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Full text of "Communist activities in the Cleveland, Ohio, area : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-seventh Congress, second session. June 4 and 5, 1962"

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COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

PART 1 



HARVAfM) 6«iLLE<}t: LtafiAKX 

BEf§«IT£B BY THE 

UKITIO 8T*T* Q^veRWlMWff 



HEARINGS §tf26 1962 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 4 AND 5, 1962 
INDEX IN PART 2 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
*^^^° WASHINGTON : 1962 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Repbesentatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, ^Missouri GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

CLYDE DOYLE, California AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Coumel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

John C. Walsh, Co-counsel 

n 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 Page 

Synopsis 989 

June 4, 1962: 

Testimony of — 

Julia'C. Brown 993 

Afternoon Session 

William Henry Cooper 1013 

Julia C. Brown (resumed) 1016 

Morning Session 
June 5, 1962: 

Testimony of — 

Julia C. Brown (resumed) 1055 

Ethel L. Goodman 1069 

Margaret Wherry 1073 

Index (See Part 2) i 

PART 2 

Afternoon Session 

June 5, 1962: 

Testimony of — 

Jean Krchmarek 1077 

Pauline Taylor 1078 

Frieda Katz 1084 

James Wells 1086 

Julia C. Brown (resumed) 1089 

June 6, 1962: 

Testimony of — 

Julia C . Brown (resumed) 1105 

Samuel Handelman 1109 

James Smid 1114 

Frida Kreitner 1114 

Martin Chancey 1119 

June 7, 1962: 

Testimony of — 

Sylvia Strauss 1134 

Abraham Strauss 1136 

Ruth Emmer 1139 

Milton Tenenbaum 1143 

Regina Sokol 1151 

Elsie R. Tarcai 1153 

Violet J. Tarcai 1154 

Afternoon Session 

Eugene Bayer 1156 

Neil E. Vv^etterman 1159 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled^ * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a vrhole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the 
extent, character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the 
United States, (ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and 
un-American propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a 
domestic origin and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaran- 
teed by our Constitution, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that 
would aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attend- 
ance of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, 
and to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued 
under the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or 
by any member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any 
person designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the 
jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent 
reports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive 
branch of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 87TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 8, January 3, 1961 
• *****« 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

m ***** * 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

0***** 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House ( or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 

Public hearings relatino; to Communist activities within the Cleve- 
land, Ohio, area, were held by the Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities in Washington, D.C., on June 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1962. The principal 
witness before the committee was Julia Clarice Brown, who testified 
that her initial contact with the Communist Party had been in the 
3'ear 1947, when she assisted in the political campaign of Albert Young, 
then a candidate for the Cleveland City Council. She related the cir- 
cumstances under which she had been deceived into joining the Com- 
munist Party, having been led to believe that she was joining a "civil 
rights" organization which was working for the betterment of Negroes. 

Mrs. Brown further explained that she quit the Communist Party 
approximately 9 months later when she had come to realize the Com- 
munist Party was "a conspiracy and trying to destroy my country." 
Having reached that conclusion, she thereupon voluntarily contacted 
the FBI, informing that agency of her suspicion. Later, in the sum- 
mer of 1951, Mrs. Brown was asked by the FBI to again associate 
herself with the Communist Party as an undercover operative. This 
she agreed to do. She remained a "member" of the Communist Party 
in Cleveland, Ohio, until May of 1960, at which time she left the 
party to take up residence in California. 

Mrs. Brown's testimony was productive of much new and useful 
information concerning Communist tactics in fund raising; racial 
discrimination within the Communist Party structure, described by 
Mrs. Brown as "Jim Crow" practices; the implementation of "united 
front" tactics which was prescribed as the "chief task" of the party 
at the December 1959 National Communist Party Convention in New 
York City ; and the organization in 1958 of a new Communist splinter 
group, the Provisional Organizing Coimnittee for a Marxist-Leninist 
Communist Part3\ 

Additional information was obtained relating particularly to the 
creation and manipulations of two organizations, namely, the Sojourn- 
ers for Truth and Justice and the National Negro Labor Council, which 
were designed to involve Negroes in the activities and objectives of the 
Communist Party. Mrs. Brown testified about the activities of numer- 
ous organizations operating within the Cleveland, Ohio, area, includ- 
ing the Progressive Party, the Ohio Committee for Protection of For- 
eign Born, the Ohio Bill of Rights Conference, and the JSIyrtle Dennis 
Defense Committee. She detailed the action of local Communist Party 
members in the employment of these groups for the exploitation of 
Communists and non-Communists alike. 

Of special interest was her testimony revealing Communist Party 
tactics in bringing about the dissolution of front organizations over 
which it had lost control or which no longer served party purposes. 
Mrs. Brown also contributed information relating to the infiltration of 
church organizations and the use of such organizations for fimd- 

989 



990 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

raising, propaganda, and recruiting purposes; tactics employed by 
the party for the defense of its members involved in violations of the 
Smith Act and other Federal and State laws ; the Conunmiist organiza- 
tional structure in the Cleveland, Ohio, area ; and the party's activities 
in the political arena. 

The activities of more than 100 current and former residents of 
the Cleveland area, identified by Mrs. Brown as persons she had 
known to be members of the Communist Party (many of whom 
were still active in Communist Party affairs as late as May 1960 when 
she left the area), were described by Mrs. Brown. 

Eighteen persons from the Cleveland area and one from Youngs- 
town, Ohio — all identified by Mrs. Brown as Commvmist Party mem- 
bers — were subpenaed as witnesses before the committee. Among 
them were persons in the legal and teaching professions, church and 
civic organizations, and other important fields of endeavor. All 
invoked the fifth amendment in I'efusing to answer questions with 
respect to present or past membership in the Communist Party, with 
the exception of William Henry Cooper and Margaret Wlierry. Mrs. 
Wherry denied present membership in the Communist Party but in- 
voked the fifth amendment and refused to testify concerning past 
party membership. Mr. Cooper stated that he was not presently a 
member of the Communist Party and had not been one for the past 10 
years. Mr. Cooper invoked the fifth amendment privilege in response 
to all questions concerning prior membership and activities in the Com- 
munist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, 

AREA 

Part I 



MONDAY, JUNE 4, 1962 

United States PIouse or Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearings 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, 
at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Old House Office Building, Hon. 
Francis E. Walter (chainnan) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, of 
Pemisylvania ; Clyde Doyle, of California; Gordon H. Scherer, of 
Ohio; August E. Johansen, of Michigan; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; 
Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Neil E. Wetterman, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

It is noted for the record that there is a quorum of the committee. 

This hearing was authorized by conunittee action taken on the 
26th day of April 1961. The resolution is part of the committee 
minutes. 

The primary function of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties is to recommend to Congress legislation which will assist in 
protecting this country from Communist subversion. Communist 
efforts to undermine the United States are carried out by both foreign 
and domestic agents — in educational and religious activity, in the 
fields of science and culture, in political campaigns and elections, 
in labor-management relations, in diplomacy, trade, race relations — 
in every conceivable field. 

The World Communist Movement and its United States anii have 
developed certain fundamental principles of subversion which are 
almost unalterable. For the most part, the strategies based on these 
principles and devised by these conspirators in the past are still 
being used today, just as they were 5, 10, 20, and 30 years ago. 

From time to time, however, even the party's, more or less, basic 
strategy is somewhat altered. Moreover, within the conspiracy there 
is ■ a constant, unending assessment and reassessment of long-and- 
short-range goals and of the effectiveness of the tactics being utilized 
to achieve them. 

There is also continuing development of new tactics designed to 
speed and improve Communist undermining activity and to offset 
the legislative, administrative, and other steps taken by the Con- 
gress, the executive branch, and the American people to preserve 
their liberty. 

86790— 62— pt. 1 2 991 



992 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Last November, the committee held hearings which revealed the 
structure, organization, and leadership of the Communist Party, its 
subservience to the Soviet Communist Party, and the basic principles 
on which it operates. The hearings proved, by the words of Commu- 
nists themselves, that the Communist Party is the tool and agent of a 
foreign power, the Soviet Union, and that it is fundamentally totali- 
tarian, undemocratic, and mi- American in nature. 

Since shortly after the death of Stalin in 1953, renewed emphasis has 
been placed on united-front tactics by the Soviet leaders of world 
communism. Numerous communications stressing the importance of 
this tactic, which proved so successful during the thirties in winning 
non-Communist support for Communist objectives, have been directed 
to all Communist parties from the Kremlin. 

A unanimous statement by 81 of the world's Communist parties, 
which met in Moscow November-December 1960, declared that "the 
broadest possible united front" was "essential" to the victory of world 
communism. United States Communist Party leader Gus Hall im- 
mediately echoed this line in a major address to the National Commit- 
tee of the Communist Party on January 20, 1961. 

In these hearings the committee will seek to ascertain the conspira- 
torial techniques and propaganda devices used in implementing 
"miited-front" and other Communist Party directives within the 
United States. It will also endeavor to obtain knowledge of the struc- 
ture, objectives, and activities of the Communist Party in the Cleve- 
land, Ohio, area. The legislative purposes are adequately set forth 

in the committee resolution : 

Apkil 26, 1961. 

BE IT RESOLVED, that a hearing by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C., or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, and on such date or dates as 
the Chairman may designate, relating to : 

1. Communist conspiratorial techniques and propaganda used in imple- 
menting Communist Party directives within the United States, with special 
reference to the so-called United Popular Front tactics of the Communist 
Party, the legislative purpose being to determine the need for amendment 
of the Internal Security Act of 1950, so as to make its provisions applicable 
to persons engaged in such activities ; and 

2. The structure, objectives and activities of the Communist Party in the 
Cleveland, Ohio, area, for the legislative purpose of obtaining necessary 
information designed to aid the Committee and Congress in determining 
whether the Internal Security Act of 1950 should be amended in a manner 
to make unlawful membership in the Communist Party of the United States. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that any subcommittee appointed pursuant 
to this resolution be authorized to hear any other matter within the jurisdiction 
of the Committee. 

Before starting I would like to state that this committee was ori^- 
nally supposed to convene some time ago and there was a change in 
date. A telegram was sent to the witnesses. This committee did not 
release the names of any of the witnesses under subpena and is now 
investigating the manner in which the names became public. There 
has been a great deal of agitation in Ohio because this information 
has been obtained and published, but for the benefit of those people 
who are hitting upon this unfortunate leak as a means of attacking 
the committee, I would like to say that this is certainly adding a lot 
of comfort to those people who are not interested in preserving our 
form of government. 



COIMAa^NIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 993 

In that connection I would like to read a letter of June 1, 1962, to 
the Attorney General of the United States in which I stated : 

The Committee on Un-American Activities is vitally concerned with an 
occurrence which took place on May 12, 1962. On May 11, this Committee 
adviseii by telegram, witnesses in the Cleveland area, who had been subpenaed 
to appear in V/ashington on May 21, 22, 23, and 24. of the postponement of their 
appearances to June 4, 5, 6, and 7. On the following day, the names of the 
witnesses appeared in an issue of the Cleveland Press in Cleveland, Ohio. The 
staff of this Committee has conducted an extensive investigation and has con- 
cluded that this information was not made public or caused to be made public 
by any member of the Committee or its staff. 

It appears that a very serious violation of law has occurred which thwarts 
and adversely affects the operation of a congressional committee. 

Please let me urge that an immediate investigation be conducted with a view 
to prosecutive action, if the facts warrant it. It will be appreciated if you 
will advise me to whom this matter will be assigned, so that one of our investi- 
gators may give him all the pertinent facts. 

Call your first witness, ]Mr. Nittle. 

IVIr. Nittle. Would Julia Brown please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Will you raise your hand? Do you swear the 
te.stimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
noticing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Brown. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JULIA C. BEOWN 

Mr, Nittle. For the purposes of the record, Mrs. Brown, would you 
please state your name, residence, and how long- you have resided at 
your present address ? 

Mrs. Brown. My name is Julia Brown. I reside at 6252 South 
Van Ness Street, Los Angeles, California. I have resided there since 
June of 1960, moving from Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the place of your birth and the extent 
of your formal education ? 

iNIrs. Brow^n. I was born in Atlanta, Ga., one of five children. My 
father, Oscar Fortson, was a messenger at the Atlanta National Bank 
in Atlanta, for 22 years. My mother was a housewife. I have been 
to the 10th grade in high school. 

(At this point Chairman Walter left the hearing room.) 

(Mr. Doyle presiding.) 

Mr. N1TT1.E. You have told us that prior to taking up your residence 
in California, in June of 1960, you resided in Cleveland. How long 
did you reside in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. Since the summer of 1 943. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Until June 1960 ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. I understand that it was during your period of resi- 
dence in Cleveland that you first came in contact with persons or ac- 
tivities which 3^ou later found to be Communist. What date did that 
occur ? 

Mrs. Brown. In the summer of 1947. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you recruited into the Communist Party, and if 
so, would you state the date ? 

Mrs. Brown. In the Christmas holidays of 1947. 

Mr. Nittle. How long did you remain in the Communist Party? 



994 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Browx. Until about August of 1948. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state in a word or two your reasons for leav- 
ing the Communist Party in August 1948 ? 

Mrs. Brown. I found that the Communist Party was a conspiracy 
and trying to destroy my country. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown, you had only 10th grade schooling. Yet, 
after less than a year in the Communist Party, you saw that it was of 
a conspiratorial nature and that without doubt it was dedicated to ac- 
complish the destruction of the Government of the United States. On 
a number of occasions in the past this committee had heard the testi- 
mony of highly educated witnesses, persons who are writers, play- 
wrights, and so forth, who admitted that they had been members of 
the Communist Party for years, yet denied that there was anything 
subversive or un-American about it and on this basis refused to iden- 
tify others they knew to be members of the conspiracy, thereby deny- 
ing to the Congress and the American people important information 
from which basis a judgment is formed of the extent and nature of 
the evil and the remedy. Would you care to comment with respect 
to the refusal of these witnesses to give their testimony ? 

Mrs. Brown. You do not have to be educated to find that the Com- 
munist Party is a conspiracy. There are three things you do have to 
have, and that is being loyal, having mother wit, and commonsense. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you rejoin the Communist Party after the initial 
period when, as you state, you discovered the party was a conspiracy, 
and if so, when ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did, by request of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, in the summer of 1951. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And having rejoined the Communist Party at the 
request of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, how long did you 
then remain in the party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Until May of 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown, we would like to have you detail your 
experiences in the party during those two periods. "t^Hiat was your 
first contact with persons whom you later found to be Communist 
and which led to your involvement with the Commmiist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. My husband and I moved into a new neighborhood 
in Cleveland, 3196 East 123d Street. We had neighbors next door, 
Elizabeth and William Cooper. They visited me and I had expressed 
that I was interested in politics and wanted to do something for the 
neighborhood. Later, a couple of months after that, Mr. Cooper 
called me to the door and introduced me to a man who was standing 
in my driveway by the name of Joe Hill. I talked with Joe Hill and 
he asked if I would help in the election of a councilman by the name 
of Albert Young. I told him that I would. He told me that this man 
stood for better housing, civil rights, and I thought he would be a 
good councilman, so I asked him to put a placard on my house, and 
he did and I worked for Albert Young. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you later ascertain whether Joe Hill was a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I certainly did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And under what name did you know him ? 

Mrs. Brown. As Joe Hill. Yes, I knew "him as Joe Hill. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 995 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a small photograph which appears on page 
28 of the September 19-18 issue of the National Republic^ identified as 
Julia Brown Exhibit No. 1. I call your attention to the photograph 
of the man at tlie upper left-hand corner of that page, and ask whether 
you can identify the photograph of the person appearing thereon? 

Mrs. Browx, This is the man that I knew as Joe Hill.^ 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please read to the committee the identifying 
legend which appears under that photograph l 

Mrs. Brown. "Lou Kaplan, International Organizer of C.I.O. 
United Electrical Workers Union." 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. I ask, 31r. Chairman, that this exhibit be received in 
evidence. 

Mr. Doyle (presiding). It may be received. 

(Document marked ''Brown Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

]Mr. NiTTLE. I wish to state for the record, Mr. Chairman, that 
Louis L. Kaplan has been identified by witnesses in sworn testimony 
before this committee as a member of the Communist Party, in the 
first instance by Thomas F. Delaney on October 13, 1952, and in the 
second instance by Arthur P. Strunk on September 15, 1954. He has 
been identified as an organizer for the United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers Union. 

Did you, in fact, meet with Joe Hill subsequently in any closed 
Communist Party meetings ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And would you tell us briefly of those meetings which 
you attended with Joe Hill ? 

]\Irs. Brown. I attended closed Communist meetings with Joe Hill 
at Frieda Katz' home and Sylvia Strauss' home and others. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Did you know Frieda Katz to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I most surely did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, she is quite well known as a 
Communist leader in the Cleveland area, is that correct ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did she occupy a fixed position in the leadersliip of 
the Communist Party in Cleveland during the time you knew her? 

]Mrs. Brown. 1 am very sure she did. I don't know the capacity 
of her work, but I do know that she did occupy 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you know Frieda Katz as a Communist 
in the Cleveland, Ohio, area ? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until I left Cleveland in 19G0. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Sylvia Strauss as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how long did you know Sylvia Strauss as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

^ Further investifration by the committee established that at the time of Albert Young's 
campaign, there was a Communist Party member in the State of Ohio whose real name 
was Joe Hill and that there was quite a striking resemblance between him and Lou Kaplan, 
who used "Joe Hill" as a Communist Party name. When Julia Brown was subsequently 
shown photographs of the party member whose real name was Joe Hill, along side that 
of Lou Kaplan, she informed the committee that it was not Lou Kaplan who assisted in 
Albert Young's campaign but the real Joe Hill, whom she knew as a Communist Party 
member. As subsequently indicated on this page. Lou Kaplan has been previously identified 
as a member of the Communist Party by two witnesses who testified before the committee. 



996 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe we shall have occasion to refer to her at 
greater detail in the course of the testimony and therefore we shall 
now pass to an identification of the Coopers, whom you have men- 
tioned as introducing you to Joe Hill. Did you know William Henry 
Cooper to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did. I have been to closed Communist Party meet- 
ings with William Cooper from 1948 to the early 1950"s. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to indicate, so far as the extent of your 
knowledge is concerned, that Mr. Cooper became inactive after the 
middle 1950's? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I wouldn't say that he was inactive. I can only 
say that I lost contact with him and moved out of the neighborhood 
and the area that he would have attended closed Communist Party 
meetings. I was not living in that area. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Elizabeth Cooper, the wife of William 
Cooper, to be a member of the Conununist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how long did you know Mrs. Cooper to be active 
in the Communist Party in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until early 1950. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have any knowledge why Mrs. Cooper may 
have become inactive in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, in the middle 1950's, Mrs. Cooper visited me 
while I was ill and she warned me against the Communist Party and 
asked me to get out of it because they did not mean us any good, 
and that was just how she spoke, and I am sure that Mrs. Cooper had 
grown a little sour on the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are quite sure that Mrs. Cooper had grown a little 
sour on the Commmiist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I am very sure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have mentioned Albert Young who was a candi- 
date for city council in Cleveland at that time. Can you tell us any- 
thing about Albert Young ? 

Mrs. Brown. I knew Albert Young to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I had attended closed Communist Party meetings with 
Albert Young at Frieda Katz' home and Sylvia Strauss' home and 
many others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to attend closed Communist 
Party meetings with the Coopers ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And where did these meetings occur ? 

Mrs. Brown. At Sylvia Strauss' home, Frieda Katz' and Margaret 
Wlierry's, and others. 

Mr. "iS'iTTLE, Do you identify Margaret Wlierry as a Communist 
Party member at whose home you state a closed Communist Party 
meeting took place ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Margaret Wherry as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that to your knowledge she had remained active 
until you left the Cleveland area ? 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 997 

Mrs. Brown. As far as I know. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now, you indicated that you became a formal member 
of tlio Connnunist Party in the Christmas holidays of the year 1947. 
In what way were you led to become a member of the Commimist 
Party? Did you have conversations with the Coopers that induced 
in you the desire or the likelihood that you would become a member? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. the Coopers introduced me, brought Frieda 
Katz to my home one day, and introduced me to her as the leader 
of the civil rights organization. I talked with Frieda several times 
because she visited me several times and asked me to join the organi- 
zation, and somehow I kept putting it off until I had started attending 
the social gatherings of the (Communist Party, and that was when I 
went in. In the Christmas holidays I attended a party at Frieda 
Katz' home. When we were ready to leave around 2 :30 in the morning 
she called me back and I sat at the table in her kitchen and signed 
my name to a piece of paper which I did not read. I learned later 
it was an application blank. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Would you first tell us, however, of the conversation 
that you had with the Coopers with respect to the civil rights organiza- 
tion that you have mentioned previously? 

Mrs. Brown. The Coopers, Mr. Cooper especially, would visit me 
very often and talk to me about what they called police brutality and 
lynch^ngs and how these people could help the Negroes obtain their 
civil lights and help fight against the "capitalist masters," which I 
thought was all right to a certain extent. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Frieda Katz tell you of the organization which 
she wished you to join, before you were invited to the party which was 
later held at her home ? 

Mrs. Brown, She told me it was a civil rights organization, and at 
the time I really thought that it was a legitimate organization fighting 
for the rights of Negroes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Frieda Katz or the Coopers indicate to you that 
the organization which she wished you to join was in any way led by 
members of the Communist Party"? 

Mrs. Brown. No indeed, no indeed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know at that time whether Frieda Katz or the 
Coopers were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown, No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us approximately the number of people 
in attendance at the party held in the home of Frieda Katz during 
the December holidays of 1947 ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I would say at least from 35 to 50 people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect some of the persons who were in 
attendance at that party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. I later foimd them to be Communists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us the names of the persons you recollect 
who were in attendance and who were members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Sylvia and Abe Strauss — we were at Frieda and Dave 
Katz' home — Margaret Wheriy, Myrtle and Ray Dennis, Edith and 
Hyman Lumer. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Do you recollect whether the Krchmareks were in at- 
tendance at that time ? 



998 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, Jean and Anthony Krchmarek. I remember 
that very distinctly because he wished me well in the party, Commu- 
nist Party or whatever it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have previously mentioned Margaret "Wlierry. 
Was she in attendance at this party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, she was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Ann JVIagedowitz there ? 

Mrs. Brown. Ann Magedowitz ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. You pronomice it "Ann Magedowitz." M-a-g-e-d-o- 
w-i-t-z. 

Mrs. Brown. Ann Magedowitz. That's the way I pronounce it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us whether Catherine McCastle was in 
attendance? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, that's right, Catherine McCastle, and Regina 
Sokol. 

Mr. NiTTLE. S-o-k-o-1? 

Mrs. Brown. S-o-k-o-1. Pearl and Sak Levin, Shirley Saferstein 
and her husband, Sanf ord Saferstein. Eugene Brudno 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were the Coopers there ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Both William and Elizabeth Cooper ? 

