(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Communist activities in the Chicago, Illinois area. : Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-ninth Congress, first session"

^ UJS -Doc :?. If/ 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, 
ILLINOIS, AREA 

PART 1 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THB 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-NINTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MAY 25, 26, 27, AND JUNE 22, 1965 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 



HARVARD C0ME:E HORARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UN'Tcn STATES 'GaVERNMENT 



FEB 15 1966 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
52-810 WASHINGTON : 1965 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DEL CLAWSON, California 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri JOHN H. BUCHANAN, Jr., Alabama 

GEORGE F. SENNER, Ju., Arizona 
CHARLES L. WELTNER, Georgia 

Francis J. McNamara. Director 

William Hitz. General Counsel 

ALFRED M. Nitti.e, CotniseJ 

II 



irmAHj 



CONTENTS 



PaKo 

Synopsis 301 

May 25, 1965 (Chicago, 111.) : Testimony of— 

Lola Belle Holmes 331 

Afternoon session: 

Lola Belle Holmes (resumed) 347 

May 26, 1965 (Chicago, 111.): Testimony of— 

Lucius Armstrong 387 

Afternoon session: 

Louis Diskin 407 

David Englestein 418 

Milton Mitchell Cohen 438 

Benjamin Max Friedlander 440 

Charles Fehninger Wilson 453 

H'jlberforce Cox Jones 463 

May 27, 1S65 (Chicago, 111.) : Testimony of— 

Versta Miller 474 

Lola Belle Holmes (resumed) 486 

Helen Fotine Pantazopoulos Queen 487 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes 493 

Afternoon session: 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes (resumed) 510 

Leon Joy Jennings 513 

Laura Rae Blough 528 

Yolanda Hall 537 

Lucius Armstrong (resumed) 548 

Jeremiah Stamler 550 

June 22, 1965 (Washington, D.C.): Testimony of— 

Mathilde Burke (executive, released) 557 

Mathilde Burke (public) 565 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 7i)TH Congress 

Tlie legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Re/jrcsentatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
****** t 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of im-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within tlie United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
taclcs the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the .signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any i>erson 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 1.3G. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem nec- 
essai'y, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of whicJi is within the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
l>orts and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 89TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 8, January 4, 1965 

:!: 4: 4: 4= * 4: 4: 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

# ^ :^ ^ ^ :{; 4c 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
t ***** $t 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

( a ) Un-American activities. 

(b) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities lield 
public hearings in Chicago, 111., on May 25, 26, and 27, 1965. The hear- 
ings were continued in Washington, D.C., on June 22, 1965, to receive 
the testimon}^ of a witness subpenaed for the hearings in Chicago who 
was unable to appear there because of illness. 

The hearings were held pursuant to a committee resolution which 
also directed that appropriate preliminary investigation be conducted 
to develop information on the structure and organization of the Illi- 
nois District of the Communist Party, its major objectives, the meth- 
ods it was using to aid in the accomplishment of those objectives, the 
principal areas of Communist Party concentration, organizations 
created and controlled by the Communist Party to advance Communist 
objectives, and related matters. 

The hearings were one of a series of investigations into the activities 
of the Communist Party which the committee has been conducting 
in various parts of the country over a period of years. 

The subjects of inquiry and the legislative purposes were detailed 
in the chairman's opening statement, delivered by him at the com- 
mencement of the hearings. Copies of this statement were made 
available to each of the subpenaed witnesses. 

Mr. Willis stated that, prior to the hearings and in conformity with 
House Eule XI. 26 (m), all persons concerning whom there might 
be defamatory, degrading, or incriminatory evidence produced at the 
hearings had been sent letters notifying them of that possibility. 
The letters informed them that persons with the same names as theirs 
had been identified as Communist Party members in executive testi- 
mony received by the committee. The letters also advised them that 
they could avail themselves of an opportunity voluntarily to appear 
before the committee in executive session prior to the holding of the 
public hearings, at which time the committee w^ould not only receive 
their testimony, but consider any request made by them to subpena 
additional witnesses. 

The rliairman pointed out that not one of the persons so notified, 
including all the subpenaed witnesses, had availed themselves of this 
opportunity. He then directed committee counsel to call the first 
witness. 

LOLA BELLE HOLMES 

The first witness on May 25 was Miss Lola Belle Holmes, who had 
joined the Communist Party at the request of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in August of 1957. Prior to her acceptance of this role 
with the FBI, Miss Holmes testified, she had been contacted by the 
Bureau, but had rejected its initial request that she become an under- 
cover operative. Miss Holmes testified that she later consented to 
assist the FBI after considering that she had been active in the Pro- 

301 



302 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

gressive Party in the 1940's and 1950's ; that she had come in contact 
Avith Commimists ; that she had been receivin<r literature from Com- 
munist-front organizations and, therefore, could be of assistance to her 
Government. 

Lola Belle Holmes remained a member of the Communist Part}^ 
until January 24, 1963, at which time she testified for the United 
States Government before the Subversive Activities Control Board 
against Claude M. Lightfoot, who was chairman of the Communist 
Party of Illinois. During those proceedings, ]Miss Holmes testified 
to meetings of specific units of the Communist Party which she had 
attended and at which Lightfoot was present and participating. 

Miss Holmes testified that she was born in Waterproof, La., on 
April 22, 1916, but had lived in Chicago for the past 24 years. Miss 
Holmes stated tliat she graduated from high school; had 2 j-ears of 
college in labor law, labor and management relations, and political 
economy; and had 7 years of Marxist -Leninist training, including 
training at the Chicago School of Social Science of the Communist 
Party of Illinois. 

Miss Holmes testified that she had been employed as a power machine 
operator in the garment industry in Chicago from 1942 until 1958, that 
her principal employment since 1958 had been as secretary-treasurer of 
the [Midwest] Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born, and 
that she was currently employed as a staff assistant at the Chicago 
Urban League. 

The testimony of Lola Belle Holmes revealed that she had been a 
member of Local 212, International Ladies* Garment Workers' Union 
(ILGWU), for 12 years while employed in the gannent industry, and 
that she had held various offices in that union. The witness stated 
that she had been a member of the executive board of Local 212 from 
1946 to 1958, when she was drop])ed from the board "because it had 
been learned that I was a member of the Communist Party" and 
the union had a policy of barring known Communist Party members 
from office. 

Miss Holmes testified that another gannent worker, Rose Topercer, 
was the person who recruited her into the Communist Party in 1957 
and that this same person had failed in an attempt to recruit her in 
the 1940"s. This time Rose Topercer was successful because Miss 
Holmes had agreed to serve in the Communist Party at the request 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

In her testimony. Miss Holmes discussed in great detail the various 
party units to which she belonged and the many positions she held 
while a member of the Communist Party. She stated that she 
rose from the club level of the Communist Party to the ]wsition of an 
alternate delegate from the State of Illinois to the I7th National Con- 
vention of the Communist Party in 1959. When she returned from 
that convention in New York, Miss Holmes testified, she was elected a 
member of the State committee of the Communist Party in Illinois 
and, subsequently, was appointed to tlie State board of the party. 
After being appointed to the State board, she was asked to head the 
Press Committee of the (^ommunist Party in Illinois. The witness 
testified that she was also a member of the Negro Commission of the 
Connnunist Partv of the State of Illinois and that she served on the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 303 

national Xegro Commission of the Communist Party of the United 
States. Miss Hohnes stated that she had also attended meetings of 
the '"Industrial Commission" ^ of the Comnuniist Party of the State of 
Illinois. 

Miss Holmes stated that the function of the Negro Connnission 
of the Communist Party of Illinois was to infiltrate Negro organiza- 
tions and churches in order to recruit members and carry out party 
policy. In response to questions as to what organizations the Com- 
munist Party tried to infiltrate in the State of Illinois, Miss Holmes 
stated : 

They did infiltrate NAACP, the Negro American Labor 
Council, CORE, the Afro- American Heritage Association, 
and some churches. 

As to the degree of infiltration within these organizations, Miss 
Holmes related : 

In each organization, the Communist Party had a caucus, 
which vras a nucleus of Communists, to work to control and 
agitate and propagandize in their respective organizations or 
cJiurches. They did have a caucus in the NAACP. They 
did have a caucus in the Negro American Labor Council. 
They also had a caucus in CORE. They also had caucuses 
in various churches in Chicago. They had people who worked 
in each specific organization or church. 

]Miss Holmes testified that the following persons were members of 
the Communist Party caucus within the NAACP : Leon Jennings, Flo 
Hall, Sam Kushner, Danny Queen, and herself. Miss Holmes testified 
that they were appointed to the caucus by Claude Lightfoot in an 
endeavor to infiltrate the leadership of the NAACP. She stated that 
she was on the NAACP caucus from 1957 until 1959 and was 
once nominated as secretary of the NAACP, but that the incumbent 
defeated her. One member of the Comminiist Party caucus attempted 
to destroy the ballots and then the caucus demanded a recount, which 
was refused by the national office. Subsequently, the party caucus was 
thrown out. She then stated : 

After the party slate was thrown out, the party caucus had 
a meeting in 1960 and decided to pull its forces out of the 
NAACP because they realized they could not work in the 
NAACP effectively. They only left two members of the 
caucus to work in the NAACP. 

Of the caucus in the NAACP, the other members were 
])ulled out and a caucus was organized to work in NALC. 
It was felt that the NALC was more important than NAACP 
in thar it served two purposes: It was a strong trade union 
movement as well as it was a Negro movement. 

According to Miss Holmes, Negro trade unionists decided to orga- 
nize the Negro American Labor Council (NALC) in October of 1959, 
and she was one of the founders of the council. Prior to the founding- 
convention. Miss Holmes testified : 

There were many meetings of the Communist Party before 
the NALC caucus to plan party political strategy and tactics 

1 See footnote 1, p. 366. 



304 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

in tlie coming convention. It was the intent of the Connnunist 
Party to take over the Xegro American Labor Council from 
A. Philip Randolph. 

At the founding convention of the NALC, Lola Belle Holmes 
was elected as one of the first women national vice presidents. In 
describing the XALC, Miss Holmes stated: 

The Negro American Labor Council was a trade orga- 
nization organized in 1960 of trade miions to fight for job 
equality in the labor movement, industry, and Government. 
It was organized by A. Philip Randolph with trade union 
leaders all over the country. They definitely were not Com- 
munists. As you know, Mr. Randolph is not a Communist 
and, as I thought, most of the national executive board mem- 
bers or vice presidents were not Communists. 

Miss Holmes made it clear in her testimony respecting these two 
organizations, the NAACP and the NALC, that — 

the leadership of either organization did not know that the 
Communist Party had caucuses working in their respective 
organizations. When they found it out, they found out who 
they were, they immediately dropped them from the member- 
ship list. 

Miss Holmes testified that, in addition to herself, the following per- 
sons were members of the Communist Party caucus in the XALC : 
Leon Joy Jennings, Henry Jennings, Wilberforce Jones, Flo Hall, 
Sam Kushner, Charles Wilson, and Lucius Armstrong. 

Miss Holmes testified that after her election as a vice president 
of the XALC her prestige began to decline within the party, because 
she "was not the chosen person for that position." As a result, Miss 
Holmes stated : 

The Communist Party began to attack me; I was demoted 
just as fast as I was promoted. I was then stripped of all 
the offices I had in a section committee meeting. I was told 
that I was to withdraw from all party activities. 

At this point I refused to withdraw. * * * I pointed out to 
Claude Lightfoot that it was necessary that I remain on the 
State board, the State committee, and in the XALC Com- 
munist Party caucus * * *. 

I was pennitted to stay on the State committee, the State 
board, and in the NALC caucus. 

I was permitted to stay on the NALC caucus because of my 
national ties and the State conventions of the Negro American 
Labor Council coming up each year. I was a national board 
member. I went to the national board meetings every 2 
months and I came back and reported my activities to the 
Communist Party. * * * 

Regarding her dispute with the Communist Party over her election 
as vice president of the NALC, Miss Holmes testified that : 

The Communist Party regarded this a very important posi- 
tion, but it was not for me, a Negro Avoman. The Communist 
Party does not wish Negro women to aspire to leadership in 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 305 

any form or in any organization they wish to control. It is 
all right to be a member; it is all right to support the Com- 
munist Party, but a Negro Avoman must not aspire to leader- 
ship. 

Miss Holmes stated that the Communist Party was hypocritical with 
respect to the success of the civil rights movement : 

They are not concerned with the success of the civil rights 
movement. They wish oppression and depression of the 
Negro people to continue so they can have something to drive 
on, to work on. The Communist Party cannot be successful 
without oppression and depression. 

In response to the counsel's inquiry as to whether there were any 
major changes in the structure of the Communist Party while she was 
a member, Miss Holmes stated : 

After the Supreme Court ordered the Communist Party to 
register its membership and register it as a subversive organi- 
zation, there was the complete changing of the structure of 
the Communist Party. * * * the section structure was dis- 
solved. The State committee of the Commimist Party was 
divided into three parts : North, South, and West. The ex- 
ecutive board, which was a 15-man board, was dissolved at 
that time and an 8-man l)oard was appointed by the so-called 
staff of the Communist Party * * *. 

In addition. Miss Holmes testified to the fact that for security rea- 
sons the Communist Party formed professional groups composed of 
doctors, lawyers, teachers, preachers, and public officials. These 
groups were contacted directly by top State or national officers of the 
Communist Party, because they had no communication on the club 
or se-ction level. She knew of their existence, but, even in her position 
as a State board member and a State committee member of the Com- 
munist Party, she had very little access to any professional groups. 

Another very important change in the structure of the Communist 
Party was explained by Miss Holmes when she stated : 

Each club in the Communist Party was ordered to change 
its name for security reasons. All party members were told to 
say that they had resigned from the party for security rea- 
sons. If anyone asked when, tell them it was their problem 
to find out when they resigned. This becomes the famous 
word, each party member for security- reasons had to resign. 

Miss Holmes testified at length regarding the two sessions of 
a State convention of the Communist Party of Illinois which she 
attended as a delegate from the Wagenknecht Section. Both of these 
sessions were held in Chicago, the first in November 1959, prior to the 
17th National Convention of the Communist Party held in December 
of that year, and the second session in January 1960, after the national 
convention in New York. Responding to an inquiry as to whether the 
17th National Convention of the Communist PaVty of the United 
States was its last national convention. Miss Holmes stated : 

Yes. That was the last convention of the Communist 
Party because the Communist Partv voted to not have an- 



306 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

other convention after the Supreme Court rendered its deci- 
sion ^ ordering the Communist Party to register its member- 
ship. 

After this order was handed down, the Communist Party 
National Committee met and prepared a resohition to present 
to the State committees asking the State connnittees to give 
the national committee or the national executive committee 
power to act between conventions until this emergency was 
over, for security reasons. 

During the course of her testimony. Miss Holmes identified a 
number of persons whom she had known to be members of the 
Communist Party, including the following persons who were wit- 
nesses at these hearings: Milton Cohen, Lou Diskin, David Engle- 
stein, Ben Friedlander, Charles Wilson, Dorothy Hayes, Leon Joy 
Jennings, Wilberforce Jones, Versta Miller, and Helen Queen. 

Miss Holmes also gave the connnittee information concerning orga- 
nizations which the Communist Party had attempted to use, or had 
used, to recruit members or to promote its ideology. 

According to the witness, the Chicago Unemployment and Housing 
Council had been set up by Claude Lightfoot for the purpose of re- 
cruiting Xegroes into the Connnunist Party. Miss Holmes testified 
that Versta Miller was chairman of this organization. 

ISIiss Holmes testifi.ed that during the period of her membership 
in the Communist Party, she had joined an organization known as the 
Afro-American Heritage Association and that, for a while, she was 
an executive board member of the association. The witness also 
stated that she knew the director of the association, Ishmael Flory, as 
a member of the Communist Party and of the national Negro Com- 
mission of the party. 

Miss Holmes replied in the affirmative when asked whether the 
Communist Party was interested in a national organization known as 
the Women Strike for Peace, which was formed in 196L The witness 
told the subcommittee that this organization and certain civil rights 
organizations were discussed and that the Connnunist Party felt they 
could be used for propaganda purposes. Therefore — 

a caucus was formed to work in the Women Strike for Peace, 
as well as other civil rights organizations. The people who 
were to work in the Women Strike for Peace Avere selected by 
the party leadership and appointed just as they were in 
alternate organizations. 

Miss Holmes identified Anna Morgan as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party and as the one desiaiiated as tlie leader of the Connnmiist 
Party caucus to work in the Women Strike for Peace. Miss Holmes 
also identified other Communist Party members who were selected to 
work with Anna Morgan in that organization. 

]\Iiss Holmes also testified : 

I was familiar witli the Women's Peace & Unity Club. 
I don't know when that was organized. It was organized 
when I became a member of the Communist Party. How- 



J In .Tunc 1961. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 307 

ever, I know it was infiltrated witli the Communist Party 
members and it carried out party polic}^ 

Miss Holmes also testified that, at the last meeting of the Women's 
Peace & Unity Club which she had attended as a member of the 
Communist Party, Lula Saffold was chairman. Miss Holmes identified 
the following members of the Women's Peace & Unity Club as mem- 
bers of the Communist Party : Lula Sali'old, Grace Clark, and Dorothy 
Hayes. 

LUCIUS ARMSTRONG 

The first witness called to appear before the subcommittee on May 
26 was Lucius Armstrong, who testified that he was born in Holly- 
wood, Miss., on March 2, 1900, but that he has lived in Chicago, 111., 
since 192.3. Prior to 1925, Mr. Armstrong stated, he was employed in 
a variety of jobs, until he gained employment as a blast furnace 
keeper at a United States Steel plant in South Chicago, where he 
i-emained until he retired in 1963, except for a period during the 
depression. Mr. Armstrong testified that he has been employed with 
the Chicago Park District for the past 2 years. 

In response to questioning, Mr. Armstrong stated that he had been 
a member of the Communist Party from 1931 until 1963, with two 
intervals of interrupted party activity. These were the vears 1934 to 
1936 and 1948 to 1953. He also testified that when he reentered the 
Communist Party in 1953 it was at the request of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation. From 1953 mitil he left the Communist Party in 
1963, he was at all times acting in cooperation with the Government 
of the Ignited States. 

Mr. Armstrong testified that in the sunnner of 1931 he joined an 
organization known as the L^nemployment Council, believing at the 
time that he had thereby become a part of the Communist movement. 
Through the Unemployment Council, the witness stated, he was re- 
cruited into the Communist Party by David Poindexter. The witness 
testified to the first period of his Communist Party activity by listing 
some of the otnces he had held. Mr. Armstrong pointed out that he 
was assigned to a unit, became unit organizer, section organizer, a dele- 
gate to the national convention in 1933, "I think," ^ and a member of 
the national or central committee of the party, all in the period prior 
to his first break with the party in late 1934. 

Following his return to Illinois from the national convention, Mr. 
Armstrong testified that he was placed on the Control Commission of 
the Communist Party of the District of Illmois, whose — 

business was to discipline Communists who were not so 
favorable to the Communist Party or to find the evidence 
justif3'ing some decision to be taken on the Communist activ- 
ity that, you know, was kind of detrimental to the party. 

In response to counsel's inquiry as to why Mr. Armstrong was in- 
active in the Communist Party from 1934 to 1936, he stated that the 
central committee had a meeting in New York and that— 

during this meeting of the central committee the question 
came up on the Xegro struggle. 



^ Probably the Eighth National Convention of the Communist Party held April 2-8, 
1934, in Cleveland, Ohio. 



308 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The questions involved essentiall}' with the Negro nation, 
and they had certain territories which they called the Black 
Belt, extending down to Mississippi and Alabama and what- 
not, the Negro majorit3\ The party was deliberating on 
what was the greatest setbacks, j'ou know, to the penetration 
against the desires of the Negro. 

The question of white chauvinism in philosophical terms in 
the Communist language was said to be rampant on the out- 
side and in the South ; you know, the party had to break down 
the white chauvinism against the Negro, but the discussion 
and deliberation centered around white chauvinism through- 
out the United States. 

***** 

So, when I got the floor '■' * * I told the meeting of the 
central committee * * * that there was as much white chau- 
vinism in the Communist Party itself as there was on the 
outside, and for that I fell in disrepute with the whole cen- 
tral committee. 

Mr. Armstrong testified that from that day on his value as a member 
of the central committee "fell very low." He said that it was not a 
recorded break with the party, in the strict sense of the term, but that 
no one bothered with him or contacted him for some time. 

Mr. Armstrong testified that, in conjunction with his employment 
as a blast furnace operator and with the increase of union activities in 
the labor movement, he became active again in the Communist Party. 
He stated that "by the time that we had a union contract in 1987 we 
did have a party organization in the Chicago section and it was called 
the Steel Section of the party." According to Armstrong's testimony, 
he remained in the Steel Section of the Communist Party until 1948 
when he left the party because he began to question and have dis- 
agreements with party policy and tactics. Armstrong testified that 
when he reentered the Communist Party in 19,5;^ he once again became 
active in the steel unit. 

Ho\Aever, when he resumed his activity in the Communist Party in 
1953, it was at the request of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and 
lie thereafter reported to it on party activities and members. Sub- 
sequently, Mr. Armstrong testified, he became a member of the State 
board of the Communist Party in Illinois and an alternate dele- 
gate to the 1959 I7th National 'Convention of the Communist Party. 

In response to a question by counsel concerning what the Communist 
Party in the United States is trying to do, Mr. Armstrong stated that : 

The Communist Party is trying to fulfill an objective aim 
of basic communism and that is world domination, and to me 
a godless concept of humanity. 

Mr. Armstrong identified the following persons, who were also wit- 
nesses before the subcommittee in Chicago, as members of the Com- 
munist Party: Milton Cohen, Ben Friedlander, David Englestein, 
Wilberforce Jones, Charles Wilson, and Louis Diskin. 

Concerning Communist Party security programs respecting pro- 
fessional members of its organizations, such as doctors and lawyers 
and those persons who had penetrated Government to any degree, 
Mr. Armstrong stated that — 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 309 

under the normal physical conditions for the party to or- 
ganize and work, my latest understanding of the party orga- 
nization and procedure was that they always give the pro- 
fessional people privilege to meet by themselves, because the 
type of discussion and party interest would be entirely dif- 
ferent from the general norm of the party. 

These professional people had a club for the professional 
people such as doctors and lawyers and, you know, teachers 
and otlier people. This was during the party work. 

For many years the party turned loose many professional 
people, and they disassociated themselves from contact with 
the party organization. They were not required to attend 
meetings or to say, you know, I got to go to this Communist 
thing or that. They were turned loose to work alone on 
their own. 

LOUIS DISKIX 

Louis Diskin testified before the subcommittee on May 26, 1965, in 
response to a subpena. 

Miss Lola Belle Holmes and Mr. Lucius Armstrong had identified 
Louis Diskin as a member of the Communist Party, and stated that 
they had known him as such during their active years in the party. 

Lola Belle Holmes testified that she had known Louis Diskin as a 
member of the Wagenknecht Section of the Communist Party; the 
chairman of the resolutions committee of the State convention of the 
Communist Party of Illinois ; a delegate to the 1959 State convention 
of the Communist Party; a member of the State committee of the 
Communist Party of Illinois; a member of the State board of the 
Communist Party ; and a member of the top five-man party staff or 
executive committee of the State board. According to Miss Holmes, 
]Mr. Diskin was one of her instructors at the Chicago School of Social 
Science which she described as being controlled and operated by the 
Communist Party. 

In his testimony before the subcommittee, Mr. Armstrong also testi- 
fied that he had known Louis Diskin as a member of the Communist 
Party and a member of the State committee of the Communist Party 
of Illinois. 

When confronted with this testimony, Mr. Diskin invoked the self- 
incrimination clause of the fifth amendment and gave other reasons 
in refusing to answer. Citing the same reasons, he refused to answer 
any questions concerning Communist Party membership, past or 
present. 

Mr. Diskin replied to questions concerning his name and address, 
but, when asked by counsel if he had ever used, or been known by, any 
name or names other than Harry L. or Louis Diskin, he again in- 
voked the fifth amendment and claimed other grounds in refusing 
to answer. 

Mr. Diskin also refused, on the same gi'ounds, to state whether he 
had been denied a passport by the State Department in 1961 for failing 
to advise it, upon demand, whether or not he had ever used other 
names; whether, prior to 1943, he had been a member of the Young 
Communist League and had been for some years the youth director of 
tlie New York District of the Communist Partv. 



310 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

"When confronted with a copy of tlie September-December 1948 
catalogue of the Jetferson School of Social Science, Avhich listed Louis 
Diskin as an instructor at the school and as the "Youth and Veteran 
Director, Communist Party, X.Y. State," Diskin refused to answer 
any questions concerning the brochure or any connections he might 
have had with the school for the reasons previously given. 

Earlier, Mr. Diskin had refused, on the grounds previously stated, 
to answer questions as to whether he had formerly been a resident of 
Xew York or if he had been assigned to the Chicago area by the Con:i- 
munist Party to undertake activities there on its behalf. 

DA\T[D ENGLESTEIN 

David Englestein, the next witness, appeared before the subcom- 
mittee on May 26, 1965, in response to a subpena. 

Lola Belle Holmes had testified that David Englestein was a member 
of the Communist Party ; that he attended the 1959 and 1960 sessions of 
the State convention of the Communist Party of Illinois; that he was 
chairman of the publicity committee for the State party convention; 
that he was a delegate to the 17th National Convention of the Com- 
munist Party; that he was elected to the governing body of the Com- 
munist Party in the State of Illinois, which was known as the State 
board ; that he served as a member of the statf of the Communist Party 
of the State ; and that he had been an instructor at the Chicago School 
of Social Science. 

Lucius Armstrong testified that he had known David Englestein as 
a member of the Communist Party, a member of the State board of 
the Communist Party of Illinois, and also that ''he was with the edu- 
cational district committee." 

The witness refused to answer all questions put to him at the hear- 
ings, invoking the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment 
and other reasons. He refused to say whether he was a citizen of the 
LTnited States, what was the date and point of his entry into the 
United States, whether he was naturalized in Chicago during October 
1943, or if he had been known by any name or names other than David 
Englestein. 

When asked whether he had attended or been employed at Common- 
wealth College in Mena, Ark., during the period 1980 to 1933, after he 
first arrived in the United States, the witness refused to answer, giving 
the same reasons. Counsel stated that subsequently the Attorney 
General cited Commonwealth College as Communist and also that, 
following an investigation by the Joint Committee of the General 
Assembly of the State of Arkansas, the charter of that institution had 
been revoked by the courts of Arkansas, Federal funds Avere withdrawn 
from the institution, and it ceased operations. 

Counsel also noted that, in November 1940, Commonwealth College 
had been convicted and fined on an anarchy charge. 

Mr. Englestein invoked the fifth amendment and other constitu- 
tional privileges when asked Avhether he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party during the period of his association with Commonwealth 
College. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 311 

The \Yitness was then asked when he had left Arkansas; if he liad 
used aliases ; Avhether he had been an instructor at the Chicago Workers 
School in 1935, using the name Eugene David ; and whether he had 
been an instructor for the ''Institute on General Crisis of Capitalism'' 
during the 1949 fall term at the Chicago "Workers School. 

He was confronted with a photostatic copy of a letter dated 
March 15, 1939, on the letterhead of the Cook County Conunittee, 
Communist Party, U.S.A., Chicago, 111., which was addressed to ''Dear 
Comrade" and signed '"Comradely yours, Eugene David, Cook County 
Secretary." He was then asked whether he was the Eugene T^avid 
mentioned in the letter and whether or not the signature was his. 

Subsequentlv, he was asked whether he had also used the aliases 
"David Miller," ''Theodore Myron," and "Eichard Waher ^lerle,-' 
during the course of his membership in the Communist Party in order 
to conceal his identity; if he had known Yolanda Hall, who' taught a 
course at the Chicago Workers School in 1949, to be a member of the 
Communist Party at that time; and whether The Wor-Jx^-er of April 9, 
1950, correctly identified him as the State education director of the 
Communist Party of Illinois. Mr. Englestein refused to answer all 
these questions, citing the same reasons he had previously given. 

MILTON COHElSr 

Milton Cohen was the fourth witness to appear before the subcomit- 
tee on May 26, 1965, in response to a subpena. 

Lola Belle Holmes had testified on May 25 that she had known Mil- 
ton Cohen as a member of the Connnunist Party and as a member of 
the education committee of the Wagenknecht Section and the ''Indus- 
trial Commission" of the Comnnuiist Party for the State of Illinois. 

Lucius Armstrong also identified Milton Cohen as a member of the 
Communist Party and stated that he had seen him in attendance at 
State committee meetings of the party. 

After the witness was sworn, Mr. Pool, acting subcommittee chair- 
man, granted the witness' counsel permission to address the subcom- 
mittee on behalf of his client. Counsel for Mr. Cohen stated that Mr. 
Cohen would not testify on the grounds that the fact of ]Mr. Cohen 
having been subpenaed by the committee was published in the news- 
papers a few days after service of the subpena, allegedly in violation of 
committee Eule XVI ; that Mr. Cohen was relying upon the reasons 
asserted in the legal action pending in the U.S. district court in 
Chicago entitled Stamler et al. v. W'/llis, ef ah, challenging the right 
of the conunittee to hold the hearing, the validity of the subpena, and 
of the denial of Mr. Cohen's request to be heard in executive session. 
Mr. Cohen's counsel stated that he and his client were going to leave 
the hearing room and would not participate any further in the pro- 
ceedings. 

Mr. Pool directed the witness not to leave the hearing room, over- 
ruled the objections raised by Mr. Cohen's counsel, and stated that, 
if the witness left the hearing room, such conduct would make him sub- 
ject to prosecution for contempt of Congress. Despite this warning, 
witness' counsel repeated his instructions to the Avitness, and both 
Mr, Cohen and his attorney left the hearing room. 

52-SlO — 66 — pt. 1 2 



312 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 
BENJAMIN MAX FRIEDLANDER 

Benjamin Max Friedlander was the fiftli subpenaed witness to ap- 
pear before the subcommittee on May 26. 

Both Lola Belle Holmes and Lucius Armstrong- had identified Fried- 
lander as a member of the Coimnunist Party. Miss Holmes testified 
that Mr. Friedlander had been a delegate to the 1959 Illinois State 
Convention of the Communist Party and had been elected a member 
of the Illinois State Committee of the Communist Party at the second 
session of that convention. Mr. Armstrong testified that he had at- 
tended Communist Party meetings with Friedlander and had seen 
him at State Communist Party meetings. 

The vritness was asked whether he had ever been known as Max 
Benzion Friedlander, to which he replied that that was his correct 
name. Mr. Friedlander refused to reply to all subsequent questions, 
including the date and place of his birth, by invoking constitutional 
protections, including the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment. 

He was asked, among other questions, if he was a sponsor of a full- 
page advertisement calling for disarmament and the end of nuclear 
testing, which appeared in the December 28, 1960, issue of the Hyde 
Park Herald^ under the auspices of the Hyde Park-Kenwood Commit- 
tee for a Sane Nuclear Policy ; if he was a member of the Hyde Park- 
Kenwood Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy ; if he had been elected 
an officer of that local chapter of SANE, as reported in a copy of 
the January 23, 1963, issue of the Hyde Park Herald: and if he was 
aware of the opposition of the national committee of SANE to mem- 
bership in that organization of persons who adhere to Communist or 
totalitarian doctrines. 

CHARLES F. WILSON 

The next witness who appeared before the subcommittee on iMa}' 26, 
1965, in response to a subpena, was Charles F. Wilson. 

Lola Belle Holmes and Lucius Armstrong had identified Charles F. 
Wilson as a member of the Communist Party. 

In her testimony. Miss Holmes stated that Charles "Wilson was a 
delegate to the 1959 State Convention of the Communist Party of Illi- 
nois; that lie was a member of the Negro Commission of the Connnu- 
nist Party of Illinois; and that he was appointed to a Connnunist 
Party caucus within the Negro American Labor Council by Claude 
Lightfoot, in order to work in that organization to eventually take it 
over for the party. 

When questioned as to the truth of the testimony concerning him 
given by Miss Holmes and Mr. Armstrong, the witness invoked the 
fifth amendment and other reasons in declining to answer. 

Giving the same reasons, Mr. Wilson refused to say whether he had 
been born on September 27, 1910, in Philadelphia, Pa.; whether, since 
1946, he has been employed at the General Motors Corporation, 
Electro-Motive Division, at La Grange, 111. ; and whether he has been 
a member of Local 719, United Auto Workers LTnion. 

Counsel handed the witness a copy of an article entitled "8 Commu- 
nists Up For Office In CIO Union Named," which was subtitled 
'•Head of Local Charges 38 Dominate UAW Branch" and had ap- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 313 

peared in the Chicago Daily Tribune^ February 25, 1946. The witness 
was asked whether he had been a candidate for oflEice in Local 719 and 
also a member of the Communist Party, as reportedly charged by the 
local president, Le Nard Vincent. In refusing to answer, Mr. Wilson 
cited the same reasons he had previously given. 

In June of 1956 Anzelm Czarnowski had testified before the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities that he had i)een a member of 
the (yommunist Party at the request of the Federal Bureau of Inves- 
tigation and that he had been an employee of the Electro-Motive plant 
of General Motors from about 1040 until 1051. He stated in his testi- 
mony that he had known Charles Wilson as a member of the Com- 
munist Party, as a member of Local 719, United Auto Workers, and 
that Wilson had been a delegate to the State convention of the Com- 
munist Party in 1947 and 1948. When confronted M'ith questions 
regarding Czarnowski's previous testimony before this committee, Mr. 
AVilson refused to answer by relying on the fifth amendment and 
claiming other constitutional protections. 

Mr. Czarnowski had also testified that Charles Wilson had been 
active in efforts of the Communist Party to sabotage the war effort 
in Korea by demanding the return of American boys serving in 
that area and by calling for a stop to the purchase of United States 
war bonds. When asked by counsel whether this was so and whether 
he had also joined in petitioning President Eisenhower in 1958 to 
withdraw United States troops from Lebanon, the witness again re- 
fused to answer. 

The witness was also asked the following questions, in answer 
to which he invoked constitutional protections : if he had been a mem- 
ber of the planning committee for a Hiroshima Day meeting scheduled 
by the Hyde Park-Kenwood Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy 
in August, as reported in an August 2, 1961, issue of the Hyde Park 
Herald in an article entitled *'SANE Committee To Fete Hiroshima 
Day With Film"; if he had been a member of the membersliip com- 
mittee of that chapter of SAXE as reported in the January 23, 1963, 
issue of the Hyde Park Herald, which carried an article entitled 
''SANE Names New Officers''; and if he, Milton Cohen, and Ben 
Friedlander had been instructed by the Communist Party organiza- 
tion to infiltrate the Chicago Hyde Park-Kenwood chapter of SANE. 

Asked whether he was aware of the policy of SANE not to welcome 
those who adhered to Commmiist or any other totalitarian doctrines, 
the witness refused to answer for the reasons previously given and 
also refused to say whether he had notified the local or national 
leadership of SANE with regard to his Communist Party member- 
ship. 

WILBERFORCE COX JONES 

The last subpenaed witness to appear before this subcommittee on 
May 26 was Wilberf orce Cox Jones. 

During the course of these hearings, Lola Belle Holmes and Lucius 
Armstrong had identified Wilberf orce Cox Jones as a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Miss Holmes testified that she knew Mr. Jones as a member of the 
Negro Commission of the Communist Party of the State of Illinois. 



314 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

She also stated that Jones was appointed to a Communist Party cau- 
cus within the Negro American Labor Council by Claude Light foot 
for the purpose of infiltrating that organization for the Communist 
Party. When asked whether these statements concerning his Com- 
munist Party membership and activities were correct, jNIr. Jones 
invoked the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment and 
other reasons in his refusal to answer. 

The witness was asked whether he had ever lieen known as Stanley 
Cox or Bill Price, but invoked the same constitutional grounds in 
refusing to answer. 

Mr. Jones testified that he was born on February 2, 1924, in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., but, advancing the same reasons, declined to tell the com- 
mittee when he arrived in the city of Chicago. 

When questioned concerning his education, the witness stated that 
he had an eighth grade education, a secondary school education, and 
that he had a college education and some post-graduate work. When 
questioned why he had failed to indicate in his application for employ- 
ment at International Harvester Company that he had a college edu- 
cation, Mr. Jones declined to answer for reasons previously stated. 
He also declined, for the same reasons, to answer when asked if he 
had at any time concealed his educational background or any part 
of it with the purpose of executing a policy or directive of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Committee information, placed in the record, revealed that from 
April 1951 to January 1955 Mr. Jones had been employed in the Chi- 
cago area with the Crane Company; from June 1955 to May 1957, 
at the Tractor Works of the International Harvester Company; 
from 1957 until 1959, as a social worker for the Cook County Welfare 
Department: and from 1959 until the present, as a welder at the Inter- 
national Harvester Company. 

Mr. Jones refused to answer any questions relating to this employ- 
ment record, his membershiji in Local 1301, United Auto Workers, 
and whether, as a member, he had received a scholarship to study 
British automation at Oxford LTniversity in England. 

The witness was questioned about a passport application executed 
by him on August 2, 1957, in which he had answered "'No'' to each of 
the following questions: "Are you now a member of the Comnuniist 
Party ? Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party V He 
refused to say whether his answers to these questions had been truthful. 
He was also queried regarding the "loss'' of his passport while in Eng- 
land and whether or not he had told the U.S. consul the truth about 
the circumstances concerning its loss. Giving the same reasons he had 
previously, he also refused to answer these questions. 

M5RSTA MILLER 

On May 27, 1965, the first witness called to appear before the sub- 
committee, in response to a sul)pena, was Versta Miller. 

Miss Lola Belle Holmes had testified that Versta Miller was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party and that he had chaired one of the meet- 
ings of the South Side Section of the Communist Party which she at- 
tended. Miss Holmes further testified that Mr, Miller was appointed 
chairman of an organization entitled "Chicago Unemployment and 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 315 

Housing Council," which had been set up for the purpose of recruiting 
Negroes into the Communist Party. According to Miss Hohnes, the 
Communists did this under the pretense that they were tighting for 
better housing conditions on the south side of Chicago. When ques- 
tioned as to the truth of Miss Hohnes' testimony, Mr. Miller pleaded 
the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment and other reasons 
for refusing to answer. 

Versta Miller also invoked the fifth amendment and claimed other 
constitutional protections in refusing to aflirm or deny whether: he 
was born on September 17, 1917, at Shannon, Miss. ; he had been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party in the Chicago area at least since March 
1944; he had been a member of the Communist Pai-ty when he arrived 
in the area ; he had been directed to the area by any functionary of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Miller invoked his constitutional privileges as to whether he 
had been a member of the regional board of the iVmerican Youth for 
Democracy in 1945 ; ^ had attended a meeting on September 26, 1959, 
held under the auspices of the Communist Party of Illinois in cele- 
bration of the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Communist 
Party in the United States; had attended a meeting held on February 
19, 1961, sponsored by the Freedom of the Press Committee, which 
featured an address by Herbert Aptheker, a leading Connnunist 
Party theoretician, on the subject of ''The Civil War Centennial — a 
Marxist View"'; and finally, as recentl}^ as 1964, had attended meetings 
of the Negro Commission of the Communist Party of the State of 
Illinois. 

IIELEK rANTAZOPOULOS QUEEN 

Helen Pantazopoulos Queen was also called as a witness on ^lay 27, 
following a brief reappearance by Lola Belle Holmes. 

Miss Holmes had stated under oath that she had known Helen Queen 
as a member of the Communist Party. She testified that she — 

first met Mrs. Queen at a Marxist-Leninist cadre training 
class of the Communist Party taught by Claude Lightfoot, 
chairman of the Illinois Communist Party, in the year 1958. 
Mrs. Queen was a Communist in the youth group. The 
party's method of selecting youth for cadre training was for 
leadership in the Communist Party. I met jVlrs. Queen again 
at a Marxist-Leninist class at the Lawson YMCA in 1959. 
I have met Mrs. Queen many, many times in many party meet- 
ings of the Communist Party of Illinois as a member of the 
Young Communists of the Communist Party of Illinois. 

When ]Mrs. Queen was confronted with the testimony of Miss 
Holmes, she refused to affirm or deny it, basing her refusal on con- 
stitutional grounds, including the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment. 

Other than giving her name, address, and occupation, Mrs. Queen 
refused to answer all questions, including those pertaining to Commu- 
nist Party membership, on the grounds previously stated. 



1 American Youth for Democracy was ctlted as Communist by the Attorney General and 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in 1942. 



316 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

She was asked whether she had participated in making ari^ange- 
ments on December 29, 1960, on behalf of the organizational ofRcere of 
a national conference of Progressive Youth,^ which took place Decem- 
ber 30 and 31, 1960, and Jannarv^ 1, 1961. in Chicago. She refused to 
answer this question on grounds previously indicated. The Director 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, J. Edgar Hoover, had issued 
a release concerning this group, in which he stated : 

Its purpose is to formulate plans [of the Communist Party] 
for a new national youth organization — one whose programs 
and activities will be clandestinel}' directed by party mem- 
bers. 

DOROTHY MIXTER HAYES 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes, subpenaed bv the committee, appeared be- 
fore it on May 27, 1965.^ 

It was the committee's information that Miss Hayes was a graduate 
of Smith College and held a degree of master of arts in social science 
from that institution; that she was presently employed as a supervisor 
of case workers at the Chicago Youth Centers, Lawndale Neighbor- 
hood Services, 1512 South Pulaski Road. Miss Hayes was asked 
whether this information was correct. She refused to respond, in- 
voking the fifth amendment and stating other reasons. 

Lola Belle Holmes had testified that she had known Dorothy 
Hayes as a member of the Communist Party and that Miss Hayes was 
elected to membership on tlie Illinois State Committee of the Commu- 
nist Party in January 1960 at the second session of the State conven- 
tion of the Communist Party. Miss Holmes had also stated that while 
she was a member of the Women's Peace & Unity Club, which she 
described as "infiltrated with Communist Party members," Dorothy 
Hayes was also a member. 

In connection witli tliis organization, counsel handed Miss Hayes 
a copy of an application filed by one Dorothy M. Hayes for a U.S. 
post office box, dated January 12, 1957. and asked whether she had 
made this application in her capacity as secretary of the Women's 
Peace & lenity Club. To this, as well as to all the testimony given by 
Miss Holmes with respect to the witness' Communist activities. Miss 
Hayes refused to answer by invoking the self-incrimination clause 
of the fifth amendment and other reasons. 

The witness was advised that committee information revealed that 
she had applied for and received passports in 1930 and 1948. 

With regard to her first passport. Miss Hayes was questioned con- 
cerning the fact that she liad asked that it be sent to an organization 
called The Open Road, Inc.. at 20 West 43d Street, New York City. 
It was pointed out to her that a brochure of The Open Road, Inc., 
stated it had l)een organized in 1925 to furnish means whereby Amer- 
icans with a studious interest in Soviet Russia might visit that coun- 
try and that it was the only travel organization which maintained its 
own representative in the Soviet I^nion at that time. It was also 
pointed out that the California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on 
ITn -American Activities in 1948 issued a report which identified The 
Open Road, Inc., as a Communist-front organization. "\Ylien asked 



' At this conferenco the Projrressive Youth Orpanizing Committee (PYOC) was formed 
for tho purpose of creating a new "socialist" oriented youth organization. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 317 

if she possessed knowledge of its nature at the time she had her pass- 
port mailed in care of the organization, the witness refused to answer 
on the gi'omids previously stated. 

A passport application filed by Miss Hayes in 1948 stated that she 
planned a 1-month trij) to France, England. Switzerland, and Holland, 
as a tourist, beginning in November of that j^ear. Committer infor- 
mation revealed that she had traveled to Budapest, Hungary, and 
attended the Second Congress of the Communist-controlled Women's 
International Democratic Federation lield in December 1948, which 
she later reported in an interview in a January 1949 issue of The 
Worker. When asked why slie failed to mention this trip in her pass- 
port application. Miss Hayes refused to ansAver for reasons previously 
given. 

At this same time, according to committee information, Miss Hayes 
Avas a member of an organization known as the Congress of American 
AVomen and head of its Chicago chapter, which a report of this com- 
mittee ^ identified as an affiliate of the Women's International Demo- 
cratic Federation, a global Communist front for women. She invoked 
the self-incrimination privilege when queried about this and whether 
she had attended the first national and constitutional convention of 
the Congress of American Women in New York City in May 1949. 

Miss Hayes was also asked if she had served as secretary and spon- 
sor of the Illinois Assembly area chapter of the American Peace 
Crusade in the 1950's and also if she knew that in early 1951 a youth 
section of the American Peace Crusade, known as American Youth 
Peace Crusade, was formed in Chicago; whether she knew that Dr. 
Jeremiali Stamler was the youth coordinator of the American Youth 
Peace Cnisade; and whether she had attended three meetings of the 
organization in the early 1950"s at wliich he, too, was in attendance. 
To these questions she invoked tlie constitutional grounds previously 
stated. 

It was pointed out that again in 1953 Miss Hayes applied for a 
passport : that she was advised in a letter from the Passport Division 
of the State Department, dated March 10, 1953, that her application 
was being denied because, "In your case it has been alleged that you 
are a Communist and that you have been engaged in Connnunist Party 
activities over a protracted pei'iod of time": that slie was afforded 
the opportunity to be lieard and to appeal these findings at the De- 
partment of State, but failed to do so. Miss Hayes refused to affirm 
or deny this information by invokino- the grounds previously stated. 

The committee questioned Miss Hayes as to whether at any time 
during her membership in the Communist Party she had known Dr. 
Jeremiah Stamler as a member of tlie party. She refused to answer, 
invoking the self-incrimination clause. 

LEON JOY JEXXIXGS 

On May 27, 1965, Leon Joy Jennings appeared before the subcom- 
mittee in response to a subpena. 

Lola Belle Holmes had stated under oath tliat she had known Leon 
Joy Jennings as a member of tlie Communist Party; had attended 



1 Cnmmlttw^ on Un-American Activities. House Report 19.53 on tlie Congress of American 
Women. April 26. 1950, originally released October 2.3. 1949. 



318 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. AREA 

Communist Party meetino-s ^vith her; had known Mrs. Jennings as a 
member of the Negro Commission of the Communist Party of Illinois; 
and had served with her on the national Negro Commission of the 
Connnunist Party. Miss Holmes had also testified that she had served 
on Communist Party caucuses within the NAACP and the Negro 
American Labor Council (NALC) with Mrs. Jennings. When ques- 
tioned concerning the testimony of Miss Holmes, the witness refused 
to answer by invoking the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amend- 
ment and other reasons. 

On the same grounds, Mrs. Jeiniings refused to affirm or deny com- 
mittee information that she quit the Communist Party in 1961, not 
for ideological reasons, but because of a dis])ute with one of its officials 
over a party matter. Mrs. Jennings also refused to state whether she 
had had any further contact with the Communist Party or had cooper- 
ated with it since that time. 

The witness continued to plead self-incrimination when asked 
whether, under the name of Leon Gurlev, she had been a member of 
the national council from the State of Illinois to the Second National 
Convention of the American Youth for Democracy, in 1946, and 
whether she had served as vice chairman of the Illinois State organiza- 
tion of A YD. The AYD had succeeded the Young Communist League 
in 1943. 

On the same grounds, ]\Irs. Jennings refused to affirm or deny com- 
mittee information that in the years 1956 and 1957 she had attended 
some meetings of the Communist Party at the residence of Dr. Jere- 
miah Stnmler at which Rose Stamler, the wife of Dr. Stamler, 
occasionally acted as chairman. 

LAURA RAE BLOUGH 

The next witness to appear before the subcommittee on May 27 was 
Laura Rae Plough. 

Invoking the self-incrimination privilege and other grounds, Mrs. 
Plough refused to aftirm or deny the following information concern- 
ing her identity : that she was born in Ohio on A]:)ril 12, 1931 ; that she 
came to Chicago in 1949 known as Laura Rae Atkinson : that sub- 
sequent to her arrival in Chicago, and as a result of a mari-iage, she 
was known as Laura Rae Lerman ; that she had attended ^Mission High 
School in San Francisco in 1947 to 1949; State University of Kent, 
Ohio, in 1953; Los Angeles Valley College in 1961 or 1962; and San 
Francisco State College from 1963 to and including the date of her 
testimony. 

Committee investigation revealed that during her stay in Chicago 
in 1949 and 1950 Mrs. Plough had resided at the home of her aunt, 
Florence Criley. 

In earlier hearings of the committee, ]Mrs. Plough had been identified 
as a meml)er of the Communist Party by former Communist Lee Lund- 
gren and by Dorothy M. Jeffers, former undercover operative for the 
Federal Rureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Lundgren, a resident of Chicago and field representative for 
the United Electrical Workers and secretary-treasurer of its Local 
1150, testified in public hearings in September 1952 that he had been 
a member of the Connnunist Party from 1945 to January 1950, during 
the time that he had been employed on the staff of the I"E, Mr. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 319 

LundoTen lifid also previously testified in executive hearings in Sep- 
tember 1051. At that time he recalled a meeting of Communist Party 
members in UE Local 1150, who met at the home of Willie Mae Smith 
on December 16, 1949, in Chicago. He testified that Laura Atkinson, 
employed at Sunbeam, Avas in attendance at that meeting. 

On June 21, 1957, the committee received testimony from Mrs. Doro- 
thy M. Jetfers, who served as an FBI undercover operative in the Com- 
munist Party from about 1942 until 1952. ]VIrs. Jeffers liad been a 
member of a. professional club of the Communist Party in the San 
Francisco area during that period and testified that Laura Atkinson 
had been a member of her professional group. 

When confronted with this infoi-mation, ]\Irs. Blough invoked the 
self-incrimination clause and other grounds for refusing to affirm or 
deny it. 

Chairman Willis stated that it was his understanding that Mrs. 
Blough had at one time agreed, at a meeting with oue of the connnit- 
tee investigators, to discuss matters within her knowledge but that sub- 
sequently she told the same investigator that she had discussed the 
matter with a professor and that she had been advised by him not to 
talk to the committee. Mrs. Blough replied that she had discussed 
with the investigator only matters concerned with financing her trip 
to Washington. 

The committee possessed information which revealed that, during 
her residence in Chicago, Mrs. Blough had been advised by Dr. Jere- 
miah Stamler that she was one of several persons chosen by the party 
to give up their identity and to move to new areas in order to carry 
on in case the Communist Party leaders were imprisoned and that 
subsequently she had been instructed by Dr. Stauder to go to Toledo, 
Ohio, which she did. Mrs. Blough declined to answer questions on this 
subject for reasons previously asserted. 

When questioned as to whether she had known — at the time she 
accepted Dr. Stamlers direction to go to Toledo — that he was one of 
the individuals in charge of setting up the Connnunist Party's under- 
ground, Mrs. Blough refused to answer, as before. 

YOLAXDA HALL 

Yolanda Hall was the next witness to appear before this subcom- 
mittee on May 27. 

Mrs. Hall was presently employed on the staff of Dr. Jeremiah 
Stamler as a research nutritionist for the Heart Disease Control Pro- 
gram of the Chicago Board of Health and for the Chicago Health 
Research Foundation. Mrs. Hall had appeared as a witness on behalf 
of Eugene Dennis and other top Communist Party leaders in their 
1949 Smith Act trials and testified on direct examination, on July 28. 
1949, that she had joined the Communist Party in 1939, while a student 
at Chicago Teachers College, from which she graduated with a degree 
of bachelor of education. In her complaint filed in the case of Stamler 
and HaU v. WUUs, et al., she also sets forth that she holds a degree of 
master of science awarded by the Department of Home Economics of 
the Illinois Institute of Technolog\\ 

The witness was sworn, and answered questions as to her name and 
address. When asked to give her date and place of birth, Mr. Albert 



320 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

E. Jenner addressed the subcommittee on behalf of his client, Mrs. 
Hall. Mr. Jenner said that he and Mr. Thomas P. Sullivan, cocounsel, 
had requested in a letter to the committee dated May 24, 1965, that the 
testimony of Mrs. Hall, and Dr. Jeremiah Stamler whom they also 
represented, be taken in executive session. He noted that this request 
encompassed not only their testimony, but also any testimony con- 
cerning them given by other witnesses. Mr. Jenner repeated this re- 
quest and claimed that, if it were denied, it would constitute "an abuse 
of discretion and a violation of rule 26 (m) of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives * * *.'' 

The subcommittee denied Mr. Jenner's requests. Mr. Willis pointed 
out that the committee had complied with Rule XI, 26 (m), and other 
applicable rules of the House and of this committee. He read the 
letter to Mrs. Hall dated :May 11, 1065. This letter afforded Mrs. Hall 
the opportunity to appear voluntarily before a subcommittee in execu- 
tive session prior to the holding of public hearings and to request that 
additional witnesses be subpenaed by the committee. Mr. Willis 
reiterated his earlier statement that none of the witnesses, including 
Mrs. Hall, had availed themselves of this opportunity. 

In reply, j\Ir. Jenner questioned the validity of the letter the com- 
mittee had sent to Mrs. Hall and repeated the following requests on 
behalf of his clients: that their testimony be taken in executive ses- 
sion; that he be afforded the opportunity in executive session to 
examine witnesses and evidence, documentary and otherwise, taken 
in executive session relating to ]Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler: and that 
he be afforded the opportunity of cross-examining the committee 
counsel. Chairman Willis denied these requests. 

Mr. Jenner then asked the committee to postpone further proceed- 
ings pending determination of responsibility for an alleged violation 
of committee Rule XVI (which prohibits any member of the commit- 
tee or staff from making public the name of any subpenaed witness 
prior to the date of his appearance). The subcommittee denied this 
motion. 

Mr. Jenner next incorporated in the record by reference the objec- 
tions made in the suit of Sfaviler v. '^XWh. He further urged lack of 
due process, deprivation of right to counsel, and argued that the com- 
plaining witnesses in the Stamler suit should not be compelled to 
testify while it Avas pending on appeal. For all such reasons, ^Ir. 
Jenner moved that the committee onasli the subnenas served upon 
Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler. The subcomittee denied this motion. 

When commit<"ee coimse^ repealed the qnestion« calling for the 
witness" date and place of l)irth, she refused to answer, stating that 
she adonted and confirmed all that her counsel had stated: that she 
declined to give any information or testimony or further cooiierate 
with the committee; and that, if and when the litio-ation instituted 
by her was terminated adversely to her position, she would return 
before the comuiittee, or su1)Coinmittee, in accordance with the sub- 
pen a served on her. 

The chairman directed th.e witues'; to answer the (|uestiou. 

Mr. Sullivan ordered Mrs. Hall to "go" from the hearinof room. 

iMrs. Hall was warned that she mi<Tht be in contempt in leaving the 
hearing room. Thereupon, Mrs. Hall left the room. 



COMJVUTNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 321 
RECALL OF LUCIUS ARMSTRONG 

Mr. Armstrong was recalled to resume his testimony regarding 
professional groups within the Communist Party, with particular 
reference to a top-level meeting which was held in his home in June 
1959. With respect to this meeting, Mr. Armstrong stated : 

This meeting was of such importance it was not a joint 
understanding and procedure in the party. There were cer- 
tain organizational steps taken so that certain people, es- 
pecially people in industry, party people in industry, knew 
that there were certain people going underground, completely 
detached from any party ties or any party regulation, oper- 
ating completely on their own, and we were discussing in 
this high-level meeting these people. 

Claude Lightfoot was the one who had the information 
from the national committee on the operations of the party, 
you know, in this field. The people were professional people ; 
people valuable to the trade union movement. Some people, 
you know, were doing other work — I won't say what, going 
into Cuba and other places. 

In response to counsel's question as to whether the name of Dr. Jere- 
miah Stamler had been mentioned at this meeting, Mr. Armstrong re- 
plied in the affirmative. Mr. Armstrong testified that he himself did 
not know Dr. Stamler but that he was mentioned by Claude Lightfoot. 
Mr. Armstrong reported the mentioning of Dr. Stamler as follows: 

Well, he [Claude Lightfoot] said that there was a noted 
heart specialist by the name of Jeremiah Stamler and he was 
a loyal party member doing good work among the profes- 
sional people. He did not discuss in detail and that is about 
the gist of it. * * * 

JEREMIAH STAMLER 

Dr. Jeremiah Stamler was the final witness to appear before the 
subcommittee in Chicago on May 27, 1965. As previously stated. 
Dr. Stamler was accompanied to the hearing by his attorneys, Albert 
E. Jenner, Jr., and Thomas P. Sullivan. 

Dr. Stamler was sworn as a witness and answered a question as to 
his name and address. When asked to give his place and date of 
birth, Mr. Jenner requested, on behalf of Dr. Stamler, that the state- 
ments and requests that he made on behalf of Mrs. Hall be applicable 
also to Dr. Stamler, to which the subcommittee agreed. 

The pending question was then repeated. Dr. Stamler did not 
answer this question, but made a statement similar to that of Mrs. 
Hall's quoted above. The chairman then directed Dr. Stamler to 
answer the question and not to leave the room until he had answered 
it and others to be propounded. Dr. Stamler thereupon left the room. 



322 COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

MATHILDE BURKE 

The lieariiigs were continued in "Washington, D.C., on June 22, 
1965. Mrs. Mathilde Burke who was heard in an executive session 
was ill at the time of the hearings in Chicago and the subcommittee 
had postponed her appearance for this reason. 

Mrs. Burke testified tliat she was born Mathilde Lea Helene Peere- 
boon, in Amsterdam, Holland, on June 20, 1932, and had immigrated 
to the United States with her motlier in December of 1946. Slie stated 
that since her entry into the United States slie has resided in Chicago. 

Tlie witness testified that she was married to Dr. Gerald Burke on 
April 8, 1964. Regarding her formal education, Mrs. Burke testified 
that she had attended Lyceum in Holland from 1945 to 1946, spent a 
year or so at the University of Chicago sometime in the early 1950*s, 
jand had taken some evening courses at Roosevelt University in 
Chicago but could not remember the exact dates. 

While attending the University of Chicago in the early 1950"s, INIrs. 
Burke stated that she was employed at the Michael Reese Hospital, 
on a part-time basis from 1948 until 1951, and full time from 1951 
until May 1964. 

The committee's investigation revealed that Mrs. Burke had been a 
member of the Communist Party during the course of her employment 
at the Michael Reese Hospital. 

When confronted with this information, Mrs. Burke refused to 
answer and made a statement setting forth her reasons, which included 
the firet amendment and the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment. 

When confronted with the fact that it was the committee's informa- 
tion that in 1956 Mrs. Burke was a member of the South Side Section 
or group of the Communist Party in Chicago, the witness replied that 
she would stand on her statement. The witness was asked wliether it 
was true that she had attended meetings along witli other Comnuniist 
Party members at the home of Dr. Stamler in the late fifties, according 
to committee information. Again the witness refused to answer, re- 
lying on her statement. 

A recess was taken. Tlie subcommittee reconvened, and j\Ir. Pool, 
acting subcommittee chairman, announced that after considering what 
had taken place in executive session, the subcommittee unanimously 
agreed to hold an open session, the hearing was then innnediately held 
in open session, and the witness was questioned along lines similar to 
those pursued in the executive session. 

Again Mrs. Burke was asked whether, during her employment at 
Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, she had been acquainted with Mrs. 
Rose Stamler and Dr. Jeremiah Stamler. In refusing to reply to 
this question, Mrs. Burke relied upon the first and fifth amendments 
as in her prior statements. 

Mrs. Burke was again asked if she had ever l>een a member of the 
Communist Party, to which she replied that she would stand on her 
statement. 

She likewise refused to res])ond to questions based on connnittee 
information as to whether in 1956 she was a member of the South Side 
Section of the Coinnumist Party; whether at that time, or subse- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 323 

quently, slie was a member of tl)e Communist Party g-roiip of which 
Kose Stamler served as chairman; whether in the latter 1950's she at- 
tended Communist Party meetings at the residence of Dr. Jeremiah 
Stamler and wife, Rose Stamler; and whether, at Communist Party 
meetings held in the Stamler residence, Leon Gurley, now known as 
Leon Joy Jennings, Milton Cohen, and Benjamin Alax Friedlander 
were also in attendance ; whether during the course of her membership 
in the Communist Party she knew Yolanda Hall. In refusing to reply 
to these and other questions she declared that she stood on her state- 
ment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, 

AREA 

Part 1 



TUESDAY, MAY 25, 1965 

United States House or Representatives. 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Chicago^ Illinois. 

public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10:30 a.m., in the Old United States Court of 
Appeals Building, 1212 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 
Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas: Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio: and Del Clawson, of Cali- 
fornia.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Clawson. 

Staff members present : Francis J. McXamara, director ; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle. counsel; and Neil E. Wetter- 
man and Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Nittle, will you call the names of the witnesses and hand them 
a copy of the opening statement ? 

Mr. Nittle. Is Milton Mitchell Cohen in attendance? 

Come forward, please. 

Louis Diskin. 

David Englestein. 

Benjamin Max Friedlander. 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes. 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes. 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes, please come forward. 

Yolanda Hall. 

Leon Joy Jennings. 

Wilberforce Cox Jones. 

Versta Miller. 

Helen Fotine Queen. 

Dr. Jeremiah Stamler. 

Charles Fehninger Wilson. 

Mr. Chairman, Dorothy Mixter Hayes has not responded. Shall I 
again call her ? 

325 



326 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

The Chairman. Please. Three times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dorothy Mixter Hayes, please come forward. 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes, please come f orAvard. 

Dorothy Mixter Hayes, please come forward. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that it be noted on the record that 
Dorothy Mixter Hayes has not responded. 

Mr. Wolf. We are responding for Miss Hayes. 

The Chairman. She ought to be here and must be here in person. 

Mr. Wolf. She is here, if you will just give me a moment. 

Miss Hayes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, would you step forward, please ? 

Mr. Wolf. Mr, Chairman, I would like the record to show that we 
object to the presence here of the cameras. 

The Chairman. We will in that respect abide, as we always do and 
are today, with the rules of the House. 

This subcommittee of the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities is convened here in Chicago to conduct hearings upon the 
subjects of inquiry and for the legislative purposes set forth in a com- 
mittee resolution adopted March 18, 1965. I offer this resolution for 
the record. It reads as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, That hearings be held by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities or a subcommittee tliereof, at such times and places as the Chairman 
may determine, and that the staff be authorized to conduct investigations deemed 
reasonably necessary in preparation therefor, relating to : 

1. As concerns the Chicago, Illinois area and the Illinois District of the Com- 
niiTuist Party of the United States : the structure and organization of the Com- 
nuuiist Party of the United States : its major objectives, and the strategical and 
tactical methods designed to aid in accomplishing such objectives : the major 
areas of Communist Party concentration ; organizations created and controlled 
by the Communist Party to advance the policies and objectives of the Communist 
movement ; Communist propaganda activities conducted in support of such objec- 
tives ; and conspiratorial activities in aid of, or in association with, foreign 
Communist governments ; and also like information regarding other Conununist 
organizations in the Chicago, Illinois area, for the following legislative purposes : 

(a) to iirovide factual information to aid the Congress in the proposal of any 
necessary remedial legislation in fulfillment of the directions contained in the 
mandate to the Committee by House Resolution 8, of January -i, IDG."), and Public 
Law 601 of the 79th Congress ; 

(b) to assist the Congress in appraising the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of Title I of the Internal Security Act of 19.50 ; 

(c) to provide factual information to aid the House in the disixisition of 
presently i^ending and proposed legislation, including, but not limited to, H.R. 
429.3. a bill to amend the Subversive Activities Control Act of 19.")0 so as to 
authorize the Federal Govei'nment to bar from access to defense facilities in- 
dividuals who may engage in sabotage, espionage, or other subversive acts : 

(d) consideration of the advisability of amending the Internal Security Act so 
as to impose certain disabilities. In the maimer and form therein provided, upon 
those i')€rsons "aflSliated with" Communist organizations as well as upon persons 
who are members thereof. 

RE IT FURTHER RESOLA'ED, That the hearings may include any other 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

As a result of the June lOGl decision of the Supreme Court of the 
United States in the Communist Party case (367 U.S. 1), certain 
provisions of the Internal Security Act have become eifective. This 
was a case against the (\)nninniist Party of the Ignited States insti- 
tuted by the Attornev General before the Subversive Activities Con- 
trol Board in 1950 to require that the party register as a Communist- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 327 

action organization within the terms of the Internal Security Act 
of 1950. 

A Communist-action organization is defined in the act as any orga- 
nization in the United States which is substantially directed, domi- 
nated, or controlled by the foreign government or organization 
controlling the world Communist movement. 

Following the taking of extensive testimony, the Subversive Ac- 
tivities Control Board found the Commmiist Party of the United 
States was a disciplined organization operating in this Nation under 
Soviet Union control, with the objective of installing a Soviet-style 
dictatorship in the United States. The Board, therefore, ordered 
the party to register as a Communist-action organization. 

The Supreme Court, as previously indicated, has upeld this finding 
and order. This order has the effect of denying to Communist Party 
members any Federal employment, or employment in any defense 
facility as defined in the act. 

Preliminary committee investigation indicates that this decision of 
the Court prompted certain organizational changes in the Communist 
Party. The party has attempted to nullify the provisions of the 
statute. These hearings in Chicago are one of a series of investiga- 
tions into area activities of the Communist Party which the commit- 
tee is conducting in various parts of the country for the purpose of 
•determinmg whether remedial or amendatory legislation is necessary 
and, if so, what laws may be desired. 

This committee functions as a part of the legislative branch of 
Government, as distinguished from the executive and judicial 
branches. In the exercise of its investigative function, the committee 
neither accuses nor judges. It conducts no trials. It is a fact- 
gatherer to inform the Congress about the operations of this Soviet- 
controlled conspiracy. 

Its investigations must be continuous. For while the basic objec- 
tives of the Communists remain the same, the party develops new 
tactics and operational forms from time to time to speed and improve 
Communist undermining activity and to offset the legislative, admin- 
istrative, and other steps taken by the Congress, the executive branch, 
and the American people to preserve their liberty. 

The power of congressional committees to make investigations and 
to exact testimony has been repeatedly confirmed by the Supreme 
Court of the United States. In McGfain v. Daugherty (273 U.S. 
135, at 161), a leading case, the Supreme Court pointed out that, and 
I quote from the words of the Supreme Court : 

In actual legislative practice power to secure needed information by such 
means has long been treated as an attribute of the power to legislate. It was 
«o regarded in the British Parliament and in the Colonial legislatures before the 
American Eevolution ; and a like view has prevailed and been carried into effect 
in both houses of Congress and in most of the state legislatures. 

That is the end of the quotation from the Supreme Court decision. 

Information and knowledge is, of course, the object of investiga- 
tion. It is basic to the exercise of the lawmaking function. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities is authorized by a rule 
of the House and a Federal statute to make investigations of the ex- 
tent, character, and objects of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda, whether instigated by foreign countries or of a domestic origin, 

52-810— 66— pt. 1 3 



328 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

which attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed 
oy our Constitution, and all other questions in relation thereto that 
would aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, this committee is au- 
thorized to hold hearings and to issue subpenas to require the attend- 
ance of witnesses and the production of documents. Moreover, the 
committee is required to report to the House the results of its investi- 
gations, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

The committee is also required, by House rule and the statute al- 
ready mentioned, to perform the duties imposed upon all standing 
committees with respect to laws within its jurisdiction, that is, to 
appraise the execution of laws enacted by Congress and to exercise a 
continuous watchfulness over the admmistrative agencies concerned 
with the execution of such laws. 

In the light of the threat which Communist organizations pose to 
the United States as a sovereign, independent Nation, we mtist recog- 
nize, as Mr. Justice Frankfurter said in the Communist Party case, 
"That the power of Congress to regulate Commmiist organizations of 
this nature is extensive." 

Mr. Justice Harlan, speaking for the Supreme Court in B areiiblatt 
V. United States (360 U.S. 109, at page 127), a decision upholding 
the contempt of Congress conviction of a witness who had refused to 
answer questions asked him by this committee, said : 

That Congress has wide power to legislate in the field of Communist activity 
in this Country, and to conduct appropriate investigations in aid thereof, is 
hardly debatable. The existence of such power has never been questioned by 
this Court, and it is suflieient to say, without particularization, that Congress 
has enacted or considered in this field a wide range of legislative measures, not 
a few of which have stemmed from recommendations of the very Committee 
whose actions have been drawn in question here. 

— that is, the Committee on Un-American Activities. 
Justice Harlan continued : 

In the last analysis this power rests on the right of self-preservation, "the 
ultimate value of any society," Dennis v. United States, 341 U.S. 494, 509. 
Justification for its exercise in turn rests on the long and widely accepted view 
that the tenets of the Communist Party include the ultimate overthrow of the 
Government of the United States by force and violence, a view which has been 
given formal expression by the Congress. 

There is, however, not only a power to legislate in the field of Com- 
mmiist activities, but also a positive duty imposed upon Congress to 
do so. The Supreme Court has said : 

"To preserve its independence, and give security against foreign aggression and 
encroachment, is the highest duty of every nation, and to attain these ends 
nearly all other considerations are to be subordinated. It matters not in what 
form such aggression and encroachment come . . . ." [Quoted in Communist Party 
Ca^re, 367 U.S. 1,96.] 

Now I would like to stress the fact that the committee's presence here 
in Chicago is not to be construed in any way as derogatory to this great 
city. We have held liearings here before, as we have in other major 
cities of our country on more than one occasion in the past. 

Wliy? Not because these cities as such — or their governments or 
people — are suspect in any way, but rather becatise they and the States 
m which they are located are so important to our national security, 
prosperity, and welfare. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 329 

The Communists decided a long time ago where they would try to 
build their greatest strength in the United States. They determined 
that they would send their best organizers, agitators, and propa- 
gandists into those areas of our country which vrere most vital to its 
overall security, particularly in time of war. 

It was in these areas that they determined to pour their money and 
to concentrate as much eti'ort as possible to build their largest, strong- 
est, and most disciplined units. 

Why? So that if war between the Soviet Union and the United 
States should come — and God pray it won't — their greatest strength 
would be in those areas where, by sabotage and other traitorous activi- 
ties, they could do most to help the Soviet Union and bring about the 
defeat of the United States. And so the Comnnmists concentrate — 
and always have concentrated — on our great centers of industry, of 
transportation, communication, learning, and so forth — on States such 
as Illinois, New York, Michigan, California, Pennsylvania; on cities 
such as Chicago, Detroit, New York, Pittsburgh. These are the areas 
of the United States that are most important to Moscow and, there- 
fore, to its puppets, the U.S. Communists. Generally speaking, the 
Communists have not devoted nuich attention to our small rural com- 
munities. 

Our presence in Chicago, therefore, and such evidence of Communist 
activity in this city and State as is produced in these hearings, is not 
to be taken as an aft'ront to this city or the State of Illinois. Rather, 
the hearings are a tribute to them, a recognition of the tremendous im- 
portance the enemies of this country, both here and abroad, attach to 
Illinois and its great city, Chicago. 

In short, we are here not to hurt anyone or any institution, but to 
help — to help, as we are directed by the House of Representatives, the 
security of our country. It is our hope — and our belief — that, in doing 
so, we will also help this wonderful State, city, and people. 

I now offer for the record the order of appointment of this subcom- 
mittee, as follows : 

May 6, 1965. 
To : Mr. Francis J. McNamaea, 
Director, Committee on Vn-Amerwan Activities 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and tlie Rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consist- 
ing of Honorable Joe R. Pool, Honorable Charles L. Weltner. Honorable John M. 
Ashbrook, and Honorable Del Clawson, as associate members, and myself, as 
Chaii'man, to conduct hearings in Chicago, Illinois, commencing on or about 
Tuesday, May 25, 1965, and/or at such other times thereafter and places as said 
subcommittee shall determine, as contemplated by the resolution adopted by the 
Committee on the 18th day of March, 1965, authorizing hearings concerning cer- 
tain Communist activities in the Chicago, Illinois area, and other matters under 
investigation by the Committee. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 6th day of May, 1965. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis, 
Edwin E. Willis. 
Chairman, Committee on TJn-Am.erican Activities. 

I would like to point out that the absent member of this subc ommit- 
tee, Mr. Ashbrook, of Ohio, his absence has been unavoidably brought 
about by a death in the family. It is expected that he might appear 
later on. 



330 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Now I point out, and I want the record to reflect, that this state- 
ment I have just read — each witness subpenaed has been handed a 
copy by counsel. I urge them to remain in the committee room so 
that if there be any testimony regarding them they may be here. 

I urge also careful analysis of the statement that each witness has, 
announcing the purposes and objectives of the hearings, so that there 
won't be any haggling about a witness not knowing the purpose why 
these hearmgs are being held. These purposes are being stated at 
length in this statement and each witness has a copy. 

I want to go one step further and read from Rule XI, 26 (m) , House 
of Representatives. The rules of the House are binding on all com- 
mittees. There are some 20 permanent committees of the House, the 
jurisdiction of each committee is set forth in the rules of the House. 

This committee, the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 
is but one of 20 permanent committees of the House. This committee 
is an agency of the House and operating mider the rules of the House. 
I want to direct the attention of all to the provisions of Rule 26 (m) 
in respect to these particular hearings. 

Every person concerning whom there might be defamatory, de- 
grading, or incriminating evidence produced here at these hearings 
has been notified of that possibility and has been sent a letter, a typical 
sample of which I now read : 

"Pursuant to House Rule XI, 26 (m) , the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities has received certain evidence and testimony in executive 
session, in the course of which a person by the name of' — and here 
each witness' name appears — "a resident of — and their address is 
given — "was identified as having been a member of the Communist 
Party." 

Everyone whose name might crop up has received a copy of this 
letter or been sent one. 

"If you so desire, you will be afforded an opportunity volimtarily to 
appear as a witness before a subcommittee of the Committee on Un- 
Ajnerican Activities at a time and place to be designated. According 
to the general practice of the committee, this hearing" — namely the 
voluntary testimony of witnesses so notified — "shall be conducted in 
executive session. 

"You may also request the committee to subpoena additional wit- 
nesses. 

"If you desire to avail yourself of the opportunities thus afforded 
you, you should so advise the Director of the Committee no later than 
Tuesday, May 18, 1965. He may be reached at Room 226, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington 25, D.C.; telephone number: 
Capitol 4-8121, extension 3051. 

"This is not a subpoena or summons requiring you to appear. 

"Very truly yours, Edwin E. Willis, Chainnan." 

Let me tell you that every witness, I repeat, whose name might 
come up in these hearings, every person was mailed such a letter 
but not one single, solitary response did we receive. [Laughter and 
applause.] 

I cannot and will not tolerate demonstrations in any direction from 
anyone. This is a hearing in a Federal courtroom conducted by a 
committee of the House of Representatives and representing the House 
of Representatives and we must have order. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 331 

You are guests of the committee; you are very welcome. We are 
glad to have you. We are glad to know your interest in either direc- 
tion in connection with the activities and the conduct of its affairs by 
this committer, but we must have order as is the rule under the Ameri- 
can procedure. 

Mr. Counsel, call your first witness. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Will Lola Belle Holmes please come forward ? 

Mr. Sullivan, May I interrupt this committee ? 

The Chairman. No, sir. 

Mr. Sullivan. I would just like to make a record of my request, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Tlie Chairman. I don't know whether you are counsel. 

Mr. Sullivan. I am. 

The Chairman. Are you the counsel for this witness? 

Mr. Sullivan. No. 

I request that any testimony given about my clients, Jeremiah Stam- 
ler or Yolanda Hall, be taken in executive session in accordance with 
rule 26 (m) of this committee. I just wanted to make my record, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. It is a little late to do it. We will give it consid- 
eration. 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chainnan, on behalf of my client 

Tlie Chairman. I w^ill make no such rulings at this time. The 
Avitnesses will be called in order. The Cliair is going to control the 
order of development and presentation and the general conduct of 
these hearings. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman, on behalf of my witness, I wish to 
make the same request. 

The Chairman. Will you please state your full name and address 
for the record? 

Miss Holmes. I am Lola Belle Holmes. 

Mrs. Langford. Are you asking me? 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Will you please stand up ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Miss Holmes. I do. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, here are a number of lawyers here. 
If we might have a ruling on that, it might facilitate things. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OP LOLA BELLE HOLMES 

Mr. Nittle. Would the witness please state her full name and ad* 
dress for the record? 

Miss Holmes. I am Lola Belle Holmes. I reside at 6851 South 
Calumet, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr, Nittle. How long have you resided in the city of Chicago? 

Miss Holmes. Twenty-four years. 

Mr. Nittle. Where and when were you born. Miss Holmes ? 



332 COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Miss Holmes. I was born in Waterproof, Louisiana, April 22, 1916, 

Mr. ISTrrTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Miss Holmes. I am a high school graduate. I have had 2 years of 
college in labor law, labor and management relationship, political 
economy, and 7 years of Marxist-Leninist training. 

Mr. NiTTLE. tS^iere did you receive 7 years of Marxist-Leninist 
training ? 

Miss Holmes. With the Communist Marxist-Leninist school and 
the Chicago School of Social Science of the Communist Party of Illi- 
nois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wiat is your present occupation ? 

Miss Holmes. I am a staff assistant at the Chicago Urban League. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you held this position? 

Miss Holmes. Three months. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What has been your principal employment since 1945 ? 

Miss Holmes. I will go back to 1942. I was employed as a power 
machine operator in the garment industry in Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long had you been employed in the garment 
industry ? 

