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Full text of "Communist infiltration of Hollywood motion-picture industry : hearing before the Committee on Un-American activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-second Congress, first session"


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COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF HOLLYWOOD 
MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY-PART 6 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SECOND CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MAY 10, SEPTEMBER 10, 11, AND 12, 1951 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-Ameriean Activities 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93012 WASHINGTON : 1952 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia, Chairman 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee CHARLES E. POTTER, Michigan 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Rossell, Senior Investigator 

John W. Carrixgton, Clerk of Com mil tee 



Special Subcommittee, May 10, 1951 
JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia 



Special Subcommittee, September 10-12, 1951 
DONALD L. JACKSON, California 



II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

May 10, 1951 : Testimony of Arthur Strawn 2053 

September 10, 1951: 

Testimony Eugene Fleury 2061 

Statement of — 

Anne Ray Frank 2071 

Eve Ettinger 2076 

September 11, 1951: 
Testimony of — 

Robert Shayne (Robert Shaen Dawe) 2091 

Mendell Morton Krieger 2098 

September 12, 1951: 
Testimony of — 

Prokop Jack Prokop 2117 

Helen Schwartz Donath 2120 

Bella Lewitzky Reynolds 2122 

m 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF HOLLYWOOD MOTION- 
PICTURE INDUSTRY— PART 6 



THURSDAY, MAY 10, 1951 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ox Un-American Activities, 

Hollyicood, Calif. 

EX EC l • T I VE SESSION 

A special subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties met pursuant to call at 10 a. m., in room 603, Drake Hotel, Holly- 
wood, Calif., Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative John S. Wood. 

Staff members present: William A. Wheeler and Courtney E. 
Owens, investigators. 

Mr. Wood. The subcommittee, composed of myself, is now in order. 

Are you ready to proceed ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Strawn, will you rise and be sworn, please? 

You solemnly swear the evidence you give this subcommittee shall 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Strawn. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ARTHUR STRAWN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
ROBERT W. KENNY AND BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name. 

Mr. Strawn. Arthur Strawn, S-t-r-a-w-n. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are represented by counsel; is that correct? 

Mr. Strawn. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you identify yourselves for the record. 

Mr. Kenny. 1 am Robert W. Kenny, from Los Angeles. 

Mr. Maroolis. I am Ben Margolis, also of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler (addressing witness). Where do you reside? 

Mr. Strawn. 7270 Woodrow Wilson Drive. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your occupation? 

Mi-. Strawn. I am a writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born? 

Mi-. Strawn. I was born in New York City, September 29, 1900. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you give us a brief resume of your educational 
background. 

Mr. Straavn. You don't mind if I refer to a couple of notes that I 
have brought, do you ? 

2053 



2054 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. That will be perfectly all right. 

Mr. Straws. I have brought this with me in the interest of ac- 
curacy. I was graduated from high school in St. Louis in 1918. 
After volunteering for service in the First World War, and the war 
ending before I could serve, although I had been accepted, I then 
went on and attended Washington University of St. Louis, from which 
I was graduated. First, I should say, I did a year at Stanford and 
then I got my bachelor of arts degree from Washington University 
in 1925 or 1926. 

Mr. Wheeler. Does that conclude your formal education? 

Mr. Strawn. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your occupational background after leaving 
school ? 

Mr. Strawn. I began writing while I was still going to college. 
I did newspaper work and then when I left the university I continued 
on with that, I worked on the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and from 
there I went to New York and became, for a number of years, their 
New York correspondent and began to write for magazines and had 
books published and so on. 

_ Mr. Wheeler. How long have you been associated with the motion- 
picture industry? 

Mr. Strawn. Well, while I was in New York, and still while I 
was doing newspaper work and contributing to magazines, I did 
work on several pictures by an independent outfit. I also wrote plays, 
but I would say that my first formal connection with motion pictures 
was around 1935 or 1936, when I came out to Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Screen Writers' Guild? 

Mr. Strawn. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. What stories or scripts have you written that were 
made into motion pictures ? 

Mr. Strawn. Do you want them all ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Strawn. Well, you have had, probably, more impressive lists 
than mine. I did the original story and joint screen play on The 
Black Koom for Columbia. I did a joint screen play for The Man 
Who Lived Twice. 

I also worked on a joint screen play called Lady in Distress. I 
also did added scenes for Don't Gamble with Love. 

I did the original story Here Comes the Girls. I also worked on a 
joint screen play entitled "Road Agent." Another joint screen play 
entitled "The Enemy Meets Ellery Queen." 

I did another joint screen play called Eyes of the Underworld. 
That brought me up to the war and I was sick, recovering from a 
minor operation, when the Japs hit us at Pearl Harbor, but I im- 
mediately began to correspond to see if there was any way I could get 
into the service. By the time I had recovered from the operation, 
and the Screen Writers' Guild knew of my desire to serve, I was 
notified that there was a representative out here from the Air Force, 
and I went to see him. I was interviewed by him and he thought 
that he could use me and could get me a commission, but he asked 
me if I couldn't get a commission whether I would be willing to serve 
in a civilian capacity. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2055 

I said that I would be willing to serve in any capacity. So he wired 
me later and said that there was no commission for me, but would I 
come on anyway. I wired back, "Name the date and I will come on," 
and I did. 

So I went back to Wright Field and worked in a civilian capacity. 

Mr. AVood. What was the nature of your work ? 

Mr. Strawn. I wrote, directed, and produced motion pictures for 
the war effort, and for the Air Force. Someone in Washington, going 
over the work in that unit, singled my work out as the most profes- 
sional work and wanted to know why I wasn't commissioned and came 
back and said that they had better commission me before they lose me, 
because as a civilian I wasn't obliged to stay there, so they promptly 
put through a commission to keep me with the unit. 

I served for several years, until I was disabled and discharged from 
the service. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your rank ? 

Mr. Strawn. I was a captain. 

Mr. Wheeler. When were you discharged? 

Mr. Strawn. I was discharged out of the Birmingham Hospital 
here, I believe, around August of 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. From what period of time were you a civilian em- 
ployee of the Air Corps? 

Mr. Strawn. I went in around June, following Pearl Harbor, and 
they commissioned me about 4 months later, right after my first 
scripts were seen in Washington. I remained until my discharge, 
which was, approximately, August of 1944, 1 believe. 

Mr. Wood. Did you say that you were disabled while you were in 
the service? 

Mr. Strawn. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. What sort of disability was that ? 

Mr. Strawn. I had internal injuries and was operated on. I volun- 
teered for overseas duty in fact, I was seeking overseas duty and in 
the course of a routine overseas examination they discovered that I 
had hurt myself so they sent me to a hospital and I was operated on. 
There they found other things wrong and discharged me after 4 or 
5 months in the hospital. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has your employment been after your dis- 
charge from the Air Corps ? 

Mr. Strawn. I wrote a play which was produced in New York. 
Let me refresh my memory for just a moment. Then I sold several 
original stories. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the name of the play and the names of 
the stories? 

Mr. Strawn. The play was called Sleep No More which was sub- 
sequently bought by Universal. That was a comedy. Then I sold 
some original stories. One was called Blossoms for Effie and another 
one called Affairs of Geraldine, and for Monogram Studios I did a 
rewrite on Bad Men of Tombstone and then I did an original, sold 
an original screen play called Hiawatha, and another one called 
Flight to Mars. That just about brings it up to date. Flight to Mars 
was completed last December. I would say ; approximately that time. 

Previously I had had another play produced in the East, See No 
Evil, and another play of mine which was called Anthony Nero. That 



2056 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

was twice given a full length hour and one-half production by the 
British Broadcasting Corp., on television, which was an unusual dis- 
tinction to get a full-length play like that shown. 

I have contributed articles and stories to the New Yorker and the 
American Mercury and the Herald Tribune magazine section. 

I have also contributed stories to the Screen Writer, the Satur- 
day Evening Post, and Esquire. Perhaps there may be more. 

Mr. Wheeler. As a writer, you register all manuscripts with the 
Screen Writers' Guild; is that correct? 

Mr. Strawn. You mean original manuscripts ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Strawn. As a rule, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What manuscripts have you registered during the 
year 1949 ? 

Mr. Strawn. I would have to check with the Screen Writers' Guild 
records on that. What manuscripts have I registered, you say? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, in the year 1949. 

Mr. Strawn. I frankly don't, recall at the moment. I could check 
their records and find out for you. if you want that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do vou recall a' manuscript entitled "Twilight 
Street"? 

Mr. Strawn. Yes ; I recall that manuscript. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you remember registering that with the Screen 
Writers' Guild? 

Mr. Strawn. I very likely did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you write this manuscript in conjunction with 
another author? 

Mr. Strawn. Do you mind if I consult with my counsel ? 

Mr. Wood. You have a right to confer with your counsel any time 
you desire. You can retire from the room if you care to. 

Mr. Strawn. I think these gentlemen are trying to link me with 
someone else, who has been mentioned in the hearings. I find that 
I must refuse to answer under the fifth amendment, on the ground 
that my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Wood. You have not been asked to identify any person at all. 
You were asked if you wrote it in connection with any other person. 
No one has been named as yet. Did you write it by yourself? 

Mr. Strawn. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. With whom did you write it ? 

Mr. Strawn. I claim the fifth amendment on that, too. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know J. Redmond Prior ? 

Mr. Strawn. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know a J. R. Prior, P-r-i-o-r? 

Mr. Strawn. Wait a minute. I decline to answer that question on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have a document here, Mr. Chairman, which was 
subpenaed from the Screen Writers' Guild. It is a registration cer- 
tificate with the Screen Writers' Guild, where the writers in Holly- 
wood register articles or scripts with the Screen Writers' Guild. It 
bears the registration guild No. 41938. This form was filled out on 
2-25-49. It is registered in the name of Arthur Strawn and J. R. 
Prior. The registration fee is indicated as $1 and the name, of the 
manuscript is given as Twilight Street. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2057 

I would like to show this to the witness and ask him if he can identify 
it as a registration certificate receipt, that he registered this at the 
Screen Writers' Guild. 

Mr. Strawn. Again I will have to claim the same privilege in not 
answering the question. What was the question again ? 

Mr. Wheeler. I asked you if you recognize that as a receipt you 
received when the manuscript was registered at the Screen Writers' 
Guild. 

Mr. Strawn. I can only recognize this as a receipt. I had better 
claim the same privilege on that. 

Mr. Wood. A moment ago, Mr. Strawn, you stated in response to 
a question as to whether or not you did register this particular script 
with the Screen Writers' Guild in 1949, you stated that you could 
investigate the records up there and determine the answer to that 
question. 

Now, having refreshed your recollection by being confronted with 
this record, do you state now that you did not register this? 

Mr. Strawn. You are making an error, I am afraid. I said that 
I would have to investigate. There could still be this receipt and it 
doesn't necessarily mean that I registered it or got the receipt. 

Mr. Wood. That is what I am trying to find out now. Will you state 
whether you registered that or not, after having refreshed your 
recollection ? 
Mr. Strawn. I don't recall. 
Mr. Wood. Even after having seen this receipt ? 
Mr. Strawn. I really don't recall. 
Mr. Wood. Was it ever registered ? 
Mr. Strawn. Obviously it must have been. 

Mr. Wood. Did anyone else have any interest in this except your- 
self, in this registration? 

Mr. Strawn. Wasn't that question asked before and answered ? 
Mr. Wheeler. Not the same question, I don't believe. 
Mr. Wood. You were asked if you wrote it by yourself and you 
said you didn't and now I am asking you if anyone had any interest 
in it but you. 

Mr. Strawn. If someone else wrote it with me, then that person 
must, obviously, have an interest in registering it. 

Mr. Wood. That does not answer my question. Did anyone else 
have any interest in registering this except you ? 
Mr. Strawn. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. Could it have been possible the other person interested 
in the registration of it actually did the registering, or did you do 
that? 

Mr. Strawn. It could have been done by the other person. 
Mr. Wood. And it could have been done by either of vou : is that 
right? 
Mr. Strawn. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. You say you have no independent recollection of who 
did it; is that right? 

Mr. Strawn. My answer was that I do not recall having registered 
it myself. 

Mr. Wood. Do you recall anyone else having registered it? 
Mr. Strawn. No; but I assume that it was registered by someone 
else. 

93012 — 52 — pt. fi 2 



2058 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wood. Proceed. 

Mr. Wheeler. The logical person to register this would have been 
J. R. Prior, he having an interest in the manuscript? 

Mr. Strawn. I will have to claim the same privilege, because I 
think this is an attempt to get me to incriminate myself. 

Mr. Wheeler. Isnt' it a fact that J. Redmond Prior is Lester Cole ? 

Mr. Strawn. In view of the fact that he has been rather promi- 
nently labeled as subversive, and so on, by this committee, I will 
have to claim my privilege for the reasons given, because I think it 
is an attempt to link me up with someone who has been incriminated 
and I am afraid the answer to that question might tend to incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Lester Cole % 

Mr. Strawn. I will make the same answer to that question. 

Mr. Wheeler. You mentioned previously 

Mr. Strawn. May I interrupt and say that any question which I 
feel is in any way an attempt to link me with any organization or 
any individual, that I understand to have been listed as subversive 
by this committee, that I do not care ■ 

Mr. Wood. Let me set you straight about that right now. This 
committee has listed no one as subversive. 

Mr. Strawn. I have seen printed lists of organizations. 

Mr. Wood. I am talking about individuals. 

Mr. Strawn. Individuals connected with those organizations or 
who have been subpenaed or cited for contempt, any attempt to link 
me with any of those people I am going to, in that connection, claim 
the same privilege because I feel that it represents an attempt to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously stated, in your testimony, that you 
were the author of a story called Bad Men of Tombstone. 

Mr. Strawn. That is right ; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was that sold directly to Monogram or do you still 
have a percentage of the picture ? 

Mr. Strawn. I do not have any percentage of the picture. 

Mr. Wheeler. In other words, you sold it outright to Monogram ? 

Mr. Strawn. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Then tell us the mechanics of that. 

Mr. Strawn. Monogram had a picture with that title or some ap- 
proximate title, and they wanted rewriting done on the version that 
they had. I was engaged to do some rewriting on this. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you do the rewriting yourself or in conjunction 
with another party ? 

Mr. Strawn. I did it in conjunction with another party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who was the other party ? 

Mr. Strawn. I will have to decline to answer that question on the 
grounds already stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wasn't J. R. Prior or J. Redmond Prior also en- 
gaged on that ? 

Mr. Strawn. I will make the same answer to that question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Strawn, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Strawn. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
as heretofore stated. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2059 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you presently a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Strawn. I decline to answer on the grounds that I think the 
answer might tend to incriminate me and therefore I stand on my 
privilege not to answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. I have no questions. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, perhaps there is a question or two that I 
should ask. 

You are here under subpena, are you not ? 

Mr. Strawn. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce this docu- 
ment as Strawn exhibit No. 1 for the record. 

Mr. Wood. It will be admitted as Strawn exhibit No. 1. 

(The document referred to was marked as "Strawn Exhibit No. 1.") 

Mr. Wood. Is there anything further? 

Mr. Wheeler. I have nothing further. 

Mr. Kenny. May this witness be excused now ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes ; he may be excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF HOLLYWOOD MOTION- 
PICTURE INDUSTRY— PART 6 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1951 

United States House of Kepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

executive session 

A special subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties met pursuant to call at 9 : 30 a. m., in Conference Room C, at the 
Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Donald L. 
Jackson presiding. 

Committee member present: Representative Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff member present: William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. The chairman of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities has appointed me as a special subcommittee to conduct 
this hearing. 

(Whereupon the hearing continued with testimony not printed in 
this volume, together with the following:) 

Mr. Jackson. Will you call the next witness? 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Eugene Fleury. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Fleury, will you raise your right hand and be 
sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give before this 
subcommittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Fleury. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE FLEURY 

Mr. AVheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? 

Mr. Fleury. Eugene Strong Fleury. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Fleury. 4524 Coldwater Canyon, North Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are not represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Fleury. No. 

Mr. AVheeler. Do you desire to be? 

Mr. Fleury. What for ? 

Mr. Jackson. I should like to make a little preliminary statement 
here, Mr. Fleury, and that is that you are under no compulsion to 
answer any of the questions directed to you. You have the protection 
of the fifth amendment if you wish to claim it against possible 
self-incrimination. However, the measure of your cooperation with 

2061 



2062 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

the committee in answering its questions will largely determine the 
future course of the committee so far as you are concerned. 

I simply make that statement in order that you may be advised of 
your constitutional rights, the fact that you are not compelled to 
answer questions in the absence of counsel. 

Mr. Fleury. My intent, of course, is to be as cooperative as I 
possibly can. That is natural. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Fleury. I was born in what is now a piece of Glendale, then 
called Tropico, Calif., May 29, 1913. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate your educational background. 

Mr. Fleury. California public schools through Sacramento High 
School, Sacramento Junior College for 2y 2 years, approximately 3 
years at Chouinard Art Institute. I say "approximately" because I 
worked part of the time, my last semester that I was there. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you leave Chouinard Art Institute? 

Mr. Fleury. This must have been 1936, 1 believe. It would be 1935, 
1936. 

Mr. Wheeler. How are you now employed? 

Mr. Fleury. I am an instructor at Art Center School. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is at 5353 West Third Street, Los Angeles, 
Calif.? 

Mr. Fleury. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. How have you been employed since leaving school ? 

Mr. Fleury. Leaving school, my first job was an instructor in the 
training school of Walt Disney Studios. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you give the approximate years. 

Mr. Fleury. Well, I was at Disney's for between 414 to 5 years. 
Approximately the last year of this was on production on Fantasia. 
At that time, why, we can call it I was canned, or there was a lay- 
off — it started as a lay-off and I quit. I drew about 2 months' un- 
employment insurance and went to Warner Bros, as a background 
painter. It was called Leon Schlesinger at that time. I was there 
until I went in the Army in April 1943. 

Mr. Wheeler. When were you discharged from the Army? 

Mr. Fleury. February 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your rank in the Army ? 

Mr. Fleury. I finally made T-5. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were honorably discharged? 

Mr. Fleury. Absolutely. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has your employment been since your dis- 
charge from the Army? 

Mr. Fleury. I will keep the history going. Upon my return to 
California, I was discharged at Fort Dix, N. J. ; I did nothing for 
I think, a couple of months and then my wife and I went to Mexico, 
more to kind of knit my tattered nerves after the Army thing more 
than anything else. I believe we were there approximately 5 to 6 
months. Now, this I am not sure of. In any case we returned during 
the summer and was then offered the position instructing at Art 
Center School and, of course, started my work there in the fall term, 
September of 1946, I believe it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Does that bring your employment up to date? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2063 

Mr. Fleury. Yes. I have been with Art Center except for a year 
off when we went to Europe and worked on a motion picture there. 
Mr. Adams kind of gave us a leave of absence. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Fleury, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, it was at the time that I suppose I had some 
sort of association with it, it would constitute membership. It was, 
I believe, called CPA then, Communist Political Association. 

