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Full text of "Communist threat to the United States through the Caribbean. Hearings before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-sixth Congress, first session .."

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— ^ _ 

COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES 
THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTEENAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTEENAL SECURITY LAWS 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE i)N THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED mTES SENATE 

EIGHTY-SIXTH COXGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



PART 8 



JANUARY 22, 23, 1960 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
43364 O WASHINGTON : 1960 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D JOHNSTON, South Carolina EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

THOMAS C HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

JOHN L McCLELLAN, Arkansas KENNETH B. KEATING, New York 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming NORRIS COTTON, New Hampshire 
SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina 
JOHN A. CARROLL, Colorado 
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut 

PHILIP A. HART, Michigan 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut, Vice Chairman 
OLIN D JOHNSTON, South Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

JOHN L MCCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

SAM J ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina KENNETH B. KEATING, New York 

NORRIS COTTON, New Hampshire 

J. G. SoTJRwiNE, Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



i 



CONTENTS 



Page 
Witness : Rojo Roche, Alfonso Manuel 443 



m 



RESOLUTION 

Resolved hy the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate 
Committee on the Judiciary^ That certain specified lists of names, 
taken in executive session from Maximo Kuiloba Diaz on July 25, 
1959, and Aurelio Silva Hernandez on July 24, 1959, be released from 
the ban of secrecy and published with public testimony of these wit- 
nesses, they having given consent ; and be it also 

Resolved, That inasmuch as Alfonso Manuel Kojo Roche is now 
out of the United States and not available for public testimony, his 
testimony of January 22 and 23, 1960, taken in executive session, be 
released from the ban of secrecy and printed with the testimony oi 
other witnesses taken in public session in hearings on "The Commu- 
nist Threat to the United States Through the Caribbean." 

James O. Eastland, 

Thomas J. Dodd. 

Olin D. Johnston. 

John L. McClellan. 

Sam J. Ervin, Jr. 

Roman L. Kruska. 

Everett M. Dirksen. 

Kenneth B. Keating. 

NoRRis Cotton. 

Mat 18, 1960. 

IV 



C0M3IUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES 
THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 22, 1960 

U.S. Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OF the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D.C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 :10 a.m., in room 312, 
Old Senate Office Building, Senator Thomas J. Dodd, presiding. 

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel, and Benjamin Mandel, 
director of research. 

(After completion of the testimony of Aleksandr Yurievich 
Kaznacheyev, the following proceedings were had :) 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, for security reasons, it is desired 
that the name of our interpreter today shall not appear in this record. 
The Chair, of course, knows who this man is. I suggest that he be 
sworn simply as the interpreter. 

Senator Dodd. We will swear the interpreter first. "Will you stand 
and raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear to truthfully interpret the testimony given 
here before this subcommittee, so help you God? 

The Interpreter. I do. 

Senator Dodd. I want to swear the witness. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before this subcom- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Roche (through interpreter). I do. 

Senator Dodd. Sit down. 

TESTIMONY OF ALFONSO MANUEL ROJO ROCHE (AS GIVEN 
THROUGH THE INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Sourwine. Your name, sir, is Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche; and 
you also go by the name of Manuel Rojo del Rio? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I am known by that name. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have been chief of the parachute troops in 
Fidel Castro's forces ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. And you come before this committee voluntarily ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. And offering to tell us everything you know that 
may help the cause of freedom f 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

443 



444 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, we have received from this witness 
a number of photographs. I should like to ask that, subject to par- 
ticular identification, or as we ask questions about them in the record, 
this entire group of photographs be received in evidence as exhibits 
in connection with Captain Roche's testimony. 

Senator Dodd. Yes, they will be received. 

(The photogi\aphs referred to, other than those printed in connec- 
tion with Captain Roche's testimony which follows, will be found in 
the committee files. A brief description of each picture follows:) 

1. Standing in a light-colored suit, Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio. Seated Comdr. 
Ramiro Valdez, Chief of the Revolutionary Intelligence Service, surrounded by 
personal guards. Valdez is known among Fidel Castro's rebels as one of the 
most fanatical Communists. 

2. Commander of the Revolutionary Navy, Castinerias, seated in white suit in 
front, and Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio with his hand on the desk paying atten- 
tion to Captain Garcia, aide to the former. 

3. Comdr. E. Almejeiras, Chief of Cuba's Revolutionary Police, sitting in front, 
with mustache, Comdr. Rene Rodriguez, executor of the war criminals in Santa 
Clara, Province of Las Villas ; and Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio, aide to the Chief 
of Staff of Cuba's Revolutionary Army. 

4. Comdr. Rene de los Santos, former Chief of DIER, formerly SIM, Military 
Intelligence Service and present Chief of the 5th Military District in Havana. 

5. Comdr. Luis Orlando Rodriguez, former Minister of Interior and present 
Ambassador of Cuba to A^enezuela. with Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio. 

6. From left to right. Commander Crespo, arms expert in the Sierra Maeetra, 
Comdr. Pedro Miret, now Minister of Agriculture, Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio, and 
Comdr. Rene Vallejos, a physician at the Sierra Maestra of outstanding career 
and now a high official of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform. 

7. Standing with light-colored suit, Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio with his hand 
on the chair in which is seated Comdr. Humberto Sori Marin, former General 
Counsel in the War Department and Minister of Agriculture and presently a high 
official in the Agrarian Reform. 

7a. In a light-colored suit, Capt. Rojo del Rio, and to the right Comdr. Lalo 
Sardinas, with a few rebels. 

8. Standing, Comdr. Rene Rodriguez Cruz. In the center, seated. Commander 
Pinares, and Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos. 

9. Capt. Rojo del Rio, in light-colored suit and necktie, embracing Comdr. Rene 
Vallejos, an outstanding physician in the Sierra Maestra, and a pries-t who in 
difficult times hid and protected revolutionists in need of help in the church of 
Manzanillo. 

10. Comdr. Fidel Castro, Rene Rodriguez Cruz, and Capt. Manuel Rojo del 
Rio, conversing on the occasion of the search for Camilo Cienfuegos. 

11. Seated in front with long hair and beard. Captain Mendoza, a Communist, 
principal author of the fall of Comdr. Huber Matos ; Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos ; 
and with a beret and standing, Capt. Ricardo Martinez, former aide to Camilo, 
Chief of the State Press and Radio of the General Staff, etc. This is one of 
the last photographs taken of Camilo Cienfuegos alive. 

12. Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio, Comdr. Humberto Sori Marin, and Comdr. E. 
Escalona, Chief of the Military District of Pinar del Rio. 

13. In dark clothes, Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio. In the center, Capt. Guill^rmo 
Verdaguer, Chief of Operations of the Revolutionary Air Force, and a friend. 

14. Seated in the center, a lady of Mexican nationality, an important Commu- 
nist leader who gave hospitality to many revolutionists, especially to "Che" 
Guevara. This photograph was taken at the Havana Hilton Hotel, on the 
occasion of her visit to Cuba. Behind her are many admirers and Capt. Manuel 
Rojo del Rio. 

15. Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio before the wall against which several war 
criminals were executed watches the bloodstains and impacts on the wall in an 
apartment located in the military barracks of Santa Clara, Province of Las 
Villas. 

16. Rafael Antonio Gonzales Rodriguez, one of the Venezuelans who par- 
ticipated in the invasion of Santo Domingo. 

17. A. G. Blanco, a member of the Venezuelan Embassy in Havana, closely 
connected with Cuban Revolutionary leaders. 



i 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 445 

18. Fidel Castro, Capt. Rojo del Rio and Comdr. Rene Rodriguez. 

19. Last photograph of Camilo Cienfuegos (in Camaguey) before his dis- 
appearance. 

20. Fidel Castro, Rene Rodriguez, and Rojo del Rio. 

21. Capt. Rojo del Rio. 

22. Capt. Rojo del Rio. 

23. Capt. Rojo del Rio and Comdr. Sori Marin and others. 

24. Fidel Castro, Rene Rodriguez, and William Morgan (seated on the wing). 

25. Seated in the center, Captain Mendoza, standing with beret Ricardo Mar- 
tinez, and seated, in profile, Camilo Cienfuegos. 

26. Capt. Rojo del Rio in the search for Camilo. 

27. Capt. Rojo del Rio and Col. Manuel Enrique Guerra from Costa Rica, 
studying the route for the search of Camilo. 

28. In center, Fidel Castro, to his right Capt. Orestes del Rio ; and to Castro's 
left, one of his escorts. 

29. In front, Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos. Rear, left to right, William Galves, 
Inspector General of the Army ; Felix Torres, commanding oflScer in Santa 
Clara : and the commanding ofl!icer of G-1. 

30. Army Chaplain Father Sardinas and Fidel Castro's secretary. 

31. (Stamp:) 25 August 1959 

Ministry of National Defense 
FAR (Rebel Air Force) 
Press Department 

32. ( Stamp : ) Fuerza Aerea Rebelde/Rebel Air Force 

Photograph Department 

Department of Photography and Cartography 

Air Corps 

33. Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos (third from right). Capt. Manuel Rojo del 
Rio (in dark suit), then military intervenor at the Mariano Hipodrome. Two 
other civilian intervenors representing the Mariano City government and the 
Ministry of the Interior. 

34. From right to left : Ex-President of Guatemala Arevalo ; Capt. Antonio 
Nunez Jimenez, formerly chief aide to Dr. Eraesto "Che" Guevara and then 
Director of INRA (National Institute of Agrarian Reform) ; Comdr. Camilo 
Cienfuegos, Chief of Staff of the Revolutionary Army; and (with his back 
to the camera) Raul Castro Ruz, head of the Cuban Army. 

34a. Contains names of persons in f oto No. 34. 

(Rubber stamp : ) Ministry of National Defense 
Army General Staff 
Division of Press and Radio 

35. Photograph of Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio when he was serving in the 
Costa Rican Air Force, established provisionally in 1955 to fight the invaders 
who, according to the OAS report, came from Nicaraguan territory. 

35a. (Typewritten text at top right:) To Captain Alfonso M. Rojo (M. Rojo 
del Rio), A tribute of admiration and friend.ship from the Costa Rican Air Force, 
San Jose, Costa Rica, February 7, 1955. (Rvibber stamp in center:) Air Force, 
Costa Rica. (Signatures.) 

36. In dark suit, Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio, appointed military intervenor 
by Camilla Cienfuegos. The latter is fourth from left and Capt. Jorge Salazar 
y la Rosa at extreme right. 

37. Training paratroopers in San Antonio de los Bano.s, December 2, 1959. 
Chief : Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio. 

38. In center, wearing white helmet, Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio, Chief of the 
Paratroopers of the FAR (Revolutionary Air Force). 

39. Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio, formerly military intervenor at the Marianao 
Hipodrome, aide to Chief of Staff Camilo Cienfuegos, and Chief of Paratroopers 
of the Revolutionary Air Force. 

40. Fidel Castro (holding a glass) and to his right: Comdr. Humberto Sori 
Marin, then Judge Advocate of War and Minister of Agriculture ; Colonel Sala- 
zar, Costa Rican Ambassador; and Manuel Rojo del Rio, aide to Chief of Staff 
Camilo Cienfuegos. 

41. Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio in his ofiice as Chief of Paratroopers of the 
Revolutionary Air Force of Cuba. 

42 and 42a. (First left) Capt. Manuel Iglesias greets a "mascot" oflBcer, Lt. Col. 
Manuel Enrique Guerra of Costa Rica (second from left) and Capt. Manuel Rojo 
del Rio (third). 



446 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

43. Capt. M. Rojo del Rio climbs aboard a plane from which was made a 
parachute jump soon afterward during the training of troops on December 2, 
1959, at San Antonio de los Banos. 

44. Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio assumes an "amusing" pose in the company of 
Comdr. Felix Torres, present Minister of Public Works Osmany Cienfuegos, and 
other persons not identified. 

45. Capt. M. Rojo del Rio puts on his parachute before making a jump to raise 
the morale and train the Cuban Air Force. 

46. Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio, aide to Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos, Chief of 
Staff of the Cuban Revolutionary Army. 

47. (Left to right) Fidel Castro Ruz, Roberto Verdaguer, and Manuel Rojo 
del Rio in the heart of Sierra Maestra. Place, Las Vegas de Jibacoa. Date : 
April 15, 1958. 

48. Celia Sanchez and Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio in the Sierra Maestra, at 
Las Vegas de Jibacoa, April 15, 1958. 

49. Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos (left) pays a tribute of respect to the Argen- 
tine flag the day on which Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio was entertained on the 
occasion of his being granted Cuban nationality. 

50. Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio (in white helmet) with Captain Varona and 
other officers at the air base of San Antonio de los Banos. 

51. Comdr. Ramiro Valdes (in front, wearing Russian cap). Chief of G2, 
Revolutionary Intelligence Service. 

52. Comdr. Rene Rodriguez (standing). Commander Pinares, Chief of train- 
ing camps for the" troops that invaded the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, etc. 
(seated second from left). Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos (seated third from left). 

53. Troops guarding the military prison at Santa Clara, Las Villas. 

54. Comdr. Pinares (center) explains to Camilo Cienfuegos how things are 
in the camps where he was training troops for the invasion of the Dominican 
Republic. 

55. The Chief of the Navy discusses plans. 

56. Comdr. Rene de los Santos, chief of the Fifth Military District in Havana 
(seated). Next to him, standing, Capt. M. Rojo del Rio. 

57. Capt. Rojo del Rio (white shirt) behind the Chief of the Cuban Revolu- 
tionary Police (seated), and to the latter's left, Comdr. Rene Rodriguez. 

58. Seated, watching his secretary's legs, is Sports Director Guerra Matos. 

59. Capt. M. Rojo del Rio (standing and wearing light-colored suit) shakes 
hands with Comdr. Ramiro Valdes, Chief of G2, Revolutionary Intelligence 
Service. 

60. Capt. Rojo del Rio (in front, white coat) in the company of Comdr. Rene 
Rodriguez Cruz, who ordered the execution of several officials of the Batista 
regime, accused of war crimes. 

61. Famous Mexican Communist (seated in center) who gave refuge to "Che" 
Guevara in her home. 

62. Capt. Rojo del Rio (standing, white shirt) speaks to Humberto Sori Marin, 
at that time Minister of Agriculture and Judge Advocate. 

63. Capt. Rojo del Rio (white shirt) to the left of Humberto Sori Marin 
(seated). 

64. The famous Mexican Communist who gave refuge to "Che" Guevara. 

65. Comdr. Luis Orlando Rodriguez, Cuban Ambassador to Venezuela, for- 
merly Minister of the Interior. 

66. Comdr. Lalo Sardinas (front row, second from left) arm in arm with 
Capt. M. Rojo del Rio. 

67. Minister of the Interior Luis Orlando Rodriguez (left) and Capt. M. Rojo 
del Rio. 

68. Capt. Rojo del Rio watches the marks left on a wall after the executions 
that took place in Santa Clara. 

69. Capt. M. Rojo del Rio (standing, in dark suit) at right of Comdr. Cas- 
tineiras, Chief of the Cuban Revolutionary Navy. 

70. Commander Castineiras, head of the Cuban Revolutionary Navy. 

71. Capt. Rojo del Rio (standing, dark suit) with the chiefs of the Revolu- 
tionary Navy and Comdr. Rene Rodriguez Cruz. 

72. Capt. Rojo del Rio (white shirt) and Sori Marin. 

73. The famous Mexican Communist (seated in center) who gave refuge to 
"Che" Guevara in Mexico. 

74. The Chief of the Cuban Revolutionary Police (seated, in profile) con- 
verses with Capt. M. Rojo del Rio, aide to Chief of Staff Camilo Cienfuegos. 



li 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 447 

75. Coma. . Ramiro Valdes (seated, wearing cap, hand on his chin) with ajF 
members of his escort and a lady who was considered a liaison agent. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, We also have received, and I will ask the wifness : 
Have you given us a statement ? 

Captain Roche. Yes. I have. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. This statement, Mr. Chairman, was made by Cap- 
tain Roche at a staff conference attended by an interpreter from the 
Library of Congress. It was transcribed later from notes made by 
Mr. Mandel, our Research Director, who attended that conference. I 
think it is of value in giving something of the witness' background 
and his motivations in a rather venturesome career. I ask, therefore, 
that it be received in evidence. 

Senator Dodd. Very well ; so ordered. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit 1-R" and reads as follows :) 

Exhibit 1-R 

Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche (Relil Name) 

Manuel Rojo Del Rio (Alias) 

Private employment. — From 1953, for a number of years, Del Rio toured 
Colombia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Salvador, Guatemala, and Cuba as a parachutist. 
He was self-employed, using his talents for commercial advertising purposes. 

Biography. — Del Rio is a native Argentinian. 

Military. — In 1942, Del Rio was a mechanic for the Venezuelan Air Force at 
Maracaibo. At that time he was accused by a minority party of killing a 
Communist prizefighter. He was convicted and condemned to 7% years' im- 
prisonment. The killing is alleged to have occurred during a street fight. In 
1955, Del Rio was chief of a division in the Costa Rican Air Force — Armament 
Division. He fought as a plane gunner against the rebel forces. From 1955 to 
1958, he worked for a private airline in Costa Rica. On March 30, 1958, the 
Costa Rican Government under the sponsorship of Figueros sent a plane with 
arms to the Sierra Maestra position of Castro ; participating in this mission 
were three men, including Del Rio, Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, pilot and captain, and 
Roberto Verdaguer as copilot. The latter is now head of the Air Bombing 
Squadron in Cuba. All three participated as Cuban patriots supporting Castro. 
Verdaguer was a follower of Prio. Del Rio was selected to participate because 
of his experience as a artilleryman and parachutist. 

The plane was supposed to return to Costa Rica. It was supposed to be 
burned if attacked. However, the propeller was injured on landing at Sierra 
Maestra and so the plane could not return. Castro was extremely grateful for 
the arms which arrived at a strategic moment. Castro begged Del Rio to train 
his men in the use of 50 mm. machineguns. Del Rio himself participated in 
the battle of San Ramon in April-May 1958. 

Del Rio claims that he came to Cuba for idealistic reasons, having read about 
Castro's career. He left his wife and child in Costa Rica. Castro offered Del 
Rio help to reach his family. Del Rio proceeded to Manzanillo, Cuba, Oriente 
Province, together with William Maclver, an American corre.spondent. Del 
Rio finally got to Havana by bus. He asked Salvador Embassy for asylum. 
This was denied. He also asked the Costa Rican and Argentinian Embassies 
for asylum. Finally, the Costa Rican Embassy gave him a passport to return. 
He returned to Costa Rica by commercial plane. 

Private employment in Costa Rica. — Del Rio arrived in Costa Rica in May 
1958. He became a transportation agent for a private firm but this venture 
was unsuccessful financially. Finally, when Castro came to power, Del Rio left 
for Cuba, arriving on January 8, 1959. 

Del Rio in Cuba. — Del Rio ni'et "Che" Guevara who was an Argentinian, at 
La Cabana Fortress. Del Rio had known him in Sierra Maestra. Guevara 
promised to get Del Rio a job but did not do so. Del Rio contacted Manuel 
Cabrera, an aide to Castro, who has .since died. Cabrera ordered the Hotel 
Hilton to lodge Del Rio and gave him a job as inspector in the National Com- 
mission on Housing, where he served from February to March 1959. 

43354 O— 60— pt. 8 2 



448 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Camilo Cienfuegos, Cuban Chief of Staff of all services, took a liking to Del 
Rio whom he first met at the Hotel Hilton. Cienfuegos looked upon Del Rio 
as a sort of hero. He asked Del Rio to become his aide. According to Del 
Rio, Camilo Cienfuegos was certainly a Communist in his outlook. He may 
not have been a formal party member. 

Osmani Cienfuegos was the brother and executive officer for Camilo Cien- 
fuegos. Osmani was in charge of cultural activities in the Armed Forces. 

Attitude Toirard the U.S.A.— At one time Del Rio heard a conversation — such 
conversations among the elite being as a rule somewhat unguarded — among the 
two Cienfuegos, Raul Castro and "Che" Guevara at which Raul said : "We must 
convince the Latin American countries that the United States is the chief 
enemy." Guevara agreed. Del Rio then realized that he was merely a pawn 
in the hands of an apparatus operating on an international scale. 

