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Full text of "Communist penetration of radio facilities (Conelrad-communications) (Part 1) Hearings [and report]"

I 



i 

COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO 

FACILITIES 

(CONELRAD— COMMUNICATIONS) ^ 

(PART 1) US -P^ r 11 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THB 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



AUGUST 23 AND 24, 1960 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 

ii 
INCLUDING INDEX 



«^..VARD COLLEGE L(SM«r 

t>£?OS/TED By THE ' 

l^NTEL STATES GOVERnm^^, 

^0/ 14 /^(ja 




k 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
60500 WASHINGTON : 1860 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Unitku States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, diairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana M^ILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Akens, Staff Bireclor 



i;-. Ai6 



CONTENTS 



Faee 

Synopsis 1 855 

Testimony of — 

August 23, 1960: 

Robert E. Lee 1864 

Edgar W. Holtz 1864 

Charles R. Escola 1864 

Kenneth W. Miller 1864 

Frank M. Kratokvil 1864 

Michael Mignon 1877 

Philip D. Boothroyd 1879 

Wayne P. Paschal 1881 

Stanley Blumenthal 1 883 

Harold O. Townsend 1885 

Murray Goldberg 1886 

August 24, 1960: 

Lt. Col. Harry F. Smith 1889 

Maj. Dow E. Evelyn 1889 

Capt. Roy W. Stroud 1889 

Wilson McMakin 1893 

Joseph F. Keating 1896 

David Jay Gould 1899 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, Y9th Coxgress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 
Stat. 812, which provides : 

Be 7t enacted by the Senate and House oj Representatives of the United Slates 
ol America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121 STANDINO COMMITTEES 

* ^ * * * )ti ^ 

17 Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time invtstigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop-U- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legi.slation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall e.xercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic 
tioii of such committee; and, for thj».« purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress V,y the agencies in the executive branch ol 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

***** 41 I* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(h) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
Is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
-Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 



In opening the instant hearings, the chairman pointed out that 
tliey were designed to develop information pertinent to H.R. 12852, 
a bill he had introduced to cope with Communist infiltration of the 
radio communications field. This bill would bar issuance, and pro- 
vide for the revocation, of operators' licenses in the cases of persons 
who refused to answer questions concerning Communist activities 
before certain designated Federal agencies. 

The recent decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the 
District of Columbia in the case of Borroio v. Federal C ommunica- 
tions Commission^ the chairman said, had upheld the FCC in its 
denial of a license renewal to a man who had refused to state whether 
or not he was a member of the Communist Party. He also pointed 
out, however, that this decision did not apply to persons who were 
holders of licenses as distinct from applicants. 

Kobert E. Lee, a Commissioner of the Federal Communications 
Commission, testified that the FCC has the responsibility of deteraiin- 
ing whether or not, in the public interest, a license should be issued 
to any person in this country (except a Government or military em- 
ployee) who applies for permission to operate a transmitter of any 
kind. There are presently about 2i/^ million people, he said, who have 
transmitting licenses of one kind or another. 

CONELRAD, which means CONtrol of ELectromagnetic RADia- 
tion, Mr. Lee testified, had been developed by the FCC at the request 
of the military and civil defense officials. The militai-y had asked for 
some means of denying radiation from any transmitter which would, 
under attack conditions, provide navigational aid (a homing signal) 
to an enemy. Civil defense authorities, on the other hand, had re- 
quested the FCC to devise some means of communication to the 
public under attack conditions. 

CONELRAD, proposed by the FCC as a means of filling these 
two contrasting needs, Mr. Lee said, is a compromise system, not 
perfect for either purpose, but at present the only practicable solu- 
tion to the problem. 

Under this system, in the event of enemy attack, some 1,300 sta- 
tions in the United States will either go off the air or shift to fre- 
quencies of 640 or 1240 on a signal from the North American Air 
Defense Command. The latter will reduce their power and will not 
identify their location. All other transmitters, except those of very 
short range which will be used for police work and other vital com- 
munication needs, will go off the air. 

Mr. Lee stated that CONELRAD is a must for national defense 
and for protection against interference with the operation of U.S. 
defensive and offensive missiles in the event of an enemy attack. 

1855 



1856 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Any station, he said, which stayed on the air witliout shifting to the 
two designated frequencies, would provide a navigational aid to 
enemy aircraft. An operator of a transmitter who stayed on the air 
could also give intelligence information to the enemy or transmit 
subvei-sive infomiation to the listening public. He also said that, 
at the present time, a Communist who transmitted a signal after the 
CONELRAD system had gone into effect could adversely affect this 
country's defense system. 

When asked if he was apprehensive concerning Communist at- 
tempts to penetrate communications facilities, Mr. Lee replied: "I 
certainly am * * * and always have been." 

Frank M. Kratokvil, Assistant Chief of the Field Engineering and 
Monitoring Bureau, FCC, testified that Murray Goldberg, Philip 
Douglas Boothroyd, Harold O. Townsend, Stanley Blumenthal, David 
Jay Gould, and Wayne P. Paschal — all witnesses subpenaed to testify 
in the hearing — had recently held, or had applied for renewals of, 
licenses to operate transmitting equipment through which the 
CONELRAD warning system could be adversely affected. 

Mr. Lee said that under the decision in the Borrow case, the FCC 
now has power to deny an operator's license to any applicant who 
refuses to answer questions about Communist Party membership. 
However, he pointed out that this ruling did not give the FCC the 
power to deny a license in the event an applicant admitted Commu- 
nist Party membership (in which case a hearing would have to be 
held), nor to deny a license if an applicant lied and said he was not 
a Communist Party member when the FCC had a witness who had 
identified him as such. He also pointed out that this court ruling 
did not give the FCC the power to revoke the license of a person who 
joined the Communist Party after obtaining a license. 

The FCC, he said, sometimes receives confidential derogatory in- 
formation from another Government agency concerning a current 
license holder. Wlien the time comes for renewal of this person's 
license, the FCC has to consider whether or not it will be able to prove 
its case against the licensee in the hearing which must be granted prior 
to denial of a license renewal. Often, for security reasons, a witness 
cannot be produced for this hearing. The FCC then has no choice 
but to renew the license. 

Mr. Lee said that, in spite of the ruling in the Borrow case, the FCC 
has no specific legal authorization for sending a questionnaire con- 
cerning Communist Party activity to persons who apply for renewal 
of their licenses and that the FCC has been able to deny renewals in 
only a few instances. 

It was his personal judgment, he said, that H.R. 12852 would be "a 
useful tool" in attempting to preclude Communists from access to 
communications facilities. 

Michael Mignon, a representative of the AFL-CIO Communica- 
tions Workers of America wlio had once been a member of the Com- 
munist Party and had previously appeared before the committee as a 
cooperative witness, testified that, in his opinion, a Communist Party 
member who had access to communications facilities "would not 
hasitate at all" to sabotage CONELRAD. 

"I have no doubt in my mind," he said, that any member of the 
Communist Party, in the event of war or an attack on the United 



COIMIMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1857 

States, "would do all possible to aid the enemy of our country." He 
also testified that it was the belief of his union and his personal belief 
that "there is no room for a member of the Communist Party in the 
communications industry." 

He stated that, while a member of the Communist Party, he had 
known Philip D. Boothroyd as a Communist. 

Philip D. Boothroyd, of Sparta, New Jersey, testified that he held 
a temporary FCC permit to operate shipboard and broadcasting equip- 
ment, pending action on renewal of his expired first-class radio-tele- 
phone broadcast license. 

Boothroyd invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to say where 
he had worked in the broadcasting industry, where he is now em- 
ployed, and whether or not he was presently a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. He admitted having known Michael Mignon, but again 
invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to state w^hether Mignon's 
identification of him as a member of the Communist Party was correct 
or in error. 

Wayne P. Paschal, of Issaquah, Washington, testified that he had 
been a radio and TV repairman for 6 years, had held first- and second- 
class radio-telegraph operator's licenses and also an amateur radio 
license in the past, now operates an amateur radio station which has 
a normal range of about 300 miles, and is licensed by the FCC to op- 
erate any type of radio-telegraph equipment. 

He invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he was presently a 
member of the Communist Party, if previous identification of him as 
such by Barbara Hartle in 1954 was correct or in error, and if he had 
revealed present or past Communist Party membership to the FCC 
when he had obtained his license. 

Stanley Blumenthal, of Brooklyn, New York, invoiced the fifth 
amendment when asked his occupation, how long he had been engaged 
in it, if he had ever applied to the FCC for a radio operator's license, 
if he was now a member of the Communist Party, and if he would give 
any information concerning the Communist Party to the committee. 

Harold O. Townsend, of Bay Shore, New York, invoked the fifth 
amendment when questioned concerning his occupation and present 
employment and when asked if he held an FCC radio operator's 
license and whether he was a Communist Party member at "this in- 
stant." 

Murray Goldberg, of Syracuse, New York, invoked the fifth amend- 
ment when asked his occupation, whether or not he held a radio opera- 
tor's license, and if he was "this instant" a member of the Communist 
Party. 

David Jay Gould, of West Hempstead, New York, testified that he 
was an audio engineer employed by the National Broadcasting Com- 
pany, but that he did not presently have an FCC license nor access 
to transmitting equipment- — although he had had both in the past. 

He invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he was presently or 
had ever in the past been a member of the Communist Party, if he had 
information on Communist Party activities to give to the committee, 
and if members of his union were Communist Party members. 

Major Dow E. Evelyn, of the Office of Directorate of Operations, 
Headquarters, U.S. Air Force, testified that the Air Force considered 



60500— 60— pt. 1- 



1858 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

CONELRAD as "important" in denying navigational aid to enemy 
aircraft and/or air-breathing missiles which require an outside refer- 
ence point to locate their position. 

He said that in the event of enemy attack, a Communist with access 
to transmitting equipment "could continue to broadcast either in a 
normal manner, identifying himself by call letters or location, or he 
could issue specific instructions to that attack force." 

Major Evelyn also stated that if a Communist possessed certain 
type equipment, he could adversely affect not only CONELRAD, but 
this country's defense radar operation and certain other electronic 
defense mechanisms. Based on his own knowledge of these electronic 
systems, radar, and CONELRAD, he said that Communists with oper- 
ators' licenses "could wreak havoc on the defense system if they were 
so inclined." 

In response to questioning, he pointed out that they could do this 
because radar can be blinded by the transmission of "false or spurious 
or masking signals" and that the same applied to other electronic 
devices. He said that any person who did not obey CONELRAD and 
shift to the predesignated frequencies on signal would "give aid to an 
enemy by the very fact that he remained on the air; more so. if he 
identified himself, his geographical location, or his call letters. 

Another danger. Major Evelyn pointed out, was that such a person 
"could give false or misleading instructions to the civil populace, there- 
by causing panic." 

He testified that the Air Force had no power to cause the removal of 
Communists who had access to radio transmitters. 

Wilson McMakin, vice president, director of industrial relations, and 
personnel security officer of the Mackay Radio and Telegraph Com- 
pany, the Commercial Cable Company, AH America Cables and Radio, 
Inc., and Globe Wireless, Ltd. — all of which are subsidiaries of Ameri- 
can Cable and Radio Corporation — was the next witness. 

Mr. McMakin testified that these four companies operate radio- 
telegraph and submarine cable telegraph circuits to and from most 
countries of the world, including the Soviet Union and other nations 
behind the Iron Curtain. He said that international traffic of all kinds 
goes over these lines, the circuits being used by the Armed Forces, the 
Department of State, and firms with defense contracts, and that tech- 
nicians working on these transmitters have access to all types of in- 
formation and can copy coded messages. 

In addition, he stated, the four companies operate public coastal 
radio stations on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coasts, which are 
in constant communication witli all ships at sea. Operators handling 
the messages at these stations know the location of every ship on every 
ocean. It is easy, he said, to see the danger posed by a subversive 
holding such a position in time of a national emergency. 

Mr. McMakin stated that it was his belief that the possibility of 
sabotage in the communications area was the "greatest danger to 
national defense" : 

Trained saboteurs planted throughout the communications 
companies' facilities could cause a breakdown of such 
facilities * * *. 

It would be a simple matter for such employees to cripple 
communications by damaging delicate and complex equip- 
ment used in modern methods of transmission. 



\ 



» 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1859 

He said that his companies endorsed H.R. 12852 — 

as an important means to help prevent the deliberate place- 
ment of the saboteur and the spy in critical locations 
throughout an industry as vital to the national defense as 
international communications. 

Joseph F. Keating, vice president in charge of programs and opera- 
tions of the Mutual Broadcasting System, testified that that system 
served 440 radio stations in the United States, Guam, and the Virgin 
Islands. After stating that the president of the Mutual System, 
Robert F. Hurleigh, had seen and approved his statement, Mr. Keat- 
ing testified : 

* * * it seems obvious to us that Communist agents or 
sympathizers, placed in vital areas, could play havoc with tliis 
system under CONELRAD. The emergency broadcast sys- 
tem's success depends upon the collaboration of every station 
involved, including, I might add, even amateur radio stations. 
I emphasize, Mr. Chairman, that only a few persons could 
cause this damage and destruction * * *. 

