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Full text of "Communist training operations. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-sixth Congress, first[-second] session...July 21 and 22, 1959"

i.'. 



?f/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



us Doc 2.791 



Committee on Un-American Activities 
House 
86th Congress 



Table of Contents 

(Since these hearings are consecutively paged 
they are arranged by page number, instead of 
alphabetically by title) 



1. American National Exhibition, Moscow, ^/H<^ 
July 1959 

2. Communist Training Operations, pt.l Vu ' 

5. Testimony of Clinton Edvard Jencks %)<^^ 

k. Testimony of Arnold Johnson, Legislative i)j% 
Director of the Communist Party, U.S.A. 

5-7. Western Section of the Southern California ^ ^^ 
District of the Communist Party, pt.1-5 

8, Issues Presented by Air Reserve Center ^i<i*r 
Training Manual 



9-10. Communist Training Operations, pt. 2-5 

11-12. Communist Activities Among Puerto Rdcans in 
New York City and Puerto Rico, pt.1-2 



Mi 



^^r^ 

sr^ 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

PART I 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGEESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 21 AND 22, 1959 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 







UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
43643 WASHINGTON : 1959 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, CaUfornia GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

RiCHAED Aeens, staff Director 

n 



CONTENTS 



Pan 

Synopsis 965 

July 21, 1959: Testimony of— 

Frank S. Meyer 1007 

Harold Collins 1025 

Myer Weise 1031 

Irving Potash 1034 

Franks. Meyer (resumed) 1037 

Irving Potash (resumed) 1037 

Frank S. Meyer (resumed) 1040 

Afternoon session: 

Hyman Lumer 1041 

July 22, 1959: Testimony of— 

Leon Josephson 1047 

Henry Klein 1051 

Esther Cantor 1055 

Sidney Finkelstein 1057 

Susan Warren 1061 

Louis Weinstock 1065 

Richard Wilson Reichard 1068 

Index i 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 

******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which ia within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

* * * if * # ^i 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 
26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS— PART I 

SYNOPSIS 

The instant hearings on Communist training operations are the 
first in a proposed series on the subject matter. In opening the hear- 
ings, the chairman of the committee stated : 

The success of the Communist conspiracy in any of its op- 
erations is in direct ratio to the intensity of the efforts by 
trained, disciplined Communist agents who, compared to the 
number of free people, are always relatively few, though they 
now number a worldwide fifth column of some 33 million. 
It is no more possible for free people to coexist peacefully 
with these dedicated revolutionists than it is for the body to 
coexist peacefully with cancer. 

Many people wonder what makes a dedicated Communist. 
How are intelligent American citizens molded into such 
thoroughly committed revolutionaries that they will, as Lenin 
said, devote "the whole of their lives" to the Cfommimist con- 
spiracy ? 

The experience of this committee compels the conclusion 
that this process is not accomplished overnight. A first step is 
often the subtle indoctrination of students by individual Com- 
munists who are employed as teachers in non-Communist edu- 
cational institutions. Beyond this, the Communist conspiracy 
has two principal organized training operations. 

The first consists of schools, forums, and courses designed 
to soften up and condition the students — whether they are ac- 
tually members of the party or not — and to act as a screening 
or selection program in which likely material is chosen for 
development in the second type of Communist training opera- 
tion, which is for hard-core, disciplined conspirators. 

In these hearings which are beginning today, we will 
sample activities of individual Communists engaged in teach- 
ing in non-Communist institutions, as well as each of the two 
types of organized Conununist training operations. 

The Jefferson School of Social Science, through the years, 
was of the first type of Communist training operation, where 
there were taught to Communists and non-Communists alike 
courses which were designed to soften up and condition the 
students and to develop prospective material for training as 
hard-core Communists. 

In proceeding under the Internal Security Act of 1950, the 
Subversive Activities Control Board on June 30, 1955, found 
the Jefferson School of Social Science to be a Communist- 
front organization and that it, therefore, should register un- 
der the provisions of the Act. 

965 



966 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Shortly, thereafter, the Communist operation devised what 
looked like a very simple evasive tactic, namely, to dissolve 
the Jefferson School of Social Science, which they did ; but it 
was not long before there was created with substantially the 
same faculty and courses a new school known as the Faculty of 
Social Science. 

We expect in these hearings to explore this Faculty of 
Social Science to determine if our present investigative leads 
appear to be correct, namely, that for all intents and purposes 
the Faculty of Social Science is merely a successor to the Jef- 
ferson School of Social Science. 

Now, with reference to the second type of Communist op- 
eration, namely, the training program of the hard-core cadre, 
in i\Iay of this year James E. Jackson, Jr., who is one of the 
top Communist conspirators operating in the United States, 
returned here from Moscow, to which he had traveled on a 
United States passport which was issued to him shortly after 
the Supreme Court struck down the power of the Secretary 
of State to deny passports to Communists. 

Jackson's orders from the Kremlin, which have now been 
transmitted to the comrades in the United States, are to in- 
tensify the training of key revolutionaries in sabotage, sub- 
version, and penetration. 

We have under subpena the educational director of the 
Communist Party, Hyman Lumer, who, we have learned from 
our field investigations, is now supervising the secret training 
programs in key centers of the Nation in which select com- 
rades are given specialized training in conspiratorial strate- 
gies and tactics. 
At the outset of the hearings, there were inserted in the record a 
number of exhibits reflecting the transition by the Communist Party 
of the Jefferson School of Social Science into the Faculty of Social 
Science and the Communist Party identification and activity in Com- 
munist Party training schools of key individuals connected with the 
Faculty of Social Science, New York City. (See pp. 995-1007.) 

Frank S. Meyer of Woodstock, New York, who is editor of National 
Review, testified respecting his extensive background and experience 
in the Communist Party, in which he served for a number of years in 
educational and organizational work. Mr. Meyer, who broke with 
the Communist Party in 1945 and has since rendered valuable service 
to the Government in revealing the true nature of communism and the 
inner workings of the Communist apparatus, was asked to express 
to the committee what factors led to the successes which the Com- 
munist operation has had all over the world in the course of the last 
generation. He replied as follows : 

I would, myself, say that the major factor has been that at 
the time when the West and the United States have, to a very 
large degree, lost the hard faith in their ancient heritage, 
when our schools and our society are teaching a relativism 
that eats away at the great traditions of the West and of 
American freedom, on the other hand the Communists and 
the Communist movement stand for their evil cause deter- 
mined, deeply convinced, and fired with a zeal which we have 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 967 

not been able to match because of lack of will and under- 
standing of the greatness which we have and which we should 
bo fighting for. 

When asked how serious the Communist movement is now, Mr. 
Meyer replied : 

As serious as it is conceivable to think of it. The only way 
it would be more serious is if it had already conquered the 
whole world, instead of merely two-thirds of it. 

Mr. Meyer discussed three phases of Communist training opera- 
tions; namely, public agitation and propaganda, the molding of hard- 
core Communists, and inner party training schools — "for the purpose 
of i^utting a final hardness, understanding from the party's point of 
view, toughness, on the Communist who is already approaching top 
leadership positions." 

Mr. Meyer continued : 

Of the three I mentioned, examples would be first, in the 
category of the drawing of people toward the party. I think 
any issue of the Daily Worker that you open you will find ad- 
vertised forums, clubs, lectures, places which are current and 
popular issues of one sort or another, which will bring people 
who might be interested in that issue forward. 

Also, a Commimist Party member will hold in his home a 
class or discussion group, which gets a number of neighbors 
or friends he has met or people he has worked with in activi- 
ties of various kinds. Also, such schools as the Jefferson 
School itself have as one part of their activity a whole group 
of courses devoted toward bringing in peripherally interested 
people. That is the first type. 

The second type, the beginning of the training of Commu- 
nists, new Communists, is conducted in a number of ways. 
First, every Communist Party meeting has an educational 
section, a portion of its agenda devoted to educational discus- 
sion. Then, a widespread series of classes is held within 
the party in a section or a district for newer party members. 
Thirdly, in schools of the Jefferson School type, one of the 
functions of those schools is to conduct classes that can be uti- 
lized for this purpose, for the first stage of training of the 
party members. 

The third type of training consists of a network of schools, 
full-time party schools, from the local level — section schools — 
through district schools, to national schools, and finally to the 
international schools that have been run over the years un- 
der various names by the international Communist movement. 

Mr. Meyer, who had taught as a Communist in the Jefferson School 
of Social Science, identified a number of persons who are instructors 
at the Faculty of Social Science as persons known by him to have been 
instructors at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

He, likewise, identified a number of persons in key positions with 
the Faculty of Social Science as persons known by him to have been 
members of the Communist Party. He also testified that the courses 
of instruction at the Faculty of Social Science "follow the same pat- 



968 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

tern that the courses in Communist Party open schools from the days 
of the Workers Schools right tlirough the Jefferson School until now 
have always followed." 

Harold Collins, of Brooklyn, N.Y., who is secretary of the Faculty 
of Social Science and who was identified by Frank S. Meyer in the 
instant hearings as a onetime instructor at the Jefferson School of 
Social Science and a member of the Communist Party, appeared in 
response to a subpena. 

Mr. Collins refused to answer questions with respect to his occu- 
pation, his connection with the Faculty of Social Science, or whether 
he is a current member of the Communist Party on the ground, among 
others, that his answ^ers might incriminate him. 

Myer Weise of Flushing, N.Y., who is an instructor at the Faculty 
of Social Science, appeared in response to a subpena. He refused to 
answer questions respecting his connections with the Faculty of Social 
Science, whether he is a current member of the Communist Party, or 
questions relating to Communist Party activity on the ground that 
his answers might incriminate him. 

Irving Potash, of New York City, who is an instructor at the 
Faculty of Social Science and who was identified by Frank S. Meyer 
in the instant hearings as a member of the Communist Party and a 
member of its Central Committee and political bureau, appeared in 
response to a subpena. Mr. Potash refused to answer questions with 
respect to his employment, his connection with the Faculty of Social 
Science, or with respect to Communist activities on the ground that 
his answers might incriminate him. 

