(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Communist psychological warfare (brainwashing)"

rB" 



'i? t* "'"'■ 



— 



<M 



• *'93 35.4a540 



"Si 



t 





COMMUNIST PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE 
(BRAINWASHING) 



CONSULTATION WITH 
EDWARD HUNTER 

AUTHOR AND FOREIGN CORRESPONDENT 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 




MARCH 13, 1958 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



. 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
23794° WASHINGTON : 1058 



f 



*f$ls 



AUG 2 4 '62 Uc- .tfflffO 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 

II 






CONTENTS 



Page 
S ynopsis 1 

March 13, 1958, consultation with: 

Edward Hunter 5 

Index I 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
****** 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 

Communist psychological warfare is now winning such extensive 
victories in the United States that the Red bloc will not need to employ 
direct military force against us in order to win the total war which 
they are waging, with this country the principal target, Edward 
Hunter, American expert on Communist brainwashing, warned in a 
consultation with the staff of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties. 

Mr. Hunter, whose career as a foreign correspondent, author, editor, 
world traveler, and specialist in propaganda warfare, qualifies him as 
an authority on Communist propaganda techniques, stated: 

"I spent 30 years, a little bit more perhaps, in countries under 
various forms of Communist pressure and attack. What I am wit- 
nessing in America is no different from what I saw in those other 
countries. I am often referred to as someone who has made phe- 
nomenal predictions that proved correct on things to come. Actually, 
I have never made a prediction as such in my life. I have only pre- 
dicted in the manner that one predicts the total of 4 after seeing the 
figures 2 plus 2. 

"I have been watching developments under communism in other 
parts of the world, and now I see exactly the same developments 
here in America." 

These developments, he continued, "include, first of all, the pene- 
tration of our leadership circles by a softening up and creating a 
defeatist state of mind. This includes penetration of our educational 
circles by a similar state of mind, in addition to one other thing — the 
long-range perspective of the professor who is above anything that is 
happening here and now, and considers himself as an objective specta- 
tor in a long, long vista of history. 

"I see, primarily, as part of this softening up process in America, the 
liquidation of our attitudes on what we used to recognize as right and 
wrong, what we used to accept as absolute moral standards. We 
now confuse moral standards with the sophistication of dialectical 
materialism, with a Communist crackpot theology which teaches that 
everything changes, and that what is right or wrong, good or bad, 
changes as well. So nothing they say is really good or bad. There is 
no such thing as truth or a lie; and any belief we actually held was 
simply our being unsophisticated. They don't say this in so many 
words, except to those who are already indoctrinated in communism. 
What they do say to the rest of us is to be objective; and then they 
twist that word 'objective' into meaning what they mean by dialectical 
materialism." 

"War has changed its form," Mr. Hunter declared. "The Com- 
munists have discovered that a man killed by a bullet is useless. 
He can dig no coal. They have discovered that a demolished city is 
useless. Its mills produce no cloth. The objective of Communist 
warfare is to capture intact the minds of the people and their posses- 



2 BRAINWASHING 

sions, so they can be put to use. This is the modern conception of 
slavery, that puts all others in the kindergarten age. 

"The United States is the main battlefield in this Red war. I mean 
specificially the people and the soil and the resources of the United 
States. 

"It should be obvious to anyone who has observed the so-called 
cold war that the United States is its principal target. We need only 
read what the Communists themselves say, but we refuse to do so, 
exactly as we could not believe that Hitler meant what he said in 
Mein Kampf." 

"The first battles in this total war have already been won by the 
forces of international communism in the United States. These 
victories are identical to those they have won in every country which 
they have ultimately taken over. -• They have succeeded in softening 
up a large element of the American population, particularly among 
those to whom we look for guidance, our so-called intellectuals and 
our so-called liberal circles. They have succeeded in making the 
United States think and talk of a coexistence period as if that were 
an end in itself; while in other parts of the world, as in India, the Reds 
frankly explain that this coexistence is merely intended to give the 
Americans an easy way to choose then road toward communism. 

"This is strategy. The Kremlin is merely giving the United States 
a choice of surrendering by voluntary change of attitude, to avoid 
more destructive ways of surrender. Unfortunately, in the United 
States, large elements, mainly among our non-Communist population, 
have been softened up into believing that if we can just stall on this 
situation, it will take care of itself. The Reds have succeeded in 
inducing business communities to look to Soviet trade as a means of 
restoring prosperity. Large business elements, with all their financial 
and other resources, are now being used to help the Communist 
objective of softening up America for recognition and acceptance of 
Red China, for instance." 

The Communists are being abetted in their brainwashing program 
in the United States, Mr. Hunter declared, by the collapse of tradi- 
tional American ideals of self-reliance and individual integrity. 

"The Communists have been operating for a full generation, taking 
strategic advantage of the American principles, exploiting the best 
sides in our characters as vulnerabilities, and succeeding for a genera- 
tion in changing the characteristics of Americans. I remember when 
I was a young man, every personnel department was looking for 
leadership qualities. What was sought was a man's capacity as an 
individual to achieve new things. Today that is not even considered 
by personnel departments in then employment policies. They ask, 
instead, if the man 'gets along' with everybody. They do not ask 
what is his individuality; they ask how he conforms. When we raise 
a young man to believe that at all costs he must get on with everyone, 
we have put him into a state of mind that almost guarantees, if he 
falls into the hands of an enemy such as the Communists, that he will 
react as he had been raised, to try 'to get on,' because he must not be 
'antisocial.' Being 'antisocial' has become the cardinal sin in our 
society. We have to again go back to characteristics of ours which 
made us, as individuals, say that what is right is right, and whether 
or not it is antisocial, makes no difference. The young man who 
broadcast for the Red Chinese was simply 'getting along' as he had 
been taught to do by our educators." 



BRAINWASHING 3 

As an example of the success the Communists are achieving, 
Mr. Hunter cited statistics on American prisoners of war in Korea. 

"Never before in history had so many captured Americans gone to 
the aid of the enemy. 

"For 2 years the services studied the records of the prisoners. 
What they found was not pretty. 

"A total of 7,190 Americans were captured. Of these, 6,656 were 
Army troops, 263 were airmen, 231 Marines, 40 Navy men. 

"In every war in American history some men have managed to 
escape. Korea was the exception. 

"Roughly 1 of every 3 American prisoners collaborated with the 
Communists in some way, either as informers or as propagandists. 

"In the 20 prison camps, 2,730 of the 7,190 Americans died, the 
highest mortality rate among prisoners in United States history. 
Many of them died unnecessarily. They either did not know how 
to take care of themselves or they just lay down and quit. Some sick 
or wounded died of malnutrition abandoned by their comrades. 

"Discipline among Americans was almost nonexistent. It was a 
case of dog eat dog for food, cigarettes, blankets, clothes. 

"For the first time in history Americans — 21 of them — swallowed 
the enemy's propaganda line and declined to return to their own 
people." 

Mr. Hunter declared that in the struggle with the Soviet Union, 
"we are losing so fast that unless we put a very drastic end to it, 
the question of who is winning will be academic in a decade." 

"People at lectures and elsewhere," he declared, "frequently ask that 
of me, as if begging me to say that we are winning. I wish I could, 
but one only has to think of the position of the United States at the 
end of the war and compare it to now. We only have to look at the 
map of the world as it was when we signed the peace on the battleship 
Missouri and compare it to the map now. Great areas with enormous 
populations have fallen into the hands of the Reds, not through any 
approximation to the democratic process, but through sheer power 
pressures, by psychological warfare." 

Even an ultimate superiority in military weapons ma} 7 - not be suffi- 
cient to guarantee the survival of the United States, Mr. Hunter 
cautioned. 

"In Korea, we had atomic weapons, but lost the war and were unable 
to use those weapons because of a political and psychological climate 
created .by the Communists. The Kremlin today is fighting total war, 
and this means total, not with weapons of physical destruction alone, 
but mental destruction, too. The new weapons are for conquest 
intact, of peoples and cities. The future Pearl Harbor sputnik will 
be used if the situation demands it. But not unless the Kremlin has 
first succeeded in conquering the character and minds of a large enough 
element of the American people so that it will be fitting itself into the 
desires and needs of the Communist apparatus, no matter whether 
they think of themselves as Red or anti-Communist." 

Mr. Hunter continued: "The most deadly misconception of all, 
that requires a softening up in our thinking before we can make it, 
is the idea that there are different .kinds of communism, and that 
besides international communism there is something called national 
communism, which fundamentally differs. There is nothing of the 
sort. We are again interpreting, on the basis of wishful thinking, 

23794°— 5S 2 



4 BRAINWASHING 

what the Communists themselves are plainly saying. We base this 
national communism conception on Titoism. Tito at no time dis- 
owned or expressed doubt in any of the fundamental tenets of com- 
munism, and he is today expending all the time he can in trying to 
tell the world that he believes in communism, intends Communist 
objectives to win out in the long run all over the world. Communism 
in this, too, has been able, as always, to get the help it needs from the 
non-Communist and principally the anti-Communist world. 

