(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Communist threat to the United States through the Caribbean. Hearings before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-sixth Congress, first session .."

rG" 



cM 



*9335.4A334 



pts . I- 




_T 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED jTATES 

THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN '^'^^^rf 



^ 



^-^ 




HEARINGS 

BEFOBB THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 
ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 
ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS ■- 



OF THE 



COMMITTE|] ON THE JUDICIAEY 
"uilTED STATES SEMTE 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



PART 1 

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. PEDRO L. DIAZ LANZ 



JULY 14, 1959 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PBINTINO OFFICB 
66494 — o WASHINGTON : 1959 ^ ^ 



7 




f>rs. I - 1 a 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 



ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 
THOMAS C. HENNINQS, Jr., Missouri 
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas 
JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming 
SAM J. ERVIN, Je., North Carolina 
JOHN A. CARROLL, Colorado 
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut 
PHILIP A. HART, Michigan 



ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 
WILLIAM LANQER, North Dakota 
EVERETT Mckinley DIRKSEN, Illinois 
ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 
KENNETH B. KEATING, New York 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Securitt 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut, Vice Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA. Nebraska 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, llllnoto 

SAM J. ERVIN, Je., North Carolina KENNETH B. KEATING, New York 

J. G. SOTJEWiNE, Chief Counsel 
Benjamin Manozl, Director of Research 

II 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES 
THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



JULY 14, 1959 

U.S. Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D.C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10:40 a.m., in room 
2228, New Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Present: Senators Eastland, Dodd, Johnston, Hruska, and Keating. 

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
director of research; and Frank W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 
Senora Pedro Luis Diaz y Lanz and Sergio Diaz Brull. 

Chairman Eastland. Counsel, call your witness. 

Mr. Sourwine. Bring in the witness, Mr. Schroeder. 

Chairman Eastland. Gentlemen, you can't have pictures made 
while the witness is testifying. The witness has no objection to 
television cameras being on him, but photographs interfere with the 
questions and with the testimony, so if you have any additional pic- 
tures to take, take them now. Stand up, please, sir. Hold your 
hand up. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir, I do. 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. Sourwine. Would you give your full name, please? 

TESTIMONY OF PEDRO LUIS DIAZ LANZ 

Major Diaz. Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz is my full name. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are the former commander in chief of the 
air force of the Cuban Government under Fidel Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are 32 years old? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You were born in Havana? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have credentials to show that you were head 
of Castro's air force? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

1 



Z COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You have furnished those credentials to the 
committee? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, those were furnished in executive 
session and I ask that they be ordered into this record at this point. 

Chairman Eastlani>. That will be done. 

(The document referred to is reproduced below:) 



i>_ A DE CUBA 

TfFjBTORio Libre 

: .N.;tA GtNEPAL 




- - -POR CUANTO:-POR EL PRESIDENTE PROVISIONAL DEL GOBItRNO 

REVOLUCIONARIO DE LA REPUBLICA DC CUBA, SE ME HAN DELEGADO - 

LAS FACULTADES PERTINENTES PARA QUE COMO COUANDANTE EN JEFE- 

DC LAS FUERZAS DE TIERRAf MAR Y AIRE, PROCEDA A LA DSBIOA - 

RE0RGANI7ACI0N DE LA$ MISMAS.- 

. . .pOR«TANTO:- EN USD DE LAS FACULTADES QUE ME HAN SIDO — 

DELEGADAS 

R C S U E L V Os- 
APR08AR Y PONER EN VIGOR, LA SIQUIENTE& 
OROEN MILITAR NO. 3 
- - -PRIMERO:- 0ESI6NAR AL COMANOANTE DE LAS FUERZAS AEREAS 
REBELDCS, PEDRO LUIS UAZ LANI, COIN) JEFE DE US FUERZAS -»■ 
AEBEAS DEL EJERCITO DE LA NACION,* 

-- -SEGUNDO^-QUE SE LC COMUNIQUE LA PRESENTE AL DESEGNADa, 
ASI COMO A TODOS LOS MANGOS MIL I TARES PARA SU CONOCIUIENTO Y 
EFECTO.- 

OADO ER TEHRITORIO LIBRE DE CUaA DE LA COMANDANCtA GENERAL- - 
A LOS CUATRO DIAS DEL MEV DE ENERO DE MIL NOVECIENTOS CINCUEN 
TA y NUEVEw- 

LIBERTADO MUERTE 

COMAND,.NTE EN JEFE 




Mr 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

SouRWiNE. You graduated from high school in 1944? 



Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you go to college? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. You are married? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Your wife is here with you? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. You were a commercial airhne pilot for 5 years 
before the Castro revolution? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. For what airhne did you fly? 

Major Diaz. Aerovias "Q." 

Air. SouRwiNE. Were you the chief pilot for that airline? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. I was copilot. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Copilot? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. Sour WINE. You flew from Havana to various points in the 
United States? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. To what points in the United States did you fly? 

Major Diaz. United States, West Palm Beach, Tampa, non- 
scheduled to Miami, and some other places out of the United States 
like Mexico. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are licensed to fly all types of airplanes 
including helicopters? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And jets? 

Major Diaz. Jets. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You escaped from Cuba quite recently? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. When did you leave Cuba? 

Major Diaz. On the 29th of June. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How did you leave Cuba? 

Major Diaz. In a boat, sir; sailboat. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Who was with you? 

Major Diaz. Was my brother, Sergio Diaz Brull, Mr. Echegoyen, 
and my wife. 

Mr. vSouRwiNE. There were four of you in the boat then — yourself, 
your wife, Sergio Diaz Brull, and Carlos Echegoyen? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Soi'RwiNE. This was a sailboat? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Your brother Sergio had chartered it in Miami 
and sailed it to Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNi.. Then he picked you up and sailed it from Cuba to 
the United States? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Besides the brother who came with you in the boat, 
do you have another brother? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. We know you were reluctant to disclose your 
whereabouts while this other brother was still in Cuba for fear that 



4 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Castro would take revenge on him. Is your brother now safely out 
of Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sii-. " 

Mr. SouRWiXE. You came to the United States voluntarily? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Your decision to come here was your own? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You were not induced to come here? 

Chairman Eastland. You mean that he testifies, counsel, that he 
came to the United States voluntarily. 

Major Diaz. That's right. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. When you came to this country you went directly 
to the immigration officials? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You applied for admission? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And that was granted? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you are not now in custody? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. No, I am not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are not? 

Major Diaz. No, I am not. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Major Diaz, were you against Batista before you 
joined Fidel Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Isn't it true that your father was anti-Batista? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. We will suspend for just a minute. 

(Short recess.) 

Chairman Eastland. The subcommittee has information from a 
source which we consider very reliable that an attempt will be made 
to injure the witness. I am recessing the hearing for 30 minutes and 
I want the room cleared. We will reconvene in 30 minutes in public 
session. Now, I want everybody out of this room. 

(Whereupon, at 11:10 a.m. the subcommittee recessed subject to 
the call of the Chair.) 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 12:05 p.m.) 

Chairman Eastland. Let's have order, please. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Major, were you against Batista before you joined 
Fidel Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Isn't it true that your father was anti-Batista? 

Major Diaz. Yes, he was. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did your father have trouble with the Batista 
government? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Will you tell us about that, please? 

Major Diaz. Well, my father was 

Chairman Eastland. Talk a little louder, please. 

Major Diaz. My father was an old ofiicer of the national army. 
In 1930, during the period of dictator Machado, my father had a 
court-martial. Batista was the sergeant of that court-martial. 
After that, in 1934 — I mean 1933 — when Batista took power, the 4th 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 5 

of September, my father was in Cuba back and he asked to him to come 
to the army again. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is Batista asked him? 

Major Diaz. Yes. And my father told him he wouldn't receive 
orders from a sergeant, and from that moment you can imagine my 
father never had it, you know, too much opportunity in Cuba. And 
even in 1935 he had troubles and really he wouldn't join in any con- 
spiracy or things like that. So during the Batista regime last time 
my father was in jail about two or three times. 

He received very bad treatment in that time. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Your father was anti-Communist before you, was 
he not? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; all his life. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you have been anti-Communist all of your 
adult life? 

Major Diaz, Yes, sir; completely. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Why did you join Castro? 

Major Diaz. I joined Castro because I did believe he was able to 
bring back democracy and freedom to my country. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Why did you leave Castro? 

Major Diaz. Because he brought Communists to my country. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait a minute now. You gave up your job 
as an airline pilot to join Castro, did you not? 

Major Diaz. Well, it was before I joined with him. It was 1953, 
November 1953 I was against the Government and so for that reason 
I did lose my job. 

Chairman Eastland. When did you join Castro? 

Major Diaz. I was in Santiago, Cuba, in 1956, late 1956, just at 
the time he landed, before he landed, just, you know, a small 

Chairman Eastland. Where were you with him? 

Major Diaz. I wasn't with him. I did work in the underground in 
Santiago, Cuba, and I met him first time when I flew first time to the 
Sierra Maestra. I didn't know him at that time. 

Chairman Eastland. Did j^ou operate a plane bringing arms and 
ammunition to him? 

Major Diaz. To the Sierra Maestra, j'es, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. To Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You brought that equipment from Costa 
Rica? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Mexico would not permit you to bring arms 
from there. 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. And you brought them from what place in 
the United States? 

Major Diaz. From Florida. 

Chairman Eastland. Where, what town in Florida? 

