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Full text of "Communist methods of infiltration (education) Hearings"

COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION 

(EDUCATION— PART 8) 






HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-THIED CONGRESS 

FIRST AND SECOND SESSIONS 



APRIL 21; JUNE 8, 1953; AND APRIL 12, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-Ameriean Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
30172 WASHINGTON : 1954 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JUN 1 6 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 

BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

April 21, 1953: Testimony of Lawrence Baker Arguimbau 4013 

June 8, 1953 : Testimony of Francis X. T. Crowley 4037 

April 12, 1954: Testimony of Bernhard Deutch 4043 

Index 4053 



m 



Public Law 601, 7 ( Jth Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 

of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART -2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

* * * * * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) tlie diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or lias adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee, or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commeneenient of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
*•***•• 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses, and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTKATION 
(Education— Part 8) 



TUESDAY, APRIL 21, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

EXECUTIVE SESSION 1 

The subcommitte of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 : 41 a. m., in room 226, Old House Office Build- 
ing, Hon. Donald L. Jackson presiding. 

Committee member present: Representative Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig, counsel ; Frank S. Taven- 
ner, Jr., counsel; and Donald T. Appel], investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the record show that for the purposes of this 
hearing and under the authority vested in the chairman by the pro- 
visions of Public Law 601, Congressman Donald L. Jackson has been 
appointed a subcommittee for the purpose of taking testimony. 

Will you stand and be sworn, sir ? Do you solemnly swear that the 
testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee is the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Frankel. My name is Osmond K. Frankel, 120 Broadway, 
New York. 

Mr. Jackson. If at any time during the course of this interrogation 
you desire to confer with your counsel privately, please feel at liberty 
to leave the hearing room and do so if you care to do so. 

Mr. Frankel. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you proceed, Mr. Kunzig? 

TESTIMONY OF LAWRENCE BAKER ARGUIMBAU, ACCOMPANIED 
BY HIS COUNSEL, OSMOND K. FRANKEL 

Mr. Kunzig. Professor Arguimbau, when and where were you 
born? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Brooklyn, N. Y., March 25, 1906. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you outline for the subcommittee your educa- 
tional background? 



1 Released by the committee. 

4013 



4014 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Akguimbau. Yes; I started out — going back to the beginning?" 
Mr. Kunzig. Yes. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I started out in the Brooklyn, X. Y., schools and 
went there for about 3 years to Public School No. 92, and then I 
shifted to Westfield, N. J., and went through the hi gh "school there. 
Then for 3 years I was in the Bell Laboratories working as a student 
assistant. During that time I had 1 hour a week of instruction in 
engineering work. I think I got some kind of a paper for it. 

Then at the end of that time I went to Harvard for 4 years and 
graduated from Harvard College in 19-30 with a S. B. in physics. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you outline your occupational background 
through the years? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Let us say starting from the end of high school, 
I was at Bell Laboratories for 3 years, and then as I told you, I went 
to Harvard and during the period that I was at Harvard I was also 
working at General Radio Co. on about a half-time basis while a 
student. At my graduation I continued and until 1939, at which 
time I went to work for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
and I am there at present. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your present situation at MIT? 
Mr. Arguimbau. Associate professor of electrical communications. 
Mr. Jackson. When did you go to MIT? 
Mr. Arguimbau. In 1939, the fall term, September. 
Mr. Kunzig. Professor Arguimbau, have you ever been at any time 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, now, in an informal group like this, if you 
don't mind, may I take 3 or 4 minutes to outline my position on this 
general situation ? 
Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Arguimbau. It is roughly that I feel personally that I have 
never engaged in un-American or improper activities, but at the same 
time, I feel that many of the things that I have been doing could be 
open to misinterpretation, and I think that a situation of that sort is 
appropriately handled by the use of the fifth amendment. 

Now I think that has two defects, really. One is it doesn't give you 
the information that you would like, really. It doesn't ffive the pub- 
lic the information that would be useful to them; and in the second 
place it does leave a misinterpretation on why I have used the fifth 
amendment. Now for that reason I have decided that the thing I 
should do is to talk about what I have been doing and at the same time, 
however, you recognize that a thing of that sort puts a person under 
strain. I have lost 6 pounds and may lose my job and it is a difficult 
situation. I do not feel justified morally, not that I feel that it would 
serve any real interests, to tell other people that have been in this 
situation. I feel also that to talk about other people's connections 
with me would be in a sense a thing that is warded against by the use 
of the first amendment in the business of association, that is freedom 
of association and freedom of speech. 

I should like to take the position that I can give all the information 
that is pertinent without talking about other people and subjecting 
them to the same difficulties that I have been subjected to. I realize 
that doesn't give you fully what you would like and I realize it puts 
me in jeopardy, but I am doing what I can for you and what I feel I 
morallv can do. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4015 

Mr. Jackson. The committee cannot accept any conditions to the 
extent that the witness has indicated, that he will not give the names 
of those with whom he may have been associated in the Communist 
Party. That appears to me to be conditioning to a certain extent his 
testimony. We are hopeful that you will see fit to cooperate with the 
committee to the fullest possible extent. I would also hope that in- 
asmuch as the conspiracy is in essence the people who comprise it, that 
you would see fit to be fully frank with the committee as to the names 
of those with whom you were associated in the party if you were in 
the party. I recognize and I think the committee recognizes the dif- 
ficult problem which is imposed in this connection, but we cannot leave 
it to the discretion of the witness as to whether or not the people he 
might name have left the party or are still in the party. Certainly 
if the witness sees fit to give the committee full cooperation, including 
the names of those with whom he was associated in the party, if he 
was in the party, we certainly hope that where there is knowledge 
that an individual had left the party, that that would be included. 
However, the full and frank cooperation of the witness must be pre- 
cisely that and that in the opinion of the chairman of the subcom- 
mittee would necessitate being fully frank with respect to those with 
whom the witness was associated. 

So I say we cannot condition the taking of the testimony in any way 
upon what is entirely natural reluctance on the part of the witness to 
disclose it. 

Mr. Frankel. We are not suggesting any conditioning, but are 
merely stating his position. We are not taking the position that 
has been taken by some others that unless the committee accepts it we 
will not testify at all. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am not discussing this for the purpose of with- 
holding any knowledge of what I consider and what I feel the general 
public if they knew all the facts would consider essential acts or 
wrong-doing. 

Mr. Jackson. I think we will proceed. 

Mr. Frankel. The original question has been answered. 

Mr. Kunzio. There is a question pending which has not yet been 
answered, which is whether you have at any time ever been a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would vou state the times that you were a member ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes^ From 1937 to 1950. 

Mr. Kunzig. When you say member, I presume you mean a full- 
fledged, card-carrying member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, this is technical in some ways. I did at times 
carry a card and at other times I didn't. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you pay dues to the Communist Party? 

Mr. Arguimbau. At times I think I stopped somewhat at the begin- 
ning or slightly before 1950. But I haven't a record of that. You do 
not keep precise records of things like that, usually. But previous 
to that I did. 

Mr. Kunzig. How did you originally become a member of the Com- 
munist Party? Would you describe the events and the situation at 
that time? 

30172— 54— pt. 8 2 



4016 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. However, would you like me to go back 
previous to that, that is, previous to the actual time? 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, the specific events perhaps in the year or so prior 
to that that led to your becoming a member of the party. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I suppose it goes back to the period of 1933 or 
1934 when I had been reading generalized history in order to get 
some understanding of the nature of the difficulties that were facing 
us, the depression, and I was struggling in my own mind to try to 
find out what was the cause of it, as a theoretical matter, historically, 
and also practically, because of the reaction on my friends and myself 
of the depression. So I began to be forced more or less into a posi- 
tion that was parallel to that of, let us say, the whole Socialist move- 
ment, not just the Communist movement, the Socialist movement as 
a whole, of government ownership and planning as opposed to the 
other, merely in the sense that planning might enable us to avoid the 
instability and crisis situation that faced us in the early 1930"s. In 
doing so, I sought out groups that had these objectives in mind in 
trying to study what they were doing. 

I noticed that there was a large disagreement between all of them. 
Each had its own sectarian points of view and I hold no brief for 
that or for any one of those points of view, and my only reason for 
seeking out the Communist group rather than any of the others was 
that I thought there was one source of unity and most of us or many 
of us at that time viewed the experiment in Russia and the attempt 
at socialism, and it seemed to me that there was no possibility of 
unison in all these groups, outside of cooperating, and for that reason 
I sought out the Communist Party. I had some difficulty in finding 
it. It took me a year or two to find it. 

I was asked to join by people in 1936 and refused at that time and 
felt I was not ready to. In 1937 I decided to do so. 

Mr. Kunzig. What unit in the sense of terms of the groups or units 
did you first become affiliated with ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. In this sense I realize the subcommittee will be 
a little bit critical of me, perhaps appropriately so, but I should like 
to keep to the general philosophy that I outlined in my statement 
initially, to be a little vague in 'spotting places where individuals 
might be brought in and I would say it was a group in a small indus- 
trial town that I joined near where I was living. 

Mr. Jackson. I am sorry but the question is a specific one and we 
must have a more specific answer than that. 

Mr. Arguimbau." I don't mind naming the town. It was the town 
of Norwood. 

Mr. Kunzig. What State? 
Mr. Arguimbau. Massachusetts. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did the group or cell have any specific name ? 
Mr. Arguimbau. I cannot remember. I believe it did, English 
Speaking Group, something of that sort. 
Mr. Kunzig. Of the Communist Party ? 
Mr. Arguimbau. That is right. 
Mr. Kunzig. And it was in Norwood, Mass. ? 
Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. 
Mr. Kunzig. In roughly 1937? 
Mr. Arguimbau. In 1937, that is right. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4017 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you transfer to any other group and, if so, when 
and where? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes ; I transferred to a group in a very small town 
and I think that was a very short time after my being in Norwood. 

Mr. Kunzig. What town did you transfer to ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. That I am sorry but I must reserve naming. I 
realize you cannot accept that but you will not be able to accept my 
position right through, but I would like to give you in principal what 
happened as closely as possible, but without spotlighting individuals 
and to name the small town would do so. 

Mr. Jackson. I feel I should point out to the witness that in ac- 
knowledging his membership in the Communist Party he has, in 
effect, waived the provisions of immunity with respect to the names 
of the groups and the names of the individuals concerned. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I realize that. 

Mr. Jackson. And I feel I should indicate at this time so that there 
will be no misunderstanding of the possible consequences of that 
action. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I realize that I have had to weigh these prob- 
lems back and forth and I have taken the course that I feel, although 
it is the more dangerous one to me, will enable me in conformity with 
my feeling of principles and my feeling against bearing tales, if you 
like, and also with my moral principles involved, I feel that I am 
taking the course that is the best one to do under all circumstances, 
weighing the difficulties and the differences, and I realize your prob- 
lem. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee is not in any manner impugning your 
motive nor your convictions. However, we have a legislative job 
to do which has been assigned to us by the Congress and I want to 
point out the waiver of immunity which has occurred by virtue of 
your admission of membership in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I did it understanding that. 

