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Full text of "Communist espionage in the United States; testimony of Frantisek Tisler, former military and air attaché, Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, D.C"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



us Doc 2.791 



Connnittee on Un-American Activities 
House 
86th Congress 



Table of Contents 

(Since these hearings are consecutively paged 
they are arranged by page nijmber, instead of 
alphabetically by title) 



1. Communist Espionage in the United States ^\^^ 

\, 2. Testimony of Anthony Krchmarek and Charles Musil ■\i^^ 

3. Commimist Activities Among Seamen and on 'S\Si 
Waterfront Facilities, pt.l 

k. Communist Penetration of Radio Facilities, pt.l V^*^ 

5. Testimony of Captain Nikolai Fedorovich t\^^ 
Artamonov 

6-9. The Northern California District of the )l>2 
Communist Party. Structure - Objectives - 
Leadership . pt . l-k 






X .i.....J3 iisi;. 



I COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF FRANTISEK TISLER 

Former Military and Air Attache, Czechoslovak Embassy in 

Washington, D.C. 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



RELEASED MAY 10, 1960 



Priated for the use of the Committee on Uu-Americau Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




/^HARVARD^ 

/UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
Mo27» WASHINGTON : 19G0 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Repeesentatives 

FEANCIS E. WALTEE, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, Califomia 

CLYDE DOYLE, Califomia GORDON H. SCIIERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOIIANSEN, MlchigaD 

RicnARD Arkns, Staff Director 

n 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Testimony of Frantisek Tisler 1723 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House oj Representatives oj the United Slates 
oj America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

8EC. 121. STANDJNn COMMITTEES 
***«>!<*« 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malve from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

• **«**• 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Uon 
gress, 

* * * * * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members, 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which Is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



COMMUNIST ESPI0XA(;E in the INITEI) STATES 

Testimony of Frantisek Tisler, Former Military and Air 
Attache, Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, D. C. 



UxiTED States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
The coinmittee met in executive session piu'siiant to call, Hon- 
orable Francis E. WaUer, chairman, presiding. 

Coinmittee members present: Representatives Francis E. WaUer 
of Pennsylvania and Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Ai-ens, staff director, and Donald T. 
Appell, investigator. 

Tlie Chairman. May we come to order. 

"Will you raise j'our right hand, please? Do you swear the testi- 
mony you are about to give in the matter now pending will be the 
truth, "the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Tisler. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANTISEK TISLER, FORMER MILITARY AND AIR 
ATTACHE, CZECHOSLOVAK EMBASSY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

The Chairman. I^et the record show that this particular hearing 
is being held at a time and place which cannot be revealed on the 
record. 

Proceed, Mr, Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Khidly identify j'ourself by name, date and place of 
bu'th, and previous occupational specialty'. 

Mr. Tisler. I am Frantisek Tisler and I was born on tlie 13th of 
December 1924 in Temehn, Czeclioslovakia. Temelin is located in 
the district of Tyn nad Vltavou in southern Bohemia, and at the time 
of my youth this was a rural agricultural area. Prior to the 25th 
of July 1959 my last position was that of Military and Air Attache 
at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, D.'C. As a result of 
my overt duties as military and air attache, I held the rank of 
heutenant colonel in the Czechoslovak Army. In addition to my 
duties as military and air attache, I was the chief of the Czechoslovak 
Military Intelligence Directorate Residentura, which had its liead- 
quarters at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, D.C, from 
wliich I defected in July 1959. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

I Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Arens. In other words. Colonel Tisler, you were both a 
professional army officer and an intelligence officer prior to the time 
of your defection? 

^Ir. Tisler. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please furnish us with a synopsis of your 
educational background? 

Mr, Tisler, I attended an elementaiy school for 5 years in 
Temelin and then entered the Jursikovo Gjannasiuin in Ceske Bude- 

1723 



1724 COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 

jovice. After 1938 I continued my gymnasium education at the 
Jiraskovo Gj^mnasium in Prague. I obtained a matura from this 
gymnasium in 1943. After I obtained my matura I attempted to 
enter a number of commercial art schools but was unable to do so, as 
a result of a law which the German occupation forces in Czechoslovakia 
had issued and which stated that no individual who was born in 1924 
could continue schooling beyond the matura level. 

