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Full text of "Communist Infiltration and Activities in the South : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-fifth Congress, second session. July 29, 30, and 31, 1958"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION AND 
ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FIFTH COXGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JULY 29, 30, AND 31, 1958 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




^ HARVARD^ 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 

NOV 6 1958 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
29454 WASHINGTON : 1958 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chahman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Aeens, Staff Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 2603 

July 29, 1958: Testimony of: 

Hon. Marvin Griffin, Governor, State of Georgia (statement) — 2608 

Armando Penha 2609 

Eugene Feldman 2629 

Afternoon session: 

Irving Fishman 2635 

Perry Cartwright 2643 

Clara Hutcherson Saba 2648 

Mitchell Saba 2658 

John E. Hester, Jr 2663 

July 30, 1958: Testimony of: 

Carl Braden 2667 

Frank Wilkinson 2681 

Madge Spurny Cole 2688 

Armando Penha (resumed) 2693 

Madge Spurny Cole (resumed) 2294 

Afternoon session: 

William Joseph Robertson, III 2696 

William Matthews 2702 

Karl R. Korstad 2703 

Jerome Van Camp 2709 

Hunter Pitts O'Dell 2712 

William Matthews (resumed) 2721 

July 31, 1958: Testimony of: 

Hungarian Refugee 2728 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [194G], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and Hoiise of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and placeswithin the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

Hearings concerning Communist activities and infiltration in the 
South were held in Atlanta, Georgia, on July 29, 30, and 31, 1958. 

The testimony of Armando Penha forcefully illustrated the Com- 
munists' altertness to opportunities presented them and the need they 
feel to concentrate their insidious efforts on penetrating new industries 
in that area. Mr. Penha had been an undercover operative for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation in the ranks of the Communist Party 
from early in 1950 until the spring of 1958. During this time, he had 
risen to high rank in the party, both in his native New England and 
also on the national level. One of the important positions he had held 
was membership on the conspiracy's National Textile Commission, 
with which he served from its inception in 1955 until the completion 
of his FBI assignment. Mr. Penha described the Commission as 
follows : 

The National Textile Commission is a leading body, na- 
tionally, that is set up for the purposes of controlling, coordi- 
nating, and supervising the infiltration and colonization 
within the textile industry, particularly within the South. 

Mr. Penha gave the following information on the composition and 
duties of the Commission in this and prior committee hearings : 

1. The National Textile Commission is composed of 5 members. 
Through one of them, it has direct contact with, and operates on the 
orders of, the party's National Committee in New York. 

2. The Commission is highly secret. Its members have code names. 
Their true identity is not supposed to be known even to one another. 
Extreme security precautions are taken in conducting its meetings. 

3. The Commission provides "colonizers" from the North for work 
in the South. (A colonizer is a hard-core party member "directed by 
the Communist Party to teach and spread propaganda in order to culti- 
vate the workers within a plant or industry or legitimate organiza- 
tion.") These colonizers move into the South and obtain employment 
in the textile industry. Some are highly educated, holding bachelor's 
or master's degrees, and conceal this fact in order to obtain menial jobs 
which put them in contact with the rank-and-file workers. 

4. The Commission furnishes the finances required to implement the 
party's plan of penetration in the South. 

Penha, as a member of the National Textile Commission of the party, 
was sent into the South in 1955 to offer guidance to party members 
engaged in the infiltration-colonization operation. He traveled 
throughout North and South Carolina and, although extreme security 
measures were exercised, including the use of code names, was able to 
learn the identity of many persons he met. A considerable number of 
them were colonizers from the North. 

Several persons Mr. Penha met on this trip were called as witnesses 
in these hearings. ^ One was Madge Spurny Cole, currently employed 

2603 



2604 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

in a textile mill in North Carolina, who testified that she is a native of 
New York State and holds a master's degree from New York Uni- 
versity. Her application for employment at this mill, produced by 
the committee during the hearing, stated that she was merely a high 
school graduate. Mrs. Cole invoked the fifth amendment when asked 
if she was a Communist Party member. 

William J. Robertson, III, another witness and a college graduate, 
had followed the practice of Mrs. Cole by concealing his higher edu- 
cation when he applied for his position with a Southern textile mill. 
Like Mrs. Cole, Robertson also invoked the fifth amendment when 
asked to confirm or deny Penha's testimony concerning his part in the 
Communist Party plan to penetrate the South. 

Several other witnesses who were identified by Penha as party mem- 
bers likewise refused, on the grounds of the fifth amendment, to furnish 
the committee with any information concerning their part in Com- 
munist Party activities in the South. 

In furtherance of the committee's directive to gather information 
concerning the extent, character, and objects of un-American propa- 
ganda and its dissemination within the United States, testimony was 
obtained concerning propaganda of both a foreign and domestic origin. 

Mr. Irving Fishman, Deputy Collector of Customs, New York City, 
testified that residents of the^South, like those of other parts of the 
United States, were being dehiged with Communist propaganda from 
abroad which is sent tlii-ough the mails and directed primarily to 
schools and colleges. 

Dissemination of Communist propaganda of domestic origin was 
illustrated in the committee's production, during the hearings, of a 
publication called the Southern Newsletter, which has a Post Office 
box address in a Southern city but is actually published in Chicago. 
Its editor, Mr. Eugene Feldman, invoked the fifth amendment to avoid 
answering any questions concerning his Communist Party activities. 

Carl Braden, field organizer for the Southern Conference Educa- 
tional Fund, which is active in the integration movement, also appeared 
as a witness in these hearings. Mr. Braden, who has been identified 
under oath as a Communist Party member, refused, on the basis of the 
first amendment, to give the committee any information concerning his 
role in Communist Party activities in the South. 

Frank Wilkinson was also called as a witness when he appeared in 
Atlanta as a representative of the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee. This is an organization with headquarters in New York, 
Avhich has as its avowed purpose the abolition of the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities and the curbing of FBI actiAnties. Mr. 
Wilkinson refused to answer when asked if he was sent to Atlanta to 
disrupt the committee hearings. In reply to all questions asked him, 
he replied : "I am answering no questions of this committee." 

One of the most illuminating aspects of the hearings in Atlanta was 
the testimony of a Hungarian refugee who, from 1945 to 1956, was a 
prisoner of the Soviet Union. Due to the fact that the Avitness has 
relatives now behind the Iron Curtain, his true identity could not be 
revealed. However, his account of the tortures and indignities suffered 
by himself and his father at the hands of his Communist captors 
portrays a vivid and horrifying picture of communism in action. 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION AND ACTIVITIES IN THE 

SOUTH 



TUESDAY, JULY 29, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Atlanta^ Ga. 
public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Coiimiittee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10:07 a. m., in the Courtroom, Old Post Office 
Building, Atlanta, Ga., Honorable Francis E. Walter (the chairman) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pennsylvania; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana; William M. Tuck, 
of Virginia; and Donald L. Jackson, of California. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff' director, and George 
Williams and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Let there be incorporated in the body of the record the Resolution 
of the Committee on Un-American Activities authorizing and direct- 
ing the holding of the instant hearings here in Atlanta. 

(The information follows:) 

BE IT RESOLVED, that a hearing by the Committee, or a subcommittee there- 
of, to be held in Atlanta, Georgia, or at such other place or places as the Chair- 
man may designate, on such date or dates as the Chairman may designate, be 
authorized and approved, including the conduct of investigations deemed rea- 
sonably necessary by the stafC in preparation therefor, relating to tlie follow- 
ing subjects and having the legislative purposes indicated : 

1. The extent, character and objects of Communist colonization and infiltration 
in the textile and other basic industries located in the South, and Communist 
Party propaganda activities in the South, the legislative purpose being : 

(a) To obtain additional information for use by the Conmiittee in its 
consideration of Section 16 of H. R. 9352, relating to the proposed amend- 
ment of Section 4 of the Communist Control Act of 1954, prescribing a 
penalty for knowingly and wilfully becoming or remaining a member of 
the Communist Party with knowledge of the purposes or objectives thereof ; 
and 

(b) To obtain additional information, adding to the Committee's overall 
knowledge on the subject so that Congress may be kept informed and thus 
prepared to enact remedial legislation in the National Defense, and for 
internal security, when and if the exigencies of the situation require it. 

2. Entry and dissemination within the United States of foreign Communist 
Party propaganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the necessity for, 
and advisability of, amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act designed 
more effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices now used in 
avoiding the prohibitions of the Act, 

2605 



2606 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

3. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any 
subcommittee thereof, appointed to conduct this hearing, may designate. 

Tlic Chairman. Let there likewise be incorporated in the body of 
the record tlie order of appointment by myself of the subcommittee to 
conduct the hearings. 

(The information follows:) 

June 24, 1958. 
To : Mr. Richard Arens 
Staff Director 

House Committee on Un-American Activities 
Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Representative Edwin E. Willis, as Chairman, and Representatives William 
M. Tuck and Donald L. Jackson, as associate members, to conduct hearings in 
Atlanta, Georgia, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, July 29, 30, and 31, 1958, 
at 10 : 00 A. M., on subjects under investigation by the Committee, and take such 
testimony on said days or succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 24th day of June, 1958. 

Francis E. Walter, Chairman, 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Eepresentative Francis E. "Walter, chairman of the full committee, 
presided over the hearing and made the following statement : 

The hearings which begin today in Atlanta are in furtherance of 
the j)owers and duties of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
pursuant to Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, which not only 
establishes the basic jurisdiction of the committee but also mandates 
this committee, along with other standing committees of the Congress, 
to exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution of any laws the 
subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the committee. 

In response to this power and duty, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is continuously in the process of accumulating factual in- 
formation respecting Communists, the Communist Party, and Com- 
munist activities which will enable the committee and the Congress 
to appraise the administration and operation of the Smith Act, the 
Internal Security Act of 1050, the Communist Control Act of 1954, 
and numerovis provisions of the Criminal Code relating to espionage, 
sabotage, and subversion. In addition, the committee has before it 
numerous proposals to strengthen our legislative weapons designed 
to protect the internal security of this Nation. 

In the course of the last few years, as a result of hearings and in- 
vestigations, this committee has made over 80 separate recommenda- 
tions for legislative action. Legislation has been passed by the Con- 
gress embracing 35 of the committee recommendations and 26 separate 
proposals are currently pending in the Congress on subjects covered 
by other committee recommendations. Moreover, in the course of the 
last few years numerous recommendations made by the committee for 
administrative action have been adopted by the executive agencies 
of the Government. 

The hearings in Atlanta are in furlherance of a project of this com- 
mittee on current teclmiques of the Communist conspiracy in this 
Nation. Today, the Communist Party, though reduced in size as a 
formal entity, is a greater menace than ever before. It has long since 
divested itself of unreliable elements. Those who remain are the 
hard-core, disciplined agents of the Kremlin on American soil. Most 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2607 

of the Communist Party operation in the United States today consists 
of underground, behind-the-scenes manipulations. The operation 
is focused at nerve centers of the Nation and masquerades behind a 
facade of humanitarianism. 

We know that the strategy and tactics of the Communist Party 
are constantly changing for the purpose of avoiding detection and in 
an attempt to beguile the American people and the Government re- 
specting the true nature of the conspiracy. As we on the Committee 
on Un-American Activities seek to develop factual information on 
these changing strategies and tactics for our legislative purposes, we 
are constantly met with numerous and unfounded charges respecting 
the nature of our work and our objectives. Such charges will not 
dissuade us from our duty. We seek the facts and only the facts. 
Insofar as it is within the power of this committee, as a part of the 
United States Coiigress, we shall obtain the facts and we shall do so 
within the framework of carefully prescribed procedures of justice 
and fair play. 

I have long felt that the effectiveness of this committee appears to 
be in direct ratio to the volume of attack against it which is waged 
by the Communist Party and those under Communist discipline. 
Accordingly, I was interested to take note some several months ago 
of the intensified activity against the Committee on Un-American 
Activities and the Federal Bureau of Investigation which is now 
being promoted by the Communist Party. This campaign was the 
subject of a special booklet which the committee issued entitled 
"Operation Abolition." I was somewhat gratified to receive a letter 
from Mr, J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the F. B. I. in regard to this 
booklet, part of which letter reads as follows : 

This booklet depicts another example of the appai'eut ease with which the 
Commuuists have been able to enlist the support of misguided individuals to 
assist them in obscuring their subversive workings. Certainly the real meaning 
of civil liberties is not understood by these Communist apologists. 

Your Committee's role in safeguarding our freedoms is well known to every 
patriotic citizen, and real Americans are not going to be fooled or misled by 
efforts to discredit your vital task. 

Preliminary investigations by the staif of this committee indicate 
that the principal Communist Party activities in the South are directed 
and manipulated by agents who are headquartered in Communist 
nests in concentration points in the metropolitan areas of the North. 

May I emphasize tliat the purpose of the committee here in Atlanta 
is to develop facts with reference to a pattern of operation and not 
to attempt to exhaust the subject matter. We have not subpenaed 
witnesses for these hearings merely for the sake of exposure or to 
put on a show. We are engaged in the serious business of tracing 
the operations in the United States of a world-wide conspiracy which 
is determined to destroy us. Should we attempt to interrogate in 
these hearings even a significant percentage of all possible witnesses 
on whom we have lead information regarding Communist activity in 
the South, we would be here for many months to the neglect of our 
work elsewhere. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person identified 
as a member of the Communist Party during the course of the com- 
mittee hearings will be given an early opportunity to appear before 
this committee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explaining 



2608 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

any testimony adversely affecting liim. It is also the policy of the 
committee to accord any witness the privilege of being represented 
by counsel ; but within the provisions of the rules of this committee, 
counsel's sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise his client. 

I would remind those present that a disturbance of any kind or an 
audible comment during the hearings will not be permitted. This is a 
serious proceeding in which we are earnestly trying to discharge an 
important and arduous duty with the general objective of maintaining 
the security of this great Nation. 

The committee is encouraged at the outset of this work by the 
presence of the distinguished Governor of this great State, for whom 
many of us have long had a feeling of great admiration. 

We are very happy that you have come here this morning, Governor. 

STATEMENT OF HON. MARVIN GEIFFIN, GOVERNOR, STATE OF 

GEORGIA 

Governor Griffin. Chairman Walter, other distinguished mem- 
bers of the Congressional Subcommittee of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities : 

We know that the Communist conspiracy in our country has gone 
underground during recent years ; that there is no such thing now in 
America as a card-carrying Communist. The ever-changing strategy 
of these subversives, wdio would exchange the great American system 
of States Rights and local self-government for totalitarian dictator- 
ship, makes the patriotic and important task to which you have been 
assigned more difficult. 

In extending to you a most gracious welcome to Georgia, we also 
assure you that tliose of us who believe in the principles of freedom 
laid down by the founding fathers, and that includes a vast majority 
of the good people of Georgia, support you most vigorously and pray 
most fervently for your success in this most important undertaking. 

If you will pardon a personal reference, Mrs. Griffin and I have a 
young ensign Avith the 6th Fleet at Beirut at this time and we, along 
with millions of other Americans, believe that this is the time for all 
good Americans to come to the aid of this great Nation. 

And speaking personally for myself, sirs, I have no respect for 
strays. 

If the resources of the State government can be of help to you, 
please feel free to call on us on capitol hill. And I pray and hope that 
your undertaking bears fruit and that you are successful. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Governor. 

Mr. Arens, will you call your first witness? 

Mr, Arens. Armando Penha, kindly come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Mr. Penha, will you raise you right hand, please? 
Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole trutli, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr, Penha, I do. 

The Chairman. Have a chair, Mr. Penha. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2609 

TESTIMONY OF ARMANDO PENHA 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Penha. My name is Armando Penlia. I live at 22 Dover 
Street, Fairhaven, Massachusetts. My occupation is an investigator 
of veterans' services for the City of New Bedford in the State of 
Massachusetts. 

Mr. Arens. At the outset, Mr. Penha, may I ask you if you have 
ever been a member of the Communist Party and, if so, over what 
period of time ? 

Mr. Penha. I have been a member of the Communist Party from the 
very beginning of 1950 to March of '58. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a fact, Mr. Penha, that during this period of time 
froni 1950 until March of this year, you have served in the Com- 
munist Party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been ideologically in sympathy with 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha, Absolutely not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Your sole and exclusive function in the Communist 
Party was to serve your country at the behest of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us, first of all, please, sir, just the high- 
lights of the positions which you have occupied in the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Penha. Among other positions, I have been a member of the 
Section Committee for the New Bedford area; section organizer for 
New Bedford ; chairman of Bristol County, comprising the cities of 
Taunton, Fall River, and New Bedford ; member of the New England 
District Committee, which is the leading body that controls the Com- 
munist apparatus in the entire New England area; and a member of 
the National Textile Commission with headquarters in New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, first of all, what is the National Textile Com- 
mission of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Penha. The National Textile Commission is the leading body, 
nationally, that is set up for the purposes of controlling, coordinat- 
ing, and supervising the infiltration and colonization within the textile 
industry, particularly within the South. 

Mr, Arens. Over what period of time did you serve on the National 
Textile Commission of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. Approximately May or June of 1955, and then on, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to pursue this particular subject matter with 
you in considerable detail in a few moments. Just from the stand- 
point of giving the committee and this record your appraisal of the 
over-all operation of the Communist Party, Mr. Penha, on the basis 
of your extensive background and experience, please tell this commit- 
tee how serious is the Communist operation in the United States right 
now. 

Mr, Penha, Based upon my experiences, it is rather unfortunate 
for me to report — but fortunate in order to alert the people of the 
United States — that the Communist Party in this country is by and 
large a greater menace today than it has ever been in the past. 



2610 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly explain why you have reached that 
conclusion after your 8 years in the Communist Party as an under- 
cover agent of the FBI. 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, shortly after I entered the Communist Party, 
the Communist Party reevaluated its entire policy ; and, in order to 
carry out its aims, it realized that the most important thing for it to 
do was to go completely underground, with only a small group that 
would exist in the upper level for propaganda purposes. 

In connection with this, the party, by going underground, has been 
a party of hard-core, zealous, dedicated Communists, who have been 
trained for the ultimate purpose of the overthrow of this Government. 
Its techniques have adopted both legal and illegal methods of opera- 
tions, both open and concealed methods, and above all, at all times, to 
go in accordance with the wishes of the Kremlin. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party a political party ? 

Mr. Penha. It is not and never has been a political party, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is it? 

Mr. Penha. The Communist Party, wliich is known as such, is a 
conspiracy dedicated to the overthrow of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. According to press reports, which we have seen from 
time to time in the Communist press, the actual size of the entity 
known as tlie Communist Party has been reduced, Mr. Penha. Does 
this mean, in your judgment, t.liat the ell'ectiveness or strength or 
menace of the Communist Party has been proportionately reduced? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Penha. The reason for that is very basic. The party is not in- 
terested in numbers. It is interested in quality. In fact, as a result 
of the comrades that either have resigned or have been expelled or 
have been detected by the party, they, as a result of that, have 
strengthened themselves in removing these weak links. The party 
consists of a hard-core well-organized, efficient group of Communists. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the members of the National Textile Com- 
mission during your period of service up until March of this year? 

Mr. Penha. The members of the National Textile Commission, 
with headquarters in New York City, their coordinator and contact 
man for the National Committee of the Communist Party in New 
York City was a Fred — I may at tliis point raise the point that I will 
make reference to 2 names. This was because of the fact that the 
National Textile Commission was strictly a secret organization. As 
such, even its members had code names; they were not supposed to 
know one another. The code name of their chairman of the National 
Textile Commission and coordinator was Fred ; his true name, Robert 
Handman of New York City. 

The Chairman. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Penha. H-a-n-d-m-a-n. 

The other member, code name. Bill; true name, William Evans, 
who was also a section organizer for the Communist Party in Dur- 
ham, North Carolina. He represented the State of North Carolina 
within the National Textile Commission. 

The other person, code name Jack ; true name, George Sheldrick. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly spell that name, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. S-h-e-1-d-r-i-c-k. George represented the State of New 
Jersey. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2611 

The last person, code name, Tom ; true name, Armando Penha. 

There were some other Commmiist Party members that attended 
the National Textile Commission meetings, at one time or another, 
that were not members of it, but were highly placed Connnunists that 
were instructed either by the National Committee or the New Eng- 
land leadership. If you would like, I could raise those points next. 

Mr. Arens. I want to get into that in just a moment. I would like 
to ask you, first: On the National Textile Commission, what were their 
techniques of operation ? 

Mr. Penha. Their techniques of operations were that of establish- 
ing, which they did, a group of colonizers. Northern colonizers, to be 
sent to the South. 

Mr. Arens. If you will hesitate a moment, please, Mr. Penha, tell 
us what is a colonizer in Communist j argon ? 

Mr. Penha. A colonizer is one that is directed by the Communist 
Party to teach and spread propaganda in order to cultivate the mass 
workers within a plant or industry or legitimate organization. He 
must use, in his tactics, methods of spreading confusion, agitation. 
Such attacks are to be made both legally and illegally. He has to be 
able to cope with existing situations — one moment being on the offen- 
sive and the other on the defensive — participating in open activities of 
mass agitation and propaganda while, at the same time, being capable 
of undertaking concealed activities which will obstruct and undermine 
public confidence in our foreign policy. 

However, the clear-cut danger of a colonizer is that he is a part of 
a vast network of secret party members, of potential saboteurs and es- 
pionage agents. The placement of these colonizers in key and basic in- 
dustries is vital to the party from the standpoint of placing such col- 
onizers in the position of promoting strikes, slowdowns, and so forth. 
In such concealed positions a colonizer, in the event of an emergency, 
becomes very effective to commit sabotage. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask at this point a general question ? Why would 
the Communist Party have designs on the South from the standpoint 
of attempted colonization ? 

Mr. Penha. Sir, before I answer that question, if I may be permit- 
ted to, I would like to stress 2 points here from this book "New Op- 
portunities in the Fight for Peace and Democracy — Main Report 
Delivered at the National Conference of the Communist Party, 
U. S. A." 

Mr. Arens. By whom ? 

Mr. Penha. Supposedly written by Andrew Stevens. However, 
this is another party technique in order to conceal the true identity 
of the Communist that wrote it. This was a party document, so-called 
main report, delivered at the national conference of the Communist 
Party, U. S. A.— a national conference which was secret, and no one 
knew where it was taking place, when, who were the members, who 
were the speakers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend that conference? 

Mr. Penha. I did not, sir. This was too top secret a meeting for 
^ven myself to attend. However, in reference to colonization, this is 



2612 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

the National Committee's instructions outlined at its conference. And 
I quote : 

The prime objective of every shop club must be to influence the mass of non- 
Party vporkers in a given department, shift, or building and not to be a faction- 
type of mechanism for high-level dealings with union leadership. This means 
that the role of every shop club must be clearly established in relation to the 
mass of workers among whom it operates, but this requires the Party leadership 
to be as familiar with the problems and relations of forces in a given depart- 
ment, shift, or building as it is with the state of affairs in a local imion execu- 
tive board. Of course, we cannot be satisfied with the organization of the shop 
workers already in the Party into shop clubs based on the existing places of 
employment. Our main aim is to route our Party organization in the shops 
in basic industry so as to conform to our concentration policy. A concentration 
policy which is based on the mass-production industries and the Right-led 
unions but which does not have the instrumentality of Party organization in 
those industries and their key shops is a highly abstract concentration policy. 
To put flesh and bone on our concentration policy we must undertake to shift 
the base of our Party membership into key shops and industry. 

That, in Communist language, means relocation of hard-core mem- 
bers to be sent into given areas as colonizers. 

Mr. Arens. And why would the Communist Party covet the South 
in this colonization program ? 

Mr. Penha. The South, as far as the party is concerned, is a virgin 
territory. Insofar as that the party sees the potentials that exist here, 
the potentials are those that the party will exploit for their own gains. 
They will agitate and use every means within their command to raise 
political and economic issues of the Negro people in order to create 
mass agitation and foment discord at the same time. 

Mr. Arens. Do the activities of the Communist Party in coloniza- 
tion in the South parallel the program of industrialization of the 
South and the moving to the South of the textile industry ? 

Mr. Penha. Would you repeat that question, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Does the effort of the Communist Party to colonize in 
the South run parallel with the movement of the textile industry 
from the North into the South ? 

Mr. Penha. It absolutely does, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly tell us in your own words, Mr. Penha, just 
what you did specifically during your period of service on the National 
Textile Commission of the Communist Party toward furthering the 
aims and objectives of the Communist program to colonize in the 
South. 

Mr. Penha. Tliere were several things, sir. I will start, first, with 
after, I believe, the third meeting held in New York City. I was dele- 
gated by the National Textile Commission 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. What year was this, please, sir ? 

Mr. Penha. This was about August of 1955, when I was instructed 
to meet with the party leadership in the South ; namely, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, and Virginia. The reason for this was for the 
party— and that is nationally, because this was in accordance and 
supervised by the National Committee of tlie Communist Party, New 
York City — to evaluate the Southern problem that exists within the 
party, its weaknesses and so forth, in order to establish the need and 
the placing of colonizers in the given areas of the South. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Just proceed at your own pace to tell what 
you did. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2613 

Mr. Penha. Before I get into that, sir, I would also like to point 
out that I was instructed to attend party meetings in the South, meet 
with party leaders in the South, in order to raise organizational prob- 
lems in an attempt to solve them and, at the same time, to place down 
in the given areas of the South the organizational aims, party policy 
and lines, that they were to undertake. In other words, they were 
to do just what the National Textile Commission and the National 
Committee would direct. 

Mr. Arens. And these directives were given to you in 1955 ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what you did pursuant to those di- 
rectives. 

Mr. Penha. I received my instructions from the district organ- 
izer for New England. 

Mr. Arens. And his name again, please sir ? 

Mr. Penha. His name is Sidney Lipshires. 

Mr. Arens. Spell the last name, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. L-i-p-s-h-i-r-e-s. He had just recently arrived from 
New York, and he had received instructions as to the date, the place, 
and the time that I would leave, along with that information as to how 
I should conduct myself and what was to be achieved in the South. 
Subsequently, in September of 1955, 1 came down South. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us first of all where you went through the South, 
and then we will take it, bit by bit, as to what transpired. Where 
did you go? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I went mainly, covering practically the en- 
tire State of North Carolina. I w^as not able at that time to get into 
Virginia. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet with people from other Southern States 
even though you physically were not present in those States ? 

Mr. Penha. I met with people that were from other States that 
were assigned in the South as colonizers or leaders at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed with the details of your trip, tell 
us whether or not you came to the South as an open and avowed 
Communist or whether, on the other hand, you were in the under- 
ground. 

Mr. Penha. When I came to the South, there was only one person 
in the South that was aware of my trip. Just prior to this person 
being told, there was also another Southern leader, who at the time 
was in New York City, that was told; and subsequently he went into 
Carolina. However, the procedure, as far as coming into the South, 
was that of complete secrecy. I did not at any time, as I was in- 
structed, reveal my true name, my place of origin, or anything that 
would reveal even to the comrades in the South who I was. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, who was this person in the South who knew 
that you were coming and laiew you were coming as an undercover, or 
a secret, member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. This person who knew was another member of the 
National Textile Commission, Bill Evans. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us whetlier or not you were given a sched- 
ule of appearances, meeting places, lists of people to see, and the like ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, when I arrived in North Carolina, my first 
task was to sit down with Bill Evans and get a report from him as 

29454—58 2 



2614 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

to what he had aranged for the following week. At that time, he in- 
dicated to me what he had prepared insofar as party meetings went : 
where they would take place, his consensus of opinion of the problems 
that exist there, the weakness, and how I could help. The names of 
the people, that is, the Communist Party members, that I was to meet 
were not revealed to me because of the fact that the majority of them 
were colonizers, others were section organizers, section committee lead- 
ers w^ithin that area. 

Mr. Arens. Bill Evans you knew as a comrade, did you not? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In passing, give us just a word of his location and 
activities. 

Mr. Penha, Well, he was a section organizer for Durham, North 
Carolina, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know the names of the people in the 
South whom you were to contact, specifically, how did you know that? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I did not know. Another leading Communist 
who was in New York came down to Carolina to contact the party, 
and one of his immediate tasks was that of seeing that the proper 
agenda was arranged for me to be able to see the various groups of 
colonizers, section leaders, and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. And who was he ? 

Mr. Penha. Junius Scales. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a word of description of Junius Scales, 
and his present status, by the way, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Junius Scales was, at the time, the district organizer 
for Carolina. He was out on bail at the time, living in New York 
City, but instructed, from time to time, by both the National Com- 
mittee and the National Textile Commission to come into the South — 
mainly Virginia, South Carolina, and North Carolina — in order to 
carry the party line across. He did not come on an open basis, that is 
security was taken care of at all times so that no one would know where 
he was going and when and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. Prior to the time that you started on your trip to the 
South, did you have contact with the Southern organizer for the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. If I recall correctly, sir, I did not have direct contact 
with the Southern regional organizer prior to going; but, as I was 
told, the district organizer for New England was the one that had 
direct contact in order to be able to know the situation that existed 
there and what could be done there. However, when I returned back, 
I did meet at least twice with the Southern regional organizer, which 
means the leading Communist for the entire South in the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. And who is that person ? 

Mr. Penha. That person is Fanny Liclit from New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Spell the last name, please. 

Mr. Penha. Her last name I believe is L-i-c-t-h. 

Mr. Arens. It isn't L-i-c-h-t ? 

Mr. Penha. It possibly could be, sir. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. And Fainiy Licht's re.sidence is in New York City, is 
that correct? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2615 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. I met her at her home. Also I 
met her at other places in New York. But I was able to meet her at her 
home in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I think it would be appropriate to 
announce at this time that Fanny Licht was placed under subpena 
pursuant to your direction, but because of medical reasons, her subpena 
was continued and her appearance under the subpena was postponed. 

Now, Mr. Penha, would you kindly at your own pace, tell us about 
your trip. You have given us the detail of the background and the 
arrangements that were made. Tell us, if you please, sir, just where 
you went and what you did. 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, just before getting into that, I would like 
to request that, at a later time, I would indulge more into Fanny Licht. 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; and her activities. 

Mr. Penha. Because I think it is highly pertinent that I should 
do so. 

Mr. Arens. I anticipate that we will be questioning you along 
those lines. We would like, in the order of presentation of your 
testimony, if you please, Mr. Penha, to have you now tell us about 
this trip, where you went, w'hom you saw, and what you did. 

Mr. Penha. Thank you sir. In Durham, North Carolina, I met, of 
course, with Bill Evans; William Robertson, a colonizer originally 
from the State of Virginia; Mary Robertson, his wife, a member of 
the Section Committee for Durham. At the time, she was employed 
at Duke University. Prior to that she was a colonizer. Her last 
known whereabouts, to my knowledge, is Chicago. 

The Chairman. May I ask a question at this point ? 

This National Textile Commission, were any of the members of 
this Commission textile workers, or were they just Communists as- 
signed to a particular field ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, there were 2 that were textile workers, if 
you want to call it that, that is, in the broad general sense. Bill Evans 
and George Sheldrick were w^orking in textile plants; however, as 
colonizers for the Communist Party. In other words, they were 
not genuine textile workers. 

The Chairman. That is what I wanted to determine. 

Mr. Penha. Jerome Van Camp 

Mr. Willis. You are still talking about Durham ? 

Mr. Penha. This is Durham, sir — a former colonizer. "Wlien I 
make reference to "former," that is because of the fact that either they 
had been laid off or, in some cases, they were dropped from their place 
of employment because of the appearance of the House Committee 
just prior to my trip going down — ^for which all America should be 
very thankful. 

Mr. Arens. You are speaking of this committee's hearings in Char- 
lotte, North Carolina, about 2 years ago, is tliat correct? 

Mr. Penha, That is correct, sir. Oscar Berland 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me just a moment. Before you get to Mr. 
Berland, can you tell us a little more about Jerome Van Camp? 

Mr. Penha. Jerome Van Camp, as I stated, wavS a former colonizer. 
He was under the wing and protection of Bill Evans for the pur- 
poses of further cultivation. 

Oscar Berland 

Mr. Arens. You might spell that, please, sir. 



2616 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Penha. B-e-r-1-a-n-d, a colonizer originally sent down by the 
National Committee from New York. He is a native of New York. 

Madge Spnrny, a colonizer, originally I believe from New Jersey. 
The reason I say "I believe" is because a cousin of hers who was also 
a colonizer, Geoffrey ^^-liite, had told me that thej were cousins. 

Mr. Arens. Is Madge Spurny named also Madge Spurny Cole? 
That is her married name ? 

Mr. Penha. Her present name is INIadge Spurny Cole. 

Mr. Arens. C-o-l-e? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. She was a section member for 
Durham at the time. 

Nat Bond, alias Joe, member of the Section Committee for 
Durham. 

Ella Levine Matthews, a colonizer from New York, who had been 
sent down to the South during the week I was there. She is a daugh- 
ter of Ben Levine who was a well-known Communist and writer for 
the Daily Worker. 

William Matthews, another colonizer sent from New York, her hus- 
band. 

The next group is Winston-Salem. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me, before you move to Winston-Salem in your 
chronology of your trip, Mr. Penha, what did you do at Durham in 
your session or sessions with these people whom you have identified 
as Communist colonizers ? 

Mr. Penha. There were many things that I did, sir. We attended 
meetings, several of them. The purpose of these meetings was for me 
to make an appraisal for the need of colonizers within the South, to 
analyze the existing weaknesses that existed organizationally, and 
make recommendations — of course, from the party, when you make 
recommendations it is an order — for better and more efficient organi- 
zation ; attempt to work out a plan with them for relocation of other 
colonizers already in the South ; coordinate the organizational policy 
of the party and its line between the South and North, so that the 
North would have its control of the situation in that area. 

Mr. Arens. Where were these meetings held in Durham ? 

Mr. Penha. These meetings were held with a maximum security. 
Some were held in homes, trusted homes. The meetings that were 
held in the homes, at all times all security precautionary measures 
were taken. Other meetings were held in automobiles; and in addi- 
tion to that, we also had meetings which were held within Duke Uni- 
versity and its campus. The reason for all of these given areas and 
others was because of security. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about the meeting at Duke University. 

Mr. Penha. The meeting that was held at Duke University — I be- 
lieve there were 2. One was held within the chapel of Duke Univer- 
sity for security reasons. It is obvious that it would be one of the best 
places. 

Mr. Arens. Who made the arrangement for the group to convene in 
the chapel at Duke University ? 

Mr. Penha. These arrangements were made by Bill Evans and 
presented to me for my approval at the time. 

Mr. Arens. How many assembled in the session which was held at 
Duke University chapel ? 

Mr. Penha. I would say that the greatest number was 3 to 4. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2617 

Mr. Arens. Under what pretense was the chapel made available 
to the group for its session ? 

Mr. Penha. The party took advantage of the chapel being avail- 
able to the public, as it is supposedly, for the purposes that we were 
going there to pray and see the chapel itself. 

Mr. Arens. I have never been to Duke University, and I should like 
to inquire : Is this chapel a place of meditation or is it a place of pub- 
lic worship where there are general services with generally a large 
congregation ? 

Mr. Penha. There is quite a large congregation, and it is also a 
place of meditation at the same time, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where did the actual Communist Party conclave take 
place, within the larger edifice or within a smaller sanctuary ? 

Mr. Penha. It took place within the largest because of the reason 
that it would be the most logical place. Of course, none of us carry 
anything with us that would be suspicious ; and as such you can talk, 
and people will just think that you are part of a religious group, that 
is, within that building. 

Mr. Arens. Did Bill Evans make an overture to the administrative 
authorities at Duke University soliciting the chapel for use of the 
Communists or did the Communists under his leadership in this ses- 
sion just go to the chapel ? 

Mr. Penha. The party just went there, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you concluded with your activities at Durham? 

Mr. Penha. I haven't concluded, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead, please, sir. I would like to have you 
cover it to give the significant points. 

Mr. Penha. While I was in Durham, I was informed that Oscar 
Berland, who was the contact party member and coordinator for 
Junius Scales — the reason for this was that secrecy was at its highest 
peak and Junius Scales, being well known, we had to be absolutely 
sure of not only my safety, but of those other comrades, particularly 
colonizers, I would see. 

Mr. Arens. I am not sure the record is clear, Mr. Penha, if you will 
pardon the interruption. You say you were informed of Berland. 
Do you mean you met him there ? 

Mr. Penha. I met Oscar Berland there, yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was he identified to you as part of the underground 
apparatus of the Communist conspiracy in this country ? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely true, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what transpired between you and Berland. 

Mr. Penha. One of the things was that I sent a message to Junius 
Scales at the time, through Oscar, in order to strengthen the party 
meetings both in quality, more so in that, and in reaching the local 
party officials in each given area so that I could place them on the 
spot. Subsequently, the following evening, Oscar Berland came 
back with an answer from Junius Scales promising full cooperation. 

In addition to that, I had brought down with me a copy, a docu- 
ment, 18-page document, that we were preparing, the National Textile 
Commission; and Bill Evans had received one also. This docmnent 
was to be used at the time in strengthening the general line that we 
had and obtaining as much information as will strengthen this 
document. Oscar Berland was the key person in this. I worked 



2618 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

fTo VH'-"" 7n^ ''''^^ P^'^^^ ^¥.^ ^^^ '^'^^ ^^ot to touch was that which 
the National Commission itself would handle. The problems of the 
time ''''^^ Pai-ticularly the key point that I worked with him on at the 

Mr. Arens. Are there textile mills in or around the Durham area 
where you were m session ? 

Mr, Peniia. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you completed the highlights ? 

Mr Penha. There is the Erwin Mills in the Durham area, which 
they brought me there to see, so that I could better evaluate the size 
and location of the plant and the need for colonizers there. 

Mr. Arens. And at all times you were in the underground ap- 
paratus in this process ? 

Mr. Penha. At all times they knew me as only Tom. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to ask this naive question on the record, 
so it IS clear : The time is long since past that you can look in the 
telephone book and find the Communist Party's address in any given 
area, is that not true, Mr. Penha ? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely true. 

Mr. Arens. The time has long since passed when the Communist 
Party, as an operating entity, is above ground, isn't that true ? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely true, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Sir, have you completed the significant facts with 
reference to your visit to the Durham, North Carolina, area? 

Mr. Penha. The only point I want to raise about Durham is that 
while these ineetings were taking place, I participated in them on the 
basis of criticizing the local leaders; making recommendations to 
strengthen the apparatus ; and subsequently, as a result of this, mak- 
ing my own recommendations in Ncav York City so that in my opinion 
I would have the leading person. Bill Evans, removed from leader- 
ship, which was done subsequently. 

Mr. Arens. And you were working under direct orders of the 
National Textile Commission itself, is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Before we leave Durham in the chronology of your 
trip to go to the next place, have you told us the name of each person 
who was a participant in these secret sessions at Durham? 

Mr. Penha. All of these people tliat I have made reference to, 
starting with Bill Evans and concludinir with William Matthews, 
participated in one or more meetings with me. I believe I attended 
some 5 to 6 meetings with each and every one at one time or another. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now testify that each of these persons, 
to your certain knowledge, was a member of the Communist appara- 
tus? 

Mr. Penha. I absolutely do, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us the next place you went, please, sir, and 
give us the comparable facts relating to that place. 

Mr. Penha. Winston-Salem area! Warren Williams, section organ- 
izer for Winston-Salem, who at that time gave me the number of a 
secret mail box that the party was using in the Winston-Salem area 
so that T would be able to furnish from the North material that would 
helporjianizationallv. Rebecca Williams, his wife: George Van Camp, 
a member of the Section Committee— member and formerly a colon- 
izer; Betsy Van Camp, another member of the Section Committee, the. 



COMMUNlSrr ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2619 

wife of George ; Ruth Van Camp, today Ruth Evans. She has married 
William Evans. Karl Korstad 

Mr.ARENS. Is that K? 

Mr. Peniia. K-o-r-s-t-a-d, a member of the Industrial Commission 
for the Connnunist Party in High Point, North Carolina; Frances 
Korstad, his wife, also a member of the same connnission. Eugene 
Feldman, F-e-1-d-m-a-n, a member of the Industrial Commission, 
formerly a colonizer that was sent down to Alabama, later was sent 
into the Winston-Salem area; and he at the time was working a meat 
market in order to develop a background of occupations so that when 
lie would be able to get into a plant, he would have something to back 
it up. 

The Chairman. You say he was sent. By whom was he sent? 

Mr. Peniia. He was sent by the national leadership of the Com- 
munist Party, sir. He was also very instrumental in his own syna- 
gogue, teaching Sunday school to the children, which is another party 
technique. 

There was a Bill, last name I do not know, who was an Industrial 
Commission member and my driver at the time. I might add, insofar 
as these people are concerned, through security devices and measures 
I was able to know their true identity, not that they told me while 
I was down there. The same facts apply that they only knew me as 
Tom, and I only knew them as other names they gave. 

Mr. Arens. Did you learn anything of the general educational 
background of the colonizers whom the Communist Party selected to 
penetrate the South ? 

Mr. Peniia. I certainly did, sir. And I found, which was no sur- 
prise to me, because based on my experiences I was fully aware of 
this, that the average colonizer either holds a bachelor's, master's, or 
doctor's degree; and in the case of the South, this was absolutely 
correct. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien they went into the South to work in the indus- 
trial establishments, the textile industry, did they, on the basis of your 
experience, reveal to their prospective employers that they had high 
educations ? 

Mr. Penha. In my experience, they did not at any time do that be- 
cause it would be obvious they would never get employment as such. 

Mr. Arens. What type of jobs did they take, just as a pattern? 

Mr. Penha. They would take menial jobs in order to go along witli 
the instructions that were handed down by the party. They were 
willing to sacrifice years of formal education in order to serve the 
party's aims. 