Mrs. Brown. Elizabeth and William Cooper. It's hard to recall 
the whole 35 or so who were there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If I refresh your memory, would you be able to state 
whether Foster and Mamie McCurdy were present ? 

Mrs. Brown. That's right, Foster and Mamie McCurdy, certainly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Bert Washington ? 

Mrs. Brown. Bert Washington was there. He is now deceased. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Eugene Bayer there in attendance ? 

Mrs. Brown. Eugene Bayer was in attendance and Ruth Emmer 
and her husband. I don't remember — no, I don't remember the first 
name of her husband. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it Jack Emmer ? 

Mrs. Brown. Jack Emmer is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have already identified Sylvia Strauss as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. Did you know her husband, Abe 
Strauss, to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do know him to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us on what basis you make that state- 
ment? 

Mrs. Brown. I have attended closed Communist meetings where 
Abe Strauss was present at Frieda Katz' home, Ruth Emmer's home, 
Margaret Wherry's home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Abe Strauss have any connection with a news- 
paper known as the Morning Freiheit ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, he did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Communist newspaper ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I might state for the record, Mr. Chairman, that Abe 
Strauss, whose name was just mentioned, was identified by another 
witness, namely, James Dolsen, in sworn testimony before this com- 
mittee on March 25, 1940. Abe Strauss was apparently most active 
in the Communist Party in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Matthew 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 999 

Cvetic testilied on Februiiry 21, 1950, that Abe Strauss had been 
transferred from Pittsburgh, wliero he [Strauss] had been a member 
of the Communist Party, to Clevehmd. 

Did you know Dave Katz, liusband of Frieda Katz, to be a member 
of the Connnunist Party ? 

ISIrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how long was he known to you to be active in 
tlie Communist Party in the Cleveland area? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until June of 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you left ? 

Mrs. Brown. When I left Cleveland. 

iMr. NiTixE. Do you know whether he occupied any position of 
leadership in the part}^ ? 

Mi*s. Brown. I am not sure w^hat it w^as. He seemed to be, but I 
am not very sure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Myrtle Dennis to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. I have attended several closed Commu- 
nist meetings where JNIyitle w^as present at Hyman Lumer's home, 
Mj'rtle Dennis' home, Frieda Katz' home, Margaret Wherry's home, 
and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her husband, Ray Dennis, to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And over what period of time did you know him to be 
active in the Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until 1960. May I state that Ray Dennis 
was in and out of Cleveland. He worked for some union and he was 
in and out of Cleveland most of the time. He had offices there. He 
did have offices in Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat kind of offices ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I think it was a union office, but I do know that 
Edith Lumer worked for him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Edith Lumer to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And over what period of time did you know her to 
be active? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until the late 1950's. I have attended 
closed Communist meetings with Edith Lumer in her home, in my 
home, Sylvia Strauss* home, and others. In the late 1950's I will say 
that she left for New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her husband, Hyman Lumer, to be a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. I have attended several closed Communist 
Party meetings where Hyman Lumer was present in Frieda Katz' 
home and in his home and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you say you only knew Edith and Hyman 
Lumer to be active until the late 1950's, could you tell us what was the 
basis of that statement ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they left for New York City. They were sent 
to New York City by the Communist Party for some other assign- 
ment of some kind. I really don't know wdiat it was. 

86790— 62— pt. 1 3 



1000 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would state for the record, Mr. Chairman, that Hy- 
man Lumer is known as the national education secretary and a mem- 
ber of the National Executive Committee of the Communist Party 
of the United States. 

Did you know Jean Krchmarek to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do. I have attended several closed Communist 
Party meetings with Jean Krclmiarek. In fact Jean was the head of 
the Communist Party clubs of the Northeast Section in Cleveland, 
where I was treasurer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are referring to the Northeast Section of the Com- 
munist Party, of which you were treasurer ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was she the leader of that section ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her husband, Anthony Krchmarek, to 
be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do know Anthony Krclimarek as a member of 
the Communist Party. He is the State chairman of the Ohio Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Ann Magedowitz to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. I knew Ann Magedowitz to be a member 
of the Communist Party since 1948 until the early 1950's. I have 
attended closed Communist Party meetings with Ann Magedowitz 
at Frieda Katz' home, Sylvia Strauss' home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did she become inactive in the early 1950"s ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. She was also sent to, or went to, Chicago, I 
was told. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You lost count of her ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTT^. Not because of inactivity, but because she went else- 
where ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you haven't heard from her since that time? 

Mrs. Brown. No, I haven't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So you have no knowledge whether or not she continues 
to be active ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have mentioned Catherine McCastle. Did you 
know Catherine McCastle to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. I knew Catherine McCastle to be a 
member of the Communist Party in Cleveland. I attended several 
closed Communist Party meetings where Catherine McCastle was 
present at Catherine McCastle's home, William Cooper's home, and 
others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Regina Sokol as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. I knew Regina Sokol as a member of the 
Communist Party. I have attended closed Commimist Party meet- 
ings with Regina Sokol at Frieda Katz' home, at Sylvia Strauss' 
home, and others, but in the early 1950's I lost track of Regina Sokol. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1001 

I knew she was in Cleveland, but I was not attending closed Com- 
munist Party meetings with her at that time. 

Mr, XiTTLE. Can you give any explanation wliy you did not attend 
closed Communist Party meetings with lior after tlie early 1950's? 

Mrs. Bkowx. Well, the Connnunist Party had a section i'or mem- 
bers residing in the Southeast Section. Although I lived in the South- 
east Section, I was not allowed as a member to attend the ckibs in 
the Southeast Section, so I was required to attend meetings in tlie 
Northeast Section ol" the Communist Party. Regina Sokol li\ed in the 
section that I was forbidden to attend. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Xow that is certainly a matter of interest. Just why 
were you forbidden to attend Communist Party meetings in tlie South- 
east Section, which was the area in which you resided, and ('omi)e]led 
to attend Communist Partv meetings in the Northeast Section of 
Cleveland? 

Mrs. Brown. AVell, the only thing I can say is that it was a Jim 
Crow section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "What do you mean by that ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they discriminated. The Communist Party 
discriminated in the Southeast Section and only white people were 
members, but there were colored and white, they were integrated, in 
the Northeast Section, so that made me go to the Northeast Section 
because thev were discriminating in the Southeast Section. 

*' ■ ■ ■ 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is an astounding assertion. The Communist 
Party claims that it does not practice or advocate segregation. But 
you say that in your case in the Cleveland area there was segrega- 
tion practiced by the Communist Party ? 

]\Irs. Brown. It certainly is and it has always been since I have been 
a Connnunist. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Did you make any complaints to the Commmiist Party 
wdth respect to this practice of segregation ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. We had several meetings in the North- 
east Section concerning the discrimination that the Southeast Section 
had, and in fact we had five or six different meetings and they were 
really up in the air about it. I also complained to Benjamin Davis 
of New York City. He was there in Cleveland at one time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Benjamin Davis, to whom you refer, is the national 
secretary of the Communist Party of the United States? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You complained to Mr. Davis, national committeeman 
of the party, about this ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. That is right. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. And Mr. Davis is ostensibly a Negro leader in the 
Connnunist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliat did he have to say about it ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, he did not like it and one day at one of the 
State Communist Party conferences, he spoke on discrimination and 
it still didn't do any good, though. They still didn't allow me in the 
Southeast Section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, let me ask whether you knew Benjamin Davis at 
the time you wrote to him for assistance in this matter? 



1002 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. I had known Benjamin Davis for 40 years. He was 
born in my hometown, Atlanta, Georgia, and you might say that he was 
born with a silver spoon in his mouth. His mother and his father 
were wealthy people. His father owned a weekly newspaper, A tlanta 
Independent^ there. His family had servants and cars ; of course my 
family being very poor, but this didn't make any difference as long as 
you were decent in Atlanta, and we were friends of Benjamin Davis — 
two of my sisters. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have known him rather intimately ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you offer an explanation or would you give us 
your opinion as to what might have induced Benjamin Davis to become, 
a member of the Communist Party and to become active in its interests ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is just about the hardest thing I could say. I 
really don't know how he could ever become induced into the Com- 
munist Party, unless he felt that he would have some power of some 
kind. I really don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let us proceed with the identification of other persons 
in attendance at the party of Frieda Katz in the Christmas holidays of 
1947, at which time you were recruited into the Communist Party. 
"Were Pearl and Sak Levin, whom you have mentioned as being in 
attendance, members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Pearl and Sak Levin were members of the Communist 
Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings with Pearl 
and Sak Levin at Frieda Katz' home, at Ruth Emmer's home, at 
Pearl Levin's home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge how long were Pearl and Sak Levin 
active in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until 1960, at which time I left Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Shirley Saf erstein to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes; I knew Shirley Saf erstein to be a member of 
the Communist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party 
meetings with Shirley Saferstein and her husband, Sanford, at Frieda 
Katz' home, Sylvia Strauss' home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have mentioned Eugene Brudno as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes ; I knew Eugene Brudno as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings 
where Eugene Brudno was present in Frieda Katz' home and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Foster and Mamie McCurdy as members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I know Foster and Mamie McCurdy as members 
of the Communist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party 
meetings with Foster and INIamie McCurdy in IVIyrtle Dennis' home, 
in Margaret Wherry's home, and others, although I haven't attended 
any closed Commimist Party meetings with Foster McCurdy since 
the early 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Eugene Bayer as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I knew Eugene Bayer as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings 
where Eugene Bayer was present in Eugene Bayer's home and in Ruth 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1003 

Emmer's home, who is Eugene Bayer's sister. Eugene Bayer also 
gave Frieda Katz the permission to put me into the Communist Party 
or the Civil Rights Congress, In fact he came to my home and ques- 
tioned me and gave her the permission to do so, if you would want to 
call it permission. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have mentioned Ruth Emmer. Did you know her 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I knew Ruth Emmer and Jack Emmer, her husband, 
as members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. XriTLE. Would you give us a word about them ? 

INIrs. Brown. Ruth Emmer is the sister of Eugene Bayer. At one 
time when I was attending closed Communist Party meetings she was 
living on the second floor and her parents and brother were living on 
the first. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you name some of the places at w^iicli you attended 
closed Communist meetings with Ruth and Jack Emmer? 

Mrs. Brown. At Ruth and Jack Emmer's home, in Frieda Katz' 
home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Tell us just what were the exact circumstances under 
which you were recruited in the home of Frieda Katz — just how your 
membership in the Communist Party was evidenced at that party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, when I signed Frieda Katz asked my husband 
for $2. He gave her the $2 and she gave me a card, and I took the card 
home and threw it on the table and the next morning I found that 
I was not only a member of the Civil Rights Congress; I w^as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You thought you were signing an application or mem- 
bership roll of the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NrrxLE. And later discovered that the card issued to you was a 
membership card in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. And I hid the card for some reason, because my 
conscience told me that I was doing wrong. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know anything about the Communist Party 
at that time which would cause your conscience to be troubled at all ? 

Mrs. Brown. Really, I did not know anything about the Communist 
Party. Somehow I had not even read newspapers, and I had lived in 
Chicago most of my life, but I didn't know anything about the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You had the impression there was something odd about 
it, however ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. I just felt there was something odd about it and, if 
I might say this, I remembered later that I asked Frieda, "Wouldn't it. 
be good if they could change the name ?" 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliat did she say ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I don't remember what she said, but she gave 
me the brushoff , whatever it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The name has been changed in the past, but not recently. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, the word "Communist" to me seemed that it 
was the wrong thing. It wasn't right and I don't know why I had 
that idea. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After you were recruited into the Communist Party 
at the home of Frieda Katz, did you later receive instructions to 
engage in any particular activities ? What was your first assignment ? 



1004 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. My first assignment was to drive Frieda Katz and 
Sylvia Strauss to all the industrial plants and distribute the propa- 
ganda leaflets and the Daily Worker. 

j\Ir. NiTTLE. Where would you get copies of the Daily Worker for 
distribution at these industrial plants ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Sylvia Strauss would have the copies when I 
picked her up there at her house. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what way would you go about the distribution of 
the Daily Worker in the area ? 

Mrs. Brown. We would go to the plants around lunchtime when 
most of the people would be coming out for lunch and give out the 
Daily Worker and distribute leaflets. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What type of leaflets did you also distribute with the 
Daily Worker? 

Mrs. Brown. Propaganda leaflets on what they sometimes call police 
brutality, and maybe some on lynching, or some propaganda that the 
Communist Party used to lure the people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hear much about police brutality at or about 
the time you were recruited into the Communist Party, that is to say, 
did you hear it from these people whom you have identified as mem- 
bers of the Commmiist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes, they played that up. They play up police 
brutality. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Can you be more specific? Who talked to you about 
police brutality while you were being recruited into the party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, William Cooper, he talked to me concerning police 
brutality before I went into the Communist Party. I didn't know 
anything about police brutality, but not having been in Cleveland very 
long I thought this was something new. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What did he say about police brutality in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, he was trying to cite different cases that the 
Communist Party had brought before him and that this was a civil 
rights organization that fights police brutality, and I thought from 
the way he was talking that the policemen were just picking people 
out and shooting them and mistreating them for some reason I did 
not understand. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You thought this was a condition that existed in 
Cleveland? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Although you were unaware of it personally, you 
thought that it might exist, if Cooper told you tliat ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. I believed what he said. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you ever personally have any knowledge or observe 
any actual police brutality during the entire period you lived in 
Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand you have also resided for many years in 
Atlanta and in other parts of the country. Did you personally ever 
observe any police brutality toward members of the Negro race? 

Mrs. Brown. I really and truly have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While you lived in Atlanta, did any actual police bru- 
tality ever come to your attention ? 



COMlVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1005 

Mrs. Brown. Not that I know of, only reading it in some of the 
papei's. 

Air. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to visit any offices that were 
either maintained or frequented by the Communist Party in the 
Clevehmd area ? 

Mrs. Browx. Oh, yes. I worked in the Civil Rights Congress office 
in Cleveland several times, one of the offices at 5103 Euclid Avenue 
that housed the Progressive Party, and the Ohio Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born ; across the hall they had the Communist 
Party literature that they sold. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Was there a bookstore to which you are referring ? 

Mrs. Browx. The bookstore of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they maintain any other Communist-front office 
at 5103 Euclid Avenue other than that of the Civil Rights Congi-ess 
and the Ohio Committee for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

Mrs. Brown. The Progressive Party was housed there, that is the 
political arm of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many rooms were maintained by these particular 
organizations at 5103 Euclid Avenue ? 

Mrs. Brown. Two large rooms. One for the Protection of Foreign 
Born and the Civil Rights Congress, and one for the Progressive 
Party, and across the hall there was one room for the bookstore, so 
that was three rooms. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the head of the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mrs. Brown. Frieda Katz. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And who was the head of the Ohio branch of the 
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born? Wlio main- 
tained that office or who was in charge of it in Ohio? 

Mrs. Brown. Elsie Zazrivy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Elsie Zazrivy to be a member of the 
Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I knew Elsie Zazri\^ to be a member of the 
Communist Party in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how long did you know her to be such ? 

Mrs. Brown. From the early 1950*s until I left Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now who was in charge of the Progressive Party 
office ? 

Mrs. Brown. Don Rothenberg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you know Don Rothenberg to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I knew Don Rothenberg to be a member of the 
Communist Party. I have attended closed Communist meetings with 
Don Rothenberg in Don Rothenberg's home. Myrtle Dennis' home, 
and others, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio was in charge of the bookstore in the third room 
that you have mentioned ? 

Mrs. Brown. Frida Kreitner. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Frida Kreitner to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I know Frida Kreitner and her husband, INIon-is 
Kreitner, to be members of the Communist Party in Cleveland. I 
have attended several closed Communist Party meetings with Morris 
and Frida Kreitner at Frieda Katz' home, Jean Krchmarek's home. 



1006 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

and others. Frida Kreitner was a member of a Communist Party 
club in the Northeast Section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Frida Kreitner was a member of a Communist Party 
club in the Northeast Section, of which you were the treasurer? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the office of the Civil Rights Congress was in 
the hands of Frieda Katz, whom you have identified as a Communist 
in the area; the Ohio Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 
occupying the same room, was in charge of Elsie Zazrivy, a member 
of the Communist Party in the Cleveland area ; and the Progressive 
Party office was in charge of Don Rothenberg, a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown". That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this place ever identified to the public as the 
Communist Party headquarters? 

Mrs. Brown. No, never. 

Mr. NiTTLE. They persisted in using these masquerades? Did I 
understand you to say it was the same Communist Party group in 
the Cleveland area operating under these various disguises? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And it was the disguise of the Civil Rights Congress 
that deceived you into becoming a member of the Communist Party 
in the first instance ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long were these offices at 5103 Euclid Avenue 
in Cleveland maintained by these Communist- front organizations? 

Mrs. Brown. In the early 1950's they moved to 2014 East 105th 
Street in Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know what rooms they maintained there? 

Mrs. Brown. I tliink it was 202. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I state for the record that we believe that office 
was closed just within the past month or so, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you have mentioned the Progressive Party office 
maintained at 5103 Euclid Avenue. Were you involved in the politi- 
cal activities of that party and did the Communist Party support 
the Progi^essive Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes, every Communist is supposed — has to sup- 
port all Communist-front organizations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Cleveland area Communist group engage in 
activity on behalf of Henry Wallace and Hugh DeLacy ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Including the Progressive Party campaign in which 
Henry Wallace was a candidate for the office of President and Hugh 
DeLacy was a candidate for State representative in Ohio? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. That saddens me quite a bit when I think of 
Henry Wallace as being duped by the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mean to say by that, of course, that Henry Wal- 
lace was not a member of the Communist Party nor was he a Com- 
munist ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, he was not. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1007 

Mr. Nii'n.E. That should be clear, I think, on the record. How- 
ever, did you know Hugh DeLacy as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Browx. I knew liuo-h DoLacy and his wife, Hester DeLacy, 
as being members of the Connnunist Party in Cleveland, Ohio. I 
have attended several closed Communist Party meetings where Hugh 
DeLacy and Hester DeTiacy attended. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Could you name some of those places ? 

Mrs. Brown. In Myrtle Dennis' home, in Margaret 'Wlierry's home, 
and Frieda Katz' home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During your first period in the Communist Party, 
commencing in or about December of 1947 when you were recruited 
into the party at the home of Frieda Katz, and continuing until you 
left the party about August 1948, just how did the Communists con- 
duct their business with respect to your indoctrination and education 
as a Communist? 

Mrs. Browx. If I understand you correctly, about six of the Com- 
munists attended a small school in Sylvia Strauss' home where she 
taught us about the lynchings of the South. She was teaching us 
about the South. She was teaching us to hate our employer. You 
were not supposed to be friendly with your employer. Several times 
in leaving this meeting — this happened at least once a week in Sylvia 
Strauss' home — and in leaving I would talk to the people, the Com- 
munists, that I attended the school with and complained about Sylvia 
Strauss telling us about the South, when I knew that it wasn't so. I 
had never experienced the things that she was telling us happened in 
the South, and I was born in the South, and this school did not last 
very long. I began to complain so much about the things that she 
was saying, I feel that is why I didn't last long in the school. 

(At this point Mr. Scherer lef t the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Brow^x. Did I understand your question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. In part. I am also interested in determining 
whether you were instructed on other subjects. You have mentioned 
lynchings and hate your employer. Was there any other type of in- 
struction given to you by Sylvia Strauss during that early period? 
What was her attitude toward the Government of the United States, 
or to our system of government here ? Did she talk to you about that 
in any way ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, the Communist Party naturally is trying to de- 
stroy our country and our Government, and that is talked about in 
nearly every closed Communist Party meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Sylvia Strauss have occasion to say anything spe- 
cific upon that subject to you which you recall ? You have stated that 
the Communist Party intends to destroy our Government. Was there 
anything in the lectures or discussions given to your small group by 
Sylvia Strauss that would confirm that conclusion ? 

Mrs. Brown. I am vei-y sure it is, but I just don't seem to be able 
to put it in the proper words. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Put it in the simplest words that come to you and as 
you recall them. 

Mrs. Brown. Would it be possible to come back to that? Maybe I 
will be able to recall that. 



86790—62 — pt. 1- 



1008 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. Doyle. Perhaps the committee should stand in recess a couple 
of minutes. The reporter has signaled to me he would like a recess. 
The committee will stand in recess for a few minutes. 
(A brief recess was taken.) 



(At this point Mr. Scherer returned to the hearing room. ) 

Mr. DoTLE. Let the committee reconvene, please. 

Are you ready, Comisel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DoTLE. Are you ready, Witness ? 

The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Ncttle. Will you tell us the names of the persons with whom 
you first met for instruction at the home of Sylvia Strauss ? 

Mrs. Brown. William Cooper; Roland Brown, who left Cleveland 
and went to California ; Pauline Whitbeck, who later went to Akron 
in the early 1950's; Paul Moss, who severed his relationship with the 
Communist Party in the early 1950's; and sometimes Catherine Mc- 
Castle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us whether you have recollected in more 
detail the form which the indoctrination and instruction took at the 
home of Sylvia Strauss ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. Yes, I have. In talking to us, Sylvia Strauss 
was talking about the South and how they lynched people in the 
South and treated them so brutal, and William Cooper wanted to 
know what could be done to halt these kinds of things and Sylvia 
Strauss said the only way was by revolution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you mentioned several meetings at the home of 
Frieda Katz. Was she very active in association with you during 
the first period you were in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Frieda took me in hand, as you might call it. I at- 
tended many closed Communist Party meetings with Frieda because 
I had to drive Frieda everywhere she went, and that was my chore, 
of chauffeuring Frieda, and in that manner I was able to go every 
place Frieda Katz went. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you go with Frieda Katz to other Communist 
Party meetings in the area or other club meetings ? 

Mrs. Brown. I went with Frieda Katz all over the city of Cleve- 
land, through the central area, through the Glenville area, the Shaker 
Heights area, and all. I have been with Frieda Katz several times at 
meetings at Milton and Bertha Tenenbaum's and at Yetta Land's 
home, and 

Mr. NiTTLE. At what period did you say that you went with her to 
the home of Milton and Bertha Tenenbaum ? 

Mrs. Brown. In the early 1950's after I began serving the FBI. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now that you have mentioned the name of Milton and 
Bertha Tenenbaum, I think we ought to determine whether you can 
identify those persons as members of the Communist Party. Did you 
know Milton Tenenbaum to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Milton and Bertha Tenenbaum to be members 
of the Communist Party of Cleveland, Ohio. I have attended closed 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1009 

Communist Party meetinjjs with Milton and Bertha Tenenbaum in 
tlieir home and Don l\othenl)er<y's home and others. 

Mr. Ni'ii'LE. Coukl you tell us the section of the Communist Party 
of which they were members 'i 

Mrs. Brown. The Southeast Section. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Over how loni^ a period of time did you know INIilton 
and Bertha Tenenbaum to be active in the Communist Party in the 
Cleveland area ? 

Mr. Brown. From the early IQHO's until I left Cleveland in 1960. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Did you know Yetta Land to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Yetta Land to be a member of the Communist 
Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings where 
Yetta Land attended at Bertha Tenenbaum's home and Yetta Land's 
home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Yetta Land's occupation ? 

