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Full text of "Communist outlets for the distribution of Soviet propaganda in the United States : hearings before the Committee on Un-American activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-seventh Congress, second session, May 9, 10, and 17 and July 12, 1962, Index in part 2"

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COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




2 74- 
2 72 --Z. 
US Doc 2.791 



Committee on Un-American Activities 
House 
87th Congress 

Table of Contents 

1. Testimony By and Concerning Paul Corbin "^12:*/ 

2, The Communist Party's Cold War Against 
Congressional Investigation of Subversion ^^^••' 



5. Communist and Trotskyist Activity Within 
the Greater Los Angeles Chapter of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee 



'>ystC 



^4— 5. Communist Outlets for the Distribution of ^i^Tj. 
Soviet Propaganda in the United States. 
pt.1-2 

6. Commimist Youth Activities '%\%h 

7-8. U.S. Commimist Party Assistance to Foreign <:$;'? 



Communist Governments, pt.1-2 /^,^ 



9. Commimist Activities in the Peace Movement ^f^<* 



COMMUNIST OUTLETS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF 
SOVIET PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART 2 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



MAY 17 AND JULY U, 1962 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee ou Un-American Activities 




UniTf^ STATED (WVfeKSWL'P. 

DEQ 17 iyb>. 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
90450 WASHINGTON : 1962 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsvlvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

CLYDE DOYLE, California AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Micliisan 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virsinia HENRY C. SCIIADEBERG, Wisconsin 

Feancis J. McNamara, Director 

Fraxk S. Tavexner, Jr., General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

n 



CONTENTS 



PART 2 

May 17, 1962: Testimony of— Page 

Allan Markoff 1700 

Serge P. Ushakoflf 1713 

Afternoon session: 

Serge P. Ushakoff (resumed) 1715 

Margaret Cowl 1735 

Philip Frankfeld 1742 

July 11, 1962: Testimony of— 

Helen Allison Winter 1752 

Carl Haessler 1761 

Gregory Boris Lotsman 1766 

Index i 



PART 1 

Synopsis 1587 

May 9, 1962: Testimony of— 

Myron Emanuel Sharpe 1599 

Afternoon session: 

Myron Emanuel Sharpe (resumed) 1622 

May 10, 1962: Testimony of— 

Maude Query Kelsey 1639 

May 17, 1962: Testimony of— 

Myron Emanuel Sharpe (resumed) 1654 

Afternoon session: 

Myron Emanuel Sharpe (resumed) 1663 

Joseph Felshin 1664 

July 12, 1962: Testimony of— 

LeRoy Wolins 1673 

David Simon Canter 1689 

(Index appears in Part 2) 

NoTE.^ — Testimony of witnesses does not follow in the order of their appearances. 
It is printed according to subject matter. 

Part 1 contains the testimony of publishers of Communist propaganda and of 
Mrs. Maude Query Kelsey, a librarian and cooperative witness, who had received 
unsolicited Communist propaganda booklets from the Soviet Embassy. 

Part 2 contains the testimony of individuals engaged in the distribution of 
Communist propaganda. 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946]; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q)(l) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 87TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 8, January 3, 1961 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWEBS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk ot the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that purpose, 
shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the agencies 
in the executive branch of the Government. 



COMMUNIST OUTLETS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF 
SOVIET PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART 2 



THURSDAY, MAY 17, 1962 

United States House op Representatives, 

Subcommittee op the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washiiigton, D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 10:35 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Old House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. William M. Tuck, presiding. 

Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. 
Johansen, of Michigan. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives William M. Tuck 
and August E. Johansen. 

Committee members also present: Representatives Donald C. 
Bruce, of Indiana, and Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., director; Alfred 
M. Nittle, counsel; John C. Walsh, cocounsel, and Donald T. Appell, 
investigator. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will come to order. 

I have a statement here I have prepared and which I will now read. 

The hearing this morning is a continuation of the hearings of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities held on May 9 and 10, 1962. 

The subcommittee authorized to conduct these hearings consists of 
Representatives William M. Tuck, August E. Johansen, and Edwin 
E. Willis, as chairman. 

Chairman Willis is not able to be present this morning, and I am 
acting in his stead, and a quorum is present in the persons of Congress- 
man Johansen and myself. 

Because some of the witnesses called before the Committee on Un- 
American Activities today were not present on May 9, I desire for 
their information to read the resolution which sets forth the subject 
and legislative purposes of these hearings : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C, or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may designate, and at such time or times as the 
Chairman may determine, relating to the publishing, printing and distribution of 
Communist propaganda material that is instigated from foreign countries or is of 
a domestic origin, the legislative purposes of which are: 

1699 



1700 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

1. To strengthen the provisions of Section 10 of the Internal Security Act of 
1950 so as to broaden the application of such section to cover persons, firms, asso- 
ciations and corporations engaged in the printing, pubhshing and dissemination 
of Soviet propaganda; 

2. To assist Congress, through the Committee's legislative oversight duties, 
in appraising the administration of laws relating to the introduction and dis- 
semination of Communist propaganda within the United States; and 

3. To consider and act upon clauses (c) and (d) of Section 312 of Title 3, H.R. 
6, introduced by Representative Walter on January 3, 1961, and referred to this 
Committee as part of H.R. 6, said clauses constituting proposed amendments of 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the action of the Chairman in issuing 
subpoenas for the appearance of Myron Sharpe, in his individual capacity, and 
as president of Crosscurrents Press, Inc., be, and the same is hereby ratified and 
approved. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the Committee, or any subcommittee 
thereof, be authorized to investigate and hear any other matter within the juris- 
diction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee thereof, appointed to 
conduct these hearings, may designate. 

Are you ready to proceed, Counsel? * 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Markoff. 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Markoff, would you stand and raise your right 
hand? Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
3^ou God? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness may be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF ALLAN MARKOFF, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISIDORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Walsh. Will jou state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Markoff? 

Mr. Markoff. Allan Markoff. 

Mr. Walsh. And where do j'^ou live? 

Mr. Markoff. 69 Fifth Avenue. 

Air. Walsh. And I notice that you are represented by counsel. 
Would counsel please identify himself? 

Mr. Needleman. Isidore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, New York 
6, N.Y. 

Mr. Walsh. Now it is the committee's understanding, Mr. Markoff, 
that you were the president and major stockholder of Four Continent 
Book Corporation from 1948 to January of 1960. Is that correct? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And the committee further imderstands that, when you 
became president of Four Continent Book Corporation, you 
purchased 10 shares of its stock from a Cyril Lambkin, L-a-m-b-k-i-n, 
for $520 a share, or a total of $5,200. Is that correct? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. And this transaction, the purchase of stock by you 
in Four Continent Book Corporation, was after a man by the name 
of Cyril Lambkin was identified before this committee as being a 
member of the Communist Party. Does that refresh your recollection? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

1 The testimony of the first witness appearing on May 17, Myron Emanuel Sharpe, Is printed in Part 1, 
pp. 1654-1663. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1701 

Mr. Markoff. No such recollection, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. You have no recollection one way or the other about 
that? 

Mr, Markoff. No such recollection. 

Mr. Walsh. Was it because of the identity of Cyril Lambkin, before 
this committee, that made it necessary that he, Lambkin, be replaced 
as president of Four Continent Corporation? 

Mr. Needleman. Now, Mr. Chairman, I submit that that c^uestion 
has in it two parts. I would like to have it broken up. Tl}ere is an 
assumption there that the Communist Party had something to do 
with this, and that is obviously playing for the headlines. Now would 
you break it up into single ciuestions? And be will answer it. 

Mr. Tuck. Counsel knows that he is not to addi-ess the committee, 
but he is free to advise his client. 

Mr. Needleman. I understand that, Mr. Chahman, but when a 
question is asked that is difficult to answer and has two parts to it, one 
is an assumption that the witness would have to argue. 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know C^tU Lambkin when he was president 
of Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. How long had 3^ou known him? 

Mr. Markoff. I have known Cjrril Lambkin for many years 
before. 

Mr. Walsh. How long is "many"? 

Mr. Markoff. I could not tell you exactly. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, was it over 5, 10? 

Mr. Markoff. Probably over 5 years. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. You did know him as president of Four Continent 
Book Corporation, however? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Now prior to the time that you purchased these 10 
shares for $5,200, did j^ou have a discussion with Mr. Lambkin with 
reference to the purchase of these shares? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you detail to the committee your conversation 
with Mr. Lambkin when you negotiated for the purchase of these 10 
shares which he owned? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Well, you are asldng me a question that goes back 
13 years. As to the nature of conversation, I cannot recall con- 
versation. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I do not expect you to recall specifically each 
and every word, but I believe that you do know what the substance 
of that conversation was. It was with reference to the purchase of 
this stock. Is that correct? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, in short, Mr. Lambkin asked me if I was in- 
terested in purchasing liis interest in Four Continent Book Corpo- 
ration, and I said "Yes." 

90450— 62— pt. 2 2 



1702 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Did he explain to you why he wanted to sell his shares 
of stock in Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. He just specifically asked you, were you interested in 
purchasing his stock? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. How many shares did he have? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. At that time, I believe Mr. Lambkin had 25 shares, 
all the shares in the corporation. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, at the time that you purchased the 10 shares, 
were 7 more shares being held by a firm of attorneys in escrow until 
such time as you could raise the money, because the price was $520 
per share? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. Wlio owned the other eight shares of this corporation? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Mr. Budin. 

Mr. Walsh. Who? 

Mr. Markoff. Budin, or Mr. Beresky, also known as Budin. 

Mr. Walsh. How do you spell Budin? 

Mr. Markoff. I believe it is B-u-d-i-n. 

Mr. Walsh. And what is his first name? 

Mr. Markoff. Shaya, S-h-a-y-a. 

Mr. Walsh. Was he associated with the corporation in any capacity 
at the time that he owned the other 8 shares? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. In what capacity? 

Mr. Markoff. Vice president. 

Mr. Walsh. Now, did you subsequent!}' purchase these 7 shares 
which were held by this group of attorneys in escrow until sucli 
time as you could financially take over these shares? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And when did you take over these additional shares? 

Mr. Markoff. 1 have no exact recollection of the time. 

Mr. Walsh. Was that before you became president of this 
corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. After. Afterwards. 

Mr. Walsh. How long afterwards? 

Mr. Markoff. No exact recollection, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. As president of this corporation for a period of 10 
years, did you receive a salary? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And did you also share in the profits of Four Continent 
Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. Well, there weren't any profits tnado that T would 
have shared. 

Mr. Walsh. No profits. Well, what salary did you receive^'.' 

Mr. Markoff. I beheve it was $125 per week. 

Mr. Walsh. Is that what you received throughout the 1 1 vears, 
$125 per week? 

Mr. Markoff. At that time. At one time it was raised to $137, 
and reduced again to $125. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1703 

Mr. Walsh. The purchase of the 17 shares amounted to about 
$8,800, is that correct? 

Mr. Markoff. Something like that. 

Mr. Walsh. When you first agreed to purchase the 10 shares, 
would you tell the committee where you received that money, and 
from whom? 

First question, will you tell the committee whether or not you had 
the $5,200 by which you purchased these 10 shares from Mr. Lambkin? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And did you subsequently receive the rest of the 
amount from any person, or did you obtain it from your salary when 
you were working for Four C^ontinent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. M}^ own. 

Mr. Walsh. Did anybody — an individual, a corporation, or 
any companies — share in the profits of Four Continent Book Cor- 
poration? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. In the first place, there weren't any profits. In 
the second place, nobody was able to share in the profits there were, 
because the only people who would be able to share in the profits 
would be the stockholders. 

Mr. Walsh. And did you ever receive any dividends from Four 
Continent Book Corporation because of the fact that you were the 
owner of 17 shares? 

Mr. Markoff. Since there were no profits, I received no dividends. 

Mr. Walsh. When you were president of this corporation, did you 
have complete control; that is, the management of the corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. I was general manager of the corporation. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you set up the policy of the corporation, what it 
would do, and what it woukl continue to do? 

(Witness conferred mth comisel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, in a sense. It was not a large business, and 
the question of policy didn't arise in very large terms. It was just a 
matter of small business, but there were necessary requirements of a 
small business to operate. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, did you confer with anybody and ask advice 
with reference to the policy of the corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. I had another stockholder with whom I had to 
consult. 

Mr. Walsh. And did you consult with him on many occasions? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, su-. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you consult with Mr. Lambkin? 

Mr. Markoff. Mr. Lambkin was not in the corporation any more. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I mean, did you ever go to him for advice? 

Mr. Markoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Did anybody offer advice to you from any outside 
source? 

Mr. Markoff. I don't recollect seeking any advice, except of our 
attorney. 

Mr. Johansen. Well, Mr. Chau^man, I am not sure that that answer 
is responsive to the question. The question was not whether you 
sought such outside advice, but whether you received it, whether it 
was solicited or unsolicited. 
[_ Mr. Markoff. I can answer "No" to that. 



1704 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Now, subsequently, a man by the name of Serge 
Pavlovich Ushakoff became president of Four Continent Book 
Corporation, in January of 1960. Is that correct? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Yes ; that is correct. 

Air. Walsh. And how did he become president? Will you tell 
the committee? That was in January of 1960, a couple of years 
ago. I presume your recollection is clearer with reference to that 
conversation. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

(At this point Mr. Schadeberg left the hearing room.) 

Mr. AIarkoff. Well, so far as I can construe it, since Air. Usha- 
koff 

Mr, Walsh. I would not like you to construe it, I would like to 
get 

Air. Needleman. Why don't you wait for his answer, and then you 
will see if you need any additional question? 

Air. AIarkoff. Let me explain that I have not dealt personally 
with Mr. Ushakoff. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, there was an intermediary? 

Mr. AIarkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And who was that? 

Air. AIarkoff. A person by the name of Air. Aloskowitz. 

Air. Walsh. Air. Aloskowitz. What is his first name? 

Mr. Markoff. I don't recollect his first name. 

Air. Walsh. Is he from New York City? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. What is his profession, if any? 

Mr. Markoff. So far as I understand, he is an accountant. 

Mr. Walsh. An accountant? 

Air. Markoff. Yes. 

Air. Walsh. And where is his office? 

Mr. Markoff. I have no idea. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, did he just come in to you and ask you whether 
or not you would sell your 17 shares of stock? 

Mr. Markoff. He didn't come in personally. He acted through 
his attorney. 

Mr. Walsh. And who was his attorney? 

Mr. Markoff. I don't recall. 

Mr. Walsh. You do not recall the man that acted for Mr. Ushakoff 
prior to the time he purchased your stock? 

Mr. AIarkoff. Well, I told you the name of the man. 

Mr. Walsh. Moskowitz, yes, but you never saw Mr. Moskowitz, 
you said. 

Air. Markoff. Only at the time of the sale. 

Mr. Walsh. And how much did you sell your 17 shares of stock for? 

Air. Markoff. Ten thousand dollars. 

Mr. Walsh. Ten thousand dollars. And was the stock certificate 
made in the name of Serge Ushakoff, or was it made in the name of 
Mr. Moskowitz? 

Mr. AIarkoff. I believe it was made in the name of Moskowitz. 

Mr. Walsh. Moskowitz? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1705 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, so far as you loiow, you did not know 
who was going to be the president? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. And you first learned that in January of 1960? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. And you cannot tell the committee any more definite 
information with reference to the identity of Mr. Mosko^^'itz? 

Mr. Markoff. No further than his name. 

Mr. Walsh. And you do not remember the name of his attorney? 

Mr. Markoff. I don't recall. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, when either Mr. Moskowitz or the attorney 
approached you, will you tell the committee the conversation that 
you had with him ^vith reference to the purchase of your 17 shares? 

Mr. Markoff. It was a telephone conversation, merely asking 
what I would sell, whether I would sell. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, had you contemplated selling prior to the time 
of the offer? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Had you told individuals around that you intended 
to sell your 17 shares in Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes; I told some individuals of the desire to sell. 

(At this point Mr. Schadeberg returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr, Walsh. Yes. Did you set a price on the stock at that time? 

Mr. Markoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. What was the conversation with reference to the 
attorney, or the telephone conversation with Mr. Moskowitz when he 
offered to buy j'our shares in Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. I can't recall the conversations. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, did you know Mr. Ushakoff prior to the time 
that he became president? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. How did you know him? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Mr. Ushakoff was employed by our company. 

Mr. Walsh. In what capacity? 

Mr. Markoff. Capacity of treating of orders. 

Mr. Walsh. Would that be in the classification of an order clerk? 

Mr. Markoff. W^ell, we didn't set any title to it, but we could set 
that title to it, if 3^ou like. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, what were his duties? 

Mr. Markoff. His duties were to fill mail orders. 

Mr. Walsh. Prior to the time he became president, did you ever 
confer with him with reference to the policy of the corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Do 3^ou know what his salary was when he was the 
order clerk? 

Mr. Markoff. Somewheres around $75 a week. 

Mr. Walsh. You said $75 was his salary? 

Mr. Markoff. Somewheres around that. I don't recall it exact. 

Mr. Walsh. Now do you recall the date of the sale of the 17 shares 
of stock of Four Continent Book Corporation to a Mr. Moskowitz? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I believe it was around the 5th of January 1960. 



1706 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGAiSTDA 

Mr. Walsh. Well, was there a contract or an option signed between 
voii and Mr. Moskowitz that vou would sell these shares of stock for 
$10,000? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. It was a completed sale at the tune of the closing of 
the deal. 

Mr. Walsh. How long had the negotiations been going on between 
you and Mr. Moskowitz before the sale w^as actually consummated? 

Mr. Markoff. I would say about a week. 

Mr. Walsh. Just 1 week. 

Mr. Markoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And j^ou offered to sell it for $10,000, and Moskowitz 
offered to buy it for' $10,000? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. And the sale or the negotiations took approximately 
1 week? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. Now when Mr. Ushakoff was elected president, were 
you still a member of the board of directors? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. When did you cease being a member of the board and 
president of the corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. On the date of the sale of the stock. 

Mr. Walsh. Would it refresh your recollection if I were to tell 
you that, in a certificate filed with the Department of Justice, the 
date that Mr. Ushakoff became president was January the 7th of 
1960? 

Mr. Markoff. It is possible. 

Mr. Walsh. Does that refresh your recollection? 

Mr. Markoff. I have no information — I have no recollection of 
information with regard to the time Mr. Ushakoff became president. 

Mr. Walsh. And now after you stepped down as president and 
sold your stock in Four Continent Book Corporation, what did you 
do then? 

Mr. Markoff. I took a vacation. 

Mr. Walsh. What is that? 

Mr. Markoff. I took a vacation. 

Mr. Walsh. And subsequently, did you start to work again? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Needleman. May we have tiie question again? He lost track 
of the question. 

Mr. Walsh. Will the reporter be kind enough to read the question? 

(The reporter read the question.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer tliat question on the ground of 
tlie fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. On the ground that it would tend to incriminate you 
if you answered to that question? 

Mr. Markoff. Well, is that what the fifth amendment provides 
for? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I know the ground covered by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. What is that? 

Mr. Markoff. 1 know the ground covered by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, are you currently registered under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1707 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. I show you a photostatic copy of a short-form regis- 
tration statement, registration No. 1511, and it was filed on 
January 23, 1962. I ask you to look at that and tell me whether 
or not tliat refreshes your recollection tliat you did so file tliat regis- 
tration certificate? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the same ground, 
the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Air. W^ALSH. Would you look and tell me whether or not that is 
your signature, and was it sworn to before a notary public on the 
date specified? 

Mr. Markoff. Decline to answer this question, too, on the same 
ground. 

Mr. Walsh. And the same ground is what? 

Mr. Markoff. The fiftli amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. Now, I specifically call your attention to Section No. 5 
on page 2, which states for you to answer, "All clubs, societies, com- 
mittees, and other nonbusiness organizations in the United States or 
elsewhere * * * of which you have been a member, director, officer, 
or employee during the past 2 years." And you have listed here, 
"The Aletropolitan Fraternal Club, member, approximately 5 years." 

What is the Metropolitan Fraternal Club, of 74 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City"^ 

(W^itness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. f decline to answer that on the same ground, the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. I note that you have also listed: "Fair Flay for CJuba 
Committee, 799 Broadway, NYC, member, approximately 7 months." 

Is that correct? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer that question on the same 
ground, fifth amendment. 

Mr. W^alsh. On the ground tlrat it would incriminate you if you 
so answered? 

Mr. Markoff. Wliatever ground the fifth amendment cov(>rs. I 
know the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. W^ell, it is a personal privilege that you are accorded 
by the Constitution of the United States, and you decline to answer 
on that portion of the fifth amendment, which states that you need 
not be a witness against yourself, and you consider that would in- 
criminate you in some criminal proceeding later on? 

Mr. Markoff. That and wliatever other ground for the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. W^alsh. Wliat did you do as a member of the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Walsh. Let me ask you this: Other than the two that I have 
just referred to, are there any more clubs or societies or committees 
that you were a member of, and that you did not list? 

Mr. Needleman. Mr. Chairman, is that question within the com- 
petency of this committee to investigate? 

Mr. Tuck. Tlie attorney for the witness is instructed not to violate 
the rules established for the conduct of the proceedings of this 
committee. 



1708 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Needleman. I cannot properly advise my client unless I have 
a ruling from the Chair. I am entitled to a ruling from the Chair so 
that I can give him proper legal advice. 

Mr. Tuck. What is the question? 

Mr. Needleman. The stenographer can read it. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, may I first make an observation, that in the 
event that the counsel deems the question such as he has just stated 
relevant, I think that the question should be propounded to the 
witness, and then the witness should ask the Chair for a direction, 
rather than the counsel, because he has read the rules and regulations 
of this committee on many occasions. 

Mr. Tuck. I so instruct him. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Walsh. The question was whether or not, other than the 
two clubs and associations which you have listed, there are any other 
clubs which you did not list. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer that question on the ground 
that it is not within the competency of this committee to investigate 
my personal affairs. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, I ask the Chair to direct and order 
the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Tuck. The Chair orders and directs the witness to answer the 
question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. And I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. Now Mr. Witness, according to your registration 
statement, which I have marked as Markoff Exhibit No. 1, and will 
have filed for reference with the committee, you state that you were 
an agent of, and I will spell this, R-a-z-n-o-i-z-n-o-s, of Sofia, Bulgaria. 
Is that correct? That you are the registered agent of Raznoiznos? 

Mr. Markoff. You pronounce it right. 

Mr. Walsh. Thank you. 

Mr. Markoff. What is the exact question? I didn't get it. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, according to this registration, which we have 
marked Markoff Exhibit No. 1, that is what it states, that you are 
the registered agent of Raznoiznos. 

Mr. Markoff. Are you asking me a question or making a statement? 

Mr. Walsh. I am asking j^ou if that is a fact. 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer that on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Air. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, let the record show that the witness 
is apparently sufficiently familiar with this organization that he knows 
the proper pronunciation of it by his own statement. 

Mr. Needleman. Let the record also show that the witness speaks 
Russian, so he would know that. 

Mr. Tuck. You are out of order. 

Air. Walsh. What would be the literal translation into English of 
Raznoiznos? 

Mr. AIarkoff. Well, that is a Bulgarian name, and I do not have 
the exact translation of that, but I can help you in defining it as an 
organization for import and export of literature. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1709 

Mr. Walsh. And you were the agent of it? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decUne to answer that on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, in other words, with the explanation that you 
gave of the literal Euglish translation of that name R-a-z-n-o-i-z-n-o-s, 
is that what it means the importation and exportation of books and 
pamphlets and literature? 

Mr. Markoff. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. Now, prior to the time that you became the agent of 
this concern in Sofia, Bulgaria, with whom did you confer with refer- 
ence to becoming the American agent for it and filing under the Reg- 
istration Act, the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer the question on the same 
ground, tbe fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. The document referred to by counsel is ordered to be 
filed as an exhibit in this case. 