He also testified to — 

the need, in our opinion, of practical and effective legislation 
to safeguard the American free radio system from sabotage 
at the hands of Communists or Communist agents. 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

(CONELRAD— COMMUNICATIONS) 
(PART 1) 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 23, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.G. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, 
at 10 :10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Old House Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Francis E. Walter, of Pennsylvania ; 
Morgan M. Moulder, of Missouri ; Clyde Doyle, of California ; William 
M. Tuck, of Virginia; Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio; and August E. 
Johansen, of Michigan. (Appearances as noted.) 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staif director, and Louis J. 
Russell, investigator. 

The Chairman. The hearing will be in order. 

(Members of the committee present at time of convening: Repre- 
sentatives Walter, Doyle, Tuck, and Johansen.) 

The Chairman. The hearings which are beginning today are on 
H.R. 12852, which I introduced on June 28, to cope with a situation 
which is similar to the situation revealed to exist in regard to Commu- 
nist activities among seamen. 

H.R. 12852 to amend the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, 
is designed to cope with Communist infiltration in the field of radio 
communications. It prohibits the issuance of a radio operator's license 
to any individual who wilfully fails or refuses to answer certain ques- 
tions relating to Communist activities when simimoned to appear be- 
fore designated Federal agencies and provides for the revocation of a 
license which may be or may have been issued to any such individual. 

Let there now be inserted in the body of this record the text of the 
bill H.R. 12852. 

(H.R. 12852 follows.) 

1861 



1862 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

86th CONGRESS U T> 1 OfittO 
2d Session **• *^» A^OU^ 



IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

June 28, 1960 

Mr. Waltee introduced the following bill ; which was referred to 
the Committee on Un-American Activities 



A BILL 



To amend the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 so as 
to prohibit the licensing of certain individuals as station 
operators of certain communication facilities, and for other 
purposes. 

1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 

2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 

3 That the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 is 

4 amended by redesignating section 32 as section 33 and by 

5 inserting, immediately after section 31, the following new 

6 section : 



2 

1 "amending communications act of 1934 

2 "Sec. 32. The Communications Act of 1934 is amended 

3 by inserting immediately after section 303 the following 

4 new section : 

5 " 'denial and revocation of opeeatob's licenses in 

6 certain cases 

7 " 'Sec. 303A. (a) The Commission shall not issue an 

8 operator's license to any individual who willfully fails or 

9 refuses to appear before any Federal agency, when sub- 

10 penaed or ordered to appear, or to answer under oath before 

11 such Federal agency any question concerning — 

12 " ' ( 1 ) the membership of such individual, or any 

13 other individual, in the Communist Party, 

14 "'(2) the activities of such individual, or any other 

15 individual, as a member of the Communist Party, or 

16 "'(3) the participation of such individual, or any 

17 other individual, in activities conducted by or under 

18 the direction of the Communist Party or any member 

19 thereof. 

20 In any case in which any individual who holds such a 

21 license shall willfully fail or refuse to appear, or to answer 

22 questions, under the circumstances described in the first 

23 sentence of this subsection, the Commission shall revoke such 

24 license. 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1863 

8 

1 "'(b) As used in this section — 

2 "'(1) the term "Communist Party" means the 

3 Communist Party of the United States, or any succes- 

4 sors of such party regardless of the assumed name, 

5 whose object or purpose is to overthrow the Govern- 

6 ment of the United States, or the government of any 

7 State, District, Commonwealth, or possession thereof, 

8 or the government of any political subdivision therein, 

9 by force and violence, and includes subsidiary organ- 
ic izations of such party ; and 

11 "'(2) the term "Federal agency" means any de- 

12 partment, independent establishment, or other agency 

13 or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Govern- 

14 ment of the United States, and any congressional com- 

15 mittee or subcommittee.' " 

16 Sec. 2. The amendments made by the first section of 

17 this Act shall take effect on the thirtieth day after the date 

18 of enactment of this Act. 

The Chairman. May I say that both the bill to cope with Com- 
munist activities among seamen — H.R. 11580 — and the bill which is 
the subject of the present hearings dealing with Communists in the 
radio communications field — H.R. 12852 — are patterned after a Cali- 
fornia statute which was held valid by the United States Supreme 
Court in the case of Nelson mid Globe versus County of Los Angeles^ 
decided February 29, 1960, in which the court sustained the validity 
of a provision of the California statute providing for the dismissal of 
any public employee who, when summoned before an appropriate 
government agency, refuses to give information of which he is pos- 
sessed on communism and other subversive activities. 

Shortly after I introduced H.R. 12852, which we are now consider- 
ing, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia 
issued its decision in the case of Borrow versus Federal Communica- 
tioTis Commission. 

In this case Borrow was an applicant for the renewal of a radio 
operator's license. In connection with the renewal application he was 
asked by the Federal Communications Commission certain questions 
respecting Communist Party membership, but he refused to answer 
them on the ground that the commission had no legal authority to 
require answers to these questions as a prerequisite to renewal of his 
license. 

I will ask Mr. Doyle to complete the reading of this statement. 

Mr. Doyle. The court held that under the Communications Act it 
was proper for the commission to ask the questions of the applicant 
and that his refusal to answer the questions was a sufficient basis upon 
which the commission could dismiss his application. 

While the majority opinion of the Court of Appeals in this case 
reveals an encouraging trend toward a recognition of the facts as to 
the nature of the Communist conspiracy and of the threat which Com- 
munists pose in such a vital area as radio communications, the Borrow 
case does not deal with holders of operators' licenses as distinct from 
applicants. 

Therefore, it appears that in addition to the law as pronounced in 
the Borrow case, legislation is needed in this field. 



1864 COMMUNIST PENETRATIOX OF RADIO FACILITIES 

I shall not at this time attempt to detail the threat to our internal 
security which can be posed by Communists with access to radio 
communications facilities. In this day of guided missiles, radio alerts, 
directional signals, and various electronic devices which govern com- 
munications and the dissemination of public information, it should 
be obvious to anyone that precautions must be taken to preclude access 
by Communists'to our radio communications facilities. 

We shall, accordingly, explore various factual situations in which 
persons we have reason to believe are, or in tlie recent past have been, 
members of the Communist Party have access to radio commmii- 
cations facilities. This exploration will be for the purpose of at- 
tempting to elicit factual information to assist this committee in its 
appraisal of the legislation. 

I have just concluded your statement, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Call your first witness. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, if you please, the first witness will be 
Commissioner Robert E. Lee of the Federal Communications Com- 
mission, accompanied by certain of his associates on the commission 
staff who will assist him in his testimony. 

Gentlemen, will you kindly rise while the chairman administers an 
oath? 

The CHAiRMAisr. Please raise your right hands. 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lee. I do. 

Mr. Miller. I do. 

Mr. HoLTz. I do. 

Mr. EscoLA. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP ROBERT E. LEE, COMMISSIONER, FEDERAL COM- 
MUNICATIONS COMMISSION; EDGAR W. HOLTZ, ASSOCIATE 
GENERAL COUNSEL; CHARLES R. ESCOLA, ASSISTANT GENERAL 
COUNSEL; AND KENNETH W. MILLER, U.S. SUPERVISOR, 
CONELRAD; ACCOMPANIED BY PRANK M. KRATOKVIL, ASSIST- 
ANT CHIEP, PIELD ENGINEERING AND MONITORING BUREAU 

Mr. Arens. Commissioner Lee, kindly identify yourself by full 
name, and occupation. Then I shall ask, beginning with the gentle- 
man on your far right, for your associates to identify themselves by 
name and occupation. 

Mi\ Lee. I am Robert E. Lee. I entered Federal service in 1938 
as a special agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Subse- 
quently I was researcli director for the House Appropriations Com- 
mittee here on the Hill for six or seven years and was appointed to 
the Federal Communications Commission by President Eisenliower 
in October 1953, and reappointed this year, and gratefully reconfirmed 
as Commissioner. 

Mr. Arens. Now, will you kindly identify yourself and give us a 
word about your occupation ? 

Mr. EscoLA. I am Charles R. Escola, assistant general counsel. Fed- 
eral Communications Commission. 



I 



COMIMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1865 

Mr. Arens. Will you do likewise ? 

Mr. HoLTZ. I am Edgar W. Holtz. I am the associate general 
counsel of the commission, at the present time acting general counsel 
during this period. 

]Mr. Miller. My name is Kenneth W. Miller. I am the U.S. Super- 
visor of COXELRAD, Office of the Chief Engineer. 

Mr. Arexs. Gentlemen, may I respectfully suggest, if it meets with 
the pleasure of the committee, that, as I pose questions, the indi- 
vidual who is equipped, because of his particular status with the Fed- 
eral Communications Commission, give the response. In that way 
we can cover the subject matter, I believe, more efficiently. 

As a point of departure in our inquiry, may I ask if you will kindly 
give us a word about the power, duty, and jurisdiction of the FCC? 

Mr. Lee. By way of background, I would like to say that I do not 
have a prepared statement. I do, however, have an excerpt of a state- 
ment tliat was prepared for our annual report concerning the defense 
activities of the FCC. 

Mr. Arexs. Would you kindly summarize it in this presentation, 
and then if it meets with the pleasure of the chairman, we will cause 
that document which you now have to be incorporated in this record. 

INIr. Lee. Yes ; I will be happy to do it. 

(The Federal Communications Commission material referred to 
above follows:) 

National Defense 

delegation of emergency powers 

In time of war or other national emergency the President, under section 606 
of the Communications Act, has certain powers to deal with wire and radio 
communication and devices capable of radiation which could be used as "homing" 
beams to guide enemy aircraft and missiles. 

This authority covers closure or utilization of facilities in such an emer- 
gency ; establishment of priorities for essential communications, and employment 
of the Armed Forces to protect communication facilities. Severe penalties are 
prescribed for convicted violators. 

Since 1951 the FCC, under Presidential directive, has established and enforced 
regulations concerning electromagnetic radiation from noncommunication 
devices. 

CONELRAD 

CONELRAD is a code word meaning CONtrol of ELectromagnetic RADiation. 
It is a voluntary program prepared at the request and with the cooperation of 
the Department of Defense and the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization. In 
addition to minimizing the navigational aid an enemy might obtain from radio 
emissions, it encompasses a variety of classified projects. It seeks to mobilize, 
for emergency purposes, the entire non-Government non-military communications 
industry at no capital cost to the taxpayer. 

CONELRAD plans have been completed and implemented for the majority of 
the radio services authorized by the Commission. 

These plans establish means for dissemination of the CONELRAD radio alert 
to all radio stations. Upon notification of a CONELRAD radio alert, all AM, 
FM and TV stations leave the air after mailing a short announcement. Certain 
designated AM stations return to the air and broadcast civil defense messages 
and other pertinent information on the emergency broadcast frequencies of 640 
and 1240 kilocycles. Stations in other radio services whose operation is essential 
to the national safety or the safety of life and property are permitted to operate 
in a controlled manner. All others must remain silent until the CONELRAD 
radio all clear has been issued. 

The CONELRAD radio alert is invoked by the Commander-in-Chief, North 
American Air Defense Command, and is transmitted to certain designated key 
broadcast stations which in turn broadcast the CONELRAD attention signal 

60500— 60— pt. 1 3 



1866 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

and follow it immediately with the alert message. All other broadcast stations, 
as well as stations in other radio services, are required to monitor a key broadcast 
station in order to receive the alert message and thereafter comply with prescribed 
procedure. 

A new instantaneous nationwide CONELRAD alerting system is under devel- 
opment which will provide a "hard copy" teletype record. It is proposed to utilize 
the teletype circuits that are presently used to supply news to broadcast stations. 

The Commission, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Weather 
Bureau, has put the CONELRAD alerting system to an important peacetime use 
in addition to its national defense purpose. In the event of a threat by the 
elements to life and property, the local weather bureau advises certain cooperat- 
ing broadcast stations which, in turn, broadcast the attention signal and the 
weather bureau advisory notice. This is done on the station's normal frequency. 

Mr. Arens. I see another ijentleman from your staff has joined you. 
I wonder if he would identify himself by name and occupation on 
this record. 

Mr. Kratokvil. I am Frank M. Kratokvil, assistant chief of the 
Field Engineering Bureau, the field operating arm of the commission. 

Mr. Arexs. Thank you. 

Would you kindly, Mr. Lee, give us a quick summary or a brief 
summary, I should say, of the power, duty, and jurisdiction of the 
FCC, with particular emphasis upon the phase of its jurisdiction, 
power, and activity in connection with national defense and the 
CONELRAD system? 

Mr. Lee. Yes. By way of backgromid, I would like to say that 
my remarks here today will have to necessarily reflect somewhat of 
a personal opinion, rather than a position of the commission. Tradi- 
tionally, the commission has recessed during the month of August and 
traditionally I have been elected to stay and keep store. 

So with respect to your bill, I will be very happy to present my 
opinion, and I think it probably will reflect the opinion of the com- 
mission. We have not had an opportunity to process this through 
our regular process so that the seven commissioners could vote on 
a position. 

With respect to the Federal Communications Commission, we were 
created actually in 1934, which was an enlargement of an act of 1927 
that created what was then known as the Federal Radio Commission, 
to regulate radio. 

