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Full text of "Communist target: youth. Communist infiltration and agitation tactics. A report"

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COMMUNIST TARGET— YOUTH 
Communist Infiltration and Agitation Tactics 



A REPORT BY J. EDGAR HOOVER, DIRECTOR OF THE 
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, ILLUSTRAT- 
ING COMMUNIST STRATEGY AND TACTICS IN THE 
RIOTING WHICH OCCURRED DURING HOUSE COMMIT- 
TEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES HEARINGS, SAN 
FRANCISCO, MAY 12-14, 1960 



RELEASED JULY 1960 



Published by the House Committee on Un-American Activities 



67564° 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1961 



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COMMUNIST TARGET— YOUTH 
Communist Infiltration and Agitation Tactics 



A REPORT BY J. EDGAR HOOVER, DIRECTOR OF THE 
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, ILLUSTRAT- 
ING COMMUNIST STRATEGY AND TACTICS IN THE 
RIOTING WHICH OCCURRED DURING HOUSE COMMIT- 
TEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES HEARINGS, SAN 
FRANCISCO, MAY 12-14, 1960 



iH^i 



RELEASED JULY 1960 



Published by the House Committee on Un-American Activities 



67564° 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1961 






COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Abens, Staff Director 

n 






B~- 



CONTENTS 



Communist Target — Youth (San Francisco, Calif., May 12-14, 1960), 
Communist Infiltration and Agitation Tactics 

Page 

Preface vii 

Report by J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation 1 

Illustrations 12-18 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is PubHc Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
****** ^t 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

* * * * * ^f 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

* * * If >•> • • 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



PREFACE 



In opening recent hearings by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities on Communist activities and propaganda among youth 
groups/ I stated that although the overwhelming majority of the 
young people of this Nation are of unquestioned patriotism, this must 
not beguile us into feeling that because the Communist infiltrators 
among our youth are numerically in a minority, their threat is neces- 
sarily insignificant. 

Time and time again the Committee on Un-American Activities 
has pointed out that the strength of the Communist movement in any 
of its ramifications bears little relationship to the number of its 
members; that instead, its strength and effectiveness are in direct ratio 
to the intensity of the efforts of the few who are trained and dis- 
ciplined agents. 

It was with only a relative few that Lenin seized control of the Gov- 
ernment of Soviet Russia. Only a few — some 3 or 4 percent — in Soviet 
Russia today are Communists. Only 1 to 2 percent of the captive 
nations are Communists. The Communist conspiracy operating on 
American soil — let it be emphasized and reemphasized — is part and 
parcel of the world conspiracy and the thousands of Communists in the 
United States are for all intents and purposes foreign agents on 
American soil who are dedicated to our destruction. 

"Operation Abolition" ^ — this is what the Communists call their 
current drive to destroy the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, to weaken the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to discredit 
its great Director, J. Edgar Hoover, and to render sterile the security 
laws of our Government. The Communist Party has given top 
priority to "Operation Abolition" and has assigned agents trained in 
propaganda and agitation to this project. The Communist infiltra- 
tion and agitation tactics among youth as described by Mr. Hoover 
in this report constitute just one extension of this Communist cam- 
paign which is a challenge to all patriotic Americans. 

Francis E. Walter, 

Chairman. 

1 Communist Training Operations, Part 2, Feb. 2, 1960. 

2 See "Operation Abolition," prepared and released by the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
Nov. 8, 1957. 

VII 



COMMUNIST TARGET— YOUTH 

Communist Infiltration and Agitation Tactics 

Report by J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation 

The successful Communist exploitation and manipulation of youth 
and student groups throughout the world today are a major challenge 
which free world forces must meet and defeat. Recent world events 
clearly reveal that world communism has launched a massive cam- 
paign to capture and maneuver youth and student groups. 

The vigor and vitality of such groups constitute an explosive force 
of immense proportions. Channeled into proper outlets, this force 
can accomplish immeasurable good for a peace-loving world. Manipu- 
lated into destructive channels, this force can create chaos. 

Riots in Japan 

Communists have become experts at using this force to create chaos. 
In Japan, for example, Communists carefully nurtured and developed 
a growing body of students over a 10-year period, using them period- 
ically in protest demonstrations. The culmination of this training 
was reached this year, when the highly organized and tightly dis- 
ciplined rioters shocked the world with their uproarious displays. 