This directive by the Germans decreed that all such individuals 
must work rather than attend school. As a result, my education was 
interrupted until July 1945. I entered the commercial college 
(Vysoka Skola Obchodni) in Prague in July 1945, but in view of finan- 
cial difficulties as well as the extremely crowded conditions which 
prevailed at this school at that time, I was forced to discontinue 
attendance. In October 1945, I was admitted to the philosophic 
faculty of Charles University in Prague. I studied at Charles Uni- 
versity until 1947, but finally withdrew from the university prior to tlie 
beginning of the fall semester of 1947, due to financial and family 
considerations. 

When I did not return to Charles University for the fall semester, 
I was subsequently drafted into the Czechoslovak Army on October 
1, 1947. In November 1947 I was assigned to a reserve officers' 
school at Klatovy, and I stayed at this school until May 1948. In 
October 1948 I entered the regular infantry officers' school at Hranice, 
and I subsequently graduated from this school in August 1949, with 
the rank of 2d lieutenant. At the time that I attended this school, 
it was known as the Military Academy (Vojenska Akademie). In 
October 1951 I started to attend the Military Staff Scliool (Vojenska 
Akademie Klementa Gottvalda) located in Prague. I graduated from 
this Military Staff School in July 1954, and this represented the com- 
pletion of my formal training as an army officer. I subsequently 
received additional training but this was specialized training for my 
activities as a military intelligence officer. 

Mr. Arens. If you don't mind, Colonel Tisler, we would prefer to 
return to your training as a military intelligence officer at a later 
portion of this session. 

Air. Tisler. I understand. 

Mr. Arens. It would be appreciated if you would outline briefly 
your family background. 

Mr. Tisler. My father is still residing in Czechoslovakia, and he 
is retired due to a bone disease and serious heart condition. My 
father was a tailor by profession. My mother is also living in Czecho- 
slovakia at the present time, and she is a maternity nm'se by profes- 
sion, although to the best of my knowledge she is no longer working, 
because she has to spend most of her time taking care of my father. 
I have a brother who is also residing in Czechoslovakia at the present 
time, but he too sufl'ers from a physical disability which he obtained 
as a result of working in the northern Bohemian coal mines. He is 
also retired. I have a sister who is also in Czechoslovakia and, as 
far as I know, she is employed in the Ministry of Internal Trade. 

Mr. Arens. Would you mind telling us, Colonel, if you are married 
and if you have any children? 

Mr. Tisler. Yes, I am married and my wife, Adela Tisler, nee 
Machacek, born March 27, 1926, at Jihlava, is a well-known amateur 
athlete. In the years 1947, 1948, 1954, and 1955 she was the women's 
champion of Czechoslovakia in the shotput. In 1956 my wife was 



COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 1725 

awarded the title Master of Sport by the Czechoslovak Government. 
We have been fortunate enoughjto have children, and these children 
are with us in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a brief synopsis of your wartime activi- 
ties at the time that Czechoslovakia was under German occupation. 

Mr. TisLER. As of September 1943 I was assigned by the labor 
office to work at the Czccli Moravian Machine Company in Prague, 
Holesovice. After this I was assigned to forced labor tasks in Vienna, 
Austria, and I arrived in Austria around February 1944. In the 
period November to December 1944, 1 was assigned to digging trendies 
at Kittsee near Bratislava. In late December 1944, I was assigned to 
a work project at Zdice in Bohemia. I worked in Zdice until Feb- 
ruary 14, 1945, and when I tieard that the Americans were bombing 
Prague, I left Zdice without permission and returned to Prague. I 
stayed in Prague until March 1945, and then was assigned to work in 
a lumber camp in tlie forest area of Doubravka near the city of 
Cerlienice, Bohemia. 

In April 1945 1 left this work again without permission and returned 
to Prague. In tlie early days of May 1945 there was a great deal of 
sporadic resistance to the Germans, and I joined a group of sucli 
resistance fighters. Our resistance activity was short-lived and did 
not last more than five or six days, because the Germans capitulated 
at tliis time and the war was over. 