Hyman Lumer, of New York City, who is educational director of 
the Communist Party and who is an instructor at the Faculty of 
Social Science, appeared in response to a subpena. Mr. Lumer re- 
counted his educational background, which included the attainment 
of a Ph. D. degree in 1935, but refused to answer questions respecting 
any occupation since obtaining his Ph. D. degree, on the ground that 
his answers might incriminate him. There were displayed to Mr. 
Lumer a number of exhibits from Communist publications reflecting 
his Communist activities, and Mr. Lumer was confronted with com- 
mittee information to the effect that he was currently engaged in 
conducting training courses in various parts of the Nation for hai-d- 
core, disciplined revolutionaries, but in response to all questions on 
the subject matter he refused to answer on the ground that his an- 
swers might incriminate him. 

Leon Josephson, of New York City, who is an instructor at the 
Faculty of Social Science, appeared in response to a subpena. Mr. 
Josephson refused to answer whether he is a current member of the 
Communist Party. There were displayed to Mr. Josephson a number 
of exhibits from Communist publications reflecting his Communist 
activity, but in response to all questions on the subject matter he 
declined to answer on the ground that his answers might incriminate 
him. 

Henry Klein, of Howard Beach, N.Y., who is an instructor at the 
Faculty of Social Science, appeared in response to a subpena. Mr. 
Klein refused to answer with respect to his connection with the Faculty 
of Social Science, whether he is a current member of the Communist 
Party, and questions based upon a number of exhibits displayed to 



COMMUlSnST TRAINING OPERATIONS 969 

him reflecting Communist Party activity, on the ground that his an- 
swers might incriminate liim. 

Mrs. Esther Cantor, of New York City, who is an instructor at the 
Faculty of Social Science, appeared in response to a subpena, but re- 
fused to answer whether she is a current member of the Communist 
Party or questions based upon exhibits displayed to her revealing 
her Communist Party activities, on the ground that her answers 
miffht incriminate her. 

Sidney Finkelstein, of Brooklyn, N.Y., who is an instructor at the 
Faculty of Social Science, appeared in response to a subpena. Mr. 
Finkelstein refused to answer whether he had ever taught at the Jef- 
ferson School of Social Science, questions respecting his connection 
with the Faculty of Social Science, or whether he is a current member 
of the Communist Party, on the ground, among others, that his an- 
swers might incriminate him. 

Miss Susan Warren, of New York City, who is an instructor at the 
Faculty of Social Science, appeared in response to a subpena. There 
were displayed to Miss Warren a number of exhibits consisting of 
excerpts from Communist publications revealing her connection with 
the Jefferson School of Social Science and with several Communist 
enterprises. In response to all questions on the subject matter, in- 
cluding a question as to whether she is a current member of the Com- 
munist Party, Miss Warren refused to answer on the groimd that her 
answers might incriminate her. 

Louis Weinstock, of New York City, who is an instructor at the 
Faculty of Social Science and who was identified in the instant hear- 
ings by Frank S. Meyer as a member of the Communist Party, ap- 
peared in response to a subpena. Mr. Weinstock refused to answer 
questions with respect to his connection with the Faculty of Social 
Science or questions in regard to a number of exhibits which were 
excerpts from Communist publications revealing his Communist ac- 
tivities and connections, as well as questions with respect to his cur- 
rent Communist Party membership, on the ground that his answers 
might incriminate him. 

Eichard Wilson Reichard, of Arlington, Va., appeared in response 
to a subpena. Mr. Reichard gave his occupation as that of a teacher 
and stated that he had arrangements for employment as associate 
professor of European History at George Washington University, 
Washington, D.C. Mr. Reichard refused to answer if he had been a 
member of the Young Communist League while a student at Harvard 
University. He was confronted with information from the committee 
to the effect that from 1946 to 1949 he was a leader of the student unit 
of the Communist Party at Harvard University and that he was 
branch organizer for the Second Harvard College Undergraduate 
Branch of the Communist Party from 1948 until 1949, but refused 
to answer respecting the subject m.^tter. 

Mr. Reichard, likewise, refused to answer whether he joined the 
Communist Party while he was at Harvard University, whether he 
was transferred from the Communist operation in Harvard to the 
Communist Party in Palo Alto, Calif., whether he was a member of 
the Communist Party during his employment as an assistant pro- 
fessor of history at Washington College in the fall of 1956, and whether 
he was currently a member of the Communist Party. Mr, Reichard 



970 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

based his refusal to answer all of the foregoing questions on the ground 

that his answers might incriminate him. 

CONCLUSION 

The evidence is clear that the Faculty of Social Science is for all 
intents and purposes a successor to the Jefferson School of Social 
Science and that, like the Jefferson School of Social Science, it is an 
adjunct of the Communist Party for the purpose of indoctrinating 
Communists and Communist sympathizers in the theory and practice 
of communism and in promoting Communist objectives. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS— PART 1 



TUESDAY, JULY 21, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activittes 

Washmgton, B.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, House Office Build- 
ing, Washington, D.C., Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present : Francis E. Walter, of Pennsylvania ; 
Morgan M. Moulder, of Missouri; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana; 
William M. Tuck, of Virginia; Donald L. Jackson, of California; 
Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio ; and August E. Johansen, of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and Frank 
Bonora, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

In opening these hearings on Communist training operations, I 
should like to make a brief background statement. 

The most appalling fact of this generation is the failure of the free 
world to grasp the fundamental nature of communism. Communism 
is not just an economic system. It is not just a political organism 
within the generally accepted meaning of that term. It is not just 
military aggression of a particular nation or group of people. 

Communism involves an ideology, but it is more than an ideology. 
It is a dynamic system aimed at the destruction of all moral and 
spiritual values and of any society built on them. It is a scheme 
for total regimentation and control of every body and mind in a 
universe conceived to be exclusively governed by materialistic forces. 
The treacheries, bloodshed, deceit, and violence of communism stem 
from its basic ideology, but these are perpetrated by people who are 
Communists and whose ultimate objective in their marauding against 
the free people is not conversion but conquest. 

One of the basic fallacies of the free world in attempting to cope 
with communism is to regard it as just another form of government 
which can be voted in or out at the will of the citizenry. This is pre- 
cisely what the Communists would have the free world believe, but 
the facts are otherwise. 

There has never been a single country taken over by the Com- 
munists with the knowing approval of its subjects; and once in power. 
Communists have never relinquished control except where they were 
ousted by force. Communism generally follows the same basic pat- 

971 



972 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

tern wliich in essence consists of, first, softening up its prey by de- 
ceitful propaganda; second, subversion; and tliird, force. 

The success of the Communist conspiracy in any of its operations 
is in direct ratio to the intensity of the efforts by trained, disciplined 
Communist agents who, compared to the number of free people, are 
always relatively few, though they now number a worldwide fifth 
column of some 33 million. It is no more possible for free people to 
coexist peacefully with these dedicated revolutionists than it is for 
the body to coexist peacefully with cancer. 

Many people wonder what makes a dedicated Communist. How 
are intelligent American citizens molded into such thoroughly com- 
mitted revolutionaries that they will, as Lenin said, devote "the whole 
of their lives" to the Communist conspiracy ? 

The experience of this committee compels the conclusion that this 
process is not accomplished overnight. A first step is often the sub- 
tle indoctrination of students by individual Communists who are 
employed as teachers in non-Communist educational institutions. Be- 
yond this, the Communist conspiracy has two principal organized 
training operations. 

The first consists of schools, forums, and courses designed to soften 
up and condition the students — whether they are actually members 
of the party or not — and to act as a screening or selection program 
in which likely material is chosen for development in the second type 
of Communist training operation, which is for hard-core, disciplined 
conspirators. 

In these hearings which are beginning today, we will sample activi- 
ties of individual Communists engaged in teaching in non-Communist 
institutions, as well as each of the tw^o types of organized Communist 
training operations. 

The Jefferson School of Social Science, through the years, was of 
the first type of Communist training operation, where there were 
taught to Communists and non-Communists alike courses which were 
designed to soften up and condition the students and to develop pro- 
spective material for training as hard-core Communists. 

In proceedings under the Internal Security Act of 1950, the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Board on June 30, 1955, found the Jeffer- 
son School of Social Science to be a Communist-front organization 
and that it, therefore, should register under the provisions of the Act. 

Shortly thereafter, the Communist operation devised what looked 
like a very simple evasive tactic, namely, to dissolve the Jefferson 
School of Social Science, which they did ; but it was not long before 
there was created with substantially the same faculty and courses 
a new school known as the Faculty of Social Science. 

We expect in these hearings to explore this Faculty of Social 
Science to determine if our present investigative leads appear to be 
correct, namely, that for all intents and purposes the Faculty of 
Social Science is merely a successor to the Jefferson School of Social 
Science. 

Now, with reference to the second type of Communist operation, 
namely, the training program of the hard-core cadre, in May of this 
year James E. Jackson, Jr., who is one of the top Communist con- 
spirators operating in the United States, returned here from Moscow, 
to which he had traveled on a United States passport which was 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 973 

issued to him shortly after the Supreme Court struck down the power 
of the Secretary of State to deny passports to Communists. 

Jackson's orders from the Kremlin, which have now been trans- 
mitted to the comrades in the United States, are to intensify the 
training of key revolutionaries in sabotage, subversion, and penetra- 
tion. 

We have under subpena the educational director of the Communist 
Party, Hyman Lumer, who, we have learned from our field investiga- 
tions, is now supervising the secret training programs in key centers 
of the Nation in which select comrades are given specialized training 
in conspiratorial strategies and tactics. 

Let there be inserted in the record at this point the resolution of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, autliorizing and directing 
the holding of these hearings, together with the designation of this 
subcommittee, by myself, as chairman of the full committee. 

(The resolution referred to follows:) 

June 2, 1959. 

A motion was made, seconded and unanimously carried that hearings by the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, or a subcommittee thereof, to be held 
in Washington, D.C., and at such other place or places as the Chairman may 
determine, on such dates as the Chairman may set, be authorized and approved, 
including the conduct of investigations deemed reasonably necessary by the 
staff in preparation therefor, relating to the following : 

1. The conduct of so-called "training schools" by persons formerly con- 
nected with the operation of the Jefferson School of Social Science, required 
by the Subversive Activities Control Board by Order of June 30, 1955, to 
register as a Communist front, the legislative purpose being : 

(a) Consideration of an amendment to Sec. 301, Title 1, of the In- 
ternal Security Act of 1950, whereby the dissolution or reorganization 
of an organization shall not prevent the institution of proceedings under 
Section 13 or 13(a) of the Act, as proposed in H.R. 2232 referred to 
the Committee on Un-American Activities January 12, 1959. 