Mr. Wheeler. What year was it ? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, this would be previous to the Army thing, so 
it would be — actually I believe it was 1943. These times and dates, 
by the Avay, are going to be off one side or the other, because like most 
artists I am dopey on them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how you became a member of the 
Communist Party, or the CPA? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, actually I don't. It. seemed to be just sort of 
suddenly you are, that's that. I know I paid dues, of course, and 
that kind of thing. There was no business of proselyting me or try- 
ing to get me in. I think I wanted to be. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have a reason for wanting to become a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, at that time; yes; I think I did ha ye a reason. 
Naturally, being an artist, why, I am fundamentally concerned in not 
how things are but maybe how things could be. In other words, 
change people's outlook, change your feelings. And this seemed to 
be, to me, why, the one concrete, what I would call liberal approach. 
My interest still was fundamentally that of kind of a philosophical 
background to my art instead of my political background. In fact, 
my action then consisted mostly of conversation, and that's about all. 

M r. Wheeler. Did you remain with this group until you went in 
the Army ? 

Mr. Fleury. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you give me the date again ? 

Mr. Fleury. The exact date would be 

Mr. Wheeler. The approximate date. 

Mr. Fleury. It would be the time I went in the Army. It would 
be in April of 1943. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what period of time were you associated with 
this group? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, this I can't even pin down. I would say less 
than a year, or approximately a year at the most. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is prior to your entrance to the Army? 

Mr. Fleury. Prior to the entrance in the Army ; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to any particular group or unit? 

Mr. Fleury. No. I received what you might call no orders of any 
kind. It seemed to be very casual sort of conversations that at this 
time I couldn't distinguish between what was a meeting and between 
a bunch of people sitting around shooting the breeze about the prob- 
lems of the day. Mostly it was directly related to our profession. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you meet with the same group of people? 

Mr. Fleury. No. It seemed to change. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many people comprised this group? 



2064 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Fleury. Well, it would be like an average evening at anyone's 
house, varying anywhere from 5 to 15. Actually as far as a stable 
membership, I was never very conscious of it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall at whose homes you met ? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, one was at our home. 

Mr. Wheeler. On how many occasions, do you recall ? 

Mr. Fleury. Once. 

Mr. Wheeler. Anybody else's home ? 

Mr. Fleury. Yes, although offhand without going through prac- 
tically a list of acquaintances and so forth, at that time I don't know 
how I could pin it down. I don't mean that to be a refusal, but it is 
just mushy and I would like a specific question and I will say. 

Mr. Jackson. I think the specific question is : At whose home did 
you meet during the course of these discussion groups, or at whose 
homes in addition to your own. 

Mr. Fleury. That is an awful tough kind of thing — well. There 
was one, Bill Pomerantz , home. 

Mr. Wheeler. Bill Pomerantz is the former executive secretary of 
the Screen Writers' Guild % 

Mr. Fleury. I believe he eventually became that ; yes. I always 
refer to him as a business agent. 

Mr. Wheeler. Congressman Jackson advised your wife that the 
committee undoubtedly has a great deal of information concerning 
all of these individuals. 

Mr. Fleury. I realize that, sir; certainly. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would be very doubtful if any additional names 
could be supplied by you and I thought that that may make it easier 
giving your testimony. We realize the circumstances you are under 
and would like to make it as easy as possible. 

Mr. Fleury. That is why I made my little statement that I would 
like you, if you could, to ask me a specific name instead of having me 
go over a whole bunch of things, because it boils down to this, that 
specifically and in so many words to my own true knowledge I don't 
know who was or who was not a party member when I was. I actually 
do not know this. 

Mr. Jackson. Let me say that there is not necessarily a connotation 
of membership in the Communist Party, or in the CPA attached to 
the names that you may mention. However, it is the duty and the 
obligation of this committee to determine the extent of membership 
and the names of those who were intimately associated with it. The 
yardstick of cooperation with the committee must necessarily be the 
extent to which any given individual is willing to cooperate with the 
committee. The future actions of the committee, when it reaches the 
city, will be hugely conditioned by the attitude and the extent of 
cooperation extended by witnesses in the executive hearings. I 
merely set that forth in order that you may know that we are not 
concerned with prosecution or persecution but we are determined to 
get to the bottom of this, and that is the job that has been assigned us 
by the Congress of the United States. 

So in that light I ask your full measure of cooperation with respect 
to people who may be entirely innocent in your eyes but who may 
even today continue in their membership in the Communist Party 
unknown to you and represent and constitute a continuing menace. 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2065 

I say that membership in the Communist Party does not necessarily 
attach to those whom you may mention. We do require the informa- 
tion and under the authority that is vested in the committee I direct 
your answer to the questions which are directed by Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Fleury. Certainly, Congressman, under those circumstances I 
certainly shall. 

Besides Pomerantz the other individuals, Mr. David Hilberman, at 
his home. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is Mr. Hilberman's occupation? 

Mr. Fleury. At present I have no idea. He is no longer in this 
area. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall his area at that time? 

Mr. Fleury. Yes. He was in the animation business. 

Mr. Wheeler. For Walt Disney? 

Mr. Fleury. I think long ago he had been ; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Mrs. Hilberman present? 

Mr. Fleury. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall her first name ? 

Mr. Fleury. Lib, I think. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend a meeting at the home of Edward 
Biberman ? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir; never. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Edward Biberman? 

Mr. Fleury. I am acquainted with him as a teacher formerly with 
Art Center School. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anybody else's home that you attended 
meetings at? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir; I don't. Those are really the only two that 
I do recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who attended these meetings? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, the individuals mentioned, naturally the homes. 
Well, they are the stand-outs. I simply don't remember, actually in 
so many words. 

Mr. Jackson. How many meetings did you attend, Mr. Fleury ? 

Mr. Fleury. Even that is indefinite, Mr. Jackson. I don't know. 
I know this, that I certainly was not a regular attendant, if you want 
to call it that. In fact, I was what would probably be called a very 
ill-disciplined member. 

Mr. Jackson. You are leaving us with the thought that out of the 
meetings that you did attend that you have no recollection of any 
names other than the two or three that you have mentioned? 

Mr. Fleury. Definitely and specifically — wait a minute. There is 
another one. A fellow by the name of John McGrew. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know how Mr. McGrew was employed? 

Mr. Fleury. He was in the animation business, also. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know where he was employed at that time ? 

Mr. Fleury. I believe Warner Bros., or Leon Schlesinger Pro- 
ductions. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the procedure used in calling one of these 
meetings ? 

Mr. Fleury. Oh, sometimes telephone — usually just telephone or 
you bumped into someone who said, "We are getting together on 
such and such a night." 

93012— 52— pt. 6 3 



2066 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Jackson. This was true in the case of all the meetings which 
you attended? 

Mr. Fleury. All that I went to; yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Someone notified you of the meeting either in passing 
conversation or by a telephone call? 

Mr. Fleury. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Let's take the meeting at your home. Did you notify 
the people? 

Mr. Fleury. No. It was a question where would we meet next 
week and Bernyce and I said, ''Let's meet at our house." 

Mr. "Wheeler. Where did you reside at that time? 

Mr. Fleury. This was at 1022 Laguna Avenue. 

Mr. Wheeler. What period of time did you reside there? 

Mr. Fleury. Oh, goodness, let's see. It would be from 1940 
until 1947. 

Mr. Wheeler. After you were discharged from the Army did you 
renew your association with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Fleury. No. I saw some of these people casually but I didn't 
have any contact with them any longer because actually when I met 
them any more my interest was not the motion-picture business, I was 
fed up to here [indicating] with it. 

Mr. Jackson. At the meeting that was held at your home, I assume 
you received the guests at the door, ushered them in. 

Mr. Fleury. Well, actually, no. In fact, I was busy stirring up a 
piece of grog at the time. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you recall any who were present at the meeting 
at your home other than those you have named? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir; I do not. That is what I am still trying to 
cudgel and find and make sure. 

Mr. Jackson. What Communist Party publications have you sub- 
scribed to? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, I suppose it is called now — I guess it always 
was — People's World, and that's all. Years and years ago — I don't 
know whether it was a subscription or whether I just bought it at 
the newsstand — I used to buy New Masses and New Republic, all at 
the same time. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you completely broken with the philosophy of 
the Communist doctrines? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, certainly. In the circumstances today. 

Mr. Jackson. The question isn't, of course, as it might sound on 
the surface. 

Mr. Fleury. Certainly, I know that. 

Mr. Jackson. There are a great number of people who haven't 
broken their association. 

Mr. Fleury. Congressman Jackson, may I make a remark here ( 

Mr. Jackson. Of course. 

Mr. Fleury. This is not just greased-pig stuff on my part when I 
say that my fundamental attraction to the party was not as a political 
party at all. It was fundamentally an endeavor at that time by many 
of us who were for the first time artists thrown into industry to try 
to arrive at some sort of adjustment between our personal problems 
brought up as artists and the problems of these fields that we were 
found iu. In order to resolve that, we looked anywhere and every- 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2067 

where for any kind of thing that would help us out. So, there was a 
certain common examination among these people with respect to that 
particular problem, which was, I remember, the essence of all meet- 
ings, and my sole interest in them. To that degree, why, I found at 
that time some, what I felt were, fairly helpful and valid ideas. I 
don't know whether they were the ideas ;is such or simply the oppor- 
tunity to discuss them and air them and discuss what to us was a very 
important problem. 

Mr. Jackson. In the light of what has since transpired, do you feel 
that there is any field of free expression and self-determination for 
the artist in communism? 

Mr. Fleury. No; I certainly do not. In fact, I found that, I think, 
one of the reasons why a very conscious and avid interest never de- 
veloped on my part in following this thing through was because the 
basic philosophy in approaching the problem of an artist and his role 
in society was entirely counter to that which I was able to think or 
that made sense. 

Mr. Jackson. What steps were ever taken by anyone with respect 
to your work in the discussion group which might lead you to believe 
that an effort was being made to influence your work, to give it, shall 
A\e say. a social message? 

Mr. Fleury. Absolutely none, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. There was no effort on the part of anyone? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Mrs. Fleury has stated that she had disagreements 
with Biberman 

Mr. Fleury. Yes; I had heard about them, too. 

Mr. Jackson (continuing). Over the approach of the artist to his 
work. I wondered whether von held any discussion with Mr. Biber- 
man or anyone else in which that philosophy, as it pertains to the 
artist and his work, was advanced. 

Mr. Fleury. Yes ; I think that on occasion the orthodox view, be- 
cause naturally it was also prominent in the literature which — I can't 
even remember — Plekhanov; I don't remember who it was; he was 
supposed to have been the great orthodox Marxist boy on art criti- 
cism. And this to me was just simply, if you wdll pardon the expres- 
sion, a red rag, because I didn't believe it. 

Mr. Jackson. Did he address at any time a discussion group? 

Mr. Fleury. Oh, no. He is dead long ago, 1890, or something- 
like that, or right at the time of the so-called Russian Revolution. 

Mr. Jackson. Pardon my abysmal ignorance on that point. 

Mr. Fleury. That's all right. 

Mr. Jackson. Was it the custom to invite people in to talk to the 
discussion groups on occasion on various phases of art ?. 

Mr. Fleury. As I remember, no. This was all sort of a self- 
contained tiling right within itself. We would bounce off each 
other as sounding boards. 

Mr. Jackson. I assume that, in common with many of the Ameri- 
can people, a great number of people, you followed the activities of 
this committee so far as the witnesses we have had before us are 
concerned ( 

Mr. Fleury. In a general way. yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you at any time met any of those who have 
been called as witnesses before the committee? 



2068 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Fleury. To my knowledge now, no ; never. In fact, many of 
them I never heard of before until during the history of this thing 
when their names have become prominent. 

Mr. Jackson. But you have not met on any occasion any of the 
witnesses we have had before us ? John Howard Lawson ? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir ; I don't believe I ever met him. 

Mr. Jackson. V. J. Jerome ? 

Air. Fleury. No, sir. I never even heard of him. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever meet any motion-picture people at 
these meetings? I am not talking about the cartoonists or those 
immediately concerned with animation. Were there any other 
fields of the motion-picture arts or the entertainment world in gen- 
eral represented at these meetings or was the membership strictly 
limited to those who were more or less and in one way or another 
connected with animation ? 

Mr. Fleury. It was purely animation, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. It was purely animation ? 

Air. Fleury. In fact, I think that we were probably considered 
pretty useless and not a very — how would you call it? — solid party 
unit by any manner of means, and we were very carefully kept 
segregated. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the amount of dues you paid, and how 
were they paid, on a monthly basis ? 

Mr. Fleury. As I remember, it was a monthly basis and it had to 
do with the amount of your earnings. I know ours, at least mine, 
were damn small. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you also pay dues for Mrs. Fleury ? 

Mr. Fleury. She paid her own. 

Mr. Jackson. To whom were the dues paid ? 

Mr. Fleury. I think on occasion, why, Pomerantz would pick them 
up, or someone. I don't know. Those major four seemed to be the 
ones who mainly collected them. Actually, I think that I was in 
arrears for most of the time that I was there. I think I only paid 
about twice. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you recall about the amount of your dues? 

Mr. Fleury. As I remember, mine was under $3. 

Mr. Jackson. A month ? 

Mr. Fleury. Yes. Very slight. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you asked at any time to introduce into the 
group any other person or persons ? 

Mr. Fleury. Not in so many words; no. There was none of the 
business of us going out and selling. If we felt that anyone might 
possibly be interested, why, we were to invite them to come around. 
I never found anyone. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever given any assignments by this group ? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Such as a book to read on which to give a lecture 
•«it a future meeting? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Francis de Erdely? 

Mr. Fleury. No, sir. Only as a name I read in the newspapers 
and as an artist and teacher here in town. 

Mr. Wheeler. This John McGrew, is it M-c G-r-e-w? 

Mr. Fleury. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2069 

Mr. Wheeler. You were at one time an instructor at the People's 
Educational Center; is that correct? 

Mr. Fleury. Oh, for a few weeks I went over to the life class for 
about 8 weeks, I think it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who requested that you assume tin- 
position ? 

Mr. Fleury. I think it was actually the fellow who was secretary, 
or something, of the school, called me because he had heard somehow 
that 1 was a life teacher and the actual person that was scheduled 
couldn't make the thing and I was agreeable to the thing. 

Mr. Jackson. Who was the individual in charge at that time? 

Mr. Fleury. It is a name I don't remember. It would have to 
be — in fact, I don't even remember the dates when I did teach these 
things. If you can tell me the dates, why, maybe I can find out gen- 
erally or think back and see if I can find out what his name was. 

Mr. Jackson. W T ho was in charge? That is, who was in direct 
charge of the People's Educational Center '. 

Mr. Fleury. That is the name I can't remember, sir. It was the 
secretary that was in charge of the school. A young guy, and I don't 
remember his name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if -this individual was Sidney Dav- 
idson ? 

Mr. Fleury. I believe so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you subscribe to the People's Daily World ? 

Mr. Fleury. You mean at this time ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, at the time during your membership. 

Mr. Fleury. Before the war, certainly. 

Mr. W'heeler. Do you recall how you were solicited to subscribe 
for this paper ? 

Mr. Fleury. Well, actually I have been buying it on the newsstand 
and just took a subscription because it was easier. 

Mr. Wheeler. At these meetings you attended did they sell liter- 
ature ? 

Mr. Fleury. Oh, yes, sure; there was always something being 
brought around. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the nature of this literature ? 

Mr. Fleury. It would be the People's World; it would be New- 
Masses magazine — that kind of thing. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions at this time, Mr. Chair- 
man. However, I would like to make the recommendation that either 
Mr. Fleury or Mrs. Fleury testify at the hearings starting September 
17. At the present time my personal reaction is that perhaps Mrs. 
Fleury should testify. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, it is so ordered. The subpena will be extended, 
and you will notify her. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to set the date for Mrs. Fleury for 
Thursday, September 20, at 2 p. m. 

Mr. Fleury. Congressman, isn't there anyone else in southern Cali- 
fornia who could do this besides my wife and myself? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Fleury, very frankly — and I am only expressing 
my own opinion — I am not convinced that the measure of your coopera- 
tion has been full and complete. It is inconceivable to me that one 
person or two people could be associated over the period of a year, 



2070 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

attend a number of meetings, including one in your own home, and be 
unable, out of that association, to remember more than the four or five 
individuals whom you have named. 

Mr. Fleury. Well, sir, those are the names that I can recall, and 
I can do no more about that. After all, this was how long ago ? Nine 
years ago ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is a matter within your own mind, obviously, 
over which we have no control. If you sincerely cannot remember 
more, of course, that is that. 

Mr. Wheeler. I want to make the remark that if Mr. Fleury and 
Mrs. Fleury discuss this more fully in the next couple of days, and 
if Mr. Fleury wants to contact me or reappear before us after he has 
additional time to think it over, perhaps he could testify, rather than 
his wife, if he desires to do that. It is not our policy to call both the 
husband and the wife before the committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Of course, the final decision must rest in the hands 
of the chairman of the committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. That's right. 

Mr. Jackson. This is purely a preliminary investigation. I would 
suggest, pending a discussion with the other members of the com- 
mittee upon their arrival, that the subpena be held open until such 
time as the matter can be discussed at greater length with the other 
members of the subcommittee. 

If you will, Mr. Fleury, keep in touch with Mr. Wheeler in the event 
that you change your address, or in order that he may be able to 
contact you. 

Mr. Wheeler. We will let both subpenas remain open until a deci- 
sion is made. 

Mr. Jackson. It is so ordered ; the subpenas will remain open. 

If in the interim, and after fuller discussion of the matter, there is 
any further information which you feel you can give the committee, 
you can communicate with Mr. Wheeler at the Roosevelt Hotel. 

Mr. Fleury. I would like very much, instead of asking me to 
volunteer information, to at least have specific questions that I get 
a chance to answer, because actually this is so remote and so forgot- 
ten that I simply do not remember, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Fleury, the matter of the identification of people 
who were associated with you in this activity at that time is a matter 
that is within your knowledge and not necessarily within the knowl- 
edge of the committee. I say that much of the information which 
has already been given is information which is already in the posses- 
sion of the committee. We are looking for additional information 
and, quite frankly, information which may not be in the possession 
of the committee. 

Mr. Fleury. Naturally, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. So far as the identifications are concerned, that is a 
matter which is entirely within your own discretion. I would hope 
that upon further consideration — and I realize how repugnant it is to 
the average person to disclose names, dates, and places; but that is 
the sum and substance of the things we must have if we are to carry 
this investigation through to a successful conclusion — again I would 
hope that after further discussion both of you can refresh your 
memories to the extent that you can contact Mr. Wheeler and give 
us some additional information with respect to those who were active 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2071 

in the CPA at that time. In the meanwhile the subpenas will be held 
open and extended awaiting the will and pleasure of the chairman of 
the committee. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess until tomorrow morning 
at 9 : 30. 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(The following sworn statement of Anne Ray Frank was given at 
2:45 p. m. to William A. Wheeler, committee investigator.) 

STATEMENT OF ANNE RAY FRANK 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name. 

Mrs. Frank. Anne Ray Frank. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside? 

Mrs. Frank; 245 Parkwood Drive, Los Angeles 24. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are appearing before the committee under sub- 
pena ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born? 

