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Full text of "Communist activities in the Cleveland, Ohio, area : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-seventh Congress, second session. June 4 and 5, 1962"

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// 
COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

PART 2 



MA«VA»i «« • 



HEARINGS ^^'2(i 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SEVENTH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 5, 6, AND 7, 1962 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
86790 WASHINGTON : 1962 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

CLYDE DOYLE, California AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia HENRY C. SCHADEBERQ, Wisconsin 

Francis J. McNamaea, Director 

Feank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

John C. Walsh, Co-counsel 



CONTENTS 



PART 2 



Afternoon Session 

June 5, 1962: p^^^ 

Testimony of — .p.-- 

Jean Krchmarek |"'' 

Pauline Taylor j"^° 

Frieda Katz |Xcr 

James Wells i^°° 

Julia C. Brown (resumed) ^^°^ 

June 6, 1962: 

Testimony of — MCf^ 

Julia C. Brown (resumed) }}"^ 

Samuel Handelman ||y^ 

James Smid ||^„ 

Frida Kreitner j||^ 

Martin Chancey '■^'■^ 

June 7, 1962: 

Testimony of — . , 04. 

Sylvia Strauss ||^^ 

Abraham Strauss |j^^ 

Ruth Emmer jj^o 

Milton Tenenbaum :[|^^ 

Regina Sokol ||^^ 

Elsie R. Tarcai :[|^2 

Violet J. Tarcai ^^^* 

Afternoon Session 

Eugene Bayer \\^^ 

NeilE. Wetterman ^^^^ 

Index 



PART 1 

c . 989 

Synopsis 

June 4, 1962: 

Testimony of — nno 

Julia C. Brown --- ^^^ 

Afternoon Session 

William Henry Cooper }0}^ 

Julia C. Brown (resumed) ^"^"^ 

Morning Session 

June 5, 1962: 

Testimony_of— 

^rtrn t T'OGl 1 TY» nrl 1 

1069 



Julia'C. Brown (resumed) J2cn 



Ethel L. Goodman ,„-o 

Margaret Wherry ^"'"^ 

(Index appears in Part 2) 

ni 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of Aniericain Congress assembled^ * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEO. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a vphole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person des- 
ignated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent 
reports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive 
branch of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 87TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 8, January 3, 1961 

0***** 

Rui-E X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

0***** 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

0*0*** 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

( a ) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued imder 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



C0M3IUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, 

AREA 

Part 2 



TUESDAY AFTERNOON — JUNE 5, 1962 

Unii'ed States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of thIe 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.G. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities re- 
convened at 2 p.m., Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Walter, Doyle, 
Scherer, Johansen, Bruce ; also present Representative Schadeberg. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. Mr. Nittle, call 
your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Will Jean Krchmarek please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Krchmarek. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JEAN KRCHMAREK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Nittle, Would you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. Krchmarek. My name is Jean Krchmarek, K-r-c-h-m-a-r-e-k. 

Mr. Nittle. I see that you are represented by counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Nittle. Where were you born, Mrs. Krclmiarek ? 

Mrs. Krchmarek. I was born in the District of Columbia. 

Mr. NiTTiJi. Are you currently employed by the Communist Party 
in any capacity? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. lOiCHMAREK. Sir, I must decline to answer that question. I 
invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment; and furthermore, I feel 
that it violates my rights under the first amendment to the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you currently employed as a columnist for The 
Worker? 

Mrs. KJRCHMAREK. I must decline to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

1077 



1078 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

The Chairman". You said you must decline. You are not under 
any compulsion. 

Mrs. Kechmarek. I do decline. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. That is better. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you at the present time a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Krchmarek. I also decline to ansTver that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you at this instant a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Krchmarek. Again I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you loiow Julia Brown ? 

Mrs. EjtCHMAREK. Again I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, at the time Julia Brown was a resident of 
Cleveland, a section leader of the Northeast Section of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Krchmarek. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that I previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As said leader, did you have the responsibility of di- 
recting the activities of the Communist clubs established in the North- 
east Section? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mrs. Krchmarek. I did not state that — 

You made the presumption — that I had not said. I think that is an 
unfair and a loaded question, and I decline to answer it on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the organization of a farewell 
party given on June 11, 1960, for Elizabeth Hall, wife of Gus Hall, 
now general secretary of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Krchmarek. I decline to answer that question, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

_Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I think it is quite obvious this witness 
will not answer any of the questions put to her. The staff has no 
further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is discharged. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Pauline Taylor, will you come f oi-ward ? 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Taylor. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAULINE TAYLOR, ACCOMPANIED BY CO'ONSEL 

JOSEPH FOEEE 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please state your name for the record ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Pauline Taylor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I note that you are represented by coimsel. 

Will coimsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where were you born, Mrs. Taylor ? 

Mrs. Taylor. In the Unit"ed States. 

Mr. Scherer. Where in the United States ? 

Mrs. Taylor. In the State of Alabama. 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1079 

Mr. SciiEREK. In what city ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Well, it is a village; Lockliart. 

Mr. ScHERER. Lockliart, Alabama ? 

Mrs. Taylor. It is not Lockliart any more. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Mrs. Taylor, you appeared before this committee on a 
previous occasion, November 27, 1956 ; is that correct ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. What was the question ? 

Mr. NiiTLE. Will you read it, Mr. Reporter? 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. Taylor. I can't be sure of the date. I believe the year was 
1956. 

The Chairman. Did we find out what your present address is? 
What is your present address ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Mine? 313 Chicago Avenue. 

The Chairman. In Chicago ? 

Mrs. Taylor. No, Chicago Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In Youngstown, Ohio ? 

Mrs. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently active in the Communist Party in 
the Youngstown area? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer that question, because it is not 
pertinent; and also on the rights of my protection under the first 
amendment and my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Taylor, I w^as talking about your prior appear- 
ance before this committee in November 1956. At that time, you 
were questioned by Mr. Arens, who asked you this question : "Mrs. 
Taylor, are you a member of the Communist Party ?" 

Your reply was : "I am not, Mr. Chairman." 

When you stated at that time that you were not a member of the 
Communist Party in response to that question, were you telling the 
truth ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer the question, under 
the protection that I have already asked for under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I put it to you as a fact, Mrs. Taylor, that at the time 
you responded to that inquiry you were a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. FoRER, No question has been asked. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you affirm or deny that fact ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer on the same 
grounds, on my protection under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Arens also asked you : "Have you ever taken or- 
ders from the Communist Party?"; to which you replied, "I have 
not." 

Were you telling the truth at that time ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer the question under 
the protection of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were a sworn witness when you testified that you 
had not taken orders from the Communist Party, were you not? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer your question under the same 
protection. 



1080 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Arens also asked, while you were a witness under 
oath: "Did you ever hear of a Communist who was not actually a 
member of the party, but was under party discipline so he could be 
used by the party and not be easily exposed? Did you ever hear of 
that technique?"; to which you replied: "Mr, Chairman, I decline to 
answer that question under the protection of the fifth amendment." 

In view of your refusal to answer that question at that time, would 
you be willing to answer that question now, if I put it to you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You would not be willing to answer the question? 

Mr. FoRER. She answered that question. 

The Chairman. She answered. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you, Mrs. Taylor, received instructions from the 
Communist Party, or persons known to you to be members of the 
Communist Party, to infiltrate any church in the Cleveland or Youngs- 
town area ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, in the course of the latter part of last year, 
have occasion to speak at a women's meeting before a church group, 
at which time you stated you had received a communication from a 
woman in South Vietnam asking for your help to work for the re- 
moval of our troops from that place ; and you further told this group 
that although you did not have the communication, you were told that 
dogs were being set upon tied civilians and that women were having 
reptiles injectecl into their reproductive organs, and that this was 
what our troops were doing, that is. United States troops, in South 
Vietnam ? 

Did you or did you not make that or a similar statement before a 
women's group in a church meeting? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you further state that this conduct was sanctioned 
by U.S. Army officials, and that the actions of the American Armed 
Forces overseas were disgraceful? And did you add that your son 
had been in the Army and had knowledge of this ? 

I ask you to affirm or deny that account. 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer on the same grounds f)reviously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Taylor, at the time the United States was associ- 
ated with Soviet Russia in World War II, were you at that time very 
active in promoting the defense effort of the United States ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not at that time work, as you have said in one 
of your pamphlets, with the United States Employment Service, to 
cut down absenteeism, and were you not, to use your words, "visit- 
ing homes to find out what caused workers to take time off vital war 
work in steel and putting up a fight to change bad conditions" ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Are you asking the question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a pamphlet, identified as Taylor Exliibit 
No. 1, titled "Peace Is Possible," which is described on page 12 thereof 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1081 

as a report from Pauline Taylor, issued "as a public service" by the 
Progressive Party of Ohio, 5103 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Will you examine that pamphlet, please? 

Now I want to ask you, Mrs. Taylor: Do you recognize it? 

Mrs. Taylor. I object to the question as not being pertinent. 

Mv. Ni-FTLE. Will 3'ou tell us who wrote that pamphlet for you ? 

]Mr. FoRER. What was that question ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, that is a loaded question. I didn't 
say that I wrote it or that anybody wrote it for me. 

The Chairman. Did you write it? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, I object, because the question is not 
pertinent. 

The Chairman. Now, I direct you to answer the question whether 
or not you wrote that pamphlet. 

Mr. Forer. There is no explanation of the pertinency, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. No. We know why we want the question answered. 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mrs. Tayt^or. Mr. Chairman, I refuse, on the grounds previously 
stated under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You refused to answer that question ? 

Mr. FoRER. Yes, she did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On what basis did you refuse? 

Mrs. Taylor. On the grounds of my rights under the first amend- 
ment and my privilege under the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that pamphlet written for you or delivered to 
you by persons known to be Communists? 

Mrs. Taylor. What are you talking about? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The pamphlet entitled "Peace Is Possible," to which 
we were referring. 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer, on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendment, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The address which that exhibit bears is 5103 Euclid 
Avenue. Was that the office of the One World Book Shop, operated 
by Frida and Morris Kreitner? 

Mrs. Taylor. ]\Ir. Chairman, I refuse to answer the question on the 
previous stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that pamphlet in fact circulated from that book- 
shop? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previous stated 
grounds. 

(Document marked "Taylor Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Frida Kreitner as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previous stated 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Morris Kreitner as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previous stated 
grounds. 



1082 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you Taylor Exhibit No. 2, a booklet titled "We 
Pledge Peace," A Friendship Book, published by the American Rus- 
sian Institute, Inc., 101 Post Street, San Francisco 8, California. 

Did you make i\ contribution to this booklet ? 

Mrs. Taylor. A^"hat is the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE, 1 point out to you page 62 of this booklet on which 
appears an article titled "If Our People Knew The Truth"— "Pauline 
Taylor, peace leader, church loorker, Youngstown, Ohio." 

Did you write that article for that booklet ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mrs. Taylor. I object to the question, because it isn't pertinent, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairmax. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer the question, on 
the grounds that it is not pertinent, and under the privilege of the 
first and fifth amendments, as previously stated. 

(Document marked "Taylor Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. If I may, Mr. Chairman, I would like to read a por- 
tion of that article from page 62 of Exhibit 2, which appears under 
the byline of Mrs. Taylor : 

In November 1950, as chairman of the Ohio Women for Peace, I went as a 
delegate from Ohio to the Second World Peace Congress in Warsaw. After the 
Congress, 19 of us from the United States were invited by the Soviet Peace 
Committee to visit their country for two weelcs. 

In Russia I found great concentration of the people on peaceful work. Though 
there was concern over the war danger, the flames and bloodshed of actual 
war seemed remote in these countries. Everyone was building, working, farm- 
ing and they seemed very much like us. They showed us great housing projects, 
schools and irrigation canals, subways, and forests being planted, and they said : 
"If we planned to start a war, do you think we would be spending billions of 
rubles and millions of tons of scarce steel and concrete on these projects, which 
will take years to finish, and have little or no military value?" 

I ask, Mrs. Taylor : Who wrote that article for you ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, that is a loaded and an insulting 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way : Did you write that article ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, my objection is because the question 
is not pertinent. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Taylor. And the grounds of the right under the first amend- 
ment and my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Did you go to Europe as a delegate to some sort 
of a meeting? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

The CiiAiRMAN. Do you really feel that if you were held to answer 
the question as to whether or not you had taken a trip abroad, you 
might be prosecuted criminally? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. It is possible. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1083 

Tlie CiiAiKMAN. Have you ever been national committeewoman, and 
Ohio State secretary, of the Progressive Party? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

The Chairman, On the grounds that you might be prosecuted; is 
that it? 

Mrs. Tatlor, The first amendment, "which are my rights, and the 
fifth amendment, whicli is my privilege. And the question is not 
pertinent, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Can you tell us of your own knowledge whether that 
item was written by a person known to you to be a representative of 
a foreign power? 

Mrs. Taylor. Wliat item are you speaking of, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. XiTTLE. The article which appears in the booklet I mentioned, 
"We Pledge Peace." 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question, because it is not per- 
tinent, and under my rights in the first amendment and the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I did not ask that question without point, Mrs. Taylor. 

Did you arrange for the attendance of certain Comnumists of the 
Cleveland area at the Polish Embassy in Washington? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question, on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you not in fact appear at a banquet at the Polish 
Embassy ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And was not Julia Brown in attendance at that ban- 
quet with you ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Communist Party of the Cleveland area pay 
your expenses to attend that banquet ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I refuse to answer the question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

jNIr. N1TTI.E. Mr. Chairman, I ask leave to insert in the record the 
citation of the American Russian Institute of San Francisco, the pub- 
lisher of Taylor Exhibit No. 2 to which we have been referring. It 
was cited by Attorney General Tom Clark as a Communist organiza- 
tion.^ 

I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Frieda Katz come forward, please ? 

The Chairman". Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, God? 

Mrs. KLvTZ. I do. 



1 Cited as a Communist organization. (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, releai-ed September 21, 1948.) (See Committee on Un-American Activities, 
Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications, House Doc. 39S, p. 29 (S7th Cong.), 
Dec. 1, 1961. 



1084 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

TESTIMONY OF FRIEDA KATZ, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FOEER 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you state your name, please? 

Mrs. Katz. My name is Frieda Katz. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are represented by comisel ? 

Mrs. Katz. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel f)lease identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer. 

Mrs. Katz. Will the committee give me permission to read a state- 
ment ? 

The Chairman. No. You can leave the statement, and if we thmk 
that it is relevant, we will make it a part of the record. 

Mrs. Katz. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the statement contain any references as to whether 
or not you are a member of the Communist Party as of this moment? 

Mr. FoRER. Well, all you have to do is look at the statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Communist Party, Mrs. Katz, 
as of this moment ? 

Mrs. Katz. I should like to use my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution of the United States, and my privileges and 
rights under the first amendment to the Constitution, of freedom of 
speech, redress to the Congress, and so on. 

The Chairman. You said, "I should like to." Do you? 

Mrs. Katz. I do. I refuse to answer the question on those grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you loiow Julia Brown ? 
_ Mrs. Katz. I refuse to answer the question on the previously men- 
tioned grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, were you in the hearing room during the 
time that Julia Brown testified ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Katz. Yes ; I was present. 

Mr. Scherer. You heard her testimony ? 

Mr. Forer. During part of the time, I think. 

Mrs. Katz. Part of the time. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you hear testimony with reference to you ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mrs. Katz. I did not hear all of the testimony. 

Mr. Scherer. You heard part of it ? 

Mrs. Katz. I heard part of it. 

The Chairman. Whose testimony are you talking about? 

Mr. Forer. He is talking about Julia Brown's testimony. 

The Chairman. Let the witness answer the question. 

Mrs. Katz. I must refuse to answer the question, on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, is there anything that Julia Brown said about 
you that is untrue ? 

Mrs. Katz. I refuse to answer the question on the previously stated 
groimds, under the first amendment and the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Julia Brown telling the truth when she identified 
you as one of the leading Communists in the State of Ohio ? 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1085 

Mrs. Katz, I must refuse to answer this question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no f urtlier questions at this time. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you also refuse to answer the question on the ground 
that the statements made by Julia Brown are true? 

]\Irs. Katz. I have already stated the grounds on which I have re- 
fused to answer the questions. These are my constitutional guarantees 
of freedom of speech, and the right not to incriminate myself, and 
these are the grounds on which I have refused and will decline to an- 
swer questions. 

Mr. Nittle. I state as a fact, Mrs. Katz, that you were also a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party prior to your marriage to Dave Katz, 
and that you were a member of the Communist Party under the name 
of Frieda Zucker. 

Will you affirm or deny that assertion ? 

Mrs. EL\tz. I shall refuse to answer, under the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a fact that under the name Frieda Zucker you 
were the secretary of the Tom Paine branch of the Communist Party 
in Cleveland, Ohio, and you were so listed in the Ohio 1939 yearbook 
of the Coimnunist Party ? 

Mrs. Ivatz. I again refuse to answer the question under the previ- 
ously stated grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Abe Strauss ? 

Mrs. IC\TZ. I refuse to answer the question on the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you the executive secretary of the Civil Rights 
Congress in Cleveland, Ohio ? 

Mrs. Katz. I decline to answer the question, again on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read into the record a 
reference to the Civil Rights Congress as it appears in the committee's 
Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications. 

There is a footnote on page 44, as follows: 

lu response to a petition from the Attorney General for an SACB order I'equir- 
ing the Civil Rights Congress to register as a Communist-front organization, 
the SACB held hearings between November 1954 and June 1955 * * *. There- 
after, the Civil Rights Congress moved to dismiss the Attorney General's petition 
on the ground that the organization had dissolved on January 6, 195G. The 
SACB denied the request to dismiss the petition, stating that the Civil Rights 
Congress had "failed factually to establish its dissolution, and in any event, that 
under the proper application of the [Internal Security] Act dissolution of the 
respondent would not divest the Board of jurisdiction." 

Now^, I ask you, Mrs. Katz, as its executive secretary, was the Civil 
Rights Congress in Cleveland dissolved by the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Katz. I must decline to answer this question on the previous 
grounds stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you not presently the secretary of the Ohio Bill 
of Rights Conference? 

Mrs. Katz. I must decline to answer that question, on previously 
stated grounds. 

]Mr. Nittle. And was not that local organization a counterpart of 
the national organization titled "Civil Rights Congress" ? 



1086 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Katz. I again decline on previously stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I state to you as a fact that your name appears in the 
City Directory of Cleveland as secretary of the Ohio Bill of Rights 
Conference, 2014 East 105th Street, Room 202. 

Mrs. Katz. I must again decline to answer the question on the 
previously stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Brown testified that about the mid-1950's, 
the Communist Party headquarters, which was then operating under 
the disguise of its front names, had moved its quarters from Euclid 
Avenue to 2014 East 105th Street, Room 202. 

Do you affirm or deny that testimony ? 

Mrs. Katz. I shall again decline to answer the question on the 
previous grounds stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are not the Civil Rights Congress and the Ohio Bill 
of Rights Conference one and the same organization? 

Mrs. Katz. I must again decline to answer the question on the 
grounds stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not this a case of the same Communist group in 
Cleveland operating under different disguises and names to confuse 
the public ? 

Mrs. Katz. I repeat my declination on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did not tlie Communist Party succeed in duping 
many Negro people in that area ? 

Mrs. Katz. I have already indicated my reasons for declining to 
answer. I do not see the point in the continued making of such state- 
ments. I am declining to answer under my rights under the first 
amendment to the Constitution, and the fifth amendment, not to 
incriminate myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would James Wells please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Wells. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES WELIS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOHN HAEMON 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name, please. 

]Mr. Wells. James Wells. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see you are represented by counsel, Mr. Wells. 

Will counsel please identify himself ? 

Mr. Harmon. My name is John Harmon. I am a volunteer at- 
torney for the American Civil Liberties Union. 

The Chairman. Located where? 

Mr. Harmon. Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you presently reside, Mr. Wells ? 

Mr. Wells. Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat is your occupation ? 

Mr. Wells. Well, it has been for the last 5 years making a living 
any kind of way I could, because there was no job. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1087 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are presently unemployed ? 

Mr. Wells. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how old are you ? 

Mr. Wells. 1 am 54 years old. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a copy of a letter identified as Wells Ex- 
hibit No. 1. It is dated December 21st, 1955, and the letterhead bears 
the legend, "Ohio Bill of Rights Conference, Affiliated with Civil 
Rights Congress, Cleveland 6, Ohio," on which appears the signatures 
"James Wells, Chairman," and "Frieda Katz, Executive Secretary." 

I ask you first to examine that. 

(Document was handed to the witness.) 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had an opportunity to look at that, Mr. 
Wells? 

Mr. Wells. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see that your attorney and you together examined 
it ; is that correct ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the extent of your education, Mr. Wells? 

Mr. Wells. Well, 4th grade. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you went no further than the 4th grade. 

Did you see the previous witness who identified herself as Frieda 
Katz, well-dressed and evidently highly educated, appearing just 
before you ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

jNIr. Wells. I don't understand that question. 

The Chair:max. Did you see the witness who preceded you ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. I want you to relate to me the pertinency of the 
question. 

The ChairMz\n. What did you say ? 

Mr. Wells. I want to know the pertinency of the question. 

The Chairma:n^. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Wells. Well, under the fifth amendment, I refuse to answer 
the question because I cannot be forced to testify against myself. I 
mean under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairmax. I want to make sure that you know what you are 
doing. The question was : Did you see the preceding witness ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. I am not acquainted with how that question was ex- 
plained, and how it related to me. 

The Chairman. I could not hear you. TYliat was your answer? 
Mr. Harmon, let the witness answer the question. 

Mr. Wells. I want to know : How did that question relate to me? 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question : Did you see 
the witness who preceded you ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. I refuse to answer the question under the fifth 
amendment. 

]\Ir. NiiTLE. Your name ap]:)ears on Exhibit No. 1 as James Wells, 
chairman of the Ohio Bill of Riglits Conference, does it not? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

86790— 62— pt. 2 2 



1088 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. Wells. Well, what I want you to explain — how that relates 
to my appearance here. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Wells. I refuse to answer on — I mean under the first amend- 
ment and the fifth. 

(Document marked "Wells Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in fact the chairman of the Ohio Bill of 
Eights Conference? 

Mr. Wells. I refuse to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Wells, I am going to ask you to read that 
letter. 

Mr. Wells. I refuse to read it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliere is the letter now ? 

The point counsel was trying to make was the fact that a man with- 
out educational attainments could not possibly write this letter. Is 
that the point you are trying to make ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, Mr. Scherer. That is exactly the point. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is signed by James Wells, chairman, and Frieda 
Katz, executive secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know that Frieda Katz was a member of the 
Communist Party at the time you were acting with her as an official 
of the Ohio Bill of Rights Conference ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that the record indicate that 
counsel has talked to the witness. Will you answer that question ? 

Mr. Wells. I refuse to answer it, under the first and fifth amend- 
ments, because under the first it violates my rights of freedom, speech 
and associates, and under the fifth, it is the privilege, under which 
I don't have to incriminate myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Wells, will you tell us whether you felt in your 
own mind that you were able to act as chairman of the Ohio Bill of 
Rights Conference ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. Well, I want to Imow how that relates to my appearance 
here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you feel you had sufficient knowledge and ability 
and education to act as chairman of this propaganda operation ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. I refuse under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it your desire to serve the Communist Party in 
some capacity at that time ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. I object to that question under the first amendment, and 
I refuse to answer it under the fifth. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ask the witness. Counsel, with reference to 
his own Communist Party membership ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have not, Mr. Scherer. I will proceed to do so. 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Wells. I refuse to answer the question under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Scherer. Counsel, I do not recall whether the witness Julia 
Brown identified this man as a member of the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA l089 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir, she did. She positively identified him and re- 
lated the extent of his activities. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Wells, you were in the room when Julia Brown 
identified you as a member of the Communist Party and told about 
your activities in the Communist Party, were you not ? 