"Each time there has been a crisis in Soviet Russia, it could depend 
on the outside world for help. Today, under the theory that there 
are different forms of communism, and some Communist forms are 
not really Communist, or are less Communist than others, we are 
giving through aid programs and such propaganda assists as so-called 
exchange scholarships, the help and sustenance that these Communist 
countries require to survive. I have heard that under certain tech- 
nical requirements of the law, completely fantastic statements have 
come from the White House and the State Department that commu- 
nism in Yugoslavia really isn't communism any more, and that 
communism in Poland is not real communism. I thought we had 
learned our lesson in China. We said that the communism of China, 
the communism of Mao Tse-tung was not really communism. We 
said it was not the communism of Moscow. Mao Tse-tung was saying 
it was the same communism, exactly as Tito says that the Communist 
ideology is basically the same everywhere, and that the objective for 
a Communist world is identical." 



COMMUNIST PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE 
(BRAINWASHING) 



THURSDAY, MARCH 13, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. O. 
consultation 

The following consultation with Edward Hunter, author and 
foreign correspondent, was held at 10 a. m., March 13, 1958, in room 
226, Old House Office Building, Washington, D. C, pursuant to the 
authorization of the Committee on Un-American Activities com- 
posed of: 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and William 
F. Heimlich, consultant. 

Mr. Arens. The session today is the first in a series ef consulta- 
tions on the subject of the Communist psychological warfare which 
the Committee on Un-American Activities has inaugurated. 

We are pleased to welcome to the consultation today Mr. Edward 
Hunter, whose distinguished career as foreign correspondent, author, 
editor, world traveler, and specialist in psychological warfare emi- 
nently qualifies him to speak authoritatively on the subject at hand. 

STATEMENT OF EDWARD HUNTER 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hunter, may I ask you if you would kindly give 
us for the purpose of this record a thumbnail sketch of your own 
personal history? 

Mr. Hunter. I am a journalist whose career began on a newspaper 
in New Jersey, the Newark Ledger, where I became news editor, then 
went to Europe and joined the Chicago Tribune in Paris. After an 
interlude on newspapers in America, I went to Japan to join the Japan 
Advertiser, becoming its news editor. 

A year later, I went to China and took over the Hankow Herald 
from the Communists. The Reds had just left, and. shopkeepers still 
were talking of boxes of American dollars brought in by Moscow. 

Colonel Heimlich. What year was that, Mr. Hunter? 

Mr. Hunter. Between 1926 and 1928. I remember events well, 
but not their years. 

Next I went to Peking to become managing editor of the Peking 
Leader. I joined the Hearst newspaper syndicates in 1931, when the 
"Manchuria Incident" began. I witnessed the creation of the puppet 
state of Manchukuo. I accompanied the League of Nations mission 
of inquiry in Manchuria and saw the coronation of Emperor Pu-yi, 
now a prisoner of the Reds. 

5 



6 BRAINWASHING 

Hearst's International News Service then sent me to Europe abou- 
the time of the Reichstag fire and its fake trial. I covered the con- 
quest of Ethiopia by the Italian Fascists, which took modern psycho- 
logical warfare one step beyond Manchukuo. I also saw two civil 
wars in Spain, the outbreak in the Basque territory and the big fight, 
which was a rehearsal for World War II. 

Back to Europe, I witnessed the intrigue in the various foreign offices 
preceding the outbreak of hostilities. I saw the Nazis take back the 
Rhineland, and how the Germany Army expected the French Govern- 
ment under Premier Flandin to exhibit determination and show up Hit- 
ler as a failure. Instead, it provided Hitler with a new demonstration 
of seemingly inevitable victory, and World War II, of course, followed. 

I returned to America just before World War II, joining the foreign 
news desk of the New York Post. The Newspaper Guild then was 
Communist-dominated. I set up a national committee to coordinate 
the efforts of the various anti-Communist factions. For the first time 
in the history of trade unionism in America, the entire executive 
committee of a union was voted out, although all I did was simply 
communicate with these anti-Communist units and let them know 
they were not alone. This election restored the Newspaper Guild 
to American instead of Moscow-orientated newspapermen. 

Colonel Heimlich. When the war came along, Mr. Hunter, you 
went into OSS, I understand. 

Mr. Hunter. Yes; as a propaganda specialist. I call that my 
sabbatical year — really 2 years — away from journalism. 

Colonel Heimlich. You covered a very broad area of Asia during 
the war years, didn't you? 

Mr. Hunter. I was in what is generally known as the CBI theater: 
China, Burma, and India. 

Colonel Heimlich. Do you find a measurable difference between 
the attitudes of the people dining that period and the present? 

Mr. Hunter. During that period, America still had its old meaning 
to the peoples of Asia as a symbol of hope that could be relied on to 
help on a realistic basis. 

Back on the New York Post after the war, I found myself in the 
midst of a little cold war that perfectly reflected the big one. The 
Post helped Wallace for President, and I got up a petition which almost 
everybody on the staff signed, pointing out that this did not represent 
our true feelings. The result was a thunderbolt to the lady who 
owned the newspaper. She fired the executives and divorced her hus- 
band, the publisher. He went out and started the pro-Red Compass. 

I stayed on a while as foreign news editor, then returned to Asia 
as roving correspondent for the Cox newspapers. I interviewed 
Chinese who had escaped from the Red holocaust, witnessed the jungle 
warfare in Malaya, and the war by terror in Indochina. I traveled 
between Japan, Indonesia, and Burma. Recently I returned after a 
year in Afghanistan. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hunter, how would you characterize the struggle 
between the East and the W T est? 

Mr. Hunter. We do not have a war between the East and West, 
Certainly the Filipinos are not in the West. They are mostly Asians, 
like the peoples of Thailand, Iran, and Japan. 

This expression, "the war between the East and the West," has 
become a part of our thinking processes, an example of how a phrase 



BRAINWASHING 7 

can put groat masses of people in a camp where they do not belong. 
What we really have is a total war in which a pattern for conquest by 
the Communist hierarchy is set up against the peoples of all countries 
outside the Red orbit — no matter whether they call themselves anti- 
Communist or neutralists. 

Mr. Ahexs. Who are the antagonists in this total war? 

Mr. Hunter. They are the Communists on the one side and all the 
other peoples of the world on the other. The Reds have a very prac- 
tical setup. The antagonists, in their view, are the two strongest ele- 
ments: on the one side the Kremlin, on the other side the United States. 

Mr. Arens. When you say there is a total war, what do you mean? 
It is obvious that there is very little shooting going on in the world 
today. What are the devices of this total war? 

Mr. Hunter. War has changed its form. The Communists have 
discovered that a man killed by a bullet is useless. He can dig no 
coal. They have discovered that a demolished city is useless. Its 
mills produce no cloth. The objective of Communist warfare is to 
capture intact the minds of the people and their possessions, so they 
can be put to use. This is the modern conception of slavery, that 
puts all others in the kindergarten age. 

Mr. Arens. Where is this war being waged.? Where are the battle- 
fields? What are its geographical locations? 

Mr. Hunter. The battlefield is wherever there is no Red "peace." 
Peace, in the Communist vocabulary, is the period when all have 
accepted, in a so-called voluntary manner, the inevitability of a 
Communist world. The battlefields are all the countries which have 
not yet fallen into this Red orbit. The weapons used in this war are 
adjusted to the practical situation in each of those countries. 

Mr. Arens. What are those weapons? 

Mr. Hunter. They range from a smile and a "discussion meeting" 
to a leaflet and a bullet. 

Mr. Arexs. Is the United States part of this battlefield? 

Mr. Huxter. The United States is the main battlefield in this 
Red war. I mean specifically the people and the soil and the resources 
of the United States. 

It should be obvious to anyone who has observed the so-called cold 
war that the United States is its principal target. We need only read 
what the Communists themselves say, but we refuse to do so, exactly 
as we could not believe that Hitler meant what he said, in Mein Kampf. 

Mr. Arexs. Does this mean that the principal objective is to con- 
vert the people of the United States to communism? Is their objec- 
tive conversion, or subversion and conquest? 

Mr. Huxter. Since Hungary, the world should know that com- 
munism is not an ideology except as a weapon for conquest. The 
Red objective against the United States is not the conversion of the 
American people to communism any more than it was to make true 
Communists out of the American prisoners of war in Korea. The 
Communist system is a power system, just as was that of Genghis 
Khan. We now have the same invading armies, given a new, pious 
political phraseology, making them hypocritical in a manner that the 
original hordes never were. The objective of all Communist conquest 
is simply use for power. They seek to conquer the United States in a 
manner so that it "voluntarily" falls into the Red orbit, If we have to 
be conquered by destructive nuclear-age weapons, it will be considered 



8 BRAINWASHING 

a setback by the Kremlin. Their objective is to make the same use of 
the American people as they make of the Czechs in the uranium 
mines in Czechoslovakia, and as they make of the Chinese in the mills 
of China. We are to become subjects of a "New World Order" for the 
benefit of a mad little knot of despots in the Kremlin. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your background and experience, and as an 
intimate observer of this total war, Mr. Hunter, please express to us now 
your best appraisal of who is winning and who is losing this total war? 