That represents a brief summary of my life during the major portion 
of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Akens. Would you briefly tell us now about your military 
career up to the time that you received training as an intelligence 
officer? 

Mr. TiSLER. As I previously mentioned, I entered the army as a 
draftee on October 1, 1947. My basic training lasted until November 
15, 1947, at which time I was selected to attend the reserve officers' 
school at Klatovy. I attended this school until mid-May 1948, and 
while I was at this school, I was promoted to the rank of corporal in 
December 1947. I was subsequently promoted to sergeant in Febru- 
ary 1948. I received field training at Boletice from May to June 1948, 
and then my next significant assignment was the army airborne train- 
ing center at Straz pod Ralskem near Ceska Lipa. I attended another 
school there, and then entered the regular infantry officers' school at 
Hranice on October 5, 1948. I graduated from Hranice on August 
17, 1949, with the rank of 2d lieutenant. I was then assigned to the 
regular infantry officers' school at Hranice as an instructor. It was 
about this time that the school moved from Hranice to Lipnik nad 
Becvou. While I was at the infantry school, I taught infantry tactics 
and supervised a platoon of students. 

In March 1950 I was transferred to an airborne battalion and as- 
sumed the responsibilities of a company commander. In July 1950 
I became a staff assistant to the mobilization officer of this airborne 
battalion. In October 1950 I was transferred to the airborne com- 
mand in Prague, and I was stationed in the Ministry of National De- 
fense building in Prague. 

In October 1951 I was assigned to the Military Staff School in 
Prague. I attended the Faculty of General Tactics at this school, 
and while I was at the school I was promoted to 1st lieutenant in 
November 1951, and in late 1953 I was promoted to captain. After 

64527°— 60 2 



1726 COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 

my graduation from the Military Stafl' School in July 1954, 1 requested 
an assignment in Prague in operations or intelligence. 

That summarizes my military career prior to the time that I 
became involved in intelligence activities. 

Mr. Ahexs. Were 3^ou ever a member of the Czechoslovak Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. TisLER. Yes, I was a member of the Czechoslovak Communist 
Party from April 2, 1946, until my defection in July 1959, 

Mr. Arens. Are you still an ideological believer in communism? 

Mr. TisLER. No. I have not been an ideological believer in 
communism for a long period of time, although in the early days of 
my association with the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia I was 
an ideological believer. 

Mr. A KENS, Colonel Tisler, would you outline for us briefly why 
you joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and how it came 
to pass that you became disillusioned with the party? 

Air. Tisler. In October 1945 I joined the Czechoslovak National 
Socialist Party, and I was a member of that party until March 1946. 
My association with this particular political group convinced me that 
the policies and ideals of this party were without purpose. I was 
also convinced that this w^as a stagnant party which had no future, 
since this party was formed during the period of the Austro-Hungarian 
empire, and its original goal was the establishment of an independent 
Czechoslovak state. When this party was founded it was an aggres- 
sive and progressive party. 

After Czechoslovakia became an independent state, the National 
Socialist Party lost its aggressiveness. As far as the people of my age 
in 1945 and 1946 were concerned, the National Socialist Party was 
too conservative and old-fashioned, and it did not have any real 
popular appeal. As a result of these factors, I resigned from the 
National Socialist Party. At about this same time I became interested 
in communism, because it appeared to me that the Communist Party 
of Czechoslovakia was the only Czechoslovak party which offered a 
bold and aggi*essive plan for the reconstruction of Czechoslovakia 
after World War II. At that time I was in many waj^s politically 
naive, and I did not appreciate the fact that the Communist Party of 
Czechoslovakia was, in reality, subservient to the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union and, as such, was really a vehicle through which 
the influences of Soviet imperialism were being spread throughout 
Eastern Europe. 

I joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on April 2, 1946, 
and in view of my membership in the party prior to the coup of Febru- 
ary 1948, I was considered in subsequent years to be an old ardent 
Communist. My initial disillusionment with communism in practice 
began to take place while I was attending the Military Staft" School in 
Prague. It was at this school that I witnessed many incidents which 
proved to me that communism in practice was greatly different from 
theoretical communism. 

I was exposed to numerous incidents where members of the Com- 
munist Party who were high ranking officers in the army took ad- 
vantage of their position in oi'der to obtain personal advantages and 
job security. It was at this time that I began to see what Djilas 
subsequently pointed out in his book as the development of the 
new class. The disillusionment which set in as a result of the excesses 
which v.-ore perpetrated by the so-called new class within the Com- 
munist Party began to shatter my faith in Marxism-Leninism. The 



COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 1727 

<loubts wliicli I had bociimo slroiipior as a result of tlio 1952 Slansky 
trials, wliicli rosultotl in a blood i)iirg(' witliiii llu> Cz(>clioslovak i)arty. 
The subsoquont rehabilitation of indiviiluals like Kajk in Hungary 
and Gonuilka in l^oland and the lack of an admission by the Com- 
munist I'arty of Czechoslovakia that the Slansky trials were a fraud 
furthered my disillusionment. These items, plus the denigration of 
Stalin and the power struggle which resulted in the Soviet Union 
after Stalin's death, also contributed to my disillusionment. 

The (inal factor, however, which led to my decision to break with 
communism was the fact that after I came to the United States in 
August 1955, I began to sec for myself that communism as practiced 
in Czechoslovakia had misrepresented the true facts about the free 
world. The longer I stayed in the United States the better I was 
jihle to com incc myself that if an individual was interested in freedom, 
human dignity, and life without terror, this could only be obtained 
in the free world. As a result I decided to remain in the United 
States and, as you Iviiow, I broke my ties with Czechoslovakia on 
July 25, 1959. 

Afr. AiiExNfs. What was the essence of the training wdiich you 
received as a military intelligence officer prior to the time that you 
arrived in the United States? 

Mr. TisLER. I was assigned to the Military Intelligence Direc- 
torate of the Czechoslovak General Staff, Ministry of National 
Defense, in November 1954. In December 1954 I started an intelli- 
gence training course in the vicinity of Mnichovice near Prague. 
This course lasted until March 1955. 

Mr. Akens. Wliat are the responsibilities of the Military Intelli- 
gence Directorate? 

Mr. TisLER. The Czechoslovak Military Intelligence Directorate 
is a positive intelligence service which is responsible for the overt 
and covert collection of information of a military nature concerning 
the armed forces, industrial and economic resources, and the political 
s^'stcms of potential enemies of Czechoslovakia. 
^ Mr. Arens. Wliat type of training did you receive at the intelli- 
gence school which j^ou attended? 

Mr. TisLEu. The training emphasized items such as security, the 
use of cover, techniques for recruiting agents in the countries of the 
free world, the use of secret ^vriting, codes, and all of the other tech- 
niques which are connected with covert military intelligence opera- 
tions and which we previously discussed in off-the-record sessions. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do after you completed the intelligence 
training course? 

Mr. TisLER. After I graduated from the intelligence training course 
in March 1955, I returned to the headquarters of the Military Intelli- 
gence Directorate and was assigned to that headquarters component, 
which was responsible to intelligence operations against the United 
vStates and Great Britain. While I was connected with this unit, I 
also received final instructions regarding my assignment in Washing- 
ton, D.C., as the military and air attache. In the course of these 
preparations I was constantly reminded that my position as military 
and air attache was simply a cover which was designed to legalize my 
presence in the United State.s, but my real function was that of chief 
of the Military Intelligence Directorate Residentura which operated 
from Washington, D.C., and New York against tar,u<'(s in tlie United 
States. 