Demonstrations in Uruguay 

The seeds for future large-scale demonstrations of this type have 
been planted by Communists in other countries. The small demon- 
strations staged by Communist-oriented students in Uruguay earlier 
this year — demonstrations which marred an otherwise cordial welcome 
extended to the President of the United States on the last stop of his 
Latin A.merican tour — were reminiscent of Communist-instigated ac- 
tivities of student groups in Japan 10 years ago. Communists are 
hopeful that the seeds in Uruguay and other countries will sprout as 
they did in Japan, leading eventually to demonstrations of the type 
that rocked Japan. 

A Basic Tenet of Communist Strategy 

It has long been a basic tenet of Communist strategy to control for 
its own evil purposes the explosive force which youth represents. In 
the relentless struggle for world domination being waged by them. 
Communists are dedicated to the Leninist principle that "youth will 
decide the issue of the entire struggle — both the student youth and, 
still more, the working-class youth." 

In the Soviet Union, for example, the reins on youth are held with 
a viselike grip. In order to qualify for higher educational oppor- 
tunities and better jobs in the Soviet society, young people must 
be members of the Young Communist League, the Komsomol. From 
their earliest days, young people must learn to accept the course 
dictated for them by the rulers of the only god they are permitted 
to know and worship — the almighty State. 

1 

67564"— 60 2 



2 COMMUNIST TARGET YOUTH 

Communist China is an even greater example of the Communist 
determination to make youth serve its objectives. There today, 
milKons of children are being raised "the collective way." From the 
cradle to the factory, the youth of Communist China is being molded 
to serve the cause of world communism in its quest for world domi- 
nation. 

Projecting this Communist principle of strategy outward from 
behind the Iron and Bamboo Curtains, Communists strive with 
equal intensity to subvert the youth of other countries. The lures 
they use to do so are tempting and varied. There are, for instance, 
the World Youth Festivals, which have been held every other year 
since 1947. The seventh such affair, held last year in Vienna, at- 
tracted thousands of young people from America, Africa, and Asia, 
as well as those from the Soviet-satellite countries. 

The Pattern in Cuba 

In Cuba today, the Communist pattern of exploitation of youth is 
equally evident. Delegates from Communist youth organizations in 
many countries attended the Fourth Congress of the Cuban "Socialist 
Youth" ^ which was held in Havana, April 4-10, 1960. An American 
delegate who attended the affair subsequently reported to the Com- 
munist Party, USA, on what took place there. The report described 
in glowing terms how the Young Communist League in Cuba operated 
in conjunction with the Communist Party there and elaborated on 
its plans to unite with other youth groups in Cuba "to strengthen the 
revolution." Evidence of how youth groups there are being used 
"to strengthen the revolution" becomes only too apparent when 
newspapers in this country carry pictures of girl students in Cuba 
drilling with rifles in hand. 

Communist Success in United States 

In the United States, the Communist Party is jubilant about 
success it has had recently in developing and exploiting youth and 
student groups. A spokesman at one of the party's national execu- 
tive committee meetings earlier this year stated that "there has been 
a breakthrough as far as young people are concerned, particularly in 
colleges where students want to know what socialism is." 

Unfortunately, there is some truth in what the party's spokesman 
has said. There has been a limited "breakthrough" as far as the 
efforts of the Communist Party to infiltrate youth and student groups 
in this country are concerned. It is attributable neither to chance 
nor to a stroke of good luck for the party. Instead, it is the result of 
careful planning and a concentrated efi^ort by the party. 

Campaign Began in 1959 

In 1959, the Communist Party, USA, launched a major campaign 
with youth as its target. On May 30 and 31, 1959, approximately 
20 young Communists from New York City, Baltimore, Chicago, 
Detroit, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia attended a conference with na- 
tional leaders of the party at party headquarters in New York City. 
The purpose of the meeting was to devise a program to attract young 
blood — teenagers, students, and working youth — to the ranks of the 
party. 

After those May 1959 conferences, campuses throughout the Nation 
became prime targets for Communist infiltration and recruitment 



1 The youth section of the Popular Socialist (Communist) Party of Cuba. 



COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 3 

efforts. The party began operating what amounted to a regular lec- 
ture bureau, with party spokesmen seizing every opportunity to pro- 
ject their views on campuses across the country. 