Radio, as you know, came on the scene rather suddenly and in those 
days people just put up an antenna and receiving equipment and 
whatnot and went in business, and soon this matter of interference 
became a very serious one. This old Federal Radio Commission was 
created to police the airways, in effect. 

There were certain functions of other agencies incorporated, in 
effect, into this act, which was passed in 1934. It has been amended 
in minor detail from time to time, but briefly, its purpose is to regu- 
late interstate and foreign commerce in communications by wire and 
radio. 

In that connection, we do have and are required under the act to 
take into consideration the national defense. One section of the act, 
section 606(c), permits the President in time of emergency to take 
over communications. So I think the problem, perhaps, facing this 
committee would be in that area prior to the time that the President 
took over communications, as he can, micler emergency powers. 

Our activities in the defense field, actually, in peacetime, are not 
too extensive, with the exception of the CONELRAD system. 



COMlVrUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1867 

Mr. Arens. I would like, before you get to the CONELRAD sys- 
tem, Coniuiissioner Lee, to ask you if the FCC engages in licensing of 
radio operators and others who have access to, and who operate, com- 
munications equipment in this Nation. 

]Mr. Lee. Yes. We license every transmitter, that is, the operator 
of any transmitter, in the non-military, non-Government field. Our 
area does not cover those portions of the spectrum assigned to the 
military or to the Government. 

Every other operator must apply to us for a license and must meet 
certain public interest standards, and we must make the finding that 
the issuance of this license is in the public interest. There are some 
two and one-half million of these, by the way. 

The Chairman. Two and a half million licenses ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes, sir. You see, when people are talking about the 
FCC, they very often think in terms of broadcasting only, which is a 
relatively small part of our job. There are amateurs, police, conserva- 
tion, every airplane, every ship, and so on, which has an operator. 
This adds up to roughly two and one-half million licenses. 

Mr. xVrens. Give us, please, a W'Ord about the general categories of 
licensees, the duration of their license and the prerequisites in gen- 
eral to obtaining a license. 

(At this point Representative Moulder entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Lee. The general prerequisite to obtaining a license is to meet 
certain teclmical standards that will vary by the class of license and 
in every case — and counsel will correct me if I am wrong — a public in- 
terest finding that the issuance of the license would serve the public 
interest, convenience, and necessity. 

In the broadcast field, these licenses, by statute, may be issued for 
a period not to exceed three years. It has been the practice in this 
field to issue these licenses for three years, although we are currently 
revising this procedure to permit licenses of less than three years in 
those cases where there is some questionable operation with respect to 
their facility. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt at that point? 

Suppose there is something questionable. Is a hearing then held 
on the question of whether or not there ought to be an extension or a 
revocation ? 

Mr. Lee. As the act has been interpreted through the years, in the 
broadcast field our only punitive measure has been revocation. As a 
result of some of the hearings before the Legislative Oversight Com- 
mittee, which Mr. Moulder is concerned with, we have about decided 
that rather than have this life-and-death power of revocation, per- 
haps sometliing less than a full license period would be a punishment, 
let us say, without really killing it, depending upon the grievousness 
of the offense. 

But in every case, I might add, we are governed by the Adminis- 
trative Procedures Act. We may not deny a man a license, we may 
not revoke his license, without a full hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly give us a broad summary of the 
CONELRAD system and the extent to which FCC participates in its 
operation ? 

Mr. Lee. CONELRAD is a contraction of the term "Control of 
Electromagnetic Radiation." 



1868 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Somewhat before my time, perhaps somewhere around 1950, 1 think 
actually as a result of the Korean war, the military came up with 
a requirement that, in efi'ect, would deny any radiation from any trans- 
mitter under attack conditions, on the theory that this would provide 
navigational aid to an enemy who could home in on this particular 
signal. 

At the same time, the Office of Civil Defense said that this is com- 
plete and utter nonsense ; this is the very time that people need com- 
munications to the public. They are going to rely on radio for in- 
formation mider attack conditions and they could not agree with that. 

The then President Truman sent an Executive Order to the Federal 
Communications Commission as the expert body in this field and 
said that the Air Force on one hand "wants you to keep everything 
shut down. The Federal Civil Defense, on the other hand, wants an 
avenue to communicate with people. You must find the answer to 
both of these divergent views." 

I am careful to point out that in this area we, that is, the FCC, do not 
exercise any military judgment. If somebody says to me that 
CONELRAD is no longer necessary in view of the high-speed air- 
craft and the age of guided missiles, I say that this is not for me to 
determine, because this has been a decision of the Department of De- 
fense, who says that this is a military requirement. 

Therefore, we are trying to meet it as technicians. By the same 
token, Civil Defense may say that they have a policy of evacuation 
in certain areas or shelters in certain others. I do not argue the merits, 
even though I may have an opinion. I say that this is a requirement, 
that we must try to help them as technicians. 

So our boys, our engineei'S, designed what to me is a very clever — 
really a compromise between these two reciuirements that became 
known as the CONELRAD system which we now refer to as emer- 
gency broadcasting. 

Briefly, and we have technical people here who could give you all 
the details you need that I wouldn't be familiar with, but briefly it 
means that we have set aside two frequencies, 640 and 1240, for use 
under attack conditions. All other stations go off the air, and by 
all other stations I go beyond broadcasting stations. We have a plan 
for other services. 

Depending on their priority and need, of course, some of them must 
stay on the air, such as short range, point-to-point police, for example. 
But all through the spectrum, the objective is to deny radiation as 
much as possible and still meet very vital requirements. 

These stations that are on the air in this prearranged engineered 
system broadcast on 640 and 1240 kilocycles and are not ]oermitted to 
identify their location. Their power is reduced and they broadcast 
only civil defense information. 

This particular system, and that is a very thumbnail sketch of it, 
has been acceptable, reluctantly, I might add, to both the Air Force 
and to Civil Defense as meeting the requirements of both with per- 
haps a built-in calculated risk to both. 

Mr. Arens. How many stations participate in CONELRAD and 
how many radio operators participate in CONELRAD? 

Mr. Lee. There are approximately 1,300 stations participating in 
CONELRAD, and I assume there would be one — well, it would de- 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1869 

pend on the shifts. You might have as many as 4,500 radio operators 
involved. 

Mr. Arexs. Does CONEUIAD also contemplate that the operators 
of radio equipment who are not connected with a commercial station 
should likewise stay off the air in the event of an attack and the signal 
being emanated through CONELRAD ? 

Mr. Lee. There is a plan for each service. For example, in the 
amateur band they are required to go off the air except for a particular 
group that has developed a system that they refer to as RACES, to ex- 
change information between civil defense points. They are certain 
specilic ones who participate in this need. 

Mr. Arexs. But is it true that generally speaking the individual 
radio operator is obliged under the CONELRAD system at a given 
signal to be absolutely silent in his transmissions? 

Mr. Lee. Generally speaking, that is true, at a signal from the 
North American Air Defense Command. 

]Mr. ^Vrexs. And does CONELRAD blanket the entire continent? 

Mr. Lee. It does. 

Mr. Arexs. Can you give us, roughly, the approximate cost of this 
system ? 

Mr. Lee. This is a voluntary system on the part of the industry, and 
I think they are to be commended for it. We may, under our act, 
take people off the air, but we may not tell them what to do on the 
air, so to that extent it is voluntary. There have been no funds made 
available. 

In the nature of the annual tests that we have, what it amounts to is 
loss of air time for 30 minutes on the part of all radio and TV sta- 
tions. I suppose this would- — I do not think we have ever had a very 
precise figure. It might run $300,000 or $400,000 a year. 

Mr. Arexs. Is CONELRAD regarded by the defense authorities, 
and those persons who are in the defense program, as a vital operation 
in the defense of this Nation ? 

Mr. Lee. I think I have said this publicly and I do not think I am 
violating any security. 

"We asked them to re-evaluate this in view of the high-speed air- 
craft, modern aircraft and guided missile age and whatnot, in March 
of 1959. We were advised for the foreseeable future that the CONEL- 
RAD system is a military requirement, a military must, not only for 
tlie reasons of denial of navigational aid, but even such things as pos- 
sible interference to our own offensive and defensive guided missiles. 

Mr. Arex^s. Gentlemen, will whoever is equipped tell this committee 
how a Communist radio operator, clisposecl to wreak havoc with the 
CONELRAD system, by clisobeymg the orders or doing something 
of a subversive nature to destroy the effectivenes of CONELRAD, 
could accomplish that objective ? 

Mr. Lee. Let's talk first about right this minute. A station which 
remained on the air under attack conditions could provide naviga- 
tional aid to approaching aircraft. An operator who stayed on the 
air and put out subversive information or even intelligence to the 
enemy could be a risk. 

We have electronic matters under study, the details of which are 
classified and I could not even explain them to you if they were not, 
that would, in the near future, we think, control this particular sort of 
thing. 



1870 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

But as of this moment, anyone staying on the air, whether he be 
a Communist or not, would render navigational aid to approaching 
aircraft. 

Mr. Arens. If I trespass on something that may be in a classified 
area, of course, I don't want you to respond. 

Is it the understanding of the FCC that there are now in the offing 
certain electronic devices which would be, in the event of a shooting 
war, beamed into the atmosphere so as to distort the channel or path 
of hostile weapons destined to the big cities of this Nation ? 

Mr. Lee. You sound like a West Pointer. I will ask Kenny Miller 
to answer that. 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Lee. The answer is yes. 

Mr. Arens. Without pursuing this thing further, except in gen- 
eralities, is it within the realm of probability that a Communist, seek- 
ing to destroy the effectiveness of this electronic program defending 
this Nation against possible assault from missiles could, by sending 
out electronic signals from a radio device, adversely affect the defense 
mechanism of the program ? 

Mr. Lee. I think our answer to that would be "Yes" at this moment. 

Mr. Miller. It is a rather broad question. The question is very 
broad. 

Mr. Arens. I did not want to get too specific. As you gentlemen 
know, we have been in private session. 

Mr. Miller. To get to the specific details of the question you ask 
is getting into classified areas. In part the answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Then before we get into the specifics of Communist at- 
tempts to penetrate the comunications facilities, which we will explore 
in a few moments, are you gentlemen, based upon your teclinical 
knowledge and your understanding of the extent and purposes of the 
CONELRAD system, presently apprehensive over attempts by Com- 
munists to penetrate communications facilities of this Nation? 

Mr. Lee. I certainly am, Mr. Arens, and always have been, and even 
beyond the technical end. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I would like to lead into some specific cases, 
if you please. 

There are under subpena to appear before this committee certain 
individuals who we have reason to believe are now, or in the recent 
past have been, member's of the Communist Party and who either now, 
or in the recent past, have procured from the FCC radio operators' 
licenses. 

I should like, from the standpoint of laying a foundation upon which 
to proceed further, to ask you respecting each of several persons, as 
to whether or not these individuals have procured Federal Communi- 
cations licenses, and are now, or in the recent past have been, radio 
operators. 

Do your records show that a person by the name of Wayne P. Paschal 
has procured a radio operator's license via the FCC? 

Mr. Lee. Mr. Kratokvil will respond to that. 

Mr. Kratokvil. Yes, sir ; the gentleman has procured two particular 
classes of licenses. 

]Mr. Arens. If it is important to our inquiry, we would have to defer 
to your own evaluation. You might tell us in more detail. I don't 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1871 

want to burden the record with detail that is not germane to the 
fundamental theme we have. 

Mr, Kratokvil. He holds a radio-telegraph first-class operator's 
license issued August 3, 1956, valid for a period of 5 years. 

Mr. Arens. With the license that he was issued, what would be the 
nature of the function which he performs or could perform pursuant 
to the license? 

Mr. KRATOK^^L. He could operate on any ship, radio station in the 
United States, he could operate an aircraft, he could operate in a zone 
police radio station, he could operate in any system that employs 
telegraphy. 

Mr. Arens. You heard the prior discussion we had, sir. Could he, 
if he were disposed to do so, operate a mechanism which had the 
potential of ali'ecting adversely the CONELKAD system? 

Mr. Kratokvil. He could try. There hasn't been mentioned the 
fact that there is a continual monitoring program of radio stations. 
At this minute there is monitoring going on. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, may we ask you about Murray Goldberg. Does 
Murray Goldberg have, or has he in the recent past procured, a radio 
operator's license ? 

]\lr. Kratok%t:l. He had procured a telephone first class operator 
license which would have entitled him- — that is the highest radio tele- 
phone type of license available — which would have entitled him to 
operate any radio telephone station. That license expired and the 
action thereon was dismissed. 

Mr. Arens. Has he an application pending for a new license or a 
renewal of an old license ? 

Mr. Kratokvil. He appealed for a renewal, but that was dismissed, 
as far as my record here shows. 

Mr. Arens. He does not presently ? 

Mr. Kratokvil. No. 

Mr. Arens. Does the equipment for which he has been licensed have 
a potential for adversely affecting the CONELRAD system? 

Mr. Kratokvil. Yes ; I would say at the present time. 

Mr. Arens. Do your records reflect the issuance of a license or an 
application pending for a license for a person by the name of Philip 
D. Boothroyd? 