Mr. Arens. Now I should like to ask you, before we get into the 
activities of Winston-Salem, Mr. Penha, to give us as much detail as 
you can on this public record with reference to certain of the people 
whom we have under subpena and who will be heard by this commit- 
tee during our stay here. 

I ask you, first of all, to give us as much detail as you presently have 
with reference to Mr. Eugene Feldman, whom you have identified as 
a person known by you to be a Southern colonizer of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I would like to say this in regard to him 
and others, that when I went down South it was extremely difficult 



2620 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

for me to liandle my activities — and I am talkino- about mj intelligence 
activities — in order to report it to the FBI and, at the same time, to 
conduct myself as a leader while I was down there. This was so 
because of the fact that they were not known to me by their true 
identities. I had to utilize security devices and so forth. So that, to 
make a complete background on each and every individual, as I 
started with Eugene Feldman a while ago, actually I couldn't go any 
further at this time other than stating that he was a college man ; he 
was a colonizer originally sent from a Midwestern state, and he was 
instrumental in a synagogue. 

Mr. Arens. You would recognize him if you should lay eyes upon 
him ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. I would put it this way, sir : While I was down there 
within a matter of 8 days, I believe, traveling extensively throughout 
that area, I met with approximately 32 party members, all secret 
members. Many of them I met at night in cars and places of the like. 
It is very possible that I can identify many of them. It is also possible 
that I may not be able to identify others. Some I was 2 hours with, 
others I was 5 and 6. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you did in Winston- Salem. 

Mr. Penha. In Winston-Salem, I had several meetings with War- 
ren Williams, because he was the top man in that area, being the sec- 
tion organizer, fully evaluating the necessity that existed in strength- 
ening the weakness, organizational weakness, witliin that area; 
making places and preparations and getting as much information as 
possible, at the same time, of the existence of the Cone Mills, this w^as 
the Cone Mills in Greensboro, so that we could avail ourselves of 
transfers of party members from the various areas in North Carolina 
into that plant, too. 

Along with that, there were other developments such as giving them 
a certain perspective in order to bring into light the fact that the 
North, including the National Textile Commission, the National Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party, and the top leaders of the i)arty in 
New England, of which I was one, were particularly interested in 
strengthening that key area. There were several proposals made. 
There were various discussions on the basic weaknesses. There was 
further implementation established at that time for coordination, both 
between the various groups within the South, the methods that should 
be further expanded on, and also between the North and the South. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in addition to your work on this mission of 
the Communist Party on a textile penetration, give directives and con- 
sult with leaders of the operation in the South respecting penetration 
of nonindustrial groups, which we generally call Communist fronts? 

Mr. Penha. I gave as I recall a general approach to that matter. 
The reason for that was mainly that I had found there was much to 
be done on the level of infiltration and colonization. Tlierefore, I 
felt that I had to deal more extensively on that in those given areas. 
Mr. Arens. Tell us what, in Communist Party jargon, is meant by 
"infiltration." 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, infiltration is the method whereby party 
members are instructed to penetrate organizations for the purpose of 
exercising influence of communism. To infiltrate a union organiza- 
tion or industry is but a first step. First and foremost, it must be 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2621 

made to serve the party's interest. In labor organizations the party, 
once in control, will crush every opponent. The party's exploitation 
against our society can best be illustrated by their ability to stress the 
issues that are the important elements for a worker and thereby un- 
dermining politics. 

In addition, in industry the ability of the party to play the role 
of mediator between industry versus union and vice versa, to create a 
wedge of ill feelings, is one of their specialties. However, to fulfill 
the party's aims, to achieve victory — force and violence being necessary 
for the party's victory — it folloAvs that industrial sabotage and es- 
pionage are the key to the ultimate aim of the party's victory in 
industry. 

The Chairman. I think we will have a recess to give the witness an 
opportunity to take a little rest. The committee will stand in recess 
for 5 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

(Members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, Edwin E. 
Willis, William M. Tuck.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Walter, Willis, 
Tuck, and Jackson.) 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Penha, would you kindly resume the witness chair? 

The Chairman. Mr. Penha, before you go on, just as a matter of 
curiosity, I would like to know how you got into the Communist 
Party originally. 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I will try to answer your question. How- 
ever, as you know, there will be some important elements that I will 
have to leave out for security reasons. However, I first became ac- 
quainted with communism during World War II as a member of 
Military Intelligence. My activities encompassed particularly the 
country of Italy. In Trieste I was confronted with Yugoslav and 
Italian Communists. It was at that time that I became aware of the 
menace, that it was international in scope, and that I had to do some- 
thing after the war to have at least some part in fighting communism. 

Later on, after I was discharged from the service, I was in contact 
with the FBI ; and after a thorough investigation of me, they accepted 
me withhi their ranks to infiltrate the Communist Party. I was very 
fortunate, through security devices, to be able to get in the Com- 
munist Party within two months. Subsequently after that my rise in 
the party was one that followed at a rapid pace. 

Tlie Chairman. How did you get into the party ? That is the thing 
I am interested in and would like to know. 

Mr. Penha. Well, I should raise one general viewpoint on that, 
sir, to give you an illustration. At the time, in 1949 and early 1950, 
the Communist Party had a fifteen-minute radio broadcast which 
originated in the City of Fall River, Massachusetts. At the conclu- 
sion of this program the speaker — they had various speakers of the 
party, but mainly a Joseph Figueiredo, who subsequently brought me 
into the party — stressed at the end of the program that anyone that 
was interested, or would like to give comments or criticisms, was to 
write to the station or to him or to a post office box that had been 
set up for that purpose. I did, and subsequently he got in touch with 



2622 COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

me, and it followed that he slowly attempted to indoctrinate me, culti- 
vate me. 

I believe this took a matter of some weeks because of the fact that 
he had known that I had lived in Portugal for a number of years, 
and he was strong in his belief of fighting the existing Premier at the 
time, who is still the Premier, Salazar, and he felt that my opinions 
coincided with his. That strengthened his belief that I could be pos- 
sibly a good candidate for the party. After that it just continued 
to unfold. 

Mr. Jackson. He was wrong, wasn't he ? 

Mr. Penha. Little did he know that. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly tell us the next place you went 
on your trip into the South at the behest of the National Textile 
Commission of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Willis. May I ask one question at this point ? 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Willis. I suppose that you made regular reports to the FBI ? 

Mr. Penha. Every contact that I made, whether it was in the South, 
New York, or in the North, I made reports on every single phase of 
activity, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps the committee would be interested to hear just 
a word, Mr. Penha, while we have diverted from the main theme, 
about your own personal life in the Communist Party. First of all, 
were you permitted to attend church services and be a regular com- 
municant in the church of your choice ? 

Mr. Penha. No, sir, I was not. The party, of course, as you gen- 
tlemen know, is basically an atheistic group. As such they do not 
want an3^one to attend church or believe in any religion — other than 
a small group which think of infiltrating organizations within the 
church, not for the purposes of worship. As such, I had prepared 
in advance before contacting Joseph Figueiredo — that is, the prepa- 
ration I made was divorcing myself from my own church so that, 
when I got in, I was completely out of contact with the church. Dur- 
ing the entire eight years, I attended no more than eight services with 
the maximum security precautions taken at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us a word, please, in this same vein, respecting the 
discipline which the Communist Party operations impose upon the 
comrades in their personal lives. 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, their discipline is one that is again indicative 
of the fact that it is not a party. It is no party in this country, 
thank God ; and I don't think we will ever have one that will main- 
tain a discipline that the Communist Party does. For example, short- 
ly after I was a member of the Communist Party, I had been in the 
insurance business during that time, and I was instructed, I was 
urged, and I was ordered to get out of my own profession and accept 
menial jobs. If I did not do that, I would not be able to advance m 
the party. This was a sacrifice of $45 to $50 a week for me and my 
family. 

In addition to that, its discipline on the personal life of a Communist 
is revolved around many factors. One, your time is never your own. 
They can call you at will and tell you, you are leaving for New York 
within an hour ; whether you are, at the time, working or not it does not 



communist:' activities in the south 2623 

mean anything:. At the same time they can come into your home at 
any time, as they did many times, and either have a meeting in your 
home or stay in your home for two or three days, and as such they 
insist on having complete access to your home. 

In addition to that, from time to time, particularly when you 
advance in the party, the party does not trust each and every Com- 
munist, regardless of how high you get in the party — in fact, the 
higher you get the worse it is — so that they would go through my 
house, search anything and everything, just to be sure that I was a 
dedicated, zealous, hard-core member, which in turn I would do to 
other comrades. 

Mr. Arens. We have diverted from the theme of your trip. May I 
also ask you, Mr. Penha, what is a united front ? 

Mr, Penha. The united front, sir, is one that the party has developed 
rather extensively in the promotion of agitation, propaganda, and 
being able to carry out the party line with legitimate organizations. 
The way the party goes at it, whether it is with labor unions or other 
legitimate organizations, they attempt to form a coalition of groups 
and, at that time, raise a given issue which is of primary interest either 
to the worker or to the community. The party, of course, during this 
procedure sees to it that it is able to penetrate key positions in order to 
carry out the party line. 

Mr. Arens. What is a front, as distinct from a united front opera- 
tion ? What is a Communist Party front ? 

Mr. Penha. A Communist Party front, sir, is completely separate 
and distinct from a united front movement in the sense that a Com- 
munist front is either originated or developed by the party. It can 
also be a legitimate organization which the party has penetrated and 
gained control over. This front is to bring about various issues of the 
party, in particular, to undermine and harass our entire security sys- 
tem. One of its pet projects in the past has been to attempt to dissolve 
the Walter-McCarran Act. 

Mr. Arens. That is the Walter-McCarran Immigration and Na- 
tionality Act, is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. The reason for that is because 
of the fact that this Act has been so effective in holding down the Com- 
munists in this country and, at the same time, has curtailed the import 
of Communists from abroad. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose a question right there, Mr. Penha ? 

The Communist Party in its attack on the Walter-McCarran Act 
doesn't come out and say, "We, the Communist Party, we comrades, 
we Communists want this act destroyed." How do they do ? What is 
their technique? What are the mechanics by which they undertake 
to bring pressure on the Congress or create sentiments against legis- 
lative enactment ? 

Mr, Penha. Well, sir, they have been very effective in their methods 
and techniques. One of their methods is establishing a chain of 
letters, communications and petitions, to the Congressmen, which with- 
in relatively a short time, 72 hours, they are able to put as much as 
150,000 protests in, addressed to the Congressmen, the President, pro- 
testing such laws. 

Mr. Arens. The individual signer of these petitions and the person 
who writes the letter does not know at the time he does it that he has 
done so at the solicitation of a comrade, does he ? 



2624 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Penha. He has no knowledge, Avliatsoever. He is a dupe. 

^^- Akens. To what extent does the Communist operation in the 
United States use non-Communists for the purpose of accomplishing 
their objectives? 

Mr. Penha. It is rather unfortunate to report, sir, that the use of 
non-Communists, sincere Americans, is extensively used throughout 
the country. A conservative estimate, based on my experiences, is that 
a Communist is able, capable, and has direct or indirect influence or 
control over such dedicated Americans, insofar as having these people 
take the role which the party could not, and in this connection I 
would say that this average is between 10 to 12 Americans per 
Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Penha, may we resume the itinerary which we 
were pursuing here a little while ago on your instruction "tour in the 
South, in which you were meeting with key comrades on behalf of the 
National Textile Commission of the Communist Party ? I believe we 
had finished the general theme of your testimony on the Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina, vicinity. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you go next, please, sir, and tell us what 
transpired there. 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I went to a small town in South Carolina, 
the name of which ctoes not come to my mind at the time: and prep- 
arations had been made for me to meet key Communists in that area 
and colonizers around there; but because of the fact that there was 
a discrepancy at the time involving the agenda and the arrangements 
for my appearance there, we only met with one Communist that was 
present at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was he, please, sir ? 

Mr. Penha. I do not know his true name. I believe the code name 
that was used, if I recall correctly, was Pete. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Penha. Pete.' P-e-t-e. 

At that time, of course, tlie same techniques and methods were de- 
veloped with him in line with coordinating South Carolina with North 
Carolina, and exercising my influence to see that the National Tex- 
tile Commission and tlie party as a whole, through the National 
Committee, would develop a further and extensive means of develop- 
ing, carrying out, and directing the partv policv and line within the 
South. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, may I invite your attention to the general 
subject matter of persons w^lio are members of the Communist Party 
but not actively identified with the National Textile Commission who 
did come to New^ York City, or who were in contact with New York 
City, for the purpose of obtaining directions and orders? 

Mr. Penha. There were several comrades, sir. There was one 
Emil Asher, the husband of Martha Stone, national committee- 
w^oman for the party, W'ho came from New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. He came from New Jersey for what 
purpose ? 

Mr. Penha. Tlie purpose of Emil coming into New York was to 
strengthen the Commission's W'Ork, organizationally speaking and 
nationally speaking, in order to further implement the party policy 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2625 

in the South, and to further commit New Jersey in utilizing finances 
in the South, colonizers to be sent down and its experiences that had 
been gained in the North. 

Edward Strong, recently deceased, a National Committee member 
at the time, also a member of the National Negro Commission for 
the Communist Party. 

JNIr. Arejsts. From where, please, sir ? 

Mr. Penha. He was at the time in New York. Ed Strong's posi- 
tion was to strengthen again the national level with the South, to the 
extent that I recall in one of the meetings Bill Evans was present aiid 
was somewhat critical of the national line of the party, insofar as 
they were being directed by the North and that the South didn't seem 
to have much say. Ed Strong at that time was very instrumental not 
only in placing Bill Evans as a representative of the South in line, but 
seeing to it that the South was going to conform with the party's 
policy and line directed by tlie ISTntional Committee in New York. 
He went further to see to it that Bill Evans would have to be removed 
from his positions, again indicative of the national party's strength 
and control over the South. 

Sidney Lipshires, at the time being the acting district organizer for 
the entire New England area. His participation there was also on the 
basis of extending the experiences of the North, the sending of two 
colonizers from the North and aiding in finances and propaganda to 
be sent down to the South. 

Mr. Arens. Was Junius Scales on the National Textile Commis- 
sion itself ? 

Mr. Penha. I was just getting to his name, sir. Junius Scales at- 
tended two of the National Textile Commission meetings in New 
York City. Because he was not a member of this Commission, he had 
been invited to attend its meetings. As the National Textile Com- 
mission was formed solely for the purpose of directing the party's 
activities in the South, it followed, then, that its membership was 
selected on the basis of having majority representation from the 
North. Only one member from the South would have actual voice 
in its decisions; hence, party supervision, direction, and discipline 
could be properly maintained. As such, Junius Scales was not a 
member of the National Textile Commission, but rather a top South- 
ern Communist observer. 

Mr. Arens. Scales was tried under the Smith Act, was he not ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. At the time he was out on bail. 

Mr. Arens. While he was out on bail did he, to your certain knowl- 
edge, do any penetrating of the South, from the standpoint of work 
of the Textile Commission ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, that was one of his phases of activities, sir. He 
had been instructed, from time to time, both by the National Textile 
Commission and the National Committee to go into the South^ — at 
this time he was living in New York — for the purposes of coordinat- 
ing the party's activities in the South, meeting with top party officials, 
and seeing to it that the party's instructions given by both the Nation- 
al Textile Commission and the National Committee in New York City 
were to be carried out in Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. Did he do so ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, he did, sir. 



2626 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Did he do so while he was out on bail ? 

Mr. Penha. He was out on bail at the time, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Was he found guilty ? Was Scales convicted ? 

Mr. Penna. He was convicted and he appealed, sir, to the Supreme 
Court. 

Later on Junius Scales was instructed by the National Committee 
again to go to New England in order to carry out a program of propa- 
ganda as instructed by the National Committee. On the surface the 
public was informed that he was there to defend his position, having 
been indicted on the membership clause of the Smith Act. However, 
hife main purpose was to get into public debates, which he did in 
Providence, Rhode Island ; to harass and undermine our internal se- 
curity system; to attack it in all forms and shapes; and to attempt to 
get public support and cooperation and action against our Govern- 
ment. He also was instructed to obtain finances, which were to come 
from both party sympathizers and American people at large, sup- 
posedly for his defense. Actually the party was in need of money, 
and this was one of the reasons why he was sent, and it was much 
easier to obtain it on the basis of his need for his defense. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any others who were working with the Nat- 
ional Textile Commission to your certain knowledge but who were 
not officially on the National Textile Commission ? 

Mr. Penha. Oscar Berland, from Durham. As a result of my trip 
down South, I attended an organizational meeting in the latter part 
of 1955 in Fairhaven, Massachusetts. This meeting was for the pur- 
pose of giving a report on my trip, recommendations for changes. 
Among these I recommended tliat Bill Evans be replaced. As a re- 
sult, Oscar Berland was sent in to replace him to attend National Tex- 
tile Commission meetings. 

At that meeting, present were: Fanny Licht, Southern regional 
organizer ; Ed Strong, National Committee member ; Mike Russo, who 
had just come out from complete underground for a period of ap- 
proximately 3 years that he had spent and, during that period, he 
had completely changed his physical appearance and identity in order 
to avoid possible arrest; Sidney Lipshires, who had been acting dis- 
trict organizer for New England while Mike was completely under- 
ground ; and myself. 

Aside from my report, there was another report given by Ed Strong 
and implemented by Fanny Licht, relative to the fact of colonization. 
They had come into the New England area for the purpose of inter- 
viewing two ]^rospective colonizers, namely, Geoffrey White and his 
wife, Ann White, from Providence, Rhode Island. They had re- 
quested, at that time, my opinion relative to the person of Geoff 
White, his capabilities. 

Mr. Arens. Whom was Geoffrey White to contact in the South ? 
Mr. Penha. If I may on this point allude just one second, and then 
I will answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed. Excuse me. 

Mr. Penha. In the person of Geoff White, who subsequently went 
to the South as a colonizer, I of course recommended him, and I think 
this is highly pertinent — it again shows the effectiveness of a colon- 
izer — like many others I met in the South, he was a Harvard graduate, 
a disciplined, hard-core, and zealous Communist who had been in 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2627 

Eastern Europe at one time and subsequently, on his return, was told 
to accept a menial job as a colonizer in Ehode Island to gain some 
experience. 

AVliile he was working in Rhode Island as a colonizer — and he be- 
came veiy effective, as all colonizers do, m a relatively short time — he 
became editor of the local trade union newspaper; and there the party 
line was thorouglily put across. He was also able to recruit at least 
two workers, to my knowledge, into the Communist Party. Not only 
was he able to recruit them, but he knew how to cultivate and indoc- 
trinate them. One of them in relatively a short time became a poten- 
tial colonizer. He was specifically trained for that purpose. 

These are more or less typical of what we find in all areas of the 
country as far as colonizers, particularly in this given area of the 
South. 

Now, Geoff White subsequently was instructed, shortly after this 
meeting, to go to New York City with Michael Russo and there they 
would be met by Ed Strong. A fourth person was to come up from 
Dalton, Georgia, to meet with Geoff White. This person, as I was 
told, was an editor of a newspaper in the South, which happens to be 
the Southerner. We had various copies submitted to us in the North 
to use. Don West, as it was reported to me, was also a minister, very 
effective in labor organizations and a party member. He was to come 
to New York City to meet Geoff' White, participate in consultations 
in order to ascertain the value and the need for Geoff' White to assist 
Don West in the South, both within the paper, the Southerner, and 
within labor organizations and industries. Subsequently, Geoff Wliite 
was sent down to the South as a colonizer. 

I may add, on the issue of colonizers, it was reported time and 
time again in New York City in the national meetings that I at- 
tended, that the party stressed very much the fact that colonization 
is part of the party's industrial concentration program, because it 
would aim at increasing Communist influence, both in industry and 
labor. As such, the party would see to it that any colonizer sent 
down to the South would have to be a tested, hard-core, zealous com- 
rade; and even if he was known in the North as a Communist, that 
would not matter because the party would change his complete identity, 
physically and otherwise ; provide him with completely new identifica- 
tion, another name, complete new background, and so forth. He 
would have extensive training prior to coming into the South. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly tell us about the activities in 
the South, to your certain knowledge, of the Southern organizer 
whom you identified as Fanny Licht. 

Mr. Penha. Fanny Licht at that time, in 1955, was the Southern 
regional organizer, the top Communist that controlled the South for 
the National Committee. She was a Northerner living in New York 
City at the time. Her task was to carry out the party line and policy 
in the South within the framework of tlie instructions received by 
the National Committee. In addition to that, she was also a contact 
for many Communists to the National Committee. I recall one time 
I went to New York City with Sidney Lipshires, and he had a vast 
amount of money collected in New England to be turned over to the 
National Committee. We went to the home of Fanny Licht, and it 
was turned over to her so that she would give it to the proper person 
within the National Committee. 



2628 COMMUNIST activitip:s in the south 

Fanny Liclit attended at least two meetings with me and she took 
no pains to stress the point that, aside from being a Southern regional 
organizer, she had full responsibility within the National Committee. 
She saw to it, from time to time, that those people that were in the 
party that did not want to adjust themselves to accept her were to be 
weeded out of party positions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, this particular witness has in other 
executive sessions given considerable information to the committee 
on other areas and other items of interest in the jurisdiction of the 
committee. We have no further questions to ask this witness at 
this time respecting the particular operation which we have been 
pursuing thus far in this hearing. 

The Chairman. Have you any questions ? 

Mr. Willis. No. 

The Chairman. Governor Tuck ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Jackson ? 

Mr. Jackson. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman, However, I feel 
tlie American people, the committee, and the Congress are indebted to 
Mr. Penha. Only one wlio has cut off all the normal w^ays and man- 
ners of life to enter the Communist Party can understand what a sac- 
rifice it is; and to spend 8 years in the conspiracy on belialf of the 
Government constitutes a great service to America. 

I want to congratulate the witness and express my appreciation 
and my thanks to him, Mr. ChaiiTnan. 

Mr. Penha. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Yes, Mr. Penha, I, too, want to thank you. You 
rendered a great service to your country, perhaps as great as the serv- 
ice you rendered during wartime. It is appalling to me to see the 
apathy on all sides and particularly from people who are well in- 
formed. This is a very distasteful task this committee is performing, 
and I assure you not a member of it sought the position he occupies. 
But somebody has to do it, and I might say to those who would de- 
stroy the effectiveness of the committee by making attacks on the sev- 
eral members that when the committee as presently constituted changes, 
the same work will continue. 

And it is only because of people such as you that we can devise the 
kind of legislative program that will help. 

This last week we had some hearings regarding a matter that had 
been developed through hearings of this committee; and I am sure 
that when the proposals are enacted into law, it will go a great way 
toward undoing w^hat was done through a decision of the Supreme 
Court. 

Call the next witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Eugene Feldman, kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Feldman. So help me God. 

The Chairman. Sit down. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2629 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE FELDMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
C. EWBANK TUCKER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yonrself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Feldman. My name is Eugene Feldman, I am of Chicago, Illi- 
nois, 6025 South Harper. I am a tutor by occupation. 

Mr. Arens. I beg j^our pardon ^ 

Mr. Feldmax. I am a tutor by occupation. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Feldman, in response to 
a sub]^ena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Feldman. I beg your pardon, please? 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you ? 

Mr. Feldman. I am, indeed. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Feldman. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Tucker. C. Ewbank Tucker of the Kentucky Bar, and Bishop 
of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feldman, where and when were you born? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer to that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment and the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee where and wlien you were born, you would be supplying 
information which might be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding? 

Mr. Feldman. My answer is the same, sir. I decline to make an- 
swer on the grounds of the fifth amendment and the first. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Feldman, have you always been known un- 
der the name of Eugene Feldman ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth. 

The Chairman. Before we go further, Mr. Feldman, you are di- 
rected to answer the question as to your place of birth. 

Mr. Feldiman. May I have the question, please, the original ques- 
tion ? 

Mr. Arens. The question is, sir, where and when were you born? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived at your present place of 
address ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer to that question on the 
grounds of the first amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to' make answer to that question on the 
grounds of the first amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. AYliere did you live immediately prior to your present 
address ? 

29454 — 58 3 



2630 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer to that question and my 
reason is on the grounds of the first amendment to tlie Constitution 
and the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. I think I ouglit to explain to you that refusal to 
answer these questions, in tlie judgment of this committee, very clear- 
ly constitutes contempt. If you wish to answer tlie question, or any 
of the questions that have been asked you, you may do so. 

Am I to assume that because of your silence you do not desire to 
answer any of the questions that have been asked you thus far? 

Mr. Feldman. May I have your question to me, please, again ? 

The CiiAiRiMAN. I have warned you, gratuitously, perhaps, that 
your failure to answer these questions, in my judgment, constitutes 
contempt of Congress; and I am asking you, giving you the oppor- 
tunity, to answer any of these questions in order that you not be 
placed in that position. 

Mr. Feldman. Was that a statement, sir, or a question to me? 

The Chairman. I am asking you if you care to answer any of the 
questions. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer to that on the basis of the 
first amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feldman, are you a Southerner ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the basis 
of the first amendment to the Constitution and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Are you an editor of the Southern Newsletter? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer to that on the first amend- 
ment, which grants freedom of the press, and the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Wliy do you think you are not required to answer 
the question because of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer to that, sir, based on the 
first amendment and the fifth. 

The Chairman. I understand you to mean that your refusal to 
answer because of the fifth amendment protection is because if you 
answer the question as to whether or not you are connected with this 
paper, you might be subject to criminal prosecution ; is that it ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Feldman. I would like to answer that the fifth amendment 
explains that a witness need not answer because it might tend to 
incriminate. My answer is that, sir. 

The Chairman. What is there criminal in that publication i 

Show him the publication, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feldman, I display to you now a series of publica- 
tions of the Southern Newsletter, current ones, at least that we have, 
the May and June issues, and other back numbers of the Southern 
Newsletter; and I ask you while you are under oath to please tell this 
committee if it is not a fact that you are the editor and publisher ot 
the Southern Newsletter. i i • j; i.i, 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer to that on the basis ot the 
first amendment, which grants liberty of the press, and the fifth 

t\ 1T1P71 (iTTlPTlt" Sir 

(Documents marked "Feldman Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2631 

The Chairman. Is there anything in those Newsletters concerning 
the release of these clergymen from Communist China ? 

Mr. Arens. I have perused those Newsletters, Mr. Chairman, and 
I have not seen anything of that character in the Southern News- 
letter. 

Now, Mr. Feldman, I should like to display to you a photostatic 
reproduction of an application for a post office box at Louisville, 
Kentucky, for the Southern Newsletter, Eugene Feldman, editor, 
Perry Cartwright, I believe, business manager, and the reference is 
Dr. Oakley C. Johnson of New York City. This application was 

filed in March of 1957 and the post office 

Mr. Jackson. Mr, Chairman, wiiat is the document? 
Mr. Willis. An application. 

Mr. Arens. It is a photostatic copy, Mr. Jackson, of an applica- 
tion for a post office box in Louisville, Kentucky, a post office box for 
the Southern Newsletter. 

The record will reflect that this particular witness has told us his 
residence is presently, and has been, in Chicago, Illinois. Kindly look 
at that application for the post office box and tell this committee, while 
you are under oath, whether or not that is a true and correct reproduc- 
tion of an original application filed by yourself as editor and publisher 
of the Southern Newsletter for a post office box in Louisville, 
Kentucky. 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth. 

(Document marked "Feldman Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee liles.) 
Mr. Arens. Have you lived in the South ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth amendment, sir. 
INIr. Arexs. Have you worked in the South ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth, sir. 
Mr. Arens. Are you a Southerner ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first amend- 
ment and the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now an original publication called the 
Militant — it is a publication in New York City — under date of March 
31, 1958. In this article we see a description of a Chicago rally, 
the Washington Park Free Speech Forum, and in which it is stated, 
Eugene Feldman, editor, Southern Newsletter, is going to make a 
speech there on the subject, "A White Southerner Looks at Civil 
Rights for Negroes," and so forth. Kindly look at that announce- 
ment, which was presented in that Militant paper, and tell us whether 
or not you were the speaker and that was the subject and whether or 
not you permitted yourself to be characterized as a Southerner to 
make this speech in the North ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first amend- 
ment, granting freedom of speech, and the fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Feldman Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

]Mr. Arens. Does the Southern Newsletter have a postal permit to 
mail its publication ? 



2632 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH I 

Mr. Feldman. Is your question complete, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Feldmax. I decline to answer on the orounds of the first amend- 
ment and the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you uoav an orijziual envelope and copy of 
the Southern Newsletter addressed into (jeorgia here, to Decatur, 
Georgia — Southern Newsletter, Box 1307, Louisville 1, Kentucky. I 
don't have the exact date, but it is very recent. 

Kindly look at that and tell us whether or not that was mailed by 
you, or under your direction, from Chicao:o, Illinois. 

Mr. Feldman, I decline to answer on — and the reason I decline is 
the declination is based on the fii'st amendment, oranting freedom of 
speech and press, and the fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Feldman Exhibit No. 4," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mr, Feldman. I decline to make answer on the ground of the first 
amendment and fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee truthfully where you are employed, you would be supply- 
ing information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer, sir, on the grounds of the 
first amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the last principal question because 
it is designed to test his good faith in invoking the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Yes, 1 think so. You are directed to answer the 
question, Mr. Feldman. 

Mr. Feldman, My answer is the same, sir. I decline to make answer 
on the grounds of the first amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, do you know a person by the name of Armando 
Penha? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you look over here to your left, please, sir, and 
see the gentleman seated here at the table and tell us whether or not 
you have ever seen him before and, if so, under what circumstances? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Penha swore just a few moments ago while he was 
testifying before this committee, in essence, that while he was an 
undercover agent of the FBI in the Communist Party, he knew you, 
sir, as a member of the Communist Party and as a colonizer in the 
South. We would like to give you an opportunity now, while you are 
under oath, to deny that identification of yourself. Do you care to 
avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer and my refusal is based on 
the first amendment and the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Perry Cart- 
wriffht? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer to that question sir, and my 
refusal is based on the first amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States and the fifth, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2633 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Perry Cartwright is one of your associates in the 
publication of the Southern Newsletter, is he not ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Carl and Anne Braden of Louisville, 
Kentucky ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer, sir, on the grounds of the 
first amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Are Carl and Anne Braden in Louisville, Kentucky, 
your colleagues in the work of tlie Southern Newsletter in that area 
of the South? 

Mr. Feldman. Excuse me, sir. Would you permit me to have some 
water ? 

The Chairman. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Feldman. Would you ask that same question again, please? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Are Carl and Anne Braden of Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, your associates or colleagues in the publication and work of 
the Southern Newsletter ? 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answ^er on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I have in my hand, and I shall now display to you, 
an exhibit, a letter which accompanied the latest edition of the 
Southern New^sletter, Post Office Box 1307, Louisville, Kentucky; 
Eugene Feldman, Editor; Perry Cartwright, Circulation; addressed 
to "Dear Reader," attacking the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities for its proposed trip liere to the South and attacking this 
committee on a number of grounds for conducting this so-called witch 
hunt here in the South. 

Kindly look at this letter and tell this committee while you are 
under oath, sir, whether or not you are the author of that letter. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feldman. I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth, sir. 

The Chairman. What crime do you think you might be charged 
with for attacking this committee ? 

Mr. Feldman. In answer to your question. Representative Walter, 
I say I decline to make answer on the grounds of the first amendment 
and the fifth, sir. 

(Document marked "Feldman Exhibit No. 5," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, a copy of the 
National Guardian, a publication w^hich has been cited as a publica- 
tion under Communist control, dated July 9, 1956, in which there 
appears, under a Winston-Salem dateline, a letter announcing the 
formation and ])ublication of a new publication called the Southern 
Newsletter. This letter in the National Guardian is authored, accord- 
ing to its format, by Eugene Feldman, Post Office Box 1364, Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina. 

Kindly look at that exhibit as I display it to you, sir, and tell this 
committee while you are under oath whether or not you authored 
that letter. 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment, granting freedom of the press, and the fifth, sir. 



2634 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

(Document marked "Feldman Exhibit No. 6," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Is the Eeverend Don West of Georgia afliliated with 
the Southern Newsletter as a contributor ? 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment, granting freedom of the press and freedom of religion, 
and the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a copy of the Southern Newsletter 
of April 1958, in which the name of Don West appears as one of the 
contributors, and call your attention to the article contributed by him 
and ask you whether or not, to your certain knowledge, he has a defi- 
nite connection with the Southern Newsletter. 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment, granting freedom of the press and freedom of religion, 
and the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Why is your freedom of religion affected because 
you are asked a question about somebody else ? 

Mr. Feldman. Representative Walter, I refuse to make answer to 
your question on the basis of the first amendment and the fifth. 

The Chairman. All right. 

(Document marked "Feldman Exhibit No. 7," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not, to your certain knowledge, Mr. 
and Mrs. Carl Braden are connected with the Southern Newsletter. 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer to that on the basis of the 
first amendment, granting freedom of the press, and the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge are Anne and Carl Braden 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Feldman. In answer to your question, sir, I refuse to answer 
that on the basis of the first amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge is Perry Cartwright a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge is Charles J. Coe a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You know, of course, that Charles Coe has been re- 
peatedly identified by former undercover agents of the FBI in the 
Communist Party as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Feldman. Is that a statement, sir, or a question ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that as a fact? Are you aware of the 
fact that he has been identified as a Comrade? 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Willis. May I ask a question ? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Counsel, do I understand the procedure about this 
publication to be about this: That the Newsletter and the Southerner 
are printed in Chicago and then sent in bulk to Louisville for distribu- 
tion from that southern point ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2635 

Mr. Arens. At least in part. That is the information which we 
have, Mr. Willis. We knoAv, as has been developed in this record, 
that Mr. Feldman is the editor, he lives in Chicago; that they have a 
post office box in Lonisville. We know that some of the publications 
themselves are actually sent from Chicago, because we have here post- 
marks from Chicago on some of the publications. 

The Chairman. The only thing Southern about it is that it origi- 
nates in South Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we had a number of other questions that 
we would have liked to have propounded to this witness, but it is 
quite obvious that we would be wasting the committee's time because 
this witness will not answer the questions which we feel are of vital 
concern. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I have just one I think we should ask. 

Are you now, Mr. Feldman, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Feldman. Mr. Jackson, I refuse to make answer to your ques- 
tion, sir, and my refusal is based on the grounds of the first amend- 
ment and the fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of 
theKuKluxKlan? 

Mr. Feldman. I refuse to make answer, sir, on the grounds of the 
first amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Jackson. Then you are consistent. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until tw^o o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m., the subcommittee recessed to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, JULY 29, 1958 

The Chairman. The committee wnll be in order. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Walter, Willis, 
Tuck, and Jackson.) 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, will you call your next witness, please? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Irving Fishman, kindly remain standing while the 
chairman administers an oath to you. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fishman, do you solemnly swear to tell the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Fishman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Fish:\ian. My name is Irving Fishman. I live in New York. 
And I am Deputy Collector of Customs with the Treasury Depart- 
ment, assigned to the enforcement and control of the importation of 
Communist political propaganda, on a country-wide basis. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been with the Customs Service and 
how long have you been assigned to this particular project of main- 
taining surveillance on the importation of Communist propaganda? 



2636 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I have been with the Customs Service some 30 years 
and with this project about 10. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, give us just a word again on this record 
as to the principal provisions of the law, the Foreign Agent« Registra- 
tion Act, which are applicable to this project of Connnunist propa- 
ganda. 

Mr. FisHMAX. The Customs Service, in a joint eifort with the 
United States Post Office Department, is charged with the responsi- 
bility of prohibiting the importation of subvei-sive materials which 
advocate treason or insurrection against the United States. We also 
have the joint responsibility with the Justice Department to enforce 
certain provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act is a disclosure type of statute. 
It contemplates that those people in the United States who desire to 
read foreign propaganda be made aware of the source of the material 
by the proper labeling or identification thereof. Thus a reader has 
an opi^ortunity to evaluate the source. As we understand it, the stat- 
ute does not restrict or prohibit an individual from reading any 
printed material which emanates from the Soviet bloc countries. 

The Customs Service and the Post Office Department have estab- 
lished three control units: One in New York, one in San Francisco, 
and one in Chicago. To these units we direct most of the printecl 
material which has its origin in the Soviet Union and in the Soviet 
bloc countries. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in the simplest terms, the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act requires that an agent in the United States 
of a foreign power, who is disseminating political propaganda, must 
himself register with the Department of Justice and must cause to be 
affixed to the political propaganda a labeling or a stamp so that the 
reader will know that he has Communist propaganda, is not that cor- 
rect? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your 30-odd years' service in the 
Bureau of Customs of the United States Treasury Department, have 
you ever seen a single item of Communist propaganda which has been 
imported into the United States wliich has been labeled in accordance 
with the law, in accordance with the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act? 

Mr. Fishman. None on its way into the United States. I have seen 
some exhibits in the Library of Congress which have borne the neces- 
sary labeling. 

Mr. Arens. You have before you today, Mr. Fishman, some speci- 
mens of the Communist propaganda that have been imported, or in 
the process of being imported, through New York City, is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. That is one of the control points ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Before I proceed further, I should like to have you tell 
this committee now the overall statistics on the Communist propa- 
ganda that is being imported into the United States from the Iron 
Curtain countries through the various ports of entry. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2637 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The volume increases steadily. In 1955 there were 
imported into the United States some 2,563,000 mail packages of 
printed matter from the Soviet bloc countries. These, we estimate, 
contained over 5,000,000 pieces of printed matter intended for dis- 
semination in the United States. 

In 1956 that increased by almost a million mail packages. 

In 1957 it did increase by a million and in 1958 — the first six months 
of 1958— there was a total of 2,1:51:,000 packages containing 4,786,000 
pieces of printed matter. Tliis, of course, was a 6-month period in 
1958. We haven't added tlie last 2 months. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, this is all material emanating from an 
Iron Curtain country, is it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. All imported into the United States, is that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. All of it disseminated over the United States ? 

Mr. Fishman. Intended for dissemination. Of course some of it 
w^e have been able to control. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in addition to this material which you 
are speaking about which is imported from abroad, this Communist 
propaganda, is there Communist propaganda emanating from non- 
Communist countries abroad which is imported into the United 
States ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. As our control becomes more effective, a great 
deal of this same printed matter is sent into the United States through 
friendly countries. Because of budgetary difficulties, we are unable 
to exercise the same kind of control over all foreign mail matter; 
neither are we as much concerned with printed matter which comes 
from friendly countries. So that a good deal of this material is 
passed without examination. Then, too, in order to cause the deten- 
tion of any of these importations under the Foreign Agents Registra- 
tion Act, we must establish agency relationship. This is not as simple 
Avhere material comes from a friendly country. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist propaganda which is coming into the 
United States from friendly countries, as distinct from the Iron Cur- 
tain countries, on the increase or on the decrease ? 

Mr. Fishman. On the increase. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any way of giving us an appraisal as to 
the volume of that Communist propaganda that is hitting our shores ? 

Mr. Fishman. N^o. That woulcl only be an estimate and we just 
haven't the figures at all. 

Mr. Arens. At the request of the chairman of the committee, did 
you, in the course of the recent past, make a spot check of the Com- 
munist propaganda coming through one port of entry, through New 
York City, destined to some 3 or 4 of the typical southern states ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. At the suggestion of the committee we segre- 
gated and set apart for a brief period of time that portion of the mail 
destined for this area. 

Mr. Arens. By this area you mean the Georgia, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi area, is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you make this spot check? 

Mr. Fishman. Two weeks. 



2638 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Do the exhibits here represent a typical sampling of 
this material ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. Most of the exhibits were chosen from 
material destined for this area. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us, if you please, sir, Avhat type of mail this is 
^^■hicll comes into the Southern States. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The Communist propaganda program is directed, for 
the most part, to those states where the citizenship has its heritage 
in foreign countries, countries which are now under Communist con- 
trol. Areas like the State of Georgia and other southern states get 
a much more selected type of material. Here the volume is much less. 
The percentage of material sent here is far less than it is in some of 
the northern states. But it is selected more carefully. It is sent to 
people wlio probably will disseminate and redistribute it in domestic 
and local publications. The propaganda program currently is di- 
rected, first of all, to the general type of Communist material ; then, 
too, a good deal of effort has recently been directed to the students 
at the secondary schools in the United States, the colleges, and 
universities. And, of course, the redefection program or the "return 
to the homeland" program has been on the constant increase. We 
have made very careful efforts to halt the flow of this homeland ma- 
terial into the United States because it is all unsolicited. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities has been very helpful 
in this respect : They have made the public aware that the redefection 
program is an overall Communist type of propaganda program. And 
this was important in this way : Redefection material is sent in 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Would you clarify what you mean by re- 
defection ? Our record may not be clear on that here. 

Mr. FisHMAN. The Communist propaganda machine, a number of 
years ago, turned out a good deal of material consisting of individually 
written letters to people who have their origin in foreign countries, 
asking them to return home; promising them forgiveness for any 
crimes they may have committed against the administration ; assuring 
them that there was plenty, and that the situation in the particular 
country was far better than it was in the United States; and telling 
them that they owed it to their country of origin to return and give 
the benefits of their experience, their knowledge, to the foreign coun- 
try. This material was individually addressed, and many of the reci- 
pients were alarmed because they felt that they were being subjected 
to pressures from outside of the United States. We received many 
letters asking us to withhold delivery of this material ; Members of the 
Congress sent us many complaints that they had received ; and it was 
as a result of a hearing before this committee, tlie Committee on Un- 
American Activities, that the public was made aware that this was an 
overall propaganda program, and many of the fears of the recipients 
were allayed. 