Major Diaz. Lauderdale. 

Chairman Eastland. Fort Lauderdale? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Was it an abandoned airport there? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Proceed, sir. 



6 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You say you left Castro because he brought com- 
munism to Cuba. When did you first begin to have doubts about 
the Castro regime? When did you first begin to realize that Castro 
was not bringing Cuba freedom and democracy as you had thought 
he would? 

Major Diaz. In the first days of January I heard from him things 
like "If we don't attack Communists they call us Communists. Well, 
we are Communists." 

Later on 

Senator Keating. Wait a minute; that was a statement made by 
Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes; by radio and television. 

Senator Keating. You heard him yourself? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir, everybody. And also through facts like 
the way he has been acting; anyone who has seen what he has done 
and is still doing it, have no doubt about that. 

Senator Johnston. So you reached your conclusions from his 
actions? 

Major Diaz. I beg your pardon. 

Senator Johnston. You reached your conclusions that he is a 
Communist from the actions of Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; through facts. I had the complete conclusion 
that he is a Communist. 

Chairman Eastland. Did you hear Castro, Fidel Castro, make a 
statement about his methods? 

Major Diaz. Excuse me, sir? • 

Chairman Eastland. Privately did you hear Fidel Castro make a 
statement? 

Major Diaz. Oh, yes. Privately I heard from him a lot of things 
that gave me the strong idea and to be completely sure myself that 
he was. Like, for example, once he said: 

I know perfectly well the pure ideals of the "Che" Guevara and Raul Castro. 
I know completely their feelings. But the way they act they cannot reach the 

Joint and I can do it, the point that revolution have to reach in the way I do, 
will do. 

And things like: 

I going to introduce in Cuba a system like the Russians had; even better than 
the Russian system. 

Later on he say: 

I going to take now the land from the people who was with the former govern- 
ment. Later on I going to take the land of everybody. 

And during a conversation talking about- 



Senator Johnston. For the record, I think the one that he is talk- 
ing with, we should know who he is. 

Chairman Eastland. The man sitting by the witness is his half- 
brother, who is acting as an interpreter. He speaks English better 
than the witness. Proceed. 

Major Diaz. Interest you know from banks and things like that. 
And he said "well, some day the banks will disappear." And there 
is many more details. If you want it I can continue giving it to you, 
but it is a real great amount of details. 

Senator Keating. These statements were made in your presence. 
You heard them yourself? 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 7 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. That is the reason that I am here, and I 
did denounce communism in Cuba, and I did not want to be chief 
pilot of Castro's air force. I want to be a Cuban Air Force chief, not 
Castro air force chief. 

Also he is acting like a dictator in the worst dictatorship of the world, 
which is communism. And he does ever3'^thing and he want every- 
body to accomplish his orders and nothing but his orders. 

\ir. SouRWiNE. Major Diaz, did 3^ou come to the United States 
with Fidel Castro last spring? 

Did you fly the plane in which Castro came to the United States? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. I flew the airplane who brought the press. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You brought the newspapermen? 

Major Diaz. The newspapermen, yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you have information respecting Communist 
infiltration in the Castro government? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is the Castro government infiltrated by Com- 
munists? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; siu"e. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What persons in the Castro government are Com- 
munists? 

Major Diaz. Well, of course, including Fidel Castro, is Antonio 
Nunez Jimenez, which is very well known in Cuba in front of the 
agrarian reform. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What is his position in the Castro government? 

Major Diaz. He is in charge of the agrarian reform. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who else? 

Major Diaz. Minister of Defense, Augusto Martinez. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go on. 

Major Diaz. Excuse me, I got quite a few names, I have been 
squeezing my mind with so many details. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are these notes which you made yourself? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. I did it myself. I dictate to my wife and 
this is her letters, her writing. 

Senator Keating. You are a dictator too, then. 

Major Diaz. Well, she can give proof of that. 

Armando Hart, Minister of Education; his wife, Vilma Espin, who 
has not only a certain position but she is everj^where giving her ad- 
vice to everybody. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is she related to Fidel Castro or Raul? 

Major Diaz. She is the wife, Raul Castro's wife. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead. 

Major Diaz. In the army you have got Raul Castro, Ernesto "Che" 
Guevara, Commander Pinero, who was in charge of Oriente Province, 
very well known there because he has done something that there is 
no doubt about his idea,- Ramiro Valdez, commander in chief of the 
political police. I know something that the people in Cuba doesn't 
know about the existence of political police. Captain Peiia, who is 
a very close assistant of Raul. Frank Torre in Santa Clara, Dr. Juan 
Escalona, one of the men who was with Commander Pinero in Cuba, 
a very well known Communist in Santiago, Cuba. 

Lieutenant Pina; I am going to talk about him later on. 

Comdr. Wilham Galvez; Comdr. Delio Gomez Ochoa; Commander 
Lanuza, which is now in charge of the San Antonio base. It is an 

66494 O - pt. 1 - 2 



8 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAK 

airfield, Sun Antonio base, former U.S. base during the war, the second 
war. And Commander Serguera, (Cerguera) .who is a lawyer, a 
general lawyer that is in charge of the legal, you know, the army. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Like the judge advocate general of the army. 

Major Diaz. Yes, sii*. They have what they call the director of 
culture, and there is the indoctrination program included in that thing. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Any other names? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead. 

Major Diaz. It is in the hands of Osmani Cienfuegos, a very well 
known Communist. The brother-in-law of Vilma Espin; Alfredo 
Guevara; and Gen. Alberto Bayo. There is some others, but really 
I cannot remember all the names. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I will state for the record something 
that the members of the committee know. This witness has given 
the committee a great deal of additional information about Com- 
munists in Cuba, but for security reasons we don't want to ask further 
about that now. 

I do want to ask the witness this question: Is it true that you have 
told this committee everything you know about the Communists in 
Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Major Diaz, is it true that the word "God" was 
stricken out of the new Cuban constitution? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know why that was done? 

Major Diaz. Well, I understand only one thing from an action 
like that. Communism does not agree with the church or religion, 
so it is a fact that the word "God" has been taken out of the consti- 
tution. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Has Fidel Castro commented on that? 

Major Diaz. Well, yes, su\ During a television program a news- 
paperman asked to him about that and he said "Well, let us talk about 
something important like agrarian reform." 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Major Diaz, is there any dissatisfaction among the 
officers and men who fought with Castro for freedom about the course 
he is following now? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. There is a great dissatisfaction of, you 
know, the way the thing is taken. And there is a comment in between 
the people. Fidel say that that revolution was a green olive, not red, 
and even in the army they are starting to say it is like a watermelon, 
green outside but red inside. 

Chairman Eastland. Let's have order, please. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Major Diaz, how do you feel toward the TrujiUo 
government of the Dominican Republic? 

Major Diaz. Well, sir, I feel like a democratic people all the way. 
I couldn't say that I am. agreed mth any dictatorship. I am not 
agreed with any dictatorship. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You are against TrujUlo? 

Major Diaz. Well, my ideas isn't in accordance, so I am against. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you believe that the majority of the Cuban 
people feel the same way? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir, I believe so. 



COMMXTNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 9 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you believe there is any danger that Castro 
and the Communists in his government are using the plea of a fight 
against dictators to cover up a Conmiunist operation against other 
Latin American countries? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. I believe that in using that argument, 
3'-ou know, they can confuse the people and make them, receive help 
from everybody, and later on, you know, have what we have in Cuba. 
You know, we were fighting against a dictator or for democracy and 
freedom, and most of the people did help, and finally what they have, 
what we have is another dictatorship and communism. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Major Diaz, do you know of any Communists in 
the labor movement in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Name them. 

Major Diaz. David Salvador. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is he the top Communist of the labor movement in 
Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are there other Communists in the labor move- 
ment in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; I know there are more but I don't know their 
names. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You know it has been reported that Castro has 
eliminated the Communist leaders from the labor movement in Cuba. 
Is this true? 

Major Diaz. No, sir; I don't believe; not exactly I don't beheve. 
I am sure it isn't true. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What is the truth? 

Major Diaz. The truth is — I have to go back for explain you 
exactly what did happen, you know, during the elections of the labor 
unions. In 1940 Batista made an agreement with the Communist 
Party in Cuba. After those elections that he won he gave the control 
to the Communists of the unions. In 1944, when Grau came to be 
president, you know, the laborers during those 4 years had a real hard 
time with them. They knew aU the procedures and even for obtaining 
a job they have to file one of those forms of the Communist Party for 
obtaining job. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are you saying this is true now? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; I believe so. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 'That in Cuba in order to obtain a job a man has to 
file an application for membership in the Communist Party? 

Major Diaz. Yes, it did happen because I had some family, I 
have during the period of 1940-44. I am talking about during the 
period of President Batista. And I have family who for work had to 
do it, and he told me, so I am completely sure of that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. AU right, go ahead. 

Major Diaz. So, you know, the laborers had the opportunity' to 
know the procedures, and to know them also. In 1944 it is well 
known that then he, the Prime Minister, he really did help in trying 
to get them out of the control of the unions and they finally did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Get the Communists out? 

Major Diaz. Get the Communists, yes. And they finally did. 
Now when the elections came over, Raul and "Che" Guevara made a 
very heavy operation to use and obtain the leadership of those unions. 



