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Full text of "Communist threat to the United States through the Caribbean. Hearings before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-sixth Congress, first session .."

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COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES 
THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTEKNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHEE INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ^N^ THE JUDICIARY 
UMTilD STATES SEMTE 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



PART 8A 



MAY 9, 1960 



Printed for the use of the Ck)mmittee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
43354 WASHINGTON : 1960 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 



JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 



ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, Soutii Carolina 
THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri 
JOHN L. McCLEI^LAN, Arkansas 
JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming 
SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina 
JOHN A. CARROLL, Colorado 
THOMAS J. DODD, Cennecticut 
PHILIP A. HART, Michigan 



ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 
EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 
ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 
KENNETH B. KEATING, New York 
NORRIS COTTON, New Hampshire 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut, Vice Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina KENNETH B. KEATING, New York 

NORRIS COTTON, New Hampshire 
J. G. SouRwiNE, Counsel 
Bbnjamin Mandkl, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



Witness : Page 

Gonzales y Gonzales, Dr. Arsenio 635 

Ruiloba Diaz, Maximo 523 

Silva Hernandez. Aurelio 526 

III 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES 
THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 



MONDAY, MAY 9, 1960 

U.S. Senate, Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal. Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D.C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10 :4:5 a.m., in room 
2228, New Senate Office Building, Senator Thomas J. Dodd presiding. 

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
director of research; and Frank "W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Dodd. The hearing will come to order. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Maximo Kuiloba Diaz, 

Senator Dodd. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Ruiloba. I swear. 

TESTIMONY OF MAXIMO RUILOBA DIAZ (THROUGH AN 

INTERPRETER) 

Senator Dodd. Be seated and give us your name and address. 

Mr. Ruiloba. Maximo Ruiloba Diaz. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you a civil servant in Cuba ? 

Mr. Ruiloba. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Souravine. For how long ? 

Mr. Ruiloba. During different periods, for 21 years. 

Mr. Sourwine. Under how many different presidents ? 

Mr. Ruiloba. President Batista, Dr. Grau San Martin, Dr. Carlos 
Prio, and again for President Batista. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you work under Salvador Diaz-Verson? 

Mr. Ruiloba. In the year of 1948 until 1952. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have then been connected Avith BR AC ? 

Mr. Ruiloba. I was chief of an office of dispatch. 

Mr. Sourwine. What was the office of which you were chief? 

Mr. Ruiloba. In 1955, they opened this office with the object of 
suppressing Communist activities in Cuba. 

Mr. Souraat:ne. Suppressing Communist activities in Cuba? 

Mr. Ruiloba. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Souravine. What was the branch or division or bureau of which 
you were the head? 

Mr. Ruiloba, Of the central office. 

523 



524 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did your duties include the compilation of files and 
records on Communists ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you also compile records of Americans in 
Cuba? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. I don't remember. I never saw them. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You compiled records and files only on Commu- 
nists, is that correct ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. Solely on the Communists, exclusively. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And you do not recall that any of those Commu- 
nists whose records you compiled were Americans ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you recall any American Communists in Cuba 
whose records you compiled ? 

Mr, RuiLOBA. I do not remember any. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you give us in executive session the names of 
many persons in Cuba having Communist backgrounds? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. Yes, I do remember having given it to you. 

Mr. SouRwiNE." And some of those persons were individuals who 
were in the Castro government ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. In accordance with our records, there are those of 
now Captain Nunez Jimenez, Budilo Castillanos, Director of the 
Tourist Department; Alfredo Guevara, Director of the Film In- 
dustry ; Alberto Carpeno Santos, of the National Institute of Agrar- 
ian Reform ; Castro Furaguot, of the same organization. 

At this moment I cannot recall more. I don't have the documents 
now. But in that organization there were six members that were 
members of the party. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know of any reason why the names you 
have already given us in executive session should not be made a part 
of this public record ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. No, I see no reason why they should not form part 
of this record. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the order be that, subject 
to the approval of the subcommittee, the names previously given by 
this witness in executive session may go in the record at this point. 

Senator Dodd. Yes, they will be included. 

(A summai-y of the pertinent parts of Mr. Ruiloba's executive testi- 
mony follows:) 

In his executive hearing, held in Miami Beach, Fla., July 25, 1959, Mr. Ruiloba 
described Dr. Carlos Rafael Rodriguez as "the mentor of the Communist Party, 
Latin America." 

He also said "acting as chief [of the Castro forces] in Las Villas province 
was a detached Communist, Segundo Manuel del Paso Cevallo." 

Senator Hruska, then presiding, pronounced the name Nunez .Jimenez and 
asked: "Was he a Conununist?" Ruiloba replied: "Yes; he attended confer- 
ences of Communist fronts. He doesn't deny it." 

A.sked regarding Castro's executive committee, the witness replied : "The nine 
in the executive committee have all Communist backgrounds. I remember the 
name of Dr. Castro Furaguot. He was an affiliate of the Communist Party. He 
took part in active Communist activities. I remember Dr. Waldo Medina. He 
is the legal counselor. He was always in all Communist fronts with the Com- 
munist leadership. We never found him to be an affiliate of the Communist 
Party because he was a judge and the .Judges could not — were not permitted 
to affiliate themselves with any party. "All nine" of the exec-utive committee, 
he said, "had files in the BRAC," adding, "I only remember these two names 
now." 



COMMLTNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 525 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What happened to the files and records on Com- 
munists in BRAC ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. On January 4, 1959, there appeared at the office of 
BRAC, Capt. Nunez Jimenez, who had a document signed by Dr. 
Ernest Guevara, director of the Fort La Cabana, in order that de- 
livery be made, the archives and the cars, to be transported to the 
fort. That same morning, in four trucks, military personnel of the 
Cabana proceeded with soldiers, with all the archives, to that place. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. That was on the order of "Che" Guevara ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. With an official communication from "Che" Guevara. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And the files were physically taken away by a force 
under the command of Nunez Jimenez ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. Capt. Nunez Jimenez was the carrier of the letter 
signed by Dr. Guevara, ordering the transportation of those archives 
to the Cabana. The letter was addressed to Capt. Sergo Jevaya, 
named director of that organization, and who at present is chief of 
the air force in Cuba. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know what happened to these archives of 
the anti-Communist unit ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. The archives were all in a unit included. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know what happened to them after they 
were taken away by this armed force ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. I understand that those archives have been used so 
that the Communist Party could know up to what extent the organiza- 
tions in charge of the suppression of Communist activities had pene- 
trated. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From what source do you understand this? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. The information is through by a person within the 
party that worked for us, who was then at the Cabana. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mean you have it from a confidential informant 
whom you trust ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. Yes, sir, because he had been working with me for 
years. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you feel that you should not reveal the name of 
this informant in order to protect him ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. I have to protect him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What can you tell us about Communist propaganda 
coming into Cuba ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. On the first days of January of 1959, through the cus- 
toms of Havana, mail arrived of Communist propaganda coming from 
countries behind the Iron Curtain in quantities of 10 or 12 suitcases 
which mail and propaganda on previous times was excluded by the 
Cuban Government. From that date on, they were delivered to the 
party. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wliere did this material come from, if you know? 

Mr, RuiLOBA. From China, Czechoslovakia, Russia, Mexico. Those 
were the principal countries that mailed. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What can you tell us about Communist Party offices 
and headquarters in Havana and elsewhere in Cuba ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. After the 1st of January of 1959, the first work of the 
Communist Party in Cuba was to begin the opening of, in the various 
townships in Havana, to open again their offices — propaganda and 
agitation — next to the office at Carlos Cento, 609 — it was a place where 



526 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

the general headquarters of the Communist Party used to function. 
A^Hien the building was occupied, they opened an office next to it. 

Within the country, I understand, they also opened their offices. 
And the curious case comes to light that when all the political parties 
ceased in Cuba, from the year of 1959, the Socialist Popular Party 

re surges. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are there Communist Party headquarters, meetnig 
places at various points in Havana ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. How many such offices would you say there are m 

Havana ? 

Mr. Rfiloba. When I left Havana in May of 1959, I knew nme 

offices which were open. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were these what you might call neighborhood of- 
fices of the Communist Party, or were they offices of different branches, 
having special purposes ? 

Mr. RuiLOBA. No, they are neighborhood branches. 

Mr. SouRwixE. They were what? 

The Interpreter. They were neighborhood branches. 

Mr. SotTRwiNE. What can you tell us about Communist indoctrina- 
tion at the Cabana ? 

The Interpreter. The information that I had was that inclusive 
within the military department of La Cabana, they received Com- 
munist indoctrination to the troops therein. Inclusive propaganda 
was distributed of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you have information respecting activities in 
the Miami area of the\hiited States, activities by Castro forces and 
Castro people ? 

The Interprpter. No, sir ; I have no information in that matter. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Dodd. Very well. Tliank you very much. 

Mr. Sourwine. Aurelio Silva Hernandez. 

Senator Dodd. Will you stand and raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be thetruth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. Hernandez. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF ATJRELIO SILVA HERNANDEZ 
(THROUGH AN INTERPRETER) 

Senator Dodd. Have a chair and give us your name and address. 
Mr. Silva. Aurelio Silva Hernandez. 
Senator Dodd. All right, Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have been a Government official in Cuba ? 
Mr. Silva. During 36 years. 
Mr. Sourwine. You are a career civil servant ? 
Mr. Silva. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you serve under Batista? 
Mr. Silva, Yes, sir ; like I served under different governments. 
Mr. Sourwine. Were you a Batista supporter? 

Mr. Silva. I never supported any government. I supported the 
Republic. 



COIVIMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 527 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Did you favor the revolution which overthrew 
Batista? 

Mr. SiLVA. No, sir. 

Mr. SoLTRwiNE. Would you favor the return of Batista to power? 

Mr. SiLVA. No, sir. I believe he is obnoxious and negative. 

Senator Dodd. 1 didn't get your translation. What was the word ? 

Mr. SiLVA. I don't favor him. I think he is obnoxious and negative. 

Senator Dodd. Obnoxious, is that the word ? 

The Interpreter. You want me to explain what I mean by that? 

Senator Dodd. I just want you to tell me what you are saying. 

The Interpreter. Obnoxious. 

Senator Dodd. Nauseous in English, isn't it? 

The Interpreter. Well, it is poisonous, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you an official of the investigative department 
of the National Police in Cuba ? 

Mr. SiLVA. The Department of Investigation, always. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I didn't understand the answer. 

Mr. SiLVA. Department of Investigation, always. 

Mr. SorRwiNE. Did you have as part of your duty the conducting of 
investigations on subversives in Cuba? 

Mr. SiLVA. Of everything. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you conduct investigations with respect to a 
number of such subversives ? 

Mr. SiLVA. Of many. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you have large files on many of these individ- 
uals? 

Mr. SiLVA. Very much. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you, youi-self, personally familiar with many 
details of the records of these individuals ? 

Mr. SiLVA. Yes, sir; I completely am familiarized with the records 
of these people. 

Mr. SouRAviNE. Have you furnished the subcommittee with a sub- 
stantial list of names and records of a number of Communists in 
Cuba? 

Mr. SiLVA. Yes, sir; and there are many more to be given. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Beyond what you have already given the subcom- 
mittee? 

Mr. SiLVA. Yes, sir ; there are many more. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I am trying to save time this morning. 

Do you know any reason why the list that you have already given 
the subcommittee in executive session should not, if the subcommittee 
chooses to do so, be made a part of this public record ? 

Mr. SiLVA. I believe that everything that I gave to the committee, 
all those names, they should appear in the public records of this 
committee. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. May I ask, Mr. Chairman, that this be ordered 
done, subject to the approval of the subcommittee? 

Senator Dodd. Yes ; it will appear in the record. 

(The names referred to are included in the following document, filed 
M'ith the subcommittee by Mr. Silva during his executive hearing.) 



528 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

EXHIBIT NO. 11 

MEMORANDUM 
Re: COMMUNISM IN CUBA. 

The subscriber, AURELIO SILVA HERNANDEZ, M.P., ex- 
Lleutenant of the Cuban National Police In the Department of 
Investigations, swears by means of the presence before Ood and 
democratic men of North America, that this report Is a true 
expression of the Communist development in the Republic of 
Cuba after the first of January, this year, in which the 
Government of General PULGENCIO BATISTA was 'overthrown, and that 
the data contained are from recollections of memory, but that 
all were in the archives of the offices of the Investigation 
Bureau of BRAC (Biireau for the Repression of Coramunlst Ac- 
tivities) and which were taken over by Majors CAMILO CIENPUEGOS 
and ERNESTO "CHE" GUEVARA, both known militant Communists, 
with the object of destroying them or making their contents 
known to other persons, but in their majority they can be 
found in the archives of the P.B.I, in Washington, D.C. 

In the year 1930 Communism in Cuba began to give signs 
of life under the direction of ALEJANDRO BARREEIRO, ALFREDO 
LOPEZ, MANUEL ARIAS, ESTANISLAO SACRISTAN, and others, when 
agitations were initiated in industrial construction imions 
with acts of sabotage such as the poisoning of Polar beer 
in Havana, while in the interior of the island the leaders, 
JUAN AREVALO, CESAR VILAR, and others dynamited bridges and 
burned sugar fields, but when they were energetically combatted 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 529 

by the govemn»nt of President (ffiMERAL OBRARDO MACHAIX) they 
went underground and coranenced to aot clandestinely « eon- 
oentrating their aotivltiee in the distribution of stdb^ratve 
propaganda by neans of woaen nbose head was SR. SARA PASCIJAL. 

With the fall of the Michado goverraeent on August 12, 
1933 « the public life of the Oomaimist party was reactivated 
using the name "Uhion ReTolucionaria Cammista", but later, 
on backing the presidential canidacy of General FULQENCIO 
BATISTA, adopted the name Partido Socialista Popular. On 
petition of the counselor of the Connnunist Party, PABIO GOBART, 
who iB actually in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in those elections 
they obtained various positions of senators and representatives 
and achieved the control of the Federation of the Workers of 
Cuba under direction of the internationally famous Communist 
Leader LAZERO PEKA. 

In the year 1952 the Communist Party was made illegal but 
it continued operation in clandestine form, editing the pamphlet 
titled "Weekly Letter" which was widely circulated in Cuba 
and foreign. Much later the Communists, already openly com* 
batting the government of GENERAL BATISTA, associated themselves 
with the Chief of the 26th of July Movement, FIDEL CASTRO. 
Making the contact for the Party was the leader CARLOS RAFAEL 
RODRIGUEZ, the present Director of the Communist newspaper 
"Hoy" and counselor for CASTRO during his stay in the Sierra 
Maestra mountains, and who is considered the brain director of 



530 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

many of the lawe proolalmed by CASTRO and also Its efficient 
propaganda In Cuba and foreign countries and of which can 
be said contributed greatly to the fall of BATISTA and the 
desertion of Its Army officers. 

There Is no doubt that since Its foundation to date, 
the 26th of July Movement has demonstrated Ita Inclinations 
toward Communism and has a strong backing from the Soviet 
Union through the medliim of the Communist Party and its laws, 
decrees and resolutions are copied from the orders implanted 
by the Communists in all the terrltorls of the Soviet Socialist 
Republics. 

For these reasons many Cubans shelter the fear that there 
will definitely be established an eminently Communist regime 
90 miles from the coast of Florida if no one goes to the aid of 
the Republic of Cuba, 

The actual President of Cuba will substitute MANUEL URRUTIA, 
by virtue of a coup d»e tat, for DR. OSVALDO DORTICOS y 
TORRADO who, together with Minister RAUL RCA belonged to the 
Left Wing Student Section of the University of Havana. He 
also formed part of a secret Communist Party cell and in 1951, 
in conjunction with RAUL SANJURJO, signed the manifestos of the 
Partido Sociallsta Popular (Communists) in the city of Cienfuego^ 
and in everything violently pronounced himself against the 
United States classifying its policy of intervention in r^tln 
American countries, and being a declared enemy of North America. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 531 

In addition vte should also state that on one occasion he was 
accused of the crime of embezzlement or robbery of money by 
his own uncle, DR, PEDRO DORTICOS, a prominent member of the 
dissolved A. B.C. Party. 

With I'espect to FIDEL CASTRO RU2 who, while operating 
clandestinely used the name "ALEJANDRO", he at one time main- 
tained contact with Mrs. NORMA CHAGAOVALK^ an employee of the 
Soviet Embassy in Havana which was then located on Calle 15, 
corner of Paseo In the Vedado section, and which It is said 
gave instructions to CASTRO on the form and manner of creating 
disturbances in the American continent and assuring that the 
first work realized by CASTRO was the Bogota uprising in the 
Republic of Colombia in which he acted In union with ALFREDO 
GUEVARA, who is no relation to DR. ERNESTO "CHE" GUEVARA, and 
who was also accompanied on this trip by RAFAEL DEL PINO, at this 
moment an enemy of CASTRO. The object of that was to try 
to interrupt the foreign ministers' conference that was taking 
place in that Republic, commiting a series of muiders, among 
them two priests, and which had ample international reprecus- 
slons. 

Hiw actual hierarchy Is surplusly known by the Snited States 
authorities with abundant proof that evidences his Inclinations 
to Ccramunlsm as has been stated before the Senate of the United 
States by the ex -Chief of the Cuban Air Force, MAJOR LUIS DIAZ 
LANZ, and with the disposal of president URRUTIA for daring to 



532 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 
combat the Communists and expressing that they were a threat 
to establish a second front In Cuba. Other elements of the 
actual government that have Communist ideas and among active 
Party militants are the following: 

RAUL CASTRO RUZ, Chief of the Armed Forces of Cuba, who 
acquired Marxist practices in Prague; he is married to, VILMA 
EXPIN, a militant Communist Icnown by the name of "DEVORA" and 
who has a sister who Is a Party affiliate in the city of 
Santiago de Cuba and vjho is studying nuclear energy in oar is. 
Prance where she maintains strict contact with the Communists 
of that nation. 

CAMILO CIENPUEQOS, Chief of the Army who was affiliated with 
the Communist party, and had difficulties with United States 
authorities in San Francisco, California, and who operates 
in the Cuban Revolution in the province of Santa Clara with 
Commvmlst leader MANUEL DEL PESO and with whom he sustained a 
correspondence Intercepted by the SIM in Santa Clara, 

ALBERTO BAYO, Colonel In the Spanish Army who was exiled 
to Mexico and acted with the Communists during the Spanish Civil 
V/ar and is at present Instructor in the Rebel Army which he is 
indoctrinating with various professors of known Communist 
ideology. 

ALFREDO GUEVARA, lawyer, university professor, active 
Communist, intimate friend of FIDEL CASTRO. His hate for the 
United States is demonstrated in that he has asked theatrical 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO TJlS. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 533 
authors to write new works but with the sole political purpose 
that each work should have a message against Yankee imperialism. 
Cuban ortlcts declined to do this In a declaration published in 
the theatrical pages of the newspaper "Informacion." 

NICOLAS GUILLEN is an old active Communist, poet and 
author of the March Agrarian Reform. He gives indoctrination 
classes In the Cubana Fortress to soldiers and to the fishermen 
residing in the Casa Blanca block. Hr had been exiled from 
Cuba for many years and returned after FIDEL CASTRO too power. 

PAUSTINO PEREZ HERNANDEZ, a doctor, Minister of Recoupera- 
tion of Illgotten Goods; is an active Communist and Party 
affiliate. 

CARLOS PRANQUI, newspaperman, non-collegiate, director 
of the newspaper "Revoluclon" , official organ of the CASTRO 
government. In the Sierra Maestras he edited a pamphlet 
titled "Revolucion" which was circulated clandestinely by mail. 
He is an active Communlet. He took part in the frustrated 
expedition of Cayc Confltes against president TRUJILLO of the 
Dominican Republic. 

RAUL ROA, lawyer, was member of the Left Wing University 
Section with JULIO ANTONIO MELLA and the poet MARTINEZ VILLENA, 
both known Communists and both deceased. He was arrested 
various times for street acts and in his speeches and declara- 
tions always evidences hostility towards the United States of 
America. He is, at present. Minister of State and represented 



534 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 
Cuba In the Organization of the United Nations and made 
injurious speeches against the Dominican Republic government 
and other Latin American countries classifying them as dic- 
tatorships. He and CASTRO are studying a plan to attack the 
United States in the assembly of foreign ministers which will 
take place in Chile next month. They, or their representatives, 
will try to speak on behalf of all Latin American countries 
insisting on a loan of thirty billion dollars to demonstrate 
to those countries that the United States is not their friend 
when It declines to consider this astronomical loan. It has 
no other object than to place the United States Government 
under pressure as has benn demonstrated In the last few days. 

Other individuals that act in the actual government, some 
of them in the Arm^ "".nd the rest in civilian positions of 
the state are the following: 

DR. ARMANDO HART, Minister of Education; CARLOS RAFAEL 
RODRIGUEZ of which we have given facts at the beginning of 
this report; DR. ANl^ONIO NUNEZ JIMENEZ, Director of the 
Agrarian Reform. He was professor of the University of Santa 
Clara and is at present on a tour of the United States. He 
is a convinced Communist, a very dangerous man due to his great 
talents and we assure that he has good contacts in the United 
States; liYDEE SANTAMRIA, wife of DR. HART; DR. JUAN fJlARINELLO 
VIDAURRETA, President of the Party and at present on tour in 
Communist China; BLAS ROCA; JOAQUIN ORDOQUI; ANIBAL ESCALANTE; 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO "U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 535 
MANUEL LUZARDO; PEPEGRIN TORRAS; URSINIO ROJAS; MANUEL DEL PESO; 
all old directors of the Communist Party; MANUEL SANTURIO, 
MIGUEL QUINTERO, PACO ALFONSO, of the theatrical section; 
VICENTINA ANTUNEZ, wife of DR. GARONNE; ALICIA AGRAMONTE, 
artists for C.M.Q; VIOLETA CASALS and CELIA SAUCHEZ, inseparabl* 
from FIDEL CASTRO; SALVADOR GARCIA AGUERO, VINCENTE MARTINEZ, 
known as "Diario Libre", and the magazine "Cartelec", 
who uses various pen names to publish his work and is an old 
Party militant; MANUEL MARTIN BENITO, radio analyst for the 
newspaper "Diario Libre" , a party affiliate for many years and 
an active propagandist of these Red Ideas with contacts in 
Tampa, Miami and Key West, and is utilized as a post office to 
carry and to bring messages; CELESTINO FERNANDEZ SUAREZ, VICTOR 
MIRANDA, AMPARO CHAPLE, FATHER SARDINAS, SAMUEL MORALES, FIDEL 
DOMENECH, CAPTAIN MANUEL PINEIRO, presently on the Army Staff; 
DAVID SALVADOR, Secretary General of the C.T.C., who publicly 
confessed on a television show that in his youth he had been a 
ComiTiunist and although he states that at present he is not, we 
have credible information that he continues being one, since 
all are continuing the denial tactics on their militancy 
to fool the United states of America. 