Mr. Hunter. I am always surprised to hear that question. People 
at lectures and elsewhere frequently ask that of me, as if begging me to 
say that we are winning. I wish I could, but one only has to think 
of the position of the United States at the end of the war and compare 
it to now. We only have to look at the map of the world as it was 
when we signed the peace on the battleship Missouri and compare it 
to the map now. Great areas with enormous populations have fallen 
into the hands of the Reds, not through any approximation to the 
democratic process, but through sheer power pressures, by psycho- 
logical warfare. We are losing so fast that unless we put a very 
drastic end to it, the question of who is winning will be academic in a 
decade. People today also like to say, "This is a hundred-year war." 
Human beings cannot remain in that sort of tenseness for a hundred 
years, and the Soviet Russia regime knows it. We are being lulled into 
feeling that although we are losing, we don't have to do anything about 
it because by the time the situation reaches a climax we will be dead. 
We may be dead, but it won't be the result of a natural death. I try 
to avoid phrases such as "the clock is nearly striking 12," but there 
are times when they are the best descriptions of a reality, and this is 
one such time. 

Mr. Arens. Some may ask how can you say that, Mr. Hunter, 
when we here in the United States are separated by thousands of miles 
of ocean from any potential military aggressor, when we have such 
military might and such apparent alertness to the potential threat of 
an attack by guided missiles? 

Mr. Hunter. I wish we had alertness. We have everything except 
alertness to the way the Kremlin is fighting this war. We are being 
tremendously alert to the ways it is not fighting this war. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Hunter. In Korea, we had atomic weapons, but lost the war 
and were unable to use those weapons because of a political and psycho- 
logical climate created by the Communists. The Kremlin today is 
fighting total war, and this means total, not with weapons of physical 
destruction alone, but mental destruction, too. The new weapons 
are for conquest intact, of peoples and cities. The future Pearl Harbor 
sputnik will be used if the situation demands it. But not unless the 
Kremlin has first succeeded in conquering the character and minds of 
a large enough element of the American people so that it will be fitting 
itself into the desires and needs of the Communist apparatus, no 
matter whether they think of themselves as Red or anti-Communist. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of the victories which are being 
won by the international Communist apparatus in the United States? 

Mr. Hunter. The first battles in this total war have already been 
won by the forces of international communism in the United States. 
These victories are identical to those they have won in every country 
which they have ultimately taken over. They have succeeded in soft- 



BRAINWASHING 9 

ening up a large element of the American population, particularly 
among those to whom we look for guidance, our so-called intellectuals 
and our so-called liberal circles. They have succeeded in making the 
United States think and talk of a coexistence period as if that were 
an end in itself; while in other parts of the world, as in India, the 
Reds frankly explain that this coexistence is merely intended to give 
the Americans an easy way to choose their road toward communism. 

This is strategy. The Kremlin is merely giving the United States 
a choice of surrendering by voluntary change of attitude, to avoid 
more destructive ways of surrender. Unfortunately, in the United 
States, large elements, mainly among our non-Communist population, 
have been softened up into believing that if we can just stall on this 
situation, it will take care of itself. The Reds have succeeded in 
inducing business communities to look to Soviet trade as a means of 
restoring prosperity. Large business elements, with all their financial 
and other resources, are now being used to help the Communist objec- 
tive of softening up America for recognition and acceptance of Red 
China, for instance. 

This Communist offensive has a double objective. One is the sof- 
tening up, first stage of this total war. The other is to convince the 
peoples in their own Red-dominated countries that there is no hope. 
Since the Hungarian revolt, nobody in a Communist country thinks 
any longer of a Red ideology, but only of Red pow r er. The over- 
whelming mass of people are against communism in each Red country, 
including Red China and Red Russia. The only means by which 
these people can be discouraged from overthrowing their despots is 
by convincing them that they stand all alone; that the free world has 
accepted communism as inevitable. 

American students, professors, and businessmen who wander 
through Red countries, in the eyes of the people there, confirm the 
Communist propaganda line that there is no hope; that the free world, 
especially America, the symbol of the free world, has given in to the 
Reds. That was the Communist purpose at the much-publicized 
Bandung Conference, when the Asian and African countries met. The 
broadcasts to the people of China by the Peking regime stressed that 
all this proved that the outside world had recognized that Red China is 
here to stay. Any time an American student walks down a street in 
Red China, he is conveying one message to the silenced people who 
see him, and that is, "Don't look to the outside world, don't look to 
America, for help in your hour of need. We have.let you down. We are 
betraying you." There is no hate so fierce as the hate of a friend who 
feels he has been betrayed, and that is the theme of the whole world 
Communist propaganda program today; to convince the people inside 
communism, who hate it, that we have betrayed them, while convinc- 
ing the people outside of the Communist world, principally in America, 
that there is a future for what they call, in their doubletalk, coexistence. 

Mr. Arexs. What is your reaction to the suggestions which we now 
hear from many quarters that the United States of America through 
its leaders sit down at a conference table with Kruschchev and his 
associates and work out an agreement or agreements of some kind 
to solve this impasse? 

•Mr. Hunter. You can always sit down around a green table with 
the Communists and negotiate anything you wish, so long as it does 
not require actual concessions by the Communist world, but requires 



10 BRAINWASHING 

only such concessions by ourselves. That has been the uninterrupted 
record of such negotiations with the Reds. 

Mr. Arens. What, in your judgment, would be the result of another 
summit meeting? 

Mr. Hunter. The same as all such meetings in the past, only on 
an aggravated scale. We had a Geneva Conference. The results 
were broadcast throughout Asia as a stunning defeat for the free 
world. The results in actual conquest, the taking over of non-Com- 
munist areas by the Communists, were visible to anyone who compared 
maps. The Geneva Conference was a surrender. Its "spirit of Ge- 
neva," which Prime Minister Nehru holds forth as the pattern to be 
followed by us in the future, meant no more than piecemeal surrender. 
The Reds will always give up something that is a paper promise, no 
matter what, in exchange for something tangible. We still accept 
paper promises as equivalent to what is tangible. So long as we con- 
tinue in that delusion, such conferences serve only the purpose of 
continued chiseling away of parts of the free world. 

Mr. Arens. Let us return to what you have characterized as the 
battleground in the United States in this total war, Mr. Hunter. It is 
quite obvious that there is no shooting going on in the United States. 
What is going on here that you can characterize or describe? 

Mr. Hunter. I spent 30 years, a little bit more perhaps, in countries 
under various forms of Communist pressure and attack. What I am 
witnessing in America is no different from what I saw in those other 
countries. I am often referred to as someone who has made phenom- 
enal predictions that proved correct on things to come. Actually, 
I have never made a prediction as such in my life. I have only 
predicted in the manner that one predicts the total of 4 after seeing 
the figures 2 plus 2. 

I have been watching developments under communism in other 
parts of the world, and now I see exactly the same developments 
here in America. 

Mr. Arens. What are those developments? 

Mr. Hunter. They include, first of all, the penetration of our 
leadership circles by a softening up and creating a defeatist state of 
mind. This includes penetration of our educational circles by a 
similar state of mind, in addition to one other thing — the long-range 
perspective of the professor who is above anything that is happening 
lere and now, and considers himself as an objective spectator in a long, 
ong vista of history. I see primarily, as part of this softening up 
process in America, the liquidation of our attitudes on what we used to 
recognize as right and wrong, what we used to accept as absolute moral 
standards. We now confuse moral standards with the sophistication 
of dialectical materialism, with a Communist crackpot theology which 
teaches that everything changes, and that what is right or wrong, 
good or bad, changes as well. So nothing they say is really good or 
bad. There is no such thing as truth or a lie ; and any belief we actually 
held was simply our being unsophisticated. They don't say this in 
so many words, except to those who are already indoctrinated in 
communism. What they do say to the rest of us is to be objective; 
and then they twist that word "objective" into meaning what they 
mean by dialectical materialism. 

Mr. Arens. Is this weakening in America coincidental with the 
Communist drive, or in your opinion, is it concocted and deliberate? 



BRAINWASH JXG 11 

Mr. Hunter. Even the most naive among us can no longer helieve 
that Communist international policy is set up for all the world except 
the United States. We have ample evidence in every country that 
has fallen under communism or which is under attack hy communism, 
such as Malaya today, that the stages in this softening up process, 
which is part of their total war, did not just happen. They were 
planned by a political and military strategy hoard. They have their 
same strategy, with the same planning, in the United States as they 
had in China, and as they are doing in Malaya, and as they have done 
everywhere they have conquered. 