Mrs. Brown. She was a lawyer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And over how long a period of time did you know her 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I am sure from the early 1950's until she left Cleve- 
land, for her health, I was told, to go to Arizona. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. What caused you to reach the conclusion about August 
of 1948 to withdraw from the Communist Party in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, in the beginning of 1948 when I was attending 
closed Communist Party meetings and being taught things that Sylvia 
Strauss was teaching, I knew then that the Communist Party was a 
conspiracy and was trying to destroy my country. Later I attended 
a closed Communist Party meeting — the meeting was called by Frieda 
Katz — and they were talking about going underground. The Mundt- 
Nixon bill at that time was up before the Senate. Is it the Senate 
or the House ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It was before the Congress, and passed the House in 
May of 1948. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, anyway, Frieda said it had passed and that we 
had to raise thousands of dollars to go undergound, and each person 
had to make a pledge of $100. I didn't make the pledge and later 
Frieda backed me into one of the rooms and asked me why I didn't 
make the pledge of $100, and I told her she would have to talk to my 
husband. The next day she came to our home and my husband re- 
fused her the $100 because he told her he did not have it, and we talked 
it over and we thought that the best thing for me to do was get out 
of the Communist Party, and I did become pretty frightened. But 
I did not leave the Communist Party at that time, because the Com- 
munists are persistent. I worked. I helped to obtain 75,000 sig- 
natures for President for a man who was running for President of the 
United States on the Progressive Party ticket. 

Mr. XiTTLE. And who was that? Are you referring to Henry 
Wallace? 

Mrs. Brown. That's right, Henry Wallace. After I kept reading 
and going to meetings and being told how the Communist Party was 
forcing Henry Wallace to go through the back doors in segi-egated 
places, I became tired of the Communist Party, more tired of the 
Communist Party, and more convinced that they were trying to destroy 



lOlO COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

everything that I stood for. So I put another man's picture, which 
was Mr. Truman's picture — placard — on my house, and that made the 
Communist Party very sore, so Frieda Katz and Blanche Livingstone 
came to my home and told me that I could never be a Communist 
unless I allowed them to guide me. I told Frieda that I would rather 
stay home for awhile and she put the fear tactic on me. She tried 
to scare me into silence by telling me that I better not go to the FBI, 
and I told her that I had no thoughts of going to the FBI, that I 
wanted to stay home and think things over. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I might note that the Mundt-Nixon bill, which passed 
the House in May of 1948, was the precursor of the Internal Security 
Act of 1950. The Mundt-Nixon bill did not receive action in the 
Senate at that time. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that we be permitted to have this witness stand 
aside for a moment. I would like to interrogate William Cooper. 

Mr. DoTLE, Very well. Will this witness stand aside a few minutes, 
please? We are going to call another witness at this time. Thank 
you for doing so. Just have a chair ; we will be calling you in a few 
minutes. 

Mr. DoTLE. Whom do you want, Mr, Nittle ? 
Mr. Nittle. William Cooper. 

Mr. Cooper. Will counsel give me a few minutes ? I have to see my 
attorney. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown, would you return to the stand while we are 
waiting for William Cooper to establish contact with his attorney. 
We shall ask you a few more questions in the interval. 

You have indicated that you attended a closed Communist Party 
meeting with Don Eothenberg in the Southeast Section, to which you 
previously referred as being a segregated area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. How do you account for the fact that you, as a Negro, 
attended a closed Communist Party meeting in a segregated area with 
Don Eothenberg? 

Mr. Scherer. I believe she said she was allowed to attend meetings, 
but that she wasn't allowed to join a club in the Southeast Section. 

]Mr. Nittle, I believe you testified, that you had attended a closed 
Communist Party meeting with Don Eothenberg in the Southeast 
Section ? 

Mrs. Browx. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Now you also indicated that the Communist Party was 
practicing what you called Jim Crow, and that Negroes living in the 
SoutheavSt Section were assigned to another section? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. And in your case the Northeast Section ? 

Mrs, Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Although you yourself lived in the Southeast Section ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NrrTLE. How can you account for your attendance as a Negro 
woman at a meeting in the Southeast Section with Don Eothenbero-? 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA lOU 

Mrs. Brown. Where Don Rotlienberg was present? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Frieda Katz attended, of course, and as I said 
before, my chore was to chauH'our Frieda Katz everywhere she went, 
so anywhere Frieda went like that, at a closed Communist meeting, 
or social affair, I always went with her. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were her driver ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I was her driver. 

Mi-s. Kittle. But you were not a member of the Southeast Section ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Although you lived there ? 

Mrs. Brown. That's right. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were allowed to attend because you were with 
Frieda Katz, but you weren't allowed to join a club in the Southeast 
Section? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

]Mr. Kittle. Frieda Katz, I understand, attended meetings at sev- 
eral clubs. Is that your testimony ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. Frieda was all over Cleveland. 

Mr. Kittle. Did you conclude from Frieda's activities that she was 
a Communist Party leader of some sort ? 

Mrs. Brown. I am very sure she was, but what capacity I couldn't 
state. 

Mr. Kittle. And could you tell us why you don't know exactly what 
the capacity of Frieda Katz was ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, the Communist Party is very secretive. They 
don't let their right hand know what their left hand is doing, and it 
is very hard to find out just what office the members of the Communist 
Party hold. 

Mr. Kittle. Would you tell us the circumstances surrounding your 
reentry into the Communist Party as an agent for our Government? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I went to the Federal Bureau and reported my 
activities and the activities of the Communist Party, and not know- 
ing that the Federal Bureau knew anything about them. I went 
home and later I was visited by an FBI agent and asked to go back into 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kittle. In the discussion with the agent did he indicate to you 
what the conditions of your work were to be ? 

Mrs. Brown. Ko, he did not. lie just asked me to go back into 
the Communist Party and report to the FBI. 

Mr. Kittle. Were you offered any salary or compensation for this 
work? 

Mrs. Brown. Kot one penny. That was never mentioned. 

Mr. Kittle. Did you expect any salary or did you ask for any? 

Mrs. Brown. Ko, I did not expect anything. 

Mr. Kittle. Did you at any time receive a salary from the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation for your work in the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Kot a salary, no. 

Mr. Scherer. What did you receive in expenses ? 

Mrs. Brown. I received expenses and sometimes for special work 
I would be given some sort of compensation. I think that was not to 
encourage me to continue, but to give me something to go on, because 
I so often, in going around for the Federal Bureau, had extra expenses 



1012 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

and upkeep, but it was no salary whatsoever that I received. I was 
never promised a salary at any time, and I never received anything 
that could be called salary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What you did receive was to reimburse you for ex- 
penses and charges incurred as a result of your work in the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. The witness, Mr. Cooper, is here now. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would ask Mrs. Brown one more question. 

As a result of that conversation did you make a decision to reenter 
the Communist Part}^ on behalf of the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion ? 

Mrs. Browiv. I was asked by the agent to decide, not to give him 
the answer right away, but I told him that since the Korean war was 
on and the men were fighting and dying there, fighting for their 
comitry against the Conununists, e^-en myself, and the least I could 
do would try to be a soldier on this front and I accepted readily. I 
told him before he left the door that I was sure that I would help the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he ask you for an immediate decision ? 

Mrs. Brown. jSTo, he did not, but I insisted that I would help him 
and that he could depend on that. 

]Mr. jSTittle. Mrs. Brown, you ma}' stand aside for a moment. 



Mr. Doyle. Is William Cooper here? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I imderstand he has just returned but his attorney 
is not here and has notified us he is on the way. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Cooper, will you step forward, so we have the rec- 
ord show the facts ? 

Mr. Cooper. I have to wait on counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not going to ask you any questions except where 
yoiu' attorney is. We never ask a witness any questions without his 
counsel present, but we want to know when he is going to be here. 
"Wlio is your attorney ? 

Mr. Cooper. Mr. Kahn. 

Mr. Doyle. You have been in the hearing room here in the last 
hour. I have seen you. 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, I was here. 

Mr. Doyle. Was he due here at a certain time with you ? 

Mr. Cooper. He is coming back. 

Mr. Doyle. He was in the room, wasn't he ? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes. but he told me to call him. 

Mr. Doyle. He only left about 15 or 20 minutes ago, didn't he? 

Mr. Cooper. He hasn't been too long; no, sir. 

Mr. Doyle, We are going to recess. It is 12 o'clock now. 

Thank you, Mr. Cooper. You make sure you contact your attorney 
and make sure he is here. 

Mr. Cooper. Oh, yes, I will. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand in recess until 1 :30. The 
witnesses are instructed to return at 1 :30 this afternoon to tliis hearing 
room. 

(Thereupon, at 11 :55 a.m., Monday, Jime 4, 1962, the hearing re- 
cessed, to reconvene at 1 :30 p.m. the same day.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 10l3 

AFTERNOON SESSION— MONDAY, JUNE 4, 1962 

The committee reconvened at 1:50 p.m., Hon. Francis E, Walter, 
chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Walter, Doyle, Tuck, 
Scherer, Johansen, and Bruce. 

The Chairmax. The committee will be in order. 

The Chair appoints a subcommittee consisting of Mr. Scherer, Mr. 
Joliansen, Mr. Bruce, Mr. Doj^le, and myself. 

Mr. XiiTLE. William Cooper, please come forward. 

The Chairmax. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear that the testimony you give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but tlie truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr, Cooper. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM HENRY COOPER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. XiTTLE. Will you state your full name, please ? 

Mr. Cooper. William Henry Cooper. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you live ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your street address ? 

(Coimsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question, Mr. Cooper. 

( Counsel conferred with witness. ) 

The Chairman. I have directed you to answer the question as to 
your address. 

Mr. Cooper. I am forced not to tell you that, because I might in- 
criminate myself. 

The Chairman. You feel that it might incriminate you, subject 
you to criminal prosecution, if you told this committee where you 
live? 

^Ir. Cooper. Yes. 

The Chairman. You were served with a subpena to be here? 

Mr. Cooper, Yes, I was. 

The Chairman. t\niere were you served ? 

Mr. Cooper. In Cleveland. 

The Chairman. Where in Cleveland ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. At my home. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mr. Cooper. At my home in Cleveland. 

The Chairman. 3192 East 123d Street, Cleveland? Is that where 
you were served ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer, on the grounds. 

The Chairman. On what grounds ? 

( Counsel conferred with witness. ) 

Mr. Cooper. I can't be forced to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see, Mr. Cooper, that you are represented by counsel. 



1014 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Will counsel identify himself for the record, please? 

Mr. Speiser. I am Lawrence Speiser, an attorney with offices at the 
American Civil Liberties Union, 1101 Vermont Avenue, NW., Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Speiser, are you representing this witness, or the 
American Civil Liberties Union ? 

Mr. Speiser. I am representing the witness, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. You have no offices, you say, other than the American 
Civil Liberties Union ? 

Mr. Speiser. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Cooper, do you not in fact reside at 3192 East 123d 
Street? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Cooper, are you now a member of the Communis*- 
Party? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I haven't been a member of it for the last 10 years. 

Mr. Scherer. You were a member before that, were you not ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. You indicated until you got to Washington that you 
were going to tell what you knew about Communist Party activities, 
did you not ? 

Mr. Cooper. No. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not tell our investigator that you would co- 
operate with the committee ? And testify ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

The Chairman. Let the witness answer the question. 

Mr. Cooper. I don't know whether I did or not. 

Mr. Scherer. You do not deny that you did ? 

Mr. Cooper. I don't remember. 

Mr. Scherer. You said that you did not need a lawyer. Did you 
not tell the member of our staff that you did not need a lawyer ? 

Mr. Cooper. He told me I didn't need a lawyer. I didn't know what 
I needed. 

Mr. Scherer. Did he not ask you who your lawyer was ? And you 
said you did not have a lawyer. You did not have a lawyer last week, 
when the member of our staff talked to you, did you ? 

Mr. Cooper. I didn't talk to hun about no lawyer. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, when did you get a lawyer? 

(Counsel confeiTed with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. What is the pertinency of the question ? 

The Chairman. Because we are curious to know why you have 
changed your position, and whether you were advised not to cooperate 
with this committee after you had told one of our investigators, 
according to our information, that you would cooperate. 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I made up my mind to do the only thing I thought 
was in my rights, to protect myself. 



COaHMUNIST activities in the CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1015 

Mr. ScHERER. When did you make up your mind to do what you 
say you are doing now? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the record note that counsel 
conferred with the witness prior to responding to this and the prior 
question. 

The Chairiman. I do not think that makes any difference. It is 
perfectly apparent what is happening here. This man is not answer- 
ing questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. His lawyer is answering them for him. 

The Chairman". Yes. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did any member of the Communist Party contact you, 
confer and consult with you, and advise you not to testify before tliis 
committee ? 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer, on the grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did any person known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party advise you to come here and plead the fifth amend- 
ment to every question asked of you ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer, on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, your address at 3192 East 123d Street was next 
door to the address of Julia Brown, in 1947 and for some time there- 
after; is that correct? 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer, on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a photograph which has been marked as 
"Brown Exhibit No. 1." It is a photograph of a man, which ap- 
pears in the upper left-hand corner of page 28 in the National Re- 
inibliG^ September 1948 issue. That photograph was previously iden- 
tified by Mrs. Julia Brown as the photograph of Joe Hill, who is 
identified below that photograph as a person bearing the name Lou 
Kaplan.^ Can you identify the person whose picture appears in that 
publication? 

(Comisel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper, I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTPLE. You have stated that you are not now a meinber of the 
Communist Party, and have not been a member of the Communist 
Party for 10 years past. Mrs. Julia Brown testified that you had 
ceased being active in the Communist Party, to her knowledge, at 
about that time. Will you tell us whether or not you, in fact, with- 
drew from the Communist Party about the year 1953 ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Cooper. I refuse to answer, on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nittle, it is perfectly apparent that someone 
has talked to this witness between the time that he told our investi- 
gator what he did, and the present. It seems to me that this is the 
sort of thing that ought to be referred to the Department of Justice. 
If anyone is interfering with our witnesses, there ought to be some- 
thing done about it. You are excused. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown, will you resume the witness stand, please ? 

1 See footnote on p. 995. 

86790 — 62— pt. 1 5 



1016 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

TESTIMONY OF JULIA C. BROWN— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown, you have seen the witness who was just 
excused ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know the gentleman who appeared on the wit- 
ness stand and testified ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I knew him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "VVlio was he ? 

Mr. Brown. William Cooper, my next-door neighbor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We shall return to your testimony, at the point where 
you had agi*eed to reenter the Communist Party at the request of the 
FBI. Will you tell us how you accomplished the renewed associ- 
ation with the party ? 

Mr. Scherer. Before you ask that question, I think the record 
should be completed on an earlier point. 

This morning you identified William Cooper as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Johansen. And this is the same William Cooper? 

Mrs. Brown. This is the same William Cooper that sat here. 

Mr. NiTrLE. Will you tell us how you accomplished your renewed 
association with the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. On Monday morning — after the FBI left my home 
on Saturday — on Monday morning, I called Frieda Katz, and she 
asked me to come over, and I went to her home and told her that I 
liad been lonesome and wanted to get in the fight again with the party. 

She asked me to go with her to the Ohio Bill of Rights Conference 
office. There we sent out a large mailing from 5103 Euclid Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Frieda Katz accept you into a friendly relation- 
ship, and did you resume your activities with her thereafter? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You indicated that, during your first period in the 
Communist Party, activities were quite open. You met with Commu- 
nist Party groups and at various places, and you received instruction 
at the home of Sylvia Strauss. 

Did the party continue operating in the same way on your reentry ? 
Or did the passage of the Mundt-Nixon bill by the House in May 
1948 affect the party's organizational practices ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, there was a meeting at my house in the early 
1950's, and Frieda had told us that we could not meet in large groups 
any more; that not more than three or four could have meetings at 
a time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Previously, how many met in groups? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, as many as would attend, maybe six, maybe 
seven, as many as would attend. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How were members of the party identified to each 
other ? Were they referred to as comrades ? 

Mrs. Brown. They were referred to as comrades, although now, 
in the 1960's, before I left, they were addressing themselves as brothers 
and sisters. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you attribute the changed method of salutation, in 
the period of the 1960's, to the fact that the Internal Security Act of 
1950 was then before the Supreme Court of the United States? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1017 

Mrs. Brown. No doubt. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. It appears that the Communist Party has made a 
special effort to interest the Negro in the Communist movement and 
in furtherance of its objectives. I believe that you have had 
intimate experience with certain fronts which were apparently estab- 
lished by the Communist Party for this express purpose. Did you 
have any experience with organizations that were established with a 
view to interesting and involving the Negro people in the Communist 
movement ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. How many organizations of that particular type did 
you have experience with ? 

Mrs. Brown. At least two. 

Mr. NiTTLE, And what were they ? 

Mrs. Brown. One was the Sojourners for Truth and Justice, and 
the other one was the Negro Labor Council. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us first about the organization of the 
Sojourners for Truth and Justice, which our information indicates 
was founded or created in September 1951? How did this matter 
come to your attention ? 

Mrs. Brown. I was called over the phone one day by Elsie Zazrivy 
and told that there would be an organizing of Negro women in New 
York City in a month or so. I have forgotten just the date that Elsie 
called me and wanted to know if I would be one of the women to go 
along and help to organize. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there a meeting in Cleveland in order to determine 
what representatives would go to this meeting? Did you say in New 
York? 

Mrs. Brown. No. I misstated it. It was in Washington, D.C., 
here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was that meeting in Washington to be ? 

Mrs. Brown. An organization meeting of the Sojourners for Truth 
and Justice. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this the founding convention of the national or- 
ganization, Sojourners for Truth and Justice? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes ; it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you selected as a delegate from the Cleveland 
area to the national convention? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes ; as one of the delegates. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you receive your appointment as a delegate 
to the national convention ? 

]Mrs. Brown. We had a meeting at Myrtle Dennis' home, and some- 
how all of the delegates, the ones that were delegates, that Elsie 
Zazri\';>' had selected as delegates, were present at this meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Elsie Zazrivy, whom you have identified as a member 
of the Communist Party and in charge of the front called Ohio Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born, notified you to appear at the 
home of Myrtle Dennis? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you got to the home of Myrtle Dennis, who was 
there ? 

Mrs. Brown. Margaret Wherry, Sarah Roberts, Elsie Zazrivy, and 
myself. 



1018 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Pauline Taylor in attendance ? 
Mrs. Brown. No, she was not in attendance. Pauline at that time 
was living in Youngstown, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have already identified Margaret Wheri-y as a 
member of the Communist Party. You have identified Myrtle Dennis 
as a member of the Conununist Party. You have now mentioned 
Sarah Roberts for the first time. Was Sarah Roberts known to you 
to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown, Yes, she was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you identify her as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did not know Sarah was a member of the Commu- 
nist Party, until we came to Washington, here. We roomed together, 
Sarah and I, in one room, and Margaret Wherry and Myrtle Dennis 
in the other room. And the next morning Sarah Roberts told me 
that she had been a Communist for many years. And that is how I 
knew Sarah Roberts was a Commimist.^ 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any subsequent occasion meet with her in 
closed Coimnmiist Party meetings ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Sarah Roberts later marry ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. To James McMillan. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know James McMillan as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I have attended closed Commmiist Party meetings 
with James McMillan ; not very often. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what section did Sarah Roberts, now McMillan, 
and James McMillan, reside at that time ? 

Mrs. Brown. They resided in the Glenville area that would have 
been the Northeast Section if she had attended the Conununist Party 
clubs ; but she did not attend. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in fact attend the national convention of the 
Sojourn for Truth and Justice at Washington ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you travel here ? 

Mrs. Brown. I traveled by plane with Myrtle Dennis and Sarah 
Roberts. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who paid the expenses of your plane passage ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I paid most of it, and the Communist Party 
paid part of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you arrived at Washington, did you find other 
persons from the Cleveland area Communist Party in attendance ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And who were they ? 

Mrs. Brown, The next day Pauline Taylor came to Washington 
here and roomed with Margaret Wherry and Myrtle Dennis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Pauline Taylor to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 



1 Sarah Roberts McMillan, having been identified as a member of the Communist Party 
In the earlier executive testimony of Julia Brown, was subpenaed as a witness for these 
hearings. At her request and as a matter of convenience to her, the committee agreed to 
hear Sarah Roberts McMillan in executive session, at which time she denied ever having 
been a Communist Party member. Julia Brown was aware of this denial at the time of the 
testimony above set forth. The contradiction in testimony of these two witnesses has 
been referred to the Department of Justice for appropriate action. 



CO]MMU]SnST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1019 

Mrs. Brown. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. How loiio: have you known her to be active in it ? 

Mrs. Brown. I liave known Pauline Taylor to be active in the Com- 
munist Party since 1948. 

Mr. NrrrLE. Until when? 

Mrs. Brown. Until the middle lOSO's. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Did you meet in closed Communist Party meetings with 
Pauline Taylor? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect where ? 

INIrs. Brown. At Margaret Wlierry's home and in Myrtle Dennis' 
homo, Frieda Katz' home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Was ]\[argaret Wlierry married? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, to Robert Wherry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. I knew Robert Wlierry as a member of the 
Communist Party in Cleveland. I attended several closed Commu- 
nist Party meetings where Robert "Wherry attended in Frieda Katz' 
home, Sylvia Strauss' home, and otliers. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were there any other members from the Cleveland 
area in attendance at the Washington, D.C., national convention of 
this organization ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, I don't think so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is quite clear from what you have said that the 
Cleveland delegation to the national convention of the Sojourners for 
Truth and Justice was Communist controlled. The entire delegation 
you have identified as members of the Communist Party; and you 
have pointed out that those in attendance received their appointment 
from Elsie Zazrivy ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have identified Elsie Zazrivy as active in the 
Communist Party and in charge of one of the offices of its front 
organizations ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you two exhibits to be identified as Brown Ex- 
hibits Nos. 2 and 2-A, respectively. The first is a letter dated Sep- 
tember 17, 1951, the letterhead being entitled "Initiating Coimnit- 
tee of the Sojourn for Truth and Justice to Washington," bearing 
address "Harriet Tubman Center, 290 Lenox Avenue, New York, 
N.Y.," with a telephone number LE. 4-9061, indicated thereon, and 
signed "Beulah Richardson, Acting Secretaiy." 

Did you know Beulah Richardson to be a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I know Beulah Richardson to be a member of 
the Communist Party. I attended closed Communist Party meetings 
with Beulah Richardson in New York City at Louise Patterson's 
home. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Is the Louise Patterson, the person you mention, the 
wife of William Patterson ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, William Patterson. 

Mr. NiTTLE, The latter being a member of the National Committee 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 



1020 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. This letter, Exhibit No. 2, is addressed to "Dear Sis- 
ters," and states that there is enclosed therewith THE CALL TO 
NEGRO WOMEN, which was adopted by 200 women in a meeting in 
New York City on September 16, 1951. 