It is necessary to make a separate paragraph to shew the 
personality of DR. ERNESTO "CHE" GUEVARA, Argentine doctor. 
Chief of the Cabana Portress, intimace of FIDEL CASTRO, who, 
complying with instructions, made a trip through the Middle and 



43354 O— 60 — 8a- 



536 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 
Far Ea3t having interviewed President NasBer and othor impor- 
tant Arab Communiat figures to conciliate an Interchange of 
products between Cuba and those nations with the deliberate aim 
of demonstrating its animosity against North America, on 
seeking other markets and placing in prejudice the existing 
commercial interchange system between United States and Cuba. 

JOSE ELIAS ENTRALGO, one of the moat important men of the 
Communist Party, was an Inseparable companion of FABIO GROGART 
and maintains an Intense correspondence v;ith elements In the 
Soviet Union insuring that he has conciliated the envy of 
various Russian citizens in Cuba that ;ict as in'jtructors in 
different governmenx; departments and in the Cienga de Cepate, 
although they po^e as Ducch and Danish nationals. 

LAZARO PENA was Secretary of the C.T.C., was exiled In 
Mexico and has made several trips to Moscovj. I7hen the BATISTA 
government fell he returned to Cuba and from that moir.ent he 
v.'as an active propagandist for the Union of 'che 26th of July 
with the partldo Soclalista popular. A few weeks ago he published 
declarations in Cuban newspapers in support of the tiovernment 
and reiterating the necessity of union amon,:^ both sectors. 

LEONEL SOTO, a young figure in the Communist party. Until 
one year ago he was in charge of the editing of the Party's 
"Carta Semanal'', distributed in Cuba and other countries. He 
vv'as in Moscov: and received Marxist indoctrination, is a man of 
talent and his words are simple and convincing. V/e have also 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 537 
learned that he has contacts with Communist elements and 
university students in the United States and has acted in 
agreement with ELVIRA DIAZ, University leader and at present 
directoress of congressional insurance. 

AUGUSTO MARTINEZ SANCHEZ, lawyer, at present Minister of 
Defense, was affiliated with the Communist Party and an active 
propagandist of Red doctrine. 

It is not possible in such a brief report to Include the 
names of all the Communists that occupy positions in the Army, 
Navy, political and ministry offices. It would require an 
immense labor that at this distance is materially impossible 
unless a man is designated under our instructions to go to 
Cuba and learn the names and positions that each one occupies. 

In the same manner it could also be learned the names of 
many active Communists that undertake functions as newspaper- 
men in the papers and magazines of Cuba. Many of them have 
contacts with radical elements in the United states. 

We can assure that underneath the cape of belonging 
to the 26th of July Movement there have been introduced into 
this machine many dangerous Communists and they are trying to 
infiltrate themselves among the young university students 
with the pretext of placing the politics and fundamentals 
that serve as gxiide for DR. FIDEL CASTRO and Cuban youth, but 
as its end constitutes an easy method of Communist publication 
in North America and which danger American authorities have 



538 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 
not as yet become aware. It 13 surplusly known, and the 
P.B.I, has names and backgrounds, that In the last few months 
niimerous Communist foreign elements. Including from Red China, 
have visited Havana, some posing as newspapermen, others as 
commercial agents and others as various technicians of dif- 
ferent materials but in reality they come to incessantly 
labor in favor of a propaganda against the United States 
with Its end the creation of difficulties in its foreign 
commerce as it has already succeeded with an infinite amount 
of products that represent millions of dollars and which are 
being sabotaged by order of FIDEL CASTRO and which has reduced 
in a notable manner Cuban acquisitions in the United states 
with a manifest damage for North American industrialists. In 
a similar manner they attack the American investors arbitrarily 
depriving them of their properties and capriciously placing 
their value in 20-year redeemable bonds and causing these 
Americans large losses. 

Yoin's very truly 
/s/ AURELIO SILVA HERNANDEZ 
Miami, Florida 
July 21, 1959 

Certified to be a true and correct 
translation to the best of my 
knowledge and belief. 

/s/ LOUIS J. JORDAN ' 
Louis J. Jordan 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 539 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, you say you have additional names to give us 
besides those which you have already given us ? 

Mr. SiLVA. I don't have it written down. I have it in my head. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes. Go ahead. 

Mr. SiLVA. You want me to give it to you now ? At this moment ? 

Mr. SouRWixE. Well, I understood he didn't have it written down. 
Just a minute. 

Would you prefer to prepare a list of these additional names and 
supply it to the committee, with an affidavit for inclusion in the record 
at this point ? 

Mr. SiLVA. Yes, sir. I will be glad to. 

Senator Dodd. Very well, submit it. 

(The additional list of names was later received by the subcom- 
mittee, marked "Exhibit No. 12" and, as translated by the Library 
of Congress, reads as follows :) 



540 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

EXHIBIT NO. 12 
( Translated by the Library of Congress ) 

TO TliE WETQJ STATES SHJATE 
LIST' AND BACKGP^Uin:' OF ACTIVE CX)1-2'1WIISTS IN CUBA 
V/ORKING ror. RUSSIA 
AND AGAINST THE UNIT ED STATES OF AM3UGA 

JUAI? MARlNHJjQ VIDAURI^EI'A. 

President of the People's Socialist (Conmunist) Party; teachea" 
[on the staff of] the "Escuela Normal de Maestros" [Havana Teachers 
College]; laiv-/er and man of great skill ["many talents"]; made many- 
trips to lIuEsia anc Communist China; writer anc mass orator. He 
recently stated on [a] Television [prosfam] , that "those who are not 
Communists in Cuba are counter-revolutionists". The files of BPvAG 
contain considerable background material relative to his activities 
and contacts, a complete dossier of vrtiich should be on file with 
the FBI anc the Central Intelligence Agency (CXA). The Communists 
aspii'e to nominate him President of the Republic in case Fidel Castro 
should fail [or, "be removed"], 

OSViLLDO PORTICOS I'ORIIiUX) .— 

Present President of the Republic, in substitution for [having 
replacec] Lr, Manuel Urrutia; was secretary to Dr. Juan Marinello, 
President of the Communist Party of Cuba; carried on his activities 
in the City of Cienfuegos, where he figured as candidate for Member 
of the Communist Party Council, In addition, he editea [or drafted] 
ano signed with his signature, manifestos and proclamations [propaganda 
materials] ordereu by the [Communist] Party, He is the author of 
several of the laws put into effect by the Castr-o regime, all of them 
markedly costensibly^moulded after the Communist pattern. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 541 

CARLOS RAFASL RODRIGUEZ .— 

Eirector of the newspaper Hoy, official organ of the Cuban 
Communist Party; lawyer and man of skill ["man of many talents"]; 
is consider eci one of the chief advisors to Fidel Castro with whom he 
spent much time in the Sierra Maestra; was Director of the "Editorial 
P^ginas" [publishing house], which sold Russian books, translated into 
Spanish and printed by the Arrow Press vAiich is owned by the Communist 
Party; a brilliant speaker; mace several trips to Russia and Iron 
Curtain countries; is considered the brain of the revolutionary laws 
and bills, and, especially, of [the] national and foreign propaganda 

[activities] in behalf of the Castro regime; now edits the "coletillas" 
[notes, or observations, or special remarks, or comments] added to 
cables, reports, and editorials appearing in the newspapers when not 
favoring the regime; has many contacts with Communists in the United 
States, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina; is thought to 
be a highly dangerous man and to have drafted the bill [or legislative 
proposal] designed to boycott North American products in favor of the 
Soviet market in the countries of Central and South America; has re- 
cently been appointod regular professor at the University of Havana, 
which [appointment] has originated [resulted in] innumerable protests 
by the anti-Communists of the country. 

****** 



542 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

aiHECTQ "CUE" GUEVMA. 

Argentinian phj'-sician, advent\arer, vrith deeply rooted Communist 
iaeas; worked under the oraers of President Jacobo Arbenz of 
Guatemala; hit [irameciiatej family, residing in Argentina, follow the 
Goffliminist line of thimcing, and his uncle, Cayetano Cordova, is a 
Communist leader wiiose wife vras a nurse in Spain during the [Spanish] 
Civil War. He was a member of the "Juventud Comunista iurgentina" 
[Communist Youth of Argentina] and a participant in two plots against 
former President Peron, He fled from his country and went to Peru, 
v/here he participated in an armed revolt against President Manuel 
Odria, and fl^om thei-e went to Chile from which he was expelled for 
his Communist activities. In 1954- he arrivea in Guatemala ana joined 
a gang of individuals who were sowing terror in [among the workers of] 
the plantations ana attack5.ng the churches upon the overtlirow of the 
Aibenz government, because of which he fled [the country] and sought 
refuge in Me:cico where he became a member of the "Consejo Revolucion- 
ario del Cai'ibe y [de] la America Central" [Revolutionary Council of 
the Caribbean and Central iunerica] and of the "Institute de Cultura 
.luso-Mejicano" [P.ussian-Mexican Cultural Institute] , which is Communist* 
controlled as is the "Legion del Caribe" [Caribbean Legion]. His 
name was mentioned in [connection with] the assassinations of Presi- 
dents Ilemon of Panama, Castillo de Armas [sic — "Carlos Castillo .Irmas"] 



COIVIMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 543 

of Guatemala, and Somoza of Nicaragua, In Mexico he joined up with 
Fidel Castro and Col. Alberto Bayo, giving military training to a group 
of Cubans and other nationalities [sic — nationals] for [the piirpose of] 
invading Cuba as they did in Eecanber 1956, VJhen Fidel Castro came to 
power, he was appointed Chief of the Fortaleza [prison] of Havana, and 
the first thing he aid was to confiscate the files of the Communists in 
the offices [headquarters] of BRAC and of the Military Intelligence 
Service, and to make them disappear ["and to dispose of them"], Ke was 
accused [of] oirectlj'- [having caused] tiie aeath of Jose Castano in whom 
many persons ana foreign embassies had been interested, lie was re- 
cently appointed President of the "Banco ilacional ce Cuai" [national 
Banic of Cuba] , from which post he placed restrictions on the purchase 
of products manufactured in the UiiA, refusing [to issue] permits for 
their payment in dollars, lie had pushed the treaty between [Soviet] 
Russia ano Cuba and of the 100 million peso Soviet loan. At the 
I'lational Bank he had various employees make translations from foreign 
languages, especially from the Russian, and paiu them for their work 
on a per diem basis so that their names would not appear on the payroll. 
He ma.naged to have the circulation permit for the newspaper Hoy re- 
newed, and is said to be drafting the document which legalizes the 
Commvinist Party as the only political organization in the country. 
He hates the North Americans | 

last year he went to ife'pt, the Far East, and to countries behind 
the Iron Curtain in order to make trade agreaaents with those countries 
and Red China for the purpose of talcing that trade away from the 
United states of j'lmerica. 



544 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

EIDIJL GAbTRO RUZ .— 

A lawyer, though he has never practiced his profession; divorced 
from Mirta Diaz Balart [Balaert?] fVom whom he had a son named Fidel; 
outstanding Comniunist agitator ever since he started his studies at 
the University [of Havana] , in company with Raul Roa and other students 
earmarked as active Coniminists, At that t^jne the police implicated 
him in the assassinations of Ferndndez Caral and Manolo Castro, and 
named him direct agent [perpetrator] of those crimes vrtiose motive was 
said to have been disagreements [differences of opinion] in the fights 
of the student gangs. In 194-8, he took a trip to the Republic of 
Colombia together with Rafael del Pino, staying on April 3 [of that 
year] at the Claricge Hotel in Bogotd, on vtoich occasion they said that 
they were delegates of the International Communist Youth Comnilttee, 
and that they had come to that country to do some work among the 
students and worlcer masses, to which effect Castro lectured at the 
University of Colombia on "The Techniques of the Coup d'Etat ". They 
were said at that time not to be ignorant of [...."said to be implicatea 
in"] the assassination of Dr. Gaytan [sic — Gaitdn] , although the 
Chief of [the] Security [Service] of Colombia at that time, Alberto 
Nifio, liao accused them, but he was unable to effect their arrest be- 
cause they had been cleared, and they escaped fi-om that Republic. In 
1953, he implementecl the attack on the "Cuartel Moncada", with [the 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 545 

aid of] a group of his followers, [and though they haci been] taken 
into custody and sentenced to several years in prison, they wei'e 
amnestied by President Batista a short time later. While in prison 
he wrote a pamphlet entitled, "Ilistoria me absolver^" [History will 
exonerate me], which in reality is a compendium of programs of the 
Communist countries and puts in evidence his marked inclination toward 
the Red doctrines. As soon as he was releasee he anbarked for Mexico 
vriiere he organized the Gramma expedition, landing in Oriente Province, 
We make no further reference to this event, nor to subsequent events 
[occurring] after he had been maae Prime Ministei' and "Chief of the 
Revolution", because all of these facts are in the national and foreign 
public Gomain [,,,"are public knoi/ledge at home and abroad"]. 



546 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

RliUL PJQA G.'iRGIA .— 

Present Minister of Foreign Relations of the de facto govern^ 
ment established in Cuba, coiUxDletely moulcea after the Coiiiminist 
pattern; lloa is an olc Comnunist militant; he is mai-ried to Aca 
Kouri, also a Gonimunist militant. Their activities cate back to 1926, 
at which time he organized, jointly with Julio ^Intonio Kella, Juan 
Marinello Vidaurreta, Ruben Martinez Villena, Zacarlas Tallct, and 
others, the "ComDumist Youth of the University of Havana". In 1927, 
they set up tiie Plrst Comintern at the University of Havana, with a 
group called "Director io Estudiantil Universitai-io" [equal to University 
utuGent Council] , At that time [In tiiat yeai"-] he fled to Mexico and 
cont5.nueo to work there ;d.th Mella and other young Communists, Thei^e 
exitts a dossier^ however, to the effect that Raul Roa betrayed Hella, 
accusing him of having strayeo from the Communist Party line ana that 
it was Decided to put him to his death, which [decision] was in^jlement- 
ed by a Russian [Soviet] agent in MeJiico by the name of iiaeas Larmenti, 
who was accused of the crime by the Mexican Gecret Police whose files 
contain that dossier, nevertheless, this affair suited the Communists, 
because they had ascribed the crime to C-enei'al Gei-ai'oo Maciiaoo and 
accused of having committeo it Jose Magrina who was killed in the up- 
heavals [surrounding] the overthrow of the Machado Government on 
August 12, 1933. In 1930, Roa retui-nec. to Cuija; he was one of the 
authors of the famous Manifesto against ftesiaent Machaco signed by 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 547 

the "Union of Uorkers [Labor Union] i'vffiliated with International 
Coramunian" , Eoa had his alternatives [sic — "was able to pick anc 
choose?"] in the i^art^o It came out that at one time he broke [liad 
broken] with then [the Comcianist VJorkers?] anc joined the I'rotsicyists, 
but that he [load] desisted [refl*ained from so doing] and a^ain joined 
up \ri.th the Communists ["had returnee, to the Goinmuniat folo"] , In 
1949, he visited various countries behind the Iron Curtain, anc upon 
iiis return to Mexico fount. ed the publishing firm "Ilumanismo", on v;hich 
occasion he made friends with T.aul Ocegueda, Minister of estate in the 
government of Jacobo -irbenz [Gusmdn] ; with Vicente 3iicnz, CotTTunist 
writer, of Costa Ilica; with [Miss] 'i'ete Casuso, Fidel Castro's present 
celegate in Mexico, who had previously been an old comrade of Roa 
[in the revolutionary struggle] when both v/ere members of the so-called 
"Liga Anti-Imperialista" [sic — /jitiimperialista] " [iinti-In^erialist 
League] , lie also established contact with Guillermo Torriello, 
Secretary of Foreign ..ffairs of Guatemala, and vrf.th Salvador Allende, 
Chilean v^enator and active Corarministo Together vri.th Vicente i^dcnz 
he founced the "Asociacion Interamericana por la Lenocrac^a y la 
Libertac;" [lnter-iU?.crican Association for Democracy anc. Freedom] , 
Ficel Castro appointea him [, first,] Ambassador to the United States, 
anc, later. Minister of Foreign T.elations, In both posts he gave 
vent to his liatrec of tho North junericans and his s-nnpathies vdth the 
Soviet Union, he recently mace a tour of iJgypt, the Middle Sast, 
and the countries behind the Iron Curtain, for the purpose of negotiat- 
ing trade agreeraents and taking those e:-:ports away from Ilortli iuaerica. 
Pie is one of the iudiviauals used by Fiuel Castro for agitotion via 
harmful propaganda and pamphlets [printed propaganda materials] in 
various Caribbean countries, as was done in Nicaragua, Panama, haiti, 
anc the Dominican Republic anci, recently, in Honduras and Guatemala, 



548 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

RiiUL GASTI10 RUZ .— 

Brother of Fidel Castro, vri. th bloodthirsty instincts, and 
accuseu of having assassinated in Oriente Province n\imerous peasants 
and hundreds of members of the firmed Forces vAio had surrendered on 
December 31, 1953; was appointed, first. Chief of the Armj', but, later, 
the post of Minister of the firmed Forces was created for him vAiich 
gave him control of the Armj', Navy, and Police, He is a wholehearted 
["dyed-in-the-wool"] Communist and studied and was indoctr5.nated in 
Prague. He is married to Vilma Espln, known as "Devora", also an 
Oriente Communist leader. He has always been Imown for his liatred of 
the North Americans; and he was the one who, vdth the forces under his 
command, had kidnapped several Marines [sailors?] from the Cairaanera 
Base and cut off their water supply. Two months ago he is said to 
have drafted the Decree cancelling ["declaring null and void"] the 
I'reaty with the United States with regard to the Haval Base of Caimanera, 
but the Council of Ministers lias not yet taken up the matter. He has 
been designated by his brother as his successor in the Leadership of 
the Revolution and, during the course of a mass meeting, Fidel stated, 
referring to the appointment, "If I should fail [or go down, or be re- 
moved] , I vrf.ll be replaceo by my brother who is much more radical 
[than I am]". 



[TO BE COiJTlMUID — next name: Carlos Franquf^ 



TrPJi slated by 
Elizabeth Ilanunian 
J\ane 1, I960, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 549 

GilRIiOS J-aUIQUI . — Old militant of the Connnunist Party; at present 
Director of the newspaper Revolucion . official 
organ of the government, which is published in the building and work- 
shops of the newspaper i'ilerta . from which the Cuban journalist Kamon 
Vasconcelos had been arbitrarily ousted. Under the Batista adminis- 
tration iYanqul was in charge of the Cai-ta ^emanal . and, when he was 
discover ea by the police, fled to the i>ierra Kaestra where he joined 
up with Fidel Castro and published a flyer- lilce newspaper called 
Revolucion . Precisely the November issue of that paper announced the 
intervention in and confiscation of the bank accounts in case of 
victory, which Fidel Castro translated into fact when he seized the 
power. Previously Carlos Franqul had been proofreader for the news- 
paper Manana and Informacion . He participated in the famous Cayo 
Confites eJzpeoition against the Dominican Government, in which expedi- 
tion Fidel Castro also took part. He is a tenacious propagandist of 
International Communism. He recently' took a trip to Czechoslovakia, 
and was in Moscow under the pretext of purchasing new machinery for 
the newspaper, ile is qualified as an "evil fellow". 



550 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

LAZAI'jQ PSffA . — Mas a tobacco worker, [and is] Secretary General of 

CIG (Gonfederacion Ce Trabajadores de Cuba) [Cuban 
Federation, or Confederation, of Workers, or of Labor] which office 
he has held for many years; as a member of the Executive of the 
Communist i'arty; enjoys great influence among the tobacco workers, 
and is said to have been advisor to David Salvador when he took over 
the CTG: has been in [Soviet] Russia several times and been living 
in Mexico for some time; is very friendly with Lombard o Toledano, 
outstanding Mexican labor leader, in whose company he has for the past 
two years been traveling through several countries of Central Amei^ica, 
doing publicity for Communism with Moscow's approval; was an outstand- 
ing member of [delegate for] the Communist Party at [to] the Consti- 
tuent Assembly of 1%0, and Representative to the Chamber [of 
Leputies] , 

UGlMlO OIIDO^UI . — Convinced Communist; member of the lixecutive of the 

[Communist] Party like his brother Joaquin; has 
taken various trips to [Soviet] Russia on Party business; at the 
time of the Batista administration he was out of the country, anc 
[but] returned when Castro seized the power, 

JOiV-:iJIl:J OVlOiJJl . — Important member of the Communist Party, always 

having belonged to its ZScecutive Committee, The 
confidence placeci in him is such that all of the machinery and v/ork- 
shops of the newspaper Hoy and of the "Arrow Press", as v/ell as the 
intellectual property of various Party magazines, have been put in 
his name. This was done in order tiiat, in case the Govei'mnent were to 
close down the business, the corresponding legal claims could be filed, 
as was done recently, for Imving those workshops reopened which had 
been confiscated in the days of President Carlos Pr^, He lias made 
various trips to [Soviet] Russia, Czechoslovakia, and Mexico, always 
on Party business. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 551 

MANUIiL LUZARDO .— Was Ti^easurer of the People's Socialist (Comraunist) 
Party, with authority to manage the finances of the 
organization; is an active militant, and has always been entrusted 
with delicate missions. 



