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Full text of "Communist activities in the peace movement (Women Strike for Peace and certain other groups) Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-seventh Congress, second session. December 11-13, 1962, including index"

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Committee on Un-American Activities 
House 
87th Congress 

Table of Contents 

1. Testimony By and Concerning Paiol Corbin ^\t^ 

2, The Communist Party's Cold War Against 
Congressional Investigation of Subversion 

5. Communist and Trotskyist Activity Within ,{,^,^ 
the Greater Los Angeles Chapter of the 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee 

4-5. Communist Outlets for the Distribution of '4 01 
Soviet Propaganda in the United States. 
pt.1-2 

6. Communist Youth Activities ^»^fc 
7-8. U.S. Commimist Party Assistsuace to Foreign -i??,^ 



Communist Governments, pt.1-2 ('^^P 



9. Communist Activities in the Peace Movement ^^^'^ 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

(Women Strike for Peace and Certain Other Groups) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



DECEMBER 11-13, 1962 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 




HA«"VM»DGOLLtil Lltf'AS-' 

OEPOSITEH BY Ti". 
UMITRD STATES GOVERMHtN^ 

MAV 10 19bi 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93367 WASHINGTON : 1963 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.O. - Price 60 cents 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

CLYDE DOYLE, California AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana DONALD O. BRUCE, Indiana 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

Francis J. McNamara. Director 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

n 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 2047 

December 11, 1962: Testimony of — 

Richard A. Flink 2068 

Blanche H. Posner 2073 

Ruth Meyers 2093 

Lyla Hoffman 2103 

Afternoon session (executive) : 

Elsie Neidenberg 2114 

Sylvia Contente 2118 

December 12, 1962: Testimony of— 

Rose Clinton 2126 

Iris Freed 2132 

Anna Mackenzie 2138 

Elizabeth Moos 2152 

Afternoon session (executive) : 

Ceil Gross 2158 

Jean Brancato 2163 

Miriam Chesman 2166 

December 13, 1962: Testimony of — 

William Obrinsky 2178 

John W. Darr, Jr 2182 

Dagmar Wilson 2187 

Index i 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946]; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
it ***** * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q)(l) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 87TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 8, January 3, 1961 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

****** H: 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that purpose, 
shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the agencies 
in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 



On December 11, 12, and 13, 1962, a subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities held pubUc and executive hearings 
in Washington, D.C, relating to the Communist Party's "united- 
front" tactics of infiltrating peace organizations, with particular 
reference to Women Strike for Peace and its Metropolitan New York, 
New Jersey, and Connecticut section. 

The purposes of the hearings were to determine whether Communists 
are exerting influence upon the so-called "peace movement" in a 
manner and to a degree affecting the national security and to obtain 
information to aid the committee and the Congress in determining 
the need for amendment of the Internal Security Act of 1950 to 
make its provisions applicable to persons engaged in such activities, 
or to make unlawful membership in the Communist Party as proposed 
in H.R. 9944, referred to this committee on January 30, 1962. 

Subcommittee Chairman Doyle, in his opening remarks, quoted 
recent statements of U.S. and world Communist leaders to reveal that, 
although they continue to believe in the eventual necessity of waging 
war against the free world, they have instructed party members to 
give top priority to agitating and propagandizing for peace in the 
United States and all other non-Communist nations. Specifically, 
he pointed out, Gus Hall, the Communist Party leader in this country, 
had ordered all rank-and-file members to (1) infiltrate and support 
existing non-Communist peace organizations, (2) create new peace 
groups which can be manipulated by the party, and (3) participate in 
all picket lines, marches, rallies, walks, and other types of demonstra- 
tions which call for peace. 

Mr. Doyle reiterated that Communists, while dutifully and inces- 
santly talldng peace, actually believe there can be no real peace until 
they have conquered the entire world, eliminating all systems but their 
own. Thus, in the Communist view, peace is not a sought-after way 
of hfe, but rather a cold war weapon with which to reduce the free 
world's alertness in defending itself against the Moscow-directed 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Doyle emphasized that although peace agitation and propa- 
ganda in the United States have been given top priority by Moscow, 
this does not mean that everyone who agitates for peace is a Commu- 
nist or a feUow traveler. He pointed out that the cry for peace is 
universal and that it comes from sincere, patriotic persons and groups 
as well as from the Communists who, even while crying "peace," 
foment unrest and war. Mr. Doyle fm-ther cautioned that just 
because Communists have infiltrated some peace groups, it does not 
mean that all, or even a majority, of the persons in such groups are 
pro-Communists. 

The first witness to testify in the hearings was Richard A. Flink, a 
New York attorney. National attention had been focused on Mr. 
Flink 3 months earlier, when the Department of Justice disclosed that 
he, with the full knowledge and approval of the Federal Bureau of In- 

2047 



2048 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

vestigation, had accepted a $3,000 payment from two Russian em- 
ployees of the United Nations and entered into an espionage arrange- 
ment with them. The two Russians, Yuri A. Mishukov and Yuri V. 
Zaitsev, had already returned to the Soviet Union at the time the 
Justice Department announcement was made. 

Mr. Flink first met Mishukov in 1959 at a cocktail party in New 
York City. Mishukov was at that time a translator at the U.N. 
and a third secretary in the Soviet Foreign Ministry. He was later 
promoted to second secretary. About 2 months later, this Russian 
national telephoned Flink and invited him to lunch, Flink made 
a tentative luncheon appointment with Mishukov, but then sought 
advice from the U.S. Attorney's Office in New York where he had 
worked as a legal assistant. He was advised to contact the FBI. 

The FBI asked Flink to meet Mishukov, find out what he wanted, 
and report back to the Bureau, This inaugurated a series of meetings 
between the American attorney and the Russian translator. They 
averaged about two encounters a month for a period of 3 years, during 
which time Flink kept the FBI fully informed of all developments. 

"Most of these meetings," Flink told the committee, "were devoted 
to social, philosophical, ideological discussions." 

Inasmuch as Flink was obtaining information for the FBI, he did 
not want to antagonize Mishukov. Therefore, he normally let the 
Russian bring up whatever topics he wished and then discussed them 
in the way he thought would please the Soviet translator. In this 
way, Flink testified, he and Mishukov "built up a so-called friendly 
relationship, predicated primarily on our mutual desire for peace." 

Topics initiated by Mishukov included disarmament, the banning 
of nuclear testing, increased trade between the United States and 
Soviet-bloc nations, economics, and Flink's future. The Russian 
often urged his American "friend" to get into government service. 

Mishukov was highly pleased in the spring of 1962 when he learned 
that Flink was going to be a candidate to represent the 12th District 
in the New York State Assembly. He offered to finance Flink's cam- 
paign, provided the latter would accept direction on what policies to 
advocate. 

Flink objected and told Mishukov that he (Flink) would have to 
use his discretion in this area, inasmuch as the poHcy positions the 
Soviet representatives would want him to advocate would be "out of 
place" on many occasions because of the subject matter and places at 
which he would be delivering speeches. 

In response to a question about the policies that Mishukov wanted 
him to advocate in public office, Flink replied that he was to talk about 
trade with the Soviet Union and Communist-bloc countries, disarma- 
ment, and nuclear weapons testing, and that he was to "relate what- 
ever I was discussing to the general subject of peace." 

The compromised arrangement agreed to by Flink was satisfactory 
to Mishukov, who gave him $1,000 of a promised $3,000 payment. 
On the occasion when Mishukov was supposed to give Flink the second 
payment, he informed the American that he was returning to Russia, 
but that Yuri Zaitsev, to whom he shortly introduced Flink, would 
continue the campaign arrangement then in effect. 

Mishukov returned to the Soviet Union early in July 1962, and 
Flink continued the relationship with Zaitsev as it had been arranged 
by Mishukov. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2049 

Just a month after Mishukov was recalled to Russia, however, 
Zaitsev was also recalled. This ended Flink's contacts — and brought 
about the Department of Justice disclosure of their activities. 

Mrs. Blanche Hofrichter Posner of Scarsdale, N.Y., a graduate of 
Hunter College, who had taken postgraduate work at New York Uni- 
versity, City College, and Columbia University, was the next witness. 
She answered the initial routine questions asked by the committee's 
counsel for the purpose of establishing her identity. 

Mrs. Posner admitted that she had been a teacher in the New York 
City pubhc school system until 1952, but invoked the fifth amendment 
when asked if, as committee information indicated, she had been a 
member of the Communist Party teachers' fraction at the DeWitt 
Clinton High School where she had taught for many years. 

Although Mrs. Posner declined to testify about her role in the New 
York group of the Women Strike for Peace, the committee's counsel 
placed several exhibits into the record of the hearings which indicated 
she held an official position in the group. An article in the New lork 
Times of April 19, 1962, reporting an interview with her, described 
Mrs. Posner as the office coordinator for this group and stated : 

She spends as many as ten hom's a day working for W.S.P. 
Her files contain the names of 6,000 local adherents, each of 
whom, she said, has a list of friends she can call upon. 

Literature published by the Women Strike for Peace identified 
the address of the New York group as 750 Third Avenue, New York 
City. 

An undated document acquired by the committee, entitled "Struc- 
ture for Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan N.Y., New Jersey, 
Conn.," named Mrs. Posner as the chairman pro tem of the Ofiice 
Committee for the New York area. The witness invoked the fifth 
amendment when asked questions about this document. 

Mrs. Posner also declined, on the basis of the fifth amendment, to 
confirm or deny committee information that she had distributed a 
document entitled "Bibliography" at a Women Strike for Peace meet- 
ing. This bibliography was a list of recommended reading material 
on the subjects of war, peace, disarmament, nuclear testing, etc. The 
witness also declined to say whether she had prepared the bibliog- 
raphy. 

One source of recommended reading in the bibliography was the 
Greenwich Village Peace Center, headed by John W. Darr, Jr., an 
identified member of the Communist Party and also a witness in the 
present hearings. Mrs. Posner invoked the fifth amendment when 
asked if, when distributing the bibliography, she laiew that Darr had 
been so identified and had informed members of the WSP of this. 

She also claimed the privilege of the fifth amendment when asked 
if she had told WSP members that Henry Abrams, leader of another 
organization whose "peace" pubhcation was included as recommended 
reading in the bibliography, had been publicly denounced as a veteran 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Posner invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she was 
currently a member of the Communist Party; if she had worked in 
Women Strike for Peace upon the request of, or on orders from, the 
Communist Party; if any names on a list of 6,000 WSP adherents 
reportedly kept in her office had been received from persons known 



2050 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

by her to be members of the party or from any organization known 
to be Communist-controlled or designated as subversive by the 
Attorney General of the United States or any official agency of Gov- 
ernment; if she had transmitted information from the WSP files to 
person or persons known to be members of the Communist Party; 
and if she had knowledge of, or belonged to, a Communist caucus 
within the New York organization of the WSP which met separately 
to coordinate Communist policies with respect to the WSP. 

The next witness who appeared at the committee's public hearings 
on December 11 was Mrs. Ruth Meyers of Roslyn, N.Y., a graduate of 
Hunter College, with a master's degree in the science of education 
from Hofstra College. She denied that she was a member of the 
Women Strike for Peace on the ground that the WSP has "no member- 
ship." She refused to acknowledge whether she knew Mrs. Posner. 

Mrs. Meyers admitted, however, that she was associated with a 
group in her neighborhood laiown as Women for Peace, which had 
acted on certain occasions under the banner of Women Strike for Peace. 

The witness refused to say whether she knew Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, 
ostensibly the head of the national Women Strike for Peace group, but 
did admit that she first met with women working for peace after Mrs. 
Wilson's annomicement of the formation, and call for support, of the 
national WSP. 

Mrs. Meyers said that, whenever possible, her Women for Peace 
group tried to send representatives to county meetings of the Women 
Strike for Peace. (According to WSP literature, local groups were 
to send representatives to WSP county meetmgs from which delegates 
would be sent to meetings of the Central Coordinating Committee for 
the Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut area.) 

Mrs. Meyers expressed pride in the work she had done to help organ- 
ize a New York group of Women Strike for Peace members who took 
part in a picket-line demonstration at the White House on January 15, 
1962. She also acknowledged that she had played a leading role in 
arranging a sendoff demonstration at Idlewild Airport on April 1, 
1962, for the Women Strike for Peace delegation to the 17-nation 
disarmament conference at Geneva, Switzerland. 

The witness denied that she was the Ruth Meyers who, as a resident 
of Brooklyn on July 27, 1948, had signed a Communist Party nominat- 
ing petition for an identified Communist who was seeking a seat on 
the New York City Council. 

Mrs. Meyers invoked the fifth amendment, however, when asked if 
she was then, or ever had been, a member of the Communist Party 
and declined to state if she had engaged in activities with the Women 
Strike for Peace or the Women for Peace in order to carry out Com- 
munist Party directives. 

The final witness at the committee's public hearings on December 
11 was Mrs. Lyla Hoffman of Great Neck, N.Y., a high school 
graduate, who described herself as a "housewife and peace worker." 

Mrs. Hoffman testified that she helped form the Great Neck Women 
Strike for Peace group, that she had represented that group at Nassau 
County meetings of WSP and, in turn, had represented Nassau County 
at meetings of the Central Coordinating Committee of the New York 
City group. She also said that she had attended several of the meet- 
ings which established the structural plan for the Metropolitan New 
York, New Jersey, and Connecticut area group of the Women Strike 
for Peace. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2051 

The witness testified that the Great Neck WSP maintained a mail- 
ing list of persons who attended the group's meetings and demonstra- 
tions. She said that she did not personally maintain that list; that 
it passed from one woman to another, according to who was available 
to send out the next scheduled mailing. She estimated that there 
were 375 names on the mailing roster. 

Mrs. Hoffman refused to state whether she was acquainted with 
Mrs. Dagmar Wilson of Washington, D.C. 

When asked if she had been a member of the Communist Party 
in 1944, Mrs. Hoffman replied only that she was not presently one and 
had not been a member for more than 5 years. 

She declined to invoke the fifth amendment, but nevertheless re- 
fused to tell the committee (1) if she had ever formally resigned from 
the Communist Party, (2) if she had ever publicly announced with- 
drawal from the party, (3) if her alleged withdrawal had been purely 
a technical one, and (4) if she had had an understanding with any 
Communist Party functionary at the time of her alleged withdrawal 
that she would continue to support the party, its policies, and 
objectives. 

At the conclusion of the public hearings on December 11, the com- 
mittee heard two witnesses in executive session. The first witness 
was Mrs. Elsie Neidenberg, a high school graduate, housewife, and 
volunteer hospital worker of Long Island, N.Y. 

Mrs. Neidenberg invoked the fifth amendment, rather than admit 
or deny membership in Women Strike for Peace. 

According to committee information, this witness attended a meet- 
ing of the New York group of the WSP on January 22, 1962, and, 
with two other women, volunteered to serve as co-treasurer when the 
preceding treasurer resigned. When asked to confirm this informa- 
tion, Mrs. Neidenberg invoked the fifth amendment — as she did when 
queried on whether, during her tenure as co-treasurer, the New York 
group had filed any financial reports with the Washington headquar- 
ters of the WSP. She invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to an- 
swer questions by the committee regarding the financing of the travel 
of nearly 1,500 women by train from New York to Washington to 
participate in the White House picket line on January 15, 1962. 

Mrs. Neidenberg invoked the fifth amendment to avoid confirming 
or denying committee information that she had signed a Communist 
Party independent nominating petition on August 27, 1946, for a New 
York State election of that year. 

She also invoked the fifth amendment when asked (1) if she was 
currently a member of the Communist Party, (2) if, as co-treasurer 
of the New York WSP group, she had solicited or received funds for 
WSP from persons known by her to be members of the Communist 
Party, (3) if she had communicated information relating to the finan- 
cial status of the WSP to any person known to her to be a member of 
the party, and (4) if she had engaged in the Women Strike for Peace 
activity for the benefit of the Communist Party. 

The second witness heard in executive session on December 11 was 
Mrs, Sylvia Contente, a high school graduate and resident of the 
Bronx, N.Y., who testified she was president of a public school parent 
association, 'active in community affairs, and employed as a bookkeeper. 
Mrs, Contente invoked the fifth amendment when queried about com- 
mittee information that she had attended a 1945 State convention of 



2052 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

the American Youth for Democracy, the 1943 successor organization 
of the Young Communist League. Her response was the same when 
presented with committee information that in 1946 she had signed 
a Communist Party independent nominating petition for Robert 
Thompson, a leading CP functionary who sought the governorship 
of New York State, and for other party candidates for elective 
public office. 

Mrs. Contente invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she be- 
longed to the New York group of WSP, if she had been a member 
of the WSP delegation organized by the New York group and sent 
to the Geneva disarmament conference, if she had personally assumed 
the expense of her trip to Switzerland, and if the New York group 
had organized the delegation to Geneva in behalf of the national 
Women Strike for Peace. 

She also invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to say whether 
she was presently a member of the Communist Party or if she had been 
counseled by any member of the party to work in Women Strike for 
Peace and other peace organizations. 

Miss Rose Clinton, "a free lance stenographer" of New York City, 
was the first witness at the committee's public hearings on December 
12, 1962. She testified that she had received a bachelor of laws degree 
from George Washington University and that she had formerly lived 
in Washington, D.C. 

The committee's prehminary investigation had disclosed that Miss 
Clinton was the secretary and membership chairman of an organiza- 
tion known as the West Side Peace Committee, located in New York 
City. Miss Clinton invoked the fifth amendment when asked how 
the West Side Peace Committee had come into being and the circum- 
stances under which she had become one of its executives. 

It was pointed out by the committee counsel that a U.S. Senate 
investigation of the Greater New York Committee for a Sane Nuclear 
PoHcy had brought out the fact that Henry Abrams, a prominent 
leader of that group, was a Communist Party member of long standing. 
Abrams was subsequently suspended and then expelled from the na- 
tional SANE organization in January 1961. The committee's 
counsel presented Miss Clinton with the further information that 
Abrams had then formed and assumed the chairmanship of a new 
organization called the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups, 
which established an executive committee to coordinate the activities 
of local supporting organizations. 

According to the committee's information. Miss Clinton was one 
of the initial members of the Conference of Greater New York Peace 
Groups. She declined to affirm or deny this under the fifth amend- 
ment privilege against possible self-incrimination. She invoked 
the fifth amendment when asked if, as the committee's investigation 
had indicated, the West Side Peace Committee was one of the local 
groups operating in support of the Conference of Greater New York 
Peace Groups formed by Abrams. 

Miss Clinton also declined, under the fifth amendment, to answer 
questions about the committee's investigative findings that the West 
Side Peace Committee had a paid-up membership of about 95 persons, 
a mailing list of approximately 800 names, and had a representative 
on the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups. She dechned 
to say whether she either knew Henry Abrams or knew him to be a 
member of the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2053 

She invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she had been 
appointed secretary and membership chairman of the West Side Peace 
Committee by a person known to her to be a Communist Party member. 

The committee counsel cited testimony before this committee on 
July 11, 1951, by Mrs. Mary Stalcup Markward, an undercover op- 
erative for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Communist 
Party of the District of Columbia from 1943 to 1949. Mrs. Markward 
had stated under oath that she met Rose Chnton at a secret Communist 
Party meeting in Baltimore during the spring of 1949. Miss Clinton 
decUned, under the fifth amendment, to state whether Mrs. Mark- 
ward's testimony concerning her was correct. 

The witness also decHned to affirm or deny testimony of Dorothy K. 
Funn given before this committee on May 4, 1953. Mrs. Fann had 
testified that she had known Miss Chnton as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party in Washington, D.C., during the mid-1940's. 

Miss Clinton continued to invoke the fifth amendment when asked 
(1) if she was presently a member of the Communist Party, (2) if 
she had participated in activities of the New York group of the 
Women Strike for Peace, (3) whether she was a member of the 
Women Strike for Peace, (4) whether she had discussed with Mrs. 
Blanche Posner or Mrs. Lyla Hoffman activities of the West Side 
Peace Committee, (5) if she had participated in making arrange- 
ments for a representative of the New York group of the WSP to 
speak at a fallout shelter panel discussion under the auspices of the 
West Side Peace Committee, as advertised in the National Guardian 
newspaper of January 15, 1962, and (6) if she had been under the disci- 
pline of the Communist Party while active v/ith the West Side Peace 
Committee. 

The second witness to appear at the public hearings on December 12 
was Mrs. Iris Freed, a graduate of the Girls' Commercial High School, 
Brooklyn, and a housewife of Larchmont, N.Y. 

Mrs. Freed denied that she was a delegate from Westchester County, 
N.Y., to the Central Coordinating Committee of the New York group 
of the Women Strike for Peace. She insisted that the WSP was not 
"organized," although she did admit a familiarity with the New 
York group's structural plan which provided a central coordinating 
committee for its jurisdiction. 

The witness testified that the Women for Peace and Women Strike 
for Peace were one and the same organization and that she was the 
person who had been referred to as a Westchester community chairman 
of the organization called Women for Peace in the Daily Argus of 
Mount Vernon, N.Y., on January 12, 1962. Mrs. Freed denied, how- 
ever, that the Westchester Women for Peace had a chairman. 

Mrs. Freed admitted that on May 12, 1961, she had participated in 
a Carnegie Hall meeting, featuring an address by Linus Pauling, 
which was sponsored by the Conference of Greater New York Peace 
Groups. She invoked the fifth amendment, however, when asked if 
she knew Henry Abrams, the group's chairman. 

Early in her testimony, Mrs. Freed had acknowledged that her 
maiden name was Iris Schwartz and that she had lived at 659 Penn- 
sylvania Avenue in Brooklyn, N.Y., in the 1940's. Nevertheless, she 
invoked constitutional privilege in declining to say whether she was 
the person of that name who had, while living at the same address, 
on September 15, 1941, signed a Conmaunist Party nominating peti- 
tion in behalf of well-known Communist Party functionaries. 



2054 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Freed declined, under the fifth amendment, to affirm or deny 
committee information that she had been a member of the Communist 
Party Carpet Shop Branch of Yonkers, N.Y., and that meetings of 
that branch had been held in her home in 1954. She claimed con- 
stitutional privilege in declining to affirm or deny committee informa- 
tion that she had attended a Westchester County convention of the 
Communist Party in January 1957. She also invoked the fifth amend- 
ment when asked if she was currently a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Another witness who appeared at the committee's public hearings 
on December 12 was Mrs. Anna Mackenzie of Westport, Conn., a 
graduate of Vassar College. 

Mrs. Mackenzie testified that she was proud to have worked in the 
Women Strike for Peace movement but insisted that the WSP was 
not "an organization" and that she was therefore not a "member" of it. 

The committee's investigation had disclosed that this witness had 
been in charge of publicity for the sendoff demonstration for the 
Women Strike for Peace delegation to the April 1962, 17-nation dis- 
armament convention at Geneva. Mrs. Mackenzie claimed all con- 
stitutional privileges, excluding the self-incrimination clause of the 
fifth amendment, in refusing to say whether she had written or dis- 
seminated three items of WSP publicity which were entered into the 
record of the hearings. 

The witness repeatedly said that she was excluding the self-incrimi- 
nation clause of the fifth amendment, while claiming other constitu- 
tional protections as her basis for not answering questions about her 
role in WSP publicity. 

Mrs. Mackenzie was confronted with information regarding her 
Communist Party membership during the 1940's, but continued to 
exclude the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment and 
refused to state whether she had ever been, or was currently, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. 

Miss Elizabeth Moos of New York City, holder of an A.B. degree 
from Smith College and an M.A. degree from Columbia University, 
also appeared before the committee during its public hearings on 
December 12. She testified that she had attended meetings of the 
Metropolitan branch of the Women's International League for Peace 
and Freedom, but denied that she had been a leader of the group. 

She acknowledged that she had been director of the Peace Informa- 
tion Center for a brief period when it existed 12 years earlier. This 
organization was officially cited by this committee in 1951 as having 
been under the directorship of "Elizabeth Moos, an identified Commu- 
nist," and by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in 1956 as a 
Communist front. It had assumed as its principal task the circulation 
of the World Peace Appeal, also known as the Stockholm Peace Ap- 
peal, which was issued in March 1950 by the Communist-controUed 
Permanent Committee of the World Peace Congress at a meeting in 
Stockholm, Sweden, just 3 months before the Communist attack on 
South Korea. 

Miss Moos admitted having attended the World Peace Congress 
held in Paris in April 1949 and cited as Communist by this committee 
in 1949 and by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in 1956. 

The committee counsel cited the fact that, as a result of the World 
Peace Congress of April 1949, a gathering known as the American 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2055 

Continental Congress for Peace was organized in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. The counsel introduced as an exhibit a Call to the American 
Continental Congress for Peace to be held in Mexico City, September 
5-10, 1949. The name of Elizabeth Moos appeared with others on the 
Call under the heading of "Women's Sponsoring Committee from the 
United States." The witness invoked the fifth amendment when asked 
if she was, in fact, the Elizabeth Moos whose name was so listed on 
that exhibit. 

It was pointed out by the committee counsel that in April 1951 the 
Committee on Un-American Activities published a Report on the Com- 
munist "Peace" Offensive, in which the American Continental Con- 
gress for Peace was officially cited as "another phase in the Communist 
'peace' campaign, aimed at consolidating anti- American forces 
throughout the Western Hemisphere." 

Miss Moos again invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to state 
whether, in 1953, she had written an article for the Friendship Book 
published by the American Russian Institute of San Francisco, an 
organization cited as subversive by the Attorney General in 1948. 

Slie made a fifth amendment declination rather than say if there 
was any inaccuracy in the testimony of William W. Remington when, 
before a Senate subcommittee on January 30, 1948, he identified 
Elizabeth Moos as his mother-in-law and as a Communist. 

Miss Moos also invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she 
wished to correct information given this committee at a hearing on 
July 6, 1953, by former FBI undercover operative Herbert A. Phil- 
brick, who said he had at one time been assigned by the Communist 
Party to work with Miss Moos on a Communist Party project in 
Boston. 

The witness testified that she had participated in demonstrations 
conducted by the New York group of the Women Strike for Peace, but 
she declined, under the fifth amendment, to say if such participation 
had been the result of Communist Party directives. She also invoked 
the fifth amendment when asked if she was currently a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Ceil Gross, of New York City, appeared before an executive 
session of the committee on December 12, 1962. She stated that 
she was employed as a production assistant in the printing industry. 

The committee counsel introduced as an exhibit an advertisement 
from the New York Times of August 29, 1961, which featured the 
following message: "West Gennan Rearmament^ — ivith nuclear weap- 
ons — Is the Main Issue in Berlin." This ad proclaimed that it was a 
statement of the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups and 
identified Ceil Gross as the secretary of that organization. 

Mrs. Gross invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she was the 
same person whose name had been listed in the advertisement as the 
secretary of the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups. She 
similarly declined to answer numerous other questions about this ad, 
as well as questions pertaining to another advertisement in the New 
York Times of May 10, 1961, which announced that Linus Pauling 
would be the featured speaker at a Carnegie Hall meeting on May 12, 
1961. This meeting, called "Rally for Peace — To Stop the Spread 
of Nuclear Weapons," was also sponsored by the Conference of Greater 
New York Peace Groups, which had placed the ad for it in the New 
York Times. 



2056 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Gross invoked the fifth amendment rather than affirm or deny 
the committee's information that she was cochairman of the West 
Side Peace Committee and that her home address had also been desig- 
nated as the official mailing address of the West Side Peace Committee. 

She also invoked the fiftli amendment when asked if she knew Rose 
Chnton, if she knew Miss Clinton to be a member of the Communist 
Party, if she knew Henry Abrams or knew him as a member of the 
Communist Party, if she herself was then a member of the Communist 
Party, and whether she had participated in activities of the Women 
Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Jean Brancato, a graduate of the Omaha Technical High 
School, who had attended the New Haven State Teachers College for 
one year and is a housewife of the Bronx, N.Y., appeared before the 
executive session of the committee on December 12, 1962. 

The witness denied that she had held office as a Bronx representative 
on the Central Coordinating Committee of the New York group of 
the WSP, though committee investigation indicated she had. She 
also refused, under the fifth amendment privilege, to answer a series 
of questions about the organization and function of the Central 
Coordinating Committee. Mrs. Brancato also invoked the fifth 
amendment when queried as to whether she had been active with the 
New York group of WSP. 

She likewise declined to affirm or deny that she had circulated and 
signed a nominating petition in 1949 for Benjamin J. Davis, Commu- 
nist Party candidate for councilman in the city of New York. When 
presented a photostatic copy of the petition bearing the signature of 
"Jeanne" Brancato, she again relied upon the fifth amendment in 
refusing to affirm or deny that it was her signature. 

She also invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she had been 
a member of the Communist Party in 1954 and if she was currently a 
Communist Party member. 

Another witness who appeared at the committee's December 12 ex- 
ecutive hearings was Mrs. Miriam Chesman, a graduate of Hunter 
College and housewife of the Bronx, N.Y. 

The committee's investigation had indicated that Mrs. Chesman was 
a Bronx delegate to the Central Coordinating Committee of Women 
Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Con- 
necticut. She acknowledged that she had attended some meetings of 
the Central Coordinating Committee, but denied that she was an 
official delegate to them because, she said, "there are no such things." 
She denied that she had helped in the preparation of the structural plan 
for the New York group of the WSP. 

The witness invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she knew 
Mrs. Jean Brancato. 

The committee's counsel introduced photostatic copies of nomi- 
nating petitions for known Communist candidates for public office in 
New York during the election years of 1946, 1951, and 1954. Each of 
these petitions contained the signature of a Aliriam Chesman and an 
address which corresponded to Mrs. Chesman's admitted ciu-rent and 
former residences. 

The witness invoked the fifth amendment and refused to affirm or 
deny that she was the Miriam Chesman who had signed the petitions. 
She also invoked the fifth amendment and refused to say whether she 
was a member of the Communist Party at the time or times any or 
all of the petitions were executed. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2057 

Mrs. Chesman again exercised her fifth amendment privilege when 
asked if she had at any time served as subscription clerk or staff mem- 
ber of the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations. The 
committee counsel pointed out for the record that the American Coun- 
cil of the TPE. had been thorouglily investigated by the Senate Com- 
mittee on the Judiciary, whose report of July 2, 1952, declared that the 
U.S. Communist Party and Soviet officials considered that organiza- 
tion to be "an instrument of Communist policy, propaganda, and mili- 
tary intelligence." The record of that Senate hearing revealed that a 
Miriam Chesman was a staff member of the American Council for the 
Institute of Pacific Relations dm'ing 1944, 1945, and 1946. 

The witness invoked the fifth amendment when asked if she had been 
a Communist Party member while serving as a subscription clerk for 
the American Council of the IPR. 

The witness also invoked the fifth amendment in response to ques- 
tions relating to current membership in the Communist Party and 
when asked if she had engaged in Women Strike for Peace activities 
in response to Communist Party directives, or if she had ever re- 
ceived financial support from the Communist Party for the purpose 
of promoting the Women Strike for Peace. 

The first witness at the committee's public hearings on December 
13 was Dr. William Obrinsky of Staten Island, N.Y. After identify- 
ing himself by name, current address, and as a practicing physician, 
Dr. Obrinsky then invoked the fifth amendment to all questions, in- 
cluding those pertaining to his place of birth, former residence, and 
his education. 

The witness, under the fifth amendment, declined to say if he had 
organized the Staten Island Community Peace Group early in 1961. 
He chose, in similar manner, not to reveal if he had made available to 
the press information about that group which appeared in the Staten 
Island Advance of March 6 and 15, 1961. These news accounts 
reported plans by tlie Staten Island Community Peace Group for a 
public showing of an anti-war film titled "Grand Illusion" and the cir- 
culation of a petition against nuclear weapons for NATO intended for 
presentation at the Oslo, Norway, meeting ofjthe NATO powers on 
April 15, 1961. 

Dr. Obrinsky declined, under the privilege of the fifth amendment, 
to provide any information about the office location, the organiza- 
tional structure, or the membership of the Staten Island CommunitjT^ 
Peace Group. 

He also invoked the fifth amendment, rather than confirm or deny 
that he had formerly been chairman of the Staten Island chapter 
of the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy and that, fol- 
lowing the expulsion of Henry Abrams and other Communists by the 
national SANE group, he had terminated his membership in SANE 
and formed the Staten Island Community Peace Group. 

The committee counsel cited hearings conducted by this committee 
on February 17, 1957, during which Dr. William Sorum testified that 
he had been a member of the Communist Party from 1945 to 1952 
and, in addition, a member of the State Committee of the Communist 
Party of Louisiana during the years 1946 and 1947. Dr. Sorum had 
also testified under oath that during the course of his party member- 
ship he had been assigned to the Professional Branch of the Commu- 

93367—63 2 



2058 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

nist Party in New Orleans and that William Obrinsky was also a 
member of that branch. 

Dr. Obrinsky invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he had 
known Dr. Sorum, if he (the witness) had resided in New Orleans, 
if he had belonp;ed to the Professional Branch of the Communist 
Party in New Orleans, and if he was currently a member of the 
Communist Party. 

The witness was handed a news item from the Staten Island Advance 
of December 20, 1961, reporting a public debate on civil defense in 
which he had participated and had strongly opposed the creation of a 
bomb or fallout shelter program. The witness declined to inform the 
committee how he had secured a place on the panel of debaters, 
whether he had done so upon instructions from anyone kno\\m to him 
to be in a position of leadership in the Communist Party, or whether 
he had done so in response to Communist Party directives to infiltrate 
the peace movement. 

Dr. Obrinsky continued to exercise his privilege under the fifth 
amendment by refusing to say if he had been under the discipline of 
the Communist Party while chairman of the Staten Island SANE 
group, while an organizer or member of the Staten Island Community 
Peace Group, or while a public debater against a civil defense bomb 
shelter program. 

John W. Darr, Jr., of New York City, was also a witness at the 
committee's public hearings on December 13, 1962. He was respon- 
sive to the committee counsel's request that he state his name and 
address, but then declared that he would not cooperate further. 
He also declared that he would not invoke the self-incrimination 
clause of the fifth amendment as the reason for not cooperating. 

Mr. Darr not only refused to answer questions pertaining to his 
chairmanship of the board of directors of the Greenwich Village Peace 
Center, located at 1 33 West Third Street, New York City, but also 
refused to examine a letterhead of that organization introduced by the 
committee counsel on which the name "John Darr" was so identified. 

The witness thereafter refused to answer a series of questions put 
to him about his role in, and the activities of, the Green\vich Village 
Peace Center. In addition to refusing to answer the questions asked 
by the committee counsel, Mr. Darr refused to respond to the sub- 
committee chairman's direction that a number of them be answered. 

Other refusals by Mr. Darr were in relation to queries about 
whether he had participated in the formation of the GreeuAvich Vil- 
lage Peace Center in response to Communist directives and whether 
he was currently a member of the Communist Party. 

The committee counsel cited for the record the 1956 Report and 
Order of the Subversive Activities Control Board following its hear- 
ings in proceedings under the Internal Security Act of 1950 in the 
case of Herbert Brownell, Jr., Attorney General of the United States 
V, The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc. This 
SACB report declared that Mr. Darr had been identified as having 
been a member of the Communist Party while serving on the board 
of directors of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 
Inc., an organization which the SACB, as a result of its hearings, 
found to be a Communist front and accordingly ordered to register as 
such with the Attorney General. 

The witness refused to answer — and refused the chairman's direc- 
tion to answer — when asked whether he had ever been a member of 
the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2059 

The final witness at the committee's pubhc hearings on December 
13, 1962, was Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, of Washington, D.C., a graduate 
of a high school in London, England, trained in the Art Department of 
London University, which she attended for 4 years, and now generally 
recognized as the leader of the Women Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Wilson disclaimed the role of being the official leader of the 
group, but testified that it was her initiative which started the move- 
ment. She said that she considered the recognition of herself as the 
leader of the WSP to be more honorary than official. 

The witness testified that "nobody is controlled by anybody" in 
Women Strike for Peace, but said that there was constant communi- 
cation among the participants. 

Mrs. Wilson told the committee that, although some individual 
groups in different locahties preferred to use a different name, the 
generally accepted name for the national movement had been Women 
Strike for Peace. She said further that the group subsequently 
decided to communicate with peace organizations in other nations and, 
as a result, on January 15, 1962, changed its name to Women's Inter- 
national Strike for Peace (WISP). She testified that she could not 
recall specifically at whose suggestion the name had been changed, but 
she said she was "pretty sure" that it had not been the recommenda- 
tion of any member of the New York group of Women Strike for Peace. 

The committee counsel then produced information that, a few days 
prior to January 15, 1962, a number of cablegrams had been sent from 
foreign countries addressed to the "Women's International Strike for 
Peace" at the New York City address. Mrs. Wilson was asked why 
cablegrams were designated for the Women's International Strike for 
Peace and sent to a New York address prior to the time that "Inter- 
national" was supposed to have been inserted in the movement's name 
by its leadership or coordinators in Washington, D.C. 

Mrs. Wilson responded that a woman who resided in New York had 
volunteered to make contact with women in other countries, and that 
that woman's address was therefore the one to which the cabled 
replies were sent. 

The committee counsel informed Mrs, Wilson — who claimed not to 
know — that committee investigation showed that the woman who had 
made the contacts and received the cables from women in foreign 
countries was also a member of the Central Coordinating Committee 
of the New York group of the WSP. Counsel also informed Mrs. 
Wilson that the chairman of one of WISP's work committees, the 
International Committee, was also a member of the Central Coordi- 
nating Committee of the New York group. 

In view of this information, the witness agreed with the committee 
counsel that the international contacts made by WISP rested in the 
hands of the New York group of the movement, rather than with the 
Washington group. 

When asked if it was not a fact that she did not really^exercise 
effective leadership or control over the New York group, Mrs. Wilson 
rephed: "I think I already explained that. I mean we aU act on our 
own." 

She would not say, in response to counsel's question, that the New 
York group had played the dominant role in activities of the Women 
Strike for Peace. 



2060 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Wilson said that she could not recall precisely whether the 
WISP picket demonstration at the White House on January 15, 1962, 
had been her idea or someone else's. She testified that she was not 
sure whether it had been she who called for a WISP demonstration 
at the United Nations on February 20, 1962 (which was held to pro- 
test President Kennedy's decision to resume nuclear testing after the 
Soviet Union had violated the nuclear weapons test ban). 

The witness conceded that the idea of sending 51 WISP delegates to 
the Geneva disarmament conference in April 1962 had originated 
from within the New York group. 

The witness said that she had no part in drawing up the proposed 
structural plan for the New York group of WSP which had been 
entered as an exhibit when Mrs. Posner was a witness before the com- 
mittee on December 11. Mrs. Wilson admitted having discussed with 
persons in the New York group the structural plan actually adopted 
by the Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, 
and Connecticut, which was also introduced as an exhibit during the 
testimony of Mrs. Posner. The testimony of Mrs. Wilson on this sub- 
ject, however, did little to indicate that she had exerted any degree of 
influence over the structure of the New York group of WSP. 

Mrs. Wilson told the committee that she had participated in the 
February 20, 1962, anti-U.S. nuclear test demonstration at the United 
Nations as a result of an invitation to do so from the New York group 
of the W^SP. She said that neither prior nor subsequent to that date 
had she ever exercised any control over the activities of the New York 
group. 

The committee comisel introduced a copy of the March 28, 1962, 
Moscow-published New Times, which stated that the Women's Inter- 
national Democratic Federation was sponsoring a Women's World 
Assembly for Disarmament (March 23-25, 1902) in Vienna, Austria. 
The article further stated that the Women's International Democratic 
Federation (which has been cited by this committee as an interna- 
tional Communist front) had established contact with the Women 
Strike for Peace in the United States about participating in the As- 
sembly. 

Mrs. Wilson denied that she had been in personal contact with the 
WIDF on the matter of the Disarmament Assembly. She said that 
she thought WIDF had initiated the contact between itself and the 
Women Strike for Peace. The witness testified that the WSP person 
who was the actual contact with the Moscow-based women's group 
might have been WSP's international coordinator, who lived in New 
York and was a member of the New York group of Women Strike 
for Peace. 

The witness told the committee that the first national demonstra- 
tions by Women Strike for Peace had been staged in 60 cities through- 
out the country on November 1 , 1961. She claimed that they occurred 
as a result of her initiative, although she would not affirm or deny 
having been the coordinator of them. 

Mrs. Wilson acknowledged that in June 1962 she had attended a 
national conference of Women Strike for Peace hosted by an Ann 
Arbor, Mich., group of WSP. She said the idea of holding such a 
conference had originated with that group. She initially denied that 
it had been a political conference, although, as committee counsel 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2061 

pointed out, the September 15, 1962, edition of the People's World, 
West Coast Communist newspaper, had reported: 

At their fii'st national conference last June at Ann Arbor, 
Mich., Women for Peace (in some cities called Women's 
Strike for Peace, also Women's Intl. Strike for Peace) dis- 
cussed at some length the question of political action. 

The article from which the above has been excerpted was authored by- 
Peggy Dennis, wife of the late Eugene Dennis, who, prior to his 
death in January 1961, was general secretary of the Communist Party 
of the USA. 

The committee counsel cited another paragraph from the same 
article in People's World, which stated: 

A grass roots, votes-for-peace activity by many hundreds of 
women in Pacific Coast states has added a new dimension to 
congressional and state election campaigns, which go into 
high gear in the remaining seven weeks before Nov. 6. 

Mrs. Wilson, who had denied that the Ann Arbor conference had 
been a pohtical meeting, testified that pohtical activity described as 
having taken place on the West Coast was actually conceived by the 
Washington office of the Women Strike for Peace. She subsequently 
acknowledged, too, that pohtical activity may have come up for 
discussion at Ann Arbor. 

On the question of WSP pohtical activity, it is interesting to note 
that Mr. Flink testified that, during his campaign for a seat in the 
State Assembly of New York, he was contacted by a representative of 
Women Strike for Peace who gave him some of its literature and 
asked him questions about disarmament, the conversion of presently 
operated military plants to peacetime use, and other related issues. 

Committee counsel asked Mrs. Wilson if she had at any time con- 
sulted with Blanche Posner, Ruth Meyers, Lyla Hoffman, Iris Freed, 
or Anna Mackenzie with the view of directing the activities of the New 
York group of the Women Strike for Peace. 

The witness responded that she had never exercised direction or 
control, that she had only made suggestions. 

Committee counsel informed Mrs. Wilson the committee had 
obtained information that Selma Rein had participated in past ac- 
tivities of the Washington group of Women Strike for Peace, that 
Mrs. Rein had had possession of a key to the Washington office 
of the WSP, and that in March 1962 Mrs. Rein was appointed to a 
committee of four members who were to arrange a list of interna- 
tional contacts to be made by Women Strike for Peace. Counsel 
asked Mrs. Wilson specifically if Mrs. Rein had made contact with 
the Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF) in 
Moscow in behalf of Women Strike for Peace. 