Miss Holmes. I worked as a power macliine operator until 1958 in 
the garment industry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was your employment since 1958? 

Miss Holmes. I have had various employment since 1958. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your principal ones ? 

Miss Holmes. My principal employment since 1958 has been secre- 
tary-treasurer of the [Midwest] Committee for the Protection of the 
Foreign Bom. At times I went back to the garment industry. I 
have also been sales representative for various magazine companies 
leading up to my employment with the Chicago Urban League. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, while you were employed in the 
garment industry, did you belong to any union ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. I was a member of Local 212, ILGWU, 
that is, the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, for 12 
years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hold any office in that union ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. I was shop steward for 12 years. I was 
executive board member for 9 years. I was on the educational com- 
mittee of the ILGWU. I was also trained for manager position in 
my local, Local 212. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you serve as a member of the executive board of 
Local 212 during the period 1946 to 1958 ? 

Miss Holmes. I was executive board member of Local 212 for 12 
years and I was also delegate to the Chicago Federation of Lalwr for 
7 years for Local 212. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you terminate your position on tlie executive 
board of the union, that is. Local 212, in 1958 ? 

Miss Holmes. I did not terminate mv position. I was dropped 
from the executive board because it had been learned that I was a 
member of the Communist Partv. I lost the election of my local in 
1958. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Did that union have a policy of barring known Com- 
munist Party members from oflice in the union ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, it did. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 333 

Mr. NiTTLE. ISIiss Holmes, at the time 3^011 were dropped from the 
executive board of tlie union, were you m fact a member of the Com- 
munist Party at that time ? 

Miss Holmes. Tlieoretically I was. 

The Chairiman'. What do you mean by that ? 

Miss Holmes. I was a member of the Communist Party under one 
condition, I was serving the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Nittle. During wliat period of time did you maintain member- 
ship in the Communist Party in the service of the Government? 

Miss Holmes. I joined the Communist Party at the request of the 
Federal Bureau of investigation in August of 1957. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain a member of the Communist 
Party for that purpose ? 

Miss Holmes. I remained a member of the Communist Party until 
January 24, 1963, at which time I testified for the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation against Claude Lightfoot, who was chairman of the 
Conmiunist Party of Illinois. 

Mr. Nittle. "\\'lien was the initial contact made between vou and 
the FBI? 

Miss Holmes. The first time the FBI contacted me personally was 
in 1954. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell the committee. Miss Holmes, the cir- 
cumstances under which you came to serve the Government? 

Miss Holmes. I became aware m 1953 that I was being investigated 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and I wanted to know why. 
I went to the Federal Bureau to find out why they were interested 

The Chairman. May I interrupt you. please ? 

I did not announce it, but I understand it is the practice in these 
Federal courts not to smoke. I should have said that earlier. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. iSTow would you proceed. Miss Holmes, to relate the 
circumstances under which you came to serve your Government? 

INIiss Holmes. I became aware I was being investigated by the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation through my union. I then went to 
the Bureau to find out why I was being mvestigated and I was told 
to clarify myself. 

I let them know that I was not engaged in any subversive activities. 
I was not contacted in any way after this meeting with the Bureau 
until 1954, at which time I was avSked to accept the position. I refused 
at that time not knowing anything about Communist activities, nor 
did I wish to hurt any innocent people because of my ignorance of 
communism and Commimists. 

I was not contacted by anyone until 1955. Again, I refused because 
I was afraid of hurting innocent people. 

I was contacted again in 1956 at which time I had thought it over. 
Reviewing my past — I had been active in the Progressive Party — I 
thought of the many contacts at that point that I had come in contact 
with Communists. I was very active in political affairs during the 
Progressive Party days in the 1940's and 50's. 

I was also nominated as a State representative in the Fifth Sena- 
torial District to represent the Negro people. The Communist Party 
at that point entered my life and wrecked my campaign in the 
Progressive Party. 



334 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

I left the political forces and had no activities until I was contacted 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I had received certain litera- 
ture from Communist-front organizations during the time that I was 
not active. 

After being contacted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, I 
began to look through the literature that I was receiving, thinking 
that perhaps I could resume contact with some members of the Com- 
munist Party, which I did. 

I was successful in 1957 in being invited to join the Communist 
Party. I accepted the invitation and joined the Communist Party. 
Therefore, my career as a Communist began m August of 1957. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now prior to your first contact by the FBI in 1953, 
had you, in fact, come in contact with Communists? 

Miss Holmes. I had, many times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had any attempt been made prior to the visit by the 
Bureau to recruit you into the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Back in the 1940's there was an attempt made which 
I rejected. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom was that attempt made ? 

Miss Holmes. Rose Topercer. 

Mr. Nittle. Bv whom were vou recruited into the Communist Party 
finally in 1957? 

Miss Holmes. I was eventually recruited into the party by Rose 
Topercer in 1957. 

Mr. Nittle. Wliere had you met her in the first circumstance ? 

Miss Holmes. I had met Rose Topercer in the garment industry. 
Rose Topercer was a garmentworker the same as I was. I met Rose 
Topercer during the Progressive Party days, also during an election 
of the ILGWil, where Rose Topercer was running against Mr. 
D'Arliss, and she was defeated. She pretended she was working for 
Negro liberation, so she introduced herself to me as a fighter for civil 
rights, and I felt that she was because of certain literature that had 
been distributed. I was impressed with her. 

She invited me to a Progressive Party meeting, and I joined the 
Progressive Party at that time. This must have been around 1946 or 
1947. 

Mr. Nittle. While you were in the Progressive Party, did you asso- 
ciate with other Progressive Party members whom you later found to 
be members of the Communist Party when you yourself joined the 
party in 1957? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you assigned to a cell or club of the Communist 
Party when you first joined ? 

Miss Holmes. Wlien I first joined the Commimist Party in 1957, 
I was assigned to the Needle Club, being a needleworker. 

Mr. Nittle. Hoav long did you belong to the Needle Club of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. I stayed in the Needle Club from 1957 until the first 
of 1960, when the Needle Chib was disbanded because of certain 
structural changes in the Communist Party and the industrial section 
of which I belonged. 

Mr. Nittle. Who were the officers of this club ? 



COIVIIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 335 

Miss Holmes. When I joined the chib, Kose Topercer was the 
chairman; Gertrude McBain was the secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us whether George Landman was also 
active in this club ? 

Miss Holmes. He was, yes, at that time. 

Mr. Nittle. Was Sarah Gulkowitz also active ? 

Miss Holmes. She was. 

Mr. Nittle. Was Sylvia Schwimmer also active in that club ? 

Miss Holmes. Sylvia Schwimmer was a member of the Communist 
Party. She w^orked in the amalgamated union ; she did not work in the 
ILGWU. We met at times in her home. 

Mr. Nittle. IMiss Holmes, would you tell us in brief the objectives 
of the Needle Club of the Communist Party 'I 

]\Iiss Holmes. In each industry, in each shop and local the Com- 
munist Party has clubs. The objectives of the clubs of each industry, 
shop, or local is to carry on Communist propaganda, carry out the 
line and policy of the Communist Party, and to direct strategy and 
tactics in the respective local or shop that the club group is in. 

Miss Nittle. In your club were the members drawn principally 
from Local 212 ? 

Miss Holmes. No ; from every local in the ILGWU if we could get 
a worker to come into the club. They, therefore, become a member 
of the Needle Club, that is, if they were a party member. 

]Mr. Nittle. What other clubs were you a member of while in the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. After the dissolution of the sections and the Needle 
Club, I was put into the Hansbrough Club and the Packinghouse 
Workers Club, which later became the New Frontier. 

After the Supreme Court rendered its decision for the Communist 
Party to register, all the party clubs were ordered to change their 
names for security reasons. They were ordered to either become press 
clubs or social clubs to keep from being identified. I was put into the 
Packinghouse Workers Club, which later became the New Frontier. 

Mr. Nittle. A club is the lowest and smallest unit of the Commu- 
nist Party ; is that right ? 

Miss Holmes. It is a very small unit of the Conmiunist Party ; not 
less than 3 or 4, not more than 10 members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Miss Holmes, in order to establish your knowledge 
of Communist Party activities in the Illinois District, would you 
please state for the record the units within the Communist Party to 
which you have belonged, giving the dates of membership and any 
offices you may have held ? 

Miss Holmes. When I first joined the Communist Party I was put 
into the Needle Club. It must have been in 1959 that Rose Topercer 
was ordered to resign to take a rest. I was then elected as chairman 
of the Needle Club, which automatically made me a member of the in- 
dustrial section, the Wagenknecht Section. 

After being put into the Wagenknecht Section and slated for lead- 
ership, it was understood and learned that I had no knowledge of 
Marxist-Leninist teaching and therefore it was necessary' to give me 
Marxist-Leninist training. I was instructed to become a member of 
the educational section of the Wag-enknecht Section for Marxist- 



336 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

T^ninist training. In 1959, as a matter of fact, I became a delegate for 
the convention; the section conA'ention, the State convention, and the 
national convention. 

I was elected in the section convention to the State convention and 
at the State convention I was nominated as a member of the State 
committee. I was also elected alternate delegate to the national con- 
vention which was to be held in New York in December. 

I went to the national convention and, on returning to Chicago, was 
elected a member of the State committee, which is one of the highest 
governing bodies of the district of any State of the rommunist Party 
and was one of the highest bodies in the State of Illinois. 

After being elected to the State committee, the appointment of the 
board members came up in the second session of the State convention. 
I was appointed to the State board of the Communist Party of Illi- 
nois. 

After being appointed to the State board, I was appointed as press 
director of the Communist Party of Illinois. This went into the spring 
of 1960 in March. 

In October of 1959 the Negro trade unionists decided to organize the 
Negro American Labor Council. I was one of the people who helped 
found the Negro American Labor Council. 

Going into 1960, the founding convention of the Negro American 
Labor Council was called, and I was elected one of the first national 
vice presidents. I was elected the first woman vice president of the 
Negro American Labor Council. 

After my election as a national vice president to the Negro Ameri- 
can Labor Coimcil, my prestige began to decline in the Communist 
Party. The Communist Party began to attack me; I was demoted 
just as fast as I was promoted. I was then stripped of all the offices I 
had in a section committee meeting. I was told that I was to withdraw 
from all party activities. 

At this point I refused to withdraw. Flo Hall, Jim West ordered 
me to withdraw from my party activities. I refused to withdraw fol- 
lowing conversation with Lightfoot. I pointed out to Claude Light- 
foot that it was necessary that I remain on the State board, the State 
committee, and in the NALC Communist Party caucus which had 
been established, because being a national leader, it was necessary for 
me to keep my tie with the party structure. 

I was permitted to stay on the State committee, the State board, 
and in the NALC caucus. 

I was permitted to stay on the NALC caucus because of my national 
ties and the State conventions of the Negro American Labor Council 
coming up each year. I was a national board member. I went to the 
national board meetings every 2 months and I came back and reported 
my activities to the Communist Party. 'So, therefore, it was neces- 
sary^ that I keep these three ties, which were the leading bodies at this 
point in the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, did you also attend meetings of the In- 
dustrial Commission of the Communist Party for the State of Illinois? 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess just for 2 
minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Is counsel for Dr. Jeremiah Stamler here? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 337 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, I am here. 

The Chairman. May I ask your name ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Thomas P. Sullivan, 135 South LaSalle Street, Chi- 
cago. I am the partner of Mr. Albert E. Jenner, Jr., who is personal 
counsel for Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall. 

I didn't mean to be out of order before, Mr. Chairman, but I did 
"want to make a record in asking for executive session as to any testi- 
mony 

The Chairman. Now will you restate that? That is what I want to 
be clear about. 

Look, you and I are lawyers. 

Mr. Sullivan. ]\Iy statement is short and it is not argumentative. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. SuLLWAN. I ask this committee to take in executive session any 
testimony by my clients, that is. Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall, and any 
testimony by any other witness about Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall. 

That is my request. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, I make the same motion on behalf 
of three of my clients. 

iNIiss Hart. Mr. Chairman, I represent two persons who have been 
subpenaed here, "Wilson and Diskin, and I make the same motion in 
their behalf. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Now each attorney who has risen, let's get to- 
gether. Will you give your name and address and who you represent?. 

Mr. Steinberg. I represent Benjamin Friedlander, Helen Queen, 
and David Englestein. 

My name is Irving G. Steinberg, 180 West Washington Street^ 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Miss Hart. ]Mv name is Pearl Hart and I have been practicing here 
for 50 years. I make the same motion on behalf of Wilson and Diskin^ 
two persons subpenaed here this morning. 

Mr. jMeyers. I represent Wilberforce Jones. My name is Irvuig 
Meyers of Chicago. I make the same request to appear in executive 
hearing as an involuntary witness and to take testimony of any vol- 
untary witness in executive hearing so as not to defame my client. 

]Mrs. Langford. ISIr. Chairman 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. It seems as though the requests are not the same. 

Mr. ]Meyers. I accept the same request as made there by Mr. Sulli- 
van on behalf of my client, Mr. Jones, if there be any confusion. 

The Chairman. The requests are, as I understand, twofold, that 
the testimony of your respective clients as well as the testimony of any 
other person concerning your clients be taken in executive session ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is correct, Mr. Chairman. I will state the 
grounds for that if you like. 

Mr. Steinberg. That is correct for my clients, too. 

The Chair3ian. Did I understand the word to be "involuntary" 
witness in executive session ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I did not use that word, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Well, let's suppose you use it. 

Mr. Sullivan. Would you like me to restate my request? 

The Chair:man. Please. 



338 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Sullivan. I ask that any testimony by any witness concerning 
X)r. Jeremiah Stamler and Mrs. Yolanda JHall to be taken in executive 
session. That is request number one. 

Request number two is, I ask that any interrogation of, or testimony 
by. Dr. Jeremiah Stamler and Mrs. Yolanda Hall be conducted in 
■©xecutive session. 

The Chairman. We will be in recess for a few moments. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Cohen. My lawyer cannot be here. My name is Milton Cohen. 
I would like to be included in the request for executive session. 

Mr. Lassers. Mr. Chairman, on behalf of another witness I would 
like to make a request similar to Mr. Sullivan's, but not quite the same. 

My name is Willard J. Lassers of Chicago. I would like to join in 
the request insofar as we request that any information about Miss 
Hayes be delivered in executive session. We are not requesting, how- 
ever, an executive session for her. 

The Chairman. That is understood. 

Mr. Lassers. Thank you. 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman, on behalf of ISIrs. Leon Joy Jennings, I 
make the same request as the request of Mr. Sullivan. 

My name is Frank Anglin, attorney from Chicago, and attorney 
Anna Langf ord, who is cocounsel for Mrs. Jennmgs. 

Miss Hart. Mr. Chaii-man, I am Pearl Hart, again. With reference 
to the motion I made, in which I asked for the same relief as Mr. Sul- 
livan, I want it understood that if the executive session is granted to 
my clients Wilson and Diskin that we don't waive any of our consti- 
tutional rights to refuse to answer questions. 

The Chairman. In other words, like the gentleman, you are not ask- 
ing that your client be permitted voluntarily to appear in accordance 
with the opportunity given ? 

Miss HL\rt. That would be substantially correct. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Anglin. That would be the understanding for the counsel 
here. We are not waiving, Mr. Chairman, any of our constitutional 
rights. That is my imderstanding. 

The Chairman. No, no. You are asking that your respective cli- 
ents, pursuant to the letters they received, be given an opportunity 
voluntarily to appear under oath and testify ? 

Mr. Anglin. Perhaps there is some misunderstanding. I do not 
believe my client recei^'ed a letter to voluntarily testify. My client is 
here pursuant to subpena, and it is my understanding this is the case 
of perhaps other lawyers who have spoken. 

The Chairman. If you represent a client who has been subpenaed 
that client received a letter. 

Mr. Anglin. One might say so. 

Mr. ]\Ieyers. On 1->elialf of Wilberforce Jones, T still reques)t an 
executive session insofar as witnesses testifying who may name him, 
and iiisofar as Wilberforce Jones is concerned, I ask for an executive 
session. I state that it is an involuntarv appearance for that executive 
session, that he will still maintain his rights to assert his constitutional 
rights and privileges. 

The Chairman. Exactly. In other Avords, you are not asking to 
exercise the privilege of voluntary testimony pursuant to the letter. 

Mr. Meters. That is not a privilege. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 339 

The Chairman. Or the opportunity. 

Or with regard to the opportunity ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Meyers. That is right. 

Mrs. Langford. For my client it is not an opportunity. 

The Chairman. Well, let us put it this way. Everyone as I now 
understand, except the attorney for Dr. Stamler, is requesting that the 
executive sessions be conducted relating to the testimony of any witness 
who might give evidence that might be derogatory or defamatory, but 
except for Dr. Stamler's attorney, no one wants to appear before the 
committee pursuant to the letter, voluntarily to appear, that is, to give 
testimony. 

Mrs. Langford. Exception. We do not certainly want to enter into 
a play on words here. The fact is that these persons were subpenaed. 

The Chairman. Now I am not tiying to play on words. 

Mrs. Langford. I do not mean to say that you are. No, there is 
some misunderstanding. I am a fellow lawyer, as you, and I only 
suggest that, insofar as this may be an opportunity, we don't deem it 
to be one, and, in terms of safeguarding the well-being of our clients, 
we state that we are here pursuant to subpena only. There was no 
invitation extended us. 

The Chairman. Well, I think you and I are in complete agreement 
and I will restate it again. That except for Dr. Stamler's attorney, the 
several requests or motions made are to the effect that it is the desire 
for the respective clients that the testimony of any third-party witness 
naming their clients be taken in executive session, but that, except for 
Dr. Stamler's attorney, no one is now asking for the privilege volun- 
tarily to appear pursuant to the letters that have been written. 

I used the words "voluntarily to appear" because that is the wording 
of the rule of the House, Rule XI, 26 (m) . You cannot play on words 
there, we must use those words. 

Mr. Cohen. Mr. Chairman, my lawyer is not here. He had an im- 
portant case. I am not clear on the legal questions involved. I am not 
clear what the legal questions are. I am not so certain I don't want to 
associate myself with Mr. Sullivan's approach. I don't know. I have 
to consult my lawyer. 

The Chairman. What is your name ? 

Mr. Cohen. Milton Cohen. My lawyer sent a letter here ; he had a 
previous deposition to take from New York and he is busy. This hap- 
pened months before my subpena came, and I am without legal counsel 
to determine. 

The Chairman. Well, what is your name again ? 

Mr. Cohen. Milton Cohen. 

The Chairman. Well, Mr. Cohen, we received a letter; you brought 
it up from attorney Mr. Richard Orlikoff, delivered to the committee 
quite shortly before this morning's opening session, saying that he had 
to be engaged in the taking of a deposition in a certain case and asking 
that you not appear until 2 o'clock tomorrow afternoon. 

Mr. Cohen. Yes. 

The Chairman. That is the substance of what your lawyer said. We 
considered this request in a matter of minutes and we had understood 
that your lawyer was outside to receive our decision, but unfortunately 
he had left. 

I am glad, very much so, that you did appear this morning because 
part of our decision, in substance, was that after communicating with 



340 COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

liim — we have not had an opportunity to do that yet — we would con- 
sider his request, but that, however, we woukl insist tliat you be per- 
sonally here and respond to the subpena. 

Mr. CoiiEx. I am. 

The Chairman". So the committee will make a resolution on the re- 
quest for you not to appear until tomorrow afternoon at 2 'clock and 
we will conmimiicate with your lawyer, at least we will try. I would 
hope that he comuuuiicates with us. He gave us a letter and he left ; 
he didn't wait for a reply. 

Mr. CoHEN". Before I make clear what my request is about executive 
session I have to consult my lawyer. You f)ut two questions to Mr. 
Sullivan 

The Chairman. Well, let me put it this way. I am not tlie one 
who invited you to join; you got up here a while ago and you were 
joining in. 

Mr. CoHEX. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, I understand you want to withdraw that ? 

Mr. Cohen. No, I don't want to withdraw. 

The Chairman. Well, what do you want to do ? 

Mr. Cohen. "Well, I need legal counsel to determine whether my 
position is exactly like the one Mr. Sullivan presented. 

The Chairman. Will you please see to it that your lawyer contacts 
us sometime today ? 

Mr. Cohen. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman, All right. 

Mr. Sullivan. Mr. Chairman, perhaps this matter could be clari- 
fied, because I am not certain that Your Honor has stated accurately 
my position. You kept saying '"except the attorney for Dr. Stamler,"' 
and that troubled me because 

The Chairman. Well, to remove finy trouble if I can, I understood 
your request for your motion to be twofold: (1) That you desired 
the testimony of all the witnesses who might make derogatory or de- 
famatory statements concerning your client to be taken in executive 
session, and (2) that your client himself wanted to testify in executive 
session. 

Mr. Sullivan. I don't think that you ha^-e accurately stated either 
of my requests, and it is perhaps because of my failure to articulate 
them properly. My requests are as follows : 

The first one concerning the testimoii}^ of witnesses other than Dr. 
Stamler and Mrs. Hall is this : I ask that any testimony or evidence 
about Mrs. Hall or Dr. Stamler, whetlier or not derogatory', whether or 
not you consider it defamatory, be taken in executive session. 

The Chairman. I am a lawyer to that extent. 

Mr. Sullivan. The second request is the one I think the major clari- 
fication is necessary. 

The Chairman. You mean I have 

]Mr. Sullivan. You are just trying to clarify my position. 

My second request. Your Honor, Is tliat any interrogatories put to 
my clients, Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler, be put to them in executive 
session. Whether or not they will respond to those interrogatories is a 
matter that their counsel will have to determine if and when interroga- 
tories are put. 

I might add. Chairman Willis, that I am not personal counsel for 
these i>eople. Mr. .Tenner is, and he is in Xew York today. As I told 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 341 

your counsel yesterday, he will not return until tomorrow afternoon. 

I have a supplemental request when you get to these people, that 
you postpone asking- them any questions until their personal counsel is 
here. 

The Chairman. I am sorry, I missed the last part. 

Mr. Sullivan. Do you want me to repeat it ? 

The Chairman. Well, yes. I understand you don't want a rul- 
ing now ; you want to wait until the attorney comes back. Is that what 
you have in mind {* 

Mr. SuLLR^AN. No, no, no. As to witnesses other than Dr. Stamler 
and Mrs. Hall, I ask for an immediate ruling on my request that any 
testimony concerning Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall be taken in executive 
session. 

The Chairman. Say that agam. 

Mr. Sullivan. I ask that the committee take any testunony coii- 
cernmg Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler in executive session, and I ask that 
you determine my request now ; that is, rule on it now. 

As to the testimony of Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall themselves. I ask 
that any mterrogatories that are going to be put to them be put to 
them in executive session. I also ask that such interrogatories be post- 
poned until Mr. Jenner returns to the city. Owing to a prior commit- 
ment, he is in New York today and he will return tomorrow afternoon, 
he thinks, and for certain on Thursday. We have no desire to delay 
the proceedings, but these clients M'ish to have their personal lawj^er 
present at the time Your Honors put your interrogatories to them. 

The Chairman. So it is in the nature of a third request ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes. 

The Chairman. For the time being — of the taking of the hearing'^ 

Mr. Sullivan. That is correct, putting of the questions, as I say. 
I do not want to mislead you. I am not saying to this committee that 
either of these people is going to give any testimony. This will depend 
upon the advice of their counsel, ]\Ir. Jenner, at the time the inter- 
rogation is conducted and you make this decision at the appropriate 
tmie. 

The CHAiR:NrAN. All right. 

This subcommittee has already determined in the light of the rules 
of the House and of this committee that these hearings shall be con- 
ducted in public session. 

As part of this determination, the subcommittee has heard in execu- 
tive sessions, in compliance with rule 26 (m), evidence and testimony 
of witnesses who might give defamatory evidence concerning any per- 
son, including all the witnesses who have been subpenaed here. 

As further part of this determination and further in compliance 
with rule 26 (m) , this subcommittee has given notice by sending letters 
to all persons, including the subpenaed witnesses, that such defamatory 
evidence has been received in executive sessions and giving an oppor- 
tunity to them voluntarily to appear before this subcommittee. 

As to this notice and letter, I have already stated this morning that 
no such person has requested voluntarily to appear or has e-en com- 
mimicated with the subcommittee in any way concerning the letter or 
this House ruling. 

Now, Mr. Sullivan, so much for your request that witnesses naming 
your clients be heard now in executive session. In other words, that 
part of your request is overruled. 



342 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

As to your other request just made, if you have any reasons to 
advance for your clients to be heard in executive session, I will hear 
them now. 

Mr. Meters. Mhj I follow him in respect to my client ? I have rea- 
sons to offer. 

Mr. Sullivan. Before I start, may I give you a letter that Mr. 
Jenner asked me to transmit to you explaining his prior commit- 
ment? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

(Letter handed to Mr. Willis by Mr. Sullivan. The letter follows :) 



LAW orncES 

Raymond. Mayer, Jenner & Block 

I3S SOUTH LA SALLE STHEET 

CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60603 



May 24, 1965 



Hon. Edwin E. Willis 

Chairman, Committee on Un-American 

Activities of the United States 

House of Representatives 
1212 Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 

Honorable Sir: 

I am personal counsel for Jeremiah Stamler, M.D. and 
Yolanda F. Hall, whfe have received subpoenaes to appear before 
your Committee on Tuesday, May 25, I965 at 10:30 A.M. Because 
I am required to leave Chicago by air for New York City at 
10:00 A.M. on May 25, I965, to fulfill a prior professional 
commitment, that will keep me in New York City throughout the 
day and Into the evening, and possibly also into the following 
day, Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler will be accompanied to the hear- 
ings before your Committee at the time specified in your sub- 
poenaes, by my partner Thomas P. Sullivan, Esq. Understandably, 
my clients desire, however, that I personally be present when 
they are called to testify bir the Committee. Furthermore, my 
professional commitments to them are compelling in that regard. 

Accordingly, I request in their behalf and personally 
a postponement of the taking of testimony with respect to or 
putting any questions to Dr. Stamler or Mrs. Hall to Thursday, 
M&y 27th, or at worst to the afternoon of May 26th so as to 
enable me to be present. I am confident I will have returned to 
Chicaigo by Thursday, May 27, 1965, and perhaps, although uncertainly, 
by the afternoon of Wednesday, May 26, I965. 

In addition to the foregoing, I submit the following requests 
on behalf of my clients: 

1. That I be provided with a copy of whatever resolutions 
or statements were adopted or made by the House of Representatives 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 343 



Hon. Edwin E. Willis 

Page 2 

May 24, 1965 



or the Committee, or any member thereof, as to the purpose 
or purview of the hearings to be conducted In Chicago on 
May 25-27, 1965, and any other like Information; 

2. That under Committee Rule 26(m) , that the 
hearings regarding or in which you contemplate my clients 
may participate be held in executive session, closed to the 
public, and that no television or radio coverage or broad- 
casting be pennitted of or with respect to my clients at 
any place or time inside the Court of Appeals Building at 
1212 Lake Shore Drive where your Committee sessions are to 
be held; 

3. That at the outset of the executive session, I 
be afforded an opportunity to cross examine any and all per- 
sons who (i) have given information to the Committee regard- 
ing either of my clients, or (ii) released the names of the 
persons to be subpoenaed before the current session of the 
Committee, in violation of Committee Rule XVI; and 

h. That I be provided with the transcript of the 
testimony of Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall. 




AEJthw Albert E. Jenner, Jr. 



Mr. Anglin. I wonder if there will be a recess here for lunch? 
Some of us have been here since 9 this morning with no facilities. 

Mr. Sullivan. May I proceed ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Sullivan. Dr. Jeremiah Stamler is a very renowned person 
in the city of Chicago. He has been licensed to practice medicine 
since 1948 and he is, and has for some years been, the executive di- 
rector of the Chicago Health Research Foundation. He is the West- 
ern Hemisphere editor of the Jour-nal of Atkei'osclerosu [Eesearch]. 
He is, and has for some years also been, the director of the Division of 
Adult Health and Education and the director of the Heart Disease 
Control Program of the Chicago Board of Health. Dr. Stamler's 
reputation is established not only in Chicago, but throughout the 
world, in the field of medical research of heart disease and related 
subjects. He is the author of many scientific works and several books 
in the area of this specialty. He is a man, in other words, whose public 
position renders him particularly sensitive to the kind of publicity that 
has preceded these hearings in which 

The Chairman. Will you come to reasons that have semblance to 
be argued, if any ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I was attempting to get to them. Chairman Willis. 

May I now speak about Mrs. Hall ? 

Mrs. Hall also holds a master of science degree from the Depart- 
ment of Home Economics, Institute of Technology in Illinois. She 
is, and has been for some years, a research nutritionist for the [Heart] 
52-810—66 — pt. 1 1 



344 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Disease Control Program of tlie Chicago Board of Health and the 
Chicago Health Research Foundation. She, too, is an established, 
renoAvned person in her field of expertise. 

Both these persons have been subpenaed before this committee. 
Their names were released by someone, presumably from this com- 
mittee, to the press. 

The Chairman. Please. At this point you are not really entitled 
to indulge in this presumption, and I want to nail it down at this 
point. 

Rule XVI of the committee forbids any member of the committee 
and any member of the staff to reveal the name of any witness until 
the date of his appearance. This rule has been respected over the 
years. [Laughter.] It has never been violated. In this specific 
instance, I assert as a fact that no member of this conunittee revealed 
the name of any single subpenaed witness and no member of the staff 
has done it. If a staff member would do it, or has done it, that person 
would be fired in 5 minutes. 

And I might add no process server, no one serving these witnesses — 
who are they? Marshals and others of liigh reputation — no process 
server has disclosed those names. So neither this committee nor its 
staff' has anything to do with that. 

Xow how those things leak out, I don't know. 

Mr. Sullivan. Mr. Chairman, neither of us can know how the 
names were released ; we can only draw inferences from the facts that 
we do know. I therefore stand on my statement. 

The Chairman. One of your reasons is that the leaking of his 
name • 

Mr, Sullivan. Look, his picture appears in the Daily News. 

The Chairjman. Your reasons now. 

Mr. Sullivan. I am giving them. 

The Chairman. All right. One reason is that because his name was 
disclosed as a subpenaed witness. 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Sullivan. The mere fact that a person, be he a man of eminence 
like Dr. Stamler or just an ordinary citizen, is subpenaed before this 
committee is itself, in the minds of many citizens, unfortunate. 

The Chairman. I thought you had jowt argument. Please get 
to the reasons. 

]\Ir. Sullivan. I am now stating the reasons. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Sullivan. I submit and suggest that in light of the public 
nature of the work that these people are doing, tliey are renowned in 
their field, the advanced publicity that has been given to these liearings 
and the publicity that now exists in this room with television cameras, 
radio, and other means of communication, that any testimony, either 
by these people or about them, will be broadcast throughout this coun- 
try and perhaps throughout the world and will necessarily, in the 
minds of many people, be derogatory to them and defame them. 

I cannot know what the witnesses are going to say about these people, 
if they are going to say anything about them. But if there is really 
an honest effort here to protect the good names of people subpenaed 
before this committee, then I submit this committee would hold all 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 345 

these hearings in executive session to protect the names of good people 
until they are brotight before a court pursuant to a proper indictment. 
That is my position, Mr. Willis. 

The Chaikman. Thank you very much. [Applause.] 
I will not tolerate demonstrations. 

Mr. Meyers. Mr. Chairman, my name is Irving Meyers. On behalf 
of Wilberforce Jones, I should like to offer a reason for the setting- 
aside of the ruling you made which denied him 

The Chairman. No. 

Mr. Meyers. I have a reason. 

The Chairman". No. The ruling is made. 

Mr. Meyers. You asked for reasons. 

The Chairman. If you want to 

Mr. Meyers. You asked for a reason, and I have a reason. 
The Chairman. No, no. 

Mr. Meyers. The very statement, you said you received defamatory 
information in regard to persons to whom you addressed the privilege, 
if yoit please, of coming before your committee to make voluntary 
statements. 

The Chairman. Yes ; and do you know why ? To deny, to explain, 
to affirm, to confirm, to repudiate ; and if that had been done possibly it 
would be a different direction, I don't know. 
Mr. Meyers. If, in fact, you did get this defamatory information 

in a- 

The Chairman. I am not going to listen to this. 
Mr. Meyers. I see no reason for repeating it here for that reason. 
The Chairman. All right. [Applause.] 

]Miss Ha.rt. Mr. Chairman, Miss Hart speaking again on behalf of 
Wilson and Diskin. I think I understood from the remarks of the 
ctiairman that these witnesses who are now testifying and will testify 
later have already been heard in executive session. If I understood 
the chairman correctly, then may I ask why they are now repeating 
the testimony which you heard in executive session and with which 
you are thoroughly familiar? [Applause.] 

The Chairman. Well, in the first place, I understood you to say a 
wliile ago that you had 50 years' experience, and I hope that you pre- 
pare your case before you go to court. 
Miss Hart. I usually do. 

The Chairman. This is part of the committee procedure, and it is in 
the name of trying to be careftil and trying to separate the wheat from 
the chaff' and trying to put on the record honest testimony under oath. 
By the way, the witnesses who will testify will all be under oatli 
and if your clients or anybody else's clients would challenge it, then I 
would be willing to have someone — if obvious to the committee — sub- 
ject to perjury. If it is contradictory, I M'ill send both to the Depart- 
ment of Justice to determine it. 

Miss Hart. May we have the right to cross-examine ? 
The Chairman. Pardon ? 

^liss Hart. May we have the right to cross-examine these witnesses ? 
The Chairman. This is not a court, procedure and you Ivuow it. 
[Laughter.] 

Mrs. Langford. I again am Anna R. Langford. On behalf of my 
client, ]Mrs. Jennings, in view of the fact that these House Un-Amer- 



346 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

ican investigations violate every procedural and substantive safe- 
guard of our judicial system which we hold so dear, I also join in tliis 
motion and ask and demand that these sessions be in executive session. 
[Applause.] 

The Chairinian. I am perfectly willing to listen to reasons, but it 
seems to me a local judge yesterday did not agree with you. 

Mr. Anglin. Miss Hart is very dear to us, having taught many of 
us in law school. 

The Chairman. I want reasons. 

Mr. Anglin. I have a reason. 

The Chairman. Your reason is because she is a good person and 

Mr. Anglin. She is learned in the law and has taught many of us 
here in Chicago, and we respect her judgments as to the opportunity 
of cross-examniation, of a full opportunity for people to be heard in 
a court, and for testimony not to be repeated. 

The Chairman. You are not giving reasons. 

Mr. Anglin. We are debating reasons here. 

The Chairman. Now let me say, it is not very difficult to know from 
the Chair here, for the members to know, who the leaders of demon- 
strations are. I said a while ago that we expected cooperation and 
that includes the young men back there. We don't want any demon- 
strations and demonstrations will mean, ultimately, not having with 
us our guests who we would hope would remain throughout. 

The committee will adjourn for a few minutes to rule on the latest 
request. [Laughter.] 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The subcommittee considered the reasons of all attorneys who asked 
for executive session and unanimously is of the opinion and voted 
that we see no reason whatsoever for departing from the general 
Rules of the House of Representatives and of the committee that all 
hearings conducted by standing committees or their subcommittees 
shall be open to the public except executive sessions for marking up 
bills or for voting or where the committee, by majority vote, orders 
an executive session. We have ordered that exactly. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, you are ignoring the Yellin case. 

The Chairman. I am ruling, and this is it. Sometimes the great 
hue and cry we hear is that hearings in executive hearings are star- 
chamber proceedings and what have you, and at other times we hear 
that public hearings go the other way. We are following the rules of 
the House, and all of the several requests on behalf of all the attor- 
neys and all the clients we have heard from are overruled. 

The committee stands adjourned until 2 :30. 

(Whereupon, at 1 :18 p.m., Tuesday, May 25, 1965, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 :30 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, MAY 25, 1965 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2:55 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Clawson.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 347 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 
Counsel, proceed with the questioning of the witness. 
Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman 

TESTIMONY OF LOLA BELLE HOLMES— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, at the time the committee recessed 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman, may I ask 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, at the time the committee recessed 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. NiTTLE. — you were advising the committee 

The Chairman. We will proceed. 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. We will proceed. The Chair will not recognize 
anybody, and w^e are not going to be interrupted by counsel or people 
from the audience one at a time. That is my ruling. 

Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes 



Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. NiTTLE. — we were relating, at the time of recess, those units 
to which you belonged in the Communist Party. Were you a member 
of the Negro Commission of the Communist Party for the State of 
Illinois? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend meetings of the Industrial Commission 
of the Communist Party for the State of Illinois ? 

Miss Holmes. I attended the meetings of the Industrial Commission 
very briefly and then I was taken out of the Industrial Commission 
after the caucus of the Negro American Labor Council was established, 
a Communist Party caucus for the Negro American Labor Council. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will go into more detail with respect to that later. 

At this point we want to establish those positions that you have 
held in the Communist Party. 

Were you also a member of the Press Committee of the Commmiist 
Party for the State of Illinois ? 

Miss Holmes. I was press director of The Worker, the Communist 
Party, State of Illinois, until I became national vice president of 
the Negro American Labor Council, the position which was taken 
from me after I was elected national vice president. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period of your membership in the Commu- 
nist Party, did any major change occur in the party organizational 
structure ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes; there was a structural change in the section 
committee of the Communist Party. The sections were eliminated 
and the party operated on a club and commission basis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did that change take place ? 

Miss Holmes. That change took place about the first nart of 1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were there any other major changes in the Commun- 
ist Partv structure ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. Some of the miscellaneous clubs were elimi- 
nated such as the Legal Club and a few of the machinist clubs. 



348 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NrrrLE. Were there any major changes resulting from, or tak- 
ing place following, the decision of the United States Supreme Court 
of June 1961 in the Commiuiist Party case ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. After the Supreme Court ordered the Com- 
munist Party to register its membership and register it as a subver- 
sive organization, there was the complete changing of the structure of 
the Communist Party. As I said before, the section structure was 
dissolved. The State committee of the Communist Party was divided 
into three parts : North, South, and West. The executive* board, which 
was a 15-man board, was dissolved at that time and an 8-man board 
was appointed by the so-called staff of the Communist Party, Sam 
Kushner, Flo Hail, and Claude Lightfoot. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will go into more detail with respect to those 
changes at a later point. 

Now, you mentioned that you were assigned to the Needle Club 
upon your recruitment in the Communist Party in 1957. What is the 
next highest echelon in the hierarchy of the Communist Party '. 

Miss Holmes. The Communist Party has a five-man staff which 
gives directives to the executive board and the State committee. 

Mr. Anglix. Mr. Chairman, I have a matter of some importance. 

The Chairmais'. Counsel will proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes 

Mr. Anglin. May I address the Chair? 

The Chairman. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, you have told us that these clubs or 
cells 

Mr. Anglin". Mr. Chairman 

Mr. NiTTLE. — were the lowest echelon of the Communist Party? 

Miss HoLisiEs. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now is the next highest body known as a section ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. The next highest body was known as a section, 
but the sections were dissolved for security reasons, as well as for 
convenience reasons, after Flo Hall became Communist Party orga- 
nizer. 

After Jim West was sent to prison under the McCarran Act, Flo 
Hall became head of the Communist Party of Illinois. She tlien 
recommended certain changes in the structure for convenience reasons 
and, of course, those changes were brought about which eliminated 
the section stiTicture. Then they operated at the club level and the 
commission level. 

Mr. Anglin. May I address the Chair ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now let us discuss the Communist Party structure 
as you knew it in 1960. 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Was the party operating on a club-section basis? 

Miss Holmes. Before the party changed its structure, prior to that, 
in 1960 it operated on a sectional basis. 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman, we have a matter of seating in this 
auditorium. 

The CiiATRistAN. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Anglin. May I address the Chair ? 

The Chairman. Proceed. We have seating problems at everv hear- 
ing. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 349 

Mr. Anglin. I understand 



The ChatrmajST. Proceed, Counsel. 

Let me say that this morninjo: because a broad question was involved 
affecting the rights of witnesses, people who might be named by these 
witnesses, the Chair was ver^^ careful to supply the rules of the House 
and of this committee. That has been clone and the Chair will not 
recognize anybody and, in fact, will not tolerate anybody jumping up 
to ask questions. When attorneys are involved in this instance who 
will represent clients, then when their clients are called we will come 
to those problems. There will be order in this Federal courtroom. 

Mr. Marshal, you will understand that under my instructions and 
the instructions of Judge Campbell, you are authorized and directed 
to maintain decorum in this courtroom. That we will have; that we 
must have. 

Mr. Anglin. May I address the Chair at the suggestion of the 
marshal ? 

The CHAiRMAisr. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, was the Needle Club a part of the Wagen- 
knecht Section of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. the Wagenknecht Section, which was an mdus- 
trial section, was composed of six industrial clubs. The clubs other 
than the Needle Club were the Machinist Club, Printers Club, Builders 
Trade Club, the Railroad Club, and the Teamsters Club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were there other sections incorporated under the In- 
dustrial Commission of the Communist Party? 

]Miss Hol:3ies. Yes, there were five other sections which also operated 
under the Industrial Commission of the Communist Party State orga- 
nization. They were the Steel Section; the United Auto Workers 
Section ; the Packinghouse Workers Section ; the Mine, Mill and Smel- 
ter Workers Section ; and the United Electrical Workers Section. 

There were numerous other sections such as Albany Park Section, 
Southeast Section, Leiber Section, South Chicago Section, West Side 
Section, Southwest Section, Hyde Park Section, South Side Section, 
Hansbrough Section, Joluistone Section, Loop Section, 9th Congres- 
sional District Section, 12th Congressional District Section, and the 
13th Congressional District Section. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now did each of these sections have attached to them 
a number of clubs ? 

]Miss Holmes. Each section was broken up into clubs. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "\"\niat was the function of a section in the party 
structure? 

Miss Holmes. A section was composed of the various clubs and 
whatever industry or organization these particular groups come from. 
Clubs composed the section. Each club had a chairman which once a 
month met to decide on party policy and strategy and discussed the 
Communist Party organization as to how it would infiltrate, agitate, 
and recruit its political position in an election — city. State, and 
national. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How were the affairs of the clubs coordinated and ad- 
ministered ? Was that through a section committee ? 

Miss Holmes. It was administered through a section committee. 
Over these were the Industrial Commission, the Negro Commission, 
the Educational Commission, the Youth Commission, all of the various 
commissions, which were five. 



350 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Each club had a chairman who was a member of the section commit- 
tee, which, as I said before, met once a month ; decided on party policy ; 
was given instructions by the party staff, party committees. Then the 
chairman went back into the club and reported party policy to the 
club members to be carried out in whatever organization, or any trade 
union or shop, that the particular person operated in. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have, in addition to the sections, certain other 
groups; for example, the nationality group and the professional 
group ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. The party was also divided up into nationality 
groups which did not meet with the industrial section or the Industrial 
Commission or professionals who were serviced by party staff for 
security reasons. They did not come into section or commission 
meetings. 

Party officers or staff met with these people for security reasons in 
private such as doctors, lawyers, teachers, preachers, and other leader- 
ship public officials. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that if I understand you correctly, the professional 
members of the Communist Party were contacted directly by the top 
State officers? 

Miss Holmes. By top State officers or national officers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And had no commmiication on the section or club 
level? 

Miss Holmes. No. This was for security reasons. These were 
the professional people or politicians, doctors, lawyers, teachers, 
preachers, and what-not. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you as a State board member and a State committee 
member have any access to the professional group ? 

Miss Holmes. Very little. A^ery little. I worked mostly in the 
Trade Union or Industrial Commission because I was in the trade 
union. I worked mostly in the Trade Union, or in the Industrial, and 
Negro Commission; very little in the Industrial Commission after I 
became active in the Negro American Labor Council. 

I was assigned directly to the Negro Commission. As a matter of 
fact, I asked for that assignment because I was interested in the civil 
rights movement and the Negro liberation. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Holmes, I have before me a copy of a document 
entitled "Bv-Laws" which I have marked for identification as "Holmes 
Exhibit No. 1." 

Would you identify that, please, as to the source of the document? 

Miss Holmes. This is the bylaws of the Communist Party for the 
State of Illinois. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you recollect when and where you received that? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. The bylaws of the Communist Party of the 
State of Illinois was distributed to the State committee members after 
the 1959-60 Illinois election of officers of the Communist Party of 
Illinois. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, when you were first assigned to the Needle Club 
of the Communist Party upon your induction, what provision was 
made for you to learn Commimist or Marxist-Leninist theory? 

Miss PIoLMES. I was appointed to the educational committee of 
the Wagenknecht Section for Marxism-Leninism trainins:. 



COOVIMIJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 351 

Mr. NiTTLE. There was a section school that was maintained by the 
party ; do I understand you correctly ? 

Miss Holmes, There was not directly a section school. The party 
had its Marxism-Leninism classes and each section designated cadre 
party members for training. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend such schools ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you also attend the Chicago School of Social 
Science ? 

Miss Holmes. I attended the Chicago School of Social Science after 
the Marxism-Leninism classes were changed from Marxism-Leninism 
classes for security reasons to the Chicago School of Social Science. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did the Chicago School of Social Science hold 
its classes ? 

Miss Holmes. The first classes of the Chicago School of Social 
Science were held in Milda Hall on Halsted Street but then it was 
changed to 333 West North Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is the Chicago School of Social Science operated and 
controlled by the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; it definitely is, or was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what way was this control exercised? 

Miss Holmes. The Communist Party designated what subjects it 
wished its cadre trainees, new party leaders, to study. The literature 
or the books or the material was selected from the Chicago School of 
Social Science and brought into the classes by the instructors who were 
appointed by the party as instructors for these classes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us briefly what subjects were taught at 
the Chicago School of Social Science? 

Miss Holmes. Historical materialism, political economy, political 
science, fundamentals of ISfarxism-Leninism, and there were a few 
others that I don't remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were among your instructors at this school? 

Miss Holmes. Lou Diskin, Mike Saunders, Flo Hall, a few classes 
before Jim West went to prison, Claude Lightfoot, and Dave 
Englestein. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any guest lecturers or instinictors outside 
the Illinois party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. Sometimes we did have lecturers or instructors 
such as Hy Lumer, Victor Perlo, Herb Aptheker, and a few other of 
the nationally known Communist leaders which I don't remember at 
the moment. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Would you identify Hyman Lumer ? 

Miss Holmes. Hyman Lumer was an outstanding party member 
from New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And would you identify'' Victor Perlo? 

Miss Holmes. Victor Perlo was vei-y high in the party, high from 
New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Herbert Aptheker? 

Miss Holmes. Herb Aptheker was the editor of the Political Af- 
faivH of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He was not attached, however, to the Illinois District; 
isthatrisht? 



352 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

]Miss Holmes. No ; from New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you also in struct ed by Irvino; Potash ? 

Miss Holmes. Irving Potash was a lecturer once or twice to some of 
the forums that were held. He was never an instructor in the Chicago 
School of Social Science. He was brought in to Chicago by the Chicago 
School of Social Science for perhaps lectures. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Were you instructed also by Carl Winter? 

Miss Holmes. Carl Winter was invited in for lectures and forums 
that were held by the Chicago School of Social Science. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was Carl Winter ? 

Miss Holmes, Carl Winter is the Communist Party leader from 
Detroit, Michigan. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was required of members of the Communist Party 
in the Chicago area to attend the Chicago School of Social Science? 

Miss Holmes. The requirement is that you must be a dedicated 
Communist, you must be interested in advancing to leadership of the 
Communist Party. You must be interested in learning JNIarxism- 
Leninism, the theory of Marxism-Leninism. You must be interested 
in the indoctrination of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Were nonmembers of the Communist Party also in 
attendance at the school ? 

Miss Holmes. No ; not that I know of ; never. This would have been 
a violation of the security risk. Communism was interested in Com- 
munist leadership. 

The Chairman. By security risk, you mean fear of detection? 

jNIiss Holmes. Yes. 

^Ir. NiTTLE, Now, in addition to the operation of such schools as the 
Chicago School of Social Science, did the Communist Party have 
other means of indoctrinating party members in Marxism-Leninism ? 

Miss Holmes, Yes, Through the distribution, through forums and 
lectures, symposiums. They were trying to infiltrate the church as 
well as other civil rights organizations, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, I am referring now to indoctrination in the 
Marxist-Leninist theory. 

Let me ask you whether at the club level you had educational officers 
of some kind and whether you had them at the section level as well. 

Miss Holmes. Yes. We had educational committees. We had press 
directors which led discussions in club meetings. We had press com- 
mittees. 

Mr. Nittle. You mentioned that you were on the educational com- 
mittee of the Wagenknecht Section. What was the function of the 
educational committee ? 

Miss Holmes. The educational committee was for preparing Marx- 
ism-Leninism classes, literature, distribution of literature, indoctrinat- 
ing party members or nonparty members, if possible, along Marxism- 
Leninism theories. 

Mr. NiTTLE. From whom did the educational committee of the 
Wagenknecht Section receive its direction or guidance? 

Miss Holmes. From the pafty staff, which was the highest body of 
the Communist Party. 

]\Ir. Nittle, Is the party staff also known as the executive commit- 
tee of the State board ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 353 

Miss Holmes. No. The party staff is a smaller group of perhaps 
ioiir or five members which gives directions and instructions to the 
State committee and the board and the commissions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Otto Wangerin a member of the educational com- 
mittee of the Wagenknecht Section 'i 

Miss Holmes. Yes; he was when I was with the educational com- 
mittee. 

Mr. N"iTTLE. Was Milton Cohen a member of that educational com- 
mittee ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, he was. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you serve on the State Education Commission of 
the Communist Party at any time ? 

Miss Holmes. No; I did not serve on the State Education Commis- 
sion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us by whom the operation of the Chicago 
School of Social Science was controlled and directed ? 

Miss Holmes. The Chicago School of Social Science was controlled 
and directed by the Communist Party of Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Education Commission of the party for the 
State of Illinois have any part in directing the activities of this 
school ? 

Miss HoLiNiES. They planned and selected the subjects that were to 
be taught by each instructor. 

Mr. NrPTLE. Now, did the State Education Commission control and 
direct any other unit or facility of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. The distribution of literature, the sale of literature, 
and the press. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom was the Modern Book Store operated? 

Miss Holmes. Otto Wangerin, a Communist Party member. Rail- 
road Club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what function the Modern Book 
Store serves? 

Miss Holmes. The Modern Book Store serves the function, as I 
said before, of preparing literature, material for Marxist-Leninist 
training, ordering material from various countries which are Com- 
munist controlled to bring it to the United States to be distributed 
for propaganda purposes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the Modern Book Store furnish materials for use 
by the clubs and other units of the Communist Party in its schools? 

Miss Holmes. It does. At each club meeting, each party meeting, 
each Chicago School of Social Science meeting, at each affair that the 
Communist Party gives, the IModern Book Store furnishes literature, 
material, books. Whatever type of written material that the Com- 
munist Party wishes to have for propaganda purposes, the Modern 
Book Store has it available. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliere is the Modern Book Store located ? 

Miss Holmes. .54 West Chicago Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is at the present time ? 

Miss Holmes. As far as I know. It was the latter part of 19G2; 
tliat is when I severed my connection with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Ntttle. Is there any relationship between the Modern Book 
Store and the Chicago School of Social Science ? 



354 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Miss Holmes. The Modern Book Store furnishes all the material 
for the Chicago School of Social Science for Marxism-Leninism 
training. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the present time, is there any control or sponsor- 
ship exercised by the Modern Book Store over the so-called Chicago 
School of Social Science ? 

Miss Holmes As I said, the last time I attended a class of the 
Chicago School of Social Science was in October 1962. At that time, 
the Modern Book Store and the Chicago School of Social Science was 
one and the same. Party activities were directed into the Chicago 
School of Social Science through the Modem Book Store. 

Mr. NiTTLE . Now, I believe you testified that the section committee 
was composed of the chairmen of various clubs. 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A section committee member is in a position of lead- 
ership ; is he not ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What function does he serve in section committee 
meetings ? 

Miss Holmes. Section committee meetings are composed of club 
chairmen of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, then, please, who were the members 
of the Wagenknecht Section of the Communist Party in the State of 
Illinois? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. Before the Wagenknecht Section was dis- 
solved, Otto Wangerin was chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you spell that ? 

Miss Holmes. 0-t-t-o W-a-n-g-e-r-i-n. 

Gertrude McBain was secretary-treasurer. Mike Saunders of the 
Teamsters Union came in later. Joe Zawadowski from the Machinist 
Club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Please spell that. 

Miss Holmes. Z-a-w-a-d-o-w-s-k-i. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is to help the reporter. 

Miss Holmes. I see. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our official reporter must get that down. 

Miss Holmes. Francis McBain of the Machinist Club; Harry Can- 
tor, Printers Club; Lou Diskin, Builders Trade; Bernard Angert 

Mr. NiTTLE. A-n-g-e-r-t? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Proceed. 

Miss Holmes. Charles Sotis, Machinist Club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. S-0-t-i-s? 

Miss Holmes. Right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You testified that the section committee, I believe, met 
once monthly ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes; the section had meetings once a month of the 
club chairaien. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to regular meetings of that kind, did the 
section also meet in convention ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; we had a convention once a year. 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 355 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you attended a convention of the Wagenknecht 
Section? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. I was a delegate to the Wagenknecht Section 
in 1959, in October. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where was this convention held ? 

Miss Holmes. It was held in Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of this section convention ? 

Miss Holmes. The section convention was held to prepare resolu- 
tions to be presented to the State convention. It was also held to 
elect delegates from the section to the State con venti on . 

Mr. NiTTLE. As to the selection of delegates by the section conven- 
tion who were the representatives of your group in the State con- 
vention, was that a free choice of the membership ? 

Miss Holmes. If you mean by free choice nominations and ballot- 
ing, to my way of thinking it was not a free choice. The delegates 
that were to represent the section in the coming convention was 
planned before we went into the convention; therefore, we had no 
fight to get them elected. If that is called a free election, then okay, 
but to my way of thinking, it was not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you appointed a delegate to the State convention ? 

Miss Holmes. I was elected through a maneuvering to become a 
delegate to the State convention. That is why I say it was not a free 
election. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, in preparation for your attendance at the State 
convention as a delegate, did the section make any studies or prepare 
any resolutions or documents? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. We prepared resolutions to be presented to the 
State convention, but the resolutions were not accepted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, I have marked for identification a num- 
ber of documents marked "Holmes Exhibit No. 2'' and ''Holmes Ex- 
hibits Nos. 2-A to 2-G," inclusive. 

Were these distriliuted to you at the section convention prior to the 
State convention ? 

Miss Holmes. Holmes Exhibit No. 2 was a plan called the Con- 
vention Preparations, which we were to study in our clubs to prepare 
for entering into the State convention and subsequently to the na- 
tional convention. 

Exhibit No. 2-A was a document prepared for study and proposals 
going into the section convention and recommendations to be presented 
to the State convention. 

Exhibit 2-B, "No. 1, October 1959, The Party Forum, Illinois Pre- 
'Convention Discussion Bulletin." This was prepared to be presented 
to the clubs for discussion to prepare for entering the State convention 
and the national convention of the Communist Party. 

Exhibit 2-C, "Illinois State Convention — November, 1959, Draft 
Hesolution on the Party Organization" between the 16th and 17th 
'Conventions. This document was prepared on party work for dis- 
•cussion at a State convention preparatory to going into the national 
convention. 

Exhibit No. 2-E. The Illinois State Committee presented this 
draft, the main line of which was approved. It is the "Illinois Po- 



356 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

litical Kesolution" preparatory to going into the State convention 
and subsequently the national convention. 

Exhibit No. 2-F is "Illinois Draft Resolution on the Negro Ques- 
tion," the theoretical aspect of the Negro question prepared for going 
into the State convention and the national convention. 
The Chairman. What was that exhibit number ? 
Mr.NiTTLE. 2-F. 

Miss Holmes. "Preconvention Discussion," No. 2-G for the na- 
tional convention — "The Defense of the Bill of Rights," prepara- 
tory to going into the national convention after the State convention. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I note that these documents all appear to be 
mimeographed or reproduced in some form. From whom did you re- 
ceive these documents for discussion at section level ? 

Miss Holmes. Those documents were made up at party head- 
quarters at 36 West Randolph. They were brought into section com- 
mittee meetings by the section chairmen, distributed to the members 
of the section to go into the club meetings for discussion, to be pre- 
pared to go into the State conventions and the national convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the 1959 State convention of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Miss Holmes. I did as a delegate from the Wagenknecht Section. 
Mr. NiTTLE. 'Wliere and when was this held ? 

Miss Holmes. It was held at Milda Hall in November of 1959. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Were there two sessions of the convention? 
Miss Holmes. There were two sessions, one before the national con- 
vention and one after the national convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the attendance at the State convention was in 
preparation for the national convention ? 

Miss Holmes. It was to elect delegates to the national convention 
and prepare resolutions to be presented to the national convention 
from the clubs and the sections of the Communist Party of Illinois. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Were preparations made for attendance at the State 
convention by the appointment of committees of any sort preliminary 
to the State convention? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. Committees were appointed, resolution com- 
mittees, credential committees, nomination committees, and I think 
sergeant at arms to man the convention was appointed, and consti- 
tutional committees. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect who were appointed to the resolutions 
committee ? 

Miss Holmes. Not at the moment I don't remember exactly who 
was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would it refresh your recollection to inquire whether 
Lou Diskin served as chairman of the resolutions committee? 
Miss Holmes. Yes. That is correct. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Did Flora Hall serve on that committee 

Miss Holmes. That is correct. 
Mr. NiTi'LE. At any time ? 
Miss Holmes. That is correct. 

Voice. I am sorry, sir. As an American and as a citizen of the 
world, I cannot stand this un-American and undemocratic listing of 
names and everything else. [Applause.] It is totally un-American. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 357 

The Chairman. Order. 

Voice. Everybody for peace, for civil rights. 

The Chairman. Order. [Applause.] 

I warn you, anyone v^ho is responsible for demonstration or dis- 
turbances of this kind cannot remain in this room. 

Mr. Marshal, you will carry out these instructions. 

Proceed. 

Mr. jSTittle. Was Mr. Wickstrom a member of the resolutions com- 
mittee? 

Miss Holmes. He was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Mike Saunders serve in that capacity ? 

Miss Holmes. He did. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Now, was there a convention arrangements committee 
appointed ? 

Sliss Holmes. There was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Geraldine Lightfoot chainnan of that committee? 

Miss Holmes. She definitely was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Fritzie Englestein a member? 

Miss Holmes. She was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Mr. Wickstrom and MoUie Gold also serve on that 
committee ? 

Miss Holmes. They did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect, without referrmg to your notes, the 
chairman of the constitution and bylaws committee ? 

Miss Holmes. No. I don't remember the chairman of the constitu- 
tion and bylaws committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would it refresh your recollection if I were to inquire 
whether there was a Mollie West ? 

Miss Holmes. There definitely was. [Laughter and hissing.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have previously met with the committee in execu- 
tive session. Miss Holmes ; is that correct ? 

Miss Holmes. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have given us certain information relating to 
these individuals ; is that correct ? 

Miss Holmes. I definitely did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, was there a publicity committee appointed? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; there was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did David Englestein serve as the chairman of that? 

Miss Holmes. He was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Lillian George a member of that group ? 

Miss Holmes. I don't remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, you have given us an exhibit, which you 
have identified as Holmes Exhibit No. 2, entitled "Convention Prepa- 
rations." These various committees are named thereon and the per- 
sons who have been appointed to them. You received this from the 
State officials of the party ? 

Miss Holmes. This exhibit entitled "Exhibit No. 2, Convention 
Preparations, National Convention" 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just simply answer the question. Did you receive that 
document? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; I definitely received this from the headquarters 
of the Communist Party, the State of Illinois. It was prepared by the 
officials of the Communist Party. 



358 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, do not the persons about whom I have questioned 
YOU appear named thereon as members of the resolutions committee, 
the convention arrangements committee, the constitution and bylaws 
committee, and the publicity committee? 

Miss Holmes. They are here, and I have seen them before and I 
know them very well. I just could not remember their names from 
years gone by. 

Mr. NriTLE. About how many persons were in attendance at the 
State convention ? 

Miss HoLiMES. Approximately 100 or a little more. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were these all delegates ? 

Miss Holmes. They were all delegates with the exception of Mike 
Saunders. He was invited by Claude Lightioot as an observer, inas- 
much as he was practically new to the area at the time. I was an alter- 
nate delegate. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, can I know the year ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that these persons were either delegates or alter- 
nates and some observers? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were, in general, the persons appearing there as 
observers ? 

Miss Holmes. Mike Saunders is the only observer I recognize. I 
think Otto Wangerin was an observer, too. He was not a delegate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But he was a member. You have already identified 
Mike Saundei^ and Otto Wangerin as members of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Holmes. They were definitely members of the Communist 
Party, but they were not elected as delegates. I don't remember the 
circumstances that Otto Wangerin was not, but I do know why Mike 
was not, but they were invited to the convention by Claude Lightfoot. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, those persons who were selected to attend the 
State convention, were they persons who were in a position of leader- 
ship in the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes; they definitely were. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, in order to assist your memory and to expedite 
the hearing, you have furnished the committee with the names of 
those persons whom you recollect as being in attendance at the State 
convention ; is that right ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you have before you a list, prepared by you, 
which identifies some of those who were in attendance; is that cor- 
rect? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, will you tell the committee, please, whether you 
know those persons to have been in attendance at the State convention ? 

Miss Holmes. I know all of them very well: Ben Friedlander, 
Mollie Gold, David Englestein 

The Chairman. Start reading the list and go slow so the reporter 
can get it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, the first name you mentioned was Ben Fried- 
lander, F-r-i-e-d-1-a-n-d-e-r. 

Miss Holmes. Kisfht. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 359 

Mr. NiTTLE. Proceed. 

Miss Holmes. Mollie Gold, David Englestein, Fritizie Englestein, 
Dorothy Davies, James West, Mollie West, Samuel Kushner 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you spell that ? 

Miss Holmes. K-u-s-h-n-e-r. 

Milton Cohen, Al Kimmel 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that K-i-m-m-e-1 ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Otto Wangerin as an observer ; Marcia Starr 

Mr. NiTTLE. S-t-a-r-r ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Charles Sotis, Romolo Passarelli, 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is P-a-s-s-a-r-e-1-l-i ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Flora Hall, Lou Diskin, Geraldine Lightfoot, Claude Lightfoot, 
Lester Wickstrom, Esther Eisenscher Wickstrom. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were giving the middle name of Esther Wickstrom 
as Eisenscher. Would you spell that ? 

Miss Holmes. E-i-s-e-n-s-c-h-e-r. 

Gertrude McBain, Fran Vivian, John Mazeika 

Mr. NiTTLE. M-a-z-e-i-k-a? 

Miss Holmes. Right. 

Daniel Queen, .Vrpad Balla — A-r-p-a-d B-a-1-l-a — Lucius Arm- 
strong 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Lucius Armstrong at that time serve as 

Miss Holmes. An FBI infonner. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — a Federal Bureau of Investigation informant? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; as I was myself. 

Grace Sarniak — S-a-r-n-i-a-k — Charles Wilson, and Joseph Zawad- 
owski — Z-a-w-a-d-o-w-s-k-i. 

There were others. I don't have their names at the moment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were delegates selected from the State convention to 
attend the national convention ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, they were. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you one of those persons selected to attend the 
national convention of the Communist Party ? 

IMiss Holmes. I was selected as an alternate to the national conven- 
tion of the Commimist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Approximately how many persons were selected from 
the Illinois District for attendance at the national convention of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. I don't know the exact amount, but I will read them. 

Claude Lightfoot, Jim West, Flo Hall, Daniel Queen, Sam Kush- 
ner, Geraldme Lightfoot, Mollie Gold, Sam Gold, and, as I said, I as 
an alternate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest a short recess to give 
the witness a brief respite ? 

The Chairman. All right. 

The committee will stand in recess for a few minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Will counsel proceed ? 

52-810 — 66 — pt. 1 5 



360 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NnTLE. Miss Holmes, at the time the committee recessed, you 
had advised the committee of those delegates to the State convention 
who had been selected as delegates to the national convention of the 
Communist Party. 

I want to inquire with respect to certain persons as to whether they 
were selected as delegates from the State convention to the national. 
Can you tell us whether Joseph Zawadowski was among those who 
were selected ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; he was a delegate at the national convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Dorothy Davies in attendance at the convention ? 

Miss Holmes. She was. She helped with the dissemination of mate- 
rial and acted as a typist. 

Mr. Xittt.e. Do I understand you to say she was not actually a dele- 
gate, but was appointed as a typist? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did vou know her to be a member of the Connnunist 
Party ? 

Miss Hol:\ies. She definitely was. She was a member of the State 
committee of the Communist Party of Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Lucius Armstrong also appointed as a delegate 
to the national convention ? 

Miss Holmes. He was an alternate delegate to the national conven- 
tion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you pointed out that he was serving the Govern- 
ment ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. He was an midercover agent for the FBI, as 
I was, also. I was an alternate delegate and I was also an undercover 
agent for the FBI. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Now, in preparation for attendance at the national 
convention, I would like to ask you about two other documents and to 
inquire whether they were disseminated at the State convention meet- 
ing in preparation for attendance at the national convention, 

I hand you a copy of the document titled "Theoretical Aspects of 
the Neo-ro Question in the United States," marked for identification 
as "Holmes Exhibit No. 3." 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Exhibit No. 3, "Theoretical Asj^ects of the Negro Question in the 
United States." This document was a vei^ controversial document 
and the theoretical aspect of the Negro question was a very controver- 
sial question. It took up more time in the national convention than 
any other question because the Commmiist Party does not fight for 
equal rights of Negroes, only in theoiy ; it is not especially interested 
in the Negro problems; it does not want to solve the Negro problems. 
Therefore, it was a problem to get the Communist Party to act on a 
Negro resolution supporting the civil rights movement, that is, integra- 
tion for Negroes. 

The Communist Party, when I went into the party in 1057, to the 
national convention, advocated Negro nationalism and a separate 
state for the Negroes, self-determination, and we fought to get the 
Communist Party to do away with Negro nationalism" and fight for 
integration. That is why this was a very important document in the 
national convention of the Communist Party in 1959. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, I have before me a booklet titled 
"just the facts, please!" and noted "for the Delegates, Illinois State 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 361 

Convention, Communist Party of Illinois, November, 1959," which I 
have marked for identification as "Holmes Exhibit No. 4." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, please, where you received that 
document ? 

Miss Holmes. Exhibit No. 4, "Indicators of Vitality Between the 
16th & 17th National Conventions" of the Communist Party, "just 
the facts, please!" This document contains activities of the Commu- 
nist Party between the two conventions, the 16th Convention and 
the 17th Convention. This is a summary of activities of the Commu- 
nist Party in Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you were, of course, then in attendance at the 
national convention following your election as an alternate delegate 
at the State convention ? 

Miss Holmes. For 4 days, I was in attendance at the national con- 
vention of the Communist Party held in New York City at the 
Theresa Hotel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, were any documents distributed by 
the Communist Party while in attendance at the national convention ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. As the committee chairman reported on the 
coimnittee resolution, regardless to whatever resolution that the chair- 
man reported on, it was recorded and it was rushed to the room where 
mimeograph material was prepared. The resolutions were prepared; 
they were brought back to the convention floor and distributed among 
the delegates. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I hand you, Miss Holmes, a packet of documents 
and other materials whicl' we have marked for identification as 
"Holmes Exhibits Nos. 5 through 5-Y." Could you identify these, 
please? Were they documents which you received w^hile in attend- 
ance at the national convention ? 

Miss Holmes. Exhibit No. 5, "Proposed Convention Rules" of the 
17th Convention of the Communist Party held in New York City. 

As each delegate registered, they were given a kit with convention 
material. The proposed rules of the convention were included in 
the kit. These were the rules that governed the convention and the 
conduct of the delegates. 

Exhibit No. 5-C, "Peaceful Co-Existence," is a resolution prepared 
in the 17th Convention on peaceful coexistence between the Soviet 
Union and the United States. 

"The Current Struggle and the Socialist Aim," Exhibit No. 5-E, 
was a document on socialism distributed in the 17th Convention. 

"Defense and Extension of Democracy" [Exhibit No. 5-F] was a 
document distributed in the 17th Convention. 

"Curbing the Monopoly Power" [Exhibit No. 5-G] was an impor- 
tant document distributed in the I7th Convention. 

The Chairman. What do you mean by an "imported" document? 

Miss Holmes. Curbing the monopoly power of the United States is 
very important to the Commmiist Party. 

The Chairman. You said an "important" document ? 

Miss Holmes. The document was important because it contained 
the policy and strategy. 

The Chairman. I am sorry. I thought you said an imported docu- 
ment. It is a very important document. 

Miss Holmes. It is very important. 



362 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

"Class and Strategic Alliances" [Exhibit No. 5-H] was a document 
in the kit which each delegate received at the 17th Convention and it 
describes the class strategy in the Communist Party. 

"Independent Political Action" [Exhibit No. 5-1] is a document in 
the kit, 17th Convention, outlining the independent action of the Com- 
munist Party. 

"The Problem of Class Collaboration" [Exhibit No. 5-J] was a 
document in the kit of the 17th Convention of the Communist Party. 

"Disarmament and the American Economy (Report of Hyman 
Lumer,^National Ed. Director, to I7th Nat'l. Convention)" [Exhibit 
No. 5-Iv] of the Communist Party, and it also became a very important 
document of outlining the work, as well as one of the subjects, that was 
taught in the Chicago School of Social Science. 

"Resolution on the Fight for Peace and the Struggle Against 
the Monopolists" [Exhibit No. 5-L] was a very important document 
coming out of the 17th Convention of the Communist Party and it is 
a struggle against the United States itself. 

The "17th Convention Resolution on the Negro Question in the 
United States" [Exhibit No. 5-M] was the theoretical aspect of the 
Negro question in the United States which I mentioned before. This 
was the longest fight of the national convention. 

"Resolution" — Oh, yes ; this is the same thing. There were various 
groups preparing resolutions on the "Theoretical Aspects of the Negro 
Question" [Exhibit No. 5-N] because of the division in the Commu- 
nist Party on the Negro question. Some were advocating nationalism 
and some were advocating integration. 

Resolution number VI, "The Communist Party," [Exhibit No. 5-0] 
describing the work of the Communist Party was the material in the 
kit of the I7th Convention. 

"Resolution on Puerto Rican Work in the United States" [Exhibit 
No. 5-P] was a resolution passed in the Communist Party. 

The "Farm Resolution" [Exhibit No. 5-Q] was a resolution passed 
in the Commiuiist Party. 

The "Resolution on Party Organization" [Exhibit No. 5-R] was a 
resolution passed in the 17th Convention. 

"Resolution on the Work and Status of Women" [Exhibit No. 5-S] 
was a resolution passed in the Communist Party. 

The "Trade Union Resolution" [Exhibit No. 5-T] was equally im- 
portant to the monopoly and the Negro question and the convention 
of the Conununist Party. 

Resolution on '-''The Worker''' [Exhibit No. 5-U], support for The 
'Worker and how to make The Worker more effective. 

The "Resolution on Cuba" [Exhibit No. 5-V], which was most im- 
portant, and it was passed just before the Cuba uprising wherein the 
party had prepared to work very effectively in Cuba. 

"A Housing Program for the American People'' [Exhibit No. 5-W] 
is a resolution in the kit passed in the Communist Party. 

The "National Negro Commission Reports Subversion in Jackson, 
Mississippi" [Exhibit No. 5-X], was in the kit of the I7th Convention. 

And the "Report of Constitution Committee" [Exhibit No. 5-Y] 
was passed around in the 17th Convention to the various delegates of 
the convention. 

The Chairman. Let me see those. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 363 

(Documents handed to chairman.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I offer in evidence all exhibits 
marked for identification ? 

The Chairman. The exhibits will be received in evidence. 

(Documents marked "Holmes Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, 2-A to 2-G, inclu- 
sive, 3, 4, 5, 5-A to 5-Y," inclusive. Plolmos Exhibit No. 3 retained 
in committee files. See appendix, pp 675-746, for other exliibits 
mentioned. 

Miss Hart. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a personal courtesy, please? 

The Chairman. I am afraid we must proceed. 

Miss Hart. A courtesy ; I want to ask if I may have my subpenaed 
witnesses in tomorrow morning instead of this afternoon. 

The Chairman. Your courtesy as a lawyer, you mean ? 

Miss Hart. Yes ; of course. 

The Chairman. We will not reach the necessity for your personal 
appearance until tomorrow. I must reiterate that I respectfully 
request that your clients better stay because I don't want it misunder- 
stood — that they didn't hear evidence that might be given, and if you 
ask me what evidence, I don't know yet. But they will not be exam- 
ined this afternoon. 

Miss Hart. I appreciate it very much. I shall return. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Examiner, does that go for all the witnesses? 

The Chairman. The same applies to the other attorneys. 

Let me make it plain that the presence of the attorneys will not be 
needed in that their clients will not be called this afternoon, but that 
does not excuse the subpenaed witnesses from their presence here today 
for the reasons I have already indicated. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, what time will we reconvene in the 
morning ? 

The Chairman. I think we will have to make an announcement on 
tliat. 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman, I am not too well versed in non- 
judicial procedure. Could you tell me whether or not we have a right 
to look at the documents that have been admitted into evidence ? 

The Chairman. Well, we will proceed in order. 

]\Irs. Langford. Then I am again being overruled or out of order ? 

INIr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, as to the draft resolutions that you have 
just identified, which were delivered to the delegates at the national 
convention, could you tell us by what group the}^ were prepared ? 

Miss HoLiNiES. By what group were they prepared? They had 
officeworkers preparing the resolutions. After the chairman of the 
resolutions committee gave the report on the resolutions committee, 
there was a recording machine to record 

Mr. NiTTLE. No. I mean to say, were they prepared by the national 
leadership or by others ? 

Miss Holmes. Some of them were prepared by national leadership 
which indicates that some were prepared by the States from which the 
delegates came, the State delegation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were the resolutions which were adopted at the l7th 
Convention subsequently published in the Communist Party's maga- 
zine Political Affairs ? 

Miss Holmes. Some of them were published from time to time in the 
Political Affairs, such as the "Theoretical Aspects of the Negro Ques- 
tion." It was published quite extensively. 



364 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, there was, of course, other business before the 
national convention of the party and that was the election of a na- 
tional committee of the Communist Party ; is that right ? 

Miss HoLMES> Yes. There was a national committee elected. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, would you be able to tell us, please, who were the 
persons from the Illinois District of the Communist Party who were 
elected to the National Committee of the Conununist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Claude Light foot, Jim West, Flo Hall, Daniel 
Queen, Sam Kushner, Geraldme Lightf oot. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This 1959 convention of the Communist Party, was 
that the last national convention of the Communist Party ? 

_Miss Holmes. Yes. That was the last convention of the Commu- 
nist Party because the Coimnunist Party voted to not have another 
convention after the Supreme Court rendered its decision ^ ordering the 
Communist Pai-ty to register its membership. 

After this order was handed down, the Commmiist Party National 
Committee met and prepared a resolution to present to the State com- 
mittees asking the State committees to give the national committer or 
the national executive committee power to act between conventions 
antil this emergency was over, for security reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, following the national convention of 1959, was 
there then held a second session of the State convention ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. There was a second session of the State con- 
vention of Illinois held after the national convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this in January 1960 ? 

Miss I-IoLMES. Th;it was lield "in January I960 at Milda Hall in 
Chicago. 

Mr. NriTLE. Now, what was to take place at the second session of 
the State convention ? 

Miss Holmes. The second session was to receive the report from the 
national convention, to elect or appoint the State executive board and 
party staff members, as well as decide party policy for the coming 
year, coming out of the national convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So, the second session of the State convention, if I 
understand you correctly, was held now to receive the resolutions 
then directed by the national convention ? 

Miss Holmes. Right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you passed them on, then, to the State leadei"S who 
were meeting in the second session of the State convention? 

Miss Holmes. To pass the orders on to the State committee, from 
the State committee down to the commission and the club level. 

Mr. NiTiLE. You were in attendance at the second session of the State 
convention? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere was that held ? 

Miss Holmes. Milda Hall, Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Approximately how many people were in attendance 
there ? 

Miss Holmes. Approximately the same hundred or so delegates that 
were in the first session of the convention in 1959. 



Mn June 19G1. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 365 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, I have before me a document titled 
"Projections for 1960: State Convention, Communist Party of Illi- 
nois," which I have marked for identification as "Holmes Exhibit 
No. 6." 

Would you tell us, please, where and when you received that docu- 
ment ? 

Miss Holmes. "Projections for 1960 : State Convention, Communist 
Party of Illinois" was prepared for the State activities, the line and 
policy of the party to be projected by the party after the national con- 
vention and after the two State conventions. This is the proposed 
party work for 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I would offer Exhibit 6 into evidence. 

The Chairman. The exhibit will be received in evidence at this 
point. 

(Document marked "Holmes Exhibit No. 6." See appendix, 
pp. 747-756.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, I have another document here which you 
have delivered to us and I would like to ask you a question about it in 
connection with a resolution adopted at the I7th Convention of the 
Communist Party. 

I have before me a copy of the resolution of the 17th Convention, 
"On Party Organization," which was published in the March 1960 
issue of Political Affairs. The resolution declared in part : 

Mastery of the theory and practise [sic] of the united front policy is the key 
task before the whole Party — before every organization, every member. 