Mr. Wells. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sciierer. I did not ask you anything except wliether you were 
in the room when she testified. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Wells. I still refuse under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Was anything that Julia Brown said about you 
untrue ? Now, this is your chance. 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Scherer. Tell us whether anything she said about you and your 
membership in the Communist Party and your activities in the Com- 
munist Party was untrue. 

Mr. Wells. For the reasons previously stated under the fifth 
amendment, I still refuse. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in any of the activities of the Pro- 
visional Organizing Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Communist 
Party, known as the POC, on or about 1958, or thereafter? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Wells. That question violates my first amenchnent right, and 
I refuse to answer it under the fifth. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions. 

(The witness was excused.) 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Julia Brown please resume the stand? 

TESTIMONY OF JULIA C. BROWN— Resumed 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown, the committee would like to turn briefly to 
the organization of the Communist Party structure in Cleveland, Ohio. 

This committee last November received a great deal of testimony 
with respect to the Comnuuiist Party organization nationally and 
with respect to its international ties. Your long experience in the 
Communist Party would indicate that you miglit well add some de- 
tails, at least, to our store of knowledge, or miglit confirm certain 
conclusions that can be reached based upon such testimony. 

The evidence indicates that the party today persists as it was origi- 
nally conceived by Lenin, and slavishly operates upon the principles 
laid down by him. Lenin pointed out that the party was not a party 
of reform. He confirmed that it was not a democratic party, but a 
revolutionary organization, organized for rebellion and agitation and 
must therefore be, and I now quote Lenin : 

* * * A small, compact core, cousistiug: of reliable, experienced and hardened 
workers, with responsible agents in the principal districts and connected by all 
the rixles of strict secrecy * * *.^ 

He further stated that it must consist of people who "will devote 
to the revolution not only their spare evenings but the whole of their 



iHCUA, "Facts on Communism," Vol. 1, p. 79, H. Doc. No. 336 (86th Cong.), December 
1959. 



1090 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

lives," and must consist chiefly of persons engaged in revolutionary 
activities as a profession. 

This kind of party, he declared, must be organized "from the top," 
a "strictly centralized," chain-of-command type of organization, and 
disciplined like an army. 

We should like to record your experience, and in order to establish 
your further competency to testify, at least with respect to certain 
echelons of the Communist Party hierarchy, I ask you the question : 
Did you obtain an official position of leadership of any kind in the 
Cleveland area organization of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. I was treasurer of five clubs in the Northeast Section, 
and also treasurer of the Sojourners for Truth and Justice. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As treasurer of five clubs, you may well be described as 
section treasurer ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the chairman of the section during the time 
you were section treasurer ? 

Mrs. Brown. Jean Krchmarek. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you become section treasurer ? 

Mrs. Brown. In the middle lOSO's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And remained as section treasurer until when? 

Mrs. Brown. Until 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did Jean Krclunarek, who is the wife of Anthony 
Krclimarek, the Ohio party chairman, remain also as section leader 
during the period you were acting as section treasurer ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, she did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was she acting in that capacity at the time you left 
Cleveland and went to the West Coast ? 

Mrs. Brown. She was. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the witness who just testified here a few mo- 
ments ago? 

Mrs. Brown. This afternoon she testified. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the location of this section ? What area did 
it cover in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, the central area was included in the Northeast 
Section, and it was in the Glenville area of Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May we refer to the section of which you were treas- 
urer then, hereafter, as the Northeast Section of the Communist Party 
organization in Cleveland? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have what was known as a Section Commit- 
tee? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What did that consist of ? 

Mrs. Brown. It consisted of the heads of the five clubs and officei-s 
of the section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Section Committee, did I understand you to say, 
consisted of the heads or leaders of each of the five clubs and the sec- 
tion officers ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. When the leadei-s of tlie five clubs would meet together 
with you and Jean Krchmarek, that was known as a Section Committee 
meeting? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1091 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. SciiERER. These meetings you are talking about — can you dis- 
tinguish them from the social gatherings that you talked about? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, sir. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. SciiERER. Were they entirely different? 

Mrs. Brown. Entirely different. The section and club meetings 
are secret meetings that no one else can attend. 

Mr. ScHERER. But the social gatherings, you said this morning, are 
attended by Communists and non-Communists ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, mostly Communists; a few non-Communists. 

Mr. Scherer. That is where you said they raised money ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. I was wondering how they raised money at these 
social gatherings. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they sold liquor and food. 

Mr. Scherer. Sold liquor? 

Mrs. Brown. And food ; drinks and food. They sold them by the 
drinks. 

Mr. Scherer. Did they raise their money any other way? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they did have a donation at the door, too. 

Mr. Scpierer. Is that all 'I 

Mrs. Brown. Well, that is all I can think of at this time. 

Mr. Nittle. The club leaders who met with you and Jean 
Krclimarek at a meeting, which would be called a Section Committee 
meeting — would that group have any privileges with respect to laying 
down club policy ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. What matters would you discuss in section meetings ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, just how to operate the clubs, and the dis- 
tributing of leaflets, and the different social affairs that were to be 
given to raise money for the clubs and the Communist Party, and what 
places to infiltrate, and directions for infiltration. 

Mr. Nittle. Who told the club leaders in the section meetings what 
was to be done ? 

Mrs. Brown. Jean Krchmarek was the head of the section, and the 
orders came from Jean Krchmarek. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you mean to say that the final decision rested with 
Jean Krchmarek, when you say that orders came from her? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, for the section ; yes, indeed ; and then they were 
handed down to the leaders of the clubs. 

Mr. Nittle. So that the section meeting was simply a means of 
bringing the club leaders into conference with Jean Krchmarek, so 
that she could direct them as to the activities they would undertake ? 
Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, where did Jean Krclimarek get her orders? 
Mrs. Brown. Well, I didn't see anyone give Jean Krchmarek her 
orders, but I am sure she got them from the next top, which was the 
state, or the district. 

Mr. Nittle. Was that her husband, Anthony Krchmarek, chairman 
of the Communist Party of the State of Ohio, that you are referring 
to? 

Mrs. Brown. Anthony Krclimarek is the husband of Jean 
Krchmarek, yes. 



1092 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where would her husband, Anthony Krclimarek, get 
his orders ? 

Mrs. Brown. Anthony Krchmarek would get his orders from the 
national office, in New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the orders originated at the national head- 
quarters of the Communist Party, were then transmitted down to the 
Ohio District of the Communist Party, the chairman of which was 
Anthony Krchmarek. He would pass that order down to the section 
leader, who was Jean Krchmarek, and she would pass this order 
down, then, to the club leaders, who wouki inform finally the people 
who constituted the clubs, the rank and file. 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I might note for the record, Mr. Chairman, that the 
committee hearings last November showed where the National Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party got its orders. I think the hearings 
conclusively established that the orders to the headquarters of the 
National Committee of the Communist Party in the United States 
came directly from Moscow. 

Mr. Doyle. As a matter of fact, the Supreme Court upheld the 
constitutionality of the registration and disclosure provisions of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950, in its recent decision in the case of 
the Communist Party of the United States, Petitioner v. Subversive 
Activities Control Board (367 U.S. 1), decided June 5, 1961. 

At page 111 f ., the Supreme Court pointed out that the Congress in 
1954 enacted the Communist Control Act (68 Stat. 775), which de- 
clares in its second section : 

The Congress hereby finds and declares that the Communist Party of the 
United States, although purportedly a political party, is in fact an instrumen- 
tality of a conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United States. . . . 
[T]he policies and programs of the Communist Party are secretly prescribed for 
it by the foreign leaders of the world Communist movement. . . . [I]ts role as the 
agency of a hostile foreign power renders its existence a clear present and con- 
tinuing danger to the security of the United States. . . . 

At page 112, the Supreme Court declared : 

First: We have held, supra, that the congressional findings that there exists a 
world Communist movement, that it is directed by the Communist dictatorship 
of a foreign country, and that it has certain designated objectives, inter alia, 
the establishment of a Communist totalitarian dictatorship throughout the world 
through the medium of a world-wide Communist organization, §2(1), (4), are 
not open to re-examination by the Board. We find that nothing in this violates 
due process. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As section treasurer, did you actually have anything 
to do with party policy ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, indeed, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you get your orders also from Jean Krclimarek ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What were your duties as treasurer of the section ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, when we would have the section meetings, the 
heads of the clubs would pay dues, give me the dues from the club 
members, with 10 percent taken out; and then I would take out 20 
percent and give it to the state treasurer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the state treasurer ? 

Mrs. Brown. Betty Cliaka. 

Mr. NiTTLE. C-h-a-k-a? 



COMlVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1093 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

]Mr. Doyle. Who got the 10 percent? 

JNIrs. Brown. The chibs kept the 10 percent and the section kept 
20 percent ; and we used that for parties and 

]Mr. Doyle. Did yon handle tliat money, or was it someone else? 

ISIrs. Brown. 1 liandled the money that I received. I always kept 
the 20 percent, and the other was given, whenever I felt like taking 
it to her, Betty Chaka, the state treasurer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the husband of Betty Chaka ? 

Mrs. Brown. Ed Chaka. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Also known as Edward Chaka ? 

Mrs. Brown. Edward Chaka. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show that 
Edward Chaka was a member of the National Conunittee of the Com- 
mmiist Party, and that he was in attendance at the I7th National 
Convention of the Communist Party in December 1959, which was 
held in New York City. He attended that convention as a delegate 
from the Ohio District of the Commmiist Party. 

Did you know Edward Chaka ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Edward Chaka ? 

Mrs. Brown. I have known Edward Chaka since 1948. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you deliver this money personally to Betty Chaka ? 

IMrs. Brown. I certainly did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And she was the state treasurer ? 

Mrs. Brown. She was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us the names of the leaders of the five 
clubs in that section? I just want the names of the leaders. 

Mrs. Brown. Ruth Lend was one. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have already identified her, yes. 

Mrs. Brown. Harry Spencer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of course, you have stated he was a Communist club 
leader. 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. 

Sally Clark was a chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Sally Clark, C-1-a-r-k? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

And of course Bert Washington, who is deceased. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Bert Washington was at one time a club leader ? When 
did he die ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, sometime in 1960. 

And there were Laura and Fred O'Neal. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Jean Krchmarek a club leader, as well as acting 
in her capacity as section chairman? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, you hardly knew what leadership Jean Krch- 
marek was in, because she led everything and everyone, as far as the 
clubs were concerned. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was a gentlemen named Hugh Statten in your area? 

Mrs. Brown. At one time Hugh Statten was in the club, in a club 
office. But he moved back to Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio succeeded him, if anyone? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, it was the central area that Hugh Statten had 
charge of. He was sent from Chicago by the Communist Party to 



1094 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Cleveland, to reorganize the Negroes in the central area and in Cleve- 
land proper. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you have also spoken of a Harry A. Spencer, 
did you? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What position did he occupy ? 

(At this point Mr. Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Brown. He was one of the leaders of his club. I think it was 
the 124 Club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what section was that located ? 

Mrs. Brown. In the Northeast Section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That was in your section as well ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mentioned an Edith and Lloyd Gaines as being 
active in the party. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were they in your section ? 

Mrs. Bro\vn. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you regard them as club leaders in that area? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, did you have occasion to attend any state con- 
ventions of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The state convention was the next highest level above 
the section? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is where leaders obtained their information as 
to party policy to carry down to the section level ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that as treasurer and a section leader, you were 
selected as a delegate to the state convention ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it at the state convention that the delegates had 
an opportunity to leani what orders the state party chairman was 
instructed to give you ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then at the state convention, the only matter you 
would debate was how to carry out the orders received from higher 
headquarters, which was the national grouping? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. DoTLE (presiding). And you were elected to attend the state 
party convention in Ohio while you were an FBI informant ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, sure. That was the only time I did my work, 
when I was with the FBI. 

Mr. DoTLE. Did not any of your brother or sister Communists 
suspect you were an informant for the FBI ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I am very sure they didn't know it. One or two 
had accused me of writing names down at one of the state conventions, 
and claimed that I was under suspicion, but they never let up on me. 
They still kept using me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have indicated that the Communists in party 
meetings usually met secretly. How did they maintain their secrecy 
when they would have to meet in larger numbers at a state convention ? 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1095 

Mrs. Bkowx. Well, you had to be known us a Communist. You 
had to be a Communist, and somewhat of a dedicated Communist, to 
be elected to the state convention; state meetings, if you want to say. 
And there would always be someone at the door to let you in, and 
they would know always whether you were a Communist or not. 

Mr. Kittle. "Were you delegates, who attended the state convention, 
ever explicitly informed or clearly informed of the place where the 
meeting was to convene? 

JMi-s.^Brow^n. Not often. Maybe once I was informed. But I have 
stood on the sidewalk in the cold and snow for hours, waiting for 
someone to pick me up to take me to the meeting. They don't tell 
you where the meetings are. They have them at secret places, and 
the members are picked up and carried to this place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I noted you indicated that the club meetings usually 
took place in private homes. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe some of the evidence here has indicated that 
these meetings lasted into the late hours of the evening and the early 
morning of the next day. 

Mrs. Browx. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. Which ones went on that long? The social, or the 
business meetings? 

Mrs. Brow^n. Well, they had social affairs and business meetings, 
mixed. They would have a business meeting early in the evening 
in the party, and then after the party was over, they would have 
another meeting, sometimes in the early mornings, 6 and 7 o'clock, 
where some would go from the meeting to their jobs to prepare for 
meetings the next evening. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliat would you do all that time? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they are just like termites. They are working 
all the time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What kind of place would be selected for the state 
conventions ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. Some hall, secret hall, where they thouglit no one 
would know they were there, very often some hall — that is what I 
learned — on Kinsman Avenue. And then they began to stop them 
from having it there, and they began to have it at some other secret 
place where I have been at least three or four times. But as a rule, I 
never went directly there on my own. 

Mr. Doyle. What do you mean by that answer? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I mean that" most of the times I was picked up 
by a Communist and driven there in their car. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean you didn't know in advance where the 
meeting was to be held ? 

Mrs. Brown. No, I did not. 

Mr. Johansen. Well, how many persons out of a group that were 
meeting — how many of those individuals would know where the meet- 
ing was ? Just one person ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. Well, maybe a few of the heads, the state heads, would 
naturally know ; and maybe Jean Krchmarek would know. 

Mr. Johansen. It would be one of your superiors in the hierarchy? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct, yes. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. But there would not be a large attendance at these meet- 
ings ? Perhaps 25 or 50 people ? 



1096 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. Well, 50 would be a large attendance. Maybe 20; 
and never over 30, I don't think they can trust 50 of them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is the assemblage of what Lenin has described as 
the hard-core workers, the hardened workers, who were bound to rules 
of secrecy ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Persons you have described as dedicated Communists ; 
termites was another expression you used to describe them. 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were there more women than men, usually, at these 
meetings ? 

Mrs. Brown. Just about 50-50. 

]Mr. N1TTI.E. Can you recollect some of the persons who were in at- 
tendance from the Ohio area at the state convention meetings with 
you ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Frieda Katz, Dave Katz, Jean Krchmarek and 
Anthony Krchmarek, and JNIartin and Sally Chancey, the Winters 
girl, Sally Winters, Pearl Levin, Regina Sokol, and others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Ethel Goodman attend any of the state conven- 
tion meetings? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, Ethel had attended. 

Mr. DoTLE. Counsel, the reporter is asking for a 3-minute recess, 
so the committee will stand in recess. That will also give the witness 
a short rest. 

(Short recess.) 

(Members present after recess: Representatives Doyle (presiding), 
Johansen, Bruce, and Schadeberg.) 

Mr. DoYLE. The commitee will please come to order. Let the record 
show that a quorum of the subcommittee is present. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We would like to touch upon the Ohio Smith Act trials 
that opened on October 31, 1955. Certain leading Communists in 
the Ohio area were prosecuted for alleged violations of that Act, 
which in brief prohibits the advocacy of the violent destruction of 
the Government of the United States. 

We would like to explore for a moment the manner in which Com- 
munists may turn court proceedings into propaganda vehicles. 

Some years ago there was set up in ]\Ioscow an organization then 
titled the International Red Aid, which established an American sec- 
tion named the International Labor Defense, for the purpose of 
assisting in the legal defense of Communists in the United States. 
This organization issued a pamphlet entitled Under Arrest^ which 
stated among other things, and I shall now read from the pam- 
phlet 

Mr. Doyle. What is the date of it? 

Mr. NiTTLE. About 1933. 

A Communist must utilize a political trial to help on the revolutionary struggle. 
Our tactics in the public proceedings of the law courts are not tactics of defense 
but of attack. Without clinging to legal formalities, the Communists must use 
the trial as a means of bringing his indictments against the dominant capitalist 
regime and of courageously voicing the views of his party. 

The Subversive Activities Control Board has found that the Civil 
Rights Congress succeeded to the role of the International Labor 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1097 

Defense as the Communist Party's legal arm. The Civil Rights 
Congress organized in Ohio an affiliate or branch titled the Ohio Bill 
of Rights Conference, an organization investigated by the Ohio State 
Commission and denominated a Communist front. 

The evidence indicates that such organizations are established to 
conduct propaganda activities and to obtain financial assistance from 
non-Communists, under the disguise of civil rights organizations, for 
the support of Communist defense efforts. 

I show you a letter identified as Brown Exhibit 14, distributed in 
March 1955 by the Ohio Bill of Rights Conference, which, in the let- 
terhead is in fact designated as affiliated with the Civil Rights Con- 
gress. This letter advises that an "Amiual Freedom Banquet" will be 
held on March 19, 1955, at Chin's Restaurant in Cleveland, and that 
the donation will be $1.50 per plate ; that a purpose of this banquet was 
to "honor" the 11 men and women being brought to trial under the 
Smith Act. The letter is issued under the signatures of James Wells, 
as chairman, who testified a moment ago, and Frieda Katz, as executive 
secretary. 

Now, you have already told us about Frieda Katz, a Communist 
leader in the State of Ohio. You have already told us about James 
Wells, who was active in the Communist Party in the Cleveland 
area. 

Will you tell us in a word or two what knowledge you have of the 
Ohio Bill of Rights Conference ? 

Mrs. Brown. The Ohio Bill of Rights Conference and the Civil 
Rights Congi'ess is one and tlie same. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a copy of a circular letter, dated March 
19, 1956, marked for identification as Brown Exhibit 15, and issued 
by the Ohio Bill of Rights Conference, with leaflets attached. One 
of those leaflets is titled "Guilt By Dissociation," and the other is 
titled "The People Score A Victory." 

I would like to ask whether you participated in the Communist effort 
to give distribution to such letters and leaflets during the course of 
the Smith Act litigation. 

Mrs. Brown. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were many of sucli leaflets distributed ? 

Mrs. Brown. They were. 

(Documents marked "Brown Exhibit Nos. 14 and 15," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in fact in attendance at the Ohio Smith Act 
trials in which the 11 Communist leaders were prosecuted? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you present at any of the conferences of the 
defendants during the course of tlie trial ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us how the defendants reacted to their 
prosecutions ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, they certainly were not worried. They seemed 
to have felt that they would soon get out of it after the trial. And in 
fact they felt very sure that after it reached the Supreme Court, they 
would be freed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. They did not regard the Smith Act as a serious obstacle 
to the progress of their organization ? 



1098 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. Will you repeat that question, please? 

Mr, NiTTLE. Did they regard the Smith Act as a serious obstacle to 
the organization ? 

Mre. Brown. At first they did, because there hadn't been a Cleve- 
land arrest there recently. At first they were pretty frightened. But 
later, when the trials began, they seemed to feel more sure of their 
exoneration. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As you have heard, the resolution authorizing this 
hearing indicates that one of the legislative purposes of this hearing 
by the committee is to determine the need for an amendment to the 
Internal Security Act, and whether or not it should be amended in a 
manner so as to make unlawful membership in the Communist Party 
of the United States. 

The committee presently has before it a bill which was introduced 
in the House on January 30, 1962, by Congressman Doyle of Cali- 
fornia, which is now pending and has been referred to the Committee 
on Un-American Activities; and Mr. Doyle has explained that the 
purpose of this bill is to do just that, that is, to make unlawful 
membership per se in the Communist Party. 

Did you observe whether or not the prosecutions under the Smith 
Act were effective toward impeding Communist Party activities in 
the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs, Bkown. IVliat prosecution? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of the 11 leading Communists. 

Mrs. Brown. In the beginning ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did this affect in any way the strength of the Com- 
mmiist organization in the Cleveland area ? 

Mrs, Brown. Well, it did cause some of them to go underground, 
and it seemed that they were determined that they would work harder. 

I may not be able to answer that question which was asked. But 
the 11, 1 am sure, were not worried, because they had not been prose- 
cuted. They were only arrested and tolerated. And they felt that 
they could go on with their work successfully. 

I am sure that they do that. They work with all the confidence 
in the world, because they feel that v/henever they are arrested, there 
will be nothing done when it goes to the Supreme Court, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you or other Commmiist Party members in- 
structed to demonstrate in any way within the court room during the 
course of the Smith Act trials ? 

Mrs. Brown. Not during the course of the Smith Act trials. Nat- 
urally, everyone was afraid there. You couldn't breathe at those 
trials. They had proper police protection and all other kinds of 
protection, and the Communists wouldn't dare issue any orders for 
the Smith Act trials. It is only for the Committee on Un-American 
Activities that we are advised to demonstrate, 

Mr. JoHANSEN, Does your answer apply to activities outside of 
the courthouse, as well as the statement you have made? In other 
words, you did not have orders to demonstrate outside of the court- 
house during the Smith Act trials ; is that correct? 

Mrs, Brown. Well, they did have picket lines. They picket quite 
a bit. But I don't remember — there were no picket lines during the 
Smith Act trials that I can remember. 



COIMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1099 

INIr, JoiiANSEN. And there was no attempt at disturbance in the 
courtroom? 

Mrs. Brown. I should say not. No, indeed. They would throw 
them all in jail if they did anj^thing there. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. That recalls to me, Mr. Chairman, that a Federal 
judge made a remark to me on seeing a certain film, regarding what 
happened in San Francisco, that if that were attempted in his court, 
they would be jailed immediately. And I recall that there is legislation 
on that matter before the Congress. 

Mr, DoTLE. Do you mean you were instructed to raise a disturb- 
ance while this particular committee, the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities, was holding hearings? 

Mrs. Brown, That is correct. 

Mr, DoTLE. Who gave you that instruction ? 

Mrs. Brown, We got instructions — I remember I got some from a 
Communist Party meeting, Frieda Katz issued one order, I remember 
very well, that we were to demonstrate, to jeer, and boo, and laugh. 

Mr. DoTLE. Well, did you ever boo and laugh ? 

Mrs, Brown. Well, I didn't demonstrate so much. I was still 
in the service of the FBI, and I tried to probably applaud in the 
wrong places. 

Mr. DoTLE. Did you not even demonstrate a little bit, as an FBI 
agent ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, yes, I did a little bit, but not too much. 

Mr. DoYLE. Did any of the others ? 