Mr. Jackson. I am quite sure that is the case. 

Mr. Arguimbau. By the way, I want to say that I feel I can sub- 
stantially give you the information that is needed for legislative pur- 
poses. But this is my feeling and not necessarily yours, still keeping 
within the principles that I have outlined. 

Mr. Jackson. That has not been the position nor the experience 
of the committee in the past. We have felt that identifications, mat- 
ters having to do with the location of the branches, the means and 
methods of recruitment and methods of financing were all pertinent, 
looking to the ultimate end of legislation. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, most of these matters I would be perfectly 
willing to discuss. The only one I am reserving, and I am not legally 
reserving, is the one of spotting or spotlighting individuals that I 
think in my opinion would be unjustified to put under public and 
private pressure. 

Mr. Frankel. Might I inject one thought off the record ? 

Mr. Jackson. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Back on the record. 

Mr. Kunzig. Coming back just a moment to the first group that you 
said you were affiliated with in Norwood, Mass., would you tell the 



4018 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

committee the mimes of the officers of that group at the time you were 
affiliated with it? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, I must persist. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you now at this time name the group to which 
you moved or the town to which you moved and the second group 
with which you were affiliated? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to do that also on the same ground. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to give the committee the 
name of the town in which the branch is located. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to do that on the same ground. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you name the officers or any member whose 
name you still recall of that second group to which you went? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, I must persist. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you tell the subcommittee the functions and 
activities of both of these 2 groups that we have talked about here 
this morning? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes; I would say that in both of those cases it 
was largely a- matter, a combination of discussing community activi- 
ties, the economic and other conditions in the community, and in those 
two cases to a lesser extent discussing broader issues, both interna- 
tional and national, I think with little in this case of an international 
aspect but more of a national aspect and fitting in the community 
problems with the national problems. 

In addition to that there was the ordinary discussion of running a 
small organization of the sort you would meet in any small town 
organization. I don't know whether you would like me to name 
anyone, but let us say the Parent-Teachers Association and things of 
that sort, questions of finances and questions of financing the central 
groups in addition to the local group. 

Mr. Jackson. How many were members of the first group to which 
you belonged? 

Mr. Arguimbau. My guess, and this is only a <juess because it was 
back in 1937, my guess is that there were about 7 or 8, but I am not 
sure of that. 

Mr. Jackson. From what economic walk of life were they, what 
occupations? 

Mr. Arguimbau. It was a mixture. I would say they were mainly 
people working in small shops and wives of those people. 

Mr. Jacks* >x. In the second group, how many were members ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Again I cannot remember very precisely, but I 
would say 5 or 6. 

Mr. Jacksox. And their occupations? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Mainly small-town people, handymen, and their 
wives. 

Mr. Kunzig. We were up to the second group. What period of 
time and dates and years did you leave that and transfer to another 
one, if you did? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4019 

Mr. Arguimbau. I transferred, I believe, in 1938 when I moved 
to Cambridge, Mass., and I transferred to a group there which I am 
not sure again of the exact name, but I would think it was the Cam- 
bridge Street group. 

Mr. Kunzig. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Was there a cell at that time or a group or whatever 
name you want to give it at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. At that time I would have no knowledge because 
I was not teaching there. 

Mr. Kunzig. Was there at Harvard \ 

Mr. Arguimuau. I have no knowledge of that as of 19138. Excuse 
me a moment. I say I have no knowledge of it. I had no knowledge 
from personal contacts, but my belief is that there was at that time, 
merely from hearsay. 

Mr. Kunzig. Was there a Philip Frankfeld under whom you 
worked in connection with the Communist Party at that time ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I wouldn't say that I worked under him directly. 
I met him for the first time in 1936. 

Mr. Kunzig. What was his connection with the party at that time? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I believe he was district organizer of the New 
England district. 

Mr. Kunzig. Was he the one who asked you to become a member of 
the party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. He did ask me in 1936 and I refused at that time. 
I said I didn't feel I knew enough about it to wish to join. He asked 
me because someone else brought me to him and suggested that it 
would be useful to have a discussion. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you explain to the subcommittee as far as you 
know the full activities of Philip Frankfeld in the Communist Party 
at that time? 

Mr. Arguimbau. My knowledge of it is roughly that he was running 
the group as a whole, with 2 or 3 assistants. That is, running the 
group for New England as a whole, with 2 or 3 assistants. I think 
most of the activity was centered in Boston rather than in other parts. 
By the way, when I say New England, I mean the region broadly 
of Massachusetts and north. 

Mr. Kunzig. Excluding Connecticut \ 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am not certain about that. Excluding Rhode 
Island. 

Mr. Kunzig. In 1938, we are up to group No. 3, and that was the 
Cambridge Street group, roughly the name you gave. 

Mr. Arguimbau. May I speak off the record for a moment ? 

Mr. Kunzig. That is up to the chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. If it is a matter which is pertinent. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I will put it on the record. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well: off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Back on the record. 

Mr. Kunzig. Professor Arguimbau, we are up to group No. 3. So 
far as you recall, who were the officers of that group at the time that 
you were a member ? 



4020 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to answer that one on the same basis. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arguimbau. And again I persist. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give us the name of any members who 
were fellow members with you at that time of that group? 

Mr. Arguimbau. No ; I feel I should not on the same basis. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I persist. 

Mr. Kunzig. How long were you a member of the group there 
and when did you transfer to the next group ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I was a member of that group for a relatively short 
time since I went to teach at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in 1939 and at that time switched to a group at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

Mr. Kunzig. What month did you become professor of Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology and switch in 1939 ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am not sure of the month in which I switched. 
I went to MIT in September because that is the beginning of the fall 
term. I am not sure whether I joined the group immediately. I 
think there were some transitional provisions. 

Mr. Kunzig. That was the year of the Hitler-Stalin pact, and I 
wonder if you could explain to the subcommittee your feeling at that 
time and how you could continue to be a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arguimbau. My feeling about that was that I disagreed with 
the general position at Munich and, unlike many others, I did not 
take the action of the Soviet Union seriously in lining up with Hitler. 
I felt that the situation would change as time went on, and I was 
confirmed in my point of view about that when, as I recall it, and 
I am not certain of the details, but as I recall it the Soviet Union made 
a nonaggression pact with Yugoslavia at the time Hitler was threat- 
ening them but before the Soviet Union was invaded, and I said, 
"Ha, ha, I thought there was something funny going on here." I 
felt the pact was a matter of expediency rather than a matter of prin- 
ciple. I was, throughout that time, very strongly opposed to the Hit- 
ler point of view. I like to read as much as I can and I read Hitler's 
Mein Kampf in that period of time, and I also read Mussolini's auto- 
biography and I was thoroughly disgusted with both. 

Mr. Kunzig. At that time the Communist Party was calling our 
President a warmonger and was completely following the Hitler line. 
Did you follow the Hitler line? You must have. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I think not. I took the point of view that I didn't 
like Hitler any more than anyone else did and probably much less 
because I had read his book and I had listened occasionally by short- 
wave to his Sports Palace talks, and I felt very strongly on this mat- 
ter and I felt that this was something that I could not condone at all, 
and I was completely opposed to the Hitler regime in all that. 

Mr. Kunzig. But you remained a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Let us move on to the next cell or group that you be- 
longed to. That would be No. 4. What year was this move effected? 

Mr. Arguimbau. This becomes more difficult to answer with precision 
and I will do the best I can for you, but my dates are very hazy. My 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4021 

recollection is that some time during the war and it may have been at 
the beginning of the war or it may have been a little later on in the 
Second World War, there was a feeling that it wasn't sensible for our 
group at MIT to continue holding meetings and largely wasting time 
when there were many things to be done, and we ceased holding meet- 
ings during that period and I was not sure whether the other members 
of the group had continued or not. I did not discuss it with them 
but I was at that time what is spoken of as a member at large in the 
sense that I met with no group but rather passively continued mem- 
bership in the party, but took part in no actual activities. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question at this point. How many mem- 
bers were there in the MIT group ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. As nearly as I can remember, six, and as I remem- 
ber there might have been an occasional additional one that met with 
us, but I am not certain of that. 

Mr. Kunzig. You mean by that there were six faculty members ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. No, there were six total members, not all of whom 
were on the faculty. 

Mr. Jackson. Some of the members were members of the faculty 
of MIT? 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. This period was the war period. What was the period 
of your membership in what counsel has called group No. 4, to the 
best of your recollection? 

Mr. Arguimbau. To the best of my recollection it did start in 1939. 
To the best of my recollection, if I were to make a guess, and it is only 
a guess here, it would be 1943 for that group. 

Mr. Jackson. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Back on the record. What do you mean by faculty 
members ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. As a technicality in the way that we do business 
at MIT, faculty member means assistant professor and higher, in 
some specific cases, but there are perhaps 1 percent of the total there 
who might be instructors with special privileges or a research asso- 
ciate with special privileges. 

Mr. Jackson. I have one more question on that score. During the 
period of your membership in the MIT branch, did MIT have Gov- 
ernment contracts of a classified nature, or were faculty members at 
MIT engaged on work of a classified nature for the United States 
Government ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes; although, to the best of my knowledge, none 
of us who were members of the group were working on such projects. 
I am not sure of that. 

Mr. Jackson. You are not prepared to say that none of the members 
of this group were engaged on classified work? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I have no knowledge of their working on classified 
work. 

Mr. Kunzig. But they may have been engaged upon classified work 
and you did not know that? 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. May I see you for a moment in the next room, Mr. 
Jackson ? 



4022 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

(At this point Mr. Jackson and Mr. Kunzig left the hearing room 
and returned.) 

Mr. Jackson. Let the record show that the interrogation at this 
point was taken over by Mr. Appell, due to Mr. Kunzig's leaving. 

Mr. Appell. \Ve were talking about this fourth section of the Com- 
munist Party in which you had been assigned and you had testified 
that you had remained in that for an indefinite period of time and 
then had ceased your activity and gone to a status which you described 
us member at large. 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is right. 

Mr. Appell. How long did you remain in a member-at-large status? 

Mr. Arguimbau. That again is a very difficult question for me to be 
sure of at this time. My guess is that it lasted until about 1945, but 
I am not sure about that either. 

Mr. Appell. Could we establish it with the creation of the Commu- 
nist Political Association? 

Mr. Arguimbau. No; I think not. I remember the formation of 
that but I cannot establish the date relative to that. 

May I add a little perhaps to a previous answer? You asked me 
about classified work at MIT and my knowledge of members of our 
group taking part in it. My recollection is that I have never heard 
of anyone mentioning taking part in such work. 

Mr. Jackson. Would such information have been divulged volun- 
tarily if the work was of a highly classified nature in any event? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would doubt it because people don't ordinarily 
speak of working on classified work unless it is to a very closely allied 
colleague thev might say they are working on something in such a 
field. 

