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Full text of "Communist infiltration and activities in Newark, N.J. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



U5 Dc 

COMMUNIST INFILTRATION AND 
ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE or EEPEESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 3, 4, AND 5, 1958 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON: 1958 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 

II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 2757 

September 3, 1958: Testimony of — 

Kate (Kitty) Heck_: 2763 

Robert J. Dixon, Jr 2770 

Kate (Kitty) Heck (resumed) 2771 

Robert J. Dixon, Jr. (resumed) 2772 

Louis Malinow 2777 

Afternoon session: 

Irving Fishman 2788 

Jessie Scott Campbell 2805 

Thomas P. Leavy 2810 

Robert J. Dixon, Jr. (resumed) 2814 

Thomas P. Leavy (resumed) 2815 

Mary Adams Taylor 2817 

September 4, 1958: Testimony of — 

Dennis L. James 2823 

Evelvn (SkolofF) Goldberg 2832 

Edwkrd C. Taylor 2837 

John Charles Karakos 2843 

Afternoon session: 

Joseph Anthony Alfone, Jr 2848 

Emanuel (Manuel) Cantor 2852 

John F. Norman 2865 

September 5, 1958: Testimony of — 

Rosalind Rya Bernstein 2879 

Bernard Zick 2883 

Jacob Bernstein 2886 

Index i 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting,, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any Inws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

* * * * * tf ^: 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress. 

****** ^i 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

****** :t: 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is 'authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 
^iFor the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 

On September 3-5, 1958, in Newark, N. J., the Committee on Un- 
American Activities held additional public hearings in its continuing 
investigation of current Communist tactics of infiltration and the 
extent, character, and objects of Communist Party propaganda 
activities in the United States. 

Sixteen witnesses testified in the hearings. Three were cooperative ; 
the remaining thirteen were antagonistic and defiant. 

Robert J. Dixon, Jr., who had been the president of a local of the 
Communist-controlled United Electrical Workers Union prior to his 
break with the Communist Party in 1950, identified eight of the un- 
cooperative witnesses who were subpenaed to testify in the hearings as 
persons known by him to have been members of the Communist Party. 
All eight invoked the first and fifth amendments when asked if they 
were presently, or had ever been, members of the party. 

Bernard Zick, another former Communist who had broken with the 
conspiracy in 1950, identified six of the unfriendly witnesses as per- 
sons known to him to have been members of the party when he was 
active in it. These six witnesses also relied on the first and fifth 
amendments when asked about present and past Communist Party 
membership. 

Dennis James, who had served as an FBI undercover operative in 
the Labor Youth League for several years prior to his ajjpearance in 
the Newark hearings, testified on the activities of that organization 
in the area and also about the activities of some of the uncooperative 
witnesses in the Labor Youth League, which is the youth arm of the 
Communist Party. 

Louis Malinow, Kate Heck, and Emanuel Cantor invoked tlie first 
and fifth amendments when questioned about present Communist 
Party membership and also about their activities in the Communist 
Party underground in the years 1952-57. 

Mr. Irving Fishman, deputy collector of customs. New York City, 
testified in the hearings on the extensive dissemination of Communist 
propaganda of foreign origin within the New Jersey area. 

Evelyn Skoloff Goldberg, identified as a Communist Party member 
in the hearings, invoked the first and fifth amendments when asked 
about her activities as a distributor of Communist propaganda in the 
area. She also invoked the first and fifth amendments when ques- 
tioned about her present Communist Party membership and activities. 

Harvey O'Connor, a writer who is chairman of the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee, was subpenaed to testify before the committee 
when he appeared in Newark to speak at a rally staged by that organi- 
zation's local chapter. The rally was held to arouse opposition to 
this committee's appearance in Newark. The Emergency Civil Lib- 
erties Committee, which has been cited as a Communist front, has for 

2757 



2758 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J, 

its stated objective the abolition of this committee and the curbing 
of security work by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. O'Connor refused to appear in answer to his subpena. He sent 
a letter to the committee and issued a statement to the press challeng- 
ing the right of the committee to hold hearings and to subpena him, 
or anyone else, as a witness. 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION AND ACTIVITIES IN 
NEWARK, N. J. 



wednesday, september 3, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-Ajvierican Activities, 

Newnrk^ N. J. 
public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in Courtroom No. 1, Post Office Building, 
Newark, N. J., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (subcommittee chairman), 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff director, and Raymond 
T. Collins and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will be in order. 

Let there be incorporated in the body of the record the Resolution of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities authorizing and directing 
the holding of the instant hearings here in Newark. 

(The information referred to follows :) 

BE IT RESOLVED, that a hearing by the Committee, or a subcommittee 
thereof, to be held in Newark, New Jersey, or at such other place or places as the 
Chairman may designate, on such date or dates as the Chairman may determine, 
be authorized and approved, including the conduct of investigations deemed rea- 
sonably necessary by the stafif in preparation therefor, relating to the following 
subjects and having the legislative purpose indicated : 

1. The extent, character, and objects of Communist infiltration and Communist 
Party activities within various local civic and social organizations, the legislative 
purpose being : 

(a) To obtain additional information for use by the Committee in its 
consideration of Section 16 of H. R. 9352, relating to the proposed amendment 
of Sec. 4 of the Communist Control Act of 1954, prescribing a penalty for 
knowingly and wilfully becoming or remaining a member of the Communist 
Party with knowledge of the purpose or objects thereof ; and 

(b) To obtain additional information, adding to the Committee's overall 
knowledge on the subject so that Congress may be kept informed and thus 
prepared to enact remedial legislation in the National Defense, and for 
internal security, when and if the exigencies of the situation require it. 

2. Communist techniques and strategy in Communist organizational activities, 
the legislative purpose being set forth under items 1 (a) and 1 (b) of this 
resolution. 

3. The extent, character, and objects of Communist Party underground activi- 
ties, the legislative purpose being set forth under Items 1 (a) and (b) of this 
resolution. 

4. Entry and dissemination in the State of New Jersey of foreign Communist 
Party propaganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the necessity for, 
and advisability of, amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act, designed 

2759 



2760 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

more effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices now used in 
avoiding the prohibitions of tlie Act. 

5. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any 
subcommittee thereof, appointed to conduct this hearing may designate. 

Mr. Willis. Let there likewise be incorporated in the bodj^ of the 
record the order of appointment of the subcommittee to conduct the 
hearings. 

(The information referred to follows :) 

Washington, August 7, 1958. 
TO : Mr. Richard Arens 
Staff Director 

House Committee on Un-American Activities 
Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting^ 
of Representatives Clyde Doyle and Gordon H. Scherer, as associate members, 
and Representative Edwin E. Willis, as Chairman, to conduct hearings in 
Newark, New Jersey, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, September 3, 4 and 5, 
1958, at 10 : 00 a. m., on subjects under investigation by the Committee and take 
such testimony on said days or succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 7th day of August, 1958. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Willis. The hearings which begin today in Newark are in fur- 
therance of the powers and duties of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, pursuant to Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, which 
not only establishes the basic jurisdiction of the committee but also 
mandates this committee, along with other standing committees of 
the Congress, to exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution of 
any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the 
committee. 

In response to this power and duty, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is continuously in the process of accumulating factual in- 
formation respecting Communists, the Communist Party, and Com- 
munist activities which will enable the committee and the Congress to 
appraise the administration and operation of the Smith Act, the In- 
ternal Security Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, and 
provisions of the Criminal Code relating to espionage, sabotage, and 
subversion. In addition, the committee has before it numerous pro- 
posals not yet in the form of legislation but for the purpose of 
strengthening our legislative weapons to protect the internal security 
of this Nation. 

In the course of the last few years, as a result of hearings and in- 
vestigations, this committee has made over 80 separate recommenda- 
tions for legislative action. Legislation has been passed by the Con- 
gress embracing 35 of the committee recommendations, and 26 sepa- 
rate proposals are currently pending in the Congress on subjects 
covered oy other committee recommendations. Moreover, in the 
course of the last few years, numerous recommendations made by the 
committee for administrative action have been adopted by the execu- 
tive agencies of the Government. 

The hearings here in Newark are in furtherance of a project of the 
committee on current techniques of the Communist conspiracy, its 
changing tactics, its propaganda, and its modes of operation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2761 

Today, the Communist Party, though reduced in size as a formal 
entity, is a greater menace than ever before. It has long since divested 
itself of unreliable elements. Those who remain are the hard-core, 
disciplined agents of the Kremlin on American soil. Most of the 
Communist Party operation in the United States today consists of 
underground behind-the-scenes manipulations. The operation is 
focused at nerve centers of the Nation and masquerades behind a 
facade of humanitarianism. 

We know that the strategy and tactics of the Communist Party are 
constantly changing for the purpose of avoiding detection and in an 
attempt to beguile the American people and the Government respect- 
ing the true nature of the conspiracy. As we on the Committee on 
Un-American Activities seek to develop factual information on these 
changing strategies and tactics for our legislative purposes, we are 
constantly met with numerous and unfounded charges respecting the 
nature of our work and our objectives. Such charges, however, will 
not dissuade us from our duty. We seek the facts and only the facts. 
Insofar as it is within the power of this committee, as a part of the 
United States Congress, we shall obtain the facts and we shall do so 
within the framework of carefully prescribed procedures of justice 
and fair play. 

In the course of the last several hearings of the committee, we have 
discovered a new technique practiced by Communists for the purpose 
of disguising their operations. Persons who have been identified by 
responsible witnesses before us, under oath, as Communists have them- 
selves denied present technical membership in the Communist Party 
for the period of time beginning with the announcement of our com- 
mittee hearings. Time and time again we have seen instances in 
which hard-core leaders of the conspiracy deny, while they are under 
oath, that they are present members of the Communist Party, but re- 
fuse to testify respecting past membership as recent as a week or so 
prior to the hearings or with respect to their contemplated future 
actions. This situation, coupled with our other sources of informa- 
tion, compel us to conclude that they have resigned technical member- 
ship solely for the purpose of attempting to deceive and are, in truth, 
part of the dynamic operation of the conspiracy. 

Preliminary investigations in this area by the staff of the committee 
indicate two important patterns of activity in the Newark area which 
are of especial concern to the committee. 

The first is that persons who have heretofore been active in the 
aboveground operations of the Communist Party are digging deeper 
into the underground apparatus where they are intensifying their 
activities. 

The second is the concentration of Communist propaganda efforts 
in this area. We shall receive testimony here, as we have elsewhere, 
respecting the increasing flood of Communist propaganda wliich is 
being imported into the United States from abroad. 

May I emphasize that the purpose of the committee here in 
Newark is to develop facts with reference to a pattern of operation 
and not to attempt to exhaust the subject matter. We have not 
subpenaed witnesses for these hearings merely for the sake of their 
exposure or to put on a show. We are engaged in the serious busi- 
ness of tracing the operations in the United States of a worldwide 



2762 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

conspiracy which is determined to destroy us. Should we attempt 
to interrogate in these hearings all possible witnesses on whom we 
have leads regarding Communist activity in this area, we would be 
here for many weeks to the neglect of our other work elsewhere per- 
taining to other patterns of Communist activity in other parts of the 
Nation. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person identified 
as a member of the Communist Party during the course of the com- 
mittee hearings will be given an early opportunity to appear before 
this committee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explain- 
ing any testimony adversely affecting him. It is the policy of the 
committee to accord any witness the privilege of being represented 
by counsel ; but under the rules of this committee, counsel's sole and 
exclusive prerogative is to advise his client. 

I would remind those present that a disturbance of any kind or 
an audible comment during the hearing will not be permitted. This 
is a serious proceeding in which we are earnestly trying to discharge 
an iniportant and arduous duty, with the general objective of main- 
taining the security of this great Nation. 

I now remind the audience that under standing orders of the build- 
ing there is to be no smoking in the courtroom. 

On my right is Mr. Scherer of Ohio. Do you care to make any 
general comments at this time ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have nothing, Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Willis. By the way, I just received a telegram in my capacity 
as chairman of this subcommittee from Kobert E. Kearney, Com- 
mander of the Headquarters Department of New Jersey Veterans of 
Foreign Wars. It says : 

Members of Congress, Members of Un-American Activities Committee, Federal 
Court Building, Newark, N. J., New Jersey's Veterans of Foreign Wars welcome 
your committee to our State and pledge you our sincere cooperation in your 
legislative and patriotic endeavor to stamp out subversive and un-American 
activities in our country. I have by a copy of this telegram requested our 
Americanism chairman, past State Commander Charles E. Kenny, of Newark, 
to aid, assist, and cooperate with your committee in its activity as you may 
deem desirable and proper. Past Commander Kenny can be reached by 
telephone, 

and the number is given. 

We will certainly accept that kind offer and cooperate in every 
way possible with Commander Kenny, and we extend our apprecia- 
tion to this fine organization for its offer of cooperation in connection 
with these hearings. 

Now, Mr. Counsel, will you please call your first witness? 

Mr. Arens. Kitty Heck, kindly come forward. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. Willis. Will you kindly raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Miss Heck. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, may I ask the photographers not to take pictures 
now? 

Mr. Willis. That order will be respected. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2763 

May I say, so we need not repeat it, that under our system of free- 
dom of the press a witness is not under the control of this committee 
until that witness has been sworn and has prepared to testify. 
Thereafter the witness is under the jurisdiction of the committee. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF KATE (KITTY) HECK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Miss Heck. My name is Kate Heck, and I live in Newark, N. J. 
As to my occupation, I am now unemployed as a direct result of this 
committee. I was called before an executive session. I appeared 
there and I was subpenaed to an open hearing ; and when I so informed 
my employers, I lost my job. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Miss Heck. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. iVnd you are represented by counsel ? 

Miss Heck. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us at the outset, please, any other names 
by which you have been known, other than the name pursuant to 
which you are appearing today ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. Mr. Counsel, I am going to refuse to answer that ques- 
tion, first of all, based on the fact that I don't believe this committee is 
accomplishing any legislative purpose, its authority is very vague and 
that has been indicated in the decision by the Supreme Court and, 
secondly, on the basis of the fifth amendment, which guarantees me 
the right to refuse to answer questions which may cause me to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee, while you are under oath, whether or not you have been known 
by any names, other than tlie name Kitty Heck, under which you are 
appearing today, you would be supplying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Forer. It is Kate Heck, not Kitty. 

Mr. Arens. "Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Miss Heck. I feel there is just a possibility that 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us where you were born. 

Miss Heck. I was born in Newark. 

Mr. Arens. And please give us a woi'd about your education, 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I went to grammar school here in Newark and high 
school here in Newark, a graduate of high school. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Miss Heck. I did have some extension courses at universities. 

Mr. Arens. At what universities did you have extension courses? 

Miss Heck. The Newark Extension of New York Universitv. 



2764 COMMUNIST ACTIVI'TIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. And would you kindly tell us when you completed your 
formal education? 

Miss Heck. I completed my formal high-school education, I believe, 
in 1929. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us, then, the first principal 
employment which you had after you completed your high-school 
education ? 

Miss Heck. Mr. Counsel, I am going to refuse to answer any ques- 
tions with reference to 

Mr. Willis. Please talk a little louder. 

Miss Heck. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Willis. Please talk a little louder. 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer any questions with refer- 
ence to my employment. I don't believe this committee means any 
good to me. I have heretofore lost one job as a result of the activities 
of the committee and I don't want to hurt myself any further by 
discussing my employment. 

Secondly, this committee had full opportunity to question me while 
I was in Washington at a closed hearing. And therefore, in my 
opinion, this questioning is merely for exposure for exposure's sake, 
which, as I understand it, the Supreme Court says is not one of the 
functions, not one of the powers of Congress, and, secondly, on the 
basis of the fifth amendment, which guarantees me the right to refuse 
to answer questions which may cause me to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your first employment endure, your first 
principal employment after you completed your formal education? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr, Arens. Without naming your employer, could you tell us the 
nature of your employment, such as that you were an office worker? 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the same 
ground, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you honestly believe. Witness, that to answer the 
question as to the nature of your first employment might lead to a 
criminal prosecution? Do you honestly believe that? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. Well, I think there is such a possibility. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is there anything in your first employment that was 
illegal or of a criminal nature ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. In view of her answer, I ask that you direct the wit- 
ness to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question, which simply in- 
dicates that we do not agree that you are properly invoking the con- 
stitutional privileges you enumerated. 

Miss Heck. I am sorry. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to abide by my refusal. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any employment since you completed 
your formal education concerning which you can tell this committee 
without giving information which, in your judgment, might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2765 

Miss Heck. I am afraid I don't understand that question. It got 
a little involved for me. 

Mr. Arens. I will put it a little differently, then. Have you been 
engaged in any employment since you finished your education that 
you can tell us about witliout giving information which, in your judg- 
ment, might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. In other words, have all of your employments since you 
completed your formal education been of a nature that if you told us 
about that employment, you would be giving information that could 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name of Evelyn ? 

Miss Heck. Again I am going to refuse to answer that on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your first employment endure ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that again, Mr. Counsel, 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. How many different employments have you had since 
you completed your formal education ? 

Miss Heck. Again I am going to refuse to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your last employment endure ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. In what city were you employed ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse again on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been emploved professionally in Newark, 
N.J.? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
•ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. The question is: Have you ever been employed pro- 
fessionally in Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I will order you to answer that question, par- 
ticularly since you voluntarily said, obviously for self-serving rea- 
sons 

Miss Heck. I can't hear you, sir. 

Mr. Willis. That you lost your employment because of the actions 
of this committee. You were anxious to let the press know all about 
that. So I think it is a proper question and I will direct you to 
answer the question as to whether you have ever been professionally 
employed in this area. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to abide by my refusal to answer on the 
:same grounds. 



2766 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I do not know what the committee's 
investigation discloses as to this witness' employment record. Wliat 
does our record show as to her employment, Mr. Coimsel ? 

Mr. Arens. We have information to the effect that professionally 
this witness has been employed on two occasions by organizations 
which are dominated or controlled by the Communist Party. It has 
also been suggested to us that over a period of time, and I expect to 
interrogate her respecting it, she has been deep in the underground 
conspiratorial apparatus of the Communist Party. I expect to in- 
terrogate her on that and try to elicit from her at least some tidbits of 
information that might confirm a pattern that we have been developing 
elsewhere, Congressman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, you heard the statement of counsel in re- 
sponse to my question. Is there anything that he said that is untrue ? 

(The witness conferred with her comisel.) 

Miss Heck. Well, sir, as far as I can tell, counsel has just given 
some opinions. I don't think that he has given any facts. I think 
they were just generalized statements that he was makmg, 

Mr. Scherer. Whether they are facts or opinions, is anything he 
said untrue or are his — you classified them as opinions, I think he 
stated facts; but let's classify them as opinions — are his opinions 
erroneous? Are they consistent with the facts as you know them, 
or are they not consistent with the facts ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that at one period of your career you were engaged by the 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, which has 
been shown repeatedly by congressional committees to be under the 
control of the Communist operation in this comitry. Kindly affirm 
or deny that assertion. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. First of all, I wonder whether we may have some water 
at this table. Secondly, it seems to me that question had several parts 
and was somewhat involved. I wonder if you can break it down for 
me. 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; I will be glad to. 

Miss Heck. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been employed by the United Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers of America, commonly knoAvn as UE ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of your career, been in the under- 
ground apparatus of the Communist conspiracy in the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. Well, frankly, I don't know what you mean. I think 
you used a very broad term. I am not sure I understand it. I would 
prefer if you would ask me some specific questions. 

Mr. Arens. I will be glad to try. Were you in attendance in 
March, on March 17, 1957, at a second-session meeting of the Com- 
munist Party of New England held at Roxbury, Mass., on Otisfield 
Street? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2767 

Miss Heck. Would you repeat that question, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, ma'am. Were you on March 17, 1957, in attend- 
ance at a Communist Party session hekl on Otisfield Street in Rox- 
bury, Mass. ? 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

]\Iiss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the same ground 
that I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. That was part of the underground operation of the 
Communist Party, was it not ? 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

Miss Heck. What, specifically, was part of what you call this under- 
ground ? 

Mr. Arens. The session held at Otisfield Street, Roxbury, Mass., 
March 17, 1957. You were functioning there as part of the under- 
ground apparatus of the Communist Party, were you not ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss PIeck. I am going to refuse to answer any questions about the 
alleged meeting for the reasons that I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that on March 17, 1951, you were in attendance at a session 
of the Communist Party of New England held on Otisfield Street at 
Roxbury, Mass. 

Mr. Forer. Did you mean 1951 ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly affirm or deny that fact. 

Miss Heck. What date did you give, sir ? 

Mr, Arens. March 17, 1957. 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer on the grounds I gave 
you before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Bess Jones ? 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the same grounds, 
too. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived at vour present address ? 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the grounds I 
gave you before. 

Mr. Arens. What city did you live in immediately prior to the city 
in which you presently reside ? 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that based on the 
grounds I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully, while you are under oath, where you lived im- 
mediately prior to your present address, you would be supplying in- 
formation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. There is such a possibility. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Ernst Pollock? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

INIiss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the grounds 
previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Armando Penha? 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously given. 

31657—58 2 



2768 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Both of these men took an oath before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities and testified that while they were in the 
Communist operation, in the Communist Party in the United States, 
they knew you as a Communist. This identification runs up to just 
the last few months. We want to give you an opportunity now, while 
you are under oath, to deny these assertions, these statements made 
under oath. Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ^ 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. At this time and before this body, I don't care to. 

Mr. Arens. You recognize that you are under oath when you say, 
"at this time and before this body," do you not ? You recognize you 
are presently under oath ? 

Miss Heck. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you recognize that if you would deny testimony 
made under oath by responsible witnesses, somebody would probably 
be prosecuted for perjury, do you not? 

Miss Heck. I don't recognize that at all. You asked me if I cared to 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. Then would you kindly answer the question, were 
Armando Penha and Ernst Pollock in error when they told this com- 
mittee, while they were under oath, that they knew you as a member 
of the hard-core of the Communist operation ? 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the reasons pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Arens. When you say that before this forum, do you anticipate 
that after you are released from your oath, released from the possible 
pains and penalties of perjury before this committee, you will issue 
some type of statement saying, "Of course I am not a Communist, of 
course I have never been a Communist, but I wasn't going to tell that 
Committee on Un-American Activities whether or not I am a Com- 
munist" ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. First of all, I don't understand what you are talking 
about. I am being questioned here 

Mr. Arens. You said you are not going to answer in front of this 
forum here, which left the implication that you might answer else- 
where when you are released from the pains and penalties of any pos- 
sible false statements under oath. That is the reason I asked you if 
you anticipate that when you are released from your subpena here, 
released from the possible pains and penalties of perjury, you would 
then make a statement to the public to the eli'ect that you are not a 
Communist. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I don't understand your question, and, secondly, Mr. 
Counsel, if I do wish to make a statement I will make it in my own 
words and I don't expect Mr. Counsel to do the wording for me. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question. She, by her own voluntary statement to this 
committee, said she would not answer the question in front of this 
body at this time. And I think counsel is correct when he says that 
such a statement by her leaves the inference she is going to answer 
someplace else. I think he has a perfect right, in view of her volun- 
tary statement, then, to ask her the question that is now pending. I 
ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2769 

Mr . Willis. Yes. I direct you to answer that question because 
you opened up the very door that led to the question. You did not in- 
voke the protection of any constitutional privilege. 

Miss Heck. Frankly, sir 

Mr. Willis. You said with an obvious slant and sneer that you 
would not answer this question at this time and before this body. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel, ) 

Mr. FoRER. Mr. Chairman, you are directing the witness to answer, 
but the witness answered the question to the extent she understood it. 

Mr. Willis. She hasn't answered 

Miss Heck. What is your question now ? 

Mr. Willis. — pursuant to my direction. 

Mr. FoRER. She answered the question. 

Mr. Willis. You know the rules and know she has been directed to 
answer. And you know it is a foundation. 

Mr. FoRER. Suppose you state the question, then, because neither 
of us understands it, and it is a nonintelligible question, and I can't 
see how you expect the witness to answer. 

Mr. Willis. I do not want you to debate with the Chair. You 
know the rules of the committee. You have appeared many times 
before it. 

Mr. Counsel, will you repeat the question and then the order to 
answer will follow. 

Mr. Arens. You said, in effect, a few moments ago that you would 
not answer certain questions before this forum at this time, leaving 
in my mind and in the mind of Congressman Scherer also, as evidenced 
by his statement, the impression that you did perhaps anticipate 
making statements before some other forum as to whether or not you 
are engaged in Communist activities. I then asked you this question : 
Do you anticipate, when you are released from the pains and penalties 
of possible perjury, released from your oath before this committee, 
issuing public statements to the effect that you are not a Communist'^ 

( The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Whether eminent counsel can understand that ques- 
tion or not, I can. 

Mr. Willis. And since the question is a repetition of the one that 
we understood before, I now direct you to answer it. 

Miss Heck. I am sorry, I didn't hear you, sir. 

Mr. Willis. I now direct you to answer that question. 
(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. Would you repeat the question for me? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Willis. Xo ; the question will not be repeated. You will answer 
it or let the record blank. 

Miss Heck. I have had no anticipation. I now 

Mr. Willis Proceed with the next question, Counsel. 

Mr. Arexs. We are now going to display to you certain documents 
bearing signatures, which have come to the possession of this com- 
mittee by legal devices. They are all nominating petitions for persons 
wlio were seeking public office on the Communist Party ticket at 
various dates, all of which bear the signature "Kate Heck." 

Kindly look at these documents as Mr. Bonora of our staff displays 
them to vou, and tell this committee whether or not the signature on 



2770 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

those documents, "Kate Heck," is a true and correct reproduction of 
your own signature affixed to the original document. 

(The documents were displayed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that question on the 
ground previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that each of the 
documents which has been displayed to the witness, as well as other 
documents exhibited during these hearings, be appropriately marked 
and incorporated by reference in this record miless otherwise directed. 

Mr. "VYiLLis. So ordered. 

(Documents marked "Heck Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name of B. Brosser? 

j\Iiss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that question based on 
the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Arens, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you did use the name of B. Brosser in the underground 
apparatus of the Communist Party while you were active there in 
1957, in Boston. Please affirm or deny that. 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever live in Boston ? 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever live at 94 Bay State Road in Boston? 

Miss HJECK. I am going to refuse to answer that on the grounds 
previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Robert Dixon ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in the presence of the witness,.! respect- 
fully suggest another witness be called and an oath be administered 
to that witness. 

Mr. Robert Dixon, would you kindly come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath to you ? 

iSIr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Dixon. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT J. DIXON, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dixon, I expect to interrogate you at length a little 
later on. For present purposes kindly identify yourself by name, 
residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Dixon. Robert J. Dixon, Jr. I live at Point Pleasant, N. J. 
I am a welder in General Electric Co. for the past 22 years. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dixon, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Dixon. I have. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, for the present purposes, the dates on which 
you were a member of the Communist Party, over what period of 
time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2771 

Mr, Dixon. Oh, from 1945 through early 1950. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Com- 
munist Party, did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Kitty Heck? 

Mr. Dixon. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see that person in the courtroom now ? 

Mr. Dixon. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly point her out to the committee ? 

Mr. Dixon. At my left [indicating]. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any doubt in your mind, Mr. Dixon, that the 
person whom you have just pointed to and identified as the person 
known by you to be Kitty Heck was a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Dixon. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are excused for the time being, Mr. Dixon. 

TESTIMONY OF KATE HECK— Eesumed 

Mr. Arens. Miss Heck, you have just heard the testimony of Eobert 
Dixon, in which he has identified you, while he was under oath, as a 
person known by him to have been a member of the Communist 
Party. Do you care to affirm or deny 

Miss Heck. Mr. Chairman, what happened to your ruling that 
no pictures would be taken during the course of time that a person was 
imder the jurisdiction of the committee ? 

Mr. Willis. They are taking the picture of tl^e next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly answer the question ? 

Miss Heck. Would you repeat it ? 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Dixon in error or was he telling the truth 
when he just told this committee, while he was under oath, that while 
he was in the Communist Party he knew you as a Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that on the ground I 
have given you before. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Heck, it is the information of this committee that 
you have, up to and including the recent past, been deep in the con- 
spiratorial underground apparatus of the Communist Party in the 
United States. It is the belief of the committee that you have, or now 
possess, very valuable, important information respecting the Com- 
munist Party underground operations, particularly in the New Jersey 
and in the New England areas. Under the law, the Immunity Act, the 
Committee on Un-American Activities is empowered to initiate pro- 
ceedings whereby a witness may be granted immunity from criminal 
prosecution if that witness testifies fully and completely on the subject 
matter within the jurisdiction of this committee. If this Committee on 
Un-American Activities should initiate proceedings whereby you 
would be immune from criminal prosecution, would you then, if those 
proceedings were consummated, testify fully and freely respecting 
the Communist Party activities of which you may have knowledge? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. W^ell, first of all, immunity would not remove other 
objections which I have to the questions, and, secondly, to protect 
myself I have hired counsel, and my lawyer tells me that he doesn't 
think that this committee has the power to grant immunity. 



2772 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Now will you answer this question : Are you now, this 
minute, this day, September 3, 1958, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Heck. I am going to refuse to answer that based on the 
answer I gave before, that based on the protection of the first amend- 
ment of the Constitution, and based on the fifth amendment, which 
guarantees my right to refuse to answer questions which may cause me 
to be a witness against myself, I am going to refuse to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

We will take an informal recess. 

(Members present at the time of the recess: Eepresentatives Willis 
andScherer.) 

(Brief recess.) 

(Members present after the recess: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. Counsel, please call your next witness. 

I think he has been sworn already. 

Mr. Arens. If you please, Mr. Chairman, we would like to resume 
with Mr. Robert Dixon, who has been sworn. 

Mr. Willis. All right. Proceed. 

TESTIMOIP" OF ROBERT J. DIXON, JR.— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dixon, you have been sworn on this record and have 
identified yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Give us just a word, please, about your own personal background^ 
where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Dixon. Schenectady, N. Y., 1912. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education, please. 

Mr. Dixon. High school. East Orange, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us about the principal employments which 
you have had in the course of your life. 

Mr. Dixon. Practically only one. General Electric Co., 22 years. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? I believe you told us but you might 
tell us again. 

Mr. Dixon. A welder, an electric welder. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, Mr. Dixon, what occasioned your joining 
the Communist Party. Give us a word about that, please, sir. 

Mr. Dixon. I have a background in the labor movement. I was 
president of my local. 

Mr. Arens. What local was that, please, sir ? 

Mr, Dixon. United Electrical Local 422. In the early forties I was 
active in the union for a good many years ; and during the war years 
there, I was constantly under pressure to join the party by those in the 
plants who did belong to the party. And finally, m around 1945, 1 be- 
lieve, just prior 

Mr. Arens. You voluntarily joined the party ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you will, please, sir, a thumbnail sketch of 
the various posts which you held in the Communist Party during your 
membership in that organization. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2773 

Mr. Dixon. Well, there practically was an industrial club, the 
Bloomfield Industrial Club or Bloomfield Electrical Industrial Club, 
one or the other, the name of it was. I held various positions within 
that club — treasurer, secretary, and things of that kind. I may have 
been chairman, I don't oflfhand remember, but I may have. 

Mr. Arens. Did you collect dues at any time ? 

Mr. Dixon, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only entity to which you were attached as 
a Communist ? 

Mr. Dixon. Prior to the setting up of the industrial clubs there were 
town or regional clubs, one or the other, that was set up ; and I was in 
that for about 4 or 5 meetings, to my memory. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you first meet as a Communist in the indus- 
trial club ? 

Mr. Dixon. I believe it was Jim Moore's house in Bloomfield. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet any place else ? 

Mr. Dixon. After Jim Moore moved, we had our meetings in Bernie 
Zick's house in Newark. 

Mr. Arens. I expect, in a little while, to interrogate you in detail 
with respect to other persons who served in the club as Communists, 
and the like ; but I should like to now ask you, what occasioned your 
break with the Communist Party, as I understand it, in the early 
fifties? 

Mr. Dixon. At the time, sir, there were the trials that were going on 
in New York with the national officials in the Communist Party ; and 
what was brought cut there was repugnant to me and disgusting, and 
I finally just quit and got out. That was all there was to it. 

Mr. Aeens. You were in the party as a member who might be char- 
acterized as an idealist? 

Mr. Dixon. Maybe so, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien you saw the light you did break, is that correct ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dixon, on the basis of your experience in the Com- 
munist Party and on the basis of the study which you have made 
since your actual break with the Communist Party, its operations, 
may I ask you two or thre« general questions. 

First of all, how serious is the Communist operation right now? 

Mr. DixON. Well, it is probably worse than ever, being that it is 
underground, and where there can't be seen the actions they are doing. 
Like I say, it is probably worse now than it was 10 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Has the party divested itself, or has there been a parting 
of company of people who were Communists but who were in the 
idealistic category such as yourself ? 

Mr. Dixon. Probably. I think at the time I got out, there was a big 
exodus from the party at that time of people who didn't believe that 
that was what they were there for. That wasn't what they believed in. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party in truth and in fact a political 
party or is it a conspiracy ? 

Mr. Dixon. Well, I don't believe it is a political party, sir. I think 
it is underground. It is a conspiracy. It would have to be. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us who were the people, known by you 
to a certainty to be members of the Communist Party, who were in the 
industrial club in which you served in various official capacities. 



2774 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr, Dixon. Well, the membership changed over the years, with 
people coming in and out of it. There are some whom I do not remem- 
ber. There were people who were in it for quite a few years, so my 
memory will serve me knowing of them. But when the industrial 
club was first set up, it was composed of about 15 people. I presumed 
that most of them got out years ago, but there were some that hung 
on all during this time. Principally we met in Jim Moore's house in 
Bloomfield. 

Mr. Arens. Was Jim Moore a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dixon. He was, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What did he do in the Communist Party industrial 
club? 

Mr. Dixon. In the club I belonged to, he was probably the kingpin, 
the organizer, the one that kept it together, that called the meetings. 
Most of them, as I stated, were at his home. 

Mr. Arens, Was he a UE organizer? 

Mr. Dixon. He was, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Has he since moved to another area for other operational 
purposes ? 

Mr. Dixon. I think he moved, I believe in 1949, to Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Jessie Scott Campbell ? 

Mr. Dixon. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about that person ? 

Mr. Dixon. She belonged to the Orange Branch prior to the setting 
lip of the industrial clubs. Meetings that I attended there were held 
at the home of Rose Sell in, I believe it was. West Orange. 

Mr. Arens. Was Rose Sell a Communist ? 

Mr. Dixon. She w^as, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is that last name S-e-1-1 ? 

Mr. Dixon. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other observation or information that 
presently comes to your mind respecting Jessie Scott Campbell ? Is 
she presently a resident of these parts ? 

Mr. Dixon. I haven't seen her in quite a number of years, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Jerry McGrath ? 

Mr. Dixon. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about Jerry McGrath. 

Mr. Dixon. Pie was the president of my local at the time that I 
joined the party. 

Mr. Arens. That was a local of UE ? 

Mr. Dixon. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Joe Alfone? 

Mr. Dixon. I did, sir. 

Mr. xVrens. Could you give us a word about him ? 

jMr. Dixon. He was a member of the executive board of the local at 
the time that I joined the party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Henry Lee ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about him, please, sir ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2775 

Mr. Dixon. He was a member — he may have been either a steward 
or executive board member — of the local at the time I joined the party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Tom Leavy ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How did he spell his last name, do you recall ? 

Mr. Dixon. L-e-a-v-y. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about him, please, sir ? 

Mr. Dixon. He was a member of the first industrial club that I 
belonged to and was a member of it, oh, I would say, 3 or 4 years, at 
least. He changed his employment, and at the time of changing 
employment he went out of that club into probably some other one. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Dorothy Leavy ? 

Mr. DixoN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about her, please, sir? 

Mr. Dixon. Tom Leavy's wife, and attended the meetings with 
him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Bernard Zick ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about him, please, sir? 

Mr. Dixon. He was a member of the Bloomfield Industrial Club 
for quite some time ; and the latter years that I was in the party, most 
of the meetings were held at his home. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Sylvia Cohen? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a word about her. 

Mr. Dixon. She was a UE organizer who was attached to the gen- 
eral area of my plant and belonged to the industrial club which I 
belonged to at some period of time. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, as a Communist, attend the indoctrination 
training courses that they had for the hard-core here ? 

Mr. Dixon. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Kitty Heck, the lady 
who preceded you on the witness stand ? 

Mr. Dixon. I did, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about her, please, sir, based upon your 
observations and associations with her as a Communist. 

Mr. Dixon. She was a secretary to the president of the State or- 
ganization of the UE, Jim McLeish, for, oh, to my own knowledge, 
say 12 years. She was a member of the county organization of the 
party. I believe she held the position of secretary at some time or 
other during that time, and she was a go-between, between the county 
organization and my club. 

Mr. Arens. Was she a go-between for the Connnunist Party opera- 
tion and the labor organization, the UE ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did she bring directives and instructions from the 
party to UE ? 