Mrs. Brown. They tried it. They tried it for a while. But the 
subversive squad began to close in on them, and they stopped that. 

Wliere order is demanded, they are pretty quiet. They only demon- 
strate when you allow them to. 

Mr. DoYLE. "Wlien were these hearings of the committee that you 
refer to held ? Do you recall ? 

Mrs. Brown. Not the exact dates, but it seemed to me there was a 
hearing in the early 1950's. 

IVIr. Doyle. This was in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Brown. One was in Cleveland, conducted by the Ohio Com- 
mission on Un-American Activities; and in the morning when the 
Smith Act defendants were arrested, we were going to Akron to jeer 
and boo there, in Akron, Ohio. 

Mr. Doyle. At committee hearings ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend committee hearings held by the Senate 
Internal Security Subcommittee, as well as the Committee on Un- 
American Activities in the Ohio area ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Ntttle. Over the years ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now return for a moment to the activities of the Ohio 
Bill of Rights Conference. 

I call your attention to a meeting which, according to information 
in the possession of the committee, occurred on October 12, 1952, titled 
"Rally for Freedom," sponsored by the Ohio Bill of Rights Confer- 
ence, and held at the Jewish People's Fraternal Order Home, on Kins- 
man Road, Cleveland. 



1100 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Simon Gerson, legislative director of the New York Communist 
Party, and then a candidate for Congress from Brooklyn, spoke at 
that meeting, together with Isadore Begun, a former schoolteacher, 
and leader of the Bronx Communist Party. Other speakers were 
E. C. Greenfield, also known as Elvador C. Greenfield, whom you 
previously identified as a member of the Communist Party, who was 
running for the office of Governor of Ohio. The chairman of the 
meeting was Frieda Katz. 

We wonder whether you could enlighten us with respect to the 
candidacy for public office of such Communist candidates. 

William Z. Foster said in 1928 : 

We are not going into the national election campaign solely for the purpose 
of getting votes. * * * But we also have other, bigger objectives in the national 
election campaign. Our aim must be to arouse the class-consciousness of the 
masses in a political sense and to mobilize them for struggle on all fronts. Vote- 
getting is only one aspect of this general mobilization of the workers.^ 

What conclusion did you reach with respect to the activities of the 
Communist Party candidates for public office? 

Mrs. Brown. They don't have any idea at all that they are going 
to win. They run in order to find out how many members the Com- 
munist Party has, and how many people are sympathetic to the Com- 
munist cause. That gives them a reason, when they are running, really 
to find out more about the people that are sympathetic to the Com- 
munist cause. They have no intention of winning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do they also use the political platform as a vehicle for 
agitation and the dissemination of Commmiist propaganda ? 
Mrs. Brown. Well, yes, they do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Foster said, "Our aim must be to arouse class con- 
sciousness." I will ask for your opinion, whether he meant by that, 
that the objective of political campaigns conducted by Communists, 
was "to stimulate," as Lenin previously urged, in the minds of the 
people, the thought that the entire government of the country was 
ineffective and objectionable. Did you find that to be so ? 
Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you reach the conclusion, which I think we are 
bomid to reach upon the evidence you have presented here, that the 
Communist effort, propaganda-wise, is to lay the basis among our 
people for a state of mind receptive to the suggestion of rebellion, 
which will pave the way either for the revolution which the Com- 
munists hope to lead, or will disaffect our people to such degree that 
they would not defend the United States if it were challenged by the 
Soviet Union ? 
Mrs. Brown. I am sure of that. 

Mr. DoTLE. May I interrupt there, at that point. Counsel? 
Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 
_ Mr. Doyle. Why do you give that answer, Mrs. Brovni ? It wor- 
ries me. Is it your opinion, that it is a fact, that at least the Com- 
munists that you knew would not respond to a call to defend the 
United States of America in the event of a war, if Kussia was our 
enemy ? Is that your opinion ? 

1 Acceptance Speech of William Z. Foster, delivered at the National Nominating Conveji- 
tlon of the Workers (Communist) Party of America, May 25-27, 1928, New York City. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1101 

Mrs. Browx. My opinion is if they were called, tliey would be our 
enemies right here on our own shores. And they would not stop for 
anything. 

Mr. JoHANSEX. Does that mean sabotage and espionage? 

Mrs. Brown. Anything. 

Mr. Doyle. AVhen you say "anything,'" do you mean they would do 
anything against the United States of America ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. If our enemy was Soviet Russia; is that con-ect? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. And regardless of who our enemy 
was. 

The Communist Party here in the United States, within our own 
country, is our great enemy. Whether Soviet Russia or any other 
comitry, the Communists would still be our enemies. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I assume that that statement carries the further 
suggestion that certainly in case of a war involving Soviet Russia, 
their loyalty would be to Soviet Russia. Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Brown. It certainly would. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, that pretty well reduces to an absurdity any 
claims that some of these witnesses make that they are merely exer- 
cising the right of political association and political freedom. 

Mrs. Brown. They don't know what they are talking about when 
they say it. 

I don't know too much about the theory of communism. I was too 
busy with practical experience. And I know what the Commies will 
do. 

Mr. Doyle. My question was directed to just those that you had 
personal knowledge of; in other words, the Conmiunists that you 
dealt with. 

Do you have any opinion as to the general rmi of Communists, over 
and above those that you personally knew? And apparently you 
knew hundreds of them personally. 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. How many Communists do you suppose you loiew more 
or less personally ? Have you ever counted them ? 

Mrs. Brown. Mr. Chairman, I have never counted them. I guess I 
just couldn't count them. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, is it a fair question for me to ask you at this 
point, as long as I am digressing : About how many individuals will 
Mrs. Brown identify as Communist, according to her own personal 
knowledge, in these hearings ? 

Mr. Nittle. In the open hearing today ? 

Mr. Doyle. Well, today and yesterday and tomorrow. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked Mr. Wetterman to keep a record, and perhaps 
he may at this point have a summary. 

One of the representatives of the press advises me that Mrs. Brown 
has already, in the course of the hearings, identified over 100 persons 
as members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. In Cleveland ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the Cleveland area. And we must bear in mind, 
Mr. Chairman, that we have confined ourselves very carefully and 
scrupulously in this hearing toward identifying as Communist Party 



1102 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

members only those with whom Mrs. Brown was in attendance at 
closed Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Doyle. Closed Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Closed Communist Party meetings. Nor have we al- 
lowed her to exhaust all of her sources of information or knowledge. 

Mr. Bruce. Counsel, I think at this point it might be well to re- 
member also that we are dealing here with the Communist Party, and 
indeed the front apparatus of the Communist Party, and in proper 
perspective, it might be well for us to inject the thought here that 
has been expressed b}' the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation, that for every member identified with the Communist Party, 
there are 10 others ready, willing, and able to do the bidding of the 
Communist Party. 

So membership numbers in the party make a nice game, which is 
played constantly. But if there are 10,000 members identified, ac- 
cording to the statement of Mr. Hoover, you had to multiply that by 
10 to really understand the impact of an arm of a foreign-directed 
conspiracy on the soil of the United States, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir, I think that is a very important observation. 

Mrs, Brown. I would like to make a correction, Mr. Bruce. 

There are more than 10,000 Communists in the United States. 

Mr. Bruce. I simply pulled that figure out. I said if you used 
the figure of 10,000. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, so many have said that. Now the number is 
much less than it used to be, but where are the other Communists? 
They are still Communists and working under orders from Moscow, 
and they have infiltrated every stratum of American society. They 
have gone into organizations pretending to fight on our side. 

Mr. DoTLE. Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown, at the I7th National Convention of the 
Communist Party, held in December 1959, a resolution was adopted 
on party organization, subsequently published in the official Com- 
munist theoretical organ, Political Affairs^ of March 1960. The resolu- 
tions of the convention, of course, establish official party policy. 

The 1959 resolution of the I7th National Convention, the last con- 
vention that they have held, enjoined upon the party leadership the 
conduct of a "united front" policy in the following language of the 
resolution, from which I now quote : 

Mastery of the theory and practice of the united front policy is the key task 
before the whole Party — before every organization, every member. 
The united front is the basic style and method of our mass ivork. 

Practical leadership must be directed first of all to helping members, clubs and 
sections solve problems of developing the united front. The absence of attention 
and guidance to work in the mass organizations must be overcome. 

Of course, this resolution was upon the very point about which you 
were expressing an opinion in response to a committee member inquiry. 

This resolution, at the last National Convention, did not plainly 
define the policy of "united front," which is well understood by Com- 
mmiists from long usage, but J. Edgar Hoover, in his volume. Masters 
of Deceit, makes the matter clear when he explains it as follows : 

A revolutionary tactic designed to secure the support of noncommunists for 
Party objectives. This generally involves Party manipulation of noncommunist 
groups, usually on some current issue such as "peace" or "civil rights," whereby 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1103 

the Party, while maintainiug its independeut role, cooperates with others to 
work for certaiu goals. To iioncomumnists, the goal is advancement of the good 
of society ; To commimists, the revolution. 

One aspect of the united front is the policy known as infiltration, 
sometimes described as "united front from below." It is derived from 
the doctrines and practices of Lenin. It is an old tactic which is 
utilized diirin<^ periods or in countries where the Communist Party 
is either illegal or unpopular, because under such circumstances the 
party would not very likely receive much support if it were openly to 
bid for cooperation from non-Communist groups or individuals. 

Xow, did you receive any particular orders with respect to executing 
a program of infiltration subsequent to the 1959 action at the National 
Convention of the Communist Party? Do you remember receiving 
any order, direction or instruction at your section level? 

Mrs. Browx. In the early part of 19G0, we were ordered to infiltrate 
every organization, fraternal organization, neighborhood clubs, 
churches, and every organization that we could go in. We were not 
restricted on an3' one organization. If you had a neighborhood club 
that the Commies didn't know anything about, you w^ere to infiltrate 
that on 3'our own accord. But any organization, the Communist 
Party members were to infiltrate. 

At one time the Communists were not too successful in their infil- 
tration, because it seems when they first went in, they tried to take 
over too fast. So in 19G0, they were asked to go in and take it easy. 
Just go in and work with the organization, and then come back and 
report the policies and activities of that organization. 

Mr. Doyle. Who gave that order to infiltrate to you ? 

Mrs. Brown. That order was given to me by Jean Krchmarek and 
Bert Washington. 

]Mr. DoTLE. And who were they at that time, in the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brown. Jean Krchmarek was head of the Northeast Section, 
and Bert Washingion, who is now deceased, was one of the officials. 

At a section meeting, the order was given to people there. 

Mr. JoHANSEx. Were you instructed as to specific types of activities 
that you were to carry on within these groups? 

Mrs. Browx. We were to just go in at first, in this 1960 order, and 
be with the group, work with the group. 

Mr. JoHAxsEx. In other words, establish a base. 

Mrs. Broavx. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, what did you do about it ? Did you infiltrate ? 

Mrs. Browx. I didn't take part in their infiltration. 

Mr. Doyle. Did any of the others, to your knowledge ? 

Mrs. Browx. Not to my knowledge, because I had at that time come 
under suspicion, and I was trying to get out of there as fast as I could. 
I was losing my health because of the tension. 

Mr. JoHAXSEN. This was just before you terminated your services 
as an undercover informant in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Browx. That is right. 

Mr. JoHAXSEX. I mean as an undercover informant for the FBI. 

Mrs. Browx. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you find your mission for the FBI a very trying 
one? 

86790 — 62— pt. 2 3 



1104 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs. Brown. It was trying, but it was a privilege and an honor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are a good soldier. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, I would like to say at this point, Mrs. Brown, 
that I think you brought honor to the FBI. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Counsel, this might be a good place to terminate 
our hearings for the day, until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

The committee therefore will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomor- 
row morning. 

(Whereupon, at 4 :20 p.m., Tuesday, June 5, 1962, the subcommittee 
was recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, June 6, 1962.) 



C03OIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, 

AREA 

Part 2 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, 1962 

United States House of Eepresentati'stes, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, B.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the ComLmittee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Eoom, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pennsylvania ; Clyde Doyle, of California ; Gordon H. Scherer, of 
Ohio; August E. Johansen, of Michigan; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. 

Committee members also present : Representatives William M. Tuck, 
of Virginia, and Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin. (Appearances 
as noted.) 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; and Neil E. 
Wetterman, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Nittle, will you call your first witness ? 

Mr. Nittle. I would like to recall Mrs. Brown. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Julia Brown, will you please resume the stand ? 

The Chairman. Mrs. Brown has been sworn. 

TESTIMONY OF JULIA C. BROWN— Resumed 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown, when the committee adjourned last eve- 
ning you were discussing Communist Party tactics of infiltration 
pursuant, particularly, to a resolution adopted at the I7th National 
Convention of the Communist Party held at New York in December 
1959. 

By that resolution there was enjoined upon the party leadership 
the conduct of a united-front policy. We had mentioned that the 
tactics of infiltration were not new, that the origin of this policy goes 
as far back as Lenin's day. However, that resolution was placing a 
renewed emphasis upon the policy of "united front." 

1105 



1106 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Now, I would like to take you back to one of the incidents that oc- 
curred during the early 1950's. Do you recollect a party which took 
place at the home of Margaret Wlierry ? 

Mrs. Browist. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I discussed this matter with Mrs. Wlierry when she 
was on the stand yesterday. Can you tell us about that particular 
party ? 

Mrs. Brown. In the early fifties — I don't remember the exact year — 
a barbecue party was given by Margaret TVlierry for her church. It 
was a public party where eveiyone was invited. There were drinks 
sold and food sold. In the recreation room were people and in the 
back yard there was a lawn party. 

There were at least 150 or 200 people attending from around 6 o'clock 
until around 4 o'clock in the morning. Most of the members of the 
Communist Party were present. There were Communists and non- 
Communists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of this party ? I do not recollect 
whether you stated that. 

Mrs. Brown. It was to raise money for the church that Margaret 
Wlierry had infiltrated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That was the stated purpose ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is right. Invitations went out to that effect. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Proceed. 

Mrs. Brown. There was around $800 raised. There were several 
members of the party attending. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you name some of those that immediately occur 
to you ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Myrtle Dennis and Sam Handelman, James 
Smid, Bertha and Milton Tenenbaum, Sally and Martin Chancey, 
Eugene Brudno and his wife, Shirley Saferstein and her husband, 
Sanford, Eegina Sokol, Jean and Anthony Krchmarek, and numbers 
of others and non-Communists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien you refer to non-Communists, do you mean mem- 
bers of this church ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, members of the church and people that I did 
not know as members of the Communist Party. It was around 4 or 
4 :30 o'clock in the morning Frieda called me upstairs to a meeting in 
Margaret's bedroom. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AAHien you say Frieda, whom do you mean ? 

Mrs. Brown. Frieda Katz, and we had a meeting there as to what 
to do with the proceeds of this party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio were in attendance at this meeting in the bedroom 
of Margaret Wherry ? 

Mrs. Brown. Frieda and David Katz, Margaret Wlierry, Ethel 
Goodman, Myrtle Dennis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, tell the committee what occurred in the course 
of that meeting. 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Margaret had this barbecue for the church and 
she wanted to give the proceeds to the church, and Frieda suggested 
that she give a third to the church, and a third went to the Myrtle Den- 
nis defense fund, and a third went to Marie Reed Haug's campaign 
for the school board. Margaret was very dissatisfied with that, but 
that was what she had to stand for. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1107 

INIr. Doyle. Hadn't there been a public announcement of some sort 
that t he proceeds would go to the church ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, yes, that was what the invitations announced, 
that the party was given for this church. 

Mr. Bkuce. May I ask a question ? 

"Was there any indication that this was a party that was officially 
sanctioned by the church, or was it rather a move on the part of 
Margaret Wherry on her own ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, it was understood by the church that this 
barbecue party would be given for the church because the church 
members were all there participating. 

Mr. Bruce. What church was that ? 

Mrs. Brown. It was the Methodist Church at Abell and 126th. 

Mr. Bruce. The reason I ask that question is you mentioned that 
there were drinks sold. You mean alcoholic beverages? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, sure. 

Mr. Bruce. The reason I asked that question was it would be ex- 
tremely difficult for the IMethodist Church, which has as one of its 
basic tenets a total opposition to the use of alcoholic beverages, to 
publicly sanction a party wherein alcoholic beverages were sold. 

Mrs. Brown. That is if they know it. 

Mr. Bruce. That is the point I am getting at. 

Mrs. Brown. Drinks were in the basement, and they had a lawn 
party outside where people that didn't participate could go out on 
the lawn or in the house. 

Mr. Bruce. But it was not an official church function, as such ? It 
was rather a party sponsored by Margaret Wherry to raise funds for 
the church ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 

(At this point Mr. Schadeberg entered the hearing room.) 

Mr, NiTTLE. Do you have any personal knowledge as to whether or 
not Margaret ^Vlierry was instructed by Frieda Katz or any other 
known Communists to hold this party ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. I am sorry, I couldn't tell you. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Marie Haug successful in her candidacy for the 
school board ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, she did not win. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the Communist Party making an effort to have 
her elected to that important office ? 

Mrs. Brow^n. Yes. I happened to be one in the campaign, and we 
all worked pretty hard to have her elected, get her elected. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you very successful in interesting voters in your 
immediate neighborhood, or district, to vote for and support Marie 
Haug ? 

Mrs. Brown. No. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Did the Communist Party hold any meeting thereafter 
to discuss the failure of Marie Hang's candidacy ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. They did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did t^hat meeting take place ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, the first meeting took place at Don Kothen- 
berg's home. I was called by Don Rothenberg to attend a meeting 



1108 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

to reevaluate the campaign and just what was the cause of Marie 
having failed to win the election to the school board. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect who were in attendance at the meet- 
ing Don Kothenberg had called ? 

Mrs. Brown. I think I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you name the persons present ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Hugh DeLacy, Margaret Wherry, Myrtle Den- 
nis, Elsie Tarcai, and Sam Handelman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that at the meeting the only persons in attendance 
were persons known to you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Brown. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you give us the substance of the discussions at 
that meeting ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, Hugh DeLacy was chairman of that meeting 
and he was explaining to us that the reason he thought that Marie 
Haug did not win was because the peoj^le that campaigned for Marie 
were too timid in identifying themselves as members of the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I would like to turn to another subject for a 
moment. 

Yesterday I was questioning Margaret Wherry with respect to her 
attendance at a banquet in the Polish Embassy. Can you tell us about 
that? 

Did I say Margaret Wlierry? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, you did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I meant to say Pauline Taylor. 

Mrs. Brown. I was called by Elsie Zazrivy in the middle fifties, 
early fifties, I would say, and asked if I would come to Washington 
here to a banquet at the Polish Embassy, and she told me that Pauline 
Taylor would be going, and I was delighted to accept the invitation. 
Pauline met me in Cleveland, Ohio, and we went to Washington to the 
Polish Embassy for the banquet. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio paid your expenses for attendance at this ban- 
quet in the Polish Embassy ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, the Communist Party paid part of it and I 
paid the other part. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many were in attendance at this banquet ? 

Mrs. Brown. Oh, several hundred people. Maybe what I saw was 
probably two or three hundred in the room where I was. 

The Chairman. Do I understand you to say that this banquet was 
arranged by the Polish Government ? 

Mrs. Brown. It certainly was. 

The Chairman. The expenses of the Americans who attended this 
banquet were borne by the Communist Party of the United States ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, this is what I do know: Pauline Taylor was 
sent by the Communist Party and I was sent by the Communist Party 
to the Polish Embassy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect any other persons from the Cleve- 
land area who were in attendance there ? 

Mrs. Brown. Paul Eobeson was there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he sing on that occasion ? 

Mrs. Brown. I didn't hear him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he at that time a resident of Cleveland ? 



COIMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1109 

Mrs. Brown. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are referring to him merely as being present ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to your presence and that of Pauline Tay- 
lor, do you recollect others, if any, from the Cleveland area who were 
in attendance ? 

IVIrs. Brown. Well, no. It was such a crowd, I really don't remem- 
ber anyone else at this time. I think we were the only two sent from 
Cleveland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know whether this was a meeting of American 
Communists at the Polish Embassy ? 

Mrs. Brown. Well, I was introduced to quite a number of them. 
Pauline introduced me to one of the heads there, and he did take us 
around and introduced me to a number of people, but really I don't 
know whether they were Communists or non-Communists and I don't 
remember the names, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you introduced to any officials of the Polish 
Embassy staff ? 

Mrs. Brown. Yes, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us who made those introductions, if you 
remember? 

Mrs. Brown. Pauline Taylor introduced me to some and she asked 
some man to introduce me to some, and he introduced her to some of 
them. It was a big crowd. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That concludes the staff interrogation of Mrs. Brown, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether or not the Polish Govern- 
ment is still engaged in entertaining American Communists at its 
embassy here and elsewhere ? 

Mrs. Brown. I do not. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Nittle. 

Are you finished with this witness ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I want to thank you on behalf of the committee 
and the Congress and the American people for making the contribution 
that you have made in this struggle. It is indeed fortunate that there 
are people like you who are willing to come forward and assist. I 
know it wasn't easy and you are entitled to the thanks of all of the 
American people. 

Mrs. Brown. Thank you all. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Samuel Handelman. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand? Do you swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Handelman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL HANDELMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would you state your name for the record, please? 
Mr. Handelman. Samuel Handelman, 

Mr. Nittle. I see that you are represented by counsel. Will counsel 
please identify himself ? 



1110 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "VVliere were you born, Mr. Handelman ? 

Mr. Handelman. Born in Glasgow, Scotland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you presently reside? 

Mr. Handelman. Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how long have you lived in Cleveland, Ohio? 

Mr. Handelman. Oh, approximately since 1915. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Handelman. Counsel wouldn't have to ask that question if 
he knew I was a practicing lawyer. The answer is "yes." 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are a practicing lawyer by profession ? 

Mr. Handelman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of what bars are you a member? 

Mr. Handelman. jSIember of the Ohio Bar. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you practiced law in Ohio? 

Mr. Handelman. Since 1930. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The witness whom you have heard on the stand and 
who has immediately preceded you, namely, Mrs. Julia Brown, has 
identified you as a member of the Communist Party. Are you at this 
instant a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Handelman. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer this question 
under the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Handelman, I believe you did not refuse to answer 
that question when it was asked of you by the Governor of the State 
of Ohio, Thomas J. Herbert, on April 2, 1948, At that time, in order 
to refresh your memory, you were appearing at the Governor's man- 
sion, together with a Paul Shepard, who was then a member of the 
CIO United Electrical Workers union, and another lawyer named 
Jerome Land, the son of Yetta Land, who has been identified as a 
member of the Communist Party by Mrs. Brown. 

The Governor of Ohio asked, according to this United Press report 
of April 2, "Are you men Communists?" Handelman and Shepard 
replied that they were not. Land, according to the Governor, hesi- 
tated, then said, "I would rather be excused from answering that ques- 
tion." 

Were you then a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Handelman. I refuse to answer the question on the same 
ground as previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. When the Governor of Ohio asked you that question 
you were not under oath, is that right ? 

Mr. Handelman. Mr. Scherer, I can't even recall this incident. 

Mr. Scherer. You can't what ? 

Mr. Handelman. I can't even recall this incident and I can't be re- 
sponsible for what the newspapers say in their press comments. 