(Document marked "Markoft* Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Now in this registration statement, Markoff Exhibit 
No. 1, you give us the name and address of the registrant Allan Mark- 
oft", director, FAM, F-A-M, Book and Translation Service, 69 Fifth 
Avenue, New York 3, New York, and your full name is Allan Markoff. 
Is that correct? Is that the name under which you do business? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, would you tell the committee what periodicals 
or books you import and have purchased from Raznoiznos in Bulgaria? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the same 
ground. 

Mr. Walsh. Isn't it a fact that you do not import anything from 
Bulgaria, but that you purchase American books for Bulgaria? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the same 
ground. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you import books or pamphlets or transcripts or 
documents in foreign languages? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the same 
ground. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, do you personally make the language trans- 
lations? 

Mr. Markoff. I declme to answer this question on the same 
grounds. 

Air. Walsh. Have you a staff of the FAM Book and Translation 
Service that does make translations? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you have any contracts with any individual 
for the purpose of doing translations? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the same 
ground. 

Mr. Walsh. Are you a member of the Communist Party at the 
present time? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

90450— 62— pt. 2 3 



1710 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Have you ever contributed money to the support of the 
Communist Party in the United States? Through donations or 
otherwise? 

Mr. AIarkoff. I decline to answer that question on the fifth 
amendment ground. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know a man by the name of Philip Frankfeld? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And did he work for you? 

Mr. Markoff. For the corporation; yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. Did you hire him? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And when did you hire him? 

Mr. Markoff. I have no recoUection of that. 

Mr. Walsh. Was it 1956 or 1957? 

Mr. Markoff. It is possible. I have no recollection. 

Mr. Walsh. How long did he work for you? 

Mr. Markoff. Since — from the time he was hired until I left the 
corporation. 

Mr. Walsh. From the time he was what? 

Mr. Markoff. From the time he was taken on — from the time he 
was hired, until the time I left, he remained working there. 

j\lr. Walsh. Did he personally intercede with you for a job with 
the Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. I have no exact recollection of that happening. I 
believe so ; yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, did anybody speak on his behalf that you gave 
him a job with the Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Markoff. I do not remember. I do not remember anybody 
interceding; no. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ever know Frankfeld before you hired him? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know his background when he was hired, 
that he had been convicted of a violation of the Smith Act 

Mr. Markoff. In an investigation 

Mr. Walsh. — which advocates the overthrow of the Government 
by force and violence? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. There are two parts to that question. Would 
you please break up the question? 

Mr. Walsh. I will withdraw the question. 

Had you known Philip Frankfeld prior to the time that you hired 
liim to work for the Four Continent Book ( 'orporation? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. When he applied for a job with yon, did yon investi- 
gate his background? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Did anybody ask you to hire Philip Frankfeld? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Had you learned, prior to the time that you hired him, 
that he had been convicted and served time for violating the Smith 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1711 

Act, which advocates the overthrow of the Government by force and 
violence? 

Mr. Needleman. The Smith Act? The Smith Act does not 
advocate that. 

Mr, Walsh. It is a crime to advocate the overthrow of the Gov- 
ernment by force and violence. 

Did you know that? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. No, the question was whether I knew? 

Mr. Walsh. Prior to the time that you hired him? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. That he had been convicted of a crime of advocating 
the overthrow of the Government by force and violence. That is 
my question? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir, I did not know. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ever subsequently learn it, after he was 
employed by you? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. When did you learn it? 

Mr. Markoff. After he was employed. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you do anything about it at that time when you 
learned that he had been convicted of that crime? 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you have any questions? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. No questions. 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. No questious. 

Mr. Bruce. Yes, sir. 

You purchased these 17 shares at $7,500. Is that correct? 

Mr. Markoff. Whatever the amount is. I think it is $8,500. 

Mr. Bruce. What was the purchase price of the shares? There 
was a $7,500 figure, I believe. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Bruce. What was the total amount you paid for the shares 
that you held in the Continental Book Corporation? 

Mr. Needleman. You mean the Four Continent, I assume? You 
said, "Continental." 

Mr. Bruce. Four Continent, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. If there were 17 shares, and they were $520 a share, 
that would take about $8,840, and he sold them for $10,000. 

Mr. Bruce. All right, now you have testified that, during the 
period that you held these shares and served in the capacity you did 
with the corporation, there were no profits made. Is that correct? 

Mr. Markoff. So far as my recollection goes. 

Mr. Bruce. Did you operate at a loss during that period? 

Mr. Markoff. It is possible. Some years we had losses, yes. 

Mr. Bruce. But not profits. 

Mr. Markoff. I don't recollect. 

Mr. Bruce. How would you account for the increase in the value 
of the stock, where you purchased it for slightly over $8,000, no 
profits were made, and you sold it for $10,000? Isn't that a bit 
strange? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



1712 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Markoff. Well, I ^yould have sold it for a higher price, if I 
could get it. 

Mr, Bruce. Isn't it a bit unique, however, to have a corporation 
that is a nonprofit corporation, intended or otherwise, and to have 
the value of the stock go up during that period? 

Mr. Markoff. I really have very little knowledge about the value 
of stocks in relation to profits. I could not answer that question, 

Mr. Bruce. Did the corporation receive financial help on a basis 
of a form of subsidy from some outside organization or — — 

Mr. Markoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. At no time? 

Mr. Markoff. At no time. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Will the gentleman yield at that point? 

Did I understand the witness to testify that there were, or may have 
been, years in which you operated at a loss? 

Mr. Markoff. Well, there may have been some years that at the 
end of the year showed a loss of a small amount. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. How was the loss made up? 

Mr. Bruce. That is the point. 

Mr. Markoff. It is difficult to answer. I am not an accountant. 
I don't linow. It was just 

Mr. Bruce. How do you stay in business, running in red ink that 
way? As manager of the corporation, you mean you do not laiow 
at the end of the year, when you ended up with a loss, how you paid 
the bills? 

Mr. Markoff. Well, the losses were not serious. If there were 
any losses, they were probably a very small fraction of the amount of 
business done, and such small losses can be evidently absorbed in 
the running of the business. 

Mr. Bruce. You made a profit, then, the following year — is that 
what you are saying — which compensated for the loss in the prior year? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, that is quite possible. I haven't got the 
records with me, so I really could not give you a scientific answer. 

Mr. Bruce. As the manager of the corporation, you do not know 
whether you made loss or a profit. How many years were involved 
here? 

Mr. Walsh. Eleven. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. Well, as I explained to you, sir, I certainly knew 
whether we are making a profit or a loss. The accountants' state- 
ment at the end of the year showed whether there was a profit or a 
loss. 

The losses or profits were negligible amounts, and the}'" could not 
by themselves either make or break the business. 

Mr. Bruce. Did you ever find it necessary to go to outside sources 
for financial help to keep the business operating? 

Mr. Markoff. No. 

Mr. Bruce. At no time? 

Mr. Markoff. No. 

Mr. Bruce. No further questions. 

Mr. Tuck, The witness may stand aside. Unless counsel has 
further questions, you are excused. 

(Witness excused.) 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1713 

Mr. Walsh. ^Ir. Ushakoff. 

(At this point Mr. Schadeberg left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tuck. We will have a 5-ininute recess. 

(Short recess taken.) 

Mr. Tuck. Will the witness stand and raise his right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I do. 

Mr. Tuck. You may be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF SERGE P. USHAKOFF, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISIDORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Ushakoff, will you state for the record your com- 
plete full name? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Serge P. Ushakoff. 

Mr. Walsh. And where and when were you born? 

Mr. Ushakoff. In Russia. 

Mr. Walsh. And where do 3^ou live now? 

Mr. Ushakoff. In New York. 

Mr. Walsh. Where? 

jSIr. Ushakoff. 317 West 87th Street. 

Mr. Walsh. Will counsel please identify hmiself? 

]\Ir. Needlemax. Isidore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, New 
York 6. 

Mr. Walsh. And when did you enter the United States? 

Mr. Ushakoff. In September — I do not remember the exact date — 
in September 1941, 

Mr. Walsh. And are you at the present time a citizen of the 
United States? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. When and where were you nationalized? 

Mr. Ushakoff. In 1947, here in New York. 

Mr. Walsh. In the Southern District of New York? 

Mr. Ushakoff, Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now prior to the tune of j^om- entrance into the 
United States in 1941, what occupation were you engaged in? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I have been in fm* business for 

Mr. Walsh. What business? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Fur business, f-u-r. 

Mr. Walsh. Fm- business, yes. 

Mr. Ushakoff. For at least 8 years. 

Air. Walsh. And were you also in the fur business when you were 
in China? 

Mr. Ushakoff. All the time. 

Mr. W^ALSH. You never had any experience before with the publica- 
tion of books or the miportation of books for publication? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Now would you tell me 5'om' occupational backgi-ound 
since 3'ou entered the United States in 1941? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I was president — I mean, vice president of Far 
East Fur Company, Incorporated, 

Mr. Walsh. Is that an American corporation? 



1714 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. An American corporation. 

Mr. Walsh. What State is it incorporated in? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. New York State. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. The corporation was closed in 1957. 

Mr. Walsh. I see. And what did you do after 1957? What 
was your occupation? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Now for a while— in that period, for about 3 
years, I didn't do anything. I took a vacation, and then I switched 
myself to another kind of business, book business. 

Mr. Walsh. Now you were elected president 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. — of the Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. In January of 1960? 

Mr. Ushakoff. To be exact, January the 5th. 

Mr. Walsh. January the 5th. 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now did you purchase shares of stock in the P'our 
Continent Book Corporation? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. Walsh. Would you repeat the question, Miss Reporter? 

(The reporter read the question.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, I purchased stock of Fom- Continent Book 
Corporation through Mr. Morris Moskowitz, who had been my ac- 
countant at least for 7 or 8 years. 

Mr. Walsh. And where is he located in New York? 

Mr. Ushakoff. He is located — he moved now. It is, I think, 
Woolworth Building, a law company. The name of the law com- 
pany is Rosenthal and Moskowitz. 

Mr. Walsh. It is a law firm? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I mean an accounting fii'm, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now would you tell the committee the circumstances 
under which you first became interested in the Four Continent Book 
Corporation? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, the import of fm's from China was ceased on 
account of the general circumstances, so I forced to close my company. 
Well, I was looking for investment, for a business, to do something, 
so I decided to buy this business. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, had you worked for the corporation? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, I worked. I don't remember. 

Mr. Walsh. How long had you worked? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I think less than 1 year. 

Mr. Walsh. Less than 1 year, and did you have a conversation 
with Mr. Markoff ? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, never. 

Mr. Walsh. You never discussed it with him? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, but I knew that business was for sale. 

Mr. Walsh. And how much did you pay for the 17 shares? 

Mr. Ushakoff. For his shares, I paid $10,000. 

Mr. Walsh. And you authorized Mr. Moskowitz to negotiate for 
you? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right, he would negotiate and he bought 
the business. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1715 

Mr. Walsh. Now what is the capitalization of the company? How 
many shares outstanding? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, I bought shares from Mr. Markoff, I paid 
$10,000, and the rest of the shares I bought from his former partner, 
Mr. Budin. I paid him $5,000. It makes all together $15,000. 

Mr. Walsh. And who negotiated the sale from Mr. Budin for you? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. You see, I could not get together with Mr. Budin, 
and I decided to buy his part. 

Mr. Walsh. You bought eight shares for $5,000? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. $5,000, yes. 

Mr. Tuck. Do we have many more questions to ask this witness? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, we do, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. There is a quorum call, and I would suggest a recess 
and that we come back at 2:15 p.m. 

Is there any objection to that? 

Mr. Walsh. No, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. We have to go to answer that quorum. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. I suggest we stand in recess until then. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess until 2:15 p.m. 

(Members present at time of recess: Representatives Tuck and 
Johansen.) 

(Whereupon, at 12:20 p.m., Thm-sday, May 17, 1962, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene in the afternoon of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, MAY 17, 1962 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 :20 p.m., Hon. William M. Tuck, 
presiding. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will please come to order. 
Is Mr. Sharpe in the room? ^ 
Mr. Walsh. Mr. Ushakoff? 

TESTIMONY OF SERGE P. USHAKOFF— Resumed 

Mr. Walsh. You already have been sworn, Mr. Ushakoff. 

What salary did you receive from the Four Continent Books in 
your capacity as order clerk? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Seventy-five dollars. 

Mr. Walsh. Seventy-five dollars, and what is your salary as 
president? 

Mr. Ushakoff. One hundred twenty-five. 

Mr. Walsh. How much? 

Mr. Ushakoff. One hundred twenty-five. 

Mr. Walsh. A week? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now you were served with a subpena, were you not, 
Mr. Ushakoff, as president of the Four Continent? You were served 
on May the 9th, 1962, and the subpena reads, "Serge P. Ushakoff, 
president, Four Continent Book Corporation," and it asks you to 
produce copies of "all contracts or agreements between Four Conti- 
nent Book Corporation and any individual, firm, corporation or 

1 Testimony of Myron E. Sharpe (resumed) is printed in Part 1 pp. 1663, 1664. 



1716 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

government, domestic or foreign, relating to the importation, sale or 
dissemination of books, magazines, periodicals, pamphlets." 

Have you produced such a copy of the contract? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

(Documents were handed to counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. Thank you very much. It also calls for copies of all 
contracts or agreements between Four Continent Book Corporation 
and any individual, firm, or corporation relating to the delivery and 
sale of books, magazines, periodicals, pamphlets, imported from a 
foreign organization or establishment or received from an individual 
firm or corporation registered under the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I don't have any contracts. 

Mr. Walsh. You do not have any contracts? 

Mr. Needleman. Other than. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, he has produced them. 

Now do you have any contracts with the American-owned book- 
shops or bookstores 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I don't. 

Mr. Walsh. For instance, the International Book Store, Inc., 
San Francisco, California? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I don't have any. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, let me rephrase that, and do you ship in bulk 
quantity any of 3'our pamplets or books to the International Book 
Store, San Francisco, California? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, we ship them from time to time, you know, 
10 to 15 books, that is all. 

Mr. Walsh. You have no contract with them? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. What is the agreement between the Four Continent 
and the International Book Store? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, they have their trade discount, that is all. 

Mr. Walsh. What does that trade discount amount to? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is 35 percent. 

Mr. Walsh. Thirty-five percent. 

How about the Znanie, Z-n-a-n-i-e Book Shop in San Francisco. 
Do you ship in bulk to them? 

Mr. Ushakoff. What, will you repeat it again? 

Mr. Walsh. Do you ship, in bulk, your publications to tlie Znanie 
Book Shop, San Francisco, California? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I don't remember. It seems to me, no. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Progress Books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Progress, j^es. 

Mr. Walsh. And you also give them a trade discount? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Free Press and Publications, in 
Cleveland, Ohio? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I cannot recall. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Frontier Books, 106 Cherry Street, 
Seattle, Washington? 

Air. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. The Modern Book Store, Chicago, Illinois? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1717 

Mr, Walsh. Paul Romaine, R-o-m-a-i-n-e, Chicago, Illinois? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I don't recall. 

Mr. Walsh. The Vilnis Book Shop, in Chicago, Illinois? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, we sent a couple of times to the company 
who handled the books, but I don't remember the name of the com- 
pany of them. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Dolgich Book Shop, D-o-l-g-i-c-h? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Dolgich, yes, we send them this year, I think, 
two or three times. 

Mr. Walsh. And the Schoenhof, S-c-h-o-e-n-h-o-f? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Very seldom. 

Mr. Walsh. But you do send them to them? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And they get the grade discount? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And the Berenson, B-e-r-e-n-s-o-n, Books in Detroit, 
Michigan? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That I cannot recall. I am sorry, I don't remem- 
ber. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Global Books, in Detroit, Michigan? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I don't remember. 

Mr. Walsh. How about Victor Kamkin, K-a-m-k-i-n, Washington, 
D.C.? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Victor Kamkin, no. 

Mr. Walsh. The Jefferson Book Shop, in New York City? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, they buy from time to time, the man comes 
and buys several. 

Mr. Walsh. Do they get the trade discount also? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. The Universal Distributors in New York City? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Universal Distributors, this is on 13th Street? 

Mr. Walsh. I believe it is, yes. 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. How about World Books, 747 Broadway? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, you knew Frankfeld and you worked with him? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, I know him, but I never have sold him any- 
thing. 

Mr. Walsh. I am going to show to you a registration statement by 
the Four Continent Book Corporation, filed November the 7th, 1960, 
which is an amendment, and ask you to look at that and tell mo 
whether or not you are the person who swore to that under oath and 
filed that with the Department of Justice? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, it is my signature. 

Mr. Walsh. And that is the registration amendment to the regis- 
tration which you filed? 

Mr. Tuck. Are you going to file that? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, I would like to mark this Ushakoff Exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered so nuirked and will be filed with tlie com- 
mittee records. 

(Document marked "Ushakoff Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

90450—62 — pt 2 4 



1718 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Now I note that as of Januaiy 5, 1960, you became 
president and treasurer? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. And I assume your wife, Sofia A. Ushakoff, became 
secretary and a member of the board of directors in January? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is riglit. 

Mr. Walsh. And I notice here that an I. G. Needleman, of 165 
Broadway, was a member of the board of directors as of May 1960. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. You did state this morning that you had a Morris 
Moskowitz negotiate for the sale or the purchase of the stock? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. And did lie relate to 3'ou any of the conversations 
that he had with Mr. MarkofF with reference to the negotiations, that 
he was willing to sell? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, I wanted him to approach Mr. Markoff and 
to start the negotiations to buy the business. 

Mr. Walsh. And how long were these negotiations in progi'ess be- 
fore 3^ou were successful in buying the business? 

Mr. Ushakoff. It was, I don't remember exactly, a few weeks, 
anyway. 

Mr. Walsh. Was there any reason why you used Mr. Mosko^dtz 
to approach Mr. Markoff? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No special reason, but, j-ou know, I could see that 
it would be easier to complete the deal if I don't appear personally. 

Mr. Walsh. Now I show you another document filed February 17, 
1960, Exhibit No. 2, and ask you to look at that and tell me if that is 
a true, correct statement that you made when you say you purchased 
17 shares of the stock and that then you were elected president? 
Who elected you president? Who were the members of the board of 
directors when you became president? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. I am 

(Document marked "Ushakoff Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Perhaps this wiU refresh your recollection, if you look 
at item 4(b) [of Exhibit No. 1]. 

Mr. Needleman. Well, that is people who ceased to be officers. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, I understand that, but who were the members of 
the board when he was elected? 

(Witness conferred wath counsel. j 

Mr. Ushakoff. These are people who ceased to be members of the 
corporation. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, one did not cease to be a member until May the 
27th of 1960, is that correct? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And then Mr. Needleman took his place in May? 

Mr. Needleman. What is the question? 

Mr. Walsh. Who elected you as president, what directors, if any? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. Shaya Budin and myself. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1719 

Mr. Walsh. Why do you say Shaya Budin, when he is referred to 
as Shaya Beresky in this? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, it is hard to explain. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you explain that, sir? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, he used to — ^he always used the name as 
Shaya Budin. I would not be able to give you any particulars. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, did you know his correct name to be Shaya 
Beresky? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, both names are correct. 

Mr. Walsh. He uses both names? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Indiscriminately. Do you know whether or not he 
has ever had his name legally changed to Budin? 

Mr. Ushakoff. This I don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. Now may I have this marked as Ushakoff Exhibit 3 
and filed for reference? This Exhibit No. 3 is the Supplemental 
Registration Statement filed February the 1st, 1962. 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be thus marked and filed. 

Mr. Walsh. And in this document, you reported a loan of $5,500 
from the Office of the Commercial Counselor of the U.S.S.R. 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you tell us the reason for the loan? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, I, you know, spent a lot of money on moving 
from Broadway to Fifth Avenue, and, well, I applied to them to help 
me out for a couple of months, and they did, and I paid it back. 

Mr. Walsh. When did you make this loan? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I don't know exactly. 

Mr. Walsh. Will this refresh your recollection, page 7, 13(b)? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is correct. 

(Document marked "Ushakoff Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Wliat date is that? Does it give a date? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I made the loan in May and I repaid it in full by 
December 1961. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, it is a little difficult to hear. From 
whom did you borrow the money? 

Mr. Walsh. The Commercial Counselor, U.S.S.R. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Thank you. 

Mr. Walsh. Now was there any relationship between the loan 
which you received from the Commercial Counselor, U.S.S.R. and 
the purchase of your stock from Mr. Shaya Beresky or Budin? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I used my own money and I took it from my 
account at the National City Bank. 

Mr. Walsh. Wlio is the Commercial Counselor for the U.S.S.R. in 
this country? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, how did you make an application for that loan? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I didn't make any application. I was there. 

Mr. Walsh. You were where? 

Mr. Ushakoff. At the Commercial Counselor. 

Mr. Walsh. Wliere is he located? 

Mr. Ushakoff. At 18th — -in Washington. 



1720 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGAITOA 

Mr. Walsh. And with whom did you speak? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Mr. Gribkov. 

Mr. Walsh. Could you spell that, please? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. G-r-i-b-k-o-v. 

Mr. Walsh. And what is his first name? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. Is he in the diplomatic corps here? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I really don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, did you have an}" introduction to him, or 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No, just because, you know, I bu}^ books from 
them, and I explained the situation, I explained to them that I 
needed a few thousand dollars, and they gave them, and I repaid it. 

Mr. Walsh. Was that an interest-free loan? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Interest-free? 

Mr. Walsh. Interest-free. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now what books do you buy from the Commerical 
Counselor, as you just stated? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Nothing, I don't buy anything from the Com- 
mercial. I buy from the organization called M ezhdunarodnaj^a Kniga 
in Moscow. 

Mr. Walsh. In translating the Russian into English, that is the 
International Book Company of Moscow? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. International Book, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And you stated this morning that you were employed 
as an order clerk in this establishment? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. For approximately a year? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now since you have been president of the corporation, 
you stated that you received the salary of $125 per week. 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And have you ever participated in, or has the board 
of directors ever declared, a dividend on these shares of stock which 
you own? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. To recapitulate, you bought 17 shares from Mr. 
Markoff, and 8 shares from Mr. Beresky or Budin? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. So you own the corporation now in total? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And you also stated that you paid $15,000 for the 25 
shares. 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. How did it happen that Mr. Needleman became a 
member of the board of directors of your corporation? 

Mr. Ushakoff. You see, Mr. Needleman was counselor of the 
company. 

Mr. Walsh. Prior to the time that you assumed the presidency? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is r'ght. 

Mr. Walsh. And is that the reason why? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I decided to invite him to be a member of the board 
of directors. 

Mr. Walsh. Is he still a member of the board of directors? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1721 

Mr. Needleman. Only because he has not got a third member — off 
the record. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No, that isn't true. 

Mr. Needleman. Tell him that. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Because I needed a third one to be a director, so I 
invited him to be. 

Mr. Walsh. You do not show that he is a member of the board of 
directors in one of your registration statements, I note, and I refer now 
to Exhibit 3, which is the registration statement filed on February the 
1st, 1962. 

I show you and direct your attention to question No. 9 on page 3. 
Does that refresh your recollection? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. It was my mistake. I am sorry. 

Mr. Walsh. Now I show you Exhibit No. 4, and may we file this 
with the committee for reference? 

Mr. Tuck. The papers are ordered filed. 

Mr. Walsh. This is short-form registration statement, and it was 
filed on November the 25th, 1960, by Isidore Gibby Needleman, and 
I direct your attention to question No. 5, which requires the signer 
of this to state: "All clubs, societies, committees, and other non- 
business organizations in the United States or elsewhere * * * of 
which you have been a member, director, officer, or employee during 
the past 2 years," and he states, "I invoke the 5th amendment as to 
this question." 

Did you look at this statement? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. To be frank with j'ou, I did not, and it is not my 
business to know what other persons 

Mr. Walsh. Well, he is on the board of directors? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, but I consider that it is not m}' business. 
It is a personal thing. 

Mr. Needleman. You want to get me fired? 

Mr. Walsh. If your corporation, the Four Continent Book Cor- 
poration, files a registration statement, aren't you interested in what 
it says in it? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Air. Ushakoff. Well, I repeat again, it is not ni}- business, and I 
decline to discuss it. 