Mr. Dixon. To our industrial club, yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the instructions which she 
brought ? 



2776 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Dixon. Well, on the general nature of some collection that 
might be going on or the selling of some pamphlets or the setting up 
•of some kind of organization to collect funds or things of that nature. 

Mr. Arens. When you decided that you had had enough of the 
Communist Party, did anyone in the Communist Party undertake to 
pressure you to stay in the operation ? 

]VIr. DixON. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any conversations with Kitty Heck re- 
specting your proposed disassociation from the party? 

Mr. Dixon. Well, I believe she knew I was displeased with what 
was going on. I was no longer feeling the way that they thought I 
should feel, and I stopped attending meetings and got bawled out a 
few times for that. 

Mr. Arens. What benefit inures to the Communist Party by hav- 
ing its operatives in an industrial area, such as the Newark area, 
where there is considerable heavy industry ? 

Mr. Dixon. Well, innocently or not, those who belong to those clubs 
can always pass on information that the party could pick up and vise. 
It is a means of organization within that plant which that member 
may belong to. He is always a contact point, or there may be others 
whom he could contact or try to contact. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Louis Malinow ? 

Mr. Dixon. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Dixon. He was the county organizer for the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. What did he do as a county organizer for the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Dixon. He met with the local clubs, trying to organize their 
activities, trying to organize setups whereby more organizational work 
would go on within each plant or in each club. 

Mr. Arens. Was he active in the national operations of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Dixon. That I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was he active in UE ? 

Mr. DixoN. That I don't know, sir, either. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a full-time paid functionary of the Commu- 
nist operation ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, I believe so. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that since we 
have interrogated this witness under oath on other ramifications 
of the Communist Party operations whicli are not the subject of the 
general area of inquiry of the committee here today, some of the in- 
formation which he is prepared to give us is only cumulative. Inas- 
much as I do not want to impose upon the committee's time by going 
into matters that have or will be testified to by other witnesses, I sug- 
gest, Mr. Chairman, that this witness' interrogation by the staff be 
concluded. 

Mr. Willis. Any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Mr. WiLiJLs. I think that is the proper way to proceed. And I want 
to take this opportunity to thank you for appearing before us, under 
oath, and giving us the benefit of your experience. The facts which 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2777 

you have given whien put side by side with the other facts that we 
have accumulated from Americans like yourself, show clearly that 
ours is the best form of government there is and that it is the one 
we want to preserve. On behalf of this committee I want to express 
again our appreciation for your cooperation. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Louis Malinow. Kindly come forward. 

Mr. Malinow. May I request that no pictures be taken, sir ? 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
T3e the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Malinow. I do. 

Miss Kaufman. The witness has requested no photographs be 
taken, Mr. Chairman. Would you please direct the photographers not 
to take pictures ? 

Mr. Willis. Sit down, please. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS MALINOW, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MARY M. KAUFMAN 

Mr. Akens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Mi\LiN0w. My name is Louis Malinow. I am a resident of 
Newark, N. J., and I am a paperhanger. That is my occupation. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give us your street address, Mr. Malinow. 

Mr. Malinow. 65 Treacy Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities ? 

Mr. Malinow. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Malinow. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Miss Kaufman. Mary M. Kaufman, 201 West 85th Street, New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Malinow, have you ever been known by any name 
other than the name Louis Malinow ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I would like to explain my answer to this 
in declining to answer. I believe, from what I have observed, both 
of the work of the committee and what I have read about the recent 
Supreme Court decisions, that this question is a complete invasion 
of my privacy, and I do not believe that this committee was authorized 
to ask such questions in connection with any specific legislative mat- 
ters involved, and I, therefore, on the ground of the first and fifth 
amendment, I would respectfully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee, while under oath, whether or not you have been known by 
any name other than the name Louis Malinow, you would be supply- 
ing information which might be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding ? 

Mr. Malinow. Well, very frankly, sir, I would answer the question 
in the following way : I believe that from my observations and know- 



2778 COM]MUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

ledge of the -work of the committee, both as it was related to the last 
Newark hearings and elsewhere throughout the country, that this 
would constitute such a danger; but, in addition, I believe that the 
matter of the province of the work of this committee is going into areas 
that was not authorized by Congress and in which the Supreme Court, 
I believe, has very clearly stated the committee has no right to ask 
questions of that kind. 

Mr. Arens. You spoke about the last hearings of the committee. 
This is the first time you ever appeared before a congressional com- 
mittee, is it not ? 

Mr. ]VLvLiNow. Yes, sir, but I read the newspapers. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us where and when you were born. 

Mr. Malinow. I was born in New York City in 1917. 

Mr. ScHERER. Before we go any further, Mr. Chairman, do I under- 
stand. Counsel, that you asked the witness if he used any name, other 
than the name, Louis Malinow ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. And in response to the question, among other 
statements, he invoked his privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. What information does the committee have as to any 
other name he may have used ? 

Mr. Arens. We do not have any specific name used by this man 
except that it is the information of the committee — and I propose to 
interrogate him about it in a few moments — that he likewise has been 
active in the underground of the Communist conspiratorial apparatus 
as a paid functionary of the conspiracy. We also know, from the 
patterns we have seen elsewhere in other parts of the country, that 
paid functionaries of the Communist conspiracy in these days gen- 
erally do assume other names, other identifications, other social-se- 
curity cards, and frequently take trips to areas where they will not be 
known, where they then perform functions of the conspiratorial ap- 
paratus. 

Now, sir, kindly tell us a word about your education. 

Mr. Malinow. I went through grammar school and was graduated 
from high school in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate from high school ? 

Mr. Malinow. Roughly around 1936. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Malinow. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Arens. About how old were you then ? 

Mr. Malinow. Graduated from high school ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Malinow. 18. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us the first principal employment that you 
had after you completed your formal education. 

Mr. Malinow. I was employed as a worker in the fur industry ; I 
was employed as a worker in the shipbuilding industry, and in the 
painting and paperhanging industry. 

Mr. Arens. Is that all of the employment you had, all of the jobs 
in which you were employed, or were there some others? 

Mr. Malinow. In respect to any other questions on employment, I 
respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. He just respectfully declined to- 
answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2779 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Malinow. I think I have heretofore made my position pretty 
clear, Mr. Arens. I believe there are areas of investigation that this 
committee does not have the right to probe into. And I believe that 
under my protection of the first and fifth amendments that I do not 
wish to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you engaged in employ- 
ment concerning which you cannot tell the committee without giving 
information that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Malinow. I think that is simply rephrasing the same question, 
Mr. Arens, and therefore I would respectfully decline to answer it. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present 
employment? 

Mr. Malinow. Oh, I would say approximately a little over a year 
and a half. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I resent such a question because I think 
it is clearly an invasion of my personal, private political opinions and 
beliefs, and I respectfully decline to answer on those grounds and the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the gentleman who preceded you on the 
witness stand ? 

Mr. Malinow. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. He just testified, while he was under oath, that when he 
was in the Communist Party for a period up to the early nineteen 
fifties, he knew you as a Communist and as a paid functionary of the 
Communist Party. We would like to give you now an opportunity to 
deny that testimony while you are under oath. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that privilege ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, isn't it a fact that the recent Supreme 
Court decision made very clear that the private political beliefs of an 
individual and his affiliations are a matter of his own right and that 
no committee has a right to invade those privileges? And I have 
answered the question. 

Mr. Arens. The Supreme Court held no such thing. 

Mr. Malinow. Beg your pardon, sir. 

Mr. Arens. The Supreme Court held no such thing. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Malinow. Well, it is my judgment and my opinion that these 
questions are completely out of the context of the purposes of this 
committee, and I will refuse to answer this and similar questions. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party a political party or is it a 
conspiratorial operation ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Chairman, I again respectfully decline to dis- 
cuss the affairs or the program of the Communist Party, since I do 
not believe this is the province of this committee. 

Mr. Willis. It is a strange doctrine indeed that anybody would say 
that the Supreme Court has held that Congress has no right to legis- 
late with reference to protection of the country against the Com- 
munist conspiracy. If that were true, this would be a sad state of 
affairs indeed, because we are spending billions of dollars a year to 
fight the international conspiracy ; and if a witness comes here with a 



2780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

straight face and says it is none of the business of Congress to legis- 
late with regard to the operations of the Communists within America,, 
it is a sad state of affairs indeed. 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Willis, I would like to clarify my answer, be- 
cause I think that there are some matters, some of which you have 
referred to, which probably belong in the halls of public discussion, 
where people can express their political views on all questions. The 
question that I am raising, sir 

Mr. Willis. We try to give you an opportunity to discount it. 
Let's discuss it. 

Mr. Malinow. The question I am 

Mr. Willis. The witness who preceded you, did he lie or did he 
tell the truth when he said he knew you to have been a Communist? 
We will start discussing what goes on in the Communist Party after 
you answer that question. Did he lie or tell the truth ? 

Mr. Malinow. My objections, sir, are based on the fact that I 

Mr. Willis. I order you to answer that last question. Did he lie 
or tell the truth? 

Mr. Malinow. I cannot answer that question yes or no. I would 
like to explain. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you can. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, we want to display to you a photostatic 
reproduction of a document, an article appearing in the Communist 
Daily Worker of New York, Tuesday, June 20, 1950. This article is 
entitled "6,000 Sign on First Day of Jersey Campaign." I should 
like to read the article, because it is very brief : 

Newark, June 19 — Some 6,000 i)eople signed peace i)etitions in the first day 
of mobilization in New Jersey, incomplete returns showed today. Jerseyites 
were rallied for the World Peace Api>eal on Saturday in eight counties from 
Camden to Bergen. Outstanding responses came in Passaic and Paterson, 
where textile workers collected 2.119 signatures. 

Leaders and members of the Communist Party participated along with other 
peace advocates. Canvassers included Martha Stone, Party chairman ; Elwood 
Dean, state education director ; Joe Fisher, state organizational secretary ; Lou 
Malinow, Essex County organizer and Mary Adams, section organizer. 

Kindly accommodate the Committee on Un-American Activities, if 
you please, sir, by glancing at that article where your name appears 
and where you are identified or characterized as an organizer of the 
Communist Party and tell this committee, while you are under oath, 
whether the information contained in that article is, to your certain 
knowledge, true or false. 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I have heretofore respectfully declined 
to answer questions having to do with associations, with political be- 
liefs, and political activities, and I wish to once again state that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered to answer the question or to invoke his privilege under the 
fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question or to assign 
constitutional reasons why you do not. 

Mr. Malinow. I would respectfully decline to answer on the reasons 
stated and on the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Malinow Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2781 

Mr. Arens. We should like to display to you three other articles 
appearing in the Communist Daily Worker at various times — I will 
display them to you in proper sequence here — in which this organ of 
public information tells, first of all, about a Young Communist 
League National Convention. According to this article, a number 
of Y. C. L. county organizers from New York are participating^ 
including Lou Malinow of the Bronx. 

The next article is likewise from the Daily Worker, February 9, 
1951, in which reference is made to a "Lewis" Malinow, Essex County 
Communist chairman, who participated in a certain peace movement. 
The third is an article appearing m the Communist Daily Worker of 
February 13, 1951. In this, Lou Malinow, Essex County Communist 
leader, is alleged to be chairing a meeting of Jerseyites who were going 
to honor Abraham Lincoln; and, according to this article, this Lou 
Malinow, Essex County Communist leader, is giving a speech re- 
specting the right to revolution as a sacred right. 

Kindly look at each of those articles, if you please, sir, while you 
are under oath before this committee, and tell this committee whether 
or not the information contained in each of those articles is true or 
false. 

IVIr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I think the fact, in this committee hear- 
ing, there are public documents being presented which comes from' 
newspapers, and so on, only reaffirms my suspicion that it is not the 
intention of this committee to engage in questions of legislation, but is 
rather for the purpose of inquiring into the beliefs and political 
activities of the individuals which, as I stated previously, is an invasion 
of my rights as an American citizen; and, therefore, I respectfully 
decline to answer on the grounds of the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully, while you are under oath, whether or not the 
information contained in these clippings which I have displayed to 
you is true, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Malinow. I have heretofore answered that question, Mr. Arens. 
I say that, based upon the experiences with this committee, that is a 
definite possibility. And I have also stated that, in my opinion, this 
committee has no right to enter into that area of investigation. 

(Documents marked "Malinow Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever run for public office ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Chairman, I resent such a question, because that 
is my right as an American citizen to run and not run, and I do not 
see what the purpose of that question is and respectfully decline to 
answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. How can it possibly incriminate him to say whether 
he ran for public office? That certainly would be a public record. 
I ask you to direct the witness to answer that question. I want to 
know whether he ran. I have a right to know that. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Scherer, I have tried, as plainly as I can, to 
explain that, first of all, I am employing my rights under the fifth 
amendment and, secondly, I do not believe that this committee has 



2782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

any right to inquire into my political beliefs or my political associa- 
tions, and on those grounds I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. We display to you now, if you please, sir, a photostatic 
reproduction of a nominating petition of the Communist Party in 
which a person by the name of Louis Malinow, 920 South 16th Street, 
Newark, N. J., is running, according to this document, dated March 6, 
1951, for the office of freeholder. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee, while you are 
under oath, whether or not this is a true and correct reproduction of 
the original nominating petition in which your name appears as a 
candidate of the Communst Party. 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I think it is highly ludicrous to present 
a petition for public office — what that has to do with conspiracy I 
will never know — and ask me whether or not I am related to it. And 
I have said before, and I state once again, that I refuse to be inter- 
rogated along those lines; and, therefore, under the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments, I respectfully refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly look at the last page of this document where 
the name Louis Malinow appears and tell us whether or not that is a 
true and correct reproduction of your signature. 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, what is the point of furthering this in- 
quiry along these lines? I have made my position clear. 

Mr. Arens. If you answer the question, I will tell you the point. 

Mr. Malinow. I think the questions are irrelevant to the purpose 
of this inquiry. 

Mr. Arens. If I explain to you the pertinency and relevancy of 
these questions will you answer the questions ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I have heretofore made my position 
clear and I think it would simply be repetition and wasting the time 
of this committee. 

(Document marked "Malinow Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you a proponent of the nominating of Elwood 
M. Dean to be a member of the Board of Freeholders ? 

Mr. Malinow. I respectfully decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. On the Communist Party ticket ? 

Mr. Malinow. I respectfully decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been arrested ? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Malinow. I simply decline for the same reasons, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee, while you are under oath, whether or not you have ever been 
arrested, you would be giving information that might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Malinow. I have stated the fact that, from my observations of 
the work of this committee, that is a possibility. And I have also 
stated that I do not believe those questions are in the province of 
investigations having to do with any legislative matters whatsoever. 
And on those grounds I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present 
employment ? 

Mr. Malinow. I believe I answered that question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer it again ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2783 

Mr. ScHERER. He said a year and a half. 

Mr. Malinow. Yes, approximately a year and a half. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said paperhanger, is that right ? 

Mr. Malinow. Yes, sir. A very honorable profession. 

Mr. ScHERER. I assume that it is. I have no question about that. 
Do you have a paperhanging business, or do you work for somebody ? 

Mr. Malinow. I work for various employers and sometimes I work 
for myself, depending on what the employment situation is. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the sole source of your income? 

Mr. Malinow. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you ever have any income from the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Malinow. Well, Mr. Scherer, I have heretofore stated my 
answer to that question and I will only repeat what I said before. 

Mr. Scherer. You just said that that was the sole source of your 
income. Why would you then refuse to answer the question as to 
whether you had any income from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Scherer, I believe that all questions having to do 
with the Communist Party — having to do with my political affiliations, 
associations, and beliefs — are out of order and, therefore, I must 
respectfully decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Do I understand your answer to my question to be 
that your sole source of income, since you have been in the paperhang- 
ing business, has been from that business ; is that right ? 

Mr. Malinow. Yes ; you asked me what my source of income was for 
this year and a half. I have been paperhanging and I said that has 
been my source of income. 

Mr. Scherer. You had no income from the Communist Party dur- 
ing that year and a lialf you have been paperhanging, is that right ? 

Mr. Malinow. You asked me a question whether my source of 
income was paperhanging and my answer is yes, that is the answer to 
the question. 

Mr. Scherer. And I asked you one more question. During the year 
and a half that you have been in that business, you have had no income 
from the Communist Party ; is that right ? 

Mr. Malinow. And I have respectfully declined to answer that, 
Mr. Scherer, on the same grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever receive any compensation, directly or 
indirectly, from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Scherer, I will restate once again that I believe 
any questions having to do with my relationship or nonrelationship 
with the Communist Party is completely irrelevant to the purpose of 
this committee, and I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of 
the invasion of my privacy and on the fifth amendment, and I am 
sorry, sir, I must stick to that position. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever receive any compensation, directly or 
indirectly, from the Soviet Government ? 

Mr. Malinow. My answer to that question is the same as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Did j^ou ever pass any information of any kind to an 
agent of the Soviet Government ? 



31657—58- 



2784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Malinow. I wish to answer that question by stating categori- 
cally no. I have never given any information to anybody about this 
Government. I do not intend to. 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't ask you about this Government ? 
Mr. Malinow. I have never given any information to the Soviet 
Government or to anybody representing it and have had absolutely no 
contact with them. That is categoric, sir. 

Mr, ScuERER. Did you ever pass on any information to functionar- 
ies of the Communist Party 'I 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Malinow. I beg your pardon, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ever pass on any information to function- 
aries of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Malinow. Well, Mr. Scherer, I believe any questions having 
to do w4th this question you ask are completely irrelevant, and I 
furthermore like to point out that these questions are completely 
unauthorized by the resolution of Congress and that to me this is a 
com.pletely irrelevant line of inquiry; and, therefore, I will respectfully 
decline to answer on the same grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you feel that functionaries of the Communist 
Party are not agents of the Soviet Government ? Is that the reason 
for your last answer ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Scherer, I explained before that I believe that 
my associations with individuals are a purely personal matter and 
not subject to the inquiries of this committee. 

Mr, Scherer. You freely stated to me in response to my question 
that you have never passed on any information to any agent of the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Malinow. That is correct. 
Mr. S.CHERER. You said no. Positively. 
Mr. Malinow. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Why do you refuse to answer when I ask you 
whether you passed any information on to functionaries of the Com- 
munist Party in this country ? 

Mr. Malinow. Because I don't believe this committee is authorized 
to ask such questions and I believe that these questions are completely 
irrelevant ; and, therefore, I have declined to answer these and similar 
questions on the grounds that I previously stated, and that makes 
my position very clear, sir. 
Mr. Willis. You are not now invoking the fifth amendment? 
Mr. Malinow. I am invoking all of my privileges, including the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. That protects you, not the beautiful speech about 
association. The thing that really protects you is the fiftli amend- 
ment. All your other reasons will not hold water. But you are very 
clever. You always wind up witli tlie fifth amendment. Go on, Mr. 
Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever use any alias in your work as a paper- 
hanger ? 

Mr. Malinow. I don't see that that question has any relevancy. 
Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered to answer that question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2785 

Mr. Malinow. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Kitty Heck ? 

Mr. Malinow. I respectfully decline to answer for the same rea- 
sons, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you live immediately prior to your resi- 
dency in the Newark area '( 

Mr. Malinow. I lived in Camden, in New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live there ? 

Mr. Malinow. Oh, I w ould say roughly about 5 years. 

Mr. Arens. What employment did you have immediately prior to 
your present employment ? 

Mr. JVIalinow. I have respectfully declined to answer that ques- 
tion, sir, and I repeat the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any employment which you had since you 
completed your high-school education until you began this employ- 
ment as a papei'hanger concerning which you can tell this com- 
mittee without giving information that might be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Malinow. I have heretofore stated my employment record for 
that time whicli I was asked. I have explained to the committee 
what my occupations were. 

Mr. Arens. Is your paperhanging occupation a cover for under- 
ground work of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. jNIalinow. My paperhanging work, sir, is a means of support- 
ing myself and my family. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last year and a half, 
been engaged in underground work of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Malinow. I do not believe that is any concern of this com- 
mittee, sir, and I respectfully decline to answer on the groimds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. ^'V^lat are those grounds ? 

Mr. Malinow. On the grounds that it is an invasion of my beliefs 
and personal rights to participate in political activity under the first 
amendment and under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last year and a half, 
used any name other than the name Louis Malinow ? 

Mr. Malinow. I respectfully decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the National Convention of the Com- 
munist Party in New York City in February 1957? 

Mr. Malinow. I do not believe that is any concern of this com- 
mittee, sir, and therefore, I respectfully decline to answer on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. I want to know those grounds. I am not going to 
permit you, unless you invoke 

Mr. Malinow. I beg your pardon, sir? 

Mr. Willis. You have to invoke grounds that we recognize. Are 
you invoking the first amendment? Then if you do, I am going to 
oi'der you to answer it. 

Mr. Malinow. In order to avoid repetition, sir, I said I stand on 
the same grounds. My grounds are the first and fifth amendments on 
all these questions. 

Mr. Willis. And the fifth. All right. 



2786 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you February 9, 1957 ? 

Mr. Malinow. I repeat the same, same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the Newark area ? 

Mr. Malinow. I respectfully decline to answer. I don't think it is 
any concern of this committee's. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only reason on which you decline to answer? 

Mr. Malinow. I have declined to answer on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments and I consider all of these questions to be an 
invasion of my rights on both grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of an organization dedi- 
cated to the overthrow of the Government of the United States by 
force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Malinow. Sir, I want to answer by stating that I have never 
been a member of an organization which I believe to stand for the 
overthrow of this Government by force and violence. That is cate- 
goric, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of an organization which 
the Attorney General of the United States, the Congress of the United 
States, and the Supreme Court of the United States have all found to 
be an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the Government of 
the United States by force and violence ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I find that to be a very vague and general 
question which is not a subject for committee inquiry and, therefore, 
I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Communist Party, to your certain knowledge, 
stand for the overthrow of the Government of the United States by 
force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Malinow. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever attended any Communist underground 
training school s ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, would you explain to me what the pur- 
pose of these questions are ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; and glad to do so. 

Mr. Malinow. And in view of 

Mr. Arens. I would be glad to explain that to you. 

Mr. Malinow. Just a moment, sir. You haven't got my question. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Malinow. In view of the fact that I have stated, in relation 
to such questions, that I will refuse to answer questions on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments, and they are simply repetitions, I be- 
lieve that they have no place in this committee hearing and I would 
ask you to 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully whether or not you ever attended underground 
training schools of the Communist conspiratorial apparatus in the 
United States, you would be supplying information that might be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 
Mr. Malinow. Mr. Arens, I informed you and the committee that 

as far as I am concerned 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2787 

Mr. Malinow. I am answering the question, sir. I have stated 
before that I consider these questions to be an invasion of my privacy 
and political belief, and I have also stated that I am using tlie fifth 
amendment in answering the question and similiar questions. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Martha Stone? 

Mr. Malinow. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Thomas Lea\'y ? 

Mr. Malinow. The answer is the same, sir. 

]\Ir. Arens. Do you know John Norman ? 

Mr. JSIalinow^ Mr. Arens, isn't it a fact that the Supreme Court 
stated that they objected to the manner in which the committee was 
just wiping witnesses and people all over the floor, bringing in people 
for no sane reason under the sun that far went beyond its purpose of 
inquiry? And I think I object to answering any questions relating 
to people. I do not intend to be an informer to this committee or for 
any other committee and, therefore, I 

Mr. Arens. If you told this committee whether or not you know 
the persons whose names I just called off, would you be supplying 
information that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. ]\L\LiN0w. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. I have 
stated my reasons very clearly. 

Mr. AjtENS. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered to answer the question. The question is posed for the pur- 
pose of testing his good faith in invocation of the fifth amendment. 
Unless he honestly apprehends he may be subject to criminal pro- 
ceeding in answering those questions, he has no right to decline to 
answer those questions. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the questions. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IVIalinow. Yes, sir. I respectfully decline to answer the ques- 
tions on the grounds previously stated, the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Manuel Cantor? 

Mr. ]\L\LiNow. I respectfully decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know Joe Stepovich ? 

Mr. IVIalinow. Beg pardon, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know Joseph Stepovich ? 

Mr. Malinow. Mr. Scherer, I have made my position clear in regard 
to naming anybody or any association, and I stand on the same gromids 
as previously cited. 

Mr. Scherer. I just made up that name. Wliy would you refuse 
to answer ? 

Mr. JMalinow. It is very unfortunate, ]\Ir. Scherer, but there are a 
lot of people that have been named or associated with witnesses, or 
subpenaed people with these committees, who are having a rough time 
of it as a result of the work of this committee. I do not intend to 
assist this committee in ruining people for no reason in the world. 

Mr. Scherer. I picked this name out of thin air to see if you really 
are invoking the fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. Malinow. I think that should prove it, Mr. Scherer, because 
I don't want to bring anything in this hearing that has no business 
here and be victim of the work of this committee. 



2788 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ScHERER. How could it possibly incriminate you to say you 
do not know a person by the name of Joe Stepovich ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Malinow. Well, in addition to that, Mr. Scherer, I don't know 
what people come to testify here, the informers, what name they use, 
and so on, and I don't know who is goin^j to say what and what name 
is and so on, and therefore that is an additional reason. 

Mr, Scherer. Then you are not invoking the fifth amendment in 
good faith 

Mr. Malinow. I have also invoked the fifth 



Mr. Scherer, —if you do not know such a person. 

Mr. Malinow. Beg pardon, sir ? 

Mr. Scherer. You obviously are not invoking the fifth amendment 
in good faith when you make this statement. You do not know such 
an individual and you never heard of him. 

Mr. Malinow. For all I know that may be a stool pigeon under 
another name wlio says he knows me. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Since you were served with your subpena to appear 
before this committee, have you been in consultation respecting these 
hearings with any person known by you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Malinow. I respectfully decline to answer that question, sir, on 
the same grounds as previously cited. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ask the witness where he was born ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 1 : fSO, 

(Wliereupon, at 11 : 45 a. m. the hearing was recessed until 1 : 30 
p. m. of the same day.) 

(Present at the time of recess, Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1958 

(Members present at the convening of the hearing : Representatives 
Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Counsel, call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Irving Fishman. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers the oath. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Fishman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Fishman. My name is Irving Fishman. I am Deputy Collector 
of Customs at the Port of New York. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2789 

Mr. Arens. How long liave you been so employed ? 

Mr. FiSHMx\]sr. Almost 30 years. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat are your duties ? 

Mr. FisioiAN. Among other duties, I have been assigned on a coun- 
trywide basis to enforcement of those provisions of law which re- 
strict the importation of Communist political propaganda materials. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us just a thumbnail, layman's 
sketch of the principal provisions of the applicable laAv? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. There are two major provisions of law with which 
we are concerned. 

The first is contained in the Tariff Act of 1930. Under section 305 
of the Tariff Act, there are restrictions against the importation of 
subversive materials which advocate treason or insurrection against 
the United States. 

Then, in conjunction with the Post Office and Justice Departments, 
we aid in the enforcement of the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
which restricts the importation of Communist political propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act? 

Mr. FisHMAN. The Foreign Agents Registration Act provides 
among other things that agents of foreign governments who in the 
United States disseminate information concerning their governments 
register witli the Department of Justice and keep it posted as to their 
activities in the United States. These agents are required to furnisli 
financial statements, indicate the extent of their business in the 
United States, and they are required, under the law, to indicate on 
this propaganda material its source. In other words, the law con- 
templates that all material of this type exhibited on tlie table when 
distributed in the United States be labeled both with regard to the 
publication itself and on the container in which it is sent to the 
addressee to sliow that it is Communist material, its source, and its 
background, so that anyone choosing to read the material has an 
opportunity to know from whence it comes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, the theory of the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act is similar to the theory underlying our food and drug 
laws, namely, so that a person can be apprised or know that the bottle 
that he is reaching for in his medicine cabinet is poison, it is labeled 
"poison." The same theory is applicable to Communist propaganda, 
is it not, in tlie labeling requirements ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. I merely wish to make it clear that 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act is a disclosure-type of statute. 
It is not our intention to restrict, neither do we prohibit the sending 
of this material to anyone who chooses to have it or subscribe for 
it. Our interest is in seeing to it that it is properly labeled in accord- 
ance with the act. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in the course of 30 years of experience in 
the United States Customs Service, you have undoubtedly perused 
millions of pieces of Communist propaganda entering the United 
States, have you not ? 

Mr. Fishman. I have. 

Mr. Arens. You have, in the course of the last few years, paid 
especial attention to this Communist propaganda that is coming into 
the United States, have you not ? 

Mr. Fishman. I have. 



2790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever, in the course of your experience in 30 
years in the United States Customs Service, seen a single item of Com- 
munist propaganda coming into the United States which is Labeled in 
accordance with the requirements of the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act, namely, "This is Communist propaganda" ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. No; I have not. I have observed the type of re- 
quired labeling in publications deposited with the Library of Con- 
gress. As a matter of fact, I have brought one with me that has 
the necessary inscription. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I ask you a few more preliminary questions, 
if you please, sir. 

Is Communist propaganda that comes to the United States via the 
diplomatic pouch subject to the Foreign Agents Registration Act or 
any labeling requirements under the law ? 

Mr. FisuMAN. No. We do not interfere with any material which is 
contained in diplomatic pouches. 

Mr, Arens. Is material which comes into the United States in what 
is known as first-class mail subject to any labeling requirements or 
inspection ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. No. It is not subject to inspection. 

Mr. Arens. Is material which comes into the United States from 
non-Communist countries subject to inspection and perusal and 
labeling ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. It is subject to inspection ; however, because of the 
overall volume of mail which comes to the United States and which 
reaches the Customs Service, we are unable to cope with much of the 
material from the friendly countries. As a result, we do not exam- 
ine much of it to determine its context. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a practice developing now by the Communist 
bloc of transshipping Communist propaganda into non-Communist 
countries where it is then shipped into the United States ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is a growing practice, and we are somewhat 
hampered in any effort to control it because of the language of the 
present law. 

Mr. Arens. I want to discuss the law with you a little later on, Mr. 
Fishman, if you please. 

Mr. Fishman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell us, if you please, sir, about the control units 
that you have over the United States. 

Mr. Fishman. We have, because of budgetary difficulties, found it 
necessary to concentrate most of the material subject to our exam- 
ination in three control units established in the United States: One 
which handles all of the imports through the West Coast is located 
at the Port of San Francisco, Calif. ; one which controls most of the 
imported material which is destined for Illinois and Wisconsin is 
established in Chicago; and then the third control unit for the East 
Coast is established at the Port of New York. At these ports we 
have competent translating staffs to examine this material and furnish 
opinions as to its contents. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, is the New Jersey area a high priority 
target area for foreign Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. It has been, at least for the last 5 years. In the 
test made a year or so ago, we segregated all of the incoming mail 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2791 

material for a period of a month and found that the State of New 
Jersey ranked fifth in vokune of propaganda. In other words, cer- 
tain States had sufficient vohmie to consider that they were top 
priority, and the State of New Jersey had enough material directed 
to it each year to have been indicated in our test to be the fifth State. 

Mr. Arens. Before I get on to the specifics on the volume, is the 
volume of foreign Communist propaganda pouring into the New Jer- 
sey area increasing, decreasing, or about the same as it has been, in 
the course of the last few years ? 

Mr. FiSHMAisr. It has increased steadily since 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, the Communist propaganda that is being 
disseminated over the country from abroad goes through the United 
States mails, does it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. It does. 

Mr. Arens. Most of it goes in a second- or fourth-class status, does 
it not? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. The mails, of course, are not self-sustaining ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, is it true that the United States tax- 
payers by their contributions to sustain the United States mails are, 
in effect, subsidizing the dissemination within the United States of 
foreign Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. It would appear so. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly give us, Mr. Fishman, the sta- 
tistics which you have, first of all, on the overall importation of 
inspected Communist propaganda at your various control units, and 
then, more specifically, if you please, sir, proceed to give us the sta- 
tistics on the New Jersey area. 

Mr. Fishman. We have some 45 ports of entry in the United States. 
The statistics which I have for the committee today were gathered at 
the three control units. To give you some idea of the volume of mail 
which reaches the attention of Customs each year, the Commissioner of 
Customs, in a recent report to the Congress, pointed out that foreign 
mail packages are increasing at the rate of five million a year. And 
that there were a total of 40 million such mail packages for the past 
12 months. 

Mr. Arens. Let us hesitate there a moment, if you please, Mr. Fish- 
man. Forty million mail packages of Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. That was the overall figure of mail articles 
which come to the attention of Customs each year. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat percentage of that, or what proportion of that, 
is Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. I was going to give this to you specifically. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed at your own pace. 

Mr. Fishman. The Post Office Department turned over to Customs, 
for examination, printed matter emanating in the Iron Curtain coun- 
tries and suspected of containing political propaganda as follows: 

In 1955, they turned over to us some 2,560,000 packages of printed 
matter. We estimate that these packages contained over 5 million 
individual printed pieces of material. 

In 1956, that increased by 900,000 packages. 



2792 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Akens. Excuse me. You say 900,000 packages. What would 
be the increase in individual items ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It went from 5,245,000 to 6,947,000. 

In 1957, it increased by a million, and we examined 4,480,000 pack- 
ages, containing approximately 9,914,000 individual items. 

In the 6 months of 1958, there is an indication that this will also 
increase by almost a million because in this 6-month period alone we 
had 2,454,000 packages, or a total of almost 5 million pieces of printed 
material. 

Mr. Willis. For what period of time ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. For the six months in 1958. 

Mr, Willis. Six months. So it could run up to 10 million. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. What was that ? 

Mr. Willis. It could run up to 10 million. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Now, the redefection material, for example, we make no count of 
that but we anticipate there are some 125,000 individually addressed 
letters on this homeland-material program which are received each 
week, or over six and a half millions a year. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Fishman, I expect to get into the redefection ma- 
terial with you a little later. But give us now just a word about that. 
What do you mean by redefection material ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. About two years ago, the Soviet propaganda ma^ 
chine commenced a new program entitled, "Return to the Homeland." 
The program contemplated that people who have their heritage in 
a foreign country, more particularly the Soviet bloc countries, would 
be sent letters and other communications inviting them to return 
home, explaining to them the advantages of life in the Soviet Union, 
for example, as against living in the United States, This program 
caused a good deal of concern among the people who had immi- 
grated, not too long ago, into the United States, and they wrote to 
us and to Members of Congress and to all of their friends, asking 
what to do about it. They were afraid that they had been located 
in this country and that they were a target for some particular 
purpose. 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities, in a hearing in 
the City of Washington, publicized this entire program as a propa- 
ganda-type program and did much to allay the fears of people who had 
been receiving this material. However, although thei-e was a lull 
for awhile after this hearing, the general program, redefection pro- 
gram, has been on the continuous increase. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any disguisal of the redefection letters? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We have been very successful in withholding most 
of this material from the addressees. As a matter of fact, we have 
had many requests from these addressees to keep this material from 
them. As a result of our activity we have noticed wdthin the past 
6 months many attempts to disguise the letters; inserting them in 
advertising material, changing the format and the size; and there 
is an attempt recently to send it through some of the friendly coun- 
tries. A good deal is coming through West Germany, for example. 

That, of course, is a part of the program which is not reflected in 
the statistics which I first gave. Another part of the program which 
is not reflected in these figures is the propaganda program which 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2793 

deals witli the student group in the United States. There lias been 
a very concerted effoit recently to send much Communist propaganda 
material to every college in the United States. Most of it is ad- 
dressed to the student groups, the newspaper editors in the colleges, 
and to all of the organizations and fraternities. The material ema- 
nates from the World Federation of Democratic Youth — I have 
enough of this material here to make reference to it. This group 
claims some 9 million members and association with some of the 
reputable organizations in the United States. Many of these United 
States organizations have taken steps to refute this association, but 
still the material which comes from this organization — this is a 
sample of it, a very handsomely printed copy of World Youth — con- 
tinues to flow into the United States. 

In 1957 we had 262,000 such individually addressed packages to 
colleges in the United States and for the 6-month period in 1958, over 
140,000 individually addressed parcels. 

Returning more specifically to the State of New Jersey, and the 
material which is Commimist propaganda, we find that for the month 
of April there w^ere approximately 8,000 packages of this material, 
containing 23,000 individually printed items. In May, 59,000 ; June, 
8,048. In other words, for the 3 months, April, May, and June of 
1958, there w^ere 21,000 individually addressed packages of propa- 
ganda material containing some 73,000 printed items. We estimate 
that for the year 1957, there were 70,000 packages sent into the State 
of New Jersey alone. 

Mr. Arens. With how many individually ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. 294,000 pamphlets, booklets, magazines, circulars, 
and so on, and so forth, 

Mr. Arens. This is all Communist propaganda emanating from 
Iron Curtain countries beamed into the United States in this State of 
New Jersey, is that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Aeens. Now, Mr. Fishman, in addition to this material which 
you have alluded to, namely, the material coming in fourth class, is 
material disseminated in the United States, Communist propaganda, 
by the diplomatic pouch ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We can only suspect that. We never examine the 
contents of diplomatic pouches. Of course there is also a volume 
of this material which comes by freight, by air freight, by ship. 