10 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

I know this because Pellon, one of the leaders which is anti-Communist, 
came over my house, just a few days before, I beheve, and told me. 
He had a real bad time in trying to, you know, control the situation 
because they were under very heavy pressure from Raul and "Che" 
Guevara in trying to control the labor unions. But the laborers did 
react very well because they knew perfectly well the Communists, 
and they knew their procedures and they did not want it in their 
unions. So the Communists for that reason did lose most of the 
decisions because of the laborers. They did not want them. And 
there is the real fact. Then Fidel say that the 26th of July he won the 
elections and, you know, he was to be hanged the 26th of July, which 
is not true because he knew everything concerning the maneuvers of 
"Che" Guevara and Raul. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Carlos Franqui? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who is he? 

Major Diaz. He is a Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What does he do? 

Major Diaz. He is a director of the Castro newspaper, Revolucion. 
That is the name of the newspaper. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know how "Che" Guevara regards Fidel 
and Raul Castro? 

Major Diaz. Well, they live very close to each other all the time, 
and once I was in front of them and "Che" Guevara say "My com- 
rades, Fidel and Raul." 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is that a term* used in the army generally, in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. That is a Communist term, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Major Diaz, while you were head of the air force 

Senator Keating. If I may pursue that just a minute, is it used 
there? Have you heard that phrase used by others? 

Major Diaz. Well, I don't have proof of that. I heard from, you 
know, "Che" Guevara talking with Fidel and Raul. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have heard them use the phrase "Comrade"? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. And you have heard that yourself? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir, myself. 

Mt-. Sourwine. While you were head of the air force did you obtain 
information about the establishment of indoctrination schools in the 
army and in the air force? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did Commimists have key positions in these 
schools? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. I gave you some names. 

Mr. Sourwine. WTiere were these schools started? 

Major Diaz. Well, started, the main school was at El Cortijo 
farm. It is a place in the Pinar del Rio Highwaj^ intersection with 
auto Pista Highway. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know where there were other schools? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. In Minas del Frio they have a recruiting 
school there and they give indoctrination. It is an indoctrination 
school too. 

^ Mr. Sourwine. Did they start this indoctrination program in the 
air force? 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 11 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. They send one professor on that matter, 
and without even my knowledge and authorization. I was in com- 
mand of the air force and someone else told me "Well, there is an order 
from the commander in chief, 'Raul Castro, and for 2 nights they 
have been gi\'ing, you know, indoctrination here, and also, you know, 
a complete program with pictures, moving pictures and everything." 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you stop this? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Were complaints made to Fidel Castro about these 
indoctrination schools? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Tell us about that? 

Major Diaz. There is a lot of complaints even from officers directly, 
and now they have some kind of special situation. And even from 
all over the country 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Do you know of any particular instances of a com- 
plaint or complaints that were made to Fidel Castro about the indoc- 
trination schools? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Tell us about it. 

Major Diaz. It was a group of officers who went over him. I mean 
one officer and a few more members of tlie army; he was in Agauda de 
Pasajeros during the trip in a helicopter that later on I had a forced 
landing. 

They were all very excited and alarmed because of the Communist 
activities, and they wanted to talk with Fidel himself to explain to 
him everything. He didn't want to listen to them. So they ex- 
plained to Celia Sanchez in front of us and m}^ wife was in front, was 
present. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who is Celia Sanchez? 

Major Diaz. His secretary. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. After these complaints had been made, did the 
indoctrination schools continue? 

Major Diaz. I beg your pardon. I misunderstood. It was about 
the Communist activities in Santa Clara; excuse me, I misunderstood. 

It was another time a group of officers and myself. We did com- 
plain about the indoctrination in the Ai'my. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The complaint you told us about a moment ago 
was about Communist activities in Santa Clara? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. I misunderstood. Excuse me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now you are telling us about a specific complaint 
about the indoctrination schools? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. It w^as during the time Fidel w'ent to La 
Plata for sign and pass that law of agrarian reform, and they went 
there and he talked with them. I was not present at that time be- 
cause I could not go back to the place because the water was very bad. 
I couldn't go in the helicopter, but they did talk with him there, and 
after that I did talk with him in the au-plane and I did explain to him 
everything. And even in the airplane I heard, 3'ou know, some of his 
explanations. He sav "I going to take measures about that. I going 
to take all the Communists out" and things like that. 

He wont onto the television and said about that the revolution 
was green and not red, and give that explanation. It w^as his words, 



12 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

but the facts later on was completely different, because the indoctri- 
nation program did continue working, and I started to see more and 
more Communists in positions like this man, Lanuza, Commander 
Lanuza who wasn't during the war, the civil war or revolution,, 
wasn't fighting. 

He was in the government of Batista. And like Pina, he was in 
the Batista government even to the last moment, and they had key 
positions in the government at that time, and they were giving more 
and more positions to them. So it was completely different what he 
say and what really is the true facts, what he did later on. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did j^ou have information about other complaints 
that were made to Fidel Castro about Communist activities? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Tell us what you know. 

Major Diaz. I cannot give the name now of the people who gave 
me the information. He is a very responsible people. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mean you cannot give it here publicly, sir? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. But you told the committee? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. All right. 

Major Diaz. And it was a big pUe of complaints about Communist 
activities all over the country sent from all over the country, and 
even he didn't told one of those telegrams or letters. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Fidel Castro? 

Major Diaz. No, sir; Fidel Ca:stro did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know a man in the air force who testified 
in behalf of Ernesto De la Fe at his trial? 

Major Diaz. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who was that officer? 

Major Diaz. His name is Silva. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And what was it that he testified to? 

Major Diaz. He testified in a trial in which was involved Ernesto 
de la Fe. They also were trying to prove that he had something to 
do with, you know, a mamage, and he had proof that he wasn't 
involved in that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. He had proof that De la Fe wasn't involved? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr, SouRWiNE. And he gave this testimony. Was action taken 
against Silva because he testified for De la Fe? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Was this action taken on Fidel Castro's own 
orders? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir, personally. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What was done to Silva? 

Major Diaz. He was commander in charge of the operation depart- 
ment of the air force and he went over to, you know, take him out 
of the position and the rank. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You mean he was demoted to private? 

Major Diaz, Yes, demoted. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know of any other instances where a man 
was punished by Castro witliout having committed any crime? 

Major Diaz. Well, sir, there is a captain who was in an investigation 
of the Communist activities in Cuba during the former government 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 13 

and before that too. He was a man who had a lot of knowledge about 
the Communists, not only in Cuba, out of Cuba too. And they — 
not exactly they, Guevara, you know, Commander Guevara took him 
and put him in jail, and after that they shoot him from the war, right 
away after the revolution was finished, t.he first day, without any 
trial. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. This was a man who had been for many years in 
charge of anti-Communist activities for the Cuban Government? 

Major Diaz. Yes, su\ 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And he was shot without a trial? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you go to Venezuela with Fidel Castro right 
after he came into power? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you go with him anyvshere else outside of 
Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Well, apart from the time I came over here, no other 
place. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. How did you and Castro go to Venezuela? 

Major Diaz. Well, I went like passenger in the same airplane. 

Mr. Sour WINE. You and he flew as passengers on a commercial 
airline? 

Major Diaz. Yes, Cubana Airlines. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Cubana Airline? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you with Castro in Venezuela? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did he confer with any Communists in Venezuela? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who? 

Major Diaz. The chief of the Communist Party there, Gustavo 
Machado. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you present at that conference? 

Major Diaz. Yes; I was at the room at the moment he asked for 
come in. Castro gave him the authorization and he came into the 
room, and they started to talk there. 

But it was very meaningful for me after that. In a few minutes, 
they went to the bathroom and they continued talking there in private. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is Fidel Castro and Gustavo Machado went 
into the bathroom to talk privately? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How long were they there together talking pri- 
vately? 

Major Diaz. He had the longest conference he had in Venezuela, 
more than hour, close to 2 hours. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Do you know whether Fidel Castro and Raul Castro 
and '*'Che" Guevara had meetings in Cuba with Communists from 
other countries in South America? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were there many such meetings? 

Major Diaz. Quite a few of them. 

Mr.^ SouRwiNE. AVhere were these meetings held? 

Major Diaz. Over Raul's house and "Che" Guevara's house and 
Cojimar whenever Fidel — you know he has different houses, places. 



14 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is it your opinion that Cuba under Castro is being 
used as a base for Communist operations against other Latin American 
comi tries? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; I believe. 

Mr. SouRwiiVE. Do you have any knowledge of Russian agents in 
Cuba under the Castro government? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. When did they come? 

Major Diaz. About May, I think. About May, I don't remember 
exactly the month. But ihey went to Cuba, two Russians, and ap- 
peared in Havana, even m newspapers it appeared about an invitation 
they had. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How many Russians do you know about that were 
in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. In Santiago, Cuba, there appear two Russians wearing 
uniform. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What uniform? 

Major Diaz. You know, the army uniform. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The uniform of the Castro forces? 

Major Diaz. Yes. And an interpreter was with them. They were 
put in jail and Commander Pinero put them free. And also in Matan- 
zas Province a couple of Russians, too, took a lot of pictures of the tex- 
tiles industry there, and in Havana I have the information that they 
were in the Cabana, La Cabana. I don't know for sure if they were 
the same or others. Even I had information that from Eastern Ger- 
many it was five more coming to Cuba. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Five more Russians? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What did they come for? 

Major Diaz. Well, I think in the way Fidel is acting he is receiving 
some kind of, you know, scientific help in that matter. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Has the Castro government given weapons to 
Communists? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Where was this done? 