(Document marked "Ushakoff Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Is this the first time that you ever knew that he 
invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer these questions? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, somehow I passed by, and I didn't even take 
any interest in this. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, have you ever asked him why he took the fifth 
amendment in refusing to answer these questions? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Needleman. I would not tell him if he did. 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Witness, would you answer the question, please? 

Mr. Ushakoff. You know, those things, I consider it improper to 
ask questions, personal things, why should I ask? 

Mr. Walsh. Now I show you Exhibit No. 3, already marked 
for reference by this committee, and direct your attention to question 



1722 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

No. 6 on page 2 and ask you to look at it. Are these all the prnicipals 
that you represent, as of that date? 

(Document was handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes, we were representative. 

Mr. Walsh. Of these corporations? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Air. Walsh. You have furnished to us the contract pursuant to the 
subpena, the contract which you have now with what we will call the 
International Book Compaiiy. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes, M.K. 

Mr. Walsh. Now what is this S.E.T. Praha, P-r-a-h-a? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, I do not have any contracts with them. 

Mr. Walsh. What is it, I asked you, first. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. What? 

Mr. Walsh. I asked you, first, what is it, and what do you do 
for them? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, this is some organization, I even don't know, 
in Czechoslovakia, where from we get, you know, periodicals from 
time to time. 

Mr. Walsh. You get orders from them? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Periodicals from time to time. 

Mr. W^ALSH. Periodicals? 

Mr. Ushakoff. But the business is negligible, you know, now^; 
I gave it up. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ever have any correspondence with S.R.T. 
Praha? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I did not. 

Mr. Walsh. Asking to send these periodicals to you for distribution 
to the United States? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I usually send them order, you know, on our 
blank, that we need such-and-such book, and the business is run 
maybe in tens of dollars, that is all. Sometimes, you know, university 
needs the book, you know, we order it, that is all. 

Mr. Walsh. How about Zeit Im Bild, Z-e-i-t, I-m, B-i-l-d, three 
words, Dresden? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. And your answer is the same as your answer pre- 
viously stated? 

Mr. Ushakoff. The same thing. I doubt if we make business with 
them, maybe $50, $60 a year, that is all. 

Mr. Walsh. Now may I mark this Ushakoff Exhibit No. 5 for 
reference? 

Mr. Tuck. The paper will be so marked and filed. 

Mr. Walsh. This is the agreement between the International Book 
of Moscow and the Four Continent Book Corporation, and I specif- 
ically call your attention to the second paragraph under Item 2, in 
which it states: 

The Buyer shall receive a discount from the indicated prices as follows: 

Percent 

Books 70 

Periodicals — Retail 70 

Periodicals — Subscription 60 

Other publications 70 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1723 

Does that mean you get a discount of 70 percent on all the books 
that you purchase from the International Book? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. And then, in turn, you distribute them in the United 
States? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. That is right. 

(Document marked "Ushakoff Exhibit No. 5" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know whether or not this was always the rate 
of commission? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I beg your pardon, sir? 

Mr. Walsh. Do 3'ou know whether or not this discount rate had 
been in existence prior to July the 1st, 1960, when you signed this 
contract? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. As far as I could recall, before, it was 60 percent 
discount. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ask for an increase in the discount? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, because I increased the expenses, and they 
granted me discount on the books, and other things they left at 60 
percent. 

Mr. W^alsh. Now did you have correspondence with the Inter- 
national Book Company of ^Moscow prior to the time that you signed 
this contract, July 1, 1960? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I did not. 

Mr. Walsh. Does the International Book Company of Moscow 
have a representative in the United States? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, ves, they have representative here. 

Mr. Walsh. Wlio is it? 

Mr. Ushakoff. All the time, it was that 

Mr. Walsh. This is 1960. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

^Ir. Ushakoff. I am trying to recall the name of the person who 
was prior of the 

Mr. Walsh. Was it Gribkov that you mentioned before? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, no. 

Mr. Walsh. Was he in the office with the Commercial Counselor 
of the U.S.S.K.? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I would say yes, but I really don't know, you know, 
when they get in 

Mr. Walsh. Where in Washington did you see him? 

Mr. Ushakoff. In Washington, I see huxi in the office of the Com- 
mercial Attache. 

Mr. Walsh. Where is that located? 

Mr. Ushakoff. On 18th Street Northwest. I don't remember the 
rmmber of the building. 

Mr. Walsh. Is that the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C.? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, no. 

Mr. Walsh. It is connected with it, however? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Evidently, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And more or less an adjunct to it for its commercial 
enterprises here in this country? Is that correct? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr, Ushakoff. Well, that I really don't know. 



1724 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Now, Mr. Needleman, please, you are entitled to ad- 
vise liiin with reference to his constitutional rights, but you cannot 
put answers in his mouth, which I heard you do just now. I wish you 
would refrain from that, sir. 

Mr. Needleman. It is the first time I did. 

Mr. Walsh. It is the first time I called your attention to it. 

Now who was the individual in the Commercial Counselor's office 
with Mdiom jou did business and signed this contract? 

Will this refresh your recollection, looking at the lefthand corner 
in the bottom? 

(Document was handed to witness.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, when I 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. It is Tsapenko, signature. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you spell that out, please? Maybe j^ou can read 
it. 

Air. UsHAKOFF. Just a second. T-s-a-p-e-n-k-o. 

Mr. Walsh. What is his first name? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Nicolai. 

Mr. Walsh. And is he stationed here in Washington? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And how long has he been stationed here? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. This I don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. Wlien was the last time you saw him? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. In fact, I saw him yesterday, in New York. 

Mr. Walsh. In New York? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Was it in connection with your business with the 
Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you tell him that you were going to have the 
honor of appearing before this committee? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. What is the relationship between the Crosscurrents 
Press, Inc., and the Four Continent Book Corporation, if an}'? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No relation at all. 

Mr. Walsh. Any financial? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Now in the registration statement filed by the Cross- 
currents Press- — - — 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. — and more particularly in that part known as the 
dissemination report, I note that the Program of the Ccmmunist Party 
oj the Soviet Union — that was a book published by the Crosscurrents 
Press — the Four Continent Book Corporation of New York purchased 
10,000 copies of this particular book. 

Will you describe the circumstances under which you bought this 
book? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Needleman. Does that say that he bought 10,000 copies? 

Mr. Appell. Disseminated to him 10,000 copies. 

Mr. Walsh. Let me put it this way, I said that, according to this 
dissemination report, the Four Continent Book Corporation, New 
York, received 10,000 copies when the Crosscurrents Press dissemi- 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1725 

nated, and I might add that that was filed with the Department of 
Justice. 

Mr. Needleman. Of what speech, did you say? 

Mr. Walsh. And there were approximately 32,325 copies delivered 
to the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. Will you tell the committee. They are the ones 
interested ; Mr. Needleman knows about it. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, we had in stock a couple of dozen, but I 
don't know anything about 10,000. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, you did not receive 10,000 copies of 
this Program of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No. 

Mr. Walsh. How many copies would you say you did receive? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Offhand, I cannot tell you. But I know I had 

Mr. Walsh, Would your books reflect that you received a certain 
number of these copies? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. A certain— anyway, a few dozen of books we 
received, we bought, and we kept it in the store. 

Mr. Walsh. Were those books on consignment? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No, we never received anything on consignment. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, then, you purchased from the Cross- 
currents Press, as you say, a couple of dozen books. Did you pay for 
them? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Sure I paid for them. 

Mr. Walsh. What discount do you get from them? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Forty percent. 

Mr. Walsh. Forty percent. How do you pay, by check or cash? 

Mr. Ushakoff. By check. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. And then, for instance, after you received 
these — how many dozen did you say you received, approximately? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I don't remember offhand, but anyway, a few 
dozen. 

Mr. Walsh. Could you refresh your recollection by looking at 
your books to find out exactly how many of these booklets, namely, 
the Program of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, you did 
receive? Could you, sir? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, I don't remember offhand. 

Mr. Needleman. He says, could you tell from your books? 

Mr. Walsh. Your books of account? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Oh, no, I would not be able to tell that, because 
we just, you laiow, would enter it in bulk, and the amount I paid for, 
I could judge how many books I bought, but you know, I 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, you do keep books in this corporation, 
I presume? 

Mr. Ushakoff. What kind of books? 

Mr. Walsh. Books of account, general ledger, cashbooks? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Oh, yes, sure I kept them. 

Mr. Walsh. And you have them, as president, at the present time? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, sure, 

Mr. Walsh. So you could refer to those books if you cared to? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, how much I paid to Crosscurrents, I can 
show you. 

90450— 62— pt. 2 5 



1726 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. And the date? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. And the date. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you please advise this committee of that fact 
when you get back to New York? 

Mr. Needleman. If you will state it concretely, I will make a 
note of it, and see that we get it. 

Mr. Walsh. I would like to Imow the date when the Four Con- 
tinent Book Corporation received from Crosscurrents Press booklets 
known as the Program oj the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 
how many copies received, and the price paid for the same. 

And did you also receive from the Crosscurrents Press a booklet 
entitled Mikoyan in Cuba? 

Mr, USHAKOFF. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Just for the sake of curiosity, would you be kind 
enough to check that, too, in your books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. All right, I will check, but I don't think we received 
it. 

Mr. Walsh. Now did you ever receive from the International Arts 
and Sciences Press a magazine kno^^^l as Soviet Highlights? 

According to the dissemination report, you received 50 copies of 
each issue. Do 3^ou remember that, sir? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you also be kind enough to check that in 3'our 
books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, I will check and give you the entire. 

Mr. Walsh. Give me the information? 

Mr. Needleman. What was that title? 

Mr. Walsh. Soviet Highlights and also Soviet Review. It is one 
and the same book, but the name was changed for purposes best 
known to Crosscurrents. 

Mr. Ushakoff. Of that Review, Soviet Review, we have about a 
couple of dozen. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you give us the same information as to Soviet 
Highlights and Soviet Review? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. According to the registration statement, you have 
approximately 25 employees. Is that correct? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Correct. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you ever go into their background with reference 
to whether or not they are members of any subversive organization? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I never asked those kind of questions. In 
most cases, I take the employees through the union. 

Mr. Walsh. The union? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Was Frankfeld sent to the Four Continent through a 
union? 

Mr. Ushakoff. About Frankfeld I can't tell you anything, because 
he was taken by the, you know 

Mr. Walsh. Markoff? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. And we discharged him when I took the 
business, because we had to cut the staff. 

Mr. Walsh. Is that the only reason why you discharged him? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes, to cut the expenses. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, you knew him, because you worked with him? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1727 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No, I worked in an entirely different building. 
He worked in the office, I worked in the storage room, and this is the 
entirely diff'erent building. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ever see Frankfeld after he left your em- 
ployment? 

Mr. USHAKOFF. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know that he was making a statement and 
became an agent for a foreign power? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I heard of it, but still I never have seen him. 

Mr. Walsh. Have you ever done business with — — 

Mr. Ushakoff. With him? 

Mr. Walsh. With Mr. Frankfeld under his new assumed name of 
World Books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, never. 

Mr. Walsh. Other than the three individuals, or the three foreign 
principals, have you ever done any business with any other that 
you have failed to mention there? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Which ones? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. This is from Czechoslovakia? What? 

Mr. Walsh. I asked you if there were any principals, other than the 
three that you have mentioned in the statement, that you have 
imported books or have done any work for? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I don't have anybody. 

Mr. Walsh. And you only do work for your foreign principal known 
as Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Alezhdunarodnaya Kniga, that is right. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. And you, I presume, looked over the books of 
your corporation and Ivnow the contents of it and what they have been 
doing since 1948 up to date? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. You know, when I bought the place, my ac- 
countants looked the books over, and I never bothered to. 

Mr. Walsh. Other than the importation of books from the Inter- 
national Book Company, does the corporation do anything else for 
this principal? Does it purchase any material in this country for 
transmission back to Moscow? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Wliat type of work does it do? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, from time to time they send us order, to buy 
certain books. 

Mr. Walsh. Wliat type of books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Magazines. 

Mr. Walsh. Teclmical magazines? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Sometimes. Sometimes technical magazines. It 
is 

Mr. Walsh. And do you also purchase docxmaents printed by the 
Government Printing Office for them? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Have you ever? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Has the Four Continent Book Corporation ever done 
that, that you know of? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 



1728 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Did thej^ do that when you were employed by them? 

Mr. USHAKOFF. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Chau-man, speaking of the Four Continent Book 
Corporation, of which Mr. Ushakoff is now president, during the 
committee's investigation into the importation and dissemination of 
Communist propaganda material, the staff reviewed statements re- 
quired under the Foreign Registration Act which had been filed with 
the Department of Justice from January 1945 to Januray 1, 1962, 
and these statements reflect that, from January 1945, the Four 
Continent Book Corporation has expended in excess of $6}< million 
engaging in activities on behalf of the Soviet Union, which have been 
described by J. Edgar Hoover as "legal espionage." 

Mr. Needleman. Is this to make a headline? You have had a 
witness here? 

Mr. Tuck. You will be silent. 

Mr. Needleman. I don't think this is proper. 

Mr, Tuck. We are not concerned with what you think. 

Mr. Needleman. You are trying to slander his business, and I 
won't permit it. That is for the headlines. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I do not want to hear that remark from the attor- 
ney again. 

Mr. Needleman. This has no place here, and you know it. 

Mr. Johansen. I do not want to hear any more remarks from this 
witness about making headlines. 

Mr. Needleman. This witness has answered every question. 

Mr. Tuck. I have given the order, and you have repeatedly, over 
and over again, violated what you well know to be the rules and the 
procedures of this committee. 

Mr. Needleman. It was not deliberate, Mr. Tuck, but I just could 
not see that happen. 

Mr. Tuck. You are out of order, 

Mr. Needleman. I just could not see that happen, when my client 
has 

Mr. Tuck. I said that you are out of order. 

Mr. Walsh. And also through the information that this committee 
has in its possession, the U.S.S.R., from 1945 to 1956 practically 
duplicated the American patent system by purchasing individual 
patents at the rate of 25 cents each. They have also purchased maps 
of our harbors and our airfields. 

In other words, they have purchased most of the books, pamphlets, 
and other printed material and technical material which describes in 
minute detail everything about America that has been reduced to 
print. The vSoviet has thus been able to do this legally, while at the 
same time the United States is denied the same knowledge of the 
Soviet, because of their Iron Curtain relationship toward America 
and the rest of the free world. 

The further review of the registration statements of Four Con- 
tinent Book Corporation discloses that from January 1949 until 
January 1962, Four Continent Book Corporation has sold Soviet- 
published booklets in the amount of $1,800,000. And from these 
two operations, namely, the purchase of the pamphlets, the technical 
knowledge contained in magazines, and, also, the sale of pamphlets 
received from the Soviet Union, the Four (Continent Book Company 
has received commissions of $1}^ million. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1729 

Now when you became president in 1960, according to the regis- 
tration statement, the amomit reported by you for the entire year of 
1960 was $9,000, and this figure was raised to $35,000 in 1961. Did 
you change your bookkeeping system and just report that in 1960 
you received $9,000? 

(Witness conferred with counseL) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I don't understand a Httle bit what you are 
regarding to. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, according to the review of the registration state- 
ments made going back to 1946, it discloses that up to and including 
July of 1959, the Four Continent Book Corporation reported nearly 
a half million dollars expended annually for the purchase, from Ameri- 
can sources, of books, periodicals, and magazines for shipment to the 
Soviet Union. 

Now when you became president, the amount that you reported 
for the entire year was $9,000. 

Will you explain that to the committee? Why there was such a 
decrease in the amount of money that you reported? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. We reported what we had. And I could not 
report anything else. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, this amount that you report, are these merely 
commissions, or was it the gross amount that you received from the 
Soviet Union? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. This is gross. 

Mr. Walsh. Gross. It does not represent merely commissions? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No. 

Mr. Walsh. And the same answer, I presume, applies for 1961, in 
which you stated that you received $35,000 from the Soviet Union? 
Is that correct? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes; it is my statement. 

Mr. Walsh. Now after that sharp decrease in the amount of 
money that the Soviet Union asked the Four Continent to purchase 
these various magazines, do you know of any other corporation or 
firm or individual that has now been commissioned by the Soviet 
Union to purchase this same material which you previously had 
purchased — the Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I really don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ever ask the Commercial Counselor of the 
Soviet Union why this business was taken away from you? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I did not. The action was taken before, you 
know, before. 

Mr. Johansen. Did you have knowledge that it had been taken 
away? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Johansen. When you purchased the stock, did you have 
knowledge of this business volume and dollar volume? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Johansen. Now let us pursue that, Mr. Counsel, 

Mr. Ushakoff. You know, I look at the entire amount, but I 
didn't analyze the business. 

Mr. Johansen. Well, my question was. Did you have knowledge 
of the dollar volume of business with the Soviet Union, either, on the 
one hand, through sale of publications by your firm to them, or by 
the procurement of materials and publications by your firm for them? 



1730 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. When I took the business, I only was interested 
in the total amount of the turnover, that is all. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Interested in what? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. In the entire amount of the turnover of the 
business. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, did — ■ — ■ 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I didn't analyze the statement. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, did your knowledge — you say you were 
interested in the total amount of turnover. 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did the information that you secured respecting 
that total amount of turnover indicate figures of the order that counsel 
has cited? Figures in the amount that the counsel has cited? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I didn't itemize that. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I did not ask you if you itemized them, but were 
you familiar with the total? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. The total, yes; I was familiar with the total. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And were you familiar with totals of the amounts, 
as large amounts as the counsel has cited? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes, I knew. That was a drop in the business. 

Mr. Walsh. That was what? 

Mr. Ushakoff. A drop in the business. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know how much Mr. Markoff had paid for 
his stock? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Walsh. How did you arrive at the figure of $10,000 for his 
17 shares? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Because he wanted more. 

Mr. Walsh. How did you arrive at the amount of $5,000 for 7 
shares? 

Mr. Ushakoff. W^eU, I considered that it would not be possible to 
pay less, and I gave to Mr. Moskowitz to stay on this amount. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, prior to January of 1958, the Four Continent 
in its Registration statements reported the value of printed material 
imported mto the United States. This figure was broken down to 
reflect the commission retained by the Four Continent. As an 
example, for the period of January to July 1957, there was imported 
printed material valued at $112,000, and the Four Continent Book 
received as a commission $45,000. What was the percentage which 
you received there? Was that the 60 percent? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, it was in 1959. 

Mr. Walsh. When did you say that the discomit was mcreased? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Increased in 1960. 

Mr. Walsh. That was the contract which you have given us, 
Exhibit No. 5. 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. And then in the period from July to December 1957, 
there was imported $66,000 worth of printed material by the Four 
Continent, and they retained as commission $26,000. 

Since 1958, and including the return filed on February 1, 1962, only 
one figure is shown. As an example, from July 1961 to December 31st 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1731 

of 1961, you report payment of $37,965.44, What does that figure 
represent? Your commission? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. What year? 

Mr. Walsh. From July of 1961 to December 31, 1961, you report 
a payment of $37,965.44. Now I ask you what does that figure 
represent? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. It represents payments for the merchandise. 

Mr. Walsh. It doesn't represent your commissions? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. I buy the books on the basis of 70 percent discount. 

Mr. Walsh. And that is the amount that you paid for the books 
that you imported? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. Thirty percent of the value of the books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. And that is what this $37,000 represents, 30 percent? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. So if you reported the gross, you would report over 
$100,000? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you ever receive booldets from the International 
Book Company or any other Soviet agency on consignment? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you ever receive it on an order basis? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, only an order business. 

Mr. Walsh. Only an order business? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. How do you Icnow what to order from the International 
Book Company of Moscow? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, International Book issues catalogues, 
monthly catalogues. From this catalogue, I pick out what I consider 
is good, and I 

Mr. Walsh. Would you define the word "good"? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Define — for instance, the best thing for this market 
is Russian classical Uterature, then scientific books and mathematics, 
physics, et cetera, Russian — ■ — 

Mr. Walsh. No propaganda? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Propaganda is — it depends what you call "propa- 
ganda." 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I don't think that you and I would agree, but, 
in any event, would you tell the committee now what labeling process 
or practices are followed by the Four Continent Book Corporation 
on the books that you import from Russia? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, we put the label into the book. That is 

Mr. Walsh. Do you put the label in every book that you import? 

Mr. Ushakoff. When we ship to customers, we put the label. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you also label the booklets that you sell in your 
store? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, when the books are sold in the store, we don't 
put the label. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the books delivered in New York City? 
Do you put the label in those, too? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, we do. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



1732 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. You mean when a customer comes to the store? 

Mr, Walsh. You have answered that question. Now I am asking 
you whether or not you also put tlie label in books that you sell to 
individuals within the State of New York. Not out of the store. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. In the store, we don't put the label. 

Mr. Walsh. And do you put the label in books that you sell to 
individuals throughout the State of New York? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Such as the Jefferson Book Shop? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. You put the label on? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now do you ever import any books from the Foreign 
Languages Publishing Company, Moscow, through your principal, 
which is the International Book Company of Moscow? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. The only supplier is Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga. 

Mr. Walsh. Do they, in turn, purchase from the Foreign Languages 
Publishing Company in Moscow, and then send them through the 
International Book Company? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. This I don't laiow. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, isn't it a fact that all of the books in the English 
language that are imported into this country are published by the 
Foreign Languages Publishing House? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. According to the stamp in every book, that I can 
judge, that is stamped, these were published by this organization. 

Mr. Walsh. Foreign Languages Publishing House? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. They are. And then you, in turn, receive them 
through the International Book Company? And you pay the Inter- 
national Book Company for these books that you receive and they are 
published in Moscow by the Foreign Languages Publishing House? 

Mr. Ushakoff. We are connected only with one organization. 

Mr. Walsh. But they act as your agent in Moscow? 

Mr. Ushakoff. This I don't know. I place the order to them, 
and I get the books from them. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. Well, don't you ever see any books that you receive 
from the International Book Company that the publisher is the 
Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, the only organization I deal with is M.K. 
(Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga) . 

Mr. Walsh. But they act as your agent, if you want books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. I buy books from them. 

Mr. Walsh. You don't care where they get the books? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is not my business. 

Mr. Walsh. You also sell subscriptions to Soviet-published maga- 
zines and periodicals, such as the New Times, do you not? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now are these publications prepared for mailing by 
the Four Contment Book Corporation? Or are they prepared for 
mailing by the International Book Company of Moscow? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1733 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No, they send material directly to subscribers. 

Mr. Walsh. And do you know at the time that you get these sub- 
scriptions that tlie Foreign Agents Registration label is not put on 
the books that go directly to the subscriber? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. This I don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. Is that the reason why you send the subscriptions 
directly to the International Book Company? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No, because, you know, to handle these small sub- 
scriptions here, you know, too expensive; and we prefer the material 
to be handled over there, and shipped du-ectly to subscribers. 

Mr. Walsh. It would not be for the purpose of evading the law — 
that you need not label? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. No. 

Mr. Walsh. You are sure of that? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Absolutely. 

Mr. Walsh. I have no further questions of this witness. 

Mr. Tuck. Questions by the committee? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Just oue question, to refresh my own memory. 

What was the amount that you borrowed from the Commercial 
Counselor? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Five thousand five hundred. 

Mr. Walsh. And that was without interest? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Without interest and paid in, you know, in a 
couple of months, about 5 or 6 months; I don't remember. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And was the reason for your securing that loan 
from that source primarily because you were doing business with the 
Soviet Embassy? 

Mr. Ushakoff. No, I don't do any business with Soviet Embassy. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Or was it because you were doing business with a 
Soviet firm? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, when we moved the business from one place 
to another, it required a lot of money, and at that time, I was, you 
know, short of cash, and I asked them to assist me a little bit, and 
they did. I opened the business and I paid it back. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, you are an American citizen? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, it strikes me as a little unusual arrangement 
for an American citizen to make. 

I have no further questions. 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Bruce. 

Mr. Bruce. You came to the United States in September of 1941. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Bruce. Could you tell me something about your educational 
background? 

Mr. Ushakoff. Well, the last time, I came 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ushakoff. The very first? The very first, I came in 1935 for 
a short visit, then I came again in 1939, and then the last time, I 
came in 1941. 