1728 COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Please elaborate on this item of "cover" and how your 
cover enabled you to fulfill your intelligence responsibilities, 

Mr. TiSLEK. My cover as a military and ah" attache who was 
accredited to the United States furnished a legal reason for my being 
in the United States and being assigned to the Czechoslovak Embassy 
in Washington, D.C. This legal reason enabled me to meet and 
develop contacts with other foreign diplomats who were accredited 
to the Ignited vStates. It also provided me with a valid reason for 
being interested in militar}^ developments in the United States. In 
this cover position I was to interest m3'self in United States military 
matters, but at the same time these cover duties were not to detract 
from my real mission. This mission called for me to attempt to 
personally recruit American citizens to act as agents and, in their 
agent capacities, to fm-nish me with intelligence on classified materials 
related to United States military developments. The officers of my 
staff were also engaged in similar operations, although not all of them 
used the cover of the military attache's office. As the military and 
air attache I had office facilities m the Czechoslovak Embassy in 
Washington, D.C, and these office facilities were used to house my 
records and equipment, which I used for clandestine hitelligence 
purposes. This means that the Czechoslovak Embassy was used to 
house an intelligence residentura, which was engaged in activities 
which were inimical to the best interests of the United States Govern- 
ment. The precise nature and details of these activities, as j'ou 
know, wc have discussed extensivel}* in off-the-record sessions. 

Mr. Arens. Now, was the Czechoslovak ambassador to the United 
States aware of your responsibilities as an intelligence officer? 

Mr. TisLER. Yes. The ambassador was aware of the fact that I 
was the chief of the Military Intelligence Du-ectorate Residentura in 
the United States and that I and members of my staff were engaged 
in covert clandestine activity against the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Did the ambassador try to interfere or restrain 3^ou 
from conducting these activities? 

Mr. Tisler. I was accredited to the United States during the 
period August 30, 1955 to July 25, 1959, and in this period of time 
the Czech ambassadors to the United States were Petrzelka and 
Ruzek, the present ambassador. Although both of these ambassadors 
were aware of my intelligence functions, they did not in an}^ way 
interfere with my activities nor did they attempt to restrain me from 
engaging in such activities. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

IVIr. Arens. Colonel Tisler, were the activities which you and the 
members of your residentura conducted the only intelligence activities 
which were operated from the Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, 
D.C? 

Mr. Tisler. No. 

Mr. Arens. Would you elaborate on this point? 

Mr. Tisler. I can only say that the Czechoslovak Ministry of 
Interior also had a residentura in the embassy in Washington, D.C, 
and a sub-office in New York. The chief of this residentura was also 
known to the Czechoslovak ambassador, and this residentura was 
responsible for the covert and overt collection of political, scientific, 
and economic intelligence on potential enemies of Czechoslovakia. 
As Czechoslovakia regards the United States as one of its potential 



COMMUXIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 1729 

enemies, the Ministry of Interior Residentura was also engaged in 
coA'ert clandestine activities against the best interests of the Ignited 
States. As far as I know, the Czechoslovak nnihassiidor to the 
United States did not attcmj^t to restrain or hinder the activities 
of this residentnra. 

Mr. Akens. Woidd you indicate to us the number of ofluers who 
were on j'^our staff and who were active in military intelligence activ- 
ities against the United States? In so doing, it would be appreciated 
if 3'ou could also make some conmient as to the types of cover that 
were used bj^ the members of your staff. It is understood, of course, 
that certain incidents and names are not to be revealed in this session 
here, as the information from this session will eventually be nuide 
public. 

Afr. TiSLER. The Military Intelligence Residentura in the United 
States during the period August 1955 to July 1959 generally consisted 
of five officers. Four officers were assigned to the Czechoslovak 
Embassy in Washington, D.C., and one officer was assigned to the 
permanent Czechoslovak delegation to the United Nations. I was 
responsible for supervising the activities of all of these officers. Of 
this total number, two officers used the cover of the military attaclie's 
office, whereas one officer used the cover of the commercial attache's 
section of the Czechoslovak Embassy, and two officers used the cover 
of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

Mr. Arens. Are we to deduce from your remarks regarding the 
cover which was employed by the members of your residentura 
that similar cover mechanisms were used by officers of the residentura 
of the Ministry of Interior? 