VICjJUTS MARTINJSZ . — Newspaperman, using various names, including 

that of Regino Martin, but is generally known 
under the pseudonym [alias] of "Esmeril"; was chief of information 
of the newspaper Koy . and collaborated on the magazine Carteles and 
on two now defunct newspapers Manana and Liario Libre ; lives in his 
ovm home in the Manana District j is a dangerous man because he denies 
his Conaminist status; alleges enmity toward Anibal Escalante, but 
does so in order to better [more efficiently] carry on his journal- 
istic activities, alv;ays using irony [sarcasm] to wound [the sensibili- 
ties] of all persons with conservative ideas; has good contacts in 
Cuba and abroad for publicity [intelligence] work. 



iVNIB:iL EJC;\L.tU]TE .— Uas Director of the newspaper Ho^, and, although 

he has for some time given no sign of active life, 
is working quietly, in the interest of the Party, on secret missions 
entrusted to hijn; is a v^olehearted ["dyed-in-the-wool"] Communist; 
has been in [Soviet] Russia and Iron Curtain countries, and belongs 
to the lixecutive of the Party, 



Means "emory" [board] — "scratchy like ,.. ?" — EH 



43354 O— 60— 8a- 



552 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

MAMUIJL MAFuTIlI BHJITO. — Belongs to the Conraunist Party and works on 

the newspaper Hoy ; had a radio and television 
section in the newspaper MaSana ajid continued to run it [the colinnn] 
when the name of the newspaper, upon confiscation from its owner 
Joee Lopez Vilaboy, was changed to Diario Libre ; was born in Rcdas, 
although he passes himself off as a native of Camagueyj has little 
polish but is an evil man, and lends himself to carrying messages of 
contact [for keeping in touch] with Communists in Taapa, Miami, and 
Cayo Hueso, because of which his trips to that country [USA] must be 
\jatched as he has a U.S. visa which was obtained, it would appear, by 
influential persons. 



*) "lends his services to act as courier for relaying messages 
between", etc, — E,H. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 553 

VILA BaPiN DE CASTao . Belongs to a bantiago de Cuba family with 

oeep-rooted Cornmunist ideas; is knovm in the 
Party and in the "26th of July Movement" under the name of "Devora"; 
was in the Sierra Maestra \^iere she liveu with Raul Castro ac man and 
wife, contracting marriage with htm two years later, She has been in 
Moscow and Prague where she was said to have been studying [at the 
respective universities] , One of her sisters, also a Coraraunict, [has] 
studied [or, is studying?] nuclear energy [physics] in Paris and is 
said to be married to a Russiano This couple is now doing some myster- 
ious work at Cayo [Key] Lai-go, south of Cuba, of vfeich the Soviet Union 
is not unaware, Vilma Espin has, furthermore, been appointed Director 
General of the so-called "Radio Rebelde" [Rebel Radio] network, with 
11 broadcasting stations tliroughout the Republic, which every day 
carry on a ferocious campaign [over the airwaves] against the North 
Jvmericans and against anyone daring to criticize the measures taken 
by Lictator Fidel Castro, She belongs to the Communist VJomen's 
Committee which was at [attended] the Communist Congress in Santiago, 
Chile, She has just haa [given birth to] a son from her union .d.th 
Raul Castro, anu it is an open secret tliat they have bought an e::pensive 
bassinet in the city of I'aris, 



554 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

BALDOMH^: JiLV/Jiai PJOS.- -UiJ to now has not been known to engage in 

Communist activitiet;, but stated recently 
that he iiad always supporteu those iueas Ltimt ideolotiy] secretly, 
so as to deceive the police of the L icta tor ship ; at the present time 
is Dean of the "Golegio Uacional ue Periodistas" [National College of 
Newspapermen— something like Press Association] , and one of the 
creators of the "coletillas" ^ [comments, or commentaxy] , or censor- 
ship of the cables ano editorials of [printed in] the newspapers; is 
anti-iimerican and launches uaily attacks against the U.S. Information 
Agencies; and, furthermore, works toward maicing a success of the 
"Prensa Latina" [Latin i'unerican Press] (a branch of Moscow' s "Tass" 
Agency) , formerly operating in Argentina. 



^) see p. 3, line 1; unaer "Carlos T^afael Tlodriguez" — -C.li. 



SljaUl-ttX) QLTNOOC'Jo.— Formei'ly [oi"? long-stancing] leauer of the People's 

Socialist (Communist) Pai-ty who has alvsys been 
entrusted with secret missions; his name should appear in the files of 
the Cuban police [under the uates] of the different occasions on which 
he was ai*rested. 



liiJ^OU C/iLCI'!E6 GO-lLiIl.Q. — Ira^jortant member of the Communist Party; 

\w.s leader of the sugar workers in Las 
Villas i'rovince; mass oratoi', and considered clever in spreading 
Marxist ideas; \^s in Prague 'until [sic] a short time ago, [busy vrith] 
organizing the Youth Congress v/liich is planned to be hela in Havana; 
x'resident of the IZxecutive of tuE Party Bioreau, and in charge of main- 
taining union among the youth organizations. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 555 

J06E LUIvJ I-LiLiO . — lias well defined Coinmunist ideas, altiiough he cioes 

not t^eem to be affiliateo with the farty. The /jaerican 
authorities Imve refuseo to issue him a visa for travel to the United 
States, not only because of his Communist ideas but also because of 
the offensive manner in which he expresses himself about North American 
Government officials. He is a great friend of Fidel Castro, and has 
managed to get on television panel [shov;s] whenever members of the 
regime are interviewed, 'Jell informed sources claim that, out of re- 
venge for having him removea from the "Itoticiero Union r.acio", he 
succeeded in having the property and assets of Mr, /unadeo Darletta 
confiscated [whom he holds responsible for his removal]. 



V1CHQ'1:TA ANTUTTA LE GAPjOMS.— Communist with deeply rooted ideas ["dyed- 
in-the-wool Communist"] ; married to Dr, 
Francisco Carone, University i^ofessor, also at the University of 
Havana, where she [he?] teaches Latin; was appointed Lirector of the 
National Institute of Culture by the present Communist regime of Cuba, 
It was slie who resolveu that a "Cuban Christmas" should be celebrated, 
ano, because of her hatred for North America, the name of Lanta Glaus 
was omitted, bhe is an intelligent woman, well acquainted vri.th the 
Commonist tactics, and sai.c to liave had great influence on the new 
eoucational system installec in Cuba calling for discrediting the United 
States and praising the Soviet Union. 

[should follow HL'IiL CASTPJD F.UZ, as p. /i] 



556 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

jiLFRHX) GUSVAPwl V..ILDES,— Not related to Major Ernesto "Che" Guevara, 

but they are very good friencs inaeeo; is 
Professor at the University of Havana anc. lias just been appointed 
Director of the "Cine Nacional" [National Movie Industry] , Although 
there was opposition on the part of the Cuban artists, Guevara succeed- 
ed in suppressing the native, or folic, theatre anc in giving the 
theatrical works, television and radio scripts, and movie scenarios, 
a socio-political content, each of which having to convey a message 
against Yanicee Imperialism anc to focus on Cuba's sovereignty. Right 
now he is writing several movie scripts, showing the contrast between 
the humble and the moneyed classes and making the worker and peasant 
masses believe that tliis state of affairs has disappeared in [tioviet] 
Huss5.a, because of which the population is happier, 

[should follow VINCaiTlNA ANTUtTA DE CAl'iDNE, as p,5] 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 557 

HLAo iX)CA CALDa^JQ , — One of "the most outstanding members of the 

Communist Party whose Secretary General he is; 
a shoemaker by trade; was born at Manzanillo, Oriente; is regarded 
as a gooa mass orator; fi^equently vtritgs articles in the newspaper 
Hoy , always encouraging the workers and peasants to prepare the ascent 
to power of a government baseu on tiiat [sic] force, supported by 
sailors and soldiers, which is his "golden dream" since he dwells on 
this particulai' in the majority of liis pronouncements. At a TV 
appearance last year, shortly after Fidel Castro took over, he public- 
ly stated that the next step that the government of Cuba, v/hich was 
Socialist at tlie time, would take, was to go on to the "Communist 
government of the future". He is anti-American; has made trips to 
Moscow, Mexico, and other countries and participated in several con- 
gresses, We thinic tloat he should be \jatched closely and tliat all 
his hideaways [disguises] should be knovm because he is very sldllful 
in [the art of] Disguising himself, to the extent tiiat uncer the 
Batista government he used to slip away in clerical g-arb. His real 
name is Manuel Galdorio. 



558 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

HJAS ^JfJEALGO . — Lawyer, and man of cxtraorclnai-/ talents; professor 
at the University of Havana, where he teaches Cuban 
History in the iachool of Philosophy and Letters, He v;as the one who, 
together with I'abio Qrobart, did the organizational work leading to 
the constitution of the Communist Party createc; [established] three 
years before by Carlos 3al5.no, Entral^-o ana Grobart wei'e responsible 
foi' devising the formula under which the electoral organizations of 
the Party were set up at the Meeting hela in Cerro and Santa Teresa, 
Havana, when the Party was given legal status and became part of a 
government coalition to elect President Pulgencio Batista, He has 
always worked clandestinely because [as] he constantly said, this was 
the best Lmost efficient] method of fighting; has alivays encouraged 
the university stuuents to maintain a Party Cell at that center of 
learning [Havana U.J , anc is said to be greatly listenec to because of 
his profound knowle&ge of different subjects [in different fields of 
endeavor] , 



CILIA aiUTOHjJZ AGILtU-iOMT S o— Intimate friend of Fidel Castro; comes 

from a rural, though well-to-ao, family; 
joined Fidel Castro in the Sierra Maestra in the first months [soon] 
after his arrival from Quintana Root in Mexico vrith the Gramma expedi- 
tion; is said to be in love with Castro as well as fascinated by his 
Communist sentiments, and follo\>rs Fidel Castro everywhere; attended, 
together vrith Vilma Espln and other Commiinist women, the Chilean 
"fiongreso Femenino" [ Jomen' s Congress] of proven Red stripe; has great 
influence with Fidel Castro, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 559 

LUIS HAIlTlHIg PAULA. — \-isiS a member of the Party; was photographer for 

the newspaper Manana and had previously been 
with the newspaper Hoy ; upon the overthrow of the Batista government 
appropriated the workshops of Manana, ovmed by Jose Lopez Vilaboy, 
and continued publishing the paper under his direction, and changed the 
paper's name to Diario Libre ; likes money and, therefore, betrayed 
his best ftiends, such as Luis Pozo Jimenez, and Erancisco Chao, 
Secretary to Eusebio Mujal i^ien he was Secretary for the CTC; in 
partnership with Ghao bought a publishing house of l!ujal, obtaining 
a commission of six thousand pesos; is now said to be trying to arrange 
for a visa to enter the United States, the pui-poses of Ms trip being 
unicnown. 



ivIlHiiLDO BSCAIORA. — Lawyer and active member of the Pai'ty ever since 

the days of his early youth; an expert in the 
manufacture of aynamite bombs ana in their cetonation. Because 
[sic — altJiough] a Rebel officer hac shot one of his brothers to 
ceath in the jail of a police station, Escalona agreed, not to pro- 
secute the accused officer through [in exchange for] the post of 
Deputy hearing Jucge of [the] Havana [l^istrict] , This reveals his 
sentiments ["makeup"] and that he is capable of aiiy malfeasance, 

CTCOLAiS GUILLM . — Active member of the Party anc on its 'jcecut?.ve 

[Board] ; outstancing poet; has traveled in [Soviet] 
Russia, Kexico, Venezuela, anc. other countries; at the present tijne 
is indoctrinating I:ebel soldiers and inliabi-tants of the Gasa Dlanca 
[city] district in Goraraunist ideas and practiced; frequently lectures 
in the cultural centers of the couiitry; is saic. to liave in liis posses- 
sion an important oocuaent vrith Lcontaining] tiie nanos of national 
and foreign contacts ["contacts at home anc. abroad"]. 



560 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

SEVglO AGUIRlia. — Active member of the Coranunist Party; lias recently 

been in [Soviet] Russia, and according to good 
[reliable] soiorces, instructions [orders] are being sent to the Cuban 
Communists through his intermediary; a dangerous saboteur; has 
numerous contacts in foreign countries. 



L'JIl) QQI-Iffl WAtiauU-IllIL' .— Editor of the review Garteles ; has a daily- 
section [program] on [radio] Station Q-'Q; 
frequently perfonm^ on televised progi^ams; has Communist ideas 
[ideologies] and is, supposedly, well connected ;ri.th the Party leader- 
ship, but lias never, as he is doing now, given vent to his thoughts. 
One of his sons died in the attack on the Presidential Palace, He is 
thought of as an "evil fellow", capable of betraying his best friends 
for the purpose of attaining his objectives; outstanding member of 
the "Instituto Nacional ue Turicmo" [National Tourist Institute] ; lias 
repeatedly expressed himself against the United iatates over radio and 
television. 



HAMUliL Ora'HjA . — imnouncer for Station CMQ; works on programs for 

[sponsored by] Casa Bacardi [Rum?]; has been affiliated 
with the Conmunist Party for years; now a member of the "Announcer 
Militias" and makes no bones about expressing his hatred of the North 
/anericans. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 561 

AUaUoTO IIAP.IIMEZ a^J^CIiIiZ.— Was first Minister of Defense of the present 

Cuban regime; when that lllnlstry was cils- 
solveo he was appointed Minister of Labor; was In the ^iei'ra Maestra 
with Ficel Gastro; acted as Maglsti-ate In the V/ar Council [sic — 
Tribunal, acijuclcatlng] the aviators who, in spite of the fact that 
they hac been acqulttod In the former court decision [in the first 
instance] , v/ere, upon his plea ano threatening attitude, by Castro' s 
orders sentencea to thirty years of hard labor; active Party worker- 
and lawj-er; is responsible for the labor census with a view to i^tate 
control of the worK performed^ 5n private industiv; is ant i-.\mer lean. 

RiiUJCIiJCO ALHDMa). — artist; ias irorkeu in the theatre and on 

television [programs] ; lias plenty of control 
Lis very influential] in the Actois' oociety; an olc Communist, wl.th 
strict iceas; always plays peasant parts, to give vent to liis animosity 
against Horth iimerica; is iaio\m among the artists as " Paco" Alfonso ; 
is made use of as propaganaist for the Party, 

GU>jTAVD ^iLDUlBI^JlA .— Plr/-siclan; lias always been affiliated with the 

Communist Party, Ijarly in 1959 he was nominated 
to one of the independent organizations [or agencies] under the 
Ministry of Health; but since he is an Intimate friend of Haul Rob. 
he was appointed Cuban ilmbassaaor to Belgrade, He has always worked 
with Pwoa In Communist activities [affairs]; is a man in whom the 
Party has confidence. 



562 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

AITi'OlHQ NUCTEZ J'li-lJlVJo . — In our opinion, he ano iimesto Guevara are 

the two most inportant figxa'es in the de facto 
government of Cuba, Nunez Jimenez is an old member of the Communist 
party o In 1950 he accom^saniea some 3ur'opean scientists, who turned 
out to be from the ooviet Union, on an excursion to the bierra Maestra 
and, upon verifying the 5-iipregnability of those mountains, they suggest- 
ed to Castro that he should organize a revoli:tion from there. He also 
traveled jexploredl with those scientists to the caves existing in Las 
Villas and Pinar del Rio; has just completed a tour of several countries 
behind the Iron Curtain, of Coimmmist China, among others, promoting 
traoe agreements with those nations^in accordance with the Joviet plan 
to take exports away from the United States, He was a Professor at the 
"Marta Abreus" Universitj^ of Santa Clara. At present he is Director 
of the Land Pieform Institute, a super-state ["supra- state"] organiza- 
tion with lai-ger resotu-ces [funds] tiian the State itself. He is a 
man of intelligence, of anti-American ideas [ideology], and has recent- 
ly made public, in an appearance on TV, the existence of a plan for 
government control of all private industries and businesses, whereby 
Cuba woulc be the first Socialist Republic of America, 

SjlLV;JjOR G;U'-CIA AGUIjI^O . — old member of the Sxecutive of the Communist 

party; a brilliant orator, with a large 
following among the Negro race. His record shows an infinite number 
of arrests for his Goiranunist activities, ^it the present time he is 
not playing an active role because of illness, 

mGUSL OUIKT.J^O . — Labor leader of Communist iocology; in conjunction 

iifith L^zai'o Pena aavised David v-^alvacor ana other 
leaaers of the Cuban Confederation of Jorkers [or of Labor] ; an active 
moraber of the Party, anc entrusted with affairs of ^jportance as re- 
gcxos the cause of Communism, It is not loioxm what his attitude will 
be after ijalvador leaves the C.T.C. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 563 

yiCrOK Mlj'U'JiJi'i. . — iirtraordinarilj active GorimunTt.t niil5.tant; 15.kevr3.se 
a fri.enc of Lavio oalvac or . Li'.ke ncny otl:ei' active 
Party mcTiibc-rs he \/ork£ clant esti.nely, to prove to the tlorth i^mericans 
tiiat he has cut hit. ti.es vn.th the above laboi- union. 



L'JIo M-4.0 i-I.L.^il'1 . — Captein of the ilebel A^'ny, anc at the present time, 

not\-ri.thstanc.ing his mi.litarY status, vnrites an 
occasional section [column] 5.n the newspaper Hoy . official organ of 
the Goinminist x^arty; his recorc is on file vn'.th the police ana the 
l'l;l; V,V.6 .:£C3ri'LY uZ^fi' TO ChiL2 EI KLiL CAoTi^O FO-l THE tURPOSS OF 
i-fJDOTAGIiiG PESjIUHJT SLu>3niOWlIl'S TIUP. 



lixlAULlQ GO j'.'Z-aL Ki . — Jictive member of the ConmianiEt Partyo His last 

action, which lee" to his arrest, was the distribu- 
tion of the Carta L)e-~nanal . a Communist propa^anua sheet v^iich the 
Party is usee to publishing when it works undergrounc; enjoys the 
corJ"iccnce of the high Party leadership because of his proven loyalty; 
sei'veu a si:< year sentence for being a Communist, but was set free, 
when ridel Castro too.c over, upon "Che" Guevara's ordei's. 



564 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

LiDNljj LiOTQ . — Active propagandist for Communism; sttidied Marxist 

tactic& in Moscow anc Prague; upon his return to Cuba 
was entrusted witii the airoctorship and publication of the Carta 
bems-nal and cai-rieu out his task until he was arrested and sentenced 
to six years [in prison]; was set free upon "Che" Guevara's ordere;- 
at present in [Soviet] Russia on a special mission. 



JUAN AIKUDA . — i^esent Chief of the Cuban Army; had previously com- 
posed numerous songs for little known singers; was a 
member of the [Communist] Party in the city of Guant^namo; has little 
polish, Wlien he fount himself persecuted, he fleo to the Sierra Maestra 
and joineo up with Fioel Castro, but other people said that he establish- 
ed contact with Fidel in Mexico, When Castro took over, he was 
appointed Major in the Arn^y and, subsequently. Chief of the Air Force 
when Major Peoro Luis Diaz Lanz resigned his post; he was later 
appointed Chief of the Army, replacing Major Camilo Cienfuegos who had 
inyster5.ously uisappeared. Almeida is backed by Raul Castro, He has 
always been singled out for acts afforcing an opportunity to harrass the 
White race, such as [,for instance,] the crowning of the Beauty Queen 
or the Carnival Queen dancing with them and taking than away to an 
alcove, to raaice a fool of them. He says that "thanks to Communism, he 
may do so "["Communism allows h5jn to do that"]. This man's father passed 
himself off as a Peruvian lawyer in exile, and has several times been 
accused of swindling in Havana, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 565, 

Lj'lUIuL.^ GONZALlg CAr.V/iJ/iL . — Man of action, and very active in the 

Communist Party; has always carried on 
his activities in Oriente Province vAere he replaced Cesar Vila as 
Provincial Governor; cooperated with Castro's propaganda [collaborated 
in Castro's propaganda activities] in the cjierra Maestra, and interceded 
in the alliance between the "26th of July Movement" and the Communist 
Party, in agreement with Carlos llafael Rodriguez, because of which he 
enjoyed great ascendency with ["...a controlling Influence over,,."] 
Fidel Castro and his brother Ratll; is a terrible enemy [sic] of the 
North Americans, 



JO^E LUIS GALBIilS . — Spanish citizen; fled his coxmtry at the termination 

of the [Spanish] Civil V/ar; since that time has 

been active in Mexico and Cuba, finally settling down in this country 

[Cuba] where he first obtained a [teaching or administrative?] position 

with the University of Oriente, and, because he had been cooperating 

[collaborating] with the revolutionists, they then appointed him 

Director General of Prisons and Chief of Penal Institutions; has well 

deflnea Communist ideas, and is a friend of the poet Micolfis Guillen 

for whom he arranged a show ["a reading"] at the "Teatro de Artes 

Plistlcas" of Santiago, Cuba; organized in the same city a Communist 

propaganda affair [meeting] at Party headquarters [located] at 158 
Callgde Kstrada Paliaa [Santiago, Cuba], 



566 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

CASi'O fKISIO LOMaNiXili. — Active Communist, and man of action in the 

(have you. any ;vay Party; raanuTactured, together with Leonel iioto, 

of checxdng whetlaei' 

or not the first the Carta uemanal . because of which he was 

name is accui'ate — 

shoulan't it be sentenced to six years in prison, and [but] set 

CAoTL0V~I3l) 

free upon "Che" Guevara's orders. At the 

present time he is Con^troller of the "Fincas Karoca", [large landhold- 

ings] owneu by Col. Robert ana llr. Mestre, his former bosseSo Mesti'e 

has just been sentenced to 20 years in the penitentiary for conspii-acy, 

jprieto then undertook to seize tiie lots Lpieces of real estate] from 

those who hao acquii-ec. them in good faith, allejjin^ tliat they were "ill- 

^"otten property for [the purpose of] illicit enrichment -uncer the 

Dictatoi'ship" , 



RAI'AEL iaVBRD PUi\).— Goiomunist loaoex- of Uriente, and member of the 

"Juventuc Socialista i'opulai'" Li'eople's 
iJocialist Youth] ; intimate ll-iend of Major Haul 

Cai^tro to the e:-ctent tiiat he stoou up as iri.tneSE at the recent wedding 

of Kaul and ViLas. tilspln in >.>antiago, Cuba; man of action, ana dangerous 

in respect to acts of sabotage. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 567 

IDi'JUUM IIIBIMO. — Racio announcer; previously vrlth tlie Coimnunist 

i^arty's "Mil Diez" Network, whence he vehanently 
voiced his Goinmunist sentiments; was marrieu to the artist [or actress] 
Olga GuiUoy, because of which she was not permitted to enter the 
United btates after she had been elected Cuba' s "Radio Queen" l^ueen 
of the Air Waves",., bettei', maybe?? — Hi]; cannot be trusted very much. 