The program, however, has continued to be on the increase; and 
as we have taken steps to control it, efforts to forward this tj^pe of ma- 
terial into the United States have increased, so much so that the 
senders have reduced the size of the letter and are now sending it in 
very small packets. Then, too, a good deal of it is disguised in time 
tables and other material, and the recipients are asked to acknowledge 
receipt, something they never were asked to do before this. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2639 

Mr. Arens. As to this sampling which was made of Communist 
propaganda destined to this Mid-South area, does any of it contain 
a label that "this is Communist propaganda in accordance with the 
Foreign Agents Eegistration Act" ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. No. It is only by indirection and if you study the 
publication that one may become aware of its origin. 

To complete tlie statement I made concerning this homeland ma- 
terial, I have a translation from the Kussian, which I would like to 
read, at least an extract from it. It is addressed "Dear Compatriot," 
and reads as follows : 

Having receivefl your address from one of our compatriots, we decided to 
address this letter to you. 

You live in foreign lands for a long time. We do not know what circumstances 
have torn you away from your homeland, from your family and friends and 
have doomed you to become a foreigner, but we are sure, that no matter where 
you are the holy image of the mother homeland always lives in your conscience, 
as it lives in the C(mscience and heart of everyone of our compatriots abroad. 
This is why we are taking it as our duty to help every Soviet citizen, who has 
found himself outside of his homeland, to come closer to the homeland, to be 
in touch with its life, successes in work, science and culture, to realize yourself 
to be a true son of the great Soviet people, to help our compatriots to withstand 
bourgeoisie and emigrant propaganda which, not wanting to see the successes 
of the Soviet people, pours slanders upon our homeland. 

We know that not all Soviet citizens will be able to return to the homeland. 
We even don't consider this as our goal. But we wish to help our compatriots 
to reestablish contact with the homeland, to strengthen in them the feeling of 
pride for the homeland. 

And so on and so forth. To continue from the letter : 

If our letter to you will awaken in you some interest to the homeland or 
will provoke a desire to reestablish with relatives in the Soviet Union ties 
broken for one reason or another, or will make you think about your own 
position, write to us. We will give you cooperation and moral support. 

This goes on to tell how to get in toucli with the committee and 
advise that there is a broadcast every day. 

Mr. Arens. Why would they be sending that, Mr. Fishman ? Do 
you have a conclusion you reached in your own mind on that ? 

Mr. Fishman. I doubt very much that any of this material has any 
real effect, and I doubt also whether there will be a wliolesale exodus 
of people from the United States back to the Soviet Union, but it 
does continue to strengthen the distribution scheme in the United 
States and it permits dissemination to many more people who can be 
continuously bombarded with this type of material. 

Mr. Arens. By "this material," you are alluding exclusively at the 
moment to the redef ection material, are you not ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. Once having established a person's identity 
and address here in the United States, all of this other propaganda 
type of material follows, plus requests for funds and so on and so 
forth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, this Communist propaganda here, vari- 
ous publications, of which you have made a sampling goes through 
the United States mails, does it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. It does. 

Mr. Arens. The United States mails are not self-sustaining, are 
they? 

Mr. Fishman. Not as I understand it. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, Mr. Fishman, the taxpayers of this 
country are, by their subsidy to the Post Office Department, paying 



2640 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

part of the transportation costs of this Communist propaganda ? Is 
that correct ? 

Mr. FisuMAN, That is so in my opinion. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in what languages does this Communist 
propaganda appear in these various publications? 

Mr, Fishman. Most of these exhibit publications are printed in 11 
hinguages. A good deal of it is in English, or printed in the Eng- 
lish language, but most every publication here is also reprinted in at 
least half a dozen languages other than English. 

Mr. Arens. Does some of this Communist propaganda go in transit 
through the United States to other areas in the Western Hemisphere? 

Mr. Fishman. It does and, more particularly, recently to Latin 
America. 

Mr. Arens. From whence does it emanate ? 

Mr. Fishman. A good deal of it is printed by the Soviet Embassies 
in South America, one of the greatest distribution centers being in 
Mexico. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us something about the content 
of each of the several specimens which you have there? 

Mr. Fishman. All of this material of course is cleverly written by 
professional writers. They play skillfully on known and recognized 
grievances. We have chosen several exhibits, and I have prepared 
for committee use samples of articles taken from some of the news- 
papers before me. 

The Literary Gazette, No. 86, July 19, 1958, is the organ of the 
Board of Union Writers of USSR, and among the articles in it is one 
which reports strong condemnation against American aggression in 
the Middle East. "Hands OiT Arab Countries" is the title of one 
article; the second one, "Yankees Get Out of Lebanon." There are 
pictures and descriptions of the anti-United States demonstrations 
in Moscow with very strong attacks on the United States. Another 
article, "In the Name of Oil," strongly attacks the United States on 
its capitalistic greediness as the only reason for its intervention in 
Lebanon. Another article is entitled "To Cease Immediately the Game 
With Fire." This is a strongly anti-American revicAv by the foreign 
press which accuses the United States of all evils in connection with 
the Middle East. 

The propaganda, as you will note from these exhibits, is not very far 
behind what goes on in the United States ; and actually we frequently 
find ourselves in the position wliere we obtain more current news from 
these foreign news bulletins issued abroad than we do from our own 
newspapers. 

Here is a Chinese daily bulletin that is issued regularly, which 
contains very current news on what is alleged to be going on in Wash- 
ington. Here is an article entitled "Hands Off Lebanon," with strong 
attacks against United States policies, said to consist of interference 
in the Middle East. 

Mr. x\rens. Are there publications designed for particular groups 
in the United States, such as students and women and youth and the 
like? 

Mr. Fishman. That is a special direction that the Communist pro- 
gram has recently taken. All of this type of publication, "World 
Student News," "Students Say No," "News Service," aiid so on and so 
forth; all are directed to students. There are two major distribution 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2641 

centers for student material, one located in Czeclioslovakia and the 
other located in Hungary, l^oth oronps are very active. They claim 
some 97 million members around the world; they keep their program 
active by continuall}^ setting up world-wide meetings. 

For example, the program for the next few months shows a meet- 
ing in August in the German Democratic Republic on the subject 
"Safeguarding Peace and Strengthening Friendship." This is spon- 
sored by the International Union of Students. The second meeting, 
in August, in Moscow is on the subject "Peaceful Uses of Atomic 
Energy." The third in Cracow, Poland, on August 16, is entitled 
"Social and Economic Problems of Students." The fourth, in 
Peiping, China, September 4th to loth, is one of the large meetings. 
It is the Fifth Congress of the International Union of Students. An- 
other one in Peiping on student life and activities, and a very recent 
one — just added- — in December in the United Arab Republic, place yet 
unselected, will deal w' ith current Near East problems. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us a little more, Mr. Fishman, about the 
recipients of this material in the United States, particularly in the 
South to which we are inviting your attention in this session? 

Mr. Fishman. The committee is aware of the position of the Treas- 
ury Department, which maintains that the names and addresses of 
the recipients of this material are to remain classiiied and available to 
the committee for official use only. We have included in our last 
report submitted to the committee a list of the schools in this area 
that have been receiving this material regularly. I can refer to sev- 
eral: The Georgia State College for Women, Emory University, 
Berry College, University of Georgia in Athens, Mercer University, 
Agnes Scott College, Georgia Institute of Technology, the Atlanta 
University, Atlanta School of Social Work, the Teachers College of 
the State, and so on. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, this material is unsolicited as far as these 
schools are concerned, is it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. It is. It is sent to the editors of every college news- 
paper printed in the United States. Actually, in 1955 some 111,000 
such individually addressed student packages were sent to schools in 
the United States. In 1958, in six months, over 140,000 individually 
addressed pieces of mail were sent to student groups in the United 
States. 

Mr. Arens. Were any of these labeled so a recipient would know, 
in accordance with provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 
that the material he is reading is Communist material ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. As a matter of fact, as I mentioned, these 
groups, the International Union of Students and the World Federa- 
tion of Democratic Youth are both supposedly independent proper 
groups. They claim association with some of the recognized Ameri- 
can student organizations. jSIany of these groups around the country 
have disclaimed this association, but they still continue to list them 
as associated groups. 

Mr. Arens. Does this material on this sampling get into Mississippi 
as well as Georgia ? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Does it go into Alabama ? 

Mr. Fishman. It does. 



2642 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. You pointed out 3 or 4 states that you used in sampling 
here in the South. 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. AVe have concentrated on Georgia, 
of course, in the last 2 weeks. 

Mr. Arens. Are most of the educational institutions in Georgia the 
targets of this propaganda ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It is sent to the schools here and universities, con- 
sistently, as one way of getting it read. In some college libraries a 
good deal of this material is made available to students. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in times past, the committee has solicited 
your assistance in legislative proposals. The chairman of this com- 
mittee, as you know, has introduced legislation, some of which is em- 
bodied in a bill, H. R. 9937, pending before the committee at the 
present time. Some of the provisions of that bill undertake to cope 
with this problem of Communist propaganda coming into the United 
States unlabeled. 

Are you familiar with those provisions of H. E. 9937 which under- 
take to cause the labeling of this material prior to its actual physical 
importation? 

Mr. Fishman. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us j^our expression on that, please, sir? 

Mr. Fishman. We have long attempted to cope with this very prob- 
lem. The Department of Justice has held that the labeling of this 
material, the requirement for lal^eling of this material, does not at- 
tach itself until \he foreign agent, the disseminator in the United 
States, distributes tlie material in the United States. This leaves it 
pretty much up to the registered agent to decide, first of all, whether 
it is Communist propaganda and, second, whether he will label it. 
We have long sought for a requirement, and the new bill will provide 
it, that this material must be labeled before it enters the United States 
and before it is delivered to the recipient in the United States. Such 
a requirement will facilitate our work very considerably. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other comments to make respecting 
those provisions of H. R. 9937 which undertake to correct this partic- 
ular problem ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. That is the most significant one as I see it. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be of help, in your judgment, Mr. Fishman, 
if the attempted control of this flood of Communist propaganda which 
is imported were centralized in a single agency of the Government? 

Mr. Fishman. It would. It is currently pretty much a business of 
cooperation between our agency, the Post Office, and Justice. I think 
it would help a lot if it were all concentrated in one agency. 

Mr. Arens. Would any help come from additional translators? 

Mr. Fishman. It would. We now, as I reported, have 3 control 
units. We can use other control units around the country. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we havp in other proceedings, as I am 
sure the chairman will recall, probed further on specific details of 
the legislative phase of Mr. Fishman's information. I would suggest 
that would conclude the stat! interrogation of Mr. Fishman at this 
time. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Jackson? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2643 

Mr. Jackson. No questions. 

Mr. Tuck. No questions. 

The Chairman. I noticed, Mr. Fishman, some of these magazines 
are really done up in great shape. They are fine looking. They 
are entirely in English witliont a word of advertising, not a line of 
advertising. Is this the type of magazine that is being sent to these 
schools for reading? 

Mr. Fishman. It has been very apparent over the years. The cost 
of this material is obviously subsidized. It would be impossible to 
print and sell this material for the subscription price. Frequently, 
you can have a year's subscription to one of these publications for a 
dollar. In the absence of advertising, someone must be paying for 
printing these publications. 

The Chairman. Some of this is really beautiful work. 

Mr. Fishman. They compare very favorably with American printed 
magazines. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Fishman. In f onnat only, I hope. 

The Chairman. I am sure that is the only comparison, Mr. Fishman. 

Thank you very much, Mr. Fisliman. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Chairman, could we suspend for just a couple of 
minutes while we make arrangements to get this material moved 
aside ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

(At this point Kepresentatives Willis, Tuck, and Jackson left the 
room.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Perry Cartwright, kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. IMr. Cartwright, will you raise your right hand, 
please. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God? 

Mr. Cartwright. I do, sir. 

The Chairman. Sit down, please. 

TESTIMONY OF PERRY CARTWRIGHT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
C. EWBANK TUCKER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Cartwright. Perry Cartwright, 5429 — — • 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me just a minute, Mr. Cartwright. Would it 
be convenient for you not to get so close to the microphone? 

Mr. Cartwright. How is this ? 

The Chairman. Fine. 

(At this point Representative Willis entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Cartwright. Perry Cartwright, 5429 Ridgewood Court, Chi- 
cago 15, Illinois. 

Is that modulated properly ? 

]Mr. Arens. That is all right. 

And your position, please, sir ? 

Mr. Cartwright. I am a salesman. 



2644 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by tlie House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Cartwrigiit. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Cartwrigiit. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Tucker. C. Ewbank Tucker 

Mr. Wills. I cannot hear you, 

Mr. Tucker. — of the Kentucky State Bar. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed, Mr. Cartwrigiit ? 

Mr. Cartwrigiit. By the Owen Window Company in Chicago, 

]\Ir. Arens. Have you ever used any name other than the name 
Perry Cartwrigiit ? 

Mr. Cartwright. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us any other name that you used. 

Mr. Cartwrigiit. Fred Perry. I Avrote at one time under the name 
of Fred Perry. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you write under the name of Fred Perry ? 

JNIr. Cartwright. During my 10 years or so in the Socialist organiza- 
tion, non-Communist Socialist organization that I belonged to. 

Mr. Arens, Over what period of time were you in that organiza- 
tion? 

(At this point Representative Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Cartwright, Oh, approximately '46 to '56, two organizations, 

Mr, Arens, Do 3^011 have any other occupation, other than your oc- 
cupation as salesman ? 

Mr. Cartwrigiit. Are you referring to my capacity with the News- 
letter, sir ? 

Mr, Arens, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Cartwright, Yes, sure. 

Mr, Arens, What is your capacity with the Southern Newsletter? 

Mr, Cartwright, I am business manager or sometimes listed as 
circulation manager. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you occupied that post ? 

Mr, Cartwright, Since, I believe I am right on this, this spring of 
'57, approximately at that time. 

Mr. Arens, Can you tell us something of the circulation of the 
Southern Newsletter ? 

Mr, Cartwright, Yes. It goes largely about 85 percent to Southern 
white people. We find that there are many young Southerners who 
don't go along with ]\Ir. Walter's friend, the great Governor of 
Georgia, on this business of segregation, 

Mr. Arens. In what States does the, Southern Newsletter circulate? 

Mr. Cartwright. We find many young Southerners in all the 
Southern States are beginning to break with this business of 



racism 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly tell us, does it circulate in most of 
the Southern States ? 

Mr. Cartwright. I believe we have them in every single State, if 
I am not wrong on that, 

Mr. Arens, Can you give us something on appraisal as to the ag- 
gregate or total circulation per month or per week ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2645 

(At this point Representative Jackson returned to the hearing 
room.) 

(The witness conferred with his counseL ) 

Mr. Cartavright. Oh, well, sir, it has been going very rapidly. To 
what month do you refer ? 

Mr. Arens. Any period of time. You are the circulation manager 
of the Southern Newsletter, you tell us. We want to inquire from 
you what the circulation is. 

Mr. Cartwright. Our response, as I say, considering our limited 
resources, is very gratifying with white Southern young people. We 
have grown from practically nothing to about 2,100 now. 

Mr. Arens. Where is the paper published ? 

Mr. Cartwright. The mailing address is in Post Office Box 1307, 
Louisville, Kentucky. 

Mr. Arens. Where is it printed ? 

Mr. Cartwright. The paper is printed in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Does it have a postal permit to use the second-class 
mailing privilege ? 

Mr. Cartwright. You have me there, sir. I honestly don't know 
the answer to that question. 

Mr. Arens. What type of postage do 3^ou put on the individual 
Southern Newsletter ? 

Mr. Cartwright. 2-cent stamp. Whatever class that falls into. 

May I answer a little more on the Chicago business, sir? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir, please. 

Mr. Cartwright. Since I am cooperating with you and I am going 
to try to answer your questions, if I can — we are obliged to ]Dublish 
in Chicago because, with the pressures that have been exercised on us, 
we can't make a living, the segregation, such as this Governor here 
today, and the pressure they can bring make it very nearly impossible 
for a liberal white Southerner to make a living. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us — and the record does not 
presently reflect it by affirmative testimony — who is the editor of the 
Southern Newsletter ? 

Mr. Cartwright. Well, Mr. Arens, as you see, I am testifying freely 
about myself; but one reason I can't be a Communist is because I 
understand that that is the sort of thing that goes on in Communist 
countries, testifying about other people, informing. I speak freely 
about my own connections and my own business, my own theory, and 
so on: but when it comes to talking about other people, I can't do 
that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know who is the editor of the Southern News- 
letter? 

Mr. Cartwright. I believe I covered that in the previous answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question as to who is the editor of 
the paper of which he is a circulation manager. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mv. Cartwright. Chairman Walter, I understand this is one of the 
reasons that the United States Government, including your commit- 
tee, is very much opposed to the Soviet Union, that they force people 
to talk about their friends and associates. 

29454—58 4 



2646 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

The Chairman. You are not being forced to talk about anybody. 
You are merely being asked who is the editor of the paper that em- 
ploys you. You are not being asked to say anything about him at all. 

Mr. Cartwright. You see, sir, if I answer that, I believe that you 
might very well ask me about some of our subscribers and other 
people, and I wouldn't think of telling you the names of anybody in 
the South. Your friendly Governor might get after them. 

The Chairman. Let us not be funny. I am not fortunate enough 
to be numbered among the Governor's friends, because I just met him 
this morning. So you are not making very much of an impression on 
anybody when you resort to that sort of thing. You are not going to 
be asked about subscribers at all, and you know it. 

You answer the question who is the editor of this paper. It is pub- 
lished in Chicago and mailed in Louisville. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cartwright. Mv. Walter, obviously the names, the two names. 
Perry Cartwright and Eugene Feldman, appear on this magazine 
together. That should be answer enough. If you can assure me that 
you won't pursue this into asking me the names and addresses of 
people in tlie South, where they will be subjected to the violence of 
the Klan and the Councils, then I will answer that particular question. 
But I got to draw the line at giving information to segregationists. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, ask the next question. 

Mr. Arens. Are Carl and Anne Braden of Louisville connected 
with the Southern Newsletter ? Could you help us on that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Cartwright. Mr. Arens, there is a good sample right there of 
liberal white people who believe in a more democratic approach to 
the race question, getting into terrible trouble, subsequentlv cleared by 
the Supreme Court, the same Court which, of course, slapped this 
committee down several times. I just simply am not going to talk 
about other people and get them in trouble in the South. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Carl and Anne Braden 
are connected in an official capacity with the Southern Newsletter? 

Mr. Cartwright. Mr. Arens, if you will ask me about myself, as 
you see, I am willing to testify freely, but I must repeat it is morally 
reprehensible to me 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Cart-wright. I am just not going to help in bringing any kind 
of police-state informing conditions in this country. It is against my 
principles entirely, sir. I will answer about myself. I have done 
that freely. Please don't put me in position to jeopardizing other 
people. 

The Chairman. Why would you be jeopardizing anybody by ad- 
mitting that you knew them? How would you be placing them in 
jeopardy? 

INIr. Cartwright. Mr. Walter, I will answer that one. It is common 
knowledge that it was a great case in this country centered around the 
Bradens. I read about it, as well as anyone else interested in a more 
democratic, decent great South that your party says it is for in its 
platforms. The Bradens, as you probably know, were sentenced to 
jail 15 years on a drummed-up sedition charge. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2647 

The Chairman. Thcat is the case where they blew up their own prop- 
erty. Is that the case you are talking about ? 

Mr. Cartwright. You are making allegations. 

The Chairman. I am merely asking. I don't know anything about 
it, either. 

Mr. Cartwright. It is a have-you-stopped-beating-the-wife ques- 
tion. That allegation was never sustained. Someone blew up a house. 

The Chairman. I asked you to identify a case. I don't remember. 

Mr. Cartwright. Sir, my attorney here was represented in that 
case. He is a prominent Negro Republican attorney in Louisville and 
he helped represent the Bradens. Now, I would have no objection to 
my counsel answering that question. He is intimately familiar with 
the case. 

The Chairman. He is not the witness at the moment. 

Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live immediately prior to your present 
residence ? 

Mr. Cartwright. 47461/^ South Woodlawn, Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live immediately prior to your Chicago 
residence ? 

Mr. Cartwright. Flint, Michigan. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live there ? 

Mr. Cartwright. Some 4 years, sir. 

JNIr. Arens. How long have you lived in Chicago? 

Mr. Cartwright. Three, three and a half years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation in Flint, Michigan ? 

Mr. Cartwright. Oh, I drove a truck and, for a while, I was a 
machinist at one of the General Motors plants there. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, sir, about your education. 

Mr. Cartwright. Well, I grew up in York, South Carolina, and I 
completed high school at the schools there, and I went one year to the 
University of South Carolina. Then I had a considerable number of 
courses of all types in both the Royal Canadian Air Force and in the 
United States Army, from which I was discharged as a captain in 
1945. 

Are you listening, Mr. Arens? Do you want me to answer the 
thing?" 

Mr. Arens. Go ahead. I am listening, yes, sir. 

Mr. Cartwright. After that I went to New York University for a 
total of about 2 years. It was a little broken up. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been connected with any publications other 
than with the Newsletter? 

Mr. Cartwright. Well, sir, as I mentioned, I was a Socialist. I 
am a non-Communist. You know you are supposed to be investigat- 
ing communism. You know perfectly well I'm not a Communist. 
And I wrote at various times for certain Socialist publications. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever written for the Southerner of Dalton, 
Georgia ? 

Mr. Cartwright. My name appears in it, and I wrote for it, yes, 
sir. I felt that it was an approach to a sane race-relations program 
in the South towards unionization, which I am strongly in favor of, 
and because of these convictions I wrote for it without any compen- 
sation of anv kind. 



2648 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Willis. No questions, 

Mr. Tuck. No questions. 

Mr. Cartwright. Am I released ? Am I released, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Clara Saba. 

Kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Mr. FoRER. Just a moment. We ask that no photographs be taken, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Before the witness testifies there is no rule that 

Mr. FoRER. I didn't hear you. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. Before the witness testifies, you know the rule of 
this committee is to permit the press to take pictures. 

Mr. Jackson. It is known as freedom of the press. 

Mr. FoRER. I am glad to hear you solicit that. 

The Chairman. You have been before this committee dozens of 
times so you know the rules better than anybody. 

Please stand up and raise your right hand, Mrs. Saba. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mrs. Saba. I do. 

The Chairinian. Sit down, please. 

TESTIMONY OF CLARA HTJTCHERSON SABA, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH EOREE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Saba. I am Mrs. Mitchell Saba, from Koanoke, Virginia, and 
I am unemployed, thanks to this committee ; after I got your subpena, 
I was fired. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes, in response. It is not voluntary. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us your maiden name, please. 
Mrs. Saba? 

Mrs. Saba. Clara Hutchinson. 

Mr. Arens. H-u-t-c-h-i-n-s-o-n ? 

Mrs. Saba. No. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly spell your last name, your maiden 
name for us ? . ^ . ^^. 

Mrs. Saba. H-u-t-c-h-e-r-s-o-n. From Pittsylvania County, m Vir- 
ginia. I believe that is Representative Tuck, our former Governor's, 
district, down there at Danville. 

Mr. Arens. Now, for purposes of identification, you are the wife 
of Mitchell Saba; is that correct? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2649 

Mrs. Saba. That is right. 
Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Saba. I was born on a tobacco farm in Pittsylvania County 
near Danville. 

Mr. Aeens. And give us a word, please, about your education. 
Mrs. Saba. I am a high-school graduate. 
Mr. Arens. When? 
Mrs. Saba. 1934. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us your first principal employment after 
you concluded your formal education. 
Mrs. Saba. I was a textile worker. 
Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mrs. Saba. American Viscose Company in Roanoke for 8 years. 
Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a textile worker? 
Mrs. Saba. Well, if I recall rightly I worked for awhile during 
my high school years — for 6 months, I believe it was — and I went back 
and finished high school so I could graduate in the spring term with 
the rest of my class. And then I went back to the American Vis- 
cose Company where I worked for 8 years along with, I believe it was, 
3 sisters and my father. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us about what period of time in your life 
were you engaged in this textile establishment. 
Mr. Saba. What do you mean ? 
Mr. Arens. What years ? 

Mrs. Saba. I think it was 1934 to — my arithmetic might not be 
very good — I think it was 1942. Does that make 8 years? 
Mr. Arens. Approximately, yes. 

Now, tell us what your first employment w^as after you concluded 
your employment at the textile establishment. 

Mrs. Saba. I was technologically displaced. So I went from there 
as an organizer to North Carolina, in Winston-Salem. 
Mr. Arens. Excuse me. An organizer for what ? 
Mrs. Saba. For FTA, Food, Tobacco and Agriculture. 
Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate supervisor in FTA ? 
Mrs. Saba. My immediate superior ? 
Mr. Arens. Yes, Ma'am. 
(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 
Mr. Forer. Give the question again, will you ? 
Mr. Arens. IVlio was your immediate superior in FTA ? 
Mrs. Saba. It is not tliat I mind telling you but it is that every 
name that seems to come before this committee, that their names are 
published in the newspapers, just like mine was; and they get all sorts 
of smears against tliem, and I hesitate to do it for that reason. 

Mr. Arens. Was the person wlio was your immediate superior, to 
your knowledge, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Saba. I know nothing about his membership in anything ex- 
cept that he was a director. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. Tell us, where were you engaged by FTA 
as an organizer ? 

Mrs. Saba. In Winston-Salem. 
Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ? 

Mrs. Saba. Well, let's see. I believe it was 1943 to — it was a year 
and a half. 



2650 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Where were you organizing, in what plant or plants ? 

Mrs. Saba. Camel Cigarette factory. 

Mr. Aeens. And your next employment ? 

Mrs. Saba. From there I went to New York. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you go to New York, as an or- 
ganizer for FTA ? 

Mrs. Saba. No, I got married. 

Mr. Arens. Did you live in New York ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes, for a year and a half. 

Mr. Arens. Were you then employed ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes, I was, 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed? 

Mrs. Saba. For the United States Army. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mrs. Saba. Transportation zone. 

Mr. Arens. What were your duties ? 

Mrs. Saba. Clerk-stenographer. 

Mr. Arens. And then your next employment ? 

Mrs. Saba. Well, I believe it was from there we came back to Roa- 
noke and 

Mr. Arens. While you were in New York City, before you get back 
to Roanoke, did you attend any sessions at a place called Camp Beacon 
in New York? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. What was that question ? 

Mr. Arens. The question was while she was in New York City, did 
she attend any sessions at a place called Camp Beacon, New York. 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that question for the following rea- 
sons: No. 1, I feel that these questions invade my rights under the 
first amendment, free speech and free assembly ; No. 2, 1 believe, from 
what I have heard and from what T have read of your committee, that 
it is not in the best interests of civil liberties of our country; and I 
believe that you are calling me here because of my strong position that 
I have taken for a great number of years on the question of integra- 
tion in the South. 

The Chairman. Just let me disabuse your mind on that point. 
That is simply not the truth. Wliether you believe it or not, it is not 
the truth. This committee is not concerned with any extraneous prob- 
lems such as that is. We are concerned solely with Communist activi- 
ties and what to do about it in order to protect this Republic, and we 
are asking you to assist us in our work. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been in attendance at Camp Beacon in New 
York? 

Mrs. Saba, I have not finished the answer. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 

Mrs. Saba. I would like to say further that your calling me here 
is — now what's the word ? 

The Chairman. Inconvenience? 

Mrs, Saba. Well, it is an inconvenience, that's for sure. 

The Chairman. It was an inconvenience for us to come here, too. 

Mrs. Saba. I want to say this : that your calling me here would infer 
that I am un-American, that I am an advocate of force and violence, 
that I am for conspiracy and spying and that sort of thing; and I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2651 

want you to know that I resent that very much, and the people who 
know better know I have nothing to do 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell the committee whether you have been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Saba. I have not finished my answer. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. FoRER. That is all right. Just a minute. 

I take it, Mr. Arens, you have accepted the objections to the last 
question and are now going on to another. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. Have you answered the last 
question ? 

Mrs. Saba. I haven't finished. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mrs. Saba. I want to say I am basing my refusal on the first amend- 
ment and on the fifth amendment, which gives me the privilege of use 
so that I don't have to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge, is the Communist Party 
un-American ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. Is this a question you are asking ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes; you said you have not done anything un- 
American. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. Define your terms, please. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell this committee, are you now, or have you ever 
been, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons I 
just gave, first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, at this moment, a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
were sent by FTA as an organizer into North Carolina ? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
were engaged in the service of the United States Army ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. Pardon? 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
were engaged in the service of the United States Army ? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that for the reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know, or have you known, a person by the 
name of Ralph Long? 

Mrs. Saba. There is a Ralph Long that I know of and who has been 
convicted about 20 or 30 times of drunkenness and disorderly conduct 
in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Is that the one that you want to 
know about ? 

Mr. Arens. Do vou know, or have you known, a man by the name 
of Ralph V. Long ?"^ 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer on the previous reasons given. 

Mr. Arens. Ralph V. Long took an oath before this committee 
and testified that while he was a member of the Communist Party, he 



2652 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

knew 3^ou .as a Communist. I would like to give you an opportunity 
now to deny that statement by Mr. Long, wliich was made under 
oath ; while you are under oath, do j^ou care to avail yourself of that 
opportunity ? 

Mrs. Saba. I would like consultation, please. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. I do not care to do so, but I want it to be known and 
make perfectly clear that Mr. Long has been convicted many times on 
drunkenness and disorderly conduct. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Long in error or was he telling the truth when 
he said that he knew you as a Communist and served with you as a 
Communist at Camp Beacon ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Saba. I refuse for the same reason. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, the witness has said that she knows 
a Mr. Long. Now, I am interested in finding out whether he was 
in a drunken and irresponsible condition when he identified you as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Were you in fact a member of the Communist Party as testified to 
under oath by Mr. Long ? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse for the same reasons that I gave previously. 

Mr. Arexs, Kindly tell us what your next employment was after 
you became disassociated from the United States Army. 

Mrs. Saba. Will you repeat that question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. From the employ of the United States Army. 

Mrs. Saba. What was that question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. You told us a few moments ago during one period of 
your life, 1943 or thereabouts, you were engaged in a clerical capacity 
with the United States Army in New York City. When did that 
service terminate ? 

Mrs. Saba. I believe it was '45. I am not quite sure about that. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us your next employment. 

Mrs. Saba. From there I went to Eoanoke, and I didn't work in 
Roanoke. Then we moved to Florida. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't hear that. 

Mrs. Saba. Went to Florida. In Miami, Florida, I worked for 
OPA. 

Mr. Arens. You went from the United States Army to Miami, Fla., 
and worked in OPA ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What period of time did you work in OPA ? 

Mr. FoRER. You left out Roanoke, but that is all right. 

Mr. Arens. You went to Roanoke from the United States Army 
for a short time and then to Miami, Florida. 

Mrs. Saba. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Were you engaged in employment in Roanoke prior to 
the time you went to Miami, Florida ? 

Mrs. Saba. No, not that I recall. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged by the OPA in Miami, 
Florida ? 

Mrs. Saba. I believe it was about 6 or 8 months. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mrs. Saba. Clerk-stenographer. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment ? '• 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2653 

Mrs. Saba. From there we came back to Roanoke, and I believe 
my next job was with American Bridge Company, a subsidiary of 
United States Steel. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mrs. Saba. In payroll. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist at that time, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that on the basis that I have given 
earlier. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment, please. Ma'am. 

Mrs. Saba. The next was with a printing company — my experiences 
and work have been quite varied. 

Mr. Arens. In Roanoke ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mrs. Saba. I was a one-office girl, or one-girl office. 

Mr. Arens. And your next job, please ? 

Mrs. Saba. The next one was, I think it was, in Arizona, in Phoenix, 
Arizona. My husband had to go there for his health, and I worked 
there. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what year, please. 

Mrs. Saba. I have lost track. Let me see. Gosh, I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Was it in the late 40's ? 

Mr. Saba. Can I help? I am Mitchell Saba. We went there in 
'55, if that will refresh her memory. 

Mrs. Saba. '55? 

Mr. Saba. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you engaged in Phoenix, Arizona ? 

Mrs. Saba. Pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you engaged, did you have a job in Phoenix, 
Arizona ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mrs. Saba. I was a stenographer for a construction company. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you stay in Phoenix ? 

Mrs. Saba. We got there in June and left in May. 

Mr. Arens. And joiiv next location, please? 

Mrs. Saba. Well, we came back to Roanoke — well, no. I got a 
couple other little jobs with construction companies, seasonal type of 
work, and I was laid off and I got a couple of short jobs while I was 
there, doing office work ; and then we came to Roanoke. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been given special training at Camp Beacon 
in New York, under Communist Party direction and auspices, on 
Communist Party penetration techniques in the South? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that on the grounds that I have pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you have been in attendance at Camp Beacon, 
New York. 

Mr. Forer. The witness did not complete her answer to the preced- 
ing question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



2654 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mrs. Saba. This question of penetrating the South, I want you to 
know that I was born in the South ; and my ancestors, from as far back 
as I can remember, they were one of the first families of Virgina, and 
T don't know how I could penetrate the South. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Now, just tell us whether or not you received 
training in the techniques of — not penetration of the South, I will 
amend my query — Communist penetrations of the South at Camp 
Beacon, New York. 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that on the grounds that I have 
previously given. 

Mr. Arp:ns. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

The witness is excused. 

Mrs. Saba. Does Governor Tuck have any questions ? 

Mr. Tuck. I might ask you one or two. 

The Chairman. What was that ? 

Mr. Tuck. She invited me to ask her one or two questions, and I 
thought I might comply. 

Mrs. Saba. Go ahead. 

Mr. FoRER. She wants to know how things are in Danville. 

Mr. Tuck. In what part of Pittsylvania County was that tobacco 
farm where you were born ? 

Mrs. Saba. Pardon ? 

Mr. Tuck. In what part of Pittsylvania County was that tobacco 
farm on which you were born and raised ? 

Mrs, Saba. It was near Axton. My father used to take his tobacco 
to market to Danville and South Boston, I believe. 

Did you have a tobacco warehouse in South Boston ? 

Mr. Tuck. My father did. 

Mrs. Saba. Then he probably took it to your father. 

The Chairman. Probably related. 

Mrs. Saba. Might be. 

]Mr. Tuck. "What school did you say you graduated from in Pittsyl- 
vania County ? Wliat high school did you graduate from ? 

Mrs. Saba. My sisters went to Browsville. I didn't. You are 
probably familiar with Browsville. 

Mr. Tuck. I understood you to say earlier in your testimony that 
you graduated 

Mrs. Saba. From Jefferson High School in Roanoke. 

Mr. Tuck. In Roanoke? 

Mrs. Saba. That's right. 

Mr. Tuck. I thought you must have gone to some school outside 
of Pittsylvania County after hearing your testimony and I was won- 
dering what other schools you attended. 

Mrs. Saba. Jefferson, a wonderful guy. 

Mr. Tuck. Did you get any other education after you left Jefferson 
School in Roanoke ? 

Mrs. Saba. Wliat did you say ? 

Mr. Tuck. Did you go to any other school or colleges besides 
Jefferson School in Ronnoke ? 

Mrs. Saba. That is the extent of my formal education. 

Mr. Tuck. I wondered where you got so well educated on the 
Constitution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2655 

Mrs. Saba. I can read. 

Mr. FoREK. It is in the paper, Governor. 

Mrs. Saba. I believe that the committee could learn a great deal 
from the Constitution if the}^ would study it as well as 1 have, ap- 
parently. That is without contempt. 

Mr. Tuck. AVhere in Koanoke did you work? You said you lost 
your job in Roanoke by reason of having been subpenaed. 

Mrs. Saba. I was a secretary, secretary-receptionist for two physi- 
cians. 

Mr, Tuck. Two physicians ? 

Mrs. Saba. That is right. 

Mr. Tuck. And they objected to your being summoned down here 
to testify and to give this committee such information as you may have 
upon the operations of the Communist organization ? 

Mrs. Saba. Well, we had quite a discussion, the doctors and I ; and 
I told them that I felt that my appearance here, that I was fighting 
for the right of opinion and belief, and that this burden, which I con- 
sider a burden, it was not only just for me but it was for them, too; 
and they said that they didn't have any disagreement with me on 
that, they felt that I had a perfect right to my opinions and my be- 
liefs, but they couldn't 

Mr. Tuck. Do you mean to convey 

Mrs. Saba. Pardon ? 

Mr. Tuck. Do you mean to convey to this committee and the House 
of Representatives and to the people here gathered that there are 
doctors in Roanoke, Va., who would object to your coming here before 
this committee of the Congress and giving them the benefit of such 
information as you may have in respect to the Communist organiza- 
tion in this country ? 

Mrs. Saba. I dicln't say that they objected. 

The Chairman. Of course you did. That is exactly what you said. 
You said you lost your job because you had been subpenaed. 

Mr. FoRER. Why don't you let her finish what she was saying about 
Avhat happened. 

Mrs. Saba. I said I lost my job. That's right, because I was sub- 
penaed down here. They said that they — they couldn't keep me on 
with the kind of newspaper publicity that was coming out about me. 

Mr. Tuck. Let me ask you this question 

Mrs. Saba. And would be coming out as a result of this hearing. 

Mr. Tuck. Was there objection on their part to your giving informa- 
tion or was there objection on their part to your refusal to give infor- 
mation ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. SxVBA. That is all I can say. They just objected to the publicity 
that — you know — the spotlight would be on them and they said 
they would have to let me go rather than that happen. 

Mr. Tuck. They didn't object to any publicity that might ensue by 
reason of your giving this committee any information which you had 
in respect to the Communist operation in the South, did they? 

Mrs. Saba. I think you would have to ask them that. Yes, I do. 
I think you would. 

Mr. Tuck. That they objected to that? They objected to your giv- 
ing this committee information ? 



2656 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. FoRER. ISIrs. Saba said she couldn't read their minds. 

]\Ir. Jackson. Let lier answer. Counsel is well familiar with the 
I'liles of the committee. 

Mrs. Saba. I didn't say that at all. 

Mr. Tuck. I am interrofratino; the witness, not the counsel. 

Mrs. Saba. I didn't say they objected to my coming down here. 
I am saying they objected to the kind of newspaper publicity that 
would come out of this trial, and they said they could not keep me on, 
on that basis. 

]Mr. Tuck. Did you tell them that you were going to come down 
here and invoke the fifth amendment to the Constitution? 

Mrs. Saba. I told them I was coming down here to protect the 
right of free speech and free opinion and that I felt that I w\as doing 
that for tliem, too, and I also told them that fascism in Germany — 
and the German people are smart people, they are not stupid — and yet 
fascism was able to take ahold and grow over there. I say that the 
same thing could happen in this country unless people safeguard the 
right to bear their own opinions and their own thoughts, and that is 
exactly what I am trying and intending to do here today. If that 
sounds un-American, then I have to say I am un-American, but that 
is the way I feel about it. 

Mr. Tuck. That is, in effect, you told these two physicians in 
Roanoke who employ you that you were going to come down here and 
refuse to give this committee such information as you may have in 
your possession that would guide and help this committee? 

Mrs. Saba. Where do you get your information ? 

INIr. Tuck. I didn't. The only information that I have is from you. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs, Saba. Yes, you are putting words in my mouth, Governor Tuck- 
I am sorry, I can't answer that. 

Mr. Tuck. I am interrogating you on your own testimony. 

Mrs. Saba. I haven't told you any such things. 

Mr. Jackson. Would the gentleman yield briefly ? 

Mr. Tuck. I will be glad to yield. 

Mr. Jackson. I would like to get this thing in proper context. 

How did the news of your subpena come to the attention of the 
doctors by whom you were employed? Did you tell them? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. That's a very interesting question. 

Mr. Jackson. That is why I asked it. 

Mrs. Saba. I believe so. It makes me think that you have somehow 
or other — the committee must have gotten in touch with the doctors. 
Of course I did tell them. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no information, nor have I conferred with 
your former employers. 

Mrs. Saba. In fact, I told the doctors the very day that I got a tele- 
phone call from the marshal. I went straight to the doctor and told 
h'm what kind of telephone call that I had gotten and I told him what 
to expect in the way of publicity. 

Mr. Jackson. All right. 

Now, what did the doctor say to you ? As a matter of fact, I think 
these doctors will finally wind up in a position to be highly com- 
mended, but I want to determine the reason, as you do, Gov- 
ernor Tuck, as to why any loyal American, be he doctor or any other 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2657 

citizen, would object or would discharge an employee for doing his or 
her duty to tlie Government in the face of this tremendous conspiracy. 

Do you contend that these doctors by whom you were employed 
discharged you simply because you were subpenaed? Was tliat the 
reason for the discharged 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. AVould you mind repeating that question ? 

Mr. Jackson. No. I want to know if the witness was discharged 
simply because she was subpenaed. 

Mr. FoRER. The witness, Mr. Jackson 

Mrs. Saba. You want me to tell you what was said ? 

Mr. Jackson, No. 

Mrs. Saba. I will 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mrs. Saba. I am trying not to. If you insist, I will. 

Mr. Jackson. As briefly as possible. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. You are asking for this. 

Mr. Jackson. Of course. That is why I asked. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. I don't see how it is relevant and all and I would rather 
not say this. I would rather not say this because it is going to get 
back to the doctors. But I will tell you if you insist on it. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, the purpose of counsel is not to put 
words into the mouth of the witness. 

The Chairman. Yes, of course. 

Mr. Jackson. It is audible from here. 

Mrs. Saba. I am asking legal advice. 

Mr. Jackson. You are not asking; you are getting solicited 
guidance. 

Mrs. Saba. I am asking for legal advice. Isn't that permissible ? 

Mr. Jackson. Go on with the advice you have received. 

Now, what happened when you went to the doctors ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I am asking the witness. What happened when you 
went to the doctors and informed them that you had received the 
subpena? This is within your knowledge, and I want the answer 
from you. 