Major Diaz. It was in Aguada de Pasajeros when I told you about 
this officer and a few members of the army who came over him, and 
they say to send scientists because Fidel Castro didn't want to listen 
at them, and they say that this man Frank Torre was giving military 
instructions to Communist Party members. And also that right after 
the revolution was over, they gave all the weapons that they took 
from the former army, to the Communist Party members, and that 
they were receiving that kind of training in Placetas, Sancti Spiritu, 
Cabaiguan, all over the province and this man was in charge of that, 
Frank Torre. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mentioned Frank Torre. Earlier you men- 
tioned Torres. Is it the same man? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Which is correct? 

Major Diaz. Torre. No "s." 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever see the Communist salute under the 
Castro regime? 

Major Diaz, Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who used it where? 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 15 

Major Diaz. Raul Castro did in the May Day, is it Labor Day 
parade. 

Mr. Sour WINE. The 1st of May? 

Major Diaz. Yes, the 1st of May parade, and did appear also 
women and men, laborers in civilian clothes with rifles on their 
shoulders, and they passed in front of the platform, also, and he did 
salute in that way. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What do you mean by the Communist salute? 
Major Diaz. Well, right hand up with, you know, closed fingers. 
Mr. SouRWixE. Do you have any information about the presence 
of an unidentified submarine in Cuban waters? 
Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. Tell us about that. 

Major Diaz. In the first days of January I had information of a 
submarine close to the north shore of Cuba. Also during the time I 
was sick, a friend of men who did work vdth me in the underground in 
Santiago, Cuba, a very dependable man, very serious, he told me he 
saw on the north shore of the Oriente Province during the time Raul 

Castro was controlling that zone • 

Chairman Eastland. That zone. Let's see right there. There 
were two zones. The north zone, the north coast, was under the 
command of Raul Castro? 
Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. The south zone was under the command of 
Fidel Castro. 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. And the south coast? 
Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. And it was part of your duties to supply 
arms and equipment to the south zone? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. Raul Castro didn't receive too mucli 

supply. And he saw a submarine close to the shore 

Chairman Eastland. That was in the north zone. 
Major Diaz. North zone, yes. And he saw strange people and 
he told me they wasn't speaking Enghsh or French or something Uke 
that. They were speaking Russian. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is what he told you? 

Major Diaz. Yes; and he was completely sure of that. And he 
told me that "I am sure it was a Russian submarine." 

Mr. Sourwine. Were these people that he saw, these strange people, 
wearing some kind of a naval uniform? 

Major Diaz. Yes, completely different for him. He say that he 
never saw before a uniform llike that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you have any reason to beheve that this sub- 
marine had any communication with the rebel forces under Raul? 

Major Diaz. It is very meaningful for me that Raul did not receive 
too much supply and he had a lot of men and a lot of weapons that I 
don't know from where. Well, I would say here now, but where it 
come from is very meaningful. The presence of that submarine, I 
believe he would receive, those weapons through that way. 

Mr. Sourwine. You think Raul Castro received weapons that 
were brought to him by submarine? 
Major Diaz. Yes. 

66494 O - pt. 1 -3 



16 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SoxniWTXE. Because he had weapons that were not brought 
to him by normal sources? 

Major Diaz. Yes, and he had too many. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Since Castro took over in Cuba, are changes being 
made in the insignia on mihtary equipment in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. What changes? 

Major Diaz. A red star put on vehicles. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. A red star painted on mihtary vehicles? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know what those red stars mean? 

Major Diaz. It is a Communist insignia, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Do you know of any Americans who are connected 
with the Castro regime? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Who? 

Major Diaz. WiUiam Alexander Morgan. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wait a minute. What is Morgan's connection? 

Major Diaz. He is a commander. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. In the army? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

He did work with the Second Foreign Esquadrille. And Jimmy 
Gentry, which is very close with Raul. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is he on Raul's staff? 

Major Diaz. Yes; and I hav£ a knowledge about a sergeant, a 
former sergeant of army. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. A former sergeant of what army? 

Major Diaz. I mean assigned from the U.S. Army. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From the U.S. Army? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What do you know about him? 

Major Diaz. Well, he went over to "Q" Airways Building at the 
airport with a written order from Alberto Bayo. 

Sir. SouRWiNE. A written order from Gen. Alberto Bayo? 

Major Diaz. Yes; the order was for let him come to the States with 
his name changed. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. With a new identity, with an assumed name? 

Major Diaz. Yes, and an employee there told him he could not do 
it. That later on the officer in charge of the theater, the army 
investigation department, Dier, called direct to General Bayo. 
General Bayo told him that they had to accomplish that order, so 
they did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. So they did this? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. This sergeant was sent back to the United States 
under an assumed name? 

Major Diaz. Yes; receiving order from Gen. Alberto Bayo. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know what the mission was? 

Major Diaz. No, sir; but it is very suspicious to me, receiving 
orders from a Communist. 

Senator Keating. Bayo is a Communist? 

Major Diaz. Yes, a Communist. 

Senator Keating. Did this sergeant go back? I don't want to lose 
the trend of thought, but did he go back to Cuba again? 



COMMUNTIST threat through the CARIBBEAN 17 

Major Diaz. I didn't have any knowledge about that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. For all you know he is still here? 

Major Diaz. I believe so. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Under an assumed name on a secret mission? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you know that Castro had a plan to invade the 
Dominican Republic? 

Major Diaz. Yes, 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did this invasion plan involve flying any men from 
Cuba to the Dominican Republic? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. In what kind of an airplane were these men flown? 

Major Dl^z. C^6. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Do you know where this plane came from? 

Major Dl\z. From the States. 

Mr. SouRwixE. From the United States? 

Major Dlyz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Was it purchased here? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Do you know who purchased it? 

Major Diaz. WeU, man in charge of that was DeUo Gomez Ochoa. 

Mr. SorRwix""E. The plane was purchased in the United States by 
Ochoa's organization? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And flown to Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And then used to fly the invasion force to Santo 
Domingo? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SorRwiXE. Could this have been done without the approval 
of the Castro government? 

Major Diaz. I don't believe so. For sure it could not be. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Were you asked to fly an airplane to Santo Do- 
mingo in connection with this invasion? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you refuse to do so? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Why did you refuse? 

Major Diaz. I don't like the idea to mis up Cuba now in anything 
like that. And also one of the main reasons was I didn't want to 
cooperate for something that maybe will bring Communists to another 
country like did happen to us. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Who asked you to fly this airplane? 

Major Diaz. Fidel Castro. 

Mr. SouRw^NE. Himself? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Were you chief of the Castro air force when he 
asked you to fly this plane to Santo Domingo? 

Major Diaz.' Well, I was, I believe I was Cuban Air Force Chief. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. After you refused to go on tliis trip to Santo 
Domingo, did Castro send another of his men then on that trip? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. \Mio? 

Major Diaz. It was a pilot. I don't know his name, from \'euezuelft. 



18 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did Ochoa go on that trip? 

Major Diaz. Yes; Ochoa, and Enrique Jimenez. 

Mr. SouRWiN'E. Enrique Jimenez? Is he a Communist? 

Major Diaz. 1 don't believe so. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. But he is a Castro man? 

Major Diaz. He did work with him.' I mean I don't have proof 
about him. Deho Gomez Ochoa is a very close man to Fidel Castro. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is Ochoa a Communist? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. After you refused to make the flight to Santo 
Domingo, were you deposed as chief of the air force? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Within a few days thereafter? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is there anybody else you know that was sent to 
Santo Domingo that you have not told us about here? 

Major Diaz. Yes; Copilot Orestes Acosta was the pilot of the 
airplane. 

Mr. SouRWiisrE. Any others? 

Major Diaz. It was 58 men. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Fifty-eight men in the airplane? 

Major Diaz. Inside the airplane, yes, in the airplane. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What was the nature of the equipment which was 
carried in this airplane that flew on the Santo Domingo invasion? 

Major Diaz. They had on board airplane FAL rifles from Belgium, 
NATO cahber. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You say NATO caliber. You don't mean they 
were NATO guns, only that they were the same caHber as the guns 
which are used in NATO? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; for sure. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Had the Castro government obtained any of these 
guns? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; about 25,000 of them. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The guns were manufactured in Belgium? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The Castro government had purchased thiem from 
the Belgian manufacturer? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And the guns that were sent on the C-46 which 
invaded the Dominican Republic were some of the guns that the 
Cuban Government had purchased? 

Major Diaz. Yes; from the first shipment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any information about this Santo 
Domingo expedition which you received from someone you trust in 
Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You do not want to reveal that man's name 
publicly in order to protect his safety, but you have given the name to 
the committee in confidence? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you learn from this source that there were 
movements of troops and mUitary supplies to the Isle of Pines? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That was in connection with the expedition against 
Santo Domingo? 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 19 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know the names of any of those who went 
to the Isle of Pines? 

Major Diaz, Comdr. William Galvez was there, he is a Com- 
munist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know him as a Communist? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who is Manuel Urrutia? 

Major Diaz. He is the provisional president of Cuba. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is he a Communist? 

Major Diaz. I don't think so, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know of any instances in which Cuban 
Government airplanes were flown out of the country? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What types of airplanes? 

Major Diaz. C^6 and DC^. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know the oflicial Cuban Air Force number 
of the C-46? 

Major Diaz. 610. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know the oflicial Cuban Air Force number 
of the DC-4? 