Mr. Arens. Is that subject to this type of inspection ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It is. It comes under customs provisions of law, 
namely, the Tariff Act ; and if it is not labeled, we are in a position 
to cause it to be seized as importations contrary to law. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to the material you have talked about, is 
there a volume of material. Communist propaganda, that comes in first 
class ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Oh, yes, that, of course, is all material which we do 
not examine. We respect the privacy of the mails and we do not 
examine first-class mail. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to the material that we have thus far talked 
about, is there a sizable quantity of Communist propaganda that right 
now is being transshipped on American rails from various Communist 
countries to non- Communist countries in transit through the United 
States ? 



2794 coMMxnsnsT activities est Newark, n. j. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Our experience is that a good deal of this material 
is sent from the Soviet Embassies in South American countries 
through the United States into other areas of South America. 

Mr. Arens. And the United States taxpayers are, in effect, subsi- 
dizing that transportation at least in part, isn't that correct ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of the material coming into the New 
Jersey area to be specific, is in foreign language ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. About 30 percent of it ; 70 percent of it would be in 
the English language. 

Mr. Arens, You have given the committee, in private session, lists 
in great volume of the recipients of this Communist propaganda, have 
you not? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. These lists include not only very sizable numbers of per- 
sons but schools and organizations of great variety, isn't that correct? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us, in your own words, a description of the 
type of recipient before we get into the propaganda itself ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The approach is to particular groups. For example, 
it seems to be the intent of the propaganda machine to acquire lists 
of members of various organizations, such as the Polish-American 
Congress, and to send to each member on the list — and I believe that 
organization has quite a membership around the country — copies of 
most of the material exhibited on this table. 

Mr. Arens. The individual recipient who reaches in his mailbox 
and picks up some of these magazines or some of this Communist 
material, does not see any place on the material that this is Communist 
propaganda, does he? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No; it may only be by indirection that he suspects 
it is. The wrappers are plain sleeves. They do not give the name of 
the sender for the most part, and it would take some study and research 
on his part to ascertain where the material emanated. Now, you have 
to keep in mind that many of these people read only a foreign lan- 
guage and do not read the American newspapers and they have a 
tendency to believe that what this material says is the actual truth 
about matters affecting the people in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I asked you some few days ago, in antici- 
pation of your testimony today, if you would bring over from the 
control unit some typical mail sacks destined to the New Jersey area 
from Iron Curtain countries without the seal being broken, did I not? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes, you did. 

Mr, Arens. Have you done so at my request ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We brought some five sacks, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. These are sacks destined to the New Jersey area from 
Iron Curtain sections of the world ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Would you break the seal of one mail sack, open it, and 
tell us what you find ? You have two or three of your associates with 
you from the Customs Service, I see. 

Mr. Willis. You don't know what is in that bag ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We haven't had occasion to examine it. These were 
selected from some of the material that was gathered over the Labor 
Day holida3\ 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2795 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. FisHMAN. This appears to be the redefection material that I 
spoke of. 

Mr. Akens. Tell us in more detail about the material as you take it 
out. 

Mr. Willis. These are letters ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. These are first-class letters, but we have reason to 
believe that this is redefection material. We handle this class of ma- 
terial under the Postal and joint Customs regulations in the following 
fashion. Suspecting that this may contain prohibited material, we 
write to the addressee to ask permission to open the envelope. Wlien 
he gives us permission, we will examine a representative number of 
these; and by agreement between our agencies, liaving found that the 
format is the same, the sender the same, we will take the same action 
against the entire lot, without going through the formality of writing 
to each recipient and asking his permission to examine the material. 

Mr. Arens. What, in all probability, is in the contents of these 
letters that you now have in your hand ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. From our experience we suspect, and we have 
samples of others, that these are the usual return-home material. This 
is an example of one of them. People's Voice. Here is a Hungarian 
newspaper which deals with this redefection program — Nepszava, Is- 
sue No. 11. This, we suspect, is Russian or Ukrainian, the language 
of the publication. 

What else do we have here? 

One of the publications in this lot is an Estonian one. But it is one 
of the redefection-type publications that we have had all this difficulty 
with recently. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your study of this problem of redefec- 
tion, why is it that the Red empire has this program of redefection in 
operation ? What do they expect to gain by it ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I doubt very much that they anticipate that many 
people will return to the homeland. I think probably most of the 
interest is in gaining a correspondent, someone who can be con- 
tacted quickly for solicitation of funds, or any other purpose that the 
propaganda machine may have in mind. But it establishes a contact. 
As I said before, I doubt whether many people in the United States 
will buy this program. 

Mr. Arens. Is all this material that you just opened, or at least 
all you can see in a quick glance, destined to people within the New 
Jersey area? 

IVIr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Jersey City, Delanco, N. J.; Neptune, N. J.; Lakewood, N. J.; 
Paterson, N. J. : and so on. 

Mr. Arens. What is your estimate of volume of redefection mate- 
rial that is hitting these cities? 

Mr FisuMAN. 125,000 a week. 

Mr. Arens. Here in New Jersey ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We have no accurate count for this area. 

Mr. Arens. Would you care to open anotlier sack and see what you 
find in that one. Or is this next one here one tliat has been opened ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No ; this is from West Germany. 

Mr. Willis. How did that bag come here — by plane, ship, or what? 



2796 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK. N. J. 

Mr FiSHHiAN. By ship. But by arrangement with the Post Office 
we get all this paper mail for examination. 

Mr. Willis. That is definitely subsidizing the ship, as well as tho 
mail, to bring that trash here. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. This consists, for the most part, of 
some of the disguised redefection material. You know, the format is 
changed to a smaller envelope, the color is different, the postage stamp 
is different, and the postmark is different. Often these postmarks are 
in West Germany, not East Germany. 

Mr, Arens. Is this redefection material you are now examining, 
Mr. Fishman, in foreign language ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. It is all in foreign language. All of this is. 

Mr. Arens. I presume it is destined to people who liave roots in 
countries controlled by the Red conspiracy ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. Examination of the addressees will 
make that very apparent. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, directing your attention to the other 
propaganda material which you have displayed there, is that just 
typical material that you have brought here in the course of the last 
several days that has been destined to the New Jersey area ? 

Mr. Fishman. It is. Our office has prepared for my use and also 
for the use of the committee, some representative samples. Right at 
this moment, of course, great stress is being placed on our so-called 
interference in the Far East. New Times, 31 August 1958, asks for 
quick, vigorous, and resolute action and discusses "Wliat Next in the 
Middle East," and strongly attacks the United States and Great Brit- 
ain for interference in the Middle East. Capitalistic aggressors are 
accused of being ready to start a war in order to protect their strategic 
positions in the Middle East. 

Mr. ScHERER. This material that has been laid on our desk here is 
some from the material which you have, is it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. I have copies of the same material you have 
up there, Congressman. 

Mr. ScHERER. This material that we have came through the mails 
in the manner which you have described, did it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. I think you have one of those Chinese publications, 
do you not ? 

Mr. ScLiERER. Yes. I have one here, Mr. Fishman, entitled "Data 
on Atrocities of United States Army in South Korea." 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did that come through the mails ? 

Mr. Fishman. This was an enclosure in the Chinese — I think it was 
in China News — or one of the Chinese magazines had this as an en- 
closure. 

Mr. ScHERER. It was printed in 1958, was it not? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. I think this came in about three weeks 
ago, maybe four weeks ago. 

Mr. ScHERER. This is printed in English, this particular publica- 
tion entitled "Data on Atrocities of United States Anny in Soutli 
Korea." 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. This is intended for distribution in this 
<countrv. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2797 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that. That is the point I wanted to 
make. It is not to educate Koreans or anyone else but Americans. 

Mr. FiSHMAX. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. Since this publication has been mentioned, I would 
like to read for the record just a few excerpts from it. It says : 

From the very first day of their occupation the American imperialists have 
been trying hard to convert South Korea into an object of squeezing out maximum 
profit for the millionaires of the Wall Street and an outpost for their aggression 
of the Asian continent. 

In spite of the fact that we went into Korea as a result of a resolution 
of approval by the United Nations and we paid most of the costs of 
that war, both in money and in the lives of American boys, it says we 
were squeezing out the maximum profit for millionaires of Wall 
Street according to this publication. 

Here is another statement: "The American imperialists" — that is 
the American soldiers, that were sent into Korea — 

have committed atrocities unprecedented in the history of mankind in their 
aggressive war in Korea. 

This is what they say about our American boys : 

They have massacred at random innocent people in North Korea, destroyed 
more than 8,700 buildings — 

and so on and so forth. 

I went through this book. Here is one : 

The atrocities of the U. S. Army in South Korea have been steadily increasing 
since the armistice. 

The cases of atrocities committed by the U. S. Army during the period from 
the signing of the Armistice Agreement on July 27, 1953, to April 1958 amount to 
more than 200, even according to reports of the South Korean press. 

The atrocities of the U. S. Army in South Korea have become more cruel and 
frequent since last year, especially since the moving of the "U. N. Command" to 
Seoul. 

Here is another article : 

Raping and Killing Women 

As reported by the South Korean press, there has been an unbroken chain of 
violence and murder cases committed by the U. S. Army against Korean women 
all over South Korea. 

Here is a picture and underneath it : 

The American imperialists murdered great numbers of patriots imprisoned at 
prisons in every place of South Korea right before the liberation of Seoul. 

Here is another one : 

Atrocities Against Children, Youth, and Students 

Among the barbarous acts of the U. S. Army in South Korea, its merciless 
atrocities against innocent children go beyond the imagination of the sobre- 
minded people. 

We know that the whole record of occupation by the American 
forces has been just contrary to what it says in this vicious propa- 
ganda. 

It has been the American boys who have shared their candy, their 
cigarettes, their food, not only in the First World War but in the 



2798 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Second World War and also in Korea, with the children of those 
countries. 

Mr. AViLLis. I think in connection with the Washington hearings, in 
addition to these obviously faked photographs, we even saw fake 
photographs of alleged use of germ warfare in South Korea — ^that 
Americans were using germ warfare, and yet this trash enters tliis 
country by the million. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. Do you agree with some of these witnesses who come 
here and say that this is none of the business of Congress ; that Con- 
gress should not take any action in this field ; that they have a right 
to be so free that they can burn schoolhouses and then yell "fire." 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I don't think any American agrees with that doctrine 
at all. 

Mr. ScHERER. Oh, yes ; some of them do. There is an article, signed 
by some ministers of this area, in the Newark Evening News today 
which says that, by this type of investigation we are conducting here, 
we are violating the civil liberties of the people. It is quite an article. 
I may have more to say about it before we conclude these hearings. 
I wonder if any of the people who signed this and made this condem- 
nation of the Congress and this committee have taken the opportunity 
to be in attendance at these hearings and see what goes on ? I would 
really like to know. 

This article I was referring to in today's Newark Evening News, 
signed by these people whom I have mentioned, states : 

At this moment when national Tinity based npon nmtual confidence is of para- 
mount importance to our security, men in responsible positions — 

meaning us — 

must not, through unsubstantiated charges and blanket indictments, destroy 
confidence in our American people and institutions. 

"Unsubstantiated charges" — We have here the evidence before us. 
Mr. Fishman is under oath. We have the mail bags. We have the 
vicious propaganda which the Communists are constantly conducting 
in an effort to destroy this country from within, to set people against 
people, and then we find such statements as this coming from so-called 
responsible leaders of a community. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, you have told us something of the volume 
of this Communist propaganda that is pouring into the United States. 
Can you tell us of the different types of propaganda, how many dif- 
ferent types of publications are there? 

Mr. Fishman. I would estimate there are some thousand publica- 
tions, of all types and languages, which are sent to the United States. 
I have just a sampling of them here and I was going to advise that 
very recently a good deal of this vicious propaganda has been coming 
from China. The Peking Review has suddenly taken up the cudgel 
against out action in the Far East; for example, here in the August 5 
issue, there is an editorial entitled "An Open Secret." 

It says : 

A photocopy of a circular letter sent by the United States Department of 
State to its diplomatic representatives in the Middle East has been published 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2799 

in the Cairo paper Al Ahram. It is damning documentary evidence of the 
dirty tricks the United States is up to in the Middle East. 

Washington is conducting an all-out drive to destroy the United Arab Repub- 
lic and Arab nationalism. In the words of the circular, this is because "the 
expansion of Egypt's sphere of influence * * * encourages anti-Western and 
particularly anti-American tendencies in the Middle East and Africa." 

To achieve its objectives, the United States pursues the old "divide and con- 
quer" tactics of the imperialists. Washington is doing everything it can to split 
Egypt and Syria and to isolate the U. A. U. from other Arab countries, from the 
Soviet Union and other Socialist countries. 

The document states that "efforts to discredit the idea of the 
Syrian-Egyptian union * * * should continue unabated," and so on. 

In the issue of August 12 they continue to explain that the talks 
held in Peking between Chairmen Mao Tse-tung and N. S. Khrush- 
chev was not merely a policy statement but also a magnificent pro- 
gram of action on the issue of combating aggression and safeguarding 
peace. 

ISIr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I saw or heard the other day that the 
United States of America submits for dissemination in Soviet Russia 
one of our publications called America, one publication which is sub- 
mitted to them in advance of publication for their censorship before 
it is actually published. Are the publications coming into the United 
States by the millions coming in here pursuant to any type of under- 
standing we have with the Kremlin ? 

Mr. FiSHMAX. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, we are sending into Soviet Russia one 
publication called America, which they censor before it goes in, and 
they send into the United States publications by the millions, without 
labeling it as Communist propaganda, is that correct? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. In direct violation of the law. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, does this material coming into the United 
States contain advertising to help sustain the cost of publication, as do 
the American magazines such as Life and the Saturday Evening Post 
and Time and the like? 

Mr. FisHMAN. No. It is a peculiar aspect of the entire program 
that not one of these publications contains a single advertisement, 
other than the solicitation for subscriptions to the particular pub- 
lication. 

Mr. Arens. Do the individual recipients, apparently numbering in 
the millions, now pay anything for this material which is coming in ? 

Mr. FiSHiMAN. A great portion of it is sent completely unsolicited; 
however, one can subscribe to World Youth, for example, for a dollar 
a year, which is a very cheap price for this kind of publication if one 
is interested in reading it. 

Mr. Arens. How does the quality, from the standpoint of the paper 
and the various technical processes apparently involved, compare 
with the regular American magazine on the newsstands? 

Mr. Fishman. I would say they compare very favorably. 

Mr. Arens. What about the price in comparison with the cost of 
publication ? 

Mr. Fishman. In the absence of advertising, I would suspect that 
these things are completely subsidized by the propaganda machine. 
They use a fairly expensive type of paper and the magazines are full 
of pictures and all of the features of American publications. 

31657—58 4 



2800 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have had many complaints, as I understand it, 
from people in this country who have been the recipients of this propa- 
ganda ; have you not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We have. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is, the people object to having this material sent 
to their homes ; is that right ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. They do and they ask the Post Office Department to 
keep it and not send it to them, to destroy it, 

Mr. ScHERER. I believe you introduced in a previous hearing a long 
series of letters and commmiications to the Post Office Department 
from the people wlio were receiving this propaganda. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I did. 

Mr. ScHERER. Some were greatly alarmed that the people beliind the 
Iron Curtain knew their addresses in America; were they not? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. They found that some people moved in an effort to 
avoid getting this material ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. We wondered how the people who were sending this 
material from behind the Iron Curtain obtained the new addresses of 
people in this country so quickly ; did we not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We did. We strongly suspected whoever is handling 
this program has access to organization and other mailing lists, 

Mr. ScHERER, You hear criticism, such as contained in the article 
in the Newark Evening News, to which I referred, about this com- 
mittee questioning individuals who today are part and parcel of that 
Communist conspiracy. There is evidence, as I recall from previous 
hearings, that some of these local members of the Communist Party, 
members here in the United States, have participated in sending 
behind the Iron Curtain the mailing lists of organizations which they 
have infiltrated. That is the service they render to the cause of the 
Kremlin. That is one of the jobs of Communist Party members here 
in the United States today. And there are people who say that we 
have no business determining how these mailing lists reach Iron Cur- 
tain country propaganda sources, I just wanted to make that ob- 
servation for the record. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to the printed propaganda which we have 
been discussing, Mr. Fishman, does the Red propaganda machinery 
also send into the United States propaganda films ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes; that is a major part of the program, and it has 
never deviated. Motion-picture film, generally, is sent in, in the form 
of so-called fiction stories, all veiled somewhat or cloaked by tlie tliin 
story which envelops the propaganda program. 

Mr. Arens. Do they also send in plates from which propaganda is 
reproduced within the confines of the United States ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. They do. That is for dissemination. 

Mr. ScHERER. And, of course, when this committee investigates to 
determine who gets those plates in this countrj^, who does the print- 
ing, who handles the matter of passing on this propaganda in the 
United States, then we hear the cry that we are interfering with peo- 
ple's political activities and their right to freedom to associate with 
wliom tliey please, when they are engaged in an activity on behalf of 
a foreign government and when, as our chairman said, we are spending 



COMlVnjNIST ACTIVITIES IX NEWARK, IST. J. 2801 

billions of dollars a year of taxpayers' money to fight the international 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to interrogate you a bit more with respect 
to proposed legislation which might help plug the loopholes, stem the 
tide of tliat flood of Communist propaganda. 

As you know, the Committee on Un-American Activities has, in the 
course of the last fcAv yeai's, made over 80 separate recommendations 
for legislative action; legislation has been passed by the Congress em- 
bracing 35 of the committee recommendations; and we have pending 
before the committee at the present time numerous legislative pro- 
posals, some of which deal with the very subject of Communist 
propaganda. 

May I ask you if it would be effective, from the standpoint of 
enforcement, if legislation could be devised requiring this Com- 
munist propaganda to be labeled as such prior to its actual physical 
entry into the United States or to be subject to confiscation. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It would be of considerable help to us. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. The present interpretation of the requirement for 
labeling contemplates that an agent, a registered agent in the United 
States, may bring all of this material, tons of it, into the United States 
without labeling it, and that the requirement for labeling does not 
attach until he, in turn, disseminates in the United States. That leaves 
it up to the registered agent, first of all, to determine whether it is 
propaganda, as defined in the Foreign Agents Registration Act ; and, 
second, leaves it up to him to decide whether he needs to label it. 

We feel that if the proposed legislation caused the labeling to be at- 
tached to this material at the time of importation, as it does in connec- 
tion with many other import laws, half of our job would be taken care 
of by this one requirement. 

Mr. Arens. Let me ask you with respect to another item which the 
committee has under consideration in attempting to stem this tide of 
Communist propaganda. At the present time, the Justice Depart- 
ment, the State Department, Post Office Department, and Customs, all 
participate in one form or another in undertaking to administer the 
provisions of the various laws applicable to this material. Would it 
be helpful, from the standpoint of better enforcement, if there were a 
centralization of responsibility in the administration of these various 
laws? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I definitely believe so. It would concentrate the 
effort and allow for better enforcement around the country. 

Mr. Arens. In how many different languages does this material en- 
ter the country ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Some of the publications before me are sent into the 
United States in 13 different languages. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have an adequate staff of translators in order 
to undertake to examine it and to translate it and to appraise it ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We can handle the major percentage of those lan- 
guages at the three control units, but we have absolutely no translation 
facilities at any of the other points of entry. So a good deal of 
this material must necessarily be released and passes into the United 
States, liecause we just don't know what it is or do not have tlie 
facilities for examinine; it. 



2802 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have made an estimate, have you not, of about 
how many pieces of this type of propaganda come into the United 
States each year ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We have given you some actual figures of the number 
of parcels, mail parcels, turned over to us by the Post Office Depart- 
ment. We have absolutely no way of estimating how much of it 
actually comes into the United States which we don't see or have no 
access to. What we have given you were the actual figures on the 
material turned over to us by the Post Office Department for 
examination. 

Mr. ScHERER. From what has been turned over to you, you have 
estimated about how many pieces ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We gave you figures on all the mail which comes into 
the United States annually, some 40 million. 

Mr. ScHERER. Forty million. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I would suppose in 1957, since we had access to about 
5 million packages alleged to contain propaganda material, possibly 
another million came through without examination. That would 
only be an incomplete estimate. I have no way of knowing how many 
got by us. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did I understand you to say, then, that your rough 
estimate is about 40 million pieces a year ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That was the volume of mail which the Customs 
Service handled. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliich you handled. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. On an overall basis around the country. But more 
specifically we know of almost 5 million that we handled in 1957 that 
contained political propaganda. We would guess at how many came 
through these other ports of entry, a conservative estimate would be 
another million or a total of six million for the country in 1957. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other suggestions to make for the 
consideration of the committee from the standpoint of proposals to 
tighten the laws? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I think if the committee were to clarify the law as it 
applies to the labeling provisions and to fix the responsibility for the 
enforcement of this provision in one of the agencies, we would be very 
happy. 

Mr. Arens. I know most agencies will always welcome more money 
for the operations, and I am not trying to put you on the spot at the 
present time. But do you actually need more translators and more 
enforcement officers to cope with this ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We believe that we are doing a very good job right 
at the moment. We, of course, could do a much better job if we could 
open one or two more control units around the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other item of information which you 
should like to submit to the committee, Mr. Fishman ? We have in- 
terrogated you on a number of items. Perhaps there is something 
you would like to say about which we have not asked you. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No; I don't think so. I am sure that the publicity 
given this redefection program will be of considerable help to people 
around the country. It will make them aware that they have not 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2803 

been chosen or selected as targets, and I think they will understand 
it is part of a general program ; that is always very important. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Fishman, you have had considerable experience, 
indicated by your testimony, in handling this propaganda. In your 
opinion could this tremendously large number of pieces of propaganda 
come into this country and be distributed without the help of in- 
dividuals in the United States ? 

Mr. Fishman. Could it be done without their help ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Fishman. I doubt it very much. First of all, the propaganda 
machine must know to whom to send it. In many States this material 
is sent in on a very selected basis and sent only to people who dis- 
seminate, and intend to disseminate, it. It is obvious that the people 
who put this material out are given advice and information as to 
what subjects to cover. So I am fairly positive they receive consider- 
able information from their fellow workers here in the United States. 

Mr. ScHERER. Does my recollection serve me correctly that you or 
one of 3^our associates testified at a previous hearing on this subject 
that often, when the Soviet propaganda machine wants a certain 
nationality group in the United States to take a certain stand on a cur- 
rent national political issue, it directs a flow of material to that group 
in the United States ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is so. 

Mr. Arens. For propaganda. In the language of that particular 
nationality group. 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct and this type of approach is com- 
pletely apart from the standard publications. It will show up in the 
form of information bulletins or specifically directed pamphlets, usu- 
ally published in the foreign language and directed to the people of 
that language heritage to convince them, or attempt to convince them, 
of the Communist view on the issue before the people in the United 
States. 

Mr. Arens. I am trying to point out that this tremendous insidious 
propaganda effort of the Soviet Union needs individual people in the 
United States in order that it may accomplish the end objective. 

Mr. Fishman. I agree. 

Mr. Arens. And this committee is interested in those people and 
how they do it and how they participate and why and what part the 
Communist Party, either aboveground or underground, has in this 
particular program. That is only one of the programs of the Com- 
munist Party in aiding our enemy. 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. We stand in recess. 

(Committee members present : Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

(Brief recess.) 

(Committee members present : Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. Counsel, 
please call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Jessie Scott Campbell. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, before we proceed, I want to make 
another observation. I have a copy of the Newark Evening News. 
Previously I referred to an article in this newspaper — that article was 
in the Readers Column. I now see a large ad that takes up about a 



2804 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

third of the page, devoted to an attack on the Un- American Activities 
Committee. It is published by the New Jersey Associates Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, Mr. Harvey O'Connor. Of course the ad 
does not disclose that Mr. Harvey O'Connor is the chairman of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, and that Mr. Harvey O'Comior 
is a known, identified member of the Communist Party. In addition 
to that, the organization of which he is chairman, namely the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee, which is sponsoring a meeting and 
has placed this ad in the press, has been cited as an arm of the 
Communist Party. It is completely Communist dominated and con- 
trolled. Most of its officers and members of its board of trustees are 
Communists or have long Commmiist front records. 

The record of that committee and of its membership is documented 
in a publication by the (\>mmittee on Un-American Activities issued 
on November 8, 1957, entitled "Operation Abolition." This committee 
was specifically set up for the purpose of destroying the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, and the security program of the United States. 

I think that this information about the people who have placed this 
ad in the paper and who are conducting the meeting tonight at the 
Carlton Hotel should be known. 

I would like, Mr. Chairman, to also supplement the remarks that I 
just made with reference to Mr. Harvey O'Comior and the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee. 

I am reading from the report to which I referred, namely, "Oper- 
tion Abolition." We find this language : 

The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee's campaign was inaugurated at a 
rally in New York City in Carnegie Hall on September 20, 1957. The speakers 
included Harvey O'Connor, Louis L. Redding, an attorney ; Dalton Trumbo, 
one of the notorious Hollywood Ten ; Prof. Hugh H. Wilson of Princeton Uni- 
versity ; and Frank Wilkinson of Los Angeles. 

Harvey O'Connor, who has been identified in sworn public testimony as a 
member of the Communist Party, declared that the meeting "is historical be- 
cause it opens the Abolition Campaign against the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities." 

Dalton Trumbo, who also has been identified in sworn public testimony as 
a member of the Communist Party, and who was convicted of contempt of 
Congress for his refusal to answer questions before the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, vilified the committee, J. Edgar Hoover, the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, and derided a group of Hungarian patriots who were picketing 
the rally. 

The objectives of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee emerged clearly 
from the Carnegie Hall program. They may be summarized as — 

1. Destruction of the House Committee on Un-American Activities; 

2. Extinction of the investigative powers of the Congress in the field of 
subversive activities ; 

3. Restriction of important functions of the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
in the investigation of subversive activities ; and 

4. Creation of a general climate of opinion against the exposure and punish- 
ment of subversion. 

I again repeat that is the committee w^hich is sponsoring and holding 
the meeting here in Newark tomorrow night and that is the com- 
mittee Avhich placed that ad, to which I referred, in the Newark news- 
papers. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. If you please, Mr. Chairman, Jessie Scott Campbell. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chainnan 
administers the oath. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2805 

Mr, Delany. Mr. Chairman, Mrs. Campbell requested no photo- 
graphs be made of her at this hearing. May we have a ruling from 
you, sir ? 

Mr. Willis. The ruling is that until the witness is sworn, I have 
no control and it is not the business of the committee. Until the wit- 
ness is sworn you are permitting the pictures to be taken, not I. 

Mr. Delany. Except it results in the same thing. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Campbell. I do. 

Mr, Willis. Now the photographer will refrain from photographs. 

Mr. Delany. It is of no benefit to this witness at all. 

Mr. Arens. It is freedom of the press. 

TESTIMONY OF JESSIE SCOTT CAMPBELL, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HUBERT T. DELANY 

Mr. Arens, Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation, 

Mrs, Campbell. My name is Mrs. Jessie Scott Campbell. I live at 
138 Lincoln Street, Montclair, N. J. I am at present an apprentice 
optician at 7 Hill Street, Newark. 

Mr. Akens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Campbell. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Delany. Hubert T. Delany, 100 William Street, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Campbell, where were you born ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I was born in Long Branch, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mrs. Campbell. I am a graduate of Montclair State Teachers Col- 
lege, New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. T\nien did you graduate? 

Mrs. Campbell. 1936. 

Mr. Arens. And did you receive a degree ? 

Mrs. Campbell. Bachelor of Arts. 

Mr. Arens. And did you then obtain the privilege of teaching in 
the State of New Jersey ? 

Mrs. Campbell. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us when you obtained that privilege. 

Mrs. Campbell. Do you mean did I receive the teacher's certificate? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Campbell. I did not apply for the teacher's certificate. 

]Mr. Arens. Were you ever licensed or certified to teach? 

Mrs. Campbell. No, I never got the teacher's certificate because I 
did not apply for it. 



2806 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us what was your principal employment im- 
mediately after you concluded your formal education? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. I feel that I have given you my present employ- 
ment and I feel that that is all I would like to answer at this time 
regarding my employment. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell this committee now what was your first em- 
ployment after you concluded your formal education ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. I understand that I have rights under the first 
and the fifth amendment of the Constitution not to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered to answer the question as to what her first employment 
was immediately after the conclusion of her formal education. 

Mr. Willis. You do have a right under the fifth amendment to 
refuse to answer a question if you honestly fear that to answer that 
question might subject you to criminal prosecution or might tend to 
incriminate you. Now, the question that the counsel for the com- 
mittee has just asked is simply to test whether you honestly fear such 
consequence and whether or not you are honestly relying upon the 
protection of the fifth amendment. If you are so honestly invoking 
the fifth amendment, you have a perfect right to do it ; but we do have 
a right to know whether you are making a shambles of the provision 
itself, or whether you are honestly invoking it. It is a perfectly proper 
question to test the honesty ; and, therefore, I direct you to answer the 
question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. Well, it is because I do not want to be put in a 
position of giving testimony against myself that I am availing my- 
self of the privilege given me under the fifth amendment of the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present 
employment ? 

Mrs. Campbell. Seven years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment? 

Mrs. Campbell. I am declining to answer that on the same ground 
I just gave. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to the 
employment that you cannot tell us about ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I have given my present employment. I am using 
the rights reserved me under the Constitution, the first and the fifth 
amendment, not to answer any further question regarding my em- 
ployment. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any employment, other than your present em- 
ployment, concerning which you can tell this committee without giv- 
ing information that might be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding? 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer this question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered to answer that question. That question is designed to test 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2807 

the good faith of this witness in her invocation of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Willis. Yes ; you are directed to answer tliat question. 

Mrs. Campbell, I have good faith in using the Constitution and I 
am declining to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. What organizations do you 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute, Counsel. I want to ask the witness a 
question. 

You have refused to tell us about some of your employment on the 
grounds that to do so might tend to incriminate you. I ask whether 
any of that employment about which you refuse to tell us involved the 
distribution of Communist propaganda, such as Mr. Fishman ex- 
hibited to this committee a few minutes ago ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. I am refusing to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the organizations to which you presently belong. 

Mrs. Campbell. I believe that people have a right to belong to 
organizations without being required to tell what organizations they 
belong to. I have belonged to many organizations, and there are many 
things. I understand this is a House Committee on Un-American 
Activities. There are many, many things which, as a Negro woman, 
I am certainly aware that are un-American, and I belong to many 
organizations which attempt to rectify some of the things that are 
un-American, and I refuse. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what organizations. 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer questions directed by you about 
the organizations that I belong to because I take my rights under the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you serving in any of these organizations, present- 
ly, at the behest and under the direction of the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mrs. Campbell. Does a Negro woman have to be directed to serve in 
any capacity when she is fighting for her rights ? 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Chairman, I respectfullj'' suggest that the witness 
now be ordered to answer the question as to whether or not her partic- 
ipation in these various organizations she talked about, or at least 
alluded to, is at the behest and direction of the Communist con- 
spiracy. 

Mr. Willis. Yes; that is a proper question. You are directed to 
answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this minute, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. This seems to be such a pet question. I have heard 
Communists, Communists, Communists, all afternoon, and what is on 
my mind is whether Negro children are going to be allowed to enter 
the schools of their choice in September, and I haven't seen anyone 
that you have ever gotten fired from their jobs because they have ap- 
peared before this committee, or named by this committee, who have 



2808 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

ever obstructed youngsters from going to school on the basis of their 
color. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you please answer the question ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the basis of the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Robert Dixon ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. Pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Robert Dixon ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer questions about associations 
and beliefs on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Robert Dixon took an oath this morning before this 
committee and testified that while he was a member of the Communist 
Party, he knew you as a Communist. We want to give you now an 
opportunity, while you are under oath, to deny that testimony. 

Mr. Scherer. Or affirm it. 

Mr. Arens. Or to affirm it. 

Mrs. Campbell. I am declining to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you care to avail yourself of that privilege? 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected with the Civil Rights Congress? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name, other than the name 
Jessie Scott Campbell ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. I am accorded the rights of the first and fifth 
amendment, which do not require that I make any testimony that 
might incriminate me or that might tend to limit my freedom of speech 
and association. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee, 
while under oath, whether or not you have ever used any name, other 
than the name Jessie Scott Campbell, you would be supplying infor- 
mation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. Campbell. I am declining to answer on the ground 

]Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest this record reflect an order and 
direction of the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered and directed to answer the question 
because it is a test of your good faith in the invocation of the privi- 
lege of the Constitution. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. Mr. Willis, I really think there are some things you 
don't understand. For instance, you are from Louisiana. And I 
wonder how you would feel if suddenly you were a different color, my 
color, and with kinky hair and went back to Louisiana, and I know 
that in Louisiana there is a possibility that someone can l3e prosecuted 
because of this. And I am declining to answer any of these questions 
on the rights afforded me by the Constitution under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered to answer the question, as it is to test her good faith in invok- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2809 

ing the fifth amendment. She has no right to invoke the fifth amend- 
ment unless she honestly apprehends that to answer tliat question 
truthfully, while she is under oath, might supply information that 
might be used against her in a criminal proceeding. 

Mrs. Campbell. Truthfully, when you see the things that happen 
for people 

Mr. Willis. Now, you are ordered to answ^er that question, and I am 
very patient with you, and you may answer it or not answer it, 
but^ ■ 

Mrs. Campbell. My answer is it is possible under the conditions 
that exist. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of El wood M. Dean, 
who w^as a candidate for public office on the Communist Party slate 
in 1050 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Campbell. I am declining to answer questions regarding my 
associations on the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Collins is going to display to you a photostatic 
reproduction of a nominating petition nominating Elwood M. Dean as 
County Clerk on the Communist Party ticket bearing a number of 
signatures, including the signature of Jessie Campbell. I should like 
to have you look at that signature and tell this committee, while you 
are under oath, whether or not that is a true and correct reproduction 
of your signature. 

( Document handed. ) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ca^ipbell. No — the committee is asking me so many questions 
which do not have anything to do with what my life has represented 
and what I think is right and what I think is wrong. This com- 
mittee owes 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question either way you 
want to, but you are not going to be permitted to make any more 
speeches. 

Mrs. Campbell. I am declining to answer the question on the same 
ground. I don't see the time : isn't it 

(Document marked "Campbell Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Willis. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is, Mr. Chairman : 

Are you connected with, or have you been a member of, the National 
Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I am declining to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. You are a member of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee, are you not ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer the question on 

Mr. Scherer. The committee which placed the ad in the news- 
paper, the ad I^ — — 

Mrs. Campbell. I didn't understand the question. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know who wrote the ad ? 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer the question on the same ground. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know Harvey O'Connor, principal speaker for 
the rail}' of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee here in Newark ? 



2810 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mrs. Campbell. You know there is a situation right here in Levit- 
town, N. J., where Negroes are denied the right to move into homes 
because of the fact that they are Negroes. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered to answer 
the question. 

Mrs. Campbell. I can't understand the committee, when there is a 
flagrant violation of Americanism you cannot bring your group in 
here to investigate this kind of thing. Why harass me for what I 
believe ? 

Mr, Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Campbell. I decline to answer the question on the ground I 
have given previously. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Witness excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Thomas Leavy. 

Will you kindly come forward ? Thomas Leavy, please come for- 
ward. Remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Leavy. I do. 

Mr. Willis. No more pictures, please. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS P. LEAVY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Leavy. I might say that this committee heretofore knows me. 
I appeared in closed hearings July 15 in Washington, D. C, and gave 
answers to questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest you direct the 
the witness to answer. 

Mr. Leavy. May I be permitted to ask why I am appearing here 
again ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Leavy. Is that a proper question ? 

Mr. Willis. Wliat is the outstanding question ? 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Leavy. Is my question proper ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered to answer 
the question as to his identification, his name, and occupation. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Leavy. My name is Thomas P. Leavy. I live at 68 Seventh 
Avenue, Atlantic Highlands, N. J. I am a warehouseman. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2811 

Mr. Leavy. That is a question which I think might cost me my 
job. It has cost one person who has appeared here her job. And I 
think this committee ought to take it into consideration, especially in 
view of the letter which Mr. Scherer has seen in the paper and which 
states it is appalling to note, in the 14 months since the Supreme 
Court of the United States reaffirmed our constitutional rights, the 
Un-American Activities Committee has made no apparent change in 
the temper, tone, or purpose of its conduct. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Leavy. What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. Leavy. Westinghouse, Hillside. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Leavy. lam. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Leavy. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record. 

Mr. FoRER. Gladly. Joseph Forer of Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present 
place of employment ? 

Mr. Leavy. It is 11 years. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your employment immediately prior to 
your present employment ? 

