Do you proi)ose lo resume the occupation of seaman? 
(The witness conferred witli his comisel.) 

Mr. Becker. i\Ir. Chairman, 1 refuse to answer that question on the 
following <>rounds: You are carrying on a campaign to pass a law 
branding political dissent as illegal in American life. 

Mr. Scherer. No; we just want to get the ('onnnunists or agents 
of the Kremlin olf the ships Avheie they can subvert this Nation. 

Mr. liECKER. You heard one of the friendly Avitnesses tliis moniing 
speak about the dangers to American life in particular today. I be- 
lieve Admiral Ilirshfield. I say, yes, it is dangerous in American life 
to wipe out political dissent, to brand men who have difl'erences of 
opinion as political dissenters as subversives and, therefore, still criti- 
cism of American polic}' abroad which is bringing us to the biink of 
war, such as the U-2 planes and keeping up regimes in Korea and 
Turkey. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute, please. We have been reasonable and let 
you make your explosive speeches and we are not dissenting with you. 
That is not what we are here for. "We are here to find out the extent 
to which Comnumists are aboard the American ships or other ships 
plying between this country and other foreign countries. 

Mr. Becker. The concept 

Mr. Doyle. If you know anything about that we would appreciate 
your telling ns. 

Mr. Becker. The concept of political dissent, Mr. Chairman, is that 
people who are critical of foreign or domestic policy at any stage, and 
particularly today in American life, have the right or not the right to 
ask about the questions of the day, because the brink-of-war policies 
of this present administration and the national unity behind it en- 
danger the very life of our children and our children's children. 

Mr. Doyle. If you keep that up I am going to order your statements 
stricken from the record so you won't be able to feed it to your public 
back there. Please stick to the reasonable procedure. 

jNlr. Becker. The American public is very concerned with the fact 
that they have the right to criticize American political leaders with- 
out being branded by committees such as yours that are instigating 
a political witch hunt to cover up the political misdeeds of the right 
in America who would take us, if necessary, into a war even to 
maintain 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you ready for the next question? 

Mr. Becker. I have not finished my answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Hurry and finish it and give your constitutional 
grounds. 

Mr. Becker. My constitutional grounds are the first amendment to 
the Constitution, which allows me, equal with you, to have opinions 
about events of today, about the dangers of war, about the rights of 
nations to exist, about disarmament, and any other questions without 
being branded by witch hunters such as tliis committee. Also my 
constitutional right I invoke the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

]Mr. Arex^s. Now kindly tell this committee whether or not you are 
now, this instant, a member of that conspiratorial force known as the 
Communist Party. 



1794 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Becker. I refuse to answer that question on the grovmds of the 
first amendment to the Constitution, granting freedom of speech, and 
tlie fifth amendment to the Constitution, particularly the section on 
the possibility of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Becker, I want to display to you a certificate 
transmitted to this committee, identified this morning by the Vice 
Admiral of the Coast Guard as a certificate, a certification that cer- 
tain documents were issued to you. Louis Becker, endorsed as an Ordi- 
nary Seaman-Messman (FH) — Fireman-Watertender-Oiler. Kindly 
look at this document and tell this committee whether or not the facts 
recited in there are, to your certain knowledge, true and correct. 

(The witness conferred wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Becker. I refuse to answ^er that question on my American con- 
stitutional grounds of free speech and the rights, that is, the first 
amendment and the right of self-incrimination of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Document marked "Becker Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

Mr. Arens. Did you happen by any chance to attend this meeting 
that Mr. Kaunitz described a few minutes ago, a meeting that was 
held in New York City at the Woodstock Hotel ? 

Mr. Becker. In answer to that question, Mr. Arens, I take the 
first amendment, which I think even you know allows for freedom of 
assemblage, and the fifth amendment which allows for freedom from 
incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, who now hold seaman's documents issued 
by this Government, have present information respecting current 
activities on ships and on the waterfront by persons known by you 
to be members of the Communist Party, which information you could 
now supply to your Government via this Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Becker. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that I, 
as a citizen of the United States, can hold views, can think, can 
criticize 

Mr. Scherer. We agree to that. 

Mr. Becker. Oh, you agree. You drove fire hoses at the youth out 
in Frisco who came and were not even being interrogated and wanted 
to see what you would do. You bloodied them up by the hundreds in 
Frisco. You seem to be proud of that today. I am wondering why 
you are so proud when the wiiole American people know of your mis- 
deeds, your violence against the student youth of Frisco. You are a 
shame and disgrace to American democracy. I take the fifth amend- 
ment on that question, too. 

Mr. DoTLE. Now, have you exploded enough? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Becker, I thought perhaps you could be helpful to 
this cominittee in its consideration of legislation. There is pending 
before this committee a bill introduced by the chairman of the com- 
mittee, H.R. 11580. Among other things, this bill provides that sea- 
man's papers will not be issued to anyone who, when he appears and 
applies for a seaman's papers, declines to answer questions concerning 
three areas: 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1795 

First, the membei'ship of such individual or any otlicr individual 
in the Communist Party. 

Can you tell us now — we are going to try out these three points with 
vou — Avhether or not you are presently a member of the Communist 
Party? 

You see, under this bill that is pending if you appear before a Fed- 
eral agency and do not answer these questions that I am going to ask 
you, you could not get seaman's papers like you presently have. So 
we are going to test this out now. Are you now a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Becker. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first amendment to the Constitution, granting freedom of speech and 
assemblage and religion. I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds of due process of the fifth-amendment clause on due process 
and the fifth-amendment clause on due process, in particular, wdiich 
the Court of Appeals in the Ninth Circuit Court in Parker v. Lester 
has upheld as the grounds why men should continue to work in spite 
of being vilified and denounced politically. 

I take the fifth amendment, the clause in the fifth amendment on 
self-incrimination in regard to that question. 

Mr. Arens. The second provision of this bill on wliich we would 
like to have some information on the record: Anybody who applies 
for seaman's documents, such as the documents which you presently 
hold, cannot have those documents if he refuses to testify under oath 
respecting "the activities of such individual, or any other individual, 
as a member of the Communist Party." 

Do you presently, sir, have infomiation respecting the activities 
of a person currently known by you to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Becker. I refuse to ansAver that question on the same constitu- 
tional grounds of the first amendment to the Constitution and the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution, particularly that section against self- 
incrimination. 

]Mr. Arexs. Now we want to try out the third provision of this bill : 
The bill provides that a pei'son cannot have seaman's papers, such as 
the papers which you presently hold, if that person refuses to answer 
questions respecting — 

the participation of such indivirlual or any other inclividual, in activities con- 
ducted by or under the direction of the Communist Party or any member 
thereof. 

Now I ask you, do you presently have information respecting activi- 
tias conducted by, or under the direction of, tlie Communist Party? 

Mr. Becker. Mr. Chairman, this committee is trying to a}>i-o<j:ate 
Parker v. Lester^ Graham v. Richmond^ and 11 court decisions 
which granted merchant seamen the right to sail without being vili- 
fied. It will not succeed because the whole concept of your proposed 
legislation is based on political, on outlawing political dissent in 
American life. The subversive list on youi- whole premise of screen- 
ing was based, which put 1,800 men off their chosen profession, was a 
complotp, political blacklist in the best trnditions of totalitarian states. 



1796 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

You are trying to institute it again in spite of the court decisions, the 
court decisions which have been adverse to your antidemocratic pro- 
cedure. I take the fifth amendment in regard to that question, par- 
ticuhxrly that section on self-incrimination. 

Mr. ScHERER. No, the purpose of this bill is not to keep off ships 
people who dissent. But to keep off ships agents of foreign powers 
who are loyal, as the witness said this morning, to the Soviet Union 
and not to the United States, and w^ho would serve the cause of the 
Soviet Union at any time we should have a war with the Soviet Union. 
That is the purpose of the bill. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mr. Scherer. Anything else? 

Mr. Arens. Nothing else of this witness, if you please, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. William Henry Thompson. Mr. Thompson, please come for- 
ward and remain standing while the chairman administers the oath. 

Mr, Doyle. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly svt'ear 
that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Thompson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM (HENRY) THOMPSON 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Thompson. William Thompson. 

Mr. Arens. Keep your voice up, please, sir. 

Mr. Thompson. The name is William Tliompson. I live in Balti- 
more. I am a seaman. 

Mr. Arens. You are a seaman ? 

Mr. Thompson. I was a seaman by occupation and by occupation 
I am a seaman. 

Mr. Arens. By occupation you are a seaman ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Thompson, your appearance today is pursuant to a 
subpena which was served upon you by tliis committee, is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. We observe you do not have counsel. That is correct, 
is it not ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you understand, Mr. Tliompson — and if j^ou do not 
I so advise you — that you have, under the rules of this committee, 
the privilege of counsel. 

Mr. Thompson. I would like to get counsel. 

Mr. Arens. You would like to get counsel ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you ha^e a counsel ? You are from Baltimore. 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a counsel in Baltimore ? 

Mr. Thompson. I don't have one at Iho tim(\ no. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1797 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the counsel that was seated liere with 
those other ]>eople? Maybe 3'ou would like to talk to him. Do you 
know Mr. Eabinowitz ? 

Mr. Thompson. No, sir. I would like to talk to him. 

^Ir. Arexs. Pie is here. I guess he has left. How long would it 
t ake to make arrangements with your counsel ? 

Mr. Thompson. I haAe no idea. I probably will be back tomorrow. 

Mr. Arens. Let us suggest to you that, if it is convenient and if 
you have a chance to confer with counsel and counsel so advises you, 
you come back tomorrow morning. I suggest that in any event, if it 
is agreeable with the chairman, that you report back here tomorrow 
morning at 10 o'clock when we resume. Is that agreeable, Mr. ('hair- 
man ? 

Mr. Doyle. Do you understand that, Mr. Thompson ? 

jNIr. Thompson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Come back with your lawyer. 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. If you want a lawyer with you. 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, sir. 

]Mr. Doyle. I hope you will consult counsel even if you do not bring 
one with you. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Ten o'clock tomorrow morning, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee wdll stand in recess until tomorrow 
morning at 10 o'clock in this room. 

("Whereupon, at 12:35 p.m., the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 10 a.m., Tuesday, June 7, 1960.) 



( OMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN AND ON 
WATERFRONT FACILITIES 

PART 1 



TUESDAY, JUNE 7, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C 

PUBLIC hearings 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, 
at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, House Office Building, Washington, 
D.C, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, of 
Pemisylvania ; Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio ; and August E. Johansen, 
of Micliigan. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff director ; William 
Margetich, investigator. 

The Chairman, The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens, will you call your first witness, please ? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, Mr. Chairman, Loron "\'\n[iitney Ward- 
M'ell will please come forward and remain standing while the chair- 
man administers the oath. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr, Wardwell. I do, sir, 

TESTIMONY OF LORON WHITNEY WARDWELL 

Mr, Akens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Wardwell. Loron Wliitney Wardwell, 503 Flint Street, Ro- 
chester, N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Chef. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wardwell, can you give us, please, just a word 
about the career which you liave pursued at sea, the years you served as 
a seaman ? 

Mr. Wardwell. I was in the merchant marine from 1945 until 1953. 
At that time awv union was taken over by the AFL and being a left- 
w inger 1 was naturally kicked out of the union. I was unable to ship. 

Mr, Arens. In what capacity did you serve as a seaman during 
t hese several j'ears ? 

Mr, Wardwell. Chief steward, chief cook and second cook, and 
baker and butcher. 

1799 



1800 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wardwell, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes. I joined aromid 1949, and I was active up 
until 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Have you since 1953 been continuing as an informant 
for your Government ? 

Mr. Wardwell. I was an informant for the Government up until 
approximately 1954. 

Mr. Arens. During part of the time of your service in the Com- 
munist Party, were you ideologically in sympathy with the party? 
In other words, were you in truth and in fact in eveiy degree a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Wardwell. When I fii"st joined, I believed in the ideals of the 
Communist Party until I saw a man beaten, and the philosophy and 
w^orking was all wrong. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlien did you decide to disassociate from the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Wardwell. In the simimer of 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did you shortly thereafter continue in the Communist 
Party at the behest and in cooperation with the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation. 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve at the behest of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation in the Communist Party? 

Mr, Wardwell. Approximately 4 years. 

Mr. Arens. As far as the Communist Party itself is concerned, it 
does not know but what you are presently a Communist, is that cor- 
rect. 

Mr. Wardwell. That is right. I have never been expelled. 

Mr. Arens. The first infoiTnation the Communist Party, as such, 
has that you are now an infonnant for your Government is the fact 
that you are presently, at tliis instant, testifying before the Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities, is that correct ? 

Mr. Wardwell. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just a sketch of your career 
in the Communist Party, the highlights of yoiw career in the Com- 
munist Party, where you served, in what unit, and what you did. 

Mr. Wardwell. I was in the Waterfront Section of the Comnumist 
Party. Our job was to take complete control of unions, various com- 
mittees, to disrupt various organizations and to, I would say, create 
liavoc on the waterfront. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, during your career as a Communist in the 
seamen's activities, participate in the distribution of Communist 
propaganda, Commmiist literature, aboard vessels? 

Mr. Wardwell. On evei-y ship I was on I was given various litera- 
ture as well as other comrades. 

Mr. Arens. This was Communist i^ropaganda ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Did you acquire information respecting techniques 
used by Communists in acquiring seamen's papers ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about that, please? 

Mr. Wardwell. It is common knowledge that seamen's papers are 
very easily acquired as long as you have one or two comrades that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1801 

are in the higher units of your union. They are given letters to 
various comrades and sent to the Coast Guard, and thereby issued 
seamen's papers. Then they are able to ship out. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, based upon your background and experience 
in the Communist Party engaged in Communist activities among sea- 
men and on vessels, and based on your experience since then as 
an informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation serving in the 
Conununist Party, how serious is it to the internal security of this 
Nation for Communists to have access to merchant vessels and port 
facilities? 

Mr. Wardwell. I would say extremely serious. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliy ? 

Mr. Wardwell. For the simple reason they can tie up an entire 
waterfront as was seen in the past by Harry Bridges. They also can 
serA'e as a perfect front for courier service to Europe and the Far 
East at any time. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Wardwell, did you during the course of your ex- 
perience in the Communist Party serving in seamen's activities have 
any direct contact with Bridges' union, the IL'WU, or its officers ? 

Mr. Wardwell. We worked in conjunction with a few ILWU men 
out of Los Angeles, and also out of Frisco. 

Mr. Arexs. In what capacity did you serve ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Well, at one time I was a partial organizer for the 
ILWU stewards department when they were trying to organize our 
miion so that the AFL would not take it in 1950, 1951, and 1952. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you at any time serve as a bodyguard to any of the 
officials of ILWU? 

Mr. Wardwell. Not of the ILWU, but of the Benjamin Davis and 
various East Coasts 

Mr. Arens. W^io was Ben Davis ? 

Mr. Wardwell. I think he was a city councilman of the city of 
New York. At the time he was on trial he was running for elec- 
tion as city councilman from Harlem, New York. There was various 
progressives from the water tenders, as well as the National Union 
of Marine Cooks and Stewards who was designated and a few mem- 
bers of the National Maritime Union — we were designated to 2 East 
125th Street, at that time the Harlem Trade Union Council. It was 
upstairs on the comer of Park Avenue and 125th. 

Air. Arexs, During tlie course of your service in the Conununist 
Party, engaged in activities among seamen, did you Imow to a cer- 
tainty as a member of the Communist Party certain other seamen? 

Mr. Wardwell. I have met, I would say, well over two or three 
hundred. 

Mr. Arexs. Are these persons who were known to you because of 
Communist techniques, Communist connections, members of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you serve in closed Communist Party meetings 
with these people? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know in Communist activities as a member of 
the Communist Party Bob Martin? 

Mr. Wardwell. Bob Martin, yes, sir. He was one that partially 
recruited me along with Harry Lawrence, who is now deceased. 



1802 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about Bob Martin. What did he do as 
•A Comnumist Party member? 

Mr. Wardwell. He was an ex-patrohnan out of New Orleans as a 
member of the National Maritime Union. He was a minor official 
until he was ousted. He continued by handing out various propa- 
ganda leaflets. We held our meetings with Bob being head of the 
])arty in New Orleans of the Waterfront Section. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know, as a member of the Communist Party 
engaged in seamen's activities, Martin Rivera ? 