Mr. Jackson. I think in light of this particular situation that I 
am going to ask you to give the committee the names of those who 
were associated with you in the fourth branch of the Communist Party 
at MIT. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I must again refuse to do so. 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair directs and I ask you to answer that ques- 
tion again. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I again persist for the previous reasons. 

Mr. Appell. Up to this period of time, were you acquainted with a 
unit of the Communist Party, and we will call it branch, group, or 
section, known by the name of the Henry Thoreau Group ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. The name is familiar but I never attended a meet- 
ing of that group. I have heard of it being spoken of. It is my 
impression it was at Harvard, but I am not sure of that. 

Mr. Appell. Does your recollection of the group encompass a 
period of time that the Henry Thoreau section was known and used 
by the group at all ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am sorry, I didn't get that, 

Mr. Appell. Can you recall what period of time the Henry Thoreau 
section, which you understood to have been at Harvard, operated ? 

Mr. Arouimrau. No; I have merely casually heard it, heard the 
name used and I don't think that the name was sufficiently in regular 
circulation to designate the group that I would have heard of it par- 
ticularly. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4023 

Mr. Appell. Your affiliation when with an active group, you placed 
it some time in 1945, and was that in the days of the Communist 
Political Association or in the fall of 1945 when the Communist 
Political Association was dissolved and reverted to the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I think I can perhaps answer that question best 
by saying that I continued membership until the vicinity of 1950. 
The group went through those transitions during that period and I 
was a member continuously during that period. It would be difficult 
for me to remember the dates. There was no significance in my join- 
ing one particular group or another when that transition occurred 
so that I think perhaps the best way to answer that would be for you 
to take the dates that are the best estimate that I can make at this 
time and then use your knowledge of when that change took place and 
I do not have the date. 

Mr. Appell. Was the group to which you were assigned in approxi- 
mately 1945 a broader group than you had been in prior to that time, 
the group that comprised the staff of MIT ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, that is my recollection, and my recollection 
is that the major portion, at least, of the staff at MIT, at least did 
not attend meetings of the new group and I did not know from per- 
sonal knowledge whether they had dropped out. I didn't know. I 
didn't ask them. They may have dropped out of the party at that 
time. I think it likely, but I don't know that. 

Mr. Appell. What percentage of the people with whom you pre- 
viously met in the MIT group ceased, so far as your knowledge is 
concerned, an active affiliation with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Really I have no accurate knowledge of them 
ceasing. I would merely say that there were at least 3 of the 6 that 
I cannot recall having any contact with later in the sense of talking 
with them about Communist Party affairs. Wliether they had ceased 
or not is something that I just don't know. They were not work- 
ing in my department and so I did not come in daily contact with 
them and I did not discuss the matter. 

Mr. Appell. Were they working in the mathematics department ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. That question again I must refuse to answer in 
the sense that I don't think it would help the committee except to pin- 
point the individuals. 

Mr. Appell. Was William Ted Martin one of the individuals of 
the group ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arguimbau. And I persist for the previous reason. 

Mr. Appell. Was Norman Levinson one of the individuals of the 
group ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to answer that for the previously given 
reason. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arguimbau. And I persist. 

Mr. Appell. Was Isadore Amdur one of the individuals of the 
group ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to answer for the previously given reason. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

30172— 54— pt. 8 3 



4024 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Arguimbau. And I persist. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you know Granville Hicks, who, I might say, 
lias appeared before the committee and admitted his membership in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I have never met him personally. I heard him 
talk on one occasion at a Harvard function. I also heard him debate 
once in Boston. 

Mr. Apeell. Returning to the group that you affiliated with in 1945, 
did you continue in that group until 1950, or were there additional 
transfers? 

Mr. Arguimbau. There were additional transfers and it is very 
difficult to sketch the exact thing that took place. I would say that 
the party at that time was pretty badly disorganized and it did not 
have the sort of stability that it had in the period of 1939, let us say. 

Mr. Jackson. Are we dealing with group No. 4 now, or is this 
branch 4 or branch 5 ? 

Mr. Appell. Branch 5. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Appell. In order to get unity back into the party was there 
again another shift of people within groups and were you again as- 
signed to a group ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, my best recollection is that I was reassigned 
3 or 4 times. 

Mr. Appell. Between 1945 and 1950? 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Without trying to remember specific transfers, can you 
recall the common interest which the members of the group had? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. We will now take No. G. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would say, if I may go back to No. 5, that that 
was a group largely with academic interests, perhaps wives of people 
with academic backgrounds and just an academic atmosphere about 
the group. The other groups were varied. One was a group of I 
would say mainly housewives working on nonacademic problems. 
Another group was a group whose members were in the Progressive 
Party in 1948 or 1947, I think. As a convenience, they met together 
partly to discuss their activities in the Progressive Party and partly 
it seemed to be a natural grouping. I don't know whether I have 
given you sufficient on that. Why don't you ask me some questions 
on that? 

Mr. Appell. With the wane of the Progressive Party, was there 
still another shift or did you remain in that so-called Progressive 
Party group until you left in 1950? 

Mr. Arguimbau. My best recollection, and here I could be wrong, 
was that there was one more shift only. I did have 1 more shift but 
perhaps only 1 more shift. 

Mr. Appell. What was the common interest of this last shift ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. There it it very difficult for me to answer because 
we didn't know the detailed professionable work of the people in- 
volved, but it was largely a group of people, some with academic in- 
terests and some with other interests. 

Mr. Appell. During your entire membership in the Communist 
Party, were you ever registered in an alias? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4025 

Mr. Arguimbau. Not to the best of my knowledge there. But this 
would be a very difficult question to answer. I did not of my intention. 

Mr. Appell. During the time that you were issued a Communist 
Party membership card or a book, depending upon the history of the 
party we are talking about, were these cards ever in a name other than 
your given name ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. My recollection is that it was my own name and 
my recollection is that I again physically carried it in my wallet for 
some years previous to going to MIT and I cannot recall after that 
time having a card. 

Mr. Jackson. Was your membership in the Communist Party gen- 
erally known at any time while you were a member? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Not generally known ; no. 

Mr. Jackson. To, let us say, the institute authorities or other 
faculty members who were not themselves Communists ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Not to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Jackson. Was a considered effort made to keep this informa- 
tion from becoming public ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. On my part ? 

Mr. Jackson. On your part. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, 

Mr. Jackson. What was the purpose in taking that action ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, I think this last 2 weeks has been a pleasant 
time to try to review such questions as that and think them over again, 
and I am of the opinion now that from all points concerned, and even 
from the point of view of the Communist Party, this may have been 
a mistake. I can see no logical reason for having done so except per- 
haps the purpose of being subjected to public pressure because the 
point of view was an unpopular one. 

Mr. Appell. Would you agree that another reason for that might 
be, and I put this on the point of view of the Communist Party rather 
than your own, that by keeping your membership secret that you could 
be used by them, or you yourself could operate in other organizations 
and in other circles without people knowing that you were putting 
forth the views of the Communist Party with which they might have 
disagreed. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I think that some have done that but I would 
say that, in general, that aspect has been overemphasized, at least in 
the circles in which I have been. I couldn't say that was true in all 
circles, but those circles of which I have public knowledge I would 
say that aspect was overemphasized. 

I was interested, for example, to see that we were to meet in the 
caucus room because these things were like a caucus of groups of 
people with similar points of view who would like to discuss these 
things rather than having a point of view that is normally taken on 
this matter. Perhaps a more specific question on this would help. 

Mr. Appell. I bring that up because the Daily Worker of March 1, 
1949, contains a story that has the headline, "150 Educators Assail 
Washington University Firings," and if you will recall at that time 
the president of the university fired 3 professors, 2 of them for Com- 
munist Party membership. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I do not recall it. 



4026 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION ( EDUCATION ) 

Mr. Appell. The Daily Worker reprints the names of several of the 
people whom they claim protested this action, and there is listed as 
one of the signers "Louis B. Arguimbau, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology." 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, that is a misspelling of my name. I am not 
"Louis B." 

Mr. Appell. It is just "L. B." I am sorry. I show you that illus- 
tration. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. Well, my attitude on these things was that 
I would occasionally sign statements of that sort that came up if I 
felt they were sensible ones. I at times used my address at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology as an identification, not implying to 
include the institute in my remarks, but I also felt later that this was 
not a desirable thing to do and I later made the practice when I signed 
these statements of this general sort of leaving off the institute's 
name. 

Mr. Jackson. Did this in fact represent your feelings with respect 
to the firing of the professors ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, I wouldn't have signed it without reading 
it, and I do not recall the incident at this time. 

Mr. Jackson. What is your feeling today, if I may ask, with re- 
spect to the employment of members of the Communist Party as 
faculty members? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I cannot give a considered judgment as of the 
present moment. I can only give it as of the time that I left. I 
would say that my judgment on those things is that, well in the first 
place, that the membership in the Communist Party did not imply 
that there was any influence in my particular surroundings and in my 
particular knowledge, no influence from the Communist Party as to 
what I should teach. I have never been aware of anyone recommend- 
ing to me what I should teach or make any suggestion along that 
line. 

In my own field of engineering I have not had any logical reason for 
talking about political matters and I have not done so. I have felt 
that it was perhaps desirable not to talk to the students about political 
matters, a least in a serious way, and my contact with the students 
has been purely a matter of a professional one. I suspect tomorrow 
morning, if they read about these matters in the paper, they will be 
very much surprised. 

Mr. Jackson. That, I imagine, covers your professional capacity in 
the classroom. You mean you had no political discussions with regard 
to communism outside of the classroom ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. If I may go back a moment, up until the year 
1939, the time I went to MIT, I did very forcibly discuss such 
things, just as I suspect Democrats and Republicans discuss it around 
the Capitol steps with anyone who cares to discuss it. When I went to 
Tech I felt this is a controversial point of view, and I am going to 
teach technical things and, whenever possible, I will avoid such 
discussions. Over a lunch table you cannot very well refuse or wish 
to refuse to discuss events of the day. But I did not try to convince 
people that my little diffident point of view was a desirable one. I did 
not do this in a concealment way but I felt it was undesirable for me 
to take a stand of urging anything of this sort and I did not do so. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4027 

Mr. Jackson. Did you have any sense of being responsible for the 
carrying out of Communist policy or, more specifically, of broad 
Communist directives ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Insofar as teaching is concerned ? 

Mr. Jackson. Insofar as either teaching is concerned or insofar as 
your personal and off-campus activities were concerned ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would say insofar as they coincided with my 
personal beliefs. 

Mr. Jackson. And your personal beliefs at that time, as I under- 
stand it, largely paralleled those of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Largely, but not completely, in particular the 
Soviet-Nazi pact, and I outlined my position there. 