Mrs. Saba. I nnist consult with my attorney. 

Mr. Jackson. Was your attorney there when you told the doctors 
you had received a subpena ? 

Mrs. Saba. AVho is the chairman ? Mr. Walter, who is responsible ? 

Mr. Jackson. I have the floor. I am asking a question. 

Mrs. Saba. Point of order, if that is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. No, I am sorry. This is not subject to a point of 
order. I am asking a question. 

Mrs. Saba. Can I have some access to the chairman? 

Mr. Jackson. If the chairman tells me to cease, yes, but until 

Mrs. Saba. May I consult with my attorney ? 

The Chairman. In a moment 

Mrs. Saba. May I consult with my attorney before answering that 
question ? 



2658 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Jackson". Mr. Chairman, I withdraw the question if this is so 
involved that the witness does not know what occurred when she Avent 
to tlie doctors. I will not pursue it. 

Mr. FoRER. Point of privilege 

The Chairman. Have vou ever been to Beacon, N. Y. ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Saba. When we lived in New York. 

Is this thing right? 

The Chairman. It is on. We can hear you. 

Mrs. Saba. Yes. We have been to Beacon. We traveled to Beacon. 
We traveled to all the outlying areas of New York City; yes. 

The Chairman. You have been to Beacon ? 

Mrs. Saba. Yes. 

The Chairman. Have you been to schools that were conducted at 
Beacon, New York ? 

Mrs. Saba. I refused to answer that on the previous grounds that I 
have given you earlier in my testimony. 

The Chairman. Did you attend a Communist school in Beacon, New 
York? 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the previous 
testimony. 

The Chairman. The fact of the matter is, the only school you went 
to at Beacon, New York, was a school that was established for the pur- 
pose of training people to go into other areas of the United States 
to instruct in Communist procedures, practices, and methods; isn't 
that a fact? 

(At this point Representative Jackson left the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Saba. I refuse to answer that on the basis that I have given 
you previously. 

The Chairman. All right. Call your next witness. 

Witness excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is 
Mitchell Saba. 

Kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. 

Mr. Saba. Mr. Chairman, this is necessary ? 

The Chairman. It is part of our system of government. It is part 
of freedom of the press. We are very much concerned in preserv- 
ing it. 

Mr. Saba. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing l3ut the truth, so help you God. 

Mr. Saba. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MITCHELL SABA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Saba. My name is Mitchell Saba, and my home is 4125 Ken- 
tucky Avenue, N. W., in Roanoke, Virginia. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today, Mr. Saba, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2659 

Mr. Saba. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Saba. Yes. 

Mr. Akens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. FoREK. Joseph Forer, and I am still from Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born, Mr. Saba ? 

Mr. Saba. I was born in Brooklyn, New York, on July 18, 1910. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Saba, would it be convenient for you to keep your 
voice up a little, please, sir. 

Mr. Saba. Oh. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, a word about your education. 

Mr. Saba. I had S years of grammar school and 1 term — back in 
those days 1 term was half a year of high school, wdiich I got by going 
to school at night after w^ork. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Saba. Yes, it did. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Saba. Well, I don't recall the year I completed the half year in 
high school. It was sometime in the middle 20's. 

Air. Arens. Now, kindly tell us the first principal employment you 
had after you completed your formal education. 

Mr. Saba. I worked as an errand boy in a garment factory. I car- 
ried around the salesman's suitcase with samples w hich he took to these 
bars, and models wore them, and so on and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment endure ? 

Mr. Saba. I worked in this garment factory for 3 years. At the end 
of 3 years I was a full-fledged cutter, c-u-t-t-e-r. I was 18 years old 
at that time. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Saba. That was with a similar company for — no. My next 
employment after that was for approximately 5 or G months in a 
men's clothing store as a wrapper. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment, please, sir. 

Mr. Saba, In the ladies' garment industry for a while, and at that 
time my health had deteriorated and at that time I was 19. Things 
were such — my father didn't have much money. He had a brother in 
Egypt and he sent me there — in late 1929, for my bronchial condition. 

Mr. Arens. To Egypt? 

Mr. Saba. Cairo, Egypt. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you stay in Egypt ? 

Mr. Saba. Two and a half years. Apparently the climate was not 
too good for me. I did work as a salesman — this was during the de- 
pression, early thirty's — for an American company, selling oflSce 
equipment in Egypt. 

Mr. Arens. On your return to the United States, what was your 
principal employment ? 

Mr. Saba. I didn't return to the United States from Egypt. I had 
to do something about my health, for my health deteriorated in Egypt, 
too, and I went to Lebanon, to the Lebanon mountains ; and the three 
and a half years there improved my health very much. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you engaged in Lebanon while 
you were there? 

Mr. Saba. As a patient. 



2660 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Then your next employment ? 

Mr. Saba. I came back to the United States in 1936, and soon after 
that, havin^: worked in the — rather, bein"; in the hospital for snch a 
while, I thoii<rht that I would like to work in a hospital and I did 
work for the City of New York for 6 years as an attendant for the 
Department of Hospitals. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Your next employment. 

Mr. Saba. I sought to improve myself and I worked for the Vet- 
erans' Administration, also as an attendant in a Veterans Administra- 
tion hospital in New York for 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. That gets us up to about '44 or '45, does it not ? 

Mr. Saba. A little earlier than that, was when I — I think prob- 
ably 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Your next principal employment, 
please, sir. 

Mr. Saba. I met a fellow who agreed to take me in when he opened 
up his shop and teach me refrigeration, which I did. 

Mr. Arens. That was in New York City ? 

Mr. Saba. In New York City. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that arrangement endure? 

Mr. Saba. It might have lasted — this is all approximate 

Mr. Arens. I understand. 

Mr. Saba. About a year. And then while working on that job, a 
buddy and myself opened up our own roll shop ; and about that time 
I met my wife, when she came to New York with her girl friend on 
her vacation. 

Mr. Arens. That was about '44 or '45, thereabouts ? 

Mr. Saba. About the end of '44. We got married — rather late in 
'44 and we got married, yes, in '45. I lived in New York for a year 
and a half. 

Mr. Arens. During your residency in New York City, did you ever 
attend Camp Beacon in New York ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Saba. No, I didn't. 

(At this point Representative Jackson returned to the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Arens. Tell us now, if you please, sir, your next principal em- 
ployment. 

Mr. Saba. I worked in two refrigeration factories in New York, and 
shops, for about a year and a half, until the middle of '46 ; and things 
got slow, so I tried Roanoke. 

Mr. Arens. You tried Avhat ? 

Mr. Saba. Roanoke. I had visited my wife's home town before 
and I liked Roanoke, and I felt I would like to work there and I 
found a job in Roanoke. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere ? 

Mr. Saba. With Johnston- Vest Electric Company. I think they 
treated me very good. Things got very slow, but I didn't expect them 
to keep me on forever. So that is why we went down to Florida 
where she had a sister and brother, and I worked down in Flonda for 
about 7 or 8 months. At that time my wife was working. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you work in Florida, please, sir ? 

Mr. Saba. Around the Miami area. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2601 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you work ? 

Mr. Saba. As refrigerator and air conditioning mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. And you returned to lioanoke ? 

Mr. Saba. Yes, I did, and I worked — if you want me to continue. 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

Mr. Saba. In lioanoke I worked for the Richardson Company when 
I came back, in tlie capacity of refrigerator and air conditioning 
mechanic for 2 years, and then I joined a pipefitters union. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of the organization, please, sir ? 

Mr. Saba. The AFL-CIO ; and from there on until last Marcli, I 
worked out of their jurisdiction. I have been unemployed since 
March '58. 

I want to correct myself on that. I went to Arizona for my health. 

Mr. Arens. Have ^ou ever applied for employment at Radford 
Arsenal in Radford, Virginia ? 

Mr. Saba. No, sir. I was afraid of a frame-up. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Saba. I was afraid of a frame-up. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean, a frame-up ? 

Mr. Saba. At that time I noticed in the papers there was a lot of 
hysteria regarding spies and so on and so forth, so I shied away from 
any kind of contact with anything that would be of any security risk, 
and the possibility that some guy who w'ants a feather in his cap^ — 
I am not accusing the Government of anything like that — but I w^as 
afraid that some guy, some flunky, might wdth a feather in his cap, 
want to put a feather in his cap, would try to frame me and accuse 
me of spying. So I steered clear, stayed clear of the Radford Arsenal 
or anything else like that, although it meant unemployment to me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Saba. I refuse to answer that question for the following reasons : 
I believe tliat the conduct of this committee has been contrary to tlie 
letter and spirit of tlie first amendment, which guarantees or is sup- 
posed to protect us in our rights regarding freedom of speech and 
assembly, press, so on and so forth. 

The Chairman. Do you include in that, membership in the Com- 
mmiist Party? Do you think the Constitution of the United States 
guarantees people the right to join tlie Communist Party ? 

Mr. Saba. And I would like to finish the reason why I ■ 

The Chairman. All right. 

Ml'. Saba. Refuse to answer this question. 

And the Constitution of the Communist Party — T mean of the 
ITnited States is supposed to gunrantee us all freedom; and inasmuch 
as this committee is coming down here and concentrating on people 
who are for integration, I feel I should refuse to answer your question 
on the grounds that it w^ould incriminate me. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I want the record clear. I liappeii to 
have voted for a great deal of civil rights legislation. 

The committee is not here to investigate how you feel on integration. 
The committee is here to investigate testimony, taken under oatli, 
which identifies certiiin people as liaving been members of the Com- 
munist c<ins]>irary. Let's separate this integration mntter and the 
Coniniuiiist membersliip. 

29454—58 5 



2662 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

The reason you didn't pursue employment with the Federal Gov- 
ermnent ^Yas because of the fact that there had been such testimony 
relating to your past as would make it impossible for you to be em- 
ployed with the Federal Government. Isn't this a fact ''. 

Mr. Saba. What is a fact ? 

Mr. Jackson. Isn't it a fact that the reason you didn't pursue the 
Radford Arsenal application was because there were things in your 
past that would have guaranteed that you couldn't have gotten a job? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Saba. I thought I gave you my reason awhile ago, the reason 
why I didn't go to the Radford Arsenal and did not apply in any 
other so-called sensitive job. 

The Chaerman. May I ask a question in that connection ? 

Why didn't you feel that you could qualify for a sensitive job and 
so forth % 

Mr. Saba. The FBI had been snooping around me. 

The Chairman. Oh, and what did they find out? I mean what do 
you think they found out ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Saba. Now, how are these questions that you are asking me 
and expect me to answer them, going to help you frame legislation, 
Mr. Walter ? I don't understand. 

The Chairman. I think we have some ideas, now, and you are de- 
veloping them very nicely for us. 

Mr. Saba. Mr. Walter, I feel very strongly that the oil fields of 
the United States should be nationalized; and if Rockefeller wants 
to put me against the wall and shoot me for that, well, I am ready to 
take the risk. That is why I think 

The Chairman. There is only one place in the world where that 
could happen to you and that is behind the Iron Curtain. Go on, 
Mr. Arens, with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. I have no further questions of this witness. 

The Chairman. Do you have any questions, Governor ? 

Mr. Tuck. No. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. We will take a 5-minute 
recess. 

(Members present: Representatives Walter, Willis, Tuck, and 
Jackson.) 

^ Brief recess.) 

(Members present: Representatives Walter, Willis, Tuck, and 
Jackson.) 

Mr. Arens. Don West, kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. ]Mr. West, your attorney, Joe Forer, has given us 
certain information and as n result of it you will be continued under 
the subpena although T am not so certain wo will get any answers from 
you anyway. 

Mr. West. Does that mean that I am excused at this point ? 

The Chairman. You are excused at this point. 

Mr. West. I will be notified later ? 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Will you call the next witness, Mr. Ai-ens? 

Mr. Arens. Jack Hester, kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, Mr. Hester? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2663 

Do yon swear tlie testimony you ai-e al>out to g'wv will be the ti-ntli, 
the whole truth, and notliiiig l>nt tlie truth, so helj) you God '? 
Mr. Hester. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN E. HESTER, JE., ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
C. EWBANK TUCKER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Hester. My name is John E. Hester, Jr. I live at 850 East 57th 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. And I would say my occupation is student 
at this time. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Hester, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Hester. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Hester. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Tucker. Bishop C. Ewbank Tucker, member of the Kentucky 
State Bar. 

Mr. Arens. IMr. Hester, are you now, or have you ever been, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hester. Mr. Arens, at this point I would like to say this : I will 
answer all questions that I feel do not touch on political beliefs or 
past associations. On these questions I will refuse to answer, first, 
because I feel they are an infi'ingement on a person's right to their 
own beliefs and right to hold opinions of their ow-n choice, and I also 
would invoke the first and fifth amendments on any such questions. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to raise your voice a 
little, Mr. Hester? 

Mr. Hester. Surely — and I do so invoke tlie first and fifth amend- 
ments to this question. 

Mr. Arens. "V\^ere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Hester. April 24, 1932, in Los Angeles County, California. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Hester. I had 8 years of elementary school. The bulk of it 
was in Kansas City, Kansas. I had 4 years of high school in Omaha, 
Nebraska. And I have recently started college work in Chicago at 
one of Chicago's junior colleges. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been gainfully employed ? 

Mr. Hester. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when, please, sir ? 

Mr. Hester. Where should I start? At the very beginning? 

Mr. Arens. With the principal occupation, not incidental occupa- 
tions as a youngster. 

Mr. Hester. After getting out of high school, I w^orked for a brief 
time in Chicago, Illinois, at a truck transfer point. I worked in New 
York City subsequent to that in 2 or 3 jobs. I guess the first was in a 
clothing distributive house, Lerner's, and following that in a small 
factory of people that made baking pans for bakeries. In 1952 I 
returned to Chicago. I got a job at Armour and Company, a packing- 
house. I worked there until I was drafted in the latter part of 1952, 



26G4 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

mid I Avorked tliere subsequent to my discharge. They had a consider- 
able lay-oiT in '56, T believe — the latter part of '56 — and whereupon 
I took up the trade of machinist and worked for, oh, approximately 
a year as a machine tool operator. And followin^r that I was self- 
employed here in the South. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your self-employment in the 
South? 

Mr. Hester. I worked on a farm and I peddled vegetables in At- 
lanta, Georgia, up until September of last year. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Don West ? 

Mr. Hester. As I indicated previously, I would not answer questions 
that involved associations or political beliefs for the reasons I gave. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lived at Don West's house here in 
Georgia? 

Mr. Hester. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

The Ch AIRMAN. T^^iere did you live in Georgia ? 

Mr. Hester. I lived on a farm near Douglasville, Georgia, sir. 

The Chairman. Is that the only place you ever lived in Georgia? 

Mr. Hester. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you a photograph and ask 
;vou if that is a true and correct reproduction of the house that you 
lived in, in Georgia. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. HJESTER. I refuse to answer that for the reasons given previously, 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that this is the reproduction of the house of Don West, 
in which you were living during 1956. If that is not true, please deny 
it while you are under oath. 

Mr, Hester. I refuse to answer under the same reasons that I gave. 

(Document marked "Hester Exhibit No, 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr, Willis. Is Don West a farmer? 

Mr. Hester, Are you asking me, sir ? 

Mr. Arens, Could you answer the question, please ? 

Mr. Hester. I don't know, sir. 

I beg your pardon. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel,) 

Mr. Willis. You talked about peddling vegetables and being a 
farm boy. Now I just want to know, is Don West a farmer? 

Mr. Hester, Mr, Arens, could my last statement be struck from 
the record ? 

Mr, Arens. You may qualify it ; yes, sir. 

Mr, Hester. I would like to st rike it. 

The Chairman. Just a moment. What do you want stricken from 
the record ? 

]\ir. Hester. The words "I don't know." 

The CiTAiR3tAN. Why do you want those stricken from the record ? 
Do you loiow ? 

Mr. Hester. Because this has to do with associations, as I indicated 
earlier. 

The Cttatrman. You ali-eady answered the question. You were 
asked the question of what his employment was and you said "1 don't 
know," 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2665 

Mr. Hester. Precisely, sir, and that is why I want it stricken from 
the record. 

The Chairman. We are not going to strike it from the record. That 
is your answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Don West's employment ? 

Mr. Hester. Sir, I refuse to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. What activity were you engaged in during 1956 and 
1957 in the Greater Atlanta, Georgia, area ? 

Mr. Hester. I raised some vegetables and also bought some of the 
Farmers Market m Atlanta and sold them as other peddlers do in 
Atlanta. 

Mr. Arens. Did you engage in Communist Party activities during 
your tenure here, 1956 and '57 ? 

Mr. Hester. As I indicated previously I would not answer ques- 
tions that had to do with beliefs or associations. 

Mr. Arens. Let's not talk about beliefs or associations. Let's talk 
about activities. Did you engage in Communist Party activities here 
in the Greater Atlanta, Georgia, area in 1956 or 1957 ? 

Mr. Hester. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat course are you taking at the school you are at- 
tending in Chicago ? 

Mr. Hester. I just started, but I have taken these two, college mathe- 
matics and beginning English. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Dalton, Georgia ? 

Mr. Hester. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was your visit at Dalton, Georgia, in company with 
Don West? 

Mr. Hester. Sir, I didn't saj^ it was a visit. I say I have been 
there. I passed through it. 

The Chairman. When you passed through, was Don West with you ? 

Mr. Hester. Sir, I invoke the fifth amendment at this point. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. Hester. I refuse to answer for the reasons I gave previously. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this minute, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hester. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

The Chairman. You are excused. The committee will be in recess 
until 10 tomorrow morning. 

("Wliereupon, at 4 p. m., Tuesday, July 29, 1958, the subcommittee 
recessed to reconvene at 10 a. m., Wednesday, July 30, 1958.) 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION AND ACTIVITIES IN THE 

SOUTH 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 30, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee or the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Atlmita, Ga. 

PUBLIC HKARINO 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m. in the Courtroom, Old Post Office 
Building, Atlanta, Ga., Honorable Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and Donald L. Jackson, 
of California. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and George 
Williams and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel, will you call our first witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Carl Braden, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Braden. I have two counsel, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. All right. Please raise your right hand. Do you 
solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Braden. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CARL BEADEN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
C. EWBANK TUCKER AND JOHN M. COE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation, 

Mr. Braden. My name is Carl Braden. I live at 4403 Virginia 
Avenue, in Louisville, Kentucky. I am a worker in the integration 
movement in the South, having been employed by the Southern Con- 
ference Educational Fund, Inc., which is southwide interracial or- 
ganization working to bring about integration, justice, and decency in 
the South, 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Braden, you are appearing today in response to a 
subpena that was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Braden, I am. I was vacationing in Rhode Island when a 
United States marshal took me off the beach and handed me a subpena. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

2667 



2668 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Braden. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will von kindly identify yourselves? 

Mr. Tt'cker. C. Ewbank Tncker of Louisville, Kentucky; Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, member of the Kentucky State Bar. 

Mr. Coe. John M. Coe of Pensacola, Florida, member of the Bar of 
Florida and the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. In vrliat capacity are you employed, Mr. Braden, with 
the Southern Conference Educational Fund? 

Mr. Braden. I am employed as field secretary, and I am also asso- 
ciate editor of their newspaper, the Southern Patriot, which is a pa- 
per that disseminates information on integration in the South and 
about the people who are working for integration. 

Mr, Arens. How long have you been so employed, please, sir ? 

Mr. Braden. A year. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your employment immediately prior to 
your present employment ? 

Mr. Braden. I was employed — I w^as unemployed as a result of 
harassment and prosecution resulting from my efforts to bring about 
integration in Louisville, Kentucky. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your last principal occupation? 

Mr. Braden. I was a newspaper man, employed as a copy editor by 
the Louisville Courier- Journal. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment endure ? 

Mr. Braden. I was employed on two different occasions. You mean 
my entire newspaper career or— — - 

Mr. Arens. Just the higlilights, please, sir. 

Mr. Braden. All right. I w^as a reporter and rewrite man for the 
Louisville Herald-Post from 1930 to 1936; a reporter and editor for 
the Cincinnati Inquirer; city editor of the Harlan, Kentucky, Daily 
Enterprise ; labor reporter for the Louisville Times ; and then editor 
for the Courier-Journal, in addition to being editor of several labor 
newspapers. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us now please just a word about your 
education ? 

Mr. Braden. I studied from 1928 to 1930 for the Catholic priest- 
hood. I might add that I am now a member of the Episcopal Church. 

Mr. Arens. "VVlien did you complete your formal education? 

Mr. Braden. I did not attend school after 1930, 

Mr, Arens, Mr. Braden, I understand you to say you were vaca- 
tionmg in Rhode Island when you were served with the subpena to 
appear before this committee, is that correct ? 

Mr. Braden. That is right, sir. 

Mr, Arens, With whom were you visiting in Rhode Island ? 

Mr, Braden. I was visiting Harvey O'Connor. 

Mr. Arens, Can you tell us, if vou please, sir, what his occupation 
is? 

Mr, Braden, Harvey O'Connor is a writer, 

Mr, Arens, Is he connected with the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee ? 

Mr, Braden, He is the chairman of it, the national chairman, 

Mr, Arens. And where did you come from to your point in Rhode 
Island; where was your inunediate point of departure before you 
arrived in Rhode Island ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2669 

Mr. Braden. Mr. Arens, I believe this is outside the scope of any 
possible — this is not pertinent to any possible investigation that this 
committee might be conducting, and I also believe that it is an in- 
vasion of my right to associate under the first amendment, and I 
therefore decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer ; and I should like, for the purpose of 
making the record absolutely clear, to explain to the witness now the 
pertinency of the question. 

Sir, it is our understanding that you are now a Communist, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party; that you have been identified by rep- 
utable, responsible w^itnesses under oath as a Communist, part of the 
Communist Party which is a tentacle of the international Connnunist 
conspiracy. It is our information further, sir, that you as a Com- 
munist have been propagating the Communist activity and the Com- 
munist line principally in the South ; that you have been masquerading 
behind a facade of humanitarianism ; that you have been masquerad- 
ing behind a facade of emotional appeal to certain segments of our 
society; that your purpose, objective, your activities, are designed to 
further the cause of the international Communist conspiracy in the 
United States. 

Now, there is pending before the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities pursuant to its authority, its duty, and its responsibility 
legislation. Indeed, the chairman of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities sometime ago introduced a bill, H. K. 9987, which has 
numerous provisions which are being considered by the Committee 
on Un-American Activities. Some of these provisions undertake to 
tighten the security laws respecting registration of Communists ; some 
of these provisions undertake to tighten the securit}^ laws respecting 
the dissemination of Communist propaganda. Some of these security 
laws preclude certain types of activities, the very nature of which we 
understand you have been engaged in. 

In addition to that, sir, there is pending before the Committee on 
Un-American Activities a series of proposals that are not yet incor- 
porated into legislative form, which the committee is considering. 
In addition to that, the Committee on Un-American Activities has a 
mandate from the Congress of the United States to maintain a sur- 
veillance over the administration and operation of numerous security 
laws that are presently on the statute books, including the Internal 
Security Act, the Communist Control Act of 1954, the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act, espionage and sabotage statutes. 

It is for that reason and for these reasons which I have just de- 
scribed to you that this committee has come to Atlanta, Georgia, for 
the purpose of assembling factual material which the committee can 
use, in connection with other material which it has assembled, in 
appraising the administration and operation of the laws and in mak- 
ing a studied judgment upon whether or not the current provisions 
of the laws are adequate and whether or not each or any of these pro- 
posals pending before the coimnittee should be recommended for 
enactment. 

If you, sir, now will tell us, in response to the last outstanding 
principal question, where you have been immedintel)' prior to your 
sojourn in Rhode Island with Harvey O'Connor, who has been iden- 



2670 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

tified as a hard-core member of the Communist conspiracy, head of 
the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, and other organizations 
that have been cited by a congressional committee as Communist fronts. 

If you will tell us, sir, now of your activities in this connection, 
that will add to the fund of knowledge of this committee so that 
it can more adequately discharge the duties and responsibilities which 
it has upon it. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, on the basis of that explanation of the per- 
tinency of the question which I have posed to this witness, I respect- 
fully suggest that you now order and direct this witness either to 
answer the question or to invoke his privileges under the fifth amend- 
ment against giving testimony which could be used against him in a 
criminal proceeding. 

Mr. Willis. I think, sir, that a sufficient foundation has been laid to 
make the question completely pertinent, and I direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Braden. In the first place, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Arens has been 
grossly misinformed ; and it still remains a fact that my beliefs and my 
associations are none of the business of this committee. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, you are maintaining your attitude of 
refusing to answer ? 

Mr. Braden. On the grounds of the first amendment to the United 
States Constitution, which protects the right of all citizens to practice 
beliefs and associations, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, 
and freedom of assembly. On that ground I stand, sir. 

While you are investigating, Mr. Arens, you ouglit to investigate 
some of the atrocities against the Jews and Negroes i]i tlie South, such 
as the picketing of the Atlanta Journal last Sunday morning. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly tell the committee, if you please, sir, are 
you now, this minute, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Braden. I stand on my previous position undei- tlie first amend- 
ment, that such a question has no pertinency to any legislative purpose 
and it violates my belief. 

Mr. Willis. Would you kindly defer one second ? 

Proceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me just a moment. Mr. Chairman, may we 
have the reporter read back just the last line or so, so T am tliorongldy 
conversant ? 

Mr. Willis. What was the outstanding quest ion ? The outstanding 
question was : Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? If 
I am not mistaken, the witness refused to answer the question, but 
did not invoke the privileges against self-incrimination provided in 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. That 
is correct, is it not ? 

Mr. BRiVDEN. And I stated my grounds on the first amendment, on 
the grounds that the question has no possible pertinency to any legis- 
lation. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. I want the record to be absolutely clear, sir, so 
we do not put this committee in the ludicrous position of a com- 
plete, thorough explanation in response to each invocation of alleged 
lack of pertinency, that the explanation which I gave to you as to the 
pertinency of the question is understood to be applicable to similar 
questions which T am intending to propose to you. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2671 

Mr. Braden. Should I take that up with counsel, or what ? 

Mr. Arens. I am just announcing for the record now. 

Mr. Braden. You are doing this 

Mr. Arens. If, as, and when this particular proceeding is subject 
to judicial review, it will be thoroughly understood that the questions 
which I propose to propound to you today will be geared to the 
pertinency which I summarily explained to you a few moments ago. 

Mr. Braden. Is this pertinent insofar as the integration movement 
is concerned ? 

Mr. Arens. Sir, kindly tell us 

Mr. Willis. Let the Chair understand the situation. And I think 
that should be made perfectly clear. I think the question of perti- 
nency of these hearings has been completely explained and is a mat- 
ter of record. Without repetition, you are now on your guard as to 
why these questions are being propounded to you, all of them ; and 
let that basis be the general basis for the question. 

Now do I understand that you have refused to answer the question 
as to whether or not you are now a member of the Communist Party 
solely upon the invocation of the provisions of the first amendment, 
but that you have not invoked the protection of the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Braden. That is right, sir. I am standing on the Watkins, 
Sweezy, Koenigsberg, and other decisions of the United States Su- 
preme Court which protect my right, and the Constitution as they 
interpret the Constitution of the United States, protecting my right 
to private belief and association. 

Mr. Arens. And let it be clear also, sir, that I do not propose, nor 
have I thus far at any time undertaken, to probe any private beliefs. 
We are interested here solely in your participation in an organiza- 
tion which is controlled by a Godless, atheistic conspiracy, which is 
sweeping the world and which ultimately threatens, and will threaten, 
the integrity of this Nation; and if this committee of the United 
States Congress cannot solicit from a citizen information respecting 
the operation within the confines of the border of this Godless, athe- 
istic conspiracy, God help this country. 

Mr. Braden. Are you saying integration is communism like they 
do in Louisiana ? 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly tell us whether or not Mrs. 
Alberta Ahearn, A-h-e-a-r-n, was in error when she took an oath be- 
fore the Committee on Un-American Activities and testified that while 
she was a member of the Communist Party she knew you, sir, as a 
member of the Communist Party ? We would like to now afford you 
an opportunity to deny that identification while you are under oath, 
sir. Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Braden. I stand on the same grounds as I stood on before. 
You are probing into private beliefs and associations, which are pro- 
tected by the first amendment of the United States. The question 
has no possible pertinency to any legislative purpose. The mandate 
of this committee is so vague that nobody knows what you are sup- 
posed to be investigating. 

Mr. Arens. We will tell you now, communism and Communists • 

Mr. Braden. Integration is what you are investigating. All the 
people subpenaed here are integrationists. 



2G72 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Jackson. Are all of the people subpenaed here also Comniii- 
iiists? 

Mr. Braden. I leave that to you. 

Mr. Jackson. We are trying to determine that fact ; and it would 
certainly seem that when we have testimony under oath which so 
identifies witnesses, that there must be some flame with all of the 
smoke. 

Mr. Braden. Have any of your witnesses identified the anti-Semite 
who Avas picketing the Journal Building Sunday morning, Billy 
Branam? 

Mr. Jackson. Do you suggest that this conmiittee of the Congress 
should take over the police poweis ? Do you suggest if somebody was 
shot on the street corner in Atlanta 

Mr. Braden. That is what you are doing, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Just a moment — that this committee of Congress, 
which has no such mandate, should go out and make investigation 
of that particular form of violence '^ This is an investigation that is 
bounded by certain very clear-cut and distinct lines, your definition to 
the contrary. We are told to investigate the extent and scope of 
propaganda activities within the United States. That is precisely 
what we are doing. And when you cast doubt, or attempt to cast 
doubt, on the relevancy of the question when you are in the position 
you are to influence public opinion through your writings — and I 
gather through your writings on behalf of the Communist Party — it is 
very clearly within the purview of this committee to inquire into those 
activities. I do not care what you think. I have not the slightest 
interest in 

Mr. BRi\DEN. Mr. Arens just asked me- 



Mr. Jackson. Slightest interest in your opinions. I am sure that 
your opinions would be extremely interesting, but I am not interested 
in them. 

"V^Hiat I am interested in, is what are you doing on behalf of the 
Communist Party? We are not going to be clouded, so far as I am 
concerned, by talking about integration and segregation. This com- 
mittee is not concerned in that. This committee is concerned in what 
you are doing in behalf of the Communist conspiracy. It may be that 
your actions parallel, as the chairman said, a very humanitarian thing, 
a thing which is emotional and a thing in which many of us are in 
sympathy. 

I don't know but what I made as great contribution to civil rights 
as you have, as a member of the Congress, because I also voted for a 
great many things, but I voted for them out of American principles, 
and I have not agitated for them out of any sympathy for the Com- 
munist cause. 

Mr. Braden. Anything I do is done by American principles, Mr, 
Jackson, and you asked me if I think you should be investigating 
violence; and I think you should be investigating against Jews and 
Negroes in the South, the bombing of synagogues, tlie bombing of 
Negro homes. That is the kind of thing you should be investigating. 

Mr. Jackson. I suggest that jou go before the Congress of the 
United States and so petition it to change the charge on tliis committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2673 

Mr. Bkaden. Two hundred Negro leaders in the South petitioned 
the Congress of the United States last week in connection with this 
hearing in Atlanta. 

Mr. Jackson. After looking at some of the names on this list, the 
letters went into the circular files of many members, because it was 
quite obvious that a number of names on that letter were names of 
those that had been closely associated with the Communist Party. 
Their interest and major part does not lie with honest integration. 
Their interest lies with the purposes of the Connnunist Party. And 
that is what we are looking into, and let us not be clouding this dis- 
cussion and this hearing this morning by any more nonsense that we 
are here as representatives of the United States Government to further, 
or to destroy, or to have anything to do with, integration. I resent it as 
an individual member of the Congress. 

Mr. Braden. I think the 200 Negro leaders who signed that state- 
ment ought to resent your statement about their political nfRliations. 

Mr. Arens. Now we would like to display to you a copy of this 
statement which you have just alluded to, which has been received in 
many quarters in the United States Congress. Did you prepare that 
open letter which was signed l)y a number of people and • 

Mr. Braden. Shall I read it first? 

Mr. Arens. Directed to the United States Congress? Did you 
prepare that letter? Kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Braden. I would like to read the letter, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Take your time and read it, yes, sir. 

Mr. Braden. This is an open letter to the United States House of 
Representatives : 

We are informed that the Committee ou Un-American Activities of the 
House of Representatives is planning to hold hearings in Atlanta, Georgia, at an 
early date. 

As Negroes residing in Southern States and the District of Columbia, all deeply 
involved in the struggle to secure full and equal rights for our people, we are 
very much concerned by this development. 

We are acutely aware of the fact that there is at the present time a shocking 
amount of un-American activity in our Southern States. To cite only a few 
examples, there are the bombings of the homes, schools, and houses of worship 
of not only Negroes but also of our Jewish citizens; the terror against Negroes 
in Dawson, Ga. ; the continued refusal of boards of registrars in many Southern 
communities to allow Negroes to register and vote; and the activities of White 
Citizens Councils encouraging open defiance of the United States Supreme Court. 

However, there is nothing in the record of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities to indicate that, if it comes South, it will investigate these 
things. On the contrary, all of its activities in recent years suggest that it is 
much more interested in harassing and labeling as "subversive" any citizen who 
is inclined to be liberal or an independent thinker. 

For this reason, we are alarmed at the prospect of this committee coming 
South to follow the lead of Senator Eastland, as well as several state investigat- 
ing committees, in trying to attach the "subversive" label to any lilieral white 
Southerner who dares to raise his voice in support of our democratic ideals. 

It was recently pointed out by four Negro leaders who met with President 
Eisenhower that one of our great needs In the South is to build lines of com- 
munication between Negro and white Southerners. Many people in the South 
are seeking to do this. But if white people who support integration are labeled 
"subversive" by congressional committees, terror is spread among our white 
citizens and it becomes increasingly difficult to find white people who are willing 
to siipiwrt our efforts for full citizenship. Southerners, white and Negro, who 
.strive today for full democracy must work at best against tremendous odds. 
They need the support of every agency of our Federal Government. It is un- 
thinkable that they should instead be harassed by committees of tlie United 
States Congress. 



2674 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

We therefore urge you to use your influence to see that the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities stays out of the South — unless it can be persuaded 
to come to our region to help defend us against those subversives who oppose 
our Supreme Court, our Federal policy of civil rights for all, and our American 
ideals of equality and brotherhood. 

This letter is dated July 22, 1958, which is the day that my sub- 
pena was dated in Washington, D. C, by Congressman Francis Walter. 
There it is. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly answer just 2 questions with 
reference to this letter? Question number 1 is: What did you, an 
identified member of the Communist Party, have to do with this 
letter? 

Mr. Braden. I will have to stand on my first amendment rights for 
private beliefs and association on the grounds that the question has no 
possible pertinency to any legislation. 

Mr. Arens. Now question number 2 ■ 

Mr. Willis. I think you should be more specific and ask him did 
he prepare it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you prepare the letter, Mr. Braden ? 

Mr. Willis. Or have anything to do with its preparation? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Braden. I will have to stand again on the first amendment, 
the vagueness of the mandate of the committee, and the pertinency 
of the investigation and the legislative 

Mr. Willis. The Chair wants to make this statement for the record : 
Of course, let me assure you that this committee is not in accord with 
your alleged grounds as the basis for refusing to answer these ques- 
tions. 

On the contrary, we take a different view. You have 2 counsel, and 
I know you realize why I am making this clear. You have your choice. 
You may allow your counsel to confer with you. We think a basis 
has been made ; we are quite familiar, I assure you, with the decisions 
to which you refer. And I want to make the record perfectly clear. 

Mr. Braden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. I think you understand the position of this committee. 

Mr. Braden. Yes, sir, I do. And I hope you understand my posi- 
tion. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I want to join tlie chairman in his 
statement. I, too, am not satisfied with the reason he gives for decli- 
nation to answer the question. I think the record should show very 
affirmatively that there is an instance of communication signed by a 
number of individuals and addressed to Members of the Congress of 
the United States. 

There is a very strong possibility that that letter was prepared by a 
Communist ; and it points up one of the things that this committee has 
been trying to put across, that well-meaning people pursuing a very 
worthwhile goal are very frequently not sufficiently advised as to 
what they are doing when they lend their names to various petitions, 
letters, and so forth. A very strong likelihood exists — and we cannot 
know because of the refusal of the witness to answer whetlier he pre- 
pared this letter — but a strong likelihood exists that the letter in ques- 
tion was prepared under Communist direction ; that those who signed 
it signed a document which was prepared by the Communist Party for 
their own purposes. 



COMMI^NIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2675 

Thank you, Mr, Chainiiaii. 

Mr. Braden. I am sure the people who signed the letter will appre- 
ciate those aspersions, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. The people who did what? 

JNIr. BRiVDEN. The people who signed the letter, I am sure, will ap- 
preciate the aspersions on their intelligence. 

Mr. Jackson. If they will pay a little more attention to what they 
are doing and have a little less concern about some of the other non- 
important things, I think eveiyone concerned will get along a lot 
better. 

Mr. Braden. I think that would be true of the committee. 

Mr. Jackson. I still say that the attribution on the letterhead ap- 
pears that it has been prepared by a Communist organization that has 
been cited. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the entire 
document that I displayed to the witness be appropriately marked and 
incorporated by reference in the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let the document be so incorporated. 

(Document marked "Braden Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Braden. Will that include the signers, Mr. Chairman, the 
names of the signers also ? 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Braden, please tell the committee when you 
were last here in the Atlanta area pursuant to your work. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Braden. I am tiying to think exactly when it was, sir. The 
latter part of May. ^ 

Mr. Arens. Of this year? 

Mr. Braden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you here pursuant to the official assignment which 
you have as a field organizer or field secretary, as it were, of the 
Southern Conference Educational Fund? 

Mr. Braden. Yes, sir. I travel all over the South in the interest of 
integration. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you hold your meeting here in May ? 

]Mr. Braden. Did you ask me about a meeting ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a meeting here in Slay ? 

Mr. Braden. Again I will have to stand on the first amendment on 
the grounds that this is an invasion of private belief and association; 
that the question has no possible pertinency to any possible legislative 
purpose ; and that the mandate establishing this committee is too vague 
for anybod}^ to know what you are investigating. 

Mr. Arens. JSIr. Chairman, I hope and expect and am relying upon 
the request that I made that the explanation of pertinency which I 
gave at the outset of this interrogation carries over with reference 
to each of these principal questions. 

Mr. Braden. That is understood, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the Atlanta area in December of 1957? 

Mr. Braden. I beg your pardon, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the Atlanta area in December of 1957? 

Mr. Braden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did you participate in a meeting here at that time? 

Mr. Braden. Again the first amendment; same grounds, sir. Do 
I have to repeat it each time, or is it understood each time ? 



2676 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Willis. "Well, it is iiiidei'stood that you are referring to the 
first amendment. 

Mr. Braden. The challengino; of the pertinency of the question, 
challenging the mandate of the committee, and my rights under the 
first amendment. 

Mr. Akens. Then, Mr. Chairman, if there is to be an understanding 
on this record that there is, in response to each of these principal 
questions, a challenge to the pertinency of the question, I respectfully 
suggest and request that the record likewise in each instance, unless 
otherwise directed by the chairman, show a direction to the witness 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. In order to establish the basis for any proceed- 
ing that might conceivably be instituted, do you understand that you 
are ordered to answer these questions, meaning that the committee 
disagrees with your position and is insisting upon pertinency? Do 
we understand that? 

Mr. Braden. Yes. I understand, and I disagree with the com- 
mittee, and I will understand that you are directing me to answer 
each question in order to expedite the matter so that we will not be 
wasting the committee's time and everybody else's time on this. 

Mr. Arens. I will not, however, be precluded 

Mr. Wn.Lis. Let me suggest this : I think our budget for national 
defense is something like, oh, $38 to $40 billion per year. And I 
think we all know that the troublemakers are the masters of the 
Kremlin — Conmiunist conspiracy, worldwide I am talking about — 
and here the representatives of the people in Congress feel compelled 
to spend the taxpayers' money, this huge sum. And to indicate what 
a billion dollars is, it comes to my mind that, as a matter of arith- 
metic, a billion minutes have not ticked or gone by since the birth of 
Christ, and we are spending almost $40 billion a year to fight this 
very thing to defend ourselves. 

Now, sir, you are placing yourself in a position of saying that 
Congress has no right to inquire into the Communist conspiracy in 
America. 

Next question. 

Mr. Braden. I am not saying you have no business at that. I am 
just saying your mandate is so vague that nobody knows what you 
have a right to investigate, and the Supreme Court has indicated 

Mr. Willis. You will be surprised how familiar we are with the 
decisions. 

Mv. Braden. The Watkins 

Mr. Willis. That is all right. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, I shoidd like, notwithstanding the 
general direction that the explanation of pertinency carries over to 
the principal questions, to add a brief explanation with reference to 
the question which I intend to propound in just a moment. 

Before this committee, Mr. l^raden, a day or so ago, Mr. Armando 
Penha took an oath and testified respecting Communist Party tech- 
niques — Mr. Penha was in the Communist conspiratorial operation in 
this country at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
and he served thei-e for 8 years. In the course of his testimony yes- 
terday he said, in etlect on this issue, that the comrades are under a 
directive to penetrate non-Communist organizations, fine, patriotic, 
humanitarian organizations foi- the ])urpose of worming their way 
in, tc further the Communist objectives. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2677 

I am now going to display to you, sir, some photographs, showing 
you and your wife entering the American Red Cross Building in 
Atlanta, December of 1957, at which time it is our understanding 
you were a participant in sessions there. We should like to have you, 
hrst of all, look at these photographs and tell the committee whether 
or not they are true and correct reproductions of your physical fea- 
tures as you were entering the American Red Cross in December of 
1957, a fine, humanitarian, patriotic organization. 