Mr. Bruce. That is when you established residence? 

Mr. Ushakoff. That is right. 

Mr. Bruce. Can you tell me something about your educational 
background in the Soviet Union before you came here? 

90450— 62— pt. 2 6 



1734 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. In the Soviet Union, in fact, I have never been in 
there. I left Russia when I was, well, some under 20. I finished 
high school, and then I went to China. 

Mr. Bruce. Are you, in fact, the actual manager of the Four 
Continent Book Corporation? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Well, I am actually owner of Four Continent Book 
Corporation. 

Mr. Bruce. And all the decisions that are made in the operations 
of your business are your decisions? 

Mr. UsHAKOFF. Absolutely. 

Mr. Bruce. You have never considered yourself to be under the 
direction of a foreign power? 

Mr. UsHAKOPF. That is absolutely out of the question. 

Mr. Bruce. Didn't it strike you as odd that a representative of a 
foreign power would advance you a sum of money in excess of $5,000 
without interest? 

Mr. UsHAKOPF. Well, let's put this question this way: I buy the 
books on credit. In order to pay, 3'ou know, debts, we have to do the 
business. Well, in this specific case, you know, I felt a little bit hard 
up, and I said, ''Well, if you want to be paid in time, help me out, you 
know, temporary," for $5,000 and they did, and I paid it back, and I 
didn't — it is no secret, I told it openly in mj^ statement. That is all. 

Mr. Bruce. You signed a note for the $5,000? 

Mr. UsHAKOPP. Yes, I did. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Had you made any previous effort to secure the 
loan from any other source? 

Mr. UsHAKOPP. No, never. And I paid for my business from my 
own account, which is in existence maybe between 15 or 20 years, 
by check, to one person $10,000, to another, $5,000, and never applied 
for any loan; but in this specific case, because of moving from one 
place to another, I had to do it. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Is this the only loan that you secured from that 
source? 

Mr. UsHAKOFP. The only. 

Mr. Tuck. Any further questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. No. 

Mr. Tuck. The witness will stand aside. 

Are you through with him? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Tuck. You may be excused. 

Call the next witness. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr, Walsh. Margaret Cowl, C-o-w-1, 

Mr. Tuck. Would j^ou stand and raise your right hand, please? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Cowl. I do. 

Mr, Tuck, You may be seated. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1735 

TESTIMONY OF MARGARET COWL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
DAVID M. FREEDMAN 

Mr. Walsh. What is your full name, if you please? 

Mrs. Cowl. Mrs. Margaret Cowl. 

Mr, Walsh. And you are president of the Imported Publications 
and Products? 

Mrs. Cowl. I am not. I am not president. 

Mr. Walsh. What are you? 

Mrs. Cowl. The owner. 

Air. Walsh. Would counsel identify himself, please? 

Mr. Freedman. David M. Freedman, F-r-e-e-d-m-a-n, 320 Broad- 
way, New York City. 

Mr. Walsh. Now Mrs. Cowl, 3^ou were served with a subpena duces 
tecum to produce certain documents to this committee. I presume 
that you have read the subpena over? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And do you have with you copies of all contracts or 
agreements between Imported Publications and Products and any 
individual, firm, corporation or government, domestic or foreign, relat- 
ing to the importation for sale or dissemination of books, magazines, 
periodicals, or pamphlets? 

Mrs. Cowl. I have no wi'itten contracts and agreements with any 
foreign power, but there were letters of correspondence. 

Mr. Walsh. Would they be in the form of a contract? 

Mrs. Cowl. Well, I have a copy with me here of a very recent letter 
of correspondence made with a foreign principal, and, on the advice 
of my lawyer, I made a photostatic copy, and I will give it to you if 
you want it. 

(Document handed to counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. Thank you very much. 

Mrs. Cowl. I want to say that any of these letters of correspondence 
that I may have had in the past are all filed with the Foreign Agents 
Registration section, either in their original form or in photostat. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. Have you got any copies of any contracts or 
agreements between the Imported Publications and Products with 
any individual, firm, or corporation relating to the sale and delivery 
of books, magazines, periodicals, pamphlets, imported from foreign 
organizations or establishment, or received from an individual firm 
or corporation registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

Mrs. Cowl. No, I have no such contracts or agreements. All my 
work are just ordinary business sales, to whoever I have contact with. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, do you sell in bulk quantit}^ to bookstores the 
publications which are imported by you from any foreign government? 

Mrs. Cowl. No, I do not. Maybe occasionally I do. At the 
present time, I don't sell anything in bulk, I only take subscription 
orders for magazines of cultural, scientific, and current events nature, 
and very, very few are what you would term political. 

Mr. Walsh. And for whom do you take these subscriptions? 

Mrs. Cowl. I take them for a variety of people, including univer- 
sity libraries, members of the faculty of universities, Government 
departments, including the Army, Navy, and the Air Force, and 
people in aU wallvs of life. 



1736 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. And what are these subscriptions for? 

Mrs. Cowl. Well, I already stated they are for — jou mean the 
subject? What subject do they cover? 

Mr. Walsh. Who are the publishers of these magazines? Who 
prints them? Who disseminates them? 

Mrs. Cowl. Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga. I order them from Mezh- 
dunarodnaya Kniga and from Guozi Shudian, Peoples' Republic. 

Mr. Walsh. Now, Mrs. Cowl, for the purpose of identification, 
have you ever been known by the name of Margaret Undjus, 
U-n-d-j-u-s? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, that was my married name. 

Mr. Walsh. What year was that, if I may be bold enough to ask? 

Mrs. Cowl. I was married first in 1915. 

Mr. Walsh. And where did you five then? 

Mrs. Cowl. Brookl,yn — Brooklyn, New York. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ever live outside the United States? 

Mrs. Cowl. I didn't live outside the United States, but I was out- 
side the United vStates. 

Mr. Walsh. Where were you outside the United States? 

Mrs. Cowl. In the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Walsh. Where? 

Mrs. Cowl. Soviet Union. 

Mr. Walsh. Wliat years? 

Mrs. Cowl. 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931. 

I was also in China for a few months in 1931. 

Mr. Walsh. Were you married and using the name of Margaret 
Undjus at that time when j^ou were in China? 

Mrs. Cowl. Well, I was married, but I was already divorced, but 
I still was using that name. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, that was my question. You did use this name 
Margaret U-n-d-j-u-s, when you were in China and, also, in the 
Soviet Union? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now did you also use the name Margaret Kling, 
K-1-i-n-g? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. I don't use the name, but that name was on the 
apartment lease for a few months, which was changed to my regular 
name then. 

Mr. Walsh. Wliat was your regular name then? 

Mrs. Cowl. Mrs. Krumbein. 

Mr. Walsh. Mrs. Krumbein? 

Mrs. Cowl. Married name. 

Mr. Walsh. And what was your husband's full name? 

Mrs. Cowl. Mr. Charles Krumbein. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know whether or not he was or was not the 
treasurer of the Communist Party of the United States? 

Mrs. Cowl. I cannot answer that. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Wliat was the answer to that? 

Mr. Walsh. Cannot answer. 

Is there any reason why you cannot answer that question, Mrs. Cowl? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. My husband is dead 15 years, and I cannot testify 
about a husband. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1737 

Mr. Walsh. Now have you operated the Imported PubUcations 
and Products since 1950? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. I want to show you Exhibit 1, short-form registration 
statement, which was filed June the 4th, 1958. 

Have you answered all of the questions on that truthfully? And I 
call your attention specifically to question No. 5, on page 2. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. On page 2. 

Mr. Freedman. Yes, I want to get the date of this. 

Mr. Walsh. That, as 1 understand it, was June 4, 1958. 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, that is true. 

Mr. Walsh. So as of June the 4th, 1958, you were not a member of 
any organization? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. 1 decline to answer. 

Mr. Walsh. Mrs. Cowl, udll you confer with counsel, because it 
is necessary for this committee to know the reasons why you fail to 
answer this question. It must be on constitutional ground. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. I do not answer on the ground that I will not testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Walsh. That, in other words, as your counsel may advise 
you, is what amendment? 

Mr. Freedman. It is the fifth amendment, 

Mrs. Cowl. It is the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. And that is the basis upon which you refuse to answer 
this question? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

(Document marked "Cowl Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Now during the last 5 years, have you shipped, in 
bulk, publications which were received by you from tlie International 
Book Company m Moscow during the past 5 years? 

Mrs. Cowl. Have I shipped them to where? 

Mr. Walsh. Shipped to any place in the United States m bulk? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, that would be — 5 years ago, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, during that period, the last 5 years. 

Mrs. Cowl. Not for the entire 5 years, but for part of that time. 

Mr. Walsh. During the part that you did ship, would you tell the 
committee to whom you shipped these pamphlets which you received 
from the International Book Company m Moscow in bulk quantity? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, they were bookstores, 1 don't remember them all, 
but 1 remember some of them. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, for instance, if I read you some of them, would 
this refresh your recollection? 

The International Book Shop, San Francisco, California? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Znanie Book Shop, in San Francisco, 
California? 

Mrs. Cowl. I don't remember such a bookshop. 

Mr. Walsh. Progressive Books, Los Angeles, California? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 



1738 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. And the Free Press and Publications in Cleveland, 
Ohio? 

Mrs. Cowl. I don't 

Mr. Walsh. Well, did you ever ship them? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, I am not sure 

Mr. Walsh. You have shipped to them on occasions in bulk 
quantities? 

Mrs. Cowl. Small quantities. 

Mr. Walsh. Modern Book Store, in Chicago? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And Paul Romaine, Chicago? 

Mrs. Cowl. Small quantities, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Vilnis Book Shop in Chicago? 

Mrs. Cowl. Small quantities, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. What do you mean by "small" quantity? 

Mrs. Cowl. Oh, a few hundred over a period of a year or something. 
It is not much. 

Mr. Walsh. And Dolgich, D-o-l-g-i-c-h, in Chicago? 

Mrs. Cowl. I don't remember that name at all. 

Mr. Walsh. How about Schoenhof's Book Shop, in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts? 

Mrs. Cowl. I don't remember that name. 

Mr. Walsh. Berenson, B-e-r-e-n-s-o-n, Detroit? 

Mrs. Cowl. I don't remember that name. 

Mr. Walsh. The Global Books in Detroit? 

Mrs. Cowl. I think once I did. 

Mr. W^ALSH. How about Victor Kamkin, in Washington, D.C.? 

Mrs. Cowl. Oh, that was more than 5 years ago, we did ship to him. 

Mr. Walsh. But you used to ship to him? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the Jefferson Book Shop in New York 
City? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. In bulk? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. How much would that business amount to? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. I really don't remember the figure. Do you want me 
to guess? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, if you could approximate it. But I don't want 
you to say anything that you are not pretty sure of. 

Mrs. Cowl. I am awfully afraid to name a figure. It was not in 
thousands, it was just hundreds of dollars a year. 

Mr. Walsh. And how about the Universal Distributors in New 
York City? 

Mrs. Cowl. No. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the World Books, 747 Broadway, New 
York? 

Mrs. CoAVL. I think I sold them about $50 worth of books. 

Mr. Walsh. When? 

Mrs. Cowl. Oh, I think a little over a year ago, something like that. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know the proprietor of that establishment? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1739 

Mrs. Cowl. Well, who is he, and I wiU tell you whether I know him 
or not? 

Mr. Walsh. PhUip Franldeld? 

Mrs, Cowl. That is the proprietor? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, I know him. He bought books from me. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know him in any other capacity? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. I will not answer that question. 

Mr. Walsh. On what ground, please? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. That I will not testify against myself. 

Mr. Walsh. On the fifth amendment, is that what you are saying? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. That is what you intend to say? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. After the receipt of these publications from the Inter- 
national Book Company in Moscow, did you affix the Foreign Agents 
Registration label in these publications before you sent them out in 
bulk? 

Mrs. Cowl. Books or publications, which? 

Mr. Walsh. Either, books or publications? 

Mrs. Cowl. Well 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes; I did, to the books called for to be labeled, and 
books are called for to be legally labeled. 

Mr. Walsh. And did you also put the label on for books that were 
delivered to your clients in the New York area? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. You did? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes; with the package we did. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, the whole package in bulk, then you 
would put the Foreign Agents Registration label on the package? 

Mrs. Cowl. Inside the package. 

Mr. Walsh. But you would not put them on each individual book? 

Mrs. Cowl. On some of them we did. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, would you give us the norm or standard or 
criteria by which you would judge for yourself whether you would or 
would not put the label of a foreign registration on the books? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Some of the periodicals and books are labeled as they 
come in. 

Mr. Walsh. As they come in from where? 

Mrs. Cowl. From abroad. 

Mr. Walsh. From Moscow, from the International Book Com- 
pany? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, and then some of them are not labeled and, 
generally, I have to 

Mr. Walsh. That has been your practice? 

Mrs. Cowl. That has been my policy; yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Now you were the registered agent of the Inter- 
national Book Company. Is that correct? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



1740 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mrs. Cowl. Of Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I cannot pronounce those names. 

Mrs. Cowl. Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga. 

Mr. Walsh. Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, thank 3'ou. And were 
you also the registered agent of Guozi Shudian, S-h-u-d-i-a-n, 38 
S-u-c-h-o-w, H-a-t-u-n-g, Peking, China? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And the China Welfare Institute of Shanghai? 

Mrs. Cowl. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. And also, RUCH, Warsaw? 

(Witness conferred mth counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. You have? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And for how long a period? 

Mrs. Cowl. That is what I gave you the letter of correspondence on. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, that is the last one I just read, is it? R-U-C-H? 

Mr. Freedman. Yes; that is it. 

Mr. Walsh. Now in this statement. Exhibit No. 2, filed January 
the 12th, 1962, do you say that j^ou have discontinued direct distribu- 
tion of periodicals and are now limited to taking subscriptions which 
are sent to subscribers directly from the pubhshers? Is that your 
business at the present time? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. Yes; I take orders for subscriptions from 
people in the United States and I process them, and the copy is sent 
to the subscriber directly from abroad, with the label. 

Mr. Walsh. Now in Exhibit No. 2, on page 4, there is an item 
which reads: "All amounts received dm-ing the period from other 
somxes to be used directly or induectly for or in the interests of any 
foreign principal named under item 6, itemized as follows:" and then 
you say in July of 1961, from Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, you received 
$200, and that is for taking inventory of merchandise held on consign- 
ment. Is that correct? 

And I show you this exhibit and ask you to look at it. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes; that is true. 

(Document marked "Cowl Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. As of that date, July of 1961, did you ever receive any 
communication from Moscow that ordered you to take an inventory 
of books that you held from the International Book Company of 
Moscow? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. No I received no such communication. 

Mr. Walsh. Why did you receive $200 to take an inventory of 
merchandise held on consignment, as you have stated in this registra- 
tion statement? 

Mrs. Cowl. Well, the books that I had on consignment, many of 
them were out of date, and I wanted to destroy them and I had to 
prove to them what I was domg, so I had to take mventory, and to 
pay people to take the inventory. 

Mr. Walsh. Now did you destroy all these books which you say 
were outdated? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1741 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, after you took the inventory and 
destroyed the books, you had more inventory on consignment from 
Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, right? 

Mrs. Cowl. No. I don't understand that question. 

Mr. Walsh. I will withdraw the question and rephrase it, if I may. 

After you were paid $200 to take this inventory, you stated to this 
committee that these books were outdated and, therefore, you 
destroyed them. 

Mrs. Cowl. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you have any correspondence by which you told 
your principal, the International Book Company, that you had made 
the inventory and "This is the inventory and what will I do with it?" 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes; I did correspond with the Mezhdunarodnaya 
Kniga in Moscow and gave them an itemized statement of the inven- 
tory taken and the books that were burnt. 

Mr. Walsh. And did you have any other books that were not 
burned from this International Book Company on consignment? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes, I did have other books. 

Mr. Walsh. And what did you do with those? Did you sell them 
to anybody? 

Mrs. Cowl. No, I had— they were not — they were on consignment 
and didn't belong to me. I either had to dispose of them in the way 
I was ordered by the shipper or pay for them. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, how did they order you to dispose of them? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. They ordered me to transfer them to their agency, an- 
other agency. 

Mr. Walsh. Which other agency? 

Mrs. Cowl. The Four Continent Book Corporation. 

Mr. Walsh. The Four Continent Book Corporation? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. When did you transfer these books to the Four Con- 
tinent Book Corporation? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Well, approximately, it is when I moved the business. 

Mr. Walsh. And when was that? 

Mrs. Cowl. About a year ago. 

Mr. Walsh. That would be in 1961? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Was it around July of 1961? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. Approximately. I cannot remember the exact date, 

Mr. Walsh. Now these books that you transferred to the Four 
Continent Book Corporation, did you just transfer them over there on 
orders from Moscow or were you paid for them, or did you give them 
to them on orders from Moscow on consignment? 

Do you understand the question? 

Mrs. Cowl. Yes. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Cowl. I got a credit memo for these books, so I didn't have 
to pay the shipper, and was instructed to turn them over, and they 
were turned over. 



1742 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Thank you, Mrs. Cowl. 

I have no further questions. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. When j^ou say you were instructed to destroy cer- 
tain books that were outdated, what do you mean by "outdated"? 
Under what ch'cumstances or why would they be outdated? 

Mrs. Cowl. Well, there are certain subjects of a scientific nature 
that are already too old to be sold. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. These were science books? 

Mrs. Cowl. Most of them w^ere, yes. You know, science develops, 
grows, and old books are not salable any more. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. These were not propaganda books that were out- 
dated because the official line had been changed? 

Mrs. Cowl. I don't remember all the titles, but I know that an 
awful lot of them were scientific books. There may have been one or 
two items that were not scientific, I don't remember. They were 
mostly that. I do remember they were mostly old science books that 
people would not buy any more. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Well, then, your answer to my question is that it 
was not because they were propaganda materials that were outdated? 

Mrs. Cowl. No, I would say no; because the great majority was 
of what I said. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. No; I have no questions. 

Mr. Tuck. You may stand aside. 

Is she excused, Mr. Walsh? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. You may be excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Philip Frankfeld. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you please stand and raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give in this 
case will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP FRANKFELD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
DAVID M. FREEDMAN 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Frankfeld, will you give the committee your full 
name? 

Mr, Frankfeld. Philip Frankfeld. 

Mr. Walsh. And where do you live? 

Mr. Frankfeld. 202 Riverside Drive. 

Mr. Walsh. And would you be kind enough to identify yourself, 
Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Freedman. David M. Freedman, 320 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Mr. Walsh. Now, Mr. Frankfeld, I show you, and I ask this be 
marked Frankfeld Exliibit No. 1 for reference, and ask you whether 
or not this is the business certificate which you filed with the County 
Clerk in New York City to do business under the name of World 
Books at 747 Broadway? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1743 

Mr. Walsh. Thank you. And this was filed the 16th day of June 
1961? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is right. 

(Document marked "Frankfeld Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Now 3^ou were served with a subpena to appear before 
this committee and bring with you certain documents. Is that 
correct? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. Have you read the subpena over carefully and are 
you prepared to produce the documents called for in the subpena? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. But on advice of counsel, I have 
photostats made, and they are here. 

Mr. Walsh. That is perfectly satisfactory to the committee. 

May I have this registration statement filed with the Department 
of Justice September the 29th, 1961. It will be marked Frankfeld 
Exhibit No. 2 and filed with the committee for purpose of reference. 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be so filed and marked. 

Mr. Walsh. I show you Exhibit No. 2 and ask you to look at the 
last page thereof, and I ask you whether or not you have signed that 
copy and sworn to it before a notary public? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 

(Document marked "Frankfeld Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Pursuant to the subpena, you have supplied us with 
a contract dated September the 5th of 1961. 

Now will you tell the committee with whom you had conversations 
m this country so that you could obtain this contract from the Inter- 
national Book Company of Moscow? 

Mr. Frankfeld. After being miemployed for a period of 6 months 
and having had experience worldng with Four Contment, I thought 
I knew enough about the book business to decide to go into book- 
selling. I, therefore, wrote a letter to Mr. Tsapenko. 

Mr. Walsh. To whom? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Mr. Tsapenko. T-s-a-p-e-n-k-o. 

Mr. Walsh. What is his first name? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I don't laiow. 

Mr. Walsh. Was it Nicholas? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I don't know. I know Mr. Tsapenko, that is 
how I have always addressed him. 

Mr. Walsh. Is he here in America? 

Mr. Frankfeld. He is here in Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Walsh. In what capacity? 

Mr. Frankfeld. As representing M.K. That would be much 
easier to identify. 

Mr. Walsh. I think you are right, so from now on, we will call the 
International Book Company, M.K. 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is right, it will save us a lot of trouble. 

Mr. Walsh. Now he represents M.K. in this country? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is right, sir. 

Air. Walsh. It was with him with whom you negotiated this 
contract? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I came and spoke to him either the end of March, 
early part of April, and told him what my idea was. 



1744 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. And what did you tell him? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I told him I was interested in opening a shop that 
would specialize in the sale and distribution of English translations 
of Russian or Soviet books — cultural, political, economic, scientific, 
and technical. In fact, at that time, I said exclusively English 
translations. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. And you also are listed as the foreign agent for 
Guozi Shudian, G-u-o-z-i S-h-u-d-i-a-n, of Peking, China? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Under the Foreign Registrations Act. 

Mr. Walsh. You have filed that you 

Mr. Frankfeld. I have filed that I represent them. It is a pub- 
lishing and distribution house in Peking, China. 

Mr. Walsh. And this contract is dated June the 15th, 1961? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is right, su'. 

Mr. Walsh. May I have these two contracts marked "exhibit 
No. 3" and filed for reference to the committee. 

Mr. Tuck. The document wiU be so marked and filed with the 
records in this proceeding, 

(Documents marked ''Frankfeld Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Now with whom did j^ou have a conversation — can 
we call this G.S.? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Good enough by me. 

Mr. Walsh. You will understand what I mean? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I certamly wiU. 

Mr. Walsh. With whom did you have a conversation w^hen you 
received this contract June the 15th, 1961? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I just sat down and typed a letter to them, and 
this is the answer that I received. I proposed that I handle English 
translations of Chinese scientific, social, historical, political, and eco- 
nomic books and periodicals or publications. 

Mr. Walsh. And there is included in the letter from M.K. the 
discounts which you received: for books, 70 percent; periodicals — 
retail, 70 percent; periodicals — subscription, 50 percent; and other 
publications, 70 percent. Is that correct? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. Now do you have any verbal agreements? I ask 
you to produce any contracts, copies of all contracts, relating to the 
sale and the delivery of books and magazines imported from a foreign 
organization or establishment with any firm or individual or corpora- 
tion registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

Mr. Frankfeld. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. You have oral contracts with them? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I have not. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you have correspondence with them which would 
indicate that you did have a contract with them? 

Mr. Frankfeld. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Now I ask you whether or not you have ever supplied 
books in bulk to the International Book Shop of San Francisco? 

Mr. Frankfeld. It all depends what you mean "in bulk." I wish 
it were in bulk. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, more than one copy, I presume. 

Mr. Frankfeld. More than one copy, yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. How many copies would you say is bulk? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1745 

Mr. Frankfeld. Oh, hundreds, thousands, but a few dozen is 
picayune. 

Mr. Walsh. And do you say that it is picayune, the amount of 
books that you sent to the International Book Shop in San Francisco? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Small, small. 

Mr. Walsh. Now what do you mean by "small," so that we can 
understand each other? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Oh, dozens. 

Mr. Walsh. Dozens, plural? 

Air. Frankfeld. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Would that mean a hundred? 

Mr. Frankfeld. In some instances, a hundred, 

Mr. Walsh. In some instances more? 

Mr. Frankfeld. In some instances less. 

Mr. Walsh. When I ask you about these various organizations, 
will you give an approximation of how many dozens or hundreds of 
pamphlets you send, and the next is capital Z-n-a-n-i-e Book Shop, 
California? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Never heard of it. 

Mr. Walsh. Progressive Books, California? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And 3^our approximation of how many books or pam- 
phlets you sent to them? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Hundreds of dollars. 