(b) To consider amending the Internal Security Act of 1950 so as 
to malje applicable the requirement of registration of a Communist 
front organization whether or not any change is hereafter made in the 
name thereof. 

2. The conduct of so-called "training operations" in advancement of the 
aims and objectives of the Communist Party and under Communist direc- 
tion, control or influence, the legislative purpose being to consider amend- 
ments to the definitions of "Communist action organization" and "Com- 
munist front" as contained in the Internal Security Act of 1950. 

3. The execution by the administrative agencies concerned, of the Internal 
'Security Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, and all other laws, 
the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the Committee, 
the legislative purpose being to exercise continuous watchfulness of the 
execution of these laws, to assist the Congress in appraising the adminis- 
tration of such laws, and in developing such amendments or related legisla- 
lation as it may deem necessary. 

4. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, 
or any subcommittee thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may 
designate. 

June 23, 1959. 
TO : Mr. Richard Arens 
Staff Director 

House Committee on Un-American Activities 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this Committee, I here- 
by appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, con- 
sisting of Representatives Morgan M. Moulder and Donald L. Jackson, as asso- 
ciate members, and myself, Francis E. Walter, as chairman, to conduct hearings 
in Washington, D.C., Tuesday through Thursday, July 21, 22, and 23, 1959, at 



974 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

10 :00 a.m., on subjects under investigation by the Committee and take such testi- 
mony on said days or succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. 
Please malce this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 23rd day of June 1959. 

( Signed) Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr, Arens. May I respectfully suggest the record likewise show the 
presence of the members of the committee who are present and of the ' 
members of the subcommittee who are present? 

(At this point Mr. Willis entered the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. Yes. Let the record show that there are j^resent 
Congressmen Willis, Jackson, Scherer, and Walter. 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Chairman, before calling the first witness, if it 
meets with the pleasure of the Chair, I should like to cause to be in- 
corporated into the record certain documentary material. 

The Chairman. They will be made a part of the record. 

C cnnmittee Exhibit No, 1 — Citations of the Jefferson School of So- 
cial Science appearing on pages 49 and 50, of the January 2, 1957, re- 
vised edition of the Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publica- 
tions released by the Committee on Un-American Activities : 

JEFFERSON SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE (New York, N.Y.) 

1. Cited as an "adjunct of the Communist Party." 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, released 
December J,, 1947.) 

2. "At the beginning of the present year, the old Communist Party Workers 

School and the School for Democracy were merged into the Jefferson School 
of Social Science." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1311 
on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 19^4, P- 150.) 

3. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Communists and 

outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, train organizers and 

operatives, recruit new party members and sympathizers. * * * Schools of 

this type have been * * * Jefferson School of Social Science, New York. * * *" 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee, 

Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. lllf, April 23, 1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 

4. Found to be a "Communist-front organization" and ordered to register as such 

with the Attorney General of the United States. 

{Subversive Activities Control Board, Decision of June 30, 1955.) 

Committee Exhibit No. 2 — Order of the Subversive Activities Control 
Board entered on June 30, 1955, pursuant to which the Subversive 
Activities Control Board made a finding that the Jefferson School of 
Social Science was a Communist-front organization, under the pro- 
visions of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, as amended, 
appearing on page ix of the appendix of the Report and Order de- 
cided June 30, 1955 : 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



975 



Committee Exhibit No. 2 
SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES CONTROL BOARD 



Docket No. 107-53 



HERBERT BROWNELL, JR. , 
ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES, 

PETITIONER 



JEFFERSON SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE, 
RESPONDENT 



ORDER OF THE BOARD 



Having this day issued its Report in which, after a hearing 
upon a petition filed vinder subsection (a) of section 13 of the 
Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, as amended, the Board 
finds that the Jefferson School of Social Science, respondent herein, 
is a Communist-front organization under the provisions of the said 
Act, it is 

ORDERED that the Jefferson School of Social Science shall 
register as a Communist-front organization pursuant to the said 
Act. 



By the Board. 



>^:i>, A^r 






/■■ '' 









WAs.hiiigtbn, D. C. 
June 30, 1955 



a 







^~ii^ '^<^l,^r: . 



6 



, Chairman 



^'M^C, (f- ^<UM~-, Member 



<-r^cx^^. 



■^-^te^' , Member 



a.r./U..,^- <h<^/'^ci.£^^^ Member 



43643—59 — pt. 1- 



976 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Committee Exhibit No. 3 — Announcement appearing in the Commu- 
nist Daily Worker of November 28, 1956, of the closing of the Jeffer- 
son School of Social Science; editorial from the Daily Worker of 
November 29, 1956, giving an explanation as to why this school was 
being closed : 

Jeffebson School Wnx CijOse at End of Term 

The Jefferson School of Social Science, 18-year-old Marxist educational center 
In downtown Manhattan, will go out of existence at the end of the current term, 
its Board of Trustees announced yesterday. 

Founded in 1944, through the merger of the Workers School and the School for 
Democracy, the Jefferson School has had more than 120,000 enrollments in courses 
taught in its 9-story building at 575 Avenue of the Americas, and thousands 
more in extension classes and annexes. 

The School was included on the Attorney General's list of "subversive" organ- 
izations in December 1947 ; and since the spring of 1953 it has been involved in 
proceedings before the Subversive Activities Control Board, which on June 30 
of last year ordered the institution to register as a "Communist-front organiza- 
tion" under the Internal Security Act of 1950. The order is now being appealed 
in the U.S. Court of Appeals. 

The statement of the Trustee Board attributes its decision to close the Jeffer- 
son School to "unwarranted persecution by the Federal Government" in violation 
of the constitutional "rights of free speech and assembly." The resultant loss 
of operating income and "heavy cost of legal defense," the statement says, have 
"created a financial situation in which it is impossible for the School to continue 
its program." 

The Trustees expressed confidence "that the needs and interests of working 
people and others will bring into being new agencies and institutions for the fur- 
therance of Marxist education." 

Jefp School Closes 

The announced termination of existence by the Jefferson School of Social 
Science will be sincerely regretted by the thousands who have enrolled in its 
classes since 1944 and the many who still expected to do so. In its 12 years the 
institution has been a study center of Marxism with thousands who are today 
active progressive workers and leaders in numerous fields owing much to the 
inspiration and knowledge they received in that building on the Avenue of 
Americas. 

The most important fact that must be stated for the whole world to know is 
that the shutdown of the school is primarily due to the McCarranite-McCarthy- 
ite hysteria and persecutions. The "miracle" vras the ability of the school to 
continue operation through this entire shameful period, although on a curtailed 
scale. Tribute for that is due to courageous and self-sacrificing men and women 
of the school's faculty and the hundreds who, defying the inquisitors and stool- 
pigeons, stood by their right to enroll in such school. 

The current discussion and revaluation going on in this country as in the 
socialist camp throughout the world will undoubtedly clear much of the atmos- 
phere within the worlcing class movement. Before long we can expect a new and 
firmer basis to develop for the building of a new institution in the Jeff School 
tradition. 

The whole world ought to be told that in this land whose spokesmen and spe- 
cial radio apparatus abroad are so boastful of our "freedom," people who teach 
and study in "non-conformist" institutions like the Jefferson School are hounded, 
outlawed and persecuted by a special "dangerous thoughts" agency known as the 
Subversive Activities Control Board. 

Com/mittee Exhibit No. Jf. — Pages 7, 8, and 9 of the bulletin of the 
Jefferson School of Social Science, reflecting the courses of instruc- 
tion and instructors during the last term of the school held in the 
winter of 1956. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 977 

Committee Exhibit No. 4 

JEFFERSON SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 
WINTER 

1956 

(Courses & Instructors) 

DAILY SCHEDULE 

MONDAY 

6:45 

3a. Science of Society — Goldway 

7a. Coalition Policy: In Labor, Community, Politics — Williamson 

23. Imperialism and Politics — Perlo 

36. Culture and Traditions of the Jewish People, Part II — Bick 

41. U.S. History: Part II — Aptheker 

43. History of the African Slave Trade — Du Eoii 

55. The American Democratic Tradition: Part II — Selsam 

— Marxist Institute: 1st Year (Beginning) — Wilkerion 

8:30 

6. The Woman Question — Kleia 
10a. World Politics — Clark 

24. Boom and Bust in U.S. Economy — Goldway 
34. Zionism, Israel and the Middle East — Osheroff 
71. Dialeaical Materialism and the Arts — Pinkehtein 



TUESDAY 
[YOUTH NIGHT) 
6:30 

— Marxist Institute: Teen-Age (Coot, to June) — Louiitt 

6:45 

2. The Meaning of Marxism (Teen-Age) — Wilkerson 

25. Automation: Menace or Boon? — Green 

32. The Puerto Rican National Minority — Colon 

40. U.S. History Schools Don't Teach: Part I — Aptbeker 

i4. Great Depression and "New Deal" — Tjpser 

53. Ethics, Morality and Youth — Selsam 

63. Nature of the Physical World — Stacbel 

64. Psychology: Part II, Pavlov and Freud — Wells 

93. Guitar Playing and Song Leading: Part I — Sanders 

— Marxist Institute: 1st Year (C^nt. to June) — Sachs 

— Marxist Institute: 1st Year (Cont. to March) — Amur 

7:00 

91. Painting and Dfiwiag — Sfrickland 

8:30 

4. Socialism: What It is and How It Works — Wilkerson 

7b. Coalition Policy: In Labor, Community, Politics — Goldway 

21a. Elements of Political Economy: Part I — Prago 

22. Elements of Political Economy: Part II — Noble 

29. Marx's "Capital," Vols. U-IU: Part II— Weise 

47. Philosophy of History — -Aptheker 

*2. Dialectical and Hinorical Materialism — Wells 

58. Pragmatism: Theory and Impact — Selsam 

72. Fihn, Radio and T.V. Today — Piatt 

94. Guitar Playing and Song Leading: Part II — Sanders 



978 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



WEDNESDAY 

6:45 

3 b. Science of Society — Sachs 

21b. Elements of Political Economy: Part I — Goldway 

28. Marx's "Capital." Vol. I: Part U—Weiie 

35. China, India and Africa: New Role in World Politics — 

Warren, Hunlon and Guests 

57. Mao Tse-tung's "On Contradiction" — Wells 

62. Origin and Evolution of Life and Man — Weller 

73. Great Drama: Part II — Bradley 



7:00 

5. Labor and Politics in 1956 — Signer and Guests 
85. Jefferson Chess Club — Levitte 



8:30 

48. The State, the Class and the Nation — Coleman 

61. Dialeaical Materialism and the Sciences — Friedman 

67. Seminar in Child Development — Karlson 

74. How to Listen to Music — Finkelstein 

83. Conversational Spanish: Part I — Santiago 

84. Conversational Spanish: Part II — Agosto 



8:45 

9. New York Sute and City Politics — Gordon and Guests 
37! National Groups and National Minorities — Marshall and Loman 



THURSDAY 

10:00 A.M. 