Mr. Braden. Before we get to that, Mr. Arens, you said that Mr. 
Penha made some statements there. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. This record is crystal 
clear if I ever saw one. 

Mr. Braden. Mr. Chairman, the man made a lot of statements. 

Mr. Arens. I do not think the committee needs to be harassed or 
haggled with by an identified Communist. 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Braden. Shall I take these pictures one by one ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us whether or not these pictures are a true 
and correct reproduction of yourself and your wife entering the 
American Red Cross Building in December of 1957. 

Mr. Braden. While we are at it, my wife is not here, so I guess I can 
identify all of us, let's see. This is a picture of me and James A. 
Dombrowski, executive secretary of the Southern Conference Educa- 
tional Fund, and Mrs. Anne Braden, myself and Aubrey W. Williams, 
publisher of the Southern Fat^m and Home, who was director of the 
National Youth Administration under Franklin D. Roosevelt, one of 
the many liberal white Southerners in the South who has been under 
attack for his position on integration. 

'While we are on the question of the Southern Conference Educa- 
tional Fund, Mr. Chairman, since I think we 

Mr. Willis. Please do not 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer this particular question. 

Mr. Braden. I did answer it. I said what the picture showed. 

Mr. Arens. You did not, sir. Do those pictures fairly and honest- 
ly and accurately represent you and your wife as you were entering 
the American Red Cross in December of 1957 ? 

Mr. Braden. These are pictures taken from a building across the 
street, apparently by persons spying on the board of the Southern 
Conference Educational Fund which met at the American Red Cross 
Building here in Atlanta last December 15. This is a common tech- 
nique for harassing liberals in the South. 

Mr. Arens. Now, did the Southern Conference Educational Fund 
meet in the American Red Cross Building in December of 1957? 

Mr. Braden. It is a matter of public record that they did, and you 
probably have a copy of the board meetings 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Who solicited the quarters to be made 
available to the Southern Conference Educational Fund ? 

Mr. Braden. I will have to stand on my previous refusal to answei- 
on the same grounds, first amendment and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in the session ? 

29454—58 6 



2678 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Braden. Same grounds, 

Mr. Arens. The record is clear, is it not, Mr. Chairman and counsel 
to the witness, that in response to each of these refusals to answer, the 
Chair has given a direction and there has been an appropriate explana- 
tion of the pertinency ? 

I see you nod your head. The reporter cannot get a yes from your 
nod. 

Mr. Braden. I understand. My counsel and I understand that. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, are you connected with the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Braden. Same ground. 

Mr. Willis. You mean you refuse to answer on the same ground ? 

Mr. Braden. Yes, sir. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 
It being, you know — do we have to go through it each time or will it 
be understood, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Was your association with Harvey O'Connor, an iden- 
tified Communist, in Rhode Island in furtherance of the work of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Braden. I was on vacation in Rhode Island, Mr. Arens, and 
you sent a subpena up there and took me off my vacation where it was 
cool and brought me down here in Atlanta where it is 90 degrees. 

Mr. Jackson. It is just as hot for the committee, I might add. 

Mr. Braden. You can always go back to Washington. 

Mr. Jackson. That is not much improvement. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly answer the question. Did you and Har- 
vey O'Connor, in the course of your conferences there in Rhode Is- 
land, develop plans and strategies outlining work schedules for the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Braden. Same answer on the same grounds, Mr. Chairman; 
same refusal to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Arens. Now, in addition to the letter attacking this commit- 
tee — and we are used to it — by the Southern Conference Educational 
Fund, have you, as a field representative or field organizer of the 
Southern Conference Educational Fund, promoted, stimulated, politi- 
cal pressure, or attempted political pressure, on the United States 
Congress with reference to security measures pending in the Con- 
gress ? 

Mr. Braden. I am afraid the question is too vague for an answer, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. I will be specific then, sir. I will display, if you please, 
sir, a photostatic reproduction of a letter on the letterhead of the 
Southern Conference Educational Fund, signed Carl and Anne 
Braden, field secretaries. 

Mr. Braden. May we have it read into tlie record ? 

Mr. Arens. I am going to display it to you — in which, among other 
things, the recipient of the letter, "Dear Friend," is asked to write 
their Senators and Congressmen to oppose S. 654, S. 2646, and H. R. 
977, all of which are security measures pending in the United States 
Congress. 

Kindly tell this committee while you are under oath, sir, whether 
or not that photostatic reproduction of that letter is true and correct 
and valid. 

Mr. Braden. I will have to read it first. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2679 



"Dear Friend"- 



Mr. Willis. After you read it — are you goin^ to just read it, or 
will you answer the question as to whether you signed it or not, if it 
proves 

Mr. Braden". It will indicate from the letter that I signed it, I 
think, I mean whether I did or not. If it is a letter I wrote, it is 
bound to have my name on it. 

Dear Friend : 

We are writing to you because of your interest in the Kentucky "sedition" 
cases, which were thrown out of court on the basis of a Supreme Court decision 
declaring state sedition laws inoperative. 

There are now pending in both houses of Congress bills that would nullify this 
decision. We understand there is real danger that these bills will pass. 

We are especially concerned about this because we know from our own ex- 
perience how such laws can be used against people working to bring about in- 
tegration in the South. Most of these state statutes are broad and loosely 
worded, and to the oflBcials of many of our Southern states integration is sedi- 
tion. You can imagine what may happen if every little local prosecutor in the 
South is turned loose with a state sedition law. 

It is small comfort to realize that such cases would probably eventually be 
thrown out by the Supreme Court. Before such a case reaches the Supreme 
Court, the human beings involved have spent several years of their lives fight- 
ing off the attack, their time and talents have been diverted from the positive 
struggle for integration, and money needed for that struggle has been spent 
in a defensive battle. 

It should also be pointed out that these bills to validate state sedition laws 
are only a part of a sweeping attack on the U. S. Supreme Court. The real 
and ultimate target is the court decisions outlawing segregation. Won't you 
write your two senators and your congressman asking them to oppose S. 654, 
S. 2646, and H. R. 977. Also ask them to stand firm against all efforts to curb 
the Supreme Court. It is important that you write — and get others to write — 
immediately as the bills may come up at any time. 
Cordially yours, 

Cakl and Anne Beaden. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign that letter ? 

Mr. Braden. Our signature is on the letter. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party the in- 
stant you affixed your signature to that letter ? 

Mr. Braden. I refuse to answer on the same ground previously 
stated, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Braden, are you connected in any way with the 
Southern Newsletter ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Arens. I might explain to you. We had a man who has been 
identified as a Communist 

Mr. Braden. Who is that '? 

Mr. Arens. Eugene Feldman — who lives in Chicago, Illinois. He 
is the editor of the Southern Newsletter. We had liim before the 
committee yesterday, at which time we disj^layed to him the applica- 
tion for a post office box made on behalf of the Southern Newsletter, a 
publication which is developed in Chicago, which is sent to a post of- 
fice box in Louisville, Kentucky, and then mailed out over the South. 
I would just like to ask you whether or not you, being a resident of 
Louisville, Kentucky, have anything to do there with the Southern 
Newsletter ? 

Mr. Braden. I think you are now invading freedom of the press, 
Mr. Arens and Mr. Chairman. I object to your invasion of the free- 



2680 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

dom of the press, and I also decline to answer the question on the same 
grounds. You are not only attacking integrationists, you are attack- 
ing the press. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions, if you please, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Willis. Any questions, Governor ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Jackson. I would say anyone who labors under the delusion 
that the Communist press is anything close to free is certainly making 
a very serious mistake. 

However, I think, Mr. Comisel, with reference to the letter sent 
out by the Southern Conference Educational Fund and signed by a 
number of individuals, there may conceivably be some of those w]io 
signed the letter who did not realize that it was sponsored by a Com- 
munist front. For that reason I think, in all fairness, that those who 
might desire, if there are any who might desire, to withdraw their 
names from that letter before it becomes a part of the official archives 
of our Committee on Un-American Activities should be given oppor- 
tunity to do so on request of the committee. 

Mr. Braden. Mr. Chairman, since he made charges against 

Mr. Willis. He is not making charges. He is making a statement 
for the record. 

Mr. Bradex. Southern Conference being a Communist front. 

Mr. Jackson. I am told the Internal Security Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Judiciary of the United States Senate has so character- 
ized it. 

Mr. Braden. I tliink we ought to be allowed to introduce in evi- 
dence a brochure showing w^hat the Southern Conference Education 
Fund is about. Give decency a chance in the South. 

Mr. Arens. In view of the distinguished Congressman's observa- 
tion on the Southern Conference Educational Fund, the organization 
which has been cited as a Communist front with which this man has a 
connection as an identified Communist is the Emergency Civil Lib- 
erties Committee. The Southern Conference Educational Fund it- 
self is, for all practical purposes, the successor organization to the 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare, which itself had been cited 
as a Communist front. The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee 
ran an investigation of the Southern Conference Educational Fund — 
and I say in passing that I happen to have been identified with tlie 
Internal Security Subcommittee at that time and did the interrogat- 
ing of the witnesses. 

The report of the Internal Security Subcommittee with reference to 
the Southern Conference Educational Fund concludes substantially 
as follows — this is not an exact quotation ; it is only from memory — 
that an objective appraisal from the record compels the conclusion 
that the Southern Conference Educational Fund is, for all practical 
purposes, operating under the same leadership and for the same objec- 
tives as the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 

Mr. Braden. May we have the record show, then, Mr. Chairman, 
that the Southern Conference Educational Fund was not specifically 
listed as he said 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Braden. Originally. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2681 

Mr. Arens. That is one of the purposes why we wanted to interro- 
gate you, because you are an identified Communist by a reliable, re- 
sponsible witness who placed her liberty on the line and said, "While 
I was in the Communist Party, I knew him, to a certainty, as a mem- 
ber of the Conmiunist Party conspiracy." That is you. You are now 
the field representative in this committee. We may desire eventually 
to consider a citation of the Southern Conference Educational Fund 
on tlie basis of the information wliich we are now and elsewhere 
developing. 

Mr. Tucker. Mr. Chairman, could I make a statement? 

Mr. Willis. No, you may not. Counsel for the witness. 

Mr. Tucker. Not in connection with this at all. 

Mr. Willis. Well, you might talk to the committee counsel. You 
are not being examined. You are only a lawyer here. 

The committee will stand in recess for 10 minutes. 

(]\Iembers present: Eepresentatives Willis, Tuck, and Jackson.) 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

( Subcommittee members present : Edwin E, Willis, presiding, Wil- 
liam M. Tuck, and Donald L. Jackson.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel will call liis next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Frank Wilkinson, kindly come forward, 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and notliing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK WILKINSON 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Wilkinson. My name is Frank Wilkinson. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence, please, sir ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. As a matter of conscience and personal responsi- 
bility, I refuse to answer any questions of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please, sir ? 

Mr, Wilkinson. As a matter of personal conscience and responsi- 
bility, I refuse to answer any questions of this committee. 

Mr, Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are not represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. You know you liave the privilege of counsel ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I do. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Wilkinson, are you now a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. As a matter of conscience and personal responsi- 
bility, I refuse to answei" any questions of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I sliould like to make an explanation to you of 
the reasons, the pertinency, and the relevancy of that question and 
certain other questions which I propose to propound to you ; and I do 



2682 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

SO for the purpose of laying a foundation upon which I will then re- 
quest the chairman of this subconnnittee to order and direct you to 
answer those questions. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities has two major responsi- 
bilities which it is undertaking to perform here in Atlanta. 

Responsibility number 1, is to maintain a continuing surveillance 
over the administration and operation of a number of our internal 
security laws. In order to discharge that responsibility the Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities must undertake to keep abreast of 
techniques of Communists' operations in the United States and Com- 
munist activities in the United States. In order to know about Com- 
munist activities and Communist techniques, we have got to know 
who the Communists are and what they are doing. 

Responsibility number 2, is to develop factual information which 
will assist the Committee on Un-American Activities in appraising 
legislative proposals before the committee. 

There are pending before the committee a number of legislative pro- 
posals which undertake to more adequately cope with the Communist 
Party and the Communist conspiratorial operations in the United 
States. H. R. 9937 is one of those. Other proposals are pending before 
the committee not in legislative form yet, but in the form of sugges- 
tions that there be an outright outlawry of the Communist Party; 
secondly, that there be registrations required of certain activities of 
Communists ; third, that there be certain amendments to the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act because this Congress of the United States 
has found repeatedly that the Communist Party and Communists in 
the United States are only instrumentalities of a Kremlin-controlled 
world Communist apparatus. Similar proposals are pending before 
this committee. 

Now with reference to pertinency of this question to your own 
factual situation, may I say that it is the information of this commit- 
tee that you now are a hard-core member of the Communist Party; 
that you were designated by the Communist Party for the purpose of 
creating and manipulating certain organizations, including the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee, the affiliate organizations of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, including a particular commit- 
tee in California and a particular committee in Chicago, a committee — 
the name of which is along the line of the committee for cultural free- 
dom, or something of that kind. I don't have the name before me at 
the instant. 

It is the information of the committee or the suggestion of the com- 
mittee that in anticipation of the hearings here in Atlanta, Georgia, 
you were sent to this area by the Communist Party for the purpose of 
developing a hostile sentiment to this committee and to its work for 
the purpose of undertaking to bring pressure upon the United States 
Congress to preclude tliese particulai- hearings. Indeed it is the fact 
that you were not even subpenaed for these particular hearings until 
we learned that you were in town for that very purpose and that you 
were not subpenaed to appear before this committee until you had 
actually registei-ed in the hotel here in Atlanta. 

Now, sir, if you will tell tliis committee whether or not, while you 
are under oath, you are now a Comnnmist, we intend to pursue that 
area of inquiry and undertake to solicit from you information respect- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2683 

ing your activities as a Communist on behalf of the Communist Party, 
which is tied up directly with the Kremlin ; your activities from the 
standpoint of propaganda; your activities from the standpoint of 
undertaking to destroy the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, because indeed this committee 
issued a report entitled "Operation Abolition," in which we told some- 
thing, the information we then possessed, respecting the efforts of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, of which you are the guiding 
light, to destroy the F. B. I. and discredit the director of the F. B. I. 
and to undertake to hamstring the work of this Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 

So if you will answer that principal question, I intend to pursue 
the other questions with you to solicit information which would be of 
interest — which will be of vital necessity, indeed — to this committee in 
undertaking to develop legislation to protect the United States of 
America under whose flag you, sir, have protection. 

Now please answer the question: Are you now a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I am refusing to answer any questions of this 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest now that the 
record reflect an order and direction of the chairman to the witness to 
answer this question. 

Mr. Willis. I will so order, but before doing so I want to acid this 
remark about pending legislation. 

There is a bill pending right now before the Congress. We have 
held hearings on it just a couple of weeks ago on the question of the 
organizational features of the Communist conspiracy. Specifically 
the Supreme Court, in what is popularly referred to as the Yates Case, 
held that the Communist Party must be regarded as having been or- 
ganized in 1945 and that automatically thereby all prosecutions for 
organizational features have been destroyed and no more prosecution 
is possible. 

We take the position that what happened in 1945 was a reconstruc- 
tion of the party, rather than an organization of it; that it had been 
organized years before. And we received evidence yesterday along 
the lines of the present techniques in connection with new organiza- 
tional efforts ; and among other reasons for pertinency of these hear- 
ings, Avould be the development of information which we feel you 
have, sir, that you could shed light on the current methods of organiz- 
ing or regrouping or reconstructing of the party and subdivisions 
thereof. 

I make that plain to you because it is necessary under the decisioii 
that that be done. It is necessary that we set forth for the record a 
description of the pertinency of the hearings, which has been done by 
counsel, and I have tried to implement it. And then it is necessary for 
us to warn you that we disagree with your position as a basis for 
possible contempt proceedings. 

Now, thus far, your position is simply that you will not have any- 
thing to say to this committee. You are not represented by counsel. 
I tell you that it would be better for you, as a matter of protection 
of your own rights, if you fear tliat what we develop tlirough you 
might tend to incriminate you that you woidd have the right to invoke 



2684 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

the privilege of the fifth amendment if you honestly fear that the 
answers to the questions propounded to you would tend to incriminate 
you. But you are not doing that, sir. You are simply, point blank, 
taking the position of obvious contempt for this committee and its 
purposes. You have not invoked any constitutional provision that 
you could invoke if you honestly fear tliat to testify here would get 
you in criminal trouble. 

So having explained that to you, I now order and direct you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I challenge, in the most fundamental sense, the 
legality of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. It is 
my opinion that this committee stands in direct violation by its man- 
date and by its practices of the first amendment to the United States 
Constitution. It is my belief that Congress had no authority to 
establish this committee in the first instance, nor to instruct it with 
the mandate which it has. 

I have the utmost respect for the broad powers which the Congi-ess 
of the United States must have to carry on its investigations for legis- 
lative purposes. However, the United States Supreme Court has held 
that, broad as these powers may be, the Congress cannot investigate 
into an area where it cannot legislate, and this committee tends, by 
its mandate and by its practices, to investigate into precisely those 
areas of free speech, religion, peaceful association and assembly, and 
the press, wherein it cannot legislate and therefore it cannot in- 
vestigate. 

I am, therefore, refusing to answer any questions of this committee. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, if you please, sir, to read you some tes- 
timony taken under oath in Los Angeles, California, on December 7, 
1956, in which a witness Anita Schneider was testifying. Mrs. 
Schneider had been, in the course of previous testimony, testifying 
about an organization known as the Citizens Committee to Preserve 
American Freedoms. Mrs. Schneider gave a response which pre- 
cipitated this question from myself : 

Was it Communist controlled? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Who was the ringleader in that organization? 

A. I didn't work in that organization and I don't know who the ringleader 
was. My contact on that occasion was with Frank AVilkinson, I believe. 

Q. Did you know him as a Communist? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Have you any further information with reference to those two documents 
to which you are now alluding? 

A. Yes. Mr. Wilkinson asked me to start a similar organization or branch of 
that organization in the San Diego area. He said that he would give me a list 
of professional people — teachers, doctors, and lawyers — in the San Diego area 
and that I should contact them in an attempt to set up such a committee in 
San Diego. 

And I skip a paragraph which is not germane to this particular 
subject matter. Then she continues : 

When I discussed this with Frank Wilkinson in Los Angeles, I said that 
since I wasn't a professional person, at that time I wasn't active publicly, that 
perhaps it might be better to have someone else head it. 

Mr. Wilkinson, was Mrs. Schneider telling the truth Avhen she tooK 
:in oath before this committee and testified that she knew you as a 
Communist? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2685 

Mr. Wii.KiNsoN. I am refusing to answer questions. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know ]Mrs. Anita Schneider 'I 

Mr. WiLLTS. I think I should order him to answer that question. 

Mr, Arens. If you will please, sir; yes, sir. And I respectfully 
suggest, Ml". Chairman, that the record reflect the intention of myself 
that the explanation of pertinency and relevancy which I previously 
gave is applicable to the particular question which is now outstanding. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I refuse to answer any questions of this committee 
on the grounds Avhich 1 have stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wilkinson, where were you when you were sub- 
penaed to appear before the Connnittee on Un-American Activities in 
this particular session ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I am refusing to answer questions. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, if you please, sir, to display to you a 
photostatic repi-oduction of the registration at the Atlanta Biltmore 
Hotel, Atlanta, Georgia, of yourself and one Dr. James A. Dom- 
browski, obviously registered together on July 23. This bears in 
handwriting the name "Frank Wilkinson; Street, 421-Ttli Avenue, 
New York City 27, New York; Business firm. Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee; Street, same. I plan to check out in a week. 
Room No. 253," I believe. 

Kindly look at that photostatic reproduction of your registration on 
July 23 here in Atlanta and tell this committee, while you are under 
oath please, sir, whether or ]iot tliat is a true and correct reproduction 
of the registration as you filled it out on July 23 at the iVtlanta 
Biltmore Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia. 

Mr. Willis. He has asked you to identify the document, the regis- 
tration. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon, sir. 

Mr. Willis. I am explaining to him 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. 

Mr. Willis. — that you asked him to identify the registration 
document. 

Mr. Arens, I asked him to look at it and tell whether or not it is a 
true and correct reproduction of the form as he filled it out at the 
Atlanta Biltmore Hotel, Atlanta, Georgia, on Jtdy 23, 1058. 

Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Willis. Do you understand the question 'I 

Mr. Wilkinson. I am refusing to answer any questions of this 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest, so that this record 
may be abundantly clear, that the explanation of pertinency previously 
given be related into this particular question on our record and tliat 
there be an order and direction to this witness to answer the question, 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I refuse to answer any questions of this committee 
on the grounds of my initial answer. The House Committee on Un- 
American Activities stands in direct violation of the first amendment 
to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the 
document which Avas obtained by subpena by this committee from the 
Atlanta Biltmore Hotel be appropriately miirked and incorporated 
by reference in this record. 



2686 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Willis. It will be so marked and incorporated. 

(Document marked "Wilkinson Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I should like to display to yon, Mr. Witness, an- 
other document. It is a photostatic reproduction of some telephone 
calls made by Frank Wilkinson over the coni-se of a number of days, 
beginning on July 23, 1958, from the Atlanta Biltmore Hotel — a 
number of long distance telephone calls. At least there are long 
distance telephone calls on this. 

I should like to display this document to you and ask you whether 
or not you made the calls to the places indicated in the document at 
the time revealed by the document. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I am answering no questions. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment which was obtained by subpena from the Committee on Un- 
American Activities served upon the officials of the Atlanta Biltmore 
Hotel be incorporated by reference in the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be incorporated. 

(Document marked "Wilkinson Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. And that the w'itness now be ordered and directed to 
answer the question and that the record reflect at this point the 
explanation of pertinency and the powers and duties and responsi- 
bilities of this committee. 

Mr. Willis. You are so ordered. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I refuse to answer any questions of this committee 
on the grounds of my initial refusal. 

Mr. Arens, Are you now the principal driving force, the leader, 
of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I refuse to answer any questions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the record 
again reflect an order and direction to this witness to answer the ques- 
tion and that the record at this point reflect the explanation of per- 
tinency and relevancy, the powers and duties of this committee as pre- 
viously developed in the record. 

Mr. Willis. You are so ordered. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I refuse to answer any questions of this committee 
on the grounds of my initial answer. The mandate of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities stands in direct violation of the 
first amendment to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, so that the record may be absolutely 
clear. The witness has made reference to the first amendment. It is 
not clear to me whether or not the witness intends or is invoking the 
provisions of the first amendment in his declination to answer the 
questions. 

Mr. Wilkinson. My initial answer stands as my answer. 

Mr. Jackson. No. I am not at all satisfied with it. It might well 
be that the reference to the first amendment might conceivably be in- 
terpreted as relying upon the first amendment, where the witness has 
not specifically indicated that he is so relying, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. And you are asking him if he is relying on the first 
amendment to the Constitution as a basis for his refusal to answer 
these questions ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2687 

Mr. Jackson. That was the purport of my question. 

Mr. Wilkinson. My initial answer is my answer. 

Mr, Jackson. Wliat again, if you will please, for the record, was 
your original and initial answer ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. My initial answer is my answer. 

Mr. Jackson. I think this point should be clarified at some stage 
during the proceedings, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the return 
of the United States marshal showing the time and place of service of 
the subpena upon Frank Wilkinson at the Atlanta Biltmore Hotel 
be incorporated by reference in this record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so incorporated. 

(Document marked "Wilkinson Exhibit No. 3," and retained in 
committee files, ) 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm 
or deny the fact that you are part of an enterprise to destroy the very 
Constitution of the United States under which we all have protec- 
tion ; that you are the agent of the Communist Party as an arm of the 
international Communist conspiracy sent into Atlanta for the purpose 
of engaging m conspiratorial activities on behalf of the Communist 
Party. If that is not so, deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I am answering no questions of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness, 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Willis. I want to pursue a little, for a moment, the questions 
asked by the gentleman from California. And I wish you would un- 
derstand sir, that the idea in his mind, as in mine, is that the record 
will reflect, as much for your protection as for the benefit of the com- 
mittee, the basis for your refusal to answer these questions. 

You have not made it abmidantly clear whether you are invoking 
the protection of the first amendment upon a feeling on your part that 
you want to personally rely, and it is a personal matter to you, on 
that amendment as a basis for refusal or whether your reference to 
the amendment is, let us say, philosophical conversation or some other 
ideas you might have in mind. 

Will you not please try to clarify that point for us ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. My answer is my answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, let the record show I am not satisfied 
with that answer. 

Mr. Willis. I think the part and parcel of the whole record is a 
reflection of an attitude on the part of the witness which is obvious 
I think to everyone. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. We have another witness. 

Mr. Willis. You are excused. 

Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Madge Spumy Cole kindly come forward. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. Willis, Kindly raise your right hand. 



2688 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony yon are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God. 
Mrs. Cole. I do swear. 

TESTIMONY OF MADGE SPURNY COLE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH rORER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Cole. My name is Madge Spurny 

Mr, Vf iLLis. A little louder, please. 

Mrs. Cole. My name is Madge Spurny Cole. My residence is 1204 
Homeland Avenue, Greensboro, North Carolina. My occupation is a 
textile worker. 

Mr. Arens. You are a])])earing today, Mrs. Cole, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

]Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Wnsliington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you em])](\vcd, Mrs. Cole ? 

Mrs. Cole. I am employed at the Cone Mills at Greensboro, North 
Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. I low long have you been so employed ? 

Mrs. Cole. It is approximately 2 years. I am not too clear on the 
exact dates. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mrs. Cole. At present I am a spare hand in a spinning department. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mrs. Cole. Prior to my present employment I was employed as a 
waitress. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time, please ? 

Mrs. Cole. Oh, about a year and a half, probably. ^ 

Mr. Arens. "Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Cole. I was born in New York State. 

Mr. Arens. Where in New Yoi'k State ? 

Mrs. Cole. In a small town called Springfield Center. 

Mr. Arens. And would you kindly tell us a word about your formal 
education ? 

Mrs. Cole. I attended grammar school and high school in this 
town — I believe the name is the Springfield Center School — and 
graduated. Then I attended Cornell University in New York and 
received a bachelor of arts degree. Then 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. When did you receive this Bachelor of 
Arts degree ? 

Mrs. Cole. Again I will have to say my dates on these are approxi- 
mate. Possibly 1945, but I am not positive. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mrs. Cole. No, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us about any other formal education which 
you have had. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2689 

Mrs. Cole. I did graduate work at Syracuse University in New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. And in what field did you pursue the graduate work ? 

Mrs. Cole. In Science Education. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a graduate degree of some kind ? 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat degree did you receive ? 

Mrs. Cole. A master's, and I am not exactly right on this title. 
Master's degree in Science Education. 

Mr. Arens. When did you receive this master's degree ? 

Mrs. Cole. Possibly in 1946 or '47. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal employment after you 
received your master's degree? 

Mrs. CfoLE. All during my academic education it was necessary for 
me to work, and I have had numerous odd jobs all during my college 
education. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. After you received your master's degree from 
Syracuse University, what was your principal employment ? 

Mrs. Cole. I went to work. I did odd jobs. 

Mr. Arens. Where, please ? 

Mrs. Cole. I worked as a waitress. I was sort of at loose ends at 
that point. I worked as a waitress in Boston and then I worked 
some in New York. 

Mr, Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mrs. Cole. My next employment was in a textile mill in Durham, 
North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. What textile mill was that ? 

Mrs. Cole. That was the Erwin Mills. 

Mr. Arens. And when was that employment ? 

Mrs. Cole, Again let me just make this clear that all of these 
dates 

Mr. Arens. We understand they are approximates. 

Mrs. Cole. '49, or '48 to '49 to possibly '51. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mrs. Cole. As an inspector. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment endure ? 

Mrs. Cole. About 2 years or a little more. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mrs. Cole. I had several odd jobs but my principal employment 
was hosiery mill. 

Mr. Arens. WTiere was that ? 

Mrs. Cole. In Durham, 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mrs. Cole. As — it was a form of inspector. I think it was called 
a mattern. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment last ? 

Mrs. Cole. Approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mrs. Cole. My next major employment was as a waitress in a 
Howard Johnson restaurant. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that last, please ? 



2690 coMiMUisrisT activities in the south 

Mrs. Cole. About a year, and a little more. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat was your next employment ? 

Mrs. Cole. Then I came to Greensboro, North Carolina, and be- 
came employed at the Cone Mills. 

Mr. Arens. And has that employment endured without interruption 
since ? 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you begin your employment at the Cone Mills, 
2 years ago, you say ? 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir, around some time in '56. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make application for employment at the Cone 
Mills? 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you fill out an application form ? 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, I think I did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you think you would recognize the document which 
I now display to you, a photostatic reproduction of the employment 
application? Please look at that document which I have now dis- 
played to you and tell us whether or not that is a true and correct 
reproduction of the application which you filed at the Cone Mills, 
some 2 years ago, for employment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. What is the question ? 

Mrs. Cole. Repeat the question, please. 

Mr. Arens. The question is, is the document which is presently 
before you a true and correct reproduction of the application which 
you filled out for employment at the Cone Mills ? 

Mrs. Cole. To the best of my ability to say 

Mr. Arens. You will observe here in this document where the form 
calls for education, that you tell about your high school education 
at Springfield Central High. Do you see that, here on this applica- 
tion form, where you tell about your high school education? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you put on the application form there about your 
college education and your Master's degree ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. I don't see it there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you put it on there ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. I think I already stated that I didn't see it there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them about your college degree and your 
master's degree in these various courses which you took ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. Would you mind clarifying that question, Mr. Arens? 
Did you tell who took — we weren't in the conversation. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell the people at Cone Mills where you were 
applying for the job ? 

Mrs. Cole. They wouldn't ask any more. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them whether or not you were a college 
graduate and had, in addition to a college graduate degree, a master's 
degree ? 

Mrs. Cole. Would you repeat that question ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2691 

Mr. FoRER. Excuse me. 

Mr. Arens. Would the reporter kindly read the question. 

And counsel is advised, please, sir, that you know your sole and 
exclusive prerogative is to advise your clients as to constitutional 
rights. 

Mr. FoRER. Yesterday the chairman of the subcommittee assured 
me, Mr. Willis — the chairman of the subcommittee, Mr. Walter, as- 
sured me yesterday he would not permit the photographs to be taken 
while the witness was testifying. It looks to me that that rule is 
being violated. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. Willis. The rule will be obeyed. There will be no pictures 
taken. 

Mrs. Cole. I am sorry. I still haven't heard the question read. 

(The reporter read from his notes again as requested.) 

Mrs. Cole. They didn't ask me and I didn't tell them. 

(Document marked "Cole Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist Party colonizer in these vari- 
ous textile plants at which you told us you have been employed ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. Would you please explain — define your characterization 
there. I don't Iniow what you mean. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps I can help you a little bit. 

The gentleman seated here to my right, a former FBI undercover 
agent in the Communist Party, explained on the record yesterday that 
he had served in the Communist Party in the United States for some 
8 years, and during the course of his service in tlie Communist Party 
he rose within the ranks of the conspiracy to where he had become a 
member of the National Textile Commission of the Communist Party. 
He explained yesterday that the Textile Commission of the Commu- 
nist Party was developing a program of penetration into the South to 
follow the textile mills which have been moved, many from the New 
Eno;land States, and which are developing in the South. He ex- 
plained that, as part of this program, he as a member of the Textile 
Commission of the Communist Party was in contact with a number 
of people of high education and training in the conspiracy M^ho were 
going into the textile mills for the purpose of carrying on Communist 
Party underground activity. These people he characterized as colo- 
nizers. 

Now, with that explanation tell us whether or not you were a colo- 
nizer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. Well, I am still not quite clear on your explanation. 

Mr. Arens. Maybe it would help 3^ou still further 

Mr. FoRER. Maybe if I may 

Mr. Arens. We are running these proceedings, Counsel. 

Now I ask you whether or not you have ever been in conversation 
with, or whether or not you know, the gentleman seated at the right 
here whom I have identified, in mj^ colloquy with you, as a former 
undercover agent of the FBI — do you know this gentleman seated 
here? 

(Tlie witness conferred with her counsel.) 



2692 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mrs. Cole. Mr. Chairman, may I ask you something ? 

Mr. Willis. There is a pending question. The immediate ques- 
tion is, Do you know the gentleman to whom counsel just referred? 

Mrs. Cole. He asked several questions. Which do you prefer? 

Mr. Willis. You have been begging the questions, and we tried to 
make them simple for you. 

The outstanding question I now direct you to answer is the last one 
on record. Would you repeat that (juestion, Counsel ? 

Mrs. Cole. Wliatisit? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the gentleman seated to my right here, 
whom I have identified as the person who testified yesterday, as a 
former undercover agent of the FBI in the Communist Party ? Do 
you know this gentleman ? 

(The witness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. Well, first I would like to say that you inferred some- 
thing about my work there, that 

Mr. Willis. That is not the outstanding question. The question is 
a simple question. 

Mrs. Cole. I would like to say that 

Mr. Willis. The simple question 

Mrs. Cole. A textile worker because 

Mr. Willis. Do you know this gentleman ? 

Mrs. Cole. I became a textile worker because a textile worker is a 
little better pay, I think, than some other jobs. Now, you 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is deliberately avoiding an answer to 
the question. 

Mr. Willis. I know, and counsel knows that his client is violating 
the rule and probably jumping right into contempt proceedings. 

Mrs. Cole. I would like to answer the other question if I may. 
There is so much interference here. 

Mr. Willis. The simple question that I now order you to answer is 
the last question propounded b}' the counsel. 

Mrs. Cole. Would you please repeat it ? 

Mr. Willis. And it will be the last repetition. Let the record 
speak for itself from here on as to that question with regard to your 
demeanor here and your standing before the committee and the Con- 
gress it represents. 

Mrs. Cole. Will you please repeat it finally, sir ? 

Mr. Willis. And I now order you to listen. At least I admonish 
you to listen and I order you to answer it. 

Mrs. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the gentleman seated here to my imme- 
diate right, Mr. Armando Penha, wlio testified yesterday before this 
committee ? 

Mrs. Cole. I am going to have to refuse to answer that question on 
the basis of my rights under the first amendment, and because I do 
not consider the question pertinent to a legislative purpose and also 
on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Now, on the privilege under the fifth amendment, do 
you honestly apprehend that if you told this committee, while you are 
imder oath, whether or not you know the gentleman sealed here, Mr. 
Armando Penha, you would be supplying information wliicli might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2693 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. It is possible. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Penha testified yesterday that while he was an un- 
dercover agent in the Communist Party, he knew you as a Communist 
Party colonizer. That is a pretty serious charge to bring against any- 
one, because we all know the Communist Party is part and parcel 
of an international conspiracy. 

We would like to give you now an opportunity to deny while you 
are under oath, if a denial is in order, the testimony of Mr. Penha 
insofar as it is applicable to yourself. Do you care to avail yourself 
of that opportunity ? 

(The witness confered with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. I am sorry, but I don't know what you mean. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Penha telling the truth or was he in error 
when he identified you under oath as a person known by him to be a 
Communist Party colonizer ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. Well, I will have to say again I am not clear on wdiat 
is a Communist Party colonizer, and the only reason I went into the 
textile work is to make a living. I think it makes a better living than 
a white-collar job, better paying. 

Mr. Arens. Were you — excuse me. 

Mrs. Cole. Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. The witness hasn't answered the question, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The question is was Armando Penha telling the truth yesterday 
when he took an oath before this committee and said that while he 
w^as an undercover agent of the FBI, he knew you as a Communist. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Forer. That wasn't the question. 

Mr. Willis. He is asking you to make it more simple. That was 
exactly in my mind. Now, let us get down to brass tacks and we will 
ask it in a simpler way. 

The question is : Did this gentleman yesterday when he was under 
oath, and when if l3^ing could be prosecuted, did he tell the truth or 
did he lie when he said he knew you to be a Communist? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Cole. Now, I refuse to answer on the same basis as previously. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Penha, would you kindly stand up and come 
forward ? 

TESTIMONY OF ARMANDO PENHA— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. You have previously been sworn on this record, Mr. 
Penha? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You recognize that if you make a deliberate misstate- 
ment of a material fact while under oath to this committee, you will 
be prosecuted for perjury, do you not ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

]\rr. Arens. Do you see in the courtroom here in Atlanta today a 
l^erson, Madge Spurny, wliom 3'ou have identified on this i-ecord as a 
Communist ? 

jMr. Penha. I do, sir. 

20454—58 7 



2694 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly indicate her presence to the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Penha. She is sitting right there at present. 

Mr. Arens. Was she known by you, to a certainty, to have been 
during the period of your service in the Communist Party a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was she known by you, to a certainty, to have been a 
Communist Party colonizer ? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any doubt in your mind on the basis of your 
background and experience in the Communist Party conspiracy but 
what this witness herself knows what we mean and what you mean by 
the term "colonizer" ? 

Mr. Penha. There is no doubt in my mind. 

I might add that if anyone in the southern area can give instruc- 
tions on colonization she is one. She is an expert. 

TESTIMONY OF MADGE SPURNY COLE— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mrs. Cole, would you kindly look to your left at 
this gentleman — look him in the face so there will be no accusation of 
the faceless informant, and the like — and tell this committee, while 
you are under oath, whether or not he is telling the truth. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. I refuse to answer on the previous basis. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

I think it must occur to everyone who has heard this testimony, as 
it doas occur to me, that it is very strange indeed that a woman of 
culture and education, holding a B. A. from Cornell University, who 
did graduate work at Syracuse University in Science Education, who 
holds a Master's degree in Scientific Education, would wind up in a 
job such as the one that she occupies. I note on the application 

Mrs. Cole. Is that such a bad job? 

Mr. Jackson. Pardon? 

Mrs. Cole. Is that such a bad job? There are a lot of spinners in 
this area. 

Mr. Jackson. I have not worked in a mill. I do not know. I have 
nothing against the job. 

Mrs. Cole. It is a very respectable job and very high job and weU- 
paid job, and I am out to be a spinner. 

Mr. Jackson. Wliy did you in filling out your application for em- 
ployment at the Cone Mills Corporation and in answer to Question 
15 on the application which asks, "Wliat do you know about working 
in a textile mill," answer in longhand, and I presume that is your 
answer, "Nothing"? However, in your preliminary testimony before 
this subcommittee you testified that you had previously been employed 
as an inspector in a textile mill. Is it not a fact that this was not your 
first employment in a textile mill ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2695 

Mrs. Cole. Is that your question ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. Had you previously been employed in a textile 
mill? 

Mrs. Cole. I think I already stated that. 

Mr. Jackson. However, on your application you state that you knew 
nothing of working in a textile mill. What was the purpose for cov- 
ering up your previous employment ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cole. Honestly, I don't remember. 

Mr. Jackson. I think that if there was any question in the mind of 
anyone respecting Mr. Penha's testimony as to the extent of the web 
of Communist infiltration, the deliberate effort to infiltrate, no more 
characteristic case could be brought to the attention of the people 
here, or anywhere else in the United States, than that of the witness 
this morning. 

That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I might say this : that she feigned lack of knowledge 
on the definition of a colonizer. Judging from our experience in the 
past and similar testimony we have gathered in these hearings, she 
certainly typifies what is commonly known as a colonizer, if she doesn't 
know what a colonizer is. 

Any questions ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have none. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mrs. Cole. I resent those last remarks. I am a respected person in 
the community, married into an old textile family, and because my aca- 
demic education seems to be something, is it impossible for a textile 
worker to be educated ? 

Mr. Willis. Not at all. Not at all. 

Mrs. Cole. I think that is the whole point here. 

Mr. Willis. I was a farm boy. I am proud of it. 

Mrs. Cole. You might say 

Mr. Willis. But I answer questions about communism. 

Mr. Jackson. May I say the only unique thing about it is when an 
agent of the FBI in the Communist Party testifies that, in addition 
to being well educated, in addition to being related to an old textile 
family, and in addition to liking the work, you are also a colonizer 
for the Communist Party. That is what we are interested in. 

Mr. FoRER. Mr. Jackson, I thought you were conducting an investi- 
gation for the purpose of getting information for legislation. 

Mr. Willis. Counsel knows the rules. 

Mr. FoRER. And not making speeches against my client here. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Jackson.) 

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, the subcommittee recessed to reconvene at 
2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, WEDNESDAY, JULY 30, 1958 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 
(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, 
and Jackson. ) 
Mr. Willis. Counsel, will you call your next witness ? 



2696 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Aeens. "William Robertson, please come forward. 

Please remain standing wliile tlie chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Robertson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM JOSEPH ROBERTSON III, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, JOSEPH EORER 

Mr. Arens, Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Robertson. My name is William Joseph Robertson III. I live 
at 1439 North Hutchinson Street, Chicago, 111., and I am a writer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today, Mr. Robertson, in re- 
sponse to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Robertson. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, Washington, D, C. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. Robertson. Book Production Industries, Incorporated, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a word of description of the nature of the 
Book Production Industries. 

Mr. Robertson. Well, sir, I write scientific articles. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Robertson. Richmond, Virginia, June 24, 1922. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education, please, sir. 

Mr. Robertson. I am a graduate of the University of North 
Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate? 

Mr. Robertson. In 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Robertson. I took some graduate courses after I received my 
degree. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Robertson. At the ITniversity of North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you complete your graduate courses ? 

Mr. Robertson. In the summer of 1949. 

Mr. Arens. And what courses did you pursue ? 

Mr. Robertson. English and history. 

Mr. Arens. Were you then a resident of North Carolina ? 

Mr. Robertson. Yes, sir, I was. 