Mr. Wardavell. Martin Eivera, I met him in New York, also in 
New Orleans. Later he served as an acting patrolman in the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards at 48 Liberty Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know him during the period of time you were 
identified ideologically with the Communist Party, or did you know 
him in the period in which you were serving in the Communist Party 
as an informer for the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. WardwelIj. I knew him as a comrade before I was an inform- 
ant for the FBI. I met him in New Orleans at one meeting on South 
Rampart Street. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Wardwell, I would like to ask you this 
question : It is frequently said by the Communists and the dupes of 
the Communists that people serving their government as informants 
are somehow being subsidized to give false information. They are 
what the Communists call stool pigeons, that they are paid fabulous 
sums to smear people. Can you give us just a word about the nature 
of the compensation which you received when you sacrificially served 
your Government in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wardwell. I make approximately on my own job 20 to 25 
dollars a day. I am compensated $9 a day for being here. I lose 
approximately $15. 

Mr. Arens. You are speaking of your witness fee to appear here 
today ? 

Mr. WARD^VELL. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I am asking you now the nature of the compensation 
you received when you served in the Communist Party at the behest 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Wardwell. Nothing. 

Mr. Arens. You received not a dime ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Wardwell. I have lost well over $15,000. 

Mr, Arens. The most you received was nominal expense money ; is 
that correct? 

Mr. Wardwell. When I donated a hundred dollars to the party, the 
FBI gave me back approximately half. 

Mr. Arens. You did not during the course of your many years' 
service in this conspiratorial force at the behest of your Government 
receive one cent; is that correct? 

Mr, Wardwell. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. From the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Not one dime. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said it cost you how much to do this work? 

Mr. Wardwell. I donated at the end of each trip part of my salary, 
and sometimes the funds were so high that the Government could 
not possibly give it back to me. 

Mr. Scherer. You donated part of your salary to whom ? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1803 

Mr. Wardwell. The Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. "While you were acting as an informant for the 
Bureau ? 

Mr. Wardwell. That is right. 

Mr. SciiERER. And the Bureau only on one occasion reiniljursed 
you for part of one contribution? 

Mr. Wardwell. That is right, sir. It was one time I donated ap- 
proximately $500 to the party for helping this person settle out of 
court, and 1 was reimbui-sed approximately $100, 1 think. 

Mr. .Vrexs. In other words, your service to your Government in 
this conspiratorial force not only cost you your time and your energy 
and your Mork, but cost you money from your own pocket; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Wardwell. That is right. I received nothing from the 
Government. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know, while you were a member of the (Com- 
munist Party engaged in Communist activities in seamen's work, a 
man by the name of Al Thibodeaux ? 

Mr. W^ARDWELL. I met Comrade Thibodeaux in San Francisco, and 
he was acting patrolman. I was very active with him on the National 
Xegro Labor Council on which he asked me to get ofi' the ship to 
work with him on it. I compiled a marine list from the Civil Rights 
Congress, myself, and I mailed various literature to the National 
Negro Labor Council, which took me approximately 10 days. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a member of the Communist Party 
Nathan Jacobson ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes. He was the agent in San Francisco and I 
attended many meetings with him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a member of the Communist Party 
Ray Crawford ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes. I shipped out once with him. I was also 
with him in the YPA and also at various Communist meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know, as a member of the Communist Party, 
Don Watson? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, I worked with him on various committees. I 
met him at various party meetings in New York. 

Mr. Arens. These were closed party meetings ? 

]Mr. Wardwell. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know in like manner as a member of the 
Communist Party, Peter Mendelsohn ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes. I worked with Mendelsohn on various com- 
mittee meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know ns a member of the Communist Party 
PatF. Tobin? 

]\Ir. Wardwell. I met him in the hall in New York in the Com- 
munist Party headquarters for the Waterfront Section. I also was 
with him at a party they had for him at the People's World at San 
Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know in like manner as a member of the 
Communist Party, Clarence E. Johanson ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, I worked close with Johanson in New York. 
We attended one Commnnist mooting at his home at Contrnl Pn)-k 
West, T workod with liini ;ippro\ini;itoly for a yeai". 



1804 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge are these persons whom 
you have just identified as persons known by you to be members of 
the Communist Party, persons who presently hold, or in the recent 
past have held, seamen's papers ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Definitely. 

Mr. Arens. The man who is to succeed you at the witness stand, 
Mr. Wardwell, is a man by the name of Peter Goodman. He is under 
subpena to appear before this committee and we expect to call him as 
soon as you are excused from the witness chair. Do you Imow Peter 
Goodman as a member of the Connnunist Party ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes. I worked with him on various occasions. I 
also attended meetings with him at the Waterfront Section of the 
Connnunist Party on 8th Avenue and 25th Street. Pete, as well as 
myself, and one or two other comrades would hold a few little caucus 
meetings with comrades in New York at the union hall until we were 
stopped by the miion agent. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive any directive by the man who is to 
succeed you at the witness chair, Peter Goodman ? 

Mr. Wardwell, Back in 1954, 1 wanted to try to get active for the 
Government, and I met him, I called him up and met him, at Central 
Park West, at 59th Street. I was told at the time to remain as I was. 
That if they had anything for me, they would let me know. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, this witness has been in session with the 
staff, as the chairman knows, over the course of the last few months. 
He has given us considerable information on matters that are not 
particularly germane to the subject matter which the committee has 
under consideration at the present time. Therefore, I would respect- 
fully suggest that he has now covered the items which we had in mind. 

The other information is available to the committee. It would not 
be fruitful for us to pursue with him other areas of inquiry. There- 
fore, I would suggest that this would conclude the staff interrogation 
of this witness. 

The Chairman. May I ask whether or not the people whose names 
were mentioned as being members of the Communist Party and sea- 
men, were screened under the procedure stricken down by the 
Supreme Court ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir, and they have seamen's papers back now. 

The Chairman. The papers were reinstated as the result of this 
decision ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. You will see, I believe, Mr. Chairman, from 
the very next witness who has just now been identified by this witness, 
a certification by the Coast Guard that this man who is to succeed 
Mr. Wardwell on the witness stand presently has seaman's papers. 

The Chairman. How many seamen were reinstated to their posi- 
tions as the result of the Supreme Court decision ? 

Mr. Arens. Approximately 300. Tliere are approximately 1.800 
seamen in a denial status whom tlie Coast Guard has told us it will be 
unable to deny in view of the decision. They will be obliged to issue 
papers to these seamen. 

The Chairman. What percentage of the 1,800 Avould be ineligible 
for work if the legislation under consideration was enacted? 

Mr. Arens. All of them. 

The Chairman. In other words, there are about 2,100 seamen who 
have either been reinstated to their positions or can he reinstated as 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1805 

(he result of the Sni)reiue C^oiirt decision which sti'uck down tlie Coast 
Guard procedures. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

The CHAiRMAiSr. Are there any questions? 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. I want to ask you a question Avliicli we have had 
answered many times in these hearings, but I would like it both in the 
record and for the benedt of some of tlie youno; people tliat are in this 
room. On the basis of your knowledge gained as a believing member 
of the Comnumist Party and as an informant for the Government, to 
wliom does the loyalty of t]\e Communist go? Is it to the United 
States, or to whom does it go ? 

JSIr. WARD^^^:LL. I would say to Russia. 

]Mr. JoiiANSEN. In other words, the overriding loyalty of the mem- 
ber of the Communist Party must be to the Soviet Union and to 
international communism. 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. JoiiANSEX. Thank you. 

The Chairman. I want to thank you, and I am sure I am expressing 
the sentiments of all of the members of the Congress who are con- 
cerned with the security of the United States, for your contribution in 
this very mipleasant task that we have. We have had under consid- 
eration legislation which is designed to protect the security of the 
United States in certain fields. Your testimony here is a very signi- 
ficant contribution to our work in that field, and I repeat, we are deeply 
indebted to you. Thank you very much. The witness is excused. 

]Mr. Arexs. The next witness, if you please, ]Mr. Chairman, will be 
Peter Goodman. Please come forward and remain standing while the 
chaimian administers an oath. 

The Chairman. AVill you raise your right hand ? Do you swear the 
testimony you are about to give to be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Goodman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PETER GOODMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

JNIr. Goodman. Peter Goodman, 2Y07 Sedgwick Avenue, New York. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please, sir? 

]Mr. Goodman. Plastic mold maker. 

]Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Goodman. I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Goodman. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz. 

j\Ir. Arens. Mr. Goodman, do you have any occupation other 
than the occupation which you have just announced as a plastic mold 
maker? 

Mr. Goodman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the recent past had another occupation? 

. 57727— 60— pt. 1 5 



1806 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold seaman's papers authorizing you as a deck 
engineer, machinist, fireman, and oiler to sail on U.S. merchant 
marine vessels? 

Mr, Goodman. I must refuse to ans\Yer this on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. I refuse to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present occu- 
pation ? 

Mr. Goodman. About 6 yeai^. 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation immediately preceding your 
present occupation ? 

Mr. Goodman. I was unemployed for a good period of time. 

Mr. Arens. What other occupation did you have prior to your pres- 
ent occupation in the course of the last several years ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. I must refuse to answer that on previous grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is not clear, Witness, whether you are refusing to 
answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. Are you refusing to 
answer by reason of the self-incrimination provision of the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. Goodman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have arrangements consummated pursuant to 
which you will shortly resume as a seaman ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. I must refuse to answer that also. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you a copy of a certificate received by this 
committee and identified on this record by the United States Coast 
Guard, certifying that you, Peter Goodman, hold and were issued 
documents as a seaman, deck engineer, machinist, fireman, and oiler 
on February 19, 1957, at New York. Kindly look at this document 
and tell this committee whether or not the facts recited therein are to 
your certain knowledge true and correct. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. I stand on my constitutional grounds on this also. 

(Document marked "Goodman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not the document which I have just displayed to 
you is true and factual you would be supplying information that 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Goodman. I am not fearful of anything being used against me 
having broken no laws. But in this day and age anyone can be 
subject to unjust prosecution which perhaps should be called persecu- 
tion, and if in the long run I might be vindicated, nevertheless a poor 
man cannot afford years of litigation. I must stand on my constitu- 
tional grounds. 

(At this point the chairman left the hearing room.) 

Mr, ScHERER (presiding). Pardon me just a minute. In view of 
your answer, I direct you to answer the question. 



COROIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1807 

Mr. GooDJNiAN. I stand on my const itulional grounds. 

Mr. SciiEREK. I^t me say in the opinion of the Chair you have im- 
properly invoked the lifth amendment, because you have said you 
committed no illegal act. You said your refusal to answer is because 
you fear an nnjiist prosecution. That is not a suflicient reason for the 
invocation of (he lifth amendment, and therefore it is the opinion of 
the Chair that you have improperly invoked the fifth amendment, and 
I direct you to ansvrer the question. 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

ilr. Goodman. I must decline to answer the question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you Imow the gentleman who preceded you to the 
witness stand ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Loron Whitney Wardwell. 

]Mr. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Sciierer. Just a minute. He said he refuses to answer. I di- 
rect you to answer the question. 

Mr. Goodman. On the constitutional grounds I would refuse to 
answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wardwell testified a few moments ago that over 
the course of many years he was ideologically in sympathy with the 
Communist Party and was a member of the Communist Party. There- 
after he broke with the Communist Party realizing the treacherous 
nature of the operation, and then for many years, up until the moment 
of his testimony, he served as a member of the Communist Party at 
the behest and in cooperation with the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion. During the course of his testimony several moments ago he swore 
that while he was a member of the Communist Party, he knew j^ou to a 
certainty, sir, as a member of the Communist Part3^ That is a pretty 
serious thing to say about a man, that he is a member of a traitorous 
outfit dedicated to the destruction of this Government. That is part 
and parcel of an international conspiracy which has thus far decimated 
millions and millions of people and threatens freedom and liberty 
everywhere. 

We would like, sir, to give you an opportunity, while you are under 
oath, not while you are making a speech out in public, but while you 
are under oath, to deny the truth of that testimony by Mr. Wardwell. 

Do you, sir, now care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

]Mr. Goodman. I can't be responsible for the psychopaths and what 
else you can dig up, and there are enough of them, and what testimony 
you can get out of these people is your business and the business of the 
previous witness. I have nothing to do with the testimony given by 
him and I refuse to answer that long-winded question of yours on the 
ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Was he telling the truth 



Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. The previous witness you referred to 
as a psychopath ; is that right ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. I believe that is what I said. 

Mr. ScHERER. Whether he is a psychopath or not, is what he said 
about you true or untrue ? 



1808 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. GooDMAiSr. I would refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I direct you to answer the question. 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. I stand on my constitutional grounds afforded me 
by the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. You recognize that you are presently under oath, do you 
not? 

Mr. Goodman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly respond to the question ? 

Mr. Goodman. Yes, I am under oath. 

Mr. Arens. You recognize that if you tell a deliberate mistruth to 
this committee you can be prosecuted for perjury, do you not? 

Mr. Goodman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You recognize that as soon as you are released from 
your subpena, from testifying here before this committee, you can 
step out in that hall or step back to these youngsters and you can say, 
"Of course I am not a member of the Communist Party. Of course 
I have never been a member of the Communist Party," and then be 
free from any pains and penalties of perjury. Do you. recognize that 
fact? 

Mr. Goodman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your present intention, sir, after you are released 
from testifying before this committee and correspondingly released 
from the pains and penalties of perjury, to announce to the young 
people whom tlie Communists have stimulated to form the group 
known as the Youth To Abolish the Plouse XJn-American Activities 
Committee that you are not or have never been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Goodman. I liaA'e no intentions of doing anything of the sort. 

Mr. ScHERER. Counsel, just a minute. In connection with these 
last questions suggested by our counsel, Witness, isn't it a fact that 
just on last Friday night you represented to this gi'oup in the ballroom 
of the Woodstock Plotel in New York City, represented to this so-called 
Youth To Abolish tlie House Un-American Activities Committee, that 
you were not a member of the Communist Party? Isn't that a fact? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Goodman. I refuse to answer that outlandish question on the 
basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't deny that you attended that meeting, do 
you? 

Mr. Goodman. I refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't deny that you addressed that group along 
with a number of other well-known Communists, do you? 

Mr. GooDiMAN. I believe that the first and fifth amendments of the 
Constitution make that question out of order. 

Mr, SciiERER. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Goodman. I refuse to. 

Mr. ScHERER. I still direct you. 

Mr. Goodman. On the basis of the fifth amendment, I refuse to. 
The goings and comings of my life are my own business. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1809 

Mr. SciiEKER. Isn't it a fact that you told the i)eople assembled, at 
that meeting, the young people, that you lioped their demonstrations 
here in Washington would exceed those that took place in San Fran- 
cisco before this committee? 

Mr. Goodman. Well, that would be impossible. I don't see any fire 
hoses here. But the fact of the matter is that I would refuse to answer 
any questions along the lines that you are now traveling. 

Mr. SciiEKKU. You deny that 30U made that statement? 

Mr. Goon:MAX. I don't deny anything. I refuse to answer the 
question. 

Mr. SciiERER. Would you recognize your own voice if you heard it ? 

Mr. Goodman. I don't know. I never listen to my own voice. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Goodman, do you have something Avhich you would 
like to say for the benefit of Congressman Walter, the chairman of 
this committee, during this session today now? 

^Mr. Goodman. Is Mr. Congressman Walter present ? 

j\Ir. Arens. Do you have something to say on this record for the 
benefit of Congressman Walter? 

Mr. Goodman. I have no prepared statement. 

!Mr. Arens. I would like to read you an excerpt from your address 
that you made last Friday night at the Woodstock Hotel : 

Congressman Walter will be a little better educated after nest week is over. 
I have an idea that he's going to be a little sorry he called us, although after 
hearing what took place in San Francisco, with tongue in cheek, may we do 
as well. 

Are those statements true and correct reproductions of statements 
made by yourself at the meeting at the Woodstock Hotel of the Youth 
to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee, on Friday, 
June 3, at 8 :30 p.m. ? 

Mr. Goodman. My memory is not that good. I would have to re- 
fuse that question on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute, Counsel. I direct you to answer that 
question. If your memory is not that good, how can you refuse to 
answer it on the groimds it might tend to incriminate you ? Therefore, 
I direct you to answer the question because you have said you are re- 
fusing on the basis that you don't remember what you said, and there- 
fore your invocation of the fifth amendment is highly improper. 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now let me read to you, to refresh your recollection, if 
possible, certain excerpts from your aclclress : 

Some of us who have carried this fight over a period of time have learned not 
to stand in the way of history. We expect to get ourselves back into the indus- 
try—reestablish ourselves — and in the long run I think that the maritime industry 
is meant to be one of the militant sparkplugs of the labor movement as it was in 
time gone by. 

Did you make those statements in your address before the Youth to 
Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee last Friday in 
New York? 

]VIr. Goodman. I would refuse to answer that, sir. 



1810 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. Did you reveal to the youth that you were at the time 
you made those statements a hard-core conspirator of the Communist 
Party? 

JNIr. Goodman. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the Chair direct him to 
answer that. 