Mr. Kratokvil. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Which is the case, please ? 

Mr. Kratokvil. Philip Douglas Boothroyd is the holder of a first- 
class phone license No. P1-2-T801, and he is also the holder of an ama- 
teur operator license. Would you like to know something about him ? 

On January 20, 1956, he withdrew a questionnaire that had been 
sent to him, and in 1960 he reinstituted the questionnaire and the 
action is pending. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, is the equipment for which he is licensed to 
operate of a tvpe and variety which could adversely affect the 
CONELRAD system? 

Mr. Kratokvil. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. May I invite your attention to the name of Harold O. 
Townsend. Tell us the situation with respect to him and any license 
lie may have. 



1872 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Mr. KRATOK\^L. Mr. Townsend is the holder of telephone first-class 
operator license No. Pl-2-6668, issued March 26, 1954, and he is also 
the holder of telegraph second-class license No. T2-2-1434, issued 
June 8, 1953. 

Mr. Akens. Sir, is the equipment for which Mr. Townsend is li- 
censed to operate of a type or variety which could be used to adversely 
affect the CONELRAD defense system? 

Mr. Kratokvil. He has within his means the potential of causing 
difficulty. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in like manner, if you please, sir, what your 
records reflect with respect to Stanley Blumenthal. 

Mr. Kratokvil. Stanley Blumenthal is the holder of first-class 
phone license No. Pl-29437, issued April 19, 1955, and telegraph 
second-class license No. T2-2-1626, issued March 24, 1954. 

Mr. Arens. And is this equipment in similar category to the equip- 
ment we have been discussing, namely, that it could adversely affect 
the CONELRAD system? 

Mr. Kratokvil. It has that potential, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us about the last person we would like to 
ask you about, David Jay Gould. Wliat do your records reflect wdth 
respect to him? 

Mr. Kratokvil. He is the holder of telephone first-class license No. 
Pl-2-457, issued June 15, 1949, and telegraph first-class license No. 
Tl-727 issued January 20, 1949. Both of those licenses, obviously, 
have expired. 

Mr. Arens. Is this equipment for which he was licensed in the 
same category as the equipment we have been discussing, namely, that 
it could adversely affect the CONELRAD system? 

Mr. Kratokvil. Yes ; it has that potential. 

Mr. Arens. Do your records reflect whether or not Wayne Paschal 
has now or in the recent past been licensed for any type of short-wave 
equipment — amateur short wave equipment? 

Mr. Kratokvil. Yes. He is currently the holder of what is known 
as advanced class amateur license, expiring April 1, 1962. 

Mr. Arens. I don't want to pursue this into any detail or compli- 
cated scientific discussion, but what could a person do with a short- 
wave set if he were disposed to adversely affect the national security ? 

Mr. Kratokvil. He could communicate with untold thousands of 
persons in foreign lands, friend or foe. 

Mr. Arens. I would like, if we may, gentlemen, to inquire as to the 
present power of the FCC to preclude Communists from access to 
commimications facilities ; in the first instance to deny them licenses 
and then to revoke those licenses. 

I am sure the committee, and I know the chairman is particularly 
aware of the decision in the Morton Borrow case, which is presently 
certiorari to the Supreme Court, and we do not in this proceeding 
want to indulge in anything that would adversely affect the consider- 
ation of that case in any degree. 

The Borrow case, does it not, pertains solely and exclusively to an 
applicant for a radio operator's license ? 

Mr. Lee. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Under the Borrow decision as it was announced by the 
Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, the FCC has power 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1873 

to deny a license to an applicant who refuses to answer certain ques- 
tions respecting conmiunism; isn't tliat correct? 

Mr. Lee. That is correct. It is my understanding, and I will turn 
this over to ]\Ir. Iloltz in a minute, that the denial is based on their 
failure to complete appropriate forms that we require. 

We are entitled to inquire into anything we feel is pertinent, and if 
the man declines to answer those questions, under this case, he can 
be denied a license. 

Mr. Arexs. Under the decision in the Borrow case, if a man does 
answer the (questions, and says in effect, "Yes, I am now a member of 
the Communist Party, but nevertheless I want my license," you do 
not, pursuant to the Borrow case, have the power to deny him a license, 
necessarily, do you ? 

iMr, Lee. We do not. In that case, we would set him for a hearing 
and would have to make a public interest finding that being a member 
of the Communist Party was not in the public interest and deny him 
on public interest groimds. 

Mr. Arexs. If the individual lied, if he said, "I am not a member of 
the Commimist Party," and you did not have a witness who could 
identify him as then a member of the Communist Party, would you 
be obliged to issue him a license ? 

]Mr. Lee. In my opinion, we are obliged, under existing law, to issue 
him a license. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, if an individual procures a license and thereafter 
joins the Communist Party, or if the FCC learns that the individual 
is a Communist Party member after lie has procured his license, under 
the Borrow case is the FCC vested with power to revoke the license? 

Mr. Lee. No. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Gentlemen, you are familiar, in general, and perhaps 
to a greater degree of specific information than I credit you with 
for the moment, with the bill introduced by the chairman of this 
committee, H.R. 12852. 

Based upon your background and experience in the communications 
field, and in light of your obvious, overall objective of attempting to 
preclude Communists from access to communications facilities, would 
the bill introduced and sponsored by the chairman of this committee, 
H.R. 12852, in your judgment be a useful tool in attempting to pre- 
clude Communists from access to communications facilities ? 

Mr. Lee. In my personal judgment this would be a useful tool. I 
want to expand whenever you are ready on that. 

(At this point Representative Scherer entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Lee. I wanted to explain, if I could, that on this, you, of course, 
know that we receive information periodically from another Govern- 
ment agency with respect to people who are suspect to one degree or 
another. 

When this information is received and a license renewal comes up, 
we consider that information, that is, the licensing bureau must get 
together with the general counsel, and they look at the information 
based on "Could you prove this in a hearing?" because we cannot 
deny them without a hearing, but the information is furnished to us 
on a confidential basis. In a good many of these cases there is no way 
we could procure a witness to prove this. 

60500 — 60 — pt. 1 — -4 



1874 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Mr. Arens. In those instances where you are not able to produce a 
live witness to identify the applicant as a member of the Communist 
Party, you are absolutely helpless, are you not, in attempting to pre- 
clude that individual from procuring a license? 

Mr. Lee. We have no recourse, 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear and is the record clear, then, that you gen- 
tlemen who are experienced in this field of communication, and who 
are the experts regarding the potential detriment to the security of 
this country which could be the result of Communists having access 
to the communications facilities, do regard the bill introduced by the 
chairman of this committee, which is the subject of the hearings today, 
as a useful, helpful instrumentality in attempting to defend the com- 
munications facilities of tliis Nation against the Communist penetra- 
tion? 

Mr. Lee. I have no reservations wliatsoever. I must, again, point 
out that our staff is currently studying this bill, and I am giving my 
personal opinion. It has not come before the commission. 

We will, of course, commmiicate the formal views of the coirmiis- 
sion very shortly. My personal opinion is that it would be a useful 
tool. I have some quick observations as to how it perhaps could be 
extended to achieve your purposes. 

Mr. Arens. I am sure the committee would welcome your sugges- 
tions right now if you have them formulated. 

Mr. Lee. I haven't even discussed this with my lawyer, who may 
tell me when I get out in the hall that I put my foot in my mouth. 

I stayed up last night a little bit and read your hearings on Com- 
munist activities among seamen and on waterfront facilities. 

]\Ir. Arens. In that instance, there is a comparable parallel bill 
which would preclude Communist seamen from access to merchant ves- 
sels and port facilities. 

Mr. Lee. That is correct. I was impressed with the fact that some 
witnesses pointed out that there were areas that the bill did not cover, 
I would just like to point out, of course 

The Chairman, Wliich bill are you talking about now ? 

Mr, Lee, I was talking about the bill in connection with water- 
front facilities, I think some of the union witnesses said that there 
is another area. 

In reading that, it occurred to me that in the communications field 
there is a very important area that tliis current bill will not reach, 
because we don't reach them, I am referring to employees of the 
common carriers. 

There are millions of them, of course. We regulate the common 
carriers, the American Telephone and Telegraph, the Western Union, 
the international carriers, and so on, who do a great deal of work for 
the Defense Department and who are vital in the Defense Depart- 
ment. 

I know they are of concern, that is, there is a security problem. 
Obviously, Ave can't investigate 40 or 50 percent of the po]3ulation. 
But in this particular area, where the Defense Department contracts 
with these carriers for a lot^ — — 

Mr. Arens. Are you speaking of tlie tie lines and lines out of the 
Pentagon and that type of facility ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes. 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1875 

Mr. Arens. The Air Force representative will be here tomorrow 
and we expect to explore that with him at that time. 

Mr. Lee. What I am trying to say is that this bill is useful. I would 
endorse it personall}^ without qualilication. 1 think that if you are 
thinking in terms of security to conmumications you must remember 
that the connnon carrier does a lot of highly classified work and they 
do a lot of switching in connection with their entire communications 
system that might make it desirable, and there might be a way to 
extend this to our act. 

For the record, I would just point out section 219 of our act, which 
looked like an appropriate place. I am not even endorsing this, but 
I am just giving you this suggestion, that it might be an appropriate 
place to work out language that would extend this to these other 
people. 

I wouldn't have the words for you now, I wouldn't quite know how 
to do it, but I do think it is a very important area, and I think this 
could be explored with the Defense Department as well. 

Mr. Arens. We expect to interrogate the Air Force people in that 
field tomorrow. I would like to suggest, if it meets with the ap- 
proval of the chairman, that you gentlemen might pursue this further 
yourselves and then communicate with the committee after you have 
formulated your ideas on that new area a little more firmly. It 
would be helpful to the committee, I am sure. 

Mr. Lee. We would be very happy to do it. 

Mr. Arens. I believe, Mr. Chairman — in fact, I am sure — we have 
covered the highlights of what we wanted to go into with these gentle- 
men. We didn't want to explore too much into detail the mechanics 
of this thing or we would be lost and lose sight, perhaps, of the funda- 
mental objective. 

Mr. Moulder. I have one question, Mr. Chairman. 

You mentioned how many licenseholders there are. 

Mr. Lee. There are roughly 2i/^ million. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Arens mentioned the names of three or four per- 
sons who, I assume, are known Communists. So far as you know, 
there may be several thousand who are Communists or, rather, I 
wouldn't say Communists, but who are sympathetic with the Commu- 
nist cause or philosophy, so far as you know, or I would say a large 
number ? 

Mr. Lee. It is possible. We would rely on information that we 
would get from other Government agencies. At renewal time, if we 
thought we could make a case, we would do it. But very often if it 
is confidential information there isn't anything we can do about it. 

The Chairman. Of course, if they followed their usual technique, 
they would limit the number as much as possible so as not to attract 
attention, and select only those very sensitive positions in which to 
infiltrate in order to do the damage that they contemplate. 

Mr. Lee. Yes. I think that is true. And I think that one of the 
great efforts of the House Un-American Activities Committee to con- 
tain this conspiracy so that there are just a relatively few of our popu- 
lation, because when you talk about critical industries and vital indus- 
tries, by the time you add up communications, transportation, ship- 
ping, aircraft, power, and public utilities, you have a very susbtantial 
part of our population involved. 



1876 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

I would hope through the work of this committee, educating people 
to what this thing is, that we would have a relatively small problem. 
But we really don't know how many there are or may be. 

Mr. Moulder. I have one more question, Mr. Chairman. 

When they make application for a license, are they required to take 
an oath that they are not a member of the Communist Party or any 
other organization seeking to overthrow the Government by force or 
violence? 

Mr. Lee. No ; they do not. They are, of course, subject to a false 
statement given to a Government agency for which there is a criminal 
penalty. But we do not have the so-called loyalty oath on our form, 
as such. 

"Wlien we get information from the other Government agencies that 
a man is or may be — when his license comes up for renewal we send 
him that specific question — which, of course, is the Borrow case. 

Mr. Moulder. However, it is only when it is called to your attention ? 

Mr. Lee. That is correct, sir. Only when it is called to our atten- 
tion. I might mention on the Borrow case that my counsel, Mr, 
Holtz, thought that we should put this one statement into the record : 
that the Borrow case, if it stands up, gives us the implicit authority 
that your bill would make explicit. 

The Chairman- Where in the existing law, is there an express au- 
thorization for you to ask the question you did in the Borrow case? 
I am going to give you a curbstone opinion, and it may or may not be 
worth anything, but we have seen on so many occasions the court 
holding that unless it is spelled out specifically, it is nonexistent, on 
the theory that the Government has no authority, no implied author- 
ity, to protect itself. This is a new idea, but nonetheless that is the 
situation. 

]\Ir. Holtz. I think it may be quite correct, and we count ourselves 
fortunate at this time that we have been able in the Court of Appeals 
stage to impress the court with the argument that we do have the 
authority to ask this question. 

You are correct that there is no specific authority to permit us to 
ask a given question. But our argument has been, and I think it makes 
a lot of sense logically, that when a person is a licensee or a permittee 
of the FCC, that we as the licensing authority have the right to ask 
proper and valid questions, and he, in turn, as a reciprocal duty to the 
commission, should answer and give us that information, which is 
pertinent as far as we are concerned. 