HVIIUl LliiZ . — Iia^j for many years been a stuaent of the "Escuela de 

Pecarjogia" i_ijchool of ScVacation] of the University of 
liavana, anc intei'mittantly carrieu out tiie functions of Chief or 
i'resident of the University itucent Federation, Giving way to her 
aspii-ation ["Yielding to her ambition"], she accepted the post of 
Chief of Security of the Congress; has well defineci Communist ideas 
[oefinitely Goramunist ideology] ; belongs to the terTorist groups of 
the city of havana who plant bombs in different spots in the Capital; 
has just incurred the repudiation of the veterans, ana of a large por- 
tion of the citizeru'y, for cenj"ing the liberators the pension v;hich 
some of them hue, been collecting [based on a Resolution approved] by 
the Congress, something which nobocrr hac. [_wou1g have] cai^ea to co in 
Cuba because of the respect inspii'ea by those who had given us oui- 
freecom. 



43354 O— 60 — 8a- 



568 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

MANUHi F^JNfANDEZ.— His identification is difficult in view of the lai-t;o 

nianber of persons listed here, but we shall put him 
down for having been Minister of Labor of the present 

Conmunist govei'nment of Cuba, He is a member of the Party and said to 

be an expert on labor problems. He was i"ecentl;y separated from his 

post sind replaced by Dr. Augusto Martinez Sdnchez, 



MiU-IUIiL PiflliLrX). — ^^a.ior in the Rebel Arm;y-; has well iaioim [definite] 
Communist ideas; was Chief of the Military Distri.ct 
of Oriente, but was recently replaced in his post 
by the likewi.se Communist Major Calis^o Gai'cia; a short time ago \is.s 
transferred to Matanzas, and went over to the General i^taff; is mt^rried 
to an American citizen witli whom he too a son; no fui-tuoi" information 
[available] about his activities. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 569 

L/I^IINIO BaGALONA .-- Ma.ior in the Rebel Army and Chief of the Military 

[I feel pretty Listrict of Pinar del liio; was affiliatea vdth 

sure that this 

name alibuld be the ComDiunist Party; at the present time the 

spelled IIHIIINIO- 

00 you have any people of finar fear him, because of his blood- 

way of checking; — 
SHJ thirsty instincts, to such an extreme that he liac 

incurred the repulsion of everybody. He is a man given to drink, and 

many of his actions are the effect of intoxication. He is said to 

have killed a group of expeditionaries sent by the son of Jose M, /ilein^n 

when he ijas holed up in the Sierra de los drganos in Pinai^ del Rio 

during the Batista administration. 



AUGU3TIN NAViMRSL'E.— Known as "Tin" Navarrete; Major in the Rebel Anqy, 

Chief of Maestre Military Headquarters of Oriente; 
thought to be a Communist, although there is no recorc of his past 
public performance because he has always acted clandestinely [under- 
ground] , 



570 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

A[Tl'Oi{lQ Luzon . — ^Ilajor in the l-.ebel iirmj, Chief of ooction G-2, 

Personnel, General Ltaff, anc abcolutel;,' truLitec. by 
■':(aul Gastrr.' n.s recarceo at; an inc ivic ual v/ith CoLomunist iceaa, but 
there is jrther inforrnation ac to hit; pact pei'fonnance. 



LjIi-^-- .XiLiJ.: . — .*ctive CoimauniBt leacei"; c esignated to give classes on 
Marxist doctrine [incoctrination courses] to solaiers, 
sailois, ant members of the "26th of July liovement"; has raaue several 
visits to tile coun'ti'ies beiiinc" the Iron Cui'tain and brought booses 
into Cuba whose tebct hat, already been translateo, into opanisli. It is 
iFDjortant that she should be v;atchec in order to find out wliei'e she 
15.ves anu the places that ai-e frequentsc", by her. 



VIGTOll IIO-wl. — Active militant of tiio Communist tarty; is now a Captain 
Lprobablj'' Lt. Col. in this particular case in vlev of the 
impoi'tance of the job; hence, ranlcing with "capitdn de 

cueu'tcl" — Ai] in the Tiebel lirmy, Chief of the Tactical Forces of the 

Gai^rison in the Minas ae [m.ines of] Hlo IVn.o y oan Lorenzo, in the 

tiiei'Ta liaestra. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 571 

JUAil TAC^UaDnili. — Iimjortant member of the Communist Pcj-ty ^n Orients 

Province, ano leader of the maritme \;oricers in the 
i'ort of Santiago, Cuba; very active; considerec trustworthy with a 
viev; to carrying out ["s-chievins?"] all of the missions entrustea to 
hm. 



JO oiiH^ MA VIL' AUR^lS-'A . — I'larr i eo to ki-, Juan Mar inello; teacher in the 

Havana "liscuela Normal ce Hujeres" [Vfomen' s 
Teachers College]; active Gonmunist and propa^ancist of those [Comraunist] 
iceas; is consiuereu a vei'y intelligent woman ano of sufficient merit 
to be entrusted \,rith the inc octiination of the young people in her 
school. 



^i^IlAflDO VOliitao. — Lieutenant in the F.ebel iUT.Ty, oecond [_ Assistant] 

Chief of Section 0-2; ricdces frequent trips to Mexico 
to execute Li" cocvliance \<ri.th?] orcers; visits the soviet iJnibassy 
there; active Communist, anc trusteu absolutely by P.aul Castro and 
by the Par-ty, 



572 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

ALBJANDPJtK) BORROTQ. — Newspaperman; had vrorked on the newspaper Hoy ; 

had been affiliated with the Coinniunist Party; 
also worked on the newspaper Mariana ; is presently working on the news- 
paper Avance . but his services have [just] been terminated because, 
after havinjj been removed from his paper, its director and owner, 
Jorge Zayas Menendez, has been reinstated, Borroto is a Communist and 



has been accused of collecting signatures to bring charges against 
Jorge Zayas, All members of his family are likewise Communists, 

Vi\DlN KATCHHIGIN. — Member of the Secret Service of the Soviet Union In 

[Russian name: Mexico, making ftequent trips to Cuba; entertains 
"Vadim,..3iJ 

an intinfite friendship w^.th Lt, Armando Torres ; 

Vadln [first name; should be referred to, in this case, as "Katchergin"- 

Sl] was in Cuba in May 1959, and subsequently retiirned in November 

of the same year, to attend the inaviguration of the E>cecut5.vc of the 

Cuban Confederation of Workers, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 573 

FERNANDO KAAH . — Has been aff-lliatea w5.th the ?arty ever since worlcing 

as a reporter on the newspaper Hoy ; at iiie present 
time works for "Radio Progreso" and calls himself a great frienci of 
the Chief of Police, Eficrenio Amei.ieiras . There is no information as 
to his present connection with the Party, but it is to be assumeci 
that he is maintaining his former affiliation. 



ANTOLIN VILLAMANDOS .— Physician, of the Communist faction of the National 

College of Medicine; has made various trips to 
[Soviet] Russia and to the countries behind the Iron Curtain, and does 
not hesitate to demonstrate his enthusiaam for the Communist countries; 
Is qualified as an [",,,is a very skillful,,,."] agitator and Is feared, 
therefore, not only by the non-political physicians but also by those 
who belong to his own group. 



PI goo GONZALEZ MARTIN .— Physician; Communist; belongs to the Agitator 

Group of the National College of Medicine; has 
also been In Prague; is considered a man of action and active militant 
of the Party. 



^74 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

I'JUX iLLlZA^TjjG'Jl . — Pliyslcian. with definitely ConiiminiEt iceas; 

one of those who tried to soc5.alize the medical 
career [,,viz: to introduce "socialized medicine"] in Cuba; is con- 
sidered a mass agitator and aangerous man. 



MILlQ QUES.;\DA , — Physician; Communist; [member] of the agitator group 
of the Mational College of Iledicine, who has irr^osed 
himself on the class ["has risen to a position of authority"] by way 
of intimidation; a goou orator anc\ nuin of action. 



AtlGPX QUIjrriiI"'jO . — :Ias been a reporter on the newspaper Hoy and an active 
i-'ai-ty meraber since before 1940; worked as a newspaper- 
man in the "Cficina ce Regulacion de Precios y Abastecimiento" [Office 
of Price ana supply Regulation, or Control] during World War II, and 
also in the Commerce beixirtment; his wife is also an active Communist, 
He worked on the nev/cpapers Lanc/or pei^iocicals] illerta and Bohemia 
[really a magazine — 121] , ana is now worlcing on I'.evolucion . which is 
the official government organ, 

[TO BS COKTlrHUJ__next name ZjrJQ'JS G0tTZALS2 
Translatea by lIAMTIiCi] 

Elizabeth Hanunian 
June 3, I960 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 575 

StgiiaUE GOHZiiLffl MAMTai.— Afflliatec with the Party for many yearsj 

worked in the "Mil Diez" broadcasting 
station of the Commiinist Party; orchestra conductor, and recently 
sent his musical productions to [Soviet] Ptussia and Prague for per- 
formance in both cities. 



WALEO MH)IIIA. — Convinced Communist; a lawyer and [former] Judge in 
Havana [ courts] ^ from ^^ich office he was separated 
because of Ms Communist resolutions [decisions?] during the 
Batista administration; harbors a fierce hatred for the Americans 
and misses no opportunity to hurt them, for which reason he was denied 
entry into that country [USA] some time ago; at the present time is 
Chief of the Legal Section of the Land Reform Institute (INRA) , from 
which post he is carrying on intensive [pro]CommimiEt activities 
among the peasant population and trying to prejudice the North American 
landowners in connection with the confiscation of their iBndholdings 
and other properties. 



576 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

JOSE PAFXO LLAJjA . — In addition to being a Comnianlst, is a man without 

morals; emerged in public life through his radio 
commentaries; was a friend of Batista from whom he received money in 
order to get married and spend his honeymoon in Miami; afterwards, iriaen 
finding that he could get no more money from him, he started to attack 
him over the radio; later came to the United States and joined up with 
the conspirators, being present at the [signing of the] Treaty of 
Montreal, but subsequently attacked the treaty; when the situation 
became untenable for him because of lack of money, he resumed his contact 
with President Batista, through Orlando Piedra . from whom he received 
a sum of money every month; finally he went up to the Sierra Maestra 
and joined up with Fidel Castro, submitting to a humiliating trial 
to clear himself of his treachery which had victimized even Sduardo 
Chivas ; when Castro took over, he found no in^iortant opposition but, all 
the same, made himself available for participation in several m5.ssions 
to visit foreign countries and to work on behalf of the Cuban Revolu- 
tion; although not appearing to be affiliated with the I^rty, he now 
presents himself as a rabid Communist and demonstrates [gives vent to] 
his hatred of the North Americans because they had refused him a visa 
to enter the USA; he had held himself out as a friend of President 
Per6n and had several times invited him to visit Cuba, without, 
however, an acceptance from Peron; Pardo Llada is a man who cannot be trust , 
because he is capable of | commit tingj the worst felonies for money. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 577 
^tAMIS TABOAPA, — Sympathizer with the CcJimtiunist ideas; was legal advisor 

to the Soviet Einbassy in Havana, established, for some timt 

on Calle de Paseo y Quince, Vedado, Havana; is a lawyer, biit there is no 
knowledge of any other activities on his part. 



MANUBL D3.. F'ESO . — Old militant of the Communist Party to [on] whose 

Executive he belonged [served]; in 1958 was active in 
Santa Clara vdiere he supplied the forces of Camilo Cieafuegos by re- 
quisitioning food and anmmnition from the business establishments and 
inhabitants of the city; later was a member of the Revolutionary 
Tribunals sentencing to death and executing numerous members of the 
Army and civilians, many of them con5)letely innocent, for the single 
fact that they had been anti-Communists; a man of bad instincts, a 
terrorist, and must be ^.etched in case of war to prevent acts of 
sabotage on his part. 



Not clear whether the Soviet Embassy was "established" there, or Taboada 
"lived", or had offices there, - Translator. 



578 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

FELIX TORRES.— .^aj or in the Rebel I^my, and affiliated with the 

CommtiniEt Party; Fidel Castro himself had assured him in 
the trial of Hubert Katos "that one could not oust him from the post, 
despite [his] being a Communist, because of the many services [he 
had] rendered to the revolution". 



EJIRIQUE MOin'ON .— Ma.ior in the Rebel Army, and affiliated with the 

Gommianist Party; obeys the orders of the Party more 
than he does those of the Army Command, according to what he told his 
friends; believes that Cuba must terminate its relations with North 
America and make treaties with [Soviet] Russia and the countries behind 
the Iron Curtain, 

URSlNlQ ROJAS.— VJas Secretary General of the FNTA (Federacion Nacional 

de Trabajadores Azucareros) [National Confederation 
of Sugar Workers] in 194-8; active Communist and Party action man; 
friend of the late Jesus Menendez and therefore spoke at a CTC affair 
in honor of his memory; although now replaced by Conrado Becquer . 
continues to work among the workers in the sugar industry. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 579 

VIOLHTA CaSaLS. — Artist working for CllQ; at present Secretary General 

of the Society of Artists, having replaced Manolo 
Fernandez who was deposed by a minority for repudiation of the Conmmnist 
procedures put into practice by Fidel Castro's government; i5)on Fidel 
Castro's talcing over, she made a toxar of all of [Latin?] America, as 
a member of a mission of "whiskered" men in order to justify the firing- 
squaos, but in almost all nations visited by them they were repudiated 
for their praise of the death penalty; makes no bones about expressing 
her anti-ilmericanism, and openly declares her Communist sentiments. 



ARMAMDO NUITSZ HSINaMjEZ.— Commentator on "Radio Kambl", and, although 

said not to be a Communist, all his statements 
demonstrate the contrary; the majority of the scripts read by him over 
[the facilities of] that Radio Station are reported to be drafted try 
Carlos Rafael Rodriguez ; every day launches the worst insults against 
the Americans, especially against President Eisenhower and Secretary 
Herter, 



580 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

EUCLIIJES VAZQCTEZ CANDliliA. — Assistant Director of the newspaper 

Fwevoluclon and well defined [definitely 
a "dyea-in-the-wool"] Communist; has now been placed in charge by 
the government of the newspaper Liario Libre , published [printed] in 
the Kanana workshops, for utilization of that paper in teaching the 
students of the iichool of Journalism; in his daily articles hurls 
the biggest insults at the North Americans, con^jlemented by the most 
serious crimes, so as to arouse more hatred of the United States on the 
part of the people of Latin America; is a dangerous man, and it is 
recommended that he be watched in order to find out where he lives and 
where he hides out; was recently married to Astrld Blonqulst* Sanchez , 

I.IA DE LA TORPIENTE. Fervent Comr\xinist, who works in the Ministry of 

Culture [or Education] and carries on & terrible anti -North American 

campaign. 



*Probably the Scandinavian name Blomqvdst. Letter "m" changes into 
"n" in Spanish - Translator, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 581 

OCTAVIO LOUIT (Cabrera) .--Member of the CTC Executive, and is, 

although not appearing to be affiliated 
with the Communist Party, because of his deeds and the hatred mani- 
fested by him, against the North Americans; his Comnunist ideas 
are also shown by his designation to attend, together with Ramon 
Monteagudo . a meeting of Spanish and Portuguese exiles in Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, in order to request [the granting of] amnesty to 
the political prisoners in those countries [Spain and Portugal], 
The meeting could not take place and they are going to hold it in 
Havana at an early date; he is a political action man and dangerous. 



JBSUS SOTO DIAZ . — Secretary- organizer of the Cuban Confederation of 

Workers, now substituting for David Salvador 
who was ousted from office upon orders from Fidel Castro when Salvador 
tried to have Dr, Augusto Martinez Sanchez of the Labor Ministry 
replaced, to vAiich Castro did not consent. It Is believed in labor 
circles that Soto llaz will get David Salvador's post. Soto Diaz 
has Communist ideas and makes no bones about his hatred of the 
Americans, to such an extent that, on a certain occasion this year, 
he advocated an attack on the U.S. Einbassy in Havana in case the 
U.S. Government were to do away with the [Cuban] sugar quota or to 
engage in some other [type of] economic aggression against Cuba, 



582 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

ROSA VIZCAIHO DiAZ. — ATflllated with the Connmmist Party, and living 

in her own home in the "MaSiana" District; worked 
in Cuba for the "Con^anla Cubana de Aviacion" [Cuban Aviation Conpany] 
as Jose Lopez Vilaboy' s secretary; now working with Vilaboy in the 
office opened by him in Guatemala, 



IGNACIQ BlAN.— Priest; has always distinguished himself by his Leftist 

ideas; although we have not proved [not been able to 
prove] that he is a member of the Party, he favors the Leftists in 
the pages of the review La Quincena. . which has been under his direction 
for some time; moreover, he admits to be an intimate friend of Carlos 
Franqui . Juan Marinello . and other well known Communists; a gifted man, 
he was working [at the time of] the revolution in the interest" of 
Fidel Castro, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 583 
ADRIAN GARCIA HHMANDEZ . — Communist; current events editor for the 

nevfspaper Hoy ; considered a good vrlter and 
gifted individual. We have not been able to confirm his Party maBiber- 
ship. He studied in Prance; comes from an old Havana family who do 
not approve his militancy or his conduct; his father is a famous lawyer 
who does not share his beliefs either. He speaks several languages, 

JDAN CARLOS ESPASANDE. — Theatrical and TV artist with deeply rooted 

Communist ideas, making no bones about 
manifesting his hostility against the North Americans; has offered 
himself personally to Dr. Alfredo Guevara to do theatrical work 
"of the Communist stripe" [ i,e., on behalf of ComnunismL 



RAMON MONrrEAGUDO.— Militant of the Communist Party; a gifted, and 

very dangerous, man; was designated, together with 
Octavio Loult . to attend a meeting in SSo Paulo, Brazil, at vAiich the 
release of the political prisoners in Spain and Portugal was to be 
dananded, but vdiich jb etlng was postponed and will be held in Havana, 



4S354 O — 60 — 8a- 



584 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

RAMIRO VAIDES. — Ma.lor. and Aide to Fidel Castro, and \mtll a short 

time ago in charge of the military police; was a 
member of the Grannna e!q)editlon, and is consideored loyal to the 
, Coraraunist Party in which he has always [held] militant [status]; a 
native of Artemisa, Province of Plnar del Rio, 



JOSE PONCE . — Police Captain and Provincial Chief [governor?] of 

Pinar del Rloj brother-in-law of Major Ramtro Valdes; 
has always been- an active Coraraunist and is an enemy of the North 
Americans, 



GERARDO NOGUHU MARTINEZ .— Native of Pinar del Rio, and has always 

been a m^.litant in the Communist Party; 
was appointed Military Chief of the Isle of Pines because ne is 
regarded as a man worthy of trust. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 585 

LUIS HURT ADO . — Has always resided in the city of Pinar del Rio, 
where he is known as an active Communist; is now 
Captain of Police in San Jose de las Lajas, Province of Havana, and 
is regarded as a staimch supporter of the government and the Party, 



HH3T0R CANCIANO. — Physician, and Communist s3Ti5)athizer; at present 

Head of the "Ministerio de Recuperacion de Bienes" 
[Ministry of i'roperty Restitution] in the towns of ibrtemisa, Candelario, 
Saji Cristobal, ajid Los Palaciosj one of his brothers is in charge of 
Training of the Pinar del Rio Militias, and is also a convinced 
Communist. 



RME BARRIOS . — Physician in Artemisa v±iere he is known for his Conmiunist 

militancy, and bitter enany of the elements [members] 
of the past Batista government, 

EVELIO LLglA . — A native of Pinar del Rio, vrtiere he was known for his 
Communist activities; now no less than right-hand man 
of Csmani Cjenfuegos . Minister of Public Uorks, with whom he was linked 
in the revolution in the town of Candelario. 



586 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Fa3R0 MACHIN , — Inspector of schools, carrying on Connnunist activities 

in that sector of education; engaged in an anti-American 
can5>aign of offense and slander, going so far as to say that the new 
students of his zone w3.11 be the future bitter enemies of the United 
States. 



HORTEK^A LL£RA . — Retired schoolteacher; has always fought in the 

Comraunist Party, expressing her opinion in public 
that the Soviet Union has tri'jmphed in everything over the United States, 
especially in the field of nuclear energy; at present devoting herself 
to denunciation of the; anti-Connrnnjsts, qualifying them as counter- 
revolutionists, and on her account many men and women have been sentenced 
to prison terms. 



OSVALIO GONZALEZ . —Pharmacist in Candelaria, Province of Pinar del 

Rio; and known in that city as active Connnunist. 

JOSE JIMaiEZ.— At the present time Assistant Chief of Public V/orks 

in San Cristobal, Pinar del Rio; has always been 
thought to have Conmunist ideas [and to be] capable of any felony. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 587 

JOAQUIN HHlNAtOEZ . — ^Lawyer In Pinar del R£o, and active Conmunlst; 

making sure that reference is made to the North 
Americans in injurious [offensive] terms. 



NICASlQ HBiKAIIDSZ. — ^Lawyer in Pinar del Rio, and active Communlstj 

carrying on such propaganda work as the Party orders 
him to do, 

JOSE LUIS GOMZALSZ CARVAJAL . — Communist for more than twenty years, and 

active leader throughout the Province of 
Pinar del Rio; now General in Command of the Militias, his wife being 
no less than Head of the Department of Investigation of the city of 
Pinar del Rio and also an active Comnoinist, 



BDUARLO CAMTON REYBRAVD . — Public [school] teacher, and old Communist 

Party militant like his entire family; 
right now is indoctrinating urban and rural workers, exhorting than 
to defend the country in case the AmericeLn forces should land, accord- 
ing to his own words. 