Mr. Walsh. Hundreds of dollars? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Worth of books. 

Mr. Walsh. That includes more than a hundred books? 

Mr. Frankfeld. In the sum total, not individually; yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Free Press and Publications, in Cleveland, Ohio? 

Mr. Frankfeld. No, sir, never heard of them. 

Mr. Walsh. Frontier Books? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I will have to take those names down and write 
to these people. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. The Modern Book Store, in Chicago, Illinois? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. ^Vliat is your approximation for the Modern Book 
Store? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Well, I would say hundreds of dollars. 

Mr. Walsh. How about Paul Romaine, Chicago? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Small amounts. 

Mr. Walsh. In the dozens? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Not quite. 

Mr. Walsh. Vilnis Book Shop, Chicago, Illinois? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Never heard of it. 

Mr. Walsh. Dolgich Book Shop, Chicago? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Excuse me? 

Mr. Walsh. D-o-l-g-i-c-h? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Never heard of it. 

Mr. Walsh. Schoenhof's Book Shop, Cambridge, Massachusetts? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Never heard of it. 

Mr. Walsh. Berenson, B-e-r-e-n-s-o-n Book, Detroit, Michigan? 

Mr. Frankfeld. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Global Books? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 



1746 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Wliat is your approximation of the number of booklets 
and books that you sent them? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Small amounts, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. When you say a "small amount," will 3'Ou give me an 
approximation? Hundreds of copies, or what? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Oh, dozens of copies, I would say. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know who owns Global Books in Detroit, 
Michigan? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I don't laiow who owns it. I know that I cor- 
respond with them. 

Mr. Walsh. With whom do you corresiDond? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Mrs. Carl Winter. 

Mr. Walsh. Mrs. Carl Winter, W-i-n-t-e-r? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know her to be a member of the National 
Committee of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I don't ask people their political affiliations. 

Mr. Walsh. You never heard that she was? 

Mr. Frankfeld. As I said, I never ask people their political 
affiliations. 

Mr. Johansen. Well, Mr. Chairman, that is not responsive to the 
question. 

Mr. Walsh. Whether you asked her or not, did you ever hear, 
did you ever read, did you ever laiow her to be? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Walsh. On what ground? 

Mr. Frankfeld. On the ground that it is immaterial and also on 
the ground of fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. And on the fifth amendment do you mean that the 
answer might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I refuse to serve as a witness against myself. 

Mr. Walsh. How about Victor Kamkin, Washington, D.C.? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I have no relations with him at all. 

Mr. Walsh. Jefferson Book Shop, New York City? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Were they dozens of copies, or more? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Hundreds of copies, there. 

Mr. Walsh. How many hundreds? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Well, in some of the smaller pieces, on some of the 
pamphlets, hundreds of copies; and some of the books and titles, 
dozens. 

Mr. Walsh. The Universal Distributors, New York? 

Mr. Frankfeld. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you sell for any other person, other than the 
principals that you have mentioned in your registration statement? 

Mr. Frankfeld. American publishers. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you sell for Crosscurrents Press, Inc., too? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I have taken some of their titles. 

Mr. Walsh. Now I have mentioned a considerable number of book- 
shops throughout the United States. Are there other bookshops with 
whom you do business and sell, in bulk, copies that you import from 
M.K. in Russia? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Which are they? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1747 

Mr. Frankfeld. College and university bookshops and other 

Mr. Walsh. What? 

Mr. Frankfeld. College and university bookshops, commercial 
bookshops. I buy some of the general books on the humanities or 
on art or on the theater. I have on — for instance, there are a num- 
ber of bookshops that specialize in psychiatry and psychology, so I 
sell them books by Professor Pavlov, et cetera. 

Mr. Walsh. Now these book companies that I have mentioned to 
you before, book companies or the shops that sell the books that you 
send to them, do you know any of the individuals in those which I 
have just mentioned to you and to which you send material in bulk 
to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I have already answered that question, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. I only asked you about one, Global Books in Detroit. 

Mr. Frankfeld. I decline. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. I decline to answer any questions that will con- 
nect me with the Communist Party. 

Air. Walsh. Would you repeat that answer, please? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I decline to answer any questions that will iden- 
tify me with the Communist Party in any way, shape, or manner. 

Mr. Walsh. On what grounds? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. On the grounds which I raised previously. 

Mr. Walsh. What were they? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Possible self-incrimination. 

Mr. Walsh. Now did you receive from the Crosscurrents Press the 
Progress of the Communist Party 

Mr. Frankfeld. Program. 

Mr. Walsh. The Program oj the Communist Party oj the Soviet 
Union? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. How many copies did you receive, do you know? 
Would it refresh your recollection if 1 were to mention the num- 
ber 200? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Oh, 1 got more than that. 

Mr. Walsh. Approximately how many? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I would say about 500 copies. 

Mr. Walsh. Five hundred. 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And did the World Books distribute these booldets 
by any other means than sale in its bookshop or bookstore? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Some we sent out, whenever we got orders from 
them. 

Mr. Walsh. From whom did j'ou receive orders for the Program 
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Frankfeld. From some of the bookshops that you mentioned, 
which 1 have already identified, and then from others who were 
interested from a sociological point of view in reading the program 
that was adopted at this 22nd Congress. 

Mr. Walsh. And you had been emplo^'ed b}' the Four Continent 
Book Corporation? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. For how long a period? 



1748 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Frankfeld. Eoughlv from about November of 1956 to June 
of 1960. 

Mr. Walsh. Who interceded for 3-ou when 3'ou were employed by 
the Four Continent Book? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Nobody, I interceded for myself. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know Mr. Markoff at that time? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Never heard of him. 

Mr. Walsh. You just went in cold? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Went in cold, like I went in cold to hundreds of 
other places during the 6 months of my unemployment. 

And by the way, just to 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. Now I show you this registration which was previously 
marked Exhibit 2 and filed on September the 29th, 1961. Item 4(a) 
requests you to name ''All clubs, societies, committees, and other 
nonbusiness organizations, in the United States or elsewhere, of 
which Registrant is or has been diu-ing the past 5 years a member, 
director, officer, or employee." And you state "Dist. 65, Retail, 
Wholesale & Dept. Store Union," and that you were a member from 
January of 1956 and are still a member. Is that correct? 

(Docmnent handed to witness.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is correct, excepting an out-of-industry 
member. 

Mr. Walsh. What is that? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Out of industry, since I don't work in a union 
shop. 

Mr. Walsh. And you also state, "As to any other organizations, 
registrant declines to answer under protection of the 5th Amendment 
to U.S. Constitution." Is that correct? And I show again Exhibit 
No. 2. 

(Docimient handed to witness.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. Under this registration, when you signed it, were you 
a member of the Communist Party at that time? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. I decline to answer that question on the ground 
previously stated. 

Mr. Walsh. And the previous ground stated is what? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That I refuse to act as a witness against myself. 

Mr. Walsh. Now Mr. Frankfeld, I show you Exhibit No. 4, which 
is a pamphlet, a page, and the title of which is "World Books, 747 
Broadway, New York 3, New York," and in the upper left-hand 
corner, "The newly established firm." In the body of it says, "Carries 
all of the Marxist classics published to date." The Marxist classics 
are books written by Lenin, Stalin, and others. Is that correct? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Marx and Engels and any American Alarxists 
as well. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I mean they are all Marxist-Leninist theoretical 
books? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Theoretical books on scientific socialism; yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And that is commonly known as Marxism-Leninism, 
is that correct? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is correct. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1749 

Mr. Walsh. And you also state, ''Books from the Soviet Union, 
People's China, Canada and other lands. Sole Distributor of and 
Subscription Service for the WORLD MARXIST REVIEW in the 
U.S.A." 

Who publishes the World Marxist Review? 

Mr. Frankfeld. It is published in Canada by the Progress Books. 
And I believe that it has its point of origin in Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Walsh. And then it also states, "Books on American history. 
Labor, the Negro People's movement and general literature. Book 
orders promptly filled. Subscription rate for the World Marxist 
Review is:" Is that one of the books that you had, a page from it? 

That is a page from the World Marxist Review? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is right. 

Mr. Walsh. And did you pay for that advertisement? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That was one of the things that I was able to get 
on a promotional basis, so that American readers would send in their 
subscriptions to me. 

Mr. Walsh. You did not pay for it, in other words, since you were 
gomg to act as distributor for this World Marxist Review, you got this 
ad free? 

Mr. Frankfeld. That is right. 

(Document marked "Frankfeld Exhibit No. 4" and retamed in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Well, how did you become the sole distributor m the 
United States for the World Marxist Review? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. Frankfeld. In April, the early part of April of 1961, I went 
to Toronto, Canada. I saw the people who are responsible for the 
World Marxist Review, spoke to them, and made the arrangements, 
necessary arrangements, with them. 

Mr. Walsh. Specifically, who were the people you saw in Canada 
mth reference to this purpose that you would become the sole dis- 
tributor for the World Marxist Review? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Mr. William Sydney, who is in charge of Progress 
Books in Toronto. 

Mr. Walsh. Where is Progress Books located in Toronto, do you 
remember? 

Mr. Frankfeld. 4248 Statten Street, Toronto 3, Ontario, Canada. 

Mr. Walsh. Are you the sole distributor for the World Marxist 
Review in the United States? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I understand that there are others who import 
the Woild Marxist Review from Canada. Who they are, I don't 
know, but I have discovered subsequently that I am not. 

Mr. Walsh. WeU, did you have an introduction to this Mr. Sydney 
before you went up there? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I wTote him a letter. 

Mr. Walsh. And that was your sole entree, 3'ou might say? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Sole entree, that is right, an American-initiated 
enterprise. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know of any other person who controls, other 
than the person you have just mentioned, the World Marxist Review? 

Mr. Frankfeld, That is the only man I spoke to when I was in 
Toronto. 



1750 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Did you ever learn of, or read in the publications of 
the World Marxist Review, the names of other individuals who are 
associated with the World Marxist Review? 

Mr. Frankfeld. Yes; I read a lot of names, but they don't mean 
anythmg to me. 

Mr. Walsh. You never heard of them? 

Mr. Frankfeld. I don't know them, never heard of them. 

Mr. Walsh. Are you presently a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Frankfeld. It seems to me that the whole purpose of your 
investigation here is made clear by the whole character of the questions 
that you are raising. 

I thought this was an mvestigation of busmess, legitimate business, 
that Mr. Bob Kennedy said was presentable business. I am licensed 
under the laws of our country to do business from the Soviet Union 
and from Chma and, therefore, I resent your question. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, will you answer it, then? 

Mr. Tuck. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Frankfeld. I have already answered that I decline to answer 
the question on the basis that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Walsh. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tuck. Any questions, Mr. Johansen? 

Mr. Johansen. No questions. 

Mr. Tuck. Any questions, Mr. Bruce? 

Mr. Bruce. No questions. 

Mr. Tuck. You may stand aside. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Tuck. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Felshin.^ 



1 Testimony of Mr. Joseph Felshin, the last witness on May 17, 1962, is printed in Part 1, pp. 1664-1671. 



C03IMUNIST OUTLETS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF 
SOVIET PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART 2 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 11, 1962 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pm^siiant to recess, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Old House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman 
of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. 
Johansen, of Alichigan. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; and William M. Tuck, of Virginia. 

Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin, and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana (appearances as noted). 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., director; John C. 
Walsh, cocounsel; and Donald T. Appell, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The hearmgs today are a continuation of those held on May 9, 10, 
and 17, 1962. In order that the witnesses may be appraised of the 
legislative purpose, I shall repeat the resolution and subcommittee 
designation as placed in the record on Alay 9. 

Let the record show that the Honorable Francis E. Walter, chair- 
man. Committee on LTn-American Activities, appointed a subcom- 
mittee to conduct these hearings consisting of Representatives William 
M, Tuck, August E. Johansen, and myself, Edwin E. Willis, as chair- 
man, all of whom are present. I should note that Mr. Johansen is 
delayed, but another member of the committee, Mr. Schadeberg, is 
with us. 

The committee resolution adopted April 9, 1962, authorizing these 
hearings sufficiently sets forth the subject and legislative purposes, 

(Resolution reads as follows:) 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C, or at such 
other place or places as the Chairman may designate, and at such time or times 
as the Chairman may determine, relating to the publishing, printing and dis- 

1751 



1752 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

tribution of Communist propaganda material that is instigated from foreign 
countries or is of a domestic origin, the legislative purposes of which are: 

1. To strengthen the provisions of Section 10 of the Internal Security Act of 
1950 so as to broaden the application of such section to cover persons, firms, 
associations and corporations engaged in the printing, publishing and dissemina- 
tion of Soviet propaganda; 

2. To assist Congress, tlirough the Committee's legislative oversight duties, in 
appraising the administration of laws relating to the introduction and dissemina- 
tion of Communist propaganda within the United States; and 

3. To consider and act upon clauses (c) and (d) of Section 312 of Title 3, H.R. 6, 
introduced by Representative Walter on January 3, 1961, and referred to this 
Committee as part of H.R. 6, said clauses constituting proposed amendments 
of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the Committee, or any subcommittee 
thereof, be authorized to investigate and hear any other matter within the jurisdic- 
tion of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee thereof, appointed to 
conduct these hearings, may designate. 

The hearings in May were rather broad and constructive and as a 
result we have been considering legislation. Today we will hear more 
witnesses along the same lines. 

Counsel, please call your first witness. 

Mr. Walsh. Helen Allison Winter. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mrs. Winter. I do affirm. 

TESTIMONY ,0F HELEN ALLISON WINTER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, WORTH ROWLEY 

Mr. Walsh. Mrs. Winter, will you give the committee your full 
name, please? 

Mrs. Winter. I was subpenaed under the name of Helen Winter, 
Global Books. 

Mr. Walsh. Is that your right name? 

Mrs. Winter. That is my correct name. 

Mr. Walsh. Where do you live, Mrs. Winter? 

Mrs. Winter. In Detroit, Michigan. 

Mr. Walsh. At what address? 

Mrs. Winter. At 9556 Burnette, Detroit 4. 

Mr. Walsh. I notice that you are represented by counsel. Would 
you be kind enough to identify yourself, sir? 

Mr. Rowley. Yes, indeed. My name is Worth Rowley. I am 
a member of the District of Columbia bar, of the firm of Cuimnings 
& Sellers. I am here today at the request of the American Civil 
Liberties Union as a volunteer attorney representing Mrs. Winter. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you give the committee a short resume of your 
education? 

Mrs. Winter. I graduated grade school and I graduated high 
school. 

Mr. Walsh. Wliat high school? 

Mrs. Winter. Lincoln High School in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Walsh. And have you continued your education since that 
time? 

Mrs. Winter. No, I have not. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you also give the committee a short resume of 
your occupational background? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1753 

Mrs. Winter. I really don't see, sir, how this in any way affects 
the legislative powers of this committee. I am here subpenaed as the 
owner of Global Books and I don't know what my background has 
to do with anything with respect to selling my books. 

Mr. Walsh. This is for the purpose of identification so you will 
never be mistaken for any other person by the same name, and to 
give the committee a description of your background so they will 
know who you are. 

Mrs. Winter. There is no other person that owns Global Books 
except myself and nobody could be confused with me nor could I be 
confused with anyone else. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, you are associated with Global Books? 

Mrs. Winter. I am the owner of Global Books. 

Mr. Walsh. How long have you been the owner of Global Books? 

Mrs. Winter. On the present premises for approximately 3 years 
and, prior to that, in a small out-of-the-house selling operation. 

Mr. Walsh. Are you the wife of Carl Winter, the chairman of the 
Michigan District of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Winter. I don't think that has any pertinency to the matter 
at hand. 

Mr. Walsh. This is also for the purpose of a fm*ther identification 
of you for the committee. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. In a small booklet Mr. Rowley showed me last night, 
which I understood the committee was supposed to supply me, but 
did not, there is a section dealing with this matter of relationship of 
husband and wife, and I don't think, therefore, it is necessary to give 
any information concerning my 

Mr. Walsh. I am not asking you any question with reference to 
the relationship of husband and wife. I am asking you whether or 
not you are the wife of Carl Winter. 

Mrs. Winter. One shall not be questioned concerning the activities 
of the other. 

Mr. Walsh. I am not asking you anything about activities. I am 
asking you whether j'ou are the wife of Carl Winter, who is the chair- 
man of the Michigan District of the Communist Party, You may 
answer that yes or no, or any other way you want to. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. It seems to me that this possibly could be a leading 
question. There are two questions in one — I, the wife of so and so, 
and is he somebody or other. 

Mr. Walsh. Are you the wife of Carl Winter? 

Mrs. Winter. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Walsh. Is he the chairman of the Michigan District of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Winter. No, he is not. 

Mr. Walsh. Was he ever? 

Mrs. Winter. That I am sorry — I think I will refuse to answer on 
the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. I don't think it is 
pertinent to the proceedings at hand. 

Mr. Walsh. Are you presently the educational director of the 
Communist Party for the District of Michigan? 

Mrs. Winter. I think that particular question infringes on my 
rights under the first amendment and I don't think it is necessary 
for the inquiry at hand. 



1754 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Only under the first amendment? 

Mrs. Winter. And fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. Have you ever had any business dealings with the 
pubhshing house known as Crosscurrents Press, Inc., of New York 
City? 

Mrs. Winter. I have business dealings with some hundred or more 
publishing houses. 

Mr. Walsh. I am asking you specifically have you had any dealings 
with Crosscurrents Press, Inc., of New York City? 

Mrs. Winter. I think, sir, that delves into my rights under the 
first amendment with respect to freedom of the press and I do not 
see any need to answ^er that question with respect to the present 
inquiry. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Walsh. You are not invoking the fifth amendment to this 
particular question? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I believe I will have to invoke the fifth amendment 
as well. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat is that? 

Mrs. Winter. I will invoke the fifth amendment as well. 

Mr. Walsh. I hand you a document, which I ask be marked Winter 
Exhibit No. 1 and filed with the committee for reference. I ask you 
whether or not that is a copy of a certificate which you filed for con- 
ducting a business under an assumed name in the State of Michigan, 
and sworn to under date of September 3, 1958. I also ask you 
whether or not that is your signature on this particular document? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. It seems to me that anything that relates to this 
inquiry relates my constitutional rights under the first and fifth amend- 
ments and I decline to recognize this. 

Mr. Walsh. Is that your signature on Winter Exhibit No. 1? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to state. 

(Document marked "Winter Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, I can hardly hear the witness. 

Mr. Walsh. I call your attention to the fact that you have stated in 
this document that you do certify that the true and real full name or 
names of the person or persons owning, conducting, transacting the 
same together with the Post Office address of each is as follows; and 
further on this certificate it reads: "Helen Winter, 9556 Burnette, 
Detroit," and it is signed on September 3, 1958. 

Mr. Willis. Counsel, will you defer? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Counsel, is this microphone next to the witness work- 
ing? We can hardly hear you and cannot hear the witness at all. 

Mrs. Winter. I am speaking perfectly all right. They will have to 
tell me whether they can hear or not. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you pull it closer to you, Mrs. Winter? 

Mr. Willis. We will say if we can't hear. 

Mr. Walsh. I also notice on Exhibit No. 1 that the address is 9556 
Burnette Street, Detroit. 

I now show you a document, which I ask be marked as Winter 
Exhibit No. 2 for reference purposes. This shows a change of address 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1755 

of Global Books from 9556 Burnette to 4829 Woodward Avenue. Is 
this the present address of Global Books? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. I ask you to look at the document to refresh your 
recollection, if necessary. 

Mrs. Winter. I believe I will have to continue to rely on my con- 
stitutional privilege and decline to answer this question on the basis 
of the first and the fifth amendment. 

Air. Willis. Do you say you believe so? Do you invoke? 

Mrs. Winter. Yes, 1 do. 

(Document marked ''Winter Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know a Myi-on Emanuel Sharpe, who is the 
owner of Crosscurrents Press, Inc., of New York City? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, su-, I will have to continue to decline 
to answer these questions on the basis of the fu"st and fifth amendment. 
I believe this is infringing upon my rights with respect to the freedom 
of the press. 

Mr. Walsh. Was this individual, Myron Emanuel Sharpe, also 
known as "Mike" when he was a graduate student at the University 
of Michigan? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir, 1 cannot answer that question either 
for the same reason. 

Mr. Walsh, Do you know whether or not he was one of the youth 
leaders of the Communist Party at the university at that tune? 

Mrs. Winter. I will have to refuse to answer that question on the 
same basis. I have no information with respect to that in any way. 

Mr. Walsh. In May of this year, Mr. Sharpe appeared before 
this committee and one of the exhibits (Sharpe Exhibit No. 23) 
introduced at that tune was a copy of the dissemination report filed 
by Crosscurrents Press under the Foreign Agents Kegistration Act. 
This dissemination report showed that 200 copies of the pamphlet, 
Speech hy Nikifa S. Khrushchev at the Fifteenth Session of the UN 
General Assembly were shipped to Global Books, Detroit, Michigan, by 
Crosscurrents Press. 

I ask 3^ou whether or not this is true as I now show you Sharpe 
Exhibit No. 23. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Walsh. To simplify the question. Did you receive 200 books 
from Crosscm-rents Press of that speech by Nikita Khrushchev? 

Mrs. Winter. I will rely on my privileges under the fu'st and fifth 
amendment with respect to answering this question. 

I have no recollection of this transaction, in any event. 

Mr. Willis. Then I do not see any basis for your invocation of the 
fifth amendment. Your answer is that you know nothing about it, 
is that it? 

(Counsel conferred with his witness.) 

Mrs. Winter. 1 rely on my constitutional privileges in this instance. 

Mr. Willis. Why? 

Mrs. Winter. Because I believe it is an infringement of my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments with respect to freedom of the 
press, and with respect to bearing witness against myself if 1 should 
attempt to answer these questions. 



1756 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, did not the witness open up the avenue 
of further interrogation of this with her initial answer? 

Mr. Willis. She came pretty close to that, but she finally relied on 
the fifth amendment, so I will only suggest that the witness be more 
specific in her invocation of the constitutional protections. Other- 
wise, I am going to have to order you to answer the questions. 

Mr. Walsh. Mrs. Winter, prior to September 3, 1958, when you 
filed this certificate to conduct business under an assumed name, 
namely. Global Books, did you have any discussion with respect to 
its establishment mth any person or persons of the Communist 
Party of Michigan? 

Mrs. Winter. I will have to rely on my privileges under the first 
and fifth amendments with respect to this question, and decline to 
answer it. 

Mr. Willis. Do you? 

Mrs. Winter. I do. 

Mr. Walsh. When you changed the address from 9556 Burnette 
to 4829 Woodward Avenue, did you do that so that you would be 
closer to the Wayne State University in order to expand Communist 
Party activities throUi_,h the students there? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir. I decline to answer this on the 
same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. According to the committee's investigation in 1960, 
the Communist Party urged its members in all districts to arrange for 
the issuance of invitations to concealed and open members of the 
Communist Party to speak on university campuses. 

As a member of the National Committee of the Communist Party 
of the United States, did you participate in these discussions for the 
issuance of directives to the membership for the purpose of inviting 
concealed and open members of the Communist Party to speak on 
university campuses? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. To that question, too, I decline to answer on the 
basis of my rights under the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Walsh. Was this one of the reasons why you formed Global 
Books Forum? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, I decline to answer that question for the 
same reasons. 

Mr. Walsh. I hand you a copy of a letter on the stationery of 
Global Books, 4829 Woodward Avenue, Suite 201, Detroit 1, Michigan, 
Winter Exhibit No. 3 and signed Helen Winter, Owner. It reads as 
follows: 

"Global Books, 4829 Woodward Avenue, Suite 201, Detroit 1, Michi- 
gan," and it is dated January 11, 1961. "To Whom it May Concern 
Global Books, of 4829 Woodward, Detroit, freely consents to the 
registration of the name GLOBAU BOOKS FORUM as the assumed 
name of that non-profit voluntary association, of which I am secretary 
and Carl Haessler is chairman-treasurer." 