Mr. Arens. What is the mechanism in the United States? 

Mr. Hunter. Wc are again talking of the obvious, except that it is 
obvious on so bold and broad a scale that we "just can't believe it." 
How often I hear that soporific phrase. The mechanism in the 
United States operates in exactly the same way as elsewhere. 

In Korea, wc persisted in talking of just a Korean Avar. The 
Communists never talked of just a Korean war; they talked of an 
all-Asia war. The advantage they derived from this was decisive. 
Whereas the British w T ere dealing simply with a Malaya war, and the 
French with an Indochina war, and the Americans with a Korean 
war, the Communists were dealing with one front and one w T ar, and 
moved their propaganda and fighting forces around according to the 
need. The United States has a Communist Party, and those who say 
that this is a weak party simply because it doesn't have millions of 
members are deceiving themselves. This committee has produced 
volumes and volumes which prove the existence of fifteen or twenty 
thousand hardshell Communists in the United States, with a knot of 
hard-core Communist leaders. A huge, bulky party would not 
achieve the results they can. A small, powerfully knit element that 
can manipulate the non-Communist elements in the population is 
located in our nerve centers, where they can first paralyze us, and 
then defeat us. 

Mr. Arens. How would you characterize the Communist Party in 
the United States? _ 

Mr. Hunter. It is superficially a joke; but behind the facade are 
the real Communist operators. They know exactly what they are 
doing, and they adapt exactly what they are doing to the require- 
ments and strategy of world communism. The Communist Party of 
America is simply one of the fingers on the two hands of world com- 
munism, and operates just as obediently to the mind of communism. 

We are again engaging in doubletalk when we talk of the Communist 
"Party." There is no such thing as a Communist Party, if by party 
we mean what our dictionaries call a party. It is a Communist con- 
spiracy, a Communist psychological warfare organization. The Com- 
munists derive their strength in America from their unity with world 
communism, and from their ability both in clandestine and overt 
circles to pull the strings for the non-Communists, and even for the 
anti-Communists. I am not afraid of Communists alone. Com- 
munists have never been able to achieve anything without a front. 
The communism that wins is always the communism that makes the 
non-Communist its ally; by non-Communist I don't necessarily mean 
fellow travelers. I mean non-Communists who allow themselves to 
be trapped by Communist strategy. W 7 e see that operating today in 
official and business circles, which arc essentially anti-Communist. 



12 BRAINWASHING 

The business circles that do so, have the false hope that there will be 
tremendous trade available, that the entire automobile industry of 
America will find great new markets in Red China, and that two fami- 
lies of nations; Communist and non-Communist, can work together. 
That is merely a restoration under different terminology of what was so 
disastrous to us at the end of World War II, when we were told that 
Mao Tse-tung and the Communists of China were not really Com- 
munists, but only agrarian reformers, sort of Chinese New Dealers, 
who thought and reacted the same as we. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your background and experience, please 
tell us what part of this total warfare is psychological? 

Mr. Hunter. Since man began, he has tried to influence other men 
or women to his way of thinking. There have always been these 
forms of pressure to change attitudes. Atrocities were the simplest 
channel through which people were forced in the old days to change 
their minds. Often they didn't change their minds, but acted as if 
they did, which had the same result, and, as time went on, the new 
thoughts often actually came to be believed. There has been a re- 
markable difference developing in the last 30 years or so, which makes 
this as different from modern psychological warfare as the airplane is 
from a cannon. I have heard it said that the airplane is the same as 
the cannon; it merely brings a shell a longer distance before dropping 
it somewhere. That is sheer sophism. The moment we discovered 
how to rise and remain above the earth, we had achieved something 
fundamentally new. It was no longer a cannon. It was an airplane. 
The same is true with modern psychological warfare. We discovered 
in the past 30 years a technique to influence, by clinical, hospital 
procedures, the thinking processes of human beings. 

The basis for modern psychological warfare, which makes it different 
from whatever was done in the past, are the findings of the Russian 
physiologist, Pavlov. He was not a Communist. He had completed 
his most important discoveries before the Communists took power. 
His first discovery was the effectiveness of using a living animal in 
experiments, rather than a dead animal. His second great discovery 
was that the instincts of an animal, that we call reflexes, were of two 
kinds. One was the reflexes which the animal was born with, its uncon- 
ditioned reflexes. The other was its conditioned reflexes, which man 
can train into the animal. Most of us have heard of Pavlov's experi- 
ments with dogs and lights. He first provided a bowl of food and 
turned on a light of a certain color, then an empty bowl and turned 
on a different colored light. After he had done this a number of times, 
he turned on the light that accompanied the food, but presented an 
empty bowl to the animal, and the dog deposited just as much saliva 
as when the bowl was full. When he presented a bowlful of food with 
the wrong light, the animal did not eat. After he switched the lights 
and the bowls of food, the animal became neurotic, barked, was driven 
into a state which among human beings we call insanity. 

When the Communist hierarchy in Moscow discovered that it was 
unable to persuade people willingly to follow communism, when they 
found that they could not create what they wanted, the "new Soviet 
man" in which human nature would be changed, they turned to 
Pavlov and his experiments. They considered people the same 
as animals anyway, and refused to recognize the role of reason or 
divinity in a human being. They took over the Pavlovian experiments 



BRAINWASHING 13 

on animals and extended them to people. They did so with the 
objective of changing human nature and creating a "new Soviet 
man." People, they anticipated, would react voluntarily under 
Pavlovian pressures, in the way the dog does, to Communist orders, 
exactly as ants do in their collectivized society. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat were the results of their application of these 
techniques to people? 

Mr. Hunter. We have been witnessing the results without knowing 
how they came about for 30 years and more. We saw the first results 
in the Moscow trials, when the Old Bolsheviks, who had dedicated 
their lives to Communist ideology and had successfully captured 
the Russian Revolution away from the democratic elements, appeared 
in open court and beat their breasts and pleaded for execution as 
traitors to the Bolshevism they had set up. We heard confessions 
that came from the mouths of these people, but which made no 
sense to us because they fit into no logical framework that we could 
recognize as true. We saw such developments go on, not only with 
a small group of people picked for trial, but in a curiously similar 
fashion with large parts of the population in Communist areas, in their 
schools and in their villages. We saw the fine brain of Cardinal 
Mindszenty cracked in open court, and heard him brand himself 
everything we all knew the cardinal was not. 

Against all this background that I had obtained as a foreign cor- 
respondent abroad, when I returned to Asia after World War II, I 
began to observe an unmistakable pattern in these strange, Communist 
psychological victories. These successes were being obtained not 
only with individuals, but, in a very peculiar fashion, with masses of 
people. I came upon the pattern itself as a result of the use of this 
strategy in a careless manner by the Chinese Communist Government 
against the conquered people of China. I later saw it used in similarly 
crude fashion against American prisoners of war in Korea. 

Mr. Arens. Would you then kindly give us the benefit of your 
observations, first, in the use of this technique by the Chinese Com- 
munist Government against its people; and then, secondly, in the use 
against the American prisoners of war? 

Mr. Hunter. I am very glad you asked me first to talk about what 
I saw being done to the people of China, because that puts it in its 
proper context. While I was in Hong Kong, soon after the fall of the 
mainland, I interviewed Chinese who had fled from the mainland, all 
of whom expressed themselves in a strange but very similar fashion. 
I was stunned to hear them telling me things I had heard before. I 
had that weird feeling once, while interviewing a schoolteacher who 
had fled from the interior of China, after welcoming the Red Army 
into his city and facilitating its capture of the city. He had found 
out in time how different the Reds are to how they picture themselves, 
and he had escaped. As I was taking notes, I felt that I had written 
all this before, and yet how could I have done so? I had only recently 
returned to Hong Kong. Then it suddenly struck me. Some years 
before, I had interviewed one of the heads of the faculty of Leningrad 
University, who had escaped from Russia. This schoolteacher from 
the interior of China was telling me exactly what I had heard from the 
Russian professor of a different culture, many tens of thousands of 
miles away. I had that same eerie feeling often during that period, 
of different stories being related in some strange manner. In the 



14 BRAINWASHING 

jungles of Malaya, I came across the diaries taken from the bodies of 
slain Chinese guerrilla fighters: I had a number translated. To my 
amazement, I read exactly what I had heard from these people who 
Had fled from China. The same "discussion meetings" that were 
held in the schools and factories of Red China, I now read about in 
these diaries as being held beneath a knot of tall trees inside the jungle. 