Mrs. Frank. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you give us a brief resume of your educa- 
tional background. 

Mrs. Frank. Public schools in Pennsylvania and Los Angeles, and 
Fairfax High School was my last school. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has your educational background been? 

Mrs. Frank. I went to work in 1980 for the Charles R. Hadley Co. ; 
in 1935 I went to work for the Richfield Oil Co. I was at Hadley for 
5 years, Richfield from 1935 to 1942. I worked a week for Sam 
Goldwyn as a secretary. In 1942 I went to work for MCA as a 
secretary. In 1943 I wrote for radio. 

Do you want to know who I worked for in radio ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Please. 

Mrs. Frank. I was a contributing writer to the F. Hugh Herbert 
show. Meet Corliss Archer, and I did free-lance radio writing for the 
next year and a half. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you presently married? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. To whom are you married? 

Mrs. Frank. Melvin Frank. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is Mr. Frank's occupation ? 

Mrs. Frank. He is a writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. When were you married to Mr. Frank ? 

Mrs. Frank. January 22, 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you known professionally as Anne Ray? 

Mrs. Frank. I was known professionally as Anne Ray; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Miss Ray, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall when you first joined the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Frank. The exact month I can't tell you. Somewhere in the 
spring of 1943. 



2072 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how you were introduced into the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Frank. Through a friend of mine, Mrs. Meta Rosenberg. I 
was taken to a Communist Party meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. You subsequently joined the party? 

Mrs. Frank. And I subsequently joined the party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to any particular group or unit ? 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you attend meetings for any period of time? 

Mrs. Frank. In 1943 there were two or three meetings that I went 
to in Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where these meetings were held? 

Mrs. Frank. Somewhere north of Franklin near Western. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall at whose home ? 

Mrs. Frank. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was present at these initial 
meetings ? 

Mrs. Frank. No, I don't, simply because these were, I was led to 
believe, radio people. I never saw them before and never saw them 
afterward. They were all strangers to me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you first assigned to a radio group? 

Mrs. Frank. Well, I never was formally assigned to anything. 
There were radio writers' problems discussed here, joining the guild. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what period of time did you remain with this 
radio writers' group ? 

Mrs. Frank. I remember two or three meetings, and how long, over 
what period of time I really couldn't say. 

Mr. Wheeler. You don't recall anyone in this first group? 

Mrs. Frank. No. They are all strangers to me. 

I was working in MCA from 10 o'clock in the morning until 7 in 
the evening, then I w T as working, I was writing these radio scripts for 
F. Hugh Herbert. This was my first entrance into knowing anybody 
in radio at all. I didn't know radio workers, I didn't know anybody 
who was working for radio. I wasn't included in a group because this 
was, if I can phrase it a little bit better — I wasn't officially in radio 
work. My relationship with F. Hugh Herbert was one in which I 
assisted him in connection with his literary work. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have previously testified that you attended two 
or three meetings comprised of people in the radio industry. Were 
you subsequently transferred to another group or did you attend 
meetings of another group at any time ? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. Three or four months after I joined the party I 
left for New York. While I was in New York I had no contact what- 
soever with the Communist Party or any other political organization. 

I returned to Hollywood in November 1943, where I resumed my 
radio work. The pressure of this work and my romantic involvement 
with the man who has since become my husband precluded my at- 
tending party meetings. In January 1944 I was married. Shortly 
after that I resumed attending meetings. It was then that I first 
told my husband about my membership in the party. Over his strenu- 
ous objections to my membership I continued the meetings. My 
attendance was occasional and irregular, however, amounting to no 
more than six or seven in all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where these meetings were held? 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2073 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. They were held, with the exception of perhaps 
one, at the home of Dalton Trumbo in Beverly Hills. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where the other one was held? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. The other one was held at the home of Ring 
Lardner, Jr., in Westwood. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of the individuals who at- 
tended these meetings ? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. But since at about this time the Communist 
Party was dissolved and became instead an organization known as the 
Communist Political Association, and since the meetings of the asso- 
ciation were open and for purposes of recruiting it was impossible 
then, and it is impossible now, to know just which of these people 
were party members and which were guests. However, there did seem 
to be a small group who were at all the meetings that I was at. I 
assumed then, and 1 assume now, that they were at that time members 
of the Communist Party or Communist Political Association. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you identify these individuals? 

Mrs. Frank. Well, in addition to Mr. Trumbo and Mr. Lardner I 
would say this group consisted of Richard Collins, Paul Jarrico, Gor- 
don Kahn, Harold Buchman, and Robert Rossen. I also remember 
being impressed with the eloquence of two guest speakers, Albert Maltz 
and John Howard Lawson. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you remember what Mr. Lawson and Mr. Maltz 
discussed ? 

Mrs. Frank. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you pay dues to this group? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how much your dues were? 

Mrs. Frank. I was assessed on the basis of my being a housewife 
and my dues were 25 cents a week, whether I attended the meetings or 
not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you paid the money? 

Mrs. Frank. No ; because it was a different person each time. There 
would be a period of time when someone would be the dues chairman 
and then there would be another time when someone w T ould be a dues 
chairman, and I don't recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you related to the former Mrs. Budd Schulberg, 
now Virginia Vertel '. 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. She is my sister. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know her as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Frank. No; I didn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. When you joined the Communist Party did you use 
a name other than the name Anne Ray? 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to the records of the committee you were 
registered in the Communist Party under the name of Adelaide 
Crumley. 

Mrs. Frank. No kidding? 

Mr. Wheeler. To the best of your knowledge you have never used 
the name Adelaide Crumley \ 

Mrs. Frank. Oh, no. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever hear it before? 

Mrs. Frank. Never. 

93012— 52— pt. 6 4 



2074 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Additional information developed by the committee 
reflects that in 1944 you were issued CP Card No. 36106. Do you re- 
call of ever having been issued a card ? 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir; I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall registering in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir; I don't. I got a card and I tore it up. 

Mr. Wheeler. The card was in your real name ? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. While a member of the Communist Party do you 
recall if any literature was distributed during the meetings ? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes ; it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what literature? 

Mrs. Frank. People's World, New Masses. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever subscribe to the Daily People's World ? 

Mrs. Frank. No ; I didn't subscribe to it. I might have subscribed 
to it. I remember mostly buying it at newsstands but I might have 
subscribed to it. I want to be truthful. It is certainly possible that I 
subscribed to it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever given an assignment by the Commu- 
nist Party to make a study of any given subject and later give a lecture 
on it before the group ? 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what was generally discussed at these 
meetings ? 

Mrs. Frank. Well, the evening went something like this: First 
there would be discussion of the agenda, which was ended and then 
there would be a discussion of current events. For instance, there 
would be an analysis of what was presently happening in the war, 
then a discussion of local problems. I remember particularly one 
time talking about raising money for the benefit of the Mexicans in 
the Sleepy Lagoon case, the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee. Then 
we would talk about the elections — this was an election year — and what 
we could do on a city, State, and national basis to elect candidates of 
the Democratic Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Why did you join the Communist Party, Miss Ray? 

Mrs. Frank. In the spring of 1943 the world was at war and I had 
very strong feelings about the issues involved. I was strongly anti- 
Hitler, anti-Mussolini, anti-Franco and pro-Roosevelt. I wanted 
then what I want now, a better world for the people in it. I believed 
in Franklin Delano Roosevelt and all he stood for. I was against 
racial discrimination and for social security, economic security, public 
health, and universal education. In those days I felt a peculiar sense 
of frustration at not being able to do enough to bring about this better 
world. I was led to believe that the Communist Party wanted the 
same things that I did, and in addition were doing something about it. 
That is why I joined. 

Mr. Wheeler. Why did you leave the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Frank. My husband was violently opposed to my member- 
ship in the party. We argued constantly the first few months of 
our marriage. It was his point that one could be anti-Hitler and 
pro-Roosevelt, in fact all the things I believed in, without being a 
member of the Communist Party, an organization which I began to 
realize was inordinately concerned with the welfare of the Soviet 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2075 

Union. I found that I had no answers for the questions he asked, I 
found no way to justify or reconcile a police state, a controlled press, 
one-party elections and secret police with the concepts of freedom 
and democracy, both of which are the main requirements for what I 
considered to be a decent society. 

Also, I discovered that the words "democracy" and "freedom" were 
just words as far as the Communist Party was concerned. I found 
nothing democratic in the way the meetings were held. Nothing was 
ever voted upon by the membership, we were merely told what the 
line at the moment would be and that was that. 

I began to find their rigidity of thinking intolerable. I found that 
anyone who in any way differed with whatever the party line happened 
to be at the moment was immediately and automatically termed either 
a Trotskyite, a Fascist, a reactionary, or a confused liberal. 

As I understand what the structure of the party was, the way it 
was explained to me, was that the mass of the members were the bottom 
of a pyramid and as these members elected other members the pyramid 
got smaller and there was a guy at the top, Earl Browder. But it 
never worked that way as far as I was concerned. The masses didn't 
vote on something and then the guy at the head carried out the orders 
of the people the way the President of the United States' does. It 
came from this guy at the top and trickled down and there it was, 
and that was that. You got the feeling that if you did vote on some- 
thing it wouldn't make a lot of difference anyway. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you completely sever your relationship or 
your membership in the Communist Party, or the Communist Political 
Association ? 

Mrs. Frank. Some time early in 1945 after I hadn't gone to meet- 
ings for months, Harold Buchman came to my house and asked me 
why I had stopped. 

Mr. Wheeler. What did you tell him? 

Mrs. Frank. I told him I decided to quit the party. Mr. Buchman 
agreed it was my right to do so and after he left the house I never 
again had anything to do with the Communist Party or the Commu- 
nist Political Association. 

Mr. Wheeler. Miss Ray, have you ever been a member of the Holly- 
wood Independent Citizens Committee for the Arts, Sciences, and 
Professions. 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the American 
Youth for Democracy ? 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever a pupil or instructor at the People's 
Educational Center? 

Mrs. Frank. I took two courses in history at the People's Educa- 
tional Center. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the instructor? 

Mrs. Frank. I recall what he looks like but I don't remember his 
name. 

Mr. Wheeler. What did he look like? 

Mrs. Frank. He had an English accent and he wore old-school 
ties and he was a very round guy, had quite a potbelly and wore 
peculiar vests. I don't remember his name. 



2076 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Have von ever been a member of the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee? 

.Mrs. Frank. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Hollywood 
Democratic Committee ? 

Mrs. Frank. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever contributed to any of the organi- 
zations which I have named? 

Mrs. Frank. Yes. I searched my records and I found that I wrote 
the following checks to the organizations you named and to some of 
the following. The entire list in chronological order is as follows: 
January 17, 1944, $10 to the Labor Herald; February 21, 1944, $8.80, 
Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee ; March 4, 1944, $8.15 to the Rus- 
sian War Relief ; March 6, 1944, $2.77 to the Russian War Relief; 
April 7, 1944, $10, American Youth for Democracy; June 5, 1944, 
$5, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee; June 14, 1944, $12*, Peo- 
ple's Educational Center; June 15. 1944, $5, Hollywood Democratic 
Committee; and October 5, 1944, $6, People's Educational Center. 
That is the list of the organizations to which I contributed and which 
may now be on the Attorney General's list of subversive organizations. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness may be excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

(The following sworn statement was then made by Eve Ettinger to 
William A. Wheeler, committee investigator.) 

STATEMENT OF EVE ETTINGER 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name ? 

Miss Ettinger. Eve Ettinger. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born ? 

Miss Ettinger. New York— Manhattan. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your present address? 

Miss Ettinger. 330 South Almont Drive, Los Angeles 48. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are here pursuant to subpena; is that correct? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where are you presently employed? 

Miss Ettinger. At Columbia Pictures. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your position ? 

Miss Ettinger. I am story editor. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you relate briefly your educational background ? 

Miss Ettinger. I graduated from public school and high school. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate your employment record? 

Miss Ettinger. I have been employed by Columbia Pictures for, 
I think, it is 15 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you employed before going to work for 
Columbia? 

Miss Ettinger. For a short while I was at Paramount as a secretary, 
then I came to Columbia as a reader. 

Mr. Wheeler. For a period of time you were employed in New 
York City by these organizations? 

Miss Ettinger. By Columbia. Up until May 1945 I worked in 
New York. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you work for Paramount in New York, also? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2077 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. I just got out of school. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Screen Readers' Guild in 
New York? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. I think I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. It was also known as the Screen Analysts' Guild, 
either before the Screen Readers' Guild or after? 

Miss Ettinger. 1 think so, Mr. Wheeler, 1 say I think so. I nuist 
tell you, because I was a reader for not too long a time. I never 
thought of it until you brought it up. I forgot that there was a 
Screen Readers' Guild. 

Mr. Wheeler. Miss Ettinger, a witness has appeared before the 
committee and has given testimony to the effect that the witness knew 
you as a member of the Communist Party in New York. Would you 
like to affirm or deny that statement? 

Miss Ettinger. I was. I have also tried to tell Mr. Gang, my at- 
torney, that I honestly can't remember, and yet I must have had a 
party card. I do not remember carrying one or having one. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall when you first joined the Communist 
Party \ 

Miss Ettinger. T have tried to straighten out the dates and dis- 
cussed this with Mr. Gang in trying to straighten myself out on it. 
I thought it was about 193G, but it might have been 1935. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what reason did you join the Communist Party ? 

Miss Ettinger. Mr. Wheeler, I will have to phrase it first for you, 
because I don't know whether this is what you mean. I had no— 
what is the word — no goal. All we were hearing around was what 
was going on in Europe, people being killed, people dying, and meet- 
ings being held on every single street corner in New York and adver- 
tisements of meetings being held, "We will tell you why this is going 
on in the world," and I listened to them and I went to them. Ap- 
parently I must have thought this is a way to learn what's going on, 
this is the way to find out what's happening in the world and what 
our role is in the world and what the roles were of not only minority 
groups but people who didn't want to be killed, what we could do to 
avoid it, I don't know whether that sounds silly now. I thought this 
was a place — you know, I am a great somebody who likes to sit and 
listen and have people talk at them. I thought this was a great place 
to read about the world and history and discuss it. This is what 
happened, we discussed. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Ettinger. Mr. Wheeler, again I will have to say I think it was 
to 1940. It couldn't have been later than 1941 at the latest, and 
probably earlier. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you at any time renew your membership in the 
Communist Party in California? 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you recall who asked you to join the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Ettinger. I have been trying hard to do that with Mr. Gang, 
and even though I said to Mr. Gang I remember the first name of 
this fellow well, I remember because he took me to meetings. I don't 
even know whether he was the instrumental thing that brought me 
into the party, or whether I did it. 



2078 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his first name? 

Miss Ettinger. Al. And I remember that very clearly. I remem- 
ber what he looked like. 

Mr. Wheeler. Describe him. 

Miss Ettinger. A rotund, shortish fellow who apparently had done 
a lot of reading on his own. Whether he was a member at the time 
I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall his occupation ? 

Miss Ettinger. I think, and this again I have told Mr. Gang, and 
it is conjecture on my part, I think he was a copy writer. I think 
he was writing advertising copy. I may be so wrong on that that I 
have to say, "I think." 

Mr. Wheeler. After you joined the party were you assigned to any 
particular unit or branch? 

Miss Ettinger. How I was assigned, the form it took, I am not 
sure of. I know that I think there were originally — I think I did go to 
meetings with some readers and then I don't know how it happened, 
whether they left the party or whether they moved out. There were 
changes. I cannot remember how it changed. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many different groups or units were you as- 
signed to during the period of time you were in the party ? Approxi- 
mately how many ? 

Miss Ettinger. Mr. Wheeler, may I amend that? I am not sure 
that the original group was only readers, I'm not sure of that. That, 
I can't remember. Then there was another group with people com- 
ing and going, that's all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Just two groups, then ? 

Miss Etitnger. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where any of these meetings were 
held? 

Miss Ettinger. I thought that some of the meetings were held, in 
good part, in the building on Fourth Avenue. Now, I think, it may 
not be Fourth Avenue — it's Twenty-third Street, which was a head- 
quarters building in New York. 

Mr. Wheeler. What type of headquarters? 

Miss Ettinger. The party headquarters. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals comprised the first group, 
approximately ? 

Miss Etitnger. I don't know. Maybe four, maybe five. It's hard. 
I am guessing when I tell it to you. 

Mr. Wheeler. How about the second group ? 

Miss Ettinger. I think about 10 or 12, with changes, with people 
coming and going. But I don't think it was larger than that. I don't 
think so. I have no visual memory on it, which is what disturbs me so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anybody who was in charge of these 
particular groups, either one or the other? 

Miss Ettinger. I don't think we ever had that formality. I think 
somebody would say, "We'll get together and sit and talk and read 
a book and discuss it." I have tried in these last couple of weeks 
to remember what of party activity was done, what party activity 
went on, and outside of having fights about the things that appeared 
in the weekly magazines and the discussions of what was going on in 
Europe, unless I have just forgotten I can't remember an activity. 
That seems silly, but I don't. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2079 

Mr. Wheeler. You were a member of the Communist Party when 
the Stalin-Hitler Pact was originated, were you not? That was in 
1939. 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your reaction to the Stalin-Hitler Pact? 

Miss Ettinger. I thought it was just ridiculous. This is when I 
really started shouting. This is when I thought the whole thing was 
just distasteful and I couldn't understand it. I felt I had learned 
nothing and my purpose in going to these meetings was to learn and 
I felt that I had learned nothing if this is what was going on. I 
didn't understand it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was the necessity of the signing of the Stalin- 
Hitler Pact explained in any way to you? 

Miss Ettinger. No. I think I remember reading in the magazine, 
one of the magazines, whichever it was, whether it was the Commu- 
nist-International or — what's that magazine? 

Mr. Wheeler. New Masses? 

Miss Ettinger. Or in the New Masses. One of those magazines, 
a whole explanation of the party having made a mistake, that they 
had been saying that such a thing would never happen and they said, 
"We made a mistake, we apologize," something like that, or "We 
didn't understand the situation and we have been put straight." I 
can't even paraphrase the words. This is, you know, what I consid- 
ered a real joke. Except up to then it had been a period of stress 
and strain, and this may be what everybody says. I don't know if 
everybody has this excuse, but mine is not an excuse; it's just the 
truth. I mean I don't know if everybody who talks to you says, "You 
know, I never agreed," but I didn't. I was in a constant turmoil of 
fighting. But it is hard when you do something you are ashamed of, 
you just don't put your hat on and walk away and say, "Maybe I am 
not so smart, how do I know all the answers?" So you wait around 
and listen, and you fight some more, and finally I realized that it was 
just silly, a silly thing and I agreed with nothing. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know George Willner in New York City? 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any of the individuals 
who comprised these groups which you attended ? 

Miss Ettinger. Mr. Wheeler, it's 15 years — it's a long time, it is 
hard for me to remember. It is something that was a whole unpleas- 
ant period of my life that I wanted to forget. I just wish I hadn't 
waited this long, but I did, and it has just left a whole blank, like 
questions about groups and things which I can't even remember. I 
did know Lee Sabinson. I have a recollection of Lee Sabinson dis- 
appearing, and I had a feeling that he was gone forever, I don't know. 
I have seen him in the years past, he has come to Hollywood and 
he has produced plays. But there was never a political discussion, 
never a conservation, but never. I had assumed that he was either 
out or gone. I know he went to Europe for a while. 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew Mr. Sabinson in these groups? 