Mr. ScHEKER. Yes. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. GooDJiAN. The first and fifth amendments of the Constitution 
malie it clear that I don't have to answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right, as long as you are invoking the fifth amend- 
ment, you don't have to answer. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read to you, for the purpose of 
refreshing your recollection, some more excerpts from your address 
last Friday night : 

What I will tell you tonight I am sure you won't find unique. It's been 
much too common an occurrence on what we call the American scene, although 
it has been slightly reversed — that we were tagged as poor security risks many 
years ago and now we are being called by Walter for an interview, so-called. 

The story of screening that started in 1950 (we seamen prefer to call it a 
blacklist),* * *. In 1950 there was a very simple and innocuous little law passed, 
sponsored by Senator Magnuson of the State of Washington, which simply said 
that the waterfront bill * * * to sterilize the maritime industry of any obscene 
or unpopular politics. Two thousand seamen and longshoremen today, maritime 
workers, from the industry, have been relegated to unemployment. I notice 
also that Jimmy Roosevelt in his remarks speaks about the committee relegat- 
ing people to unemployment. I could cite numerous examples of the un-Amer- 
ican activities of the industry, but it just so happens that the shipowners are 
doing it. Congressman Walter will be a little better educated after next week 
is over. I have an idea that he's going to be a little sorry he called us although 
after hearing what took place in San Francisco, with tongue in cheek, may we 
do as well. 

The one last point I would like to make, and this is sort of looking back at 
open hearings that the Coast Guard held when they started the screening 
machine, all interested people came down. They expressed their viewpoints 

on the proposals and a number of us were down there on a couple of things 

thoroughly vocally expressing our disapproval of it. There were some of us 
there philosophically saying to the Coast Guard Admiral sitting on the big 
dais, "Don't look so solemnly — don't look down at this group of rank and filers." 
I seem to recall in 1936 a group of rank and filers were down here on some 
hearing speaking and they found themselves in opposition to some of the union 
officials that were here that day — however, time went by and that group of rank 
and filers who were here in 1936 are now the union officials. So don't look at 
this group of rank and filers like that — history has a way of repeating itself. 
Some of us who have carried this fight over a period of time have learned not 
to stand in the way of history. We expect to get ourselves back into tlie indus- 
try — reestablish ourselves — and in the long run I think that the maritime 
industry is meant to be one of the militant sparkplugs of the labor movement 
as it was in time gone by. And if some of you would like to see just how this 
happens in Washington, I understand there are facilities for viewing it, and for 
my part, you are all welcome. 

Now, sir, is that a true and correct reproduction of the statement 
made by yourself ? 

Mr. Goodman. Wouldn't it save time to have the recording? 

Mr. Arens. ISIade by yourself in New" York City in an address 
before the Youth to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee last Friday night ? 

Mr. Goodman. I think it would simplify things if you played the 
tape recording that you claim you have. 

Mr. Arens. Plow do you know we have a tape recording? 

Mr. Goodman. You just said so before. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1811 

Mr. Arens. Is this a true and correct reproduction of your state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Goodman. On the grounds of the first and fifth amendments 
wliich say thnt my <roing-s and comings are my own business, I don't 
have to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee do you honestly apprehend if you 
told the "world in this i)ublic session whether or not this is a true 
reproduction of your statements last Friday night you would be sup- 
plying information which could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding? 

Mr. GoooDMAN. I have stated before and I will state again that it 
can be subject to unjust prosecution which in reality is persecution, 
and if the courts would vindicate me in many years of litigation, a 
poor man cannot afl'ord many years of litigation. I must stand on 
my constitutional guarantees and safeties. That is the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. The committee does not accept this 
answer because it feels it is an improper invocation of the fifth amend- 
ment, and therefore directs the witness to answer the question pro- 
pounded by the counsel. 

Mr. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, there is pending before this committee 
some legislation. We are veiy happy to have you here because we 
think your testimony will help us consider this legislation. It appears 
on this record that there were a number of conspirators, agents of a 
foreign power, who Avere screened off of merchant vessels by the Coast 
Guai-d. Thereafter, because of a series of judicial opinions, the Coast 
Guard has now been forced to reissue seamen's papers to a number of 
these Communists. Following a series of decisions which interpreted 
a California code enabling the California authorities to attempt to 
preclude from employment Communists in the State government. 
Congressman Walter, the chairman of this committee, introduced a 
bill, H.E. 11580, which is pending before this committee. This bill 
provides that if a person wiio seeks seaman's papers is subpenaed be- 
fore the Coast Guard or other Federal agencies, and interrogated and 
refuses to answer certain questions, that individual cannot be issued 
seaman's papers. 

We want to test this out with you and see how it would work for 
the benefit of the committee and the benefit of the record. This bill 
provides, and I am reading now from section 3B — I assume that your 
appearance will do just what you said at the meeting, help educate the 
committee — section 3B provides: "No individual who willfully fails 
or refuses to appear before any Federal agency, when subpenaed or 
ordered to appear, or to answer under oath before such Federal agency 
any question" concerning three items, shall be issued seamen's papers. 

I am going to ask you those three questions. 

Mr. Goodman, are you a member of the Communist Party ? Please 
answer that question. Under this bill, if enacted into law, you can't 
get seaman's papers if you don't answer that question. Please answer 
that question. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Goodman. The fact of the matter is that the bill is not a law 
yet. 



1812 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. Let us assume we are considering this bill, which the 
committee is considering. I am going to read you part of the bill in 
tlie form of a question. Are you, Mr. Goodman, a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? Please answer that question. 

Mr. Goodman. You are not new at this. There liave been attempts 
to silence and screen workers in many industries for many yeai*s. I am 
not very old but I can read history books. I recall tlie industrial pass 
court of 1884 where no worker can work without one, as well as yellow- 
clog contracts in the twenties, as well as the famous or infamous Cope- 
land-Fink book which was burned in a bonfire here in Washington in 
1937, as well as the screening procedure set up in 1950. If j'ou are 
about to now^ try to reverse court decisions, well 3'ou can try. How- 
ever, there are still courts to reaffirm constitutional guarantees. If in 
the past few years the courts have reaffirmed the Constitution and 
safeguards and guarantees that have been trampled on in the past 10 
years by the late unlamented McCarthy, who I think was the political 
godfather of this committee — but that question that you ask will never 
be ansAvered by me. The Constitution says I don't have to answer such 
a question. If I am brought down here to testify for legislative pur- 
poses, then we are going to go on to look over the legislation. You 
are not going to drag myself around in this. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. Witness. The Constitution does not 
say you don't have to answer it. It gives you the privilege of refusing 
to answer on the ground that it might incriminate you. 

]Mr. Goodman. The Constitution says I don't have to testify against 
myself, and I would agree with it. 

Mr. ScuERER. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Goodman. I would refuse to answer such questions, on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, Witness, in your last speech you said you are 
not so old. I am interested in finding out just how old you are, in 
view of your appearance before that youth committee. How old are 
you? 

Mr. Goodman. If all the documents you have there don't tell you 
that, I was born in 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I would like to pursue the consideration of the 
language of the bill. The second provision of this bill precludes the 
issuance of seaman's papers to any person who when duly subpenaed 
before a Federal agency refuses to answer questions about "the activi- 
ties of such individual, or any other individual, as a member of the 
Communist Party." 

So I now ask you, jSIr. Goodman, do you presently have informa- 
tion respecting the activities of a person known by you to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Goodman. In simplified language that means I am supposed to 
be an informer or stool pigeon. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully ask that the witness be 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Goodman. I refuse to answer on the same grounds of the fifth 
and first amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to pursue this legislation a little bit 
further in light of your statement last Friday that Congressman 
Walter will be a little better educated after vou n"et down here. 



COINTMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1813 

Tho third provision of the bill precludes the issuance of seaman's 
papers to a ])erson Avho refuses to testify when duly subpenaed respect- 
ine: "the participation of such iiidividual, or any other individual, in 
activities conducted by or under the direction of the Communist Party 
or any member tliereof." 

NoW I ask you, sir, do you presently have information res])ecting 
activities conducted by or under the direction of the Connnunist 
Party? 

Mr. GooDMAx. I would refuse to answer that question on the con- 
stitutional guarantees of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Then is the record clear, Mr. Goodman, and do you 
understand in your process here of educating: the committee as you said 
A'ou were going to do, that if this bill were law, and if you responded 
to these three questions in the same manner that you have responded 
to these questions now before tliis committee, you would not be able 
to have the seaman's papers wdiich the Coast Guard certifies have been 
issued to you ? Do you understand that ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Issued to liim only because of the decision of the 
Supreme Court, which said that the Coast Guard had not been given 
the ])roper autliority to do the screening job tliat they were doing. 

Mr. Goodman. Would you repeat the question ? 

]Mr. Arens. At this meeting Friday night, was Frank Wilkinson 
in attendance? 

Mr. GooDJUAN. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you. know Frank Wilkinson ? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hear Frank Wilkinson give his talk? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hear Frank Wilkinson describe to the youth 
present what happened in San Francisco? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr, Arens. Frank Wilkinson is an international Communist agent, 
is he not ? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You did not hear Frank Wilkinson in his address an- 
nounce to the young people assembled that he was then an interna- 
tional Communist agent, did you ? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

]\Ir. Arens. Did Frank Wilkinson accompany the young people 
who were sent from New York City down here? 

Mr. GooDivtAN. First and fifth amendment. Since you have so much 
information on that meeting, you should know more about it than me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, since you received your subpena to appear 
before tliis committee today, been in conference respecting your testi- 
mony with a person or persons known by you to be membei'S of the 
Communist Party ? 

]\Ir. GooD:\rAN. First and fifth amendment. Who I speak to is my 
business and no one else's but my business. 

Mr. Arens. If you are in conference and in concert, sir, with mem- 
bers of that conspiratorial force known as the Communist Party 
which is dedicated to the overthrow of this Government by force and 
violence, that act is the concern of this committee. 



1814 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Now, sir, have you been a recent litigant in tiie courts respecting 
your seaman's status ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr, Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Goodman. I would refuse to on the constitutional grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let tlie record show the committee does not accept 
this answer. There is no possible way that the answer to that question 
could incriminate him. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Just a moment. 

Mr. ScHERER. The litigation is now terminated. 

(Witness consulted his coinisel.) 

Mr. Goodman. Will you please repeat tlie question ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Have you been a recent litigant in the courts re- 
specting your status as a seaman ? 

Mr. Goodman. A litigant ? No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member or are you a member of the 
so-called Seamen's Defense Committee ? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you or have you been secretary of the Maritime 
Labor Committee to Defend Al Lannon ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member or have you been a member of the 
Trade Union Committee to Repeal the Smith Act? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received a United States passport? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last leave the continental United States? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, at this instant have information respecting 
the operation and machinations of the Communist Party on board 
merchant vessels flying the American flag, which information you can, 
if you would do so, now supply to our Government via this committee? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. "V'\nio is Miss Miller, who was one of the presiding offi- 
cers last Friday ? 

Mr. Goodman. Pardon? 

Mr. Arens. Miss Miller, who is she? Do you know her? She was 
presiding last Friday night. 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Who was the presiding officer last Friday night? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wlio introduced you when you spoke ? 

Mr. Goodman. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact that it was Miss Miller? 

Mr. Goodman. It was the first and fifth amendments of the Consti- 
tution that said my goings and comings are my own business and not 
the proper business of any legislative committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1815 

Mr. ScHERER. The oflicer will remove any person who makes any 
demonstration in the future. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read von the introductory remarks of 
last Friday nioht, and ask you to f^ive a word of explanation as we 
proceed to consider them : 

Tonight with us we have one of the men who has heen subpenaed. His name 
is Pete Goodman. He is a member of the Seamen's Defense Committee. He 
is a man who is a leading figure in the National Maritime Union. Here now 
is Pete Goodman. 

Were those remarks made in your presence last Friday night by the 
l)residine: officer who introduced you ? 

Mr. Goodman. The first and fifth amendment would be the same 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would respectfully suggest that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Johansen, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Johansen. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Tlie witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness is Stanley jSIilton Ilauser. Please 
come forward and remain standing while the chairman administers 
the oath. 

Mr. Scherer (presiding). The witness will raise his right hand. 
Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give shall be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help vou 
God? 

Mr. Hauser. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STANLEY MILTON HAUSEE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Hauser. My name is Stanley Milton Hauser. I live at 210 
West 103d Street, New York 25, New York City. I am a student. 

Mr. Arens. Do j^ou mind telling us where, please ? 

(Witness consulted liis counsel.) 

Mr. Hauser. I am a student at one of the finest schools not only 
on the east coast, but on the west coast, the City College of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, jMr. Hauser, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Hauser. You asked me a question ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Hauser. I didn't hear you, I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Hauser. Yes. I have been served a subpena and that is the 
only reason I am here. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Hauser. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Eabinowitz. Victor Eabinowitz. 



1816 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hauser, have you held a radio operator's license 
at any time? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, you brought me all the way from New 
York, my home, down here, on a subpena, and that is the only reason 
why I came here. I look around here in this old room, I see you 
have a big old chandelier, and everybody is sitting around with ties 
and everybody is respectable and the committee and the hearing is 
supposed to be conducted respectably and decently — huh, decent. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, before this committee begins to move the game 
has already been played. 

Mr. Arens. You are reading now from prepared notes; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Hatiser. Mr. Chairman, I am trying to answer the question. 
Will you please allow me to answer the question ? 

Mr. Arens, I respectfully suggest that the witness be directed to 
answer whether or not he is reading from prepared notes. 

Mr. Hauser. Mr, Chairman 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute now. The witness is directed to answer 
the question, 

Mr, Hauser, Will you please repeat the question ? I didn't hear it. 
I am trying to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. May I say, Mr. Hauser, it won't be necessary for you 
to keep your voice quite so loud. We can hear you without the 
microphone. 

Mr. Hauser. We will take the microphone away, okay ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you reading now from prepared notes ? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. The audience has understood that I will permit no 
demonstrations either for or against any witness, or for or against the 
committee. Officer, I have instructed the previous officer who was here 
to remove anyone who makes any audible outcry of any kind. Will 
you follow my orders and remove anyone who in the future starts any 
type of demonstration without further instructions from the Chair? 
You understand that? 

Mr. Arens. Now will you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, will you please ask the attorney to tell 
me what the question is ? I start out asking one question, he answers, 
and he asks me another question. 

Will you please have him tell me what question he is trj^ing to get 
me to answer ? 

Mr, Arens, The first question I want you to answer in this in- 
stance—if you will kindly keep your voice down, we can hear you 
without the shouting. We are used to shouting, but we are not going 
to tolerate disreputable conduct, 

Mr, Hauser, Mr, Chairman, I don't like to be insulted, I want to 
talk like this, "V^Hien somebody talks to me I like to be lieard, 

Mr, Johansen. This committee does not like to be insulted and if 
you direct more attention to the questions asked instead of the speeches 
you are going to make, you will not have to have the questions repeated, 

Mr, Hauser, You asked me a question, I am trying to answer it. 

Now you are asking me another one and I am confused. Will you 
tell me what you want me to answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1817 

]VIr. Arens. Yes. The first question and. the only question that is 
now pending is, Will you kindly keep your voice down a little bit. 

Mr. Hauser. Well, look, wait a minute. If I am talking too loud I 
will move back here. We will move back here. 

]\Ir. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered to respond 
to the subpena of tlie committee and testify in an orderly manner 
before this committee. 

Mr. Hauser. AMiat about back here ? 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Witness, are you alluding to prepared notes in your 
testimony ? 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer. 

Mr. Hauser. It is really micomfortable. I will come back here. 
It is really uncomfortable. 

Mr. SciiERER. I have directed the witness to answer the question. 
Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is 

Mr. Hauser. Which question, what question? Let us get on, huh? 

Mr. Arens. The pending question is this : Do you presently, or have 
you ever in the past held a radio operator's license ? 

Mr. Scherer. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

(The witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. ILvusER. iSIr. Chairman, this is apparently the same question 
that I was asked before. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, and you have not answered the question yet. 

Mr. Hauser. I say that this committee who is trying to conduct 
hearings 

Mr. Arens. JNIr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question, or to invoke that part 
of the Constitution, if he honestly believes that his answer will in- 
criminate him, which gives him that protection. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question, 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, I am trying to answer the question. 
You interrupted me asking about some kinds of notes or something 
like that. 

If you just let me speak for a couple of minutes I will answer the 
question. OK ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Arens, proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is: Do you presently hold seaman's 
papers, sir? 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, I object to the question on the grounds 
that our American democracy protects the individual from overreach- 
ing Government action, from encroachments into the privacy of 
mdividuals. 

That violates my rights of freedom of speech, assembly, and asso- 
ciation. 

