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Full text of "Communist methods of infiltration (education) Hearings"

COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION 

(EDUCATION— Part 5) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
cc^v- HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



APRIL 29, MAY 19, 26, 27, AND 28, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
(i(>\EI{\MENT PRINTING OFFICE 
30172 WASHINGTON : 1953 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JUL 1 4 1S53 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHEREK, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



April 29, 1953: Page 

Testimony of Harold T. Woerner, Jr 1504 

May 19, 1953 : 

Testimony of William T. Parry 1511 

May 26, 1953: 

Testimony of Marcus Singer 1537 

May 27, 1953: 

Testimony of Marcus Singer (resumed) 1547 

May 28, 1953 : 

.Tegtimony of Abe Gelbart 1565 

Appendix 1583 

Index 1585 

m 



The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of Atnerica in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
* « 4: * * « « 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
■If tf * m * * * 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclcs the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



KULES ADOPTED BY THE 83d CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, following standing committees : 

• ****«* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

***** * 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diifusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on rn-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whetlier or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such liearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTEATION 
(EDUCATION— PART 5) 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29, 1953 

United States House of Eepresentatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. G. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 : 05 a. m., in the caucus room, room 362, 
Old House Office Building, Hon. Donald L. Jackson presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson, 
Kit Clardy, and Gordon H. Scherer (appearance noted in transcript). 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig, counsel ; Louis J. Rus- 
sell, chief investigator; Raphel I. Nixon, director of research; and 
Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will come to order. 

Let the record show for the purposes of this hearing this morning, 
under the authorit}^ vested in the chairman under Public Law 601, 
a subcommittee consisting of Mr. Clard3^ and Mr. Jackson has been 
set up for the puri:»ose of taking testimony. 

Do you have a witness, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Harold T. Woerner. 

Mr. Jackson. At this time let the record show the committee will 
recess until 10 : 30. 

(Thereupon, at 10: 07 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 10 :30 a.m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 10: 36 a. m., the following committee 
members being present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson, Kit 
Clardy, and Gordon H. Scherer.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Woerner. 

Mr. Jackson. Raise your right hand, sir. 

Mr. Woerner, do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Woerner. I do. 

Mr. Kunzig. Be seated, Mr. Woerner. 

Are you accompanied by counsel and, if so, will counsel state his 
name and address for the record? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein— R-e-i-n— 711 14th Street NW. 

1503 



1504 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD T. WOEENER, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

]Sfr, KuxziG. Mr. Woerner, would you state your full name and 
present address? 

Mr. WoEKXER. My name is Harold T. Woerner, Jr., 8450 Boulevard 
East, North Bergen, N. J. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, the record will show at this point that 
Mr. Sclierer of Ohio is also a member of the subcommittee. 

Mr. KuNZiG. When and where were you born, Mr. Woerner ? 

Mr. Woerner. In New York City, 1926. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you briefly outline your educational back- 
ground, starting with your college education ? 

Mr. Woerner. Starting with my college education ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Well, start with your lower education, if you wish. 

Mr. Woerner. Well, I attended a parochial grade school, a paro- 
chial high school, 1 year at Dartmouth College and I graduated from 
Yale University. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you graduate from Yale ? 

Mr. Woekxer. In June 1948. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you set forth for the subcommittee any organ- 
izations — fraternal, social, scientific, veteran, or otherwise — in which 
you have held or now hold membership ? 

Mr. Woerner. Well 

Mr. KuNziG. To the best of your memory, of course. 

Mr. WoFJtNER. I think, sir, that I would decline to answer that ques- 
tion under the fifth amendment, which states that I do not have to 
answer questions that may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are declining to answer on the fifth amendment 
and you are specifically raising the privilege under the fifth 
amendment? 

Mr. Woerner. Under the self-incrimination; yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Woerner. Of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you outline your occupational background? 

Mr. Woerner, Yes, sir. I have w^orked as a salesman for an oil 
burner — oi 1-burning concern. We — the firm manufactures oil burners. 
I worked in the sales department and as a salesman for this type of 
equipment for the last — well, since graduating from college. 

Mr. KuNziG. Since graduation, which was June 1948 ? 

Mr. Woerner. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is the name of the company that you work for ? 

Mr. Woerner. The name is Hauck Manufacturing Co. 

Mr. Kunzig. H-a-u-c-k? 

Mr. Woekxer. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. And the address, or the city in which 

Mr. Woerner. It is in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. KuTsrziG. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Did you have auv military service? 

Mr. Woerner. Yes, sir ; I was in the Navy for 2 years. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. 

In what capacity ? 

Mr. Woerner. 1 was a — let me see how to put it — I enlisted in the 
Navy aviation-training program in 1944. I was sent to Dartmouth 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1505 

College under this Navy flight-training program and then was trans- 
ferred into the class V-12 for officer-candidate training, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did yon become an officer ? 

Mr. WoEENER. No, sir ; I didn't. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was there any particular reason or just the end of it? 

Mr. WoERNER. The end of the program before I reached the end of 
the program. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Woerner, when you attended Yale University 
did you ever participate in Marxist study groups at the university ? 

Mr. WoEKNER. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds stated above. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you been at any time a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Woerner. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Woerner. I decline to answer that also, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. As has been testified before this committee, we have 
testimony to the effect that there was at Yale University a youth 
group or youth cell of the Communist Party and that various young 
students were members of this group. Were you a member of this 
group ? 

Mr. Woerner. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. It is the same question you asked previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Arthur Levy at Yale University when 
you were there? 

Mr. Woerner. I don't — I can't testify as to the first name. I knew 
a person we called Art Levy, which may be the same person ; yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Woerner. I decline to answer that question, sir 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know 

Mr. Woerner (continuing). On the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing) . Theodore Polumbaum, who testified here 
a few days ago before this committee, while you were at Yale Uni- 
versity ? 

Mr. Woerner. I would decline to answer that as well, sir, on the 
same grounds. 

Mr, KuNziG. I am just asking you whether you knew him. 

Mr. Woerner. And I answered that I am declining to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. 

Mr. Clardt. Mr. Chairman, I think that is a question the witness 
should be directed to answer because it deals only with whether or 
not he knew the person named in the question. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. In line with the previous answer to the identi- 
fication immediately preceding, the Chair directs that the witness 
answer the question as to whether or not he knew this individual. 

(At this point Mr. Woerner conferred with Mr. Rein.) 

Mr. Woerner. I v>'ould decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
same grounds stated above. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did vou know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

.30172—53 — Dt. 5 2 



1506 COMMUNIST mf:thods of infiltration (education) 

Mr. WoKRXER. I ^vo^ld decline to aiipwer that question as well, sir, 

Mr. KuxziG. Did 3011 know a Paul Zilsel, when you were at Yale, 
who testified before this committee a few days ago — Z-i-l-s-e-1, I be- 
lieve it is ? 

Mr. Wor.RXKR. I think, sir. I have — I would decline to answer 
whether I knew that individual on the grounds that I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. SciTERER. "Would you give us the names of 1 or 2 of your pro- 
fessors at Yale while you were there? 

Mr. Wop:rner. Yes, sir, if you'll allow me just a moment to recol- 
lect. I haven't thought in terms of my professors in at least 5 years. 

Mr. Jackson. The record should show that in answer to this ques- 
tion no connotation attaches to the naming of individuals in response 
to this question. 

Mr. ScHERER. That's correct. I just wanted to see if there was any 
hesitation in his telling us who some of his professors were. 

I will withdraw the question. 

Mr. Jackson, The question is withdrawn. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Woerner, did you Iniow a Joe Cort — C-o-r-t — 
when you were at Yale ? 

Mr. AVoERNER. I think I decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
grounds stated above. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you so decline 

Mr. Woerner, I do. 

Mr. Jackson (continuing). As distinguished between you think 
you do and 

Mr. Woerner. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Woerner. I would decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Jerry Brown — B-r-o-w-n — while you 
were at Yale ? 

Mr. Woerner. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you laiow him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Woerner, Again, sir, I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Diet you know a Mike Russo — R-u-s-s-o — when you 
were at Yale? 

Mr. Woerner. I would decline to answer that, sir, 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Woerner. Again, sir, I decline to answer on the grounds stated 
above. 

Mr. KuNZTG. Did you know a Ben Dontzin — D-o-n-t-z-i-n — while 
you were at Yale ? 

Mr. Woerner. I decline to answer that, sir, on the same grounds 
stated above. 

Mr. Kttnztg. Did you know Ben Dontzin to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Woerner. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
stated above. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1507 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have one more question, Mr. Woerner: When you 
were served a subpena by the investigator of this committee, did you 
at that time state to him tliat you would be willing to cooperate with 
the committee and to testify to everything that you knew with regard 
to communism at Yale ? 

Mr. Woerner. No, sir; I did not. 

Mr. KuNziG. You didn't indicate in any way that you were going 
to cooperate? 

Mr. Woerner. I told this individual that I had — I would have to 
have time to think over the answer to such a question ; that I had not 
been in the habit of thinking how I would react to these circumstances 
and, therefore, I could not give him a definite answer at that time. 

Mr. KuNziG. And then you called later and said that you and an- 
other unnamed individual had agreed to do no talking about this 
matter whatsoever; isn't that correct? 

Mr. Woerner. No, sir ; it is not correct. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You didn't call \ 

Mr. Woerner. No, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Someone called for you ? 

Mr. Woerner. No, sir, not to my knowledge. 

Mr. KuNziG. Not to your knowledge. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you have a phone conversation, regardless of who 
did call, concerning the subject counsel has mentioned? 

Mr. Woerner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. To what effect? 

Mr. Woerner. I received a phone call from the investigator for 
the committee. He asked me what I had decided to do, and I told 
him that I would come down here as subpenaed. 

Mr. KuNziG. And 3^ou did not state that you and another individual 
had agi'eed to do no talking about the matter? 

Kemember, you are under oath. 

(At this point Mr. Woerner conferred with Mr. Rein.) 

Mr. Woerner. Would you mind repeating the question, sir — your 
last question. 

Mr. KuNziG. The question was whether you didn't state at that 
time that you would appear before the committee, and that you and 
another unnamed individual had agreed to do no talking about the 
matter whatsoever. 

Mr. Woerner. This was over the — in the telephone conversation? 

Mr. KuNziG. Either over the telephone or in a personal interview 
with the investigator. 

Mr. Woerner. That I and a third jierson — is that correct ? 

Mr. KuNziG. You told the investigator that you and another person 
Isad agreed to do no talking about this matter whatsoever? 

Mr. Woerner. No, sir; that's not correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, I want to make one other thing clear for the 
i-ecord. It is correct, isn't it, that you requested that this committee 
grant you a delay in appearing before this committee because of a 
personal matter of your own 

Mr. Woerner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing). And that such was granted? 

Mr. Woerner. Yes, sir; that is true. 

Mr. KuNziG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



1508 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. WoERNER. One moment — would you like for the record just why 
I requested the deferment? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. That is perfectly all right. Go right ahead. 
Please do. 

Mr. WoERNER. It hapi>ens that my wife gave birth to a baby boy on 
the 15th of April. I was scheduled to be here, and I didn't think 
we could do both at the same time. 

Mr. KuNziG. We thought the same way and, therefore, we contin- 
ued it until today. 

Mr. WoERNER. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any further questions, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Jackson. The committee was very happy to meet your con- 
venience in that regard. 

Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, counsel has asked you as to whether you knew 
a number of persons, and you have in most instances declined to 
answer. I want to ask you in a little different way, and maybe a 
different question : Had you ever heard of any of the individuals men- 
tioned by counsel in his series of questions? 

Mr. WoERNER. I think, sir^I take that back— I would decline to 
answer that question on the grounds that I have stated to counsel, 
except for the individual who I said that I had met and did Imow. 

Mr. Clardt. How many were in your various classes at Yale ? 

Mr. WoERNER. That varied from maybe a dozen to some of the 
classes where there were six or seven hundred. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you or did you at the time you were in Yale know 
any of the other members of the various classes in which you were 
a student? 

Mr. WoERNER. By that, sir, I think you mean classes of the stand- 
ard curriculum? 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. WoERNER. Classes offered by the university ? 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, sir. I am not talking about any Communist 
affiliations, connections, or what have you; I am talking solely and 
exclusively about the classes that you attended as a student at Yale. 

Now, my question is very simple : Did you then and do you now 
recall the names of any of those with whom you were associated as 
classmates? 

Mr. WoERNER. Yes, sir ; of course, I can remember the names of the 
persons with whom I lived. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you decline to answer questions as to the iden- 
tity of any of the other members of your classes, aside from those 
counsel has named? 

Mr. WoERNER. Yes, sir; I would. 

Mr. C^laudy. You would not tell us the name of any meml^er of any 
class you attended? Is that what you are trying to say to us? 

Mr." WoERNER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you ap]:)rehend the fact that you may have known 
a John Smith, or someone else, in any of those classes, that by merely 
agreeing that you knew that person it would in some way incriminate 
you, regardless of the identity of that person? 

]\Ir. WoERNER. I have no knowledge, sir, of what various individ- 
uals may or may not have done, and, regardless of in what manner I 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1509 

met them, therefore, I think it best, in my personal case, to decline 
to answer whether I knew any individuals. 

Mv. SciiEREij. You were ready and willing when 1 asked you who 
your professors were to tell us wlio, were you not ? 

Mr. WoERNER. Professors, sir, are not necessarily friends. It's a 
student-teacher relationship, and although I may have listened to 
these people lecture on various topics, it was not a question of them 
knowing me by my first name or my knowing them by their first name, 
sir. Therefore, there is not the same type of relationship. 

Mr. Cl.\rdy. I was not asking for your friends. I was merely 
asking whether you would tell the committee of people you knew. 
That doesn't imply in any way that they are either your friends or 
not your friends. 

Now, I will rephrase it just briefly : Would you, if we should ask 
a series of questions, give us the identity of any others of your class- 
j^r^tes — and by "others" I mean pei*sons othe/than those named by 
counsel — or are you just dropping the iron curtain, so to speak, and 
will refuse to tell us anything about anybody who attended Yale at 
the time you were there, except some professors ? Is that your posi- 
tion ? 

Mr. WoERNER. Yes, sir ; it is. 

Mr. Clardy. And is it your belief at this time that if you should 
incautiously give us the identity of a single person that you knew there 
you would in some way incriminate yourself ? 

Mr. Woerner. It's possible. 

Mr. CiiARDY. Now, I am not asking whether it is possible. 

Mr. Woerner. That is 

Mr. Clardy. Is that your belief ? 

Mr. Woerner. That is my belief. 

Mr. Clardy. I merely wanted to find out where you stand. 

Now, as I understand it, you w^ill refuse to answer any questions 
about any possible connections you may have with the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Woerner. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you belong to any of these organizations that you 
have heard loosely described as Communist fronts ? 

Mr. Woerner. I would decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds 
I have stated to counsel. 

Mr. Clardy. Have you ever engaged in any subversive activity of 
any kind whatsoever ? 

Mr. Woerner. I would decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
same grounds. 

Mr. Clardy. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Wliere are you presently employed, Mr. Woerner ? 

Mr. Woerner. At the firm, the name of which I gave before — the 
Hauck Manufacturing Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Jackson. Any further questions, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. No, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. KuNziG. I know of no reason. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 



1510 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

The committee will stand in recess, subject to the call of the chairman. 

It is not anticipated there will be any additional witnesses this morn- 
in<x or this week. 

(Whereupon, at 10 : 56 a. m., the hearing was recessed subject to the 
call of the chairman.) 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION 
(EDUCATION— PAET 5) 



TUESDAY, MAY 19, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee or the Comimittee 

ON Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of tlie Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 11 : 05 a. m., in the caucus room, room 362, 
Old House Office Building, Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present: Kepresentatives Har;>ld H. Velde 
(chairman), Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer (appearance noted in 
transcript), and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig, counsel ; Frank S. Taven- 
rier, Jr., counsel; George E. Cooper, investigator; and Thomas W. 
Beale, Sr., chief clerk. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show, Mr. Reporter, that I have appointed a sv.b- 
committee consisting of Mr. Clardy of Michigan; Mr. Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia ; and myself as chairman for the purposes of this hearing. 

Do you have a witness, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr, William T. Parry, will you come forward, 
please ? 

Mr. Velde. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Mr. Parry. I will take the affirmation. 

Mr. Velde. Do you solemnly, in the testimony you are about to 
give before this subcommittee, affirm that you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Parry. I do. 

Mr. Velde. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OE WILLIAM T. PAREY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, CHARLES B. FORD 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is you name, please, sir? 

Mr. Parry. William T. Parry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name ? 

Mr. Parry. P-a-r-r-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir; I am accompanied by Mr. Ford. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

1511 



1512 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. FoKD. Charles E. Ford— F-o-r-d — 116 Fifth Street NW., 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Clardy. Counsel, may I interrupt to ask Mr. Ford a question? 

Has counsel told you the general rules of the committee with respect 
to the rights to consult with your 

Mr. P'oRD. Yes; I think I understand them. Tliey shall be obeyed. 

Mr. Velde. Well, Mr. Clardy, I think it should be put in the record 
at this point that you have asked the counsel, Mr. Tavenner, to state 
the rules and customs under which we operate as far as counsel is 
concerned and the witness is concerned. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been the rule and policy of the committee to 
encourage every witness to be accompanied by counsel and to consult 
with counsel at any time during the course of the hearing that he so 
desires, but it has also been the rule of the committee that counsel 
conline his activity to the direct assistance of the witness by confer- 
ence, and questions are not permitted by counsel and arguments on 
matters are not permitted by counsel ; but the committee will receive 
and coiisider any motion that counsel desires to make in writing. 

Mr. Clardy. And if it becomes necessary to have some recess or some 
interval, the committee permits the witness to ask that. If you feel 
it is necessary, you can advise the witness to that eifect. 

Mr. Ford. All right. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Parry ? 

Mr. Parry. Well, I was born in Nutley, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Parry. Nutley— N-u-t-l-e-3^— New Jersey, October 22, 1908. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Parry. I am a college teacher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are you a teacher ? 

Mr. Parry. At the University of Buffalo. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the field in which you teach ? 

Mr. Parry. I am in the department of philosophy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you repeat that, please? 

Mr. Parry. I am in the department of philosophy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will j^ou tell the committee, please, in a general 
way, what your formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Parry. Well, I graduated from Columbia University, and have 
an A. B. from Columbia 

Mr. Tavenner. What date? 

Mr. Parry. In 1928 ; a master of arts from Harvard University in 
1930; doctor of philosophy. Harvard University, 1932. I also did 
studying after my doctor's degree; had a traveling fellowship abroad 
for 1 year. I did further gi'aduate work there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been engaged in any profession since the 
completion of your formal education, other than the teaching pro- 
fession? 

Mr. Parry, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat has that been, and where? 

Mr. Parry. I've liad several — tliore have been several things. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, will you tell the committee, please, what they 
are? 

Lei' us 

Mr. Parry. Yes. 



COMMXFNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1513 

Mr. TAM2NNER (continuing). Begin this way : Suppose you begin 
and tell us chronologically what your employment has been since you 
received your doctor's degree in 1932 at Harvard University. 

Mr. Parry. Well, the first employment after that — not immedi- 
ately — the first employment was as an assistant in philosophy at Har- 
vard University. 

Mr. Taatenner. "\Ylien did you begin and when did that work ter- 
minate ? 

Mr. Parry. I believe that began in 1933. I'm not — not absolutely 
sure of the exact date, but I would say it was 1933, and I believe it 
terminated in 1937 or thereabouts — about that period, I would say. 

An assistant in philosophy at Harvard 

Mr. Clardy. May I suggest. Witness, this room has terrible acous- 
tics. If we could keep you a little closer to the microphone, it would 
be a little easier to hear. It is very difficult up here. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right then, begin in 1937 and tell us your 
employment since tliat time. 

Mr. Parry. I'd like to consult my attorney before answering that 
question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Surely. 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, are you ready ? 

Mr. Taatexner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Parry. The period approximately 1937 to 1938 I must decline 
to answer as to my employment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you living during that period of time ? 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Velde. You may consult. 

Mr. Parry. May I consult my attorney ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, I'm ready to answer that question. I was living 
in Boston at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where in Boston ? 

Mr. Parry. In Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. At what address in Boston ? 

Mr. Parry. As to the — as to the address in Boston, I decline to 
answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what ground do you decline to answer? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answ^er 

Mr. Clardy, Witness, may I interrupt you before you 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

JSIr. Velde. Let the witness finish his answer. 

Mr. Cl.\rdy. I want to make 

Mr, Vei.de. Counsel has asked him for his reason. 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the grounds that the answer 
might tend to incriminate me, and assert the privileges of the fifth 
article of the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. Taa-enner. What is the basis for your refusal to answer the 
question as to how vou were employed during that period between 
1937 and 1938? 

30172— 53— ^pt. 5 3 



1514 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Parry. It is my understanding, sir, I don't have to explain the 
basis of my refusal. That would destroy the purpose of the protec- 
tion, the constitutional protection, if I explained the basis of my 
refusal to answer, 

Mr. Tavenner. That — - 

Mr. Ceardy. May I say something ? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, as I understand the question, all that was 
sought was the address of your residence. 

Now, you do have the right to raise the fifth amendment always 
if it will in anv way cause you, as the amendment in effect savs, to 
testify against yourself in a criminal proceeding; but you do not have 
the right to raise that in a frivolous manner or without any solid 
foundation, and so long as there is no implication — and there defi- 
nitely wasn't — that would tie you up with any criminal act of any 
kind, I think you should reconsider and give to the committee the 
address of your home. 

Obviously, if there is in the background some evidence that this par- 
ticular place was used for some subversive purpose or activity, you 
would be within your rights ; but there is no insinuation or even hint 
by this committee that that was the case. We are merely seeking to 
discover where you lived. 

I would like to have you reconsider it, if you will, and give us that 
information. 

Mr. Parry. Well, my attorney and I both are of the opinion that to 
disclose the address would — might, in fact, be a link in the chain of 
evidence leading to a criminal prosecution. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, it might if in the background there is some 
evidence that the location was used for some criminal activity, some 
subversive activity of some kind; but unless you want to leave that 
impression that there was such, you should not raise that. If you are 
sure in your own mind that there is something that took place at that 
location that might come to the attention of the committee that would 
incriminate you, obviously you would have the right to raise it ; but 
otherwise not. 