To establish a closer link between the party and its youth groups, 
two of the most promising and active young Communists, Mortimer 
Daniel Rubin and Danny Queen, were included on the party's national 
committee. A longtime party functionary, Hyman Lumer, was re- 
heved of all responsibility in youth affairs, and Rubin was given full 
responsibility for this phase of party activity. A new Marxist youth 
organization. Advance, was organized in New York City. A drive is 
currently underway to establish a new Marxist youth publication, 
"New Horizons." 

Trap for Students 

The plans for the format of "New Horizons" reveal the nature of 
the trap Communists are setting for campus students. Reporting on 
the proposed format to the party's national executive committee 
recently, Rubin pointed out that "New Horizons" will not be labeled 
a Marxist publication. The purpose of this is to avoid too close 
identification with the Communist Party. But it will, he said, give 
a "Marxist analysis of the youth movement and a sociaKst, Marxist- 
Leninist outlook." He expressed the conviction that it would be 
extremely effective in closing the gap between what he termed demo- 
cratic youth and the youth on the left. 

Further illustrating the tremendous drive the party is making to 
infiltrate student groups is the agenda for a youth conference the 
party held in Chicago, June 11-12, 1960. The major points on the 
agenda for the 2 -day conference were (1) "mass developments on the 
campus" and (2) "left-student developments." Discussed in relation 
to these points were ways and means by which young Communists 
could exploit such controversial issues on campuses as civil rights, 
academic freedom, and other so-called peace issues. 

Youth Victimized 

Particularly unfortunate is the fact that many youth and student 
groups in our Nation today are totally unaware of the extent to which 
they can be victimized and exploited by Communists. The sad proof 
of this fact was nowhere more apparent than in mimicipal com-t in 
San Francisco on June 1, 1960, when Judge Albert A. Axelrod dis- 
missed riot charges against 62 of the persons arrested as a result of 
the mob violence which erupted during demonstrations protesting the 
hearings held in that city by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities (HCUA), May 12-14, 1960. 

The judge pointed out that there were ample grounds for conviction 
in the cases involving the 62 defendants, most of whom were college 
students, but he added that the defendants were, for the most part, 
"clean-cut American college students" who could well be haunted for 
the rest of their lives by the stigma which a conviction would attach 
to them. In response to this action on the part of the judge, 58 of 
the defendants signed a statement distributed immediately after he 
had rendered his decision. It read, in part: "Nobody incited us, 
nobody misguided us. We were led by our own convictions and we 
still stand firmly by them." 



4 COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 

The Need to Know 

In the light of that statement, it is vitally important to set the 
record straight on the extent to which Communists were responsible 
for the disgraceful and riotous conditions which prevailed during the 
HCUA hearings. It is vitally important that not only the students 
involved in that incident, but also students throughout the Nation 
whom Communists hope to exploit in similar situations, recognize the 
Communist tactics which resulted in what experienced West Coast 
observers familiar with Communist strategy and tactics have termed 
the most successful Communist coup to occur in the San Francisco 
area in 25 years. 

The Communist attack on the HCUA in San Francisco was in line 
with a longstanding party aim to destroy not only the HCUA, but also 
the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and every other "enemy" 
seeking to expose the threat which Communist activities represent to 
the internal security of this Nation. The party reaffirmed its dedica- 
tion to this aim at its 17th National Convention, held in New York 
City, December 1959, when it passed a so-called political resolution 
calling for activity to abolish the "witch-hunting" HCUA and Senate 
Internal Security Subcommittee. 

Thus, when the decision of the HCUA to hold hearings May 12-14, 
1960, in San Francisco was announced, it was mandatory for Com- 
munists to implement the convention resolution by doing everything 
possible to disrupt the hearings as part of the overall aim to destroy 
the HCUA. 

Party in Advantageous Position 

The proposed setting for the hearings placed the party in a par- 
ticularly advantageous position for launching the attack. An HCUA 
inquiry into Communist activities of educators in northern California 
originally had been scheduled to be held in June 1959. At that time, 
widespread opposition to those proposed hearings developed among 
teachers' groups, church organizations, civil liberties groups, and a 
few newspapers in the San Francisco area. Student groups to protest 
the hearings were organized at most of the colleges and universities in 
the area, including the University of California, Stanford, and City 
College. 