Mr, Scherer. You don't recall the incident at all in the Gover- 
nor's 



Mr. Handelman. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you know Governor Herbert? 
Mr. Handelman. I wouldn't say I knew him, no. I knew who he 
was when he was Governor. 
Mr. Scherer. You never were in the Governor's mansion in Ohio ? 
Mr. Handelman. If I was I have no recollection of it. 
Mr. Scherer. You don't recollect ? Well, I would. 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1111 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle, Are you, Mr. Handelman, a member of the National 
Lawyers Guild ? 

Mr. Handelman. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. And have you been active in the affairs of the National 
Lawyei-s Guild, serving in various official capacities for that lawyers' 
association ? 

Mr. HL\ndelman. Not for many years. 

Mr. Nittle. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Handelman. Not for many years. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I would like at this point to have noted 
in the record the extract relating to the National Lawyers Guild which 
appears in the Guide to /Subversive Organisations and Publications^ a 
publication of this committee. 

The Chairman. Let it be made a part of the record. 

(The document referred to follows :) 

National Lawyers Guild 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1311 on 
the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 19Jf4, p. 149-) 

2. Cited as a Communist front which "is the foremost legal bulwark of the 
Communist Party, its front organizations, and controlled unions" and which 
"since its inception has never failed to rally to the legal defense of the Com- 
munist Party and individual members thereof, including known espionage 
agents." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 3123 on the Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, originally released Septem- 
ber 17,1950.) 

3. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been devised 
making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and reaching out far beyond 
the confines of the Communist Party itself. Among these organizations are 
the * * * National Lawyers Guild. When the Communist Party itself is under 
fire these offer a bulwark of protection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee, 
Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. Ill, April 23, 1956, p. 91.) 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in attendance at the National Lawyers Guild 
convention of July 28 to 31, 1960, at the Jack Tar Hotel in San Fran- 
cisco, California? 

Mr. Handelman. Mr. Chairman, I don't see the materiality of this 
question for any purpose this committee can have, but I was not in 
attendance. 

Mr. Nittle. I show you Handelman Exhibit No. 1, the 1962 Law- 
yers Referral Directory of the National Lawyers Guild, in which your 
name appears, and your office is listed as 1110 Euclid Avenue, Cleve- ' 
land, Ohio. I ask if that is a correct listing ? 

Mr. Handelman. I don't have to see it. I know it. I don't have 
to see the exhibit. I know where my office is located. 

The Chairman. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Nittle. That is correct. That is on there. 

Mr. Johansen. The witness' answer was that that is the correct 
address ? 

Mr. Handelman. Oh, yes, of course, yes, certainly. 

Mr. Nittle. You also appear upon the directory with Elsie R. Tar- 
cai, a resident of Cleveland, Ohio. Do you know Elsie R. Tarcai? 

]VIr. Handelman. Yes, I know Elsie Tarcai. 



1112 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Elsie R. Tarcai to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. EUndelman. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as stated 
before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There also appears upon the Referral Directory of 
the National Lawyers Guild the name of Violet J. Tarcai. Do you 
know Violet J. Tarcai ? 

Mr. Hakdelivian. Yes, I know Violet J. Tarcai. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know her as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Handelman. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There also appears upon the directory the name of 
Thelma C. Furry, attorney from Akron, Ohio. Do you know Thelma 
C. Furry as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Handelman. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I put it to you as a fact, Mr. Handelman, that you do 
know those persons as members of the Commmiist Party. Will you 
affirm or deny or explain that statement ? 

Mr. Handelman. I refuse to again on the same grounds as previ- 
ously stated. I refuse to answer rather. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On what grounds do you base your answer ? 

Mr. Handelman. Same grounds as originally stated. 

The Chairman. It is understood that when you say "the same 
grounds" you mean by that, that you invoke the privileges of the fifth 
amendment and the first amendment. 

Mr. Handelman. That is for you to state, Mr. Chairman. 

(Document marked "Handelman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at a party in the early fifties 
at the home of Margaret Wlierry which was described a moment ago 
by Mrs. Brown ? 

Mr. Handelman. I have no recollection of being there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not deny being there ? 

Mr. Handelman. I have grave doubts about it, but I go many 
places. I have no recollection. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Don Rothenberg ? 

Mr. Handelman. Yes, I know Don Rothenberg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And do you know him to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Handelman. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown has testified, immediately before you ap- 
peared upon the stand, that you were in attendance at a meeting in 
the home of Don Rothenberg after the failure of Marie Haug to be 
elected to the board of education in Cleveland. 

Mr. Handelman. I have no recollection of this incident either, and 
it is just characteristic of the broadside accusations and charges made 
by this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you deny the statement of Julia Brown? 

Mr. Handelman. I have no recollection and I so stated that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you deny her testimony ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1113 

Mr. Handelman. I have no recollection of being there. 

Mr. ScuERER. That isn't my question. 

The Chairman. lie has answered. 

Mr. Handelman. I cannot recall. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will show you an item, identified as Handelman 
Exhibit No. 2, which appeared in the Daily Worker for August 13, 
1952, at page 8, in which you are identified as one of 45 "prominent 
American attorneys" who liave signed a statement on behalf of an 
organization titled "Council of Greek Americans," addressed to the 
Premier of Greece, demanding a civilian trial for Tony Ambatielos 
and nine other leaders of the Greek maritime unions sentenced to 
death in 1948 "for their trade union activities."' 

Will you examine that please? 

(Witness handed document.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, in fact, one of the 45 "prominent American 
attorneys" who had executed a statement or petition of that sort ? 

Mr. Handelman. Well, of course, it is flattering to be referred to 
as prominent. This I deny. I am not prominent. 

]\Ir. Nittle. I was merely quoting the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Handelman. I object to the question. It is completely imma- 
terial to an}^ purpose that this committee can have. 

Mr. Nittle. It is not if you were engaged 

Mr. PIandelman. Well, that is your statement. 

Mr. Nittle. — engaged in signing that petition as a member of 
the Communist Party of the United States, seeking to influence a 
foreign government friendly to the United States which was then 
resisting Communist aggression and was involved in civil war insti- 
gated by comrades in Russia. 

Did you, as a member of the Communist Party pursuant to instruc- 
tions by Communists known to you, execute this petition in order 
to influence the Greek Government, a friendly power? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Handelman. The answer is no. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you execute that petition? 

Mr. Handelman. I have no recollection of it. 

The Chairman. Do you know of the case of these people who were 
on trial in Trieste? 

Mr. Handelman. All I can tell you is that many lawyers, myself 
included, are asked, from time to time, to sign petitions for different 
things and I may have signed it. I have no recollection of it. 

The Chairman. Yes, I am sure that is correct. 

Mr. Handelman. Of course you know that is correct. 

The Chairman. Lawyers are very careful about what they sign 
usually, unless they are doing it deliberately. Tell me, do you know 
the names of these people who were arrested by the Greeks? 

Mr. Handelman. As I say, Mr. Chairman, I have no recollection of 
even signing this thing, let alone knowing the names of the persons 
involved ; but it would appear to have been, as stated for the record 
and as appears from the article, an attempt to save someone's life. 
That's what it says. I don't recall it though, but apparently some- 
one was facing execution and an appeal was made for their lives. 
That is what if: says. 



1114 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not that council to which I have referred a Com- 
munist front ? 

Mr. Handelman. I have no knowledge. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Apparently the Attorney General thought so. It was 
designated under Executive Order No. 10450 on July 15, 1953. 

The Chairman. What paper did this appear in ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Daily Worker, Mr. Chairman, August 13, 1952. 

Mr. ScHERER. If the witness says that he can't remember the Gov- 
ernor of Ohio at the Governor's mansion asking him whether he is a 
Communist, you don't expect him to say that he can remember this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that the exhibit to which I refer 
be admitted in the record. 

The Chairman. It will be admitted and made a part of the record. 
Go ahead with your questions, 

(Document marked "Handelman Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Durmg the 1949 convention of the CIO in Cleveland, 
Ohio, was there not a caucus meeting of the Communist Party 
group held in your law office while the convention was in session, 
the purpose being to assign specific resolutions to members of the 
Communist Party who were convention delegates ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Handelman. I have no recollection or knowledge of such an 
incident. 

(At this point Mr. Johansen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you deny that it took place ? 

Mr. Handelman. I said I have no recollection or knowledge of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions of this witness. It 
is quite apparent that he is not going to remember anything. 

Mr. FoRER. I object to that statement, Mr. Chairman. 

I don't think it is proper for counsel to make such a derogatory 
remark. I ask it be stricken. 

The Chairman. It is not derogatory. It is simply a statement of 
fact. It is obvious that he doesn't remember. 

Mr. FoRER. He didn't say that, Mr. Chairman. He said it is obvious 
he is not going to remember, which carries a very different implication. 

Mr. Scherer. That is obvious to me also. 

Mr. FoRER. It may be obvious to you, but a lot of things that are 
obvious to you aren't so, Mr. Scherer. 

The Chairman. All right. Call another witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. James Smid. 

The Chairman. Will you stand up please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Smid. I do. 

(At this point Mr. Johansen returned to the hearing room.) 

TESTIMONY OP JAMES SMID, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name please ? 
Mr. Smid. James Smid. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I note you are represented by counsel. Will counsel 
identify himself ? 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1115 

Mr. Fori-:r. I am still Josepli Forer, of Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Ni'nxE. Mr. Smid, Julia Brown, who appeared on the stand 
earlier this morning and who is present here in the Caucus Room, 
has identified you as a member of the Communist l*arty and a very 
active one during the period she resided in Cleveland and after her 
reception into the Connnunist Party in 1947 or thereabouts. Are you 
at this instant a member of the Communist Party ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. You don't have to get legal advice to answer that 
question. You know whether or not you are a member of the Com- 
munist Party. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer on the grounds that this question is 
not pertinent. I also refuse 

The Chairman. Not pertinent to what ? 

Mr. Smid. It is not pertinent to anything. 

The Chairman. Well, it is pertinent to the security of the United 
States. That may not be anything to you, but it is a great deal to 
most of us. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that he be given a direction to answer. 

The Chairman. Yes, you are directed to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer the question on the gi'ounds that the 
question is not pertinent ; also on the basis of my rights under the first 
amendment and the privilege under the fifth amendment. This in- 
quiry has no legitimate legislative program. 

The Chairman. Purpose you mean, not program. You didn't un- 
derstand your lawyer. 

Mr. Forer. Are you agreeing with him, Mr. Walter ? 

The Chairman. No, but you were talking a while ago about obvious 
things. It was obvious to me when he came here with you that he 
wasn't going to testify, because you don't come to a hearing with a 
Communist lawyer and expect to get 

Mr. Forer. Mr. Walter, that is an improper remark to make and I 
ask you to withdraw it. 

The Chair]vian. I will admit that is improper. A lot of things that 
happen around here are improper. Go ahead and answer the 
question. 

Mr. Nittle. I state as a fact that on October 11 and 12, 1941, you 
attended the State Conference of the Communist Party at Finnish 
Hall on Franklin Avenue. Will you affirm or deny that statement ? 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the reasons I stated before. 

Mr. Nittle. I state as a fact that you attended the State Convention 
of the Communist Party on April 30, 1944, which was held in Public 
Hall in Cleveland, Ohio. Will you affirm or deny that statement ? 

Mr. SiMiD. I refuse to answer for the reasons given before. 

Mr. Nittle. I state as a fact that you attended the June 17 and 18, 
1944, sessions of the Ohio State Communist Party Convention in 
Cleveland, Ohio. Will you affirm or deny that statement ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as stated before. 

Mr. Nittle. I show you passport application No. 162666, identified 
as Smid Exhibit No. 1, in w^liich you made application for a passport 



1116 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

on January 17, 1935, and stated that your purpose was to go abroad — 
and to return to the United States within 2 years — to visit Russia and 
setting forth that you might reside there. Did you, in fact, make 
application for such a passport, stating your purpose to be a visit to 
Russia with a possible intent to reside there ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman". Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you Exhibit No. 1 and ask you to identify 
that. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as stated before. 

(Document marked "Smid Exhibit No. 1" and retained in coimnit- 
tee files.) 

The Chairman. I notice that "Rush" is written on there. Did you 
write that on there ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as given before. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you born in Czechoslovakia, sir ? 

Mr. Smid. I was born in Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. Smid. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wlien were you naturalized ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. It is approximately in the year of 1922 or 1924. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were naturalized ? 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as I stated before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, Mr. Smid, were you not natural- 
ized at Cleveland, Ohio, on September 19, 1930, by petition No. 42073, 
and issued Certificate No. 3391446? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. Do you expect him to remember all that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask him to remember the date of his naturalization. 

Mr. FoRER. Ask him the date then. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have asked him whether that was the date. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. SMro. Your date that you quote could be possible. My first 
mention of 1922 or 1924 — I said it was approximate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you visit Russia, in fact, during the year 1935 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for tlie same reasons as stated before. 

The Chairman. Let's get this straight. 

You refuse to answer the question as to whether or not you visited 
Russia in 1935 on the grounds that the answer might subject you to a 
criminal prosecution ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I stated my reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, in fact, visit Russia and while there attend 
any schools for indoctrination in communism? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did not ? 

Mr. Scherer. You asked him two questions. Did you go to Russia ? 



COM^IUNTST ACTmriES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1117 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for tlie same reasons I stated before. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you attend any schools of indoctrination in com- 
munism in Russia during the period 1935 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. No. 

Mr. NiTrLE. Did j'ou, in fact, visit Russia in 1935 ? 

JNIr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons I stated before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at a party given by Margaret 
Wherry for a Methodist Church in Cleveland in the early 1950's? 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as stated before. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. ScHERER. You subsequently received another passport, did you 
not, in June of 1949 and went to Czechslovakia for 3 months ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons I have given 
before. 

Mr. SciiERER. Well, did you make an application for a passport in 
June of 1949 in which you said you intended to go to Czechoslovakia 
and stay for 3 months? 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as I have given 
before. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pursuant to the issuance of this passport, did you 
actually go to Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as given before. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions ? 

Mr. Bruce. I believe in response to a question by counsel as to 
whether you had attended what he described as a school of in- 
doctrination you replied "no." Am I correct ? 

Mr. Smid. I said "no." 

Mr. Bruce. Did you attend any educational institution in the So- 
viet Union ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Have you ever attended or received instruction in any 
Communist school or center of instruction ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Smid. I refuse to answ^er the question for the same reasons as 
stated before. 

Mr, Bruce. I have no further questions. ' 

The Chairman. All right. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Frida Kreitner, come forward please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand? Do you swear 
the testimony you are about to give will bo the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. lijiEiTNER. I affirm that I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRIDA KREITNER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your name^ please, for the record ? 
Mrs. Kreitner. My name is Frida Kreitner. 



1118 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. N1TTI.E. I see you are represented by counsel. Will counsel 
please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer. 

The CHAmMAN. What is your last name ? 

Mrs. IvREiTNER. Kreituer, K-r-e-i-t as in Tom, n as in no, e-r. 

Mr. Forer. K as in refusal to answer. 

Mrs. Kreitner. Amen. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are married ? 

Mrs. Kreitner. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. And Frida.Ivreitner is your married name ? 

Mrs. Kreitner. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Since you have been married, Mrs. Kreitner, and have 
been using the name Kreitner, have you used any other names ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
it is, firstly, not pertinent and, secondly, on the right given to me under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. jNIrs. Brown 

Mr. Forer. You got the wrong name. 

Mr. Nittle. — has testified before this committee that in the fifties 
you operated a bookstore titled "One World Bookshop" at 5103 Eu- 
clid Avenue. Did you in fact operate a bookshop titled "One World 
Bookshop" at that address ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Kreitxer. I refuse to answer on the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. While you were operating that bookshop, I put it to 
you as a fact that the name which appeared upon the door was that of 
Frida Smith. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse to answer on previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Why were you disguising your identity ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Kreitner. I consider that a loaded question. I have never 
admitted or said or impugned that I have ever disguised my name. 

The Chairman. What was your maiden name? 

Mrs. Kreitner. Smith. 

The Chairman. Go on. 

Mr. Nittle. At the time the name Frida Smith appeared upon that 
door, were you then married or single ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown has identified you as a member of the 
Communist Party, known to her to be such, in the Cleveland area. 
Are you as of this instant a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse to answer on the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown has testified further tliat you were in- 
structed by persons known to you to be Communists to infiltrate the 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Will 
you affirm or deny that allegation? 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1119 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

]Mr. Ni'm.E. Did you, in fact, engage in activity within the NAACP 
with the objective of infhioncing its policies or conduct on behalf of 
the Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it the policy of the Communist Party to capture 
or to destroy the NAxiCP ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Kreptker. I have absolutely no knowledge of any such thing. 

Mr. NiTruE. After the office at 5103 Euclid Avenue was closed in 
the middle fifties, did you have other employment ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Kreitner. Are you ready? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Kreitner. I consider that a loaded question. I never testified 
to having that office. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, did you have that office? 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse to answer on the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever visited at that office ? 

Mrs. Kreitner. I refuse as before on the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a salaried functionary of the Com- 
munist Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

ilrs. Kreitner. I consider that impertinent, in fact, and I refuse 
to answer on the ground of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Martin Chancey. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God. 

Mr. Chancey. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MAETIN CHANCEY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. Chancey. My name is Martin Chancey, C-h-a-n-c-e-y. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to call your attention to a communica- 
tion I sent to Congressman Doyle and Congi^essman Johansen, in 
which I informed them — and I think I should inform the committee 
as a whole — that I have strongly protested my being called again to 



86790 — 62— pt. 2- 



1120 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

this committee. I was called here less than a year ago. My business 
was ruined. I was called to an executive session and, a month before 
I ever appeared, information was leaked to the newspapers and my 
business was destroyed and now, less than a year after that, I am 
called here again. 

Again the information has leaked to the newspapers, and you can 
be sure that my efforts to rebuild my little business are again de- 
stroyed. 

Congressman Doyle, as you will remember at that last hearing less 
than a year ago, you expressed your deep concern at the ruin to my 
business. Now, why the committee should go ahead and drag me 
here again with the same consequences, again leaking information to 
the newspapers, I don't think it is humane, I don't think it is decent, 
and I don't see why it is being done to me. 

The Chairman. You will be given an opportunity now to clarify 
the atmosphere so that your business will be flourishing. 

Mr. Chancet. Your Honor, this information was given to the 
papers contrary to your own rule not to reveal this information. I 
think the rule is XVI of your Rules of Procedure. 

I also want to call this to your attention. Last year before I was 
informed as to the purpose of the hearing, the Cleveland Press already 
announced the purpose. Then the hearing was postponed. I wasn't 
informed of the postponement, my counsel wasn't, and the Cleveland 
Press had this information ; and before I appeared here, the Cleveland 
Press said it was an executive session. 

The Chairman. I would like to tell you that the committee is dis- 
turbed by this sort of thing and that we have conducted investigations, 
and are still investigating, in order to find out how this information 
has been leaked, if it has been, and we are going to leave no stone 
unturned in order to prevent it in the future, if it means firing every- 
body on the committee and starting out with a new staff or having 
Western Union do the same thing. 

Mr. Chancet. Mr. Doyle remembers last year, when I raised the 
question of the information being leaked to the Press, Mr. Doyle very 
carefully questioned the staff and each one very strongly denied know- 
ing anything about it, and yet the same thing exactly is being repeated 
now. Now, it couldn't be all these accidents happening time and 
again. 

The Chairman. The fact of the matter is you went to the Press 
yourself, didn't you ? I have in my hand a letter from the Cleveland 
Press stating that you had gone to the city editor regarding the 
subpena and that you provided the newspaper with the details of 
how you received the subpena. 

Let's go on, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mr. Chancet. I might say. Your Honor, that 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Chancet. All right, sir. 

The Chairman. We want to be fair, but we expect you to be fair, 
and honest, incidentally. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1121 

Mr. CiiANCEY. Since I communicated with members of your com- 
mittee, I tlioijo-ht you should know about that. 

The Chairman. All right. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. ISIr. Chancey, are you at this moment a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Chancey. I am sorry that I will have to refuse to answer this 
question. 

The Cpiairman. You don't have to refuse to answer. You are not 
under any compulsion at all. 

Mr. Chancey. I think I should refuse to answer it, because I think 
my own political beliefs are my own business under the first amend- 
ment and I don't think any congressional committee has any business 
to inquire into it; and the Supreme Court ruled a couple of weeks 
ago, when they threw out the six contempt citations, that Congress 
cannot legislate in the field of opinion and belief and association and, 
therefore, has no right to investigate in that field. 

The Chairman. Well, we will find out. 

Mr. Chancey. That is one reason. Secondly, I think under the 
fifth amendment, not to testify against myself, I don't think I have 
to answer this question, I think this question is not pertinent to any 
legislative inquiry I can think of, and I think this whole investigation 
is illegitimate to any legislative purpose. I think it just does to other 
people as it does to me. I think it destroys their business. 

The Chairman. You have answered the question. You refuse to 
answer because of your privileges under the Constitution of the United 
States. 

Mr. Chancey. All right, sir. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. I suggest, Mr. Chancey, that you are a hard-core Com- 
munist and that the tears in your voice are quite unbecoming. "Would 
you comment on that ? 

Mr. Chancey. I don't think as a counsel you have any business to 
speak about my tears or any such insinuations. 

The Chairman. Ask him questions. 

Mr. Chancey. I thirds: we are here for serious business and not to 
cast aspersions on my tears or anything like that. 

Mr. Nittle. When were you born, Mr. Chancey ? 

Mr. Chancey. I was born on July 26, 1908. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wliere were you born ? 

Mr. Chancey. I was born in New York City, 

Mr. Nittle. During the year 1934 were you a candidate of the. 
Communist Party for Assemblyman for the 12th District of New 
York. 

Mr. Chancey, I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated, 

Mr, Nittle, Were you the Communist Party secretary of the York- 
ville Section in New York during 1936 ? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer for the reasons given. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck left the hearing room.) 



1122 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact that you were the organizational sec- 
retary of Section 28 of the New York Communist Party from 1932 
to 1936? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the year 1937, did you become the Communist Party 
organizer for Washington, D.C.? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer for the reasons already given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period 1937 to 1943, did you not also hold 
the positions of city secretary, executive secretary, section organizer, 
and district organizer of the Communist Party for the District of 
Columbia? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the year 1937 did you recruit Henry Thomas 
into the Communist Party and give him his instructions ? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not select and send Henry Thomas to a Com- 
munist Party school in New York City ? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer for the reasons given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As city secretary of the Commiuiist Party in Wash- 
ington, D.C., did you not send $500 to the national headquarters of 
the Commimist Party in New York in the year 1940 ? 

Mr. Chancey. I have no such recollection. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you deny that you did? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer this question on the reasons given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not testify before the Special Committee on 
Un-American Acti\dties in Washington on October 6, 1939? 

Mr. Chancey. I remember having been at such a committee. I 
haven't the faintest idea what took place there. It was a long, long 
time ago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you asked this question at that hearing by the 
chairman : 

Suppose we were at war with Russia, what would be your position as between 
the United States and Russia? Would you favor the United States or Russia? 

And did you reply to that inquiry : 

I would wait for such a thing to happen. 

Mr. Chancey. I have no recollection of that. That was 23 years 
ago and it is a long time ago. Incidentally, I think the committee 
should know that the previous witness was fired from his job, Mr. 
James Smid lost his job, when he was served a subpena at his place 
of employment. I think the committee should also know that half of 
those subpenaed were served either on the job or in their place of 
business, and why such a thing should happen is very hard to imder- 
stand, unless the committee is interested in economic strangulation 
of its witnesses. As one whose little business was destroyed 

The Chairman. No. These witnesses had an opportunity to testify 
and they invoked the fifth amendment. Now, go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. On November 8, 1942, were you not the chainnan of 
the 25th Soviet Anniversary Celebration in Washington, D.C. ? 



COlSOrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1123 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
stated; and it also just occurred to me, in reference to your previous 
question, that a short time after the war started I was drafted into 
the Army. I was overseas for about 2i/2 years, I received five battle 
stars and a Certificate of Merit, and if there is any question about 
my patriotism, I think I can square myself with anybody in this room. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was that the Second World War ? 

Mr. CiiANCEY. That was the Second World War, 

Mr. ScHERER. We were a co-belligerent of Russia at that time. 

Mr. Chancey. I fought in defense of my country and I will do so 
any time my country is attacked. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that. At that time Russia was an ally. 
I say a co-belligerent. 

Mr. Chancey. I fought because I was drafted. 

The Chairman. Were you a Communist at that time ? 

Mr. Chancey. Sir, I am sorry, I can't answer the question for the 
reasons given, but I was an American. I am an American. I will 
always fight when my country is attacked and I will fight for what 
our country stands for, and I hate to see those principles dragged out 
into the mud. 

The Chairman. All right. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Following your separation from the armed services 
in May of 1945, I assert as a fact that you were then directed by the 
Communist Party to lead certain organizational activities for them 
in the State of Ohio. Will you affirm or deny that fact ? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer this question on the same grounds. 

Mr, XiTTLE, During the year 1946 did you not select La Verne 
Slagle to reorganize tlie North End Club of the Communist Party in 
Franklin County, Ohio? 

Mr. Chancey. I haven't the faintest recollection of any such thing. 

Mr. Nittle. As a matter of fact, I assert that in 1946 you were the 
Ohio State organizational secretary of the Communist Party. Will 
you affirm or deny that statement? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle, Did you also hold by virtue of that office various posi- 
tions as member of the State Board of the Communist Party, member 
of the State Committee of the Communist Party, and labor organizer 
for the State of Ohio? 

Mr, Chancey. I decline to reply on the grounds given. 

Mr. Nittle, Did you not hold the position of secretary of the Com- 
munist Party in Ohio until the latter part of 1949 or the early part 
of 1950? 

Mr. Chancey. Wliat is the purpose of going into all other stuff? I 
thought in this country people have a right to belong to any organiza- 
tion they please, that it is not the concern of Congress to investigate 
into their political activities. Do I ask whether you are a Democrat 
or a Republican? I belong to whatever organization I feel I want to 
belong as an American. That is my right under the Constitution. 
Why do you have to inquire into that ? 



1124 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer on the grounds already given. 

The Chairman. All right. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I put it to you as a fact that one Kobert Gunkel in 
1947, who was then the Hamilton County chairman of the Communist 
Party, called a special meeting to hear you discuss, and make a report 
of, a Communist meeting which you had attended in New York City. 
Will you affirm or deny that ? 

Mr. Chancey. I have no recollection of any such event. 

Mr. Nittl/e. On October 11, 1947, did you not address the State 
Convention of the Communist Party at the Ukrainian Labor Temple 
on Auburn Avenue in Cleveland ? 

Mr. Chancey. I have no recollection of it. I might say that you 
get witnesses here, your friendly witnesses, who have phenomenal 
memories, who can recite a hundred names of people and what they 
did in the last 20 years. I don't have any such memory. I am just 
a normal human being. 

The Chairman. Didn't it strike you as significant that when the 
people named were called and asked about the recollection of this 
witness they invoked the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Chancey. I think they were perfectly right in doing so be- 
cause it is not the business — furthermore, I think, Your Honor 

The Chairman. We don't care what you think. If I would inquire 
into what you think, you would accuse me of violating your consti- 
tutional right. 

Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Chancey. I don't care what you think. I think it is your pri- 
vate business what you think. Wliy should any congressional com- 
mittee probe my mind. That is my affair. 

The Chairman. We are not probing your mind at all. We are 
asking you about a course of conduct over the years which indicated 
to us that you were in a position to supply this committee with infor- 
mation which would be helpful in the drafting of legislation designed 
to make us more secure in this cold war that we are engaged in. 

Mr. Chancey. I am very much concerned with the security of our 
country and any information which I can give which would help I 
would be glad to do so. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1125 

The Chairman. All right. Now you are going to be given the 
opportunity. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a publication, marked for identification as 
Chancey Exhibit No. 1, which is a publication tilled Contact^ issued 
by the National Organization and Education Commissions of the Com- 
munist Party, U.S.A., and I ask if you authored the article on page 11 
thereof, as shown by your byline, in the August 1947 issue of that 
publication. 

Mr. Chancey. I have seen it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make that contribution to this leading Com- 
munist Party theoretical organ ? 

Mr. Chancey. I have to decline for the reasons given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question to which you addressed yourself in that 
article, as set forth on page 11 thereof, is as follows : 

To what extent can the group system help solve the tough problem of how to 
overcome the gap between the active and inactive sections of our membership? 

Then you go on to say : 

With some 700 new members as a result of the present recruiting drive, we are 
faced with the problem of making guarantees that these comrades will be drawn 
into the life and activities of our clubs. 

Were you referring to 700 members in the Cleveland area, or for 
the entire State of Ohio ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Chancey. As you well know, I did not say that I wrote the 
article and, therefore, I think it is a loaded question. I also think that 
much of the proceedings going on here about parties being held and 
people running for political office 

The Chaikman. You haven't been asked about this at all. Mr. 
Nittle, proceed. 

Just a minute. You answer the question you are asked. Don't 
comment on the questions that have been asked of other witnesses. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Chancey. I shall answer. I did not admit to having written 
this article and, therefore, I think your question — whether I made 
such-and-such a statement — I think is irrelevant and I decline to 
answer it. 

Mr. NriTLE. For the reasons previously stated ? 

Mr. Chancey. For the reasons previously stated. 

(Docmnent marked "Chancey Exhibit No. 1" follows :) 



1126 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 




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1128 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiiTLE. Certainly none but those highest in the Communist 
Party ranks in the country would have available to them the mem- 
bership lists of the Communist Party in the State of Ohio. Would 
you comment upon that statement ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Chancey. I have no comment to make. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the year 1948 were you not reelected to the 
State Committee of the Communist Party at its Stata Convention? 

Mr. Chancey. I decline to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact that at the same convention you were 
one of the principal speakers and reported to the delegates on "Party 
Organization" and "The Fight for the Communist Party" ? 

Mr. Chancey. I decline to answer for the reasons already given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Didn't this report deal with the call to membership 
and leadership of the party for the important task of building the 
party as the "vanguard of the working class"? 

Mr. Chancey. I didn't say I made that report and, therefore, I think 
your question is a loaded one and I don't see any reason to answer it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did not the convention report which you made direct 
every party member to pay "miswerving personal attention to the 
moulding and the processing of the party clubs in every shop and 
factory"? 

Mr. Chancey. I think you are just making speeches. I don't think 
you are asking any question. 

Mr. NiTPLE. Did you or did you not make that report, and did I not 
quote your language ? 

Mr. Chancey. I already said I refuse to answer this question, so 
why do you ask me whether I said these things ? I said I refuse to 
answer that I made that report, so why are you making speeches here 
like that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not also at that convention elected a delegate 
to represent the Ohio Communist Party at the succeeding National 
Convention of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Chancey. Let me ask you, do you have anything of any crimes 
that I committeed there that you are so serious about ? 

Mr. ScHEKER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

The Chahiman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Chancey. I decline to answer it for the reasons given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chancey, I show you an unassigned Communist 
Party membership card for the year 1948, No. 103218, on w^hich ap- 
pears the signature of Gus Hall as state chairman and your own name, 
Martin Chancey, underneath. Is that your signature or a facsimile 
of it? 

Mr. Chancey. I decline to answer on the reasons already given. 

(Document marked "Chancey Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

The Chairman. Chancey. Is that the name under which you were 
bom? 

Was your name changed when you were naturalized ? 

Mr. Chancey. I anglicized my name. I was not born under that 
name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I ask you at this point w-hat was the extent of 
your formal education ? 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1129 

Mr. CiiANCEY. I graduated elementary school, high school, and I 
went to NYU. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Where did you graduate from high school ? 

Mr. Chancey. New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And following high school you went to New York 
University ? 

Mr. CiiANCET. I went to New York University and I went to the 
law school there and I received a 

Mr. NiTiLE. "Wait a moment. Did you go to college at New York 
University, or directly to law school? 

Mr. Chancey. It is a college, a prelaw, and then I went to law 
scliool. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You went to college. Did you get a degree at college? 

Mr, Chancey. I got a B.S. degree at college. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You had how many years in college? 

Mr. Chancey. About six. I received a doctor of jurisprudence de- 
gree after graduating law school from NYU. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You got a B.S. degree in college. Then you went to 
law school? 

Mr. Chancey. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many years did you spend at law school ? 

Mr. Chancey. They had some sort of a package deal. I think it 
was 6 years altogether. 

Mr. NiTT'LE. Six years at law school ? 

Mr. Chancey. No, prelaw and law. 

I don't remember exactly how it divided up. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you get a doctor of jurisprudence degree? 

Mr. Chancey. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you admitted to the practice of law anywhere? 

Mr. Chancey. I w^as. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the bar ? 

Mr. Chancey. No. I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To what bar were you admitted to practice law ? 

Mr. Chancey. New York Bar. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you practice law at the New York Bar? 

Mr. Chancey. I didn't practice law. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "What year were you admitted to the New York Bar? 

(Tlie witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Chancey. I don't quite know what purpose, legislative pur- 
pose, all this questioning will lead to, how it will help this country 
draft good laws. 

The Chairman. Ask another question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NinxE. Would it be correct to say, Mr. Chancey, tliat the ma- 
jor part of your activities within the Communist Party in the past 
has been directed to organizational activities and with respect to the 
colonization of industry by Communists? 

Mr. Chancey. This is obviously a loaded question. I did not an- 
swer to being a member of the party or being active and now you are 
asking me what my activities consisted of. 

Mr. Nittle. You are given the opportunity to respond. 

Mr. Chancey. I have already stated my reasons why I would re- 
fuse to respond. 



1130 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you during April 1950 as state secretary of the 
Communist Party attend a Communist Party meeting at the head- 
quarters of the Fur and Leatlier Workers Union, 1064 Flint Street in 
Cincinnati, Ohio? 

Mr. Chancey. I haven't the faintest recollection. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not deny your attendance there? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer this question on the gi'ounds 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On March 17, 1952, John Janowitz testified before 
the Ohio Un-American Activities Commission that you were the per- 
son in the party for issuing directives to all echelons of the Commu- 
nist Party in the State of Ohio. I will give you an opportunity to 
affirm or deny that testimony. 

(Witness conferred with coimsel.) 

Mr. Chancey. I decline to answer this question on the grounds 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On April 21, 1952, John C. Mitchell testified before 
the Ohio Commission that all reports made by him as a member of 
the Communist Party were sent to Martin Chancey as state secretary 
of the Communist Party. Was that testimony correct ? 

Mr. Chancey. I will not answer this question on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On September 13, 1954, Arthur Strunk testified before 
this House Committee on Un-American Activities that during his last 
years in the Communist Party, and as late as the year 1952, he col- 
lected membership dues which were then sent on to you in Cleveland, 
Ohio, from Dayton. 

Mr. Chancey. I think it will save a lot of time 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive dues collected by Arthur Strunk in 
Dayton ? 

Mr. Chancey. Your Honor, it will save a lot of time if I will just 
say that I refuse to answer statements made by paid informers, people 
who work for money and have to lie for that purpose, and I don't see 
any reason why you have to spend hours of time. These paid in- 
formers who are given 

The Chairman. They are not paid informers at all. They are 
statements of reputable witnesses under oath, and you have seen fit 
not to deny the sworn testimony of these witnesses. 

Now, there are other questions that we would like to ask you about 
your activities. 

Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Chancey. As you Imow, Mr. Walter, if these people would pro- 
duce their FBI reports and be subject to cross-examination this would 
be statutory, but this is a very one-sided proceeding here that you 
subject the witness to. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. How much are you being paid by the Communist 
Party at this time ? 

Mr. Chancey. Well, do you expect me to answer such a question ? 

Mr. Nittle. Are you on a salaried basis with the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Chancey. I refuse to answer the question. As the committee 
knows, I am trying to run a little business, if I am given the chance 
to do so, to make a living for myself and my family. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1131 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. ScHERER. He hasn't answered that question. 

Mr. CiiANCEY. I decline to answer for the reasons already stated. 

The Chairman. All right. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Testimony was given during the Dayton hearings of 
this committee that you came to Ohio to help plan the strategy for the 
Communist-instigated Univis Lens strike which was in progress from 
May to August of 19-18. Will you affirm or deny that testimony? 

Mr. Chancey. I decline to answer for the reasons given. 

Mr. Scherer. That Univis strike was the one, was it not, Counsel, 
where it got so bad they had to call out the National Guard ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. When did you go to Ohio from New York ? 

Mr. Chancey. After I was discharged from the Army, my family 
and I moved to Ohio. 

The Chairman. When ? 

Mr. Chancey. 1946. 

Mr. Scherer. You were in Dayton, w^eren't you, during the Univis 
strike ? 

Mr. Chancey. I am sori-y, I have to decline to answer this question 
for the reasons given. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you living? TVhat was your residence 
address at the time of the strike ? 

Mr. Chancey. I have to decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Scherer. It wasn't Dayton, Ohio, was it? 

Mr. Chancey. Sorry, sir, I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Julia Brown testified that she knew you as a 
member of the Communist Party in the Cleveland, Ohio, area and 
that you were active on behalf of the Communist Party there. Do 
you affirm or deny her testimony ? 

Mr. Chancey. I decline to answer this for the reasons already 
stated. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions ? 

All right, the witness is excused. 

Mr. Chancey. I hope I will be given a chance to rebuild my busi- 
ness here and not be directed here time after time with all the publicity 
that is accompanying this. It makes it very hard on a person trying 
to support his family. 

The Chairman. Yes, I hope that you do rebuild your business. I 
am sure that the people in your community will take into considera- 
tion all of the help you have been in trying to protect the opportunity 
for private business such as you are engaged in. 

Mr. Chancey. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand recessed, to meet at 10 
o'clock tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :50 a.m., Wednesday, June 6, 1962, the hearing 
recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m. Thursday, June 7, 1962.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, 

AREA 

Part 2 



THURSDAY, JUNE 7, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Old House 
Office Building, Hon. Clyde Doyle presiding. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pennsylvania; Clyde Doyle, of California; Gordon H. Scherer, of 
Ohio; August E. Johansen, of Michigan; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. 

Committee members also present: Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wis- 
consin. (Appearance as noted.) 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general coimsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Neil 
E. Wetterman, mvestigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The subcommittee of the House Committee on Un- 
Ajnerican Activities, as a matter of cooperation with another House 
committee which wants to use this room because they will have a large 
attendance, will adjourn now to 1304 of the New House Building 
across the street. 

That is the Public Works Committee Room. That is 1304 across 
the street. The witnesses had been subpenaed to be in this room. 

Elsie Tarcai. Is Miss Tarcai here ? Did you hear my announce- 
ment? 

Miss Elsie Tarcai. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. And Violet Tarcai? 

Miss Violet Tarcai. Yes, I heard it. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Regina Sokol? 

Mrs. SoKOL. I heard it. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

And Milton Tenenbaum? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

And Ruth Emmer? 

Mrs. Emmer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Eugene Bayer? 

1133 



1134 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. FoRER. He is scheduled for this afternoon. I will get the word 
to him. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Mr. Forer is counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I do not remember agreeing to have liim scheduled 
this afternoon. 

Mr, FoRER. Remember I spoke to you and asked if it would be okay 
for him to be in the afternoon because he w^anted to fly in, so he is on 
his way. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Joseph Forer, attorney for Eugene Bayer, is pres- 
ent and they will be in attendance in the afternoon. 

Mr. Doyle. Abraham Strauss? 

Mr. Strauss. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Sylvia Strauss ? 

Mrs. Strauss. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Then will you witnesses please adjourn 
to Room 1304. That is across the street in the new building. The 
subcommittee will convene there. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

(The subcommittee reconvened in Room 1304, New House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding, with the 
following members present: Representatives Walter, Doyle, and 
Johansen.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your first witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Sylvia Strauss, please come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand please? Stand 
up. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Strauss. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF SYLVIA STEAUSS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

NOEMAN HELLEE 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please ? 

Mrs. Strauss. Sylvia Strauss. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel, Mrs. Strauss? 

Mrs. Strauss. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Heller. Norman Heller, member of the Bar of the District 
of Colmnbia, volunteer attorney for the American Civil Liberties 
Union. 

The Chairman. Mr. Heller, did this witness request 3'ou to appear ? 

Mr. Heller. She requested an attorney from the American Civil 
Liberties Union, not me specifically, no, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the date and place of your birth, Mrs. 
Strauss? 

Mrs. Strauss. July 10, 1910, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present residence ? 

Mrs. Strauss. 2801 Avondale Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you lived in Cleveland, Ohio ? 

Mrs. Strauss. 16 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I beg your pardon ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1135 

Mrs. Strauss. 16 years. 

Mr. Ni'iTLE. Mrs. Brown testified in this hearing tliat she knew 
you to be a member of tlie Communist Party while she herself resided 
ni the Cleveland area. I would like to ask, Mrs. Strauss, whether you 
are at this moment a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. NrriLE. Do you wish to avail yourself of the opportunity being 
now offered you to affirm or deny the testimony of Mrs. Brown ? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Mrs. Bi-own testified that shortly after her induction 
into the Comnmnist Party in Cleveland during the Christmas holidays 
of 1047 she was assigned to a group or cell of the Comnmnist Party for 
the purposes of instruction and indoctrination and that you were the 
teacher of that group. She further testified that she met frequently 
in your home, together with other persons who were receiving similar 
instructions from you. 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer on the basis of the fii*st and fifth 
amendments. 

The Chairman. Did you ever conduct any classes anywhere, any 
instructions on communism ? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. NiiTTLE. I understand further that you have been vei-y active in 
support of Communist activities. Would you care to affirm or deny 
that statement? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you on June 11, 1960, attend a farewell party at 
the American-Russian Hall at No. 13700 Kinsman Road, Cleveland, 
Ohio, which was given "in honor" of Elizabeth Hall, wife of Gus 
Hall, who was leaving to join her husband in New York ? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Gus Hall personally ? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTiJi. I put it to you as a fact that you have for many years 
past worked together in association with Gus Hall to advance the ob- 
jectives and purposes of the Communist Party. Will you affirm or 
deny that statement? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of an organization in the Cleveland 
area known as the Council on Human Relations ? 

Mrs. Str.\uss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, you were named to the board of 
trustees of that Council, were you not, at or about the mid-fifties? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NiT'n.E. The Council on Human Relations was a successor to 
an organization known as the National Conference of Christians and 
Jews in your area, was it not ? 

Mrs. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NirrLE. The Council on Human Relations and the National 
Conference of Christians and Jews are not known as Communist 
organizations, nor do I imply that. Do you feel that it would in- 

8G790— 62— pt. 2—5 



1136 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

criminate you to admit your membership at that time in that non-Com- 
munist organization ? 

Mrs, Strauss. It is possible it may tend to incriminate me. I do 
not know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you instructed by any person known to you to be 
a Communist to infiltrate the Comicil on Human Relations or the 
National Conference of Christians and Jews? 

Mrs. Str.\uss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NrrTLE. No further questions, Mr. Walter. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. DoTLE. No questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Abraham Strauss, please come forward. 

The Chairman. Mr. Strauss, will you raise your right hand ? Do 
you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Strauss. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP ABRAHAM STKAUSS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

NOEMAN HELLER 

Mr. NiTTLE. For the purposes of the record, Mr. Strauss, would you 
state your full name? 

Mr. Strauss. Abraham Strauss. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I note that you are represented by counsel. 

Mr. Strauss. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Heller. Norman Heller, member of the Bar of the District 
of Columbia, a volunteer for the American Civil Liberties Union. 

The Chairman. Mr. Heller, may I ask you : Are you aware of the 
type of people that you are representing here? 

Mr. PIeller. I understand what they have been accused of by other 
people and I also understand that they have certain rights which I 
have advised them of. 

The Chairman. We understand that entirely, but this last witness 
quite obviously was connected with the international Communist 
movement. I am interested in knowing whether or not your organ- 
ization has adopted a policy of representing people who are identi- 
fied with this movement. We are not complaining about your ap- 
pearance here. What I am interested in knowing is whether or not 
your organization has adopted a policy of identifying itself with 
people who have been identified under oath as members of the inter- 
national conspiracy. 

Mr. Heller. My understanding is that the American Civil Liberties 
Union will represent anyone who claims that their civil liberties are 
threatened by the courts or any congressional committee, and that is 
my purpose in representing Mr. and Mrs. Strauss. They have made 
that claim, and I am here to advise them as to their rights under the 
Constitution. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, Mr. 
Strauss ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1137 

Mr. Strauss. I was born in Rumania 60 years ago, that is in No- 
vember of 1902. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Can you state specifically whether your birth date was 
November 20, 1902?" 

Mr. Strauss. I can't make a I'ccollection of the exact year, but 
it was 1902. I know that I will be 60 on November 20, 1962. 

Mr. NiTaxE. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Stilvuss. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present residence ? 

Mr. Strauss. 2801 Avondale Street, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. How long have you lived in Cleveland ? 

Mr. Strauss. 16 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are the husband of the prior witness, Sylvia 
Strauss ? 

Mr. Strauss. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to coming to Cleveland, Ohio, 16 years ago, where 
did you live? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Strauss. I resided in Pittsburgli. 

The Chairman. Where in Pittsburgli ? 

Mr. Strauss. Nicholson Street. Frankly, I cannot recollect the 
number, the address. It was Nicholson Street on Squirrel Hill. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I noted that you hesitated to tell us of your residence 
in Pittsburgli. Is the reason for your hesitancy the fact that you 
were during your residence in Pittsburgh a member of the National- 
ity Commission of the Communist Party of Western Pennsylvania ? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps you could tell us something about the purposes 
of the Nationality Commission, which performs a particular function 
within the Communist Party organization ? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If I were to state that the function of the Nationality 
Commission of the Communist Party liierarchy is to interest immi- 
grants in the objectives of the Communist Party and to cause their 
disaffection from the country of their adoption, would you affirm 
or deny that ? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nittt.e. Have you been active both in Pennsylvania and in the 
Cleveland area on behalf of the Communist Party toward endeavoring 
to attract immigrant persons and groups to the cause of the Commu- 
nist Party? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, you were assigned by the Com- 
munist Party to leave the Pittsburgh area, after Steve Nelson's 
conviction in the courts of Pennsylvania for sedition, to take up 
Communist Party activities in Cleveland. Woidd yon affirm or deny 
that assertion ? 



1138 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Pursuant to your activities as an immigrant leader 
on behalf of the Communist Party, you have assumed the role of 
reporter for a newspaper directed toward immigrants known as the 
Morning Freiheit^ have you not? 