Mr. Parry. Well, in my opinion, there are other possible alterna- 
tives than the one you suggested ; but I don't think I am required to 
state which of various possible alternatives is the actual one because 
that would destroy the privilege. 

I can't prevent your making inferences, of course. I only say I 
think there are other alternatives than the one you mentioned. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, the committee has the right to discover whether 
or not the privilege was invoked in good faith. That is the reason I 
made my suggestion. If you don't follow it — that is, of course, up to 
you — the consequences that may be visited upon you would be the 
direct result of 3'our own actions, not that of the committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you advise the committee, please, what your 
employment has been since 1938? 

Mr. Parry. I was employed — the next employment was — was in the 
WPA on a writers' project; and subsequent to that my employment 
was in a furniture factory in Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. "What was the exact nature of your employment 
with the WPA? 

Mr. Parry. I was employed in the writer's project. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OP INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1515 

Mr, Tavenner. What was tlie nature of your duties as an employee 
under the writers' project? Did you hold an administrative 
position 

Mr. Parry. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing). Or were you engaged in writing? 

Mr. Parry. I was engaged in writing. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the general nature of your assignment? 

Mr. Parry. Well, the project was preparing — was preparing books 
for publication, and I was to work on these. The particular thing 
I worked on was never published, as far as I know. I worked mostly 
on a book they were going to get out on nationalities in Massachusetts. 
I worked — for instance, the — I think most of my time was spent in the 
study of the Indians in Massachusetts, and I wrote on that subject; 
but as far as I know that was never — never published. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, that is enough in detail. 

Then your next employment was with a furniture manufacturer? 

Mr. Parry. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did that employment cease? 

Mr, Parry. Well, that ceased sometime in 1942. 

]Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed by the furniture 
manufacturer^ 

Mr, Parry, Well, roughly about a year. I can't — I can't remem- 
ber the exact length of time. About a year; roughly a year. 

Mr, Tavenner, Then how long were you with the WPA? 

Mr, Parry, Well, I — let me think, now. This is so far back. It's 
hard to remember these questions of dates here. I will have to try 
to refresh my recollection on this. 

I — I would say for about — that was about 2 years, approximately, 
in the WPA. 

Mr, Tav^enner, Did you live in Boston during the entire period 
you were employed by the WPA and the furniture-manufacturing 
company ? 

Mr, Parry, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Tavenner. I believe you went into the United States Army 
during 1942, did you not ? 

Mr, Parry. That is true, sir, I volunteered for the Army, 

Mr, Tavenner, How long were you in the military service? 

Mr, Parry. I was in over 3 years. I think 3 years and between 4 
and 5 months. 

Mr, Tavenner, Then when you returned what employment did 
you obtain? 

Mr, Parry, My first position was with an organization in New 
York City called the International Auxiliary Language Association, 

Mr, Velde, I'm sorry, I didn't 

Mr, Parry. The International Auxiliarv Language Association — 
incorporated organization of New York State, 

And the next employment, soon after, was with Hunter College. 
There were two jobs there. I was employed in the evening session of 
Hunter College; also with a guidance— a counseling service for 
veterans, which was conducted by Hunter College for the— for the 
Veterans' Administration. I was employed by Hunter College. 

Mr. Tavenner, ^Vlien did that employment begin and end ? 

Mr, Parry, Well, I— well, now, let me think, I— as I remember, 
I was discharged frojn the xVrmy about— about December 1945. This 



1516 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

employment began sometime — well, the — all these 3 jobs I've spoken 
of — that is, the 2 jobs I've spoken of — all in a period of 1946 — up to 
December 194G. So, they were all within a period of less than a year. 
I should say this employment for the association, for the Hunter 
College was all wdthin 1946. 

My. Tavenner. Then what w^as your next employment ? 

Mr. Parry. My next employment was at the present university. 

Mr, Tavenner. And that is what university? 

Mr. Parry. University of Buffalo. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside? 

Mr. Parry. I reside in Buffalo — Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Velde. Buffalo is a fairly large city. Would you give us the 
street address? 

Mr. Parry. I live at 144 Englewood, Buffalo— 144 Englewood 
Avenue. 

Mr. Velde. Now, you are willing to give us the street address, resi- 
dence, at the present time. As I understand it, you refuse to give 
your residence and the street address of your residence when you 
were in Boston ; is that right ? 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, Professor Parry, during the course of the in- 
vestigation that has been conducted by this committee as to the pur- 
poses of the Communist Party in attempting to organize persons within 
the teaching profession at Harvard University and at Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, and also for the purpose of determining 
just what the Communist Party objectives were in doing that, and 
also for the purpose of determining the extent of success or failure 
of the Communist Party in that enterprise, the committee has learned 
that you were affiliated with that same group. It appears in the testi- 
mony of Dr. Robert Gorham Davis, who testified before this commit- 
tee on February 25, 1953. He told the committee that two persons 
took part in his recruitment into the Communist Party, and that you 
were one of those. At the time he did not know you were a member 
of the party, but after he himself became a member he ascertained 
that you were a member of the party. 

Now, if that be true, you are in a position to give this committee 
information within your knowledge of the things it is inquiring into. 

So, I want to begin by asking you whether or not the testimony of 
Dr. Davis was true or whether it was false that you were a member 
of the Communist Party at Harvard University. 

Mr. Parry. Is that your question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Parry. Well, that question, with regard to the tinith of the 
testimony of — of the-^the reluctant informer, Mr. Davis, I decline 
to answer on two grounds: The first and principal — principal ground 
is that I assert the privilege against self-incrimination and, seconclly, 
it appears to me, although I haven't consulted counsel on this specific 
point — it appears to me —  — 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me suggest you do consult counsel. 

Mr. Velde. You may at any time consult counsel. 
(At this point Mr. Parry consulted with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, I'll continue my answer, having consulted counsel. 

As I say, the first and principal reason is that of the fifth article in 
the Bill of Rights. The second reason is that I — I believe, since I 



COIVCVIUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1517 

have not had the opportunity to cross-examine Mr. Davis, that I have 
a right under the sixth — sixth article of the Bill of Eights' to refuse 
to answer. 

Mr. Velde. "Wliat questions would you ask Mr. Davis if you had 
the privilege of cross-examination here? 

I want to state for your own benefit and for the benefit of counsel 
this is not a court of law. This is an investigating committee. It is 
a legislative committee, authorized by the House of Representatives, 
and we are out, dutybound, to ascertain facts and information relative 
to subversive activities in the United States, report to Congress, report 
to the American people, for remedial legislation. 

I ask you again to reconsider your answer to that question, and to, 
if you can see it within your own conscience, with your own rights 
under the Constitution, answer the question and give us the informa- 
tion that you have. 

Obviously, you were a member of the Communist Party at Harvard. 
There is no reason why you shouldn't tell us about it. 

Mr. Parry. Well, sir, I think the answer — the question whether I 
knew the informer, Davis, would tend to degrade and incriminate 
me, and I also do think that — that a congressional hearing should at 
least — at least morally, if not legally — I am not prepared to judge 
the law — should grant the right of cross-examination. Whether it is 
a legal right or not, I suppose, is for the Supreme Court to ultimately 
decide; but, to me, it seems the justice — the fifth article of the Bill 
of Rights speaks specifically about criminal cases, but has been ex- 
tended to cover congressional hearings. So, in my non — nonlegal 
opinion the sixth article could be interpreted in the same spirit. 

Mr. Clardy. You misinterpret, but at any rate the question the 
chairman asked you hasn't been answered. He asked 3'OU that if you 
were permitted to do something our rules do not authorize — and 
that is to cross-examine Mr. Davis — what subject or what questions 
(lid you want to ask him. 

Mr. Parry. Well, that seems to me to be a very "iffy" question, as the 
late President Roosevelt vroulcl say, and I would have to prepare — 
I would prepare for that particular contingency when it arose — would 
prepare my questions then — but I am not prepared to ask them in 
a vacuum. 

Mr. Ci-^VRDY. Well, you knew when you came here today that the 
rules of this conmiittee did not permit the procedure you are talking 
about, and you made no effort to ex])lore the subject of what you would 
ask at all, then? 

JSIr. Parry. Well, sir, you may — you know I made an effort by 
means of a letter I wrote to you to explore the possibility of testifying 
without informing on people, and your committee has denied me that 
right. It's quite true I didn't explore every possible contingency that 
might arise. 

Mr. Velde. This committee has not denied you any right whatso- 
ever. Let's get that straight right here and now. You have every 
right that any other American citizen has, and Ave haven't denied you 
any right whatsoever that you have under the Constitvition. 

I might say, too, to the witness : An executive meeting is being held 
with refei'ence to several of the witnesses who have appeared before 
this committee who refused to answer questions which are purely in 
the interests of the work of this committee with a view of citinff these 



1518 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

witnesses for contempt, and I ask you that you really seriously con- 
sider this -proposition because there is no reason under the sun that I 
can tliink of why you should not give us the information relative to 
the subversive activities or relative to your connections with the Com- 
munist Party or any other subversive activity. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make this observation, Mr. Chairman : I think 
we ought to call the attention of the witness to the fact that it would 
be absolutely impossible for us, as a practical matter, to arrange for 
cross-examination — not that we wouldn't wish that it might be other- 
wise and not that we don't recognize the value, the appropriateness, of 
cross-examination in a court proceeding ; and I, as a member of the bar, 
for many years active in practice before I came to Congress several 
years ago, would still wish that there might be opportunities for cross- 
examination — but. Professor, if we tried to arrange that, the com- 
mittee's investigations would be stymied and we would never get any- 
where along the line of our assigned duties. 

So, I just wanted to mention that it isn't that we, as American 
Congressmen, think less of the privilege or right of cross-examination 
than you do. We have tried for years to work out some practical 
plan where it might be favorablj^ considered, but we can't, any more 
than we can work out some practical plan where a distinguished coun- 
sel, such as you have by your side toda}', could be permitted to orally 
argue your case. However, with all due respect to members of the bar, 
of which I am one, it just would foreclose our making reasonable 
progress in our work, 

I just wanted you to understand, as a distinguished man in edu- 
cation, therefore, in view of your claiming your privilege under the 
Constitution, that we don't place less value on those things than you 
do; but from a practical standpoint, under our assignment, this not 
being a court and having need to make rapid progress in our investi- 
gation. Those are some of the reasons, f undamentalh^, why there is no 
cross-examination, and can't be, and why we can't permit counsel 
to have the privilege we wish he could have, alwaj^s to speak out 
audibly in this hearing for his client. 

Does that make it a little bit more clear to you? 

Mr. Velde. Let me say, Mr. Doyle, that I certainly concur with you 
in every statement with the exception of this witness being a dis- 
tinguished professor. I think he would distinguish himself if he 
would answer the questions that are put to him by counsel and mem- 
bers of the committee. However, at this point I disagree with you 
that he is 



Mr. Doyle. Well, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde (continuing). A distinguished professor. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, jMr. Chairman, with resj^tect to your observa- 
tion, I think any man who has the privilege of going to Harvard and 
graduating from Harvard University is certainly, in the way I used 
the term, a man of distinguished status in the field of education. From 
that standpoint, I refer to this citizen in that way. 

Mr. Velde. Well, then, let me add, too, to your remarks that, in my 
experience as a member of this connnittee, I have never heard or found 
any witness who has come before this committee who has incriminated 
himself by answering questions truthfully. 

It is true there have been a number who have incriminated them- 
selves by refusing to answer; there have been a number who have 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1519 

been incriminated by committing perjury before this committee, but 
never has anyone been incriminated by coming before this committee 
and answering the questions that are asked of him truthfully. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr, Tavenner. Professor, you assigned as one of your reasons for 
refusing to answer the question that to do so might tend to degrade 
you. Now, I do not know how much importance you were giving to 
that, if you were giving any importance to that assignment. The 
Supreme Court of the United States has clearly held that that is no 
ground for the refusal — no legal ground for refusal — to answer a 
question of this kind. 

So, I again Avant to ask you, in light of that statement, which you 
ma}^ consult your counsel about, whether or not you would be willing 
to answer the question. 

Incidentally, that was in the case of Brown against Walker, decided, 
I think, a little prior to 1900. 

Mr. Parry. Well, since you suggest it, I will consult my counsel. 

Mr. Velde. I think at this point we should declare a recess so that 
the witness and counsel ma}'^ consult together for a little while. 

We will be in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 40 a. m., the hearing w^as recessed, to reconvene 
at 11 :50 a.m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 11 : 48 a. m.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tamsnner. I would like to ask you again, after the recess, 
whether or not the statement made by Dr. Gorham 

Mr. Parry. Who ? 

Mr, Tavenner (continuing). In identifying you as a member 

Mr. Parry. Dr. who? 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Gorham Davis. 

Wait a minute — I haven't given you the full name — Dr. Eobert 
Gorham — G-o-r-h-a-m — Davis — (continuing with the question) was 
true or false in identifj^ing you as a member of the Communist Party 
unit in Harvard ? 

Mr. Parry. I stand by what I said to that question the first time 
you asked it. 

Mr. Velde. Wliat is that ? Will you repeat again, Mr. Witness ? 

Mr. Parry. I — yes, sir. I decline to answer the question as to the 
informer, Davis, on two grounds : First, the principal ground is that 
I believe the answer to that question might tend to incriminate and 
degrade me and, therefore, I assert principal — I assert the privilege 
against self-incrimination in accordance with the fifth article of the 
Bill of Rights, which was introduced to protect the innocent; and, 
secondly, I also — I do also believe that I have not had the right of 
cross examination of Mr. Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not understanding fully just what importance you 
put upon these various assignments of grounds for your refusal to 
answer, I want to ask you the question in this form: Were you a 
member of the Communist Party at any time while you attended 
Harvard University ? 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Parry. Well, I attended as a student 



1520 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

You mean as a student ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us put it that way first — while you attended 
as a student. 

Mr. Parry. Well, speaking of the period before I obtained my Ph. 
D. degree— the period before I obtained my Ph. D. degree from 
Harvard — I can answer that I was not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

]\Ir. Clardt. I didn't hear the concluding part of that. 

Mr. Parry. I was not a member of the Communist Party 

Mr. Tavenner. And it would be 

Mr. Parry (continuing). At that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You entered Harvard in 1930; you received your 
doctor's degree in 1932 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing). According to my recollection from 
your testimony. 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

I was not actually in attendance at the university at the time I 
obtained the doctor's degree. I was on a traveling fellowship at that 
time. 

]Mr. Tavenner. Then, you were an assistant in philosophy from 
1933 to 1937. That is true, isn't it? 

Mr. Parry. There or thereabouts; approximately that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you a member of the Communist Party 
during that period of time, between 1933 and 1937? 

Mr. Parry. That — on that question, I decline to answer; I claim 
the privilege against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any period during that time, between 
1933 and 1937, when you were not a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Parry. I claim the privilege, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, during the year 1933, to be more specific 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Mr. Tavenner. 

You claim the privilege? 

Mr. Parry. I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Velde. And refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. To be a little more specific, were you a member of 
the Communist Party in 1933 ? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the same grounds — that is, on the 
grounds of the — of the fifth article of the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, while you were a student at Harvard — that is, 
between 1930 and 1932 — were you a member of the Young Communist 
League? 

Mr. Parry. No, sir. 

INIr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Young Communist 
League at any time between 1933 and 1937 when you were an assistant 
in philosophy, that is, an assistant instructor 

Mr. Parry. Assistant. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing). In philosophy? 

Mr. Parry. Assistant is the title. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you mean an assistant professor? 

Mr. Parry. No, sir; not an assistant professor. An assistant. The 
lowest form of academic life is the assistant, and that was 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, an assistant in teaching ? 



COIvIMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1521 

Mr. Parry. You wish to know my duties as an assistant? Is that 
the question ? 

Mr. Tamsnnek. Well, we would like to know — of course, we know 
you were not an assistant coach ^ 

Mr. Parry. I was not an assistant professor, sir. That was not my 
rank. I was an assistant — plain assistant. 

Mr. Clardy. What counsel is seeking to find out is, Wliat were you 
assisting at? What were you teaching? 

Mr. Parry. I was assistant in the philosophy department, if that 
is what you 

Mr. Tavexner. In teaching philosophy and conducting the courses 
in philosophy ? 

Mr. Parry. I didn't conduct a course. I didn't conduct a course 
there. I would conduct sections of the course sometimes, but I didn't 
conduct a course. I graded papers, but I wasn't in charge of the 
course. 

Mr. Clardy. Is it fair to say 3'ou taught classes? 

Mr. Parry. Well, there's some possible ambiguity there. 

The point is, the classes were large classes, where a professor would 
give — would have them divided once a week into sections, and I 
would — I would sometimes take charge of some of these sections, under 
the general guidance of the professor, but I didn't have charge of 
a course. I didn't have charge of any course. I was not in charge 
of any course, but I was under the direction of a professor. I might 
conduct these sections in a class, in which the — in which the lecture 
would be explained, recitations, and so on. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, you operated as anyone you have described as 
the lowest form of academic life, an assistant — you acted as any 
assistant — acts in any school or college, didn't you? 

I am a little familiar with it. While I was in law school at the 
university, I was an assistant over in the literary college. So, I am 
slightly familiar with it. 

Now, you operated just as they do generally, didn't you? 

Mr. Parry. I believe I operated in the general manner of assist- 
ants — at least 

Mr. Clardy. That is the idea. 

Mr. Parry (continuing). Such as the institution at Harvard. 

jMr. Clardy. I understand the distinction between assistant, assist- 
ant professor, and all that. You were just a plain assistant — period? 

Mr. Parry. That's right. 

Mr. Clardy. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Xow, during the period you were such an assistant, 
were you a member of the Young Communist League at any time 
during that period? 

Mr. Parry. I would like to consult my attorney before answering 
that. 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, that question I must also decline to answer on the 
same grounds. 

Mr. Tavexner. Now, Professor Parry, a witness testified under oath 
before this committee that he was a member of the Young Communist 
League as early as 1934 and a man by the name of Harry Marks — 
M-a-r-k-s — was the head of the group and that the meetings were 

30172— 53— pt. 5 4 



1522 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

held at the home of Bill Parry — P-a-r-r-y — and that Bill Parry lived 
in a rooming house. 

Were any meetings of the Young Communist League held at your 
home in 1934 

Mr, Parry. I decline- 



Mr. Tavennek (continuing). Or thereafter? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact that you refused to testify a few 
moments ago as to where you resided between 1933 and 1937 due to 
the fact that Communist Party meetings were held in your home? 

Mr. Parry. No, sir ; that is not a fact. 

Mr. Tavenner. How is that? 

Mr. Parry. That is not my understanding of it. I refused to testify 
as to my address — address in Boston. 

Mr. Scherer. Was it because Communist Party meetings were being 
held at that address? 

Mr. Parry. I don't have to explain the reason. 

Mr. SciiERER. Well, if you 

Mr. Parry. The reason was explained at that time. 

Mr. Scherer. If you decline to answer, you have the right to de- 
cline ; but I am asking the question, sir 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). Is that the reason you declined to give 
the Boston address, because Communist Party meetings were held at 
that address? 

Mr. Parry. I don't think, sir, it would be wise for me to explain the 
reason — the reason why 

Mr. Clardy. Witness 



Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

Mr. Parry (continuing). The reason why I decline. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer has the floor. 

Mr. Scherer. You decline? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend — 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Herbert Ellis Robbins — 
R-o-b-b-i-n-s? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Harry Marks? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with an investigator of this 
committee, Mr. George E. Cooper, who is sitting to my left? 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Mr. Cooper serve the subpena on you for your 
appearance at this hearing ? 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the date? 

Mr. Parry. Well, I think the date was May 9, sir, this j^ear. 

Mr. Tavenner. On examination of the subpena I find that it was 
served, according to the return thereon, on May 8, 1II53. Is that in 
accordance with your recollection ? 

Mr. Parry. Well, sir, I can identify the date in this way: I can 
identify the day. It was the same day the university issued a state- 
ment of policy to its faculty. I am sure of that, and I can say this 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1523 

also on the date: It was a Friday. Now, if Friday was the 8th, I 
will agree it Avas the 8th ; but if Friday was the 9th, I would say the 
subpena was served on the 9th. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall talking to Mr. Cooper on that occa- 
sion and, in the course of your conversation, that you admitted to him 
that you belonged to the Communist Party at Harvard? 

Mr. Parry. Well, that seems to be another way of getting me to 
answer the question I declined to answer. 

I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

j\Ir. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the ques- 
tion. I think there is no basis whatsoever for raising the fifth amend- 
ment in that circumstance. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair concurs with the gentleman from Michigan. 
The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Parry. May I have the question, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you repeat the question, please, sir? 

(The reporter read the question as follows :) 

Do you recall tulking to Mr. Cooper on that occasion and, in the course of your 
conversation, that you admitted to him that you belonged to the Communist 
Party at Harvard? 

Mr. Parry. I would like to consult my attorney before answering 
that question. 

(At this jDoint Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, I decline to answer the question on the grounds 
of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you asked the question by Mr. Cooper as to 
whether you knew Isadore Amdur, Norman Levinson, Robert G. 
Davis, and Dirk J. Struik — S-t-r-u-i-k — to which you replied that you 
did and you admitted attending meetings with them ? 

Mr. Parry. My understanding is Mr. Cooper asserts that I said I 
attended meetings with all of those names 

Mr. Tavenner. With Isadore Amdur, Norman Levinson 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Mr. Counsel. Let the witness finish his 
answer. 

Mr. Parry. I think I finished — with all the individuals you named? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. I'm sorry. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. At tliis point it is going to be necessary for the mem- 
bers of the committee to answer a rollcall,^ and the committee will be 
in recess for 20 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 12: 05 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 12: 2;") p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 12:51 p. m., the following committee 
members being present: Representatives Harold H. Velcle (chair- 
man). Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, and Clyde Doyle.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Professor Parry, so much time has elapsed since the 
asking of the question I will reask it and break it down somewhat. 

* Rollcall vote on floor of House of Representatives. 



1524 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Dici Mr. Cooper, on the occasion mentioned, ask you if you knew 
Isadore Amdur, Xorman Levinson, Robert G. Davis, and Dirk J. 
Struik? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the grounds of the privilege 
against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. And did you reply to his question by saying that 
you did know them and that you admitted to him having attended 
]neetings with them? 

i\Ir. JParry. 1 decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Clardy, I ask, Mr. Chairman, that he be directed to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Velde. Will you repeat the question, please? 