Miss Ettinger. I knew him in the beginning of the group or toward 
the beginning of the group, yes. I did know Nick Bela. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is Nicholas Bela? 

Miss Ettinger. Nicholas Bela. 



2080 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

» 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. I did know Lester Fuller. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lester Fuller is a writer? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. I did not know the man as a writer. I had a 
feeling that Lester Fuller was all through. I had never discussed him. 
I had a feeling that he was as displeased as I was and then I didn't see 
him for many years. I met him around Hollywood and said, "Hello." 
Never — whether he was avoiding the subject or I was avoiding the sub- 
ject, just this was a part of my past I had wiped out. 

Then he was brought into the studio on a job last year by somebody 
else. I didn't bring him in. I didn't do anything about it. It was 
many years since I had been in the party. I could assume that it was 
many years since I hadn't seen him since he had been in the party. 
How could I go and say to the producer, "You can't hire this man be- 
cause he is a party member," because 1 didn't know. I had no idea. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Martin Berkeley as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Ettinger. For a short time I think I did. In thinking back 
about Martin, I knew him in New York when he was writing a play 
with a woman that I knew, whose name I know well because we bought 
a book of hers — there is no reference of the party — and I thought 
maybe I knew him because of that. I thought maybe that was the tie. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet John Howard Lawson in New 
York City? 

Miss Ettinger. Never. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anybody else that you knew as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Ettinger. I recall a guy that I knew as Dave. Some people 
just call themselves by a first name that I didn't know. I must have 
been awful naive, because I thought people just knew Eve, too. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was Dave's occupation, do you recall? 

Miss Ettinger. No. I didn't know the occupations of most of the 
group. I doubt very much, outside of the few people that I have 
discussed with you, that they belonged to any of the companies. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know any actors to be members of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Miss Ettinger. You mean stage actors, Hollywood actors? 

Mr. Wheeler. Stage actors or screen actors. 

Miss Ettinger. No, I had nothing to do with actors so I wouldn't 
have come in contact with them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Most of the people you knew then were readers? 

Miss Ettinger. And later on I knew agents and publishers and some 
writers, naturally, who came to me. 

Mr. Wheeler. I am referring to people in the Communist Party 
group. 

Miss Ettinger. I'm sorry. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. There were no actors in the Communist Party that 
you knew? 

Miss Ettinger. Not that I knoAv of. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know any agent in the Communist Party? 

Mis Ettinger. Not that I know of. You mean literary agents? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. In New York City. 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2081 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know any agents that represent people who 
are members of the Communist Party t 

Miss Ettinger. You will have to rephrase that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know any agents of people in New York? 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know any producers to be members of the 
Communist Party, while in New York City? 
» Miss Ettinger. You mean stage producers? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know any movie producers? 

Miss Ettinger. No. I didn't know any movie producers — period, 
except when people would come on from the East and stop in the office 
and say "hello. 15 But that isn't knowing them. 

Mr. Wheeler. After you left the Communist Party were you ever 
asked to rejoin? 

Miss Ettinger. I think they were glad to get rid of me, I really do, 
I was, without realizing it, very troublesome because I used to ask 
questions and get up and argue, and I guess I was a pain in the neck. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did anybody ever ask you to rejoin? 

Miss Ettinger. Nobody ever came near me again. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with George Willner? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. I have to be, because I am a story editor and 
he came up to my office, and that's how I met him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did George Willner ever suggest to you that you hire 
certain people? 

Miss Ettinger. Never discussed a political thing with me. 

Mr. Wheeler. That wasn't the question. Listen to the question, 
please. 

Miss Ettinger. Well, naturally he had a list of writers that he was 
representing. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you think that George Willner knew that you 
were at one time a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Ettinger. I have no idea. I don't know how he could know. 
Not from me, certainly. Now, maybe somebody may have told him, 
how do I know ? You know, I can't imagine what information he had. 
I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did he ever discuss with you communism or politics? 

Miss Ettinger. Never. 

Mr. Wheeler." Did he ever make any reference to whether he was 
a member of the party ? 

Miss Ettinger. Never. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did he ever ask you whether you ever had been a 
member of the party ? 

Miss Ettinger. Never. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you hire many of the writers which he repre- 
sented ? 

Miss Ettinger. I must have over a period of years hired writers 
that he represented. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you favor him in any way in regard to hiring 
writers ? 



93012— 52— pt. 6- 



2082 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Miss Ettinger. Mr. Wheeler, I never favored agents. I favored 
writers with agents but it never came about because anybody belonged 
to an agency. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you any statement to make about George 
Willner and your business relationship with him? 

Miss Ettinger. You mention George Willner and that makes me 
feel that I have to tell you a conversation that I had at Columbia with 
Mr. Kahane, who is one of our vice presidents. Mr. Kahane aske$ 
me about my relationship with George Willner. 

Mr. Wheeler. When i 

Miss Ettinger. During the period I had left Columbia, which was 
from May 1947 until the end of November 1947. This was one of 
the biggest shocks of my life because I had no association with George 
Willner. Mr. Kahane said he had gotten information from somebody 
who claimed that when I left Columbia it was for the purpose of 
going into business with George Willner, and I was going to get 
young writers to write scripts and I was going to sell these scripts to 
the studio with the writer, and presumably these writers were going 
to be Communists. This is, of course, ridiculous and I was amused 
by it at the time because I didn't realize the implications in it. But 
1 told him the whole story, and he knew- it, and I have not only the 
man I went into business with, but I have people in town whom I 
discussed relationship with this job, what I should do about it, who 
know about it. 

I was unhappy at the time I came out here, I was sensitive, I was 
frightened. This was a new world to me and I came into a job in 
which I had to learn. I had to learn screen play writing, 1 had to 
learn how to choose writers. I came without preparation for it. Mr. 
Cohn called me one day and said, "Do you want to come out? 
Make up your mind in a day," and the next day I made up my mind. 
I hadn't done much script reading in New York and I certainly 
didn't know Hollywood writers, so I didn't know their capabilities, 
which meant I just had to kill myself to read every script that came 
in the studio and call up agents and say, "Give me scripts of these 
writers," so that when I was asked to name writers or suggest writers 
that I would be prepared. Since I am, I hate to say it, you know, 
high-strung, I couldn't take it in stride for a while and at the end 
of the second year I went to Mr. Cohn and I said, "I want to be let 
out of my contract." He told me he thought I was doing a foolish 
thing and I said, "Maybe I am, but the only way I can find out is by 
doing it." 

Now, the reason I left is because, again I am being naive, there was 
a man who had worked for Columbia, he was an assistant to Mr. Cohn, 
and he left to join Nat Goldstone, and that is Milton Pickman. Milton 
had, whether Avell placed or not, a high regard for me. He thought 
I knew writers, he thought that I knew scripts. I had often talked 
to him about a dream of buying my own stories, hiring writers, writ- 
ing scripts and selling them to studios at enormous prices, because an 
agent in town, ("barley Feldman, would sell scripts for $100,000 and 
$150,000. And I thought, "I really know how to develop scripts, why 
shouldn't I do it." I had visions of being very rich. 

So Milton's idea was that we would form a company, he would 
get part of the business, I would get part of the business, and he would 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2083 

get a backer whom he knew, and whose name I don't know — you will 
have to get it from him if necessary — to supply the money and for 
which we would all share in the company. We decided that since 
we wanted to make the big profits that I would hire a writer and 
be very fair, pay him the salary he would be getting at the studio, 
not cut him down as independents very often try to do, get them at 
a cheaper price because they weren't working. I said, "I will find 
out what this writer's last salary at the studio was and I will pay it 
to him so that I have no obligation to him if I sell a script at a great 
deal of money and he says it is not fair.'' I had no obligation, he 
was paid his regular salary just as he would be at a studio. 

It sounded good but some of my friends were very dubious about 
it. Milton asked me how much I thought I needed and I said, "Milton, 
to go along for a year to buy stories, because I don't know how much 
stories would cost, novels, I can work on some original ideas, but I 
had some things to sell the studio and I couldn't. I liked them. I 
felt I could produce with a writer a very workable script which would 
sell," I said, "to do that we have to count on the fact that maybe we 
won't sell a script for a year. We need $50,000," which was going 
to pay me partial salary so I could live, pay the writer his salary, and 
naturally we were going to work at a very minimum. We were going 
to get writers for $250, $300 a week. Unless there was somebody 
I was so crazy about that I would be willing to give him a piece of the 
picture. 

Since we didn't want to spend money Milton suggested that he 
would talk to Nat Goldstone about giving me a room that I could 
use. And he said to Nat, "If you let her maybe she will let you sell 
the scripts for her," because I didn't want to be a salesman, I didn't 
want to be an agent. I told Milton at the time that he must not 
promise this to Nat definitely, but if things worked out maybe I 
would let Nat sell it for me. 

I got an office, I got a writer who was not a Goldstone writer. I 
was working on a story that we were trying to sell. We finally cut 
it down to $25,000 because Milton said he couldn't get it. I said, 
"Milton, I will try it." Then he came to me, after giving me his 
own checks for the writer at $250 a week, and he said, "I can't get 
the money." He even had the lawyer there, who is a lawyer and 
accountant, who was going to draw up an agreement. I said, "Milton, 
I am going to can this writer, you haven't any money and I am not 
going to ask him to work for nothing." 

Mr. Wheeler. Who was the writer you had ? 

Miss Ettinger. The writer was, I think, a fellow by the name of 
Bill Roberts and his agent was the JafFe office. 

Mr. Wheeler. Bill Robarts is not the same individual as Stanley 
Roberts? 

Miss Ettinger. No, no. William Roberts. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did George Willner have anything to do with this 
business deal ? 

Miss Ettinger. Nothing. He didn't know the writers I hired, he 
didn't know the story, but he was working 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have any business contact with him ? 

Miss Ettinger. None. But he knew I was working — he was work- 
ing for the Nat Goldstone Agency so he knew I was in the office there. 
I wouldn't even let him know the stories I was working on. 



2084 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Then the whole thing was no good and I even left the office. I kept 
the office for a week or two and stayed there because I wanted to make 
phone calls, I have a place to sit and worry. 

Mr. Wheeler. When was this? 

Miss Ettinger. 1947. 

Mr. Wheeler. You severed your relationship with Columbia for 
a few weeks and then you went back ? 

Miss Ettinger. No. For about 6 months. Mr. Colin called me up 
and said, "You made a mistake." I realized full well. Not being 
prepared for the big entrepreneur I thought I was going to be, he said, 
"You made a mistake," and I went back. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know John Weber? 

Miss Ettinger. I knew him as an agent ; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know John Weber in New York City? 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have any dealings with John Weber? 

Miss Ettinger. He used to come up to see us occasionally. We had 
very infrequent business dealings, as a matter of fact, because he is a 
great — he was a great telephone talker and I used to complain to him 
because he never came up. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know John Weber as a member of the Com- 
munist Party in New York ? 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you think John Weber knew at one time that you 
were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Ettinger. I have no idea. I didn't even know he came from 
New York. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was any pressure ever exerted on you from either 
John Weber or George Willner in regard to hiring writers? 

Miss Ettinger. Just the normal pressure of an agent saying, "This 
is a good writer." 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you, prior to coming here to testify, made a 
record of all of the writers who have been employed at Columbia 
Studios, either by Columbia Pictures Corp. or by independent com- 
panies releasing through Columbia? 

Miss Ettinger. The independent companies are not on that list. 
I can get that for you if you want it. I made it up, but since we have 
nothing to do with hiring them, not even suggesting them, I thought 
maybe that that was not 

Mr. Wheeler. You have prepared then 

Miss Ettinger. If you want that I will get it for you. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is not necessary. You have, however, gone 
through the records from the time you came to Columbia in 1945, up 
until the last date prior to giving your testimony, to check the names 
of all writers who have worked for Columbia Pictures Corp. ? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you now explain the method by which writers 
are engaged by Columbia Pictures Corp. ? 

Miss PvrTiNGER. Well, there are many, you know, starting points. 
But we will start at a point of buying a story. 

We buy a story and Mr. Colin O. K.'s it and we finally make the 
deal and' it is assigned to a producer. Then the producer sits down 
with me, or with my assistant — my associate. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is his name ? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 20S5 

Miss Ettinger. Arthur Kramer. We discuss various writers, we 
get their cards out, what they have done, what kind of stories, how 
many screen plays they have done, whether they were good pictures. 
And on the basis of that Ave pick out a list of the most suitable for that 
particular kind of a story. Then the producer says, "Well, let's get 
him and him and him in." He talks to all these people. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who calls them in? 

Miss Ettinger. Either I do or Arthur, or sometimes I have my 
secretary make the date. It is very informal. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who talks to them when they come in, you or your 
assistant or the producer? 

Miss Ettinger. They go to the producer. Sometimes they come 
down and tell me they have talked to the producer. Most of the 
times the producer calls me and says it was unsatisfactory, or satis- 
factory, or, "I like this guy and let's talk to Mr. Cohn." Then we get 
an O. K. If it is a project that Mr. Cohn isn't handling it is for Mr. 
Kahane. After they O. K. it they start to work for the producer and 
I practically never see them again. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who makes the deal after they are O. K.'d by Mr. 
Cohn, Mr. Kahane, or the producer ? 

Miss Ettinger. I make the deal with the agent. 

Mr. Wheeler. That has to do with terms and conditions and money 
and so forth? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. Usually we know writers' salaries. It's a 
week-to-week deal. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many names are on this list that you have 
compiled ? 

Miss Ettinger. There are over 900 names on that list. 

Mr. Wheeler. With your permission I would like to review the 
list and just give the number of individuals who from our recollection 
have been identified as members of the Communist Party. Miss Et- 
tinger, I have reviewed the list of names which you have compiled, on 
which you state there are over 900 individuals, and I have recognized 
38 as having been identified as having been members of the Commun- 
ist Party. 

Miss Ettinger. Maybe about 925 or 930. 

Mr. Wheeler. I want to ask you a question again. Was any pres- 
sure ever exerted on you by anyone to hire any writer by reason of 
Communist Party affiliations? 

Miss Ettinger. Mr. Wheeler, I can truthfully say never, or I was 
so dumb that I didn't recognize the signs. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anybody else now whom you remem- 
ber as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Ettinger. I just can't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Don't you think it is a bit unusual for a person to 
be a member of the Communist Party for a period of 4 years and only 
remember about four or five individuals? 

Miss Ettinger. It may be, but it is a long time ago. This is not 
something I want to remember; it is something that I wanted to forget. 
And people, maybe they weren't there long enough, maybe I didn't 
know more than first names, maybe they moved around and others 
came in and came out, so I never got to know anybody thoroughly. 
These people, even though I joined, were never people that I asso- 



2086 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

ciated with in any social way. I went to a meeting and I went away 
from a meeting and I never saw them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you give this question further thought, and 
in case you remember any you will notify me. 

Miss Ettinger. I will be glad to. 

Mr. Wheeler. Miss Ettinger, why did you get out of the Commu- 
nist Party? Will you explain the reasons why you disaffiliated your- 
self with the Communist Party? 

Miss Ettinger. Because it took me all that time to make up my 
mind to just forget about it, because I disagreed on every point, I 
wasn't interested in having a separate — I am trying to remember 
some of the things that we studied that minority groups were going 
to have a choice of their own country in America, they were going 
to have a Negro America or Chinese America, or something else. I 
wasn't interested in this nonsense. I was interested in people living 
together. 

The whole thing — this was only the beginning, the arguments, the 
nonsensical statements about world affairs. I disagreed with every- 
thing they thought was great for America and I disagreed with what 
was being done over the world. I was disgusted with the debating 
society because statements would appear in the magazines and news- 
papers and we would discuss them and I would disagree with them. 
I would be called names, I was a crooked thinker, I didn't think 
straight, I was not bright enough, I didn't understand. And this 
happened from the very beginning. 

Finally when it came to really important world events, the happen- 
ings in Spain, the Hitler-Stalin pact, I knew that I could no longer 
sit there and be unhappy, I had to do something about it and I went 
away and never came back. 

Mr. Wheeler. In other words, what made you unhappy about this 
Hitler-Stalin pact was the party which professed to be anti-Hitler 
and for minority groups made a treaty with Hitler? 

Miss Ettinger. Made a treaty with people they were supposed to 
be against. So I couldn't believe anything. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the explanation that the treaty was one of ex- 
pediency only offend your sense of decency, if you can remember? 

Miss Ettinger. Even more than that. I believed that everything 
they said was a lie anyway, because it was all expediency, everything 
that happened and switched around from day to day was because it 
was right that day. So I never knew when they were right and I was 
right. And I decided this was not for me. 

Mr. Wheeler. After you left the Communist Party were you ever 
asked by anyone to rejoin, either in New York or in Hollywood ? 

Miss Ettinger. You mean after I was formally out? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Ettinger. Never. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to refer back to the list of names you 
have compiled regarding the writers that were hired by Columbia 
Studios and ask you several questions regarding some of the indi- 
viduals. I notice here that on October 24, 1946, Ben Barzman was 
hired. Do you recall the circumstances under which he was hired? 

Miss Ettinger. No. I called the producer for whom he worked at 
the time because it is 5 years ago. We tried to recall why this man 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2087 

was hired. It may have been we looked at his record and thought 
maybe he could write that kind of a story. Neither of us could re- 
member. I tried. I called him on this; I called the producer for 
whom these writers worked to try to refresh my memory. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who was the producer? 

Miss Ettinger. Jules Schermer. He is no longer at Columbia; he 
is at Fox. 

Mr. Wheeler. I notice Leonardo Bercovici was hired on March 6, 
1950. Do you recall that ? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes. A deal was made on Leonardo Bercovici 
between Sylvan Simon and, I think, Ray Starck. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have anything to do with that ? 

Miss Ettinger. No. Ray talked to Sylvan. 

Mr. Wheeler. I notice Martin Berkeley was hired in May 1945. 
Do you recall the circumstances? 

Miss Ettinger. I had just arrived in Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. You had nothing to do with that? 

Miss Ettinger. I had nothing to do with that. 

Mr. Wheeler. This list also reflects that Alvah Bessie was hired in 
December 1946. Do you recall the circumstances under which he was 
hired ? 

Miss Ettinger. I discussed that with the producer Jules Schermer. 
We couldn't remember why he was hired, whether it was because he 
was fit for that job or what. I have a recollection that he may have 
written a book on Spain and we thought that that would fit in be- 
cause this was a story about Spain. I looked up this story but I didn't 
look up his card. I got so mixed up that I forgot. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your attitude regarding qualified writers 
who presently cooperate with the committee? 

Miss Ettinger. I can answer that only by saying that writers hired 
by Columbia, since I suggest them, are hired purely on the basis of 
their talent. 

Mr. Wheeler. No reflection 

Miss Ettinger. Absolutely none. 

Mr. Wheeler. No reflection will be cast upon them because of their 
cooperation ? 