Mr. Strauss. I declme to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NittijE. You are presently a reporter for the Morning Freiheit'^i 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

The Chairman. Are you employed ? 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. The committee is interested in obtaining information 
which will confirm or explain its findmgs or testimony previously 
received. In our Guide to Subversive Organizations and Puhlications, 
the Committee on Un-American Activities has listed the Morning 
Freiheit as a subversive publication, based in part upon a finding of 
the Subversive Activities Control Board, which is a quasi-judicial 
body set up under the Internal Security Act of 1950. The Subversive 
Activities Control Board found that the Communist International 
"subsidized * * * the founding of the CPIJSA's newspaper, Freiheit^ 

As one familiar with the operations of the Morning Freiheit, would 
you care to comment upon this finding of the Subversive Activities 
Control Board? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Communist International was organized in 1919 
by the Soviet Union as the international organization of Communist 
parties in all countries so as to make possible Soviet leadership of the 
world Communist movement. Do you affirm or deny that the Morn- 
ing Freiheit is an instrumentality of Moscow leadership? 

Mr. S'lTJAuss. Are you through with your question ? 

Mr. XiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. According to affidavits filed by the business manage- 
ment of the Morning Freiheit under the act of Congress requiring a 
statement of average paid circulation, the officials of the Morning 
Freiheit as of September 26, 1961, indicated that the paid circulation 
of the Morning Freiheit totals 7,896. 

Now, while that may be the national paid circulation of the news- 
paper, I would like to ask you whether you could enlighten the com- 
mittee and the American people as to the extent of the circulation of 
the Morning Freiheit within Cleveland itself ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While 7,896 is the total paid circulation, am I correct 
in saying that many more copies of this newspaper are disseminated 
free of charge ? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you yourself engaged in the free distribution 
of the Moiling Freiheit within the Cleveland area on behalf of the 
Communist Party leadership of the State of Ohio? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mi-s. Brown in the course of her testimony told the 
committee that offices were maintained by the Communist Party on 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1139 

behalf of its activities, first, at 5103 Euclid Avenue in Cleveland 
and that subsequently the headquarters were moved to 2014 East 105th 
Street in Cleveland in the mid-fifties. We understand that the Com- 
munist Party maintained a bookshop at that address called the One 
World Bookshop, the objective of which was to disseminate Com- 
munist literature and propaganda with the view of influencing Com- 
munists and non-Communists. 

Did you have anything to do with the managment or operation 
of the One World Bookshop at the address, namely, 2014 East 105th 
Street, Cleveland, Ohio? 

Mr. Str^vuss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I put it to you as a fact that you have operated out 
of that address as a propagandist amongst immigrant persons in 
the Cleveland area. Will you affirm or deny that assertion of fact? 

Mr, Strauss. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. One question, Mr. Chairman. Counsel, does your 
investigation disclose whether this newspaper, the Morning Freiheit^ 
is circulated through the mails? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, Mr. Johansen, we understand that the Morning 
Freiheit is circulated through the mails. The main publishing house 
is located in New York City. 

Mr. Johansen. And therefore they enjoy special rates to which 
second-class mail newspapers are entitled ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would agree with that statement. 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Mr. Strauss, w^ould you care to advise us whether 
the newspaper enjoys second-class rates which are extended generally 
to newspapers, which amounts, in effect, to a subsidy by the taxpayers? 

Mr. Strauss. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Johansen. That is all. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Ruth Emmer. 

The Chairman. Stand up please and raise your right hand. Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Emmer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RUTH EMMER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JACK REDDEN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please identify yourself for the record ? 

Mrs. Emmer. My name is Ruth Emmer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see you are represented by counsel. Will counsel 
please identify himself ? 

Mr. Redden. My name is Jack Redden. I am in the Warner Build- 
ing, Washington. I am representing Mrs. Emmer at her request and 
at the request of the American Civil Liberties Union. 

(At this point Mr. Schadeberg entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the place of your bn-th and the date 
of your birth? 

Mrs. Emmer. Cleveland, Ohio, October 23, 1922. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you married or single? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



1140 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mrs, Emmer. I am married. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your husband named Jack Emmer ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Emmer. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you also the sister of Eugene Bayer ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mrs. Emmer. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Regina Sokol ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds that the question 
violates my rights guaranteed by the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you at this moment a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. Is Regina Sokol, to your certain knowledge, as of this 
moment a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Nittle. In tlie early fifties you were very active on behalf of the 
candidacy of Hugh DeLacy for the office of State representative for the 
State of Ohio, were you not ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Nittle. And you were active on his behalf as a member of the 
Communist Party of the United States, were you not ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you not in that campaign circulate five petitions 
on his behalf ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. These petitions were notarized by a notary, Elsie Tar- 
cai, is that correct ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. I thought you had nodded previously. You were 
merely nodding to indicate that you had heard my question ? 

Mrs. Emmer. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you know Elsie Tarcai to be a member of the 
Communist Party at the time those documents were notarized? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. As a matter of fact, I put it to you that you" know that 
as of this moment Elsie Tarcai is a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. Is there a civic organization in the Cleveland area 
known as the Mount Pleasant Community Council ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. I wish no inference to be taken that the Mount Pleasant 
Community Council is a Communist organization. So far as our 
knowledge is concerned, it is not that kind of organization. It is a 
civic organization. Are you presently a member of that organiza- 
tion ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 
(Witness conferred with'counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1141 

Mr. Kedden. What was the last question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the reporter kindly read it to the witness? 

(The reporter read the question.) 

The Chairman. I directed the witness to answer the question as 
to whether or not she was a member of whatever the organization is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mount Pleasant Community Council, Mr. Chairman. 

(Counsel conferred with the witness.) 

Mrs. Emmer. I prefer not to answer for the reasons already stated. 

The Chairman. Now, you say you prefer not to answer. Do you 
decline or refuse to answer? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

The Chairman. I think it is my duty to warn you that you have 
been advised by counsel that this organization about which you are 
being interrogated is not a Communist organization. Nobody believes 
that it is. There has never been any charge that it is and to invoke 
the fifth amendment, might subject you to some difficulties with this 
committee. I think it is my duty to so warn you. 

Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiT'i'LE. While you were a member of the Mount Pleasant Com- 
munity Council did you also know as members of that organization the 
following named individuals : Regina Sokol, Pearl Levin, and Eugene 
Brudno? 

Perhaps you better read that question back to her. 

(The reporter read the question.) 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown has testified that she knew Regina Sokol 
to be a member of the Communist Party. I assert as a fact that you, 
too, know that Regina Sokol was a member of the Communist Party 
as Mrs. Brown testified. Do you wish to affirm or deny that fact or 
explain it in some way ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown testified that she knew Pearl Levin as a 
member of the Communist Party. I say that you, too, know Pearl 
Levin as a member of the Communist Party. Do you wish to affirm or 
deny that assertion ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Brown has also identified Eugene Brudno as a 
member of the Communist Party. I put it to you as a fact that you, 
too, know Eugene Brudno to have been a member of the Communist 
Party, as Mrs. Brown testified. Would you affirm or deny that 
statement? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Mrs. Brown also testified that members of the Com- 
munist Party in the Cleveland area had received instructions to infil- 
irate non-Communist organizations — churches, educational institu- 
tions, public offices, and other non-Communist groups. I ask. Did 
.you receive instructions from the Communist Party to infiltrate the 
Mount Pleasant Community Council? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the reasons already stated. 



1142 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mrs. Emmer, if you did not receive those instructions 
how could that possibly incriminate you ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Would you be able to tell us what the objective was of 
the Communist directive to infiltrate civic organizations ? 
Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for reasons already stated. 
Mr. NiTTLE. In asking you that question, Mrs. Eimner, I assumed 
that you had knowledge of the purposes of the Communist Party. 
Was I correct in my assumption ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 
Mr. NiTTLE. How could it possibly incriminate you if you did not 
have knowledge of such purposes ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. NiTTLE. The committee, Mrs. Emmer, has had a great deal of 
testimony on certain aspects of Communist policy and how that policy 
is carried out. We would, however, like you to enlighten us, if you 
will, as to the methods utilized by Communists to stimulate "class 
struggle" within or by the use of civic organizations. By "class strug- 
gle" I refer to agitation or the atomization and disintegration of a 
social group, the setting of people against each other, or the creation of 
excessive burdens and demands upon the government of the area, or 
of the United States? Would you tell us how this is done? 
Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for reasons already stated. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Was it not your purpose to do just that in your activi- 
ties in the Mount Pleasant Community Council ? 

Mr. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I do not recollect if I asked you whether you are at this 
instant a member of the Communist Party. I believe I did. 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, while pursuing your Communist objectives, 
participate in a picket line demonstration on January 16, 1962, at the 
Federal Building in Cleveland on behalf of a Communist-front or- 
ganization, the Cleveland Committee to Secure Justice for Morton 
Sobell? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer under my rights under the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, you drove Helen Sobell, the wife 
of Morton Sobell, to the site of that demonstration in the car of Milton 
Tenenbaum, did you not ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Morton Sobell was a co-defendant with Ethel and 
Julius Rosenberg, the notorious atom spies who jeopardized the se- 
curity of this Nation for many years to come. 
The Chairman. Ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Did you not as recently as January 16, 1962, partici- 
pate, at the behest of the Communist Party of the Cleveland area, in 
setting up a picket line demonstration before the Federal Building 
at Cleveland, Ohio, on that date ? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1143 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Milton Tenenbaum, whose car, I charge, 
you drove to the demonstration ? 

IMrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown has identified him as a member of the Com- 
munist Party during her activities in that party between 1951 and 
1960. I state that you knew, and now know, Milton Tenenbaum as a 
member of the Communist Party in the Cleveland area. Will you 
affirm or deny that assertion of fact? 

Mrs. Emmer. I refuse to answer for reasons already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. All right. Any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Milton Tenenbaum, please come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you stand up and raise your right hand ? Do 
you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I do. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. Are you ready, Mr. Nittle ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON TENENEATJM, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

CLEMENT THEODORE COOPER 

Mr. Nittle. For the purpose of the record, would you please state 
your name ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Milton Tenenbaum. 

Mr. Nittle. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Will counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Cooper. My name is Clement Theodore Cooper. I am a mem- 
ber of the State Bar of Michigan and the District of Columbia. I 
am representing Mv. Tenenbaum through the American Civil Lib- 
erties Union as a volunteer attorney. 

The Chairman. May I ask you whether or not you know that the 
purpose of your organization is the abolition of this committee, its 
stated purpose in its literature ? 

Mr. Cooper. I am not at liberty, Mr. Chairman, to give any informa- 
tion on that point, inasmuch as I am not a spokesman for the Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union. 

The Chairman. No, you are not a spokesman. I just wondered if 
you know that is the purpose of your organization and whether or not 
one of the things it is doing to bring this about is preventing witnesses 
from testifying. 

Mr. Cooper. With all due respect to the chairman, I don't believe 
that that is a correct connotation or interpretation of the American 
Civil Liberties Union practice. Basically we are concerned with pro- 
tecting the civil liberties of any persons where those liberties have been 
brought into question. 

Mr. Scherer. Chiefly Communists, though, is it not ? 



86790—62 — pt. 2- 



1144 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. Cooper. I would respectfully object to that question because, 
basically, I am not here as a subpenaed witness ; number two, that it 
is repugnant to the very purpose why I am here. The American Civil 
Liberties Union does not support any particular movement. It is 
concerned with protecting the civil liberties of all persons. We do 
not inquire into the political or social beliefs of any person. We are 
concerned with his legal rights and his protection. 

The Chairman. What about my civil liberties when I attempt to 
speak in New York and Los Angeles and have mobs there to try to 
prevent me? Does your organization ever raise its voice? I have 
the right to speak under the Constitution, just as well as your clients 
or other Communists. I never heard you raise your voice about that. 

Mr. Cooper. That would be very true, Mr. Chairman. However, 
it is only in a case where you seek the help of the American Civil 
Liberties Union. In this case, Mr. Tenenbaum has sought the Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union help and that is the reason why I am here 
and that is the reason why we are part of these proceedings. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Scpierer. The American Civil Liberties Union has appeared 
amicus curiae on behalf of Communist causes and individuals time and 
time again in courts in this countiy without any request when the 
Communists (under indictment) were represented by their own law- 
yers. You have voluntarily gone into court in support of Communist 
causes when you were not asked. 

]Mr. Cooper. It is not because of blanket association with commu- 
nism, socialism, or any other type of ideology inasmuch as we are con- 
cerned with the protection afforded under the Constitution of the 
United States, these civil liberties. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, it is to protect the alleged liberties of a 
man or woman that is known to be part of the international Communist 
conspiracy to destroy this form of government. 

Mr. Cooper. I would not go so far as to say that. 

Mr. Doyle. The Supreme Court has said that is the purpose of the 
Communist Party of the United States — you know that — on June 5. 

Mr. Cooper. I am quite aware of the Supreme Court ruling but we 
are departing from the very purpose of the American Civil Liberties 
Union, which was the original question asked by the chairman and by 
other members of the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1145 

The Chairman. It just seemed significant to us that these people 
who are strangers to you — I am sure they never heard of you, and I 
am here all the time and I never hoard of you or any of these other 
members of tlie bar that wore here this morning — should single you 
out, know all about you, and have you come here at this hearing. Go 
ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. '\^^len and whore were you boiTi ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. New York City, January 15, 1915. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. 3085 Lincoln Boulevard, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

j\[r. Ntttle. What is your occupation ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Tlie first amendment guarantees my rights of as- 
sociation, and I respectfully decline to answer that question on those 
grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to an- 
swer that question. For the purpose of identification we are entitled 
to know the occupation of this witness. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated and, in addition, under the rights guaranteed me by 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you feel. Witness, to answer the question as to your 
occupation might lead to a criminal prosecution ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the rights 
granted me by tlie fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I am merely testing whether he is 
using the fifth amendment in good faith ; and if he does feel that it 
might lead to a criminal prosecution, he must so state. He can't invoke 
the fifth amendment to that question. I ask you to direct the witness 
to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question as to your 
occupation. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that it might be incriminating and I do this under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you a paid functionary of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the rights 
granted to me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you as of this moment a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you lived in Cleveland ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Approximately 15 years. 

Mr. Nittle. Prior to that where did you live? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. In New York City. 



1146 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. In 1945 did you sign a Communist Party nominating 
petition on behalf of Benjamin J. Davis for the office of councilman 
of the city of New York in the Borough of Manhattan ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the first 
amendment and fifth amendment. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce returned to the hearing room.) 
Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Benjamin J. Davis, the national secre- 
tary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
just given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you executed that petition on behalf of 
Ben Davis were you then a member of the Communist Party? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

IVIi'. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question for the reason 
this might be self-incriminating. 

Mr. NriTLE. Wliy did you change your residence from the city of 
New York to the city of Cleveland ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I don't quite know what the pertinency of the 
question is. However, I moved because I took on a job in the city 
of Cleveland. 

The Chairman. What was your occupation in New York before 
you went to Cleveland ? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the rights 
granted to me by the first and the fifth amendments. 

jNIr. NiTTLE. Were you directed on behalf of any person known to 
you to be a Communist to leave the New York area and to take up 
your abode in the Cleveland area ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Mr. Chairman, I have a statement that I would 
like to read to this committee. It is a short statement. 

The Chairman. You leave the statement. We will look at it and 
decide whether or not it is responsive to any of the queries that we 
have made. 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I think it might obviate the necessity for many of 
these inquiries. 

The Chairman. We will decide whether or not it is necessary. Go 
ahead, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. I might also suggest, ]\fr. Chairman, that our rules 
provide that that any statement be submitted at least 48 hours be- 
fore the witness appears heiore the committee. 

Tlie Chairman. We are not going to follow that. You just leave 
your statement, and I will look at it. If it is in reply to the questions 
that you have just refused to answer, we will be very happy to make 
that a part of the hearing. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I believe there is an outstanding question, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. Tenenbaum. May I hear the question, please ? 
Mr. Nittle. Would "you repeat the question to the witness, Mr. 
Reporter ? 

( Question read by reporter. ) 

Mr, Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the ground 
of the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1147 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were yon sent to Cleveland, Ohio, for the purpose, 
among others, to oro;anize the ProoTessive Party in that area ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScriERER. You mean. Counsel, sent by the Communist Party 
to Cleveland? 

IMr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir, I would, and the question is amended to in- 
clude what you have said, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. TE>rEXBATar. I refuse to answer that question under tlie first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. XiTTLE. As a matter of fact, Mr. Tenenbaum, you have been a 
fund raiser for the Progressive Party in the Cleveland area, have 
you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer tliat under the rights granted 
to me by the first amendment and that it might tend to incriminate 
me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our investigation discloses that at a meeting in the 
Music Hall, Cleveland, Ohio, on Ai)ril CO, 1940, it was announced that 
you were among the largest contributors to the Progressive Party. 
Was that announcement correct? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I wouldn't remember it, but if I did I would re- 
fuse to answer on the same grounds. 

^Ir. NiTTLE, Do you deny that you were in attendance at that 
meeting ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of both 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not circulate a ]3etition on behalf of the can- 
didacy of Hugh DeLacy, who was a candidate for that party, seeking 
the office of State assemblyman ? 

]Mr. Tenenbaum. Might I ask counsel if this is pertinent to this 
investigation ? Is the Progressive Party a legal party ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, it is pertinent because we have f omid 

The Chairman. Never mind arguing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you deny that the Progressive Party was Com- 
munist dominated and controlled? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that under the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were also in attendance at a concert sponsored 
by the Progressive Party at JMusic Hall on March 20, 1950, which 
featured Paul Robeson, were you not ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that under the rights granted 
to me by the first and fifth amendments. 

]Mr. NiiTLE. I note you did not state you did not remember being 
in attendance at that meeting. 

j\[r. Tenenbaum. Mr. Counsel, I have attended many, many con- 
certs and many, many places and I would not be able to identify the 
dates or the times of any of them unless they happened within the 
last week, as I am certain you wouldn't either. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ('ertainly you would never forget hearing the voice of 
Paul Robeson. 

]Mr. Tenenbaum. That is very true. I have heard him many, many 
times. 



fe 



1148 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps you will remember making a contribution 
openly at that concert of $25 toward the Progressive Party. Did 
you make such a contribution ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question by the rights 
granted to me under the first and fifth amendments of the Constitu- 
tion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were also in attendance at another fund-raising 
affair for the Progressive Party at Paradise Hall in Cleveland on 
May 6, 1952, which likewise featured Paul Robeson, and this concert 
was sponsored by the Cleveland branch of the National Negro Labor 
Council, of which Mrs. Brown has told us in detail. 

Did you not attend that concert likewise ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScuERER. It seems to me the question should be put to the wit- 
ness as to whether he attended these Progressive Party fmictions 
as a functionary of the Communist Party. 

Is that not so. Witness ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you of your own knowledge know how the funds 
were distributed that were received at that concert? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
o:rounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you also engaged in other activities on behalf 
of the Communist Party in the Cleveland area ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member in Cleveland, Ohio, of the Cleve- 
land Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Are you finished ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTrLE. Did you hold any position of leadership in the Cleve- 
land Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. That question abridges my rights to freedom of 
association, and I respectfully decline to answer on those grounds 
and that of my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I state as a fact that the Cleveland Council of the 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions was an affiliate of the National Council 
of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. 

Do you have knowledge of that fact ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This committee has cited the National Council of the 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions as a Communist front. Do you dis- 
agree with that finding? 

(Witness conferred with coimsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were also active on behalf of the Ohio Committee 
To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, were you not ? 



COMJVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1149 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the rights 
granted to me by the first and fifth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were also active in the Cleveland area on behalf 
of another Communist-front organization known as the Cleveland 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship? 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nittle. One of the events sponsored by that organization was 
the showing of two Soviet Russian films on March 14, 1952, at No. 
14101 Kinsman Road. Our information indicates that you were in 
attendance at that event. Will you affirm or deny that statement? 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Mr. Counsel, I have gone to see many movies in 
my life. I don't remember seeing this particular one, but if I did 
I would still refuse to answer under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NittIjE. "We are not censoring movies, but we are interested in 
knowing what are the activities of the Commnnists in the Cleveland 
area on behalf of advancing the interests of a foreign power. Now, 
will you help us in this investigation % 

]\Ir. Tenenbaum. Mr. Counsel, I would help you if I could, but I 
have nothing to help you with so I refuse to answer any of those ques- 
tions under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You could help us if you would testify truthfully about 
your activities on behalf of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tenenbaum. That is a loaded question. I refuse to answer 
that under the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If you did not engage in these activities and told us 
truthfully that you did not, that would be an end of the inquiry. 

Mr. Tenenbaujm. I asked earlier that I be permitted to read a state- 
ment which would explain precisely this. 

Mr. NiTixE. Let me ask, is it not a fact that the Cleveland Comicil 
of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, the Ohio Committee To Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case, and the Cleveland Council of Ameri- 
can-Soviet Friendship are paper names covering the activities of 
the same Communists in the Cleveland area ? 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I will refuse to answer that question under the 
rights granted me by the first and fifth amendments of the Constitu- 
tion. 

Mr. XiTTT.E. I state as a fact that you know the answer to that ques- 
tion. "Will vou affirm or denv that statement ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I will refuse to answer that question under the 
rights granted to me by the fifth amendment. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Nm'EE. As a matter of fact, did not a meeting of the steering 
committee of the Ohio Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case take place at your home on December 17, 1 952 ? 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. That question abridges my rights of freedom of 
association and speech, and I decline to answer on those grounds and 
also under the rights granted to me under the fifth amendment. 



1150 COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. I put it to you that on April 15, 1961, you participated 
ill a "Walk For Peace" sponsored by the Cleveland Committee for a 
Sane Nuclear Policy. Did you or did you not participate in the 
'•Walk For Peace" on April 15, 1961 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. And did you not do that in connection with your 
duties as a functionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I object to that question on the grounds that I 
can't see no pertinency here; further, that it abridges my rights of 
association ; further, that it abridges my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in that "Walk For Peace" with the 
express purpose of advancing Communist policy and in support of the 
aggressions of Soviet foreign policy ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

(At this point Mr. Johansen left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Mr. Counsel, this question and many of the others 
designed to hold me up to public ridicule. I think this is not a legal 
question. I think that I have the right of free association under the 
first amendment and under the fifth amendment and I respectfully 
decline to answer on those grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On January 16, 1962, did you entrust your automobile 
to Ruth Emmer for the purpose of conveying Helen Sobell to the 
picketing demonstration at the Federal Building and then to return 
her to your home ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the 
rights 

Mr. NriTLE. Do you know Ruth Emmer to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I object to the pertinency of the question and I 
refuse to answer it under the rights granted me under the first and 
fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Mrs. Brown testified that she attended closed Commu- 
nist Party meetings at your home. Will you aiSirm or deny her 
testimony ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. Mrs. Brown evidently testified to this committee 
that every social, civic, religious meeting she ever attended was a 
Communist Party meeting. 

Mr. ScHERER. That wasn't the question. 

The Chairman. You are mistaken about that. Go ahead, Mr. 
Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the rights 
granted to me under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. The question is, Did you hold closed Communist 
Party meetings at your home, irrespective of whether Mrs. Brown 
testified so or not? 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question under the rights 
granted to me under the first and fifth amendments. 



CO]\rMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1151 

Mr. NiTTLE. And at these closed Communist Party meetings were 
the following persons at one time or another meeting with you: Yetta 
Land, Jerome Land, Frieda Katz, and Sam Handelman? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tenenbaum. I refuse to answer that question mider the rights 
ffranted to me by the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. jSTittle. Xo further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The CiiAiRMAX. All right. The witness is excused. 

i\Ir. Tenenbaum. May I leave this statement with the committee? 

The Chairman. Yes, please. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Regina Sokol. 