Mr, Arens. When did you move from Virginia ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. I attended Washington and Lee University in 
Lexington, Virginia, for 2 years before entering the United States 
Army ; I enlisted in the United States Army. After serving for over 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2697 

3 years, in 1945 I was honorably discharged and returned to my 
family, which at that time was living in Savannah, Georgia. From 
there I entered the University of North Carolina. I trust that that 
will satisfy. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Robertson. No, sir, I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you serve ? 

Mr. Robertson. I served in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philip- 
pines Islands. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal employment after you 
concluded your formal education ? 

Mr. Robertson. I would say my first principal employment, of 
which I am very, very proud, was that of a union organizer with the 
Food, Tobacco, and Agricultural Workers in Winston-Salem, North 
Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you organize for the Food, Tobacco, and 
Agricultural Workers in Winston-Salem? What plants, please, sir? 

Mr. Robertson. R. J. Reynolds, Camel Cigarettes. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate superior ? 

Mr. Robertson. I actually forget the name. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you engage in this activ- 
ity, please, sir ? 

Mr. Robertson. Oh, for approximately 4 or 5 months. 

]\Ir. Arens. And your next princi])al employment, please, sir? 

Mr. Robertson. My next principal employment was with the Vir- 
ginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation of Durham, North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment last? 

Mr. Robertson. About 2 months, very rough work. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. Robertson. Golden Belt Cotton Mill, a subsidiary of the 
American Tobacco trust. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Robertson. Durham, North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mr. Robertson. As a sweeper. 

Mr. Arens. How long? 

Mr. Robertson. In the carding department, the dirtiest depart- 
ment in the mill. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment last ? 

Mr. Robertson. For approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please ? 

Mr. Robertson. Sheet metal worker. 

Mr. Arens. And when did that employment begin ? 

Mr. Robertson. That began within a month after leaving the 
Golden Belt Cotton Mill. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Robertson. I do not remember exactly the name. I believe it 
was a Carolina air-conditioning corporation. I am not 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment last ? 

Mr. Robertson. Oh, about 4 or 5 months. 

Mr. Arens. And your next emplo\aneiit ? 

Mr. Robertson. I worked for the Laws Sign Company. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 



2698 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Robertson. In Durham, North Carolina, and surrounding areas. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Robertson. Assistant in putting up neon signs and taking down 
neon signs. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that last? 

Mr. Robertson. That lasted about a month or so. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Robertson. I worked at the Cone Mills. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Robertson. In Greensboro, North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Robertson. As a bobbin boy. 

Mr. Arens. How long ? 

Mr. Robertson. About 2 months. These are estimates, you under- 
stand. I may be incorrect about the exact time. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment? 

Mr. Robertson. In Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Robertson. I had 2 capacities there. One was as a — ^just a 
moment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. Well, I worked there in 2 capacities. I worked in 
putting materials together, rubber materials together, to use in steel 
mills and I also worked as a rubber grinder. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Robertson. This was — there again the name of the plant I do 
not recollect. Perhaps you gentlemen 

Mr. Arens. What year was it, please, sir? 

Mr. Robertson. This was 1955. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. And your next employment? 

Mr. Robertson. My next employment was at Augustana Hospital. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Robertson. Augustana Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. Arens. For what period of time were you employed there and 
in what capacity, please, sir ? 

Mr. Robertson. Oh, 6 weeks to 2 months. I was an orderly in a 
surgical ward. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Robertson. Popular Mechanics Magazine. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Robertson. Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment endure ? 

Mr. Robertson. Approximately 9 months. 

Mr. Arens. And what did you do there ? 

Mr. Robertson. I served as a messenger boy and then I served in the 
Bureau of Information, helping to answer queries from readers of 
Popular Mechanics Magazine on various subjects. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. Robertson. I worked for Cargill, Incorporated, a grain ex- 
change on South LaSalle Street in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Robertson. As a supervisor in the telegraph room. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2G99 

Mr, Robertson, Book Production Industries, Incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever make application for employment at Er- 
win Mills? 

Mr, Robertson, Yes, sir, I have. 

Mr. Arens. When did you make that application for employment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. I don't remember exactly but I believe it was in the 
fall of 1954. 

Mr. Arens. Would it have been the fall of 1955 ? 

Mr. Robertson. Wait a minute. My dates are mixed up. This is 
1958. It may have been the fall of 1955. That would have changed 
some of these dates, by the way. 

Mr. Arens. We understand. You are just relying on your best 
recollection on these dates. 

Mr. Robertson. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And all of us are a little fuzzy sometimes on dates. 

Mr. Robertson. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you, if you please, sir, a re- 
production of an application form of the Erwin Mills, Incorporated, 
entitled "application for employment" dated 11-21-55, full name 
William Joseph Robertson, Jr. 

Kindly look at that application form and tell this committee wheth- 
er or not that is a true and correct reproduction of the application 
form filed by yourself with the Erwin Mills at Durham, North Caro- 
lina. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. Yes, sir, that looks familiar. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly look under that section of the application 
where educational background is alluded to — education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you put on the application form the truth, the full 
truth, respecting your educational background ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. Well, cotton-mill owners don't like their employees 
to be too well educated. It makes it difficult for them. So, knowing 
this situation in the minds of the employers, naturally I wasn't going 
to make it more difficult for myself to get a job. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. Did you tell your pro- 
spective employers the truth and the whole truth respecting your edu- 
cational background ? 

Mr. Robertson, Of course not. I was a worker looking for a job. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

(Document marked "Robertson Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. When you worked at the Cone Mills did you happen 
to know a lady by the name of Madge Spurny Cole ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. This question appears to be the sort of question 
that the Watkins decision had in mind. The Watkins decision was 
directed against the Un-American Activities Committee hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. When you were working 
at the Cone Mills in North Carolina, did you know a person by the 
name of Madge Spurny or Madge Spurny Cole, as her married name 
presently is? 



2700 C0MMU1«JIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Ivor.EKTsoN. This question is in violation of my rights under 
Article I of the Bill of Riohts. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I res])ect fully suo;oest that the M^itness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question ; and as a foundation I 
want now to explain to the witness, as I have done before for other 
witnesses, the pertinency of the question and its relevancy. 

This committee is undertakinij to develop factual information 
respecting the administration and operation of certain anti-Com- 
munist legislation which is on the books and to assemble information 
which will enable it to appraise legislative proposals pending before it. 

xVmong those legislative proposals is II. R. 9937, a series of sugges- 
tions, prospective provisions of the law to cope with Communists 
and Communist activities. 

Madge Spurny was interrogated this morning by this committee. 
She had been identified yesterday by a live responsible w'itness under 
oath as a person known to have been a member of the Communist 
Party. You, sir, have likewise been identified as a Communist and as 
a Communist colonizer. 

This committee is here in Atlanta for the purpose of developing 
factual information respecting Communist techniques, principally 
Communist techniques and colonization in the South. 

If you will tell us whether or not you know, or did know, Madge 
Spurny at the Cone Mills, I then propose to pursue the subject matter 
further by interrogating you with respect to Madge Spurny's activi- 
ties, as current as possible, as a Communist colonizer, if you possess 
such information ; so that that information will then be available to 
the Committee on Un-American Activities in its appraisal of pending 
legislation and in its appraisal of the operation and administration of 
the existing security laws. 

Now, sir, kindly answer the question. When you were engaged in 
Cone Mills did you know a person by the name of Madge Spurny? 

Mr. Robertson. Sir, that question is in violation of my rights under 
Article I of the Bill of Rights as reinforced by the Watkins decision. 
In addition, it has no relevance to any legitimate legislation; and, 
furthermore, I wish to utilize my rights under Article V of the Bill 
of Rights as reinforced by the Watkins decision. 

Mr. Arens. Which provision of Article V of the Bill of Rights are 
you invoking ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Robertson. IMy privilege not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Aeens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee truthfully, while you were under oath, whether or not 
you knew Madge Spurny while you w^ere employed at the Cone Mills, 
you would be supplying information which might be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. It is possible. 

Mr. Arens, Do you know a person, or have you known a person, by 
the name of Charles Childs ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds, as being in violation of Article I of the Bill of Rights, which 
provides freedom of speech and assembly and association. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2701 

Mr. Arens. Are you invoking those provisions of- 



Mr. Robertson. And furthermore I wish to emphasize to this com- 
mittee tliat these rights and the Bill of Rights have been emphasized 
by the Watkins decision. 

The Watkins decision deals precisely with the activities of this com- 
mittee and it is emphasized very strongly the manner in which this 
committee has carried on its investigations as being in violation of 
the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Arens. Of course you are in error in your appraisal of the 
Watkins case and in the status and activities of this committee. We 
are letting you unwind this way because that is the typical Commie 
line, and we are glad to listen to it, because we hear it numerous times. 
Mr. Robertson. Is it typical Communist line, sir, to defend the 
Constitution of America ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you, sir, this moment, a member of the conspira- 
torial organization which has as its ultimate objective the overthrow 
of the Constitution of the United States ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Robertson. Of course not. I am a loyal American. 
Mr. Arens. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Robertson. I am a loyal American. My people have been col- 
onizers — 3^ou like this w^ord so much — they have been colonizers from 
the very beginning and foundation of this country. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee while you are under oath, are you 
now a member of the Communist Party ? 
JNIr. Robertson. I am a loyal American. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Robertson. I love my country, 

]Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question whether or not he is now 
a member of the Communist Party, or else invoke his rights under the 
fifth amendment not to give information against himself that could 
be used against him in a criminal proceeding. 

JNIr. Robertson. I wish to invoke my rights under the various ar- 
ticles of tlie Bill of Rights, including the first amendment and the fif tli 
amendment. 

INIr, Arens. A former undercover agent of the FBI, Mr. Armando 
Penha, testified that you were not just a colonizer, coming on the May- 
-floioer,, or a descendant of those who came on the May-floioer as 
colonizers, but that you were a Communist colonizer. 
Mr. Robertson. Don't speak so loud, sir. It is intimidating. 
Mr. Arens, I beg your pardon. I don't want to intimidate you. 
Mr. Robertson. I think these whole proceedings are an intimidation 
to all witnesses. 

Mr. Arens. Your use of the word intimidation lias reached the 
point of exasperation, which I think any loyal red-blooded American 
might well appreciate. 

Now, sir, Mr. Penha, a former undercover agent of the FBI, testified 
before this committee, laid his liberty on the line, and said while he 
was an undercover agent of the FBI in the Communist conspiracy 
he knew you as a Communist colonizer, active in colonizing m the 
South. 



2702 coMJvruNiST activities in the south 

We would like to give you now an opportunityj while you are under 
oath, in view of your assertion of your patriotism and your loyalty 
to this country, to deny that while you are under oath. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you as one who has asserted his patriotism and 
loyalty, care to stand up like a red-blooded American and deny that 
you are, or have been in the recent past, a Communist colonizer ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robertson. No, sir ; I don't care to. I am a loyal American. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
William Matthews. 

Kindly come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. IVIatthews. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM MATTHEWS 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Matthews. My name is William Matthews, and I live at 2082 
Union Street in Brooklyn, New York, and I work for a camera manu- 
facturer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. IMatthews. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. You do not have counsel ? 

Mr. Matthews. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. You understand under the rules of this committee you 
have the privilege of counsel ? 

Mr. Matthews. I can't afford it. 

Mr. Arens. We shall advise you as we proceed of your constitu- 
tional rights, sir. 

Mr. Matthews Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Do you want counsel ? 

Mr. Mait^hews. If the committee will pay for counsel, I would like 
to have counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the com- 
mittee consider a recess of this particular witness' interrogation until 
tomorrow, with a request to the local Bar Association that one of their 
number volunteer his services, as a service to the Committee on Un- 
American Activities in our cause, to consult with this young man and 
advise him of his constitutional rights and that the subpena of this 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2703 

witness, or his appearance pursuant to the subpena, be carried for- 
ward until tomorrow morning. 

Mr. Tuck. I move that that suggestion be followed, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. I think it is an excellent suggestion, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The suggestion is very willingly accorded. 

Mr. Arens. I personally would have to say I don't know just 
how to proceed from here, Mr. Chairman. It is the first time I have 
had the pleasure of visiting in Atlanta, and I assume the other mem- 
bers of the committee are in about the same situation, but we will 
try our best in the course of the next few hours to contact the local 
Bar Association and undertake to solicit from them the designation 
of a reputable lawyer to confer with this young man and to sit with 
him tomorrow if he so desires. 

Mr. Willis. That will be done. 

Mr. JSIatthews. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Are you ready, Mr. Chairman, for the next witness? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Karl Korstad. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Korstad. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I make a comment or observation 
with respect to the ruling of the Chair and the committee a moment 
ago? 

The young man who was just sworn a few moments ago, William 
Matthews, will stay in touch with Mr. Frank Bonora here, of this 
statF. We are already in process of trying to contact the local Bar 
Association. If he will let Mr. Bonora, seated at my right, know of 
liis availability, I am reasonably sure, hopefully sure, at least, a lawyer 
will be made available to him. 

Mr. Willis. Do you understand that, young man ? 

Mr. Matthews. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF KARL R. KORSTAD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr, Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Korstad. My name is Karl Korstad. I live at 5000 High Point 
Koad, Greensboro, North Carolina. I own and operate a landscape 
gardening business there. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Korstad, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Korstad. Yes, lam. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Korstad. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

INIr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly spell your name for us, Mr. Korstad ? 



2704 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. KoRSTAD. Glad to. First name is Karl, K-a-r-1, not "C." You 
spell it with a "K." Middle initial, "K." Please use that. And the 
last name is Korstad, K-o-r-s-t-a-d. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Korstad. In Deep River Falls, Minnesota, May 19, 1915. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education, please, sir. 

Mr. Korstad. I graduated from high school in 1931. I went to 
Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota, graduated with an A. B. in 
1935. I taught high school for 2 years. I went to Syracuse, took a 
Master's in English there in 1937 — 1938, I guess it was. 

Mr. Arens. Where was the INIaster's in English, please? 

Mr. Korstad. In Syracuse University, in the English Department. 
I taught at the University until June of 1942, when I was drafted 
into the Army. I served in the service for three and a half years, in 
the Army Medical Corps, doing public relations and special service 
work in a general hospital. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Korstad. In Charleston, South Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. And after your discharge from the Army, please tell 
us of your occupations. 

Mr. Korstad. I went to work for the Food and Tobacco Workers 
Union. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere, please, sir ? 

Mr. Korstad. First m Washington. 

Mr. Arens. Washington, D. C. ? 

Mr. Korstad. Yes, sir. I organized a committee there to raise funds 
for a group of women who were members of that union who were on 
a strike in Charleston. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me a moment, please, sir. 

Mr. Korstad. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was your job with the Food and Tobacco Work- 
ers in Washington ? 

Mr. Korstad. That is what I was telling you. That is what I was 
telling you. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed. I beg your pardon. I didn't understand you. 

Mr. Korstad. I helped organize a committee there, which was made 
up of Congressmen, Senators, and other people, to help raise funds 
for a group of women who were on strike. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that ? 

Mr. Korstad. That was in 

Mr. Arens. Was it '46? 

Mr. Korstad. '45 or '46. I am not exactly sure. 

Mr. Arens. Were you then an employee of the Food and Tobacco 
group ? 

Mr. Korstad. They asked me if I would do this and they offered to 
pay my expenses if I would. 

Mr. Arens. Who are "they" ? 

Mr. Korstad. The leaders of the union, people who worked in the 
union. 

Mr. Arens. Who? Wlio was your 

Mr. Korstad. I think the man's name was Larry Larson. I think 
he was an organizer for the union. In that particular situation he 
talked to me about it. 



COMJMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2705 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him before ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. No. I was interested in them when I was in the Army 
in Charleston. They had gone on strike. I was interested. I was 
interested in them as the newspaper 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work in promoting this enterprise 
in Washington, D. C. ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. Until the strike was over; about 2 months. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. About 2 months. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD, I went to work for the union. I was working for that 
union until 1951. 

Mr, Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I worked as business agent. I worked as regional 
director of the union and worked as an organizer. 

Mr. Arens. Where were the various assignments that you dis- 
charged ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I worked in Memphis, Tennessee, as business agent. 
I worked in Raleigh as a regional director covering all of the south- 
eastern States except Georgia. And I worked in Winston-Salem help- 
ing on about a 3-year organizing drive, an unsuccessful one, against 
the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. 

Mr. Arens. When were your services with the Food and Tobacco 
Workers terminated ? 

Mr. Korstad. In, I think, about November of 1951. The union ac- 
tually went out of existence. It no longer exists. 

Mr. Arexs. And the next employment you had then ? 

Mr. Korstad. I organized the present business that I now operate. 
I have been there since, for 7 or 8 years, whatever amount of time 
that is. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Armando Penha ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Korstad. I am going to have to refuse to answer that question 
on the basis of my rights under the first amendment and the privilege 
under the fifth against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this conunittee 
truthfully, while you are under oath, whether or not you know Ar- 
mando Penha you would be supplying information which might be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Korstad. It is possible ; j'^es, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Korstad. I am going to have to refuse to answer that under the 
same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Conununist Party ? 

Mr. Korstad. I will have to use the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. In 1950 were you living in Chicago ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Korstad. No, sir. I have never lived in Chicago. I might have 
stayed there a night or two going back home. 



2706 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall a National Labor Conference for Peace, 
urging withdrawal of United States troops from Korea which was 
held in Chicago in July of 1950? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I seem to recall that there was such a conference. 

Mr. AiiENS. Were you a participant in the conference ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I didn't participate in the conference. I wasn't there. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I was not at that conference. 

Mr. Arens. Did you lend your name and your prestige in the labor 
movement to the Conference for Peace, urging the withdrawal of 
United States troops from Korea ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I may have. I was working in the union. Many 
things came across my desk. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the time 
you loaned your name and your prestige and your stature in this labor 
organization to this Conference for Peace, urging the withdrawal 
of United States troops from Korea ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I am going to have to refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. You are not under any compulsion to refuse, you under- 
stand, sir. 

Mr. KoRSTAD. On the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you refuse ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I refuse. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. On the grounds I already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you were a Communist when you were lend- 
ing your name, your prestige, and your status in this labor organi- 
zation to this drive to cause the withdrawal of United States troops 
from Korea, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. It is possible, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you were one of these organizers did you lend 
your name, your prestige, and your status in the labor organization in 
attacks against the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. What date is that, please, sir? Do you have a date 
on that ? 

Mr. Arens. I have in my hand a thermofax reproduction of the 
Communist Daily Worker of Sunday, May 25, 1947, listing names of a 
number of people who are alleging witch hunts, fascism, Red baiting 
and the like of this committee as alleged by the conspiracy, all en- 
dorsing tliis warning against this committee, including one Karl Kor- 
stad of the Food and Tobacco Workers Union of Memphis. Does 
that refresh your recollection ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. Personally, I don't remember. I could have. 

Mr. Arens. You could have. 

Mr. KoRSTAD. It is possible. I don't remember. 

(Document marked "Korstad Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2707 

Mr. Arkns. Were you a member of the Civil Rights Congress? 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. Sir, I refuse to answer the question on the previous 
basis. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall when the 11 or 12 traitors were tried in 
New York City before Judge Medina ? Do you recall that ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I read the papers. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall it? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I recall the news. I don't recall any headlines like 
that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any headlines in which your name ap- 
peared under an article asking that the 11 traitors be freed? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. What were those people charged for, treason? Is 
that the charge that was against them ? 

Mr. Arens. You said you recalled it. I don't want to quibble with 
you. Your counsel is trying to get me to say here that was not trea- 
son. It was traitorous acts under the Smith Act, and he knows it, 
as well as you do. 

Tell us if you have a recollection, if you please, sir? Tell us if you 
have a recollection of lending your name, your prestige, and your 
status in this labor organization on behalf of the 11 Communists who 
were being tried, or had been tried, before Judge Medina in Foley 
Square in New York? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I don't recall it ; I may have. I honestly don't recall 
that. 

Mr. Arens. Armando Penha testified yesterday, among other 
things, that while he was in the Communist Party at the behest of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation to serve his Government he knew you 
in the apparatus as a colonizer. Was he in error in that testimony ? 
I am not quoting him but giving the essence of it. Was he in error 
on that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. Would it be helpful in answering the question if I 
told you honestly how I happen to be working where I am now and 
why I happened to work 

Mr. Arens. We don't want quibbling. 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I am not trying to. 

Mr. Arens. We want you to tell us : Have you been a Communist 
Party colonizer? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I don't know how — you phrase the question, you see, 
in such a way that you make it almost impossible for a person to give 
an honest answer. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us honestly and simply: Are you now — we 
will start with that and then we will go on from there— are you now, 
this minute, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I refuse to answer on the ground previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Penha said he knew you as a Communist. Why 
don't you deny it now while you have an opportunity while you are 
imder oath? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 



2708 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I choose to use my constitutional rights under the 
fii-st and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the High Point Industrial Com- 
mission in North Carolina in 1955? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I gathered the impression that the 
witness desired to say something in explanation. In spite of his hav- 
ing availed himself of the privilege under the Constitution, I feel that 
if there is any matter in extenuation or matter of explanation that he 
cares to make, perhaps we should hear him. 

Mr. Willis. I think it would be a splendid idea if he would really 
speak freely about all he knows. 

Mr. Jackson. I am not that hopeful, Mr. Chairman. But I 
thought perhaps there might be something which he wanted to say 
which we should, in all justice, let him say. 

Mr. KoRSTAD. The reason — what I wanted to explain : The reason 
I came into the South was that I was drafted in the Army and sent 
in the South. I stayed in one post in the South. I married a Sou- 
thern girl — there were thousands of us — and I settled in the South 
where my wife's family was. I went to work for this particular im- 
ion — I don't think — because I was interested in the strike situation. 
I continued to work for them. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were doing all of this? 

Mr. KoRSTAD. I must refuse to answer. I refuse to answer those 
questions on the basis I have already given, 

Mr. Jackson. Why ? 

Mr. Korstad. On the basis of my rights under the first and privilege 
under the fifth not to give self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Let us take a recess, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I wisli to make one observation, per- 
haps gratuitously. 

I have been impressed by the fact that the present witness has not 
carried the militant injunctions of the Communist Party to disrupt, 
into this hearing room. We have seen enough of that during the years 
the committee has operated. I do not know what recent information, 
more recent than was developed by tlie witness Mr. Penha, the com- 
mittee has. However, I have a feeling that one with the war record 
of the previous witness might and should give consideration to a con- 
tinuing obligation which he has to liis country. 

I would hope that on sober reflection some time in the future 
tlie witness Avould see that obligation, as we believe it exists, and give 
the conmiittee the benefit of whateA^er information he may have. He 
has been a courteous witness, which is quite unusual. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in formal recess for 10 
minutes. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, 
and Jackson.) 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr, Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2709 

(Subcommittee members present: Eepresentatives Willis, Tuck, and 
J ackson. ) 

Mr. Willis. Counsel, please call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Jerome Van Camp, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JEEOME VAN CAMP, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Van Camp. My name is Jerome Van Camp. I work at a number 
of jobs. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to raise your voice ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I have worked at a number of jobs, no particular 
occupation, even though I am a qualified weaver. 

Mr. Willis. Qualified? 

JNIr. Arens. I didn't get the last. You are a qualified what, sir ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I am a qualified weaver, 

Mr. Arens. And your residence, ])lease ? 

Mr. Van Camp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Van Camp. 2615 North Mutter Street. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Van Camp. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Van Camp. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I was bom in Southern Pines, North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to raise your voice ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I was born in Southern Pines, North Carolina, in 
1933, May 14. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us about your education. 

Mr. Van Camp. I went to grammar school in Southern Pines. I 
went to higli school in Soutliern Pines and I attended the University 
of North Carolina for two and a half years. 

Mr. Arens. 'When did you complete your studies at the University 
of North Carolina ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I think it was 1954. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us, if you please, sir, what your first principal 
employment was after you completed your formal education ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I was working during my education. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere? 

Mr. Van Camp. Erwin Mills. 

Mr. Arens. Where are the Erwin Mills located ? 

29454—58 8 



2710 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

I\fr. Van Camp. In Durham, North Carolina. 

Mr. Aeens. In wliat capacity were you working there ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I worked there one time as a spare hand and then 
I learned to weave there, 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. Van Camp. A total of 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. That would get us up to about 1956, is that correct ? 

Mr. Van Camp. No. I stopped working there twice to go back to 
school, and each time I would be reemployed at Erwin Mills. 

Mr. Arens. When did you finally conclude your employment activ- 
ities at Erwin Mills ? 

Mr. Van Camp. May 5. 1955. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Now, your next employment, please, sir. 

Mr. Van Camp. I worked for a plumbing contractor for a few weeks. 

Mr. Arens. Where, please, sir ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I worked for a plumbing contractor. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Van Cajip. In Chapel Hill, North Carolina, for a few weeks, 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I worked for the Alexander Motor Company in 
Durham, which is 8 miles from there. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment last ? 

Mr. Van Camp. Two months. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. Van Camp. Carpenter Motor Company. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere? 

Mr, Van Camp. In Durham. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Van Camp, As a mechanic's helper. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Van Camp, Just a minute. I went to New York that summer, 
1956, and stayed there for about a month. I had a job there for the 
sheet metal company and then I returned to North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. Just go on, if you please, sir, and tell us your next em- 
ployments in sequence. 

Mr. Van Camp, I received a draft notice while I was in New York 
and came home to answer it, and I was unemployed during that period, 
and I was declared 4- F. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead, please, sir. 

Mr. Van Camp. I live with my relatives, who moved to Philadel- 
phia at that time, and wlien I got in Philadelphia I worked for the 
Northeast Auto Sales, That was in the fall of 1956, 

Mr, Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Van Camp. The Philadelphia Inquirer. 

Mr. Arens. The Philadelphia Inquirer ? 

Mr. Van Camp. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Van Camp. As a copy boy. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Tell us your next employments as tliey 
come along, please, sir. 

Mr. Van Camp. And my present job I now work at was the next one 
which is Kar-nu Company. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't ffet that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2711 

Mr. Van Camp. The Kar-nii Co. They service Bell Telephone 
trucks, a subcontractor. I quit that job to come down here several 
days ago. 

Mr. Arens. Do you propose to take up residence again here in 
the South ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I quit to come to Atlanta, I don't intend to stay 
here. 

Mr. Arens. Young man, did you get hooked up with the Communist 
operation in the University of North Carolina at any time? 

Mr. Van Camp. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first amendment, under my protection of the fifth amendment not to 
be a witness against myself, and I don't think it has anything to do 
with pending legislation. 

Mr, Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Armando Penha? 

Mr. Van Camp. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Are you right now, today, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Van Camp. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever quit the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Van Camp. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. This Committee on Un-American Activities, young 
man — and you still are a very young man 

Mr. Van Camp. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. — can reconnnend that immunity be granted from any 
criminal prosecution to certain people. I would like to ask you this : 
If this committee should cause to be instituted proceedings to grant 
you immunity so that you could not be prosecuted criminally for in- 
formation developed by your own testimony, and if those proceedings 
should be brought to a fruition in the processes prescribed by the law 
so that you could come clean and face your parents, face your em- 
ployers, and face other citizens of this country and tell all about what 
you know about the Communist operation as a young man, about the 
Communist attempts to penetrate the industrial areas of the South, 
about the way Communists seize hold of the minds of young people 
whom they can grab up in schools and colleges and the like, would you, 
if you had that immunity, would you break completely with this op- 
eration and accept this immunity and tell this committee wliile you 
are under oath all you know from your personal experience about tlie 
Communist Party and the Communist operation in this country ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Van Camp. Would you repeat that question ? Was that a ques- 
tion or — I took it as a speech. iMake it simpler, please. 

Mr. Willis. I think he is not the material w^e hoped he might be. 

Mr. Arens. We hoped, young man, you might w^ant to break from 
the operation and testify while you are still young, while you still 
have an opportunity to be of service to your country. 

Mr. Van Camp. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Arens. And, in the process, to be clean — -just an observation. 

Mr. Van Camp. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I better ask (jne question just to clear 
the record. 

Mr, Penha testified, sir, that while he was serving his country as 
an undercover agent in this operation for the FBI he knew you as a 



2712 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

member of the Communist Party, and he had certain information re- 
specting colonization activities by yourself. Do you care to avail your- 
self now of the opportunity, while you are under oath, to publicl;^ take 
issue with Mr. Penha and deny this information in so far as it is ap- 
plicable to you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Van Camp. No, I don't care to. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Please call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Hunter Pitts O'Dell, please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. O'Dell. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HUNTEE PITTS O'DELL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
OEZELL BILLINGSLEY, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. O'Dell. My name is Hunter O'Dell. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. O'Dell. I will repeat. My name is Hunter O'Dell. My resi- 
dence is Montgomery, Alabama. 

Since this committee has earlier stated 

Mr. Willis. "What is your occupation? That is the next question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. Since this committee has earlier stated 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly state your occupation ? 

Mr. O'Dell. The question as to my occupation is not relevant to 
subversive activity. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. You are directed to answer the question and I 
think you will find out — we might as well get on the right foot — that 
it will be so much better for you if you answer the questions direct. If 
you don't, you may subject yourself to special proceedings. We don't 
want that. That is a simple question. The question is, what is your 
occupation. But the choice is yours. You have that right. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I am an insurance executive. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't hear you, please, sir. 

Mr. O'Dell. I am an insurance executive. 

Before we go further, I have a statement that I would like to 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by tlie House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities? 

Mr. O'Dell. Tarn. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2713 

Mr. O'Dell. lam. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. BiLLiNGSLEY. Orzell Billingsley, Jr., Birmingham, Alabama. 
Mr. Arens. I am not sure our reporter got that. 
Mr. Billingsley. Orzell Billingsley, Jr. 
Mr. Arens. Your first name ? 
Mr. Billingsley. Orzell. O-r-z-e-1-1. 
Mr. Arens. And your last name ? 
Mr. Billingsley. Billingsley. 
Mr. Arens. And your address, please, counsel. 
Mr. Billingsley. Birmingham, Alabama. 
Mr. Arens. "Wliere and when were you born, Mr. O'Dell ? 
Mr. O'Dell. Detroit, Michigan, 1923 ; in August. 
Mr. Arens. And a word about your education. 

Mr. O'Dell. Well, I don't feel that my education is a question at 
hand with regard to subversive activities. Therefore I refuse to 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question as to his educational 
background. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. It is a 
preliminary question and may well be very pertinent. 
I direct you to answer that question as to your education. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't think that it is pertinent and neither is it a 
secret, but I spent 2 years in college and studied Pharmacy at Xavier 
University in New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Mr. Arens. "Wliere did you take your 2 years in college ? 
Mr. O'Dell. I just stated that. 

Mr. Willis. Xavier University of New Orleans, a very good school. 
Mr. Arens. Did you receive any kind of degree ? 
^Ir. O'Dell. No. 

Mr. Arens. When did you conclude your education at Xavier Uni- 
versity ? 
Mr. O'Dell. Somewhere around 1944, late '43. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal employment after you 
concluded your education at Xavier University ? 

Mr. O'Dell. I joined the United States Merchant Marine during the 
war. 
Mr. Arens. And how long did you serve in the Merchant Marine? 
Mr. O'Dell. Well, it was a broken period for about 7 years. It was 
a period of about 2 years and then there was a period that I worked 
in Miami for my father, and then I went back to the Merchant Marine 
years later. So it ran to about 7 years altogether. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever precluded or screened off ships in the 
Merchant Marine under any Government program ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) _ 
Mr. Arens. Did you understand the question ? 
Mr. O'Dell. Yes, I understood the question. 
Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer it ? 

Mr. O'Dell. And 1 would like to introduce a statement to this 
committee, if there is no objection. 



2714 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. We will get to that in a moment, please. Were you 
ever screened off any ships by any Government security program? 

Mr. O'Dell, I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. You don't recall. Where all did you go when you were 
with the Merchant Marine ? 

Mr. O'Dell. I stated that I worked in the Merchant Marine during 
the war. 

Mr. Arens. "^^^lere all did you go ? 

Mr. O'Dell. I went all over the world. 

Mr, Arens. Did you engage in any Communist Party organizing on 
these ships ? 

Mr. O'Dell. My purpose in sailing was to be part of the war effort. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you were a part of this 
war effort ? 

Mr. O'Dell. What is meant by a "Communist"? What do you 
mean by that ? 

Mr. Arens. A Communist? 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I will be very glad to tell you. 

A Communist is a person who is part and parcel of the Communist 
Party, either aboveground or belowground in the United States, the 
Communist operation. About 100 years ago there was a German 
scholar, Karl Marx. He evolved a philosophy of world revolution, an 
atheistic, communistic program. That was given a catalytic response 
by Nicolai Lenin, 50 years ago, at which time he and a band of revolu- 
tionaries seized control of the government. That movement has 
spread over the world. It has 33,000,000 agents over the world, in a 
death grip with all the God-fearing people, all that God-fearing 
people believe in. In the United States, 25 or 30 years ago that move- 
ment got a start. It is a movement that now has enmeshed in its grip 
900 million people. It is the movement that proceeds by violence and 
deceit and subversion to corrupt and to destroy. It is the movement 
within Soviet Russia itself which has, in its ascendancy, destroyed 
over 10 million human souls. It has at least 20 million in slave labor 
camps. It is a movement in Red China, according to the best advices, 
that has destroyed approximately 40 million souls. It is a movement 
that is heading toward a total war against the United ^ States of 
America. It is a movement that has enlisted within the United States 
a fifth column, dedicated to destroy this Government, which is the last 
bastion of freedom of any potency to resist this movement in the 
world. 

We understand, and we have received testimony from live witnesses 
under oath, responsible people, identifying you, Hunter Pitts O'Dell, 
as part and parcel of that movement, as a dedicated zealot of the 
Communist conspiracy in the United States who masquerades behind 
the Constitution of the United States, and would desecrate the flag 
of this great Nation. 

That I believe is a fair start on "What is a Communist?" and "What 
is the Communist movement?" 

And this Committee on Un-American Activities, as an arm of the 
Congress of the United States, is seeking to develop factual informa- 
tion which it can use in devising legislative enactments to protect this 
Nation against tliis conspiratorial fifth column, not a political party, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2715 

but one which masquerades behind a facade of hmnanitarianisni and 
undertakes to suck into its web, the dupes, the innocent, and those 
who can be called within the orbit of its influence. 

One Arthur Eugene testified before this committee in February 
1957, that while he was a member of this conspiracy, he knew you, 
Hunter Pitts O'Dell, as part and parcel of the conspiracy. 

Another one-time top Communist in the South, a Dr. William 
Sorum, likewise identified you as a Communist. I have in my 
hand here now an organizational platform and program for the 
South — which was seized on premises which you occupied in New 
Orleans a year or so ago — on proposals of the Communist Party con- 
spiracy of the South. 

And I propose, if you will tell us whether or not, while you are 
under oath, you are now in this conspiracy of the Communist Party, 
to interrogate you at length with reference to plans and proposals 
and designs of this conspiracy which were taken from premises under 
your custody and control. 

Now, let us proceed with making this record. 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party? We will start 
there. 

Mr. O'Dell. I am going to answ^er the previous question, that 
you — I asked you what is a Communist. 
Mr. Arens. Do you understand what a Communist is now? 
Mr. O'Dell. No. I have been treated to a speech. 
Mr. Arens. Do you know^ what a Communist is ? 
Mr. O'Dell. Well, I will answer. I will answer the question that 
you raised originally. Most definitions are short. Yours seemed to 
have evoked a speech. You seem to know, and apparently have stated, 
a lot about subversive activities that began with Karl Marx and 
Europe and a hundred years ago. 

I am wondering, do you know^ as much about the subversive activi- 
ties in this country that began with the slavery of the Negro people, 
and have been going on for 300 years, including the Jim Crow sys- 
tem that has been in effect since the end of the Civil War. That is 
what I am primarily concerned with in terms of subversive activities. 
Mr. Arens. Our primary concern at the moment is to find out 
from you whether or not you will tell this committee, while you are 
under oath, whether or not you are no\v, this minute, a Communist. 
(At this point Representative Jackson left the hearing room.) 
Mr. O'Dell. I didn't interrupt you while you were making your 
statement. I don't expect you to interrupt me while I am making 
mine. 

Mr. Willis. You are not going to make a speech. You said you 
didn't understand the question. He explained it. You asked for it. 
Now, I am very much afraid, for your own account, you might be 
asking for more — to lock horns with Mr. Arens on this general subject. 
You asked for the definition. He gave it to you. 
Now there is one question pending. Will you repeat it? 
Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 
Mr. O'Dell. Since you are discussing a party, for me to answer that 
it woukl also mean that if you wanted to go over to Mississippi and 

find out when 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be now ordered and directed to answer the question. 



2716 COMMUNIST activities in the south 

Mr. Willis. I order and direct you to answer the simple question : 
Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'Dell. Since we are not concerned with the subversive activi- 
ties, as far as oppression of the Negro people is concerned, I have to 
rely upon all of the immunity that the Constitution of the United 
States gives me as a Negro, because I am concerned with subversive 
activities that have kept my people segregated for this long time. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. So the first and fifth amendments, and any other 
amendment of the Constitution that offers me support and protection 
from not being persecuted because I am concerned with the oppres- 
sion of the Negro people, and you are talking about something that 
started over 100 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel, and are you trying to make this 
committee and the people of this country believe, that you, a member 
of the Communist conspiracy, responsive to the will of the Kremlin, 
are in truth and in fact, concerned about the welfare of the Negro 
people of this country ? 

Mr. 0'Dj:ll. I wouldn't try to make you believe anything. 

Mr. Arens. Then stand up and tell this committee while you are 
under oath whether or not your activities and this facade that you are 
throwing around yourself in this aura of so-called respectability are 
not a front for the conspiratorial activities of yourself as a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. O'Dell. The Jim Crow system in the United States is not a 
front ; it is a very real thing, which every Negro in the United States 
has experienced. It is not a front. If you think it is a front, you 
have a great deal to learn about your own country, not worrying about 
what some international thing — I don't know anything about. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know anything about the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'Dell. I answered that question previously. 

(At this point Representative Jackson returned to the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, I should like to display to you 

Mr. O'Dell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make a statement in 
this 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you now, please, an outline, 
a directive, "Proposals on Southern Party Organization, 1955, 1956," 
wliich was procured from your premises in New Orleans, and in which 
are set forth here in detail : organizational plans and specifications, 
mass agitation, permeation of the press. Party building, cadres, liter- 
ature, finances, educational activities, outlined plans for industrial 
concentration, and the like, including a bibliography of books on 
international communism. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee, first of all, 
whether you have ever seen it before. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't recall ever seeing any such document. 

(At this point Representative Tuck left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you sure you are telling the truth ? 

Mr. O'Dell. That is my answ^er. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read you some testimony with reference 
to this particular document and see if it might refresh your recollec- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2717 

t ion. This testimony, an excerpt from which I am now going to 
read, was taken by this committee on February 14, 1957, in New 
Orleans. I was at that time interrooating Sergeant Badeaux, of the 
New Orleans Anti-Subversive Squad. 

Q. Will you kindly proceed at your own pace, Sergeant, to tell us about these 
documents and their significance? 

At that time, among other documents, he had this particular docu- 
ment, which I have just displayed to you. 

Sergeant Badeaux. We were particularly fortunate in receiving this first 
document. At the time that we obtained it, it was, you might say, of recent 
vintage. It is the proposals on the entire Southern Communist Party Organiza- 
tion for 1955 and 1956. 

Q. Was that seized on the premises of a person you know to be a Communist 
agent? 

A. Yes. We have known this man to be, as a matter of fact, the top man in 
the State since 1950. 

Q. Can you disclose the name of this Communist agent? 

A. Yes. Hunter Pitts O'Dell. 

Do you want the record now to stand that you have never seen this 
document before ? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't recall seeing that document. 

(Document marked "O'Dell Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Aeens. Did you live in New Orleans in 1957 at any time ? 

Mr. O'Dell. What would where I live have to do with subversive 
activities ? 

Mr. Arejsts. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. You are ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. Would you have the court reporter repeat that ques- 
tion, please ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes, the reporter will please read the last question. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr.ARENS. Why? 

Mr. O'Dell. On the basis of the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. Have you in addition to your other activities been an 
author ? 

Mr. O'Dell. I have no knowledge of ever having been an author. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you now a photostatic copy 
of the Communist publication, Political Affairs, in which appears 
an article entitled "The Political Scene in Louisiana," and the author's 
name, according to Political Affairs, is Hunter O'Dell. 

Please look at that article which I shall now display to you and 
tell this committee whether or not that refreshes your recollection with 
reference to your activities in the literary field. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that under the same constitu- 
tional provisions. 

Mr. Arens. Doesn't this refresli your recollection ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



2718 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. O'Dell. My answer is : I refuse to answer the question on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Akens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are the Hunter O'Dell alluded to as the author of 
this article appearing in Political Affairs, which has been cited as 
the official Communist Party monthly theoretical organ. 

Mr. O'Dell. My stand is the same. I refuse to answer that on the 
same grounds. 

(Document marked "O'Dell Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever exj^elled from the CIO National Mari- 
time Union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I refuse to answer that, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the National Maritime 
Union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Willis. Why? 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. O'Dell. On the same grounds, the first and fifth amendments 
to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you now a copy of the Com- 
munist Daily Worker, Wednesday, July 5, 1950, and I will read to 
you an excerpt from this article and see if you can't help this Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities which is trying to develop factual 
information to preserve this country under whose flag you have pro- 
tection. 

Mr. O'Dell. You are trying to preserve the segregation system, too, 
I see that. 

Mr. Arens. The article reads : 

TEXAS NMU OUSTS SEAMAN FOR CIRCULATING PEACE PLAN 

Galveston, Texas, July 4. — Hunter O'Dell, Negro seaman, who sailed during 
World War II, was expelled from the CIO National Maritime Union here for 
circulating peace petitions aboard the S. S. Simon Benson. 