Mr. Jackson. On the point of the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact, 
if I remember your statement, you felt this was a matter of expediency 
on the part of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. How did you rationalize the view, if you did, that 
included as one of the principal parts of the pact was the transfer 
of war material for war potential from the Soviet Union to Hitler's 
forces, which were in turn being used against the nations in Central 
Europe? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I think perhaps you may have more data on that 
than I have. I have not consistently read all the fine print of the 
New York Times although I have tried to do so and I am not sure 
of the situation in that respect. I feel that the whole thing was a 
matter of expediency and they may have taken some steps cooperat- 
ing with an unwilling partner in a way that I would then think was 
undesirable and which nations at times do, but I did not have a con- 
viction that they were cooperating with Hitler in the sense that they 
would like to see him successful. 

Mr. Jackson. I think Von Kibbentrop went to Moscow to nego- 
tiate for these materials and they were delivered in substantial quanti- 
ties until such time as it became obvious that Hitler was not going 
to reciprocate with the things that he was supposed to send to Moscow. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am a technical person engaged in research and 
I do not like to come to conclusions hastily. It was a guess that it 
was a matter of expediency rather than of fundamental policy and 
I still am of that opinion, but it is just an opinion that I cannot 
document. 

Mr. Jackson. Although the basic concept of Marx and those who 
were to implement the policies was to deviate at any time, is that 
not the case, from the established line, if it was in the interest of the 
Soviet Union to do so ? I ask that, not in a contentious spirit. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I should like to cooperate as best as I can. I am 
an engineer and on theoretical matters I did not study that as much 
as I should have. I will say that this kind of action that has taken 
place is rather a hard-boiled problem of what do you do under given 
circumstances. It could be related to old theories, but my feeling 
is that it was a matter of expediency. 

Mr. Jackson. When you left the party in 1950, was your break a 
full and complete one? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. And you have not been associated with the Com- 
munist Party or any of its activities since that time ? 



402S COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is right, and in particular I was asked at 
that time to continue contributions and refused to do so. 

Mr. Jackson. "What, if I may ask, brought about your final break 
with the party '. 

Mr. Arguimbau. My final break came roughly, well, I would rather 
go back if I may. 

Mr. Jackson. Please do. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would say that I began to be less enthusiastic, 
let us say, about these matters, fairly early in the sense that my origi- 
nal purpose of joining was one to think of the economic business cycle 
rather than of world affairs, even though those are inter-related and 
when the thing shifted from one of an economic problem to one of 
world affairs, I had less conviction in the whole thing than I had 
previously. 

I would say that the period in which I was most active in party 
activities corresponds roughly to the early years when it was some- 
thing new, let us say from 1937 to 1939 or 1940 or 1911, perhaps in 
that early period, the first few years. 

Then again in the period of 1947 I would not say that I was very 
active in party activities. In fact, I never held any leadership position 
whatsoever, even in a group of 5. I was very active politically in a 
sense that I was very disturbed about the world situation and I 
became emphatic about the Wallace campaign, thinking that it had 
an opportunity of bringing a peaceful solution to these things. I am 
not sure that I was right or wrong. So I devoted more energy to this 
and this was not Communist Party energy but more personal energy 
than I had at any previous time. When Wallace was defeated I was 
badly discouraged about the whole thing. I felt that the possibilities 
of obtaining a friendlier world all around, let us say a Willkie kind 
of dream, that this thing had diminished and I felt quite unhappy 
about the whole thing and I think that was reflected in a rather 
diminished enthusiasm about anything that the party was doing. I 
attended meetings less frequently than I had previously and less reg- 
ularly, as I recall it, and I stopped paying dues in early 1950 or 
perhaps 1949, the latter part. 

Mr. Jackson. This was following the Korean attack ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am not sure of that. 

Mr. Jackson. That was June 26 and you had left the party by that 
time ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I wouldn't say I had left the party. I am not 
sure of the exact termination date. I stopped paying dues and was 
not active in the sense that I attended meetings regularly. I attended 
some meetings but not regularly. 

Mr. Apfell. So when did the final break come ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I do not have the final date for that, It became 
quite obvious that the force of public opinion was against the party 
and that it reacted on me personally in the sense I recognized that it 
was becoming that I was connected with the party and I felt that 
there was nothing to be accomplished by continued membership. It 
was now a matter of international affairs rather than of economics 
and as a matter of expediency and as a matter of principal both, I 
felt there was no point in continuing past that point. 

Mr. Appeix. Was there any disagreement at that time with the pro- 
gram and the policy? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4029 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would say that there was neither disagreement 
or agreement. 

Mr. Appell. You approved of the Communist Party with respect 
to America, with respect to Korea, and with respect to those other 
issues ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. No. It might be helpful for me to tell what hap- 
pened at that time to me personally as far as the Korean situation is 
concerned. 

As a research person I am anxious to get the sources about things 
like that rather than editorials, and I tried to find out what happened. 
My reason for that was that I some way did not feel that it made 
sense for either side to attack each other. It just didn't make mili- 
tary sense. So I felt I would like to try as nearly as I could to get 
the source material to find out in a scholarly way that had happened, 
and so I read very diligently all the fine print of the New York Times, 
the Boston Globe, and others to get not the editorial or the reporter's 
comments, but to find the actual events that had taken place in the 
sense of the background. I would like to call the committee's atten- 
tion — well, not the committee necessarily, but the Congress' attention 
to the fact that this documentation left a good deal to be desired. I 
could not make up my mind what had occurred. I did what any 
citizen should do in a case like that, but about 2 or 3 months later I 
wrote to Trygve Lie and said I had just heard a discussion by 
General Eisenhower that truth was a great weapon and would like 
to find out what was happening and I had not been able to get 
enough source material on the Korean war and I would appreciate 
any pamphlets or material that might be available. I was unhappy 
when it came back because it was a large envelope of mimeographed 
material, but none of it having to do with the actual outbreak of the 
hostilities, but having to do with the conditions that had happened 
2 or 3 months previous to the outbreak. If you can do so it would 
be helpful to me to have documented evidence of that sort, that is, 
any source material on that, because it would help to clear up my 
mind on that. I have not any scholarly understanding of what 
happened. 

Mr. Apfell. During the time that you were a member of the Com- 
munist Party, did you participate in discussions of works of the 
Communist Party, such as the History of the Communist Party in 
the Soviet Union and State and Revolution ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, from time to time I read documents of that 
sort and participated in discussions about them. 

Mr. Appell. Can you explain your acceptance of the argument 
which is advanced both in the Communist Party history about the ne- 
cessity throughout the world of overthrowing imperialist governments, 
and in light of your answer to see if you cannot recall that at this same 
period of time that the Communist Party throughout the world, 
including America, was calling America exactly what these words 
were advocating, the overthrow? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I should like to go back a little and then I would 
like to repeat the question if I have not answered it just to your 
satisfaction. 

I would say that there are many works, starting in 1800 with Robert 
Owen, previous to the starting of the Communist group, and the works 
of Marx, and Engels, of which I have read very little, and later 



4030 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

works of Lenin and Stalin, and these should be taken, I think, in 
historical perspective, and I have felt that referring to situations in 
other countries at other times than our own, I felt that was interest- 
ing in giving the views of people at that time. I would say, if I may 
be permitted to do so without disrespect, I would say that there are 
groups in the Christian church, some of which take a more emphatic 
view than others do. I never like dogmatic statements, and I would 
take these older writings as being an interesting thing to see how 
people were talking and thinking at the time, but not necessarily the 
statement of what my policy would be or what I think any group 
policy should be at the present time in this country. That is my 
personal feeling. 

Mr. Appell. But the History of the Communist Party in the Soviet 
Union was something that every Communist had to study over the 
past 10 or 15 years, the same as it was studied today. It was the 
document, it was the bible with the party. It is not ancient when 
they are using it today. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I hope the committee will permit me to say this, 
because there is no disrespect in it. This was true of Christian groups, 
because they studied Christian doctrines of long ago, and they are 
interpreted to mean one thing and another from the way they are 
written, and I would feel, as I assert, that documents of that sort are 
interesting and I think should be studied. I think, for example, at 
one time in the early 1930's I understand most of these documents 
were required study at Harvard in government courses and studied 
without comment for or against, merely as the thinking of the people 
at one time. I feel that is a good thing and I always have viewed 
them in that light. 

Mr. Jackson. You believe though they should be taught by a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. In a college, you mean ? 

Mr. Jackson. In a college. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I don't know of that having happened. 

Mr. Jackson. I daresay there are members of the Communist Party 
in the political sciences, in the political science departments of colleges. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I have not been connected with the political sci- 
ences, but if it were taught by a member of the Communist Party, 
it should be taught as a matter of fundamental documentation and 
should be discussed to try to interpret to the students what was in 
them, but not necessarily with application to the present time, merely 
as anyone else would. 

Mr. Jackson. I touched upon this and I don't know that we arrived 
at the conclusion. What is your feeling with respect to the desira- 
bility or the nondesirability of employing members of the Communist 
Party as teachers of the professions in light of the existing world 
conditions? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, I would rather not answer that as of later 
than my own membership, because I really don't know what is hap- 
pening at the present time in the Communist Party. I might guess, 
but that is only a guess, much as anyone else would make. 

Mr. Jackson. As of the time you left the party, what was your 
feeling ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. At the time I left the party it was my feeling 
that there was no reason certainly why in the sciences or in any other 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4031 

technical field that one should not be so employed because it was not 
my experience that there was any organized effort other than if an 
individual might differ from an individual to indoctrinate anybody 
in anything. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
entirely to the contrary with reference to the sciences, where we had 
a witness who declined on the basis of the fifth amendment to answer 
whether he had unauthorized material belonging to the armed serv- 
ices. That is a serious matter, whether he had ever transferred con- 
fidential material to an agent of a foreign power. 

Mr. Argtjtmbau. This is a different matter from teaching. 

Mr. Jackson. He is presently a teacher. 

Mr. Arguimbau. This is a function of his other than a teaching 
function, and I was talking about the teaching function purely and 
simply. 

I would say it is my feeling that it would be an undesirable thing 
from the point of view of the individual concerned to have anything 
to do with classified material if he can avoid it, and in my case I have 
always avoided and have not taken access to classified material even 
in cases where it might have been granted. 

Mr. Jackson. So many schools and universities are working on 
projects for the United States Government. I think it is a very im- 
portant facet of this entire investigation where teachers do on occasion 
come into possession of classified information, in the field of science 
particularly. 

Mr. Arguimbau. We are being very careful at MIT to compart- 
mentalize in that field as I understand it. We have a particular prob- 
lem there that we have a large number of foreign students at the 
institute and it would certainly be very important that they should 
not have access to material of that sort and we have had, for that 
reason, to be very careful to compartmentalize and I have been em- 
phatic that under no circumstances should any classified material 
come into my laboratory, and I think this is desirable. 

Mr. Jackson. But classified projects are undertaken at MIT; is 
that not right? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. There is an effort there to keep them in sep- 
arate buildings and to have guards at the doors and it is in such a 
way to keep it compartmentalized so that they are not merged with the 
general teaching activities. I think that is all, I believe. 