In Indochina, I covered the trials of some of the terrorists who had 
engaged in such propaganda warfare pressures as rolling a hand 
grenade down the aisle of a children's cinema when a Walt Disney 
movie was being shown. Those on trial spoke the same language, 
with the same expressions and the same explanations as I had heard 
from Red China, and had read in the diaries kept by the guerrillas in 
Malaya. A set of Soviet Chinese textbooks were smuggled out of 
China for me. They were being used in every school from Dairen in 
Manchuria to Canton in the south. I came across the same teachings 
as I heard in the interviews, read in the diaries and listened to at the 
trials. One day I interviewed secretly a young man who had come 
out of Red China on a mission. I had known his family. During the 
interview, he used the phrase "hsi nao" or "wash brain." I immedi- 
ately stopped him, asking what he meant. He laughed and said, 
"Oh, that's nothing; it's only something we say when close relatives 
or friends get together." When somebody said something the Peiping 
Government wouldn't like, a relative or friend was liable to say to him, 
"Watch out, you'll get your brains washed." That was the first time I 
heard the word "brainwashing." I was the first to use the word in 
writing in any language, and the first to use it in speech in any language 
except for that small group of Chinese. That word and its connota- 
tion, against this background that I had been weaving ever since I 
started in journalism, especially during the years since the civil war in 
China became acute, was like a streak of lightning, clarifying the 
pattern of which I had already discerned its shadows. Brainwashing 
was the new procedure, built up out of all earlier processes of persua- 
sion, using the Pavlovian approach to make people react in a way 
determined by a central authority, exactly as bees in a hive. 

Mr. Arens. And now will you kindly recount your experiences and 
observations of brainwashing in Korea? 

Mr. Hunter. The Korean war began after my discovery of brain- 
washing. That is very significant. Before I went to Korea, I had 
engaged in intensive research directly related to this word "brain- 
washing," because I wanted to know exactly the content of the word. 
[ found it was a strategy for the conquest of the world by communism, 
that it was not merely another tactic, but was the framework for the 
entire activity of the Communist hierarchy. I was so impressed 
with the importance of this discovery that I wrote a book on it called 
Brain- Washing in Red China, in which I made no effort to do any 
special interpreting, but merely outlined as plainly as I could the 
various elements that went into brainwashing. For the first time, 
our side now had the pattern through which the international Com- 
munist movement had made its advance throughout the world. _ I 
wrote about brainwashing in newspaper articles and for a magazine 
before I did the book. Then I went to Korea, where I found that 
the same pattern that I had seen everywhere else was being followed 
by the Communists. I heard of American captured personnel broad- 
casting denunciations of their own country and confessing to a n'on- 



BRAINWASHING 15 

existent germ warfare in a manner and in a language that fit exactly 
into the brainwashing pattern that I had found in China and the rest 
of Asia. 

Mr. Arens. Exactly what is this brainwashing? 

Mr. Hunter. A more exact term in the military lexicon would be 
"mind attack." We are accustomed to such terms as infantry attack, 
naval attack, air attack. Mind attack simply recognizes a new 
dimension to the kinds of war used against armies on the field or 
against peaceful populations. 

Brainwashing consists of two processes, a softening up and an 
indocl rination process. Each of these is formed out of a set of different 
elements. I listed them in my second book, Brainwashing: The 
Story of Men Who Defied li- 
as hunger, fatigue, tenseness, threats, violence, and in more intense cases where the 
Reds have specialists available on their brainwashing panels, drugs, and hypnotism. 

No one of these elements' alone can be regarded as brainwashing, any 
more than an apple can be called an apple pie. Other ingredients 
have to be added, and a cooking process gone through. So it is in 
brainwashing with indoctrination or atrocities, or any other single 
ingredient. 

The moment we think of brainwashing as only one of the elements 
of which it is composed, we no longer have brainwashing, any more 
than we have a pumpkin pie from pumpkin alone. 

Mr. Arens. Now, specifically what happened to the American 
prisoners in Korea? 

Mr. Hunter. Let me quote from a newspaper dispatch from the 
New York Times of January 6, 1957, sent out from Washington by 
the Associated Press 2 days before. The subject was our new troop 
indoctrination program, based on the Code of Honor that President 
Eisenhower proclaimed on August 17, 1955. The figures were taken 
from official accounts. 

Here is what the article says: 

Never before in history had so many captured Americns gone to the aid of the enemy. 

For 2 years the services studied the records of the prisoners. What they found 
was not pretty. 

A total of 7,190 Americans were captured. Of these, 6,656 were Army troops, 
2G3 were airmen, 231 Marines, 40 Navy men. 

In every war in American history some men have managed to escape. Korea 
was the exception. 

Roughly 1 of every 3 American prisoners collaborated with the Communists in 
some way, either as informers or as propagandists. 

In the 20 prison camps, 2,730 of the 7,190 Americans died, the highest mortality 
rate among prisoners in United States history. Many of them died unncessarily. 
They either did not know how to take care of themselves or they just lay down 
and quit. Some sick or wounded died of malnutrition, abandoned by their 
comrades. 

Discipline among Americans was almost nonexistent. It was a case of dog eat 
dog for food, cigarettes, blankets, clothes. 

For the first time in history Americans— 21 of them— swallowed the enemy's 
propaganda line and declined to return to their own people. 

This is only part of the picture. A glimpse. 

Mr. Arens. What were the techniques used? 

Mr. Hunter. The Communist inquisitors in the POW camps de- 
pended first of all on a screening process to provide them with the 
men most likely to succumb to brainwashing. They picked the ones 
they figured would be most useful to them from among these. Cunning 
was all that was needed, along with a complete disregard for ethics; no 



16 BRAINWASHING 

special intelligence. This should be stressed. They have based their 
technique primarily on the complete abandonment of morality. That 
is their contribution to world thought. 

There can be no doubt that they had Communist underground 
guidance in this work in the United States, through the party and Red 
agents. They were well prepared ahead for all phases of the Korean 
war, while we allowed ourselves to be caught unawares, as if by intent. 

They sized up each prisoner's character to find out whether he 
carried a grudge against his superiors, his neighbors, or society in 
general, or whether he made an intellectual fetish out of objectivity, 
indoctrinated by his own side in concentrating on the good points on 
every side, so he could "get along" with everybody and not be "anti- 
social." The most effective trick in the Communist indoctrination 
process was to exploit this quack liberal and make-believe tolerant 
approach by equating what was the exception on the one side with 
what was typical on the other, and reaching the conclusion from that 
basis that both were alike. If the prisoner was the quite usual type 
we had been developing, who had been brought up just to ask, "What's 
in it for me?" he was considered particularly a fine prospect. 

The Communist interrogators, as the brainwashers called them- 
selves, sought to remove a man's trust in his own side, and to convince 
him that he was being let down and even betrayed by his own country 
and relatives, especially by his wife or girl friend. The Reds sought 
to deprive him of all hope. Once they could accomplish this, they 
presented themselves to him as his new friends, as "Big Brother," 
who would always stand by him through thick and thin, who would 
always love him. The cruelties they had perpetrated on him they 
now interpreted as the discipline of a kindly father. 

They took sly advantage of our shocking failure even to make an 
attempt to communicate with our captured men, or to try to free any 
of them. Even a failure would have been better for morale than utter 
silence which, under the circumstances, looked as if we didn't care. 
The Red indoctrinators built up this impression and fit it into their 
pattern of selfish, imperialist America led by bloated Wall Street 
financiers who were using our people as cannon fodder. 

They had a Roman hoiiday over our. failure even to tell our men 
why they were being sent to Korea to fight. When I was in Korea 
as a foreign correspondent, a high Army officer once came to me and 
pleaded with me to tell him what he was doing in Korea. He knew 
that the Red propagandists were spreading their reasons for him to 
be there, even among his own men, and he had no answers to their 
questions. "Nobody tells me anything," he said. This man had a 
heroic fighting record in the Normandy landings and was a career 
officer. There was no question of his sincerity and patriotism. Yet 
how could he have been expected to stand up against brainwashing? 
He was typical of those who were captured, who had not been told 
why they were fighting in Korea, or anything about the nature of 
communism. The Red inquisitors filled the gap for these men, as 
possibly their most effective work. 

The Reds presented their version of why the Americans had come 
and in default of any other information it upset many of the men. 
Even when they kept quiet, they couldn't stop worrying over what the 
Reds said. Half-truths and even entire lies sounded convincing to men 
who had no knowledge of the situation at all. The inquisitors gave our 



BRAINWASHING 17 

men nothing to think of except communism. How were our boys to 
know that this was one of the Red techniques to break them down? 

The Reds selected Americans who had fine intelligence quotients, 
but with poor education. Their heads were like a good, solid but 
empty bucket, only waiting to be filled. The Reds did so with their 
own slanted material. They deprived all these men of reading matter 
except what was pro-Red, and gave them plenty of that, and lots of 
time in which to read it. They especially fed the boys the writings of 
pro-Communist Americans. One of the most corrosive publications 
was a magazine called The China Monthly Review, published by 
American pro-Communists at Shanghai. The men couldn't get over 
the shock of an American-edited magazine being put out in Red 
China. They read it out of indignation or curiosity, and because 
they had nothing else to do. The smoothly written poisons caught 
them by utter surprise, leaving a deep impression on their minds. In 
a number of cases, it was the decisive factor in their softening up. 