Exhibit No. 2-A is entitled "A Call To Negro Women," which sets 
forth the purpose of the founding convention. 

With the permission of the Chair, I shall read several extracts f I'om 
this Call : 

The time has come for us Negro women of these United States to personally ad- 
dress this government for absolute, immediate and unconditional redress of 
grievances. 

******* 

AVe die of poverty, loneliness, drudgery and disease. We have watched 
our husbands and fathers burned, quartered, hanged and electrocuted by hooded 
and unhooded mobs. We have seen our brothers beaten, shot and stamped 
to death by police. And when our greatest fighter for civil rights dares to 
challenge the injustice he is cursed, reviled and indicted by the highest legisla- 
tive body in the land. 

We have seen our sons rotting in prison, we've seen them poured into foreign 
wars in defense of this government which denies them equality on the battle 
field and at home. And when the greatest mind we have produced dares speak 
out for peace, he is handcuffed and indicted as a foreign agent. 

We have seen our daughters raped and degi-aded, and when one dares rise 
in defense of her honor she is jailed for life. 

There is no state in the whole of the forty-eight in which we can eat, live, 
work, play, rest, or breathe free of segregation and discrimination, and when 
the greatest voice we have produced dares sing out against these indignities, his 
passport is recalled and he is denied the property right to earn a living. 

Do you recognize tliese exhibits, and can you identify them? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do. 

(Documents marked "Brown Exhibits Nos. 2 and 2-A" follow:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1021 



Beown Exhibit No. 2 



IHII1AI1II& CQMKIOTEE OF THE §OJOUEN FOR TRUTH AND JUSTICE 
TO WASHINGTON 

Harriet Tubman Center 
290 Lenox Avenue 

New York, N.Y. 
Le 4 -9061 



September 17, 1961 



Dear Slaters: 



We are enclosing THE CALL TO NEGRO WCMEN which was enthuaias 
tically and imaniinously adopted ty 200 women meeting in New York City on 
September 16, 1951, Your reading of It will fidly acquaint you with its 
purpose. 

¥« are counting on you to rally the Negro women of your city- 
and state to join us as SOJOORKEHS FOR TRUTH AND JUSTICE in Washington 
on September 29 through October 1, We also tope you will rally all women 
to support the Sojouxn by helping to finance the trip of the Sojourner* 
and to take care of the children of mothers who want to come. 

Our aim is One Hundred Negro Women to Washington, representing 
every section of the country, North, South, East and West. Let us know 
by wire as soon as you can how ineny to expect from your city and State, 
Housing and other arrangements taust be made by our Washington Committee 
and they need as much advance notice as possible. 

We are fully aware hew shott the tine is in which we have to d> 
this Job, 2ut eveats won't wait for us to get ready — we've Just got to catoh 
up with them. 

So on to Washington, Sojourners, Septbmber 29, Send in your 
registrations on the enclosed forms. This will be but the beginning of our 
effort to see that every man, woman and child of us can walk this land in 
dignity and freedom. 

Yours In sisterhood, 



Beulah Richardson 
Acting Secretary 



HOTS 



There will be an organizational meeting for the SOJOURN FOE TRUTH IHD JUSTUJi 
to Washington, on MONDAY, SEPTBfflER 24, 8:oo F.M,, at the Harriet Tate^an 
Center, 290 Lenox Avenue. 

All Negro women Interested In regetterlng a» Sojourners, as veil as voaen in- 
terested ii helping to send ctberS| or to contrlhutA to the suocess of the So- 
journ are welcome. 



1022 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Beown Exhibit No. 2-A 

'7 sm going to keep on tik$ging 'till 
I tnouu the contcUnce of America." 
.... Harriet Tnlmian 



CALL 
TO 

EQ R O 
WOMEN 



"The name hm come. Sojoitmer, tbtt't it. Became I am going to travel ttP 
end dmtm the country showing the people their unt and being a sign mntm 
them." 

.... SofooriMr Tratb 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1023 



-^ C^aii ZJo ijearo lAJc 



f^ 



'omen 



THE time has come for us Negro women of these United 
States to personally address this government for absolute, imme- 
diate and unconditional redress of grievances. 

We cannot, must not, and will no longer in sight of God or 
man sit by and watch our lives destroyed by an unreasonable and 
unreasoning hate that metes out to us every kind of death it is 
possible for a human being to die. 

We die of poverty, loneliness, drudgery and disease. We have 
watched our husbands and fathers burned, quartered, hanged and 
electrocuted by hooded and unhooded mobs. We have seen our 
brothers beaten, shot and stamped to death by police. And when 
our greatest fighter for civil rights dares to challenge the injus- 
tice he is cursed, reviled and indicted by the highest legislative 
body in the land. 

We have seen our sons rotting in prison, we've seen them 
poured into foreign wars in defense of this government which 
denies them equality on the battlefield and at home. And when 
the greatest mind we have produced dares speak out for peace, he 
is handcuffed and indicted as a foreign agent. 

We have seen our daughters raped and degraded, and when 
one dares rise in defense of her honor she is jailed for life. 

There is no state in the whole of the forty-eight in which we 
can eat, live, work, play, rest, or breathe free of segregation and 
discrimination, and when the greatest voice we have produced 
dares sing out against these indignities, his passport is recalled 
and he is denied the property right to earn a living. 



867W0— 62— pt. 1- 



1024 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 



We claim that this government cannot honestly, convincingly 
and sincerely spend billions, send troops and draft treaties for the 
peace and freedom of other nations while it never has and does 
not now protect the lives and liberties of 15,(XX),(XX) of its own 
Negro citizens. Only when our government abolishes the lynch 
justice of Mississippi, when it publicly declares there shall be no 
more Ciceros or Peekskills, only when it moves to enforce with its 
might the 13th, 14th and I5th Amendments to the United States 
Constitution, then and only then can it speak as a free nation for 
a free world. And to this end, we, the Negro Women of this our 
land, must and now dedicate our every effort. 

We, therefore, issue this call. Negro Women of the United 
States of America, dry your tears, and in the spirit of Harriet 
Tubman and Sojourner Truth, ARISE. Arise, come to Washing- 
ton and tpemk your mind. Come, you widows of the legally lynched. 
Come, you wives of those imprisoned and threatened with prison. 
Come, you widowed by police brutality. Come, you who mourn 
yours sons dead in foreign wars. Come, you homeless and job- 
less. Come, all of us who are insulted, humiliated and betrayed 
by a government that practices these indignities upon us and 
peddles freedom abroad. 

NEGRO WOMEN OF EVERY CITY, TOWN AND STATE 
ARISE, come to Washington, D.C., September 29 through Oct- 
ober 1 and demand of the President, the Justice Department, the 
State Department, and the Congress absolute, immediate, and un- 
conditional redress of grievances. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1025 

DtAK NtGKO SISTERS EVERY WHERE IN THE UNITED STATES: 

WE, the initiaton of thi$ CjII, invite Negro Women everywhere in our 
country to join us in this SOJOURN FOR TRUTH AND JUSTICE in 
Washington, D.C, September 29 through October 1, 19 J 1. 

Ask your church, lodge, trade union, civic or community organization, 
your family or friends, to send y<ju as their spokesman. But come, even if 
you must send yourself. Wc know it svill mean a »acrifice, but that has been 
our life, .T long one of sacrifitc, and wc can well afford to make this one if 
wc can help end our pain and our misery. 

In Washington wc will comt- together to plan the full program of the 
SOJOURN lOK IRUIH AND JUSTICi;. elect our committees, and visit 
the I'rtsidcnt, the State and Justice Departments, the Senators and Congress- 
men, tr» dciii.ind actinn N()W on our grievances. 

So cofnc, as many of you as can, and those who cannot, tan help send 
others, (^ur action will carry forward the tradition of Harriet Tubman and 
S<»joiirner Truth and will give inspirati<m and courage to women the world 
over, espcci.illy the colored s^onien of Africa and Asi.n who expect us to make 
this challenge. 

Tin INITIATING COMMirfKE OV THE SOJOURN lOR 
TRUTH AND JUSTICE TO WASHINGTON 

( lurlotta I'.asi Soti'.r.i B Law»'.n Hculah Ki(li.iriit(>ti 
( 'alif'irrii;t VirKi'iia Mistisiipiii 

AIk' ^hll'lrr^i Amy Mallar'l 

.SVw Y<jrlc '.rf.ricia r.slaii'la Kobfsoti 

Shirlry druliani K<ii;«li«' McGee 

.N'rw York .Mississippi 

j')S^I>limr firayson I'.rssir Mitchell Ohi'i 

Viriinia .Nrw Jersey 

D'jf'.iliy Hunion lyiui*^ Patterioo Krincct Wiiliamt 

New York New York Caiifornia 

Information rem the sojourners: 

1 ) S<jjourncrs should plan to reach Washington, D.C, by I P.M. Saturday. 
September 29, I9J1. Report immediately to the headquarters of the 
Cafeteria Workers, 1015 M. St., N. W.. where you will be given housing 
information and participate on committee* to shape the full program 
for the .Sojourn in Washington. 

2) For further information and to register for the SOJOURN FOR 
TRUTH AND JUSTICE address communications to: 

Beulah Richardson, Acting Secretary for the 

Initiating Committee 
Harriet Tubman Center 
290 Lenox Avenue 
New York, N. Y. 



<.<»nnccticut 
I'.iuiinr Taylf/T 



1026 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, the Call further carries upon it the names of 
those persons constituting the Initiating Committee of the Sojourn 
for Truth and Justice to Washington. We should like to determine 
the Communist affiliation, if any, of the 14 named women who con- 
stitute the evident leadership of the national organization. 

We realize that the persons named are from various areas of the 
country, most of whom appear not to be of the Cleveland area. Their 
addresses are given after their names. 

I ask you to examine the names on that exhibit which appear as 
members of the Initiating Committee and tell us which of those per- 
sons, if any, are known to you to be members of the Communist Party. 

In making your identification, I am going to ask you to confine 
yourself, as hitherto, to those persons with whom you have been in 
attendance at closed Communist Party meetings, or who, by their 
own admission, are members of the Communist Party. 

(At this point Mr. Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Brown. Sonora B. Lawson, Virginia. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you know Sonora B. Lawson, who is listed as a 
delegate from the State of Virginia, to be a member of the Communist 
Party? And if so, will you tell us how you make that identification? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Sonora B. Lawson to be a member of the 
Communist Party. 

I was called by Frieda Katz one day to her home, and there An- 
thony Krchmarek asked me if I could house Sonora B. Lawson for 
2 weeks. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Anthony Krchmarek you identify as the Communist 
Party chaiiTnan for the District of Ohio? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Krchmarek appeared before this committee last year, 
did he not ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. At that time he took the fifth amendment when 
asked concerning his official position with the Communist Party in 
Ohio. Is that correct. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

I might also state that our records and information indicate that 
Anthony Krchmarek was also a delegate to the National Convention 
of the Communist Party, held in New York City, in December of 
1959, and attended that convention as a delegate from the Ohio Dis- 
trict of the Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. "Wliile we have interrupted this witness, let me ask 
this witness further concerning William Cooper. 

You said you left Ohio in 1960 ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was Cooper a neighbor of yours at that time? 

Mrs. Brown. Not at that time. 

Mr. ScHERER. '\Anien did he cease to be a neighbor of yours ? 

Mrs. Brown. Around 1955 or 1956. I moved from that neighbor- 
hood to Edgewood Avenue, but he remained at the same place. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was he at the address that was read into the record 
just a little while ago ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1027 

;Mr. SciiERER. It seems to nio, Mr. Chairman, that Cooper had 
agreed to testify when he talked to our investigator about his activ- 
ities in the Communist Party; and then, when the names were pub- 
lished in the Cleveland paper, the names of the witnesses who were 
subpenaed, it enabled someone from the Communist Party to contact 
Cooper. They found out that he had been subpenaed, and then his 
mind was changed about his intentions. 

Mr. XiTFLE. I might also add, Mr. Scherer, that the witness Cooper 
had told our investigator, Mr. Wetterman, that Frieda Katz had 
been to see him. 

Mr. ScuERER. That w^as at the time he left the party, about 10 
vears ago? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. But what I am saying is that just recently he talked 
to Mr. "Wetterman, and indicated, or not only indicated but said, that 
he would come before this committee and tell this committee about his 
associations in the party and what he knew about Communist Party 
activities in the Cleveland area. And that has just been recently. 
It was subsequent to his conversation with Mr. Wetterman that his 
name appeared, along with others, as a witness who had been sub- 
penaed before this committee today, and it is apparent to me what 
happened. 

He does not come here with a Cleveland lawyer. He comes here 
with a Washington lawyer from the American Civil Liberties Union. 
Instead of keeping his promise or fulfilling his intentions, he refuses 
to testify; and it is apparent that after his name was published, some- 
body from the Communist apparatus got in touch with him and 
changed his mind. 

Mr. Doyle (presiding). Well, that would be according to custom, 
would it not ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Oh, yes, that is a tactic. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you continue with the visit of Sonora Lawson 
to your home at the instance of Anthony Krchmarek? 

Mrs. Browx. Sonora came to my home. I wrote Sonora and sent 
her my address. I was told to do that by Krchmarek. And she came 
to my home one Sunday night as a delegate to the NAACP convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People? 

Mrs. Brow^x. That is right. She lived in my home for 2 weeks, 
and attended the sessions of the NAACP. She told me that she had 
been a Communist for years, and that she had done a very good job 
in Virginia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did she discuss with you the purpose of her 
attendance as a Communist Party member at a convention of the 
NAACP, which is not regarded as a Communist organization? 

Mrs. Brow^x. She had infiltrated the NAACP — Sonora Lawson. 
During the convention, she would bring me literature, and when the 
resolution of the NAACP was out, in their resolution they denounced 
the Communist Party and said that they didn't want members of the 
Communist Party as members of the NAACP, and Sonora Lawson 
brought me the resolution, and had quite a bit to say about it. 



1028 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

And later she had a meeting, she told me — I didn't go to the meet- 
ing — with some of the comrades who were up in the air over this 
resolution that the NAACP had made. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The NAACP adopted a resolution at the Cleveland 
convention condemning communism and declaring that they did not 
want Communists as members of the NAACP ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any discussions with Sonora B. Lawson 
with respect to what the Communist Party was going to try to do 
about this, if anything? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they didn't like it, and I am sure that at the 
time Sonora was at the meeting, James Jackson of New York City 
was also in attendance, as a delegate, and he is also a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Which James Jackson are you referring to ? 

Mrs. Brown, The one that lives in New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The editor of The Worker. 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And a member of the National Executive Committee 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that you are telling us that James Jackson, a na- 
tional committeeman of the Cormnunist Party, and Anthony Krch- 
marek, the chairman of the Ohio District of the Communist Party, 
were interested in this resolution adopted by the NAACP? 

Mrs. Brown. You said Anthony Krchmarek? I didn't talk to 
Anthony Krchmarek about the resolution. I talked to Sonora Lawson. 

Mr. NrrTLE. I see, 

Mrs, Brown, About the resolution. She was the one that brought 
the resolution to me, 

Mr, NiTTLE. But it was Anthony Krclimarek who arranged for 
her attendance at your home? 

Mrs, Brown, That is right. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at that time a member of the NAACP ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did it happen that you, a member of the Com- 
munist Party, were joining an organization such as the NAACP? 

Mrs. Brown. I had also been asked, or told, rather, to infiltrate the 
NAACP, and I had been successful in joining the junior women's 
auxiliary there. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Were you told to join the NAACP on instructions from 
any member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, by one of the organizers from Chicago, by the 
name of Hugh Statten. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Hugh Statten as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I knew Hugh Statten as a member of the Communist 
Party. I have attended several closed Communist Party meetings 
with Hugh Statten at Hugh Statten's home, at Jean Krclimarek's 
home, at Mel Hardin's home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have indicated you attended a meeting at the home 
of Mel Hardin? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 



coanruNisT activities in the Cleveland, ohio, area 1029 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is li-a-r-d-i-n? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you kiiow him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brown. I knew iSIel Hardin and his wife, Virginia, to be 
members of the Communist Party. They were members of a Com- 
munist Party dub in the Northeast Section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what instructions Hugh Statten 
gave you with respect to infiltrating the NAACP? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Hugh came to my home and asked me to join 
the NAACP, to infiltrate the NAACP ; and said that they had not 
been successful in getting the women in ; that they had one person, and 
they did not think she was doing a very good job. And that person 
was Frida Kreitner. He also said that Margaret Wherry had in- 
filtrated NAACP at one time, and had not done a good job, and he 
thought I could. He asked me to go in and report on the activities 
and policies of the NAACP, and report to the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will return to your examination of the Call. You 
mentioned Sonora B. Lawson, and you have identified her as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. Can you identify as Communists any 
other persons listed on the Initiating Committee of the Sojourn for 
Truth and Justice? 

Mrs. Brown. Beulah Richardson. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you already identified Beulah Richardson as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. She was listed on the Call as representing the State 
of Mississippi ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Proceed. 

Mrs. Brown. Pauline Taylor, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have already identified Pauline Taylor of Ohio 
as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Louise Patterson, New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You identify her as a member of the Communist Party 
and the wife of William Patterson, national committeeman of the 
Communist Party. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many days did you remain in attendance at the 
convention in Washington, D.C. ? 

Mrs. Brown. It was 2 or 3 days. I don't remember exactly, but it 
was 2 or 3 days. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The delegates to the convention appeared to have 
represented various areas about the country. Were you given advice 
at the national convention with respect to establishing branch or local 
organizations in your communities on return? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, we were. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat were those instructions ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, we were to go back to Cleveland and recruit all 
the Negro women that we possibly could, Communist and non-Com- 
munist, into this organization. 



1030 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in fact organize a Cleveland branch of the 
Sojourners for Truth and Justice? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who gave you instructions for its organization? 

Mrs. Brown. Elsie Zazrivy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Whom you have already identified. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere were these instructions received ? 

Mrs. Brown. Myrtle Dennis' home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am referring to the original organization of the 
Cleveland branch after your return from Washington. Did you 
meet first with Elsie Zazrivy, as you have indicated ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did that meeting take place ? 

Mrs. Brown. At Myrtle Dennis' home. 

Mr. NiTPLE. Wliat persons were in attendance at the organizing 
meeting at the home of Myrtle Dennis ? 

Mrs. Brown. At that time, it was Sarah Roberts, Margaret 
Wherry, Mamie McCurdy, and a Sadie Raffick, and Elsie Zazrivy, 
of course, 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have already identified all those persons you have 
just named as members of the Communist Party, with the exception 
of Sadie Raffick. "\^Tiat is the spelling ? 

Mrs. Brown. R-a-f-f-i-c-k. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Sadie RafSck as a member of the Com- 
munist Party at that time ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you later or at any time ascertain whether she 
was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. No. No, I never did find that out. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us of the other meetings that took place 
if any, and how the officers of this organization were appointed? 

Mrs. Brown. At that first meeting, the ofiicers were appointed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were appointed as officers ? 

Mrs. Brown. Sarah Roberts was appointed as chairman; Myrtle 
Dennis, secretary ; and Julia Brown, treasurer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are referring to yourself ? 

Mrs. Brown. Myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So then the officials of this organization are all identi- 
fied at that time as members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did this appointment of officers of the organiza- 
tion take place ? Who made the appointments ? 

Mrs. Brown. Elsie Zazrivy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us what tasks this particular organiza- 
tion was given to perform ? What did you do as treasurer of the or- 
ganization ? Wliat activities did your group engage in ? 

The newspaper accounts or other accounts indicate that this or- 
ganization had representation at the time of the Moore murder and 
visited the Governor of Florida. 
Mrs. Brown. Yes. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Did your organization undertake that task ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1031 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. That is rig-lit. I was sent from Cleveland to 
Florida to represent the Ohio group. 

Mr. NiiTi.E. Who gave you the instructions to go to Florida to 
represent Ohio? 

Mrs. Brown. Elsie Zazrivy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in fact meet with a group in Florida ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, 1 did get lost from the group that I was to meet 
from New York City, and I finally located them at the Governor's 
mansion having lunch. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you identify any of the other members of the 
group ? Did you know them prior to" this meeting with them at the 
Governor's mansion ? 

Mrs. Brown. I didn't know all of them, but I did know Angie 
Dickerson, from New York. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Will you tell us about Angie Dickerson ? 

]Mrs. Brown. I know Angie Dickerson to be a member of the Com- 
munist Part3^ I have attended closed Communist Party meetings 
with Angie Dickerson in Cleveland at Margaret Wheriy's home, 
Myrtle Dennis' home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVas she at one time a resident of Cleveland? 

Mrs. Brown. No. She lived in New York, but she had visited 
Cleveland. Angie Dickerson used to go around speaking on behalf 
of the Sojourners for Truth and Justice. Also, I have been to closed 
Communist Party meetings with Angie Dickerson in New York City. 
Wliere the place was, I am sorry I cannot tell you, because I didn't 
know New York City. There is very little I know about New York 
City and I don't know the people's name nor the address. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On your return to Cleveland from tlie meeting with 
the Governor of Florida, how was the Florida incident utilized for 
the purposes of the Communist Party ? Did you hold a meeting or 
an affair? 

Mrs, Brown. In Cleveland, Ohio. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. On your return ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And where was this affair held ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they had several affairs, but one affair I think 
was held at the Hungarian Hall on Buckeye Road. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You spoke at this affair, did you not? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I at least tried, anyway. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio were the speakers at this affair at Hungarian 
Hall? 

ISIrs. Brown. Well, those I can remember now were Angie Dicker- 
son, ]\iyrtle Dennis, Sarah Roberts, Beulah Richardson, and myself. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Our records indicate that this affair was called a 
Civil Rights Assembly, conducted on January 19 and 20, 1952, spon- 
sored by a Communist group operating under the disguise of Ohio 
Bill of Rights Conference and the American Committee for Protec- 
tion of Foreign Born. Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our information indicates that among the persons in 
attendance were Jimmy Lee Caldwell and Fred O'Neal. Did you 
know Jimmy Lee Caldwell ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Mrs. Jimmy Lee Caldwell as a member of 
the Communist Party in Cleveland. I have attended closed Com- 



1032 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

munist Party meetings where she attended at Hester DeLacy's home 
and Jimmy Lee Caldwell's home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Over how long a period of time did you know Jimmy 
Lee Caldwell to be active in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. From the early 1950's to the middle 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know what happened after that ? 

Mrs. Brown. I lost contact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Fred O'Neal ? 

Mrs. Brown. Fred O'Neal I know as a member of the Communist 
Party. He and his wife — I think her name is Laura O'Neal — are 
members of a Communist Party club in the Northeast Section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That was the section of which you were treasurer. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that a petition, which 
we identify as Brown Exhibit No. 3, was circulated at the Civil Rights 
Assembly, the affair to which we just referred. This petition was 
circulated under the bamier of the Progressive Party of Ohio. It is 
addressed to The President of the United States and to The Members 
of the 82nd Congress. 