Mr. Leavy. It was a period of unemployment, I believe; and then 
I was employed at Union Carbide & Carbon Corp. These are the 
major employment. There was a couple of days here and there. 
Union Carbide & Carbon, known as Oxwell Division, Frelinghuysen 
Avenue, Newark. And then 

Mr. Arens. Were you, at any time, an officeholder in the United 
Electrical Workers Union, UE ? 

Mr. Leavy. IntheUE? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Leavy. I was a member of the executive board. Local 416. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a member of the 
executive board of UE ? 

Mr. Leavy. Approximately 1944, 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Are you, right now, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Leavy. That is a question which I think is an insult to ask in 
this context. That this committee has whipped up, or attempted to 
whip up, a hysteria and then comes and asks a question of a person 
who is not prepared for what the committee is going to trot out as its 
evidence. 

Mr. Arens. Why don't you stand up like a red-blooded American, 
and deny that you are a Communist ? 

Mr. Leavy. Because as a redblooded American I am going to up- 
hold the Constitution of the United States, including the first and 
the fifth amendments. 



2812 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are going to uphold it ? 

Mr. Leavy, Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. We had a lot of criminals do that before the Senate 
committee who were testifying in the rackets investigation and their 
right to invoke the fifth amendment was also recognized as we recog- 
nize yours. 

Mr. Leavy. Are you inferring that I am a criminal, such as they ? 

Mr. ScHERER. No. I said they recognized 

Mr. Willis. I don't think he answered the question. 

Mr. Arens. I will lead into the question again. 

Mr. Robert Dixon took an oath before this committee this morning 
and said that while he was a member of the Communist Party, he 
knew you, sir, as a member of the Communist Party. We want to 
afford you now an opportunity to either affirm or deny that testhnony. 
Do you care to avail yourself of that privilege? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Leavy. I do not care to before this committee. If that is what 
3' oil ask. 

Mr. Arens. Was Dixon in error or was he telling the truth. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Leavy. There is a complicating factor in that question. It is 
the fact that Mr. Dixon has appeared before this committee today as 
a surprise witness ; he is not unknown to me. He graduated from high 
school with me. He has known my family since 1930 or 1929. He 
has been in my room when I was a young man. He has sat there in 
the depression, rolling cigarettes when it was hard to get tobacco. He 
has played cards. That is when I knew that man. And that man, 
when he got up here and made that statement, well I was just nau- 
seated that a man who is a labor leader could sink so low as to become 
a finger man. That is my opinion. 

Mr. Arens. Was he telling the truth when he said you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Leavy. I would have to, in the context of this committee hear- 
ing and the hysteria, wind up refusing to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Leavy. On the grounds both the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Where else have you served with Dixon besides in the 
high school ? 

Mr, Leavy. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say you went to high school with 
Mr. Dixon. 

Mr. Leavy. It is a big high school. 

Mr. Arens. Were there any other groups where you served witli 
him, besides the high school ? 

Mr. Leavy. You are again probing in the same thing that you know 
that any honest person called up into this situation would refuse to 
answer using his constitutional rights. 

Mr. Arens. In what other groups have you served with Dixon, 
besides in the high school ? 

Mr. Leavy. Mr. Cliairman, my answer is the same, first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if yon told this committee 
trutlifully in what otlier groups you served with Dixon, you would be 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2813 

supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Leavy. The question seems to be a favored one, Mr. Counsel, 
and you always get the same answer so I don't know why you waste 
time asking it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Leavy. Am I ordered ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you are ordered to answer the question. It is a 
proper question. 

Mr. Leavy. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Leavy. Wait a minute. I forgot. Will you give the question 
again? My counsel properly reminded me that I forgot what tlie 
question was. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if j^ou told this com- 
mittee truthfully of any other organization or organizations in which 
you served witli Dixon, otlier than the high school, you would be sup- 
plying information whicli might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Leavy. There is a possibility in this context. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever worked in a war plant or a plant that 
had defense contracts ? 

Mr. Leavy. I have. 

Mr. Arens. What plant, wliere, and when, please, sir? 

Mr. Lea\t. I w^orked the first one in the General Motors, Eastern 
Aircraft Division, Bloomfield. 

Mr. Arens. When did you work there ? 

Mr. Leavy. Approximately 1942 to 1945. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Leavy. As a machine operator. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist at the time ? 

Mr. Lea^t. Mr. Counsel, you again asking the same when-did-you- 
stop-beating-your-wife question. It is a waste of time. I refuse to 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr, Leavy. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Leavy. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What was the next defense plant you worked in ? 

Mr. Leavy. Defense plant? I really didn't work in defense. 

Mr. Arens. Or a plant having defense contracts ? 

Mr. Leavy. This plant I am employed in now had a defense con- 
tract for a period of time, but I was not connected with that portion 
of it. 

Mr. Arens. What caused your disassociation from this Eastern Air- 
craft defense plant ? 

Mr. Leavy. The plant I think was afraid of the militant union 
and moved to New Brunswick. 

Mr. Arens. Was the militant union 3^ou speak of the UE? 

]Mr. LEA^^-. It was Local 416. 

Mr. Arens. Of UE ? 

Mr. Leavy. Yes. 



2814 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Joseph Alfone? 

Mr. Leavy. No matter what names you ask me in the context of 
this hearing, I must decline on the basis of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Louis Malinow ? 

Mr. Leavt. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now in the Communist underground ? 

Mr. Leavt. This is a ridiculous question. I don't know what you 
mean by underground, in the first place. 

Mr. Arens. Deny it. 

Mr. Leavy. I don't know what you mean by Communist under- 
ground. 

Mr. Arens. Do you want to make that assertion on this record, 
while you are under oath, that you do not know what we mean by 
Communist underground ? 

Mr. Leavy. It is not an assertion. It is a statement. I don't think 
anyone knows, not only I. 

Mr. Arens. Have you used any name, other than the name under 
which you are appearing today ? 

Mr. Leavy. I have to think about whether I did such a thing. 
Even if I did, which I doubt, I don't think I could say it here because 
some stool pigeon might get up and say I did. And I can't vouch 
for these stool pigeons that appear. 

Mr. ScHERER. If a person you want to label as stool pigeon said 
you used another name, would he be telling the committee the truth ? 

Mr. Leavy. Wliat kind of question is it, really ? 

Mr. ScHERER. That is a good question. 

Mr. Leavy. There are so many things said here without a person 
having a chance to cross-examine, confront the witness, what can you 
do? 

Mr. Scherer. We do not need witnesses for the question that was 
asked. We just asked you if you ever used a name, other than the 
one you are using here today. 

Mr. Leavy. My answer is I refuse to answer on the principal 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dixon, would you kindly come forward? Mr. 
Leavy says, in effect, he wants to be able to confront the person who 
puts him in the Communist Party by testimony under oath. 

Mr. Forer. Are you going to let me cross-examine him, too ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest counsel now be admonished to 
restrain himself and abide by the rules of the committee, which he 
well knows. 

Mr. Willis. I think the witness has been heretofore sworn, has 
he not ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Leavy. I don't think this is a fair proceeding. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT J. DIXON, Jr.— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dixon, do you see presently in the courtroom a 
person by tlie name of Thomas Leavy ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see presently in the courtroom a person by the 
name of Thomas Leavy who, to your certain knowledge, you are pre- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2815 

pared to testify under oath was a member of the Communist Party 
while you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please point that person out and look him in the 
face so there will be no faceless informer and let him have an 
opportunity to see you. 

(Complying.) 

Mr. Leavy. How can a man sink so low, that is what I want to 
know. 

TESTIMONY OP THOMAS J. LEAVY— Eesumed 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Leavy, was this man here, who was under 
oath and looked you in the face and identified you as a person known 
by him to be a member of the Communist Party, was he telling the 
truth or was he in error ? 

Mr. Leavy. I wish to state, first, that I don't think this is a proper 
confrontation and procedure. 

Mr. Willis. You answer the question. 

Mr. Leavy. But I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. We merely took your invitation. You said you wanted 
to be confronted by the witness. 

Mr. Leavy. I undertook half of the invitation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, I don't think the record is clear as to his 
answer with reference to whether or not he used another name. He 
danced around that. 

Did you ever use any name other than the name you are appearing 
under here today ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Leavy. I had tried to explain why the question was improper 
in the first place in its context, but I refuse to answer on the gromids 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm 
or deny the fact, that in August 1957 you were an elected chairman of 
the East Orange Club of the Communist Party. Please deny that 
while you are under oath if that is not true. 

Mr. Leavy. Same answer. First and fifth amendment. Refuse. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Manuel Cantor ? 

Mr. Leavy. Refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Leavy. Same ground. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Collins of this staff is going to display to 
you a number of documents bearing the signature of Thomas Leavy — 
nominating petitions, over the course of the last several years, in 
which persons were nominated on the Communist Party ticket for 
various public offices. We should like to have you glance at the sig- 
natures appearing on each of these several nominatmg petitions and 
tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether or not they are 
a true and correct reproduction of your signature, Thomas Leavy. 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

31657 — 58 5 



2816 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Leavy. These are public nominating petitions. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Leavy. For a legal party ? 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. LEA^^. For a legal party ? 

I am asking a question, is it legal ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question, whether or not 
the signatures there, Thomas Leavy, are true and correct reproduc- 
tions of your signature. 

Mr. Leavy. I will answer your question. I just want to know 
whether it is a legal party. Then, now — well, I refuse on the ground 
of the first and the fifth amendments. It is really an invasion of the 
privacy of a citizen to display his political opinions before a commit- 
tee which is known as a witch hunting committee. 

(Documents marked "Leavy Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Is it your contention that the Communist Party is just 
a political party ? 

Mr. Leavy. I made no contention about it. 

Mr. Arens. Is that your contention ? 

Mr. Leavy. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party a political party ? 

Mr. Willis. He refuses to answer. 

Mr. Leavy. Are you asking me as an authority ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. We think you are. 

Mr. Leavy. I think there are other authorities you might consult. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in tlie Communist Party National 
Convention in New York City in February 1957 ? 

Mr. Leavy. I refuse to answer, the same reason. 

Mr. Counsel, may I make one observation? I will make it, then. 
I note in the Star Ledger 

Mr. Willis. You just answer the question. We will get along 
better. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

We will be in recess for 5 minutes. 

( Committee members present : Representatives Willis and Scherer. ) 

(Brief recess.) 

( Committee members present : Representatives Willis and Scherer. ) 

Mr. Willis. Please call your next witness. 

Mi\ Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mary Adams Taylor. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers the oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2817 

TESTIMONY OF MARY ADAMS TAYLOR, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL HUBERT T. DELANY 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Taylor. My name is Mary Taylor, Mrs. Mary Taylor. 

Mr. Willis. A little louder. 

Mrs. Taylor. Mrs. Mary Taylor. AVliat else did you ask? 

Mr. Arens. Your residence and 3'our occupation. 

Mrs. Taylor. I live 13 Baldwin Avenue in Newark and I am a 
clerk-typist. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you ai-e repi-esented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindl}' identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Delany. My name is Hubert T. iDelany. My offices are located 
at 100 William Street, in the City of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Where am I employed? In the City of Newark. 

Mr. Arens. In what establishment? 

Mrs. Taylor. At a finance company on Market Street. 

Mr. Arens. In M^iat capacity ? 

Mrs. Taylor. As a clerk-typist. 

Mr. Arens. And the name of the finance company ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mi-s. Taylor. Broad Finance Co. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed there ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Approximately a year and a half. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question and I do so on the 
rights aft'orded to me under the first and fifth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your employment endure which pre- 
ceded your present employment ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question for the same reason 
I declined to ansAver the previous question. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Taylor. In the City of Newark. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education, please. 

Mrs. Taylor. Yes. I had a public-school education — grammar, 
high, 2 years business. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education ? 

Mrs. Taylor. Maybe about 1937 or 1938, 1939. I really can't re- 
member. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal employment after you 
completed your f orjnal education ? 



2818 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your first employment endure ? 

_ Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any employment in which you were engaged 
smce you completed your education in 1937 or thereabouts until you 
assumed your present job concerning which you can tell us without 
revealing information that might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her comisel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. What is the question ? 

Mr. Delany. "Wliat is the question ? 

(The record was read by the reporter as requested.) 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I want the record, if you please, sir, to 
reflect an order and direction for the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. She was answering pursuant to a direction. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived at your present address? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. Approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your address immediately prior to your 
present address ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
previous declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Did you live in New Jersey ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your address immediately prior to the address 
that you will not tell us about ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
previous declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this minute, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you in February of 1957, do you recall ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you were in February, 1957 a delegate-at-large from 
New Jersey to the Sixteenth National Convention of the Communist 
Party. 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall where you were in April of 1957 ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2819 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
previous declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mrs. Taylor. What is your question ? Why what ? 

Mr. Arens. Wliy do you decline to answer that question ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
previous declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline on the basis of previous declinations. 

Mr. Delany. If the chairman please, as I understand it, the wit- 
ness is refusing to answer on the basis of the right afforded her on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments and she says so. 

Mr. Willis. I understand. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell this committee whether or not you have 
been in consultation with persons known by you to be active, present 
members of the Communist Party respecting your appearance before 
this committee since you were served with your subpena to appear 
before the committee. 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question by reason of the 
rights afforded me on the first and fifth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Willis. When was she served ? About when were you served 
with the subpena ? 

Mr. Arens. 18th day of June 1958. 

Mr. Willis. Did you understand the last question ? It was whether, 
since that time 

Mrs. Taylor. You may repeat the question. 

Mr. Willis. — you discussed your appearance here — general dis- 
cussion with one or more persons concerning these very hearings with 
persons known to you to be members of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Taylor. That is what I thought you said. I decline to answer 
that question on the reasons of the rights afforded to me on the first 
and fifth amendments of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us where we might be able to find a man by 
the name of Manuel Cantor? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. W^iat is his name ? 

Mr. Arens. Manny Cantor. C-a-n-t-o-r. 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the basis of pre- 
vious declinations. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of an organization dedicated to the 
overthrow of the Government of the United States and the destruction 
of the Constitution of the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Taylor. What was the question? 

Mr. Delany. What is the question ? 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding question, if you please, sir, is whether 
or not she is a member of organizations dedicated to the overthrow of 
the Government of the United States and Constitution of the United 
States. 



2820 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mrs. Taylor. If you please, sir, I think you have another question 
now. That does not seem to me to be the same question you asked be- 
fore. And I beg of you to repeat because I do have a hearing diffi- 
culty. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of an association dedicated to the 
overthrow of the Government of the United States and the destruction 
of the Constitution of the United States ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I have never knowingly belonged to an organization 
that was dedicated to the overthrow of the United States Government 
or the Constitution. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. You said that 

Mr. Delany. Just a moment. She hasn't finished her answer. 

Mrs. Taylor. Yes, I said I have never knowingly belonged to an 
organization that was dedicated to the overthrow, or felt was dedi- 
cated to the overthrow, of the United States Government. 

Mr. Arens. Did your counsel just tell you to say that 2 minutes ago ? 

Mr. Delany. Just a minute. I think it is a reflection on a member 
of the Bar. I have been a member of the Bar for 32 years and I had 
no one say I suborned perjury. And I state that on the part of counsel. 

Mr. Arens. I sat here and listened to counsel. 

Mr. Delany. This woman has a hearing difficulty, and I advise 
her what I think is proper. 

Mr. Scherer. And I think she now should answer the question. 

Mr. Delany. And I think it is an impertinence and insult to the 
American Bar, 

Mr, Willis. Have you answered the question ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I have answered the question. I think that your 
records will show that the questions have been answered. 

Mr. Willis. I noted in your answer that you first said that you did 
not knowingly belong to any organizations dedicated to the overthrow 
of the Constitution or the Government of the United States. And yoa 
later added the words "Imowingly" or that you "felt." 

Mrs. Taylor. Yes, that is right, sir, because I think feelings are 
very important, more important sometimes than we give credence, 
just like the way I feel when I have to sit here and go through this, 
when I know the struggle that my people are putting up every day 
for their rights when I happen to think that I don't know whether 
next week Negro children are going to be able to go to school in the 
South unmolested; yes, feelings are very important, and I did say 
that. I never belonged to an organization, I knowingly or felt was 
to overthrow the United States Government. 

Mr. Willis. All right. This committee's job is to pursue the opera- 
tions and machinations of the Communist conspiracy wherever it 
leads. We are not investigating any people or segment of the coun- 
try, as such. 

Mr, Arens, Do you have present information, knowledge, respect- 
ing the present operations of the Communist Party in the Newark, 
New Jersey, area ? 

Mrs. Taylor, I am sorry, sir, I cannot hear you. T am just too 
upset, Eepeat your question, and I will try again. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2821 

Mr. Arens. Do you have present knowledge respecting the opera- 
tion and machinations of the Communist Party presently, currently, 
in the New Jersey area ? 

Mrs. Taylor. I decline to answer that question on the rights afforded 
to me in the first and fifth amendments to the United States Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of the witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 20 p. m., Wednesday, September 3, 1958, the 
hearing was adjourned until 10 a. m., Thursday, September 4, 1958.) 



COMMUNIST INFILTRATION AND ACTIVITIES IN 
NEWARK, N. J. 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Newark^ N. J. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 : 05 a. m., in Courtroom No, 1, Post Office 
Building, Newark, N. J., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; Raymond 
T. Collins and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The Chair has just received this telegram from David L. Walter, 
president of Local Union No. 349, United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America : 

The officers and members of this local union wish to congratulate you and 
your entire committee for a job well done and wish you continued success in 
putting the spotlight on those in our midst who are members of an organization 
that is working to destroy our way of life. All Americans should be thankful 
to you. 

We are deeply grateful to this local for taking this position. 

Call your first witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Dennis L. James, kindly come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear, sir, that you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. James. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP DENNIS L. JAMES 

Mr. AjtENs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. James. My name is Dennis L. James. I live at 20 Eckert 
Avenue, Newark, N. J. I work as accountant for the Port of New 
York Authority. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at the Port of New 
York Authority ? 

Mr. James. Eight years. 

2823 



2824 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been an accountant all of this time? 

Mr. James. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us the posts you have held with 
the Port Authority in addition to your present post as an accountant? 

Mr. James. I started with the Port Authority as a building attend- 
ant, and I received promotions to accounting clerk and then to posi- 
tion of accountant. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us where you were born. 

Mr. James. I was born in Newark, New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us please, sir, a word about your edu- 
cation ? 

Mr. James. I graduated from grammar school, high school, and 
Rutgers University. 

Mr. Arens. When did you receive your degree from Rutgers? 

Mr. James. In 1953. 

Mr. Arens, Did you go directly from Rutgers University to the 
Port Authority or did you have any job in the interim ? 

Mr. James. I was working for the Port Authority when I graduated 
from Rutgers. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. James, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. James. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of any group controlled 
by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. James. I was a member of the Labor Youth League in New 
Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us at whose behest you became a mem- 
ber of the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. James. Mrs. Occriss Johnson. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us whether or not your membership in 
the Labor Youth League was on behalf of the Goverimient of the 
United States? 

Mr. James. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Arens. In which you were in cooperation with the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. James. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us when and where you joined 
the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. James. I joined the Labor Youth League in January of 1950 
in Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Were you then attending college ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. That was Rutgers University ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain your membership in the 
Labor Youth League? 

Mr. James. Until I dropped out, but I ceased activities with the 
Labor Youth League in January of 1952. 

Mr. Arens. I want the record to be clear, Mr. James, that you were 
at no time in sympathy with the Communist movement or at no time 
in sympathy with the Labor Youth League as such, that you were 
serving your Government in cooperation with the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation. That is true, is it not ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2825 

Mr. Arens. Were you constantly, regularly, reporting to that in- 
telligence agency of our Government respecting your activities and 
respecting information which you acquired for your Government ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time hold any office or any post in the 
Labor Youth League? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "\'\^iat office or post did you hold ? 

Mr. James. At one time I was chairman of one of tlie clubs in the 
Labor Youth League. I was also the subscription chairman for 
Challenge magazine. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hold any other post ? 

Mr. James. I held the post of administrative secretary of New 
Jersey, but it never materialized. 

Mr. Arens. You were designated for that, but you did not actually 
assume your duties, is that correct '^ 

Mr. James. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Who recruited you into the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. James. Mrs. Occriss Johnson. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell that first name? It is rather 
uncommon. 

Mr. James. 0-c-c-r-i-s-s. 

Mr. Willis. Johnson ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What branch of the Labor Youth League did you join ? 

Mr. James. By branch, do you mean what club ? 

Mr, Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. James. The Howard Fast Club. 

Mr. Arens. Was that located here in Newark ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Were there other clubs besides the Howard Fast Club 
of the Labor Youth League in Newark at the time ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge how many other groups were there 
in the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. James. I can only remember one, the Paul Robeson Club. 

Mr. Arens. There w^ere other groups, but you were not in contact 
with them, is that correct ? 

Mr, James, Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. How many members were in the club of the Labor 
Youth League to which you were attached in the Newark area ? 

Mr. James. About 15 or 20 persons. 

Mr. Arens. How^ many did you know about — even though you may 
not have known the identity of the individual — who were connected 
or were members of other clubs of the Labor Youth League in the 
Newark area ? 

Mr. James. Do you mean the total membership of the Labor Youth 
League in Newark ? 

Mr, Arens, Yes. 

Mr. Willis. "V^Hiat area are you talking about, Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. The Newark area. 

Mr. James. In the Newark area ? 



2826 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. You told us there were 15 or 20 within the par- 
ticular club to which you were attached. You have also told us that 
you know of other clubs, and I am wondering if you can give us an 
estimate or appraisal on the basis of your experience in the Labor 
Youth League as to the aggregate membership within the Labor 
Youth Clubs of Newark. 

Mr. Willis. Ask him if he knows how many clubs there were, ap- 
proximately. 

Mr. Arens. He said he knew specifically of only one other club, 
but that he knew there were other clubs he was not in contact with. 

Mr. James. Within 50 and 75 members. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge, who were the principal 
officers and leaders of the Labor Youth League in the Newark area ? 

Mr. James. When I joined the Labor Youth League, the individual 
in charge was named Nat Brooks, Nathaniel Brooks. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about him ; who was he ? 

Mr. James. He was the executive state secretary of the Labor 
Youth League. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a Communist ? 

Mr. James. To my knowledge he was a Communist on the basis of 
his own say-so. 

Mr. Arens. What were his functions ? 

Mr. James. Well, he was in charge of the procedure and activities 
of the clubs in Newark, 

Mr. Arens. Who were some of the other leaders in the Labor Youth 
League in the Newark area ? 

Mr. James. You mean as officers of the clubs ? 

Mr. Arens, Yes. Officers and leaders. 

Mr, James. When I joined the Labor Youth League, the member 
of the Howard Fast Club that I knew was chairman of the Howard 
Fast Club was a Miss Evelyn Skoloff, 

Mr. Arens. Did you know whether or not she was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr, James. No ; I didn't know definitely except on her say-so. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me just a minute. Counsel, 

You made that same statement with reference to the Communist 
membership of Nathaniel Brooks. You said Nathaniel Brooks was a 
Communist according to his own say-so, in other words, according 
to his own admission to you that he was a member of the Communist 
Party, 

Mr, James. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And that is the best evidence obtainable, isn't it? 

Mr, Jasies. In regard to Nathaniel Brooks I was asked to join the 
Communist Party, 

Mr. Scherer. By him ? 

Mr, James, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer, And he admitted to you that he was a member? 

Mr, James, That he was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. Then what is the name of that last one ? 

Mr. Arens, Evelyn Skoloff. S-k-o-l-o-f-f. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you make that same statement with reference 
to her, namely, that she was a member of the Communist Party ac- 
cording to her own say-so ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2827 

Mr. ScHERER. In other words, she admitted to you, in one or more 
conversations that she was also a member of the party ? 

Mr. James. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was Evelyn Skoloff 's function ? 

Mr. James. At the time I joined the Labor Youth League, she 
was chairman of the Howard Fast Club. 

Mr. Arens. Did she have any liaison duties or activities between 
the Labor Youth Leac^ue and the Communist Party itself ? 

Mr. James. It was my belief that she did, but I do not know spe- 
cifically with whom she may have had contact. By that I mean at 
times activities were designated to be done, and she would say that 
they were to be done. But to say that she received these words from 
certain individuals I could not say. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let's clear that point up, also. You say she would 
say that these activities are to be done. 

Mr. James. Sir, as chairman of the Howard Fast Club, she led the 
meetings, and naturally she would be in charge of the agenda, but I 
couldn't say that the agenda came from someone connected with the 
Communist Party as such, because I was not aware of that. 

Mr. Arens. But you knew her as a Communist, and she had told you 
she was a Communist ? 

Mr. James. She had referred to herself as a Communist. 

Mr. Scherer. Did she indicate in any way that she had received 
these instructions as to what had to be done in the Labor Youth League 
from an outside source without designating or naming the outside 
source ? 

Mr, James. I couldn't say that she designated that she received 
this information from an outside source. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Herbert Davis ? 

Mr. James. Yes, I knew Herbert Davis. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. James. At the time I joined the Labor Youth League, Herbert 
Davis was the educational director for the Howard Fast Club. He 
obtained literature that was sold to the members of the Howard Fast 
Club at meetings. To my knowledge he was also the State financial 
director, collector of funds. 

Mr. Arens. Of the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. James. Of the Labor Youth League. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us a little more, if you please, sir, about Occriss 
Johnson, who, according to your testimony a few moments ago, 
recruited you into the Labor Youth League. 

Mr. James. Occriss Johnson at the time, 1949, was living at my 
mother's home. She was a boarder there, and at that time I was 
unemployed, and we had various discussions about the unemployment 
situation. And she thought that I might get answers to some of my 
questions about the labor problem through working and being in the 
Labor Youth League. She identified herself as a Labor Youth League 
member, as well as a member of the Communist Party, and held several 
meetings at the house. 

Mr. Arens. "Would you kindly tell us of any other persons who 
were in leadersliip capacity in tlie Labor Youth League — officer? 

Mr. James. Wendell Attington replaced Nat Brooks as executive 
secretary of New Jersey, I believe in 1950 or 1951. 



2828 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us a word about him, please ? 

Mr. James. He was a gentleman who came from Texas, and Nat 
Brooks was unable to be in Newark at the time, and he assumed this 
position as executive secretary of New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. Can you recall any other persons who, to your certain 
knowledge, were in leadership capacity in the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. James. I am a bit confused now. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of Stanley Jones ? 

Mr. James. Yes, I did know Stanley Jones. He was at one time 
also chairman of the Howard Fast Club. He also had the capacity 
of chairman in the Paul Robeson Club at the time. It was through 
Stanley Jones that I attended a meeting at which the president of 
the furriers union spoke. It was at this meeting that I was ap- 
proached by Nat Brooks to become a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was the president of the furriers union who spoke 
there? Was it Ben Gold ? 

Mr. James. I believe it was Ben Gold. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of George Shevelov, 
S-h-e-v-e-1-o-v? 

Mr. James. Yes. George Shevelov was a member of the Howard 
Fast Club when I joined. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Lorraine Jones ? 

Mr. James. Lorraine Jones was the wife of Stanley Jones. She 
was also a member of the Howard Fast Club. 

Mr. Arens. AVhere had Ben Gold been just prior to the time that 
he made his speech at this meeting ? 

Mr. James. I believe he had been on a vacation trip to Europe and 
Russia. 

Mr. Arens. Why didn't you go ahead and join the party itself 
after you were solicited ? 

Are you at liberty to tell us in a public session why you did not 
go on and join the party itself in view of the fact you were doing 
undercover work for the FBI ? 

Mr. James. Well, I did accept the invitation to join the Communist 
Party in 1951, in June of 1951, but soon after that I was supposed to 
hear from someone. I never did. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do in the Labor Youth League? What 
were the activities performed by that organization ? 

Mr. James. Some of the activities were securing signatures for peti- 
tions in the outlawing of the atom bomb. 

Mr. Arens. Was that considered the Stockholm Peace Petitions? 

Mr. James. Yes ; I believe that was what was considered tlie Stock- 
holm Peace Petitions. 

We secured signatures asking for a cease-fire in Korea. 

Mr. Arens. To whom were these signatures to be sent? 

Mr. James. To the President of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, please. 

Mr. James. One time we also collected food and clothing for the 
striking miners. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. James. I believe it was in Pennsylvania. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N, J. 2829 

Mr. Arens. Did you distribute Communist literature or Labor 
Youth League literature in the community or among youth groups? 

Mr. James. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you assist in any way in developing or obtaining 
subscribers to any Communist literature, such as the Daily Worker^ 

Mr. James. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Labor Youth League as such do so whether or 
not you did as an individual ? 

Mr. James. Not to the public. The subscriptions for the Daily 
Worker were received in meetings, but not to the public, to my 
knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend any Marxist training schools or any 
Communist training schools while you were a member of the Labor 
Youth League? 

Mr. James. Prior to becoming a member of the Labor Youth 
League, I attended the Jefferson School of Social Science Annex in 
Newark. 

Mr. Arens. What courses were taught there? Can you give us a 
word about that ? 

Mr. James. The book that was used, the name of the book was the 
Theory and Practice of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you attend ? 

Mr. James. In Newark. 

Mr. Arens. How many others were being trained in your particu- 
lar class? 

Mr. James. Between 10 and 15. 

Mr. Arens. Who was the instructor ? 

Mr. James. A Mr. Jack Kolb. 

Mr. Arens. How often did the classes meet ? 

Mr. James. Once a week. 

Mr. Arens. Day or night ? 

Mr. James. At night. 

Mr. Arens. Where did they meet? Do you recall the particidar 
place here in Newark? 

Mr. James. It was an office building on Clinton Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you disassociated yourself from the 
Labor Youth League, was it beginning to go underground? 

Mr. James. Yes, I would say it was. The activities were not as 
openly performed as they had been in the past. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. James, on the basis of your experience, though 
not in the Communist Party itself, but within the Labor Youth 
League, which is the youth entity of the Communist Party, what 
appraisal would you make as to the seriousness of this operation, 
currently ? 

Mr. James. Currently, I don't think I am in a position to say the 
seriousness of it; but I know in 1952, when I disassociated myself 
from the Labor Youth League, I felt that it was — the danger was 
serious because the activities were now underground and could not 
be detected as easily as in the past. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Labor Youth League serve as a recruiting 
arena for hard-core Communists ? 

Mr. James. Well, members of the Labor Youth League were asked 
to become members of the Communist Party, as I myself was. And 



2830 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

many of the things, the activities and teaching classes, I felt led to 
becoming a member of the Commmiist Party. 

Mr. Willis. Roughly, what was the age range of the members of 
the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. James. I think 18 to 35. 

Mr. Willis. This Jefferson School of Social Science was in New- 
ark? 

Mr. James. That was in Newark, sir. It was not a 

Mr. Willis. It was connected with the school by the same name in 
New York — a branch of it ? 

Mr. James. I believe the instructors were from the school in New 
York. There was no designated school building as such. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where Evelyn Skoloff worked while she 
was in a leadership capacity in the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. James. She worked in an office on Broad Street, near West 
Kenny Street or East Kenny Street, Newark. 

Mr. Aeens. Was that the fur workers ? 

Mr. James. Of the furriers union. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any tie-in between the activities of Evelyn 
Skoloff in the Labor Youth League and her activities in the Fur 
Workers' Union ? 

Mr. James. By tie-in, do you mean one was 

Mr. Arens. Did she use any of the facilities of the Fur Workers' 
in the promotion of activities of the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. James. I know she made use of the telephone and stationery, 
but I think that was the limit of it, using them for sending out mail 
and calling for meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Did any of the high echelon of the Communist Party 
other than Ben Gold, whom we have already mentioned, speak at, or 
lead, any of the meetings of the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. James. I don't actually know their positions in the Commu- 
nist Party, but individuals who were identified as members of the 
Communist Party spoke at some meetings. There was a gentleman 
named Charles Nusser. 

Mr. Arens. Where did he live ? 

Mr. James. I believe he lived in Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio were some of the others ? 

Mr. James, A Mr. Elwood Dean. He also lived in Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Did Louis Malinow, who, by the way, appeared before 
the committee yesterday, speak at any of the Labor Youth League 
meetings ? 

Mr. James. He spoke at some meetings as the representative of the 
Civil Eights Congress. 

Mr. Arens. How about Jack Kolb ? Did he speak ? 

Mr. James. Actually, he was the instructor at the Jefferson School, 
and I can't recall him actually setting up a meeting whereby he was 
to speak, but at times lie was present. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to get the record clear on one thing, Mr. 
James, namely, was a person, when first brought into the Labor 
Youth League — at the first meeting or so — told that this was an arm of 
the Communist Party or was he taken through an indoctrination 
transition process into the party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N, J. 2831 

Mr, James. A person first coming into the Labor Youth League 
was not told that the Labor Youth League was an arm of the Com- 
munist Party. It was introduced as an organization for young 
people. 

Mr. Arens. What was the line of the Labor Youth League — what 
were the lines, I should say, because the Communist Party line fluctu- 
ates and changes from time to time ? 

Mr. James. Many of the activities engaged in were in line with the 
activities fostered by the Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of the young people in the Labor 
Youth League and in this conduit or process into the Communist Party 
were Negro youth and what percentage were white youth, roughly 
speaking? I know you probably haven't made a precise count. 

Mr. James. I would say it was about 3 Negroes to 2 whites. 

Mr. Arens. Were the meetings open meetings ? Or were they meet- 
ings at which only the persons who were invited and were there by 
prearrangement, were in attendance? 

Mr. James. They were meetings with persons who knew the meet- 
ings were to be held, rather than open to the public. 

Mr. Arens. The Labor Youth League itself is a successor organ- 
ization to the American Youth for Democracy, is it not? 

Mr. James. I have heard it referred to as such, sir, but I don't 
know anything about it. 

Mr. Arens. You know about the antecedent organizations of the 
Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. James. No; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know about the Young Communist League, 
which was the first predecessor organization ? 

Mr. James. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. What were the dues ? 

Mr. James. I believe the dues were 35 cents a month. Let me think. 
Actually there were three different sets of dues : one for those mem- 
bers who were working, there was another rate for those who were 
attending school, another rate for those who were unemployed. I 
think for those employed it was 50 cents. Those attending school I 
think it was 35 cents, and those unemployed it was 15 cents. 

Mr. Arens. T\nien you were in leadership capacity in the particular 
club to which you belonged in the Labor Youth League, with whom 
did you consult in order to develop the policy which you would pursue 
to establish the agenda of the meetings and the like ? 

Mr. James. I met with what was called the executive committee, 
consisting of Mr. Wendell Attington, Miss Skoloff 

Mr. Arens. That is Evelyn Skoloff ? 

Mr. James. Evelyn Skoloff, the chairman of the Paul Robeson 
Club. Herb Davis at times would be present. Actually it would be 
whatever individuals made up the executive committee at that time. 

Mr. Arens. During your experience in the Labor Youth League, 
as an arm of the Communist conspiracy in the United States, did it 
work in collaboration or in conjunction with other Communist arms, 
such as the Civil Rights Congress, and the like? 



31657—58- 



2832 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. James. Many of the activities that were being fostered by the 
Civil Rights Congress were also supported by the Labor Youth 
League. 

INIr. Arens. Was there any intermeshing of operations to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. James. Members of the Civil Rights Congress were also mem- 
bers of the Labor Youth League. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any intermeshing as between the Labor Youth 
League and the Progressive Party ? 

Mr. James. Members of the Progressive Party were also members 
of the Labor Youth League. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. We certainly appreciate your appearance here, Mr. 
James. We think you are a very fine citizen and a great American. 
We congratulate you for the position you took in assisting your Gov- 
ernment, and we appreciate your coming here very much. 

'if ^ * * if :i: * 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Evelyn Skoloff Goldberg. Please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Kindly raise your right hand. Stand up, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. I do. 



TESTIMONY OF EVELYN (SKOLOFF) GOLDBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LEONAKD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Goldberg. Evelyn Goldberg, 10 Custer Place, Newark. I am 
a secretary. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly raise your voice ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. I said that I am a secretary. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Boudin. Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. Mrs. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you born please ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. In Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, just a word about your education. 

Mrs. Goldberg. I graduated from grammar school, high school. 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate from high school ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. In 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And tell us about your first principal employment. 

Mrs. Goldberg. Would you repeat that, please ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2833 

Mr. Arens. Your first principal employment after you completed 
your formal education? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer the question on the following 
grounds 

Mr. Arens. Just a moment please. You are reading from a pre- 
pared statement? 

Mrs. Goldberg. I wrote down some reasons why. 

Mr. Arens. You are reading from a prepared statement ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I just want the record to reflect that. Proceed, if you 
please. 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer on the following grounds : My 
rights under the first amendment, my constitutional privilege under 
the fifth amendment, the vagueness of the resolution creating the 
committee, the committee's lack of jurisdiction, and the questions lack 
pertinency. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly fear that if you told this committee 
truthfully while you are under oath what your first principal em- 
ployment was after you completed your formal education, you would 
be supplying information that might be used against you in a crim- 
inal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I rely upon the provision of the fifth amendment to 
the Constitiltion, which provides that no person shall be compelled in 
any criminal case to be a witness against himself. 