Now, you liave delivered into our possession a document titled 
"Socialist Groupings in Chicago," described on its cover as an "Lifor- 
mation Memo Based on a Staff Discussion, Communist Party of 
Illinois, April, 1960." 

Will you tell us, please, where and under what circumstances you 
received that document, which I have marked for identification as 
"Holmes Exhibit No. 7"? 

Miss Holmes. Exhibit 7, "Information Memo, Socialist Groupings 
in Chicago, Based on a Staff Discussion, Communist Party of Illi- 
nois, April, 1960." This document was handed down to the club level 
for discussion on the united front between the Communist Party and 
the Socialist Party. 

Coming out of the I7th Convention of the Commimist Party, the 
Communist Party found its strength and its membership weakening 
and weakening. There was a discussion and a decision that the Com- 
munist Party should form a united front for the Young Socialist 
group in Chicago inasmuch as the Young Socialist group was growing 
stronger and the Communist Party was growing weaker. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I just wanted a word or two of identification 
as to the contents of the document. 

The question I would like to ask is whether that document is an im- 
plementation by the State party of the directive issued at the [na- 
tional] convention of the Communist Party to pursue a "united front" 
policy ? 

Miss Holmes. It definitely was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 7 in evidence. 

The Chairman. It will be received and so marked. 



366 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

(Document marked "Holmes Exhibit No. 7." See appendix, pp. 
757-759.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now we want to turn to the second major item of busi- 
ness at the second session of the State convention and that was the 
election of the State committee for this district. 

Would you tell us, please, who were among those who were ap- 
pointed or elected to the State committee of the Communist Party of 
Illinois? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. Persons elected to the State committee of the 
Communist Party at the second session were Danny Queen, Mollie 
Gold, Sam Gold, Ben Friedlander, Milton Cohen, Lou Diskin, Lucius 
Armstrong, Flora Hall, Dorothy Hayes, Richard Criley 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that spelled C-r-i-1-e-y ? 

Miss Holmes. Right. 

Dorothy Davies, Claude Lightfoot, Jim West, Geraldine Light- 
foot, Dave Englestein, and Lola Belle Holmes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You talked about the selection of a party staff or 
executive committee of the State board. Would you tell us, please, 
by whom the State board was appointed ? 

Miss Holmes. The State board was appointed by the staff members 
of the Communist Party and they were selected members from the 
State committee to serve on the State board. The party staff execu- 
tive committee was Claude Lightfoot, Sam Kushner, Lou Diskin, Dave 
Englestein, and Jim West. Jim West was replaced by Flora Hall 
when he was sentenced to prison in 1960 under the McCarran Act. 

Mr, NiTTLE. The party staff is the top executive group of the State 
board ; is that right ? 

Miss Holmes. That is the highest echelon of the party selected from 
the State board. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Those individuals you have named were the top leaders 
of the Communist Party ; were they not ? 

Miss Holmes. They were the top leaders of the Communist Party 
in Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you elected to a position on the State board at any 
time? 

Miss Holmes. No. I was never elected to a position of authority 
on the State board. I was a board member. 

Mr, NiTTLE, Now, in the course of your testimony today, you have 
mentioned certain State commissions of the Communist Party in this 
State, Would you tell us how many commissions there were prior 
to the reorganization of the Communist Party in July of 1961 ? 

Miss Holmes, There were five commissions. There were the In- 
dustrial Commission, the Negro Commission, the Educational Commis- 
sion, the Trade Union Industrial Commission, the Youth Commission.^ 

1 Subsequent to the hearings in Chicago, Lola Belle Holmes, In clarifying her testimony 
relating to commissions and committees of the Illinois Communist Party, stated that prior 
to the party's reorganization in July of 1961 the following commissions and committees 
were In existence : 

Commissions : Youth ; Negro ; Jewish ; Education ; Trade Union ; and Peace. 

Committees : Civil Liberties ; Housing, Education, Health, and Welfare ; Political Action ; 
and Press. 

Throughout the hearing record where Miss Holmes uses the term "Industrial Com- 
mission," her reference is to the "Trade Union Commission." 

She also advised that the terms "commission" and "committee" were used Interchange- 
ably by party members and tliat, to the best of her recollection, the peace body was usually 
referred to as a "committee," rather than a "commission." 

Miss Holmes further noted that, after the reorganization of the Illinois party in 1961, 
the Education Commission was dissolved and the remaining five commissions — Youth, 
Negro, Jewish, Trade Union, and Peace — continued to function on a reduced scale, while 
the education of Communist Party members was carried out at a lower level within the 
party. The four "committees" also continued to function on a reduced scale. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 367 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there a Press Commission ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; Press Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Under whose direction did these various commissions 
operate ? 

Miss Holmes. The press directors came from each section with a 
chairman of the Press Committee. I was for a while appointed press 
director to replace Geraldine Lightfoot who was going on a tour of 
Europe. The press directors of the Wagenknecht Section 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am not referring now directly to the press directors 
of the party sections, but to the Press Commission of the State leader- 
ship. 

Did these commissions which you have named, the Industrial 
Commission 

The Chairman. You used the word "commissions." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

The Chairman. You didn't mean the word "press" ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is right. 

The Chairman. You are talking about commissions instead of a 
Press Committee ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

The Chahusian. I think the witness can follow. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The unit of the State leadership. 

Miss Holmes. Pardon me, Mr. Nittle. 

May I, for the record, straighten this out? 

There was a Press Committee and there were five commissions of the 
Communist Party. 

The Chairman, He is talking about the commissions now. 

Miss Holmes. You are talking about the commissions, aren't you ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Miss Holmes. The Negro Commission 

Mr. Nittle. I just want to know now under whose direction and 
control these commissions which you have named operated. 

Miss Holmes. The staff controlled all commissions and directed all 
commissions. 

Mr. Nittle. They are an arm of the top leadership ? 

Miss Holmes. They are an arm of the top leadership of the Com- 
munist Party, which is like an octopus. 

Mr. Nittle. Are they required to function and execute policy in 
those areas which generally appear in their descriptive name? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you served upon any of these five commissions? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. I was in the Negro Commission. I attended 
meetings for a while of the Industrial Commission until I became na- 
tional vice president of the Negro American Labor Council. Then my 
activities in the Industrial Commission were terminated. I was then, 
as I said before, assigned to the Negro Commission for work. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you also serve on the Press Commission ? 

Miss Holmes. I was chairman for a while of the press committee of 
the Wagenknect Section and then I was appointed chairman of the 
press directors. 

Mr. Nittle. I see. 

Now, were there press directors elected for each of the party sections 
who were to function under the Press Committee ? 



368 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Miss Holmes. Each section had a press director which met once a 
month in one large meeting which was called the Press Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, what was the function of the press directors; 
what did they mean by press directors ? 

Miss Holmes. The chairman called meetings, explained the party 
directives and policy to the press directors who came from each 
section. This was for distribution of The Worker^ to get subscrip- 
tions to raise funds for defense of party members, also to raise funds 
for the expense of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, did you, in the course of your work in the Com- 
munist Party, learn the identity of the press directors of the various 
party sections? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. I was given a list of all the press direc- 
tors when I was appointed press director by Geraldine Lightfoot. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, would you tell the committee, please, whom you 
identified as the press directors of the party sections ? 

Miss Holmes. In addition to myself, there was Martin Mitchell, 
Albany Park. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That was the Albany Park Section ? 

Miss PIoLMES. Yes. 

Jesse Richards. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that Jesse Richards ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, J-e-s-s-e Richards. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And he represented the Douglas-Lincoln Section ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Anna Morgan, Hyde Park; Al McPherson; Vickie Kramer, now 
Vickie Starr, Southwest. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is K-r-a-m-e-r ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Martina Dycus. 

Mr. NiTTLE. D-y-c-u-s? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat side ? 

Miss Holmes. West Side. 

Mr. NiTTLE. West Side? 

Miss Holmes. West Side. 

Fritzie Englestein, 9th Congressional District ; Bea Lutz, now Bea 
Tarrson, 13th Congressional District. 

Mr, NiTTLE. That is Bea L-u-t-z, now Bea T-a-r-r-s-o-n ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; 13th Congressional District. 

Maurice Silver, 12th Congressional District — S-i-1-v-e-r. 

John Mazeika, Jolinstone 

Mr. NiiTLE. That is M-a-z-e-i-k-a ? 

Miss Holmes. M-a-z-e-i-k-a, Jolinstone. 

Tony Sarniak — S-a-r-n-i-a-k — Southeast. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, I have before me a leaflet or letter titled 
"Freedom of the Press Committee, 36 W. Randolph Street, Room 806, 
Chicago, 1, Illinois," dated May 10, 1960, which we have marked for 
identification as "Holmes Exhibit No. 8." 

Would you tell us, please, what is the Freedom of the Press Com- 
mittee? 

Miss Holmes. The Freedom of the Press Committee is what we refer 
to now as an ad hoc committee of the Press Committee, a group of party 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 369 

members picked from the clubs to form a committee to work with non- 
party people as a cover for the Press Committee. That is one method 
the party had of working with people who were unsuspected of the 
Communist Party intent or activities. 

Mr, NiTTLE. So that the Freedom of the Press Committee was a 
Communist front? 

Miss Holmes. Right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer into evidence Holmes Exhibit 8. 

The Chairman. The document will be so marked and received. 

(Document marked "Holmes Exhibit No. 8." See appendix, p. 760.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are party members required to subscribe to The 
Worker? 

Miss Holmes. Not necessarily required, but it is almost a demand 
that you do subscribe. It is unforgivable, almost, if you don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you have told us that you have met with the In- 
dustrial Commission; is that correct? 

Miss Holmes. Yes; I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was the Communist Party's mterest in industry ? 

Miss Holmes. The Communist Party had two major objectives. 
One was to control the trade union movement and the masses of the 
people for recruitment and indoctrination. The second was the con- 
trolling of the Negro. In case everything else failed to subvert, bring 
America under the Communist control, they felt that the Negro was 
the last straw in the trade union movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, to your knowledge, in what industries 
did the Communist Party w^ish to concentrate? 

Miss Holmes. The point of concentration of the Communist Party 
was UAW, railroad and packinghouses, machinery. UAW was very 
important. Transportation. Railroad was a must ; food was an abso- 
lute necessity for the Communist takeover of America. Electricity 
for communication. The Communists were very much intrigued with 
America's advanced electrical resources. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, when you say what you have, were 
there discussions at party meetings upon this subject w^ith high-level 
leaders ? 

Miss Holmes. There were discussions — not discussions but classes — 
on political economy and the controlling of American monopoly, and in 
political econom}^, this was emphasized. The concentration of UAW, 
transportation, electricity, and food was emphasized because this was 
a must and a necessity. 

Wlien the Commmiists begin to take over America, they must have 
machinery ; they must have transportation ; they must have food ; and 
they must have communications. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect any specific instructions on this sub- 
ject at any Communist Party meeting or at any Communist Party 
school ? 

Miss Holmes. This was discussed very, very broadly and emphasized 
in political economy by Lou Diskin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where were these discussions held? Was this in the 
Chicago school ? 

Miss Holmes. In the Chicago School of Social Science, 333 West 
North Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was Lou Diskin's position at that time ? 



370 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Miss Holmes. He was an instructor of this particular class, as well 
as a staff member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you were in attendance at that school ? 

Miss Holmes. I was in attendance at that class. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, did you, while meeting with the Industrial Com- 
mission of the Communist Party for the State of Illinois, ascertain the 
leadership of that commission and its membership ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. The leadership of that commission, Mike 
Saunders was director ; Lou Diskin, chairman ; Otto Wangerin, Fran- 
cis McBain, Joe Zawadowski, and Milton Cohen. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You told us that you were assigned at one point to the 
Packinghouse Workers Club. Was this an industrial club ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. The Packinghouse Workers was an industrial 
club — as was the Hansbrough Club — wliich was later changed to 
the New Frontier for security reasons. The members of this club were 
Alice Murphy, Jesse Richards, Ann Alexander, Adele Thomas, Lloyd 
Crumley. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is C-r-u-m-1-e-y ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Lola Belle Holmes 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is yourself. 

Miss Holmes. Myself. 

Milton Gilmore, Carrie Mae Beverly, B-e-v-e-r-1-y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You also stated that you were a member of the Negro 
Commission of the State area. These were persons, were they not, 
who were in a position of leadership in the Communist Party with 
respect to the formulation and execution of party policy as regards 
the Negro ? Is that right ? 

^Miss Holmes. Yes. These were the elites of the Communist Party 
on the Negro Commission. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the director of the Negro Commission of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Claude Lightf oot was the director. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And he is the top Communist leader in this State ? 

Miss Holmes. He was at that time chairman of the Illinois Com- 
munist Party, director of the Negro Commission, nationally. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were the other leaders that sensed upon it? 

Miss Holmes. Leon Joy Jennings, J-e-n-n-i-n-g-s ; Alice Kimmel, 
K-i-m-m-e-1; Mae Lucas, L-u-c-a-s; Charles Wilson; Wilberforce 
Jones: Lula Saffold, S-a-f-f-o-l-d; Geraldine Lightf oot; Sylvia 
Woods; David George; Lucius Armstrong — not a member, but he 
usually attended sometimes for special reports on the Steelworkers 
Union. 

Mv. NiTTLE. There were certain persons also from the Illinois Dis- 
trict who have served on the national Negro Commission; is that 
correct ? 

Miss Holmes. That is true. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And who were the persons from this district who served 
on that commission at national headquarters ? 

Miss Holmes. Lola Belle Holmes served on the national commis- 
sion of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am referring to the national Negro Commission. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 371 

Miss Holmes. I served on the national Negro Commission. I was 
chairman of the committee, the Midwest committee meeting of the 
national Negro Commission. Also Tommy Dennis, Detroit; Bert 
Washington 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am referring to the national Negro Commission. 

Miss Holmes. This is the national Negro Commission. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are listing the entire membership, or the Illinois 
members only? I am interested at this point in the Illinois mem- 
bers. 

Miss Holmes. Claude Lightfoot, Wilberforce Jones, Leon Joy Jen- 
nings, Charles Wilson, and myself were members of the Illinois Negro 
Commission. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the function of the Negro Commission of 
the State Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. The function of the Negro Commission of the State 
of Illinois was to infiltrate Negro organizations and churches, to re- 
cruit and carry out party policy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge, what organizations did the Com- 
munist Party try to infiltrate in the State of Illinois ? 

Miss Holmes. They did infiltrate NAACP, the Negro American 
Labor Council, CORE, the Afro-American Heritage Association, and 
some churches. 

The Chairman. To what degree in each respective organization? 
Do you have any idea ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I do. In each organization, the Communist 
Party had a caucus, which was a nucleus of Commmiists, to work to 
control and agitate and propagandize in their respective organizations 
or churches. They did have a caucus in the NAACP. They did have 
a caucus in the Negro American Labor Council. They also had a 
caucus in CORE. They also had caucuses in various churches in 
Chicago. They had people who worked in each specific organization 
or church. 

Mr. NrrrLE. Did you, personally, have a Communist Party assign- 
ment relative to the infiltration of the NAACP ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Would you tell us about that ? 

Miss Holmes. I was on the NAACP caucus of the Communist 
Party from 1957 mitil 1959. I was nominated as secretary for the 
NAACP against the incumbent, and at that time we lost the election. 
As a result, one of our group attempted to destroy the ballots and to 
prevent the count; they declared it was an illegal count, so they at- 
tempted to destroy the ballots. We were not permitted to re-count so 
we appealed to the national office. Subsequently, the national office 
declared the election valid and the party slate was thrown out. 

After the party slate was thrown out, the party caucus had a meet- 
ing in 1960 and decided to pull its forces out of the NAACP because 
they realized they could not work in the NAACP effectively. They 
only left two member of the caucus to work in the NAACP. 

Of the caucus in the NAACP, the other members were pulled out 
and a caucus was organized to work in NALC. It was felt that the 
NALC was more important than NAACP in that it served two pur- 
poses : It was a strong trade union movement as well as it was a Negro 
movement. 



372 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE, Now, Miss Holmes, before we go- 



The Chairman. I want to ask this question and I think it is implicit 
in your answer. 

Do I take it that these caucuses in the NAACP were not with the 
knowledge or approval of the leadersliip of NAACP ? 

Miss Holmes. It definitely was not with the knowledge. 

The Chairman. I say that was implicit in your answer and I wanted 
to be sure you were aware. 

Miss Holmes. I want it to be very clear the leadership of either or- 
ganization did not know that the Communist Party had caucuses 
working in their respective organizations. When they found it out, 
they found out who they were, they immediately dropped them from 
the membership list. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were you appointed to this party group that 
was endeavoring to mfiltrate the leadership of the National Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Colored People ? 

Miss Holmes, We were all appointed by Claude Lightfoot. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were the members of the Communist Party caucus 
that were appointed for this purpose ? 

Miss Holmes. The members of the Coimiiunist Party caucus in 
NAACP were Claude Lightfoot, Leon Jemiings, Flo Hall, Sam Kush- 
ner, Danny Queen, and Lola Belle Holmes, yours truly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You had been a member of the NAACP ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I had. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long had you been a member ? 

Miss Holmes. Oh, from ai)proximately 1946 or 1947 until the event 
took place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you discussed the attempt of the Communist 
Party to infiltrate the Negro American Labor Congress. 

Miss Holmes. Council. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Council. 

Would you tell the committee, please, just what the NALC was ? 

Miss Holmes. The Negro American Labor Council. NALC is an 
abbreviation, just like NAACP. 

The Negro American Labor Council was a trade organization or- 
ganized in 1960 of trade unions to fight for job equality in the labor 
movement, industry, and Government. It was organized by A. Philip 
Randolph with trade union leaders all over the country. They defi- 
nitely were not Communists. As you know, Mr. Randolph is not a 
Communist and, as I thought, most of the national executive board 
members or vice presidents were not Communists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I interrupt at this point ? 

Is it not a fact that the national constitution of the NALC — as well 
as the Chicago chapter bylaws of the NALC — explicitly provide that 
the organization is unalterably opposed to communism? 

Miss Holmes. It definitely does and the Communists put up a strong 
fi^ht to have the clause stricken, and that is where I fell in disrepute 
with the Communist Party because I would not go along with it. 
The Chairman. Is that the event you referred to a while ago? 
Miss Holmes. Pardon ? I didn't understand you. 
The Chairman. A while ago, you said you were a member of the 
NAACP. 

Miss Holmes. The Negro American Labor Council ? 
The Chairman. One organization, until the event. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 373 

Is that the event ? 

Miss Holmes. The event I was speaking of was in the NAACP 
where we lost the election. We were attempting to infiltrate the leader- 
ship of NAACP — the Communist Party was. We lost that election, 
but we won a few choice places in the Negro American Labor Council, 
but I was not the chosen person for that position so that is when the 
fight began. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I understand that the NALC national convention 
met in May 1960 in Detroit to form the NALC. Was there a meeting 
of the Communist Party prior to that date to discuss this organization 
which was contemplated by A. Philip Randolph ? 

Miss Holmes. There were many meetings of the Communist Party 
before the NALC caucus to plan party political strategy and tactics in 
the coming convention. It was the intent of the Communist Party to 
take over the Negro American Labor Council from A. Philip 
Randolph. 

The last large national caucus was held before the convention con- 
vened in May 1960 at tlie Statler Hilton Hotel. Plans were made at 
that particular caucus meeting to take over and also to prevent them 
from passing the constitution with the non-Communist clause in it. 

Mr. Nittle. Was there a meeting of the Midwest committee of the 
national Negro Commission of the Communist Party in February 
1960 ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. There was a meeting of the Midwest conunit- 
tee. There was a Midwest conference of the Negro Commission held 
in Chicago the first of 1960. 

Mr. Nittle. And that was prior to the formation of NALC at a 
national convention of the NALC ? 

Miss Holmes. That conference was called to plan party strategy for 
the takeover of the Negro American Labor Council which was holding 
its formation convention in May. 

Mr. Nittle. Could you tell us who was in attendance at this Mid- 
west committee meeting of the national Negro Commission ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. Tommy Dennis of Detroit, Michigan; Bert 
Washington of Cleveland, Ohio ; Alice Kimmel, Chicago ; Bill "Red" 
Davis, Jr., St. Louis ; J. Green 

Mr. Nittle. Is that Jacob Green ? 

Miss Holmes. Jacob Green, Baltimore, Maryland ; Leon Jennings, 
Chicago; Lucius Armstrong, Chicago; Claude Lightfoot, Chicago; 
Wilberf orce Jones, Chicago ; Ishmael Flory, Chicago ; Al McPherson, 
Chicago ; and Lola Belle Holmes, Chicago. 

Mr. Nittle. Was Charles Wilson at that meeting ? 

Miss Holmes. I don't think Charles Wilson was there. I don't 
remember. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, you talked of another meeting, which I believe 
you referred to as the caucus meeting, just immediately prior to the 
meeting of the NALC national convention. Would you tell us who 
were the Communist Party members who were appointed as a caucus 
at that meeting? 

Miss Holmes. The following people were appointed to the caucus 
of NALC : Leon Joy Jennings, Henry Jennings,^ Wilberforce Jones, 

1 William Henry Jennings, husband of Leon Joj- Jennings. 



374 COMMUT^IST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Flo Hall, Sam Kiishner, Charles Wilson, Lucius Armstrong, and Lola 
Belle Holmes. These were people appointed as a caucus, named as a 
caucus, by Claude Lightfoot, to work in the Negro American Labor 
Council and eventually take it over from A. Philip Kandolph. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you testify that you were elected a national vice 
president of the NALC ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. I was elected as a first woman national vice 
president of the Xegro American Labor Council at the fall conven- 
tion at the Statler Hilton Hotel in Detroit, Michigan. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After you were elected to that office, were any efforts 
made by the Communist Party itself to have you limit or discontinue 
your Communist Party activities and association ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTiT.E. What was the purpose of that ? 

Miss Holmes. At the first State board meeting of the Commimist 
Party held the first of June after the founding convention of the Negro 
American Labor Council, I was told to withdraw from all party activ- 
ities because I had been elected national vice president of the NALC. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this : Do I take it from what you 
said that the Communist Party regarded your position as vice pres- 
ident of great importance to them in active participation in the Com- 
mmiist activities ? Is that the way you construed it ? 

Miss Holmes. The Communist Party regarded this a very impor- 
tant position, but it was not for me, a Negro woman. The Communist 
Party does not wish Negro women to aspire to leadership in any form 
or in any organization they wish to control. It is all right to be a 
member ; it is all right to support the Communist Party, but a Negro 
woman must not aspire to leadership. 

When I was elected national vice president of the Negro American 
Labor Council, my prestige fell in the Communist Party. The Com- 
munist Party then began to sabotage everything I did in the civil 
rights movement. They are doing it today. 

The Chaieman. Wliat you are saying is that they are not partic- 
ularly concerned with the success of the civil rights movement ? 

Miss Holmes. They are not concerned with the success of the civil 
rights movement. They wish oppression and depression of the Negro 
people to continue so they can have something to drive on, to work on. 
The Communist Party cannot be successful without oppression and 
depression. 

Mr. NmLE. Miss Holmes, we were discussing the party structure, 
and you were telling us of the party structure prior to the 1961 period. 
You indicated that there were some important changes made in the 
party structure following a decision of the United States Supreme 
Court in June 1961 in the Communist Party case, which was a decision 
requiring the Communist Party to register as a Communist-action 
organization. 

Now, what happened at that time, following that decision ? 

The Chalrman. The committee will stand in recess for a few mo- 
ments to give the stenographer a break. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Tlie Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will proceed. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 375 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, we would like you to tell the com- 
mittee what decisions the Communist Party made as a result of the 
June 1961 decision of the Supreme Court. 

Miss IIoLMES. The party had a national committee meeting sub- 
sequent to June 19G1 

The Chairman. You. are talking about the decision upholding the 
Internal Security Act ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is correct, the decision requiring the Communist 
Party to register as a Communist-action organization. 

Miss Holmes. There was some discussion among party groups 
throughout the country of liquidation, but the national committee de- 
cided agamst liquidation. Orders were handed down for the party 
to submerge, for the existing executive board to go out of existence. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say it was a decision that the party submerge? 

Miss Holmes. The party would submerge and would become one 
hard core that would work underground and that would not be 
cracked. 

The decision at the last executive board meeting was the State of 
Illinois Board would go out of existence that particular night at 
11 :30, that an eight-man board would be appointed to replace the 
elected boards. The staff of the existing officers, who at that particular 
time were Sam Kushner and Claude Lightfoot, was to appoint that 
eight-man board. The existing State committee of approximately 
30 to 35 people was to be divided into three sections : North, South, 
and West. 

Claude Lightfoot gave the board members instructions that if they 
wished they could drop off the State committee and if they wislied 
they could continue. Some of us were dropped. I was dropped 
because, as I said before, my prestige began to decline with the party 
when I was elected national vice president of the Negro American 
Labor Council. This position was a source of agitation to the Com- 
munist Party so, therefore, I was continually dropped from all func- 
tioning committees in the party. 

The party then selected another governing staff of five people to 
control party policy and to issue party directives to the eight-man 
board. The eight-man board was to meet with the State committee; 
one or two of the eight-man board was to meet with each State group 
of the State committee. The directors from the State committee were 
to go directly to the party club chairman who in turn— the clubs were 
to implement party policy. 

Party policy was also to be implemented from the commission level : 
the Industrial Commission or Trade Union Commission, the Negro 
Commission, the Youth Commission, the Educational Committee. 
These were the commissions and committees of the party that were 
to continue party directives after the June 1961 Supreme Court deci- 
sion.^ 

Each club in the Communist Party was ordered to change its name 
for security reasons. All party members were told to say that they 
had resigned from the party for security reasons. If anyone asked 
when, tell them it was their problem to find out when tliey resigned. 
This becomes the famous word, each party member for security rea- 
sons had to resism. 



1 See footnote 1, p. 366. 
52-810—66— pt. 1- 



376 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The clubs were to take on either press committee names or social 
functions. Lightfoot did not want the party to assume the name of 
the press committee because in essence this would be defeative or it 
would mean, to a certain extent, the party was going out of existence. 
So, therefore, the clubs were ordered to change their identity. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, did you ever learn the identity of 
the new State board which was appointed to function following this 
decision ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. I learned the identity of some of them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge, was Lou Diskin appointed a mem- 
ber of this new State board? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Was Milton Cohen appointed to the new State board ? 

Miss Holmes. I am not sure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were Daniel Queen and Grace Sarniak appointed to 
this State board? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, please, in which section Lou Diskin 
was to operate ? 

Miss Holmes. On the West Side. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Grace Sarniak to operate on the West Side with 
him? 

Miss Holmes. West Side, Southwest. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In which section was Daniel Queen to operate ? 

Miss Holmes. North Side and the youth group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you state you are not certain now as to whether 
Milton Cohen was appointed to the State board ? 

Miss Holmes. No. Milton Cohen was the South Side. I am not 
sure that he was, but he was in the educational committee on the South 
Side of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I think you testified also that the State commis- 
sions of the Communist Party were reduced. 

Miss Holmes. The State committee ? 

Mr. Nittle. Commissions. 

Miss Holmes. Yes. It [the State committee] was divided into 
three parts as well as it was reduced and certain members who were 
there whose security was questioned were told that they could drop out 
if they wished. They were not being ordered; the party was not 
expelling anyone, but anyone who wished to drop out for security 
reasons was to be permitted to do so. I particularly was dropped. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, prior to 1961, how many commissions were there 
in the Communist Party, such as the Industrial, Youth, and other 
commissions ? 

Miss Holmes. There were five commissions.^ 

Mr. Nittle. How many commissions remained to function after 
1961? 

Miss Holmes. Five commissions remained to function because the 
party function named its commissions after the section structure was 
destroyed. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have any knowledge of the number of Com- 
munist Party clubs that functioned after the reorganization in 1961 ? 

Miss Holmes. There was approximately 46 or 48. 

Mr. Nittle. How many were in operation, if you know, prior to 

1 See footnote 1, page 36'6. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 377 

Miss Holmes. Would you ask that question again, please, sir? 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many clubs, to your knowledge, were in operation 
prior to 1961 ? 

Miss Holmes. Prior to 1961, there were somewhere between 46 
or 48. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they retain this approximate number after the 
reorganization ? 

Miss Holmes. After the reorganization, some of these clubs were 
eliminated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know who the director of the Youth Commission 
was after the 1961 reorganization ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NmLE. Wlio was that ? 

Miss Holmes. Daniel Queen in the Illinois Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Midwest Committee for the 
Protection of Foreign Bom ? 

Miss Holmes. Well, I don't know whether you call it member, but I 
was active in the Midwest Committee for the Protection of the For- 
eign Born. It had no membership fee or membership dues or cards. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see. 

What position did you hold, if any, in the Midwest 

The Chairman. The [American] Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born has been cited as a Communist-front organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is correct. 

Was the Midwest Committee an affiliate or branch of the [Ameri- 
can] Committee for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

Miss Holmes. It was. It was a branch. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hold any office in that organization ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. I was executive secretary from 1958 until Octo- 
ber 1959. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio preceded you in that position ? 

Miss Holmes. Pat Ellis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How were you appointed to this position ? 

Miss Holmes. I first went in on the volunteer basis when Pat Ellis 
resigned. And at the preceding conference, which was held annually, 
I was elected executive vice president of the Midwest Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born. 

Mr. NiTTLE. From whom did the Midwest Conmiittee for Protection 
of Foreign Bom receive its orders ? 

Miss Holmes. The Midwest Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born got their instructions from the Communist Party because its 
executive board was composed mainly of Communists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know who preceded Pat Ellis as secretary of 
the Midwest Committee ? 

Miss Holmes. To the best of my knowledge, it was Sylvia Woods. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Sylvia Woods to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, we want to inquire whether you 
know the following individuals, whom you have already identified as 



378 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

members of the Communist Party, to have been actively associated or 
affiliated with the work of the Midwest Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born. 

Was Dorothy Hayes active in that organization ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Gertrude McBain ? 

MissHoLiviES. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Lou Diskin ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. David Englestein ? 

Miss Holmes. Very little. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Benjamin Friedlander? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Eichard Criley ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes ; very much so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, do you recollect the office address of the 
Midwest Committee for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

Miss Holmes. Wlien I first became active in the Midwest Committee 
for the Protection of Foreign Born, the office was at 431 South Dear- 
born. We moved from 431 South Dearborn to 189 West Madison in 
September of 1958. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, while the Midwest Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born maintained its offices at 431 South Dearborn, was there 
any other organization, to your knowledge, which had its headquarters 
at that location? 

Miss Holmes. No ; not at that location. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, when the Midwest Committee moved its offices to 
189 West Madison, was there any other organization which had its 
offices there, too? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. The committee for the defense of the Bill of 
Rights. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that also known as the Chicago Committee to 
Defend Democratic Rights ? 

Miss Holmes. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or was that a predecessor group ? 

Miss Holmes. Predecessor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, were you also associated with the [Chicago] Com- 
mittee to Defend the Bill of Rights ? ^ 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. How long did you remain active in that organization? 

Miss Holmes. I was active very little in that because I was very 
active in the Midwest Committee for Protection of Foreign Born at 
that time and I did not have the time to devote to that particular 
committee. 

Mr, Nittle. Did the Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights 
maintain its offices in the same location, after 1959, at 189 West Madi- 
son Street ? 

Miss Holmes. They had offices on the 8th floor, the 11th floor, and 
the Midwest Committee had offices on the 4th floor. They had an exten- 
sion phone from the Committee to Defend the Bill oi Rights to the 
Midwest Committee office which, when I was off or when there was no 



' The Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights is the successor committee to the 
Chicago Committee to Defend Democratic Rights. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 379 

other help there, Richard Criley answered the phone and took care of 
the Midwest Committee's ailairs. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Richard Criley the executive officer of the Chicago 
Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights ? 

Miss Holmes. He was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have identified him already as a member of 
the Communist Party and formerly a member of the State committee 
of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. He was. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you : Is it not true that the committee 
of which Richard Criley was head, which you just named, was also 
a local branch of the national committee cited by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities ? 

Miss Holmes. It definitely was, and much of the discussion was 
carried on in the office of the Midwest Committee for the Protection 
of Foreign Born with the officers and members of the executive board 
of the Midwest Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, do you also have knowledge of a group 
known as the Chicago Council of American-Soviet Friendship ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you actively associated with that organization as 
a Communist Party member ? 

Miss Holmes. For a short while, and sometimes I attended the meet- 
ings but not very much, open afTairs. 

Mr. NiTTLE. 'UHio was the secretary of that organization? 

Miss Holmes. LeRoy Wolins. 

Mr. NiTTLE. W-0-l-i-n-s ? 

Miss Holmes. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was LeRoy Wolins, to your knowledge, a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Miss Holmes. He definitely was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have been in attendance at closed Communist 
Party meetings with him ? 

Miss Holmes. I have many times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes, was the Communist Party also 
interested in an organization, a national group, formed in September 
of 1961 known as Women Strike for Peace ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. It was very much interested. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what transpired at the Communist 
Party meetings in Chicago with respect to that organization, which 
was formed nationally at that time ? 

Miss Holmes. In Communist Party meetings like all other meetings, 
which organizations or committees which w^ere formed, the Com- 
munist Party felt that it could carry out its propaganda. The 
Women Strike for Peace was discussed, as well as all other civil rights 
organizations, and a caucus was formed to work in the Women Strike 
for Peace, as well as other civil rights organizations. The people who 
were to work in the Women Strike for Peace were selected by the 
party leadership and appointed just as they were in alternate 
organizations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the group discussed at the State committee 
meetings ? 



380 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

JSIiss Holmes. It was discussed at State committee level; all party 
policy discussed at the State committee level so that it must be official. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were the members of the Communist Party who 
were also members of the Women Strike for Peace? 

Miss Holmes. Anna Morgan was designated as the leader of the 
caucus to work in the Women Strike for Peace. Anna ]Vlorgan was 
designated to select whom she wished to work with her, and I was one 
of those people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Eva Friedlander a member of the Women Strike 
for Peace for your group ? 

Miss Holmes. She was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Lula Saffold a member of Women Strike for 
Peace ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, she was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Anna Prosten — P-r-o-s-t-e-n — active in that 
group ? 

Miss Holmes. She was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, were there any neighborhood groups of either 
Women for Peace or Women Strike for Peace set up in Chicago, "with 
which you are familiar, set up solely by the Communist Partv leader- 
ship? 

Miss Holmes. I was familiar with the Women's Peace & Unity 
Club. I don't know when that was organized. It was organized 
when I became a member of the Communist Party. However, I 
know it was infiltrated with the Communist Party members and it 
carried out party policy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are referring to Women's Peace & Unity Club? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the chairman of the Women's Peace & Unity 
Club? 

Miss Holmes. The last meeting and affair I attended, Lula Saffold 
was the chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have already identified her as a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge as to the person from whom 
Lula Saffold received directions for functioning in this organization? 

Miss Holmes. The activities or instructions came to Lula Safl'old, 
as well as any other caucus members, from the Coimnunist Party — 
who were to work in certain organizations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know a Grace Clark to be active in the Wom- 
en's Peace & Unity Club? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Did you know Dorothy Hayes to be active in the Wom- 
en's Peace & Unity Club? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. IVIiss Holmes, I have before me a circular letter en- 
titled "Women's Peace & Unity Club; Report for year 1961-62," 
addressed to "Dear Sisters and Friends," signed by Lula A. Saffold, 
chairman. 

Could you tell us, please, from what source you obtained that docu- 
ment ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 381 

Miss Holmes. I received this from Lula Saffold of the Peace & 
Unity Chib in 1962. This is an annual report of the activities for the 
Peace & Unity Chib. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I direct your attention to a paragraph marked therein 
which sets forth that a conference took pLace in Montreal, Canada, 
sponsored by Voice of Women, Canada, and Voice of Women, United 
States of America, on September 14 and 15, 1962. 

It is noted therein that Lula Saffold and Grace Clark represented 
the Women's Peace & Unity Club at this international Voice of 
Women-sponsored meeting in Canada. Would you tell us, please, 
by whom the expenses of travel for Grace Clark and Lula Saffold 
were paid ? 

Miss Holmes. The expense for their trip was paid by the club. 
This was supposed to have been a vacation given to Lula Saffold by 
the club. 

(Document marked "Holmes Exhibit No. 9." See appendix, p. 761.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were there occasions in Communist-controlled groups 
of that sort where the Communist Party made arrangements to pay 
the expenses of travel of Communist Party members to various parts 
of the world ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, there was. This was part of the policy of send- 
ing delegates to foreign countries, or if a party member wishes to 
travel in the interest of the Communist Party, the expense would be 
or could be arranged by the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you asked to travel to Ghana in Africa in 1962 ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. I was asked to go to Ghana with the delegation 
that was being sent there by the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there any reason expressed by the party for at- 
tempting to send you there ? 

Miss Holmes. No. There was no reason other than to go there to 
spread Communist agitation and Communist propaganda, as is the 
policy of the Communist Party all over the world. Of course, it was 
felt that I would be one of those persons that was instrumental or could 
be instrumental. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did not attend ? 

Miss Holmes. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTixE. To your direct knowledge, did the Communist Party 
offer to pay the expenses of anyone else who traveled there ? 

Miss Holmes. I don't know whether they offered to pay it, but I 
know the expense was arranged by the Communist Party for another 
person or other persons to go. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wlio went to Ghana on that occasion ? 

Miss Holmes. I know Sarah Jones was one of those people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her to be a Communist Party member? 

Miss Holmes. I definitely do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you laiow to what club and section she was 
assigned ? 

Miss Holmes. I think she was assigned to the housewives inasmuch 
as she was a domestic worker. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the Housewives Club of the Commmiist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what section ? 

Miss Holmes. South Side. She resided on the south side. 



382 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Geraldine Liglitfoot accompany Sarah Jones to 
Ghana, to your laiowledge ? 

Miss Holmes. She went. I don't know whether she accompanied 
Sarah Jones, but I know she did go. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever attended meetings of the South Side 
Section of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I have ; on several occasions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Versta Miller a member of the South Side Section 
of the Commimist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. He w^as. He was the chairman at one time at one 
meeting I attended ; he chaired the meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the course of your activities in the Communist 
Party, did you hear or know of an organization titled the "Chicago 
Unemployment and Housing Council" ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. Versta Miller was chairman of that. That 
committee was set up by Claude Lightf oot. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was the purpose ? 

Miss Holmes. For recruiting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. For the purpose of recruiting Communist Party 
members ? 

Miss Holmes. Recruiting Negroes into the Communist Party on the 
south side. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did they propose to do that by creating this high- 
sounding organization ? 

Miss Holmes. By pretending they were fighting for better housing 
conditions on the south side. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Now, during the period of your membership in the 
Communist Party, did you have occasion to join an organization 
known as the Afro-American Heritage Association ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hold any office in that organization ? 

Miss PIolmes. I was executive board member for a while of the 
Afro-American Heritage Association. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "V\nio was the director and leader of that organization ? 

Miss Holmes. Mael Flory. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Islimael Flory ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. I left off the "Ish." 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have identified him as a member, I believe, of 
one of the State committees of the Communist Party. 

Miss Holmes. Negro Commission. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Negro Commission of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If the chairman pleases, I think I would like to suspend 
with this witness. So far as the staff is concerned, Mr. Chairman, we 
propose to ask this witness no further questions. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Holmes, now that your testimony is on rec- 
ord 

Miss Holmes. Pardon me, Mr. Chairman. I prefer to be called Miss 
Holmes, if you please. Thank you. 

The Chairman. I am glad to correct myself. Miss Holmes. 

Anyway, I would like to address a few words to you in connection 
with your testimony. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 383 

As a matter of fact, I had almost the same experience hist year after 
concluding testimony of a lady who testified before us in Minneapolis, 
and I use almost the same remark that I had witli lier, and it is this: 
That the great majority of the citizens of this Nation, those in this 
city and in this very area, are devoted fully to the principles on which 
this country is founded; most of us in our own way give something of 
ourselves to our country. Some give much more than otiiers. I think 
you are one of them, like that lady in Minneapol irs last year. You could 
have gone about your way as so many of us do, concerning yourself 
largely with earning a comfortable living, carrying out your basic 
citizenship duties, and spending your spare time in relaxation and 
pleasure of one kind or another. 

In the interest of our Nation's security, however, you were asked to 
give up this normal pursuit of happiness, which is the right of every 
American. You were asked to give up a pleasant job to do a job just 
about as unpleasant as the one we members of this committee occupy, 
a job involving self-sacrifice and danger and possible public disdain 
and contempt, a job made necessary by the fact that there are those 
who would destroy our Government, rob the American people of their 
rights, their freedom, and their liberty. 

You could have said "no" to the request, as many others have done. 
It is to your everlasting credit that you said "yes." By doing so, you 
proved your willingness to give to and for your country and your 
neighbor, including even those who would not understand the true 
significance of the act and would vilify this. 

I know that, like others who have made tlie same sacrifice, you liave 
been called all kinds of names. "The informer," I am sui'e, has been 
hurled at you and will be hurled at you in the future by the unfaithful, 
the ignorant, and the evil. You, I feel sure, have the intelligence and 
strength of character not to be swayed by this. Tliese name-callers bj? 
their actions prove only inferiority, no matter what their status in 
life. 

Speaking not only for myself, but for the committee and the great 
majority of Americans, I am sure, I congratulate you for the job you 
have done so well, the sacrifices you have made for your country and 
your fellovrman. For these tilings you always have the gratitude of 
this committee and, I am quite sure, the majority of the American 
people. 

Miss Holmes. Thank you very much. [Applause and boos.] 
Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

I have only one life to give and I gave it to my country and my 
people. 

I am happy and I am satisfied regardless of the slander, because 
this has been the result of my working in the Communist Party. I 
have been slandered, defamed, criticized, and hurt; nobody knows 
but God. And a very happy informer. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

The committee will stand in recess until 9 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

(^Vliereupon, at 6 :30 p.m., Tuesday, May 25, 1965, the subcommittee 
recessed, to reconvene at 9 a.m., Wedncisday, May 2G, 19G5.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, 

AREA 

Part 1 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 26, 1965 

United States House of RepresenTxVtives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Chicago, Illinois. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 9 :30 a.m., in the Old United States Court of 
Appeals Building, 1212 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 
Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members : Eepresentatives Edwin E, Willis, of Lou- 
isiana, chairman ; Joe R. Pool, of Texas ; Charles L. Weltner, of Geor- 
gia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and Del Clawson, of California.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, Welt- 
ner, Ashbrook, and Clawson. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director: William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Neil E. Wetter- 
man and Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The Chair is pleased to announce that we have with us today the 
ranking minority member of the House Committee on Un-Anieri- 
can Activities who, because of a death in the family, could not be here 
yesterday, the Honorable John Ashbrook. 

Mr. Ashbrook, we are grateful for your counsel and advice. 

Furthermore, the Chair would like to make this general statement. 
Yesterday, as everyone knows, the Chair made certain rulings after 
consultation with members of the committee. We are not going to 
replow that ground or rehash that particular phase of these hearings. 

Number two, as everyone Ivuows, the chief judge of this district ruled 
that the hearings would be held here instead of the ceremonial court- 
room. We, of course, appreciated that ruling and completely respect 
it. Tlie fact remains, however, that we are operating in rather tight 
quarters under difficult circumstances. 

So. we are following today the practice built on experience that this 
committee always follows, and it is this: We accommodate in the 
hearing room as many as can be accommodated. If a cup is full of 
water, you just can't add any more. 

Now, for the convenience of our guests, spectators, we always ar- 
range, and we have done so this time, in an orderly fashion, to permit 

385 



386 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

others to come in as some of our guests retire. That is the very best 
we can do. That is the only thing we can do. Now, as I say, this 
presents some difficulties, but we are used to that. 

This committee has been in existence for a long time ; incidentally, 
the predecessor was created back in 1930, as I recall. It was re- 
formed in 1934 and the chairman of the predecessor conmiittee at that 
time was the present Speaker of the House, the Honorable John Mc- 
Cormack from Massachusetts. The committee was re-created until 
finally, under the Reorganization Act of 1946, this committee was 
made a permanent, standing committee of the House. 

So, as I say, we operate under difficult circumstances, but we do 
the best we can with the quarters we have and the accommodations 
that are available. 

Now, we are in a Federal courtroom, and under the practice of this 
district and others the same discipline, decomm, and cooperation must 
obtain here as if this were a regular ceremonial Federal court. Part 
of the same rule is, of course, that we must have the same conduct, 
appropriate and proper and courteous conduct, here as would obtain 
in a Federal courtroom. 

We cannot and will not, as there could not be in a Federal courtroom, 
have or tolerate interruptions from the audience of any kind, whether 
by asking questions or otherwise. 

I might point out further, finally, that each witness who was served 
with a subpena was at the same time served with a printed copy of the 
rules of this committee. I want to cite for the record at this time the 
rule of the committee, Rule VII, dealing with the role of counsel. 
Rule VII reads as follows : 

A — At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

B— The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while 
the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his legal 
rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with the 
Committee, but shall confine his activity to the area of legal advice to his client. 

Now, I am a member of the legal profession. I have been an attor- 
ney, taught law for 10 years, and graduated from law school 39 years 
ago. We realize, all counsel, that we are all officers of the court. 
And I appeal particularly to them to respect the rules and admonitions 
I have outlined although, of course, they apply to all. 

Mr. Marshal, you will enforce these rules. 

Counsel, proceed with your first witness this morning. 

Mr. Sullivan. Mr. Chairman, as a lawyer, I would like to make a 
record here. I ask that I be permitted to speak, and this in support of 
the motion which I made yesterday in behalf of Dr. Stamler and 
witnesses. 

The Chairman. Counsel is out of order. His client. Dr. Stamler, 
is not on the stand. 

Mr. Sullivan. I have a motion 

The Chairman. I will be glad to discuss with Mr. Sullivan whatever 
he has in mind during the course of the morning, but I will not tolerate 
interruptions here, now. With that understanding, I will talk to you, 
and I have a good idea what you have in mind. 

Mr. Sullivan. I just don't want to waive any rights of these clients, 
Mr. Willis. I have no intention to impede your hearing. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 387 

Mr. Meyers. May I have the same ? 

The Chairman. Now proceed. 

Mr. Steinberg. May I say, Mr. Chairman- 



Mr. NiTTLE. Will Lucius Armstrong please take the stand ? 

Mr. Wolf. On behalf of a witness who was named, I ask permission 
to address the Chair on behalf of Dorothy Hayes, who was named 
yesterday. 

The Chairman. Denied. 

Counsel will take their seats. 

Mr. Meters. As a fellow lawyer, may I address the Chair? 

My name is Irving Meyers. 

Mr. Nittle. Will the Chair kindly swear the witness ? 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LUCIUS ARMSTRONG 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and address for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Armstrong. Lucius Armstrong, and I reside at 1423 East T9th 
Street. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you lived in Chicago, Mr. Armstrong ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Smce 1923. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mr. Armstrong. Hollywood, Mississippi, about 32 miles from Nortli 
Memphis, Tennessee, in the year 1900, 2d day of March. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Only the eighth grade in a rural school 5 miles 
out in the country from Hollywood, Mississippi. 

Mr. Nittle. "What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Armstrong. At present I work for the Chicago Park District. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you been employed by the Chicago Park 
District ? 

Mr. Armstrong. A little over 2 years. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, prior to that, where were you employed ? 

Mr. Armstrong. The United States Steel Corporation, 3426 East 
89th Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. Nittle. During what period have you been employed by United 
States Steel? 

Mr. Armstrong. I went to work in the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion December 18, 1925, and retired on January 1, 1963. 

Mr. Nittle. In what capacity were you last employed at United 
States Steel? 

Mr. Armstrong. I was a blast furnace keeper, that is, operated a 
blast furnace. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Armstrong, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Armstrong. I have. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, at this point, I desire simply to establish the 
dates of your membership in the Communist Party. We shall go into 
more detail. 



388 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Amistrong, I was noting that we desire to establish the dates 
of your membership and activity in the Commmiist Party and we 
shall go into more detail as we move on in the interrogation. 

Would you tell us, please, when you first joined the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Armstrong. During the latter part of the summer of 1931. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Armstrong. Until 1963, with two exceptions. I had two inter- 
vals of broken party activity. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us approximately when your first break 
came in your activity as a Commmiist ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, it was the latter part of 1934 until the early 
part of 1936. 

The next break, which was a complete break, happened in the spring 
of 1948, and when I resumed activity in the party it was 1953. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, what happened in 1953 at which time j^^ou state 
you resumed activity? 

Mr. Armstrong. The reason I resumed activity, is that what you 
want ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Commencing in 1953. 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, I was asked by the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation to reenter the Communist Party activity and I had been 
accepted. By the way, I was kind of reluctant because I thought that 
probably I could not do it in my working, some of the expense and 
disappointments I had, you Imow, through the years, but I finally 
accepted. That is the reason I worked until 1963. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that, then, Mr. Armstrong, from the period com- 
mencing in 1953 till the time you left tlie Communist Party in 1963, 
you were at all times acting in cooperation with the Government of 
the United States ; is that right ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Armstrong, we Avould like the record to re- 
flect at this point the major offices you have held in the Communist 
Party. 

First, we would like to include that period up to 1953, which is the 
period prior to the time you served the Government of the United 
States. 

Mr. Armstrong. What period do you want ? Do you want from my 
early period? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would like you to discuss first the offices you held 
prior to that first break you mentioned, which occurred at or about 
1934. 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. I see. 

I Avould like to say something to the proceedings for the benefit of 
the stenographer and for the benefit of my, you know, familiarity with 
the Communist movement and for my limited ability in some ways of 
speaking, that in referring to my rise in the party I may use the term 
"national committee," which is a recent term in the whole central com- 
mittee. The national committee when I speak and the central com- 
mittee is one and the same. 

'\Anien I speak of units as a lower party cell and speak of clubs, that 
is one and the same. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 389 

Wlien I speak of State committees and districts in whatever form I 
explain, they are one and the same, but the two different names apply 
to the two different stages of history in the Communist movement. 

Now, upon entering he Communist activity in 1931, I was first at- 
tached and attracted to the Communist movement by the Unemploy- 
ment Council. I was laid off in June 1931 from the steel mill for a 
short time and during this lay-off I fell in action with the Unemploy- 
ment Council. To me, the reason I draw no distinction in the Unem- 
ployment Council, I thought I was in the Communist movement. 

When I spoke here of the place I assumed that 1 was a Communist, 
and from the little understanding I was highly elated and a vigorous 
fighter, vigorous leader for the Communist Party, but this was short- 
lived so far as my thinking. I was, of course, approached pretty 
soon by a Communist friend by the name of Poindexter at that time 
and he asked me, he says, "Mr. Armstrong, do you want to get in the 
Communist Party?" 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that David Poindexter ? 

Mr. Armstrong. David Poindexter. Yes. 

He says, "Do you want to get in the Communist Party?" 

I used some violent word to him, you Imow. I said, "What are you 
talking about ? I am already a Communist. What do you mean do 
I want to get in the Communist Party ?" 

I felt kind of humiliated, but I found out I was not in the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Then I was, you know, joined the Communist Party. They gave 
me a card, cost me 10 cents a card, 10 cents a month at that time. 
So I joined the Communist Party. I was soon attached to Unit 12 of 
the South Side Section and we met in various houses or places, not 
always the same place. The section usually met at the Milda Hall 
which we called the Vihif's at that time and it was kind of a newspaper 
printing place. They called it the Vilnis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that newspaper, to your knowledge, a publication 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, I don't know. The publication was a paper 
called the Vilnis^ but I don't know enough of it now, because I didn't 
have the experience that I have now as to indicate definitely that it was 
a Communist-controlled paper. But I would at least say the people 
and management around this area was sympathetic to the movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I state for the record, Mr. Chairman, that the pub- 
lication, Vihiis, is a publication that has been cited by this committee 
as a Communist newspaper which represents among the most impor- 
tant of all Communist publications in the United States. Its circula- 
tion exceeded that of the Daily Worker. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Now, Mr. Armstrong, would you proceed with relating 
your first attachment to a Communist unit ? 

Mr, Armstrong. Yes. My first attachment, I was put in one of the 
Communist units by the name of Unit 12 in the South Side Section. 
I don't know how long that I was, you know, just a member of the 
unit, but my activities increased because of the fight of the Unemploy- 
ment Council on tlie struggles, you know, fight for relief and things 
of that sort, putting people back in houses when they were put out, and 
all this. This, you know, gave rise to the Communist influence hereto- 



390 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

fore recorded in history of the start of the Coimnunist movement in 
America. 

Now, the next move in the Commmiist drives of the party, I became 
tlie unit organizer, and from tlie unit organizer in 1932 

The Chairman. You mean the community organizer ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Unit organizer. 

Voice. And HUAC should be abolished, too. HUAC should be 
abolished. 

Voice. HUAC should be abolished. I agree, HUAC should be 
abolished. 

Voice. HUAC should be abolished. 

The Chairman. Proceed with your questions. This is obviously a 
plamied demonstration. We will proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Armstrong, will you proceed to relate the posi- 
tions you have occupied or held in the Communist Party? You 
were telling us about your offices in Unit 12 of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. I think that in my last statement I had 
reached the point of 1932 when I became unit organizer. Li the 
same year just prior to the South Side Section convention and the 
State convention, I became section organizer, and 

Mr. Nittle. May I interrupt a moment. 

Would you tell the committee whether, as section organizer, you 
had a position or a jurisdiction which involved leadership of 
several clubs ? 

Mr. Armstrong. The section always had different clubs within 
territorial areas, organization responsibilities measured by the 
party. Now, the number of clubs to a section did not necessarily 
require a unit of even numbers so far as the section is concerned; 
it would be three, five, seven or any number, you know, up to a 
certain amount. 

In the South Side Section, we had nine clubs. This was before, 
you know, somethmg which I may speak about a little later on 
when there were more. 

Just prior to the party convention, national convention, we had 
a discussion in the State District of Illinois in which Mr. Harold 
was the district organizer and Mr. Williams — Donner Williams, I 
think; I am not sure. Mr. Williams was the district secretary, and 
there were other district leaders whom I just can't recall the name 
right now. I don't remember. 

Anyway, the next move that I recall being made of the Commu- 
nist Party, I was a delegate from the District of Illinois. 

The Chairman. We want the substance of all you have to say. 

Mr. Armstrong. The substance ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Wliat was the next office you held, Mr. Armstrong? 

Mr. Armstrong. I was a member of the national committee. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a delegate also to the national convention? 

Mr. Armstrong. That is where I got elected to the national com- 
mittee. I was a member from the District of Illinois ; I was a mem- 
ber of the delegation to the national convention in 1933, I think.^ 

1 Probably the Eighth National Convention of the CPUSA held in Cleveland, Ohio, on 
April 2-8, 1934. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 391 

At this convention, I was nominated and elected to the National 
Committee or the Central Committee of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that was one of the highest governing bodies of 
the Communist Party in the United States ; is that right ? 

Mr. Armstrong. That is right. The national committee would 
be called the same, that is, it was the highest form of all the Com- 
munists of the United States and the central committee was the 
highest governing body of the Communist Party of the United 
States in between the gathering of the Communist Party and the 
national convention. 

Mr. Kittle. Now, this was all prior to 1935 ; was it not ? 

Mr. Armstrong. It was. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, you became inactive, I believe you testified, in 
the latter part of 1934. You had a break until 1936. 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Is that correct? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. You had not terminated your membership formally 
with the Communist Party during that period ? 

Mr. Armstrong. No. 

Now, upon return home, back to Illinois, from the national con- 
vention, the party in the State of, or District of Illinois had several 
organizational measures that they had to take in accordance with 
resolutions of the recent convention and through this deliberation 
of the district I was put on the Control Commission of the Commu- 
nist Party of the District of Illinois. And this commission''s business 
was to discipline Communists who were not so favorable to the 
Communist Party or to find the evidence justifying some decision to 
be taken on the Communist activity that, you know, was kind of 
detrimental to the party. 

On this committee we had lawyers, and Attorney Bentall of 
Chicago was the head of this Control Commission. 

Further in this year 1934, the latter part of 1933 or early part of 
1934, the party put on real effort in order to educate its cadre, it 
was called, that is, the leadership of the members of the party, 
developing the Communist understanding. They had a school 

Voice. HUAC is unconstitutional and has no right to ask 
questions. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Armstrong, when you were on the Control Com- 
mission of the Communist Party of the State of Illinois and Attor- 
ney Bentall served with you, was that David Bentall ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. And he is now deceased ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I don't know. 

Mr. Nittle. The Control Commission was the police arm of the 
Communist Party ; is that right ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, I just want to indicate for the time being the 
offices you held, and then we will come back and give you an 
opportunity to explain further activities and issues concerned. 



52-810 — fifi — pt. 1- 



392 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

You noted that you were inactive during the period of late 1934 
to 1936. What was the explanation for your inactivity at this 
point ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I don't know as I can say 

The Chairman. Just a brief explanation. Proceed. 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, during my time as a member of the cen- 
tral committee, I was chosen in the district to go to the school 
which was held in the United States, but it was said to be an inter- 
national school. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I want to go into more detail on that a little 
later. Let us pass on for a moment to the next period during which 
you became active in the Communist Party. I believe you indicated 
that was in or about 1936. 

Mr. Ar3istrong. Do you want me to explain? I didn't get 
through that. 

Mr. NrrTLE. All right. 

Mr. Armstrong. I was sent to this school. Could I explain that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Armstrong. I was sent to this school, and the school lasted 4 
months. Being a member of the central committee, the committee 
had a meeting in New York. This school was up in tlie mountains 
in New Jersey, about 40 miles on the other side of New York. I 
was brought from this school down to attend a session of the meet- 
ing of the central committee, and during this meeting of the central 
committee the question came up on the Negro struggle. 

The questions involved essentially with the Negro nation, and they 
had certain territories which they called the Black Belt, extending 
down to Mississippi and Alabama and whatnot, the Negro majority. 
The party was deliberating on what was the greatest setbacks, you 
know, to the penetration against the desires of the Negro. 

The question of white chauvinism in philosophical terms in the 
Communist language was said to be rampant on the outside and in 
the South ; you know, the party had to break down the white chauvin- 
ism against the Negro, but the discussion and deliberation centered 
around white chauvinism throughout the United States. 

So, when I got the floor, I was enthused by some of the new knowl- 
edge I acquired in the school over a few days, and price and profit, 
and stuff of that kind and a study of the colonial question, superior 
writers — by Stalin, you know. 

So, when I got the floor, a chance to speak, I told the meeting of 
the central committee, and Mr. Eisler was there and Mr. Gebert was 
there, and I told them that there was as much white chauvinism in 
the Communist Party itself as there was on the outside, and for that 
I fell in disrepute with the whole central committee. 

Bill Gebert told me, "You didn't have to speak ; you could have kept 
your mouth shut." 

From that day on, that is when my value as a member of the cen- 
tral committee fell very low. There was a lot more other than this 
statement, but I know that this statement was one that, j-ou know, 
characterized my feelings, and so on, from this meeting on. 

I relurned after finishing the school and I came back home in Febni- 
ary of 1935 from this school. I was not called upon nny more for 
party coimection or anything. On March 5, I went back in the field 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 393 

to work and they didn't bother me and I didn't bother them. Nobody 
contacted me, and I didn't contact anybody. This was not a break 
that you would say was recorded in some of the national procedures 
of breaking- with the part}', but this was it. 

Do you want me to continue? 

The Chairman. Yes, if you are bringing- it up to date, as briefly as 
possible. 

]\Ir. Armstrong. I was going to tell about coming back into the 
party. I wanted to know if you wanted this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, that will be all right. 

The Chairman. Proceed in order. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You came back into the party then in what year? 

Mr. Armstrong. In 1936 I became active again in connection with 
the etl'orts on the part of the party and I don't recall just saying 
going back joining the party over or anything but, you know, things 
kind of fitted in because of the internal and external situation, you 
know, in the organization of the CIO at that time. 

That is when I came back in. After this fighting in the American 
Federation of Labor between John L. Lewis and William Green, which 
culminated in Philip A. Murray and John L. Lewis heading the Con- 
gress for Industrial Organization — tliat is, organizing the mass pro- 
duction that was unorganized; namely, automobiles, steel, packing, 
and so on — these industries organized and by 1937 they had contracts, 
you know, with most of them. It was during this period from 1936 
that I came back to the party. 

During this period the Communists had influence enough and respect 
enough and they submitted that the State leaders in many cases were 
gi\'en jobs as organizers on this committee, on this start'. They were 
paid $8.00 a day to help organize the steelworkers, I know, and the 
same with automobile, packing, and other industries, and they orga- 
nized these industries. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you a member of any particular unit of the Com- 
munist Party upon becoming active again in 1936 ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I don't recall this particular unit but I know I was, 
you know, in the section and I was meeting with the Communists; but 
now the question of the closed-type of organization that exists, I don't 
know who had what you might say a steel section at that time which 
we later had. 

I don't know whether it applies to this period. By organization, 
you know, it is not clear that we had established in 1936 what you call 
a steel section because the conditions, you understand, for a person in 
the party were not clear enough for the party to have an organization 
with its steel section, a broad organization, you know, until the orga- 
nizing campaign started in 1936. At the beginning I was in on that 
and I won't say, you understand, that they had a type of organization, 
but the Communists were meeting, we had meetings. By the time that 
w^e had a union contract in 1937 we did have a party organization in 
the Chicago section and it was called the Steel Section of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you remain active in the Steel Section of the Com- 
munist Party until 191:8 ? 

Mr. AmiSTRONG. Yes, I did. I had held various responsibilities such 
as educational director, party organizational responsibility, you know, 
to see that certain party members acted in different capacities in the 
union. These were our jobs that I carried out. 



394 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREi 

Now one other thing is important, most important, is that in 1937 
when we got the first contract with the steel industry we had 11 dif- 
ferent miions withm south Chicago, what you call South Works, and 
I was one of the first vice presidents of the local in the United States 
Steel and the only Negro and the first general griever of the local. 
This had to do with the contract in the controversies and misunder- 
standings, you know, that arose within the interpretation of the con- 
tract during the course at the time that the contract covered. 

Now by being, you know, union griever, I could not, you know, take 
party responsibility because this job itself was more than enough, you 
know, to do. So for these years, you know, after we got a contract I 
did not hold section-unit leadership, but I was a member and a part of 
the discussions and deliberations of the party in the highest degree m 
that particular territory and even to the district. I went to the district 
discussion. 

Now I held this position for 11 years, from 1937 to 1918. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What caused you to make, as you said, a complete break 
with the Communist Party in 1948 ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, after the 1937 contract we began to have 
some trouble because of the party's insistence on bringing in new 
issues, you understand. The major issue was organizing the worker 
in the union contract. But we had other issues, you know, being added 
and twisted and in conflict of interest with union responsibilities and 
tactics in the party. We did not always, you know, coincide with each 
other, and this brought about some disgraceful feelings and action on 
the part of, the part of the union leadership and many times in all 
leadership, such as Joe Germano and Nick Fontana at that time and 
Philip Murray, and so on. 

This drifted on, this conflict, you know, in and out until 1937 on up 
until the war broke out you know in 1941, Pearl Harbor, and so on. 

During the course of the time of the agreement or cooperation be- 
tween the United States and Russia, you know, in the war and during 
this era this was kind of easing on this, you know, kind of glossed ovei? 
tliese things, they didn't come out as sharp as they had, you know, 
between 1937 and up until 1941, see. 

So this was kind of a, say, getting along period together, you know. 
But after the war broke, you know, and peace, you know, in 1945, the 
situation eroded, you know, and more sharply, you know, in 1945, 1946 
more than ever. 

The question came on because of the stillness periods, you know, the 
union leadership that the CIO had. They went to a convention at 
Atlantic City and they passed a clause to the constitution that all the 
subversives, who were known subversives, associated, you know, with 
subversives, could not run for an elective office in no place locally or 
nationally within the steel union. And this applied, of course, to me 
and several other real unions and real staunch, you know, assets to the 
party. 

So we approached Mr. Powell, who was a section organizer in that 
section at that time, and he is now in Chicago working. Mr. Powell 
insisted that we don't resign, that we don't, you know, get off the 
ballot, that we stay there and let them put us off the ballot. 

So 3 days before the election I was sent a letter from Joe Germano's 
office. This was on a Saturday, the election was to be Tuesday. In 
this letter he told me that my name would not appear on the ballot on 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 395 

Tuesday and he said, "Now, Armstrong, if you have any grievances 
toward this decision, you come down and see me." 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Continue with your questions, CounseL 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand you to haA^ e said, Mr. Armstrong, that the 
union adopted the policy of not having Communists within it and, for 
that reason, you were not placed on the ballot : is that right? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. It isn't correct to say not having Commu- 
nists in it, it didn't mean that. It meant that no known Communist 
could run or hold an elective office in no place vrithin the lower chan- 
nels or the higher channels of the union responsibility, but being a 
member of the union as a Communist Avas never acted against by the 
union. 

Now 8 days before tlie election, number one, and this is my point, 
and this is why I am sitting in this position today, it began detinite. 
I say this and I sa}- it pointedly and I want it understood that prior 
to this particular time, and sometimes I almost cry, I have been fault- 
ing myself for my qualities, you understaiid, why I could not adjust 
myself to certain things about the Communists. 

I have been thinking I was the fault and I struggled with it for 
years, but here is why I got good and clear and this is why I am 
sitting in this seat today and I want to say this: I have seen some 
spectaculars today and yesterday in this place 

The Chairman. Now don't go into that. 

Mr. Nii^n.E. Don't go into that, Mr. Armstrong. 

Mr. Armstrong. I am sorry, I am human sometimes. 

The Chairman. I feel for you. 

Proceed. 

jSIr. Armstrong. Now, number one, was that I tried to get them to 
take several of us who were stamich leaders — I tried to tell them to 
let's take our name ofi' the ballot. Mr. Powell come up and said we 
(ion't get off the ballot, we get a lawyer and all this legal stuff against 
tb.e union. To my way of thinking, I want to say truthfully I thought 
we were fighting the Communists and getting the leadership and 
ihat is why I didn't go along with it. That is number one. 

Number two, when they ruled me off the ballot and I went down, 
and they didn't want me to go talk to them, but 1 went down anyway. 

Mr, Nitti.e. VTlxo was Germano? 

Mr. Armstrong. District organizer of District 31 of the United 
States Steel organization. 

Now I went to him, and he savs : ''Arms! rong, yon are section leader, 
good guy, and the guy is all right. "We know you are valuable, but 
this is a ruling and voii know you have Communist activitv and so 
on." 

He says : '"You are not elected to that office, but that is an office they 
appoint you to, one of responsibility." 

I went back to the section with this and they said, '"No, don't take 
It." What they did behind my bark, when I found out, they had went 
out into blast furnace and used my name in this issue and collected 
over 40" signatures in the blast furnace alone and was going to present 
I hem, you understand, as a protest against GeiTuano's decision, ruling 
us off the ballot, and this is where I blew up, you know. 



396 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

For that reason I stayed away from the union, woukl not even go 
anywhere near the union for years, because I didn't want it misunder- 
stood that I was, you know, doing something against the union. 

Mr. XiTTLE. If I understand you correctly, you are saying that 
your Communist activities and membership were incompatible with 
the trade union movement. Is that right ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes, and it is further than that. I could not be 
what you call a flexible person enough to be a Communist and trade 
union leader. 

The Chairman. That is fine. Proceed, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, then, you remained out of it, you had your break 
with the Communist Party, vou have stated, continuing from 1948 
to 1953 ? 

The Chairman. He already stated he rejoined after discussion and 
reflection with the FBI. Now let's go on from 1953. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What unit of the Communist Party did you resume 
your activity with on behalf of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Upon my approach to the party it had a round- 
about way which cannot be construed to any regular established party 
procedure of getting to organize. It had a round-about way, but I 
finally got there. 

Now upon my decision to go back into the party, accepting rather 
my decision to go back into the party, 1 was able to talk with Mr, Bow- 
man, Jesse Bowman on the west side, who was working and ^Ir. 
Wangerin somebody, two brothers. I don't know the names, but 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't want that much detail at this point, ]Mr. Arm- 
strong. You can tell us whether you began working with any particu- 
lar section or unit of the Commiuiist Party. 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, my work was in the Steel Section because 
that is where I worked at. The party organization was rather loose, 
and I was one of the people that began to get entitled to get the party 
organization on a tighter organized basis ))ecnuse people like me, you 
know, had been frustrated and swallowed, you know, so far as the 
party was concerned during the time that the party was underground 
and during the time that the membership in this area was hiding, you 
know. 

Like I got out, you know, for quite a while. This period they were, 
you know, coming back and this is the period that the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation asked me to, you know, take this responsibility. 

Now upon taking this responsibility in the mixing of the party orga- 
nization of steel or realizing the party organization of steel, I was a 
martyr and it resulted in this involvement that I had to go to Indiana 
Harbor to see some former steelworkers, party members, which had 
disassociated themselves froui the party during the period which was 
history, I did not understand myself. I was not a part of it, and I 
didn't understand this, but it was very complicated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, was a Steel Section of the Communist Party 
formed during the period ? 

Mr. Armstrong. During this period it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE, 1953 ? 

Mr. Armstrong. It was very weak with a A-ery limited num])er of 
steelworkers but it was formed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many clubs comprised this Steel Section? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 397 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, it was three; the South Chicago Club, the 
Gary Club, and the Budda Club. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. Of what club were you a member ? 

Mr. Armstrong. South Chicaoo. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were Richard Dolby, D-o-l-b-y, and John Reinke, 
R-e-i-n-k-e, also active in the South Cliicago Club with you ? 

Mr. Armstrong. They were in my club. 

^h\ XiTTLE. Xow witli respect to the Budda Club, we should like to 
inquire whether Mario Manzardo, Emanuel Blum, and Milton 
Wright 

INIr. Armstrong. Milt a Wright. 

Mr. NiTixE. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Armstrong. M-i-1-t-a. 

Mr. N1TIT.E. Who was chairman of the Gary Club ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Mario Manzardo was the area chairman. He was 
the district organizer of Indiana and he acted in leadership capacity 
of the Gary group because of the physical circumstances involved in the 
distance, you know, of getting members together. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were Frank Lumpkin, L-u-m-p-k-i-n, and Emmett 
Paul, P-a-u-1, both active in the Gary Club ? 

]Mr. Armstrong. Yes. That is steel, this is part of Gary setup. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What n;> me was given to the Steel Section ? 

Mr. Armstrong. In Indiana ? 

Mr. XiTTLE. In Illinois. 

Mr. Armstrong. The Johnstone Section. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Was that named from Jack Johnstone ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. The party history indicates a period when 
the party, you know, gives names in honor of certain persons, leaders 
that died, and Johnstone was once a section organizer for the Steel 
Section and a few years back and he was honored to that extent. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Xow, did you meet with the national Industrial Com- 
mittee of the Communist iParty ? 

Mr. Armstrong. The national Steel Commission. 

Mr. XiTTLE. The national Steel Commission. 

Mr. Armstrong. The national Industrial Commission was in attend- 
ance over a 2- or 3-year period in the national Steel Commission de- 
liberation from south Chicago and the Illinois District of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Xrn'LE. Did you hold the position of organizer of the Johnstone 
Section of the Communist Partv at any time during the period 1953 
to 1963? 

Mr. Armstrong. Xo. Section organizer, I was a very short while. 
The party itself did away with this so-called broad, you know, organi- 
zational term "section'' within the industry, and the reason was because 
of the difficulty the party faced with the GoveiTiment actions against 
the party and because of the physical ramifications of the cadre of the 
party line, you know. 

The party would change the organization setup and would give more 
than one person, you know, physical responsibility in the way of, you 
know, pressing the party views and carrying out party work. So it 
Avould be safe to say that when you speak of a club in a lighter sense, 
lighter organizational meaning of the party, it means that an indus- 
trial club becomes important in status, because a club in the industry 



398 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

leadership was tlien the parliament embodiment of the district, dealing 
Avith and making decisions on wliatever the district of the part}" in- 
tended to pursue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now who was the chairman of the steel group or 
commission on the national level ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, you are speaking of club or commission? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am speaking now of the commission. 

Mr. Armstrong. The Steel Commission ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. You stated you were with the Steel Commission. 

Mr. Armstrong. Krchmarek was responsible for the national Steel 
Commission, national committee of the party, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Anton ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. He reorganized the State of Ohio, the State 
organizer of the party of Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A-n-t-o-n K-r-c-h-m-a-r-e-k? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now what was tlie function of the national Industrial 
Commission of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. As I recall, when the party had the setup on us of 
having what you call a national committee of all the major industries 
where it was necessary, but that you had this particular type of work 
and type of industry located in different places in the United States, 
they had an over-all commission that was sometimes all or part of 
the leaders from these different industries in dift'erent places together 
on a national scale in order to unify the program of the party and 
make the party program move, you know, in unity in tliis particular 
single industry. We had a national commission in automobile, a na- 
tional commission in steel, a national commission in packing, railroad, 
and what-not, and so on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Armstrong, you were also a member of the State 
committee of the Communist Party for the State of Illinois; were 
you not? 

Mr. Armstrong. I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long had you served as a member of the State 
committee? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, I don't know the exact date, but I served on 
this State committee. 

Voice. This farce lias gone on long enough. Abolish HUAC. 

Voice. Abolish HUAC. 

Voice. Abolish HUAC. 

Voice. This farce is ridiculous. This is a witch hunt. Abolish 
HUAC. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. I was inquiring of you, Mr. Armstrong. I under- 
stand that you were elected as a delegate to the iTth National Con- 
vention of the Communist Party at the meeting of the State conven- 
tion in 1959 ; is that right ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I was not a delegate to the national convention, I 
was an alternate delegate to the national convention in 1959. I was 
elected at the State convention of the State of Illinois from this party 
and I attended this convention on December 10, 11, 12 in New York 
City. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Armstrong, was Paul Robeson, Jr., in attendance 
at the convention? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 399 

Mr. Armstrong. He was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Paul Eobeson, Jr., to be a member of 
the Communist Party '? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, I assume he was a Communist Party mem- 
ber; he was at a national convention meeting. I don't think a person 
not a Communist could get that far, a proceeding on the deliberations 
of the Communist Party on the highest level. This is the only time 
I saw him prior to or since, but he was on the resolutions committee 
dealing with the Negro question in which I was a member at this 
convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were the members of that group composed exclusively 
of Communist Party members ? 

Mr. Armstrong. To my knowledge. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This was a closed meeting? 

Mr. Armstrong. It was. The delegate meeting? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Hov7 long had you known Claude Lightfoot? 

Mr. Armstrong. Ever since I came in the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him as a Communist in 1931, when you 
became a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. No, he was not a Communist because he was 
teclinically imported into the i^arty. He was not a Communist; he 
was a district member of the Young Communist League, which was 
a training organization on the part of the young people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You spoke of being in attendance at an international 
school of the Communist Party in New Jersey while you were a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Claude Lightfoot in attendance at that school in 
any capacity ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes; Claude Lightfoot was on what you call stu- 
dent leadership of this school. He was one of the student leaders of 
this school and he was assisting in the discussion, leading discussion 
on the question of value, right, and property, I do recall. The value, 
price, and profit. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you also testified that you were taught at this 
school by Eisler. Was that Gerhart Eisler? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, Mr. Eisler had lectures at the school. I 
call him that now because I found out what his name was many years 
later, but at that time his name around us was never called. But I 
could see him in action, you know, in the convention. Everybody, you 
know, almost, kept active and he was considered, I know on several 
occasions, when the deliberations in the convention or the central 
committee meetings where they reached, you know, critical points of 
discussion without decisions, once he spoke and had taken a position, 
that was it. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Was he in attendance at meetings of the central com- 
mittee which you attended? 

Mr. Armstrong. That is where I noticed this most. He was all over 
the place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "NAHial were you taught by him at this school in New 
Jersey ? 



400 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Armstrong. AYell, what I was tauglit at tliis school was the basic 
philosophy of communism and dealing with the dictatorship of the 
proletariat. 

Also, I was taught some principles of how to communicate with the 
party in case, you know, certain natural forces were not available. I 
was taught some, you know, how to be secret. I was given a book 
and this book was Free Vi itches. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What? 

Mr. Armstrong. Free Witches. We could communicate. They 
said this method was impossible and I Avas, you know, taught hoAv 
to send messages, write messages. The first letter would indicate the 
page, the second letter the line, you know, and the third letter, and so 
on, and so on. That is the wa,y it Avorked. 

You would have to, you know, ungarble it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were taught communications of a sort ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Y^es. That was only given to the higlier party 
members, you know, up in tlie liighest leadership in the party. It was 
not taught generally through the party. It was given to, you know, 
the top leaders of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The top leadership of the party was taught at this 
school ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. They had a method. That was, they had 
other methods, but that is the one I was given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now would you tell us, ]\Ir. Amistrong, anything about 
the Communist Party securit}^ program respecting professional mem- 
bers of its organization, such as doctors and lawyers and those per- 
sons who had penetrated GoA^ernment to any degree ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. Well, under the normal physical conditions 
for the party to organize and Avork, my latest understanding of the 
party organization and procedure AA-as that they ahvays giA^e the pro- 
fessional people priA'ilege to meet by themseh'es, because the type of 
discussion and party interest Avould be entirely diiferent from the gen- 
eral noma of the party. 

These professional people had a club for the professional people such 
as doctors and laAvyers and, you knoAV, teachers and other people. This 
Avas during the party Avork. 