Mr. Jackson. It is a very worthwhile precaution. 

Mr. Apfell. Since you have been at MIT have you heard of the 
group of students who belonged to the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Not in the sense of meeting them or discussing 
anything with them, but in the first year I was there I guess everyone 
at MIT had various pieces of literature pushed under his door from 
time to time about the world events. It was distinctly the sort of 
thing that a Young Communist Leaguer would push under people's 
doors, but I have not had any impression of that sort of thing happen- 
ing in later years and I am not aware whether or not there are any 
student groups at MIT. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know of a student group of American Youth 
for Democracv? 



4032 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION ( EDUCATION ) 

Mr. Arguimbau. I knew there was such a group but I never met 
with them as a group. I have met, I may have met one of them from 
time to time, but it was not intentional. 

Mi-. Jackson. Are there presently employed on the faculty at MIT 
individuals who are known to vou to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. I mentioned that previously in the testimony 
about the group at MIT. 

Mr. Jackson. I am speaking now of the present time. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am sorry. I misunderstood the question. I 
have of course no way of 

Mr. Frankel. May I interrupt and go off the record for a moment ? 

Mr. Jackson. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. We will go back on the record. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would say that all but one are still employed 
at MIT. 

Mr. Appell. All but one who were in the original group I 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, as of 1939. 

Mr. Appell. But your position in your declination to give us the 
names of these individuals 

Mr. Arguimbau. That is correct. 

Mr. Frankel. May I confer with the witness a moment ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

(At this point Mr. Arguimbau conferred with Mr. Frankel.) 

Mr. Jackson. Back on the record. 

Mr. Appell. In 1947 the American Youth for Democracy held a 
rather large rally on the campus of Harvard and addressing that 
gathering sponsored by the American Youth for Democracy were 3 
or 4 members of, let us say, college staffs. I am not certain that they 
were all faculty, who were known by the committee to be members of 
the Communist Party. 

Isn't that staff member exercising an influence over a student to 
accept a program of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would say that as a mattter of principal, other 
than as a matter of principal that personally I felt I should not do 
that, but that there have been, for example, some discussions at MIT 
about letters that have gone through the faculty mailing system urging 
the candidacy of Mr. Eisenhower or Mr. Stevenson, and there has been 
a difference of opinion as to whether this sort of thing is an appro- 
priate thing, and I am not sure that I will take a stand on that for 
principal. 

Mr. Jackson. Let us make a distinction between the Eepublican 
and Democratic political parties and what has been found to be, in the 
Supreme Court of the United States, an international conspiracy. I 
think there is a valid distinction between any given American becom- 
ing President of the United States and propagandizing on behalf of a 
foreign-directed movement which has been found by law to seek the 
overthrow of law by force and violence. Do you recognize the dis- 
tinction, professor? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Well, let us say in 1939 the head of the Communist 
Party of the United States, EarlBrowder, addressed student groups 
and I would say that is an appropriate thing for the students to know 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4033 

what is going on. I would say that it would be an inappropriate thing 
for a person on the staff of an institution to address a group as part of 
an international conspiracy if I knew it to be such. On the other hand, 
for a person who did not have such feeling about the movement as 
a whole, but regarded it rather as a local principal, and by local princi- 
pal I mean a principal applying with local interest to the United 
States, and of course with international implications too, but not one 
directed from abroad, I would say it would be appropriate to give his 
views and I would hope that as many people as could would give their 
views. 

Mr. Jackson. Do I understand you correctly, then, that in the con- 
text of today and in the light of what has developed historically in 
the past two decades that you feel it would not be inappropriate for a 
faculty member or an instructor to address a group which had been 
found by duly constituted authority to be such, and this is a very 
complex question and perhaps I should start all over again. 

Do you think it would be appropriate for a college professor today, 
or a member of the faculty or of the staff, to address a group and to set 
forth Communist doctrine? 

Mr. Arguimbau. It depends on the doctrine, what the Communist 
doctrine was, if he is discussing it in a scholarly way and not urging 
anything that is inappropriate, that is one thing. Then if he is urging 
inappropriate action, that is another. I think I am not in a position 
to make a real opinion about that. I haven't done that kind of thing 
myself and I would rather urge others not to. But I wouldn't, for a 
matter of principal, and I wouldn't feel that I have enough real knowl- 
edge about whether people should talk to students in this way or not. 
I have not done it and I think it is undesirable. I don't know whether 
that answers your question. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes ; I think that answers it satisfactorily. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I remember at one time President Roosevelt ad- 
dressed a group and told them in rather straight terms what he 
thought. 

Mr. Jackson. There have been changes. 

Mr. Appell. Do you draw a distinction between Earl Browder 
speaking to a group of students as a Communist and a staff member of 
a college speaking to them as a liberal who, by his very concealment 
of Communist Party membership, denies to everyone that he is a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. There are very subtle questions involved here 
and I would say that, in the first place, I think it is entirely appropriate 
that any national figure that is known to be advocating a certain thing, 
no matter what it is, it would be desirable for a student to know what 
is going on, and so I think the case of Earl Browder addressing them 
in the period when he did was not an inappropriate thing. It was 
known what his connections were, and I think it is a desirable one. 
It is debatable. Assuming again that similar leaders from other 
groups also addressed them so that it wasn't one-sided. 

When it comes to the other matter, I would say that I believe gen- 
eral public opinion is that a member of the Communist Party in ad- 
dressing a group would try very closely to conform to a certain point 
of view in which he might not necessarily have faith in talking to 
students. I have not had evidence of that personally, and I would 



4034 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

say that if he did then it would be very wrong for him to address 
students. If he was telling his views and he believed them, then I 
cannot see any impropriety in it as of the time that I was a member. 

Now, let us say again that I feel that the whole business of secrecy 
has been an undesirable one and I would feel that it would be much 
more desirable if he had announced the fact that he was a Communist 
and that this might influence his point of view somewhat, but discuss 
his point of view anyway. This is done by Mexicans and people like 
that where the problems are not too tense. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know the American Youth for Democracy to be 
a successor organization of the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I believe I have heard of it. I don't recall having 
any contact with it as a group. 

Mr. Appell. Within the party, you did not learn as a member of the 
Communist Party that the Young Communist League caucus in their 
respective districts had voted to make the change and went to New 
York and the same delegation from the Young Communist League in 
fact became the organization of the American Youth for Democracy ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Not except that incidentally I might have read in 
the Communist Party press that is available to you. I have no private 
knowledge of that matter and I do not recall having read about it in 
detail at this time. It was not to me a matter of real professional 
or politically important interest. I did not pay much attention to 
what the students were doing in this sense. 

Mr. Jackson. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Back on the record. 

Will you rephrase the question ? 

Mr. Appell. I was trying to reconstruct a set of facts which would 
help the committee to clearly find out whether you draw a distinction 
from Earl Browder and hidden Communists. That is the thing I am 
trying to arrive at. 

Mr. Frankel. I think the witness has answered that as well as 
he could. 

Mr. Appell. Returning to the Daily Worker article which set forth 
the protest which you made to the University of Washington over the 
firing of the 3 professors, was your signature as a member of the 
Communist Party who was interested in protecting another member 
of the Communist Party who had been fired from the faculty, is that 
the reason why you signed? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I would think that the signature, as I recall it 
and I do not recall the details, but as I recall it I would say the signa- 
tures were not obtained through Communist Party circles but rather 
from others who asked me to sign it and I looked at it as a matter of 
principle and I would feel that the same principle should be appli- 
cable to me personally in the activities that were going on in that 
period of time, and I would say for that reason I was completely 
sincere in doing it. It was not partisan. 

Mr. Appell. This was sponsored by the National Council of Arts, 
Sciences, and Professions. Were you a member of that organization? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am not sure that I paid dues to it. I was a 
member for a while. 

Mr. Appell. Can you recall who solicited your signature in this 
matter ? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4035 

Mr. Argttimbau. No; I cannot. 

Mr. Jackson. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Back on the record. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Prof. Bart Jan Bok? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever know Prof. Bart Jan Bok to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds as given previously. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arguimbau. I persist. 

Mr. Ar-FELL. May I ask here, Professor, if you did not know a per- 
son to be a member of the Communist Party, would you tell us? 
I know that is a hard question, but you can understand that we do 
not want to do harm to any individual. 

Mr. Arguimbau. The difficulty of course there is a technical one 
that if you were to present me with a list of 1,000 names and I an- 
swered "No" on each one and "Yes" on a few, or refused to answer 
on a few, it would be the same thing as saying that I would answer 
on every one. You would have that implication and I don't want to 
give that implication to you. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, may we go off the record? 

Mr. Jackson. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Back on the record. 

Mr. Appell. Professor Arguimbau, according to a 1949 advertise- 
ment in Consumers' Union you were listed as an officer and director 
of Consumers' Union. 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes, sir ; as a member of the board of directors. 

Mr. Appell. Are you still a member of the board of directors 2 

Mr. Arguimbau. No. 

Mr. Appell. When did you leave the board of directors of Con- 
sumers' Union ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I think you can get that more readily than I have 
by looking over that file on them. My recollection is that I was on 
for approximately a year. 

Mr. Appell. Did your membership in the Communist Party have 
anything to do with your association with Consumers' Union? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Not at all, except in the sense that I was inter- 
ested in broad social things, and so I was interested in anything that 
would contribute to, let us say, general prosperity and social move- 
ments of the sort that were of the New Deal era, and so I took an 
interest in Consumers' Union. 

Mr. Appell. Did the Consumers' Union inquire of you whether 
you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you deny to them or indicate that you were not 
a n. ember of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. No. 

Mr. Appell. At the same time, you never denied to them ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. No ; I was not asked. 



4036 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION ( EDUCATION ) 

Mr. Appell. I think for this time that is all the questions I have 
to ask, and I would suggest that the witness be excused to return tenta- 
tively at 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Jackson. The subcommittee will adjourn shortly, and we re- 
quest that the witness return to the committee offices with his counsel 
at 2 p. m. this afternoon. 

Are you here in answer to a subpena, Professor Arguimbau? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. When was the subpena served upon you, if you recall \ 

Mr. Arguimbau. It was on a Thursday, and I know that other 
subpenas were served for approximately the same period. My recol- 
lection is that mine was delivered about a w y eek later than others. 

Mr. Jackson. It would be approximately how long ago ? 

Mr. Appell. Thursday, March 19. 

Mr. Arguimbau. My recollection is that it was April 2. 

Mr. Jackson. April 2 ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I am not sure of that. 

Mr. Jackson. You were personally served '? 

Mr. Arguimbau. I was personally served. 

Mr. Jackson. By a United States marshal ? 

Mr. Arguimbau. Yes ; by a United States marshal. 

Mr. Jackson. The subcommittee is adjourned. 