Miss Ettinger. Absolutely none. We are desperate for good 
writers and that is the way we hire them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lester Fuller was hired on October 11, 1949, by 
Columbia. Do you recall the circumstances under which he was 
hired ? 

Miss Ettinger. 1949 ? I looked at that, I saw it wrong. I thought 
it was 1950. 

Mr. Wheeler. A Day in the Life of a Detective. Do you remember 
about that? 

Miss Ettinger. Yes; I do remember. We had a man at the studio, 
who is no longer there, Erwin Gelsey. Erwin was a man who had 
worked on the script after the writers worked on it. He worked very 
close with Jerry Bresler who had A Day in the Life of a Detective. 
It was just a title, and no story. Jerry had gone through severe 
headaches because we had a writer on it for quite a while and nothing 
had happened or come through to satisfy Mr. Colin. I remember this 
because I was upset about it, I felt it my function, and Erwin had 



20S8 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

done it. Erwin met Lester Fuller and said that he thought he was 
very bright, and he talked to Jerry about the job. Jerry asked me to 
call his agent, who was George Willner, and have him come in. He 
talked to him, he liked him. He said, "I will get an O. K.," which 
he did, and Lester Fuller came to work. 

I again say, I don't know if you want it, that I hadn't talked to 
Lester in 10 or 11 years, I had no idea what his party affiliations were. 
I occasionally passed him in Hollywood as I pass 85 percent of the 
people and said, "Hello." I had not discussed anything with him, 
he was not my friend. I couldn't go to the producer and say, "This 
man is a Communist." I didn't know. Just as I knew I no longer 
was. 

Mr. Wheeler. I don't believe it is necessary to go over the entire 
list of 38 names with you ; however, I would like to ask you again if 
any pressure was ever exerted upon you to hire anybody because of 
his past or present party affiliations? 

Miss Ettinger. Mr. Wheeler, I don't think so. I don't think so. 
May I add something to that ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Ettinger. The agents in this town, and they sometimes make 
fun of it, know how tough I am on hiring writers, because how sure 
I make that he is right for the job and how sure I make that he has 
talent before he is hired. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Arts, Sciences 
and Professional Council? 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been affiliated with the People's 
Educational Center? 

Miss Ettinger. What is that ? I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you belong to the Motion Picture Democratic 
Committee? 

Miss Ettinger. I don't think so. Is that an organization out here? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions Council? 

Miss Ettinger. Is that an organization out here ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you contributed any money to any of these 
organizations I have mentioned? 

Miss Ettinger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you like to add something in addition to 
what you have testified to, that you have not been questioned about? 

Miss Ettinger. In concluding this testimony I would like to get 
into the record, in synopsis form, the reasons that I became a member 
of the Communist Party and why I left. 

I never thought I was joining any party that was trying to over- 
throw the Government, or that was anti-American in any way. I 
thought I was joining a party which would explain the troubles of 
the world and be better able to understand it, and I found I was join- 
ing a debating society where peop^ told me what to think and when 
1 refused to think that way I was wrong and I was maligned and it 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2089 

look me time to get the courage to put my hat on and go home, but 
finally I realized I had to and that's what I did. I haven't changed 
since then. I feel that it is just something I don't believe in, could 
never subscribe to, wouldn't give a nickel if that is what they needed to 
keep going. 

Mr. Wheeler. From what you read of the Communist Party in 
the last 5 or 6 years, what is your opinion on it? 

Miss Ettinger. The last 5 years, with the war in Korea, seems to 
have made this not a debating society but an active adjunct of the 
Soviet Union in foreign policy. 

(Whereupon the statement of Eve Ettinger was completed.) 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF HOLLYWOOD MOTION- 
PICTURE INDUSTRY— PART 6 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER, 11, 1951 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

EXECUTIVE SESSION 

A special subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties met pursuant to call at 9: 50 a. m., in conference room C, at the 
Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Donald L. 
Jackson, presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present : Thomas W. Beale, assistant counsel (appear- 
ance noted in transcript) and William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Wheeler, will you call the witness ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Robert Shayne. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you stand and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give this subcom- 
mittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Shayne. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT SHAYNE (ROBERT SHAEN DAWE) 

Mr. Shayne. Gentlemen, I don't know why I'm here but I am pre- 
pared to give you every cooperation that I can. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you please state your full name. 

Mr. Shayne. Robert Shayne. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is that your professional name? 

Mr. Shayne. That is my professional name. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your true name ? 

Mr. Shayne. Robert Shaen Dawe, D-a-w-e. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Shayne. I was born October the 4th, 1900, in Yonkers, N. Y. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you give us a brief resume of your educational 
background. 

Mr. Shayne. I went through high school in Washington, D. C, and 
2 years of Boston University in business administration and one 
summer course at Chicago University. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has been your employment record since leaving 
school ? 

Mr. Shayne. Oh, it has been quite varied. 

2091 



2092 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, briefly. 

Mr. Shayne. The last 25 years — nearly 25 years — I have been an 
actor. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate briefly what studios you have been 
under contract for. 

Mr. Shayne. The only studio I have been under contract for is 
Warner Bros. I came out here in February of 1943 under contract 
to them, and that contract was terminated in July 1945. I have been 
a free-lance actor ever since. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are vou presently employed ? 

Mr. Shayne. No. Well, I am and I am not. You cut me out of a 
job by subpenaing me today. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who is your agent? 

Mr. Shayne. Mr. Sam Armstrong. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Shayne, during the investigation in Hollywood, 
information has been developed that you were at one time a member of 
the Communist Party. Is that a statement of fact? 

Mr. Shayne. One time a member ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Shayne. That is a statement of fact, yes. I was a member of 
the Communist Party back in 1935, if you want to call it that, in New 
York City during the depths of the depression. I was not a member 
any longer, I suppose, than — oh, a few weeks or a few months. In 
1936 I tore up my card and never paid dues to the organization. I 
don't imagine I attended more than — oh, a half a dozen meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Screen Actors' Guild? 

Mr. Shayne. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever hold any offices in the Screen Actors' 
Guild? 

Mr. Shayne. I was on the board of directors of the Screen Actors' 
Guild at one time. 

Mr. Wheeler. What year was that? You were appointed to the 
board on March 4, 1945; is that right? 

Mr. Shayne. Well, that sounds right. I am not sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. Then in September 1945, you ran for office and were 
elected to the board for a period of 1 year? 

Mr. Shayne. That sounds right, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. All right. The following year you didn't run. 
Could you tell us why ? 

Mr. Shayne. I was not nominated by the nominating committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, did you have any discussion with anybody in 
the Screen Actors' Guild that requested you not to run? 

Mr. Shayne. Requested me not to run ? 

Mr. Wheeler. That's right. 

Mr. Shayne. No. So far as I can recall, there was no request made 
for me not to run. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party in Hollywood? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. Unqualifiedly, unequivocally, no, and I am 
not interested in becoming a member of the Communist Party at any 
time in the future. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, let's go back to 1935. Will you relate the cir- 
cumstances, how you became a member. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2093 

Mr. Shayne. Well, it is very difficult to bring back all the circum- 
stances of 16 years ago, Mr. Wheeler. It would be impossible for me 
to do so accurately. I will do so to the best of my ability. 

Mr. Wheeler. To the best of your ability, yes. 

Mr. Shayne. If you will recall the emotional excitement of 1934 
and 1935 and all those years in there when we were in the midst of 
a terrible depression, unemployment was quite rampant, and those 
circumstances were not peculiar to the acting profession any more 
than they were to any other field of activities in the United States, 
and I was one of the ones who was suffering a great deal of unemploy- 
ment, and there were no minimum wages, no pay for rehearsals, and 
no adequate protection against being fired from a part by a producer 
and to replace you with an actor at a lower salary if the play was a 
success, and there was considerable agitation among members of the 
Actors' Equity Association, of course, if you recall that climate for 
those things, and during the course of that — during that period I 
must have run into somebody who thought I was a ripe plum for 
picking and, in any event, I was given a copy by somebody of a book 
called The Coming Struggle for Power by Strachey. I forget his 
first name. John, or something. 

Mr. Jackson. John Strachey. 

Mr. Shayne. John Strachey, and it made quite an impression on 
me, and one thing led to another, and I was invited down to the 
Workers' School by somebody — I don't remember whom — on Twelfth 
Street or Fourteenth ; somewhere in that area. I went to a number 
of courses — rather, classes, and was, I suppose you would call it, in- 
doctrinated. In any event, after some period of time — I suppose it 
was 2 or 3 months — it was suggested that I join the Party, that that 
was a good way to get the things that the actors were working for. 
So I, being fairly gullible, must have signed a card or an application, 
because to all intents and purposes, so far as I know, I became a mem- 
ber. I was given a card, but I destroyed that card some months later 
and, as I say, I never paid dues in the Party because I quickly became 
disillusioned with the secrecy of the whole procedure and the fact that 
I was supposed to give a fictitious, and 1 believe I did give a ficti- 
tious name, but that completely disillusioned me, and I have never 
been interested or at all active in any Communist Party activity since 
the spring of 1936. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who actually recruited you in the 
movement at that time? 

Mr. Shayne. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Shayne. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. You recall no one. 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. That was 16 years ago. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Anti-Nazi 
League? 

Mr. Shayne. No. 

Mr. Whesler. The Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of 
the Arts, Sciences, and Professions? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Hollywood Democratic Committee? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. 



2094 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Hollywood Motion Picture Democratic Committee ? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Arts, Sciences, and Professions? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. People's Educational Center? 

Mr. Shayne. I went to school there once 3 or 4 years ago and took 
a screen-writing course, but that's all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the instructor was ? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. May we have a few minutes recess, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes; declare a 5-minute recess. If you [addressing 
witness] will hold yourself available outside the committee room, 
please. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Shayne, you say that at the time of the service 
•of the subpena you had some work which was effective and that you 
were out of a job as a result of the service of this subpena ? 

Mr. Shayne. That's correct. 

Mr. Jackson. Where was that job? 

Mr. Shayne. I was employed at Superman Productions, television 
film over at the RKO-Pathe Studios. My producers told me that they 
asked for a postponement so that I could do the job yesterday, today, 
and tomorrow, but if they talked with someone it was declined. 

Mr. Wheeler. They didn't talk to me. 

Mr. Shayne. I might add that while you are asking me this, that 
I consider the way the subpena was served upon me as not in the best 
of, let us say, spirit. 

Mr. Jackson. We have tried serving subpenas in the best of spirit 
on a number of people. The next we hear of them they are in Mexico 
or France, or something. 

Mr. Shayne. Well, the point I want to make is that the subpena 
had my residence address on it. I could have been served out there 
just as easily without it being brought to such — the attention of 
studio employees, because the fact that a person is called before this 
committee, although they may be friendly or not, far too often is 
tantamount to being guilty of something or other, whatever that 
may be. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, of course, the assumption or any assumptions 
that are left in the minds of the American people as a refusal of 
witnesses to testify is a logical assumption and, more often than not, 
correct. At least, that has been our experience in the committee. 
We certainly have no desire to persecute or prosecute anyone. 

Mr. Shayne. I have no employment. 

Mr. Jackson. Instead of blaming the committee, I think a lot of 
the witnesses would be well advised to blame themselves for not look- 
ing around to see where they were going some years ago. However, 
that is not in line with the questioning I wanted to continue. You 
say that you don't know who recruited you into the party ? 

Mr. Shayne. I do not remember, no. 

Mr. Jackson. How many meetings did you attend during the 
course of time you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Shayne. I think I answered that. So far as I can recall, it 
must have been a half a dozen. 

Mr. Jackson. Where were these meetings held, Mr. Shayne ? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2095 

Mr. Siiayne. In homes in New York City. 

Mr. Jackson. In whose homes? 

Mr. Shayne. I don't remember. 

Mr. Jackson. You mean you left your place of residence and 
started out for a home, not knowing to whom that home belonged? 

Mr. Shayne. Oh, no, naturally not, but I say I cannot remember 
whose home it was 16 years later. 

Mr. Jackson. Were these people with whom you were associated 
in the party all members of the acting profession ? 

Mr. Shayne. That I couldn't say. I don't know. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you know whether any of them were connected 
with the acting profession? 

Mr. Shayne. Some of them said they were, but I didn't know them. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever meet John Garfield during that period 
of time ? 

Mr. Shayne. Not during that period of time, no. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you later meet John Garfield ?_ 

Mr. Shayne. I must know half of the people in Hollywood as a 
result of my working in pictures and in 9 years 

Mr. Jackson. Did you meet Mr. Garfield in Hollywood? 

Mr. Shayne. I met Mr. Garfield when he was under contract at the 
Warner Bros, lot when I was also there under contract. 

Mr. Jackson. Now, I believe you stated that you took a course at 
the People's Educational Center. 

Mr. Shayne. That's correct. 

Mr. Jackson. You took a course in what? 

Mr. Shayne. In screen writing. 

Mr. Jackson. In screen writing? 

Mr. Shayne. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. How many classes did you attend in that course ? 

Mr. Siiayne. I attended one term. I suppose it was a half a year 
or semester, whatever you call it. 

Mr. Jackson. Who gave that course? 

Mr. Shayne. I don't remember the instructor's name. 

Mr. Jackson. You attended a half a semester ? 

Mr. Shayne. That's correct. 

Mr. Jackson. In a class in screen writing? 

Mr. Shayne. That is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. And you have no recollection of 

Mr. Shayne. All I can remember is that it was a woman, but I 
don't remember her name. 

Mr. Jackson. Was this the same instructor over that period? 

Mr. Shayne. I think so, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, Mr. Shayne, that to me is an astounding state- 
ment, that a man of intelligence could attend a semester in a class in 
screen writing and during all that period of time not come to know 
the name of the instructor. 

Mr. Shayne. Well, I don't think there is anything astounding 
about it, sir. It was 5 years ago, or thereabouts. I can't remember 
the names of everybody I meet or everybody I have come in contact 
with any more than you can. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Shayne, I remember the teachers who taught me 
in the fifth grade. 



2096 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Shayne. Well, you have a remarkable memory for that sort of 
thing. I apparently don't. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, I beg to differ with you on that particular point. 
Did you also attend, you say, the Workers' School? 

Mr. Shayne. In New York, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. In New York '4 

Mr. Shayne. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Not in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Shayne. Not in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Jackson. How long did you attend the Workers' School ? 

Mr. Shayne. Well, as I said before, I don't recall the exact time, 
but as near as I can recall it must have been — oh, 3 or 4 months. 

Mr. Jackson. What particular studies were you pursuing in the 
Workers' School ? 

Mr. Shayne. It was just a general lecture course. 

Mr. Jackson. A general lecture course ? 

Mr. Shayne. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you recall the names of any of them who gave 
lectures during the period of time you were in attendance? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir, I don't. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever know a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Shayne. Did I ever know one? 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever know of your own knowledge a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shayne. Well, the people that procured me must have been, 
but what their names are, as I say, I don't remember. Since I have 
been out here in Hollywood I couldn't tell you who was a member of 
the Communist Party or who wasn't. I have no knowledge, because 
I do not — I have not discussed politics or political affiliations with any- 
body. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, how about the period of time you were in New 
York? Did you know of your own personal knowledge any indi- 
vidual 

Mr. Shayne. Not that I can recall, no, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you in the Armed Forces? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you been in the Armed Forces? 

Mr. Shayne. I am 50 years of age. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, as I say, we have no desire to persecute anyone 
in the course of this investigation, and these preliminary hearings 
are for the purpose of setting out our agenda for the open hearings 
which are to start next Monday, and the extent of the cooperation 
given by witnesses in the preliminary hearings is largely to be the 
yardstick of whether or not they are to appear at the open hearings. 
Now, I personally feel, Mr. Shayne, that you have not been com- 
pletely frank with the subcommittee. 

Mr. Shayne. I don't see how you can say so. I have been perfectly 
frank. I am perfectly willing to be frank with you. I have been 
honest with you. I don't know how else I could be. 

Mr. Jackson. I repeat that one semester in screen writing under 
an instructor is, to me, a glaring inconsistency when one is unable 
to tell the name. The name might necessarily connote nothing. It 
does not necessarily say that the instructor was a Communist or hav- 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2097 

ing anything to do with the Communist Party. I eon appreciate the 
reluctance of anyone to name names, but that is, to my mind, a glaring 
inconsistency in your testimony. If, in the course of the next few 
days, you change' your residence, will you please keep Mr. Wheeler 
informed as to where you can be reached ( 

Mr. Shayne. I don't intend to change my residence. 

Mr. Jackson. Some people do. We have just had a witness in who 
did intend to change, so I merely throw that in so that you will hold 
yourself available for the committee. 

Mr. Shayne. If you had a list of the faculty of the People's Edu- 
cational Center, it" is very possible that, looking down that list, I 
might be able to pick out the name, but I have no such list. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know whether the instructor who gave the 
course in screen writing was connected with the motion-picture indus- 
try in any capacity? 

Mr. Shayne. She was supposed to be connected with the industry 
as a screen writer somewhere, but I don't know where or what studio. 

Mr. Jackson. Weren't you at all concerned about the capacity of 
the instructor to instruct in screen writing? Didn't it occur to you 
that possibly you would like to have someone who had a background 
in screen writing? 

Mr. Shayne. Well, naturally, yes; but I had had no training in 
writing and I wasn't particularly concerned about the great skill of 
the instructor. I wanted to get the rudiments or elements, and this 
course had been recommended to me by somebody and I just accepted 
the recommendation. 

Mr. Jackson. How many people were there in this class, Mr. 
Shayne? 

Mr. Shayne. Oh, there must have been a couple of dozen, I guess. 

Mr. Jackson. They went through the course in screen writing? 

Mr. Shayne. I don't know how far they went. I only took one 
semester. 

Mr. Jackson. How long was one semester ? 

Mr. Shayne. Well, the usual period of a semester, which is a half 
of an academic year. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you recall the names of any who took the course 
at the same time you did ? 

Mr. Shayne. No, sir. I went alone. I don't know who any of 
the students were or what has become of them. I know nothing 
about them. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused for the present? 

Mr. Wheeler. None at all. 

Mr. Jackson. Then you are excused, Mr. Shayne, and if you will, 
if you anticipate being out of the city, communicate with Mr. 
Wheeler. It will be very much appreciated. 

Mr. Shayne. May I ask, Is there any compensation for appearing 
before this committee? 

Mr. Wheeler. He is entitled to transportation to and from his 
residence. 

Mr. Shayne. Well, that is only gasoline mileage but, as I said 
before, your subpena has lost me employment during these 3 days, 
which I cannot make up. 



2098 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. In regard to that, we received no communications 
whatsoever from your producer requesting a postponement. I am 
quite sure that arrangements could have been worked out so that 
you could have worked this period of 3 days if we would have been 
contacted, because we certainly don't want anybody to lose their em- 
ployment, and I was not contacted and Congressman Jackson was 
not contacted. 

Mr. Shayne. Well, my producer said that he contacted someone. 
He didn't tell me who. 

Mr. Wheeler. He certainly didn't contact the committee who has 
jurisdiction over these matters, because if he had we would have cer- 
tainly been in communication with you or your producer. 