I think you will agree that this appears to be a typical Communist- 
front "peace" petition circulated at front meetings and elsewhere, with 
the obvious purpose of paralyzing our will to resist Communist ag- 
gression. This petition was circulated in 1952 in the course of the 
Korean conflict. I might add that today we are afflicted with the same 
Communist "peace" appeals, while Communist aggression continues 
in Laos, South Vietnam, Berlin, and other global points. 

I would like to ask whether you can identify that petition? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I would like to ask you the further question : Wliat 
did this petition have to do with civil rights ? 

Mrs. Brown. It had nothing to do with civil rights. The Com- 
munists use civil rights as a sugar to catch the flies for the poison. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me read to you a portion of that exhibit : 

Isn't a conference cheaper than a battleship? 

We, the people of the United States of America, believe that peace is the most 
important issue of 1952. 

We believe with the people of all nations and their leaders that peace can 
and must be reached by agreement now. 

******* 

We want an end to the fears of atomic destruction. 

We, therefore, respectfully and earnestly call on the President to convene 
a Conference of the Great Powers * * * to reach an agreement that will end 
the threat of war and the bankruptcy of continued, armament. 

Did you find that this sort of petition had been frequently circulated 
at your front gatherings and meetings in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. Civil rights is the sugar to entice the 
people. And after they get an audience, then they feed them the 
poison. And that petition is the poison. 

(Document marked "Brown Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do I understand you to say that the front objective 
was to utilize humanitarian appeals, such as civil rights, so that they 
would attract people to the meetings and create an audience at 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1033 

which they could then feed them the poison, which was this type of 
propaganda ? 

Mrs. Brown. Tliat is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee has in fact received a great deal of 
testimony, Mrs. Brown, from which it concludes that the Communist 
front is organized solely to advance the cause of the World Commu- 
nist Movement, and for the protection of Communists, while mas- 
querading under humanitarian appeals and disguising its objectives 
as a struggle for civil rights or for peace and freedom, or similar 
cause. 

One chief target of attack has always been our security agencies 
and security laws, which the Communists seek to discredit and in- 
deed to abolish, for obvious reasons. Were the Communists able to 
involve the Negro women in this activity through special appeals to 
them through its front, the Sojourners for Truth and Justice? I am 
particularly directing your attention to a copy of a petition titled 
"In Defense of Freedom," issued by the "Defense Committee for 
Mrs. Myrtle Dennis." 

I hand you this petition, identified as Brown Exhibit No. 4, on 
which your name appears, and indicating that the Defense Committee 
for j\Irs. Myrtle Dennis is "sponsored by the Sojourners for Truth 
and Justice." 

Will you tell us about that ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Myrtle Dennis was arrested for false passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did she hold any office in the Sojourners for Truth 
and Justice? 

Mrs. Brown. She was secretary; we would go around speaking 
and raising money for the so-called defense of Myrtle Dennis. 

(Document marked "Brown Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know the circumstances in connection with 
which she was arrested for a false passport ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, she had gone to Russia and given the passport 
of her sister. It was the sister's age and name, I think it was. 

Mr. ScHERER. She made false statements in her application for 
passport ? Is that what you mean ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Who was her lawyer? 

Mrs. Brown. Sam Handelman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Myrtle Dennis and Sam Handelman and others 
speak on behalf of Myrtle Dennis at meetings sponsored by that or- 
ganization? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, they did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hear some of those speeches ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I attended most of them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat did they talk about? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, one of the things : They talked about how the 
Government had acted in a Gestapo way and manhandled Myrtle 
Dennis and had taken her away from her baby. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they identify the Gestapo ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, who they called the Gestapo is the FBI. Those 
are the people that the Communist Party call the Gestapo. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Their No. 1 enemy ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And where did these people speak ? 



1034 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. In different homes around. All of the homes they 
could get into. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they speak to any civic organizations ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. I went with Myrtle one morning to the Elks 
Lodge, one Sunday morning, and she spoke there with a small audi- 
ence, and there were several places that we went around to speak. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Sam Handelman, her lawyer? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I know Sam Handelman. I know Sam Handel- 
man as a member of the Communist Party. I have attended closed 
Communist meetings with Sam Handelman at Bertha and Milton 
Tenenbaum's home and at Yetta Land's home and others; Myrtle 
Dennis' home. 

Mr. ScHERER. As you attended these meetings and saw these people 
at these closed Communist Party meetings, did you report that in- 
formation and those findings to the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you make written reports to it ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. You certainly have a good memory. I see that you 
do not have any notes at all in front of you. 

Mrs. Brown. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I again call your attention to Exhibit 4, the Myrtle 
Dennis Defense Committee exhibit. Mrs. Dennis is described thereon 
as one "who has made significant contributions to the cause of peace 
and freedom." 

Wliat contributions did Myrtle Dennis make to the cause of peace 
and freedom ? 

Mrs. Brown. The only thing I know she did was to go to Russia and 
come back and praise it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. She was making a contribution, then, to 

Mrs. Brown. To Russia. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That kind of "peace" is the peace of the grave, is it not ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. She told me one day that she would rather be 
in France in poverty than in the United States in luxury. 

Mr. Scherer. We get so many of the left-wing crowd who are crying 
crocodile tears about people like her not receiving passports, or being 
deprived of passports ; those who go abroad and denounce the United 
States and its policies. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown, I now turn to the matter of a banquet 
styled "The Lincoln-Douglas Freedom Banquet," which took place on 
February 28, 1953, at the East Side Hungarian Workers' Home, 11123 
Buckeye Road, Cleveland, at which the advertised guest speaker was 
Benjamin S. Careathers. It was held under the auspices of the Free- 
dom Conxmittee. 

Information in the possession of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities indicates that the speakers were Frieda Katz, of the Ohio 
Bill of Rights Conference, and Mary Turner, who spoke on the So- 
journers for Truth and Justice and the ]\Iyrtle Dennis case. Other 
speakers at that affair were E. C. Greenfield, who was also known, I 
believe, as Elvador C. Greenfield, and Bill Haber. At this banquet, 
petitions on behalf of Myrtle Dennis, issued by the Defense Committee 
for Mrs. Myrtle Dennis, were distributed. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1035 

Now, it appears that this so-called Lincoln-Doiiglas Freedom Ban- 
quet was utilized for the same purpose as the Civil Eights Assembly, 
to get a mass audience and then to feed theui with propaganda aimed 
to accomplish Communist objectives; in this case, the defense of 
Communists. There were several Connnunists who were in attend- 
ance at that banquet, and I shall direct your attention to several and ask 
whether you can give us a word or t wo about them. 

Did you know James Wells, who is identified as chairman of the 
Ohio Bill of Rights Conference? 

Mrs. Browx. Yes, I know James "Wells as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I have attended numerous closed Communist meetings 
where James Wells was present at Frieda Katz' home, at Jean 
Krclunarek's home, and all over the city of Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Wells hold any official position in the party ? 

Mi-s. Brown. He was chairman, I think chairman of civil rights. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Ohio Bill of Rights Conference ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Nira.E. And also of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they are one and the same. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he occupy an official position in any of the clubs 
of the Communist Party in the Cleveland area? 

Mrs. Brown. Not that I Imow of. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Mary Turner, who spoke on Sojourners for Truth 
and Justice, a member of that organization ? 

Mrs. Brown. She attended two or three meetings, but I don't know 
whether she was actually a member. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was she a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Mary Turner? I know Mary Turner as a member 
of the Communist Party. I have attended several closed Communist 
Party meetings with ]SIary Turner at Margaret Wherry's home, Sarah 
Roberts' home, and Myrtle Dennis' home, and others. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you know Mary Turner to be active in 
the Communist Party in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. From the early 1950's until the latter 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. E. C. Greenfield ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know E. C. Greenfield to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party. I have attended several closed Communist Party meet- 
ings where fe. C. Greenfield attended. E. C. Greenfield was also a 
defendant under the Smith Act. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see. BillPIaber? 

Mrs. Brown. Bill Haber I know as a Communist. I have attended 
several closed Communist meetings where Bill Haber attended. At 
Frieda Katz' home, at Bill Haber's home, at Don Rothenberg's home, 
and many more. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Over how long a period of time did you know him to 
be active in the Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. I am sure it was from the early 1950's, until he mar- 
ried and left Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Robert Decker ? 

Mrs. Brown. Robert Decker I know as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I have attended several closed Communist Party meetings 
where Robert Decker attended at Frieda Katz' home, Sylvia Strauss' 



1036 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

home, and many others. Robert Decker is not living in Cleveland 
proper now, I heard. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Hortense Mitchell ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Hortense Mitchell and her husband, JNIelboume 
Mitchell, to be members of the Communist Party. I have attended 
closed Communist meetings with Hortense and Mel Mitchell at Don 
Rothenberg's home and others. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, you have mentioned Don Rothenberg a 
niunber of times today in your testimony. You identified him as 
a Communist? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. Ajid you have told us about a number of closed Com- 
munist Party meetings that were held in his home ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. I Avould like to make an observation, if I may, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Go right ahead. 

Mr. ScHERER. AVlien I first came on this committee, the firet year I 
was on this committee, the committee was holding hearings in Dayton, 
Ohio. At that time, of course, we did not know that Don Rothenberg 
was a member of the Communist Party. The evidence in those hear- 
ings, as it developed, showed that Don Rothenberg had come into the 
city of Dayton, Ohio, about a week in advance of the hearings, and he 
prepared a petition attacking this committee, and that petition was 
signed by niunerous members of the clergy and educators in the Day- 
ton area. 

It is obvious that they joined in a petition that was prepared by a 
well known, hard-core Communist; they, of course, at that time not 
knowing that he was a member of the Communist Party. 

Just an illustration of how these things work. 

Mr. Tuck. What do you mean by a closed meeting of the Communist 
Party ? Do you have a password ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, but no one is admitted except the dedicated Com- 
munists. 

Mr. Tuck. "Wliat tests do you apply to determine whether or not 
they are Communists? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, each Communist Iniows. 

Mr. Tuck. Someone vouches for them ? 

Mrs. Brown. No. You just know who is a Communist. 

"Wnien you go into the Communist Party, you know the Communists 
from the non-Communists. 

Mr. Tuck. I do not know how you would do that unless you had 
some password. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they are introduced. Communists are intro- 
duced to a person as a member of the Communist Party or as a com- 
rade. And if you work closely with them, you will understand. 

Mr. ScHERER. These are usually small meetings, are they not? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes; the closed Communist Party meetings since the 
middle 1950's were naturally three or four people. But from 1948 
until the early 1950's, just as many as could attend, would attend ; did 
attend, rather. 

Mr. Tuck. So, then, one who is not known personally by you to be 
a Communist would be vouched for by someone whom you Imow to be 
a Communist ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1037 

Mrs. Brown. I didn't hear that. 

Mr. Tuck. I say : So if you did not know of your own personal 
knowledge that someone was a Communist, then someone in the group 
known to be a Communist would vouch for that person as a Com- 
munist, and identify him in his presence? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. In other words, it is a matter of personal identifica- 
tion, in the case of a stranger. It is a matter of personal identification 
by someone in the group known to the other members of the group 
as a Communist? 

Mrs. Brown. That is riglit, yes. That is correct. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, I observe that it is 3 o'clock. I 
suggest we take a 5-minute recess to give the witness and the reporter 
a break. 

Mr. DoTLE. The meeting will stand in recess for 5 minutes on the 
request of the gentleman from Michigan. 

(Short recess.) 

(Present as the session reconvened were Representatives Doyle 
(presiding), Scherer, Johansen, and Bruce.) 

Mr. Doyle. The subcommittee will come to order. A quorum is 
present. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mrs. Brown, I have noticed that throughout your 
testimony there have been very extensive references to the organization 
and the activities of the group known as the Sojourners for Truth and 
Justice. I am interested to know if there is a relationship between 
this — and I believe you have identified this as a Communist-front 
group ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. Johansen. Is there a relationship between the name of this 
organization and the name of a very distinguished colored woman of 
the Civil War days and thereafter Ijy the name of Sojourner Truth? 

Mrs. Brown. I am sorry to say, Mr. Johansen, there certainly is. 
It is named from this wonderful woman. 

Mr. Johansen. I was intensely interested, first of all because Mrs. 
Sojourner Truth lived in her later years and died and is buried in 
my hometown of Battle Creek. She was a very admirable person, a 
close friend of Abraham Lincoln. I can well imagine the shock 
she would have to have her name associated wnth this type of activity. 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I do not recollect, Mrs. Brown, whether you concluded 
your identification of Hortense Mitchell and her husband, Melbourne 
Mitchell, as members of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Brown. I know Hortense Mitchell and Mel Mitchell as mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. I attended closed Communist Party 
meetings in Hortense Mitchell's home and in Myrtle Dennis' home 
and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Over what period of time were the Mitchells known 
to you to be active in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. From the early 1950's until about the latter 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The advertisement for the Lincoln-Douglas Freedom 
Banquet indicated that the speaker was Benjamin S. Careathers. 



1038 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Did you personally know Benjamin S. Careatliers as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Benjamin Careathers was not a citizen of Cleveland, 
Ohio, but he did come to Cleveland several times to speak, and I 
know him as a member of the Communist Party. I attended closed 
Communist Party meetings where he attended at Frieda Katz' home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I might note for the record that Ben- 
jamin S. Careathers was identified as a member of the Communist 
Party by Matthew Cvetic and Hamp L. Golden in hearings before 
this committee. jNIr. Golden testified as late as March 10, 1959. 
He identified Ben Careathers as a member of the Central Committee 
of the Communist Party of Pittsburgh in 1916 and as being among 
the Communists controlling the Civil Eights Congress in that area. 

It may be of interest that Ben Careathers was the Communist 
Party candidate for Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania in 1938, 
and Communist Party candidate for State treasurer of Pennsylvania 
in 1940. 

I understand that the Sojourners for Truth and Justice was dis- 
solved by the Communist Party in the year 1956. Can you tell us 
about the circumstances of that dissolution? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. The Sojourners for Truth and Justice was a 
Negro organization, a Negro women's organization, and they tried to 
keep it that way, and the white women Communists did not want it 
that way. 

I had a call to go to New York City. I was sent to New York 
City by Elsie Zazrivy at one time, and met Louise Patterson. And 
I didn't know at the time that the white women wanted to break up 
the Sojourners for Truth and Justice. And Louise Patterson told me 
that they did, and she wanted me to go with her to several of the 
Conmiunist meetings in New York City to explain to the women that 
we wanted a Negro women's organization, the same as the white 
women had. 

And they seemed to feel that the Negro women were not toeing the 
Communist line, and they didn't want it that way. And it was 
broken up, eventually broken up, a few months after I left New York 
City. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, there were Negro women in the other Communist 
groups where the white women were, were there not? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, some of the white women Communists had 
clul)s of their own where there are no Negro women. 

Mr. DoYi.E. You mean they would not allow Negro women in their 
Communist clubs ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I wasn't even allowed in the one in Cleveland. 

Mr. DoTLE. I thought the Communists did not believe in discrimina- 



tion or segregation. 



Mrs. Brown. Well, that is only what they say. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I judge from what you say, and may we conclude that 
you mean to say, that the Sojourners for Truth and Justice was dis- 
solved in effect because the Negro women were getting out of hand 
and not following Communist objectives of "class struggle" ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. You see, the Negro women were truly 
trying to fight for civil rights. And the Communists only had civil 
rights for propaganda. 



COIVIJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA l039 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is very important testimony. 

Of course, Communist doctrine with rekition to reform movements — 
and civil rights woukl be a reform ell'ort — expressly commands 
Communists to avoid reforming non-Conmiunist society. As a matter 
of fact, this is basic Connnunist doctrine. Marx declai-ed in an 
address to the Central Committee of the Communist League in 
March 1850: 

For us the issue canuot be the alteration of private property but only its 
annihilation * * * not the improvement of existing society but the foundation 
of a new one. 

Stalin, in discussing the foimdations of Leninism, said: 

To a revolutionary * * * the main thing is revolutionary work and not re- 
forms ; to him reforms * * * are naturally transformed into instruments for dis- 
integrating this regime, into instruments for strengthening the revolution, into 
a base for the further development of the revolutionary movement. 

The revolutionary will accept a reform in order to use it as au aid in combining 
legal work with illegal work * * *, 

It is well known that any genuine effort to reform society, whether 
through advocacy of civil rights or otherwise, is a deviation from 
Communist directives; and this was again made clear in the 81 Com- 
munist Party Manifesto issued at Moscow recently, which in effect 
declared ''reformism" to be heresy. If you sincerely make an effort 
peaceably to reform society and to promote reforms, you would be 
disciplined or expelled from the Communist Party for such deviation 
from policy. Communists use the reform idea to advance "class 
struggle," to agitate and disintegrate non-Communist society. 

This explains what you have so well brought to the attention of the 
committee, that the reform idea advocated by a Communist is really the 
sugar by which he draws the non-Communists to the poison which 
will prostrate non-Communist society. 

Mr. Bruce. I would like to ask a question for a matter of clarifica- 
tion. 

You have testified earlier that the Sojourners for Truth and Justice 
was a Communist organization. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Brown. A Communist-front organization. 

Mr. Bruce. A Communist-front organization ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. Bruce. A moment ago you testified that the Communist Party 
wished to dissolve, to break up, the Sojourners for Truth and Justice, 
if I understood you correctly, because it was not following the party 
line. Was I correct ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, you see, the Negro women had gotten together in 
the Sojourners for Truth and Justice. 

Mr. Bruce. The non-Communist Negro women ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, well, it was a Communist front, but they had 
non-Communists and Communist women in there, too. 

Mr. Bruce. This is the point I am trying to determine, here. The 
non-Communist Negro women got together in concern over what was 
happening to the group ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, and they were really trying to fight for civil 
rights. 

Mr. Bruce. The non-Communists? 

Mrs. Brown. The non- Communists, yes. 



1040 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. Bruce. In other words, the Communist Party began to lose 
control over the Sojourners ? 

Mrs. Brown. They were beginning to lose control. 

Mr. Bruce. At this point the Communist Party then determined 
that it was to their advantage to break up the organization? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 

Mr. ScHERER. While we have this interruption, did I understand 
you to testify earlier that you attended a closed Communist Party 
meeting in Shaker Heights, in the Shaker Heights area of Cleveland? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. I attended several closed Communist Party 
meetings in that area. 

Mr. ScHERER. Shaker Heights ? Do you remember any specific ad- 
dress, or any specific home ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, now, I wouldn't say exactly Shaker Heights, 
but it was in that area. And I really don't remember the addresses. 
I know that I attended Milton and Bertha Tenenbaum's home in 
that area. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did they live in Shaker Heights, or just in the Shaker 
Heights area? Did these two people whose names you have just 
mentioned live in Shaker Heights, or live in the Shaker Heights- 
Cleveland Heights area? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I think it was the Cleveland-Shaker Heights 
area. I am not so sure about those areas. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were these colored people, or white people? 

Mrs. Brown. White people. Milton and Bertha Tenenbaum. 

That is the area where Yetta Land lives, and where Freida Harris 
lives, and Frieda Katz. It is around in that area. 

Mr. ScHERER. Shaker Heights is a rather well-to-do, expensive 
residential neighborhood, is it not? 

Mrs. Brown. In the area where the Tenenbaums live and the Lands 
live, it is not too expensive. It is moderate living, there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In response to the question of Mr. Scherer, you men- 
tioned Freida Harris. Did you mean to say you knew her as a 
member of the Communist Party, or did you mention her in some 
other connection ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I do know Freida Harris as a member of the 
Communist Party in Cleveland. I have attended several closed Com- 
munist Party meetings at Freida Harris' home and Frieda Katz' 
home. 

Mr. Scherer. Where does this Freida Harris live, as nearly as you 
can recall ? 

Mrs. Brown. I am very sorry, but since I have left Cleveland, I 
really am afraid to 

I could drive there if I lived in Cleveland, but I really don't know 
the name of the street. It is in the same vicinity of the Tenenbaums, 
over in that area. 

Mr. Bruce. We have an unusual request; that we ask this witness 
not to work quite so close to the microphone. 

Mr. Nittle. There has been a request further to clarify an activity 
in which the Sojourners were involved, and about which you testified 
briefly. That was your visit to Florida in the Moore murder case 
effort. I think there was a question raised, as to the circumstances 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1041 

of your going- to Florida in that manner. What was the background 
of that, briefly? 

^Irs. Brown. I went to Florida, and it seems to me I did tell you 
about that, 

Mr, NiTTLE. Yes, you told us about that, but there was a request, 
a suggestion, that the matter be elaborated. 

Mrs. Brown. My experience, you mean, there? 

Mr. SciiERPiR. How it happened that you went to Florida. 

Mrs. Brow^n. Well, I went to Florida as a delegate to the Sojourn- 
ers for Truth and Justice, during the Minis murder case. 

I say ''Mims," but the man was Moore. He was Mr. Moore, one of 
the officials of the NAACP, but it was in Mims, Florida, that he lived. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, did your trip for the Sojourners for Truth have 
anj-thing to do with the murder case? What was the connection? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, we went there to talk to the Governor. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Governor of Florida ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. SciiERER. To grant him clemency ? To give him probation, or 
to reduce his sentence ? 

Mrs. Brown. No. Mr. Moore, one of the officials of the NxlACP, 
was murdered in Mims, Florida. We went there to the Governor to 
ask him to find the murderer of this Moore man. 

And one of the things that we tried to impress on the Governor — 
that we were interested in the Moores — in fact the Communist Party 
wanted to take over in place of the NAACP. They wanted to use this 
as a means of 

Mr. ScHERER. Stirring up dissension? 

Mrs. Brown. Wanted to use this as a means of denouncing — no, that 
wouldn't be the word that I want to say. 

Mr. ScHERER. To agitate? 

Mrs. Brown. That was one word. 

To discredit the NAACP. That is the word in a nutshell. The 
Communist Party, as a rule, wdienever anything happened to the 
Negro, always have tried to take a front seat in everything; and in 
order to discredit the NAACP and to barge in on the NAACP's ac- 
tivities. And we went to Mims, Florida, because we thought that we 
would have a real — we could go before the public and get more people 
in the Sojourners for Truth and Justice, and it would be one of the 
things that we could do to help in the membership of the Sojourners 
for Truth and Justice. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. In other words, the enemies of the exploiters wanted 
to exploit in this case, to gain membership ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, to gain membership through this exploitation of 
the Moore murder. 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire : Did you see the Governor of Florida? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, we saw him. 

Mr. Doyle. How many of you were granted an interview? How 
many in the party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Just about six or eight. 

Mr. Doyle. How many of those six or eight were active members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I didn't know them all. There were about tliree or 
four Negroes and about probably three or four whites. 



1042 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. From different parts of the country ? 

Mrs. Brown. Maybe so. But I know Angle Dickerson was there, 
and I knew her. I did not know the others. I don't remember any of 
the others. But we left Tallahassee and went back to Jacksonville, 
and there they tried to start a race riot in Jacksonville, by going in one 
of the restaurants. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliodid? 