For many years the ))arty turned loose many professional people, 
and they disassociated themselves from contact Avith the party organi- 
zation. They were not required to attend meetings or to say, you know, 
I got to go to this Communist thing or that. They AA-ere turned loose 
to work alone on their oAvn. 

This AA^as prior to the 1959 com^ention. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nittle, AA'e Avill have a fcAv minutes recess to gi\"e 
the stenographer a rest. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee A\'ill come to order. 

Mr.SulliA^an? 

Mr. Si^LLivAN. Y"es, sir. 

The Chairman, I understand that you want to ui"<2:e and ask per- 
mission that the original short brief as to why your clients, Dr. Stam- 
ler and Mrs. Hall — that before any reference to them is made by other 
witnesses 

Mr. Sullivan. That is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 401 

The Chairman. That is correct. Now you understand that yester- 
day we went over this in proper direct application to the rules of the 
House and of this committee. Upon j'Our suggestion and others, the 
committee afforded you an opportunity along that line already, and 
tliis is really stretching discretion and fair play to reopen the subject. 
However, with the understanding that your reason to be given is non- 
argumentative and with your understanding in the role as counsel 
under Rules A^^II and VIII of the committee, we give you that per- 
mission. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, I ask for the same privilege for my 
client. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Will you state your name for the record, please 't 

Mr. Steinberg. My name is Irving G. Steinberg. 

The Chairman. And who are your clieiits ? 

Mr. Steinberg. My clients are Ben Fried] ander, Helen Queen, and 
David Englestein. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Sullivan. May I have 2 minutes ? 

The Chairman. Pardon^ 

Mr, Sullivan. Two minutes ? 

The Chairjman. Yes. 

Mr. Sullivan. I would like to restate and resubmit my motion that 
any reference to Mrs. Hall or Dr. Stamler or au}^ interrogatories put 
to them he held in executive session. In addition to the grounds I 
urged yesterday, I have one additional ground. It arose as a result 
of yesterday's proceedings. 

Mr. Chainnan, you stated at the outset of these proceedings that the 
object of these hearings is so that the committee may obtain knowledge 
and information. It appeared yesterday from your statement, and it 
appears today from the interrogation of the witness and the fact that 
your counsel is reading from prepared notes and that both of these wit- 
nesses have been working for the FBI, that the information that these 
witnesses are recounting now is already available and has been in the 
past made available to this committee. 

Therefore, I question whether any proper legislative purpose is ac- 
complished by restating all of these matters in public. 

Now you asked me yesterday to state in what respect the testimony 
of these witnesses might defame or degrade my clients. I now see that 
based upon the testimony • 

The Chairman. I don't think I asked you the question, but 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes. 

The Chairinian, You may proceed, 

Mr. Sullivan. If I misstate anything, j'ou can correct me later. 

It appears from Mrs. Holmes' testimony and Mr. Armstrong's testi- 
mony what they are doing is they are telling the names of certain 
persons who were members of the Communist Party and what activi- 
t ies those jsersons are engaged in. 

Now tliat charge, that charge that a person is a member of the 
Communist Party, or was, be it true or false, is in itself highly degrad- 
ing and defamatory. I am sure we will all agree with that. 'We have 
here a situation in which a witness is permitted to testify, defense 
counsel are not afforded the opportunity to cross-examine or even to 
see the written evidence that is introduced before the committee. 



402 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The committee rules state, and Mr. Willis you stated, that this is 
not a trial. I agree. In many respects, that is the trouble. That is 
the very trouble. We do not have here the protections that we have in 
court proceeding with a regular tiial, opportunity to cross-examine, 
which is the great weapon for trutli under our American jurisprudence. 

For these additional reasons, I ask that executive session be held 
not only as to my clients, but also as to any witness who intends to 
refer to my clients. 

Thank you. [Applause.] 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee : I will only speak 
3 minutes. 

Tlie CiiAiRMAX. Well, I hope what you say is not going to restate 
what has already been said. 

Mr. Steinrero. Well, Mr. Chairman, I feel that I have a right to 
restate it on behalf of my people; they are in various positions, and 
I want to make the record clear and protect the rights of my clients. 

The Chairman. You are now in the process of giving reasons and 
not arg-uing the case. 

Mr. Steinberg. I will not argue the case. I will do exactly what 
Mr. Sullivan did, but on behalf of my clients. 

Mr. Chairman, at this time I wish to ask for executive session on 
behalf of Helen Queen, who has not been identified in any way or 
pointed out by any witness. 

Also, I feel on l^ehalf of David Englestein and Ben Friedlander 
that under Rule XI, 26 (m), any evidence proposed by this committee 
and all of the identification put before this committee so far would 
tend to defame and degrade them. 

Accordingly, I ask for executive session. 

Mr. Chairman, I further point out to this committee that under 
the late Supreme Court decision in the Siibversive Activities Control 
Board versus American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born^ 
the Supreme Court refers to staleness of testimony, 

Mr. Chairman, at this time I am going to move to strike anytliing 
that is old in tlie testimony pertaining to the identification of my 
clients. The Supreme Court there states that the legislation operates 
prospectively and any legislation adduced by this committee without 
prospectively — I know this committee does not want to work on old 
and infirm testimony. 

Further, Mr. Chairman, from the earliest days of Anglo-American 
law, and I am referring to Lord Plale in Pleas of the Crovm. it is 
established that the testimony of an informer can only be strengthened 
by proper cross-examination. 

In order to assist this committee, I ask that you give us a chance 
to cross-examine these informers to establish the strength and validity 
of their testimony so that this committee can properly legislate. 
[Applause.] 

The Chairman. We must have order. I ask that this demonstration 
cease. 

Mr. Ort.ikofe. Mr. Chairman, I don't want to make a statement, but 
on behalf of jMilton Cohen, I woidd like to request executive ses- 
sion. I would like to adopt the statement of Mr. Sullivan on Mr, 
Cohen's behalf. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 403 

Miss Hart. Mr. Chairman, please on behalf of my clients, Wilson 
and Diskin, I would like to 

The Chairman. I could not hear who you represented. 

Miss Hart. One is Wilson and the other one is Diskin, D-i-s-k-i-n, 
both of whom have been subpenaed here. I ask permission to adopt 
the motions made by Mr. Sullivan and by Mr. Steinberg and that the 
Chair and the committee rule similarly with reference to my wit- 
]iesses as they have with reference to the others. 

The Chairman. Anybody else? 

The committee will stand in recess for a few minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Let the record show that as the committee did yesterday before 
the rulings then made, the committee met in executive session and 
considered the motions made by Mr. Sullivan, Mr. Steinberg, Miss 
Pearl Hart, and Mr. Orlikolf, opportunity having been given to others 
to join, and the committee by unanimous vote has decided to overrule 
the several motions. 

In other words, all motions made before this short recess are over- 
ruled. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Ai-mstrong, will you resume the stand, please? 

Mr. Armstrong, there were certain persons occupying leadersliip 
positions in the Communist Party according to testimony of Miss 
Holmes, and I would like to ask whether you, also, knew them to be 
members of the Communist Party. 

Did you know Milton Cohen to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes, I know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet with him as a member of the State com- 
mittee in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I have seen him in State committee meetings. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is during the period 1953 to 1963 ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes, prior to 1963 and since Leonard Arkler was 
at the 1959 party convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Ben Friedlander to be a member of the 
Communist Party at any time during that period between 1953 and 
1963 ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes; I attended party meetings with him also. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet with him as a member of the State com- 
mittee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I have seen him at State committee meetings, and 
he was a member of the industrial meeting and I met with him in 
industrial meeting discussion, too. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know David Englestein to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

jNIr. Armstrong. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him to be a member of the State board 
or executive committee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes, he was. He was with the educational district 
committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Wilberforce Jones to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 



404 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Armstrong, Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet with him at Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Charles Wilson to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he a delegate at the State convention in 1959 ? 

Mr. Armstrong. I am not sure, you know, offhand that way, but 
I have plenty of proof that he was leadership of the party from an 
industry and he was on the top leadership of the party in the industrial 
council and meetings of the club organizers from the industry, and 
soon. 

Mr. NiiTLE. That is the industrial council of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Louis Diskin to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him as a membei- of the State commit- 
tee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Armstrong, your experience in the Communist 
Party has covered a span of over 30 years. You have held high posi- 
tions in the Communist Party both on the State and national levels. 
Now will you tell us briefly what is the principal purpose, function, 
and objective of the Communist Party as you know it? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, that covers a broad field. I don't know with 
the limited time here that I could do real justice to this particular 
problem, because this is the thing today where this is a problem we are 
faced with today. 

The Communist Party is made up of people, human beings, people 
who feel and think and get hungry and die and all these things like 
other }:)eo|ile. but some of them act like they don't know it. They are 
affected, they are affected, and their program reacts to the changing 
conditions to the relative conditions of development that are reached 
by the growth in society, by the improvement of machineiy, and the 
improvement of relationship between nations and people. Their 
program changes qualitative approach, changes qualitative propa- 
ganda, changes so-called position with these qualitative developments, 
and therefore the objectives of the Communist Party today have a 
two-fold purpose which to me today is there are not enough people 
aware of and know what is going on. 

Now I am sitting in this audience today, one who is identified with 
that group who has suffered most from the lack of us being able to 
know that we have got to live up to the Constitution which the Found- 
ing Fathers put upon this country. I am sitting here today in the fore- 
front of the fighters against the philosophy, so-called ideal, of com- 
munism. Why do I do that? Because I got one problem here that 
seems possible today to solve because thej^ are making headway in the 
Government and the leadership of the Communists tackling these 
problems. 

Now why do I want to shackle myself Avitli other contradictions, you 
know, that flits here and thei'e, namely, you know, a Communist solu- 
tion to the problems that we face ? 

Now I say this is two-fold. We are faced today not with a mono- 
lithic program of the Communist Party as it was in Stalin's time 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 405 

prior to World War II when a Cominform existed and they called 
upon the proletarian to work on the world united as one class, and the 
proletariat to otl'er through the Connnunist class or the proletariat dic- 
tatorship replacing the dictatorship of the Communist claim, that is 
not the thing today. 

The Communists today harp about, they don't bother about, you 
know, reall}' propaganda, open to the American people. They change 
and use tactics in any form and situation. The only thing they 
figured that any means justifies their end; the end, you know, justifies 
any means that can be used, and they do that. 

Now we come to the serious thing. We have today a breakup in 
the tactics and strategy of the world Communist movement. We have 
Communist China who seems more bellicose, who takes the position 
that Eussia is too easy, Russia is too complacent. She wants to co- 
exist along with world capitalism, 3'ou know, while the rest of these 
colonial people and all these people suffer. China takes the position 
against this, you understand. China wants to take the other extreme — 
what is that '^ She wants to march, you understand, against the United 
States and its foreign policy, against the paper tiger, whereas Russia 
sees that paper tiger as a — she wants to march with the United States. 
Therefore, it is a controversy between Russia and China. 

Xow don't get the idea that this controversy is an ideological con- 
troversy; that their conclusions in fulfillment of communism are com- 
pletely difi'erent. No. This seemingly break between them is only of 
the tactics and means that is to be used in the spirit, and what is that? 
We find that in Russia and always, as I said, the Communist people 
react to conditions ; they react to the times. 

In Russia they have a better, more developed industrialization; they 
are able to acquire more than the necessary means of life in a more 
abundant way while in China it is a different state, you understand, 
requires a difference. China has been shut off, you understand, from 
participating in a discussion, you know, on an even basis and therefore 
their foreign policy reflects this, and Russia's foreign policy reflects 
otherwise. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the Communist Party of the United States reflect 
the policy of the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. ARMSiTtoxG. That is a hard question. The Communist Party 
in the United States to me don't reflect anything but a bunch of 
ignorance for this reason. The time that they had a position in this 
partv, and I could go back, let me say this : The first mistake they made 
in tliis country, the Comnnmists made, and they had a lot of people — 
the first mistake they made was to take that position in 1986 when they 
pulled out of the labor party which mainly was in — who was Vice 
President? — pulled him out from the Democratic Party to run, you 
know, against Roosevelt. That was a foolish stand tn^ take, the Ameri- 
can people could not stomach that, and that is the Communist Party 
record. 

I can give you an explanation of the trade union movement. I could 
go on all day showing you examples. Today the Connnunist Party 
in America is nothing more, nor less, the group in America. Let 
them explain to me one basic economic, social, or political problem 
America has today that the Congress and the United States, the Presi- 
dent, is not attacking. Let them do that. They are agitating and 
talking about this meeting here and want to, you know, curtail the 



406 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

principles of the civil rights striio-gle. Well, I would take that as a 
truth if it was not anything, but what does this mean ^ 

Ex post facto, or learning by the experience of people in commu- 
nism. This is the party that never wins and they know it, and they 
will abuse the privileges here in America. They use them Avhen they 
can to suit their benefit and when they don't they ridicule them. 

Mr. NiTixE. May I just conclude. Could you summarize in a nut- 
shell what the Communist Party in the United States is trvnng to do? 

Mr. ARMsrRoxo. The Communist Party is trying to fulfill an objec- 
tive aim of basic communism and that is world domination, and to 
me a godless concept of humanity. 

Mr. XiiTLE. That is all. 

Mr. Chainnan, I would like to ask Mr. Amistrong to step aside and 
to have the opportunity and privilege of recalling him at a later point 
in the course of these hearings. 

The Chairman. That will be done. 

]Mr. Armstrong, you will be excused, but 3^ou will be recalled. 

Now let me say that in the name of the committee I want to thank 
you for your testimony today. For reasons all of us can undei^tand, 
you were once a leader in communism. Because you had an interest 
in the working man, in his welfare, trade union movement, you turned 
against communism and some years later began working against it in 
a very and most effective manner. I have often wished someone would 
write a book telling the story of what you and Lola Belle Holmes and 
others like you have done to protect and defend this country. To me, 
you people are the unsung heroes of our time. The years you served 
in what is actually a very specialized counterintelligence force has 
played a unique role in protecting our national security. 

The service you have given to this country in combating these enemies 
is as real as that given by those who wear the unifonn of our country. 

This committee is indebted to you ; the countiy and its people are, 
too. I think you could well be proud of what you have done. Like 
Lola Belle Holmes, you will be attacked by certain elements who seek 
to destroy your reputation. It is my hope that in the future you will 
enjoy the rewards that are due you for a job well done. 

Thank you. [Applause.] 

Mr. Armstrong. Mr. Chairman, may I say a word ? 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 1 o'clock. 

(AVhereupon, at 11 :35 a.m., Wednesday, May 26, 1965, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 1 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, MAY 26, 1965 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :08 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. "Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, Ashbrook, and Clawson.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Would David Englestein please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 407 

Mr. Englestein. I do. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Englestein. Mr. Chairman, my counsel is not here and I Avill 
have to request tliat you call him to see if he is in the room. I don't see 
my counsel. 

The Chairman, What is his name ? 

Mr. Englestein. His name is Mr. Steinberg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the name of your attorney ? 

Mr. Englestein. Mr. Irving Steinberg. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Is Mr. Irving Steinberg in the hearing room ? 

Mr. Englestein. I vill ask for a brief recess until he comes because 
I believe he should be here. 

The Chairman. Perha])s he is outside. 

Will you call the name of counsel once more? 

Mr. Nittle. Would Irving Steinberg please come forward ? 

Mr. Sfllivan. I saw him getting in a taxicab a few minutes ago. 

The Chairman. Well, in view of the fact that counsel for the wit- 
ness is not present, the time being now 1 :12, the witness will be 
recalled. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Would Louis Diskin please come forward ? 

The Chairman. The witnesses are subpenaed and should be here. 

Miss Hart. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Diskin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS DISKIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
PEARL M. HART 

Miss Hart. Mr. Chairman, may I be permitted to make a short 
statement ? 

The Chairman. Let's have identification of yourself for the record. 

Miss Hart. Yes. My name is Pearl M. Hart. I am an attorney 
admitted to practice before the LTnited States Supreme Court and 
before the courts in the State of Illinois. My office is at 30 North 
LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois, and I represent Mr. Diskin, the 
subpenaed witness. 

The Chairman. Let me say this: I read this morning Rule VII 
of the committee. I take it you are familiar with that rule ? 

Miss Hart. Yes, 

The Chairman, You actually are not entitled to make this short 
statement, as you have just made, and you will defer until your client 
is identified for the record. 

ISIiss Hart. Thank you. 

The Chairman. A very short statement. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Diskin, w^ill you state your full name and residence 
for the record, please ? 

Mr. Diskin. My name is Louis Diskin. I live at 4639 West Jack- 
son Boulevard, Chicago. 

I want to lodge a protest Avith this committee on its violation of 
Rule XVI, publishing my name, sir, before I was called. 

The Chairman, The witness will defer. We cannot hear from both 
him and his attorney, 

52-810— 66— pt. 1 8 



408 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

I will permit you to make a vevy short statement. 

Miss Hart. Yes. If the chairman please, and the committee as 
well, we have been here 2 days listenino; to testimony, and I think it 
is necessary to call attention to the fact that nothing of a criminal na- 
ture has been developed by the testimony. 

"We also want to call attention to the fact that the persons who 
testified have not informed this committee, for instance, that Lola 
Belle Holmes has been paid through the years until 1964 

The Chairman. If that is the nature of the statement, I may as 
well say that it must end. The first two points made thus far that 
nothing criminal has been developed, no such intention was implied. 
This is a hearing to develop facts for the record for consideration by 
the Congress, and reference to the two previous witnesses is completely 
irrelevant. So if that is the nature of the statement, I am afraid I 
must 

Miss Hart. "Well, the nature of the statement, if the Chair please, 
is to indicate that counsel is most inelfective, because he or she is not 
able to cross-examine the witness. That is the purpose of that 
statement. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Miss Haet. I say that, under your rules, counsel just sitting here 
with a subpenaed witness is of very little use to that person. That is 
the extent of the statement I want to make. 

The Chairmax. Thank you. Now proceed. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Diskin, have you ever used, or been known by, any 
name or names other than Louis Diskin or Harry L. Diskin? 

Mr. DiSKix. Sir, I will not cooperate with this committee and I want 
to give my reasons for it now\ 

One, I decline to answer the question under the first amendment to 
tlie Constitution of the "Cnited States, because it is an attempt to 
abridge or interfere with my freedom of speech and my freedom of 
silence and my right to peaceably assemble wnth others and petition 
the Government for redress of grievances. 

Two, I decline to answer the question under the fourth amendment 
to the Constitution, which is closely allied to the fifth amendment to 
the Constitution, for the reason that this committee has no power to 
subpena or to question me on matters of my personal, lawful conduct 
nor to attempt to make a search through its questions of my activities, 
since to do so is an unlawful interference Avith my right of privacy and 
such action is prohibited by the fourth amendment to the Constitution. 

Three. I further decline to answer the question under the protec- 
tion of the fifth amendment, which provides that no person shall be 
compelled to be a witness against themself, and to be subpenaed here 
and to be required to answer the questions of this committee is a direct 
violation of the express provision tliat no person shall be compelled to 
be a witness against themself. 

Four, I decline to answer the question under the sixth amendment 
to the Constitution, because by all process I am denied a right to be 
confronted with and to cross-examine witnesses. I am denied com- 
pulsory process for obtaining witnesses and I am denied adequate 
assistance of counsel, because my counsel is not permitted to cross- 
examine on my behalf or to object to questions of testimony or to 
make necessary motions on my belial f . 

Merely to j)ei-mit my counsel to sit with me, that is to sit with me, a 
lay person, uninformed and untrained in law^ and in these proceedings;. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CPIICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 409 

and to permit lier to do nothino; more, is a denial of due process and 
contrary to the sixth amendment of the Constitution. 

I further decline to answer the question, because there is nothing in 
the subpena served upon me to indicate what subject matter, if any, is 
beino- investigated, nor for what purpose, nor whether any subject 
matter to be investigated is within the pro^'ince of the committee nor 
whether the subject matter to be investigated has been so designated 
by the committee as a whole. 

And for the further reason that Rule XI of this committee is so 
vague, broad, and uncertain as to fail to give the committee any au- 
thority under which it may operate, and for the further reason that it 
gives no notice to any person of what he is required to answer to or re- 
spond to. 

I further decline to answer for the reason tliat, contrary to the com- 
mittee's own Rule XVI, it has published and announced in advance 
of this hearing the names of the persons to be subpenaed. 

Seven, lastly 

The Chairman. Pardon me. Would you read that again? 

Mr. DiSKiN. Sixth, I further decline to answer for the reason that, 
contrary to the committee's own Rule XVI, it has puljlished and an- 
noiuiced in advance of this hearing 

The Chairman. "It has,'' being the committee? I want to get the 
seiise of this. 

Mr. DiSKiN. The names of the subpenaed people have ]3een pub- 
lished and announced in advance of this hearing. 

The Chairman. Is that an assertion ? Is that an assertion ? 

Mr. DiSKiN. I assert, sir, that the names of the subpenaed people 
have been published and announced before this hearing took place. 
I don't know who did it, but I do assert that. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Will you 

Mr. DisKiN. I have not finished my statement. 

Mr. Chairman, may I finish my statement ? 

The Chairman. Yes. I just wanted the sense of that last one. I 
still don't have it. I take it, the way it reads, it says the committee has 
done it. 

Miss Hart. He did not say that, Mr. Chainiian. 

The Chairman. Would you read that sixth one ? 

M i ss Hart. Go ahead . 

Mr. DisKiN. I further decline to answer for the reason tliat, con- 
trary to the committee's own Rule XVI, the names of persons sub- 
penaed have been annoimced in advance of this hearing. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. DisKiN. And, seven, lastly, I decline to answer for tlie reason 
that this committee is blatantly illegal and unconstitutional and that 
it does not consist solely of pei-sons lawfully elected to the House of 
Representatives of the United States. [Applause.] At least one 
member, and possibly more, owe their seats of seniority in the House 
in brutal violation of section 2, amendment 14, which states that when 
the right to vote is denied to any citizen of the United States or in any 
way unlawfully abridged, the basis of representation within the State 
Avhere this takes place shall be reduced according to provisions in this 
amendment. 

For these reasons, sir, I cannot cooperate in good conscience with 
this committee. 



410 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The Chairman. A question of cooperation : Do you decline to 
ansAver ? 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer. 

The Chairman. Well, let me say this : In all of the reasons yon have 
advanced, only one can be sustained, and that is sufficient. All this 
nice presentation of the law by your counsel is all right, but the 
constitutional rights — it just so happens that all the courts in the land, 
including one here in Chicago, have all ruled against you, but you 
have invoked the fifth amendment and, therefore, you are not required 
to answer. 

Let me say this, sir. You refer perhaps to me. If you do, and this 
is the last time I will say it, I have never dignified these charges fre- 
quently made about somebody being improperly or illegalh' elected to 
Congress. What I will say at this time is that in my district. Third 
Congressional District of Louisiana, 57 percent of the nonwhite people 
of voting age were registered in the last election and 73 percent of 
those did vote. This is nothing new, it has been the practice for a long 
time, and where I come from we have no poll taxes. 

I am just making that statement for the record to illustrate some 
of the evasiA^eness of your invocation not to testify. 

However, because of your invocation of the fifth amendment, coun- 
sel may proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Diskin, how long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer that question on the following 
grounds 

The Chairman. Would you say "on the grounds previously ad- 
vanced?" 

Miss Hart. I would, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Diskin. All the grounds advanced. 

The Chairman. That is understood without the necessity of repeti- 
tion. You are relying on all the grounds ? 

Mr. Diskin. All of the grounds previously advanced. 

The Chairman. My ruling that I made on those grounds remains. 

Miss Hart. That is understood, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Now let me ask you this, though. I have recog- 
nized your rights, as I always do. [Laughter.] Well, this is not 
funny. I have recognized your right, as I always do of any person, 
to invoke the fifth amendment, it is part of our Constitution. Perhaps 
I believe in the Constitution more than many people here in the 
audience. [Applause.] Now, wait a minute. But that provision in 
the Constitution to wdiich you refer, the fifth amendment, says that no 
one may be compelled to be a witness against himself in a criminal 
prosecution. It is true that has been upheld w'itli reference to con- 
gressional hearings, but it must be an honest fear, imder the decision 
of the Supreme Court, of criminal involvement, 

Xow I ask you : Do you honestly believe that answering the simple 
question as to how long you have lived in Chicago can involve you in 
a criminal prosecution or subject yourself to any degradation? This 
is the test of honesty of your implication. 

Mr. Diskin. Sir, I have given my answer previously. 

The Chairman. I order you to answer the question I just asked 
you. 

Mr. Diskin. I will reread my statement for the reasons for declining 
sir. 

One 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 411 

The Chairman. No. You say in answer to that question you invoke 
the same grounds. 

Mr. DiSKiN. I do invoke the same grounds. 

The Chairman. That is all right, and your counsel knows what I 
mean by that. You are entitled "to a warning that failure to answer 
may result in contempt. 

I don't imply that it does, not in this instance, but I was testing 
the honesty of the implication and I decided that I will order you to 
answer the question. And if you decline to do so, that is the end of 
it. 

Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you resided in the city of Chicago since on or 
about the year 1949? 

Air. DiSKiN. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

The Chairman. I order you to answer that question. 

Mr. DisKiN. I decline to answer on all the grounds I stated pre- 
viously, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Is it not a fact that you were in attendance at a con- 
vention on May 28 and 29, 1949, held here in the city of Chicago at 
which the Labor Youth League was founded? 

Mr. DiSKiN. I will not answer, sir. I decline. 

The Chairman, I understand by all that, that you decline 

Mr. DiSKiN. On the same grounds previously given, Mr. Chairman. 

jSIr. NiTTLE. Were you not elected to the national council of the 
Labor Youth League at that convention, as well as executive secretary 
of the Illinois Labor Youth League? 

]Mr. DiSKiN. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not true that your appearance here in the Chicago 
area resulted from the assignment of the Communist Party to under- 
take activities on its behalf here? 

yir. DiSKiN. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not formerly a resident of the State of New 
York? 

Mr. DisKiN. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you bom in New York City on October 28, 1918 ? 

Mr. DisKiN. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
given. 

The Chairman. I order 3'ou to answer that question. 

iVIr. DiSKiN. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
given. 

The Chairman. Proceed, 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Diskin, are you in fact a paid employee and func- 
tionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. DiSKiN. I decline to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On April 17, 1961, you made application for a pass- 
port for travel abroad, and in a letter of May 23, 19fil, the director 
of the Passport Office advised you that the Department of State 
received information that you have used names other than Harry 
Louis Diskin or Louis Diskin and requested that you submit an 
affidavit of other names you have used or to state the fact that you 
have not used anv other names. 



412 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

You saw fit to ignore tliis request : did you not ? 

Mr. DisKiN. I decline to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. XiTTLE. As a result of which your passport was denied and 
your application fee was returned on August 23, 1961 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. DisKix. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously given. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were 3'ou present during the testimony of Lola Belle 
Holmes ? 

Mr, DisKiN. Yes. 

Mr. XiTTLE. JVIiss Holmes testified that jow were the current man- 
ager of the Modern Book Store presently located at 51 Chicago Ave- 
nue, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. DiSKiN. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. You vrere going to ask him is that true or not ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I was going to ask him whether he was currently the 
manager of the JModern Book Store. Are you ? 

Mr. DiSKiN. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated, sir. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now, Mr. Diskin, Miss Holmes has testified that she 
knew you to be a member of the Wagenknecht Section of the Com- 
munist Party, the chairman of the resolutions committee of the State 
convention of the Communist Party, a delegate to the 1959 State and 
national convention of tlie Communist Party, a member of the State 
committee of the Commmiist Party, a member of the State board 
of the Communist Party, and a member of the top five-man party 
sta tl or executive committee of the State board. 

It was also testified that you were the chairman of the Industrial 
Commission of the Communist Party for the District of Illinois, and 
that following the July 1961 reorganization of the district structure 
you were made a member of the eight-man secret top board. Was that 
testimony inaccurate in any of those particulars ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer, sir, on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. May the record be made clear, as it already reflects, 
that statement by jMiss Holmes was under oath. 

Now I ask you : Do you want the opportunity to challenge her testi- 
mony under oath ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. My ruling, of course, remains that your declination 
is accepted on one ground. 

Mr. Diskin. I am submitting all my grounds, sir. 

The Chairman. I just want the record to be clear. 

Mr. Diskin. I have stated my grounds. 

Tlie Chairman. My ruling remains the same. 

Mr. Diskin. Yes, sir ; I understand your ruling. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us, Mr. Diskin, what is the function and 
purpose of the Modern Book Store in the work of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer that on all the pro'ious grounds 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTEE. Does it provide source materials to Communist Party 
schools, cells, and individual members for the purpose of advancing 
the Marxist-Leninist indoctrination of party members ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer that on all the grounds previously 
stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 413 

Mr. XiTTLE. Does it. also provide materials for the introduction of 
others to the Marxist-Leninist viewpoint with a view toward recruit- 
ing them into the Communist Party 'i 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer that, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Xow, Mr. Diskin, I liave before me a copy of an adver- 
tisement published in the Communist publication The Worker on 
February 18, 1962, which advertises a volume Fundamentals of Marx- 
ism-Lenlnlfim^ Second Edition. 

I should like to inquire, in view of the fact that that is a volume pub- 
lished in the Soviet Union, whether you have any agreement or con- 
tract with any agency of the Soviet Union as to tlie terms of condi- 
tions on which you will disseminate material on this subject ? 

]\lr. DiSKix."^I decline to answer on all grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have a contract or arrangement with the Foreign 
Languages Publishing House of Moscow with respect to the sale and 
dissemination of this item or any other item 'I 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer on all grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, without implying that you are, or that you are 
not, required to register under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 
I should like to inquire whether yon have ever registered with the 
Attorney General under, or pursuant to, the provisions of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 19o8 ? 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer on all grounds previously stated. 

]Mr. Kittle. Will you tell us, please, when you first joined the Com- 
munist Party ? 

]Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer on all previous grounds stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr, Diskin, the committee possesses information, which 
it believes to be reliable, that you, prior to 1943, were a member of 
the Young Communist League. Were you a member of the Young 
Communist League at or about that time ? 

]Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer on all grounds previously stated. 

]\lr. XiTTLE. Were you not in 1946 and for some years thereafter 
the youth director of the Xew York District of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer for all grounds previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Diskin. I have before me a copy of the Sep- 
tember 1948 catalogue of the Jefferson School of Social Science, with 
address. Avenue of the Americas, Xew York 11, Xew York. A Louis 
Diskin 

Mr. DiSKiN. What was the date on that, sir ? 

]\Ir. XiTTLE. September — December 1948. 

A Louis Diskin identified as an instructor in the Communist Party 
school, that is, the Jefferson School, is listed therein as the "Youtli 
and Veteran Director, Communist Party, N. Y, State," 

I hand vou a copv of this brochure marked for identification as 
"Diskin Exhibit No, i," 

Mr, Diskin, I am not clear, sir. Was this a public document ? Was 
this a public document, sir ? I am not clear. 

jMr. NiTTLE. Were you at that time 

Mr. Diskin. I am not clear, sir. I am not clear on this. Was this 
a public document ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think you could tell us most clearly. Is this a publica- 
tion of the Jefferson School at which you taught ? 



414 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. DiSKix. I don't know, sir ; I have not looked at it. I am asking 
you what it is. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I have handed you a photostatic copy of a publication 
of the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Mr. DiSKiN. Is it a public document, sir ? 

]Mr. XiTTLE. AMiat do you mean b}^ that? I am asking you the 
question whether that is— — ■ 

The Chairmax. He is asking you what the document is. 

Mr. DisKix. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer the exhibit in evidence. 

The Chairmax. Tlie document will be received. 

Let me ask you this question : I have no idea what you mean by ask- 
ing 'Ts this a public document ?" Were you aware of its existence as a 
"private" document? 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer that question, sir, on all grounds 
previously stated. 

The Ciiairmax. I thought you would. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Is this not a publication of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. DisKix. I decline to answer on all grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Diskin, in its order of June 1955, the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Board found that the Jefferson School 
operated under rigid Communist Party control primarily to train its 
students, almost all of whom were party members or potential recruits, 
in the party program, strategy, and tactics. Was this true? 

Mr. DisKix. I decline to answer, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

(Document marked "Diskin Exhibit Xo. 1."' See pp. 415, 41G.) 

Mr. NrrxEE. Now, having entered the Illinois I)istrict as a Labor 
Youth League organizer in 1949, were you then assigned also as an 
instructor at the Communist Party training school here in Chicago ? 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer that, sir, on the basis of all the 
grounds previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified tliat she attended the Chicago 
School of Social Science and that you were one of her teachers. Was 
this correct? 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Diskin, would you tell us what knowledge you 
]:)Ossess of a youth group in the city of Chicago known as the Chicago 
Call for Youth? 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. An article apj^eared in the Chicago Tribune of Janu- 
ary 6, 19G4, entitled "Pro-Red Literature Confiscated at Dance.'- The 
article reported that a quantity of pro-Communist literature was con- 
Hscated by police after they broke up a "brawl" at a dance sponsored 
by the Chicago Call for Youth club at 333 North Avenue. Among 
the books confiscated by the police were those entitled as follows 

Mr. DiSKix. I ask you, sir, to reread the entire question, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

I was inquiring about a dance sponsored by the Chicago Call for 
Youth club at 333 North Avenue. The Chicago Tribune reported that 
certain books were confiscated. Among them were such items as 2'he 
Program, of the Communist Party^ Philosophy of Coinm/unisiii, Com- 
munisin — Menace or Promise? ^ The African Revolution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 415 






sse 

€09 



J. < 



OS 



&&8 






&&! 



-Si 



2 ^ £ ; i 







416 COMMIWIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 




O I 
S-5 









i=> -a 



5 u-a 



^j 



(J 

« . 



n 

5 e 



1 



ox 



I =>.■ S5j 



.22 



I s 5' 



E_ 



J ^ 



is -is ". 



^20-33 
< E If 



«1 

O 






3 o 

o o 






*,i^4#*j|';~*W~**.-?i£i^^'^5^*^ 






^ < 



E =- " 9-5 2 



.— I' 5 c £ o 



S u. ^ H -= < 



^ ._ e* ^ 

^ a V ^ ^ tiD 

« ." .- ^ •- C 

z -J J S < u 



i^ U ~ tA) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 417 

Xow, in view of the testimony of Miss Holmes yesterday that the 
Modern Book Store was the source for Communist literature utilized 
by Communist Party members, I should like to inqu re whether those 
books furnished to the Call for Youth club were furnished through the 
services of the JNIodern Book Store, of which you are the manager? 

Mr. DisKiN. Sir, I am sure you are aware that I am not responsible, 
thankfully, for what the Chicago Trihime prints and I decline to 
answer on the basis of the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If the Chicago Tribune has made any errors, you might 
correct them on it. 

The Chairman. Proceed with the questions, please. [Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you are aware from personal knowledge, are you 
not, that the Chicago Call for Youth occupied premises at ?>?>?> Xorth 
Avenue ? 

]\lr. DiSKiN". I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact, j\Ir. Diskin, that you participated in 
arrangements for the leasing of premises at 333 West North Avenue 
occupied by the Chicago Call for Youth club ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer, sir, on the gromids previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Didn't you hold the lease in June 1963 for those prem- 
ises, which you had leased on behalf of an organization known as 
the Chicago Committee for School of Social Scieiice which you 
headed ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are informed that you, personally, discussed with a 
Mr. Klauser, the rental agent, the matter of having thB Chicago Call 
for Youth club as a tenant in place of the organization which you 
headed. Is this true? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We understand that the first month's rent of the prem- 
ises was paid by Daniel Queen, with a check drawn on the Amalga- 
mated Bank. Do you have knowledge of that fact ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes has identified Daniel Queeia as a member 
of the State board of the Communist Party of Illinois and a member 
of the eight-man board which was appointed by Claude Lightfoot 
following the June 1961 decision of the Supreme Court. 

Did you know Daniel Queen was a member of the State board of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer that, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you also aware that Daniel Queen was the edu- 
cational adviser for the Call for Youth group ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer that, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you not presently know Daniel Queen to be the 
youth director of the Communist Party in Illinois? 



418 COMIVUMIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. DiSKiN. I decline to answer, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiiTLE. Mr. Diskin. were you the moderator of a Communist 
May Day celebration held here in Chicago under tlie auspices of the 
Chicago May Day Committee on Mav 8, 1965, at the Humboldt Civic 
Center ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Is it not a fact that during the outset of the meeting 
you urged the audience to subscribe to a periodical, Insurgent^ a pub- 
lication of the W. E. B. DuBois Chilis of America ? 

Mr. DiSKix. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTi.E. Now, during tlie time when you discussed Insurgent, 
did you not state that after reading Insurgent it will make a reader 
so mad that he will want to punch his landlord or some capitalist 
friend ? 

Mr. Diskin. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. [Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Vyiien you introduced James West as the featured 
speaker at the May Day celebration, did you refer to him as a 
"Damned good Communist"' and as an "Illinois Communist Party 
spokesman" ? 

Mr. DiSKiN. I decline to answer, sir, on all grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee will recess for a few minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool (presiding in absence of Mr. "Willis). The subcommittee 
will come to order. 

AVill counsel call the next witness ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will David Englestein resume the witness stand? 

Mr. Pool. Will you hold your right arm up and be sworn ? 

Mr. Englestein. I have alreadv been sworn. I wag sworn in by Mr. 
Willis.^ 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chainnan, I want to apologize 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I first identify the witness again for the record and 
counsel ? 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID ENGLESTEIN. ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will the witness please state his full name and resi- 
dence for the record ? 

Mr. Englestein. My name is David Englestein, 737 West Belden, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Englestein. Yes. 

IVIr. NiTTLE, Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

INIr. SiTsiNBERG. My name is Irving G. Steinberg, 180 West AVash- 
inirton. 



1 See pp. 406, 407. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 419 

Mr. Chairman, I \Yant to take this opportunity to apologize for being 
late when my client was called before. 

Mr. Pool. The Chair accepts your apology. 

Go ahead with the questions, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Englestein, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer and I want to give the grounds 
for my refusal. 

This committee, by its stale testimony of witnesses yesterday and to- 
day, is continuing to expose, for exposure's sake, in spite of the Su- 
preme Court 

Mr. Pool. Let me tell you something. You give us the grounds and 
don't make an argument. Continue and give us the grounds, or we will 
go to the next question. 

Mr. Englestein. I am stating the Supreme Court decision on expo- 
sure for exposure's sake. That is my grounds. 

Mr. Pool. Is that the only ground ? 

Mr. Englestein. No. That is only one. 

Mr. Pool. Let's go on and get this hearing on. 

Mr. Engles'itein. 1 have arbitrarily been denied the request of my 
counsel to be heard in executive session. Tliis hearing is invalid as 
the committee itself has violated one of its own rules, Pule XVI, and 
my name has been released as a subpenaed person before the day of 
the hearing. Tliis conunittee violates article I, section 9, of the United 
States Constitution, which prohibits a bill of attainder. 

Furthermore, this committee is in violation of tlie first amendment of 
the Constitution of the United States, which protects freedom of 
speech, of press, of assembly, and petition. Again this committee is 
infringing on the rules of due procedure, due process of law provided 
in the iifth amendment of tlie United States Constitution. 

I am further availing myself of all of the privileges of the fifth 
amendment. 

I also state that Rule XI, which created this committee, is vague, 
indefinite, and ambiguous and has no relation to a legislative purpose 
and violates the due process requirements as enumerated in the fifth 
amendment. 

Tliis committee also violates the sixth amendment, which guarantees 
civil rights in trials. 

Furtlier, members of this committee in Southern States have been 
elected illegally, in violation of the lith and 15th amendments of the 
Constitution by denying Negroes the right to register and to vote. 

Again, I also am availing myself of the ninth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

It is for each and all of these reasons that I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Your objections are overruled on all grounds 
except on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis earlier had made a statement, and I don't see any neces- 
sity for the Chair to reiterate as to the reasons. You are overruled on 
everything except the fifth amendment. 

Counsel, continue to question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it a fact that you were born abroad, either in Canada 
or some other country ? 



420 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Englestein. I beg your pardon, sir? 1 don't hear you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. ExGLESTEiN. I refuse to ans^Yer this question and avail myself 
of all the grounds that have been previously stated. 

iNIr. XiTTLE. When did you become naturalized ? 

Mr. ExGLESTEix. I decline to answer this question and avail myself 
of all the constitutional and other grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, in fact, naturalized here in Chicago on Oc- 
tober 23, 194e3 ? 

]Mr. Englesteix. I again decline to answer on all the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you used, or been known by, any name or names 
other than David Englestein ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated, all the grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Englestein. What valid legislative purpose would that ques- 
tion have ? 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. [Applause.] 

We are going to have order in this room, and I instruct the mar- 
shal to throw people out who do not comply with the orders of the 
Chair and the House of Representatives' Rules. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the date and point of your entry into the 
United States, Mr. Englestein ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you enter the United States for the first time for 
permanent residence in September of 1930 at Rouses [Point], New 
York ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. How long did you remain in New York after arriving 
there on September -l, 1930 ? 

Mr. Englestein. I again don't see how germane that question is. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. It is germane. 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the grounds j^reviously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Its germaneness will now, I am quite sure, appear to 

Did you not in September, the month of arrival in New 1 ork, es- 
tablish your residence in ]Mena, Arkansas ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you remain in Mena, Arkansas, from September 
1930 to September 1933? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 421 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the constitutional grounds 
previously stated and the other reasons given, also. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What eniplojnnent or echication did you pursue in the 
United States following your entry here in 1930 ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not, in fact, attend and be employed at Com- 
monwealth College in Mena, Arkansas, during the period 1930 to 
1933? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What kind of institution was Commonwealth College 
at Mena, xVrkansas? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Attorney General Tom Clark in letters to the Loyalty 
Review Board of the United States Government cited Commonwealth 
College as Communist. Did you know it to be Communist at the time 
of your attendance there? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you were also a member of the Commonwealth 
College Association which governed and maintained Commonwealth 
College ; Avere you not ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

]VIr. NiTTLE. You do recollect, Mr. Englestein, that your name, 
''David Englestein," appears on the constitution of that association 
when adopted in 1932 ? 

Mr. Englestein. I don't see the pertinence of this question to the 
legislative purpose of this hearing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Englestein, were you directed to enter the 
United States from abroad or from an}^ foreign country and to go di- 
rectly to Commonwealth College, Arkansas, for any purpose? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of your association with Commonwealth College ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliere did you go when j^ou left Mena, Arkansas, in 
1933? 

Mr. Englestein. I again refuse to answer on all the constitutional 
grounds and other reasons given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, following an investigation of CommonAvealth Col- 
lege by the Joint Committee of the General Assembly of the State of 
Arkansas, the charter of that institution was revoked in the courts of 
Arkansas, Federal funds were withdrawn from that institution, and it 
ceased to exist ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Englestein. "Wliat possible pertinence does this question have 
to the purpose of this hearing? 



422 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

]Mr. NiTTLE. You were aware of that fact ; were yon not ? 

jNIr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the gronnds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you not aware that Commonwealth College in No- 
vember of 1940 was convicted and fined $1,000 on an anarchy count: 
convicted for displaying unlawful emblems, the hammer and sickle; 
and convicted for failure to display the American flag and fined $500 ? 

Mr. ExGLESTEix. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, when did you go from Mena, Arkansas, and thence 
to Chicago, Illinois ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Englestein, I have before me a copy of the fall 
term announcement of the Chicago Workers School for the term 
October 14 through December 21, 1935, marked for identification as 
"Englestein Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Steinberg. Could I see it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the announcement. You are list- 
ed therein as an instructor at this school ; are you not ? 

Mr. Englestein". I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTixE. However, Mr. Englestein, you are not listed under the 
name David Englestein. You were then using an alias "Eugene 
David'' ; were you not ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previouslj' 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And are you not listed as an instructor for this Com- 
munist Party school under the name "E. David" ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ofi'er Exhibit 1 in evidence. 

]Mr. Pool. It will be accepted into evidence. 

(Document marked "Englestein Exhibit No. 1" folloAvs:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 423 
Englestein Exhibit No. 1 



FALL TERM 



v^ 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



OCTOBER 14 TO DECEMBER 21, 1935 



—FOURTH YEAR- 



CENTRAL SCHOOL 161 N. FRANKLIN ST.=^ 



TELEPHONE DEARBCJRN 3398 






52-SlO— <6&— pt. 1 9 



424 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 
Englestein Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 
CHICAGO WORKERS SCHOOL SCHEDULE OF CLASSES 



FIRST HOUR (7;00 ID 8: JO p. M.) 


SECOND HOUR C8:45 to 10:15 P. M.) 




DAY 


COURSE 


INSTRUCTOR 


COURSE 


INSTRUCTOR 




Z 

o 


Political Economy 11 

History of American Labor Movement 

Trade Unionism 


A Henderson 
E. Djvid 

J. Schraies i 


Principles of Communism 

Public Speaking 

Negro Liberation Movement 


A Henderson 

E David 

H. Haywood 






Principle! of Communiim 
Political Economy I 
Elemenrary English 


M. Clark 
M Fine 


Political Economy I 

Labor Defense and Civil Rights 

Russian I 


F. Kent 

]. Witlenber 

J. Ebcrhardt 




Q 

u 


Political Economy I 

Labor journalism 

Problems of Revolutionary Literature 


B Shields 
C Haessler 6= 
M. Howard 
M. Howard 


Political Economy 11 

Role of Women in Modern Times 

Mariism-Leninism I 


M Howard 
P. Ludwig 
B. Shields 




d 


Problems of Youth Movement 
Principles of Communinn 


T. Morton 
W Sennett 


MarxifmLeninism II 


H. Yaris 




' 


Histoncal Matenaiisir 
Principle* of Communism 
Party Organization 


V. Malmquist 
Un Lewis 
D Mates 


Decisions of 7th World Congress of 

the Communist Internationil 
Shop Paper and Leaflet Preparation 
March of Time 


M Childs 

B. Shields y 
W. Zaslovsky 

L Lewis 





DAY CLASSES 



FIRST HOUR (2:00-3:30; 




SECOND HOUR (3:45- 


5:15) 


DAY 


COURSE 


INSTRUCTOR . 




COURSE 


- 


INSTRUCTOR 


Prinaples of Communism 


v» 


Politic 


al Economy I 




d 




Principles of Workers' Fraternal 
Movement 

Russian 1 

Intermediate English 


H. Johnson 
]. Eberhardt 


Mar.i 
Russia 


m-Leninisra I 
n 11 




E. David 

J. Eberhardt 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 425 

Mr. Steinberg. You will record my objection, Mr. Chairman. 

]Mr. Pool. The reporter will strike the comments of counsel. 

Go ahead, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE, At the time of your arrival in the city of Chicago, Mr. 
Englestein, you were then a member of the Communist Party; were 
you not ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiiTLE. I have before me a photostatic copy of a letter dated 
March 15, 1939, on the letterhead of the Cook County Committee, 
Communist Party U.S.A., Room 201, 208 North Wells Street, Ran- 
dolph 0508, Chicago, Illinois — and in the center of the page appears 
the hammer and sickle — mider the name "Eugene David, County Sec- 
retary.*' 

The letter is addressed to "Dear Comrade," and is signed "Comradely 
yours, Eugene David, Cook County Secretary." 

You are the Eugene David tliei'ein noted as the Cook County secre- 
tary of the Communist Party; are you not? 

You have had an opportunity to examine Exhibit 2 ? 

Mr. ExGLESTEiN. Yes. I have. 

Mr. NiTixE. Is the signature appearing upon the exhibit, as Eugene 
David, your signature ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Xittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer in evidence Exhibit 2. 

]\Ir. Pool. It is accepted. 

Mr. Steinberg. Same objection. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, I will say this. You are here to advise your 
client; you are not here to participate in the proceedings. This is 
not a court proceeding. This is a congressional investigation. 
[Laughter.] You will refrain from making comments unless the 
Chair asks you for a comment. 

(Document marked "Englestein Exhibit No. 2" follows :) 



426 coMiMimnsT activities in the Chicago, Illinois, area 

Englestein Exhibit No. 2 

COOK COUNTY COMMITTEE 

COMMUNIST PARTY U.S.A. 

Room ZQl %. JTW Randolph OEOa 

ZOB N. WELLS ST. J^ CHICAQQ, ILLINOIS 

eUGENC DAVID 

March 15, 1939. 

.Dear Comrado: 

Or: Thursday, June Ist, our Party in Cook County will have an open meabership meeting 
in the Ashland Auditorium. At the meeting Corarade Uorris Chllds, our State Secretary, 
will report on the recent National Committee meeting held in New York and will discuss 
"The 1940 Eleotiona - How The People Can Win." 

Vrhat a Republican victory would do for the United States in 1940 can already be fore- 
seen by actions of Republicans in power in a number of states. The Republicans in 
our own State Legislature are maneuvering to pass reactionary legislation and to de- 
faat progressive bills. Recent actions by the City Council on housing and relief 
denonstr&te the New Deal trend and the need for strengthening the foroes of the dera- 
OTratic front in our city. 

IVhat can you do individually and collectively through your branch in order to make 

the June Isi; meeting a springboard for greater activities? There are four control 

tasks which the County, as a whcla, .has set itself for the June 1st raeeting. You 
can contribute your bit to each one of these undertakings: 

a) Recruiting ;- You can recruit directly or help your branch to reoruit at least 
one member between now and June 1st. 

b) Daily Record Circulation Drive: You are convinced of the important role of the 
Record. Can you get a minimum of one $1 sub for the Record betvToan now cjid June 
1st? If you do this, we will fulfill our goal of 5,000 new Record readers by 
June Ist and thus help the Record financially? 

c) Me mbership Control : Are you paid up in dues? You can help your branch carry 
out control of its membership by spending one night a week in visiting delin- 
quent comrades and getting them paid up in dues. 

d) Browder's Report to the National Committee; If you will sell at least three 
copies of this report, the Party in Cook County would reach 15,000 people with 
this basic aiaterial on the 1940 elections. 

We will achieve these tasks by June 1st only to the dogjiee that we involve you and 
every other member in the Party in doing his or her chars of this work. Our rsspcn- 
sibilities today as a vanguard Party are great. We must live up to those responsib- 
ilities if w© are to b» a factor in giving the American working class, and the paopls 
in general, ooufidenoe of victory in 1940. 

We will register our t«apo In this work at the June 1st Ashland Avidicorlvm mooting. 



uopoffa 



^ Con rBdelv yo\irs, .. v'-...^ 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 427 

Mr. Pool. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Since your arrival in the city of Chicago on or about 
the middle 1930's from Commonwealth College, how long- did you 
continue to operate under the alias Eugene David ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You continued to use that name, did you not, until 
vou were naturalized as a citizen of the United States on October 23, 
1943 ? 

Mr. EiSTGLESTEiN. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to your naturalization, did you use the name 
Eugene David in an effort to conceal your true identity as a Commu- 
nist Party functionary ^ 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. Did you do it, also, in order to avoid the possibility 
that deportation proceedings might be instituted against you? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, immediately following your naturalization, did 
you not serve as the educational director of the Communist Political 
Association for the Illinois-Indiana District ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all theg rounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, at that point, you were publicly identified as such 
in the Communist Daily Worker of October 15, 1914, page 13-C-2. 
Is this true ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nitti.e. In 1945, you were elected educational director of the 
Communist Party of the Illinois-Indiana District; were you not ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the groimds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Isn't it a fact that during 1946 you acted as educational 
director of District 8 of the Communist Party — that was the Illinois- 
Indiana District in a former structural scheme of the Communist 
Party in this area 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment, the fourth amendment, the fifth amendment, the sixth 
amendment, and the ninth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I didn't quite finish my question. 

I meant to point out that during that year, as an educational direc- 
tor, you guided and directed the activities of Milton Cohen, who was 
then, and has been for several years, an instnictor at the Workers 
School ? 

Mr. Englestein. The same answer applies. I decline to answer. 

]Mr. Pool. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 



428 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Pool. All right. That is good enough. 

Next question. 

That is all I wanted to find out, 

INIr. NiTTLE. You know Milton Cohen, that he is now a member of 
the Cormnunist Party ; do you not ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Englestein, in 1947, did you instruct at the Abra- 
ham Lincoln School in Chicago ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer because my constitutional rights 
are being violated by the first amendment by the 

Mr. Pool. You decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment again? 

Mr. Englestein. On the first amendment I said, which 

]\Ir. Pool. Do you invoke the fifth amendment? Is that what you 
are invoking now? 

Mr. Englestein. I said I decline to answer on my rights. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Continue, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, was not Ishmael Flory also an instructor with 
you in the 1947 spring semester of the Abraham Lincoln School ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Ishmael Flory to be a member of the 
Communist Party at that time ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know him now to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party? 

Mr. Englestein. I continue to refuse to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Englestein, I now hand you a copy of an item 
titled "A Message to All Communists From the State Board and Edu- 
cation Department, Communist Party of Illinois," marked for identifi- 
cation as "Englestein Exhibit No, 3," 

You are listed thereon as the "State Education Director, Com- 
munist Party of Illinois," with Claude Light foot as "State Executive 
Secretary," 

Were you in that year holding the position described in the Com- 
munist Worker? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer the exhibit in evidence. 

Mr, Pool. It will be so accepted. 

(Document marked "Englestein Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 429 



00 

'© 



© 



h--3 



J5 j::^:. 



© 



(D 1*^ 






"5 ^ 2 § J S 

"^ ^, ^ ^ c 
•■^ It -rt -5 



^3 



o 
U 



£ 3 i) 



-^ =^ - ^ ^ 
m t) o sj a. 

W2 C jj a g, rt 



I 1 



1^- 

^<-i 



I ® S 5 






5S 



b $K 



T *" 









•s: « — 

■.2H g J^ 
'Sue 2 

S.S 2 

Sag 






S-5S 



V S 



' <<o 



M 



_>N ij 8j .: 



-^ ^ T3 



rt 'tS 



C C 



M . 









2 S 



g- u 






'£« a 

P O c -Siu- ;r 
•S _c ,« 

= — = s 



1^-^-2 



■5 " 



^•5 t-^ 



.2^ « 



5 t- 

5-^ „ 



„ s e 

If: 

li.i 

c c 



3 " 

5/5 SnO 



ii _ 



W 
Q Q 



"" ^K *.S 






.9 -2 

■ 9 V 



^ ;& V ^ ^l 



'^ j= 



® C U 

.5- w^ 

t5 e ® 



c .E J JS 

t, >^ . C 

w .2, 3 — w 
— « s -2 « 

e '^■5 3 ~ 

2 « - S^ 

n 2 $ — 

c 9-5 > 



-2 .2 ^ i! 



To-fi 3 






i D. 



s ty „ > 



.S "^ ** .S o 



"5 «J^ 



i?-^ 



<*« beg 
>.J= .£ 
^ ■*" je J- 

.£ ^^^ 



9^ »."-« 

. a ? 
rt ij « 

ly O '^ 

t) c:t a 

.1.2^ 









c.a 



! w ** — 



U u c J. 
Mot) 



V ^ 



ei c* •" — 



M 



K « ? „ r; 



HOC hr'*^ "r-^^—uvaJM 
t- o 72 jj' J, <* » •- •£ -5 o . .'i; 



■•§ -s '^ 
^ = S 

1 = 3 

._ y ^ 
. > '"^ C 



■S! i ? S c -^ £ 

^ ^ Se^ I -I S 

>n £, in ^ a 

o o t> o ~ >s 

f"^ ■— *i i2 ^ H o 

^ i3 ® 2 ^ -^ ^ 

-C '5 => "i: 'V „ 3 

*' S ») ^ '-' Oi 
S -,'1= o »J cs 

"^ ti > '^ 60 

^ „ s:^ ai * 

"y-o-^ K ® o c 

i3 'C »* a " 4> (ii 

'' ft 4- « (5 ?. -5 

j> ^-" S ** * S 

w o w.^ S -K 8 

-3 -^ w « 3'< 

, S M *; £ w 

— ™ «^ «" s ? 2 



r -1 >-^f-, ^ 






^ i$ .= •- 

Jli^ ^^11 It 



C'-=^ 



' ® >> Q, *" 



"1 



430 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Pool. Continue with your next question. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. While you were an instructor at the Chicago Workers 
School, did you also know Yolanda Hall ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I object to that. 

Mr. Chairman, I demand the right to examine. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Marshal, set this man down. 

This is the lawyer. Are you representing 

Mr. Sullivan. I represent Yolanda Hall. 

Mr. Pool. Are you representing Dr. Stamler? 

Mr. Sullivan. I do. 

I represent Yolanda Hall, and she has just been named in this 
proceeding the first time, Mr. Chairman. 

Mv. NiiTLE. I recommend that 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. Sit down. 

Mr. Sullivan. I am making my record. 

Mr. Pool. The man on the witness stand is not your client. 

Mr. Sullivan. That is not the point I am making, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Just a second. 

Counsel, you say that you are representing Yolanda Hall ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, and I resent the treatment 

Mr. Pool. I will not put up with argument. 

Mr. Sullivan. I will not put up with the treatment I am getting. 

Mr. Pool. TYliat is it you want this Chair to recognize ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I tried to say before you had those men put me back 
in that seat 

Mr. Pool. Because you interrupted the proceeding here. 

Mr. Sullivan. I expect to be treated like a decent citizen. 

Mr. Pool. Make a statement, but not an argument. 

Mr. Sullivan. I have not made an argument yet. I am trying to 
make a record before this committee. 

Mr. Pool. Make your statement. 

Mr. Sullivan. I have asked repeatedly of this committee that any 
statements made by my clients, including Yolanda Hall, be made in 
executive session. Now, that has been denied me. No witness has 
taken this stand to name Yolanda Hall in any way, only the leading 
question made by counsel for the committee. Knowing in advance, 
Mr. Chairman, knowing in advance that this witness 

Mr. Pool. T\^iat is the 

Mr. Sullivan. I am trying to state my objection. 

Mr. Pool. State your objection. 

Mr. Sullivan. I will if you stop interrupting. 

Mr. Pool. State your objection. 

I am trying to let the record show that the man has been recognized 
for a statement as an objection. Now, state your objection. 

Mr. Sullivan. I am in the middle of stating my ol:)jection. 

This committee knows as well as I do that Mr. Englestein is going to 
decline to answer that question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Sullivan. I resent the implication of that statement to the wit- 
ness; it is totally untrue. 

Mr. Ntttle. Mr. Chairman, this attorney is entirely out of order 
and I ask that you direct that he conduct himself in accordance 

Mr. Sullivan. I want to finish my objection. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 431 

Mr. Pool. I am going to give you another chance to state your ob- 
jection of what you want this subcommittee to do. 

Mr. Sullivan. All right. 

Number one, this subcommittee and its attorney know now that Mr. 
P^nglestein is not going to answer this question on the grounds he has 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't know his answer to that. 

Mr. Pool. Wait. 

Mr. Sullivan. I cannot state my objection if I am interrupted in 
the normal course. 

IVIr. Pool. Let's hear the man out. 

Mr. SuLLrv^\N. Thank you, sir. 

There can be no purpose to a question like that without laying any 
foundation testimony without intending to embarrass and defame my 
clients. Now, if that kind of question is going to be put, and I chal- 
lenge the right of counsel to put that kind of question, I demand that 
those questions be put in executive session. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Will you sit down and be quiet now ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I will for the present. [Applause.] 

(Discussion off the record.) 

]Mr. Sullivan. Mr. Chairman, I have two things I would like to 
bring to your attention. First, I would like the record to show 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Marshal, will you seat the attorney ? 

Take the attorney. Marshal. 

Mr. Anglin. May I address the Chairman ? 

Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Pool. No. I am not going to accept this. We are dis- 
cussing the point. 

Mr. Anglin. I am a member of the bar. 

Mr. Pool. May I ask the attorney to sit down. 

The committee has discussed the objection that is raised, and your 
request is denied. 

Mr. Sui^LivAN. Now, Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to 
show 

Mr. Pool. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. SuLLrv^\N. I would like to make my record, Mr. Pool. 

Mv. Pool. Counsel, Mr. Nittle. 

You will be heard ; make your statement. Make it short. 

Mr. SuLLWAN. Just two points, Mr. Pool. 

First, I would like the record to show that I conferred with Mr. 
Englestein and his attorney and they confirmed what I suspected, 
that to this question the fifth amendment will be claimed, along with 
otlier grounds previously stated. 

Secondly, I think the record of this committee should reflect 
something that I think brings it into further degradation than it has 
already brought by its own activities, and that is the two 

ISIr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Chairman, I don't think this is any place 
for this attorney 

Mr. Sullivan. I would like to finish my statement. 

Mr. Nittle. — to speak intemperately of this committee, 

Mr. Sullivan. I apologize for my intemperate statement. I 
withdraw the characterization. I would merely like to state the 
fact. 



432 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Pool. All right- 
Mr. Sullivan. Before, when I was trying to make a record on 
behalf of my clients, which is the highest function of a lawyer, two 
members of this committee or marshals, I don't know which, 
physically put me — took me back and shoved me into this chair. 
Now, they were doing their job at your direction. I resent that 
kind of treatment, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. For the simple reason that you interrupted the pro- 
ceedings of the committee. 

Mr. Sullivan. I have every right to do that. 

Mr. Pool. You have no right to interrupt witness and counsel. 

Mr. SuLLi%^\N. I have ev'ery right to do that, sir, and I will con- 
tinue to do it whenever I think it is proper. That is the proper 
time, at the time my clients are being hurt, not later. 

Mr. Pool. You had plenty of time earlier to make your objection. 

Mr. SuLLWAN. No. No. I resent that statement, Mr. Pool; 
that is not correct. That is absolutel}'^ incorrect. 

Mr. Pool. Well, we disagree on that. 

Mr. Sullivan. We certainly do. I will continue to make objec- 
tions, Mr. Pool, when I think they are proper to protect the clients 
that have retained me. 

Mr. Pool. We will entertain your statements at the proper time. 
[Applause.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I state for the record that I don't know what 
Mr. Englestein would reply to any question posed by me to him 
relating to Yolanda Hall. Unlike the attorney for Mrs. Hall who 
just spoke to you, I have not consulted with Mr. Englestein. 

The committee did on May 11, 1965, address a letter to Mr. 
Englestein, in which it advised him that the committee had received 
certain testimony in executive session relating to him and it gaA^e 
him an opportunity, if he desired, voluntarily to appear as a wit- 
ness in executive session before this committee prior to his appear- 
ance here. 

A like letter was forwarded to Yolanda Hall. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, further, in light of the fact that Mrs. Yohmda 
Hall in the year 1949 was here in Chicago as an admitted Com- 
munist 

Mr. Sullivan. I object to that.^ 

Mr. Chairman, I must object to these statements by the coun- 
sel for this committee. PTe has a — what is it — a page of the Chicago 
Tnlnine or something in front of him. 

1 On July 28. 1949. Yolanda Hall, oallpcl as a witness on behalf of Eiifrene Dennis and 
other top leaders of the Communist Party wlio were then on trial in the Federal Court 
at Foley Square in New York City, nnderthe Smith Act, upon being' duly sworn, te.stif5ed 
as follows in response to dirert examination : 

"Q. Mrs. Hall, where do you reside? A. 48.^.8 North Sacreniento. Chicago. Illinois. 

"Q. Are you a member of the Communist Party? A. Yes, I am. 

"Q. When did you join the Communist Partyi? A. Some time early in 1939. 

"Q. What were you doing at the time you joined the Communist Party. A. I was a 
student at Chiengo Teachers Collrcre." 

{Trim Tr/>f.imonn. as printed for United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, 
vol. XII, at p. 9259.) 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 433 

Miss Langford. Swear him in. 

Mr, Sullivan. I object most vociferously and I object to the 
action of the counsel for the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think this gentleman is becoming intemperate 

Mr. Sullivan. I have to become intemperate, Mr. Chairman, in 
light of this kind of conduct. 
► JNIr. ISTiTTLE. —totally abusive and should be seated. 

Mr. Pool. Continue your questions, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Englestein 

Mr. Sullivan. I ask that those remarks be stricken from the 
record of this committee. 

Mr. XiTTi.E. — I hand you a copy of the fall term announcement of 
the Chicago Workers School for October 17 to December 9, 1949, 
which I have marked for identification as "Englestein Exhibit 
No. 4." 

You are listed therein as an instructor of a course titled "Institute on 
General Crisis of Capitalism" ; are you not ? 

Were you serving as an instructor at that school at that time? 

Mr. Englestein. I am consulting with my attorney for a moment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you an instructor at the Chicago Workers School 
as listed on this announcement ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer because this hearing is in viola- 
tion, as the committee itself has violated one of its own rules. Rule 
XVI. 

I further refuse to answer because I believe that this committee 
has no constitutional mandate; is, in fact, unconstitutional in its con- 
ception, in its birth, and during its lifetime. 

]\Ir. Pool. Your objection, do you invoke the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Englestein. I invoke all the amendments I have previously 
stated and I don't think the fifth amendment should be demeaned as 
it is an integral part of the Constitution. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

(Document marked "Englestein Exhibit No. 4" follows :) 



434 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 
ElTGLESTEIN EXHIBIT No. 4 



s 



Oclobei- 17-DeceiTiber 9, 1949 






n, 






n 



^EyuSiil 






South Side Branch 
Federated Clubhouse 
4941 Sooth Parkway 



North and West Side Branch 
Hungarian-American Cultural Club 
1632 North Milwakuee Avenue 



3SO-J^^ 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 435 
Englestein Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 

SCHEDULE OF CLASSES 

SOUTH SIDE BRANCH 

FEDEUATKD CLUB HOUSK, U»41 SOUTH PAKKWAY 



TIME 


Room 


MONDAY 

Marxism 
Leninism I 

Mollie West 


TUESDAY 


WEDNESDAY 


THURSDAY 


FRIDAY 


7:00 
P.M. 

to 


1 


Negro 
Liberation 

Linzey Jones 

• Engli.sh 
and Reading 
(Twice a Weeli) 
Bill Sennett 


ABC's of 
Marxism 
Geraldine 
Lightfoot 


Institute on 
General Crisis 
of Capitalism 

Leon Katzen 


Institute en 
General Crisis 
of Capitalism 


8:30 
P.M. 


2 


Political 
Economy II 


Negro 
Liberation 

Mel Williamson 


ABC's of 
Marxism 

Jim Tate 


Engli.sh 

and Readir.R 

(Twice a Week) 

Bill Sennett 


8:40 
P.M. 

to 


1 


Social Struggles 
in America I 

Dick Criley 


Political 
Economy I 

Pat Lewis 


Trade Unionism 
Theory and 

Practice 
Sam Kushner 


i' Institute on 
General Crisis 
of Capitalisn^i: 
(Continued) 


Institute on 

General Crisis 

■ of Capitalism 

(Continued) 


10:10 
P.M. 


2 


ABC's of 
Marxism 

Ann Prosten 


Library 


Library 


Political 
Economy I 

Yolanda Hall 


National 

and Colonial 

Question 

Irving Hc>-man' 



NORTH AND WEST SIDE BRANCH 

HUNGAUIAN-AMEKICAN CULTURAL CLUB 1632 N. BtlLWAUKEE AVENUE 



TIME 


Room' 

1 1 


MONDAY 


TUESDAY 


WEDNESDAY 


THURSDAY 


FRIDAY 


7:00 
P.M. 

to 


: 1 

; 1 1 

1 


Institute on 
General Crisis 
of Capitalism 
D. Englestein 


Negro 

Liberation 

Conrad 

Komorowski 


Political 

Economy 
II 


ABC's 

of 

Marxism 


Marxism 
Leninism I 

Carl Hirsch 


8:30 

P.M. 


2 i 

i 1 
1 1 


National and 
Colonial 
Question 




Sscial Struggles 
in America I 

Gert Meyers 


National and 
Colonial 
Question 
Ed Slarr 




8:40 
P.M. 

to 


1 
\ 1 

i 

1 


Institute on 
General Crisis 
of Capitalism 

(Continued) 


Political 
Economy I 

Bob Geller 


ABC's 

of 

Marxism 

Ben Green 


Political 
Economy I 

Al Rubio 


History 

ot 

C. P. s. u. 


•10:10 

P.M. 


1 

2 

• 


ABC's ' 

of 

Marxism 

Helen Ruble 


1 


Public 
Speaking 


Seminar 

on 
Woman 
Question 





436 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

]\fr. NittIjE. The country lias certain problems. 

Now, Mr. Englestein, you will also observe that on Exhibit 4 Yo- 
lancla Plall is listed as an instructor in Political Economy I. 

Did you know her at that time ? 

]VIr. Sullivan. I object a^ain, Mr. Chairman, to any references of 
this witness to Yolanda Hall l)y counsel for this committee. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Your objection is overruled. 

]\Ir. Sullivan. I again ask that these questions along this line be 
put in executive session. 

Mr. Pool. Your request is denied. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then know Yolanda Hall to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I object to that, tlie nature of that leading question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think this attorney is out of order, and he Iniows it 

Mr. Sullivan. I do not know any such thing. 

Mr. NiTi^LE. This committee cannot be obstructed l^y this kind of 
conduct. 

Mr. Pool. That is right. 

Mr. Sullivan. I think it is terrible there is this kind of questioning 
going on. This is character assassination. 

Mr. Pool. You are taking advantage of the whole proceeding and 
trying to disrupt this proceeding. 

IVIr. Sullivan. I am not trying to disrupt the proceeding. 

jVIr. Pool. You are not succeeding. 

Your objection is overruled. Please sit down. 

]Mr. Sullivan. In fact, I would like it to be in executive session. 

Mr. Pool. Sit down. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman 

]Mr. Pool. All right. 

For the record, the Chair wishes to state that the counsel has made 
the same objection over and over and the subcommittee has ruled on 
it, and that is why I overruled his objection and denied his request. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, what is your answer to that question? Did you 
know Yolanda Hall at the time to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on the following groimds: 
That this committee and this committee's procedure is in violation of 
the first amendmentof the Constitution. 

Mr. Pool. That objection has been overruled. 

Are you invoking the fifth amendment itself ? 

Mr. Englestein. I am invoking all of the amendments I have 
previously stated plus the other questions. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Now, is it a fact, Mr. Englestein. that durmg the period 
1952 to 1955 you have used the names of David Miller, Theodore My- 
ron — M-y-r-o-n, and Richard Walter Merle — M-e-r-1-e during the 
course of your membership in the Communist Party ? Have you used 
these names, David Miller, Theodore Myron, or Richard Merle? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

INIr. Pool. Next question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 437 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you also, while a member of the Communist Party, 
use these names to conceal your identity ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Englestein 

Mr. Steinberg. One moment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you use the names David Miller or Theodore My- 
ron or Richard Walter Merle to obtain social security identification? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated and further that the question is improper. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Englestein, both INIiss Holmes and Mr. 
Armstrong have testified that they knew you to be a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Was that testimony correct ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes also testified that you attended the 1959 
and 1960 sessions of the State convention of the Communist Party; 
that you were chairman of the publicity committee for the party State 
convention : that you were a delegate to the 1959 I7th National Con- 
vention of the Communist Party : that you were in attendance at the 
national convention ; that you were elected to the governing body of 
the Communist Party in the State of Illinois known as the State 
board ; that you served as a member of the so-called staff of the 
Communist Party of the State of Illinois. 

In addition, Miss Plolmes stated that you were one of the instructors 
at the Communist Party's Chicago School of Social Science. 

Was there any inaccuracy in her testimony ? 

Mr. Englestein. Will you please break down that question ? 

INIr. NiTTLE. Yes ; if you prefer. 

Miss Holmes identified you as a member of the Communist Party. 

Were you a men:iber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer that question on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Armstrong identified you as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

^Vas his testimony correct ? 

Mr. Englestein. I again decline to answer that question on all the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a delegate to the 17th National ConA^ention 
of the Communist Party ? 

]Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer that question on all the constitu- 
tional and other reasons given before. 

]\Ir. N1TT1.E. Were you the chairman of the publicity committee for 
the Communist Party State convention ? 

Mr. Englestein, I again decline to answer that question for all the 
reasons stated earlier. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you elected to the State committee of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you elected as a member of the State board of the 
Communist Party ? 



438 coMMinsrisT activities in the Chicago, Illinois, area 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse to answer that question on all the consti- 
tutional and other reasons ^iven before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you elected as a member of the party staff of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Englestein. I again decline to answer that question for all 
the reasons given earlier. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you one of the instructors of Miss Holmes at the 
Chicago School of Social Science ? 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
stated before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Englestein, I am referring to a letter forwarded to 
you, advising you that an opportunity would be afforded you volun- 
tarily to appear as a witness before this committee in executive ses- 
sion and that you could also request of this committee that the com- 
mittee subpena additional witnesses if you desired to do so. 

Did you avail yourself of any of these opportunities ? 

Mr. Steinberg. May I see a copy of the letter ? 

(Letter handed to Mr. Steinberg by Mr. Nittle.) 

Mr. Englestein. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Are you, as of now, one of the top officials of the 
Communist Party in the State of Illinois ? 

Mr. Englestein. I refuse, to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Do you w^ant to offer the exhibits in evidence? 

Mr. Nittle. I do desire to offer in evidence all exhibits referred to 
during the course of the interrogation. 

Mr. Pool. They will be accepted. 

The committee will stand in recess for 15 minutes. 

The witness is not excused. We are in recess only. You are to come 
back. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool (presiding) . The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, do you have any further questions ? 

Mr. Nittle. No, Mr. Chairman. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Steinberg. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Will Milton Cohen come forward, please? 

Mr. Pool. The witness will stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to gi^'e is the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Cohen. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON MITCHELL COHEN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, RICHARD ORLIKOFT 

Mr. Orlikoff. I have here a three-paragraph, half-page state- 
ment ■ 

Mr. Pool. Just a second. 

We will identify the Avitness first. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 439 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would the witness state his full name and residence 
for the record, please ? 

Mr. Cohen. Milton Cohen, 5322 South Kimbark Avenue, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Cohen, are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Cohen. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Orlikoff. Richard Orlikoff, 7 South Dearborn, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

Mr. Chairman, in this very brief statement we detail all of the rea- 
sons why Mr. Cohen is not going to answer any questions here, and I 
think it will shorten time if I am permitted to read the statement. 
It will take just about a minute and a half. 

Mr. Pool. How about having the witness read it ? 

Mr. Orlikoff. Well, we ask the indulgence of the committee to per- 
mit me to do it. I wonder if this is a legal matter. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Go ahead. 

Mr. Orlikoff. This committee subpenaed Mr. Cohen to appear 
before it approximately 2 weeks ago. A few days after Mr. Cohen 
received his subpena, every daily newspaper in Chicago published 
the fact that he had been subpenaed. There has been an obvious vio- 
lation of Rule XVI of this committee. 

I advise the committee that Mr. Cohen has intervened in the legal 
action pending in the United States District Court for the Northern 
District of Illinois entitled Stamler, et al. versus Willis^ et al.^ Number 
65-C, challenging the right of the committee to hold this hearing, 
challenging the validity of the subpena served upon Mr. Cohen, and 
asserting by the release of Mr. Cohen's name to the newspapers as a 
subpenaed witness the rules of this committee had been violated 
and he will be denied his constitutional rights in the event he is re- 
quired to testify.^ 

We hereby stand on all the allegations and the reasons hi the Stamler 
complaint in the intervening petition on his behalf. We present a 
copy of these documents, complaint and the intervening petition, to 
the committee. 

In addition, we reiterate Mr. Cohen's request for a hearing in execu- 
tive session for the foregoing reasons and until the legal matters we 
have raised have been adjudicated. 

I have instructed, and do instruct, my client not to answer any ques- 
tions other than to give his name and address, which he has done. In 
view of the fact that my client will not answer any questions, in view 
of the fact that we contest the validity of the subpena, and since we 
are here under no compunction, Mr. Chairman, we are going to leave 
the hearing room and we are not going to participate any further in 
these proceedings. [Applause.] 

]Mr. Pool. I direct the witness not to leave the courtroom. 

]Mr. Orlikoff. !Mr. Chairman, I must insist on my instnictions to 
the witness. We do not feel we are here mider any compulsion in any 
case. The committee will have full opportunity to explore that fact 
in the courts. 



1 Petition to intervene as additional party plaintiff marked "Cohen Exhibit No. 1" for 
identification. See appendix, pp. SlO-812. 

52-810— 66~pt. 1 10 



440 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Thank you, Mr, Chairman. 

]Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. [Applause.] 

Just a minute. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I think the witness, Milton Cohen, 
should be instructed directly in the presence of his attorney that such 
conduct makes him subject to a prosecution for contempt of Congress. 

ISIr. Pool. You are so directed, and with that admonition, I will di- 
rect the witness to take the witness chair and answer the questions. 

Mr. Orlikofp. Even after that instruction, I repeat my instructions 
to the witness, and we still will leave the hearing room. 

Thank you. [Applause.] 

Mr. Pool. I order you to take your seats. 

[Mr. Cohen and Mr. Orlikoff walk out of hearing room.] 

Mr. Pool. Call the next witness. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Would Benjamin M. Friedlander please come forward ? 

"Would Benjamin M. Friedlander please come forward? 

Mr. Pool. Where is your lawyer ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I don't know ; I thought he was here. Mr. Stein- 
berg. I thought he was here. 

Mr. Pool. What is your lawyer's name ? 

Mr. Friedlander. Irving G. Steinberg. 

Mr. Pool. The witness will stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

]\Ir. Friedlander. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN MAX FRIEDLANDER, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, IRVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the witness please state his full name and 
address for the record ? 