(The reporter read the question as follows :) 

And (lid you reply to his question by saying that you did know them and that 
you admitted to him having attended meetings AA'ith them? 

Mr. Velde. Yes; I can see no way in which the answer to that 
question might tend to incriminate you, and you are directed to an- 
swer the question. 

Mr. Parry. Sir, you said I was directed to answer ? 

Mr. Velde. That is right. 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the grounds of the privilege 
against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, Witness, are you aware of the fact that when 
the chairman directs you to answer a question it is the considered judg- 
ment of the committee that your refusal to do so may place you in 
contempt and place you in a position where the attorney sitting on 
your right there may find himself with a considerable bit of litiga- 
tion ? 

Now, I think you better take that into account and reconsider it. 
You have been directed — not just asked, but directed — to answer that 
question. 

Will you reconsider and answer? 

Mr. Parry. I will consult my attorney. 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer the question on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not further state to INIr. Cooper, on the oc- 
casion mentioned, that you would answer any direct questions from 
the committee as to what part you took while you were a member of 
the party, but you did not believe in volunteering any information 
that would assist the committee? 

Mr. Parry. I'll consult with my attorney. 

(xVt tliis point Mr. Parry conferred with jVIr. Ford.) 

Mr. Velde. Before j'ou answer the question, I want to concur in 
the statement Mr. Clardy of Michigan just made relative to a pos- 
sibility of your getting into litigation and having need for counsel. 

I just want to make this remark for the record: Perhaps counsel 
is very willing to get into this type of litigation — and I hope that I 
am not inferring by any means that counsel is unethical or in any 
way interested in obtaining a lawsuit. 

Mr. Doyle. I think this, INfr. Chairman : Counsel is here and, under 
our rules, he can't speak 

Mr. Velde. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle (continuing). And I cherish the opinion of my distin- 
guished chairman, but I don't think we ought to directly or indirectly 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1525 

infer that, when a witness consults his counsel and then answers, there 
is any thought at an}' level that the witness shouldn't answer except 
and exactly as his counsel advises him. 

Now, in' my book that is the reason counsel is here, and I just feel 
impelled to make this observation here: That this counsel can't say 
a word in answer to the distinguished chairman's statement- 

Mr. Velde. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle (continuing) . And I know 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle, I am sure you are right about it, and 1 
wish to withdraAv my remarks concerning the last statement I made 
concerning counsel for the witness. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, to get back to the thing I started with — and I 
don't think there was any intention on my part or that of the chair- 
man to make any statement applying to the counsel — we are merely 
advising the witness he may find himself in considerable difficulty. 

But, witness, may I point out to you : You have not only stated 
verbally the things that are being asked j^ou by counsel, but you have 
placed the essence of it in writing in a communication to the 
committee. 

I don't know whether you have advised your attorney of that fact 
or not, but having taken the steps that you have — and the committee 
intends to present evidence to show that is the fact — I don't think 
I would be performing my function as a member of this committee 
if I didn't warn you at this juncture that you are in grave threat 
of having the committee take some action, if the majority believes, 
as I do, that this is contempt of this committee. Having admitted 
the facts about which you are being interrogated, your refusal now 
is the worst kind of contempt 

Mr. Doyle. Well, Mr. Chairman, I 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). And I think that should be called to 
your attention 

Mr, Doyle. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. Mr. Clardy has the floor. 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). And I think the fact that you have 
placed these things in writing, as well as having made the statement, 
should be called to your counsel's attention so that he may advise you 
further and you be given an opportunity to reconsider. 

Mr. Doyle. JSIr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Again I feel impelled to differ with my distinguished 
colleague from Michigan, Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. On what grounds, JNIr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. On the grounds this witness is here with his counsel 
and, in our questioning, I think we ought to assume the counsel is 
fully informed on what the witness has done 

Mr. Velde. Well, Mr. Doyle 

Mr. Doyle (continuing). Before he comes before a committee, and 
I think we ought to hesitate pretty carefully to stress to the witness' 
attention that there should be fear on his part of a contempt pro- 
ceeding. I think that is one of the last things we should do when 
a witness is present, or otherwise — whether he is in the room with 
his counsel or not. I think it is a 

Mr. Scherer. Have you read his letter to the committee, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Xo. 



1526 coJviMUNiST m?:thods of infiltration (education) 

Mr. Clardy. Well, it would be enlightening if you did. 

Mr. Doyle. I know, gentlemen — and I don't like to disagree with 
my distinguished colleagues in public session — and, yet, I — and it is 
the first time I have 

Mr. Clardy. Well, Mr. Doyle 

]\Ir. Doyle (continuing). I must say- 



Mr. Clardy (continuing). May I say this 

Mr. Doyle (continuing). I think — — 

Mr. Velde. Well, just a minute. 

Mr. Doyle. I think the thought of stress of fear of prosecution for 
contempt to a witness like this, with his counsel present — or even if 
his counsel weren't present, it would be worse 

Mr. Velde. I think these are matters we should take up in executive 
session, Mr. Doyle, 

Mr. Doyle. I grant you. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). xVnd let's proceed with the hearing. 

Mr. Doyle. I grant you, but I would like the record to show in this 
sort of situation I can't be silent because I don't agree with it. 

Mr. Clardy. Before we 

Mr. Velde. Well, Mr. Clardy- — 

Mr. Clardy. Just this observation, Mr. Chairman : I agree with Mr. 
Doyle. It is the last thing that should be raised; but, when all other 
means at our command are of no avail, I think we have a duty, in 
fairness to the witnesses, to explain to them their course of action 
and that their actions are probably placing them in jeopardy. I think 
we would be remiss in our duty if we did not. 

Mr. Velde. And especially 

Mr. Clardy. All I am doing is calling it to his attention. 

Mr. Velde. And especially where a counsel for the witness doesn't 
have the right to get up 

Mr. Clardy. That is right. 

Ml'. Velde (continuing). And argue his witness' case, I think it 
is obligatory 

Mr. Clardy, That is right. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). To tell the witness 

Mr. Clardy. I am never going to take it for granted. 

Mr. Velde (continuing) . The legal situation as much as we possibly 
can. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I 

Mr. Velde. Now, let's proceed with the questions. 

Mr. Ta\'t:nner. Now, Professor Parry 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Counsel 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer 

Mr. Scherer. I am just getting back to the question. I am not 
going to discuss the other matter. 

I think the counsel should have that last question repeated again, 
instead of going on to another one. There has been no answer to that 
last question. The witness did not even decline to answer that last 
question. Let's hear the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the question, please, sir? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. Will you read the question, Mr. Reporter? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1527 

(The reporter read the question as follows :) 

Did you not further state to Mr. Cooper, on the occasion mentioned, that you 
would answer any direct questions from the committee as to what part you took 
while you were a member of the party, but that you did not believe in volunteer- 
ing any information that would assist the committee? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer the question on the ground of the 
privilege against self-incrimination. 

Mr, Tavenner. Professor Parry, did you 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct him to 

answer that question 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). So it will make the record complete? 
Mr. Velde. Yes ; in the Chair's opinion there is no way to incrimi- 
nate you by answering the question. You are directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Parry. I still believe that to answer questions about my con- 
versation with Mr. Cooper might tend to incriminate me, and I decline 

to answer on the ground of the privilege 

Mr. Tavenner. Professor Parry, did you also state to Mr. Cooper, 
on the occasion mentioned, that you dropped out of the party when 
you went into the service in 1942 and never rejoined it ? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the ground of the privilege 
against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer the question. 
Mr. Parry. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have testified that you were discharged from 
the Army in December of 1945. Have you been a member of the 
Communist Party at any time since 1945 ? 

Mr. Parry. I decline, to answer on the grounds of the privilege 
against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Velde. And again you are directed to answer the question. 
Mr. Parry. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Professor Parry, did you become a member of the 
American Federation of Teachers at any time while you were at Har- 
vard University ? 

Mr. Parry. Did I become a member of the American Federation 
of Teachers ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, or the local which was in existence at that 
institution. 

Mr. Parry. I would like to consult my attorney on that question. 
(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 
Sir, I am ready to answer. 

Yes : I was a member of a teachers — teachers' union. 
Mr. Taatenner. Did the Communist Party, to your knowledge, en- 
deavor to influence or control the activities of that organization while 
you were a member ? 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the ground of the privilege 
against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Velde. Again you are directed to answer the question, Mr. 
Witness. 

Mr. Parry. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Taatenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy, do you have questions ? 



1528 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Clardy. May I see that letter, counsel ? 

Witness, vou addressed a comnumication to this committee dated 
May 15, 1953, didn't you? 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Cl^\rdy. You can see it, I take it, from here. 

Do you recognize it as being the one that you signed and sent to 
the committee? 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir; I recognize that. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, now, without wasting any more time, isn't it a 
fact that in that communication j^ou have in effect admitted the verity 
of the things upon which you were questioned by counsel a few mo- 
ments ago, or a few minutes ago, in the series of questions he asked ? 

Mr. Parry. What specifically do you mean there? 

Mr. Clardy. I mean the series of questions dealing with your con- 
nections with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Parry. Can I 

Mr. Clardy. My question is : Isn't it a f ;ict that this letter, in sub- 
stance, is an admission of those past connections ? 

Mr. Parry. May I reread the letter before answering that question ? 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear you. 

INIr. Parry. jMay I reread the letter before answering that question? 

Mr. Clardy. Yes; you may read it, if you wish. I don't mean read 
it aloud. 

Do you have a copy there ? 

Mr. Ford. I think "this is a coyiy. 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, in my opinion, the letter does not state what you 
implied. I stand by what the letter says but not by your interpreta- 
tion of it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, I suggest you read 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. Mr. Clardy has the floor. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, Witness, before I read this letter in its entirety 
in the record, as it will be in a moment, I a)n asking you if it isn't 
a fact in this letter you have said you are willing to tell the committee 
the things upon which the investigator has interrogated you, but that 
you would not discuss names or would not bring other people into the 
hearing — in other words, that you were trying to impose a condition 
upon which you would admit the other things you have told to our 
investigator. Now, is that not the import of the letter? 

Mr. Parry. Not exactly. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, it is in substance, isn't it? 

Mr. Parry. Not as far as the specific questions are concerned. 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear you. 

INIr. Parry. Not as far as the specific questions that are asked here. 
Tliere was no mention in the letter of that — of any such specific 
organizations or individuals, or other things, that have been men- 
tioned in the questions today. 

^ Mv. Clardy. Well, I will read the letter to you. and tlion I will 
re])hrase the questions. 

Mr. Velde. And let the record show that the witness has admitted 
that he -wrote the letter. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1529 

Mr. Clardy. And that this is his signature on the letter, and it is 
dated at 144 Englewood Avenue, Buffalo 14, N. Y., May 15, 1953, and 
addressed to you, Mr. Chairman (reading) : 

I have been subpenaed to appear before your committee on May 19. Before 
testifying, I would like to make a request. 

Conscious of no wrongdoing, I am well aware that some past associations or 
activities might be used against me under present circumstances, in which there 
is widespread disrespect in high places for the bill of rights. However, in view 
of my desire to protect the good name of my university, I am prepared to set 
aside personal apprehensions, to waive my privilege of not testifying against my- 
self, and to answer freely and frankly any relevant questions about my own 
activities, provided — 

and that word is underlined — 

that your committee agrees not to ask me to name or identify any other person, 
I will not play the conscious role of informer. I will not get innocent people into 
trouble. If I did, I would lose all self respect and forfeit the confidence of my 
colleagues and students. I request you, therefore, to respect my conscientious 
scruple, making it possible for me to waive my constitutional protection and 
testify more fully than I otherwise can. 
Respectfully, 

and signed by your name. 

Now, I am going to repeat the question, sir : Is that not- 

Mr. Parry. One correction, sir, please, for the record. 



Mr. Clardy. I am going to restate my question, as I said 

Mr. Parry. The word^ 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). Now that I have read the letter. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

Mr. Parry. The word — I spoke of the role of odious informer, not 
conscious role of informer. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I haven't got my glasses on and maybe I am 
reading it wrong. 

Mr. Velde. Here — "odious." 

Mr. Clardy. At the very end. 

Mr. Parry. "I will not play the odious role * * * " 

Mr. Clardy. You are correct. I don't know how I misread it. "I 
will not play the odious role * * * " 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, now, to come back to my question, sir : Isn't it 
a fact that this letter was consciously written after you had talked 
with our investigator and that you intend in this letter to say to this 
committee that you will here, under your conditions, however, admit 
that you were a member of the Communist Party, admit all of the 
other things upon which you have been interrogated, in detail, by 
counsel ? 

Mr. Parry. No, sir; the letter doesn't mention the Communist 
Party, nor the other things that 

Mr. Clardy. I didn't say 

Mr. Parry (continuing). Nor the other things that were mentioned 
here in detail. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

Mr. Clardy. I didn't say the letter mentioned that, but was not this 
letter written consciously in an effort to tell the committee that you 
would admit freely and frankly all of the things about your own 
connections with the Communist Party if the condition you set up was 
observed and you were not asked about others ? 

30172— 53— pt. 5 5 



1530 CORCVIUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 



^ 



Now, I am merely askinjr you : Isn't that the fact ? 
Mr. Parry. I'll have to make a qualification on that. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, make it. 

Mr. Parry. It still remains true that the letter does not- mention 
any specific organization, as your statement implies. 

]Mr. Clardy, Well, are you admitting that aside from mentioning 
the Communist Party my statement is accurate and correct? 

Mr. Parry. I would have to hear it — hear it agai-n, if it is to be 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I will put it again, because I want to be very sure 
on this : Isn't your ietter consciously written in an effort to persuade 
this committee to allow you to tell about all your connections and 
associations on which you have been interrogated today, provided that 
we do not ask you to name others? Isn't that the import of the letter? 

Mr. Parry. There's still that clause in your statement — "about 
which I have been interrogated today." If you strike out that clause, 
I would — could answer the question. 

Mr. Clardy. All right ; we will leave that out. Will you answer it? 

Mr. Parry. Yes; with that exception I think you stated the case 
fairly 

Mr. Clardy. All right, then, having made that statement, isn't it 
a fact that at the time you wrote the letter, and indeed right down to 
the very time prior to your appearance on the stand, that you were 
perfectly willing to tell this committee all about your past associations 
and connections, provided that we did not interrogate you about the 
identity of other persons? 

Mr. Parry. Well, what I stated in that letter is true. 

Mr. Clardy. That is the fact, isn't it? 

Mr. Parry. I meant what I said when I wrote the letter, if that is 
what you are asking. 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear you. I wish 

Mr. Parry. I meant what I said when I wrote the letter. 

Mr, Clardy. Well, just answer my question, then: My statement 
of it is an accurate statement, then, isn't it? 

Mr. Parry. Well, we have so many statements of it now 

Mr. Clardy. Well, we will put it this way : Do you still adhere to 
and mean what you said in your letter ? 

Mr. Parry, I better consult my attorney on that. 

Mr. Clardy. You may. 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, my answer is that the letter was written in good 
faith and I meant what I said in the letter. The letter contained a 
provision, and that having — that provision and the request not having 
been granted, the entire letter is now null and void. It is like an offer 
which is not accepted. The entire thing is of no effect at the present 
time, as far as I can see. 

Mr, Clardy, Oh, I see. You thought you could bargain with the 
committee and not having obtained your price that what you said then 
would be of no importance ; is that what you are trying to tell us? 

Mr. Parry. No, sir. If the offer had been accepted, the condition — 
the situation would now be different from what it is. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, then 

Mr. Velde. Let me 

Mr. Clardy. Yes. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1531 

IVIr. Velde (continuing). Make it clear again, Mr. Witness: I told 
you this morning that this is not a court of law. We are obliged to 
ascertain facts relative to subversive activities in the United States of 
America, to report them to Congress for the purposes of remedial 
lemslation. 

You could, if you followed the statements that you made in your 
letter, b-e of some assistance to us 

Mr. Doyle. I would say be of great assistance, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. I agree. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Telling us your own connections with the 
Communist Party. 

It is obvious to all of us here — and I am sure it is obvious to your 
own counsel — that you were a member of the Communist Party. 

You should, by all means, give us the benefit of any information 
you have about your own activities as a member of the Communist 
Party. That is what we are vitally interested in at the present time. 
We are obligated, as I say, not only to the House of Representatives, 
our colleagues, but we are obligated to the American people to find 
out just how the Communist Party operated in this country ; and, as 
a member of the Communist Party, you can give us some information, 
especially as a member of the teaching profession. 

Now, proceed, Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. One final question: If the committee should at this 
time inform you that it will not ask you any questions about the iden- 
tity of any of the persons associated with you in the testimony that 
we have called to your attention, but would confine our questions to 
asking you merely about your own actions and past associations, would 
you answer the questions ? 

Mr. Parry. May I consult my attorney ? 

Mr. Clardy. You may. 

(At this point Mr. Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Parry. Sir, my answer is that if you at this time grant the 
request I made in the letter, I would stand by the letter, although at 
the moment I feel my personal apprehensions are stronger than ihey 
were when I wrote it. 

Mr. Clardy. I don't understand your answer. You mean you 
would still at this juncture decline to answer the questions, even under 
the terms and conditions set out in your letter? Is that what you 
mean ? 

Mr. Parry. No, sir ; not 

Mr. Clardy. Well, explain it. I didn't understand it. Your voice 
is muffled quite a bit with that microphone 

Mr. Parry. I see. 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). And it is hard to hear. 

Mr. Parry. I have to stand by the letter. If the request were now 
granted. I would feel obliged to 

Mr. Clardy. You would answer? 

Mr. Parry (continuing). To do what I stated — as I stated there. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, to answer my question directly 

Mr. Parry. Yes. 
. Mr. Clardy. You would answer if those terms and conditions are 
met? 



1532 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Parky. I would not — what the letter states in effect is that I 
■would waive the privilege against self-incrimination. Thei-e may be 
some questions that might be refused on other grounds, but the letter 
stated, under certain conditions, I would waive the privilege against 
self-incrimination; and I would — I will stand by that. If the condi- 
tions set forth in the letter are now granted, I would waive the privi- 
lege against self-incrimination. It may be, however, there would be 
other grounds for refusing to answer certain questions. 

Mr, Clardy. Well, let's ask you a simple question to see if your j^er- 
formance would be as you indicate. If you should now be asked 
whether you have ever been a member of the Connnunist Party and 
the terms you have suggested should be agreed to before you were 
asked that question, would you answer that question ? 

Mr. Vei>de. Well, Mr. Clardy, I think you ought to ask the question 
directly— if he ever has been, I don't see any reason to go any fur- 
ther 

Mr, Clardy, Well, if he will answer that one question 

Mr. Velde (continuing). In view of certain 

(At this point Mr. Clardy conferred with Mr. Velde.) 

(At this point Mr, Parry conferred with Mr. Ford.) 

Mr. Velde. Well, I am afraid, Mr, Clardy, we are getting into a 
position where — we are by no means browbeating the witness 

Mr, Clardy. Oh, no, 

Mr, Velde (continuing). But we are trying to put him into a posi- 
tion of a conjecture as to what he would do under certain circum- 
stances; and, after all, it isn't the function of this committee to 
question a witness to determine what he would do under a particular 
set of circumstances. It is the function of this committe to determine 
facts, 

Mr. Clardy. I think it is important, Mr, Chairman, but I don't want 
to press it. 

But I do want to ask him one more question based on specific testi- 
mony that has been presented. 

Mr, Velde, Proceed. 

Mr. Clardy, On page 7 of the report'of the committee dealing with 
the February 25, 1953, hearings. Professor Davis was asked the specific 
question as to whether or not you were one of the first persons who 
interviewed him, and the question reads this wsij : 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you give ns the nnuie of the second person who may 
have been the person whom you first interviewed with regard to joining the 
Communist Party? 

Answer by Mv. Davis: "William Parry," and he spelled it out. 
My question is: Is that testimony by Mr, Davis true and correct? 
Mr. Parry. I decline to answer the question, sir. 
Mr, Scherer, Do you know Professor Davis ? 
Mr. Parry, I decline to answer the question. 
Mr, Scherer. What is Davis' first name? 
Mr. Tavenner. Robert Gorham. 
]Mr. Scherer. I had better ask that question again. 
Do you know Robert Gorham Davis? 

Mr, Parry, I have already declined to answer that question, sir. 
Mr, Velde. And for the purpose of the record it is on the grounds 
your answer might tend to incriminate you ? 
Mr, Parry, That was one of the grounds I gave. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1533 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask you, Professor, this question : I quite assume 
that you are familiar with Public Law 601, under which this com- 
mittee functions, are you? I mean, have you read it? 

Mr. Parry. I can't say I have read Public Law 601. 

Mr. Doyle. Public Law 601 assigns this committee to investigate 
the extent of subversive activities in the United States. 

If you were a member of this committee, appointed by the United 
States Congress, how would you go about investigating the extent of 
subversive activities at Harvard University? Wouldn't you subpena 
members of the former student body or of the faculty, past or present, 
and ask their cooperation in looking into the subversive activities 
which may have existed there? How would you go at it? 

Mr. Parry. Well, if I were 

Mr. Doyle. I am not asking you critically. Professor • 

Mr. Parry. No. 

Mr. Doyle (continuing). Believe me. 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I am trying to get some area where you can give us 
some benefit of your intimate and personal knowledge. 

Mr. Parry. Well, sir, if I were a member of this committee, I would 
investigate the — in the kind of subversive activities that seem to me 
to present the greatest danger to this country at this time; and, in 
my opinion, communism in the universities is practically negligible 
at the present time, and tliat is not the direction in which my inquiries 
would look. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you may have an opinion that it is practically 
negligible at this time, but if you were a member of this committee, 
may I ask you again, woiddn't you expect a member of the Harvard 
f acult}^ whom the connnittee has reason to believe had personal knowl- 
edge of subversive activities among the students or faculty, or at 
Harvard, say, just 2 or 3, 4 or 5 years ago 

Mr. Parry. Well, I 



Mr. Doyle. Wouldn't you expect that professor or student 

Mr. Parry. Well, of course, I 

Mr. Doyt.e (continuing). To come in and cooperate with you as a 
member of the committee ? 