588 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

lailUiQUE CAIJTON REYBRAVO. — Labor leader; member of the Communist Party; 

brother of the above [Btiviardo] . This family 
[Canton Reybravo] is con^iosed of more than 20 members of both sexes, 
all of whom are affiliated with Communism and carry on an active 
camp&lgn. in the interest of the Party, 



SMTCS GONZALEZ. — Director of and teacher at the "Institute de Pinar 

del Rio", vriiere he inculcates the young people with 
his Communist ideas and his hatred of North America; in this indoctrina- 
t5.on work he has been successful since m^. ly of theoc [his] students 
have joined the militias of the Province, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 589 

UNlVHlSD SAITCHEZ. — ^Ma.lor in the Army and in command of the Matanzas 

District; has always been [animated by] Communist 
and anti-American ideas; when finding himself persecuted by the police, 
because of his terrorist activities and acts of sabotage, fled, leav- 
ing his home, and joined up with Fidel Castro to remain in the Sierra 
Maestra until January 1959. 



-Fervent follower of International Communism and has 
always distinguished herself by her activities for 
the Soviet Union and against the United States, When Russian [Soviet] 
Vice Premier Mikoyan came to Cuba they embraced in front of the statue 
of Marti, in Havana's Central Park, a photo of which appeared in [a] 
February issue of Life magazine. 



ALPRaX) lABUH.— Son of Syrian parents; lawyer with well defined Communist 

ideas; at the present time holds the office of Minister 
of Justice and in all his speeches reveals himself as an enemy of the 
North Americans; Is working on a project to abolish the notaries' 
offices, as a step preliminary to the abolition of private property, 
by which he has incurred the repudiation of Cuban lawyers and notaries. 



590 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

AMHIIOQ DOMINGUEZ. — Lieutenant in the Army; has been appointed Chief 

of the Havana Militias; convinced Communist and 
inculcates the members of his militias with his beliefs, in particular, 
with hatred for the North Americans, 

EDUAKX) PALACIO PLANAS. — Old militant of the Communist Party; President 

of the "Confederacion de Profesionales de 
Cuba" [Cuban Confederation of Professional Workers] , from which post 
he carries on intensive anti-American activitiesj is a mestizo by 
race; has a pharmaceutical laboratory [probably drugstore, or "pharmacy"] ; 
is a [political] action man and very dangerous; was intensely active in 
the fight against Batista in the city of Havana, although he did not 
have to go to prison. 



ALFRaX) MiUlTIH3Z CAIDagM .— Active Communist; at present Political Com- 
missioner of Oriente Province, from vdiich 
post he carried on intensive activities in the interest of the political 
and commercial union of Cuba and the Soviet Union. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 591 

aiRIQUE M. MANZAND. — Captain in the Rebel Army, and a man of definitely 

Communist ideas; at present stationed at Palma 
Soriano where he carries on pro-Connnunist activities among the rural 
people, under the pretext that this is the only form in which the people 
could contribute to Cuba's economic and political liberation. 



HAStCUEUi MACH0SV7KY (MACHOVSKYQ — Captain in the Rebel Army, and, although 

we were unable to find out what his 
nationality is, he is believed to be Ukrainian or Polish. He is a 
convinced Communist ajad hates the Americans; at the present time he is 
discharging his functions as Army Captain in Jaguey Grande, Matanzas 
Province, keeping vigilance in order to prevent the people from find- 
ing out what is going on in Cienaga de Zapata, 



FELICIANO MADERNl. — A lawyer, but previously, under President Gerardo 

Machado's administration, was an army man; Fidel 
Castro's Communist regime has now appointed him a Deputy Judge of the 
bupreme Tribunal [Court] of Cuba; is known for his openly Communist 
activities. 



592 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

■hEMAIJDO ACOarA CORPjRO .—Major in the Rebel Army, and Chief of the 

Cultural Section of the Regiment of the 
CabaEa Fortress; has always been distinguished for his Comnninlst 
activitie^ vrtiich he is now pursuing among the troops, with the coopera^ 
tlon of the Communist leader and poet Nicolas Guillen, vdio gives fre- 
quent lectures on Marxism at that military fortress, to vdiich the 
fishermen living in the Casa Blanca district are given access because 
they are easy subjects for the assimilation of Communist ideas. 



GMaiAL iUiBIiRTO BATO. — Is neither a general nor a colonel; was a sin5)le 

major diaring the .:^nish Civil War and fled 
from Spain to take refuge in Mexico; he trained the members of Fidel 
Castro's expedition, from Quintana Root in Mexico to Oriente Province 
in Cuba, [to] a place known as Bellx, Although he is a Communist auid 
enony of the North Americans, he cannot be trusted because for money 
he would betray even his best friends. General Acensio, of the Spanish 
Republican Army, made a lengthy report on Bayo, having harsh things 
to say about him because of his procedures, Bayo took advantage of 
Castro's victory to obtain economic benefits for himself and official 
positions for his son and other manbers of his family. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 593 

ROGajIO ACEyaX).— Was recently appointed Chief of the Militia Leader- 
ship ["SuproBe Command"] and instructs the manbers 
who have secondary education; has deeply rooted Gonmunist ideas 
and hates the North Americans j in his lectures he tells tiie militiamen 
that ONE MTJST ^E PREPARED TO KILL THE U.S. NA^/Y BOYS WHO fas soon as 
they?] STEP ON CUBAN SOIL. 



OSCAR PiNO SANTOS.- - Militant of the Communist Party and absolutely 

trusted by Fidel Castro and Captain Antonio NuSez 
Jimenez ; at present is Section Chief in the Land Reform Institute; 
has been most avid in the caaipaign for the confiscation of property of 
North American citizens; a dangerous man and capable of sabotage 
whereby he contributes to the success of International Communism, 



LEDNIJES CALDgllO . — Supposedly a relative of Bids Roca, i.e., Manuel 

Calderio, but we have been unable to confirm this 
particular; was in the Sierra Maestra acting as political commissioner 
and inspiring [indoctrinating] the Rebel soldiers with the 
Marxist doctrine; was recently sent by the goverrunent on a mission to 
Egypt; is a convinced Communist, 



594 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

RJMON ]!n:OOLAU .--01cl militant of the Communist Party, to whose Ebcecutlve 

rOroupl he belongs I or belonged] j after Castro 
took over, was appointed, upon the recomniendation of Carlos Rafael 
Rodriguez and "Che" Guevara, to give lectures before units of the Arny 
so as to train than in Marxist tactics; has been in [Soviet] Russia 
and several countries behind the Iron curtain^ and there shovild be con- 
siderable background material on him in the files of the FBI. 



LUlb FAJARDO ESGALQHA.— Major in the Rebel Army, but, nevertheless, 

continuing in his job as Secretary of the 
Communist Youth of Cuba, which shows once again that the Fidel Castro 
regime makes no bones about openly exposing its status of Communist 
government. 



ANTOMIQ MORMO LAMAS. — Physician; one of the agitators of the Communist 

fraction of the National College of Medicine, vho 
has disgraced himself by accusing outstanding and world-renowned figures 
in the field of medicine in Cuba of con?)licity with the Batista dictator- 
ship; because of his hot tender he is considered a dangerous elanent as 
propagandist of Red ideas, and also capable of inplementing every kind 
of sabotage act. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 595 

I 

OaUNI ClENFUEGOS. — Comes from a family of Spanish Comraunists; brother 

of Camllo Cienfuegos who has disappear ea; upon 
his [brother's] mysterious death he [Osmani] was appointed Minister 
of Public Works, for which office he lacks the proper qualifications; 
recently his father and mother obtained Cuban citizenship papers at an 
affair presided over by the Minister of State, Dr. U&dl Roa, 



HiOY GUriHmEZ MaK) ID. — Major in the Rebel Army; active together with 

Major William Morgan in the Escambray region; 
Menoyo comes from a family of Spanish Conmunists residing in the 
Luyano District; one of his brothers died in the ^nish Civil War, 
and another in the fight against Batista during the attack on the 
Presidential Palace; he and his mother made their mark in Spain with 
their Red activities, and that is the reason why they had to leave the 
country; Menoyo makes no bones about manifesting his Conniunist ideas 
and his hatred of the Americans, 



HOHDRIO MUWOZ . — Communist militant and editor of the newspaper Hoy . 
official Party organ, from ;^ich post he carries on 
propaganda activities in favor of [Soviet] Russia and against North 
America; at the present time he is chief editor of the-paper. 



596 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

MANUiiL DIAZ MARTINEZ.— A poet; obtained a fellowship from the Office 

of the Director General of Cult\irc for going to 
[study in?] Spain, but was forced to leave Madrid when his Communist 

activities were discovered and the activity against the Franco 

Government in liiich he had begun to engage. 



CAHLOS FAXAS VALHgNO .— Secretary General of the "Sindicato de los 

Muslcos" [Musicians' Union] j is such a rabid 
Comnunlst that he returned to the Cultural Department [Cultural Attache's 
Office] of the U.S. Qnbassy the reading materials with which that 
Office supplies the press and [interested] readers; hates the North 
Americans to death and is a fervent Communist, 



OSCAR F. KEPO . — Editor of the newspaper Revolucion . to which he was 

ttrought by Carlos Kranqul ; has always manifested hlrt- 
Belf as a person with extremely leftist ideas; in his articles he 
always expresses terrible hatred for the North Americans, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 597 

SAMTIAGO MARTINEZ DOHOaO .— A Commimist, and, in addition, known as a 

dangerous terrorist; recently infiltrated 
into Spain, carrying a French passport [ostensibly?] as correspondent 
for the Havana newspaper La Calle . but fled to Paris when it came out 
that he belonged to a group that had initiated a terrorist cemp&ign. 
in Spain, particularly in Madrid; is reported to have been sent [there] 
by Fidel Castro in order to get even with Ambassador Fojendio; he 
was acconqjanied on the trip by his cousin Antonio Abad Donoso : according 
to the Spanish Police, the two of them manufactured 250 dynamite bombs 
in Madrid, and they are said to have had [carried?] ^500,000 for the 
terrorist can^jaign in that country; one of their accoii5)lices died when 
one of the bombs went off, and Antonio Abac \i&a sentenced to death and 
executed, while Martinez Donoso escaped from Spain in a motor launch. 



HjIA ALMgLPA. Cashier for the "Cdria" firm on Calle Reina in Havana; 

active Communist making propaganda for [Soviet] 
Russia, and leader of a Red cell in that business [establishment]. 



598 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

ROBERTO RMAU IIANDW . — Secretary of the "Juventud Deportiva" [Athletic 

Youth] of the FNTA (National Confederation of 
Sugar Workers) in which he has a strong Comunist center j runs over 
to the Matanzas sugar [worker] unions to instruct the leaders of the 
organization to file petitions in favor of the Connnunist Government 
of Fidel Castro J is a terrible enemy of the North Americans, 



DIOSDADO DEL POZO.— Was [a member of the] "Authentic" [Party] , but, 

when Castro took over, stated that he was a Comnninist 
and anti-jlmerican, to such an extent that he was always found in the 
same place with Dr. Juan Marinello to give talks in the interest of 
Communism, and never tiring of praising the [Soviet] Russian-Cuban 
treaty. 



BAUDILLO G ASTi^J.Am.S.— A lawyer, Comniunist, and highly gifted nan; 

recently appointed by Fidel as Chief of the 
Tourist Department, from which post he worked actively in favor of 
the Communist I^ty, fighting foreign tourism [tourist travel abroad] 
and explaining the need for encouraging national tourism [tourist 
travel at home] to admire the beauties of Cuba and to save the money 
formerly spent in the United States. 



COMAIUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 599 

EIDHi DOMMH^H B£WlTBZ .--Is deputy aide of "Che" Guevara and makes 

no bones about giving vent to his pro-Communist 
syn^jathies; had received training in Marxist tactics. 



DAVID SALVADOR . — On the occasion of his appointment as Secretary 

General of the Cuban Confederation of Workers, he 
told newsmen at a press conference that he had been a Communist as a 
young man, but that he was not now. However, according to well inform- 
ed sources, he still is, and he only associates with Communist leaders 
such as L^zaro PeSa . and others. In addition, all his activities 
among the workers are geared to that end. He recently asked Fidel 
Castro for a vote of confidence — [a choice] between him and the 
Minister of Labor, Augusto Martinez Sanchez — and Castro decided in 
favor of Martinez Sdnchez, because of which he resigned from the CTC 
office; and, although his successor has not yet been officially designat- 
ed, Salvador is said to have gone back to his old office in the Sugar 
[Workers] Union in the Central Stewart, He also was a candidate for 
Councilman [or Municipal, or Provincial, Legal Advisor] in the Province 
of Camaguey for the Communist Rarty, 



43354 O— 60— 8a 6 



600 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

ARNALDO EIVBRA.- - Meanber of the Revolutionary Tribunale of La CabalSa 
where he distinguished himself for his ferocity and 
bloodthirsty instincts; an old soldier of the Cabana Fortress, and 
when it was discovered that he was conspiring against the Batista 
government, he was discharged and he escaped to the Sierra Maestra 
to join up with Fidel Castro who made him a lieutenant in the Rebel 
Armyj boasts of his Communist status. 



ODON ALVAREZ DE LA CAMPA.— At present, worker [labor] leader and well 

known terrorist, having lost both hands in 
the explosion of a bomb which he was manufacturing; a man of evil 
instincts, giving vent to his pro-Communist feelings and his hatred of 
the North Americans; reoentlj^ embarked for a trip to Caracas, together 
with David Salvador, then going on to Paris for delivery there of a 
considerable sum of money, found to amoimt to over $100,000 (dollars), 
for the families of the crew members of the steamer "LA COUBRE", lAiich 
[provision] was not made, however, for the families of the Cubans vtxo 
had been victimized in that explosion; from Paris, Alvdrez de la Canpa 
traveled on to Moscow to undergo surgery on his hands. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 601 
JOSE MARIA DE LA AGUIL IRA .— Secretary General of the "Federaclon 

Bancaria" [Federation of Baxvlc Qi^jloyees] , 
who is primarily to be blamed for freezing the bank accounts and 
looting the safety deposit boxes in the banks; has very definitely 
CofflDiunist ideas; has always expressed himself against the North 
Americans; considered as the man responsible for the ruin of the banks 
in Cuba, for that reason greatly affecting the American bajiks establish- 
ed there. 



ELBCTO PfljROSA. — Syuqjathizer with the Communist Party and engagea in 

an anti-American can^aign; at present holding the 
office of Property [or Land] Recorder for which he was appointed by 
his old friend Alfredo Yabur, today Minister of Justice, to furnish 
facts ana figures concerning properties for purposes of confiscation 
by the Department of Property Restitution and the INRA [Land Reform 
Agency] , 



DR. SINESTO VSIA .— Director of the newspaper La Calle . and friend of 

Luis Orlando Rodriguez; with supposedly orthodox 
ideas, but, after his appointment to La Calle . declared himself to be 
a rabid Co mmuni st, waging a terrible can?>aign against the United States. 



602 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

GRfljQRlO ORTgiA . — Newspaperman, Corannmist, and presently holding the 

post of .issistant Llrector of the newspaper La Calle ; 
expresses himself against the North Americans, 



KOGHjIO LUIS BRAVSr. — Chief of Information of the newspaper La Calle. 

with well defined Communist ideas; is the person 
who has on band [and gives out ] all information [news and reports] 
against the North Americans and in praise of the Communist regime of 
Castro, 



GUILLIiliMO aAHTlESTIiEAN . — Newspaperman; for two days acted as Conptroller 

in the case of the newspaper T.1 Mundo when 
Floel Castro ordered the expropriation of all of Mr, Amadeo Barletta's 
holdings; is Communist and anti-American; at present is Administrator 
of the newspaper La Calle . 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 603 

LEVI MARREEO. — Newspaperman working on El CrlBol and El Pals ; had 

always distinguished himself for his extreme Leftist 
Ideas, but until now had not manifested himself as Communist, for fear 
of pressure by the Batista Qovernment. Fidel Castro appointed him 
Ambassador [at- large] , to travel throughout [Latin?] America, together 
with Carlos Lechuga . and to invite all countries to the "Conference 
of Underdeveloped Nations" which he has planned to hold in Havana this 
year, to afford him a starting-point for a continued [sustained] attack 
against North American iii5)grialian; has just been appointed Director 
of the newspaper ELJJundo, which is government-controlled j is well 
read and considered a man of many talents. 



PaJRO MIRET .— Ma.ior in the Rebel Arny, and at present, Minister of 

Agriculture; was in the ^erra Maestra with Fidel 
Castro, and has always manifested his Ccanmunist and anti-American ideas. 



604 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

SBGUNDO CAZAUS . — Has Ctomraunist ideas; is Chief Editor of the news- 
paper La Calle . of which Mr, Manuel BraSa, of 
the Autentica Party, has recently been appointed director, Cazalis 
was recently sent to Venezuela to report on the revolution against 
Romulo Betancourt; is said to have Venezuelan nationality. 



ROLANDO DIAZ ASIARAJLN .--Lt. Commander j was a Lieutenant in the Navy 

under the Batista Administration and was 
discharged because of conspiracy ["plotting against the Government"], 
but Fidel Castro has now made him a Captain [de Corbetal j was first 
nominated Minister of Restitution of Property, replacing Dr. Faustino 
Perez, and, when that Ministry was abolished, was appointed Minister 
•of Finance, replacing Rufo Lopez Fresquetj the Restitution of Property 
has now become a department [function] of the Ministry of Finance; he 
and mar^r [ other] persons were enraged when they, though having no 
connection with the Batista dictatorship, were stripped of their 
properties; is a Communist and intimate friend of "Che" Guevara 
who had recommended htm for the post. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 605 

SANTIAGO mAYDE, — Is a Comnninlst; Assistant Director of the "Rebel 

Radio" Statlonj the editorials [commentaries] 
broadcast over that station every day bitterly attack the U.S. Govern- 
ment « 



RME RODRIGUEZ CRUZ .— -Itoior in the Rebel i\riiiy; Chief of the Military 

Area of the Isle of Pines, replacing Geraxdo 
Noguera Martinez who had been in command previously; has Coiraunist 
ideas and disseminates them among urban and rural workers. 



ROSA, RAVHjO . — A lawyer and leading member [member of the leadership] 

of UNRA (Unl6n Nacional de Abogados Revolucionarios) 
[National Union of Revolutionary Jurists] , an organization of pro- 
Communist lawyers who have never made any bones about expressing 
those ideas, pronouncing themselves in that sense on the Boards of 
the College of Jurists [Bar Association] of Havana; Is considered a 
woman of action; dangerous as regards sabotage activities; was 
s^jpointed try F5.del Castro "Abogado de Oficio de la Audiencia de la 
Habana" (Official Attorney [Public Defender or Prosecutor] on the 
Court of Havana) , 



606 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

aflilQUE QLTUaCY. — Present Minister of Communications; has definitely 

Comniuiiist ideas, as do his wife and other members 
of his family; he, as well as his w5.fe, had pursued studies in Prague 
[University of Po] , together \d.th Raul Castro, hence his intimate 
contact wi.th the [present] regime; they have a seven-year-old son 
who is a member of the youth militias. 



DR. RSillK) BOTl . — ^Minister of tlrie Economy of the [Castro] regime 

by which he is held in great esteem; has always 
been considered a militant Communist and enemy of the North Americans, 
in spite of the fact that he had accompanied Fidel Castro^ as his 
personal advisor, on his trip to the United States in 1959 j is said 
to be one of the [sponsors of the] government's economic policy, 
and at first was said to have been the most highly placed representative 
of the Communist Party in President Urrut5.a's Cab5.net, 

ALIYISX) RAMCAJTO . — Comraunist leader of the gastronomic [restaurant] 
workers, of which organization he irfas appointed 
Secretary Generalj as a favor to him, and to benefit the workers in that 
sector, he succeeded in having the Government authorize [legalize] 
gambling in the big casinos and first-class hotels, in order to pre- 
vent their being closed because of the absence of toiirists. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 607 

PRANCISCO J:^EWALV£R .— Conmmnlst; President of the Party Youth [Communist 

Youth] in Havana, and one of the organizers of 
the Fourth Congress of the Gonraunist Youth under the slogan: "Father- 
land or Deathj against Foreign Aggression] ", 



CEaAR ESCALANTE.— Active Connnunist, as are his brother Anibal and 

his entire familyj Secretary General of the Municipal 
Conmittee of the Communist Party in Havana, and Party [political] 
action raan- 



MAKTA HIAYDE.— Prides herself on the title "doctor" [Ph.D.]; affiliated 

vrf.th the Comnninist Party and president of the "Movement 
for the Peoples' Peace and Sovereignty"; collaborates on the news- 
paper Hoy , in writing for which she gives vent to her hatred of the 
USA and praise of [Soviet] Russia, 



608 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

SERGIO AGUlRRE. — Active Comnunist; works as editor on the newspaper 

Hoy, official organ of the [Conmunlst] Partyj 
is considered reliable for secret missions. 



JUSTINA ALVAREZ . — Newspaperwoman j an editor of the newspaper Hoy ; active 

Communietj in charge of the "De la Mujer" section 
[Women's Pa^e] , and, in addition, gives interviews in which she has 
been displaying glimpses of her hostility toward the Americans and of 
her [pro] Red sentiments. 



CARLOS FHINANDEZ R. — Newspaperman: editor of the "Slndicales" section 

[Labor Union Page] of the newspaper Hoy ; old 
Peorty militant, and. In consequence, an enemy of the North Americans; 
has told other Comnunist friends of his that the orders of the Soviet 
Union to be complied with In all countries of the world, especially 
in Latin America, aret "A sustained campaign of abuse and attack 
against the government and press of the United States, as a basis 
for [the ass\nnption of] control by Russia over the countries of 
Hispano-America" . 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 609 

R03EKT0 GUTIHIREZ . — A Connnunist working on the newspaper Hoy ; is 

considered reliable for certain missions. 



RAUL VALDES VIVD . — Assistant Director of the newspaper Hoy , and 

extraorainarily active Comraunist, since he has 
always distinguished himself in the dissemination of Red ideas. 



CiRLOS GARCIA SANTOS . — Communist and member of the Board of Directors 

of Hoy . 