Although she had readily responded to questions about individual 
WSP participants up to this point, Mrs. Wilson, when asked about 
Mrs. Rein, indignantly said that she did not think she could be ex- 
pected to give the names of persons who have participated in the 
Women Strike for Peace. She said Mrs. Rein could not have been 
the person who made contact with the WIDF because contact between 
WIDF and WSP had been made prior to March 1962. She said 
that Mrs. Rein could not have been appointed to a four-member 



2062 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

committee because "No one has ever been appointed to anything" in 
Women Strike for Peace. People do volunteer for jobs, she added. 

The witness said that she did not have any knowledge that Mrs. 
Rein had served as a volunteer on a committee to make a hst of 
international contacts for WSP. 

Mrs. Wilson testified that she had no knowledge that Mrs. Selma 
Rein had been identified as a member of the Communist Party. 

Committee counsel informed her that Mrs. Rein had been so iden- 
tified before this committee on December 13, 1955, by a former mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. When subpenaed to appear before the 
committee on February 28, 1956, to explain or deny her alleged 
membership in the Communist Party, Mrs. Rein invoked the fifth 
amendment. 

Near the conclusion of her testimony, Mrs. Wilson was asked if 
she would knowingly permit or encom-age a Communist Party mem- 
ber to occupy a leadership position in Women Strike for Peace. She 
replied: 

Well, my dear sir, I have absolutely no way of controlling, 
do not desire to control, who wishes to join in the demonstra- 
tions and the efforts that the women strikers have made for 
peace. 

She was then asked if she would knowingly permit or welcome 
Nazis or Fascists to occupy leadership positions in Women Strike for 
Peace. She said: 

Whether we could get them or not, I don't think we could. ^ 

The committee counsel's final question to Mrs. Wilson — and her 
reply — were as follows: 

Counsel. Am I correct, then, in assimiing that you plan to 
take no action designed to prevent Communists from assum- 
ing positions of leadership in the movement or to eliminate 
Communists who may have already obtained such positions? 

Mrs. Wilson. Certainly not. 

I Despite the fact that this is the response recorded by the official reporter for the hearings, newspaper- 
men covering the hearings reported^and members of the committee and its staff distinctly recaU — that 
Mrs. Wilson's actual reply to the preceding question was: "If only we could get them on our sidel" 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 
(Women Strike for Peace and Certain Other Groups) 



TUESDAY, DECEMBER 11, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Clyde Doyle (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle, of 
California, and William M. Tuck, of Virginia. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Ray- 
mond T. Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

In view of the crowded condition of the hearing room, I know we 
will all cooperate and accommodate ourselves to that fact in order that 
the committee may proceed promptly in performance of its duties. 
We are asking the utmost cooperation of everyone in the hearing room; 
I am sure we will have it. 

In the absence of having it, of course, the committee will have to 
exercise its prerogative and obligation to see that the committee is 
not interrupted in any manner in its official obhgations. 

Are you ready, Counsel? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle, Are you ready. Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I might announce that today the subcommittee will 
consist of myself, Congressman Doyle of California, and William 
Tuck of Virginia, formerly the distinguished Governor of that wonder- 
ful State. Mr. Bruce, the other member of the subcommittee, is not 
present this morning but will be in the afternoon. 

Two of the three designated members of the subcommittee are 
present so there is a quorum, and we wiU proceed. 

Before we hear the first witness, I have a prepared statement I 
wish to read, which will give to everyone in the hearmg room an out- 
line of what the objectives of these hearings today are: 

Everyone in the world, every nation in the world — if you can believe 
their words — wants peace. The cry is universal. It comes from 
neutrahsts, from Communists, from anti-Communists. Yet there is 

2063 



2064 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

no peace because certain persons, groups, and nations in the world — 
even while they cry peace — foment war and unrest. They plot and 
carry out military attacks on neutralist India, on anti-Communist 
South Vietnam. They plot sabotage in the United States. They 
dynamite electric power stations in Venezuela. In every nation, in 
small and in big ways, they disrupt peace or make it impossible of 
attainment. 

There is good reason, unfortunately, to doubt Communist claims 
that they desire peace, as others understand the term. Late in 1948, 
Stalin launched a spectacular "peace" offensive. It was marked in 
major nations of the world by so-called "peace" conferences and 
congresses, which were supported and attended by the cream of the 
Communist and fellow-traveling intellectual crop in those nations. 
A Moscow-directed World Peace Council, still operating in Vienna, 
was born of these gatherings. In June 1950, however, even as Stalin 
was directing the creation of this so-caUed World Peace Council 
(which was formally established about 5 months later), he launched 
a military attack on South Korea. That attack marked the beginning 
of 3 years' undeclared war between the forces of communism and 
freedom. Over 33,000 Americans were killed in battle in that Com- 
munist "peace" action. More than 123,000 other Americans were 
casualties of it — ^20,000 of them also losing their hves. 

These facts alone indicate that we must give careful consideration 
to just what the word "peace" means to Communists. Studying 
what they say about war will help us determine what they mean by 
peace. 

A pamphlet on basic Communist doctrine prepared by the National 
Education Department of the U.S. Communist Party and sold in 
Communist Party bookstores in the United States at the very time 
Stalin's "peace" offensive was at its peak- — and during the Korean 
conflict — made the follomng doctrinal statement: 

Wars do not occur through accidents of history or tlie mistakes of statesmen. 
They are the inevitable result of capitalism and its contradictions. 

Volume 8 of the Large Soviet Encyclopedia {Bolshaya Sovetskaya 
Entsiklopediya) , published in 1951, defines war as follows (p. 570): 

War is a social phenomenon inherent in a society containing classes and an- 
tagonism. 

Two pages later, in its discussion of war, the Encyclopedia states: 

Wars will cease only with the destruction of capitalism and the victory of the 
socialist system in all the world. 

Again, the Small Soviet Encyclopedia (Malaya Sovetskaya Entsi- 
klopediya), third edition, volume 2, published in 1958, states: 

The basic cause for contemporary wars is the capitalist economic system and the 
irreconcilable internal contradictions in it. 

In other words, according to fundamental Communist doctrine, 
there wiU be wars — there can be no real peace — as long as capitalism 
exists. To end wars, to achieve peace, capitaHsm must be destroyed, 
according to the Communists. 

According to their own words, Communists believe that there can 
be no real peace until they have conquered the world, eliminating aU 
other systems. They say to one another, and to those who will make 
an effort to study their doctrine, that they reaUy do not believe in 
peace in our time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVmES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2065 

Why, then, do they talk of peace? 

Because it serves Communist interests in two ways: 

1. The initiated Communist, understanding his Marxist-Leninist 
doctrine, knows that a Moscow call to intensify the ''fight for peace" 
means that he should intensify his fight to destroy capitalism and its 
major bastion, the United States of America. This is the way to 
peace — according to his Communist doctrine. Thus, Communist 
peace propaganda is a call to action for all Communists, spurring 
them to increased activity and effort aimed at achieving the Commu- 
nist goal of world conquest — by war or any other means, 

2, As events have proved, peace propaganda and agitation have 
a disarming, mollifying, confusing, and weakening effect on those 
nations which are the intended victims of communism. Moreover, 
thi'oughout history, aggressors, dictators, and governments bent on 
conquering others, or the whole world, have known that pacifism 
or an unrealistic and exaggerated desire for peace on the part of their 
intended victims is a tremendous asset to ultimate victory for the 
aggressor. Excessive concern with peace on the part of any nation 
impedes or prevents adequate defense preparation, hinders effective 
diplomacy in the national interest, undermines the will to resist 
and saps national strength. For this reason, in today's world, 
intense peace propaganda and agitation in non-Communist nations 
obviously serve the aggressive plans of world communism. 

In 1917, Lenin wrote: 

We are not pacifists. We are opposed to imperialist wars for the division of 
spoils among the capitalists, but we have always declared it to be absurd for the 
revolutionary proletariat to renounce revolutionary wars that may prove neces- 
sary in the interests of socialism. 

This is still Communist doctrine. It was restated in only slightly 
different words in a declaration unanimously adopted by 81 of the 
world's Communist parties which met in Moscow in November- 
December 1960 to devise the strategy they hope will bring them world 
victory. 

This same unanimously adopted statement had other things to say 
which are vitally important to all Americans and which touch on the 
purpose of these hearings. I quote : 

Today, as never before, it is important to fight perseveringly in all countries to 
make the peace movement thrive and extend to towns and villages, factories and 
offices. 

On January 6, 1961, shortly after this meeting, Khrushchev made a 
major strategy speech directed to Communists in all parts of the 
world. He said, in part: 

Every day bigger sections of the population should be drawn into the struggle for 
peace * * *. The banner of peace enables us to rally the masses around us. 
By holding aloft this banner we will be even more successful. 

Following Khrushchev's cue and also the declaration of the 81 Com- 
munist parties, U.S. Communist Party leader Gus Hall, in a major 
report to the party's National Committee on January 20, 1961, made 
the following statement: 

It is necessary to widen the struggle for peace, to raise its level, to involve far 
greater numbers, to make it an issue in every community, every people's organi- 
zation, every labor union, every church, everj' house, every street, every point of 
gathering of our people. * * * 



2066 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

It is imperative to bring everyone — men, women, youth and yes, even children — 
into the struggle. * * * 

It is essential to give full support to the existing peace bodies, to their movements 
and the struggles they initiate, to building and strengthening their organizations. 
* * * It is also necessary to recognize the need for additional peace organi- 
zations * * *. 

Above all, Communists will intensify their work for peace, and their efforts to 
build up peace organizations. 

These very blunt Communist statements make one thing very clear: 
Present Communist strategy gives No. 1 priority to peace agitation 
and propaganda in the United States and all other non-Communist 
nations. It calls for Communist infiltration of, and support for, exist- 
ing peace organizations, Communist or non-Communist. It calls 
for the creation of new peace organizations, controlled or infiltrated 
and manipulated by Communists. It calls for assemblies, picket lines, 
marches, delegations, walks — every possible kind of demonstration for 
so-called "peace." 

Basically, it is because of the Communist directives I have just 
quoted that these hearings are being held. Preliminary investigation 
by the committee indicates that Communists in the United States, in 
carrying out these directives — as they would be expected to do — 
have both infiltrated existing peace groups and created or infiltrated 
newly formed organizations. 

For reasons already discussed, this Communist activity intensifies 
the security problems faced by this Nation. This is internal psycho- 
political warfare, directed by Moscow and waged withm our own 
borders. The aim of this activity is not peace, but the undermining 
and sabotage of the United States. 

The questions of peace, disarmament, nuclear weapons testing, and 
related matters are the gravest issues confronting the United States 
today. It is vital that the U.S. Congress be informed whether, and 
to what extent, concealed agents of a foreign power are attempting 
to influence the decisions which must be made on these questions — 
and to influence the decisions so they wiU serve not the interests of 
the United States of America, but a foreign power dedicated to the 
destruction of freedom everywhere, including the United States of 
America. 

The subject of this inquiry is to determine the extent of Commu- 
nist infiltration in peace organizations, particularly in the Metropoli- 
tan New York area and with special reference to the Women Strike 
for Peace — and also to determine the degree to which Communists 
have responded to the previously quoted directives that they engage 
in such activity. Such information, as the resolution authorizing 
these hearings indicates, is relevant to certain legislative proposals 
now pending before the committee. 

The committee wishes to emphasize these points before the hearings 
begin : 

The fact that Communists are active in peace agitation does not 
mean that everyone who agitates for peace is a Communist or even 
a fellow traveler. 

The fact that Communists have created and infiltrated peace or- 
ganizations does not mean that all peace groups are Communist or 
that all members of them, or even a majority of them, are Communists, 
Conununist sympathizers, or fellow travelers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2067 

"^ As I stated in the opening of these remarks, the cry for peace is 
universal. Tiiere is no reason to doubt the sincerity of many people 
who are today agitating and calling for peace, even though we may 
have reason to doubt the wisdom of some of the actions and statements 
made by these people. 

The subject and legislative purpose of these hearings today are set 
forth in a resolution adopted by the committee on August 2, 1962. 
That resolution reads as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities, or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C., or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, on such date or dates as the 
Chairman may designate, relating to Communist conspiratorial techniques and 
propaganda used in implementing Soviet and United States Communist Party 
directives within the United States, with special reference to the so-called united 
front tactics of the Communist Party, and the Communist Party tactics of infil- 
tration of non-Communist organizations, the legislative purpose being to deter- 
mine the need for amendment of the Internal Security Act of 1950, so as to make 
its provisions applicable to persons engaged in such activities, and for the addi- 
tional legislative purpose of obtaining information designed to aid the Committee 
and Congress in determining whether the Internal Security Act of 1950 should be 
amended in a manner to make unlawful membership in the Communist Party of 
the United States, as proposed in H.R. 9944, referred to this Committee on the 
30th day of January 1962. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that any subcommittee appointed pursuant 
to this resolution be authorized to hear any other matter within the jurisdiction 
of the Committee. 

The order for appointment of this subcommittee, for the record, 
reads as follows: 

November 9, 1962 
To: Francis J. McNamara, Director 

Committee on Un-American Activities 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Honorable Clyde Doyle as Chairman, and Honorable William M. Tuck and 
Honorable Donald C. Bruce as associate members, to conduct a hearing in 
Washington, D.C., Tuesday, December 11, 1962, at 10:00 a.m., on subjects under 
investigation by the Committee and take such testimony on said day or succeeding 
days, as it may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 9th day of November, 1962. 

(s) Francis E. Walter 
Francis E. Walter 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

May I suggest and state this in addition to my previous words. On 
account of the crowded room and the fullness of the program, there 
is necessity for quiet and order without mterruption. The committee 
noticed applause at one point in the statement which I read. WhUe 
it was very pleasant to hear that applause, of course we must ask that 
there be no applause for, or demonstration against, anything that is 
said in this room today. If there is any such disturbance, 1 will ask 
the marshals to remove that person or those persons from the hearing 
room instantl}^ In other words, I wUl not have time for, nor take 
time to give, any more warnings. This is it. The committee is too 
busy to waste time warning people to behave themselves in a public 
hearmg. So, take notice, please. I know we will have your utmost 
cooperation. Thank you very much. 

Counsel, if you wUl, proceed and call your first witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Richard A. Flink, come forward, please. 



2068 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Doyle. Mr, Richard Flink, will you please rise and be sworn? 
Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Flink. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD A. FUNK 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Flink. Richard A. Flink, 155-24 84th Street, Howard Beach 
14, N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mr. Flink. March 1, 1935, in New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education 
and training? 

Mr. Flink. I graduated from Stuyvesant High School in New York 
City in 1951, from Brandeis University in 1955. I took postgraduate 
work during 1955-56, graduated from New York University Law 
School in 1959, received my master of laws degree from New York 
University Law School in 1962. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation, Mr. Flink? 

Mr. Flink. I am an attorney, a member of the New York bar. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Last September, the Attorney General issued an 
announcement concerning the attempted enlistment by two Soviet 
employees of the United Nations of one Richard A. Flink in a Soviet 
intelligence or espionage apparatus. This was widely rejjorted in the 
press. 

You are the Richard A. Flink to whom the Attorney General 
referred, are you not? 

Mr. Flink. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you were first contacted by a Soviet agent in 
1959, according to reports, did you not, as a loyal and patriotic citizen, 
report the incident to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and there- 
after cooperate fully with your Government in this experience? 

Mr. Flink. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Flink, the committee reahzes from prior contact 
with you that you possess considerable information of interest to it 
and the American people concerning Soviet espionage tactics. That 
account, however, is not directly related to this inquiry, and we will 
not pursue the matter in any detail now. 

But you did learn from Soviet agents Mishukov and Zaitsev other 
things that are pertinent to this hearing, and it is about these matters 
that we would like to receive your testimony. 

Will you tell us when you were first approached by Soviet agent 
Yuri A. Mishukov? 

Mr. Flink. I was first approached during the summer of 1959, sub- 
sequent to a meeting with two other Soviets, which was a casual meet- 
ing resulting in an invitation to visit the Soviet Trade Fair which was 
taking place in New York City at that time, and subsequently met with 
Mishukov at a cocktail party in New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Mishukov continue his contacts vnth you, after 
that first meeting at a cocktail party in New York City? 

Mr. Flink. Yes, sir. About a month and a half or 2 months later, 
I was contacted by phone by Mishukov, who asked me if I would 
care to have lunch with him. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2069 

At that time I didn't exactly want to meet Mishukov, although I 
didn't want to be discourteous, and so I set a tentative appointment 
with him and I went down to see somebody whom I know at the 
U.S. attorney's office where I had worked. 

In a conversation with the U.S. attorney, I then called the Bureau, 
which asked me if I would meet with Mishukov, see what he wanted, 
and report back to them, which I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us about the subsequent contacts with 
Mishukov? 

Mr. Flink. During the succeeding 3 years, I meet with Mishukov 
on various occasions. Our meetings were usually held — although 
there were times when there were breaks — on an average of twice a 
month. Most of these meetings were devoted to social, philosophical, 
ideological discussions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, would you tell us in substance what those dis- 
cussions were? 

Mr. Flink. Primarily, Mishukov and myself built up a so-called 
friendly relationship, predicated primarily on our mutual desire for 
peace. 

At the time when I first met Mishukov, he was married, as he told 
me, and had a young child, and his greatest desire was that we have 
peace in the world. I agreed with him, and our relationship then 
built up from there. 

Primarily, our initial discussions dealt with my attitude towards 
the Soviet people, towards the Soviet Union, towards Premier 
Khrushchev's good-will tour in the United States. 

As it developed, we went from the realm of ideology, as we had 
been discussing communism, Marxism, Leninism, we then proceeded 
on to topics of more current interest, such as disarmament, increased 
trade, and areas related to these fields. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the course of your discussions on the subject 
of disarmament and related fields, what did Mishukov tell you? 

Mr. Flink. Well, basically, my relationship with IMishukov was a 
very frustrating one. I was in a position where I had to listen and 
not antagonize Mishukov or seem as if I was probing for answers, 
and Mishukov seemed to always bring the discussion around to topics 
such as disarmament. When we would discuss disarmament, Mishu- 
kov's primary feeling on this subject was that the United States did 
not genumely want disarmament, that disarmament was only an 
interest of the Soviet Union, and his reasons for stating this were as 
follows: 

Disarmament, in Mishukov's view, could only be achieved where 
a planned economy was present. The Soviet Union had a planned 
economy and, therefore, by government planning of the means of 
production, disarmament could be achieved at any time. 

The United States, in Mishukov's view, did not genuinely want 
disarmament, because disarmament could not be achieved under our 
system, primarily because we did not have government planning, 
and disarmament would, therefore, be left in the hands of private 
industrialists who could or could not, at their own will, choose to 
disarm or choose to continue with peaceful production. 

Mishukov, likewise, was of the opinion that the industrialists were 
pushing the Government to continue munitions contracts, military 
contracts, and that it was in the interest of both the Government and 



2070 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

the industrialists that our war economy or artificial economy, as he 
called it, would continue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you discuss specifically the subject of nuclear 
testing? 

Mr. Flink. Yes, we had several discussions on nuclear testing. 
They started around the time in which the Soviet Union resumed 
nuclear testing and then the United States resumed nuclear testing. 

It was Mishukov's position that the resumption of nuclear testing 
by the United States was an irresponsible act and that it could only 
lead to war. It was Mishukov's view on this subject that the re- 
sumption of nuclear testing was an irresponsible act on the part of 
the President of the United States. 

In one of our conversations, Mishukov specifically stated that at 
one time he disliked President Eisenhower very much but, compared 
to Kennedy, Eisenhower was a god. He thought that Kennedy was 
too young and too irresponsible and that his acts would only, if they 
continued, result in a world war. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I might point out, Mr. Flink, that the United States 
Ambassador to the United Nations, Mr. Stevenson, in a speech to the 
General Assembly on September 20, 1962, said: 

Since the U.S.S.R. broke the moratorium last fall, its explosions have yielded 
two hundred megatons. Those which the United States was then compelled to 
undertake have yielded twenty-five megatons. I repeat, that we in this country 
want to cease testing of nuclear weapons. 

Did you have any discussion with respect to the comparative efforts 
and the fact that the United States resumed testing only after Soviet 
Russia had broken the moratorium? 

Mr. Flink. No, sir. I was unable to ever draw Mishukov into a 
discussion of the comparative policies of the United States and the 
Soviet Union for two reasons: One, Mishukov always dominated the 
conversations; and, secondl}^, I didn't want to, or I couldn't, under 
our relationship, antagonize Mishukov. 

Therefore, I usually discussed the topics which Mishukov brought 
up in the manner in which Mishukov wanted them discussed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The press accounts indicate that Yuri Mishukov was 
employed as a Soviet translator in the United Nations' Office of 
Conference Services. 

Was that the position ostensibly held by him at the time of your 
meetings with him? 

Mr. Flink. Mishukov had two roles. He was a translator with 
the United Nations and held the grade of P-4 . He was also a second 
secretary in the Soviet Foreign Ministry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you acquire the information that he was the 
second secretary of the Soviet Foreign Ministry in addition to his 
employment as a translator in the United Nations? 

Mr. Flink. Primarily through discussions with Mishukov. 

Mishukov originally was, I think, a P-3 and a third secretary. 
When he was promoted to the rank of P-4, he was very happj^ on one 
occasion and, during the conversations, told me that he had just 
received a promotion from a third secretary to a second secretary in the 
Foreign Ministry. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2071 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe Mishukov was recalled and left the United 
States on or about July 5, 1962. Did he make any arrangements 
for you to meet a replacement of his? 

Mr. Flink. Yes. During the end of June, the beginning of July, 
Mishukov and I had already consummated our deal with respect to 
the Foreign Ministry financing my campaign for election to the New 
York State Assembly. Mishukov had given me $1,000 of the proposed 
initial $3,000. 

At our second meeting, at which Mishukov was to give me the 
second payment, he informed me that he was going back to Kussia 
and that during the time that he would be away — and he hoped at 
that time that he would be able to come back — my relationship and 
transactions, as they were, were to be continued by Yuri Zaitsev. 

About an hour after the conversation, he told me that Zaitsev was 
coming to this meeting, and Zaitsev subsequently showed up and we 
were introduced. 

It was at that point that Zaitsev continued Mishukov's relationship. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were a candidate to represent the 12th District 
in the New York Assembly in 1962, is that correct? 

Mr. Flink. That is correct. 

Mr, NiTTLE. How did Mishukov react to your candidacy for office? 

Mr. Flink. Mishukov was pleased that I was going to get the 
nomination. Thi-oughout our entire relationship he had tried to 
influence me in discussions to seek some sort of Government em- 
ployment. 

When I first met Mishukov, or in one of our initial conversations, 
I purposely mentioned the fact that I was at one time a student 
assistant United States attorney in the Southern District of New 
York. It was in subsequent conversations brought out that I was 
thinking of going back to woiii for the Government. Mishukov 
picked it up from there and continued to bring up the subject of 
my interest in Government work. 

So 3 years later, as it turned out, when I received the nomination 
for Assembly, Mishukov was extremely happy about it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he indicate to you what policies he expected 
you to advocate or to follow in public office in exchange for his offer 
to finance your campaign? 

Mr. Flink. Prior to the consummation of the $3,000 deal, we had 
a discussion as to what policies I could advocate and how they would 
be advocated. This discussion centered around the fact that Mishukov 
wanted me to mouth lines which he or somebody else would tell me. 

I had to object very strongly to this suggestion because I told him 
that it might be out of place; that the platforms from which I might be 
able to speak would primarily be civic associations, the floor of the 
legislature if I was elected, or sunilar gatherings; and that I could not, 
at his direction, merely spout whatever line I was told to ; that, there- 
fore, whatever had to be said I would have to say just at my discretion, 
which he agreed to. 

He was recalled shortly thereafter. 

However, during the campaign I was told that if I got the oppor- 
tunity, I should try and discuss such issues as increased trade with 



2072 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

the Soviet-bloc countries, increased trade \vith the Soviet Union, and 
generally relate whatever I was discussing to the general subject of 
peace. This would, therefore, likewise bring in the subjects of dis- 
armament, nuclear testing, and the like. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of your candidacy, were you contacted 
by pressure groups or representatives of pressure groups? 

Mr. Flink. Yes, I was, sir; 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you contacted by any representatives of the 
peace movement? 

Mr. Flink. I was. I was contacted by the Committee for a Sane 
Nuclear Policy and by the Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe the circumstances under which 
you met with a representative or representatives of Women Strike for 
Peace? 

Mr. Flink. During the month of October, the candidate who was 
running for the State senate on the same ticket I was and I, both re- 
ceived an invitation to be interviewed by the local representatives 
of the Women Strike for Peace. 

We arranged an appointment at my running mate's house, which 
was held during one evening. I don't recall the date at this point, 
but at that time, the representative of Women Strilve for Peace and 
two other women came to my running mate's house, and we then 
proceeded to be interviewed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what was said during the course of 
that interview? 

Mr. Flink. The women asked us whether or not we were familiar 
with the Women Strike for Peace, and we told them we had heard 
the name, had seen some of their literature. 

They then proceeded to show us other literature and ask us questions 
which primarily dealt with the subjects of disarmament, the conver- 
sion of presently operated military plants to peacetime use, the pro- 
posal for the introduction of legislation to set up an economic com- 
mittee within the State to study the problems associated with dis- 
armament — unemployment, for instance, retooling — so that in the 
event disarmament was achieved we would then be able to disarm 
or change over our economy with a minimum of confusion and unem- 
ployment. 

It should be noted that at the time I was interviewed by the Women 
Strike for Peace I was a candidate for pubhc office. It is my under- 
standing that this group indiscriminately held interviews of all candi- 
dates in their respective areas. I attach no especial significance to 
the fact that I was interviewed by this group.* 

Other than this interview, I at no time prior or subsequent to the 
said interview have had any association or connection of any kind 
whatsoever with the Women Strike for Peace. I have absolutely no 
knowledge or any opinion with regard to this group, either favorable 
or unfavorable, nor do I know of any of the activities or affiliations of 
this group or its members. 

• The committee received and approved a request from Mr. Flink to supplement his testimony with 
this paragraph and the following one. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2073 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Governor, do you have any questions of this witness? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. 

I want to thank you for appearing and helping the committee in 
this study. 

I think, in view of the witness' testimony, it is interesting to the 
committee that the committee is informed that the third secretary of 
the Russian Embassy is identified as being present in this hearing at 
this time. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Blanche Hofrichter Posner please come 
forward? 

Mr. Doyle. I will ask the audience to be seated. 

I regret to say that if that occurs again I will have to consider it as a 
demonstration, which is not invited, is not asked for, and is not proper 
in this hearing. 

Govern yourselves accordingly, please, and cooperate. 

Will you please stand and be sworn? 

Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Posner. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BLANCHE HOFRICHTER POSNER, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and address for the 
record? 

Mrs. Posner. Blanche Hofrichter Posner, 67 Sprain Valley Road, 
Scarsdale, N.Y. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Posner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and ofiice address? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, 30 East 42d Street, 
New York. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Posner, would you state the date and place of 
your birth, please? 

Mrs. Posner. Is the date material? After all, I am a woman, you 
know. I shall say, though, I am over 21. I was born in Vienna, 
Austria, quite a number of years ago. 

Mr. Nittle. That will suffice. 

Mrs. Posner. Thank you. 

Mr. Nittle. Was your maiden name Hofrichter? 

Mrs. Posner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mrs. Posner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. How and when did you become a citizen? 

Mrs. Posner. Through my father, who became a citizen. 



93367 O— 62 



2074 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Posner, would you relate the extent of your 
formal education? 

Mrs. Posner. Well, I got a B.A. degree from Hunter College. 
I took postgraduate work at New York University, City College, 
and Columbia, where I almost got an M.A., but I got bored. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Posner. Housewife. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to that, were you occupied as a teacher? 

Mrs. Posner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you hold an official position in an organization 
known as Women Strike for Peace? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. I must decline to answer that question and I should 
be very grateful if you would let me say why. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are only interested in whether or not you are 
presenting a legal reason and basis for your refusal to testify. There- 
fore, I will ask you simply this, and ask you not to make a statement 
but to respond to the inquiry: Do you assign as your basis for your 
refusal to testify the constitutional privilege of the fifth amendment? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. I should like to decline to answer the question, but 
I must please plead with you to let me say why. I have 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness 
be directed to answer the question addressed to her. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct the witness to answer the question. We 
believe it is a pertinent question and entirely proper. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. I don't know, sir, why I am here, but I do know why 
you are here. I think 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I must ask for regular order. 

Mrs. Posner. — because you don't quite understand the nature of 
this movement. This movement was inspired and motivated by 
mothers' love for their children. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman? 

Mrs. Posner. When they were putting their breakfast on the table, 
they saw not only wheaties and milk, but they also saw strontium 90 
and iodine 131. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a moment. 

Mrs. Posner. They feared for the health and life of their children. 
That is the only motivation. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness! Now, Witness 

Mrs. Posner. If you gentlemen have children or grandchildren, 
you should be grateful to the Women Strike for Peace, or whatever 
peace movement is working to stop nuclear testing. Every nuclear 
test has resulted in malformations, has resulted in stillbirths, has 
resulted in leukemia, has resulted in cancer, has resulted in the possi- 
bility of a nuclear holocaust. 

I have given to you gentlemen this statement which presents some 
of the reasons why women are concerned. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2075 

Mr. Doyle. Now, Witness, just a minute. I will have to declare 
you out of order. If you insist on interrupting the hearing, we will 
have to ask that you be removed from the hearing room. I do not 
want to do that, and you do not want it. So please cooperate. You 
have made your little speech. Now proceed and either cooperate with 
the committee or not, just as you choose. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. I order and direct you to answer that question. We 
beheve it is pertinent, legally. You have made your speech, and we 
have been glad to give you 2 or 3 minutes to make it. But that is it. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. PosNER. Bj^ virtue of the statement, this will be just the one 
sentence, Mr. Doyle, by virtue of the statement that you read at this 
hearing, I must at this point decline to cooperate with the committee 
and thank God that the framers of our Constitution and the Bill of 
Rights included the fifth amendment, which I now invoke. 

Mr. DoYLE. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you invoking the self-incrimination clause of the 
fifth amendment, Mrs. Posner? 

Mrs. PosNER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a document marked for identification as 
Posner Exhibit No. 1. 

This document is entitled ''STRUCTURE FOR WOMEN 
STRIKE FOR PEACE METROPOLITAN N.Y. NEW 
JERSEY CONN." 

I call your attention to the last item on page 3 of this exhibit, which 
indicates that you were, and perhaps still are, chairman pro tem of 
the Office Committee of Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New 
York, New Jersey, Connecticut. 

Are you the chairman pro tem of the Office Committee of Women 
Strike for Peace for Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and 
Connecticut? 

Mrs. PosNER. I must refuse to answer on the same grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Posner Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



2076 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 



posner Exhibit No. 1 

STRUCTURE FOR WOMEN STRIKE FOR PEACE 
METROPOLITAN N.Y. NEW JERSEY CONN. 



The structure of WOMEN STRIKE FOR PEACE shall consist of 
local groups from which chosen representatives then form county 
groups; from which again chosen representatives form the Central 
Coordinating Committee. 

A local group shall consist of any body of women who have 
meetings and act in concert for the general purpose of peace. 
Each such group will be listed in the N.Y. office with the names 
of two active persons. (This list of names, addresses and tele- 
phone numbers will be available only for WSP activities and 
mailings and are not to be open to any other group) . Local 
groups should hold at least one meeting a month and send a re- 
port of that meeting to the Central office. Each group may send 
2 delegates to its county meeting. 

A county group is composed of delegates representing each 
local group in the area. This group should report, evaluate and 
coordinate community activities, implement county actions and ap- 
point representatives to the Central Coordinating Committee. 
County groups should meet at least once a month, preferably im- 
mediately following a C.C.C. meeting. Local groups should then 
hold their meetings immediately following County meetings. 

The Central Coordinating Committee , then, is composed of 
two representatives from each County or State (Manhattan, Brook- 
lyn, Bronx, Queens, Westchester, Long Island, Connecticut sjid 
New Jersey) plus one representative from each Work Committee 
(see below) plus the N.Y. Office Coordinator. All of these re- 
presentatives have one vote each. An alternate should be elected 
by each area and work committee to represent her group in case 
one of the representatives cannot attend a meeting. 

County representatives on the C.C.C. should be delegated 
for a term of two months and may serve as many terms as their 
county elects. Representatives from work committees should be 
delegated by their own committee ajid shall serve not less than 
two months nor more than six months. 

The C.C.C. will meet regularly twice a month, and may con- 
vene themselves for emergency meetings. They will send minutes 
of each meeting to every local group. A count of 15 women shall 
be deemed a quorum. 

The C.C.C. will base its work on the written reports which 
have been sent in by the local groups. It shall have the au- 
thority to act immediately on emergency policy decisions. Ac- 
tions shall be determined by a two-thirds vote of the women 
present at the meeting. It shall approve of all expenditures 
not exceeding $1000. For large expenses above $1000. the C.C.C. 
must go back to the County groups for permission. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2077 

Posner Exhibit IJo. T (contd.) 



It should be emphasized that representatives of local 
groups to County and C.C.C. meetings must responsibly report 
back to their originating group. 

Local groups are not compelled to work on any action 
decided upon by the C.C.C, but any action turned down by 
the C.C.C. may be locally undertaken In the name of the local 
group of the WSP, provided such action does not conflict with 
the stated policy of the WSP. 

The New York office will be a servicing and coordinating 
center in charge of lists, mailings, etc. Only central acti- 
vities should be handled through the office and not those per- 
taining to only one segment of the movement. It should be 
staffed by one paid worker to keep the clerical details flow- 
ing smoothly and one member of the office committee plus the 
office coordinator. The local groups must take the responsi- 
bility to finance the office. 

Work committees shall be open to all who wish to serve 
on them. Members of these committees shall be restricted to 
six voting members who shall be commltteed to serving for 4 
months. One new member Is to be admitted every two months 
and one retired. Retirement means only loss of vote in the 
work committee aJid ineligibility to serve as a work committee 
representative on the C.C.C. Continued work participation, 
however, is welcome. Each committee shall elect its own 
chairman. 

These committees should be consulted In an emergency 
in the area of their competence. No committee member shall 
take action or make statements which might be construed as 
making policy. 

Work committees are designated according to their func- 
tion and new committees may be set up by the C.C.C. when 
deemed necessary. The following committees have already 
been established: Action, Press & Public Relations, Litera- 
ture & Education, Graphic & Visual, National Liaison, Radi- 
ation, Finance, International, Legislative, and Office. 

The General Assembly of the WSP shall be the highest 
body of the structure and will make major policy decisions. 
This group shall consist of one representative from each 
local group and will meet at least 4 times per year. There, 
every local may have a place on the agenda to introduce new 
ideas, present concerns, define future policy, etc. The 
dates for this group's meetings will be determined by the 
C.C.C. 



2078 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 



Posner Exhibit, V.c. 1 (contd.)' 



WORK COMMITTEES 



Action 

Chairman pro tem. 
Natalie Leventhal 
AC 2-5173 



Implements and coordinates particular 
action for the C.C.C. Available to 
local groups. 



Press & Public Relations 
Chairmaji pro tem. 
Lorraine Gordon 
RE 7-6036 



Press releases, radio, television 
coverage, contacting editors, etc. 



Literature & Education 
Chairman pro tem. 
Jeannette Vosk 
WA 4-1478 



Preparation of flyers, mailings, etc. 
Sifting of peace literature from other 
sources. Preparation of newsletter. 
Heading up of discussion groups. 



Graphic & Visual 
Chairman pro tem, 
Lily Landis 



Posters, buttons, stickers, letter- 
heads, etc. 



National liaison 
Chairman pro tem. 
Valerie Delecorte 

OX 7-0527 



Contact work with other peace groups, 
women's groups, etc. Speakers' Bureau. 



Radiation 
Chairman pro tem. 
Lynn Gibor 
GR 3-1242 



Study and counsel on radiation infor- 
mation. Organizing material for 
mailings, ads, etc. Liaison with 
scientist's groups. 



Finance 

Chairman pro tem. 
Ruth Chenven 
GR 7-0368 



Treasurers (3) . Accountants, 
Fund raisers, etc. 



International 
Chairman pro tem. 
Gladys Blum 
MA 1-1908 



Linguists, translators, contact 
people, correspondents. Headed by 
Ruth Gage -Colby, Int. Coordinator 



Legislative 
Chairman pro tem. 
Bella Abzug 
LO 4-7091 



Political action re disarmament and 
testing. 



Office 

Chairman pro tem. 
Blanche Posner 
OX 7-0527 



Typing, mimeographing, filing, taking 
minutes, etc. Headed by Valerie Dele- ^ 
corte, N.Y. Coordinator. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2079 

Mr. Rabjnowitz. Will the committee supply the witness with 
copies of these exhibits, please? Mr. Chairman, will we get them? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I want to ask that a general order be 
made for the reception into the record of all exhibits identified in the 
course of these hearings without a specific request. 

Mr. Doyle. The order is made. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. May the witness be supplied with copies of all 
of those exhibits so that she may have a copy in accordance with 
normal legal procedure? 

Mr. Doyle. The witness has refused to identify the document in 
any way. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Do I understand you are refusing, Mr. Chair- 
man? 

Mr. Doyle. I think you are entitled. Counsel, to a copy of the 
record. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. The record will include those exhibits? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Therefore, I will get copies of the exhibits? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I assume the witness has a copy of that document 
already. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, Mrs. Posner, isn't a copy of that document in 
your possession as office chairman of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. PosNER. 1 must again refuse to answer for the same — on the 
same grounds, of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Literature issued bearing the name of this organization 
indicates that its office is located at 750 Third Avenue, New York City. 

How long has your organization occupied offices at this address? 

Mrs. Posner. I must continue to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you tell the committee how your appointment as 
chairman of the Ofiice Committee was effected? 

Mrs. Posner. Again, even at the risk of boring you, I must say I 
refuse to answer the question on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Posner, Women Strike for Peace, according 
to numerous press reports, was in its origin a movement of individual 
American women which sprang up in September 1961 without formal 
or advanced planning and organization. Allegedly it was sparked by 
an inspiration that came to Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, of Washington, 
D.C. It was reported that women throughout the Nation thereafter 
reacted "spontaneously" to her idea of mobilizing women in action 
for peace. 

Would you tell the committee when the first organizing meeting of 
Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, Con- 
necticut, was held? 

Mrs. Posner. You seem to be so well informed about this move- 
ment, it seems almost supernumerary for me to add to it, so I must 
again stand on the fifth amendment. 



2080 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE, We want to give you an opportunity, Mrs. Posner, to 
offer any evidence that you desire in confirmation of these matters 
which are asserted as facts, or to deny or to offer some explanation. 

Were you present at that meeting? 

Mrs. Posner. Again I must say the fifth amendment — this is going 
to get very tiresome. I have been told about certain inquisitorial 
methods^ 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. Witness. Please stick to the subject 
matter. You have made your speech. 

Mrs. Posner. Yes, I will. I shall stick to the fifth. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy of a document entitled "PRO- 
POSED PLAN OF STRUCTURE AND PROCEDURE FOR 
WOMEN STRIKE FOR PEACE NEW YORK NEW 
JERSEY CONNECTICUT," which is marked for identifica- 
tion as Posner Exhibit No. 2. 

While Exhibit 1, which was shown to you, was the structural plan, 
Exhibit 2, which I now show you, is apparently a proposed plan 
which preceded the adoption of Exhibit 1. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Did you participate in the preparation or presentation 
of Exhibit 2 to your group of Women Strike for Peace at 750 Third 
Avenue, New York City? 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record show the witness has inspected the 
document. 

Mrs. Posner. I must decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Posner Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2081 



Posner Exhibit No. 2 

rporow) fuMi or nrncran im> PwoqpOTi fob woim gmia rm pucu 
vm TORK im jmswi conmbcticot 

It la lap«r«tiv« that a vorklnf struotur* of oparatlon b* s«t up for tha 
•atlr* movmmnX La tha glv«n araa. >• *lah to ln«ur« the place of aaoh ladlvidual 
to oontrlbuta and ba haard. It la by wvr aideninc ooanltoMnt aad en^aceatant on 
tba part of aaoh voaan that VOMW STRIKB fOR PBACK oan realise Ita potential aa a 
aational foroa. To this ami, a group of approzl«ately 40 aoaian rapreaentlng areaa 
Id 11-Y , Conn. , and V.J. aat and foraailatad the folloalog proposal. It la Intended 
that all ooiHamltlaa give It thalr aoat oareful attention bearing In imlnd that 
Its aalo purpoaa la to Inaure laazlnMi representation of all. 

Tha struotura of WCyDI STRIU FOR PSACB shall consist of looal groups fron 
vhleh ohoaan representatlvaa than fona county or borough groups, froai which again 
•boaen repreaantatlvea fora the Central Coordliiating Co«aBlttt>n A looal group shall 
niBialat of aA7 body of vaaon who have aeetings and act in oonoart. Saeh such group 
will ba listed In tha H.T. office alth two key naaas . addreaaea and phone nuatera 
(This Hat will ba available only for V8P actlvitiee and mailings and not to b« 
*9»M to any other groop.) Loaal groups vill hold at Inaet one Meeting a stonth and 
Will ba obliged to aand a detailad report of that sMstlng to the Central Office 
■aob group vlll sand dalagatea to ita oounty or borough neating 

A oounty or borough group Is aoaipoaad of delegates representing each looal 
Sr*up Im tha araa- This group should report, evaluata , and oo-ordlnate oonaainity 
•Aiivltlaa, luila^siit oounty or borough aotlona ai^l appoint rapresentativea to 
fl^ Oaiitr*! CoordllAatlnc C«i«l%taa. Borough or County aentlnga to ba held inoadl- 
■Aaljr fallovtog Oantral Caar41a»tlAg aaatlnga (Local group Basting to be held 
•• goon aa fa«atU,a folle«ln« aauaiy or borough neetlng) 

Tha Cantral Coordinating Coaplttae, then, Is ooaposed of tao repreaentatl vee 
aaah fraa each County or Borough; (Manhattan. Brooklyn, Bron.i , Reatohester . Long 
Xalaad , Coonaotleut, and Ne« Jersey ) plus one reprcaantative from aaoh Work Conmlt- 
taa (saa baloa), plus N.Y Office Coordinator County or Borough representatives 
on tba Cantral Coordinating CooMittee should be dslogated for a term of tvo months 
•ad ahould not ba delegated for aore than three terma consecutively Rapreaenta- 
«tliraa fros Work Co^slttaea should ba delegated to the Central Coamlttee by their 
own Ce^lttaea aad ahould ba raatrletad to not nore than one t«o nonth tenn at a 

tlM. 



■ark CcHBittaaa are daal«natad aoeordlng to their funotion i.e.. 

fmfff ^gj pyUC RgjATIOMS Praaa raleaaas, radio, television cover- 

aga; publlo apeaking; contacts eto . 

LBfUTVBl and BXiCATIdl Praparatlon of literature, (flyers, agendas, 

lattara. aailings). Sifting of Peace literature 
froa other aouroea of distribution. Heading 
up of dlaouaalon groupa. 

dUFHIC and VISUAL Poatara, Vlaual ideas auoh aa buttons, 

atlokars , Isttarheada , eto . 

gKKirAIOAL COmiTl'W Typing, Uiiaaographlng, riling. Recording, 

Taking Minutaa. eto. Haadad by Office - 
Coordinator. 

ny ftftW ?niirmr tr—a^rr^ (9), Aoeountaat*. ruad-Kaiaing 

14— j gaa p la, BoiMBaavara. 