This, again, is the point which will be determined at the Supreme 
Court level. 

Mr. ScHERER. Supplementing what our chairman said, in the Green 
case the Supreme Court indicated that the Government didn't even 
have any property riglit in its own secrets or classified information. 
That is the net result of the Green case. 

Mr. Holtz. The statement that the chairman lias made is not in any 
way to detract from the salutary efforts of this bill. T am sure Mr. 
Arens will appreciate that. It is only to preserve our position in 
litigation when it gets to the Supreme Court. 

The Chairman. Of course, ever since Cole versus Young ^ this com- 
mittee is just the least bit worried about a lot of things that have 
happened in the Supreme Court. 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1877 

Is there anythino; else ? 

Mr. Arens. Nothing further of these gentleman, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. SciiERiin?. I am just happy that the Federal Communications 
Commission has such able counsel. 

Mr. HoLTz. Thank you. 

Mr. JoiiAXSEN. I have one question, Mr. Chairman. 

You speak of reviews of applications when the licensees come up 
for renewal. Are there many instances in which you are able to be 
elfective in denying a renewal by reason of information regarding 
Communist Party membership or affiliation? 

Mr. Lee. There are relatively few instances where we are able to do 
much good. If he refuses to answ^er, we have reason to proceed. If 
he answei-s and says "Yes" we could proceed with a hearing. If he 
lies, unless we have witnesses to prove it, we really don't have very 
much. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. So you are pretty much at the mercy of the appli- 
cant in the situation ? 

Mr. Lee. Certainly there is an overwhelming burden of proof on 
the Government. 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you. 

The CHAiRMAisr. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Michael Mignon. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help 3^ou God ? 

Mr. IViiGNON. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL MIGNON, A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE 
COMMUNICATIONS WORKERS OF AMERICA, AFL-CIO, NEW YORK, 
NY. (APPEARING IN RESPONSE TO A SUBPENA ISSUED BY THE 
COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES) 

Mr. Abens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. MiGXON. My name is Michael Mignon. I live in Brooklyn, 
New York. I work for the Communications Workers of America, 
AFL-CIO, as a representative of that union. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Mignon, you have previously testified before this 
committee and have recounted to this committee your experiences and 
activities as a one-time member of the Communist Party; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. ]\IiGX0N. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. I do not intend in this session to interrogate you in 
detail on that, but I w^ould like to ask you just to state for this 
record, if you please, the dates of your membership in the Communist 
Party and just a word about your service. 

Mr. JVIiGNON. I was a member of the Communist Party from 1936 
to on or about 1940, as I testified previously, sir. 



1878 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Mr. Arens. Did you, as a member of the Communist Party, know 
as a member of the Communist Party a person by the name of Philip 
D. Boothroyd, B-o-o-t-h-r-o-y-d ? 

Mr. MiGNON. Yes, sir. I was introduced to him as a member of the 
Communist Party on the West Coast in or about 1938. 

Mr. Arens. And do you here and now testify that you knew him to 
a certainty to be then a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. IVIiGXON. To the best of my knowledge ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mignon, based upon your background and experi- 
ence, both in the Communist Party and in the communications indus- 
try, in the event of armed hostilities, would a member of the Com- 
munist Party who had access to communications facilities hesitate to 
attem]3t to adversely affect the defensive mechanism known as 
CONELEAD? 

Mr. MiGNON. In my opinion they would not hesitate at all because, 
as members of the Communist Party, as I knew the Communist Party 
when I was a member thereof, they would be under Communist Party 
discipline and would obey the orders of the Communist Party. 

Therefore, if there were a war, or an attack between ourselves and 
any Commmiist country, I have no doubt in my mind that a member 
of the Communist Party would not hesitate, as a matter of fact, he 
would do all possible, to aid the enemy of our country. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that we could 
pursue other matters with Mr. Mignon, but they are not germane 
to the theme we are presently pursuing. I, therefore, suggest that 
will conclude the statf interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. We thank you again, Mr. Mignon, for your con- 
tinued interest in this very thankless job all of us have. You have 
made a great contribution, you and your great organization. Stick 
to it. 

Mr. Mignon. Mr. Chairman, as I testified previously, it is the belief 
of my union, the Communications Workers of America, and myself 
specifically, that there is no room for a member of the Communist 
Party in the communications industry. That is voice and non-voice. 
We stand by that statement. 

Mr. Scherer. I remember well Mr. Mignon's previous testimony 
before this committee, which has been extremely helpful. 

I would suggest, Mr. Arens, that the record at this point at least 
include a reference to Mr. Mignon's previous testimony ^ so it may 
be referred to. I think it fits in properly with the brief testimony 
he has given here today. 

The Chairman. Tliank you very much, Mr. Mignon. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Philip D. Boothroyd. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand ? 

You do swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Boothroyd. I do. 



^ See "Investigation of Communist Penetration of Communications Facilities — Part 1,' 
p. 1410, July 17, 1957. 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1879 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP D. BOOTHROYD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. BooTiiROYD. My name is Philip D. Boothroyd, and I live in 
Sparta, New Jei-sey. 
Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please, sir ? 
Mr. BooTiiROTD. I decline to give my occupation. 
Mr. Arens. Wliy? 

Mr, Boothroyd. It is irrelevant to the discussion. 
Mr. Arens. We will pursue that in just a moment. 
Are you represented by counsel here today ? 
Mr. Boothroyd. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify youi*self on this 
record ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New York 4. 
Mr. Arens. You are appearing in response to a subpena which was 
served upon you ? 
Mr. Boothroyd. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell the committee your occupation. 
]Mr. Boothroyd. I decline to answer on the gromids that it is irrele- 
vant to this question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Yes. You are directed to answer the question, 
although I think it is futile. Every time I see a Communist lawyer 
coming up here with a witness I know what he is going to answer. 

Mr. Boudin. I think the chairman's remarks are very improper and 
very unfair. 

The Chairman. It is the way I feel and it is the fact. I do not 
know whether you got out of the Communist Party or not. 

Mr. Boudin. As the chairman undoubtedly knows, I have never 
been in the Communist Party and I have so stated to the committee. 
The Chairman. Yes, I know you stated that. I know all the time 
you were a professor in the Communist school. 

Mr. Boudin. I think the chairman's remarks are very unfair, very 
improper, and very unprofessional. 

The Chairman. You are entitled to your opinion of me as I am en- 
titled to my opinion of you. 

Mr. Boudin. You are a member of the bar and you have no right 
to discuss another member of the bar in that way. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. You are directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Answer the question. 

Mr. Boothroyd. I have been a radio operator in the past. 
Mr. Arens. Do you presently hold a radio operator's license ? 
Mr. Boothroyd. I do not. I have a temporary permit. 
Mr. Arens. What is the nature of the temporary permit which 
you hold? 

Mr. Boothroyd. An application which I made for renewal on my 
expired license. 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear and is the record clear that you presently 
have an application for a license as a radio operator? 



1880 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Mr. BooTiiROYD. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And what type of radio operating equipment do you 
operate ? 

Mr. BooTHROYD. I have operated many kinds. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the principal kinds, please, sir. 

Mr. BooTHROYD. Shipboard and broadcast. 

Mr. Arens. And are you presently the holder of some type of a 
permission or permit by the FCC to operate equipment, radio equip- 
ment ? 

Mr. BooTHROYD. I have a statement which says that I can operate 
this equipment on displaying of an application for renewal. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you had this permit to operate the 
radios? 

Mr. BooTHROYD. For several months, 

Mr. Arens. "\^'liat type of license have you had in the past? 

Mr. BooTHROYD. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. 'Wliy? 

Mr. BooTHROYD. I do not believe the committee is pursuing any 
relevant purpose in asking me. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I did not hear the question. 

Mr. Arens. The question is what type of radio licenses has he had 
in the past and he declined to answer it because he said it was, in 
effect, irrelevant. 

The Chairman. These were licenses issued by the United States? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. BooTHROYD. I didn't hear. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question concern- 
ing the issuance of licenses, a matter which is of public record. 

Mr. BooTHROYD. The license I was issued was a first-class radio 
telephone, broadcast license. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you utilize that license? Where did you 
work ? 

Mr, BooTHROYD. In the broadcast industry. 

Mr, Arens. Where ? 

Mr. BooTHROYD. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens, Why? 

Mr, BooTHROYD. I decline to answer because of my rights under 
the fifth amendment, under which I do not — cannot be required to 
testify against myself, 

Mr, Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee while you are under oath where you were employed to utilize 
that radio operator's license you would be supplying information that 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. BooTHROYD, It is possible. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, where are you presently employed? 

Mr. BooTHROYD. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present 
employment ? 

JNIr. BooTHROYD. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 



COMlVnJNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1881 

Mr. BooTiiROYD. I decline to answer, 

^Ir. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Michael Mignon, 
the gentleman who preceded you to the witness stand ? 

Air. BooTiiROYD. Yes. I have known him in the past. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mignon testified under oath a few moments ago 
that while he was a member of the Communist Party he knew you as 
a member of the Communist Party. Was he in error or was he cor- 
rect in his identification of you ? 

Mr. BooTiiROYD. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call 3^our next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Wayne P. Paschal. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Paschal. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF WAYNE P. PASCHAL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Paschal. My name is Wayne P. Paschal. My residence is 
Route 2, Box 6583, Issaquah, Wash. My occupation is television and 
radio repairman. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Paschal, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Paschal. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Paschal. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold a radio operator's license issued by the 
Federal Communications Commission ? 

Mr. Paschal. I do. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you held that license? When was it 
issued to you ? 

Mr. Paschal. You are referring to the present, existing license? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Paschal. I don't remember the exact issue date. I think the 
Federal Communications Commission witness here testified as to the 
exact date. I think I heard him say that it was in — well, you will 
have to refresh my memory. I think it was in August of — ^let's see. 
Five years prior to now would be 1957, 1 presume. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Paschal, what other licenses have you held issued 
by the FCC? 

Mr. Paschal. I have held a radio — well, if you want to go back into 
the entire history, to the best of my memory at the present moment 



1882 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

I have lielcl radio telegraph second-class operator's license, radio 
telegraph first-class operator's license, and amateur radio license. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you held or do you now hold a short wave op- 
erator's license or permit to operate a short wave set ? 

Mr. Paschal. Well, I hold a license to operate an amateur radio 
station, which includes, of course, any radio station under the rules 
and regulations pertaining to that service. 

Mr. Arens. Do you operate an amateur radio station now ? 
Mr. Paschal. I do. 

Mr. Arens. And does that station have the potential to send mes- 
sages at great distance ? 
Mr. Paschal. No. 

Mr. Arens. At what distance can it send a message ? 
Mr. Paschal. Except under the most unusual conditions of propa- 
gation, which is a very technical subject, not more than — perhaps 
300 miles. 

Mr. Arens. What is the type of equipment that your principal 
license presently enables you to operate ? 

Mr. Paschal. Any type of radio equipment licensed for the 
amateur service, if you are referring to the amateur operation, 

Mr. Arens. I was speaking principally of the professional type of 
equipment. Can you give us a word about the nature of the equip- 
ment that you are licensed to operate? 

Mr. Paschal. The nature of the equipment would be any type of 
radio telegraph equipment licensed by the Federal Commimications 
Commission, of whatever nature. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present 
place of employment as a television and radio man ? 
Mr. Paschal. Approximately 6 years. 

Mr. Arens. And have you been engaged during that 6-year period 
in the operation of any of this professional equipment which you are 
licensed to operate ? 
Mr. Paschal. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been engaged in the operation of this 
professional equipment ? I am using the term "professional" only in 
layman's terms. 

"Mr. Paschal. Well, Mr. Chairman, I think I must decline and cease 
answering questions along this particular line, under the terms of the 
first amendment and the fifth amendment, and I do not believe it is 
relevant to the hearing or the subject under consideration. 
Mr. Arens. I am not certain you gave your reasons. 
Mr. Paschal. I say under the first and fifth amendments of the 
Constitution and the fact that I do not feel that this is relevant. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee while you are under oath whether or not you have operated 
radio equipment of the professional variety pursuant to the license 
issued to you by the Federal Commimications Commission, you would 
be supplying information that might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Paschal. I could be, probably. I do not know. 
Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 
Mr. Paschal. I decline to answer for the aforementioned reasons. 
Mr. Arens. On June 16, 1954, Mrs. Barbara Hartle swore before 
this committee that while she was a member of the Communist Party 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1883 

she know yoii as a member of the Communist Party. Was Mrs. Hartle 
in error or Avas she correct in her identification of you as a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Paschal. I nnist decline to answer the question for the same 
reasons as previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. JNIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the stall' interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you say you had equipment with which you 
can send messages not beyond 300 miles? 

Mr. Paschal. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. That would be the range or the power of this so-called 
amateur equipment ? 

Mr. Paschal. That is correct. 

Mr. Moulder. Would it be possible for you, with your knowledge, 
mechanical knowledge, technical knowledge, as a repairman and — 
what other work do you do ? 

Mr. Paschal. Just a repairman. 