This appeared in the Communist Daily Worker, as I say, July 5, 
1950. 

Kindly look at this article and see if this might refresh your recol- 
lection with respect to that particular incident. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, the first and 
fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

(Document marked "O'Dell Exhibit No. 3" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Arthur Eugene? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't recall the name. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read you a little testimony. Perhaps it might 
refresh your recollection. 

Arthur Eugene is a man who had been in the Communist Party. He 
likewise was a Negro, a patriotic Negro. He told about his activities 
in the Communist Party, about the efforts of the conspirators in the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2719 

party to use issues by which they could stir up race relations for Com- 
munist conspiratorial purposes. 

He told about how he resented it, and why patriotic people of your 
race would resent that type of thing. 

Then he continued, in the course of the interrogation which we had 
with him while he was under oath, and told about a particular Com- 
munist Party committee. 

Here is the question which I asked him when he was under oath, 
in 1957 : 

Moving up in the chronology of your activities in the party, do you recall in 
1949 whether or not a committee was established here in New Orleans to pro- 
test the conviction of the twelve Communist Party members who were convicted 
in New York City? 

Eugene's answer was : 

Yes, sir ; there were. 
Q. Who was on this committee? 

A. Steve Nelson, Bob Martin, Hunter Pitts O'Dell, Lee Brown. There were a 
number of others who participated in it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell this committee, while you are under oath, 
whether or not my reading of that testimony refreshes your recollec- 
tion with reference to your participation in that enterprise. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. O'Dell. No, it does not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you deny your participation in that enterprise ? 

Mr. O'Dell. I already answered the question. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the last principal outstanding ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer it, under the same grounds, the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution, 

Mr, Arens, I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Jackson, I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. But I have an 
observation I should like to make. 

I cannot help but reflect on the progress that has been made by 
individuals like Ralph Bunche, Marian Anderson, and Jackie Robin- 
son, The latter's testimony before this very committee was some of 
the best the committee has ever taken, and the fact has been estab- 
lished in abundant testimony that efforts to infiltrate a substantial 
segment of the Negro population of America by the Communist Party 
have fallen flat, 

I would just like to have that in the record on the testimony of 
members of the Negro race, who should know, and who were willing 
to testify as to what they had found out about the Communist Party, 

Mr. O'Dell. I would like to make a statement, too, since the state- 
ment 

Mr. Arens. The rules of this committee provide that any statement 
that you would like to submit to the committee should be submitted 
in advance of the hearing for consideration by the committee, to de- 
termine whether or not it would care to incorporate it in the record. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



2720 COMMUNIST activities in the south 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, on that point, let us read into the rec- 
ord at this time the provision of Eiile IX of the committee on state- 
ments : 

Any witness desiring to make a prepared or written statement for tlie record 
of the proceedings in executive or public sessions shall file a copy of such state- 
ment with the counsel of the Committee within a reasonable period of time in 
advance of the hearing at which the statement is to be presented. 

All such statements so received which are relevant and germane to the subject 
of the investigation may, upon approval, at the conclusion of the testimony of 
the witness, by a majority vote of the Committee or Subcommittee members 
present, be inserted in the official transcript of the proceedings. 

Mr. Willis. As a matter of fact — I may be wrong in this specific 
instance — but it is my understanding that witnesses who were sum- 
moned to appear here were given a copy of the rules, and in fairness, 
so they would know well in advance. 

Mr. O'Dell. I didn't receive a copy. All I want to do is make a 
statement in reply to Mr. Jackson's statement. I didn't receive a copy 
of that. If I was supposed to have, it was your obligation. 

Mr. Arens. It is a matter of routine. Whether or not it was for- 
gotten in this particular instance, I do not know. 

Mr. Chairman, if you please, sir, I respectfully request that the ex- 
hibits displayed to this witness be appropriately marked and incor- 
porated by ref eience in the record. 

Mr. Willis. So ordered. 

Mr. O'Dell. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that this be incorporated 
along with it, this statement that I have 

(Subcommittee members present, Representatives Willis and Jack- 
son.) 

(At this point a short recess was taken, after which the hearing 
was resumed.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

(Subcommittee members present. Representatives Willis and Jack- 
son.) 

Mr. Willis. A short while ago a witness was called, William Mat- 
thews, the young man who said he didn't have a lawyer, and counsel 
for our committee asked a member of the staff to contact the local bar 
and in order not to interrupt the hearings our colleague from Cali- 
fornia attended to the matter, and I am wondering if he has a report 
to make about a local member of the bar offering his or her services to 
this young man ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, immediately when the witness indi- 
cated that he was without counsel, we contacted the Legal Aid Society 
of Atlanta, explained the situation, and they very kindly consented 
in the best tradition of jurisprudence which gives everyone, no 
matter of what heinous crime he may stand accused, the right of 
counsel. The Legal Aid Society immediately volunteered to send 
counsel to the committee room to act as counsel for tlie witness. In 
the interim, however, the witness had made other arrangements for 
counsel. 

However, we do want to express the appreciation of the subcom- 
mittee and of the full committee to the Legal Aid Society for its will- 
ingness to help in this matter. 

Mr. Willis. And counsel was made available ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2721 

Mr. Jackson. Counsel was made available. I think she is still in 
the room. However, the witness has made interim arrangements for 
representation. 

Mr. Arens. May I call the witness, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Willis. William Matthews, kindly resume the witness stand. 

Mr. Arens. So there may be no question as to formalities of this 
particular proceeding, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest it might 
be well to again swear the witness. 

Mr. Willis. iVgain, yes. 

Kindly raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Matthews. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM MATTHEWS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Akens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Matthews. My name is William Matthews. I live at 2082 
Union Street, in Brooklyn, New York, and I work for a camera manu- 
facturer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities ? 

Mr. Matthews. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Matthews. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Forer. I am Joseph Forer of Washington, D. C. ; and on the 
question of representation of this witness, I should like the record 
to show that after the witness was informed by counsel for the com- 
mittee that the Atlanta Bar Association, whom the committee had 
requested to supply counsel, was apparently unable to do so, the wit- 
ness requested me to represent him. 

At his request, not at the request of the committee, I agreed to repre- 
sent him and was able to consult with him during recesses and while 
other witnesses were testifying. 

Thereafter, as I understand it, someone, a lawyer, came from the 
Legal Aid Society, and the witness informed the lawyer from the 
Legal Aid Society that he preferred to have me as his attorney. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Matthews. January 19, 1936, in Erwin, North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't get the name of the city. 

Mr. ]\L\tthews. Erwin. 

Mr. Arens. Would you accommodate me by giving me that date 
again ? I slipped up on that. 

Mr. Matthews. January 19, 1936. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your education, please. 

Mr. ALvTTHEWS. I completed eleventh grade in high school, that's 
all. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you 

Mr. Matthews. Tenth grade — beg your pardon. 



2722 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Aeens. When did you complete your high-school education ? 

Mr. Matthews. I am not sure, but I think it was around 1950, but 
then I started back for 3 months and I quit again. 

Mr. Arens. Beginning, we will say about 1950, give us the principal 
employments which you had. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer on my past employment on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly contend that if you told this commit- 
tee truthfully of the employments which you had since 1950, you would 
be supplying information which might be used against you in a crimi- 
nal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. It is possible. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any employments since 1950, since you 
completed your high-school work, concerning which you can give this 
committee information, without giving information which might be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I am willing to tell you my present employment but 
not to discuss my past employment. 

Mr. Arens. How long has your present employment endured ? 

Mr. Matthews. Approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer, on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment, about my past employment. 

Mr. Arens. Where was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. In what State were you employed immediately prior 
to your present employment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse on the same ground and also because it is 
irreverent. 

Mr. Arens. You mean irrelevant ? 

Mr. Matthews. Yes, sir. I am not very well educated, as you can 
see. 

Mr. FoRER. It is still irrelevant, no matter how you spell it. 

Mr. Arens. Young man, are you right now — you are only 22 years 
of age, aren't you ? 

Mr. Matthews. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are you right now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Matthews. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Matthews. I have not. 

Mr. Arens. You have never been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Matthews. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Penha ? 

Mr. Matthews. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you married ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2723 

Mr. Matthews. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Only for the purpose of identification, please, tell us 
your wife's name. 

Mr. IMatthews. Ella Matthews. 

Mr. Arens. Is it Ella Levine Matthews ? 

Mr. Matthews. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Only for the purpose of identification, tell us whether 
or not Ella Levine Matthews is the daughter of a man who works, or 
has worked in the recent past, for the Communist Daily Worker. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JMattheavs. I think that goes beyond identification. 

Mr. Arens. Could you, in your own words, tell us now how you deny 
Communist Party membership and yet invoke the provisions of the 
fifth amendment against self-incrimination on all employment which 
you have been engaged in since 1950, with the exception of your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Matthews. I invoke the fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last 8 years, been under 
Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Matthews. I have not, to the best of my knowledge. I don't 
know exactly what you mean by that. No one tells me what to do. I 
got my own mind. I do my own thinking and I am not a politician, 
and politics has got no part with me whatsoever. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever attempted to obtain employment in the 
textile industry ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a non-member Communist ? 

Mr. Matthews. I answered that already. 

Mr. FoRER. What is it? 

Mr. Arens. What type of work have you been engaged in, in this 
period from 1950 up until 1956 when you entered your present em- 
ployment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer questions about my past em- 
]iloyment. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the type of employment which you have been 
engaged in. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse for the same reason. 

Mr. Jackson. Was the employment legal or was it an illegal em- 
ployment? 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Young Commun- 
ist League or the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. Matthews. I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of an organization, to 
your certain knowledge, controlled by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Matthews. I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you Imow Jerome Van Camp ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



2724 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. :Matthews. I refuse to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Jerome Van Camp has been identified under oath as a 
hard-core member of the Communist Party. Has Jerome Van Camp 
been using you for Communist Party purposes ? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Matthews. Nobody uses me. 

Mr. Arens. When did you hist see Jerome Van Camp ? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know William Evans ? 

Mr. FoRER. Excuse me a second. 

( Counsel conferred with the witness. ) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. The fifth amendment, not relevant. 

Mr. Arens. Do you Imow Oscar Berland ? 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. All three of these men have been identified here under 
oath in these proceedings, in the course of the last day or so, as hard- 
core Communists. Do you have information respecting any of them 
or all of them ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IVIatthew^s. What do you mean information ? 

Mr. Arens. Do jou know them ? 

Mr. Matthews I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Are you in contact w^ith them ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Armando Penha ? 

Mr. IVIatthews. I do not. I told you I am not a Communist and 
I have never been a Communist and I never intend to be a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. We congratulate you on this assertion. 

Do you presently possess information respecting Communist Party 
activities of Fanny Licht ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IMatthews. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Fanny Licht ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy? 

Mr. Matthews. Same grounds as before stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know, or have you known, Junius Scales? 

Mr. Matthews. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as before 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes the 
staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2725 

Mr. Aeens. Excuse me just one moment. I would like to ask just 
one more question, Mr. Chairman. 

I asked you, Mr. Matthews, whether or not you knew a person by 
the name of Armando Fenha. 

Mr. Penha just stepped forward to remind me here that, in the 
course of his testimony a day or so ago, he stated that while he was 
in the Communist Party, he used the party name of Tom. 

Did you, or have you at any time, known a person in the Com- 
munist Party who used the code name of Tom ? 

Mr. Matthews. To the best of my memory, no. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that concludes the staff interrogation 
of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock to- 
morrow morning. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Jackson.) 

(Whereupon, at 4:10 p. m., Wednesday, July 30, 1958, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m. Thursday, July 31, 1958.) 



2! 14 54 — 58-- 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION AND ACTIVITIES IN THE 

SOUTH 



THURSDAY, JULY 31, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Atlanta, Ga. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 o'clock a. m. in the courtroom, Old Post Office 
Building, Atlanta, Georgia, Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Donald L. Jackson, of California. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and George 
Williams and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The Chair wishes to make this statement. 

Over the course of the last 2 days we have heard the testimony of 
many who have been identified by sworn testimony as Communists, 
whose ultimate objective is to bring about a Communist regime in 
America. 

This morning, the witness whom we shall hear has lived under Com- 
munist regime. He will tell of communism in action. Counsel has said 
frequently that the Communists masquerade under or behind humani- 
tarian issues. We will remove that mask this morning. 

This witness's complete identity cannot be revealed for reasons of 
security, but the committee has carefully checked his integrity and 
reliability, and we can vouch for him. Accordingly, there will be no 
pictures taken of this witness, and he will not reveal his name or exact 
location of his present residence, except to say that he is now a resi- 
dent in the Southland. 

Would you call the witness, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, one matter before the witness is sworn. 

Yesterday, it will be recalled, a witness appeared without counsel 
and was excused by the committee while arrangements could be made 
for counsel. He explained that he did not have resources to pay for 
counsel, and the committee undertook to obtain necessary legal coun- 
sel for him. 

He finally obtained the services of an attorney in the room who 
had represented other witnesses here. However, advertently or inad- 
vertently, the impression may have been left by an announcement 
made by his counsel, when the witness finally did take the stand, that 



2728 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE SOUTH 

the Atlanta Bar Association had been unable or unwillmg to repre- 
sent the witness, 

I should like to make it perfectly clear that the call that was made 
by the attache here with reference to obtaining counsel for the witness 
was not made to the Atlanta Bar Association, but was made to the 
Legal Aid Society. The Legal Aid Society was most cooperative ; and 
within a matter of a very few minutes, counsel was here from the 
Society for the purposes of representino- the witness. 

However, there should be no misunderstanding about the position 
of the committee vis-a-vis the Bar Association. I am coniident that 
had the Bar Association been contacted, they would have been very 
willing and very anxious, in the best traditions of the legal profession, 
to furnish counsel for the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly stand while the chairman administers 
an oath ? 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

The Witness. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Willis. Please talk slowly and address yourself to the mike 
so we can understand you. We understand that you have some diflBl- 
culty in expressing yourself in the English language, but take your 
time, and we will be glad to hear from you. 

TESTIMONY OF A HUNGARIAN EEFUGEE 

Mr. Arens. You are presently a resident of the Southland ? 

The Witness. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And how long have you been a resident of the South, 
here in the United States ? 

The Witness. About one and a half years. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

The Witness. I was born in Budapest, Hungary, in 1928, July 8. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a word, please, about your family, your 
mother and your father, principally with reference to your father's 
occupation. 

The Witness. My father was a doctor, a physician. He was a heart 
specialist, and we lived in Hungary, Budapest. My mother was just 
a housewife. I had a sister who is still in Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. In the latter part of 1944, or perhaps the early part of 
1945, would you detail for us any occurrences in your life of con- 
siderable consequence when you were then, as I believe, about 16 years 
of age and a resident in Budapest. 

The Witness. In 1945, in January, the Soviet Army occupied the 
half part of Budapest, and in about 3 weeks after the occupation of 
this part of the town, I and my father were captured by the NKVD, 
the Soviet Secret Police. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere did they take custody of you ? 

The Witness. They came to our apartment. 

Mr. Arens. And who in your family was in the apartment, in addi- 
tion to yourself and your father ? 

The Witness. There was my mother, my sister, and a housemaid. 
We had housemaids. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SOUTH 2729 

Mr. Akens. How old was your sister at the time ? 
The Witness. My sister was about 12 or 13. 

Mr. Arens. And where did the Soviet Secret Police take you when 
they captured you and took you into custody ? 

The Witness. They took me to the headquarters of the NKVD about 
20 miles out from Budapest. 

Mr. Arens. When you say NKVD, you mean the Soviet Secret 
Police ? 

The Witness. The Soviet Secret Police. 

Mr. Willis. You alone, or you and your father ? 

The Witness. I was with my father. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Had either you or your father engaged in any kind of 
activities which, in the most general sense, could be characterized as 
political activities or activities of public affairs of any character? 

The Witness. No, we were not. 

Mr. Arens. Now, just tell us in your own words what happened 
when you were taken to the NKVD headquarters in Budapest or 
outside of Budapest, I believe you said, some 20 miles. 

The Witness. First of all, they separated us. They separated me 
from my father and they put me in a separate room. Later on they 
started to interrog-ate me and my father. I don't know. Do you want 
to know about the interrogation ? 

Mr. Arens. Well, give us just the highlights of it, please. 

The Witness. First they interrogated me. They asked of me very 
usual questions, like where I was born, where I went to school, what 
education I have; and the second time they asked about my father, 
what did he do, and with what kind of people was he connected. 

They interrogated my father, too, but I had never the opportunity 
to ask my father what they asked him about. 

Mr. Arens. Were there other people who were likewise being inter- 
rogated or were captives of the Soviet Secret Police? 

The Witness. Yes, there were very many people, but I was sep- 
arated from them. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us in your own words what happened there at 
the Secret Police headquarters. 

The Witness. So after they interrogated us, I figured out that they 
wanted me to tell something, but I didn't know. They wanted me to 
tell that I am a spy against the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. They wanted you to tell that you were a spy against the 
Soviet Union ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you were just 16 years of age ? 

The Witness. I was 16 years old. 

Mr. Arens. Had you engaged in any type of activities of that 
character? 

The Witness. I never did. 

Mr. Arens. Had your father ? 

The Witness. My father had not, either. 

Mr, Arens. Go right ahead, please, sir. 

The Witness. I think they captured us because they thought that 
it miglit be that we could do some activity, because already the Com- 
munist Government took over in Hungary ; and maybe they thought 

29454—58 10 



2730 coMisruNisT activities est the south 

since we had quite a good life in Hungary, we would oppose this 
Soviet regime. 

Mr. Arens. Go ahead and tell us the incidents that transpired 
there at the Secret Police headquarters. 

The Witness. After a couple interrogations, a Soviet colonel came 
tome. 

Mr. Arens. A colonel, did you say ? 

The Witness. A colonel came to me, and he gave me exactly this 
question: "Do you know that you are a spy against the Soviet 
Union?" 

I told him, "No, I am not." And he was very angry. He was 
getting very angry, and he wanted that I sign a paper, but I didn't 
want to sign this paper, because I never was a spy and I didn't know 
anything about this whole thing. 

So from here they took us to another place in trucks. 

Mr. Arens. About how far away was it from the first place where 
you were interrogated ? 

The Witness. About 20 miles northeast. They took us the second 
time inside the town in Budapest, in the heart of the city. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Go right ahead, please, sir. 

The Witness. Here we were put in a house that was damaged from 
bombs. It was in February, and it was very cold, of course. A fel- 
low prisoner jumped out from the window, and of course he died on 
the street, and after this incident 

Mr. Arens. Why did he do that ? 

The Witness. Well, I think he knew already what will happen to 
him. He knew much more about the Communist system than we did. 

Mr. Arens. He knew more about what might be coming than you 
did? 

The Witness. Yes. I think that he was a smart fellow, that he 
jumped out. 

Mr. Arens. Smart that he killed himself, rather than subject him- 
self to the indignities and torture which you and your father sub- 
sequently endured ; is that correct ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir ; go right ahead, please. 

The Witness. After this incident we were put in a cellar of this 
house. In the cellar was water on the floor, and the conditions were 
just terrible. There were women and men together. There was no 
food and no washing utilities and no rest room. We were here about 
2 weeks. I and my father were never interrogated here. We were 
always separated. I was separated from rny father. Only from the 
door'l could see him, but I couldn't talk to him. 

From here we were taken to another place in Hungary about,^ I 
don't know, 60 miles from here ; and here we were interrogated again, 
but with much more Trotsky methods. Here I had to sign a paper, 
not a paper, well, a book about 40 pages. I don't know what was in 
there because it was everything in Russian, and at this time I didn't 
know anything about the Russian language, and they forced nie to 
sign this paper. The first time I didn't want to sign it, but I didn t 
know what was in it. Later, as they started to beat me— and of 
course we didn't get any water and we got no food 

Mr. Arens. How about sleep ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2731 

The Witness. As to sleep, we couldn't get sleep because we were so 
many people in a little room pressed. 

Mi". Arens. About how many people were in the room, and about 
what was the size of the room that you were in ? 

The Witness. There were about 30 to 50 people in a room like 
usually an apartment room here in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Go right ahead. You were telling 
about the signature you were about to affix to this document. 

Mr. Jackson. And obviously, no fifth amendment. 

The Witness. Yes, that is right. 

Yesterday I heard here the hearings that if the witness doesn't want 
to answer he just says, "I refuse to answer." This was quite fun for 
me, because such things are not in the Soviet Union. In the Soviet 
Union there is only one party, the Communist Party ; and there is not 
another party. Whether you want to or not, you have to be with the 
Communists. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. You were about to affix your signature 
to this document. 

The Witness. I signed this paper because they told me that "if you 
will not sign we will sign it for you," so that there was no reason not 
to sign it, and everytliing is lost. 

Mr. Arens. What happened next? 

The Witness. From here they took us to Austria, to Baden by 
Vienna. It is about 20 miles from Vienna. 

Mr. Arens. How did you go. By what mode? 

The Witness. With trucks, GMC American-made trucks. 

Mr. Arens. Was your father in your company ? 

The Witness. My father was in another truck. 

Mr. Arens. And how many people were in the truck with you ? 

The Witness. In one truck, there were about 30 people in one 
truck. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the weather at this time ? 

The Witness. The nature of the weather, it was quite cold. It was 
tarly springtime ; it was the first days of April. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir ; go right ahead. 

The Witness. In Baden by Vienna we were about 2 weeks, and here 
I was sentenced to 8 years prison with forced labor camp, and my 
father was sentenced at 15 years labor camp. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a trial ? 

The Witness. As they say, I had a trial. 

Mr. Arens. I did not understand you. 

The Witness. The Russians, the Soviets, said that I had a trial, 
but I don't call this a trial. In about 3 hours there were about 150 
men sentenced to different times. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have counsel, a lawyer representing you ? 

The Witness. No such a thing. 

Mr. Arens. Was this document which you signed presented to the 
forum before which you were sentenced ? 

The Witness. Yes, I think it was the judge who sentenced us to 8 
years, who had this paper; and I should add that all this trial was 
in the Russian language, and I didn't understand — none of us did un- 
derstand — the whole process what was going on. 



2732 coMMTusnsT activities in the south 

Mr. Arens. Did you know the contents of the document that you 
signed ? 

The Witness. No ; I did not know until now. 

Mr. Arens. You say that they beat you. How did they beat you? 
With what instruments ? 

The Witness. First the interrogator beat me with a piece of wood, 
and the second time he hit me witli tlie butt from tlie stove. 

Mr. Arens. You just concluded in the chronology of your testi- 
mony, the trial — such as it was — and the sentencing of yourself for 8 
years to a slave labor existence in various slave labor camps, and your 
father, j^ou said, 15 j^ears ; is that correct ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, just tell us the next thing that happened. 

The Witness. The next thing there arrived many railroad cars. 
They put us in railroad cars. These cars were for animals, not for 
men. 

Mr. Arens. How many were in the car in which they put you ? 

The Witness. There were about 50 men in 1 car. The cars were 
all locked, and it was already June at this time, and it was terribly hot 
inside. 

Mr. Arens. Was your father in the same car you were ? 

The Witness. No, my father was not in the same car. 

Mr. Arens. How many cars were there in the particular train in 
which you were incarcerated ? 

The Witness. If I tell 40 or 50, 1 do not lie. 

Mr. Arens. Forty or 50 cars ? 

The Witness. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did each car have approximately the same number of 
human beings in it ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed further, in the particular car in 
which you were, what was the percentage of Hungarians and what was 
the percentage of non-Hungarians who were being taken to the slave 
labor camps? 

The Witness. It was about 10 percent Hungarians. 

Mr. Arens. And who were the others ? 

The Witness. The others were Russians, Russian soldiers. 

Mr, Arens. And were there women, as well as men? 

The Witness. No ; the women were separated in the railroad cars. 

Mr. Arens. I mean, were there women in the train, as well as 
men? 

The Witness. Oh, yes, there were, but they were separated. 

Mr. Arens. They put the women in different cars ? 

TheAViTNESs. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were there children ? 

The Witness. No children — I didn't see any. 

Mr. Arens. What was the minimum age? You were then about 16? 

The Witness. Mostly they were about this same age as I was. 

Mr. Arens. Most of them were young people ? 

The Witness. Yes, 16, 15, 17, 20. Most of them were young people. 

Mr. Arens. They put you in this railroad car with about 50 other 
people and locked the car ; is that correct? 

The Witness. Yes. 



coMMinsnsT activities in the south 2733 

Mr. Arens. I do not want to appear at all immodest, but were there 
any comfort facilities within the railroad car ? 

The Witness. There was a hole made in the car, and this was it. 

Mr. Arens. In the floor of the car 'i 

The Witness. In the floor of the car, and this was the restroom for 
us people. 

Mr. Arens. And were there any water- fountain arrangements in the 
car? 

The Witness. No, there was not. We would get water once a day, 
and they would just put in a bucket of water, and they gave us no 
jars or anything with which we could drink, and so this water was all 
spoiled, and nobody could drink any. 

Mr. Arens. Were there arrangements where you could sleep, cots 
or bedding of any kind ? 

The Witness. You could sleep on your clothes ; that was all — on the 
floor. 

Mr. Arens. Were there guards with weapons to insure the security 
of the custody ? 

The Witness. Inside the railroad car, of course, there was not, be- 
cause it was locked. There were two guards on each car with machine- 
gun on the top. 

Mr. Arens. Were these Russian soldiers ? 

The Witness. Not Russian — Soviet. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in that car until you were out again 
on terra firma, out on the soil ? 

The Witness. Pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in that railroad car ? 

The Witness. About 3 weeks, 2i/^ to 3 weeks. 

Mr. Arens. You were not outside that railroad car in 3 weeks? 

The Witness. No ; we were not. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about the food arrangements. 

The Witness. We got once a day a spoonful of canned meat. This 
was the meat, the same kind that you can get here, even in America. 
American canned meat it was. It was American-made meat. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any particular incident in transit in this 3- 
week period that comes to your mind that you would like to recount? 

The Witness. We suffered always in that we were very thirsty al- 
ways. There was not enough water because it was terribly hot, because 
it was June — the middle of June — and I know that in the other rail- 
road cars many people died ; but in our railroad car, fortunately, only 
1 died, and he died only in the last day when we arrived to our target. 

Mr. Arens. What happened when the people who were herded in 
these railroad cars en route to the slave labor camps died ? Did they 
have any ceremony about disposing of them ? 

The Witness. The ceremony was that they put them in the earth, 
and that was the whole sentiment and nothing else. 

Mr. Arens. Were there any other incidents of consequence that oc- 
curred in the particular car in which you were being taken to slave 
labor camps? 

The Witness. Well, we arrived in Odessa. This is on the shore near 
the Black Sea, which is already the Soviet Union. When we arrived 
we had to walk about 6 miles to the prison. We were so weak that it 



2734 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

was very difficult for us to walk. Finally we arrived in the prison, and 
I saw here my father, the last time in my life. 

Mr. Arens. Did you visit with him ? 

The Witness. Yes. For 1 hour we came together in a room, be- 
cause there was a mixup there. They had many people when all these 
railroad cars arrived, and they didn't know where to put all these 
people. They just put us all in a couple rooms, and here I met my 
father. 

Mr. Arens. May I just inquire : In this prison in Odessa, this wa.=? 
not a slave-labor camp you first went to, was it ? 

The Witness. Yes, it was not ; this was the first station. 

Mr. Arens. This was what we might call a reception station, in 
Odessa ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us just a word about the physical descrip- 
tion of this reception station ? 

The Witness. The first impression that you see from outside, it is i\ 
usual prison. From inside I never saw another prison because I never 
was a criminal. Here, I saw the first prison from the inside ; it was 
very overcrowded. In a room there were about 100, 150 to 200 people 
in 1 room, and we were here about 2 weeks. 

Mr. Arens. Were there women as well as men there ? 

The Witness. Yes, but we were always separated from the women, 
never in one room with the women. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of the prisoners in this reception cen- 
ter were Hungarians ? 

The Witness. The same, about, oh, in all this prison I think there 
may be 5 percent only. 

Mr. Arens. And who were the others ? 

The Witness. The others were, 90 percent were, Russians ; and there 
were very few Austrians ; there weren't any Germans this time, because 
they were not in Germany at this time. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. You say you were there for just a short 
time? 

The Witness. About 2 weeks. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what transpired next. 

The Witness. From here I saw my father the last time, and I was 
put again in a railroad car, and again it was locked. 

Mr. Arens. About the same facilities as before ? 

The Witness. Yes, the same thing; and we went 3 days to Nikolaev. 
This is in the Soviet Union, of course, too, south from ;^Ioscow. This 
was the first so-called camp that I saw in my life. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, first of all, what the camp looked like, and 
secondly, what happened and how long you were there. 

The Witness. The camp looked like — it was surrounded with wires, 
I think with electric wires. I didn't touch it, of course. It was sur- 
rounded with electric wires, and inside there were about 1,200 people. 
We were working in a shipyard. We had to walk about 10 miles each 
way, 10 miles one way and 10 miles back. Our food was miserable. 
We got about one-half pound of bread a day, and soup once a day, 
and in the morning we got coffee. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do in this first slave-labor camp in which 
you were incarcerated ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2735 

The Witness. I did many things. I worked. I carried bricks. I 
pushed pushcarts, and construction work. 

Mr. Arens. Did the women work, as well as the men ? 
The Witness. Yes; the women worked the same way as the men. 
Mr. Arens. To what type of work were the women assigned ? 
The Witness. Construction work, the same as I — carried the bricks, 
pushed pushcart, beat with the hammers, and so on. 

Mr. Arens. How did your fellow prisoners fare under this regime? 
The Witness. I didn't understand. 
Mr. Arens. How did they get along ? How did they do ? 
The Witness. Well, for the most of us, this was the first camp ; and 
we thought that really, if we would work, then our food will be better, 
and everybody of us tried to work the best, tried to do the best what he 
could. But later on when we saw that it is the same thing, whether 
you work or don't work, of course, everybody didn't want to work 
always. 

Mr. Arens. What would happen if a person didn't work quite hard 
enough ? 

The Witness. Just as I told; they would drive him to work, but 
they didn't beat him. There was no beatings. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Then what was the next occurrence ? 
The Witness. I was here in this camp about 6 weeks. 
Mr. Willis. Did you get paid for that work ? 

The Witness. No, sir. In slave-labor camps, nobody gets in the 
Soviet Union paid. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever learn how many people are presently, or 
were a year and a half ago when you were over there, in slave-labor 
camps in the Soviet Union ? 

The Witness. When I came home from the Soviet Union, this time 
Khrushchev took over the Government, and this time there were 
about 30 million, I think. 

Mr. Arens. 30 million in about the same status as you were? 
The Witness. Yes. 
Mr. Arens. Political prisoners? 
The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir let us revert to your theme. 
The Witness. Later — I should add this too — that later, when 
Khrushchev came to the Government he freed about 10 million, I 
am sure. 

Mr. Arens. So there would be, as of now, a rough estimate of about 
20 million in these slave-labor camps ? 
The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Let us proceed, if you please. You told us about this 
first slave-labor camp you were in and this construction work. You 
were there how long — about 6 weeks ? 
The Witness. I was there about 6 weeks. 
]Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

The Witness. From here we shipped in a ship to Gherson. This is 
in Ukraine. This was a farm camp. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your experiences, if any of particular con- 
sequence, on this ship. 

The Witness. The same thing like in the railroad cars, overcrowded 
ship. It took about one and a half days to go to our target. 



2736 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the weather like ? 

The Witness. The weather was summertime, hot. There was no 
water inside, of course. 

Mr. Arens. How many people were in the ship ? 

The Witness. This I don't know, I didn't count them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have bunks and little cabins to sleep in, or other 
facilities ? 

The Witness. No; just inside, under the deck of the ship. 

Mr. Arens. Down in the hold, is that it ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How about your food on this ship ? 

The Witness. Here we got food twice a day, canned beans. 

Mr. Arens. Were you likewise under the guns of the Soviet soldiers ? 

The Witness. The soldiers were not inside; they were outside. 
They were on the deck of the ship, 

Mr. Arens. And the slave laborers were down in the hold ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did any of the people perish in this process ? 

The Witness. Perish? 

Mr. Arens. Did they die, any of them ? 

The Witness. No ; I don't think so. 

Mr. Arens. Not on the ship ? 

The Witness. Not on this ship. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir; what happened after the ship arrived 
at its destination ? 

The Witness. We arrived in a farm camp. 

Mr. Arens. A farm camp ? 

The Witness. A farm camp, yes. Gherson, in Ukraine. 

Mr. Arens. A farm camp in the Ukraine ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that, please, sir. 

The Witness. In this camp was, of course, no electricity, no water. 
Our food was what we could find on the fields. In this field were 
grown tomatoes, pickles, cabbages, and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. "V\niat did you do on this farm camp ? 

The Witness. I worked. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat type of work ? 

The Witness. I don't know the right expression for this in English. 

Mr. Arens. Did you do farm work ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Farm labor work ? 

The Witness. Yes, just farm labor work, like here, but not with 
f factors, of course not. 

Mr. Arens. Hand tools? 

The Witness. Just hand tools, yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many people were in this slave-labor camp ? 

The Witness. In this camp, where I was, were about 500 people. 

Mr. Arens. Were women there, as well as men ? 

The Witness. Yes, there were women there, too. 

Mr. Arens. And did they do the handwork, too ? 

The Witness. Yes, of course, they did the same. 

Mr. Arens. What were the living conditions there ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2737 

The Witness. I was in this camp 11 months. I didn't change my 
underwear not once. We were very dirty and we had no opportunity 
to wash ourselves, and it was just terrible. 

Mr. Arens. Were most of the people in this camp likewise prison- 
ers, likewise Eussians ? 

The Witness. Yes ; mostly Ukrainians. They were mostly Ukrain- 
ian people. 

Mr. Arens. You, of course, liad an opportunity to talk with them 
and find out why they were there, did you not ? 

The Witness. This time I didn't know too well Russian, although 
I knew some, because--! don't know — I learned quite quickly the lan- 
guage. These Ukrainian people vrere all the same people as we were. 
They were captured from home. That is why, because the Commu- 
nists — the Stalin regime thought that they would be against Commu- 
nist system in the Ukraine. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly tell us what happened next, of consequence, 
in the sequence of your imprisonment. 

The Witness. After 11 months I was taken to another collection 
prison, to Dniepropetrovsk. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that, in that general area ? 

The Witness. Dniepropetrovsk is in the Ukraine, too ; it is by the 
River Dnieper. 

]\fr. Arens. And you went by the same mode, in a railroad car ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Crowded with other people ? 

The Witness. Yes, same thing. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

The Witness. Here we were examined by doctors; and after this 
examination, they separated the young and the healthy men and they 
put all of us in a railroad car again and they told us that we would be 
shipped to Siberia. 

jNIr. Arens. Were you one of the persons who was selected to 2:0 to 
Siberia? 

The Witness. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Arens. And that was because you were relatively healthy, is 
that correct ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You had no choice in the matter ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you interrogated in any respect ? 

The Witness. No, I was not interrogated. 

Mr. Arens. 'Wlien you said "Yes" a minute ago, you meant "No," 
did you not ? You weren't consulted as to whether or not you would 
go to work in Siberia ? 

The Witness. Of course they didn't ask me. Just after the ex- 
amination they saw that I am comparatively healthy and they took me. 

Mr. Arens. Then were you put in railroad cars again to be shipped 
to Siberia? 

The Witness. In these railroad cars we were already not so many 
people inside. We were about 25 to 30. 

Mr. Arens. With about the same facilities? 

The Witness. Yes, but the food was much better. We got, I think, 
twice or three times a day food, and we got water enough. We got jars, 



2738 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

SO we were not suffering; we were not thirsty and we were not so 
much hungry. 

]Mr. xIeens. All right, sir. Now, kindly proceed. Just how long 
did it take you to get to Siberia in this railroad car ? 

The Witness. Thistookexactly 31 days. 

Mr. Arens. Were you out of the car at any time in the 31 days ? 

The Witness. No, we were not. We were locked in all the time. 

Mr. Arens. What was the weather condition ? 

The Witness. Fortunately, this was in November and fortunately 
it was not so cold in the first part of the transportation. Only the 
next 3 days was quite cold, and they gave us an oven in the railroad 
car. 

Mr. Arens. They gave you an oven ? 

The Witness. An oven, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did they give you warm clothing ? 

The Witness. What, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Did they give you warm clothing ? 

The Y/itness. No; they didn't give us. They gave us wood. 

Mr. Arens. They gave you wood to burn in the stove to keep warm 
in the railroad car ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were there other cars in this train with prisoners in 
them enroute to Siberia ? 

The Witness. Yes, of course, about 40 or 50 cars. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what occurred when you arrived in Siberia. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. As to these cars, were there windows in the cars? 

The Witness. These cars were made for animal transportation, and 
there were 4 little windows on the top of the car. It was very high. 
We couldn't look out from that. 

Mr. Jackson. Air came through there for ventilation ? 

The Witness. Yes ; that is true. 

Mr. Willis. Didn't they let you out now and then to let you walk 
around, to exercise, to limber up ? 

The Witness. No. For 31 days it was quite difficult. It is not so 
easy to take so many railroad cars through whole Russia, so that 
nobody can see. We were always moving only in the night, and in 
the daytim.e we were on a sidetrack somewhere in the railroad station. 

Mr. Willis. So far as the people were concerned, if there were, 
let us say, an American tourist who happened to be around the rail- 
road track when it went by, nobody would know who was in those 
cars? 

The Witness. Nobody would know, nobody would know. From 
the outside it looks like animals are inside the cars. But we met in 
many stations people in Siberia, who knew that inside these cars are 
people; and everywhere we could see only sympathy from these peo- 
ple ; and they gave us food. 

They dropped through this little window food and they gave us 
good words; and I can tell you, nowhere could I see anything but 
sympathy from these people. We got always sympathy from these 
people. 

Mr. Arens. That is, the Russian people, by and large, who were 
the victims of the regime ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2739 

The "Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Now you have arrived at this point of 
destination in Siberia. 

The Witness. We have arrived at Bukhta Nakhodka, which is the 
name. It is about 70 miles from Vladivostok. It is on the shore from 
the sea, and in this big receiving camp was already about 40 thousand 
people. 

Mr. Arens. T^^iat was the nature of this camp, just a receiving 
camp? 

The Witness. Yes, just a receiving camp. 

Mr. Arens. A reception center ? 

The Witness. A reception center. 

Mr. Aren. Were there women, as well as men ? 

The Witness. Yes ; there were women. There was no work in there. 

Mr. Arens. No work in that camp ? 

The Witness. No. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat happened next, please? 

The Witness. Of course, in this camp were terrible conditions: 
again no water, very little food, and there happened here many funny 
things in this camp. I can give you a little episode. Once there was 
a man standing beside the wire fence of the camp and he was looking to 
the tower where a Russian soldier watched us with a machinegun, and 
later this man recognized that this soldier was his son. 

Mr. Arens. The man recognized that the man who was holding the 
machinegun was his own son ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. 'What happened then ? 

The Witness. Of course there was a big scandal, and this soldier 
was taken away. I don't know what happened to him, 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in this reception center in Siberia ? 

The Witness. In this reception center I was about 2 weeks. We 
were loaded in a ship. I should tell that the ship was American. 

Mr. Arens. You were loaded in an American ship ? 

The Witness. Yes, but with Eussian letters on it. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir ; then what happened ? 

The Witness. We were loaded, about 3,000 or 4,000 men in this 
ship, and the conditions were terrible inside. 

Mr. x\rens. This was an American-made ship but it was manned by 
Russians. It must have been some of the Lend-Lease. 

The Witness. Yes, exactly. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Three or four thousand people were in 
that ship ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And what was the weather like ? 

The Witness. The weather was already cold. 

Mr. Arens. How cold ? 

The Witness. It was wintertime. Here on this shore it was about 
freezing temperature; but later, when we got out in the ocean, it 
was about 25 or 30 degrees below zero Centigrade. I don't know how 
much it is Fahrenheit. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have nice warm clothing to make the journey? 

The Witness. Nobody gave us any clothes. We had just what we 
had from home. 



2740 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Arens. Wliat were your accormnodations on the ship ? 

The Witness. We were inside the ship and we had nothing— if 
somebody wanted to go to the rest room he had to go upstairs to the 
deck, on the deck on the ship. 

Mr. Arens. There was no rest room ? 

The Witness. Inside the ship there was not. 

Mr. Arens. And where were these several thousand people kept in 
the ship ? 

The Witness. Inside the ship, under the deck. 

Mr. Arens. Down in the hold ? 

The Witness, Down in the hold. 

Mr. Arens. What were the conditions there ? 

The Witness. There were many, many people downstairs, so that 
we couldn't move. 

Mr. Arens. Did anybody die ? 

The Witness. Oh, they died ; many, many people during this trip. 

Mr. Arens. Many died ? 

The Witness. This trip took about 6 days. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat did they do when they died ? 

The Witness. These people who died, the Soviet soldiers dropped 
them just overboard in the ocean; they didn't identify who it was. 
Just they dropped them in the sea, in the ocean, in the water. 

Mr. Arens. Now, at the end of the 6 days' journey in this ship, 
what happened ? 

The Witness. I should add this, too, that during the 6 days I didn't 
drink any water, not one drop of water ; and that is why I didn't eat 
anything, not only I, but many of the other prisoners. 

Mr. Arens. Was that because you didn't have the water available ? 

The Witness. Because it was so miserably organized, this whole 
thing, that you can't give for every man a jar. They give buckets 
of water inside and you — when you get over 3,000 men, everybody 
wants to drink and the water was spilled out and nobody could drink 
anything. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

The Witness. And they gave us salt fish so we were terribly thirsty 
and exhausted, terribly. We arrived on the sixth day at Magadan, 
which is a nice little town. It is right across from Alaska, the same 
line. 