JACINTO DEL PSSO .— Militant Communist for many years, and '..-cridng 

on the newspaper Hoy , in the editorial department 
as well as in the printing shops; is considered a man of many talents. 



ARMANDO LHJN ACQ ST A.— Is known for his Consminist ideas; now Chief 

of the Militias of "Rebel Radio" where Vilma 
Espln herself warmly praises his loyalty to the cause. 



610 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

DR. JOSE M. FIRUZ LAMY^ — Lawyer; member of the Conraunlst Party; is 

reported to be advisor to the leaders of 
the organization on luportant matters on which he is consulted; is 
president of the Communist Jurists' [association] UNRA ("Union 
Nacional de Abogados Revolucionarios") [National Union of Revolutionary 
Jurists] ; has declared that he is a Communist at the meetings of the 
College of Jurists [Bar Association] of Havana; an orator, frequently 
speaking at Party affairs; an Intelligent and dangerous man, 

FELIPE GUgiRA MATOS . — Major in the Rebel Army and at present Director 

of Athletics; has always sustained Conmmnlst 
ideas; joined up with Fidel Castro in the Sierra Maestra, together 
with his two brothers who died in the fight against the Batista goverur- 
ment; now organizing the youth sports clubs, but for the purpose of 
training the youngsters in Marxist practices; makes frequent trips 
abroad, on a diplomatic passport since he cannot get visas because 
he is very [too] well known as a Communist, 

gjQJA GIL. - —Member of the "Casa de la Cultura" [House of Culture] and 

active Communist; recently made a trip to Mexico to im- 
plement a mission with which she had been entrusted; is a trusted Party 
member and ali,Bys expresses herself against the North Americans, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 611 
RAUL CEPERO BONILLA. -Minister of Conmerce; known for years to have 

sustained Coinraunist icieas; incurred the hatred 
of the merchants emd laboratory ovmers because of the drastic discounts 
he placed on comestibles and medicines, cuttine the price of 
many of than to below cost and thus causing the merchants to lose money; 
spokeanan for the government on the country' s sugar policy; has just 
returned from a trip to London to sirrange for an increase in the 
[Cuban sugar] quota on the world market, going from there to Japan to 
put the finishing touches on a trade agreanent; because of publication 
in the Diario de la Marina of an article critical of the erroneous 
sugar policy of the government Mr, Cepero wrote a scathing reply brano- 
5jig the paper as a liar, which has resulted in a strong feeling that 
the newspaper may be 5.n for trouble any time after May 1; was economic 
editor of the newspaper Frensa Libre . 



JUAN VALDES ORAVALOSA .— A lawyer, serving on the [legal staff of the] 

Land Reform Institute; a convinced Communist; 
recently made a trip to Mexico establishing contact with the Communists 
in that Republic, 

T 

The paper was closed by the Castro administration about June 1, I960. 



612 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

ARMANDO liAIlT DAVALOS.— A lawyer, and now says he is not a Communistj 

participated in the meeting w^.th the [Soviet] 
Russian Vice Premier^ Mikoyan^ to make a trade agreement between Cuba 
and the Soviet Union; i.ntimate friend of Fidel Castro, v*io appointea 
him Minister of Education; has clmnged the educational programs and 
interfered in private education; engaged in drafting textbooks convey- 
ing Communist messages directed against North America, as in the case of 
the Cuban geography [textbook] of Capt, Antonio Nunez Jimenez; is married 
to Haydee Santamaria, who also sustains Communist ideas, although they 
originated in the "26th of July Movement",; she is "Coordinator of the 
Ministry of EJducation", but actually in charge of that State agency, 
because of her husband's overly weak character [lack of drive] j Mrs. 
Santamaria [sic~"Mrs. Hart"] has been accused of having appropriated 
the last collection for and [proceeds from the] sale of bonds, which 
had taken place, on behalf of Fidel Castro's revolution, which sum is 
said to amount to $300,000 and which has not been accounted for. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 613 

^OSE ANTONIO RAEASSA.— Lieutenant of the kcmy; at the time of Batista 

vBs taken into custody for having killed a 
soldier in the Jtianelo District} is a wholehearted Communist and makes 
frequent trips to Mexico and Central Mexico [sicj , always via Ittanri. in 
order to carry out secret missions that are entrusted to himj is a dangeroiis 
man and must be watched because he is believed to have contacts in the 
United States. 



VICTOR CARIOaO.— A Coraraunist, trained in Moscow; is reported to belong 

to the MVD, but is active in Cuba, entertaining contacts 
w1.th the present heads of the Police Corps and the nrmy, especially 
with Raul Castro, 



BglNABE ORLAZ .— A physician, director of the Mazorra Hospital; sustains 

Communist ideas; was in the Sierra Maestra with pM.del 
Castro and is a trusted member of the farty. 



Possibly Central America. 



614 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

OR EST US VARELA . — Captain in the Rebel Arrt^; commentator for "Radio 

Mabl", although the articles [scripts] are allegedly 
not written by him but by Carlos Rafael Rodriguez and some of the 
editors of the newspaper Revolucion ; uses the most abusive and coarse 
language possible in his references to the North Americans; although 
denying his affiliation, he has actually been a Communist for years 
and has always carried on propaganda activities on behaK of 
Red ideas; is disliked for the language he uses oven 
to those same newspapermen [\^o are said to write his scripts] , 



PELBCaaiH TORRAS. — Old militant of the Communist ifirty and considered 
a skillful indoctrinator of the new crop of Party 
members; writes articles in Ho^; on various subjects, and is thought 
of as an intelligent man and excellent propagandist, 

OMAR FliRNANDEZ . — Captain in the Rebel Army; at the present time. 

Administrator of Customs of [the Port of] Havana, 
inviting to that place [to his office] notorious domestic and foreign 
Communists to present lectures to than on Marxist topics; t^s in the 
Sierra Maestra with Hdel Castro, and has always been conspicuous 
for his Communist ideas. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 615 

JUAN MIDIHA VSaA. — Activist in the Comniimist Party; carries on intensive 

propaganda activities against North American 
proaucts to the extent of calH.ng attention to those who cirink American 
drinks and [smoke] American cigarettes in the bai-s and taverns [of 
Cuba] . 

JUAN NIURY. — University student; although he has no record of previous 

Communist activities,, declared himself as sustaining 
Communist ideas after Fidel Castro's seizure of power; at the present 
time serves as "Interventor" [Comptroller] of the Allied Omnibus 
Cooperative whose nationalization is now being studied, ^n conjunction 
with several Communist leaders who are ar5)loyed by that transit 
coii5)any, which has caused extraordinary alarm among the small stock- 
holders by whom the coii5)any had been foundea, 

MARIO GIL GONZilLEZ^ — Captain in the Rebel Army; now appointed "Inter- 
ventor" [ Coup tro Her] of the Phosphor [Process- 
ing] Plants which make up the Phosphor Trust established by Messrs, 
Casas and Lopez VJLlaboy under the Batista Administration; is well 
known for sustaining Communist ideas, and for that reason, to be sure, 
was given the job, the intervention falling in with the plans of Castro 
and "Che" Guevara to nationalize all industries, businesses, and public 

utilities, thus elim-inating private enterprise which is regarded by than 
as the basis of the capital'' st system and in conflict with the Socialist 

or Commun-ist order that they want to inpose on the people of Cuba, 

JORGE GUBiajT^O. — Announcer for Ltation Cl-IQ; at the same time puts on 

plays and acts as narrator; has a contract w5-th "Casa 
Crusellas"; has firmly l-nplanted Communist ideas; after Castro seized 
the power became an even more avid Communist, making special efforts 
to recite poems that contain messages directed against Yankee Inper-'al- 
5 sm with socio-political designs in the Marxist propaganda vein, 

43354 O— 60— 8a 7 



616 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

lltiT OF COMMUNISTS WHO WERE INSTRIMEMTAL IN THE 
ASSASSINATION OF CAPTMN JOSE CASTAHO QUEVaX), 
ONE OF THE BEST iNVESTlQATORS OF COMMUNIST 
ACTIVITIES ON THE CONTINENT 

ANGZL ?X) SALES 
RAUL FAJARtO ESCALONA 
FlDJL iX)MH^]ICH BMHEZ 
AITTONiO NUUEZ JIM5KEZ 
CASTO [sic] PRIETO DOMBtlBCH 
EMiLlO BailTEZ 
FRANCISCO PBflALVHl 
MIGUEL SAMPJSDRO 
miLlO VALDES BETANCOURT 
Hits ESPINO PiNELLA 
dLDO PSIEZ DIAZ 
ffilBSOPA) ORTEGA 
LIJLS MARTINEZ PAULA 
CARLOS PJIFAEL EODRlGUES 
ANlBAL BSCALANTE 
ALldA ACaiflMONTE MARREBO 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 617 

COURT [PAMIL] BY VCUCH HE WAS TTJ-H) 

ALVAi^ lUVrPD ALiDUao, President; Members of the Bench: EDUAETO 
QUINTAI^A: Pi'osecutor: JOSE A. SUAHSZ DE LA FUfME: Defender: Dr. 
Anibal Pachco [sic]* 

[MIKBHIS OF THE] COURT OF APPEAL 

VICTOR BORTON MAGHALO, President; Men±)ers of the Bench: OSCAR 
ALVARADO, ARl-IANDO CHOY, iLADiO KACHiN, ORLAI©0 BORRBGO; PELAYD 
FHlKANDiZ RUBiO acting as Prosecutor. 



Possibly Pacheco. 



618 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

CQMMuiaar. pro-communist. Airo antx-amijiixcm NSJa'APSRMaj 

VICJ5WTE BAEZ, Administrator of the newspaper P.evolucion . COMMUNIST 
XTHISL LEDN, Art Director, " " " 

GUILLIRMO CABR2U INFANTE, magazine section of " " 

JOSE LORENZO, "EL JACOBINO", " " 

ENRIQUE DE LA OSA, Cuba Section, Bohania m agazljie. ANTI-AMERXCAN 

ANTONlO DE LA OSA " " " " 

JORGE QUl-NTANA, ex-Dean of the College of Journalists, " 

EUDALDO GOTlERREZ PAULA, ex-Dean " " " 

MARIO GARdA DEL CUETO, Press Bureau of MTA y Educacion. COMMUNIST 
LlSANDRO OTHIO, COMMUNIST 

LUXS CONTE AGUERO, Commentator, "iladio Progreso", ANTI-MHUCAN 
MAxUO KUCHlLAI^, newspaper La Calle . AITTi-AMHUCAN and CCMMUNiST 
HjUARDO HHJTOR iiLONSO, newspaper piario Nacipnal . PRO-COMMUNIST 
CiiRLQS CASTAHaUA, Television panelist, PRO-CCWMUNIST 
TOMAS RBGALADO, President of the Association of [Newspaper] Reporters, 

PRO-COMMUNlSr 
ROLANDO Ci\BR3lA, Bohemia magazine, PRD-COMMUNI ST and ANTI- AMERICAN 
THE lANiZ PUJOL BtlOTHEES (3) Bohemia . Prensa Libre , and 

[Station] CMQ, PRO-COl'lMUNlSrS 
REl-NALDO PIJIALVER MORRAL, Chief, Prensa Policia Judicial,* COMMUNIST 

TONIA SASTRE, COMMUNIST and ANTl-AMffilCAN 
ERNESriNA OTERO, COMMUNIST and ANTl-AMERlCAN 



* Something like Police Gazette. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 619 

FRANCISCO PBDHOaD, now without [a] newspaper [connection]; is 

PRO-CCMMUNIST and CONFIDANT. 

ERANblSCA CAD, obtained fellowship [or government subsidy for travel 
to ] Spain; is AtlTl-AMERXCAN. 



620 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Ca«!lMUNlST PUBLICATIONS 

At the present time, as a consequence of the increase ''.n Conmuniam 
in Cuba, numerous nevfspapers and magazines have resumed publication 
under the control of the Communist Party. In their pages a:i Intensive 
caj35)aign against the United States of America is being carried on, in 
accord with the instructions received from the Soviet Union, for the 
purpose of making trouble for North America in [its relations vrf.tQ the 
other Lat5.n American countries. 

It is alleged by persons loyal to the daaocratic [cause] that the 
building situated at [Calles] and 25, in Havana's Vedado, which houses 
the heaaquarters of the Radio Station "Rebel Radio", has an apartment 
on the top floor to which access is had only by VILMA BSPiN and by 
an individual of apparently Russian or German nationality [and which is 
being used] for communication with Moscow and the countries behind the 
Iron Curtain effected by short-wave amateur radio operators ["hams"] and 
via a special code. Many news items from the Soviet Union and Red China 
are received by this means of communication for dissemination in Cuba, 
Among the publ5.cations whose circulation has been resumed are the 
following: 

Newspapers ; Hoy , official organ of the Communist Party; 

" Revolucion . official organ of the "26th of July 

Movement"; 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 621 

IJevspapers ; La Calle . controlled by Communists and antl.- Americans; 
" Si Miindo . at present directed by LEVI MARRHRO; 

Magazines ; Mella ; 

" INRA, official organ of the Land Reform [Institute] ; 

" Funaamentos; 

" Carta Semanal ; 

" La Chispa , published by the BacairJi [Company] 

workers; 
" Nuestros Tiempos . directed by the Communist Party; 

" Humanismo . whose dr-culation is prohibited in Costa 

Rica, 
Furthermore, pro-Coraraunist publications vra.ging a fierce anti- 
North American campaign are the following: El Combat e . directed by 
Guillermo Jimenez, who made a trip to [countries] behind the Iron 
Curtain acconpanieo by the student leader Faure Chaumont and the so- 
called Capt. "Tony" Castell, In the printshops of Hoy and Arrcw Press , 
locateo at 13 Luyano, Communist propaganda pan^jhlets are being printed 
which are shipped to Central and South America, for distribution by 
Communist agents in the Lat^ja American nations. 



622 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

RADIO STATIONS 

The Communist Party and the government of Fidel Castro have 
at their disposal the following radio stations from which they carry 
on an intensive campaign against anyone opposing International 
Communism and Premier Castro' s government: 

"Radio Rebelde", vrf-th a chain of 11 broadcasting stations 
on the Island; 

"Radio Mambi"; 

"Union Radio"; 

"Radio Aeropuerto Internacional"; 

"Radio Voz"; 

"Radio Salas"; 

"Radio Cadena Habana", 

They also have two TV channels in connection wi.th the^x pro- 
paganda activities. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 623 

iNTlillNATiONAL 001^1 33 TJ-ONii 

After Fidel Castxo seizeu the power in Cuba, the Coraraun^st Party, 
•'.n all-lance with the "26th of July Movement" , established from the 
Sierra Maestra numerous International connections 
to aefend the Goimiiunlst-type government In^iosed by terror on the 
people of Cuba, Also put Into effect was a [Soviet] Russ-'.an-Cuban 
pact, as a challenge to the Government 

of the United States of America, IVom this treaty the Soviet Union 
emerged as tiie most- favored country because, since •'t d''d not have 
to pay Its sugar purchases with dollars. It [the Soviet Un^on] acquired 
them [the sugar] at a much lower price, below that established In the 
London Market and, even lower than the price subsidy paid by the United 
Sliates on that same product. However, by way of proof of further 
attacks against North America, the Communist Government of Cuba stopped 
its regular purchases of goods manufactured In the USA [the-'r value 
amoimtlng] to hundreds of millions of dollars, and exported [s''cj 
them [those goods] from [Soviet] Russia, fully aware of 
their inferior quality and of the lack of the indispensable spare parts. 

Erom then on, hundreds of Russians, Chinese, and Germans started 
to pour Into Havana, as easily verified In the streets of Havana, 
L''kewlse, the so-called Junta Revoluclonarla del Carl be" [Caribbean 



624 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Revolutionary Boai'd]^ wWch liad been set up purposely 
for fomenting agitation l.n the area of the Caribbean and in Central 
and South America, was strengthened, as evidenced by the expeditions 
which, departing from Cuba, had invaded Panama, the Dominican Republic, 
Haiti, and Nicaragua, and which are no focusing their abusive attacks, 
precisely as they are doing in the case of North America, on Guatemala, 
Honduras, and Nicaragua j and youth movements of strongly Communist 
stripe are being promoted in Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. 

For these ptirposes, the Cuban Communists have established Contact 
Cells with Communist leaders in countries of Latin Amer"'ca, namely: 
Raul Koa, Ernesto Guevara, Nicolas Guillen, Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, 
Jose SLias Entralgo, Juan Marinello, Carlos I'Vanqui, Violeta Casals, 
and Tete Casuso, vAio maintain close contacts with foreigners advocating 
the same ideology, such as Hector Mujica and Ililario Cardoso, of 
Venezuela; Rodolfo Ghioldi, of Argentina; Salvador Allende, of Chile; 
Lombarao Toledano, of Mexico; Ldzaro C^denas, of llexico; Ernesto 

Guerrero, of San oalvador; Li Min, of Red China; Rail Ocegueda, of 

/ 

Guatemala; Vicente oaenz, of Costa R^ca; anu Guillermo Torriello, 

of Guatemala, 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 625 

lliJJ^Y VJILL CONTINUE TO BE CQMMUHX^TS 

Notwithstanding the muit:'.ple evidence at hand showing that Fidel 
Castro ano h^ s collaborators are Connmin'' sts In thought and deed, they 
have continued their cynical lies, ^n accord vr'th Conmunlst tactics. 
But the methods that were put 5nto practice by the reg^jne established 
In Cuba clearly demonstrate the contrary. I.e., the new educational 
methods. Identical w^.th those of [Soviet] Russia; the soldier choral 
groups, copied from Moscow; the militia organizations of students 
and urban and rural workers; the agricultural cooperatives, which ijave 
taken the place of [sicj the collective farms of 
the Soviet Union; the abolition of private enterprise, according to 
recent statements made by Ernesto Guevara before the television cameras; 
State control of the purchase of all types of goods in foreign countries; 
or, the only buyer being the ^tate, and aU commercial and industrial 
activities and all public utilities being submitted to State surveill- 
ance and press, radio, and television to the control of the government 
of F^-del Cccstro, 



Perhaps; "were copied from". 



I 



626 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

MARjaST iNDOCTRillAT-'-OW GCHOOLS 

The first Marxist Indocti-ination School was establ''-shea early 
in January 1959, inside the "Fortaleza de la Cabana", precisely upon 
the orders of "Che" Guevara. It was called "Charles ChapUn" [School] 
and its director was the poet and Coinniun''st leader Nicolis Gu"'llen, 

A few days later another Ifarxist School v/as established at C^'udad 
Libertad (formerly'- Ciuoad Militar) , Th5& School operates ■'n the part 
[ of the country] where the k^x Force ^s stat-'oned, and there the 
soldiers are indoctrinated by Russian technicians [propaganda experts] 
serving in the "Aviation Corps", 

Another Communist School is located ■'n the Liiyano distr'ct, which 
bears the name of "Marcelo Salado", a well known terrorist put to 
death by the Bat'^sta police. 

In the Los pinos region, the "Bids Roca" School, wMch had opei'ated 
there several years ago and vias named in honor of the Secretary General 
of the Communist Party who haa recently embarked for Red Ch^na and 
carried instructions to go on from there to the Soviet UnTon, has re- 
opened its Qoors, 

Still another Marxist School is ■'n existence in Santiago de Cuba, 
and nianerous urban anc rural workers ai-e ^ndoctr^'nated in that instHu- 
tion. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 627 

rPPJDPAGAMUAl ACnVIlIE^a Itl TII^ MOVICS AMD TKZ THZAIRJ 

The Communist regime of Cuba has been acting with the greatest 
despatch with a view to becoming consolidated through skillful pro- 
paganda activities by means of the movies, television, and the theatre. 

These activities are controlled by Dr. Alfredo Guevara, i^rofessor 
at the University of Havana, Director of the Movie [industry] , and a 
long-standing Communist militant, as well as a stubborn enemy of the 
North Americans, 

Dr. Alfredo Guevara coincides with [the opinion expressed by] 
Lr. Juan Marinello, President [Chairman] of the Communist Party, v^io 
recently stated: ,,,. "all those vriao do not fly tlie colors [rally 
around the banner] of Communism will be qualified as counter-revolution- 
ists". This has provoked vigorous protests on the part of the Catholic 
organizations which, however, notwithstanding their activities, had 
been accused by the racio broadcasting stations controlleu by Fidel 
Castro's regime of being counter-revolutionists ana enemies of the 
government. 

In his propaganda activities Lr, Guevara is being assisted by the 
well known Communist artist "paco" Alfonso and [is receiving] the 
cooperation of a group of artists of both sexes, qualified as Communists, 
some of whom are figuring in this report. 



628 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

COMMUMIST AND PRO-COI'IMUHIST RADIO AND lIXEyialOII MmomiGi£ltS 

"RiiDIO REBELDS" [Rebel Radio]— Director: RAUL QUINTAIIA; Aoministrator: 
ALEJAHDl'K) BLANC50; Annovincers: Rafael Martinez Silva, Jose Ibarguren, 
and Eddy Martin, the latter being the one vrtio uses the most abusive 
language in referring to the i-!resident of the Unitea States ana other 
officers of his Administration, 

"R.IDIO VDZ "— Announcers; ELIO OLIVA, JUAIJ DOMINGUEZ, KUl^K GUEVARi'., 
ORLAl^DO VALLE, "El Caribe", and MARIO VIERA indicated as an intransig- 
ent Communist who hates the North Americans to death, 

"RADIO MAMDI "— Director; SOCRaTES iixiTEGA: Editorialists [commentators]: 
ORLSTES VARELA anc iiRl-lal^OXl NUTTEZ IIERI'IAIIDEZ , both Communists. Announcers: 
ANSEIMO LLITERAS [sic]* and RENE PEREZ. 

"UNION lUDIO"— "Tony" Fernandez, Communist militant, who hates North 
America, as manifested in every editorial read by him over the micro- 
phones of that radio station. 