Mr. Moulder. for you to change or alter that equipment so as 

to send messages far beyond that range with additional parts of equip- 
ment that might go into the same equipment that you have, to send 
messages beyond that limit ? 

Mr. Paschal. With the particular equipment that I have, no, it 
would not be feasible. It would require entirely different type of 
equipment than I now possess. 

Mr. Moulder. That is all. 

Mr. Arens. I have another question, if you please, Mr. Chairman. 

At the time you procured your present license as a professional 
radio operator, did you reveal to the Federal Communications Com- 
mission, either upon inquiry by the commission or by volunteering 
statements, as to whether or not you were then or had been a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

]\Ir. Paschal. In respect to this question, I must decline to answer 
for the same reasons as stated to other questions. 

Mr. Arens. No further questions 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness, 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, will be Stanley Blumen- 
thal. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mr. Blumenthal. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STANLEY BLUMENTHAL, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LEONAED B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Bluimenthal. My name is Stanley Blumenthal. I live at 217 
Cozine Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York. 

As to the question of occupation, I decline to answer on the following 
grounds: The vagueness of resolution creating the committee, the 



1884 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

committee's lack of jurisdiction, the nonpertinency of the question, 
the committee's lack of legislative purpose, and my constitutional 
privilege under the fifth amendment and my constitutional rights 
under the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Blumenthal, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Blumenthal. I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Blumenthal. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Coimsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New York 4. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Blumenthal, have you ever applied for a radio 
operator's license to the Federal Communications Commission? 

Mr. Blumenthal. I decline to answer on the same reasons previous- 
ly stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been issued a license to operate profes- 
sional radio equipment by the Federal Commmiications Commis- 
sion? 

Mr. Blumenthal. I decline to answer on the previous- 

Mr. Arens. Representatives, this morning, from the Federal Com- 
munications Commission testified, among other things, that a license 
was issued to you in 1955 to operate radio equipment. Were they 
in error in that statement ? 

Mr. Blumenthal. I decline to answer for the same reasons I pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, sir, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Blumenthal. My answer is the same as to the other ques- 
tions. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. What is the answer ? 

Mr, Blumenthal. I decline to answer on the following grounds: 
The vagueness of tlie resolution creating the committee, the commit- 
tee's lack of jurisdiction, the nonpertinence of the question, the com- 
mittee's lack of legislative purpose, my constitutional privilege under 
the fifth amendment, and my constitutional rights under the first 
amendment, 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present oc- 
cupation ? 

Mr. Blumenthal. My answer is the same as the previous answer. 

Mr. Arens. There is pending before this committee a bill by the 
chairman which would require applicants for radio communication 
licenses, interrogated under oath, to answer certain questions, and if 
they do not answer those questions they cannot get the license. 

These questions pertain to Communist Party membership or activ- 
ity. Would you, and can you, tell this connnittee while you are under 
oath respecting infonnation you have about the Communist Party? 

Mr. Blumenthal. I decline to answer because of the vagueness of 
the resolution creating the committee, the committee's lack of juris- 
diction, the nonpertinency of the question, the committee's lack of 
legislative purpose, and my constitutional privileges under tlie fifth 
amendment and my constitutional rights under the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1885 

The CiiAiR:NrAN. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Harold O. Townsend. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

(At this point Representative Tnck left the hearing room.) 

The CiiAiRMAX. You do swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mr. Townsend. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD (0.) TOWNSEND, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Townsend. Harold Townsend, 324 Brentwood Road, Bayshore, 
New York. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please, sir ? 

Mr. Townsend. Well, I decline to answer any question you may ask 
me for the following reasons : The committee does not have the legis- 
lative purpose, does not have jurisdiction, the question is not pertinent, 
and the question violates my rights under the first amendment and my 
constitutional privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by this committee T 

Mr. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New York. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Townsend, do you presently have a Federal Com- 
munications Commission radio operator's license? 

Mr. Townsend. I decline to answer any of your questions for the 
reasons I have given you. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee while you are under oath whether or not you presently 
hold or have held in the recent past radio operator's licenses issued 
to you by this Government, you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Townsend. I decline to answer for the reasons I have already 
given. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed in your present place 
of employment? 

Mr. Townsend. I decline to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

JNIr. Tow^nsend. I decline to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. You are excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Murray Goldberg. 



1886 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Please come forward and remain standing Trhile the chairman 
administers an oath. 

The Chairmax. Raise your right hand. 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Goldberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MURRAY GOLDBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Goldberg. I am Murray Goldberg. I live in Syracuse, New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. Complete your answer, sir. 

Mr. Goldberg. What additional information do you request ? 

Mr. Arens. I asked you to kindly tell us your name, residence, and 
occupation, I am waiting for you to complete your answer. 

Mr. Goldberg. Well, as to any additional information, aside from 
what I have already stated, I decline to state on the following 
grounds : The vagueness of the committee's mandate 

Mr. Arens. You are reading from a prepared statement ? 

Mr. Goldberg. I am reading this to keep my natural nervousness 
from 

The Chairman. You are reading the same thing that the preceding 
witness read ? 

Mr. Goldberg. I am reading my notes, sir, so that I can have these 
points in the order in which I would like them and not depend com- 
pletely on memory, which in view of my natural nervousness I prefer 
not to depend on. 

The Chairman. Your lawyer handed you that memorandum to 
j'end, didn't he? 

Mr. Goldberg. May I complete this comment as to my reasons for 
declining the question? 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Goldberg. The vagueness of the committee's mandate, the 
committee's lack of jurisdiction, the lack of pertinency of the ques- 
tion, the absence of legislative purpose, my rights under the first 
amendment to the Constitution, and 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Yes? 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I have restrained myself with great 
difficulty, but this is the third or fourth w^itness who has had the 
effrontery to tell this committee that there is no legislative purpose 
in tliis hearing, and I just want the record to show that there is a 
limit to the self-control I possess. 

The Chairman. Well, you are only human. 

Go ahead and finish reading the statement that you have had 
handed to you by Mr. Boudin. 

Mr. Goldberg. my rights under the first amendment of the 

Constitution, my rights and privileges under the fifth amendment, 
including the right to due process and my right not to be a witness 
against myself. 



COMIMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1887 

]\Ir. Arens. INIr. Goldberg, you are appearing in response to a sub- 
l)ena served upon you? 

Mr. Goldberg. Yes, sir. 

]\Ir. Arexs. You are represented by counsel ? 

JNIr. Goldberg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. BouDix. Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New York. 

The Chairman. I don't think, Mr. Arens, you want to waste any 
more time with this witness. 

Mr. Arens. Could I ask one more question? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Goldberg, are you now, this instant, a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold a radio operator's license issued to you by 
this Government ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Goldberg. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness, and I respectfully sug- 
gest that will be all of the witnesses we have for today, Mr. Chair- 
man, but we have witnesses who will appear here tomorrow at ten 
o'clock. 

The Chairman. Very well. The committee will be in recess until 
tomorrow morning at ten o'clock. 

(Members of the committee present at time of recess: Representa- 
tives Walter, IMoulder, Doyle, Sclierer and Johansen.) 

(Whereupon, at 11 :30 a.m., Tuesday, August 23, the committee 
recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, August 24, 1960.) 



C0M3IUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

(CONELRAD— C0M3IUNICATI0NS) 
PART 1 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24, 1960 

Uniit^d States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10 :10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Okl House Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D.C, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman), presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania; Clyde Doyle, of California; and August E. Johansen, 
of Michigan. (Appearances as noted.) 

Stail members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and Louis 
J. Russell, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

(Members of the committee present at time of convening: Repre- 
sentatives Walter and Johansen.) 

The Chairman. Call your witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the first witnesses will be three gen- 
tlemen representing the U.S. Air Force, Col. Harry F. Smith, Major 
Evelyn, and Captain Stroud. 

Will you gentlemen come forward, please, and remain standing 
while the chairman administers an oath? 

The Chairman. Do you each swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith. I do. 

Major Evelyn. I do. 

Captain Stroud. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY T. SMITH, LIEUTENANT COLONEL, OFFICE 
OF DIRECTORATE OF OPERATIONS, HEADQUARTERS, USAF; DOW 
E. EVELYN, MAJOR, OFFICE OF DIRECTORATE OF OPERATIONS, 
HEADQUARTERS, USAF; AND ROY W. STROUD, CAPTAIN, LEGISLA- 
TIVE ATTORNEY, LEGISLATION BRANCH, CONGRESSIONAL COM- 
MITTEE DIVISION, OFFICE OF LEGISLATIVE LIAISON, USAF 

Mr. Arens. Beginning with the gentleman on my extreme left, will 
you kindly identify yourselves, please, by name, rank, and occupation ? 

1889 



1890 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith. I am Lieutenant Colonel Harry F. 
Smith. I work in the Directorate of Operations, Headquarters, 
USAF. I am the chief of the Electronic Countermeasures. 

Mr. Arens. Could you keep your voice up a little bit, Colonel ? The 
acoustics are poor in this room. 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith. I am chief of the ECM or Electronic 
Countermeasures working group in the Directorate of Operations, 
USAF. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, just a word about your personal back- 
ground and experience. 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith. I have been in the electronics field in the 
Air Force since 1939. I was in the communications business for about 
3 years and I progressed into the radar field and then into the elec- 
tronic countermeasures field. I have been in the electronic counter- 
measures field since 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Major Evelyn, will you kindly, identify yourself and 
give us a word of your background ? 

Major Evelyn. I am Dow E. Evelyn, Major, United States Air 
Force, presently assigned to the Directorate of Operations, in Head- 
quarters, USAF, in the Pentagon. 

I have been a commissioned officer for over 18 years, with broad 
assignments in the fields of communications, electronics and electronic 
warfare. 

Mr. Arens. Captain Stroud, will you give us a word about yourself, 
please ? 

Captain Stroud. I am Captain Roy W. Stroud. I am a legislative 
attorney in the Legislation Branch, Congressional Committee Divi- 
sion, Office of Legislative Liaison, USAF. 

Mr. Arens. Gentlemen, in accordance with the prior practice of 
this committee, I will ask a series of questions, and the gentleman who 
is equipped to answer that question, will please just identify himself 
by name and then respond to the question. 

Will you gentlemen first of all give us a word about CONELRAD ? 
AVliat is CONELRAD and what importance does it have to the de- 
fense of this Nation ? 

Major E\t:lyn. CONELRAD is an abbreviation for "Control of 
Electromagnetic Radiations." The military requirement for the 
CONELRAD system is to deny navigational aid to enemy aircraft 
and/or air breathing missiles which would require reference to some 
outside point to locate their position. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us what importance does the Air Force attach 
to CONELRAD as an element of defense of this Nation. 

Major Evelyn. The Air Force regards CONELRAD as important. 
It restated the military requirement for CONELRAD in March 1959. 
It has, as I have stated, the ability to deny an enemy the use of our 
radio transmissions for navigational aid. 

Mr. Arens. Gentlemen, on this record in the course of the last day 
or so testimony has been received to the effect that a number of per- 
sons who are, or in the recent past have been, members of the Com- 
munist Party have been licensed as radio operatoi-s by the Federal 
Communications Commission. 

Based upon your background and experience in the electronics field, 
and your special familiarity, intimate familiarity, with CONELRAD, 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1891 

tell this committee how a Communist, disposed to do so, who has 
access to radio transmitting equipment, could adversely affect the op- 
eration of CONELRAD. 

Major Evelyn. Well, sir, since the purpose of CONELRAD is to 
deny navigational information or instructions to an enemy in the 
attack phase, a person so inclined, having access to a radio transmitter, 
could continue to broadcast either in a normal manner, identifying 
himself by call letters or location, or he could issue specific instructions 
to that attack force. 

The Chairman. Yesterday, Major, tliere was a witness who testi- 
fied that he had a sending set of very limited scope. I think he said 
300 miles. 

Would it be possible for a person of that sort, if he were so disposed, 
to guide enemy aircraft to a target by sending innocent-sounding 
messages or anything at all ? Would that be possible ? 

Major Evelyn. Yes, sir ; in mjr opinion it is. 

Mr. Akens. Major, in addition to CONELRAD — and I throw 
in this word of caution which I don't believe is necessary, that we do 
not, of course, want to reveal on a public record anything that we ought 
not to reveal — in addition to CONELRAD, are there in being elec- 
tronic devices to give other types of defense to this Nation against 
enemy attack by missiles or by other prospective destructive devices ? 

Major Evelyn. Yes, sir ; there are. 

Mr. Arens. Is there, in addition to this subject which we have just 
explored, radar coverage to defend the United States ? 

Major Evelyn. Yes, sir ; there is. 

Mr. Arens. If a Communist were disposed to do so, and had access 
to radio transmitting equipment, could he adversely affect the opera- 
tion of this electronic defense mechanism, as well as the radar coverage 
of this continent ? 

Major Evelyn. Yes, sir; possessing certain peculiar equipment, it 
is possible that he could. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience in tlie 
field of electronics and your particular familiarity with CONELRAD, 
your specific familiarity with the radar nets which we have, your 
particular familiarity with the electronics devices to give us additional 
protection, and armed now with the information which I now give 
you that there are known, identified Communists licensed as radio 
operators with access to radio transmitting equipment, what is the 
state of your appraisal of the defense posture of this Nation through 
CONELRAD, electronics devices, and our radar net ? 