The subsequent cancellation of the proposed 1959 hearings left 
many of these groups and organizations inactive but intact. As a 
result, when the May 1960 hearings were announced, it required little 
effort to reactivate these opposition groups, despite the fact that the 
current hearings were not to be directed at Communist activity in the 
education field. After the proposed 1959 hearings had been canceled, 
the HCUA turned over its files on these individuals to the California 
Attorney General's office and to the school boards of the teachers 
involved for any necessary action. But the Communist Party mem- 
bers in the area skillfully planted the idea that the 1960 hearings were 
still aimed basically at teachers and that the stated objective to 
inquire into Communist Party activities in the area was merely to 
cover a planned attack on teachers. 

Communist Plan of Attack 

With this setting, it is possible to reveal how the Communist Party 
plan of attack unfolded. It will be seen that the plan had two im- 
portant objectives and unfolded in two stages to accomplish them. 



COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 5 

The first objective of the party was to fill the scene of the hearings 
with demonstrators. The second was to incite them to action through 
the use of mob psychology. 

The first stage of the party's plan of action began to unfold after 
word was received on April 26, 1960, by party officials that subpenas 
had been issued for local Communists to appear for the hearings 
scheduled to take place May 12-14, 1960. One of the recipients of 
a subpena was Douglas Wachter, an 18-year-old sophomore at the 
University of California. Wachter, incidentally, had attended the 
17th National Convention of the Communist Party in December 
1959 as an official delegate from northern CaHfornia. 

Party officials decided to build a major part of their plan of attack 
around Wachter. Immediately after receiving a subpena, Wachter 
proceeded to the University of California campus to organize student 
demonstrators. Mickey Lima, chairman of the Northern California 
District of the Communist Party, instructed Roscoe Proctor, a member 
.of the district committee, to also contact certain students at the 
University of California and enlist their support. Lima was assured 
that student support would be forthcoming from Santa Rosa Junior 
College in Santa Rosa, Calif. His contact at San Francisco State 
College, the son of a current member of the Sonoma County Com- 
munist Party, was equally enthusiastic in promising support. 

Organizing for Action 

The party line on the hearings and the general plan of attack were 
outlined and distributed early in May 1960 to all party members in the 
area in a memorandum captioned "Memo on the Un- Americans." 
It was a call to action, and rank-and-file party members in the area 
quickly responded. 

Members of the San Jose Club of the Santa Clara County Com- 
munist Party circulated petitions and arranged for the publishing 
of a protest advertisement in the local San Jose newspapers. 

Oakland Communist Party members arranged for radio broadcasts 
and publication of protest advertisements in their area newspapers. 

Fund drives were initiated in the various clubs to provide financial 
support for the attack. 

On the evening of May 6, 1960, party leaders held a meeting to 
assess their progress and plan further activity. Mickey Lima stated 
that the activity on the campus of the University of California and the 
other campuses had begun to pay dividends — students were beginning 
to call for demonstrations and picket lines to greet the HCUA. 

Lima then issued orders that each club representative in the area 
assume the responsibility of contacting every club member to insure 
that massive demonstrations would take place at the hearings. He 
also discussed the plans that had been formulated by the Communist 
Party youth group in the East Bay area and stated that he wanted 
them coordinated with the plans of the San Francisco groups. 

A telephone campaign was conducted by party members to solidify 
opposition to the HCUA and was designed specifically to reach 1,000 
people. Merle Brodsky, an active leader in Communist Party affairs 
in California for more than 20 years, boasted that he was calling 
everyone he had ever known enlisting support for the demonstrations. 



6 COMMUNIST TARGET YOUTH 

Parallel Organizations 

Not to be overlooked in the organized attack that was carried out 
against the HCUA are organized activities that paralleled those of 
the party. Much of the literature that was distributed during the 
campaign, for example, emanated in the name of the Citizens Com- 
mittee To Preserve American Freedoms (CCPAF) and the East Bay- 
Community Forum (EBCF). According to a party official, both of 
these organizations are under control of the Communist Party. 