I further decline the question upon the basis of the constitutional 
privilege not to be compelled to bear \vitness against myself, a privilege 
which I assert in view of the recognized scope of this privilege which 
is to protect the innocent as well as the guilty, and which historically 
was developed and used to protect political and religious dissenters. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hauser, it won't be necessary for you to keep your 
voice up quite so high. We can hear you, without t:he shouting. 

Mr. Hauser. I don't know about that. 



1818 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. Have the reasons you advanced for 
not answering the committee's questions included the invocation of the 
fifth amendment ? 

(The witness consulted his comisel.) 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, you can have the stenographer repeat 
my answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Hauser. I have already answered the question, as the steno- 
graphic record 

( The witness consulted his counsel. ) 

Mr. ScHERER. Let the record show that the courts have said that 
when it is not clear whether a witness refuses to answer a question on 
the basis of the fifth amendment, it is the duty of the committee to in- 
quire specifically whether he is using the fifth amendment. 

I have so inquired. I have directed the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. He has refused to answer the question. 

Counsel, proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question, if you please 

ISIr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, I would like to put into the record 
something, you know 

Mr. SciiERER. I have directed the counsel to ask you the next ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is that we are now displaying to you 
a copy of a certificate transmitted to the committee and identified by 
the United States Coast Guard, certifying that you, Stanley ]\Iilton 
Hauser, hold a seaman's certificate licensed as radio officer, issued to 
you on Januaiy 2, 1957. 

Kindly look at that certificate, sir, and tell this committee whether 
or not the facts recited there to your knowledge are true and correct. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Let the record disclose that the witness is laughing. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly respond ? 

Mr. Scherer, The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Arens. You are now referring to prepared notes ? 

Mr. Hauser. You want to get this issue of prepared notes. 

I think, Mr. Chairman, that this statement is an attempt to em- 
barrass me, to attempt to undermine my intelligence and my integrity. 
I am speaking to the committee and I have before me a couple of 
pieces of paper on which I scratched a few ideas because I have 
a kind of an idea of what this committee tries to do. 

I would like to continue by stating that this hearing is supposedly 
being conducted with decency and respectability. 

But the weapons that this committee uses are two. Exposure of the 
individual, before he ever gets down liere. That is number one. 

Number two, the right to take away his job. This is what you guys 
are fighting for now, the right to get that right back because that is 
what the court took away from you. 

If you think that I am going to lend myself to a procedure that takes 
away a man's right to work in his God-given career, then you are — • 
well 

(Document marked "Hauser Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly respond to the question. 



CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1819 

Mr. SciiERF.R. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. PIauser. AVheu you call 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Hauser. When you call an individual, you don't call one. You 
call thousands and thousands because once the word spreads around 
the waterfront that they are out picking the bi'ains of the seamen 
again, then the bellies of men cave in because they know their jobs 
are at stake. 

Mr. Chairaian, if you want to know how to protect the waterfront 
you can go to the Coast Guard who you had down here yesterday. 
They are the best iceberg and growler protectore in the world. They 
have the finest geodetic service and hydrographic service. 

Now, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. SciiERER. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is this : Are you now, this instant, a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. May I say, it won't be necessary for you to shout any 
more, sir. We can hear you with your normal voice. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness has had long enough time to answ-er 
the question. The Chair directs him to answ^er the question. 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, I like to point out that I have made 
a statement before in answer to a question, something to do with 
whether or not I was a radio operator or seaman or something like 
that, on which I stood on the first and fifth amendments and I \vould 
like to point this out, that that was my answer to the questions or any 
questions that this committee so directs me to. 

I hope you miderstand that. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is directed to answer the outstanding 
question. 

Mr. Hauser. Then I want to point out to you that I am once again 
taking the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hauser, you have been identified to this committee 
as a person who is a member of the Commmiist Party. Is that iden- 
tification true and correct? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, in relation to this particular question, 
I would like to point out that the purpose of this hearing was called 
to investigate certain activities on the waterfront. 

Mr. Arens. By Communists. 

Mr. Hauser. I would like to point out to the committee that their 
attempt at protection of the waterfront seems to me to be 

Mr. Sciierer. Would you desist a minute ? 

Mr. Hauser. Am I answering the question, or not? Once you tell 
me I am not answering the question. When I try to 

Mr. Scherer. Put the next question to the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wardwell, would you kindly come forward? You 
have been sworn on this record, have you not ? 

Mr. WARD^VELL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Stand right there, if you please, sir. 



1820 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

During the course of your experience in the Communist Party, did 
you know as a member of the Communist Party a man by the name of 
Stanley Milton Hauser ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see in the hearing room now the man who was 
known by you to be a member of the Communist Party by the name 
of Stanley Milton Hauser? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Abens. Would you kindly point him out to the committee? 

Mr. Wardwell. This man right here, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when did you know him as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Wardwell. Waterfront Section, Twenty-fifth Street and 
Eighth Avenue. 

Also the Young Progressives of America on Twenty-third near 
Seventh Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. Was he hard core in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wardwell. He is one of the goon squads of the waterfront. 

Mr. Arens. One of the goon squads of the waterfront ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Does he act down there as he does before this commit- 
tee in an obstreperous manner ? 

Mr. Wardwell. Very much so. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hauser, you have just heard the testimony of Mr. 
Wardwell, in which he has said that he knew you as a member of the 
Communist Party and a member of the goon squad of the Communist 
Party. That is a pretty serious statement under oath respecting a 
man. 

We want to give you an opportunity to deny, while you are under 
oath, the truth of that testimony. Do you care to avail yourself of 
that opportunity ? 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, as far as I know the procedural aspects 
of the law are one of the cornerstones of our democracy, and those 
who subvert and undermine these procedural aspects are the ones 
who are subverting and undermining democracy in the United States. 

Those wdio prevent the riglit of cross-examination, those who base 
the accusations and statements on unprincipled informers, those who 
violate the presumption of innocence and those who disregard the 
bill of particulars — ^those are the people who are undermining the 
democratic rights of the United States citizens. 

Any questions that I have to answer before any body or any person, 
I will only answer under the correct judicial proceedings which this 
committee has not and has never carried out, so as a result I refuse to 
answer any questions of this committee, including the last one — huh ! — 
including the last one, on the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the goon squad of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, I give the same answer to that ques- 
tion. 

Mr. SciiERER. Do you have any further questions, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; we do. 

Mr. ScHERER. Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a shortwave operator's permit ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1821 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. IIauser. iSlr. Cliairnian, I object to this question on the grounds 
of relevance. 

Mr. SciiERER. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Hauser. If I am directed to answer the question, 1 am foi'ced, 
as I have previously stated, because 1 do not feel that this question is 
proper and correct, 1 don't believe that has been directed in the proper 
manner. 

It is not relevant or pertinent to the issue that is supposed to be 
heard today, whether or not I have a ham license has not got anything 
to do with waterfront activities. 

I would like to point out that once again I am standing on the iirst 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you transmitted any messages as a shortwave 
operator at the behest and direction of any person known by you to be 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hauser. ISIr. Chairman 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chairman, I have been directed to answer the 
question. I would like to point out to this committee that this screen- 
ing process that started on the waterfront before the Korean war in 
1949 

Mr. Aeexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the w^itness 
be ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Hauser, I stand on the first and fifth amendments which guar- 
antee my right and as an individual 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, while you are under 
oath and subject to the pains and penalties of perjury, that if you told 
this committee whether or not you have transmitted messages as a 
shortwave operator pursuant to the direction of a person known by 
you to be a member of the Communist Party, that you would be 
supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chainnan, this question is an attempt to embar- 
rass me once again into participating into a violation of democratic 
principles w^hich is represented by this hearing. 

It is once again an attempt to intimidate me from refraining from 
using my constitutional privileges. 

I once again proudly take the first and proudly take the fifth 
amendments against this hearing. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you a member of an organization which is dedi- 
cated to the destruction of the Constitution of the United States? 

Mr. Hauser. Mr. Chainnan, once again this question is an attempt 
to embarrass me into participating in a violation of democratic prin- 
ciples represented by this hearing. 

It is once again an attempt to intimidate me into refraining from 
using my constitutional privileges. 

57727— 60— pt. 1 6 



1822 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

When the day comes that you guys run a respectable democratic 
hearing, I will participate in it, but I will not now, and I stand on 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, will be Charles Malvern 
Swan. 

Kindly come forward, Mr. Swan, and remain standing. 

Excuse me, Mr. Henry Bernard Kasbohm is the next witness. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God. 

Mr. Kasbohm. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY BERNARD KASBOHM, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Kasbohm. My name is Henry Bernard Kasbohm. I live at 
Great Neck, N. Y., 4 Maple Drive, and I am a building superintendent. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was issued by this committee? 

Mr. Kasbohm. I assure you I would not be here unless I was. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Kasbohm. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Kasbohm. Sturgeon Bay, Wis., in 1903. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give us a word about your education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kasbohm. Grammar school only. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive any other specialized training? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kasbohm. I really don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you attended any Communist Party training 
schools ? 

Mr. IvASBOHM. Under the first amendment and the fifth amendment, 
I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you have attended Communist Part}^ training schools. 

Mr. Kasbohisc. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently hold seaman's papers ? 

Mr. Kasbohm. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, a copy of a certifi- 
cate identified on this record by the United States Coast Guard, cer- 
tifying that you, Heniy Bernard Kasbohm, presently hold seaman's 
papers as a merchant mariner, engine department, issued on Decem- 
ber 12, 1956. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee if to your 
certain knowledge the statements made there are true and correct. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ICasbohm. First and fifth amendments. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1823 

(Document marked "Kasbolim Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently intend to ship out in the near fu- 
ture as a seaman? 

jNIr. IvLvsBoiiM. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Akens. How long have you been engaged in your present 
occupation ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IvxVSBOiiM. Since about 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold or have you ever held a United States pass- 
port? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IvASBOHM. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, if you are refusing to answer on the basis 
of the first and fifth amendments, say that I decline to answer, rather 
than just shout out first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Kasboiim. Very well. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at one time denied seaman's papers ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kasbohm. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have current information which you can supply 
your Government via this committee respecting activities on merchant 
vessels and on waterfront facilities by persons known by you, to a 
certainty, to be members of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kasbohm. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you this very instant a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Kasbohm. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Charles Malvern Swan. 

Please come to the witness stand. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Swan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES MALVERN SWAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Swan. My name is Charles Malvern Swan. I live at 3205 
Dorithan Road. 

Mr. Arens. WTiat city ? 

Mr. Swan. Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing in response to a subpena served upon 
you by this committee? 

Mr. Swan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 



1824 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Swan. That is right. 

Mr. AnENS. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. How long have j^-ou been engaged in your present occu- 
pation, Mr. Swan ? 

Mr. Swan. About 7 or 8 years. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold seaman's papers ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Swan. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a document identified on this 
record by the Vice Admiral of the United States Coast Guard, which 
is a certificate certifying that you, Charles Alalvern Swan, hold sea- 
man's papers, unlimited, any waters, as an able seaman, as a wiper- 
messman, issued on January 11, 1957. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee while you are 
under oath whether or not the statements in this document are to your 
certain knowledge true and correct. 

Mr. Swan. I refuse to answer on the previous grounds. 

(Document marked "Swan Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you have present intentions of shipping out in the 
foreseeable future as a seaman with seaman's papers. 

Mr. Swan. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have your papers as a seaman ever been denied? 

Mr. Swan. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Connnunist 
Party? 

Mr. Swan. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in the Baltimore area ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Swan. Around 1939. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live prior to the time you moved to 
Baltimore ? 

Mr. Swan. Catholic Orphanage, Rock Hill, S.C. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been in any fracas in Baltimore in the last 
few years ? 

Mr. Swan. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You had a little to-do with the police in a demonstra- 
tion there, did j-ou not, some years ago? 

Mr. ScHERER. Was it in connection with Communist Party activi- 
ties? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. The question is proper. 

Mr. Swan. Are you asking me, or telling me? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; I am asking you. 

Mr. Swan. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Are there any further questions, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that would conclude the staff interroga- 
tion of this witness. 

Mr. SciiERER, The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, and the last witness for this morning, 
if you please, INIr. Chairman, will be William Henry Thompson. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1825 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

^Tr. Sen krku. Will the witness raise his right hand ? 

Yon do solemnly swear that the testimony yon are about to give 
shall be tlie truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Thompson. I do. 

Mr. ScHERER. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM (HENRY) THOMPSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

IVIr. Thoinipson. William Thompson, 204 West Franklin Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation ? I believe you omitted that. 

Mr. Thompson. I am a seaman by trade. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Kein. David Kein. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Thompson, are you now, or have you ever been a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now^ a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Thompson, where were you about 12 :30 yesterday ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the offices of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, about 12 :30 or 1 o'clock yesterday ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer with me in my private office about 12 :?>0 
or 1 o'clock yesterday ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell me yesterday in the offices of the Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities something of your own background and 
experiences ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently hold seaman's papers ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You told us you were a seaman. You are not sailing 
without seaman's papers, are you ? 

Mr. Tpiompson. I said I was a seaman by trade. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently hold seaman's papers ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answ^er on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered to answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. He has been invoking the fifth amendment. 



1826 COIVOIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest lie be ordered to answer the 
question because he has told us he is a seaman and a seaman cannot 
sail as a seaman without seaman's papers. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is right, but he did invoke the fifth amend' 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a copy of a certificate which has 
been identified on this record by the Vice Admiral of the Coast Guard. 
It is a certification that seaman's papers have been issued to you, 
engine department — ordinary seaman- — lifeboatman, and bearing 
certain notations. 

Kindly look at that document which is now being displayed to you 
and tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether or not 
the statements there are to your certain knowledge true and correct. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Thompson". I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Thompson Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you raise your voice ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you recently broken from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You told me yesterday in my office that you had recently 
broken from the Communist Party, did you not ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you threatened in any way since you talked to 
Mr. Arens yesterday ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sgherer. Did you tell anyone who is a member of the Com- 
munist Party that you had talked with Mr. Arens about your member- 
ship in the Communist Party, and that you had planned to testify? 
Did you tell anyone ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I urged you yesterday to appear today and if you have 
broken from the Communist Party to testify like a redblooded Ameri- 
can about this conspiracy, testify for your Government respecting the 
operations and machinations of this conspiratorial force which would 
destroy this Government and freedom on American soil, did I not? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I want to paraphrase a provision of the bill which is 
presently pending before the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Do you, sir, have information respecting the participation or activi- 
ties of any individual conducted by, or under the direction of, the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is excused. 

The hearings are recessed until tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

(Thereupon, at 11 :40 a.m., Tuesday, June 7, 1960, the committee was 
recessed to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, June 8, 1960.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN AND ON 
WATERFRONT FACILITIES 

PART 1 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 8, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to re- 
cess, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, House Office Building, Washing- 
ton, D.C, lion. William M. Tuck, presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E, W^alter, of 
Pennsylvania (appearance as noted) ; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; 
Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio ; and August E. Johansen, of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; Raymond 
T. Collins and William Margeticli, investigators. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will come to order. 

Counsel, please call the first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Hugh Mulzac, please come forward. Remain standing 
while the chairman administers the oath. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. Mulzac. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HUGH MULZAC, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LEONAED B. BOUDIN 

Mr. xIrens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Mulzac. Hugh Mulzac. I live at 106-61 Roscoe Street, 
Jamaica, N.Y. Occupation, unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Mulzac. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Mulzac. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, 2.5 Broad Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. W^hat is your occupation, Mr. Mulzac? I understood 
you to say you are presently unemployed. What is your vocation, your 
line of work ? 

1827 



1828 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. MuLZAc. I have nothing particular. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a seaman ? 

Mr. Mui.zAc. I am a seaman but I have not been going to sea. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you have seaman's papers ? 

Mr. MuLZAc. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When did you acquire your seaman's papers, your last 
seaman's papers? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you acquire them in 1956 ? 

Mr. MuLZAC. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you rated as a seaman, steward-cook ? 

Mr. MuLZAc. Also, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have arrangements made to resume your voca- 
tion or avocation of seaman? Do you expect in the near future to re- 
sume as a seaman ? 

Mr. MuLZAC. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? Mr. Alulzac, would it be convenient for you to 
get closer to the microphone ? 

Mr. MuLZAc. I lean on the fifth amendment because such a question 
may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected with the Seamen's Defense Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. MuLZAC. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to display to you now a thermofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Daily Worker of Novem- 
ber 8, 1956, which states : 

The Seamen's Defense Committee Against Coast Guard Screening, whose chair- 
man is Capt. Hugh N. ]Mulzac, and consisting of merchant seamen denied "clear- 
ance" within the last six years by the Coast Guard issued the following state- 
ment yesterday : 

Then the statement appears. 