Mr. Arens. I am not certain that I heard your address. 'VYhat is 
your street address? 

Mrs. Goldberg. 10 Custer Place, in Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever live on Clinton Place? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons that I stated 
above. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question, 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I direct you to answer that last question. 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons that I stated 
before. 

Mr. Arens. Yesterday, Mr. Irving Fishman of the United States 
Customs Bureau, testified before this committee respecting the veri- 
table flood of Communist propaganda which is being disseminated 
over the length and breadth of this land to schools, colleges, youth 
groups, and the like — foreign Communist propaganda. It is our in- 
formation that you, Evelyn Skoloff Goldberg, are now one of the 
disseminators of that propaganda, one of the nerve centers in the 
Newark area. I should like to display to you now an issue of World 
Youth, a Communist publication that comes into this area in great 
volume, ask you to glance at it, and tell this committee while you 
are under oath whether or not, first of all, you are a regular recipient 
of that publication. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons that I stated 
before. 



2834 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever see that publication, World Youth, 
before ? 

JNIrs, Goldberg. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are and have been for some time one of the conduits 
through which Communist propaganda from abroad is disseminated 
in the Newark area. If that is not true, please deny it while you are 
under oath. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the witness who preceded you on the 
witness stand, Dennis James ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. James testified a few moments ago while under 
oath — I am not quoting him, I am paraphrasing his testimony — to 
the effect that while he served as a member of the Labor Youth League, 
an arm of the Communist Party among youth, and which he served 
in at the behest of, and in cooperation with, the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, he knew you as one of the leaders of tlie Labor Youth 
League in this area, that you had identified yourself to him as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. That is a very serious assertion to make 
against any person. We would like now to afford you the opportunity 
to deny that testimony while you likewise are under oath. Do you 
care to avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons that I stated 
before. 

Mr. Arens. JNIr. Collins is going to display to you a number of 
nominating petitions — photostats of which have come into the posses- 
sion of this committee in legal process — bearing signatures of indi- 
viduals nominating certain persons for public office on the Commu- 
nist Party ticket. Among those signatures appears the signature of 
yourself, Evelyn Skoloff, 301 Clinton Place, Newark, New Jersey. 
Kindly look at those photostats which he displays to you and tell this 
committee while you are under oath whether or not the signatures 
of Evelyn Skoloff, on the several documents are true and correct re- 
productions of your own signature. 

(Documents were handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly answer the question? 

Mr. BouDiN. Would you repeat the question, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. Do the signatures appearing on the documents which 
have been displayed to you truly and accurately represent the repro- 
duction of the signatures affixed by yourself to these nominating pe- 
titions ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons I stated before. 

(Documents marked "Evelyn Skoloff Goldberg Exhibit No. 1" and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present place 
of employment ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. _ Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. She already opened the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2835 

door by telling us in a preliminary manner in response to a prelimi- 
nary question how she was employed. I now ask how long she has 
been employed there. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer on the following grounds : my 
rights under the first amendment, my constitutional privilege under 
the fifth amendment, the vagueness of the resolution creating the com- 
mittee, the committee's lack of jurisdiction, and the question's lack of 
pertinency. 

Mr. ScHERER. I should have been paying more attention to your 
refusal. Did you include the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mrs. Goldberg. I did. 

Mr, ScHERER. Where did you say you worked ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. "Where did she say she was working ? 

Mr. Arens. We will ask her now. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. Willis. I think you gave answer to that when you took the 
stand. 

Mr. BouDiN. No, Mr. Chairman, the witness didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell the committee where you are employed. 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Let the record reflect that query is for the purpose of 
identification. Now kindly tell us where you are employed. 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons that I stated. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question as to where she is em- 
ployed. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I direct you to answer the question where you 
are employed. 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Scherer. And one of the reasons for refusal is that to answer 
might tend to incriminate you. Is that right ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mrs. Goldberg. Under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Your answer to my question is "Yes," then? 

Mrs. Goldberg. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Scherer. Is that right ? 

Mrs. Goldberg. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer, Are you engaged in any type of illegal activity at this 
time? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. BouDiN. May we have the question repeated ? 

Mr. Arens. Will you read it ? 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. No. 

Mr. Arens. Then how can you use as a basis for refusing to answer 
this question that your answer as to where you are employed or what 
you are doing might tend to incriminate you, if you say that you are 
not engaged in any illegal activity ? It is obvious then that you are 
using the fifth amendment improperly and not invoking it in good 
faith. 



2836 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Therefore, Mr. Chairman, in view of her statement that she is not 
engaged in any illegal activity, I ask again that she be directed to 
answer the question as to her present employment. 

Mr. BouDiN. Mr. Chairman, a legal question has been raised. 

Mr. Willis. With that request you are directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. BouDiN. A legal question has been raised by 

Mr. Arens. Counsel is aware his sole and exclusive prerogative is 
to advise his client. 

Mr. BouDiN. I am directing myself to the chairman at the moment. 

Mr. Willis. The Chair understands. 

Mr. BouDiN. Understands my position ? 

Mr. Willis. There is a direction. You are directed to answer the 
last question, and it is an inquiry as to where you are presently 
employed. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the same reasons that I 
stated before. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been engaged in any activity or held any em- 
ployment since you completed your formal education in high school, 
including up to the present time, concerning which you can tell this 
committee without revealing information that might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. Could you make the question clearer? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. You have invoked the privilege against self- 
incrimination in response to questions as to your first employment, 
and you have done likewise w^ith respect to your present employment. 
I am now asking you if you have ever been engaged in any employ- 
ment since you got out of high school concerning which you can tell 
this committee without giving information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer the question for all the reasons 
that I stated before, and I will repeat them if you want me to. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this minute, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer the question for the reasons that 
I stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mrs. Goldberg, Mr. Arens asked you whether you 
were not the nerve center in the Newark area for the distribution of 
Communist propaganda coming into this country from behind the 
Iron Curtain through youth groups, and he exhibited to you only 
one of hundreds of publications which were on the table and in the 
courtroom yesterday when Mr. Fishman was testifying. 

I have here one of those publications, one of those pieces of propa- 
ganda entitled "Data on Atrocities of United States Army in South 
Korea," dated 1958. I am ffoinjr to ask Mr. Collins of the staff to 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2837 

show this to you and ask whether or not you have distributed this 
particular piece of propaganda. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I am asking you that question particularly since this 
publication deals with alleged attacks by American soldiers in Korea 
upon children and youths, charging them with atrocities of the worst 
possible kind. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons that I stated 
before. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the wit- 
ness to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the last question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the following reasons : My 
rights under the first amendment, my constitutional privilege under 
the fifth amendment, the vagueness of the resolution creating the 
committee, the committee's lack of jurisdiction, and the question's 
lack of pertinency. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 



Mr. Willis. We will declare a five-minute recess. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer.) 

(Subcommittee members present at the reconvening of the hearing: 
Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. Please call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Edward C. Taylor, please come forward. 

Mr, Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Taylor. I do. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWARD (EDDIE) C. TAYLOR, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HUBERT T. DELANY 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Taylor. My name is Eddie Taylor. I live at 325 Belmont Ave- 
nue in the City of Newark, and I am unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. Is your middle initial "C" — Edward C. Taylor ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, I am. I am represented by counsel who 



2838 coMMuisnsT ACTivmES in Newark, n. j. 

Mr. Akens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Delany. My name is Hubert T. Delany and my office is located 
at 100 William Street in the City of New York. 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name other than the name 
Edward C.Taylor? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Will you restate the question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name other than the name 
Edward C.Taylor? 

Mr. Taylor. I decline to answer the question on the rights and 
privileges granted to me on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel if you told this committee whether 
or not you ever used any name other than the name Edward C. Taylor 
you would be supplying information which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Arens, it is quite possible in view of the fact that 
in light of people like Matusow and others, and I am just a little bit 
suspicious of the motives of this committee, the fact that it has failed 
and hesitated to investigate the Ku Klux Klan, the White Citizens 
Council, and even your Southern-Manifesto chairman up there from 
Louisiana. I am suspicious of the motives of this committee, and I 
feel that I in this particular question have to invoke my rights. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, are you now, this minute, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. I feel that you are attempting to pry into my rights 
to think as I feel, which 

Mr. Arens. We do not want to do that. We do not want to pry 
into your rights to think. We want to know whether or not you are 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Taylor. The Ku Klux Klan, you aid and abet. I want to 
answer your question in my own way and don't put words in my 
mouth. 

Mr. Arens. I won't do that. 

Mr. Taylor. I think you are trying to. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, are you now a member of the Commimist 
Party — right now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. I started to answer. May I answer the question? 

Mr. Arens. Please answer the question. 

Mr. Taylor. I started to before. 

In view of the fact, as I said before, that I am suspicious of the 
motives of this committee, Matusows and other stool pigeons that 
you used, the fact that you have aided and abetted the anti-integra- 
tionist forces, the fact that I am confronted here today with a 
Southern-Manifesto-signing Congressman who, for all I know, might 
be a member of the White Citizens Council or Ku Klux Klan 

Mr. Willis. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Taylor. I am answering the question. 

Mr. Willis. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. I refuse to be intimidated. Do I have a right to talk ? 
I can't answer the question unless I talk. You tell me how I can 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2839 

answer without talking. You tell me how I can answer without 
talking. 

Mr. Arens. You can tell us "Yes, I am a Communist," or "No, I am 
not a Communist." 

Mr. Willis. Answer "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Taylor. You say that where they go to vote in Georgia where 
they shot them the other day. I am going to answer you in my own 

^ay- . . . 

My answer is that I decline to answer under the rights and privi- 
leges granted me under the first and fifth amendments, and I also in- 
voke the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth, if you please. 

Mr. ScHEKER. Well, this member doesn't happen to be from Louisi- 
ana. This member has supported civil rights legislation. 

Mr. Taylor. I 

Mr. SciiERER. Please just keep your mouth shut a moment. 

Mr. Taylor. I have been told to shut up many times. I didn't open 
my mouth. I refuse to be intimidated by you from Cincinnati. 

Mr. Chairman, do I have the right to sit here ? 

Mr. Willis. Now, a question is about to be propounded. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, but he assumed that I was going to say some- 
thing. He said keep my mouth shut. I am not accustomed to being 
shut up since I was run out of Alabama. I don't feel that — I won't 
permit you to bring the plantations to New Jersey. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute now. I just wanted to say that this 
member of the committee has supported civil rights legislation. 

Mr. Taylor. That's very good, very good. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. This member has had an award from 
the colored citizens of Cincinnati for his service to the cause of Negroes 
on two different occasions. 

Mr, Taylor. Are you referring to yourself ? 

Mr. Scherer. I am referring to myself. 

Mr. Taylor. I was talking about Mr, Willis. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to say to you it is professional Negroes like 
yourself, members of the Communist conspiracy, that hurt the cause 
of civil rights. 

Mr. Taylor. I resent that. Negro people are not members of any 
conspiracy. The only conspiracy we are guilty of is to overthrow 
Jim Crow. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. I had my say. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Arens, I was born in the State where on yesterday 
the Reverend Martin Luther King was arrested by the Court House 
at Montgomery, Ala. His arms were twisted, and I think it is a 
tragedy. I was born in Alabama, a little coal 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the date, please. 

Mr. Taylor. I will get to that, if you please. I told you, Mr. 
Arens, don't jDut words in my mouth. I am not going to shut up. I 
have been having white people put words in my mouth ever since I was 
a black man. And I'm damned sick and tired of it. 

Mr. Willis. You are not going to desecrate this courtroom with 
that language, sir. One more explosion from you and I am going to 
ask the marshal to escort you out. 



2840 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Taylor. I will consider it an honor. 

Mr. Willis. You are not going to desecrate this courtroom with 
that language. 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, when I think of the Willie McGee and 
Emmett Till, I must say I get carried away. I apologize to the peo- 
ple here in the interests of democracy. I make no apologies to the 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us where you were born. 

Mr. Taylor. In further answer to your question, Mr. Arens, I was 
born in Alabama, a little coal mining town called Mulga, on Decem- 
ber 4, 1924, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word about your education, please. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. I attended a little Jim Crow school in Mulga, which 
was a grammar school. I also attended a Jim Crow school in West- 
field, Ala., which was a high school. I further had four years of 
vocational training at a Jim Crow college at Normal, Ala., the Ala- 
bama A. and M. 

Mr. Arens. "VVlien did you complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Taylor. To my knowledge, it was the year 1943, to my knowl- 
edge. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, what was your first employment after you com- 
pleted your formal education ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, to my knowledge my first employment 
was at a job in which I was a laborer, and I went to the boss and asked 
him for the right to be a carpenter's helper, and he called me a black 
son of a bitch and ran me off the job. This was in Birmingham 
Municipal Airport. This was my first employment. 

Mr. Arens. And your next principal employment, please ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Will you restate the question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Arens. Your next principal employment. 

Mr. Taylor. My next principal employment was — I got sick and 
tired of being insulted and denied jobs under the Jim Crow system of 
Alabama, and I went into Niagara Falls, N, Y., to seek employment, 
and I was employed there by the Vanadium Corporation of America. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment endure ? 

Mr. Taylor. Oh, I was there until I was inducted into the United 
States Navy. Roughly, four months. 

Mr. Arens. ^^Hien were you inducted into the United States Navy ? 

Mr. Taylor. August 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take an oath when you were inducted into the 
United States Navy to support and defend the Constitution of the 
United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. I took that oath, Mr. Chairman, and I done that. I 
have a Presidential citation and fourteen major battle stars as proof 
of it. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at any time a member of the Communist 
Pai-ty during your service in the United States Navy ? 

Mr. Taylor. Now, Mr. Chairman, you are running a little bit afield 
here. I refuse to be a stool pigeon. I refuse to be used in this com- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2841 

mittee, what I suspect to be the motives of the committee to aid and 
abet the segregationists of the country and I also suspect that I may 

be 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Witness 



Mr. Taylor. I am invoking my privilege, if I may, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you charge this particular member of the com- 
mittee of aiding the segregationists of this country? Do you make 
that charge against this member of the committee? 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Scherer, the fact that this committee went to 
Atlanta, Ga., and its lead-off witness was your own Chairman's good 
iriend, Marvin Griffin — ^Walter called him his good friend Marvin 
Griffin, who takes public credit in advising Faubus, I can't see any 
other conclusion I could come to. Tell me any other conclusion I can 
come to or any other Negro could come to. 

Mr. Scherer. It makes it difficult for men like nie to continue to do 
what I have done in the past. 

Mr. Taylor. Obviously you didn't do it in good faith, Mr. Chair- 
man. Obviously you agreed with Mr. Marvin Griffin of Georgia 
who is in the "\Vliite Citizens Council. He takes credit publicly of 
advising Faubus in acts of treason against the Federal institutions of 
this country, which is more than you can say against me. 

Mr. Scherer. I agree that you are one of those Jackie Robinson 
said before this committee is a discredit to the Negro race. 

Mr. Taylor. I am one of those who supported Robinson on the 
reelection of Adam Clayton Powell. I was on the platform with him, 
and I want you to know that. 

Mr. Scherer. You are one of those who uses your position to aid 
the Communist cause. You are not interested in the welfare of the 
Negro. You are interested in agitation to promote the Communist 
cause. 

Mr. Taylor. Why don't you stop abusing me. And do something 
iibout the Ku Klux Klan and ^Yliite Citizens Council — Faubus — do 
something about him, or the shooting of Negroes in Georgia for the 
right of attempting to vote. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arexs. When were vou discharged from the United States 
Navy ? _ '■ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Will you repeat the question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Arens. "\Yhen were you discharged from the United States 
Navy? 

Mr. Taylor. To my knowledge I think it was December 13, 1945. 

Mr. Arens. And your first principal employment after your dis- 
charge from the Navy ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Now, Mr. Chairman, as I said before, or Mr. Arens, 
as I said before, I am suspect — I suspect that the committee by using 
stool pigeons, and I certainly have seen it in the press, it has been 
my experience — -will you tell your man, Wyatt Earp there — he tried 
to arrest me yesterday. 

Mr. Job. Who is Wyatt Earp ? 

Mr. Taylor. You are. 

Mr. Job. Listen you, out. 



2842 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Taylor. He is the chairman. 

Mr. Chairman, I protest. 

Mr. Job. I want to remove him. He has protested enough. He 
has protested enough here. 

Mr. Tatlor. I protest. 

Mr. Willis. I think he is completely justified. 

Mr. Job. You have protested all you want. Get out. 

Mr. Delany. I am making a public protest of the marshal 

Mr. Job. I will throw you out, too. 

Mr. Delany. You won't throw me out. I am a lawyer. 

Mr. Job. I will throw you out, too. 

Mr. Hallett. He won't throw you out. 

Mr. Delany. I protest, Mr. Chairman, because yesterday three 
Negroes — one was taken in the pen for doing notliing. 

Mr. Willis. You are a member of the Bar. 

Mr. Delany. I am a respected member of the Bar and I respect 
my rights. I will not have the marshal tell me he is going to throw 
me out of the room. 

Mr. Willis. I will take your word for that. I think you owe it to 
the Federal courtroom to restrain yourself. 

Mr. Delany. I owe it to the Federal courtroom if the chairman 
treats me with dignity and respect to which I am, as a lawyer, entitled. 

Mr. Scherer. Counsel, you are largely responsible for the actions 
of the witnesses you represent. 

Mr. Delany. I resent that. You have no right to say that. I did 
not speak for him. I was advising him of his legal rights. I have 
had several clients before this committee and I resent that charge. 

Mr. Wellis. You will please sit down, sir. 

Mr. Delany. I will be glad to do so, but I want to be respected. 

May I know for the record what this man was arrested for, Mr. 
Chairman ? Mr. Chairman, may I know what this man was arrested 
for? 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Mr. John Karakos. 

Please come forward. 

Mr. Delany. Mr. Chairman, may I have a ruling from you why 
this man was arrested ? 

Mr. Arens. Counsel knows his sole and exclusive prerogative is to 
advise the witness. 

Mr. Willis. You saw his actions, accusing the United States mar- 
shal in front of all these people with insulting and jeering remarks. 

Mr. Delany. The record will speak for itself. Are we finished 
with this witness ? 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Delany. The witness is excused. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Arens. John Karakos, kindly come forward. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Mr. Karakos. Mr. Chairman, I move this committee to squash the 
subpena as not returnable here today on the grounds that it has not 
explicitly 

Mr. Willis. Until you have been sworn you are not under the juris- 
diction of the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2843 

Mr. Karakos. I take exception to that ruling, Mr. Chairman. 

I have not been informed of what I am going to be interrogated and 
not interrogated about. I have only a slight suspicion. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. IvARAKOS. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN CHARLES KARAKOS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ESTHER STRUM FRANKEL 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Karakos. My name is John Charles Karakos. I live at 27 
Waverly Terrace, Bloomfield, N. J., and my occupation is a cook. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Karakos, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Karakos. I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. KLvRAKOS. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Miss Frankel. I am Esther Strum Frankel of 262 Main Street in 
Paterson, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Karakos, where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Karakos. I was born in Lewiston, Maine, in the year 1911, 
April 24. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Karakos. My education, I finished grammar school and have 
some years in correspondence courses on architecture. 

Mr. Arens. IVliere did you complete your formal education ? 

Mr. I^RAKOS. In Staunton, Va. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed ? 

Mr. Karakos. At the Snack Shop Kestaurant. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Karakos. I am self-employed since the war. 

Mr, Arens. Wliat was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Karakos. I had a restaurant again. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Karakos. In Kearny, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you run that restaurant ? 

Mr. Karakos. For 4 years, until I proudly joined the United States 
Army and served for 3i^ years with honor. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you join the United States Army ? 

Mr. Karakos. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. When did you join the United States Army ? 

Mr. Karakos. In the year 1942 in July. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission ? 

Mr. Karakos. No, I hadn't. I was a sergeant. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you in the United States 
Army? 



2844 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Karakos. Three and a half years. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of the period you served 

Mr. Karakos. Mr. Chairman, I object to having my picture taken. 
This is a court and I would like to have the court dignified according 
to the canon rules of ethics. 

Mr. Willis. You are correct, and that should not have been done 
after you were sworn. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your service in the United States 
Army were you at any time a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Karakos. Mr. Chairman, are you seeking to involve me in a 
crime ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Karakos. Mr. Chairman, are you trying to involve me in a 
crime ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karakos. I would like to know the purpose of the question, if 
you please. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. I shall be very glad to explain to you the purpose 
of the question. 

Pursuant to the provisions of Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, 
the Committee on Un-American Activities is undertaking to perform 
two functions : Function No. 1 is to maintain a continuing surveillance 
over the administration and operation of the security legislation of this 
Government. That security legislation includes the Internal Security 
Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act, and a number of espionage and sabotage statutes. 

Function No. 2 of the Committee on Un-American Activities is to 
assemble information for the purpose of devising legislation to under- 
take to cope with the Communist conspiracy. Communist Party activi- 
ties in the United States. 

There are pending before the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties numerous proposals to strengthen internal security laws against 
this godless conspiracy which is sweeping the world and threatening 
the United States of America. Among those legislative proposals, 
before the committee are proposals which would undertake to deal 
with people who have penetrated as Communists into all segments of 
our society. 

It is, sir, our information that you are now a member of the 
Communist Party, that you are a part of that conspiratorial ap- 
paratus, masquerading behind a facade of humanitarianism but de- 
signed to destroy the United States of America. 

Mr. Karakos. Mr. Chairman, I take strong exception to those re- 
marks. I am proud of serving in the United States Ai-my for three 
and a lialf years in defense of our country against all enemies, and 
those remarks are reflecting very much against me and I take strong- 
exception. 

Mr. Willis. All right. You asked for an explanation of the pur- 
poses of the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2845 

Mr. Arens. We want to know now whether or not you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party while you served under the flag of this 
Nation under whose protection we all have safeguards. 

If you will answer that question for us truthfully, telling us 
whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party while 
you were in the United States Anned Services, we then expect to 
elicit from you furth'^r information respecting your activities as a 
Communist within the Armed Services of this Nation. We hope 
that information will help this committee in connection with other 
information which it has acquired in appraising legislative proposals 
now pending before the committee in order to ferret out Communists 
and other traitors from the Armed Services, as well as from the 
Government of tlie United States, from all segments of our society. 

If you will then answer that question as to whether or not you 
were a Communist, a member of the Communist Party while you were 
in the Armed Services of this Nation, the committee will take that 
information and the collateral information which we expect to elicit 
from you and use it as a yardstick, as a basis for appraising the 
administration and operation of present security laws, as well as 
proposals pending before the committee for new legislation to plug 
loopholes to strengthen the security statutes of this Nation. 

Sir, with that explanation I ask you the question as to whether or 
not you were a Communist while you were in the Armed Forces. I 
now solicit from you a response. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karakos. Is this the purpose of the committee, to insult wit- 
nesses before such evidence has been proven ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Karakos. Were there any who testified — because you made 
certain remarks — that I had acted in any criminal way against my 
country, and which I am very proud of, except for some peoples and 
certain committees — I must say that if there is any evidence before 
this committee they have every right to issue an indictment and try 
me in a court of justice where I can be confronted by the so-called 
evidence. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. I explained to you the purpose. You wanted us to 
explain why. 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Karakos. I am asking the committee if you are trying to in- 
volve me in a crime. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the record now reflect an order 
to the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are now directed to answer the question and if 
3^ou do not, then we will proceed t-o the next question. Let the record 
show what has happened thus far which will be considered by our 
committee for appropriate action. 

Mr. Karakos. Because of my suspicion I will not answer. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer. 



2846 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Karakos. I will answer the question in my way and because of 
the strong suspicions I have of this committee, I must say I have to 
invoke the privilege granted me under the United States Constitution, 
the first amendment. It is the first amendment to tlie United States 
Constitution under which Congress may make no law abridging free- 
dom of speech and association, and by implication freedom of 
thought; the fourth amendment to the United States Constitution 
which holds inviolate my right to be secure in my person and by my 
person includes my ideas and my beliefs; the ninth amendment to the 
United States Constitution which retains all the rights which I have 
not given up, and which I do not give up to this committee ; the tenth 
amendment to the United States Constitution which preserves all my 
rights not granted to the United States under the Constitution ; and 
last, but not least, the fifth amendment to the United States Constitu- 
tion on the grounds that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. When you asked me a little while ago just why we 
wanted to know if you were a Communist when you were in the 
Armed Services did you really intend after we gave the explanation 
to give us an answer? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Arens. He is in consultation. 

Wliat was your first principal employment after you were dis- 
charged from the United States Navy ? 

Mr. Karakos. I never was in the Navy. 

Mr. Arens. The Army — excuse me. 

Mr. EL^RAKOS. My first employment ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Karakos. As a waiter. 

Mr. Arens. And how long did that employment endure? 

Mr. Karakos. One week. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Karakos. I went in business for myself. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that shortly 
after the conclusion of World War II you assumed the chairmanship 
of the West Side Club of the Communist Party in Newark. We 
should like to give you an opportunity to affirm or deny that infor- 
mation. 

Mr. Karakos. I feel very strongly, Mr. Chairman, that if I have 
done anything wrong, it is the right of the United States Government 
or any individual within it to indict me. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly affirm or deny ? 

Mr. Willis. Ask the quevStion directly, and I will issue an order. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a chairman of the West Side Club of the 
Communist Party of Newark, N. J., shortly after the conclusion of 
World War II? 

Mr. Karakos. Mr. Chairman, you are asking a question 

Mr. Willis. I now direct you to answer that question and thereafter 
we will proceed to the next question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karakos. I have answered it, Mr. ChaiiTnan. 

Mr. Willis. No ; you have not answered the question. 

Mr. Karakos. I have answered it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2847 

Mr. WiLiiis. Make it very clear. Ask it again. 

Mr. E^ARAKOS. If I had acted in a criminal way you might very 
well indict me. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

The question was: Were you chairman of the West Side Club of 
the Commimist Party in Newark shortly after your service in the 
United States Army ? 

Mr, IvARAKOS. Mr. Chairman, you are strongly implying an act of 
a crime. 

Mr. Willis. I am implying nothing. I am just asking a question. 

Mr. Karakos. I have answered. 

Mr. ScHERER. Under regular order I ask that we proceed to the 
next question. 

Mr. Karakos. Nothing I have done 

Mr. Willis. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is: Have you ever used any name 
other than the name, John Karakos ? 

Mr. Ka-Rakos. My suspicions of this committee are because of past 
activities of this committee, and I must decline to answer the ques- 
tions for the same reasons other witnesses before have given and for 
myself for the reasons I indicated, and the privileges granted me 
under the Constitution of the United States as I indicated earlier. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Communist Party Essex County 
Convention in March of 1957 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karakos. I refuse to answer for the reasons given and rights 
granted me by the Constitution of the United States as I indicated 
earlier. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat contributions have you made, if any, in the course 
of the last year to the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karakos. Same answer and same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would respectfully suggest that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 45. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 44 a. m., Thursday, September 4, 1958, the 
subcommittee recessed to reconvene at 1 : 45 p. m. the same day.) 

(Subcommittee members present at the time of the recess: Repre- 
sentatives Willis and Scherer.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 1958 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Call the next witness. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Joseph Alf one, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Alfone. I do. 

Mr. Willis. The committee is very grateful to the Air Force re- 
cruiting office in Newark for making this public-address system avail- 
able to us. I am grateful to you, boys. 

31657—58 7 



2848 coMMiiNnsT activities in Newark, n. j. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH ANTHONY ALFONE, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens, Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Alfone. My name is Joseph Alfone. I reside at 7 Beechwood 
Drive, Succasunna, N. J. What was the other question ? 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation, please ? 

Mr. Alfone. I am employed as a quality control analyst. 

Mr. Arens. Is your name Alfone, or Alfone, Jr. ? 

Mr. Alfone. My full name is Joseph Anthony Alfone, Jr. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today, Mr. Alfone, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Willis. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Alfone. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Alfone. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New York City. 
May I inquire whether the microphone will help you, because I have a 
feeling it will be in the way ci this witness who can talk loudly 
enough. 

Mr. Arens. It is immaterial to me. We have the microphone here 
because the acoustics seemed rather poor, and this morning we had 
difficulty hearing some of the witnesses. We thought it might perhaps 
facilitate the hearing. 

Mr. Boudin. We will try without it, if we may, and go back to it if 
it is helpful. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, we tried to hear all morning. It was 
difficult to get. 

Let us use it, Counsel. 

Mr. Willis. "Wlien the air-conditioning system is on, we can't hear 
at all. Try it and see. 

Mr. Boudin. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Where and wlien were you born? 

Mr. Alfone. I was born July 27, 1926, Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Alfone. I attended grammar school in Newark, high school in 
Newark, and I now attend Fairleigh Dickinson University evenings. 

Mr. Arens. Did you give us the date of your birth ? 

Mr. Alfone. July 27, 1926. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been in your present employment? 

Mr. Alfone. Approximately two and a half years. 

Mr. Arens. The name of the place, please? 

Mr. Alfone. Howe Manufacturing Corporation. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are you employed there ? 

Mr. Alfone. I previously stated. I am a quality control analyst. 

Mr. Arens. Just a word about what you do. 

Mr. Alfone. ^Vliat I do? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Alfone. My function and my job is to analyze my company's 
product, strictly from a consumer standpoint, the quality of the 
merchandise which we make. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2849 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived at your present place of em- 
ployment — at your present residence — excuse me. 

Mr. Alfone. You are excused. Approximately a year — let me see — 
a little over a year, a year and a half. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live immediately prior to the place of 
your present residence? 

Mr. Alfone. I lived at 37 South 7th Street, in Newark. 

Mr. Aren&. Newark ? 

Mr. Alfone. In Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you live prior to that time ? 

Mr. Alfone. Prior to that time I lived in — the number escapes me — 
15th Avenue in Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lived in Stephen Crane Village? 

Mr. Alfone. I have. 

Mr. Arens. When did you live in Stephen Crane Village ? 

Mr. Alfone. Let's see. A year and a half — somewheres around 
five and a half or six years ago. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live in Stephen Crane Village ? 

Mr. Alfone. I think two or three years. 

Mr. Arens. What is Stephen Crane Village? 

Mr. Alfone. That is a housing development in the City of Newark, 
formerly initiated under a Federal housing program. I think it is 
now under the jurisdiction of the City of Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have to sign, or was it a prerequisite for ad- 
mission into Stephen Crane Village as a tenant that you sign a non- 
Communist affidavit of some kind? 

Mr. Alfone. Somewheres about that time under the Gwinn Amend- 
ment petitions or affidavits, whatever it was, had to be signed. I did 
not have to sign. I had moved by the time this thing had occurred. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer your question on the following 
grounds : One, I feel the committee lacks jurisdiction. The question 
is impertinent. The committee's mandate is vague under the Watkins 
decision handed down by the United States Supreme Court. I further 
decline under my rights under the first amendment. And finally I 
decline to answer under the constitutional privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you gave us a truthful 
answer while you are under oath as to whether or not you are now a 
member of the Communist Party you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Alfone. Mr. Arens, I have answered your question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer that last question. 

Mr. Willis. It is a test of your good faith in pleading or invoking 
the constitutional provision you referred to, and you are directed to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Alfone. My answer constitutes certain legal points. I would 
like my counsel to further clarify this question, Mr. Arens. I ask if 
he may. 

Mr. Willis. Your counsel is here to advise you and not the com- 
mittee. You may confer with him if you want to. 



2850 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. AiiFONE. Mr. Chairman, I have given my answer. I give the 
same answer. In declining to answer I would like to read the follow- 
ing language of the Constitution: 

No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against 
himself nor be deprived of life, liberty or property. 

That is my answer. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you living in 1949 ? 

Mr. Alfone. Oh 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alfone. It is hard for me to remember, sir. Nine years ago, 
let's see my 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever live at 21 Hartford Street in Newark ? 

Mr. Alj'one. Yes, I did. I lived in besides the places I mentioned 
3 or 4 other places, that is why I didn't give you an exact location. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Collins of this staff is going to display to you a 
photostatic reproduction of a nominating petition of the Communist 
Party, nominating two persons for State Assembly as Communists. 
This nominating petition bears the signature, among others, of Joseph 
Alfone, Jr., 21 Hartford Street, Newark, N. J. 

Kindly look at this document as it is being displayed to you and tell 
this committee while you are under oath whether or not the signature 
on that document is a true and correct reproduction of the signature 
affixed by you to the nominating petition. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer that question for reasons pre- 
viously given. 

(Document marked "Alfone Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Alfone. United States Navy. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you serve in the Navy? 

Mr. Alfone. November 1944 to May 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commisison ? 

Mr. Alfone. No; I did not. I was a radar man, third class, upon 
leaving the service. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of your service in the United States Navy? 

Mr, Alfone. I decline to answer this question on the previous 
grounds given. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your service in the United States 
Navy did you cause to be transmitted to any person not authorized 
to receive the same any confidential or restricted information? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alfone. Definitely no. 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer with any person known by you to be 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest the last question is 
really an improper one to ask ? 

Mr. Arens. Counsel will be advised, as he knows from infinite ex- 
perience with this committee, his sole and exclusive prerogative is to 
advise his client. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2851 

Mr. BouDiN. I am making a request of the chairman. You under- 
stand my request, Chairman ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question as to whether or 
not, at any time since being served with the subpena to appear before 
this committee, you conferred with any person respecting your appear- 
ance who was known by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer this question on the same previous 
grounds given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Martha Stone ? 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer this question for the previous 
grounds given. 

Mr. Willis. Did you, since the service of the subpena upon you to 
appear at these hearings, confer with Lou Malinow and Manny 
Cantor ? 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer this question on the previous 
ground given, the same type of question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Frank Chandler ? 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer this question on the previous 
grounds given. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Labor Youth 
League ? 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer this question on the previous 
grounds given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Robert J. Dixon, 
Jr.? 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer this question on the grounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that you are, or 
were in the recent past, one of the leaders of tlie industrial section of 
the Communist Party in the Newark area. I should like to ask you a 
question now. Are you now, or have you in the recent past been, a 
leader of the Industrial Club of the Communist Party in the Newark 
area? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alfone. I decline to answer tliis question on the previous 
grounds given. 
_ Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties under an immunity statute is empowered to initiate proceedings 
granting immunity to witnesses who might otherwise be subject to 
criminal prosecution for testimony that they would give before tliis 
committee. It is the belief of this committee that you are one of a 
tight-knit group in the industrial operations of the Communist Party 
and that you presently have valuable, important information which 
you can supply to your Government via this committee respecting 
the operation of the Communist conspiracy in the Newark area. 

If this committee should after its deliberations determine the public 
interest would best be served by causing proceedings to be initiated to 
grant you immunity from criminal prosecution for any testimony 
you might give before this committee respecting the operations of 
the Communist conspiracy in this area, and if those proceedings should 
be consummated, would you then fully and freely without reservation 
testify before this committee giving such information as you possess? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



2852 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. BouDiN. Mr. Arens, the witness would like to answer your 
question. 

Mr. Alfone. Mr. Arens, I have been advised by counsel that this 
committee does not have the jurisdiction to grant immunity; sec- 
ondly, if immunity could be granted it would cover the fifth amend- 
ment only, and there are other aspects to this. Thirdly, I don't want 
to speculate at this time as to what I would do in the near future. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mr, BouDiN". Mr. Chairman, now that the witness is excused, may 
I just note for the record my feeling about the committee's treatment 
of Judge Delany. 

Mr. Arens. You know your sole and exclusive prerogative is to ad- 
vise your client. 

Mr. Willis. You know your prerogative before this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Emanuel Cantor, please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Cantor. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EMANUEL (MANUEL) CANTOR, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MARY M. KAUFMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Cantor. My name is Emanuel Cantor. I live at number 822 
Hunterdon Street in Newark, N. J. I am a printer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today in response to a sub- 
pena which was served upon you ? 

Mr. Cantor. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. By the House Committee on Un-American Activities' 

Mr. Cantor. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Cantor. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Miss Kaufman. Mary M. Kaufman, 201 West 85th Street, New 
York City. 

Mr. Arens. "VAHiere and when were you bom ? 

Mr. Cantor. In the City of Clifton, N. J., on September 23, in the 
year 1909. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education, please. 

Mr. Cantor. I have a grammar school, a high school, and a college 
education. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. Cantor. I am employed in a printing establishment in New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. The name of it, please ? 

Mr. Cantor. Edwards Press. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Mr. Cantor. As an apprentice pressman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2853 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed there ? 

Mr. Cantor. Roughly a year. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately preceding 
your present employment ? 

Mr. Cantor. In this area, sir, I must decline to answer. I consider 
this an invasion of my rights. I consider that this committee is not 
properly authorized to conduct this type of inquiry, and I consider 
it an invasion of my privacy as it is guaranteed under the first amend- 
ment to the United States Constitution. And further, I rely on my 
privilege under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately preceding 
the employment which you cannot tell us about, or will not tell 
us about ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I was engaged in a mmiber of different part-time and 
full-time occupations, including part-time chauffeur. I was a sales- 
man, shoe salesman, and I had employment in various capacities in 
the plumbing supply business. 