The San Francisco branch of the CCPAF was organized, in fact, on 
April 4, 1960, for the specific purpose of opposing the HCUA hear- 
ings. This group held an emergency-action meeting the first week 
in May 1960, at which time it solicited funds, urged the preparation 
of letters to newspaper editors, and advocated abolition of the HCUA. 

The Communist Party furnished funds to the CCPAF to defray 
the expense of mailing literature during the campaign, and, when the 
whole affair had ended, Mickey Lima praised the executive secretary 
of the CCPAF, Frank Wilkinson, for the role he had played in organ- 
izing the demonstrations. It is to be noted that Wilkinson, described 
as the "brains and energy" behind the CCPAF, was cited for con- 
tempt of Congress on August 13, 1958, for his refusal to answer 
questions before the HCUA on July 30, 1958, concerning Communist 
Party membership. On January 22, 1959, he was found guilty of 
contempt and sentenced on February 2, 1959, to 12 months' imprison- 
ment. He has appealed the conviction, and the appeal is presently 
pending before the Supreme Court of the United States. 

As the scheduled time for the hearings neared, Communists stepped 
up their efforts to assure a big turnout. Communist leaders in Berkeley 
arranged transportation from Berkeley to San Francisco for youths 
interested in attending each of the 3-day hearings. Meetings were 
held; leaflets appeared on campuses; and telephone calls were made 
with increasing urgency. 

By May 11, 1960, party leaders knew they had succeeded in the 
first stage of their planned campaign. The response to their organized 
efforts indicated that the first objective of their plan of attack would 
be achieved — the demonstrators would be out in full force. 

The Second-Stage Planning 

Meanwhile, the party had not ignored the second stage of its 
campaign. Plans had been formed on various ways the party could 
inflame the emotions of the demonstrators. Several days before the 
hearings were to begin, Saul Wachter, one of the party members 
subpenaed, told party members that the HCUA would encounter 
"plenty of opposition" and that demonstrations would be staged 
against the committee. Other reports were received that Merle 
Brodsky and Archie Brown planned physical outbursts during the 
hearings so that they would be forcibly ejected and thus enabled to 
play on the sympathies of the students. 

Officials of the party met with and briefed various witnesses on the 
tactics to use in their appearances before the committee. On May 6, 
1960, for example, Mickey Lima told party members he had met with 
Leibel Bergman, Andy Negro, and Vern Bown to insure that they 
would be hostile witnesses. Archie Brown, a veteran longshoreman 
and former member of the party's national committee, also disclosed 
to party members another tactic the party planned to use in the 



COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 7 

same vein. He said that the party had approved a document which 
Juanita Wheeler, another party member who had received a subpena, 
had been instructed to read into the record when called upon by the 
committee to testify. The party planned to use this statement, which 
contained an attack on the HCUA, for propaganda purposes at a 
later date. 

Additional leaflets were prepared to be ready for distribution during 
the 3-day hearings. Placards and posters were also prepared for the 
demonstrators to carry. Nothing was overlooked, even to plans to 
cap the affair with a grand climax. Arrangements were made to have 
the demonstrators join a party-sponsored "Peace March" on Saturday, 
May 14, 1960, at the conclusion of the hearings. 

Agitators in Action 

When the day arrived for the hearings to begin, the party was set 
to go into action to accomplish its second objective of inciting the 
mob. A few key party members were to play major roles as agitators. 
The other party members who were to attend had been instructed to 
rem.ain in the background as much as possible to avoid becoming 
involved in any violence which might erupt. 

As soon as the hearings began, party members began playing their 
predetermined roles. The belligerent and insulting behavior of some 
of the 36 uncooperative witnesses was so aggravating it became 
necessary to order their forcible removal from the hearing room to 
preserve order and decorum. Archie Brown and Merle Brodsky, 
acting according to plan, were sullen and contemptuous. Both 
directed vicious and personally insulting remarks at the members of 
the committee. 

An organized clique of sympathizers in the hearing room aided them 
in their roles. Approximately 25 percent of the spectators in the 
room were individuals under subpena and their relatives, friends, 
attorneys, and sympathizers. This group applauded and cheered the 
antics of Brown and Brodsky and booed, hissed, and ridiculed the 
committee at every opportunity. Archie Brown's disruptive tactics 
became so intense that it was necessary to forcibly remove him from 
the scene. This was exactly what Brown had been striving to achieve 
in line with his plan to evoke sympathy from the crowd. 