Mr. TisLER. Yes, that would be an accurate deduction, altliough 
Ministry of Interior personnel tend to use the cover of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs to a greater extent than docs the Military Intel- 
ligence Directorate. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the number of Ministry of Interior 
intelligence officers who were operating in the United States during 
the period August 1955 to July 1959? 

Mr. Tisler. As j'ou know, we have discussed this in ofT-the-rccord 
sessions. As a result, I believe that it would be sufficient to say at 
this session that during the period from August 1955 to July 1959 
approximate! 3^ 45 percent of the personnel at the Czechoslovak Em- 
bassy in Washington, D.C., and of the Czechoslovak delegation to the 
United Nations in New York was engaged in some type of intelligence 
activity while in this country. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be accurate to say that we can deduce from 
this figure that one of the main reasons for the maintenance of a 
Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, D.C., is to conduct espionage 
against the United States? 

Mr. Tisler, Yes, that would be an accurate deduction, as it is 
based on fact. 

Mr. Arens. Colonel Tisler, are you aware of any American citizens 
or nationals who were in contact with members of either the Czecho- 
slovak Embassy in Washington, D.C., or members of the Czechoslovak 
delegation to the United Nations in New York who were, or appeared 
to be, working for Czechoslovakia agahist the best interests of the 
United States? 

Mr. Tisler. I know that members of the Czechoslovak Embassy 
in Washington, D.C., were in frequent contact with Ajitonin Krchma- 
rek and Charles Musil. 



1730 COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 

Air. Arens. AVoiild you outline to us tho nature of Krchmarek's re- 
lationship with members of the staff of the Czechoslovak Embassy 
in Washington, D.C.? 

Mr. TiSLER. I know that Antonin Krchmarek is an American of 
Czech origin wlio apparently resides in Cleveland, Ohio. This 
Krchmarek was involved in a Smith Act trial of leading members of 
the Communist Party of the United States. As far as I know, 
Krchmarek was arrested at some point in 1953, and during tlie course 
of his trial regarding violations of the Smith Act, the Czechoslovak 
Government was very concerned about Krchmarek's case. In order 
to assist Krchmarek in this trial, funds were transferred from members 
of the enibasssy staff to intermediaries, who subsequently saw to it that 
these funds were used to aid Krchmarek in his defense during the trial 
for alleged violations of the Smith Act. 

In 1956 the Czechoslovak Government was interested in inviting 
several United States public officials of Czechoslovak descent to visit 
Czechoslovakia. As a result, the Czechoslovak Embassy' in Washing- 
ton, D.C., was requested to submit a list of names of such officials, 
as well as personality data on these individuals. As far as I can recall, 
somewhere aromid May 1956, Ambassador Petrzelka advised the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs that, in view of the fact that 1956 was an 
election year, it would be difficult to arrange visits of public officials 
to Czechoslovakia. Ambassador Petrzelka suggested that perhaps 
rather than invite public officials, Czechoslovakia sliould concentrate 
on arranging the travel of scientific, economic, or cultural experts to 
Czechoslovakia. It was at approximatel}' this time that members of 
the embassy staff in Wasliington, D.C., contacted AntonJn Krchmarek 
in order to determine whether he knew certain public figures who 
might be invited to visit Czechoslovakia. As far as I can recall, 
Krchmarek advised the embass3' that certain individuals whom he 
designated should be invited to visit Czechoslovakia, but invitations 
should not be given to certain other named persons. 

Mr. Arens. Are you aware of any other reports which Ki-chmarek 
may have submitted to tlie Czechoslovak Embass}" in Washington, 
D.C.? 

Mr. TiSLER. I recall that in Deceml)er 1958 Ambassador Petrzelka 
sent a report to the Ministry of Foreign Affau's in Prague about the 
4 November 1958 elections in the United States. This report con- 
tained an analysis of the election, and attached to this report were 
notes from Krchmarek regarding these elections. As a result I assume 
that Krchmarek must have presented some analj-tical comments on 
these elections to members of the embassy staff. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know anything about Krchmarek's travels to 
Czechoslovakia in 1950? 