Dominican Republic. — In August 1959, "Che" Guevara asked Del Rio to 
aid in a project for the inva.sion of the Dominican Republic. This appeal was 
also voiced by Camilo Cienfuegos. The plan was to proceed by a plane, camou- 
flaged as Dominican, to the Dominican Republic with arms for rebel guerrilla 
forces. They were to use a Venezuelan jjilot who was to receive a payment of 
$10,000. Del Rio was to go along to watch this pilot whose trustworthiness was 
doubtful. The arms on this plane which \^as a C^6 originally came from 
Venezuela. Invasion forces used these arms for training purposes at Pinar 
Del Rio under the command of Commander Pinares who received instructions 
from "Che" Guev.ara. The top chief of the Dominican expedition was Delio 
Gomez Ochoa. 

Del Rio was replaced as copilot by Orestes Acosta, a Cuban. A secret airport 
was maintained at Santa Lucia in Sierra Maestra in connection with the Do- 
minican invasion project. Del Rio saw the troops who were being trained 
and met the chiefs of the expedition at Holguin in Cuba. The invasion forces 
included Venezuelans, Cubans, Dominicans, and one American veteran ba- 
zooka gunner. Del Rio was at Holguin for 3 days. He was asked by Camilo 
Cienfuegos to deliver some lectures to the invasion troops to improve their morale 
and discipline. Del Rio's lectures had little effect. Ochoa was the officer in 
charge at the Santa Lucia airport. 

A participant in the preparation of the Dominican invasion forces was Dr. 
Canto, a wealthy Dominican politician now in Venezuela. 

The plane left for the Dominican Republic with .56 troops aboard on August 
21, 1959, landing at 6 p.m. at Constanza in the Dominican Republic. The pilots 
were Rodriguez and Acosta. Del Rio remained at Santa Lucia. The plane 
carried arms, including Belgian mortars, hand grenades, knives, etc. 

Ten minutes after the departure of the plane Camilo Cienfuegos arrived at 
Santa Lucia. Del Rio reported to him on the disciplinary problem. Both flew by 
helicopter to Manzanillo where they were met by Raul Castro. Del Rio heard 
Raul say that a sea force had also left for the Dominican Republic including a 
frigate of the Cuban Navy. Cienfuegos and Raul then flew to Santiago. Del Rio 
flew by helicopter to Holguin to take custody of a Cuban captain who was 
arrested for refusing to participate in the invasion force. Del Rio took the captain 
to Holguin to the resident military chief. At 8 p.m. that night the C^6 returned 
to Santa Lucia, the expedition having been successful. 

At 3 a.m. at his apartment on 11th Avenue in Havana, Castro received a 
report from Camilo Cienfuegos in Del Rio's presence, about the success of the 
Dominican expedition. Castro was delighted. He pleaded with Del Rio to 
train himself to become a pilot of a B-26 bomber so that he could distribute 
leaflets to the people of the Dominican Republic and food for the invasion forces. 
A later report showed that the sea expedition had been a failure. The air invad- 
ers captured Constanza and established a guerrilla ba.se in the mountains of the 
Dominican Republic. It was expected that the Dominican army would rebel in 
sympathy with the.se forces. 

Arrival in the U.S.A. — Del Rio arrived in Miami from Costa Rica on January 
18, 1960. He had left Cuba on December 24, 1959. Upon his arrival in the 
United States, he sent in his resignation to Commander Sergio Del Valle, Chief 
of the Cuban Air Force. 

CredentiaJs.^La Calle of December 4, 1959, pages 1, 10, shows Del Rio as 
Chief of Parachutists of the Cuban Air Force. 

Dominican Republic. — Del Rio was told that late in January 1960 a plane 
camouflaged as Dominican was to stage a leaflet bombardment in Venezuela in 
order to create dissension between Venezuela and the Dominican Republic. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 449 

Credentials.- — Del Rio became a citizen of Cuba on May 18, 1959. He was a 
citizen of Costa Rica for one month. He has a commendation signed by Camilo 
Cienfuegos dated March 19.59. He has a medical statement citing him as captain 
of paratroopers. He has an authorization from the Cuban Chief of Staff to 
move freely in and out of various areas. Del Rio came to the United States on 
a visitor's vi.sa. 

Quotations from, Castro. — Del Rio was present at a number of staff meetings 
at which conversation was comparatively loose and free. At one such meeting 
in Sierra Maestra, he heard Castro say, "When our revolution ends, we shall 
attack the Dominican Republic. If necessary, we shall fight the U.S.A." This 
interview is quoted in Ultima Noticio, May 3, 19.58, Costa Rica. 

On one occasion at which Castro and his brother, Raul, were present, Fidel 
Castro said. "We must get an individual into the FBI" Castro was seeking in- 
formation to show that the FBI was protecting Major Diaz Lanz, former Chief 
of the Castro Air Force who had turned against Castro and escaped to the 
United States. 

During an auto trip from the airport near Havana to Camilo Cienfuegos' office, 
two days after the arrest of Matos, Castro is quoted as saying, "Some 26th of July 
elements have urged Castro to explain his plans for the future. It is necessary to 
conduct a purge of certain people in the movement who ask such questions." 
Del Rio noticed that the Castro regime was rapidly becoming more and more 
authoritarian, that it was conducting a hate campaign against the U.S.A. and 
that its intentions were not strictly Cuban but international. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Mr. Chairman, as the Chair knows this hearing has 
been somewhat delayed in its commencement. This witness has an 
injury to his leg, and we made arrangements for him to see a doctor 
at 3 :30, and I would respectfully request that the witness be instructed 
to hold himself in readiness for further appearance before the com- 
mittee at the call of the Chair, and we would release him now to go to 
the doctor. 

Senator Dodd. Very well. By all means that is what we will do. 

]Mr, Roche, I would like to state that before being the chief of the 
paratroops in Cuba I Avas an aide to the Chief of Staff of the Anny of 
Cuba, the Revolutionan- Army. 

Mr. SouRAviXE. Camilo Cienfuegos? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. We will cover that testimony fully when you return. 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

(Whereupon, at 3:10 o'clock p.m., the subcommittee recessed, to re- 
convene subject to the call of the Chair.) 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES 
THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 23, 1960 

U.S. Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security 

Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 

or the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Was king ton^D.C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in room 312, 
Old Senate Office Building, Senator Thomas J. Dodd presiding. 

Present : Senators Dodd and Hruska. 

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel, and Benjamin Mandel, 
director of research. 

Senator Dodd. Come to order, please. 

FURTHER TESTIMONY OF ALFONSO MANUEL ROJO ROCHE 
(AS GIVEN THROUGH AN INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Sourwine. Captain, I want to lay a foundation by getting some 
information about your own biography. How old are you ? 

Mr. Eoche. Forty-four years. 

Mr. Sourwine. You were born where ? 

Mr. Roche. In the city in the Province of Buenos Aires in 
Argentina. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you married ? 

Mr. Roche. I am married. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you have any children ? 

Mr. Roche. Five children. 

Mr. Sourwine. Their ages ? 

Mr. Roche. From 6 to 2 years. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have twin girls ? 

Mr. Roche. Two twin girls, 6 years old. 

Mr. Sourwine. Wlien did you first leave Argentina ? 

Mr. Roche. At the end of 1937. 

Mr. Sourwine. Where did you go ? 

Mr. Roche. To Spain, via Paraguay and Brazil. 

Mr. Sourwine. For what purpose did you go to Spain ? 

Mr. Roche. I wanted to volunteer in the Spanish civil war. 

Mr. Sourwine. You worked your way to Europe ? 

Mr. Roche. From Argentina to Rio de Janeiro I paid for my own 
passage, and from Rio de Janeiro to Casablanca, French Morocco, I 
managed to stow away in a French boat. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you in fact volunteer in the Spanish Civil War ? 

451 



452 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. Roche. In Santos, Brazil, I got the passport from the Spanish 
consul, the consul of the Spanish Republic, and from Casablanca to 
Barcelona, Spain, I went with the help of Spanish Republicans, not 
official help. The man who had been consul of Spain in Santos, was 
by that time secretary to the Foreign Minister of Spain, Alvarez del 
Vayo. Secretary's name was former Consul Andres Rodrigues 
Barbatos. 

In Barcelona, Spain, I became disillusioned with the lack of unity, 
with the religious persecution, and I proceeded to get from the Argen- 
tine consul's office a passport in order to leave for France. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You did not, then, join the Republican Army? 

Mr Roche. On the contrary, I did not join the Spanish Republican 
forces. Rodriguez Barbatos, the former consul, learned of my inten- 
tion, my decision to leave Barcelona and called me to his office and 
he expressed his annoyance at my failing to join the Republican forces. 
I left for Perpignan, France, 2 months after my arrival in Barcelona. 
French authorities arrested me, detained me, because I did not have 
the proper French visa. And I then, in order not to be arrested, joined 
the Foreign Legion. 

Mr. Sourwine. That was in January 1939 ? 

Mr. Roche. No, it was 1938. It may have been 1939. In 1938 I 
was in Barcelona, and it must have been 1939 when I joined the Foreign 
Legion of France. 

Mr. Sourwine. How long were you in the Foreign Legion ? 

Mr. Roche About 3 months. From France we went to head- 
quarters in French Morocco — in Algiers. 

Mr. Sourwine. How did you leave the Foreign Legion ? 

Mr. Roche. I was going through the period of training and testing 
of candidates for the Foreign Legion. Before I was eligible, and 
before I would have received a 5,000-franc sum of money, I was so 
displeased with the Foreign Legion, I was not interested in it, and 
I deserted. 

Mr. Sourwine. Let me point out to the witness that we have a 
limited time this morning, and I would appreciate it if he would keep 
his ansAvers as short as he can, consistent with keeping the record 
straight. 

Mr. Roche. I understand perfectly well. 

Mr. Sourwine Thank you. Much of what I am asking about now 
can be answered briefly, because it is simply background. 

After you left the Foreign Legion, you worked in France for a 
Spanish commission ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. For how long ? 

Mr. Roche. Until the end of May 1939. 

Mr. Sourwine. And this Spanish commission was under the Franco 
government, right ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, it was indirectly, because it was not a govern- 
mental commission, but a private corporation, under the blessing of 
the government of Franco. 

Mr. Sourwine. And your work included intelligence work against 
Communist activity in France? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, it did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, when you left that work, did you also leave 
Europe and return to South America? 



COIVIMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 453 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And what line of work did you pursue when you 
got back to Soutli America ? 

Mr. Roche. I worked in Venezuela with the Ministry of War and 
Navy. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And were you in 1943 accused of a crime ? 

Mr. Roche. The 7th of September of 1942 I was accused of having 
committed a crime. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The crime that you were charged with was 
homicide ? 

Mr. Roche. It was homicide in a fight. 

Mr. SouKwixE. AVere you guilty of that crime? 

Mr. Roche. Xo, I was not. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You were, however, convicted on circmnstantial 
evidence? 

Mr. Roche. I was convicted on circumstantial evidence, 

Mr. SouRwixE. To summarize what you have told us in staff con- 
ference, the man who was killed was killed with a gun; there was 
never any testimony to connect you with the gun. Is that right? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, that is what I maintained. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You also told us tliat you were tried before a Com- 
munist judge, one Oracio Prosales. 

Mr. Roche. Yes, both the judge and his son had extreme leftist 
tendencies. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And you were originally sentenced to 12 to 18 years, 
but on appeal this Avas reduced to 7i/2 years? 

Mr. Roche. The judge's sentence for 12 to 18 years was invalidated 
by a higher court, and the higher court condemned me to 7 years 6 
months 6 weeks and 16 hours. 

Mr. SouRwix-^E. And you actually served over 9 years, did you not? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, 9 years. 

Mr. SouRw^ixE. Because in Venezuela, all the time prior to the 
termination of the appeal is lost, it is not counted on tlie sentence. 

Xow, after you got out of jail, were you deported from Venezuela? 

Mr. Roche. Immediately after leaving jail, I was arrested and I 
was deported to Buenos Aires — 1951 or 1952. I was free at the end 
of 1951. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And deported at the beginning of 1952? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwix'e. That was by order of wliom ? 

Mr. Roche. By order of the chief of the secret service of President 
Perez, Gen. Pedro Estrada, the chief of the secret service. 

Mr. SouRWix'E. You were deported as a subversive? 

Mr. Roche. Only later, much later, I found out that that was the 
reason for having deported me. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, you were deported to Argentina. You went 
from there, at the end of 1952, to Chile, is that right ? 

Mr. Roche. In the second half of 1952, 1 did go to Chile and Peru. 

Mr. SouRwix'E. You were in Peru for 2 months ? 

Mr. Roche. About 2 months. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Working for an official of the United Nations ? 

Mr. Roche. An official of the United Nations in Peru was investi- 
gating white slavery. Communist infiltration, and the money opera- 



454 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

tions, and I worked for him. The newspapers in Peru very favorably 
reported the activities of the U.N. official, and the chief of police or- 
dered me to leave the country. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You then went to Ecuador? 
Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You were in Ecuador about a year? 
Mr, Roche. About a year. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you went from there to Costa Rica ? 
Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SorRwiNE. You worked as an airplane mechanic and as a 
parachute jumper? 

Mr. Roche. In Costa Rica I worked for the airlines, Laxa, a pri- 
vate concern. This was after having spent a little time in Ecuador 
and Colombia, fjiving exhibitions of parachute jumping. And I mar- 
ried in Costa Rica. 

Mr. Sourwine, You spent 1 month working as an officer in the Air 
Force of Costa Rica ? 
Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNte. Did you, in 1958, about March, fly from Costa Rica 
to Cuba ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. Yes, I did — to the Sierra Maestra in Cuba. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you fly in a Costa Rican airplane? 
Mr. Roche. It was a Costa Rican airplane, belonging to the Na- 
tional Airlines. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Who piloted the aircraft? 
Mr, Roche. The pilot was Pedro Diaz Lanz. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. '\\niat did the airplane carry ? 

Mr. Roche. It carried 12 persons and 125,000 bullets; also mortars, 
mortar bullets, two machineguns, 57 submachineguns, 13 or 15 ma- 
chineguns M-3, and Mauser rifles. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Now, who sent these arms and to whom were they 
sent? 

Mr, Roche. They were sent by the President of Costa Rica. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. To whom ? 
Mr. Roche. Sent to Fidel Castro. 
Mr, SouRWiNE, As a present ? 
Mr, Roche, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Castro was then in the Sierra Maestra? 
Mr. Roche. Yes, lie was in the Sierra Maestra, 
Mr, Sourwine. Who was sent in charge of this arms shipment ? 
Mr, Roche, I was the one who had the technical — who was tech- 
nically responsible for those armaments arriving safely there. And 
if we had any difficulties, I was supposed to throw them over out of 
the plane by parachute. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, when the airplane got to Cuba, did it smash 
up? 

Mr, Roche, The plane, on landing, hit something and the left 
propeller was affected. It was not a very serious thing. 
Senator Hruska, Wliat type of plane was it? 
Mr, Roche, ItwasaC-46, 

Mr, Sourwine, Did you then join the forces of Fidel Castro? 
Mr. Roche. My commitment to the President of Costa Rica was 
that my mission should end as soon as these arms were delivered to 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 455 

Castro. Once the cargo was delivered, the persons responsible for 
those arms was Matos ; Hubert Matos. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. My question was whether you joined the forces of 
Fidel Castro. 

Mr. Roche. Yes, immediately after landing I joined the forces of 
Fidel Castro. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you taught gunnery ? 

Mr. Roche. Although I did not have — I was not a professional in 
these military matters, Fidel Castro asked me to train his men to 
use machineguns 50. 

Mr. Sourwine. .50 caliber machineguns ? 

Mr. Roche. .50 caliber machineguns. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you participate in any battles in the spring of 
1958? 

Mr. Roche. I did participate in the combat at San Ramon, in 1958. 

Senator Dodd. How many men were engaged by Castro in that 
battle? 

Mr. Roche. We were 90 men who attacked this town, but we had 
800 more men hidden inside the town. 

Mr. Sourwine. In the Sierra Maestra you got to know Castro quite 
well, did you not ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, he got to like me very much because he saw in me a 
courageous man and a very bold man, and that type of man appealed 
to him. 

Mr. Sourwine. You also got to know "Che" Guevara quite well ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. I should like to ask you at this time to identify 
various photographs. This is a photograph I have, marked "A" on 
the back. MHiat does that photograph show ? 

Mr. Roche. Here I am with "Che" Guevara. 

(The photograph was marked "Exhibit 2-R" and is reproduced 
on page 456.) 

Mr. Sourwine. When was this taken ? 

Mr. Roche. In April 1958, in Las Vegas. 

Mr. Sourwine. This is one of a group of photographs which we 
had printed from negatives which you gave us; is that correct? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, it is so. 

Mr. Sourwine. And they were all taken during this period when 
you were in the Sierra Maestra in the spring of 1958 ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, they were. 

Mr. Sourwine. And how did you get these films out of Cuba ? 

Mr. Roche. I liid them. The negatives I sent by mail to my name 
addressed to the Argentine Embassy in Costa Rica. 

Mr. Sourwine, And the mail got through? 

Mr. Roche. And the mail got through. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, some of these photographs are suit- 
able for reproduction ; some are a trifle out of focus. I suggest the 
order be that they all be received in evidence, subject to printing as 
the chairman may later direct. 

Senator Dodd. Very well. 

(Several of the photographs referred to are printed on this and 
following pages. Other were retained in subcommittee files. All 
photo captions are by the witness. It will be noted that Roche iden- 

43354 O— 60— pt. 8 3 



456 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



1 



Exhibit No. 2-R 




Capt. Rojo Roche (left) with "Che" Guevara, now head of the National 

Bank of Cuba. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 457 

tified himself in the picture legends by his alias, "Capt. Manuel Rojo 
del Eio.") 

(Photographs marked Exhibits No. 3-R and 4^R are printed on 
page 458.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I will show you all these pictures and ask you 
to place captions on each of them, to show what the picture is. And 
I will ask, Mr. Chairman, that the pictures as so captioned by the 
witness may be received as ordered. 

Senator Dodd. Very well. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Now, while we are on the subject of pictures, we 
have here a number of other pictures which appear to have been taken 
not in the Sierra Maestra, but in Havana and other places. I ask 
that you provide captions for these pictures also. And I ask that 
they may be received under the same order and the same way as 
the others. 

Senator Dodd. Very well. 

(A photo of Captain Roche viewing the execution wall was marked 
"5-R" and is reproduced on page 459.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, at this point it occurs to me that 
the statement by this witness which was ordered into the record in 
yesterday's brief hearing is in Spanish. I would suggest an amend- 
ment of the order by which it was received so that the statement itself 
becomes a part of our evidence, but that an English translation goes 
into the record. 

Senator Dodd. That will be done. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Mr. Chairman, we have here certain credentials 
of this witness. To save time, may I ask that these credentials, sepa- 
rately, and also a list of them, may go in the record at this point? 

Senator Dodd. Yes. 

(The data referred to above was received in evidence and is listed 
below as Exhibits Nos. 6-R and 7-R :) 



458 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



Exhibit No. 3-R 




Commander E. Almejeiras, Chief of Cuba's Revolutionary Police, sitting in 
front ; with moustache, Commander Rene Rodriguez, executor of the war crim- 
inals in Santa Clara, Province of Las Villas, and Captain Manuel Rojo del 
Rio, Aide to the Chief of Staff of Cuba's Revolutionary Army. 

Exhibit No. 4-R 




Seated in front with long hair and beard, Captain Mendoza, a Communist, prin- 
cipal author of the fall of Commander Huber Matos; Commander Camilo 
Cienfuegos, and, wearing a beret and standing, Captain Ricardo Martinez, 
former Aide to Camilo, Chief of the State Press and Radio of the General 
Staff, etc. This is one of the last photographs taken of Camilo Cienfuegos. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 459 



Exhibit No. 5-R 




Captain Manuel Rojo del Rio before the wall against which several war criminals 
were executed views the bloodstains and scars on the wall in an apartment 
located in the military barracks of Santa Clara, Province of las Villas. 



460 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

(Exhibit 6-R) 

pcx:ket identification cards 

Aviator's license #1269 Issued by Civil Aeronautic 
Commission of Cuba- to Roj« Roche for 1959 • 

Credentials as newspaperman Issued July 1» 1958 
by Civil Aeronautics Director of Costa Rica, 

Military aviation license for Cuba, dated Sept» 

9, 1959. 

Assignment by Camllo Clenfuegos as aide to 

the Chief of Staff, April 25, 1959. 

Identification card No. Ol].77 as employe of 
Coata Rlcan private airline. Dated Dec, 31, 1958. 