Major Diaz. 613. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where the C-A6 flew? 

Major Diaz. It flew over Nicaragua before the invasion started. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Do you know who piloted that airplane? 

Major Diaz. Roberto Verdaguer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did that plane carry Cuban Air Force insignia? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Do you know where the DC^ flew? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did it make more than one trip out of the country? 

Major Diaz. About two trips. I don't know if later on they did 
any others. 

Air. SouRwiNE. When was that? 

Major Diaz. It was during the same days, a few days after the 
C-46 came back. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is at the time of the Nicaraguan invasion? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did that DC-4 carry Cuban Air Force insignia? 

Major Diaz. No. They painted, you know, the flag on the tail. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The Cuban flag was painted off the tail? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any information about the condition 
of the C-46 which flew to Santa Domingo after it returned to Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What was the condition of the plane? 

Major Diaz. It came back with about eight holes, buUet holes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. WTio succeeded you as head of the Castro air 
Force? 

Major Diaz. Commander Almeida. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. A\Tien Almeida took over as head of the air force 
did he tell the people that he was replacing you or only that he was 
going to occupy the position while you were sick? 

Alajor Diaz. He says that he was there only during the time that 
I was sick. 



20 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You were actually sick, were you not? 

Major Diaz. Yes. . \ 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From the last week of May through all of June? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. Sour WINE. What were you sick with? What was wrong with 
you? 

Major Diaz. I had typhus fever. 

Chairman Eastland. Typhoid fever? 

Major Diaz. Typhus. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Typhus. Now as soon as you got well, did you 
resume your position as head of the air force? Did you go back and 
take over your job as head of the air force? 

Major Diaz. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And did you hold a press conference? Did you 
issue a press release at that time attacking communism? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have given the committee a copy of that press 
release in executive session. 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that an English translation 
of that press release be printed in this record at this point. 

Chairman Eastland. It is so ordered. 

(An English translation of the document referred to reads as follows: 

(Translation by the Library of Congress) 

Press Department * Ciudad Libertad, June 29, 1959. 

"Year of the Liberation." 

RELEASE TO THE PRESS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AIR FORCE 

This morning, Morday, June 29, Commander Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, who had 
been confined to his home because of typhoid fever, a disease which he contracted 
when he drank water from the "Cienega de Zapata," when he had an accident 
[several] weeks ago and went down with his plane in that spot, an incident which 
received much comment and wide distribution in the country's news media, 
resumed his post of Chief of the Revolutionary Air Force. 

Among those present on the occasion were numerous persons, civilians and 
military personnel, as well as reporters of the regular press, radio and television. 

Commander Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, upon resuming his post of Chief of the 
Revolutionary Air Force, stated: 

"Having recovered from my illness I am going to resume my post and to do my 
duty once again," adding, "with respect to a comment which is being circulated 
in the press, to the effect that 'I had been a prisoner, I wish to make it clear that 
we revolutionists were prisoners only under the Batista dictatorship, and thai, it 
is impossible that under a democratic regime such a thing could happen to anyone 
who fights so that Cuba will recover her liberties." 

Immediately thereafter, he proceeded with the following words [continued a« 
follows] : 

"Any threat, to which Cuba may be subjected on the part of the Trujillo 
dictatorship, or any intention of return on the part of the Batista elements who 
are in foreign countries, will find the people of Cuba united [in their determination] 
to repel them, and this humble servant in the first [front] line of combat." 

In the final portion of his statements he emphasized: 

"I am against every type of dictatorship, whether it is called Trujillista, 
Batistiana, or Communist, and I am not only speaking with my mouth. My 
pa.=5t, present, and future performance have proved and will prove it, inasmuch as, 
freedom-loving as I am, I could never be in agreement with any dictatorial system, 
especially the most inhuman system of the world, the Communist [system]'" 

Manuel Iglesias, 
Captain, Chief of Press, Radio and Television of the Revolutionary Air Force. 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 21 

Mr. Sour WINE. Right after you issued that press release were you 
called before Fidel Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Through whom were Castro's orders conveyed to 
you to come see him? 

Major Diaz. Through Almeida. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you go with Almeida to visit Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Where was that? 

Major Diaz. At Vedado. He has an apartment there. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What happened when you got there? 

Major Diaz. Fidel was very angry and he told me that nobody 
would do something without his authorization; that everybody had 
to do whenever he gave an order, everybody had to accomplish that 
order. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. He said you should not have issued an anti- 
Communist statement without his specific authorization? 

Major Diaz. Well, he showed that he was very angry because I 
did those declarations, and after that he told me that I couldn't go 
back any more to the air force, and he told me, "You go home. I 
will see later on what I going to do with you." 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you go home? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. You prepared a resignation? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And a statement? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Major Diaz, since Fidel Castro took power, he has 
had a lot of people killed; isn't that right? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have the people that he has had killed all been 
anti-Castro people? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. What is the nature of the opposition to Castro in 
Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Anticommunism. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mean that all of the opposition to Castro in 
Cuba is anti-Communist? 

Major Diaz. Well, there is people who was in the other government 
against him and many of them I believe are anti-Communists too. 
There is others that are anti-Communist and even fought in this 
revolution, and knows everything Fidel is doing, so they are against 
him. And the other part is the people who is anti-Communist and 
does not know what Fidel is doing, so they do not oppose him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are saying that not all the anti-Communists 
in Cuba are opposed to Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir, who has that knowledge what he is doing. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I want to get this clear. The anti-Communists 
who know what he is doing are opposed to him; is that what you say? 

Major Diaz. Yes; that is what I mean. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. But there are anti-Communists who do not know 
what he is doing that are not opposed to him? 

Major Diaz. Sure. They don't know. They still have some faith. 
They don't know about, you know, ever3^thing he is doing, you know. 



22 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Has Castro persecuted all of the people who were 
in the former Batista government? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. He has? 

Major Diaz. Not all. There is a few who even have now some 
positions in the government, key positions. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You mean there are people who were in the Batista 
government who have key positions in the Fidel Castro government? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who are some of these people? 

Major Diaz. For example, Lieutenant Pina, who did work in the 
government of Batista to the last moment. He is a Communist and 
now he is in the government, I mean in the army with Raul Castro. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did Pina fight in the revolution? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who else? 

Major Diaz. Commander Lanuza, and there is some others but 1 
don't remember their names. 

Mr. SouRWiNB. Did Lanuza fight in the revolution? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you think Raul Castro is the strongest Commu- 
nist in the Castro regime? 

Major Diaz. I think it is Fidel himself. 

I am sure he is the man who give the orders and the man who 
decides everything. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is Castro friendly to the United States? 

Major Diaz. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You know that Fidel Castro has said on some 
occasions that he is friendly to the United States. You are saying 
that this is not true? 

Major Diaz. He isn't sincere. 

Air. SouRWiNE. Have you yourself seen instances of anti-American 
propaganda in Cuba under the Castro regime? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Give us an example. 

Major Diaz. Fidel Castro himself calls, you know, imperialistic 
Yankees ; and we are going to have to fight the Americans, you know, 
the Marines; and harping all the time on those arguments, especially 
that we going to have to eat malenga — a vegetable, or something like 
that, very common in Cuba — and we going to have to fight against 
the Marines. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Have you seen any instances of anti-American 
propaganda in connection with the indoctrination schools? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. TeU us about it. 

Major Diaz. During the few days that they had that propaganda 
in the air force, that indoctrination, they show a movie picture named 
"The Defiant Ones," with Tony Curtis, and after they show that 
movie picture, they gave an invitation to all those present to go for a 
meeting, a kind of meeting. And then they say in the meeting, "You 
see this is democracy." They did not say anything about that movie 
picture had been done here in the United States for make public 
opinion about it, you know, against the racial segregation. 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 23 

They didn't say anything Hke that. They say "This is democracy; 
there is what you have in United States; there is imperiahstic Yankee; 
there is an inhuman system." Some were arguments 3-ou know and 
phrases very well known in the program of propaganda, through the 
propaganda of the Communists. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You know there are many who say that Fidel Castro 
is not himself a Communist, that he is simply a tool or a captive of 
the Communists. 

Major Diaz. I am completely sure he is. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You spoke earher about the political police force. 

Senator Dodd. Why don't you get that clear on the record? You 
are completely sm'e he was what? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I'm sorry, Senator. 

Senator Dodd. I don't think it will be clear on the record so we 
should clear it up. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You are completely sm-e that Fidel Castro is what? 

Major Diaz. Is Communist. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Has Fidel Castro established a political police force 
in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who heads that police force? 

Major Diaz. Ramiro, Comdr. Ramiro Valdez. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You say the existence of this political police force 
is kept secret from the Cuban people? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Where does Valdez have his headquarters? 

Major Diaz. At Raul's house, Raul Castro. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know of an instance in which j^ou yourself 
have seen the political police in operation? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. Ramiro Valdez went over to the air force 
asking for two pilots of complete confidence. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. In whom he could have complete confidence? 

Major Diaz. In the pilots, yes, and he say that he want to make a 
trip to Miami and taking some officers of some, you know, high rank 
in the army. But instead of sending to the United States he want to 
send to Isle of Pines and put them in jail, because in that way it could 
not be any scandal, and nobody will know about it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. These were officers they wanted to get rid of? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. Sour WINE. So they were to be put on an airplane and told 
that they were headed for the United States and the plane was to fly 
to the Isle of Pines and they would be put m prison? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you give him the pilots that he asked for? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. I refused to do something like that, to be 
used for something like that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I call A^our attention to an article by Ralph McGill 
under a Havana dateline which appeared in the Washington Star on 
Saturday. Have you read this article? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. There are some statements in this article which 
we think you should have a chance to answer. Had you made any 
arrangements with any other pilot of the Castro air force to leave 
Cuba with you or at the time you left? 