Mr. Parry. Well, so far the questions are about 15 years old. I'd 
have to perhaps 

You are asking if I had evidence about 5 years ago? Is that the 
question — if I had evidence of activities about 5 years ago 

Mr. Doyle. Yes; I 

Mr. Parry (continuing). Wouldn't I consider it my duty as a 
member of the committee to look into it? Is that the question? 

Well, of course, this — this assumes a condition contrary to fact — 
that is to say I don't have evidence — I don't have — I don't know of 
any evidence, for instance, at the University of Buffalo of Communist 
activities. So. you are asking me to assume — or as far as Harvard is 
concerned — of course, I haven't been around there for many years, and 
I haven't seen — I haven't seen evidence that tliere is any considerable 
amount of communism at either of these universities in the last 5 or 6 
years. So, I still think my inquiries into the dangers — into dangers 
coming within the jurisdiction of the committee woidd be in quite 
different directions. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, you have said 



1534 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Veldk. Let me saj, Mr. Doyle, -with all due respect to your dis- 
tinguished opinions and your very able questions, that I can't see the 
reason for asking a witness' advice when that witness refuses to give 
us an}' information whatsoever relative to our functions. 

Mr. Clardy. Speaking for myself, Mr. Chairman, I wouldn't value 
that advice very highly. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I still think that even though this witness may be 
in 3'our judgment where you place him, this witness, in my book, is a 
person vrho has some valuable facts and information— — 

Mr. Velde. I will agree with you on that — — 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Wlioleheartedly. 

Mr. Doyle (continuing) . And I am trying to arrive at a level which 
would be fair to him and fair to the committee in trying to see if there 
is a level in which this witness will voluntarily help us in the area of 
Communist activities at the University of Buffalo. 

Now, I am not trying to ask his advice. I didn't ask his advice, ex- 
cepting that I asked him what he would do if he were a member of this 
committee and with the assignment we have. 

Mr. Velde. Well, I consider that advice to the committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, all right; I will stipulate it. It is advice. It is 
his opinion as to what he would do as a trained educator; but in view 
of the time lapsing, I will not press it any further. 

Mr. Scherer. He said the Communist activities at Buffalo were not 
too great at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. There has been no evidence introduced 

Mr. Velde. What? 

Mr. Scherer. He said that. 

Mr. Tavenner. There has been no evidence introduced. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, there is evidence as to his statement. 

Mr. Clardy. I will ask the question : How do you know there is any ? 

Mr. Parry. I don't know there is any. 

Mr. Clardy. Why did you give the answer you gave? 

Mr. Parry. Because I can't swear there is any. 

Mr. Clardy. And that is the only basis? 

Mr. Parry. I can say as a matter of fact, of public knowledge, it 
must be negligible because nobody knows about it. 

Mr. Velde. Well, since you know about or have some opinion re- 
garding the Communist activity at Buffalo, what is your opinion 
about the past Communist activity at Harvard? 

Mr. Parry. About whose past activity at Harvard? 

Mr. Velde. Your own and anyone else's who was in the Communist 
Party with you at Harvard. 

Mr. Parry. Your question has implications which, of course, if I 
answered would involve me in saying something which I refused to 
answer. I can't answer the question as you have put it. 

INIr. Velde. You cannot answer the question ? 

Mr. Parry. I believe if you directed me to answer the question as 
you put it I would have to refuse to answer it. 

Mr. Velde. You don't have to refuse to answer the question. You 
are under no compulsion 

Mr. Parry. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde (continuing), to refuse to answer the question. 

Do you refuse to answer the question ? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1535 

Mr. Parry. Would you repeat the question, please ? 
Mr. Velde. Will you repeat the question, Mr. Reporter ? 
(The reporter read the question as follows :) 

Mr, Velde. Well, since you know about or have some opinion regarding the 
Communist activity at Buffalo, what is your opinion about the past Communist 
activity at Harvard? 

Mr. Parry. About whose past activity at Harvard? 

Mr. Velde. Your own and anyone else's who was in the Communist Party with 
you at Harvard. 

Mr. Parry. I decline to answer on the grounds of possible incrimi- 
nation — self-incrimination. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, is there any reason for continuing this wit- 
ness under subpena any longer? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, in light of the fact that the name of 
the university, Buffalo University, was brought in by the witness and 
then some questions were based on that, I think I should say that in 
the questions I asked I did not intend by inference or in any other 
way to indicate any special knowledge of Communist activities or the 
lack of Communist activities at Boston University. 

Mr. Velde. Yes; certainly. 

Mr. Parry. Buffalo. 

Mr. Tavenner. I meant to say at Buffalo University. 

Mr. Velde. Yes ; the chairman agrees with the statement of counsel 
we are not inferring that the Communist activity at Harvard, Buffalo, 
or any other university is greater than it is at — mayby I should with- 
draw my remarks about any other university — the Communist activity 
at Buffalo or Harvard is any greater than the Communist activity at 
any other university throughout the country. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, Mr. Chairman, I think I am correct in this — 
and I have watched it pretty carefully : I don't believe we have even 
located the university. We know the name, but we haven't located 
the town. I thought of it 3 or 4 times. Maybe we just better let the 
record remain silent on that. I don't think it mentions the town. 
We know, but the record I don't believe shows the town. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be retained ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Velde. If not, the witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock, when we will meet 
in executive session. 

(Whereupon, at 1 : 35 p. m., the hearing was recessed, with the com- 
mittee to reconvene in executive session at 2 p. m., of the same day.) 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTKATION 
(EDUCATION— PAET 5) 



TUESDAY, MAY 26, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 
subcommittee-of the- commitl^ee on un -american activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to adjournment, at 10 : o8 a. m., in the caucus room, room 
362, Okl House Office Building, Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Eepresentatives Harold H. Velde, 
Kit Clard.y, (xordon H. Scherer (appearance notecl in transcript), and 
Morgan Jil. ISIoulder (appearance noted in transcript). 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; George E. 
Cooper, investigator; and Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will please come to order. 

Let the record show that the chairman has set up a subcommittee 
composed of Mr. Clardy of Michigan, and Mr. Velde of Illinois, as 
a subcommittee of two for the purposes of this hearing. 

Do you have a witness. Counsel i 

Mr.KuNziG. Yes, Mr. Chairman. Professor Singer, will you step 
forward, please? Will you stand and be sworn? 

Mr, Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee, do you solennily swear that the testimony you will give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Singer. I do. 

Mr. Velde. Be seated. 

Mr. Kunzig. If you are accompanied by counsel. Professor Singer, 
would counsel please state his name and address for the record? 

Mr. PoLLiTT. Daniel H. Pollitt, office address 1631 K Street NW., 
Washington, D. C. 

TESTIMONY OF MAECTJS SINGER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

DANIEL H. POLLITT 

Mr. Kunzig. Professor Singer, would you please state your name 
and address? 

Mr. Clardy. May I interrupt a minute, please? Would you make 
sure that counsel accompanying the witness is thoroughly familiar 
with our practices and procedures ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Certainly. Have you ever appeared before this com- 
mittee previously ? 

30172— 53— pt. 5 6 1537 



1538 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. l^OLLiTT. No, I have not. 

Mr. KuNziG. On any committee? 

Mr. PoLLiiT. No, I have not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Tlie practice before this committee is that you may 
confer at any time with your client and that may be done privately 
and you may even leave the room if you so desire, but you are not per- 
mitted to talk before the subcommittee. You may talk to your wit- 
ness. You may talk through your witness, through your client. 

Mr. PoLLiTT. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is there anything further? 

Mr. Velde. I think that is sufficient. 

Mr. KuNziG, Professor Singer, would you please state your name 
and address? 

IVIr. Singer. My name is Marcus Singer. My address is 109 Iroquois 
Road, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mr. KuNziG. When and where were you born. Professor Singer? 

Mr. Singer. August 1914, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a resume of your edu- 
cational background? 

Mr. Singer. I attended the public schools in Pittsburgh, Pa., until 
1930. I entered the University of Pittsburgh in 1934, received a 
bachelor of science degree in 1938, after which I attended Harvard 
University from 1938 to 1942, receiving a master of arts degree in 1940 
and a doctor of philosophy in 1942. 

Mr. Kunzig. That completed your formal education? 

Mr. Singer. Formal training. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you kindly give the committee a resume of your 
employment backgi-ound, let us say since you graduated from college? 

Mr. Singer. Between 1938 and 1942 I was a fellow, teaching fellow, 
at Harvard University in the biological laboratories. 

In 1942 I received the position of assistant in anatomy at the Har- 
vard Medical School, became instructor in 1944, that is instructor in 
anatomy and in 1945, 1 believe, associate in anatomy, and in 1947 assis- 
tant professor of anatomy at the Harvard Medical School. 

In 1950 I taught for 2 months as a visiting professor at the Long 
Island College of Medicine. In 1951 I left Harvard for Cornell to 
become associate professor of zoology. That is my position at the 
present time. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you associate professor of zoology today, or were 
you just raised to a full professor? 

Mr. Singer. I was raised to a full professor which goes into effect 
on July 1 . Today I am an associate professor. 

Mr. Kunzig. Professor, when you were at Harvard, were you con- 
nected with the Communist Party group that met and among whose 
members were Professor Amdur, Professor Martin, and the others who 
have already testified before this committee from that group ? 

Mr. Singer. I met with a Communist Party group when I was at 
Harvard, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. What were the dates that you met with that group? 

Mr. Singer. Either late in 1940 or the begiiming of 1941 through 
approximately in an on-and-off sequence part of the war. 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer. May I explain the nature of the group, sir? 

Mr. Kunzig. I will ask you about that. 



COMJVIUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1539 

Mr. Singer. Surely. 

Mr. KuNziG. I want to get clear the end date of this. I got the first 
date, that is you became a member of this gi-oup or participated in this 
group in late 1940 or early 1941. What was the end date, if there has 
been an end date ? , 

Mr. SiNCxER. I don't remember clearly, but I would say on and off 
through the war years. 

Mr. KuNziG. Through the war years? 

Mr. Singer. Perhaps 1945 or 1944, or thereabouts that I attended 
meetings of this group. 

Mr. Ki^NziG. Where were the meetings held? 

Mr. Singer. The meetings were held at homes. 

Mr. KuNziG. At the homes of the members of the group ? 

Mr. Singer. Of the members of the group. 

Mr. Clardy. How many were in that group ? 

Mr. Singer. Well, the group varied, sir, from time to time. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I appreciate that. All of them didn't attend 
all of the meetings, but how many in the aggregate attended all the 
meetings, taken together? 

Mr. Singer. What I meant by varied, sir, is that for example dur- 
ing the war years there was very little attendance. I mean relatively 
little attendance than before the war years because of the movement 
of people away from the university, but I would roughly estimate — 
it is very difficult — but perhaps 7 or 8 or approximately that number 
would be the maximum. 

Mr. Clardy. At each meeting? 

Mr. Singer. At, say, a meeting which had the maximum. It might 
be 4 or 5 at another time, and so on. 

Mr. Clardy. Over a period of years the total number of different 
persons that would attend such a meeting would be how many? 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Singer. At any one time, if I would estimate the total num- 
ber who attended the meetings, during the years ? 

Mr. Clardy. Yes. 

Mr. Singer. That would be extremely difficult for me, but to hazard 
a guess, perhaps 14 or 15, something like that. It was not a disciplined 
group in the sense of attendance. There was no compulsion for the 
individual to attend or to have regular attendance because it was a 
group which discussed the Marxian philosophy and attempted to ap- 
ply what they could from the discussions to the present day, that is, 
present day of that time, present-day events. 

Mr. Clardy. The idea of dialectical materialism was discussed at 
some length? 

Mr. Singer. Yes, we read individual books. We would take chap- 
ters for exam])le in Karl Marx' book or in Engels' works for example, 
and I remember clearly, since I was very much interested in it, the 
Dialectics of Nature and which had a scientific application. We 
would take a chapter or two chapters. Each one would have a turn 
and he would lead the discussion within the group and there would be 
argument and debate and so on on the application and nature of the 
substance of these chapters. 

For example, considering the argument and debate, for example I 
remember clearly a great dissension within the group on the nature of 
the value of objects. 



1540 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Clardy. Wliat was that? 

Mr. Singer. About the vahie of any article as judged by the Marx- 
ian standard in the terms of human effort put into it, and the argument 
on tlie level of what would a painting be worth and what would an 
antique be worth and where it fell down or where it could not be 
analyzed adequately. But that was the nature of the group. We 
were under no compulsion within the group either in attendance. We 
discussed with great interest, since we all were interested in it and we 
were drawn into it because of our interest, the Marxian philosophy. 
We believed in its application. 

Mr. Clardy. You accepted the theories that Marx advanced? 

Mr. Singer. We accepted the theoretical side, with argument and 
debate and as you know, or may know, some of the theory is very diffi- 
cult to interpret. 

Mr. Clardy. It is very turgid book. I have read a great deal of it. 

Mr. Singer. The Capital is very hard to understand. On the other 
hand. Dialectics of Nature I frankly and honestly enjoyed much more 
than I did the other because, being a scientist, I was interested in the 
scientific application of it. 

Mr. Clardy. *rhank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. You may proceed. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you now, Professor Singer, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Singer. No, I am not a member of the Communist Party, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you at any time ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I considered myself a Communist. 

Mr. Clardy, You what ? 

Mr. Singer. I considered myself a Communist. I supported the 
Communist program. I do not remember membership or a card in 
the Communist Party or any formal dues as such, but I contributed 
to the Communist Party in terms of support, in terms of money on 
drives when I could, in terms of their program. I was interested in 
it and I believed in it and consequently I considered myself as being a 
Communist. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you believe in it now ? 

Mr. Singer. No, I do not. 

Mr. Clardy. Wlien did you change ? 

Mr. Singer. Well, I would say that I gi^adually went through a 
metamorphosis. It is hard to define the time but I would say in im- 
mediate proximity to the war years, the postwar years and the subse- 
quent years of 1946, 1947, 1948, my interest dwindled to the point 
where I disassociated myself completely from leftwing organiza- 
tions, from meetings, from rallies, and from any association. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you tell the committee what caused this 
dwindling of interest on your part? 

Mr. Singer. Well, as I look back over it, sir, there are a number of 
things. For one, as I went along in my career I realized that my per- 
sonal talents do not lie either in the direction of politics or in the 
direction of economics, that my talents lie particularly within my 
field, and so I devoted myself more and more to research and to my 
family which had started then and had grown. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1541 

Too, I realized in the postwar years that here is a tremendous con- 
flict brewing on an international level and here is an overwhelming 
situation to which I could not fit myself as a Marxist. 

And after all my basic loyalties as I look back on them, always 
were and always will be with my country. 

Mr. Clardy. There was no particular event that caused a sudden 
change of heart or mind, but rather a series of things that gradually 
unpersuaded you, so to speak? 

Mr. Singer. No, I don't think it was cataclysmic, so to speak. Dur- 
ing the war I supported wholeheartedly the international situation. 
It was easy to support. We were all going in the same direction. 
There was a brave new world to look forward to and we were all happy 
and it looked that way in the early years with the setting up of the 
United Nations. Then with the growing and intensification of the 
cold war, as it grew and as it became difficult I completely disasso- 
ciated myself, both in interest and in actuality with leftwing organ- 
izations. 

Mr. Velde. Dr. Singer, your testimony is very interesting to this 
committee because the committee has and is at the present time at- 
tempting to determine how far the Communists have infiltrated espe- 
cially higher education, and I believe you are giving us a very good 
story, a good picture as to the part that you played in such infiltration. 

I am a little bit interested in what the gentleman from Michigan 
was questioning you about a few minutes ago, that is, the course of 
study that was pursued at the Communist meetings. I wonder if 
you would go into that a little bit more thoroughly. For example, 
did you study the Communist Manifesto ? 

Mr. Singer. No, I had read the Communist Manifesto before then. 
We did not study that because I don't think we were basically inter- 
ested in that. That was sort of, as you know, like an order in a 
direction. This was an intellectual group which liked to argue and 
discuss and we were used to taking things of interest for the day. 
For example, during the early part of the war when the Soviet Union 
called the war a war of national liberation, as you recall at the begin- 
ning of the war, we studied books on the problem of national libera- 
tion. We read up on it as to what they meant by national liberation. 

At other times when our interest SAvung in one way or the other, 
for example at one time we studied very carefully the genetics con- 
troversy which some of us were terrifically interested in and which 
was brewing on an international scale. Of course, there were limits 
in the information because there was not much published at that time, 
but there was the problem of Lysenko and genetics and we took such 
topics as that. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you ever discuss the Soviet or the Communist 
Party attitude generally toward religion ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes; we discussed that at one point. I do not think 
we had any formal reading on that because I do not recollect whether 
there is a formal book on that, but during the war there was a big 
discussion in the papers as to whether people were permitted to prac- 
tice their religion within the Soviet Union or not and the press and 
our radio, as you know, were favorably disposed toward Russia as an 
ally and there were pictures of overflow crowds within the churches, 
as you know, and so on, but in general we did not bother much with 
the religious question. Most of it was what you might call heavy 



1542 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Stuff, the business of economic application, the business of political 
application, the business of scientific application of the Marxian con- 
tributions, the Engels philosophy and in terms of the scientific level. 

Mr. Velde. Did you ever discuss the old saying — I believe it was 
Lenin's — that "Religion is an opiate of the people." 

Mr. Singer. I have heard that, but we never took that as a subject 
of discussion. I think we accepted that as part of our philosophical 
background just like we accepted many things, but it was a group 
which liked to argue and debate. It is sort of traditional in certain 
ways within scholarly levels. We do that in biology in a sense in 
our seminars, except that this was a Communist group. We wanted 
to learn it and we supported the philosophical side of communism. 

Mr. Velde. You were more or less studying and talking about the 
theoretical side of communism, I presume, that is the Marxian ide- 
ology, but did you ever discuss whether or not that was being carried 
into practice in Soviet Russia ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes, that was a major part of the discussion. We would 
discuss the philosophical side and see what the nature of application 
was, either in Russia or how it was applied on an international level. 
You see the nature of the application of these to possible applica- 
tion within different countries, how the Marxian philosophy ma}^ or 
may not fit within these situations, and we argued on these levels and 
we debated on these levels, but we sympathetically applied this in- 
formation to the international situation. So in that sense it was not 
confined to merely theoretical considerations. It was application on 
the theoretical level. 

Mr. Velde. Let me ask you about your conclusion at the present time 
with reference to the practice of Marxism in Soviet Russia. Do you 
believe that Soviet Russia is practicing Marxism at the present time? 

Mr. Singer. I know that there is a tremendous debate as to w^iether 
they are or whether they are not, but I do not think I am really compe- 
tent to say whether they are putting into practice the economic side and 
I have heard arguments that they are not, on either that or the political 
side of the Marxist philosophy. Nor can I say about the scientific side 
except in my own field, and yet in a way even there I could not — one 
does not have to be a Marxist to be a scientist. That is obvious. You 
don't have to read the literature of Marxism to be a scientist. 

Mr. Velde. Were there any other subjects that you studied during 
your classes, or your meetings, rather, I should say ? 

Mr. Singer. No, the philosophical and practical side. For example, 
we would read Communist literature, say American Communist litera- 
ture when it was pertinent. For example, there was a monthly maga- 
zine which came out at that time. 

Mr. Velde. What was the name of the magazine ? 

Mr. Singer. I can't remember whether it was called The Communist 
or something of that sort. 

Mr. Velde. Tliere was a magazine called The Communist. 

Mr. Singer. Well, that would occasionally have articles by inter- 
national Communists, maybe an article by a French Communist or 
a German Communist analyzing the world situation, so if it were in 
context with our studies we might devote a whole session to the 
analysis of this one article. 

Mr. Velde. How about the Duclos letter, the letter that Jacques 
Duclos sent ? • 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1543 

Mr, Singer. I remember that bectause that created quite a contro- 
versy. It was a very critical issue and resulted in a split within the 
party and continuous argument within the party and there were 
lectures on that. 

I remember attending a lecture in Boston by a Communist from 
the New Masses who analyzed the significance of the letter, and if I 
I'ecollect correctly the letter stated that the Communist Party of 
the United States had deviated from the traditional position of com- 
munism, that Browder was wrong, that the party should reorient 
itself once again along the line of international Communist philoso- 
phy and doctrines. 

( Representative Morgan M. Moulder entered the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Clardy. Pursuing that line a little further, in your studies I 
take it j^ou became acquainted with and must have accepted the basic 
tenet, the backbone, so to speak, of the Communist teachings, the 
question of the dictatorship of the proletariat. You must have 
studied and understood and accepted that. Do you accept it today? 

Mr. Singer. No ; I do not accept it today. 

Mr. Clardy. To go back to the time that you did, your group was 
accepting it? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; we discussed that. 

Mr. Clardy. You understood, did you not, that that meant that 
the end, the dictatorship of the proletariat was to be achieved, in the 
words of Lenin and the rest, by revolution. You knew and under- 
stood that, surely, did you not ? 

Mr. Singer. No ; I would say not, because we did not look at it, I 
am sure, and I am speaking for myself, in terms of revolutionary 
forces and violence. As we studied it, the concept went like this, 
that capitalism reaches a level of decay where it collapses on its own. 

Mr. Clardy. I know there is a theory that we will destroy ourselves. 
That is their theory. 

Mr. Singer. You see what I mean, and that at that time the people 
could take it over, as we understood it. bv democratic means. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, but the word "democratic" in the Russian or the 
Communist dictionary doesn't mean vrhat we mean, does it? 

Mr. Singer. That is right. Then at that time there would be revo- 
lutionary forces at work to try to maintain the sj^stem and consequently 
a revolution. 

Mr. Clardy. Don't they say that there will be counterrevolutionary 
forces to maintain, isn't that the terminology they use ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. So that as they say today they anticipate starting a 
war because they must anticipate the war that they are sure England 
and America and the rest are going to start first. Isn't that their 
attitude ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. And wasn't that their attitude and wasn't that the 
angle that was discussed in your groups ? 

Mr. Singer. I don't think that we ever came down to a discussion 
on that — at least, we did not see it on that level. 