Mr. TiSLER. I have heard that Krchmarek was in Prague for a year 
or so in the period around 1950. While in Prague, Krchmarek was 
associated with the Czechoslovak Foreign Institute. On the other 
hand, 1 must remind you that I did not personally see Ki'chmarek in 
Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us what you Imow about the Czecho- 
slovak Foreign Institute? 

Mr. TiSLER. The Czechoslovak Foreign Institute is located in 
Prague, and it is respojisible for taking care of Czechs and Slovaks 
who are abroad. Tliis institute niiblishes the magazine (.Czechoslovak 
World {(.'eskoslovensky Si el). As a result, it is clear that the real pur- 



COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 1731 

pose of this institute is tl)c overt spreading of Czeelioslovak propa- 
^aiula and the exercise of covert Czechoslovak Coniininust Party- 
control over the Czech and Slovak minorities abi'oad. 

Mr. Arens. Was Krchmarek's association witl\ the (V.e( hoslovak 
Foreign Institute one of the reasons why the Czechoslovak Govern- 
ment was so interested in keeping abreast of all (U^velopnients regard- 
ing Krchmarek's indictment for violation of the Smith Act? 

Mr. TiSLER. I am certain that the Czechoslovak Government did 
not want nny information to appear in the American press regarding 
Krchmarek's association with the Czechoslovak P'oreign Institute, 
as this could have been interpreted by American authorities as an 
indication that Krchmarek was either a political action agent of 
Czechoslovakia or that Czechoslovakia was using Krchmarek as a 
nutans of interfering in the internal aflfairs of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know if Krchmarek was an agent of the 
Czechoslovak Government? 

Mr. TisLER. Krchmarek met various members of the embassy staff 
on various occasions and furnished them with information on a wide 
variety of topics. As an example, Krchmarek met Ambassador 
Petrzelka in New York during August 1958, and at this meeting 
Ivrchniarek told Petrzelka that Krchmarek had recently been made a 
member of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the 
Conununist Party of the United States of America. At this meeting 
Krchmarek informed Petrzelka as to the trends and developments 
which were taking place within the Communist Party of tlic United 
States of America. This information was subsequently relayed by 
Petrzelka to the International Section of the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you aware of any incidents or occasions in which 
Krchmarek received funds from the Czechoslovak Government? 

Mr. TiSLER. I mentioned earlier that the Czechoslovak Govern- 
ment made contributions to Krchmarek's defense fund at the time 
that Krchmarek was on trial for violations of the Smith Act. I am 
also aware of the fact that Krchmarek had requested that Ambassador 
Petrzelka obtain financial support from the Communist Party of 
Czechoslovakia for the activities of the Communist Party of the 
United States. At the same time, I know that Ambassador Petrzelka 
has paid Kj-chmarek funds to cover travel expenses involved in 
Krchmarek meeting Ambassador Petrzelka in New York. In January 
1956 Petrzelka advised Prague that Ki-chmarek was without funds, 
and it was Ambassador Petrzelka's recommendation that he be author- 
ized to pay Krchmarek $3,000 for living expenses and propaganda 
activities. 

IMr. Arens. Who in Czechoslovakia directed Krchmarek's activities 
in the United States? 

Mr. TiSLER. The correspondence relating to Krchmarek was either 
sent to the Czechoslovak Foreign Institute, the Ministry of Foreign 
Afiairs, or the International Section of the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. It is my opinion that the 
direction of Krchmarek's activities in the United States was furnished 
by the International Section of the Central Committee of the Com- 
munist Party of Czechoslovakia. This opinion is based to a large 
extent upon the fact that information was sent to Krchmarek from 
the luteruational Section of the Central Committee of the Communist 



1732 COMMUNIST ESPIONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 

Party of Czochoslovakia, and this material was relayed to Krciimarek 
via the good offices of the embassy staff. 

Mr. Arexs. What can you tell ns about the relationship between 
the Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, D.C, and Charles Musil? 