2082 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 



Posner Exhibit No. 2 (contd.) 

(XMMDNI GA TIONS Distribution, Contacting, Charge of mailing 

lists. Telephone campaigns, etc. 

NATIONAL COIMITTEE Communication-network between various State 

W^J". units, Washington, California, Phil*,, 
etc. Headed by N.Y. Coordinator 

IMIEHNAnONAL COMMITTEE Linguists, translators, contact people. Corres- 

pondents Headed by International Coordinator, 

LEGISIATURE COMhCTTTEE Those Qualified to study and advise on law; 

disarmament progress, the composition of gov- 
ernment bodies (disarmament committees) (U.N.) 
(Congress) for the purpose of informed guidance 
on political action wherever testing and dis- 
araiaraent are involved. 

Work committees should be open to all (jialified who wish to serve on them, 
should be restricted to six standing members who shall be committed to serving 
for h months. One new member is to be admitted every two months and one retired. 
Retirement means only loss of voice vote in the work committee, and ineligibility 
to serve as a work-committee representative to the Central Coordinating Committee, 
Continued workparticipation, however is of course welcome. Women wishing to serve 
on work committees should apply or be nominated through their own communities 
via local group reports which will be sent after each monthly meeting to the 
Central Office, and ^plications will be filed according to chronological priority 
till admission. It is important that applications and nominations be accompanied 
with reasonable qualification references. 

The Coordinating Committee made up of area group representatives and work 
committee representatives will meet regularly once a month and send minutes by 
mail to each local group. County or Borough groups will meet one week following. 
Local groups will meet one week following County meetings. Local groups will send 
meeting reports to C.C.C»- for collation and to be used in preparing the agenda 
for the C.C.C. meeting. 

The N.Y. office will be a servicing center, in charge of lists, mailing etc. 
Only central activities should be handled through the office and not those per- 
taining to only one segment of the movement. It should be staffed by one paid 
worker to keep the clerical details flowing smoothly and one member of the secre- 
tarial committee plus the office-coordinator. The local groups must take the 
responsibility to finance the office. Approval of all e^q^enditures except petty 
cash, shall be made by the C.C.C. plus the treasurers. 

The Central Coordinating Committee shall base its work on the written reports 
which have been sent by local groups. It shall have the authority to act immedi- 
ately upon policy making decisions. Actions shall be determined by two thirds 
vote of the representatives on the standing C.C.C, 

Local groups are not compelled to work on any action decided upon by the 
Coordinating Committee, but any action turned down by the Committee 
locally undertaken in the aame of Women Strike for Peace. 

It should be emphasized that representatives of local groups to County and 
Coordinating Comm, meetings must responsibly report back to their originating 
group. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2083 



fmm9 mMMft ■»• £ {w ttm,) 

It is hep«d that •vary thro* aonths cr so we vlll b* «bl« to havo a larga 
op«a ■••ting in N.T. *lMr« a 'r«preB*nt«tlve from oaoh local group may have a 
plAO* on tha a^anda, to introduo* nav Ideas, present oonplAlnta, define future 
poller ato. 

Ra hava OtMS a long vay sinoe Movaaber 1, 1961. Our desire for a reliable 
pa«oa raaalns pasaloaate and unabated. Perhaps *e have lost some of our girlish 
Illusions. But «a hava gained In vocsanly resolve. He Icrio* that we have no role 
If It Is not to Work unsparlncly for the future of our children and me wish to 
ba as ooapatant , as rasouroaful and as equipped as possible In the pur.;ianoe of 
this work Tha power which Is antmsted to rulers by the people must not b« 
tumad against tha paopla but aust be used to Implement their desire arid indeed 
thalr facility for living at paaoa with any other people on aarth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I call your attention to the first paragraph of 
Exhibit 2, which states that in order for Women Strike for Peace to 
achieve its end, "a group of approximately 40 women representing 
areas in N.Y., and Conn., and N.J. met and formulated the following 
proposal." That is Exhibit 2. 

To your knowledge, did 40 women actually meet and formulate the 
proposal contained in this document? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. PosNER. I am sorry. I didn't hear the question. I was busy 
hunting for a match. 

Would you please repeat the question, sir? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I pointed out to you, Mrs. Posner, that Exhibit 2 
bears upon it the statement that a group of approximately 40 women 
representing areas in New York and Connecticut and New Jersey met 
and formulated the proposal. I asked you whether, to your knowl- 
edge, 40 women actually did meet and formulate the proposal con- 
tained in that document. 

(Witness conferred with coimsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. On constitutional grounds, the fifth amendment, I 
must decline to answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know whether or not Exhibit 2, the proposed 
plan, was drafted prior to the organization meeting referred to in it 
by any person or persons who were not members of Women Strike 
for Peace? 

Mrs. Posner. I must decline to answer the question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that the proposed 
plan. Exhibit 2, was drafted with the assistance of Leo Huberman; 
that he did so in consultation with a member, a female member of 
Women Strike for Peace, Dorothy Monet Rosen wald, at her home, 
135 Central Park West, New York City. 

Can you confirm or refute this information? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. On the same grounds, sir, I must decline to answer, 
invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, perhaps I ought to state for the record 
that Leo Huberman appeared before the committee last month and 
in response to questions stated that he was "a Marxist and a socialist." 

Do you know of any persons other than Leo Huberman and Dorothy 
Rosen wald who participated in drawing up this plan? 



2084 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs, PosNER. Again I must decline, invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that Dorothy 
Rosenwald presented and read this proposed structural and procedural 
plan at a meeting of the organization. 

Do you have knowledge of this fact? 

Mrs. PosNER. The same answer, sir, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also ought to state for the record, Mr. Chairman, 
that the committee possesses no information that Mrs. Rosenwald is, 
or has been identified as, a member of the Communist Party. 

I want to call your attention also to page 3 of this proposed plan, 
Posner Exhibit No. 2. The last paragraph opens with these words: 
"We have come a long way since November 1, 1961." 

Does that date refresh your memory as to the time when the 
organizing meeting of Women Strike for Peace in the New York, New 
Jersey, and Connecticut area took place? 

Mrs. PosNER. Again the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you personally acquainted with Mrs. Dagmar 
Wilson, who has reportedly described herself variously as the starter, 
coordinator, funnel, and head of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. PosNER. Again I must decline to answer on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, if 
you have known her? 

Mrs. Posner. Again the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Mrs. Wilson play any part at all in the organiza- 
tion of your New York group of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Posner. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you obtain Mrs. Wilson's approval for either the 
proposed structural plan or the plan as finally adopted, evidenced by 
Posner Exhibits Nos. 2 and 1, respectively, prior to acting on them 
by your organization? 

Mrs. Posner. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Posner, it is the committee's information that 
you were employed as a teacher since 1922 in the New York City 
public school system, that you resigned as a teacher on September 4, 
1952. 

The committee's investigation discloses that, in the course of such 
employment, you were a member of a Communist Party fraction of 
public school teachers at the DeWitt Clinton High School. 

Were you a member of a Communist Party fraction of public school 
teachers during the course of your employment at the DeWitt Clinton 
High School in New York City? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. May I ask the pertinency of that piece of information 
to the Women Strike for Peace movement? Is that permitted, Mr. 
Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, indeed. The question must always be pertinent 
and also the answers should be. 

Mrs. Posner. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. But, of course, the statement I read, I think, showed 
very clearly the pertinency of this question, because we are going into 
the question in these hearings of the extent, if at all there is any 
extent, of infiltration of the Women Strike for Peace by Communists. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2085 

Mr. Rabinowitz. But this was 10 years before Women Strike for 
Peace was organized. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all right, Counsel. We are informed, as our 
counsel stated, that your client has been identified as a member of a 
Communist cell while she was a schoolteacher in New York City. 

Now, there is no question but that she is a leader of, or actively 
leading, the Women Strike for Peace in the New York area. 

Mr. Tuck. She is now being asked to state whether or not that is 
true. 

Mr. Chairman, I request you to order and direct her to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Doyle. So far as we know, she is a Commimist now, because 
there is no evidence that she is not. If she is not, here is an oppor- 
tunity for her to clear it up.^ 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. May I ask that the pending question be repeated? 
It has been quite a wliile since it was stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the reporter read the question? 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. PosNER. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Commimist Party, 
Mrs. Posner? 

Mrs. Posner. The fifth amendment, sir. I am sorry I giggled 
then. It was just too funny. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of an article marked for identifica- 
tion as Posner Exhibit No. 3, which appeared on page 26 of the A^ew 
York Times of April 19, 1962, under the byline of Jeanne Molli. 

The article is titled "Women's Peace Group Uses Feminine Tactics.' ' 

Mrs. Posner. That leaps to the eye, doesn't it? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The article states: 

In front of St. Patrick's Cathedral in this Sunday's Faster parade, brilliantly 
colored paper daisies will be spotted throughout the crowd. Attached to hats or 
the back of barrettes, they will distinguish local adherents of an organization 
known as Women Strike for Peace. 

Did you participate in that parade? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. Apparently the leitmotiv here is fifth amendment. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. That is 1-e-i-t. 

(Document marked "Posner Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you wear a colored paper daisy to identify your- 
self as a member of Women Strike for Peace? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. It sounds like such a far cry from communism it is 
impossible not to be amused. 

I still invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps this is not so amusing. 

The article goes on to state with respect to the New York group of 
Women Strike for Peace: 

The office is run by volunteers, including Mrs. Blanche Posner of Scarsdale, a 
lawyer's wife who serves as office coordinator. She spends as many as ten hours 
a day working for W.S.P. Her files contain the names of 6,000 local adherents, 
each of whom, she said, has a list of friends she can call upon. 

• See clariilcation of this statement by Mr. Doyle on pp. 2125, 2126. 



2086 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

It would appear from that, Mrs. Posner, that you have volunteered 
many hours and many days of work in the New York office of Women 
Strike for Peace. 

Have you done this upon the request or on orders of any person 
known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Posner. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The article states that your files in the Women 
Strike for Peace contain the names of 6,000 local adherents. 

From whom did you obtain this list of persons? 

Mrs. Posner. I stand on my constitutional rights and invoke 
still again the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any listings from any person or per- 
sons known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Posner. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive listings from any organization 
known to you to be Communist-controlled, or designated as sub- 
versive or Communist by the Attorney General or by any other 
official agency of Government? 

Mrs. Posner. I stand on the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you obtain any of the 6,000 names which are 
reported to be in your files from Mrs. Dagmar Wilson or her Wash- 
ington office? 

Mrs. Posner. I stand on the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As office chairman, Exhibit 1 states your duties to 
be that of typing, mimeographing, filing, taking minutes of meetings, 
and so forth. 

I assume that you have had access to all of the records in the head- 
quarters of Women Strike for Peace. Is that not correct? 

Mrs. Posner. I stand on the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you transmitted any information which is 
contained in your files to any person or persons known to you to be 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Posner. I stand on the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photograph which is marked for identi- 
fication as Posner Exhibit No. 4. 

This is a photograph of the picket line estabhshed at the White 
House in Washington on April 28, 1962, by Women Strike for Peace. 

Do you not appear in that photograph as the second person in the 
line from the right carrying a sign, "WE HAVE NO RIGHT TO 
TEST"? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. The fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your response to the inquiry as to whether 
you appear on that picket line at the White House? 

Mrs. Posner. The same response as before, I stand on the fifth. 

(Document marked "Posner Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2087 




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2088 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a copy of a document titled "BIBLI- 
OGRAPHY," which is marked for identification as Posner Exhibit 
No. 5. 

It is a list of literature and sources for literature on the subject of 
war, peace, disarmament, nuclear testing, and related subjects. 

Is it not a fact, Mrs. Posner, that you distributed this bibliography 
as "recommended reading" at a meeting of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Posner. The same answer, sir, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you prepare that list? 

Mrs. Posner. The fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I call you attention to page 2 of the bibliography, and 
specifically to item 14 thereof, which is entitled, "Many Valuable & 
Informative Publications Are Available." 

The first organization named in this item is the "Greenwich Village 
Peace Centre," of 133 West 3d Street, New York City. 

When you distributed that bibliography, did you know that the 
Greenwich Village Peace Center was headed by John W. Darr? 

Mrs. Posner. Again the fifth, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know that John W. Darr has been identified 
as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Posner. I plead the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you inform the members of Women Strike for 
Peace of this fact? 

Mrs. Posner. I plead the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I call your attention to item 11 of that bibliography, 
a publication entitled Peace Monthly. The exhibit describes that 
publication as a "Broad discussion of issues relating to peace," 
and notes that it is published by the "Conference of Greater New 
York [Peace] Groups" of 550 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Conference of Greater New York Groups? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Posner. Is that a question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No. 

When you distributed this bibliography, did you know that the 
leader of that organization, Henry Abrams, had been pubUcly de- 
nounced as a veteran member of the Communist Party and, in January 
1961, was ousted from the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear 
Policy at a time when it was attempting to eliminate Communists 
who had infiltrated that organization? 

Mrs. Posner. I stand on the fifth. 

(Document marked "Posner Exhibit No. 5" follows:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2089 



Posner Exhibit Ko, $ 
BIBIJOfflUPHT 

Pre** rsports and editorials have been replete vltb dire forebodings as to the out- 
eoBB at the Oeneva Conference. It Is disastrous, both psychologically and politi- 
cally, to approach negotiations in a defeatist aood and an attitude of distrust. 
Our President in his UN address has promised us that "To halt the spiraling ao-ms 
race, ve reaain ready to seek new avenues of agreement." "Nev avenue^ naist be 
based OD a nev approach- -one which is based oq belief that in an atomic age, war is 
no IcDgsr a rational solution to interna ti anal differences. Patient negotiatlOD 
has beccoe iiq>eratlve as never before. 

SoDB of us ai% frustrated in our approach to others on the qiiestiCD of achieving 
peace. The following are valuable sources t^ which we can turn for answers based 
on reason and facts: 

1.) WO>EN' S PEACE MDVEMENT Bmi^TIR. . .Editor Elsie Boulding 
2670 Bedford Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 
(a monthly Information exchange for all women's groups In coiamunlcatlon 
with Women Strike for Peace. Inspiring coast-to-coast news. Siib. $2.00) 

2.) WIRBOW cm THE WORU). . .Editor Jfary H. Weik 

150 Christopher St., New York lU, Box ll*8 

3.) I. F. OTONE' S WEEKLY 

5618 Nebraska Ave., N.W., Washington 50, D. C. 
(Carefully documented facts not usually found in mass media 
publications) 9ub. $5.00 

U.) FELLOWSHIP OF RBCONCILtATION 
Box 271, Nyack, New York 
(strong support for social Justice and peace, e.g., a perceptive article 
by Thomas Merton, a Trapplst monk, author of "The Seven Story Mountain"). 

5.) ARE WE ON THE ROAD TO WAR?... Dr. Leo Szllard 

Obtainable at Michael Brower, 3 Dona. Street, Cambridge 36, Mass. 25^ 

6.) PROBLEMS OF DISARMAMENT 

MDnthly Review Press, 333 Sixth Ave., New York lU 
(Articles by Hans A. Bethe and five Cornell professors) 

7.) TEN MINUTES FOR PEACE 

Institute for International Order, 11 West l*2nd St., New York 17 
(This is an experiment In thinking, both provocative and stimulating.) 

8.) BVAUJATION OF JANUARY 15TH DEMDN3TRATI0N 

750 Third Ave., N.Y.C. - Seventh Floor - Room 15 
(CcDtains interviews with Congressmen and visits to Enibassies. Contains 
excerpts of messages received from women in foreign countries iriio re- 
sponded to our January 15th demonstration in Washington.) 

9.) SANE WQRIi) (leaflet) 

17 Bast U5th Street, N.Y.C. 
(Monthly report on disarmament, etc. $3.00 per year) 



93367 O - 63 



2090 COMMUNIST ACTI\ITIES EN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 



Posner Exhibit No. 5 (contd.) 

10.) JCIJC PACT SHEET PUJS QJESTION & ANSWER PAMPHI£T 
(By Coomittee on Radlaticn in Food) 
Box 1*21, Bedford Hills, New York - $5.00 per 1000 

11.) PEACE KDNTHLT 

Conference of Greater New York Groups, 550 5th Ave,, N.Y.C. 
(Broad discussion of issiies relating to peace.) 

12.) BULLETIN OF ATOMIC SCIEMTISTS 

(Magazine of Science 8s Public Affairs) 
5750 Ellis Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois - $6.00 annually 

13.) WAR/PEACE REPORT 

(Current Fact & Opinion on Progress toward World Iaw & Order) 
305 West 18th St., N.Y.C. - $5.00 annually 

lU.) MANY VALUABLE & INFORMATIVE PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE 

Greenwich Village Peace Centre, 133 West 3rd St., N.Y.C. 

Women' s International League for Peace & Freedom, 16O W. 73rd St. , N.Y.C. 

Carnegie International Centre, 3^5 E. U6th St., N.Y.C. 

The Friends' Service Committee, 2l8 E, iBth St., N.Y.C. 



BE ON THE lOOK-OUT FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS FROM. . . . 

WASHINGTON "Cherry Blossom Cavalcade" for WSFP in early April. 

(Date to be announced) 

CHICAGO "Pennies for Peace, Inc." The pennies saved will be officially 

presented, in the form of a check, made out to U Thant, toward 
the support of the United Nations. Presentation will take place 
at 10 a.m. on March 21. Checks should be made out to "Psnnles 
for Peace, Inc." and mailed to: Mrs. Ralph Dolkart 

Box 1309, Evanston, Illinois 

SCWTHERN CALIFORNIA "Women's Peace Plane to Moscow" with stops in 

Washington, D.C., ffontreal, London, Copenhagen, Stockholm, 
Helsinki, Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev, Vienna. (Planned for late 
in September.) For information write or call: 
Mrs. Gladys Farber, WISP, Box 6961I, Los Angeles 69, Calif. 

HEW YORK Committee is being organized by the Women's Direct Action 

Committee, for those who wish to run for office on a Peace 
platform. For information call: Mrs. Clarice Melman, UN U-OO56 

WASHINGTON Lobby by proxy offered to women around the country'. Women in 

Washington are preparing to call on Congressmen on behalf of 
constituents in other states. All States are requested to 
keep them informed on recent contacts with their representatives. 
For further information write or call: Folly Fodor, Women 
Strike for Peace, 1822 Mass. Ave., N.W., Washington 6, D.C. 

SPECIAL NOTE '. 

Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions 

133 East 5Uth Street 
Profoundly thoughtful analyses of international controversies. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2091 

Mr. NiTTLE. One final question: Do you have knowledge of the 
existence of a Communist Party caucus within the New York area 
organization of Women Strike for Peace which meets separately to 
coordinate policy and the selection of candidates for office within 
your organization? 

Mrs. PosNER. The same answer, sir, the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of that caucus? 

Mrs. PosNER. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any questions, Governor Tuck? 

Mr. Tuck. Mrs. Posner, the committee has information that you 
are chairman pro tem of the Office Committee of Women Strike for 
Peace. I woidd ask you to state whether or not that is true. 

Mrs. PosNER. I must continue to stand on the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. Are you telling the committee that you honestly appre- 
hend that if you stated whether or not 

Mrs. PosNER. I am sorry, I can't hear you, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. I said, do you honestly apprehend that if you stated to 
this committee whether or not you are an officer, an important officer, 
of Women Strike for Peace that you would subject yourself, or possibly 
subject yourself, to criminal prosecution? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. In view of the chairman's statement at the opening 
of this hearing, in his alleging that the Women Strike for Peace is an 
infiltrated group, infiltrated by Communists, I have no choice but to 
plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. You still have not answered my question. You can- 
not rely on the fifth amendment unless you apprehend that you may 
probably be subjecting yourself to criminal prosecution. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Posner. That is the only answer I can give. 

As I said earlier in my speech, I thank God for the wise men 

Mr. Tuck. We are not here to listen 

Mrs. Posner. — who gave us a Constitution and a Bill of Rights 
that includes the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. We are not here to listen to your discussion. I asked 
you a simple question which any patriotic citizen ought to be able to 
answer. 

I request you, Mr. Chairman, to (disturbance) 

Mr. Jack Levine (ia spectator at the hearing). I am a patriotic 
American citizen and a former FBI agent. I petition you to discon- 
tinue these proceedings before you heap further disgrace on the Con- 
gress of the United States. 

[Capitol Police escort Mr. Levine from the hearing room.] 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, I request that you order and direct the 
witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, I direct you to answer that question. It 
manifestly is pertinent. You have heard Governor Tuck ask it 
twice, the same question. <> 

What is your answer? This does not call for a speech by you. 

Mrs. Posner. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. Then you decline to answer the question? 

Mrs. Posner. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you once again to answer that question. 



2092 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. PosNER. I continue to rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Are there any other questions, Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I just wish to make this observation, Witness. I was 
in hopes, with your reputed connection with Women Strike for Peace, 
that you might be able to give us some really bona fide history of the 
organization. 

Mrs. PosNER. Mr. Doyle, I shall be delighted to do it outside of 
these chambers, which have a special character. 

Mr. Doyle. I am not relating it to who is Communist in it or any- 
thing of the sort, if there are any. I am relating to the history of the 
organization. Certainly, I think I know enough of the organization 
to know that no one needs to plead the fifth amendment when they 
are asked about who are the officers of the group and whether or not 
thej' have held meetings and who helped organize it. That is the way 
I look at it. I was in hopes that you could frankly help us in that 
element of our hearings. 

Mrs. Posner. I shall be delighted to, Mr. Doyle. I understand 
that hundreds of women have sent in letters, asking that they be called 
as witnesses, in which event you would get a complete, nationwide 
history of the movement. 

Mr. Doyle. You do not answer the pertinent questions. You are 
in a position, we happen to believe, as one of the outstanding leaders 
in this organization, to give us the history. That is one reason we 
are asking this question, to help us in our study. But you have 
refused to do it by claiming the fifth amendment, even on questions 
involving the history of the organization. 

You see, this committee takes the position that you leaders, knowing 
that all members in the group are not Communists by a long shot — I 
want to make it clear that this committee does not believe that, that 
we know it is not true, but we do know that some are. 

Mrs. PosNER. You see, we do not ask our members whether they 
are or are not this, that, or the other thing. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course not. 

Mrs. Posner. If they want to work for peace, we love them. 

Mr. Doyle. I raised that thought with you because I think that 
the women who are not Communists, who are opposed to communism, 
are entitled to know who in the organization is a Communist and 
whether or not it has been infiltrated by Communists and, if so, where 
they are lodged. That is the purpose of some of these questions. 

There are women in this room who are not Communists and never 
would be. 

Here was your chance to clear it up for their records, how this 
organization was started, as far as you are concerned, and who is in 
it. But you have refused to do it. 

I direct you once again to answer that question asked by Governor 
Tuck. 

Mrs. Posner. May I say one sentence before I answer? 

Mr. Doyle. Make it short. 

Mrs. Posner. I wUl. 

The women in this movement are bright; they are educated; they 
have love for children, which has motivated us. 

Please let me answer. 

No group of Communists could have duped these women into being 
led away from an American democratic position. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2093 

Mr. Doyle. Well, your time is up. 

We happen to know from experience that the Communists can dupe 
most anyone they set about duping. 

Mrs. PosNER. We are too bright for that. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. 

Mrs. PosNER. You are very welcome, Mr. Doyle. And thank you. 
You have been very, very cooperative. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Will you please direct the reporter, Mr. Chair- 
man, to send us a copy of the hearing and the exhibits? That will be 
in accord with your earlier statement in the hearing. 

Mr. Doyle. J will take it under consideration with the counsel. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. You said you would do it. I know you usually 
keep your word and I assume you will this time. 

Mr. Doyle. You understand. Counsel, that there is a fee for doing 
it, the usual charge for it. You know that rule yourself, I happen 
to know. 

Call your next witness. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Ruth Meyers, please. 

Mr. Chairman, we have called Ruth Meyers as the next witness in 
view of the fact that Mrs. Norma Spector, who was intended to be 
called prior to Mrs. Meyers, is unable to be present. Mildred Roth, 
an attorney in New York, forwarded a doctor's certificate explaining 
that Mrs. Spector was discharged from the hospital on November 15, 
after an operation, and requesting postponement of her appearance. 

The staff has conducted some additional investigation, as a result 
of which, it is recommended, Mr. Chairman, that the appearance of 
Mrs. Spector as a witness be postponed indefinitely. I submit the 
certificate of the doctor. 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, I move that her appearance be post- 
poned indefinitely, until such time as she is able to appear. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record show that Governor Tuck has moved 
the postponement at this hearing, so far as Mrs. Spector is concerned, 
based upon her counsel's communication. Therefore, the order will 
be that it will be postponed to an indefinite date. 

Would you please rise and be sworn, Mrs. Meyers? 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Meyers. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RUTH MEYERS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LEONARD BOUDIN 

Mrs. Meyers. Mr. Doyle, I wonder if I could very respectfully 
talk to you just for 90 seconds. I know it is very hard to believe that- 
there are women of few words, but I did listen to a rather long state- 
ment that you made before this hearing and I wonder if I could be 
afforded the same courtesy. I will limit my time, as I said, to 90 
seconds. 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, under the rules of the committee, any 
statement that she has to make must be filed 48 hours before with the 
committee. 

Mrs. Meyers. I understand that, sir. I didn't plan on a statement, 
but I have some comments as a result of what you said, Mr. Chairman, 
before, and meaning it all to be very respectful in saying it. 



2094 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Doyle. I think we better proceed, with all due respect to you 
and to the statement I made. 

Mrs. Meyers. T think, Mr. Doyle, you are very interested in 
knowing the kind of women who are involved in Women Strike for 
Peace, and I think perhaps my telling this will elucidate 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, we are interested in obtaining informa- 
tion in response to inquiries, to questions, enunciated by counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. We are sorry, but we just can't digress from our 
program. We have certain witnesses and a limited time. I know 
you will cooperate. 

Mrs. Meyers. I certainly will, Mr. Doyle, but knowing j^ou and 
your reputation and your agreement with many points of our pro- 
gram, I thought you would like to know me as I was 12 days ago 
before I was subpenaed by this committee, because I am a different 
me. 

Mr. Doyle. I ^vill be glad to have you tell me outside of the 
committee, then. 

Mrs. Meyers. That is just the point I would like to make, sir, that 
me answering your questions inside this committee cannot be the same 
me that is answering questions of you; and what I do outside this 
committee room, I think you and I would find mutually very helpful 
to us. 

Mr. Doyle. I know there are problems for all of us. I will have to 
ask counsel to just proceed and for you to cooperate as far as you feel 
it is right in answering. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Meyers. Ruth Meyers, 3 The Tulips, Roslyn, N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mrs. Meyers. July 7, 1923, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are Mrs. William Meyers, are you not? 

Mrs. Meyers. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Meyers. I was graduated in 1940 from Walton High School. 
I received a bachelor of arts degree in 1944 from Hunter College and 
a master of science in education in 1958 from Hofstra College. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Meyers. I am a housewife, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I neglected to ask whether you are represented by 
counsel. 

Mrs. Meyers. Ably. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, 30 East 42d Street, New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you in the past been a teacher? 

Mrs. Meyers. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did I understand you to state that you had a master 
of science in education? 

Mrs. Meyers. Right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I ask what is the present occupation of your 
husband? 

Mrs. Meyers. He is an attorney. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The last witness' husband is also an attorney, is that 
not correct? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2095 

Mrs. Meyers. I am here, sir, to testify on me and my activities, 
sir. I learned as much as you did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know the prior witness, Mrs. Blanche Posner? 

Mrs. Meyers. I will have to insist, sir, that I am here to testify 
on myself and my relationship to Women Strike for Peace and not 
as it affects any other individual, because I am involved in Women 
Strike for Peace, not because of the individuals involved, but because 
the manner of the program which it does promote. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Blanche Posner, according to the public records 
and also the committee's information, is the Office Committee chair- 
man of Women Strike for Peace. It is important to know, in our in- 
vestigation of this subject today, whether you, as a member of Women 
Strike for Peace, know Mrs. Posner. 

Mrs. Meyers. If I can be helpful in telling you, sir, my role in 
Women Strike for Peace, I will. But other people's roles, I could not 
evaluate or teU you at this time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a member of a group known as 
Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. No, sir. Women Strike for Peace has no member- 
ship. I am associated with a group of women in my own community 
that are called Women for Peace, and we have acted in situations and 
activities under the banner of Women Strike for Peace when we agreed 
to the necessity and importance of when we were going to learn some- 
thing from this activity. 

Mr. NiTTLE.x Would you be described as an "adherent" of Women 
Strike for Peace? That was the expression used by the New York 
Times in describing the type of membership which Women Strike for 
Peace enjoys. 

Mrs. Meyers. Well, could you explain to me what you mean by 
that question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps this will help elucidate the inquiry. I show 
you Posner Exhibit No. 1 , which is the structural plan of Women Strike 
for Peace, Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. 
Have you seen that plan before? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyers. I did not actually see this plan. It was reported by 
a woman who had seen it and talked about it and discussed it. 

Mr. BouDiN. Shall I return it to you, Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Thank you. 

You are famUiar, I understand, with the structural organization of 
Women Strike for Peace as evidenced by this plan? 

Mrs. Meyers. I am familiar to the extent of the role that I play in 
it. I must say that I was not particularly interested in the structure 
of Women Strike for Peace. I was more involved in my own com- 
munity activities and what role I can do as positive. I felt that struc- 
ture, other than the old telephone, was not much of what I was 
interested in. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you organize a group known as Women for 
Peace in your community? 

Mrs. Meyers. I am trying to think of when we started using the 
term, because it was just a term that was convenient to use when we 
were studying and working together. I can tell you when I became 
involved and interested in involving myself in studying a more active 
role in peace, if this would be a help. 



2096 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us the approximate date when you 
organized a group of Women for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. I don't think you understand what I said previously 
when you asked me that question. 1 did not organize the Women for 
Peace, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in its organization? 

Mrs. Meyers. I participated in activities and study with a group 
of women. At that time, when we were studying and when we were 
talking and when we were coming to a conclusion to participate fur- 
ther, and in further communities, we did say that, as women who 
were interested in peace and called Women for Peace, we were going 
to do such and such. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the creation of this local 
organization, Women for Peace, in Long Island, for tlie purpose of 
sending representatives to county groups who were acting on behalf 
of Women Strike for Peace of New York? 

Mrs. Meyers. If I have gone to otlier communities, it has never 
been as a representative for anything except a point of view, and my 
own point of view. Usually, people went because they were free for 
time or in the evening or they felt particularly motivated on a par- 
ticular program on which they were talking or groups of people were 
talking. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Posner Exhibit No. 1, Structure for Women Strike for 
Peace, Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, sets up 
a Central Coordinating Committee, which appears to be the executive 
and policymaking body of the group. 

Appointments to the Central Coordinating Committee of the New 
York group of Women Strike for Peace are accomplished in this way. 
Local groups of Women for Peace or Women Strike for Peace are set 
up in various communities, who are then entitled to choose repre- 
sentatives to send to a county meeting of Women Strike for Peace, 
^^and 4he county meeting selects representatives who represent tlie 
county group on the Central Coordinating Committee. 

This group of Women for Peace, of which I think you state you are 
a participating member 

Mrs. Meyers. I participate when the action — when I am particu- 
larly motivated in the action and study 

Mr. NiTTLE. I did not ask what motivated you. I asked if 
you were a participating member. Would you please answer the 
question? 

Mrs. Meyers. If an organization doesn't agree, in which you join 
and unjoin, I don't see how I can answer the question of whether or 
not I am a member. When I am there, I iim very anxious and excited 
about a particular program and a particular interest that I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please tell us approximately when your 
group was first organized? 

Mrs. Meyers. Can I tell you when I first became interested? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, would you tell us that? 

Mrs. Meyers. Yes, I certainly will. I think it was October 31 
that we heard of the first Russian explosion in the new nuclear tests 
that the Russians were starting. At the time I was terribly dis- 
turbed because I had heard so much — I heard and read — ■ — 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am not interested in the details of that. I simply 
asked you the date when you first met with Women for Peace, and 
you stated October 31; did you not? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2097 

Mrs. Meyers. No. I said October 31 was when I became dis- 
turbed and realized I wanted to do something immediately. The 
next day 

Mr. NiTTLE. You became disturbed following the breaking of the 
moratorium by Soviet Russia in August 1961, at which time they 
resumed nuclear testing. Between the time that the Russians tested 
and before the United States resumed nuclear testing, you found you 
were disturbed and you met with a group of Women for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. I am sorry, sir. You will have to repeat that. 
I don't understand you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, I am trying to understand what you are saying. 
I think if you will simply answer the questions as directly as you can, 
we may both avoid confusion. 

Mrs. Meyers. Would you reword the question, please, or repeat 
the question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you plainly state the time when you first met 
with Women for Peace in your community? 

Mrs. Meyers. The first time I met with Women for Peace was not 
in my community. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it after the announcement by Mrs. Dagmar 
Wilson in September of the formation of her group known as Women 
Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it before that occasion? 

Mrs. Meyers. In September? I am sorry. I thought you meant 
in response — was it after — would you repeat the date? I am sorry. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Mrs. Meyers, with a master's degree from- — ^well, I 
wiU withdraw that statement. 

Mr. BouDiN. I think it well that counsel withdrew his statement, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me repeat the question. 

Did you meet with Women for Peace prior or subsequent to the 
announcement by Mrs. Dagmar Wilson of the formation of her organi- 
zation, Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. The first time I met — I met with any women who 
I know were working for peace — was on November 1 of the year. 
Whether it was prior or subsequent to — you said her call was Septem- 
ber, so, therefore, it was subsequent to that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does your group send a representative to any county 
group of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. Our group tries to get one of us to attend any county 
meeting or any New York meeting that is held. Sometimes it is 
pretty much left at the last minute, that a child is sick or a husband 
doesn't come home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The answer is, your group does send a representative 
to the county groups? 

Mrs. Meyers. When there is one available, we certainly do. 

Mr. BouDiN. I think it would be helpful when the witness is in the 
middle of an answer that she not be interrupted, even by counsel 
trying to be helpful. I will make no further comments on that at 
this point. I hope I won't have to in the future. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation indicates that you are 
one of the leaders responsible for making arrangements for the New 
York group of Women Strike for Peace to take part in the White 
House picket line on January 15, 1962. Is this correct? 



2098 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Meyers. I am very proud of the role that I did have in 
trying to assemble and work and walking around the White House 
and just looking at it and understanding what we women could do 
to register our disturbance at the time of the tests. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not also correct that you were the chairman of 
a committee selected to make appointments with Congressmen in 
Washington on that occasion? 

Mrs. Meyers. I was the telephone contact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Meyers, it is also the committee's information 
that you played a leading role in arranging the sendoff demonstration 
at Idlewild Airport on April 1, 1962, by Women Strike for Peace for 
the delegates of that organization who were leaving to attend the 
17-nation Geneva disarmament conference in Switzerland. Is this 
correct? 

Mrs. Meyers. It was one of the most pleasant things I ever did. 
It was really inspiring to see women leave a house and their homes, 
being sponsored by their friends and people interested in peace, to 
see what they could do in any way to say to the men who were work- 
ing, "Look at us. Worry about us. Worry about our children. 
Please, please, negotiate a firmer peace." 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question simply is this, Mrs. Meyers, and we are 
not inquiring into your motives at this point, but inquiring whether 
you did play a leading role in arranging the sendoff demonstration. 
Did you or did you not? 

Mrs. Meyers. I did and, Mr. Nittle, I thought you were most in- 
terested in my motives. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let us proceed to the next question. 

Mrs. Meyers. I really thought that was the subject of this investi- 
gation, what motivated me to be a member of Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The attendance of Women Strike for Peace observers 
at the Geneva conference was clearly the most spectacular accom- 
plishment of Women Strike for Peace. Reportedly, a total of 51 
delegates, led by Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, went to Switzerland by air to 
express the views of Women Strike for Peace to the delegates at the 
17-nation disarmament conference. 

It is the information of the committee that your New York group of 
Women Strike for Peace made the arrangements with Swissair lines 
for this trip and that the names of the persons who were to attend 
the Geneva conference were announced at a special meeting of Women 
Strike for Peace in New York City on March 22, 1962. Is it a fact 
that this expedition to Geneva was conceived, planned, and arranged 
by the New York group of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. Sir, I was involved, as you said, in the sendoff 
demonstration. I felt that I was totally involved in wanting to see 
women go. The conception of the program gets so lost when hun- 
dreds of women are thinking about it. Sometimes we find that we 
are coming to the same idea at the same time, and no one looks for 
credit. We just look for activity. Whether it was the conception of 
the New^ York conunittee or not, I think, as you sa}", it is spectacular 
that it was done. That is the most important thing. 

Mr. Nittle. I do not like to interrupt you at all times, but perhaps 
if you stick to the point, it won't be necessary. The question simply 
was whether it is a fact that the expedition to Geneva was con- 
ceived, planned, and arranged by the New York group of Women 
Strike for Peace. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2099 

What is your answer to that question? 

Mrs. Meyers. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who made your appointment to serve as the leader 
for the sendoff demonstration? 

Mrs. Meyers. Sometimes I wish I would have to have every- 
thing 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you simply answer that question? 

Mrs. Meyers. I remember getting a phone call from a friend of 
mine who said, "So many people are involved with one aspect or an- 
other. You are not very busy right now. Please see what you can 
do and arrange. Would you take over the physical responsibiUties 
of the sendoff thing?" 

I was very excited about this. I think I would have liked to have 
gone, but nobody asked me. So I was very happy to help arrange 
the sendoff 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this telephone call received from a member of 
the New York group of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Meyers. I am afraid, sir, I don't even remember who orig- 
inally asked me to do it. I remember — ■ — 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it a female voice or a male voice that made this 
request? 

Mrs. Meyers. It was certainly not a friend; otherwise, I would 
remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Mrs. Dagmar Wilson? 

Mrs. Meyers. Sir, as I said before, I am very much interested in 
doing whatever I can to tell the role that I played in Women Strike 
for Peace. Beyond this, I do not think it would be fitting for me to 
answer in terms of my relationships with other people, because I am 
not interested in the people. I am interested in the particular issues 
for which I stand when I stand with Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are interested in certain activities within Women 
Strike for Peace. In order to determine what these activities are, 
which are conducted by people, we must know what people do. I 
am not asking you about someone who is not connected with Women 
Strike for Peace. We are inquiring into the activities particularly of 
this New York group of Women Strike for Peace. Mrs. Dagmar 
Wilson, of Washington, D.C., is the ostensible leader of the nation- 
wide movement. Therefore, I want to ask you whether there was any 
contact between your group and Mrs. Dagmar Wilson. You can 
answer that very simply. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyers. Could you please clarify? I am confused. On what 
meetings do you refer to, and the contact with whom? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Mrs. Dagmar Wilson? That is a very 
simple question. 

Mrs. Meyers. Again I would say, this is unrelated to my activity 
in Women Strike for Peace, because t am not in Women Strike for 
Peace because of any individual except my own deep motivations, in 
which I am very interested in finding a way to have it heard. I 
believe that as an American citizen I have a right to have my will 
expressed and that my Government must function to the will of the 
people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness 
be directed to answer the question. 



2100 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Doyle. Do you understand the question, Mrs. Meyers? 
Help us by answering that question. 

Mr. BouDiN. I wonder whether counsel wouldn't indicate the 
pertinency of the question, to help the witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel;^ would you do that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think the pertinency of that question is indisputably 
clear, Mr. Chairman, and I don't think we need subject ourselves to a 
delaying tactic on that point. 

Mr. BouDiN. It was a very small delay. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think an explanation has been made, both in the 
chairman's opening statement and by myself, as we proceeded. I, 
therefore, again respectfully request that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mrs. Meyers. Mr. Doyle, if it was said to me that Mrs. So-and-so 
or Mrs. So-and-so stands for such a program, do you stand for the 
program, I would be able to tell you how I feel about the program. 
But when it is a case of just personal associations, I think my rights 
under the first amendment 

Mr. Doyle. I understand that, and we are not questioning motives 
in these hearings at all. We are not going into that. The question 
onl}^ bears on whether or not there is any connection between the 
women that you are associated with and the leadership of Mrs. Wilson 
in Washington. That is the question. 

Mrs. Meyers. I think I have answered, Mr. Doyle, that we have 
tried to keep contact in every way with anyone who is interested in 
promoting a basic program for working towards peaceful alternatives 
in this world. So that would include everyone and anyone who I 
felt were working for peace. 

When I have to answer about a particular person, I don't think that 
is related to my activities in Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. Doyle. It is related to whether or not your group is affiliated, 
or in any way connected, with the Washington group. 

Mrs. Meyers. I have reached personally with anyone I knew, to 
hold hands with anyone at all in this country or in Europe or any 
place who is interested in seeking out peaceful alternatives to solving 
the world's problems on which a bomb seems to be the biggest solution. 
I think that is inclusive enough, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I understand that, but, really, the question is whether 
or not there is any connection — that is what it goes to— between your 
group and the Washington group led by Mrs. Wilson. 

Mrs. Meyers. I think when I am asked about particular people, 
there is a value then, in terms of personal association, and I will 
answer in terms of how my activities in peace were being promoted 
within this group. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead, Counsel. 

First, Mrs. Meyers, I will direct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Meyers. I decline to answer that question on my rights under 
the first amendment, to associate freely, and, also, because I feel that 
this is not pertinent to the inquiry, to the role that I have in this 
inquiry, and because of my constitutional privileges under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. Proceed, Counsel. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Meyers, when you invoke the fifth amendment, 
do you invoke the self-incrimination clause? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2101 

Mrs. Meyers. I am relying on that part of the fifth amendment 
which provides that no person shall be required to be a witness against 
himself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Meyers, it appears from the public records that 
a Ruth Meyers, then residing at 1751 East 10th Street, Brooklyn, 
N.Y., on July 27, 1948, signed a Communist Party nominating peti- 
tion for Simon W. Gerson, an identified Communist, who was then 
publicly seeking the office of councilman for the Borough of Brooklyn 
in New York City. 

Are you the Ruth Meyers who executed that petition? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyers. No, sir. 

Mr. BouDiN. Could I see the petition? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of that petition, 
marked for identification as Meyers Exhibit No. 1. 

Mrs. Meyers. I never resided at that address, and it is not my 
signature. 

(Document marked "Meyers Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. BouDiN. It is rather interesting to speculate, Mr. Doyle, as to 
whether the witness was called because a similar name appears on a 
petition. 

Mr. Tuck. I object to the counsel interrupting. 

Mr. BouDiN. I was addressing myself to the chairman of the 
committee. 

Mr. Doyle. The witness answered positively. 

Mrs. Meyers. Except, Mr. Doyle, when that question is put, it 
shows the intent of this committee. Anyone who talks for peace 
must be 

Mr. Doyle. No, you misjudged the intent, Mrs. Meyers. 