Mrs. Brown. Angle Dickerson. 

Mr. Doyle, While you were present ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. What steps were taken to start a race riot by Angle 
Dickerson in your presence ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, there was a "no colored" sign there in the air- 
port in Jacksonville, and everyone decided that they wanted some- 
thing to eat, all except me. I stayed in the car, and the rest of them — 
there were two Negro men and Angle Dickerson — they went in and 
demanded service. And they were refused service. So they came 
out and started a pretty big ruckus, and they called the Governor, 
and the Governor sent policemen out there. 

Mr. Scherer. At that time were you an undercover operative or 
informant for the FBI in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you report this to the FBI ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean you did all of these things with these known 
Communists, these men and women that were known to you to be Com- 
munists, and yet you were an FBI operative or informant all this time ^ 

Mrs. Brown. Sure. 

Mr. Doyle. And they did not know it ? 

Mrs. Brown. No. 

Mr. Doyle. I did not know they were that dmnb. 

Mr. Bruce. I think we ought to reverse that, that it is wonderful 
that she is that smart. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I think the testimony will reveal that 
toward the end there was some suspicion among the Communist Party 
members, and I believe the witness will relate that, and that suspicion 
led to Mrs. Brown finally vacating the Cleveland area and going to 
California. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, we are glad that she came to California. But I 
really did not think that so many of the Communists were that dumb. 
They are apparently not as smart as they think they are. 

Mrs. Brown, I am very sure they are not. 

Mr. Scherer. The FBI is plenty smart. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. She was FBI, you see. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While you are on the subject of race riots, could you 
tell us whether or not the Commmiist Party attempted to stimulate 
race riots in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown, Yes, I remember one incident, during the Till mur- 
der case. During the Smith Act trials in Cleveland, I attended a meet- 
ing at the Civil Rights Congress, and as I was leaving with Frieda 
Katz and James Smld, we were talking about the Till boy's murder, 
and Frieda said, "Isn't it terrible? All of these good things are 
happening, and we have to go to trial." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1043 

So later on, in attending the Smith Act trial, one night Frieda Katz 
called me around 10 o'clock and said that the Till boy was hanging 
under some bridge in elligy, and for me to call all the newspapers and 
all of my friends and get them down there. And I told her that I 
would. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You said they were going to hang the Till boy in effigy ? 

ISIrs. Browx. He was already hanging in effigy, and she wanted me 
to get the newspapers and all of my friends, all of the Negroes, and get 
them at this place where the Till boy was hanging in effigy. 

;Mr. SoHERKR. You say Frieda Katz said to you that the Till murder 
case was one of the "good things"" that was happening^ 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. What did she mean by that, if you know ? 

]\Irs. Brown. "Well, yes, sure I knew what she meant. She meant 
that that was just one of the things that they coimnercialize on and 
use for bait; that in reality they cared nothing about the Till boy's 
murder. 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. It is another case of exploiting ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. It is another case where you have the sugar to 
catch the flies, to feed the poison. 

Mr. Doyle. And to raise money. 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. And they raised thousands of dollars 
from that Till murder. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is suggested by your testimony with respect to the 
dissolution of the Sojourners for Truth and Justice, that the Commu- 
nists may not have trusted the Negro women as Communists. Do you 
have any experience in the Communist Party with respect to the 
question whether the Communist leadership trusted the Negro ? 

Mrs. Brown. No. They do not trust the Negro, because in fact they 
will only let one or two, and no more, get high in office. 

I feel it is because the Negro is too religious, and the Communist 
Party don't believe in God. And the Negro was trained, in his 
heredity he was raised that way. And when he is duped into the 
Communist Party, he still somehow carries God with him; unless 
he is a real dyed-in-the-wool Communist and in the beginning he never 
believed in God. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever meet a Communist, or know a Communist 
who at any time in any discussion with you said anything to you 
favorable to the American people's belief in worship or going to 
church or worshiping God ? 

Mrs. Brown. No. Never in favor of it. Only the ones that have 
infiltrated the churches. They talk about religion. 

Mr. Doyle. But it is phony talk ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever see the American flag in any Communist 
meeting? 

Mrs. Brown. Never. 

Mr. Doyle. Neither did I ever hear of one being there. 

Mr, ScHERER. I thought there was no infiltration of this country. 

Mr. Doyle. You what? 

Mr. ScHERER. I thought there was no infiltration of the churches of 
this country. 

I am facetious when I say that, Mr. Chairman. 



1044 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

The witness just said they only talk about religion when they suc- 
ceed in infiltrating the churches. We have been told so many times 
that there was no such infiltration. 

Mr. Doyle. There is no place they do not try to infiltrate. They 
are a bunch of hypocrites, as far as patriotism to the United States or 
religion is concerned. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will pass to another organization, which was 
formed expressly to involve the Negro people, to which you referred, 
namely, the National Negro Labor Council, organized at a founding 
convention in Cincinnati, on October 27-28, 1951. 

You were later selected as treasurer of the Cleveland branch of 
that organization, were you not, Mrs. Brown ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the founding convention as a 
delegate from the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am referring to the founding convention of the na- 
tional organization. 

Mrs. Brown. I did. 

Mr. NiTi^LE. "Wlio were the leading delegates from the Cleveland 
area participating with you at that convention ? 

Mrs. Brown. Myrtle and Ray Dennis, Fred Gardner, Bert Wash- 
ington, who is deceased, Ethel Goodman, Carlotta Ruf us Hight. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you spell that last name ? 

Mrs. Brown. Hight, H-i-g-h-t, I think. I really don't know ex- 
actly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was her maiden name Carlotta Ruf us? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, Carlotta Rufus. 

Did I mention Fred Gardner ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, you did. 

Mrs. Brown. Many, many others that I would remember if re- 
called to me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Cleveland area delegates ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, these were Cleveland people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I do not believe you have identified on the record 
whether Fred Gardner was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. Fred Gardner and his wife, I think — I think 
her nicloiame was Lee Gardner, but I am not so sure — were members 
of the Communist Party. I have attended closed Communist meet- 
ings at Fred Gardner's home several times and at Frieda Katz' home 
and others in the early 1950's. Later they moved from Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know where they moved when thev left Cleve- 
land? 

Mrs. Brown. I did not. I heard they had moved some place in 
Denver. I am not sure where they had moved to. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have identified the others, with the exception of 
Carlotta Rufus. 

Mrs. Brown. I know Carlotta Rufus as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings with 
Carlotta at Carlotta's home, at Myrtle Dennis' home, and Margaret 
Wlierry's home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Over how long a period of time did you know her to 
be active in the Communist Party in the Cleveland area? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1045 

Mrs. Brown. From the early 1950's until she later became inactive. 
She told me that she was going to scliool, taking a teacher's course. 

Mr. NiiTLK. Who appointed you to be a delegate to the national con- 
vention of the National Negro Labor Council in Cincinnati? Do you 
recollect how that appointment occurred ? 
Mrs. Brown. Yes, but 1 don't recall at this moment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who appointed you treasurer of the Cleveland branch 
of that Council ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, we had a meeting after we came from Cin- 
cinnati, and I was appointed treasurer. I know Fred Gardner was 
present at this meeting, and a man named Plirshberg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What kind of meeting was this ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, this was a closed Communist meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say a man named Hirshberg was present. Who 
was Hirshberg ? 

Mrs. Brown. W^ell, I never did know the exact title that he had, 
but as far as I was concerned, he was an overseer of the Negro Labor 
Council. 

INIr. NiTTLE. What was his full name? 

Mrs. Brown. Herb Hirshberg, I believe. Herbert Hirshberg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I know Herbert Hirshberg to be a Communist. 
I have attended closed Communist meetings where Herbert Hirsh- 
berg attended. He is connected, I think, with the LTnited Electrical 
Union. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is committee information that he was or is an 
international representative of the United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers of America, and as a matter of fact, Herbert Hirsh- 
berg has been identified as a member of the Communist Party by 
Victor Decavitch in public hearings before this committee on July 
14th, 1950. Mr. Decavitch stated that Herbert Hirshberg was sent to 
Cleveland as a replacement for Fred Haug as the United Electrical 
representative. 

Did you know a Fred Haug while in the Communist Party in 
Cleveland? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes; and Fred Haug was one of the delegates at 
this convention, too, I remember. I know Fred and his wife, Marie 
Haug, as members of the Conununist Party. I have attended several 
closed Communist Party meetings where Marie and Fred Haug were 
present at Don Rothenberg's home, at Marie and Fred Hang's home, 
and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a booklet, identified as Brown Exhibit No. 
5, which contains a record of the proceedings of the founding conven- ' 
tion of the National Negro Labor Council. It is titled "Get on Board 
the Freedom Train," and I ask whether you can identify it. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

(Document marked "Brown Exhibit No. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may it be understood that the above 
exhibit and future documents introduced during these hearings, be 
identified by niunber and inserted in the record or retained in com- 
mittee files, as the case may be. 

Mr. DoYLE. Yes, without objection being heard, that may be the 
procedure. 



1046 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 



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COM]VIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1047 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Cliairman, I also offer for the record a report of 
the convention of the Council appearino; in the Dally Worker on 
September 13, 1951, identified as Brown Exhibit No. 6. 

(Document marked "Brown Exhibit No. 6" appears on opposite 

Mr. NiTTLK. I also offer for the record additional articles concern- 
ino- the convention of the National Ne<rro Labor Council held in Cin- 
cinnati in October 1951 : (1) from the Daily Worker of September 25, 
1951, entitled "On The "Way— Negro Workers Must Fight A Lot of 
Eacist Pressure": (2) an Associated Press report under date of Octo- 
ber 11, 1951, entitled "CIO To Fight Red-Inspired Negro Council." 

(Documents marked "Brown Exhibits Nos. 7 and 8," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. I would like to make express reference to Exhibit 8, 
which is the Associated Press report under date of October 11, 1951. 
This report notes the opposition of CIO officials to the National Negro 
Labor Council convention as "Communist inspired." It also contains 
a statement from Roy Wilkins, then administrator of the National 
Association for the Advancement of Colored People, who voices his 
opposition to the formation of this National Negro Labor Council. 

Roy Wilkins is quoted as having said that the NAACP was on rec- 
ord against Communist infiltration and activity and — 

would not support in any way an effort to split the CIO — by Communists 
especially — nor would we look with favor or encourage in any way the setting 
up of separate Negro labor organizations. 

I understand, Mrs. Brown, you also attended the second annual 
convention of the National Negro Labor Council, which was held at the 
Municipal Auditorium in Cleveland on November 21-23, 1952. 

I show you a copy of the report of that convention, identified as 
Brown Exhibit No. 9, which at page 5 contains a photograph of 
the executive board of the Cleveland Negro Labor Council, in which 
you appear as treasurer, together with officers of the Cleveland board. 
Do you identify your photograph on that exhibit ? 

Mrs. Browx. Yes. 

(Document marked "Brown Exhibit No. 9" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. As treasurer, did you handle the money of the Cleve- 
land branch ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, I did not. I was treasurer in name only. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who got the money ? 

Mrs. Brown. The Communist Party received the money. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us whether or not, to your personal 
knowledge, any of the members of the executive board named in that 
exhibit have been known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Shall I call the names out ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just identify those officers. I did not number them. 
My count indicates that there are 13 officers listed and photographed 
as members of the executive board. Of that number, w-ould you tell 
us those persons whom vou can identify as members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Fred Gardner. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You previously told us about him. 

Mrs. Brow^n. Yes. 



1048 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Ethel L. Goodman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you previously told us about her. 

]Mrs. Brown. Carlotta Eufus. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have told us about her. 

Mrs. Broavn". Florence Romig. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I do not believe you had completed the identification 
of Florence Romig. Would you tell us how you knew Florence Romig 
to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I had attended closed Communist Party meetings 
with Florence Romig at Bert Washington's home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was she a Cleveland resident ? 

Mrs. Brown. As far as I know, yes ; but I lost contact with her, too, 
in the middle 1950's. She was in another area. 

The other one is Lew Jennings, the husband of Ethel Goodman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Tlie same Ethel Goodman whom you have previously 
identified ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. Lew Jennings was the husband of 
Ethel Goodman Jennings. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you determine that Lew Jennings was a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings 
where Lew Jennings was present at Ethel Goodman's home, Margaret 
Wierry's home, Frieda Katz' home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I note on Exhibit No. 9 that Ethel L. Goodman is 
designated as executive secretary. Do you identify her as being a 
member of the Communist Party at that time ? 

Mrs. Brown. At tliat time Ethel Goodman was a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did she continue active in Communist Party work ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, she did not. She went over into the "ultra-left," 
you might call it, organization, called the POC. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Those initials POC are quite well known in some re- 
spects, if I may suggest its full name to you, as the Provisional 
Organizing Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, 
Is that what you mean ? 

Mrs. Brown. Provisional Organizing Committee, yes. They short- 
ened that name to POC. 

I\Ir. NiTTLE. We propose, Mrs. Brown, to question you about the 
POC later. I would like to return to this second annual report to 
which we were referring. 

I note also that a Clevelander, Robert Decker, was in attendance 
at the second annual convention of the National Negro Labor Council. 
You have previously identified him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs, Brown. That is correct. 

IMr. NiTTLE. Were any persons known to you to be non-Commu- 
nists members of the Negro Labor Council ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. The Negro Labor Council was run on the 
order of the Sojourners for Truth and Justice. They had non-Com- 
munist members. But it was dominated by Commmiists. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. It was a front organization ? 

Mrs. Brown. It was a Communist -front organization. 

]SIr. NiTTLE, And had hoped to draw in non-Communists, of course ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1049 

Mrs. Brown. That is right — they did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask you whether these people who were non- 
Commiinists, and drawn into the organization, were given any voice 
in the selection of the leadership of the organization? 

Mrs. Browx. Oh, no. That doesn't happen in the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There are certain persons which information in the 
possession of the committee indicates were in attendance at the second 
annual convention of the National Negro Labor Council at Cleve- 
land. I am going to name certain persons I believe to be in the Cleve- 
land area. We want to determine whether or not to your certain 
knowledge the}' were members of the Communist Party. 

Of course, the objective of these identifications is to determine 
the extent of Communist support and action within the organiza- 
tion, and also to enlighten the committee and the Congress as to 
the extent of Communist activity in this area. This has a distinct 
legislative purpose. The committee must determine wliether there is 
a menace and, if so, what is its extent, so that it may determine finally 
whether it is necessary to make recommendations upon this subject, 
and what they may be. 

I will ])roceed to give those names. 

Libby Gisser ? 

Mrs.BROWN. I know Libby Gisser to be a member of the Communist 
Party. Wlien I first met Libby, she was in the Communist Youth 
League. I have been in closed Communist meetings with Libby Gisser 
at Frieda Katz' home and my home and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long clo you recall her as being active in the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. From the early 1950's to the middle 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Carlos Grubbs. 

Mrs. Browx. Carlos Grubbs. I know Carlos Grubbs and his wife 
to be members of the Communist Party. I think her name was Vivian. 
I have attended several closed Communist Party meetings with Carlos 
Grubbs and his wife. His wife is the daughter of Bert Washington. I 
attended closed Communist meetings in Carlos Grubbs' home several 
times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Anton or Anthony Halamak ? 

Mrs. Browx. I know Anthony PEalamak to be a member of the Com- 
mmiist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings 
where Anthony Halamak was present at Frieda Katz' home several 
times. He is also connected with some newspaper, I think. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Anthony Halamak to be 
active witliin the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Browx. Since the early 1950's, until I left Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Frank Hashmall ? 

Mrs. Browx. I know Frank Hashmall to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party. I have attended several closed Communist meetings 
where Frank Hashmall attended at Frieda Katz' home, Sylvia Strauss' 
home, and Edith Lmner's home. Frank Hashmall lived in Akron, 
Ohio. 

Mr. ScHERER. Hashmall was the head of the Communist Party in 
Ohio for a while, was he not ? 



1050 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. In Ohio? He was connected somehow, but I was a 
new member then, along about that time, and I didn't know too much 
about Haslimall, because at the time he lived in Akron. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our records indicate that Frank Hashmall was a 
member of the Ohio State Committee of the Communist Party in 1949. 
He was identified in that capacity in testimony given by David W. 
Garfield, who had been in the party from 1941 until 1952. 

Mr. ScHEEER. Hashmall served time in the Ohio penitentiary, too, 
but I cannot remember what the charge was. It involved some illegal 
acts concerning transportation of an automobile, et cetera. That is 
my best recollection on it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Admiral Kilpatrick ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Admiral Kilpatrick to be a member of the 
Communist Party. I have attended numerous closed Communist 
Party meetings where Admiral Kilpatrick was present. Admiral 
Kilpatrick was chairman of the POC. He was also expelled from 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He was expelled from the Commmiist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will deal with him more at length when we in- 
quire into the POC. 

Mr. DoTLE. Was he an actual admiral in the Navy ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is just his name, his first name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Joseph Krause ? 

Mrs. Brown. Joseph Krause I know as a Communist. Joseph 
Krause and his wife, Mildred Krause. I have attended several closed 
Communist Party meetings where they were present. They were 
also members of one of five clubs where I was treasurer — the Com- 
munist Party clubs. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Joe Kres? 

Mrs. Brown. Joe Kres and his wife, Cheda Kres. I know Joe and 
Cheda Kres to be members of the Communist Party. I have attended 
closed Coimnunist Party meetings where Joe Kres and Cheda Kres 
were present. It has been quite a while since I have seen them. I 
lost connection with them, too — -Joe and Cheda Kres. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they remain in the Cleveland area, or did you lose 
contact with them altogether ? 

Mrs. Brown. I lost contact with them altogether. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Can you offer an explanation, in general, with respect 
to the apparent cessation of activity of some of the Communists you 
name, or have named, at or about the inid-1950's ? Did anything occur 
that would drive the party underground at that time? Did the 
party tighten security ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. After the Smith Act, there were 11 Commu- 
nists arrested on the Smith Act. That is right. When the 11 Com- 
munists were arrested under the Smith Act, they did tighten security, 
and they were very secretive after that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. William A. Livingstone? You have told us about 
Blanche Livingstone. Was she the wife of William A. Livingstone? 

Mrs. Brown. She was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know William A. Livingstone as a member 
of the Communist Party ? 



COIMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1051 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do. I know William Livino-stone as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. I have attended several closed Com- 
mmiist Part}' meetings where William Livingstone attended at Frieda 
Katz" home, Sylvia Strauss' home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Martha Eantio? 

Mrs. Brown. INIartha Rautio I know as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I have attended closed Commmiist Party meetings at 
Martha Rautio's home where Martha Rautio and her husband, IJno, 
were present. At one time Martha Rautio told me — during the Smith 
Act trials — she asked me not to reveal it — that she had a job at the 
airport in Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Paul J. Shepard? 

]\Irs. Brown. Paul J. Shepard I knew as a Communist, and attended 
closed Communist meetings where he was present, in 1948. I lost 
contact with Paul Shepard also in the early 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I might note for the record that Paul J. Shepard was 
also identified as a member of the Communist Party by witness J. 
Janowitz in the 1951-1952 Report of the Un-American Activities 
Commission, State of Ohio. 

******* 

Mr. NiTTLE. Ruth Lend, which I believe is the spelling of her name. 

Mrs, Brown. I know Ruth Lend as a member of the Communist 
Party. I have attended several closed Communist Party meetings 
with Ruth Lend at Ruth Lencl's home, at Sally Chancey's and Martin 
Chancey's home, and others. Ruth Lend is a member of the Com- 
munist Party clubs in which I was treasurer. 

Mr. Bruce. May I interject. Counsel ? 

You used the term "is." You are using it with reference to the 
time that you were in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. I didn't understand you. 

Mr. Bruce. Wlien you use "is" in the present tense, as you have 
quite often today, when you say "know them as," what you mean is 
that you "Iniew them as" — at the time you were there? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you state how long you knew Ruth Lend to be 
active in the Communist Party in the Cleveland area? 

Mrs. Brown. Since the early 1950's. 

Mr. Xittle. James Smid? 

Mrs. Brown. James Smid I know as a member of the Commmiist 
Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings with 
James Smid at the Communist Party office and at Frieda Katz' home 
and several homes. I have known James Smid as a Communist since 
the early 1950's until the time I left Cleveland. 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Mr. Counsel, in response to the question regarding 
the name immediately preceding, I believe the witness referred to 
meetings in the Martin Chancey home. My memory is not as good 
with respect to testimony of a few hours ago as hers is with respect to 
matters she is testifying to. Was he identified by the witness as a 
member ? 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. I do not believe she has as yet identified him, and I 
thank you for calling that to my attention. 

You have mentioned Martin and Sally Chancey. Did you know 
Martin Chancey to be a member of the Communist Party? 



1052 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. I know Martin and Sally Cliancey as dedicated mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. I have attended several closed Com- 
munist Party meetings where they were present. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know whether or not Martin Chancey occupied 
any position of leadership? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, he did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I might state, Mr. Chairman, for the record, that sev- 
eral witnesses in the past have identified Martin Chancey as a member 
of the Communist Party. As a matter of fact, Martin Chancey was at 
one time secretary of the Communist Party in Washington, D.C. 

Mrs. Martin Chancey has likewise been identified in sworn testi- 
mony before this committee. She was identified by Mary Markward 
on June 11, 1951. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all for today, Counsel, that you wish to 
question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. We will not have time for questions by the committee 
now, but we will begin tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

But Mr. Scherer has a statement he wishes to make. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I have a statement to make for the 
record. 

I received a letter from Rev. Dr. Willis E. Elliott, Secretary, De- 
partment of Evangelism, Board for Homeland Ministries, United 
Church of Christ. He lives in Cleveland. 

This letter has been given wide circulation. It is a scurrilous attack 
on the Committee on Un-American Activties. One does not expect 
this kind of a letter from one of the lowest j)ersons in our society, 
much less a minister of the Gospel. It rather nauseates and disgusts 
me that some member of the clergy and some others like him in the 
Cleveland area use their clerical robes to give weight to their unfair 
and false charges. 

Of course, they feel free to engage in this type of billingsgate, 
because they realize that a man in public office is severely handicapped 
and hesitant to criticize or denomice a member of the clergy in reply. 

In his letter. Dr. Elliott prates about his being committed to the 
truth. Yet there is no truth in his letter. 

Wliat do we find in the first paragraph of the letter, which he uses 
as an excuse for his attacJv on tlie committee and its work? Here is 
what Dr. Elliott says in the first paragraph of his letter to me under 
date of May 24 : 

Violation of your own rule that the names not be made public prior to the 
hearing date, the identity of the subpoena-recipients has been given most excel- 
lent publicity (by your design or by irresponsible management of your staff). 

Let me state without reservation that I know as a matter of fact 
that no member of this committee, its staff, or any of its employees, 
directly or indirectly, leaked the names of the witnesses subpenaed 
for these hearings to the press. As the chairman of this committee 
stated at the opening of these hearings this morning, he has asked the 
Attorney General to investigate the matter, to prosecute those respon- 
sible for illegally giving out this information. 