Card pf identification as Captain, Airforce, 
Cost* Rica (?) 



4 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 461 

(Exhibit 7-R) 
DCXUMENTS 

1. Pass issued January 10, 1959 by the Cuban Ministry of 
National Defense to Captain Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche 
for unlimited access to and departure from Ciudad Militar 
( Military City ) . ( Reproduction follows ) 



OXUTKUO Vi. BEIi.;SA .HACIONA.L 



\ 



r-TT-'-T •> 



JiuduJ «lli-»r, 10 lincro ie 19^-9. 



A .^.uiat pu:%DA iWT:..^:z;;tH: 

^•* autoriza al -^nrltAn -.I.^IJC UAN'!:^. HCJO 
H0CH8, conocido prof esionalBcnte cobo Capitan Manuel :<o- 
Jo del Hio, para ent-rar y salir, sin li«itjci6n de f'.-cha, 
e:. cualquier hora del dia o de la noche en esta Jiudad Ml 
lltar. 






* 









Cufflilo CienfLegon, 
Comandance, Jc:i: ie las i'uerza:: de Tierra, 
Mar y Aire e la Irovincla de la Habana. 



462 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

2 Letter dated February 28, 1959, from Rene Rodrigues Cniz, 
President of the National Housing Commission, to Dr. Luis 
Rausche, of the Ministry of the Presidency, extolling 
Manuel Rojo de Rio as a hero of the Cuban Revolution and 
requesting arrangements for his wife and five children 
to be brought to Cuba from Costa Rica. 
( Translation follows ) 



Republic of C uba 
National Housing Commission 
Vedado, Havana 

February 28, 1959 



Dr. Louia Buach 

Miniater of the Preaidency 
Preaent 

Dear Dr. Buach:. 

Captain Alfonao Manuel Rojo Roche, profeaaionally known 
aa the famoua aviator and parachutiat. Manuel Rojo del Rio. waa 
one of the membera of the crew that tranaported the firat ahip- 
nnent of weapona to the Sierra Maeatra. He alao participated in 
varioua battlea with our glorioua Rebel Army. 

Hia family, compoaed of hia wife and five minor children, 
ia preaently in Coata Rica; and. aa ia natural, he aeeka to have 
hia family tranaferred to thia Capital. 

Aa thia matter involvea a companion of arnna. whoae merita 
you may appreciate. I would be moat grateful if you would iaaue the 
ordera required to the Department concerned, in order to facilitate 
the neceaaary arrangementa for the tranafer of thia family. 

Thanking you in advance for your kind attention in thia matter, 

I take the opportunity to remain 

Youra, with the nnoat conaideration 
/a/ Rene Rodriguez 

Rene Rodriguez Cruz 
SEAL: National Houaing Preaident, National Houaing Commieaion. 

Commieaion 
Preaidency 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 463 

Statement by Rene Rodriguez Cruz, of the Cuban Government 
Department of Housing, dated March 12, 1959, referring to 
the service of Captain Rojo in bringing in arms from Costa 
Rica and his subsequent service under Castro, and 
recommending him for Cuban citizenship. 
( Translation follows) 

Republic of Cuba 
National Housing Commission 
Vedado, Havana 



TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: 

The undersigned, Comnnander Rene Rodriguez Cruz, 
Expeditionary of "Gramma", certifies he is personally acquainted 
with Captain Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche , professionally known as 
Manuel Rojo del Rio, and as having been one of the crewmen of 
the airplane that transported the first weapons to the Sierra 
Maestra on March 30, 1958. 

He later participated in combats and troop training missions, 
with 50-caliber machine guns, under the orders of Commander 
Fidel Castro. 

This certification is subnnitted in Roche's behalf to 
accredit him as an active men-iber of our glorious revolutionary 
movement, and so that he may have known in the Ministry of State, 
or other agency, his purpose to establish his residence in Cuba, 
and to effect his naturalization, 

A photograph of Captain Roche is attached to the margin 

hereof. 

I si Rene Rodriguez 

Commander Rene Rodriguez Cruz 
Havana, March 12, 1959 

SEAL: National Housing Commission 
Presidency 

43354 O— 60— pt. 8 4 



464 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

4. otateracnt by CJamiio Cienfuegos, Chief of Staff of the Cuban 
Revolutionary Army, dated .-larch 27, 1959, referring to the 
service of Captain Hojo in bringing in arras from Costa Rica 
and his subsequent service under Castro, and recommending 
him for Cuban citizenship. 
( Translation follows ) 

Chief of SUff EMI». Ciudad UberUd (Liberty Cit> 

Army 27 March 1959 

"Year of Liberation" 



TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: 

The undersigned. Commander Camilo Cienfuegos. Chief of 
Staff. Revolutionary Army, certifies he is personally acquainted 
with CapUln Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche, professionally known as 
Manuel Rojo del Rio. and that he (Rojo) had been one of the crewmen 
of the airplane that transported the first weapons to the Sierra 
Maestra on March 30, 1958. 

He later participated in combats and in troop- training 
missions, with 50 -caliber machine guns, under the orders of 
Commander Fidel Castro. 

This certification is submitted In Roche's behalf to accredit 
him as an active member of our glorious revolutionary movement 
26th of July and so that he may have known In the Ministry of Sute. 
or other agency, his purpose to establish his residence In Cuba, 
and to effect his naturalisation. 

A photograi h of Captain Roche Is atUched to the margin hereof. 

/s/ Camilo Cienfuegos 

Camilo Cienfuegos 
Chief of StUl- of the 
Revolutionary Army Command 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 465 

5. statement issued April 4, 19b9, by Captain Jorge Salazar y La Rosa, 
Chief of Squadron 56 PRR, to the effect that the captain of the 
Rebel f-ra)f Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche, known professionally as 
Manuel Rojo del Rio, CHE 50, is a member of the staff of and 
under the direct orders of the Conraander in Chief of the Rebel 
Army} and that his services will be made use of in accordance 
with orders received. 
( Translation follows ) 



Republic of Cuba 

Ministry of National Defense 

Army 



Marianao 
April 4, 1959 
Squadron 56 PRR.- 



TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: 

By order of Comniander Camilo Cienfuegos and 

by confirmation by this office of the above date, you are advised 
that Captain of the Rebel Army, Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche, 
known professionally as Manuel Rojo del Rio. CHE 50, belongs 
to the staff under the direct orders of the Commander in Chief 
of the Rebel Army; and that the undersigned. Captain Jorge 
Salazar y La Rosa. Chief of Squadron 56 PRR, will dispose 
of his services in respect to orders received. 

/s/ Jorge Salazar 

Jorge Salazar y La Rosa 

Captain 

Chief, Squadron 56 PRR 



lEAL: Republic of Cuba 
Army 

Squadron 56 PRR 
Marianao Captaincy 



466 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



6. Certificate of Cuban citizenship Issued May 18, 1959 to 
Alfonso 'Manuel Rojo Roche. (Reproduction follows) 



11 iMinifitrn ht Eataiin ht la S^publira b? ffluba 



Por la prrarntr ifstt constar: 
^AM^n/e (Harta br (Siuiia&anta. <Tu^i>«<s<n3& <»» »/»*^ J»/x^Uf%*Aia»*o J» iSi/a^. 



>- j^A 



o 



Rnna dOvktcKsado 




Regi«rad« al n6mcro ^S^- folio -Z^- del Ubrty -'V'J - 

Rtgisiro Civil dc ^ ^/?CT/y^^^ > i^CTcr/?g 

Kollo No -4^SZ. Tcmo No ~ /4^- 

 ,,-J.fmf No '/^USO 6t \^- SO 

-RATIS d. acurriln con cl Artlculo 14 de U Constltucl6n 
■ifranudo ^* ■» v-fc*-^™^^^ 

Jefc del Ncgociad^ 




^-. 



. CL^-vc- — A\ 



IM,--;R0 de ' STADO. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 467 

7. Letter of June 4, 1959, from C ami lo Cienfuegos, JEfAER, to 
Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, Chief of FAR, Airport, Cuidad Libertad 
(City of Liberty), requesting authorization for pilot 
instruction, airplane and helicopter, for Captain Alfonso 
i.ianuel Rojo Roche. 
( A reproduction and translation follow ) 



EMEK, Ciudad Libertad, 4 t/un-959.- 
"A f: de la L 1 B L 1. A C I t) N " 



Al Condt(Eli) Pedro Luis Diaz Lans, 

Jefe de la FAR. 

Aerop, Ciudad Liber^^ad,- 



Co" panero:- 

Ten/^o el ^onor de dirip'ir-Mr a lid, oart rear. 
le, de ser posible, le sea concedida al 3anioan(Lr. ) Alfoi.so t-k 
nuel Ho jo Koche, autorizaci(5n para roalizar /mrIog ^e en :rena^ 
:riento -n A/ioiies y nelic6ptero3 if --•«.! .•''"»:■; a;f co o sc le d( 
sii^ne cl irisiructor correspcndiente pari dxchas pr-^cticas, 

A^radeci^ndole, la atencion que presi-e a est< 
asunto, queda de Id, auentamente. 

"UJElvTAD iMUEKrE" 



Carnilo Gienfue,^os- 
CCG/arv.- JEMER.- 



468 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

EMER, Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) 

4 June 1959 

"Year of Liberation" 



To: Commander (ER) Pedro Luis Diaz Lans 

Chief of the Rebel Air Force 
Airport, Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) 



Companion: 

I have the honor of addressing you to request, if it be 
possible, that Captain (ER) Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche, be 
granted authority to engage in flight training on airplanes and 
Helicopters of the Rebel Air Force (FAR); so that he may be 
designated an instructor for said skills. 

Thanking you for the attention you nnay give this matter, 
I rennain yours attentively. 

"Liberty or Death" 

( Signature illegible ) 

Camilo Cienfuegos, 
JEMER.- 

CCG/arv.- 



8. Official order of Cuban Rebel Army dated August 31, 1959, 
transferring Captain Manuel Rojo Roche to the Transportation 
Division (squadron) of the same comoand. 



COMMUXIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 469 

9. Record of a telephone message September 1, 1959, confirming 
transfer of Captain Alfonso Rojo Roche to the Transportation 
Division. 



10. official order of Cuban Rebel /my dated iepteraber 1, 1939, 
designating Captain Alfonso .'.ianuel Rojo y Roche as Chief 
of the / irborne Division (t-aratrocpers) of F.A.R. in 
Ciudad Libertad and in oan Antonio de los Bancs. 
( Reproduction and translation follow ) 



Chief, Rebel Air Force 
Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) 
1 September 1959 
"Year of Liberation" 



Subject: Designation of Division Chief 

To: Dir Per A-1 de la FAR 

(Director, Personnel, A-1 Section of the Rebel 
Air Force V) 



This document serves to advise you that Captain 

Alfonso Manuel Rojo y Roche has been designated as Chief 

of the Airborne Division (Paratroopers) of the Rebel Air 

Force (FAR) in Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) and in 

San Antonio de los Banos. 

At the same time, you are advised that said Captain 

will assume his duties effective today, 1 September 1959. 

Yours respectfully, 

'Liberty or Death" 

/s/ J. Alemiida Bosque 

Juan Alemida Bosque 
Commander in Chief of the 
Rebel Air Force (FAR) 

SEAL: Ministry of National Defense 
Rebel Air Force (FAR) 
Headquarters 



470 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



Jer FAR, Cdad Lib«rtad 

1 3«pt 959 

"aSo db la LIBBHACIOI". 



A3UNT0 :■> Designacl^n d« Jsfattira. 
AL t" Dir Per A-1 de la FAR. 

Se haoe cons tar madlante el presente escrlto 
que el Capt. Alfonso Manuel Rojo y Roohe ha sido desig- 
nado como Jefe del Departamento de Paracaldaa de la 
F.A.R. en Ciudad Libertad y en San Antonio de los Bailos. 

Al miamo tiempo ae haoe aaber que dicho Capl-> 
t^ empezar^ a ejercer sus funciones desde el dfa de hoy 
Iro. de L>eptiefflbre de 1939* 




De Ud. Reapetuosaaente 
"Libertad o Huerte** 



COML., _ TFE F A R- 




COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 471 

11. Communication, dated oeptember 29, 1959, from Raul Castro, 
commander in chief of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, 
directing that Captain Alfonso Rojo Roche be transferred 
from the Axmed Forces Transportation School to C.G.F.A.R. 
(FAR-Fuerza Aerea Rebelde - Rebel Air Force) 



12. Letter of resignation dated wctober IG, 1959, from Captain 
Alfonso i.lanuel Rojo Roche to Juan Almeida, Chief of the 
Cuban Airforce, reiterating his gratitude for the confidence 
shown in him as demonstrated by his various assignments. 
( Translation follows ) 



Republic of Cuba 

Ministry of National Defense 

Rebel Air Force 

Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) 
October 10, 1959 



Connnnander Juan Almeida 
Chief, Rebel Air Force (FAR) 



I request that you refer to the appropriate authority my 
(petition for) discharge from the Army to which I have the 
honor of belonging. I take this opportunity to reiterate once 
again my gratitude for the confidence shown in me by the 
various duties I have been assigned for carrying out. 

By taking this action, I leave the way clear to other 
comrades, who at the end of the Revolution still remain in the 
service, to advance to the sanne rank as the undersigned, whose 
modest participation -- opportune and effective (though it was) 
-- was not as nneritorious as that of others. 

Inl A. M. Rojo 

Captain Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche 
Chief, Airborne Division (Paratroopers] 
Rebel Air Force (FAR) 

43354 O— 60— pt. S 5 



472 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

13. Metnorandura dated October 2i, 1959, from Captain Alfonso 
Manuel Rojo Roche to his superiors relative to the 
incursion of "pirate" airplanes over Cuban soil. 



14. Official record of a telephone message dated November 8, 1959, 
directing Captain Manuel de Jesus Rojo Roche to report 
immediately to the Cuban Air Force Headquarters. 

15. Official notification of the admission on December 2, 1959, 
of Ooptain Alfonso i-i. Rojo Roche to the "Dr. C. J. Finlay" 
i.'iilitar Hospital. 

16. A Cuban Government prescription form (undated) containing so 
medica" direction (illegible) in respect to injuries suffered 
by Captain Alfonso Rojo Roche, Chief of the Airborne Division 
( Paratroopers) . 

17. Official Cuban Army medical statement dated December 2, i9C»9, 
relating to multiple serious injuries suffered by Captain 
Alfonso wlanuel Rojo Roche in a parachute landing. 

18. Letter dated December 3, 1959, from First Lieutenant 
Jose A. Vazquez y tJerey, secretary of the i.iilitary Hospital 
at Ciudad Libertad, Cuba, transmitting the above medical 
statement (item 4) to the Chief of the Airborne Division. 

19. Letter of December 7, 1959, addressed to the /djutant 
(Ceneral?) of the Cuban Army, by Captain Alfonso Manuel 
h. Roche, Chief of the /irborne Division (Paratroopers) 
requesting permission to absent himself for a period of 30 
days starting December 23, 1959, for the purpose of spending 
the Christmas holidays vjith his family in Costa Rica; that 
this leave would not seriously affect the service since he 
was on 90 day reduced duties as a result of an accident} 
and requesting a leave permit so he could obtain a passport. 



20. 



i-etter dated uecember 7, 1959, from the Cornmanaer of the 
Cuban Rebel Air Force, to the Cuban Department of State 
requesting a special passport to enable Captain Alfonso 
•vianuel Rojc to travel to Costa Rica on official business. 
( Translation follows ) 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 473 

Republic of Cuba 

Ministry of National Defense 

Rebel Air Force 

Chief, Rebel Air Force (FAR) 
Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) 
7 December 1959 
"Year of Liberation" 



To: 



Director 

Special Passports 
Ministry of State 
Havana 



Sir: 

I request that you prepare a Special Passport for 
Captain Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche, who is being transferred 
to Costa Rica, on official business authorized by this Command. 

Thanking you in advance, I remain yours attentively. 

(Signed ?) 

Del Valle Jimenez 
Commander in Chief 
Rebel Air Force (FAR) 



SEAL: Ministry of National Defense 
Rebel Air Force 
Headquarters 



474 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

21. Letter dated Jeceraber 9, i9t59, from the co-iunander of the 
Cuban Rebel Air Force, to Ramiro Valdes, Chief of G-2 
(intelligence?), stating that the Air Force has no 
objection to the absence from Cuba of Captain Rojo Roche, 
and asking if G-2 had any objection to his absence. 

22. Letter of December 9, 1959, from Captain Rojo, to the Chief 
of the Cuban Rebel Airforce, requesting a passport to Costa 
Rica to visit his family, in view of his 90 days medical leave. 
( Translation follows ) 



Republic of Cuba 

Ministry of National Defense Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) 

Rebel Air Force 9 December 1959 



To: Commander Ramiro Valdes 

Chief of G-2 
EMER 



Having been licensed for a period of 30 days and having 
been granted 90 days' absence from service, due to an accident 
received in perfornnance of professional services in the Depart- 
ment under my charge, according to accompanying certificates 
from the Chief of the Rebel Air Force (FAR) and the Military 
Hospital, I request your assistance in expediting an official 
Passport so that I may undertake a trip to the Republic of 
Costa Rica, where my famiily resides. 

LIBERTY OR DEATH 

(Signature illegible) 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 475 

23. Certificate of the Cuban Rebel Alrforce dated Jecember 10, 19^9, 
which states that Captain Rojo, under Its order, Is serving 
as Chief of the Airborne Division (Paratroopers) and has 
fought in the Sierra I'Aaestra, and that he was a member of the 
crew of the plane TI 1C19 which first flew arms from Costa Rica 
to the Sierra Maestra. 
( Reproduction and translation follow ) 

REPUBLICA DE CUBA 
llNlSTERiO DE DEFENSA NaCIONAL 



FUERZA AERKA REBELDE 



ClTidad Ub«rtad,Diclembr« 10 d« 1959 



S?for 

Coairionedo Jef« Xaonlca Aeronautlea 

Prer*r.t«« 



CFRTIFICQ QUE ; 

l1 portador de la pre5ente,C-pitan T»k,a las ordenes 
de La Fuerza A^rea RBVoluolonarla,e'St5 preati-.-.ao .servicios en 
cj.ts. ccno Jofe aol Departconento de Parr-caidas y ha combatido 
en i'a 'Jierr? '^rrtra,habiendo sldo uno de loo primeroe brlpu- 
liTXee del r\'lcn TI 1019 que bajo el inando ael Capit&n Rober- 
to V€Tdi-t;uer ccndujeron Ine priner&F annas dosde Cosca Rica 
c le Sierra I'i-eatra, 

Vl Bscncionado Capitan RoJo' tiene ©ntrenamlento y vue^ 
la cvioncot B Helper X22 y Trlj>aice^pertenocient«3 a la F.A.R, 





Guillermo V/ 




476 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



Republic of Cuba 

Ministry of National Defense 

Rebel Air Force 



Ciudad Libertad (Liberty City) 
December 10. 1959 



Mr. CommisBioner 

Chief of Technical Aeronautics 

Present 

I CERTIFY THAT: 

The bearer of this document. Captain P. A. (?), at the 
orders of the Revolutionary Air Force, is rendering services 
as Chief of the Airborne Division (Paratroopers) and has 
fought in the Sierra Maestra, having been one of the first 
crewmen of the TI 1019 airplane, which, under the command of 
Captain Roberto Verdaguer, transported the first weapons from 
Costa Rica to the Sierra Maestra. 

The above-mentioned Captain Rojo has had training and 
flies the Peiper A22 and Tripaice (?) belonging to the Rebel 
Air Force (FAR). 

/s/ Guillermo Verdaguer 

Guillermo Verdaguer Boan 
Captain (P. A.) 
Chief of Operations 
Rebel Air Force Base 
SEAL: Ministry of National Defense 
Rebel Air Force 
Operations 

SEAL: Ministry of National Defense 
Rebel Air Force 
Headquarters, Airborne Division 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 477 

24. Letter dated December ii, 1959, from Captain Alfonso ..'i. bojo y 
Roche to his Payiaaster authorizing and requesting that his 
pay for the present month and any necessary subsequent months 
be sent to his credit in Costa Rica. 

25. Permit issued Liecember 22, 1959, by the Cuban ..dnistry of 
Revolutionary Axraed Forces to Captain Alfonso ..lanuel Rojo 
Roche to absent himself from Cuba during the month of 
January, 19L0. 