(Thereupon, at 12:25 p. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTKATION 
(Education— Part 8) 



MONDAY, JUNE 8, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of 
The Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. G. 

EXECUTIVE session 1 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 43 a. m., in room 226 of the Old House 
Office Building, Hon. Bernard W. Kearney presiding. 

Committee member present: Representative Bernard W. Kearney 
(presiding). 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig, counsel ; and Raphael I. 
Nixon, director of research. 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show that, for the purpose of the hearing this morn- 
ing, a subcommittee has been set up composed of Mr. Kearney from 
New York. The hearing will be conducted under the authority 
granted for subcommittee by the chairman of the committee, Mr. 
Velde. 

Will you stand and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you shall give before this sub- 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Crowley. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANCIS XAVIER THOMAS CROWLEY 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Crowley, are you accompanied by counsel here 
this morning ? 

Mr. Crowley. No ; I am by myself. 

Mr. Kunzig. You understand, of course, your right to be accom- 
panied by counsel if you so desire ? 

Mr. Crowley. I do. 

Mr. Kunzig. And it is your wish to be here present at this hearing 
today without counsel ? 

Mr. Crowley. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give your full name, please ? 

Mr. Crowley. Francis Xavier Thomas Crowley. The Thomas 
was a confirmation. 

Mr. Kunzig. And your present address, Mr. Crowley ? 

1 Released bv the committee. 

4037 



4038 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Crowley. 226 Second Avenue, New York. 
Mr. Kunzig. And what is your age at the present time? 
Mr. Crowley. Twenty-seven. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you give the subcommittee here this morning 
a brief resume of your educational background ? 

Mr. Crowley. Yes. 

Well, I went to grade school in Long Island, Queens, and I went to 
. Brooklyn Technical High School; then to Columbia College for about 
a year and a half. Then I went to the University of Michigan. I 
graduated there with a bachelor of arts. 

Mr. Kunzig. When? 

Mr. Crowley. 1950. 

Then I came back to New York and took some graduate work at 
Columbia at night, and then I dropped that, lost interest in school. 

Mr. Kunzig. Roughly, when did you drop that ? 

Mr. Crowley. The last course I took was — I think it was last 
spring. I took a course — I think last spring I took a course at night. 

Mr. Kunzig. And that completed 

Mr. Crowley. No; no — wait — it was this fall. This fall I took a 
course at night — this past fall. 

Mr. Kunzig. And that completed up to the present your formal 
schooling education? 

Mr. Crowley. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, would you give the committee a resume of your 
occupational or employment background? 

Mr. Crowley. Well, through high school I worked summers at odd 
jobs, and then from high school I went to the Army. I enlisted when 
I was in high school, when I was 18. 

When I got out of the Army in 1945, I worked a few weeks in 
Wallach's as a clothing salesman — Wallach's store in New York. That 
Avas a haberdashery. 

Then that was the only job I had before I started to school at 
Columbia. I went to Columbia for a little over a year — almost a year 
and a half. I quit in the middle of a term. 

Then I left the city and moved to Boston, and I didn't have work 
there, and I got unemployment insurance for quite a while. 

Mr. Kunzig. When was this ? 

Mr. Crowley. I don't think that I had any job there. 

Mr. Kunzig. When w 7 as this ? 

Mr. Crowley. Nineteen — let's see — wait a minute — 1947, I believe. 

Mr. Kunzig. It was before you went to Michigan ? 

Mr. Crowley. Before I w T ent to Michigan ; yeah. 

Mr. Kunzig. You were in Boston at that time ? 

Mr. Crowley. Yeah ; I lived there. 

Then I went to Michigan, and I picked up school again there. I 
think it was about January 1948. 

Then I had 1 or 2 odd jobs in drug stores, working part time, and I 
worked summers — one summer for a builder; another summer for a 
man out there who was building his own home. I helped him build it. 

Then, when I graduated, I came east and I worked at — the first job 
I had — Boston — it was a Boston shop. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where was that ? 

Mr. Crowley. Third Avenue on 50th Street, New York. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you know the name of it ? 

Mr. Crowley. Yeah ; the Art Exchange. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4039 

Mr. KuNzir,. What type of work did you do there? 

Mr. Crowley. Sold antique porcelain and pottery. 

Mr. Kunztg. What was the next job you had? 

Mr. Crowley. Then I worked there about 9 months. 

Then I worked one summer at Camp Unity as a ground hand- 
ground crew. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where is Camp Unity ? 

Mr. Crowley. Wingdale, N. Y. 

Mr. Kunzig. How do you spell it ? 

Mr. Crowley. Wingdale, W-i-n-g-d-a-1-e. 

Mr. Kunzig. Any other employment since the time you left Mich- 
igan ? 

Mr. Crowley. Yes ; I worked at — then I went to work for a steam- 
fitter when I came back from there. 

Mr. Kunzig. When you came back from Camp Unity? 

Mr. Crowley. Yes ; that summer. That was 1951. 

Mr. Kunzig. What did you do as a steamfitter ? 

Mr. Crowley. I was learning to be a pipefitter. 

Mr. Kunzig. Who was the steamfitter? 

Mr. Crowley. William Behringer. 

Mr. Kunzig. How do you spell that? 

Mr. Crowley. B-e-h-r-i-n-g-e-r — New York City. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you have the address? 

Mr. Crowley. 220-something Lafayette Street, New York. 

Mr. Kunzig. How long did you work for Behringer ? 

Mr. Crowley. It wasn't more than 2 months. 

Then I went to work for the man I am working for now — Angelilli. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you spell that? 

Mr. Crowley. Angelilli — A-n-g-e-1-i-l-l-i — Brothers, 226 Lafayette 
Street. 

Mr. Kunzig. What business are they in ? 

Mr. Crowley. They're builders, contractors. 

Mr. Kunzig. And what type of work do you do for them ? 

Mr. Crowley. I'm a laborer. 

Mr. Kunzig. That brings you up to the present? 

Mr. Crowley. Yeah. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Crowley, when you were in Boston, Mass., that 
period of time prior to going to the University of Michigan that 
you have just told us about, were you a member of the West End 
Club of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Crowley. Well, I can't answer that. 

Mr. Kearney. What do you mean — you can't answer it ? 

Mr. Crowley. I won't answer it. 

Mr. Kearney. On what grounds? 

Mr. Crowley. It goes against my conscience to speak about it. I 
don't believe I should be in a position where I have to speak about 
anyone except my priest, and I have spoken to him about it. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, do I take it to mean your conscience 
bothered you because you were a member of the party ? 

Mr. Crowley. No ; not in this instance. 

Mr. Kearney. Has your conscience ever bothered you because you 
were a member of the party ? 

Mr. Crowley. My conscience bothers me that I might some way 
harm or hurt someone else by telling you what I know, that you want 
to know. 



4040 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION ( EDUCATION ) 

Mr. Kearney. How could it harm or hurt someone else by stating 
whether you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Crowley. Because if I answered that question, I imagine you 
will ask me, "Well, who else was?" or things of that sort. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, if we did ask you that question, you could 
decline to answer it. 

Mr. Crowley. Well, I would be in the same position then about 
answering. I guess I would be in the same jeopardy. 

Mr. Kunzig explained to me what I can do and what I can't do 
legally. I know 

Mr. Kearney. Well, I am quite curious. What jeopardy would 
you be in if you stated to this committee that you had been a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Crowley. What jeopardy would I be in ? None that I know of. 

Mr. Kearney. Then why can't you answer that question? 

Mr. Crowley. Because I believe it would be cowardice to answer 
any question about my past life to anyone that I didn't want to — and 
there's one thing I cannot do, is be a coward. I'd sooner — you know — 
take anything I have coming to me rather than have to live with some- 
thing on my mind, something I felt was wrong that I did. It would 
be wrong for me to tell you anything about my past life or my 
acquaintances, my activities with other people. 

Mr. Kearney. When you say you refuse to answer as to whether you 
have ever been a member of the Communist Party or not, if you never 
had been a member of the Communist Party, would you so answer ? 

Mr. Crowley. If I never had been — I don't know; probably not. 
Probably not. 

Mr. Kearney. I am quite curious to know your reasons as to why 
you would refuse to state why you had never been a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Crowley. Well, it is not all reasoning, I guess. It is just a 
feeling I have, and I haven't reasoned it out. I can't give you a 
logical reason why. 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, Mr. Chairman, the question, of course, whether 
the witness was a member of the West End Club of the Communist 
Party in Boston. I respectfully request he be directed to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, I was coming to that, and I am going to direct 
the witness to answer that question unless he can show sufficient reasons 
as to why he shouldn't answer it. 

Mr. Crowley. I can't give you any reasonable reasons, any legal 
reasons, or otherwise. 

Mr. Kearney. Now, you were advised by counsel here that you had 
the right to counsel 

Mr. Crowley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney (continuing). At this hearing, and you decline coun- 
sel to represent you. Now, you are being asked the question as to 
whether you are now or ever have been a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Kunzig. The question — the specific question — I believe at this 
moment, sir, is whether the witness was a member of the West End 
Club of the Communist Party in Boston, Mass., when he was in Boston. 
That is the question at the moment. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4041 

Mr. Kearney. And your answer to that is 

Mr. Crowley. I won't answer it. 

Mr. Kearney. You won't answer it. 

As the chairman, I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Crowley. "Well, I don't know what you mean. 

Mr. Kearney. What? 

Mr. Crowley. I don't know what you mean. 

Mr. Kearney. I direct you to answer the question that Counsel just 
propounded to you. 

Mr. Crowley. No ; I can't answer that. 

Mr. Kearney. You can't answer or you won't answer it ? 

Mr. Crowley. I won't answer it. 

Mr. Kearney. You won't answer it ? 

Mr. Kunzig. May I state for the record, Mr. Chairman, prior to the 
hearing, I discussed this matter with the witness and he stated he had 
spoken to attorneys and had had the advice of counsel on this matter. 
I advised him, of course, of his right to come here today with counsel 
and have counsel present with him in the hearing to advise him as the 
course of the hearing progressed. 

Mr. Crowley. I explained why I didn't bring a lawyer with me. 
I said I didn't think it was a matter of my citing the fifth amendment 
or not. I am not looking at it in a legal sense. I'm just going by my 
own feelings. That is the way it is. That is the way 

Mr. Kearney. Now, Mr. Crowley, you are an educated man. You 
are a graduate of a university. You have the degree of 

Mr. Crowley. Bachelor of arts. 

Mr. Kearney. Bachelor of arts. 

Have you ever been associated with any members of the West End 
Club of Boston? 

Mr. Crowley. That comes to the same thing. I won't answer that 
either. 

Mr. Kearney. You won't answer it? 

Mr. Crowley. No. 

Mr. Kunzig. May I speak to you for a moment ? 

(At this point Mr. Kunzig conferred with Mr. Kearney.) 

Mr. Kearney. Off the record. 

(Off the record.) 