92a. Sculpture — Goodelmar 

6:00 
92b. Sculpture — Goodelman 

6:45 

26. History of Economic Thought: Part I — Prago 
31. New Features of the Negro Question — Johnson 
42. Labor's Coming of Age: 1886-1929 — TJpser 

45. History of the Jews in the U.S.: Part II — Schappes 

46. History of Culture and Civilization: Part VII (in Yiddish) 
— Batlin 

51. What Is Philosophy? — Selsam 

81. Fiaion Writing — Hammett 

— Marxist Institute: 2nd Year (Beginning) — Allen 

— Marxist Institute: 2nd Year (Cont. to June) — Goldway 

7:00 

92c. Sculpture — Goodelman 



8:30 

I. History in the Making — Selsam and Guests 

3c. Science of Society — Oncher 

7c. Coalition Policy: In Labor, Community. Politics — Wilierson 

27. Marx's "Caoital," Vol. I: Part I — Prago 

33. The Jewish Question — Schappes 

34. Knowledge and Practice — Gordon 



8:45 

65. Child Development — Karlson 

SATURDAY 
10:30 A.M. 
10b. World Politics — Levint 

8 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 979 

GENERAL INFORMATEON 

CALENDAR: Winter Term, 1956. 

Enrollment begins January 3. 

Classes begin the week of January 16, 
and continue for 10 weeks. 

Holiday: February 22 (Wed.) — 
Washington's Birthday. 



ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: A genuine desire 
to learn, and the ability to read. Nothing more. 

FEE^ : $8.00 a course (unless otherwise indicated) , 
plus Library Fee of 50 cents. Payable in full at 
time of enrollment, except by special arrangement 
with Registrar. A special "Group Fee" of $2.00 
less than the regular fee is available for groups 
of five or more enrollments brought in from any 
organization. 

SCHOLARSHIPS: A limited fund exists to help 
needy students pay their fees. Preference is given 
to industrial workers, Negroes, Puerto Ricans, 
and persons active in trade union and community 
work. 

EXTENSION CLASSES AND LECTURES: Ar- 
ranged upon request. Preference to trade union- 
ists and groups in Negro, Puerto Rican and other 
working class neighborhoods. 

JEFFERSON FORUM: On important political ari^ 
cultural questions — held on Sunday evenings 
throughout the year. 

LIBRARY: More than 30,000 volumes, available 
for use by students and public. Open 1:00 to 
10:00 P.M., Monday through Thursday; Noon 
to 5:00 P.M., Friday and Saturday. 

JEFFERSON BOOKSHOP: OuUet for books of aU 
publishers, foreign and domestic. 



980 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Aeens. The following Committee Exhibits Nos. 5 through 9 
reflect a chronology of events since the dissolution of the Jefferson 
School of Social Science, begiiming with the formation in October- 
December 1957 of the Marxist Forum held at Academy Hall, New 
York City, and culminating in the formation of the Faculty of Social 
Science, also in New York City. 

Committee Exhibit No. 5 — Bulletin announcing the introduction of 
10 new classes in Marxist theory, which were held shortly after the 
closing of the Jefferson School of Social Science in October-Decem- 
ber 1957 at Academy Hall, New York City. The bulletin outlines 
courses and instructors. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



981 



Committee Exhibit No. 5 



mrrjiucmg 



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982 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



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Sljfe 4% S-". M. TH£ SOt'THTODAt 

A iat iua! survey »r,4 isirvda !?>«-?! tal 

p^rtp^ttives <j< tbs» »r«&, jsartu: iiSarSy 
nftting i« tfe* -most r<^!;<rnt pmosf, 

Among ta* py^ibJ«-ft!S to ij*- .;•:>»!- 

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4. World W«)r 1. %i»« X92&*c Ao^i «b« 

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*«<£:«■ »5»si pftaaoia. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



983 



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984 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Committee Exhibit No. 6 — Report from Daily Worker of January 6, 
1958 — a series of courses which were held shortly after the closing 
of the Jefferson School of Social Science in which known Communists 
were the instructors and in which the courses fairly well corresponded 
to the courses appearing in Committee Exhibit No. 4, (bulletin of the 
Jefferson School of Social Science) : 

New Term Jan. 20 

Twelve new classes and forums are announced to start at the Adelphi Hall, 
74 Fifth Ave., during the week of Jan. 20, given by the same group of veteran 
Marxist educators that carried through a series last November at the Academy 
Hall. 

Herbert Aptheker, Harold Collins, Myer Weise, and Harry K. Wells are among 
the teachers. Courses include : "New Problems in Theory," "Basic Principles of 
Marxism," "Struggle for Negro Freedom," and "Capitalist Economy." A teenage 
class, "The New World A-Coming," will be offered Saturday mornings. 

In addition to the Sunday Evening Forums, for which Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 
v. J. Jerome and others are already listed as guest speakers, there will be a new 
"Review of the Week" given on Friday evenings, with Harold Collins and 
others. Admission is $1. 

Fees for the classes are $5 for six sessions, $3 for the teenage class. 

For information, address Herbert Aptheker, c/o Adelphi Hall, 74 Fifth Ave. 

Committee Exhihit No. 7 — Article appearing in the Daily Worker of 
September 7, 1958, announces the creation and formation of a new 
school, known as the Faculty of Social Science : 

Faculty of Social Science Foemed 

Herbert Aptheker, editor of Political Affairs ; Victor Perlo, author of "The 
Empire of High Finance" ; Harry K. Wells, author of "Ivan Pavlov" ; Sidney 
Finkelstein, author of "Realism in Art" ; and Leon Josephson, author of "Soviet 
Law," are among the teachers in the newly formed Faculty of Social Science, 
which will be offering an opening Fall Term of 25 new classes in economics, 
history, the arts, philosophy, and Marxist theory, at their headquarters at 80 
East 11th Street starting the week of October 6th. 

Twenty-five new courses are scheduled in the Fall Term, with admission 
strictly limited to 25 students per class, in order to ensure full student par- 
ticipation in the class discussions. Among the topics are : "Socialism and Capi- 
talism," "Marxist Theory Today," "Social View of Art," "Soviet Law and 
Democracy," and "The World Today: Key Issues." Classes wiU meet once 
weekly, for a course of 7 sessions of one and one-half hours, starting at either 
6 :30 or 8 :30 P.M. Fee for each course is $6. 

Requests for catalogs, or other information should be addressed to The Faculty 
of Social Science, Room 227, 80 East 11th Street. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



985 



Committee Exhibits No. 8-A through S-D — Bulletin and articles an- 
nouncing the creation of the new school, the Faculty of Social Science, 
and samplings of its courses of instructions and instructors : 



8-A 







i; «^5 ei>-'"-n* 



■< ~ : c.v 



^L jL.iM: 



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986 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 









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COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 987 



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dnJ tin: -state, ljyre.'iUi.ra:v, ^v4a!,M!;^ t. 

!r '* r s.. V i'^ ~ ^ 

1n .... j . , , 



988 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 




COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 989 



990 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



bn-' 



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vl'ASs^ hKUii^diAie Will hi::, simc 






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T V Oi^ SOCIAL HCIENC 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 991 

8-B 

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43643— 5&—,pt. 1 3 



992 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

8-C (The Worker, Sunday, Oct. 26, 1958, p. 15) 
Classes fob Youth 

A new program of classes designed especially for youth will be launched by 
fhe Faculty of Social Science, at SO East 11th Street, Nov. 7. Five classes will 
be offered, to meet once weekly, either from 6 :45 to 8 :45 p.m. or from 8 :15 to 
9 :45 p.m.. for six consecutive Fridays, Nov. 7, 14, and 21, and December 5, 12, 
and 19. The full fee for each class is $3.50. 

Subjects in the new Youth Program include: "How History Is Made," "What 
Socialism Is," "The World We Live In" (for teenagers), "How Youth Organ- 
izes," and "How To Write Effectively." The staff of teachers includes Robert 
Thompson, Peggy Dennis, Harold Collins, Henry Klein, and Philip Bonosky. 
Brochures, registration forms, and all information about the Youth Program 
can be obtained at the Faculty's oflBce, beginning Monday, Oct 27. 



8-D (The Worker, Sunday, Oct. 19, 1958, p. 15) 
Joseph North at Forum Sunday 

"U.S.-USSR Cultural Exchange: What's In It For Us? What's In It Foi 
Them?" will be the theme of a talk by Joseph North, Worker editor and author 
of "No Men Are Strangers," at the Sunday Forum of the Faculty of Social 
Science at the Adelphi Hall, 74 Fifth Ave., on Sunday, Oct. 19, at 8 P.M. 

Final registrations for all classes in the Faculty's opening Fall Term schedule 
of classes will be taken at this Forum, including: Victor Perlo on "Socialism and 
Capitalism" ; Harry K. Wells on "Marxist Philosophy" ; Herbert Aptheker on 
"U.S. History" ; Myer Weise on "Political Economy" ; Leon Josephson on "Soviet 
Democracy" ; and Sidney Finkelstein on "A Social View of Music." 

Classes meet once weekly, at the Faculty's headquarters, 80 East 11th Street, 
near Broadway for seven 1% hour sessions, ending the week of Nov. 21. The fee 
is $6 for each. 