26. statement of Jorge Jalazar y La Rosa, Chief of Squadron 56, PRR, 
in respect to certain counterrevolutionary activities (details 
on separate sheets attached), and designating Captain .-lanuel 
Rojo del Rio as his personal representative to investigate 
those activities, (undated) 



478 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Also, is this a photostat of a book which you gave 
us? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, it is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The title page of a book written by Gen. Alberto 
Bay o ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. We will have questions about General Bayo. May 
this be offered for the record also? 

Senator Dodd. It may be received. 

(The Bayo manual was marked "Exhibit No. 8-R" and the cover 
is reproduced on page 479 : ) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You left the Sierra Maestra after receiving Castro's 
permission to go back to your wife in Costa Rica ? 

Mr. Roche. Lately — just recently? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. No, in 1958. 

Mr. Roche. I demanded that I be allowed to leave the Sierra be- 
cause my commitment was completed. And I wanted to leave the 
Sierra Maestra. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And did you leave? You went to Manzanillo in 
Oriente Province, with William Maclver, an American newspaper 
correspondent ? 

Mr. Roche. I left the Sierra with two North Americans, one of 
them the person you named, Maclver. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And the other? 

Mr. Roche. I do not remember the name of the other. I have the 
address of Maclver, and I gave it to the chief counsel. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You finally got to Havana by bus ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. You sought asylum at various embassies unsuccess- 
fully? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine, Finally the Costa Rican Embassy gave you a pass- 
port? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. And you flew back to Costa Rica by private air- 
plane. 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. It was the airline Laxa. 

Mr. Sourwine. After Castro came to power, you returned to Cuba, 
arriving there on January 8, 1959 ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, on that date. 

Mr. Sourwine. You went to see "Che" Guevara, who was a fellow 
Argentine and whom you had known at the Sierra ISIaestra ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. He had promised to get you a job ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, he had. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did he do so? 

Mr. Roche. No, he did not. 

Mr. Sourwine. You then contacted Manuel Cabrera? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. Cabrera was the chief of the chief of 
staff's escort group. 

Senator Dodd. What group are you talking about ? 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 479 

Exhibit No. 8-R 

liK\KltlLILnTOI!l\0 

llhTlt IIMIKVIt PRKiinns 

i.ii-:iti!iLLi':iiii 



^r Kimiin 



I.JI llfihann. If»r»fl 
.%rbo fie In IJh«'rlnfl 



480 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. Roche. The group of aides of the chief of staff of the army, 
of the Cuban revolutionary army. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. He was an aide to Castro ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, aide-de-camp. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And Cabrera is dead now ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, he is dead. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Cabrera got you lodgings at the Havana Hilton ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did he give you a job in the National Commission 
on Housing? 

Mr. Roche. No, that job I got, but it was Comdr. Rene Rodriguez 
who got me that job. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You served on that job for about a month, Feb- 
ruary to March? 

Mr. Roche. About a month and a half. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. During that time you met Camilo Cienfuegos? 

Mr. Roche. I met Cienfuegos at the Havana Hilton. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And Cienfuegos was chief of staff of all services of 
the Cuban Army? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, for all the services. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. He took a liking to you ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, he did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. He asked you to become his aide ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you do so? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I accepted that and resigned my job in the hous- 
ing commission. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you had a commission in the Cuban Army as 
aide to Cienfuegos ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, as a captain. 

Mr. Sourwine. The documents showing his identification as a cap- 
tain are already in the record. 

Did you come to know Osmani Cienfuegos, the brother of Camilo 
Cienfuegos ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, Osmani Cienfuegos was in charge of cultural 
activities in the armed forces at that time ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, and also he was executive officer to Camilo Cien- 
fuegos, the chief of staff, his brother. 

Mr. Sourwine. In your judgment, was Camilo Cienfuegos a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Roche. He had very close ties with the Communists. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have here a newspaper which carries a charge 
made by one Father Perez that Camilo Cienfuegos was murdered 
because he had become disillusioned with commmiism. Do you think 
this is a true charge ? 

Mr. Roche. I do not believe that. 



COMMUlSnST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 481 

Mr, SouiiwiNE. How do you think he died ? 

Mr. Roche. I knew intimately, or I know in familiar surroundings 
Camilo, Fidel Castro, and Eaul Castro, and "Che" Guevara. And it 
was evident to me that their ideology was alike. The difference be- 
tween Camilo and the others was that Camilo Cienfuegos was a 
more — a prudent man, more intelligent, more thoughtful. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any knowledge of how Camilo Cien- 
f uegos met his death ? 

Mr. EocHE. Tlie atmospheric conditions were most unfavorable 
that day. The pilot was not experienced. He had only 12 hours of 
experience with a bimotor. Camilo's brothers and the faithful fol- 
lowers investigated every detail that could be investigated in connec- 
tion with his disappearance. His brothers and the followers of Ca- 
milo had a plane. If they had any reasonable suspicion, if they con- 
firmed any suspicion that Raul Castro had managed the death of 
Camilo, the Camilo Cienfuegos troops were going to rise against 
Raul Castro. There would have been a revolution within the revolu- 
tion, because Camilo's troops were as powerful as Fidel's troops. 
Those investigations by the brothers and the followers were very 
thorough. 

(A photo of Commander Cienfuegos and Captain Roche was 
markecl "Exhibit 9-R" and appears on page 482.) 

Senator Hrtjska, Who succeeded to that loyalty of his troops? 

Mr. Roche. Among the revolutionary leaders, Fidel is the only one 
who has devoted followers, although he is losing popularity because 
of his unit personal rule. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Mr. Chairman, may the newspaper article about 
which I asked the witness be offered for the record ? 

Senator Dodd. Yes. 



482 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Exhibit No. 9-R 




Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos (left) pays a tribute of respect to the Argentine 
flag the day on which Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio was entertained on the occasion 
of his being granted Cuban nationality. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 483 

(The newspaper article referred to was received in evidence, 
marked "Exhibit No. 10-R" and reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 10-R 

Three Cuban Priests State : 

"WE SWEAR BEFORE GOD : FIDEL CASTRO IS A THIEF, MURDERER, 
AND COMMUNIST." 

"FIDEL CASTRO IS THE KING OF THE LIARS AND THE BIG THIEF 
OF THE HONOR AND DIGNITY OF THE CUBAN PEOPLE", the exiled 
representatives of the Cler^ say. "FIDEL IS A TRAITOR TO THE CUBAN 
REVOLUTION", Father O'Farrill states. 

"CAMILO CIENFUEGOS WAS .AIURDERED", Father Maximino P6rez says. 

EXTRAOEDINAKT REVELATIONS 

We talked at length with the Reverend Fathers, Juan Ram6n O'Farrill, 
Eduardo Aguirre, and Maximino P4rez, three of the most outstanding members 
of the Cuban Clergy, men who have always shown an interest in the great 
anxieties of our people. 

The three clergymen joined together in the fight against the past regime and 
openly cooperated in favor of the cause supported by Fidel Castro. Father 
O'Farrill had to flee Cuba when the authorities discovered his conspiratory 
activities. 

Here we are, then, in the presence of three priests who fought against Batista, 
on the side of Fidel ; three priests, who were neither victims of the land reform 
nor of the vexations of the rent laws, who cannot be accused of being war 
criminals nor of having misappropriated funds nor of being "latifundists" nor 
of falling into the gamut of new qualifications with which the bearded Fidel 
insults those who oppose his Communist policy in Cuba. 

And in view of the authority which they have as priests, and because they 
had not been tied up with the past regime, the opinions of these Fathers of 
the Catholic Church are of extraordinary consequence, in particular, for opening 
the eyes of those who still do not want to see that a Soviet regime has been 
installed in Cuba. 

When we asked Fathers O'Farrill, Aguirre, and Perez, whether Fid61, in 
their opinion, is a Communist, the answer was conclusive : 

"WE SWEAR BEFORE GOD THAT FIDEL CASTRO IS A THIEF, A 
MURDERER, AND A COMMUNIST." 

But now it is Father O'Farrill who proceeds to tell us : 

"Put down here that Fidel is also a traitor to the revolution." 

This trenchant statement required us to ask for an amplification of the view 
expressed by him, and Father O'Farrill did not hesitate when he complied 
with our request : 

"Castro swore before the altar of his country and by the blood of the 
martyrs that the standard [slogan] of his revolutionary crusade would be: 
'Democracy and Human Rights'. The Pact of Caracas contains the promise that 
the Constitution of 1940 would be restored and that elections would be held 
within one year for an equitable, provisional government. Nevertheless, Mr. 
Castro violated the Constitution and gave us a Fundamental Law which, 
so that he could reform it when the fancy would strike him, reproduces the 
article [sic] ^ of the Batista Statutes and renounces Democracy by accusing 
anyone who speaks of elections of being a counter-revolutionist". 

Though these words more than prove the treachery of Castro, our ears are 
still ringing with the outcry of the priests as they told us : "FIDEL IS A MUR- 
DERER, A THIEF, AND A COMMUNIST". And we asked for a clarification 
in respect thereto. And this time it is Father Maximino Perez who states : 

"As though the crimes I witnessed without being able to prevent them, 
were not more than enough ; as though the fact that on three different occasions 
they attempted to kill me — once by poison, once by faking an accident in 
which Camilo Cienfuegos, who has now disappeared, almost lost his life, and 
once by shooting at my car [ V] on Avenida de Rancho Boyeros — as though it 
were not for the so-called revolutionary trials sentencing innocent men to death 
out of revenge and hatred ; as though it were not because of all this, we would 



1 "Text." — Translator. 



484 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

still have to say that Fid^l Castro is also a murderer because he has killed, by 
proceeding as he is, tlie democratic and Christian spirit of our revolution". 

The focalization was accurate. There is not the slightest doubt that FIDEL 
CASTRO IS A MURDE]RER. But we cannot bypass one name mentioned in 
the statements of Father Maximino Perez : CAMILO CIENFUEGOS. And we 
asked . . . "Do you believe that Camilo was the victim of an accident, or do 
you share the general belief that he was murdered by Raul Castro? 

Here again it was Father Perez who answered : 

"We cannot say with absolute certainty that Raul Castro was the murderer ; 
but we are fully convinced that CAMILO CIENFUEGOS WAS MURDERED. 
Camilo Cienfuegos had at one time been a Communist sympathizer, but he 
changed his ideas and was opposing the infiltration of the Communists into the 
Government. That was his death sentence. Major Naranjo knew that Camilo 
had been murdered, and that is why they killed him too." 

The words of the Priest confirmed what Cuba Libre had published as an 
exclusive. When we were going to quote him [in our paper] Father O'Farrill 
had said to us : 

"As it has been proved that he is a murderer, we shall also prove that he is 
a thief, since he has stolen, and permitted the stealing of, automobiles and 
furniture and is now stealing the wealth of the country by transferring its 
assets to foreign banks to the extent that the National Bank has only a 40 
million [dollar?] foreign exchange re.serve. And, yet, it owes 70 million in 
obligations and letters of credit, for the first time in history showing a deficit 
which will surely force the devaluation of our currency." 

"And about his being a Communist, Father?" 

And now it is Father O'Farrill who is answering our question : 

"But, is there anyone still having doubts that Fid^l has installed a Communist 
regime in Cuba? Is it not enough that he is violating the tradition and principles 
of our civilization?" 

"I swear, and so do my colleagues, and we swear before God that Fidel 
Castro is a Conununist. He promised Christian charity, that is to say, love ; and 
he betrayed the revolution by practicing vengeance and hatred in the Cuban 
family. That is Communism. He does not respect the human rights. That is 
Communism. He has destroyed the right to own property. That is Communism. 
The militias of the workers, students, etc., have transformed the regime into a 
militaristic state, the most 'outrageous' one of Latin America. That is Com- 
munism." 

There are no doubts ; the priests have proved their affirmation. 

"Anything else. Fathers?" 

And it is Father O'Farrill who takes on the responsibility of speaking for 
all of them now and answering our question as follows : 

"History [will] condemn Fidel Castro for his betrayal and felony, but the 
revolution will not die. The wonderful history, which we began [by fighting] 
against the deposed regime, is now being continued by us [by fighting] against 
Fid^l Castro in our crusade to restore love among the people of Cuba. And we 
want you to know that, as we were not scared before, we will not be scared by 
infamy and slander, since Cuba already knows that FIDEL CASTRO IS THE 
KING OF THE LIARS AND THE BIG THIEF OF THE HONOR AND 
DIGNITY OF THE CUBAN PEOPLE." 

And thus we came to the end of our interview with those Cuban priests who 
were compelled to flee Cuba for denouncing the Conununism prevailing in their 
country and for telling the people, with the sincerity and honesty which has 
always been characteristic of those laboring on earth by divine inspiration, 
that FIDEL CASTRO IS A MURDERER, THIEF, AND COMMUNIST. 
( Source : Cuba Libre, January 12. 1960. pp. 1, 2.) 
(Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, Library of Congress, July 16, 1960.) 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, you left Cuba in October of 1959. 
Mr. Roche. No, I left on December 24, 1959. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. And you went to Costa Rica ? 
Mr. Roche, Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You went with the knowledge of your superior 
officers and for the purposes of visiting your family ? 
Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. You then fle%v from Costa Rica to Miami ? 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 485 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. From Miami to New York ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From Miami you mailed a letter of resignation to 
Castro ? 

Mr. Roche. I sent the letter of resignation through channels to the 
head of the Air Force. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is Sergio del Valle Jimenez ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. May a copy of this letter go into the record? 

Senator Dodd. Yes. 

(The letter referred to was received in evidence, marked "Exhibit 
11-R." A translation appears below :) 

RXHTBTT 11-R 

Miami, U.S.A., January 18, 1960. 
Senor Dr. Sergio del Valle Jimenez, 
Commander in Chief of the Cuban Revolutionary Air Force, 
Ciudad Libertad, Havana, Republic of Cuba. 

Sir : For the reasons which I prevloiisly explained to you, to Commander Juan 
Almeida, to Capt. Osmani Cieufuegos, and to Commander Camilo Cienfuegos, 
then Chief of Staff of the Revolutionary Army, under date of October 10. 19.59, 
I presented my application to leave the Revolutionary Army, in line with the 
regulation procedures as per copies attached hereto. 

I subsequently confirmed verbally, as you are aware, my wish to resign irrevo- 
cably by reason, among many other things, of having been arrested during eight 
days in the G-2 (Military Intelligence Service) by order of Commander Ratal 
Castro Rus. Chief of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, according to the official 
telephone call for such purpose. It was then that in the presence of the Chief 
of the Military Intelligence, Commander Ramiro Valdes, Osmani Cienfuegos, 
Capt. Aragones. Sub-Lieutenant Abrantes, etc., etc., I repeated emphatically my 
disagreement with the arbitrary procedures, and the injustices of the G-2, be- 
cause of considering them harmful and degrading for dignity and the honor of 
men. 

Then, for reasons which are easily understood, I was unable to explain the 
deep feeling of my soul, in order to avoid reprisals, but nevertheless my protests 
against the injustices of the crafty communists who are in the ranks of the 
Revolutionary Army, remained firm. You know that among them I refer to 
Commander Ramiro Valdes. 

"When due to the efforts of several friends and revolutionary officers, my im- 
mediate freedom was ordered, following that informal ''court-martial" at Head- 
quarters. I observed the vigilance, constant suspicion, and hostility. I was sub- 
jected to and had it not been for the accident I suffered while practicing and 
training personnel of the parachute corps. I would have had to find more drastic 
means than those given to me by Providence, to leave the territory of Cuba. 

The impartial attitude adopted by you for the support of the applications I 
submitted with a view to obtaining the cori-esponding authorization to leave 
Cuba, because of my having been discharged from service during ninety days in 
accordance with the medical recommendations of the military hospitals, have 
won my gratitude and esteem and I fervently wish that your faith in the 
Revolution shall not suffer the moral decline and the sorrowful deception which 
my spirit sufferetl. 

My irrevocable resignation from the post I have had lately as Chief of the 
Parachute Department of the Revolutionary Air Force of Cuba, is full.v con- 
firmed hereby with these brief explanations, reserving for the proper opportunity, 
the legal action which may be in order. 
Yours very truly, 

Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche, 
Captain, Chief of the Parachute Department of the Revolutionary 
Air Force. 

cc. Messrs. Commander Juan Almeida, Chief of Staff of the Revolutionary Army, 
Commander Raul Castro Rus, Chief of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, 
File. 



486 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Will you identify this as the letter? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The English translation is here. Perhaps that's 
what should be printed. 

After yon got to New York, you confirmed this resignation by cable ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From New York you contacted this committee 
through Mr. Stanley Ross ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And volunteered to come down and testify ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Senator Dodd. I would like to ask a question here. You made ref- 
erence to the battle where you say you had about 90 men and 800 men 
inside the city. 

Mr. Roche. That was Fidel's tactics, which was to have one pow- 
erful but small group attack a town, and then withdraw and have the 
Government forces follow them, and then the large body of Fidel 
Castro's men wlw were hiding all through town at strategic places on 
the surrounding roads and would kill the Government men. 

Senator Dodd. Well, now, were these 800 or 900 men part of the 
contingent or however you described those who were in the mountains ? 

Mr. Roche. He sent specially to such places all his men — divided 
into that way according to his tactics. And "Che" Guevara re- 
mained in the Sierra with no more than a hundred men. 

Senator Dodd. How many men did you have at that time altogether ? 

Mr. Roche. Not over a thousand — 1,200 at the most. In the Sierra 
proper, no more than 800, and a few more hundred away from the 
Sierra at that time. 

Senator Dodd. Wliat was the date ? 

Mr. Roche. April 1958. 

Senator Dodd. How many were there when you first arrived ? 

Mr. Roche, I suppose when I went from Costa Rica there were 65 
or 80 men. 

Senator Dodd. And between that time and April of 1958 you raised 
that to 1,200? 

Mr. Roche. I was mistaken when I said 60 to 85. I meant the ones 
who met the plane. Their men were about 800 — 800 when I first 
landed. 

Senator Dodd. When was that ? 

Mr. Roche. March 30, 1958 — no more than 800 men. Diaz Lanz 
was the pilot. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You spoke of this battle tactic of infiltration fol- 
lowed by attack by a small force and then withdrawal. Was this at- 
tack taught to Castro by General Bayo? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, I show you a photostat of a check. You once 
had that check in your possession, did you not ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. How did you get it ? 

Mr. Roche. .1 was — as I said — aide to Camilo Cienfuegos, the Chief 
of Staff — I was commissioned to deliver this check to Camilo Cien- 
fuegos so he would endorse it. It is made out to Camilo Cienfuegos. 

Mr. Sourwine.. What was that check for, do you know ? 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 487 

Mr. Roche. This check is one of many contributions to the Agrarian 
Reform. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who gave you the check ? 

Mr. Roche. Camilo's brother handed me this check. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What did he want you to do with it after you had 
gotten Camilo's signature? 

Mr. Roche. To cash it. 

Mr. SouRwixE. What were you told to do with the money ? 

Mr. Roche. Then I was supposed to give this cash to Camilo's 
brother, Osmani Cienfuegos. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. But this money belonged to the Government, did 
it not? 

Mr. Roche. Unquestionably, because it was a contribution to the 
Agrarian Reform. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, was it customary for officers in Castro's army 
to deal with Government funds as though it was their own personal 
money ? 

Mr. Roche. It has become customary in Cuba. The heroes of the 
revolution are identified with the Government. So the people who 
give these things, these donations, choose their own individuals and 
send their checks to them. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And whether the Government gets it depends on 
what the individual does with it. 

Mr. Roche. Yes, it is up to the honesty of the higher officer who 
receives the check. But there is no control, no effective control, to 
make this foolproof. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. For the record, Mr. Chairman, this is check No. 
366321 on the Banco de Los Colon os in the amount of 1,172 pesos. May 
the check go in the record ? 

Senator Dodd. It will be received. 

(The check referred to above was received in evidence, marked 
"Exhibit No. 12-R" and is reproduced on page 488.) 

Mr. SomwiNE. Did you have anything to do with a planned in- 
vasion of the Dominican Republic ? 

Mr. Roche. As aide to the Chief of Staff, I was told to join the men 
who would fly on the expedition against the Dominican Republic. 

Mr. Sourwine. This was in August 1959 ? 