24 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Felipe Pazos, president of the Bank 
of Cuba? 

Major Diaz. I don't know him personally. I know only by name. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have never met him? 

Major Diaz. Never in my hfe. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. McGill quotes Felipe Pazos as saying that 
before you joined the revolution you were a professional soldier of 
fortune engaged in flying in arms for profit. Did you, before you 
joined the Castro forces, ever fly any arms or ammunition? 

Major Diaz. Never, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Anywhere? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Air. SouRWiNE. Any time? 

Major Diaz. Even when I was airhne pilot I never was involved 
in any kind of contraband. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. McGill quotes Fehpe Pazos as having charged 
that in Havana you associated with certain persons engaged in clandes- 
tine moneymaking operations. Is this true? 

Major Diaz. Never, sir. I could not do, never in my Hfe, some- 
thing against my own conscience, myself. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Did you ever have anything to do with any 
black-market operations? 

Major Diaz. Never in my life. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Did you ever crash in an aircraft that had not 
been gassed before the takeoff? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. I have a lot of years of experience, over 15 
years. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever in your life take off in an airplane 
which you had not made sure had been gassed? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Did you in fact make a forced landing in a marsh? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; it was in a helicopter. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What caused that forced landing? 

Major Diaz. I flew to Aguada de Pasajeros with Castro and after 
that I flew to a place named Cayo Ramona. I flew back to refuel 
from Cayo Ramona, and I had a thimderstorm on the way. I had to 
fly around the thunderstorm anyway,, and my engine did quit and I 
had a reading in my instrument, the fuel gage, of 200 pounds of fuel. 
And I was about 20 miles from that place, so even I don't know if it 
was an engine pump fuel failure or the instrument was wrong or 
something like that. 

Mr. Sour WINE. It was a mechanical failure of some kind but you 
don't know whether it was the instrument or the fuel pump? 

Major Diaz. For sure. It was indicating 200 pounds of fuel at 
that moment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Fidel Castro has called you a traitor. Do you 
want to comment on that? 

Major Diaz. Well, he say that I am a traitor, but my conscience 
is clear. I believe he is the traitor, not me. He did not say any- 
thing during the time we were fighting against the dictatorship. He 
said: "We going to bring back constitution; we going to bring back 
democracy; we are going to bring back elections; we are going to 
bring back freedom." 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 25 

Well, what we have now? Who is the traitor? Most of us, we 
are not Communists, and he has given to the Communists all of the 
control of the country. He is practicing communism. There is a 
lot of facts. For example, there is a very well-known system, you 
know, procedure of the Communist system, of destroying the per- 
sonality and reputation of the man which is against their procedures 
and their ideas, that they are against communism. 

There is another fact: the way he is talking about me. I never 
have been a soldier of fortune. I didn't lose a position. I was a 
citizen. I never was mixed in politics or something like that. I am 
serious in working for making my own living, and I have been even 
coming to this country for several years. I never had even one 
trouble in the street or any other place. 

And in my country the same. I have been an honest man all my 
hfe, like my father did show me through his own life, even my mother. 
That is their tactics. I don't going to say about him anything like 
he is telling about me personal things. I don't going to descend to 
their level. That is a Communist tactic. Everybody knows that. 
Destroy the reputation of the man who is against them for destroy 
the truth. 

Senator Hruska. Major, he has called you the Benedict Arnold of 
Cuba. What would you say about that? 

Major Diaz. I wonder is tjnited States in war with Cuba? Because 
it was during the war between England and United States. 

Senator Hruska. That Benedict Arnold was the traitor to his 
country; is that your point? 

Major Diaz. Well, I read about that long time ago. I don't 
have in my mind the details, but I read that he was, during that war, 
a man who did something against his country; is that right? 

Senator Hruska. That's right. 

Major Diaz. Well, but he was during that war. I am not doing 
anything against my country. I am trying to make the Cuban 
people and all the revolutionaries who really fought for freedom open 
their eyes and don't, you know, let this man Castro use Cuba like 
a tool of Russia, with their international interests. 

Everybody Imows about that. They are usi:ng Cuba, so small, so 
tired of blood and terrible things like war. 

He is dividing the Cuban people and making them fight each other. 
He is destroying everything. And we did not fight for that. We 
fought for freedom, for have back what we had lost. Have security, 
our human rights, democracy, elections. In other words, you know, 
what you have here in United States. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is the press in Cuba under censorship or Govern- 
ment control? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. They have quite a few newspapers. In the 
army, Raul has the Green Olive. In Santiago — in Communist hands 
of course — is Sierra Maestra. In Havana is Revolucion. The rest of 
the newspapers have been censored, the censorships consisting this: 
When someone say something not exactly against, that does not agree 
with the laws or the measures of the government of Castro, he comes to 
the television with a list, you know, and he says that some money has 
been given from the former government to this newspaperman, for 
some reason. 



26 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

And tlien he said "Look, a man who was paid for by Batista govern- 
ment telling that we are wrong in this and that/- using the same sys- 
tem, destroying, using argument to destroy the personality or the 
reputation of each one who say something about some measure or some- 
thing like that, which is not in agreeing, not only against, but which 
does not agree with only part of or one thing is counterrevolutionary. 

Mr. SouRWiNF.. Are these Communist newspapers distributed free 
in the army? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait a minute. There is a Communist paper 
in Cuba named Hoy? 

Major Diaz. Oh, yes. 

Chairman Eastland. Is that paper distributed free in the army? 

Major Diaz. Myself, sir, I can say the Green Olive. I heard about 
Hoy. 

Chairman Eastland. You heard about Hoy? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. But the Green Olive is distributed in the 
army. It has a lot of propaganda also against the United States, 
against democracy. 

Chairman Eastland. That is Raul Castro's paper, is it? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Who is the editor of that paper? 

Major Diaz. I don't know the names. And in the Revolucion 
there is a very well known Communist, Euclides Vazquez, who writes 
in the Revolucion. 

Senator Hruska. You told us before of those who criticize in the 
newspapers as having their reputation destroyed and so on. Are 
they subjected to any other punishment besides that now? 

Major Diaz. Well, now in Cuba they did pass a law which says 
that any counterrevolutionary can be shot. 

Senator Hruska. What is a counterrevolutionary? 

Major Diaz. Well, a man who is against the Castro revolution, and 
in Cuba they call it counterrevolutionary or traitor. They have a 
law they can shoot anyone. \ 

Chairman Eastland. There is a paper named Revomcion, isn't 
there? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Chairman Eastland. Whose paper is that? 

Major Diaz. That paper, the editor is Carlos Franqui. 

Chairman Eastland. Is he a Communist? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Is that Castro's paper? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir; he handles that directly. 

Chairman Eastland. The editor is a Communist? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Senator Johnston. Did you mean to say just now that if a newspaper 
man writes something against Castro, that man might be shot? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. You know the}^ can use that argument for 
destroy even physically anyone who is against communism. So, for 
example, anyone would, anyone who says something that the govern- 
ment there is Communist, they say there is no Communists in the 
government, so that man is using an argument, they don't like it, and 
that man is a counterrevolutionary. So they can have a law, you 
know, and execute him to death. So it is another fact of the Com- 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 27 

munist procedure. So imagine now anyone in Cuba says what I say, 
and I did escape this time. Otherwise it would be another fact. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You think if you went back to Cuba you would be 
in physical danger? 

Major Diaz. Well, I am completely sure of that, without any doubt. 

Senator Dodd. I want to be sure I understood you. Is it correct 
to say that there were Communists in the Batista government over a 
considerable period of time? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Senator Dodd. And some of them have been continued on in the 
Castro government? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Senator Dodd. That is all I have. 

Senator Keating. Major Diaz, President Urrutia has called you a 
traitor. He has said Castro's government has absolutely nothing to. 
to with Communists. Do you want to comment on that? 

Major Diaz. I don't know about President Urrutia. 

Senator Keating. You do not believe him to be a Communist? 

Major Diaz. I don't know. 

It is always possible he say something like that. He should be 
under heavy pressure. I tell you what. During the last daj^s, when 
a friend of mine who was anti-Communist and he has been released 
from his position, he was there as the Agriculture Minister. He was 
out of his position. They say he was incapable, but he was all the 
time, you know, during the campaign in the Sierra Maestra, and he 
is also very well known. 

He is a capable man. For example, they say I am a capable man 
too, and they have Almeida now in the air force. They put him 
there because he was incapable and they put in there a man who does 
not laiow what is an airplane, how to fly an airplane. That is an 
example. 

Senator Keating. Has he ever flown, this man that is your 
successor? 

Major Diaz. Never. 

Senator Keating. I wanted to get your ideas about President 
Urrutia. 

Major Diaz. Yes. So he told me that Urrutia was in a very difl&- 
cult situation. They were ready to get him out of the position, and 
they had information from some very, you know, responsible sources 
and he did make a statement against communism. So after that they 
were unable, you know, to get him out of the position right after his 
declaration. I believe he is not a Communist, bui he has been under 
very heavy pressure for saying what he has been saying about me. 
That is the only idea that I have. I couldn't imagine any other thing, 
because I think he is a decent person and an honest people. I don't 
believe it would be any other reason. 