Mr. Kearney. As I understand your testimony, you just refuse to 
answer any questions concerning your activities with communism? 

Mr. Crowley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Crowley. No. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you have any other questions? 

Mr. Kunzig. I think we better follow it up by asking: Have you 
ever at any time been a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Crowley. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Kearney. I think that is all. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is the witness still under subpena? 

Mr. Kearney. I think we better continue him under subpena, sub- 
ject to further call by the committee. 

Mr. Kunzig. The chairman has continued you under subpena, sub- 
ject to further call by this committee of Congress. 

(Whereupon at 11 : 13 a. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTKATION 
(Education— Part 8) 



MONDAY, APRIL 12, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

executive session x 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 : 30 a. m., in room 225, Old House Office Build- 
ing, the Honorable Donald L. Jackson, acting chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson, 
Gordon H. Scherer (appearance noted in transcript), Clyde Doyle, 
and Francis E. Walter (appearance noted in transcript). 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., and Robert L. 
Kunzig, counsel; Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; Earl Fuoss, in- 
vestigator; Dolores Anderson, reporter. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand to be sworn, please? 

In the testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee, 
do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Deutch. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BERNHARD DEUTCH, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, HENRY W. SAWYER III 

Mr. Jackson. You may sit down, please. 

Let the record show that for the purpose of taking this testimony 
this morning, and pursuant to the rules of this committee, the chair- 
man has appointed a subcommittee, consisting of Messrs. Scherer, 
Doyle, and Jackson, with Jackson as acting chairman. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Will you state your name, please? 

Mr. Deutch. Bernhard Deutch, B-e-r-n-h-a-r-d D-e-u-t-c-h, not 
D-e-u-t-s-c-h. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel, Mr. Deutch? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself? 

Mr. Sawyer. Henry W. Sawyer, the 3d, 117 South 17th Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



1 Released Bv the committee. 

4043 



4044 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Deutch? 

Mr. Deutch. I was born September 29, 1929, in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Deutch. In Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation or employment, 
or how are you now engaged ? 

Mr. Deutch. I am a student at the University of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state for the committee, please, what your 
educational training to this point has been? 

Mr. Deutch. I went to public school 225. Should I mention the 
years, too ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Deutch. I guess I graduated in 1943, so 8 from 43 leaves — I 
started in 1935. 

Mr. Tavenner. We don't need for you to go into that much detail. 
Just tell us briefly what your formal educational training has been. 

Mr. Deutch. Public school. I went to high school in Brooklyn 
Technical High School. I went to Cornell University as an under- 
graduate, and spent 2 years on graduate study at Cornell and got a 
master's degree, and am now at the University of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you enter Cornell University? 

Mr. Deutch. In 1947, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. And when did you complete your master's degree 
at Cornell ? 

Mr. Deutch. In 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Deutch, during hearings at Albany last week, 
the committee heard testimony regarding the existence of a Com- 
munist Party group or cell operating among undergraduates at Cor- 
nell University, among certain graduates at Cornell and in the city 
of Ithaca. 

In connection with that testimony, the committee was informed that 
you were a member of one or more of those groups. If so, I would 
like to ask you certain matters relating to your activity there. 

Were you a member of a group of the Communist Party at Cornell ? 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. I will answer that question, but only under protest. 

I wish to register a challenge as to the jurisdiction of this com- 
mittee under Public Law 601, which is the committee's enabling legis- 
lation. This question, or any similar questions involving my asso- 
ciations, past or future, I am answering, but only under protest as to 
its constitutionality. But, under your jurisdiction as stated, I answer 
yes, I was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee was advised that a witness by the 
name of Ross Richardson has stated that you acted as liaison between 
a Communist Party group on the campus and a member of the faculty 
at Cornell, and that you knew the name of the member of that faculty, 
who was a member of the Communist Party. 

Will you tell us who that member of the faculty was? 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. Sir, I am perfectly willing to tell about my own ac- 
tivities, but do you feel I should trade my moral scruples by inform- 
ing on someone else? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4045 

Mr. Jackson. Lot the Chair say that moral scruples on your part 
do not constitute a legal reason for declining to answer the question, 
and you are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Deutcii. At this time I do think so, sir, because I had certain 
ideas and people I came in contact with had certain ideas. I didn't 
believe in force or violence, or anything like that. 

Mr. Jackson. That is entirely beside the point. You have been 
asked a question and we must insist that you answer the question or 
decline to answer it, and your declination must consist of something 
more than your moral scruples. 

Mr. Deutch. As to the details of that, I think the whole question 
has been magnified more than it should have. 

Mr. Jackson. There is a question pending and the Chair must in- 
sist that you answer the question that has been asked. 

(At this point Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hear- 
ing room.) 

(Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. I can only say that whereas I do not want to be in 
contempt of the committee, I do not believe I can answer questions 
about other people, but only about myself. 

Mr. Jackson. You therefore refuse to answer the question that is 
pending, is that correct? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes, sir, but I could amplify that point. I do not 
mean the point of contempt. I think — I happen to have been a gradu- 
ate student — the only one there, and the organization is completely 
defunct, and the individual you are interested in wasn't even a pro- 
fessor. The magnitude of this is really beyond reason. 

Mr. Jackson. That decision does not rest with you as to whether 
or not the scope of this inquiry — as to whether or not certain individ- 
uals are important now or not. That is the responsibility of we 
Representatives to determine. That determination cannot rest with 
you. It may be very true that the individual to whom you have re- 
ferred is no longer a member of the Communist Party. However, 
that is a supposition on your part — and a supposition which the com- 
mittee cannot accept. 

Again I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Deutch. The committee knows through Ross Richardson's 
statement that this gentleman had quit the Communist Party — who 
you are referring to — and it just happens I was the only contact be- 
cause I was the only graduate student, so it was an inevitable thing. 

Mr. Jackson. So you still decline to answer the question asked by 
counsel ? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes . 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. The young man read a statement in which he referred 
to Public Law 601. He no doubt read point 1 in that law in which 
it states our duty in Congress is to inquire into the extent — that is the 
language — "the extent." Now manifestly our counsel, in asking you 
the name, etc., goes into the extent of the existence of the Communist 
cell, don't you see? All Communist activities. I wanted to empha- 



4046 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

size that to you because you were referring to Public Law 601 and 
relying on thai in your statement which you read. So I can come 
right back to you and ask, or call to your attention the fact that under 
our Congress we have the duty or we are charged with looking into 
(he extent, you see, which the Communist Party has acted. There- 
fore, you see, I am calling your attention to the fact that this question 
goes into the extent, I just wanted to call that to your attention, 
just in case you didn't realize the kind of question that was. 

Mr. Deutch. Yes, I see. The only thing I am saying, sir, my 
challenge is, is it constitutional under Public Law 601 ? 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "Were you aware of the existence of a membership 
in the Communist Party of more than one member of the faculty at 
Cornell University? 

Mr. Deutch. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavkxxer. The committee received testimony from Ross Rich- 
ardson to the effect that you collected certain donations for the benefit 
of the Communist Party, and that on one occasion you delivered to 
him the sum of $100, without designating to him the source of it. 
Will you tell the committee, please, the source of that $100 contribu- 
tion, if it was made? 

Mr. Deutch. No; this contribution was made — I believe I gave you 
the reason why I decline to answer regarding names, and this was 
from a personal friend. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the Chair make a statement at this time. I think 
that, it is only fair to advise the witness — again advise the witness — 
that any scruples he may have due to a desire to protect friends and 
acquaintances, is not a legal reason for declining to answer the ques- 
tions which are now being put to you, and which will be put to you by 
counsel. It is most important that you be fully aware of the possible 
consequences of your declination to answer — and 1 am confident that 
your able counsel has so advised you. 

I want the record to show the succession of questions from the Chair, 
so that there can be no possible misunderstanding at any subsequent 
date, but will show that you were fully advised by the Chair, in the 
most friendly spirit. I assure you that your reasons, however laudable 
they may be, do not constitute a legal reason for declining to answer. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Jackson. I have not issued a directive on the last question. 

The witness is directed to answer the question as to the source of the 
contribution which he received and about which he has just been asked 
a question by the counsel. 

Mr. Deutch. Is this last question about 

Mr. Jackson. The question that was asked bv counsel relative to the 
$100. 

Mr. Deutch. That does not refer to your last statement. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, everything that is being done — my statement 
refers to the entire proceeding, generally. Specifically, at this mo- 
ment I am directing that you answer the question asked by counsel. 

Mr. Deutch. I feel like I can't answer that question. I realize 
there are many problems facing me, and it wasn't an easy decision to 
make. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4047 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair directs again that you answer. 

Mr. Deutch. I am unable to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the contribution of $100 referred to a moment 
ago made by a member of the faculty at Cornell University? 

Mr. Deutch. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that in response to the question that pre- 
ceded this last one that you said you were unable to answer the ques- 
tion. I want to know if you refuse to answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyee. May I ask this question : Was it made by a teaching fel- 
low of any sort at the university, less than the rank of a professor — a 
person that was instructor in some place ? 

Mr. Deutch. To the best of my recollection, I do not believe it 
was made by any member of Cornell University. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you get by my question what I meant ? Was it made 
by someone who was instructor in the classes there ? 
^ Mr. Deutch. I believe I answered that question. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Deutch. I do not believe it was made by anyone at Cornell 
University. 

Mr. Doyle. Of any university? 

Mr. Deutch. To the best of my recollection 

Mr. Jackson. Did you personally know this individual from whom 
you received the money? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you personally at this moment know his name ? 

Mr. Deutch. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ever a member of the Downtown Club 
of the Communist Party in Ithaca ? 

Mr. Deutch. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend meetings of that group? 

Mr. Deutch. No. That is, I don't believe so. The reason I wondei 
is because that organization became defunct so that there was really 
no organization. Downtown was Uptown, and there were so few peo- 
ple that I just want to qualify that statement. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Deutch. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you withdraw from the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Deutch. The conviction of mine was gradual and for many 
years as probably — Mr. Richardson knows what my feelings were — 
but I haven't attended any Communist function at all, nor do I 
intend to for at least the last 8 months. I have had no contact or given 
money to 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the last — I didn't mean to cut you off. 

Mr. Deutch. Or given any money or anything like that and I don't 
regard myself as a person under discipline of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were the last meetings of the Communist 
Party which were attended by you ? 

Mr. Deutch. My memory isn't too good. It was with Mr. Richard- 
son, so his guess is as good as mine. It was either the end of the term 



4048 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

of 1953 or maybe one time in the summer — I don't remember too 
exactly. 

Mr. Scherer. It was within the last year, however; right? 

Mr. Deutch. Just about. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time a member of the central 
committee of the Communist Party at Ithaca ? 

Mr. Deutch. I don't know what that means — -that is, I was told I 
was a sort of a head of a graduate group, but since there was only one 
graduate student — that was me — Mr. Richardson had me go around 
to meetings, but that was again by nature of the fact that I was the 
only person in the group. 