Mr. Shayne. Then, may I ask you this: Am I free to accept em- 
ployment next Monday ? 

Mr. Wheeler. You are free to accept employment any time. 

Mr. Shayne. Well, now, suppose I am subpenaed for these public 
hearings ? 

Mr. Jackson. You will be notified in sufficient time. If you are 
subpenaed for the public hearings, we will make every effort to set 
it at such a time as will not conflict with any obligations you may 
have in employment. 

Mr. Shayne. Of course, being a free-lance actor, I never know 
when I am going to work more than a day or two in advance. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you try to let us know whether or not, if you 
do receive an offer of employment — it might be a good idea for him 
to communicate with you. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Shayne. Where can you be reached, Mr. Wheeler? 

Mr. Wheeler. Hollywood Roosevelt. 

Mr. Shayne. In this hotel? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you, Mr. Shayne. 

Mr. Shayne. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you call the next witness, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mendell Morton Krieger. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you stand and be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give this subcom- 
mittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Dr. Krieger. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MENDELL MORTON KRIEGER 1 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state his full name, please. 
Dr. Krieger. Mendell Morton Krieger. 
Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside? 
Dr. Krieger. 8924 Olin Street, Los Angeles 34. 
Mr. Wheeler. Are you represented by counsel ? 
Dr. Krieger. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will counsel identify himself for the record. 
Mr. Arnold Krieger. Arnold. I gave my name to the reporter. It 
is Arnold D. Krieger. 

'The testimony of this witness does not pertain to the Hollywood motion-picture indus- 
try hut is printed herein since it was taken during that phase of the investigation. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2099 

Mr. Wheeler. Your address? 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. 333 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills. 
Mr. Wheeler. Dr. Krieger, when and where were you born? 
Dr. Krieger. Milwaukee, Wis., February 21, 1915. 
Mr. Wheeler. You are a doctor by profession? 
Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 
Mr. Wheeler. Where are your offices located? 
Dr. Krieger. 842 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 
Mr. Wheeler. W^ill vou briefly relate your educational background. 
Dr. Krieger. Yes. Do you want to know where I went to school ? 
Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Dr. Krieger. I went to the University of Southern California, Los 
Angeles School of Optometry. 

Mr. Wheeler. What year did you graduate? 

Dr. Krieger. In 1942. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been a practicing physician since that 

time? 

Dr. Krieger. I am an optometrist, not a physician. 

Mr. Wheeler. Optometrist? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes. I have been practicing since then. 

Mr. Wheeler. Dr. Krieger, information has been developed during 
this investigation that you were at one time a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. W t heeler. When did you first join the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. I don't remember the exact date, sir. It was approxi- 
mately April of 1943. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it just after you graduated from USC? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever a member of the Young Communist 
League ? 

Dr. Krieger. Xo, sir; I was not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you briefly relate the circumstances involved 
when you joined the party. 

Dr. Krieoer. In what way do you mean that? 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, I will phrase it differently. Do you recall 
who recruited you? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you please state the man's name or party's 
name. 

1 >r. Krieger. Leo Cef kin. 

Mr. Jackson. How do you spell that last name? 

Dr. Krieger. I believe it is C-e-f-k-i-n. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is Mr. Cefkin in the medical profession? 

Dr. Krieger. Xo. No ; he was a student at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. A student? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. At the University of Southern California? 

Dr. Krieger. Xo; I believe he was going to Los Angeles City 
College at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you seen him in recent months? 

Dr. Krieger. Xo; I have not. I haven't seen him for a long time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know what his occupation is now? 



2100 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; I do not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know where he presently is? 

Dr. Kriegek. I do not. The last I heard he was in the East some 
place. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to any particular unit or branch 
of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes, sir. 

Mr. "Wheeler. What branch was it. do you recall \ 

Dr. Krieger. It was the Fifty-ninth Assembly District, Sixteenth 
Congressional District. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of this particular 
branch or unit ? 

Dr. Krieger. Oh, approximately 8 or 9 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you subsequently transferred to another 
group ? 

Dr. Krip:ger. No, sir ; I was not. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the complete time you were in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. About 8, 9 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. About 8 or 9 months \ 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. What type of individuals comprised this group? 

Dr. Krieger. All professional. 

Mr. Wheeler. Professional people ? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. In the medical profession or in other professions? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Just in the medical profession? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; in all professions. 

Mr. Wheeler. In all professions. 

Mr. Jackson. It was a white-collar club, so to speak? 

Dr. Krieger. I guess you would call it that, that's correct. 

Mr. Jackson. Generally speaking. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals were in attendance at these 
meetings ? 

Dr. Krieger. Offhand, it is hard for me to honestly answer you. I 
would judge roughly — the cell, I believe, comprised approximately 
40 members, or thereabouts; maybe a little more. 

Mr. Wheeler. Forty ? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where did these meetings take place, do you recall ? 

Dr. Krieger. Various houses. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any of the people who 
owned the houses ? 

Dr. Krieger. I recall one whose house we met at a few times, and 
then there were a couple of others, and I very honestly cannot recall 
their names at the present time. They didn't strike me as anything" 
outstanding, and I can't remember their names. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is the name of the one individual you do- 
remember ? 

Dr. Krieger. It was a physician by the name of Murray Abowitz. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was his wife, Eleanor, present ? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2101 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew both Eleanor Abowitz and Murray Abo- 
witz as members of the Communist Party \ 

Dr. Krieger. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was chairman of this cell? 

1 )r. Krieger. At one time Eleanor Abowitz was. 

Mr. WheEler. Well, do you recall who was secretary? 

Dr. Krieger. No; I cannot honestly recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was treasurer ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the group have a literary director? 

Dr. Krieger. You mean a librarian ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, a person wdio sold pamphlets. 

Dr. Krieger. That was me. 

Mr. Wheeler. That was you? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you paid dues? 

Dr. Krieger. I can't recall the lady's name. It was a lady, and 
I can't recall her name. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you literary director, or librarian, as 
you term it ? 

Dr. Krieger. I would say, offhand, about 5 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where did you buy your literature? 

Dr. Krieger. I believe it was called the Progressive Book Shop, 
over on Sixth Street. 

Mr. Wheeler. Progressive? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes. It used to be over on Sixth Street. I think it 
was between Hill and Olive. Yes; Hill and Olive, I think. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you instructed by the party to buy your litera- 
ture there? 

Dr. Krieger. To go there and buy it ; that's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. You bought literature there which you, in turn, sold 
to other members of the group ? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Jackson. From whom did you receive the instructions to pur- 
chase literature there? 

Dr. Krieger. From the — I believe it was from the — I don't recall 
whether it was one person, individually, or whether it was the execu- 
tive committee as a whole, but I was told to go there and purchase the 
literature, to be brought back and sold. 

Mr. Jackson. Who constituted the executive committee at that time ? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, there was Eleanor Abowitz and Murray, and, 
I think — I can't honestly recall any other names on the committee at 
the time. 

Mr. Jackson. Go ahead. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend any fraction meeting of the lit- 
erary or librarians of different cells? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. I wonder if you would identify all the individuals 
whom you knew as members of the Communist Party. 

Dr. Krieger. Well, Eleanor and Murray Abowitz and — let's see. 
There was a girl by the name of Katz. I believe she was the wife of 
the attorney, Katz. I can't recall her first name, offhand. There was 
another one by the name of Targo. I believe her first name was 
Evelyn. 



2102 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Jackson. How do you spell the last name, Doctor ? 

Dr. Krieger. I believe it was T-a-r-g-o. I am not sure. 

Mr. Jackson. Targo? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was her occupation ? 

Dr. Krieger. So far as I know, she was a housewife. Very frankly, 
I'll tell you, it has been so long ago that I honestly can't remember a 
lot of the names of people that were in the group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall attending a meeting at the home of 
Murray Abowitz, at which Charley Katz was present ? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Charles Katz ? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; I do not know him personally. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have never met Charles Katz ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; not that I know of. I may have met him 
under an assumed name, but I don't know him by that name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Howard Davis ? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes ; that's right. He and his wife, too, were members. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was Mr. Davis' wife's name ? 

Dr. Krieger. That I can't recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was Mr. Davis' occupation? 

Dr. Krieger. He is an optometrist. 

Mr. Wheeler. He is a doctor? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mi-. Wheeler. What other doctors did you know to be members of 
the Communist Party ? Did you know Dr. Hy Engelberg ? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; I don't know him. 

Mr. Jackson. May I interject a short statement at this point, Doc- 
tor? The subcommittee appreciates the extent of your cooperation. 
It is not our desire — I assume that in the interim you have completely 
broken with the Communist Party? 

Dr. Krieger. I have. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you today opposed to the policies of international 
communism ? 

Dr. Krieger. I am. 

Mr. Jackson. Would you bear arms in the defense of this country 
if called upon ? 

Dr. Krieger. I would. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you consider yourself in every respect a loyal 
American ? 

Dr. Krieger. I certainly do. 

Mr. Jackson. It is certainly not the desire, nor the wish of the 
House committee, to unduly embarrass or to bring unfavorable pub- 
licity upon those who have sincerely broken with the Communist 
Party. However, I feel that I should say that in making up our 
agenda, we are going to take into consideration the extent of the 
cooperation afforded the committee by the witnesses we are hearing. 
That cooperation must largely be conditioned upon the willingness 
and the frankness of the witness to testify fully and completely on 
his associations and activities within the Communist Party, with spe- 
cial emphasis placed upon his associates. I say this preliminary to 
taking any further testimony, because I recognize, as all of us do, the 
natural reluctance of anyone to discuss his associates. However, again, 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2103 

1 say that that is the crux of this investigation, so I urge — you have 
been, to this point, fully cooperative, and 1 urge you to not withhold 
the names of your associates and to cooperate fully in that regard. 
While I cannot, of course, state the action of the subcommittee upon 
its arrival here in Los Angeles with respect to the open hearings, 1 will 
say again that my personal predilection is to go as easy as possible 
upon those who do cooperate with us at this point of the healings. 
I thought I should put that statement in, not as a threat or not as a 
promise, but simply to make our position clear, especially with respect 
to those who are engaged in the professional arts and those whose 
livelihood may well be at stake, and so I do solicit your full coopera- 
tion at this particular period in the hearings. All right, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. May I make a statement here£ 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, of course, Mr. Krieger. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. When my brother was served with this sub- 
pena and he brought the subpena to me, my advice to him w T as to dis- 
close to this committee as much information as was available to him 
and to his memory. It must be remembered that he has not been a 
member of the Communist Party for a matter of 6 or 7 years.. We ap- 
preciate that many things, particularly those that are not favorable, 
do not remain in our memories too vividly. We try to forget them. 
I think that Dr. Krieger has shown his cooperation, even prior to this 
hearing. I don't know whether you are cognizant of the fact that 
the FBI took him to Canada as a witness against 

Mr. Jackson. I have been so informed. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. Yes. It so happens that we are a family of 
professional people. He, being the youngest, got the wrath of all of 
us when that story broke. We knew nothing of it prior to the time 
he went to Canada. The thing that I want in the record is that he has 
been advised that he is to give this committee such information as is 
within his memory and, I think, after the talk that I had with him, 
that when he says he doesn't remember, that he honestly is giving the 
right information. 

Mr. Jackson. I am quite willing to accept that in good faith as 
being a true statement. I merely put my few remarks in there 
because 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. We appreciate that. 

Mr. Jackson. I wanted them to be in the record. Go ahead, Mr. 
Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any additional people that you knew 
to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. As members of the party or in the particular cell 
that I belonged to? 

Mr. Wheeler. The particular cell that you belonged to. 

Dr. Krieger. I can't honestly remember some of the names. I can 
pictures some of the faces. Perhaps if some of the names were re- 
called to me I might know. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many doctors were in this group % 

Dr. Krieger. Well, that is something I can't honestly answer you, 
sir, because some of the people at some time — first of all, none of us 
were told what the other one was. It was only by association that some 
of us found out what each other — who we were or what we did and so, 
therefore, there may have been other doctors in there and I did not 
know that they were doctors. 



2104 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anybody else who was a member of 
this group? 

Dr. Krieger. This particular cell? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; I honestly don't. I can't recall any further 
names. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Dr. Gordon Rosenblum? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes ; I know him. He was a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Dr. Rosenblum was a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Out of that group that I have named, you knew Dr. 
Gordon Rosenblum; is that right? 

Dr. Krieger. This last group ; that's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Lillian Doran? 

Dr. Krieger. Who? 

Mr. Wheeler. Lillian Doran. 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the nature of your testimony in Canada? 

Dr. Krieger. I testified in regard to my association with Sam 
Witczak. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your association with Sam Witczak? 

Dr. Krieger. Oh, what way do you want to know that i In other 
words 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like a detailed account of when you met Mr. 
Witczak and the nature of your acquaintance with him, what trans- 
pired and the last time you saw Mr. Witczak. 

Dr. Krieger. The last time I saw him — well, I first met him in 1938. 
The last time I saw him, I think, was in 1915. 

Mr. Wheeler. Can you give us a complete story, without asking 
leading questions all the way through? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, may I interject a statement here at the present 
time? I will be glad to tell you what I can recall. However, may I 
say this, that the entire testimony and record is with the FBI. I don't 
know whether you have access to those files 

Mr. Wheeler. We do not have access to them. 

Dr. Krieger. All right. I first met him in 1938 at the University 
of Southern California, at which time we were strictly friends. I 
mean, I didn't know anything about him other than that he was a 
student there, a foreign student, and we used to chat occasionally. We 
eventually became very friendly and began talking politics, and at 
the time I used to do a little writing and — never professionally, or 
anything; just for my own personal use or good, and I happened to 
show him a few things I wrote, in which he was interested, and he 
asked me how I would like to perhaps go to China as a correspond- 
ent, as a foreign correspondent for somebody there, and it rather in- 
trigued me at the time. 

Mr. Jackson. Pardon the interruption. As a foreign correspond- 
ent for a publication ? 

Dr. Krieger. For a man in China that he at that time said he knew 
who had a newspaper, and so forth, and we — in other words, the 
Japanese aggression in China, and he would ask me about it and so 
on, and I was very much against it, and this man in China, who had 
a paper, whatever it was — he said he would be interested in my writ- 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2105 

ing articles, and so on, correspondence, apparently, at least to him, was 
held back and forth, and finally he got a letter from this man here 
stating that he would like to have me come there. So time passed, 
and there was no further — nothing further was said, and then in 1940 
I enlisted in the Air Corps — United States Air Corps as a cadet and 
was accepted and taken in. However, I was given a physical dis- 
charge after 1 was in for about a little over 2 months and then shortly 
after I got out, why, 1 was married and then Mr. Witczak approached 
me at that time to go to Japan instead of to China, and he had told 
me that everything was arranged, and so forth, and it was just a 
matter of his getting the money, because I had no money of my own 
to go and, of course, he told me it would be excellent to go on a honey- 
moon trip, so forth and so on. Then he began telling me what the pur- 
pose was of going there, which was to be used as, I guess what you 
would call a ''letter drop'' in Japan. However, I never divulged that 
information to my wife. 

Eventually the money was forthcoming, and we were to go. In 
fact, we booked passage, got on the boat, got as far as San Francisco 
when we were taken off, and that is as far as we ever got, and we were 
taken off at that time — I believe the State Department wasn't allow- 
ing anybody to go over that had not had any prior business, and so 
we came back, at which time Mr. Witczak wanted me to go to South 
America for the same purposes, and which both my wife and I refused 
to do, and then he kept — we kept on friendly relations after that, be- 
cause he was a very brilliant fellow and I enjoyed talking to him, and 
every once in awhile, of course, he would approach me with some prop- 
osition or other. However, I refused anything and everything that 
he had asked me to do after that, and then finally in 19 — I believe it 
was in 1944: — he came to my office one day and wanted me to set up an 
office whereby he could partake in it and have some space there, and 
so forth, to be used as a front for him, and that was all. He just 
mentioned it to me, and then I didn't see or hear from him for awhile, 
and then he approached me again and told me that I was back in 
the good graces, and so forth, of the powers that be in Moscow and 
he had received money to set up an office for me, and so forth, which 
I refused to do. Then I didn't see him until about the following 
fall when he and his wife had had a baby and had a party, and we 
went there and he wanted me to go with him. At the time while 
we were at the party, he suggested — he was leaving for New York 
and suggested I travel with him, go there, because there were a few 
higher-tips he wanted me to meet, and so forth, and I would learn a 
few of the whys and hows and wherefores, and I refused to go with 
him at that time. Then later I learned — a year later — when the 
Canadian thing broke, that he was leaving at that time because he had 
been told to get out. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are talking about the Canadian espionage trial, 
the revelation by Gonzenko? 

Dr. Krieger. Gonzenko; that's right. That, briefly, is the story. 

Mr. Jackson. What acquaintances did you have in common ? That 
is, did he ever approach you in company with anyone? 

Dr. Krieger. No. I met people at his house, but nothing was ever 
discussed in front of anybody. I mean, if their politics were dis- 
cussed when anyone else was around he more or less would sit back 
and not say too much or, at school, if politics were discussed, it de- 



2106 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

pended on who he was talking to the way he would discuss politics. 
I mean, he could swing from one end to the other or go right down 
the middle. It didn't make any difference to him. He could talk 
any way that you believed. So far as any actual discussion of what 
he was doing when anybody else was around, that, there never was. 

Mr. Jackson. Who were the close friends of his whom you observed 
at his house? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, there was a man who has since died. He was a 
physicist, and I can't recall his name, other than Joe something or 
other. I don't recall what his last name is now. I would know it if 
I heard it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where was he employed? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, he was teaching at the time, as far as I knew, 
at some — I believe some small university, and then I think he got in 
on the — he was working up at Berkeley in the atomic project, or 
something, when he was killed in this airplane accident. Clarence 
Fetterly was a very close friend of Witczak's. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who is Clarence Fetterly? 

Dr. Krieger. He is a man who is just in the papers, just, I believe, 
cited for perjury, or something, in front of the grand jury. 

Mr. Jackson. Was he a member of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. That I honestly do not know. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever see an individual in his presence who 
was known to you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; not other than this Leo Cef kin whom I formerly 
mentioned to you and who I introduced to Witczak. Otherwise, these 
are people that I had met up there that I can — there were people that 
I had met who, since, I have completely forgotten. There was an- 
other man by the name of — I can't think of his name, offhand. I will 
try to think of it as we go along, but this one physicist, Clarence Fet- 
terly, and this other man were the three I saw most often up there. 

Mr. Jackson. In your associations — to refer back to your asso- 
ciations, to the cell group of which you were a member 

Dr. Krieger. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Can you identify for the committee by name any 
additional people who attended cell meetings with you during the 
period of time you were a member in the fifty-ninth assembly district 
cell of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; I cannot, offhand. I can't recall any others, 
other than those that I originally mentioned or that I remembered as 
he read the names off. I can look it over, and if I can recall any — I 
will think it over and if I can recall any I will be glad to bring it to 
your attention. 