Will you look at the letter, please, and tell the committee if that 
is your signature, "Helen Winter." 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I believe this is an infringement of my rights under 
the first amendment and I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Walsh. You are only invoking the first amendment? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1757 

Mrs. Winter. And the fifth amendment as well. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you honestly believe that if you answered that 
question you would incriminate yourself? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir, but many of these questions are 
very leading. They are double and triple questions and I think I 
will have to rely upon my constitutional rights with respect to answer- 
ing them all. 

Mr. Willis. Ask her a simple question. 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. You haven't been asked a question yet. 

What is the question? Rephrase it. 

Mr. Walsh, I asked her if that is her signature on this letter. 

Mr. Willis. That is a simple question, isn't it? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer the question on the basis of my 
rights under the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Walsh. This letter, "To Whom it Mav Concern," is stamped, 
"filed January 11, 1961, Edgar M. Branigin, Clerk." 

Mr. Willis. May I see that document? And it may be marked. 

(Document marked "Winter Exhibit No. 3" and retained in Com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. I show you Winter Exhibit No. 4, a copy of a certifi- 
cate with reference to the Global Books Forum conducting business 
under an assumed name. It is dated January 11, 1961, and is signed 
by Carl Haessler. 

On this certificate, there are five signatures, four of which are struck 
out, including that of one Helen Winter. I ask 3^ou whether or not 
3''0u are acquainted with Carl Haessler, whose signature is the onl}^ 
signature not stricken from the certificate? 

Mrs. Winter. I must decline to answer this question also on the 
basis of my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. Do you decline? 

Mrs. Winter. I do decline. 

Mr. Walsh. Was Carl Haessler one of the original founders of 
Global Books Forum? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir. I decline to answer that question 
on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you answer whether or not Lucy Haessler, 
39 Massachusetts, Highland Park, was one of the original founders 
of Global Books Forum? 

Mrs. Winter. The same answer to that question. 

Mr. Walsh. Naomi Komorowski? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. And also Conrad Komorowski? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same bass, 

(Document marked "Winter Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. Do 3'ou know whether or not Carl Haessler and Lucy 
Haessler were members of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir. I decline to answer that question 
on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. And the same answer to Naomi and Conrad Komo- 
rowski? 

Airs. Winter. Yes, sir. 



1758 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Walsh. Isn't it a fact that Conrad Komorowski is the editor 
of the Polish newspaper, Glos Ludowyl 

]\Irs. WiXTEK. I decline to answer that question on the same basis, 
fii'st and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know whether there is such a newspaper 
printed in the Polish language known as Glos Ludowy? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir. I decline to answer that question 
as well. 

Mr. Walsh. Is it a fact that this Polish language newspaper, known 
as Glos Ludowy, is under the control of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question as well. 

Mr. Walsh. Is it a fact that you are the educational director of 
the Communist Party of Michigan? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir. I decline to answer that question 
on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. And that the Communist Party controls the foreign 
language newspaper, Romanul America? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know whether or not the Communist Party 
of Michigan controls the foreign language newspaper, Narodna Volya? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Walsh. Have you ever heard of that newspaper? 

Mrs. Winter. These newspapers are published in Michigan along 
with hundreds of others. I happen to have seen their names on mailing 
lists. 

(Counsel conferred with his witness.) 

Mr. Walsh. Are you familiar with the Cheyne Printing Company? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir. I will have to decline to answer 
that question on the basis of my privileges. 

Mr. Walsh. You previously stated that the only reason you know 
about these newspapers I have just mentioned is the fact that you 
have seen them on mailing lists. Was that your statement? 

Mrs. Winter. No. I decline to answer any question with respect 
to freedom of the press. I have that privilege under the first amend- 
ment and I decline to answer any of these questions also Avith respect 
to my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. You stated that you did know some of these papers: 
Glos Ludowy, Romanul America, and the Narodna Volya because you 
have seen them on mailing lists. Is that correct? Is that what you 
stated a few moments ago? 

Mrs. Winter. I probably stated that, but I would like to say now 
that I decline to answer any further questions with respect to these 
matters under my privilege under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Walsh. On October 21, 1960, did the Global Books Forum 
sponsor Harvey O'Connor at the McGregor Center on the campus 
of Wayne State University? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer tliis with respect to my rights 
under the first amendment, which has to do with freedom of speech — — 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know wlietlier or not any person 

Mrs. Winter. And also the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. After Wayne University attempted to cancel the 
Forum's use of McGregor Center, did Global Books Forum obtain 
an injunction against Wayne State University? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1759 

Mrs. Winter, s decline to answer this question or any relating 
question on the basis of my privilege under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you, under the name of Helen Winter, start court 
proceedings to get an injunction against Wayne University for refusing 
to allow Global Books Forum to hold such a meeting? 

Mrs. Winter. I am sorry, sir. I decline to answer for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. Walsh. Did members of the Communist Party and their law- 
yers decide that they would attempt to get an injunction against the 
university for not permitting you to have Harvey O'Connor speak 
there? 

Mrs. Winter. I cannot answer that question under my privilege 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know whether or not any members of the 
Communist Party did appear on the Michigan College campuses and 
did the Communist Party arrange for the invitations to be issued 
through the students and faculty members of the campus to invite 
members of the Communist Party to make speeches or address tlie 
students on the college campuses m Michigan? 

Mrs. Winter. I don't understand that question. 

Mr. Walsh. I will rephase it. Wlien the speakers of the Com- 
munist Party appeared on the Michigan College campuses did the 
Communist Party arrange for the invitations to be issued to these 
speakers through students and facuhy members on the campuses? 

Mrs. Winter. I don't understand the question at all. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you participate in any of the decisions of the 
Communist Party whereby they did ask the students and certain 
faculty members to invite Communists to address them on the Michi- 
gan campuses? 

Mrs. Winter. I will have to invoke my rights under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. We have been very lenient with 3"ou, Witness. You 
are persistent in saving you cannot do it or you must do it. You 
can't have your cake and eat it too. Do I understand that you do 
invoke? 

Mrs. Winter. I do. 

Mr. Willis. All right. Please say so. 

Mrs. Winter. When I say I decline that is what I mean. 

Mr. Willis. But you are saying you cannot answer. 

Mrs. Winter. I cannot. It is an infringement upon my rights. 

Mr. Willis. You have the right to invoke the fifth amendment. 
You certainly can answer if you want to. That is the idea of these 
hearings. 

Mr. Walsh. Mrs. Winter, on February 17, 1961, did Global Books 
Formn sponsor the appearance in Detroit of Herbert Aptheker, who 
is the editor of the theoretical organ of the Communist Party known 
as Political Affairs'^. 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the basis of my 
rights under the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know Herbert Aptheker? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. Did Global Books Forum sponsor Herbert Aptheker 
on November 17, 1961? 



1760 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. And on March 31, 1961, did Global Books Forum 
sponsor Scott Nearing? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. On January 16, 1962, did Global Books Forum soonsor 
Russ Nixon, the former legislative director of UE and now editor of 
the pro-Communist newspaper National Guardian? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. On January 23, 1962, did Global Books Forum sponsor 
Coleman Young, who was a delegate to the Michigan Constitutional 
Convention of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. Coleman Young has previously been identified by 
this committee as a member of the Communist Party. Did you 
know him to be a member of the Communist Party when Global 
Books Forum sponsored him on January 23, 1962? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know a Miss Bereniece Baldwin? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Walsh. In the testimony of Bereniece Baldwin in executive 
session on April 9, 1953, she testified to the effect that when she 
handled the membership records of the Communist Part}^ for the 
State of Michigan she did not know the identity of persons assigned 
to the professional sections of the Communist Party of Michigan. 
She also stated in her testimony that tlie individuals knowing the 
identity of the professional club members were, in addition to the 
members of the club, Carl Winter and also yourself. My question is 
this: How many professional clubs of the Communist Party were 
there? 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer that question on the basis of my 
rights under the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walsh. Who were the members of the professional section? 

Mrs. Winter. In 1953? I decline to answer • 

Mr. Walsh. Mrs. Baldwin testified in 1953 that j^ou and— — 

Mrs. Winter. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Walsh. — Carl Winter knew who these individuals were and what 
the sections were. I am asldng you whether or not you knew the 
IT! en^ hers of the professional sections? 

Mrs. Winter. I invoke my constitutional privilege and decline to 
aiT^w-r this question. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know them now? 

Mrs. Winter. I invoke my constitutional privilege and decline to 
ans^ver this question. 

Mr. Willis. On which constitutional privilege? 

Mrs. Winter. The first and fifth amendment to the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. Walsh. 1 have no further questions, Air. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Any questions? 

Mrs. Winter. Am I excused? 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

(Witness excused) 

Call your next witness, Mr. Walsh. 

Mr. Walsh. Carl Haessler. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1761 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand, 

Mr. Haessler. I will affirm. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Haessler. No, I don't swear. I affirm. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear 

Mr. Haessler. I do not. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly affirm that you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Haessler. I affirm this. 

TESTIMONY OF CARL HAESSLER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

WALLACE McGregor 

Mr. Walsh. Would you give your full name to the committee, 
please? 

Mr. Haessler. Yes, sir. Carl Haessler. 

Mr. Walsh. And where do you live, sir? 

Mr. Haessler. Detroit. 

Mr. Walsh. Will counsel please identify himself? 

Mr. McGregor. Mr. Chairman, my name is Wallace McGregor. 
I am a member of the District of Columbia bar. I am a volunteer 
attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union. Mr. Chairman, if 
I may, may I confer with my client just briefly before the interrogation 
begins? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. McGregor. Thank you, Mr. Walsh. 

Mr. Walsh. Where were you born, Mr. Haessler? 

Mr. Haessler. Milwaukee. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you give the committee your educational 
background, please? 

Mr. Haessler. May I ask if that is relevant? 

Mr. Willis. That is the usual background material. 

Mr. Haessler. Okay. Elementary and high school, Milwaukee, 
University of Wisconsin, B.A., Oxford University, another B.A., 
University of Illinois, Ph. D. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you also give the committee your occupational 
background? 

Mr. Haessler. I taught philosophy at the University of Illinois 
for 3 years. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Walsh. Would you specify the j^ears, please? 

Mr. Haessler. 1914 to 1917. Then I worked on the Milwaukee 
Leader, a socialist daily, off and on, and in 1922 I became managing 
editor of the Federated Press, the labor news service, which I managed 
until it suspended operations at the end of 1956. At the same time 
I was editor, off and on, of the United Automobile Worker, the United 
Rubber Worker, and 20 or so local union and subordinate union body 
publications. I am also a lecturer. I have taught union labor classes 
and lately in my decline as a regular speaker I have become a chair- 
man — that's a step down from speaker — together with advancing age 
interests. 



1762 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

I am a semiprofessional chairman, I might say. 

Mr. Walsh. Semiprofessional what? 

Mr. Haessler. Semiprofessional chairman, one who chairs without 
fee. 

Mr. Walsh. I show you Winter Exhibit No. 4 previously intro- 
duced which is a certificate to conduct business under an assumed 
name and filed January 11, 1961. I ask you whether or not that is 
your signature which appears on that copy. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Haessler. May I ask if this is an original document? 

Mr. Walsh. That is a photostatic copy of an original notice. If 
you will look at your signature there you can identify it perhaps? 

Mr. Haessler. But it is not the original document. 

Mr. Walsh. No, that is a photostatic copy of the original document. 

Mr. Haessler. Well, on consideration I will take the first, the 
fifth, and the fourteenth amendments on this question. 

Mr. Willis. You mean you decline to answer on the basis of those 
provisions? 

Mr. Haessler. On the basis of constitutional privilege. 

Mr. Walsh. I now show you Winter Exhibit No. 3, also previously 
introduced during Mrs. Winter's testmiony, which states in part: 
"Global Books Forum, as the assmned name of that non-profit volun- 
tary association, of which I am secretary and Carl Haessler is chah- 
man-treasurer." Is that a fact, sh, if you are chahman-treasurer? 

Mr. Haessler. Well, I'm sorry that I must feel it incumbent upon 
me to take the same amendments. 

Mr. Willis. You do invoke the privileges of those amendments? 

Mr. Haessler. I do, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. It states here that Carl Haessler is chairman-treasurer. 
And you invoke the fifth amendment on that? 

Mr. Haessler. I do, sir. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Haessler. Pardon me; first and fifth. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you also tell the committee the cucumstances 
and the purposes for which Global Books Forum was formed or 
chartered? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Haessler. I again invoke the constitutional privileges of the 
first, fifth, and fourteenth amendments. 

Mr. Walsh. Is Global Books Forum a membership organization? 

Mr. Haessler. My answer is the same, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Do they have a board of directors? 

Mr. Haessler. I believe one, if I may explain 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. 

Mr. Haessler. I beheve one of your committee members today 
asked the chairman of the committee whether the previous mtness 
was not opening a certain line of questions, which from my experience 
in covering various congressional committee hearings was a step I 
believe- — I won't say so certainly^ — but in my opinion a step toward 
weakening the constitutional privilege of the witness, and I again 
invoke the first, fifth and fourteenth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. That is not the basic position of this committee. 

Mr. Haessler. No, I hope not. 

Mr. Willis. And you can figure it out for yourself, but the principle 
involved is this : That one cannot speak out in certain areas and then 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1763 

refuse to speak out on all areas. It is not a weakening of the privilege 
because it cannot be proper for a witness to brag about certain things 
that mvolve some fringe factual situations in order to make out a 
favorable record — I am not concerning myself with you individually — 
for the sake of a favorable record and then refuse to answer questions 
on the issue involved, so it is not the idea of weakening anyone's 
privileges. It is just to permit one to talk freely if he wants to talk 
and not have his cake and eat it, too. 

(Counsel conferred with witness.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Walsh. In Exhibit No. 4 I notice tliat there are other indi- 
viduals mentioned in the certificate to do business under an assumed 
name, to wit, the Global Books Forum. These are Helen Winter, 
Naomi Komorowski, and C^onrad Komorowski. Do you know these 
individuals? 

Mr. Haessler. Following the chairman's explanation to me, for 
which I am grateful, I would like to first interpose that I took legal 
advice on this question of opening a line, as the committee member 
l)ut it, both in Detroit and Washington, and for that reason, with all 
due respect to the chairman and the committee, I must again invoke 
the first, fifth, and fourteenth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. You do invoke those? 

Mr. Haessler. Yes, if I must, I do. Yes, "do" is better procedure 
I suppose. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Willis. It is not a question of procedure. It is a question of 
fact. We do not want the record to imply that we are forcing you to 
do anything. 

Mr. Haessler. Sir, does it mean that if I say I must invoke, that 
the record will show that I have not invoked it? 

Mr. Willis. It is close. We prefer to face it directly. 

Mr. Haessler. Better to be safe. 

Mr. Willis. For your sake, as well as ours. 

Mr. Haessler. Thank you. I feel better. 

Mr. Walsh. Were those individuals whom I have just mentioned 
responsible for the formation of the Global Books Forum? 

Mr. Willis. Let me understand this document and the other one. 
Do I understand it to mean that certain individuals, this one 
and whoever may be on it, under an applicable State law, are asking 
permission to operate under an assumed name? Is that the idea? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. All right. I make no mention of the validity of that 
law. One operates under a trade name, nom de plume, or anything 
he wants to operate under. I wanted to know what the document 
was. 

Mr. Haessler. May I explain that in Michigan a voluntar}- 
organization cannot sue unless it has an assumed name, a registered 
name, with at least five persons. 

Mr. Willis. That is right. That is for the privilege of doing 
business and not being sued. You can always be sued for assuming 
a name under an organization. 

Mr. Haessler. As an organization. 

Mr. Walsh. This then doesn't comply with the law as you have 
just explained it because as I look at this document, the only person 
who is mentioned therein is Carl Haessler, because the other names, 



1764 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Lucy Haessler and the other three I have just mentioned, have been 
stricken out, and I show you this document to refresh your 
recollection. 

(Counsel conferred with his client.) 

Mr. Haessler. This again is not an original document, is it? 

Mr. Walsh. It is the same document I showed you before and, as 
I stated to you before, it is a photostatic copy of an original document 
filed with the county clerk in Detroit, Michigan? 

Mr. Haessler. I don't know what the circumstances were of the 
crossing out and so I am unable to answer the question. 

Mr. Walsh. Is all of that in your handwriting? 

Mr. Haessler. I again invoke my constitutional privileges. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you strike out the other names? 

Mr. Haessler. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Please note the name of Helen Winter on this and 
evidently it is all the same handwriting. At the time this document 
was filed did 3^ou know Helen Winter to be a member of the National 
Committee of the Communist Party of the United States? 

Mr. Haessler. Mr. Chairman, let me say that I could answer 
that, but I am afraid that will open the line, would it not? 

Mr. Willis. You have your counsel. Repeat the question. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know that Helen Winter, whose name appears 
on Winter Exhibit No. 4, was a member of the National Committee 
of the Communist Party of the United States? 

Mr. Willis. Suppose you split the question in two. Did you, at 
the time this document was prepared, or on its date, know that 
person as a person? 

Mr. Haessler. As what? 

Mr. Willis. Did you know the person? 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know Helen Winter? 

Mr. Haessler. Mr. Chairman, I again ask if that will open a line. 
If I have your assurance that it will not I think I could answer either 
"Yes" or ''No." 

Mr. Willis. I would say that you have a right to speak truthfully 
and answer that you knew or did not Imow her. If the succeeding 
question is, "Did you know her to be a Communist," you may have a 
different answer. There is no trick to this. 

Mr. Haessler. You mean I could say yes, I know her, and then I 
could legally declme to answer further questions about her? 

I would like the chairman's opmion and not my counsel's on that. 

Mr. Willis. Let us say offhand it would be my opmion that you 
would have that right. I certainly wouldn't insist on saying that you 
have opened the door, if 3^ou want to say you knew that person or the 
four of them on there. 

Mr. Haessler. But I know — I assume that you are a lawyer. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Haessler. — that you put in the word "offhand." Does 
that impair the validity of your opmion ? 

Mr. Willis. My opinion is that I can say from the point of view 
of this committee at these hearings you may do it. 

Mr. Haessler. And may I ask one further precautionary question? 
I don't want to be obstructive, but would the opinion of the sub- 
committee be upheld by the chairman of the committee? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1765 

Mr. Haessler. As a whole? 

Mr. Willis. Yes, but I can't tell j'oii it would be upheld by the 
courts. I don't speak for the courts. A lot of the decisions go one 
way and sometimes I have a different opinion, but it wouldn't go to 
court. I think we are quibbling about a minor point. I ask you, as 
chairman, do you now know Helen Winter and did j^ou know lier on 
the date of that document? 

Mr. Walsh. Which is January 11, 1961. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. I am not pressing 3"ou. I asked you a direct question 
and you seemed to be bothered. I am not forcing you to any position. 

Mr. Haessler. I know I am not pressed and I appreciate the 
atmosphere that prevails here, and let me say then that I will answer 
the question on the strength of the assurance of the subcommittee's 
chairman that it will not open the line and on the first assurance the 
subcommittee's chairman has given me that the ruling he has made 
will be upheld by the committee. 

Mr. Willis, t would say this. Of course, cpiestions along the line 
of how did you know her and the type of association with her would 
certainly be pertinent to succeeding questions. I think your lawyer 
would tell you that. 

CCounsel conferred with his client.) 

Mr. Haessler. Mr. Chairman, I am sorry to be captious, but don't 
you rather privately agree with me that you hedged a bit on j^our 
most recent statement? 

Mr. Willis. Not at all. I am not hedging. I say, if you say you 
knew her or know her it would be perfectly proper to say how well 
you knew her or how did you come to know her, aside from association 
in communistic activities that I suppose you want to mvoke your 
rights on, but let's go forward. 

Mr. Haessler. Would I have to answer a question, for example, 
that she is a member of the Republican Party, to my knowledge? 

Mr. Willis. We are not going to get anywhere by your asking me 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 hypothetical questions. I think I have gone pretty 
far as the chairman. 

Mr. Haessler. Let me say without advice of counsel and without 
benefit of the chairman's remarks that I will — - — 

Mr. Walsh. Before you say it you ought to confer with your 
comisel. 

Mr. Haessler. I am not going to in this instance. Thank you. 
I want to say that I will invoke the first, fifth, and fourteenth amend- 
ments to that question. 

Mr. Willis. All right. Then the next question is. Did 3'ou know 
her at any time to have been or to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Haessler. Did I know whom? 

Mr. Walsh. Helen Winter. 

Mr. WiLLLS. Helen Winter. He asked the question in a double- 
barreled fashion and I am splitting the two. You invoked the fifth 
amendment on one. Now the next question is. Did you know her or 
do you know her as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Haessler. Well, isn't that a leap in the chain of evidence? I 
have not acknowledged that I know her, so how can I say whether 

Mr. Willis. I am going to order you to answer that question. 



1766 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Haessler. And I decline to answer on the first, fifth, and four- 
teenth amendments, Mr. Chairman. I am sorry that things are not 
moving along as smoothly as you would like and as I would like, but 
that seems to be the situation. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know Naomi Komorowski to be a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Haessler. I invoke the first, fifth, and fourteenth amend- 
ments, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know Conrad Komorowski to be a member 
of the Communist Party of the United States? 

Mr. Haessler. Again, first, fifth, and fourteenth, sorry to say. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know Helen Winter to be the educational di- 
rector of the Communist Party in the district of Detroit? 

Mr. Haessler. I invoke the same amendments, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. May I ask you this question, Mr. Haessler? Have 
you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Haessler. No, sir. By no, sir, I refer not to whether you 
may ask the question, but in response to the question itself. You say 
may I ask you? To this my proper answer would be that is am- 
biguous. 

Mr. Walsh. I now ask you 

Mr. Haessler. I meant to say not to refuse to answer. I was 
answering the purport of your question. 

Mr. Walsh. Now I directly ask you this question. Are you now 
or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Haessler. I have not, sir. I could explain that if you like. 

Mr. Walsh. In view of the fact that this witness will not answer 
any questions with reference to those individuals mentioned on Ex- 
hibit No. 4; namely, Lucy Haessler, Helen Winter, Naomi Komorow- 
ski, and Conrad Komorow-ski, I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. Any questions? 

Mr. Bruce. No questions. 

Mr. Willis. You are excused. 

Mr. Haessler. Thank you, sir. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Willis. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Walsh. Gregory Lotsman. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Lotsman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GREGORY BORIS LOTSMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, CHESTER C. SHORE 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Lotsman, will you state your full name and 
where you live? 

Mr. Lotsman. My name is Gregory B. Lotsman. I live at 7266 
Constance in Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Walsh. You are represented by counsel? Will he please 
identify himself? 

Mr. Shore. My name is Chester Shore. I am a member of the bar 
of the District of Columbia, associated with the law firm of Wasserman 
& Carliner in Washington, D.C. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBtJTION OF SOVIET PROPAGAKDA l767 

Mr. Walsh. When and where were you born, Mr. Lotsman? 

Mr. Lotsman. I was born on July 27, 1899. 

Mr. Walsh. Where? 

Mr. Lotsman. I was born in eastern Siberia. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you give the committee your occupational 
background? 

Mr. Lotsman. Occupational background? Upon my arrival to 
the United States in about 1918, I secured the job in a factory where 
they were making musical instruments. Aly job was to take a brush, 
stick it into hot glue, and smear that glue on the card box, the shape of 
a guitar, mandolin, cello, and then paste it on, and then I worked as a 
worldngman there, and evenings went to New York University to 
study English language and history. 

After that I went to University of Buffalo where I attempted to 
study medicine, but due to the fact that I did not have sufficient funds 
the dean of men called me in and told me that I would suffer either TB 
or mental collapse because I would work day and night, and not having 
any money he suggested that I quit the university, just for not being 
able physically to withstand that task. 

From there I went to Davenport, Iowa, on the suggestion of an 
acquaintance, of a dentist, and I studied there chiropractic and I 
became a chiropractor, graduate of the School of Chiropractic in 1923. 
I practiced in WUliamsburg, Brookljai. I found that didn't suit my 
personality and my needs. I stopped practicing chiropractic. One 
of my patients was in a motion picture business. His name was Mr. 
Alexander Bimberg and he is dead now. 