Kindly look at that article which I now display to 3'ou and tell this 
coimnittee whether or not tlie desigiiation by yourself in the Daily 
Worker as the chairman of the Seamen's Defense Committee is true 
and correct. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness consuhed his counsel.) 

Mr. MuLZAC. I refuse to answer. I lean on the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "IMulzac Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if j^ou told this committee 
that you are, or in the recent past you were, chairman of the Seamen's 
Defense Committee, you would be supplying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. MuLZAC. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been screened off of merchant vessels 
under the Coast Guard screening program? 

Mr. JNIuLZAC. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. MuLZAc. I lean on the fifth amendment; it may tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Mr. Arens. We put it to you as a fact that you were screened off 
merchant vessels under the Coast Guard screening program in 1951 
and we ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1829 

}>lv. MuLZAC. I refuse to aiis\ver. 1 lean on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ahens. Over wliat period of time did you sail on merchant ves- 
sels with seaman's papers? 

Mr. MuLZAC. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arexs. ]Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer tliat question. lie has told us quite 
openly here a while ago that he is a seaman and has been a seaman. 
It is certainly a legitimate question then to ask him over wliat period 
of time he did pursue his vocation as a seaman and did sail. 

Mr. Tuck. Inasmuch as the witness has already responded to ques- 
tions along this line, the Chair rules that he is required to answer the 
question. The Chair orders and directs you to answer the question. 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. MuLZAc. I refuse to answer on the grounds that I lean on the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Akexs. Now, Mr. Mulzac, this Committee on Un-American 
Activities is trying to develop information respecting Communist 
activities among seamen's groups. We have here before us a thermo- 
f ax reproduction of an article appearing in the Daily Worker of March 
5, 1956, the opening sentence of which reads as follows : 

The Seamen's Defense Committee, composed chiefly of seamen and longshore- 
men who have been screened out of the maritime industry by the Coast Guard, 
was formed recently with the cooperation of the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee. 

Can you tell this committee, please, sir, what information do you 
presently have respecting the activities and participation of the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee in the formation of the Seamen's De- 
fense Committee ? 

Mr. MtjLzac. I refuse to answer. I lean on the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Mulzac Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee collect 
funds to be used by the Seamen's Defense Committee? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arex^s. Did the director or administrative chief of the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee participate in the formation of the 
Seamen's Defense Committee? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer that. It tends to incriminate me. 
I lean on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I can't hear the witness. 

Mr. Mulzac. I lean on the fifth amendment. I refuse to answer 
those questions. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you participate in the rally which was held last 
Friday night in New York City by the Youth to Abolish the House 
Un-American Activities Conmiittee, at which meeting certain of the 
screened seamen appeared ? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer. I lean on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. The chairman of this committee introduced in the House 
of Kepresentatives some time ago a bill which is designed to enable 
the Coast Guard to screen out from merchant vessels Communists and 
others who would jeopardize the security of this Nation. This bill 
provides, among otlier things, that seaman's papers cannot be issued 
by the Coast Guard to an individual who has been subpenaed to appear 
before a Federal agency and who refuses to answ^er certain questions. 



1830 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

For the purpose of developing factual information on the operation 
of that bill, should it become law, I propose now to ask you questions 
respecting each of three areas which are prescribed as proper areas 
for questions in the framework of this bill. 

The first question is this, based upon the first item of the bill : Are 
you, Mr. Mulzac, who now hold seaman's papers, presently a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer that. I lean on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. The second question is this : Are you, Mr. Mulzac, who 
have told us that you presently hold seaman's papers, possessed of 
information respecting the activities of a person known by you at 
the present time to be a member of tiie Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer that. I lean on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. The third question is based upon the third unit of this 
bill which precludes issuance of seamen's papers to certain persons. 
Are you, Mr. Mulzac, now possessed of information respecting activ- 
ities conducted by a person known by you to be under the direction of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer that. I lean on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You understand, Mr. Mulzac, that if this bill were law, 
and if you refused to answer those questions when subpenaed by a 
Federal agency, you would then not be issued seaman's papers, and 
you would then, if you had previouslj^ been issued seaman's papers, 
be precluded thereafter from using those seaman's papers? 

Mr. Chairman, I have still another question. 

Mr. Mulzac, were you a participant in recent litigation involving 
certain steamship lines in which seamen who had been screened off 
vessels were seeking to resume, or have resumed, their status as seamen ? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer that. I lean on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to invite your attention to an article ap- 
pearing in the Communist Daily Worker of March 16, 1956 : 

Rally TonigM to Hit Screening by Coast Guard 

Dr. J. Raymond "Walsh, economist and former national research director of 
the CIO, will be the main speaker at a public meeting tonight (Friday) to pro- 
test Coast Guard screening of merchant seamen and longshoremen. The meet- 
ing is being held under the auspices of the Seamen's Defense Committee in 
cooperation with the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. It will be held at 8 
p.m. at Adelphi Hall, 74 Fifth Avenue. 

Capt. Hugh Mulzac, who served as master of the Liberty ship, the Booker T. 
Washington, during the war, will relate his own experiences with Coast Guard 
screening. 

Victor Rabinowitz, counsel of the Seamen's Defense Committee, will analyze 
the recent decision by the Ninth District Court of Appeals invalidating Coast 
Guard screening procedures. 

Dr. Annette Rubinstein will be chairman. 

Tell me, sir, did you attend and participate in the meeting which is 
described in the article from the Daily Worker ^vhicli I just read ? 

Mr. Mulzac. I refuse to answer that. I lean on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Document marked "Mulzac Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. xYrens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness will stand aside. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Mr. Charles Everett Colcord. 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1831 

Mr. Tuck. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give before this committee of (he United States House of Representa- 
tives will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. COLCOKD. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES EVERETT COLCORD, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. xVnENS. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. CoLCORD. My name is Charles Everett Colcord, C-o-l-c-o-r-d. I 
reside at 1:28 Willoughby Aveiuie, Brooklyn 5, New York. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Colcord, in response to 
a subpena served upon you by tliis committee ? 

Mr. Colcord. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Colcord. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New York. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Colcord, what is your occupation ? 

Mr. Colcord. I decline to answer that question on the following 
grounds : The vagueness of the resolution empowering the committee, 
lack of jurisdiction of the conmiittee, the lack of pertinency of the 
question, I also invoke that portion of the fifth amendment relating 
to freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of the press. I 
also invoke that portion of the fifth amendment relating to due proc- 
ess of law, and that portion of the fifth amendment which says that 
I cannot be compelled to be a witness against myself in any criminal 
proceeding. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I suppose it is not too important, 
but it seems to me it is just a little premature to comment on the 
pertinency of the questions that have not been asked. 

Mr. Tuck. The point made by the gentleman from Michigan is well 
taken. 

(Chairman Walter entered the room.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Colcord, how long have you been engaged in your 
present occupation? 

Mr. Colcord. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you possessed of seaman's papers issued by the 
United States Coast Guard ? 

Mr. Colcord. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr, Arens. We display to you now a certificate which has been 
identified on this record by the Vice Admiral of the Coast Guard as 
a certificate certifying that seaman's papers were issued to you, 
Charles Everett Colcord, as an Ordinary Seaman-Wiper-Messman 
(FH)-Lifeboatman, at the time and place indicated in the certificate. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or 
not the recitations there, the issuance of the seaman's papers to you, 
are, to your certain knowledge, true and correct. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 



1832 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. CoLCORD. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

(Document marked ''Colcord Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

The Chairman (presiding). May I ask a question? Do you feel 
that you might be subjected to a criminal prosecution if you answered 
the question as to whether or not you had the customary papers 
issued to a person in this seaman- wiper-messman category? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. BouDiN. Excuse me one second, Mr. Chairman. 

(Witness consulted his couPisel.) 

Mr. CoLCORD. I respectfully decline on the grounds previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. What crime do you think you might be charged 
with if you admitted that you had papers qualifying you to serve 
on merchant ships as a seaman-wiper-messman-lifeboatman ? 

Mr. CoLCORD. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. CoLCORD. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had, or do you presently have, a radio opera- 
tor's license authorizing you to operate a radio aboard ship or on port 
facilities? 

Mr. CoLCORD. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last 5 years, trans- 
mitted any messages via radio aboard ship or port facilities, which 
messages were given to you by a person known by you to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Colcord. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, there is pending before this committee a bill, 
H.R. 11580, introduced by the chairman of the committee, which, 
among other things, precludes the issuance of seaman's papei*s to a 
person who when subpenaed before a Federal agency refuses to answer 
under oath questions concerning three items. I should like to repeat 
each of these three items to you now so that this record will reflect how 
this bill would operate if it were law. 

Item 1. Are you, sir, now a member of the Commmiist Party? 

Mr. Colcord. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you, sir, possessed now of information respecting 
the activities of any person known by you to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Colcord. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, have information now respecting the 
participation of any individual in activities conducted by, or under 
the direction of, the Communist Party ? 



COIvO^IUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1833 

Mv. CoLCORD. I decline to answer that, (inestion on tlie grounds 
previously stated. 

]Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Ciiair:man. Now, as I understand the bill, if the witness had 
invoked the fifth amendment with respect to these three questions, 
or any one of them, it would have been impossible for him to obtain 
a radio license or a license as a sailor. 

Mr. Arkns. That is right, and if he has such a license he would not 
be able to sail under the papers which had been issued to him prior 
to the instance in which he would refuse to answer these questions. 

The Chairmax. Are there any questions? 

]Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

In view of the fact that important witnesses, operators of lines and 
the officers of labor unions, are now in a conference in Europe, the 
hearings will be recessed until such time as it is possible for them to 
attend. So the present session is adjourned. 

(Thereupon at 10:30 a.m., Wednesday, June 8, 1960, the committee 
recessed subject to call of the Chair.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN AND ON 
WATERFRONT FACILITIES 

PART 1 



THURSDAY, JUNE 23, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-Ameeican Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 

rUBLIC HEARINGS 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, at 
10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Peimsj'lvania ; William M, Tuck, of Virginia ; Gordon H. Scherer, 
of Ohio;" and August E. Johansen, of Michigan. (Appearances as 
noted.) 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff director, and Raymond 
T. Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Scherer (presiding). The committee will come to order. 

(Members of the committee present at time of convening: Rep- 
resentative Scherer.) 

]\Ir. Scherer. My. Director, will you call your first witness ? 

Mr. Arens. The first witness, if you please, will be Mr. Ray R. 
Murdoch, Washington counsel for the Seafarers' International Union 
of North America. 

Mr. Murdoch, would you kindly come forward? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Murdoch, do you solemnly swear that the testi- 
mony you are about to give shall ho, the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. MuEDOCK. I do. 

TESTIMOITY OF RAY R. MURDOCK, WASHINGTON COUNSEL, SEA- 
FARERS' INTERNATIONAL UNION OF NORTH AMERICA, ACCOM- 
PANIED BY H. H0V7ARD OSTRIN, OF COOPER, OSTRIN & DeVARCO, 
GENERAL COUNSEL, NATIONAL MARITIME UNION, AND HOYT S. 
HADDOCK, DIRECTOR, SEAFARERS' SECTION, MARITIME TRADES 
DEPARTMENT, AFL-CIO 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Murdoch, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record and identify, if you please, sir, your colleagues who are appear- 
ing with you today? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. I am an attorney- at-law in Washington, D.C, and 
I am Washington counsel for the Seafarers' International Union of 
North America. 

1835 



1836 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

I am accompanied at the table by JMr. H. Howard Ostrin, of the 
firm of Cooper, Ostrin & DeVarco, who is the general counsel to the 
Xational Maritime Union, and by JMr. Iloyt Haddock. Mr. Haddock 
is the director of the Seafarers' Section, Maritime Trades Department 
of the AFL-CIO. 

The Seafarers' Section comprises all legitimate seagoing unions 
which are affiliated with the AFL-CIO and has a membership in 
excess of 100,000. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Murdock, you have a prepared statement to present 
to the committee today ? 

Mr. Murdock. Yes. 

ISIr. Arens. And may I inquire, do the otlier two gentlemen accom- 
panying you have prepared statements or do they liave anything they 
want to say or do they, in effect, lend their support to the essence of 
your statement? 

Mr. Murdock. They do not have prepared statements. Mr. Ostrin 
is here in the event some technical question arises on whicli his advice 
is needed. We are in agreement with the statement which I will put 
into the record. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Would you kindly proceed, then, Mr. ISIurdock ? The statement is 
not too long. You can read it, if you please, for the benefit of the 
member who is present and also for the benefit of the record, which 
will be available to the entire membership of the committee. 

Mr. Murdock. More than any other group, legitimate American 
seamen favor exclusion of Communists and other security risks from 
the waterfront. Not only do Communists on the waterfront imperil 
our national defense, they also constitute an unstable factor which dis- 
rupts the industry and interferes with genuine collective bargaining. 

It is generally recognized that, of all industries, the waterfront in- 
dustries are most vulnerable to infiltration by subversives. This vul- 
nerability results primarily from the facts that (1) shipping is an 
international operation and the flags in the maritime industry rep- 
resent governments of every political complexion, and (2) in the very 
nature of the business, maritime is an industry of casual employment, 
that is, seamen frequently change employers after every voyage, and 
their tenure is variable and undependable. 

Because of these conditions, it is perhaps inevitable that opportu- 
nists and adventurers, renegades and conspirators are attracted to 
the waterfront. 

However, I call your attention to the fact that the maritime unions 
affiliated with the AFI^-CIO have done a remarkable job of cleaning 
Communists and other subversives out of their ranks. The maritime 
unions have carried on, and will continue to carry on, an intensive 
crusade against Communists and other subversives. 

Unfortunately, as you know, not all segments of the waterfront 
industries are under the jurisdiction of unions affiliated with the 
Federation. 

As Chaiiinan Walter said in his opening statement in these hear- 
ings, "for all practical purposes . . . the entire security screening 
procedures administered by the United States Coast Guard" have been 
ruled invalid by Federal courts. The result is that subversives have 
free access to ships and port facilities in this country. 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1837 

Let me emphasize that, under existing conditions, the shipping in- 
dustry constitutes a convenient conduit by which subversives from 
foreign countries can pour into this country. The dangers inherent in 
this situation cannot be overemphasized. The National Eesearch 
Council of the National Academy of Sciences recently issued a report 
known as "Project Walrus." We do not agree with some of the con- 
clusions in this report. However, it does set forth some facts which 
should be alarming to the Congress and to the public. 

It points out that, in tlie event of general war, "merchant shipping 
is very likely to be the least damaged physical resource" (p. 8) . This 
is because railroad and highway systems are extremely vulnerable to 
atomic attack. In the event of such an attack, our main reliance, at 
least in the early stages, would be on the merchant marine. 

But it must be remembered that the merchant marine is peculiarly 
vulnerable to sabotage. One skilled man can paralyze a great ship. 
If we are not able to prevent the infiltration of our merchant marine 
by subversives, then the hazards become incalculable. If our mer- 
chant marine can be paralyzed by sabotage, then all the billions we 
are spending for defense still leave us woefully unprepared. 

We, therefore, congratulate the chairman and the committee on this 
effort to evolve a system of waterfront security. To the extent that 
the Walter bill will contribute to the exclusion of Communists from 
the waterfront, our unions favor it and advocate its enactment. 

The primary function of maritime labor unions is to protect the 
rights of seamen, and we are dedicated to that function. We do not 
believe the maintenance and preservation of effective security regu- 
lations require the destruction of civil rights, and particularly the 
right to due process. 

We believe that the Walter bill, with the amendments proposed by 
the chairman, complies with these standards. However, we call your 
attention to some loopholes which will be left in the law unless the 
Walter bill is further amended. 

First, and simplest, we believe that fascism and other forms of to- 
talitarian subversion are dangerous to our way of life, and we think 
the applicability of the Walter bill should be extended so as to cover 
them. 

We believe that all forms of dictatorship are inimical to our way of 
life and that we must resist with eternal vigilance every effort of dic- 
tatorships to extend their sway. We, therefore, recommend a simple 
amendment to the Walter bill consisting of the addition of the words 
"Fascist party, or other subversive party" at the end of line 11, prior 
to the word "or" at the end of line 13, and on line 16 after the word 
"Party," all on page 2. 

The amendment, I assume, would also require a new definition fol- 
lowing (c) (3), and we suggest the following: 

On page 3, line 15, after the figure " (3) " msert " (1) ." On page 3, 
line 23, after the semicolon, insert the following : 

(2) The terms "Fascist party, or other subversive party" 
mean any other party regardless of the assumed name, whose 
object or purpose is to overthrow the Government of the 
United States, or the government of any State, district, Com- 
monwealth, or possession thereof, or the gov(;rnment of any 
political subdivision therein by force and violence, and in- 
clude subsidiary organizations of such party ; 
57727— 60— pt. 1 r 



1838 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. ScHERER. May I interrupt, Counsel ? 