Mrs. Meyers. I don't think I misjudged, Mr. Chairman. It is 
like the taxi driver that I got caught in traffic with. I must say that 
he objected to a parade and said, "You must be a Communist if you 
objected to a parade." 

Mr. Doyle. You answered frankly and immediately that you were 
not the same person, but we certainly want to know with whom we 
are dealing. 

Mrs. Meyers. Why? Because I stand for peace? Do you have 
to find out 

Mr. Doyle. No, because someone with your name signed that 
Communist petition. 

Mrs. Meyers. Perhaps, sir, I shouldn't have accepted that sub- 
pena, if there are so many people by the name of Ruth Meyers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Meyers, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Meyers. And this is a continuation of the intent of that 
first question. If I stand for peace, I have to stand up here and say 
or answer this question. I think, sir, Mr. Doyle, that this is a dis- 
grace, and any American who takes a dissenting role 

Mr. NiTTLE. WUl you please answer the question? 

Mr. BouDiN. You are interrupting the witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is a simple one. Have you ever been 
a member of the Communist Party? 



2102 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Meyers. I don't think, sir, you ask any simple questions at 
any tinie. I think there is a real intent in this question. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer. It is always a pertinent 
question in this hearing. 

Mrs. Meyers. I don't believe it is a pertinent question, sir, and 
I don't believe it is within the jurisdiction. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer the question. 

Mr. BouDiN. Could we have the question repeated so we are per- 
fectly clear? 

Mr. Doyle. I think it is perfectly clear. 

Mr. BouDiN. Once a direction is given, it is better to have the 
question repeated, I think you will agree. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question addressed to the witness, Mr. Doyle, 
and I now address it to the witness, is: Have you ever been a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Meyers. I decline to answer that question. I decline to 
answer because it is not pertinent. I am here to answer questions on 
Women Strike for Peace, and this question is thrown over as a smoke 
screen for this kind of investigation. I stand on my constitutional 
privileges of the fifth amendment not to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. 

I want to instruct the witness to answer the question. I call your 
attention to the pertinency. I read in my preliminary statement, and 
you heard it, the subject of this inquiry — to determine the extent of 
Communist infiltration in peace organizations, particularly in the 
Metropolitan New York area, with special reference to the Women 
Strike for Peace, and, also, to determine the degree to which Com- 
munists have responded to the previously quoted directives tliat they 
engage in. 

Manifestly, the question of whether or not you have ever been a 
Commimist is pertinent. 

Mrs. Meyers. I decline to answer that question under my rights 
under the first amendment, under my constitutional privilege under 
the fifth amendment, because I feel the committee does not have 
jurisdiction, Mr. Doyle, and it is not pertinent, even though you 
state; this is my feeling. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Comisel. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Meyers. My answer is as previously stated. 

Mr, BouDiN. I assume, Mr. Doyle, you don't need the witness to 
spell out the reasons again. 

Mr. Doyle. No. I instruct you to answer that question, Mrs. 
Meyers. 

Mrs. Meyers. Shall I spell out all four reasons again, sir? 

Mr. Doyle. No, it will be enough if you say, "The same answer," 
but I want to instruct you to answer. 

Mrs. Meyers. It is the same answer. 

Mr. Nittle. One final question, Mrs. Meyers. Have you engaged 
in activities of Women Strike for Peace, and a local group you have 
described and identified as Women for Peace, to carry out Communist 
directives enjoining peace agitation upon its members? 

Mrs. Meyers. Mr. Doyle, I think that question is an insult to an 
American citizen who has tried in the best way to fulfill her duty as a 
citizen^ to have to use her to inquire further into why situations exist, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2103 

to go out of her way in every single way to present the program 
pubHcly. Anything I have done for Women Strike for Peace is pubhc 
record, and that question can only be done to intimidate my neighbor 
or my friend who has come along with me. 

Mr. Doyle. Let's have your answer. 

Mrs. Meyers. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. And I have no questions. 

Call the next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Lyla Hoffman please come forward? 

Mr. Doyle. Will the witness please rise and be sworn? 

Raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear you will tell the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LYLA HOFFMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Lyla Hoffman, 6 Shore Drive, Great Neck, N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you formerly a resident of 68B 8th Lane, 
Brooklyn, N.Y.? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Counsel, should I not identify myself for the 
record? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. I am sorry I did not note that. 

Now that the name and the residence of the witness is identified, 
Mrs. Hoffman, I would like to ask whether you are represented by 
counsel. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I am represented by Mr. Taylor. 

Mr. Taylor. My name is Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, 
New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your marital status, Mrs. Hoffman? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I am married. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your occupation? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Housewife. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Hoffman. And I am a peace worker, I might add. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Housewife and peace worker? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Hoffman. High school, at Richmond, Manhattan. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you spell your first name, please? 

Mrs. Hoffman. L-y-l-a. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have asked for the correct spelling of your name be- 
cause of an item that appeared in the official Communist paper The 
Worker on April 22, 1962, at page 4. This is marked for identification 
as Hoffman Exhibit No. \. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. An article appears thereon written under the byhne 
of Mike Davidow titled, "Women Call 24-Hour White House Vigil to 
Mark the Shame of T-Day." 



2104 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

The article states, among other things, that: 

WOMEN from all over the nation are being called to participate in a 24-hour 
vigil in front of the White House on [sic] 1 p.m. on the day following the announce- 
ment of testing. 

The action was made known last week by the Women Strike for Peace at their 
first N.Y. report meeting on their recent delegation to the Geneva Disarmament 
Conference. 

The meeting, -ttended by more than 1,000, was held at the Community Church, 
35 St. and Park Ave. 

The vigil will be a somber protest against President Kennedy's decision to test, 
the sponsors of the action said. 

The article describes the meeting held at the Community Church 
and summarizes the substance of statements made at the meeting. 
Aniong others who are reported to have spoken was a Lila Hoffman. 
Lila is spelled L-i-l-a. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I am the same Lyla Hoffman. 

(Document marked "Hoffman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the person to whom reference was made in the 
last paragraph? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you speak at the Community Church meeting 
on that occasion? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you an active member of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I am a very active member of Women Strike for 
Peace. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are a little more than a participant, are you not? 

Mrs. Hoffman. An active participant, as I said. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are in fact a member, or were in fact a member, 
of the Central Coordinating Committee of Women Strike for Peace 
and you represent Nassau County, which includes the Long Island 
area; is that not correct? 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that you are a member of the Central Coordinating 
Committee of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I said I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Central Coordinating C^ommittee is the executive 
group and the policymaking group of Women Strike for Peace, is 
it not? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Policy is not made by the Coordinating Committee. 
Actions are planned, discussions are held, communications are passed. 
Our policy is very simple. It was set up at Ann Arbor during the 
summer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am not asking you what your policy was. 

Mrs. Hoffman. But policy, as such, is not set, nor is it changed, 
by the Central Coordinating Committee. All actions which are 
planned, are planned within that policy, which is an excellent policy. 
Most people in our Government subscribe to it, also. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How was your appointment to the Central Coordi- 
nating Committee of the New York organization of Women Strike for 
Peace effected? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I was not appointed. I heard you read the Struc- 
ture a short while ago. We have been more or less following that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2105 

Structure, which means that from my local community, which is 
Great Neck, I was asked to represent them in Nassau County, I and 
some others. At Nassau County some people were chosen to be the 
representatives to the New York group. Therefore, I am one of the 
representatives to the New York group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the title of your local group? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Great Neck Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the group which sent you to the Central Co- 
ordinating Committee? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Great Neck Women Strike for Peace. They do 
excellent work. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the organization of that group? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you form that group in order to form a supporting 
organization for Mrs. Dagmar Wilson's national group of Women 
Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I did not form that group. I, together with many 
other women, helped to form that group as part of Women Strike for 
Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you also engage or participate in the formation 
of that group in support of the New York organization of Women 
Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Hoffman. It didn't quite work out that way. As 1 recall, 
the local group — and when I say "group," you know we have very 
loose connections, just the telephone connections at the beginning and 
later we began to meet together in informal ways and it has changed- — 
I believe that the local groups, certainly ours, and most others, began 
to function in various ways, because all local groups function in their 
own way and choose their own methods of working. But I believe 
that the local group began before the New York group. I am not 
quite certain as to exactly how that operated, but when you are 
talking about the Central Coordinating Committee that was set up 
a few months after November 1, which is when we women began to 
feel that we could do something about war and peace. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. It appears on Posner Exhibit No. 1, that is, the struc- 
tural plan for Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New York, New 
Jersey, Connecticut, a copy of which I hand you, that the Central 
Coordinating Committee is composed of two representatives from 
each county or State. However, the structural plan specifically sets 
forth the area representation as being composed of two representatives, 
each, from Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, Westchester, 
Long Island, and the States of Connecticut and New Jersey. 

It would seem that the New York State representation for the dis- 
tricts named, and to which it is limited, authorizes 12 representatives, 
whereas the entire States of Connecticut and New Jersey appear to 
be allowed only two representatives each. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Does that seem unfair? Shall I explain that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I wanted to inquire whether there was any reason of 
policy for limiting the entire States of Connecticut and New Jersey 
to two delegates each. 

Mrs. Hoffman. The reasons which I understood, and I did attend 
one or two of the meetings setting up the Structure — and I may 

93367 O— 63 5 



2106 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

interject that at these meetings all this was hassled out in about 10 
meetings with about 40 women and lots of arguing about each word, 
so that any gentleman who had an}^ addition would have been 
lynched — about New Jersey and Connecticut, I would like to say that 
we consider ourselves the New York Metropolitan area. There are 
some groups, because of the physical extent of New Jersey and Con- 
necticut, who, if they function as Women Strike for Peace, either 
function completely independently or are connected with Philadelphia 
or something like that. 

We only take in the Metropolitan area where communication is at 
all feasible. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And yet your organization represents itself as speak- 
ing for Women Strike for Peace not only for Metropolitan New York, 
but for the States of Connecticut and New Jersey. Is that not correct? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Theoretically, you are correct, and we do speak 
for — I don't think we have discussed this before. The other Women 
Strike for Peace people have never objected and, therefore, it has 
never been raised. Perhaps it should have been, but the majority of 
Women Strike people in these two States are in the New York Metro- 
politan area, so I don't think we are doing a grave injustice though, if 
we are, it should be corrected. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It appears further that the representatives on the 
Central Coordinating Committee have their origin in local groups. 
I think we have already mentioned the local group of which you are 
a member. They are authorized to send delegates to the county 
group level, and the latter group makes the appointments to the 
Central Coordinating Committee. How many persons compose your 
local group? 

Mrs. Hoffman. How many? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, that is, the Great Neck area Women Strike for 
Peace. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I just repeat again that Women Strike for Peace 
is not a membership organization, so we do not have members. We 
have a communication system • 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked you how many persons comprise your local 
group, which you have described as the Great Neck Women Strike 
for Peace. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I would like to repeat that I don't quite know 
what you mean by "group." I can explain how we function. I 
would be glad to. But I don't quite know what you mean by makeup 
of the group. 

The way things happen is that if somebody comes to one of our 
demonstrations, their name is put on our local membership list and 
they are notified by phone or by postcard of other activities that they 
might be interested in. If tliere are meetings, and the so-called 
steering committee meetings are open to everyone on the mailing 
list, and if anyone shows any interest in other aspects, other than 
demonstrations, in discussions, asks questions, or who would just like 
to receive anything in the mail, they are put on the mailing list. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me a*sk you this: Who maintains the mailing list 
in her possession for the Great Neck Women Strike for Peace? Do you? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I do not. I could not tetl you at tlie moment who 
does, because whoever is willing to take care of a particular mailing 
lias the mailing list, and it travels from lady to lady. I have no 
idea who has it at the moment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2107 

Mr. NiTTLE. Besides yourself in the Great Neck Women Strike for 
Peace, how many other women compose or comprise that group, if 
there are others? 

Mrs. Hoffman. This is the same question I explained that I could 
not answer unless you change the wording. 

Mr. Doyle. May I suggest this: I think I heard you say that 
names were placed on your membership list. I am quite sure I did. 
Now, about how many names are on that membership list? That 
will help us. 

Mrs. Hoffman. If that will help, I can answer that. 

Mr. Doyle. That will help us. 

Mrs. Hoffman. In our group we have about 375, roughly. It may 
have gone up since I spoke to you. 

Mr. NiTTLE, That is, names on your mailing list? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But these are people you contact when you desire to 
organize a demonstration, is that right? 

Mrs. Hoffman. We have two kinds of meetings. There are county 
meetings. We have, as I said, steering committee meetings, where 
discussion is held about what we would like to do in our community, 
how we would like to work with the Metropolitan area, because I 
must make clear that each group does not always participate when the 
Metropolitan area makes a decision, and we also have large public 
meetings — — 

Mr. NiTTLE. To avoid confusion, let me pose this question: When 
the Great Neck Women Strike for Peace meets, how many women 
join in that meeting? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I am sorry, sir. I tried explain we have two 
different t3rpes of meetings. We have public meetings, like, generally, 
luncheons where the ladies come and get dressed up and so forth; or 
we have work-session meetings, where everyone is free to come, but 
we don't get quite the turnout for that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let's stop there a moment. Let us talk about the 
private meetings, which are the work sessions and the organizing 
sessions. Do you attend those? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Whenever I am able to. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where are these work sessions conducted? 

Mrs. Hoffman. We take turns. Everybody's house. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you held them at your house? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Most likely I have. I don't quite remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is provided in Posner Exhibit No. 1 that a local 
group, of which the Great Neck Women Strike for Peace, I presume, 
is an example, "shall consist of any body of women who have meetings 
and act in concert for the general purpose of peace." 

I assume that this is what you are referring to when you talked 
about the private meetings, particularly of the work sessions? Is 
that right? 

Mrs. Hoffman. You will have to excuse me one minute. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. Is that part of the Structure j^ou are reading? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Would you mind either repeating or showing me 
where it appears? 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will see it near the top, I think. 



2108 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is correct in that that is how this Structure 
was passed. As I said at the beginning, this Structure became quite 
a comphcated production, and each group went about things somewhat 
in their own way, so that, roughly speaking, it was followed, but it 
was hardly followed to the letter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does your group, the Great Neck Women Strike for 
Peace, meet the qualifications set up in that limitation of the struc- 
tural plan? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes, sir. We would be considered a local group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has the New York headquarters of Women Strike 
for Peace established in any official way the number of persons, or the 
limitation on the number of persons, who will constitute a local group 
entitled to send representatives to the Central Coordinating Com- 
mittee? 

Mrs. Hoffman. No, they have not. Excuse me. The local groups 
do not send representatives to the Central Coordinating Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. They send representatives to the county groups who 
select the Central Coordinating Committee representatives? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Now you have it, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the representation of the local group on the 
county group determines the voting power, doesn't it? 

Mrs. HoffmAxN. Ostensibly, yes. However, the county meetings 
have also been — theoretically there should have been two people from 
each local group. In practice, whoever was interested in coming down , 
came down and voted. At least, that is true in Nassau County. I 
cannot speak for the others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you personally acquainted with Mrs. Dagmar 
Wilson? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. I believe that this committee is infringing upon 
my rights under the first amendment and for other reasons in asking 
me to identify any person with whom I have ever associated. I do 
not see that this committee is authorized to look into the question of 
my associates and I cannot see that your question is pertinent. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way: Did you or any person known 
to you, and to your knowledge, consult or advise with Mrs. Dagmar 
Wilson concerning the preparation or adoption of the structural plan 
for your organization, Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New 
York, Connecticut, and New Jersey, as set forth in Posner Exhibit 
No. 1? 

Mrs. Hoffman. My previous answer stands, but I would like to 
add, simply for your clarification, that the Metropolitan area drew up 
this Structure without any assistance from any other area that I am 
aware of. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the preparation of the plan? 

Mrs. Hoffman. The Structure plan? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Hoffman. To a very limited extent. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you stated that you engaged in debates or 
discussions upon this proposal. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. As I said, there were many meetings, very 
lengthy ones, with hassles. One version of the plan was presented 
and it went back to each group for their corrections and okays, and 
so forth, and at which time it went back again so that these cor- 
rections were incorporated and a final plan emerged. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2109 

As I said, many ladies spent endless days and nights on this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On an average, how many women met in the discus- 
sions on the structural plan to which you are referring? 

Mrs. Hoffman. As I say, I attended — well, let's see, I remember 
attending one meeting of about 20 women when they were formulating 
this at the beginning. Of course, in the local groups where discussion 
was held, there were many more. Then I must have gone to the 
Nassau County meetings where this was discussed and I certainly 
can't remember how many there were. That would be about it. I 
was not a member of the committee drawing up the Structure plan, 
I don't think. I know that I did not work on it to the extent that 
many other women did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I repeat the question: Have you discussed the affairs 
of the New York group of Women Strike for Peace with Mrs. Dagmar 
Wilson? 

Mrs. Hoffman. My previous answer to that question stands. I 
will be glad to reread it, if you wish. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask that there be a direction, Mr. Chairman, that 
the witness respond to the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct the witness to answer. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I believe — no. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did not include in your previous answer any 
constitutional privileges that would excuse a response to the question. 

Mrs. Hoffman. In my opinion I did, but I will reread my answer, 
if you wish. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you simply state the constitutional provision 
which you invoke? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I said because of my rights under the first amend- 
ment and for other reasons. I believe this committee is infringing 
upon my rights by asking me to identify any person with whom I have 
ever associated. I do not see that this committee is authorized to 
look into the question .of my associates and I cannot see that your 
question is pertinent. 

Mr. Tuck. Your reasons for not answering the question are not 
acceptable to the committee. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the 
witness be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I make the same instruction, Mrs. Hoffman. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Hoffman, it is the committee's information that 
in the year 1944 you were a member of the Communist Party in the 
Brooklyn area. Were you, in 1944, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. I do not see that the committee has the authority 
to pose this question. I do not believe that past memberships, 
especially at the date you mentioned, could possibly be pertinent to 
anything which this committee is authorized to inquire into. I am 
working for a climate of peace today and I am doing this under no 
discipline or direction other than that of my own^ conscience. I have 
not been — well, that is it, that is my answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



2110 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer, or shall I repeat it? 
Mr. Doyle. Witness, since you say this question is not pertinent, 
I want to read one sentence again in my preliminary statement: 

The subject of this inquiry is to determine the extent of Communist infiltration 
in peace organizations * * *. 

We frequently have the experience where a person has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, and now and then they come before our 
committee and say, "Well, I was a member 8, 10, 12 years ago, but I 
haven't been a member since." Once in a while we find witnesses in 
that situation acting in the utmost good faith with Congress. We 
feel it is pertinent to find out in these hearings whether or not any 
witness before us ever has been and, if they have, are they now. 

Many people were Communists at one time and, after a matter of 
study of philosophies, discovered that it is a conspiracy against our 
form of government and kick it out of their lives and regret they ever 
were in it. 

Of course, our Supreme Court has held that it is a conspiracy, as I 
am sure your worthy counsel loiows. So I am just raising that 
thought to you. This is a pertinent question. That is the point I 
want to make clear to you. It is pertinent to the hearing. I am 
not asking you, nor did we ask any others, this question to embarrass 
you. So I instruct you to answer this question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. Gentlemen, I frankly have a very different point 
of view upon this than you and I am going to answer this question 
imder protest, because I think the reasons for asking are clearly to 
harass and limit freedom of speech. But I do want to say that I am 
not now a member of the Communist Party. I have not been a mem- 
ber for more than 5 years. I do not see that any further questions 
concerning my beliefs previous to this period are pertinent or 
authorized. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You state that you 

Mr. Doyle. In view of my statement to you, may I further state 
this : We have not been in these hearings, and are not now, interested 
in motives for people entering the peace movement. We know what 
the motive of the Communist is in joining the peace movement. It is 
to help the Communist-outfit conspirators take over the free world. 
But we don't assign that, as I read, to every member, and naturally 
not. But I would not have instructed you to answer the question if 
I didn't feel, as a matter of law, it was pertinent. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. I don't quite follow your thinking — if you are in- 
terested in my following ycrur thinking — in that whatever you have to 
say I don't quite see the connection with the peace movement and 
with today's investigation of the peace movement. 

Many of these things that you are discussing here I can't quite see 
what they have to do with some of the conspiracy charges you and 
that man over there brought up about, because if the Russians think 
so, that makes everything bad. 

Kennedy believes everything we believe, or he said it, anyhow; and 
I don't quite follow what you are trying to say to me. I would like 
to understand. 

Mr. Doyle. I was trying to say to you, and I think I did and I 
think you got it, that maybe you were a Communist at one time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2111 

but are not now. You have answered that question by saying that 
you haven't been a Communist for 5 years. 

Mrs. Hoffman. It was for more than 5 years. 

Mr. Doyle. My question was not erroneous, I find. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I said for more than 5 years. It is just a minor 
correction. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, for more than 5 years. But somehow I had 
the idea from what you said in previous testimony that there was a 
time when you had been one. That is, frankly, why I raised the 
question. I had what you call a hunch, and your answer, I think, 
verifies my hunch. But again I want to urge that it is pertinent, 
because any time we ask a person whether or not he or she is a Com- 
munist or has been, it is pertinent under the Supreme Court rulings, 
we believe, because the Supreme Court has specifically held, a year 
ago June, in the Subversive Activities Control Board case, that the 
Communist Party in the United States was and always was, and now 
is, a conspiracy emanating from a foreign power. 

We certainly are legally entitled to ask people whether or not they 
ever were or are members of an international conspiracy emanating 
from a foreign power. That was the purport of my question. Thank 
you for answering. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Hoffman, did you submit your resignation from 
the Communist Party to a Communist Party functionary? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are directed to answer this question. If you 
have sincerely terminated your membership in the Communist Party 
and all sympathy with it or for it, you are to be commended. But in 
the light of your response, that you have not been a member for more 
than 5 years in the Communist Party, I think it is necessary for the 
committee to probe your good faith in that statement. I, therefore, 
think that the question whether you actually submitted a resig- 
nation 

Mrs. Hoffman. May I answer? 

Mr. NiTTLE. — is relevant and pertinent to that inquiry. 

Mrs. Hoffman. My answer is that I do not crawl, but I stand on 
my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I request that the witness be directed 
to respond to the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I make that direction. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think, Mr. Chairman, she should be asked what 
constitutional privileges she specifically invokes in stating that she 
stands upon her previous answer in refusing to answer this particular 
question. 

Mrs. Hoffman. My privileges were part of my answer, but I will 
be glad to repeat them. I do not see that the committee has the 
authority to pose this question. I do not believe that past member- 
ship in the Communist Party is pertinent to anything which this com- 
mittee is authorized to inquire into. I am working for a climate of 
peace today and I am doing this under no discipline or direction other 
than that of my own conscience. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is it. 



2112 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want to state for the record, Mr. Chairman, and to 
the witness, that I am not now, nor is the committee now, inquiring 
into her past membership. The question is posed with a view to 
determining whether or not there is a present membership in view of 
your admission of past membership. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I answered that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If there was not a sincere break or termination of 
membership in the Communist Party and if the resignation was 
purely technical, there would be a continuing membership. The 
question is addressed to you with respect to your present member- 
ship. 

I ask: Did you ever submit a resignation from the Communist 
Party to a Communist Party functionary? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I would like to repeat what I said to you before, 
that I am not now a member of the Communist Party. As for the 
rest of the question, I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not invoke the privileges of the self-incrimina- 
tion clause of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I do not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time advise any functionary of the 
Communist Party of your desire to withdraw from, and break from 
membership in, the Communist Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To whom did you submit your resignation, if one was 
submitted? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time publicly announced your with- 
drawal from the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I have nothing to add to my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have 3^ou at any time since the date of your alleged 
withdrawal from the Communist Party conferred with any person 
known by you to have been a member of the Communist Party or a 
functionary, prior to the time of your withdrawal, regarding Com- 
munist Party objectives? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I don't quite follow what you mean by prior to my 
withdrawal. Did I consult with them? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Hoffman. At what period of time? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way: During the course of your 
membership in the Communist Party, you, of course, made the ac- 
quaintance of other members of the Communist Party; is that not 
correct, without stating their names? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time since you state you have with- 
drawn from the Communist Party conferred with any of those persons 
you then knew, regarding Communist Party objectives? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Does the question mean within the past 5 years 
have I 

Mr. NiTTLE. Since your withdrawal, or since the time you state 
you liave withdrawn. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Have I spoken to any members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. An}'^ person you knew to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2113 

Mrs. Hoffman. Regarding Communist Party objectives? 

Mr. jNittle. Yes. 

Mrs. Hoffman. No. I have not. I have simply discussed with 
many hundreds of people peace objectives. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your alleged withdrawal from the Communist 
Party a purely technical one? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Kittle. Did you have any understanding with any Communist 
Party functionary at the time you stated you withdrew from the party 
that you would continue to support the party and its policies and 
objectives? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I stand on my previous answer, though I think I 
have answered that question in another way. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you become an anti-Communist after you left 
the party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me caution the witness. 

I call to your attention, Mr. Chairman, that the witness said to her 
attorney, "How do I answer that question?" Our rules specifically 
provide that the answers of the witness to questions are to be the 
witness' answers and not her attorney's. His function is to advise as 
to constitutional rights. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I need advice as to time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But not as to the language that shall be the response 
to the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask that counsel for Mrs. Hoffman be advised against 
that practice. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Hoffman. I would like to have a few things clarified, which is 
why I asked my attorney. I thought he understood more than I did, 
but he is confused, also. Perhaps if you restated your question so that 
I knew you would be discussing my points of view during the past 5 
years, and then perhaps if you could clarify what you mean by an 
anti-Communist, because very many people have very different ideas 
about what either a Communist or an anti-Communist is, then per- 
haps I might be able to answer that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Hoffman, it seems that the question is perfectly 
clear, and we will entertain whatever response you wish to give to it. 
You may qualify your response in whatever way you see fit. 

I ask you again: Have you become an anti-Communist since your 
alleged date of withdrawal from the party, more than 5 years ago? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Then I am to understand you are discussing — ^you 
are asking me about my thinking during the past 5 years as regards 
communism? Do I understand that correctly? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking whether you have become an anti- 
Communist since j^our withdrawal from the party. 

Mrs. Hoffman. And I tell you again, I cannot answer that question 
unless you more clearly define it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that your answer? 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is may answer. I don't understand your 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any questions. Governor? 



2114 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions, 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that we recess the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Doyle. The pubhc hearings will stand in recess until 10 
o'clock tomorrow morning in this room. 

(Whereupon, at 1:05 p.m., Tuesday, December 11, 1962, the public 
hearings were recessed, to be resumed at 10 a.m. on the following day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 11, 1962 

EXECUTIVE SESSION ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met in executive session at 2:45 p.m., in Room 219, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle, of 
California, and William M. Tuck, of Virginia. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S, 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Ray- 
mond T. Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Neidenberg, will you please raise your right 
hand and be sworn. Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF ELSIE NEIDENBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for 
the record, please? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Elsie Neidenberg, 250 Central Avenue, Law- 
rence, Long Island, New York. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you at any time previously resided at 389 Mulry 
Lane, Hempstead, Long Island? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I never resided in Hempstead. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you resided in the area of Long Island? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Nittle. Where in Long Island did you reside and would you 
state the time or period of your residence? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Well, possibly I could clarify something so we 
won't have to go into this. Mulry Lane happens to be in Lawrence, 
also, and I did live at 389 Mulry Lane. It was not in Hempstead. 
I mean I feel we go through a lot of questions which may just not get 
us anywhere on this. 

Mr. Nittle. That was Mulry Lane, Lawrence, Long Island? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. That's right. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I was born in Moscow, Russia, February 2, 
1918. 

' Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2115 

Mr. Taylor. Could I be identified on the record? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a citizen of the United States? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Yes I am, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state for the record when and by what 
process you acquired citizenship? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Sometime in 1928 under my father's papers. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. NeidExNberg. High school graduate. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you Mrs. Louis Neidenberg? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Presently I am a housewife and mother. I 
also do several other things like work in the hospital to help the 
needy and those that are ill. I help the women in the Golden Age 
Club, and actually this is my current occupation, as a volunteer, I 
might add. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you a member of an organization known as 
Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer this and invoke the privilege 
of the fifth amendment and I also feel that this question has no per- 
tinency, nor does this committee have the authority under the inquiries 
that they should be making, I guess I should say, and to answer this 
question would be an infringement on my constitutional rights. 

Mr. Nittle. When you state that you are invoking the fifth amend- 
ment, do you invoke the self-incrimination clause of that amendment? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Well, if it is needed in this instance I am. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is, Are you presently invoking it? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. You must make the decision as to whether it is 
needed. 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Yes, I am. I feel, considering the presentation 
that was made at the open hearing this morning, that I would have to 
invoke this privilege. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you feel that if you were to answer this particular 
question it might subject you to a criminal prosecution? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I believe so. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Neidenberg, it is the committee's information 
that on January 22, 1962, a meeting took place of the officers and 
members of a New York group of the Women Strike for Peace organi- 
zation, at which a report was made by the chairman of the Finance 
Committee, who reported, among other things, on the amount col- 
lected for train fares to transport Women Strike for Peace demonstra- 
tors to Washington for the White House picketing demonstration on 
January 15, 1962. 

It is the committee's information that 3'^ou were in attendance at 
that meeting of the New York group of Women Strike for Peace. 
Did you, in fact, attend that meeting? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I stand on the previous answer. 



2116 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. It was also reported at that meeting that $18,974.91 
had been collected for the stated purpose of conducting the picketing 
demonstration at the White House. Do you recall that report? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Also at that meeting the then treasurer submitted her 
resignation, whereupon you, Elsie Neidenberg, and two other per- 
sons volunteered to serve as co-treasurers. Would you tell the com- 
mittee whether this information is correct? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer this and invoke my privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. WhUe you have served as co-treasurer, have any funds 
of the New York group been forwarded for the use of the Washington 
headquarters of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I must decline to answer this for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Nittle. During your tenure as co-treasurer, has any financial 
report ever been rendered by your organization to the Washington 
headquarters of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Since I have laid no claim to any organization, 
I must again de'cline to answer this question and invoke my privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you take part in the White House demonstrations 
in Washington on January 15, 1962? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information that approximately 
1,700 women participated in the White House demonstration on 
January 15, 1962. Approximately 1,450 of the 1,700 women arrived 
by train on the Pennsylvania Railroad, and several women of your 
New York group visited various congressional offices during the 
afternoon of that day. It appears that the vast majority of the 
women who demonstrated before the White House were from the 
New York area rather than from the Washington area, which is the 
headquarters of Women Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Neidenberg. May I just speak to Mr. Taylor? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us how many fares were purchased by 
the New York group for transportation to the Washington demon- 
stration? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Nittle. Were not approximately 1,450 fares purchased from 
the Pennsylvania Railroad? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer for the stated reason. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have any knowledge as to whether or not 
there was any coordination on this occasion betw^een the New York 
group of Women Strike for Peace and the Washington headquarters 
of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy of the organizational plan pre- 
viously marked for identification as Posner Exhibit No. 1, titled 
"Structure for Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan N.Y. New 
Jersey Conn." You wUl note on page 3 of that exhibit there are 
established certain work committees, among which appears the 
Finance Committee, consisting of a chairman pro tem and three 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2117 

treasurers, together with accountants, fund raisers, and so forth. 
When you volunteered on January 22, 1962, to serve as co-treasurer, 
had Posner Exhibit 1 been adopted as the official plan of organization 
of your group. Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I stand on the fifth amendment, my privilege 
not to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently serving in the capacity of co- 
treasurer of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information that an Elsie 
Neidenberg, then of 389 Mulry Lane, Lawrence, Hempstead, Long 
Island, on August 27, 1946, signed a Communist Party Independent 
Nominating Petition for the New York election. I hand you a photo- 
static copy of that petition, marked for identification as Neidenberg 
Exhibit No. 1, upon which the signature of Elsie Neidenberg appears. 

Are you the Elsie Neidenberg whose signature appears upon that 
petition? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I don't see the pertinency of this question to 
any inquiry the committee is authorized to make, and to be required 
to answer is an infringement of my constitutional rights. 

(Document marked "Neidenberg Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. You will note that the petition states in its printed 
form that — 

I intend to support at the ensuing election, and I do hereby nominate the following 
named persons as candidates * * * and that I select the name COMMUNIST 
PARTY as the name of the independent body making the nominations * * *. 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I again state that I don't see the pertinency of 
this question to the inquiry and I decline to answer and invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you executed that petition? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer and give the same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Same answer. I cannot answer and I invoke my 
privilege. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, are you going to state to the witness the 
pertinency of that question? She has raised that point. 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I must say, Mr. Doyle, if I may, that I heard 
the open hearings this morning and I heard what both you and the 
counsel here had to say, but I still don't see or didn't feel that, in 
this particular instance where I am concerned, what I may or may not 
have done has anything to do with the peace movement today, if 
this is what the inquiry is about. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand then that you don't think that 
whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party is pertinent 
to our hearings? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I don't think so and I also, as I said, take the 
privilege of the fifth amendment not to testify against myself at the 
same time. 

Mr. Doyle. Having explained to you, or raised for your further 
information, why I feel that the question is pertinent, I instruct you 
to answer the question. 



2118 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Neidexberg. Well, I decline to answer on my privilege under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Neidenberg, the Hewlett-Woodmere Library 
is situated in Cedarhurst, Lo'ng Island; is it not? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. No, it is not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where is it situated? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. In Woodmere. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you participated in any of the activities of the 
National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy during the year 1961? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer this question for the same 
reason. 

rt: it: H: H: H: it: it: 

Mr. Doyle. Why is that question pertinent? 

Mr. NiTTLE. To the activities of Mrs. Neidenberg in the so-called 
peace movement. 

Mr. Doyle. I will instruct you to answer, Mrs. Neidenberg. 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer that under the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period of your service as co-treasurer of 
the New York group of Women Strike for Peace, have you solicited 
or received funds from persons known by you to be members of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I decline to answer this and invoke my privi- 
lege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you communicated to any person known to 
you to be a member of the Comnmnist Party any information relative 
to the financial status of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I must decline to answer this for the same 
reason. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Di)^ you engage in activities in Women Strike for 
Peace on behalf of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Neidenberg. I must decline to answer that though I can't 
see the relevancy of this question, but I will decline to answer and 
invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Governor Tuck? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. Thank you, witness. 

Mrs. Neidenberg. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. Will the next witness, Mrs. Sylvia Con ten te, please rise 
and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Contente. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF SYLVIA CONTENTE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Contente. My name is Sylvia Contente. I live at 1306 
Fteley Avenue. I wiU spell it for you. That's F-t-e-1-e-y, in the 
Bronx. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2119 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. I think I am very ably represented by counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly state his name and office address 
for the record? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, Mrs. Contente, formerly reside at 2965 East 
196th Street, New York City? 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. May I speak to my counsel? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Contente. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you also reside at one time at 1063 Ward 
Avenue, Bronx, N.Y.? 

Mrs. Contente. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you Mrs. Ira Contente? 

Mrs. Contente. That's right, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mrs. Contente. May 3, 1919, New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Contente. I am a high school graduate. I graduated from 
Theodore Roosevelt High School in the Bronx. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Contente. Do you want to know how I spend my time? 
I have a job in an office. This is the way I supplement our income, 
but beside that I devote a great deal of time in all my commimity 
activities. I am president of a parents association. I am a board 
member of a settlement house and various and sundry organizations 
in my community. 

Mr. Nittle. What is the nature of your employment? 

Mrs. Contente. I just work in an office. I do bookkeeping. 

Mr. Nittle. I believe you are also a member, or were, of the 
Bronx chapter of the American Association for the United Nations? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Contente. Yes, that's true. 

Mr, Nittle. You were relating some of your activities, and I just 
wanted to determine whether my information relating to them is 
correct. 

Mrs. Contente. All this is public record, sir, 

Mr. Nittle. I made no imputation that it wasn't. 

Mrs. Contente. All right. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Nittle. I don't recollect whether you mentioned membership 
on the board of the Bronx River Neighborhood Center. 

Mrs. Contente. That's the settlement house I was referring to. 

Mr. Nittle. I see. Are you also the chairman of two public 
school parent associations? 

Mrs. Contente. Not simultaneously. I was at one time at one 
school and I am at the present time president of a parent association, 
yes. I don't think I could do that. 

Mr. Nittle. What school is that, if I may ask? 

Mrs. Contente. It's Junior High School 123, Bronx. 

Mr. Nittle. I believe you are also engaged and occupied as a 
member of a New York group of Women Strike for Peace, are you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



2120 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. Well, I would like to answer your question by 
indicating that I don't feel that your question is really pertinent to 
this inquirj'^, whether or not I do participate with Women Strike for 
Peace, and I really question the validity of your authority under 
which you ask this question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You heard the chairman's opening statement, I 
presume, this morning? 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. I Certainly did. In fact I read it before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is the organization to which he referred and which 
is the subject of inquiry. 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. I realize that. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a question? I wondered this morning — 
and I intended to ask the question of one or more of the women on 
the stand — You are all very proud of your community work and your 
PTA and United Nations work and list those proudly, and that's 
right, but when you come to the Women Strike for Peace you plead 
the fifth amendment. What is there about the Women Strike for 
Peace that makes you unwilling to tell us about it? What does it 
do? What is there about it? What is the distinction? What is 
there about the Women Strike for Peace that you don't want the 
Congress to know anything about as far as you are concerned? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. Mr. Doyle, it isn't that I don't want you to know 
about it, and, as you indicated yourself, we are very proad of our 
activities. All of the activities are public record. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. But we feel that as American citizens the question 
relating to this loosely organized movement is not pertinent. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, then why are questions related to the PTA perti- 
nent? I was once president of the PTA of the men years ago. Why 
are questions about the PTA, about the United Nations, about the 
community settlement pertinent? 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. Sir, you are not concerned with the kind of work 
or kind of activity that the other organizations we mentioned discuss. 
You just want to know something about me as an individual, I gather. 
That's why you are interested for the record to know what my com- 
munity connections are in relation to your statement this morning — 
I am concerned with the pertinency of Women Strike for Peace, looking 
for subversive people in the group, being directed by a foreign govern- 
ment^ — and I feel that under those circumstances I have to decline to 
answer because I must take the fifth amendment and guard myself 
against incriminating myself. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you are quite right. Our questions are intended 
to be limited to the extent to which subversives are infiltrating the 
Women Strike for Peace. We are not concerned with your motives 
or anything of the sort. We are concerned with, and, as I said, you 
heard my statement this morning, the extent to which the Communists 
as subversives are infiltrating, if they are, the Women Strike for Peace. 
Is that the reason you plead the fifth amendment? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2121 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. I have to stand on my previous answer, Mr. 
Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't mean to try to lead you out. 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. I realize that. 

Mr. Doyle. But it was very surprising to me. There must be 
something about the Women Strike for Peace that the women don't 
want Congress to know about. 

Mrs. Contente. I am not here to make any speeches, but I feel 
that the emphasis is on the wrong thing entirely. It isn't that we 
don't want j'ou to know, because if the women who participate, or 
who are concerned with the questions involved, didn't want anyone 
to know, all this information would not be public. 

We are concerned that we don't invade anyone's privacy of thought 
and we don't want anyone harassed and we don't want to be involved 
in the situation where we have to become informers on pther people 
who may or may not be — I have no idea — and I cannot under those 
circum.stances do anything else except take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. I understand I think. Thank you. Pardon me. 
Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Contente, we are principally concerned with the 
activities of certain persons which are not so public in Women Strike 
for Peace, and I think you might have gathered that from the interro- 
gation of prior witnesses. 

Mrs. Contente. Yes, I did. I listened very intently. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information that you were a 
member of a delegation organized by the New York group of Women 
Strike for Peace which departed from Idle wild Airport on April 1, 
1962, to attend the disarmament conference at Geneva, Switzerland. 

Were you a member of the delegation and did you attend the 
Geneva conference? 

Mrs. Contente. I am afraid, sir, that based on what I said before 
regarding the pertinency of this question, I have to decline to answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you personally assume the expenses of your travel 
to Geneva? 

Mrs. Contente. I think the same answer will have to prevail. 

Mr. Nittle. Were any part of the expenses of travel to Geneva 
assumed by the New York group of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Contente. I will have to give you the same answer, take the 
fifth amendment, to avoid any self-incrimination. 

Mr. Nittle. Could you tell us whether the New York group of 
Women Strike for Peace initiated the arrangements for the appear- 
ance of a delegation at Geneva on behalf of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Contente. I believe, sir, that I will have to give you the same 
answer. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information, Mrs. Contente, 
that you, together with your husband, Ira Contente, giving your ad- 
dress as 1063 Ward Avenue, Bronx, New York, in 1946 signed a Com- 
munist Party Independent Nominating Petition for Robert Thompson, 
a leading Communist Party functionary who sought the office of 
Governor of the State of New York. 



93367 0—63- 



2122 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

There were other Communist Party candidates on the petition. I 
hand j^ou a photostatic copy of that petition, which is titled "Com- 
munist Party Independent Nominating Petition." The signature of 
Sylvia Contente appears thereon under date of August 17, 1946. 

Are you the Sylvia Contente who executed that Communist Party 
nominating petition? 

Mrs. Contente. I am going to have to decline to answer that 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On what grounds? 

Mrs. Contente. On the grounds of the fifth amendment, on the 
constitutional ground of the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Contente Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I point out to you that the petition is addressed to the 
Secretary of State of the State of New York and declares that the 
undersigned persons, among whom the name "Sylvia Contente" ap- 
pears, executing that petition are duly qualified voters, that they 
intend to support at the ensuing election the persons nominated as 
candidates in that petition, and select the name "Communist Party" as 
the name of the independent body making the nominations. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party at the time you 
executed that petition? 

Mrs. Contente. I must decline to answer because I don't believe 
the question is pertinent to these hearings and I again have to say 
that I question the authority of the committee to ask me these 
questions and I will decline to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer the question, Witness. It is 
very pertinent. 

Mrs. Contente. I decline to answer on the constitutional grounds 
of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party, 
Mrs. Contente? 

Mrs. Contente. My answer is exactly the same, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Contente. You want me to say that again? Well, I invoke 
the privilege of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Contente, I think I will possibly ask you another 
question or two and then conclude the staff interrogation. 

An organization titled "American Youth for Democracy" was 
formed in October 1943 to succeed the Young Communist League 
upon the dissolution of the latter organization. It is the committee's 
information that you attended a State convention of the American 
Youth for Democracy held at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City 
on December 14, 15, and 16, 1945; that you were a member of the 
Finance Committee of that organization, elected to the State Council 
on behalf of the Bronx young adult group. 

Were you in attendance at that convention? 

Mrs. Contente. I am sorry, Counsel, but I will have to give you the 
same answer as I did before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you been a member of the Young Communist 
League? 

Mrs. Contente. The same answer prevails. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2123 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in your activities on behalf of 
Women Strike for Peace, including your membership in the delegation 
to the Geneva conference, as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. My answer is the same, sir. 1 decline to answer 
under the constitutional fifth amendment against self-incrimination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you counseled and advised by any member of 
the Communist Party to undertake activities in Women Strike for 
Peace and other peace organizations? 