]Mr. Friedl,.\nder. Benjamin Max Friedlander, 5345 South Kimbark 
Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Friedlander. Yes. 

]\f r. NiTn.E, Will counsel state his name and office address ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, my name is Irving Steinberg, 180 
West Washington. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed, Counsel. 

]\Ir. NiTTT.E. Mr. Friedlander, you have also been known as ISIax 
Benzion Friedlander; have you not? I ask this for purposes of 
identification. 

Mr. Friedlander. That happens to be my correct name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Max Benzion is your correct name? 

ISfr. Friedlander. Yes. 

INfr. NittIjE. Will you state the date and place of your birth ? 

INIr. Friedlander. I decline to answer this question on the following 
grounds: This committee has violated its own Rule XVI by releasing 
my name before the hearing. Therefore, the hearing is invalid. 

Mr. Pool. Now, I believe you said there "this committee." Did you 
say "this committee has violated its own rule"? Is that what you 
just said? 

Mr. Friedlander. My name. I am sorry. 

Mr. Pool. No. Whatdidyou just read? 

]\Ir. Friedlander. My name has been released. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 441 

Mr. Pool. What did you say, tlioug-h ? I believe you said that your 
name has been released by this committee; is that correct? Is that 
what you said ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I want to correct that, my name has been released. 

Mr. Pool. I wanted to correct it that the committee has not released 
your name prior to this hearing, none of the members, none of the 
staff. Let the record show that. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Friedlander. Therefore 

Mr. Nittle. Did you yourself release that fact that you were sub- 
penaed to any other person ? 

Mr. Friedlander. How many questions am I asked ? 

Mr. Pool. Strike that question. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Friedlander, were you born 

Mr. Friedlander. I had not finished. 

Mr. Nittle. You had not finished your objection ? 

Mr. Friedlander. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Proceed. 

Mr. Friedlander. That these proceedings violate article I, section 
9, of the Constitution of the United States, which prohibits a bill of 
attainder, and Rule XI, which creates this committee, is vague and 
indefinite and has no relationship to any legislative purpose whatso- 
ever. 

Three, the action of this committee violates the first amendment to 
the Constitution, which protects the rights of each individual to free- 
dom of speech and assembly. The committee violated the rules of due 
process protected by the fifth amendment, and I avail myself of all its 
protection and of the fourth and the sixth amendments. 

Mr. NiiTXE. Where were you born, Mr. Friedlander ? 

Mr. Friedi^\nder. I avail myself of all the previous answers. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you born in New York City on July 4, 1910? 

Mr. Friedlander. What valid legislative purpose does this infor- 
mation reveal? 

Mr. Nittle. It is for purposes of identification. 

Now will you respond to the question ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my previous answers. 

Mr. Pool. You refuse to answer on the same grounds previously 
stated ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Friedlander. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you resided in the city of Chicago? 

Mr. Friedlander. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate, please, the extent of your formal 
education? 

]Mr. Friedlander. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nim.E. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Friedlander. What legislative purpose does this information 
serve ? 

Mr. Nittle. This is for the purposes of identification and back- 
ground which tlie Supreme Court of the L^nited States has said is 
prober matter of inquiry. 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. Nittle. Is your occupation that of chief chemist? 



442 COMMUNIST activities IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr, Pool. Just a minute. 

Do 3'ou mean for the <>rounds previously stated? Is that what 
you said ? 

Mr. Friedlander. 1 have refused to answer on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Pool. And that includes the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Friedlander. It includes the fifth amendment, the first amend- 
ment, the ninth amendment, the sixth amendment, and the fourth 
amendment; article I, section 9, of the Constitution of the United 
States. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you employed as a chief chemist? Is that your 
occupation ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you present in the hearing room during the testi- 
mony of Lola Belle Holmes and Lucius Armstrong ? 

Mr. Friedlander. No. I was not during all the testimony. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, both Miss Holmes and Lucius Armstrong have 
testified that they knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party and, if so, during what 
period have you held such membership ? 

Mr. FRiEDLiVNDER. I just waut to say that this question again vio- 
lates my rights under the first amendment, under the fourth amend- 
ment, the fifth amendment, the sixth amendment, and the ninth amend- 
ment, and article I, section 9, of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Continue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified that she knew you were a dele- 
gate to the 1959 Illinois State convention of the Communist Party. 
Did you serve as a delegate to that convention ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Holmes testified th.at at the second session of the 
convention you were elected a member of the Illinois State Committee 
of the Coinmunist Party. Were you elected to such ofSce ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I refuse to answer on the groimds previously 
stated, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss HolmCvS testified that the chief executive officer 
of the Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights was Richard 
L. Criley, whom she identified as a member of the Communist Party 
and a member of the State committee of the Communist Party. 

As a matter of fact, four other witnesses have likewise identified 
Richard L. Criley as a member of the Communist Party in prior hear- 
ings of this committee. 

Do vou know Richard L. Crilev to be a meml)er of the Communist 
Party? 

jMr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my answers to all of the pre- 
vious questions. 

]Mr. Nittle. Did you know Leon Katzen — K-a-t-z-e-n — identified 
as a miember of the board of directors of the Chicago Committee to 
Defend the Bill of Rights in a June 1964 letterhead of that organi- 
zation ? 

]\Ir. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

ISIr. Nittle. Leon Katzen was identified by Carl Nelson in sworn 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 443 

testimony before this committee in May 1959 as a section organizer 
of the Communist Party. 

Did you know Leon Katzen to be a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Friedlaxder. I avail myself of all my previous answers to this 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you actively supported the activities and work 
of the Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all of my previous answers. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Friedlander, the resolution of the l7th National 
Convention of the Communist Party, ''On Party Organization," which 
was published in Political Affairs, declared in part, and I quote: 

INIastery of the theory and practises [sic] of the united front policy is the key 
task before the whole Party — before every organization, every member. 

Are you familiar with that resolution of the I7th National Conven- 
tion of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedlaxder. Do you have it ? 

Mr. Steixberg. May I see it ? 

Mr. Nittle. AVere you not, as a matter of fact, in attendance as a 
delegate to the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedlaxder. I avail myself of my previous answei"S. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you tell us, please, what is the "united front" 
policy of the Communist Party ? 

jMr. Friedlaxder. I avail myself of my previous answers. 

Mr. Steixberg. Do you have it written out ? 

Mr. Pool. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Friedlander, is it a fact that you are a member 
of an organization known as the Independent Voters of Illinois? 

According to a report in the Hi/de Park Herald of September 7, 
19G0, you have held the position of chairman of the fifth ward, that is, 
the Hyde Park area, of the Independent Voters of Illinois, and that 
you were also a board member of the Independent Voters of Illinois. 
Have you held these positions ? 

INIr. Friedlaxder. I would appreciate it if you would show me a 
copy of that paper that you got your facts from. 

Mr. Pool. The witness will answer the question. 

Mr. Steixberg. Do you have it ? 

Mr, Nittle. Did you or did you not hold those positions? 

Mr. Pool. Let him answer the question. 

Mr. Steixberg. Let me see the article. 

INIr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Steixberg. We are waiting for the article, Mr. Chairman. 

]Mr. Friedlaxder. Please repeat the question. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle. 

All right. 

I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Friedlaxder. Would you please repeat the question? 

]Mr. Pool. Repeat the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you held any position or office in the Independent 
Voters of Illinois or any affiliate of that organization ? 

Mr. Friedlaxder. Would you please identify the word "affiliate"? 

IVIr. Nittle. Beg pardon? 

Mr. Friedlaxder. Would you identify what you mean by the word 
"affiliate" ? I am not quite sure. 



444 C0MMTJ1?^IST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Any organization which is a section or chapter bear- 
ing the same name and attaching itself to that as a group, working in 
support, accepting its principles and purposes. 

Mr. Friedlander. Are you referring to the Independent Voters of 
Illinois? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask tou this question : Have you been a mem- 
ber, or are you a member, of the North Hyde Park Area Independent 
Voters of Illinois ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all the previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me, Mr. Friedlander, a copy of the Hyde 
Park Herald of September 19, 1962, page 8, which advises that 
Ben Friedlander of 5345 Kimbark is a sponsoring officer of the North 
Hyde Park Area Independent Voters of Illinois who is sponsoring a 
talk of a certain individual to take place on Friday at 5427 Dor- 
chester. 

Mr. Friedlander. Could I see the article ? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

I fail to see how this serves the legislative purpose, really. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, were you also in 1962 a board member of the 
Independent Voters of Illinois ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer '"Friedlander Exhibit No. 2" 
in evidence. 

Mr. Pool. Accepted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also ask leave to insert a copy of the September 7, 
1 960, Hyde Park Herald in the record upon obtaining a copy thereof. 

(Documents marked "Friedlander Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respec- 
tively, follow:) 

Fkiedlaxder Exhibit No. 1 

Wednesday, September 7, !96 HYDE PARK HERALD 14 

i®'s doieip what? 



Partying fo aid magazine, /W, ACLU theater benefit, NCC 



«. I. ^ . *..* * r^o« ., East View Park, is arrangements 
Richard A. Meyer. 5729 Ken- chairman for the party 
wood, will be master of cere- Officers from Hyde Park -Ken- 
monies at the second annual "meet wood include Robert F Picken 
your officers and board mem- 1228 E. 56th. administrative vice- 
bers- cocktail party to be held chairman, and Klaus Ollendorff. 
by the Independen Voters of Illi- 130; e. 50th. assistant treasurer, 
nois in the conllion room of the lo^^j j^^^^ members are Dr. 
Morrison hotel from 6 to 9 p.m. Le^n Bernstein, 5470 Hyde Park; 

^^ .1. . »^iiK^f..r.«ieK^ ^^" Friedlander, 5345 Kimbark; 

Entertainment will be furnished prederic Houghteling. 5550 Dor- 

by the^ord Carlton calypso duo Chester; Ruth Muench. 5522 Eve- 

The party is open to friends and ^ett; Thomas Roddy. 5402 Green- 

mernbers of IVl. Phere will be a ^^j; and Irving Rosenbloom. 

'^ashbar.- 5555 Everett. 

Mrs. Harry Bekenstein, 5414 * « • 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 445 

Fbiedlander Exhibit No. 2 
[Hyde Park Herald, 9/19/62, p. 8] 

"World Peace : International Prospects, and Implications for tlie 1962 Elec- 
tions" will be the subject of a talk by Dale Pontius, 5213 Blackstone, speaking 
Friday at 8 p.m. at 5427 Dorchester, before the North Hyde Park Area Inde- 
pendent Voters of Illinois. 

Pontius, who attended the Congress for General Disarmament and Peace in 
Moscow last July, made headlines around the world when, unlike most of the 
participants, he denounced the Russian policies as well as American. 

The olBcers of the sponsor group are Milt Cohen, 5322 Kimbark ; Ben Fried- 
lander, 5345 Kimbark, and Galen Gockel, 5409 Dorchester. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Friedlander, were j^ou a member of the Communist 
Party while serving as a sponsoring officer of the Hyde Park Inde- 
pendent Voters ? 

Mr. Friedlander. That is an improper question. 

Would you please rephrase it ? 

Mr. Pool. Repeat the question, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you an officer of the North Hyde Park Area In- 
dependent Voters of Illinois ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my previous answers to the 
same question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Milton Cohen, the witness who appeared 
here a moment ago, also to be a member or officer of the North Hyde 
Park Area Independent Voters of Illinois? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of the same answers to that 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Milton Cohen to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my previous answers. 

Mr. XiTTLE. He testified that he resided at South Kimbark. 

Is he your neighbor ? 

Mr. Friedlander. Just what do you mean by "neighbor*'? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know him living in the neighborhood in which 
you reside, known as the North Hyde Park area ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. Nitfle. Mr. Chairman, we request a 5-minute recess. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

The committee stands in recess for 5 minutes. 

The witness is not excused. 

Mr. Friedlander. I'm not going. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Weetner (presiding in absence of Mr. Willis and Mr. Pool). 
Counsel will proceed with the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Friedlnnder, resume the stand, please. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is reminded he is still under oath. 

Proceed. 

ISIr. NiTTLE. Mr. Friedlander, at the time of recess, I was discussing 
with you an article which appeared in the Hyde Park Herald of Sep- 
tember 19, 1962, in which a Ben Friedlander and Milt Cohen were re- 
corded as officers of a sponsoring organization known as the North 
Hyde Park Area Independent Voters of Illinois. 

I direct your attention to the fact that the organization sponsored 
a talk by an individual on the subject, "World Peace: International 
Prospects, and Implications for the 1962 Elections." 



446 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

What offices did you aiid Milt Cohen hold in the North Hyde Park 
Area Independent Voters of Illinois? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of the answers to the previous 
questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever publicly informed the members or leader- 
ship of the Independent Voters of Illinois, or the North Hyde Park 
Area Independent Voters of Illinois, of the fact of your membership 
in the Communist Party and the position of leadership which you have 
held in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedlander. Would you restate your question, please? 

Mr. Nittle. Would the reporter kindly read it back, please, to the 
witness ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Friedlander. My lawyer tells me this is an improper question. 
I would appreciate it if you would either rephrase it or restate it in 
some way. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is directed to answer the question. It 
has been read twice. 

Mr. Friedlander. Mr. Chairman, I am willing to answer if the 
question would be restated properly. 

Mr. Weltner. The question has been restated once. It will be 
read once again, and the witness will be directed to answer the question 
as it is read once again by the reporter. 

The reporter will read the question. 

( The question was read by the reporter. ) 

Mr. Friedlander. It is still an improper question, but I avail myself 
of all my previous answers. 

Mr. Weltner. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you and Milt Cohen join this group to work for 
positions of leadership in conformity with Communist Party directives 
or policy ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail mvself of my previous answers. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you join this group with the intent to advance the 
interests or policies of the Communist Party in that group ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my previous answers. 

jNIr. Nittle. Mr. Friedlander. it is the committee's information that 
on December 3, 1963, you attended the Annual Voters for Peace Rally 
held in Chicago at McCormick Place, which was jointly sponsored by 
the three organizations known as Voters for Peace, Women for Peace, 
and the American Friends Service Committee. Did you attend that 
rally? 

Mr. Friedlander. Wliat time of day was this ? 

Mr. Nittle. Perhaps this will refresh your recollection. 

The following persons identified by Lola Belle Holmes to be Com- 
munist Party members were in attendance at that rally : Harry Cantor, 
a member of the Printers Club of the Communist Party ; Louis Diskin, 
a member of the State board of the Communist Party; Dorothy 
Davies, a member of the State committee of the Communist Party; 
Fritzie Fnglestein, press director of the Ninth Ward Section of the 
Communist Party; David Fnglestein, a member of the State com- 
mittee of the Communist Party; Dorothy Playes, a member of the 
State committee of the Communist Party; Claude Lightfoot, State 
secretary of the Communist Party; Romolo Passarelli — P-a-s-s-a- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 447 

r-e-1-l-i, a delegate to the 1959 Communist Party convention; and Ann 
Prosten. 

Mr. Friedlander. How many people were present at that rally? 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is directed to answer the question. The 
witness is not propounding questions; he is here to answer the 
questions. 

Mr. Friedlander. Wliat is the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at that rally with those 
persons ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, prior to the holding of this rally, had you dis- 
cussed it at Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Were Communist Party members contacted with a view 
towards swelling the attendance of members at this rally ? 

]Mr. Friedlander. T\niat rally are you referring to ? 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. The Annual Voters for Peace Rally. 

Mr. Friedlander. What was the date ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That was given to you as December 3, 1963. 

Now, have you reached the point where you will answer the 
question? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers to that 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes has testified that at a meeting of the 
State committee of the Communist Party in 1962, infdtration of 
Women Strike for Peace was discussed and that Claude Lightfoot 
appointed Ann Morgan to direct the operation. 

Were you in attendance at that meeting? 

Mr, Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes testified that Lula Saffold, Ann 
Prosten, and Ann Morgan became members of Women Strike for 
Peace. 

Did you receive information of the Annual Voters for Peace Rally 
from any Communist Party member who was likev\"ise a member of 
Women for Peace, which is also known as Women Strike for Peace ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I would appreciate if you would let me know 
what valid legislative purpose this particular question serves. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE, That was adequately explained in the cliairman's open- 
ing statement. We ai'e seeking to preserve the security of the United 
States of America from any form of aggression or encroachment by 
the Soviet Union through its instrumentality in the United States, the 
Communist Party of the United States. 

Mr. Friedlander. How does Women for Peace come into that ? 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is directed to answer the question. If 
the witness does not recall the question, it will be restated, but you 
must answer the question or refuse on some valid grounds. 

Mr. Friedlander. All right. 

Would you please read the question again. Miss Reporter ? 

Mr. Nittle. Did you receive information of the Annual Voters for 
Peace Rally from a member of Women for Peace or Women Strike for 
Peace whom you knew to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedlander, The question is not proper. 



448 commu:n^ist activities in the Chicago, Illinois, area 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Friedlander. Would you please rephrase it ? 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is directed to answer the question as has 
been twice propounded to him. 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. Nittle. It is also the committee's information that you par- 
ticipated in a peace walk described as a walk to "Start the War on 
Poverty — End the War on Mankind" m April of 1964. 

Did you participate in that walk ? 

Mr. Friedlander. Where did this peace march start and where did 
it end ? I can't answer that question without that information. 

Mr. Weltner. Counsel will restate the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you participate in a so-called peace walk which was 
known as "Start the War on Poverty — End the War on Mankind" on 
Saturday, April 4, 1964 ? 

Perhaps I can refresh your recollection, Mr. Friedlander. 

Mr. Friedlander. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Among the marchers were persons whom Miss Holmes 
has identified as members of the Communist Party in her testimony ; 
namely, Sam Gold, Mollie Gold, Danny Queen, Ann Prosten, Sarah 
Jones, Lula Satfold, JSIilton Cohen, Charles Wilson, Eva — strike that, 
Martin Mitchell, Sam Davis, Marcia Starr, Dorothy Hayes, Ben Fried- 
lander, Mollie West. 

Mr. Steinberg. Could we have striken the reference to the wife ? 

]Nfr. Nittle. I am not asking you any questions about your wife 
or any 

Mr. Steinberg. Could it be stricken from the record ? 

Mr. Nittle. I agree it be stricken from the record of this witness' 
interrogation, Mr. Chairman, if that meets with the Chair's approval. 

INIr. Weltner. That will be done and the witness will now answer 
the question. 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

]\Ir. Nittle. To your knowledge, did the Communist Party or any 
party members play a role in arranging or promoting attendance at 
that demonstration ? 

Mr. Friedlander. What demonstrations and what date? You 
talked about a march? 

Mr. Nittle. That to which you have just invoked constitutional 
privileges and you refused to reply that you attended. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is directed to answer the question re- 
ferred to in the previous question proposed by counsel. 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my answers to the preceding 
questions. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Friedlander, I have before me a copy of a full-page, 
paid advertisement which appeared in the December 28, 1960, Hyde 
Park Herald under the auspices of the Hyde Park-Kenwood Com- 
mittee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 4909 South Dorchester, Chicago, 
calling for disarmament and the end of nuclear weapons tests. 

Among the sponsors of the advertisement appears the name Ben 
Friedlander. 

I hand you a copy of that exhibit marked for identification as 
"Friedlander Exhibit No. 8." 

Are you the Ben Friedlander whose name appears thereon? 

Mr. Friedlander, I avail myself of my previous answers. 

(Document marked "Friedlander Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 449 



o 
12: 

Q ^ 



0) 



C 
<0 









? a 

> 3 

O 

Q. *^ 

O ~ 

.£ o 

-D — 

a. 

O 



«Q 



*5) .2 

-H '0 

•*- 21 

«o 

d) 

= o 
to o 

>- 



2 



<1" 



> 

o 






0) 

s. 

o 
E 

c 

k. 
,J1 






0} 



5> -5 

c 



♦ fe .2 



>- 
< 



> 



O 
O 



LU 
Ul 



UJ 

< 




fd5 



J|Z 









I a 



Siif. 



I I lit 




450 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 




iti„.,j ' ' "' ' ' ' ' I , .... 







COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 451 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will also note on the advertisement, and I direct 
your attention to the fact, that Milton Cohen, Dorothy M. Hayes, Mrs. 
Ilichard Morgan — that is Ann IMorg-an, Mrs. Jesse Prosten — that is 
Ann Prosten, and Charles F. Wilson, all identified by Miss Holmes 
as members of the Communist Party, likewise appear on that adver- 
tisement as sponsors. 

Did you participate in the payment of this advertisement together 
with the persons whom I have just named ? 

Mv. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you then a member of the Hyde Park-Kenwood 
Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answ^ers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the placing of this advertisement in the Hyde 
Park Herald discussed at a Communist Party meeting? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are aware, are you not, that the national committee 
of SANE has expressed its opposition to membership or affiliation by 
persons who adhere to totalitarian philosophy, including the Com- 
munists? 

Mr. Friedlander. Could you repeat the date of this particular ad ? 

Mr. Weltner. Counsel will kindly exhibit once again the ad to the 
witness and read it. 

( Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is dated December 28, 1060. 

Mr. Friedlander. What was the date of the last question ? 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Are you aware of the opposition of the national com- 
mittee of SANE to membership in that organization by members of 
the Communist Party ? 

jNIr. Friedlaxder. I avail myself of my answers to the previous 
questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Friedlander, on July 2, 1961, a meeting was held at 
the Promontory Point to protest the enlargement of the Nike site at 
that location 

jVIr. Friedlander. How do you spell Nike ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information 



Mr. Weltner. Counsel will proceed with the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that this meeting was 
held under the auspices of the Hyde Park-Kenwood Committee for 
a Sane Nuclear Policy and with the cosponsorship of the Socialist 
Party and the Plyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference. 

Did you and Dorothy Hayes attend the protest meeting ? 

Mr. Friedlander. What particular question do you want me to 
answer ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you and Dorothy Playes attend tliat protest meet- 
ing ? I think it is a fairly simple question. 

Mr. Friedlaxder. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it the policy of the Communist Party to obstruct 
United States defense preparations ? [Laughter.] 

!Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Friedlander, I have before me a copy of the 
January 28, 1968, Hyde Park Herald, which reports the election of new 
officers for the Hyde Park SANE. It names a Ben M. Friedlander of 
5845 Kimbark, Milton "Kohen" of 5322 Kimbark, and Charles Wilson 



452 COMMITNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 



of 5344 Kimbark, as among those persons who will lead committees of 
the organization. 

I hand you a copy of this issue marked for identification as "Fried- 
lander Exhibit No. 4." 

Were you appointed to lead a committee of SANE as reported ? 

Mr. Friedlander. Would you repeat the question? I forgot it, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you appointed to lead a committee of SANE as 
reported in the Hyde Park Herald ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

(Document marked "Friedlander Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 

Friedlander Exhibit No. 4 
WettnMdey, JUKB&ry 23, 196S HYDC PARK HERALD 10 

SANE names new officers 



S322 Kimhark, cofnmunlcy cod~ 
U£q Cbariss Wilson, 5344 BUm- 
bark, membership; nutti Mueocb* 
5522 Everelt^ puMlciiy; aad peg 
H. FrekSlander, 5^5 fUmbark. 



Although Che purpose of tbe 
meetlr^ was to elect new ofH- 
cerSs araio^B^esneat of a TV »•- 
rk.^ sx^Q ^ spociig^ ae the 
Jaouary meecin^ of ^& \^>f^ 
Park SANE. 

Beginning Feb. 14, channel 11 
will carry a ll^TlVk ssrtes gt»- 
^ed •The Balance of f^.t^K.Z-. 

The local gresi^>'s work for sSae 
next shree 77*®nlhs will eencsr 
around this series. 

SAfJti 's officer* for l%3 are: 
cbaixman: Jo^ph Eitgel, 4828 
Ksnwood; gdmlMstradve ci»*ir- 
maiu Mrs. KLatlserine Jeana, 1209 
E. Madison Park; yice-cbairmaa: 
IJr. Seymour GlagC'Y, 1165 E. 54th 
place; treasurer Sam Acker- 
man, 144d R«£bdals; icsmtei^ 
at-larget Ssobtl Kfiai^r, 4919 
Dorchester. 

The commistfMS will b9 led 
by Deborah Melsr, 1^43 £. SScin, 
program; IJan Hoober, 1400 E. 
SSih, education: Mtlton IC^iea, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware at that time that the national organi- 
zation of SANE, in published brochures, has advised that it adopted 
a policy of denying membership to persons who adhere tx) Communist 
or other totalitarian doctrines ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of all my previous answers. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Have you ever advised the national or local leadership 
of SANE that you, Milton Cohen, and Charles Wilson are function- 
aries of the Illinois District of the Comnnmist Party ? 

Mr. Friedlander. I avail myself of my previous answers. 

Mr. NiT'n.E. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltni^. Very well. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 453 

The witness may leave the stand and counsel will call the next wit- 
ness. 

Mr. Friedlander. Can I leave this place ? 

Mr. Steinberg. You can go. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask that the exhibits be received. 

Mr. Weltner. The exhibits are accepted into evidence. 

Call the next witness. [Applause.] 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Charles Wilson, please. 

Mr. Anglin. May I inquire how the agenda will go today ? 

Mr. Weltner. It is subject to change by circumstances which may 
develop, but this hearing will proceed for approximately 2 additional 
hours during the day. 

The next w^itness will kindly take the stand. 

Stand and raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give in this matter 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Wilson. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES FEHNINGER WILSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, PEARL M. HART 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Wilson. Charles F. Wilson, .5344 South Kimbark, Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Would counsel kindly identify herself for the record, 
stating her name and office address ? 

Miss Hart. This is my farewell appearance this afternoon. 

I am Pearl Hart, 30 North LaSalle Street, Chicago. 

Mr. Nittle, Mr. Wilson, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer the question under the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States, because it is an attempt 
to abridge or interfere with my freedom of speech and my freedom of 
silence and my right to peaceably assemble with others and to petition 
the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Two, I decline to answer the question under the fourth amendment 
to the Constitution, which is closely allied to the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution, for the reason that this committee has no power to 
subpena or to question me on matters of my personal, lawful conduct 
nor to attempt to make a search through its questions of my activities, 
since to do so is an unlaAvful interference with my right of privacy 
and such action is prohibited by the fourth amendment to the Con- 
stitution. 

Three, I further decline to answer the question under the protection 
of the fifth amendment to the Constitution, which provides that no 
person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself, and to be 
subpenaed here and to be required to answer the questions of this 
committee is a direct violation of the express provision that no person 
shall be compelled to be a vritness against himself. 



454 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Four, I further decline to answer the question under the sixth 
amendment to the Constitution, because by your process I am denied 
the right to be confronted with and to cross-examine witnesses. I am 
denied compulsory process for obtainino; witnesses and I am denied 
adequate assistance of comisel because my counsel is not permitted to 
cross-examine on my behalf or to object to questions or testimony or 
to make necessary motions in my behalf. And merely to permit my 
counsel to sit with me, a lay person, uninformed and untrained and in- 
experienced in these proceedings, and to permit her to do nothing more 
is a denial of due process and contrary to the sixth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

I further decline to answer the question because there is nothing 
in the subpena served upon me to indicate what subject matter, if 
any, is being investigated, nor for what purpose, nor whether any 
subject matter to be investigated is within the province of the com- 
mittee nor whether the subject matter to be investigated has been so 
designated by the committee as a whole. 

And for the further reason that Rule XI of this committee is so 
vague, broad, and uncertain as to fail to give the committee any au- 
thority under which it may operate, and for the further reason that 
it gives no notice to any person of what he is required to answer or 
respond to. 

Six, I further decline to answer for the reason that, contrary to the 
committee's own Rule XVI, it has published and announced in ad- 
vance of this hearing the names of the persons to be subpenaed. 

I further decline to answer because the question is not pertinent to 
the alleged subject of this investigation. 

Mr, Weltner. Does the witness maintain that the committee has 
published the names of the witnesses prior to the hearing as indicated 
by the statement as read ? 

Mr. WiLSox. Sir, I amend the statement to state that the names were 
published, but I am not charging that the committee published the 
names themselves. 

Mr. Weltner. Very well. 

The Chair recognizes as a valid ground, so stated by the witness, the 
fifth amendment, and rejects the remainder of those' grounds. 

Counsel, you may proceed. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Did you tell us when and where you were born? I did 
not understand whether you replied to that. 

Mr. Weltner. He declined to answer. 

Mr. Wilson. I declined to answer you. 

]\Ir. Nittle. Do you invoke the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Wilson. I invoked all the reasons I have stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does that include the self-incrimination clause of the 
fifth amendment? 

]\fr. Wilson. It includes the fifth amendment, which states that I 
am not required to testify against myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Wilson, the committee is informed that you were 
born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 27, 1910. Would 
you tell us how long you have been in Chicago, and when you came 
here ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated . 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 455 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you come to Chicago in the 1940's ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
staled. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. At the time you came to Chicago, were you a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 
' Mr. NiTTLE. What has been your formal education ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mean to say that it will incriminate you to tell 
tiiis committee where you are presently employed? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. jSTittle. Are you employed by General Motors Corporation, 
Electro-Motive Division, at La Grange, Illinois ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been employed by them since 1946 ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of Local 719, United Auto Workers 
and, if so, how long have vou been a member of that union? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Where were you employed prior to your engagement by 
General Motors in 1946 ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previous stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you indicated you were denied the right of con- 
frontation today, but I would like to ask whether you were in attend- 
ance and remained in attendance during the testimony of Miss Holmes 
and Mr. AiTnstrong ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Both have testified that they knew you to be a member 
of the Communist Party. Was their testimony correct and truthful? 

Mr. Wn.soN. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously stated. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. ]Miss Holmes testified that you were a delegate to the 
19.59 State convention of the Communist Party in Illinois. 

Did 3^ou attend both sessions of the party's convention in that 
capacity ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition. Miss Holmes has testified under oath that 
you were a member of the Negro Commission of the Communist Party 
of Illinois. Was her testimony correct ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Ntttt.e. Were you a member of the national Negro Commis- 
sion of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend a meeting of members of the national 
Negro Commission of the Communist Party on Februarv IB and Feb- 
ruary 14 of 1960 at the address 306 East 43d Street ? 

52-810 — 66— pt. 1 11 



456 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell the committee, please, what is the func- 
tion of the Negro Commission of the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Are the respective Negro Commissions the arm of 
the top governing bodies of the State and national organization ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previouslj^ stated. 

^h'. Nittle. Is it correct to say that the Negro Commissions were 
principally concerned with implementation of Communist Party policy 
specifically dire<;ted toward our Negro people ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. The founding convention of the Negro American Labor 
Council was held in Detroit, Michigan, during May of 1960. It was 
organized, as you no doubt know, by the distinguished Negro leader 
and trade unionist, A. Philip Randolph, for the purpose of improving 
the condition of the Negro and to end discrimination of any kind. 

Now, prior to the time set by Mr. Randolph for the convening of the 
convention in Detroit, Michigan, in May of 1960, had you met with 
<he Communist Party leadership in the State of Illinois, or on the 
national level, at which plans were made trying to control the pro- 
ceedings of the convention, or to place Commimist Party members in 
offices or positions of influence ? 

Miss Holmes testified that you were appointed to a Communist 
Party caucus within the Negro American Labor Council. Were you ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. At the time of this appointment to the caucus, what 
ir.structions were given you and what were you to do in the Negro 
American Labor Council ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you asked to make use of your position and em- 
ployment at the La Grange plant of General ]Motors Cor]:)oratioii lo 
assist the Communist Party in the furtherance of its objectives? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. That is to say, in pursuance of the furtherance of its 
objectives in the Negro American Labor Council. 

Mr. Wilson. I wonder if you would repeat the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. I shall. 

I wanted to know whether you made use of your position and 
employment at the La Grange plant in Illinois to further the interests 
of the Communist Party in penetrating the Negro American Labor 
Council ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us, please, when and where and under 
what circumstances you first joined the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you recruited into the Communist Party i^i'ior 
to, or following, your employment at General Motors? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons that I have 
previously stated, all the constitutional reasons. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 457 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Wilson, I have before me a copy of an article 
titled "8 Communists Up For Office In CIO Union Named,"* which is 
subtitled "Head of Local Charges 38 Dominate UAW Branch," which 
appeared in the Chicago Daily Tribune of February 25, 1946. 

The item reports — 

Thirty-eight members of the '•Electro-Motive brunch of the Communist party" 
and their fellow travelers have dominated local 719 of the United Automobile 
Workers' union [CIO] thruout 1945 and are trying to retain control of the 
union, Le Nard Vincent, president of the local, and two aspirants to union 
ofBce, charged yesterday. They also named eight election opponents as mem- 
bers of the Communist party. 

Charles Wilson, a candidate for member at large, w^as among those 
identified as Communist Party members. 

I hand you a copy of this document marked for identification as 
"Wilson Exhibit No. 1." 

]Mr. Nin'LE. Were 30U a candidate for member at large for office 
in Local 719 as noted in the article ? 

Air. Wilson. First let me state that I am not responsible for what 
IS published in the Chicago Trihune. I furtlier decline to answer the 
question for all the reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is not a question as to wliether it is published in the 
Chicago Trihune. It is a question whether the report, is a true report 
of an existing fact. 

Were you a candidate for Local 719 ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to ansAver for all of the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NrrxLE. Were you a memlier of tlie Comnnmist Party at the 
lime you souglit that office, as cliarged by I^e Nard Vincent? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 1 into evidence. 

Mr. Weltner. It will be accepted. 

(Document marked "Wilson ILxhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Electro-Motive branch of 
tlie Communist Party while employed at the General Motors plant? 

]Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all of the reasons previously 
tri\'en. 

Mr. Nittle. In opposing your candidacy, did not Le Nard Vincent 
further charge that union policies were determined at Ccmminiist 
Party meetings, in the liomps of Communists, and that Communists 
iiave held secret meetings of the union executive board where union 
policy has been formulated without the knowledge of anti-Commmiist 
members of the board ? Did you participate in any of these meetings? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Wilson, in June of 1046 Avere you a member of 
an organization called the Chicago Counfii of I^abor Union Veterans? 

]Miss Hart. Excuse me. Are vou back i]i 1946 now? Do I imder- 
standthat? 

Mr. Nittle. I beg your pardon ? 

Miss Hart. Are you back in 1946 ? 

Mr. NrrTLE. I have been on 1946 : yes. 

Miss IL\RT. Go ahead, answer. 



458 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. "Wilson, I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. All right. It maintained a mailing address at 12.') West 
Madison Street. Do you remember ? 

Miss Hart. ^^Hiat is the (juestion t 

Mr. XiiTLE. Does he remeni1>er that it maintained an address 

Miss Hart. What \ 

Mr. XiTTLE. —then in 1946 at 123 West Madison Street % 

Miss Hart. Mr. Counsel 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Chicago Council of Labor Union Veterans. 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Chicago Council of Labor 
Union Veterans ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, 123 West Madison Street was then also the head- 
quarters of the Communist Party's youth group, the American Youth 
for Democracy ; was it not ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a member of the American Youth for De- 
mocracy ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle, Mr. Wilson, during the late 1940's and early 1950's 
while you were employed at the La Grange plant at General Motors 
Corporation, were you acquainted with a fellow employee by the name 
of Anzelm Czarnowski? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
.stat,ed. 

Mr. Xitti-e. Botli of you were members of Local 719 of the L'AW; 
were you not ? 

M]-. Wilson. I decline to ansAver for all the reasons previouslv 
stated. 

Mr, Nittle. Anzelm Czarnowski became a member of the Com- 
munist Party for the purpose of serving the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation and his Government, and in June 1956 testified before this 
committee that he became a member of the Communist Party about 
1944 for the purpose of serving his Government. 

He testified that he was an employee of the Electro-Motive plant 
•of General Motors from about 1940 until 1951, He stated in his testi- 
mony that he knew you to be a member of Local 719, L^nited Auto 
Workers, and a member of the Communist Party. Was his testimony 
correct ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously given, 

Mr, Nittle, Were you a member, also, then of the United Auto 
Workers shop branch of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Wilson, I decline to answer for all the reasons previously given. 

Mr, Nittle. Noav, Mr, Czarnowski testified that you were a Com- 
munist Party delegate to tlie State convention of the Communist 
Party in 1947 and 1948, Were you a delegate to the State convention 
•of the Communist Partv at that time? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 459 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all of the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Czarnowski testified tliat, at the State convention, 
the Communist Party adopted a program for the creation of a re- 
gional organization that would cover all Communist shop branches 
in the 14 major industries and for that purpose appointed three re- 
gional directors, whose job it was to organize branches in the industry 
where they were employed. He said the purpose of this new plan 
was to take over leadership of the unions. 

Were you present when such plans were being discussed at the 
State convention of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the constitutional reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, he testified further before our committee, under 
oath, that some of the shop branches formed by the Communist Party 
have printed and disseminated their own newspaper in opposition to 
the publications of the trade unions. He said that these papers were 
distributed at the plant gates by others than those employed in the 
particular plant or industry, in order to avoid detection. One such 
paper, edited by Communists, was the Dleselioorker^ which carried 
articles written by a number of Communist Party members. He tes- 
tified that Charles Wilson was a Communist who contributed articles 
to the Dieselioorher. 

Did you submit articles for publication to the Dfeselioorker as a 
Conununist Party member? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the constitutional reasons 
previously given. 

Mr. Niitij:. He further expressed the vieAv, and testified, that these 
publications of the Communist Party, in turn, expressed the Marxist- 
Leninist viewpoint on foreign and domestic policies. 

Could you tell us, please, whether this was a purpose of the Com- 
munist Party in publishing the DieselworJier? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the constitutional reasons 
preA-iously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Czarnowski also testified that one of the major 
efforts of the Communist Party was to sabotage the Korean campaign 
in the 1950's, by developing public opinion against it. He said that 
one project of the Communist Party was to contact the parents of 
boys in Korea, and especially those who were imion members, to con- 
vince them to appeal to their union to have their local go on record 
to demand the withdrawal of American troops from Korea and leave 
Korea to the Koreans. 

You were aware that this was a project of the Communist Party 
then ; were you not ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the constitutional reasons 
previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Czarnowski testified that you, knowing he had 
a boy in Korea serving in the United States Armed Forces — that you 
came to his house with another Communist Party member and you 
explained the Communist Party's project to him and that you, in fact, 
ordered Mr. Czarnowski to go before Local 719 of the L'^'nited Auto 
Workers of the CIO and to make a speecli demanding i\\Q return of 
his boy alive and in one piece: that after he had made his speech the 



460 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Communist Party would have a resolution ready to be introduced for 
adoption by the local. 

Did you do and say that ? 

Mr. "Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Czarnowski further testified that he told you 
then, and your friend, that he would not know hov.- to put his feelings 
in words but would make a speech if it were written out for him. He 
said the speech was written for him, and he delivered it, but it didn't 
go over with the local. 

Did you write the speech for him? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it a policy of the Communist Party to sabotage tlie 
American effort in Korea ? 

]Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Czarnowski further testified that at the end 
of World AYar II, when the Soviet Union no longer needed our aid, 
with the war ended, you, Charles Wilson, found that he was still 
buying United States bonds while employed at the Electro-Motive 
plant and that you told him to cash them in and not to buy any more 
because — he is quoting you now — "the United States imperialists are 
using this money for war material against the liberation forces in 
China."' 

Did you tell him to stop buying United States war bonds? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By "liberation forces," did you mean the Chinese 
Communists? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it a policy of the Communist Party, in which you 
hold high leadership, to sabotage every effort and program of the 
United States which is designed to aid countries resisting Communist 
aggression ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiT'rLE. Have you continued to participate in such a policy 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, with others, in 1958 petition President Eisen- 
hower for withdrawal of the United States troops in Lebanon? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know, at the time you were petitioning the 
Presideiit, that the United States had sent Marines to Lebanon at 
the request of the Lebanese Government to forestall an effort of the 
Soviet Union and United Arab Republic to overthrow a regime 
friendly to the United States? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 461 

INIr. NiTTLE. When you signed the petition to President Eisenhower, 
were you then under the discipline of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. "Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now it was reported in the Hyde Park Herald of 
December 24, 1958, that you were a member of a steering committee 
to form the Hyde Park chapter of the Chicago Committee for a Sane 
Nuclear Policy. Did you do so •' 

INIr. WiLsox. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you do so pursuant to a plan and direction and 
policy of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Wilson, I have before me a copy of the Hyde 
Park Herald of August 2, 1961, which contains an article titled 
"SANE Committee To Fete Hiroshima Day With Film." The arti- 
cle reports that a Hiroshima Day meeting would be held on Sunday 
by the Hyde Park-Kenwood Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 
with a film of Hiroshima, depicting the lives of the surviving victims 
of the first nuclear bomb, and also a discussion of the then Berlin 
crisis. A Charles Wilson of 5344 Kimbark is named as a member of 
the planning committee for this meeting. 

I hand vou a copv of this publication marked for identification as 
"Wilson Exhibit No. 2." 

Were you a member of the planning committee for that meeting? 

]\Ir. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

(Document marked "Wilson Exhibit No. 2" follows :) 

Wilson Exhibit No. 2 
Wednesday, Augtsst 2. 1961 HYES PARK HERALX) 10 



A Htrosiuxnt Day meeting: will 

be ^!eld 8:30 p.m. Sunday try the 
Hytie Ptrk- Kenwood Conimittee 
for a Sane Nuclear Policy. 

The "Oiriminee will meet on 
rfae 2e*s.-n a.t the home of Joseph 
EnpeL 482S Kenwtxxl, IT* gather- 
ing wil! feaau-e a fiim, "Shaobw 
of Hiroshima.' depicting tte lives 
of the surviving victims c/ die 
first ?.i:cie«!i- bomb sr*d a dJs- 
cussic-n of the BerHn c.v\Mi^. The ' 
speaker wtr. be Dale Ponsius, 
S43r7 W(V)dl<?T;yr-, aa«ccl«fe pro- 
fft-'-'i«r ssf pi'-'it^cai fc'flr.'re at 
i^vCi^ftTii-.k U-iiivtirsu/. Tl.* ntees- 
ia? is cr^n. ic- the- j%r>iic, Aiid 



refreshments will be served. 

The planning committee for 
lhl3 meeting; included Joseph 
Engel, 4S2S Kenwood; Mrs. Isabel 
Knauer, 4919 Osrchester; Mrs. 
Jessie Sheridan. 4923 Green- 
wood; \1t. Sevmour GJagov 1165 
E. ^th PI.: Mrs. Kadsy Jeans, 
1209 E. Niadi&on Perk; Charles 
Mlt-oa. 5544 Kitnhar k; Nfrs. 
Adsiaicte CliOeT 1S58 t. Madl- 
«ot) P«tric; and Milion Cdtsn, 
5."^2 Ki5T>5yrh. 



462 COMMU^'IST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

]Mr. XiTTLE. Xow, Mr. Wilson, I also have before me a copy of tlie 
January 23, 1963, Hyde Park Herald^ which carries an article entitled 
'"SAXE names new officers.'" Charles Wilson, 5344 Kimbark, is noted 
as a member of the membership committee. 

I just handed vou a copy of that article marked for identification 
as ''Wilson Exhibit Xo. 3." 

Were you elected to that office 'I 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

(Document marked "Wilson Exhibit Xo. 3*' and retained in com- 
mittee files. Previously introduced as Friedlander Exhibit Xo. 4. 
See p. 452.) 

Mr. XiiT^LE. I direct your attention to the fact that Milton "Koheii"' 
of 5322 Kimbark has been named as community contact, and that Ben 
M. Friedlancler of 5345 Kimbark is named as a member of the pub- 
licity committee. 

Did you know them to serve with you in that organization? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. X^ow, were you, Milton Cohen, and Ben M. Friedlander 
instructed by the Commimist Party organization to infiltrate the Chi- 
cago Hyde Park-Kenwood chapter of S AXE ? 

Mr. WiEsox. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. XiTixE. Did you three meet as a Communist Party caucus 
within that organization ? 

Mr. WiEsox. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Are you aware, ]\Ir. Wilson, that the national leader- 
ship of SAXE has declared its official policy not to welcome into 
SAXE any individuals whose support is "qualified by adherence to 
Commimist or other totalitarian doctrine" ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Are you aware that the national leadership of SAXE 
at or about 1961 revoked the charters of several Xew York chapters 
of SAXE when it was brought to their attention that these chapters 
had been captured or controlled by Communists ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Have you ever advised the local or national leadership 
of SAXE with regard to your Commimist Party membership? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Are you, as of this moment, a member of the Com- 
munist Party who accepts its discipline ? 

Mr. Wilson. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Xo further questions. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltx'er. The witness will be excused. 

The subcommittee will take a 5-minute recess. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool (presiding in al^sence of ^\v. Willis). The committee Avill 
come to order. 

Counsel, call the next witness. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 463 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Wilberforce Cox Jones please come forward? 
Mr. Pool. Stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothino- but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Jones. Aye. 
Mr. Pool. You do ? 
Mr. Jones. Aye. 

TESTIMONY OF WILBEEFOSCE COX JONES, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL. IRVING MEYERS 

Mr. NiPTLE. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Jones. My name is Wilberforce Jones, and I live at 3827 South 
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your middle name Cox, C-o-x ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. That was my mother's maiden name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Meyers. My name is Irving Meyers. My office is 188 West 
Eandolph Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

At this moment I would like to make some motions on behalf of my 
client. 

Mr. Pool. The Chair will entertain the statement. 

Mr. Meters. I wish to move at this time that my client, Wilber- 
force Jones, be permitted to testify as an involuntary witness at an 
executive hearing for the reason that his name, without his pennis- 
sion or consent and possibly by an agent of this committee, was caused 
to be published shortly after he was served and causing him to be 
defamed, degraded, and incriminated thereby. 

In addition, I object to this hearing, in that it is a public Roman 
holiday, in that the television crews of all the stations in the city, re- 
porters from many places, still cameras are being used throughout the 
hearing, which will only tend further to degrade, incriminate, and em- 
barrass my clienr. 

For these reasons I request respectfully of this committee to permit 
my client to testify as an involuntary witness at an executive hearing, 

Mr. P'"" ;L. The motion is overruled. 

The television cameras are Iieing operated in accordance with the 
rules of the House. The subcommittee has already ruled on the other 
motion that you made, and your motion is overruled. 

Counsel, go ahead with the questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jones, have you also been known as Stanley Cox ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro- American I must per- 
force decline to answer that question for the following reasons : 

Number one, I decline to answer the question under the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States, because it is an intent 
to abridge or interfere with my freedom of speech as a black Amer- 
ican and my fi'eedom of silence arid my right to peaceably assemble 
with others and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Number two. I furtlier decline to answer the question under the 
fourth amendment to the Constitution, which is closely allied to the 



464 COMMTXN^IST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

fifth amendment to the Constitution, for tlie reasons that this com- 
mittee has no power to subpena or to question me on matters of my 
personal, lawful conduct nor to attempt to make a search through its 
questions of my activities, since to do so is an unlawful interference 
with my right of privacy and such action is prohibited by the fourth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Xumber three, I decline to answer the question as a black Afro- 
American under the protection of the fifth amendment to the Con- 
stitution, which provides that no person shall be compelled to be a 
witness against himself, and to be subpenaed here and to be require^] 
to answer the questions of this committee is a direct violation of the 
express provision that no person shall be compelled to be a witness 
against himself. 

And I further decline, for the fourth reason, as a black Afro- Ameri- 
can, to answer the question under the sixth amendment to the Con- 
stitution, because by your process I am denied the right to be con- 
fronted with and to cross-examine witnesses and I am denied com- 
pulsory process for obtaining witnesses and I am denied adequate 
assistance of counsel because my counsel is not permitted to cross- 
examine on my behalf or to object to questions or testimony or to make 
necessary motions in my behalf. Merely to permit my counsel to sit 
with me, a lay person, uninformed and untrained and inexperienced in 
the proceedings, and to permit him to do nothing more, is a denial of 
due process and contrary to the sixth amendment to the Constitution. 

Number five, I further decline to answer the question because there 
is nothing in the subpena served upon me to indicate what subject 
matter, if any, is being investigated, nor for what purpose, nor whether 
any subject matter to be investigated is within the province of the 
committee nor whether the subject matter to be investigated has been 
so designated by the committee as a whole. 

And for the further reason that Rule XI of this committee is so 
vagTie, broad, and uncertain as to fail to give the committee any au- 
thority under which it may operate, and for the further reason that 
it gives no notice to any person of what he is required to answer or to 
respond to. 

And I would like to also further decline to answer the question as 
a black Afro- American for reasons of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amend- 
ments and the 18th amendment — 19th amendment, I am sorry. 

Mr. Pool. Are you finished ? 

Mr. Jones. Aye, 

Mr. Pool. Now your objections, including the 18th amendment, are 
overruled, but your objection on the ground of the 5th amendment is 
sustaine-d. 

You may ask the next question. 

Mr. Meyers. Mr. Pool, you hear^l him correct that. He corrected 
that to the 19th. You don't need to embarrass him. He corrected 
that. 

Mr. Jones. I state the ground of the 19th because my grandmother 
and crrandfather could not vote and mv grandmother, who is Tndirm 
and is part of my own lineage in the blood of the familv. the Indians 
in America are not allowed yet to be American citizens, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Fine. 

Continue, Counsel. 

Mr. XiTixE. Now, have von ever used tlie name Bill Price ? 



COISIMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 465 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I ^YOllld like to knoAv in what manner 
that name is used. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are just asking you now as to whether you ever used 
it. You can answer that "yes'' or "no." 

Mr. Jones. In the context of that question, Mr. Chairman, and as 
a black Afro- American, I am a little apprehensive about that ques- 
tion and I would like to decline to answer it for the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NriTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mr. Jones. February 2, 1924, in Nashville, Tennessee, 14014-1^ 
Phillips Street. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, when did you first arrive in the city of Chicago ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I am a bit apprehensive about that ques- 
tion and as a black Afro- American I would like to decline for the rea- 
sons already given. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us about the extent of your formal 
education ? 

Mr. Jones. Oh, I have an eighth grade education, secondary' school 
education, I have a college education and some post-graduate educa- 
tion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now would you tell us what elementary school you 
attended ? 

Mr. Jones. I would like to object to the relevancy of that ques- 
tion to the legislative process, ]Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro- Amer- 
ican. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat is the relevancy of the question, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Background of the witness and information relating 
to his identification. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Jones. Well, I went to Watkins — Mr. Chainnan, I am a little 
apprehensive about this question, too, and I would like to know if the 
counsel is sure that he subpenaed the right person. [Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask you this question : Where are you employed? 

Mr. Pool. You didn't answer the other question. 

Do you want to withdraw the question, Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTiXE. Yes. I want to ask at this point whether he has been 
employed at the International Harvester Company. 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I am a little apprehensive about this 
question and I suspect that it might demean my loyalty and hold me 
up to public scom. 

Mr. Pool. You have not answered the question, and I direct you to 
answer the question. 

]Mr. Jones. ]\Ir. Chairman, as a l)]ack Afro- American I would like 
to decline on the basis of the answers previously given. 

!Mr. Pool. Next question, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. I understand, and the committee is informed, Mr. Jones, 
that in your application for employment at International Harvester 
Company you indicated that you attended Pearl Elementary High 
School for the years 1930 to 19.39 and Pearl High School for the years 
1939 to 1942. both at Nashville, Tennessee, but you did not indicate 
upon your application that you had a college education. Now, when 



466 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

did you acquire it, if you had a college education at the time you com- 
menced your employment at International Harvester? I am trying 
to determine when you had your college education. 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I would like 
to decline to answer that question for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Have you at any time concealed any facts relating to 
your educational background from any employer ? 

Mr. JoxES. I am a bit apprehensive about that question, Mr. Chair- 
man, and I would like to ask the legislative relevancy of that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, we are trying to determine when you came to 
Chicago, what you were doing here, whether you came here as a Com- 
munist Party member, as a '"colonizer" of industry. We have in past 
investigations found that many Communist Party members were 
highly educated but concealed this educational attainment so that they 
could go into industry with a view toward advancing Communist 
policy among workers by reason of their superior training and 
education. 

Mr. Pool. The question is relevant. Answer the question. 

Mr. XiTTLE. May I inquire whether you are seeking to conceal your 
educational attainments for any purpose? 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment. Do you want to withdraw the question 
and ask another question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. I have given him the explanation. Yes, sir, 
that is correct; I will withdraw the next-to-last question, but let the 
explanation stand. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Now what is the question you want him to answer ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think it would best be i-eflected in the reporter's notes. 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Will the reporter read the question ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Jones. Read it again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I withdraw the question. Let me put it this way : 

Mr. Jones, have you at any time for purpose of employment con- 
cealed your educational background or any part of it with the purpose 
of executing a policy or directive of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. JoxES. Mr. Cliairman, as a black Afro-American 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't think you represent all black Afro- Americans. 
Now will you please refrain from that ? 

Mr. Pool. Let him answei' the question. 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Cliairman, as a black Afro-American I would like 
to decline to answer that question for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information, and its first record 
of your em]iloyment in the Chicap:o area, tliat you were employed from 
April 1951 to January 1955 with the Crane Coni[)any. Is this correct? 

^^r. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a l)l!ick Afro-Amovican T am a bit ap- 
prehensive about this question and I would like to decline to answer 
for the reasons preA'iously given. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 467 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that from Jnne 1955 to May 1957 you were era- 
ployed at the Tractor Works of the International Harvester Company 
and that you were laid oft' on May 3, 1957. Is this true? 

Mr. Jones. I would like to decline to answer that question as a black 
Afro-American on the grounds previously given. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr, Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following your layoft' in 1957. you were employed as a 
social worker for the Cook County Welfare Department; that from 
the period 1959 to the present, you were employed as a welder at tlie 
International Harvester Companj' as a group leader. 

Is this correct ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I am a bit apprehensive about this ques- 
tion and I would like to ask the counsel if he is sure that he subpenaed 
the right person. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you tell me. I was waiting for that answer. Do 
you have any doubt about that ? 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Witness, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I would like 
to decline to answer that question on the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in the hearing room during the testimony of 
Lola Belle Holmes and Lucius Armstrong ? 

Mr. Jones. Aye. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were ? 

Mr. Jones. Aye. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now both Miss Holmes and Mr. Armstrong were not at 
all uncertain about your identity, as you seem to think I am. They 
testified that you were a member of the Communist Party. Were they 
correct ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I would like 
to decline to answer that question for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Let me ask you a little differently. 

Are you, or have you ever been, a member of tlie Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I must per- 
force give the same answer. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. In August of 1957 a statement was disseminated to the 
membership of Local 1301, United Auto Workers, advising that con- 
gratulations were in order for Wilberforce Jones who, now on layoff, 
won a scholarship to attend Oxford University in England for 1 year, 
through the exchange program, to study British automation. 

The statement noted that Local 1301 was proud to have members 
like you in the local. 

Were you in fact a member of Local 1301, United Auto Workers? 

Mr. Jones. I am a bit apprehensive about that question. Would 
you please repeat it for me ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member in 1957 of Local 1301, United 
Auto Workers, and are you the person who received the scholarship 
for study in England? 

Mr. Meters. That is a double question. 

Mr. NiTTi^.. I think the two questions are related. If you desire 
that I separate them, I shall. 

Were you a member of Local 1301, United Auto Workers? 



468 COMAIUXIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I must per- 
force refuse to answer that question on the previous grounds named. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in fact receive a scholarship for study in 
England at Oxford 'University, Euskin College to be specific ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, again as a black Afro- American I must 
perforce refuse to answer that question on the previous grounds 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Jones, I have before me a copy of your 
United States passport application executed by you on August 2, 1957, 
and subscribed and sworn to before the Clerk of the Court in Chicago, 
Illinois, and filed with the Department of State. You state in this 
application that the purpose of your trip was study for a year at Rus- 
kin College, Oxford, England ; that the approximate date of departure 
was September 25, 1957. I hand you a copy of this application marked 
for identification as "Jones Exhibit No. 1." 

Is that the passport application that you executed and filed with 
the Department of State ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I am a bit appreliensive about this ques- 
tion and as a black Afro-American I must perforce decline to answer 
on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Jones Exhibit No. 1" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, on this application for a passport, Mr. Jones, I 
want to direct your attention to the fact that on this application for 
a passport you have taken the oath of allegiance by signing your 
name in the place provided and swearing to this application. 

Have you taken the oath of allegiance in this passport applica- 
tion? Your oath of allegiance to the United States appears in the 
following form : 

Further, I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitu- 
tion of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I 
will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, and that I take this obligation 
freely, ^^•ithout any mental reservations, or purpose of evasion: So help me God. 
Wilberforce .Jones. 

Did you take that oath of allegiance ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I am a bit 
^apprehensive about this question within the context of this hearing 
and I would like to decline to answer that question on the grounrls 
previously given. I would just like to question the chairman. Is it 
the understanding of the Chair that my ground for refusal includes 
the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following the oath of allegiance, did you subscrilie 
to an affidavit that the facts contained therein are true and correct? 

Mr. Jones. Are you desirous of an answer to that question? 

Mr. NiTTT^E. Yes. Did you swear to the truth and accuracy of the 
statement ? 

Mr. Jones. As a black Afro- American again I must perforce decline 
to answer that question for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I direct your attention to page 2 of the applica- 
tion. Two questions appear on the form. One is: 

"Are you now a member of the Communist Party ?" 

And following that : 

"Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ?" 



COMMUNIST ACTR'ITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 469 

To each of these you answered "No." Did you truthfully respond 
to those questions in your application. Mr. Jones? 

Mr. JoxES. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro- American I must per- 
force again refuse to answer that question on the basis of the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Including the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. JoxES. Including the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Meters. It is understood that the fifth amendment is included 
in all of his answers? 

Mr. Pool. That is the one that we accept. 

Mr. Meyers. Yes, and you refuse the others ? 

Mr. Pool. Yes, I overruled you on the others. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in fact, Mr. Jones, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party on August 2, 1957, at the time you executed your applica- 
tion for passport and swore to the ti'uthfulness of the responses you 
gave to the questions therein contained, at the time you took an oath 
of allegiance to the United States of America apj)arently without 
mental reservation ? 

Mr. Jones. Would you repeat that ? 

Mr. Pool. The reporter will read the question, 

( The question was read by the reporter. ) 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro- American I must per- 
force again refuse to answer that question on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. While in England, Mr. Jones, did you meet with any 
person known to you to be a Communist Party member? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I must per- 
force decline to answer that question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, pursuant to this application for a passport, you 
did receive a passport and have it in your possession in England ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you later filed an affidavit with the American 
vice consul abroad and you said you had lost your passport in a tele- 
phone booth and you wanted to get another one. Did you, in fact, lose 
your passport in a telephone booth in London ? 

Mr. Jones. I am a bit apprehensi\'e about that question. Would 
you please repeat it ? 

^Ir. NiTTLE. Did you lose your passport in a telephone booth in 
London, as you said you did when making application for another 
passport prior to your return to the United States ? 

Mr. Jones. I would like to ask the counsel, Mr. Chairman, are you 
sure you have the right subpenaed witness? 

Mr. NiTTLE. There is no doubt in mv mind ; is there any doubt in 
yours ? 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. N1TTI.E. Did you, in fact, lose your passport in a telephone 
booth ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro- American I must per- 
force refuse to answer this question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you made any arrangements to yield your passport 
to any person in England ? 



470 COMMUNIST ACTRITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. JoxES. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jones, you had sworn to certain facts in an affi- 
davit before the American vice consul, and before the consul of the 
United States of America. I hand 3'ou copies of those affidavits. 
Did you tell the consul the truth a]:)OUt the circumstances of the so- 
called loss of your passport ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I must per- 
force again refuse to answer that question ori the grounds previously 
stated. 

(Documents marked "Jones Exhibit Xo. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. XiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified that you served as a member of 
the Negro Commission of the Connxiiniist Party for the State of Illi- 
nois. She testified that you specifically attended the meeting of tlie 
Negro Commission at 306 East 43d Street on February IS-l-f, 1900. 

Were you a member of the Negro Commission of the Communist 
Party and, if so, what period of time did 3'ou hold that position? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I must per- 
force refuse to answer that question again on the basis of the jirevious 
statement. 

Mr. Pool. Previous grounds ? 

Mr. Jones. Previous grounds, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have yoti sensed as a member of the national Negro 
Commission of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I again refuse to answer that question 
on previous grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Holmes has testified that you were one of a 
group of Communist Party members appointed by Claude Lightfoot 
at a Communist Party caucus for the purpose of formulating policy 
for the infiltration of the Negro American Labor Council. 

Were you appointed to that caucus by Claude Lightfoot? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I again 
wotild like to reftise to answer that question on the basis of the 
previous answers. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Were you aware that both the constitution of the 
Negro American Labor Council and the bylaws of the Chicago area 
Negro American Labor Council carried a provisioii Avhich declares 
these organizations are to be "unalterably opposed to racism, com- 
munism, corruption, racketeering in the trade union movement''? 

Mr. Jones. IVould you re]>eat the question, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it very simply : Are you aware that the 
constitution of the Negro American Labor Council and the bylaws 
of its Chicago area chapter declare that they are "unalterably op- 
posed" to communism ? 

Mr. Jones. Again, Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I 
must perforce decline to answer that question on previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you knew, did you not. that A. Philip Kandolpli. 
the distinguished Negro leader and trade unionist, has taken a strong 
position in opposition to communism ? 

Wliy, then, did you meet in caucus with the Comnnuiist Party to 
penetrate that organization? 



COIVIMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 471 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I must perforce refuse to answer that 
question on the previously stated gromids. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a member of Local 1301 of the 
United Auto Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jones. Agam, Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I must 
perforce refuse to answer that question on the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. Nm^LE. Have you sought office in that union ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro- American again I re- 
fuse to ansAver that question on previously stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, ]Mr. Jones, I hnve before me a copy of a petition 
addressed to the President of the United States which is signed by 
a number of persons who asked tliat the President reprieve and 
pardon Frank Wilkinson and Carl Braden, who were sentenced to a 
term of imprisonment not to exceed 1 year following their conviction 
for contempt of Congress in refusing to answer questions relating to 
their Communist activities. Their conviction was finally sustained 
by the Supreme Court on February 27, 1961. The name of Wilber- 
force Jones, UAW, AFL-CIO, Local 1301, appears thereon as a 
signer of the petition. 

I have marked the petition as "Jones Exhibit No. 3." 

Did you sign that petition ? 

]Mr. Jones. Is this A. Philip Eandolph on here the same man you 
referred to previously, sir ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does his name appear thereon? 

Mr. Jones. I see A. Philip Randolph, president of the Sleeping 
Car Porters, AFL-CIO. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think I understand what his reasons might have 
been. I want to know what yours are. 

Did you as a member of the Communist Party and under its dis- 
cipline execute that petition at tlie direction of a person known to 
you to be a Communist Party member? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, as a black Afro-American I must per- 
force, witli all the emphasis that I can give it. decline to answer tliis 
question for the reasons previously stated. 

(Document marked ''Jones Exliibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, do you want to introduce this in evidence, this 
material ? You jiave several things tliere. do you want to introduce 
them in evidence ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want to offer into evidence all exhibits to which 
reference has been made. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Accepted in evidence. 

Do you have any other questions ? 

Mr. Meyers. I object to the introduction of these documents for 
the record. 

Mr. Pool. The objection is overruled. 

I appreciate your counsel making the objection in such a manner: 
I tliink that is perfectly correct. 

The witness is excused. 



52-810— 66— pt. 1—12 



472 COMZSIUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

For the record, as soon as the full subcommittee can meet I intend 
to urge that it take formal action to recommend to the full commit- 
tee that the subpenaed witness, Mr. Milton Mitchell Cohen, be cited 
for contempt of Congress. 

The committee will recess until 9 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5:45 p.m., Wednesday, May 2(5, IDGS, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvem^ at a.m., Thursday, May 27, 1965.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, 

AREA 

Part 1 



THURSDAY, MAY 27, 1965 

United States House of Representatives, 

subcx)mmittee of the 
Committee on Un-Amekican Activities, 

Chicago^ Illinois. 

public HE.UIINGS 

The subcommittee of the Coimnittee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 9 :20 a.m., in the Old United States Court of 
Appeals Building, 1212 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 
Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman ; Joe R. Pool, of Texas ; Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and Del Clawson, of Cali- 
fornia.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Pool, Welt- 
ner, xlslibrook, and Clawson. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; and Neil E. Wetter- 
man and Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Nittle, proceed with your questioning. 

Mr. Nittle, Would Versta Miller please come forward? 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, to identify myself for the record, I am 
Albert E. Jenner, Jr. I represent Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall, t wish 
to thank all members of this distinguished committee for the indul- 
gence extended because of mv professional engagement in New York 
City. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. We appreciate your 
attitude. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Would Versta Miller please come forward ? 

Would Versta Miller please come forward ? 

Would Versta Miller please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Let the record show that the witness has failed to 
respond to three calls to appear to testify at 22 minutes past 9 o'clock. 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman, as of yesterday evening I was sup- 
posed to represent Mr. Miller in the absence of his counsel. 

The Chairman. I cannot hear you. Would you state your name for 
the record ? 

473 



474 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mrs. Langfoed. Mrs. Anna R. Langford. I was asked to represent 
Mr. Miller in the event that his counsel did not appear. He has been 
here for 2 days. I respectfully ask this committee to pass his name 
and not count him out. 

Mr. XiTTLE. "Would Versta Miller please come f orAvard ? 

The Chairman. Proceed with 3'our next witness. 

Mrs. Laxgford. Mr. Miller is in tlie hearing room. 

The Chairman. All rigiit. 

Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and jiothing but the truth, so help 
yoti God ? 

Mr. Miller. I do. 

Mrs. Langford. My name is Amia R. Langford. I am respectfully 
asking this committee to substitute me for Mr. David Hoffman, who 
was originally counsel but as a felloAv black Afro- American I have 
volunteered to represent this man in this proceeding today. 

The Chairman. Is that satisfactory to 3'ou, sir ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed. 

Let the record show^ that the question I just propounded to the wit- 
ness, "Is that satisfactory to you, sir?" was answered in the aiRrma- 
tive. 

TESTIMONY OF VERSTA MILLER. ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ANNA R. LANGFORD AND DAVID HOFFMAN 

Mr, NiTTLE, Would jou state your full name and residence for the 
record ? 

Mr. Miller. I am Versta Miller, 3851 South Ellis, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. JSTiTTLE. Do you spell your first name V-e-r-s-t-a ? 

Mr. Miller, I do, 

i\Ir. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

The Chairman. Counsel has been identified. 

Mr. Xittle. Is that the person who has identified herself on the 
I'ecord ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Miller, how long have you lived in Chicago? 

Mr. Miller. Brother Chairman, I have had the privilege of being 
subpenaed to this hearing without recognition of what I have been 
subpenaed for and I have been sitting through this hearing for the 
last 2 days and have found no ground in which this committee is jus- 
tified in such a hearing. 

I decline to answer the questions that will be ])resented to me under 
the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States, because 
it is an attempt to abridge and interfere with my freedom of speech, 
my freedom of silence, and my right to peaceably assemble Avith 
others and to petition the Government for a redress of grievance. 

Two. I decline to answer the questions under the fourth amendment 
to the Constitution, which is closely allied with the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution, for the i-eason that this committee has no power 
to subpena or to question me on matters of my personal, lawful con- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 475 

duct nor to attempt to make a search through these questions of my 
activities, since to do so is an unlawful interfei-ence with my right of 
privacy and such action is prohibited by the fourth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Three, I further decline to answer tlie questions under the protec- 
tion of the fifth amendment to the Constitution, which provides that 
no person shall be compelled to be a witness aofainst himself, and to 
he subpenaed here and to be required to answer the questions of this 
committee is a direct violation of the express provision that no per- 
son shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. 

Four, I further decline to answer the question under the sixth amend- 
ment to the Constitution, because by your process I am denied the right 
to be confronted with and to cross-examine witnesses. I am denied 
compulsory process for obtaining witnesses and I am denied adequate 
assistance of counsel because my counsel is not permitted to cross- 
examine on my behalf or to object to questions or testimony or to make 
necessary motions in my behalf. And merely to permit my counsel 
to sit with me, a lay person, uninformed and untrained and inexpe- 
rienced in these proceedings, and to prevent him to do nothing more, 
he is denied due process and this is contrary to the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution. 

Five, I further decline to answer the question because there is nothing 
in the subpena served upon me to indicate what subjer-t matter, if any, 
is being investigated, nor for vrhat purpose, nor whether any subject 
matter to be investigated is within the province of the committee nor 
whether the subject matter to be investigated has been so designated by 
the committee as a whole. And for the further reason that Rule XI 
of this committee is so vague, broad, and uncertain as to fail to give 
the committee any authority under which it may operate, and for the 
further reason that it gives no notice to any person of what he is 
required to answer or respond to. I further decline to answer for 
the reason that contrary to the committee's Rule No. XVI it has pub- 
lislied and announced in advance of this hearing the names of the per- 
sons to be subpenaed. 

I further decline to answer as a citizen of the United States un- 
der the 14th amendment as the prohibition of the abridgement of 
privileges and immunities by States apply to this committee. 

Therefore, Brother Chairman, I decline on the statements which I 
have just read to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Let me say this, that the Chair overrules your sev- 
eral objections except as to the one under the fifth amendment to 
which you have the right under the conditions I will develop in a 
moment. 

Now with reference to your objection on the ground of confronta- 
tion, whatever way you put it. I remind you that you received a letter 
from the committee, a sample copy of which already is in the record, 
giving you the privilege voluntarily to appear before now — that is, 
before your name was mentioned here by anyone — which letter in- 
cluded your right to ask to appear voluntarily to deny, confirm, refute, 
cliallenge matters which would have been revealed to you in executive 
session, including the right to subpena witnesses to fortify your 
position. 

Further, as to the ground Rule XI, which you have raised in sup- 
port of the validity of tlie '^•ommittee. I have alreadv cited the com- 



476 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

mittee decision, including Supreme Court decisions, upholding the 
constitutionality and formation of the duties of the committee, in- 
cluding also a decision by a local judge a few days ago along the 
same line. 

As to Rule XVI, it is already in the record and that will be all of 
this. Under Rule XVI no member of this committee, no staff member 
of this committee, can reveal the names of witnesses subpenaed until 
appearance. The rule has not been violated. As I said before, if a 
staff member in this instance, or any other instance, had done so or 
would do so, he would be fired in 5 minutes. 

Finally, I have already indicated, and I repeat, that no process 
server, those who serve the subpenas, made any such revelations. 

Finally, as to the subject matter of this committee hearing, you 
were handed a copy of the opening statement I made disclosing the 
subject matter, the purpose of conducting this investigation. 

Now there was a question asked you as a preliminary one, and I 
cannot conceive of the application of even the fifth amendment to the 
question. I direct you to answer the question pending. 

Mr. Miller. I did not get the question that was posed to me. 

Mr. XiTTLE. How long have you lived in Chicago? 

Mr. Miller. I^rother Chairman, I refuse to answer on the grounds 
that I previously stated. 

The Chairman. The fifth amendment, as you properly stated, pro- 
vides that no person can be compelled to be a witness against himself. 
It has been upheld by the courts for the committee to respect the 
amendment but there must be good faith, under the decision. Do 
you think that answering this sunple. preliminary question woidd 
subject you to further criminal prosecution or involvement? 

Mr. Miller. Brother Chairman. I refused to answer that question 
on the grounds which I have previously stated. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed. 

Mr, XiTTLE. Mr. Miller, it is the connnittee's information that you 
were born September 17, 1917, at Shannon, Mississippi. Is this 
correct ? 

Mr. Miller. Brother Chairman, I refuse to answer that question 
on the grounds which I ha,ve previously stated. [Applause.] 

The Chairman. I now make the same ruling that I have just 
stated. I suppose we understand each other. Miss Counsel. 

Mrs. Langford. We do. 

The Chairman. Instead of repetitious proceeding here, he is rely- 
ing on all of the rights recited as reasons for refusal to answer and I, 
on my part, make the same ruling. 

Mrs. Langford. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien did you leave Mississippi, Mr. Miller ? 

Mr. Miller. Brother Chainnan, I refuse to answer that question 
on the grounds which I have pre^nously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us in what States you have lived since 
your birth in Mississippi ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now would you please relate to the committee the ex- 
tent of your fonnal education ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 477 

The Chairman. It is understood witlioiit repetition that my ruling- 
is the same on these questions. 

Mrs. Langford. It is understood. "We are going to ask, however, 
since you are only allowing us the 5th and since the 5th is so closely 
related to the 18th, we cite the 18th and give the 5th some company. 

The Chairman. The 18th amendment ? 

Mrs. Langford. I am talking about the fifth, you know. 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. What is your present occupation, Mr. Miller ? 

Mr. Miller. I didn't get your question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I refuse to answer that on the grounds which I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now were you present in the hearing room while ]Miss 
Holmes testified ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, in view of this question I consulted 
with my counsel and I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified that you were a member of the 
South Side Section of the Communist Party : that she had attended 
closed Conmiunist Party meetings with you. Is this true? 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Counsel, have you finished testifying ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I beg your pardon ? 

Mrs. Langford. I said, has counsel finished testifying ? 

The Chairman. He asked a good, simple question. The question is, 
Is the swom testimony of Miss Holmes true ? 

]Mrs. Langford. I am sorry. 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Miller, would you tell us. please, when you first 
joined the Communist Party ? 

]\Ir. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now it is the committee's information that you have 
been a member of the Communist Party in the Chicago area at least 
since March 1944. Is this true ? 

Mrs. Langford. We have lost your voice, Counsel. 

Mr. Miller. I did not quite hear that question put before me. I 
didn't hear it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will repeat it for you. 

^Irs. Langford. The mike is dead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now it has come back again. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Miller, it is the committee's information that you 
have been a member of the Communist Party in the Chicago area at 
least since March 1944. Is this correct ? 

^Ir. ]MiLLER. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on 
the grounds which I haA'e previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTi>E. Mr. Miller, if this information is not true, how could 
it possibly incriminate you if you tiuthfully told the committee that 
it was not true? 

Mr. ^Miller. Mr. Chairman, if you would stop testifying 

The Chairman. That is a question. 



478 COMMUNIST ACTIMTIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. iVliLLER. — I might try to cooperate. You are trying to testify 
on behalf of Mrs. Hohnes or whoever your witness was that gave you 
this information. 

Miss Holmes. Miss Hohnes. 

The Chairman. It is a p]-o]jer question. 

Mr. MiIjLER. I might coo])erate, but I have no reason to w^ant to 
cooperate in this matter. [Applause.] Therefore, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question on the grounds which I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now were you in 1945 a member or officer of the Amer- 
ican Youth for Democracy, which maintained a Chicago office at 123 
"West INIadison Street ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman. I decline to answer that question on 
the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. JSTiTTLE. Were you a member of the Commmiist Party when you 
arrived m the Chicago area ? 

Mr. Miller. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds which 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you directed to the Chicago area by any func- 
tionary of the Communist Party i 

iSIr. ^IiLLER. Mr. Chairman, I didn't quite comprehend that state- 
ment. Will you repeat it, please i 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you directed to the Chicago area by any func- 
tionary of the Communist Party i 

Mr. Miller. I decline to answer that question on the gromids which 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Miller, I have before me a copy of an announce- 
ment issued b}' the American Youth for Democracy in 1945, dated 
October 6, which advises of the American Youth for Democracy 
Second Anniversary Ball. It also contains a listing of the national 
and regional officers of Aniericaji Youth for Democracy. I hand you 
a copy of this exhibit, marked for identification as "Miller Exhibit 
No. 1.'- I direct your attention to the fact that a Versta Miller is 
named thereon as a member of the regional board of that organiza- 
tion. Did you serve the organization as a member of its regional 
board ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr, Chairman, I decline to answer that question on 
the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Miller Exhibit No. 1 in evi- 
dence. 

Mrs. Langford. Your Plonor 

The Chairman. It will be received in evidence. 

(Document marked "Miller Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chairman. ]Mr. Hoffman has arrived. I ask to 
be excused. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Mr. HofTnuin. will you identify yourself by name 
and address? 

Mr. Hoffman. My name is Da^•id Hoffman. 33 South Clark Street, 
Chicago. I apologize to the committee for my being tardy. 

The Chairman. That is all right. 

Mr. Mn.T.KR. May I have the privilege, Mr. Chairman, to inform 
my official counsel as to what the procedure has been up to the 
present in regard to this particular exhibit you got here on me? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 479 

The Chairman. Surely. 

Mr. Miller. On behalf of my coimseh 1 would like to liave tliat 
question repeated ao;ain, please. 

The Chairman. Will the reporter read the question ? 

jNIr. ]MiLLER. That is being asked in investigation here. 

The Chairman. Now I take it. just for the record — I am about 
to ask a question. Do you imderstand rJiat your counsel has been 
substituted, that is, the late counsel that has appeared now has been 
substituted for your original counsel ? 

Mr. Mjller. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now the reporter will read the pending question. 

(The question was read by the reporter. ) 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question on 
the groimds which I have previously stated. 

The Chairman. Let the Chair indicate to the counsel, and he will 
understand it as a lawyer, that Mrs. Langford wdiile representing 
your client and I, for the sake of avoiding repetition, agreed that the 
repetition of his answers would be accepted in that style, tind the 
acceptance of my ruling to the objection would also apply. 

Mr. Hoffman. I assumed that to be the case, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman I offer Exhibit 1 in evidence. 