Mr. Arens. How long did this employment about which you can- 
not tell us endure? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. This question, like the other, I regard in an area in 
which I decline to answer and under the reasons that I cited. 

Mr. Arens. What was the employment you had immediately prior 
to the employment about which you cannot tell us, or will not tell us ? 

Mr. Cantor. That position was a shipping and receiving clerk in 
a plumbing-supply establishment. 

Mr. Arens. When did that employment commence ? 

Mr. Cantor. I am not positive as to exact dates. 

Mr. Arens. Your best recollection ? 

Mr. Cantor. My best recollection is that it began in the later nine- 
teen twenties, somewhere around 1928, 1929, if I recall. 

Mr. Arens. How long did it endure ? 

Mr. Cantor. It endured 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I believe that this is also the same area in which I 
have been declining, and therefore I will again decline. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. The door has been 
opened by himself by telling the nature of his employment and telling 
us the sequence in which that employment appeared within the chro- 
nology of his life. I, therefore, Mr. Chairman, respectfully suggest 
that there has been a waiver and the witness be now ordered and 
directed to answer the question as to when this employment he can 
tell us about terminated. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. You said that particular employment commenced 
about 1929, and you are now directed to answer about when it 
terminated. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

IVIr. Cantor. I must continue to decline to answer that question for 
the grounds I stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did the employment endure as long as 10 years ? 

Mr. Cantor. I would answer on the same reasons. 



2854 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWAKK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Did it endure more than 10 years? 

Mr. Cantor. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did it endure less than 10 years ? 

Mr. Cantor. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any employment prior to 1929 about which 
you can tell us without giving information which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Cantor. I do not believe that I was employed gainfully prior 
to that as to my recollection. 

Mr. Arens. In how many different employments since 1929 have 
you been engaged wliich you can tell us about without giving informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Cantor. Only one to my recollection which I have already 
cited. 

Mr. Arens. How many different employments since 1929 have you 
been engaged in concerning which you cannot tell this committee 
because you might be giving information which can be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Cantor. I would decline, sir. This is correctly in the area I 
already declined. I repeat same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived at your present address ? 

Mr. Cantor. About a year and a half, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was your address immediately preceding your 
present address ? 

Mr. Cantor. This question also I regard in the same area and de- 
cline to answer for the reasons I cited. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live at the address which you had 
immediately preceding your present address ? 

Mr. Cantor. I again decline for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Was your address immediately preceding your pres- 
ent address an address within the Newark area ? 

Mr. Cantor. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Was it within the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Cantor. Decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. His response is 
ludicrous. There are many patriotic citizens within New Jersey ; and 
because a person is a resident of New Jersey cannot be a good basis for 
a valid, good-faith invocation of the fifth amendment. I, therefore, 
Mr. Chairman, respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Cantor. I would find myself in agreement with counsel that 
residence in New Jersey certainly is not a reprehensible thing. I think 
this is a beautiful State and well worth living in. And I am proud of 
my residence in the State. 

Nevertheless, the circumstances under which this inquiry is taking 
place, the lack of authority that the committee has as the Supreme 
Court has given testimony to, the way in which this is being conducted, 
the treatment of witnesses and spectators, and so forth, all lend an 
atmosphere under which what is normal becomes abnormal. _ And 
therefore, I cannot give you and will not depart from my practice on 
this question, and therefore I again decline to answer this and for the 
reasons I have cited. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2855 

Mr. Aeens. What was your first address that you presently recall 
in New Jersey — since reaching adulthood, if I may amend my question 
a little bit, please, sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. There are so many things on which tlie interpretation 
of the committee seems so different with normalcy. Wliat do you 
regard as adulthood, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't get that. 

Mr. Cantor. I said I have to have more specific definition. 

Mr. Arens. I don't intend, Witness, to quibble with you. We are 
engaged in serious business. 

Mr. Cantor. Do you mean since the age of 21 ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Cantor. All right. To the best of my recollection, or since 
adulthood, I resided in the City of Clifton, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you reside in Clifton, N. J. ? 

Mr. Cantor. Well, I resided there a good deal of my life, sir, and 
perhaps around that date roughly the family moved a short dis- 
tance to the City of Passaic, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. About what time of your life, what year are we in 
now ? 

Mr. Cantor. I do not recall exactly, sir. I did not anticipate this 
type of mquiry as pertinent to the purpose of this committee at all 
and, therefore, obviously didn't familiarize myself with the exact 
dates of this type. 

Mr. Arens. I will be glad to explain the pertinency to you any time 
you want me to do so, if that would help you, 

Mr. Cantor. No. I am not asking you to do that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live in Passaic, N. J., approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. Cantor. It is difficult for me to calculate exactly, but I would 
say that the second address, that I lived there approximately 7 or 
8 years. 

Mr. Arens. Up until about when, please, sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I think this gets us into the area where I find it a 
practice to decline, and therefore I will for the reasons given. 

Mr. Arens. During any of this time, from 1929 until the time a 
year ago when you assumed your present job, did you collect any 
imemployment insurance from the United States Govermnent? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I will have to decline to answer this question for the 
reasons that I have cited. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that in a considerable period of your life you, as an 
underground Communist organizer, were collecting unemployment 
funds from the United States Government while you were engaged 
in Communist Party underground organizational activity. If that 
is not true, now while you are under oath, deny it. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I will decline to answer on the grounds cited. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that during a considerable portion of your time, up to and 



2856 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

including the very recent past, you have been a paid functionary of 
the Communist conspirac}^ in the United States. If that is not true, 
please deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Cantor. I decline to answer for the reasons cited. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lived in any State other than the State 
of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Cantor. Decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the wit- 
ness now be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. AYiLLis. I direct you to answer the question as to whether or 
not you have lived anywhere else except the State of New Jersey. 

Mr. Cantor. I decline to answer for the reasons cited. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever live in New York State? 

Mr. Cantor. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Malinow ? 

Mr. Cantor. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You and Malinow lived together in New York City, did 
you not ? 

Mr. Cantor. I decline, sir, to answer that question for the reasons 
I have already cited. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever engage in agricultural activities of any 
kind? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. Will you be more specific on the question of agricul- 
tural activities, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Sir, don't you know what I mean when I say have you 
ever engaged in any agricultural activities? Have you ever been 
a farmer ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. No, sir. I have never been a farmer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had supervision of the activities of any 
organization dealing with farmers ? 

Mr. Cantor. Obviously, sir, this is the area in which I have been 
and will continue to decline to answer on the ground that I have 
cited, and it seems to me that we can save some time. 

Mr. Arens. Affirm or deny it while you are under oath, please, sir, 
and I put it to you as a fact that you have been in charge of the manip- 
ulation, or attempted manipulation, of certain farm groups at the 
behest of the Communist conspiracy in the United States. 

Mr. Cantor. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held a plow in your hand, ever plowed in 
a field, ever engaged in that type of work, manual labor in the field ? 

Mr. Cantor. Not in the field, no, sir. I engaged in manual labor, 
not in the field. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever engaged in any kind of farm work where 
you would actually get dirt on your shoes and calluses on your hands, 
working on the farm ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliat has been your experience in agricultural activi- 
ties, in promoting farm activities ? 

Mr. Cantor. Well, I am quite interested in plant life, sir, and I like 
flowers, and I like to raise them. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2857 

Mr. Arens. Is that the extent of your interest in activities in the 
general area of agricultural work or is there a limit to what you can 
tell us about ? 

Mr. Cantor. No. I have other interests in the question of agricul- 
ture, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you going to tell us all about your interest in agri- 
culture, or are you going to stop some place ? 

Mr. Cantor. I don't know, sir. You are so vague in some of these 
questions that I am not sure whether I will or not. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Cantor. But because there is a very vital area in agriculture 
that I have been concerned with, and I am and I think all of us 
should be 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, in the pursuit of your interest in agriculture, 
have you been in charge of a farm section of any group ? 

Mr. Cantor. See if you are interested in my interest in agricul- 
ture 

Mr. Arens. I am interested in your participation as a hard-core 
member of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Cantor. Precisely 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell this committee what has been the nature and 
activity of yourself in the farm area. 

Miss Kaufman. The question you asked 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, you have appeared before this committee nu- 
merous times, and you know your sole and exclusive prerogative is to 
advise your client. 

Miss Kaufman. I will not sit by while my client is being browbeaten, 
Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell this committee whether or not 

Mr. Cantor. Do you want an answer to the previous question con- 
cerning my interest in agriculture ? 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead — we want your interest in agriculture. 

Mr. Cantor. Yes. I have observed over many years of study and 
was taught in our school system concerning the vital, the essential fea- 
ture or the importance to our economy of agriculture, very, very basic 
in our country and in our own State, incidentally, as well. And as a 
good American citizen concerned with the problems of my country, I 
have for a long time been quite concerned at the plight of the farmer 
in our country and particularly with the family-sized farmer, who, I 
know, is being driven off the land in millions as result of the control of 
the financing of farmers by big insurance companies and big banks, and 
that this has had the cooperation of governmental agencies, particu- 
larly the present administration and the Secretary of Agriculture, and 
I have seen this developed. I know that the depression or the recession, 
at least, which we are now facing in our country, has part of its origin 
and first shows its head in the agricultural sphere; and therefore it 
seems to me that all Americans should have a great concern with the 
plight of the farmers and labor in particular should have a concern. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you have done in pursuit of your concern 
"with the plight of the farmers." 

Mr. Cantor. Well 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. Because it is quite clear that this question now will 
get us into an area in 



2858 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Willis. Get you into hot water, in other words ? 

Mr. Cantor. No. It will become an invasion, sir, Mr. Chairman, of 
my right of freedom of thought and freedom of expression and free- 
dom of association. Clearly the counsel has made that very clear by 
his line of questioning, and therefore since he is no longer interested 
in getting my opinions on agriculture and even a program I have 
some thoughts about, which I have, I can no longer answer his ques- 
tions and therefore must invoke my privilege, as I have previously, 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct 
the witness to answer counsel's last question. He obviously has waived 
any right he may have to refuse to answer by making this long speech 
which follows the Communist line insofar as the farm program is 
concerned. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the outstanding 
question of counsel. 

Mr. Willis. What was the outstanding question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. What he has done about these conditions he finds 
wrong. 

Mr. Willis. Pursuant to his interest in the farm program ? 

Mr. ScHERER. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. That was my recollection. And I tliink my colleague 
is correct. 

You have opened the door and volunteered your side of it. And I 
therefore direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Cantor. With all due respect to the Congressman and his opin- 
ion as to what I have waived, my counsel, upon whom I have relied 
frankly much more than on the Congressman's estimate, informs me 
that I have not waived and therefore I will again invoke my privileges 
under the amendments of the Constitution as I have. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ever work in the Department of Agricul- 
ture? 

Mr. Cantor. No, sir. I have not. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know Lee Pressman ? 

Mr. Cantor. No, sir. 

Mr. SoHERER. John Abt? 

Mr. Cantor. Who ? 

Mr. Scherer. Jolin Abt ? 

Mr. Cantor. No, I don't know him. 

Mr. Scherer. Kramer? 

Mr. Cantor. No. Wlio are these gentlemen, by the way ? 

Mr. Scherer. They are all Communists who infiltrated the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and followed the same line that you have been 
talking about here. 

Mr. Cantor. No. I don't know them, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly tell the committee all you have 
done in the United States in pursuit of your interest in the uplift of 
the farmers ? 

Mr. Cantor. I have to reassert at this time, sir, that this type of a 
question is an invasion clearly of my privacy and it is an invasion of 
my rights under the first amendment, and 1 rely on my privilege on 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you have any contact with the National Farmers 
Union ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2859 

Mr. Cantor. This question, too, is in the same area, and therefore 
I would decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. How many members of the Farmers Union do you 
know who are also members of the Commmiist Party— leaders in the 
Farmers Union today who are members of the Communist Party ?_ 

Mr. Cantor. Obviously, Mr. Congressman, these questions continue 
in the same area I have clearly indicated what my answer will be. 

Mr. ScHERER. They are in the same area 

Mr. Cantor. I clearly indicated that I will not be drawn into any 
violation or be drawn away from a defense of a constitutional princi- 
ples which I regard as a responsibility as a citizen and which I tliink 
are being invaded here, and therefore I will not take part in it. 

Mr. Scherer. Is it because of those reasons or is it because you fear 
your answer might incriminate you that you are refusing to answer 
these questions ? 

Mr. Cantor. I am answering for the reasons I cited. 

Mr. Scherer. Is it for the reasons you just stated now, or is it for 
the reason that you fear that the answer to these questions might in- 
criminate you that you are refusing to answer ? ^ 

Mr. Cantor. Must I explain to you, sir, in regard to the fifth 
amendment, is that the question you ask ? 

Mr. Scherer. I understand the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Cantor. You understand it ? 

Mr. Scherer. I understand how it has been abused by men like you. 

Mr. Cantor. The fact is that the fifth amendment stipulates that I 
cannot be compelled to be a witness against myself. It is on that 
feature of the amendment that I rely. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name other than the name 
Emanuel Cantor ? 

Mr. Cantor. I give you the same answer, sir, as previously. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to display to you certain documents. I 
have, sir, a photostatic copy of the Communist Daily Worker of New 
York, Monday, September 16, 1940, listing the names and photographs 
of a number of persons who are candidates for public office, including 
Manuel Cantor — Communist Party candidates in New Jersey. Kindly 
look at this article which I shall now display to you, Mr. Cantor, and 
tell this committee whether or not the information contained therein is 
to your certain knowledge true and correct, and whether or not this is 
a true and correct reproduction of your physical features appearing in 
this document. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Cantor. If proof were needed, sir, of what I have been contend- 
ing, of my presence here, of the invasion of the traditional rights, this 
example of the invasion of the area of ballot and balloting is certainly 
clear cut and it underscores, sir, and corroborates the rectitude of the 
position I take here, and therefore I will repeat my declination to 
respond to this type and line of inquiry for the same grounds. 

I know that your committee has not been authorized to conduct this 
kind of inquiry, that such practice has been condemned by the Supreme 
Court in recent cases, that this is clearly an invasion not only of my 



2860 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

own rights but of other citizens, and therefore I will decline to answer 
this question and to desist from my defense of these principles by 
invoking again my first and fifth amendment privileges. 

(Document marked "Cantor Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you a copy of another article 
appearing in the Communist Daily Worker, New York, November 13, 
1942, headed "Trenton Communist to Speak on Eadio Nov. 15." 
" 'What can we learn from our Soviet Ally?' will be the subject of a 
15-minute broadcast by Manuel Cantor, secretary of the Communist 
Party of Mercer County, New Jersey, over Station WTTM" and so 
forth "in commemoration of Nov. 7, the 25th Anniversary of the So- 
viet Revolution." 

Kindly look at this article and tell us whether or not to your certain 
certain knowledge the information contained therein is true and 
correct. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I must decline to respond and for the same reasons. 

(Document marked "Cantor Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you in 1948 make $1,000 contribution to the Com- 
munist Party for the purpose of defending the 11 Communist traitors 
who were tried in Foley Square ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I will decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic reproduction of the Com- 
munist Daily Worker of February 23, 1948, in which an article aj)- 
pears listing a number of persons who were pledging, making contri- 
butions specifically from the New Jersey area in very sizable amounts 
and in considerable numbers for the defense of the Communists, in- 
cluding, according to this list, one Manuel Cantor, for Mercer County, 
$1,000. 

Kindly look at that article and tell us whether or not to your certain 
recollection the information contained therein is true and correct. 

Mr. Cantor. I decline to answer on the same reasons. 

(Document marked "Cantor Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Nusser ? 

Mr. Cantor. I think at this point, sir, it might be wise for me to 
make clear to you that I will not be in any form pressed into inf orni- 
ing on any individual, and therefore any questions that will be di- 
rected to this area for identification of persons I will certainly decline 
to answer and feel I am in a very honorable tradition because the 
informer, sir, as you know, is a most hateful individual in every re- 
ligion, in every country, and in every organization. 

Mr. Arens. If you knew a person who was presently engaged in 
smuggling narcotics to destroy the moral fiber of this Nation and you 
were being interrogated by a congressional committee, would you tell 
that congressional committee about that person whom you knew was 
a smuggler of narcotics? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I don't know any such person. 

Mr. Arens. If you did, would you tell this committee? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2861 

Mr. Willis. Proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Cantor. The chairman suggests you proceed. I think that is 
wise, too. 

Mr. Arens. The purpose of the question is to elicit your good faith 
on this record in undertaking to cast an aura of respectability around 
yourself for not replying to a question respecting a person who has 
been identified as a hard-core member of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Willis. I understood the questions. He stalled on it. Just 
proceed. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic reproduction of an article 
in the Communist Daily Worker of March 16, 1956. According to 
the article, Manuel Cantor is the campaign manager for Charles Nus- 
ser. New Jersey Communist Party leader and People's Rights' candi- 
date, whose name on tlie ballot was being banned by the authorities 
in New Jersey. Kindly look at this article and tell this committee 
while you are under oath whether or not the reference to yourself as 
campaign manager of Charles Nusser, New Jersey Communist Party 
leader, represents the truth and the fact. 

Mr. Cantor. I have been trying, sir, to retain my composure, but 
as the questions continue it is very clear that I have to establish more 
clearly the basis on which I decline to answer this line of question- 
ing. They are so clearly an invasion of traditional American rights 
that have been guaranteed to our people since the founding of our 
country. It was in the schools that I listed here that I learned how 
inviolate these principJes must be kept and the sacrifice that went on 
on the part of our Founding Fathers of a man like Jefferson, who 
was maligned and called a conspirator and agent of foreign govern- 
ment because he asserted these principles in this country. 

^Ir. Scherer. And which 3'ou Connnunists are going to destroy. 

Mr. Cantor. Let me give my answer to this question. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand. I have heard this for 6 years. 

Mr. Cantor. I know, and you haven't heard me, sir, and you are 
asking me the questions before this committee hearing. 

Mr. Scherer. The same line. 

Mr. Cantor. And, theiefore, should be giving me the respect of 
hearing me out. I know, for example, the abolitionist movement in 
our country was called a conspiracy and the members of this group 
who organized to abolish slavery in our country were prosecuted 
and thrown in jail and some of them even lost their lives because 
they fought against this evil institution. And I know that in our 
country the trade-union movement when it was first organized met 
the resistance even of the Government, and the entrenched interests 
of the time were able to invoke the Government's assistance to label 
this a conspiracy as well and leaders of the trade-union movement 
were thrown into jail. 

Mr. Willis. That is enough. Next question. 

Mr. Cantor. Don't you want to hear my reasons for invoking the 
privilege ? 

Mr. Willis. I don't want a speech. Any questions? 

Mr. Arens. The next question, if you please, sir, is this: I have 
before me a reproduction of the Communist Daily Worker of Friday, 
May 10, 191:0. An article alludes to a petition drive. According to 
the article petitions will be filed for Manuel Cantor, described by 



2862 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

this Daily Worker article as a Communist Party organizer of Mercer 
County, who is running for governor on the Communist Party ticket. 

Kindly look at this article I now display to you and tell this com- 
mittee while you are under oath whether the facts represented in it 
are true and correct to your certain knowledge. 

Mr. Cantor. Again and again, sir, you are presenting countless 
evidence of the invasion of my own and the rights of many other 
citizens, and, therefore, I cannot participate in such a line of inquiry, 
and I will stand firmly in defense of the constitutional liberties which 
are involved in this type of inquiry and will refuse to depart from 
that, and I will invoke again my privileges under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "Cantor Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. Yes, sir, 

Mr, Arens, Over what period of time ? 

Mr, Cantor. Eoughly 1943-44, to the best of my recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission ? 

Mr. Cantor. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you serve ? 

Mr. Cantor. Within the confines of the country. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the time of your service in the Armed Forces ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Cantor. Again, this question gets into the same area which has 
to do with my beliefs and my opinions, my associations. It is beyond 
the authority of the committee as given to it by Congress and there- 
fore I must invoke my defense and my privileges under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you used your status as a veteran of the United 
States military for the purpose of promoting Communist enterprises 
in the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Cantor. I decline to answer this for the reasons 

Mr, Arens, I lay before you a Thermofax reproduction of an ad 
appearing in the Daily Worker, May 22, 1950 : 

We appeal to All Veterans of World War II. We speak for the 15,000 Com- 
munists, veterans of World War II * * *. All Funds To Be Forwarded To : Vets' 
Fighting Fund for Freedom of Eugene Dennis. 

Listed among the signers of this appeal to veterans on behalf of 
Eugene Dennis is one Manny Cantor, 

Kindly look at that article and tell this committee while you are 
under oath whether or not you used your status as a veteran of the 
World War for the purpose of promoting Communist causes and 
enterprises and whether or not that is a true and correct representa- 
tion of the enterprise in which you participated, 

Mr, Cantor, This continues the same line of inquiry so I will invoke 
the same answer. 

(Document marked "Cantor Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2863 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, do you know a Gmezrik ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. The question was, do you know Mr. Gmezrik ? 

Mr. Cantor. Are you prepared for an answer ? To the best of my 
recollection, sir, I don't know such a name. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know James G. Patton, president of tl^e Na- 
tional Farmers Union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I know the name, but I don't know the man. 

Mr. ScHERER. I again ask you, have you had any dealings with the 
National Farmers Union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I am sorry, sir. I didn't hear that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you had any connection whatsoever with the 
Farmers Union ? 

Mr. Cantor. I believe you asked me this question earlier, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I did, sir. 

Mr. Cantor. And I gave you an answer then and I repeat the same 
answer. 

Mr. Willis. And was that answer "No" ? 

Mr. Scherer. He took the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Did you invoke the privilege ? 

Mr. Cantor. I took not only the fifth amendment, but I invoked a 
number of privileges which are on the record. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I respectfully suggest that will 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness and respectfully ask 
if we could have a recess ? 

Mr. Scherer. Just a second. 

The fact is, Witness, and I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny it, that for a number of years you were in the Com- 
munist underground in charge of the farmer section of that party. 
Isn't that a fact ? 

Mr. Cantor. I believe I have already answered this question, too, 
sir, in a previous answer, and I will answer similarly now. I will 
decline to answer that question for the reasons given. 

Mr. Scherer. Your chief duty as such a Communiet functionary 
was to see that the Farmers Union was infiltrated as far as possible 
with members of the Communist Party ; is that not so ? 

Mr. Cantor. You are making assertions, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I am making an assertion and is that assertion in- 
correct ? 

Mr. Cantor. I will not cooperate with you in this type of assertion, 
and therefore I will not answer your question. I will decline on the 
grounds that I have given. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't deny what I said is true ; do you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. I have given my answer. 

Mr, Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer whether he 
denies 

Mr. Willis. I think what you mean is a declination. 

Mr. Cantor. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I have just one more question. 

31657—58 8 



2864 cojvimunist activities in Newark, n. j. 

Mr. ScHEKER. You go ahead with yotir question. I still have one 
more question, if I find my memorandum. 

Mr. Akens. Do you not have an occupation in addition to your 
occupation as a printer ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. You see, sir, your question is rather vague. The occu- 
pation — people are occupied with all kinds of activities. I observed 
in these hearings that this committee regards many legitimate things 
as illegitimate. For example, earlier today I heard reading certain 
books was regarded as reprehensible, signing petitions, things of the 
sort here. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now one of the leaders of the Communist con- 
spiracy in the Newark area ? 

Mr. Cantor. See, now we have the question you really wanted to 
ask, and therefore I will decline to answer, of course. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are presently the liaison man between the National 
Committee of the Communist Party and the Communist operation in 
the Newark area. If that is not true, deny it while you are under 
oath. 

Mr. Cantor. Obviously I will decline to answer for the reasons 
given. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know Hal Ware in his lifetime, Witness — 
Hal Ware? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cantor. No, I did not. 

Mr, ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Miss Kautman. If the chairman please, I have a request to make. 
May I be accorded 

Mr. Willis. Will you ask our counsel? If it is a legal question 
confer with the counsel. 

Miss Kaufman. A simple courtesy. Surely this committee is not 
without the ordinary courtesies of everyday life.^ I understand full 
well the limitation of counsel before the committee. I am asking 
for a courtesy to make known a request. Surely you have not 
forgotten, gentlemen, the courtesy a male accords a woman. I am 
asking for courtesy to make a request. 

Mr. Arens. May we have a recess ? 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will stand in recess. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Eepresentatives Willis and 
Scherer. ) 

(Subcommittee members present at the time of the reconvening of 
the subcommittee : Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The committee will come to order, and counsel proceed 
with the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. If you please, Mr. Chairman, the next witness will be 
Mr. Jolm F. Norman. 

Please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2865 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Norman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN P. NORMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

THEODORE METH 

Mr._ Akens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Norman. My name is John F. Norman, I live in Maplewood, 
N. J. I am a printer by occupation. 

Mr. Willis. A what ? 

Mr. Norman. I am a printer by occupation. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Norman. Apparently I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Norman. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Meth. Theodore Meth of Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Norman, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Norman. I was born in New York City, 1913. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Norman. I attended grammar school in New York. I gradu- 
ated from high school in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Norman. I attended college for a couple of years, but did not 
graduate. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you attend college ? 

Mr. Norman. In New York City. 

Mr. Arens. What college ? 

Mr. Norman. College of the City of New York. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete the training you received at 
the College of the City of New York ? 

Mr. Norman. 1934, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal occupation after you 
concluded your education at City College ? 

Mr. Norman. Those were the depression years. I worked as a 
merchant seaman. I had a job in a factory in Vermont with NRA 
wages of $13 a week. I saw an ad in the New York Times for a 
reporter on a newspaper in New Jersey. I answered that and got the 
job and did all right with it. Got a raise. 

Mr. Arens. Would you hesitate just a moment there, please sir? 

Mr. Norman. Yes. 

JSIr. Arens. When was it you saw this ad for a newspaper 
reporter ? 

Mr. Norman. In 1934. 

Mr. Arens. And on what paper was that ? 

Mr. Norman. In New Brunswick, the New Brunswick Daily Home 
News. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you hold that job with the New Bruns- 
wick News? 



2866 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Norman. I would say about 6 months. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned the disassociation of yourself from 
that newspaper ? 

Mr. Norman. It was interesting. It was a very educational experi- 
ence for me, sir. I was covering a strike at a clothing factory not far 
from New Brunswick and I saw hired strikebreakers heave bricks 
through the window of the factory at which the strike had taken place, 
and I wrote that in my story and it didn't appear and I was mad. I 
thought it should appear. It seemed to me an incident of the em- 
ployer's use of violence against labor unions, of which there was a 
good deal of talk at the time through other congressional investigating 
committees of a different era, interested, I should say, in different 
things, and it struck me as a pretty prime example as an antilabor 
use of violence and I felt it should go in a news story. It didn't appear. 
Shortly after that I was terminated at that paper. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did your next employment begin? 

Mr. Norman. I was unemployed for a while and then I worked on 
a farm. I worked on several farms in and around New Jersey and 
Morrisville, Pa. I don't know if you are aware of it, but there were 
at that time big corporation farms, Heinz and Stokeleys, that hired 
thousands of pea pickers in the season. Wages were 20 cents an hour 
for men, 15 cents an hour for women, and 10 cents an hour for chil- 
dren — I mean younger than 16 and 13. I mean kids of 7 and 8. 

Before I got there — as a matter of fact before I went to work on 
that farm — there had been a case — it is a very ugly thing — it was a 
violation of an 8- or 9-year-old girl. 

Mr. Arens. Will you just tell us where you were employed, please, 
sir. 

Mr. Norman. I did, sir. And I helped organize the farmworkers. 

Mr. Arens. Organize the farmworkers. Wliat year was that? 

Mr. Norman. 1935. I worked for 20 cents an hour myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. We have one thing in common. This member worked 
for 18 cents an hour at one time. 

Mr. Norman. That is one thing. Congressman, I hope we find 
more. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the name of the group you organized ? 

Mr. Norman. The American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. That was a local of the AFL ? 

Mr. Norman. Local 1996 of the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next principal employment ? 

Mr. Norman. Yes, sir, I got a job. Yes, I remember. There was 
a strike at the two main papers of Paterson, the Paterson Evening 
News and the Paterson Morning Call, and hired strikebreakers 
brought in by the American Newspaper Publishers Association had 
taken the job of, I think, 100 odd members of the Typographical 
Union in Paterson. They established their own newspaper. It was 
a splendid thing, a weekly called the Paterson Press. 

Mr. Arens. The Paterson Press — that is where you were employed 
next? 

Mr. Norman. That is right, starting with the strike. 

Mr. Arens. When did you begin with Paterson Press? 

Mr. Norman. Late in 1935, 1 think. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2867 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you employed at the Paterson 
Press ? 

Mr. Norman. As a reporter. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment last ? 

Mr. Norman. About 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. Was the Paterson Press a newspaper ? 

Mr. Norman. It was most proudly a newspaper, sir. It serviced 
the whole Passaic Valley area during the period decent people would 
not buy the Paterson Evening News because it was a scab paper at 
the time. 

Mr. Arens. You began in 1935 and your employment there ter- 
ininated about 1937, is that correct ? 

Mr. Norman. About. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment please. 

Mr. Norman. After that I worked for the Federal Writers' Project. 
I helped to write a number of the tours in the New Jersey guide, 
some of which are in the public library, and I think they were pretty 
good. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that last ? 

Mr. Norman. Oh, not long, about 4 or 5 months. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Norman. I then began as organizer of the Textile Workers 
Organizing Committee of the CIO, and I was subregional director 
for South Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. Did you by any chance know Armando Penha about 
that time ? 

Mr. Norman. Did I know whom ? 

Mr. Arens. A man by the name of Armando Penha, who was active 
in textile work matters about that time. 

Mr. Norman. Let me say that the name is not familiar to me. 

Let me say in general, sir, it is not my intention to identify persons. 
I hold a mightly low opinion of the informants. That name is not 
familiar. Let me say in general I decline to answer anything as to 
names of individuals. I cannot think of anything more reprehen- 
sible than an informer. 

Mr. Scherer, Do you apply that charge to a man like Herbert 
Philbrick who served the Government of the United States at great 
loss to himself and his family ? 

Mr. Norman. Congressman, I don't know what your opinion of 
Herbert Philbrick is. I know what my opinion of Matusow and 
others who have been proven to be liars is. I choose not to pick and 
choose among this breed. I think that any use of paid informers by 
a committee is a matter for the members of that committee to settle 
between themselves and their conscience. I am very glad that I don't 
have the job, 

Mr. Scherer. Do you apply that smear to all men who have served 
in the FBI as undercover agents ? 

Mr. Norman. I did not smear Matusow. I accurately character- 
ized him as a liar. He is. 

Mr. Scherer. I didn't ask you about Matusow. I said do you apply 
that smear to all men who have served as undercover agents for the 
FBI in the interest of preserving the security of this Nation? 

Mr. Norman. I think any man who attempts to answer a blanket 
question like that would be very foolish and I decline to answer it. 



2868 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ScHERER. You applied it to all informers. 

Mr. Norman. Congressman, is this a matter of my opinion you are 
inquiring into ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I just wanted you to explain your testimony. 

Mr. Norman. Are you inquiring into my opinion, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I asked you to explain your testimony. 

Mr. NoRMAN". I think it will stand by itself. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve as a textile worker, recruiting, 
with the CIO? 

Mr. Norman. I was an organizer of Textile Workers Organizing 
Committee of the CIO. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that employment last? 

Mr. Norman. A couple of years. 

Mr. Arens. Was that exclusively within the New Jersey area? 

Mr. Norman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. That brings us to 

Mr. Norman. Except — excuse me — for NLRB cases that I handled 
and negotiations that I handled that carried me into Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. And you were employed by a local of the CIO, is that 
correct? 

Mr. Norman. I was employed by the National Textile Workers 
Organizing Committee of the CIO. 

Mr. Arens. That brings us to about 1939 ; does it not ? 

Mr. Norman. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us now your next employment. 

Mr. Norman. Next I worked in a number of factories, jobs. I 
don't know if I can remember them all. 

Mr. Arens. Just simple employment. 

Mr. Norman. Well, Ocean City Manufacturing Co., Philco Manu- 
facturing Co., Baldwin Locomotive, I worked at the New York Ship- 
building Corp. 

Mr. Arens. That brings us to about when ? 

Mr. Norman. Well, my employment at the New York Shipbuild- 
ing Corp. started in 1941. I believe it terminated in 1945. 

Are you interested in knowing why that terminated, Congressman ? 
I will tell it to you if you are. 

Mr. Arens. Not at the moment, thank you. 

Mr. Norman. I see. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us now, beginning about 1945, 
what was your principal employment? 

Mr. Norman. I had also worked, incidentally, as a bread-truck 
driver. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Norman. Yes ; I got a job after I had been fired from the New 
York Shipbuilding Corp., and I was fired, for reasons that I will be 
very glad to tell this committee. After that I got a job with an iron- 
works in Camden, N. J., as a salesman estimator on overhead doors. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that last? 

Mr. Norman. Excuse me. I left something out. I was a radio 
commentator on Station WCAU for a brief period. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that, about 1945 ? 

Mr. Norman. 1945 ; that is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2869 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you fired from that ? 

Mr. Arens. Where is WCAU? 

Mr. Norman. I think it is the biggest or one of the two biggest sta- 
tions in Philadelphia. I believe it is a CBS outfit. I am not sure. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you fired from that ? 

Mr. Norman. Yes, indeed. The sponsor was Sinclair Oil. The oil 
strike started. My policy was when I had 22 lines to give, to give 
11 lines to the company and 11 lines to the union. That wasn't liked. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us your next employment. 

Mr. Norman. Yes. I got a job, I said, with an ironworks in Cam- 
den as a salesman estimator on overhead doors. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that last, please? 

Mr. Norman. Until about 1947. Would you care to know how I 
was disassociated from that job? 

Mr. Arens. No ; I am not concerned about that. 

Mr. Norman. I will tell you about that. While I was a truck 
driver 

Mr. Arens. Tell us your next employment. 

Mr. Norman. The man who got me fired landed up in jail. I want 
vou to know that. He was a racketeer. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us your next employment. We are into 
1947, 1 believe. 

Mr. Norman. I see. 

After I had been forced out of my employment against my employ- 
ers wishes by Jack O'Neal of the Teamsters Union, who I had exposed 
as a bread-truck driver as a gangster and racketeer who had me fired 
from my job, although I was not under his jurisdiction, as a salesman, 
who later wound up in jail and perhaps died there. I don't know. 
But after I had been fired for that reason I was unemployed for a 
while, naturally, and got a job selling air conditioners. I have a 
family to support. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that job last ? 

Mr. Norman. Not very long. I don't know exactly. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in the New Jersey area? 

Mr. Norman. No ; that was in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arens. And your next job, please ? 

Mr. Norman. Excuse me, sir, while I confer with my counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you excuse me just a moment before you get to 
the next job? I want to get the date on which the last job expired 
before you start on something else here. That was when ? 

Mr. Norman. 1947. 

Mr. Arens. In 1947 ? 

Mr. NoRMxVN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you were where? 

Mr. Norman. You still haven't asked me how I was dismissed in 
New York. I would like to tell you. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me just a moment. In 1947 the last job you 
were talking about was in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Norman. That is right, sir. No. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What was the type of work ? I lost track. 

Mr. Norman. Selling air conditioners. 

Mr. Arens. Selling air conditioning? 

Mr. Norman. That is right. 



2870 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. Norman. Selling air conditioning ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Norman. Long enough to find out you don't make much of a 
living selling air conditioners. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be a matter of a year ? Half a year, or 

Mr. Norman. A couple of months. 

Mr. Arens. A couple of months ? 

Mr. Norman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Does that get us into the latter part of 1947 or still in 
the early part? 

Mr. Norman. It is a little hard to recall at this point. Maybe in 
the middle of the year. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. It would be your best guess that it might be al)out the 
middle of the year ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Norman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. All right. Do you care to confer with your counsel in 
response to the question about your next job ? 

Mr. Scherer. Before he does that, you have given us a long series 
of jobs that you had up to this point. Did you quit voluntarily any 
of those jobs or were you fired on each one ? 

Mr. Norman. I was certainly not fired in each one, but I want to 
say this : That any job I was ever fired from — let me say — I can easily 
clarify them. 

Mr. Scherer. The employer was always wrong ? 

Mr. Norman. It was either because I refused to take antilabor posi- 
tions or because I was pui^uing what I felt and I believe now is the 
best interest of people generally in this country that racketeers have 
no place among labor and I attempted to ferret it out. And New 
York Ship, incidentally, where it was common knowledge that the 
horse racing and numbers racket ran well up into management and 
where there was a garage, during the war, incidentally, during the 
war, a network of at least 100 or a few himdred men walking around 
with spotless dungarees and coveralls who never done a lick of work, 
whose only tools were pencil and paper to take down horse bets and 
numbers. These people reported to the people higher than manage- 
ment. When I raised this question in the union after working 4 
years, after a number of promotions, and having received my me- 
chanic's rating, after a number of promotions, the company was well 
satisfied with my work — when I raised the question in a union meeting 
I was fired the next day. 