Mr. Clardy. You may not have seen it but you must have been 
aware of the fact that that was the Communist theory of always strik- 
ing first, on the assumption that if you didn't the other fellow was 



1544 coMMTHsriST methods of infiltration (education) 

going to hit you jBrst, the application of the words used by a general 
in the Civil War of "Getting there f ustest with the mostest." 

Mr. Singer. That is the Communist philosophy. 

Mr. Clardy. You accepted that, but you say that you rejected it. 
Do you reject it in its entirety ? 

Mr. Singer. I rejected it because I cannot see at the present time 
any application to the United States. 

Mr. Clardy. Can you see any application anywhere? 

Mr. Singer. Of force and violence? 

Mr. Clardy. Of the theory behind the Communist doctrine. Can 
you see that it makes any sense whether it is in the United States or 
anywhere else? 

Mr. Singer. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Clardy. You do not see that? 

Mr. Singer. No ; I do not see that. 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Clardy. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you tell this committee 

Mr. Singer. ]\Iay I interrupt ? As I look back to these discussions, 
projecting myself back through the years and as I look back at myself 
I don't think I ever accepted that. 

Mr. Clardy. Accepted what? 

Mr. Singer. In terms of revolutionary violence for myself. 

Mr. Clardy. May I express this thought, it is pretty difficult for me 
to see how you could accept the Communist theories if you did not 
accept the basic tenet, and that is the absolute necessity of their taking 
over, so to speak, all the rest of the world. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you tell this committee how you first became a 
member of the Communist Party at Harvard? 

Mr. Singer, Yes. I was invited into this group on the basis that I 
was interested, in the sense that I did not, I think, hold back in any 
open discussions around the laboratory or elsewhere around the school 
of my own personal views of the growing international situation which 
worried me worse than anything. I was extremely depressed when 
France fell. The world looked unusually black to me in 1940. 

Mr. Kunzig. Who invited you to become a member of this group ? 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I feel that I am prepared to talk freely about 
myself, but I honestly feel that in honor and conscience I cannot, I 
prefer not, I should not talk about my colleagues and associates. I 
know that you have had before you a number of people and they have 
spoken freely and I have thought very carefully about this because 
it is a most difficult position. Yet I should not give you my feel- 
ings— — 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question that he has just been asked. 

Mr. Velde. In order for this committee to do its duty and perform 
its obligations, it is necessary that we obtain information, complete 
information about the Communist Party and all of its various front 
groups and we feel that the matter of who asked you to become a 
Communist is a matter which this committee is entitled to know, a 
fact which this committee is entitled to know, and so the witness is 
directed to answer that particular question. 

Mr. Singer. May I consult with my attorney ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Please do. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1545 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I feel strongly and knowing these people that they 
were like myself, they did nothing subversive, and I also feel that 
should I answer this question on advice of my counsel, that this might 
tend to incriminate me, and for both of these reasons of honor and 
conscience and of incrimination I would rather not answer. 

Mr. Moulder. Would you tell us whether or not the person who 
solicited your membership w'as a member of the faculty at Harvard 
University ? 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I feel I could tell you that, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. The person who solicited your affiliation and mem- 
bership was a member of the faculty ? 

Mr. Singer. Was on the staff of Hai^ard University. 

Mr. Velde. At this point, gentlemen, it is apparent that we are 
going to have a series of rollcalls on the floor and it will be impossible 
to continue this hearing today. Now, would it inconvenience the wit- 
ness too greatly to return tomorrow at 10 o'clock ? 

Mr. Singer. Well, it would, but I could remain. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, it is always an inconvenience. It is an in- 
convenience to us sometimes, too, and I suppose we will have to insist 
on your return at 10 o'clock tomorrow. 

Mr. Clardy. And might we leave it also that we will meet at that 
time unless he is advised to the contrary by counsel ? Something might 
come up today on the floor that might make it inconvenient for us to 
return tomorrow at 10 o'clock. 

Mr. Velde. Surely. We will recess at this time until 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning in this same room. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 16 a. m., the hearing was adjourned until 10 
a. m., Wednesday, May 27, 1953.) 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTKATION 
(EDUCATION— PAKT 5) 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 27, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C, 

public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 : 15 a. m., in the caucus room, room 362, 
Old House Office B'uilding, Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde 
(chairman). Kit Clardy, Francis E. Walter (appearance noted in 
transcript), and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; George E. 
Cooper, investigator; and Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will come to order. 

Let the record show, Mr. Reporter, that the chairman has appointed 
Mr. Clardy, Mr. Doyle, and myself as chairman of a subcommittee 
for the purposes of this continued hearing. 

Is the witness here ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Singer. 



^fe" 



TESTIMONY OF MARCUS SINGER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

DANIEL A. POLLITT— Resumed 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Singer, you we^B asked yesterday who invited 
you to become a member of this group. Your answer was that you 
would rather not answer. Now, I Wtint to get that definitely on the 
record. Are you refusing to answer that question? 

Mr. Singer. I would rather not an/^^wer that, sir, in honor and 
conscience. 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear you, Mr. Singer. 

Mr. Singer. I would rather not answer. I prefer not to answer 
that, in honor and conscience, sir, and 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you 

Mr. Singer (continuing). For the reasons of incrimination, as I 
stated yesterday. 

Mr. Kunzig. All right. It is a question of English now. Are you 
refusing to answer the question on the grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Singer. For that and honor and conscience, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you are refusing to answer ; is that correct ? 

1547 



1548 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Singer. I prefer not. 

(At this ]K)int Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you refusing to answer ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, you stated yesterday that the growing inter- 
national situation worried you worse than anything. I am quoting: 
"This worried me worse than anything." 

Now, I want to ask you this: In 1940, when you were worried about 
tliis international situation, Germany and Russia were allies. How 
did you rationalize that fact in your interest in communism? 

Mr. Singer. Well, sir, that, to me, was an immateriality, since I 
knew and I felt very strongly that both Russia and Germany would 
be at war. Hitler had stated that repeatedly and the other maneuvers 
were, in my estimation, just to clear the way. 

And I think that I was right as things occurred, but, as I saw it, 
that seemed like the brewing struggle and the rest did not seem 
material 



Mr. KuNziG. So when many 

Mr. Singer (continuing). And I didn't 

Well 

Mr. KuNziNG. So when many Communists left the group or lost 
their interests in communism due to Russia's alliance with Germany, 
you didn't leave; you stayed an interested Communist; is that right? 

Mr. Singer. Russia's alliance 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear you, Witness. 

Mr. Singer. Russia's alliance with Germany 

That was in 1939, wasn't it, sir? 

Mr. KuNziG. And it lasted until 1941. 

Mr. Singer. Until they were at war? 

Mr. KuNziG. That's correct. 

Mr. Singer. And my joining this group was in 1940 or 1941, sir. 
It was approximately a year or a year and a half. I don't recollect 
the precise dates of the pact between the two countries, but certainly 
in my thinking, in the interim, time must have played an important 
role. 

The thing which I think T stated yesterday, and which I felt was 
very important in my own mood and my own mind at the time, was 
the terrible depression I felt when France fell, which I think was about 
the middle of 1940. 

Mr. KuNziG. June 1940 — June 17, I believe. 

Mr. Singer. June 1940. 

And if you remember the news dispatches, and so on, the invinci- 
bility of the Germans — they had extraordinary gases that paralyzed 
the nerves — and tliat they walked over the fortifications, and so on, 
of France — the so-called invincible fortifications of France. 

I am trying to recapture some of this mood and it is difiicult in 
retrospect. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Robert G. Davis? 

Mr. Singer. No; I'm fairly sure that I never met Robert G. Davis. 

Mr. Ci^vrdy. The question was not whether you met him, but 
whether you knew him at all. 

Mr. Singer. I've read about him, sir, but I'm sure I never knew him. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew about him, then ? 

Mr. Singer. I knew about him. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1549 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you know him as a Communist? 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I've stated mj- reasons 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you refusing 

Mr. Singer (continuing). For declining. 

Mr. KuNziG. You decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment; is that correct? 

JVIr. Singer. On the grounds of honor and conscience and tlie fifth 
amendment, which I stated before, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know, while 3'ou were at MIT, Wendell H. 
Furry ? 

Mr. Singer. I was never at MIT. 

Mr. KuNziG. I'm sorry. I meant to say at Harvard. Wliile you 
were at Harvard, did you know Wendell H. Furry? 

Mr. Singer. Yes; I knew Wendell H, Furry. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Wendell H. Furry as a member of the 
Communist Partj^ ? 

Mr. Singer. I decline again, sir, on the.grounds 

Mr. KuNziG. On the same grounds ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. 

Did you know Isaclor Amdur — A-m-d-u-r? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Isador Amdur as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Singer. Again, sir, I give the same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Norman Levinson ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I knew him. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Norman Levinson as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Singer. Again, sir, I give the same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Ballis Edwin Blaisdell — B-1-a-i-s- 
d-e-1-1? 

Mr. Singer. I do not think, sir, I knew Mr. Blaisdell. 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, did vou know him ? 

Mr. Singer. I don't think I know him. It's a question of a name 
and a face. If you had a picture, perhaps I could say — ^yes ; I knew 
him — but, at most, if I did know him, or recognized him from a face, 
it would be a person that I knew perhaps very casually ; but I think I 
never knew him. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, would you suspend just a minute ? 

We would like to confer with you. 

(At this point the committee members conferred with Mr. Kunzig.) 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know a John H. Reynolds ? 

Mr. Singer. I knew, sir, John H. Reynolds. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Singer. Again, sir, I answer the same way. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know Dirk 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

You answer the same way ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. You decline to answer? 



1550 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think the record will show clearly that in all these 
answers he is declining to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Do I understand that ? 

Mr. Singer. And honor and conscience, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear you. I can't hear what you add to that 
each time. 

Mr. Singer. And honor and conscience. 

Mr. Clardy. Honor and conscience ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I feel extremely strong about it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Dirk Struik — S-t-r-u-i-k ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I knew him. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Dirk Struik to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Singer. I decline again, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know William Ted Martin ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I knew him. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Singer. I decline again, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know Lawrence Arguimbau ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig, Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Singer. I decline again, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know Israel Halperin 

Mr. Singer. No ; I never 

Mr. Kunzig (continuing). H-a-l-p-e-r-i-n ? 

Mr. Singer. I have heard of him, sir, but I do not know 

Mr. Clardy. You knew of his record, I take it? 

Mr. Singer. I have read in the paper, sir, about 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I am talking about back as of the time we are 
discussing your acquaintance with these others. You knew of his 
activities and of his record as of that time, did you not? 

Mr. Singer. No ; at that time I am sure, sir, t didn't. 

Mr. Clardy. You hadn't heard of him until the hearings going on 
here? 

IVIr. Singer. I heard of him in — perhaps the middle of the forty's, at 
a later time. There was some incident. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know Israel Halperin at any time to be a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Singer. I did not — I did not know him, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Then, you didn't know him at any time to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer. No. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know William T. Parry — P-a-r-r-y? 

Mr. Singer. No, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. You never knew a William T. Parry? 

Mr. Singer. No ; I've read about him in the paper recently, but I 
did not know him. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know a Helen Deane Markham ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes : I know a Helen Deane Markham. 



COMlMUISriST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1551 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Helen Deane Markham to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

]\Ir. Singer. I decline again, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know at any time a Dr. Philip Morrison — * 
I believe at Cornell UniAersity? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You did know Dr. Philip Morrison? 

Mr. Singer. I know him now. 

Mr. KuNziG. You do know him today? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. I met him when I came to Cornell. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Singer. I do not know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party. I do not know liim to be. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, these people we have mentioned up to this time — 
Robert G. Davis, Wendell IT. Furry, Isador Amdur, Norman Levin- 
son, John H. Reynolds. Dirk Struik, William Ted Martin, Lawrence 
Arguimbau, and Helen Deane INIarkham — did they attend these meet- 
ings to which you testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I decline again on the grounds which I have 
already stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. I am going to take them individually for 
the purpose of this record. 

Did Robert G. Davis attend these meetings to which you testified 
yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. I said I did not know Robert Davis. 

Mr. KuNziG. You don't know Robert Davis at all ? 

Mr. Singer. No ; I've read — — 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. 

Mr. Singer (continuing) . About Robert Davis. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did Wendell H. Furry attend these Communist meet- 
ings you testified about yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I decline. 

Mr. Clardy. May I put it another way, Counsel: Did he attend 
any one of the meetings ? 

Mr. Singer. I decline, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did Isador Amdur attend any one of these meetings 
to which you testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Again, sir, I decline. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did Norman Levinson attend any one of these Com- 
munist meetings to which you testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Again, I decline. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did John H. Reynolds attend any one of these Com- 
munist meetings to which you testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Again, sir, I decline. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did Dirk Struik attend any one of these Communist 
meetings to which you testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Again, I decline for the reasons I have said. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did William Ted Martin attend any one of these Com- 
munist meetings to which you testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Again I decline, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did Lawrence xlrguimbau attend any one of these 
Communist meetings to which you testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Same answer, sir. 



1552 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. KuNziG. Did Helen Deane Mai'kluim attend any one of these 
Communist meetings to which yon testified yesterday ? 

Mr. Singer. Again, sir, I decline. 
• Mr. KuNziG. I request, sir, that the witness be directed to answer 
that series of questions, as they are completely pertinent and relevant 
to the matter before this committee. 

Mr. Velde. Yes. Again I want to say to the witness that, under the 
obligations imposed upon us by the House of Representatives and the 
duty we have, it is very necessary that, if we are to carry out these 
duties, the witnesses we bring before this committee not only answer 
as to their own affiliation with the Communist Party or any other 
subversive grouji but also tell about the operations of that particular 
group, tell who were members, and so forth. 

I know you are represented by able counsel, and I hope you will 
realize there is a possibility that you will be cited for contempt of this 
committee and contempt of Congress. 

Bearing that in mind, the Chair feels that these questions put to you 
by counsel, which you declined to answer, are pertinent to this com- 
mittee's work ; and, therefore, I direct you to answer these questions. 

Mr. Singer. Sir 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer (continuing). I am prepared to speak fully about my- 
self, as I did yesterdaj'', and tell you everything about myself, waiving 
my right to my own opinions, past or present, in honesty and sin- 
cerely ; but I could never, sir, in honor and conscience, trade someone's 
career for my own, come what may, and I wish to restate my position : 
That, in honor and conscience, I just cannot, and also for fear of 
incrimination 

Mr. Velde. Well, let me say- 



Mr. Singer (continuing). On advice of counsel, sir. 

Mr. Velde. Let me say, as far as trading your career or trading 
anybody else's career, to satisfy us, or answer the questions put to you, 
we are not interested in any way whatsoever in interfering with your 
occupation or that of any other witness Avho has come before this com- 
mittee, or the right and privilege of having a job at a great uni- 
versity'. 

(Representative Pi"ancis E. Walter entered the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Velde, We are only interested in obtaining facts relative to the 
operations of subversive activities in this country, and in particular 
relative to the operations of the Communist Party, past and present. 

I think that you know — and this committee certainly does — that no 
witness who has come before this committee and answered questions 
truthfully has ever been incriminated by this connnittee; and, further 
than that, I know of no one who has suffered any loss of employment 
by reason of his cooperation or his testimony concerning subversive 
activities in this countiy. 

Mr. Singer. I ap]:)reciate very much the position of the committee 
and the rights of the committee to investigate, and it's a position 
which I honor, sir: and, for myself, I will state emphatically if ever 
I encounter subversion among anyone, irres]:)ective of whether they 
are my colleagues, I will gladly rej^ort it. It's my duty, I feel, to re- 
port it; but we were not subversive, sir. We didn't follow any slavist 
policy. We were intellectuals. We were scholars. We were pur- 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1553 

suing a rifrlit. as we fhoiiglit it. and if Ave are disinterested at tlie mon- 
ment, at the present time, it merely 

Mr. A^KLDE. The committee realizes — 1 am speaking for myself pri- 
marily, but 1 tliink the other members of the committee realize — you 
thought yon at that time were not engaged in any subversive activities; 
but it so hapi)ens now this connnittee is attempting to determine the 
nature of those activities in order to determine whether or not they 
were subversive and have been subversive for a long time 

Mr. SixGEK. 1 a])preciate 

Mr. Velde (continuing). And it is for that reason we are asking 
you these questions. 

Mr. Singer. I appreciate that, very well, sir, and I have spoken 
about my feelings. I have tried to project myself back into a world 
which was diff'eient than it is now. I have completely disassociated 
myself from those actiAdties, and I have expressed that. I have no in- 
terest in those activities at all, but as I look back on them T give you 
my honest evaluation. 

I do not feel remoi'se of those things. Perhaps it was a stage in my 
own development. Perha])S it was a certain need. Perhaps it was 
a question of inquisitiveness. in ])art. 

Mr. A'elde. That is just exactly what this committee is trying to 
find out, Dr. Singer 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). And if you would answer these questions, 
it would help us a lot in determining how the Communist Party op- 
erated and how they weie able to infiltrate almost eveiy phase of our 
American life. 

Mr. Singer. I describe that according to my feelings, and I am 
prepared to continue, sir, even on opinions, on various things; but I 
just feel 

Mr. Velde. We are not too much interested in opinions. We are 
interested in facts. 

Mr. Singer. I feel, sir 

Mr. Veij)e. The questions asked you 

Mr. Singer. I feel 

Mr. Velde (continuing). By Counsel are questions of fact. 

Mr. Singer. Well, sir. I just feel I could not possibly work in my 
laboratory again. It's not that I'm hiding something. It's — it's like 
the end of a rope, in many ways. It's a basic feeling, sir, and I just 
cannot 

Mr. C LARDY. Mav I suggest 



Mr. Singer (continuing). Change my position, 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). Since you have directed the witness to 
answer the questions it would probably be well, in view of that direc- 
tion, if Counsel would again ask him either singly or collectively as to 
whether or not those members attended any single meeting. In other 
words, I think they should be repeated now that the direction of the 
Chair has been given so this record may be clear. 

Mr. Velde. Well, I think the record is clear enough with reference to 
his refusal to answer relative to those people he knew. 

Mr. Clardy. Maybe we could get at it this way : Witness, do I under- 
stand your ]"efusal to answer to be that you would refuse to respond 
to any question dealing with the identification of any of these who 



1554 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

have been named as members of the group or meetings that you 
attended ? 

You are just making a blanket denial and refusal to answer any 
questions along that line ? 

Mr. Singer, Yes; on the grounds which I have stated, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes; I understand what you have stated, but your 
refusal is a blanket refusal ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I 

Mr. Clardy. Well, that will shorten it up a little bit. 

I think you are ill-advised, especially in view of what happened 
at the Rumanian Embassy yesterday, sir, and I think you should 
reconsider your position and assist this committee in exposing to the 
light of day every bit of information that you have. 

That is ail I have, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Walter. Well, may I remind the witness of this : We are not 
interested in the names of the people as such. We are interested in 
learning about the ramifications of this conspiracy so that we might 
be in a position to recommend to the Congress of the United States 
remedial legislation. 

Mr. Singer. Yes, 

Mr. Walter. The fact that names enter into this is purely incidental. 

Mr. Singer. Well, sir, that's in part a feeling of mine, and I answered 
along those lines, sir, and I am prepared to go on 

Mr, Walter. No, but you 

Mr. Singer. About myself, sir. 

Mr. Walter (continuing) . You see, in light of what I say, what you 
are actually doing is impeding this committee in its attempts to devise 
the kind of legislation that will afford some degree of security and 
protection to the United States. 

We don't care who these people were as individuals. We want to 
know what they did, and where they are now. 

Mr. Doyle. May I add this suggestion 

Mr. Velde, Mr, Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle (continuing) . In view of that very apj)ropriate observa- 
tion by Mr. Walter : Under Public Law 601 we are assigned to make 
a study of the extent — of the extent — of subversive activities. 

Now, calling that language to your attention, I feel it would rnake it 
clear to you as a distinguished educator that that is one additional 
reason why we are anxious to find, and we are duty-bound to find under 
the law, the number of people in these groups and how they func- 
tioned, what they did, as members of the Communist Party, or as Com- 
munists who were not members of the Communist Party; and I am 
sure we are all trying to make that perfectly clear to you 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr, Doyle (continuing) , Not to have you do something which your 
conscience wouldn't in honor allow you to do, but to try to get your 
help, sir 

Mr, Singer, Yes ; I would like 

Mr, Doyle (continuing). In our study, 

Mr. Singer. I would like to tell vou about myself, my impressions, 
my understanding, as I did yesterday, and continue on that line, sir; 
but I just 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask just this one more question, Mr. Chairman, 
because I wasn't here yesterday in committee meeting and didn't have 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1555 

the benefit of hearing the testimony yesterday : Do I understand the 
situation correctly that you, on yesterday, and again today, state 
frankly that you are a Communist ? 

Mr. Singer. Were. 

Mr. Doyle. That you were a Communist? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. But you didn't state yesterday or today whether or not 
you were a member of the Communist Party. Is there a difference in 
your position ? 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Doyle, may I suggest something before the witness 
answers ? 

Mr. Velde. Not 

Mr. Clardy. The record is pretty clear, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

(At this point the committee members and Mr. Kunzig conferred.) 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I understand that this line of question- 
ing which I started was gone through yesterday. The House was in 
session ; I was there. 

Mr. Clardy. I could have told you that a long time ago. 

Mr. Doyle. The House of Representatives meets at 11 o'clock this 
morning instead of 12. So, I will withdraw my question. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. May I continue, sir ? 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, Dr. Singer, you testified yesterday at these meet- 
ings there were only 7 or 8 people, maximum, and in the total group 
over a period of meetings there weren't more than about 14 or 15 
people. 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I hazard 

Mr. Kunzig. That is correct ; is it not ? 

Mr. Singer (continuing). A guess, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is relatively correct ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr, Kunzig. Therefore, it would not be difficult for you, with such 
a small number of people, to recollect their names if you wanted to give 
them here today ; would it ? 

Mr. Singer. Well, I think in part, yes ; it would, because people, like 
myself, came and went. Those were the war years. Scientists— they'd 
come as instructors, something of that sort, then leave the university 
and go to another place 

Mr. Kunzig. But the sum total of names 

Mr. Singer (continuing). And we didn't worry about those, except 
those we knew. 

Mr. Kunzig. But the sum total of names never exceeded more than 
than 14 or 15 people that were in this Communist group; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Singer. I do not think so. 