Mrs. CoNTENTE. My answer has to be the same, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions, Counsel. 

Thank you, Witness. 

(Whereupon, at 3:30 p.m., Tuesday, December 11, 1962, the sub- 
committee, in executive session, adjourned, subject to call.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 
(Women Strike for Peace and Certain Other Groups) 



WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10:15 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Clyde Doyle (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle, of 
California; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. 

Staff members present: Alfred M. Nittle, counsel, and Raymond T. 
Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The subconnnittee will proceed. 

Governor Tuck, former Governor of Virginia, and myself, Clyde 
Doyle of California, are now present. Therefore, a quorum of the 
subcommittee is present. 

We will proceed with the hearings this morning. 

Yesterday I read the preliminary statement. I will not read it 
this morning unless there is some request from counsel for some of 
the witnesses that I do so. I will assume that all the witnesses today 
were here yesterday and heard that read. We know that the legal 
counsel appearing for the witnesses today is familiar with it. 

Ai'e you ready, Counsel? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Before you call your first witness, I have a statement 
I wish to read with reference to an incident yesterday. 

At the close of the hearing yesterday, a news reporter inquired if 
I had made a statement during the course of the hearings, to the effect 
that the burden of proof was on the udtness to show she was not a 
member of the Communist Party. I denied making any such state- 
ment. I made that denial because I do not and never have believed 
that, as all who know me can verify. Of course, the burden of proof 
is not on the witness to show that she was not a member of the Com- 
munist Party. This is the position I have always taken on this 
committee and in my law practice. 

2125 



2126 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

This morning, to my amazement on examination of the transcript 
of the testimon}^ I find that I am reported as having made the 
following statement: 

So far as we know, she is a Communist now, because there is no evidence that 
she is not. If she is not, here is an opportunity for her to clear it up. 

During the verbal extemporaneous exchange I was having with the 
witness, I no doubt stated what I was reported to have stated, but I 
did not intend to leave the impression that I believed then or now 
that a witness is under the burden of proving that she is not a member 
of the Communist Party, as that is, in fact, contrary to my opinion, 
and my expressions on this subject over a term of years are well 
known. 

Are you ready, Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Call your first witness, please. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Rose Clinton please come forward? 

(A bouquet was handed to Miss Clinton by one of the spectators.) 

Mr. Doyle. It is nice to get the flowers while you can smell them, 
isn't it? 

Well, I am sure we all enjoyed that courtesy extended to the 
witness by her friends. I think it is the first tune in all the years 
that I have been on the committee that I have seen it done, but we 
are glad you got a bouquet. 

That causes me just to make this remark. I couldn't help but 
notice yesterday, when a portion of the audience stood up, you all 
stood up simultaneously, which was interesting. Both sides of the 
dividing aisle seemed to know when it was your time to stand up. 

Now, of course, there is only one way you could know that, because 
that was planned. 

The other thing I noticed was, when the same group applauded, 
you all applauded, beginning simultaneously. And of course, to me, 
having observed those things before, that means that that was 
planned. 

So let's not have any repetition of that sort of planned demonstra- 
tion today. Let's not have that occur, please, because it is too 
evident, don't you see, to those that are not doing it. 

Witness, will you please stand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Clinton. I do. 

Mr. DoYLE. You may proceed. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF ROSE CLINTON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your name and residence, please? 
Miss Clinton. Rose Clinton, New York City. 
Mr. Nittle. What is your street address? 
Miss Clinton. 370 West 58th. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel, Mrs. Clinton? 
Miss Clinton. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York City. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2127 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your marital status, Mrs. Clinton? 

Miss Clinton. It is Miss Clinton. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is Miss Clinton? 

Miss Clinton. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where were you born, and when? 

Miss Clinton. I was born in Virginia, and I am very much sur- 
prised to see Governor Tuck here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the place of your birth in the State of 
Virginia? 

Miss Clinton. Clinton's Point, Va. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you did not give us the date of your birth. Do 
you wish to Umit your testimony in that respect, stating that you are 
over 21 years of age? 

Miss Clinton. I do, and as a lady from the South, I don't hke to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, in view of your observation about the distin- 
guished former Governor of Virgmia being a member of this committee, 
and present, I will say that not only the committee, but the whole 
Congress, is very proud and happy to have him as a Member of 
Congress. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Clinton, would you relate the extent of j'^our 
formal education? 

Miss Clinton. I have a high school education and a college 
education. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What college did you attend and would you state 
whether yo.u received any degree? 

Miss Clinton. George Washington University. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive a degree from George Washington 
University and, if so, would you state what that degree is? 

Miss Clinton. I received an LL.B. degree. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A bachelor of laws degree. 

What is your present occupation? 

Miss Clinton. I am seK-employed. I have no particular occupa- 
tion. I am a free-lance stenographer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the place of your occupation? 

Miss Clinton. I work from home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation discloses that you have 
been very active in an organization known as the West Side Peace 
Committee and that you have assumed the position of secretary 
thereof and membership chairman. 

Are you presently the secretary and membership chairman of the 
West Side Peace Committee? 

Miss Clinton. I question the committee's authority under the 
Constitution to require me to answer that question, and I question 
its pertinence to any matter the committee is authorized to inquire 
into. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What constitutional privilege do you invoke in 
response to the question? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think we should clarify that. 

Do you invoke the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment 
of the Constitution as a basis for your refusal to respond to the ques- 
tion? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



2128 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Miss Clinton. Do I understand that you are directing me to 
answer that question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have asked for your basis for refusal to respond to 
the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I ask specifically whether you are invoking the 
self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Miss Clinton. I still stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' response, I 
respectfully request that she be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. DoYLE. I direct you to answer that question, Witness, and 
may I ask that you speak a httle louder? There is still a little noise 
in the hearing room, and the committee cannot quite hear everything 
you say. But if you heard the counsel's question to you — did you hear 
his question to you? 

Miss Clinton. Yes. 

Mr, Doyle. I direct you to answer that question. 

Miss Clinton. In that event, I must also invoke my constitutional 
privilege under the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us how the West Side Peace Committee 
carne into existence? And how you were appointed to, or assumed the 
position of, secretary and membership cliairman of that committee? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss CHnton, in the course of the Senate investigation 
of a New York group designated the Greater New York Committee 
for a Sane Nuclear Policy7 Henry Abrams, a prominent leader of that 
group and the unpublicized chief organizer of its May 1960 Madison 
Square Garden Rally, was revealed as a Communist and expelled 
from the national organization of SANE in January 1961. 

He thereafter formed an organization titled the "Conference of 
Greater New York Peace Groups" and served as its chairman. 

The Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups established 
executive officers and an executive committee for the coordination of 
supporting local neighborhood groups. 

It is the committee's information that you. Rose Chnton, were 
one of the initial members of the Conference of Greater New York 
Peace Groups. 

Do you affirm or deny this assertion of fact? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Clinton. I still stand on my previous answer. 

Air. Nittle. It is the committee's information that the Con- 
ference of Greater New York Peace Groups established no office, 
but utihzed a mailing and telephone service at 550 Fifth Avenue, 
Manhattan, New York. 

Would 3^ou corroborate that information for the benefit of the 
committee? 

Miss Clinton. I still stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is also our information that the West Side Peace 
Committee is one of the neighborhood groups established and operating 
in support of the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups. 

Was the West Side Peace Committee established as a supporting 
group for the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups? 

Miss Clinton. I question the committee's authority to ask the 
question and I stand on my previous response. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2129 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is further our information that the West Side 
Peace Committee has been scheduled to meet monthly, with featured 
speakers; that this group had recently a paid-up membership of 
approximately 95 persons and maintained a mailing list of approxi- 
mately 800 persons; and that the West vSide Peace Committee main- 
tains a representative on the Conference of Greater New York Peace 
Groups. 

Could you as secretary of the West Side Peace Committee corrobo- 
rate this information? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Henry Abrams, the chairman of the 
Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Clinton. Previous answer. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask again, please, that you speak a little louder? 

Miss Clinton. I am sorry. 

Mr. Doyle. Speak right into the mouthpiece, there. 

Miss Clinton. I have stage fright. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the West Side Peace Committee presently main- 
tain any oflEices and, if so, would you state the office address? 

Miss Clinton. I invoke the right to stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is our information that the West Side Peace Com- 
mittee maintains no office except an address at the personal residence 
of one Ceil Gross, at 145 West 96th Street, Apartment 10-A, New 
York City; telephone RI 9-0506. 

Is that the official address of the West Side Peace Committee? 

Miss Clinton. My answer is the same. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you perform your duties as secretary at the resi- 
dence of Ceil Gross? 

Miss Clinton. My answer is the same. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At what place does your organization, the West Side 
Peace Committee, maintain its mailing list of approximately 800 
persons? 

Miss Clinton. Same. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask that you be a little bit more explicit, in- 
stead of just saying "same"? 

Miss Clinton. I shall repeat what I said before. I question 

Mr. DoYLE. That wiU be unnecessary, if you will just say "the 
same as my previous answer." 

Miss Clinton. Thank you. The same as my previous answer. 

Mr. Doyle. If you will just say that, instead of just the word 
"same." 

Miss Clinton. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you appointed to the position of secretary and 
membership chairman of the West Side Peace Committee by any 
person known to be a member of the Communist^ Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Clinton. The same. My answer is the same as the previous 
answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Clinton, on Jul}'' 11, 1951, Mrs. Mary Stalcup 
Markward, who had been an undercover operative for the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation from 1943 to 1949, serving in the Communist 



2130 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Party of the District of Columbia, testified before the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities that in the spring of 1949 she met 
with you at a secret Communist Party meeting in Baltimore, Md. 

Was Mrs. Markward correct in stating your attendance at that 
secret Communist Party meeting in Baltimore? 

Miss Clinton. My answer is the same as the previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have formerly resided in the city of Washington, 
D.C., have you not? 

(Witness conferred with coimsel.) 

Miss Clinton. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state the period of time during which you 
resided here? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Clinton. I give the same answer as the previous one. 

Mr. Nittle. You are invoking the self-incrimination clause of the 
fifth amendment? 

Miss Clinton. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On May 4, 1953, Mrs. Dorothy K. Funn, F-u-n-n, 
formerly a school teacher from Brooklyn, N.Y., testified before the 
Committee on Un-American Activities that she jojned the Communist 
Party in May 1939 and remained a member until about June 1946. 

During the period from 1943 to 1946, she was assigned to Wash- 
ington, D.C., as a legislative representative for the National Negro 
Congress, an organization cited as subversive and Commimist by 
Attorney General Tom Clark. 

She further testified that she met periodically in Washington with 
secret cells of the Communist Party composed of legislative repre- 
sentatives here for certain organizations and others. 

She testified that she knew you as a member of the Communist 
Party and that you were then employed in Washington, D.C., by 
the Cafeteria Workers Union, CIO. 

Did Mrs. Funn correctly describe you as a member of the Com- 
munist Party during that period? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you sincerely believe that an answer to that 
question would subject you to a criminal prosecution? 

Miss Clinton. I invoke my constitutional privilege under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you participated in any of the activities of a 
New York group of Women-Strike for Peace? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous .answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you a member of Women Strike for Peace? 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in attendance during the interrogation of 
the prior witnesses, Blanche H. Posner and Lyla Hoffman, yesterday? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Clinton. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you had occasion to discuss with Blanche H. 
Posner any of the activities of the West Side Peace Committee? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Clinton. I stand on my previous answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2131 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had occasion to discuss with Lyla Hoffman 
any of the activities of the West Side Peace Committee, of which 
you are the secretary and membership chairman? 

Miss Clinton. The same as the previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of page 11 of a newspaper called 
the National Guardian, issue of January 15, 1962, marked for identifi- 
cation as Clinton Exhibit No. 1. 

I direct your attention to an advertisement on page 11 under a 
column designated "CALENDAR." Under the subheading "NEW 
YORK" appears the following: 

TUES., JAN. 16, 8:15 p.m. Panel Discussion: FALLOUT SHELTERS- 
DEFENSE OR DELUSION? Mrs. Mary Sharmat, Women's Strike for Peace; 
Dr. Alex Mauro, scientists' Comm. for Radiation Information; Dr. Doris K. 
Miller, psychologist; Senator Manfred Ohrenstein. Panel discussion followed 
by question-and-answer period. — Hotel Beacon, 75 & B'way. Auspices: West 
Side Peace Committee. 

Did you participate in the arrangements made for the appearance 
of the speaker from the New York group of the organization known 
as Women Strike for Peace at the Hotel Beacon? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Clinton, My answer is the same as the previous answer, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you communicate with the speaker for Women 
Strike for Peace by mail or otherwise for this purpose? 

Miss Clinton. My answer is the same. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The advertisement indicates that the panel discussion 
was conducted under the auspices of the West Side Peace Committee, 
as I have said, and that the panel discussion was on the following 
subject: "Fallout shelters, defense or delusion?" 

Did you participate in the selection or designation of this subject 
for discussion? 

Miss Clinton. My answer is the same as the previous. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you under the discipline of the Communist 
Party while undertaking such activities on behalf of the West Side 
Peace Committee? 

Miss Clinton. The same answer. 

(Document marked "Clinton Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, that concludes the staff interrogation, 

Mr. DoYLE. Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions except to ask you, Counsel: You 
have produced a document there in evidence. May I see that? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. What publication is this? What organization pub- 
lishes this paper? 

Mr. Nittle. This is the National Guardian, a newspaper cited in 
our Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

That is all, Counsel. Thank you. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Iris Freed come forward? 

(At this point Mr. Bruce entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Doyle. Ma^' the record of the hearings show that Donald 
Bruce, of Indiana, a member of the subcommittee duly appointed, 
takes a seat on the subcommittee for these hearings at this time. 



2132 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOTKMENT 

Will the witness please stand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mrs. Freed. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRIS FREED, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, TELFORD 

TAYLOR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Freed. Iris Freed, 15 Douglas Lane, Larchmont, N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, I am. Mr. Telford Taylor is representing me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is Larchmont situated in the county of Westchester, 
State of New York? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, it is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you formerly reside at 659 Pennsylvania Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N.Y.? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the period of your residence there? 

Mrs. Freed. Pardon me. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. That is so long ago, let me think a moment, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it in the 1940's? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mrs. Freed. It was New York City and — it was Brooklyn, N.Y., 
I am sorry — ^January 20, 1920. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are Mrs, Selwyn Freed, are you not? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is S-e-1-w-y-n? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your maiden name Iris Schwartz? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Freed. High school. Girls' Commercial High School. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Freed. I am a housewife and a mother of two children. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of an organization known as 
Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Freed. Women Strike for Peace is not an organization. It 
is a movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does it have members? 

Mrs. Freed. No, it does not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Freed, that is interesting. If a group has 
no organization and has no members, how in the world does it function? 

Mrs. Freed. Well, it is quite remarkable. Sometimes I wonder, 
myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, it has appeared to me quite remarkable, too. 

But as a matter of fact, Women Strike for Peace is organized; isn't 
it? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2133 

Mrs. Freed. I am sorry. I don't understand your question. 
What do you mean'i* It is not an organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, let me put it this way. You do have in the 
New York group of that organization a boay known as the Central 
Coordinating Committee, do you not? 

Mrs. Freed. We just — ^it is — well, there are some people in New 
York, yes, and it is called the Coordinating Committee, except the 
Coordinating Committee consists of many people. It is not just in 
New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many people does it consist of? 

Mrs. Freeq. Oh, it is so fluid it is hard to say. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Freed, as a matter of fact, the Central Coordinat- 
ing Committee does not consist of many people, does it? 

Mrs. Freed. To my knowledge it does, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I hand you a copy of Posner Exhibit No. 1, the 
structural plan for Women Strike for Peace for New York, New 
Jersey, and Connecticut. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I presume you are famUiar with that structural plan, 
are you not? 

Mrs. Freed. Somewhat. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well now, you are actually a member of the Central 
Coordinating Committee of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Freed. No, I am not. I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not appointed as a Westchester delegate to 
the Central Coordinating Committee of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Freed. You know, it is very funny. You make us sound 
really so organized, and we are not. I went from Westchester a 
number of times — not aU of the times — mostly through default 
because nobody else could go or was available, but it was never any- 
thing, you know, specific. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not wish to be specific on the subject. Is that 
right? 

Mrs. Freed. No, I can't be. It isn't that I don't want to be. 
There is nothing specific to say about it. I haven't always been there. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The structural plan does establish a representation 
and fixes the number of persons who serve on the Central Coordinating 
Committee. 

I direct your attention to page 1 of that exhibit, where it is stated : 

The Central Coordinating Committee, then, is composed of two representatives 
from each County or State (Manhattan, Brooklyn, Bronx, Queens, Westchester, 
Long Island, Connecticut and New Jersey) 

Mrs. Freed. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE (continuing). 

plus one representative from each Work Committee * * * plus the N.Y. Office 
Coordinator. 

The representation of the New York group on the Central Co- 
ordinating Committee consists, then, of 12 representatives. Two 
representatives, each, from Connecticut and from New Jersey are also 
allowed. That is a body of 16 representatives, excluding, of course, 
the membership of the representative from each work committee and 
the office coordinator. Is that correct? 



2134 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Freed. Well, it so states here, but this isn't what always 
happened. There were many people there, sometimes, you know, 
double the amount, because we didn't follow a structure that rigidly, 
sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Blanche Posner was reported in the New York 
Times as being the office chairman pro tem of that group, and it was 
stated that she spent many hours a day in the office. Do you have 
knov/ledge of that fact? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. There are no officers in Women Strike for Peace, but 
I question your constitutional authority to require me to answer that 
question and I also question its pertinency to any matter that this 
subcommittee is authorized to inquire about. For that reason I have 
already stated, I am invoking my constitutional privilege under the 
fifth amendment and must decline to answer that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you invoke your constitutional privilege under 
the fifth amendment, are you invoking the self-incrimination clause 
of the fifth amendment? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. The clause that requires that I need not be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire at that point. Do you really believe that 
if you answered that question without claiming j^our constitutional 
privilege that it might submit you to criminal prosecution? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. Insofar as any other individual is concerned, I rely 
on my previous statement, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. May I have the answer? I did not quite hear. 

Mrs. Freed. Insofar as any other individual is concerned, I rely on 
my previous statement. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I respectfully suggest I do not think you have 
answered my question. 

I asked you whether or not you really believe if you answered that 
question truthfully, without claiming your constitutional privilege, 
it would submit j^ou to criminal prosecution. Now that can be 
answered, I think, "yes" or "no," and should be so answered, as I 
understand it. 

(Witness conferred ^vith counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. I am claiming my constitutional privilege insofar as 
anybody else is concerned, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on my previous statement, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This article from the Mount Vernon, N.Y., Daily 
Argus of January 12, 1962, which we have marked for identification 
as Freed Exhibit No 1, a copy of which I hand you, reports Mrs. 
Selwyn Freed as being a Westchester community chairman of an 
organization titled "Women for Peace." 

Are you the Mrs. Selwyn Freed to which this article refers? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, I am. 

CDocument marked "Freed Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a Westchester cohimunity chairman of the 
Westchester Women for Peace, as reported? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2135 

Mrs. Freed. We don't have any chairman, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, then, you dispute the newspaper account of 
3^our position with that group? We would like to give you an oppor- 
tunity to correct it, if an error has been made. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. Well, I — ^I think the statement is erroneous here in 
the paper. I would like to correct it. We don't have chairmen as 
such, and if they call me a chairman, this is not true. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, if one were to call white, black, would it still be 
white or black? 

Mrs. Freed. There is no pertinence to that question, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Women for Peace and Women Strike for Peace are 
one and the same organization. Is that not correct? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was your answer? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I turn to another organization for a moment, pre- 
viously referred to in the interrogation of the prior witness. Miss 
Clinton. An organization entitled "Conference of Greater New York 
Peace Groups," conducted a meeting at Carnegie Hall on May 12, 
1961, with Linus Pauling as a principal speaker. It is the committee's 
information that you participated in that affair. Did you? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs, Freed. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Henry Abrams, chairman of the Con- 
ference of Greater New York Peace Groups? 

Mrs. Freed. I question your constitutional authority to require 
me to answer that question, and I also question its pertinence to any 
matter that this subcommittee is authorized to inquire about. 

For these reasons, the reasons already stated, I am invoking my 
constitutional privilege under the fifth amendment and I must 
decline to answer that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the Communist newspaper, 
the Sunday Worker, dated August 17, 1941, published in New York, 
marked for identification as Freed Exhibit No. 2. 

I direct your attention to page 5, where appears a photograph of 
two women in the upper left-hand corner. Do you appear as the 
woman on the left? And are you the Iris Schwartz referred to in that 
account? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. I question your constitutional authority to require 
me to answer that question, and I also question its pertinence to any 
matter that this subcommittee is authorized to inquire about. For 
that reason already stated, I am invoking my constitutional privilege 
on the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Freed Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The caption of the photograph which appears in that 
pubhcation is "They Work To Build Their Union," and at the bottom 
of the photograph there appears the legend: 

Iris Schwartz (left) works a mimeograph, machine while Betty Miller runs an 
addressograph at Department Store Employes Union, 151 W. 33rd St. 



2136 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Do you operate a mimeograph machine? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. Do you mean do I now, sir? Do you mean do I now 
operate a^ — — • 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then operate a mimeograph machine? 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on my previous statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE You stand on your privilege. 

Now, I will pose the question: Have you recently operated a mimeo- 
graph machine? 

Mrs. Freed. No. 

Mr. Doyle. May I see that exhibit, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mrs. Freed, I hand you a copy of a leaflet marked for identification 
as Freed Exhibit No. 3, which is entitled ''WESTCHESTER WOMEN 
FOR PEACE INVITE YOU TO A DISCUSSION OF CUBA.'' 

"Time: Wednesday, December 12, 8:30 P.M. Place: Scarsdale 
Friends Meeting House, Popham Rd., Scarsdale, N.Y., off Rt. 22. 
Admission: Free." 

Did you participate in the preparation or duplication of that item 
for dissemination? 

Mrs. Freed. I did not. 

(Document marked "Freed Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the arrangements made for 
the affair to be held at the place noted, and for the discussion to be 
held on the subject of Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. I didn't participate in the actual arrangements of this 
meeting, but at a meeting we did have a general discussion about 
having such a meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did participate in the discussions relating to this 
subject, did you not? 

Mrs. Freed. General discussion, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you also discuss this problem with A^Irs. Blanche 
Posner of the New York headquarters of Women Strike for Peace, 
your parent organization? 

Mrs. Freed. Shall I read this again? 

Mr. NiTTLE. You may say "the same reply," if you wish. 

Mrs. Freed. I question- — the same reply as previously indicated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Freed, I hand you a photostatic copy of the 
Independent Nominating Petition- — Communist Party for the 1941 
election, marked for identification as Freed Exhibit No. 4, upon which 
it appears that an Iris Schwartz of 659 Pennsylvania Avenue, Brooklyn, 
N.Y., signed that petition in support of the candidacy of well-known 
Communist functionaries, particularly named as Israel Amter, Eliza- 
beth Gurley Flynn, and James W. Ford, who sought respectively the 
offices of Mayor, Comptroller, and President of the Council of the 
City of New York. 

Are you the Iris Schwartz who executed that petition on September 
15, 1941? 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on the statement I previously made. 

(Document marked "Freed Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2137 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that not your actual signature appearing on that 
petition? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. The statement as previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire at that point, would you repeat the 
name of I. Amter? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Israel, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Israel Amter? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I-s-r-a-e-1 A-m-t-e-r. 

Mr. Doyle. I see in Freed Exhibit No. 2, this Communist news- 
paper, the Sunday Worker, August 17, 1941, a picture which appears 
to me to be a picture of the young lady witness at that time. 

Mrs. Freed. Thank you. That is some time ago. 

Mr. Doyle. I also see a letter dated August 18, 1941, which 
appears to be on Communist Party, USA, stationery and directed 
"to every member of the Communist Party of New York." In the 
right-hand column, it appears to be signed by I. Amter, chairman, 
Charles Krumbein, secretary. Apparently it is the same person— 
I. Amter being Israel Amter, chairman of the Communist Party in 
New York City— as shown on Freed Exhibit No. 4, which the witness 
has viewed, and I return Exhibit 2. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The petition is titled "Independent Nominating 
Petition — Communist Party," and it appears thereon that the signer 
pledges support of those persons nominated as candidates and 
selects the name "Communist Party" as the name of the independent 
body making the nomination. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party at the time you 
executed that petition? 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on my previous statement, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. I direct you to answer the question, Witness. 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on the previous statement, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. You are invoking the privileges of the fifth amendment, 
is that correct? 

Mrs. Freed. Yes, that is correct. Among others, sir. Would you 
like me to read them? 

Mr. Bruce. No, I think I know them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the information of this committee that you 
had been a member of the Communist Party Carpet Shop Branch of 
Yonkers, N.Y., and that meetings of this branch of the Communist 
Party were held in your home in 1954. 

We wish to give you the opportunity to affirm or deny this informa- 
tion or to estabhsh its accuracy. 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on the statement previously stated, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, in fact, a member of the Communist Party 
during the year 1954? 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on the statement previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation also reveals that you 
attended a Westchester County convention of the Communist Party 
in January 1957 and that you were an official delegate to that conven- 
tion. Were you? 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on the statement previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on the statement previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that question, Witness. 

93367 0—63 7 



2138 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Freed. I stand on the statement previously stated, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. No. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Witness, you mentioned you had not been 
here yesterday at the hearings. Is that correct? Or were you here? 

Mrs. Freed. I was, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And you heard me read that the subject of this inquiry 
is the extent of Communist infiltration into peace organizations. You 
heard that read yesterday; and, of course, therefore under our claim, 
these questions that we have been asking you are pertinent to this 
investigation. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freed. I really don't understand it, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I won't argue with you at this time. 

Thank you very much. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess 5 minutes. 

(Five-minute recess taken.) 

Mr. Doyle. Please be seated. The subcommittee will come to 
order. 

Let the record show that a quorum of the subcommittee is present: 
Mr. Bruce, of Indiana, and Doyle, of California. 

Are you ready, Counsel, to call your next witness? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Would Anna Mackenzie please come forward? 

Mr. DoYLE. WiU you please rise and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I do. 

Mr. DoYLE. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF ANNA MACKENZIE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mrs. Mackenzie. May I read this card? 

Mr. Doyle. No. Please wait until you are asked a question. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. It is from aU the children. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your fuU name and residence, please? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Anna Mackenzie, 36 Minuteman Hill, West- 
port, Conn. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please give us the correct spelling of your 
last name? For as I understand, it has been variously spelled as 
M-a-c-k-e-n-s-i-e, M-a-c-k-e-n-z-i-e, and M-c-K-e-n-s-i-e. 

would you tell us which is the correct spelling of your last name? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. The correct spelling is M-a-c (small) k-e-n-z-i-e. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLB. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Mackenzie, have you at any time resided at 
327 Lexington Avenue, New York City? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2139 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please state the date and place of your 
birth? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. February 17, 1914, Brookline, Mass. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your maiden name Anna DeCormis, D-e-C-o-r- 
m-i-s? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please relate the extent of your formal 
education? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. A B.A. from.Vassar. 

Mr. NiTTLE. B.A. from Vassar College? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. That is right, 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your occupation? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Housewife. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of an organization known as 
Women Strike for Peace and, if soj would you tell us when you became 
a member of that organization? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Women Strike for Peace, as you must by now 
know, is not an organization. I am not a member. I am proud to 
have participated in some of the work of the movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact^ it is our information that the 
degree of your participation was to the extent of having been appointed 
as a Connecticut State delegate to the Central Coordinating Commit- 
tee of Women Strike for Peace. Do you hold such an ofhce in that 
group? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. No, I don't. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you previously hold such an office in that group? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. There are no offices, in the first place, and I am 
not being ffippant abotitthis. There are no offices. And I have not 
held office, because there are no officers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This appears to be a most elusive organization and, 
therefore, I am compelled to submit for your inspection a document 
previously received in evidence, marked for identification as Posner 
Exhibit No. 1. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is titled "Structure for Women Strike for Peace, 
MetropoUtan N.Y., New Jersey, Conn." I will assume that you are 
familiar with this organizational plan? 

Mr. Bruce. Are you familiar with this plan? 

Mrs. Mackenzie! I know it exists. I have never read it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the adoption of that organi- 
zational plan? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I don't know that it was adopted. 

If you would Hke to know how we operate in Connecticut, I would 
be able to tell you. We are there because we beUeve in our right to 
petition our Government for peace. We beheve that in disarma- 
ment— — 

Mr. NiTTLE. I did not ask j^ou that, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Structure is something that I know nothing 
about, and it is not well organized. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I beg your pardon. I asked you whether you par- 
ticipated in the adoption of that organizational plan. And perhaps 



2140 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

you can state the degree of your participation. Was.the plan discussed 
at meetings of the Central Coordinating Committee? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I don't know that the Central Coordinating 
Committee did anything. 

The Central Coordinating Committee is something that you have 
given great stature to and made it sound almost as important as a 
congressional committee. 

In Connecticut, we don't take it very seriously. Perhaps we should, 
but we don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, Mrs. Mackenzie, maj^be you can tell us whether 
an organization known as Women Strike for Peace has any existence. 
Does it? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. There is a group of women who have called 
themselves Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Including Mrs. Blanche Posner, Mrs. Hoffman 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Who is — ■ — • 

Mr. NiTTLE. — other witnesses you have heard, and, of course, 
yourself? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I have told you that I have participated proudly 
in some of the actions of the Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now it appears, Mrs. Mackenzie, that one of your 
activities in that organization, and perhaps the most conspicuous 
propaganda effort of Women Strike for Peace, was the sending of 
delegates from this organization to the disarmament conference at 
Geneva, Switzerland, in April 1962. 

The committee's investigation discloses that you were in charge of 
publicity for the sendoff of Women Strike for Peace to Geneva. Did 
you have such a publicity function? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I was proud to have some small part in that 
delegation to Geneva in support of our Government and the other 
people who were working there for peace and general disarmament, 
which we all believe in, but I had no such responsibility at the time 
of the sending. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you three items which are marked for identifi- 
cation as Mackenzie Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The three exhibits bear the imprint of Women Strike 
for Peace. 

The first item, you will note, is addressed "to all our key women" 
and is a plan of action relating to the Geneva expedition. 

The second item is a petition, addressed "to the 17-Nation Dis- 
armament Conference on behalf of women and children every- 
where." 

The third item is a flier dated March 16, 1962, entitled "geneva, 
here we come ! ! ! " 

Did you participate in the preparation or dissemination of any of 
these items, or all of them? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Sir, I question the constitutional authority of 
this committee to ask me whether I prepared written material. I 
think I have a right to prepare petitions, to sign petitions, whether 
they be nominating petitions or petitions for general and universal 
disarmament. 

(Documents marked "Macljenzie Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 3," re- 
spectively. Exhibits Nos. 1 and 3 appear on pp. 2141, 2142 and 2143, 
2144, respectively. Exhibit No. 2 retained in committee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2141 



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quiatly. 
StBIS res FEA.C1; haa ahovm that WE CASE EIOTX^ TO ACT. 

■•T» F06T, Janaary 17, 1962,.. editorially rvapoBding to our draaatie pilgriaaga to 

Waahingtoni 
*&• woaaa hava deaonatrated their unvlllincnaaa to aurrandar thanaelTaa t« 
aranta..* 

Ihair axanpla aay anoourage atataaaea to aako tha extra effort when all appear* 
loat." 

axf loim ms big DEasioNS are beiko made at aarsrA. 

Olffi Tkrt IS BEIHO DECIDED BY TEE 1? NATION DISARUAME3TT COHFEREtfCE. 
1HET WDBT HEAR FHDU US} 



ff vto-jJLo^i^ P/OM. of t^Zcti^oi. 



»TITIOy ID DISAHMMiEHT CCWFERENCK ON BEHALF OF IHODSASDS OF AMERICAN WOMEH 

PgACT PUiOS CARHYIWC DAGMMt WILSON , RUIH OAGB-OOLBY, FRANCES HERRING AND WOMEN f BOM 
Aii. OVER f!K 6601ISiY TO PLEAD FOR TEST BAN TREATT AND PROGRESS TOWARD DISARMAMENT. 

Ob Soaday oTanlagj April 1 at 10tU5 P«K. a (roup of well briefed, artloulato apokaa- 
■aa for WOMEN STRIKE FOR PEACE from oomnunitiea in the IMited Statea vrill eobark oa 
a poaao plaita for Genera carrying with them a petition for aurrlTal aigned by thou- 
aaada of Aserioan woaent 

The flight will oalninate three weeka of IntenalTe work by all vtoaea aaaoeiated with 
WSP to eolleot aigaaturea, dlatributa infonoation on the desperate need for diaaraa- 
•9Bt« to raiae aaoesaary tranaportation aonoy* 

Xb OaBsva, our wcaea will aeet with repraaentatlT* groupa from Japan, E^laad auid as 
other rntiona at, ppaaible to preaent a united plea for aurriTal* 



HSBRE WILL BE A SQID-OFF 'DEaSONSIRAnON AT IDISWILD AIRPORT... « 
farther iofovaation on tine, plaee, spaakars, will b* forthooadng. 

Tins MDBT m Q« BIOQEST EFFORT TO S&n. IB MOB? SHOi THAT WE fiTPRESEifT rRE WiU. 

or Munr, nMvr teousajk);:. 



2142 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mackenzie Exhibit No. 1 (contd.) 

ifawa ttrtk* for Pmo* 

mtEDUlE 8SP8 

Oall ft ■••tiac of jrour looal group ianBdlAtolyt Work out your pl&a of aotion for 
th* srMt«rt pftrtioipfttlon of your eooDnnlty. Suggoitod guidoi 

1* flopriat potltloiu *nd diaaraftaBBt ahoot >t onoo, Tou ftro tbo bort Judg* of 
ouftBtitloa aooded, 

t jlyir York City *ro>i Plok up potitieae «nd dioftnHaoat oheota at tiM offloo* 
lyi Vd Aroauo, eo Tvmtmy, mnh l^tb.) 

Dirtribilto thoao to your woaon at onoo« 

8« flIOMlURE OOLLBC HOyS , . .door to door, at ■hopping oantori, at organlMtioft 
Bootinga in oooDtunity, at aooial gatbariaga aad ASK TODB CCSCatESSMUl to aifa. 

}* Oogtaot 9l»rtr ..^Tiait all looal ohuroKea aaking for a Nmov giYlag 
MaaalDga to Oenora and aaking oooparation with our prtition oaaqtaiga. 
(Ob* looal group held a lunohaoa for 18 adnlatara at whioh thay wera 
addreasad by a apoakor wa proTidad),.«and in Brooklyn thara will be a prayar 
day for Oonara. 

iu rinanoial raaponaibjlity , ,.Wa need monay for our national apokaoiMin, aonay 
for printing and mailing oorta to oorar this aotion. Send to Naw York 
off iee, 750 3rd Avanue, Hew York City, How York, or to Waehington off ioa 

and aamark, OEHEVA ,...Looal ooBmunltlaa ara anoouraged to ralae f\aid* 

to aand thair own rapraaentatiraa. Ro\ind trip fare ia 1350 if 25 woaMS go* 
Stay will ba 5 daya* For raaenrationa and for apaoifio detaila contaot 
Ellyn Polahak, I42 Weat 9th Street, Haw York 11, N.Y. GR 3-3692. 

5, llert Haw York area wooien to Idlewild aend off, Sunday, April lat, at %,P.M. 
Lai'* a giro our Paaoa Plane dalegatea a aend-off the whole world will heart 

Simultanaoua aand-offa from California etc., and In every city planning to 
aend dalegatea ahould ba arranged. 

FUBLICITY AMD EDl}CA1X0«AL OOALi 



F^TBLICITY 



Hawa coverage oan be Looal, i.e., on petltiona, on local portion g;oing to 
Qeneva.., .National newa in plana departure and congreaaional reaction to 
our petition. « . .International newa aa the eyea of the world will be on tho 
U.S. and O.S.S.R. meeting an^ tho aotion of Ajnerioan wonen who oppoae 
testing and urge iaaglnatlve aotion for diaarmaiaont ia M0fS. 



SDCATIOH 



The Diaarmament aheet and the Petition will prsaent our point ot view on 
Oanava. We will dlatrlbute thouaanda and talk t.o many thouaanda of people 
in order to oolleot aigziaturea, Ihia meana approaching new people, aot 
talking to our own oirclaa. 
Sm ratuming dalegatea oan be Invited to npcsk at ?.'ical meetinga. 

THIS ACTION WILL BE AS EKFECTITO AS THE EFFCET WE POT INTO H, 
LET'S GET TO WCRK, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2143 



I«t«|k1szie Exhibit No. 3 

PLEASE READ FULLY AND IMMEDIATELY — THANK YOU Women Strike for Peace 

1822 Massachusetts Ave.,NW 
March 16, I962 DC 6 Phone: 232-0803 

GENEVA HERE WE COMEl'i.' 

PREAMBLE — Plans are now being completed for the WSP plane to Geneva, 

Twenty-five women or more, from all over the DoS. (3 from DC) are leaving 
N.Y. Sunday, April 1, at S'-kO P. Mo 

Purpose of the trip is to dramatize to the delegates at the Disarmament 
Conference and to all the world the intense concern of American women 
.for the survival of the world and the belief in the necessity for reach.- 
ing agreements NOW. It has been said so often and yet it becomes more 
true each day-- this may be our last chance o 

While in Geneva oixr women will meet with women ftora other countries and 
together they will watch the proceedings and report their reactions to 
the worldo 

When they go to Geneva they want to take with than thousands of the 
enclosed petition, signed by women fron aT.l-,over our country,, , So 
please support our Geneva-bound women by getting it full of signatures 
and sending it in promptly. If you can use more, call us at the 
office or at 01. l\.-722b. 

The various forms of news media are 7ery much interested in this Geneva 
tripc They recognize it is lonique and are following it with great 
interest.. They will be at the airport to see the send-off given the 
travelers by tboir stay-at-home sisters, as v/ell as following their 
activities at Geneva^ In New York at the airport many of the New York 
WSP-ers will be there to see thgm off-. WE WANT TO HELP WITH THE 
SEND-OFF TOO?! 

iHiiHHciiiHiSO NOW PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING-;:-;w-;:-;;-x--;j 

We are planning a chartered bus from Washington to NoY., leaving Sat- 
urday, March 31, about 8:00 AoM. from some shopping center in the Silver 
Spring area, and arriving in New York shortly after noon» Our time in 
NY will be relatively unscheduled from then until Sunday afternoon, so 
you will be free to shop, go to shows, take sightseeing tours, or 
whatever. Sunday afternoon we will meet again at our bus and go to 
Idlewild airport to participate In a rousing send-off for the Geneva- 
bound womeno Then home to V/ashington, arriving somewhere between ten 
and midnighto 

The costs will be approximately $10 per person for the bus and $3.00 
for overnight accommodations at the YvVCA (dormitory rooms). These may 
vary slightly, depending on the number of people we have going. The 
rest of your expenses depend on wh^t you feel like spending, Eleanor 
Garst says the YWCA serves very good food quite inexpensively. She had 
a fine big breakfast there recently for 50j&», 

By the time we leave for this trip we will have information on what 
plays may be seen on such short notice- We'll be there in time for Sat. 
matinee, as well as Saturday evenings 

(Over) 



2144 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 



Mackenzie Exhibit No, 3 (contdj 
-2- 



NOW HEAR THIS- 



If you want to join the fun in New York (and maybe bring -a- husband 
along) you MUST SIGN UP BY WEDNESDAY EVENING AT THE LATEST — March 21. 
Gall the office, 232-0802, or OL 1^.-7226, or EM 2-2771. 

UMBRELLAS — All our women, and especially those going to New York, are urged 
to drder a WSP umor^Sla — black or white— with "peaxje is our shelter" in 
white or black letters. #3.'50. Get those orders in by Wed.> too. 

WHO IS FAMILIAR WITH NEW YORK? We need a volunteer to help with some of 
the preliminary plans for this trip, whether she can go herself or not. 



LAST BUT BY NO MEANS LEAST 

rt costs a great deal to make plans, telephone calls over the country, 
have petitions printed, etc., for this Geneva trip^ Please open your 
checkbooks and send money to Women Strike for Peace, and earmark it 
"Geneva," Thank you so much. 

Mr. Doyle. I might state here, Mrs. Mackenzie, we do not ques- 
tion your right. Now just a minute. I just want to repeat it. We 
do not question the right to do that. 

Were you here yesterday when I read the preHminary statement? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Yes, I was, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Showing the purpose of this hearing and investigation. 

We have no controversy with your right to do it, to petition 
the Government and to sign petitions. We are interested in the one 
feature of this hearing, the extent to which the Communist Party or 
known Communists are infiltrating the peace movement. We know 
that some of them have. We know that some of them who have in- 
filtrated are not very far from this hearing this morning. And so I 
want you to understand that I am sure the committee does not dis- 
agree with your statement, that you have a right to petition your Gov- 
ernment, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I think the committee is trying to make it very 
hard for me to maintain my right. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, not at all. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. And I think that this is an attempt to prevent 
me and other people from exercising our rights to speak as women for 
peace to protect our children. 

Mr. Doyle. You have that right, and we recognize it and we are 
sure we have the right to ask your cooperation, to have your coop- 
eration, in helping us to ascertain whether or not there should be any 
further legislation in the field of our Internal Security Act of 1950. 

That is why we are here, whether we can suggest any further 
amendment to that existing law. It has nothing to do with the right 
of petition, we assure you. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Then why, may I ask, sir, is it brought up here? 
I am confronted with a petition and asked if I signed it, if I helped to 
prepare it. 

I think that this is an infringement on my privacy and on my 
rights as an American citizen to speak out as I see fit. This is con- 
stitutionally, I thought 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2145 

Mr. Doyle. Well, it certainly is. We are asking you that question 
manifestly. It may well be. Of course, we cannot reveal at this time 
to you all we know about perhaps some of the folks that signed that 
petition with you, but we are trying to ascertain whether or not 
known Commies have helped prepare that or joined with it or been 
responsible for it in any way, and if you have had no connection 
with the Communist movement, why, that is wonderful. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Sir, may 1 ask? I am not clear about one thing. 
Mr. Nittle, I believe, has yesterday mentioned the word "commenda- 
tion" in connection with the action of one of the women. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I move that we proceed in the regular 
order. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, may I ask that the last question asked 
by counsel be repeated? I do not beheve the answer was directed to 
the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Bruce, as I recollect, the question addressed to 
this witness was, "Did you participate in the preparation or dis- 
semination of any of these items?" 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Sir, I decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that I do not think the question is pertinent and I question 
the constitutional authority of the committee to ask me questions 
concerning material that I have written. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I request that you direct the witness 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand on my previous statement. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I do not believe the witness has 
invoked a constitutional privilege at this point. She has merely 
questioned, in her judgment, the authority of this committee. I do 
not believe that is sufficient grounds. 

The witness should be advised of her position. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, she has worthy and legal counsel by her side. 
I assume that 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Would you clarify your point, sir? 