Possibly "Iliteras", 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 629 

LATIN j\I-EPJCAI< CXDM-lUIHa^D t-ULlIIJG IN IlLD CIgNA 

At tlie invitation of llao Ise-tung, a group of Latin American Coamunist 
leaders came togetiier to make in^jortant uecisions on what new tactics 
shouic be pursueu against North iLmerican Imperialism and how to seize 
the governments of the democratic nations of the »iestern Hemisphere 
and place [press] them into the wioviet orbit, as had been done in the 
case of the ilepublic of Cuba, 

Those meeting there were: Luis Carvaldn, iiecretary General of 
the Chilean Communist Party; Pon^eyo Marques, Pedro Ortega, and Alonso 
Ojeda, of the Venezuelan Communist -'arty; Gilberto Vieira and Joaquin 
Moreno, of Colombia; Itaul Acosta and Jorge del Prado, of Peru; Dlias 
Mufioz, of i^cuador; Ilumberto ilamirez Cardenas, of Bolivia; Felipe 
Bezrodnik, of Argentina; Wilfredo Vdzquez, v;ho prides himself on repre- 
senting tlie Cuban Communists of Las Villas Province, Also present 
were the representatives of Brazil, Paraguay, Costa P^ica, Panama, and 
Guatemala, although the names of the latter are not available. 

Information has just been received by cable that Bids Roca, 
Secretary General of the Cuban Communist Party visited lied China last 
month (April I960) and was granted an interview by President Mao 
Tse-tung, 



630 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

liEORGAMIZATIQN OF TIE A^aOGIATIOH "luiTINOiiMLllg CA Lllia " 

On the premises of the "America House" a group of Comraunists 
and pro-Connmmists met last month (February) for the piirpose of re- 
organizing the Association "Latinoamerica Libre" [Free Latin America] , 

Dr. l:}auardo Corona (OCMMUlttST) spoke about the record of the 
Association since the ciate on wliich it was outlawed until the present 
date of its reopening for business. Then the [Coinmunist] leader 
Faure Chaumont spoke, who stated the need for denouncing the enemies 
of the Cuban revolution, quite particularly Yankee Imperialism, which 
is creating a whole string of difficulties for the revolution and the 
regime headed by the leader, Jiael Castro, Chaumont further said that 
there were false democrats, such as Jose Figueres, of Costa Rica, and 
others, vriio were serving the interests of the U.ii. State Department 
and deploying servile and troublesome activities, 

Lir, Carlos M. Luis (Communist) proposed the issuance of a statement 
of Solidarity with Presiaont Osvaldo Dorticos' reply to the ilmerican 
Note, to be signed by all members of the Association "Free Latin America", 

Finally, the new Governing Board of the Association was named 
as follows: President, FAURE CHAll'IONTj and the other posts 
on the Board were assigned to the following individuals: 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 631 

OSCAR KRI^ANDEZ MH (Conmmnist) 

ODON ALVAFoSZ DE LA CAMPA (Connminist) 

JOai ANGSL BUSTiMENTE (Comnunist) 

MARTA FRAYDE (Comraunist) 

JOiiii; M. VALUES RODRIGUEZ ( Pro-Communist) 

EDUARDO PALACIO PLANAS (Communist) 

MAJOR HUffiERTO CASTELLO (Pro-Coramunist) 

MAJOR ALDEEl'O WRk (Pro-Coramunist) 

CARLOS FAXAS VAI^RINO (Communist) 

CARLOS OLIVARES (Communist) 

ADRIAN GARCIA HERNANDEZ (Comraunist) 

CaiEGORIO ORTEGA (Communist) 

CAPIiOb M. LUIS (Communist) 
MAPJA SIK)fnES (Communist) 

RAD'iUNDO GUERRA (Pro-Coramunist) 

RENE LEPESTRE (Comraunist) 

GELIA SANCHEZ AGRAMONTE (Communist) 

JORffi ALDEREGUIA (Comraunist) 

NICOLAS GUILLEN (Communist) 

EDITH GARCIA BUCHACA (Coifflmanist) 

RAMON DACAL (Conanunist) 



43354 O— 60— 8a 8 



632 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

TiAUL VilLDUS VIVO (Communist) 
MATaMO aDPJ MJu^IM (Pro-CommuniGt) 
iiNEIQillL COLLilDO (Communist) 
VIOLlsTA CAc>iiLij (Communist) . 

Following the election of the new Governing Board he stated, 
finally, that some of the purposes of the Association were: "to 
advocate direct and stable economic interclnnge 
among the Latin American countries, without prejudice to economic 
relations, which must be increased with all countries of the world; 
without heeding discriminations or blocs, inposed, on ideological 
pretexts, by the monopolists [who are] enemies of world peace"; 
"to promote continental and world peace based on respect of the principles 
of national sovereignty, equality, non-aggression, and non-intervention"; 
and "to carry on any activities contributing to the affirmation or 
vindication of the full national sovereignty of the countries of Latin 
America, so tliat these [nations] will attain their con^Dlete political 
as well as economic independence from the imperialist forces that are 
subjugating and exploiting them"; and "to promote [mutual] rapproche- 
ment, cooroination, understanding, and union among them". 

The above purposes transcribed by us in quotes are set out in 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 633 

Art. Ill of the Rules and Regulations of the reorganized Association 
"FiliJE LAHN AMlilLCA". 

The preceding statements show [prove] that Cuba has a totalitarian, 
definitely Comraunist-oriented regime, unoer the unipersonal rule of 
Fidel Castro, which gives vent to its hatred of the North Americans, 
as evidenced on the occasion of the May Day Parade, commemorating 
"Labor Lay" , on the Plaza Civica on the First of Hay, 

This is to state also that the extensive list of Communists points 
out those who are holding key ana responsible posts in the de facto 
government, whose case histories are in the possession of the FBI 
and the Central Intelligence Agency; and to mention, lastly, that 
everything tliat has been set forth is the absolute truth and the outcome 
of a patient investigation [v^ich was] carried on Lby me] during 
my stay in this city. 



Miami, May 2, 196U, , 

(signature typed) 

Aui'elio Silva 
Ex-First Lieutenant of the Investigation 
[Detective] Bureau of the (defunct) 
National Police of Cuba 



634 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Have you any information respecting the distribu- 
tion of Communist propaganda in Cuba? 

Mr. SiLVA. Well, in Cuba there has entered and is coming a great 
quantity of Communist propaganda. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any knowledge about propaganda paid 
for by the Communist Party in the United States for distribution 
in Cuba? 

Mr. SiLVA. I have no proof, but I suppose that the American Com- 
munist Party helps quite a lot the Communist Party in Cuba. 

Mr. SouR^vINE. We don't want supposition. 

Mr. SiLVA. Well, I already said that I have no proof. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you remember telling us about Camilo Cienfue- 
gos having been expelled from the United States for Communist 
activity ? 

Mr. SiLVA. Truly, Camilo Cienfuegos has been arrested twice in this 
country, if I am not mistaken, and the last time he w^as detained in 
the Central Park here for distributing Communist propaganda. 

Senator Dodd. -You mean Central Park in New York City? 

Mr. SiLVA. Yes, sir, of New York. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you have information respecting contacts be- 
tween Carlos Rafael Rodriguez and Nimez Jimenez on the one hand 
and American Communists on the other hand? 

Mr. SiLVA. Well, when I appeared before the executive session to 
testify, I warned you that at that time there appeared Nuiiez Jimenez 
giving Marxist conferences in St. Nicholas Arena of New York. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is that all ? 

Mr. SiLVA. That is what you asked me — that is what I will answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you told us all you know about contacts be- 
tAveen American Communists and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez and 
Nunez Jimenez? 

Mr. SiLVA. Well, of those contacts that they may have here, I don't 
know them. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I am talking about contacts in Cuba — when Amer- 
ican Communists come down there, do you have any knowledge of 
tlieir having contacted tliese individuals? 

Mr. SiLVA. Well, I don't have them. I am not in Cuba. I cannot 
know tliem. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. All right. We don't want you to testify to any- 
thing you don't know. 

Do you know Raul Sanjurho? 

Mr. SiLVA. He is not a Cuban. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You know him or you don't. 

Mr. SiLVA. Like there are so many names in my head, I have an 
idea, but I can't place him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. All right. 

I have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Dodd. We want to thank you for appearing here and giving 
us tliis infonnation. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Arsenio Gonzales y Gonzales. 

Senator Dodd. Raise your right liand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear tliat the testimony you give before this com- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Gonzales. I swear. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 635 

TESTIMONY OF DR. ARSENIO GONZAlES Y GONZALES 
(THROUGH AN INTERPRETER) 

Senator Dodd. Give iis your name and address, and take a seat. 

Mr. Gonzales. Arsenio Gonzales y Gonzales, 1402 Northwest Ninth 
Avenue, Miami. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were yon Snbsecretary of Labor, Snbsecretary of 
State, Snbsecretary of Finance, and Subsecretai-y of Education in 
Cuba? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. At various times? 

Mr. Gonzales. During different periods during the government of 
Batista. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you Minister of Transportation under 
Batista ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouEwiNE. Were you Minister of Labor under Batista ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are a lawyer? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sol'Rwine. You have practiced in Havana ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You were attorney for the Transportation L^ion ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you attorney for the Omnibus Workers 
Union ? 

Mr. Gonzales. No, sir. 

Mr. Soi'RwiNE. You were not ? 

Mr. Gonzales. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You were attorney for the Confereration of Cuban 
Workers ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir, for the confederation. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you a supporter of Batista ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you support the revolution which overthrew 
Batista ? 

Mr. Gonzales. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Would you support the return of Batista ? 

Mr. Gonzales. No, sir. 

Senator Dodd. Why not ? You were in his cabinet, you were a sup- 
porter. What do you say is wrong with him now ? 

Mr. Gonzales. In the first place, because the consequences that the 
Cuban people are now suffering are due to mistakes that we have made 
in carrying out our own government, on one part. And I don't think 
that we should support a person who directed a government which 
committed so many mistakes that they are fundamentally against the 
country, with the consequences that we now contemplate. 

Senator Dodd. When did you discover the mistakes ? 

Mr. Gonzales. When did I discover these mistakes? That is the 
question, isn't it? 

Senator Dodd. I would like the answer. 

Mr. Gonzales. These mistakes, many of them, they were made in 
the proper process of carrying out our own government, the develop- 



636 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

ment of our own government. But in the measure that later on there 
were published development of facts that, due to my personal re- 
lations — and I make reference to myself only — in the internal order, 
administrative order of the government, where I was acting as an 
administrator, not in an executive capacity, unless when I acted as 
minister I tried to apply the law in all its aspects as it pertained to 
the administrative function. In other governmental aspects, they 
escape my functions, and at the same time to my possible determina- 
tion to the presentation that could apply a personal opinion. 

Now, I continued in the government until December 31, 1958, be- 
cause I understood — because the government should represent or 
would represent the contributive thinking, the thought of order, that 
went into or should have gone into the party to which I belonged, 
that was the party of unitary action, of which the fundamental motto 
was peace, order, and work, within a democratic regime under the 
constitution of 1940. 

Much later 

Senator Dodd. To cut this off short, I asked a very simple question : 
When did you discover that the practices and policies of the Batista 
government were mistakes — was it before you fled the country, or 
since then? When? 

Mr. Gonzales. Concretely I will answer — I have explained all this, 
thinking that you wanted an explanation. Much of this I have 
known after Batista fell. 

Senator Dodd, You didn't know it before ? 

Mr. Gonzales. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you remember testifying in executive session 
that existing conditions in Cuba constituted a threat to the internal 
security of the United States ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Explain that, please. 

Mr. Gonzales. I understand that the present situation in Cuba 
constitutes a danger to the stability of the democracy, and this dan- 
ger is directly directed against democracy because of the following 
reasons : 

The fundamental sentiment that has been developing in Cuba has 
been an anti-American feeling — or anti-imperialist, in another phrase, 
or expression. 

This sentiment I know because I participated as a director of the 
labor unions, and know there, because through my own experience, 
the activity of the Communist Party aspires to create this anti- 
American feeling within the working and popular classes. 

I testified in the executive hearing that during my recent visit to 
Uruguay, in various conversations which I had with laborers, workers 
of different sectors, and at the proper University of Uruguay, I 
found that Communist propaganda against the Amercian Govern- 
ment was so intense that some people manifested a sentiment which 
was more pro-Eussian than pro- American. 

This had been commented on by some of the Uruguayans, and I 
understood that that country could be moved into a movement against 
democracies, shrouding it in a sentiment pro-Russian and anti-Ameri- 
can. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 637 

I also pointed out the case of Argentina, where the Communist 
Party is using the party of Peron, like a labor organization, in favor 
of the Communist doctrine in that country. 

In other countries — I think I pointed out that this sentiment exists, 
but that this sentiment is not a spontaneous sentiment. It exists be- 
cause it rests on a Communist order that develops through all the 
parties in the Central American and South American countries, and 
the countries of the Caribbean, undermining the solidarity and Ameri- 
can friendship — like the first step, the first requirement down that 
road to again rupture what could be the support of the democracy 
in America, in favor of the Russian doctrine, the Communist doctrine, 
creating conditions in favor of the Socialist theories and against the 
democracy. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Let me ask you about a statement by the AFL-CIO 
in the United States. 

Mr. Gonzales. American Federation of Labor ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes. This organization's executive council has de- 
clared that the disruptive tactics of Fidel Castro's government in Cuba 
have all the earmarks of a well-planned strategy desigiied to make 
Cuba an advanced outpost of the Soviet Union's drive to infiltrate the 
new world. Do you agree with this ? 

Mr. Gonzales. I agree completely with that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. This AFL statement also contained this : 

The latest manifestations of the Castro regime have revealed unmistakable 
signs of a definite trend toward a totalitarian state. This is based upon the tech- 
nique of regimentation and militarization of the masses to a degree comparable to 
the practices prevailing under Fascist or Communist regimes. 

Do you agree with this ? 
Mr. Gonzales. Correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. As a former Secretary of Labor of Cuba do you 
agreee with this further statement of our AFL? 

The Cuban Confederation of Labor has become a mere appendage of the Gov- 
ernment under complete control of pro-Oommunist elements imposed from above. 
The right of collective bargaining has been abolished ; as in countries behind the 
Iron Curtain, workers cannot change jobs without government approval. 

Do you agree with this ? 

Mr. Gonzales. With the publication — what the publication sajs'iJ 
Yes, sir. Correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Seymour Rafael Blanco Alvarez ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Rafael Blanco Alvarez ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Seymour Rafael Blanco Alvarez. 

Mr. Gonzales. Blanco Alvarez? Yes. He is a Communist. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is he a labor leader ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. In Cuba? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine, Do you know Rafael Avila ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know he was a Communist? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. He is a Cuban labor leader ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. At the present time, he is a delegate to 
the discipline section of the truckers union. 



638 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you remember telling us Communists were using 
secondary forces in directing the workers' movement in Cuba? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you explain this please, briefly ? 

Mr. Gonzales. Yes, sir. The party, Communist Socialist, in Cuba, 
which has been established during the years and during the histoi7 of 
labor in Cuba — every time that the workers' progress has lifted a step, 
they have used new forms in the labor movement. Thus, sometimes 
it is quite difficult to establish the identity as to the specific person 
of his participation in the Communists. It is my opinion, at the pres- 
ent time — and during all the revolutionary period of Cuba, particu- 
larly during the last periods — the party used as a movement to divide, 
to use collaterally the party, but with the political direction of the 
party, the orthodox Cuban movement. 

This identity can be easily established if you take now the public 
announcements, doctrinals which appear daily in the press, of the men 
in the Government — and taking these men in his political analysis, you 
may find his origin in the use or in the movement of the Orthodox 
Party. Fundamentally, the party, the fraction of the Orthodox Party 
that took the road antirevolutionary Avhich left open this party when 
it abandoned the country to the Communist activities — those masses 
coming up from the Orthodox Party, or affiliates through which the 
Communist party, in my opinion, realized a divisional movement 
through which the movement of bringing up the orthodox movement, 
that took the name of 26th of July has been the base and the funda- 
mentals upon which the party has worked, bringing out of tliere the 
new form or the new leaders of the new workers movement — permitting 
to bring forth the most known Communists and putting in the first 
forms Communists which are not well known in the development of 
this new division of the 26th of July which is nothing more but a new 
variation of the Communist Party. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Thank you veiy much, sir. 

I have no further questions of this witness. 

Senator Dodd. That is all. Thank you. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have here a copy of an address 
given on May 1 by Allen W. Didles, Director of Central Intelligence, 
before the St. George Association of the New York Police Depart- 
ment. It is entitled "Public Order and the Preservation of Our 
Freedoms." 

I offer it for inclusion in the record of these hearings. 

Senator Dodd. It will be received and published in the record of 
this hearing. 

(The transcript of the above-described address was marked "Ex- 
hibit No. 13," and reads as follows :) 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 639 



EXHIBIT NO. 13 

ADDRESS BY THE HON. ALLEN W, DULLES 
DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE ON 
"PUBLIC ORDER AND THE PRESERVATION OF OUR FREEDOMS" 



I am deeply grateful for the award you have tendered me. As an 
old resident of this great and inspiring city, there is no group of men 
from whom I should have more preferred to receive such an honor. 

In accepting this award I wish to pay my tribute to you from the 
police force of New York for your contribution in maintaining order 
within the framework of protecting our freedoms. 

I fear that injustice is often done you by the misuse of the word 
"police". We too loosely talk of police states, of police methods, 
and the like. Here in this country we well know that the police are 
the protectors of our freedoms and of our liberties. When order and 
discipline are not maintained, it is we the people who cannot exercise 
our natural rights and carry on our appointed tasks. 

You, in turn, help to enforce the laws adopted by the representa- 
tives of the people to protect the people from the invasion of their 
rights. This is fundamental to our form of go/ernment. 



G40 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

If this country of ours does not set an exanriple to the world of 
maintaining order under law, what can we expect from other 
countries less well situated than we -- countries new to the task 
of making democracy work. 

We meet here today on May Ist, a day which has had particular 
significance in history. The idea for such a day of peaceful 
demonstration was initiated by Ainerican labor unions some 
seventy years ago. The purpose was to win an eight -hour day. 
Unfortunately, over the years. May Day has been nnore and nnore 
taken over by the Communists, and now we have our own separate 
Labor Day in September. 

Before this day is over we nnay hear from various parts of 
the world some strange and dangerous doctrines preached -- even 
from countries near to us. It is typically one of the techniques of 
the Communists to take over ideas which originated for the purpose 
of peaceful demonstration to protect the peoples' rights, and make 
them over into instruments for destroying those rights. 

The problem of maintaining order in the world, so necessary 
for the protection of the rights of the individual, has become 
vastly complicated over the last few decades by the emergence of 
Soviet Russia and Connmunist China as world powers dominating 
nearly a billion people. And at the same time we see emerging 
scores of new states untried in the ways of democracy. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 641 
The Sino-So/iet Bloc is dedicated to changing the face of the 
world and to replacing the democratic system of Uw by the 
dictator system of the proletariat. In the course of advancing this 
program, they have promoted -dolence and class struggle as one 
of their chosen instruments. 

Here in the United States we are more fortunate than most 
of the peoples of the world. Due to our tradition, the inherent 
strength of our institutions and the vigilance and temperance of 
our law enforcement, Communist penetration and Communist 
agitation has been rigorously restrained. 

Unfortunately, in many other countries of the world today 
this is not the case. 

It is the strategy of the Soviets and the Chinese Communists 
to concentrate first on the weak and then to encircle us, the strong, 
by penetrations in Asia, Africa, Latin America. Even in some 
countries in Europe, the Communist parties have considerable 
open strength, and a well-organized underground apparatus. 

If you have thought of me for your award, it may be because 
as head of the CIA, I have the duty to bring together all of the 
information on the Communist plot on a world-wjde basis, to expose 
It, and to furnish others with the means of exposing it, and to collect 
the evidence on which the policymakers in Government may frame an 
effective policy to combat international communism. 



642 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

As you know so well in order to deal with crime and the 
artisan of disorder, whether locally or in the international field, 
we must have intelligence on their plans and objective; on their 
leadership and their techniques; and so it is also with the 
Communist plot. 

The general Communist progrann has been well advertised 
to us all; their tactics are often disguised. 

It is the Communist view that history rolls inevitably toward 
the final victory of Communism. 

Khrushchev told us all about this during his recent visit 
to this country. In his address last September at the National 
Press Club, he explained the "We will bury you" theme. 

He said that by this he did not mean any physical burial of 
anyone at any time. It was merely a question of inevitable changes 
in the social system over the course of the historical progress 
of society. 

In another address Khrushchev argued that the social system 
changes as society develops. First he said there was the feudal 
system. It was superseded by capitalism. Capitalism was nnore 
progressive than feudalism. But capitalism, he claimed, engendered 
irreconcilable contradictions and as it outlived itself, it like every 
earlier system would give birth to its successors. Capitalisnn, he 
said, as Marx, Engels, and Lenin have proved, will be succeeded 
by Comnnunism. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 643 
Khrushchev would have us believe that this evolution to 
Communism will be a peaceful, painless process. One might 
footnote this view by suggesting that this had hardly been true in 
Poland, in Hungary, in the Baltic states or in China. 

Although professing that history will take care of us, 
Moscow and international communism have a definite program 
for helping along this so-called historical evolution. 

I shall briefly outline what I believe this program to be. 
And since today is Sunday, it is well to start out with the Soviet 
attack on religion as one of the cardinal points of their program. 

Karl Marx taught that religion is the opiate of the people. 
As late as 1954 the Central Committee of the Communist Party 
labeled the church as "the prop and tool of the ruling classes 
which they use as a means to enslave the workers. " They propose 
to instill atheism as a substitute for religion. 

Here we can quote history back to them. No great civilization 
has ever prospered and endured without a deep religious background. 

The Soviet's atheistic program of attack on the Free World 
has three major elements; first, the military, second the economic, 
and third the subversive. I shall say a word about each of them. 

The military threat is widely advertised and is easier for the 
people of the world to understand than their more subtle techniques. 
This threat is based on Soviet missiles and bombers, nuclear 
weapons and a large conventional force, ground and air, supplemented 
by the largest submarine fleet in being the world has ever known. 



644 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

For their own political purposes they rattle the missile; this 
took place notably during the Suez crisis about four years ago. 
Some foreign visitors to the Kremlin these days have also received 
Khrushchev's estimate of how nnany missiles and nuclear bombs 
were being reserved for them, or would be required for the 
destruction of their respective countries. He hasn't yet told us 
how many are reserved for the United States. 