Mr. Kunzig. You do not think it exceeded more than 14 or 15 ? 

Mr. Singer. I hazard a guess on it. That is my impression 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask you a question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Singer (continuing). As I look back on it. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr, Clardy. When we adjourned yesterday — as you know, I went 
into this in considerable length — you had had the suggestion put to 
you that the committee did want you to tell us whether any of these 



1556 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

people had attended the meeting. Now, during the interval since 
we adjourned yesterday morning and this morning have you checked 
up on any information in writing or otherwise that you may have 
to refresh your recollection as to whether these people did or did 
not attend meetings? 

Mr. Singer. I checked up in the interim on my feeling, basic feel- 
ing, sir, about the questions that you asked me; and that's what I 
think I devoted most of my time. The rest of the time I tried to 
rest. 

Mr, Clardy. Well, there isn't any doubt about the fact if you were 
willing to answer you could tell us, clearly and distinctly, whether 
any one or all of these people attended any of the meetings? That 
is a fact as of this time, isn't it ? 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr, Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Clardt, Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were these other people who attended these meetings 
professors or on the teaching staff of either Harvard or MIT ? 

Mr. Singer. As I recollect, these people, sir, the}? were professionals, 
like myself, associated with the universities. 

Mr. Kunzig. In the teaching capacity ? 

Mr. Singer. In some capacity with the university, 

Mr, Kunzig. Harvard and MIT? 

Mr. Singer. Harvard and MIT. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, in addition to the names that I have already 
asked you about this morning, were there any other names of any 
other people whom you recollect who attended these Communist meet- 
ings with you? 

Mr. Singer. I decline, sir, on the grounds 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you ever work on a Government project? 

Mr. Singer. Well, I was at the medical school and employed by the 
medical school, 

Mr, Kunzig. What year was that? 

Mr. Singer. That was — I was at the medical school for a long 
period. 

IVIr. Kunzig. Yes, 

Mr, Singer, As I pointed out to you, from '42 until '51, and during 
the war years I worked part time in my research on a project on 
blood, on blood plasma, and the fractionation of blood plasma at 
Harvard Medical School, and as I understand it part of my salary, 
approximately half, was paid by way of that project, and I was 

Mr. Kunzig. From the Federal Government? 

Mr. Singer. Office of Scientific Eesearch and Development 

Mr. Kunzig. Paid 

Mr. Singer (continuing). From which I received a citation for my 
work. So, I presume the pay came from that — either that or other 
funds which supported the department. I didn't go into that. 

Mr. Kunzig. Government funds? 

Mr. Singer. Either Government funds or perhaps Rockefeller funds 
supported that blood-plasma project, 

I had a specific job to perform, 

Mr, Kunzig. Would you know whether that job was classified or 
unclassified? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1557 

Mr. Singer. That project was classified, and some of the research 
which I did in rehation to it was released during tlie time of the war, 
and indeed, I published it, with permission, in a paper which came 
out in 1945 in the Journal of Neurosurgery. 

Mr. KuxziG. Now, Dr. Singer, since this is during the war years, 
going back to your testimony yesterday, that meant you worked on this 
classified project at a time when you considered yourself a Communist? 

Mr. Singer. Yes, sir. 

Through this period there were very loose associations during the 
war, but — — 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever asked by the college as to whether you 
were a Communist 

Mr. Singer. No. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing) . Prior to working on this classified work? 

Mr. Singer. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever asked by any Federal authorities or 
investigators as to whether you were a Communist 

Mr, Singer. No. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing) . Prior to working on this classified work? 

Mr. Singer. No ; I have no recollection of that. I feel fairly certain 
not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know whether you were ever cleared to work 
for classified work? 

Mr. Singer. I must have been cleared to work for classified work. 
I presume that's the nature of the classified work. 

Mr, KuNziG. Rut nobody ever asked you any questions ? 

Mr. Singer. The only thing I remember in connection with that 
was a form whose character I don't recollect that I signed. 

Mr, KuNziG. Did you state on that form that you signed that you 
were a Communist ? 

Mr. Singer. No; I did not. 

Mr, KuNziG. Do you recall whether you were asked whether you 
were a Communist? 

Mr. Singer. I do not think I was asked that at any time. 

Mr. KuNziG, Were you required to take any oath as to whether 
you were a Communist ? 

Mr, Singer, No, 

Mr. KuNziG. Professor Singer, will you tell this committee briefly 
your viewpoint on whether a Communist today 'is qualified to teach 
school or in the colleges of this Nation 

INIr. Singer. Fi-»m my 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing). From your experience? 

Mr, Singer. Based on 

Mr. Kunzig. Your own personal experience. 

Mr. Singer. And my associations? 

Mr. KuNzio. Your associations with Communists, 

]Mr. Singer. I feel honestly — I think anyone who is — irrespective 
of his political opinions, if he is a good teacher and a good scholar 
and performs his duty, should be permitted to teach. 

Mr. Claruy. You mean an active Communist today should be per- 
mitted to teach today? 

Mr. Singer. I feel that if he is a good teacher and a good scholar 
and doesn't use his lecture platform to further his political views — 
tliat is the onh^ way I could judge him, sir. 



1558 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Clardy. Despite the fact that the Commnnists have no free- 
dom, no academic freedom, in tlieir thinking, you still would say that? 
Mr. SiXGER. Sir, I'm going back into my feelings. 

Mr. Clardy. No, not going back into your experience 

Mr. SiNGKR. Weil, I am looking at myself- 



Mr. Clardy (continuing). Since we know today- 



Mr. Singer (continuing). Because that's the only person really that 
I know best, is myself, and I cannot see a disparity in that reasoning. 

Mr. CiiAiniY. Do you not recognize the fact that today any active 
member of the Communist Party does not have freedom of thought? 

Mr. Singer. I understand that, sir. 

Mr. Claedy. All right. Assuming that is the fact and forgetting 
vour own past experience 

Mr. Singer. If a person 

Mr. Clardy. Excuse me just a minute. 

Mr. Singer, Yes. 

Mr. Claudy. Would you not agree, based on that, that a Communist 
is not worthy to teach our youth today ? 

Mr. Singer. You see, those I knew I feel were not unworthy to 
teach; but if they slavishly followed a policy, if they are bound in 
discipline, rigidly, to a policy and devote their lives to a policy, they 
could not possibly be a good teacher. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, if he is an active Communist — and I use the word 
"active" — then he would be bouucl to the party line and should be 
disqualified, should he not? 

Mr. Singer. If he undertakes this slavishness. I do not, myself, 
believe that the mass of Communists today even would follow this. 
This is not speaking about the leaders, but I think if people sort of 
take a peek and look around, and if disinterested, disabused, what 
have you, leaving 

Mr. Clardy. You would trust a Communist, then, to teach our 
youth today and trust to chance that he wouldn't slavishly follow the 
Communist Party line ? Is that your attitude ? 

Mr. Singer. I would trust a person who performs his duties, his 
jobs, in adequate fashion. If he is going to teach, for example, like 
I do, anatomy, and he does a good job and teaches anatomy, accurately, 
if he doesn't use his lecture podium as a platform for his political 
view-s, if he doesn't try, after school, to impose his philosophy in any 
shape or manner on' his colleagues, or on his students, I do not see 
why — why not — why he slioulcln't teach. 

Mr. Clardy. You would risk that, then? 

Mr. Singer. I think our country can risk that, because I feel that 
the basic freedoms in our country have protected really our country, 
and I think when things are more — the more hope and freedom is 
allowed for this, that we have nothing really to fear. It's no major 
movement, and never has gotten roots in our country, and I think 
it never will obtain roots in our country as long as our country is the 
greatest country as it has been, and strong and a free country. 

Mr. KuNziG. But it got you for a period of 5 years; is that correct? 

Mr. Singer. It got me for a period longer, but not • 

Mr. Kunzig. How long? 

Mr. Singer (coutiiming). In thesen se that you say it got me, sir. 
I never followed anvthing slavishly. I considered mvself a Marxian, 



COJMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1559 

studied this philosophy. I was interested in it. I supported it. I 
identified myself with it, as I spoke to you freely yesterday. 

Mr. KuKziG. And you were interested, as you also testified, in mak- 
ing it work practically, in addition to just studying? 

Mr. Singer. In what way, sir? 

Mr. KuNziG. Well, you testified it wasn't just studying, but it was 
practical 

Mr. Singer. Try to apply it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Mr. Singer. Try to apply a philosophy. When you take a system 
of philosophy, you try to see how does it work in relation to things. 
You reject things. Certain other things intrigue you at the moment. 
At a later time they do not intrigue you. Some of these things pass 
you by and you forget about them. You may be disinterested. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, you know today the Communist Party is an 
organization, a conspiracy, to overthrow this Government, don't you ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I know 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you know that today? 

Mr. Singer. Yes; I know about the Smith Act, and 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, at the time that you were connected with this 
group you testified yesterday that you paid money to support this 
group, did you not ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Kunzig. You contributed? 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer. I contributed money. I don't remember paying the 
dues as such. 

Mr. Kunzig. But you contributed money? 

Mr. Singer. I contributed money. 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer. I contributed money. I contributed on the basis of 
drives, sir, for example, to support the Worker, which was always 
in 

Mr. Kunzig. The Daily Worker, you mean ? 

Mr. Singer. The Daily Worker 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes. 

Mr. Singer. Or the Sunday Worker, which was chronically in 
arrears. I supported that, feeling strongly toward supporting it, 
sir. 

]Mr. Kunzig. And this was in a period in which the Smith Act 
was in effect, isn't that correct? 

Mr. Singer. Well 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, it was. 

Mr. Singer. I mean 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know the Smith Act was in effect? 

Mr. Singer. When was the Smith Act 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Kunzig. 1940. 

Mr. Singer. 1940. 

What I knew, sir, is that we were going in the same direction, 
and we were all in the same war together, and that's why my interest 
fell at that 



1560 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. KuNziG. We Avereivt in tlie same Avar in IWO wlien yon began 
in connection wifli this Conimnnist gronj:). At tlint time Rnssia 
was allied with Germany, Avhom we were almost ready to fight. 

Mr. Singer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNZTG. Did that matter to yon at that time ? 

Mr. Singer. I told you about my feelings that I Avas sure — I was 
certain — here in the Ignited States we were arming for that eventual- 
ity ; we were afraid of attack by Germany ourselves. 

Mr. KiJNZiG. AVliat about Russia's attack on Finland, which oc- 
curred about that same period of time? Did that concern you? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; that concerned me. 

Mr. KuNziG. That did ? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. But you still remained a member of the Connnunist 
group and staj'ed active? 

Mr. Singer. Could yon tell me the dates on that, sir? 

Mr. Kunzig. I believe it was just prior to your time of joining the 
group, but you joined the group and stayed a member of it in spite 
of the Finnish war. 

Mr. Singer. I felt then — I haven't thought about these things for 
years — I must have felt, in trying to analyze my feelings about this, 
in many of these situations, it's the major powers that determine the 
Avhole Avorld situation and the small powers are sort of swamped out ; 
but I don't recollect clearly on that, sir. 

Mr. Velde. Now, you say, Dr. Singer, that you conti'ibutcd to the 
Communist Party and its various organizations, such as the New 
York Daily Worker. Could you tell us how much you contributed? 

Mr. Singer. Well, sir, I could not contribute very much because, 
first of all, I was a student at the time, and then I was a young in- 
structor. My salary was extremely low. and whatever I 'may have 
contributed might have been in — a 50 cents or a dollar, or something 
of that sort. It couldn't possibly have been anything more. 

Mr. Velde. Well, could you give us any estimate of the amount 
that you contributed to what you considered to be Connnunist causes? 

Mr. Singer. Well, you mean a total estimate? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Singer. I couldn't possibly. 

How could one do it ? 

It doesn't matter. After all, the limitation was my salary, and 
the drives for these things were irksome in that sense, and I just 
couldn't possibly have contributed very much — but a dollar here, 
or 50 cents there, on occasion. 

Mr. Velde. Well, would you say it would be as much as $100? 

Mr. Singer. Perhaps over the years. 

Mr. Clardy. You contributed as much as you could, considering 
the nature of your financial status, I take it? 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; and my interest. 

Mr. Walter. I would like to ask a question. 

Doctor, in response to a question by counsel, "Do you know com- 
munism is a conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United 
States ?" you said, "I know about the Smith Act." 

Am I to understand from that that you believe this is a conspiracy 
only because the Congress of the United States had said that it is u 
conspiracy to overthrow the Government? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDQCATION) 1561 

Mr. Singer. Look, sir, I'm certainly not a legal expert and I 
haven't 

Mr. Walter. Don't you know that as a fact? 

Mr. Singer. Just what I read, you see, is my understanding. It's 
been judged as such. I've disassociated myself from it completely for 
these reasons and for the reasons which I stated yesterday. 

Mr. Walter. But I am not interested in that at all. 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Walter. I want to know whether, as a fact, you believe that 
communism is a conspiracy to overthrow the Government. 

Mr. Singer. That's what they've jailed the leaders on; yes. 

Mr. Walter. Don't you agree that is what it is ? 

Mr. Singer. That in the long-range viewpoint, yes; but I, in myself, 
projecting myself back, and my feelings, we did not conspire. We 
did not do anything subversive, or anything of that sort. Maybe 
people would call us foolish for even reading the literature on the 
thing, but I can't even feel remorse on that level in looking back. 
It was 



Mr. Walter. Yes ; I understand that, but what I am interested in 
is the present, not your immature conclusions as a student. Do you 
believe that now communism is a conspiracy to overthrow the Gov- 
ernment ? 

Mr. Singer. I don't know. 

Mr. Clardy. What is your answer? 

Mr. Singer. I accept that, sir. 

Mr. Walter. And not because of the Smith Act, but you believe as 
a matter of fact it is a conspiracy ? 

Mr. Singer. It is this great international situation which 

Mr. Velde. Are you through? 

Mr. Walter. Yes. 

Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Well, in view of that, wouldn't your conscience allow 
you, in view of the last statement you made, admitting your feeling 
that the Communist Party was a conspiracy to overthrow this form 
of government, to answer the questions put to you by counsel and 
members of this committee ? 

Mr. Singer. Sir 

Mr. Velde. In order that we might find some effective way of com- 
bating and fighting this conspiracy 

Mr. Singer. I'm telling you 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Wouldn't your conscience permit you to 
answer the questions ? 

Mr. Singer. I'm telling you of my feelings. My conscience de- 
mands that anyone I know of who is subversive or has been subversive 
should be reported, and I state that frankly. That's my full feeling. 
There is no reservation on it. 

But this was not subversion. I participated in this, sir. I analyzed 
it. It just wasn't. It wasn't a conspiracy. We didn't follow slavishly 
this type of doctrine. We were interested. Perhaps you could call 
it a scholarly interest or not on this. It was an attraction. Perhaps 
it was a need on our part. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman 



1562 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Velde. Well, Mr. Witness, I agree with you, as I have said 
before, that you probably felt that way ; but I am satisfied, too, that 
the Government of the United States has, through its courts and 
through its committees of Congress 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). And through its legislative bodies, has 
determined that it has been a conspiracy in the past. 

Now, in view of that determination by your own Government- 

Mr. Singer. My feelings 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Will you not answer the questions so 
that we might be able to ascertain facts, more facts, about this con- 
spiracy in order that we might recommend 

Mr. Singer. In my feelings 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Legislation to combat it? 

Mr. Singer. In my feelings, sir, my feelings have paralled the 
Government's. I have disassociated myself completely from this. I 
do not associate myself with the concepts of this at all. The nature 
of the times has demanded that from me, and I have responded to 
that 

Mr. Velde. Well, Mr. Witness 

Mr. Singer (continuing). But I cannot change. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). I realize you don't think at the present 
time it has been a conspiracy- 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). But in view of the fact your own Gov- 
ernment has determined it to be not only a conspiracy at the present 
time, but it has been a conspiracy for a good long while, don't j'ou 
feel you owe it to your Government to tell us about the things you 
were engaged in 

Mr. Singer. I am. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). And the people engaged in it with you? 

Mr. Singer. I am telling you about the things I was engaged in — 
was engaged in, sir — and my opinions and views on it, and I am telling 
you there was no subversion. It was not. Otherwise, I would 

Mr. Velde. Was Wendell H. Furry engaged in those activities with 
you? 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I have already answered. 

Mr. Velde. No. 

Mr. Clardy. You've declined to answer. 

Mr. Velde. No ; you declined to answer. 

Mr. Singer. Yes ; I declined to answer. 

INIr. Velde. Let's get this straight. 

Mr. Singer. I mean I am repeating my 

Mr. Velde. I want to ask you again: Was Wendell Furiy engaged 
in these activities that you have told us about along with you ? 

Mr. Singer. Sir, I decline to answer that on the grounds which I've 
stated. 

Mr. Clardy. May I make a statement? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, I can't let you leave the stand without telling 
you this, as one individual member: You have placed j^our judgment 
above that of your Government and your Congress in deciding your- 
self whether or not the Communist movement is a conspiracy and 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1563 

all those who take any part in it are enga^^ed in that conspiracy ; and, 
so, I must tell you, as one Member, that I think you are in contempt 
of your Congress and of this committee, and I shall do what I can 
within my power to see that you are cited for that contempt. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter. 

(At this point Mr. Singer conferred with Mr. Pollitt.) 

Mr. Singer. We were autonomous. 

Mr. Clardy. I didn't ask you a question, sir. 

Mr. Singer. We were 

Mr. Clardy. I made a statement so you would be apprised of my 
attitude toward you as a result of your attitude toward the Congress. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a couple of questions? 

Mr. Velde. Mr."^ Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Because I was busy on other official matters yesterday, 
I wasn't here to hear your testimony and perhaps this question was 
asked and answered yesterday : When did you stop meeting with this 
group, or about wdien did you stop meeting with the group, with 
which you identified yourself? 

Mr. Singer. Attending meetings of this sort, sir ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Singer. Well, as I explained yesterday, from — during the post- 
war years my interests dwindled in this group for the reasons I stated. 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt? 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Don't repeat the explanation of yesterday. 

Mr. Singer. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Just say about what year did you stop meeting. 

Mr. Singer. I do not think I attended, in my recollection, any meet- 
ings of this nature after 1948 or 1949. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, I will not ask you at this time at all for the names 
of the people that met with you, because you have been asked that 
several times in several ways, but when did the group stop meeting, 
if you know, if they ever did ? 

Mr. Singer. W^ell, I do not — I do not know. 

Mr. Doyi.e. Well, approximately. 

Mr. Singer. Sir, if they ever did — you see, I disassociated myself 
from these meetings. 

Mr. Doyle. Well 

5j. 



Mr. Singer. I wasn't 

Mr. Doyle (continuing). Weren't you there? 

Mr. Singer. I wasn't bound to attend these meetings. I wasn't 
under any discipline. 

Mr. Doyle. About how many were in the group to which you refer 
as having been members when you stopped meeting with it? 

Mr. Singer. Well 

Mr. Doyle. About how many ? 

Mr. Singer. I don't — I don't think, sir, there were many in that 
group — perhaps 4 or 5, or 

Mr. Doyle, And were there ever more than 4 or 5 in it durins the 
time you met with it ? 

Mr. Singer. Well, I answered that question. 

Mr. DoYi.E. Well, just 

Mr. Singer. I answered that. 

Mr. Doyle. Just 



'fe 



1564 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. SixGER. Yes. 

Mr. DoYLK. About how many more? 

Mr. Singer. There Avere moi"e, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. About liow many more? 

Mr. Singer. I ayouM say perhaps, on the average, G or 7 or 8 at 
one time. 

Mr. Doyle. And about how many different persons, to your knowl- 
edge, in connection with the teaching or emplo3'ment of the university 
were in it? About liow many different persons, to your personal 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Singer. I hazard a guess on that, sir, which I repeated before, 
that I would think about 13 or so. 

Mr. Doyle. All riglit. Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have nothing further, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be con- 
tinued under subpena further, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. KuNziG. I don't know of any reason, sir. 

Mr. Velde. If not, the witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until further call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 11:11 a. m., the hearing was recessed, subject to 
call of the chairman.) 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTKATION 
(Education— Part 5) 



THURSDAY, MAY 28, 1953 

United States House of Representatives 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

executive session ^ 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, 
at 10:30 a. m., in room 1501, House Office Building, Hon. Harold 
H. Velde (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde 
(chairman), Kit Clardy, Gordon Scherer, Francis Walter, and Clyde 
Doyle. 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; George E. 
Cooper, investigator ; Raphael I. Nixon ; director of research ; Thomas 
W. IBeale, Sr., chief clerk; and Dolores Anderson, reporter. 

Mr. Velde. The meeting will come to order. Let the record show 
that present are Mr. Clardy, Mr. Scherer, Mr. Walter, Mr. Doyle, 
and myself, Mr. Velde, chairman, being a quorum of the full 
committee. 

Mr. Counsel, do you have a witness? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, Professor Gelbart. Will you stand to be sworn, 
please ? 

Mr. Velde. Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about 
to give, to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Dr. Gelbart. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ABE GELBAET, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

PAUL SKIPMAN ANDREWS 

Mr. Kunzig. I see you are accompanied by counsel. Will counsel 
please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Andrews. My name is Paul Shipman Andrews, executive di- 
rector of the Syracuse College of Law. Do you want anything fur- 
ther about me ? 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your address at the present time in the prac- 
tice of law? 

Mr. Andrews. I have just finished a job as counselor in the Office 
of the Secretary of Defense, and have not yet opened an office, but 
am going in partnership in Syracuse, N. Y. My home address, at 

1 Released by the committee on June 15, 1953. in view of the contrOTersy over identifi- 
cation of the witness as a member or former member of the Communist Party. 

1565 



1566 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

which for a h)n^ while 1 will be, is Wolff Hollow, Onondaga Hill 
Post Office, via Syracuse, N. Y. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Since you have not before appeared before this com- 
mittee, for a brief time I should like to inform you that you may at 
anytime confer with your client at this hearing, which is an executive 
session, as you see, but it is a traditional ruling of this committee 
that you may not speak publicly, or make any address before this 
committee. 

jVIr. Andrews. Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. You do understand this? 

Mr. Andrews. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you advise him further that if he has any writ- 
ten motion he will be able to present it ? 

Mr. Andrews. May I ask what you mean by motion? 