Mr. Bruce. Let me ask you directly: Are you invoking the priv- 
ileges of the fifth amendment of the Constitution in answer to this 
question? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I am invoking the privileges of the first amend- 
ment and all relevant — all other parts of the Constitution which are 
applicable in the situation. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Do you include, and do you mean to say, that you 
are invoking the fifth amendment privileges, particularly the self- 
incrimination clause of the fifth amendment, in refusing \o respond 
to the question? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I am particularly not invoking the self-incrim- 
ination clause. I am standing on my rights as an American citizen, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. Let's just clarify that for a moment. 

A moment ago you said you invoked the first amendment and all 
other constitutional privileges that pertain thereto, or words to that 
effect; now you say you are particularly not invoking the fifth amend- 
ment. Is that an amendment to your prior answer? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand corrected. 

Mr. Bruce. In what way? 



2146 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand corrected, that excluded from my 
previous statement is 

Mr. Bruce. I see. Then you are not invoking the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. That is what I said. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I want, if I may, sir, just to make it perfectly 
clear. I am not invoking the self-incrimination clause. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you heard the chairman's opening statement at 
the commencement of the hearings? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I did. And it made me feel that he had already 
made up his mind about this problem; yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I said, you heard his opening statement? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I did, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then you are aware that the purpose of this proceed- 
ing is to determine the extent of Communist infiltration in peace 
organizations, with particular reference to Women Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I am sorry. Would you repeat the question? 
I didn't hear the first part. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say, you are aware that the subject of inquiry of 
these hearings is to determine the extent of Communist infiltration in 
peace organizations, particularly with reference to Women Strike for 
Peace and a New York group of that organization? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Well, you say so. I assume it is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now we are not investigating your beliefs, but your 
activities so far as they relate to that subject matter. 

The committee, the Congress, and the American people are entitled 
to know what is the extent of Communist activities in the peace 
movement and what Communists are doing in concealing their activi- 
ties in such movements. 

Is that clear to you? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I have heard it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. With that explanation, Mr. Chairman, I think that 
the witness should be again directed to answer the question, 

Mr. Doyle. I again instruct the witness to answer the question. 
And if there is any question about it again, Mrs. Mackenzie, I instruct 
you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I have lost track of the question by this time. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. May the question be read, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before I repeat the question that the committee has 
directed this witness to answer, I think I should also state to the 
witness that the committee, Mrs. Mackenzie, is in possession of in- 
formation that you have been a member of the Communist Party 
and that, more particularly, you were a member of the Communist 
Party in the year 1943 and that in 1944 you became a member of 
the Communist Political Association, a successor in title of the 
Communist Party of the United States. 

In view of that information and the nature of this committee's 
inquiry, I think the pertinency and relevancy of the questions should 
be apparent to you and, also, that there is a reasonable basis for 
making this inquiry of you. 

With that further explanation, I again respectfully request the 
chairman to direct you to answer that question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2147 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, I make that direction, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I am sorry. I am not being able to follow this. 
I don't know what the question is. I have heard many statements 
and allegations, but I don't know what the question is. 

Mr, Doyle. Counsel, will you repeat the question, or if you do 
not remember the exact substance of the question, ask the reporter 
to read it back? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question, Mr. Chairman, is whether the witness, 
Mrs. Mackenzie, participated in the preparation or dissemination of 
any of the items, namely, Mackenzie Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 3, which 
are lying before her. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, with that question repeated, Mrs. Mackenzie, 
I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I decline to answer the question on the grounds 
that the question is not pertinent. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Mackenzie. And I question the constitutional authority of 
the committee to ask me or to order me to answer it. I also seriously 
question whether this is an investigation or a punishment. 

I think that the committee has made up its mind about the Women 
Strike for Peace. Mr. Doyle has made a long statement, attempting 
to disparage it. He made statements on TV that I heard last night 
that seemed to indicate that he, at least, has no questions about this, 
and I question the relevance or the pertinence of any of these questions 
on this ground. I think that there is no investigation here. There 
is simply a 

Mr. Doyle. Have you stated now your answer? In other words, I 
think we have given you time enough to make your remarks, far in 
excess of the reason for your refusing to answer the question. We 
want to give you plenty of time to do it. 

Are you claiming any constitutional grounds other than those 
stated? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Not other than those already stated, 

Mr. Doyle. Aren't you pleading either the first or the fifth 
amendment? 

Mrs. Mackenzie, I did plead that, sii*. I thought that was clear, 

Mr, NiTTLE, You excluded, however, from the fifth amendment the 
self-incrimination clause. Is that right? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I did, and I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

Mr. Nittle. You are aware in refusing to respond, after a direction 
by the chairman to do so, that you may thereby subject yourself to 
a possible contempt prosecution or citation by the committee because 
of your failure to answer? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I understand that. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, did you participate in the preparation or 
dissemination of Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 3, which you have before you, 
in response to Communist directives to engage in such activities in 
Women Strike for Peace? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Mackenzie, Would you repeat the question? 

Mr, Nittle. I will ask the reporter to repeat the question to you. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 



2148 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I have operated — operated is the wrong word — I 
have acted in Women Strike for Peace, as elsewhere, I hope, according 
to the dictates of my conscience and only according to those dictates. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You refuse to respond to the question and you do 
not plead the fifth amendment privilege of the Constitution, par- 
ticularly the self-incrimination clause thereof? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, Mrs. Mackenzie, a member of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I decline to answer the question on the basis that 
I have already stated. This is an infringement of my privacy as an 
American citizen. I am here because I have spoken for peace. That 
is the only reason I am here. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Mrs. Mackenzie, 
whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party of the 
the United States. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs, Mackenzie. I stand on my previous answer, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I beg your pardon? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party of the United States? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that question, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand on my previous answer, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party of 
the United States? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that question, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I stand on my previous answer, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Mackenzie, I direct your attention to the 
third exhibit which is addressed as emanating from "1822 Massa- 
chusetts Ave., NW, DC 6." This same address appears upon other 
literature as the address of a group titled, "Women's International 
Strike for Peace." 

Are Women Strike for Peace and Women's International Strike 
tor Peace one and the same organization? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Women in many countries are working for peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please answer the question? I think it 
admits of a "yes" or "no" answer. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Well, this is possible. I don't know whether it 
does. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You don't know the answer to that question? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I don't know the answer to that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that what you mean to say? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. You were using words that are not applicable. 
Using "organization," which is inapplicable. I don't know. There 
is nothing on these pieces of paper, as far as I see, that has anything 
to do with 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, the name "Women's International Strike for 
Peace" does not appear upon the three exhibits I have shown you. 

What does appear upon the third exhibit is the title "Women 
Strike for Peace," 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2149 

However, it appears that an announcement has been made from 
the Washington headquarters of Women Strike for Peace that its new 
title is "Women's International Strike for Peace." 

In view of the fact that the evidence indicates both these organiza- 
tions bear the same address, 1822 Massachusetts Avenue, Washing- 
ton, D.C., the committee desires to be informed as to whether or not 
the different titles are one and the same organization in fact. 

We believe that you are in a position to inform us and may have 
knowledge of that fact. Do you? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I don't know the answer to this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Did you coordinate the publicity efforts 
with respect to the Geneva trip of Women Strike for Peace with the 
Washington office at 1822 Massachusetts Avenue? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. You use such big words. "Coordinate" is 
something that I don't think 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, did you maintain contact with the Washington 
office with respect to your publicity efforts emanating from the New 
York office of Women Strike for Peace? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Mackenzie. My efforts in connection with publicity for the 
Geneva delegation were very limited. I don't actually remember the 
details of how it was worked out. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You stated that you have attended Vassar College. 
Would vou tell us the years during which you were in attendance 
there? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I graduated in 1937. I was there for the previous 
4 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the course of your attendance at Vassar 
College, were you not the editor of a student publication designated as 
Miscellany News? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Idecline to answer that question. It is irrelevant. 
That was back in the 1930's. It is irrelevant because — I have a right 
to become an editor or a writer of any publication I see fit. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We do not question that at all. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. In privacy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The American' Student Union, Mrs. Mackenzie, was 
a Communist front which was created to win masses of student j^outh 
to Communist Party objectives. The investigations of this committee 
and other governmental organizations revealed that to have been the 
objective oi the American Student Union. Chapters of this organiza- 
tion were set up on the campuses of numerous colleges and universities, 
including Vassar College. 

Were you a member of the American Student Union while you were 
in attendance at Vassar College? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Students in the thirties were interested in 
peace. Many students are interested in peace now. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please answer the question, Mrs. Mac- 
kenzie? It is a very simple question, and I think you understand it. 
It admits of a "yes" or "no" answer. Were you a member of the 
American Student Union during your attendance at Vassar College? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I decline to answer on the same ground that I 



2150 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

declined to answer other questions. I had a right to join the American 
Student Union, if I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did not invoke the fifth amendment privilege — 
the self-incrimination clause — of the Constitution in refusing to respond 
to that question? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Are you suggesting it is criminal to have joined 
the American Student Union, or to have worked for peace? 

Mr, NiTTLE. I am asking whether or not you are invoking the fifth 
amendment clause — self-incrimination privilege — in your refusal to 
respond to that question. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. No, I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Young Communist League 
during your attendance at Vassar College? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I refuse to answer the question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness 
be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that question, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I decline to answer it on the ground stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are not invoking the self-incrimination clause of 
the fifth amendment. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Mackenzie. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I should make a further explanation, Mrs. Mackenzie, 
that the question is related, of course, to that of present Communist 
Party, membership. 

Mrs, Mackenzie. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is related to the question of any present 
Communist Party membership on your part. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. It seems to me that that is an unbecoming thing 
to happen in the Halls of Congress. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There is a principle in the law that a condition once 
shown to exist is presumed to continue. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. No condition has been shown to exist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And in view of the subject matter of this inquiry 
today, we are also seeking information to determine whether or not 
you are engaged in activities in Women Strike for Peace in response to 
Communist directives. 

It is, therefore, relevant to determine whether or not you are a 
member of the Communist Party, and with that explanation, Mr. 
Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness be directed to answer 
the question of whether or not she was, while in attendance at Vassar 
College, a member of the Young Communist League. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought I had instructed you, Mrs. Mackenzie, but 
if I have not, I do instruct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I decline to answer. These are not questions. 
These are stones that are being thrown at me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The official organ of the American Student Union was 
titled Student Advocate. In the Student Advocate of December 1936, 
there appeared an item reportedly written by Anna DeCormis, editor, 
Vassar Miscellany News. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2151 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make any contribution to the Student Ad- 
vocate, the official organ of the American Student Union? 

Mr. Taylor. The witness would hke a minute's recess. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions after her response to the 
last, and we would respectfully request an answer to it. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Doyle. Are you ready. Counsel? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Did you, under the name Anna DeCormis and as editor of the 
Vassar Miscellany News, contribute an article or articles to a maga- 
zine entitled Student Advocate, which was the official organ of the 
American Student Union? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I dechne to answer on the ground previously 
stated. 

I had a right to write for whatever publication I chose, if I did write. 

Mr. Doyle. What, Mr. Nittle, was the Student Union? 

Mr. Nittle. The American Student Union was a Communist front 
organized some years ago, and one of its activities was to participate 
at that time in the peace movements then initiated and emphasized 
during the Stalin period. 

Investigations have established that the American Student Union 
was one of the organizations estabhshed by the Cornmunist Party to 
conduct peace agitation and continued to exist during the period of 
the Hitler-Stalin Pact. 

Mr. Doyle. And it was about those organizations that you made 
inquiry? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Further, Mr. Doyle, as I previously stated to the witness, the Ameri- 
can Student Union was created by the Communist Party to win the 
masses of student youth generally to the objectives of the Communist 
Party. It was extremely active immediately preceding World War 
II and particularly active in engaging in peace agitation, seeking to 
prevent the participation of the United States in the war against 
Nazi Germany at a time when the Hitler-StaHn Pact was in existence, 
from 1939 to 1941. 

Mrs. Mackenzie. I left college in 1937. I don't see the relevancy 
of any of this, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Any other questions, Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, sir. The staff interrogation is concluded. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mrs. Mackenzie. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Nittle, please. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Elizabeth Moos please come forward? 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, will you please raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that you will tell th» truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Moos. I do. 



2152 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

TESTIMONY OF ELIZABETH MOOS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence, please? 

Miss Moos. Elizabeth Moos, 552 Riverside Drive, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented bj'^ counsel, Miss Moos? 

Miss Moos. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Tavlor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York 

Mr. DoYLE. May I inquire, were you in the hearing room yesterday, 
Miss Moos, to hear this preliminary statement? 

Miss Moos. I was in the hearing room. I regret very much that 
that statement, however, was not repeated for the benefit of those 
people who didn't hear it, because I believe that they may not have a 
clear picture of what the committee is trying to do. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, your distinguished counsel was here and heard 
the statement read, and you heard it read, and that is why I wanted to 
make sure that you had. 

Miss Moos. I was here, j^es. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your marital status? 

I merely am inquiring whether you are presently single or married, 
that is all. 

Miss Moos. I am presently single. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Miss Moos. I was born on February 12 — a good day, Lincoln — 
1890, in Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Miss Moos. I graduated from Smith College in 1911, with the usual 
A.B. degree. I then went to Wellesley and took an advance education 
course in education and physical education. After some years, I 
went to Columbia and took graduate courses in anthropology. In 
1947^8, I entered Columbia University, where I received my M.A. 
in Slavic literature, and also the certificate of the Institute for Russian 
Studies. Oh, and in addition, 3 years ago when I decided I wished 
to go back and get a little more firsthand information about present 
school education in this country, because that is my field, I took 
courses at Bank Street College in order to equip myself to work, and 
did so. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation? 

Miss Moos. I am retired. 

Mr. Nittle. You have not, however, completely abandoned all 
activity; have you? 

Miss Moos. At a time of history like this, I don't see how anyone 
can sit in a rocking chair and knit. This is the time when we all 
ought to be active. 

Mr. Nittle. As a matter of fact, you have been active, have you 
not, in an organization known as the Metropolitan branch of the 
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom? 

Miss Moos. I have worked with them in what way I could in a 
very minor capacity. I have never been an officer, I have never had 
any position which had anything to do with planning, policymaking. 
I have stuffed envelopes and I have gone to meetings. I have done 
aU the minor little jobs that one can do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2153 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, you have participated in meetings of the Women's 
International League for Peace and Freedom and you have been 
active in discussion groups, or discussions conducted at such meetings; 
have you not? 

Miss Moos. I have not. I have been present, and if you mean by 
participation, have I attended, and naturally spoken up when there 
are discussions going on; yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You indicated that in this period you could not 
remain inactive. There was a past period some years ago when you 
were likewise active in matters similar to that in which you are now 
engaged. 

Were you not formerly the director of the Peace Information 
Center? 

Miss Moos. I was. The executive secretary was the correct title. 

This organization, it should be said, is one which existed, let me 
see, 12 years ago, for a brief period, and does not exist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Now we will talk a little more about it. 
It is the committee's information that the Peace Information Center 
assumed as its principal task the circulation of the World Peace 
Appeal, also known as the Stockholm Peace Appeal. This appeal 
was issued in March 1950 by a Communist-controlled organization 
known as the Permanent Committee of the World Peace Congress, 
which met in Stockholm, Sweden. 

It is our information that you attended the World Peace Congress 
held in Paris in April 1949 and that you subsequently niade a report 
of your attendance there to a convention of the Communist-controlled 
Congress of American Women at its convention in May 1949. 

Were you m attendance at the World Peace Congress held in Paris 
in April 1949? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. Yes, I am very proud to say that I was in Paris at 
the convention in 1949. Obviously, I — I must make a statement. 
My statement of the fact that I attended this in no way agrees with 
your characterization of it, however. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, we shall see. 

Miss Moos, the Permanent Committee of the World Peace Congress 
met in March 1950 to launch the World Peace Appeal. You are 
aware of the fact that it did meet in March 1950 to launch that 
World Peace Appeal, are you not? 

Miss Moos. I read it in the papers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time. 

Miss Moos. After it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, you will recollect that the meeting of 
the World Peace Congress — -the Permanent Committee thereof^ — ^was 
just 3 months before the Communist invasion of South Korea. 

Did you, Miss Moos, pursuant to instructions or advice received 
from persons known to you to be members of the Communist Party, 
participate in the organization of the Peace Information Center on or 
about May 1950 for the purpose of circulating the World Peace 
Appeal in the United States? 

Miss Moos. I did not. Now, the answer to this- question should 
probably be qualified. When you ask three or four questions — what 
is known as a loaded question — I think I have a right to ask you to 
divide them up. If you ask whether I sat in at a meeting at which 

93367 O — 63 8 



2154 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

the possible desirability of setting up something to be known as 
a Peace Information Center was discussed, the answer is yes. 

What you have stated as its purpose was not true. 

At that time, the Peace Information Center was discussed because 
many people felt that activities were going on all over our country 
and the world and that somebody ought to let it be known, let one 
peace group know what another was doing. 

That was its sole purpose when it was set up. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in the activities of the Peace Infor- 
mation Center in response to your understanding of Communist 
directives at that time to engage in such activity? 

Miss Moos. Certainly not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a letter marked for identification as Moos 
Exhibit No. 1, which is dated May 17, 1950. It bears the letterhead 
Peace Information Center. 

Miss Moos. Where is "Exhibit 1"? This says '"Exhibit 2." 

Mr. NiTTLE. That should be identified as "1," actually. I have it 
previously marked with a "2." 

You have corrected that, Mr. Taylor? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The oflBcers of the organization are designated on the 
letter and your name, ''Elizabeth Moos," appears as the director. 

Now, your name appears thereon as the director of the Peace In- 
formation Center. 

Miss Moos. You are correct. I had thought I was caUed executive 
director. I was not. 

(Document marked "Moos Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The letter states, does it not, that a Peace Informa- 
tion Center has been set up in New York City and that its purpose 
is to bring news of "peace activities" here and throughout the world. 
The letter bears what appears to be the signature of Elizabeth Moos, 
director, and that is yom- signatiu-e on that letter; is it not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. Yes, that is my signatm-e. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your organization also issued booklets titled Peace- 
gram. 

Miss Moos. They were not booklets, they were just what it said, 
Peacegram, which was a brief announcement of what was going on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of one such issue, which is marked 
for identification as Moos Exhibit No. 2. 

You will note the claim therein that after 6 weeks of signature 
gathering, about 1}^ million Americans had signed the World Peace 
Appeal and that this figure helped to swell the world total of some 
250 million, a number which you claimed equaled one-tenth of the 
earth's population. The Peacegram also indicates that more than 
one-half of the U.S. signatures were gathered after the Communist 
invasion of South Korea. 

Now, from what somce did you obtain the information about the 
total number of signers of that Appeal? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. I am sorry. I must say that I have never seen this 
before. I was not with the organization at the time that this was 
issued, so I am afraid I can't give you any information &,bout it. I 
served with them for a very brief period. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2155 

(Document marked "Moos Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the period of your service? 

Miss Moos. I think you have the date at which a group met to 
discuss the desirabihty. I have forgotten what that was. That 
spring, I resigned. I was not well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You organized it, and then got out of it? 

Miss Moos. I did not organize it. I was asked whether I would 
help on it, and I did, for a brief period. I did not ever see this docu- 
ment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you asked to become the director of it by any 
person known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Mqos. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At that time. Dr. W. E. B. DuBois was chairman 
of the Peace Information Center. He has recently admitted his 
Communist Party membership, and I think the matter was published 
some months ago in the New York Times. 

Did you then know Dr. DuBois to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Moos. Dr. DuBois was not a member of the Communist 
Party at that time. If you will look at your papers, you will find 
that there was a great deal of excitement here and abroad when 
about 6 months ago. Dr. DuBois announced that, at the age of 93 
or 94, he had finaUy decided that he wished to become a member of 
the Communist Party. He had never been a member of the Com- 
munist Party before that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Several years before, the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People expelled Dr. DuBois from mem- 
bership or official position in the NAACP because of Communist 
activities. Did they not do so in the forties? 

Miss Moos. I can't answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, also growing out of the World Peace Congress, 
which met in Paris in April 1949 and which you state you attended, 
was the estabhshment in this hemisphere of a gathering titled "Ameri- 
can Continental Congress for Peace." 

That group, Mr. Chairman, is described in the committee's Guide 
to Subversive Organizations and Publications as "aimed at consolidating 
anti-American forces throughout the Western Hemisphere." 

I hand you a copy of the Call to the American Continental Congress 
Jor Peace marked for identification as Moos Exhibit No. 3. 

That Call, you will observe, has for its purpose the establishment of 
an organizational meeting to take place at Mexico City, September 
5-10, 1949. 

I direct your attention to the Women's Sponsoring Committee from 
the United States, and you will see 

Mr. Taylor. Where is that? We can't find it. 

Now we have it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I direct your attention to the Women's Sponsoring 
Committee from the United States, and you will observe that the 
name, "Elizabeth Moos," appears thereon. 

Are you the Elizabeth Moos whose name appears upon that Call? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. I question the constitutional authority of this com- 
mittee to require me to answer this question. 



2156 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

I also question its pertinency to any matter you are authorized to 
inquire into in this year, 1962. 

I, therefore, invoke my right under the Constitution, in that I 
can't be required to be a witness against myself, and decline to answer. 

(Document marked "Moos Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I noted, Miss Moos, that you raised the ques- 
tion as to the authority of the committee and the pertinency of the 
question, and you then said "I, therefore, invoke," what I take to be 
the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment. 

It is my understanding- — and I believe your own counsel will advise 
you —that you cannot invoke the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment because you believe that the committee has no authority 
or because you believe the question is not pertinent; you may invoke 
it only because you believe that an answer to the question may sub- 
ject you to a criminal prosecution. Therefore, I must ask whether 
you assert the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment for 
the reason that you believe an answer to the question will possibly 
subject you to a criminal prosecution? 

Miss Moos. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution that no person shall be forced to bear witness against 
himself and, therefore, I decline to answer. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. I am invoking the fifth amendment. I am invoking 
all of the provisions which are pertinent. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Moos, the American Russian Institute of San 
Francisco, with offices at 101 Post Street, was cited in September 1948 
by Attorney General Clark as a Communist organization in a letter 
to the Loyalty Review Board. 

It appears that in the year 1943, at a time when you may have 
recovered from your illness, the American Russian Institute published 
a booklet titled We Pledge Peace, a Friendship Book. 

The Friendship Book contained an item at page 53 entitled "The 
World Will Rejoice," under the byline of Elizabeth Moos, who is 
described as an educator and founder of the Hessian Hills School. 

A copy of this article, which I hand you, is marked Moos Exhibit 
No. 4. Were you author of that article? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. May I ask counsel to repeat the date which you gave, 
which I am quite sure was erroneous. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The article appears to have been published in the year 
1953. 

Miss. Moos. You said 1943 before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If I did, I wish to correct it. It was an inadvertence. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. I stand on my prior claim. 

(Document marked "Moos Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Moos, did you participate in any of the demon- 
strations conducted by the New York group of Women Strike for 
Peace? 

Miss Moos. I am sure I must have. Wlienever I saw a crowd of 
women with signs saying, "We don't want any more poison in our 
babies' milk," I would drop whatever I was doing and go and walk 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2157 

with them, and I am sure that quite often it must have been some of 
the Women Strike for Peace, because they have done a lot of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes; there are all kinds of poison in this world, and 
for that reason, I must ask you a question which will follow. 

In an appearance before the U.S. Senate Investigations Subcom- 
mittee, Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, on 
Friday, July 30, 1948, William W. Remington identified you as his 
mother-in-law and as a Communist. He testified that you once 
held a position as a director of the Hessian Hills School in Croton 
and that you were forced out of that position when your Communist 
affiliations were revealed. 

He indicated that a person named Alvin Warren, who had fought 
in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in Spain, came to live at your home 
and completed your conversion to communism, a conversion in which 
Joseph North, the editor of the Communist New Masses, now a 
contributor to The Worker, participated, and who had been brought 
to your home by Alvin Warren about the year 1940. 

Was there any inaccuracy in the testimony of William W. Rem- 
ington which I have summarized? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Moos. I stand on my prior claim. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Herbert A. Philbrick, an undercover operative for 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, who appeared before this com- 
mittee on July 6, 1953, testified that on one occasion, before the 
Reverend Hewlett Jolmson, Dean of Canterbury, commonly known 
as the "Red" Dean, came to this country, instructions were received 
from Communist Party headquarters to prepare for the arrival of the 
Red Dean and to give him a welcome in Boston. 

Herbert Philbrick testified that he was assigned to work with you 
and that he did so at your apartment on Walnut Street in Boston. 

Do you wish to offer any correction or explanation of Mr. Phil- 
brick's testimony? 

Miss Moos. Once again I invoke my privilege under the fifth 
amendment and decline to answer your question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party, 
Miss Moos? 

Miss Moos. I repeat, under the fifth amendment, I invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment and decline to answer your 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your present participation in the peace movement 
a response to Communist directives to engage in such? 

Miss Moos. Before answering that, I think I must make a state- 
ment that I think this committee is doing a terrible disservice to 
America and to everyone in the world — — 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, will you please answer that question? 

Miss Moos. I will be heard^ — when they try to attribute every act, 
every conscious act that is done for peace to the Communists. Are 
they the onl}^ ones? Do you think they want peace more than we do? 

Having made this statement, I dechne to answer your question on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions. 

Mr. DoYLE. Any questions, Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Bruce? 



2158 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Bruce. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. Thank you, Miss Moos. 

The pubHc hearings will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Whereupon, at 12:30 p.m., Wednesday, December 12, 1962, the 
pubhc hearings were recessed until 10 a.m., Thursday, December 13, 
1962.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1962 

EXECUTIVE SESSION ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met in executive session at 2:15 p.m., in Room 219, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle, of 
California; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel; and Raymond T. Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Gross, will you please raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Gross. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated by your counsel there, please. 

TESTIMONY OF CEIL GROSS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Gross. My name is Mrs. Ceil — that is C-e-i-1 — Gross, 
G-r-o-s-s. I live at 145 West 96th Street, New York 25, N.Y., 
Apartment lOA. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by coimsel? 

Mrs. Gross. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Would coimsel kindly identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you spell your first name, Mrs. Gross? 

Mrs. Gross. C-e-i-1. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you also been known as Celia Gross? 

Mrs. Gross. No; that is, it is frequently misspelled. That is why 
I spelled it, but that is not my name. My name is Ceil, C-e-i-1. 

Mr. Nittle. But your name on occasion has been spelled Celia 
Gross by others? 

Mrs. Gross. My name has been misspelled many times, both the 
first and the last name. Officially my name is C-e-i-1, and since my 
name has been C-e-i-1, that is how I have always spelled it. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you in the year 1945 reside at 545 Powell Street, 
Brooklyn, N.Y.? 

Mrs. Gross. I never lived in Brooklyn, N.Y. 

1 Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2159 

Mr. Bruce. Counsel, may 1 interrupt here? 

I would like to pursue your statement here that since your name 
has been C-e-i-1, that is how you spelled it. Was there another name? 

Mrs. Gross. 1 don't think it is pertinent to the hearing. If you 
gentlemen want to hear I will tell you. My mother named me Cecile, 
C-e-c-i-1-e. I never saw my birth certificate until I was about 20. 
I discovered on my birth certificate I am listed as Ceil, C-e-i-1. I 
do not know how the difference occurred. I have no idea. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you for the clarification. 

Mrs. Gross. When I discovered this I then took this as my name 
because that is how it is spelled legally. It is not what my mother 
wanted me to be named. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Gross. I am a high school graduate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Gross. I am a production assistant. 

Mr, NiTTLE. What is the nature of your employment and by whom 
are you employed? 

Mrs. Gross. I am employed in the printing industry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who is your employer? 

Mrs. Gross. I do not think that is pertinent to the hearing here. 
I question your right to ask me that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is for the purpose of identification. 

Mrs. Gross. You have identified me fully and completely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the basis for your refusal to respond to that 
inquiry? 

Mrs. Gross. I stated my basis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your employer the Advance Publishing Co.? 

Mrs. Gross. I question your right to ask me that question. I do 
not believe it is pertinent to the hearing here, and I stand on my rights 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the interrogation of a prior witness in public session, 
Miss Rose Clinton, we had occasion to relate the origin of an organiza- 
tion titled "Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups," and a 
supporting group titled "West Side Peace Committee." I hand you 
a copy of a large advertisement marked for identification as Gross 
Exhibit No. 1, which appeared in the New York Times, August 29, 
1961, at page Cl8, titled "West German Rearmament — with nuclear 
weapons — is the Main Issue in Berlin." 

This is designated on that advertisement as a public stateinent by 
the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups. You will note 
that your name appears thereon as secretary of that organization. 
You are, are you not, the Ceil Gross whose name appears thereon as 
the secretary of the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as previous. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is that answer? 

Mrs. Gross. That I do not believe you have a right to ask me that 
question. I do not think the question is pertinent to the hearing, and 
I stand on my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Which amendment? 

Mrs. Gross. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you invoke the fifth amendment as a basis for 
your refusal to respond to that question, are you referring to the self- 
incrimination clause of that amendment? 



2160 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Gross. I am referring to the entire amendment, and in par- 
ticular that clause which allows me not to testify against myself. 

(Document marked "Gross Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee when you were ap- 
pointed to that position and how your appointment to that position 
was effected? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The advertisement, Exhibit No. 1, is obviously a very 
expensive item to publish in the New York Times. From what source 
were funds derived to meet this expense? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom was this advertisement prepared? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did anyone known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party participate in the preparation of that advertise- 
ment? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you another large advertisement which ap- 
peared in the New York Times on May 10, 1961, at page C31, marked 
for identification as Gross Exhibit No. 2. The advertisement is titled 
"Rally for Peace To Stop the Spread of Nuclear Weapons" and 
announces the appearance of Dr. Linus Pauling as a speaker at Car- 
negie Hall, New York City, for May 12, 1961. As indicated thereon, 
the advertisement is sponsored by the Conference of Greater New 
York Peace Groups, "100 Days for Peace," 550 Fifth Ave., New York 
36, N.Y. 

Were you the secretary of the Conference of Greater New York 
Peace Groups at the time of the appearance of this advertisement on 
May 10, 1961? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

(Document marked "Gross Exhibit No, 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom was this advertisement prepared? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did any person known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party participate in the preparation of that advertise- 
ment? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The advertisement carries the names of numerous 
persons who are designated as sponsors of the meeting to be held at 
Carnegie Hall on May 12, 1961. By whom were these sponsors 
selected? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The address of 550 Fifth Avenue, New York 36, 
N.Y., which is given as the address of the organization, is actually 
not an office of the group, but simply a mailing and telephone service 
located at that address; is it not? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does your group still subscribe to that mailing and 
telephone service? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2161 

Mr. NiTTLE. I specifically point out to you in Exhibit No. 2 that the 
sponsoring group is noted as the Conference of Greater New York 
Peace Groups, "100 Days for Peace." What is the significance of 
that addition of "100 Days for Peace" following the title of your 
organization? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that following the 
Senate investigation of Communist infiltration of the nuclear test ban 
movement, which closed in October 1960, Henry Abrams formed an 
organization called the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups 
in November 1960 and that he assumed the position of chairman of 
the conference. It appears that this organization was established by 
Henry Abrams for the purpose of providing a vehicle for peace agita- 
tion by persons expelled from chapters of SANE in its efforts to elimi- 
nate Communists from its ranks. Immediately after it was formed, 
the Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups — beginning on 
January 21, 1961 — staged "100 Days for Peace" agitation of various 
kinds in New York City under the sponsorship of a 100 Days for 
Peace Committee — for which Henry Abrams, by the way, served as 
spokesman. 

Is this a correct explanation of the use of the phrase "100 Days 
for Peace" in Exhibit No. 2. 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you not also been selected as the cochairman 
of the West Side Peace Committee? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation reveals that you were 
in fact selected as the cochairman of the West Side Peace Committee. 
Therefore I ask, Are you presently serving in that capacity? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that the West 
Side Peace Committee was formed on or about February 1961, fol- 
lowing the expulsion of Henry Abrams from SANE in January 1961. 
Was not the West Side Peace Committee formed on or about Feb- 
ruary 1961? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Committee investigation discloses that the West Side 
Peace Committee was established as a neighborhood group or action 
committee in support of the coordinating organization known as the 
Conference of Greater New York Peace, Groups. The function of the 
Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups appears to be to 
involve other organizations in the so-called peace movement and 
to coordinate their activity on special projects. 

Was not the West Side Peace Committee established as a neighbor- 
hood group in support of the Conference of Greater New York Peace 
Groups? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you, Ceil 
Gross, were appointed as a cochairman of the newly formed West 
Side Peace Committee and that you have been active in it since its 
inception. 

Is that not a correct statement of fact? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our investigation further discloses that your residence 
at 145 West 96th Street, Apartment lOA, New York City, telephone 
RI 9-0506, has been designated as the official address of the West 
Side Peace Committee. 



2162 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Is that a correct statement? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our information further reveals that Rose Clinton 
assumed the position of secretary and membership chairman of the 
West Side Peace Committee at the time you received your appoint- 
ment as a cochairman of that organization. Do you know Rose 
Clinton? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do vou know her to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Henry Abrams? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question, madam, 
whether or not you are a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. Doyle. I am asking you specifically, Are you pleading any part 
of the U.S. Constitution in that answer? 

Mrs. Gross. Yes. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you plead the fifth amendment before? 

Mrs. Gross. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And you are doing it now? 

Mrs. Gross. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Doyle. If you answered that question truthfully, are you fear- 
ful that it might subject you to criminal prosecution? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have participated in the activities of Women 
Strike for Peace, have you not? 

Mrs. Gross. My answer is the same as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr, Bruce. My answer is the s>"me as before. 

Mr. Doyle. You say your answer is the same as before? 

Mr. Bruce. Yes; no questions, 

Mr. Doyle. I have no further questions. Counsel. Call your next 
witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jean Brancato. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Braxcato. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Please be seated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2163 

TESTIMONY OF JEAN BRANCATO, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and address for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Brancato. Jean Brancato, 712 East Gun Hill Road, Bronx, 
N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Tavlor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you spell your first name, Mrs. Brancato? 

Mrs. Brancato. J-e-a-n. I have also spelled it with an "e." 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have also spelled your first name as J-e-a-n-n-e? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did vou formerlv reside at 235 East 120th Street, 
New York City? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mrs. Brancato. February 6, 1923, Omaha, Nebr. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you Mrs. Erasmus L. Brancato? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLB> You are married? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the date of your marriage? 

Mrs. Brancato. December 20, 1947. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your husband also known by the name of Ed 
Brancato? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your education, giving 
the dates and places of the schools attended? 

Mrs. Brancato. I graduated from Omaha Technical High School 
in 1940 and a year at New Haven State Teachers College, 1940 and 
1941. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Brancato. Housewife, occasional typing, part time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been employed as a teacher at any time in 
the past? 

Mrs. Brancato. No, never. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you have been 
Bronx representative on the Central Coordinating Committee of an 
organization known as Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New 
York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. 

Woidd you tell the committee whether you hold such an office? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Brancato. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I indicated that it was the committee's inforniation 
that you are a Bronx representative on the Central Coordinating 
Committee of an organization known as Women Strike for Peace, 
Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Will you 
tell the committee whether you now hold such an office and whether 
you have held such an office? 

Mrs. Brancato. No. 



2164 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been active in a group known as Women 
Strike for Peace of Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Con- 
necticut? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Brancato. I question the authority of the committee to 
require me to answer. I don't understand its pertinence and I invoke 
mj' constitutional privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you repeat the witness' answer, please? I 
did not hear it. 

(Answer was read by reporter.) 

Mr. Doyle. I think in view of that answer I should ask. Were 
5^ou in the hearing room yesterday morning when I read the pre- 
liminary statement? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You heard it read? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all. 

Mr. NiTTLE. W^hen you invoke the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment as basis for your refusal to respond to that question, are you 
invoking the self-incrimination clause of that amendment? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you sincerely believe that a reply to the question 
posed to you might involve you in a criminal prosecution? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of a document previously marked 
for identification as Posner Exhibit No. 1, which is titled "Structure 
for Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan N.Y. New Jersey 
Conn." 

Did you participate in the preparation or adoption of that plan of 
structure? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a member of the Central Coordinating Committee 
do you have access to the official records, minutes, and proceedings of 
this organization? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have any formal or written rules of procedure been 
adopted by that organization to implement or to supplement the 
structural plan established in Posner Exhibit No. 1? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It appears in Posner Exhibit No. 1 that the local group 
provides the basic representation in the county group, on the Central 
Coordinating Committee, and on the General Assembly. However, 
the structural plan defines a local group as consisting of "any body of 
women who have meetings and act in concert for the general purpose 
of peace." 

Of what local group are you a member? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Brancato. T stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are there any rules established by the organizational 
plan, Posner Exhibit No. 1, or any implementing bylaws, rules, or regu- 
lations, to define the acceptable composition and number of a local 
group that would authorize representation of it on a county group 
or on the Central Coordinating Committee? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2165 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Under the plan set up in Posner Exhibit No. 1 is it not 
possible for a well-organized minority to pack the county group, the 
Central Coordinating Committee, and the General Assembly? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have vou ever resided at 740 East Gun Hill Road, 
Bronx, N.Y.? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in 1949 circulate and witness a nominating 
petition of Benjamin J. Davis, Communist Party candidate for 
councilman of the city of New York? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you Brancato Exhibit No. I, a photostatic 
copy of that petition titled "Communist Party Independent Nominat- 
ing Petition," addressed to the Board of Elections in the city of 
New York, N.Y., upon which appears the statement that the under- 
signed persons declare they are duly qualified voters intending to 
support, at the ensuing election, the person so nominated, and select 
the name of the Communist Party as the name of the independent 
body making the nomination. 

The signature and affidavit of "Jeanne Brancato" appears on that 
petition certifying that she, "Jeanne Brancato," knows each of the 
voters who subscribe to the petition and that each of them subscribed 
to the petition in her presence. 

Is that your signatm-e appearing thereon as the witness to that 
petition? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

(Document marked "Brancato Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Communist Party, Mrs. 
Brancato? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question or specifically 
state what constitutional privileges you stand on, if any. 

Mrs. Brancato. I invoke my constitutional privileges under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you are invoking the self-incrimination clause 
of that amendment? 

Mrs. Brancato. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you executed this petition, Brancato Ex- 
hibit 2,^ did you not know Elizabeth Gurley Flynn as a member of the 
Communist Party and a leading Communist functionary who was at 
that time convicted under the Smith Act? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

(Document marked "Brancato Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. DoYLE. Counsel, may I inquire whether you asked the wit- 
ness about present Communist Party membership? Was that the 
question, or was it whether or not she was a member of the Commu- 
nist Party when she signed this petition? 

> Independent Nominating Petition, Peoples Rights Party, naming Elizabeth Ci. Flynn as candidate for 
Representative in Congress, 24th Congressional District, Bronx County, New York, dated September 1, 
1954. 



2166 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. As I recollect the question, Mr. Chairman, it was my 
intention to inquire whether she is now a member of the Communist 
Party. If you desire I shall re-pose that question to her. 

Mr. Doyle. I think that is as I understood the question. Have 
you asked her yet whether or not at the time she signed this petition 
she was a member of the Communist Party? If she signed it, I as- 
sume she read it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. My recollection, Mr. Chairman, is that that question 
was not posed, but to clarify the point may I ask those two questions 
of the witness? 

Mr. Doyle. I wish you would and make it clear. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were vou in the year 1954 a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Brancato. I invoke my constitutional privileges under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. Do 3^ou know the meaning of the term "united front"? 

Mrs. Brancato. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Bruce. No further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no further questions. Thank you. 

I would like to have the record show that at all times since the 
beginning of this hearing, in executive session this afternoon, there 
has been either a full subcommittee present, three of us, or two of the 
three present. I mention that because at this time Mr. Tuck is not 
present, but Mr. Bruce and Mr. Doyle are. 

Thank you, Counsel. Call your next witness. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Miriam Chesman. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please rise and be sworn? 

Mr. Taylor. Are you lacking a quorum now? 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. We will wait until the other member 
returns, please. I neglected to notice he was out. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Doyle. Let the committee come to order. Let the record 
show that Messrs. Bruce and Doyle, two of the three officially ap- 
pointed members of the subcommittee, are present. Therefore, a 
quorum is present. Therefore, we will proceed and ask the witness 
to be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Chesman. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please be seated by your counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF MIRIAM CHESMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

TELFORD TAYLOR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and address for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Chesman. My name is Miriam Chesman. The address is 
985 Waring Avenue, the Bronx, N.Y. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2167 

Mrs. Chesman. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Taylor. Telford Taylor, 400 Madison Avenue, New York 

City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Chesman, have you ever resided at 1117 White 
Plains Road, Bronx, N.Y., and if so for what period? 

Mrs. Chesman. Frankly it would be hard for me to remember the 
number. It was some place on White Plains Road. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the period of your residence on White 
Plains Road? 

Mrs. Chesman. I know it was a period during which my husband 
was in the Army so it would be some place in the early forties or the 
middle forties or something like that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are Mrs. Leon Chesman, are you not? 

Mrs. Chesman. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mrs. Chesman. I was born in New York City on April 2, 1915. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Chesman. I am a graduate of Hunter College, year of '35. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation? 

Mrs. Chesman. I am a housewife, mother of two children. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information, Mrs. Chesman, 
that you are a Bronx delegate to the Central Coordinating Com- 
mittee of the organization, Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan 
New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. 

Are you a Bronx representative? 

Mrs. Chesman. I am not, and I want to clarify that. You know, 
you must be very bored by now with the question of structure and — ; — 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Chesman, I think you will have an opportunity 
to develop subjects of interest upon pertinent inquiries as we go along. 

Mrs. Chesman. Then I simply want to say I am not because 

Mr. Nittle. Have you ever been a Bronx delegate to the Central 
Coordinating Committee of that organization? 

Mrs. Chesman. I have never been an official delegate because there 
are no such things. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a delegate, whether official or otherwise, to 
the Central Coordinating Committee? 

Mrs. Chesman. I have attended them sporadically when there was 
nobody else that could go. 

Mr. Nittle. When did you first attend a meeting of the Central 
Coordinating Committee? 

Mrs. Chesman. I am sorry, but I don't remember. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you participate in the organization of the Central 
Coordinating Committee of that group? 

Mrs. Chesman. No, I don't think so. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you tell us when you first attended meetings of 
the Central Coordinating Committee? 

Mrs. Chesmax. You know, this date business is very difficult. I 
don't want to be difficult, but I really do not remember when I first 
attended that meeting because, as I say, it is not a clearly" defined 
area at aU. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy of a document previously marked 
for identification as Posner Exhibit No. 1, which is titled "Structure 
for Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan N.Y. New Jersev and 
Conn." 



2168 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Did you participate in the preparation or adoption of that structural 
plan? 

Mrs. Chesman. I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in any discussions relating to it? 

Mrs. Chesman. I did not because — you see, this is where I have to 
explain. I happen not to be interested in structure and, as a matter 
of fact, I said to a friend of mine yesterday that I avoided all this 
because it is just not my interest, and that for the first time I was 
hearing a real discussion on structure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will note that that plan sets up an organization 
involving an hierarchy of a local group, county group. Central 
Coordinating Committee, and the General Assembly. It also estab- 
lishes a New York office and work committees. 