Dr. Elliott wrote a letter to Chairman Walter, similar to the one 
he wrote to me. Mr. Walter on June 1 wired him as follows : 

Our investigation discloses that no member of this committee or its staff had 
anything to do, directly or indirectly, with the publication in Cleveland, Ohio, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AllEA 1053 

of the names of witnesses subpenaed by this committee. I call upon you to 
advise me whether or not you have any information as to how the press obtained 
the names, as our investigation of the mattter is continuing. 

Listen carefully to Dr. Elliott's reply in his telegram under date 
of June 3 to Chairman Walter : 

Your telegram just reached me. The earliest public reference was in the May 
11th and 12th Cleveland Pi-ess Robert Crater articles. I regret that I have no 
other names to give you nor do I have any other information about this leak, 
but I respectfully thank you for your inquiry. 

It is obvious that Dr. Elliott made the charge against the committee 
without any basis in fact ^Yhatsoever. He read the names of the wit- 
nesses in the newspapers. He then went about smearing the commit- 
tee, charging it had violated its own rules by design or irresponsible 
management, and had given the names to the press. 

He and others in the Cleveland area used this false charge as 
an excuse for an all-out attack on the committee and its members. 
They preached sermons and wrote letters. Their attacks were airecl 
on radio and television. 

Joining Dr. Elliott in these false charges are the American Civil 
Liberties Union and the Americans for Democratic Action. Of course, 
you can expect this, because over the years they have been soft on com- 
munism. The ACLU has appeared in case after case, in hearing 
after hearing, in support of Communists and Communist causes. Over 
the years they have kept up an unremitting attack on the anti-Com- 
munist organizations in this country. 

It is passing strange that Dr. Elliott and his cohorts remained 
strangely silent when the names of witnesses called before any of 
the other investigating committees of the Congress appear in the press 
before the hearings. I refer particularly to the witnesses called in 
the rackets investigations. 

These people have also remained strangely silent when the press 
carries the names of witnesses called before grand juries, even though 
grand jury hearings under the law are secret. 

Dr. Elliott, the ADA, the ACLU, and their like, don't seem to care 
about the civil rights of these people. Why is it they constantly go 
overboard for the dedicated Communists whose goal is the overthrow 
of this Government ? 

That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock to- 
morrow morning, and the witnesses are instructed to return. 

(AVhereupon at 4 :40 p.m., Monday, June 4, 1962, the hearing was 
recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Tuesday, June 5, 1962.) 



C03I3IUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, 

AREA 

Part 1 



TUESDAY, JUNE 5, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pemisylvania ; Clyde Doyle, of California; Gordon H. Scherer, of 
Ohio; August E. Johansen, of Michigan; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. 

Also present : Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin. (Appearance as 
noted.) 

Staff members present: Alfred M. Nittle, counsel, and Neil E. Wet- 
terman, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Will you call your first witness, Mr. Nittle ? 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Julia Brown, would you please come forward ? 

TESTIMONY OF JULIA C. BROWN— Eesumed 

The Chairman. IMrs. Brown, you have been sworn. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown, when the committee recessed yesterday we 
were discussing the Negro Labor Council, a Communist- front organi- 
zation, and your activities in it. I show you a copy of a concert pro- 
gram, dated May 6, 1952, identified as Brown Exhibit No. 10. 

It appears thereon that this was a "cultural evening" presented on 
that date by the Cleveland branch of the National Negro Labor 
Council, featuring Paul Robeson to be held at the Paradise Audi- 
torium, 2226 East 55th Street, Cleveland. Your name, together with 
several others, appears as a sponsor for that affair. 

Together with that exhibit I hand you copies of two leaflets dis- 
tributed at that cultural affair, one titled "Meet Mrs. Vivian Hal- 
linan," and the other titled "Have You a Choice," identified as Brown 
Exhibits Nos. 11 and 12, which are campaign literature on behalf of 
the Progressive Party's candidates for President, Vincent Hallinan, 
and Vice President, Charlotta Bass. The latter exhibits carry the 

1055 



1056 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Progressive Party platform, which inchides, as one might expect, an 
advocacy of the immediate end of the Korean war, then in progress. 

Do you recognize these exhibits ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do. 

(Documents marked "Brown Exhibits Nos. 10, 11, and 12" and re- 
tained in committee files. ) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Information in the possession of the committee indi- 
cates that approximately 600 persons were in attendance at that affair. 
Were you in attendance at that affair ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hear Paul Kobeson sing ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, certain persons about whom we wish to inquire 
appear on Exhibit No. 10 as sponsors of that cultural evening, along 
with others who do not appear upon the list of sponsors, but which, 
our information indicates, were in attendance. We would like to 
determine whether you can identify the following persons, not pre- 
viously identified by you, who were to your certain knowledge, mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. 

Oscar Brownlee ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Oscar Brownlee as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings where 
Oscar Brownlee was present, in Oscar Brownlee's home, William 
Cooper's home, Frieda Katz' home, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you know him to be active in the Com- 
munist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Since 1948. I might add that Oscar Brownlee has 
two homes, one of the homes in the central area of Cleveland. The 
POC met there several times 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the Provisional Organizing Committee for a 
Marxist-Leninst Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A splinter group of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him to be active in the Communist Party 
until the time you left Cleveland in 1960 ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I will say until about 1959. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What happened in 1959 ? 

Mrs. Brown. I didn't see him after 1959. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Pete Wnorowski, W-n-o-r-o-w-s-k-i ? 

Mrs. Brown. Pete Wnorowski I know as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party of Cleveland. I have attended several Communist Party 
meetings where Peter Wnorowski was present at Frieda Katz' home 
and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. About how old a man was Peter Wnorowski ? 

Mrs. Brown. Pete Wnorowski is in his late 60's or 70's. He is an 
elderly man. I don't know very much about ages, but he is not a young 
man at all, and I won't call him a middle-aged man. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I would offer in evidence an item from 
The Worker of October 15, 1961, at page 11. It is a statement to The 
Worker by Peter Wnorowski, whose name has also been spelled, 
W-n-e-w-r-o-s-p-h-s-k-y. The item is as follows: 

THE WORKER carries out the best traditions of the "Appeal to Reason," 
which I read in the past. On my 83d birthday I donate $100 plus $5 from a 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OPIIO, AREA 1057 

frieud to The Worker. It is a paper of struggle for Peace, Democracy and 
Socialism. Best of luck for the "Midweek Worl^er." Peter Wuewrosphslvj, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Document marked "Brown Ii)xliibit. No. 12-A'' and retained in 
committee llles.) 

Abraham Eleff? 

Mrs. Browx. I know Abraham Eleff as a member of the Communist 
Party. I have attended several closed Comnmnist Party meetings 
where Abraham Eletf attended, at Sylvia Strauss' home, Frieda Katz' 
home, and others. xVbraham Eleff runs a seafood market on Kinsman 
Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Morris Hyblooni ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Morris Hybloom as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings 
where Morris Hybloom attended at Sylvia Strauss' and Frieda Katz' 
homes. In the middle lOSO's or early 1950's, I lost track of Morris 
Hybloom. I had attended Communist Party meetings which he 
attended in 1948. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you after that time in a different section of the 
Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, in testimony before the Sul^versive 
Activities Control Board on March 17, 1952, a witness, John Edward 
Janowitz, then of Cleveland, Ohio, testified that Morris Hybloom was 
a member of the Communist Party and that he knew him as a member 
of the Communist Party in the Cleveland Pneumatic branch. 

Joseph Kamen ? 

Mrs. Brown. Joseph Kamen and his wife Norma Kamen I know 
as members of the Communist Party. I attended several closed 
Communist Party meetings where Joseph and Norma Kamen were 
present at Bill Haber's home, at Sylvia Strauss' liome, Frieda Katz' 
home, and others. I have known them since 1948. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Sally Winters ? 

Mrs. Brown. Sally Winters I know as a Communist. I liave at- 
tended several closed Communist Party meetings where Sally Win- 
ters was present at Sylvia Strauss' home, Frieda Katz' home, and 
others. I have known Sally Winters since 1948. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is she now known as Sally Winters Morillas, M-o-r-i-1- 
1-a-s? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, that is her married name. Could I add that 
after I left the party in 1948 Sally Winters came to my home in 1949 
with the DaUy Worker and asked me to subscribe to it and wanted 
to know why I didn't come back into the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know what her activities had been and who 
her associates may have been at that time in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I do know that her associates were Frieda 
Katz, Sylvia Strauss, and — do you mean in 1949 ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period you knew her to be active. 

Mrs. Brown. I knew her to be active in the early 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you give us a word or two about her 

Mrs. Brown. More active in the early 1950's — I was in her presence 
more in the early 1950's. 



1058 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiiTLE. With whom did she associate most closely in the 
party to your knowledg:e? 

Mrs. Brown. Frieda Katz, Sally and Martin Chancey. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Henry K. Siegel, S-i-e-g-e-1 ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Henry Siegel to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party. I have attended several Communist Party meetings 
where Henry Siegel was present. I have known Henry Siegel since 
1948. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how long did you know him to be active in the 
Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Until the middle 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What happened at that time, if anything ? 

Mrs. Brown. He happens to be another one that I lost track of. 
Although I saw him at several social gatherings in the late 1950's, 
I attended closed Communist Party meetings with him in 1948 and in 
the early 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat do you mean by social gatherings ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Communist Party social gatherings, parties 
that the Communists would have for the members. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you describe the type of party that you are 
referring to ? What was the purpose of the Communist Party social 
gathering ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, in order to make money, they would have social 
gatherings where each of the members would bring the food and they 
would sell drinks and food, and they would tell the members what 
propaganda was to be spread among the public. Now, at some of the 
social gatherings, they would have meetings preceding the social 
gathering, and then later in the evening they would have meetings for 
people who did not attend the earlier meeting. These meetings would 
sometimes last until 6 or 7 o'clock in the morning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the social gatherings combined business with 
pleasure ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is riglit. All of the social gatherings combined 
business with pleasure, especially when it was in a private home. In 
some of the public places it was cliilerent, but at all private home 
gatherings they had meetings. 

(At this point Chairman Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they take occasion to celebrate each other's 
birthday ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. Very often it would be a birthday given and 
really the person didn't know anything about their birthday. For 
instance, if your birthday came in January sometimes they would call 
a member and tell him that his birthday was that March, or April, or 
June. We always had different birthdays than the date that we were 
really born on. That was in order to attract the members of the 
Communist Party to these parties. 

Mr. Doyle (presiding). How many birthdays a year did you have 
for that purpose ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, you see, my birthday is in January and maybe 
one would call and say, "You're having a birtliday this month." May- 
be it would be March. Well, if any of the Communists didn't know 
exactly what date my birthday was, then we would have a party for 
my birthday, although it would not really be my birthday. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1059 

Mv. NiTTLE. Do you sng<^est tliat when the party needed to raise a 
little money they would tell respective members tliat "You are going 
to have a birthday party"? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. They would go to any means to raise money, 
any means. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were they successful in raising money this way? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, very successful. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Elsie Tarcai, T-a-r-c-a-i. Did you know her ? 

Mrs. Brown. I know Elsie Tarcai to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I have attended closed Communist Party meetings where 
Elsie Tarcai attended at Milton and Bertha Tenenbaum's home and 
at Yetta Land's. 

Elsie Tarcai was introduced to me at my home. Frieda Katz 
brought her there during the Smith Act trials. Elsie Tarcai wanted 
me to mortgage my home for $2,000 for the purpose of assisting in 
the Smith Act case. 

Later I was taken to Elsie Tarcai's home, where she and her sister, 
Violet Tarcai, lived. I was introduced to Violet as Comrade Violet, 
Elsie Tarcai's sister. 

Mr. XiTTLE. What was the occupation of Elsie Tarcai ? 

Mrs. Brown. She is a lawyer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Practicing law in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. She was. 

iNIr. NiTTLE. What do you mean by she was ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I couldn't say now. I don't know whether she 
is now. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliat was the occupation of her sister, Violet Tarcai, 
whom you have just mentioned? 

]\Irs. Brown. I think Violet Tarcai is a lawyer. I didn't have as 
much contact with Violet Tarcai as I did Elsie. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You described Violet being introduced to you as Com- 
rade Violet? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have further identification of her as a member 
of the Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. In the early 1950's I remember attending a 
closed Communist meeting where Violet and Elsie were present. 

Mr. NiTTLE. INIyron Thomas? 

Mrs. Brown. Myron Thomas I know as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. I have attended closed Com.munist Party meetings M'here 
^Myron Thomas attended in Cleveland, at Frieda Katz' home, Sylvia 
Strauss' home, and Margaret Wherry's home. Myron Thomas comes 
from Akron, Ohio. He is not a resident of Cleveland. At least, he 
was not at that time. I have known Myron Thomas since 1948. 

(At this point Mr. Johansen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]Mr. Chairman, I ask to place in the record a further 
identification of Myron Thomas as a member of the Communist Party. 
He was identified as such by a witness, Mae Probst, in Ohio Commis- 
sion hearings in 1953. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. George Tomsik? 

]\Irs. Brow^n. George Tomsik I know as a member of the Communist 
Party. I attended several closed Communist Party meetings where 



1060 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

George Tomsik was present at Frieda Katz' home, Sylvia Strauss', 
and others. I have known George Tomsik since 1948. In the early 
1950"s I was not comiected with him, onl}^ at social gatherings. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By social gatherings, are you again referring to social 
gatherings of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you and he in separate sections or clubs of the 
Communist Party after the mid 1950's ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

(At this point Mr. Johansen returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Communist Party allow members of one club 
to meet with members of another club after the Smith Act cases had 
been instituted ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, no, they w^ere very secretive after that, very secre- 
tive. Some of the members didn't come in contact with other members 
at all, 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand that the National Negro Labor Council 
dissolved in 1956. An article in the Conmiunist Daily Worker of May 
1, 1956, at page 3, indicates that the dissolution occurred as a result 
of proceedings instituted against it under the Internal Security Act of 
1950. 

Mr. Chairman, I offer this article in the record as Brown Exhibit 
No. 13. 

(Document marked "Brown Exhibit No. 13" follows.) 

Brown Exhibit No. 13 
(Daily Worker, May 1, 1956) 

Dissolve Nigro 
Labor Council 

DETROIT, April 30 (F?).- 
ColeaMtn A. Youcg. execudve sec- 
rcHuy ai lite Notkmal N^^o La- 

\kx CDuacil, has announced dis- 
jufivtlon of tlie orgdnization ftfter 
ftvB years of activity in behalf of 
(A Negro rights. 

Actk)n was taken Ixxrause of or- 
jen t0 appear before the U. S. 
SBlfc^^mv© activities control board. 
Cdsman said: 

"We arc unwilling to subject our 
tlioas&Dd< of members and sup- 
porters, who ure innocent of any 
vyraoiRiauig. Ut tbe loss of jobs, 
bSad^stJn^ and other forms of 
panocutioa entailed iu the regis- 
tntxm requsrevnents of the uncon- 
sSift^iooal McCarran Interoftl Se- 
curity Act. The siixnc kind of ef- 
fort is being made U) destroy tJie 
NAACP iu die south. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1061 

Will you tell us briefly of the steps taken for the dissolution, if any, 
of the Clevehuul area branch of the National Keo-ro Labor Council '''. 

Mrs. Browx. Well, the dissolution actually began several months 
before the action of the Subversive Activities Control Board. It was 
bein^- dissolved for the same reason that the Sojourners for Truth and 
Justice was dissolved. In the Negro Labor Council they had quite a 
nmnbor of non- Communists and, although the Communist Party dom- 
inated the Council and were leaders of the Council, there were non- 
Communists who wanted to fight in the American way or in the way 
they thought would be American. Of course the Communist Party 
didn't want that, and the Council somehow was not toeing the party 
line. They were trying to deviate in some manner and the party 
stopped the pay of Ethel Goodman who was secretary. 

She was getting $75 a month and they stopped her pay. Of course, 
they stopped the pay of the chairman, Bert Washington, at that time. 
Then the organization didn't function as well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you remain as treasurer of the Cleveland branch 
of the Negro Labor Council until the time of its dissolution ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I only remained the treasurer in name. I did 
not receive the money of the Council at all. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who received it ? 

Mrs. Brown. The Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did the Communist Party pay Ethel Goodman's 
salary ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the time she was the executive secretary ? 

Mrs. Brown. They did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know other instances where the Communist 
Party maintained full-time employees upon its payroll to carry out 
its work of deception and destruction ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Ethel Goodman was one. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You knew her as a paid employee ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any knowledge Avhether Elsie Zazrivy, 
who occupied the Communist offices of the Ohio Committee for Pro- 
tection of Foreign Born on Euclid Avenue, was a paid employee ? 

Mrs. Brown. I am not sure of that. I know Edith Lumer was a 
paid employee. I know Mamie McCurdy is a paid employee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mamie McCurdy ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes ; Mamie Abernathy McCurdy. She works for 
the United Electrical Union. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what capacity' ? 

Mrs. Brown. Stenographer or typist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Working as a strenographer for the United Electrical, 
Eadio and Machine Workers Union ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the union which was expelled from the CIO 
in 1949 as being Communist dominated ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right, and the one that Marie Reed Haug and 
Fred Haug had. Carlotta Rufus was a paid employee of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. NiTiLE. There was a bookstore being operated full time in the 
Communist Party headquarters on Euclid Avenue. Do you know 
whether Morris and Frida Kreitner received any compensation ? 



1062 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. I talked with Frida Kreitner when they were mov- 
ing out of the bookstore at 5103 Euclid Avenue. She told me at the 
time that they hadn't been living so well, so I am thinking that she 
did not have a very good salary. She was paid once in awhile. Some- 
times the Communist Party does that, too, and she was so happy that 
she was going to get more money. She said it was now time that she 
and her husband would live and have what they wanted and I don't 
know of anything that Frida is doing for the Communist Party but 
to infiltrate the NAACP. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This bookstore, maintained at the Communist head- 
quarters on Euclid Avenue, contained certain books and literature. 
Of what type, would you say ? 

Mrs, Brown. All Communist literature. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You told us yesterday about the instructions and in- 
doctrmation you were receiving at the home of Sylvia Strauss, where 
you met in closed Communist Party meetings, or with a neighborhood 
cell or club. Did you receive any Communist literature from Sylvia 
Strauss to read or that you were asked to read ? 

Mrs. Brown. Not at that time. Later we were asked to read sev- 
eral types of literature that I could only identify and I can't remem- 
ber the names. Somehow I never read them. Wlien I was given 
them I threw them away and I really cannot remember the names. 
One, may I say I can remember, was something like the "Manifesto," 
a Communist pamplilet. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recall the name of any other literature ? 

Mrs. Brown. I don't know. They have so many of those kinds of 
documents. I am sorry. I can't remember right now. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown, we are going to turn to another subject, 
the POC. You have told us that Ethel L. Goodman, who was at one 
period the executive secretary of the Cleveland Negro Labor Comicil, 
had left the Communist Party and joined an organization which is 
titled the "Provisional Organizing Cormnittee" to which you referred 
by its initials, POC. Our committee in its annual report to the Con- 
gress for the year 1959 dealt briefly with it. Our information reveals 
that this group was formed in Au^st 1958 by a number of Communist 
Party members who, being dissatisfied with the trends and policies of 
the Communist Party, U.S.A., referred to themselves as a Marxist- 
Leninist Caucus, and called for the formation of a Provisional Organ- 
izing Committee for the reconstitution of a Marxist-Leninist Party, 
the POC. The POC group was composed largely of extreme left- 
wing elements of the Communist Party, elements which Khrushchev 
would describe as "dogmatists," "adventurists," or "left" sectarians — 
in short, they were radicals of a radical movement. 
^ This extreme left-wing element is in contrast with another devia- 
tionist group, the soft right-wing group, led by John Gates. This 
group was too soft in the "class struggle," and its conduct was severely 
condemned at Moscow as "right opportunist." Both of these ele- 
ments, the ultra-left POC, and the right-wing group of the John 
Gates variety, were expelled from the Communist Party for refusing 
to submit to Moscow leadership. As a matter of fact, this committee 
dealt in great detail at its hearings in November 1961 with this very 
subject. We clearly proved by documentary e^ddence, as well as by 
the testimony of witnesses, that the Communist Party does not tolerate 
dissent. 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1063 

The split, in the Communist Party ranks within the United States 
was precipitated here, as it was elsewlierc and in other parties throuirh- 
out the world, as a result of the Khrushcliev denunciation of Stalin 
at the 20th Soviet Party Congress in 11)50. On the weekend of Au- 
gust 16, 1958, 83 national delegates assembled in New York City for 
a "Communist Conference." That is what it was termed by the POC 
leaders — a "Comnnmist Conference." 

Mr. ScHEKER. What was that date, did you say ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That, j\Ir. Scherer, was August 16 and 17, 1958. The 
official newspaper of this dissident group, called Vanguca'd, in Sep- 
tember 1958, reported on the major developments at this meeting. 

Mrs. Brown, do you have personal knowledge of the actual organi- 
zation of the POC at its national convention in New York City? 
Were you in attendance at that convention ? 

]\Irs. Brown. Yes, I was. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Who interested you in the POC movement originally in 
the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Admiral Kilpatrick, a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you have discussions with him about this pro- 
posed convention, or about the POC organization that was in con- 
templation ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, yes, several times he came to my home and 
asked me to become a member, and later tliis group participated in the 
POC conference in New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Admiral Kilpatrick hold an office in the POC 
group? 

]\Irs. Brown. He was chairman of the Cleveland district. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what he told you about this organi- 
zation in which he was seeking to interest you ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I questioned him about the Communist Party 
and wondered if they were not the same and why did he want to 
organize a different, an ultra-left, organization, and he said that the 
Communist Party was bought out by the Government and that 

Mr. NiTFLE, I see Mr. Forer, who is the attorney for the Communist 
Party in its appeal on the Internal Security Act, smiled when you 
said that the Communist Party was bought out by the Government. 
Of course, they contend otherwise. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Communist Party. I don't mean Mr. Forer. He 
is the attorney. 

Mr. Forer. Do you contend that it was ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forer, we don't contend that the Communist 
Party was bought out by the Government. We contend that the 
Communist Party is trying to destroy the Government. Now, would 
you proceed, Mrs. Brown? 

Mrs, Brown. Of course that was Kilpatrick's word. He said that 
the Communist Party was bought out by the Government and that 
they were now quiet about the overthrow of the United States Gov- 
ernment by force and violence, and that they, the POC members, were 
preaching that to the house tops. They were telling the people that 
the only way to conquer the United States was by force and violence, 
and now the Communist Party was saying that it could be done by 



1064 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

"peaceful coexistence." That was what Ealpatrick told me and that 
is why they have the different organizations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Kilpatrick wanted to destroy the Government imme- 
diately, whereas the "peaceful coexistence" idea was to destroy the 
Government later, and that was too long for him to wait ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, it seemed that the Communist Party was not 
preaching that after the Smith Act trials. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to say that the prosecutions by the De- 
partment of Justice under the Smith Act had an effect upon the open 
preachings within Communist Party ranks with respect to force and 
violence ? 