Mr. Day. i\Ir. Chairman, will it be all right if Mrs. Sokol sits to my 
right ? She has a hearing difficulty. 

The Chairman. Certainly. Eaise your right hand, Mrs. Sokol. 

"Will you stand up and raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

]Mrs. Sokol. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EEGINA SOKOL, ACCOMPANIED EY COUNSEL, 

JACK G. DAY 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name, please. 

Mrs. Sokol. Regina Sokol. 

Mr. Xittle. When were vou bom and where ? 

Mrs. Sokol. May 26, 1917, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mrs. Sokol. 3457 Westbury Road, Shaker Heights, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you resided in Cleveland ? 

Mrs. Sokol. All my life. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have a residence elsewhere for any period of 
time ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You just said you lived in Cleveland all your life. Now 
when I asked you whether you lived elsewhere you now invoke the 
fifth amendment. Do you ? 

The CHAiR:NrAN. Ask another question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Sokol, are you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendment to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I put it to you as a fact that you are at this moment a 
member of the Communist Party. Will you deny, affirm or explain 
that assertion ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Sokol. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendment to tlie United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Mrs. Julia Brown ? 

Mrs. Sokol. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 



1152 CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

The Chairman. All right. Mr. Nittle, it is obvious that this woman 
isn't going to testify. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you presently teaching school ? 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Nittle. You are a teacher at Westwood School in Cleveland, 
Ohio. Is that correct ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly feel that if you answer the ques- 
tion of whether or not you are teaching in a particular school you 
might be subjected to a criminal prosecution ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Sokol, I state as a fact that you were in your 
younger days the Ohio State administrative secretary of the Young 
Communist League and a member of the Communist Party. 

Will you affirm or deny that fact ? 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Nittle. You have been known by various names, among others 
by the name of Eena Farrell. Have you not ? 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question under the first and 
fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

(Mr. Johansen entered the hearing room.) 

(Mr. Schadeberg left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. SoKOL. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendment to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions. 

It is quite obvious, Mr. Chairman, that this witness will not respond. 

The Chairman. Yes. Did you identify her lawyer's name? 

Mr. Nittle. I don't think I did. 

Mr. Day. No, sir. I think you did not. My name is Jack G. 
Day. I am attorney in Cleveland, Ohio, with offices at 1748 Stand- 
ard Building, Cleveland. Mr. Chairman, is the witness excused now ? 

The Chairman. Yes, the witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Elsie Tarcai, would you please come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your riglit hand, please? Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Tarcai. I do. 



C0]\OrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1153 

TESTIMONY OF ELSIE E. TAKCAI, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your name for the record, please. 

Miss Tarcai. Elsie R. Tarcai^ 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see you are represented by counsel. Will counsel 
identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where were you born, Mrs. Tarcai ? 

Miss Tarcai. I am Miss Tarcai. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are Miss Tarcai ? 

Miss Tarcai. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliere were you born and when ? 

Miss Tarcai. I was born in Budapest, Hungary, May 9, 1909. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a citizen of the United States? 

Miss Tarcai. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your occupation? 

Miss Tarcai. I am an attorney. 

]\lr. NiTTLE. Are you as of this moment a member of the Communist 
Party of the United States? 

Miss Tarcai. I do not think that question is pertinent. This com- 
mittee does not have any right to inquire into my political beliefs 
under the first amendment, and I claim the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

The Chairman. By that you mean that you decline to answer the 
question ? 

Miss Tarcai. Under the first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Miss Tarcai. Of the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Mrs. Julia Brown ? 

Miss Tarcai. To the best of my recollection, I do not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will ask Mrs. Brown to come forward, please. 

Mrs. Julia Brown, would you come forward ? 

The Chairman. Just stand up. That is all right. 

Do you know that lady? 

Miss Tarcai. I do not say with certainty that I do. 

The Chairman. All right, 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not deny knowing her? 

jSIiss Tarcai. I think I answered that question to the best of my 
ability. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1942 ? 

Miss Tarcai. I think that is a loaded question. I have not admitted 
membership. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question, whether it is loaded or not. 

The Chairman. Yes. It is a very direct question. 

Miss Tarcai. I refuse to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

The Chairman. All right. Mr. Nittle, it is obvious that this witness 
is not going to testify to anything. I suggest that you call another 
witness. 



1154 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Violet Tarcai. 

The Chairman. Will you raise you right hand? 
Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing Jbut the truth, so help you God? 
Miss Tarcai. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF VIOLET J. TARCAI, ACCOMPANTEI) BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please? 

Miss Tarcai. Violet J. Tarcai. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you are represented by counsel? 

Miss Tarcai. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state the date and place of your birth. Miss 
Tarcai? 

Miss Tarcai. I was born November 1, 1916, in Chicago, 111. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Where do you presently reside? 

Miss Tarcai. 2929 East Overlook Koad, Cleveland Heights 18, 
Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat is your occupation? 

Miss Tarcai, I am an attorney. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To what bars are you admitted to practice? 

Miss Tarcai. I am admitted to practice with the Cleveland Bar 
Association ; the Cuyahoga Bar Association. I am sorry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere do you maintain your offices ? 

Miss Tarcai. I operate through my home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the National Lawyers Guild ? 

Miss Tarcai. Yes, I am a member of the National Lawyers Guild. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you Imow Mrs. Julia Brown ? 

Miss Tarcai. To the best of my recollection, I have never seen Mrs. 
Brown up until yesterday in the committee room. I believe that I 
did not ever meet her. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will ask Mrs. Brown to stand. 

Do you recognize the lady who has just stood, whom we identified 
as Mrs. Julia Brown ? 

Miss Tarcai. I do not know her. 

The Chairman. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Tarcai. I refuse to answer that question. 

I believe my political beliefs are my own business and this commit- 
tee has no right to interrogate me on such matters. 

The Chairman. For what reason do you decline to answer ? 

Miss Tarcal. I refuse to answer on the ground of the first amend- 
ment. My political beliefs are my own business and I refuse to answer 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman, Have you ever been a Communist ? 

Miss Tarcai. I would refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. This witness is excused. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1155 

The Chairman. Call another witness, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Eugene Bayer. 

Mr. FoRER. He is the one for this afternoon. 

Mr. XrrTLE. What time will you have him here? 

]\Ir. FoRKR. What time do you want him ? 

The Chairman. Is he the last witness ? 

]SIr. Nittle. He is the last witness. 

The Chairman. Mr. Forer, you and I have an understanding about 
this. You have him at the committee room this afternoon. Is there 
only one more witness ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

The Chairman. I thought there were two more. 

Mr. Nittle. No, sir; he is the last one for public session. 

The Chairman. You have your witness at the committee room when 
he gets in. 

Mr. Forer. I am pretty sure he is in already. He was due in. What 
time did you want him there ? 

The Chairman. I would say 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Forer. 2 o'clock? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Forer. Fine. At the committee room. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

This public session is recessed. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 05 p.m., Thursday, June 7, 1962, the hearing 
was recessed to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, JUNE 7, 1962 

The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., in Room 226, Old House 
Office Building, Hon. Clyde Dojie, of California, presidhig. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Doyle, Johansen, 
and Bruce. 

Committee members also present : Representative Schacleberg. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel ; and Neil E. Wetterman, investigator. 

Mr, Doyle. Are you ready to be sworn ? 

Mr. Bayer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you raise your right liand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bayer. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record show a quorum of the subcommittee is 
present and, while this is theoretically in executive session, it was 
really called in this manner, as you probably know, Counsel, as an 
accommodation to Ijotli the connnittee and the witness and his counsel. 

Mr. Rein. ^Mr. Forer told me that. 

Mr. Johansen. This is, in fact, an extension of the public liearings. 

Mr. Doyle. It is an extension of the public hearings because ]\Ir. 
Bayer wasn't here yet, so we were glad to accommodate liim and his 
counsel in this manner. 

Proceed, Counsel. 



1156 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE BAYER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Bayer. Yes, sir. Eugene Bayer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bayer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. Rein. David Eein, R-e-i-n, 711 14th Street N.W., Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where and when were you born, Mr. Bayer ? 

Mr. Bayer. Jmie 16, 1918, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you resided in Cleveland, Ohio, since your birth 
there to the present time ? 

Mr. Bayer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVhat is the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Bayer. I am just now completing my formal education at 
college. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state the schools you have attended in the 
course of your life to the present time ? 

Mr. Bayer. Well, I graduated from the public schools of Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What year ? 

Mr. Bayer. In 1934, graduated from high school. I attended 
Western Reserve University for a year in 1934 and I attended Ohio 
State University. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what time ? 

Mr. Bayer. 1935. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you attend Ohio State University ? 

Mr. Bayer. 1935. Then I didn't go to college for a while and 
then I entered Cleveland College of Western Reserve University, 
probably in the late thirties, which was broken by my entering into 
the service, and I just resumed education about a year ago when I 
felt I wanted to get my degree and I now attend Western Reserve 
University, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. 'Wlien did you enter the service ? 

Mr. Bayer. June of 1943. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how long did you remain in the service ? 

Mr. Bayer. Approximately 30 months. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present employment or occupation? 

Mr. Bayer. I am a tobacco distributor, sell tobacco wholesale. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the proprietor and sole owner of the Bayer 
Candy & Tobacco Co., 13912 Union Street, Cleveland ? 

Mr. Bayer. JNIy wife and I. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]\Ir. Bayer, are you at the present time a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Bayer. Sir, on the basis of the privilege granted to all citizens 
by the Constitution and its Bill of Rights, which guarantees against 
any intrusion into a man's beliefs and guarantees to each person the 
privilege of not being forced to testify against himself, I must de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Julia Brown, who was a witness before this com- 
mittee, testified that she knew you as a member of the Communist 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1157 

Party during the time she was active in tliat organization between 
the iy50's and 1960, and until tlie time she left the party. 

Do you care to allirm or deny her testimony or to oiler any 
explanation i 

Mr. liAYEK. No, sir; for the reasons I stated I must refuse to 
answer. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr, Chairman, just to clarify the record, the witness 
says he must refuse to. You are not under any compulsion to do it. 
Do 1 understand you mean that you do elect to decline to answer ? 

Mr. Bayer. Well, sir, you nmst understand I have given this much 
thougiit. When I say "I must,*" it is a form of the word "'elect." 
1 do this with what 1 consider my necessary interpretation of the 
Constitution and the Bill of Eights. I elect. 

Mr. JoHAxsEx. You are decidmg to do it, not under compulsion? 

Mr. Bayer. No outside compulsion. This is my own decision. 

Mr. Doyle. That is the way 1 mterpreted your answer. 

Mr. Bayer. That is what I am telling myself I must do; not an 
outside force, no, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the year 1936? 

Mr. Bayer. I decline to answer that question based on the privilege 
I enjoy given in the fifth amendment to the United States Constitution 
of not being forced to testify against myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know David Katz, who has been identified 
by Mrs. Brown as a member of the Communist Party and a very active 
functionary during the period she was within that organization? 

Mr. Bayer. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you met in any closed Communist Party meetings 
with David Katz at any time during your residence in Cleveland ? 

Mr. Bayer. I decline for the reason stated to answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Don Rothenberg to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bayer. I decline to answer that question on the ground I pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr, NinxE. Do you know Martin Chancey as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bayer. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I assert as a fact that you have been active with Mar- 
tin Chancey and associated with him in Communist Party activities in 
the Cleveland, Ohio, area. Do you affirm or deny that assertion? 

Mr. Bayer. I decline to answer based on my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand. Counsel, that you asked the witness 
about 1936, something about the year 1936 ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. I inquired whether the witness was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party during the year 1936 at a time w^hen he 
would appear to be 18 years old. 

j\lr, Doyle, I thought I heard those years and if you were in the 
Communist Party when you were 18 years old, it is terrible, a young 
American like you to get in at that age. I am not going to lecture 
you. Have you any other business ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Counsel has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Committee members ? 



1158 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr, Bruce, Yes, I would like to ask a question, 

Mr. Bayer, is your business being utilized as a front for the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Bayer. No, sir, 

Mr, Bruce, Does the Communist Party have any direction over the 
affairs or operation of your business ? 

Mr, Bayer, No, sir, 

Mr, Bruce, There is no connection between your business enter- 
prise and the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Bayer, No, sir, 

Mr. Doyle, Mr, Schadeberg, do you have any questions? 

Mr, Schadeberg. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Johansen ? 

Mr. Johansen. No questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I ask two more questions as a result of the 
inquiry of the committee member ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Bayer. ]\Iay I be excused for a moment ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Johansen, Is there a pending question ? 

Mr. Bruce. The counsel has a question, 

Mr. NiTTLE. I withdraw my request. 

Mr. Johansen. To refresh my memory, are you presently a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bayer. I decline to answer that, sir, because of the constitu- 
tional provision which makes such an inquiry an intrusion and the 
constitutional protection which does not require me to give testimony 
on that. 

Mr. Johansen. I have no further questions, 

Mr. Doyle. Any other questions. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You are excused. Witness, and Mr. Rein, 

Mr, Bayer, Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mr, Wetterman will be the next witness. 

Mr, Doyle, Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr, Wetterman, I do, 

TESTIMONY OF NEIL E. WETTERMAN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please ? 
Mr. Wetterman. Neil E. Wetterman. 
Mr. NiTTLE. And what is your occupation ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1159 

Mr. Wetterman. I am an investigator with the Conuiiittee on Un- 
American Activities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have been employed in that capacity for what 
period of time? 

JNlr. Wettermax. Since December 5, 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were in the Caucus Room on Monday, June 4, 
1962, at which time a person named William Henry Cooper was called 
to testify ? 

Mr. Wetterman. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you have occasion to identify him prior to his ap- 
pearance in the Caucus Room on that day ? 

Mr. Wetterman. Yes. We had testimony from Mrs. Julia Brown, 
and also statements to me personally from Mr. Cooper during a trip to 
Cleveland, the week of April 2, 1962. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to April 2, 1962, did you know William Henry 
Cooper ? 

Mr. Wetterman. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us when you first met him and what were 
the circumstances ? 

Mr. Wetterman. It was during the week of April 2, 1962. I was in 
Cleveland, Ohio, on routine business for the committee and had de- 
cided to call on the William Cooper family, basing the call on infor- 
mation that Mr. Cooper might possibly be a cooperative witness for 
the committee. That afternoon I spoke with Mrs. Cooper and ques- 
tioned her with regard to Communist activities in the Cleveland area. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was her husband at home ? 

Mr. Wetterman. No, he was not at home. He was at work during 
the day. Mrs. Cooper stated that she had been a member of the 
Progressive Party. On further questioning with regard to Commu- 
nist Party activities, she appeared rather hazy and sort of reluctant 
to make any comments. I returned later that evening when Mr. 
Cooper was home and asked him similar questions of his party ac- 
tivities, which he initially denied. On the presentation of various 
evidence and following with questions on pertinent points of activity 
he had been engaged in, he finally admitted that he had been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party from 1944 until the mid-1950's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you say he "finally admitted" Communist Party 
membership, will you state for the record what the conversation was 
as accurately as you can state it ? 

Mr. Wetterman. Well, I had a number of confidential reports of 
Mr. Cooper's activities, and I informed him the committee had re-' 
ceived testimony that he had been a member of the Communist Party. 
Upon presenting him with that information he finally admitted that 
lie became a member in 1944, had a party memberehip card in the late 
forties, and that he had gotten out of the party around 1955 or 1956 at 
the time of the Smith Act trials in Cleveland. I also asked Mr. 
Cooper at that time if he had knowledge of Joe Hill and Albert Young 
and if he had been active in Young's political campaign. He stated 
that he had never heard of them before. 

Upon his admission of party membership, he did state that Frieda 
Katz had come to his home in the middle fifties when he was attempt- 
ing to get out of the party and had told him that he should remain in 
the party because it was an organization fighting for the civil rights 

86790— 62— pt. 2 7 



1160 COM]VIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

of Negroes and it was important he remain a member. He stated to 
me that he began to realize he was being used by the Communist Party 
and that it was not for the civil rights of the Negro people and, hence, 
his gradual disassociation. I told Mr. Cooper that it might be neces- 
sary for him to come to Washington and so testify and he finally 
agreed to do so, though rather reluctantly. 

My next contact with Mr. Cooper was on May 7, 1962, when I called 
at the Cooper residence, again in the afternoon, and Mr. Cooper was 
not there. I talked to some extent with Mrs. Cooper in a general way, 
and it so happened that her daughter, Winnie Cruise, was there. I 
asked Mrs. Cooper if I could talk with Winnie Cruise and would she 
leave us alone. I asked Winnie Cruise how long it had been since she 
left the Communist Party. She said that she had left the party in 
the latter forties or early fifties ; she didn't recall. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. That is she herself, the daughter ? 

Mr. Wetterman. She, Winnie Cruise, the daughter. I asked her 
if it was not a fact that she attended a Communist Party school in New 
York City and she said yes, she had, but it had been so long ago she 
didn't have too much recollection. She said that she had been quite 
ill of health and, as a result, was never a functionary of the party. 
Those are her exact words. She stated that the j)arty only wanted peo- 
ple who were healthy and could work day and night for the cause and, 
therefore, she was not accepted as a functionary of the party and grad- 
ually withdrew from it. 

I returned that evening, and Mr. Cooper was there. I told him that 
we would like to have him in Washington to testify and all that was 
necessary for him to do was to tell the complete truth the way he had 
told it to me. He agreed to do so and then he volunteered the infor- 
mation to me that he had campaigned for Joe Hill and Albert Young. 
I said to him, "Well, Mr. Cooper, the last time I was at your home you 
denied that you even knew them," and he said, "Oh, yes, I campaigned 
for them," and he also told me that he knew them to be members of 
the Communist Party. He stated he knew Dave Katz, Frieda Katz, 
the Krchmareks, and other lesser leaders of the Communist Party 
and that he would cooperate with our committee in giving such infor- 
mation. I told Mr. Cooper I would arrange for his transportation and 
would meet him at the airport on Sunday, June 3. Arrangements were 
made. I was at the airport on June 3. He did not arrive on the flight 
as scheduled. 

Checking with the airlines I discovered he had canceled his reserva- 
tion and arrived on a 9 :30 flight the day prior. I did not see Mr. 
Cooper until he entered the hearing room on Monday, June 4. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make an effort to determine his presence or the 
reason why he had not appeared ? 

Mr. Wetterman. Yes. I called a number of hotels, taking a chance 
of locating him. I was unable to do so, so I phoned him on a person- 
to-person basis in Cleveland. I got the answer that he was in Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To whom did you speak ? 

Mr. Wetterman. The operator was speaking with Mrs. Cooper, and 
this is a conversation I heard. She said he was in Washington, D.C, 
and since we were not able to get a definite address from her I asked 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1161 

to speak with Mrs. Cooper. I said to Mrs. Cooper, "What has hap- 
pened ? I did not meet Mr. Cooper at tlie plane." 

She said, ''Oh, he was very anxious not to be late and he decided to 
come up one day earlier and he was going to get in touch with you 
the minute he got in Washington." Of course, I never did hear from 
Mr. Cooper at any time on Saturday or any time Sunday. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When was the first time you saw or heard from him ? 

Mr. Wetterman. You mean after my meeting with him on May 7 ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Wetterman. Well, the first time following that date, I saw 
him when he entered the hearing room on Monday morning, June 4, 
in company with his attorney. 

Mr. Johansen. In other words, the third time you saw him there- 
after was when lie entered the hearing room in the company of 
counsel ? 

Mr. Wetterman. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To the committee ? 

Mr. Wetterman. That is correct. I would just like to add this on 
the record. I came to know the Cooper family pretty well and, based 
on the conversations with Mr. Cooper and his attitude with regard 
to the subject at hand, I had every confidence in the w^orld that Mr. 
Cooper was going to be a cooperative witness, and certainly nothing 
could have changed that other than fear or intimidation. I still feel 
that Mr. Cooper is going to reconsider and that he will come before 
this committee at some later date and be willing to cooperate. I 
have that confidence in him. 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. Is it your opinion that Mr. Cooper was contacted 
by some one up in Cleveland, or after he got to Washington ? 

Mr. Wetterman. It is my definite opinion that Mr. Cooper was 
contacted by some member of the Communist Party following the 
appearance of his name in the Cleveland Press. We know for a fact 
that another party whose name appeared in the newspaper article 
was contacted by Dave and Frieda Katz and urged to appear with 
counsel, 

Mr. Johansen. And would you feel that his arrival in Washington 
ahead of the time that he had scheduled with you was the result of 
that contact ? 

Mr. Wetterman. I would certainly think so because Mr. Cooper 
would never have arranged that day-early arrival on his own. I am 
quite sure of that. 

Mr. Schadeberg. You feel that there was some matter of threat ? . 

Mr. Wetterman. I think there was either fear or intimidation. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have any discussions with Mr. Cooper relating 
to his financial ability to appear here as a witness when you talked to 
him? 

Mr. Wetterman. Yes, I did. I asked him if he had sufficient money 
until such time as he would be reimbursed. He said no, that he had 
very little money, and I asked him if he could raise about $20, which 
would cover him for his hotel one night and meals, and I would see 
that he had his transportation in advance. Of course, when he came 
a night earlier that meant a couple of nights here, and I don't know 
how he financed it unless he was given money from another source. 



1162 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Speiser stated, did he not, that he was there for 
the American Civil Liberties Union ? 

Mr. Wetterman. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. And did not Mr. Scherer ask if he had any offices other 
than the office he related, the American Civil Liberties Union, and 
didn't Speiser answer no ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is in the record, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Is it not a fact that these other witnesses from Cleve- 
land, with certain exceptions all had attorneys from the American 
Civil Liberties Union. 

Mr. Wetterman. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. So that they made the arrangement either at Cleveland 
or in some way so that the Civil Liberties Union office in Washington 
provided volunteer attorneys for all these other Cleveland witnesses 
excepting, I think, those represented by Mr. Forer, the attorney for 
the Communist Party. Is that not true ? 

Mr. McNamara. Sir. Forer was counsel for a good many of them. 
I have forgotten the exact count now. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any other questions. Counsel, or committee 
members ? 

Mr. JoHANSEN". Mr. Wetterman, am I correct in the impression 
that the problem which was encountered with respect to Mr. Cooper 
gives validity to the feeling that the work of this committee is im- 
peded when, as was evidently the situation in this case, there is a 
leak and disclosure of the identity of witnesses who have been or are 
to be subpenaed before the committee ? 

Mr. Weti'erman. That is most definitely a true statement. With- 
out a doubt the leaking of the names to the press by someone outside 
the committee prevented us from having a witness to corroborate the 
testimony of Mrs. Julia Brown. The loss of this witness, I would 
say, did irrevocable damage to this particular investigation. 

Mr. Johansen. And yet these disclosures have been twisted and 
distorted by witnesses before the committee and cast in the light of 
being an effort on the part of this committee to injure and violate the 
rights of the subpenaed witnesses ? Isn't it true that the exact oppo- 
site is true, that the work of the committee itself is hampered and that 
it would be self-defeating for this sort of thing to be engineered or 
planned by the committee ? 

Mr. Doyle. It also was apparently a deliberate interference with 
the procedure of the committee. 

Mr. Wetterman. Such a leak would benefit the Communist Party, 
because they can contact these witnesses in advance and use the fact of 
the names being released as a propaganda move against the committee. 

Mr. Schadeberg. Is there some prospect that if any of the Commu- 
nist group had received a subpena he would report back naturally 
and contact all of their membership or the contacts they have and ask 
them? 