When you attended discussions with the Central Coordinating 
Committee was there a General Assembly established for the organi- 
zation Women Strike for Peace and set up under that organizational 
plan? 

Mrs. Chesman. I have no such recollection. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us of what local group you are a member? 

Mrs. Chesman. I am a member of an East Bronx group and I am 
not — look, I want to make it clear. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the title of that group? 

Mrs. Chesman. The same thing the other women said is what I 
would like to repeat. I am not a member. I didn't mean to indicate, 
because you know there is no membership. I am a participant in 
Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you compose one of that group, W^omen Strike 
for Peace, do you not? 

Mrs. Chesman. I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe the technical definition of membership is to 
that effect — one who composes a group. 

We won't quibble about words, and therefore I will proceed to ask 
you what is the full title of your East Bronx group? 

Mrs. Chesman. It doesn't really have an official title. It is just 
an East Bronx group, because the lines of the groups aren't that 
clearly defined. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A Jean Brancato also serves on the Central Coordinat- 
ing Committee of Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New York, 
New Jersey, and Connecticut ; does she not? 

Mrs. Chesman. I would like not to discuss anything in relation to 
any other personality but myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We aren't discussing personalities. We are discussing 
activities. 

Mrs. Chesman. I am sorry, I don't see where a discussion of whom 
I know has any pertinence to this inquiry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are not simply interested in whether or not you 
know a Jean Brancato. We are interested in knowing whether you 
know a Jean Brancato as being active as a representative on the 
Central Coordinating Committee of Women Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Chesman, I would prefer not to discuss any personalities in 
relation to anything at all. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I request that the witness be directed 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Witness. 

(Witness conferred with counsd.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2169 

Mrs. Chesman. I question the authority of this committee to re- 
quire me to answer. I don't understand its pertinency to this inquiry 
and I invoke at this time my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you present yesterday, Mrs. Chesman, when I 
read the preliminary statement? 

Mrs. Chesman. I was present, 

Mr. Doyle. You heard the statement read? 

Mrs. Chesman. I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I think it might be well to pursue the 
point just for a moment. 

I think we better make it clear that your sentiment regarding your 
feelings as to the jurisdiction of this committee, or its function, is in 
no way connected with your pleading the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. You are pleading the privilege of the fifth amendment on the 
basis of not being required to incriminate yourself. Am I correct? 

Mrs. Chesman. I would rather restate that. I am taking the fifth 
amendment because the fifth amendment protects the innocent 
against testifying against themselves, and of course I am protesting 
the authority of this committee on those grounds, to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Bruce, This is not why you are not answering the question. 
It is, rather, the incrimination clause of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Chesman. I would say both. 

Mr. Doyle. I think I heard you say to protect the innocent. As 
I understand that amendment, it protects anybody from testifying 
against oneself. 

I am not making that observation except that I noticed jou used 
the word "innocent" there. 

Mrs. Chesman. This is my primary concern. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. Do you think that if the relevancy and 
pertinency of this question was explained to you again, in addition 
to the reading of the preliminary statement yesterday, you then 
would answer the question? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Chesman. Upon considering your question I still feel that 
I would like to stand on my protection under the fifth amendment 
as I previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. I thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the organization of the East 
Bronx group to which you referred? 

Mrs. Chesman. In a vague kind of way. You know, I think one 
of the difficulties here is that it is hard for men to understand that 
women can work in a very vague and nebulous way, and I think 
I am sympathetic to you in that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. Mrs. Chesman, I hand you a copy of the 
National Guardian, issue of October 8, 1962, marked for identification 
as Chesman Exhibit No. 1, and direct your attention to a lead article 
which appears on page 6 entitled "Pressure on the Candidates — 
Women of Peace movement turning to political action." I quote 
from the article so that you will follow as I read it. Then I will ask 
you a question pertaining to this. 

"In and around New York on Oct. 3, several hundred women were 
to assemble at shopping centers and on busy street corners" 

93367—63 9 



2170 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Taylor. We have lost 3-011. 

Mrs. Chesman. Where are you? There is no underHning particu- 
larly and it is difficult to 

Mr. NiTTLE. The item appears in the initial paragraphs. 

In and around New York on Oct. 3, several hundred women were to assemble at 
shopping centers and on busy street corners with petitions designed to "make the 
candidates speak out on the peace issue." The day was designated for an all-out 
effort to obtain signatures on the nation-wide petition initiated by Women Strike 
for Peace. The goal is one million signatures. 

The petition pledges signers to vote for candidates who will support measures 
to 1) bring an end to nuclear testing and spread of weapons; 2) achieve general 
and complete disarmament under UN safeguards and develop a national program 
to facilitate conversion to a peacetime economy; and 3) strengthen the UN and 
the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 

Was this action of Women Strike for Peace initiated or directed by 
the Central Coordinating Committee of the New York group of 
Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Chesman. Honestly, I do not know. 

(Document marked "Chesman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in any discussions which led to 
the adoption of that particular action? 

Mrs. Chesman. I may have, but I would be dishonest if I answered 
you absolutely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Chesman, the official record indicates that a 
Miriam Chesman in 1946, resident at 117 White Plains Koad, Bronx, 
N.Y., was a signer of a Communist Party nominating petition for 
several persons, including Robert Thompson who was listed as a 
candidate for the office of Governor of New York upon the Commu- 
nist Party ticket. 

I hand you a photostatic copy of that petition marked for identifica- 
tion as Chesman Exhibit No. 2. Are you the Miriam Chesman 
whose signature is upon that nominating petition? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Chesman. I question the authority of the committee to 
require me to answer. I do not understand its pertinency to this 
hearing and I again must invoke my constitutional rights under the 
fifth amendment that states that I do not have to testify against 
myself. 

(Document marked "Chesman Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will note that the petition is titled "Communist 
Party Independent Nominating Petition." It is directed to the 
Secretary of State of New York and states that the signers of that 
petition declare their support of the candidates nominated, and select 
the name "Communist Party" as the name of the independent body 
making the nomination. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party at the date of execution 
of that petition. 

Mrs. Chesman. I will have to repeat that I again invoke the fifth 
amendment which says that I do not have to testify against myself. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask what is there, and I am not asking this 
just to be argumentative, about signing a petition like this for the 
nomination of a man to public office, when the Communist Party is 
involved, which raises in your mind a possibility of criminal prosecu- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2171 

tion if you said you had signed it? What is there about the Com- 
munist Party which raises the fear in your mind of criminal 
prosecution? 

Mrs, Chesman. I am terribly sorry, but I will again have to invoke 
my protection under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel and members of the committee, I have noticed 
that all these witnesses we have had yesterday and today, with the 
exception of Mrs. Meyers, manifestly signed those petitions that were 
submitted to them. They don't say they didn't sign them. None 
of the witnesses has denied signing them, as I recall, excepting Mrs. 
Meyers. Every other person to whom you have submitted a petition 
pleaded the constitutional amendment against self-incrimination. 

Is there something about doing something for the Communist 
Party that makes them fearful of criminal prosecution if they admit it? 
What is there? 

Mrs. Chesman. That is a question? 

Mr. Doyle. I am not trying to lead you to answer it, you under- 
stand. 

Mrs. Chesman. I am sorry. I just wasn't clear as to whether you 
were just making a remark. 

Mr. Doyle. You have already answered it and invoked your consti- 
tutional protection, but there must be something in the Communist 
Party that makes you people who have endorsed it for public office 
afraid of something. 

What is it? Is there some criminal conspiracy in the Communist 
Party that is known, on your part, as a criminal conspiracy, is it a 
violation of law, or what is it? Let me be frank with you because 
I didn't ask this question at this point just to be argumentative, but 
we know it is an international conspiracy, don't you see, the Com- 
munist outfit, in the United States. 

This committee knows that. There is abundant evidence to the 
effect, and our Supreme Court has so held, that the Communist 
movement is an international conspiracy attempting to impose the 
Communist philosophy of government on the United States of 
America and any other free nation. I surmise that the people who 
have signed this petition, such as you signed, now know at least — 
whether you knew it then, you know it now — ^that it is a criminal 
conspiracy. And I don't see why some of you folks that signed 
those petitions, at this stage of the game when you know the history of 
the world as it is, don't come out forthrightly and help our own Nation 
to fight the conspiracy by helping your congressional committee, 
for instance. 

I have talked frankly with you, but it just has kind of worried 
me to have so many of you women who are in this Strike for Peace, 
who have signed those petitions knowing you were signing a Com- 
munist document, now afraid of criminal prosecution if you face up 
to the fact. 

I wish to repeat again, Mr. Taylor, I didn't raise this question 
at this point with your client expecting any discussion with her, 
but I want the record to show that I have noticed that fact. I 
am sure ever}^ member of the committee has. We just don't under- 
stand how women and citizens who claim to be patriotic Americans, 
and I am not inferring that you are not, madam— I want you to 



2172 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

understand that — but I do know that when you signed that petition 
you knew it was a Communist petition, because it sajs so, and for 
years you should have known that it is a dangerous conspiracy. This 
committee is trying to protect our Nation against it. I don't under- 
stand why you women in this movement who signed that sort of a 
petition will not help us understand it. 

You have pleaded your privilege. 

Mrs. Chesman. I think I want to make it clear that when you 
started discussing this petition I invoked my right under the fifth 
amendment not to discuss the question. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. You will note I didn't raise this dis- 
cussion until after you had pleaded your constitutional rights and 
I am not trj^ing to get you to waive them either. Let me make that 
clear. 

Mrs. Chesman. I simply wanted to make the thing quite clear. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Chesman, in 1951 a nominating petition was 
circulated on behalf of a Communist Party functionary named 
Clifford T. McAvoy, who was seeking the office of President of the 
Council of the city of New York as the candidate of the American 
Labor Party. The oflBcial records indicate that a Miriam Chesman 
of 985 Waring Avenue, Bronx, N.Y., was a signer of his nominating 
petition. I hand you a photostatic copy of that petition marked for 
identification as Chesman Exhibit No. 3. Does jout signature appear 
thereon as a signer of that petition? 

Mrs. Chesman. I question the authority of the committee to 
require me to answer. I again must invoke my protection under the 
fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Chesman Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Clifford T. McAvoy to be a member of 
the Communist Party at that time? 

Mrs. Chesman. I will try not to be so wordy. I stand on the fifth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that the New 
York City section of the American Labor Party was cited by the 
Special Committee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944, 
and by the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee on April 23, 1956, as a subversive organization. 

The latter committee reported as follows : 

Communist dissimulation extends into the field of political parties forming 
political front organizations such as the * * * American Labor Party. The 
Communists are thus enabled to present their candidates for elective office under 
other than a straight Communist label. 

Now, Mrs. Chesman, I would direct the question to you as to 
whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party in the 
year 1951 at the time of the execution of Clifford T. McAvoy's 
petition. 

Mrs. Chesman. I stand on my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The official records further indicate that a Miriam 
Chesman of 985 Waring Avenue, Bronx, N.Y., was, in September 
1954, the signer of a nommating petition for Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 
who was then a candidate on the Peoples Rights Party, independent 
ticket, for Representative in Congress from the 24th Congressional 
District, Bronx, N.Y. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2173 

I hand you a photostatic copy of that petition marked for identifi- 
cation as Chesman Exhibit No. 4. Are you the Miriam Chesman 
who appears to have signed such a petition? 

Mrs. Chesman. I am sorry, but I must again invoke my rights 
under the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Chesman Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then know Elizabeth Gurley Flynn to be a 
leading Communist Party functionary? 

Mrs. Chesman. I must again invoke my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the year 1954? 

Mrs. Chesman. Fifth amendment. 

Air. NiTTLE. Mrs. Chesman, did you at any time serve as a sub- 
scription clerk or staff member for the American Council of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Chesman. I am sorry, but I must stand on my prior state- 
ment — that I must invoke the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should reflect 

Mrs. Chesman. Just a minute. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Chesman. Well, I w^as just trying to save time. Of course 
I hope you understand that when I say fifth amendment I am repeat- 
ing that I question the authority of the committee to require me to 
answer, that I do not think this question pertinent to the investigation, 
and therefore I invoke my constitutional right under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I challenge the use of the fifth amend- 
ment the way it was stated. She stated first of all her challenge of 
the jurisdiction of the committee and then followed it with "therefore." 
Do you mean that you are invoking the fifth amendment because you 
question the jurisdiction of the committee, or because of the self- 
incrimination clause? 

Mrs. Chesman. I also invoke my constitutional rights. You know, 
I haven't much experience at this sort of thing and you will have to 
be patient with me. 

Mr. Bruce. We will. 

Air. Doyle. Alanifestly, Air. Bruce is correct in his interpretation, 
in raising that statement to find out from you what you really were 
relying on, 

Mrs. Chesma-N. On both. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should reflect that 
the Institute of Pacific Relations contained an international secre- 
tariat to accomplish its objectives. 

An American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations was 
established together with other institutes in free societies, including 
Great Britain, France, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Philippine 
Islands, Pakistan, and other countries. The American Council was 
in existence as early as 1925. The American Council was thoroughly 
investigated by the Senate Committee on the Judiciary whose report 
of July 2, 1952, declared in part that the American Communist Party 
and Soviet ofl&cials considered that organization "an instrument of 
Communist policy, propaganda and military intelligence." 



2174 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

The Senate report discloses the activity of this institute on behalf 
of advancing Stalin's policy for Communist subjugation of China. 
The hearing record of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Part 14, 
at page 4989, reveals that a Miriam Chesman was listed as a staff 
member of the American Institute of Pacific Relations for the years 
1944, 1945, 1946, and that she served in the position of subscription 
clerk. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I think we might also for the record 
point out that the hearings by the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee 
reached the conclusion after very extensive hearings, and I believe 
these are almost the exact words, that the organization to which you 
referred constituted a conscious, articulate instrument of Soviet 
policy in the United States, and particularly dealing with the gentle- 
man that they were conducting hearings on, who was Mr. Owen 
Lattimore. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Chesman, were you a member of the Communist 
Party during the years 1944, 1945, and 1946 while serving as a sub- 
scription clerk for the American Council of the Institute of Pacific 
Relations? 

Mrs. Chesman. I question the authority of the committee to require 
me to answer. I do not understand the pertinency of the question 
to this hearing and I also invoke my constitutional rights under the 
fifth amendment. Have I learned? 

Mr. Bruce. I think so. 

:): :{: N: 4c >): 4: 41 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party, 
Mrs. Chesman? 

Mrs. Chesman. I stand on my prior answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in activity on behalf of Women Strike 
for Peace in response to Commimist directives? 

Mrs. Chesman. I stand on my prior answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Bruce. 

Mr. Bruce. Mrs. Chesman, you and other 's^dtnesses, both this 
afternoon and this morning, have made quite a point out of the use of 
the term "organization." You stress that it is not an organization. 
You describe it then as just a spontaneous response of people from 
their own personal feelings. Yes or no? 

Is that how you would describe it? 

Mrs. Chesman. Well, this is one thing I agree with, with all the 
other women in the Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. Bruce. Will you speak just a little louder? 

Mrs. Chesman. That it is just this kind of thing. 

Mr. Bruce. I think most anyone who has had any experience with 
organization realizes that in order to have a response there must be 
some central direction. 

Is the literature that is used and the fliers that are handed out 
sent to these "spontaneous" response groupings from any central place? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Chesman. I can't answer these questions. You have gotten 
a complete description of this movement and it is quite obvious that — 
I mean there is nothing written down that anybody can give a definite 
answer on. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2175 

It's been pointed out that people participate when they want to and 
there is no organization involved at all. 

Mr. Bruce. Is it not true, Mrs. Chesman, that the various groups 
in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut somehow find them- 
selves passing out the same fliers and the same type of literature — 
identical, as a matter of fact? 

Mrs. Chesman. Well, I guess if there is enough to go around. 

Mr. Bruce. How do they get hold of these tilings then if there is 
no central organization to it? 

Mrs. Chesman. I don't see the point of going into this really. I 
think we have discussed Women Strike so much that 

Mr. Bruce. The point I am making, madam, is that you yourself 
opened up 

Mrs. Chesman. — that you should know by now the kind of thing 
it is. 

Mr. Bruce. You opened up this line of inquiry, as did other 
witnesses, though, by your insistence that there is no organization. 
I am simply trying to find out if there is no organization how does the 
material get distributed among all of these groups? 

Mrs. Chesman. It may sound like a miracle to you, but it does. 

Mr. Bruce. I Iviiow it does, but what I am trying to fhid out, since 
you apparently by your o^vn statement have been active in the Women 
Strike for Peace, is where do you get your material? 

Mrs. Chesman. I guess somebody gives it to me. 

Mr. Bruce. Wlio gave it to you? 

Mrs. Chesman. Ah, now. Shall I repeat my statement? 

Mr. Bruce. If you choose. 

Mrs. Chesman. I question the authority of the committee to 
require me to answer. I do not understand the pertinency of this 
question, and I invoke mj- constitutional privileges under the fifth 
amendment. I stated before I will discuss no one but myself. 

Mr. Bruce. Is it true, Mrs. Chesman, that by deliberate plan the 
Women Strike for Peace chose the avenue of no official open organiza- 
tion, but, rather, found it more expedient to operate without a tight 
organization? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Chesman. I question the authority of the committee to 
require me to answer. I don't understand its pertinency. I invoke 
m}' constitutional privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Doyle. May I follow Mr. Bruce's question on that point by 
asking you this. 

Manifestly from your answer, j^ou have received printed material 
from the Women Strike for Peace. You frankly, by inference at 
least, have said you did, as far as I interpret your answer. Now, in 
effect, you say to us, "Well, I am not even going to tell you where I 
got it." That is what your answer means, so what is there about the 
Women Strike for Peace that you don't even want the U.S. Congress to 
know where the printed literature comes from which you have re- 
ceived? It must come from some office or some outfit, some place in 
some city. 

That is all we want to know. Wliere does it come from? We are 
not asking you to tell us the name of any individual. Where do you 
get it from, up there in New York? Does it come tlu-ough the mail? 
How do you get it? What are you afraid of? Criminal prosecution if 



2176 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

you tell US where the office is? Certainly it isn't a hidden office. They 
must pay rent if they have an office. 

For instance, I was given this morning this press release. This has 
Women Strike for Peace, 1822 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington. 
The Washington office isn't afraid to give us a press release that was 
issued from their official office in Washington. Is there something 
crooked or illegal about the New York office? 

Mrs. Chesman. Is that a question? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. What are you afraid of to tell us that? 

Mrs. Chesman. Again on the ground previously stated I must in- 
voke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. You remember the subject of the inquiry of this hear- 
ing. I just want to read you one sentence to refresh your memory. 
This is what I read the other morning and which you said you heard: 

The subject of this inquiry is to determine the extent of Communist infiltration 
in peace organizations, particularly in the Metropolitan New York area and with 
special reference to Women Strike for Peace. 

I can tell you frankly that I made up my mind that the Women 
Strike for Peace is being infiltrated by Communists very definitel}'. 
I am also saying that probably most of the women in Women Strike 
for Peace are not Communists and never would be. They are asleep 
with their eyes open or they are not concerned. They are putting 
in their enthusiasm for peace, which we men all join and back 10,000 
percent, any patriotic action for peace, but I want to say again as 
far as I am concerned I have come to the conclusion very definitely 
that the Women Strike for Peace is being infiltrated by known 
Communists, and I think you know it. 

Mr. Bruce. Mrs. Chesman, have you ever received financial sup- 
port from the Communist Party in order to promote Women Strike 
for Peace? 

Mrs. Chesman. I question the authority of the committee to re- 
quire me to answer. I do not understand its pertinency and I invoke 
my constitutional privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Any other questions. Counsel? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Witness and Counsel. 

(Whereupon at 4:35 p.m., Wednesday, December 12, 1962, the 
executive session adjourned, subject to call.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

(Women Strike for Peace and Certain Other Groups) 



THURSDAY, DECEMBER 13, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman 
of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle, of 
California; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, staff director; 
Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; 
Raymond T. Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please come to order. 

Those who are going to be seated, please be seated. 

On the first day of these hearings I read a preliminary statement 
from the committee announcing the pertinence of these hearings. 
Because, manifestly, there are many people in the hearing room now 
who were not here on the first day and possibly some witnesses are 
here now that were not here when this was read, I am going to read it 
again. 

(For opening statement, including committee resolution and order 
appointing subcommittee, see pp. 2063-2067.) 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, are you ready to call your first witness? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. Would Dr. William Obrinsky please come 
forward? 

Mr. Ross. May it please the chairman, my name is Paul Ross and 
I am counsel for the witness. I respectfully request you to instruct 
the photographers not to photograph this witness while he is here. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. I make that instruction. Photographers 
will please cooperate. 

Will you please raise your right hand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Please be seated. 

2177 



2178 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM OBRINSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

PAUL L. ROSS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Dr. Obrinsky. My name is Dr. William Obrinsky. I reside at 
No. 1 Emerson Drive, Staten Island, N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Ai'e you represented by comisel? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I am. My counsel is to my right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address. 

Mr. Ross. Paul L. Ross, R-o-s-s, 635 Madison Avenue, New- 
York, N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state whether or not you were formerly a 
resident of New Orleans, La.? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Sir, I respectfully decline to answ^er this question 
because I am a practicing physician, and to a physician the sacredness 
of human life is a direct and early and on-going experience, and it is 
no less sacred when millions of lives, not one, are at stake 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a minute 

Dr. Obrinsky. — and I am invoking my rights under the first 
amendment and my privileges mider the fifth. 

Mr. Doyle. Doctor, I instruct you to answer the question. This 
question is clearly pertinent and relevant. It is a matter of identifi- 
cation. The Supreme Court has ruled time and again that this com- 
mittee is entitled to know the identification of any witness appearing 
before it. 

Dr. Obrinsky. May I consult wdth counsel? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, sir. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrinsky. I insist on the answer I have just given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrinsky. May I ask how this is pertinent to this investiga- 
tion of peace? 

Mr. Doyle. I will answer it. It is a matter of identification. It 
is clearly pertinent and clearly relevant. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrinsky. I decline to answer the question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question. 

Dr. Obrinsky. My same answer holds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you refer to the fifth amendment as a basis for 
your refusal to respond to the question, are you invoking the self- 
incrimination clause of that amendment? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrinsky. I invoke the fifth amendment in all its parts. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal edu- 
cation? 

Dr. Obrinsky. May I ask how this is pertinent, sir? 

Mr. Doyle. For the same reason that I gave you in your other two 
refusals to answer, a matter of identification. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrinsky. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2179 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Obrinsky, did you in the early part of 1961 organ- 
ize the Staten Island Community Peace Group? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Sir, I decline to answer that question on the pre- 
viously stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not in March of 1961 issue press releases on 
behalf of this group, the contents of which were published in the 
Staten Island Advance, a daily newspaper circulated in your area? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I decline, sir, to answer on the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you two news items, marked for identifi- 
cation as Obrinsky Exhibit No. 1, which appeared, respectively, on 
March 6 and March 15, 1961, in the Staten Island Advance. 

You will note that the former item reports that the Staten Island 
Community Peace Group met the previous evening in the Unitarian 
Church hall, New Brighton, and planned a theater party for April 12 
in the Empire Theater at which the film "Grand Illusion," described 
in the newspaper account as an anti-war film, would be shown. It 
was also reported that your group announced circulation of a petition, 
allegedly drafted by Linus Pauling, protesting the spread of nuclear 
weapons. 

The latter item repeats the announcement of the sponsoring by 
your group of a showing of an anti-war film titled "Grand Illusion" 
and carries the announcement that your "peace group" is also cir- 
culating a petition which will be presented at the Oslo meeting of the 
NATO powers April 15, That petition seeks to avert an expansion 
of the nuclear power to the member nations of NATO. 

Did you prepare the press releases and make this information 
available to the press on behalf of the Staten Island Community 
Peace Group? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrinsky. Sir, I repeat that I invoke my rights under the first 
and my privilege under the fifth. 

(Documents marked "Obrinsky Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us please whether offices are main- 
tained by the Staten Island Community Peace Group? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I decline to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where are these offices located? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I still decline to answer, sir, same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are the offices located or maintained in your residence 
or place of business? 

Dr. Obrinsky. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I assume that your group is still in existence. Is it? 

Dr. Obrinsky. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee the number of persons 
who comprise its membership in addition to yourself? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I am afraid I must give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Obrinsky, were you not formerly the chairman of 
the Staten Island Committee in the Greater New York area of the 
National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what period of time have you served as chair- 
man of the Staten Island Committee of SANE? 

Dr. Obrinsky, The same answer, sir. 



2180 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. I assume that you are no longer chairman of that 
committee? 

Dr. Obrinsky. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following the hearings of May and October 1960 of 
the Senate Internal Seciu-ity Subcommittee inquiry into Communist 
infiltration in the nuclear test ban movement, Henry Abrams, a leader 
in the Greater New York Committee of SANE, revealed as a Com- 
munist, was expelled from membership in that organization in January 
1961. Did you continue to hold your position as chairman of the 
Staten Island Committee of SANE after January 1961? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Sir, I give you the same identical answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not organize the Staten Island Community 
Peace Group following your termination of membership in SANE? 

Dr. Obrinsky. The same answer applies. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Obrinsky, on February 15, 1957, Dr. William 
Sorum, a doctor and psychiatrist in private practice, residing then at 
2267 Carondelet Street, New Orleans, La., testified in hearings 
before this committee that he had been a member of the Communist 
Party from 1945 until 1952 and that he was a member of the State 
Committee of the Communist Party of the State of Louisiana during 
the years 1946 and 1947. 

Did you know Dr. WiUiam Sorum during the course of your resi- 
dence in New Orleans, La.? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I reply the same answer, sir, to this question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were, were you not, a resident formerly of New 
Orleans, La.? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Sorum testified further that, in the course of his 
membership there, he was assigned to the Professional Branch of the 
Communist Party in New Orleans and that WLUiam Obrinsky was 
likewise a member of that branch. Are you not the William Obrinsky 
to whom Dr. Sorum referred in his testimony? 

Dr. Obrinsky. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Professional Branch of the 
Communist Party in New Orleans, La.? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Once again the same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I must give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you not now a member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I give you again the same answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question. Witness. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrestsky. I decHne to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Dr. Obrinsky, I hand yo\i a copy of a news item, 
marked for identification as Obrinsky Exhibit No. 2, which appeared 
in the Staten Island Advance December 20, 1961, titled "Panel Splits 
on Fallout Shelters." 

The item reports a debate which took place the previous evening 
in the Town Forum series, with you appearing as a speaker, pointing 
out the hazards of faUout or bomb shelters. Did you appear as a 
debater on the panel as reported? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I give you the same answer, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2181 

(Document marked "Obrinsky Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The account of the position you took in the debate 
indicates that you were strongly opposed to the creation of any 
shelter program. Is that correct? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I give you the same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you secure for yourself a place on the panel 
of debaters? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Dr. Obrinsky. I give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I assume that you do not hold yourself out as a 
specialist on civil defense, do you? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in that activity for the purpose of 
carrying out Communist directives to infiltrate the peace movement? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I give you the same answer as previously, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you seek a position on the Town Forum upon 
specific instructions of any person known to you to be in a position of 
leadership in the Communist Party? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I give you the same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a copy of a document marked for 
identification as Obrinsky Exhibit No. 3. That particular document 
was issued by the National Education Department of the Communist 
Party, United States of America, dated March 1961, and titled 
"DISCUSSION OUTLINE on the STATEMENT OF THE 81 
COMMUNIST AND WORKERS PARTIES and on THE UNITED 
STATES IN TODAY'S WORLD (Report by Gus HaU to the National 
Committee, CPUSA)." 

Mr. Doyle. May the record show that the witness and his counsel 
are inspecting the exhibit. 

Mr. Ross. First page, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the statement and report referred to in that 
exhibit. Communists were directed to engage in peace agitation within 
non-Communist societies. Have you at any time personally received 
a copy of that document? 

Dr. Obrinsky. I decline to answer on the same grounds, sir, 

(Document marked "Obrinsky Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. On the cover page of Exhibit 3 it is stated that: 

This outline is designed for four classes or seminars. It may also be used in the 
preparation of group discussions or of lectures on specific points, or as an aid in 
reading or self -study. 

Did you create the Staten Island Community Peace Group so that 
you may lead a group to participate in the activity suggested by this 
statement? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Same response. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you under the discipline of the Communist 
Party at the time you engaged in activities as chairman of the Staten 
Island Committee of the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear 
PoHcy, as an organizer or member of the Staten Island Community 
Peace Group, and as a participant in the Town Forum discussions? 

Dr. Obrinsky. Same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



2182 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Witness. 

Are you ready, Counsel? Call j^our next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would John W. Darr, Jr., please come forward. 

Mr. Doyle. I just wish to simply say that enough applause is 
plenty, but there will be no toleration by the Chair of undue taking; of 
time to applaud or interrupt the hearings. I expect the cooperation 
of every patriotic American in the room. That is the only time I will 
say this. 

Mr. Darr, v/ill you raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mr. Darr. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN W. DARR, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Darr, you complied with rule IX of the com- 
mittee, which requires that any witness deshing to read any statement 
to the committee shall submit that statement to the committee for its 
reading and information at least 48 hours in advance of the hearing. 
This subcommittee received your proposed statement dated December 
10. We have considered it, and I read our reply to you at this time: 

The committee received and has given consideration to your communication 
in submitting a statement of your views regarding this hearing and the reasons 
for the position you propose to take when questioned. 

The committee disagrees with your conclusion that the hearings are not justi- 
fied and it does not accept as vahd the grounds asserted by you for your antici- 
pated refusal to answer questions. Upon conclusion of your testimony, the 
committee will determine whether any portion of it is relevant and shall make it 
the subject of investigation and whether it will be inserted in the official transcript 
of the proceedings. 

Mr. Darr. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. My difficulty is that this 
statement states my grounds for refusing to answer any questions at 
this hearing and, since I don't stand on the first or the fifth amendment, 
I really need a fuller statement of these grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course the committee doesn't recognize anything 
except legal constitutional grounds as reasons for refusing to answer 
questions. 

Mr. Darr. I realize that, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Therefore we cannot permit you to take the time to 
read this lengthy document. 

Mr. Darr. Would you be willing to recognize conscience? 

Mr. Doyle. I have answered your question. You give whatever 
answer you feel is justifiable or essential as far as your conscience or 
anything else is concerned, but we can't permit you to take time to 
read this prepared statement. 

Mr. Darr. Thank you, sir. You may have noticed at the bottom 
of my statement I asked if you would be willing to include in the 
record of this hearing the record of my testimony before the Senate 
committee since it supplements the stand upon which I refuse to 
cooperate? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2183 

Mr. Doyle. I have answered that the full committee will consider 
the full matter at the conclusion of these hearings. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Dark. John W. Darr, Jr., 158 Waverly Place, New York 14, 
N.Y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mr. Darr. Under the proper circumstances I would be happy to 
answer questions about myself and my work for peace, but I will not 
answer them 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. You are violating the rule of the 
Chair and you are out of order. 

Mr. Darr. I am sorry, sir. I thought you said I could try and 
state my grounds, as best I could. 

Mr. Doyle. But not to read your statement. 

Mr. Darr. I am not reading my statement. I am trying to put it 
all down in one sentence. 

Mr. Doyle. Make the sentence very short. 

Mr. Darr. I will do the best I can, su\ 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that we first identify 
Mr. Darr's counsel for the record. Mr. Darr, you are represented by 
counsel, are you not? 

Mr. Darr. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel identify himself for the record, please? 

Mr. Speiser. I am Lawrence Speiser. I am an attorney. My 
oflSces are at the American Civil Liberties Union, 1101 Vermont 
Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Speiser, are you appearing here on behalf of the 
American Civil Liberties Union, or are you appearing as the personal 
attorney of Mr. Darr? 

Mr. Speiser. Mr. Darr requested the American Ci^'il Liberties 
Union to provide counsel for him. We in the past have had counsel 
appear for witnesses, representing them as their attorneys, where we 
feel there is a civil liberties and constitutional right involved. I am 
appearing here as Mr. Darr's attorney and I am representing him. 

Mr. Darr. May I complete that statement, Mr. Congressman? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the constitutional provisions upon 
which you rely? An explanation will not be necessary. 

Mr. Darr. I am sorry, I will not answer that question or any other 
question on the grounds, the one-sentence grounds, that I would like 
to read, sir. May I read them? 

Mr. NiTTLE. But do you rely on any of the constitutional provi- 
sions in your refusal to respond to the question posed to you? 

Mr. Darr. I rely first and foremost on my conscience. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked you whether you relied on any constitutional 
provision now. It is a ver}^ simple question, Mr. Darr. 

Mr. Darr. I think the rights of the Constitution are alwa3^s avail- 
able to me, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you rely upon any particular provision of the 
Constitution and, if so, will you state that provision, please? 

Mr. Darr. Mr. Speiser? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Darr. I think you realize, as Mr. Speiser reminded me, that 
in my statement I say I do rely on the first amendment to the degree 



2184 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

that it is available to me, but if it were fully operated I wouldn't be 
subpenaed for a hearing of this sort. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You invoke the provisions of the first amendment of 
the Constitution. Do you invoke the provisions of the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution? 

Mr. Darr. No, sir, I do not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And do you invoke specifically 

Mr. Darr. Except for the due process. I was reminded of this 
once before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You invoke the due process clause of the fifth amend- 
ment, but 

Mr. Darr, Not the self-incrimination part. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In view of that response by the witness, Mr. Chair- 
man, I respectfully request that he be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Darr. May I now say why I won't answer? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. I think you stated your grounds, 
Mr. Darr, and, if in response to future questions you wish to rely 
upon those grounds, I think it will be sufficient for you to state, "I 
refuse to respond for the same reasons." 

Mr. Darr. Then let me just, if I may, add one phrase, that I 
stand on the first amendment to that degree because the first amend- 
ment protects the 

Mr. NiTTLE. We don't require any explanation of the first amend- 
ment. We have had other witnesses rely upon that as well, and I 
think the Congress fully understands the Constitution. 

Mr. Darr. Mr. Chairman, could I read this one sentence? 

Mr. Doyle. No. The committee will accept the way our counsel 
has suggested as to your statement, that you refuse to answer that 
question on the ground previously stated. 

Mr. Darr. So what you are saying is you are refusing to let me state 
my ground in full or even in a one-sentence statement. 

Mr. Doyle. You have stated your ground. 

Mr. Darr. But I haven't, sir. Really, there are very profound 
reasons why I, in good conscience, refuse to cooperate with this 
committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Then in good conscience cooperate with the extent of 
our suggestion, in order to save time and all, that you refuse to answer 
on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Darr. Ordinarily I would like to answer these questions, 
but I won't 

Mr. Doyle. I am not going to permit you to read that long state- 
ment. 

Mr. Darr. I understand that, sir. I am not intending. 

Mr. Doyle. Please cooperate in good conscience, which you rely 
upon, and obey the rules of the committee. 

Mr. Darr. All right, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. That is a fair request. You know that. 

Mr. Darr. I want to cooperate with the rules, but not with the 
procedure. 

Mr, NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer, although I would be glad to answer 
under other circumstances because of my conscience. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2185 

Mr. NiTTLE. We suggest to you that, if you are refusing to answer 
for the same reasons, one would think that your conscience would 
require that you would respond in accordance with the rules of a 
congressional committee. We wish you would confine yourself to 
stating legal grounds for yom' refusal to testify. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Dark. Mr. Chairman, I am reminded by my counsel that 
there seems to be no rule of the committee that requires me to say 
I give the same answer, that if you wish each time I can — I see you 
nodding your head, Mr. Bruce — that I can restate my ground each 
time. I don't want to take up the time of this committee, but at 
the same time I don't want to be put in the position of, I don't laiow, 
trying to hide behind something. I am trying to stand for some- 
thing and to speak to you and the American people. 

Mr. Doyle. I will go this far with you. Make the one-sentence 
statement 

Mr. Dark. Then, from then on I will be willing to say I stand 
on 

Mr. Doyle. That is a sentence, not a page. 

Mr. Darr. No, it is a sentence. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead. 

Mr. Darr. All right. Thank you very much. Under the proper 
circumstances, I would be happy to answer questions about my work 
for peace; but I will not answer them here because, within the context 
of this hearing, to answer any questions would be to cooperate with 
a proceeding I must, in conscience and for the reasons given in my 
statement you received, oppose as harmful to the democratic proc- 
esses and to the work for peace necessary for the survival of human 
values and life in the nuclear age. 

Mr. Doyle. That is period. 

Mr. Darr. That is period. 

Mr. Doyle. I appreciate your applauding the ruling of the 
chairman. 

Mr. Darr. And I appreciate your responding to my conscience, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Darr, among your occupations appears to be that 
of chairman of the board of directors of the Greenwich Village Peace 
Center, with offices at 133 West Third Street, New York City. Is 
that not correct? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer for the grounds given. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy of a mimeographed letter — — 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to accept the copy of the mimeographed letter 
for the same reasons. 

Mr. Nittle. We will pass it to your counsel. It is marked for 
identification as Darr Exhibit No. 1. It is on the letterhead of the 
Greenwich Village Peace Center, and I direct your attention to the 
page thereof dated November 12, 1961, upon which appears your name 
as John Darr, chairman of the board of directors. You are the John 
Darr named thereon, are you not? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

(Document marked "Darr Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Upon what date did you assume the chairmanship of 
the board of directors? 

93367—63 10 



2186 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. Dare. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I request that there be a specific 
direction to the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Dark. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you assume a position of leadership in the 
formation of the Greenwich Village Peace Center? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask for a direction, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. Witness. 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were you appointed to the position of 
chairman of the board? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same groimds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, Mr. Darr, participate in the selection of 
other members of the board of directors? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us the date when the Greenwich Village 
Peace Center was formed? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of a leaflet marked for identi- 
fication as Darr Exhibit No. 2, titled "Greenwich Village Peace 
Center Newsletter" under date of October 1962. I direct your 
attention to page 2 thereof, where appears an item titled "first 

ANNIVERSARY LETTER TO THE NEWSLETTER READERS FROM THE CHAIR- 
MAN OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS," signed by John W. Darr, Jr., 
which states in the opening paragraph that "The Greenwich Village 
Peace Center is now a year old." 

Was the Greenwich Village Peace Center formed on or about 
October 1961? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Darr Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, Mr. Darr, participate in your activity as 
chairman of the Greenwich Village Peace Center as an individual 
under the discipline of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse an answer on the same grounds. Excuse me. 
There is a slight rewording of that statement, namely, that I would 
volunteer this information, but not answer this question, outside of 
this hearing room. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, we have had many witnesses who have volun- 
teered statements outside of the hearing room when they are not under 
oath. I presume you will do it at that time, is that correct? 

Mr. Darr. No. What I am saying is that I wouldn't answer this 
question even from my best friend. I don't think he has the right 
to ask it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in such activities as the formation 
of the Greenwich Village Peace Center in response to Communist 
directives? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer for the same ground. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer, sir, for the same grounds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2187 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me, Mr. Darr, the report and order of 
the Subversive Activities Control Board, a case decided February 7, 
1956, in proceedings under the Internal Security Act of 1950, in the 
case of Herbert Brownell, Jr., Attorney General oj the United States v. 
National Council oj American-Soviet Friendship, Inc. 

The order states that you have been identified as a member of the 
Communist Party while serving as a member of the board of directors 
of that organization, the National Council of American-Soviet Friend- 
ship, Inc., which was found to be a Communist-front organization 
and ordered to register as such with the Attorney General. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party during the course of 
your service as a member of the board of directors of the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc.? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question, 

Mr. Darr. I refuse to answer, sir, on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. Thank you. 

Call your next witness, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, please. 

Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Wilson, would you please raise your right hand 
and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Wilson. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Have a chau-. Are you ready? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF DAGMAR WILSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would 3^ou state your name and address for the 
record, please. 

Mrs. Wilson. My name is Dagmar Wilson. I live at 1413 29th 
Street, NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Wilson. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself, stating his 
name and office address. 

Mr. Speiser. Lawrence Speiser, offices at the American Civil 
Liberties Union, 1101 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Wilson, at the outset the committee wishes to 
make clear just why you have been subpenaed to appear and testify 
in this hearing. I believe you understand that the committee is 
presently investigating Communist infiltration of peace groups in 
this country, with particular attention to Women Strike for Peace, an 



2188 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

organization of which, from pubhshed reports, you are the recognized 
leader. These hearings have also been particularly directed to the 
Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut section of 
Women Strike for Peace movement. 

The committee has no evidence of Communist Party membership, 
or activity in support of front groups or of pro-Commimist sym- 
pathies on your part, and this we wish to emphasize. 

However, several of the witnesses who have already been heard by 
the committee and who have occupied leadership positions in the 
New York section of this movement have refused to divulge certain 
pertinent information about their organization, its formation, its 
leadership, and its activities. 

The committee believes that you, as a leader of the movement and 
as a patriotic American citizen, will cooperate in this inquiry. I 
wish to make it clear that the committee is not interested in your 
beliefs or opinions and will not make inquiry into them. It is con- 
cerned only with factual information relative to the subject under 
inquiry. 

With that introductory statement, would you please state the date 
and place of your birth? 

As to the date of your birth, you may simply state that you are 
over 21 years of age, if you wish. 

Mrs. Wilson. Thank you. I don't mind telling you. I was born 
in 1916 in New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. I completed high school in London in 1934 
and in the autumn of that year I went to the Slate School, which is 
the Art Department of London University. There I spent 4 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the leader or coordinator of a movement 
known as Women Strike for Peace, which has its headquarters at 
1822 Massachusetts Avenue, NW., Washington 6, D.C.? 

Mrs. Wilson. It is rather a hard question to answer. People like 
to call me leader. I regard it as more a term of endearment or, shall 
we say, an honorary title. I think I can best qualify it in this wa}'. 

It was as a result of my initiative that this grassroots movement 
sprang into bemg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The New York Times of November 22, 1961, quoted 
you as follows: "I think it's about tune I stop being head of this. We 
have many excellent volunteers. I just happened to be the starter." 

Apparently at one time you did refer to yourself as being the head 
of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. I think we were all kind of groping for what to call 
me, largely because the press wanted an answer to this, and I have been 
given various titles such as coordinator, leader. We knew I wasn't 
the president. We didn't have an organization. 