As I stated at the outset, we are caught in a bind this morning. 

(At this point Kepresentative Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. SciiERER. Governor Tuck has now arrived, but the bells have 
just rung announcing a vote on the floor. We will have to recess for 
a few minutes. 

Mr. Arens. If it is agreeable with you, Mr. Chairman, we will re- 
quest the witnesses to remain present until some other member is in 
attendance. 

Mr, Scherer. Mr. Johansen will be here. I hope you understand 
the predicament we are in this morning. Usually the House con- 
venes at twelve, but this moniing it is convening at ten. 

Please excuse me. We will recess until another member arrives. 

(At this point Representative Scherer left the hearing room.) 

(A short recess was taken.) 

(Members of the committee present at expiration of the recess: 
Representative Johansen) . 

Mr. Johansen (presiding). The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens. Now that we are able by this change and shift in process 
to resume, would you kindly resume at the place where you had sus- 
pended, please, Mr. Murdock ? 

Mr. Murdock. Mr. Chairman, I had just proposed an amendment to 
the Walter bill, and now I would like to propose a second one. 

Second, let me call your attention to the fact that the American-flag 
maritime industry is in a state of deep depression. At the end of 
World War II, our merchant marine was larger than the merchant 
fleets of all other countries in the world combined. Today our active 
merchant fleet ranks fourth after Great Britain, Norway, and Liberia. 

As of the end of August 1959, American-flag vessels carried less 
than 19 percent of our dry cargo exports, less than 17 percent of our 
dry cargo imports. As of the same date, American-flag tankers car- 
ried less than 24 percent of our tanker exports, and less than 4 percent 
of our tanker imports. 

If I may interpolate, our tanker exports consist of a very, very 
small quantity. Preliminary figures from the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Bureau of Census, show that in 1959 United 
States-flag ships carried only 10.6 percent of our imports and exports, 
exclusive of trade in military vessels and trade with Canada. 

If I may interpolate again, let me remind you that in the Shipping 
Act of 1936, and repeatedly since that time, the Congress of the 
United States has declared it to be the policy of this country that we 
shall have an American-flag merchant marine, manned by American 
seamen, built in American shipyards, which is capable of supplying 
the needs of our economy and our national defense. 

Repeatedly, experts from the Department of Defense have stated 
that such an adequate merchant marine would be capable of carry^ing 
at least 50 percent of our foreign connnerce. Today we are carrying, 
as I have just indicated, 10.6 percent. 

According to "Project Walrus," which I have previously referred 
to, so-called "flag-of-convenience" ships account for TO percent of 
United States total tonnage in dry bulk cargo carriers and about one- 
half United States total tonnage in tankers (p. 9) . 

Aluminum is derived from bauxite ore, and practically all the 
bauxite we use is imported on "flag-of-convenience" ships manned by 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1839 

foreign crews which owe no allegiance to this country. About a third 
of the iron ore used in this country is imported, and almost all of it 
is imported on ships manned by foreign seamen who certainly are not 
dedicated to the best interests of this country. 

In other words, the maintenance of our aluminum industry, a sub- 
stantial portion of our steel industry, and an important percentage 
of our oil industry depend upon foreign-flag ships manned bj^ foreign 
crews whose actions, in the event of war, are unpredictable. 

The American merchant marine is being driven from the seas hj 
"flag-of -convenience" ships which are owned and operated by Ameri- 
can citizens. This is a unique phenomenon in American industry. 
It works like this : If an American oil company operates a tanker under 
the American flag, it must pay American wages, obey American labor 
laws, pay American taxes, and comply with American safety stand- 
ards. But the company can escape its obligation in all of these re- 
spects by transferring the naked legal title to the ship to a wholly- 
owned foreign subsidiar}^, say a Liberian company. Now mind you, 
the ship never goes to Liberia ; it does not employ Liberians ; it does 
not pay taxes to Liberia ; and it does not enter at all into the economy 
of Liberia, except that it pays a comparatively nominal license fee 
to that country. It flies the Liberian flag. But it stays in the same 
trade, carrying the oil of its American owner from foreign ports to 
American ports. In other words, this foreign-flag company is here, 
doing business here, doing the same business here that it does under 
the American flag. It is manifest that no American-flag ship, com- 
plying with American laws, can compete with such a vessel. There- 
fore, the American tanker and dry bulk fleets are being rapidly 
destroyed. 

These "flag-of-convenience" ships are manned by foreigners re- 
cruited in many different areas. Some of them have Italian crews. 
Many of them have crews recruited in Latin America. Some of them 
we have examined are manned almost exclusively by Cubans. No se- 
curity check whatever is made on these foreign seamen. The Coast 
Guard has no jurisdiction over them. They represent a potential 
plague of security risks who will have easy access to our waterfront 
facilities. If the process is allowed to continue, soon there will be 
many more foreign seamen working on American-owned ships than 
American seamen. We do not believe that foreign Communists and 
foreign subversives are any more desirable than American subversives. 

Therefore, we propose the following amendment to the Walter bill : 
On page 2, line 19, after the word "States" insert the following: 
", or any merchant vessel owned by a citizen of the United States,". 

Mr. Ostrin suggests that, in order to make this amendment effective, 
the Coast Guard or some other agency of the Federal Government 
should be given the duty and the authority to conduct security checks 
on these vessels which are owned by American citizens and doing 
business in this country. 

May I point out that, under existing laws, this business of trans- 
ferring ships to foreign registry is legal. It is not only legal, un- 
fortunately it has been encouraged by Federal agencies. The basis of 
the encouragement is that this Government is said to have effective 
control over these ships mider a foreign registry in time of emergency. 

The effective control consists, briefly, of these provisions which are 
written into the transfer: (1) that they should be available to the 



1840 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

United States in time of emergency, and (2) that they shall not be 
transferred to another foreign owner without the permission of the 
Federal Maritime Board. 

On the subject of effective control, let me just point out a ship is 
operated by a crew, and you may have all the effective control in the 
world of a ship legally, in contracts and in documents, but if you do 
not have effective control of the crew, you have no control whatsoever 
over the ship. 

Mr, Arens. Have you studied the provisions of the bill introduced 
by the chairman, H.R. 11580, from the standpoint of the theory of the 
bill in relation to the decision by the Supreme Court in Nelson and 
Globe V. County of Los Angeles ? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. I have, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. It is your judgment, sir, that the bill introduced by the 
chairman is constitutional and sound, on the same theory pronounced 
sound in Nelson and Globe v. County of Los Angeles ? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. Yes, sir; providing that the regulations and pro- 
cedures adopted are in accord with the doctrine of the Supreme Court. 
However, I call attention to the fact that that is a rather thin decision. 
It was a decision by an evenly divided court. 

Mr. Arens. In the Nelson case ? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Ostrin or Mr. Haddock, do you gentlemen have 
anything which you would like to add to the observations made by 
Mr. Murdock ? 

Mr. OsTRiN. Yes. I would like to underscore two points. Point 
No. 1 is that our union — and I think that the Seafarers' International 
Union joins us in this respect — is extremely interested in seeing to it 
that the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, in its proposed 
amended form by this bill, must not be so administered as to im- 
pinge upon the constitutional rights of merchant seamen. We feel 
very strongly about that. 

Mr. Arens. Are you satisfied, sir, that the bill, with the amend- 
ments which have l3een proposed by the chairman to his own bill, 
meets all of the requirements ? 

Mr. Ostrin. The bill in its form meets, we believe, all of these re- 
quirements, but I think much depends on how it will be administered 
by the Coast Guard. We feel that the constitutional rights of sea- 
men employed aboard American merchant vessels should, at all times, 
be safely guarded in the conduct of these security investigations. If 
that is done, then we would be satisfied. 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear in my impression that the organization 
which you represent, the National Maritime Union, is a proponent 
or advocate of this legislation ? 

Mr. Ostrin. We would support it and we concur in the views sub- 
mitted and stated by Mr. Murdock. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Ostrin. Of course, there is this one other point, and Mr. Mur- 
dock has touched upon it and we again would like to underscore it. 

The bill, if enacted into law, in our view would not effectively give 
us the kind of security program that we all want in our merchant 
marine, unless active steps and measures are taken to implement this 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1841 

program aboard these so-called vessels which fly the flags-of-conven- 
ience or flag-s-of-necessity ; and unless the purposes and the objec- 
tives of this bill can be extended to those vessels, we would merely 
be plugging up one hole but leaving the gap wide open for subversives 
and for other undesirable elements to continue in their employ aboard 
vessels which ultimately will be, as we understand it, under the con- 
trol of the United States during critical periods of emergency. 

Unless that can be taken care of effectively, I do not see how this 
bill can do the job that it is intended to do. This is not criticism 
of the bill. 
Mr. Akens. We understand. 

Mr. OsTRiN. We merely feel it does not go far enough. 
Mr. Arens. Gentlemen, I think it would be helpful if you could 
give us a little more detail with respect to the general statement in 
Mr. Murdock's prepared remarks. 

You say, INIr. Murdock, "The dangers inherent in this situation can- 
not me overemphasized," and the situation to which you are alluding 
is the situation in which we find ourselves at the present time, namely, 
a situation in which security risks, Communists and other subversives, 
are now on American merchant vessels. 

Based upon the background and the experience which you gentle- 
men have in the shipping industry, could you detail to us the nature 
of the threat which these Communists pose to the security of this 
Nation ? 

Mr. Murdock. Let me give you an example which I think points 
up the incongruity of this whole situation. 

As everybody knows, we have a great missile program going on 
from Port Canaveral. The missiles are fired, and then we have some 
tracking vessels, the principal function of which is to track the mis- 
sile and endeavor to recover the head. These ships are manned by 
American seamen. This is an American-flag operation. 

Along the route of the missiles we have a number of Navy and 
Air Force installations, whose function is also to track the missiles 
and do other things which I am not familiar with. But these Navy 
installations and Air Force installations are supplied by a foreign- 
flag operation. It is owned by an American citizen, but it is manned 
by foreign seamen. No security check can be made of these people. 
They are recruited in the Caribbean, they are recruited in Cuba, 
they are recruited wherever they can be had. 

These are the boats which go into these bases and furnish the sup- 
plies. They take in food, they take in other kinds of supplies. I do 
not believe I could go to one of those installations without security 
clearance. But here you have foreign seamen coming from God knows 
where, with God knows what indoctrination, who at least have physical 
access to these bases. 
Let me give you one more example. 

There is a cruise ship which operates between Miami, Havana and 
other Caribbean ports, and also operates occasionally from Wash- 
ington, D.C. This ship is nominally owned by a Panamanian corpora- 
tion, but it is chartered to and operated by a Florida corporation. 
It is called the SS Yarmovth. It is manned exclusively by seamen 
recruited in the Caribbean area. We struck this ship in Washington. 
We talked to the crew. The crew was almost exclusively Cuban. 



1842 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Do we want Mr. Castro's agents to have free access to our port 
facilities ? That is what they have now. 

Mr. Akens. Can you give us any further detail, gentlemen, as to 
the nature of the acts which could be performed, and probably would 
be performed, by Communists on merchant vessels if, as, and when 
they would get the signal from the international Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. MuKDOCK. Mr. Arens, let me give you an example. 

A few years ago, and this was an American-flag ship, it was reno- 
vated for the Hawaiian trade, renovated on the East Coast, and they 
took it down through the canal to the West Coast. This ship was sub- 
jected to sabotage, not by foreigners but American seamen. I do not 
know the purpose of it. I do not know wlio instigated it. I just 
know what liappened. 

By the time this ship had reached the Panama Canal it was virtually 
uninhabitable. For example, when they got into the tropics, the air- 
conditioning system broke down and the heat was turned on. The pas- 
sengers who had paid cruise fares were trying to sleep in quarters 
where temperatures were above 120 degrees. Somebody put oranges 
in the lavatories. A wrench was in the generator. As I say in my 
statement, a skilled man who knows the machinery of a ship — and the 
people in the engine department know it — a skilled man, one man, 
can put a great ship out of operation. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon the background and experience of you 
gentlemen, how would you now characterize the threat or the poten- 
tial threat which exists at this hour to the security of this country by 
reason of the fact that the security-screening program has been vir- 
tually demolished and by reason of the fact that we know we have at 
least 300 seamen on merchant vessels who were, in the first instance, 
prior to demolition of the security program, denied security clearance ? 

Mr. MuRDocK. "We do not have any security at all. We have some 
measure of security with respect to American crews, the security which 
is exercised to a limited degree by the unions themselves and by the 
Coast Guard. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the potential threat which that situation poses 
to the security of this Nation? I ask you that based upon your back- 
ground and experience. 

Mr. MuRDOCK. I think it is a hazardous degree which is 
indescribable. 

A few years ago somebody conducted an experiment. A ship came 
into New York, and I think it was three foreign seamen went ashore, 
went to one of the great reservoirs which supply the water supply for 
New York City, and dumped in a package of pellets. As I say, this 
was an experiment. Nobody stopped them. Nobody even knew they 
had done it, and yet it was done. Unless you can check these sub- 
versives, the gates are wide open to them. 

Mr. Arens, Do you gentlemen have any further observations which 
you should 1 ike to make ? Mr. Haddock ? 

Mr. Haddock. Just a moment. 

There are two points that both gentlemen have emphasized 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Haddock, would you identify yourself on the record, 
please? 

Mr. Haddock. I am Hoyt Haddock, Director, Seafarers' Section, 
Maritime Trades Department of the AFLr-CIO. 



COINOIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1843 

First of all, we would not be here, today, nor would the Walter bill 
be here today, had the Coast Giiai'd administered the previous security 
bill in accordance with the suggestions of the maritime unions, to wit: 
that merchant seamen's civil rights be protected in the administration 
of that act. 

Failure to carry that out is the only reason why we are here today, 
because the previous act was workable, had it been administered 
properly. So I want to emphasize again the importance of making 
sure that the administrative agency has adequate instructions, either 
in the bill or in the report, to assure that it will not be thrown out 
again by the courts. 

Mr. JoiiansejV. Mr. Arens, will you let me interrupt at that point? 

I think no one is more concerned than the members of this com- 
mittee with respect to safeguarding and recognizing the constitu- 
tional rights that you referred to. I wonder, however — because every 
attack tliat is made on security efforts by those who do not want those 
safeguards is made under the guise of violation of the constitutional 
rights — I wonder if you would care to be a little more explicit on the 
record as to the constitutional rights you referred to, or the violations 
of them that you warn against so emphatically. 

Mr. Haddock. I think there I would yield to one of the attorneys, 
because they are more familiar with these constitutional rights. 

]Mr. JoHANSEN. iSIy only point is that I wanted to distinguish be- 
tween the valid and legitimate regard for constitutional rights and 
the kind that the Communists who hide behind the Constitution in- 
variably invoke. 

jSIr. OsTRTN. I think our point in that regard could not better be 
explained than the manner in which it was discussed by the court in 
Parker vs. Lester. We feel that a seaman who is suspected should 
have the right to confront his accusers ; that he should be given a fair 
and impartial hearing, with the right to examine and cross-examine 
witnesses. 

We feel that if the ordinary system of fair play — and that is all that 
we ask, fair play — consistent with democratic traditions is utilized in 
the administration of this program, that is all that we want, 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You think that if that is done administratively, 
those safeguards can be provided within the framework of the Walter 
bill? 

Mr. OsTRiN. Yes; definitely. That is all that we are looking for. 
We strongly support this bill. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. We appreciate that and appreciate the testimony. 

I regret we are going to have to suspend the hearing for a few 
moments. There is a second call for "yeas" and "nays," and either a 
colleague of mine or I will be back immediately. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

(At this point Representative Johansen left the hearing room.) 

(A short recess was taken.) 

(At the expiration of the recess, the folloAving members of the com- 
mittee were present : Representative Tuck.) 

Mr. Tuck (presiding) . The committee will be in order. 

Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Murdock, I do not believe, either in your prepared 
statement or in this colloquy which we have been having, there ap- 



1844 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

pears a description of the various organizations which are represented 
here today. 

Would you give us, gentlemen, a word about your organizations, 
the membership and jurisdiction, please? 

Mr. Mtirdock. Yes. You asked for it, Mr. Arens. I will give it to 
you. 

Mr. Arens. Briefly. 

Mr. MuRDOCK. First, on the West Coast there are three separate 
unions which represent unliceiised personnel. The unlicensed person- 
nel are all personnel on a ship except those that are licensed. These 
organizations on the West Coast are the Sailors Union of the Pacific, 
the Marine Firemen, and the Marine Cooks and Stewards. 