The Chairman. That has been offered alreadj- and accepted on 
the record. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Miller, I state for the record that, in a report to 
Congress, this committee in 1947 declared that the American Youth 
for Democracy was formed by the Communist Party for the purpose 
of exploiting, to the advantage of a foreign power, the idealism, in- 
experience, and craving to join, which is characteristic of American 
college youth, and that "high-sounding slogans'- were used to cover 
a determined effort to disaffect our youth and to turn them against 
religion, against the American home, against tlie college authorities, 
and against the American Government itself. 

In 1947 the Attorney General of the United States, in letters to the 
Loj'alty Review Board, cited the American Youth for Democracy 
as subversive and Communist. 

Now, Mr. Miller, at the time you were serving that organization as 
a board member, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. IVIiLLER. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on 
the grounds which 1 have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want again to direct your attention to Exhibit 1. 
You will note that Mollie Lieber is listed with you as a member of 
the regional board of the American Youth for Democracy. Mollie 
Lieber is the maiden name of Mollie AYest. Miss Holmes has identi- 
fied Mrs. West as a member of the Conununist Party. Did you then 
know a Mollie Lieber West or Mollie Lieber to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer tb.at question on 
the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. I also direct your attention, ]Mr. Miller, to the fact that 
Yolanda Hall is also noted on Exhibit 1 as a member of tlie regional 
board. 

Mr. Jexxer. Mr. Chairman 



480 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The Chairman. Let him answer. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Did she serve with you as a member of the regional 
board of the American Youth for Democracy at that time ? 

The Chairman. Now withhold your answer. 

IMr. ]VIh.ler. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Jenner. I am Albert E. Jenner, Jr., counsel for Yolanda Hall 
and Dr. Jeremiah Stamler. As counsel for Mrs. Hall, as well as 
counsel for Dr. Stamler, I object to the question. I move that the 
question be stricken. It is not a question, but is an alleged statement 
of counsel, not under oath, with respect to an exhibit as to which no 
foundation has been laid. It is a denial of the rights and privileges 
and immunities of both of these clients, and particularly Yolanda 
Hall. I demand — I beg your pardon, Mr. Distinguished Chairman — I 
request that there be an executive session in which this matter may 
be gone into in the executive session. 

The Chairman. Is it understood that my nile made on the objec- 
tions will apply henceforth with respect to any mention of your two 
clients? I ask the question for this reason. Your partner, Mr. Sul- 
livan, continued to object yesterday, and perhaps before, to every 
question which committee counsel put to the witness on the stand 
whenever such question in^'olved either of your clients. Dr. Stamler 
and Mrs. Hall. 

Such earlier objections have been overruled by the subcommittee. 
I cannot permit continuous oJDJections from tlie audience when you and 
others object to the question that is put to anotlier witness, not your 
client; it is an interference and interruption of the orderly conduct of 
this hearing. The rights of your clients are adequately protected by 
objections already made to this line of questioning. 

I miderstand that you are now appearing for your clients and I re- 
spect that fully, and that is why the conmiittee hears the objection, 
Avhich really is repetitious, to such ]3revious qitestions and which have 
been overruled. That is why I would like to ask you as the chairman 
of the committee : Under the law, is it understood that the ruling made 
on this suggestion to counsel with respect to his client ap]ily hereafter 
to any other references that may be made to your client, with the 
understanding that your client is protected on this record? 

jMr. Jenner. I will respond to your question, Mr. Chairman. 

i\Ir. Chairman, you are a distinguished lawyer and law teacher. In 
order to preserve the rights of each of these clients, it is necessary to 
make objections, and you have stated the principle iuA-olved. Fre- 
quently, however, an objection made to previous questions does not 
cjuite serve the record; that is, it is necessary to be made. I am quite 
willing in an effort, of course, professionally and otherwise, to cooper- 
ate with you. Mr. Chairman, and your distinguished colleagues to n^^^"- 
cept the proffer that you ha^■e made, with the understanding that vou 
and your fellows as like professional men, there will be occasions when 
in my professional judgment I feel it necessary to rise ao-ain and state. 
although it may appear to you a repetition, in my professional judg- 
ment, a necessary statement at that particular time. Subject to that 
caveat, I do accept the tender you have made. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The sul)commitree will come to order. 

Our guests will please take their seats. We must have order. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 481 

Let the record show that the subcommittee met in executive session 
and unanimously voted to overrule on the objection of Mr. Jenner. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, may I address the Chair again ? 

The Chairman. All right, once more. I am trying to l>e reasonable. 

Mr. Jenner. I have a reputation for being reasonable, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

I wish to add to my objection that it is now ob\ious what the re- 
sponse of this witness will be to the questions being put to him, and 
under the mianimous line of authorities in all courts of last resort in 
this Nation the putting of questions to which the anticipated negative 
answer is to be given is the asking of the question for tlie question's 
sake and not for the answer and is a denial of due process, fair trial, 
and other rights under the Bill of Rights of the Constitution. 1 add 
that to my objection. 

The Chairman. To which the Chair says that the Avitness simply, in 
most instances anyway, while under oath, is being gi^en a chance to 
deny and refute the testimony of others. 

Therefore, proceed, Mr. Xittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Miller, the pending question is whether you 
knew Yolanda Hall to be a member of the Illinois-Indiana regional 
board of the American Youth for Democracy at the time you served 
upon that board in October 194:5 ? 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chainnan, just to confirm my understanding with 
you, the objections that are here before me will stand to the questions 
as being put and you distinguished gentlemen have in session over- 
ruled the objections as already made, and it is understood that the 
objections are being overruled automatically of record under our 
understanding. 

The Chairman. That is a proper statement. 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman. I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Now the Illinois-Indiana region was coextensive with 
District 8 of the Communist Party at that time. Is this true ? 

Mr. Miller. Will you repeat that question? I didn't quite under- 
stand it. I have to determine the question enough to determine my 
answer on that. 

Mr. Nittle. The Illinois-Indiana region was coextensi\'e with the 
former District 8 of the Communist Party ; was it not ? 

^fr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have joreviously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has Yolanda Hall ever been known to j^ou to be a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman. I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Miller, the committee is informed that you attended 
a September 26, 1959, meeting at the Midwest Hotel, held under the 
auspices of the Communist Party of Illinois, in celebration of the 40th 
anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party in the United 
States. Were you in attendance at that celebration as a Communist 
Party member? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I would like for you to repeat that 
question because I do not recollect the exact instance that you are 
referrinfr to. 



482 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever attended an anniversary rally of the 
Communist Party at the Midwest Hotel ? 

Mr. jSIiller. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. ]S'ow it is also the committee's information 

The Chairmax. Well, will counsel withhold? I think you Avill 
have to repeat the date you named a while ago. That was the general 
question and you were referring, I think, to a .specific meeting. For 
clarity of the record, will you ask about that specific meeting? I 
suppose the generality will include the specific question. Do you want 
to re-form the question you previously asked ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Did you attend a September 26, 1959. anniversary rally at the Mid- 
west Hotel, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the founding of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now it is also the committee's information that you 
attended a meeting held on Simday, February 19, 1961, at the Fine 
Arts Building, sponsored by the Freedom of the Press Committee, 
which featured an address by Herbert Aptheker, a leading Com- 
munist Party theoretician, on the subject "The Civil War Centennial — 
a Marxist View." Did you attend that fimction ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Herbert Aptheker to be a Communist 
Party functionary ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on 
the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He was then the editor of tlie party's monthly, Folif- 
ieal A fairs ; was he not ? 

Ml". Miller. I refuse to ansAver that question on the grounds which 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact that the Freedom of the Press Com- 
mittee, which sponsored this affair, is a Communist organization 
formed to work in support of the distribution and financing of The 
'Worker? 

Mr. Miller. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds which 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Miller, in the course of Miss Holmes' testimony she 
testified that you were directed by Claude Lightfoot, in the early 1960's, 
to set up the Chicago Unemployment and Housing Council. Were you 
instructed by Claude Lightfoot to do this { 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which T liave previously stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mr. Miller, I have before me a copy of a leaflet which 
was issued by the Chicago Unemployment and Housing Council, 306 
East 4.3rd Street, Chicago, Illinois, announcing the grand opening of 
that organization on May 5, 1961. I hand you this copy marked for 
identification as "Miller Exhibit No. 2." 

Did you, following Lightfoot's direction, assist in founding this 
so-called Chicago Unemployment and Housing Council ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 483 



Mr. Miller. Mr, Chairman, I don't see any reference of my name 
or anything on this leaflet. I don't miderstand how this is UvSed against 
me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you assist in the dissemination or preparation of 
that leaflet? 

Mr. Miller, Mr. Ciiairniaii, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

(Document marked '"Miller Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 

Miller Exhibit No. 2 



n._. 



n 












A", ^4- - 









j Come — bring your ; 

' vriends — Celebrate I 

j the GRAND OPEN- 1 

iNG of our head- 1 

cusriers i 



. . . DD2S YOU?^ FAyELY UAY^ lP?.©i3- 
UIMS ©? U!h^SSv3?L©Yy2HT? 

. . .DO YOU HMD ¥mJP IH 71QHTIKQ 

. . . DOY©UFACEi©3 0)2SCL^3Ma^5ATi©S^? 
. . . 5S Y©yEl RSHT T©© moH? 



nn o /? oR 



is GOfejdzsd y©y v©:Hi. l©oy3- uI^l] ©^Hiss's i:;© 



Uu'J. L'C '.1 :zy io,^ii j 
GENERALHALL | 

DANCING .... I 
. REFRESHMENTS j 

ADMISSION — I 

VOLUNTARY OFFERING 



iCAGO UNaMPLOYMSNTAND HOUSING COUNCIL 



306 Ea:t- 43rd ST.^EET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



/a 4/ 



484 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 



Mr. XiTTLE. Now, Mr. Miller, I have an item which does make a 
reference to you. I have before me a copy of the official Communist 
Party newspaper, TJie Woi'ker. its issue of April 30, 1961, which car- 
ried an article titled "Chicago Jobless Council Opens Southside Quar- 
ters on May 5." It is stated there, in part, that : 

The recently formed Chicago Unemployment and Hou.sing Council has opened 
headquarters at 306 East 43rd St. It will inaugurate oflScers at its ''grand oi)en- 
ing" May .5 at 8 p.m. 

* * * Versta Miller was elected president of the council and Claude Light- 
foot, chairman of the Illinois Communist Party, was elected executive secretary. 

I hand you a copy of that item Avhich appeared in The Worker. We 
have marked it as "Miller Exhibit No. 3." 

Is it correct that you were elected president of the Chicago Unem- 
ployment and Housing Council, and Claude Lightfoot executive sec- 
retary ? 

Mr. Miller. ]Mr. Chairman, there are two parts to your question. 
I would like to have them answered one at a time. 

Tlie Chatrmax. I do not think so. As I understood it was — well, 
all right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it correct, as The Worker reported, that you were 
elected president of the council ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question on 
the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it correct, as The Worker reported, that Claude 
Lightfoot, secretary of the Illinois Communist Party, was elected 
executive secretary? I beg your pardon, chairman of the Illinois 
Communist Party. I think that is the statement in The Worker. 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on 
the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. NoAv would joii tell us, please, where and when that 
election took place : if it did ? 

yir. Miller. ]Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on 
tlie grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Was Claude Lightfoot present at that election ? 

]\[r. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified that the purpose of this orga- 
nization was to recruit Communist Party members. Was that jowv 
purpose in serv'ing as president of this council ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on 
t ]ie grounds which I have previously stated. 

(Document marked "Miller Exhibit No. 3'" follows :) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 485 
Miller Exhibit No. 3 



.-w;^«jB<i-_^ -,-- •'■vanvmarmnn 






f^ii 






mmim Hiarars ©ii 



^ 



ois CooimuKifit Party, w%s elected 
executive secrttary. 

Lifhtfoet ie>ld th« Worker, "I 
Lfti happy i« b^ associated as an 
offk-er ajad m«sa<>sr ©.f this new 
oreraotiizaiki'ifi tijht!n£ for the im- 

esasjiayc-ci. We ars uEJitd, Cosa- 
in!S?ist and wm-C&siimais&ist, 
ar3«iSMl & co-ssission pn^^rram f*r 
io^ &ri^ 4«eettt b^ii^x^. We 



CHICAGO — The recently 
form«-d C-hicag^o Unemploysncni 
and Hou&in^ Councit has opened 
headquarters at SfeS East 43rd 
St, li ^iEi maugrurat'? officers at 
its "grand optakag'" May 5 al 
8 p.m. 

Grie>-ai!!iees ef Uie isnejsipSoyed 
as we5! as tenAu.t** are alreai^y 
belr^f procet'tsed i>v this couucit. 
Ves^'twM^l^ was elected iwcsi- 

Liri!^0»^ Ji£ss.ii-m4ti o( the liSSR- 



Mr. XiTTLE. Now in October of 1961, did you file a suit in the courts, 
togetlier with two others, as members of the Chicago Unemployment 
and Housing Council, against the Department of Public Assistance 
in Chicago? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on 
tlie grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in that suit charge that applicants for relief 
were roughly treated by the department ? 

Mr. Miller. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds which 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. XiTixE. Were vou directed to institute that suit by Claude 
Lightf oot ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
gromids which I have previously stated. 

jNIr. XiTTLE. Did you institute that action to cause dissatisfaction 
with, and resentment agaiiist, the Department of Public Assistance in 
Cook County? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on tlie 
gromids which I have previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Xow, Mr. Miller, is it true that the address of your 
organization, 306 East 43d Street, is tlie former address of the Com- 
munist Party in Chicago? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on tlie 
gromids which I have previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Is that address also the address of the African Ameri- 
can Heritage Association? 

]Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Do you know Ishmael Floiy, a leader of that group? 

Mr. Milij:r. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 



486 COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you in attendance at a rally of the African 
American Heritage Assoc-iation on September 20, 196^1:, at the United 
Packinghouse Workers of America Center? 

yir. ]MiLLER. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you acted in support of that organization while 
under the discipline of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now, Mr. Miller, the committee possesses information, 
which it believes reliable, that for over 20 years past you have helcl 
numerous positions in the Communist Party on a club or section level, 
such as member of section and division committees, club chairman, 
treasurer, financial director, and educational director. You do not 
deny this, do you? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question on the 
gromids which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Now, in addition to that, as recently as 1964 you have 
attended meetings of the State Negro Commission of the Comniimist 
Party; have you not? 

Mr. ]\'IiLLER. I refuse to answer that on the grounds which I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently sendng as a member of the executive 
board of the South Side Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. I refuse to answer that on the grounds which I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee will take a recess for 6 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken. ) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, proceed with your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Miss Lola Belle Holmes come to the witness 
stand, please? 

The Cpiairman. I do not know if it is necessary or not, but I will 
reswear the witness. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give will l)e the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ^ 

Miss Holmes. I do. 

TESTIMONY 0? LOLA BELLE HOLMES— Hesuined 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes, when I interrogated you this Tuesday, I 
neglected to inquire with respect to the Communist Party membership 
of Helen Queen. Did you know Helen Queen to be a member of the 
Connnunist Party ? 

Miss Holmes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you give us a word or two concerning her 
identity ? 

Miss Holmes. I first met Mrs. Queen at a IMarxist-Leninist cadre 
training class of the Communist Party taught by Claude Light foot, 
chairman of the Illinois Communist Party, in the year of 1958. Mrs. 
Queen was a Communist in the youth group. The party's method of 
selecting youth for cadre training was for leadership in the Commu- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 487 

nist Party. I met Mrs. Queen again at a Marxist-Leninist class at the 
Lawson YMCA in 1959. I have met Mrs. Queen many, many times 
in many party meetings of the Communist Party of Illinois as a mem- 
ber of the Young Communists of the Communist Party of Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTiE. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Helen Queen please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. QuEEx. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF HELEN FOTINE PANTAZOPOTJLOS QUEEN, ACCOM- 
PANIED BY COUNSEL, IRVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the witness please state her full name and resi- 
dence for the record ? 

Mrs. Queen. My name is Helen Pantazopoulos Queen. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you spell the second name ? 

Mrs. Queen. P-a-n-t-a-z-o-p-o-u-l-o-s, 

The Chairman, The next question was your address. 

Mrs. Queen. ]My address is 5017 West Quincy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Queen. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chaiiman, my name is Irving G. Steinberg, 180 
West Washington. 

Mr. Chairman, at this time I would like to make a request in accord- 
ance with the rules. May I, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. AYliat rule are you referring to ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I am referring to Kule XII, if the Chairman please. 

The Chairman. Yes, counsel may propound a question. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, in spite of the fact that the witness 
Lula Belle Holmes had the stand before, at no time before was my 
client identified by any witness whatsoever until Miss Lula 

Miss Holmes. Lola. 

Mr. Steinberg. I am sorry. 

Lola Belle Holmes took the stand a moment ago to identify, as if 
by an afterthought, my client. Be that as it may, ]Mr. Chairman, her 
husband, Dan Queen, has been named repeatedly during these few days. 
Now, I want a ruling, Mr. Chairman, on the time-honored Eule XII, 
which has its foundation, as the chairman knows, in the common law 
and in all of Anglo-American law and I want to read it at this time : 

The confidential relationship between husband and wife shall be respected, 
and for reasons of public policy, one spouse shall not be questioned concerning 
the activities of the other, except when a majority of the Committee or Subcom- 
mittee shall determine otherwise. 

The Chairman. Well, to make it short, we always respect our rule. 
Mr. Steinberg. Well, do I have then a determination from this sub- 
committee that this rule will be respected and will not be waived I 
The Chairman. Will not be waived. No, it will not be waived. 

52-810 — 66— pt. 1 13 



488 co]vimu:nist activities in the Chicago, Illinois, area 

Mr. Steinberg. Then the rule will stand. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr, Steinberg. Then I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct the in- 
quiring officer here to in no way, directly or indirectly, mquire as to 
Dan Queen, because this would i3e a violation of the rule. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I do not think the counsel has the right 
or privilege to require the Chair to bind the committee counsel. 

Mr. Steinberg. This is an unusual situation ; I am sure you will ap- 
preciate that. It is very unusual, and that is why I am asking for this 
predetermination as caution to counsel. 

The Chairman. I do not want to set a precedent for anyone to ask 
the chairman to instruct the counsel or staff members to do anything. 
I haA'e given you my word as chairman that the rule will be respected. 

Mr. Steinberg. All right. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, in lieu of the fact that Lola Belle Holmes only 
a moment ago identified my client or named her, I at this time, pursu- 
ant to House Rule XI, 26 (m), ask for an executive session hearing. 
The chaiiTiian knows about the Yellin case. I want a determination 
at this time on the grounds that this testimony tends to defame and de- 
grade my client. I am entitled to a detei-mination on that point. 

The Chairman. As counsel, I w^ould hope, already knows, the 
executive hearing has already been held in conformance with that rule. 
Now I read a letter addressed to Miss Queen 

Mrs. Queen. Mrs. Queen. 

The Chairman, —dated May 11, 1965. 

Helen Fotine Queen, 4440 W. Monroe Street, Cliicago, Illinois. 

Pursuant to House Rule XI. 26 (m), the Committee on Un-American Activities 
has received certain evidence and testimony in executive session, in the course of 
which a person by the name of Helen Queen, a resident of Chicago, Illinois, 
was identified as having been a member of the Communist Party. 

If you so desire, you will be afforded an opportunity voluntarily to appear 
as a witness before a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
at a time and place to be designated. According to the general practice of the 
committee, this hearing — 

namely, the voluntary testimony of witnesses so notified — 

shall be conducted in executive session. 

You may also request the committee to subpoena additional witnesses. 

If you desire to avail yourself of the opportunities thus afforded you, you should 
so advise the Director of the Committee no later than Tuesday, May 18, 196.5. 
He may be reached at Room 226, Cannon House Office Building, Wasliington 25, 
D.C. ; telephone number : Capitol 4-8121. extension 3051. 

This is not a subpoena or summons requiring .you to appear. 

This letter and the opportunities referred to herein do not release you from 
the compulsion to appear as a witness pursuant to the subpoena already served 
upon you. 

That is signed by myself as cliairman of the committee. Enclosed 
in this letter was a copy of House Rule XI, 26(g), and House Rule 
XI,26(m). 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, I see your point, but I hope you 
will see mine if you will be patient with me. 

Miss Lola Belle Holmes, a moment ago, identified my client. It is 
my contention that I have a right to have a new determination on this 
point under the Yellin case, and I nsk that the committee give me a 
determination as to whether I am entitled at this point to an executive 
hearing on the grounds that it would tend to defame and degrade my 
client. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 489 

The Chairmax. Well, tlie executive hearing was already mentioned. 
She was given an opportunity to appear in executive session to con- 
tradict, to affirm, to dem\ or to explain. 

Mr. Steinberg. But she did not know what testimony would be 
against her and she only knows it now. 

The Chairjian. She has not availed herself of that. We are now 
in the j^ublic hearing pursuant to the rules of the House, and your 
request or motion, whatever you call it, is overruled. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman 



The Chairman. The subcommittee will stand in recess. 

( A brief recess was taken. ) 

The Chairman. Tlie subcommitee will come to order. 

The subcommittee, in a short recess period, considered and imani- 
mously voted that the request or motion made by counsel is not well 
founded and tlierefore not only sustained, but confirmed, the ruling of 
the Chair. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Queen, you are the wife of Danny Queen? 
£ ask that so that your identity ma,j^ be established for the record. 

Mr. Steinberg. Mv. Chairman, I am going to object. 

The Chairman. The question is unnecessary. 

Let the Chair state this. When the Chair stated that the Rule 
XII would be respected, I meant exactly wliat I said, that the rule 
would be respected in its entirety, and I will read it in its entirety: 

The confidential relationship between husband and wife .shall be respected, and 
for reasons of public policy, one spouse shall not be questioned concerning the 
activities of the other, except when a majority of the Committee or Subcommittee 
shall determine otherwise. 

In the first place, this does not relate to activities, but nevertlieless, 
since the question is relatively unimportant, I will not insist on the 
strict enforcement of the rule but do not waive it in its entirety, nor is 
this ruling to be stressed. So ask a simple question concerning her 
without relating to the name of her husband. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Queen, will you state the date and place of your 
birth? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer on the following 
grounds : 

One, that this committee has violated its own rules by releasing my 
name prior to these hearings in violation of its own rule, the Supreme 
Court decision, and refused my request for an executive session. 

Two 

The Chairman. Well, the Chair must state at this point that this is 
not only an improper invocation of any right, but is baseless as a mat- 
ter of fact. The committee never released the names of the sub- 
pen aed witnesses. 

j\Irs. Queen. Two, the proceedings of this committee are in violation 
of article I, section 9, of the Constitution of the United States, which 
prohibits a bill of attainder. 

Three, the action of this committee in subpenaing me is in violation 
of the first amendment of the Constitution, which guarantees to every 
individual freedom of speech, press, and assembly. 



490 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Four, this committee denievS due process of law as guaranteed by the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution, and I avail myself of all the 
protections of the fifth and sixth amendments. 

Five, Rule XI of the House of Representatives 

The Chairman. I just want to understand. I have to make notes 
of your objection to rule. Would you reread the last one, due process 
of law under what ? 

Mrs. Queen. I will repeat. 

Four, this committee denies due process of law as guaranteed by the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution, and I avail myself of all the pro- 
tections of the fifth and sixth amendments. 

]May I proceed, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Yes. I was questioning you about the reference. 
Proceed. 

Mrs. QxTEEN. Five, Rule XI of the House of Representatives, which 
sets up this committee, is vague and indefinite and does not give this 
committe a valid and clear legislative purpose. 

Six, this committee denies the natural human rights which are guar- 
anteed by the ninth amendment of the Const itut ion. 

Seven, some members of this committee are not legally elected under 
the 14th amendment, which reduces representation to States which deny 
voting rights to Negi'oes, [A pplause. J 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mrs. Queen. I avail myself of all these grounds, and that is all. 

The Chairman. Were you in the audience a moment ago when I 
ruled on the right to invocation of the amendments vou just referred 
to? 

Mrs. Queen. Would you please repeat ? I didn't understand the 
first part. 

The Chairman. Were you in tlie hearing room a moment ago when 
I overruled the invocation of the constitutional amendments that you 
have urged, except the fifth amendment i You were here a while ago, 
were you not ? 

Mrs. Queen. I am a lay person, Mr. Chairman: I didn't imderstand 
it. 

The Chairman. Well, the Chair has already passed on all of the 
grounds urged for refusal to answer and. without restating them, over- 
rules the objections of the witness to testify. 

Now with reference to invocation of the fifth amendment, the witness 
has sweepingly invoked all of the protections of the fifth amendment. 
Xow I ask this question : That, of course, includes your reliance on- — 
or denial of? — that part of the fifth amendment protecting a witness 
from the obligation of testifying against himself ? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman. I avail inyself of all the grounds given 
and I avail myself on every part of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. The Chair does v.ijut to be technical and under- 
stands that it does include all parts of the fifth amendment. 

Xow let me say this, that I hnve heard many times liere statements 
that this committee denies certain rights, such as the exercise of free- 
dom of speech, and to speak to do it. But, im fortunately, I cannot con- 
ceive in what way this connnittee denies the right to free speech or 
caucus. Witnesses sometimes speak very freely, indeed loosely, and at 
other times do not want to speak at all. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 491 

Now I said yesterday, and I will simply enlarge on it, this reference 
to some members of the committee being illegally elected, now that 
might be a mere statement, I hope it is not serionsly meant. I have 
never dignified that comment, but I Avill repeat that in the Third 
Congressional District of T.ouisiana, which I have had the honor to 
represent for nine terms, 5" percent of the nonwhite population were 
registered in the last election and the election before. [Applause.] 

Now wait a minute. 

And 73 percent of those did vote. As a matter of fact, it was said 
by our opponent, as it was said before many times, with some exag- 
geration, all of the colored people voted for me. I think that is slight- 
ly exaggerated, but I will take it on myself to say that 75 percent 
of all the voters voted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you born in Boston, Massachusetts, on March 25, 
1931? 

Mrs. QuEEx. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of the protection under 
the first, fifth, sixth, and ninth amendments in the Bill of Rights and 
article I, section 9, of the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer this question because it is 
prelimmaiy. I cannot conceive of any basis for invocation of any 
right. 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of the protection under 
the first, fifth, sixth, and ninth amendments in the Bill of Rights and 
article I, section 9, of the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. You have ruled on that. 

How long have you lived in Chicago, Mrs. Queen ? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. ChaiiTnan, I avail myself of the protection under 
the first, fifth, sixth, and ninth amendments m the Bill of Rights and 
article I, section 9, of the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Do I understand that you now waive your objec- 
tions under House Rule XI and Committee Rule XVI, Mrs. Queen? 

Mi-s. Queen. No, Mr. Chainnan, I also invoke those. 

The Chairman. It would be easier to say you stand on the same 
grounds previously heard. 

Mrs. Queen. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
answers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us. please, what your present occupa- 
tion is? 

]\Irs. Queen. I am a hoiiscAvif e and mother. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now you were present m the hearing room this morn- 
ing when Miss Holmes testified that she knew j^ou to be a member of 
the Communist Party; is that correct? 

Mrs. Queen. I avail myself of all my previous answere. 

The Chairman. Do you mean all of the previous groimds heard? 

Mrs. Queen. I repeat 

The Chairman. I want to protect the record. 

Mrs. Queen. Of course. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

I avail myself of all my previous groimds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you. in fact, a member of the Communist Party 
in the district of Illinois ? 



492 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Have you, in fact, been active in youth work on behalf 
of the Communist Party in this area, as Miss Holmes testified ? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

The Chairman. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you participate on behalf of the Communist Party 
in making arrangements for a national conference of so-called Pro- 
gressive Youth ^ scheduled for December 30 and 31, 1960, and January 
1,1961, in Chicago? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. What knowledge do you possess of tliis youth con- 
ference which was held in Chicago in the winter of 1960 and 1961 ? 

Mrs. Qut:en. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you attend this conference ? 

INIrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you participate in the reservation of rooms at the 
Hamilton Hotel on December 29, 1960, for the convenience of the 
organizational officers ? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chainnan, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you attend the conference ? 

Mrs. Queen. Mr. Chairman, I avail myself of all the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, issued a release stating : 

Its purpose is to formulate plans [of the Communist Party] for a new national 
youth organization — one whose programs and activities will be clandestinely 
directed by party members. 

This was an accurate statement ; was it not, Mrs. Queen ? 

Mrs. Queen. I am not responsible for Mr. Hoover's remarks. 

Mr. Nittle. I am asking you of your knowledge of the facts of 
the conference. 

Was not Mr. Hoover correct when he said this was a conference 
whose program and activities were to be clandestinely directed by 
party members ? 

Were you not one of the party members who was directing the 
work of tlie party ? 

Mrs. QuTiEN.'Mr. Chairman, I still avail myself of all the 
previous grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call vour next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Dorothy Mixter Hayes please come forward? 

The Chairman. Please stand and be sworn. 



■> At this conference, the Progressive Youth OrRanizlng Committee was formed for the 
purpose of creating a new "socialist" oriented youth organization. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 493 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Miss Hates. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DOROTHY MIXTER HAYES, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, AARON S. WOLE 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for 
the record ? 

Miss Hayes. My name is Dorothy Mixter Hayes, and I reside 
at 1367 East 53d Street, Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel? 

Miss Hayes. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the 
record, stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Wolf. My name is Aaron S. Wolf, 11 South LaSalle Street. 

I would like to state for the record that Miss Hayes is also repre- 
sented by Mr. Willard J. Lassers, of the same address, who was 
present for the last 2 days of hearings and could not be here today. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, what is the time and place of your 
birth? 

Miss Hayes. Mr. Counsel, I have a statement which I would like 
to present to the committee. 

The Chairman. Is the statement in the nature of reasons for 
objecting to answer? 

Miss Hayes. No; this is another statement which I wish to make. 

The Chairman. Well, I do not know the nature of the statement. 
You are being asked a question in accordance with the rules of the 
committee which read as follows : 

A witness shall bo limited to giving information relevant and germane to 
the subject under investigation. * * * [Rule XI] 

A — Any witness desiring to make a prepared or written statement for the 
record of the proceedings in executive or public sessions shall file a copy of 
such statement with the counsel of the Committee not less than 48 hours in 
advance of the hearing at which the statement is to be presented. 

B — All such statements or portions thereof so received which are relevant 
and germane to the subject of the investigation may, upon approval, at the 
conclusion of the testimony of the witness, by a majority vote of the Com- 
mittee or Subcommittee members present, be inserted in the official transcript 
of the proceedings. [Rule IX] 

I cannot rule on the nature of the statement or the relevancy or 
the irrelevancy. Therefore, I would venture to ask you to read 
one paragraph so I have an idea what it is all about. 

Miss Hayes. Thank you. 

The Chairman. After that — your limited request — your rights 
are only to raise objections about not testifying. 

Miss Hayes. Thank you. Mr. Chairman. I will proceed. 

"My name is Dorothy Hayes. Today I have been summoned to 
appear before this Committee which seeks to intimidate me and ten 
other individuals." 

The Chairman. Well, that is enough. I will receive the state- 
ment. Hand the statement to counsel and it will be 

Miss Hayes. I regret, sir, that you do not give me the oppor- 
tunity to read the statement. I thought it was a courtesy to make 
it available to you first before releasing it to the press. 



494 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The Chairman. I do not think anything will be served by read- 
ing this statement. We will receive it for our files and decide 
whether it will be inserted in the record.^ 

Do you so understand ? 

Miss Hates. Yes. 

The Chairman. Proceed. I think there is a pending question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes ; that is correct, Mr. Chairman. 

Let me put it this way. I withdraw that question and put it 
this way, Miss Hayes. 

"Were you born on April 14, 1909, at Newport, Rhode Island? 

Miss Hayes. Mr. Counsel, I decline to answer the question for the 
following reasons : 

There has been a violation by this committee of its own rules of 
procedure. Rule XVI provides no member of the committee or 
staff shall make public the name of any witness subpenaed before 
the committee or subcommittee prior to the date of his appearance. 
Contrary to the provision of this rule, my name and the names of 
10 other persons subpenaed appeared in the public press days before 
this hearing. The effect has been to create a cloud of suspicion and 
mistrust. 

Further, the committee's sole purpose in holding these hearings 
is to intimidate and harass those subpenaed, to mar their reputation, 
to endanger their jobs, and to place suspicion on other people work- 
ing for peace and ciA^il rights. [Applause.] 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. Wliat you are doing in that 
statement is to make blanket charges as in the other statement that 
3^ou just handed me. Now I make you the offer: If permitted to 
read this statement, will you answer questions? You see, what you 
are doing there is to lambaste, and you have your objections in and 
you probably will invoke, as you are already invoking, the amend- 
ment. So no more of that. 

Miss Hayes. May I proceed with the reading? 

Voices in hearing room, singing. My comitry 'tis of thee, sweet 
land of liberty. 

Voice. The committee is unconstitutional. 

The Chairjian. This is the usual, planned demonstration. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Let me explain. I do not want to be discourteous to you or any 
other witness and I want to protect all of your rights that I can under 
the rules of the committee, under the Constitution, and under the 
rules of the House. 

Now you have been asked a question and you have a perfect right, 
as all of us have, to state reasons why you refuse to answer questions, 
but that possibly includes extraneous, impertinent, roaming statements 
which are confusing. You indicated, moreover, with reference to this 
first statement, you have already given it to the press and then, after 
having done that, j'ou will not siibject yourself to questioning. So I 
wish you would restrict your statement to reasons Avh}^ j^ou refuse to 
answer. 

Mr. Wolf. Mr. Chairman, her statement is directed toward that if 
you will bear with her briefly. 

1 Aftor (liip considoration. the subcommittee on Sept. 14, 1965, determined that Miss 
Hayes' statement would not be printed as a part of the hearing record. The statement, 
■which was solely an abusive attack upon the committee, was neither relevant nor germane 
to the subject under inquiry and, therefore, did not come within the purview of com- 
mittee Rule IX. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 495 

The Chairman. All right. If counsel tells me that, I will accept 
that, but don't eng-age in charges as part of your reasons for failure 
to respond to the questions. 

Miss Hates. May I proceed, sir ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Miss Hayes. These are not the general legislative purposes. I have 
a right to decline to answer under the jEirst amendment to the Consti- 
tution of the United States, in that it is an encroachment upon freedom 
of speech and of the right of people peaceably to assemble and to 
petition the Government for redress of grievance. 

Further, the question under inquiry has not been properly defined ; 
hence it is impossible for me to know whether the question you have 
put is pertinent to the question under inquiry. The question is un- 
related to any legislative purpose. The resolution establishing the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities is indefinite and vague. 
The House Committee on Un-American Activities and the subcom- 
mittee lack jurisdiction of the subject matter. 

There has been a patent violation of rule 26 (m) of the House of 
Representatives. In a public session, an informer was called as a 
witness, who gave testimony regarding me. Such testimony should 
have been presented in executive session. The subconmiittee refused 
to permit cross-examination of witness Lola Belle Holmes, who gave 
defamatory testimony about me. 

Finally, sir, I am compelled to testify in front of a barrage of tele- 
vision cameras and press cameras which are being operated while these 
hearings are in session. The chairman has reminded us constantly 
that the hearings are being conducted in a courtroom and courtroom 
decorum must be maintained at all times. All lawyers know the 
taking of photographs and the use of TV cameras in a courtroom is 
strictly forbidden by the ( ?) Act. [Applause.] 

The Chairman. The Chair is overruling your objections for the 
reasons already stated herein and reiterated in the record. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, how long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer that question, sir, for the reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I beg your pardon ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question for the reasons stated 
previously. 

The Chairman. Let me inquire of counsel. The reasons for object- 
ing in this instance are couched in quite general terms. Do the reasons 
include the invocation of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Wolf. The prior statement she has given has not vet included 
that. 

The Chairman. Then might I ask that, because I thought the 
statement was in generalities. She has not, up to now, invoked the 
protection, as she conceives it, of any rights under the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

]Mr. Wolf. That is correct. 

The CHATR:vrAN. Then I direct you to answer all previous questions, 
and they will be restated. 

Restate your questions. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you born in Newport, Ehode Island, on April 14, 
1909? 



496 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question for the following 
reasons: I have a ri<T:ht to decline to answer under the ninth amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States. I have a right to decline 
to answer under the provisions of the fifth amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, in that no one may be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property without due process of law, nor need anyone be 
a witness against himself. I have a right to decline to answer under 
the Constitution of the United States. I have a right to decline for 
all the reasons previously given in declining to answer a question. I 
have a right to decline to answer under the provisions of article I, 
section 9, of the Constitution of the United States relating to bills of 
attainder and ex post facto laws. 

The Chairman. Do you invoke those rights? You say you have 
a right ; do you invoke them now ? 

Miss Hates. I do so invoke. 

The Chairman. All right. My initial ruling stands, for the reasons 
many times stated. Your stated reasons for refusal to answer are 
overruled except the invocation of the fifth amendment. But as to the 
fifth amendment, perhaps you can tell me what possible harm can come 
to you, in any fashion, by answering the question of the date and place 
of birth. Therefore, I order you to answer the question, because 
it is unrelated to any proper invocation. 

Miss Hates. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer the question on all 
the grounds and the reasons heretofore stated. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on all the reasons 
and grounds previously given. 

The Chairman. I do not know how that is any reason for you to 
fail to answer that question. It does not involve any of the groimds 
you stated. Therefore, I direct you to answer that question. 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer, Mr. Chairman, on all the grounds 
and reasons I have previously given. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you, Miss Hayes, relate the extent of your formal 
education, giving the dates and places of attendance at educational 
institutions and any degrees you may have received ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on all the grounds 
and reasons I have previously stated. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer. 

Miss Hates. I decline to do so, sir, on all the grounds and reasons 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee is informed that you are a graduate of 
Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, and that you hold a 
master of arts in social science from that institution. Is that correct ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the grounds and 
reasons I have previously given. 

The Chairman. Questions of birth, background, age, and education 
are always considered preliminary questions in any kind of proceeding. 
Therefore, I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Hates. Mr. Chairman, I must decline to answer on the basis of 
all the grounds and reasons I have previously stated. 

The Chairiman. I figured that you would. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 497 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, would you tell us what liave been your 
principal employments since completing- your formal education '^ 

Miss Hayes. Mr. Counsel, I decline to answer the question for all 
the reasons and grounds I have previously stated to you. 

The Chairman. Do you fear that an answer to this question will sub- 
ject you to criminal prosecution or involvement'^ 

Miss Hates. I must decline, sir, and I do, to answer your question 
on all the grounds and reasons I have previously given. 

The Chairman. I must direct you, and do, to answer the question. 

J^Iiss Hates. I decline to do so, sir, on all the gromids and reasons I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTn.E.' Are you presently employed as a supervisor of case- 
workers of the Chicago Youth Centers, Lawndale Neighborhood Serv- 
ices, 1512 South Pulaski Eoad ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on all the grounds and 
reasons I have previously given you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you present in the hearing room during the testi- 
mony of Miss Lola Belle Holmes ? 

I\Iiss Hates. I decline to answer the question, sir, on all the grounds 
and reasons I have previously given you. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Hayes, the committee received testimony from 
Miss Holmes that at the second session of the State convention of the 
Communist Party of Illinois you were elected to membership on the 
Illinois State Committee of the Communist Party in January 1960. 
Is this correct? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Holmes testified that she became a member of the 
Women's Peace & Unity Club in 1958 and remained a member until 
about 1962. During the course of her membership she said that you 
and Grace Clark were officers of this organization. Was her testi- 
mony correct ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the grounds and 
reasons I have previously stated, all of them. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you know Grace Clark to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously given you. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Plolmes further testified that Lula Saffold, whom 
she identified as a member of the Communist Party, was cliairman of 
the Women's Peace & Unity Club during the period of JMiss Holmes' 
membership. Do you loiow Lula Safi'old to be a member of the Com- 
mmiist Party and to have served in that position of the Women's 
Peace & Unity Club? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Hayes, were you not in fact one of the founders 
of the Women's Peace & Unity Club ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer, sir, on all the grounds which I 
have previously given. 

Mr. Nittle. I have before me, Miss Hayes, an application for a 
U.S. post office box dated January 12, 1957, filed by one Dorothy M. 
Hayes. This exhibit has been marked for identification as "Hayes 
Exhibit No. 1." 



498 COMMTNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Did you make application for this post office box, as stated hereon 
in your application, to serve the carrying out of business therein listed, 
namely, secretary of Women's Peace & Unity Club ? 

I hand you that exhibit and ask you if that is your signature for a 
postal application for that purpose ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question, sir, on the grounds 
that I have already stated, all the reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that Exhibit No. 1 be received in 
evidence. 

The Chairmax. It is so received. 

(Document marked "Hayes Exliibit No. 1" follows :) 

Hayes Exhibit No. 1 


















. V 'r';'.;/ //i?^-t '^y''/r-^ 



1/ . 



-/.r}/J 















APFliCATiCH FOR POSY-OFnCS BOX ^^^t. 



The uudrr.-ic'iiiil hereby applies for the ine of a b'i\ In tlio post oflicc al — 

LV.i.i^C>^7'.C'l:^I.*SA<.^i. A.2 >!.'?.. -f^r-...l;'L?r-/.<. .?./:: a..a arrec? 

to ronif'ly \>illi ihp post.il repilijiioiis and nilud rclalivo to tlic rcnliijjr and use of imsl-uffico boxes. 

If llic b'lx !» r>M\tr(l for a coqioralion, the applirin; rhould write on ihp lines below the namo of the 
corporation; if for a iiri;i, the name of the firm and the full name of eicu of its members Hhiwii mail is 
tr. Le platXMl in ll.e box. ■ ^ y 

/k.wtn.:s.../^J?:i..:i:_t'>vi*Iy...£^k..:^ ^ 

Sljtialure of acpli-aiit ■--- 7}■^,^JI;ilv■,■'k^.^ jy^.S...'jL...^.£,-a.tA y. 

C)jaracti.Tofbn?ii;<?.'s tA.-vy. A^i..i.,CxxJ i-t^r-i iii.. ■- 



Jiii.-Iiic-'.i adilrt'sa 

! N ,, - 

■ jvcicrcncti: 



... Zooc No. . 
...Zouo .\o. . 



on 






COMMUNIST ACTRITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 499 
Hayes Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 



VSEXFIOilTlOH OF RSFSREKCS OF APPLaGAI^T FOR 20X 

UIs-ITED STATES POST OFFICE 

f.'Jiiraa of rc-ieiec-t) 

An GUpKcation for a DO?l-f ffice hex lio^Jscsn fiicS. gt Ibi?. cftipe./rith your coaie cs le'crer^ : 

Nor., of appHcant C^ .^^.^.-^-^^/ ^ /^^^ ) /-y>^.^ .„ _^ 

Chararfvir of busincrs ..- „ .v^ 

hutlness address ..,., .^r-i. ^..^-v.^': .^..-»_^, - 

Residence address „.j/-.Z.<^:..r\ ^..r:. .:^?...'J. ^rt^T:^/.. ! 

Y.'iil you Irjadly advise this oiiics ii, in youi judgis&at, the cpplicanl is icspcnsj.ble end SxJiAi 



(.;.S3;ti:.-c c!i...Ur.-n.;«') ■' . " ' ' ^'' 

UNITSD STATES ?C;.i'r Cr'FICB 



(N:=kc c« t.-i,--rc;-:.f) 

• .An appMcaiion lur e jT6sf-o!iico fcor cc? j^>epi; l:ied at/nis o.'i^c, vv^ib. your tjani? c^; irfcrencj 
Name of applicant -? r<lr:^/^J^2±^ J1<1.. Ji^rr-tTr^.^lvr -.... 



fi'ssidence nddiess .^.y. . .V.. .'./?. C;.....fA...?A.'. 



Lu. Lc:...:i^Zsll j^L. 



Will you kindly advwo tbis ciiice if, in. your judgment, the applicant is re.-jponstble end frusi-i - 



CAKL A. ::^-;-:Hu^t^^;^^> 



}ii:PLY: 

IViJ-m. lfif;2 (Bev. '/-STj lf--iHi,'-« 



i^^c^ti€..24^...i^ 



500 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 
Hayes Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 



BOX RENT REGISTER FOR KEYLOCKING AND KEYLESS ECUiPMENT 


'^Ifz/ 


....sco...^5y - 


r™ctcK.;-^^v-.5^l=./.'-.i-7 ^l-^-G3 Ic. d-^fl'f^ 


I'f -ri' ^lJ«^ '^^'^^ 


A-n-^y - /"S^i w Ic. 


NAME OF BOXHOLDtR 


DATE BOX 
RENTED 


SCRI*L NUM3ER 
OF KEYS 


DAfE l*DX 
SUKRCNOEREO 


MAIL FOnWARDEO TO- 


XL'.-..Jjt...'r\\..Jr,aA- 


; -''^tr-~j''? 


S:^i=^ 


V'^A"- -/-/-j^^. 




1 


V-3'/-6/ 


.•/;-?y 


.AJ--(r3 


^■•'•:'-^.^^. 




.w 


^ fc:..j 


/■■■>'■.- V 




M<ev 








/O ■) (z '/ 




1 






































1 






1 





POO Form inoi 
Dec. 1955 lUal 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified that Lula Saffold received direc- 
tives from Claude Lightfoot and otlier Commmiist Party leaders re- 
garding the activity of the Women's Peace & Unity Club. Do you 
have any knowledge of this fact '? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on all the grounds and 
reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge, was the Women's Peace & Unity 
Club a front for the Communist Party ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on all the grounds and 
reasons I have previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, please, when you joined the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously stated. 

The Cpiairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, according to the information of the com- 
mittee, in May of 1930 you made application for a United States pass- 
port, at which time you stated that you intended to travel in Denmark, 
Norway, Sweden, Germany, France, and England. Based upon this 
application you were issued a passport on May 30, 1930. Is that 
correct ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the grounds and 
reasons I have previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now at the time you filed your application in 1930, you 
claimed your residence as 267 Cribbs Avenue, Newport, Rhode Island, 
and you stated that your occupation was that of student. Did you 
then live m Newport, Rhode Island ? 

Miss Hjvyes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you then a student at Smith College ? 

^ Thp names of two persons subsequently assigned this box have been deleted since the 
committee has no information that they have any Communist connections. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 501 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have given you. 

Mr. NiTTLPL However, in your passport application you instructed 
the State Department to mail your passport not to Newport, Rhode 
Island, which you declared your residence, but to an organization you 
called The Open Road, Inc., at 20 West 43d Street, New York City. 
What was your purpose in having your passport mailed to that organi- 
zation ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me a brochure issued by The Open Road, 
which states that The Open Road was organized in 1925 to furnish 
means whereby Americans with a studious interest in Soviet Russia 
might again begin to visit that country. It was pointed out that The 
Open Road was the only travel organization which maintained its own 
representative in the Soviet Union and that it worked "within the 
framework of organized tourism as administered by Intourist (the 
[Soviet] State Travel Trust) ." 

Now the California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities in 1948 issued a report which identified The Open Road, 
Inc., as a Communist-front organization. Did you possess any knowl- 
edge on that subject at the time you requested that your passport be 
mailed to the address of that organization? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Miss Hayes, would you care to tell the committee the 
circumstances in which you were placed in touch with that organiza- 
tion? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. It is tlie committee's information, Miss Hayes, that 
again in November 1948 you made application for a United States 
passport to travel for 1 month as a tourist to France, England, Switzer- 
land, and Holland and setting forth that you intended to leave by air 
from New York by November 27, 1948. Do you recollect filing such 
an application ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously given. 

Mr. Nittle. Now it is the committee's information that you were, 
in fact, issued a passport on tliat application on November 12, 1948. 
Did you receive and use that passport for travel to Europe ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us, please, what countries you visited 
following the receipt of that passport ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of aU the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you visit any country other than those countries 
to which you said you intended to travel ? 

Mr. Wolf. Mr. Chairman, I would like to object to this question and 
all following questions on the following grounds : I believe it is now 
clear that the witness is not going to answer any further questions on 
the basis of the statements previously given by her. These questions 



502 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

are now being propounded solely for the purpose of being propounded 
and not for the hope of getting any further answers. 

The Chairman. Your objection is overruled because of the groimds 
that were pre\dously stated by the chairman of the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would the reporter read the pending question ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Wolf. I believe she said she intended to travel in any country 
in which there was jurisdiction. 

The Chairman. Let the witness answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way. In your passport application 
you said you wanted a passport to travel to France, England, Switzer- 
land, and Holland. Now did you, in fact, travel to countries other 
than those named ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. K iTTLE. Miss Hayes, it is the information of this committee that 
you, in fact, traveled to Budapest, Hmigary, for attendance at the 
Second Congress of the Communist-controlled Women's International 
Democratic Federation, held there in December of 1948. Is this true ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why did you fail to set forth in your passport appli- 
cation the fact tliat you intended to travel there ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
groimds and reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at the opening of the con- 
gress, which was held in the Budapest Hall of Parliament in Budapest, 
Hungary ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
gromids and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The opening speech, Miss Hayes, was made by Made- 
moiselle Eugenie Cotton, who headed the delegation of the French 
Commmiist Union des Femmes Francaises. Is that correct ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
groimds and reasons given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hear her speak ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on all the grounds and 
reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. She said in part : 

A sinister role has been played by the Government of the United States, which, 
in violation of all international agreements, is pursuing a policy of expansion 
and of fomenting war. But this policy comes into collision with the powerful will 
of that staunch champion of peace, the Soviet Union. 

Do you support that view ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nii-TLE. A Nina Popova, Soviet whip at the WIDE and secre- 
tary of the Central Council of the Trade Unions of the Soviet Union, 
also addressed a session of the Congress. Were you in attendance 
when Nina Popova spoke ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 503 

Mr. NiTTLE. I state as a fact that she launched a vicious attack upon 
the United States and declared : 

We have gathered at our second international congress in a tense world situa- 
tion, at a time of fierce struggle between the forces of reaction and the forces of 
democracy * * * in order to unite * * * for the struggle against the warmon- 
gers * * *. 

To be able to fight the warmongers successfully, the women of all countries 
must know who the enemies of peace are. They must know that the inspirers 
and organizers of aggression, the inspirers and organizers of another war, are 
the present rulers of the United States and Great Britain * * *. 

Do you recollect her speech ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Wolf. Mr. Chairman, 1 would like the record to be clear that 
I have a standing objection to all of these questions on the basis of my 
prior objection. 

Mr. Pool (presiding in absence of Mr. "Willis). The witness will 
make her objections at the proper time. 

]SIr. Wolf. I think counsel may make objections. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel is here to advise the witness. 

Mr. Wolf. Would you like me to object to each question ? 

Mr. Pool. She can object, but the rules of the committee are that the 
counsel is here for another reason. 

Mr. Weltner. I suggest that we may take it that he registers an 
objection to each question asked 

Mr. Wolf. A standing objection. 

Mr. Weltxer. — without it being necessaiy to repeat the objection. 
I think that would be all right. 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show whatever he said on that; that is 
all right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, the January 16, 1949, issue of the Commu- 
nist journal, Tlie 'Worker^ reports an interview with you on your return 
from Hungary. It is reported in The Worker that you said that you 
remembered most vividly Mademoiselle Eugenie Cotton of France 
and Nina Popova of the Soviet Union, among others. 

I hand you this issue of Tlie 'Worker and ask whether or not you are 
the Dorothy "Shayes" — incorrectly spelled there, apparently — identi- 
fied as the delegate from the United States to that conference who 
made the statement that you remembered most vividly the remarks of 
]Mademoiselle Eugenie Cotton and Nina Popova? 

Mr. Wolf. Are you referring to the article "How Women Are 
Fighting for Peace" ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am refetring to the entire article in The Worker. 

Mr. Pool. What is your question. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does this report correctly and accurately state your 
responses in the interview with The Worker, and particularly the fact 
that you said that you most vividly remembered the speeches of 
Eugenie Cotton and Nina Popova? 

Miss Hayes. Mr. Counsel, there is nothing in this that I can see that 
states what you just said it states. Would you point it out to me? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, I shall. 

Shall I read this portion to you ? In the one paragraph it is stated, 
in referring to you as a Chicago union organizer, that you explainect 
that you were one of the first of the American delegates to return. 

52-810— 66— pt. 1 14 



504 COIvIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

You were asked in the interview, in tlie question set forth in the article 
by Robert Friedman, ''Who were some of the women's leaders the 
American delegate remembered most vividly V 

And you were quoted as saying, "Well, there was Mme. Eugenie 
Cotton, of France," and Nina Popova of the Soviet Union and a few 
ethers at the Congress. I have not quoted you specifically but I will 
show you that portion which I have just read. 

Mr. Wolf. What is your question. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you correctly reported in this interview with TJie 
Worker? 

Mr. Weltner (presiding in absence of Mr. Willis and ]Mr. Pool). 
Ask the witness if she is the person identified in that article as Dorothy 
Shayes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you personally identified in that article as Doro- 
thy Shayes ? A photograph of Dorothy Shayes appears thereon. Is 
that your photogi-aph? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
the grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer in evidence The Worker article 
marlved for identification as Exhibit No. 2. It is an article titled 
"How Women Are Fighting for Peace." 

Were you then fighting for "peace" by supporting a Soviet- 
controlled organization known as the Women's International Demo- 
cratic Federation? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
the grounds and reasons previously stated. 

(Document marked "Hayes Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. You were reported in the article of The Worker as 
being the representative or delegate of the United Office and Pro- 
fessional Workers of America to the Second Congress of the Women's 
International Democratic Federation. Were you then employed as 
a member of the office staff of the Midwest region of that union? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously given. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were employed by that union and at the time you attended 
the world congress at Budapest, Hungary ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. It is also the committee's information, Miss Hayes, that 
at that time you were a member of an organization known as the Con- 
gress of American Women. Were you? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

JSIr. Nittle. Miss Hayes, a report of this committee identifies the 
Congress of American Women as the American branch or affiliate of 
the Women's International Democratic Federation. I have before me 
a copy of the Communist publication, The Worker of October 8, 1950, 
which identifies you as heading the Chicago chapter of the Congress 
of American Women. I have marked the copy of The Worker as 
"Hayes Exhibit No. 3." 

I hand that to you. Would you tell us, please, whether you headed 
the Chicago chapter of the Congress of American Women ? 

Mr. Weltner. Does the witness understand the question ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 505 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you head the Chicago chapter of the Congress of 
American Women ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

(Document marked "Hayes Exhibit No. 3" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Hayes, the Congress of American Women 
was officially launched in New York City on Marcii 8, 1946, following a 
gathering in honor of a so-called International Women's Day, which 
was held at the Soviet consulate in New York City in which Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn, the late chairman of the Communist Party of the United 
States, and other initiators of the Congress of American Women, par- 
ticipated. However, it was not until May 1949 that the first national 
and constitutional convention of the Congress of American Women 
was held in New York City- — approximately 1 year prior to the in- 
vasion of South Korea by Communist North Korea. 

It is our information that you were in attendance in New York City 
at the first national and constitutional convention of the Congress of 
American Women. Were you, in fact, in attendance at that 
convention ? 

]\Iiss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A 1949 report of this committee. Miss Hayes, declared 
that the Congress of American Women served as — 

a specialized ax'ui of Soviet political warfare in the current "peace" campaign to 
disarm and demobilize the United States and democratic nations generally, in 
order to render them helpless in the face of the Communist drive for v^-orld 
conquest. 

xlttorney General Tom Clark in letters to the Loyalty Review Board 
released in 1948 cited the Congress of American Women as subversive 
and Communist. 

Were you aware of these facts at the time you. served as the head of 
the Chicago chapter of the Congress of American Women ? 

IVIiss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, in your 1948 application for a passport 
you also listed your employment as social worker. Were you from 
the period 1948 to 1962 employed by an organization known as the 
Community Referral Service, 123 West Madison, Chicago? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this an affiliate of the Welfare Council of metro- 
politan Chicago? 

ISIiss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the address at 123 West Madison at the same time 
the address of the Communist Party's youth group, the American 
Youth for Democracy ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Ntttle. Was it not also the address of the Chicago Council of 
Labor Union Veterans ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
the grounds and reasons previously stated. 



506 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, while a social worker, have you been under 
the discipline of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in 1941 a social worker in Massachusetts ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Hayes, I have before me a copy of a magazine 
titled Social Work Today dated February 1952. At page 52 your 
name is listed, under the column for the State of Massachusetts, as 
being one of the 1941 '■'■Social Work Today Cooperators," and it is 
noted that those listed men and women — 

have made it possible for Social Work Today to strengthen and prepare itself 
for the supreme test of today. 

I hand vou this exhibit marked for identification as "Hayes Ex- 
hibit No. 4'." 

Are you the Dorothy M. Hayes noted as a 1941 cooperator? 

Mr. Weltner. Counsel will rephrase the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee has just called to my attention that I 
had stated that article as being dated 1952. I correct that. That is 
the February 1942 issue. As I previously stated a moment ago, Are 
you listed in that issue as a 1941 "Cooperator'- ? 

Miss Hayes. That is your question, Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

(Document marked "Hayes Exhibit No. 4" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Weltner. We will suspend at this point for one moment. 

At this point the subcommittee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool (presiding in absence of Mr. Willis). The subcommittee 
will come to order. 

Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, were you in 1959 the chairman of an orga- 
nization called the State Public Social Policies Committee, which 
maintained offices at 123 West Madison Street ? 

Miss Hayes. Mr. Counsel, I decline to answer the question on the 
basis of all previous grounds and reasons that I have stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is also the committee's information that you were a 
member of the provisional national board of the organization known 
as American Women for Peace. Is that tiiie ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
the grounds and reasons I have given before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you head a delegation of the Chicago chapter of 
American Women for Peace to a Washington, D.C., demonstration in 
August 1950 following the commencement of the Korean war ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously given to you. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. Did you also sei-ve as secretary and sponsor of the 
Illinois Assembly area chapter of the American Peace Crusade in the 
1950's? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
the grounds and reasons previously stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 507 

Mr. NiTTLE. A report and order of the Subversive Activities Control 
Board stated that the Illinois chapter of the American Peace Crusade 
was a unit of the American Peace Crusade which operated under the 
direction of members and functionaries of the Communist Party. 

Miss Hayes, while a member of the Illinois chapter of the American 
Peace Crusade, were you under the discipline of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are aware, are you not, that in the early part of 
1951 a youth section of the American Peace Crusade known as the 
American Youth Peace Crusade was formed in Chicago ? 

Miss Hayes. What is your question, sir ? 

Mr. Nittle. You are aware of that fact ; are you not ? 

IViiss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. This committee's investigation discloses that the per- 
son who served as the Illinois youth coordinator of the American 
Youth Peace Crusade was Dr. Jeremiah Stamler. Do you know Dr. 
Stamler ? 

Mr. Jenner. I object, if Your Honor pleases, and I request an 
executive session. I ask that the question be stricken from the record. 

Mr. Pool. You may proceed. 

Mr. Jenner. On the grounds that have been heretofore stated. 

Mr. Pool. I understand. I note your objection. 

Have you completed stating your objection ? 

Mr. Jenner. I add to my objection that this question put to this 
witness under these circumstances is designed solely and only to de- 
fame Dr. Stamler. 

Mr. Pool. Does that complete your statement ? 

Mr. Jenner. That completes my statement, as I understand from 
the ruling of the chairman and the understanding Avith me this 
morning that all other objections that have been made by my partner 
and request for executive session by my partner and myself are over- 
ruled. 

(Subcommittee members confer.) 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show that the committee has conferred 
and the objection is overruled. The request for an executive session 
is denied on the same grounds as before. 

I suppose you would like to note your objection as before; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Jenner. Yes, Mr. Chairman. My understanding was that the 
objections heretofore stated are noted of record and do stand of 
record. 

Mr. Pool. And you want to have a continuing objection to the pro- 
ceedings on this witness ; is that correct ? 

!Mr. Jenner. My understanding is, accordingly you are overruling 
those objections and those requests as before made. 

Mr, Pool. That is correct, and the record will so show. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

]Mr. Nittle. Do you know Dr. Stamler ? 

Do you know Dr. Stamler ? 

]Mips Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 



508 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him to be the Illinois youth coordinator 
of the American Youth Peace Crusade in the 1950's ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact that you and Dr. Jeremiah Stamler 
were in attendance at a rally of the American Peace Crusade held 
on September 12, 1952, at the United Electrical Workers Hall, 37 South 
Ashland Boulevard in Chicago ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our information discloses that Dr. Jeremiah Stamler 
spoke at this meeting and that you were in charge of the literature 
table at the rear of the hall . Is that correct ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is also informed that Dr. Stamler was 
a speaker at a national committee conference of the American Peace 
Crusade held on Saturday and Sunday, March 14 and 15, 1953, at 
the Y]\ICA, 5000 South Indiana Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. Accord- 
ing to committee information, you were also at that meeting: were 
you not ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, in addition to the objections that have 
been made, it now appears clear on this record that no possible leg- 
islative purpose can be served by persisting in these questions; that 
the net result of proceeding with these questions when the answers of 
a negative character are anticipated can serve no other purpose than 
to besmirch the reputation of Dr. Stamler. 

Mr. Pool. The objection is overruled as the other objections were 
for the record. 

Mr. Jenner. Is tlie objection overruled ? 

Mr. Pool. The objection is overruled. 

Continue, Coinisel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee also possesses information, which it be- 
lieves reliable, that you and Dr. Jeremiah Stamler also were in attend- 
ance at a conference held on October 16-17, 1953, titled "The Chicago 
Area Conference for World Peace Through Negotiations," wliich was 
held under the auspices of the American Peace Crusade at the Fine 
Arts Building, Curtis Hall, 410 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 
Illinois. Did you meet or talk with Dr. Stamler on these occasions? 

Mr. Jenner, May I inquire, Mr. Chairman, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, you have noted your objection. Do you have 
an objection to make? 

Mr. Jenner. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. State your objection. 

Mr. Jenner. I ask whether my additional objection stands as did 
the other objections. 

Mr. Weltner. Pardon me. Is it not the case that the counsel has, 
each and every time, objected when Dr. Stamler and other clients were 
mentioned and each time those objections were mentioned rulings were 
made at that point? The objections are just as clear to preserve the 
riglits of his client as though they had been made on each and every 
occasion. 

Mr. Pool. That is correct, and the record will show that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 509 

Mr. Jenner. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Mr. Weltner. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you meet or talk with Dr. Stamler on the occasion 
of that Chicago Area Conference to which I just referred at the Fine 
Arts Building ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you also served as the executive secretary of 
Chicago Women for Peace, commencing in 1952 ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Hayes, it is apparent that you appear to have 
engaged in activities with the Chicago chapters of several organiza- 
tions, such as the Congress of American Women, American Women for 
Peace, Chicago Women for Peace, the American Peace Crusade, and 
the Women's Peace & Unity Club. The question I should like to ask 
you is whether you engaged in these activities while under the disci- 
pline of the Conimunist Party, and under Communist Party directives, 
or in an effort to execute Communist Party policy ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you also a member of the Hyde Park-Kenwood 
Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Hayes, I have before me a copy of a full-page 
advertisement which appeared in the Hyde Park Herald on December 
28, 1960, sponsored by the Hyde Park-Kenwood Committee for a Sane 
Nuclear Policy. I hand you a copy of this advertisement marked for 
identification as "Hayes Exhibit No. 5." 

You will note that your name appears thereon as one of the group 
exhorting your neighbors to join with people the world over to bring 
about peace "through an end to nuclear weapons tests, and miiversal 
disarmament under the U.N." 

Are you the Dorothy M. Hayes who appears thereon ? 

Miss HxVYEs. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously given. 

Mr. Nittle. Would the Chair indulge me for a moment? 

I also call your attention to other names listed in the advertisement; 
specifically, Milton Cohen, Ben Friedlander, Ann INIorgan — identified 
therein as Mrs. Kichard Morgan, Ann Prosten — identified therein as 
Mrs. Jesse Prosten, and Charles F. Wilson. These individuals have 
been identified by Miss Plolmes as members of the Communist Party. 
Did you also know them as members of a Commmiist Party caucus 
within the Hyde Park-Kenwood Committee for a Sane Nuclear 
Policy ? 

Mr. Wolf. The document headed ". . . And they shall beat their 
swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: Nation 
shall not lift up sword against Nation, neither shall they learn war 
any more. Isaiah, Ch. 2; V. 4." Is that what you are referring to 
now? 

Mr. Nittle. I think that is quite obvious what you referred to. The 
entire exhibit will be offered in evidence. 



510 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

Now the outstanding question remains. What is your answer to it, 
Miss Hayes ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons previously given. 

(Document marked "Hayes Exhibit No. 5*' and retained m com- 
mittee files; previously introduced as Friedlander Exhibit No. 3. 
See pp. 449, 450.) 

Mr. Pool. The subcommittee will recess until 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Wolf. Mr. Chairman, will it be possible to complete with this 
witness before recess ? 

Mr. Pool. I have already recessed. 

Mr. Wolf. Thank you. 

(Wliereupon, at 12 : 30 p.m., Thursday, May 27, 19G5, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, MAY 27, 1965 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chainnan, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Ashbrook, and Clawson.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

TESTIMONY OF DOROTHY MIXTEH HAYES— Resumed 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Hayes, in testimony before this committee on 
March 19, 1958, Armando Penha identified Maud Russell as a secret 
member of the Communist Party on the national level. Miss Russell 
testified before this committee on March 6, 1963, that she knew you 
for a period of 10 years, "maybe 10 years" — that is the exact quote of 
her testimony. Did you know Maud Russell to be a secret member 
of the Communist Party at the national level ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all the 
grounds and reasons I have given previously. 

Mr. Nittle. Maud Russell testified before our committee in oMarch 
1963 that she was on a national tour and was scheduled to appear in 
the Chicago area for speaking dates between May 27 and Jime 12, 
1961. The notice suggested that all arrangements for her dates be 
made with Dorothy Hayes, 1367 East 53d Street. She testified that 
you assisted her in her speaking engagements. Is this true ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
the grounds and reasons given previously. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, the subcommittee will recollect that 
Maud Russell was a publisher of the Far East Rejyorter and has been 
engaged for many years principally as a propagandist upon the sub- 
ject of Red China. In her appearance before tliis committee, slie 
refused to answer questions relating to her secret membership in the 
Communist Party on the national level. 

Miss Hayes, in January of 1953 you filed another application with 
the Department of State for a passport to travel abroad. Do you 
recollect doing so? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
grounds and reasons I have criven before. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 511 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's information is that in a letter from 
the Passport Division dated March 10, 1953, you were advised that 
your application was being denied on the ground, and I quote now 
from tne letter, "In your case it has been alleged that you are a 
Communist and that you have been engaged in Communist Party 
activities over a protracted period of time.-' 

You were, however, afforded an opportunity to be heard and to 
appeal these fuidings at the Department of State; were you not? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
grounds and reasons given before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did not appeal this denial ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
grounds and reasons given previously. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were the allegations of the Department of State, thus 
communicated to you, in fact true ? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
grounds and reasons given before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, you have been identified by Lola Belle 
Holmes as a member of the Communist Party, as a top leader in the 
Communist Party in this State, a member of the State committee of 
the Communist Party. Exhibits previously introduced indicate that 
you were a leader of the Communist organized and controlled Ameri- 
can Peace Crusade at the same time Dr. Jeremiah Stamler was the co- 
ordinator of its youth branch in this State. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, may I inquire ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is also the committee's information, which you have 
not denied, that you and Dr. Stamler jointly attended several meet- 
ings, each playing key roles at, at least, one of them. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, my objection is 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. He has not asked a question. 

Mr. Jenner. He has not finished ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would like to ask you the following questions : Did 
you know Dr. Stamler at the time ? 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, my objections and my requests made 
this morning, and by my partner heretofore, stand and the committee- 
has overruled them. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Dr. Stamler at the time of attendance 
at the meetings of which we spoke, which took place in 1952, 1953? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all- 
grounds and reasons given previously. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, in fact, a member of the Communist Party 
at that time? 

Miss Hayes. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
grounds and reasons given previously. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Did you know Dr. Jeremiah Stamler as a Communist 
Party member at that time ? 

Mr. Jenner. If Your Honor please, I object to this characteriza- 
tion and repeat and renew my motions and requests for an executive 
session. I move that this question bo stricken from the record as an 
unverified attack upon the character of an outstanding research scien- 
tist in this countrv and a loval American. 



512 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The Chairman-. Let the Chair say this. Reference has been made 
a number of times, and is now restated, with reference to the promi- 
nence of certain people. Prominence has not entitled anyone to spe- 
cial treatment and prominence does not give immmiity to anyone from 
the jurisdiction of this committee. 

Now the protestation and objection just urged along the same lines 
previously urged is overruled. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please answer the question ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
grounds and reasons given before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, have you ever at any time during your 
period of membership in the Communist Party known Dr. Jeremiah 
Stamler to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Wolf. I object to the question. There has been no evidence 
to that effect. I object to this whole line of questions, if the chairman 
please. These questions are designed not to elicit any answers. It 
is completely clear that the witness is not going to answer any of these 
questions. The questions are designed only for the sake of the ques- 
tioning. 

The Chatrman. It would be the wish and fervent hope of the Chair 
that the witness might see some light after a while and give us in- 
formation within lier knowledge. We are only receiving information 
within her knowledge, which we believe she could lay on the line. 

Now with reference to naming names, those people will have ample 
opportunity to refute micler oath the things that have been said or 
brought out in the course of the examination. 

Mr. Wolf. We have had no opportunity to cross-examine anyone; 
that has been denied. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Hayes, do you have knowledge on this subject? 

Miss Hates. ^^Hiat subject, sir? 

Mr. NiTTLE. As to the question of Dr. Stamler's Communist Party 
membership at any time. 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on the basis of all 
grounds and reasons I have given before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If you did not possess that knowledge and told this 
committee that you did not, how could that possibly incriminate j'^ou ? 

Miss Hates. I decline to answer the question on all the grounds and 
reasons given previously to you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I object to the last question on the fur- 
ther ground that it is an unconstitutional comment upon the constitu- 
tional privileges and immunities granted under the great Constitu- 
tion that we have and the courts have held is entirely improper. 

The Chairman. You and I both are great admirers of tlie Consti- 
tution. We may disagree on details, but not on the principle, I am 
sure, and your clients are well represented. For reasons previously 
stated your objections are overruled. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Leon Joy Jennings please come forward? 

Tiie Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 513 

be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs, Jennings. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEON JOY JENNINGS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ANNA H. LANGFOKD AND PRANK ANGLIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record ? 

Mrs. Jennings. Leon Joy Jennings, 6951 South Princeton, Chicago, 
60621. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you Mrs. Jennings? I ask that so that I may 
address you properly. Are you Mrs. Jennings ? 

Mrs. Jennings. Yes. 

]Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Would coimsel kindly identify herself for the record, 
stating her name and office address ? 

Mrs. Langford. My name is Anna R. Langford. My office is lo- 
cated at 7107 South Park, Chicago 19, Illinois. 

Mr. Anglin. My name is Frank Anglin, and my office is located at 
765 East Oakwood Boulevard, Chicago. 

Mr. Nittle. Wliat was your maiden name, Mrs. Jennings ? 

Mrs. Langford. Mr. Chainnan, may I make a short statement for 
the record ? As any good lawyer knows, it is nexjessary to have a good 
record. I would like at this time to take exception to the fact that 
counsel has been systematically denied the opportmiity to cross-ex- 
amine the witnesses here today and that this witness stands here ac- 
cused solely on the uncorroborated testimony and the couched testi- 
mony of one Lula Belle 

Miss Holmes. Lola Belle. 

!Mrs. Langford. Lola Mae ? 

Miss Holmes. Lola Belle, L-o-l-a B-e-1-l-e. 

Mrs. Langford. Lola Belle. I am so sorry. Miss Holmes. I did not 
mean to offend. I try so hard not to be offensive. 

Also, we would like to reiterate our motion to have this witness ex- 
amined in private session. It has been overruled, and I would like to 
take exception to that fact. 

I understand that there will be an investigation by this committee 
in the future of the Ku Klux Klan which will be held in private ses- 
sion, and we regret that Mrs. Jennings is not being afforded the same 
protection. 

The Chairman. You have the weirdest understanding 

Mr. Anglin. We take exception to that, if it please the Chair. 

Mrs. Langford. I am a very weird person. 

Mr. Anglin. I ask that you retract that remark that she has a weird 
conception. 

The Chairman. I said "understanding." 

Mr. Anglin. I ask you to retract any statement that she has a weird 
understanding. 

]Mrs. Langford. Mrs. Langford is perfectly capable of defending 
hersel f . 

Mr. Anglin. You are a member m good standing of the Illinois 
Bar. And when I serve with you as cocounsel, I will ask the chairman 



514 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

as a Southern gentleman to retract the statement that counsel has a 
weird understandmg of anythmg. I will ask that you make that 
retraction, Mr. Chairman. 

Mrs. Langford. Anything that is contrary to his opinion is weird. 

Mr. Anglin. Will you make that retraction, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Let us proceed. 

Mr. Anglin. Will you make that retraction ? 

The Chairman. Her statement, judging from the demeanor, was 
well meant. 

Mr. Anglin. Is it understood that the Chairman will not make a 
retraction ? 

Mrs. Langford. It is not necessary; I can defend myself against 
him. 

Mr. Anglin. Serving as cocounsel here, I would like the record clear 
that I am not serving with any weird person. 

The Chairman. That is perfectly obvious. [Laughter.] 

Mrs. Langford. Unique but not weird. 

The Chairman. Now with reference to your objection 

JNIr. Anglin. May we complete our statement, INlr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. She has. 

Mr. Anglin. She has? 

The Chairman. She has completed a phase of it. She has advised 
you she has made a statement. She has made a statement. I am going 
to rule on your objection. 

Mr. Anglin. Thank you. I would like the record to show that the 
chairman has not retracted the characterization that counsel is weird. 

The Chairman. With reference to the basic objection, it is over- 
ruled. 

Now with reference to your statement, Mrs. Langford, that only one 
person has identified your client as a member of the Communist Party 
and uncorroborated by anybody else — I think those were the words of 
that sentence — now, to me, that presents a splendid opportunity for 
her to reply. 

Mrs. Langford. Opportunity ? 

The Chairman. Yes. Miss Holmes, under the pains and penalties 
of perjury, under oath, did make that statement. Now it would be 
interesting if your client, under the same pains and penalties, would 
deny so that you would have a sharp issue for referring the record to 
the Department of Justice. Obviously there would be a flat contra- 
diction and probably some action for perjury. So I say that would be 
a splendid opportunity for her to confront her accuser, that we have 
been talking about so much liere and hearing about so much. 

Your objections are overruled. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman, as counsel here in this matter, I v.ould 
like to address the committee as counsel here. 

The Chairman. We will get there. Rule VII, served on your client 
and with which you are familiar, if for no other reason but that I have 
read it a number of times, states this : 

A — At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privile.ee of having counsel of his own choosing. 

B — The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while 
the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his legal 
rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with the 
Committee, but shall confine his activity to the area of legal advice to his client. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 515 

I have said before, and I will repeat, that these hearings as far as I 
am concerned, should not serve as a precedent for leniency. I ac- 
corded you the right to make a statement on the condition, however, 
that you at least comply with the provision that counsel shall not be 
permitted to engage in oral argument with the committee. To that 
extent. I will enforce the rule. I will permit you to make a state- 
ment and I hope it is in the same legal, courteous vein as that of your 
associate, Mrs. Langford. 

]Mr. AxGLiN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. My statement will relate 
to what we perhaps might call certain ground rules or inquiry informa- 
tion that you liave placed before us. I have been at these hearings for 

days and I was furnished, through my client, your four-page state- 
ment which does relate to the hearings, in order that we might fully 
understand and proceed at least with both sides understanding how we 
feel. I wanted to at least call your attention to some statements that 
you did make and give to us. 

Although you stressed that the committee's presence here is not to 
be construed as derogatory to this city, we take strong exception to 
tliat in light of all the demonstrations and what we have observed 
as to people being incarcerated. 

The Chaieman". In that connection 

Mr. Anglin. May I finish my statement, INIr. Chairman? I will be 
just a moment more if you will permit me to do so. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Anglin. Also, you state that your presence here in Chicago 
is not to be taken as an aii'ront to this city. There are many of us 
Avlio do take it as an affront to the city and to the State of Illinois, 
and it is our opinion that your presence here will hurt people. 

The Chairman. This is an argument completely unrelated to 
the— 

^Ir. AxGLiN. We feel that statement perhaps is unrelated to the 
legislative function of this commitee. If this statement is not related 
to the legislative function of this commitee, then also, of course, we 
might l3e in the same position. However, Mr. Chairman, we suggest 
that as you have put this out as being proper for this hearing we must 
call your attention to the fact that it is our hope that you will not 
damage our city. It is also our belief, however, that you will not 
help this State, city, or people. 

The Chairman. Well, with reference to the demonstrations, I think 
they are unfortunate and I hope that you will cooperate with the 
Chair and the committee to holding them down to a minimum. 

Mr. AxGLix. I have attempted every cooperation in that direction. 

1 liave even asked the Chair to meet with me regarding the admission 
of persons into this room. That was denied, and there are community 
leaders outside who asked me especially to make that request of the 
director here, and I did so make it and also of the chairman. That 
request of community leaders outside was totally, completely ignored. 

The Chairmax. I am making the ruling. A while ago you asked 
me not to interrupt you in the reading of this statement. 
]Mr. xVxGLiN. I got the impression you wanted me to answer. 
The Chairman. No. 
^Nlr. Anglin. I only offer my full cooperation. 