Committee Exhibit No. 9 — Excerpts from an article appearing in The 
Worker of January 11, 1959, by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, whose Com- 
munist record is, of course, notorious, in which she speaks of the Fac- 
ulty of Social Science as an excellent beginning to revive what was best 
in the Jefferson School of Social Science, and to add to it : 

Elizabeth Gukley Flynn 
basic marxism 

The result of all these attempts at a new look at capitalism, is confusion, 
which breeds inactivity in a struggle for a better world. Left organizations 
were wantonly dissolved as sectarian to make way for "mass movements" which 
did not exist or materialize. Those who suffered the most were the youth, de- 
prived of channels for study and activity. For them especially, the work of the 
Faculty of Social Science at 80 East 11 Street in reorganizing classes on the 
major issues of our day, is particularly important. Classes open on .January 
19 and continue to March 6. Registration started January 5. No more than 
25 students will be accepted in a class. So if you plan to go, I advise you to 
hurry. 

The courses are divided in three divisions, but so arranged that you can take 
two in an evening. They are: 1) On American Life; 2) On the World To- 
day; 3) On Marxist Theory. The names of the instructor are a guarantee that 
the subjects will be w^ell taught. For instance, on Monday there is Louis Wein- 
stock on trade union problems, and who knows them better? There is J. M. 
Budish on the Jewish question, also a veteran in this field. Herbert Aptheker 
deals with Ideas in Our Time, Human Freedom, Philosophy of History, and Our 
Country and People, on Mondays and Wednesdays. Tuesday presents James 



COMMUNIST TRATNTNTG OPERATIONS 993 

B. Jackson on the Negro question, Leon Josephson on Soviet Law, and William 
Albertson on Socialist Trends. Hyman Lumer teaches two classes on Wednes- 
day — the Amencan State and Political Economy. Aptheker is an outstanding 
historian, Lumer equally an authority on economics, Jackson is an expert in his 
field and Josephson has devoted years of study to his theme. A short bio- 
graphical note on the instructors would improve the bulletin, I suggest. 

* « * * * * * 

On Thursday night Victor Perlo, on Empire of Finance and Socialism and 
Capitalism, brings his wealth of knowledge to the school. Harry K. Wells on 
Thursday instructs on Dialectics and Psychology Today. Sidney Fink el stein 
lectures on Tuesdays on Art and Dialectics and Sue Warren has the New China 
as her theme. On Wednesday, Harold Collins and Meyer Weise deal with 
Marxist principles, so you can see it is an excellent beginning to revive what 
was best in the Jefferson School and add to it. 

Committee Exhtbit No. 10 — ^The "Worker of April 5, 1959, contains an 
article by Benjamin J. Davis, commenting on the creation of the 
Faculty of Social Science, headed by one whom he described as a 
famous Marxist scholar and historian, Herbert Aptheker, and which 
sets forth the nature of the school, its courses, and some of the in- 
structors : 

Davis Stresses Vital Role of Theory 

(By Benjamin J. Davis, chairman, New York State Communist Party) 

The Faculty of Social Science, headed by the distinguished Marxist scholar 
and historian, Herbert Optheker, will begin a new series of 7-week classes from 
April 13 to May 29. This is an event of tremendous importance and deserves 
a good deal more than a passive greeting no matter how well meaning. 

This is the only school in the whole of New York that bases itself upon the 
universal science of Marxism-Leninism — the science that is already transforming 
man's dreams into realities, and that is now the main source of inspiration of 
the national liberation movements of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. 

The school helps to link all that is fine in our country with all that's fine and 
noble the world over. 

It is not only a vital necessity to attend, but a privilege. In its varied and 
interesting classes there should be standing room only. 

One of the main reasons why modern day revisionism got such a strong grip on 
the left and Communist forces was the low educational level of many militant 
workers and progressives. Attendance at the Faculty of Social Science, along 
with self -study, reading, and mastery of theory, is vital to preventing a recur- 
rence of this debilitating sickness. 

At the same time, it equips advanced workers to more clearly identify and 
speedily root out all ideologies of capitulation to monopoly reaction and racism. 
Schooling stimulates the rich creativeness that Marxism alone can give our 
coimtry. 

We Communists, in particular, have to elevate working class theory to its 
rightful and preferred place in the labor and progressive movement, in the 
liberation struggles of the Negro people, among the Puerto Rican and other 
democratic militants. 

Only in this way can the Communist Party win mass recognition of its van- 
guard role and achieve with more swiftness and confidence its own reconstruc- 
tion. This requires bold selection and training of leaders, helping them with 
their schooling, impressing upon them the necessity of combining theory with 
practical activity, and especially does it mean giving attention to youth, Negro 
and Puerto Rican vporkers, trade unionists, and shop workers. 

I call upon all counties, sections, and clubs of the New York State Communist 
Party to avail themselves of the invaluable services of the Faculty of Social 
Science by designating April 13 to May 29 as "school for theory" period ; and to 
begin now to organize their members, friends, neighbors, and shop mates to 
attend the Faculty of Social Science. 



994 COMIVIUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, we would respectfully request that there 
be inserted at this point in the record the following documents pre- 
pared by the research unit of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities : 

Committee Exhibit No. 11. — Chart showing the Communist Party 
affiliation and teaching background of faculty members of the Faculty 
of Social Science ; 

Committee Exhibit No. 12. — Brief resume from our public files and 
testimony regarding the key individuals connected with the Faculty 
of Social Science, their Communist Party background, and activity 
in Communist training schools. 

The Chairman, Let all documents be made a part of the record. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 



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996 COMMUNIST TRAESriNG OPERATIONS 

Com/mittee Exhibit No. 12. — Key individuals connected with the 
Faculty of Social Science, their Communist Party background, and 
activity in Communist training schools : 

Herbert AptTieker 

Dr. Herbert Aptheker is an admitted Communist. Appearing as a 
witness for the defense of the Communist leaders being tried for 
Smith Act violations in 1949 and again in 1954, Dr. Aptheker testified 
that he had been an active member of the Conununist Party since he 
joined it in 1939. 

He invoked the fifth amendment, however, and refused to answer 
questions regarding liis Communist activities when appearing as a 
witness before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Government 
Operations in 1953. 

This Communist educator holds a Ph. D. degree from Columbia 
University and was a Guggenheim Fellow in History, 1946-^7. 

According to his own testimony he has been teaching at schools con- 
ducted by the Communist Party since 1940, when he was an mstructor 
at the School for Democracy. Tliis school was established by Com- 
munist teachers ousted from the public school system in New York 

At the Jefferson School of Social Science, established in 1944 
tlirough a merger of the old Conununist Party Workers School and 
the School for Democracy, Dr. Aptheker was a member of the faculty 
from approximately 1945 until the school closed in December 1956. 
In the early 1950's he was made a member of its board of trustees, a 
position he retained for the duration of the school's existence. 

Concurrently with his work at Jefferson, Herbert Aptheker was a 
functionary in the Communist Party and managing editor of Political 
Affairs, a montlily publication which calls itself a "Theoretical and 
Political Magazine of Scientific Socialism," but is in reality the Com- 
munist Party's theoretical organ. 

Organized Marxist education was brought to a standstill with the 
closing of the Jefferson School. Witliin a year the Communist press 
announced the opening of "Ten New Classes in Marxist Theory and 
Its Applications" to be held at Academy Hall in New York City. 

Herbert Aptheker was scheduled to teach "New Problems in Marxist 
Theory" ; he also lectured at the Marxist Forums held at the same ad- 
dress. 

In 1958 the Marxist Forums were held in Adelphi Hall, New York 
City, and the Communist press advised that inquiries be addressed to 
Herbert Aptheker. 

The reestablisliment of organized Marxist study was announced in 
September 1958. The new Communist training school, established 
under the name "Faculty of Social Science" was headed by Dr. Her- 
bert Aptheker. In addition to serving as director of the school, Dr. 
Aptheker, together with Harold Collins, heads its teaching staff and 
conducts courses in several subjects including "Marxist Theory 
Today" the study of "relations among Socialist nations; paths to 
socialism." 



COMMtJNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 997 

Harold Collins 

Harold Collins has been described in the Daily Worker as a "vet- 
eran Marxist educator." He was identified as a Communist Party 
recruiter by former undercover agent, Mildred Blauvelt in testimony 
before the Committee on Un-American Activities on May 4, 1955. 

Testifying before the Subversive Activities Control Board in 1954, 
Frank Meyer identified Collins as a party member and functionary 
while he was a teacher at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Harold Collins served at that institution as secretary, 1944; and 
was chairman of the Marxist-Leninist Institute committee. It "was 
the purpose of the Institute to develop Communist Party function- 
aries." ^ 

According to the school's catalog, 1948, he was also in charge of 
public relations. In 1956 he was listed on the teaching staff; his 
subject was "History in the Making" — the "Marxist interpretation 
of major events and issues in the news." 

Mr. Collins was among the group of "Marxist educators" to hold 
classes at the Marxist Forums at Academy Hall in 1957, and at 
Adelphi Hall in 1958. 

He was one of the group of former Jefferson School of Social 
Science and Marxist Forum teachers who comprised the original 
staff of the Faculty of Social Science when that organization was 
established in September 1958. 

Prior to the opening of the Winter 1959 semester, the Daily Worker 
published an article "Education Eoundup" written by Harold Col- 
lins, in which he claimed that several hundred people "attended the 
classes given at Adelphi Hall during the last school year by members 
of what has now become The Faculty [of Social Science]." Declar- 
ing that it is "essential that we all keep our eyes on the educational 
achievements of the U.S.S.K. and the People's Republic of China," 
Mr. Collins asserted that "not one of us can afford to do without the 
kind of education that the Faculty of Social Science is now offering." 

Collins is secretary of this new Communist training school and, 
with Herbert Aptheker, heads the teaching staff. In addition to his 
work in adult education, he is also one of the teachers in the "new 
program of classes for youth." 

Myer Weise 

Myer Weise, veteran Communist educator and authority on Marx- 
ism-Leninism, has been teaching in Communist training schools since 
at least 1937. 

In that year Mr. Weise, a native of the Ukraine, became a citizen 
of the United States. He was, in the same year, teaching at the 
Workers School and, according to the school catalog, his subject, 
"Marxism-Leninism II," would "give the student an imderstanding 
of the theory and tactics of the proletarian revolution, hammered out 
and tested in the years of struggle throughout the world * * *. The 
course will include * * * the application of these basic Leninist 



» Subversive Activities Control Board, Docket No. 107-53, June 30, 1955, p. 23. 



998 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

principles to the strategic and tactical question facing the revolu- 
tionary movement today." 