(At this point Representative Johansen entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. MuRDOCK. On the East Coast there is now one union which is 
called the Seafarers' International Union of North America, Atlantic, 
Gulf and Great Lakes District. 

These unions, with other unions representing fishermen and cannery 
workers, are affiliated in what is called the Seafarers' International 
Union of North America. This is a confederation of autonomous 
unions. I am their Washington counsel. 

Mr. Haddock and Mr. Ostrin also speak for the National Maritime 
Union. That is a union of unlicensed personnel. These are all sea- 
going unions, deep-seagoing unions. All of these unions I have enu- 
merated and all other maritime unions which are affiliated with the 
AFL-CIO, such as the Masters, Mates and Pilots, Marine Engineers' 
Beneficial Association, and so forth, all are united in what is called 
the Seafarers' Section. 

Of the Seafarers' Section, Mr. Haddock is the director. There are 
two co-chairmen of that section, and their names are Paul Hall, who 
is the president of the Seafarers' International Union of North Amer- 
ica, and Mr. Joseph Curran, who is the president of the National 
Maritime Union. 

The Seafarers' Section represents all deep-seagoing unions affiliated 
in the confederation. 

Mr. Arens. How many seamen are represented in the organizations 
which you gentlemen represent ? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. Mr. Ostrin reminds me that I omitted the Radio 
Officers Association. 

Mr. Arens. In the aggregate, how many men are represented by you 
three men today ? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. The membership affiliated in the Seafarers' Section 
totals a little over 100,000. I think about 108,000. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other comments to make, gentlemen, 
before you conclude ? 

Mr. Haddock. I have one further thing that I want to re-emphasize. 

Mr. Murdock, in his original statement, and Mr. Ostrin in his em- 
phasis, brought out the importance of covering the American-owned- 
and-controlled foreign-flag ships. I would like to re-emphasize this, 
if I may, by pointing out to you that only one-tenth of our export- 
import trade is carried in American-flag ships ; that all of the rest of 
it is carried in foreign-flag ships. 

So if this program is going to be effective, it certainly has to reach 
more than one-tenth. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1845 

Mr. OsTRiN. In that further connection, and I do not think this 
has been raised, if this program of transferring vessels from the 
American flag to the so-called flags-of-convenience or flags-of-neces- 
sity continues at its present rate, not only will our American merchant 
fleet diminish in its size, but it will necessarily discourage American 
merchant seamen, men who have followed the sea as their trade, from 
continuing in their trade, and it will remove them from the trade. 

So in the event of a national emergency or a war, while the Govern- 
ment might recall or requisition these vessels that have gone foreign, 
to foreign flags, tliey will not have the merchant seamen, the good, 
American, loyal, merchant seamen to man these vessels. I think that 
is something for this connnittee to consider. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, at the expense of violating my observa- 
tion of a moment ago that we were about finished, to ask you gentle- 
men how do you conceive the security program would work in re- 
gard to the non-American vessels or vessels chartered under foreign 
flags ? Mechanically, how would it work ? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. You are referring to foreign-flag ships owned and 
operated by American citizens ? 

Mr. ArjENS. Yes, sir. 

Mr. JMuRDOCK. I think, in the first place, we have to face up to this 
fact : We have already allowed a specious legal fiction to destroy nine- 
tenths of our merchant fleet. We must not allow the same specious 
legal fiction to destroy our security, and that is what is happening 
at present. 

We have to assert the authority of the Government of the United 
States to check ships owned and operated by American citizens in the 
American trade. This could be vested in the Coast Guard. It could 
be vested in the employer himself. It could be made a criminal offense 
for him to employ a subversive in the American trade. 

]Mr. Arens. May I inquire there ? 

How would it work mechanically? You say it could be made a 
criminal offense for an employer to employ a subversive, but it is ob- 
vious that he, the employer, would not have the facilities to make a 
determination as to who among several applicants for a seaman's 
job might be a Conununist. 

Could you tell us how you conceive, sir, that the program would work 
with reference to Seaman X who is applying for a job on Vessel Y, 
owned by Mr. Z, who is an American citizen, but chartered under a 
foreign flag ? 

Mr. MuRDOCK. I think the seaman should be required to get clear- 
ance from the Coast Guard and get a certificate that he is not a 
subversive. 

Mr. OsTRix. ]May I add this further observation and suggestion, 
and that is that whereas under the present arrangement the Govern- 
ment has effective control over these vessels in times of emergency, 
since we are living in a period of potential danger, then the Govern- 
ment of the United States should exercise effective control over these 
vessels now, at all times, so that the Coast Guard would have juris- 
diction over the security program involving the seamen who are em- 
ploj^ed aboard these foreign-flag vessels owned by American interests. 

We believe it is not enough for this Government to exercise effective 
control over these vessels in time of war. We feel very strongly that 
the Government of the United States should exercise effective control 
over them now. 

57727— 60— pt. 1 8 



1846 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

(At this point Representative Walter entered the hearing room.) 
Mr. OsTRiN. If the Government were to do that, and if the Coast 
Guard were to be allowed and were to be given jurisdiction in the 
screening of seamen employed aboard these vessels now, then we 
could have an eti'ective security program. 

But so long as you have a diminishing number of vessels flying the 
American flag and a progressively increasing numl)er of vessels being 
transferred to foreign registry — paper transfers as Mr. Murdock 
referred to them — then we do not have an effective security program. 
These vessels, by Act of Congress, are ours in time of war. As I 
pointed out, unless we have effective control over these vessels at all 
times, then we are not goirig to have the merchant seamen to man 
these vessels in time of war, and we have no control, no effective 
security control, over these vessels at the present time. 

(At this point Representative Scherer entered the hearing room.) 
Mr. Arens. Do you have any other comments or observations to 
make, gentlemen ^ 

If not, the staff has no further questions to ask you. 
The Chairman. May I direct your attention to the legislation? Do 
you think it is adequate to do what you know we are attempting 
to do? 

Mr. Mi'RDOCK. Mr. Chairman, we have proposed amendments to the 
legislation. "We believe tliat witli those amendments and with the 
amendments which you yourself have proposed, it would be effective 
legislation. 

Mr. Arens. May I, for the purpose of clarifying the record in the 
presence of the members who have just arrived, ask a question, and 
will you kindly respond ? 

The amendments which you propose woidd extend the screening 
program which is contemplated in the chairman's bill not only to the 
American-flag vessels, but, likewise, to American-owned vessels which 
are flying under foreign flags. Is that correct? 
Mr. Murdock. And are operating in the United States. 
Mr, Arens. I might make it clear, for tlie purpose of enlightenment 
of the members wdio have just arrived, that your various seamen 
groups, including the Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, the Seafarers' Section of the Maritime Trades Department 
of the AFL-CIO, and the National Maritime Union, do advocate the 
legislation which the chairman has introduced. 
Mr. Murdock. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You feel it would be salutary legislation. 
The Chairman. Are there any questions, Governor ? 
Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 
The Chairman. Are there any other questions ? 

Mr. Johansen. One question so that the record is clear : This rec- 
ommendation that you made with respect to American-owned ships 
under foreign flags and the type of security clieck you advocate for 
that category would be additional to what existed in the law prior to 
the court decisions ? 
Mr. Murdock. Yes, sir. 
Mr. Joiiansen. Thank you. 

The Chairman. I want to take this opportunity to thank you 
gentlemen. It is refreshing to And that there are some people aware 
of the fact that this cold war is more than a mere catdi phrase. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1847 

The fact that you are so closely associated with the situation that 
is potentially explosive, I think you have made a very fine contribution 
toward what we are trying to do in protecting the best interests of 
this Republic. 

Mr. Haddock. Mr. Chairman, I am sure you know it, but I am not 
sure that other members of the committee know about the fact that 
we were the ones who sponsored the original act that Senator Mag- 
nuson introduced Avhich led up to the security program. 

Had the Coast Guard followed our suggestions, your hearings and 
your bill would not have been necessary, because we would not be 
here to day. 

The Chairjman. Yes, sir. And it is because of your presence, Mr. 
Haddock, that I was compelled to make the statement that I did, be- 
cause I know of your interest in this field. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, may I make just one observation in 
line with what the chairman has said ? 

That is that I have had occasion many times to recall not only to 
myself but publicly the fact that the original, if not the only, but 
certainly the strongest, documentation that was made to the Govern- 
ment of the United States against the recognition of Soviet Russia 
and warning of Communist activities within the United States was 
made over the signature of the late Mr. William Green of the then 
AFL. 

You, I think, are following in that tradition in the kind of testi- 
mony you have given here today. 

Mr. MuRDOCK. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you, gentlemen. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, will be Mr. Ralph E. 
Casey, President of the American Merchant Marine Institute. 

Please come forward. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Casey. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RALPH E. CASEY, PRESIDENT, AMERICAN 
MERCHANT MARINE INSTITUTE, INC. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. \ 

Mr. Casey, My name is Ralph E. Casey, president of the American 
Merchant Marine Institute, I live in Summit, New Jersey. We have 
offices in Washington and New York City. 

I have a brief statement. Mr. Chairman, with your permission, I 
would like to read it. 

The Chairman, Mr. Casey, will you enumerate the names of the 
companies in this Marine Institute? 

Mr. Casey. Mr. Chairman, we have 45 companies. We represent, 
as I have indicated in the statement, the vast majority of American- 
flag shipping companies. We have passenger liners, cargo ships, col- 
liers, and tankers — ships of all types. 

The companies themselves are principally^ located on the Atlantic 
and Gulf Coasts. But we represent approximately 70 percent of the 



1848 COMLIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

entire American-fla^ merchant marine. We are a trade association 
basically, but one of the principal functions is to represent these com- 
panies, the dry cargo companies, in labor relations, including the nego- 
tiation of collective-bargaining agreements. Hence, our intense in- 
terest in this bill. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, if it is agreeable to you, that 
Mr. Casey then proceed to read his statement. It is not very long. 
We may have questions as we proceed. 

Mr. Casey. Thank you. 

On behalf of the Institute and its member companies, I wish to sup- 
port H.R. 11580. 

This bill, H.R. 11580, is intended to preclude from employment 
aboard American-flag vessels those merchant seamen who are con- 
sidered security risks. It would do so by providing that no individual 
who wilfully fails or refuses to answer, or falsely answers, certain 
questions relating to Communist activities may be employed on a mer- 
chant vessel of the United States. The bill would make similar 
provision with regard to employment within certain waterfront fa- 
cilities in the United States. 

The American Merchant Marine Institute commends the efforts of 
your chairman and the members of your committee to provide an ef- 
fective security-screening program for the maritime industry. Cer- 
tainly it would be difficult to find any area more sensitive in this 
respect. 

American merchant vessels are engaged in trade with all parts of 
the world. These vessels supply a perfect vehicle and place of opera- 
tion for those individuals who subordinate the best interests of this 
Nation to those of our potential enemies. For several reasons, it is 
highly appropriate that this industrv be sinjjled out for special at- 
tention by Congress in regard to security legislation. 

Our American merchant marine has long been recognized as an 
essential element in our national defense. In 1944, in the midst of 
hostilities, then General Dwight D. Eisenhower stated : 

When final victory is ours, there is no organization that will share its credit 
more deservedly than the American merchant marine. 

More recently, in October 1952, he stated : 

I consider the merchant marine to be our fourth arm of defense and vital to 
the stability and expansion of our foreign trade. 

In September 1959, Admiral Arleigh A, Burke, Chief of Naval 
Operations, stated : 

Seapower is not just men-of-war. It includes cargo ships, passenger liners, 
tankers, and the many other craft and auxiliaries that make up the merchant 
marine. Our experiences in World War I and II demonstrated beyond question 
our dependence upon our merchant arm, our "Fourth Arm of Defense," and we 
must strive always to keep our merchant fleet virile and strong. 

Many additional authorities could be quoted to establish that in any 
future war, as in past wars, our military leaders will place great 
reliance on our merchant fleet. It is, therefore, of the utmost im- 
portance that machinery be provided to make certain that this "fourth 
arm of defense" be freed of the danger inherent in employing seamen 
who are security risks. 

This is obviously a job for the governmental agencies, for despite 
their great concern, private employers do not have the means of im- 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAIVIEN 1849 

plementing any program whicli will provide effective protection 
against such risks. 

(At this point Representative Johansen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Casky. In addit ion to its intimate relationship with tlie military 
in time of emeraoncy, the maritime industry's susceptibility to sabo- 
tage ffivcs added cause for special legislative attention. 

Mejiibers of your committee nmst be personally familiar with many 
areas where sabotage of a vessel could effectively prevent navigation 
for an indefinite period of time. I have in mind, particularly, the 
Panama Canal, of inestimable value to our naval vessels, and the St. 
Lawrence Seaway, one of the major gateways to our Middle West. 

The deliberate sinking of a merchant vessel in either of these 
waterways would be a most serious blow to our military operations. 
Wlien one thinks back to the long delays encountered in clearing the 
Suez Canal, it will be appreciated that any similar blockage of our 
major waterways would have tragic consequences. 

Furthermore', the Panama Canal and the St. Lawrence Seaway are 
not by any means the only areas susceptible to such activity. Many 
of our ports and many of our essential inland waterways are equally 
vulnerable. 

While we are in thorough accord with the objectives of H.R. 11580, 
we have serious reservations as to the mechanics by which it would be 
implemented. The bill provides that no individual who fails to ap- 
pear or answer certain questions "shall be employed" in any capacity 
aboard a merchant vessel. This w^ould appear to place on the steam- 
ship company, the employer, a burden which the company is not 
equipped to meet. In other words, the bill would appear to make it 
improper for a company to employ any such individual even though 
there is no provision to assure that the company will be in possession 
of information that the seaman falls in this category. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be proper to ask a question at this point, 
Mr. Casey? 

Mr. Casey. Certainly, 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Casey, if there were a slight change in the language 
which would preclude the employment on these vessels of seamen who 
are not documented or do not have proper credentials issued by the 
Coast Guard, would that solve your problem ? 

j\Ir. Casey. As a matter of fact, Mr. Arens, that is, in essence, the 
suggestion I make as the statement proceeds. That is the suggestion 
we make, to impose the obligation upon the Government agency and 
then, with the Coast Guard to undertake to decide whether these peo- 
ple are security risks, to either grant or withhold seamen certificates 
or licenses, as the case may be. 

I do not think it is necessary to read the remainder of the statement 
for that matter. But then the company would be in a position where 
they could rely upon the issuance of a certificate or a license. 

Mr. Arens. That is what was contemplated in the chairman's bill; 
that the Coast Guard would do the screening and would issue or with- 
hold the certification and that the steamship company would have the 
obligation not to employ a seaman who did not have the credentials 
from the Coast Guard. 

(At this point Representative Johansen entered the hearing room.) 



1850 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

Mr. Casey. As we construed the bill as it would be amended by the 
amendment that the chairman introduced on the opening day of hear- 
ings, it left the import somewhat vague. It looked to us as if a per- 
son shall not be employed, or no document shall be granted to such 
a person. 

In other words, we do not think that that alternative should be left 
in the bill. The "employed" part of it should be taken out, and cer- 
tainly the employer will not employ anyone who does not have sea- 
man's papers. In fact, it is illegal under the present law. 

The Chairman. Yes; I think that is surplusage. This language 
that you propose on the last page of your statement I would think is 
about what we have said in the bill, with the amendment. I do not 
think it adds anything. But it makes it abundantly clear as to what 
you have in mind. 

Mr. Casey. Thank you. 

INIr. Arens. Are we clear and is the record clear, Mr. Casey, that the 
American Merchant Marine Institute, which represents the 40-odd 
steamship companies, is endorsing the chairman's bill ? 

Mr. Casey. Without doubt ; unquestionably. I might add, Mr. 
Chairman and Mr. Arens, if I might, during the recess I discussed 
our proposed amendment with Mr. Ostrin, representing the National 
Maritime Union, and he has authorized me to say that they are in 
full accord with the proposal we have made. 

Mr. Arens. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Governor Tuck ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me a moment, Mr. Chairman. 

May I suggest that the record reflect the completion of the state- 
ment of the witness ? 

Mr. Casey. Yes. I would like to have the remainder of the state- 
ment appear in the record. 

(The remainder of Mr. Casey's statement is as follows:) 

The Congress has long recognized the quasi-governmental 
nature of the employment of seamen aboard American-flag 
vessels. Under existing law, the Coast Guard is charged with 
the duty and responsibility for certifying that an individual 
is qualified and competent to serve in a particular rating 
aboard our vessels. 

The shipping companies rely on certificates or licenses thus 
issued by the Coast Guard, and there is no reason why in 
dealing with the present problem the companies should not be 
able to continue to look to such documents. 

I note that on the opening day of these hearings your 
chairman submitted an amendment which would add a pro- 
vision that a seaman who fails or refuses to appear or answer 
certain questions shall not be entitled to hold a document 
identifying him as an individual eligible for employment 
aboard a vessel or within a waterfront facility. 