I believe, however, that Khrushchev is still confident that 
he can win the world without actually employing military force. 
He doesn't want to acquire a world in ruins if he can take it intact. 
However, he keeps up his nnilitary forces as an ever -ready threat 
particularly for those countries which live under the shadow of 
Soviet Russia and Comnnunist China. 

Then there is the Communist economic threat. This has 
two main elements -- their own domestic industrial growth, and 
their foreign econonnic penetration. 

Khrushchev recognizes that the United States is the most 
highly developed economic power in the world today. However, he 
claims that with the Soviets' higher annual rate of growth, they will 
catch up with us in the next ten to fifteen years. 

Such boasts are an exaggeration but this does not prevent his 
peddling them on a world-wide basis. Nor do these boasts fail to 
impress the underdeveloped and non- industrial nations who see the 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 645 
great strides which the Soviet has made over a few decades. From a 
second rate industrial power they h^ve now come to be second only 
to the United States. 

While Soviet industrial production today is less than one -half 
of ours, it is true that their present annual rate of growth is about 
twice our own. If one takes the free world's industrial 
production and contrasts it with that of the communist world, 
including that of Communist China, the gap in favor of the Free 
World is still greater. 

In the decade or so which Khrushchev allows for equaling 
our industrial production, the Soviet, on the basis of present 
relative rates of industrial growth, will narrow the gap, and in 
1970 Soviet industrial production could be about 60 per cent of 
our own. 

This is impressive, -- and while not up to Khrushchev's 
boasts, it certainly gives us no call to relax. 

As for agriculture, the picture is very different. With six 
times the number of farm workers that we have in the United 
States, the Soviet Union is producing about tv/enty-five per cent less 
in farm products than are we , The facts are that their agriculture 
is inefficient. Here they have little or nothing to boast of. There 
is too much of Karl Marx and collectivism and too little free 
enterprise incentive and ambition on the Soviet farms. 



646 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

However, what should give us pause about their economy is 
that they are putting into national power goals, into miliary 
hardware, heavy industry, and related fields, a far greater 
percentage of their total production than are we. 

We are spending a great deal these days for the production of 
certain types of consumer goods which add little to the sinews of 
our national strength. And in making comparisons with the Soviet 
Union, we must realize that it is the use to which we put our great 
economic resources rather than their absolute size that determines 
the nneasure of national power. 

I am no econonnist, but I feel that it is our primary duty these 
days to produce that which will keep our country strong and free. 
Strong not only in the sense of military might but in education, 
science and technology; - free not only in the sense of freedom from 
want but free to develop the best that is in us; with the tools to 
enjoy our leisure but not necessarily every innaginable gadget, 

I admit this is easier to say than it is to accomplish in a 
free society. 

In his regimented state, Khrushchev takes his military hardware 
out of the hide of his people. He limits the volume of consumer goods, 
of housing and the like. As a consequence, Khrushchev today faces 
a domestic problenn of no nnean proportions in meeting^ the growing 
demand for more progress in raising the standard of living. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 647 

* * * 

The other phase of the Soviet economic threat is targeted 
abroad. 

It is carried out on a highly selective basis but it is very 
efficiently publicized. 

The areas of Soviet economic penetration are chiefly the 
Middle East, including Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, -- South 
and Southeast Asia, including India, Burma, and Indonesia. 
Recently, the Soviet Union is turning its attention to central 
Africa and to the hemisphere to the south of us, with Cuba now 
receiving Soviet credits and oil products from Communist countries. 

It is well to remember that the less developed coxintries 
look upon the Soviet Union as a nation which in a few decades has 
developed from a backward country into the world's second industrial 
power. These less developed countries aspire to do the same. 
Although they do not expe ;t to reach anything like the high economic 
and industrial levels of the United States, they are attracted by 
Moscow's clainns that rapid industrial progress can be achieved if 
they just conform to Communist methods and discipline. We know 
the fallacy of that argument but many of the lesser developed countries 
do not. 



43354 O — 60 — 8a 9 



648 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

The third major element of the drive of communism to fulfill 
its boast of inheriting the earth lies in the field of political action, 
propaganda and the subversive effort to undermine free governnnents 
everywhere. 

They start of course with the weakest and most vulnerable 
targets but they lose no opportunity to work even against the strong 
and the sophisticated. 

Their weapons include the control of their far-flung Communist 
Party organization, underground and above ground, on almost a 
world-wide basis. Then they have their front organizations in the 
fields of labor, of veterans, students, youth, women, and the various 
professions. 

Their so-called world peace and "ban the bomb" movements 
appeal to the aspirations of peoples in various parts of the world. 

The over -all strategy of International Communism is generally 
worked out in Moscow or, in sonne cases, in Peiping, at secret 
conferences of Connmunist delegates from various areas of the world. 

Take Latin America, for example. At the 2lst Communist 
Party Congress held in Moscow a little over a year ago, guidance 
was given to the Communist leaders in secret regional sessions. 
The Latin American Communists were directed to develop the theme 
of nationalism and to onnit any reference to relations with Moscow. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 649 
They were told to use every effort to eliminate pro -American 
elements, and to develop their local revolutions with the United 
States as the main target and whipping boy. I need hardly point 
out that these directives are being implemented. The theme in 
Latin America is liberation from what international communism 
describes as the donaination of the "Colossus of the North". 

This is just a short blueprint of the strategy of International 
Communism. 

It is a formidable threat to our free institutions and those 
of the free world. 

But Communism is not the wave of the future. It is 
reactionary, repressive, atheistic and intolerant. 

As such it will not satisfy the strivings of man. While it 
may produce nnaterial strength, it does not create moral values. 

There is some evidence today that those who are living under 
communist domination are becoming restive as education and 
knowledge of the outside world beconne nnore general behind the 
Iron Curtain. 

The example set by this country as the leader of the Free 
World will play a major role in the shaping of the future and in 
our success in meeting the Communist threat. 



650 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

In the opening paragraph of the Federalist papers in which 
nnen who had a great part in the framing of our Constitution and 
our system of government expressed their views, there is this 
statement, "It seems to have been reserved to the people of this 
country by their conduct and example, the important question, 
to decide whether societies of mien are capable or not of 
establishing good government . . . . ". 

It has been an inspiration to me to meet with you today, to 
receive this award and to know that throughout this land there are 
great bodies of men who like you are dedicated to the upholding 
of law and the nnaintenance of order within the frannework of the 
preservation of our freedoms. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 651 

( The following translation of the pastoral letter of the Archbishop 
of Santiago de Cuba, the Msgr. Enrique Perez Serantes, which was 
published in Cuba on May 18, I960, was later received ordered into 
the record of this hearing as Exhibit No. 14 ). 



PEREZ SERANTES CONDEMNS COMMUNISM IH A PASTORAL LETTER 

SAYS THAT NO CUBAN SHOULD SUPPORT IT 
PRAISES THE REVOLUriON'S INTEREST IN THE NEEDY CIASSES 

Monsignor Enrique PEREZ SERANTES, Archbishop of Santiago de Cuba, 
has sent us a copy of the following pastoral letter, with the request 
that we publish It: 

The Archbishopric of Santiago de Cuba Pastoral Duty . Faithful to 
our sacred pastoral duty of caring for the welfare, sustenance, and pro- 
tection of the flock entrusted to us by the Supreme Head of Christianity, 
Christ's Vicar, we feel obliged today to address our beloved diocesans 
to remind them, or to Inform them, If necessary, of the line of conduct 
they should follow in the present circvunstances, which are somewhat con- 
fusing and bound to provoke serious concern in many of our charges, who 
surely will expect guidance from us. 

In doing this, we are confident of performing a service to the 
Church and the country, our two great loves and objects of our constant 
vigilance and concern. 

The enemy is within . We begin by saying that the lines are now 
drawn between the Chmrch and its enemies. It is no longer mere rumors 
or hazarded statements, more or less slanted or contrived. We can no 
longer say that the enemy is at the gate, for he is actually already 
inside, speaking loudly, as soneone who is on his own territory. 



43354 O - 60 - 8A - 10 



652 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

It i8 not in vain that some, better advised and more clear-sighted^ 
became alarmed and wary some time ago, and prepared themselves for the 
struggle against those who arbitrarily try to impose the heavy yoke of the 
new slavery, for the true Christian cannot live without freedom either. It 
must not be forgotten that always and everywhere, from Rome to Budapest, it 
has always seemed better to us to lose all, even to shed blood, than to renounce 
the liberty which is the attribute of the children of God. 

Communism is alert . We know, fiirthermore, that Communism is the great 
eneny of Christianity today; Commvmism always vigilant, always alert, always 
ready to fall upon its prey, overriding everything to go directly for its 
objective; Communism, which, whether erect or crouching, is easy to find 
everywhere; and it is present everywhere, notwithstanding that, even among us, 
there are some who are needless, innocent, or extremely expedient enough to 
keep on denying it, or even to take it ill that everyone does not think as they. 

Church doctrine . Church doctrine, which is binding upon all Catholics, 
is clear and final on this point; and, even though many pontifical docxoments 
have been devoted to it, it can be stated in a few words: "Communism, says 
Pope Pius XI in the Encicllca Divini Redemptoris, is intrinsically wicked." 
We shall therefore cite only some of the reasons for this plain, terse state- 
ment given in the same document. 

Dialectical materialism . The first £ind principal reason is that 
Communism is based on the dialectical materialism of Marx, albeit obscured by 
occasionally deceptive appearances. The doctrine of materialism teaches that 
there is only one reality: matter and its blind forces; therefore, everything 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 653 
in the world is matter in the process of evolution, and society itself is no 
more than a manifestation and aspect of matter. 

Communism is atheistic . The second, which follows logically from 
the first, if matter is everything, is that there is no room for God; there 
is no difference between matter and mind, nor between body and soul; no survival 
of the soul after death, and, consequently, no hope of life after death. 
This premise explains why Communism proclaims itself atheistic. 

It follows from the above that Communism, like materialism, is the 
negation of all human values, which in this system lack the spiritual founda- 
tion which elevates man and places him above the purely organic. 

Under Communism, man, reduced to a completely material being, is 
without liberty and moral restraint against the assault of the lowest pas- 
sions, which are not pacified by any purely hviman consideration. 

We believe that the above will suffice to justify the condemnation 
of Communism as intrinsically wicked. We need not point oat that it denies 
the existence and indissolubility of matrimonial bonds, the right to own 
property, and so many other tenets, and even tries to break down the entire 
social system to its very foundations, under the pretext of creating a new 
humanism without God and his holy law, submerged in a sea of hatreds and 
animosities. 

What must be the attitude of Catholics? Our attitude must te loyalty 
to the Pope. We mast therefore always follow his instructions faithfully: 

Have nothing, absolutely nothing to do with Communism. In view of 
the repeated condemnations received from the supieme authority of Catholicism, 
we deem it a vital necessity to urge, and even threaten, our diocesans, who 



654 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

include all Cubans, not to cooperate in any way, or have contact, with 
Communism; moreover, they must keep as far away from this implacable and | 
powerful enemy of Christianity as they can, and not let themselves be impre8se< 
by the more or less disguised or alluring, but always fallacious and cunning, 
statements and promises, nor by the cleverness which Communism displays in 
extending its hand, as it does so charmingly to Catholics, since this is 
actually only a well~ contrived strategy for catching the unwary more easily, 

V'e wish to reaffirm ovir distinction between Commiinism and Communists. 
For the latter, individually, we must not fail to do anything we can for 
them, in pursuance of the divine commandment of charity. 

Everyone must keep two things well in mind: first, that we must 
make no concessions of principle; second, that the enemies of the Church, 
particularly Communism, know what they are after, and pursue their objec- 
tives tirelessly and unwaveringly. 

The social doctrine of the Church . It would be well if the Catholics 
would at least make efforts to acquaint themselves with the social doctrine of 
the Church, which offers a satisfactory solution to all problems in the eco- 
nomic and social fields. They would find out the reasons why sincere and 
naturally honest Commxinists, when they came to know about this doctrine, 
have to say: "this is the real solution to the social problem." 

The material aspect . Although we are not concerned with this today, at 
least directly, we may nevertheless be permitted to say that the Church has 
always called for a more just distribution of material goods. No one has 
spoken up more loudly for the needy than the Church, to which, alas, the 
possessors of wealth and the usurpers of public property should have paid 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 655 
greater heed. We have said many times, and we repeat today, that, in order 
that humans should not be in worse conditions than animals (as they actually 
are in many parts of the world), one must imderstand what resources each 
family has to meet the necessities of life. There should be no human beings 
who face a new day without a mouthful of bread for them or their children 
without knowing to whom to turn to remedy a state of misery which brings many 
to the verge of desperation. This la downright inhuman and cruel, and a shame- 
ful spectacle such as this, as well as the repugnant slums in which many fami- 
lies still live, frequently not far from sumptuous palaces, should make us 
all blush. 

In this, and in other matters, the Revolutionary Government merits 
praise for its solicit'jde for such needy and neglentad classes; and we con- 
gratulate it for that. 

And let no one think that because God has been excluded, his daily 
bread will arrive with the morning sun, nor that it will be easier to get 
it; on the contrary, he may find himself without either God or bread. 

Revival of Christian life . We love God: We need to. Worst of 
all is that Communism and materialism have a distinct interest in having 
us all sail the sea of life blindfolded, without compass and without a 
pilot, which is the same as condemning us to a life without hope, without 
faith, and without love, distrustful of everything and everyone. 

Materialism and Communism are ejecting God everywhere; but it is a 
fact that we Catholics, at least, cannot reconcile ourselves to a life without 
God or his sacred law, without which any law designed by man lacks solid founda- 
tion: to legislate without God is to build on sand. 

We love God completely . We love God completely, everywhere, at 
every moment. We love God in the home, presiding over the domestic social 



656 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 
group. We love God in the school. In the courts of Justice, in the legislature, 
In business, in industry, in the field, in the hospital, and in prison. 
Poor prisoners, and poor sick people without God I 

We love God completely, because it is His due, because He has every 
right to be in everything and everyvhere, and because we all are in constant 
seed of Him. We love God, finally, because without God there would be chaos. 

Without God, there is no peace . We love our families, the Justice 
ind decency of life, and our country a great deal. Of all these things so 
iear to our hearts, God is the mainstay, as he is the beginning and the end; 
ind further, knowing that men, even the greatest and best- intent ioned, are 
Incapable, by themselves, of warding off the fearful social collapse which 
threatens the world, or of pulling society out of the hole in which it has 
rallen and become mired . 

After all, who, other than God, can possibly bring about the real unity 
In the thoughts and inclinations of all which is necesssiry to social well- 
Deing? Without the aid of God, who can possible harmonize the so frequently 
:onflicting human interests, especially if the floodgates of natural desires are 
broken? ^■/ho, if not God? 

With God excluded from the life of society, where can we find the 
peace for which individuals and nations so ardently hunger? Where? 

And yet, peace, real peace is at hand. To attain it, it is necessary 
and sufficient to make a half turn toward the right, for then we meet Christ, 
uho is "our peace." Everything else is a loss of time. Who does not know 
that? 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 657 

The best armament is the Ten Commandments, To win this peace, let us 
employ the power of reason, and not the reason of power. Let each man carry 
within himself a policeman, strongly wielding the weapon of the Coramaxidments . 
And, by the same token, let no one anywhere, in the streets, taken to arms 
invented by meii to ki.ll people and destroy property. How horrible I 

Rettirn to God . To gain such noble ends requires mobilizing all the 
forces of those who would live with God; and, as God directs, throwing off 
the lethargy which affects many, who cease to concern themselves with what is 
most important and with what goes on around thera, while the enemy allows 
himself not a moment ' s rest . 



658 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

It is accordingly absoluteli' neceesarj that all of life, individual, 
social, and national, revolve around God, and that everyone practice His 
holy Law, which is equally- binding on all. There must be a return to 
God, whose absence means death and vacuum which cannot be filled by 
ani'one or an;y'thing. 

Religious Ignorance 

Practicing the Law of God and living as behooves a Christian, 
continually strengthening our faith, requires sound and well-founded 
religious instruction, the lack of which is a powerful ally of all 
of the enemies of the Church. For Communism, which is lying in 
wait and on the maych, the masses of peasants and citizens who are 
materially and spiritually undernourished constitute the best field 
for its clearly atheistic activities . 

Every home a catechism class 

In order to remedy the alarming shortage of priests and catechists, 
it is essential that every home be turned into a domestic catechism 
class, where children are taught from their earliest childhood every- 
thing which a good Christian needs to know, as well as the practice, 
at the side of their parents (this must always be done, even if there 
is an abundance of priests) and together with their parents of the 
fundamental religious duties of praising, blessing, and giving thanks 
to God. Such practice is never forgotten and is carried in the heart, 
just as the first instructor, the Blessed Mother herself, ie carried 
in the heart and loved. 



I 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 659 

However, in view of the fact that there are few homes in which 
the leaders of the family are sufficiently qualified to fulfill this 
beisic duty, in the name of God we issue a fervent appeal to those 
persons who are best trained to gather in their own homes or in soioe 
other suitable place the children and even older persons in order to 
give them the proper religious instruction; they should see to it 
that no one remains without this instruction. We are referring 
chlefli' to the mani' places in the country and even in the cities 
where this work is most urgent. 

Catechism instruction, the most urgent problem 

Certain eloquent evidence corroborates this statement. Pope Plus XII 
has stated that society is in need of urgent and effective remedies, 
few, however, so urgent as catechism instruction. "Catechism instruc- 
tion is the first of all the works of Catholic activity. Religious 
ignoramce is the greatest stain on the Catholic nations . ' Pope Leo XII 
wrote: "The catechlsa classroom is the battlefield on which it has 
to be decided whether society will be Christian or pagan." 

Contemplating the diseisters broijght about by the Paris Commune 
in the 19th centviry, Thiers stated: "We must return to catechism 
instruction," and Victor Hugo made this important confession: "Those 
parents who send their children to schools where it is openly stated: 
No catechism instruction here, deserve to be thrown in jail." 



660 COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 

Finally, to be brief, Montalerabert stated in the French Assembly: 
"There is no compromise between socialism and the catechism." Today 
we would say: Communism. 

Work highly pleasing to God 

The apostles of Christ knew beforehand that the teaching of the 
catechism is highly pleasing to God Our Lord, for "the most divine 
of human works is to teach others the way to heaven." They also knew 
that if they were able but failed to do this work, they might one day 
hear from the lips of that same Jesus Christ these terrible words : 

"Depart from Me because I was hungry and you gave Me nothing to 

eat." We have to "give a strict account to God, not merely' of the evil 
which we have done but also of the good which we might have done and 
failed to do. Think and meditate carefully about these words, beloved 
parishioners. 

Coordination of work 

We ardently desire that these catechistic centers contact their 
respective parish priests, from whom they will receive the necessary 
catechistic material, which we will give them if they need it. They 
may also directly contact the Director of the Catechistic Work, 
Father Pedro Meurice, Chancellor of the Archbishopric. Finally, id one 
should fail to report, at least every three months, on the work he 
has done. 



COMMUNIST THREAT TO U.S. THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN 661 

Best wishes . Let us , without dela^ , begin this evangelizing 
csimpaign, which has the blessing of God and of His Hol^ Mother, Our Lsmiy , 
the Virgin of Charity., under whose sponsorship we place the work. 

If everyone prepares to do the best he can, and if no one is 
indolent, onlj God knows the great deal of good of all kinds which 
we are goii^g to obtain from His divine hand, which is more than gen- 
erous, nay, extremely lavish. 

Let no one fall to enroll in this campaign for good, even at the 

cost of some sacrifice, which God will recompense a hundredfold, 

/ 
perhaps even in earthly goods . 

In this way we will work completely for God and for Cuba. 

Urgent appeal 

From the priests , from the monks and nims , we expect resolute , 
speedy, and constant cooperation. We also expect this from all Catholic 
lay organizations, which should mobilize with the greatest enthusiasm. 

Ma^. the Lord and the Virgin of Charity bless the work and all 
those who collaborate in it. 

Enrique, Archbishop of Santiago, Cuba 

"This pastoral letter is to be read in all churches of this 
Archdiocese on the first feast day after it is received, or within two 
days . " 



Senator Dodd. We will recess at this time subject to the call of the 
Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 12:15 p.m., the committee recessed, subject to the 
call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

AFL-CIO 634 

Agrarian Reform. National Institute of 524 

Alvarez, Seymour Rafael Blanco 637 

Avila, Rafael 637 

B 

Batista 523 

BRAC 523 

C 

Carlos Cento 525 

Castillanos, Budilo 524 

Central Intelligence 638 

Cevallo, Sequndo Manuel del Paso 524 

China 525 

Cienfuegos, Camilo (Cuban Chief of Staff of all services) 634 

Confederation of Cuban Worliers 635 

Czechoslovakia 525 

D 

Diaz, Maximo Ruiloba, testimony of 523-634 

Dodd, Senator Thomas J 523 

DuUes, Allen W 638 

E 

Exhibit No. 12 (list of names) - 540-633 

Exhibit No. 13 (address by Allen W. Dulles given May 1) 638 

F 

Furaguot, Castro 524 

G 

Gonzales y Gonzales, Arsenio, testimony of 635-661 

Guevara, Alfredo 524 

Guevara, "Che" (Dr. Ernesto "Che" Guevara) 525 

H 

Hernandez, Aurelio Silva, testimony 526 

Hruska, Senator Roman L 524 

J 

Jevaya, Capt. Sergo 525 

L 

La Cabana »26 

M 

Mexico 525 

Miami Beach, Fla ^24 

I 



n INDEX 

O Page 

Omnibus Workers Union 635 

P 

Peron 637 

Prio, Dr. Carlos ^— 523 

"Public Order and the Preservation of Our Freedoms" 638 

R 

Rodriguez (Cruz), Comdr. Rene 634 

Russia 525 

S 

Sanjurho, Raul 634 

San Martin, Dr. Grau 523 

Santos, Alberto Carpeno 524 

Socialist Popular Party 526 

Sourwine, J. G 523 

St. George Association of New York Police Department 638 

St. Nicholas Arena 634 

T 

Transportation Union 635 

U 

Uruguay, University of 636 

V 

Verson-Diaz, Salvador 523 

o 



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