The enemy didn't neglect the indoctrination process, but used it 
simultaneously. The one thing the prisoners least expected was to 
come into a classroom atmosphere. Yet this was what the Commu- 
nists endeavored to create. Americans respect learning and have been 
taught to gather it everywhere they can, and also to see all sides of 
every question. Unfortunately, they have been taught this objec- 
tivity in a salesmanship context in which the principal axiom is, "The 
customer is always right." They were first seduced into accepting 
something superficial about communism with which they agreed, 
which they would admit was good. They had no way of checking up. 
The indoctrinators depended on their one-sided control of information 
and their doctrinal skill in subterfuge and doubletalk to soon have 
these men admitting that white was black, and war was peace, in the 
semantics of the Newspeak language described with such genius by 
George Orwell in his book, 19S4. 

Perhaps the best illustration of the pressures put on our troops was 
given to me by an Air Force officer named Capt. Zach W. Dean. He 
was taken on a "death march" and put in a Korean hut and left to 
hunger and freeze while the Reds harassed him with threats and pro- 
paganda and what they called "learning," until he became so weak 
and sick that he felt he was going to die. At once the Communists 
changed their tactic, providing him with vitamin tablets and injections, 
good enough food, and kindly words, until they saved his life. A few 
weeks passed and the cat-and-mouse game switched back once more. 
He was again put under the brainwashing pressures. He became sick 
again, catching pneumonia on top of another case of freezing. De- 
prived of all attention, he was positive he was going to die this time. 
Then once more they switched moods, and he was given the best 
available of everything, and again his life was saved. Zach knew 
what a deep study I had made of all this. I can never forget the look 
he gave me when he told me about it, saying, "Mr. Hunter, I don't 
believe you'll be able to understand what I'm going to tell you now. 
After the Reds do that to you a few times, you are grateful to them 
for saving your life. You forget that they are the people who almost 
killed you." 

That is the Red technique used on all occasions under every sort 
of circumstance, from a POW camp to a United Nations session or a 
Geneva conference. 



18 BRAINWASHING 

No man has ever been brainwashed whose mind has not first been 
put into a fog. That is the objective of all the Red pressures from 
group hunger to a "study group." The patient first has to be deprived 
of his bearings, to be shaken loose from whatever belief and convictions 
he formerly held, until he loses faith in them entirely. We contributed 
to the enemy's success by bringing up our young men and women 
without real convictions except to "get ahead." The obvious way to 
"get ahead" in POW camp was to play along with the Communists. 
Hungry, tired, sick, worried, and hopeless, the prisoner's mind could 
not be expected to work well. He was caught off guard. The Reds 
first lured the individual into believing the Red tenet in the pseudo- 
scientific Marxian philosophy which teaches constant change, even in 
such basic conceptions as. truth and falsity, good and bad. The Reds 
were helped in putting this across by comparing it to our tolerance 
and liberalism. Where convictions were already worn thin by their 
upbringing, the line became blurred until these noble traits were 
twisted out of shape by becoming tolerance for evil and the inability 
to distinguish between a college huddle back home and a brainwashing 
session in a POW camp. 

Note that I use the word "patient" in referring to the prisoner. I do 
so deliberately, because brainwashing can only be properly understood 
from the clinical viewpoint; it is a treatment, as evil as a black mass. 

Brain- Washing in Red China had been published in sufficient time to 
warn our troops about this procedure. It was recommended for the 
book kits and approved by all concerned. Somehow, influences from 
the woodwork prevented it from being distributed to the men. After 
the release of the POW's, I felt sick at heart to hear them tell me how 
much suffering it could have saved them, and how many could have 
preserved themselves from falling into a treasonable situation, if they 
had only read that book. "Why wasn't I told?" was their agonizing 
question to me. 

Mr. Arens. What significance do you attach to the brainwashing 
episodes in Korea? 

Mr. Hunter. We have been so overwhelmed by the shock of what 
took place in those brainwashing cells in Korea that we forget that 
this was not the first time it was used in a concentrated way. Remem- 
ber, I had started writing a book about it even before the Korean war 
started. 

The Reds always operate with an immediate as well as a long-range 
objective. They have a worldwide objective for brainwashing, just as 
they had a local objective in the POW camps; the same as they have a 
global operation going on all the time in brainwashing, adjusted in 
Communist countries to their own people as in Red China, and in 
non-Communist countries to the non-Communist peoples, as in the 
United States. In the POW camps, they put their emphasis on the 
softening up process, exactly as they are doing now in America, 
because that was what gave them what they wanted at once for the 
immediate needs of the war. A great proportion of people in the 
POW camps, as in any Communist country, did not believe the Red 
line, and never did believe it. We should not regard this as proof that 
the Communists failed, which some of us are doing, but as indication 
of the Communist technique, They never expected the mass of 
soldiers to be Communists. They didn't need them as true believers. 
It wasn't necessary. 



BRAINWASHING 19 

Hungary has shown an example of a population which appeared 
satisfied with the Red control, seeming to believe in its doctrines. In 
Hungary, we saw overnight the people who acted and talked as if they 
were Communists reveal themselves as unbelievers, furiously fighting 
to the death with their bare hands against communism. Yet, such a 
population is pointed out as pro-Red. What is important to the Com- 
munist hierarchy from its power standpoint is that others act and 
talk as pro-Reds. This is what happened inside the POW camps. 
Very few people in any Communist country are Red. We should 
never forget this. The Reds believe basically in power, in what indi- 
viduals say and what they do. So long as people do what they are 
told, and go through the verbalisms and motions attached to belief, 
that is satisfactory to a power faction such as the Kremlin constitutes. 
This is the immediate short-range objective. 

A certain element must become deeply indoctrinated, especially 
those who have thrown their interests irrevocably into the Red camp, 
and these constitute the activists, the hard core of the party. They 
are a small minority, and the constant purges even in their ranks shows 
how untrustworthy even these are. 

In any area under communism, so long as the Reds are able to 
maintain a controlled environment, and are indisputably in power, the 
population comes to talk and act pro-Communist. The people follow 
orders, even to the expression of the Communist point of view. That 
is how it is in any Communist country, and how it was in the POW 
environment. After all, a nation under communism is a prison state, 
and its people do not live under any essentially different conditions. 

The Communist hierarchy well knows that its brainwashing is only 
skin deep in the overwhelming number of cases, and can be depended 
on only so long as the individual can be kept isolated from outside 
information or influence. That is the significance of the Iron Curtain, 
as true for a Red satellite as for a POW enclosure. Once the POW 
reached the fresh air of the free world, of course the poisons usually 
began to leave his system. So it is with anyone from a Communist 
country, and is why the normal individual is not allowed out of his 
native land except when he leaves his loved ones behind as hostages, 
or his return is otherwise assured. Indoctrination in the majority of 
cases does not bring about true belief, but only submission. 

W 7 e shouldn't allow ourselves to be misled or lured into inaction by 
this, for it makes little difference to the issue at the time whether the 
man who is lecturing on how he dropped germs on a peaceful popula- 
tion believes he did or doesn't. When the desired effect on the 
audience is achieved, the result is the same. That is what the 
Communists mean by power politics. By the time the audience 
learns differently, the Reds will have achieved their end. 

If we deal with such Red-dominated populations as our enemy, 
refusing to recognize our secret allies, we will be defeating ourselves, 
making our collapse sure in this sleepy, coexistence era, with or without 
the need for a sputnik Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Arens. Is this technique used by the Communists applicable 
to areas and circumstances other than as between a captor and 
prisoner? 

Mr. Hunter. Unfortunately for the Korean POW's, and unhappily 
for civilian foreigners and especially the inhabitants of Red countries, 
knowledge of brainwashing was kept quite secret until near the end of 



20 BRAINWASHING 

the Korean war. Only the determined efforts of the released POW's 
succeeded in breaking through that partly concocted, partly bureau- 
cratic curtain. Brainwashing was being successfully hushed up the 
same way as information about the tremendous slave labor camps in 
the U. S. S. R. 

This delay in revealing brainwashing left the public with a twisted 
conception of it. People still think it has something to do only with 
prisoners of war, and possibly foreigners put under arrest. They still 
don't conceive of it as having to do with the populations of Com- 
munist countries. I've told that in my two books on brainwashing, 
but try to find them in your bookshops or even in most public libraries. 
They are high up on recommended lists for libraries and schools, as 
has been read into the Congressional Record. Brainwashing only 
incidentally concerns military prisoners or foreigners. This strategy 
of mind attack is aimed principally at the inhabitants of Communist 
countries, and has as its objective a forced change in their nature to 
make them over into "new Soviet men." 