After the luncheon recess. Brown and Brodsky went into action 
again. Shortly before the afternoon session was to begin, they 
grabbed a microphone at the front of the hearing room and demanded 
that all spectators outside be admitted. Their sympathizers shouted 
similar demands. After refusing to obey orders to be seated. Brown, 
Brodsky, and several others were forcibly removed, each resisting 
violently. Brown attempted to strike two officers, and Douglas 
Wachter threw a briefcase at an officer attempting to remove his 
father, Saul Wachter. 

Brown's plan to incite the crowd was beginning to materialize. 
Upon his ejection from the hearing room, sympathetic cheers went up 
from the crowd, consisting mostly of students, gathered inside City 
Hall at the head of the staircase leading to the room. Both Brown 
and Brodsky appealed to the crowd, Brodsky encouraging and leading 
it in chanting "Open the doors; open the doors!" 

Despite these disruptive tactics, police were able to maintain a 
semblance of order that first day. It was a different story on the 



'8 COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 

following day. As a result of mushrooming interest generated by the 
activities of the first day, the crowd on the second day was much 
larger. A particularly noticeable aspect of the increase was the 
presence of additional party members and former party members. 

Archie Brown quickly resumed his tactics of the day before once the 
sessions started. The crowd outside the hearing room chanted and 
sang songs. The songs and chants were obviously part of a well- 
organized plan as illustrated by the song sheets being used. Pleas 
for order and quiet brought only jeers. 

The Inevitable Happens 

With the tension growing, the inevitable happened. Violence 
flared that afternoon. One of the judges in a municipal courtroom 
in City Hall ordered the mob dispersed because the noise made it im- 
possible for him to hold court. When an attempt was made to carry 
out the order, the crowd responded by throwing shoes and jostling 
the officers. An officer warned that fire hoses would have to be used 
if the crowd did not disperse, but the crowd, instigated by Communists 
who had maneuvered themselves into strategic positions, became 
more unruly. 

One of the demonstrators provided the spark that touched ofi^ the 
flame of violence. Leaping a barricade that had been erected, he 
grabbed an officer's night stick and began beating the officer over the 
head. The mob surged forward as if to storm the doors, and a Police 
Inspector ordered the fire hose turned on. The water forced the 
crowd to the head of the balustrade, and the cold water had a sobering 
eft'ect on the emotions of the demonstrators. 

For a few minutes, relative quiet ensued. Taking advantage of the 
lull, police officers began to lead some of the demonstrators away, 
advising them that they must obey the order to disperse. Suddenly, 
realizing what was happening, militant individuals in the group set 
the pattern for renewed violence by kicking and striking the officers. 
In all, 68 individuals, most of whom were students, were arrested for 
inciting a riot and resisting arrest. 

Order had been restored when Harry Bridges, president of the Inter- 
national Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, suddenly 
appeared on the scene. Demanding to know what part firemen had 
played in the use of the fire hoses. Bridges commented that he would 
see if the firemen's pay could be cut. The day's activities closed with 
Archie Brown joining Bridges and shouting, "You tell them, Harry; 
they'U listen to you!" 

More mob violence was narrowly averted on the thu'd day of the 
hearings. An attorney from Oakland, Bertram Edises, who was one 
of a number of attorneys the party had obtained to represent those 
subpenaed and who was to testify himself in response to a subpena 
he had received, became arrogant and insulting in his appearance 
before the committee. His attacks on and arguments with the com- 
mittee led to an order for his removal. The crowd, both in the hearing 
room and outside, had been relatively quiet and peaceful until then. 

Suddenly aroused, the crowd surged threateningly toward the 
entrance to City Hall. Committee members were escorted by police 
officers out a rear exit as a cordon of uniformed officers, including 
motorcycle patrolmen and mounted officers, held back the angry 
demonstrators. The crowd, which by then consisted of about 2,000, 



COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 9 

continued to mill around the area for an hour, despite the fact that 
an announcement was made by loudspeaker that the HCUA staff had 
departed. 