Mr. Arens. Up in Siberia, just across from Alaska ? 

The Witness, Yes. 

Mr, Arens, What happened there ? 

The Witness, When we arrived, tliere was already snow there, and 
there was big snow and it was very, very cold. Our clothes were wet 
inside from the transportation, and all the clothes were frozen on 
us, and we were so terribly thirsty that we ate snow all the way. We 
had to walk about 10 miles to our receiving camp and we ate snow dur- 
ing the way because we were so terribly dried out. 

Mr. Arens. How many people were there in this particular center 
where you had been taken ? 

The Witness. AVhen we arrived at this center there were very few 
people, only the three thoiisand or four thousand people that was 
on our ship. 

Mr. Arens. Were there women, as well as men ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2741 

The Witness. Yes, sir ; there were women, as well as men ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the camp that you were then lodged in and 
what did you do there ? 

The Witness. This was a receiving camp, too; and here the first 
time they gave us brand-neAV clothes, cotton clothes, underwear, shoes, 
and they told us to keep these clothes, because we will not get any 
more. 

From here they selected people for work in the coal mines, gold 
mines, and lead mines. 

Mr. Arens. Were these gold mines, coal mines, and lead mines in 
the immediate vicinity ? 

The Witness. No, they were not. They were about a thousand, 
five hundred miles radius from this camp. 

]Mr. Arens. Were you selected to work in one of these places? 

The Witness. No, fortunately I was not. I w^as very weak and I 
was already very sick. They put me in the hospital. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question here? 

You say you were sick and you were weak. What, do you recall, was 
your weight when you were taken as a boy in Budapest? 

The Witness. Pardon ? 

Mr. Jackson. How heavy were you ? 

The Witness. When I was taken ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

The Witness. From home ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

The Witness. I was about 60 kilograms which is about 130-140 
pounds. 

Mr. Jackson. It is hard to relate it because you were growing 
during that period. But how much did you weigh when you were 
at this last camp ? 

The Witness. I was 40 kilograms, which is about 80 pounds, 90 
pounds, I guess. 

Mr. Jackson. Down from 130 pounds as a boy of sixteen, to about 
80 or 90 pounds ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr, Jackson. You were how old at this time ? 

The Witness. This was all in 194G. I was sixteen and a half, 
seventeen years. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank vou. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. What happened next with reference 
to yourself ? 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask one question at this pont ? Did you hear 
from home or write to your people during this time ? 

The Witness. No, I had no opportunity to hear from anybody at 
home, and not only I, but even the Russian people who were living 
in Russia, didn't get any letters from their relatives, and the post was 
not working at this time in Russia. 

Mr. Arens. What happened to your father ? 

The Witness. My father died in Odessa in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. You learned that subsequently ? 

The Witness. I learned that from another Hungarian fellow who 
saw him die. 

Mr. Jackson. He was in a camp at the time he died ? 



2742 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

The Witness. Yes, he was in this prison in Odessa. It was over 
there. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly tell us, if you please, the next significant 
occurrence. You have found yourself now in this reception center 
again, where you told us they were selecting people to work in these 
mines. 

The Witness. Yes, I was. They put me in a hospital. The hos- 
pital was comparatively clean. There was enough water. We were 
never thirsty in the hospital. I was here about one month, and they 
shipped me to another hospital about 400 miles from this place, from 
Magadan, 400 miles north. 

Mr. Arens. Did they operate on you in the hospital ? 

The Witness. Not in this hospital. They operated on me where 
they shipped me. 

Mr. Arens. That was because of the injury that was inflicted on 
you en route in the ship to the place, was it not ? 

The Witness. Yes, it was ; I had a bad back injury. In 1949 a fel- 
low German prisoner operated on me, and I can thank him for my 
life, because I would have died, I am sure. 

Mr. Jackson. You say a fellow prisoner operated ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in the hospital then ? 

The Witness. I was lucky, because I was in this hospital about 
until 1950. I could get a job in this hospital. 

Mr. Arens. You mean as a prisoner ? 

The Witness. As a prisoner. 

Mr. Arens. Assigned there ? 

The Witness. Yes. This hospital was specially for the prisoners. 

Mr. Arens. Your father was a medical doctor ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You had a rudimentary knowledge of certain phases of 
medicine? 

The Witness. Yes, and they were very short in medical personnel 
in this time, and I worked in this hospital in the pharmacy, and so 
I had here a better life, much better life, than the other prisoners had. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see the other prisoners as they came and went 
to the mines ? 

The Witness. Here I had the opportunity to see this terrible injus- 
tice and terrible thing what was going on in this time in the Soviet 
slave-labor camps. The people were exhausted. They died, many, 
many hundred thousand people in these camps. The roads over there 
were built on the bones of these poor people, and nobody cared about 
this. 

Mr. Arens. Did they have any uranium mines over there ? 

The Witness, I don't know this exactly, whether it was or not. 
After 1950 I was shipped to a mine. It was called a lead mine, but 
everybody knew that this is not lead, because it was so heavy, the 
stuff was, that we thought it was uranium, I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. Did they fly it out of there in special planes ? 

The Witness. Yes. This compound right away they took in air- 
planes and they shipped it to inside Russia, I don't know where. 

Mr. Arens. Was it about 1950 that you were out of the hospital 
and in this mine ? 



COROIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2743 

The Witness. Yes, it was in 1950. 

Mr. Aeens. And where did you work in the mine, where was the 
mine ? 

The Witness. I worked inside that lead mine with very primitive 
tools, and everything was made with hands, no special mine equip- 
ment. This time they had not. Now they have. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do in the mines ? 

The Witness. I pushed pushcarts and shoveled this compound. 
Later on I was again lucky. They found out that I understood some 
from medicine and they sent me in a forest to take care of some 
prisoners who were working over there in this forest. 

Mr, Arens. They sent you there as a type of medical practitioner, is 
that correct ? 

The Witness. Yes. First I had to work in this forest to cut woods, 
and to do the same job as the others did. But later on they found out 
that I understood some from this medicine, and I took care of these 
prisoners for the ill and for the sick there. 

Mr. Aeens. Did the work in the forest follow your work in the 
mines ? Was that the next slave-labor camp you were in ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work in the mines ? 

The Witness. In the mines, I would say 4 months, I think, some- 
thing like that. 

Mr. Arens. How long after that did you work in the forest? 

The Witness. In the forest I worked until 1952, and from here I 
was freed. 

Mr. Arens. You had served your 8 years, is that correct ? 

The Witness. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, when you were freed, what happened ? 

The Witness. When I was freed, they put me in a little town — 
you can call it a town or a village, I don't know — there were a couple 
houses over there and it was a big factory, and they told me that I 
would have to work here and it is not allowed for me to go anywhere 
from this place. 

Mr. Arens. This was still in Siberia ? 

The Witness. Of course — in Siberia. 

Mr. Arens. You had served your 8 years and you were free from 
the slave-labor camp ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. But sent to a factory in Siberia to work ? 

The Witness. Yes. About 200 miles from this camp where I was. 

Mr. Arens. And how long did you work in this factory ? 

The Witness. In this factory I worked until 1955. Until 1955, 
May. 

Mr. Arens. And you were paid in the factory a small sum, were 
you not ? 

The Witness. Yes, I was paid here. Here I got the same salary as 
the other Russians, so-called free Russians. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a word about that salary. Wliat is 
the nature of the pay that they got in this factory ? 

The Witness. I should add this : that everbody who is working in 
the High North in High Siberia gets a higher salary like inside Russia, 
and so I got for a starting salary 880 rubles. 



2744 coiMivruNiST activities in the south 

Mr. Arens. What is that in American money, roughly speaking? 

The Witness. This is very hard to translate into Hungarian 
money. 

INIr. Arens. In American money. 

The Witness. For 800 rubles you could buy, let's see, you could buy 
a no-good suit. 

Mr. Arens. And that 800 rubles was for working how long ? 

The Witness. For 1 month. 

Mr. Arens. For 1 month you got 800 rubles ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. With this you could buy a no-good suit ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How much food would that 800 rubles a month give 
you? 

The Witness. Two pounds of butter, cost 30 rubles — 32 rubles was 
the price. 

Mr. Arens. 32 rubles for 2 pounds of butter ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was your 800 rubles that you received for your labor 
in this factory adequate to maintain yourself ? 

The Witness. It was exactly enough that took care of food and the 
apartment. 

Mr. Arens. Could you leave the community to which you were 
assigned ? 

The Witness. No, I could not. If I wanted to leave I had to ask 
the commandant from this place, and to ask him that he allows me 
to leave this place. 

Mr. Arens. Were there guards around the community ? 

The Witness. No, there were not. Of course, in this community 
there were other labor camps, but I was not in the labor camps, and 
the guards didn't watch me. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in this community, working in this 
factory to which you were assigned ? 

The Witness. I told you — about two and a half years. I worked 
here in a tractor factory. They made this tractor. It is an exact 
copy from the tractors we are using here in the United States, this 
particular tractor. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us when it was that you were permitted to 
leave the factory community to return to your homeland. 

The Witness. I wrote many times to the Soviet Supreme Court 
that I wanted to go home; that now I served my 8 years, or already 
it was 10, and I didn't know anything about my relatives in Hungary. 
I couldn't get any letter from them, and I wrote them many times. I 
should add this, too, that in these times Stalin died already. It was 
Khrushchev in the government, and I wrote many times to the supreme 
court, and they didn't answer me never. Once I got a letter from the 
Hungarian Embassy in Moscow. In it they sent all of my papers to 
Budapest, Hungary, to manage my transportation to Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. You were saving money from these 800 rubles in order 
to pay your transportation back when that day would arrive? 

The Witness. Yes ; I knew that my transportation will not be paid, 
because in Eussia they don't pay that, and I had to save money for 
my transportation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2745 

Mr. Arens. What year was this that you were finally released from 
this city or this community ? 

The Witness. 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I suggest, Mr. Chairman, if it is agreeable with 
yourself and the committee, it will be well to give the witness a few 
moments rest ; and then we will resume, if you please, Mr. Chairman, 
with his experiences in the Hungarian revolution. 

Mr. Willis. I notice that someone in the audience has a camera. 
I know there is no evil motive behind it, but I caution you no pictures 
are to be taken. 

Mr. Willis. We will stand in recess for a few moments. 

(Subcommitee members present: Representatives Willis and Jack- 
son.) 

(At this point a short recess was taken, after which the hearing was 
resumed.) 

( Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis and Jack- 
son.) 

Mr. Willis. I want to repeat the admonition, sincerely given: 
Please, no pictures. You can see for yourself the reason we make this 
request of all members of the press and all our guests in the audience. 
If a flash bulb or anything is exhibited, I will have to ask the marshal 
to retire anyone who does that. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Just before the recess you had told us, in essence, that 
you concluded a period of service of some 8 years in slave-labor camps 
and a period of, I believe, 2 years 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. — in which you were assigned to a factory in Siberia ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And that you were able to eke out of your wages in 
the factory sufficient sums to pay your transportation back to your 
native Hungary, to Budapest ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, if it is agreeable with you in the sequence of 
your testimony, that you resume by telling us what transpired im- 
mediately upon your arrival at Budapest ? 

Mr. Willis. What year are we in now ? 

The Witness. We are in 1955, in June. 

Mr. Willis. And you left Hungary when ? 

The Witness. 1945, February. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

The Witness. I arrived home. My mother didn't know about me, 
anything, during these 10 years, only that I was in Moscow. I was 
in Moscow about 9 days and from Moscow I have sent my mother a 
telegram that I am alive and I will be home soon. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me just a moment. I don't like to disrupt the 
theme of your testimony. You say you were in Moscow 9 days. That 
is, en route back to Budapest ? 

The Witness. Yes, during the trip. 

Mr. Arens. Was there anything of significance that crossed your 
mind, or anything of significance when you visited Moscow on your 
way back ? 

29454—58 11 



2746 cojMJvruNiST activities in the south 

The Witness. Yes, I had opportunity to look around in this town. 
From the outside, Moscow is a quite nice town, clean, wide streets; 
but if you will look from inside, the houses and the living conditions, 
the people, this is just terrible. Here in the United States the Ameri- 
can people are used to lights; they are living in large apartments with 
bathrooms, with television, and with cars. I must tell you that this 
is not in Eussia. They are way behind the United States, I think if 
I tell 50 years, I will tell the truth, in these living conditions. Of 
course, maybe they have Sputnik but I think this is another question. 

Mr. Arens. Then you arrived in Budapest. Kindly resume the 
theme of your testimony at that point, please. 

The Witness. "VA^ien I arrived home I couldn't find a job. First of 
all, the people in Hungary were very sympathetic to me, but the bosses 
from all these factories and working places were afraid to hire me 
because I was for 10 years in the slave-labor camps. 

Mr. Arens. Your mother and another relative were there in Buda- 
pest when you arrived ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. Still living there ? 

The Witness. Yes, still living in the same apartment. They didn't 
bother her never. 

So I drove a truck. I drove a truck about one and a half years, 
until the Hungarian revolution broke out. I worked 16 hours a day, 
and the wages translate in American money is about one pack of cig- 
arettes an hour. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if you could state that again. I don't think it 
was very distinct for our reporter. 

The Witness. The wages that I could earn as a truck driver, to 
translate in American money, was about one pack of cigarettes in an 
hour. 

Mr. Arens. That would be equivalent to about twenty-five cents an 
hour in American money, apparently. 

The Witness. Just about. I got 3 forints an hour. For 3 f orints 
you could get a pack of cigarettes. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead, please, sir. 

The Witness. I worked as a truck driver until 1956, October the 
23d, when the Hungarian revolution broke out against the Soviet 
suppression. 

Mr. Arens. Can you keep your voice up just a little, please ? 

The Witness. I worked until 1956, October the 23d, until the Hun- 
garian revolution broke out. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us about that now, from the standpoint of 
your own experiences. 

The Witness. I worked in the nightshif t on this date when the rev- 
olution broke out, and I didn't know anything about the revolution 
or what was going on. I knew that there was a demonstration in the 
streets, but I didn't know anything about that because I was working; 
and on the night of October 23, 1 wandered across the bridge through 
the River Danube, and the Hungarian Freedom Fighters stopped me 
and they wanted to take away my truck because they needed it. I 
didn't give it to them. They told me, "All right then, come you with 
us." 

Mr. Willis. They said what? 



COMMUNISa? ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2747 

The Witness. Said, "If you don't want to give us the truck," they 
told me, "then go fight with us," with the Freedom Fighters. 

I told them "All right," and they sent me to a factory which is the 
biggest factory in Hungary. This is right in Budapest. 

Mr. Willis. You mean the Freedom Fighters sent you there? 

The Witness. Yes — with the truck, they sent me. They sent me in 
this region where I was living, where there are the workers from this 
big industry center, and these workers were already waiting in trucks. 
There were already many trucks over there, and we were carrying all 
these workers inside the town in Budapest. I made several trips back 
and forth, and I don't know how many I brought, about 150 people. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please raise your voice a little? We are 
having some difficulty hearing you. 

The Witness. I brought about 150 people to inside the town. When 
I brought them in, there was already shooting in Budapest. They were 
already there. The Russians came in; and after short fighting, the 
Russians went out from Budapest, because they had, I think, quite a 
few troubles with their garrison over there. They didn't want to fight. 
I saw myself — I saw a tank division of about 40 or 50 tanks who didn't 
want to fire on the Hungarian Freedom Fighters. And of course, 
these tanks were all taken out from Budapest. 

Mr. Arens. I want to be sure the record is clear on this. Are you 
saying, in essence, that the Russians, after the first volleys were 
fired 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. — retired their troops because a number of their troops 
and a nmnber of the tank conunanders did not want to fire against the 
helpless Hungarians ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is that correct ? 

The Witness. Not helpless Hungarians. They sympathized with 
the Hungarians. This was the garrison that was stationed in Hun- 
gary. 

Mr. Arens. The garrison of Russian troops in Hungary was sym- 
pathetic to the Hungarian people ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Proceed, if you please. 

The Witness. And this was, of course, partly because, I think, even 
the Russians didn't know what happened in Budapest. It happened 
from one place to another; so we thought that we were free, and we 
called to the free nations, the first thing, to the United States, for help. 
And we got everything but weapons. We got medicine, we got food, 
we got clothes, but weapons we didn't get. 

Everybody in Hungary was hoping that the Western World would 
help us because we knew very well that we cannot be free without any 
help from the Western countries. 

We were free until October 4, 1956, October 3 — excuse me, October 
3, in the night, in the morning. 

Mr. Arens. Are you sure you don't mean November ? 

The Witness. November. Excuse me. Yes, November. 

Mr. AViLLis. Let's get the record straight. As I understand it, the 
revolution broke out on October 23. 

The Witness. October 23, yes. 



2748 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

Mr. Willis. And you were, free, until November 3. 

The Witness. Until November 3, yes. 

Mr. Willis, A little over 2 weeks. 

The Witness. About. On November 3 they came into Budapest 
4,000 fresh Soviet Mongol tanks from inside Russia. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say troops or tanks ? 

The Witness. 4,000 Mongol tanks. The tanks were 4,000. They 
ran into the town. There were, of course, many destroyed from these 
tanks, but 4,000 tanks — I don't know — if you can imagine how strong 
can be 4,000 tanks. Thisis just a terrible force. 

Mr. Arens. About how many of the Hungarians were massacred by 
those tanks ? 

The Witness. As to the Hungarian losses, I heard they were about 
25,000. There were 25,000 people shot for nothing, because they 
wanted only freedom, and this is typical Russian Soviet colonializa- 
tion, what they made in their country and all these satellite countries 
now. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question, Counsel ? How did the Free- 
dom Fighters manage to destroy tanks ? 

The Witness. To fight in a town, in a big town, with tanks, is very 
difficult, because the driver of the tank cannot see farther than ahead 
of him and he cannot see on the houses, on the tops of the houses ; and 
if you just drop on the tank a bottle of gasoline, it burns the tank, 
and the whole tank burns, and they can't do anything. So I heard 
that there were destroyed about 700 Soviet tanks in this battle over 
there. I have several pictures with me from this whole massacre, 
what they did. 

Mr. Arens. You took those pictures yourself ? 

The Witness. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. You have pictures with you, showing the terrible devas- 
tation there in Budapest, do you not ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have also pictures showing the destruction in 
the very home in which you were living ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, we are in a period in which the Russian tanks 
have inflicted 25,000-odd casualities 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Upon the Freedom Fighters and the Hungarians? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And have, I take it, resumed control of Budapest? 

The Witness. Yes; they controlled all the important places, the 
post office, the Parliament, and of course, everything. 

Mr. Arens. And then tell us, if you please, what you did, after 
the resumption of control. 

The Witness. I saw that it is not reasonable to fight against these 
4,000 tanks, and it will do me no good from this, and I saw we didn't 
get any help from tlie United Nations. I decided to escape by the 
first chance, to the free world. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the pattern of the escape, if you please. 

The Witness. On November the 21st 

Mr. Arens. lYhat year ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2749 

The Witness. 1956 — I and a couple more Freedom Fighters — and 
I didn't know them before, I learned of them only during this period 
of time — decided to escape. I stole a truck, and I drove to the Hun- 
garian-Austrian border. We were stopped many times from the Rus- 
sians, but since I speak perfect Russian and fluently, and I know the 
spirit of these Russian soldiers, I talked to them and they let us go. 
I gave all of them a bottle of vodka, and they were very happy. They 
let us go. 

And right on the Austrian border, there was a Russian tank divi- 
sion, and here the vodka didn't help. They stopped us and they 
forced everybody out from the truck, and we told them that we are 
going to work right on the border in this Government's interest and 
we are working for the People's nation, and such. We told them, and 
they didn't believe that. It was Russian sergeant, I think it was a ser- 
geant. He told that he will radio to his headquarters and let them 
find out who we are. This was night time, about 11 o'clock in the 
night, and I told this Russian that we are very tired, let us go, and I 
had a paper and I can prove myself that we are all right, we are not 
enemies ; and I talked to him so much that probably he was tired, too, 
or what, I don't know, but he told me, "All right, go ahead." 

So we drove about a half mile and we met this Russian chief that 
came for us, but the chief didn't know that we were the fellows that 
they are looking for, and so we drove through the border and we 
arrived in Austria. We were very happy that this was the first step 
in the free world, and I went to the United States Embassy, the first 
thing, in Vienna and I asked asylum from the Austrian Government. 
They were very kind to us, and the United States Embassy gave me 
a quota on the Refugee Program and in 8 weeks, December 18, I ar- 
rived in the United States from there. I am here very happy, and 
I like this country very much. 

Mr. Arens. And you are living presently in the South ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I have just 2 or 3 (questions of a general nature. I 
hold in my hand a very fine magazine, published and circulated here 
in the South, called The Atlantan Magazine. 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. A very fine magazine, we understand. In this maga- 
zine, one of the roving editors, or someone on the magazine, had an 
interview with an Atlanta Communist on certain of the problems con- 
nected with this operation ; and the interview with this Atlanta Com- 
munist is published in the magazine. I would like to get your re- 
sponse to some of the questions which were posed to this particular 
American Communist. 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I will give you the questions and then I will give you 
the answer, and see if you agree with the answer that was given. 

Question : Do you seriously believe Russia, having once established dominance, 
would surrender her sovereignty over these nations? 

The answer is : "Yes." 

Question : Even though all previous evidence discloses a notable lack of 
willingness on the part of Russia to surrender any hold it might have on a 
satellite nation? 



2750 CORiMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 

The answer is : 

Yes. And I resent your use of the term "satellite nations." Such countries as 
Poland, Hungary, and others have communist governments because the people 
themselves have so chosen. 

Now, Mr. Witness, what is your reaction to that? Are the people 
of Poland, Hungary, and the other what we would call Iron Curtain 
nations, in sympathy with the regime which is in power? 

The Witness. Those people have not chosen the Communist Govern- 
ment over there. They didn't choose it because they hadn't the choice. 
The Communist system is so that you can't choose ; you can vote only 
for one man, and that is all what you can do, and there is no reason 
not to vote, because you get only in trouble. So they get, of course, 
991/^ percent in votes. So I can tell you that from this. 

Mr. Willis. You have only one candidate ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Only one party ? 

The Witness. Only one party, only the Communist Party, nothing 
else ; only the Communist Party in these Communist blocs. In Kussia, 
it is only the Communist Party, nothing else. And I can tell you 
that these people in eastern European countries are very hopeful that 
once the Western states will wake up to recognize this terrible danger 
what is now in the world. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to ask you — or call your attention to an- 
other question and answer, which was posed to a local Commimist 
here, according to this very fine magazine. They asked him this — He 
is an American Communist : 

How do you explain the actions of Russia in Hungary, when the revolt of the 
Hungarian people was so ruthlessly stamped out with the aid of Russian soldiers? 

This American Southern Communist gave this reply : 

* * * It was not a revolt of the Hungarian people, but a disturbance created 
and fostered by Fascist elements within Hungary. In fact, Russia was pro- 
tecting the people of Hungary by helping to put down these disorders. 

On the basis of your background and experience, what observa- 
tion would you make in response to that question? 

The Witness. This man who gives this interview, he is a man, I 
think, who is reading only Communist propaganda and he believes it, 
you just can't tell him what is the truth, because it is no reason to him, 
because he is a fanatic. So if you tell him this is not true, he never 
will believe that ; but this was a Fascistic uprising in Hungary, he 
tells that from the Communist propaganda. Everything which is not 
Communist is Fascistic. Even they say America isFascistic and they 
say that France is Fascistic, everything is Fascistic except the Com- 
munists. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, just one final question : In the course 
of the last 2 days here we have had just a sampling before this com- 
mittee of hard-core zealots of the Communist conspiracy in the United 
States. I don't believe you have had the occasion to hear all of their 
testimony before this committee. 

The Witness. No, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. They are working zealously, night and day, fanatically, 
in the interests of the international Communist movement. Do you, 
having lived in a Communist regime under the dictatorship of coin- 
munism, have any message you would like to leave with these Ameri- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SOUTH 2751 

can Communists who are working feverishly on behalf of the inter- 
national Communist movement? 

The Witness. I think that these people are honest people. I think 
that these people do not know what really Soviet communism is. They 
support an idea that is false, that is not true, that is only the propa- 
ganda, that is all lies; and they believe that. And I think that we 
can help only this way, as this man, whose questions and answers 
you read, that you should tell them really the truth. 

Yesterday I was here, briefly, and I heard a couple of the witnesses' 
testimony in the hearings, and I am sure that there were a couple 
of gentlemen here, and they believe that really the Communist system 
is better than the system of the United States of America, but they 
don't know. They read only books from these Communist writers. 
They never were inside Russia or they never were in a satellite country 
like Poland, Hungary, China, and you can call all of them. These 
people do not know what they support, and this is my_ feeling about 
these people. I think that they are not right, that now in this difficult 
situation what is now in the world, that they oppose the United States. 

Mr. Arens. You have not described it, but you were able, also, to 
procure the escape of your mother from Hungary, were you not ? 

The Witness. Pardon me ? 

Mr. Arens. Your mother. 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. She has likewise, by certain devices, escaped from 
Hungary ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And she is likewise living with you in the South ? 

The Witness. Yes, she is. 

Mr. Arens. But you do have certain connections over there and cer- 
tain relatives ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliom you must protect ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. INIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that so far as 
the staff interrogation is concerned, that will conclude our inten'oga- 
tion of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Well, sir, I think you have made a great contribution 
to this subcommittee and, through us, to the Congress of the United 
States and to the people. 

I wish more people throughout the United States, not only the few 
here present in Atlanta, could have had the opportunity to hear your 
story about the machinations of the Communist conspiracy. We are 
very grateful to you and wish you much happiness in this area. 

The Witness. Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. And I hope that you will have occasion to talk to people 
and tell them what this thing is all about, that we, of this committee, 
are trying to fight. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I certainly want to associate myself 
with what vou have said with respect to testimony given by this wit- 
ness, and also to agree that it is a shame that a great many more people 
cannot see the side of the Soviet State and the Soviet system that is 
sometimes hidden from view by the smiling face of the Soviet 
ambassador to the United States. 



2752 coMMinsnsT activities in the south 

I have a couple of brief questions: As a 16-year-old boy — and 
you were 16 years old at the time you were taken by the Soviet Secret 
Police 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Had you taken any part in politics ? 

The Witness. Before? 

Mr. Jackson. Before that. 

The Witness. No, never. I went to school. 

Mr. Jackson. You attended no anti-Communist rallies or meetings ? 

The Witness. No. 

Mr. Jackson. "Wliat was your principal interest in life at that time? 

The Witness. Well, girls. 

Mr. Willis. I think you will get along all right in the South. 

Mr. Jackson. During the many years of your confinement in and 
out of concentration camps, slave-labor camps, you must have given 
a considerable amount of thought to the question of why the Soviets 
would take a child of 16 and send him to slave-labor camps ; did you 
not? 

The AVitness. Yes, I have thought many times about this question 
myself, and I have the answer. They needed laborers. They hadn't 
any. Tlie whole Soviet Union was destroyed, and I should add this, 
too, that the Germans did terrible things in the Soviet Union. They 
just killed many, many people over there; and the Russians, they 
just hated everything that is behind the Russian border. These Rus- 
sian soldiers were all very mad. and this was a reason too, I realized, 
when I asked myself why this happened. And so this is my answer. 

Mr. Jackson. I am sure that you have read of the proposals for 
a summit conference 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. As between certain nations of the Soviet bloc and 
the free world, including the United States. 

"Wliat in your opinion will be the effect upon enslaved millions of 
people behind the Iron Curtain if such a conference takes place? 
\YhRt will they interpret it to mean, in your opinion ? 

The Witness. Such a conference, it depends in what forum that 
you talk, and I didn't understand quite your question. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, it is very difficult to arrive at any decision 
as to what is to be discussed. ' That is one of the big problems. 

The Witness. If there will be a talking about the special- question, 
like Lebanon or like the Middle East, or something like that, I don't 
think so, that it could be any good. I think this is my opinion be- 
cause even if the Russians will step back one step, it is very naive to 
believe them that they will somewhere else not step two steps forward. 
And this is my opinion about the summit conference. 

Of course, it is never a bad thing to talk with each other, but now 
the situation is much worse, and I don't know what is — I am not a 
politician and I am not a military man — I don't know what we can do 
in the Middle East. How can we support over there some government 
or some troops, how can we get supplies for them, I don't know that, so 
I don't want to tell anything about that. 

Mr. Jackson. I reiterate the expression of appreciation which the 
chairman has voiced, and will conclude by saying that if the Ameri- 
can people are aware, to any considerable degree, of the true nature 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SOUTH 2753 

of the Communist conspiracy and of its operation behind the Iron Cur- 
tain and elsewhere throughout the world, it is due in large part to 
people like yourself, who do not have to speak theoretically about 
communism, but speak out of bitter experiences with it. 

I hope, too, that you will find every happiness for yourself and your 
mother in the United States, and close by saying that I am glad you 
are on our side, and not on the other. 

The Witness. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the presentation of 
witnesses during this hearing ; and I respectfully suggest that before 
you proceed with your closing statement, we permit Mr. Bonora to es- 
cort the witness from the hearing room so he will be unavailable for 
any further scrutiny. 

Mr. Willis. Will you do that now, before the closing statement? 

In concluding the hearings, I should like to make a few brief ob- 
servations respecting the significance and accomplishments of this par- 
ticular investigation. 

In the first place, we have seen here a pattern of Communist ac- 
tivities and techniques which verifies and confirms similar patterns 
which we have been observing elsewhere in the Nation. 

There has been developed here new and convincing evidence regard- 
ing the problem of Communist propaganda, both foreign and domestic. 
There has been revealed factual information respecting strategy and 
tactics of Communists in maneuvering into groups and organizations 
which they seek to influence in the Communist objectives. 

One of the world's top Communists, a former instructor in the Lenin 
School of Political Warfare, Georgi Dimitrov, once said: 

As Soviet power grows, there will be a greater aversion to Communist parties 
everywhere. So we must practice the techniques of withdrawal. Never appear 
in the foreground ; let our friends do the work. 

Referring to the front organizations that have been sprouting by 
literally hundreds in America, we have a booklet for those who are 
interested, giving a list of all of these front organizations. It is an 
official publication, available to anyone who cares to write to our staff 
director. 

Finally, there has been developed information which should stand 
as a warning to the South, namely, that as the textile and other indus- 
tries are developed in the South, there is the ever-present threat of 
Communist penetration. 

As Chairman Walter stated in opening the hearings, we have not 
tried to probe beyond the development of facts which show a pattern 
of operations ; we have not sought to run down all possible leads. We 
believe that the evidence which is in our records now, however, does 
add materially to the fund of information already available as a 
foundation for legislative action. 

There is a collateral result, moreover, from hearings of this type, 
which I believe will have a salutary and important effect, and it is this : 
that the Communist Party operation is real ; it is a continuing, menac- 
ing, dynamic force of intrigue and subversion. 

Communism is not merely a philosophical concept. The witness who 
testified respecting his harrowing experiences this morning in the 
Communist slave labor camps portrayed communism in action. I 
would not attempt to portray more vividly the realities of communism 
than he has done from the witness chair, under oath. 



2754 coAiMuisnsT activities est the south 

Here are recent words of J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, and I quote his words : 

Public apathy is the sure way to national suicide — to death of individual free- 
dom. It allowed the Communists to penetrate and make satellites of once-free 
countries, and it is presently enabling them to honeycomb and weaken the struc- 
tures of the remaining countries, and there is today a terrifying apathy on the 
part of Americans toward the deadliest danger which this country has ever 
faced. Some of that apathy is deliberately induced. 

He continues — this is J. Edgar Hoover speaking, one of the greatest 
Americans of all time : 

The Communist Party in the United States is not out of business ; it is not 
dead ; it is not even dormant. It is, however, well on its way to achieving its 
current objective, which is to make you believe that it is shattered, ineffective, 
and dying. When it has fully achieved this first objective — 

talking about throwing the dust in your eyes, as though the Com- 
munist Party is dormant in the United States, he says, when it has 
achieved that objective: 

it will then proceed inflexibly toward its final goal. 

and here are his concluding words : 

Those who try to minimize its danger are either uninformed or they have a 
deadly axe to grind. 

That is what J. Edgar Hoover said. 

We on the committee will return to Washington with the informa- 
tion which has been developed here and use it as part of the fund of 
knowledge which we are gaining to assist us in the discharge of our 
duties, which, under a mandate of the Congress are, in essence, to 
maintain a continuing surveillance over the operation of our various 
security laws and to recommend, when necessary, amendments to those 
laws or the enactment of new ones. 

Before concluding, I should like to express the tlianks of the com- 
mittee to Armando Penha, who unselfislily and patriotically served his 
country by working as an undercover agent on behalf of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation in the Communist Party. 

Without such men as this brave young man, the work of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation and our committee in the field of investiga- 
tion of subversion would be impossible. He has rendered an out- 
standing service, and we are pleased to commend him publicly for it. 

Also on behalf of the committee, I would like to pay tribute to the 
Georgia Bureau of Investigation, Attorney General Eugene Cook, 
and to Mr. Irving Fishman of the Bureau of Customs. These men 
have likewise contributed substantially to the success of our work. 

I would not presume to express appreciation or thanks to the wit- 
nesses before this committee who have refused to cooperate, most of 
whom have been identified under oatli as members of the Communist 
Party. By indirection they have likewise, unwittingly perhaps, given 
the committee very valuable information, whether they know it or 
not, because we can match up what they said or did not say, or the 
way they said it, to the pattern of other hearings we have had. 

We would like to express our thanks to Federal Judge Frank A. 
Hooper, who has most courteously made available to us this very fine 
courtroom. We would also like to thank United States Marshal Wil- 
liam C. Littlefield and his capable and courteous deputies. 



coMMinsriST activities in the south 2755 

Finally, we "would like to express our sincere thanks to the members 
of the press, and of the radio and television profession, who have been 
most courteous and cooperative. 

Mr. Jackson, would you care to add some extemporaneous remarks? 

Mr. Jackson. Nothing, I think, Mr. Chairman, can be added to 
what you said, except we on the subcommittee all appreciate, I am 
sure, the very warm reception we had in Atlanta. I don't know 
whether it is the very hospitable attitude of this City or not, but even 
the most cantankerous of the witnesses didn't begin to measure up to 
some we have had elsewhere, and they will probably be chided by the 
party for their dereliction in this regard. They didn't do a very good 
job of being mean. With that, ]\Ir. Chairman, I simply want to say 
a word of personal thanks to all those you have thanked. 

Mr. Willis. This will conclude the hearings in Atlanta. 

(Whereupon, at 12 o'clock noon, Thursday, July 31, 1958, the hear- 
ings in Atlanta, Georgia, were concluded.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Ahearn, Alberta 2671 

Anderson, Marian 2719 

Asher, Emil 2624 

Badeaux (Hubert J.) 2717 

Berland, Oscar 2615-2617, 2626, 2724 

Billingsley, Orzell, Jr 2712 

Bond, Nathaniel (also known as Joe) 2616 

Braden, Anne (Mrs. Carl Braden) 2633, 2634, 2646, 2647, 2677-2679 

Braden, Carl 2604, 2633, 2634, 2646, 2647, 2667-2680 (testimony) 

Branam, Billy 2672 

Brown, Lee 2719 

Bunche, Ralph 2719 

Cartwright, Perry (also known as Fred Perry) 2631- 

2634, 2643-2648 (testimony) 

Childs, Charles 2700 

Coe, Charles J 2634 

Coe, John M 2667 

Cole, Madge Spurny 2603, 2604, 2616, 2688-2695 (testimony), 2699, 2700 

Cook, Eugene 2754 

Dimitrov, Georgi 2753 

Dombrowski, James A 2677, 2685 

Eastland (James Oliver) 2673 

Eisenhower, Dwight D 2673 

Eugene, Arthur, Jr 2715, 2718 

Evans, Ruth VanCamp (Mrs. William Evans) 2619 

Evans, William (also known as Bill) 2610, 2613-2619, 2625, 2626, 2724 

Feldman. Eugene 2604, 2619, 2620, 2629-2635 (testimony), 2646, 2679 

Figueiredo, Joseph 2621, 2622 

Fishman, Irving 2604, 2635-2643 (testimony), 2754 

Forer, Joseph 2648, 2658, 2688, 2696, 2703, 2709, 2721 

Griffin, Marvin 2608 (statement) 

Handmau, Robert (also known as Fred) 2610 

Hester, John E., Jr 2663-2665 (testimony) 

Hooper, Frank A 2754 

Hoover, J. Edgar 2607, 2754 

Johnson, Oakley C 2631 

Khrushchev, Nikita 2735, 2744 

Korstad, Frances (Mrs. Karl Korstad) 2619 

Korstad, Karl R 2619, 2703-2708 (testimony) 

Larson, Larry 2704 

Lenin, Nicolai 2714 

Levine, Ben 2616 

Licht, Fanny 2614, 2615, 2626-2628, 2724 

Lipshires, Sidney 2613 2625-'?627 

Littlefield, William C '____ 2754 

Long, Ralph V 2651, 2652 

Martin, Bob 2719 

Marx, Karl 2714, 2715 

Matthews, Ella Levine (Mrs. William Matthews) 2616, 2723 

Matthews, William 2616, 2618 

2702-2703 (testimony), 2720, 2721-2725 (testimony)' 

Medina (Harold R.) 2707 

Nelson, Steve ~~~ 2719 

J 



il INDEX 

Page 

O'Connor, Harvey 2668, 2669, 2678 

O'Dell, Hunter Pitts 2712-2720 (testimony) 

Penha, Armando 2603. 2604, 2609-2628 (testimony), 

2632, 2676, 2677, 2692, 2693-2694 (testimony), 2695, 2701, 2705, 2707, 

2708, 2711, 2712, 2722, 2724, 2725, 2754. 
Perry, Fred. (See Cartwrisht, Perry.) 

Robertson, Mary (Mrs. William Joseph Robertson III) 2615 

Robertson, William Joseph, III 2604, 2615, 2696-2702 (testimony) 

Robinson, Jackie 2719 

Roosevelt, Franklin D 2677 

Russo, Michael 2626, 2627 

Saba, Clara Hutcherson (Mrs. Mitchell Saba) 2648-2658 (testimony) 

Saba, Mitchell 2648, 2653, 2658-2662 (testimony) 

Salazar (Antonio de Oliveira) 2622 

Scales, Junius 2614, 2617, 2625, 2626, 2724 

Schneider, Anita 2684, 2685 

Sheldrick, George (also known as Jack) 2610, 2615 

Sorum, William 2715 

Stalin, Josef 2737, 2744 

Stevens, Andrew 2611 

Stone, Martha (Mrs. Emil Asher) 2624 

Strong, Edward 2625-2627 

Tucker, C. Ewbank 2829, 2643, 2683, 2667 

VanCamp, Betsy (Betty) (Mrs. George VanCamp) 2618 

VanCamp, George (David) 2618 

VanCamp, Jerome 2615, 2709-2712 (testimony), 2723, 2724 

VanCamp, Ruth. {See Evans, Ruth VanCamp.) 

West, Don 2627, 2634, 2662, 2664, 2665 

White, Ann (Mrs. Geoffrey White) 2626 

White, Geoffrey 2616, 2626, 2827 

Wilkinson, Frank 2604, 2681-2687 (testimony) 

Williams (Albert), Warren 2618,2620 

Williams, Aubrey W 2677 

Williams, Rebecca (Mrs. Albert Warren Williams) 2618 

Witness X (Hungarian Refugee) 2604,2728-2753 (testimony) 

Organizations 

Camp Beacon (New York) 2850, 2652, 2660 

Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms 2684 

Communist Party, U. S. A. : 

Carolina District 2614 

District 1 (New England) 2613, 2625 

District Committee 2609 

Southern District 2609-2628 

National Committee 2612, 2624, 2625, 2627, 2628 

National Negro Commission 2625 

National Textile Commission 2603, 2609-2613, 2615, 2617, 2625, 2626, 2691 

States : 

Massachusetts : 

Bristol County 2609 

New Bedford 2609 

Section Committee 2609 

North Carolina : 

Durham 2610, 2614-2616, 2618 

Section Committee 2615, 2616 

High Point Industrial Commission 2619, 2708 

Winston-Salem 2618-2620 

Section Committee 2618 

Cone Mills (Greensboro, N. C.) 2620, 2888, 2690, 2694, 2898 

Duke Universitv 2615-2617 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 2604, 2668, 2682, 2685 

Erwin Mills (Durham, N. C.) 2618, 2689, 2699, 2709, 2710 

Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied Workers Union of America 2704, 2705 

Winston-Salem, N. C 2649, 2697 



INDEX m 

Page 

International Union of Students 2641 

Fifth Congress, September 4-13, 1958, Peiping, China 2641 

Southern Conference Educational Fund 2604, 2667, 2668, 2677, 2678, 2680, 2681 

Southern Conference for Human Welfare 2680 

United States Government : 

Justice Department 2636, 2642 

National Youth Administration 2677 

Office of Price Administration 2652 

Post Office Department 2636 

Treasury Department; Customs, Bureau of 2636 

Veterans' Administration 2660 

University of North Carolina 2709 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 2641 

Publications 

Atlantan Magazine, The 2749 

Literary Gazette, The 2640 

New Opportunities in the Fight for Peace and Democracy — Main Report 

Delivered at the National Conference of the Communist Party, U. S. A. 

(book) 2611 

News Service 2640 

Southern Farm and Home 2677 

Southern Newsletter 2604, 2630-2634, 2644, 2645, 2679 

Southern Patriot 2668 

Southerner, The 2627, 2634, 2647 

Students Say No 2640 

World Student News 2640 

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