Mr. Clardy. Yes sir, a statement whicli you would like to present. 

Mr. Andrews. Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. Professor Gelbart, will you state your full name and 
address ? 

Dr. Gelbart. As I commonly call myself ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Dr. Gelbart. Abe Gelbart, 108 Carlton Drive, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Mr. KuNziG. When and where were you born, sir? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was born at Paterson, N. J., December 2, 1911. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a resume of your edu- 
cational background, please ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I went to the Paterson Grade School and High 
School. In 1935 I went to Dalhouser as a freshman and got my 
bachelor's degree in 1938. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is in Nova Scotia? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Does that complete your educational background? 

Dr. Gelbart. No ; I went in 1938 to the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, and received my doctorate there. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, would you give the committee a resume of your 
employment background, please ? 

Dr. Gelbart. From MIT I went to North Carolina State School 
of Engineering, in Raleigh, N. C. That was from 1940 to 1942. The 
summer of 1941 1 was research assistant at Brown University and there 
the war program was applying mathematics and theoretical mechan- 
ics. The summer of 1942 I was appointed as associate researcher. In 
December of 1942 I took a position with the National Advisory Com- 
mittee of Aeronautics. I remained there until July 1, 1943, when I 
became assistant professor at Syracuse University. I have been there 
since then. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present status at the Syracuse Univer- 
sity? 

Dr. Gelbart. Associate professor of mathematics. 

Mr, KuNziG. When you were at Syracuse, did you know one Ted 
Martin ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was he head of your department there at that time? 

Dr. Gelbart. He was. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did he bring you to Syracuse University ? 



COAOIUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1567 

Dr. Gelbart. It was his letter of appointment that brought me 
there. Or it was, rather, his letter of invitation that resulted in my 
appointment at Syracuse. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is the same Ted Martin who testified before 
this committee a few weeks ago? 

Dr. Gelbart. I believe so. 

Mr. KuNziG. And who is now head of the mathematics department 
at MIT? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. William Ted Martin? 

Dr. Gelbart. I believe so. 

Mr. KuNziG. In this period from 1938 to 1940, when you were at 
MIT, as you have just testified, did you know a Wendell H. Furry 
while you were at MIT? 

Dr. Gelbart. I knew the name. I believe I may have met him. 

Mr. KuNziG. How many times did you meet him, if you know ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I am not certain. I do not remember his face at this 
moment. I have no i-ecollection of his face. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Robert G. Davis ? 

Dr. Gelbart. To the best of my knowledge I have never met the 
gentleman. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know an Isadore Amdur ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew Isadore Amdur ? 

Mr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. Kltnzig. Did you know Norman Levinson? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you still know Norman Levinson at this time? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes; I still know him. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Ballis Edwin Blaisdell? 

Dr. Gelbart. I know the name, and have probably met him. I 
have no recollection of it, and don't believe I would remember his 
face at this time. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know John H. Reynolds ? 

Dr. Gelbart. To the very best of my knowledge, I never met that 
gentleman. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Dirk Struik? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know William Ted Martin at that time — 
1938 to 1940, when you were at MIT ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Lawrence Arguimbau? 

Dr. Gelbart. I answer very sincerely — I do not believe that I ever 
met him. I certainly have no recollection of meeting him. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Israel Halperin? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know William T. Parry? 

Dr. Gelbart. To the best of my recollection, I never heard the name 
until I read it in the newspaper recently, and certainly never saw 
the man. 

Mr. Velde. Is that also true of Reynolds? 

Dr. Gelbart. The first I read his name was when I read about 
him in the newspaper. No ; I believe I read it first in the testimony. 
I never heard his name before. 



1568 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. KuNziG, Now, Professor Gelbart, while you were at MIT 
from 1938 to 1940, did you attend any meetings of a Marxist study 
group at the home of either Martin, Amdur, or any of that group I 
have mentioned here? 

Dr. Gelbart. I very sincerely say that to the best of my recollection, 
and I have thought about it for some time, that I attended no such 
meetings. ^ 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever attend any meetings of a Communist 
Party group in the homes of any of those gentlemen whose names I 
have just mentioned? 

Dr. Gelbart. To the very best of my recollection, I did not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever attend any Communist Party meetings 
at any jolace during that period of time from 1938 to 1940 when 
you were at MIT ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I remember only one. That was at a big public meet- 
ing. I don't recall the date at all. It was held in the Boston Arena 
and there must have been some 15,000 people present — 12,000 or 10,- 
000, 1 don't know for sure how many. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was it a Communist Party meeting? 

Dr. Gelbart. I don't know. I only know there were Communist 
Party speakers. Earl Browder spoke at that time. 

Excuse me one moment please, may I speak to my counsel? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes; you may speak at any time with your counsel. 

(At this point witness confers with his counsel.) 

Dr. Gelbart. May I speak off the record one moment, Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. It is off the record, Miss Reporter. 

(Witness speaks to committee off the record for a time.) 

INIr. Velde. We will go on the record. Miss Reporter. 

Mv. KuNziG. Professor Gelbart, are you now a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Dr. Gelbart. No. 

Mr. KuNzio. Have you at any time ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Dr. Gelbart. INIay I have the privilege of making a very short 
explanatory statement? 

Mr. Velde. Well, if you will answer the question first. The com- 
mittee has always allowed the witness who has answered the question 
to make a statement explaining his answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Answering means "Yes" or "No." and not the fifth 
amendment. That is taken to be not an answer. 

Dr. Gelbart. I would like the committee's indulgence in my asking 
for the privilege of the fifth ameiidment not to answer the question. 

Mr. KuNZTG. You are then refusing to answer and presenting the 
fifth amendment as your reason to refuse? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have said that because you said vou are asking the 
committee's indulgence. That isn't necessary. You have the right 
to ask it if you so desire. 

Dr. Gelbart. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have stated that you knew Wendell H. Furry 
during the time you were at MIT. Did you know him to be a member 
of the Communist Party? 

(At this point the witness confers with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1569 

Dr. Gelbart. May I again ask that I have the privilege of making 
a short statement ? 

Mr. Velde. If yon will answer the qnestion first, please. 

Dr. Gelbart. I would wish not to answer that qnestion for the same 
reason I have stated previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then you decline for the same reason, the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Wendell H. Furry as one of the group 
of professors who attended Communist meetings ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the same reasons stated pre- 
viously. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you attend any meetings with Wendell H. Furry 
of tlie Communist Party ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the same reasons stated pre- 
viously. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have stated you knew Isadore Amdur. Did you 
know Isadore Amdur to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the same reason stated pre- 
viously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did Isadore Amdur attend meeetings of the Com- 
munist Party with you? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the same reason I have stated 
previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. You stated that you knew Norman Levinson. Did you 
know him to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the same reason stated pre- 
viously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did Norman Levinson attend Communist Party meet- 
ings or any meetings of the Communist group with you ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did Dirk Struik, whom yon have already stated you 
knew, ever attend Communist Party meetings, or meetings of the 
Communist group ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the same reason stated 
previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know William Ted Martin to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the same reason stated 
previously. 

Mr. KuNZTG. Did William Ted Martin attend meetings of the 
Communist Party, or a meeting of Communist group? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason stated pre- 
viously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Lawrence Arguimbau to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? You have stated that you knew the name 
of Lawrence Arguimbau. 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the same reason stated 
previously. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You have already stated you just knew him by name, 
so I won't question you further as to whether you attended meetings 
of the Communist Party with him. 

Did you know Israel Halperin to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 



1570 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the same reason given 
previously. 

Mr. KuNzio. Did Israel Halperin attend meetings of the Commu- 
nist Party or a Communist group -with you ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the same reason given 
previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Helen Deane Markham ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I never heard the name until I read about it recently. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you, Professor Gelbart, ever used any other 
name other than your own — any alias? 

Dr. Gelbart. Never, to my knowledge. 

(At this point the witness confers with his counsel.) 

Dr. Gelbart. May I correct that? I believe my birth certificate 
had Abraham instead of Abe. And I believe on my MIT diploma 
the name Markham appears as my middle name. 

Mr. KuNziG. Those were the only variations from the name which 
you gave us at the beginning of your testimony ? 

Dr. Gelbart. To the best of my recollection ; yes. 

Mr. KuNzro. Did you ever travel abroad? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes; twice. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you tell us, taking them in turn, why you went 
abroad ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was invited to go to the Hydro-Fluid Dynamic 
Institute at Sorbonne in Paris. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that? 

Dr. Gelbart. In the summer of 1949. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you traveling on a regular passport at that time ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was. 

Mr. KuNZiG. How long did you remain in Europe? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was there 5 to 6 weeks. 

Mr. KuNziG. What countries did you visit? 

Dr. Gelbart. I visited England, France, and Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you have any difficulty getting into Czechoslo- 
vakia in 1949? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did not. 

Mr. KuNziG. You had a regular visa for Czechoslovakia and an 
American State Department permit ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What was the occasion of the other trip you took to 
Europe? 

Dr. Gelbart. T was the Fulbright lecturer to Norway. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that? 

Dr. Gelbart. The academic year 1951 to 1952. 

(At this point the testimony taken was off the record.) 

Mr. KuNziG. The testimony goes back on the record now. 

How long did you stay in Norway ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was in Norway approximately 9 months. 

Mr. KuNziG. What other countries did you visit in 1951 and 1952 ? 
During your European trip ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Sweden, Denmark, and France. 

Mr. KuNZTG. Turning back to Czechoslovakia, can you give the com- 
mittee any further information on your reasons for the trip to Czecho- 
slovakia, and for what purpose you made the trip ? 



COIVIMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1571 

Dr. Gelbart. A colleague of mine in America in 1949 was a native 
Czechoslovakian and had been a professor of mathematics at the 
University of Czechoslovakia until about 1939, when he came to this 
country. He has since become a citizen of this country, and was a col- 
league of mine during 1949. He had an ailing brother in Czechoslo- 
vakia that he wanted me to visit that summer. He was a close friend 
of mine and we had agreed, since we would both be in Europe, that 
I might go over to Czechoslovakia and sight-see in Prague and he 
would show me around. I believe Prague was the only place I was 
in while in Czechoslovakia. I flew there and back and went through 
no other territory. The 4 days I was there was the only time I spent 
there. It was approximately 4 days — anywhere from 3 to 5 days that 
I sight-saw and visited with him. The one and only person I met in 
Czechoslovakia was a physicist by the name of Goldschmidt. Mr. 
Goldschmidt was a former colleague of my friend and he invited both 
of us to his home for dinner. During the entire course of the evening, 
Mr. Goldschmidt asked us to do everything we could to bring him to 
this country because he was anti-Communist, and was afraid for his 
life there. When we returned, we mentioned his name to several 
persons, several physicists around the country and asked if they could 
perhaps do something for him. For one reason or another, nothing 
was done. Man}^ months ago I learned he had committed suicide. 
He and his wife were the only people I met in Czechoslovakia, other 
than the streetcar conductors, and such tradespeople, etc., that one 
normally would meet. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was the name of the other friend? 

Dr. Gelbart. I would gladly give the name if I might do so in 
private. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. The committee cannot allow you to do 
that. 

Dr. Gelbart. I am just asking if I can do that. I don't understand 
the reasons. 

Mr. Scherer. This is as private as you can be. 

Dr. Gelbart. The man is a good man and has made many contribu- 
tions to this country. He is Professor Loewner, at Stanford Uni- 
versity. 

Mr. Clardy. What is his first name? 

Dr. Gelbart. Charles. 

]\Ir. Velde. May I make a statement for the record, to the effect 
that the fact that Dr. Loewner's name is mentioned in this testimony 
today is no reason why anyone should draw the inference he is sub- 
versive or in any way considered to be unpatriotic or disloyal. 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask a bit more ? How long has he been in this 
country, and what position does he hold at Stanford University ? 

Dr.GELBART. He is a full professor there, and is director of research. 
He is a wonderful and famous mathematician. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is he now an American citizen ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes; I believe he became an American citizen a few 
years ago. 

Mr. Walter. When did he leave Czechoslovakia? 

Dr. Gelbart. In 1939. He is of Jewish faith. 

Mr. Walter. What? 

Dr. Gelbart. He is of Jewish faith, which might account for his 
wanderinijs. 



1572 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. KuxziG. Professor, you have mentioned names at MIT. May 
I ask if there are any other peo])]e whose names have not been men- 
tioned here this morning with wliom you attended Communist Party 
meetings or group meetings? 

Dr. Gelbart. I will decline to answer that for the reasons I gave 
before. 

Mr. KuxziG. Dr. Martin, whom we mentioned here this morning, 
testified before us a few weeks ago that there was a cell of the Com- 
munist Party at MIT, composed of certain professors and students, and 
instructors. He mentioned that one of the members of this MIT group 
was a Dr. Abe Gelbart. Are you the Dr. Gelbart mentioned by Pro- 
fessor Martin? 

Dr. Gelbart. I have every reason to believe that I am. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party group at 
MIT, testified to by Dr. IMartin ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. KuNziG. This is the same Dr. Martin, is it not, who was instru- 
mental in obtaining your employment in 1933 at Syracuse? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you were, and are, a close friend of Dr. Martin; 
is that correct ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I have been until now. I will continue to be. 

Mr. Kltnzig. Now you mentioned you knew Dr. Levinson. Dr. Lev- 
inson testified here a feAV weeks ago before this committee and spoke 
of the same MIT group in which he admitted membership — he testified 
to the effect that he knew a Dr. Gelbart as a member of the group. Do 
you have any comment to make as to Mr. Levinson's testimony ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the same reason previously 
given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist MIT group? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let me read the testimony of Dr. Levinson, given 
before this committee : 

Mr. KuNziG. Any other meiubor of tlint group that you recall as members of 
the Communist Party? 

Dr. Levinson. Let's see — Gelbart, that was mentioned here yesterday. I 
remember him. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have any knowledge whether Gelbart is still a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Dr. Levinson. In 1946 or 1947 — I believe it was 1946 — I can't be quite sure of 
that — Mr. Gelbart told me that he had left the Communist Party. 

Now, Professor, did you make that statement to Dr. Levinson? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that question for the reason pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. KuNziG. The third witness before this committee, Isadore 
Amdur, wdiom you have already testified you knew, when asked 
about this same MIT group and who were members of that group, 
testified : 

There was a Mr. Gelbardt. I can't spell that last name. I think it was probably 
G-e-1-b-a-r-d-t. 

Do you have any comment to make about Mr. Amdur's testimony ? 
Dr. Gelb.art. First that the name is misspelled, and second, that I 
must decline to answer. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTEATION (EDUCATION) 1573 

Mr. Velde. Is Dr. Amdur's statement concerning you correct, true 
or false? 

(At this point witness confers Avith counsel.) 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

Mr. KuxziG. Were you invited by any particular person to attend 
these meetings to which we have been referring? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Gelbart. I have been at Professor Martin's house many many 
times. 

Mr. KuxzTG. Were you at Professor Martin's house when these 
meetings of the Communist Party cell at MIT took place ? 

Dr. (telbart. I decline to ansAver for the reason previously given. 

Mr. KuxziG. Did Professor Martin invite you to attend these 
meetings? 

Dr. Gelb^uit. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

Mr, KuNziG. Did Levinson invite you to attend these meetings? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did Amdur invite you to attend these meetings ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, I would like to turn to something different for 
a moment. Were you ever employed at Langley Field ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that? 

Dr. Gelbart. I believe I stated before I was employed by the Na- 
tional Advisory Committee at Langley Field, between the months 
of 

Mr. KuNziG. To the best of your recollection, of course. 

Dr. Gelbart (continuing). For about 6 or T or 8 months, in the 
overlapping years of 1942 and 1943. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now what again was the exact gi'oup with which you 
were working? What was the full name of the group ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was working in the compressionability section of 
the high-speed group. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did this come under the National Advisory Commit- 
tee on Aeronautics ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes, the National Advisory Committee on Aero- 
nautics. 

iSlr. KuNZiG. Were you employed for a brief period of this time 
by the United States Government? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was. 

Mr. KuNziG. You were paid by the United States Government? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was paid by the United States Government; yes. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. This was when the United States was at war. Now, 
Dr. Gelbart, did you ever handle any restricted or classified informa- 
tion while working at the National Advisory Committee on Aero- 
nautics at Langley Field? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever cleared to handle that type of ma- 
terial, as far as you know ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I don't know. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever checked prior to your employment as 
to whether you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I don't remember. 



1574 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Kuxzio. You don't remember being checked ? 

Dr. (telp.art. I don't remember being checked. 

Mr. KuxziG. Were you asked to fill out forms as to whether or not 
you were a meml)er of the Connnunist Party ? 

Dr. Gkli'.aht. I believe so, but I am not sure. 

Mr. KuxziG. Was this position which you held under civil service? 

Dr. Gelbart. I believe so. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you fill out an application for this position? 

Dr. Gelbart. I don't remember now, but to the best of my recol- 
lection I received a wire from them, asking me to become a member 
of their staff. 

]Mr. KuxziG. The initial action in the entire matter was taken by 
them, not by you ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes, I believe so. 

Mr. KuxziG. Do you recall filling out a civil-service questionnaire 
before becoming employed by the Federal Government? 

Dr. GELTiART. I don't remember that. 

Mr. Walter. By "them" who do you mean? 

Dr. Gelbart. By the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics. 

Mr. Walter. Did you have any idea as to who "them" was ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I might check it in my files, but I suspect it might 
have come out of the Washington office. 

Mr. Walter. Anyone you knew ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I just don't recall who sent it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you recall filling out, or answering a question as 
to whether you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I don't remember if I answered such a question. 

Mr. KuxziG. Do you recall taking the loyalty oath or filling out a 
loyalty form ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I don't remember it. 

Mr. KuxziG. Just what type of work was it you were doing at 
Langley Field ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Well, just prior to going down to Langley Field I 
was a research associate at Brown University on the unclassified war 
program they had there to develop mathematical and theoretical 
mechanics by the Government. The program was partly sponsored by 
the Government, and partly by private foundations. During my 
several months of work there I developed a theory which seemed to 
find an immediate application in aerodynamics. I believe it received 
a certain amount of publicity at the time. It was just about the time 
that I received a communication from the National Advisory Com- 
mittee on Aeronautics, suggesting that I come down tliere and work 
in closer contact with some of the people who were doing theoretical 
high-speed motion work. The theory I developed at Brown seemed to 
be a partial solution to the theoretical problem on high-speed laws, 
and I believe that was the reason why the National Advisory Com- 
mittee on Aeronautics got in touch with me. 

Mr. KuxziG. Did you ever, at any time, give any classified informa- 
tion to any unauthorized party? 

Dr. Gelbart. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. KuxziG. Did you ever have access later on to this material at 
Syracuse University? 

Dr. Gelbart. I did. 

Mr. KuxziG. Will you explain that to the committee? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1575 

Dr. Gelbart. The classified material was not very great, but I 
worked on contract after leaving the National Advisory Committee 
on Aeronautics at Langley Fielcl, with the National Advisory Com- 
mittee on Aeronautics. 

When I left there, they suggested that I take a contract back with 
me to Syracuse and continue the work I had been doing there at 
Syracuse, because the nature of my work was such that it didn't find 
immediate and necessary needs. Since then it has been used by the 
theoretical division of airplane companies and branches of aeronau- 
tics, but my own work has long been of a basic theoretical nature. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then while you were at Syracuse, you were also being 
paid by the Federal Government ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I believe that the mechanics of the thing was for the 
Government to contract Syracuse, and the Government to pay Syra- 
cuse University and Syracuse to pay me. So my checks were from 
Syracuse and from the Government. 

Mr. KuNziG. Over what period of time were you on this basis, where 
part of your salary came from the Government? 

Dr. Gelbart. I wish to correct that. It was always from Syracuse 
University. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I understand, but I mean when Syracuse University 
was reimbursed by the Federal Government, and then paid you. 

Dr. Gelbart. Well, I still am, if you consider other branches of the 
Government, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, then 
on and off, until the present day. 

Mr. Clardy. You got more than one check ? One from the univer- 
sity for your professional work and one from the Government ? 

Dr. Gelbart. No, you see 

Mr. Clardy. You made it sound that way. 

Mr. KuNziG. Part of your salary was for work done on this con- 
tract basis, and emanated through the university from the Gov- 
ernment ? 

Dr. Gelbart. INIay I speak for a moment? The way this is done, 
the Government contracts with the university for a piece of work to 
be done and specifies a certain individual and his assistants to do the 
work. What the university does when they make this contract is to 
ask the director (in this case I was always the director), to give up a 
part of his teaching load, so that he would have time to do this re- 
search, and the check he gets is the same as if he were teaching full 
time. There is no change in pay. He simply gets the same check. 
The difference is, he teaches part time, and does research part time. 

Mr. Clardy. A certain part of the pay is for teaching, and the other 
is for work on research ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. We have had it described a little differently by other 
witnesses. 

Dr. Gelbart. I believe the people in physical science work 
differently. 

Mr. KuNziG. It is correct, is it not, that Syracuse University receives 
in this type of arrangement, a certain amount of money from the 
Federal Government ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Definitely, definitely. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have stated there was more than one group. 
Would you take them one by one, from the period of time you left 



1576 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

l^aiigley Field, and tell which ones they were, and over what period 
of time? 

Dr. Gelbart. I cannot recall the dates because on and off, as I say, 
I have been working on these Government research projects. After 
1945 or 1946 none ol: them were classified. They were what we call 
basic research and they were not classified, but the university had con- 
tracts, of which I was the director, with the National Advisory Com- 
mittee on Aeronautics, with the Oflice of Naval Kesearch, and other 
offices of scientific research. I believe some were with the Army Air 
Force. 

Mr. KuNziG. These were, on and off, during what period of time? 

Dr. Gelbart. From 1943 to 1944, 1 think, and then there was a lapse. 
I didn't begin on a National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics con- 
tract until 1944. I want to make it clear that while I was in Europe 
as a Fulbright, I was not under contract. In 1947 or 1948, I was a 
member of a group doing advanced study, and I was not under con- 
tract. That was in Princeton, N. J. In 1948 I was not under contract. 