This is the true character of mind attack, which the Reds have 
succeeded in hiding. Those who pretend that American prisoners 
were not submitted to brainwashing either have to deny that the 
people under communism were put under these pressures, or else 
hush up the details. My original brainwashing findings were based 
on what was happening to civilians on the Chinese mainland. I wrote 
about the brainwashing of Chinese officials, teachers, and merchants — 
all ordinary folk. What they underwent, the American and British 
troops did later on in Korea. I will never forget the amazement 
that spread over the faces of released POW's when they first saw this 
book, and the relief it gave many who still felt sick over their expe- 
rience. As the liberal book reviewer, Sterling North, wrote: 

Why * * * do the books revealing these truths get so little notice in the New- 
York press and so modest a play in the bookstores? Terror is terror, no matter 
who perpetrates it. Unless we are to be known as a nation of hypocrites, the time 
has come to drop our blinders. 

He wrote this in 1952, and the hush-hush continues in 1958. Those 
blinders are still over our eyes. Persistence in bringing out such 
facts, as this committee is doing, is the main obstacle to the success 
of the Communist psychological warfare techniques. You are doing 
a work which if left undone would leave our country helpless and 
betrayed before a new nuclear age sneak attack. The wonder is not 
that you are the butt of a subtle campaign to put you out of existence, 
but that it isn't even more intensified. Take pride in it. 

We should not lose sight of the significant fact that the pressures 
used between captor and prisoner in the POW camps were identical 
to those utilized in Red China between Communist Party interro- 
gators and the people. The Chinese population, the Russian popu- 
lace, the Hungarians, and the inhabitants of the other satellite 
countries are all under the same treatment, and are our secret allies. 
The major objective of the Red network is to make us betray them. 
The issue, for instance, is not representation in the U. N. and at 
Washington for 600 million Chinese by Peking, but their misrepre- 
sentation. That is what is being urged, and the stakes are high; 
either their help in overthrowing our common foe, or their blind fury 
against us for letting them down when they needed us most. 

The similarity between the treatment given to military prisoners 
and to their own people by the Red hierarchy is perhaps the most 



BRAINWASHING 21 

convincing: evidence we can find of the callousness and inhumanity 
with which a Communist regime regards its own people. 

The routine in the so-called "learning" classes for the faculty of 
any Chinese Communist school or government bureau, factory or 
business establishment, was identical to that in the POW camps, 
with the identical stages that progressed through the writing of biog- 
raphies and self-criticisms, along with diaries that had to be made 
available to the indoctrinators, to intermittent confessions and the 
ultimate indecent and humiliating disrobing of minds in an enforced 
mental orgy called "thought conclusions." 

These were all the same in essence, the only difference being in the 
greater or less stress put on the various elements that constitute 
brainwashing, according to the needs of the particular environment. 
In a Red community, such pressures as hunger and fatigue, threats 
and violence, are enforced as a way of life, through the manipulation 
of an artificially maintained low standard of living. Exactly as they 
dare not do away with the conditioned environment, popularly known 
as the Iron Curtain, the Red governments dare not permit their 
people to eat and sleep well, and to have unimpeded leisure, any more 
than in the POW camps. The people of a Red country are considered 
just as much as enemies by the Communist hierarchy as were the 
American and British POW's in Korea. 

Incalculable tens of millions of Chinese people have been arrested 
by the Mao Tse-tung regime on political charges since the fall of the 
mainland, and a horrible percentage of them killed. They all had to 
attend "learning" classes the same as the POW's. All the Chinese 
people who have not been imprisoned also have had to undergo this 
clinical form of "learning," which is obligatory for every human 
being on the Chinese mainland. 

The word "learning" should be in quotation marks, because it is a 
bizarre example of Red semantics. The word is written in Chinese 
with a different character than the ordinary word "learning," 
although pronounced the same, and means only political learning from 
the Communist point of view. Those who translate the word without 
revealing this are abetting the Communist propaganda intent. 
We're almost trapped into doing it whether we like it or not. That is 
Red semantics, the most effective of the tools utilized in brainwashing. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a specific illustration of the way in which 
the leadership in our Nation has been duped or brainwashed with 
reference to the international Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Hunter. The most deadly misconception of all, that requires a 
softening up in our thinking before we can make it, is the idea that 
there are different kinds of communism, and that besides international 
communism there is something called national communism, which 
fundamentally differs. There is nothing of the sort. We are again 
interpreting, on the basis of wishful thinking, what the Communists 
themselves are plainly saying. We base this national communism 
conception en Titoism. Tito at no time disowned or expressed doubt 
in any of the fundamental tenets of communism, and he is today 
expending all the time he can in trying to tell the world that he believes 
in communism, intends Communist objectives to win out in the long 
run all over the world. Communism in this, too, has been able, as 
always, to get the help it needs from the non-Communist and princi- 
pally the anti-Communist world. 



22 BRAINWASHING 

Each time there has been a crisis in Soviet Russia, it could depend 
on the outside world for help. Today, under the theory that there are 
different forms of communism, and some Communist forms are not 
really Communist, or are less Communist than others, we are giving 
through aid programs and such propaganda assists as so-called ex- 
change scholarships, the help and sustenance that these Communist 
countries require to survive. I have heard that under certain tech- 
nical requirements of the law, completely fantastic statements have 
come from the White House and the State Department that com- 
munism in Yugoslavia really isn't communism any more, and that 
communism in Poland is not real communism. I thought we had 
learned our lesson in China. We said that the communism of China, 
the communism of Mao Tse-tung, was not really communism. We 
said it was not the communism of Moscow. Mao Tse-tung was say- 
ing it was the same communism, exactly as Tito says that the Com- 
munist ideology is basically the same everywhere, and that the ob- 
jective for a Communist world is identical. Yet we insist on saying 
that Tito and Mao Tse-tung, just as Hitler, did not mean what they 
were doing their best to say they did mean. 

Mr. Arens. What can we do about it? 

Mr. Hunter. First of all, we have to begin by realizing that we are 
very, very late. The Communists have been operating for a full gen- 
eration, taking strategic advantage of the American principles, ex- 
ploiting the best sides in our characters as vulnerabilities, and succeed- 
ing for a generation in changing the characteristics of Americans. 
I remember when I was a young man, every personnel department 
was looking for leadership qualities. What was sought was a man's 
capacity as an individual to achieve new things. Today that is not 
even considered by personnel departments in their employment poli- 
cies. They ask, instead, if the man "gets along" with everybody. 
They do not ask what is his individuality ; they ask how he conforms. 
When we raise a young man to believe that at all costs he must get 
on with everyone, we have put him into a state of mind that almost 
guarantees, if he falls into the hands of an enemy such as the Com- 
munists, that he will react as he had been raised, to try "to get on," 
because he must not be "antisocial." Being "antisocial" has become 
the cardinal sin in our society. We have to again go back to charac- 
teristics of ours which made us, as individuals, say that what is right 
is right, and whether or not it is antisocial makes no difference. The 
young man who broadcast for the Red Chinese was simply "getting 
along" as he had been taught to do by our educators. 

What we can do in defense against brainwashing is very difficult 
now, because we have lost a generation. We should begin by scotch- 
ing a type of mentality that is both defeatist and unrealistic and which 
repeats the so-called sophisticated observation, "Every man has a 
breaking point," with the inference that brainwashing is hence un- 
beatable and we might as well not do anything about it. That seems 
to be the preferred conclusion in certain circles. Anyone who comes 
forth with that finding is welcomed by them, and has no difficulty 
having his writings displayed in the bookshops and learnedly reviewed. 
A psychiatrist would be needed to analyze that masochistic trait in 
some of us. 

Pavlov's experiments do have significance for the human being, so 
we are destined to become ants through the medium of a collectivist 



BRAINWASHING 23 

society, is the blase deduction in these sadistically inclined, fake 
intellectual circle*. 

But this is loose thinking. Of course every man has a breaking 
point, has always had, and will always have. Even granite can be 
crushed into powder. What docs that signify? The huskiest wrestler 
in the world can stand only a certain amount of weight on his arm 
before it cracks. The healthiest man in the world can be killed in a 
moment by a bullet that penetrates a vital organ. So what? They 
simply avoid such situations wherever normally possible. They nar- 
row down the times when they can be trapped that way, or they make 
it too costly for the assailant. 

The basic point is that this breaking point varies constantly with 
the same individual. Exercise, training, determination, and a host of 
other elements all enter into it. There isn't a single human being so 
weak or so strong, so stupid or so clever, that he cannot be improved. 
His mental resistance can be strengthened just as much as his physical. 

The t}T)e of mentality I have been outlining is the result of the 
softening up that has been taking place in our society during the past 
few decades under Communist encouragement. Our first task is to 
correct that sloppy way of thinking, especially when coated with a 
veneer of the professorial. 

The world situation has created the need for a conscious extension 
of the sort of training we give Boy Scouts, for example. They are 
taught what to do when lost in the woods. Our pilots are taught the 
same survival methods, so they know what berries can poison them or 
keep them alive. We simply have to extend that nowadays to 
teaching a man what to do when lost in an ideological jungle, giving 
him what I call "mental survival stamina." No longer is it sufficient 
for him to just enjoy the privileges of a free society. He must learn 
what constitutes freedom, and the pitfalls that destroy it. We have 
always had camp crafts in the military. This merely extends them 
farther. That was the simple basis on which the services presumably 
are adopting a program to resist brainwashing. 