Mr. Roche. About. I am not certain about the exact date. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And "Che" Guevara asked you to help in this proj- 
ect for the invasion of the Dominican Republic ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, he did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Camilo Cienfuegos also instructed you to do this? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

(A photograph of Captain Roche and one of the leaders of the Do- 
minican revolutionary movement was marked "Exhibit 13-R" and is 
reproduced on page 489.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The plan was to go by airplane which would be 
camouflaged as a Dominican airplane ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was an airplane so camouflaged — that is, was it 
painted to resemble a Dominican airplane ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 



488 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Exhibit 12-R 



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COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 489 

Exhibit 13-R 




Captain Rojo del Rio, representing Commander Camilo Cienfuegos, Chief of 
Staff, is here with Dr. Canto, one of the leaders of the Dominican Revolution- 
ary Movement with headquarters in Caracas, Venezuela, and Cuba. Behind 
them is the airplane which was used for the invasion of the Dominican Re- 
public and several persons from the surrounding countryside, called Santa 
Lucia, in the Sierra Maestra. 



490 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have given us photographs of that airplane, 
have you ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I have. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You said you were to go along with this flight? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I have said so. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And the purpose for which you were to go was to 
watch the pilot ? 

Mr. Roche. One of the two objectives was to watch the pilot — and 
the other, to keep reminding the pilot of the success I had had in 
landing at Sierra Maestra the year before. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The pilot was a Venezuelan who was to receive 
$10,000 for the flight? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What was the name of that pilot ? 

Mr. Roche. I know the last name — Rodriguez — and he is in the 
photographs. 

(A photograph of the Venezuelan pilot and his camouflaged plane 
was marked "Exhibit No. 14-R" and is reproduced below; a photo- 
graph of Dominican revolutionaries waiting to embark on an inva- 
sion of their homeland was marked "Exhibit 15-R" is reproduced on 
page 491.) 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you subsequently replaced? That is, did 
someone go in your place on this trip ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who was that ? 

Mr. Roche. A Cuban, Orestes Acosta. He was a lieutenant, but 
was promoted to captain as a result of that trip. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you see the invasion force and meet the chiefs 
of that expedition ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I saw them in Holguin, Cuba. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That invasion force included Venezuelans, Cubans, 
Dominicans, and one American ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know the name of the American ? 

Mr. Roche. No, I do not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. He was a bazooka gunner ? 

Mr. Roche. He was a bazooka gunner. I saw him making some 
bazooka practice, and he was obviously an expert. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were there morale and disciplinary problems among 
this invasion force ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, there were. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And did Cienfuegos ask you to talk to the troops 
about these matters ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You did so ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, he did ask me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was one of the participants in the preparations for 
this Dominican invasion a Dr. Canto ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, Dr. Canto, one of the directors of the Dominican 
revolutionary movement, who lives in Venezuela. He operates in both 
Cuba and Venezuela at present. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. He is a wealthy man? 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 491 

Exhibit No. 14-R 



V 




Here is the Venezuelan pilot, Captain Rodriguez, in a short-sleeved, white shirt, 
looking at Captain Rojo del Rio and Captain Nene Lopez, in uniform, sur- 
rounded by jDeasants next to the plane which carried the invading troops. 

Exhibit Xo. 15-R 




Troops of the Dominican Revolutionary Movement, trained in Cuba in several 
camps located in Oriente and Pinar del Rio Provinces, including Cubans, 
Venezuelans, Dominicans, and other nationalities, are ready to embark for 
the invasion of the Dominican Republic. In the rear are a frigate and a 
lighter. 



492 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. KoCHE. He is either a physician or a dentist, and only has 
that money, but is not a weaUhy man. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. He appears also in these pictures you have given , 
us? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, he does. 

Mr. Sourwine. The plane left for the Dominican Republic with 56 
men aboard, on August 21, 1959 ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, 56. It was 56, but a Cuban captain changed his < 
mind at the last moment, and I was commissioned by Raul Castro to 
take him under arrest to the Holguin center of operations. 

Mr. Sourwine. The plane left with 55. 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. It carried various arms, including Belgian mortars 
and hand grenades ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes — knives and bazookas and bazooka projectiles, 
explosives, too. 

(The following two photographs relating to the Dominican inva- 
sion referred to. in Captain Roche's testimony were later ordered into 
the record at this point and are numbered "Exhibit No. 16-R" and 
"No. 17-R":) 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 493 

Exhibit No. 16-R 




The plane is already painted ; curious onlookers are to be seen. One of the 
invaders, practically a young boy, is in front making an amusing gesture. 



494 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Exhibit No. 17-R 




The alleged Dominican Captain who defected from his country's army and 
who was considered to have fled Santo Domingo for Puerto Rico with a military 
plane is here next to the plane which is being conditioned and painted for 
camouflaging purposes in order to fool the Dominican authorities when it landed 
as part of the invasion of the Constanza Airport ; the initial success was a fact. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 495 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know how many or what quantities of arms 
and explosives the airplane carried ? 

Mr. Roche. It was supposed to be enough for each man, but many 
of the men complained that it was an excessive amount of material. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Well, the airplane was also supposed to carry extra 
material to deliver to guerrillas in the Dominican Republic; was it 
not ? 

Mr. Roche, Yes, you are right — radio sets, signals, also things to 
make explosion and mines and so forth. 

Mr. SouRAvixE. You showed us, in conference, a copy of the secret 
code which was used for and by this invasion project. 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Is that it, a photostat of it ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwixe. I ask that this may be offered for the record. 

Senator Dodd. It will be received. 

(The document referred to was received in evidence, marked "Ex- 
hibit No. 18-R", and reads as follows :) 



496 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

(Exhibit No. 18-R) 

How to use the Code in connection vfLth the dictionary. 
HOW TO CODE: 

1) The first three digits correspond to the page number and the two follov*ing 
digits to the word. 

2) Add 117 to the digit corresponding to the page and add 3 to the 
digit for the word. 

3) After the text is coded, subdivide it into numbers with variable digits (3-5-6-7 etc.) 

but avoid 5 — digit numbers. 

4) Names of persons, types of arms, places or cities have a corresponding 
word in the dictionary. For this, consult the attached list. 

5) The first digit both in reference to page and to word, v*ienever it is 6 or 
higher is equivalent to zero. 

HOW TO DECODE: 

1) Subdivide the text into numbers of 5 digits each. 

2) Subtract 117 from the first three digits corresponding to the page and 
three from the two following digits corresponding to the word. 



THE BASIS FOR THIS CODE IS THE "DICCIONARIO" LEXIS CJEVANTES. ESCOBAR. 
CASTELLANO, 1958 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 497 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you remember telling us of a conversation you 
overheard between the two Cienfuegos, Eaul Castro and. "Che" 
Guevara, about the United States ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "What was it that Raul said at that time ? 

Mr. Roche. "Now we are going against Santo Domingo. Next 
against all the dictators in Latin America. And ultimately against 
the United States." 

Mr. SouR-sviNE. Did Raul say, "We must convince the Latin Ameri- 
can countries that the United States is the chief enemy"? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, 

Mr. Sourwine. Did "Che" Guevara agree? 

Mr. Roche. Certainly ; yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. And you told us in staff conference that you then 
realized that you were just a pawn in the hands of an apparatus operat- 
ing on an international scale ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Returning to this Dominican invasion, was the air 
part of it successful ? 

Mr. Roche. Initially, yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is, the airplane returned safely. 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did it have any bullet holes in it ? 

Mr. Roche. Several bullets had touched the plane. 

Mr. Sourwine. That expedition was commanded by Delio Gomez 
Ochoa? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. He was subsequently captured and is now in prison 
in the Dominican Republic ? 

Mr. Roche. According to the reports I saw when I was Camilo's 
aide ; yes, Ochoa was a prisoner in the Dominican Republic. 

Mr. SouRwaNE. Now, after this flight, which returned safely, you 
went to Havana ; did you not ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. And at 3 a.m. the next morning, you were in Fidel 
Castro's apartment, on 11th Avenue, in Havana ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You heard Castro receive a report from Camilo Ci- 
enfuegos ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. That report concerned the success of the expedition 
against the Dominican Republic ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did Castro express himself as to whether he was 
pleased with this ? 

Mr. Roche. He was as happy as a child. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did Castro make some request to you to be trained 
as a pilot? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. Castro asked me to do that, and this was ratified 
later by Camilo. Fidel asked me how long it would take for me to 
train 600 paratroopers for an invasion schedule for January 1960. 

Mr. Sourwine. An invasion of what ? 



498 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. Roche. For another invasion of Santo Domingo, in January 
1960. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you train paratroopers ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr, SouRAViNE. And the objective was an invasion of the Dominican 
Republic in January 1960 ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you at one time named by Castro as the voice 
of Cuba in Costa Rica ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, that is true. 

Mr. SouRWiNE, You are a citizen of Cuba? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I am. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Naturalized as one of those with Castro in the 
Sierra Maestra? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you recall telling us of a discussion you over- 
heard between Fidel and Raul Castro at the quarters of Camilo Cien- 
f uegos ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, This conversation concerned the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation of the United States ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What was said? 

Mr. RociiE. Fidel was very much excited and said that they should 
make any financial sacrifice to have an agent of their own, secret 
agent, in the FBI of the United States to find out what was being 
planned against Cuba. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Do you remember telling us about a trip you made 
by automobile from the airport near Havana to Camilo Cienfuegos' 
office 2 days after the arrest of Matos ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who was with you in the automobile? 

Mr. Roche. I do not quite know whether it was 2 days after or a 
little later. 

Mr. SouRWixE, Who was with you in the automobile? 

Mr, Roche, Camilo Cienfuegos driving, Raul Castro and Fidel 
Castro. The three were sitting in the front seat. And beliind I was 
sitting with another aide to Cienfuegos, 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What kind of an automobile was it? 

Mr. Roche. A large de luxe automobile — Oldsmobile, 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What was said on this occasion? 

Mr. Roche. Fidel was saying that there were too many members 
of the 26th of July Movement, Fidel's own movement, who were now 
urging that he, Fidel, define his policies, and he, Fidel, thouglit that 
was not necessary — that it was necessary to pui-ge, to have a purge 
of such elements. And that it was necessary — that it was necessary 
in the Army to eliminate anyone avIio did not comply blindly with 
orders. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You furnished us with the manual on guerrilla war- 
fare written by General Bayo, 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Mr, SouRwixE, Has he continued active in Cuba ? 

Mr. Roche, Yes, he is still. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 499 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "\Miat post does he hold ? 

Mr. KocHE, Director General and Instructor in the School of Rev- 
olutionary Training. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Does this come under Raul Castro or "Che" Gue- 
vara? 

Mr. Roche. Nominally, Raul Castro is a minister, is the boss, but 
in actuality "Clie" Guevara controls it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And Bayo works directly under "Che" Guevara? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is this manual of Bayo's on guerrilla tactics an offi- 
cial textbook for the Cuban forces now ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, it is. 

Senator Hruska. Are you familiar with the operation of these guer- 
rilla training courses? 

Mr. Roche. Yes, I am familiar with them. 

Senator Hruska. In your knowledge, were there any men from 
Central America or Latin American countries in those courses and in 
those schools ? 

Mr. Roche. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Xame some of the countries from which they 
came. 

Mr. Roche. I only know for certain one from Santo Domingo and 
one from Nicaragua. I did not have contact with that organization. 
But I know positively Chester La Caya, Nicaragua, and General 
Rovenes from the Dominican Republic, besides the late Jimenez 
Moya — he died during the invasion of the Dominican Republic — he 
was from Santo Domingo — But he died in the invasion of Santo 
Domingo. I know there were some from Paraguay. I know of two 
from Guatemala. 

Senator Hruska. Any from Salvador ? 

Mr. Roche. Several. 

Senator Hruska. Costa Rica ? 

Mr. Roche. A Costa Rican is a graduate of that course already — 
Marcel Aquilos. There have been several from Costa Rica, but I did 
not have 

Senator Hruska. What about Panama ? 

Mr. Roche. I do not know if there is a Panamanian. I don't know 
for certain, but I am sure that there are representatives of all the 
countries that have dictators where Fidel would like to move in. 

Senator Hruska. Were there Mexicans? 

Mr. Roche. Through military attaches, the Cubans are very closely 
connected with Mexico. 

Senator Hruska. Were there any North Americans in those courses ? 

Mr. Roche. No, no North Americans. 

Senator Hruska. Were there any men from Puerto Rico or the 
Virgin Islands at those training schools ? 

Mr. Roche. Really, I do not know. I know Bayo had strong con- 
nections with some Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico. I really clo not 
know. If you want, I can give you an outline of what the program 
of those courses is. 

Senator Hruska. To your knowledge, when these men came from 
the other countries, and were trained, and finished their courses, did 
they return to their respective countries ? 



500 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. Roche. Most of them, yes. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you. 

Mr, SoTjRwiNE. Where was the headquarters for training of troops 
for foreign invasion? 

Mr. Roche. When I was there, there was such a center at Pinar 
del Rio and in the Sierra Maestra itself — secret camps. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I have here a list of names which you gave us. How 
is this list designated ? 

Mr. Roche. This list in English would be "list of real Communists 
identified as such ; also of sympathizers of communism, some of them 
under cover and others very indiscreet, in the armed forces of revolu- 
tionary Cuba." 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, so that we may separate these, I will read 
these names and ask you to indicate those which you meant to identify 
as Communists. As I read a name, I would like to have you say 
either "Communist" or "Sympathizer," whichever is correct. 

Ernesto "Che" Guevara. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE.. Antonio Nunez Jimenez. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Ramiro Valdez. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Dr. Jara. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Hay dee Santamaria de Jara. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Felix Torres. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Raul Castro Rus. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Captain Morales. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Osmani Cienfuegos. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Captain Gonzales. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Juan Almeida. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Captain Aragones. 

Mr. Roche. Less than sympathizer. He is not very vociferous about 
his being a sympathizer even. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "Barba Roja." 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. That is a nickname, I take it. 

Mr. Roche. I do not know his name. And they called him Barua 
Roja because he had a red beard. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Armando Torres. 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. Sourwine. Augusto Martinez, 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. Sourwine. Celia Sanchez. 

Mr. Roche. Sympathizer. 

Mr, Sourwine. Ilda Gavea. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 501 

Mr. Roche. Communist. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Captain Mendoza. 
Mr. Roche. Communist. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. David Salvador. 
Mr. Roche. Communist. 
Mr. Sourwine. Vilma Espin. 
Mr. Roche. Communist. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Alberto Bayo. 
Mr. Roche. Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that this list, or rather a 
translation of it, may be printed in the record at this time. 
Senator Hruska. So ordered. 
(The list referred to above is as follows :) 

List of Communists, Identified as Such, Among the Membe^js of the 
Cuban Revolutionary Army, and Communist Sympathizers, Some of Them 
Insincere, Others Indiscreet . . . 

Ernesto Che Guevara (Major), President of the National Bank of Cuba. 
Antonio Nunez Jimenez (Captain), Director of the Land Reform Institute 

(INRA). 
Ramiro Valdez (Major), Chief of G-2, Revolutionary Intelligence. 
Dr. Jara,^ Minister of Education. 

AiDEE [sic] Santamaria de Jara, wife of the Minister of Education. 
Felix Torres (Major), stationed at Santa Clara, Las Villas. 
Raul Castro Ruz (Major), Minister, Revolutionary Armed Forces. 
Captain Morales,^ formerly in charge of the Santa Clara Municipality." 
OsMANY Cienfuegos (Captain), Minister of Public Works. 
Captain Gonzalez,' Chief of Personnel of the Cuban Air Force (FAR). 
Juan Almeida (Major), Chief of the General Staff of the Revolutionary Army. 
Captain Aragones,^ formerly Aide to Camilo Cienfuegos, Mayor of the city of 

Cienfuegos; now Coordinator and Secretary General of the "26th of July 

Movement". 
"Barba Roja",^ (Major), General Aide to Raul Castro Ruz: and, almost, in 

general, all aides and assistants and all members of Revolutionary Intelligence. 
Armando Torres (Captain), Second [Assistant] Chief of G-2, Revolutionary 

Intelligence, formerly Aide to Camilo Cienfuegos. 
AuGUSTO Martinez (Major), Minister of Labor, formerly Minister of Defense. 
Celia Sanchez, Secretary to Fidel Castro Ruz; insincere [suspect]. 
Ilda Gavea, ex-wife of Che Guevara, of Peruvian origin. 

Captain Mendoza,^ high-ranking oflBcer of INRA, chiefly responsible for the down- 
fall of Major Ruber [sic] Matos. 
David Salvador, Head of all labor and trade unions. 
ViLMA Espin, wife of Raul Castro Ruz, Chief of the Army, and Revolutionary 

Minister : also controls controlling press and radio. 
Alberto Bayo (General), Instructor of the Revolutionary Forces in [subjects 

such as] Political Indoctrination, etc. 
Alberto Bayo, Jr. (Lieutenant), Comptroller of "Compaiiias Fumigadores" 

[Fumigating or Exterminating Companies], etc. 

The names of other important persons escape me for the moment, but, actually, 
I can solemnly say, and am able to swear, that what I have stated here is the 
truth. 

(Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, Library of Congress, June 30, 1960.) 



'^ No first names mentioned. — E. H. 

' Not clear — "formerly exercising: the functions of Mayor." — E. H. 

^ No first names mentioned. — E. H. 

' An alias meaning "Barbarossa", or "Red Beard." — E. H. 



502 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Following are additional photographs submitted for the record by Capt. Roche 
as identifying some of the persons in the above list and others whose names have 
been mentioned in Roche's testimony. The photo captions also were supplied by 
the witness. 




Captain Roche, former military interventor of the Hipodromo in Marianao, 
former aide to the General Staff and Chief of the Department of Paratroopers 
of the Cuban Revolutionary Air Force. 



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Capt. Ventura Simo, with arm band of the Dominican Revolutionary Movement; 
Comdr. Delio Gomez Ochoa, in the center, and Captain Roch'e, aide to the Chief 
of Staff of Cuba at that time. 



COMMUXIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 503 




Left to right : Fidel Castro Ruz. Roberto Verdaguer. and Captain Roche in the 
heart of the Sierra Maestre. Taken at Las Vegas de Jibacoa on April 15. 
1968. 




Comdr. Camilo Ciexifuegos (third from right) with three interventors, including 
Captain Roche (in dark suit), then military interventor at the Marianao 
Hipodrome. 



504 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 




Fidel Castro (holding glass) ; to his right Comdr. Hiimberto Sori Marin, then 
Judge Advocate of War and Minister of Agriculture; Colonel Salazar, Costa 
Rican Ambassador, and Captain Roche, then chief of stafif to Commander 
Cienfuegos. 




At right, with microphone, former President Arevalo of Guatemala. Continuing 
from the right, Capt. Antonio Nunez Jiminez (in beret), formerly chief aide to 
Dr. Ernesto "Che" Guevara and, at the time of the photograph. Director of 
the National Institute of Agrarian Reform ; the late Comdr. Camilo 
Cienfuegos, chief of staff of the revolutionary army; and (back to camera), 
Raul Castro Ruz, head of the revolutionary army. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 505 




Celia Sanchez and Captain Roche in the Sierra Maestra, at Las Vegas de Jibacoa, 

April 15, 1958. 




Seated in the center, Captain Mendoza ; standing, with beret, Ricardo Martinez ; 

seated, in profile, Camilo Cienfuegos. 



506 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 




Minister of Interior Luis Orlando Rodriguez (left) with Captain Roche. 



"^T a 




Comdr. Rene Rodriguez (standing), chief of training camps for the troops that 
invaded the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, etc.; (seated, second from left), 
Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 507 




The famous Mexican Communist woman who gave refuge to "Che" Guevara. 




Capt. M. Rojo del Rio (Roche), standing and wearing light-colored suit, shakes 
hands with Comdr. Ramiro Valdez, Chief of G-2, Revolutionary Intelligence 
Service. 



508 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, did you subsequently hear Raul Castro discuss 
a sea invasion force which took part in this project? 

Mr. KocHE. Yes, I heard him in Manzanillo speak of that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What did he say ? 

Mr. Roche. That they had sent several vessels at the same time to 
invade the Dominican Republic, and they were protected by the regu- 
lar Cuban war navy. 

(The following picture (20^R) and the two on the opposite page 
representing scenes at the launching of the naval attack on Santo 
Domingo were later marked exhibits 21-R and 22-R and ordered into 
the record at this point. ) 




Several Dominican revolutionary officers, with Cuban Conidrs. Camilo Cien- 
fuegos, and Edy Sonol. tlie latter Chief of the Military District of Olguin. 
shortly before taking leave from the officers and troops who were to invade the 
Dominican Republic in boats escorted by the Cuban Navy. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 509 



^t 




Comdr. Camilo Cienfuegos takes photographs and tilms the picture which will 
serve as a document to show that Cuba did what it promised, namely, to fight 
together with Venezuela for the overthrow of all dietatorshii>s in America. 