Are they, in your judgment, in a precarious position or not? 

(At this point Representative Doyle entered the hearing room.) 

Major Evelyn. In my opinion, sir, these individuals could wreak 
havoc on the defense system if they were so inclined. 

Mr. Arens. And based upon your experience as an officer of the 
United States Air Force, do you have any doubt that a member of 
the Communist Party with access to radio transmitting equipment 
would hesitate to perpetrate the very acts concerning which you 
have expressed apprehension a moment ago ? 

Major Evelyn. While I have no official knowledge, other than that 
given to me here, my answer would certainly be "Yes." 



1892 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Mr. Aeens. Gentlemen, you might, if you please, give us a word 
more about the manner in which a Communist with access to radio 
transmitting equipment could, first, adversely affect our radar net; 
secondly, adversely affect the electronics devices, which we will not 
discuss but which give us a type of protection against guided missiles ; 
and third, adversely affect CONELEAD. 

Major Evelyn. Sir, I will ask your indulgence in the event that I 
must ignore certain subjects because of military classification. 

Mr. Arens. We understand. 

Major Evelyn. I shall answer to the best of my ability. 

Mr. Arens. We understand. 

Major Evelyn. Without getting into technical details, the radar 
net, of course, is dependent upon electronic intelligence that it collects. 
It detects the presence of attacking aircraft or objects. 

There are tecliniques by which this system may be blinded through 
the use of false or spurious or masking signals. 

I think, sir, that my remarks pertaining to radar, because of security 
reasons, should apply to electronics devices in general. 

As regards specifically to CONELRAD, CONELRAD puts the 
majority of radio transmitters off the air by denying them the right 
to operate. As has been testified before this committee, certain short- 
range services essential to the public welfare, such as police, are allowed 
to continue to operate. 

The FM radio service and the television radio services both are 
closed down and shut off the air. The standard broadcast stations, 
upon which most people are dependent for their radio information, 
move to certain selected frequencies, and adopt a technique of opera- 
tion which would deny an enemy the ability to locate them geo- 
graphically through electronic means. 

In addition, these stations no longer announce their identifying 
call letters or their geographical locations. The Civil Defense people 
then have a requirement to use this remaining existing radio service 
to give instructions to the population. 

A person who did not choose to obey the CONELRAD directive 
when the alert is called by the North American Air Defense Command 
would give aid to an enemy by the very fact that he remained on the 
air; more so, if he identified liimself, his geographical location, or 
his call letters. 

There also exists the possibility, and I must speak in my personal 
opinion in this case, that a person could give false or misleading 
instructions to the civil populace, thereby causing panic. 

Mr. Arens. Gentlemen, you have been confronted in this hearing 
with the fact that Communists now have access to radio transmitter 
facilities. Communists are now possessed of licenses, FCC radio 
transmitters' licenses, and you have expressed on this record your 
apprehension over this situation and have portrayed in this record 
how a Communist could adversley affect radar devices, the electronic 
shields, and CONELRAD. 

Under the present law and procedures, is the Air Force, which has 
a major responsibility in the operation of these three defense units, 
empowered to cause the removal of Communists who presently have 
access to radio transmitters? 

Major Evelyn. No, sir; not to my knowledge and belief. 



COMAIUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1893 

Mr. Arens. We will not attempt at this time to pursue with you 
the provisions of this bill which the chairman of this committee has 
introduced, because you have already informed us that, although you 
have been requested for your views on the bill, because of the processes 
which must be followed in the Pentagon and elsewhere, you are not 
prepared to express yourself on that. 

Is there any other item of information which you gentlemen would 
like at this time to set forth on this record or to call to the attention 
of this committee ? 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith. I would like to go back to the first 
question. The purpose of CONELRAD is twofold : One, to prevent 
the use of these transmissions for homing ; and secondly, to keep the 
population informed and guided during an attack. 

I think these two should be put together as the purpose of CONEL- 
RAD rather than separating them. 

Mr. Arens. And a Communist with access to communications fa- 
cilities, radio transmitters, could adversely affect both functional 
operations, could he not ? 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith. He could do both, yes, in my opinion. 

Mr. Arens. IMr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of these witnesses. 

The Chairman. Thank you, gentlemen. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, will be Mr. Wilson 
McMakin. Mr. McMakin, as he will identify himself in a few 
moments, is the vice president of the Mackay Radio and Telegraph 
Company, the Commercial Cable Company, the All America Cables 
and Radio, Inc., and Globe Wireless, Ltd., all of which are operating 
subsidiaries of the American Cable and Radio Corporation. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

]Mr. McMakin. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF WILSON McMAKIN, VICE PRESIDENT OF THE 
MACKAY RADIO AND TELEGRAPH CO., THE COMMERCIAL CABLE 
CO., THE ALL AMERICA CABLES AND RADIO, INC., AND GLOBE 
WIRELESS, LTD., AND DIRECTOR OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. McMakin. My name is Wilson McMakin, of New York City, 
vice president of the Mackay Radio and Telegraph Company, the 
Commercial Cable Company, the All America Cables and Radio, Inc., 
and Globe Wireless. These four companies are the operating sub- 
sidiaries of the American Cable and Radio Corporation. 

I am director of industrial relations for these companies and, in 
addition to personnel and labor relations responsibilities in the United 
States and abroad, I am also the security officer responsible for indus- 
trial personnel security. 

Mr, Chairman and members of the committee, your invitation to 
appear here and discuss certain proposed legislation as contained in 
H.R._ 12852, for preventing or minimizing subversion in the radio, 
television, and broadcasting industry is greatly appreciated. 



1894 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

My appearance today is on behalf of the American Cable and Radio 
companies which are engaged m communications work vital to the 
national defense. 

First I shall briefly explain our operations. Our four subsidiary 
companies in the United States operate a network of radio telegraph 
and submarine cable telegraph circuits to and from most of the coun- 
tries of the world, including such countries as Russia, Rumania, 
Hungaiy, Czechoslovakia, et cetera. 

Over these radio and cable telegraph circuits flow international 
telegraph traffic of all kinds. Our services are used by the public 
and by agencies of the United States Government, such as the State 
Department and the Armed Forces. Our circuits are also used by 
American concerns engaged in defense work. 

Furthermore, we operate what are known as public coastal radio 
stations on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coasts of the United States. 
These stations are engaged in communications with all ships at sea, 
including American-flag ships, the operators aboard which are licensed 
by the Federal Communications Commission. 

Operators licensed by the Federal Communications Commission at 
these coastal stations not only handle all messages to and from ships 
at sea ; they also operate the transmitting equipment used for sending 
such messages. To insure proper routing of marine messages, they, 
of necessity, must and do have knowledge of the location of all ships 
at sea in all oceans. 

It is easy to see the dangers to the national security for a subversive 
employee to know the locations of this country's ships at a critical 
time in a national emergency. 

I would like to interpolate at this point, Mr. Chairman — a situ- 
ation that I think will point up the danger of possession of this 
knowledge of the ships at sea. 

The U.S. Coast Guard, for instance, requires all ships on departure 
from their ports when they are going to some point abroad to broad- 
cast the location of the ship, identify the ship, the call number of the 
radio station that it represents, it is a mobile station, and, as I said, 
the radio operator is licensed by the FCC. 

For instance, when this ship is going across the Atlantic, at the 
time it crosses the 67th Meridian it again must give its location, in 
the same fashion. On reaching its point of destination it does the 
same thing. The purpose of this is a humanitarian one, safety at sea. 

The method used by the Coast Guard in doing this will give it 
knowledge of the location of all ships so that if there is a ship in 
distress sending out an SOS for aid, the Coast Guard, by data pro- 
cessing devices, can locate the nearest ships to the one that is in dis- 
tress and direct such ships to go to the aid of the one in distress. 

My employees come into this picture in that they receive these mes- 
sages that are directed to the Coast Guard. Many of them are re- 
ceived and forwarded to the Coast Guard ; many of them go directly 
to the Coast Guard. 

So you can easily see that these radio operators — incidentally, they 
operate transmitters — by just the fact that they are pressing the key of 
their radio equipment, they know the locations of all these ships. 

Operation of overeeas radio telegraph circuits depends upon very 
sensitive and complex transmitting equipment in our several trans- 
mitting stations. 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1895 

Mr. Chairman, this is dilTerent from the ship-to-shore station that 
I just described. I am now talking about our principal telegraph 
service from a fixed place in the United States to a fixed station 
abroad. 

The proper functioning of this equipment requires highly skilled 
technical personnel licensed by the Federal Communications Com- 
mission. Interruptions of or breakdowns of this vital transmitting 
equipment delay or stop the transmission of important overseas tele- 
graph service. 

In order properly to adjust and tune transmitters, the technicians 
must, from time to time, cut in teleprinters for monitoring the trans- 
mit tere. Telegraph traffic of all kinds flows through tliese trans- 
mitters; thus, the technician has access to highly confidential and 
coded messages. 

Obviously, the technicians cannot read the coded messages nor 
can they decode such coded messages. However, a subversive tech- 
nician could make copies of such messages and deliver them to out- 
side experts in decoding and thus bring about a breaking of the codes. 

The greatest danger to the national defense in both our overseas 
transmitting and public coastal stations lies in the possibility of sabo- 
tage. Trained saboteurs planted throughout the commmiications 
companies' facilities could cause a breakdoAvn of such facilities at the 
outbreak of any hostilities. 

It would be a simple matter for such employees to cripple com- 
munications by damaging delicate and complex equipment used in 
modern methods of transmission. 

In a state of emergency, in order for the Government to function at 
all, it must have available to it all international radio and cable tele- 
graph facilities. It cannot afford to risk any possible breakdown or 
espionage in the operation of these facilities. 

In the present state of the world, the prompt transmission of vital 
communications internationally, without danger of interruption or 
sabotage, is essential. It is equally essential that subversive elements 
be denied access to and use of international communications facilities 
for sending to our enemies abroad intelligence acquired by espionage. 

My company, therefore, endorses H. R. 12852 as an important means 
to help prevent the deliberate placement of the saboteur and the spy 
in critical locations throughout an industry as vital to the national 
defense as international communications. 

Mr. Chairman, I have a special interest and feeling in this matter 
and I have taken a great deal of interest over a number of years, not 
only working with your committee but the Senate Committee on La- 
bor and the Senate Committee on the Judiciary on the question of 
control of Communists in communications. 

I would like to point out to you, sir, that although this bill that is 
proposed is fine, and it would do much good to help at least, not neces- 
sarily eliminate but to minimize the placement of Communists in 
communications, but frankly, sir, it doesn't go far enough because 
there are so many other areas not covered. 

As an illustration, the former president of my company. Admiral 
Ellery W. Stone, has testified before this committee on July 17, 1957, 
concerning the dangers of having Communists in communications, 
and he addressed himself to the broad aspect of the matter, not just 



1896 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

that portion relating to the licensed, Federal Communications Com- 
mission-licensed, operator, but others. 

The Federal Communications Commission licenses only operators 
and technicians that will use transmitters, put transmitters on the 
air. We have equally vital equipment for the operation of com- 
munications in our receiving equipment. 

If our receiving station breaks down, then we cannot receive mes- 
sages at all, which is equally bad, and the equipment there is sensi- 
tive, delicate, requiring highly trained and skilled technicians. We 
have central office equipment that both the receiving and transmitting 
stations rely on. This is equally delicate and complex equipment. 

There we have maintenance technicians and operating technicians 
wlio have as good opportunity as the transmitting operator. 

The Chairman. Yes, but they are not operating as a result of any 
authority given them by the Government. 

Mr. McMakin. That is right, sir. 

Tlie Chairman. That is one of the reasons why I studiously avoided 
that field, because I am just wondering how far we can go without run- 
ning afoul of decisions that may not be upholding our statute. 

Mr. McMakin. Well, I will admit, sir, that "that is a very difficult 
area in which control can be exercised. But again I say that this is 
certainly a very important move in the right direction. 

The Chairman. Did you perchance see the provision in the recom- 
mendations of the Wright Commission with respect to security, plant 
security ? It may be that they are broad enough. 

Mr. Arens, will you see that he gets a copy of that bill ? 

It may be that those provisions meet the situation that you have 
just discussed in another manner. 

Mr. McMakin. Mr. Lee, one of the Commissioners of the Federal 
Communications Commission, yesterday touched on this very subject. 
He is aware of the very broad danger here. 

The Chairman. Are there any other questions? 

If not, thank you very much, sir. We appreciate your assistance. 

Mr. Arens. Joseph F. Keating. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Keating. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH F. KEATING, VICE PRESIDENT IN CHARGE 
OF PROGRAMS AND OPERATIONS, MUTUAL BROADCASTING 
SYSTEM, INC., NEW YORK, NY., ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HERBERT M. SCHULKIND, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Keating. I am Joseph F. Keating, employed in New York, a 
resident of New Jersey. I am vice president in charge of programs 
and operations for the Mutual Broadcasting System. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Keating, you are appearing today in the company 
of another gentleman ? 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1897 

Mr. Keating. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Ke^vting. This is Herb Scliulkind, our legal counsel, of the firm 
of Fly, Shuebruk, Blume & Gaguine, of Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. Will you kindly proceed? 