Mr. Jackson. How many people were in attendance at the 
meetings ? 

Mr. Deutch. During what time? 

Mr. Jackson. During the period immediately before you separated 
from the party. 

Mr. Deutch. Very few. Maybe a maximum of 4 or 5, that I can 
recall. 

Mr. Jackson. "Where were these meetings held ? 

Mr. Deutch. I believe this is the type of question I can't answer. 

Mr. Jackson. You mean this is the type of question you won't 
answer; is that correct? 

Mr. Deutch. Well, whichever way you want to say it ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask you this question. You knew where the 
meetings were held ? 

Mr. Deutch. I don't believe I know exactly where they were. This 
is because — since Mr. Richardson drove me there. 

[Witness laughs.] 

Mr. Scherer. Of course this is not a funny matter. 

Mr. Deutch. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you think it was a private residence ? 

Mr. Deutch. I don't think it would be considered a private resi- 
dence. 

Mr. Doyle. At an apartment house or flat? 

Mr. Deutch. Private house, I would say. 

Mr. Scherer. You know the names of the owners of the home or 
apartment where these meetings were held ? 

Mr. Deutch. I probably did. At this moment I can't recall. I 
didn't know them by their last names. 

Mr. Scherer. What were their first names? 

Mr. Deutch. I don't believe I can say. It is very 

Mr. Scherer. When you say you don't believe you can say, are you 
referring to your answer for the reason heretofore advanced ? 

Mr. Deutch. I do refuse to answer, but on this particular question 
I don't believe I remember. Just for the record, I will say, even if 
urged and if I knew, I would say the same thing. 

Mr. Scherer. You are refusing to answer then, even if you knew 
the names of the people? 

Mr. Deutch. That's right. 

Mr. Doyle. Was this place at the last meeting — this private home — 
the same place at which you attended other meetings with Mr. 
Richardson? 

Mr. Deutch. The last meeting may have been with Mr. Richardson. 

Mr. Doyle. Just you and he alone ? 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4049 

Mr. Deutch. Possibly. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, now think — was there some other person there 
besides you and Mr. Richardson ? 

Mr. Deutch. I believe it was Mr. Richardson, and if he is positive 
about this other point, it would be this other meeting. 

Mr. Doyle. May I say that my point is — had you gone to the same 
meetings before? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes ; with Mr. Richardson. 

Mr. Doyle. How many times — about? 

Mr. Deutch. Maybe 4 or 5 times. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVere you acquainted with Homer Owen ? 

Mr. Deutch. I don't think I should discuss any people from now 
on because some people I am acquainted with and some I am not, so I 
don't think I want to discuss the people's names. 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. My refusal about this or any other names does not 
mean anything incriminating about the gentleman. 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest the witness be directed to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer. 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. I will have to refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Jackson. No, you don't have to. You are under no compulsion. 
Do you decline to answer the question ? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes, I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which you became a Communist Party member ? 

Mr. Deutch. Well, this was many years ago. Not that I became a 
Communist Party member, but from the age of 13 or 14 I had read 
many books on Marxism and at that time was very much impressed 
with trying to solve certain of the injustices we have nowadays. I 
believe in high school I became, or joined the A. Y. D. [American 
Youth for Democracy] for a period of time. I was very much influ- 
enced at this time by the ideas in 

Mr. Tavenner. What high school was this ? 

Mr. Deutch. I wasn't in a high school branch. There wasn't any 
high school branch. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you joined while at high school. What 
high school ? 

Mr. Deutch. The Brooklyn Technical High School. 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. The A. Y. D. wasn't connected with a high school. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Deutch, it seems to me it is more important that 
you answer these questions than most people who have been before this 
committee, because you were in the party during the last few years. 
We have abundant evidence before this committee that anybody who 
remained in the party up to a year ago was a potential agent of the 
Kremlin — there is no question about it. There is some excuse for 
those who were in the party in the late thirties or forties, but not after 
1951 or 1952. Therefore it is more important that you answer these 
questions than most people. 

Mr. Deutch. I stated previously that I am not a member of the 
Communist Party now. 

Mr. Scherer. But you have information concerning the activities 
of the Communist Party within the last year. 



4050 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 

(At (his point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. When 1 was in the Communist Part}' about all that 
happened were bull sessions on Marxism, and some activities like giv- 
ing Out a leaflet or two. The people I met didn't advocate the over- 
throwing of the Government by force and violence, and if they had, I 
wouldn't have allowed it. 

Mr. Jackson. How do you know whether or not the people with 
whom you associated did not advocate the overthrow of the Govern- 
ment by force and violence? 

Mr. Deutch. This is in my experience. 

Mr. Jackson. That is to say, you were never approached about it r 
nevertheless 

Mr. Deutch. I was never approached about any criminal act, nor 
were any theories they — — 

Mr. Scherer. But you do know the ultimate objectives of the people 
who were perhaps the leadership in the party ? 

Mr. Deutch. I am describing the people I knew. 

Mr. Scherer. But you haven't told us the people you knew. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, do you have any further inquiry of this 
witness ? I can see no useful purpose in continuing this questioning. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, I have a few. You stated, Mr. Deutch, that 
while at high school you became a member of the AYD. For the rec- 
ord, what organization do you refer to when you say that? 

Mr. Deutch. That was the American Youth for Democracy. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were proceeding to tell us the circumstances 
under which you became a member of the Communist Party. Will 
you proceed on that? 

Mr. Deutch. Well, at that time I had certain views or ideas, but 
I didn't act on these views. At that time I believed in marxism. 
To a great extent it is only fair to say I am a Marxist today — I don't 
want to deny that. I felt if I had ideas I shouldn't be half pregnant, 
about them, so when I came to college I was approached and joined. 

Mr. Tavenner. By whom were you approached ? 

Mr. Deutch. I was approached by a student. I don't wish to give 
his name. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to give the name of the person 
by whom he was approached. 

Mr. Deutch. I decline to give the name. 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have anything further, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, a bit more. 

Were you referred to Cornell University, Mr. Deutch ? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Is the witness here as a result of a subpena ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; the witness was subpenaed to appear at Albany 
on Friday of last week, which was April 9. The counsel for the wit- 
ness called me on the 8th and asked that, as a matter of convenience 
to him, the appearance of his witness be postponed for a few days 
because of the shortness of time for his appearance after the service 
of the subpena. This was agreed to by the subcommittee and counsel 
was directed to have his client here this morning. That is correct, 
isn't it? 

Mr. Deutch. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 4051 

(At this point Representative Francis E. Walter entered the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer ? 
Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 
Mr. Jacksox. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyee. I notice you said you became interested in marxism 
when you were about 13 years old. You used this language- 
It .seemed my conviction of mind was I believed it for many years. My con- 
viction of mind was, I believe, for many years. 

You are only 25 years old now. You have been a member of the Com- 
munist Party in the last year? 

Mr. Deutch. I am 24 years old. 

Mr. Doyle. 24 years. Why did you stay in the Communist Party 
for so long ? Up to within the year ? Why didn't you get out before ? 

Mr. Deutch. I suppose that is of my own inertia. I did nothing 
for long time. I was trying to act upon my conviction and yet when 
I tried to I was somewhat rebuffed and it was extreme inertia actually. 

Mr. Doyle. By other people ? 

Mr. Deutch. There were certain disagreements. I just felt I 
wasn't doing very much. 

Mr. Doyle. You said there was some activity like giving out leaflets. 
What leaflets did you give out, up to a year ago? What leaflets? 
Where did you get the leaflets? What did the leaflets advocate? 

Mr. Deutch. Well, I think they discussed problems in a shoe fac- 
tory in upstate New York. 

Mr. Doyle. In connection with a strike? 

Mr. Deutch. Correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Who published the leaflets? 

Mr. Deutch. I believe the Communist Party published them. 

Mr. Doyle. What Communist Party? Where did you get the 
leaflets? From the national headquarters? 

Mr. Deutch. I don't believe so. It was a local branch. 

Mr. Doyle. Where was the office of the local branch from which 
you got these leaflets ? 

Mr. Deutch. I didn't know where it was. I was just asked to 
distribute them. 

Mr. Doyle. What \ 

Mr. Deutch. I was asked to distribute them. 

Mr. Doyle. Who asked you to? 

Mr. Deutch. Those people I was connected with. I don't remem- 
ber in detail. 

Mr. Doyle. How many of these people who were connected with 
you do you now refer to ? About how many ? 

Mr. Deutch. Those people who were members of the student 
branch at Cornell. 

Mr. Doyle. About how many people was that? 

Mr. Deutch. You mean over the course of years? 

(At this point Mr. Deutch conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 

Mr. Deutch. How many were giving out leaflets ? Oh, 5 to 10. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Walter? 

Mr. Walter. No, no questions. 



4052 COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION (EDUCATION) 






Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 15 a. m., Monday, April 12, the executive hear- 
ing adjourned, subject to a call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Amdur, Isadore 4023 

Angelilli 4039 

Arguimbau, Lawrence Baker 4013-4036 (testimony) 

Behringer, William 4039 

Bok, Bart Jan 4035 

Browder, Earl 4032, 4033 

Crowley, Francis Xavier Thomas 4037-4041 (testimony) 

Dentch, Bernhard 4043-4052 (testimony) 

Eisenhower, General 4029, 4032 

Frankel, Osmand K 4013-4036 

Frankfeld, Philip 4019 

Hicks, Granville 4024 

Levinson, Norman 4023 

Lie, Trygve 4029 

Martin, William Ted 4023 

Owen, Homer 4049 

Owen, Robert— 4029 

Richardson, Ross 4045-4049 

Roosevelt, President 4033 

Sawyer, Henry W. Ill 4043-4052 

Stevenson, Adlai 4032 

Wallace, Henry A 4028 

Willkie, Wendell 4028 

Organizations 

American Youth for Democracy 4031,4032,4034,4049,4050 

Bell Laboratories 4014 

Brooklyn Technical High School 4044, 4049 

Camp Unity 4039 

Columbia College 4038 

Communist Party 4014-4017,4019, 4020, 4022-4026. 402S-4030, 

4032-4034, 4040, 4044-4051 

Communist Political Association 4022, 4023 

( 'onsumers' Union 4035 

Cornell University 4044, 4046, 4047, 4050 

Downtown Club of the Communist Party, Ithaca 4047 

General Radio Co 4014 

Harvard College 4014, 4019, 4022, 4024, 4030, 4032 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4014, 4019, 4023, 

4025, 4026, 4031, 4032 

National Council of Arts, Sciences and Professions 4034 

Parent-Teachers Association 4018 

Progressive Party 4024 

University of Michigan 4038, 4039 

University of Pennsylvania 4044 

University of Washington 4025, 4034 

West End Club of the Communist Party (Boston) 4039-4041 

Young Communist League 4031,4034 

Publications 

Boston Globe 4029 

Daily Worker 4025, 4026, 4034 

New York Times 4020 

4053 

o