Part of the troops to invade Santo Domingo embarking from Cuban territory. 



510 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouHwiNE. The time has arrived which was predetermined for 
coiH^luding this session. 

With rej^ard to the pro^iam of the courses we referred to, I should 
like to have the witness ^ive that to the interpreter, and the interj)reter 
can wi'ite it down and give it to the reporter, and we can get the 
description. 

(The witness was called away before he could dictate the statement 
called for above. Subsequently he furnished two statements as 
follows:) 

THE BIG LOOTING ["THE BTO LAND GRAB"] OF PBIVATE PROPERTY 

When panic broke out and the key members of the Batista Government dis- 
banded in proportion to being stripped of their properties and even of intimate 
personal effects, those who had joined the victory parade of the Rebel Army in 
an unprecedented orgy picked up as war booty whatever they could lay their 
handH on. Nothing was sacred, not even religious objects; and photographs of 
deceased ineiribers of the family, or baby pictures kept by their mothers, to- 
gether with little locks of hair, in loving memory of their darlings, were found 
scattered all over the floor of the looted homes, or thrown into the trash by the 
new occupants of the place because they were in the way of their own possessions. 

It does not take "much of an investigation to And out that many of those re- 
srx'ctable residences and apartments have now been turned into "love-nests", for 
the use of the haphazard affairs of the "barbudos", and it is most unchristian ; 
and an almost incredible thought, that, right in the middle of the 20th century 
people should be stripped of their property, they should lose what is theirs without 
any court decision, for the sole crime of belonging [giving support to] a certain 
government system or of agreeing with whoever may attempt afterwards to im- 
pose his revolutionary authority. Doesn't this perchance make it clear that those 
who have the force have the law [on their side] and are evidently right? . . . 

Here in Cuba, where we have, before the eyes of the world, the revolutionary 
examples of a fanatic who governs even the deaf and dumb [?] — what has hap- 
pened to the human values? Is it that the truth is to be ignored so as to open 
the door to falsehood, and, if so, why? Is it because the defeated have left 
behind a record of crimes. Injustice, robbery, and blackguard techniques for 
which saints and sinners are to pay alike afterwards, In man's hunt for man, in 
that desperate tragedy of life, ambition, hatred, and injustice? 

The Cuban revolution is; a sad experience ; on the one hand, there is the 
persecution of the disappropriated who had l)een members of the tyrannical 
government and who had supported the blackest injustices, and on the other 
hand, "Superman" has "erupted" like a blazing volcano, who wants to establish 
a totalitarian state, twisting the meaning of what had inspired Jesus Christ to 
redeem man, demanding that he be followed also, speaking of social justice, 
humanism, and those vicious lies that are being trumped up in order to deceive 
the gullible ones and to surprise [sic — take advantage of] the good faith of the 
needy peoples who place their hopes in those who are more "Intelligent" but Who 
afterwards prove to be the most criminal. 

That is how, upon the establishment of the famous "Minlsterio de Recupera- 
ci6n de Bienes Malversados" [Ministry of Restitution of Misappropriated 
Property], the properties of the rulers of the past, and even the properties of 
simple clerks, were found to be occupied by the "rebels", without prior con- 
fiscation order or authorization given by competent authority to occupy them. 
All this was done arbitrarily, "licentionsly"'' — a common term used to express 
the determination of the individual to act freely, without respect for law and 
order; freely, on the lips of certain persons of the Fidelista revolution, means: 
LIBERTINISM [LICENTIOUSNESS] OR DEATH. 

POLICE INVESTIGATION SYSTEMS 

The vulgar system of those characters who want favors from the Fidelist 
government consists of denouncing any action in tlie least suspicious as "counter- 
revolutionary" ; and in some instances even the children spy and inform on 
their families whose conduct follows the line of traditional justice. . . . 



^ Here, reference Is made to the play on words "Hberty" and "libertinism". 



COMMUXIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN oil 

Although the technical quality of the police service is in every way wanting, 
paying heed tf> prostitutes and piiup«, anonymous denunciations, and scrafjs of 
information picked up by the investigators here and there, has sometimes re- 
sulte^l in catching one or another real conspirator. It Ls unbelievable how 
experience<l and courageous men, who know the dirty game of politic-s and the 
investigating methods of the dictatorial systems which they have served un- 
conditionally, can swallow the ho^jk [bait] of those loud braggards. 

I kno'^- of several cases which have followed this pattern: As a result of a 
"tip" the person denounced Ls being investigated. This leads to a trackdown, 
which is undertaken, and when all members of the conspiracy are thought to 
be trapped, it turns out that several of them have escaped and are warning the 
rest .... Among those taken int^j cusf^Kly there are always some who, in order 
to "save their lives," furnish all sorts of information which renders the c-<jn- 
tinuation of the roundup possible; then there ifl a fake<l escajx; from the prison 
in which he [the informer] is, together with others ; publicity is being given to 
the affair; and shortly thereafter other prisoners appear, who had been con- 
spiring somewhere else in Cuba, as a con.sequence of the new "tip" of the sup- 
posed counter-revolutionist who had fled from the prison where the trackdown 
had been originated by the Fidelist investigating agents. An interminable chain 
of "tips" and arrests is provoked by the crazy eagerness to offer their services 
in order to emerge from the shadows of anonymity and pass on to the glory of 
a "tipster" in the service of the State, or [of a] martyr in the service of this 
or that leader who will some day, when he is the "chief executive," rem^jmber 
the record of his r^f^llaboratorB, i.e., without having feathered his ne«t before- 
hand with a few thoasaud dollara, carmarke<l for the purchase of arms, graft, 
and other costs of the conspiracy, which are in his care ... or [without] hav- 
ing sold out to the other side so a« to kill two birds with one stone. The 
revolutions and counter-revolntlons seem to be go^Kl business for many today ! 
What if that crazy eageme«! should demand more and if tlie one who is lead- 
ing many human beings Into the Blnlster venture of crime of war is greedy? 

Truthfully, I have never seen any prisoner physir:ally mistreated, save for 
the case of Dr. Escalona who was murdere^l in his cell at the hands of two rebel 
soldiers. One thing should be understoo^l : The jailers have go-betweens. . . . 
Morally, yes, I found that they do »o ruthlessly, with every refinement of 
cruelty, by Intrigue and for gain, even making love to and violating women, 
sisters or daughters, when they [the women] do not fall for the false x^roml-ses 
of influential rel>els who want to "seduce" them in exchange for the free<lom 
of this or that pri.soner. 

There is the sad 8x>ectacle, after visits to the prisoners, of the pairing off 
of couples and the "bearded df>gs," their tr^ngues hanging out and their beards 
neatly combed, taking the fickle woman of the prLs^>n inmate by the arm, and 
calling the virtuous ones, who do not yield, "enemie* of the revolution" 

^Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, Library r/f Corg^ress, .July 14, liK50.) 



The days spent up there in the Sierra Mae-*tra seem very far away, and the 
cruel reminder when listening to "Suijerman", who never gets tired of saying that 
they, the twelve (ft them, had Ijeen carrjing the revolution forward until all 
the others now belongirijg to it joined the bandwagon, .seerns like a nightmare . . . 
his visible contempt for the valorous Cubans who had l>een fighting anr] making 
sacrifices in different places to feed the beast who today would t^ke their 
lives lest they follow his doctrine — a mixttire of phony patriotism and j/ro- 
Communist internationalism. . . . 

"Superr/ian" has outgrown "the glory and fame" in his own country and, as 
if it were to happen, he wants to extend it to the rest of the r-ontinent, presenting 
himself as the only genuine revolutionary who is to be likened to the Redeemer 
of the World. He gave ns a hint of this in his last televised sr>eech. Have we 
ever seen a bigger "ham" on earth I . . . 

I must confess, sinr-erely. that I had been so confused from the day I met him 
that in effect, at the beginning I had felt c-^m.summately honore<l — ^he had s^/me- 
thing that got through to a person, even a presumably intelligent pers/->n : but, 
talking with him for a while, there gradually emerge<l a terrible glint in hia 
evil eyes, and his facial expressions, s^^metimes conceale<l by a smile and other 
times displaying the arrogance of the mighty who t.ake recourse to force, le<l 
t/} the disc^/very: ndel Ca.stro is a dangerous jrfiranfAsif:. He is crazy I A sad 
fate Ls Ln store for that man when his peoi.»le discover the troth 1 



512 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

It costs a lot to get used to the idea of not believing that one is awake ; it 
seems like a dream, an infernal nightmare, and yet — my soul is wide awake, 
and I am going to pass judgment on what Fid^l Castro's government really 
is like : 

When Fidel Castro was speaking to the people of Cuba from Ciudad Libertad, 
I was in Ch^ Guevara's offices in La Cabana ; I had to meet a number of require- 
ments before his aide, Capt. Nuiiez Jimtoez, let me pass ; we talked briefly ; 
he amused himself by looking at his leader on the television screen, smoking a 
cigar and suppressing smiles whenever Fid61 fired his broadsides against the one 
he had defeated. It was during the night of last January 8, and. as is quite 
natural and proper, I spoke of my aspirations to work with the revolutionary 
government that had just won the victory, reminding him that the "grain of 
sand" modestly contributed by me to the victory merited attention and gratitude 
which decent men know how to reward when the time comes. He promised to 
take me on as Paratrooper Instructor and we brought to light again an incident 
that had occurred when we knew each other in the Sierra Maestra, at a place 
called "Las Vegas de Jibacoa", the headquarters of the Rebel Army, sometime 
early in the second half of April 1958. At that time I knew nothing about the 
political trajectory of Fid^l Castro and his trusted men ["cronies"] such as Ch^ 
Guevara. We were taking a dip in the river, together with Delio Gomez Ochoa, 
Ren6 Rodriguez, Sori Marfn, etc. The conversation had to do with my trip from 
Costa Rica to the Sierra Maestra, transporting arms, in the company of Pedro 
Luis Diaz Lanz, Roberto Verdaguer, Huber Matos, Bequer, Evelio, Pedrito Miret, 
in sum, twelve in all, on a flight aboard a C-46, which had to be burned after we 
landed, because it was thought that it might fall into the hands of the Batista 
soldiers, and because we did not have the necessary equipment to repair one of 
the propeller vanes which had crumpled when brushing against a tree stump 
at the moment of landing. In this connection I wish to state for the record that 
this particular plane was burned unnecessarily. It had sufficient gasoline to 
reach some airport outside Cuba, and the damage to its propeller could have 
been repaired, I understand, even though, at the time of the takeoff, there might 
have been some jarring, in which case the flight could have been made with a 
single engine [in working order]. It was my belief at the time that all the 
world wanted to call on Fid61 Castro in recognition of his heroism. It was the 
first shipment of arms that the Rebels had received, and precisely at the most 
critical moment of the revolution. Notwithstanding, on several occasions Fid^l 
Castro did not want to acknowledge the historic importance and strategic value 
inherent in that shipment of men, trucks, and arms, although on the day on 
which he received them he was crazy with joy, and even wept. . . . That was 
Sunday, March 30, 1958. . . . 

After telling Ch^ Guevara of the above trip, and later of my activities as active 
fighter at San Ram6n, and as instructor in the handling of the .50-caliber machine- 
guns adapted at the Crespo armory which lies deep in the Sierra Maestra, at a 
place called Naranjo, the conversation turned to my revolutionary ideals and 
background, and I said quite candidly : I served under Franco because of my 
Chri-s^tian ideals, because of unity for Spain, and because I am anti-Communist; 
and in Costa Rica I fought against the invasion coming from Nicaragua, because 
of my feelings of gratitude and because there was a crime against the democracy 
of Figneres involved. My explanation left him cold. . . . His face first showed 
a smirk of disbelief, and then a smile when I proceeded to level with him and 
to deny that I had actually fought with the Franco troops in Spain. As of that 
particular moment I felt I had proof of his ideology tending Leftward: and we 
never mentioned politics again, with the exception of the little story I told, 
meant to be ironical, about my intention to retract my statement that I had 
served under Franco. 

My impression of Ch^ Guevara, from what I know of him, is a pretty gloomy 
one: he is the prototype of a good-for-nothing Argentinian, living by bis wits. 
As quickly as he had made himself an ambulatory doctor^ and had met Fidel in 
Mexico, he turned into a mountain guerrilla fighter and commanding officer of 
unskilled peasants, blind tools of the foreign adventurer, who gamblefl with his 
life in order to make his fortune which he soon accomplished by miraculously 
makine the people believe that those men were fighting, truly inspired bv 
Christian doctrines, in order to overthrow the tyranny — indeed a disgraceful, 
bloody, usun>ing, and dictatorial one. Even gangsters have had their admirers 



1 May also be what we call "ambulance chaser" or "quack". — E. H. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 513 

because of the singular feats achieved by them against the representatives of 
social justice. But, in the case of Cuba, the fighting was being done to do away 
with tyrants. 

Che Guevara is autocratic by nature, although he is suave and "gushy" with 
those who serve him unconditionally ; he is Cuba's "Catinflas," all set to become 
a Communist millionaire. He lives like a king, surrounded by bodyguards who 
grovel like curs copying their master, down to his fits of asthma. His first wife. 
Dr. Ilda Gavea, an unsophisticated Peruvian woman, must have suffered terribly 
when she found out that she had been replaced by some other, more modem 
and better-looking woman in the year of victory. . . . The revolutionary bosses 
of the extreme I>eft in Central and South America consult him and then proceed 
against governments and capitalist enterprises, and his "Havana Kingdom" 
supplies him with literature, money, arms, and men. He has a decisive influence 
on Fidel Castro: they [Guevara, Fidel, and Raul?] are a very congenial trio; 
however, the high-handedness affected by the Maximum Leader of the Revolution 
has sui-passed every expectation. 

"The Horse," as Fidel Castro is called by many rebel.s, because of his size, 
because of his long hikes, because of his [physical] resistance, and because of 
the way he exercises his will, without permitting any kind of interference, is 
absolute and omnipotent ; those who want to go along with him, as collaborators 
know that they are not free to do as they wish ; everybody must consult the 
Supreme Leader, lest he risk being thrust into oblivion regardless of what his 
revolutionary merits may have been ; it may even happen, as has been happening 
to many others, that he is put in jail as "counter-revolutionist." "traitor," 
"deserter," "latifundist serAnng foreign interest," etc. 

I may say, without ambiguity, as I explained to several of my comrades, who 
talked to me about participating in a crime which was to take place in the offices 
of the FAR leadership, on the occasion of the search for Camilo Cienfuegos, 
where they were hoping to find all three. Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, and Raiil 
together, to attack them with hand-grenades and machine-guns that, since there 
is no military authority capable of maintaining order and guaranteeing the life 
of the citizens if orders were given to strike out against all those supposedly 
cataloged as enemies of the revolutionary government as well as the unfortunates 
with a pro-Batista record, there would have been a massacre . . . The Army, 
con.sisting of undisciplined and fanatic elements, the majority of them simple 
peasants, neither could nor would be capable of establishing order in case there 
were insane and artificially provoked fighting in the streets. Then, after they 
had talked to me and I had learned the details of how the crime was to be com- 
mitted — a well designed plot, to he sure — I said I was sorry that I did not agree 
with them, and gave my word of honor, because of the loyalty that I owed to 
my missing friend and because of what a crime of that nature stood for. It is 
quite true that the key figures, who did not always appear together, would be 
eliminated physically, but . . ., how about the lives of thousands of families 
tagged as enemies of the revolutionary government — who would protect them 
from the fury of the mob? And how about the thousands of prisoners in the 
jails, what fate would be in store for them, knowing that in case of a counter- 
revolution there were orders to throw them to the common criminals? Frankly, 
I considere<l it an outright barbarian plan, and I state for the record that it was 
not bpoause I was afrairl, because it is easy to get rid of Fidel Castro or any 
of his followers, by surprise, regardless of the number of bodyguards they may 
have protecting them. They know it from their own experience. How about the 
ambushes which they had devised on the roads and bridges and in the thickets 
of the Sierra Maestra, and even in the capital of Cuba : don't they show that all 
that is needed is determination? How about the families of persons shot to 
death by firing-squads or jailed, won't they be willing to sacrifice thensselves at 
a given moment? Fidel Castro knows that some day they will catch up wTth him 
or some of his collaborators, and I solemnly state that, if anything serious of a 
personal nature would have happened to me or my family, I would have gone 
out to find him, making use of the same methods that he is accustomed to using. 
I would have gone out to liquidate him at his favorite spot, the CMQ television 
studio, while addressing to the people those interminable talks of his that are 
directed against anyone not thinking and acting unconditionally in his favor; 
it is here where the mainstays of the revolution get together, and the catch 
would be 100 percent if all of the doors were attacked simultaneously, with hand- 
grenades and bazookas, and if sharp.shooters were stationed at the doors so that 
anyone trying to get out "alive" from within would be liquidated, thereafter 



514 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

starting the general attack on the government, or seeking to get out of the 
country immediately .... 

But I repeat, to do such a thing a person must carry hatred in his heart 
against all of those people ; he mu.sit have cause, and, especially, he must have 
the soul of a criminal — that is the main reason for [my] not sharing in that 
kind of action, and that is why I did not lend myself to doing what I was asked 
to do that day at the FAR [headquarters] upon [in spite of] the assurance that 
a plane would be waiting plus a guarantee of a million dollars for taking care 
of [my] physical and economic rescue and salvation, precisely because I had no 
personal cause for committing such a crime. I lamented and criticized their 
failures only because I followed the dictates of reason. 

THE REVOLUTIONARY LAWS 

Everybody knows the revolutionary laws which were put into effect so as to 
leave penniless and [rotting] in jail, the first [any] person accused of being a 
counter-revolutionist. The mere thought of going on trial spells terror ; 
there are not many attorneys taking on the defense of the "criminal" without 
exposing themselves to the risk of investigation and also having to stand up to 
a revolutionary tribunal. The jails are jammed with persons arrested, con- 
demned, and ill. The food is inadequate and, generally speaking, the sanitary 
conditions are extremely bad. I never imagined that I would some day have 
to view such a state of affairs under a government which I served because I 
believed that it was humanitarian, patriotic, decent. What a terrible experience 
for me ! 

In reference to the Land Reform, I believe that some of its measures have 
been just, because no government had been capable of protecting the peasants 
as the Prio Socarras government had done, and as the revolutionary government 
is doing now. But I think that the measure is designed to give the State absolute 
control over the [country's] production, and the establishment of Cooperatives 
will have to standardize [stabilize] the cost of living, there may be over- 
production because, if there is no decrease in plantings, and if there are no 
foreign markets where the surplus may be placed, there will [still] be a need 
for foreign exchange, in order to take care of the demand which is exacted 
by the activities of the Nation ; what is needed for those things are proper 
trading facilities. 

THE TOURIST INDUSTRY 

Fidel Castro's constant attacks in his speeches against the North American 
authorities, his insistence on interfering in the policy of other governments by 
furnishing every imaginable kind of facility for fighting them, have produced a 
general state of alarm in almost all countries of our Continent, which has al- 
ready had its impact on the tourist trade which has diminished to such a degree 
that almost all hotels, cabarets, taxi companies and business establishments in 
Havana are going broke. . . . Fidel has blamed these things on anti-Cuban 
propaganda, when, in reality, he and the revolution inspired by him, are 
responsible for bringing everybody to the brink of ruin and disaster. One 
must be blind or a fanatic not to see these contingencies. It is obvious that 
the majority of the people are already becoming aware of the real situation. 

THE POLICE SYSTEM 

The National Police is headed by Major Almejeiras ; many revolutionists 
have asked themselves why such a responsible post was given to a person who 
does not deserve it because of his disgraceful past history. Public rumor has 
it that, under the Batista dictatorship and even before, Almejeiras had been 
a simple taxi driver actively engaged in the traffic of drugs, marihuana, and 
white slavery. His contribution as a revolutionist was no more deserving than 
that of all the others who, because of criminal records, had latched on to the 
underground movement and then fled, when they were being persecuted, into 
the sierras and mountains to join up, and who are now profiting from the 
victory — some as officials and others as heads of big business enterprises. There 
is no doubt that, of the total of the eight hundred soldiers who had made up 
the Rebel Army, the majority of them plain peasants, most are now well es- 
tablished, some of them rightly so ; but the facts prove that there are common 
criminals whose cruelty, dishonesty and hatred of the intellectuals who make 
up the more select social classes, is in their blood. Here in lies the reason 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 515 

why there will be no peace in Cuba while so long as characters like Almejeiras 
are lording it over the men who have been appointed to impose order, discipline, 
and respect among the citizens. 