The Communist Party* s Reaction 

The Communist Party, USA, is elated with the success it enjoyed 
in attempting to make a fiasco of the HCUA San Francisco hearings, 
which, notwithstanding these attempts at disruption, did develop 
valuable and needed information concerning the strategy, tactics, 
and activities of the party in northern California, The party's 
elation is so great, in fact, that it bears witness to the truth of the 
observation that such a Communist coup has not occurred in the San 
Francisco area in 25 years. Immediately after the affair ended, the 
party's national leader, Gus Hall, congratulated the West Coast com- 
rades for the initiative and leadership they displayed at all stages of 
the demonstrations. 

Particularly pleasing to party officials was the number of students 
involved in the demonstrations. Thej^ commented that there had not 
been that much "political activity" among student groups for years. 
Ai-chie Brown, especially, was commended for the tremendous job 
he had done among the students, working with them in the corridors 
of City Hall and winning their sympathy. 

Mickey Lima expressed his pleasure at the number of former party 
members the affair had brought back into the fold. He said that 
individual supporters the party had not seen or heard of in years 
seemed to "emerge from the woodwork" in response to the party's 
campaign. 

Various party functionaries on the West Coast reported that the 
successful demonstrations had a noticeable effect on lukewarm party 
members. One party official commented that it was a "shot in the 
arm" for the party, as shown by the fact that attendance at club 
meetings had risen sharply. 

The management of the party's West Coast publication, "People's 
World," was jubilant about the beneficial effect the demonstrations 
had had upon a fund drive being conducted for the newspaper. The 
paper reportedly received letters from individuals throughout this 
country, as weU as from others abroad, supporting the drive. 

In short, the consensus in the Communist Party was that the riot 
was the best thing for the party that had occurred in years. Party 
leaders expressed the opinion that it was especially significant that the 
party had been able to enlist the support of so many people in all 
walks of fife when the party, itself, was pubficly under attack by the 
HCUA. The feefing was that not only had the party taken a major 
step toward its goal of abofishing the HCUA, but also it had taken a 
major step toward playing a greater role on the American scene. 

The Followup Campaign 

The party did not rest on its laurels after the success it enjoyed in 
the attack on the HCUA. It is campaigning harder than ever to 
attract youth and student groups to its ranks and is using the success- 
ful demonstrations to implement the campaign. 

At a party meeting on the night of May 20, 1960, Archie Brown 
disclosed how the party intended to use a followup campaign with 
campus students as the target. He stated that the party planned to 
emphasize "police brutality" as a rallying cry to attract the sympathy 
of student groups. He pointed out that he was particularly pleased 
with the fact that he had been invited to speak at Stanford University, 



10 COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 

adding that he had ah'eady spoken to students at the University of 
California in Berkeley. Brown said that the "People's World" had 
prepared a special supplement about the demonstrations for distribu- 
tion to all the colleges and universities in the area, as well as for 
distribution to all waterfront workers. 

The campaign is being carried out exactly as Brown outlined it. 
Not only Brown, but other Communists too, have been addressing 
student and youth groups in the area. 

The party prepared 20,000 leaflets for distribution on campuses in 
the area. Captioned "From Blackmail to Blackjack," the leaflets 
stress the theme that, at the HCUA hearings, "students were peace- 
fully defending the most cherished American freedoms," when "fire 
hoses, clubs and blackjacks" were used against them "without warn- 
ing and without provocation" to "browbeat and smash the public 
opposition" to the HCUA. These leaflets were distributed by the 
party organization without cost for the sole purpose of exploiting the 
oncampus sympathies of students in the area. 

A very significant feature of the leaflet is the lure it dangles for the 
innocent. It contains a box to be filled in by those who would like 
to receive a complimentary copy of "People's World." 

Conclusion 

While it must be granted that the San Francisco riot at the HCUA 
hearings was the best thing that had happened for the benefit of the 
Communist Party in years, Americans, too, can benefit from this dis- 
play of Communist strategy and tactics in operation. In fact, it is 
impossible to stand idly by in the face of the challenge that this 
Communist success represents. 

The Communists demonstrated in San Francisco just how powerful a 
weapon Communist infiltration is. They revealed how it is possible 
for only a few Communist agitators, using mob psychology, to turn 
peaceful demonstrations into riots. Their success there must serve as 
a warning that their infiltration efforts aimed not only at the youth 
and student groups, but also at our labor unions, churches, profes- 
sional groups, artists, newspapers, government, and the like, can 
create chaos and shatter our internal security. 