The experiences of those who have undergone brainwashing tell us 
what traits are effective in providing mental survival stamina. In my 
second book, Brainwashing: The Story of Men Who Defied It, I list 
them the same way as I do the pressures that break a mind. They 
are given as follows: 

Faith, convictions, clarity of mind, a closed mind, purpose, keeping one's mind 
busy, confidence, deceit, high jinks, adaptability, crusading spirit, group feelings, 
being yourself. 

Some of these are readily understandable, others can be misin- 
terpreted and require explanation, as the closed mind, deceit, and 
possibly high jinks. A closed mind does not mean narrowmindedness 
or fanaticism. What it does mean is that you have already reached 
a conclusion on a specific matter in question and under the circum- 
stances there is no earthly use in discussing it. One doesn't discuss, 
for instance, whether it isn't all right to slap one's mother in the face, or 
to slap one's country in the face with a propaganda talk while under the 
enemy. One doesn't have to prove himself objective or fairminded by 
discussing those matters. There are innumerable others. The differ- 
ence between a closed mind and fanaticism is that one shuts the door 
in the former case, locks it, and puts the key in one's pocket. You can 
open the door if you wish, but there's no logical reason to do so. The 



24 BRAINWASHING 

fanatic cements the door in place so it never can be opened again. 
A balanced mind reaches conclusions on basic subjects, then passes on 
to others. He doesn't return to the earlier ones unless some drastic 
reason impels him to. A POW camp is certainly not the locale, with 
all the dice loaded and in the hands of the brainwashers. 

Anyone who wouldn't use deceit on a crazy man advancing toward 
him with a dagger would be extremely stupid. A madman is humored, 
and that is another way of saying deceived. The Communist ideology, 
like the Fascist, has a streak of insanity in it. Stalin had it the same 
as Hitler. Prisoners of war still are soldiers, and it surely is no more 
wrong to deceive an enemy than to kill him. Deceit is a recognized 
part of military tactics. As told me by the Reverend Olin Stockwell, 
an American missionary who was intensively brainwashed by the Reds, 
"I lied like a trooper." He had sense. The Reds were at war with 
his church as well as his country, and he would have been silly to 
make believe not. 

The Reds extracted confessions from practically anyone, no matter 
on how trivial a matter, even when they knew it was a fake from 
beginning to end. This mystified the prisoners, but there was a 
psychological reason. Confession is a form of submission, and was 
so recognized in early language. Confession accustoms the individual 
to surrender his integrity as well as his body. 

Quite a bit of controversy has arisen over the way to counteract the 
confession tactic. While some insist on not replying to the Commu- 
nists, giving no answers to their questions, others urge total confessions 
of everything imaginable, except the truth, by everybody. There are 
serious drawbacks to both of these as an exclusive approach, but there 
is no reason why we have to choose any single defense tactic. Let us 
use them all, according to the situation and how we're organized at the 
time. That's adaptability. We already know the utter falsity of 
Communist-obtained confessions, and that much, at least, should be 
proclaimed to all the world. We seem to feel that we mustn't hurt 
the feelings of the Reds by stressing any such ugly trick of theirs. 

We also can acquaint the world at once with this Pavlovian approach 
that equates a man with beasts of the field. Strangely, we are hush- 
ing up that aspect of it. I tell in Brainwashing: The Story of Men 
Who Defied It, about a film. I saw, made in the U. S. S. R. for train- 
ing purposes, that shows experiments on a human being as if he 
were a dog. I can imagine no more effective anti-Communist movie, 
and we didn't make it; Moscow did. The film is available, yet we 
are careful not to offend the Reds by showing it. I cannot conceive 
of anyone in Hindu India or Moslem Egypt seeing that film and 
retaining anything except disgust for the Reds. 

The most important elements of mental survival stamina are faith and 
convictions. I never expected this to be questioned After all, my in- 
formation came out of the experiences of the brainwashed themselves. 
Yet there has been a most peculiar resentment of that finding. I be- 
lieve this is the most significant of my discoveries for Americans, for it 
reveals a national vulnerability that has crept into our character, which 
it is the responsibility of every one of our citizens to help remove. 

I had gathered the material for my first book by the old-fashioned 
way of going to news sources for it. I kept extensive notebooks. _ I 
decided to retain that method in all my writing. I built up Brain- 
Washing in Red China out of the material in my notebooks, giving each 



BRAINWASHING 25 

interview and each experience the way it happened, so the reader would 
obtain each picture as I saw it originally. Only after I had finished it 
and read it in published form did I realize the full extent of what I had 
brought out. My faith in the bare truth, in the manner in which I had 
been taught to believe in it as a cub reporter in a generation now past, 
was completely justified. The brainwashing secret that the Kremlin 
had been able to keep bottled up in the Lub} T anka and the other dun- 
geons of its secret police had slipped out through its back door in China. 

I made many lasting friendships through my first book. One was 
with Dr. Leon Freedom, a Baltimore brain specialist and psychiatrist, 
and also his keen-minded wife, Virginia. Before I ever heard of him, he 
was giving talks based on my book. After we met, I began going to him 
after some especially important interview, and we would discuss it for 
hours after his busy day at the clinic. He would analyze it from the 
medical point of view. He clarified the connection between brainwash- 
ing and Pavlov's conditioning of dogs. He opened that vista for me. 

One day, I was jotting clown notes during an interview with a brain- 
washed man from Eastern Europe, when I recognized once more that 
these words were alike to others I had been recording, told me by per- 
sons who had undergone this mental torture in China. The subject 
of the particular paragraph was how he had managed to survive to the 
extent he had under those horrible pressures. The significance of this 
dawned on me. That night I went over my notebooks and found the 
second pattern, this time for the preservation of a man's mind, not 
merely for its destruction. Our survival depends on us understanding 
that. 

Each time a man told me how he had come out of the hands of his 
Red inquisitors, to the extent that he had retained his integrity, he 
had explained bow he had defeated it. I found these details always 
the same, no matter whether the individual came from Siberia or 
China, the Soviet Union or Czechoslovakia, or whether he was 
American or German, Chinese or Japanese, irrespective of his profes- 
sion, whether military or missionary or merchant. I realized then 
that I had in my notebooks the pattern for the defeat of brainwashing, 
for the preservation of men's minds against the most vicious and sly 
attacks ever made on the human brain, in which all our great contri- 
butions of science and civilization were being focused on the upside- 
down task of making healthy minds sick. When I came upon this 
pattern for what I called mental survival stamina, I now knew I had 
the material for a second book, and the responsibility to write it. 
That was how Brainwashing: The Story of Men Vv 7 ho Defied It 
came into existence. 

To complete the record, I have written a third book, The Story of 
Mary Liu. I am told it reads like a novel, although every name and 
detail are true. There is a Mary Liu. The story deals with this 
same human problem of the preservation of man's integrity under 
tremendous odds. The Story of Mary Liu gives the experience of a 
single individual, and deals primarily with the religious field. Because 
of her very special condition, she was able to witness from behind the 
scenes what foreigners were not allowed to see in Red China, even 
those who were pro-Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you very much, Mr. Hunter. 

(Thereupon, at 1:30 p. m., Thursday, March 13, 1958, the con- 
sultation was concluded.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Dean, Zach W 17, 18 

Eisenhower, Dwight D 15 

Flandin (Pierre) 6 

Freedom, Leon 25 

Freedom, Virginia (Mrs. Leon Freedom) 25 

Hitler (Adolf) 2, 6, 7, 24 

Hunter, Edward 1-4; 5-25 (statement) 

Khrushchev (Nikita) 1.0 

Liu, Mary 25 

Mao Tse-tung 4, 12, 21, 22 

Mindszenty, Joseph Cardinal 

Nehru ( Jawaharlal) 10 

North, Sterling 20 

Orwell, George 17 

Pavlov (Ivan) 12, 13, 22, 25 

Stalin. Josef 24 

Stockwell, Olin 24 

Tito (Josip Broz) 4, 22 

Wallace, Henry 6 

Organizations 

China (Communist Government) 13 

League of Nations 

Newspaper Guild, American 6 

United States Government — Office of Strategic Services (OSS) 6 

Publications 

Brain-Washing in Red China (book) 14, 18, 24 

Brainwashing: The Story of Men Who Defied It (book) 15, 23-25 

China Monthly Review 17 

Compass 

Mein Kampf 2,7 

New York Times Ijj 

"1984" (book) 17 

Story of Mary Liu, The (book) 25 

i 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 3343 



Boston Public Library 
Central Library, Copley Square 

Division of 
Reference and Research Services 



The Date Due Card in the pocket indi- 
cates the date on or before which this 
book should be returned to the Library. 

Please do not remove cards from this 
pocket.