Senator Keating. Do you think these statements he has made 
have been the result of pressure? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Senator Keating. When j^ou sa^- that a man is a Communist, will 
you explain what 3-ou mean by that? Do you mean he has a link 
with Russia? 

Major Diaz. I believe that there is quite a few Communists in 
Cuba that belong to the international organization. 



28 COMMUlSriST threat through the CARIBBEAN 

Senator Keating. Conspiracy? 

Major Diaz. Organization. Comes from 'Russia of course. 

Senator Ke.vting. When you designate Fidel Castro and Raul 
Castro and others as Communists, do you mean to indicate that they 
do have a connection with the international organization? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. Raul himself was behind the Iron Curtain. 
One of his men told me once about what he said about, you know, he 
told to one of his men about what he saw in Russia. It was a para- 
dise and things like that. 

Senator Keating. When was he in Russia? When was Raul in 
Russia? 

Major Diaz. Well, I know he was in there for some time, but I 
don't know the date. I don't know. I know he went over behind 
the Iron Curtain. The same with Vilma Espin also. 

Senator Keating. One other point, do you favor the return of 
Batista to power? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Senator Keating. Are you as much against Batista as you are 
against Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. Any dictatorship I would not agree with 
them. I am a man who believes in freedom and democracy. 

Senator Keating. Have you had any contact whatever with 
Batista or with any one representing him since you left Cuba? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Senator Keating. Did you ev£r have any contacts with Batista or 
any representatives of Batista, either before or since? 

Major Diaz. No, sir, I couldn't. I never will do it. 

Senator Keating. Are you a practicing member of the church? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. I am Catholic. 

Senator Keating. Have you ever seen — other than the elimination 
of the word "God" from the constitution, have you seen any other 
occasions or indications on the part of Fidel Castro or those in the 
Government directed against religion? 

Major Diaz. Well, there is during conversations, for example, 
when I came out of swamp area I was over to the central, you know, 
sugar plantation. We call it central, I don't know what you call the 
name. And I said in front of Vilma Espin who was there 

Senator Keating. She is the wife of Raul Castro? 

Major Diaz. Yes, Raul Castro's wife. And I say "Thank God, 
that I was so lucky. I didn't have even one scratch." She say, 
"Well thanks to your ability. What about God? Thanks to your 
ability; not to God." 

All of them doesn't believe in God. And they sometimes act and 
talk in that way. 

Senator Keating. Now I want to also clear up another matter 
now in the light of some statements which have been made. Did 
you consult with anyone before leaving Cuba, any Cuban nationals 
of any kind? 

Major Diaz. No, sir. It was my own decision. 

Senator Keating. You left there voluntarily? 

Major Diaz. Sure, sir, completely sure. It was my own decision. 
I want to do something. What I did would make the Cuban people 
wonder about and open their eyes. And also it is going to make 
Fidel Castro act before time, before he is well organized. Communists 



COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 29 

are well organized. They working 24 hours a day organizing mili- 
tarily, with military instruction in trying to obtain some more mem- 
bers and giving indoctrination. 

For example, they use this procedure. They did in the air force. 
That professor they send to the air force, they make everybody talk 
about theirselves and asking about "What do you understand for 
revolution"? For example, in front of me they asked to one of the 
boys there — his name is Leon. They asked to him "Wliat do you 
und erstand 

Senator Keating. Wlio asked this? 

Major Diaz. The indoctrination professor who was there. 

Senator Keating. The professor? 

Major Diaz. That they had under my command. They say "What 
do you understand for revolution?" That guy say "Well, revolution 
is a complete change of system, political and social." And he say 
"Well, what is the main step for obtaining a revolution all the way?" 

That guy say "Well, the capital should disappear, to have a revolu- 
tion all the way." 

A few days later on that man was sent to the main indoctrination 
school through this very meeting. After he say something like that 
he was sent to the indoctrination school, and he came out with a 
certificate that belongs to each of them saying that they were able to 
indoctrinate some other, and they were able, they did become to be 
a leader after they pass through that school. They had lo be there 
all the time. They could not go out from the school, from 1 month 
to 3 months or something like that, completely isolated. 

And the same they have now in the Minas del Frio. 

Senator Dodd. Do you know or do you have any idea or any basis 
for making an answer, will you tell us how many people were members 
of the Communist Party in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. I don't know exactly but I heard about 10,000. 

Senator Dodd. Out of a total population of how many? 

Major Diaz. Six million. 

Senator Dodd. Then these indoctrination schools and this organiz- 
ing is necessary if they are to have any real support in the country? 

Major Diaz. Sure, and if I did this probably the Cuban people 
open their eyes and they will react in front of the Communists. 
They will see where is it, and I think they never will permit anybody 
else introducing in Cuba a system like that because they know they 
are going to lose everything. Now the farmers, they are giving land 
to them and maybe they are confused, because they believe they 
are going to have now land. 

But later on they going to find that they going to be the slaves 
working that land, and they finally doesn't going to have anything 
for themselves. 

Senator Hruska. But Major, Fidel Castro says that there will be 
an agrarian reform and this land will go to them. Isn't he sincere in 
that? 

Major Diaz. I don't believe so. You know the greatest plantation 
which is in Bayamo, they have what they call cooperative. And that 
land does not belong to them. They are working there you know. 
They call it collective farm. 

Chairman Eastland. But the Government owns the land. That 
is the point you are making. 



30 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

.^[ajol• Diaz. Yes, and that is a fact that that rice plantation 
belongs I think to a senator or something like .that, and they have 
there you know one of those collective farms. 

Chnirnian Eastland. They took the land? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Chairman Eastland. Said it would go to the landless peasants? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. But they organized a cooperative and the 
Govornmont retains the title to the land; is that what you are saying? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ke.\ting. And you believe that the Cuban people, if given 
the facts, will reject communism, do you? 

Major Diaz. I am completely sure that the Cuban people won't 
listen to the Communists. 

Senator Dodd. If they get a chance. 

.Major Diaz. Well, it happens a small group controls, and sometimes 
for good, sometimes for bad. The thing is when there is no demo- 
cratic system that group should be always the same and nobody can 
move them from there and they will have the control of everj'thing 
and they will be the owners of eveiythiug, even the lives. That is a 
Communist system. 

Senator Hruska. I have just one more question and that has to 
do with the reports that from time to time the Government takes over 
factories or businesses. How do they do that? 

Major Diaz. Well, they can control the unions of the laborers, but 
in giving everything to the laborers without any discussion and giving 
everything that they want, pretty soon all the business can't operate 
because they have to pay more than they really make. 

Senator Hruska. You mean they allow the workers as much wages 
as they want and it is wages they cannot pay? 

Major Diaz. For example, say in a hotel is slow, very slow, not too 
mail}' people in the hotel and they camiot have so many employees 
because if they keep so many employees they cannot get any profit. 

They camiot continue in business. So what happen is this, they 
cannot release any employee. So they cannot make any money. They 
are losing money. So they close the hotel. Then the Government 
comes, take the hotel and give it to the same emploj^ees to work. 
You know they themselves work and they make administration and 
everything of the hotel. 

Chairman Eastland. Is that true of factories? 

Major Diaz. The Comodoro Hotel is working in that way. 

Senator Johnston. The Government o^vns the property? 

Major Diaz. I don't loiow if they have any agreement with the 
owner. In my concern they did not have anything done until the 
moment that I 

Senator Johnston. The Government has taken over the property 
then? 

Major Diaz. Yes; well, there is no security for anybody, and nobody 
knows what they are going to have tomorrow. They have nothing 
done about the banks because it is very extreme measure, but they 
will do it if they have enough control. 

Senator Dodd. The chairman asked you about the industry, the 
manufacturing plants. Have they been taken over? 



COMAIUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 31 

Major Diaz. There are many closed because they cannot operate, 
and Fidel himself say that they are going to take it and pay later. 

Senator Dodd. Pay^ what? 

Major Diaz. Pay later. 

Senator Hruska. Are you sa^dng, sir, that when the opposition 
from the people will arise, that Castro will then use the same kind of 
forceful methods that the Communists used, but he doesn't want to 
do it right awa}^? Is that stating your idea properly? 

Major Diaz. Sure. He knows he don't have too many supporters 
for that purpose. Only from the Communist Party all the way, of 
course. And now from the people who doesn't know the truth, but 
as the days are passing, more and more people is starting to know 
about, all the way 

Chairman Eastland. Did you personally hear Castro make that 
statement? 

Major Diaz. And then of course he is organizing and they working 
all the time, 24 hours a day, the Communists, and try to control more 
and more. With this case of Santo Domingo they have been taking 
some measures. 

He say about a menace of invasion from Santo Domingo, so he took 
a lot of m.easures, you know, that are called safety measures, and 
things like that so he can control more and the people don't realize 
what he is doing, m.ovement of troops and everything. And changing 
different chiefs from one to other place and demoting and doing things 
like that, with the argument, you know, very well known from him. 
So later on when the people get through, get able to know everything, 
maybe it be too late in that proceeding. 

But in doing what I did, I believe the people will be able to see the 
truth before he plan, before he is well organized, before the Commu- 
nists has the complete control and can use the violence and force and 
control the situation, and without any chance of failure. 

Senator Keating. Major, do you expect that your testimony here 
today A\all be reported accurately in the Cuban press? 