This was during the wartime, by the way. 

Mr. Scherer. Did I understand you to say one of these numerous 
jobs you had was with the CIO ? 

Mr. Norman. Exactly so. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you fired ? 

Mr. Norman. I was not fired by the CIO. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you quit ? 

Mr. Norman. No. The organizing campaign was successful. We 
had good locals going in New Jersey and it became necessary to effect 
retrenchment economically. That was the period of the recession, 
if you remember, of 1938, and the staff was cut down and I was among 
those cut. I hold no animosity against the CIO for doing it. I was 
very proud to help serve in that purpose. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2871 

Mr. ScHERER. In all of these incidents in which you were dismissed 
from your job, do I understand that you still think the employer 
was wrong in every instance ? 

Mr. Norman. Are you kidding, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No, I just want to know. 

Mr. Norman. No. I cite specifically one instance, that of the 
Camden Iron Works, where when the racketeer Jack O'Neal went to 
the boss and said, "You got to fire Norman," because Norman, when 
he was a bread truck driver had taken certain action that Jack O'Neal 
didn't like. The employer resisted, as a fine man and good Ameri- 
can. He said, "You have no right to force me to do that." When 
Jack O'Neal threatened to boycott his trucks and he would get no 
materials he said, "John, I am sorry, but I got to let you go," and 
he did. 

Mr. Scherer. You were fired as a result of this labor problem? 

Mr. Norman. I was not fired, sir, from that job. I want to make 
it clear. 

Mr. Arens. You said you thought racketeers had no part in labor 
and of course the committee agrees with that. 

Mr. Norman. I was here yesterday and I heard a letter read from 
the Carpenters Union. Is that the same union where the Interna- 
tional President was hauled up by the AFL-CIO for racketeering and 
corruption ? Is this the committee that compliments your committee ? 

Mr. Arens. You told us about a character Jack O'Neal, a person 
you characterized as a racketeer in labor organizations, and you told 
us that racketeers have no place in labor. We would like to have you 
tell us the names, if you please, sir, of the Communists you know in 
labor organizations. Could you kindly do that? You told us the 
name of racketeers in labor organizations. Now tell us the names of 
any Communists you know in labor organizations. 

Mr. Norman. Mr. Arens, I told you before that I will tell you the 
name of no person, no person who holds what he believes is a political 
opinion. I will not be a political informer. I can't think of anything 
lower. We may hold differences of opinion on this. 

I would like to cite the fact that in 1800 when Matthew Lyon, a con- 
gressman, was elected to Congress from jail in Vermont, in protest 
against the Alien Sedition Act, he took the same position. I think it 
is an honorable position. I will not be an informer. 

Mr. Scherer. You just informed on the labor leader. You gave 
his name. 

Mr. Norman. I hold a distinction between helping to prosecute a 
criminal and informing on a person's political beliefs in an atmosphere 
of repression. 

Mr. Scherer. Somebody who is willing to destroy this Govern- 
ment 

Mr. Norman. No, sir. If I knew of anyone — let me say this 
clearly — if I know of anyone out to destroy the United States Govern- 
ment or Constitution, I would help to see that he was indicted and 
prosecuted, and let me say, incidentally, if I were the Attorney Gen- 
eral of the United States, I would most certainly have taken action 
against the group of Southern congressmen who did a major blow 
against the United States Constitution in attempting to subvert the 
Constitution in the case of southern integration. I am highly sur- 



2872 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

prised this was not done. I draw a great distinction between a crimi- 
nal and political opinion. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us what your next employment 
was after your employment selling air conditioning in Philadelphia 
in 1947? 

Mr. Norman. It is at this point I wanted to consult with my attor- 
ney, and thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Go ahead and consult with your attorney. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Norman. Mr. Arens, I invoke my constitutional privilege not 
to answer that question, and I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your next employment last ? 

Mr. Norman. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was your next employment as a propagandist for the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Norman. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you, if you please, sir, copies 
of several articles appearing in the Communist Daily Worker. The 
first one is from the Daily Worker, New York, Monday, October 25, 
1948, headlined "Wallace Meet Packs Armory in Paterson." 

"Four thousand persons jammed the Paterson Armory this after- 
noon to hear Henry A. Wallace," and so forth. It is bylined John 
Norman. 

Mr. Norman. May I see that, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Kindly look at that article and tell us 
whether or not that is your byline in this Daily Worker. 

Mr. Norman (reading) : 

Wallace told the rally that "the Progressive Party campaign for the ending of 
Jimcrow in America is an absolute must for the full organization of the textile 
industry. It is an absolute must for decent wages in the textile industry." 

"So long as southern workers are underpaid," he said, "northern workers will 
be underpaid. And so long as segregation and discrimination are the rule in 
the South, wages will remain low in the South and in the North." 

May I ask is something un-American or subversive in having 
written or bylined that story ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Norman. I am asking what is the pertinency of that story, 
whether something is un-American — specifically I am asking — within 
the scope of this committee that is supposed to deal with un-American 
and subversive activities to have written a story, that story, 
particularly. 

Mr. Arens. I will be very glad to explain to you the pertinency of 
the question. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities is mandated by the Con- 
gress of the United States to engage in two principal functions, one 
of which is to maintain a continuing surveillance over the operation 
of the present security legislation. The other is to constantly de\dse 
needed legislation, make recommendations to the Congress respect- 
ing proposed amendments to existing legislation. 

One of the principal areas in which this committee has a jurisdic- 
tion deals with Communist propaganda and Communist propa- 
gandists. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2873 

It is obvious that a person who is a writer for the Communist Daily- 
Worker is engaged in Communist propaganda. If you will answer 
the question as to whether or not, and give us a truthful answer as to 
whether or not, you are or have been a propagandist author of arti- 
cles for the Communist Daily Worker, we then expect to pursue that 
line of inquiry by asking you about the directions whicli you re- 
ceived, and we expect to receive information respecting the tie of the 
Communist Daily Worker and other propaganda activity with Mos- 
cow and the international Communist conspiracy. We expect also to 
interrogate you respecting the chain of command in the propaganda 
network of the Communist conspiracy. We expect to elicit similar 
information from you for the purpose of using this information in 
order to better appraise proposed legislation pending before the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, including H. R. 9937, a bill 
which would attempt to cope with much of this Communist Party 
propaganda activity in the United States. 

With that explanation, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the 
witness be ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether 
or not that byline in the Communist Daily Worker is his byline. 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Norman. That was a rather long answer. I would like to di- 
gest it before answering the question. 

As I take it, sir, you are saying to have written a story in the Daily 
Worker, a newspaper which no longer exists, which did 

Mr. Willis. The question is, did you write the article ? Then you 
may explain what is in your mind. Did you write the article? 

Mr. Norman. I want to know what I am answering in reference to 
what the counsel stipulated why this is so. As I understand it, to have 
written the story in the Daily Worker in his mind would constitute 
fulfilling the function of a Communist propagandist. 

Let me say, sir, in answering your question, in the first place, I 
differ with the view involved. I am professional enough to believe 
that the first amendment guarantees freedom of the press. 

Mr. Willis. Did you write the article ? That is the question. And 
that is preliminary to another question, 

Mr. Norman. I don't think you have the right to ask any news- 
paper man any such question and as for myself I decline to answer it 
because, I think, first of all, it is clearly an invasion of the First Article 
of the Bill of Rights and, secondly, I also decline to answer it, invok- 
ing my privileges under the Fifth Article of the Bill of Rights. 

(Document market "Norman Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Willis. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you act as chairman in October 1947, at a meeting 
on behalf of international Communist agent Gerhart Eisler held at 
Trenton. 

Mr. Norman. Congressman, let me say I decline to answer this for 
the same reasons, too, but let me say this, too, if one had done so — 
let me put it this way 

Mr. ScHERER. Next question. 

Mr. Norman. if any man were deprived of his civil rights, 

whether a Communist from Germany or a congressman from Louisi- 
ana, I think he has a right to speak and I want you to know what I 
think in this regard. 



2874 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Willis. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, if you please, a photographic repro- 
duction of Communist Daily Worker of October 23, 1947. Among 
other items appears an item "Trenton Mob Couldn't Keep Eisler From 
Speaking." It states : 

Manual Cantor, county chairman, Daniel Cohen, a member of the executive, 
and John F. Norman, Daily Worker correspondent and representative of the 
New Jersey State Committee of the Party, went to Contemporary Auditorium 
on schedule to open the meeting. 

I am skipping some of the article because I am coming to the part 
with reference to yourself : 
John Norman acted as chairman. 

Kindly look at that article and tell this committee whether or not, 
while you are under oath, that article truthfully and fairly and accu- 
rately represents the facts. 

Mr. Norman. I notice this article is bylined by a lady. I did not 
write the article, apparently. It says here, "the Star Spangled Ban- 
ner was drowned out by abuses and every time Norman raised his arms 
for quiet" — apparently to hear the Star Spangled Banner — "the abuse 
intensified." 

Mr. ScHERER. Gerhart Eisler was a traitor. Now, did you chair- 
man the meeting for him ? Would you answer the question ? 

Mr. Norman. Gerhart Eisler is what, sir? Gerhart Eisler to my 
knowledge is a German Communist. I repeat this, sir. If I were 
asked to guarantee the civil rights of any man I would do so. I have 
no hesitation in saying it. I would do it for you, Congressman. I 
don't see why I sliouldn't do it for Gerhart Eisler if I were asked 
to do it. 

Congressman, I believe that your question is an invasion of my 
rights under the first amendment, which is freedom of speech and 
assembly, and I decline to answer it under my privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Norman Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Norman, are you now a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Norman. Congressman, let me put this very clearly, as clearly 
as I can, because I hold decided opinions on these things — I am an 
American citizen. I have political opinions pro and con on a lot of 
things. Democratic Party and the Republican Party and the Commu- 
nist Party. I have no objection whatsoever to discussing these opin- 
ions, to telling people what my opinions are, private citizen or con- 
gressman. I have no objection of you knowing what my opinions are 
m any discussion of mutual good will and inquiry in which people are 
really interested in swapping opinions. 

Congressman, that is not the situation here. You come here assert- 
ing yourself to be an arm of the Government, although that is in great 
doubt nowadays since the last decision of the Supreme Court. You 
bring me here under subpena, you put me under oath and you require 
me as an American citizen to submit to you my thinking. 

Congressman, that is not the way the United States Constitution 
views the rights of Americans. In my opinion it is a travesty of 
the democracy and in my opinion. Congressman, it is in itself a sub- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2875 

version of the Constitution and the most sacred basic precepts that 
it guarantees for all Americans. I will not be a party to subversion, 
Congressman. I will not answer your question. 

Mr. ScHERER. The only reason you refuse to answer that question 
now is because you are under oath ; you are willing to discuss it out- 
side with us when you are not under oath and when you can lie with- 
out fear of prosecution for perjury. 

Mr. Norman. Congressman, that is an assertion that has no basis. 
You have no right to make it. It is obviously an ugly thing to say 
for the newspapers. I thmk they will have the decency to keep it 
out, and I resent it. 

Mr. Arens. Is the record clear that you have not invoked the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. Norman. The congressman interrupted me. 

Mr. Arens. You are going to get around to that in a minute ? 

Mr. Norman. When I do, sir, I shall make very clear what I do 
without your assistance. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the record does not presently reflect 
an invocation 

Mr, Norman. The record will show I was interrupted, and I would 
like to continue what I was saying. 

Mr. Arens. You go right ahead. 

Mr. Norman. I shall. Thank you. 

I said, as I believe that I will not be a party to subversion of any 
kind — I repeat that — I think that at the present time there are two 
tremendous dangers of subversion in the United States to the Consti- 
tution, because this is how I view subversion. One comes from the 
South where the Constitution has been flouted, where even congress- 
men have been permitted to engage in a conspiracy against the Con- 
stitution and where governors engage in the conspiracy to flout the 
decisions of the Supreme Court; and another in my opinion comes 
from this whole area of thought-control committees such as this. 

Mr. Arens. You understand we are not accepting your reasons 
when we are asking you whether or not you are a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Norman. I am giving you my reasons and I believe I have a 
right to. I know the Supreme Court ruled your committee cannot 
do things which it goes right ahead and has done. I believe that is 
subverting the Constitution and the decisions of the Supreme Court. 

Mr. Willis. We have given you an opportunity to express your 
thoughts. We think we have tried to be fair. 

Would you answer the question? Go ahead and answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Norman. That is my first reason and, secondly, under the Fifth 
Article of the Bill of Rights, which incidentally is at the center of 
the Bill of Rights and which I hold to be just as sacred as the first, 
and under the Fourth Article of the Bill of Rights which guarantees 
Americans to be secure in their persons, because of unreasonable 
search and seizures and the like, for all these reasons, sir, I decline 
to answer your question. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was a very fine Communist speech. Better 
than I heard before. 

Mr. Norman. Congressman, if you think the defense of the Con- 
stitution is a Communist speech, I think you should go back to school 
and learn what the Constitution is all about. 



2876 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what your next employment was, after the em- 
ployment which you have told us about. 

Air. Norman. Yep. I had a job as a salesman. 

Mr. Arens. How long did the employment last which you will not 
tell us about ? 

Mr. Norman. I think that is part of the same kind of entrapment. 
I shall decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. When did you begin your next employment as a sales- 
man? 

Mr. Norman. Well, I see no reason to beat around the bush on 
this thing. I got a job as a salesman in 1950 or 1951. I have for- 
gotten — 1950 or 1951. I cannot remember, 

Mr. Arens. Between the middle of 1947 and 1951. 

Mr. Norman. Or 1950. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Were you engaged in any activity, any employment, 
concerning which you can tell us without revealing information that 
can be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Norman. I am not going to answer that question, for the same 
reason I have given, Mr. Congressman, to my rights under the first 
and fifth amendment. 

Mr, Arens. What was your next employment as a salesman ? What 
did you do ? 

Mr. Norman. I did something I didn't like doing, but I have a 
family, as I said. There was nothing illegal or immoral about it. I 
didn't like it. It was high-pressure selling. It was porch enclosure, 
you know, the storm window jungle, you know, you have to do things 
to people that in my opinion you shouldn't do. I know it is part of 
what you say is an honorable way of making a living. I don't think 
it is a good way to make a living. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean to say you did things to people you 
shouldn't do ? 

Mr. Norman. No, I didn't. One of the reasons I quit the boss was 
unhappy, too. 

Mr. Arens. What caused the termination of your employment 
which you had immediately prior to your employment as a storm- 
window salesman? 

Mr. Norman. I don't know what you are talking about. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to lose your job or become dis- 
associated from your job which you had immediately prior to your 
job as a salesman ? 

Mr. Norman. I think that is my business, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness either 
answer or invoke the privilege under the Constitution, 

Mr. Norman. Thank you, sir, I shall. I invoke it. 

Mr, Arens, How long did your employment endure as a storm- 
window salesman? 

Mr. Norman. About a year. 

Mr. Arens. Next employment ? 

Mr. Norman. I worked in the printing trade and worked in a great 
number of jobs. It would be impossible for me to remember the 
names of all of them. 

Mr. Arens. Has your work been principally in the New Jersey area ? 

Mr. Norman. No, no. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2877 

Mr. Norman. In New York and New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. Just in New York and in New Jersey? Have you 
worked in any other States ? 

Mr. Norman. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. About how many places did you work ? 

Mr. Norman. A great many, Congressman. Wlien you are learn- 
ing a trade, you have to bounce around. It is not easy when you 
aren't a young man any more. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you 

Mr. Norman. What's that! 

Mr. Scherer. Were you dismissed from any of the jobs ? 

Mr. Norman. Yes, 1 was, for inability to do the work. I am not 
ashamed of that. I can do the work well now. 

Mr. Scherer. Were the employers wrong in those cases ? 

Mr. Norman. Not at all, sir. I just indicated that. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Norman. No, I haven't, sir. 

I might say, by the way, that I volunteered for the Marine Corps 
in 1942, but it was up to my draft board that I was kept where I was. 
It was in a small town where people were pretty well known to each 
other. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of John Gates ? 

Mr. Norman. I already told you, sir, I will not identify individuals. 

Mr. Arens. It is our information that you are now one of the lead- 
ers of the so-called Eight Wing faction of the Communist Party. 
Could you help us on that and tell us whether or not you are ? 

Mr. Norman. Do you want me to be candid, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Norman. I don't believe you have such information. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact 

Mr. Norman. I put it to you as my opinion 

Mr. Arens. that you are with these boys in the Communist 

Party. If that is not true, deny it mider oath, 

Mr. Norman. I want to stipulate on the record I don't believe you 
have such information. 

]Mr. Arens, We are not asking for your beliefs and opinions here. 

Mr, Willis. Answer the question, 

Mr. Arens. You have professed that all the time. 

Mr. Norman. I know if I had information I would indicate its 
source and stipulate it if I felt it was important to do so. Let me 
say to you, sir, I think this is another form of asking the same kind 
of question which I think the Supreme Court has said you are in no 
way entitled to ask, and I am not going to answer. 

For the same reasons I gave above, the first and fourth and fifth 
amendments, 

Mr, Willis, Proceed, Counsel, 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr, Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr, Norman. Thank you. 



2878 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 9 : 30 to- 
morrow morning and the witnesses who are under subpena will please 
report at 9 : 30 tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 45 p. m., Thursday, September 4, 1958, the sub- 
committee recessed to reconvene at 9 : 30 a. m., Friday, September 5, 
1958.) 

(Subcommittee members present at the time of the recess were: 
Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 



C0M3IUNIST INFILTRATION AND ACTIVITIES IN 
NEWARK, N. J. 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBEB 5, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Newark, N. J. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 9 : 55 a. m., in courtroom No. 1, Post Office 
Building, Newark, N. J., Plon. Edwin E. Willis (subcommittee chair- 
man ) , presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; Raymond T. 
Collins and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel will call the first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Rosalind Bernstein, please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I do. 

Mr. Scribner. May we have no pictures while the witness is testi- 
fying. 

Mr. Willis. That is right. No pictures while the witness is testi- 
fying. 

TESTIMONY OF ROSALIND RYA BERNSTEIN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID SCRIBNER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Bernstein. I am Rosalind Rya Bernstein. I live in Elizabeth. 
I am a pharmacist, and I am also working with children. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Scribner. David Scribner, 15 William Street, New York City. 

2879 
31657—58 9 



2880 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed, Mrs. Bernstein? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Right now ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Bernstein. I am working with children in a nursery. 

Mr. Arens. "What is the name of the nursery ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. It is a small agency nursery. 

Mr. Arens. And the name of it, please ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Am I supposed to answer that ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bernstein. It is the Jewish Community Center of Elizabeth. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed there ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are you employed ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I am working with children at the nursery. 

Mr. Arens. Do you teach the children ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Yes, I teach the children. 

Mr. Arens. How many children are under your custody or super- 
vision ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. 25. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. My husband has a store — had a store until about 
6 months ago in Hillside, and as a pharmacist I have worked continu- 
ally as a part-time assistant to him until the time when we sold the 
the store. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lived in the New Jersey area all of your 
life? 

Mrs. Bernstein. We have lived all our married life of 26 years in 
New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. AVhere were you born ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I was born in Russia. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you come to the United States ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I came in 1924. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is that by derivation ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. That is by derivation. 

Mr. Arens. When did you acquire citizenship ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I could not — by derivation you acquire citizenship 
through your parent. 

Mr. Arens. When did you acquire it? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I believe it must have been about 10 years after, 
10 years or so after. 

Mr. Arens, About how old were you when you came to the United 
States? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I was 14 years old. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your formal education. 

Mrs. Bernstein. I attended Robert Treat Public School in Newark 
and Central High School. I hold a degree of a pharmaceutical chemist 
from Wayne University, and I have been taking 

Mr. Arens. Is Wayne University in these parts ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. No, it is in Detroit. And I am taking courses for 
the last 7 years. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2881 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education, say at 
Wayne University? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I would say around 1932. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us the principal employments you have had 
since then. 

Mrs. Bernstein. The principal employments since then have been 
just what I have said, working with my husband and then working 
with children. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Bernard Zick ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Any association with any people, sir, is my per- 
sonal business, and I will have to take the privilege on that question. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat do you mean, "the privilege" ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I mean by the privilege the answer I have just 
given you ; the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Again, sir, I will have to take the privilege of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you gave us a truth- 
ful answer while you are under oath as to whether or not you are 
presently a member of the Communist Party you would be supplying 
information which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. The answer to that, sir, is exactly what I have just 
given you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding principal 
question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. The question is intended to test the good faith 
of your invocation of the constitutional privilege. And I order you 
to answer the question. 

Mrs. Bernstein. Sir, I again repeat that I have given you an honest 
answer when I have taken the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Bernstein, a man by the name of Bernard Zick, 
who is scheduled to testify in a little while here 

Mrs. Bernstein. Yes. 
_ Mr. Arens. has already testified under oath in an executive ses- 
sion before this committee, and said that while he was a member of the 
Communist Party he knew you as a member of the Communist 
Party. We would like to give you an opportunity now while you are 
under oath to affirm or deny that testimony. Do you care to avail 
yourself of that privilege? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Sir, I have enough confidence in my Constitution 
to again repeat that my associations are mine and that I do not have 
to tell you whether I know or do not know or anything of that sort. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact that your membership card 
beginning back in 1944 in the Communist Party was card No. 85729. 
Would you kindly affirm or deny that allegation ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Bernstein. I again will have to repeat that I have answered 
that question and again will have to resort to the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you give us the street address of your home in 
Elizabeth? 



2882 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mrs. Bernstein. Do you want it? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, please. 

Mrs, Bernstein. It is 1126 Magie Avenue, like in Magic, M-a-g-i-e. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a basement at your home ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. No, not any — much of a basement, but this is not 
California. Most homes have basements. I don't know what kind 
of basement you are referring to. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived at that home ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I believe around 4 years. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live immediately prior to your present 
home, your present address? 

Mrs. Bernstein. We have lived in Hillside. 

Mr. Arens. And what was the address of your home there ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. 1281-1283 Liberty Avenue, Hillside. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a basement in that home ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. That, too, has a basement that was used for stock. 

Mr. Arens. Used for what? 

Mrs. Bernstein. For stock, mostly. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a mimeograph machine in your home at 
Hillside? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Sir, what I have in my house really is my own 
concern. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that you did have a mimeograph machine in your home which 
was used to reproduce Communist Party directives. If that is not a 
truthful assertion, kindly take issue while you are under oath. 

Mrs. Bernstein. I again repeat that I have answered that question 
and the previous question the same way, by taking the privilege of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Where is Union County ? I am not familiar with these 
parts. Are we in Union County now ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. No. You are not in Union County. 

Mr. Arens. Where is Union County? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Well geographically, sir, I would have to have a 
map. I really am not that familiar. 

Mr. Arens. Is Hillside in Union County ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Hillside is in Union County. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member and leader of the Union County 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Sir, again I will have to refer to the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr Arens. Were you one of the leaders in the Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Sir, when it comes to the Progressive Party the 
attitude of your committee has been such that I again feel that it is 
absolutely my private affair and that I will have to take the privilege 
on that, too. 

Mr. Arens. What is the age grouping of the children under your 
tutelage at the institution where you teach or where you superintend 
their activities ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. They are 3- and 4-year-olds. 

Mr. Arens. And how many children in the course of your employ- 
ment there have been under your tutelage ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. As I mentioned before there are 25 children. 

Mr. Arens And does that fluctuate from year to year? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2883 

Mrs. Bernstein. It certainly does. Children have a habit of grow- 
ing, sir. 

Mr, Arens. How many different children have been under your 
tutelage in the course of the time that you have been there ? 

Mrs. Bernstein. I certainly could not count. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately, your best judgment. 

Mrs. Bernstein. Well, in 3 years, I imagine that is 25 

Mr. Arens. Has there been a complete turnover every year? 

Mrs. Bernstein. No. Well, the 3's remain very often, the 4's 

Mr. Arens. Do you instruct the children? 

Mrs. Bernstein. Working with children could include the instruc- 
tion, even the 3- and 4-year-olds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you conferred with your employer respecting your 
appearance here since you received your subpena to appear? 

Mrs. Bernstein. What I do about anything that is personal is 
really my business. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. There are reasons for the question. You are 
directed to answer. 

Mrs. Bernstein, I don't have to, 

Mr, Willis. I say I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Bernstein. Again I repeat that I have a right to my own 
opinions or to my own 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arens, Would you kindly answer — excuse me. You are con- 
ferring with counsel. 

Mrs. Bernstein. I am not finished, sir. 

Mr, Arens, I am sorry, I beg your pardon. 

Mrs. Bernstein. I will have to again take the privilege. 

Mr. Willis, Let me ask you : Is that school in the nature of kinder- 
garten as we properly refer to such a school ? 

Mrs, Bernstein. It is not kindergarten. It is preschool. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

Mr, Willis, The witness is excused. 

Mr, Arens. Mr, Bernard Zick, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Willis, Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr, Zick, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BERNARD ZICK 

Mr, Arens, Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation, 

Mr, Ztck, Bernard Zick, Oakland, N, J., and I work at Tung Sol 
Electric Co,, Inc., in Bloomfield, 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Zick, could you get a little closer to the public- 
address system ? We are having difficulty hearing you, 

Mr, Zick. All right. How's that ? 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, 

Mr, Zick, have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Zick. I have, sir. 



2884 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us the time you entered the Communist 
Party, when you left the Communist Party, and a word about the unit 
within the Communist Party to which you were attached. 

Mr. ZicK. I joined the Communist Party in 1947, and I left in 1950. 
I joined it through my associations with Jack Bernstein. 

I joined the party with whom I had associations with Jack and Rya 
Bernstein in Hillside. I grew up in that neighborhood, and I must 
say jjublicly that these people always were awfully good to me, and I 
was under their influence and I certainly accepted their views on 
things, so, I joined the party. 

Mr. Arens. To what club or unit of the Communist Party were you 
attached ? 

Mr. ZiCK. I was in the GE Club. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that located ? 

Mr. ZiCK. That was a club that had several shops in GE with Tung 
Sol and several smaller shops. 

IMr. Arens. In what city ? 

Mr. ZiCK. In Newark. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the name of the club again, please ? 

Mr.ZiCK. The GE Club. 

Mr. Arens. The GE Club ? 

Mr. ZicK. That is. General Electric. 

Mr. Arens. The GE Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. ZicK. No. That was in Newark. That wasn't in Hillside. 

Mr. Arens. Yes; in Newark. Who were the principal leaders of 
that club, please ? 

Mr. ZicK. I was one, I guess, and 

Mr. Arens. TVliat post did you hold ? 

Mr. ZicK. Well, I actually can't remember exactly, but I was very 
active in it. I distributed the Daily Worker. I had meetings at my 
house. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio else was in a leadership capacity in that club ? 

Mr. ZiCK. Robert Dixon, who was here on Wednesday. 

Mr. Arens. Were the Bernsteins in that club ? 

Mr. ZiCK. No; they were not. I was just trying to think of names 
of people in there. It was an extremely small club, as I say, because 
it had many shops in its because there wasn't enough people in any 
one shop to have a full club and the people 

Mr. Arens. Did you serve in the Communist Party with Jack and 
Rya Bernstein ? 

Mr. ZiCK. I was only to one meeting with Jack, I believe. That 
is all. 

Mr. Arens. Do you identify him to your certain knowledge as a 
person known by you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. ZicK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you identify Rya Bernstein as a person who to your 
certain knowledge was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr.ZicK. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Can you continue to give us the names of persons who 
were in leadership status in this club of the Communist Party and give 
us a word about the activities ? 

Mr. ZicK. There was a Sylvia Cohen who worked for the UE, who 
was in the club for a time. And I actually can't remember at the 
moment the names of these people. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2885 

Mr. Arens. Was Robert Dixon in that club ? 

Mr. ZicK. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Arens. Was Elwood Dean in that club ? 

Mr.ZiCK. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Elwood Dean as a Communist ? 

Mr.ZicK. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr, ZiCK. I was over to his house. I saw him at meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Communist meetings ? 

Mr. ZicK. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you during your membership in the Communist 
Party, attached to any entity or unit other than the unit of GE that 
you told us about ? 

Mr. ZicK. No, I wasn't. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in sessions of other groups ? 

Mr. ZicK. I may have, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist, Jessie Scott Campbell ? 

Mr. ZiCK. No. I have heard of her, but I don't know her personally. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist, Tom Leavy ? 

Mr. ZiCK. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist, Joe Alf one ? 

Mr.^iCK. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you leave the Communist Party ? 

Mr.ZiCK. In 1950. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned your disassociation from the party? 

Mr. ZicK. I started to see that it was not what I wanted and what 
I thought it was, and it didn't go with my basic feelings on things; 
so I bowed out. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge did the Bernsteins have a 
mimeograph machine in their home ? 

Mr.ZiCK. That I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat activity was performed by your unit of the 
Communist Party at the behest of the conspiracy ? 

Mr. ZicK. There were plans to bring certain issues up at union meet- 
ings, to try to back certain people and get them in office in the union, 
and it was our club 

Mr. Arens. What union was that, please ? 

Mr.ZiCK. Either GE or Tung SoL 

Mr. Arens. What union within GE or Tung Sol ? 

Mr.ZiCK. UE. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead, please. 

Mr. ZicK. We would take up certain issues — I can't remember just 
which ones. There was one about several Negro boys in Trenton that 
were convicted of murder or something, and we backed that and 
popularized it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you disseminate Communist propaganda ? 

Mr.ZiCK. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have no further questions of Mr. 
Zick. We thank him for his contribution. 

Mr. Willis. I want you to know, sir, we deeply appreciate the 
courage you have displayed in coming here, telling us under oath of 
your experiences while you became enmeshed in the Communist Party, 
and of your seeing the light and telling us your experiences. We are 
deeply grateful. 



2886 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ZicK. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jack Bernstein, kindly come forward. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Bernstein. I do. 

Mr. ScRiBNER. May we have the same ruling on photographs ? 

Mr. Willis. There will be no photographing while the witness 
testifies. 

TESTIMONY OF JACOB BERNSTEIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID SCRIBNER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Bernstein. I am Jacob Bernstein, 1126 Magie Avenue, Eliza- 
beth, N. J. I am a pharmacist. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. ScRiBNER. David Scribner, 15 William Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bernstein, do you know the gentleman standing 
here to my right who is signing a paper at the desk, Mr. Bernard 
Zick ? Do you know him ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I don't like a person who is an informer. It goes 
against my grain. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I wish to finish my statement, please. A person 
who is an informer is below the level of dignity of a human being, and 
I don't consider such a person to be a person any more. And as to 
your direct question, do I know him, since he is appearing as the wit- 
ness of this committee and a friendly witness, I wish to take the priv- 
ilege of the fifth amendment in its fullest extent. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is it because he is what you consider an informer as 
you described it and because he is appearing before this committee as 
a friendly witness that you are refusing to answer ? Do I understand 
that to be your answer ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Do I understand that to be the reason for your re- 
fusal to answer? 

Mr. Bernstein. The reason I am taking the fifth amendment is 
because the Constitution tells me that I do not have to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2887 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Zick swore here just a few moments ago that while 
he was a member of the Communist Party he knew you as a member of 
the Communist Party. We want to give you an opportunity now 
while you are under oath to either affirm or deny that testimony. Do 
you care to avail yourself of that privilege? 

Mr. Bernstein. I take the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I was born in Newark, N. J., on October 24, 1911. 

Mr. Arens. And kindly give us a word about your education. 

Mr. Bernstein. I went to Robert Treat Public School, Barringer 
High School, and I attended the College of Pharmacy. 

Mr. Arwns. Wlien did you conclude your education at the College 
of Pharmacy? 

Mr. Bernstein. About 1931, the year of the depression. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you in 1930? Were you in pharmacy 
school ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Probably around that time ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of any outside organizations while 
you were going to pharmacy school ? 

Mr, Bernstein. I have been a member of many organizations. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the names of some of them ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I don't care to. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bernstein. I have a right to belong to whatever organizations 
I wish and to associate with anyone I wish, and I again take the privi- 
lege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel if you told us the organizations to which 
you belonged in 1930 while you were a pharmacy student, you would 
be supplying information which might be used against you in a crimi- 
nal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bernstein. I honestly feel that way. I honestly feel it is not 
the committee's affair. 

Mr. Arens. You were a member of the Young Communist League 
in 1930 ; were you not ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I take the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. You became a member of the Communist Party in 1943 ; 
did you not ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Again, I repeat 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what functions you have performed in 
this community in a financial capacity as a custodian of funds? Can 
you help us on that other than the custody which you must have of 
the funds of your pharmacy ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bernstein. I don't feel I wish to answer that. I don't choose 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why not ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Again, I will use the privilege. 

Mr. Arens, Do you honestly feel if you told us about any financial 
transactions and custody of funds which you have been in charge of 



2888 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

in the course of the last several years in this area you would be sup- 
plying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bernstein. I again take the privilege. 

Mr. Arexs. I put it to you as a fact, sir, based upon information 
from reliable sources that have come before this committee that you 
are now and have in the past several years been in charge of finances 
and funds of the Union County Communist conspiratorial activities. 
If that is not true, please deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Bernstein. I again take the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Do you maintain any banking accounts or checking 
accounts other than your own personal checking account for your 
own personal affairs? 

Mr, Bernstein. Well, it is not the committee's business, but I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Do you handle any funds other than your own personal 
funds? 

Mr. Bernstein. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the course of recent past handled any 
funds other than your own personal funds ? 

Mr. Bernstein. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you directed the expenditure of funds of the Com- 
munist Party in Union County ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Again I take the privilege of the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Are you active as a member or a participant in the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee in this area ? 

Mr. Bernstein. My associations are my own. I answered that 
before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Harvey O'Connor, who, according to the 
papers, was a spokesman for the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee in a rally or session they had here in Newark a night or so 
ago, a couple of nights ago, September 3? Do you know him? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bernstein. I have heard of him, and I am proud to have heard 
of him and what he stands for. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I have no knowledge 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I do not wish to comment on that. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Willis. It is a proper question. 

Mr. ScHERER. He said he knows him. 

Mr. Willis. He said he doesn't wish to comment on him. 

Mr. Bernstein. I have no information, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Again the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I think that I would like to submit 
for the record a letter which has been received. Before doing so, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 2889 

I should like to submit for the record, to be incorporated in the body 
of the record, the subpena which was issued and served upon Harvey 
O'Connor. A letter has just been received here delivered to a repre- 
sentative of this staff from Harvey O'Connor, which I would like to 
submit to the Chairman and then read into the record in which he 
declines to make his appearance pursuant to the subpena which was 
served upon him. And I would like to make a clear record here, Mr. 
Chairman, as to why he was subpenaed, so the committee will have 
that information available for its deliberations in the future. 

Mr. Chairman, if it meets with your pleasure and the pleasure of the 
committee, I should like a ruling that there be incorporated in the body 
of the record at tliis point, the subpena which was served upon Harvey 
O'Connor and that there be incorporated in the body of the record the 
letter which was delivered a short time ago, in the course of the last 
hour or so, to Mr. Collins of this staff from a representative of Harvey 
O'Connor, the letter reading as follows : 

Gentlemen — 

It is dated September 4, 1958. 

I have a profound respect for our Constitutional system, our institutions, and 
the lawful processes of government. 

In declining to appear before the Committee, I am acting in accordance with 
my understanding of the Supreme Court's decision in the Watkins case and in 
protest against the Committee's abuse of process and its usurpation of authority. 

My reasons for not appearing are set forth in the enclosed statement which I 
should like to have incorporated in the record. 

And then the enclosed statement is some 2 pages, which I suggest, 
Mr. Chairman, be incorporated with the letter in the body of the 
record. 

Mr. Willis. Let the letter and the statement be incorporated in the 
body as well as the subpena. 

(The information referred to follows :) 



2890 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

O'Connor Exhibit No. 1 
Copy 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

(Lonivtii of t\)t ^niteb States! 



To 



"Harvey 'D'^Conhor" 



^ .Greeting: 

PtJBSUANT to lawful authority, You ARE HEREBY COMMANDED to be and appear before the 

Committee on Un-American Activities of the House of Representatives of the United States, or 

a duly appointed subcommittee thereof, on _ , 19 > 

5 September 58 

at o'clock, m., at their Committee Room, _ 

10 a Court #1, U.S. Court liouee 

&'F6st "0Tfice""Biac;;"FederoT5qu^ ' 

then and there to testify touching matters of inquiry committed to said committee, and not to 

depart without leave of said committee. 

You Are Hereby Commanded to bring with you and produce before said committee, or 
a duly authorized subcommittee thereof, the following: 



Hereof Fail Not, as you will answer your default under the pains and penalties in such 
cases made and provided. 