Mr. TisLER. I know that Charles Musil was, or even still may be, 
theeditorof aCzecli-language newspaper which is published in Chicago, 
Illinois, under the title, Nova Doha. In December 1955 the Czecho- 
slovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs rec^uested that tlie Czech Embassy 
in Washington, D.C, offer advice as to whether the Czechoslovak 
Foreign Institute should establish direct contact with Musil in order 
that tliis histitute could send Musil propaganda material which they 
wanted to appear in Nova Doha. I don't know what the results of this 
correspondence were, but I am aware of the fact that the N^ova Doha 
newspaper is Communist-dominated and generally follows the line 
of the international Communist movement. I also recall that in 
November 1956 the Czechoslovak Embassy in Washington, D.C, 
advised the Minis tr}^ of Foreign Affairs in Prague that Musil had been 
accused by United States authorities as being a member of the 
Communist Party of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Ai-e you aware of any other activities which Musil 
conducted on behalf of the Czechoslovak Embassy or the Czechoslovak 
Government? 

Mr. TisLER. In January 1956 Musil had several meetings with 
Ambassador Petrzelka and, dming the course of these meetings, 
furnished the ambassador with information related to Ki-chmarek's 
status and difficulties. In this period Ambassador Petrzelka used 
Musil as an intermediary between himself and Krchmarek. The use 
of Musil as an intermediary seems to have its origins in the fact that, 
when Ambassador Petrzelka talked to Soviet Arnbassador Zarubin in 
January and February 1954 regarding Ambassador Petrzelka's con- 
tacts with Krchmarek and the Communist Party of the United States, 
Soviet Ambassador Zarubin recommended that in view of the likely 
harmful repercussions which could develop if the Krchmarek trial 
revealed that Krchmarek was in du'ect contact with members of the 
Czechoslovak Embassy, it was recommended that this contact be 
handled via intermediaries. In this connection Zarubin told Am- 
bassador Petrzelka that the Soviets never maintained direct contact 
with members of the Communist Party of the United States, because 
the Soviets wanted to avoid any embarrassment. 

Mr. Arens. Colonel, this session has been extremely helpful, as 
have our other, off-the-record sessions. I assume that there is no 
objection on your part to our ultimately making today's session a 
matter of public record. 

Mr. TisLER. In view of the fact that we have been careful to see 
that the material which we discussed today will not result in any harm 
coming to innocent people who are still beliind the Iron Curtain, I do 
not have any objections to today's session being made a matter of 
public record. 

The Chairman. Colonel Tisler, I want to take this opportunity to 
thank you for your excellent cooperation. At the same time, I want 
to assure you, on behalf of the United States Government, that we 
will render all possible assistance in helping you to build a new life for 
yourself in the United States which will give you the freedom that 
you want. 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Djilas (Milovanl 1726 

Gomulka (AVladyslaw) 1727 

Krchmarek, Antonin (Anton, Anthonj) 1729-1732 

Musi), Charles. 1729, 1782 

Petrzelka (Karel) 1728, 17o(>-1732 

rtajk (Lapzlo) 1727 

luizek (jMiloslav) 1728 

Waiir^kv (Rudolf) 1727 

Ftalin (Josef) 1727 

Tisler, Adela (Mrs. Frantisek Tisler, nee Machacek) 1724 

Tisler, Frantisek 1723-1732 (testimony) 

Zarubin (or Zaroubin) Georgi N 1732 

Organizations 

Communist Party, Czeclioslovakia 172C, 1731 

Central Committee, International Section 1731 

Communist Party, U.S.A.: 

Central Committee, Executive Committee. {See National Com- 
mittee, Executive Committee.) 
Kational Committee, Executive Committee.. 1731 

Czechoslovak Foreign Institute (Prague) 1730-1732 

(Czechoslovak National Socialist Party 1726 

Czechoslovakia, Government of: 

Embassy, Washington, D.C 1723, 172^1732 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1729-1732 

Ministry of Interior 1728, 1729 

Ministry of National Defense: 

Military Intelligence Directorate ^ 1727 

Mihtary Intelligence Directorate Residentura 1723, 1727-1729 

United Nations, Czechoslovakian Mission 1729 

Publications 

Czechoslovak World (Ceskoslovensky Svet) 1730 

Nova Doha (newspaper) 1732 

i 

o 



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