The Communists also demonstrated that the menace of communism 
is not a simple forthright threat. Instead, it is conspiracy which can 
be controlled only through full understanding of the true nature of the 
conspiracy and the ability to separate truth from propaganda. Seen 
in the true reporting of the facts, the San Francisco incident exposes 
the conspiratorial nature of the party. Every such exposure of the 
tactics of communism can be used to destroy its ideological appeal and 
used to strengthen this Nation against the psychological pressures 
Communists constantly apply against every aspect of our society to 
weaken us. 

Throughout the world today, governments are toppling with stun- 
ning rapidity. Whether large or small, the role Communists are 
playing in these events must not be discounted. The growing strength 
of our Nation over the years has not proven a deterrent to relentless 
efforts on the part of the Communist Party, USA, to destroy our 
security and prepare our Nation for a similar fate. 

Looking at the riots and chaos Communists have created in other 
countries, many Americans point to the strength of our Nation and 



COMMUNIST TARGET YOUTH H 

say "It can't happen here." The Communist success m San Fran- 
cisco in May 1960 proves that it can happen here. 

All our hopes for the future of our country, as well as for a world at 
peace, are bound up with our hopes for the future of our Nation's 
you.h. They will not fail us if we do not fail them. Only our apathy 
and laxity in the face of the threat which Communist infiltration 
efforts represent can cause such a failure. It is the duty of all Ameri- 
cans to fully understand the true import of this threat to our heritage, 
to expose it, and to combat it with every weapon at our command. 

The overwhelming majority of our Nation's youth has demon- 
strated that it deserves our confidence and support. It has shown 
an increasing awareness of and interest in both national and inter- 
national affairs, including a penetrating and analytical approach to 
the false appeals of communism. With our wholehearted support 
and guidance, the youth of this Nation will meet the challenge which 
communism hurls at us — both today and in the years to come — 
defending, preserving, and expanding throughout the world the herit- 
age of freemen which we enjoy today. 



12 



COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 



Hearing Room Scene 




Brodsky and Brown attacking committee. 



COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 



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COMMUNIST TARGET YOUTH 




Brown in picket line. 



COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 



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COMMUNIST TARGET — YOUTH 




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INDEX 



Individuals Page 

Axelrod, Albert A 3 

Bergman, Leibel 6 

Bown, Vernon 6 

Bridges, Harrv 8 

Brodsky, Merle 5-7, 12, 14 

Brown, Archie 6-10, 12, 13, 15-18 

Edises, Bertram 8 

Hall, Gus 9 

Hoover, J. Edgar vii, 1 

Lenin (V. I.) vii 

Lima, Mickey 5, 6, 9 

Lumer, Hyman 3 

Negro, Andy 6 

Proctor, Roscoe 5 

Queen, Danny 3 

Rubin, Mortimer Daniel 3 

Wachter, Douglas 5, 7 

Wachter, Saul 6, 7 

Wheeler, Juanita 7 

Wilkinson, Frank 6 

Organizations 

Advance 3 

Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms (CCPAF) 6 

San Francisco 6 

City College of San Francisco 4 

Communist Party, USA 9 

National Structure: 

National Committee 3, 6 

17th National Convention, December 1959, New York City 4, 5 

Youth Conferences: 

May 30-31, 1959, New York City 2 

June 11-12, 1960, Chicago 3 

Districts : 

Northern California District 5 

District Committee 5 

States : 

California: 

Oakland 5 

Santa Clara Countv, San Jose Club 5 

East Bay Community Forum (EBCF) 6 

Komsomol. (See Young Communist League, Soviet Union.) 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 8 

Popular Sociahst (Communist) Party, Cuba 2 

San Francisco State College 5 

Santa Rosa Junior College 5 

Socialist Youth (Juventud Socialista), Fourth Congress of, April 4-10, 1960, 

Havana, Cuba 2 

Stanford University 4, 9 

University of California 4, 5, 10 

World Youth Festival, Seventh (July 26-August 4, 1959, Vienna) 2 

Young Communist League: 

Cuba 2 

Soviet Union (Komsomol) 1 

Publications 

New Horizons 3 

People's World 9, 10 



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