516 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The Chairman. Thank you. I sincerelj^ appreciate it, and I 
mean it. 

I, too, hope that no damage will result from these hearings, con- 
trary to your feeling that some might. I am hopeful and I believe 
that'mucli good ultimately will result from these hearings. 

Mr. Nittle, proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. What was your maiden name, Mrs. Jennings? 

Mrs. Jennings. What was my maiden name ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mrs. Jenninos. On advice of counsel, I decline to answer the ques- 
tion under the first amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States, because it is an attempt to abridge or interfere with my free- 
dom of speech, my freedom of silence, and my right to peaceably 
assemble with others and to petition the Government for a redress 
of grievances. 

Secondly, I decline to answer the question under the fourth amend- 
ment to the Constitution, which is closely allied to the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution, for the reason that this committee has no 
power to snbpena or to question me on matters of my personnl, lawful 
conduct nor to attempt to make a search through its questions of 
my activities, since to do so is an unlawful interference with my right 
for privacy and such action is prohibited by the fourth amendment 
to the Constitution. 

I further decline to answer the question under the protectioji of 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution, which provides that no per- 
son shall be compelled to be a witness against herself, and to be 
subpenaed here and to be required to answer questions of this com- 
mittee is a direct violation of the express provision that no person 
shall be compelled to be a witness against herself. 

Fourthly, I further decline to answer the question under the sixth 
amendment to the Constitution, because by your process 

The Chairman. Did you say sixth? 

Mr. Jennings. Sixth, one after five. I am denied the risrht to be 
confronted with and to cross-examine witnesses, I am denied compul- 
sory process for obtaining witnesses, and I am denied adequate assist- 
ance of counsel because my counsel is not permitted to cross-examine 
on my behalf or to object to questions or testimony or to make neces- 
sary motions on my behalf. Merely to permit my counsel to sit with 
me, a lay person, uniformed, untrained, and inexperienced in these 
proceedings, and to permit them to do nothing more, is a denial of due 
process and contrary to the sixth amendment of the Constitution. 

Fifthly, I further decline to answer the question because there is 
nothing in the subpena served upon me to indicate wliat subject 
matter, if any, is being investigated, nor for what piupose, nor whether 
any subject matter to be investigated is within the province of the 
committee nor whether the subject matter to be investigated has been 
so desi filiated by the committee as a whole, and for the further reason 
that T\ule XI of this committee is so vague, broad, and uncertain as 
to fail to give the committee any authority under which it may 
operate, and for the further reason that it gives no notice to any 
person of what he is required to answer to or to respond to. 

Sixth, I further decline to answer for the reason that contrary to 
the committee's own Rule XVI the names of persons subpenaed have 
been published and announced in advance of this hearing. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 517 

Seventh, I further decline to answer as a citizen of the United 
States under the 14th amendment as the prohibition of the abridge- 
ment of privileges and immunities by State applies to this committee 
and to the Representatives of our Congress here present that are not 
proportionately representative. 

Finally — I guess this is personal, Mr. Chairman — I decline to an- 
swer due to a very deep, a very personal shame tliat I felt yesterday 
in these hearings. I don't quite know how to say it, but I would like 
as an individual, as a citizen — I don't think anyone has said any- 
thing yet here that I am not a citizen — as a citizen I personally would 
like to apologize to Attorney Thomas Sullivan for the treatment he 
received here yesterday. 

The Chairman. The objection is overniled. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Anglin. Is the Chair overruling the objection as to the fifth 
amendment ? 

The Chairman. Oh, I am sorry. 

Mr. x\nglin. You did overrule it? 

The Chairman. No, I did not. I meant by that, tliat her reasons 
heretofore assigned, without the necessity of their repetition here, all 
objections save and except the one based on the ground of the fifth 
amendment are overruled. 

Counsel ra9.j proceed. I appreciate your effort. 

Mr. Anglin. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. May we take exception 
to that and state, in support of our remark, that we do take exception; 
that we feel the first amendment is of such importance to the well- 
being of this country that it can never as a matter of course be over- 
ruled. We think that in each and every instance where any citizen 
would say that I rely on the very first amendment to our Constitution, 
the well-known Bill of Rights as it is known historically, where any 
citizen would say "I rely on the first amencbnent to our Constitution" 
tliat he would not be summarily overruled, but such a citizen would 
be given every opportunity to avail himself of those privileges. 

The Chairman. I think I have afforded that opportunity. I think 
we understand each other. 

Proceed. 

Wait a minute. I am sorry. The pending question is what is the 
maiden name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Tiie Chairman. Mrs. Jennings, do you have any fear that the reve- 
lation of your maiden name could result in any criminal prosecution 
or any kind of involvement of you ? You see, I am obligated to pass 
on the objection, but the honesty and sincerity of an invocation of 
the constitutional right enters into this. I think we agree that the 
decisions have all been mine at these hearings. 

Do you have any fear that if you answered this question, what was 
your maiden name, that this would subject you to any criminal prose- 
cution or any kind of involvement which justifies invocation privileges 
accorded by the fifth amendment ? Do you have any such fear ? 

Mrs. Jennings. Mr. Chairman, it is pretty obvious 1 am a Negro 
woman, and I think it would be fairly safe to say that I have fear of 
your total committee. I mean I can't help it, I'm shaking. I decline 
to answer based on the things I said before. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Xittle. 



518 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO. ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. XiTiLE. You have, however, been known as Leon Gurley prior 
to your assumption of the name Jennings ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer based on the 
grounds previously cited. 

Mr. Xi'rrLE. That is spelled G-u-r-1-e-y. 

Were you born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, on May 13, 1919 ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer based on the 
grounds previously cited. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now when did you come 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer the question under 
the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States, be- 
cause it is an attempt to abridge or interfere with my freedom of 
speech, my freedom of silence, and my right to peaceably assemble 
with others and to petition the Government for a redress of griev- 
ances. 

I decline to answer the question under the fourth amendment to 
the Constitution, which is closelj' allied to the fifth amendment of 
the Constitution, for the reason that this committee has no power to 
subpena or to question me on matters of my personal, lawful conduct 
nor to attempt to make a search through its questions of my activities, 
since to do so is an unlawful interference w4th my right for privacy 
and such action is prohibited by the fourth amendment to the Con- 
stitution. 

I further decline to answer the question under the protection of 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution, which provides that no 
person shall be compelled to be a witness against herself, and to be 
subpenaed here and to be required to answer questions of this com- 
mittee is a direct violation of the express provision that no person 
sliall be compelled to be a witness against herself. 

I further decline to answer the question under the sixth amendment 
to the Constitution, because by your process I am denied the right 
to be confronted with and to cross-examine witnesses, I am denied 
compulsory process for obtaining witnesses, and I am denied adequate 
assistance of counsel because my counsel is not permitted to cross- 
examine on my behalf or to object to questions or testimony or to 
make necessary motions on my behalf. Merely to permit my counsel 
to sit with me, a lay person, uninformed, untrained, and inexperienced 
in these proceedings, and to permit them to do nothing more, is a denial 
of due process and contrary to the sixth amendment of the Constitu- 
tion. 

I further decline to answer the question because there is nothing in 
the subpena served upon me to indicate what subject matter, if any, 
is being investigated, nor for what purpose, nor whether any sub- 
ject matter to be investigated is within the province of the committee 
nor wdiether the subject matter to be investigated has been so desig- 
nated by the committee as a whole, and for the further reason that 
Rule XI of this committee is so vague, broad, and uncertain as to 
fail to give the committee any authority under which it may operate, 
and for the further reason that it gives no notice to any person of 
what he is required to answer to or to respond to. 

I further decline to answer for the reason that contrary to the 
committee's own Rule XVI the names of persons subpenaed have been 
published and announced in advance of this hearing. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 519 

I further decline to answer as a citizen of the United States under 
the 1-lth amendment as the prohibition of the abridgement of privileges 
and immunities by State applies to this committee and to the Repre- 
sentatives of our Congress here present that are not proportionately 
representative. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr, Xittle. 

Mr. XiTTLE. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mrs. Jexnings. I decline to answer this question under the first 
amendment — I decline to answer the question for the reasons previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. You have been here at least since 1946 ; have you not ? 

Mrs. Jexnixgs. I decline to answer the question for the reasons pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee what the extent of your 
formal education is ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer the question under the first 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States and all the other 
reasons previously cited. 

Mr. ;N'ittle. Are you presently employed as a legal secretary ? 

Mrs. Jennings. 1 am sorry, sir, I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Xittle. Are you presently employed as a legal secretary ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Has the witness responded to the question ? 

Mr. Anglin. The witness is in consultation with her attorney so that 
she might not feel she is in a kangaroo court. 

We are prepared. 

Mrs. Jennings. What was the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently employed as a secretary, a legal sec- 
retar}^ so-called ? 

Mrs. Jennings. That means I am illegal ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No ; but one that is trained in secretarial duties of the 
law business. 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer based on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Xittle. Were you formerly employed during the period 1955 
to 1956, sometime during that period, as the office manager of Local 
453, United Auto Workers, at 179 West Washington Street, Chicago? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer this question under 
the first amendment. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Prior to that time were you employed at the Apex 
Smelting Company as secretary to the personnel officer? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer this question under the first 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mrs. Jemimgs, are j'ou now a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer this question under 
all of the things I said previously. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
under all of the previous statements. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you in attendance here durmg the testimony of 
Miss Lola Belle Holmes? 

52-810—66 — pt. 1 15 



520 COM]MTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer under the first 
amendment of the Constitution. 

The Chairman. AVliat was that? 

Mrs. Jennings. And all the rest. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennings, Miss Holmes testified that she knew 
you, during the course of her membership in the Communist Party, 
to be a member of the Communist Party and that subsequently — it is 
the understanding of this committee in 1961 — you quit the party, not 
for ideological reasons but because of a dispute with one of its 
officials over a party matter. 

Mr. Anglin. Will the Chair permit an objection since we have 
had no opportunity of cross-examination here, and for us to even 
assume that Mrs. Holmes stated that, where we have had no oppor- 
tunity of examination, is something that we feel prejudicial to this 
witness. We object to the question and ask that the Chair, in con- 
sideration of the long experience of our system of law in free coun- 
tries, that this witness not be required to answer that question. 

The Chairman. The objection is overruled. 

May the Chair say that 

Mrs. Langford. Pardon me. That is Miss Holmes; she does not 
like to be called Mrs. 

Miss Holmes. Definitely Miss, if you please. 

The Chairman. As I indicated before, this committee is one of 
20 permanent, standing committees of the House. We hold hear- 
ings in Washington during each session, lasting almost a whole 
year. Hearings are conducted all the time. No right to cross- 
examination exists in that capacity and does not exist in connection 
with these hearings for the reason, among others, that this commit- 
tee's hearings are not court proceedings ; no one is being put in a posi- 
tion to be punished by this committee — that remains, as always, with 
the judicial department of the Government. 

Moreover, if you read the Constitution, unrelated to the subject 
of these hearings — if the right of cross-examination existed in con- 
nection with legislative work, then, being a legislator myself, I say 
it would be a ruse for lawyers and those who believe filibuster to 
be wrong. I always say filibuster in connection with congressional 
proceedings would be peanuts to what would result from cross- 
examining every person that appears before a congressional com- 
mittee. 

I am sorry there is some misunderstanding about that. And 
I am sorry that people fall for, or are influenced by, these assertions 
that the precious right of cross-examination is disregarded. The 
trouble about it is that the right is asserted, but, throughout the 
public record, you cannot point to a court decision sustaining that 
position. 

So the objection is overruled. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Did you quit the party in 1941? Did you quit the 
party in 1961 ? 

IVfrs. Jennings. I beg your pardon. Do you want me to answer 
both questions ? 

Mr. Nittle. I think you understand what the question is. 

Mr. Anglin. He is arguing with the witness. 

The Chairman. I don't want any argument again. I understand 
your first question was a mistake. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 521 

Now will you restate it anew ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you quit the party in 1961 ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it true, Mrs. Jennings, that you were a member of 
the Negro Commission of the Communist Party of Illinois, as Miss 
Holmes testified? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you first j oin the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennings, I have before me a copy of the proceed- 
ings of the Second National Convention 

Mr. Anglin. Excuse me. Miss Holmes and Mi^. Jennings. Now 
this witness is Mrs., if the attorney please. 

Mr. Nitt'le. I thought I had said Mrs. 

Mr. Anglin. You made a mistake. You referred to her as Miss. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Jennings, I was stating I have before me a copy of 
the proceedings of the Second National Convention of American Youth 
for Democracy, which was held in New York City Jmie 13 to 16, 1946. 
I have marked this copy for identification as "Jennings Exhibit No. 1." 

I hand a copy of it to you, and you will note that Leon Gurley, 
G-u-r-1-e-y, is listed thereon as a member of the national council from 
the State of Illinois. 

Mrs. Langford. I object. This document speaks for itself. The 
document speaks for itself. 

The Chairman. The description of the document is leading to a 
({uestion, which is perfectly proper. 

]\Irs. Langford. The document speaks for itself. 

Mr. Nittle. Does the name Leon Guilc}^ appear therein ? 

Mrs. Jennings. Mr. Counsel, are you ready ? 

The Chairman. The w^itness will answer the question. 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 1 in evidence. 

The Chairman. It is so accepted. 

(Document marked "Jennings Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mrs. Jennings, were you elected and did you 
serve as the vice chairman of the Illinois State organization of Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer the question under 
the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States because 
it is an attempt to abridge or interfere witli my freedom of speech, my 
freedom of silence, and my right to peaceably assemble with othei^ 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Mr. Pool (presiding in absence of Mr. Willis) . I direct the witness 
to answer the question. 

Mrs. Jennings. Sir? 

JNIr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



522 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Pool. Including the fifth amendment ? 

Mrs. Jennixgs. Inchidmg the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennmgs, the American Youth for Democracy, 
among others, was cited as a Communist organization by Attorney 
General Tom Clark in a letter to the Loyalty Review Board in Decem- 
ber 1947. Was it not known to you that the American Youth for De- 
mocracy^ was the youth group of the Communist Party which succeeded 
the Young Communist League in October 1943 ? 

Mrs. Langford. For the record, as a law3'er and as an officer of the 
court, I object to the counsel testifying as to something that has not 
been even put of record by another witness in this room. 

Mr. Pool. Objection overruled. 

The witness will answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennings, let me rephrase the question. 

At the time you were serving as vice chairman of the Illinois State 
organization of American Youth for Democracy, were you then aware 
that that organization was established by the Communist Party as a 
successor to the Young Communist League ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer the question under the first 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States and all the other 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Again directing your attention to Exhibit 1, the pub- 
lished proceedings of the Second National Convention of the American 
Youth for Democracy, the convention document which I have handed 
you notes that the American Youth for Democracy pledges support to 
the World Federation of Democratic Youth in common purpose and 
action around the leadership. Did you join in that pledge ? 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman, we would ask at this time to be fur- 
nished with the other 35 pages of Jennings Exhibit No. 1 if there are 
such pages. This has been referred to as proceedings of the Second 
National Convention. We were handed something which is a cover 
page and a page 36. May we have, in the sense of justice, the other 34 
pages for examination ? 

Mr. Pool. The request is denied. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennmgs. were you in attendance at the Second 
National Convention ? 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman, we do not have a question before us. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do now. 

Mr. Anglin. We have been informed that we were furnished with 
proceedings of the Second National Convention and, in fact, we have 
not been handed such proceedings. Under those circumstances 

Mr. Pool. What is your question. Counsel? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Mrs. Jennings in attendance at the Second Na- 
tional Convention of American Youth for Democracy in June 1946? 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Answer the question. 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer the question under the first 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, because it is an 
attempt to abridge or interfere with my freedom of speech, my free- 
dom of silence, and my right to peaceably assemble with others and 
to petition the Government for a redress of grievances as well as the 
other grounds previously cited. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 523 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Hand me the document. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified that, in addition to your member- 
ship on the Negro Commission of the Communist Party of the State 
of Illinois, you also served as a member of the national Negro Com- 
mission of the Communist Party. Is this true? 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Next question, Counsel. 

Counsel, come up here and confer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Holmes testified that Claude Lightfoot, at a meet- 
ing of the Communist Party, appointed a caucus group for the pur- 
pose of gaining control of the NAACP through an opposition slate. 
Did Claude Lightfoot appoint you to a Communist Party caucus with 
orders to work in the Chicago chapter of the NAACP ? 

ISIrs. Jennings. I am sorry. Who did what ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Claude Lightfoot appoint you as a member of a 
Communist Party caucus with orders to work within the Chicago 
chapter of the NAACP? 

Mrs. Jennings. The National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is right. 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of 
the first amendment and all the others cited. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you still a member of the NAACP ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer that question under the first 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States and all other 
grounds. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. JNIiss Holmes testified that you also attended a district 
meeting of the Communist Party at a private home on the south side, 
at which the Communist Party caucus of the NALC was discussed. 
Did you attend this meeting ? 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman, may we ask that counsel will at least 
designate the south side of what? Now although we have been in- 
formed this is not a court, this is not a court but we would ask that 
some of the rules of general procedure be followed. 

Mr. Pool. What city are you talking about? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend such a meeting of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer the question under the first 
amendment of the Constitution and all the other reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you assigned to the Communist Party caucus for 
infiltrating and attempting to gain control of the NALC ? 

Mrs. Langford. I object to this line of questions; it presupposes a 
fact that is not definitely proven. 



524 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Pool. Overruled. 

Answer the question. 

Mrs. Jennings. I decline to answer the question under the first 
amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer the question under 
the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States, because 
it is an attempt to abridge or interfere with my freedom of speech, my 
freedom of silence, and my right to peaceably assemble with others 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances, and all 
other grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Including the fifth amendment ? 

Mrs. Jennings. Including the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Next question. 

Mrs. Langford. May I, at this point, take exception to any question 
that shall l^e propounded to this witness hereafter. It is apparent that 
she does not intend to answer any questions. The only purpose for 
asking them is to prove her guilty by implication and insinuation in 
testimony of this counsel and to harass and defame her. 

Mr. Pool. We note your objection to all questions. You wish the 
record to note your objection ? 

Mr. Anglin. No; we wish this committee would consider that, in 
fact, the character of people in many instances is so ruined that they 
are unable to have employment. We ask this committee not merely 
to note our objection, we ask this committee to give us relief. We do 
not have funds to go to the Supreme Court of the United States and 
we ask for relief here that she not be directed and subjected to this 
kind of examination. 

Mr. Pool. The record will show your objections. 

Mrs. Langford. Is this the ruling of the entire committee or the 
ruling of Mr. Pool ? 

This objection is so serious that I would like the entire committee 
to pass on whether or not she should be subjected to this harassment 
and defamation and assassination of character. 

Mr. Pool. The Chair has ruled and the record will show. 

Mrs. Langford. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennings, the committee is in possession of infor- 
mation, which it believes to be completely reliable, that in the years 
1956 and 1957 you attended meetmgs of the Communist Party at the 
residence of Dr. Jeremiah Stamler. Is this true ? 

Mrs. Langford. I object to this type of questioning because we have 
had no opportunity to determine what the source of this committee's 
information is. We have no opportunity to cross-examine or confront 
anybody who supposedly gave this committee this information. 

The Chairman. Objection overruled. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, counsel has included in his question 
a self-serving statement, I assume on behalf of the committee. As I 
recall the language was "which we consider to be reliable." I object 
to that statement. If evidence has been received in executive session 
which warranted counsel making that unverified statement, I request 
a hearing in the executive session and the rijrht to cross-examine with 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 525 

respect to any witnesses "who might have so uttered, or any document- 
ary proof from which he drew his miverified and unsupported ref- 
erence 

The Chairman. The objection is overruled. 

Mr. Jenner. The objection is overruled then. 

Mr. Chairman, this being a new witness I suffer your indulgence to 
inquire that our understanding with respect to my objections and your 
ruling on those objections relates to this witness as well. 

The Chairman. Ye^s, 

Mr. Jenner. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennings, is it a fact that Rose Stamler, wife of 
Dr. Stamler, acted as chairman of some of the Communist Party meet- 
ings held in the home of Dr. Stamler ? Did she not ? 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, inasmuch as to my information, I may 
be wrong, and correct me if I am, sir, this is the first time the name 
Rose Stamler has been mentioned in this record. I presume Rose 
Stamler is Dr. Stamler's wife. On behalf of him and his wife, I renew 
all the objections with the understanding that you and I have had and 
also call into play the rule which you graciously read this morning 
with regard to the privilege of husband and wife. 

The Chairman. Your objection is noted, and the Chair replies as 
indicated. 

Mr. Jenner, It is overruled ? 

The Chairman. It is overruled. 

Now let me say that this witness is being asked a simple question 
within her knowledge. 

Mrs. Langford. That is not determined. He does not know what is 
within her knowledge. He is presupposing it is within her knowledge. 

The Chairman. Would the reporter please read the question. Per- 
haps I misunderstood, though I don't think I did. 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows:) 

Mrs. Jennings, is it a fact that Rose Stamler, wife of Dr. Stamler. acted 
as chairman of some of the Communist Party meetings held in the home of Dr. 
Stamler? Did she not? 

The Chairman. Is that fact within your personal knowledge? 

Mr. Anglin. Well, the counsel's objection was that one Rose Stam- 
ler 

The Chairman. Counsel made his objection. 

Mr. Anglin. My cocounsel suggested here that the counsel for the 
House Un-American Activities Committee has stated as a fact that 
one Rose Stamler is the wife of Dr. Stamler. 

The Chairman. He did not. He said, "Is it a fact?" 

Mr. Anglin. No, he said. "It is a fact." 

The Chairman. To avoid all this haggling, Counsel, will you start 
at the begiiming of your question, which is tweedledum and tweedle- 
dee, to say. Do you know it to be a fact, from your personal knowledge, 
that so-and-so. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Jennings, do you know it to be a fact from your 
personal knowledge that Rose Stamler, known to you as the wife of 
Dr. Stamler, acted as chairman at some of the Communist Party meet- 
ings which vou attended in her home ? 

Mr. Anglin. Mr. Chairman, therein lies our objection. 

The Chairman. Well, j'our objection has been overruled. 



526 COMMUKIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The witness will answer the question. 

]Mrs. Jennixgs. I respectfully decline to answer the question under 
the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States, because 
it is an attempt to abridge or interfere with my freedom of speech, 
my freedom of silence, and my right to peaceably assemble with others 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

I further decline to answer the question under the fourth amend- 
ment to the Constitution, which is closely allied to the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution, for the reason that this committee has no 
power to subpena or to question me on matters of my personal, lawful 
conduct nor to attempt to make a search through its questions of my 
activities, since to do so is an unlawful interference with my right for 
privacy and such action is prohibited by the fourth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

I further decline to answer the question under the protection of the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution, which provides that no person 
shall be compelled to be a witness against herself, and to be subpenaed 
here and to be required to answer questions of this committee is a 
direct violation of the express provision that no person shall be com- 
pelled to be a witness against herself. 

I further decline to answer the question under the sixth amendment 
to the Constitution, because by your process I am denied the right to 
be confronted with and to cross-examine witnesses, I am denied com- 
pulsory process for obtaining witnesses, and I am denied adequate 
assistance of counsel because my counsel is not permitted to cross- 
examine on my behalf or to object to questions or testimony or to make 
necessai-y motions on my behalf. Merely to permit my counsel to sit 
with me, a lay person, uninformed, untrained, and inexperienced in 
these proceedings, and to permit them to do nothing more, is a denial 
of due process and contrary to the sixth amendment of the Con- 
stitution. 

I further decline to answer the question because there is nothing in 
the subpena served upon me to indicate what subject matter, if any, 
is being investigated, nor for what purpose, nor whether any subject 
matter to be investigated is within the province of the committee nor 
whether the subject matter to be investigated has been so designated 
by the committee as a whole, and for the further reason that Rule XI 
of this committee is so vague, broad, and uncertain as to fail to give 
the committee any authority under which it may operate, and for the 
further reason that it gives no notice to any person of what he is re- 
quired to answer to or to respond to. 

I further decline to answer for the reason that contrary' to the com- 
mittee's own Rule XVI the names of persons subpenaed have been 
published and amiounced in advance of this hearing. 

I further decline to answer as a citizen of the United States under 
the 14th amendment as the prohibition of the abridgement of privileges 
and immunities by State applies to this committee and to the Repre- 
sentatives of our Congress here present that are not proportionately 
representative. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, niaj^ I just have a moment to discuss a 
matter witli our director? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

The committee will declare a recess for 5 minutes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 527 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Coimsel may proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jennings, is it not a fact tliat you have held the 
position of section organizer of the South Side, of the South Side 
Section of the Communist Party for a period in 1961, immediately 
prior to the break which was initially referred to in your testimony ? 

Mr. Anglin. Shall we assume that to be in Chicago ? 

Mr. IS iTTLE. In Chicago ; yes. 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer the question under 
the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States, because 
it is an attempt to abridge or interfere with my freedom of speech, my 
freedom of silence, and my right to peaceably assemble with others 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have one final question. 

Did the Chair rule upon that objection ? 

The Chairman. The objection is sustained. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Jennings, I would like to ask you one more 
question. 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute, Mr. Chairman. I do not think she took 
the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Langford. We will also invoke the fifth amendment. 

Do you so invoke the fifth amendment ? 

Mrs. Jennings. Yes. 

The Chairman. Well, the fifth amendment having been invoked, 
the objection is sustained, your right as a witness not to be compelled 
to testify against yourself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Jennings, in the light of our infonnation 
that you liad had an initial break with the Communist Party in 1961 
because of a dispute with another party member, we should like to in- 
quire whether you have, in fact-, had further contact with the Commu- 
nist Party or cooperated with it in any way since that time? 

Mrs. Langford. May I object to the form of the question, it pre- 
supposes she was a Communist Party member. That is one of the is- 
sues in this hearing, I believe. 

IMr. NiTTLE. If there is any factual content in that question which 
the witness finds to be untrue, she now has the opportunity under oath 
to state the fact. 

Mrs. Langfofj). Do I understand you are not going to change the 
form of your question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No. Mr. Chairman, I would like the question to 
stand, if the Chair pleases. 

The Chairman. The question stands; it involves matters within the 
person's knowledge. She is advised by two counsel to confirm or deny 
all or any part of the question. 

Mrs. Jennings. I respectfully decline to answer on advice of coun- 
sel based on all grounds previously cited. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. I have no further questions of this witness. 

The Chairman. Has she denied the question ? 

Have you invoked all the grounds previously heard ? 

Mi-s. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. ]Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 



528 coMJvrrosisT activities in the Chicago, Illinois, area 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mrs. Langford. Thank you. Thank you for your courtesy, ]Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. JNIr. Nittle, call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Laura Rae Blough j)lease come forward? 

Would Laura Rae Blough please come forward ? 

Would Laura Rae Blough please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you soleimily swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? " ' i J' 

Mrs. Blough. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LAURA RAE BLOUGH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MARSHALL PATNER 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mrs. Blough 
Street in San Francisco. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

^Irs. Blough. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Patnt;r. Yes. My name is Marshall Patner. My address is 
135 South LaSalle Street in Chicago, Illinois. 

At this time if I may. Counsel and Mr. Chairman, on behalf of 
this witness I respectfully request that the subcommittee resume 
executive session. As you will recall, this witness appeared before 
the subcommitee on the 20th of this month in executive session, and I 
am asking at this time that that executive session be resumed. 

The Chairman. Will counsel come forward? 

Mr. Patner. Yes. 

The Chairman. Counsel has not stated, nor did he state to me in 
this brief conversation we just had, the reasons for suggesting an 
executive session. 

Mr. Patner. Well, I would be glad to go on. The reasons are 
simple. The first one is that this subcommittee granted to this wit- 
ness, upon her response to your invitation, an executive-session hear- 
ing. Now that hearing has not been stopped ; all you did was continue 
the subpena to this date. If you ask this witness to appear now in 
a public hearing, I think that by necessity it will require public dis- 
closure of what went on at the hearing that was in executive session, 
and that is contrary to your rules. 

Also, if you deny continuation of a private hearing that has al- 
ready begun, I think that the committee will, of necessity, repeat what 
has gone on, in violation of another rule which i-equires the committee 
to determine whether or not there will be any defamation or harass- 
ment of the witness. 

Now as far as I can see from the proceeding, the executive hearing 
for this witness has never terminated, and I ask you under your rules 
to resume that hearing. 

The Chairman. We will take a recess for a very few minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 529 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The Chair states that the former appearance of the present wit- 
ness, Mrs. Blough, before the subcommittee was pursuant to a subpena 
and not to an invitation. 

Mr. Patker. Sir, I stated it was in response to a subpena. 

The Chairman. I am sorry. I and others miderstood you to say 
otherwise. I am just sajdng that we agree. 

Mr. Patner. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now the subcommittee again just met and ruled 
as usual that the witness will be heard in x^ublic session. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Patner. Well, at this time I object and would like a standing 
objection to any question that was asked at the prior executive session, 
because to disclose any testimony at that executive session would be 
in violation of the rulings of this connnittee. 

The Chairman. The objection is baseless; it is overruled. 

Mr. Patner. I would like to read into the record the rule. 

The Chairman. You might be better off if you invoke all the rules 
in one. 

Mr. Patner. No; I would like to invoke the appropriate rule, if 
I may, to show that it is not baseless. 

I refer to your Rule IV (3) at page 2 of the booklet that I was 
supplied with, Rules of Procedure before this committee. 

The Chairman. That rule has no application here. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence, please ? 

Mr. Patner. It has been asked and answered. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have answered that. 

Mrs. Blough, was your maiden name Laura Rae Atkinson? 

Mr. Patner. I object. That question has been asked in executive 
session and answered at that time and at that place. 

The Chairman. The objection is overruled. So that the rights of 
your client will not be prejudiced, I am willing to stipulate that the 
same objection, same ruling be made in connection with all questions 
which you now perceive were previously asked but that you yourself 
might slip up since you do not have that transcript. So is it agreed 
that your rights are preserved; your objection applies to any questions 
previously asked ? 

Mr. Patner. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. Are you capable of remembering all questions 
asked in Washington ? 

Mr. Patner. As to the questions that were asked and we remember, 
the objection is that the question has been asked and it has been 
answered, and under your rule you are not permitted to make that pub- 
lic. That is one objection. 

The second 

The Chairman. That is why I say the rule is inapplicable. That 
testimony has not been made public. 

Mr. Patner. Wliat you are doing is attempting to force us to make 
it public, if I may suggest. 

The Chairman. Let me tell you that the committee could right now 
order it made public. 



530 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Patner. If it did so, it would be in violation of its rules. 
The Chairman-. Of course not. 

Xo testimony taken or material presented in an Executive Session, or any sum- 
mary thereof, shall be made public either in whole or in part, unless authorized 
by a majority of the Committee or Subcommittee. 

Mr. Patner. You have to have some basis for that, I suggest. 

The Chairman. Well, if you want to object to every question, it is 
all right with me. Your objection to this question is overruled. 

Mr. Patner. The objection is that you have not got any power to 
make this witness 

The Chairman. If I am wrong- 



Mr. Patner. If I could just finish what I am suggesting? 

All right? 

The CHAiRiiAN. All right. 

Mr. Patner. My objection is that the committee has no power to 
ask the same witness the same questions and elicit the same answers. 
The committee can do anything else that is within your power, but 
you have asked her that question and she has answered that question 
before jon same people, and that is the objection in addition to the 
one I mentioned under Rule IV (3). 

The Chairman. The objection is overruled. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mrs. Plough, did you come to Chicago in 1949 
known as Laura Rae Atkinson ? 

Mr. Patner. I will accept the standing-objection ruling that you 
have made. 

The Chairman. Yes. I think it is to your favor. When jou read 
the transcript be sure that you are protected. I am not trying to 
trick you. 

It is understood then as to any questions now asked which have 
been previously asked in executive session the objection of counsel will 
apply, and my same ruling will apply, without the necessity of reurg- 
ing the exceptions and repeating the rules. 

Mr. Patner. Thank you. 

Mr. Nittle. Now the outstanding question is. Did you come to Chi- 
cago in 1949 known as Laura Rae Atkinson ? 

Mrs. Plough. I object to this proceeding as the subcommittee is 
without valid legislative authority or purpose. I respectfully decline 
to answer under the protection of the first and fifth amendments and 
I invoke the guarantee of the fifth amendment to the due process of 
my privilege. I also object to the pertinency of the questions as they 
have to do with the subject matter under inquiry. I believe this should 
sound familiar to you. 

The Chairman. Except for the invocation of the fifth amendment 
the objection is overruled, but on the basis of the invocation of the 
fifth amendment, your right to refuse to answer is upheld. 

Now I suggest to counsel that he have that undei-standing. 

Mr. Patner. We have no difficulty. She will cooperate as to that, 
expedite the hearing. 

The Chairman. I am not begging for it. 

Mr. Patner. I agree. It is a helpful suggestion. 

Mr. Nittle. Subsequent to your arrival in Chicago in 1949 were you 
later also known as Laura Rae Lerman, as a result of a marriage? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 531 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer your question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. And the same ruling applies. If counsel does not 
mind, without the necessity of my repeating it, I will make the same 
ruling except in the cases where I determine another type of ruling 
ought to be made. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you born in Ohio on April 12, 1931 ? 

Mrs. Blough. I make the same decimation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Blough. The declination is the same. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Did you attend Mission High School at San Francisco 
in 1947 to 1949 ? 

Mrs. Blough. I make the same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend State University at Kent, Ohio, in 
1953? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer, same. 

The Chairman. Same grounds ? 

]Mrs. Blough. Same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend Los Angeles Valley College in 1961 or 
1962? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend San Francisco State College from 1963, 
including and up to the present time? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation? Student? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Blough, it is the committee's information that you 
came to Chicago from San Francisco and resided in the city of Chicago 
for a period during the years 1949 and 1950. Is this correct ? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is also the committee's information that while in 
Chicago you took up your residence for a period with your aunt, 
Florence Criley, and her husband, Richard Criley. Is this true ? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time reside with Richard Criley at 4107 
West Arlington Street, Chicago? 

]Mrs. Blough. The same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While in Chicago were you employed variously at 
Decca Records, Continental Can, and the Sunbeam Corporation? 

Mrs. Blough. The same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Blough, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Blough. The same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to taking up your residence in Chicago in 1949, 
were you a member of a Coimnunist cell or group in San Francisco? 

Mrs. Blough. The same declination. 

The Chairman. Counsel, I want to direct a question to the wit- 
ness. 

Mr. Patner. Please do. 



532 COMMUlSriST activities IX the CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The Chairmax. It is the committee's information and my personal 
information that yon, at one time at least, agreed to talk to one of our 
investigator ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Blot7GH. No ; I was very polite with the gentleman who repre- 
sented you, but I in no way offered that I would give him any infor- 
mation. 

The Chairman. I was very careful to be factually correct. My ques- 
tion is, Is it not a fact that you at one time agreed to talk at a con- 
ference with one of our investigators? I am not saying that you 
agreed as to what you would say, Airs. Blough. 

Mrs. Blottgh. Who is the person of whom you speak ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Wheeler. 

Mrs. Blough. I was very polite with Mr. Wheeler, 

The Chairman. Pardon? 

Mrs. Blough. I said I was very cordial to the gentleman. 

The Chairman. That is what I am saying. Is it not true at one 
time you agreed that you would meet him and talk to him about 
matters within your knowledge? You agreed that you would meet 
with him to talk about matters. 

Mrs. Blough. I agreed I would meet with him to discuss matters 
relating to a plane ticket and financing my way to Washington. 

The Chairman. Agreed to discuss what ? 

INIrs. Blough. Matters concerned with financing my trip to Wash- 
ington, as to a plane ticket, and how I was supposed to get tJiere, 
since it came to me as a complete surprise. 

The Chairman. Well, that came later. Before that, did you not 
agree that you would voluntarily talk ? 

Mrs. Blough. I am afraid that is the extent of any conversation 
that I had with agreeing to see him at all. 

The Chairman. All right. Then my next question is: Upon a 
subsequent occasion, did you not tell Mr. Wheeler that you had dis- 
cussed the matter with a professor and had been advised not to talk 
to our investigator on this committee? 

Mrs. Blough. Well, I frankly don't understand. I spoke with a 
number of people about this and I don't see that it has any relevancy. 
After all, I don't live in 

The Chairman. I am not forcing you to answer any question, and 
you do not have to answer it. And I do not want to encourage, but 
I would certainly not discourage, an answer or deprive you of an 
answer or an indication of any rights. 

Frankly, did you not subsequently, upon another contact by Mr. 
Wheeler, tell Mr. Wheeler that you had discussed the proposal or dis- 
cussion with a professor and that you had been advised not to talk to 
this committee? 

Mrs. Blough. I don't know how to answer you. I have already 
answered you. I am a student and, of course, I spoke with a number 
of people about this, but I didn't tell Mr. Wheeler anything. My 
conversations with him were rather terse, but polite, and about the 
transportation and how I was to go to AVashington. 

The Chairman. Well, my understanding of the matter is exactly 
as I have related. 

My next question is this: Some years ago Congress passed, as part 
of its making of legislation, a law which grants immunity to people 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 533 

who talk, but who fear that to discuss matters would subject them to 
criminal prosecution or other proceedings. Under tliat law, this 
committee could on stated subjects apply to, and no doubt, I would 
say, probably obtain from, a Federal judge an order granting you 
immunity, which would mean that if you were to talk and discuss 
and disclose matters within your knowledge there would be no pos- 
sible comeback at you or criminal prosecution or involvement of any 
kind. 

Now it is our information, Mrs. Blough, that you possess informa- 
tion which would be of value to this committee and, we believe, to 
your Government. I now ask you if we should undertake such a 
proceeding and you would be granted immunity, Avould you freely, 
either in executive or public session, at your choice, agree to answer 
questions and give us information which we are satisfied you possess? 

Mr. Patner. If I may, l)riefly, I object to the characterization. 

The Chairman. It is an opportunity. 

Mr. Patner. This is very short because the information suggested 
is based solely on hearsay. That is an objection for the record on 
behalf of the witness. 

The Chairman. I did not hear jow. 

Mr. Patner. I say I am objecting to tlie information that you say 
that the committee has because it is based solely on hearsay, and I 
am making that objection for the record. 

The Chairman. I am trying to be fair with you, sir. 

Mr. Patner. I respect that, and I am doing what I believe is correct 
for my client. 

The Chair]man. All right. 

Mrs. Blough. I thank you you very much, but I choose to stand 
on my answers. 

The Chairman. All right. I wanted to tiy you out. 

Mr. Patner. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

]Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Blough, a Mrs. Dorothy M. Jeffers, who served 
as an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 
about 1942 until 1952, testified before this committee that she was a 
member of a professional club of the Communist Party in San Fran- 
cisco during that period. In fact she was a member of the executive 
committee of the Professional Section of the Communist Party for 
several years until she left the party. She testified that the Profes- 
sional Section of the Communist Party there was composed of clubs 
or cells whose members were composed exclusively of doctors, lawyers, 
teachers, architects, artists, clerical workers, a newspaperman, and 
a scientist who would not meet with the group, but whose dues were 
paid for him by another, and that there was added to the section a 
number of miscellaneous workers or persons. 

Mrs. Jeifers named Laura Atkinson as a member of her professional 
group of the Communist Party. You are the Laura Atkinson whom 
she identified as a member of the professional group in the Com- 
munist Party in San Francisco; are you not? 

Mrs. Blough. I make the same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Now while living in Chicago in 1949 and 1950, were 
you also a member of the Communist Party club or group composed 
here principally of members of Local 1150 of the United Electrical 
Workers? 



534 COMMXJNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mrs. Blough. The decimation is the same. I make the same decli- 
nation. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. In September 1952, Lee Lundgren, a resident of Chi- 
cago and field representative of the United Electrical Workers as well 
as secretary-treasurer of Local 1150, testified before this coimnittee 
that he was a member of the Connnunist Party from 1945 to January 
1950, while employed on the staff of the United Electrical Workers 
Union. He testified that he resigned from tlie Communist Party when 
he left that union in 1950. He testified that he was a member of the 
Parsons Club of the Communist Party, to which the office staff of the 
UE were assigned and that there was a Communist Party club to 
which other members of Local 1150 were assigned. 

He testified that meetings were held at the homes of its members, 
including that of Florence Criley, a member of the international staff' 
of the UE, at 4107 Arlington Street, and Willie Mae Smith, who was 
recording secretary of Local 1150, at 333 East 60th Street. 

Did you know Lee Lundgren? 

Mrs. Blougii. Basically, you are going over the same material which 
was disclosed in the executive session. The information is based on 
hearsay, and I must make the same declination as before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is this information and this testimony of Lee Lund- 
gren correct ? Do you have any corrections to make to it ? 

Mrs. Blough. I make the same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In executive session before this connnittee in Septem- 
ber 1951, Mr. Lundgren testified that he distinctly recalled a meeting 
of Communist Party members of Local 1150, UE, who met at the 
home of Willie Mae Smith on December 16, 1949, here in Chicago. 
He testified that Laura Atkinson, employed at Sunbeam, was in at- 
tendance at this meeting. 

Were you in attendance at that meeting of the Communist Party 
held in the home of Willie Mae Smith on December 16, 1949, at 333 
East 60th Street in Chicago? 

Mrs. Blough. I make the same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would it refresh your recollection if I were to state 
that Mr. Limdgren testified that the main purpose of this meeting 
of December 16, 1949, was to set up a slate of officers to be nominated 
at a meeting of Local 1150 which was to take place on December 18, 
1949 ? 

Mrs. Blough. Same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period of your residence in Chicago and 
while a member of the Communist Party, did you have occasion to 
meet Dr. Jeremiah Stamler? 

Mrs. Blough. Same declination. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, this being a new witness, the same 
understanding between us exists? 

The Chairman. Certainly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Blough, it is the committee's information that in 
the latter part of 1950, about September or October, you met Dr. 
Stamler in Chicago. Did you? 

Mrs. Blough. The declination is the same. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is informed that, at the time you were 
contacted by Dr. Stamler, you were advised by him that you were one 
of several persons chosen to give up dieir identity and to move to new 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 535 

areas to carry on in case Communist Party leaders were put aAvay. 
Did he tell you that? 

Mrs. Blough. I make the same declination. 

Mr. Jenner. I move to strike the declaration of counsel, which is 
not verified. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If it is not true, the witness has the right to say it is 
not true. 

Mr. Jenner. Fortunately, under the law of this land, counsel is 
not permitted to testify. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are proceeding in accordance with the com- 
mittee 

The Chairman. Counsel is not — he is asking a question based on the 
knowledge of this witness and based on knowledge or information. 

Incidentally, since so much has been made of it, about the questions 
asked or not asked in the executive session, since the witness at least 
discussed with Mr. Wheeler — in Washington, I can at least say that 
we hoped that it was understood that she would voluntarily tell us 
what she — well, I better say I had hoped. I vvill scratch out the other 
word — hoped, based on substantial information, that she would give 
us all the information possessed by her, including counsel's questions. 

The objection is overruled. Proceed. 

Mr. Jenner. If Your Honor pleases, this procedure denies counsel 
for Dr. Stamler an opportunity to cross-examine the alleged witness, 
being counsel to this committee, in executive session. It exposes Dr. 
Stamler to imwarranted harassment and deprivation of his constitu- 
tional rights. I request again that an executive session be held so 
that I may be enabled to cross-examine committee counsel on the un- 
verified assertions that he is making. It is ob^dous this serves no 
legislative purpose. 

The Chairman. The committee will develop the record in the order 
we have decided to do so. 

The objection is overruled. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was your response ? 

Mrs. Blough. I am soriy about this misunderstanding and I am 
also sorry 

The Chairman. Listen, I am not chastising you, believe me. All 
these questions were intended to give you an opportunity to testify in 
executive session. 

For the record, I will say that the subcommittee not only agrees but 
confirms our ruling just made. Let the record show that the action 
was accepted by the subcommittee. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you instructed by Dr. Jeremiah Stamler to leave 
Chicago and to go to Toledo, Ohio? 

Mrs. Blough. Same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any arrangements with Dr. Stamler that 
you would go to Toledo, Ohio, and thereafter to Philadelphia ? 

Mrs. Blough. Same declination. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Blough, it is the committee's information that you 
did go to Toledo, Ohio, and remained there until the middle of 1951 
and that you then went to Philadelphia until 1952. Is this correct ? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer on the grounds I previously 
stated. 

52-810—66— pt. 1 16 



536 coMMr:s'isT activities in the Chicago, Illinois, area 

The Chairman. Of course, it is perfectly obAdoiis in view of its im- 
portance that the declination includes the invocation and the rights 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Patxer. Yes ; from your side and from our side ; right. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I would like the witness to make that 
plain, 

Mr. Patner. Pardon ? 

Mr. Pool. Is the witness invoking the fifth amendment? I want 
the witness to answer that. 

Mr. Patner. Mr. Pool, if I may, Mr. Willis said he would not give 
a ruling each time if we would not make a long, involved objection. 
That was our agreement the first 5 minutes. 

The Chairman. The member of the committee asked me, and I 
afford it, the p^i^^lege of having me ask this question of the witness. 
All of the invocations you have made and declinations, including the 
answers to the previous questions wherein Dr. Stamler is named, in- 
cluded the invocation of the fifth amendment; is that correct? 

Mrs. Blough. Yes. 

Mr. Patner. If I may for the witness, and she can confirm this by 
stating that she makes the same declination by saving the time of 
restating her objections. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, may I have a moment to confer with the 
staff and yourself ? 

The Chairman. All right. 

The committee will stand in recess. 

( A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Is Mr. Sullivan representing the witness? I want the record to 
show you were conferring with him. 

Mr. Sltllivan. We are old friends. 

Mr. Patner. We are from the same building. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Xittle. Mrs. Blough, at the time you accepted Dr. Stamler's 
direction to go to Toledo, Ohio, did you have knowledge that Dr. 
Stamler vv^as one of those in charge of sett ing up the Communist Party 
underground at that time ? 

Mr. Px\tner. I would like to state before the witness answers that 
this line of questions as to the doctor were not put to this witness either 
by Mr. Wheeler or in executive session, they are being asked for the 
first time so my objection to the repetition does not apply at this time. 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to answer. 

The Chairman. You say this question was not asked ? 

Mr. Patner. Was not asked the witness before. 

The Chair]man. And you named Mr. Wheeler in that context? 

Mr. Patner. I said the subject of the doctor's name was not raised 
by ]\Ir. AYlieeler and it was not raised in the executive session before 
this committee. My prior objection that the questions being put to 
the witness were being repetitious does not now apply. 

The Chairman. Well, I understand that, but I do not let the record 
imply, or accept your explanation, that IVIr. Wheeler questioned this 
witness about everything else except Dr. Stamler. 

Mr. Patner. No ; that is no such implication. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 537 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Blougii. I decline to answer. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

What is that? 

Mrs. Blough. I decline to ansAver on the same grounds the last ques- 
tion which was put to me. 

The Chairman. I might say also, so the record will be perfectly 
clear, that this question was not asked of the witness and I think coun- 
sel knows why. It was a disappointment because she did not answer 
a question. 

Mr. Patner. I am sorry the committee was disappointed, but I do 
not agi'ee with that. 

The Chairman. I disagree with that. I should have said the wit- 
ness at one time said she would cooperate. 

Mr. Patner. If the chairman pleases, that is hearsay. You have no 
personal knowledge of that and that is really not quite correct. 

The Chairman. Well, do you now admit 

Mr. Patner. I admit that it is incorrect as to what she said. 

The Chairman. As to cooperation ? 

Mr. Patner. I admit that what she said was incorrect. That is 
what I admit. 

The Cpiairman. We will have it on the record. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Patner. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. YolandaHall. 

The Chairman. Please be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Hall. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF YOLANDA HALL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ALBERT E. TENNER, JR., AND THOMAS P. SULLIVAN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the witness kindly state her full name and ad- 
dress for the record ? 

Mrs. Hall. Yolanda Hall, 5515 West Race Avenue. 

Mr. NinxE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes, lam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. .Tenner. Albert E. Jenner, Jr., 135 South LaSalle Street, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, 60603, and my partner Thomas P. Sullivan of the same 
address. 

The Chairman. May I make a suggestion that one counsel speak for 
the witness. Of course, in cases there might be an exception. I hope 
they don't come from all directions. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I do substantially nothing but try 
cases, and that is the way I proceed in court. 

The Chairman. All right. 



538 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs, Hall, will vou state the date and place of your 
birth? 

]Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, you will forgive me for standing up 
because I have respect for the committee, and having respect I stand. 
In any event, it just happens to be my habit. I can think on my feet 
and I have trouble thinking when I am sitting down. 

I have a request to make. 

The Chairman, I will say to you that you can think awfully well 
even while sitting down. 

Mr. Jenner. Well, perhaps I don't speak as well sitting down. 

In order that I may expedite these proceedings as much as possible 
to assist the committee, I have reduced what I have to say to some 
notes, which I will not read in full in any event, Mr. Chairman. 

On May 25 my partner, Mr. Sullivan, delivered to the distinguished 
chairman a letter in which I made several requests on behalf of Mrs. 
Hall. (See pp. 342, 343.) The first of these requests to which I wish 
now to direct attention was that pursuant to rule 26 (m) of the rules 
adopted for this connnittee by the House of Representatives of the 
United States, of which the committee is a duly constituted body, that 
the testimony of Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler be taken in executive ses- 
sion. The request encompassed, as you will recall, Mr. Chairman, not 
only their testimony but also any testimony concerning them given by 
any other witness. 

Now in the light of what has occurred before this honorable sub- 
committee when prior subpenaecl witnesses took the stand, I anticipate 
that the interrogation of my client, Mrs. Hall, will consist of asser- 
tions, embellishments, conclusions, argument, and innuendoes, not un- 
der oath, contained in repeated questions put by the committee's dis- 
tinguished counsel based upon hearsay or speculation which will tend 
to degrade, defame, or incriminate my clients. 

It makes no difference that these assertions are untrue or unsup- 
ported, a large segment of the public will assume the truth of what- 
ever statements are made by distinguished counsel. We all know that 
counsel is not subject to cross-examination. I have requested the com- 
mittee to permit me to cross-examine comisel and I repeat that request. 
In any event, counsel for the committee neither has, nor purports to 
have, personal knowledge of the matters he asserts. 

In this posture and in this hostile setting, we have no way of defend- 
ing our clients from the defamatory and prejudicial implications con- 
tained in those questions and they should not be forced to undergo this 
type of questioning, m public or otherwise. Every court in this land 
that has ever passed upon the question even as to tactics of this kind 
in the courtroom has held that they are a direct violation of the rights 
of fair trial and the rights of due process of the parties against which 
those tactics are employed. 

I respectfully request or submit that to refuse to grant our motion 
for an executive session and an opportunity to examine the witnesses 
and the evidence and the counsel m the making of his innuendo state- 
ments based on hearsay will constitute, if denied, an abuse of discretion 
and a vioLation of rule 26 (m) of the Rules of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States adopted for this committee and result 
in an unwarranted serious damage to the reputations of these good 
people, each of whom is a loyal United States citizen. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 539 

Further and in very short compass up to this moment I pose to you, 
Mr. Distinguished Chairman, yourself a distinguished lawyer and law- 
teacher, that there is not one scintilla of evidence admissible or com- 
petent before this august body or before any court in this land against 
either Dr. Stamler or Mrs. Hall. There is nothing in this record other 
than the innuendo assertions, unverified, of the distinguished counsel 
for this committee, 

I renew our request for the executive session. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for a few 
minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Jenner, as to your earlier motion made that evidence relating 
lo Mrs. Yolanda Hall be heard by this subcommittee in executive 
session, I can say that this was done before this subcommittee came 
from Washington. As to this, I can best refer to my letter to Mrs. 
Hall which shows our compliance with House rule 26 (m), which I 
will now read. The letter is dated May 11, 1965, and addressed to 
Yolanda Hall, 5515 West Kace Avenue, Chicago, Hlinois. 

Dear Yolanda Hall : 

Pursuant to House Rule XI, 26 (m), the Committee on Un-American Activities 
has received certain evidence and testimony in executive session, in the course of 
which a person by the name of Yolanda Hall, a resident of Chicago, Illinois, 
was identified as having been a member of the Communist Party. 

If you so desire, you will be afforded an opportunity voluntarily to appear as 
a witness before a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
at a time and place to be designated. According to the general practice of the 
committee, this hearing — 

Namely the voluntary testimony of witnesses so notified — 

shall be conducted in executive session. 

You may also request the committee to subpoena additional witnesses. 
If you desire to avail yourself of the opportunities thus afforded you, you 
should so advise the Director of the Committee no later than Tuesday, May 18, 
1965. He may be reached at Room 226, Cannon House Office Building, Washing- 
ton 25, D.C. ; telephone number : Capitol 4-3121, extension 3051. 
This is not a subpoena or summons requiring you to appear. 

This letter and the opportunities referred to herein do not release you from 
the compulsion to appear as a witness pursuant to the subi>oena already served 
upon you. 

Very truly yours, 

Edwin E. Willis, 

Chairman. 

The letter shows that a copy of rule 26(g) and rule 26 (m) were 
enclosed. 

As I said on the first day of these hearings, a number of persons were 
sent similar letters and none of them, including Mrs. Hall and Dr. 
Stamler, availed themselves of the opportunity afforded voluntarily to 
appear. 

Your motion, now made, that Mrs. Hall be now heard in executive 
session I deny after consideration of the subcommittee. We have 
complied with rule 26 (m) and all other applicable rules of the House 
and of this committee. Despite allegations of witnesses, Counsel, the 
committee has for many years held hearings of this precise type and 
the courts of the land, including the Supreme Court, have upheld the 
constitutionality of the committee's action. 

Counsel, proceed. 



540 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, for tlie purpose of the record and the 
interests of the committee, as well as my clients, I am intending no 
entrapment, as this chairman has intended no entrapment, in any 
action he has taken today or during the course of these hearings. Is 
my understanding correct, Mr. Chairman, (1) that you deny the motion 
that this witness' testimony now be taken in executive session ; (2) that 
we be afforded the opportunity in executive session to examine all 
evidence, testimony, oral or documentary, that has been received here- 
tofore in executive session and that I be afforded an opportunity to 
cross-examine witnesses who tendered evidence by way of testimony 
in executive session; and (3) that I be afforded the opportunity of 
cross-examining committee counsel, who has throughout the hearings 
in my presence today and in the hearings of the previous 2 days incor- 
porated in his questions unverified innuendo defamatory of various 
citizens of the United States, including both my clients? 

The Chairman. Well, before I rule, let me say that I reject the last 
part of your statement — the "innuendoes" and references to "defama- 
tion" of citizens of the United States. Here is a grand opportunity 
for your client, Mrs. Hall, and later Dr. Stamler, under pains and 
penalties of perjury bj^ witnesses who have testified, to deny, explain, 
confirm, affinn, reject, expose, lambaste — I use every word you can 
about the testimony of those witnesses. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Now one second. 

I accept the desire to have a clear record so let me ask you this 
question now : Do I understand you now, in effect, to ask a delayed 
acceptance of the opportunities afforded in the letter I have just read, 
dated May 11, 1965, and accordingly to have your client, Yolanda 
Hall, voluntarily appear as a witness ? 

Mr. Jenner. Have you finished, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Jenner. Thank you. 

The letter which you have read, Mr. Chairman, is in my professional 
opinion a violation of the rule which you cited as being authority for 
the dispatch of the letter, and the letter itself at the time you sent it 
did not inform any of the persons who received it, let alone my client, 
of the purpose or thrust of the investigation or the hearing that you 
were to have. What elaboration occurred with respect to that was 
uttered by you, Mr. ChaiiTnan, in the opening session on Monday, or 
was it Tuesday — whatever the opening day was. 

So the letter is a compounding of the failure of the committee and 
the abuse of the committee to honor a request under the rule for an 
executive session as to any witness with respect to whom there may 
be, or might be, as has occurred every daj' in these hearings, matters 
defamatory to those witnesses. So, Mr. Chairman, for you now to 
seek to bolster that letter, which, when sent, was constitutionally infinn 
and infirm under the very rules which your distinguished committee 
purports to rely upon, is in turn a violation of the rules themselves. 

Mr. Chainnan, may I say I think Mr. Sullivan 

The Chairman. May I say that thus far you have not answered my 
question. I understand your point. 

Mr. Jenner. Yes. 1 repeat the request that I made to this dis- 
tinguished committee that the testimony of Mrs. Hall 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 541 

The Chairman. I understand that. I am going to rule on that, but 
I desire and I think that this committee is entitled to an answer to 
my question. 

Mr. Jenner. "With all due respect, if you please, sir, it is my pro- 
fessional judgment and considered judgment that I have responded to 
your question, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. But the net effect is that you are not asking, in 
accordance with rule 26 (m), that Yolanda Hall be accorded the op- 
portunity, privilege, voluntarily to appear to testify under oath in 
executive session. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I have made my motion and that is 
what I am requesting. 

The Chairman. Well, Mr. Counselor, I have asked the question of 
you twice and I construe, as I think all members of the committee 
construe, as I think any good lawyer would construe — and you are an 
awfully good one — that your answer to my question is "no." I will 
proceed on that assmnption unless you want to correct it, and now I 
will rule. 

I assume that you don't. 

Mr. Jenner, My request is that any questions x^nt to this witness be 
put in executive session which I have requested. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you another question and then I will be 
ready to rule. I assume, I act on the assumption, my own, and so does 
the committee, that you are not asking, and you reject, the opportunity 
for your witness pursuant to rule 26 (m) voluntarily to appear as a 
witness in executive session. 

Now I ask you this question : Are you asking to be heard in executive 
session on your subpena, on the witness' subpena ? 

Mr. Jenner. I am asking, Mr. Chairman, I am not trying to play 
a game. 

The Chairman. I am not, either. I am going to rule and I am not 
going to take as long as you with the answer to your question. 

Mr. Jenner. I think we are about even on that. 

I am not trying to be cute any more than the chairman is. 

The Chairman. I appreciate counsel's position. You are repre- 
senting your client, and all that. 

Mr. Jenner. As best as I can as a professional man. I have made 
my motion that any questions put to this witness be put in executive 
session ; that an executive session be called for that purpose and the 
other purposes I have stated. With great respect to you, sir, the letter 
that was sent is of no legal validity now, even if it had any at the time 
it was sent. 

The Chairman. I don't want to talk — I am not asking any further 
comments on your position with reference to an appearance in connec- 
tion with the letter. I will ask the question once more and I will draw 
a conclusion if you don't reply. 

Are you asking to be heard m executive session pursuant to the sub- 
pena served on vour client? Or I will put it plural, both vour clients, 
Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler. 

Mr. Jenner. May I confer a moment. Your Honor ? 

( Confers. ) 

The answer is "yes." 

The Chairman. The answer is "yes." 



542 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

The three requests you made a moment ago, a motion, are denied and 
3'our present request in the form of a colloquy is likewise denied. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, would you permit me a slight amend- 
ment ? Mr. Sullivan called my attention to the fact that, in presenting- 
the motion, I perhaps overetatecl as to the reach of my request to 
examine witnesses and evidence taken in executive session. I intended, 
and I wish to amend with your permission, that the request was to 
examine witnesses and evidence, documentary and otherwise, taken in 
executive session relating to Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler. 

The Chairmax. But not to hear Mrs. Hall in executive session ? 

Mr. Jenner. Oh, no, no. 

The Chairman. Then I am afraid I don't follow you. 

Mr. Jexxer. "V^^ien I made the request with respect to examina- 
tion of witnesses and examination of evidence and examination of 
counsel in executive session, Mr. Sullivan tells me I did not limit 
that to evidence of witnesses and statements of counsel relating to 
Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler. All I am now doing is limiting. I was 
afraid that technically I might have asked too much. 

The Chairman. I understand. Of course that is the way really I 
had understood it. So our original ruling holds. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Jenner. Thank you, Your Honor. 

Rule XVI of the rules of this committee provide, and with your 
permission I will not read them because you have read those pro- 
visions several times today. May I proceed with this ? 

The Chairman. Surely. 

Mr. Jenner. On May 13, 1965, 12 days before the hearings were 
to commence, the names of 11 persons subpenaed to testify here were 
published in the public press. Copies of many of these newspaper 
stories are attached to a complaint in the cause w^hich I filed on behalf 
of Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall in the United States District Court for 
the Northern District of Illinois on Monday of this week, entitled and 
numbered Stamler versus Willis, 65-C 

The Chairman. That I understand to be Willis, chairman, and not 
Willis, superintendent of schools. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Jenner. Touche — which we intend to place in evidence before 
the committee, that is, we intend to offer it in evidence. 

The Chairman. You mean a copy of the complaint ? 

Mr. .Tenner. Yes. By the way, as long as I have hesitated at that 
point I have had a copy identified as "Stamler-Hall Exhibit No. 1" 
May 27, 1965. I think a copy has already been tendered but not with 
the exhibit. 

The Chairman. Yes. The complaint is received in the record at 
this point. 

(Document marked "Stamler-Hall Exhibit No. 1." See appendix, 
pp. 762-809.) 

Mr. Jenner. Thank you. These articles which are attached to the 
complaint in the Stamter versus Willis case included pictures of Dr. 
Stamler, among others, and among other things referred to these 
hearings as a "Red Probe." 

The Chair]\ian. Red what? 

Mr. Jenner. Red Probe, p-r-o-b-e. These are not my words, Mr. 
Chairman, they are words that appeared in the newspaper print. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 543 

Understandably, I have no knowledge in the premises, but on the 
record it is reasonably to be deduced, I respectfully suggest, that the 
names of these persons were procured from this committee or some 
agent of the committee. The distinguished chairman has stated that 
to the best of your knowledge no one connected with the committee 
released any names to the press. 

In the interest of clarifying this issue, I ask on behalf of my clients 
that hearings be held immediately to determine the true facts. There- 
fore, I request pursuant to rule 26 (m) (3) that subpenas issue forth- 
with to all persons who served these subpenas or to persons who de- 
livered them for service, including Neil E. Wetterman and Donald I. 
Sweany, Jr., as agents of the committee to come before the committee 
at once and testify as to which agent or employee of the committee re- 
leased the names of subpenaed witnesses 12 days before the hearings 
began in violation of Eule XVI, which resulted in grave damage to the 
reputations of my clients, as to whom not one word of testimony has 
yet been uttered before this committee in these public proceedings. 

Now, pending that investigation, I request that the committee post- 
pone any further proceedings until the persons responsible for this 
violation of Rule XVI are identified. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess. 

( A brief recess was taken. ) 

The Chairmax. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The subcommittee considered and unanimously decided to overrule 
that motion. 

Now the Chair respectfully will say that counsel is expected to put 
forward any and all other motions he may have to be considered so 
that we may not be in the position of having anvthing in regard to 
that. 

Mr. Jenner. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

I have but one more motion and I think perhaps the chairman will 
dispose of it as a matter of course. 

The Chairman. You have already conceded ? 

Mr. Jenner. I think the chairman might concede it; that is what 
I meant. 

I request that I be provided with a copy of the transcript of the 
entire session of the public hearings of the committee held here in 
Chicago on May 25, 26, and today. 

The Chairman. This request, and it is a meritorious one, I think is 
unnecessary for you to pose now. The committee will consider that 
and we will advise you. 

Mr. Jenner. I deliberately posed my question in two parts because 
I assumed the first part would be favorably considered. 

The second part is that we be furnished also with a copy of the 
transcript of all testimony and documentary evidence concerning Dr. 
Stamler and Mrs. Hall, whether in public or executive session and 
whether at this series of sessions or at prior sessions of the committee 
or a subcommittee thereof or future sessions as well. 

The Chairman. The motion is denied. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, before the distinguished coimsel for the 
committee poses further questions to Mrs. Hall, I would like respect- 
fully to state for the record certain objections on behalf of my client 
to the proceedings which have been and are being undertaken by this 



544 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

honorable committee. Most of those objections are set forth in writ- 
ten form in the complaint which I have mentioned and which you 
have admitted into evidence. Now having been admitted in evidence, 
with your permission I will not repeat those by reading that com- 
plaint. Do I have j^our permission, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Jenner. Now in addition to those objections and points made 
in the complaint and constitutional grounds 

The Chairman. Pardon me. I think the record should also show 
that the application, or release source, whatever it was, was denied by 
the district judge.^ 

Mr. Jenner. I think that is a fair request and I concede it was 
denied. May I say for the record, also, that yesterday we filed a notice 
of appeal to the Court of Appeals of the Seventh United States 
Circuit. 

Now, Mr. Distinguished Chairman, we further object to these pro- 
ceedings because the hearings have not been held in executive session 
pursuant to our request. It is clear from what has occurred in these 
hearings on May 25 and 26 and to this point today (1) that public 
hearings are not needed and were not needed, because you have already 
heard Lola Belle Holmes and Lucius Armstrong and others apparently 
in executive session and the repetition in these public hearings has 
served, as it could only serve, particularly under the type of examina- 
tion of the distinguished counsel for the committee, to injure persons 
whom they charged and counsel has charged without being under oath 
to be or to have been members of the Communist Party and (2) the 
questioning of my clients will be of a defamatory and prejudicial 
nature and be harmful to their good reputations, which they cherish. 

We have been in disagreement with the resolution of the holding 
of the hearings in Chicago at this time and with the copy of the 
statement which you, Mr. Chainnan, made at the time the hearings 
were convened the morning of May 25, 1965. However, it is my 
opinion, and I respectfully state to you and your distinguished col- 
leagues, that these additional specifications do not cure the defects 
referred to in the complaint in Stamler versus Willis and as elaborated 
in the proceedings by me today and INIr. Sullivan, my partner, hereto- 
fore, or render the enabling act establishing this committee consti- 
tutionally definite as to purpose for which this committee is and has 
been holding these hearings. 

In any event, neither those statements nor the resolution cast light 
upon either the need or the right of this honorable committee to inter- 
rogate Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall on any subject whatsoever. 

The Chairman". Mr. Jenner, I think I bestowed upon you the longest 
opportunity of anyone to make a statement before this subcommittee 
since I have been a member of this committee. You are now really 
advancing arguments and you are really going beyond even a most 
liberal interpretation of our applicable rules. Respectfully, I ask that 
you state your conclusions and, if you want, I will even accord you the 
privilege of filing your statement in the record. I think I am stretch- 
ing the rules so much that in the first place, I will repeat as I have 
done time and time again, this is not to be a precedent. So that it will 



1 The jiidgo. In dismissing the suit, stated that complainants' charges concerning' the 
constitutionalitTi and procedures of the committee were "without merit." Formal court 
order marked ''Committee Exhibit No. 1" for identification. See appendix, p. 813. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 545 

not be a precedent, I ^YOuld like to at least limit you at this time. We 
don't mind. I think you have made your point. If you have a motion 
or if you have a conclusion to make, I wish you would state it. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I will do everything in my power to 
comply fully with the indulgence which you have accorded me. I 
have a point which I will present to the committee. 

I respectfully submit that we have been denied the right to confront 
and examine the witnesses, if any there be or who have testified con- 
cerning my clients before this committee. 

The Chairma^j". Here again you are advancing arguments. I could 
take more time than you have thus far consumed in showing the rea- 
sons why I disagree with you, so that j'ou are really making an argu- 
ment — I don't want to make a speech, thus I'm depriving myself of 
answering you seriatim. Of course you might well say, you may do 
so after I conclude — but then I would be a party to enlarging upon 
the applicable rule. So I again ask you to just sta.te your points. 

Mr. Jenner. That is what I am attempting to do, sir. 

The Chairman. It must be a very long point. 

Mr. Jenner. I did not engage in any colloquy with the chairman. 
I would not expect the chairman to respond any more than I would 
expect an honorable judge to respond to me. These are grounds for 
recommendation that I will make to my client in the presence of this 
committee. 

The Chairman. I will have to answer you step by step now and this 
will be the last time. This is not a court proceeding. Proceedings of 
a court are pursuant to the rulings of a court and you and I, as law- 
yers, would be out of business if we did not yakkity-yak-yak all over 
tlie lot. This is a congressional investigation, and we are operating 
under our rules. Again I urge you to state your point. 

Mr. Jenner. I will seek to do so, sir. I am stating the grounds under 
the Constitution for the recommendation I am about to make to my 
client with respect to the further proceedings of this committee. 

I am a little bit at a loss as to the point at which I was. 

The Chairman. How much longer do you have ? 

Are you presenting a motion or stating a point ? 

Mr. Jenner. Stating a point. Your Honor. 

The Chairman. And then your position. 

Mr. Jenner. Take a position. 

Mr. Chairman, I think it will take me not to exceed 3 minutes. 

Mr. Pool. If it just takes 3 minutes, I am willing to listen. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Jenner. None has appeared during these public hearings. This 
is a direct and insidious violation of the Federal Constitution. Despite 
careful consideration of the record, I have no idea why my clients are 
summoned here, what charge they are called upon to meet, what the 
legislative purpose or relevancy of their testimony is. This is a clear 
violation of the due process clause of the Bill of Rights. 

Moreover, because of the limitations placed on counsel for witnesses 
by this honorable committee and in light of the mistreatment of my 
partner Sullivan yesterday, all at the direction of the chairman pro 
tem, our clients have been deprived of the effective right to counsel and 
of due process, each of which is guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. 



546 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

As I have stated, I have filed, a notice of appeal in the proceedings 
of Stamler versus Willis, the case now pending before the court of 
appeals of this circuit. Accordingly, it is inappropriate for m}' clients 
at this time to give any testimony to this committee, and indeed if 
they do so it would render, and will render, moot the very litigation in 
which they seek a determination of various grave questions of con- 
stitutional privileges and immmiities raised in the complaint as to the 
legal basis for this distinguished committee, the constitutional pro- 
priety of these hearings, and of the subpenas serA^ed upon my clients. 
My clients have the right under the Constitution to have their legal 
position determined in court before giving their testimony to this 
committee. 

For all of the foregoing reasons, including all those specified in the 
complaint marked '^Stamler-Hall Exhibit No. 1" and all motions 
made during these proceedings by Mr. Sullivan and myself and all 
grounds stated by us, I move that this honorable committee quash the 
subpenas served upon Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall. 

The Chairman. The motion is denied. 

Wait a second. 

To make it more formal, I have counseled with the members of the 
committee and the committee not only agrees to support but inde- 
pendently rules to overrule your motion to quash. 

Mr. Jenner. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

In light of this ruling and for the reasons previously stated, 1 
have advised my clients to give no testimony or further to cooperate 
with this honorable committee until the outcome of the pending liti- 
gation. I have given them this advice in my professional capacity 
as their personal counsel. 

After careful consideration and extended consultation with them 
and with my cocounsel, Mr. Sullivan and Mr. Arthur Kinoy of New 
York, we take this position without intending to reflect in any respect 
whatsoever upon this distinguished committee or any of its distin- 
guished members or counsel and without any contempt for or lack 
of respect for you, Mr. Chairman, or your distinguished colleagues 
or counsel. If and when that case is finally determined and if that 
determination is adverse to my clients, they will return and proceed 
before this committee. However, until that time, I have advised my 
clients to give no testimony or information or further to cooperate 
with this honorable committee. 

In my considered professional judgment, the manner and atmos- 
phere in which these proceedings have been conducted demonstrate 
that no legislative purpose or function has been involved. In a facade 
of legislative factfinding, this distinguished committee has been 
embarked upon a program of exposure for exposure's sake, character 
prejudice, and degrading of United States citizens of good reputation 
such as my clients. Were they to cooperate in this self-destruction 
and destruction of their fellow citizens and this erosion of, and en- 
croachment upon, the Bill of Rights, they Avould be false to all they 
and other thoughtful citizens hold 

The Chairman. Now you have made your point. That is enough. 
[Applause.] 
You may file the statement, but you may not read any more of it. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I think there is one further matter that 
you would want in the hearing. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 547 

The Chairman. As a point you are making ? 

Mr. .Tenner. A conclusion of this statement. 

Dr. Stamler and Mrs. Hall do not invoke the privilege against self- 
incrimination. They have committed no crime and they are and have 
been loyal to our country. Eather, they rest their refusal to testify on 
all of the constitutional or other grounds I have previously stated. 
These are fundamental considerations vital to all citizens of this great 
Nation which they have submitted to the courts for disposition upon 
deliberation by fair and impartial judges. 

The Chairman. Proceed with the questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the witness state the date and place of her birth, 
please ? 

Mrs. Hall. Gentlemen, I adopt and confirm all that my counsel, 
Mr. Jenner, has stated. I tell you that I am now, and I have always 
been, a loyal American citizen. However, on advice of my counsel I 
respectfully decline to give any information or testimony or further 
to cooperate with this committee. If and when the litigation which I 
have instituted is terminated adverse to my position, I will return be- 
fore this committee or an authorized subcommittee thereof in ac- 
cordance with the subpena served on me. At present, however, and 
for the reasons and on the grounds stated by Mr. Jenner and those 
stated in my complaint filed by me on Monday in the United States 
District Court, I respectfully decline to answer any further questions 
that may be put to me or otherwise further to participate in these 
proceedings, 

I have nothing to hide. I take this position as a matter of principle 
and conscience in order to test once and for all the validity of the kind 
of proceedings which have been held here during the past 3 days. 
[Applause.] 

The Chairman. There will be no demonstration. 

Wait a minute. I now order and direct you to answer that ques- 
tion. 

Mrs. Hall. I repeat the statement I made to the committee. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

The Chairman. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Sullivan. Go. 

The Chairman. Let it be noted that the witness has not ■ 

Mr. Nittle. The witness has been warned that she may be in con- 
tempt in leaving the hearing room. 

(At this point Mrs. Yolanda Hall left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let the record note the presence of counsel, Mr. Jen- 
ner and Mr. Sullivan. 

The Chairman. All points urged and motions made have been 
carefully considered by this subcommittee and overruled. 

Let it be noted the witness has deliberately left the hearing room 
after being ordered to answer the first question. I consider this to 
be a violation of every conceivable rule of procedure. "We do not 
accept the reasons given by the witness and her able counsel for her 
failure and refusal to answer the first question and indicating that 
she would not answer others and deliberately left the room. The 
witness cannot have her cake and eat it, too. 

The subtle approach by the able counsel of the witness to the ques- 
tion of implication or nonimplication of the fifth amendment or, 



548 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

rather, statement that his clients would not invoke the fifth amend- 
ment is not really worthy of much consideration. It is just a subtle 
attempt to get these witnesses olf and I say that respectfully. He has 
referred to a member of this committee, Mr. Pool, and to our able 
counsel in rather harsh terms. I say that his subtle way of making 
it appear that his clients do not intend to and are not invoking the 
fifth amenchnent, his position is rejected. 

We do not accept the position of the witness and we consider her 
refusal to answer, and to w^alk out of the room, as a violation of the 
rules of the committee, and for that reason we expect to act on pro- 
ceedings for contempt. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Lucius Armstrong please take the witness stand ? 

Mr. Jenner. I was going to comment on your remarks, Mr. Chair- 
man. You deny the right 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, the gentleman is an attorney of law and 
he is disrespectful to this committee in addressing a remark to the 
Chair when we have already gone to the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you take the witness stand, Mr. Armstrong? 

Mr. Jenner. If there is anything I have ever done in all my 35 years 
of practice, I have never been disrespectful to a court or a body. 

Mr. Pool. You are interrupting one of the witnesses of this com- 
mittee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Marshal, remove this man. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Order in this room. We will be in order. 

TESTIMONY OF LUCIUS ARMSTRONG— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Armstrong, were you a member of the State com- 
mittee and State board of the Communist Party in the year 1959 ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recall any organizational changes contemplated 
by the party at that time ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us about that ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, the party Avas going through some organiza- 
tional changes for being able to protect itself and secure its organi- 
zational ties and it was discussing many plans that were pending and 
different resolutions that were coming up for the 1959 convention. As 
I recall, there was a top-level meeting held at my home in June and I 
was residing at that time at 6514 Ellis. 

The Chairman. What time in 1959 ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere were you residing at that time ? 

Mr. Armstrong. 6514 Ellis Avenue. 

This meeting was of such importance it was not a joint understand- 
ing and procedure in the party. There were certain organizational 
steps taken so that certain people, especially people in industry, party 
people in industry, knew that there were certain people going under- 
ground, completely detached from any party ties or any party regula- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 549 

tion, operating completely on their own, and we were discussing in this 
high-level meeting these people. 

Claude Lightfoot was the one who had the information from the 
national committee on the operations of the party, you know, in this 
field. The people were professional people; people valuable to the 
trade union movement. Some people, you know, were doing other 
work — I won't say what, going into Cuba and other places. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Dr. Stamler's name mentioned in the course of that 
meeting ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Yes. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, does the 

Mr. Armstroxg. I want to say here that Dr. Stamler's name was 
mentioned, but I myself did not even know Dr. Stamler at that time. 
But he was mentioned. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now will j^ou tell the committee, please 

Mr. Armstrong. He was discussed, not mentioned. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, this being a new witness, I rise only 
for the purpose of the record. The arrangement we had or understand- 
ing with respect to objections and motions stands as previously ^ 

The Chairman. That is understood. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now will you tell us what was said by Claude Light- 
foot, if anything ? 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, in discussing Dr. Stamler, he just said that 
we have a noted heart specialist, a very renowned heart specialist. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, you as a noted law teacher — I object 
on the ground that this is obviously hearsay. 