Mr. WETTERMAisr. I would think that all of the members of the 
party who did not intend to come up and cooperate with the com- 
mittee would, in one way or another, get in touch with one another 
following the release of names, but with respect to any cooperative 
witness, it would be the last move that person would make. 



COIVOrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CLEVELAND, OHIO, AREA 1163 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. The party may not know who is going to be co- 
operative or not. 

Mr. Bruce. They find out about it. 

Mr. "Wetterman. They find out in a hurry. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did not Mr. Frank Wilkinson, in an interview that 
was recorded and inchided in the House document on the film "Opera- 
tion Abolition," make a statement that one of his assigned duties was 
to contact persons who were being subpenaed by the committee? 

Mr. Wetterman. That is correct, and Frank Wilkinson was also 
in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 18 for that very purpose and held a meet- 
ing with individuals who were subpenaed. 

Mr. JoiiANSEX. And also I might say, according to the information 
that came to me, he appeared for an interview on a television station in 
Cleveland because the newsman for that station called me and asked 
me to comment on Mr. Wilkinson's statement. 

Mr. Bruce. I was also called for a comment. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Which I might say I declined to do. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Doyx,e. I think the evidence here today clearly shows the perti- 
nence and propriety of jNIr. Walter, as chairman of our committee, hav- 
ing promptly sent to the Attorney General of the United States a letter 
asking their immediate and full investigation and prosecution, if 
the person or persons who made the leak were ascertained, on the 
grounds that it clearly is an interference and tampering with the wit- 
ness mider subpena from this committee and a definite hindrance to 
our conunittee functioning, as stated by the witness today. Any other 
questions ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. If not, the committee will stand in adjournment. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :20 p.m., Thursday, June 7, 1962, the committee 
was recessed subject to call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 

Individuals 

A 

Page 

Abernathy, Mamie (Mrs. Foster McCurdy) 998, 1002, 1030, 1061 

Ambatielos, Tony 1113 

B 

Bass, Charlotta A 1025, 1055 

Bayer, Eugene 998, 1002, 1003, 1133, 1134, 1140, 1155, 1156-1158 (testimony) 

Begun, Isadore 1100 

Berry, Abner W 1046 

Bethencourt, Albert 1067 

Bethencourt, Lucille (Mrs. Albert Betbencourt) 1067 

Black, Nona 1068, 1069 

Brown, Julia C 989, 990, 993-1012 (testimony), 1015, 1016-1069 (testimony), 

1071-1076, 1078, 1083-1086, 1088, 1089-1109 (testimony), 1110, 
1112, 1115, 1118, 1131, 1135, 1138, 1141, 1143, 1148, 1150, 1151, 
1153, 1154, 1156, 1159. 

Brown, Roland 1008 

Brownlee, Oscar 1056 

Brudno, Eugene 998, 1002, 1106, 1141 

O 

Caldwell, Jimmy Lee 1031, 1032 

Caldwell, Mrs. Jimmy Lee 1031 

Careathers, Benjamin S 1034, 1037, 1038 

Chaka, Betty (Mrs. Edward Chaka ; alias Jean E. Horner) 1092 

Chaka, Edward (alias John Horner) 1093, 1106 

Chancey, Martin 1051, 1052, 1058, 1096, 1106, 1119-1131 (testimony), 1157 

Chancey, Sally (also known as Sadie; Mrs. Martin Chancey) 1051, 

10.52, 1058, 1096, 1106 

Childress, Alice 1025 

Clark, Sally 1093 

Clark, Tom C 1083 

Cooper, Clement Theodore 1143 

Cooper, Elizabeth (Mrs. William Henry Cooper) 994,996-998,1159-1161 

Cooper, William Henry 990, 

994, 996-998, 1000, 1004, 1008, 1010, 1012, 1013-1015 (testimony), 

1016, 1026, 1027, 1056, 1159-1161. 

Cooper, Winnie Cruise 1160 

Crater, Robert (W.) 1053 

Cvetic, Matthew 998, 999, 103$ 

D 

Davis, Benjamin J., Jr 1001, 1002, 1146 

Day, Jack G 1151, 1152 

Decavitch, Victor 1045 

Decker, Robert 1035, 1036, 1048 

DeLacy, Hester Sondergaard. {See Sondergaard, Hester.) 

DeLacy, Hugh 1006, 1007, 1108, 1140, 1147 

Delaney, Thomas F 995 

Dennis, Myrtle (Mrs. Raymond Dennis) __ 989, 997, 999, 1002, 1005, 1007, 1017- 

1019, 1030, 1031, 1033-1035, 1037, 1044, 1074, 1106, 1108 

i 



li INDEX 

Page 

Dennis, Raymond (Ray) 997,999,1044 

Dickerson, Angle , 1031, 1042 

Dolsen, James (H.) 998 

Dougher, Florence (Mrs. Joe Dougher) 1067 

Dougher, Joe 1067, 1068 

E 
Eleff, Abraham 1057 

Elliott, Willis E. (Rev. Dr.) 1052,1053 

Emmer, Jack 998, 1003, 1140 

Emmer, Ruth (Mrs. Jack Emmer) (nee Bayer) 998, 

1002, 1003, 1133, 1139-1143 (testimony), 1150 

F 
Farrell, Rena. (See Sokol, Regina.) 

Forer, Joseph 1063, 1077, 1084, 1109, 1114, 1117, 1119, 1134, 

1153-1155, 1162 

Fortson, Oscar 993 

Foster, William Z 1100 

Furry, Thelma C 1112 

G 

Gaines, Edith 1094 

Gaines, Lloyd 1094 

Gardner, Fred 1044, 1045, 1047 

Gardner, Lee (Mrs. Fred Gardner) 1044 

Garfield, David W. (also known as Paul Stone, Frank Williams, and 

"John") 1050 

Gates, John (W.) (alias Irving Regenstreif) 1062 

Gerson, Simon W 1100 

Gisser, Libby 1049, 1066 

Golden, Hamp L 1038 

Goodman, Ethel L. (Mrs. Lew Jennings) 1044, 

1048, 1061, 1062, 1065-1069, 1069-1073 (testimony), 1074, 1096, 1106 

Graham, Shirley (Mrs. W. E. B. Dubois) 1025 

Grayson, Josephine 1025 

Greenfield, Elvador C 1034, 1035, 1100 

Grubbs, Carlos 1049 

Grubbs, Vivian (Mrs. Carlos Grubbs; nee Washington) 1049 

Guukel, Robert 1124 

H 

Haber, Bill 1034, 1035, 1057 

Halamak, Anton (Anthony) 1049 

Hall, Elizabeth (Mrs. Gus Hall) 1078,1135 

Hall, Gus (alias for Arva Halberg) 992,1078,1128,1135 

Hallinan, Vincent 1055 

Hallinan, Vivian (Mrs. Vincent Hallinan) 1055 

Handelman, Samuel (Sam) 1033, 1034, 1106, 1108, 1109-1114 (testimony), 1151 

Hardin, Mel 1028, 1029 

Hardin, Virginia (Mrs. Mel Hardin) 1029 

Harmon, John 1086 

Harris, Freida 1040 

Hashmall, Frank 1049, 10.50 

Haug, Fred 1045, 1061 

Haug, Marie Reed (Mrs. Fred Haug) 1045, 1061, 1075, 110&-1108, 1112 

Heller, Norman 1134, 1136 

Herbert, Thomas J 1110 

Hight. Carlotta Ruf us. ( See Ruf us, Carlotta. ) 

Hill, Joe 994-996, 1015, 1159, 1160 

Hirshberg, Herbert 1045 

Hood, William R 1046 

Hoover, J. Edgar 1102 

Himton, Dorothy 1025 

Hybloom, Morris 1057 



INDEX iii 

J 

Page 

Jackson, James 10{i(; 

Jackson, James E 1028, lOGG 

Janowitz, John Edward 1051, 1057, 1130 

Jennings, Etliel L. Goodman. (See Goodman, Ethel L.) 

Jennings, Lew 1048 

K 
Kahn, Mr 1012 

Kamen, Joseph 1057 

Kamen, Norma Shedroff (Mrs. Joseph Kamen). (See Shedroff, Norma.) 

Kaplan. Louis L. (Lou) 905,1015 

Katz, David 907, 909, 1074, 1085, 1096, 1106, 1157, 1160, 1161 

Katz, Frieda (Mrs. Dave Katz). (See Zucker, Frieda.) 

Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich 1062, 1063, 1068 

Kllpatrick, Admiral 1050, 1063-1065, 1067, 1068 

Krause, Joseph 1050 

Krause, Mildred (Mrs. Joseph Krause) 1050 

Krehmarek, Anthony (also known as Mike Meadows) 097,008,1000, 

1026-1028, 1064, 1090-1092, 1096, 1 106, 1160 
Krehmarek, Jean (Mrs. Anthony Krehmarek) 907,908,1000, 

1005, 1028, 1035, 1064, 1077-1078 (testimony), 1090-1093, 1095, 1006, 

1103, 1106, 1160. 

Kreitner, Frida (nee Smith) 1005, 1006, 1020, 1061, 1062, 1081, 

1117-1119 (testimony) 

Kreitner, Morris 1005, 1061, 1081 

Kres, Cheda (Mrs. Joseph Kres) 1050 

Kres, Joseph (Joe) 1050 

L 

Land, Jerome 1110, 1151 

Land, Yetta 1008, 1000, 1034, 1040, 1050, 1110, 1151 

Lawson, Sonora B 1025-1029 

Lend, Ruth 1051, 1064, 1093 

Lenin, V. I. (alias for Vladimir Il'ich Ul'ianov ; also known as Nikolai 

Lenin) 1089, 1096, 1100, 1103, 1105 

Levin, Pearl K. (Mrs. Sak Levin) 998,1002,1096,1141 

Levin, Sak 998, 1002 

Livingstone, Blanche (Mrs. William A. Livingstone) 1010,1050 

Livingstone, William A 1050, 1051 

Lumer, Edith (Mrs. Hyman Lumer) 997,999,1049,1061 

Lumer, Hyman (alias Robert Harold Meyers) 007,999,1000 

M 

MagMowitz, Ann 998, 1000 

Mallard, Amy 1025 

Markward, Mary Stalcup 1052 

Marx, Karl 1039 

McCastle, Catherine 908, 1000, 1008 

McCurdy, Foster 998, 1002 

McCurdy, Mamie. (See Abernathy, Mamie; Mrs. Foster McCurdy.) 

McGee, Rosalie 1025 

McMillan, James 1018 

McMillan, Sarah Roberts. ( See Roberts, Sarah ; Mrs. James McMillan. ) 

Mehrl, Emma (Mrs. Fred Mehrl) 1066 

Mehrl, Fred 1066 

Mitchell, Bessie 1025 

Mitchell, Hortense (Mrs. Melbourne Mitchell) 1036,10.37 

Mitchell, John C 1130 

Mitchell, Melbourne 1036, 1037 

Moore 1030, 1040, 1041 

Morillas, Sally Winters. (See Winters, Sally.) 

Moss, Paul 1008 

N 
Nelson, Steve 1137 



iV INDEX 

O 

Page 

O'Neal, Fred 1031, 1032, 1093 

O'Neal, Laura (Mrs. Fred O'Neal) 1032,1093 



Patterson, Louise Thompson (Mrs. William L. Patterson). 1019, 1025, 1029, 1038 

Patterson, William Lorenzo 1019, 1029 

Petraus, Joe 1066 

Probst, Mae 1059 

R 
Raffick, Sadie 1030 

Rautio, Martha (Mrs. Uno Rautio) 1051 

Rautio, Uno 1051 

Redden, Jack 1139 

Rein, David 1156 

Richardson, Beulah 1019, 1021, 1025, 1029, 1031 

Roberts, Sarah (Mrs. James McMillan) 1017,1018,1030,1031,1035 

Robeson, Eslauda Goode (Mrs. Paul Robeson, Sr.) 1025 

Robeson, Paul, Sr 1055, 1056, 1108, 1147, 1148 

Romig, Florence 1048 

Rosenberg, Ethel (Mrs. Julius Rosenberg, nee Greenglass) 1142 

Rosenberg, Julius 1142 

Rothenberg, Donald (Don) 1005, 1006, 1009-1011, 1035, 1036, 1045, 1074, 1107, 

1108, 1112, 1157 

Rothenberg, Mildred (Mrs. Donald Rothenberg) 1074 

Rufus, Carlotta 1044, 1048, 1061 

S 
Saferstein, Sanford 998, 1002, 1106 

Saferstein, Shirley (Mrs. Sanford Saferstein) 998,1002,1106 

Shanks, Hershel 1073 

Shedroff, Norma (Mrs. Joseph Kamen) 1057 

Shepard, Paul J 1051, 1110 

Siegel, Henry R 1058 

Slagle, La Verne 1123 

Sloan, David E 1069 

Smid, James 1042, 1051, 1074, 1106, 1114-1117 (testimony), 1122 

Smith, Frida. (See Kreitner, Frida.) 

Sobell, Helen (Mrs. Morton Sobell) 1142,1150 

Sobell, Morton 1142 

Sokol, Regina__ 998, 1000, 1001, 1096, 1106, 1133, 1140, 1141, 1151-1152 (testimony) 

Sondergaard, Hester (Mrs. Hugh De Lacy) 1007,1032 

Speiser, Lawrence 1013, 1014, 1162 

Spencer, Harry A 1093, 1094 

Stalin, Josef (losif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) 992,1039,1063,1068 

Statten, Hugh 1028, 1029, 1093 

Strauss, Abe 997-999, 1085, 1134, 1136-1139 (testimony) 

Strauss, Sylvia (Mrs. Abe Strauss) 995- 

1000, 1002, 1004, 1007-1009, 1016, 1019, 1035, 1049, 1051, 1057, 
1059, 1060, 1062, 1064, 1134-1136 (testimony), 1137. 
Strunk, Arthur Paul 995, 1130 

T 

Tarcai, Elsie R 1059, 1074, 1108, 1111, 1112, 1133, 1140, 1152, 1153-1154 (testi- 
mony). 

Tarcai, Violet J 1059, 1112, 1133, 1154 (testimony). 

Taylor, Pauline 1018, 1019, 1025, 1029, 1078-1083 (testimony), 1108, 1109 

Tenenbaum, Bertha (Mrs. Milton Tenenbaum)__ 1008, 1009, 1034, 1040, 1059, 1106 

Tenenbaum, Milton 1008, 1009, 1034, 1040, 1059, 1106, 1133, 1142, 1143- 

1151 (testimony). 

Thomas, Henry 1122 

Thomas, Myron 1059 

Thompson, Louise. {See Patterson, Louise Thompson.) 



INDEX V 

Pas© 

Till, ( Knimett) 10 Ii:, 1013 

Tomsik, George 1059,' 1060 

Truman, Harry S 1010 

Truth, Sojouruer 1022, 1024, 1025, 1037 

Tubmau, Harriet 1019, 1021, 1022, 1024, 1025 

Turner, Mary 1034, 1035 

W 

Wallace, Henry A 1006, 1009 

Washington, Bertram A. (Bert) 998, 1044, 1048, 1019, 1061, 1093, 1103 

Weinstock, Louis 1046 

Wells, James 1035, 1066, 1067, 1086-1089 (testimony), 1097 

Wettermau, Neil E 1027, 1101, 1158-1163 (testimony) 

Wherry, Margaret (Mrs. Robert Wherry) 990,996-999,1002,1007, 

1017-1019, 1029-1031, 1035, 1044, 1048, 1059, 1073-1076 (testimony) 

1106-1108, 1112, 1117. 

Wherry, Robert 1019 

Whitbeck, Pauline 1008 

Wilkins, Roy 1047 

Wilkinson, Frank 1163 

Williams, Bob 1065, 1066 

Williams, Esther (Mrs. George Williams) 1065 

Williams, Frances 1025 

Williams, George 1065 

Winters, Sally (Sally Winters Morillas) 1057,1096 

Wnewrosphsky, Peter. (See Wnorowski, Peter.) 

Wnorowski, Peter (also spelled Wnewrosphsky in some instances) 1056, 1057 

Y 

Young, Albert 989, 994-996, 1159, 1160 

Young, Coleman A 1060 

Z 

Zazriry, Elsie 1005, 1006, 1017, 1019, 1030, 1031, 1038, 1061, 1108 

Zucker, Frieda (Mrs. Dave Katz) 995- 

1000, 1002-1011, 1016, 1019, 1026, 1027, 1034, 1035, 1038, 1040, 
1042-1044, 1048, 1049, 1051, 1056-1060, 1065, 1074, 1083. 1084- 
1086 (testimony) 1087, 1088, 1096, 1097, 1099, 1100, 1106, 1107, 
1151, 1159-1161. 

Organizations 

A 

American Civil Liberties Union 1014, 

1027, 1053, 1073, 1086, 1134, 1136, 1139, 1143, 1144, 1162 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 1005, 1031 

American Russian Institute (San Francisco) 1082, 1083 

Americans for Democratic Action 1053 

Automobile, Aircraft, & Agricultural Implement Workers of America, 
United (UAW) : 
Local 600 (Detroit) (Ford) 1046 

B 

Bayer Candy & Tobacco Co. (Cleveland, Ohio) 1156 



CIO. {See Congress of Industrial Organizations.) 

Civil Rights Congress' 1003 

1005, 1006, 1035, 1038, 1042, 1074, 1085-1087, 1096, 1097 
Cleveland Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. (See National 

Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosenberg Case. ) 
Cleveland Council of American-Soviet Friendship. {See entry under 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. ) 



^ Used interchangeably with Ohio Bill of Rights Conference in some instances. 



vx 



INDEX 



Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy ( SANE ) : Paee 

Cleveland Committee 1150 

Communist International. ( See International III. ) 

Communist Party of the United States of America 1092 

National Structure : 

National Commissions : 

Education Commission 112.5, 1126 

Organization Commission 1125, 1126 

National Committee 992, 1000, 1066, 1092, 1093 

Executive Committee 1000, 1028 

National Conventions and Conferences : 

Seventeenth Convention, December 10-13, 1957 (New York 

City 989, 1026, 1093, 1102, 1103, 1105 

Districts ' 

Ohio' District 1026, 1028, 1064, 1092, 1093 

States and Territories : 

District of Columbia 1052,1122 

New York State 1100 

Section 28 1122 

New York City Area : 

Bronx County 1100 

New York County (Manhattan) : 

Yorkville Section 1121 

Ohio 1000, 1049, 1090-1092, 1115, 1123 

State Board 1123 

State Committee 1050, 1123, 1128 

Convention, October 11-12, 1941 (Cleveland) 1115 

Convention, April 30, 1944 (Cleveland) 1115 

Convention, June 17-18, 1944 (Cleveland) 1071, 1115 

Convention, October 1947 (Cleveland) 1124 

Convention, 1948 1128 

Cleveland : 

Northeast Section 1000, 1001, 1010, 1078, 1090, 1094, 1103 

Section Committee 1090, 1091 

Southeast Section 1001, 1009-1011 

Pneumatic Branch 1057 

Tom Paine Branch 1085 

Franklin County : 

North End Club 1123 

Hamilton County 1124 

Pennsylvania : 

Pittsburgh 998,999 

Central Committee 1038 

Western Pennsylvania : 

Nationality Commission 1137 

Communist Party, Soviet Union : 
Congresses : 

Twentieth Congress, February 1956 (Moscow) 1063 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 1047, 1061 

Council of Greek Americans 1113 

Council on Human Relations 1135 

D 

Defense Committee for Mrs. Myrtle Dennis 989, 1033, 1034 

E 

Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America, United (UE) 995, 

1045, 1061, 1110 
F 

Freedom Committee 1034 

Fur & Leather Workers International Union 1130 

H 
Harriet Tubman Center 1019, 1021 



INDEX vll 



Initiating Committee of the Sojourn for Trutli and Justice to Washington, 
D.C. (Sec entry under Sojourners for Truth and Justice.) 

International. Ill (Communist) (also known as Comintern and Inter- Page 
national Workers' Association) 1138 

International Labor Defense 1096 

International Red Aid (MOPR) (also known as Red International of 

Labor Defense) 1096, 1097 



Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order (IWO) : 

Cleveland 1099 

M 

Mount Pleasant Community Council 1140-1142 

Myrtle Dennis Defense Committee. (See Defense Committee for Mrs. 
Myrtle Dennis.) 

N 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)_ 1027- 

1029, 1041, 1047, 1060, 1062, 1118, 1119 
National Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosen- 
berg Case : 

Cleveland Committee 1142 

National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case : 

Ohio Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 1148, 1149 

National Conference of Christians and Jews 1135 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship : 

Cleveland Council 1149 

National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 1148 

Cleveland Council 1148, 1149 

National Lawyers Guild 1111, 1112, 1154 

National Negro Labor Council 989, 1017, 1044-1049, 1055, 1060 

Cleveland Branch 1044, 1045, 1047, 1055, 1061, 1062, 1071, 1148 

New York University (New York City) 1129 

O 

Ohio Bill of Rights Conference 989, 

1003, lOOr,, 1006, 1016, 1031, 1034, 1035, 1042, 1074, 1085-1088, 
1097, 1099. 

Ohio Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 989, 1005, 1006, 1017, 1061 

Ohio Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. (See entry 
under National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case.) 

Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio) 1156 

Ohio Women for Peace 1082 

One World Book Shop (Cleveland, Ohio) 1081,1118,1139 

P 

Progressive Party 989, 

1005. 1006, 1009, 1032, 1055, 1056, 1081, 1083, 1147, 1148, 1159 
Provisional Organizing Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Communist 

Party (POO 989, 1048, 1050, 10.56, 1062-1069, 1072. 1089 

National Conference, August 16-17, 1958 (New York City)__ 1063, 1067, 1068 

S 

Sojourners for Truth and Justice 989, 

1017-1019, 1021, 1030, 1031, 1033-1035, 1037-1039, 1041, 1043, 1048, 
1061, 1074, 1090. 

Initiating Committee of the Sojourn for Truth and Justice 1019, 

1021, 1025, 1026, 1029 
Sojourn for Truth and Justice to Washington, D.C, September 24, 

1951 1021-1025 

Soviet Peace Committee 1082 



viii ESTDEX 

U 

Page 

United States Employment Service 1080 

United States Government : 
Justice, Department of: 

Federal Bureau of InvestigaHon 994, 1011, 1012 

Subversive Activities Control Board 1085, 1092, 1096, 1138 

Supreme Court 1092, 1121 

Univis Lens Co 1131 

W 

Western Reserve University (Cleveland, Ohio) 1156 

Westwood School (Cleveland, Ohio) 1152 

Workers (Communist) Party of America (August 1925 to March 1929) : 

Nominating Convention, May 25-27 (New York City) 1100 

World Peace Congress (also known as World Congress of Partisans for 
Peace and World Congress of Defenders of Peace) : 

Second Congress, November 13, 1950, ShefBeld, England ; November 

16-22, 1950, Warsaw, Poland 1082 

Y 
Young Communist League 1049,1066,1152 

Publications 

A 

Atlanta Independent (Atlanta, Ga.) 1002 

C 

Cleveland Press (Cleveland, Ohio) 993,1053,1120,1161 

Contact 1125-1127 

M 
Morning Freiheit 998, 1138, 1139 

N 
National Republic 995 

P 
Political Affairs 1102 

S 

Statement issued by the Conference of Representatives of 81 Communist 
Parties, Moscow, December 1960 992, 1039 

U 
Under Arrest 1096 

V 
Vanguard 1063 

W 
Worker, The 1028, 1056 



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