Mr. Keating. Thaiili you. 

The Mutual radio net^york at this present time serves 440 radio 
stations throughout the Nation and also in the Virgin Islands and 
Guam by providing them with a program service of primarily news, 
special events, and sports. We have been in steady operation since 
our founding in 1934. 

In addition to this, I am a member of the National Industry Advis- 
ory Committee, abbreviated as NIAC, which was appointed by the 
Federal Commimications Coimiiission pursuant to Executive Order 
10312. 

This committee, which consists of a cross-section of the communica- 
tions industry, ach'ises and assists the FCC in its duties under this 
executive order, which order provides for "emergency control over 
certain Government and non-Govemment stations engaged in radio 
communication or radio transmission of energy." 

The NIAC has been working with the FCC in developing a plan 
for an emergency broadcasting system to function before, during, and 
after a CONELRAD radio alert. 

]\Ir, Chairman and members of the committee, it is indeed a priv- 
ilege for me to appear before you today to give this testimony on 
the proposed bill H.R. 12852. As Chairman Walter explained in his 
opening statement yesterday, this bill "prohibits the issuance of a 
radio operator's license to any individual who wilfully fails or re- 
fuses to answer certain questions relating to Communist activities 
when summoned to appear before designated Federal agencies and 
provides for the revocation of a license which may be or may have 
been issued to any such individual." 

The president of the Mutual Broadcasting System, Robert F. Hur- 
leigh, sends his personal regrets in not being able to appear here today 
and serve this committee in person as it considers this proposed legis- 
lation, but he is presently on important business on a tour, and was 
unable to cancel or to change his plans. 

I have, however, submitted my prepared statement to him and he 
has expressed his wholehearted support of what I am about to say. 

As Members of Congress, you on the committee are infinitely more 
qualified than I to judge and determine the particular legalities and 
wording involved in any specific legislation. I can only express the 
need, in our opinion, of practical and effective legislation to safeguard 
the American free radio system from sabotage at the hands of Com- 
munists or Communist agents. 

With this in mind, permit me to state these basic principles to which 
the Mutual Broadcasting System adheres strictly and devoutly. 

It is a basic policy of our radio network to not only believe in and 
practice "non-communism" but we have taken a strong position of 
waging a war of information against the Communist ideology at 
home or abroad. The Mutual network has considered that it is part 
of the network's fundamental obligation to inform the American 
people of the nature and objectives of the international Communist 
conspiracy. 



1898 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

The Chairman. May I interrupt you at this point to say that it is 
indeed unfortunate that other media of information, particularly the 
daily press and some of the other networks, have not taken the same 
position that your company has under the direction of Mr. Hurleigh. 

You have made a great contribution. I cannot help but feel in this 
work frustration, I think, being the word to describe the feeling of 
most of us much of the time ; but when somebody comes forward the 
way you have, it is very refreshing. 

If we lose our liberty in this country, as other countries slipped be- 
hind the Iron Curtain, it will be because of ignorance, apathy, and 
indifference. 

I want to congratulate you for the contribution you have made 
toward preserving these freedoms that are so sacred to all of us. 

Mr. Keating. Sir, I appreciate more than I can say, and I am hum- 
bly grateful in behalf of Mutual for your kindness in those remarks, 
sir. 

If I may continue along these lines 

The Chairman. Go ahead. Excuse me. 

Mr. Keating. The Mutual network has taken the position that in 
order to meet the ever-growing menace of communism, it is necessary 
for this Nation to maintain a capable defense program, adequate mili- 
tary offense, and, simultaneously, to inform the free citizens of the 
world as to the nature of communism's operations and the blessings of 
our way of life. 

Along with our affiliated stations, which are part of the CONEL- 
RAD system. Mutual plays an important role in the defense program 
of our Nation through the emergency broadcast system under CONEL- 
RAD. The purpose of this system is to provide information for the 
American people in case of an enemy attack, and to assist the citizenry 
in their own survival efforts without giving vital aid to the enemy. 

For this reason, a carefully planned program has been devised in 
case of attack so that Mr. and Mrs. America may simply turn on 
their radios to 640 or 1240 on the dial to obtain information on sur- 
vival procedure during a period in which CONELRAD is in effect 
to deny navigational aid to an enemy. 

Our network, along with the other three networks, has cooperated 
in the development of the emergency broadcast system plan designed 
to serve the American people in the event of enemy attack. The Na- 
tional Industry Advisory Committee, to which I referred earlier, just 
a week ago has been informed of the adoption of the "NIAC Plan For 
Technical Arrangements To Insure Nationwide Continuity Of The 
Emergency Broadcast Svstem During CONELRAD And The Period 
Following Issuance Of the CONELRAD Radio All-Clear." 

During the period when CONELRAD procedures are in effect to 
guard against an enemy using radio station signals for navigational 
aid, the NIAC plan will permit the use of CONELRAD stations for 
broadcasting of Presidential messages, general instructions, news, 
and various other messages from the various relocations of the Fed- 
eral Government. 

At the local level, each CONELRAD station would be inserting the 
local instructions and survival information so vital to the public. Ar- 
rangements are provided for the broadcast of state information, too. 

The major networks would, during a CONELRAD, carry Presi- 
dential messages, as well as national news and information, to the sta- 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1899 

tions for local broadcasting. The plan is largely technical, providing 
for the linking up of alternate facilities to replace those rendered in- 
operative by enemy action. 

With this technical information as a basis, it seems obvious to us that 
Communist agents or sympathizers, placed in vital areas, could play 
havoc with this system under CONELRAD. The emergency broad- 
cast system's success depends upon the collaboration of every station 
involved, including, I might add, even amateur radio stations. 

I emphasize, Mr. Chairman, that only a few persons could cause 
this damage and destruction, even though the vast majority of radio 
persomiel and technicians were completely cooperative. 

This would be one important area in which such legislation as the 
proposed bill would serve the defense of our Nation. My personal 
belief is that radio plays a vital role in our Nation's security. I think 
this is indisputable. I believe it is equally indisputable to state that 
the overwhelmingly vast majority of radio employees are dedicated, 
patriotic American citizens, fervently against communism and un- 
swerving in their love and devotion to this Nation and to the principles 
for which it stands. 

Speaking for the Mutual Broadcasting System, I say here and now 
that we need legislation to assist in our elforts to preclude employment 
in radio broadcasting from those who would, when given the order 
to do so, push the switch, say the word, or respond to the command 
that would cause wrong information or even death and destruction on 
American soil. 

I thank you, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, for this 
opportunity to appear before you today . 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

If not, thank you very much. 

Mr. Ajiens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
David Jay Gould. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. 

You do swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Gould. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID JAY GOULD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

SIDNEY DICKSTEDT 

Mr. AiiENs. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Gould. My name is David Gould. I live in West Hempstead, 
Long Island, New York. I am a TV technician, a studio technician. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Gould. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Gould. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. DiCKSTEiN. My name is Sidney Dickstein. I am appearing 
for Mr. Gould today. My office is in Washington, D.C. 



1900 COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Gould, where are you employed, please, sir ? 

Mr. Gould. At the National Broadcasting Co. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Gould. I am a studio engineer, an audio engineer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently hold a license issued by the Federal 
Communications Commission ? 

Mr. Gould. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held a license issued by the Federal Com- 
munications Commission ^ 

Mr. Gould. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you hold such a license ? 

Mr. Gould. I think 1943 — I am guessing— would be the time I first 
received my license. I can't honestly tell you when they ended. I 
would guess 

The Chairman. Just the best you can. 

Mr. Gould. I would say 1950, 6 or 7 years ago or so. 

Mr. Arens. Have you since that time applied for a renewal of a 
license or for another license ? 

Mr. Gould. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of your work as a radio teclinician ? 

Mr. (rdULD. Well, I work essentially in TV, television, as a studio 
engineer. Originally, the nature of my work — it is now the placing 
of microphones, perhaps, for the picking up of a show. 

Mr. Ahens. Do you have access to radio or television transmitting 
equipment ? 

Mr. Gould. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had that access in the course of your 
professional career? 

Mr. Gould. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you have such access ? 

Mr. Gould. Well, the last time I actually ever w^orked at the trade 
I would think was in the neighborhood of 10 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Are you professionally equipped to operate or work on 
radio or television transmitting equipment ? 

Mr. Gould. Well, it has been a long time since I ever did anything. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been denied a license by the Federal Com- 
munications Commission ? 

Mr. Gould. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gould. I invoke my privileges under tlie fifth amendment of 
the Constitution of the United States and refuse to answer on the 
grounds that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gould. I refuse to answer on the same ground previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have information respecting the Com- 
munist operation and activity which you could reveal to this 
committee ? 

Mr. Gould. I refuse to answer on the same ground as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this wi tness. 



I 



COMMUNIST PENETRATION OF RADIO FACILITIES 1901 

The Chairman. Mr. Gould, is there an association of people en- 
gaged in the type of work that you are engaged in ? 

Mr. Gould. I am not sure I understand what you mean, sir. 

The Chairman. Is there any organization, the membership of which 
is comprised of the people doing what you are doing? 

Mr. Gould. I belong to a trade union ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are there members of that union who have access 
to radio sending and receiving equipment ? 

Mr. Gould. Yes. Well, yes, the union would cover all the employees 
of the industry. 

The Chairman. Are any of the members of that group members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gould. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. It seems to me your union ought to do a little look- 
ing around. 

Is there anything further ? 

Mr. Arens. No further questions of the staff. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you an officer of that union ? 

Mr. Gould. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you been ? 

Mr. Gould. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to make this observation, Mr. Chairman. 

Making allowance for the fact that maybe folks were members of 
the Communist Party, some of them heretofore, I do not understand, 
sir, how you are evidently in some position at present where you de- 
cline to answer whether or not you are now a member of the Com- 
munist Party. I do not understand how you can be in the position 
you are in and have to claim the privilege on that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Gould. On the advice of counsel 

Mr. Doyle. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Gould. Every answer to every question I have given has been 
on the advice of my counsel. 

The Chairman. Well, I hope your counsel didn't get you into 
trouble. 

Are there any further questions ? 

If not, the witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Ajiens. There are no further witnesses for today, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. The committee now stands adjourned. 

(Members of the committee present at time of adjournment: Kep- 
resentatives Walter, Doyle, and Johansen. ) 

(Whereupon, at 11 a.m. Wednesday, August 24, 1960, the committee 
adjourned, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Blumenthal Stanley 1856, 1857, 1872, 1883-1884 (testimony) 

Boothrovd, Philip Douglas 1856, 1857, 1871, 1878, 1879-1881 (testimony) 

Borrow, Morton 1855, 1856, 1863, 1872, 1873, 1876 

Boudin, Leonard B 1879, 1881, 1883, 1885, 1886 

Cole (Kendrick M.) 1876 

Dickstein, Sidney 1899 

Eisenhower (Dwight D.) 1864 

Escola, Charles R 1864-1877 (testimony) 

Evelyn, Dow E 1857, 1858, 1889-1893 (testimony) 

Globe (Arthur) 1863 

Goldberg, Murray 1856, 1857, 1871, 1885, 1886-1887 (testimony) 

Gould, David Jay 1856, 1857, 1872, 1899-1901 (testimony) 

Green (William L.) 1876 

Hartle, Barbara 1857, 1882 

Holtz, Edgar W 1864-1877 (testimony) 

Hurleigh, Robert F 1859, 1897, 1898 

Keating, Joseph F 1859, 1896-1899 (testimony) 

Kratokvil, Frank M 1856, 1864-1877 (testimony) 

Lee, Robert E 1855, 1856, 1864-1877 (testimony) 

McMakin, Wilson 1858, 1893-1896 (testimony) 

Mignon, Michael 1856, 1857, 1877-1878 (testimony), 1881 

Miller. Kenneth W 1864-1877 (testimony) 

Nelson (Thomas W.) 1863 

Paschal, Wayne P 1856, 1857, 1870, 1872, 1881-1883 testimony) 

Schulkind, Herbert M 1896 

Smith, Harry F 1889-1893 (testimony) 

Stone, Ellerv W 1895 

Stroud, Roy W . 1889-1893 (testimony) 

Townsend, Harold O 1856, 1857, 1871, 1872, 1885 (testimony) 

Truman (Harry S) 1868 

Young (Philip) 1876 

Organizations 

All America Cables and Radio, Inc 1858, 1893 

American Cable and Radio Corporation 1858, 1893, 1894 

American Telephone and Telegraph 1874 

Commercial Cable Co 1858, 1893 

Communications Workers of America, AFL-CIO 1856, 1877 

CONELRAD System (CONtrol of ELectromagnetic RADiation) 1855, 

1856, 1858, 1859, 1865-1872, 1878, 1890-1893, 1897-1899 

Globe Wireless, Ltd 1858, 1893 

Mackay Radio and Telegraph Co 185S, 1893 

Mutual Broadcasting System, Inc 1859, 1896-1899 

National Broadcasting Co 1857, 1900 

National Industry Advisory Committee (NI AC) 1897, 1898 

RACES (Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service) 1869 



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