Major Diaz. Well, I suppose so. 

Senator Keating. You did not mean to imply that there were not 
free papers also in Cuba? 

Major Diaz. I don't know if they going to be able to say what I 
am saying here. I don't know. I don't believe. 

Senator Keating. I see. Are any of the papers in Cuba what we 
would call a free press, uncontrolled by the Government, or are they 
all censored? 

Major Diaz. Well, I explain a few minutes ago about the press 
that belongs to the Grovernment and the other press there has been 
some kind of censorship. 

Senator Keating. You talked about the Communist press. The 
papers you mentioned were Com.munist papers? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Senator Keating. Ar« there also non-Communist or anti-Com- 
munist papers, too? 

Major Diaz. Yes, there is, but the}' use that kind of control, 
that Icind of argument, for control of them. You know, a newspaper- 
man who says something or ^\Tites something which is not in accord- 
ance ^vith Fidel Castro, he comes over to television and says about 
that man and destroy his reputation. 



32 COMMUNIST THREAT THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Senator Keating. You told us about that. 

Major Diaz. Destroy the truth, whatever hesay. 

Chairman Eastland, Didn't you sit behind Castro in an airplane? 

Major Diaz. Excuse me? 

Sometimes I cannot follow you, but the way I had the information 
about the procedure, he want to use for control, he maintain the 
highest percent of the public positions as long as he can, for organize 
himself and things like that. It is not a figure from myself. It came 
from Fidel Castro words I heard about that. 

Chairman Eastland. Where he said he would use violence after 
he got organized, if that was necessary; is that what you are saying? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Chairman Eastland. You heard him say that? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. While sitting behind him in an airplane? 

Major Diaz. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. And to whom was he talking at the time? 

Major Diaz. It was Nunez Jimenez and Celia Sanchez and it was 
Alfredo Guevara. 

Senator Hruska. And who are they? 

Are they army officers or businessmen? 

Major Diaz. Nunez Jimenez is a Communist with the agrarian 
reform. 

P Senator Johnston. I beheve you stated in your testimony that 
there were many officials that were in the former Batista government 
that Castro is now having as officials in his government; is that true? 

Major Diaz. I beg your pardon? Yes, sir. 

Senator Johnston. Do you know of any of the former officials that 
were in the Batista government that Castro is now using that are 
non-Communists ? 

Major Diaz. Non-Communists? 

Senator Johnston. Yes, anti-Communists. 

Major Diaz. I don't know any of them. 

Senator Johnston. You don't know any of them. 

Major Diaz. No, sir. 

Senator Johnston. So he has only picked the Communists that 
were in the government of Batista? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Senator Johnston. To come over into this government? 

Major Diaz. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Any further questions? 

I will ask everyone to keep their seats until the witness and his 
family leave the room. We stand adjourned until the call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 1 :45 p.m. the hearing was adjourned, subject to the 
call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Acosta, Orestes (copilot) 18 

Aerovias"Q" (airline) 3, 16 

Agrarian reform 7, 8, 11, 29, 30 

Agriculture Minister 27 

Aguada de Pasajeros 11, 14, 24 

Airways "Q" i 3, 16 

Almeida, Commander. 19, 21, 27 

Anti-Batista 4 

Anti-Communist 5, 10, 13, 21, 27, 31, 32 

Army 11 

Army, U.S 16 

Arnold, Benedict 25 

B 

Bank of Cuba 24 

Batista 4, 5, 9, 12, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 32 

Bayamo 29 

Bayo, General Alberto 8, 16 

Belgium 18 

C 

Cabaiguan 14 

Cabana, La 14 

Castro's air force 1, 2, 7, 19, 23 

Castro, Fidel 1, 2, 4-18, 21-29, 31, 32 

Castro, Raul 6, 7, 9-11, 13, 15, 16, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28 

(Commander in chief) 11 

Catholic 28 

Cay Ramona 24 

censorship (press) 25 

Cerguera. (See Serguera, Commander.) 

Cienfuegos, Osmani (Director of Culture) 8 

Cojimar 13 

collective farms 29, 30 

Comodoro Hotel 30 

Communism 6-8 

Communist/s 5-14, 16-20, 22, 23, 25-32 

Insignia (red star) 16 

Newspapers 26, 31 

Party 9, 13, 14, 29, 31 

Salute 14 

Costa Rica 5 

Counterrevolutionary 26 

Credentials of Major Diaz as head of Castro's air force 2 

Cuba 1-32 

Cubana Airlines 13 

Cuban Constitution 8 

Cuban Air Force chief 7, 17 

Cuban Air Force insignia 19 

Cuban press 31 

Curtis, Tony 22 



II INDEX 

D Page 

"Defiant Ones, The" (movie) 22 

De la Fe, Ernesto 12 

Diaz Brull, Sergio 1, 3 

Diaz Lanz, Pedro Luis (testimony of) 1-32 

Former commander in chief of Cuban Air Force 1 

Born in Havana 1 

Credentials as head of Castro's air force 1-2 

June 29, 1959, left Cuba 3 

Press release attacking communism 20 

Catholic 28 

Diaz y Lanz, Senora Pedro Luis 1, 3 

Dier 16 

Dodd, Senator Thomas J 1 

Dominican Republic 8, 17, 18 

E 

Eastland, Senator James O 1 

Echegoyen, Carlos 3 

England 25 

El Cortijo (farm) 10 

Pinar Del Rio and Auto Pista Highvi^ay 10 

Escalona, Dr. Juan 7 

Espin, Vilma 7, 8, 28 

(Raul Castro's wife) 7 

F 

FAL rifles 18 

Fe, Ernesto Dela 12 

Florida 5 

Fort Lauderdale ^ 5 

Franqui, Carlos (director of newspaper Revolucion) 10, 26 

G 

Galvez, Comdr. William 7, 19 

Gentry, Jimmy . 16 

Germany, Eastern 14 

Green Olive (newspaper) 25, 26 

Guevara, Alfredo (brother-in-law of Vilma Espin) 8,32 

Guevara, Comdr. Ernesto "Che" 6, 7, 9, 10, 13 

H 

Hart, Armando (Minister of Education) 7 

Havana 1, 3, 14, 23-25 

Hoy (newspaper) 26 

Hruska, Senator Roman L 1 

I 

Iglesias, Manuel (captain, chief of press, radio and television of Revolution- 
ary Air Force) 20 

Indoctrination school 10, 11, 29 

Iron Curtain 28 

Isle of Pines 18, 19, 23 

J 

Jimenez, Antonio Nunez (charge of agrarian reform) 7, 32 

Jimenez, Enrique 18 

Johnston, Senator Olin D 1 

K 

Keating, Senator Kenneth B 1 



: INDEX III 

L Paee 

Labor Day parade 16 

Labor movement 9 

La Cabana • 14 

Lanuza, Commander (charge of San Antonio base) 7, 12, 22 

La Plata ---- 11 

Latin American countries 9, 14 

Leon 28 

M . . 

Machado, dictator (Cuba) 4 

Machado, Gustavo (Venezuela) 13 

Martinez, Augusto (Minister of Defense) 7 

Matanzas Province 14 

May Day paradel 15 

McGill, Ralph - 23. 24 

Mexico 3, 5 

Miami 3, 23 

Minas del Frio (indoctrination school) 10, 29 

Morgan, WUliam Alexander -- 16 

N 

NATO caliber 18 

Nicaragua 19 

O 

Ochoa, Comdr. Delio Gomez 7, 17, 18 

Orients Province 7, 15 

P 

Pazos, Felipe (president. Bank of Cuba) 24 

Pellon 10 

Pena, Captain 7 

Pina, Lieutenant 7, 12, 22 

Pinar Del Rio and Auto Pista Highway 10 

Pinero, Commander 7, 14 

Placetas ^ 14 

Political police 7, 23 

Press (Cuba) 25, 31 

Press release by Comdr. Diaz Lanz dated June 29, 1959, attacJking com- 
munism - 20 

Prime Minister 9 

Propaganda, anti-American 22, 23, 26 

Q 

"Q" Airways 3, 16 

R 

Racial segregation 22 

Raul. (See Castro, Raul.) 

Red star (Communist insignia) 16 

"Revolucion" (newspaper) 10, 25, 26 

Revolutionary Air Force 20 

Russia 25, 27, 28 

Ru3sian(s) -. 6, 14, 15 

S 

Salvador, David 9 

San Antonio base 7, 8 

Sanchez, Celia (secretary to Fidel Castro) Hj 32 

vSancti Spiritu 14 

Santa Clara - 7, 11 

Santiago, Cuba 5, 7, 14, 15, 25 

Santo Domingo 17-19, 31 

Second Foreign Esquadrille 1^ 

Serguera, Commander (Cerguera) ° 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Sierra Maestra 5, 25, 27 

Silva :.- __ 12 

Soldier of fortune 24, 25 

South America 13 

Submarine, unidentified 15 

T 

Tampa 3 

Torre, Frank 7, 14 

Trujillo u 8, 20 

Typhoid fever __ 20 

U 
Urrutia, Manuel (provisional President of Cuba) 19, 27 

V 

Valdez, Ramiro (commander in chief, political police) 7 

Vazquez, Euclides 26 

Vedado 21 

Venezuela 13, 17 

Verdaguer, Roberto 19 

W 

Washington Star „ 23 

West Palm Beach _ 3 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 3350 



^ V