At the Jefferson School of Social Science, Mr, Weise taught such 
subjects as: "The Soviet Union Today," "Principles of Scientific 
Socialism," and Marx's "Capital." 

He was one of the group of Marxist educators to conduct classes 
at the Marxist Forums at Academy Hall in 1957; and when the 
Fonnns were held in Adelphi Hall in 1958, Mr. Weise also taught 
there. 

When, in 1958, organized Marxist education was reestablished 
with the formation of the Faculty of Social Science, Mr. Weise was 
a member of the original teaching staff and has remained at the 
Faculty in the capacity of instructor and lecturer at each of the 
school's terms. 

Joseph Nahem 

Joseph Nahem was identified as a "Communist" in the Daily Work- 
er, March 16, 1946. 

His work with Communist training schools began in approximately 
1948 at the Jefferson School of Social Science, where he served as an 
instructor and speaker from that date until 1953. In 1956, the 
Jefferson catalog again listed Mr. Nahem as an instructor and noted 
that he would teach : "Institute Advanced : Philosophy." 

In 1959 the Communist press noted that he would be on the teach- 
ing staff of the Faculty of Social Science, his subjects: "Dialectics 
and Science" — "Material dialectics in the theory and practice of the 
natural law" and "The Nature of Consciousness" — "A scientific ap- 
proach to human consciousness, based on Pavlov's work, and the 
science of society." 

Irviiig Potash 

Irving Potash was one of the eleven top Communist leaders con- 
victed in 1949 of conspiracy to teach and advocate the violent over- 
throw of the United States Government. 

After serving three years and five months of his sentence Potash 
was released from prison. He was immediately rearrested on an 
untried second count of the Smith Act, making it illegal to knowingly 
belong to a party which advocates violent overthrow of the Govern- 
ment. 

Rather than face another five years in prison, if convicted, Potash, 
who came to this country in 1913, agreed to voluntary deportation to 
Poland and sailed for Europe in 1955. 

According to the Daily Worker, August 23, 1956, Potash was tour- 
ing Communist China as an observer and correspondent. The Worker 
noted that, on the completion of his trip in late September, Potash 
would write a series of articles on his observations of the New China. 

In January 1957, the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested 
Potash in New York on charges of illegal re-entry. He was given a 
two-year prison sentence and released in August 1958. According to 
the Daily AVorker, Potash has been denied readmission to Poland and 
is currently under supervisory parole. There is outstanding against 
him a permanent order for deportation. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 999 

Among the teachers for the Spring 1959 tenn, the Faculty of Social 
Science announced that Irving Potash would be teaching "Current 
Labor Issues." 

Hymfhorn Lumer 

Hyman Lumer's Communist Party membership has been well estab- 
lished. He was identified in testimony before the Committee on Un- 
American Activities by Arthur P. Strunk, former undercover agent 
for the FBI. On September 13, 1954, Mr. Strunk testified that Lu- 
mer was educational director of the Communist Party in Ohio and 
liad taught in Communist training schools in the Dayton area. 

On November 26, 1956, former Communist David W. Garfield tes- 
tified under oath that Hyman Lumer was a member of the Ohio State 
Committee of the Communist Party in 1948. Appearing as a witness 
before the Committee on Un-American Activities on November 27 of 
the same year, Mr. Lumer invoked the first and fifth amendments 
and refused to answer questions pertaining to his membership or activi- 
ties in the Communist Party. He also refused to either affirm or deny 
his acquaintance with Mr. Garfield. 

In October 1958, Hyman Lumer w'as convicted of conspiring to file 
false non-Communist affidavits under the Taft-Hartley law. He was 
released on bail, pending appeal. 

Hyman Lumer, whose position in the Communist Party has been 
elevated to that of national educational director, was one of the teach- 
ers at the Marxist Forums held in Adelphi Hall in 1958, and is 
currently listed as a member of the teaching staff at the Faculty of 
Social Science. His subjects include : "The American State" and "A 
First Course in Marxism." 

Philip S. Foner 

Dr. Philip Foner was suspended from his position as an instructor 
in history at the City College of New York in 1941 following the 
Rapp-Coudert committee's investigation into subversive activities in 
the public school system. 

He was identified as a member of the Communist Party in testimony 
before the Subversive Activities Control Board in 1955, and was one 
of the persons found to have functioned continuously since 1949 as 
a member of the board of trustees of the Jefferson School of Social 
Science who had been a member or functionary of the Communist 
Party concurrently with being a school trustee. 

Appearing as a witness before the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee on May 9, 1956, Dr. Foner invoked the fifth amendment 
and refused to answer questions pertaining to his Communist Party 
membership. 

Dr. Foner was one of the original staff of teachers when the School 
for Democracy was formed in 1941. When the Jefferson School was 
organized in 1944, he was listed as one of its instructors and lecturers, 
and served at the school in that capacity until the early 1950's, ac- 
cording to his testimony before the Senate subcommittee. 

Concurrently with his work at the Jefferson School, Philip Foner 
served as an instructor at the Walt Whitman School, a Communist 
Party school in Newark, N.J. In addition, he lectured at the Abra- 



1000 COMMUlSriST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

ham Lincoln School, a Communist Party school which, according to 
the party press, was "the first people's school in the Midwest." ^ 

In January 1955 the Daily People's World announced that "Dr. 
Philip Foner, leading American historian," would be teaching at the 
California Labor School for the winter term which would open on 
January 16. 

He was one of the "well-known writers and educators" who, accord- 
ing to the Daily Worker, October 11, 1957, would conduct classes at 
the new Marxist Forum in Academy Hall. 

At the Faculty of Social Science, according to the Worker, Febru- 
ary 8, 1959, Dr. Foner's efforts have been directed toward the "new 
youth program of classes for teenagers." 

Sidney Finhelstein 

Appearing as a witness before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities in April 1957, Sidney Finkelstein invoked the fifth amend- 
ment and refused to answer questions pertaining to his membership 
in the Communist Party. He also refused to either affirm or deny that 
he was cultural spokesman for the party. 

As an instructor and lecturer at the Jefferson School of Social Sci- 
ence, 1947 through 1956, Sidney Finkelstein taught such subjects as 
"Marxism and Culture," "Dialectical Materialism and the Arts," - 
"Philosophy of Art," and "Culture and the Working Class." 

In 1955 and 1956 Mr. Finkelstein was a member of the faculty and 
on the board of directors at the Metropolitan Music School, an organ- 
ization "controlled by Communists." This work was in addition to 
his duties at the Jefferson School. 

At the Marxist Formns held in Academy Hall in 1957, Mr. Finkel- 
stein's subject was "Social Philosophy of the Arts: A Marxist 
Analysis." 

At the 1958 forums in Adelphi Hall, his subjects included "Dia- 
lectics and the 'Arts," and "Marxist Theory Today." When the 
Faculty of Social Science was formed in the latter part of that year, 
Mr, Finkelstein was on its original teaching staff and, according to 
the Daily Worker, has taught at each of the school's subsequent terms. 

Henry Klein 

Henry Klein was identified as a member of the Communist Party 
by former Communist William M. Canning. Appearing as a witness 
before the Rapp-Coudert Committee in 1941, Mr. Canning told of 
a Communist meeting he attended with Mr. Klein and described it as 
a "conference of historians in the party, from various colleges, to dis- 
cuss a plan for the issuing of pamphlets, brochures, concerning Amer- 
ican histoiy." 

On June 7, 1941, the New York World Telegram reporting on the 
Rapp-Coudert investigations noted that Henry Klein "refused to 
testify" when he was "called to the witness stand to answer under 
oath whether or not he was a Communist." He was then dropped 
from the teacliing rolls in the New York City public school system. 

In October of that year the International Workers Order, a Com- 
munist front organization, announced that Henry Klein had been ap- 
pointed as its new "Educational director of New York City." 



* New Masses, June 6, 1944, p. 31. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1001 

As an instructor at the Jefferson School of Social Science, 1947 
through 1953, and the 1956 Fall and Winter terms, Mr. Klein taught 
such subjects as "Capitalism and Socialism : Introduction to Marx" — 
"Socialism as an inevitable stage in history * * * The American Eoad 
to Socialism." 

In 1957 at the Marxist Forums in Academy Hall, Mr. Klein's sub- 
ject was "Changing Systems : The Marxist View of Human History." 

When in October 1958 the Faculty of Social Science launched its 
"new program of classes designed especially for youth" Henry Klein 
was listed as one of the teaching staff. Continuing at the Faculty 
through 1959, his subjects include "Marxist Theory of the State." 

Susan Warren 

Susan Warren's membership in the Communist Party is a matter of 
public record. In addition to the publicity given by the Daily Worker 
to her work for the party, the 1948 catalog for the Jefferson School of 
Social Science records that Miss Warren, one of the teachers at the 
school, was a former "Educational Director, N.Y. County Committee, 
Communist Party." 

Appearing as a witness before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities on July 26, 1957, Miss Warren invoked the first and fifth 
amendments, refusing to answer questions pertaining to her member-- 
sliip in, or her efforts in behalf of, the Communist Party. 

As an instructor at the Jefferson School in the late 1940's and early 
1950's, Miss Warren taught such subjects as "Capitalism and the 
Class Struggle," "The New China." In 1955 and 1956 her subjects 
included "China, India and Africa : New Eole in World Politics." 

At the Marxist Forums held in Adelphi Hall in early 1958, China 
was again the subject of her lecture. In December of that year Miss 
Warren was scheduled to teach "On the Correct Handling of Contra- 
dictions Among the People" at the Faculty of Social Science. 

As a member of the teaching staff of the Faculty in 1959, the 
Worker noted that Sue Warren would teach "The Chinese Com- 
munes." 

Louis Weinstock 

Louis Weinstock, a member of the Communist Party politboro, has 
been described by the Department of Justice as one of the top Com- 
munist leaders. 

Weinstock's work in Communist training schools dates back to the 
early 1940's when he taught at the New York Workers School. 

He was one of the Jefferson School teachers convicted under the 
Smith Act of willfully and knowingly conspiring to teach and ad- 
vocate the overthrow and destruction of the Government by force and 
violence and to advocate and teach the duty and necessity of over- 
throwing and destroying the Government by force and violence. 