He suggested that I go together with him and some other people 
into motion picture business in China; that we purchase fUms and move 
to China to exhibit American films. 

Mr. Walsh. What year was this? 

Mr. Lotsman. That was 1924. 

Mr. Walsh. Will you start in with vour occupations in and around 
1950? 

Mr. Lotsman. In 1950 

Mr. Walsh. In and around there. 

Mr. Lotsman. Well, my basic occupation was a real estate broker. 
I am a licensed real estate broker in the State of Illinois, insurance 
broker in the State of Illinois. I have had my own offices and I also 
worked for other firms. 

Mr. Walsh. Mr. Lotsman, I show you Lotsman Exhibit No. 1, 
which is a photostatic copy of a short-form registration statement 
ffied with the Department of Justice by Cross World Books and 
Periodicals, Inc., Chicago, 111. I particularly direct your attention 
to page 3 and ask you to tell us whether or not that is your signature 
which appears on page 3 of that registration statement. 

Mr. Lotsman. Yes, that is my signature. 

(Document marked ''Lotsman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee ffies.) 

Mr. Walsh. In this statement on page 2, you state you act as 
general manager of Cross World Books and Periodicals. When did 
you first become associated with Cross World Books and Periodicals? 

Mr. Lotsman. On October 19, 1960. 

Mr. Walsh. At the time you became associated with it in October 
1960, who owned this Cross World Books and Periodicals? 



1768 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. LoTSMAN. At the time I was employed it was owned by the 
present owners. 

Mr. Walsh. Who are they? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Mr. Alexander Svenchansky, president of the com- 
pany, Mr. Henry Levy, treasurer and secretar}^. 

Mr. Walsh. Did you know a Rose Rouse, R-o-u-s-e, also known 
by the name of Rose Rose? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I was acquainted with her, yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Was she the owner of that particular company when 
you first became associated with it? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Mr. Svenchansky and Levy were the owners when 
T became the manager. 

Mr. Walsh. Were you affiliated with Cross World Books and 
Periodicals at the time LeRoy Wolins was assistant manager? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Do you know him? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. How long have you known him? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I have known Mr. LeRoy Wolins from the time I 
employed him at Cross World Books. That was sometime in January 
1961. 

Mr. Walsh. I asked you was he assistant manager when you were 
associated with the Cross World Books and Periodicals? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No, he was not even there. He was not connected 
with it. I was the sole manager. It was my contract to employ 
people and I never employed him at that time. I employed him 
sometime later, maybe in January. I think so. 

Mr. Walsh. January of what j^ear? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. When we started, about 1960, in January 1960, 1961, 
when we started. We started in October and I tliink I employed him 
in January. 

Mr. Walsh. Would you tell the committee the circumstances by 
which Alexander Svenchansky and Henry Levy became owners of 
Cross World Books and Periodicals? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Sir, I couldn't tell that any more than you can. 

Mr. Walsh. How long have you laiown those two individuals? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. They came to me and asked me to quit my employ- 
ment, and because I am proficient in writing language, and in English, 
and because I know books and I love books, because I know literature 
and because I know history, they asked me if I would undertake man- 
agement of that business, and that is all. 

Mr. Walsh. Where were you working when they came to 3'ou with 
this proposition? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I was recovering from an accident and I was in the 
real estate business at the time. 

Mr. Walsh. How long had you been in the real estate business 
prior to the time that you became associated with Cross World Boolcs 
and Periodicals? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I would say about 10 years. 

Mr. Walsh. And during that time had you been associated with 
any book stores? 

Mr. Lotsman. No, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And who mtroduced those gentlemen, Mr. Sven- 
chansky and Mr. Levy, to you? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1769 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Mr. Svenchansky and Mr. Levy went all over the 
city of Chicago looking for a suitable man, somebody who could 
handle that business, and I understand somebody told them that 
there is a man by the name of Gregory Lotsman in Chicago who is a 
very good man, who speaks Russian language and who speaks Eng- 
lish language, and who loves books and who is a good manager, and 
they should contact me because I was not employed at the time due 
to an accident. 

I was receiving about $300 a week on compensation at that time 
and they phoned me and asked me if they could come to my home to 
see me. 

Mr. Walsh. Who is the individual that suggested your name? 

Mr. Lotsman. I don't know. 

Mr. Walsh. You don't know who suggested j^our name? 

Mr. Lotsman. I never asked. 

Mr. Walsh. They came just on their own? 

Mr. Lotsman. They said they heard that I am not employed, 
could they come up and talk to me, and I was unable to walk at 
that time and they came to my home. 

Mr. Walsh. After you became associated with them did you 
negotiate a contract with the foreign division of the International 
Publishers, Moscow? 

Mr. Lotsman. No. sir. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Walsh. I show you a copy of a memorandum dated June 5, 
1961. This particular memorandum or contract is signed by A. 
Svenchansky and Henry Levy for Cross World Books and Periodicals 
and by A. Byelostotsky and N. Papenko of the Foreign Division of 
the MezhKniga. It will be identified as Lotsman Exhibit No. 2, and 
I ask if you are familiar with the terms of it. 

Mr. Lotsman. I will not have to look at it. I am thoroughly 
familiar with it, yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. You are thoroughly familiar with it? 

Mr. Lotsman. Yes, thoroughly familiar with it. 

(Document marked "Lotsman Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Walsh. But you had nothing to do with the negotiations? 

Mr. Lotsman. Not a thing because I am an employee of that firm. 
It was not my province to negotiate or to sign any documents. I was 
consulted by them on certain technical points, whether it is good for 
them or not to enter into certain provisions of the contract, and in 
my good judgment I gave them advice, but I did not participate in 
the negotiations. In fact, the contract was not even signed in Chicago 
and I never left Chicago. 

Mr. Walsh. According to this contract when Mr. Svenchansky 
and Mr. Levy took over Cross World Books and Periodicals there was 
a deficit, or the former owner owed the Moscow publisher a certain 
sum of money, in the amount of $71,360.98, is that correct? 

Mr. Lotsman. The figures are correct, but if the chairman and you 
would permit me, I would like to say something about this. 

Mr. Walsh. You may in a moment. I just want to get these facts 
first. This amount of money was owed to the AIoscow group? 

Mr. Lotsman. This is what the contract shows. 

Mr. Walsh. According to this contract? 



1770 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. LoTSMAN. According to the contract. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, sir. Also, according to the contract, and you 
say you are familiar with it? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. How much did Svenchansky and Levy pay for this 
$71,000 inventory? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. They paid — first of all they assumed the obligation. 
They signed notes for them. They assumed the obligation. They 
actually assumed the obligation for that inventory. They signed 
notes for it. 

Mr. Walsh. In the amount of $71,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That's right. 

Mr. Walsh. Or was the amount $7,500? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Oh, no. That is a mistake. It is about $71,000. 

Mr. Walsh. Where is the mistake? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. You say $7,000? 

Mr. Walsh. $7,500. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Oh, no. I mean they signed notes for the inventory. 
That was about $70,000. They assumed the responsibility for the 
debt to the extent of $70,000. They signed notes to that effect. 
What you are seeing, counsel 

Mr. Walsh. Just a moment. Would you look at page 3 of Exhibit 
No. 2, which is the contract between Svenchansky and Levy and the 
Assistant Trade Counsellor at the Embassy, the U.S.S.R., in the 
United States, and look at paragraph 6? It states here: "The firm, 
'Cross World,' assumes the obligation of liquidating the debt, as 
mentioned in point 5, in the following manner:", 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I think I see your mistake. 

Mr. Walsh. Now, will you look at paragraph 6 and explain that 
to the committee? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I can explain it without looking. I know exactly 
what it is, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. How about the $7,500 notes that were given to liqui- 
date the debt of $71,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I am here to explain things for you to the best of 
my ability, and I will. 

"Mr. Walsh. Thank you. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. The debt was $71,000 and they invested about 
$18,000 in cash, but then from what I know the representatives of 
that publishing house insisted on some token of additional payments, 
so they have advanced $7,500 in checks and this is what this is. It 
stipulates the number of checks, how much each check, and what's 
the total amount, and when it is to be paid. 

Mr. Walsh. What is the total amount of those checks? 

M.r. LoTSMAN. $7,500. 

Mr. Walsh. You mentioned the sum of about $18,000 in cash. 
What was that? 

Mr. Lotsman. I think that they have invested that much into the 
business, Mr. Levy and Mr. Svenchansky. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, but they didn't pay that to the Soviet group. 

Mr. Lotsman. Oh, no; they invested that themselves. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, they invested $18,000 and at the time 
they came to get hold of this business there was a debt owed to the 
Moscow group of $71,000 for books on consignment to them, right? 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1771 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That was not consignment, sir. That was a pur- 
chase. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, actual sale then, but they owed the Moscow 
group $71,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. They owed to the publisher in Moscow $71,000, 
that's right. 

Mr. Walsh. And they have notes there that thev agree to pay 
$7,500? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Oh, no. They have signed a contract to pay 
$71,000. The contract states specifically. They have to pay a cer- 
tain amount of money in addition — this is the initial payment, but 
then they are supposed to discharge the entire obligation of $71,000. 
There is a provision in the contract of how it should be paid. 

Mr. Walsh. As of this date how much of that $71,000 has been 
paid? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. As of this date I would say that about — now don't 
hold me to this, but I would say in the neighborhood of about $3,000. 

Mr. Walsh. Was paid? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Did they also pay that $7,500 according to the notes? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Oh, no. They have not discharged that obligation. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, the only amount that Svenchansky 
and Levy paid to the AlezhKniga was, up to and including to, $3,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Just about; yes. 

Mr. Bruce. Let me ask you a question here. As 1 miderstand 
what you said, you said that the $7,500 were in predated checks, is 
that correct? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. Was the $3,000 tliat have been paid part of the $7,500 
of predated checks that have now been cashed? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. Mr. Chairman, I will be grateful to you 
if you will allow me to explain the $71,000. I have written a letter 
and I have a copy of it. I have also called up, very urgently one 
night, Mr. Svenchansky and Mr. Levy and I told them that as 1 
examined the inventory it wasn't worth $10,000. The books were 
unsalable. They were the kind of books that I don't know what to 
do with. As a matter of fact, I called a number of people that buy 
junk, paper. They wouldn't take it. They don't want anything for 
paper. The people that ordered the books didn't know what they 
were doing. They were ordering books that had nothing to do with 
the market. They ordered books for interior decorating, also silly 
things; and they are unsalable. In my humble opinion that stock 
wasn't worth more than $10,000. I wouldn't give them that much 
for it if I was buying it. 

Mr. Bruce. Doesn't it sound a bit strange, then, that a man who 
apparently would have some business background would agree to pay 
$71,000 without an adequate inventory in advance? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. The inventory was taken, sir, subsequently. 

Mr. Bruce. Subsequently? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Subsequently, the inventory was taken. 

Mr. Bruce. After the purchase? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. After the purchase. 



1772 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Bruce. That is what I am talking about. On normal pro- 
cedure isn't it a bit strange for an3'one to agree to a contract calling 
for payment of $71,000 without an adequate inventory in advance? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. The contract was not entered into immediatel}^, 
It was a tentative, verbal agreement, I understand. The contract, 
if you note the date, was entered subsequent!}^, many months later. 

Mr. Bruce. Then after an adequate inventory, which you sa}^ 
from your experience proved to be worth about $10,000, they agreed 
to pay $71,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. You see, that was a matter of opinion. To this 
date my principals, the owners, are under the impression that the 
books are worth that much. 

Mr. Bruce. $61,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. $71,000. 

Mr. Bruce. A $61,000 difference from your evaluation. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That's right. They still feel that the books are 
worth that much. 

Mr. Bruce. And you have advised tliem that even the sale of 
scrap paper 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I advised them that in my opinion the books are 
worth about $10,000. They felt that the books are valuable, that 
with proper promotion, advertising, with the proper cataloging, with 
efficient management, that they can be sold. The books basically 
are dealing with technology and this is not 

Mr. Bruce. Interior decorating. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No, technology; some interior decorating, but mostly 
technology, and geography, and 

Mr. Bruce. If I understood you correctly a few moments ago, you 
testified that the books were worthless, practically, that they had 
silly stuff, as I recall. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I don't say they are worthless. I say it will take a 
long time to sell those books and from my business experience I 
wouldn't have given that money, but those people are different 
people from the way I am. I am a different kind of businessman. 
Some people will give $10,000; some will give $200,000. 

Mr. Bruce. In other words, you say from your evaluation, and 
you have described yourself as a competent businessman, experienced 
businessman, they are in a very bad business. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I say that I wouldn't have paid the purchase price 
they paid. 

Mr. Bruce. You would differ by $61,000 from them? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I say I would not buy that inventory because it 
would take me a lifetime to seU it. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 

Mr. Walsh. You started working for this group on October 19, 
1960? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And as such, I presume that you went over the inven- 
tory at that time. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I am highly understaffed, sir, and I can't do every- 
thing at one time, but I have taken the inventory as well as I could. 

Mr. Walsh. Exhibit 2, the contract, was entered on June 5, 1961. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Walsh. And that is 8 months after you assumed your duties 
as manager. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1773 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And during that time did you come to the conclusion 
that these books were worth only $10,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. To this day we have 

Mr. Walsh. Would you answer my question? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. During the 8 months that you were manager there, and 
you had access to all of these periodicals and books that were pur- 
chased by your predecessor in the amount of $71,000 — 3^ou say you 
are familiar with this Exhibit No. 2 — in which you state that they 
agreed to pay back the $71,000, but in the contract, paragraph 6, 
they agree to give postdated checks in the amount of $7,500 and j^ou 
also testified that to date, w4iich is July of 1962, they have actually 
paid $3,000 pursuant to this contract. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Thereabouts. I am not sure of my figure. 

Mr. Walsh. Do youi books reflect the payment of this $3,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. And when was that paid, if you can remember? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. May I know your name, sir? 

Mr. Walsh. My name is Walsh, W-a-1-s-h. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Mr. Walsh, I would like you to know that the local 
FBI has come to my office twice and they have brought their account- 
ants. They have photostated every check. They have photostated 
all my books. 

Mr. Walsh. I didn't ask you that, sir, 

Mr. LoTSMAN. They have all the information. 

Mr. Walsh. That is an agency with which we are not connected. 
I am asking you to inform this committee, which in turn has its obliga- 
tions with reference to legislation — ■ — ■ 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes. Mv books • 



Mr. Walsh. I am asldng you when these pa3mients were made to 
the MezhKniga. 

Mr. LoTSMAX. Don't hold me to the date, but they were, according 
to my book • 

Mr. Walsh. Approximately, if you can remember. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I would say 1962. I would like to tell you the way 
it is done. MezhKniga has a little bank in Illinois — First National 
Bank of Chicago is their collection agency and they just deposit our 
check for payment and that is it. 

Mr. Walsh. And the total amount that you have paid for the 
$71,000 inventory is $3,000 over a period of practicall}^ 2 j^ears? 

Air. LoTSMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. And all the payments are recorded in the books of 
your company? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Oh, yes; I have auditor and bookkeepers; yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Is the business of Cross World Books and Periodicals 
controlled in the matter of policy by means of orders from anv repre- 
sentatives of the Soviet organization, the individuals wiio signed this 
contract, Exliibit No. 2? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I do not understand your question. Will you kindly 
repeat it again? 

Mr. Walsh. I will withdraw it and rephrase it. 



1774 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

In view of the fact that you owe them money — in other words, the 
foreign division of MezhKniga is represented by Byelostotsky and 
Papenko; right? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walsh. Do they tell you how to run your business and have 
a supervisory capacity over 3'our business, what you do and how you 
spend your money, in view of the fact that you still owe them $71,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. They haven't supervised in any way whatsoever. 
They have not controlled my business. I am the sole manager. They 
have never came physically and told me what to do. However, the 
main office in Moscow sent me telegrams and letters and they said, 
"Unless you pay, we will stop sending jou the books," and ihej did 
stop sending the books. 

Mr. Walsh. When? 

Mr. Lotsman. They stopped sending the books when we defaulted 
the first payment of $3,000. You see, there is an agreement as to 
when the payments are supposed to be. When we defaulted the first 
$3,000 they ceased shipping books completely, and I have correspond- 
ence to that effect which the FBI checlved. 

Mr. Walsh. Did they ever resume sending you books? 

Mr. Lotsman. They only resumed recent!}^ on mj^ personal busi- 
ness advice. I told them that inasnmch — — 

Mr. Walsh. Whom did you tell this to now? 

Mr. LoTSMAX. I wTote a letter to the publisher in Moscow. 

Mr. Walsh. Who is that? 

Mr. Lotsman. The MezhKniga. That is the name. I don't know 
the individual. I don't do business with any one individual. I ad- 
dressed a letter to MezhKniga. I told them if they were Americans 
and if they were good business people and they got themselves stuck 
for that much money, that much books, the smart thing for them to do 
right now is to enable me to get some fresh books, put it in a catalog, 
and then that will enable me to make enough money to pay what we 
owe them, and they have acceded to my arguments and begin to send 
books, but then now they are again hedging and asking me for money 
for the books and maybe they will stop sending it again. 

Mr. Willis. As to the fresh books that you are talking about, are 
you paying for them currently? 

Mr. Lotsman. No, sir. I asked them to send me them on credit 
because we do not have enough funds to pay cash. Mr. Willis, the 
books travel 7,000 miles and I cannot order five books. I don't know 
how many I can sell so I have to order a quantity, and I order a quan- 
tity and I somethnes get stuck with them because I am topheavy with 
the inventory. 

Mr. Bruce. Are these books sent directl}^ to jou from Moscow? 

Mr. Lotsman. It is shipped directly to Cross World Books and 
they pass the customs and the post office. 

Mr. Walsh. Since 3"ou assumed managersliip of this book place on 
October 19, 1960, would 3'ou tefi the committee how much 3-ou have 
ordered from the Moscow Book Company, the International Book 
Company? 

Mr. Lotsman. About $25,000. 

Mr. Walsh. $25,000? 

Mr. Lotsman. Yes. I would sav between $25,000, and to be safe, 
between $25,000 and $50,000. 



Outlets for distribution of soviet propaganda 1775 

Mr. Walsh. And how much of that between $25,000 and $50,000 
have you paid to the International Book Company in Moscow? 

Mr. LoTSMAx. My understanding with them is that I am to pay 
when the school season opens up this fall. I will start selling the 
books with the catalog and I have to start pajmaents in January 1963. 

Mr. Walsh. You have to start pajnnents then? 

Mr. LoTSMAX. That's right. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, they are subsidizing you to a great 
extent, this International Book Company? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Henrv Ford subsidizes their representatives; Mar- 
shall Field. 

Mr. Walsh. I am not asking you that. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I don't like the word "subsidizing." 

Mr. Walsh. You used it very freely. I am not asking you if Ford 
does or Marshall Field does it. I am mereh^ asking you whether you 
are subsidized by the International Book Company in Moscow. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. They give me a credit. 

Mr. Walsh. They are subsidizing you then. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Thev are advancing me credit. 

Mr. Walsh. Until 1963? 

Mr. LoTSMAX. That is right. That is my business agreement with 
them. 

Mr. Bruce. You used the example of Ford and others, but as a 
l)usiness practice do you know of any company which would extend 
additional credit, in amounts between $25,000 to $50,000, to a custo- 
mer which already owed it $68,000"? 

Percentagewise, are you familiar with any ordinary l)usiness 
procedure on that basis? 

Mr. LoTSMAX. Mr. Bruce, many businesses have been extended 
tremendous credit by the manufacturers in order for the merchant to 
be able to survive so that he could pay debts incurred previously. 

Mr. Bruce. With this percentage balance of the $71,000 out- 
standing? 

Mr. LoTSMAX. I won't quibble about percentages, Mr. Bruce. 

Mr. Bruce. I think it is pretty significant. You throw in the 
illustration. 

Mr. LoTSMAX. It is not uncommon business practice. 

Mr. Bruce. It is not uncommon business practice, I would agree, 
where there is a reasonable assurance of payment in behalf of the 
debt that is owed, but with a bad performance record, as bad as this 
one, where you started out with a $71,000 debt, paid $3,000 on pre- 
dated checks and still owe $4,500 on the predated checks, where they 
cut you off once before, then to send a fresh order of $25,000 to 
$50,000 worth would seem a little bit unusual. That's all. 

Mr. LoTSMAX. Mr. Bruce, I have a very unportant information 
for you. MezhKniga is not the only one I owe money to. I owe 
tremendous amount of money to every publisher in the United States 
proportionately in the same situation. I owe money to most re- 
spectable publishers in America, exactly the same way, so they are 
not the only ones, and if you call it subsidy, then Putman & Co. and 
those are subsidizing me. 

Mr. Bruce. Have they forwarded to you, on the basis of your 
credit, an additional amount of $25,000 to $50,000 worth of books? 



1776 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No, but they prefer to do business with me on cash 
basis and I do business with them on a cash basis, and I still owe them 
money and they are willing to wait for the money, MezhKniga, until 
I get on my feet and start paying. 

Mr. Bruce. What was this cash basis? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. If I owed the company $1,500, instead of extending 
me additional credit they would say, "Whatever you need, send a 
couple hundred dollars for which you need and I will send you the 
books." 

Air. Bruce. How many hundred dollars did you send to the Mos- 
cow firm? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. $3,000. 

Mr. Bruce. You sent them the $3,000 payment, you say? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. That was the advance checks that had already been 
made on the purchase of the enterprise, wasn't it? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Well, I have sent them some other pajTnents. I sent 
$900 not so long ago and I sent some other checks as well because they 
have put quite a severe pressure on me, and if they completely stop 
sending books, I would have to close up and suffer tremendous finan- 
cial loss. 

Mr. Bruce. Let me ask this. With this kind of a situation where 
you have a company, or a corporation, or business that is operating 
apparently in the red 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That's right. 

Mr. Bruce.^ — what is the source of finance for you? Did you 
have to go out and borrow the money again in order to make these 
advances? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That is what we are doing. We rob Peter to pay 
Paul. That's what we do. 

Mr. Bruce. That is all. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. This is customary m all small business. 

Mr. Walsh. I would like to go back to the time when Mr. Sven- 
chansky and Mr. Levy purchased this business for $18,000. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No- 
Mr. Walsh. They put this money m the business. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. Have they put any more money in the business? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I think this is about all they put in. 

Mr. Walsh. Have they drawn any money out of the business? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No. 

Mr. Walsh. As salaries or directors' fees? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Not one penny. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Walsh. What salary do you get? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I get $200 a week by contract, but I have never 
drawn that. 

Mr. Walsh. You have never been paid? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I have been paid between $100 and $150 a week. 

Mr. Walsh. That is what your salary is, regardless of what you 
state in your registration statement, Lotsman Exhibit No. 1? You 
stated here, "I am paid a salary of the following rate and scale, effec- 
tive as of October 19, 1960: $150.00 per week for the first three months; 
$175.00 per week for the four months next succeeding; and $200.00 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1777 

per week thereafter, plus 10% of net annual profits." Did you ever 
get any of the 10 percent? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No, never got any profits, sir, and the company 
today owes me money. 

Mr. Willis. May I ask you several questions? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. What is your volume of business? You said you 
ordered some fresh books from Moscow from that publisher, between 
$25,000 and $50,000 worth. Then you do business with other firms. 
Now what would the volume be? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Sir, when I have purchased that business my 
volume was about $1,500 a month. I got it up to $13,000 a month, 
but then the Moscow publisher cut me off and the volume of my 
business natually began to decline, and now it is about $4,000 a month. 

Mr. Willis. About $4,000? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. About $4,000, but it was $13,000 when my catalogs 
were fresh and they supplied me with the books. 

Mr. Willis. It would be about $48,000 a year? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. For the 10 months my books show about $54,000 
gross. 

Mr. Willis. So the bulk of your purchases would come from the 
Moscow publisher? 