But I think I better just assume the honorary title, although I 
have no special function. We are really all leaders, you Imow. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I am judgmg by what you say that the New 
York group would be under its own steam and the leaders of that 
group would not be controlled by you as the "head" of the national 
movement. Is that right? 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, nobody is controlled by anybody in the Women 
Strike for Peace. We do have, however, communication with each 
other constantly, and I can explain how we do that later if you would 
like me to. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2189 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. We shall probably go into that. What is 
presently the correct name of your movement? I ask that because 
it has been variously designated in published reports as Women 
Strike for Peace, Women for Peace, and Women's International 
Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. In one area they prefer to call themselves 
Women Stand for Peace, as a matter of fact. This again is most 
characteristic of the movement, that local groups have assumed 
names that they prefer. Some ladies don't like the idea of striking. 
It sounds a little too violent for them, so, all right, they can just be 
Women for Peace or Women Stand for Peace. Women's Inter- 
national 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. You have indicated that some 
groups of women in the country apparently do not find the expression, 
"Women Strike for Peace," very agreeable? 
Mrs. Wilson. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In fact I believe you say they find it rather dis- 
tasteful? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. However, "Women Strike for Peace" is the name 
which you originally applied to the movement? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. You see, originally we started out just to 
perform one simple action. It was to be a demonstration at that 
time in support of the President's peace race, which he described at 
the United Nations, and we had to do something that was different 
from any other gestm-es of this kind that had been made, and it was 
groping for a new word. You know they had the sit-ins and the 
walks and the rides and everything else you could think of, and it 
took us quite a long time before this idea struck us, shall I say. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I take it then that the title of your movement, 
"Women Strike for Peace," was not your conception, but was a title 
suggested to you by someone else? 

Mrs. Wilson. It was decided in a group of us who were discussing 
peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think you might state whether you suggested the 
title "Women Strike for Peace," or whether it was suggested to you 
in that group. 

Mrs. Wilson. It was suggested to me in that group, but I responded 
instantly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that "Women Strike for Peace" was the original 
name of the movement then at that point? 

Mrs. Wilson. It was really a description of the action that we were 
planning to take on a certain day. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it now the name of the movement? 
Mrs. Wilson. Yes, it is generally accepted as the name of the 
movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has the name of the movement been changed? 
Mrs. Wilson. Well, in a sense it has. On January the 15th of 
this year we decided that we would try to communicate with peace 
groups in other countries. We succeeded in doing so and planned 
an international action. From that day on we decided we were 
"Women's International Strike for Peace." However, the titles of 
the movement in the other countries are completely different. I mean 
this is a very loose affiliation really. 



2190 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have, on or about January 15, changed the 
name to "Women's International Strike for Peace," is that right? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of Vol. 1, No. 1, of the Washington 
Newsletter, Women's International Strike for Peace. It is not dated. 

Mrs. Wilson. Oh, dear. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And it appears as emanating from 1822 Massachusetts 
Avenue. On page 4 this statement in the paragraph on the top of 
the page appears : 

"You'll recall that on January 15, Women Strike for Peace became 
'WISP,'" which I assume is an abbreviation for Women's International 
Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Though it seems long ago, we think you'd like to 
know what happened * * * ." 

Now, it appears that this newsletter was issued at a time subsequent 
to January 15. Was the name "Women's International Strike for 
Peace" suggested to you by other persons? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, I am afraid I just don't remember that. It is 
one of those things that came about so naturally and, of course, it is 
a beautiful word, you know, much better than "WSP." 

(Document marked "Wilson Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask you this then. Do you recollect whether 
this new title for your organization was recommended to you by any 
member of the New York group of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, it wasn't. I am pretty sure of that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask that, Mrs. Wilson, because on January 11, 1962, 
January 12, 1962, and on January 14, 1962, there were various cable- 
grams addressed to an organization known as Women's International 
Strike for Peace and addressed to "WISP New York, New York." 

They are cablegrams from various peace leaders from other coun- 
tries. I have a list here. I don't think it is necessary to go down the 
list, but they appear from Australia, from India, and from Canada. 

Now, our inquiry is, Why should these cablegrams be addressed 
to an organization whose name has not as yet been changed, but 
addressed to it in a subsequently changed name and addressed to 
New York? 

Mrs. Wilson. You make it sound terribly dramatic. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way. 

Mrs. Wilson. I'll answer it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Would you answer it? 

Mrs. Wilson. The question is simply that we had a lady who was 
kind enough to volunteer to make the contact with the women in the 
other countries and she resided in New York, so that became a tele- 
graphic address from then on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your international coordinator, as a matter of fact, is 
a lady who is on the New York Coordinating Committee, is she not? 

Mrs. Wilson. I don't really know whether she is or not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. That is Mrs. [Ruth] Gage-Colby, isn't it? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, of course. You know her very well. 

Mrs. Wilson. Sure. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2191 

Mr. NiTTLE. And the chairman of the International Work Com- 
mittee is Mrs. Gladys Blum, who is on the Central Coordinating 
Committee of the New York group ; is that not correct? 

Mrs. Wilson. I guess so. I don't know, 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I assume that since the lady you are speaking of 
is the international coordinator, that the international contacts had 
emanated from her connection with the New York group; is that right? 

Mrs. Wilson. I don't think I quite understand that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way. The international contacts 
then rest with the lady who is a member of the Metropolitan New 
York group of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes, I suppose so. She's in New York. Yes, she 
would be. 

Mr. Nittle. I would like to ask you at the beginning. Is it not a fact 
that you do not really exercise the effective leadership or control over 
the New York group? 

Mrs. Wilson. I think I already explained that. I mean we all act 
on our own. 

Mr. Nittle. Has not the New York group played the dominant 
role in actions attributed to Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Heavens, I think the women in other cities would be 
mortified if I said that. 

Mr. Nittle. Was the picketing at the White House by Women 
Strike for Peace .on January 15, 1962, your idea? 

Mrs. Wilson. Oh, my goodness. My personal idea you mean? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, it is very hard to recall, you loiow. When you 
discuss things in a group, ideas pop out from everybody at that time. 
When you come away, you all think it was your idea, you laiow. 

Mr. Nittle. I take it that you did not personally call for and 
initiate the organization of the January 15, 1962, demonstration? 

Mrs. Wilson. I would like to think I did. 

Mr. Nittle. You would like to think you did? 

Mrs. Wilson. I would like to think I did. Anyway, I am sure I 
had some part in it. 

Mr. Nittle. Now I want to refer to the picketing of the United 
Nations on February 20, 1962, which was for the announced purpose 
of protesting President Kennedy's decision to resume nuclear testing. 
Was that your idea? 

Mrs. Wilson. I think we all demonstrated on that day. We were 
most disturbed. 

Mr. Nittle. What I mean to say is, Did you call for that particular 
demonstration and did you initiate it? 

Mrs. Wilson. I am not quite sure about that specific one, but it 
would have worked in exactly the same way as all our other demon- 
strations did. One area would think of an idea for an action, shall we 
say, and will then communicate with other groups throughout the 
country, and in each city where they want to take this action the}'' 
will do so. Now, in this city it was of course in front of the White 
House that we demonstrated. In New York it was in front of the 
United Nations. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know whether the idea in this particular 
instance originated from any member of the New York group of 
Women Strike for Peace? 



2192 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, I am quite sure you know that this one origi- 
nated spontaneously in many areas, because one of the things that 
we are violently against is nuclear testing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, of com-se, Mrs. Wilson, I think you will agree 
that coordinated activities participated in by many people in many 
parts of the country on the same day do not occur "spontaneously." 
There must be a suggestion and some kind of communication. 

Mrs. Wilson. Certainly, all communications. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also want to refer to a very spectacular instance, 
and that was the sending of 51 delegates to the Geneva disarmament 
conference in April 1962. I would like to ask whether the idea for 
doing this was originally conceived by you. 

Mrs. Wilson. No. Again, I wish I had thought of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell the committee, if you know, whether 
this idea originated from any member of the New York group? 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, I think this tune it was really New York's 
baby and I think they should be proud of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this matter arranged, and were plans made for 
this trip to Geneva, by the New York organization? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. The plans were very complicated, because it 
did involve sending women from all over the country, as you know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Wilson. And they were the ones that initiated the idea. 
I can explain that later on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any discussions on this subject with 
Mrs. Blanche Posner? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, I didn't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any discussions on the Geneva arrange- 
ment wnth Iris Freed? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think she was in charge of sendoff pubhcity. 

Mrs. Wilson. She may have been. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At any rate she wasn't appointed by you, is that right? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, no. Lord no, not up in New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any discussions with Mrs. Lyla Hoffman 
about it? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want to hand you a copy of a document, previously 
marked for identification as Posner Exhibit No. 2, which is titled 
"Proposed Structure of Women Strike for Peace, Metropolitan New 
York, New Jersey, Connecticut." Did you have any part 

Mr. Speiser. That isn't the title on this, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This docmnent is titled "Proposed Plan of Structure 
and Procedure for Women Strike for Peace New York New 
Jersey Connecticut." 

Did 3'ou have any part in drawing up that proposed plan, Mrs. 
Wilson? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, I can tell you I didn't, but it was over my 
dead body. New York was trying its best to get me to come up 
there, jou know, and sort of settle their problems for them, and I 
discussed it with some of m}'^ friends down here and I said, "Look, 
those girls are having an awful time. There are so many of them 
they just don't seem to be able to get together." My friends said, 
"Don't baby them. They have to learn to grow up themselves." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2193 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did not have any part in drawing it up? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the proposal ever submitted to you for your 
approval or commentary? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. I mean this is completely against our principle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you Posner Exhibit No. 1, which is the actual 
structural plan adopted by, or utilized by, Women Strike for Peace, 
Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, Connecticut. Did you have 
any part in formulating that plan? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. The reason I was reading this is because— 
well, I am sorry. That amused me very, very much. No, I had no 
part in this plan. I know^ exactly why it was done, though, and I 
would be glad to tell you about it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any discussions with respect to that 
plan? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. With leaders of the New York group? 

Mrs. Wilson. I don't Imow if you would call them leaders. I said 
we were all leaders so I guess they were leaders. Yes, we had lengthy 
telephone conversations and 

Mr. NiTTLE. Telephone conversations only? You did not appear 
in New York? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes, but I am not sure it was directly connected 
with this. It was a little bit, I guess, before they decided to make a 
structural plan. This has been one of our big problems, shall I say, 
in our own organization since the beginning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any discussions with Blanche Posner, 
Iris Freed, or Lyla Hoffman with respect to that plan? 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, not specifically with respect to that plan, no. 
We did discuss ways and means of doing things, j^es. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I take it that in the New York discussions you had 
occasion to talk to Mrs. Posner, Mrs. Freed, and Mrs. Hoffman. 

Mrs. Wilson. Not in the early days, no. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to discuss Posner Exhibit 1 
with them? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or any of them? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Communist newspaper, The Worker, of February 
25, 1962, reported that you took part in and spoke at the Women 
Strike for Peace picketing of the United Nations headquarters in 
New York City on February 20, 1962. You did speak at the New 
York U.N. picketing on that date, did you not? 

Mrs. Wilson. I prefer you to caU it a demonstration. Picketing 
sounds so hostile. Yes, I spoke there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That newspaper reported: 

When Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, a Washington D.C. housewife who initiated this 
woman's movement for peace rose to speak there was silence. It was the first 
time Mrs. Wilson had participated in a New York peace action. 

Was that journal correct in saying that this was the first time you 
had participated in any Women Strike for Peace action in New York? 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, it was the first time I had participated in a 
public peace action. 



2194 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your participation in that demonstration j^our 
own idea, or did you do that at the request of the New York group? 

Mrs. Wilson. They kindly invited me, and I felt very pleased. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to that February 20 demonstration, had you at 
any time consulted wath the leadership of the New York group con- 
cerning the activities of Women Strike for Peace in that area? 

Mrs. Wilson. Again I would like to qualif}^ the word "leadership." 
We are all leaders. I had met vnth large numbers of ladies in New 
York before that, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you at any time, prior to February 20, at least 
exercised any direction or control of the activities of the New York 
group? 

Mrs. Wilson. I think I already said that nobody controls anybody. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And since that time you have not directed or con- 
trolled any of the New York group's activity? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, but cooperated; cooperated, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Wilson, Vol. I, No. 1, of the Washington News- 
letter just shown you, which was issued from the address at 1822 
Massachusetts Avenue, indicates that the headquarters of Women's 
International Strike for Peace is in Washington, D.C. 

Mrs. Wilson. Is that what it says? "Headquarters"? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It does not say it specifically. I said that was the 
indication, so that I \\dll ask you, Is 1822 Massachusetts Avenue, 
Washington, the headquarters of Women's International Strike for 
Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, we have no headquarters. This office has a 
special function which I would be glad to explain. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. Women's International Strike for Peace has 
no headquarters, you state. 

Mrs. Wilson. Alas, no. We need one badly. There hasn't been 
anybody taking on the job so far. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is a very interesting fact because I will hand you 
a magazine titled New World Review, dated October 1962. At page 37 
an article appearing in that magazine, titled "Women Strike for 
Peace," by Helen Rand Miller, notes that the headquarters of Wo- 
men's International Strike for Peace is 750 Third Avenue, New York 
City. 

Mrs. Wilson. Very interesting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is 750 Third Avenue, New York City, the head- 
quarters of Women's International Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. I sure wish it were. 

(Document marked "Wilson Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Wilson, I now hand you a copy of the Moscow- 
published New Times, No. 13, dated March 28, 1962, which de- 
clares that the Women's International Democratic Federation — an 
organization, by the way, which has been cited by this committee and 
other authorities as an international Communist front — was sponsoring 
a Women's World Assembly for Disarmament and that the Women's 
International Democratic Federation had established contact with 
"Women's Strike for Peace" in the United States for attendance at 
that Assembly. Do you have knowledge of any such contact being 
made with your organization prior to March 28, 1962, by the Moscow- 
based Women's International Democratic Federation? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2195 

Mrs. Wilson. I can't tell you exactly when we made contact with 
this group. 

(Document marked "Wilson Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who is "we"? 

Mrs. Wilson. "We"? Women. "Who is we?" I am one of 
them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way, and be more specific. Did you 
personally make contact with the Women's International Democratic 
Federation on behalf of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, I think the initiative came from them. Oh, 
well, we probably contacted some of the members of the Women's 
whatever it is called, International Federation, in our attempt to 
affiliate with peace groups in other countries. That was described 
on January 15. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Whose idea was it to make contact with the Women's 
International Democratic Federation in Moscow to establish inter- 
national contacts by Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. This isn't the way it was done. You see, we just 
contacted all the peace leaders that we could find in other countries, 
and I suppose this was among them, you see. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What I would like to know is, Who conceived the 
idea? Did this idea originate with the Washington headquarters, 
or with some other group? 

Mrs. Wilson. This was all part of our attempt to make Women 
Strike for Peace into WISP, you see, and 

Mr. NiTTLE. An idea which I believe you stated originated with the 
New York headquarters through its international coordinator? 

Mrs. Wilson. I did not. I said nothing of the sort. I said I 
wish I had thought of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You indicated that it wasn't your idea. 

Mrs. Wilson. I think many of us had the idea of making this into 
an international movement. I loiow I certainly had personally. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am not referring generally to, or talking generally 
about, an international movement. I am referring to a specific 
contact with an organization. I want to know whose idea it was to 
make that contact. 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, I am afraid it is impossible 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this your idea, or was it suggested to you? 

Mrs. Wilson. You are trying to pin it down to one thing. We 
made contact at the same time, about the same time, with as many 
peace gi'oups in the other countries as we could find. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say "we." I don't understand that. 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes, we. This was on our behalf. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, I did not personally. Maybe it was referred to 
our international coordinator. She was then called — she did it on 
behalf of 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let's take our time. The international coordinator. 
Are you referring to the person who is international coordinator for 
the New York group? 

Mrs. Wilson. She is mternational coordmator for the national 
movement. She happens to reside in New York. 



2196 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Mr. NiTTLE. And is a member of, or affiliated with, the New York 
group? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes, sure, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes; we are all affiliated with each other, yes. 
Would you be interested, by the way, in knowing why she was se- 
lected to do this? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am just interested in determining 

Mrs. Wilson. You see, it really came from California. That's 
the funny part about it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Wilson, I hand you a copy of the Moscow 
News of June 30, 1962, a weekly publication which emanates from 
Gorky Street, Moscow, published in the English language. I direct 
your attention to page 7, an article titled "Delegations from Over a 
Hundred Countries to Attend Moscow Congress" which reports 
that the American Women Strike for Peace decided to send repre- 
sentatives and observers to the World Congress for General Dis- 
armament and Peace. It was to be held in Moscow commencing 
July 9, 1962. 

I would like to know whether you participated in the decision, 
if one was made by American Women Strike for Peace, to send 
representatives and observers to the World Congress for General 
Disarmament and Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes, I did. 

(Document marked "Wilson Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you originally conceive this idea, or was it a 
suggestion from some other source? 

Mrs. Wilson. This is an idea I have always had myself. Others 
have had it, too, that it would be very important for Women Strike 
for Peace to participate in as many international peace conferences as 
we possibly could. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Newspaper accounts indicate that the first national 
demonstration was held November 1, 1961, by Women Strike for 
Peace in 58 cities and that about 2,000 women marched at the United 
Nations. Did you coordinate the action for demonstrations in 58 
cities? 

Mrs. Wilson. Is this something that 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask you to answer that yes or no. 

Mrs. Wilson. That I find very hard to explain to the masculine 
mind. I can't answer that yes or no. It was my initiative that re- 
sulted in, yes, all of these demonstrations that took place on that day. 
By the way, there were 60, not just 58. 

Mr. Doyle. I think the masculine mind can understand that. 

Mrs. Wilson. I thought that you would be able to, Mr. Doyle, 
because I have been watching your face. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Wilson, the People's World, the West 
Coast Communist Party newspaper, the issue of September 15, 1962, 
reported — and I am quoting this because I assume you don't read 
the People's World 

Mrs. Wilson. Oh, you do? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The report said: 

A grass roots, votes-for-peace activity by many hundreds of women in Pacific 
Coast states has added a new dimension to congressional and state election cam- 
paigns, which go into high gear in the remaining seven weeks before Nov. 6. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2197 

I would like to ask whether this political activity was conceived at 
your Washington office of Women Strike for Peace, or by some other 
group. 

Mrs. Wilson. I think this was our baby, I am proud to say, yes. 
You know, this was a national campaign, by the way. I mean it 
wasn't just local. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That article in the People's World, at page 2, entitled, 
"Women busy in elections. It's politics for peace," which appeared 
under the byhne of Peggy Dennis, widow of the late Eugene Dennis, 
who, until his death in January 1961, was general secretary of the 
United States Communist Party, also stated, in part: 

At their first national conference last June at Ann Arbor, Mich., Women for 
Peace (in some cities called Women's Strike for Peace, also Women's Intl. Strike 
for Peace) discussed at some length the question of political action. 

Did you attend the national conference last June at Ann Arbor? 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who made the decision to hold the conference at 
Ann Arbor, rather than in Washington? 

Mrs. Wilson. This was Ann Arbor's idea, so they invited us. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see. So that the pohtical conference then was 
called at the request of the Ann Arbor group and it was their idea? 

Mrs. Wilson. This wasn't a political conference. In fact, I am 
not even sure this particular thing was discussed there, but many 
things were discussed and this may well have been one of them, yes. 
Yes; "Come to the WISPUREE." That is what we called it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the past 2 days, Mrs. Wilson, the following 
persons from the Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, Connecticut 
Women Strike for Peace have testified before the committee : Blanche 
Posner, Ruth Meyers, Lyla Hoffman, Iris Freed, and Anna Mackenzie. 

Have you at any time consulted with them with the view toward 
directing what activities the New York group of Women Strike for 
Peace would undertake? 

Mrs. Wilson. Have constant communication of these activities, 
you know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you exercised any direction or control? 

Mrs. Wilson, Never any direction or control, only suggestions. 
These suggestions, you know, shuttle back and forth across the country 
aU the time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that a Selma Rein 
has participated, in the past, in the activities of the Washington group 
of Women Strike for Peace. Do you know Selma Rein? That is 
S-e-1-m-a R-e-i-n? 

Mrs. Wilson. WeU, I will tell you something. I don't think that 
you can really expect me to name names or women who have partici- 
pated in the Women Strike for Peace. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Wilson, I, of course, have named some 
names, and you have responded affirmatively or otherwise with respect 
to those names of women who are active in Women Strike for Peace, 
and I am frankly a little surprised that you pause while I ask you 
about the activities of Selma Rein in the Washington group of Women 
Strike for Peace. 

It is the committee's information that Mrs. Rein has had possession 
of a key to the Washington office of Women Strike for Peace, and it is 
also the committee's information that in March 1962 Mrs. Sehna 



2198 COISIMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

Rein was appointed as a member of a committee of fom* to arrange a 
list of international contacts to be made by Women Strike for Peace, 
that she was placed upon this group of four — — 

Mrs. Wilson. Wait a minute. I have lost track, 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Let me put it this way. I stated that it 
is the committee's information also that in March 1962 Mrs. Selma 
Rein was appointed as a member of a committee of four to arrange a 
list of international contacts to be made by Women Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Wilson. She couldn't have been so because nobody was ever 
appointed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. 

Mrs. Wilson, Excuse me. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Included within the group of four was the international 
coordinator of the New York group of Women Strike for Peace, I 
want to inquire, if you will respond to the question, whether Mrs. 
Rein was appointed to a committee to arrange a list of international 
contacts to be made by Women Strike for Peace. 

Mrs. Wilson. Nobody has ever been appointed by anyone, you 
see, in our movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think it is important to make this inquiry because 
I spoke to you a moment ago of an article which appeared in the 
March 28 issue of a Moscow publication anticipating the contact with 
Women Strike for Peace, or stating that one had been made. 

That particular article, to refer back to it and to refresh your 
recollection, was the Moscow-published New Times, dated March 28, 
1962, which declared that the Women's International Democratic 
Federation, that is, a Moscow international front, was sponsoring the 
Women's World Assembly for Disarmament, and the article stated 
that the Women's International Democratic Federation had estab- 
lished contact with Women Strike for Peace for attendance at that 
Assembly. Indeed, you also testified in response to questions re- 
lating to that, that this was the idea of your Washington group. 
Therefore, I am inquiring whether Mrs. Selma Rein, who is a resident 
of Washmgton and who appears to have been active at your Wash- 
ington headquarters, was, in fact, appointed in the Washington head- 
quarters as a member of a committee to arrange international contacts. 

Mrs. Wilson. WeU, you have asked me so many things in one 
there. First, there was an invitation I gather? I received an invi- 
tation at my house. I presume that one was also sent to our Wash- 
ington office. I might explain that the Washington office is manned 
by volunteers, who take it in turns to come in and out of that office 
with their typewriters, a few hours in the afternoon, or one day a 
week, or however it happens to fit into their schedules, and so on, so 
it is quite possible that there was a duplicate at the office. _ I know 
nothing about any one individual's connection with this thing what- 
ever. 

Mr. Nittle. Let me ask you this, Mrs. Wilson. Do you know 
whether or not Mrs. Selma Rein established contact on behalf of your 
group with the Women's International Democratic Federation in 
Moscow? 

Mrs. Wilson. I can say emphatically that she could not have done 
so. 

Mr. Nittle. What makes you say that she could not have done so? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2199 

Mrs. Wilson. Because the contact had akeady been made way 
back when we started to become international, if you know what I 
mean. The contact has been there ever since and it continues. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge of the circumstances under 
which Mrs. Selma Rein was appointed in March of 1962 as a member 
of a committee of foiu- of the Washington group of Women Strike for 
Peace to arrange a list of international contacts? 

Mrs. Wilson. No one has ever been appointed to anything in 
Women Strike for Peace. People do volunteer for this or that job. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, to yom- knowledge did Mrs. Selma Rein volun- 
teer for that particular job? 

Mrs. Wilson. I have no knowledge of this, no. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did she, to your Imowledge, serve upon a committee 
with the international coordinator of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You don't know? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Wilson, in putting this question I don't assume 
that you do have knowledge, but I would hke to ask whether, in fact, 
you have knowledge that Mrs. SeLma Rein has been identified as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Wilson. I have no such knowledge. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr, Chairman, for the record I think it important to 
note that the Committee on Un-American Activities received the 
sworn testimony on December 13, 1955, of Herbert Fuchs, who, from 
1937 until 1948 and while a member of the Communist Party, was 
employed as an attorney by the National Labor Relations Board in 
Washington, D.C., with the exception of a 3-year period when he was 
assigned to the National War Labor Board. 

For a considerable period of time Mr. Fuchs served as the official 
contact for a Communist cell group within the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board with higher Communist Party echelons in WashiDgton, 
D.C. Mr. Fuchs' contact was Victor Perlo, whose leading role in 
the Communist Party program to infiltrate the U.S. Government was 
first revealed in the testimony of Elizabeth Bentley before this com- 
mittee in 1948. Mr. Fuchs testified that in 1946 Selma Rein was 
a member of a Communist Party group with which he met. Mrs. 
Selma Rein was subpenaed to appear before this committee on Febru- 
ary 28, 1956, and given an opportunity to explain or deny her alleged 
membership in the Communist Party. She refused to answer that 
question, invoking the fifth amendment privilege. 

To the best of your recollection, Mrs. Wilson, did Mrs. Rem during 
the period of her activity in the Washington office ever make any 
suggestions to you as to any activities which Women Strike for Peace 
might undertake? 

Mrs. Wilson. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Literature of Women Strike for Peace, with place of 
origin noted thereon as 1822 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Wash- 
ington, D.C, dated December 6, 1962, and addressed to "Dear 
WISPs," indicates that your organization sent many telegrams 
containing the following message: 

Urge contact all WISPs to wire Chairman Walter, House Unamerican Activi- 
ties Committee asking opportunity to testify with Dagmar and other WISP3 
December 11-13 in Washington about wonderful work WSP doing to preserve 



2200 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 

world peace. Airmail copy telegram to Washington office for use at hearings. 
Plan to come regardless of his answer. Hospitality provided for you and children. 
Letter following. 

Then I believe in the letter you have urged the women to come with 
their babies. 

I am quite sure, Mrs. Wilson, it will please you to know that in 
response to your telegram Mr. Walter has received a large number of 
telegrams and letters 

Mrs. Wilson. Yes, I know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — protesting the committee hearings. I might add, 
incidentally, that this is a further indication that, despite the claims 
of Women Strike for Peace, they are pretty well ''organized." 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, they are here to tell. I mean here you see 
them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. However, one thing that impresses the committee is 
the fact that a considerable number of these communications have 
come from persons who have been publicly identified in testimony 
before this committee and other agencies as members of the Com- 
munist Party. Was the list of persons to whom your telegram was to 
be sent prepared, in part or in whole, by the New York office of the 

Mrs. Wilson. No, it wasn't. This one was prepared by us. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. No. It was prepared by us. I was there. Inci- 
dentally, I think it is very brave of these women if they had been here 
before to offer to come and testify again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am about to conclude the staff interrogation, with 
the permission of the Chau-, and I would like to pose a few remaining 
questions in concluding. I think you have observed during the course 
of your attendance at these hearings that numerous Communist direc- 
tives, and evidence produced in these hearings, indicate that a present 
major objective of the Communist Party is the infiltration of peace 
groups. I would like to ask whether you would knowingly permit or 
encourage a Communist Party member to occupy a leadership posi- 
tion in Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Well, m}^ dear sir, I have absolutely no way of con- 
trolling, do not desire to control, who wishes to join in the demonstra- 
tions and the efforts that the women strikers have made for peace. 

In fact I would also like to go even further. I would like to say that 
unless everybody in the whole world joins us in this fight, then God 
help us. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you knowingly permit or welcome Nazis or 
Fascists to occupy leadership positions in Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Wilson. Whether we could get them or not, I don't think we 
could. 1 

Mr. NiTTLE. Am I correct, then, in assuming that you plan to take 
no action designed to prevent Communists from assuming positions 
of leadership in the movement or to eliminate Communists who may 
have already obtained such positions? 

Mrs. Wilson. Certainly not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chau-man. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Governor? 

1 Despite the fact that this is the response recorded by tne official reporter for the hearings, newspapermen 
covering the hearings reported— and members of the committee and its staff distinctly recall— that Mrs. 
Wilson's actual reply to the preceding question was: "If only we could get them on our side." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PEACE MOVEMENT 2201 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. An}^ questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. No questions at all. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. I want to thank you on behalf 
of the committee and the U.S. Congress for appearing and being so 
helpful to us. I want to emphasize that the committee recognizes 
that there are many, many, many women, in fact a great, great 
majority of women, in this peace movement who are absolutely patri- 
otic and absolutely adverse to everything the Communist rarty 
stands for. 

We recognize that you are one of them. We compliment you on 
vour leadership and on your helpfulness to us this mornino-. 

Mr. Nittle, is that all? 

Mrs. Wilson. I do hope that you live to thank us when we have 
achieved our goal. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, we will. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, we have no further witnesses at this 
time. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 12:28 p.m., Thursday, December 13, 1962, the 
committee adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



S.3.367— <53 11 



INDEX 

INDIVIDUALS 

A 

Page 

Abrams, Hem-y --. 2049, 2052, 

2053, 2056, 2057, 2088, 2128, 2129, 2135, 2161, 2162, 2180 

Abzng, Bella. - - - 2078 

Amter, Israel (alias: Ford) 2136,2137 

B 

Bentley, Elizabeth Terrill (aliases: Helen; Mary; Helen Johns; Helen 

Johnson; Helen Grant) 2199 

Bethe, Hans A _. ..- - 2089 

Blum, Gladys 2078 

Boudin, Leonard B 2093 

Boulding, Elsie.. 2089 

Brancato, Erasmus L. (Ed) _ 2163 

Brancato, Jean (Jeanne) (Mrs. Erasmus L. Brancato) 2056, 

2163-2166 (testimony), 2168 

Brower, Michael 2089 

Brownell, Herbert, Jr 2058, 2187 



Chesman, Miriam (Mrs. Leon Chesman) 2056, 2057, 2166-2176 (testimony) 

Clark, Tom C 2130 

Clinton, Rose (formerly Rose Shakewitz) 2052, 

2053, 2056, 2126-2131 (testimony), 2135, 2162 
Colby, Ruth Gage. {See Gage-Colby, Ruth.) 

Contente, Ira 2121 

Contente, Sylvia (Mrs. Ira Contente) 2051, 2052, 2118-2123 (testimony) 

D 

Darr, John W., Jr.. 2049, 2058, 2088, 2182-2187 (testimony) 

Davidow, Mike 2103 

Davis, Benjamin J., Jr 2056, 2165 

Dean of Canterbury {See Johnson, Hewlett) 

Delecorte, Valerie 2078 

Dennis, Eugene (born Francis Xavier Waldron; also known as Paul Eugene 

Walsh; Milton) 2061, 2197 

Dennis, Peggy (Mrs. Eugene Dennis) 2061, 2197 

Dolkart, Mrs. Ralph 2089 

Dubois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) 2155 

E 
Eisenhower, Dwight D 2070 

F 
Farbor, Gladys 2089 

Fhnk, Richard A 2047, 2048, 2061, 2068-2073 (testimony) 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley 2136, 2165, 2172, 2173 

Fodor, Folly 2090 

Ford, James W 2136 

Freed, Iris (Mrs. Selwyn Freed; nee Schwartz) 2053, 

2061, 2132-2138 (testimony), 2192, 2193, 2197 

Fuchs, Herbert (also known as Herbert Hacker) 2199 

Funn, Dorothy K. {See Swan, Dorothy.) 

i 



ii INDEX 

G I*aee 

Gage-Colby, Ruth 2078, 2141, 2190 

Garst, Eleanor _ 2143 

Gerson, Simon W 2101 

Gibor, Lynn 2078 

Gordon, Lorraine 2078 

Gross, Ceil 2055, 2129, 2158-2162 (testimony) 

H 

Hall, Gus (alias for Arva Halberg) 2065, 2181 

Herring, Frances 2141 

Hoffman, Lyla 2050, 2051, 2053, 2061, 

2103-2114 (testimony), 2130, 2131, 2140, 2192, 2193, 2197 
H uberman, Leo 2083 

J 
Johnson, Hewlett (Dean of Canterbury; a/k/a "Red" Dean of Canterl)ury) . 2157 

K 

Kennedy, John F 2070, 2141 

Khrushchev, Nikita S 2065, 2069, 2141 

Krumbein, Charles 2137 

L 

Landis, Lilv 2078 

Lattimore, Owen (J.) 2174 

Lenin, V. I 2065 

Leventhal, Natalie 2078 

Levine, Jack 2091 

M 

Mackenzie, Anna (Mrs. Cameron Mackenzie; nee DeCormis) 2054» 

2061, 2138-2151 (testimony), 2197 

Markward, Mary Stalcup 2053, 2129 

Mauro, Alex 2131 

McAvoy, Clifford T 2172 

Melman, Clarice 2090 

Merton, Thomas 2089 

Meyers, Ruth (S.) (Mrs. William Meyers) 2050, 

2061,2093-2103 (testimony), 2171,2197 

Miller, Betty 2135 

Miller, Doris K 2131 

Miller, Helen Rand 2194 

Mishukov, Yuri A 2048, 2049. 2068-2071 

Molli, Jeanne 2085 

Moos, Elizabeth 2054,2055,2152-2158 (testimony) 

N 

Neidenberg, Elsie (Mrs. Louis Neidenberg) 2051,2114-2118 (testimony) 

North, Joseph 2157 

O 

Obrinsky, William _ 2057,2058,2178-2182 (testimony) 

Ohrenstein, Manfred 2131 

P 

Pauling, Linus (Carl) 2053,2055,2135,2160,2179 

Perlo, Victor (also known as "Mike"; Martin Stribling) 2199 

Philbrick. Herbert Arthur 2055, 2157 

Polshek, Ellyn 2142 

Posner, Blanche (Mrs. Max Posner; nee Hofrichter) 2049, 

2053, 2060, 2061, 2073-2093 (testimony), 2095, 2130, 2134, 

2136, 2140, 2192, 2193, 2197. 



INDEX iii 

]J Page 

Rabinowitz, Victor 2073 

"Red" Dean of Canterbury. {See Johnson, Hewlett.) 

Rein, Selma Rice (Mrs. David Rein) 2061, 2062, 2197-2199 

Remington, William Walter 2055, 2157 

Rosenwald, Dorothy Monet 2083,2084 

Ross, Paul L 2178 

Roth, Mildred 2093 



Sharmat, Mar v 2131 

Sorum, William 2057, 2058, 2180 

Spector, Norma 2093 

Speiser, Lawrence 2182, 2187 

Stalin, Josef 2174 

Stevenson (Adlai E.) 2070 

Stone, I. F 2089 

Swan, Dorothv Kelsoe Funn 2053, 2130 

Szilard, Leo..l 2089 



Taylor, Telford 2103, 2114, 2118, 2126, 2132, 2138, 2152, 2158, 2163, 2166 

Thompson, Robert 2052, 2121, 2170 

V 
Vosk, Jeannette 2078 

W 

Warren, Alvin 2157 

Weik, Mary H 2089 

Wilson, Dagmar (Mrs. Christopher Bernard Wilson ; nee Saerschinger) 2050, 

2051, 2059, 2062, 2079, 2084, 2086, 2097-2100, 2105, 2108, 2109, 

2141, 2187-2201 (testimony). 

Z 
Zaitsev, Yuri V 2048, 2049, 2068, 2071 

Organizations 

A 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade. {See International Brigade, Fifteenth.) 

Advance Publishing Co 2159 

American Association for the United Nations, Bronx chapter 2119 

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 2183, 2187 

American Continental Congress for Peace 2054, 2055, 2155 

American Labor Party 2172 

American Russian Institute (for Cultural Relations with the Soviet Union) , 

San Francisco 2055, 2156 

American Student Union 2149-2151 

American Youth for Democracy 2052, 2122 

B 
Bronx River Neighborhood Center 2119 

C 

Cafeteria Workers Union. CIO 2130 

Carnegie (Endowment) International Center* 2090 

Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (New York City) (Fund 

for the Republic) 2090 

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE). {See National Commit- 
tee for a Sane Nuclear Policy.) 
Committee on Radiation in Food 2089 

' Appears as Centre. 



iv INDEX 

Communist Party of the United States of America: 
National Structure: 

National Commissions: f&s« 

Education Commission (or Department) 2064, 2181 

National Committee - 2065, 2181 

States and Territories: 
Louisiana: 

State Committee -- - 2057, 2180 

New Orleans: 

Professional Branch 2057, 2058, 2180 

New York State: 

New York City Area 2137 

Bronx County; 

DeWitt Clinton High School fraction 2049, 2084 

Westchester County: 

County Convention, January 1957 2054, 2137 

Yonkers: 

Carpet Shop branch 2054, 2137 

Communist Political Association (May 1944 to July 1945) 2146 

Conference of Greater New York Peace Groups 2052, 

2053, 2055, 2088, 2089, 2129, 2135, 2159-2161 

100 Days for Peace Committee __ 2160, 2161 

Conference of the 17-Nation Committee on Disarmament: 

60th Plenary Session, March 14-June 15, 1962 (Geneva, Switzerland) __ 2050, 

2052, 2054, 2060, 2089, 2098, 2104, 2121, 2123, 2140-2144, 2192 

Congress of American Women 2153 

D 

Department Store Union (Independent) __ 2135 

DeWitt Clinton High School (New York City) 2049, 2084 

F 

Fellowship of Reconcihation 2089 

Friends Service Committee. {See Religious Society of Friends, American 
Friends Service Committee.) 

G 

Geneva Disarmament Conference, 1962. {See Conference of the 17 
Nation Committee on Disarmament, 60th Plenary Session.) 

Greater New York Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. {See entry under 
National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy.) 

Greenwich Village Peace Center 2049,2058,2088,12090,2185,2186, 

H 
Hessian Hills School (Croton, N.Y.) 2156,2157 

I 

Institute for International Order 2089 

Institute of Pacific Relations 2057, 2173, 2174 

International Brigade, Fifteenth (also referred to as Abraham Lincoln 

Brigade) --- 2157 

M 
Monthly Review Press 2089 

N 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)__ 2155 

National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) 2052 

2057, 2072, 2088, 2118, 2128, 2179 

Greater New York Committee - 2052, 2128, 2179, 2180 

Staten Island Committee -- 2057, 2058, 2179-2181 

' Appears as Centre. 



INDEX :^ V 

Paee 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc 2058, 2187 

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). (>See entry under United States 
Government.) 

National Negro Congress 2130 

National War Labor Board. {See entry under United States Government.) 
New York Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. {See National Com- 
mittee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, Greater New York Committee.) 



One Hundred Days for Peace Committee. {See entry under Conference 
of Greater New York Peace Groups.) 

P 

Peace Information Center 2054, 2153-2155 

Pennies for Peace, Inc 2089 

People's Rights Party 2165, 2172 

R 
Religious Society of Friends: 

American Friends Service Committee 2089 



Scientists' Committee for Radiation Information 2131 

Staten Island Community Peace Group 2057, 2058, 2179-2181 

Stockholm Peace AppeafCor Petition). {See World Peace Appeal.) 

. U 
United Nations: 

Office of Conference Services 2070 

United States Government: 

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) 2199 

National War Labor Board 2199 

Senate, United States: 

Judiciary Committee 2057, 2173, 2174 

Subversive Activities Control Board 2058 

W 

West Side Peace Committee (New York City) 2052, 

2053, 2056, 2127-2131, 2159-2162 
Women for Peace. {See Women's International Strike for Peace.) 
Women Strike for Peace (also known as Women for Peace, Women Stand 
for Peace; on January 15, 1962 the name was changed to Women's 
International Strike for Peace (p. 2189); See entries under Women's 
International Strike for Peace.) 

Women's Direct Action Committee 2090 

Women's International Democratic Federation 2060, 2061, 2194, 2195, 2198 

World Assembly for Disarmament, March 23-25, 1962, (Vienna, 

Austria) 1 2060, 2194, 2198 

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom — 2054, 2089, 2152, 2153 
Women's International Strike for Peace (formerly known as Women Strike 

for Peace, Women for Peace, Women Stand for Peace) 2047, 

2052, 2059-2062, 2083, 2084, 2094, 2098-2100, 2104, 2105, 2116, 
2123, 2135, 2140-2149, 2169, 2170, 2176, 2187-2201. 

First National Conference, June, 1962 (Ann Arbor, Mich.) 2060, 

2061, 2197 
California : 

Los Angeles 2090 



▼i INDEX 

Women's InternationalfStrike for Peace — Continued Page 

Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, Connecticut Area 2047-2066, 

2072, 2074-2178, 2188-2200 
Structure : 

Central Coordinating Committee 2050, 

2053, 2056, 2059, 2076, 2077, 2081, 2082, 2096, 2104, 2106, 
2108, 2133, 2140, 2163-2165, 2167, 2168, 2170, 2190, 2191. 

General Assembly 2077, 2164, 2165, 2168 

Work Committees: 

Action Committee 2078 

Finance Committee 2078, 2081, 2115, 2116 

Graphic and Visual Committee 2078, 208 1 

International Committee. 2059, 2078, 2082, 2191 

Legislative Committee 2078,2082 

Literature and Education Committee 2078, 2081 

National Liaison Committee 2078, 2082 

Office Committee (Secretarial Committee) 2049, 

2075, 2078, 2079, 2081, 2091, 2095 

Press and Public Relations Committee 2078, 2081 

Radiation Committee 2078 

Bronx group 2056, 2163 

East Bronx group 2167-2169 

Connecticut group 2139 

Nassau County, N.Y 2050, 2104, 2105, 2108, 2109 

Great Neck group 2050, 2051, 2105-2108 

Long Island group (also known as Women for Peace) 2096, 

2102, 2104 

Westchester County, N.Y. (Westchester Women for Peace) 2053, 

2133, 2134, 2136 
Michigan : 

Ann Arbor group 2060, 2197 

Washington, D.C. group 2061 

Women's World Assembly for Disarmament. {See entry under Women's 

International Democratic Federation.) 
World Peace Appeal (also known as the Stockholm Peace Appeal or 

Petition) 2054, 2153, 2154 

World Peace Congress (also known as World Congress of Partisans of 
Peace and World Congress of Defenders of Peace) : 

First Congress, April 20-24, 1949 (Paris, France) 2054, 2155 

Stockholm Conference of the Permanent Committee, March 1950 

(Stockholm, Sweden) 2054, 2153 

World Peace Council (also known as World Council of Peace) 2064 

World Congress for General Disarmament and Peace, July 9-14, 1962 

(Moscow, Russia) 2196 

Y 
Young Communist League, USA 2052, 2122, 2150 

Publications 

A 
Are We on the Road to War _._ 2089 

B 
Bibliography _ 2088-2090 

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 2089 

E 
Evaluation of January 15th Demonstration 2089 

G 
Grand Illusion (anti-war film) 2057, 2179 

I 
L F. Stone's Weekly 2089 

L 

Large Soviet Encyclopedia (Bolshaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya) 2064 



INDEX vii 

M 

Page 

Milk Fact Sheat Plus Question & Answer Pamphlet 2089 

P 

Peace Monthly 2088, 2089 

Peacegram (publication of Peace Information Center, N.Y.C.) 2154 

Problems of Disarmament 2089 

S 

Sane World (leaflet) 2089 

Small Soviet Encyclopedia (Malaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya) 2064 

Statement issued by the Conference of Representatives of 81 Communist 

Parties, Moscow, December 1960 2065 

Student Advocate (official organ of American Student Union) 2150, 2151 

T 
Ten Minutes for Peace _.. 2089 

V 
Vassar Miscellany News 2149,2150 

W 

War/Peace Report 2089 

We Pledge Peace, A Friendship Book 2156 

Window on the World 2089 

Women's Peace Movement Bulletin 2089 

o 



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