At the Jefferson School of Social Science, Weinstock's subjects in- 
cluded "Marxism and Labor." After his conviction in January 1953, 
while his case was pending appeal, Weinstock continued to teach at the 
Jefferson School on the "Problems of Progressives in Right-Led 
Unions" and "Progressives in Trade Unions." 

In 1957 he lectured at the Marxist Forums in Academy Hall and is 
currently an instructor on labor problems at the Faculty of Social 
Science. 



1002 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Leon Josephson 

Leon Josephson was identified as bein<j: a Communist and agent of 
Soviet Kussia as far back as the late 1920's by Fred E. Beal, a former 
Communist who testified before the committee in 1939. Josephson 
was again identified on March 21, 1947, by Liston M. Oak, a former 
Communist who had served on the editorial staff of the Daily Worker. 

Josephson appeared at hearings held by the Committee on Un- 
American Activities on March 5, 1947, refused to be sworn, and refused 
to give testimony. The following day the Daily Worker issued 
a statement by Josephson in which he proudly declared: "I am a 
Communist * * * I am not ashamed of what I did ; on the contrary 
I am proud of it." Josephson was convicted of contempt of Congress 
and served a prison sentence. 

Subsequent to his release he gave a series of lectures at the Jeffer- 
son School of Social Science in 1949, and in 1950 taught a course on 
"Marxism and the Law." Li an article on that subject, entitled 
"Justice is Dollar Made — Marxism-Leninism on trial," Josephson 
declared that the principle of Marxism-Leninism "can only flourish 
when — the individual liberty of the capitalist is denied * * *." 

In 1954 Josephson was scheduled to teach a course on "Soviet Life" 
in which he would evaluate current anti-Soviet propaganda in the 
light of actual developments in the U.S.S.R, In 1956 the Jefferson 
School announced that his subject would be "The U.S. Constitution: 
Origin and Development." 

When the Faculty of Social Science was formed, Leon Josephson 
was a member of the original teaching staff. According to announce- 
ments in the Worker, he has conducted classes at each subsequent 
term. This individual, who has publicly declared : "If I attempted to 
undermine or overthrow the Soviet state, I would deserve the merited 
fate of all enemies of the people," ^ is teaching such subjects as "Soviet 
Democracy" and "Background: From the 20th to the 21st Soviet 
Party Congress" at the Faculty of Social Science. 

Esther Cantor 

Esther Cantor has been one of the leaders in the Communist Party 
organization in New^ York State since at least 1940. In that year she 
was organizational secretary of the Industrial Section of the Com- 
munist Party. She has also functioned in the capacity of Manhattan 
legislative director ; as a member of the New York County Committee ; 
New York State legislative director; and is currently a member of 
the New York State Committee of the Communist Party. 

In December 1956 she w^as a panelist at the Jefferson School of 
Social Science; the discussion, "Do U.S. Marxists Need a Communist 
'Party'?" 

In 1958 Mrs. Cantor lectured at the Faculty of Social Science on 
"The Struggle for a 3rd Party" and in April 1959 was listed as a 
member of the teaching staff at the school. 

Henry Black 

In 1944, when the Workers School (official school of the Communist 
Party) was merged with the School for Democracy to form the Jeffer- 
son School of Social Science, the library of the Workers School was 



' Mainstream, September 1&67, letters to the editor. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1003 

put into the Jefferson School, and added to it was the Ruthenberg 
Library, the official library of the Communist Party headquarters. 
The library, which was located at the Workers School in party head- 
quarters at 35 E. 12th Street, carried "the largest jNIarxist-I^ninist 
collection in this country," according to the AVorkers School catalog, 
fall term 1943. 

Henry Black was appointed librarian at the Jefferson School in 
1944 and remained at the school in that capacity throughout the 
school's existence. 

Since the closing of the Jefferson School of Social Science Mr. 
Black has been appointed librarian at the Social Science Library, lo- 
cated at 34 West 15th Street, New York City. 

In its 1958 schedule of courses, the Faculty of Social Science noted 
that students of the Faculty "are encouraged to use the facilities of 
the Social Science Library, at 34 West 15th Street." 

Joseph North 

Joseph North's membership in the Communist Party is a matter 
of public record. He became editor of the Communist Sunday Work- 
er when it was first published in 1936. His colimin in the Daily 
Worker has appeared for more than 25 years, and he was editor of 
the weekly journal of the Communist Party, New Masses, from 1939 
until 1948. 

In addition to his record as an open Communist, Mr. North's activ- 
ities in behalf of the Communist conspiracy have been described by 
several witnesses in testimony before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities and the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee. 

On May 6, 1950, Elizabeth Bentley in sworn testimony described 
North as a "look-out man" for Russian intelligence. 

Winston Burdett, in testimony before the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee on June 28, 1955, said that Joseph North had given him 
a party assigimient which required that Burdett travel to Finland in 
1940, during the Russian-Finnish war. 

Appearing as a witness before the Senate subcommittee on May 3, 
1956, Joseph North invoked the fifth amendment and refused to answer 
questions pertaining to his membership in the Communist Party, his 
contact with Soviet intelligence, or his acquaintance with Winston 
Burdett. 

In the early 1940's Joseph North was an instructor and lecturer at 
the official Communist Party's Workers School. 

He taught at the Jefferson School of Social Science in the late 1940's 
and in 1950. In 1953 he was listed as a lecturer. In 1956 the Jefferson 
School announced that Joseph North would lecture on "History in the 
Making." 

At the 1957 Marxist Forum in Academy Hall, Joseph North was 
listed as one of the speakers. 

He spoke on "China's Progress and Our National Interest" and on 
"Cuba and You" at Social Science Forums held in 1959 at the Adelphia 
Hotel, Philadelphia. 

Mr. North has also lectured at the Sunday Forum of the Faculty of 
Social Science on the subject of "U.S.-U.S.S.R. Cultural Exchange: 
What's In It For Us? Wliat'sInltFor Them?" ■ 



1004 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Harry K. Wells 

Harry K. Wells was identij&ed as a member of the Communist Party 
in testimony before the Subversive Activities Control Board during 
the Board's hearings pertaining to the Jefferson School of Social 
Science in 1954. 

Marlane M. Kowall, who during her membership in the Communist 
Party had supplied information to the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, identified Wells as a member of the party. In sworn testimony 
shB told the SACB that she had attended the Jefferson School of 
Social Science and the Marxist Institute (within the Jefferson School) . 
She attended classes conducted by H. K. Wells ; and, according to the 
witness, Wells told his students that they "were being trained as Party 
leaders in the Communist movement and in the 'revolution' ".^ Miss 
Kowall stated further that Wells "instructed that as Party members 
the students must abandon any idea of God and encourage others to 
do likewise".^ 

Wells taught at the Jefferson School from 1947 until it closed in 
1956. His subjects included "Dialectical and Historical Material- 
ism," "Mao Tse-Tung's 'On Contradiction,' " "What is Philosophy," 
"The Science of Society," and "Pragmatism." Wells' book on Prag- 
matism was to be used as a basis for a course at the California Labor 
School, a Communist training school in San Francisco. 

At the 1957 Marxist Forums in Academy Hall, Wells was scheduled 
to conduct classes on "Pavlov and Freud." At the 1958 Forums in 
Adelphi Hall he taught "Psychology and Psychiatry in the U.S." and 
"Dialectics : Hegel to Mao." 

Wells was listed among the instructors on the original staff of the 
Faculty of Social Science in September 1958. He has also been listed 
as a member of the faculty for the current year. 

Philip Bonosky 

Philip Bonosky's articles and stories have appeared in the Commu- 
nist press with increasing regularity since at least 1947. Since that 
year the Communist weekly national magazine. New Masses, has been 
a regular outlet for Bonosky's writings. 

His work in Communist training schools apparently began in 1950 
when he was a member of the faculty at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science. As an instructor in that institution until approximately 
1955, Bonosky taught such subjects as "Writings for Progressives," 

Mr. Bonosky was a participant in Marxist Forums in 1957 and an 
instructor in the youth classes held by the Faculty of Social Science in 
1958 and 1959. 

His article in The Worker, June 21, 1959, is datelined from Moscow, 
where he attended the "Third Writers Congress of the writers of the 
Soviet Union." In this report on the Congress, Mr. Bonosky bestows 
warm praise upon the Soviet writers and upon Mr. Khrushchev. Re- 
calling his interview with Khrushchev, Bonosky said : "We stood then 
beneath the insignia of the Czars, military victories emblazoned on the 
walls around us and I said to Khrushchev that the greatest proof to 
me that workers really owned and ran this country was our standing 
here in the Kremlin — an ex steelwoker [sic] and an ex miner — and 



^ SACB Docket No. 107-53, AO v. Jefferson School of Social Science, June 30, 1955, p. 77. 
» Ibid-, p. 87. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1005 

drinking a toast together. He agreed and said, quoting from the In- 
ternationale : 'We have been naught; we shall be all * * *.' " 

William L. Patterson 

William L. Patterson was described as a "brilliant" Communist by 
the Daily Worker, November 28, 1936. His activities in the Commu- 
nist conspiracy have been described by several witnesses in testimony 
before the Committee on Un-American Activities, the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee, and the Subversive Activities Control Board. 

Patterson has been an openly avowed member and functionary of 
the Communist Party for many years, has held positions on the party's 
highest committees, and is currently business manager of the Com- 
munist newspaper, The Worker. 

Appearing as a witness before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities on April 22, 1959, Patterson invoked the first amendment 
to the Constitution, refusing to affirm or deny his membership in the 
Communist Party. 

In addition to his duties in various phases of the Communist move- 
ment, Patterson has served as an instructor in several of the party's 
training schools. For the years 1939-1942 he was listed as an in- 
structor at the Chicago Workers School, which functioned in con- 
junction with the party's District Educational Commission. At the 
Abraham Lincoln School — successor to the Workers School — Patter- 
son was a member of the board of trustees, assistant director, in- 
structor, and lecturer. 

In 1950 Patterson became an instructor at the Jefferson School of 
Social Science and in 1952 was appointed to the board of trustees for 
that institution. He was one of the board members who functioned in 
that capacity concurrently with being a functionary of the Communist 
Party. 

In November 1958 Patterson lectured at the Faculty of Social Sci- 
ence and was listed as an instructor for the Faculty's 1959 spring and 
summer courses. 