Mr. LoiSMAN. I have done tremendous amount of business with 
local publishers. I have ordered thousands and thousands of dollars 
of books. In fact, Mr. Willis, there is more demand for Russian 
books in Russian language published in the United States than 
published in Russia, and many college professors told me that they 
prefer Russian textbooks published in the United States more than 
the best of them published in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Willis. That would seem to confirm my question. Taking 
your word that your total volume of business is roughly $48,000 a 
year — — 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That's not all from Russian books. 

Mr. Willis. I know, that is all told. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. $48,000 a year. Taking into account that your 
purchases from the Russian publisher are between $25,000 to $50,000 
and you have only been in business since 1961, and taking into 
account your own statement that Russian publications are more in 
demand than local publications 

Mr. LoTSMAN. No, no, local publications are more in demand. 

Mr. Willis. Wouldn't that seem to indicate that the bulk of your 
books, pamphlets, periodicals, and whatnot come from the Aloscow 
publisher? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Mr. Willis, I would say that about 35 percent of 
my business is with domestic publishers. 

Mr. Willis. And therefore, 65 percent from • 

Mr. LoTSMAN. With Moscow publisher. 

Mr. Willis. Just two or three more questions. This Cross World 
Books and Periodicals, Inc., therefore, does about 65 percent of its 
business with the Russian publisher. Do you have an exclusive 
arrangement or area arrangement with the Moscow publisher? 

In other words, did you distribute their books in a designated area, 
do I understand, in and around Chicago, Illinois? 



1778 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I am not sure. My understanding is that my 
employers secured an exclusive contract for retail business any place 
from Chicago west to California, but they have a right to do business 
by mail throughout the United States. 

Mr. Willis. And they do have other distributors then? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. What is that? 

Mr. Willis. The Russian publisher has other distributors than 
yourself? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Oh, yes, sure. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Willis. Judging from the hearings we had in May, and you 
must know about them, it looks like you are a comparatively small 
representative. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. Compared to the other firms. What are the names, 
Mr. Walsh? 

Mr. Walsh. Four Continent Book Corporation and also Cross- 
currents. 

Mr. Willis. Crosscurrents. And I am like you. I don't want 
to be bound by exact figures, but it seems to me that the Crosscurrents 
evidence before us was to the eflect that over the period of maybe a 
year and a half or two, their sales, even to the Russian Embassy, 
amounted to something hke $200,000. Am I right? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. So it must indicate that the Russian publisher has 
many other agencies here. You just named another, counsel. 

Mr. Walsh. Four Continent Book Corporation. 

Mr. Willis. Do you loiow of any other besides Cross World, 
Four Continent, and Crosscurrents? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Mr. Willis, you know about Crosscurrents more 
than I do because I understand you investigated them. I haven't. 
I have done no business with them. I don't know any individuals. 
I don't know the company. They are in no way connected wdth me 
and I would like to go on record • 

Air. Willis. I would say it is a matter of record by public testimoii}* 
in this very room in May that the Crosscurrents people for a while 
wanted to call themselves Crossworld and they found out that you 
were in business first. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I don't know about that. 

Mr. Willis. That is a matter of evidence. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. I don't Imow about that. I don't know anything 
about it. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Walsh. In view of the fact that it is 11 minutes of 12 and we 
have to give up the hearing room, I would like to ask the witness 
whether or not he will make his books of account available to some 
member of this committee. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Absolutely. 

Mr. Walsh. So they may look them over and if at a subsequent 
date we would like to question you more, we will have you return. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Certainly. I would like you to know that you can 
get it from the Department of Justice. They have complete records. 
You can get them from the Department of Justice. 



OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 1779 

Mr. Willis. We wouldn't do that. With your consent, and you 
have consented, so I think • 

Mr. Walsh. I have one more question. 

Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Never have been and am not now. I am not any 
more Communist than you are. 

Mr. Walsh. May we excuse this witness now but keep him under 
subpena and we will notify him of the date he is to reappear or we 
will make a date now. 

Mr. Willis. Do you understand that? You will be kept under 
subpena and the books will be examined, and it may or may not be 
necessary to call you back, depending upon a check on what you have 
said, and I assume what you have said is honest so far as you are 
concerned. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. You understand, in order for you to examine my 
books I have to have the consent of my principals? 

Mr. Willis. I understand. 

Mr. LoTSMAN. So if they tell me to do it, I will be very glad to. 

Mr. Walsh. Wlio are your principals now? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Mr. Alexander Svenchansky 

Mr. Walsh. Is he president of the corporation? 

Mr. Lotsman. Yes, and Mr. Henry Levy is the treasurer-secretary. 

Mr. Walsh. Who are the members of the board? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. Their respective wives. 

Mr. Walsh. In other words, the two gentlemen plus their wives are 
members of the board of directors? 

Mr. LoTSMAN. That's right. 

Mr. Willis. We have been talking about that Cross World firm 
having taken over the business for approximately $71,500. That was 
taking over the business from whom? Who was the predecessor? 

Mr. Walsh. Rose Rose. 

Mr. Willis. You didn't say you didn't know Rose. 

Mr. Lotsman. Rose Rose is a lady. 

Mr. Willis. But you were not affiliated with her? 

Mr. Lotsmax. No, in no way whatsoever. 

Mr. Willis. How long was she in business before you took over? 

Mr. Lotsman. I don't know, sir. I don't have the slightest idea. 

Mr. Willis. Could you think about that in case we want to find out? 

Mr. Lotsman. If you want me to make an investigation 

Mr. Willis. No, not an investigation. We can do that ourselves. 

Mr. Lotsman. I don't know offhand. 

Mr. Willis. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

[The witness was excused.] 

Mr. Willis. The subconunittee will stand in recess until 2 p.m. in 
the same room. 

(Whereupon, at 11:55 a.m., the hearing was recessed, to be recon- 
vened at 2 p.m. on the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION. WEDNESDAY, JULY 11, 1962 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 
(Members present at the reconvening of the subcommittee, Hon. 
Edwin E. Willis, chairman of the subcommittee.) 



1780 OUTLETS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Willis. We are debating on the floor the foreign aid bill today 
and the other members have not reported yet. Unquestionably, 
there will be some votes. There is only 5 minutes of general debate 
left and they will then go into the 5-minute rule or the amendment 
period, so that, with this uncertainty, the committee will stand in recess 
mitil 10 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

I am told by counsel that we have not made arrangements for this 
or any other particular room for tomorrow mornmg so that the wit- 
nesses will report at the committee office in room 226 and wiU be 
told then in what room we will meet. 

We will recess until tomorrow mornmg at 10 o'clock.^ 

(Whereupon, at 2:40 p.m. Wednesday, July 11, 1962, the hearings 
were recessed, to be reconvened at 10 a.m. Thursday, July 12, 1962.) 

1 Testimony of Witnesses LeRoy Wollns and David Simon Canter on July 12, 1962, which concluded 
these hearings, subject to the call of the Chair, is printed in Part 1, pp. 1673-1698. 



INDEX 

INDIVIDUALS 

A 

Page 

Aptheker, Herbert 1666, 1667, 1669-1671, 1759 

B 

Baldwin, Bereniece 1760 

Beresky, Shaya (also known as Shaya Budin) 1702, 1715, 1718-1720 

Berman, Jacqueline. {See Steiner, Jacqueline.) 

Bimberg, Alexander 1767 

Branigin, Edgar M 1 757 

Brennan (William J.) 1659 

Briehl (Walter) 1605 

Budin, Shaya. {See Beresky, Shaya.) 

Byelostotsky, A 1769 

C 

Canter, David Simon 1590-1592, 

1676-1678, 1681, 1686, 1689-1698 (testimony), 1780 

Carliner, David 1766 

Cowl, Margaret (Mrs. Charles Krumbein; formerly Mrs. Joseph Undjus; 

also known as Margaret Kling) 1594, 1664, 1734, 1735-1742 (testimony) 

Cummings, Homer 1752 

D 

Douglas (William O.) 1690 

Dyakanov, N. V 1677 

E 
Engels, Friedrich (Frederick) 1748 



Felshin, Joseph (also known as Joseph Fields) 1590, 

1628, 1664-1671 (testimony), 1750 

Forrey, Robert 1668 

Frankfeld, PhiUp 1594, 

1595, 1664, 1710, 1717, 1726, 1727, 1739, 1742-1750 (testimony) 
Freedman, David M 1664, 1667, 1735, 1742 

G 

Gabin, I 1664 

Gribkov 1720, 1723 

H 

Haessler, Carl 1595, 1756, 1757, 1761-1766 (testimony) 

Haessler, Lucy 1757, 1764, 1766 

Heusinger, Adolph 1591, 1592, 1683-1686, 1694, 1696, 1698 

Hitler, Adolf 1592 

Hoover, J. Edgar (John Edgar) 1643, 1728 

K 

Kamkin. Victor 1717, 1738, 1746 

Keller (Werner) 1643 

Kelsey, Maude Query... 1639-1652 (testimony) 

1 



U INDEX 

Page 

Kennedy, Robert F 1750 

Kent (Rockwell) 1605 

Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich 1587, 1589, 

1617-1620, 1623-1628, 1630, 1632, 1641, 1644, 1646-1648, 1755 

Kirkpatrick, Evron M 1587 

Kleindorfer, George B 1689 

Kling, Margaret. (See Cowl, Margaret.) 

Knight, Frances G 1604, 1610 

Komorowskl, Conrad 1757, 1758, 1763, 1766 

Komorowski, Naomi 1757, 1763, 1766 

Krchmarek, Anthony (Anton) (also known as Mike Meadows) 1627 

Krumbein, Charles 1 594, 1 736 

Krumbein, Margaret. (See Cowl, Margaret.) 

L 

Lambkin, Cyril J 1700-1703 

Lamont, Corliss 1615 

Lenin, V. I. (alias for Vladimir Il'ich Ul'ianov; also known as Nikolai 

Lenin) 1748 

Levy, Henry 1595, 1687, 1768-1771, 1776, 1779 

Lotsman, Gregorv Boris 1595, 1687, 1688, 1766-1779 (testimony) 

Lubell, David G.' 1616 

Lubell, Jacqueline (Mrs. David G. Lubell) 1616 

Lumer, Hyman (alias Robert Harold Meyers) 1626, 1627 

Mc 
McGregor, Wallace 1 761 

M 

Markoff, Allan (born Ilya Schmerkovich) 1 593-1 595, 

1663, 1700-1712 (testimony), 1715, 1718, 1720, 1726, 1730, 1748 

Marx, Karl 1748 

Meyers, George A 1627 

Mikoyan, Anastas (Ivanovich) 1620, 1726 

Moskowitz, Morris 1704-1706, 1714, 1718, 1730 

Mueller, Vinzenz 1592, 1686 

N 

Nearing, Scott 1760 

Needleman, Isidore G 1700, 1713, 1718, 1720, 1721, 1724, 1725 

Nelson, Carl 1697 

Nixon, Russell Arthur (Russ) 1760 

Novak (Joseph) (pen name) 1643 

O 

Oberlander, Theodor 1 620 

O'Connor, Harvey 1758, 1759 

P 
Papenko, N 1769 

Piel, Eleanor Jackson 1599, 1654 

Powers, Gary 1590, 1591, 1680, 1694 

R 

Romaine, Paul 1717, 1738, 1745 

Rosenthal 1714 

Rouse, Rose (also known as Rose Rose) 1687, 1688, 1768, 1769 

Rowley, Worth 1752, 1753 

S 

Schwarz (Frederick Charles) 1643 

Sellers, Ashley 1752 

Sharpe, Jacquehne. (Mrs. Myron E. Sharpe) (See Steiner, Jacqueline 
Sharpe.) 

Sharpe, Myron Emanuel 1588-1590, 

1593, 1598, 1599-1637 (testimony), 1654-1664 (testimony), 1665, 
1700, 1715, 1755. 



ligDteX m 

Pag« 

Shore, Chester C 1766 

Skousen (Willard Cleon) 1643 

Smith, McLellan 1686 

Speiser, Lawrence 1673, 1674 

StaUn, Josef (losif Vissarionovich DzhugashviU) 1748 

Steiner, Jacqueline Sharpe (Mrs. Myron E. Sharpe; also known as Jacque- 
line Steiner Berman) 1616 

Svenchanskv, Alexander 1595, 1687, 1768-1771, 1776, 1779 

Sydney, William , 1749 

T 

Titov, Gherman 1620 

Tsapenko, Nicolai 1724, 1743 

U 

linger, Abraham 1667, 1668 

Ushakoflf, Serge Pavlovich 1593-1595, 1663, 1664, 1704-1706, 1713-1734 

(testimony) 
Ushakoff, Sofia A. (Mrs. Serge P. Ushakofif) 1718 

V 
von Braun, Werner 1647 

W 

Wasserman, Jack 1766 

Winter, Carl 1595, 1753, 1760 

Winter, Helen Allison (Mrs. Carl Winter) 1595, 

1746, 1752-1760 (testimony), 1762-1766 
Wolins, LeRoy 1590-1592, 1673-1689 (testimony), 1693, 1694, 1768, 1780 

Y 
Yates, Oleta O'Connor 1595 

ORGANIZATIONS 

A 

American Civil Liberties Union 1674, 1689, 1752, 1761 

American Political Science Association 1587 

B 

Berenson Books (Detroit, Mich.) 1717, 1738, 1745 

Bookfield House, Inc 1588, 1612, 1614, 1615, 1623 

C 

Chemical Bank, New York Truest Co 1599, 1613 

Cheyne Printing Co 1758 

China Welfare Institute (Shanghai) 1740 

Communist Party of the United States of America 1626, 1667, 1669, 1671 

National Structure: 

National Committee 1595, 1756 

Districts: 

Maryland-District of Columbia District (Maryland and the 

District of Columbia) 1 627 

Michigan District (Michigan) 1595, 1753 

Ohio District (Ohio and Panhandle section of West Virginia) 1627 

States and Territories: 

Maryland 1594, 1595 

Michigan 1760 

Communist Party, Soviet Union 
Congresses : 

Twenty-second Congress, October 17-31, 1961, (Moscow) 1630, 1631 

Crosscurrents Press, Inc 1588- 

1590, 1593, 1598-1601, 1607-1619, 1621-1627, 1629-1637, 1644- 
1648, 1654-1662, 1665, 1700, 1724-1726, 1746, 1747, 1754, 1755, 
1788. 

Cross World Books and Periodicals, Inc. (Chicago, 111.) 1595, 

1611, 1629, 1630, 1687, 1688, 1767-1769, 1773, 1774, 1777-1779 



iv INDEX 

Crossworld Press, Inc. {See Crosscurrents Press, Inc.) Page 

Cummings & Sellers (Washington, D.C.) 1752 

D 
Dolgich Book Shop (Chicago, 111.) 1717, 1738, 1745 

E 
Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America, United (UE) 1760 

F 

Fair Plav for Cuba Committee 1594, 1707 

FAM Book & Translation Service (New York) 1594, 1709 

Far East Fur Co 1713 

Foreign Languages Publishing House (Moscow) 1588, 

1598, 1625, 1643, 1645, 1646, 1732 

Four Continent Book Corp 1589, 

1593-1595, 1628, 1629, 1635, 1664-1666, 1700-1706, 1710, 1711, 
1714-1718, 1721, 1722, 1724, 1726-1732, 1734, 1741, 1747, 1748, 
1778. 

Free Press and Publications (Cleveland, Ohio) 1716, 1738, 1745 

Frontier Book Store (Seattle, Wash.) 1716, 1745 

G 

Global Books (Detroit, Mich.) 1595, 1717, 1738, 1745-1747, 1753, 1755, 1756 

Global Books Forum 1595, 1756-1760, 1762, 1763 

Guozi Shudian 1594, 1595, 1736, 1740, 1744 

I 

Imported Publications and Products 1594, 1735, 1737 

International Arts and Sciences Press (New York) 1588-1590, 

160(>-1608, 1612-1614, 1617, 1618, 1623, 1633, 1658, 1661-1663 
International Book Co. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga) (Moscow, Russia) 

(also known as MezhKniga and MK) 1588, 

1589, 1594, 1595, 1609-1612, 1617, 1624, 1625, 1628, 1629, 1645, 
1646, 1688, 1720, 1722, 1723, 1727, 1731, 1733, 1736, 1737, 1739- 
1741, 1743, 1744, 1746, 1769, 1771, 1774-1776. 

International Bookstore, Inc. (San Francisco, Calif.) 1594, 

1635, 1716, 1737, 1744, 1745 
J 

Jefferson Book Shop (New York City) 1594, 1635, 1717, 1732, 1738, 1746 

L 

Labor Youth League 1588 

Library for Intercultural Studies, Inc. (New York) 1614-1616 

M 
Masses & Mainstream, Inc 1 668 

Metropohtan Fraternal Club (New York City) 1707 

Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga. (See International Book Co., Moscow, Rus- 
sia.) 
Modern Book Store (Chicago, 111.) 1594, 1716, 1738, 1745 

N 

New Century Publishers, Inc. (New York) 1590, 1628, 1666-1668 

New Era Book Agency. {See New Era Book & Subscription Agency, 
Inc.) 

New Era Book & Subscription Agency, Inc 1589, 1590, 1628, 1668 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1591 

Permanent Mihtary Committee 1591, 1592 

Novosti Press Agency ( APN) 1 589 

O 

Office of the Commercial Counselor of the U.S.S.R. {See entry under 
U.S.S.R., Goverment of, Embassies: Washington, D.C.) 



INDEX T 

P 

Page 

Package Express & Travel Agency (previously known as Parcels to Russia) _ 1595 
Parcels to Russia. {See Package Express & Travel Agency.) 

Paul Romaine (Book Store) (Chicago, 111.) 1717, 1738, 1745 

Progress Books (Canada) 1G30, 1716, 1749 

Progressive Bookshop (Los Angeles, Calif.) 1635, 1737, 1745 

R 

Raznoiznos (Bulgarian books and periodicals) (Sofia, Bulgaria) . _ 1594, 1708, 1709 
Retail, Wholesale & Department Store Emplovees of America, United, 

CIO, District 65 1748 

Rosenthal and Moskowitz (New York) 1714 

RUCH (book publishers, Warsaw, Poland) 1740 

S 

Schoenhof's Foreign Books, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.) 1717, 1738, 1745 

Shelby Public Library (Shelby, N.C.) 1640, 1641, 1651 

Soviet Booklets (London, England) 1630, 1635 

T 

Three- Arrow Publishers 1678 

Trade Bindry (New York) 1619 

Tradeworld, Inc 1588, 1614, 1616, 1623 

Translation World Publishers 1590, 

1591, 1593, 1676-1679, 1681, 1683-1686, 1689, 1690, 1692-1696, 
1698. 

U 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of: 
Embassies: 

Washington, D.C 1613, 

1614, 1619-1626, 1631, 1634, 1636, 1637, 1641, 1646, 1651, 1655, 
1677, 1678, 1680-1683, 1685, 1696, 1725, 1770. 
Office of the Commercial Counselor... 1719, 1720, 1723, 1724, 1733 
U.S. Government: 

Justice, Department of: 

Foreign Agents Registration Section 1589 

State, Department of 1591, 1592, 1605, 1643, 1685 

Supreme Court 1605 

Universal Distributors (New York City) 1717, 1738, 1746 

University of Illinois 1761 

University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Mich.) 1588, 1602, 1755 

V 

Victor Kamkin, Inc. (Washington, D.C.) 1717, 1738, 1746 

Vilnis Book Shop (Chicago, 111.) 1717, 1738, 1745 

W 

Wayne State University (Detroit, Mich.) 1756, 1758, 1759 

World Books (New York City) 1594, 

1645, 1646, 1717, 1727, 1738, 1742, 1747, 1748 
World Youth Festivals, Third Youth Festival, August 5-19, 1951, East 

Berlin 1603 

Z 

Ziet Im Bild (publishers, Dresden, Germany) 1722 

Znanie Bookstore (San Francisco, Cahf.) 1716, 1737, 1745 



yl INDEX 

PUBLICATIONS 

A 

Psgs 

A Letter to the American People from Nikita S. Khrushchev 1620, 1632 

A Peace Treaty with Germany 1620 

An Account to the Partv and the People, Report of the C.C., C.P.S.U. to 

the 22d Congress of the Party (Moscow) 1 646 

C 

Case Against General Heusinger, The.. 1591-1593, 1683-1686, 1694, 1696, 1698 

D 

Documents of the 22d Congress of the CPSU, Volume I 1620, 1623 

Documents of the 22d Congress of the CPSU, Volume II 1620, 1624 

E 
East Minus West = Zero: Russia's Debt to the Western World 1643 

F 

Federated Press 1761 

First Man In Space, The 1620 

For Peaceful Competition and Cooperation 1617, 1622, 1623 

G 

Gains in the Soviet Standard of Living Under the Seven Year Plan 1617 

Gherman Titov, First Man To Spend a Day in Space 1620 

Glos Ludowy (Polish newspaper) 1758 

H 
Higher Education in the USSR 1617 

I 
International Situation and Soviet Foreign Policy, The 1619 

K 

Kazakh Republic, The 1619 

Khrushchev in America 1619 

Khrushchev in New York 1620 

Khrushchev on the Future 1620, 1624, 1625, 1641, 1648-1651 

Khrushchev Reports to the 22d Congress of the CPSU, Volume I 1620, 

1623, 1641, 1646-1648 

Khrushchev Speaks to Moscow Voters 1620 

Khrushchev's Tour of Asia 1619 

M 

Mainstream 1628, 1668 

Masses & Mainstream 1668 

Masters of Deceit (book) 1643 

Mikoyanin Cuba 1620, 1726 

Milwaukee Leader 1761 

N 

Naked Communist, The 1643 

Narodna Volva (foreign language newspaper) 1758 

New Times. 1 1732 

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, On the Occasion of His Visit to the U.S 1618 

Nikita S. Khrushchov Speech at the Third Congress of the Rumanian 
Workers' Party (see also: Speech by Nikita S. Khrushchev at the Third 

Congress of the Rumanian Workers' Party) 1 630 

No Third Path (book) 1643 

N. S. Khrushchev's Statements and Replies to Questions, etc. — The U-2 

Plane Incident 1620 



INDEX 



O 



On the Commimist Programme — -Report on the Programme of the C.P.S.U. PaK« 

To the 22d Congress of the Party 1625 

P 

Political Affairs 1590, 1628, 1666, 1667, 1669, 1670 

Problems of Economics 1607 

Program of the Communist Partv of the Soviet Union (book) 1589, 

1590, 1593, 1620, 1628, 1641, 1643-1645, 1665, 1724-1726, 1747 

R 

Raising the Soviet Standard of Living 1620 

Report of an Investigation Into the War Crimes of Theodor Oberlander__ 1620 

Report on the Program of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1624 

Romanul America (foreign language newspaper) 1758 

R<issian Federation, The 1619 



Speech bv Nikita S. Khrushchev at the Fifteenth Session of the UN 

General Assembly 1620, 1626, 1627, 1755 

Speech by Xikita S. Khrushchev at the Third Congress of the Rumanian 
Workers' Party (see also: Xikita S. Khrushehov Speech at the Third 

Congress of the Rmnanian Workers' Partv) 1620, 1630 

Soviet Highlights (periodical) 1589, 1590, 1633, 1634, 1726 

Soviet Policv in the Current International Situation 1620 

Soviet Review 1589, 1590, 1634, 1726 

Soviet Stand on Dis- Armament, The 1620 

Soviet Stand on Germany, The 1620, 1631, 1633 

Soviet Standard of Living: Social Benefits, The 1618 

Soviet World Outlook, A Handbook of Communist Statements 1643 

T 

Target: The World (Kirkpatrick) 1587 

Three Documents of Current Historv 1620 

Trial of the U-2, The 1590, 1591, 1678-1680, 1682-1684, 1694-1696 

U 

United Automobile Worker 1761 

United Rubber Worker 1761 

U.S.S.R. (magazine) 1633 

V 

Voprosy Ekonomiki (Problems of Economics, L^SSR monthly journal) 1606 

W 
World Marxist Review 1630, 1749 



You are Challenged To Consider National Goals (leaflet) 1651 

You Can Trust The Communists (Schwartz) 1643 

Z 

Zeit Im Rild (weekly newspaper. Dresden, German}-) 1722 

o 



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