Mr. Jackson. Was your cell group ever addressed by party func- 
tionaries or other persons from outside the group ? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes, sir. W T e were addressed at one time by a party 
functionary whose name I cannot recall. She was a woman, and she 
was something in the — I don't know whether she was county secre- 
tary, or something like that, I might know her name if I hear it, but 
I couldn't honestly say to that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, did you meet anybody outside of your own 
group or cell that you knew to be members of the Communist Party ? 
' Dr. Krieger. Let's see. I probably did, but 1 can't recall their 
names right offhand. 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2107 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you first become aware that Sam Witczak 
was connected with an international apparatus? 

Dr. Krieger. He told me. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did he tell you that? 

Dr. Krieger. He told me right after I got out of the Air Corps 
when he wanted me to go to Japan. He told me just what he was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you adhere to his beliefs? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, at the time I was interested in communism and 
the general principles of, I suppose what you would term left-wing 
politics. 

Mr. Wheeler. This wasn't exactly communism. As I recall the 
Canadian case, it related to espionage. 

Dr. Krieger. I knew nothing about the Canadian case at the time, 
you see. and he never asked me to do any actual espionage work. In 
other words, when he wanted me to go to Japan he asked me to go 
as a letter drop. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were you to forward the communications to; 
do you recall? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, it sounds very melodramatic and just like a 
movie, but he had given me complete instructions as to who, what, 
when, why when I got there, and after I was to arrive in Japan, after 
I was there a few days, I was to drop a post card to the Kussian 
Embassy, and I don't recall offhand what it was to say, but I was 
to sign it with an "S" and they would know who it was. Then I 
was to wait, I think it was, another 4 or 5 days after that and go to 
a certain department store, up to the flower department in that de- 
partment store and ask for a certain type of flower. There would be 
a man there who also would be interested in it, and he would come 
up and talk about it and ask about it, and that is how we would 
know, and then I was to walk out and he was to walk out and he was 
my contact. That is all that I knew at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. In other words, you were to receive communications 
from Witczak? 

Dr. Krieger. No; I was never to contact Witczak once I left the 
country. 

Mr. Wheeler. You used the term "mail drop." From whom were 
you to receive the communications ? 

Dr. Krieger. That I don't know. All I know is that he told me 
I was to be a letter drop and that I would get all my instructions from 
this particular person whom I met in Japan. 

(At this point Thomas W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel to the com- 
mittee, entered the conference room.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, how did Sam Witczak identify himself to you 
after you got out of the Air Corps ? You say he told you who he was '. 
I mean, exactly what did he say? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, all he told me — when he told me what he wanted 
me to do I asked him what he was or who he was, and he told me he 
was Sam Witczak but that he was working for the Communist Inter- 
national at the time. He never wanted any connection between him 
and the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall when Witczak left Los Angeles? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, it was in 1945. I believe it was in September. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have any knowledge of the fact that he 
was fleeing the country, so to speak? 



2108 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Dr. Krieger. No ; none whatsoever. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, by you agreeing with Witczak in this mail- 
drop operation, did you realize at that time that you were also becom- 
ing a part of a conspiratorial group or becoming involved with the 
Communist International ? 

Dr. Krieger. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. And you were agreeable to that ? 

Dr. Krieger. I was at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever receive any money from Mr. Witczak ? 

Dr. Krieger. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the money for ? 

Dr. Krieger. For passage to Japan. 

Mr. Wheeler. Passage to Japan ? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever receive any other money ? 

Dr. Krieger. Which I, by the way, subsequently returned to him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever act as a mail drop in the United States, 
or did you ever 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. — Transmit any communications of any nature? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did Mr. Witczak ever request any information from 
you while you were in the United States Air Corps ? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; not while I was in the Air Corps. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did he request any information from you at all? 

Dr. Krieger. He did. 

Mr. Wheeler. What type of information ? 

Dr. Krieger. He wanted — about a year afterward he wanted to 
know whether I would write in a detailed account for him of what 
transpired during my training as a cadet, and I told him at the time 
that it was available in the city hall, that I thought there was a re- 
cruiting depot up there and they had all the literature of what a 
cadet went through. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you supply him this information ? 

Dr. Krieger. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. In pamphlet form from the city hall? 

Dr. Krieger. No. He asked me — when I told him that he asked 
me to please write it, myself, and write it out so that — whether he 
felt that I could leave out or put in or write more detail, I do not 
know, but I practically, as I recall, took one of those pamphlets and 
wrote from it what the expected training was of a cadet, plus what 
happened to me as a cadet, and that was all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was this in any way considered restricted or classi- 
fied information ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; it was not. It was public information. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know what Mr. Witczak did with the ma- 
terial ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir ; I do not. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his reaction when he received them ? 

Dr. Krieger. Nothing. He thanked me and said that he was going 
to report to his superiors, or whatever it was, and try and get me back 
in their good graces, and I told him that I didn't care to. That was 
all. 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2109 

Mr. Wheeler. Did he ever mention to you who his superiors were? 
Dr. Krieger. No; other than that he took orders directly from the 

Kremlin. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well how do you feel about this whole experience 

now? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, pretty rotten. You must know. 

Mr. Wheeler. You had no prior knowledge that Witczak was 
going to flee the country at all ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; I did not; none whatsoever. 

Mr. Wheeler. But you entered into this venture well knowing 
Avhat you were undertaking at the time ? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, I can't really say that I well knew what I was 
going to get into, but I had an idea. 
' Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Mr. Witczak's wife? 

Dr. Krieger. I did, very well. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was her name ? 

Dr. Krieger. Bunia, B-u-n-i-a. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she involved in this same thing that Mr. Wit- 
czak was ? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, now, that is a hard thing for me to honestly 
answer you. Obviously she knew what was going on. She knew 
what her husband was doing, and so forth, but whether she, herself, 
did anything, that I cannot honestly say. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did Mr. Witczak ever discuss with you what type 
of information he was interested in ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir ; he did not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Other than this one instance ? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Witczak was a professor at the University of South- 
ern California? 

Dr. Krieger. I guess he eventually became an instructor there. 

Mr. Wheeler. When you met him he was 

Dr. Krieger. A student. 

Mr. Wheeler. A student? 

Dr. Krieger. He had just started; that's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know anything concerning his background ? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, none other than what he told me which, I have 
been given to understand since, was false, but 

Mr. Wheeler. What did he tell you ? 

Dr. Krieger. He told me he was a Canadian. He was a Pole who 
had gone to China, from China had gone to Canada, and he had 
resided in Canada and lived there with his wife and came down to 
this country on, I guess, what at that time was a student visa of 
some sort or another, and he kept renewing it in order to stay in this 
country. His money was gotten through an inheritance, or something. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did he use any other name than Witczak? 

Dr. Krieger. No; not that I know of. Not to me; he never did. 

Mr. Wheeler. You first became aware that he was working for 
the Communist International or the Comintern after you were dis- 
charged from the Army? 

Dr. Krieger. That's correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long a period after that were you in active 
contact with Mr. Witczak? 



2110 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Dr. Krieger. Oh, for probably — I would judge pretty close to a 
year, and then after that, why, we gradually drifted apart. I would 
see him occasionally, and that was all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, what type of business was lie going in when 
he requested office space from you ? 

Dr. Krieger. Nothing. I perhaps didn't make myself clear. What 
it was that he wanted was to have me set up an optometric office and 
he would keep an office in the back of my office, back of the store, 
whatever you want to call it, where he would receive, I guess, or give 
out letters or information, whatever it was that he wanted to do. He 
never divulged exactly what it was going to be. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where was your office at that time ? 

Dr. Krieger. I was in Hollywood; on Hollywood Boulevard. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever receive any communications from any 
source which later were turned over to Mr. Witczak ? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir ; I didn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you seen, during the intervening years, any 
of the people with whom you were associated in the Communist Party i 

Dr. Krieger. You mean after I withdrew? 

Mr. Jackson. After you withdrew from the party. 

Dr. Krieger. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Has that been recently I 

Dr. Krieger. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you seen some of the people recently \ 

Dr. Krieger. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Jackson. Which individuals have you seen ? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, Dr. Rosenblum is my wife's obstetrician and — 
well, literally, the last time I saw him was about a year ago when 
our baby was born. 

Mr. Jackson. Who else? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, Murray Abowitz, who I saw for — oh, three 
or four times professionally shortly after I withdrew from the party. 
That was all. 

Mr. Jackson. That is all ? 

Dr. Krieger. That is all. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any knowledge of the present where- 
abouts of any of the other people with whom you were associated \ 

Dr. Krieger. Other than Dr. Davis, who practices downtown. His 
office is on Broadway. 

Mr. Jackson. Were there any attorneys who were members of the 
organization which you were in? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes; there was an attorney. I can't recall his name. 
I can picture him in my mind, but I can't recall his name. I know that 
he was an attorney. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is his physical description ? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, I believe, as I recall, he was sort of reddish- 
haired. He wore an Adolphe Menjou-type mustache, and he wore 
pince-nez glasses on occasion, and his build was a medium build — prob- 
ably about — well, around, I would imagine, 5 feet 10 or thereabouts, 
to the best of my knowledge. I knew he was an attorney. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you personally known — I assume that you have 
told, generally, the course of proceedings before this committee in 
Washington hearings ? 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2111 

Dr. Krieger. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Have yon personally known or had knowledge of any 
of the witnesses who have appeared before the committee? 

Dr. Krieger. I can't recall witnesses who were before the committee 
now. Was Dalton Trumbo in front of the committee? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes; Dalton Trumbo was in front of the committee. 

Dr. Krieger. I have been at his home. 

Mr. Jackson. You have attended meetings there? 

Dr. Krieger. It was at that time a Joint Anti-Fascist Kefngee 
Committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever known of your own personal know- 
ledge any member in the entertainment field, specifically motion pic- 
tures, and seen them at meetings? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the name "Maurice Bergman"? 

Dr. Krieger. Bergman I 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. Bragin. 

Dr. Krieger. Bragin. I think he was the attorney. 

Mr. Wheeler. How do you spell his last name? 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. B-r-a-g-i-n. He is over in the Taft Build- 
ing, I believe. 

Dr. Krieger. Bragin; that's right. He has an office on Hollywood 
Boulevard. 

(A discussion was had off the record). 

Mr. Wheeler. Do.you recall where Mr. Bragin's office was? 

Dr. Krieger. I knew it was on Hollywood Boulevard, and I was 
given to understand at the time that it was in the Taft Building. 

Mr. Wheeler. Getting back to Leo Cefkin for a moment 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler (continuing). You stated you introduced him to Mr. 
Witczak? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, do you know if Witczak also solicited help from 
Mr. Leo Cefkin in his operations? 

Dr. Krieger. Through me? 

Mr. Wheeler. Through you. 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the nature of that ? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, he wanted to recruit — he had asked me if I 
knew any Koreans, and I said "No", and he wanted to know if I knew 
anybody that knew any. Well, I knew that Leo Cefkin probably did, 
and he did. He introduced me to a Korean who was to have taken 
my place when I was taken off the boat and was to have tried to get to 
Japan. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, he was to take your place. Just what was 
your place? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, in other words, he was to go and do what I was 
supposed to do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Here in Los Angeles? 

Dr. Krieger. No: in Japan. 

Mr. Wheeler. Oh, in Japan? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. W t heeler. I see. Do you recall the Korean's name? 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir; I do not. 



2112 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it Peter Hyim ? 

I )r. Kkieger. No ; it was not. 

Mr. Jackson. But you met this Korean I 

Dr. Krieger. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Where was the meeting effected ? Where did it take 
place ? 

Dr. Krieger. The meeting was effected on Olvera Street in the 
Mexican quarter there. We all had dinner together. 

Mr. Jackson. Who attended that dinner meeting? 

Dr. Krieger. Leo Cefkin and the Korean and, I believe, his girl 
friend. 1 don't remember whether it was his wife or girl friend. And 
my wife and myself. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well. Cefkin was then a member of this apparatus? 

Dr. Krieger. No; not actually. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, he responded ? 

Dr. Krieger. He responded to it; that's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you heard of him lately at all? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; I have not. As I told you before, the last I heard 
was when he came out of service and separated from his wife and he 
went East, and that was all that I know. 

Mr. Wheeler. What branch of service was he in? 

Dr. Krieger. I think he was in the Infantry. I know he saw active 
duty in Europe. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his major at USC? 

Dr. Krieger. It wasn't USC. I think it was City College. He was 
a music major, as far as I can recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. A music major? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. City College. Is that Los Angeles 

Dr. Krieger. Los Angeles City College. 

Mr. Wheeler. It used to be Los Angeles Junior College ? 

Dr. Krieger. I think it was Los Angeles Junior City College. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. Yes. It is called the Los Angeles Junior 
College now. It used to be known as Los Angeles City College. 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. It is the one over on Vermont near Santa 
Monica Boulevard. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have any questions, Mr. Beale? 

Mr. Beale. Doctor, have there been any attempts to rerecruit you 
into the Communist Party since you left it? 

Dr. Krieger. No ; none whatsoever. 

Mr. Beale. None of your old contacts have approached you to 
rejoin? 

Dr. Krieger. They have nothing to do with me any more. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is the attitude of Dr. Eosenblum? 

Dr. Krieger. Well, he was very nice and, in fact, at the time we 
pondered when my wife — because he had delivered another fluid, and 
my wife was very fond of him as a physician, and he is a very excel- 
lent one. 

Mr. Wheeler. He was your doctor prior to the time you testified 
in Canada? 

Dr. Krieger. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. He showed no animosity? 

Dr. Krieger. Afterwards, you mean? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2113 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Dr. Krieger. None whatsoever. He was very nice. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you think he is still a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. Krieger. Frankly, I doubt it, but I wouldn't 

Mr. Wheeler. It would seem to indicate that he was. 

Dr. Krieger. That he what ? 

Mr. Wheeler. That he had severed his relations. 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Max Silver? 

Dr. Krieger. Yes; he was the — when Leo Cefkin recruited me, he 
told me to go see Max Silver. I think he was the county chairman of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Max Silver assigned you to 59 AD, northwest section 
of the Communist Party of Los Angeles? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. He is the one I signed with. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know any nurses to be members of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Dr. Krieger. Any nurses? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Krieger. Not that I know, offhand. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know anybody to be a member of the Com- 
munity Party that works at the county hospital ? 

Dr. Krieger. Not that I know, offhand. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know anybody to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party who worked as a dietitian for the State of California, 
a woman ? 

Dr. Krieger. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no more questions, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Did the cell to which you belonged take a part in any 
manner in local political affairs ? 

Dr. Krieger. Not — how can I say it? The cell that I belonged 
to — at the time I was told that most cells were open, but this cell was 
a closed one because of the professional nature of the cell. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Dr. Krieger. I know that they attended — certain members would 
attend certain gatherings where, I believe, information was to be 
brought back to us. However, any dynamic political action by the 
cell itself was not taken as such. 

Mr. Jackson. No position was taken by the cell as to candidates? 

Dr. Krieger. Oh, you mean 

Mr. Jackson. Who would or would not be supported. 

Dr. Krieger. Well, at the time that I belonged there were no — as 
far as I can recall, there was no election at the time; so, therefore, 
what happened prior or after, I don't know. 

Ah-. Wheeler. I have a few more questions. 

Mr. Jackson. All right. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to go back to the Korean 

Dr. Krieger. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler (continuing). And ask you if you could give a physi- 
cal description of him. 

Dr. Krieger. Slender, about my height. That's about all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Age ? 



2114 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Dr. Krieger. He was a comparatively young man, I believe. He 
was about 22, 1 would say, offhand, or so he said. 

Mr. Wheeler. In conversation did he give you any indication of 
his background, where he was from ? 

Dr. Krieger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. The school he had attended ? 

Dr. Krieger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Nothing at all ? 

Dr. Krieger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. He was actually brought into this group by Cef kin ? 

Dr. Krieger. By Cef kin; that's right. He didn't know exactly 
what it was to be. In other words, he knew 

Mr. Wheeler. Cef kin would know ? 

Dr. Krieger. Cefkin knew, and Cefkin knew him and knew that — 
he told me that, politically, he was all right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he a native of Los Angeles ? 

Dr. Krieger. As far as I knew. 

Mr. Jackson. He spoke excellent English, I assume? 

Dr. Krieger. Spoke very good English ; that's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Does the name Diamond Kim mean anything to you ? 

Dr. Krieger. Diamond Kim ? 

Mr. Wheeler. K-i-m. 

Dr. Krieger. No ; other than Kim is a very common Korean name. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have one here that I am going to have to spell the 
middle name of. The first name is Sang, S-a-n-g, the middle name 
R-y-u-p, the last name Park. 

Dr. Krieger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. That means nothing to you ? 

Dr. Krieger. It doesn't click. 

Mr. Wheeler. The name Hyun doesn't mean anything to you, 
whether the first name was Peter or David? 

Dr. Krieger. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Sung Hyun ? 

Dr. Krieger. No. 

Mr. Jackson. Would you recollect the name, do you believe, if you 
heard it? 

Dr. Krieger. I might if — now, if I am not mistaken, I believe the 
FBI brought it up to me at the time of our little chat, and I think I 
recalled it at the time. 

Mr. Jackson. You were able to identify it at that time ? 

Dr. Krieger. That's right. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your height? 

Dr. Krieger. What is my what ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Height. 

Dr. Krieger. My height? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Dr. Krieger. About 5 feet 7. 

Mr. Wheeler. The Bureau knows who the Korean is, then, in other 
words ? 

Dr. Krieger. I believe so. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is all. 

Mr. Jackson. You cannot recall at the moment, then, the names of 
any other members of the cell group of which you were personally a 
member ? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2115 

Dr. Krieger. No, sir ; I can't. 

Mr. Jackson. Or of any other persons who were known to you 
to be members of the Communist Party, outside of the cell organ- 
ization ? 

Dr. Krieger. No; not right offhand, I cannot, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. If the names of any additional individuals occur to 
you, will you get in touch with Mr. Wheeler? 

Dr. Krieger. I will. I will be more than happy to. 

Mr. Jackson. Or in the absence of Mr. Wheeler, will you com- 
municate that information to the committee? 

Dr. Krieger. I will. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the doctor should not be 
excused at this time? 

Mr. Wheeler. I see no reason why not. I think his subpena should 
be continued open, unless you want to set a date. I assume, or go on 
the presumption that the full committee will be very interested in 
taking the testimony from the doctor. 

Mr. Jx\ckson. Of course, I have no authority to vacate the subpena 
pending the arrival of a full committee in Los Angeles, so the subpena 
will be continued open. 

Mr. Wheeler. Make it Friday morning at 9 : 30. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. Why don't you leave it open, then. If you 
ever want him, just call me and I will be glad to produce him for you. 

Mr. Jackson. Let's put it on that basis. The subpena will be con- 
tinued open. If, for any reason, you anticipate changing your address 
or being absent from the city during the course of the public hearings, 
will you communicate that information to Mr. Wheeler? 

Dr. Krieger. I will ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. In order that we will be able to call you if it is the 
desire of the committee. 

Dr. Krieger. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. If Mr. Wheeler will give me a ring I will 
produce him for you. 

Mr. Wheeler. All right. Fine. Thank you. 

(A discussion was had off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. One further question on the record. 