Mrs. Brown. It certainly did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to these prosecutions by the Department of 
Justice they preached to your groups in cell meetings, and openly 
advocated destruction of the government by force and violence, did 
they? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes, but after the Smith Act trials, then they 
began to ease off of that quite a bit. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I believe that yesterday you did testify that 
prior to the Smith Act trials you were taught the necessity of 
revolution ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the home of Sylvia Strauss ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You told us that Admiral Kilpatrick was trying to 
interest you in the POC movement, which of course would result in 
the breakup of the Communist Party in the Cleveland area if all mem- 
bers joined the POC. Did you call this fact to the attention of the 
Communist leaders in your section ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was your section leader ? 

Mrs. Brown. Jean Krchmarek. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that is the wife of Anthony Krchmarek, the head 
of the Conmiunist Party of the Ohio district. 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us with whom you had discussion on the 
subject of the POC? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I talked with Jean Krchmarek and Ruth Lend 
and told them that I had attended several of the meetings, and Ruth 
Lend suggested that I go ahead and keep attending and let them know 
what was happening. Well, I did for a while. I guess I attended five 
or six meetings. Then later after I began to complain about how the 
Communists were treating me, Jean decided that I had better stop 
attending the meetings of the POC. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to suggest that Jean Krchmarek became 
concerned, for you were now begiiming to criticize the Communist 
Party after being at POC meetings ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. She thought you were being influenced ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. They thought that mavbe I would go 
into the POC. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, let's recess the committee for a few minutes so 
the reporter and the witness can rest. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1065 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Doyle. The coiiiinittee will come to order, please. Are you 
ready, Counsel ? 

Let the record show a quorum of the subcommittee is present. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Admiral Kilpatrick successful in interesting other 
Communists in the Cleveland area in the POC movement ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, he was. 

jSIr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us about that briefly ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Ethel Goodman was a member of the POC and 
a Communist. Bob Williams was a member of the POC and a Com- 
munist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. We have information that an Esther 
Williams was a member of the Communist Party in the Cleveland 
area. Is she in any way related to Bob Williams whom you have 
mentioned ^ 

jNIrs. Brow^n. No, she isn't. Esther Williams is white and the wife 
of George Williams. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. Did you know Esther Williams to be a member of the 
Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I know Esther Williams to be a Communist. 
I have attended closed Communist meetings with Esther Williams at 
Frieda Katz' home and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And over how long a period did you know her to be 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Since the early 1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Until when? 

Mrs. Brown. Until I left Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her husband, George Williams ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. Yes, I know her husband, George Williams. I 
haven't attended any closed Communist Party meetings with George 
Williams. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not identify him as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party to your certain knowledge ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, as far as attending closed Communist Party 
meetings I don't identify him, but as far as I am concerned he was 
a Communist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he support the activities of his wife, Esther Wil- 
liams, in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. He did. I have also heard George Williams make 
large pledges to the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say you have heard him ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you yourself personally hear him making pledges? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Where were these pledges of money to the Communist 
Party made by George Williams? 

Mrs. Brown. It was made in one hall on Auburn Avenue. I have 
forgotten the name of the hall where the Communist Party held a lot 
of their banquets and affairs, and I have heard him make a pledge 
as high as $500, and I heard him make a pledge on Buckeye Road 
at the Hmigarian Hall. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I gather from what you say that the Communist 
Party makes very heavy financing demands upon its members ? 



1066 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. Tliey do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have mentioned Ethel Goodman as a member of 
thePOC? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And Bob Williams ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were any other persons known to you to have defected 
to the POC movement ? 

Mrs. Brown. James Jackson, who was secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Secretary of the POC, the Cleveland group ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of course you are not referring to the James E. Jack- 
son, a member of the National Committee of the Communist Party, 
U.S.A.? 

Mrs. Brown. No, I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you know, however, both James Jacksons ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know James Jackson of Cleveland to be a 
member of the Communist Party prior to his being involved in the 
POC movement? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, he was. He was in the youth movement with 
Libby Gisser at one time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Youth movement ? Do you refer to the Young Com- 
munist League ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Emma and Fred Mehrl. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You identify them as being a part of the POC move- 
ment ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, and members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior thereto ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And over how long a period did you know Emma and 
Fred Mehrl to be members of the Communist Party in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. From 1948 until I left Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were there any other persons that you knew in the 
Cleveland area as members of the Communist Party who defected to 
the POC movement ? 

Mrs. Brown. Joe Petraus, but he infiltrated the POC for the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He didn't leave the party ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, he did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know any other members of the Communist 
Party who defected to the POC movement ? Was there a James Wells 
who got himself involved in any way in the POC movement? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, James Wells attended a few meetings, but he 
stopped attending the meetings of the POC. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know James Wells as a member of the Com- 
munist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs. Brown. I knew James Wells. I know James Wells as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. I have attended numerous closed Com- 
munist Party meetings where James Wells was present. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Over how long a period of time did you know James 
Wells to be a member of the Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 



COMIMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1067 

Mrs. Brown. Since the early 1950's. 

JNIr. NiTiLE. Until when ? 

Mrs. Brown. Until I left Cleveland. 

Mr. Doyle. When you say you knew James Wells to be a Commu- 
nist, you mean that you knew him at the time that you lived in Cleve- 
land as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Ml'. Doyle. You haven't known him as a Communist since that 
time ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, sir. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. In other words, in every instance that you use the 
present tense you are referring to the period prior to 19G0, prior 
to your leaving Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. When did you leave Cleveland ? "Wliat month ? 

Mrs. Brown. In June of 1960. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Did you attend the National Conference of the POC ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Where did that take place ? 

Mrs. Brown. You say the national conference ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked whether you attended the Communist confer- 
ence which was set up by the Marxist-Leninist caucus group, the 
POC. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, we had a conference in Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have a conference in New York of the POC ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes, I attended that, too. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now we are interested first in that National Confer- 
ence of the POC which met in New York in August of 1958. Did you 
attend that in New York ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us the circumstances under which you 
attended that? With whom did you go and what did you do when 
vou got there ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I drove in my car with Ethel Goodman and 
xVdmiral Kilpatrick. At least my husband drove the car because he 
didn't think that Admiral could drive a car well enough, and he went 
along with us. It was late that evening when we got there and I 
remember now that two other members of the Communist Party in 
Cleveland were made officers of the POC and their names are Joe and 
Florence Dougher. 

Mr. NiTTLE. D-o-u-g-h-e-r? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. They are living in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were they at that time residents of the Cleveland 
area ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And were they members of the Communist Party in 
the Cleveland area? 

Mrs. Brown. They were members of the Communist Party. There 
was another couple by the name of Bethencourt, Lucille and Albert 
Bethencourt. They were also members of the Communist Party 
in Cleveland, who went to Chicago as organizers for the POC. 



1068 COMIvIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. XiTTLE. Was Joe Dougher assigned to any organizational activ- 
ities for the POC ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. He holds an office in the POC and is also an 
organizer in the Pennsylvania area. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What happened when you arrived in New York ? Did 
you visit any other person 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — or persons Avith Admiral Kilpatrick ? 

Mrs. Brown. We stopped at the home of another couple who were 
members of the POC. Her name was Nona Black. Black was her 
maiden name and I have forgotten her last name, she and her husband. 
I have forgotten his name too. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio directed you to Nona Black's home in New York ? 

Mrs. Brown. Admiral Kilpatrick, We all stopped there together. 
Admiral Kilpatrick, Ethel Goodman, my husband and I. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then with this group attend the National 
Conference of the POC ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, we did. I think the POC, the convention lasted 
two or three days, but we were a day late. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us in substance what were the discus- 
sions in the convention to which you were a party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they were denouncing the Communist Party 
and making fun of some Communist by the name of Jesus, and they 
seemed to enjoy talking about the man that was named Jesus. 

Mr. NiTTLE. They weren't referring to Jesus of the Bible, were 
they ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, and this man was named Jesus and they thought 
that was very funny. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. They thought that the fact that the man was named 
Jesus was very funny ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, and at that time they said he was a Communist. 
It seemed that this man had been fighting and talking against the 
POC, and they were talkino- about tins man they called Jesus. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat else did they discuss at the convention ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, all I could hear was — to tell you the truth, I 
slept most of the time, but all I could hear when I happened to wake 
up would be their denouncing tlie Communist Party. Truly, I can- 
not give you a real good description of that meeting because in most 
of the meetings I was simply so tired that I just slept them out. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The subjects they discussed were quite boring ? 

Mrs. Brown. They were boring to me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recall any discussions that were directed toward 
Stalin and Khrushchev ? 

Mrs. Brown. I remember discussions about the Communist Party 
following Khrushchev and that the POC people were in favor of 
Stalin. Yes, that was very clear, too, that these were in favor of 
Stalin and that Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his work, and the 
Communist Party of course was on the side of Khrushchev. That 
was one of the reasons the POC formed this ultra left organization, 
because they still thought more of Stalin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Having been told that Stalin was a genius for so many 
years by the Communist Party it was not easy to shift so quickly 
at the behest of the Moscow leadership, then dominated by 
Khrushchev ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA lOG9 

Mrs. Browx. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recall any discussions at the national confer- 
ence with respect to se(tin<2: up local organizations of the POC 
throufrhout the United States ? 

Mrs. Browx. Oh, yes, the chairmen of these different cities were 
to set up new offices all over the United States. At one time Nona 
Black's husband stopped at my home on his way to Los Angeles to 
set up a branch there. I am very sorry I cannot remember his name, 
but he stopped at my home for three or four days. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there in fact a State convention of the POC held 
in Ohio? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, there was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Subsequent to attendance at the national conference? 

Mrs. Brown". That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend that ? 

Mrs. Brown. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Approximately how many persons do you remember 
as being in attendance at the Ohio convention of the POC group ? 

Mrs. Browx. Well, it was probably 35 or 40, they were all from all 
over. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you left Cleveland in June of 1960, was 
there still at that time an active POC group in the area ? 

Mrs. Browx. As far as I know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, we would ask to have Mrs. Brown 
stand aside while we interrogate another witness. 

Mr. DoTLE. Very well. Mrs. Brown, if you will please step aside 
for a moment or two we will call another witness. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Will Ethel Goodman please come forward ? 

Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Goodman, will you please raise your right hand 
and be sworn ? 

Do 3^ou solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mrs. GooDMAx. I do. 

Mr. DoTLE. Thank you. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF ETHEL L. GOODMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID E. SLOAN 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you please state your name for the record ? 

Mrs. GooDMAx. Ethel Goodman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see, Mrs. Goodman, that you are represented by 
counsel. Would counsel kindly identify himself ? 

]\fr. Sloax. My name is David E. Sloan, member of the bar, Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Goodman, where were you born and when ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

]\Irs. Good:max. I don't understand the pertinency of that question. 

Mr. Doyle. The pertinency of it, Mrs. Goodman, is that the Con- 
gress under the law, we believe, is entitled to Iniow who the witness 
is. It is a question of identity, that's all. We are entitled to know 
who you are. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



1070 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Goodman. I do not wish to involve myself or my relatives, and 
again I do not understand the pertinency of that question, as to how 

it would 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't hear what you said last. 

Mrs. Goodman. I do not understand the pertinency of the question. 
Mr. ScHERER. You said something after that which I didn't under- 
stand. 
Mrs. Goodman. I do not wish to involve my relatives. 
Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. Before I do that, Mrs. Goodman, we are not asking you 
about your relatives. We are asking where you were born, not where 
your relatives were born. We believe it is always pertinent to have the 
identity of the person who is the witness. We are certainly entitled 
to that and I instruct you to answer the question. We are not asking 
about your relatives, where they were born. We don't care where 
they were born. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I object to answering the question because I feel 
that my relatives will be unduly involved and again I do not under- 
stand the pertinency of the question. 
Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Counsel, with the next question. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Did you formerly reside in Birmingham, Alabama ? 
(AVitness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, I think it is obvious that we are 
encountering dilatory tactics here and I suggest that the chairman 
instruct the witness to answer the question. We are in business. Let's 
go on with it. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, we will give you all reasonable time to con- 
fer with your witness. 
Mr. Sloan. I am simply trying to fully understand the position. 
Mr. Doyle. Under the rules of the House, and you know those 
rules, you are entitled to advise her on her constitutional rights, but 
not to put the words in the mouth of the witness. 
Mr. Sloan. I understand, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I know your client ought to have her rights, and we 
have no objection to that, but don't take unnecessary time, please. 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 
Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question. I do not wish to 

testify against myself. I miderstand that mider the law 

Mr. Doyle. Will you speak a little louder, please ? 
Mrs. Goodman. I understand that imder the law I cannot be forced 
to testify against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you, Witness, honestly believe if you told us that 
you at one time lived in Birmingham, that that might lead to a crim- 
inal prosecution against you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, when you say grounds previously stated, do you 
mean that you are invoking the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mrs. Goodman. I understand that under the fifth amendment I 
cannot be forced to testify against myself. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1071 

Mr. ScHEKER. In a criminal case. 

Mr. JoiTANSEx. Then you are invoking that provision of the fifth 
amendment. Is that correct ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question. 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. XiiTLE. The witness, I take it, invoked the fifth amendment in 
response ? 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I state as a fact, Mrs. Goodman, that in Birmingham, 
Alabama in 1932, at a time when you were about 22 years of age, you 
became a member of the Communist Party, and that you were assigned 
Communist Party Card Number 6580. Is that true and correct ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I put it to you as a fact that you thereafter transferred 
your membership to the Communist Party in the Cleveland area, in 
1943, and were assigned to the Communist Party in Cuyahoga 
County, Ohio. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NrmjE. I state as a fact that you were a delegate to the State 
Convention of the Communist Party of Ohio on June 10, 1944; do you 
affirm or deny that ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mi's. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mrs. Goodman, you were present in the room, were 
you not, when the previous witness, Mrs. Julia Brown, identified you 
as a person known to her to be a member of the Communist Party? 
AYas she telling the truth when she so identified you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I object to that question on the grounds of my pre- 
vious statement and my privacy under the fifth amendment. I can- 
not be forced to testify against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean you refuse to answer? What do you 
mean? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On what basis do you refuse to respond ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I put it to you as a fact that you were the executive 
secretary of the Cleveland branch of the National Negro Labor Council 
and were employed on that Communist front organization by the 
Commvmist Party at a salary of $75 a month. Do you affirm or deny 
that? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



1072 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Julia Brown testified that you have left the Communist 
Party of the U.S.A., which is its official title, and that you are now 
a member of the Provisional Organizing Committee. Do you affirm 
or deny that testimony ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand that the organization of which you are 
alleged to be a member, namely, the POC, takes the view that it is the 
true Marxist-Leninist party. Would you care to discuss that matter ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. JSTiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions by the committee members? 

Mr. JOHANSEN. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Yes, I have one. 

Do you know Julia Brown ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I object to the question on the grounds it violates 
my rights under the first, fourth, fifth and sixth amendm.ents to the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Objecting to it is not the same thing as declining 
to answer under the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Bruce. Counsel, would it be proper to have Julia Brown iden- 
tify this witness ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. If you desire. 

Mr. DoYEE. Mrs. Brown, will you please step over here where the 
witness can see you ? 

Mr. Bruce. Julia Brown, do you identify this witness as the Ethel 
Goodman you mentioned in your previous testimony ? 
Mrs. Brown. Yes, I do. 
Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mrs. Goodman, will you please look at Mrs. Brown ? I 
am not asking you to look at your lawyer. Look at the witness, Mrs. 
Brow^n. Do you see her ? Do you recognize Mrs. Brown ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I ask the chairman to direct her to answer that 
question. 

Mr. DoTLE. I will direct you to answer the question, Mrs. Goodman, 
whether or not you can identify Mrs. Brown at whom you have just 
looked and who has identified you ? 

Mrs. Goodman. I refuse to answer the question on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mrs. Brown. 



I 



COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1073 

Mr. ScHEREK. Talk about confrontation, that is it. 

Mr. Doyle. Any other questions? Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

jMr. Doyle. Mrs. Goodman, you are excused. 

You are excused. Counsel. 

Mr. Sloan. Thank you. 

Mr. Nittle. Will Margaret Wherry please come forward ? 

]Mr. Doyle. INIrs. Wherry, will you please raise your right hand and 
be sworn? Do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Have a seat, please. 

TESTIMONY OE MAEGAEET WHEREY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HEESHEL SHANKS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please state your name for the record, Mrs. 
Wherry? 

Mrs. Wherry. Margaret Wlierry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see you are represented by counsel. Would counsel 
please identify himself ? 

Mr. Shanks. My name is Hershel Shanks. I am an American 
Civil Liberties Union volunteer attorney. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where were you born, Mrs. Wherry? 

Mrs. Wherry. Sumter, S.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ^^-lien did you move to the Cleveland area in Ohio? 

Mrs. Wherry. Oh, "33, 1933. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Communist Partj^, Mrs. 
Wherry ? 

Mrs. Wherry. No. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Wherry. No, I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Plave you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say, have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you cease being a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. I instruct you to answer the question, 
Mrs. Wherry. 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to be a Avitness against myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know^ Julia Brown who has testified here ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On what basis ? 

Mrs. Wherry. On the previous answer, on the previous grounds, to 
testify against myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge of Communist Party activities 
in the Ohio area? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, do you feel that if you tell this committee 
the truth as to whether you know Julia Brown that that might lead to a 
possible criminal prosecution ? 



1074 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Wherry. It may. 

Mr. ScHERER. There is a lawyer that knows the law. 

Mr. Shanks. Thank you, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to the time that Julia Brown became a member 
of the Communist Party, were you sent by Frieda Katz to interview 
Julia Brown in order to determine her reaction with respect to joining 
the Communist Party or the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the gromids that 
I previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you succeed Julia Brown as treasurer of the So- 
journers for Truth and Justice ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did not Julia Brown hand you the sum of approxi- 
mately $100 or less 

Mr. Shanks. I am sorry. I did not get the beginning of that ques- 
tion. Counsel. Would you mind repeating it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you became treasurer, and I put it to you 
as a fact that you did become treasurer, did not Julia Brown turn over 
to you a sum in the approximate amount of $100 or less ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in any fund-raising activities of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On or about the year 1951 did you hold a Communist 
Party social gathering at your home for the purpose of raising funds 
for the Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
I previously stated, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And at that gathering were not sales and cash donations 
amounting to between $700 and $800 made by tliose in attendance ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at that gathering receive money or donations 
toward the Communist Party from Elsie Tarcai, James Smid, Ethel 
Goodman, Frieda and Dave Katz, Don Rothenberg, Mildred Rothen- 
berg. Myrtle Dennis ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did that party terminate at 4 a.m. the following morn- 
ing? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
I previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After 4 a.m., did you then go into a closed Communist 
Party meeting in the bedroom of your home at which the following 
were present; namely, Margaret Wherry — you acted as chairman — 
Frieda Katz, Ethel Goodman, Myrtle Dennis, and David Katz ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
previously stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1075 

Mr. XiTTLE. And did not this ^roiip at that closed Communist Party 
meeting in the bedroom of your home in the early hours of the fol- 
lowing morning decide what would be done with the approximately 
$800 raised at that gathering ? 

Mrs. WiiEKUY. 1 refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
I have previously stated ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not the following disposition made of the money, 
which was decided by the vote of the group in that meeting: To con- 
tribute one-third of the funds for the candidacy of Marie Heed Haug, 
who was then seeking public office ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. WiiERRT. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. XiTTLE. jSIarie Reed Haug, then seeking office, on the Board of 
Education in the Cleveland area? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
I have previously stated. 

]\Ir, XiTTLE. Was one-third of that sum agreed to be devoted for 
the use of a minister in a Methodist church in the Cleveland area ? 

(At this point ISIr. Schadeberg entered the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Wherry. The same answer. 

Mr. XiTTLE. And was not this a church you had been directed to 
infiltrate by the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
r will not be a witness against myself. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Was the remaining one-third of the fund to be applied 
toward the use of the Communist Party defense fund for the rep- 
resentation of Communists ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
have previously stated, as being a witness against myself. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Has the committee any questions? 

Mr. Bruce. Yes. I would again request that the chairman ask 
Julia Brown to step forward. 

Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Brown, will you extend the committee the courtesy 
of returning to the witness chair ? Mr. Bruce of the committee wishes 
to ask a question. 

Mr. Bruce. Mrs. Brown, do you identify the witness, Margaret 
Wherry, as the Margaret Wherry that you referred to in your testi- 
mony ? 

Mrs. Brown. I do. 



Mr. Doyle. ]\Irs. Wherry, you were looking at Mrs. Brown ? I ask 
you to look at her again, please, and tell me please whether or not 
you recognize INIrs. Brown. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Wherry. I would like to know what for ? 

Mr. Doyle. I will tell you Avhat for. She has testified that you were 
a Communist and that she knew you as a Communist in Cleveland. 
Xow that you have looked at her again, do you recognize her as Julia 
Brown ? 

(AVitness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to even identify her. 



1076 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you have looked at her. Do you recognize her 
as a person you have met ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I wouldn't be 

Mr. Doyle. What is your answer ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I said I refuse to identify her. 

Mr. Bruce. On what grounds ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I just won't. I wouldn't want to say why. Not 
here. 

Mr. Doyle. You are invited to say what you wish. Go ahead. 

Mr. JoHANSEX. Mr. Chairman, we are constantly told that persons 
who were named by witnesses before this committee are not allowed 
to confront them, Now, you have the opportunity here. You have 
the witness before you. And I ask you if you recognize her as the 
elulia Brown that you knew in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
being a witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. I just have one question. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead. 

Mr. Scherer. Mrs. Wherry, you were in the room when Mrs. Brown 
identified you as a member of the Communist Party. You heard that 
testimony, did you not ? 

Mrs. Wherry. I heard it. 

Mr. Scherer. I want you to tell us whether or not she correctly 
Identified you as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 

Mr. Scherer. Was Mrs. Brown telling this committee the truth 
when she told us about 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute. Was Mrs. Brown telling this com- 
mittee the truth when she told us about your activities as a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Wherry. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
just what I previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't denj^ her testimony, then, do you? 

Mrs. Wherry'. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that 

Mr. Scherer. All right. That is all. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

The witness is excused. And counsel. 

Mr. Shanks. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I think the record calls attention to the fact that here 
is another case this morning where the witness, claiming her privi- 
lege, has been identified by Mrs. Brown in the presence of the wit- 
ness' attorney and asked whether or not she admitted or denied the 
testimony and has refused to answer, and has refused to recognize 
Mrs. Brown, another case of confrontation. 

Mr. Shanks. Mr. Chairman, do I understand the committee to be 
permitting counsel for Mrs. Wlierry to cross-examine the previous 
witness, Mrs. Brown ? 

Mr. Doyle. No. We will recess now until 2 o'clock. The witnesses 
are instructed to return. The bell has called us to the floor of the 
House. 

(Thereupon, at 11:55 a.m., Tuesday, June 5, 1962, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

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