Almejeiras' name crops up in talk about big orgies in the "Foxa" Apartment 
House, loose parties, and even differences with the Navy and Army General 
Staffs. I remember that Camilo once called him on the carpet because the police 
pretended not to know about the authority of the military, and that shortly 
thereafter, because of this strong friction, the comment was that Camilo had 
demanded his [A's] separation. "The suicide" of Almejeiras' wife was attributed 
to some dirty business involving the exchange of Cuban money for dollars in 
Miami ; finally, he is tagged as undesirable even among the revolutionists them- 
selves. 

ratJl casteo ruz, champion killer of people 

Anyone having dealing with Raul realizes immediately that he is an embittered 
"fop" with exalted ideas of his own importance, typified by ostentatious bragging 
about his power. It can be stated unequivocally that his actions are outright 
diabolical. When several conspirators in the Trinidad case were arrested who 
had been denounced with the supposed participation of William Morgan and 
Gutierrez Menoyo, I was present at one of the interrogations during which 
Raul Castro scornfully ridiculed the statements of one of the persons arrested 
who said : "You fought for an ideal which carried you to victory, true? Well, 
I am fighting, precisely as you and Fidel Castro did, for a cause which I con- 
sider just, with the only difference that we are in opposite camps, and therefore 
I ask you to respect our cause and our persons, in accordance with the human 
rights which you yourselves have invoked so many times . . ." ; to which, Raul, 
raising his voice, responded : "When he stands before the firing-squad he will see 
which of the two causes is more just, his or ours." 

Raiil is considered a despicable, cruel and boastful individual. His tendency 
toward the extreme Left is interpreted as an alliance against the United States 
[sic: "anti-Americanism?"]; all his aides and confidants are well "catheterized" 
by him, and his political indoctrination centers are cleverly disguised as "Cul- 
tural Centers." 

There had been talk about differences between him and Major Camilo Cien- 
fuegos, which was true because of his [Raul's] authoritarianism of which Camilo 
did not approve. As a result of this serious incident, Raul caught up with Fid^l 
Castro, when he was traveling to the United States and South America, to ex- 
plain Camilo's attitude, and I understand that Fid^l disagreed with [Raul] 
and agreed with Camilo. Afterwards they made peace; I know of no further 
altercation between them. I do know, however, that, as I was Camilo's aide, 
I took several calls which Raul made, asking for him, and when I conveyed the 
message to him [Camilo] he said : "Tell him to call me later because I can't talk 
to him now ; or that I am not in right now" ; whereupon Raul said : "Tell Camilo 
to come to see me". Generally it was Raul going after Camilo. Finally, my per- 
sonal impression is that Raul was envious of Camilo Cienfuegos because of his 
strong personality and the liking he inspired in everybody, including Fid^l 
Castro. 

CAMILO cienfuegos' PERSONALITY 

I explained on a previous occasion how I came to know Camilo Cienfuegos ; it 
was in an article entitled, I WAS [CAMILO CIENFUEGOS'] AIDE. I had 
not wanted to dwell on this in further detail because I respect his memory and 
I shall be grateful to him all my life ; but I want to state for the record that he 
was a sincere admirer of Fidel Castro and that his actions were always character- 
ized by the utmost loyalty to him and the revolution, and that his disappearance 
is due, no doubt, to a fatal accident, and to the inexperience, perhaps, of the 
pilot, Lt. Farinas, who had only twelve hours of flying in that type of twin- 
engine airplane and who had no experience at all in instrument or night flying. 
Let them say what they like — Camilo Cienfuegos was the victim of an accident 
and he was not liquidated, as they say, because he was an obstacle in the path 
of the revolution and the Castro Ruz brothers. If it had been the latter, they 
would not be alive today, none of those who volunteered to help with his disap- 
pearance. However, almost all of Camilo's confidants have been transferred to 
other jobs, and the body of the Chief, who had been his personal choice, Major 
Cristino Naranjo. was [found] riddled with bullets a few days after Camilo's 
disappearance. His death was attributed to some remark he had made criticiz- 
ing Fid^l Castro the night the latter was speaking and when explanations of 



516 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

the loss of the Chief of the General Staff were being given. Cristino was said 
to have been looking at television and, rising from his chair, to have stated : 
"Fidel is responsible for Camilo's loss, and he knows where he is". A few minutes 
later he died in the form indicated. Of course, everything was kept very hush- 
hush and nobody will say for sure. 

THE CHURCH AND THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT 

There has been no change up to now in the relat ins between the Church and 
the Revolutionary State, notwithstanding the fact that the real Christians 
among the members of the Government itself, or in the ranks of the high echelon 
officialdom are few and far between. I do not know how they are going to 
handle the deception of the clergy and the religious sects to win them over, be- 
cause, I myself have seen only a handful of rebel soldiers attending church, 
going to confession, or evidencing real, heartfelt contrition for those who had 
died in the fighting and illegal procedures whereby the revolution had been 
carried to victory. 

PARTICIPATION IN THE INVASION OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

Eight days before the invasion of the Dominican Republic took place Major 
Camilo Cienfuegos called me to appear before ]Major Che Guevara, in the oflSces 
of the General Staff, and said to me : "Rojo. are you able to fly to the 
Dominican Republic to transport troops, arms, and equipment?" His words 
took me by surprise : the truth is that I knew that there were several camps in 
the Province of Pinar del Rio where people were being trained for invasion pur- 
poses, and that Major Linares was in charge of the program, but I did not 
know that the date for embarking on an undertaking of such magnitude was 
so close, knowing as I do the preparation [state of preparedness] of the armies 
of the countries that were to be attacked . . . Nicaragua, Guatemala, Paraguay, 
Santo Domingo, Haiti, Panama, and even Spain. All I managed to answer was : 
"The truth is that I lack the necessary technical preparation, but if I am given 
enough time and training I promise to do it, as co-pilot of the C-46 which you 
mentioned". Whereupon they said : "No, Fidel wants it as soon as possible, get 
yourself trained and prepared, because you must report for duty to the leaders 
of that expedition which is to leave next week . . .". A few minutes later they 
introduced to me a Venezuelan pilot by the name of Rodriguez, whom they 
ordered me to watch constantly so that he would not get away or talk, at the 
same time giving him a pep talk explaining our successful landing in the 
Sierra Maestra when Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz and Roberto Verdaguer made 
that famous flight from Costa Rica on March 30, 19.58. 

The next day Dr. Canto, one of the leaders of the Dominican Revolutionary 
Movement, was introduced to me. and Ventura Simo, supposedly a military 
deserter and pilot of a Dominican airplane, who had been given asylum in 
Puerto Rico (whom I distrusted immediately and so informed Camilo and some 
other friends and also talked about this matter with Delio Gomez moments 
before departing on that expedition), .Jimenez Moya, and other Dominicans 
whose names I don't remember now and of whom I was suspicious [?]. 

At the time of the preparations effected in Havana and including [test] 
flights with the C-46, the crew consisted of Captain Rodriguez, a Venezuelan, as 
the pilot and Captain Manuel Rojo del Rio, an Argentinian. Painters and 
mechanics were requisitioned from the FAR to change the outside paint [color 
scheme?] of the plane, and paint on it the identifications [insignia] of the 
Dominican Army, a transport plane, and we left for t)lguin Airport where we 
were received by Major Sund [?], Chief of that Military Post. We had lunch 
with Delio Gomez Ochoa, .Jimenez Moya, Dr. Canto, etc., and instructions were 
given for Orestes Acosta. a Cuban, to take the place of copilot and Ventura Simo, 
a Dominican, that of observer. I was to stand by in case Orestes were to 
change his mind at the last moment, and for other contingencies. Hours later 
we were ordered to take off again, with Nene Lopez, so that, undoubtedly, there 
would be one more observer aboard and [to serve as] guide to indicate the camp 
where we were to collect the invasion troops. The name of the camp is Santa 
Lucia : it is situated in the Oriente area and was the place where the war 
materiel for Fid^l Castro had been landed and where Mr. Urrutia, who was soon 
to be President of Cuba, but was subsequently accused of being a traitor, had 
gone [or, arrived] at the time. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 517 

In spite of the precautions which had been taken to lieep our arrival under 
wraps, the place immediately started to fill up with peasants, who had come 
running to see the airplane, and uniformed soldiers of the Revolutionary Army. 
The painters got to work immediately, and we of the crew made contact with 
the troops who were camped nearby waiting for the time of their transfer. 

For purposes of coordinating the attack on the Dominican Republic a certain 
time [fixed hour] had been set so that the landing craft, traveling by sea and 
supported by units of the Cuban Navy, would carry out the oi^eration simul- 
taneously, the airplane staying put for three days until the embarkation and 
the assault operation would be put into effect, finally, on Simday afternoon. 

The chosen point was to be the one which was to be indicated by Ventura 
Simo who, I noticed, was very nervous and I then told Delio Gomez Ochoa, who 
acted as Commanding Officer of the Cuban Invasion Force, of my suspicions 
about the Dominican pilot, whereupon Ochoa said to me : "I would like you to 
come with us, you know how much I think of you . . .". Did Major Ochoa 
suspect that I did not agree either with the crazy way the rulers of Cuba were 
acting? 

Believe me, I am telling you sincerely, I was impressed by the lack of ex- 
perience of that undisciplined troop contingent, those sentimental and adventure- 
loving Venezuelans, joined together with children in a tremendous pirate com- 
mando operation, with their pale faces and trembling hands as they were starting 
to go aboard, the last-moment fake enthusiasm of the Venezuelan Captain who 
was going to gamble their lives, together with a Cuban copilot without experience 
in that type of plane, and whom on the point of departure I almost had to 
replace because he said to me : "It would be better if you were to go because I 
feel a little sick to my stomach . . .", which cheered me up, I confess, because 
I had never believed in the success of the expedition and those participating in 
it since they were fighting against a [whole] nation without first making sure 
of support forces behind the expedition and of permanent ways and means of 
supply. Furthermore, I had been ordered not to go because my technical knowl- 
edge was necessary to supply them from the air by parachute [drops] and to 
remain at the orders of the Chief of the Cuban Army. The pilot, Rodriguez, 
took off with 56 men aboard, with a large quantity of equipment and arms, a 
North American, and a variety of Venezuelans, Dominicans, and Cubans, flying to 
his death, or to his return in which case he would have collected for that 
flight a guaranteed amount of ten thousand dollars, drawn in advance and de- 
posited in the name of his wife and children who were anxiously waiting for 
him in Miami. . . . 

Ten minutes after the C-46 had taken off for the invasion of Santo Domingo, 
Major Camilo Cienfuegos arrived at Santa Lucia, together with Captain Aldo 
Lozado who was piloting the helicopter of the Chief of the General Staff of the 
Revolutionary Army. Visibly grieved. Camilo regretted that he had not arrived 
in time to see the airplane off, and ordered me to take the helicopter up and, 
surrounded by peasants and the leaders of the Dominican Revolutionary Move- 
ment, we left for Manzanillo, discussing the details of the expedition. He in- 
formed me that his inability of getting there in time was due to the fact that 
he had been despatching [another expeditionary unit] by sea, and when he asked 
what I thought about the matter, I told him sincerely : "If they have no inside 
support they will fail, because the case of Cuba is an abortion of nature [a freak 
of nature]. . .". He remained pensive and then asked me for the rolls of film 
that we had taken of the operations, and twenty-five minutes later we arrived at 
the Manzanillo airport where high officials and the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Revolutionary Army, Raul Castro, were awaiting us. We briefly talked about 
the operation and the state of mind of the troops who had left for the invasion 
of the Dominican Republic, and then Captain Lozado ordered me to fly by 
helicopter to Olguin. with instructions to wait for the return of the plane of the 
expeditionaries which, they estimated, would arrive at that airport at 8 :4.3 p.m. 
if everything had gone all right when leaving the troops on Dominican soil. 

The instructions given to me by Camilo Cienfuegos [as to what to do] as soon 
as the plane returned were that the crew was to be detained to simulate the 
landing of a Dominican plane on Cuban soil and to pretend I don't know 
what . . . and I conveyed the me.ssage to Major Edy Sufiol. Military Chief of 
Olguin. with whom I talked as soon as I had arrived and who was very much 
surprised that Camilo should have ordered that kind of procedure. 

Actually, at 8 :45 p m. the plane came into sight, which had come from Santa 
Lucia, flying above Olguin with lights ablaze. A happy return for its pilot who 



518 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

had thus made ten thousand dollars for himself . . . ! I was with Dr. Canto 
who "was beside himself" with happiness. As soon as the plane landed in front 
of Olguin Military Headquarters, I went aboard to inform Capt. Rodriguez and 
Lt. Acosta that there was going to be a simulated detention. There was some 
war materiel scattered around on the floor of the plane including bazooka am- 
munition and military attire. The guards climbed aboard after me, unaware 
of my intentions and leaving me hardly any time to talk with them [the crew] 
"in secret" [confidentially]. They [the Capt. and the Lt.] were highly satis- 
fied and explained at the same time the success of the air drop at the Costaza 
[sio — "Constanza"] Airport situated in the central mesa of Santo Domingo. 
The plane had been shot at and hit several times, and it was really a miracle 
that some of the bullets had not seriously damaged some of the important instru- 
ments or pierced the boxes containing bazooka ammunition which had been left 
lying on the floor. 

After entering Military Headquarters, they explained, in the presence of Major 
Edy Sunol, all the details of the attack upon landing at that airport, stating 
that, despite the first-minute confusion, the Dominican authorities, taken by 
surprise because of the identification [insignia] of the plane, the color of the 
paint on the tail, wings, and fuselage, had been pondering over this but had 
reacted when they were attacked by those who started to take assault positions 
as the plane was coming down. According to the pilots, the landing operation 
took barely eight minutes — i^erhaps less. The anxiety was so great that the 
copilot only managed to lock the door when the plane was already gaining speed 
for the take-oflf, seeing through the window that an automobile had burst into 
flames on the ground and another had taken off with fleeing soldiers ; that shots 
were being fired ; also noting nearby a Dominican army post, etc. 

At about 10 p.m. Camilo arrived, coming from Santiago, Cuba, where he had 
gone from Manzanillo, and immediately gave orders for the airplane to depart 
again, as soon as possible, for Santa Lucia, for removal of the Dominican paint 
and insignia. Since by that time the newspai>er reporters and other curious 
people had already learned that a Dominican plane had landed at Olguin, Camilo 
corrected ["amended"] the order he had given to me, and even claimed not to 
know anything about it, "as [being] my fault". However, this was the end of 
it, and half an hour later we returned to Havana aboard a C^7 which had 
carried him from Santiago. We arrived in Havana at 2 a.m., and Camilo and I 
immediately set out to bring the good news to Fidel Castro, who was in the 
apartment situated on . . . Street : we were received with a smile by Celia 
Sdnchez ; F^d^l's housekeeper was asleep ; "Gallego Garcia" did not wake up until 
we were already in the room. "Ah, body-guards!" I said to myself. Fidel ap- 
peared instantly, clad in pajamas and unarmed ; he could not contain his feelings 
of contentment. We explained to him everything that had been happening, the 
statements as to what had occurred at Costanza [Constanza], and right here 
when I made it clear that I had not gone along as copilot because those had been 
Camilo's orders, he seemed disappointed for a moment, a matter which Camilo 
clarified by stating that on the next flight carrying supplies, and dropping leaf- 
lets to incite the Dominican people and army to revolution, I would go because 
"he has [will have by then?] more experience". I gained the impression as of 
that very moment that I had been choseru like other victims, as a "guinea pig", 
and that the confidence which had been vested in me was so that I would die in 
the ensuing fighting, as had happened to Belio Gomez Gchoa, Nene Lopez, Jime- 
nez Moya, and even to the leaders of the Dominican Revolutionary Movement 
which gave them importance afterwords. This is by way of clarification of those 
things, for the purpose of judging who is the traitor, after analyzing all my 
activities to date. . . . 

However, I believe that Camilo took pity on my five small children, whom 
he had met because I had taken them to his mother's house ; and, at the same 
Military Headquarters, and perhaps in a sentimental moment ["in a moment 
of weakness," or "because he suddenly felt sentimental"], considering that 
there was a possibility that everything would fail, as it did indeed, he dis- 
pensed with my services [he relieved me of this particular assignment], wait- 
ing for a safer opportunity. Furthermore, he had placed a great deal of con- 
fidence in me. and, truthfully, he regarded me as a real friend, something for 
which I shall, as long as I live, give him credit and reciprocate ; and I should 
never have been able to say these things I am saying now if it were not because 
I know that, by doing so, I am serving the true democratic sentiments by which 
I am inspired, and [also] because I am serving thereby, fully and completely, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 519 

the noble people of Cuba who have been deceived and dragged down to social 
ruin, demagogy, libertinage, chaos . . . anarchy. . . 

That day and the days following, until we found out about the complete 
failure of the expeditions despatched by air and sea — disastrous to be sure — we 
kept on the lookout for all communications of the liaison services, listening to 
the Dominican radio uutil learning of the "detention" of Delio Gomez Ochoa, the 
death of Jimenez Moya, the failure of the invasion of Nicaragua from Honduras, 
and others, which were censured by them [the opposition] as cases of aid to the 
Paraguayan revolutionists and economic support of the strikers in Costa Rica 
[inked out : "through Col. Aguilar, who was in Havana especially in order to 
get together with Ch6 Guevara, the results of which are known to everybody"]. 

MY TKANSFEB FROM THE GENERAL STAFF TO THE F.A.B. 

On two or three occasions, when I had to travel by automobile with Majors 
Raul Castro Ruz, Fld^l Castro, and Camilo Cienfuegos, I deduced from their 
intimate conversations that they were contemptful of all of us revolutionists who 
did not wholeheartedly approve of their mode of acting. In one of those con- 
ver.sations I overheard that it had been necessary to deport [oust?] many 
soldiers of the Revolutionary Army and members of the "26th of July Move- 
ment" ; and I also learned that those members had prevailed, or were going to 
prevail, upon Fid^l Castro to define the line of policy to be pursued as there 
were 'differences of opinion because of the behavior of Ch6 Guevara, Raul 
Castro, and other officers who had infiltrated into the Army and who wanted to 
have absolute control of the Extreme Leftist indoctrination and line of policy 
[political orientation]. I remember that they were poking fun at and boasting 
how they would be squashing them [their critics], and on a certain occasion 
Raul turned [pointed] to me and said : "I don't know why Camilo is putting such 
great trust in that foreigner with a fascist record. . . . He ought to be well 
investigated . . .". Someone told me that, when talking this matter over with 
Fid^l, the latter had said to him : "He has his merits, he is a good fellow . . .". 
Raul called me a foreigner because I was not identified ["tagged"] as a Com- 
munist and he had forgotten that for Ch6 Guevara, to make him a Cuban, a 
special Bill had to be concocted. A "foreigner" those ingrates call a person 
who has already served them [well] ! . . . but they are not calling the uncondi- 
tionals [unqualified persons] "foreigners" although they serve international 
[foreign] interests and ruin the country that they would never care for, as they 
had never cared for the country in which they were born, as in the cases of 
Ch^ Guevara, William Morgan, Gutierrez Menoyo, etc. "Foreigner" I was 
called once also when the former Air Force Chief, Major Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, 
was having masochistic [?] fun [with me?], forgetting "my grain of sand," 
as though he wanted thereby to exalt and grab the major [lion's share of the] 
glory for himself, when I know all about the relations he has had with cer- 
tain North Americans, and about his gambling for prestige in order to gain 
ground and continue to make ["a name for himself with an eye on the 
future" . . .] himself famous for the future. . . . 

The then Chief of the Second Military District, stationed at Camaguey, Major 
Hubert IMatos, passed by me, brazenly and arrogantly, without saluting me as 
though he thereby wanted to prove to me how little I counted as compared with 
his "glorious achievements", while he did not even know as yet that a check was 
being run on him as an opportunist. He would have liked to top Fidel's stunts; 
he had fought for the revoHition. that is true; but he wanted his achievements to 
bring him personal glory, and he used the flagrant mistakes of the Castro govern- 
ment for rising higher and higher, and for surrounding himself with people of 
his own kind, unqualified individuaLs, as all ambitious persons, all men of bad 
faith, political adventurers, etc., want to do. 