Have you communicated your identities to the press or not ? 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. Yes ; they got us out there. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, I didn't want to inadvertently give that infor- 
mation in the event that you had not already so identified yourself. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. We got here about a quarter of 10. We tried 
to sit up at the other end, but you just can't avoid them. 

Mr. Jackson. It is very difficult to do. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. Some of them knew who I was. I don't think 
they have identified him with that Canadian deal. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, as far as any information that will be given 
out from this committee on this hearing, there will be none except to 
possibly distinguish between those who cooperated with the committee 
and those who did not; so pending any further word from us, thank 
you very much. 

Dr. Krieger. Thank you. 

Mr. Arnold Krieger. Thank you, gentlemen. 

(Whereupon the subcommittee adjourned until the following day.) 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF HOLLYWOOD MOTION- 
PICTURE INDUSTRY— PART 6 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1951 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

EXECUTIVE SESSION 

A special subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities met, pursuant to call at 11 a. m., in conference room C, at the 
Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Donald L. 
Jackson presiding. 

Committee member present: Representative Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present: Thomas W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel; 
and William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Wheeler, will you call the witness ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Prokop Jack Prokop. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Prokop, will you stand and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give this subcom- 
mittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Prokop. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PROKOP JACK PROKOP, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. Wheeler. State your full name, please. 
Mr. Prokop. Prokop Jack Prokop. 
Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born ? 
Mr. Prokop. In Hlinsko, Bohemia. 
Mr. Wheeler. Were you born on July 28, 1881 ? 
Mr. Prokop. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. You entered the United States September 30, 1930 ? 
Mr. Prokop. That is right — the United States, you say ? 
Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Prokop. September 1, 1913, not 1930. 
Mr. Wheeler. 1913? 
Mr. Prokop. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. When were you naturalized ? 
Mr. Prokop. About 14 years ago. 

Mr. Wheeler. On February 10, 1939, you received your final 
papers ? 

2117 



2118 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Prokop. Yes; I do think it was earlier but I would have to 
look it up. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your present address ? 

Mr. Prokop. I have two addresses; one business and one home 
address. 

Mr. Wheeler. We would like both. 

Mr. Prokop. The business address is 10974 West Pico; the home 
address is 12033 Goshen Avenue. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Communist Party, Mr. 
Prokop ? 

Mr. Prokop. I am not a member 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Prokop. If I may claim the privilege and retract that, I prefer 
to claim the privilege, if I can. 

Mr. Jackson. I presume that counsel's remarks were directed to 
the witness' constitutional rights ? 

Mr. Margolis. You have no right to assume anything, especially 
what my remarks might have been to the witness. I was just con- 
sulting with my client. 

Mr. Jackson. Your client did not ask for any consultation. Now, 
he has been subpenaed here to answer certain questions. 

Mr. Margolis. I consulted with him and I am his attorney and 
have a right to do so. 

Mr. Jackson. At the point where the witness was about to make 
his answer to the question, that had been directed by the investigator, 
the record should show that counsel intervened and a discussion took 
place, following which the witness claimed the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Margolis. The record should also show that no one could un- 
derstand what he said and it can also show that I advised him and it 
can also show I will not tolerate any inquiry as to what I said to my 
client by anyone. 

Mr. Jackson. No one is inquiring into your discussion with your 
client. I am merely making the point, that from this time on, if the 
witness — and I want the witness to make note of this — if there is any 
question in your mind, as to whether or not you should answer a ques- 
tion, you have the right to ask your counsel for advice. Do you under- 
stand that? 

Mr. Prokop. Yes ; thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. When counsel is requested for advice it is the privi- 
lege and the right, your privilege and right, to request such advice 
on questions which are not clear to you, and on questions which you 
may want to discuss with counsel. 

As you very well know, counsel is not here as an ironclad right, and 
I would so advise counsel. There have been many occasions in the 
past when witnesses have not been permitted counsel. 

Continue, if you will. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you also known as Jack Frank? 

Mr. Prokop. I will claim the privilege. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been known as Jack Prokop? 

Mr. Prokop. That is my business name, yes, by the advice of the 
immigration authorities. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party before 
you entered the United States? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2119 

Mr. Prokop. No; not at all, 

Mr. Jackson. You were not a member of the Communist Party 
before you entered the United States ? 

Mr. Prokop. Not at all ; no. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to the records of the committee, Jack 
Prokop held Communist book No. 74742, under the name of Jack 
Frank, in Hollywood unit J-9 in 1937. Would you like to affirm 
or deny that? 

Mr. Prokop. I will not answer under the privilege. 

Mr. Jackson. On the grounds of possible self-incrimination? 

Mr. Prokop. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I would suggest to counsel, if refusals are stated on 
the grounds previously stated, rather than trying to go through the 
whole formality 

Mr. Margolis. I would have suggested it, that he just state that he 
is not answering the question on the grounds previously stated, but 
I didn't want to be thrown out of here. I didn't want to consult with 
him unless he asked me a question. 

Mr. Jackson. I suggest that for the benefit of the witness, in view 
of his speech difficulty. You have already stated your refusal to an- 
swer several questions on the grounds of possible self-incrimination. 
If there are other questions which you do not wish to answer, it will 
be sufficient if you will decline to answer on the grounds already 
stated. 

Mr. Prokop. Thank you. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our records also reflect that in 1934 and 1935, you 
were assigned to unit J-6 and unit J-4, under the party name of 
J. Frank, in the Communist Party, in the city of Los Angeles ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Prokop. I claim the privilege previously stated. 

Mr. Margolis. I might explain that his English is not too good, 
Mr. Jackson. I think it is clear that he intends to claim the privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. We will do what you lawyers call, so stipulate. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our records also disclose that in 1945 you were a 
member of the Benjamin Franklin Communist Club in the city of 
Los Angeles ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Prokop. I claim the same privilege. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are making the same answer to that question? 

Mr. Prokop. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Wilma Solomon? 

Mr. Prokop. I don't know any such person ? 

Mr. Wheeler. You don't know any such person ? 

Mr. Prokop. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been in her home ? 

Mr. Prokop. Wilma Solomon's home? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Prokop. I really don't know or don't remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. She resides at 10513 Holman Avenue in West Los 
Angeles. 

Mr. Prokop. I don't remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. Her husband's name is Lou Solomon ; .he is a writer in 
the motion-picture industry. 

Mr. Prokop. That is strange to me. 



2120 COMMUNISM IK HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know any writers in the motion-picture 
industry? 

Mr. Prokop. I don't think I know any ; no. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Irving Gordon ? 

Mr. Prokop. Who is he supposed to be ? 

Mr. Wheeler. I am asking you if you know him, Irving and Clare 
Gordon, who live at 231 South Thurston Drive, West Los Angeles. 

Mr. Prokop. No. 

Mr. Jackson. The answer is "No" ? 

Mr. Prokop. The answer is "No." 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Leonard and Lory Titelman ? 

Mr. Prokop. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. You never heard of them? 

Mr. Prokop. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. They live at 12217 Denoon Lane, West Los Angeles. 

Mr. Prokop. I don't know them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Bessie and Isadore Friedman ? They 
live at 1914 Barry Avenue in West Los Angeles. 

Mr. Prokop. I don't recollect any such. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your business is located in West Los Angeles ; is it 
not? 

Mr. Prokop. Yes ; on Pico Boulevard. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend any Communist Party meetings 
in West Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Prokop. I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you deny that you know any of these individuals 
that I have mentioned ? 

Mr. Prokop. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Your subpena will be extended and in the meantime, 
Mr. Margolis, if your client moves from his place of residence or his 
place of business will you notify Mr. Wheeler here at the hotel in 
order that we can contact him, if it is our desire to so do ? 

Mr. Margolis. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Who is the next witness ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Hannah Schwartz Donath. 

Mr. Jackson. Mrs. Donath, will you stand and be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give this subcom- 
mittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mrs. Donath. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HANNAH SCHWARTZ DONATH, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HER COUNSEL, ROBERT W. KENNY AND BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you please state your full name ? 
Mrs. Donath. Hannah Donath. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your name, prior to being Hannah Donath, was 
what? 

Mrs. Donath. Hannah Schwartz. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you give us the spelling of that? 

Mrs. Donath. S-c-h-w-a-r-t-z. 

Mr. Wheeler. I think it was misspelled on the subpena. 

Mrs. Donath. Yes, it was. 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2121 

Mr. Wheeler. Your present address it what ? 

Mrs. Donath. 4543 Simpson Avenue, North Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born? 

Mrs. Donath. New York City. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has been your educational background? 

Mrs. Donath. I was educated in the public schools of New York, 
in high school, and graduated, and spent some time at NYU. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you leave NYU? 

Mrs. Donath. Oh, I just took some courses for about a year. 

Mr. Wheeler. Approximately what year? 

Mrs. Donath. Let's see; let me figure back. That was about 31 
years ago. What year would that be? 

Mr. Wheeler. That would be about 1920? 

Mrs. Donath. About 1920, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been employed since leaving school ? 

Mrs. Donath. I have never been employed. For a short time, about 
5 years ago, I was in the building business for myself. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who is your husband? What is his name? 

Mrs. Donath. Ludwig Donath. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is his occupation ? 

Mrs. Donath. He is an actor. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Donath, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ( 

Mrs. Donath. I decline to answer that on the grounds that it may 
tend to incriminate, and I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have sworn testimony by a witness who appeared 
before this committee, who testified that you were a member of the 
Communist Party; that you were assigned to the Hollywood branch 
of the Communist Party in Hollywood. This testimony reflects that 
this was during the years 1943 and 1944. 

Would you like to affirm or deny the statement that I have just 
made ? 

Mrs. Donath. I would decline to answer that for the reasons pre- 
viously stated. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions Council? 

Mrs. Donath. I decline to answer for the same reasons as I pre- 
viously gave. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your residence address again? 

Mrs. Donath. 4543 Simpson Avenue, North Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you resided at that address? 

Mrs. Donath. 11 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your address prior to that \ 

Mrs. Donath. 2076 Paramount Drive in Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long did you live there? 

Mrs. Donath. About 8 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Arts, Sciences, and Pro- 
fessions Council ? 

Mrs. Donath. I think I answered that by declining to answer that 
question before. 

Mr. Wheeler. I am sorry. I have no further questions, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Beale. No questions. 



2122 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mr. Jackson. The subpena will be continued open, pending the 
arrival of the full subcommittee. If you move in the interim, or if 
your counsel will keep the committee advised as to any move that you 
might make, as to your whereabouts, we would appreciate it. 

Mrs. Donath. My appearance will be on what day ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is a matter within the jurisdiction of the full 
subcommittee and not a matter for this preliminary hearing. 

Mrs. Donath. Then I await further notice ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is the situation ; yes. 

Mr. Jackson. The next witness, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Bella Lewitzky Reynolds. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you stand and be sworn, please. 

Mrs. Reynolds, do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give 
this subcommittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BELLA LEWITZKY REYNOLDS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HER COUNSEL, ROBERT W. KENNY AND BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. Wheei>er. Will you state your full name ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Bella Lewitzky Reynolds. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are known professionally as Bella Lewitzky? 

Mrs. Reynolds.. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. In Los Angeles. 

Mr. W t heeler. What is your occupation ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I am a dancer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have a business of your own ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Yes, I have ; I have a dance school. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where is that dance school located ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. 5552 Hollywood Boulevard. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate briefly your educational back- 
ground ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I went through the first year of junior college. 

Mr. Wheeler. In Los Angeles? 

Mrs. Reynolds. In Los Angeles and San Bernardino both. 

Mr. Wheeler. What year did you leave junior college ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I haven't the faintest idea; I can't remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. How have you been employed since leaving col- 
lege? 

Mrs. Reynolds. In concert work, principally as a dancer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been under contract for any studio? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Doing individual jobs as a dancer; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What studios have you been under contract for? 

Mrs. Reynolds. RKO, M-G-M, and Universal. 

Mr. Wheeler. And the approximate dates ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. That I wouldn't remember. I would say that for 
10 years I worked as a dancer in films. 

Mr. Wheeler. What films have you been in ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. The first one, I think, was Anna Karenina ; I don't 
remember the year. That was at M-G-M. There was one at RKO 
that I think was called The Lady Dances, and then quite a few at 



COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2123 

Universal. I can't remember the names of them. It has been a little 
while ao-o. I was in most of the Montez films that had dance sequences 
in them. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are referring to Maria Montez? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have an agent? 

Mrs. Reynolds. No; I haven't. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you had an agent in the past? 

Mrs. Reynolds. No. 

Mr. Jackson. What are the circumstances of your employment? 
How, for instance, are vou called to work? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Well, through the studio casting office generally, 
and then by audition. Most dancers simply receive a studio call. 
Then you audition for the dance director. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever use the name Becky Lewis? 

.Mrs. Reynolds. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever reside at 2045 Griffith Park Boule- 
vard ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Probably ; I can't remember that either. 

Mr. Jackson. Did vou ever live on Griffith Park Boulevard? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I lived off of Griffith Park Boulevard but in that 
neighborhood. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your husband's name? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Newell Reynolds. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is his occupation? 

Mrs. Reynolds. He is a student. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where? 

Mrs. Reynolds. He has been at Wiggins for the past year. 

Mr. Wheeler. The Wiggins Trade School ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mrs. Reynolds? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever know a person by the name of Mickey 
Ashton ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I would refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know that Mickey Ashton was a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I would refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. In 1938, were you dues secretary of a group to which 
you were assigned? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Pardon me? 

Mr. Wheeler. In 1938 were you dues secretary of a Communist 
Party group to which you were assigned ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I would refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Harry Morgan ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I would refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our information is that Harry Morgan recruited 
you in the Communist Party. 



2124 COMMUNISM IX HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mrs. Reynolds. I would still refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. I might add, this was in the year 1938. Were you a 
member of the Communist Party in 1938 ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I will give the same answer to that question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our information also shows that in 1945 you were 
a member of the northwest section of the Communist Party in Holly- 
wood, and were issued Communist Book No. 41911. Would you like 
to affirm or deny that statement? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I would use the same answer that I gave before. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our information also discloses that in 1946 you held 
Communist book No. 36420. Would you like to affirm or deny that ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I will refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Jackson. You decline to answer? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Jackson. On the grounds that it might incriminate you '. 

Mrs. Reynolds. On the grounds it might incriminate me, yes, and 
all the other grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been employed by the United States 
Government ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. No. 

Mr. W t heeler. Weren't you emploved in a WPA theatre project 
in 1937? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I am sorry ; I was employed by the Federal theater 
project. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
employed by the WPA? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I refuse to answer on the grounds that it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our records also show that on August 11, 1950, you 
were a member of the legislative committee of the Arts, Sciences, and 
Professions Council ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I refuse to answer on the grounds that it might 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are a member of the A. F. of L. Motion Picture 
Dancers, are you ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do the dancers have a union or a guild ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. They do have, but I am not employed in the mo- 
tion-picture industry. I haven't been for about 5 years, so I don't 
belong to any of the trade-unions. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of any trade-union? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Yes; I was a member of the Screen Actors" Guild 
at the time when the dancers were a junior part of that guild. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Workers* Alli- 
ance? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I don't think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to our records, in 1938 you were registered 
in the Communist Party under the name of Becky Lewis. Do you 
have any knowledge of that? I think I previously asked you if you 
ever used the name of Becky Lewis. 

Mrs. Reynolds. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with James Ward? 



COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 2125 

Mrs. Reynolds. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you presently a member of the Arts, Sciences, 
and Professions Council ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I refuse to answer that on the grounds it might 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Beale. I have some questions that I would like to ask. I 
understood you to say that you were employed in the Federal theater 
project during the WPA \ 

Mrs. Reynolds. Yes. 

Mr. Beale. What year was that \ 

Mrs. Reynolds. I can't remember. 

Mr. W heeler. I think it was in 1937. 

Mr. Beale. Approximately in 1937? 

Mrs. Reynolds. It was probably in the thirties, but I don't remem- 
ber the date. 

Mr. Beale. At that time were you required to sign an affidavit to 
the effect that you were not a member of any organization that advo- 
cated the overthrow of the Government, or what you might term a 
loyalty affidavit? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I don't remember. 

Mr. Beale. You do not recall whether or not you were required 
to sign such an affidavit \ 

Mrs. Reynolds. I don't remember what the procedure was in join- 
ing the Federal theater. 

Mr. Beale. This was after you became employed and not before 
you became employed. 

Mrs. Reynolds. I really don't remember. 

Mr. Beale. You have no recollection of signing such an affidavit? 

Mrs. Rey-nolds. No; I haven't. 

Mr. Beale. If you were required to sign such an affidavit, did you 
sign one ? 

Mr. Margolis. That is an "iffy" question. 

Mr. Beale. Let the witness answer the question. 

The question is this. You stated you had no recollection of having 
.signed a loyalty oath while you were employed in the Federal theater 
project. But if, after you were employed, that your continued em- 
ployment depended on you signing a loyalty oath, did you sign such 
an oath ? 

(Whereupon the witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mrs. Reynolds. I refuse to answer the question. It seems to be 
an "iffy'' question and it might tend to incriminate or degrade me. 

Mr. Beale. That is all I have. 

Mr. Wheeler. I should like to go back into your employment record 
for a moment. How have you been employed for the last 5 years? 

("Whereupon the witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mrs. Reynolds. I may have had one studio job. I am sorry, but 
I can't remember the exact dates of all these things, but primarily my 
employment has been as a teacher. 

Mr. Wheeler. And for what school ? 



2126 COMMUNISM IN HOLLYWOOD MOTION-PICTURE INDUSTRY 

Mrs. Reynolds. For the last, oh, I would say the past 3 years for 
the Dance Theater. For about 3 months I was in a show called Out of 
This World. Now, I am very bad with dates. For the past 3 or 4 
months I have had my own school. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is the name of your school ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Dance Associates. 

Mr. Wheeler. And the address again? 

Mrs. Reynolds. 5552 Hollywood Boulevard. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have had your own school for only the past 3 or 
4 months? 

Mrs. Reynolds. That is right. 

Mr. Whueeler. Did you ever work for the Lester Horton Dance 
Theater? 

Mrs. Reynolds. The Dance Theater was the organization that I 
mentioned for the past 3 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Lester Horton ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I was codirector of the Dance Theater. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lester Horton was the other director ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what period of time were you codirector of this 
Dance Theater ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The production Out of This World, who produced 
that? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Salem Inc., or something like that. 

Mr. Jackson. Who directed it? 

Mrs. Reynolds. The first few sessions it was Agnes DeMille and 
they brought in other directors after that. 

Mr. Jackson. How long a run did the show have ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. I did not stay beyond opening night. 

Mr. Jackson. Where did it play here in Los Angeles? 

Mrs. Reynolds. It closed in New York. 

Mr. Jackson. It was a New York production ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Who was the star of the show ? 

Mrs. Reynolds. Charlotte Greenwood. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. The subpena will be continued open. 
If counsel will keep Mr. Wheeler advised as to the whereabouts 
of the witness we will appreciate that. 

Mr. Wheeler. In case a definite date is set for any of the wit- 
nesses represented by yourself, will you assume responsibility by our 
notifying you as to their appearance? 

Mr. Kenny. Yes. 

(Whereupon the subcommittee adjourned.) 

X 



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