The Chairman. Your client will have an opportunity to face what 
you have been referring to as accuser and confront him and under oath 
to deny all this. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Jenner. Will I have an opportunity to cross-examine the 
witness ? 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

!Mr. Jenner. I request that opportunity. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you proceed, Mr. Armstrong, to relate that. 

Mr. Armstrong. Well, he said that there was a noted heart specialist 
by the name of Jeremiah Stamler and he was a loyal party member 
doing good work among the professional people. He did not discuss 
in detail and that is about the gist of it. Dr. Stamler. If you want 
to know more in other waj'S, maybe I can tell you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Jeremiah Stamler, come forward, please. 

Mr. Jenner. The chairman has denied my request to cross-examine. 

The Chairman. Please be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Dr. Stamler. I do. 



550 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

TESTIMONY OF JEEEMIAH STAMLER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ALBEET E. JENNEE, JR., AND THOMAS P. SULLIVAN 

Mr. Jexner, jNIay I respectfully inquire, Mr. Chairman ? 

The CHAiR]\rAx. Yes, 

Mr. Pool. For the record, Mr. Chairman, I would like to have 
counsel identify themselves. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Jenxer. Again? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. For the record, yes. 

Mr. Jenner. I am the same Albert E. Jenner, Jr. I don't mean 
any disrespect. 

The Chairman. Of course not. But your appearance should be 
noted ; that is the way we proceed. 

Mr. Jenner, Thank you. 

I am Albert E. Jenner of the Chicago Bar together with my part- 
ner, Thomas P, Sullivan. We represent Dr. Jeremiah Stamler. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I rose to inquire that I understand that 
you, Mr. Chairman, and the committee denied my request to cross- 
examine the previous witness. 

The Chairman. Yes, I have ruled on that. And let it be shown 
that I also said here is a magnificent opportunity on the part of Dr. 
Stamler, while he is under oath, to deny or affirm that he is, or has ever 
been, a member of the Communist Party and all those things said 
about him. 

Mr. Jenner. Mr, Chairman, as Mr, Justice Brennan and the Chief 
Justice, Earl Warren, liave held, cross-examination is an exercise of 
the right of confrontation under the Constitution, which has been 
denied. 

The Chairman, Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr, XiTTLE, Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Dr, Stamler. My name is Jeremiah Stamler, M.D. I reside at 1332 
East ]Madison Avenue Park, Chicago, Illinois, 60615. 

I would like at this time to read a statement which I make pursuant 
to Mr. Jenner's advice. 

The Chairman. Is the statement very long? 

Mr. Jenner. Mr, Chairman, he was premature. 

The Chairman, All right. 

Well, there is a pending question. He is going to read a statement. 
Counsel said it is premature. Ask the next question, 

Mr, Nittle. Would you state the place and date of your birth. Dr. 
Stamler? 

Mr, Jenner, Mr, Chairman, in order of expediting I would make, 
on behalf of this witness, the same requests and the same statements 
that I made during the examination or the time Mrs. Hall was on the 
stand. I request of you, Mr, Chairman, and your distinguished col- 
leagues, that that statement that I made and those requests that I made 
be taken as statements and requests on behalf of Dr. Stamler so that I 
need not repeat them in the record, I understand that the Chair will 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 551 

rule upon those requests and will restate all the statements that the 
Chair made during the course of that examination as part of this. 

The Chairman. I will not repeat them. It is understood tliat the 
rulings made apply in this instance. 

Mr. Jenner. Yes, and that all Your Honor's comments stand. 

The Chairman. To be probably overproteetive, the Chair states that 
he has conferred with the members of the committee and they all agree 
that all statements and the rulings uiade are adhered to and adopted, 
restated for the record with reference to Dr. Stamler, as well as all the 
rulings I made overruling the several motions and requests made by 
Mr. Jenner. 

Mr. Jenner. Your indulgence for a moment. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Jenner. My partner, Mr. Sullivan, who is concerned, wanted 
to be sure — as I understood it and I think the Chair understands — 
that all of the statements that I made on behalf of Mrs. Hall are like- 
wise made on behalf of Dr. Stamler. I tliouglit the Chair understood ; 
I know I did. 

The Chairman. If your partner does not understand, you and I 
understand each other. 

Mr. Jenner. Yes. 

Mr. Sullivan still says, including the reasons wliy I advised him 
not to cooperate. 

The Chairman. Including those reasons. 

Mr. Jenner. All right. 

The Chairman. Next question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Jenner. There is a pending question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Nittle. The question asked of Dr. Stamler was to state the date 
and place of his birth. 

Dr. Stamler. Mr. Chairman, Members of the Committee, Distin- 
guished Counsel, I adopt and confirm all that my counsel, Mr. Jenner, 
has stated. I state now, and I have stated repeatedly, tliat I have 
always been a loyal American citizen. My entire adult life has been 
one of loyal and devoted effort, good work for our country, its people, 
and their well-being, particularly for their health. I take second place 
to none in this regard. 

However, on advice of my counsel, I respectfully decline to give 
any information in testimony or further to cooperate with this com- 
mittee. If and when the litigation which I have instituted is termi- 
nated adverse to my position, I will return before this committee or 
an authorized subcommittee thereof in accordance Avith the subpena 
served on me. At present, however, and for the reasons and on the 
gromids stated by Mr. Jenner and those stated in my complaint filed 
by me on Monday in the United States District Court, I respectfully 
decline to answer any further questions that may be put to me, or 
otherwise further to participate in these proceedings. 

I have nothing to hide. I take this position as a matter of principle 
and conscience in the interests of all our citizens in our country in 
order to test once and for all the validity of the kind of proceedings 
which have been held here during the past 3 days. 

The Chairman. Dr. Stamler, I order and direct you to answer that 
question and not to leave the room until j'ou have done so. 

52-810— 66— pt. 1 17' 



552 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Dr. Stamler. Sir, I stand on my statement. 

Tlie Chairman. I order and direct you to answer tlie question and 
to answer other questions to be propounded. 

(At this point, Dr. Jeremiah Stamler left the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. For reasons stated in connection with the appear- 
ance of Mrs. Hall, the Chair states that the committee does not accept 
your position of refusal to answer or your departure from this hearing 
to which you have been summoned and are in contempt. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, let the record show that Dr. Stamler has 
left the room and has removed himself from the witness chair. The 
time is now 6 :17 p.m. 

The Chairman. I repeat that this i)Osition of blowing hot and cold; 
no one is taking seriously the subtle effort to avoid the invocation of 
the fifth amendment. As far as I am concerned, Mrs. Hall and Dr. 
Stamler have simply "taken a powder." 

Mr. Jenner. Mr. Chairman, the conduct of counsel for this com- 
mittee has been one of having his cake and eating it, too. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, have him call his next witness. 

The Chairman. Ask the next question. 

Well^ the record shows that the doctor has disappeared; he is no 
longer m the hearing room. 

Mr. Jenner. As far as Mr. Pool is concerned, I have so stipulated. 

The Chairman. It is impossible to continue questioning; comisel 
concedes that and so stipulates. 

The committee will stand in recess for a few moments. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will be in order. 

I and the subcommittee do not want there to be any misunderstand- 
ing about the finality of the subcommittee's action in denying the vari- 
ous motions made on behalf of Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler and in re- 
jecting propositions made. We denied the motions and we instructed 
Mrs. Hall and Dr. Stamler to answer the questions put to them and we 
warned them not to depart and to terminate their appearances under 
their subpenas. Nevertheless, they insisted in their refusal to answer 
and they departed without leave. For these acts, they stand subject 
to recommendations for contempt action by the full committee and the 
House of Representatives. I want to add that we do not accept or 
engage in any w^ay in any offer to return later and testify. Our orders 
are here and now final. By the way, I am glad that counsel for Mrs. 
Hall and Dr. Stamler are in this room as I make this statement. 

T want to refer to a flyer which was distributed during these hear- 
ings. I have it in my hand and I will insert it and make it part of the 
record. It reads : 

SIT-IN TO STOP HUAC! 

Five years ago thousands of demonstrators in San Francisco forced H.U.A.C. to 
run for cover. They're in Chicago and it's our job now! Stop the Committee! 
If you really want to fight the witch-hunt join us in a militant sit-in — Help run 
the H.U.A.C. out of town ! Sit-in Thursday, May 27th. Chicago Committee To 
Stop HUAC. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 553 
Flyer Distributed During Hearings 



— iw^m 




<: 







i^ 



71 ^ 




. FIVE YEARS AGO THOUSANDS OF DEMONSTHATORo IN SAN FEA.MCISCO FORCED H.U.A.C. TO 
RUN K)R COVER. THEY'RE IM CHICAGO, AND IT'S OUR JOB NOW! STOP THE COiffllTTSE ! 
IF YOU RE^iLY WANT TO FIGHT THE WITCH-HUNT JOIN US IN A MILITANT SIT-IN*»— HELP 
RUN THE H.U.A.C. OUT OF TOWN! 

SIT-IN THURSDAY , MhY 27th 

Chicago Committee To Stop HU/iG 

May I say that this committee was not forced to nm for cover in 
San Francisco or anywhere else. [Applause and boos.] We were not 
run out of town or out of Chicago in this instance and we never intend 
to be. 

Now, before terminating these hearings, I would like to make the 
following observation. I believe that the hearings will be very useful 
to the Congress from the informational point of view, in line with our 
duty and intent to aid the Congress in carrying out its legislative func- 
tion. They have presented a well-rounded picture of the type of ac- 
tivities in which the Communists are presently engaged and some of 



554 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

the devices they have used, and are still using, to cover that operation 
and evade our laws. 

We have seen evidence of past and continuing Communist activities 
in our basic industries and the trade union movement. We have ac- 
quired some additional information on their operations in the youth 
field, of the great attention they are giving today to the creation of all 
so-called "peace" groups of their own and infiltrating already existing 
peace organizations. It is clear that on the neighborhood level some 
Communists, at least, work their way into positions of influence in 
political-action organizations in their efforts to create dissatisfaction 
"with, and antagonism toward, the government of their city and our 
country. They are busy agitating in the field of unemployment and 
housing. They are active in civil liberties and rights groups. 

In their efforts to evade the provisions of the Internal Security Act, 
our major ant i subversive law today and one, by the way, which orig- 
inated with the Committee on Un-American Activities, they resorted 
to such devices as placing the party school in this city within the reach 
of the bookstore. 

Now our thanks to the mayor, the United States marshal for the 
Northern District of Illinois, Mr. Joseph Tieme}^, and all the other 
United States marshals, who did a fine job in preserving order in the 
hearing room and the building, as well as our thanks to the metro- 
politan police, who did outstanding work in preserving order in and 
around this building. 

Also, we extend our thanks to the Chief United States Marshal, Mr. 
JNIcShane, and his assistant who, by the way, came from Washington to 
observe these hearings and who made a point of coming to Chicago to 
see if there v/as anything they could do to assist in maintaining law and 
order. 

Finally, and reserved for last because of his position, we thank the 
distinguished chief judge of this district for his cooperation and for 
making these quarters available to the conmiittee. 

With this, as may be supi)lemented by other members, I rest. 

Now do you have any connnents to make before we adjourn ? 

Mr. Pool. Well, I think, Mr. Chairman, that you have covered it 
well. I just want to add that I have certainly enjoyed the hospitality 
of the city of Chicago ; it is a Avonderf ul city. I appreciate everybody 
that has been nice to me. 

Thank you. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I merely want to add my sentiments likewise to 
what was said by the chairman. I also again observe, as the years 
go by and I serve with him, the patience that he has and the pleasure 
that I have serving with him as he continues to do such a fine job as 
chairman of the conunittee. 

The Chairman. Coming from a Eepuldii-uji, tliat is a great tribute. 

Mr. Clawson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am ha])py to join 
your statement. I am hiii)py to be back in Chicago again. 

The (Chairman. Well, we ()])erate(l in close quarters under difficult 
circumstances. I think I should also thank very much the many 
peojjle in the room who cooperated in trying to preserve decorum and 
law and order during these hearings; and able counsel, and all the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 555 

members of counsel who conducted the hearings, concerning the re- 
marks made necessary, I think, in the litigation ; our chief counsel and 
other members of the staff; the staff' director; all of those present; 
and, of course, the very fine and very capable, very patient and, I shall 
say, very tired court reporter. 

With that, the committee stands adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 6:45 p.m., Thursday, May 27, 1965, the subcom- 
mittee adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, 

AREA 

Part 1 



TUESDAY, JUNE 22, 1965 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee op the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.G. 
executive session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10:15 a.m., in Room 313A, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Joe R. Pool presiding. 

(Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Charles L. Weltner, of Geor- 
gia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and Del Clawson, of California.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ashbrook, 
and Clawson. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general comisel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; and Neil E. Wetter- 
man, investigator. 

Mr. Pool. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The opening statement was read at the Chicago hearings and it will 
not be necessai'y to read it again. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Mathilde Burke please come forward ? 

Mr. Pool. Will you stand and be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mrs. Burke. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MATHILDE BTJRKE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOSEPH L. RAUH, JR. 

Mr. Pool. Before you start your questions. Counsel, I think that 
you should provide her with a copy of the opening statement of this 
hearing of which she was unable to be there on account of illness. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I liave had communication with counsel 
for the witness on that subject, and we will have a statement for the 
record at the commencement. 

Mr. Pool. The opening statement has been furnished to the wit- 
ness? 



1 Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

557 



558 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is correct, through her attorney. 
Mr. Pool. All right. Go ahead then. 

Mr, XiTii.E. Would the witness please state her full name and res- 
idence for the record ? 

Mrs. Burke. Mathilde Burke, 4800 Chicago Beach Drive, Chicago, 
Illinois. 
Mr. NiTTi^E. Are you represented by counsel ? 
Mrs. Burke. I am. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr, Rauii. My name is Joseph L. Eauh, Jr. My office is at 1625 
K Street, NW. 

Mr. Nittle, I hope you put this one fact on the record. Mrs. Burke 
has bleeding ulcers, and I hope we could do this as quickly and pain- 
lessly as possible. We will cooperate to that end, 
Mr, Pool, We certainly Avill, Counsel. 
Counsel, proceed with your questions. 

Mr. XiTTLE, Mrs. Burke, you are aware that the hearing today is 
a continuation of the hearings which were commenced in Chicago 
on May 25, 1965 : is that correct ? 
Mrs, Burke, Yes. 

Mr, HiTZ, Mr. Nittle, would you hold just a minute and suspend 
the answer to the question, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, we want to advise you that the hearing 
today is being conducted in executive session. Are you and your 
counsel aware of that fact ? 
Mrs, Burke. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr, Rauh, you and I have discussed this hearing today 
over the telephone briefly. Pursuant to your request I forwarded a 
copy of the chairman's opening statement of May 25, 1965, You have 
received that, have you ? 
Mr. Rauii. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand that you were going to give your client 
an opportunity to read the statement and discuss it with you. 
Mr. Rauh. She read it this morning and is aware of it. 
Mr. NiTTLE. I understand you waive a formal reading of that 
statement. 

Mr. Rauii, We do, 

Mr. NiTTLE. And it may be made a part of the record tliis morning 
as if read by the chairman ? 
Mr. Rauh. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. INfrs. Burke, would vou state the date and place of vour 
birth? 

Mrs. BiRKE. June 20, 19?,2, Amsterdam, Holland. 
Mr, NriTLE. What was your maiden name? 
Mrs, BiTRKE. ITeyman, 
Mr, NiTTLE. How do you spoil tliat ? 
Mrs. Burke. H-e-y-m-a-n, 

Mr, NiTTLE. Have you also used the name Mathilde Lea Helene 
Peereboon ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, 

Mr. NriTLE. AVould you lell us under what cii'cumstances you have 
used that name? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 559 

Mrs. Burke. That was my father's name. And when my mother 
and I came here, I took my mother's name which she had had at that 
time, which was Heyman. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. So that you were born under the name Mathilde T^ea 
Plelene Peereboon ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien did you enter tlie United States? 

Mrs. Burke. In December of 1946. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Upon arrival in the United States, did you thereafter 
take up your residence in Chicago at the home of your uncle, Ernest 
Heyman ? 

Mrs. Burke. That is the wrong name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, then, where you took up your resi- 
dence following your entry into the United States in December of 
1946? 

Mrs. Burke. It was in Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. With whom did you live in Chicago ? 

Mrs. Burke. I don't remember whether I lived with my uncle 
or not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have an uncle who lived in Chicago? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, sir. 

ISIr. NiTTTJE. At that time ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was his name ? 

]SIrs. Burke. Paul Heyman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you take up your residence with Paul Heyman in 
Chicago ? 

Mrs. Burke. I don't remember whether I did or not. I was only 
15 or 16 then ; I don't remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you lived in Chicago since that time ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the wife of Dr. Gerald Burke? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When were you married to him ? 

Mrs. Burke. April 8 last year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mrs. Burke. I attended Lyceum in Holland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what year ? 

Mrs. Burke. This was right after the war. This was from 1945 to 
1946. Wlien I came here — I am not sure of the times and dates, but 
I spent some time at the University of Chicago ; about a little over a 
year perhaps, perhaps a little more, I am reallj?^ not sure of that. I 
took some evening courses at Roosevelt University, but as to the exact 
dates and times I could not tell you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You cannot tell us the year in which you were in 
attendance at the University of Chicago? 

]\Irs. Burke. It was in the early fifties, but I was working at the 
same time. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Where were you employed at that time? 

]Mrs. Burke. At Michael Reese Hospital. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been employed at the Michael Reese 
Hospital ? 

Mrs. Burke. I am not employed now. You say "have." 

52-SlO— G6~pt. 1 IS 



560 COMMIINIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long had you been employed there? 

Mrs. Burke. I was there for 13 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Commencing in what year? 

Mrs. Burke. Actually it is more than that. Part time from 1948 
until 1951 and full time from 1951 until last year. 

Mr. XiTTLE. In what month of last year did you cease your em- 
ployment at Michael Reese Hospital? 

Mrs. Burke. May. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your husband, Dr. Gerald Burke, also employed at 
Michael Reese Hospital? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, he is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And he is presently employed there? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, he is. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have any employment at this time? 

Mrs. Burke. No, I do not. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Burke, would you tell us who invited you to seek 
employment at Michael Reese Hospital or suggested that it might be 
available to you? 

jMrs. Burke. ]My mother did. 

Mr. Nittle. Was your mother a resident of the United States at 
the time of your arrival here? 

Mrs. Burke. No, we came together. 

Mr. Nittle. I see. In addition to your uncle, Paul Heyman, did 
you have any other relative residing in the United States prior to your 
arrival here? 

Mrs. Bltrke. Yes, another uncle. 

Mr. Nittle. "What was his name? 

Mrs. Burke. Ernest Heyman. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Burke, it is the committee's information that dur- 
ing the course of your employment at the Michael Reese Hospital you 
had been a member of the Communist Party. Is this true? 

Mrs. Burke. I have a statement that I would like to read at this 
time if I might. 

At this point I should like to make a brief statement. 

I am not a Communist, and indeed over the years it has become 
clearer and clearer to me that the Communists are a deceitful and 
disruptive force. For a considerable period, I have had no associa- 
tion or activity that could remotely be deemed Communist, 

More important, possibly, is the fact that I have no information 
that could, directly or indirectly, affect the national security. I have 
no information relevant to the subject matter now being investigated 
by this committer. I am not prepared, hovrever, to name people wlio, 
like myself, may have committed some degree of youthful indiscre- 
tion. This committee's files are already too full of the names of 
innocent people subjected to harassment. 

Unfortunately, I am not well enough to spar with this committee, 
answering some questions and refusing to answer others. Nor does 
my financial or pliysical condition permit me to run the risk of con- 
tempt action. PTence, I liave decided not to waive the privilege against 
self-incrimination, of which my distinguished counsel informs me I 
have the right to avail myself. On this basis, I respectfully decline to 
answer this question or any other question that might waive the privi- 
lege against self-incrimination. T rely, in declining to answer, on the 
first and fifth amendments to tlie Constitution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 561 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do I understand you to invoke the self-incrimination 
clause of the fifth amenchnent in refusing to respond to the question 
last addressed to you ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes ; among other things. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Chairman, the witness in her statement has 
testified that she is not a Communist. In view of that testimonj^, I 
suggest that she has waived the privilege against self-incrimination 
with respect to questions relating to Communist Party membership. 
Therefore, I ask a direction that the witness respond to the question 
last posed to her as to whether she has ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party or was a member of the Communist Party in the course 
of her employment at the Michael Reese Hospital. 

Mr. Rauh. Mr. Pool, may I be heard on the question of waiver? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Rauh. Thank you, Mr. Pool. 

There are a number of cases indicating that the statement of pres- 
ent nomneinbership is not a waiver under circumstances where there 
was past involvement. Indeed tliere is a Supreme Court case where it 
was 9 years old, I believe, and there was a per curiam reversal ; I think 
it is called the Brown case. The world's most famous expert on the 
committee could give you the citation, I am sure. 

Mr. HiTz. Stefena Brown? 

Mr. Rauh. That may be it. There was a Supreme Court per 
curiam reversal w^iere they said they had not been a member for a 
number of years and the question was one of waiver. 

Lillian Hellman herself I think, Mr. Hitz, is aware of this case. 
Lillian Hellman said to this committee precisely what Mrs. Burke has 
said, and it is perfectly clear the conmiittee accepted that as a plea of 
the fifth amendment. The court is not goin^ to treat a statement of 
nonmembership at the present time as a waiver where past circum- 
stances carry over. I would certainly hope that the committee would 
direct that 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, I move that we recess at this point. 

Mr. Pool. The committee will stand in recess for about 5 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that tJie repoi-ter read the ques- 
tion propounded to the witness, that is, the question to which she 
invoked the fifth amendment and read her statement. 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows:) 

Mrs. Burke, it is the committee's information that during the course of your 
employment at the Michael Reese Hospital you had been a member of the Com- 
munist Party. Is this true? 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. For the last time, I direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion and wish to warn the Avitness of the penalties of being charged 
with contempt of Congress if she does not answer tlie question. 

]Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. Counsel. 



562 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, it is the committee's information that in 
1956 you were a member of tlie South Side Section or gi'oup of the 
Communist Party in the city of Chicago. Is this correct ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer tlie question. 

JNfrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I wish to inform the witness of the possibilities of being 
held for contempt of Congress if she fails to answer the question. I 
direct her to answer the question for the last time. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, it is the committee's information that in 
the latter 1950's you attended Communist Party meetings at the resi- 
'dence of Dr. Jeremiah Stamler and his wife, Eose Stamler. Is this 
true ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. For the last time, I direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion and point out the possibility that she could be held for contempt 
of Congress if she fails to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, you testified in your statement that you 
are not a Communist. Would you tell us, please, when you tenni- 
nated your membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, would you explain to the witness the dictum of 
law once a matter is opened on the subject of cross-examination? 
Would you explain that to the witness? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. Burke, the committee takes the position that, having testified 
that you are not a Communist Party member, the committee is now 
entitled to cross-examine you with respect to your membership in the 
Communist. Party and that, in effect, you have waived the privilege 
against self-incrimination. Do you understand that ? 

Mrs. Bltrke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I, also for the last time, direct the witness to answer the 
question and point out the possibility of being held in contempt of 
Congress if she fails to answer the question and all the preceding 
questions, in case you change your mind on the explanation counsel 
gave you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you aware that you cannot enter upon the record 
a self-serving declaration and then foreclose examination as to the 
truthfulness of that assertion by the invocation of the self-incrimina- 
tion clause of the fifth amendment ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. For the last time, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 563 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now the committee is also informed that at Communist 
Party meetings held at the Stamler residence Leon Gurley, now known 
as Leon Joy Jennings, was also in attendance. Is this a fact? 

]\Irs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. With the same warning as I have given you before, for 
the last time, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee's investigation also reveals that Milton 
Cohen and Benjamin Max Friedlander were also in attendance with 
you at meetings held in the Stamler residence. Is this true? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. For the last time, with the same warning previously given 
you, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman, I move we recess for 3 minutes, 

Mr. Pool. The committee will stand in recess for 3 minutes, if you 
will all step outside. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The subcommittee has considered wliat has just taken place in this 
executive session. The subcommittee has unanimously determined 
now to hold an open session and to examine you in this open session 
in accordance with the applicable rules of the House and of this 
committee. 

We hope that our examination of you can be concluded in about 
one-half hour. Because of your statement about your ill health, I 
would like to ask you whether you feel well enough to continue now. 
We are willing to postpone this hearing until this afternoon or until 
another day. It is your choice. 

Mrs. Burke. Now, 

Mr. Pool. You would like to have us continue now in open session? 

Mrs. Burke, Yes. 

(Whereupon, at 10:45 a.m., Tuesday, June 22, 1965, the executive 
session was recessed, the subcommittee to convene in open session.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, 

AREA 

Part 1 



TUESDAY, JUNE 22, 1965 

United States House of Eepresentati\t2S, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 : 45 a.m., in Room 313A, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Joe R. Pool presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and Del Clawson, of Cali- 
fornia.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ashbrook, 
and Clawson. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; and Neil E. Wetter- 
man, investigator. 

Mr. Pool. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Ashbrook. If you have anybody outside, they can come in to 
the open hearing. 

Mr. Pool. I will swear the witness in again. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

]Mrs. Burke. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP MATHILDE BTJEKE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOSEPH L. RAUH, JR. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, continue with the questions. 

Counsel should, for the record, make a statement about the opening 
statement. 

Mr. Nittle. I will go into that. 

Would the witness please state her full name and residence for the 
record ? 

Mrs. Burke. Mathilde Burke, 4800 Chicago Beach Drive, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

565 



566 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. Rauii. My name is Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. I have my law office 
at 1625 K Street. 

I should like the record to show that Mrs. Burke has bleeding ulcers 
and that we hope this can be done as painlessly and quickly as possible. 
We will cooperate in every respect. 

Mr. Pool. At this time, Counsel, I would like for the record to show 
that the witness has been shown a copy of the opening statement. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, you are aware that the hearing today is 
a continuation of hearings commenced in Chicago on ^lay 25, 11)65, 
relating to activities of the Communist Party in the Chicago, Illinois, 
area ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Rauh, you ha^e been furnished with a copy 
of the chairman's opening statement; have you not? 

Mr. Ralth. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I understand that you have given your client an 
opportunity to read that statement and have discussed it with her 
and that you waive the formal reading of the opening statement; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Rauh. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. Will the witness state for the record that she has seen 
the opening statement and read it ? 

Mrs. Burke. I read the opening statement. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, would you state the date and place of vour 
birth? 

Mrs. Burke. June 20, 1932, Amsterdam, Holland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliat was your maiden name ? 

jNIrs. Burke. Heyman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was j'our maiden name Mathilde Lea Helene Peere- 
boon? 

Mrs. Burke. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been known by or used that name ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Under what circumstances did you use that name ? 

Mrs. Burke. That was used in Holland; it was my father's name. 
I took my mother's name, Heyman, when my mother and I came to 
this country. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the wife of Dr. Gerald Burke ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, I am. 

jMr. NiTTLE. And you are now known as Mathilde Burke? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When were you married to Dr. Burke? 

Mrs. Burke. April 8 of last year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you enter the United States ? 

Mrs. Burke. December 1946. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you maintained your permanent residence in 
Chicago since that time ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, I liave. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On taking up your residence there did you live with 
relatives in the United States? 

Mrs. Burke. At tliat time or at any time ? 

Mr. Nittle. Upon your arrival in the United States, did 3'ou take 
up your residence immediately with relatives in Chicago? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 567 

Mrs. Burke. I don't remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What relative do you have m Chicago ? 

Mrs. Burke. I have an uncle in Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is his name '( 

Mrs. Burke. Paul Heyman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. I went to the Lyceum in Holland a few years 
after the v\'ar. Then when I came to Chicago I spent some time in the 
University of Chicago ; I am not exactly sure how much, it is over a 
year or so. I am not sure of the exact date. I spent some time in the 
evenings at Roosevelt University. 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. Could you tell us the approximate year or years in 
which you were in attendance at the University of Chicago ? 

Mrs. Burke. It must have been the early fifties, but I really am not 
sure of that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mrs. Burke. No, I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you made application for citizenship ? 

Mrs. Burke. No, I have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present employment ? 

Mr. Rauh. Just one moment. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Burke. I would like to add that I do intend to apply for 
citizenship. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present employment? 

Mrs. Burke. I am not employed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was your last employment ? 

Mrs. Burke. I did electrocephalography. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did you have that employment ? 

Mrs. Burke. At Michael Reese Hospital. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been employed at Michael Reese 
Hospital ? 

Mrs. Burke. I was there for 13 years, full time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what period ? 

Mrs. Burke. Also part time before that. I started full-time em- 
ployment there in 1951. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And until when? 

Mrs. Burke. May of last year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what period did you have part-time employ- 
ment there? 

Mrs. Burke. Prior to 1951. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your husband. Dr. Gerald Burke, also employed at 
Michael Reese Hospital ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, he is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us during what period he was employed 
there ? 

Mrs. Burke. He has been employed there since November of 1962. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were you invited to seek employment at the 
Michael Reese Hospital, or by whom was it suggested that such em- 
ployment might be available? 

Mrs. Burke. By my mother. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was she at any time employed at Michael Reese 
Hospital? 



568 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long was j^oiir mother employed at the hospital? 

Mrs. Burke. Until her death in 1956. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And commencing when? 

Mrs. Burke. Fairly closely after we came here, but I am not sure 
of the exact date when she started, not even the year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the course of your employment at the Michael 
Reese Hospital in Chicago, did you have occasion to meet, and did 
you know, Mrs. Rose Stamler and Dr. Jeremiah Stamler? 

Mrs. Burke. I would like to read this statement now. 

At this point I should like to make a brief statement. 

I am not a Commmiist, and indeed over the years it has become 
clearer and clearer to me that the Communists are a deceitful and 
disruptive force. For a considerable period, I have had no associa- 
tion or activity that could remotely be deemed Communist. 

More important, possibly, is the fact that I have no information 
that could, directly or indirectly, affect the national security. I have 
no information relevant to the subject matter now being investigated 
by this committee. I am not prepared, however, to name people who, 
like myself, may have committed some degree of youthful indiscre- 
tion. This committee's files are already too full of the names of 
innocent people subjected to harassment. 

Unfortimately, I am not well enough to spar with this committee, 
answering some questions and refusing to answer others. Nor does 
my financial or physical condition permit me to run the risk of con- 
tempt action. Hence, I have decided not to waive the privilege 
against self-incrimination, of which my distinguished counsel informs 
me I have the right to avail myself. On this basis, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer this question or any other question that might waive 
the privilege against self-incrimination. I rely, in declining to an- 
swer, on the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Rauh. Just one moment, please. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Burke. I would like to add something. This statement was 
appropriate for the executive session. There is a sentence I would 
like to strike out of this since it is no longer an executive session. 

The question was different in the executive session. This question — 
I would like to strike one sentence out of this statement. The sentence 
is as follows: "I have no information relevant to the subject matter 
now being investigated by this committee." 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Chairman. 

Mrs. Burke, you have said that you are not now a Communist and 
for years you have seen Communists as a "deceitful and disruptive 
force." I believe those were your words. You also state that you have 
no information bearing on the subject matter of this hearing or, direct- 
ly or indirectly, bearing on the national security. 

Now you may believe these things, but the committee investigation 
indicates otherwise. "We feel certain that you possess information 
most pertinent to this hearing and which has direct bearing on the 
national security. We also have reason to believe that, while your in- 
formation may concern some persons who have committed what you 
termed "some degree of youthful indiscretion," it is also true that you 
possess information concerning long-time, hardened Communists. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 569 

We ask you to cooperate with this committee, with this Government, 
by giving one of its duly constituted agencies information you possess 
which has a bearing on its constitutional function and the security and 
welfare of this Nation. 

Even though j^ou have said you are not a citizen of tliis Nation, I 
believe this country has been good to you since 1946. I would hope 
you would reconsider your statement and you would carefully examine 
your duty to this country, which is now your home. We certainly 
hope that you would respond honestly to the questions that have been 
asked, and I certainly would urge upon you to give consideration to 
helping this committee in its functions. 

Mr, Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on the statement. 

Mr. Pool. I wish to warn the witness of the possibilities of a charge 
of contempt of Congress being filed against her. With that warning I 
direct, for the last time, that the witness answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on mj' statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, are you aware that to justify your refusal 
to answer the question asked of you, your invocation of the self-incrim- 
ination clause of the fifth amendment must be made in good faith, that 
is, because you genuinely believe a truthful answer to the question 
would constitute an admission of a fact or facts or constitute a link in 
the chain of evidence or point to matters that may subject you to a 
criminal prosecution ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. The witness understands the statement of counsel for the 
committee ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Have you had a chance to confer with your counsel? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes, and I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. For the last time, I direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion with the warning that I previously have given you. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, are you aware that you may not properly 
invoke the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment for other 
reasons, or simply because you do not wish to cooperate as a witness? 

Mrs. Bi'Rke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you in this instance invoking the self-incrimina- 
tion clause of the fifth amendment in good faith ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes; among other things. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question last pro- 
pounded by the counsel for the committee. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. You are invoking the fifth amendment on this question? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 



570 COMMUTSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, are you presently a member of the Com-- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. BiTRKE, I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. "With tlie warning that I have given the last time, I direct 
the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, you have entered upon the record a self- 
serving declaration with which you have, in efl'ect, testified that you 
are not a Communist. You have now been asked whether you are 
a member of the Communist Party. Do you refuse to answer this 
question ? 

Mr. Rauh. I asked Mrs. Burke's husband to get some more milk 
and I didn't hear the question. Would you mind having the reporter 
read it back ? 

Mr. AsiiBRooK. Would counsel like to have a recess ? 

Mr. Rauh. No ; he has gone for the milk. 

Could we have the question read ? 

Mr. Pool. Read the last question. 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mrs. Burke, you have entered upon the record a self-serving declaration with 
which you have, in effect, testified that you are not a Communist. Tou have now 
been asked whether you are a member of the Communist Party. Do you refuse 
to answer this question? 

Mrs. Burke. The statement is clear, and I stand on it. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. I want to make clear, Mrs. Burke, that the question 
is not, "Are you now a Communist?" The question is, "Are you 
now a member of the Communist Party?" 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement, 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on m.y statement. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Burke, having entered on the record a statement 
that you are not a Communist and that you have no information 
relevant to the subject matter now being investigated by this com- 
mittee, you are advised that the committee views this statement as a 
waiver, and cross-examination upon this subject is in order, to test 
the credibility of your statement. Despite that knowledge, do you 
still invoke the statement as a basis for your refusal to testify? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness, as to all previous questions, that she 
should respond and I direct her to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. And on this question, I direct the witness also to respond. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information that in 1956 you 
were a member of the South Side Section, division, or group of the 
Communist Party. Is this true ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 



COMLIUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 571 

^Ir. Pool. I direct the ^vitness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, ConnseL 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at that time or subsequently a member of 
a Communist Party group of which Rose Stamler served as chair- 
man ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

]\Irs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that, in the latter 
1950's, you attended Communist Party meeting-s at the residence of 
Dr. Jeremiah Stamler and his wife, Rose Stamler. Is this true? 

]Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

]Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question with the 
previous warning that I have previously given. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that, at Communist 
Party meetings held in the Stamler residence, Leon Gurley, now 
known as Leon Joy Jennings; Milton Cohen; and Benjamin Max 
Friedlander were also in attendance. Is this true ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

ISIrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NriTLE. During the course of your membership in the Com- 
munist Party, have you laiown Yolanda Hall? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NrxTLE. During the course of your membership in the Com- 
munist Party in the Chicago area, have you also known Sam Parks? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NrrTLE. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you know both Yolanda Hall and Sam Parks to 
be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

INIrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. Would you tell us, please, when you terminated your 
membership in the Communist Party, if you did so ? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

oMrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Nittle. By whom were you invited to join, or by whom were 
you assigned to, the South Side Club or Section of the Communist 
Party of wiiicli Rose Stamler was chairman ? 

IVIrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wliile employed at the Michael Reese Hospital, did 
you then know Dr. Jeremiah Stamler and his wife, Rose Stamler? 

INIrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 



572 coMJviinsriST activities ix the Chicago, Illinois, area 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet in Communist Party meetings at any 
time in the home of Dr. Jeremiah Stamler? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Have you at any time since your arrival in the United 
States traveled outside of the United States? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Burke. The answer is "yes." 

Mr. NiTTLE. To what country or countries did you travel ? 

Mrs. Burke. I went to Switzerland and Holland once and to 
Canada once. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what years did you travel to those places you 
have named? 

Mrs. Burke. I went to Holland and Switzerland in 1961 and to 
Canada last year. 

Mr. Nfttle. Have you traveled to any other country? 

Mrs. Burke. I have not. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Have you spent any time in Mexico ? 

Mrs. Burke. No. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman, could I interpose a question? 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mrs. Burke, if I understood correctly, you deleted 
a sentence from your statement on the theoiy that it was relevant in 
the executive session but it is not now relevant in the public session. 
If I understood you correctly, it is this, and I quote: "I have no in- 
formation relevant to the subject matter now being investigated by 
this committee.'' 

Am I correct that that is the sentence that you did request to have 
deleted from the statement? 

Mrs. Burke. That is the statement. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Would you tell the committee why you felt that 
was relevant in the executive session but it is not now relevant? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Ashbrook. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, are you finished with the interrogation about 
her travel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. I would like to ask the witness what other countries she 
traveled to in the last few years? 

Mrs. Burke. None. 

Mr. Pool. None other than the ones you have testified to? 

Mrs. Burke. That is right. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Counsel. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mrs. Burke, in September of 1957, or al')out that 
time, you were asked to appear before the Immigration and Naturali- 
zation Service to discuss your status as an alien ; were you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Burke. No. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Did you receive any request from the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service to appear at its offices? 

Mrs. Burke. I did not. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" THE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AREA 573 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you contact an attorney named Walter Soroka 
n.nd authorize him to advise the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service that there was no reason for you to be questioned or to 
appear? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. BuEKE. Could you repeat that question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you employ an attorney named Walter Soroka 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, are you repeating the question ? Is that it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. All right. There was no answer and that is why I inter- 
rupted. Are you rephrasing the question ? 

Mr. NiiTLE. I am rephrasing the question. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you employ Walter Soroka to represent your 
interests with the Immigration and Naturalization Service at or 
about that time ? 

Mrs. Burke. I only remember employing him on an automobile 
accident I was involved in. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Counsel, would that have been at the same general 
time? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that about 1957 ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. Rauh. Mr. Chairman, I think at this point it is a little unfair 
to have a man from the Immigration Service in the room knowing 
ell the facts which could be spread on the record, instead of asking 
vague questions which this poor lady could not possibly remember. 
The man is right there; why doesn't he tell the facts as the Immigra- 
tion Service knows them ? 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, it is a public hearing and anyone can come to 
the hearing. She made an answer to the question there. 

Counsel, continue with your question. 

Mr. Rauh. No, but the record should show that, while this is a 
public hearing and anyone can come, your own staff has been over 
conferring with him. 

INIr. Pool. Counsel, continue the questions. 

The rules of the committee limit an attorney to advising the wit- 
ness and not to make statements to the committee. I want to inform 
the counsel for the witness of that. 

Go ahead. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Burke, would you tell the committee, please, 
when you first joined the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Burke. I stand on my statement. 

Mr. NiiTLE. INIr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Wiat was that ? 

IVIr. NiTTLE. We have no further questions to ask of this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Does the committee have questions? 

Well, if there are no further questions then, it is now 25 minutes 
to 12. 

Just a second. 



574 coMMinsrisT activities in the Chicago, Illinois, area 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, before concluding I think the record 
should reflect that Mrs. Burke was originally subpenaed to appear 
on May 25, 1965, at the Chicago hearings. At that time and place, 
her counsel requested that the hearing be continued because of illness 
on the part of the witness. We granted that continuance and the 
hearing was held here today pursuant to that continuance. 

jNIr. Pool. Let the record so state. 

To the witness I would like to address the remarks that we held this 
earlier session in executive session, hoping that the witness would 
cooperate with the committee in our work in trying to find out facts 
that are helpful to the American people, and we are disappointed 
that the witness has not seen fit to cooperate in answering the ques- 
tions as put by the counsel. We were hopeful that by voting to 
make it public session, in which the witness acquiesced, that she 
would cooperate. And we are disappointed that we have not been 
able to get information that we think is vital to this country. 

If the witness has any further statement to make or wishes to 
change any of her testimony, she is now given an opportunity to 
do so. 

Mrs. Burke. I have nothing further. 

Mr. Pool. All right. The subcommittee will stand adjourned 
then. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :40 a.m., Tuesday, June 22, 1965, the subcom- 
mittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Page 

Ackerman, Sam 452 

Alexander. Ann 370 

Allen, Steve 449 

Allport, Gordon W 449 

Altbach, Philip G 449 

Anderson, Faith A 449 

Angert, Bernard 3.54 

Anglin, Frank 338, 513 

Aptheker, Herbert 315, 351, 482 

Arkler, Leonard 403 

Armstrong, Lucius 304, 

307-313, 321, 359, 360, 368, 370, 373, 374, 387-406 (testimony), 437, 

442, 455, 467, 544, 548-549 (testimony) 
Atkinson, Laura Rae. {See Blough, Laura Rae.) 

Averill, Thomas B 449 

Averill, Mrs. Thomas B 449 

B 

Baese, Walter, Jr 449 

Balla, Arpad 359 

Barenblatt (Lloyd L.) 328 

Baron, Harold 449 

Baron, Mrs. Harold 449 

Barratt. Eveangeline 449 

Bean, Adelaide 449 

Bekenstein. Mrs. Harry 444 

Belafonte. Harry 449 

Bentall, David 3f)l 

Bergman, Mrs. Lewis 449 

Bernstein, Leon 444, 449 

Bernstein. Mrs. Leon 449 

Berry, Rosalie 415 

Berryhill, .John 449 

Berryhill, Mrs. John 449 

Beverly. Carrie Mae 370 

Black, Henry 415 

Blau, Peter M 449 

Blau. Mrs. Peter M 449 

Bloom, Charles 449 

Bloom, Mrs. Charles 449 

Blough, Laura Rae (Mrs. John H. Blough, formerly Mrs. Paul Lerman, 

nee Atkinson) 318,319.528-537 (testimony) 

Blum, Emanuel 397 

Bowman, Jesse 396 

Bradbury, Ray 449 

Braden, Carl 471 

Bradley. Lyman R 415 

Brail, Philip 450 

Brail. Mrs. Philip 450 

Brandstetter, Ellen 498, 499 

Brennan (William J.) 550 

i 

52-810— GG—pt. 1 19 



ii INDEX 

Page 
Brotlsky, Max 450 

Brodsky, Mrs. Max 450 

Browder, Earl 426 

Brown. Etta 450 

Brown, Stefena 561 

Burke, Gerald 322, 559. 560. 566. 567, 570 

Burke, Matbilde Qlrs. Gerald Burke) (also known as Mathilde Heyman, 

Mathilda Lea Helene Peereboon) 322. 

323.557-563 (testimony), 565-574 (testimony) 
Butler. Allan M 449 

C 

Gaille. Adelaide 461 

Campbell (William J.) 349 

Canby. Henry S 449 

Cantor, Harry 354, 446 

Carnow, Bertram W 450 

Carnow, Mrs. Bertram W 450 

Century, S 450 

Century, Mrs. S 450 

Chase, Mae 450 

Childs, M 424 

Childs, Morris 426 

Clark, Grace 307, 380. 381. 497 

Clark, M 424 

Clark. Tom 421, 505. 522 

Cleveland. Forrest F 450 

Cohen. Milton Mitchell 306, 

308, 311. 313. 325, 339. 353. 359, 366, 370, 376. 402, 403, 427. 428. 438- 
440 (testimony), 445, 446, 448, 450, 451,' 452,' 461, 462,' 472, 509, 
563, 571. 

Coleman, Samuel 416 

Collins, Harold 415, 416 

Cotton, Eugenie 502-504 

Cox, Stanle.v. (See Jones, Wilberforce Cox.) 

Crilev, Florence 318, 531, 534 

Criley, Richard L. (Dick) 366,378,379,442,435,531 

Crumley, Lloyd 370 

Czarnowski, Anzelm (A.) 313,458-460 

D 
D'Arli«s 334 

Daugherty (Mally S.) 327 

David, Eugene. ( See Englestein, David. ) 

Davidon, William C 449,450 

Davies, Dorothy 359, 360, 366, 446 

Davis, Bill "Red," Jr 373 

Davis, Max 450 

Davis, Mrs. Max , 450 

Davis. Sam 448 

Dennis. Eugene 319, 328. 432 

Dennis. Tommy 371, 373 

DeWolf. L. Harold 449 

Diskin, Louis (born Harrv L. Diskin) 306, 

308-310, 325, 337, 338, 345, 351, 354, 356, 359, 366, 369. 370, 376, 

378, 403, 404, 407-418 (testimony) , 446. 

Dolby, Richard 397 

Douglas, Helen Gahagan 450 

Dubocq, Mrs. John W 450 

Dunlap, Edna C 450 

Dunn, Robert W 415 

Dycus, Martina 368 



^ Appears as Kohen. 



INDEX iii 

E Page 

Eberhardt, E 424 

Eby, Kermit 400 

Eichelberger, Clark M 450 

Eisenhower (Dwight D.) 313,460,461 

Eisler (Gerhart) 3!>2, 3«9 

Eklund, John G 4r.0 

Ellis, Pat 377 

Engel, Joseph 450, 452, 461 

Engel, Mrs. Joseph 450 

Englestein, David (aliases: Eugene David, David Miller, Theodore Myron, 

Richard Walter Merle) 306,308,310,311,325,337, 

351, 357-359, 366, 378. 401-403, 406. 407, 418-438 (testimony), 446 

Englestein, Fritzie (Mrs. David Englestein) 357,359,368,446 

Epstein, Edith 416 

Epstein, Israel 416 

Evergood, Philip 416 

F 

Falls. Arthur G 450 

Faulhaber, Robert 450 

Faulhaber, Mrs. Robert 4-50 

Feiffer, Jules 4.50 

Feinberg, Majorie 450 

Feirtag, Jean 416 

Fey, Harold E 450 

Field, Frederick V 415 

Fine, M 424 

Finkelstein, Sidney 416 

Fischer, Charles H 450 

Fischer, Mrs. Charles H 4.50 

Flory, Ishmael 306, 373, 382, 428, 485 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley 505 

Poner, Jack 416 

Foner, Philip S 41.5,416 

Fontana, Nick 394 

Fosdick, Harry Emerson 4.50 

Foster (William Z.) 429 

Frankfurter (Felix) 328 

Friedell, Morris 4.50 

Friedlander, Benjamin Max (correct name Max Benzion Fried- 
lander) 306, 308, 312, 313, 32.5, 337, 358, 366, 378, 401, 403, 440^.53 

^(testimony), 462, 509, .563, .571. 

Friedlander, Mrs. Ben 450 

Friedlander, Eva 380 

Friedlander, M 450 

Friedlander, Mrs. M 450 

Friedlander, Max Benzion. {See Friedlander, Benjamin Max.) 

Friedman, Bernard S 416 

Friedman, Robert 504 

Fromm, Erich 4.50 

Furst, Joseph B 416 

G 

Gebert, Bill 392 

Geller, Bob 435 

George, David 370 

George, Lillian 357 

Germano, Joe 394, 395 

Gilfond, Bernard 4.50 

Gilmore, Milton 370 

Glagov, Seymour 450, 4.52, 461 

Glagov, Mrs. Seymour 4.50 

Glattfield. Mrs. John 450 

Gluck, Sidney 416 

Gockel, Galen 445 



iv IXDEX 

Page 

Gold, Mollie 357-359, 366, 448 

Gold, Ruben 450 

Gold, Sam 359, 366, 448 

Golden, Helen 450 

Goldway, David 415, 416 

Goodelman, Aaron 416 

Goodman, Gordon L 450 

Goodman, Mrs. Gordon L 450 

Gorman, Patrick E 450 

Gourfain, Ed 450 

Gourfain, Mrs. Ed 4.50 

Grapius, Walter 450 

Grass, Charles 4.50 

Green, Ben 435 

Green, Jacob 373 

Green, William 393 

Gulkow.itz, Sarah 335 

Gurley, Leon. (See Jennings, Leon Joy.) 

H 
Haessler, C 424 

Hall, Flora (Flo) 303, 304, 330, 348, 351, 356, 359, 364, 366, 372, 374 

Hall, Yolanda (Mrs. Charles Hall) 319, 

320, 323, 325, 331, 337, 338, 340-344, 400, 401, 430, 432, 435, 436, 
473, 479-481, 537-547 (testimony), .550-552, 571 

Ham, John 450 

Ham, Mrs. John 450 

Harlan (John M.) 328 

Harold (Mr.) 390 

Hart, Pearl M 337, 338, 345, 346, 403, 407, 4.53 

Havighurst, Robert 450 

Havighiirst, Mrs. Robert 450 

Hayes, Dorothy Mixter 306, 

307, 316, 317, 325, 326, 338, 366, 378, 380, 387, 446, 448, 4.50, 451, 
492, 493-512 (testimony) 

Haywood, H 424 

Hellman, Lillian 561 

Henderson, A 424 

Herman, Irving 4.35 

Herrick, Earl 450 

Herrick, Mrs. Earl 450 

Herzog, Allen 450 

Herzog, Mrs. Allen 450 

Hess, Nina D 450 

Hester, Hugh B 450 

Heyman, Ernest 559, 560 

Heyman, Mathilde. {See Bui'ke Mathilde.) 

Heyman, Paul 559, 560, 567 

Higgins, Paul 450 

Hill, Gertrude 450 

Hill. Michael 450 

Hill, Mrs. Michael 450 

Hirsch, Carl 4-35 

Hirsch, H 450 

Hirsch. Mrs. H 450 

Hirschl, Mrs. Marcus A 450 

Hir.«chmann. Ira 450 

Hodgson, Marshall 4.50 

Hodgson. Mrs. Marshall 450 

Hofeman, David 474, 478 

Hoffman. Hollock 450 

Holmes, Lola Belle 301-307, 

309-318. 331-336 (testimonv). 347-383 (tef-timony). 403, 406. 408, 
412, 437, 438, 442. 446-448. ^5L 4.55. 467. 477, 478, 482, 486-487 
( testimony ) , 488, 495, 497, 511, 513, 519-521, 523, 544 
Holmgren, Edward 450 



INDEX V 

Page 

Holmgren, Mrs. Edward 450 

Hoober, Dan 452 

Hoover, J. Edgar 31G, 492 

Houghteling, Frederic 444 

Howard, M 424 

Hughes, H. Stuart 450 

Hunton, William A 415 



Inger, Sarah 450 

Isgrig, Aimee M 450 

J 

Jeans, Katherine (Kathy) 452,461 

Jeans, Robert 450 

Jeans, Mrs. Robert 450 

Jeffers, Dorothy M 318, 319, .5.33 

Jenner, Albert E., Jr 319, 321, 337, 340-343, 473, 480, 481, 537, 547, 550. 5.51 

Jennings, Leon Joy (Mrs. William Henry Jennings, also known as Gurley) 303. 
304, 306, 317, 318, 323, 325, 338, 345, 370-373, 512, 513-528 (testimony) , .563, 571 

Jennings, William Henry 304, 373 

Jojmson, H ^ 424 

Johnson, Paul 450 

Johnson, Mrs. Paul 450 

Johnson, Mrs. Walter 450 

Johnstone, Jack 397 

Jones, Linzey 4.35 

Jones, Sarah 381, 382, 448 

Jones, Wilberforce Cox (also known as Stanley Cox, Bill Price) 304, 

306, 308, 313, 314, 325, 337, 338, 345, 370, 371, 373, 403, 463-471 (testimony) 

K 

Katzen, Leon 4.35, 442, 443 

Kelley, Thomas E 4.50 

Kellev, Mrs. Thomas E 4-50 

Kelly, Walt 450 

Kenneth, Irene 450 

Kent, F 424 

Kilburn, Albert 4.50 

Kilburn, Mrs. Albert 4.50 

Kimmel, Al 359 

Kimmel, Alice 370, .373 

King, Martin Luther, Jr 450 

Kinov, Arthur 546 

Klein, Edward E 4.50 

Knauer, Isabel 450, 452,^ 461 

Knight. O. A 4.50 

Koch, Irene 450 

Koraorowski, Conrad 435 

Kosman. Jeanne 450 

Kramer, Victoria (Vickie). (/See Starr, Victoria.) 

Krchmarek, Anthony 398 " 

Kushner, Samuel (Sam) 303, 304. 348, 359, 364, 366, 372, 374, 375, 435 

L 

Landman, George 335 

Langford. Anna R 338, 345, 474, 479, 513, 515 

Lassers, Willard J 338, 493 

Lawson, Mrs. Ernest 450 

Lens. Sidney 449 

Lerman, Laura Rae. ( See Blough, Laura Rae. ) 

Levin, Joseph 449 



^ Appears as Isobel. 
2 Appears as Anton. 



Vi INDEX 

Page 

Levin, Mrs. Joseph 449 

Leviiie, Harry 449 

Levine, Mrs. Harry 449 

Lewis, John L 393 

Lewis, L 424 

Lewis, Len 424 

Lewis, Pat 435 

Lieber, Mollie. ( See West. Mollie. ) 

Lifton, Robert 449 

Lifton, Mrs. Robert 449 

Lightfoot, Claude M 302-304, 

306, 312. 314, 321, 333, 336. 348, 351, 358, 359, 364, 366, 370, 376, 399, 
417, 428, 429, 446, 447, 470, 482, 484-486, 500, 523, 549. 

Lightfoot, Geraldine 357, 359, 364, 366-368, 370, 382, 435 

Livingston, M. Stanley 450 

Lucas. Mae 370 

Ludwig, F 424 

Lumer, Hyman 351, .362 

Lumpkin. Frank 397 

Lundgren, Lee 318, 319, 534 

Lutz, Bea. ( See Tarrson, Bea. ) 

Lyttle, Charles 449 

Lyttle, Mrs. Charles 449 

MacRae, Edith 449 

Malmquist, V 424 

Manzardo, Mario 397 

Maremont, Arnold H 450 

Mates, D 424 

Mazeika, John 359, 368 

McBain, Francis 354, 370 

McBain, Gertrude 335, 354, 359, 378 

McGrain (John J.) 327 

McPherson, Al 368, 373 

McShane (James J. P.) 554 

Meeks, Winifred 449 

Meier, Deborah 452 

Meier, Fred 449 

Meier, Mrs. Fred 449 

Melman, Seymour 450 

Merle. Richard Walter. (See Englestein. David.) 

Meslow. A. H 450 

Meyer, Richard A 444 

Meyers, Gert 435 

Meyers, Irving 337, 345, 387, 463 

Miller, David. (See Englestein, David.) 

Miller, Merlin G 449 

Miller. Versta 306, 314. 315, 325, 382, 473, 474-486 (testimony) 

Mills, C. Wright 450 

Mitchell, Martin 368. 448 

Morgan, Anna (Mrs. Richard Morgan) 306, 368, 380, 447,' 449,' 509' 

Morgan, Richard 449 

Morton, T 424 

Moses, Joe 449 

Mueneh, Ruth 444, 4.52 

INIumford, Lewis 450 

Murphy, Alice 370 

Murray, Philip A 393, 394 

Myron, Theodore. (See Englestein, David.) 

X 

Xaisbitt, John 4.50 

Xaisbitt, Mrs. John 450 



1 Appears as Ann. 



INDEX vii 

Page 

Nakagawa, Fred 450 

Nelson, Carl 442 

Neugarten, F 450 

Neugarten, Mrs. F 450 

Neutra, Ricbard 450 

Newman, William F 450 

O 

Ollendorff, Klaus 444 

Orlikoff, Richard 339, 403, 438 

Osborn, Earl D 450 

Ostrowsky, Clara 415 



Parks, Sam 571 

Paskoff, Benjamin 415 

Passarelli, Romolo 359, 446, 447 

Patner, Marshall 528 

Paul, Emmett 397 

Peereboon, Mathilde Lea Helene. (See Burke, Mathilde.) 

Penha, Armando 510 

Pennington, Leslie 450 

Perlo, Victor 351 

Picheny, Elias 450 

Picheny, Mrs. Elias 450 

Picken, Robert F 444 

Podore, I. D 450 

Podore, Mrs. I. D 450 

Poindexter, David 307, 389 

PoUak, Gladys J 450 

Pollak, Janet S 450 

Pomerance, Josephine W 450 

Pontius, Dale 445, 450, 461 

Pontius, Mrs. Dale 450 

Popova, Nina 502-504 

Potash, Irving 352 

Powell 394,395 

Prendergast, Bea 450 

Price, Bill. ( See Jones, Wilberf orce Cox. ) 

Price, Charles C 450 

Prosten, Ann (Mrs. Jesse Prosten) 380,' 435, 447, 448, 451, 509 

Prosten, Jesse 450 

Q 

Queen, Daniel (Danny) 303,359.364.366,372.376,377,417,448,488,489 

Queen, Helen Fotine (Mrs. Daniel Queen, nee Pantazopoulos) 306, 

315, 316, 325, 337, 401, 402, 486, 487^92 (testimony) 

R 
Rail. Mary E 450 

Randolph. A. Philip 304,372-374.456,470.471 

Rauh. Joseph L.. Jr 557,558,565,566 

Regier, Minna D 4.50 

Reinke. .lohn 397 

Richards, Jesse 368, 370 

Riesman, David 450 

Robeson. Paul, Jr 398,399 

Roddy. Thomas 444 

Roman, Maurice 450 

Roman, Mrs. Maurice 450 

Roosevelt (Franklin D.) 405 

Rosenbloom. Irving 444 

Rosenthal, Paul 450 



1 Appears as Anna. 



viii INDEX 

Page 

Rubenstein, Boris B 450 

Paibio, Al 435 

Rubio, Helen 435 

Russell, Maud 510 

Ryan, Robert 450 

S 

Sacher, Harry 415 

Safifold, Lula A 307,370,380,381,447,448,497,500 

Sahud, Freda 450 

Saltzinau, Rubin 415 

Sandbaeh, Walker 450 

Sandbach. Mrs. Walker 450 

Sarniak, Grace 359, 376 

Sarniak, Tony 368 

Saunders, Mike 351, 354, 357, 358, 370 

Schmies, J 424 

Schneiderman, Harry 450 

Schneiderman, Mrs. Harry 450 

Schnetzler, Edward G 450 

Schnetzler, Mrs. Edward G 450 

Schemer, Howard 450 

Schomer, Mrs. Howard 450 

Schroeder, Carl A 499 

Schubert, Jack 450 

Schuchman, Herman 450 

Schuchman, Mrs. Herman 450 

Schulauch, Margaret '. 415 

Schwimmer, Sylvia 335 

Schy, Maurice H 450 

Scott, Gladys 450 

Seaton, R. W 450 

Seaton. Mrs. R. W 450 

Seed, William H 450 

Seidman, Joel 450 

Seidman, Mrs. Joel 450 

Selsam, Howard 415 

Senuett, Bill 435 

Sennett, W 424 

Sheridan, Jessie 461 

Sheridan, Joseph T 450 

Sheridan, Mrs. Joseph T 450 

Shields, B 424 

Shlien, John 450 

450 

450 

450 

368 

450 

450 

450 

450 

450 

450 

450 

450 

450 

319, 534 

450 

450 

450 



Shlien, Mrs. John 

Shufro, Milton 

Shufro, Mrs. Milton 

Silver, Maurice 

Simon, Ralph 

Simonson, Catherine 

Simonson, David 

Singer, J. David 

Skinner, Mark 

Skinner. Mrs. Mark 

Smith. Cyril Stanley 

Smith. Ellsworth 

Smith, Mrs. Ellsworth 

Smith. Willie :\rne 

Sor-kmnn. Ralph 

Solomon. Bon 

Solomon. ^Irs. Ben 

Soroka. Walter 573 

Sornkin. Pitirim A 4.50 

Sotis, Charles 354, 359 

SnaHina:, Edward J 450 

Springer, Helen L 450 



INDEX ix 

Page 

Squier, George 415 

Stalin, Josef 404 

Stamler, Jeremiah 311. 317- 

323, 331, 336-344, 386, 400, 401, 430, 439, 473, 480, 507-509, 511, 512, 
524, 525, 534-536, 538-544, 546, 547, 549, 550-552 (testimony), 562, 
563. 568, 571. 572. 

Stamler. Rose (Mrs. Jeremiali Stamler) 318, 322, 323. 525, 562, 563, 568, 571 

Starr, Ed 435 

Starr, Marcia 359, 448 

Starr, Victoria (Viclvie) (Mrs. Edward Starr; also known as Victoi'ia 

(Vickie) Kramer) 368 

Steinberg. Irving G 337, 401, 403. 407, 418, 440, 487 

Stevens, R. James 450 

Stevens, Mrs. R. James 4.50 

Striiik, Dirk J 415 

Sullivan, Thomas P 320, 321 

337. 339-342, 386, 402, 403, 480, 517, 587, 538, 540, 542, 546, 547, 
550, 551. 

Swann, James A 4.50 

Sweany, Donald I., Jr 543 

T 

Tannenbaum, Jerry 450 

Tarrson, Bea (formerly Bea Lutz) 368 

Tate, Jim 435 

Taylor, Harold 4.50 

Thomas, Adele 370 

Thnrman, Howard 4.50 

Tierney, Joseph 5.54 

Tillman, Raymond 4.50 

Tillman, Mrs. Raymond 4.50 

Toi>ercer, Rose 302, 3.34, 335 

Towle, Charlotte 4.50 

Trachtenberg, Alexander 415 

Travis, Sophia B 4."0 

Truax, Marshall 4.50 

U 

Untermeyer, Louis 4-50 

V 

Van Cleve, William J 4.50 

Van Cleve, Mrs. William J 4.50 

Van Howe, Sue 498,490 

Vincent, Le Nard 313,457 

Visscher, Maurice B 4.50 

Vivian, Fran 3.59 

Voorhis, Jerry 4.50 

W 

Walter. Bruno 4.50 

Wangerin. Otto 353, 354, 358, 359, 370. 396 

Warren. Earl ^^^tO 

Washington, Bert 371. 373 

Watson, George 4.50 

Weil, F. Peter 4.50 

Weinstein. Jacob 4.">0 

Werner, Mazen G 4,^0 

West, James (Jim) 336,348,3.51,359.364,366,418 

West, Mollie (nee Lieber) 3-57,359,435,448,479 

Wetterman. Neil E r>4S 

Wheeler (William A.) 532, 535, .5.36 

Wickstrom, Esther Eisenscher 359 

Wickstrom, Lester 357. 359 

Wilkerson, Doxey A 415 

Wilkinson, Frank 471 



X INDEX 

Page 
Williams, Donner 390 

Williams, Kale, Jr 450 

Williams, Mrs. Kale, Jr 450 

Williamson. Mel 435 

Willis (Edwin E.) 311,319,439,542,544,546 

Wilson, Charles Fehninger 304, 306, 308, 312, 313, 325, 337, 338, 345, 359, 370 

371, 373, 374. 403, 404. 448, 450-452, 453-462 (testimony) , 509 

Winter. Carl 352 

Witt, Nathan 415 

Wittenber, J 424 

Wolf. Aaron S 326,493 

Wolfson, Rudolph 450 

Wolfson, Mrs. Rudolph 450 

Wolins. LeRoy 379 

Woods, Sylvia 370, 377 

Wright, Milta 397 

Y 

Yaris. H 424 

Yellin (Edward) 488 

Young, Quentin 450 

Young, Ruth 415 

Z 
Zaslovsky, W 424 

Zawadowski, Joseph (Joe) 354,359,360,370 

ORGANIZATIONS 



AFL. (See American Federation of Labor.) 
AYD. (See American Youth for Democracy.) 

Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago, 111 428 

Afro- American Heritage Association 303, 306, 371, 382, 485, 486 

Ali-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (U.S.S.R.) 502 

Americcvn Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (see also Midwest 

Committee for Protection of Foreign Born) 377,402 

American Federation of Labor (AFL) 393 

American Friends Service Committee. (See Religious Society of Friends.) 
American Peace Crusade (see also American Youth Peace Crusade; Chi- 
cago Area Conference for World Peace Through Negotiations, October 

16-17. 195:3. Chicago, 111.) 317. .508, 509, 511 

Illinois Chapter 317, 506,507, 509 

American Women for Peace 506, 509 

American Youth for Democracy 315, 317. 318, 458, 478-480, 505, 522 

Illinois 318, 521, 522 

Illinois-Indiana 481 

Second National Convention, June 13-16, 1946, New York City— 318, 521, 522 

American Youth Peace Crusade (see also American Peace Crusade) 507, 508 

Annual Voters for Peace Rally, December 3, 1963, Chicago, 111 446, 447 

Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, 

United 312, 369, 457 

Local 4.53 (Chicago, 111.) 519 

Local 719 (Brookfield. 111.) 312,313,455,457-459 

Local 1301 (Chicago, 111.) 314, 467, 471 

C 

CIO. ( See Congress of Industrial Organizations. ) 

CORE. ( See Congress of Racial Equality. ) 

Central Council of the Trade Unions of the Soviet Union. (See All-Union 

Central Council of Trade Unions, U.S.S.R.) 
Chicago Area Conference for World Peace Through Negotiations, October 

16-17, 1953, Chicago, 111. (see also American Peace Crusade) 508,509 



INDEX xi 

Chicago Board of Health : Page 

Division of Adult Health and Education 343 

Heart Disease Control Program 319, 343, 344 

Chicago Call for Youth 414, 417 

Chicago Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. ( See entry under National 
Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. ) 

Chicago Committee for School of Social Science 417 

Chicago Committee to Defend Democratic Rights 378 

Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights 378, 442, 443 

Chicago Committee To Stop HUAC 552, 553 

Chicago Council of American-Soviet Friendship. (See entry under Na- 
tional Council of American-Soviet Friendship.) 

Chicago Council of Labor Union Veterans 457, 458, 505 

Chicago Health Research Foundation 319, 343, 344 

Chicago May Day Committee 418 

Chicago School of Social Science 302. 

309, 310, 332, 351-354. 362, 369, 414, 437, 438 

Chicago Unemployment and Housing Council 306, 314, 315, 382, 482-485 

Chicago Women for Peace 509 

Chicago Workers School. {See entry under Workers Schools.) 

Chicago Youth Centers, Lawndale Neighborhood Services 316, 497 

Commonwealth College (Mena, Ark.) 310.421,422,427 

Commonwealth College Association 421 

C^ommunist International. (See International III.) 
Communist Party of the United States of America : 
National Structure : 

Central Committee 307, 308. 391. 392 

Industrial Commission 397, 398 

National Board 304 

National Committee 306, 364, 390, 391, 426, 429, 549 

Negro Commission 303, 306, 318, 370, 371, 382, 455, 456, 470. 523 

Midwest Committee 371, 373 

Steel Commission 397, 398 

National Conventions and Conferences : 

Eighth National Convention, April 2-8. 1934, Cleveland, Ohio— 307, 390 

Sixteenth Convention, Februray 9-12. 1957. New York City 355,361 

Seventeenth Convention, December 10-13. 1959. New York City — 302, 
305, 308, 310, 336, 355-357, 359-365, 398, 412, 437, 443, 447 
National Youth Conference, December 30-31, 1960 — January 1, 

1961, Chicago, 111 316, 492 

Districts : 

District 8 (Illinois) : Control Commission 307,391 

District 8 (formerly Illinois and Indiana) 427,481 

States and Territories : 

California, San Francisco : Professional Section 319, 533 

Illinois 301-.574 

Party Staff 305, 309, 310, 348, 352. 364, 366, 412, 437, 438 

State Board 302. 304, 308-310, .3,36, 

350, 352, 3.53, 364, 366, 37^376. 403, 412, 417, 428, 429, 437, 446, 548. 

State Committee 304, 

305, 309, 311, 316, a36, 348, 350, 353, 355, 360, 366, 375. 379, 380, 
398. 403, 404, 412. 437. 442, 446. 447, 497, 511, 548. 
State Commissions and/or Committees : 

Civil Liberties Committee 366 

Education Commission 349, 353, 366, 375 

Housing, Education, Health, and Welfare Committee 366 

Jewish Commission 366 

Negro Commission 302, 303, 312, .313, 315. 318, 347, 

.349, 350, 366. .367, 370, 371, 375, 455, 470, 486, 521, .523 

Peace Commission 366 

Political Action Committee 366 

Press Committee 302, .347. .S66-.369 

Trade Union Commission 303. 

311, 336, 347, 349, ^50, 366, 367, 369, .370, 375, 412 
Youth Commission 349, 366, 377 



xii INDEX 

Communist Party of the United States of America — Continued 
States and Territories — Continued 
Illinois — Continued 

State Conventions and Conferences : Page 

Convention, 1947, Cliicago. Ill 313, 4r)S. 459 

Convention, 1948, Chicago. Ill 313, 4."38, 459 

Convention, first session, November 21-22, 1959, Chicago, 

111 305, 309, 310, 312, 336, 

355, 356, 353-361, 364. 365, 398, 412, 437, 442, 455. 
Convention, second session, January 24—25, 1960, Chicago. 

Ill 305. 309, 

310, 312, 316, 336, 355, 356, 364-366, 412, 437, 442, 455, 497 
Chicago Area : 

Albany Park Section 349,368 

Budda Club. (See entry under Steel Section.) 
Builders Trade Club. (See entry under Wagenknecht 
Section.) 

Douglas-Lincoln Section 36S 

Educational Committee. (See entry under South Side 

Section.) 
Educational Committee. {See entry under Wagenknecht 

Section.) 
Gary Club. (Sec enti-y under Steel Section.) 

Hansbrough Club 335, 370 

Hansbrough Section 349 

Housewives Club. {See entry under South Side Sec- 
tion. ) 

Hyde Park Section 349, 368 

Johnstone Section (see also Steel Section) 349,368,397 

Legal Club 347 

Leiber Section 349 

Loop Section .349 

Machinist Club. {See entry under Wagenknecht Sec- 
tion.) 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Section 349 

Needle Club. {See entry under Wagenknecht Section.) 
New Frontier Club ( formerly Packinghouse Workers 

Club) 335, 370 

Ninth Congressional District Section 349, 368. 446 

North Side Section 376 

Packinghouse Workers Club (subsequently New Frontier 

Club) 335. 370 

Packinghouse Workers Section 349 

Parsons Club 534 

Press Committee. (See entry under Wagenknecht Sec- 
tion ) . 
Printers Club. (See entry under Wagenknecht Section.) 

Professional Club 309,400 

Railroad Club. (See entry under Wagenknecht Section.) 
South Chicago Club. (-See enti"v under Steel Section.) 

South Chicago Section 349 

South Side Club 486 

South Side Section 314.322, 

349. 376, 381. 382, 389, 390, 477, 527, 562, 570, 571 

Educational Committee 376 

Housewives Club 381 

Unit 12 389,390 

Southeast Section 349, 368 

Southwest section 349, 368, 376 

Steel Section (see also Johnstone Section) 308, 

349, 393, 396, 397 

Budda Chib 397 

Gary Club 397 

South Chicago Ciub 397 



INDEX xiii 

Comiiuuiist. Party of the United States of America — Coutiuued 
States and Territories — Continued 
Illinois — Continued 

Chicago Area — Continued 

Teamsters Club. {See entry under Wagenknecht 

Section.) Page 

Thirteenth Congressional District Section 349, 36S 

Twelfth Congressional District Section 349,368 

Unit 12. (See entry under South Side Section.) 

United Auto Workers Section 349 

United Electrical Workers Section 349 

Wagenknecht Section 305, 

309, 334. 335, 349. 352, 354-356, 367, 412 

Builders Trade Club 349, 3-54 

Educational Committee 311, 350, 352, 353 

Machinist Club 349,354 

Needle Club 334, 335, 34^350 

Press Committee 367 

Printers Club 349,354,446 

Railroad Club 349, 3."3 

Teamsters Club 349 

West Side Section 349,368,376 

Cook County Committee 311,425,426 

-Education Department 428. 429 

New York State 310,413.418 

State Committee 416 

Ohio 398 

Communist Political Association : 

Disti'icts : Illinois-Indiana District 427 

Community Referral Service (Chicago, 111.) 505 

Congress for General Disarmament and Peace, July 1962, Moscow. (See 
World Peace Coiuicil, World Congress for General Disarmament and 
Peace.) 

Congress of American W^omen 317,504,509 

Chicago 317, 504, 505, 509 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 393,394,4.57,459 

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 303,371 

D 

Democratic Party 405 

E 

Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United (UE) 318. 534 

Local 1150 318, 319, 533, 534 

F 

Foreign Languages Publi-shing House (Moscow) 413 

Freedom of the Press Committee. Chicago. (See entry under National 
Committee for Freedom of the Press.) 

G 

Garment Workers' Union, International Ladies', AFI^CIO 302, 332-335 

Local 212 (Chicago, 111.) 302,332.335 

General Motors Corp.: La Grange, 111. (Electro-Motive Division) 312, 

313, 455-458. 460 
H 

Hyde Park-Kenwood Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. (See entry 

under National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy.) 
Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference 451 



INDEX 



I 



Illinois Assembly of the American Peace Ci'usade. (See American Peace 

Crusade, Illinois Chapter.) Page 

Independent Voters of Illinois 443-446 

International III (Communist) (also known as Comintern and Inter- 
national Workers' Association) : Seventh World Congress, July 25 to 

August 20, 1935, Moscow 424 

International Harvester Co 314,465-^67 

Intourist, Inc 501 

J 
Jefferson School of Social Science 310, 413-41G 

K 
Ku Klux Klan 513 

L 

Labor Youth League 411 

Illinois 411, 414 

Little Red School House 416 

M 

Michael Reese Hospital (Chicago, 111.) 322,559-561,567,568 

Midwest Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (Chicago, 111.) {see 

also American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born) 302, 332, 377-379 

Modern Book Store (Chicago, 111.) 353,354,412,417 

N 

NAACP. (See National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

People. ) 
NALC. ( See Negro American Labor Council. ) 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 

(NAACP) 303, 304, 318, 371-373, 523 

Chicago chapter 523 

National Committee for a Sane Nulear Policy ( SANE) 312, 313, 451, 452, 462 

Chicago Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy 461 

Hyde Park-Kenwood Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (Chi- 
cago, 111., area) 312, 313, 448-452, 461, 462, 509 

National Committee for Freedom of the Press (Chicago) 315,368,369,482 

National Comacil of American-Soviet Friendship: Chicago Council 379 

Negro American Labor Council (NALC) 303, 

305, 312, 314, 318, 336, 347, 350, 367, 371-374, 456, 470, 523 

Chicago area chapter 470 

North Hyde Park Area Independent Voters of Illinois 443—446 

O 

Office and Professional Workers of America, United 504 

Open Road, Inc., The (New York City) 316,501 

P 

Progressive Party 301, 302, 333, 334 

Progressive Youth Organizing Committee (PYOC) 316,492 

Public Assistance, Department of (Chicago, 111.) 485 

R 

Religious Society of Friends : American Friends Service Committee 446 

S 

SANE. (See National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy.) 

Socialist Party of the United States 365,451 



INDEX XV 

Page 

State Public Social Policies Committee (Chicago, 111.) 506 

Steelworkei's of America, United 370 

T 

Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America. Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of 354 

U 

UAW. (See Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers 
of America, United. ) 

Unemployment Council 307, 389 

Union des Femmes Franciases 502 

U.S. Government: 

Immigration and Naturalization Service. {See entry under Justice 

Department.) 
Justice Department : 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 301, 307, 308, 313, 333, 334, 388, 396 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 572, 573 

Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) 327,402,414 

Supreme Court 305, 306, 326-328, 348, 374, 375, 402, 471, 561 

United States Steel Corp 307,387,394,395 

South Works (Chicago, 111.) 394 

V 

Voice of Women, Canada 381 

Voice of Women, United States of America 381 

Voters for Peace 440 

W 
W.E.B. DuBois Clubs of America 418 

Welfare Council (Chicago, 111.) .505 

Women for Peace. (See Women's International Strike for Peace.) 
Women Strike for Peace. (jS'ee Women's International Strike for Peace.) 

Women's International Democratic Federation 317, 502, 504 

Second Congress, November 30, to December 6, 1948, Budapest. 

Hungary 317,502-504 

Women's International Strike for Peace (formerly known as Women 

Strike for Peace, Women for Peace, Women Stand for Peace) 306, 

379, 380. 446, 447 

Women's Peace & Unity Club 306, 307, 316, 380, 381, 497-500, 509 

Workers Schools : Chicago 311, 422-424, 427, 429, 430, 433-435 

World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY) 522 

World Peace Council : World Congress for General Disarmament and 

Peace, July 9-14, 1962, Moscow 445 

Y 
Young Communist League, USA 309, 318, 365, 399, 413, 522 

PUBLICATIONS 

A 

African Revolution, The 414 

C 
Communism — Menace or Promise? 414 

D 
Daily Worker 389 

Dieselworker 459 

F 

Far East Reporter .510 

Free Witches 400 

Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism 413 



xvi INDEX 

I 

Page 

Insurgent (publication of W.E.B. DuBois Clubs of America) 418 

J 
Journal of Atherosclerosis Research 343 

M 
Midwest Daily Record 426 

P 

Philosophy of Communism 414 

Political Affairs 351, 482 

Program of the Communist Party, The 414 

R 

Record. {See Midwest Daily Record.) 

S 
Social Work Today 506 

V 
Vilnis 389 

W 
Worlier, The 347, 362, 368, 369, 482 



o