These things as well as a .series of [other] disappointments had been under- 
mining the faith that I had placed in the men at the helm of the revolution, and 
when I realized that the "party-ing", the permanent adulation, the absolutism, 
the "SUPER EGO", were to be super-imposed on the destinies of us others, I 
started to seek ways and means for gradually getting away from the military. 

I requested a transfer to the FAR. adding that my technical knowledge was 
superfluous here and, also, that I wanted to make room for others with greater 
merits than my modest ones. I was asked, of course, for an explanation before 
T was transferred to the Revolutionary Air Force and was made Chief of the 
Paratrooper L^nits of the Ciudad Libertad and San Antonio de los Baiios bases : 



520 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

however, when I saw the disorder, the absence of military discipline, the lack of 
technicians to take care of even the most essential tasks, the decrepit state of 
the materials, the absence of personal hygiene and morality already beginning 
to become very obvious, I made application for a one-month leave of absence, 
and ten days after I had left the General Staff, i.e., on October 10, 1959, it was 
disapproved by everybody who had knowledge of it. Then, a few days later, 
there was the insubordination and "betrayal" of Hubert Matos, preceded by the 
disappearance of Major Camilo Cienfuegos, the mysterious death of Camilo's 
Chief [captain] of the Guards, Major Cristino Naranjo, and the incredible ac- 
cident which I had on December 2, while training paratroopers, which made it 
possible for me to obtain a 30-day permit so that I could spend the Holidays with 
my family in Costa Rica, and the medical certificate issued by the Military Hos- 
pital contained a special notation stating that, because of lesions and fracture 
of my (illegible) I was excused from active duty for ninety days. The acci- 
dent was timed fortunately, because several weeks before I had been held in 
custody for eight days on the basis of a denunciation by some newspaperman 
who had reported that, in a conversation with him and two others, I had stated 
that Camilo Cienfuegos and I were anti-Communist and had had differences 
[trouble] with Raiil because thereof and also becaiise he had wanted to out- 
rank Camilo's authority as commanding officer within his military jurisdiction. 
The consequence was that I was investigated, but my arrest came to an end 
thanks to the intervention of revolutionary friends who interceded on my behalf, 
among whom was Major Juan Almeida, now Chief of the General Staff of the 
Army, on the occdsion of an "informal war council" which was attended by 
Major Ramiro Vdldez, Chief of G-2 (Military Intelligence), Capt. Aragon^s, 
Coordinator of the 26th of July Movement, Capt. Osmani Cienfuegos, of the 
Adjutant General's Office of the General Staff, a brother of the missing Camilo, 
Lt. Abrantes of the Adjutant's Office of the Chief of the Army, and several other 
persons whose names escape me. ... 

The red tape that I had to go through in order to get a passport and authoriza- 
tion to leave the territory of Cuba would fill a whole chapter, for a complete 
analysis of what was going on. I may say, without exaggerating, that it [Cuba] 
is a police state and that those who want to leave the country must do so with- 
out economic resources, since they are permitted to take out only one hundred and 
fifty dollars, once a year. Naturally the U.S. Embassy refuses visas because this 
sum is not considered adequate for the needs of a "tourist" going in that direction 
from Cuba, afterwards wanting to stay, or asking for political asylum, in North 
America, which constitutes a big obligation and creates difficulties for the U.S. 
immigration authorities. The long lin.es observed in front of the Embassy and 
the Headquarters of the Investigating Bureau (PNR), as well as in front of the 
Passport Office, are eloquent evidence of the feeling of terror which has taken 
hold of the Cubans. 

DELIO GOMEZ OCHOA, CUBAN COMMANDER OF THE ANTI-TBXJJILLO INVASION 

FORCES, AS A PE31S0N 

I met Major Delio [G6mez] Oehoa on the occasion of my first trip to the Sierra 
Maestra. At that time he was enjoying the full confidence of the Rebel leader. 
Dr. Fid^l Castro, and was his chief collaborator, and all of us, Gomez, Ch6 
Guevara, Fid41, and I were initiating ["mapping out plans for"?] active warfare 
when Las Vegas de Jibacoa was the headquarters for the Rebel operations. Later 
I saw him [again] when I was Aide to the Chief of Staff, and [G6mez] Ochoa had 
full authority to organize and put into effect the invasion of Santo Domingo. To 
give the truth its due, I kn«w that he was not getting along well with Camilo, 
and I heard him express himself adversely about the Chief of Staff when an 
MP demanded that he vacate the steps leading to the main entrance of the 
building. The dialog was as follows: "Who gave that order?" [Gomez] Oehoa 
asked. "Major Camilo Cienfuego.s", the MP answered. "Then tell Camilo 
Cienfuegos to come to get me away from here himself". I persuaded Major 
Delio Gomez [Ochoa] to leave the place, which he did a few minutes later. He 
was undoubtedly resentful and his comportment was not in line with the be- 
havior expected toward a superior officer in accordance with the military rules 
and regulations. This happened with great frequency in the Revolutionary 
Army ; only the Big Three, Fidel, Raul, and "Che" Ernesto Guevara, were treated 
with respect and, after them, the "clique" of their most trusted confidants; the 
other officers had to cool their heels for hours when going to see them on some 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 521 

kind of problem, even if it was urgent, and the aides devoted more time to 
making love than attending to the matters they had to take care of while on 
duty. I finally saw Delio Gomez [Ochoa] when he left on the anti-Trujillo 
invasion, as I said before. 

After Camilo, Fidel, and Che learned of his speeches over the [radio network] 
"Va Voz Dominicana", when "taken prisoner", there was no longer any talk 
of his brilliant record, and sometimes he was considered a traitor to Cuba, and 
other times a coward, and, finally, [he was said to be] staging a farce so that 
Trujillo would not have him shot. ... I sincerely believe that, when the Major 
felt he was being left to his fate, he realized that his former comrades-in-arms 
had betrayed him, and it made him act with [greater] prudence. 

XE.\E LOPEZ, CUBAN CAPTAIN, MEMBER OF THE ANTI-TRUJILLO INVASION FORCES, 

AS A PERSON 

He was a confidant of Camilo, and one of his main [body-]guards. I believe 
that, because he was dangerous and a fighter at heart, they had assigned him 
to the experiment [mission]. His rise as [promotion to?] Captain of the Cuban 
Rebel Army came one month before the invastion of Santo Domingo was under- 
taken. Nothing had been heard of him until a month ago when a member of his 
family was said to have received a letter according to which he "was at the head 
of seventy men fighting against the Trujillo tyranny". 

IDENTIFICATION OF THE C— 16 PLANE THAT MADE THE FLIGHT WITH THE INVADERS 
WHO LANDED AT CONSTANZA IN SANTO DOMINGO 

This plane had belonged to a Venezuelan transfer company ; it seems that it 
had been donated by that firm. It carried arms and equipment on the flight 
from Venezuela, and it seems that the Cuban Government was interested in in- 
volving Venezuela in this invasion so as to force it to pledge to fight jointly with 
Cuba in order to overthrow Trujillo and to keep the Venezuelan people alert to 
the possibility of a Dominican attack again.st their sovereignty, thus diverting 
the tenseness - that exists in the ranks of the Venezuelan Army against Romulo 
Betancourt and [certain] Communist elements supporting Fidel Castro. . . . 

This plane had been repaired, repainted, and carrying the insignia of the 
Cuban Revolutionary Air Force also bearing the serial number 620; however, 
it is identifiable by the glass [plexiglass?] in the windows into which holes had 
been bored at Santa Lucia to facilitate the defense of the plane in case of attack 
in the air [while in flight], upon leaving for Constanza. It has still the same 
window-glass, as one can see. 

THE ARGENTINIAN NEWSPAPERMAN MASSETI AND THE PAID SATELLITES OF THE 

PRESS, RADIO AND TELEVISION IN CU18A 

I leave it to the members of the international press to judge the performance 
of the representatives of the Cuban press, radio, and television. I shall limit 
myself to pointing out only that Fid^l Castro has unqualified people in his pay. 
who yesterday, today, and always will be ready with a subterfuge to justify their 
"professional activities". . . . 

FINAL CONCLUSIONS 

I have made it crystal-clear to the world that the goal pursued by me is no 
other than to bring out the truth, so that History may be the Judge, the truth 
as I conceive it, from public knowledge and as I remember it at this time, and 
I ask my readers to forgive me for the modest scope of my intellectual powers. I 
come from humble people and therefore, that is where I belong, without setting 
myself apart from the social rules and laws that must govern our destinies. 

Henceforth I shall never be active, directly or indirectly, against any govern- 
ment, nor shall I serve political parties not intrinsically democratic and Chris- 
tian. I shall dedicate my life to honest work, to the education of my children, 
CO the happiness of my family and my fellow man, in absolute obedience to the 
established principles of human rights. 

The trials and tribulations endured by me up to now have been tremendous, no 
doubt, but they will form the cauldron into which I shall sink all the things 
that must be purified with the fire of my existence, and afterwards I shall re- 



- Translator believes the Spanish should have read : "distrayendo la atencion" — calling 
off the ill feelings . . ." and that "distrayendo la tension may be one of the innumeraile 
mistakes in the text ; this is open to conjecture. — E. H. 



522 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

move from it the matter, of which I shall have to rid myself because of its im- 
purity, and shall thus merit the eternal [Divine] Justice. . . . 

(s) [Initials illegible] Rojo. 

(Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, Library of Congress, July 13, 1960). 

Senator Dodd. The committee will now stand in recess. 
(Whereupon, at 11 :35 a.m., the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene 
subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

Abrantes, Sub-Lieutenant 485, 520 

Acosta, Orestes 448, 490, 516, 518 

Aguilar, Colonel 519 

Aguirre, Father Eduardo 483 

Aldo, Captain 517 

Algiers 452 

Almeida, Commander Juan 485, 500, 520 

Almejeiras, Commander (Major) E 444,458,514 

Aragones, Captain 485, 500,520 

Arevalo, ex-President of Guatemala 445 

Argentina (Province of Buenos Aires) 451 

Argentine 478 

(Embassy) 455 

Army : 

Cuban 480 

Rebel 512, 514, 521 

Aquilos, Marcel 499 

Avenida de Rancho Boyeros 483 



Banco de Los Colonos 487 

Barbatos. Andres Rodrigues 452 

"Barba Roja" 500 

Batista 483, 512, 514 

Statutes 483 

Bayo, Gen. Alberto 478, 498, 499, 501 

Bequer 512 

Betancourt, Romulo 521 

"Bit Three" 521 

Blanco, A.G 444 

Brazil 451 

Santos 452 

Buenos Aires 453 



Cabrera, Manuel 447, 478 

Camaguey 519 

Canto, Dr 489. 490. 516. 518 

Caracas 489 

Gasa Blanca 4."1. 452 

Castinerias, Commander 444, 446 

Castro Fidel 443 444—446 

454, 478, 481, 483-486, 497. 498, 511, 512, 514. 515, 518-520, 522 

Castro (Rus), Raul 448, 481, 484, 485, 492, 497-500, 513, 517, 519 

Chief of Staff of the Army of Cuba 449 

Government 510 

Cienfuegos, Camilo (Cuban Chief of Staff of all services) 444-446 

448, 449, 458, 480-183, 486. 489, 497-500, 513. 515-517, 519, 520 

Cienfuegos, Osmani (brother of Camilo Cienfuegos) 448,480.485,487,497 

CMQ television studio 513 

Colombia 447, 454 



II INDEX 

Page 

Constanza 488, 518, r)21 

Airport 494 

Costa Rica 447, 454, 455, 478, 484, 486, 498, 499, 512, 519, 520 

Air Force of 447, 454 

President of 454 

Embassy of 478 

Crespo, Commander 444 

Cuba : Holguin 490 

Cuba Libre 484 

Ciiban Invasion Force 517 

Cuidad Libertad 512, 519 

"Cultural Centers" 515 

D 

dejara. Haydee Santamaria 500 

de los Santos, Conidr. Rene 444, 44(j 

del Rio, Manuel Rojo (Capt. ) (atc also Roche, Alfonso Manuel 

Rojo) 444-446, 458, 459. 482, 489, 491, 516 

del Rio, Capt. Orestes 445 

del Rio, Pinar 500,516 

Del Valle. Conidr. Sergio (Chief of Cuban Air Force) 448 

del Vayo, Alvarez.. 452 

Diaz Lanz, Pedro Luis 447, 449, 454, 512, 516, 519 

Dodd, Senator Thomas J 44.'?, 4.51 

Dominican Republic 448, 487, 491, 492, 495, 497-499, 516 

Dominican Revolutionary Movement 489,491,516-518 

E 

Escalona, Comdr. (Dr.) E 444,511 

Ecuador 447, 4.54 

Espin, Vilma ."01 

Estrada, Gen. Pedro 4.5.3 

Evelio 512 

Exhibit 1-R 447-449 

Alfonso Manuel Rojo Roche (real name) 447 

Manuel Rojo Del Rio (alias) 447 

Exhibit 2-R (photograph of Capt. Rojo Roche with "Che" Guevara) 4.56 

Exhibit Xo. 3-R (photograph of Comdr. E. Almejeiras, Comdr. Rene 

Rodriguez, Capt. Manuel Rojo del Rio) 4.58 

Exhibit Xo. 4-R (photograph of Captain Mendoza, Comdr. Camilo Cien- 

fuegos, Capt. Ricardo Martinez) 458 

Exhibit Xo. 5-R (photograph of Captain Roche) 459 

Exhibits Xos. 6-R and 7-R (credentials of Alfonso Manuel Rojo 

Roche) 460-477 

Exhibit Xo. S-R (hook written by Gen. Alberto Bayo) 479 

Exhibit No. 9-R (photograph of Commander CienfuegCKS and Captain 

Roche) 482 

Exhibit Xo. 10-R (newspaper article). 483-484 

Exhibit Xo. 11-R (letter to Dr. Sergio Del Valle Jiminez from Alfonso 

Manuel Rojo Roche) 485 

Exhibit Xo. 12-R (check Xo. .366.321) 488 

Exhibit Xo. 18-R (photograph of Captain Roche and Dr. Canto, and one 

of leaders of Dominican revolutionary movement) 489 

Exhibit X^o. 14-R (photograph of Venezuelan pilot and his camouflaged 

plane) 491 

?]xhibit X'o. 1.5-R (photograph of Dominican revolutionaries) 491 

Exhibit Xo. 16-R (photograph relating to Dominican invasion) 493 

Exhibit X"o. 17-R (photographs relating to Dominican invasion) 494 

Exhibit X'o. 1,S-R (photostat copy of secret code used for and by invasion 

project) 496 

F 

FAR (headquarters) (Rebel Air Force) 445,514,516 

Farinas, Lieutenant 515 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 498 



INDEX HI 

Page 

Foreiern Legion 452 

"Foxa" Apartment House 515 

France, Perpignan _ 452 

Franco government 452, 512 

G 

Galves, William 445 

Gavea, Dr. Ilda 500,513 

G-2 (Military Intelligence Service) 485,520 

Gomez, Delio 516 

Gonzales. Captain 500 

Guatemala 447, 516 

Guevara, "Che" (Dr. Ernesto "Che" Guevara) 445-448, 

455, 478. 481, 486, 487, 497, 499, 500, 512, 513, 516, 519, 520 

H 

Haiti 516 

Havana 457 

Havana Hilton 480 

Hilton Hotel 447, 448 

Holguin 448 

Honduras 519 

"The Horse" (nickname for Fidel Castro) 513 

Hruska, Senator 451 

I 

Iglesias. Capt. Manuel ^ 445 

Investigating Bureau (PXR) 520 

J 

Jara, Dr 500 

Jimenez, Capt. Nunez 445, 500. 512 

.Timinez, Perez 453 

Jiminez, Sergio del Valle 485 

L 

La Cabana Fortress 447, 512 

La Caya, Chester 499 

Land Reform 514 

Lanz, Pedro Luis Diaz. (See Diaz-Lanz.) 

Las Vegas 455 

"Las Vegas de Jibacoa" 512, 520 

Laxa (airline) 454, 478 

Linares, Major 516 

List of Communists. Identified as such, among the members of the Cuban 
Revolutionary Army, and Communist sympathizers, some of them in- 
sincere, others indiscreet 501 

Lopez, Capt. Xene 491, 516, 518, 521 

Lozano. Captain 517 

M 

Maclver, William 447. 478 

Manzanillo 478, 517. 518. 521 

I\Iaracaibo 447 

Marin, Comdr. Humberto Sori 444—446, 512 

Martinez, Augusto 500 

Martinez, Capt. Ricardo 444, 445, 458, 486 

Masseti 521 

Matos, Guerra 446 

Matos. Comdr. Hubert 444. 449, 4.>4, 458. 498. 512. 519, 520 

Medina. Dr. Waldo 524 

Mendoza, Captain 444, 445, 458, 501 

Menoyo, Gutierrez 515, 519 

Mexico 499 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Miami '^^> ^^^ 

"Ministerio de Recuperacion de Bienes Malversados" (Ministry of Restitu- 
tion of Misappropriated Property) 510 

Ministry of War and Navy 453 

Miret, Pedrito ^^^ 

Morales, Captain '^^ 

Morgan, William 445, 515, 519 

Moya, Jimenez 499, 516, 518, 519 

N 

Xaranjo, Major 484, 512, 515, 520 

National Airlines 454 

National Commission on Housing 447, 480 

New York 485 

Nicaragua 499, 512, 516, 519 

O 

Ochoa. Delio Gomez 448, 497, 512, 516-521 

O'Farrill, Father Juan Ramon 483, 484 

Olguin Airport 516 

Military Headquarters 518 

Oriente Province: Manzanillo 447, 448, 478, 491 

P 

Pact of Caracas, The__ 483 

Panama 499, 516 

Paraguay 451, 499, 516 

Passport Office 520 

Perez, Father Maximino 480, 483, 484 

Peru 453, 454 

Pinar Del Rio 448, 491 

Pinares, Commander 444, 446, 448 

Prio 447 

Prio Socarras government , 514 

Prosales, Oracio 453 

Puerto Rico 494, 499, 516 

R 

Revolutionary Army 449, 485, 517, 519 

Cuban 480 

Air Force 485, 519, 521 

Navy 444 

Revolutionary Intelligence Service 444 

Rio de Janeiro 451 

Roche, Alfonso Manuel Rojo, also known as Manuel Rojo del Rio : 

(Testimony of) 443-522 

(Statements) 510 

Rodriguez, Rafael Antonio Gonzales 444 

Rodriguez, Comdr. Luis Orlando 446 

Rodriguez (Cruz), Comdr. Rene 444-446,448,458,480,490,491,512,516-518 

Ross, Mr. Stanley 486 

Rovenes, General 499 

S 

Salazar y la Rosa, Capt. Jorge 445 

Salvador 499 

Salvador, David 447, 501 

Sanchez, Celia 446, 500, 518, 521 

San Antonio de los Banos 519 

San Ramon 455, 512 

Santa Clara, Province of Las Villas 458, 459 

Santa Lucia 448, 489, 516, 517, 521 

Santiago 448, 518 

Santo Domingo 494, 4dT-499, 516, 517, 518, 521 

Sardinas, Army Chaplain Father 445 

Sardinas, Comdr. Lalo 444, 446 



INDEX V 

Page 

Sierra Maestra 447-449, 454. 

455, 457, 478, 489, 490, 498, 500, 511, 512, 520, 521 

Simo, Ventura 516, 517 

Sourwine, J. G 443, 451 

Spain 451, 516 

Barcelona 452 

Sund, Major _ 516 

Sunol, Maj. Edy 517, 518 

T 

Torres, Armando 500 

Torres, Felix 445, 500 

Trinidad case 515 

Trujillo 521 

U 

United Nations 453 

Urrutia, Mr 516 

V 

Valdez, Commander Ramiro 444, 485, 500, 520 

Vallejos, Comdr. Rene 444 

Valdes, Comdr. Ramiro 446 

Varona, Captain 446 

"Va Voz Dominicana" 521 

Venezuela 448, 453, 489, 490 

Venezuelan Air Force 447 

Army : 521 

Verdaguer, Roberto 444, 446, 447, 512, 516 

Virgin Islands 499 

o 



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