To 



U.S. Marshall 
Given under my hand this 

year of our Lord, 19....^^ 
58 



., to serve and return. 




Chairman — Chairman of Subcommittee — Member Designate 
of the Committee on Un-American Activities of the House 
of Representatives. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2891 

K.MO.Cr-9B7-S'B 

RETURN 



Subpena for 



before the Committee on the 



I made service of the within subpena by 

..I'.eliyer.lns-..to...an!i.leaylag„,.. 

..parsonally..3d.th..IIarr/-ey..JCl^CQnn.Qr. 

...at...tbjSL..GarltQn..2o.c3Ei^..C.arJ.toji.HQtel, 

Newark, IT. J., on 9/3/?8. At the 
the within-named 

same time showing said person the 

..Qrl^lna-T—and—Ljif or^i ng..him..Qf at 

its contents. 

:fs:sIs:z:: 



\. ^..(^^.r^i^L^j^j^;;. 

at .(/...TZZ^.. o'clock, /T...m., on the 

day of , 195—. 

Dated , 195.... 



u. s oovtflNMCNT pnrHTiNG omcc 16 — 71627-1 



2892 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

O'Connor Exhibit No. 2 

[Copy] 

HARVEY O'CONNOR 
Little Compton, Rhode Island 

September 4, 1958 
House Committee on Un-Amebican Activities 
United States Coiirt House 
Newark, New Jersey 
Gentlemen : 

I have a profound respect for our Constitutional system, our institutions, and 
the lawful processes of government. 

In declining to appear before the Committee, I am acting in accordance with 

my undtM-standing of the Supreme Court's decision in the Watkins case and in 

protest against the Committee's abuse of process and its usurpation of authority. 

My reasons for not appearing are set forth in the enclosed statement which 

I should like to have incorporated in the record. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Haevey O'Connob. 



O'Connor Exhibit No. 3 
Statement of Harvey O'Connor 

In declining to respond to a purported subpena issued by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, I am acting strictly within the confines 
of the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the Watkins case, of 
June 17, 1957. I challenge the authority of the House Committee to summon 
nie for an unconstitutional purpose. 

This subpena was served on me as I entered a meeting hall in the Hotel 
Carlton, Newark, on the evening of September 3rd. The House Committee 
on that day had been holding hearings in Newark. In the course of the pro- 
ceedings. Concressmnn Scherer bitterly assailed the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee, whose New Jersey Associates had taken an advertisement in the 
Newark News criticizing the ECLC and myself as chairman. The meeting was 
held to explain to the public the decision of the subpenaed witnesses and to 
rally support for them. Congressman Scherer is. of course, entitled to his own 
opinions about both the ECLC and myself. But I challenge his right to hail me 
before his Committee. 

As the Snpren)e Court observed in the Watkins decision : "There is no gen- 
eral authority to expose the private affairs of individuals without justification 
in terms of the functions of Congress . . . Nor is the Congress a law enforce- 
ment or trial agency ... No inquiry is an end in itself; it must be related to 
and in furtherance of a legitimate task of the Congress. Investigations con- 
ducted solely for the personal aggrandizement of the investigators or to 'punish' 
those investigated are indefensible." 

The words of the Supreme Court cover exactly the situation regarding my 
subpena. The announced purpose of the House Committee is to "punish" the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee because within the past year ECLC ini- 
tiated a campaign for abolition of the House Committee. While Congressman 
Scherer may contend that his Committee should not be abolished, he has no 
right to smear me because as a citizen I am working for such abolition. Congress 
can enact no legislation repressing a citizens organization; in the words of the 
Supreme Court: "Clearly, an investigation is subject to the command that the 
Congress shall make no law abridging freedom of speech or press or assembly." 
The Court emphasized that the investigative process "is justified solely as an 
adjunct to the legislative process." And Congress obviously cannot restrain the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee or myself from petitioning for the aboli- 
tion of a Congressional committee. The Court added that, "We have no doubt 
that there is no Congressional power to expose for the sake of exposure," which 
can be the only purpose in summoning me, granted that Congress may not 
legislate against my rights as a citizen. 

I am challenging the right of the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties to exist. In that I am following the reasoning of our highest Court when 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2893 

it commented on the resolution authorizing the creation of the House Committee. 
Said the Court : "It would be difficult to imagine a less explicit authorizing 
resolution. Who can define the meaning of 'un-American' V" 

Not one single piece of legislation has emanated from the 21 years of activity 
of this House Committee. It has amassed testimony tilling a five-foot shelf 
without producing a single constructive law. It has wasted millions of dollars 
of the taxpayers' money, it has ruined the lives of thousands of citizens whose 
ideas the House Committee considered unorthodox. It is time to challenge the 
power of the House Committee to spread fear and confusion among us. By 
declining to respond to the House Committee's subpena, I make that challenge. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, so there may be no misunder- 
standing as to the desire of the committee to interrogate Harvey 
O'Connor pursuant to the subpena, I now call Harvey O'Comior to 
the witness stand. 

Mr. Harvey O'Connor, would you kindly come forward ? 

Let the record reflect, if you please, Mr. Chairman, after an inter- 
lude of a reasonable period of time, the fact that he has not appeared. 

Now, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. ScHERER. I think the record should also show the time Counsel 
is making this statement. The clock shows that it is 10 : 35 a. m. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, I should like to make a brief 
statement summarizing the principal reasons why a subpena was 
served upon Mr. Harvey O'Connor for his appearance, the subpena 
itself having been issued — I don't have the exact date. It was some sev- 
eral days ago. 

There is pending or tliere has been pending before the Congress 
and there has been pending before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities a number of legislative proposals which are designed to 
meet various serious situations in respect to the Communist Party 
and the Communist Party operation in the United States, including 
legislative proposals to meet situations posed by certain decisions of 
the courts, one of which is a decision in the Yafcs case, in which the 
Supreme Court of the United States, among other things, made pro- 
nouncements respecting an interpretation of the Smith Act of 1940 in 
one part of the decision to the general effect that the term "organiz- 
ing" as used in the Smith Act is applicable only to the initial organi- 
zation of the Communist Party and not to organizing as applied to 
later entities under the auspices or control of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Willis. Nor to regrouping and reconstructing the party. That 
is part of the bill. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, it is the information of the committee on the 
basis of preliminary inquiries that among other organizations that 
have been organized, grouped, and regrouped by the Communist 
Party is the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, that the head of 
that organization is Mr. Harvey O'Connor, who himself has been 
identified by a live, responsible witness under oath as a member of 
the Communist Party. 

The testimony taken by this committee in the course of just the 
last few months at Atlanta, Georgia, was to the effect that another 
man, by the name of Carl Braden who lias been repeatedly identified 
as a hard-core agent in the Communist Party, was in session with Mr. 
Harvey O'Connor in the New England States recently, I believe it 
was Rhode Island, where they, so we believe, were planning strategies, 



2894 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

tactics, and organizational activities of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. 

It has been asserted, based upon factual information, before the 
committee and testified that the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 
was created by the Communist Party for the purposes of discrediting 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, of hampering the security 
program of the United States, and of undertaking to tie the hands of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and to discredit the Director of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities some several months ago 
issued a report entitled, "Operation Abolition" respecting the cam- 
paign against the House Committee on Un-American Activities, the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Government security pro- 
gram by the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee and its affiliates, 
which sets forth considerable information respecting the activities of 
this organization and the program of the organization as well as the 
Communist Party affiliations and activities of the leadership of the 
org^anization. 

So it was the decision of the committee and particularly of the 
Committee Chairman, some several days ago, that at sucli time as 
Mr. Harvey O'Connor could be located and served with a subpena he 
be subpenaed, and this subpena was signed by the Chairman of the 
Committee on August 28. It was served upon Harvey O'Connor 
according to the return which I now have in my hand at 8 : 37 p. m. 
on September 3, 1958, for his appearance today. 

There are other legislative proposals pending before the committee 
on which we should like to develop factual information and expect 
to elicit or hope to elicit information from Mr. O'Connor, namely, 
legislation which would reinvest the States with the power, jurisdic- 
tion, and authority to conduct their own hearings on sedition, on eilorts 
by conspiratorial organizations to overthrow the Government of the 
United States by force and violence. 

Indeed, as I am sure the chairman will recall, because he personally 
was very active in developing that legislation, it was successful in 
passing the House of Representatives, I believe this very last session. 

We thought that if we could interrogate O'Connor we might be able 
to develop factual information which would be of assistance in apprais- 
ing the legislation which is designed principally to overcome another 
decision of the Supreme Court, which in effect ruled that the Smith 
Act, which invests the Federal Government with power to proceed 
against persons who would overthrow the Government of the United 
States by force and violence divests the States of a comparable juris- 
diction. 

We likewise liave pending before the committee legislation which 
would undertake to cope more adequately with Communist propa- 
ganda, Communist propaganda activities, and it is obvious to the 
committee based upon factual information which has been presented 
to it that the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee and Harvey O'Con- 
nor in particular are disseminators of Communist propaganda. We 
anticipated and hoped that if he should respond to the subpena and 
appear we would interrogate him respecting the dissemination of 
Communist propaganda so that factual information would be avail- 
able to the committee as it appraises tliis legislation and as it under- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2895 

tcakes to maintain a surveillance over existing legislation pertaining to 
Communist propaganda. 

That, Mr. Chairman, is only a brief explanation of certain areas in 
which we expected to interrogate Mr. O'Connor, had he responded to 
the subpena which was served upon him. 

Mr. ScHERER. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, if Counsel has not already 
done so that the advertisement in the Newark newspapers placed there 
by the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee be also made a part of 
the record at this time. 

Mr. Willis. As well 

Mr. ScHERER. And the reported statements made at that meeting, 
including those of the witness O'Connor as reported in the daily 
press. 

Mr. Willis. So ordered. 



31657—58 10 



2896 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEWARK, N. J. 

O'Connor Exhibit No. 4 

(NmRK EmniG M&JS, V^DNESDAY, SEPTEMBSR 3, 1958) 

• u. s. * 

SUPREME COURT 
REBUKES 
UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
COMMITTEE 

"Investigations conducted solely for the personal aggran- 
dizement of the investigators or to 'punish' those investigated 
are indefensible." 

"The Bill of Rights is applicable to investigations as to 
all forms of governmental action. fFitnesses cannot be com- 
pelled to give evidence against themselves. They cannot be 
subjected to unreasonable search and seizure. Nor can the 
First Amendment freedoms of speech, press, religion, or 
political belief and association be abridged." 

CHIEF JUSTICE EARL WARREN, JUNE 17, 1957 

This discredited Un-American Activities Committee is here 
again, doing business in its usual shoddy manner. Along with' 
countless other Americans, we protest the appearance of the 
Committee in our community. It is only sensational publicity 
they are after. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2897 

O'Connor Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 

This Committee 
Was Condemned B^: 



• 



Cardinal Mundelein of the Roman Catholic 
Church — 

"// it is really a committee to investigate 'un-American 
activities,' it should begin with itself." 

• The late President Franklin D. Roosevelt — 

"It is sordid , , . flagrantly unfair and un-AmeiHcan.'* 

• Detroit Free Press — 

". . . tlie hypocritically named Committee on Un-American 
Activities should be abolished at the earliest possible moment 
by the United States Congress . . . and so deeply buried that no 
other group of publicity-mad zealots could ever be allowed to 
tarnish with their stench tlie greater inslilulion of our democ- 
racy — our halls of Congress." 

-• J50 Negro Leaders — 

"Its (the Committee's) activities in recent years suggest thai 
it is much more interested in harassing and labeling as 'sub- 
versive' any citizen tvho- is inclined to be liberal or an inde- 
pendent thinlier." 

• Nafi Council of Churches of Christ in U.S.A. — 

urge as Temedial measures to deal Witlj these precedural- 
abuses' in ordej to secure protection of the freedoms of our 
people and their institutions against investigatory excesses." 

• Synagogue Council of America — 

". i . tlie practice of smearing Americans without affording 
the accused the opportunity of defending their names and their 
records, is a 'practice repugnant to ethical procedure, alien to 
religious feeling and completely contrary to established Ameri- 
can principles of fair play.' " 



2898 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

O'Connor Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 

CIVIL LIBERTY 
IS EVERYBOD Y'S BUSINESS 

THERE MUST BE NO APOLOGIES 
FOR THE BILL OF RIGHTS 

• THE FIRST ARTICLE OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS SAYS: 
'"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of 
religion or prohibiting the further exercise thereof or abridg- 
ing freedom of speech or the press or the right of the people 
peaceably to assemble and to petition the government of the 
United States for a redress of grievance." 

• U.S. SUPREME COURT JUSTICE MURPHY OBSERVED: 
"The right of freedom of thought and religion as guaranteed 
by the Constitution . . . includes both the right to speak freely 
and the right to refrain from speaking at all." 

• U.S. SUPREME COURT, IN THE FAMOUS WATKIN'S 
CASE SAID: "Clearly, an investigation is subject to the com- 
mand that the Congress shall make no law abridging freedom 
of speech, or press or assembly." 

• THE FIFTH AMENDMENT OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION 
SAYS: "No person shall be compelled to be a witness against 
himself nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without 
due process of law." 

"THE FIFTH AMENDMENT WAS NE\ ER INTENDED TO SERVE AS 
A CONFESSION OF GUILT. It was added to ihe Consfiiiition to protect the 
innocent . . . our founding falJiers were familiar enough with the history of the 
Middle Ages to know that 'Justice' in tliat time took some pecuHar forms. They 
knew that the formal trial of a citizen began hy placing him to torture . '. , Uie 
franiers of the BUI of Rights were determined tliat this should never happen in' 
thia fair country of ours ... no matter who invokes the amendments, it stands ia 
our Constitution as one of the guardians of our liherties." — JOSEPH N. WELCH, 
COUNSEL FOR THE U. S. ARMY DURING THE ARMY-McCARTHY HEAR> 
INGS. 

ATTEND THE OFFICIAL HEARIISIGS 
SEE AND HEAR FOR YOURSELF 

MEETiG TOITE, SEPT. 3, AT 8 P. M. 

HOTEL C,lRLT0.\-24 E. Park St., Newark, SI. J. 

Hear Mr. Harvey O'Connor 

AUTHOR AND LECTURER, MTL CHAIRMAN E. C. L. C. 
Admission .'lOe 

Pleisi send ctntributions U N.l. Associate! E.C.I.C., P.O. Box 8114, Clinton Hill Station, Newark S, N. J. 

Publillttd ky N. J. AliOcialM Emtrgtncy Civil lib>rli«i CommittM, 421 7lh Avt., N. Y. 1, N. Y. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2899 

O'Connor Exhibit No. 5 

[Newark Evening News, Thursday, September 4, 1958] 

WotTLD Defy House Group 

ECLO HEAD GETS HEARING CALL 

Harvey O'Connor, chairman of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, last 
night urged New Jersey members of that organization to defy the "cursed" 
House Un-American Activities Committee at every opportunity. He spoke at a 
rally at the Hotel Carlton. 

O'Connor's opportunity to be defiant will come tomorrow. Just before he rose 
to speak, an agent of the House group served him with a subpoena directing him 
to appear at the current hearings in the Federal Building tomorrow at 10 a. m. 

An enthusiastic gathering of 125 persons cheered when the Rhode Island 
author characterized members of the Congressional committee as "spookniks, 
driving scientists from the government and terrorizing our teachers." 

The House committee and its sister body in the Senate — Internal Affairs Com- 
mittee — "are responsible for the social stagnation of America," O'Connor 
charged. 

The committee's "decisive influence," he said, has been responsible for what 
he termed the country's failures in public education, health, and housing in the 
last two decades. 

O'Connor was fined $500 and given a one-year suspended jail sentence in 1955 
for refusing to say whether he had been a Communist when he wrote books 
later used in U. S. overseas libraries. 

Rep. Gordon Scherer (R., Ohio), GOP member of the House group, yesterday 
described O'Connor as "an identified Communist." The Emergency Civil Liber- 
ties Committee has been called a Communist front by the House committee and 
by the FBI. 

O'Connor noted with pleasure that the "fear" which he said the Un-American 
Activities Committee once spread throughout the country has "given way to 
contempt for these characters who go about besmirching the Bill of Rights." 

CONGRESS LAUDED 

He praised the recent session of Congress for having adjourned with "not a 
single piece of repressive legislation to its credit," and congratulated the "Eisen- 
hower Supreme Court" on its decisions in defense of civil liberties. 

"These rulings have amazed those of us who have been in this long and 
bloody battle for civil liberties," O'Connor said. "Public opinion must be 
changing," in the Watkins decision in particular, O'Connor said, "the Supreme 
Court upheld the freedom to be silent when you want to be silent." 

IMRIE CHAIRMAN 

Chairman of last night's meeting was James Imrie of Princeton, former secre- 
tary of ECLC and one-time N. J. gubernatorial and U. S. Senate candidate on 
Henry Wallace's Progressive Party ticket. 

Also on the dais were Mrs. Hildegarde Hall, Newark school teacher and 
treasurer of the ECLC New Jersey affiliate, and John Scudder, New York at- 
torney and ECLC secretary. 

Present at the meeting were Perry Zimmerman and Dr. Robert Lowenstein, 
dismissed Newark schoolteachers who pleaded the Fifth Amendment at Un- 
American Activities Committee hearings here three years ago. 



O'Connor Exhibit No. 6 
[The Newark Star-Ledger, Thursday, September 4, 1958] 

Quiz Protest Leadhsi Refuses Subpena 

The leader of a protest meeting against the House Un-American Activities 
Committee angrily refused to accept a subpena last night and threw it on the 
floor. 



2900 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Harvey O'Connor, chairman of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, also 
had some very uncomplimentary things to say about the House group while he 
held a meeting of his committee at the Carlton Hotel. 

"The House Un-American Committee ought to be abolished because it is creat- 
ing a dis-united United States," O'Connor said. 

"We should have nothing but contempt for members of the House committee," 
he said. 

Earlier, he had refused to look at the subpena handed him by Chief Field 
Deputy August Horn of the U. S. marshal's office in Newark. 

O'Connor's subpena called for him to appear at 10 a. m. tomorrow before the 
House group at the Newark Federal Building. 

However, the New York author praised the U. S. Supreme Court for freeing 
several reluctant congressional witnesses. "This should give us hope for the 
future," O'Connor said. 

"Another wonderful thing is that Congress recently adjourned without passing 
one piece of repressive legislation," he said. 

He blasted the House group for stifling economic, social, education, and politi- 
cal progress. 

"That's why Russia got Sputniks in the air first." 

Among the some 200 in O'Connor's audience were Perry Zimmerman and 
Robert Lowenstein, schoolteachers who took the Fifth Amendment when they 
appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee in Newark three 
years ago. Both have been dismissed from the Newark school system. 

Also present last night were Thomas Leavy of Atlantic Highlands and Jessie 
Scott Campbell of Montclair. Both took the Fifth earlier in the day when they 
appeared before the House group. Included were David Rocklin of Newark, 
who also pleaded the Fifth in 1955 and Morton Stavis, former lawyer for the 
United Electrical Union in Newark. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, Mr. Chairman, I move that this subcommittee 
recommend to the full committee that Harvey O'Connor be cited for 
contempt of Congress, that the full committee take such action as is 
necessary with the Speaker of the House of Representatives to bring 
about such citation. 

Mr. Willis. Well, this witness, O'Connor, who was subpenaed here 
is clearly, in the opinion of the Chair, in contempt of the committee 
and consequently of Congress. According to the press reporting of 
his remarks at a meeting here, which, of course, was perfectly lawful 
to hold, he intended nevertheless to discredit and to suggest a defiance 
of the committee. He is clearly in contempt. Seldom, in fact I don't 
recall, a witness going so far as deliberately refusing to even appear 
before this or any other committee of Congress. He is just asking for 
it. And, of course, after consultation with the legal staff, necessary 
steps will be taken to submit the matter to the full committee and to 
the House of Representatives. 

Mention was made by counsel here of an incident at another hear- 
ing where a man named Braden had about the same things in mind, 
but he at least appeared and even after appearance, his actions were 
such that just a few days ago the House of Representatives without a 
dissenting vote, as I recall, held him and Frank Wilkinson, who also 
appeared at the Atlanta hearing, to be in contempt of the Congress 
and referred the matter to the Department of Justice. 

Here the witness didn't even show up. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is my recollection that the press reported that the 
proposed witness O'Connor urged other witnesses to defy the work of 
this committee. 

Mr. Willis. We will take a brief recess. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer.) 

(A brief recess was taken.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2901 

(Subcommittee members present: Kepresentatives Willis and 
Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I should like, if you please, sir, to make 
an announcement respecting the witness who was scheduled to ap- 
pear at this time, Mr. Leo Shull. He was originally under subpena 
for appearance in New York City in connection with hearings of this 
committee in regard to Communist penetration in the entertainment 
industry. Those hearings were scheduled and were held several 
months ago, at which time at the time for his appearance Mr. Shull 
was ill and was unable to appear. He was then continued under his 
subpena. We thought in view of the fact that the committee was in 
this general area of New York City, or at least adjacent to New York 
City, we might hear him here and be able to complete the record on 
that one project of the committee. His counsel, who is an eminent 
and distinguished member of the bar, has advised me informally that 
Mr. Shull is presently en route to the session but that it will be some 
several minutes before he can arrive. In view of the fact that the 
committee has a heavy schedule, personal commitments, this after- 
noon and tomorrow, I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, and I have 
conferred with counsel and it is agreeable with him, that Mr. Shull 
be continued under his subpena for a time and place that we agree 
on with counsel, perhaps to be heard in Washington and that his ap- 
pearance schedule for this hour now be deferred. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so ordered with that understanding that he 
will remain under subpena and we will hear him on the other aspect 
of our work in Washington. 

Mr. GiTLiN. I appreciate that. 

Mr. Arens. Identify yourself on the record as the counsel to Mr. 
Shull. 

Mr. GiTLiN. I am Leo Gitlin. 

Mr. Willis. And confirming the understanding as his lawyer that 
you understand he remains under subpena and is due to appear at a 
convenient time in Washington. 

Mr. Gitlin. Yes, sir. Leo G-i-t-1-i-n, 565 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City. I am counsel for Leo Shull and recognize that Mr. 
Shull was under subpena for appearance at this hearing this morning. 
And I accede, agree, and have solicited the continuance of that sub- 
pena and his responsibility to appear at the next future hearing de- 
termined by this committee at its convenience. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that would conclude the presentation of 
witnesses. There are no other witnesses we presently desire to hear, 
and we respectfully suggest that the Chair announce that the other 
witnesses who had been under subpena for appearance today, with the 
exception, of course, of Mr. Harvey O'Connor, are now excused from 
appearance. 

Mr. Willis. The witnesses who were summoned but who have not 
been heard will be excused. 

Does that complete your presentation. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Scherer, would you want to make a concluding 
statement ? 



2902 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I just have one or two observations to 
make. There has been some criticism not only of the committee but 
also of the United States marshal. Complaints have been sent to the 
Department of Justice concerning the marshal's conduct during these 
hearings. It is apparent to those of us who have experienced the 
tactics of the Communists at hearings in all parts of the country that 
there was a well-planned attempt by the Communists and their apolo- 
gists to institute a disturbance of these hearings and create contempt 
and ill-will and hatred toward the committee, the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, and the United States marshal. 

This is evidenced by the meeting conducted by the Communist con- 
trolled and dominated Emergency Civil Liberties Committee on 
"Wednesday night, the advertisements in the local press put there by 
that committee, the letters to the editor, the contemptuous and surly 
conduct of such witnesses as Taylor, and the agitation among some 
of the spectators. 

If persons in this hearing room, including some of the witnesses 
and their lawyers, conducted themselves as they did with a judge 
presiding in this room, a number of them would have found them- 
selves in jail immediately for contemptuous conduct. However, the 
Communist Party lawyers have advised their clients that this com- 
mittee under the law cannot punish for contemptuous conduct. We 
are therefore required to take much personal abuse. 

In view of the inability of the committee to prevent the contemptu- 
ous conduct and disturbances as I have mentioned, it therefore de- 
volves upon the United States marshal to prevent disturbances and 
agitation in this courtroom so that the business of the Congress might 
go forward with decorum and dispatch. 

The United States marshal, Joseph Job, has performed his duties in 
an efficient, effective, and admirable manner. His prompt action has 
prevented a well-planned disturbance from getting out of hand. This 
committee commends United States marshal Joseph Job and his fine 
deputies for their courageous performance of their duties. 

Mr. Willis. I certainly want to associate myself with the statement 
made by my colleague from Ohio. I think the marshal has dis- 
played astute law enforcement and decorous conduct in this Federal 
courtroom. 

It is true that under the law this committee unlike a Federal judge 
cannot call a contemptuous witness immediately and within a matter 
of minutes punish for contempt. But under the Constitution and the 
Rules of the House and the Congress the wheels of justice roll around 
slowly but very surely. Nothing is better settled than that the 
Congress has power of contempt directly or has power to recommend 
to the Department of Justice prosecution for contempt. 

In the case of Harvey O'Connor that inexorably will happen. 

And for the immediate preservation of decorum in the courtroom we 
are indebted indeed to the marshal. Far from being criticized he 
should be commended by any man of good will who believes in the 
constitutional processes. 

Now, including the hearings here in Newark, I, as chairman, should 
like to make a few brief observations respecting the significance and 
accomplisliments of this particular investigation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 2903 

Before commenting upon the factual material developed in this 
hearing, I should like to again point out that we have not tried to 
probe beyond the development of facts which show a pattern of opera- 
tion. We have not sought to run down all possible leads or to develop 
testimony which would be merely cumulative. 

What then has happened here ? 

In the first place, we have seen a pattern of Communist activity 
and technique which confirms similar patterns which we have been 
observing elsewhere in our Nation. In addition, we have added certain 
parts to the mosaic which appear to be unique in the Commmiist 
operation in this area. Moreover, there has been developed here new 
and convincing evidence regarding the problem of Communist political 
propaganda imported from abroad as evidenced by the witness rep- 
resenting a Government agency who exhibited this foreign imported 
poisonous political material which has been entering this area literally 
by the millions. 

The material which our record discloses will be studied by the 
committee along with other material which we have been assembling 
for the purpose of appi*aising the administration and operation of 
existing internal security legislation and to guide us in our judgments 
respecting amendments to existing laws and possible new legislation. 

I feel that there is an additional salutary result of hearings of this 
kind, namely, to keep us ever mindful of the present continuing 
threat of communism in our Nation. 

Communism embodies a philosophy, but it is much more than a 
philosophy. It is a dynamic force of intrigue and subversion which 
in the course of my lifetime of some 50-odd years has swept over one- 
fourth of the land mass of this globe and has enmeshed within its 
grasp over one-third of the world's population. Let no one who is 
concerned about the security of this Nation minimize the threat of 
communism and the Communist conspiracy within our own borders. 
It is frequently said by the uninformed that the Communist Party is 
of no significance because it is relatively small in numbers. If the 
Communist Party were a political party as some contend then it is 
indeed small in numbers, but the Communist Party is not a political 
party. It is a "Fifth Column" numbering thousands who are in 
every sense foreign agents on American soil. It is a tentacle of a 
worldwide conspiracy which itself numbers only 3I/2 percent of the 
total population of the empire which it enslaves, but through its 
masters is capable of enslavement nevertheless. 

Permit me to quote here recent words of J. Edgar Hoover, Director 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Here is what he said 
recently : 

Public apathy is the sure way to national suicide — to death of individual 
freedom. It allowed the Communists to penetrate and make satellites of once- 
free countries, and it is presently enabling them to honeycomb and weaken 
the structures of the remaining countries, and there is today a terrifying apathy 
on the part of Americans toward the deadliest danger which this country has 
ever faced. Some of that apathy is deliberately induced. 

He then continues : 

The Communist Party in the United States is not out of business; it is not 
dead ; it is not even dormant. 



2904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEWARK, N. J. 

It is, however, well on its way to achieving its current objective, which is to 
make you believe that it is shattered, ineffective, and dying. When it has fully 
achieved this first objective, it will then proceed inflexibly toward its final goal. 

Those who try to minimize its danger are either uninformed or they have a 
deadly axe to grind. 

Thus spoke Mr. Hoover recently. 

Now before concluding, I should like to express the thanks of the 
committee to those witnesses who have seen fit to cooperate with the 
committee and who have given us valuable information. May I say 
in passing that by indirection some of the witnesses who have refused 
to cooperate with the committee have been of more value to us than 
they believe when we take their testimony and weigh it with the testi- 
mony we already have in our files. 

We should like to express our thanks to Federal Judge Meaney who 
has most courteously made available to us his courtroom for these 
hearings. Also, we would like to express thanks to United States 
marshal, Joseph F. Job, and his capable and courteous deputies, the 
Newark police, and the New Jersey State Police, Subversive Squad. 

And finally, we add our appreciation for the courtesies extended to 
the committee and the cooperation of the members of the press, radio, 
and television profession who have covered these hearings. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer in evidence* a 
letter purportedly issued by Harvey O'Connor together with a state- 
ment by Harvey O'Connor which I was advised by a member of the 
press was being distributed outside of the courtroom, shortly after 
O'Connor was called as a witness this morning an^ failed to respond. 

Mr. Willis. So ordered. 

And this will conclude our hearings in the Newark area at this 
time. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 25 a. m. Friday, September 5, 1958, the hearings 
in Newark, N. J., were concluded.) 



* Letter and statement by Mr. O'Connor previously offered In evidence. See O'Connor 
Exhibits Nos. 2 and 3, p. 2892. 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Abt, John 2858 

Adams, Mary 2780 

Alfone, Joseph Anthony, Jr 2774, 2814, 2848-2852 (testimony), 2885 

Attington, Wendell 2827, 2831 

Bernstein, Jacob (Jack) 2884, 2885, 2886-2888 (testimony) 

Bernstein, Rosalind Rya (Mrs. Jacob Bernstein) 2879-2883 

(testimony), 2884, 2885 

Boudin, Leonard B 2832, 2848 

Braden, Carl 2893, 2900 

Brooks, Nathaniel 2826-2828 

Campbell, Jessie Scott 2774, 2805-2810 (testimony), 2885, 2900 

Cantor, Emanuel (Manuel) 2757, 2787, 2815, 

2819, 2851, 2852-2864 (testimony), 2874 

Chandler, Frank 2851 

Cohen, Daniel 2874 

Cohen, Sylvia 2775, 2884 

Davis, Herbert 2827, 2831 

Dean, Elwood M 2780, 2782, 2809, 2830, 2885 

Delany, Hubert T 2805, 2817, 2837 

Dennis, Eugene 2S62 

Dixon, Robert J., Jr 2757, 2770-2777 (testimony), 

2808, 2812, 2813, 2814-2815 (testimony), 2851, 2884, 2885 

Eisler, Gerhart 2873, 2874 

Faubus, ( Orval ) 2841 

Fisher, Joseph 2780 

Fishman, Irving 2757, 2788-2803 (testimony), 2807, 2833, 2836 

Forer, Joseph 2763, 2810 

Frankel, Esther Strum 2843 

Gates, John 2877 

Gitlin, Leo 2901 

Gold, Ben 2828, 2830 

Goldberg, Evelyn (nee Skoloff) 2757, 

2826, 2827, 2830, 2831, 2832-2837 (testimony) 

Griffin, Marvin, 2841 

Hall, Hildegarde 2899 

Heck, Kate (Kitty) (also known as Evelyn; and B. Brosser) 2757, 

2763-2772 (testimony), 2775, 2776, 2785 

Hoover, J. Edgar 2804, 2903, 2904 

Horn, August 2000 

Imrie, James 2899 

James, Dennis L 2757, 2823-2832 (testimonv), 2834 

Job, Joseph F 2891, 2902, 2904 

Johnson, Occriss 2824, 2825, 2827 

Jones, Bess 2767 

Jones, Lorraine (Mrs. Stanley Jones) 2828 

Jones, Stanley 2828 

Karakos, John Charles 2843-2847 (testimony) 

Kaufman, Mary M 2777, 2852 

Kearney, Robert E 2762 

Kenny, Charles E 2762 

Khrushchev, Nikita 2799 

Kolb, Jack 2829, 2830 

Kramer (Charles) 2858 

Leavy, Dorothy (Mrs. Thomas P. Leavy) 2775 

Leavy, Thomas P 2775, 2787, 2810-2816 (testimony), 2885, 2900 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Lee, Henry 2774 

Lowenstein. Robert 2899, 2900 

Malinow, Louis 2757, 

2776, 2777-2788 (testimony), 2814, 2830, 2851, 2856 

Mao Tse-tung 2799 

Matusow, (Harvey) 2838, 2867 

McGrath, Jerry 2774 

McLeish, James 2775 

Meaney (Tliomas F.) 2904 

Meth, Theodore 2865 

Moore, Jim 2773, 2774 

Mundelein, George Cardinal 289Y 

Norman, John F 2787,2865-2877 (testimony) 

Nusser, Charles 2830, 2860, 2861 

O'Connor, Harvey 2757, 2758, 2804, 2809, 2888-2895, 2898-2902, 2904 

O'Neal, Jack 2869, 2871 

Patton, James G 2863 

Penha, Armando 2767, 2768, 2867 

Philbrick, Herbert 2867 

Pollock, Ernst 2767, 2768 

Powell, Adam Clayton 2841 

Pressman, Lee 2858 

Redding, Louis L 2804 

Robinson, Jackie 2841 

Rocklin, David 2900 

Roosevelt, Franklin D 2897 

Scribner, David 2879, 2886 

Scudder, John 2899 

Sell, Rose 2774 

Shevelov, George 2828 

Shull, Leo 2901 

Skoloff , Evelyn. ( See Goldberg, Evelyn. ) 

Stavis, Morton 2900 

Stone, Martha 2780, 2787, 2851 

Taylor, Edward (Eddie) C 2837-2842 (testimony), 2902 

Taylor, Mary Adams 2817-2821 (testimony) 

Trumbo, Dalton 2804 

Wallace, Henry A 2872, 2899 

Walter, David L 2823 

Ware, Harold (Hal) 2864 

Warren, Earl 2896 

Welch, Joseph N 2898 

Wilkinson, Frank 2801, 2900 

Wilson, Hugh H 2804 

Zick, Bernard 2757, 2773, 2775, 2881, 2883-2886 (testimony), 2887 

Zimmerman, Perry 2899, 2900 

Organizations 

Cari)enters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of. Local 349 2823 

Civil Rights Congress 2830, 2832 

Communist Party, U. S. A. : 

National Committee 2864 

16th National Convention, New York, N. Y., February 1957— 2785, 2816, 2818 

New Jersey 2780 

Bloomfield : 

Bloomfield Industrial Club 2773-2775, 2851 

Essex County 2775, 2776, 2780, 2781 

Mercer County 2860, 2862, 2874 

Newark 2864 

General Electric Club 2884 

West Side Club 2846 

Orange : 

East Orange Club 2815 

Orange Branch 2774 

State Committee 2874 

Union County 2882, 2888 



INDEX ui 

Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, United: New Page 

Jersey 2757, 2774, 2775 

Local 416 2811, 2813 

Local 422 (East Orange) 2772, 2774, 2775 

Newark 2885, 2900 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 2757, 

2804, 2892-2895, 2899, 2900, 2902 

New Jersey Associates Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 2804, 

2809, 2892, 2898, 2899 

Fairleigh Dickinson University 2848 

General Electric Co 2772, 2884, 2885 

General Motors Corp., eastern aircraft division (Bloomfield, N. J.) 2813 

Jefferson School of Social Science Annex (Newark, N. J.) 2829,2830 

Labor Youth League, New Jersey 2826, 2827 

Newark, N. J 2757, 2824-2832 

Howard Fast Club 2825-2828 

Paul Robeson Club 2825, 2828, 2831 

National Council of Churches of Christ in America 2897 

National Farmers Union 2863 

New Jersey Associates Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. {See 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee.) 

Polish-American Congress 2794 

Rutgers University 2824 

Stockholm Peace Petitions 2828 

Synagogue Council of America 2897 

Textile Workers Organizing Committee, CIO 2867, 2868 

Tung Sol Electric Co., Inc 2^83-2885 

Union Carbide & Carbon Corp 2811 

United States Government : 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 2804, 2894 

Treasury Department, Customs, Bureau of 2791 

Vets' Fighting Fund for Freedom of Eugene Dennis 2862 

Westinghouse Electric Corp. (Hillside, N. J.) 2811 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 2793 

Publications 

America (Illustrated) 2799 

Challenge 2825 

Data on Atrocities of United States Army in South Korea 2796, 2836 

Detroit Free Press (newspaper) 2897 

Nepszava (newspaper) 2795 

New Times 2796 

Peking Review 2798 

People's Voice 2795 

Tieory and Practice of the Communist Party (book) 2829 

World Youth 2793, 2799,2833 

O 



The Southern California District of the 
Communist Party 
Structure -Ob j ective s -Leadership 



Hearings 
"before the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 
House of Representatives 
85th Congress 

ptSiJ.-2 



Bound vith hearings of the 86th 
Congress 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05706 3180 



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