We feel that this is the proper approach; but, unfortu- 
nately, the amendment still leaves in the bill an implied 
obliiration on the companies to decide security-risk issues. 
In fairness, we think it would be improper to ask the em- 
ployer to look beyond a certification issued by a Government 
agency. 



COIVIMTJNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1851 

Accordingly, we suggest that there be stricken from U.K. 
11580 that provision of the bill prohibiting employment — 
lines 18-20 on p. 2— and that there be substituted thei-efor 
the substance of the proposed amendment. 

Commencing at line 18 at p. 2, the bill would then read : 

shall be entitled to hold, or to be issued, any certifi- 
cate, license, or other document (including any en- 
dorsement thereon) identifying him as an individual 
eligible to be employed in any capacity aboard any 
merchant vessel of the United States or within any 
waterfront facility in the United States. The pro- 
hibition against the possession and issuance of any 
certificate, license, or other document (including any 
endorsement thereon) contained in the first sentence 
of this subsection shall also apply with respect to any 
individual who commits perjury in answering any 
question referred to in such first sentence. 

With this amendment we feel that H.Il. 11580 presents a 
workable and effective tool against the security problems fac- 
ing the American maritime industry. Again, may I commend 
you for your efforts to cope with this problem and urge that 
you take early action to move this bill toward final enactment. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Casey. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Admiral Shepheard. 

Kindly come forward, sir. 

The Chairman. Admiral, will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give shall be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Admiral Shepheard. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HALERT C. SHEPHEARD, REAR ADMIRAL, UNITED 
STATES COAST GUARD (RETIRED), MARITIME CONSULTANT 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Admiral Shepheard. Halert C. Shepheard, Kear Admiral, United 
States Coast Guard, Retired, 

Mr. Arens. 'What is your present occupation. Admiral? 

Admiral Shepheard. Since my retirement II/2 years ago, I have 
served as a consultant, a martime safety consultant, and represent a 
number of organizations, including shipowner associations, as well 
as underwriters and salvage associations. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a brief sketch of your per- 
sonal background, with particidar reference to your service in the 
Government dealing with steamships? 

Admiral Shepheard. For over 30 years I served in the former 
Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation and the United States 
Coast Guard. For about 10 years prior to my retirement, I was the 
chief of the Office of Merchant Marine Safety. 

Mr. Arens. Admiral, are you conversant with the facts with ref- 
erence to the breakdown in the screening, the present screening, of 
merchant seamen? Namely, that because of a number of court deci- 



1852 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

sions our screening program for merchant seamen is virtually de- 
stroyed and that literally hundreds of Communists and other subver- 
sives have, in the recent past, acquired seamen's papers and that up- 
wards of some 2,000 have applications pending? 

Admiral Shepiieard. Yes ; I am familiar with that. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, sir, based upon your backgromid and experience 
of some 30 years in the Government dealing with problems of seamen 
on ships, can you express to this committee the threat, if any, which 
that situation poses now to the national security? 

Admiral Shepheard. AYell, I am of the opinion that authority 
should be vested in the Coast Guard. I believe it is just as necessary 
today as it vsas when it was first enacted some 10 years ago. 

I might say I am highly pleased at the determination of your com- 
mittee, Mr. Chairman, and your efforts to see to it that legislation, 
effective legislation, is enacted to keep the Communists from our ships 
and our waterfront facilities. 

The Chairman. I am glad to hear somebody say that. I am quite 
sure that the vast majority of the American people feel that way 
about this committee. But the very vocal handful who do not, seem 
to have their voice heard. 

Mr. Arens. Admiral, based upon your background and experience, 
how can Communists on our merchant vessels cause a serious situa- 
tion to exist with reference to the national security ? 

Admiral Shepheard. Well, serving on our merchant ships and also 
on our waterfront facilities is a very sensitive and vital area for them 
to perform all sorts of acts. 

The Chairman. Let us look at this concrete situation. Some time 
ago, Harry Bridges, appearing before this committee, testified that, 
in the event of trouble in the Far East and war between the United 
States and China, he would see to it — and he went even further than 
that — he said in that particular instance, he would see to it that help 
did not come from the United States. 

Could he carry out the kind of a threat that he made when he tes- 
tified before this committee ? 

Admiral Shepheard. Well, I could not answer that very categori- 
cally. I have heard Harry Bridges make similar statements when the 
Coast Guard held a public hearing and they first put in their regula- 
tions. 

Mr. Scherer. If he had enough Communists working for his or- 
ganization, he could certainly carry out the threat, could he not. 
Admiral ? 

The Chairman. He would not need any Communists at all. All 
he would have to do would be to call a work stoppage or a slowdown 
and that would be it, would it not ? 

Admiral Shepheard. That would be one activity that he could en- 
gage in, and I think very successfully. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any way, based upon your background and 
experience, that a few Communists could split our fleet, as between the 
Atlantic and Pacific Fleets ? 

Admiral Shepheard. Very definitely. 

Mr. Arens. How could they do that? 

Admiral Shepheard. We have removed some of these men that are 
among the number that are security risks from ships in soutliern 
California when the ship was headed for an East Coast port. They 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 1853 

were taken off of the ship because of the threat they posed to the 
Panama Canal. 

Mr. Arens. That was at a time prior to the destruction of our 
screening program? 

Admiral Shepheard. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. That is when you were in charge of the screening work ; 
is that cori-ect ? 

Admiral Shepheard. That is correct, sir. 

The Chatrsian. Do I understand you to say that seamen were 
actually taken off vessels because of the fear that, being the kind of 
people they were, they might do something to damage the Panama 
Canal? 

Admiral Shepheard. The record showed them to be Communists, 
the information that we did have. 

The Chairman. And as a result of the Supreme Court decision, 
these Communists are now back on the ships ? 

Admiral Shepheard. They are entitled to employment. 

Mr. Arexs. How would the Communist on the ship, if he had not 
been taken off, have wreaked havoc at the Panama Canal? Upon 
what basis did you apprehend he would do so ? 

Admiral Shepheard. I do not think I get the question. 

Mr. Arexs. Kow can a Communist wreak havoc at the Panama 
Canal if he is on a ship ? 

Admiral Shepheard. Through sabotage. 

Mr. Scherer. He can sink a ship. 

Admiral Shepheard. Yes. He can block the canal, which is the 
equivalent of cuttmg our Pacific Fleet in half. We have all sorts of 
ships going through the canal, some of them carrying JP^ fuels, 
aviation gasoline, up to 200,000 and 300,000 barrels. 

Mr. Scherer. Approximately how long would it take to clear the 
canal if a ship were sunk in one of the locks ? 

Admiral Shepheard. That would depend, of course, upon the 
amount of damage that was done. 

Mr. Arexs. To what extent is the survival of this Nation dependent 
upon its merchant fleet or upon merchant vessels? 

Admiral Shepheard. I think this country has recognized our 
merchant fleet as the fourth arm of our defense. It is quite vital. 
With all of the fighting ships and with all the men at the battlef ront, 
without getting them supplies they are not going to get very far in 
activity. 

Mr. Arex's. Do you have any other comments to make. Admiral ? 

Admiral Shepheard. No. 

Mr. Arexs. We thank you very much for your testimony. 

The next witness, if you please, will be Marion Chrusniak. 

Kindly come forward. 

(At this point Eepresentative Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tuck (presiding) . Will you be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
shall be the truth, the wliole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Chrusniak. I do. 



1854 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG SEAMEN 

TESTIMONY OP MARION CHRUSNIAK, PRESIDENT, LOCAL 829, 
INTERNATIONAL LONGSHOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION, BALTIMORE, 

MD. 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Chrusxiak. My name is Marion Chrusniak, president of the 
International Longshoremen's Association, Local 829. Today I am 
here in behalf of 5,000 longshoremen from the port of Baltimore. 

We had a meeting June 21, 1960, and it was resolved by the Dis- 
trict Council in Baltimore City of the International Longshoremen's 
Association that the House Committee on Un-American Activities be 
commended for its investigation of Communist activities among sea- 
men and longshoremen on the waterfront facilities and be supported 
in its efforts to enact legislation in precluding port security clear- 
ance to anyone who is a member of the Communist Party or who fails 
or refuses to reveal to the Government information regarding Com- 
munist activities known by him. 

Mr. Arens. How many longshoremen are represented by yourself 
today in the Baltimore area? 

Mr. Chrusniak. By myself today I represent 5,000 men. In my 
job as president of 829 I represent 1,600 longshoremen. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience, can you 
tell us what threat is posed to the security of this country in the situa- 
tion in which we presently find ourselves, where a longshoreman can 
be employed on vital port facilities who is a Communist? 

In other words, what can a Communist do on vital port facilities to 
serve the interest of the international Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Chrusxiak. Well, in the time of an emergency, he can start 
what Ave call wildcat strikes, slowdowns, and that would be about it — 
where he could start. Other than that, I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. Could he commit acts of sabotage ? 

i\Ir. Chrusniak. He probably could. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions, except to thank you for 
your testimony. Perliaps the committee members have some ques- 
tions. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you have a question, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No. I would like to say, however, that you are to 
be congratulated in the help you have given our committee and the 
Congress in supporting this legislation. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness may be excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have no further witnesses today. 
I respectfully suggest that the chairman order that the record be 
closed for today and that the committee recess subject to the call of 
the chairman. 

]\Ir. Tuck. Unless there is objection, it is so ordered. 

(Members of the committee present at time of recess: Representa- 
tives Tuck, Scherer. and Johansen.) 

(Whereupon, at 11 :35 a.m. Thursday, June 23, 1960, the committee 
recessed, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

Page 

Becker, Louis 1750, 1765, 1791-1796 (testimony) 

Berman 1763 

IVnulin. Leonard B 1827, 1831 

Rnclp:es, Harry 1756, 1776, 1801, 1852 

Burke, Arleigli A 1848 

Casey, Ralph E 1754, 1847-1851 (testimony) 

Castro (Fidel) 1842 

Chrusniak, ^Marion 1754, 1854 (testimony) 

Colcord, Charles Everett 1752, 1765, 1831-1833 (testimony) 

Connor, Lawrence D 1758 (testimony), 1766-1767 (testimony) 

Cra^\-fo^d, Ray 1803 

Curran, Joseph 1844 

Dardis, Gerald 1770 

Davis, Benjamin 1801 

Deauchare, Bob 1773 

Edwards, R.Y 1779 

Eisenhower, Dwight D 1848 

Flues, A. Gilmore 1759 

Globe (Arthur) 1747, 1755, 1840 

Goodman, Peter 1751, 1765, 1785, 1788-1791, 

1804,1805-1815 (testimony) 

Graham (Edgar W.) 1747,1755,1759,1763,1764,1768 

Grant, Joanne 1788 

Green, Albert E 1758 (testimony) 

Green, William 1847 

Haddock, Hoyt S 1752,1835 (testimony), 

1842-1844 (testimony), 1847 (testimony) 

Hall, Paul 1844 

Harrison, Kenneth S 1758 (testimony) 

Hauser, Stanley Milton 1751, 1765, 1815-1822 (testimony) 

Hirschfield, James A 1748, 175S-1769 (testimony), 1775, 1792, 1793 

Jackson, Donald William 1750, 1765, 1778-1780 (testimony) 

Jackson, Morton 1771 

Jacobson, Nathan 1803 

Johnson, Clarence E 1803 

Kasbohm, Henry Bernard 1751,1765,1822-1823 (testimony) 

Kaunitz, Rudolf 1750,1765,1780-1791 (testimony) 

Lamb, Leonard 1772 

Lawrence, Harry 1801 

Lester (J. A.) 1747,1748,1755,1759,1761-1764,1843 

Magnuson (Warren G.) 1810,1847 

Martin, Bob 1801, 1802 

May, Roland 1782 

Mendelsohn, Peter 1803 

Milhouse, William Shilling 1772 

Miller (Miss) 1785, 1786, 1814 

Monteverde, Hector Manuel 1771 

Mulzac. Hugh 1752,1765,1827-1830 (testimony) 

Murdock, Ray R 1752, 1753, 1835-1847 (testimony) 

Nelson (Thomas W.) 1747,1755,1840 

i 



il INDEX 

INDIVIDUALS — continued 

Page 
Ostrin, H. Howard 1752, 

1835 (testimony), 1836, 1839-1841 (testimony), 1843 (testimony), 

1844, 1845-1846 (testimony), 1850. 

O'Toole, Lawrence John 1771 

Palazzi, Paul 1772 

Parker (Lawrence) 1747, 1748, 1755, 1759, 1761-1764, 1843 

Pinsky, Morris 1772 

Rabinowitz, Victor 1778, 1780, 1791, 1797, 1805, 1815, 1822, 1830 

Rein, David 1823, 1825 

Richmond (Alfred C.) 1747,1755,1758,1759,1763,1768 

Rivera, Martin 1802 

Robeson, Paul, Jr 1783, 1784 

Roosevelt (James) 1783, 1786, 1810 

Rosen, Charles 1788 

Rosen, Jacob 1788 

Rosenkrantz, Lawrence 1772 

Rubinstein, Annette 1830 

Rydell, Roy 1771 

Salo, Ted 1772 

Shepheard, Halert C 1754, 1851-1853 (testimony) 

Southwick, John 1771 

Spira, Henry 1765 

Swan, Charles Malvern 1752, 1765, 1771, 1823-1824 (testimony) 

Thibodeaux, Al 1803 

Thompson, William Henry 1752,1765,1791,1796-1797 (testimony), 

1825-1826 (testimony) 

Tobin, Pat F 1803 

Torres, Angel (Rene) 1772 

Trosten, Shea Gorden 1748, 1749, 1769-1777 (testimony) 

Truman (Harry S.) 1792 

Walsh, J. Raymond 1830 

Wardwell, Loron Whitney 1749-1751,1799-1805 (testimony), 

1807, 1819, 1820 

Watson, Don 1803 

Wilkinson, Frank 1750, 1784, 1785, 1787, 1788, 1790, 1791, 1813 

ORGANIZATIONS 

AFL-CIO, Seafarers' Section, Maritime Trade Department 1752, 

1835, 1836, 1844 

AdelphiHall 1830 

American Merchant Marine Institute, Inc 1754, 1847, 1848 

Booker T. Washington (Liberty ship) 1830 

Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms 1784, 1785 

City College of the City of New York 1751, 1815 

Civil Rights Congress 1803 

Communist Party, USA : 

Waterfront Section 1748, 1749, 1800 

New Orleans, La 1802 

New York City 1748, 1751, 1770, 1772, 1775, 1803, 1804, 1820 

Port Arthur, Tex 1748, 1770 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 1783-1786,1790,1829,1830 

Harlem Trade Union Council 1801 

James G. Swisshehn (steamship) 1770 

Jefferson School of Social Science 1748, 1770 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 1756, 1801 

Longshoremen's Association, International — Local 829 1754, 1854 

Marine Cooks and Stewards, National Union of 1801, 1802, 1844, 1850 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders & Wipers Association, Pacific 

Coast, Independent 1844 

Maritime Labor Committee To Defend Al Lannon 1814 

Martime Union, National. 1748, 1752, 1770, 1772, 1775, 1801, 1802, 1835, 1840, 1844 

Galveston, Tex 1773 

Masters, Mates and Pilots of America, International Organization 1844 

Nation, The (magazine) 1782 



INDEX Hi 

ORGANIZATION s — continued 

Page 

National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council 1753,1837 

National Negro Labor Council 1803 

Pacilic-Asia Dock Conference, May 11-13, 1959, Tokyo, Japan 1756 

Kadio Officers Association 1844 

Sailors Union of the Pacific 1844 

Seafarers' International Union of North America 1752, 1835, 1844 

Seafarers' International Union of North America, Atlantic, Gulf and Great 

Lakes District 1844 

Seamen's Defense Committee Against Coast Guard Screening (also known 

as Seamen's Defense Committee) 1750, 

1752, 1788, 1789, 1814, 1815, 1828-1830 

Trade Union Committee To Repeal the Smith Act 1814 

U.S. Government : 

Supreme Court 1747, 1755, 1805, 1813 

Treasury Department 1759 

Coast Guard 1747, 1748, 

1755, 1758, 1759, 1761-1767, 1804, 1811, 1813, 1845, 1847, 1849, 1850 

Office of Merchant Marine Safety 1754, 1851 

Yarmouth, S.S 1841 

Young Progressives of America 1803, 1820 

Youth Against the House Un-American Activities Committee. (See Youth 

To Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee.) 
Youth To Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee (formerly 

known as Youth Against the House Un-American Activities Committee)- 1750, 

1783-1787, 1808-1810, 1829 

X 



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