JVIr. KuNziG. During the other times, off and on, you were under 
contract ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Professor Gelbart, were you ever a member of the 
Teacher's Union while in Boston ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Never. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever a member of any Teacher's Union ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Never. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever a member of the Young Communist 
League ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I will decline to answer that, for the same reason given 
previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know a Norman Putter ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I do. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you attend a reception in May 1948 in his honor ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I have no special recollection of that. 

Mr. KuNziG. Under what circumstances did you know Norman 
Putter? 

Dr. Gelbart. Oh, I think I just met him socially. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you a close friend of Mr. Putter ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I wouldn't say so. 

Mr. KuNziG. During what period of time have you known Norman 
Putter? 

Dr. Gelbart. I am not too clear on that, but I would say, on and off, 
from 1945 or 1946 on. 

Mr. KuNziG. In conclusion, Professor Gelbart, I want to ask you 
once again to search your mind carefully and clearly — did you attend 
meetings of the Communist Party cell or group at MIT, during the 
time you were at MIT from 1938 to 1940 ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever, not confined to 1938 or 1940 — did you 
ever at any time attend meetings of the Communist Party groups ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, do you have any questions for the 
witness ? 



to 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1577 

Mr. Velde. Air. Clardy ? 

Mr. Clardy. You have been asked, Professor Gelbart, whether you 
attended any of the meetings. I wonder if you have knowledge at 
the time you were at MIT of the existence of any Communist Party 
group at MIT? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you have any knowledge of the existence of a 
group called the Young Communist League while you were there? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you have, or did you have at any time, any ac- 
quaintance who was (and we exclude those who have been named) 
a member of the Communist Party, or the Young Communist Leagvie 
while you were at MIT ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

]\Ir. Clardy. Do you know any member of either the Communist 
Party or the Young Communist League, as of now ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Dr. Gelbart. Would you state that question again? Do you mean 
who are members today, may I ask ? 

Mr. Clardy. No, I meant to ask if you today know anyone — put 
it this way — do you know today anyone who has ever been a member 
■of the Communist Party or the Young Communist League ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I must decline to answer that for the reason given 
previously. 

Mr. Clardy. I will repeat the question that has been asked many 
times before, and suggest that you reconsider and answer. Have you 
ever at any time been a member of the Communist Party or the Young 
Communist League? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. Clardy. Go ahead, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, or Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. Doctor, did I understand you to say that the work 
you have been doing for the Government was classified ? 

Dr. Gelbart. It was classified at the time I began doing it, but it 
was very quickly declassified after the war. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever receive any compensation or anything 
of value, directly or indirectly, from the Communist Party? 

Dr. Gelbart. Never, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Scherer. Why do you qualify it by saying "to your knowl- 
edge'- ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I just want to answer it that way. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever pass any classified information on to 
persons who were not authorized to receive same? 

Dr. Gelbart. May I say never, to my knowledge, or never? 

Mr. Scherer. What is your answer ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Never, to my knowledge. Emphatically not. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever contribute any funds to the Commu- 
nist Party ? 



1578 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer that for the reason previously 
given. 

Mr. Andrews. ISIay I ask Avhat that question was again? 

Mr. ScHERER. Didyou ever contribute any funds to the Commu- 
nist Party? 

Mr. Velde. You may confer with your witness, INIr. Counsel, if you 
desire. 

(Mr. Andrews confers with the witness.) 

Dr. Gelbart. Xever, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Scherer. I think I will stop there. 

Mr. Walter. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. I think I do. Doctor, from the testimony and public 
record 

Dr. Gelbart. Excuse me. May I go back to the question again and 
answer that? Is it possible to go back? 

Mr. Velde. You can exi)lain the answer again, if you care to. 

Dr. Gelbart. May I have the question again, please? 

Mr. Scherer. Did you every contribute any funds to the Commu- 
nist Party? 

Dr. Gelbart. May I decline to answer? 

Mr. Scherer. You may make that statement. "We are not with- 
drawinc: from the record your previous statement, however. 

Dr. Gelbart. May I niake the request to withdraw that answer, 
please ? 

Mr. Velde. You may make the request to withdraw the answer, but 
the request will be denied — however, I might say that you are per- 
mitted to exph^in any answer you might have given to a previous 
question, if you desire to make'^some explanation for the purpose of 

the record. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left hearing room at this point.) 

Mr, Velde. Let the record show that present are Mr. Clardy, Mr. 
Scherer, Mr. Doyle, and the chairman, Mr. Velde, and that I have 
appointed a subcommittee of the full committee, consisting of the 
members j^resent, for the purposes of this hearing. 

Mr. Clardy. May I further say, Mr. Chairman, that if he wants to 
say why he flatly denied it, he is perfectly free to say that ? 

Mr. Velde. Certainly, 

Mr. Doyle. I think 1 can observe from a knowledge of your public 
record as a distinguished educator, and from what jow have said this 
morning, that you also have been engaged in the field of research, 
finding out facts in your professional area. Now you have contrib- 
uted much to the field of education, and to progress in your field, 
because you have been diligent in your research. You have learned 
from other men what you felt you could learn. 

In a very similar manner, this committee is assigned, by statutory 
law, to go" into the field of research, and to determine the extent of 
the activities of any subversive people, or groups of people, in our 
country. This is not confined to subversive Communists, but to sub- 
versive Fascists, and to subversive anybody, who are determined to 
overthrow our Government by force and violence. 

I know, therefore, that you know the value of research, its im- 
portance, and its necessity. 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 1579 

Mr. DoYLK. I made that statement because I feel, from listening to 
this hearing, that you are in an area of appreciation of the obligation 
this committee has, as a committee of Congress. It has a difficult 
l)ut important task to perform in the field of research, as to subversive 
activities in this country. 

I noticed particularly two answers of yours, and also the fact you 
were a Fulbright scholar. JNIay I preface these two questions now by 
saying I would be sur]>rised if a Fulbright scholar wasn't inquisitive. 
I would be sur})rised if a Fulbright scholar wasn't exceedingly inquisi- 
tive in anj^ field in which he wished to inquire, even to the extent of 
joining the Young Communist League many years ago when it was 
active. 

Possibly you wei-e identified with the Young Communist League 
many years ago. Suppose you were? I am assuming you weren't 
subversive in your attitude, even if you were a member of that Young 
Communist League, or merely identified with it. That must have 
been prior to 1938 in history. You were a young man then. 

You were asked by our distinguished counsel wdiether or not, during 
the period of 1938 or 1940 you were a member of a Communist cell at 
MIT. 1938 was many years ago. 1940 is many years ago, as history 
goes. 

Again, I can understand how men really searching for the truth 
might be searching into areas 10 or 20 years ago that they wouldn't 
"waste time on now, 15 years later. The reason I take your time, and 
the committee's time, to lay this premise, is just this: If you were 
identified with the Young Communist League, the Communist Party, 
or a Communist cell way back there — you have said you are not now 
a Communist — and I assume from your testimony, and by putting 2 
and 2 together, that if you were a Communist, you haven't been for 
many years. In other words, your research may have led you into 
the movement temporarily, but you got out of it because your brain 
and research dictated to you there was nothing there for you. 

Now, if that is the case, why can't you help a congressional commit- 
tee to go into its field of research, with your assistance ? Granting that 
it might be personally difficult for you to sa^^ you ever had been a 
member of the Communist Party or a Communist group, we can under- 
stand that. That doesn't, however, label you as subversive, in my 
judgment. I would say the same goes for the committee members 
present, for as I understand their attitude, we are a unit. Because 
a man has been a member of the Young Communist League, or a 
iricmber of a Communist cell, that doesn't actually mean he was sub- 
versive. At least that is my position. 

I don't assume, and don't think any committee member assumes, 
that liecause a man in 1938 was a member of a Communist cell at MIT, 
and then got out and stayed out, he was necessarily subversive at the 
time, or ever had been subversive. It should not be fatal to his repu- 
tation that temporarily he was in the field of research, philosophy, or 
otherwise. 

I am taking this time because I feel some of these observations very 
definitely apply to you. I think you are one of the men in the field 
of education who could help this committee find out to w^hat extent the 
Communist movement infiltrated into the field of education at MIT, 
or anywhere else. That is our job of research. "\Miy can't you join 
us in it ? 



1580 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

I am gi'^'iiS you that thought very vigorously, Doctor. Whether 
you do it today or tomorrow, I am anticipating you are going to see 
it is your privilege or duty. I ask that you help us, instead of making 
it more difficult for us to complete our job. 

I think that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have 1 or 2 more questions, if I may. 

Mr. Velde. I would first like to add a little statement to what ^Ir. 
Doyle has said here. The Committee on Un-American Activities is 
a legislative committee, as you realize, and it is not a court of law. 
There has never been a witness who has come before this committee, 
and who gave answers to questions truthfully, who have ever been 
prosecuted. 

The committee, of course, cannot prosecute, as I am sure you have 
been advised by your able counsel. With that fact in mind, would 
you now tell us whether you were ever a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. Gelbart. I would like to decline to answer that for reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever issued a membership card by the Com- 
munist Party? 

Dr. Gelbart. I would like to decline to answer that for the reason 
previously given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you connected, while you were at MIT, with 
the American Association for Scientific Workers? 

Dr. Gelbart. I was. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you explain to the committee just what your 
connection was with that group ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I think I was a student member of the group and 
attended meetings. I know I was a student member. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a very active member ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I think I was for a little while. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KuNziG. What sort of activity resulted from your connection 
with the group? 

Dr. Gelbart. I think my job was mostly to put up posters about 
meetings, mailing out material, and licking stamps. I was asked to 
do other work in that connection, and for a short period of time 
I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. I wonder if you would answer this question? 

Do you feel today that a present member of the Communist Party 
should be allowed to teach in the schools of America? 

Dr. Gelbart. I sincerely say that I don't know the facts too well, 
but I presume from what t understand of it that one should not teach 
in the schools today. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you mean that you don't know the facts of com- 
munism and what it stands for today very well ? 

Dr. Gelbart. Yes. Certainly from all I read in the newspapers 
and from all I understand, I believe it would be wrong for a person 
such as that to teach in the schools today. 

Mr. Velde. Are there any other questions? 

Mr. SciTERER. You said that you were not a member of the Com- 
munist Party today. I want to ask you if you were a member in 
1950? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 15S1 

Mr. ScHERER. In IQiS were you a member of the Communist Party ? 
Dr. Gelbart, I decline to answer for the same reason previously 



given 



Mr. ScHERER. Were you in 1949 a member of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. a while ago you stated you had not contributed funds 
to the Communist Party. Now, I would like to ask you this question. 
Have you ever paid Communist Party dues to any cell of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Dr. Gelbart. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be required 
to remain any longer ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No. I would like the record to show that witness was 
originally represented by William D. Johnson, who asked for one 
continuance, which was granted. Mr. Johnson, who represents Syra- 
cuse University, could not represent both parties, and when nevr 
counsel. Dean Paul S. Andrews came into the case, he requested a 
further continuance. So there have been tAvo continuances for this 
witness, at the request of counsels. I have no more questions, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is dismissed. 

(Counsel for the witness, Mr. Paul S. Andrews, asked permission 
of the chairman to make a statement for the record. Upon being given 
this permission, he made a statement, as follows :) 

Mr. Andrews. I have been deeply impressed with the fairness 
shown by this committee in its entire action here ; and my client has 
repeatedly stated to me, in private conference, that he, too, was deeply 
impressed by the same thing, and tliat he felt the connnittee had been 
utterly fair and considerate. This committee has given my client 
opportunity to confer with me, and to confer with members of the 
committee. I was impressed also yesterday, if I may say so, with the 
attitude of the committee toward another witness. I was present in 
the hearing room when another witness was being interrogated. I 
have heard reports that this particular committee has been fair, but 
the extent to which they are fair, decent, and considerate, I had not 
hitherto appreciated. I am very grateful to have the privilege of 
putting this statement on the record. 

Mr. Velde. The committee certainly thanks you. Especially so, in 
view of some of the smear tactics used throughout the country, it has 
been refreshing. 

Mr. Andrews. My actual knowledge, of course, has been confined 
to the hearing today, and that of yesterday. 

Mr. Clardy. These hearings, I can tell you, are typical of the hear- 
ings we have been holding. There is one thing which distresses me. 
I am somewhat distressed by the witness, as it also appears was Mr. 
Doyle, to find a man, who in my mind can be helpful to our committee, 
doing himself an injustice by the way he has conducted himself during 
this hearing. As the chairman has said, no one has yet had any sanc- 
tion visited on him at any time when he has fully and completely 
answered the questions. It is pretty hard to guess in advance what 
the reaction will be when the witness does not do that. We have bent 
over backward to try to persuade the witness, and Mr. Doyle has today 
bared his soul, so to speak. 



1582 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. KuNziG. We know. It distresses me also when they will not 
answer fully. 

Mr. Andrews. It distresses me, too. May I say, however, that as 
far as I know from my conversations with my client, he has no infor- 
mation which would be helpful to the committee. 

Mr, Velde. If we are going to get into arguments over the testimony, 
we will have to have the same rule as before. 

Mr. Glardy. Yes, sir, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Andrews. I should like, if I may, to ask the privilege for Dr. 
Gelbart to make a statement liere which explains his attitude toward 
the fifth amendment. I think it would be fair of the committee to 
put that into the record. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will accept the statement which had been 
prepared and considered for that purpose. 

Mr. Andrews. Thank you very much, sir. 

Dr. Gelbart. May I have the privilege of making a very short 
explanatory statement ? 

I am informed that historically the fifth amendment to the Consti- 
tution of the United States was conceived and intended as a protec- 
tion to innocent persons, and that invoking it is neither legal!}-, nor 
in fact, equivalent to an admission of wrongdoing. 

I am well known to be, and for some years past to have been, utter- 
ly opposed to communism. But to prove that 10 and 13 years ago I 
was equally opposed would be difficult. Proving after so long a time 
that one did not have certain beliefs is a most difficult thing to do. 

I am aware that if I could truthfully swear that I was once a Com- 
munist or Communist sympatliizer and had since changed to the anti- 
Communist views, which in fact I hold, I might hope to be much 
better off, and might hope for the same favorable treatment from the 
committee, and from my university, as was accorded Professors ilar- 
tin, Levinson, and Amdur. 

However, I am also informed that if I should make statements con- 
trary to the testimony of these three professors, who believed I had 
once been a Connnunist, it miglit make trouble for them ; and in addi- 
tion, that my own case might be turned over to the Department of 
Justice, with a view to prosecution. 

I cannot face this prospect. Tliis is not a plea for sympathj'^, but 
simply tlie fact that after a month of anguish, strain, and sleepless- 
ness at being accused as a former Communist, and by implication as 
having been disloyal to my beloved country for which at all times I 
would have laid down my life, I cannot endure such a prospect of 
continued strain and liumiliation. 

Therefore, I have regretfully decided that I nuist invoke the fifth 
amendment, instead of fighting these accusations, and decline to 
answer any questions in any form which directly or by implication, 
ask me to make statements contrary to the testimony of iVfartin, Levin- 
son, and Amdur; or any questions as to whether in the past I was a 
Communist member or sympathizer, on the ground that my answer 
would expose me to the probability of being prosecuted under the 
criminal statutes. 

Mr. Velde. The hearing is adjourned, until further call of the 
Chair. 

(Whereupon at 1 : 20 p. m., the hearing was adjourned, until fur- 
ther call of the Chair.) 



APPENDIX 



(Note. — In a preliminary discussion between the witness and mem- 
bers of the committee, Professor Gelbart indicated that there might 
be some question regarding the identification made of him as a member 
of the Communist Party by Profs. Isadore Amdur, Norman Levinson, 
and William Ted Martin. In order to resolve the question as to the 
accuracy of the identification of Professor Gelbart as a member of the 
Communist Party by the three persons mentioned herein, the following 
letters are included in the record of these hearings. These letters were 
obtained subsequent to the appearance of Professor Gelbart before the 
committee.) 

Choate, Hall & Stewart, 
Boston 9, Mass., June 3, 1953. 
Mr. Louis RussELLi 

House Committee on TJn-Anierican Activities, 

House Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Russell : At the request of Mr. George E. Cooper of your staff, I am 
enclosing a copy of a letter that Prof. Norman Levinson wrote under date of 
May 25, 1953, to Dr. Finla G. Crawford, vice chancellor of Syracuse University. 

Yesterday morning Professors Martin, Amdur, and Levinson and I talked at 
some length with Mr. Cooper, and I am writing this letter to you at his suggestion. 

We understand from Mr. Cooper that the committee is concerned as to whether 
or not my three clients have in subsequent statements departed materially from 
that testimony which they gave the committee with particular reference to 
D. A..M. Gelbart, now at Syracuse University. 

I am glad of an opportunity to put in writing to you in their behalf the sub- 
stance of what we told Mr. Cooper at our conference. All three men testified 
honestly and sincerely before the committee, and they stand by their testimony. 
They have no intention of departing from it. Professor Levinson's position is 
accurately set forth in his letter to Dr. Crawford. I believe he has a less specific 
recollection of Gelbart's actual attendance at meetings than I*rofessors Amdur 
and Martin. As far as those two are concerned, they do i-ecall attendance by 
Dr. Gelbart at meetings which they regarded and considered as meetings ot 
Communist Party members. They cannot say specifically at just what meetings 
or how many Gelbart was present. They have no recollection or knowledge 
of his having paid dues or signing or carrying a Communist Party card. Because 
of his attendance at these meetings, they assumed him to be a party member and 
so considered him. They have not made statements to the contrary. 

I sincerely trust that this letter will be suflicient to close the matter as far as 
my three clients are concerned. They were all three extremely reluctant to give 
the names of others who had participated in meetings wliich they had attended. 
After careful and conscientious thought, they came to the conclusion that it was 
their duty to do so. It would be extremely embarrassing and I believe harmful 
to them in their relations with their professional colleagues and students to have 
to go over the matter again, and I trust that the committee will not feel it neces- 
sary to do so. 

Sincerely, 

Stuakt C. Rand. 

1583 



1584 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

May 25, 1953. 

Dr. FiNLA G. CliAWFORl), 

Vice Chancellor, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Deak Dk. Crawford : In my testimony before the Honse Un-American Commit- 
tee on April 23, 1953, I stated that I remembered Abe Gelbart, of your faculty, 
as a member of a group of Cumnmnists at IMIT. 

I would like to amplify what it is that I remember after the lapse of some 13 
years. I do not recall any of the meetings of that Communist group nor any 
specifically Communist activity of the group. What is the case is that cataloged 
in my mind are a number of people labeled as (.'ommunists. Among them is 
Gelbart. Exactly why he is labeled as a Communist in my memory, rather than 
a leftist or a fellow traveler, I do not know. 

In my testimony I also state that in 1946 or 1947 Gelbart told me he had left 
the Communist Party. After considerable thought about what it was that 
Gelbart told mo, I believe that my statement is more of an interiiretation on my 
part of our conversation than a quotation. In fact as I reconstruct the conver- 
sation, Gelbart began by asking me if I were still a Communist. (^Nly politics 
had been common knowledge among mathematicians.) I replied in the negative 
and made some strongly disapproving remarks about the Communist Party. 
Gelbart made a reply of strong concurrence with these views and expressed 
disgust with Communist policies. Since I had regarded him in my own mind 
as a Communist, I interpreted his statement to have the same significance as 
my own, namely, an expression of withdrawal from the Communist Party. 
Yours truly, 

Norman Levinson. 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Amdur, Isadore 1523, 1525, 1538, 1549, 1551, 1567-1569, 1572. 1573, 1582, 1583 

Andrews, Paul Shipman 1565-1582 

Arguimbaii, Lawrence 1550, 1551, 1567, 1569 

lUaisdell, Ballis Edwin 1549, 1567 

Browder, Earl 1543, 1568 

Brown, Jerry 1506 

Cooper, George 1522, 1523, 1525, 1527, 1583 

Cort, Joe 1506 

Crawford, Finla G 1583, 1584 

Davis. Robert Gorham 1516, 1517, 1519, 1523, 1525, 1532, 1548, 1551, 1567 

Dontzin, Ben 1506 

Duclos, Jacques 1542 

Ford, Charles B 1511-1535 

Furry, Wendell H 1549, 1551, 1562, 1567-1569 

Gelbart, Abe 1565-1582 (testimony) 

Goldscbmidt. Mr 1571 

Halperin. Israel 1550, 1567, 1569, 1570 

Johnson, William D 1581 

Levinson, Norman 1523, 1525, 1549, 1551, 1567, 1569, 1572, 1573, 1582-1584 

Levy, Arthur 1505 

Loewner, Charles 1571 

Markham, Helen Deane 1550-1552, 1570 

Marks. Harry 1521, 1522 

Martin. William Ted 1538. 1550, 1551, 1566-1569, 1572, 1573, 1582, 1583 

Morrison, Philip 1551 

Parry, William T 1511-1535 (testimony), 1550. 1567 

Pollitt, Daniel H 1557-1564 

Polumbaum, Theodore 1505 

Putter, Norman 1576 

Rand, Stuart C 1583 

Rein, David 1503-1510 

Re.vnolds, John H 1549, 1551, 1567 

Robbins, Herbert Ellis 1522 

Russell, Louis 1583 

Russo, Mike 1506 

Singer, Marcus 1537-1564 (testimonv) 

Struik, Dirk J 1523, 1525, 1550, 1551, 1567, 1569 

Woerner, Harold T 1503-1510 (testimony) 

Zilsel, Paul 1506 

Okganizations 

American Association for Scientific Workers 1580 

American Federation of Teachers 1527 

Brown University 1566, 1574 

Columbia University 1512 

Cornell University • 1538, 1551 

Dartmouth College 1504 

Harvard Medical School 1556 

Harvard University 1512, 1513, 

1516-1521, 1523, 1527, 1533-1535, 1538, 1544, 1545, 1556 

Hunter College 1515, 1516 

Long Island College of Medicine 1538 

1585 



1586 INDEX 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1516, 

ir,49, 1556, 1566-1568, 1570, 1572, 1573, 1576, 1577, 1579, 1580, 1584 

North Carolina State School of Engineering 1566 

Stanford University 1571 

Syracuse College of Law 1565 

Syracuse University 1566, 1572, 1575, 1581, 1583 

University of Buffalo 1512, 1516, 1533-1535 

University of Pittsburgh 1538 

Yale University 1504, 1505 

Publications 

The Communist 1542 

Daily Worker 1559, 1560 

New Masses 1543 

o