Arnold Johnson 

Arnold Johnson is legislative director of the Communist Party of 
the United States and has held that position in the party since the 
late 1940's. According to his testimony before the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee on May 15, 1959, his entire efforts, since the 
early 1940's, have been in the interests and on behalf of the Communist 
Party. 

In 1953 Arnold Johnson was convicted under the Smith Act of 
wilfully and knowingly conspiring to teach and advocate the over- 
throw and destruction of the Government by force and violence, and 
to advocate and teach the duty and necessity of overthrowing and 
destroying the Government by force and violence. 

In the same year, and in 1954 while his case was in appeal, Mr. 
Johnson was an instructor at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

In March 1959 the Communist press announced that Mr. Johnson 
would teach at the Faculty of Social Science. 

William Albertson 

William Albertson, elected state secretary of the New York State 
Communist Party in 1958, has been one of the principal leaders in the 
Communist Party for more than a decade. Offices he has held in the 



1006 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

party include : Secretary of the National Labor Commission, district 
secretary in "Western Pennsylvania, executive secretary for the State 
of Pennsylvania, executive secretary of the Communist Party of Mich- 
igan, and labor secretary of the New York State Communist Party. 

As a guest speaker at the Faculty of Social Science in November 
1958, William Albertson was scheduled to present "A Communist 
Evaluation * * * of the 1958 Elections." In December of that year 
he was listed as an instructor in courses on "The Problems of Left 
Unity." 

As a member of the 1959 teaching staff at the Faculty, Mr. Albert- 
son's subjects include "Socialist Currents in the United States." 

Victor Perlo 

In testimony before the Committee on Un-American Activities on 
July 31, 1948, Elizabeth Bentley identified Victor Perlo as a member 
of the Communist Party and head of a Communist espionage group 
operating within the Federal Government. In December 1955, Her- 
bert Fuchs testified that he was required, during his membership in 
the party, to contact Victor Perlo whenever he needed advice or 
instructions from the Communist Party. 

Appearing as a witness before the committee on August 9, 1948, Mr. 
Perlo invoked the first and fifth amendments and refused to answer 
questions pertaining to his membership in the Communist Party. He 
invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer questions pertain- 
ing to espionage. On February 23, 1956, Mr, Perlo again appeared as 
a witness before the Committee on Un-American Activities and in- 
voked the fifth amendment, refusing to testify regarding his activities 
in the Communist Party. 

Victor Perlo has been described as a "Marxist economist" by Com- 
munist Party chairman, William Z. Foster. 

As an instructor at the Jefferson School of Social Science from 1949 
tlirough 1953, and again in 1956, Perlo taught courses in economics. 
According to the school catalog, the courses aimed "to present the 
main elements of Marxist theory and practice." 

He was scheduled to conduct a course on "Monopoly and High 
Finance" at Academy Hall in November 1957 and to lecture at the 1958 
Marxist Forums in Adelphi Hall. 

^Vhen the formation of the Faculty of Social Science was announced 
in September 1958, Victor Perlo was listed as a member of the original 
teaching staff. 

His subjects for the 1959 Faculty sessions included "The Problems 
of Automation," and "The New Seven Year Plan" at a course being 
given on the Twenty-First Soviet Party Congress. 

Jef^us Colon 

In testimony before the Committee on Un-American Activities on 
May 5, 1955, former undercover agent Mildred Blauvelt identified 
Jesus Colon as a member of the Communist Party. 

His membership on the New York State Committee of the Com- 
munist Party was publicly announced in the Daily Worker, April 
3, 1957. 

In 1955 he became a member of the staff of the Daily Worker. His 
column "As I See It From Here" appears regularly in The Worker. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1007 

Colon was listed as a lecturer at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science in 1944. In 1952 he became a member of the teaching staff and 
remained at the school in that capacity until it was closed in 1956. 

At the 1957 Marxist Forums in Academy Hall, Mr. Colon was 
scheduled to teach classes on "The Puerto Ricans in the U.S." He 
also lectured at the Brooklyn Marxist Youth Forum in 1958. 

In its schedule of courses for the 1958 fall term, the Faculty of 
Social Science announced that Jesus Colon would teach in the Span- 
ish language "Elementos De Marxismo" [Elements of Marxism]. 

James E. Jackson 

James E. Jackson is secretary of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party of the United States. He is also party secretary 
for Southern and Negro affairs. At the 21st Congress of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union held in February 1959, Jackson, 
representing tlie Communist Party of the United States, addressed 
the Congress and told it that the Communist Party of the United 
States "lives"" and that its "prospects for growth" and influence and 
numbers are real prospects." ^ 

In the early 1950's Mr. Jackson's work in Communist training 
schools consisted primarily of lectures on the "Negro Question" at the 
Jefferson School of Social Science. 

In 1958 Jackson was scheduled to conduct classes on "The Path to 
Socialism" at the Marxist Forums at Adelphi Hall. He was also 
among the instructors conducting classes at the Faculty of Social 
Science in October 1958 and after liis return from the Soviet Union in 
1959. 



Mr. Arens. The first witness, if you please, will be Mr. Frank S. 
Meyer. 

Kindly come forward, Mr. Meyer, and remain standing while the 
chairman administers an oath. 

The Chairman. You do swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Meyer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK S. MEYER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Meyer. Frank S. Meyer. I live in Woodstock, N.Y. I am at 
present editor of National Eeview and a writer. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell the committee, Mr. Meyer, where and when 
you were born. 

Mr. Meyer. I was born in Newark, N. J., May 9, 1909. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word, please, sir, respecting your educa- 
tion. 

Mr. Meyer. I went to Newark Academy, then to Princeton, spent 
a year and a half at Princeton ; went to England, where I took my 
degree at Balliol College, Oxford University, and then did graduate 



1 Recording of speech Inserted In record of Senate Internal Security Subcommittee Hear- 
ings on Proposed Antisubverslon Legislation, April 29, 1959, page 281. 

43643— 59— pt. 1 4 



1008 COMMUNIST TRATNESTG OPERATIONS 

work at the London School of Economics and the University of 
Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Meyer, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Metek. I have. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly now, at your own pace, proceed to 
highlight for the committee your career in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Meter. I joined the Communist Party while I was at Oxford. 

Mr. Arens. What year, please, sir ? 

Mr. Meter. 1931, late. 1931-32, that winter. 

I was president of a Communist club at Oxford called the October 
Club. I then went to London to study the next year, the next two 
years, during which time I was secretary of the Student Bureau of 
the Communist Party of Great Britain and a member of the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party of Great Britain. 

I was involved in various activities which led to my permission to 
remain in Great Britain being removed by the government. I then 
was in Paris for about three or four months, working with various 
Communist organizations, primarily the International Committee 
Against War and Fascism. 

I came back to the United States and, over a period of years, I 
was active mainly in Chicago, in Illinois, Indiana — in the Illinois- 
Indiana District of the Communist Party, where I was director of 
the Chicago Workers School, educational director of the Illinois- 
Indiana District, in various organizational work in the Illinois- 
Indiana District, and during that time I wrote fairly frequently for 
the Communist theoretical organ, then known as The Communist, 
and various other writings in Communist papers, and miscellaneous 
organizational work. 

I entered the Army in 1942, spent nine months there. I had some 
difficulty with my feet on the basis of which I left finally, and had 
two operations on my feet which kept me in isolation from all activity 
for about a year. During that time I was moving very rapidly 
toward leaving the party. 

My final break with the party came in 1945. During that last 
year, I taught at the Jefferson School and did various writing 
around New York. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, since your disassociation from the formal 
entity known as the Communist Party, maintained a continuing 
interest in studying the machinations of the international Commu- 
nist conspiracy and of the operation of the Communist conspiracy 
in the United States ? 

Mr. Meter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Meyer, based upon your background and experi- 
ence in the Communist Party, could you express to this committee 
what factors led to the successes which the Communist operation has 
had over the world in the course of the last generation ? 

Mr. Meter. I would, myself, say that the major factor has been 
that at the time when the West and the United States have, to a very 
large degree, lost the hard faith in their ancient heritage, when our 
schools and our society are teaching a relativism that eats away 
at the great traditions of the West and of American freedom, on 
the other hand the Communists and the Communist movement stand 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1009 

for their evil cause determined, deeply convinced, and fired with a 
zeal wliich we have not been able to match because of lack of will 
and understanding of the greatness which we have and which we 
should be fighting for. 

Mr. Aeens. How serious is the Communist operation based upon 
your background and experience in the operation and as a student 
of communism? How serious is the Communist movement now, at 
this instant ? 

Mr. Meter. As serious as it is conceivable to think of it. The 
only way it would be more serious is if it had already conquered the 
whole world, instead of merely two-thirds of it. 

Mr. Arens. Who is winning the struggle now as between inter- 
national communism and the forces of freedom ? 

Mr. Meter. All one has to do to answer that question is to look at 
the record of the last 13 or 14 years, in which most of the continent 
of Asia, except for the subcontinent of India and a few peninsulas, 
like Korea, in which all of the European land mass except a small 
western area, has fallen to the Communists, in which they have pene- 
trated within the last few years the Middle East, leapfrogging Turkey, 
and getting firm foundations in Syria, Egypt and throughout the 
ISiiddle East, and have now, in recent months, entered the Caribbean 
and established a platform, a foundation for their military and politi- 
cal might in the Island of Cuba. 

In other words, my answer is that we have not won a major victory 
in the cold war in the years since World War II, and will not win one 
until we are prepared to reject the position that we are on the de- 
fensive, that, after all, we can learn to live with these people; and 
learn to take the aggressive. 

(At this point Mr. Johansen entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Is coexistence with the Communist empire, peaceful 
coexistence, possible? 

Mr. JVIeter. Only on their terms, and their terms mean a gradual 
surrender, mitil such a point that we have been sufficiently softened 
and sufficiently weakened to make a final and complete surrender or a 
final and desperate fight. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the situation with respect to the Communist 
Party in the United States and the Communist operation? It is 
common knowledge that the formal entity known as the Communist 
Party has been reduced in size. 

Would you comment upon the comparative threat of the Communist 
operation in view of that fact ? 

(At this point Mr. Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. JVIeter. I would say that when one is speaking of communism 
and Communists, the best definition of the Communist is not neces- 
sarily one who holds a card in a formal membership roll of the Com- 
munist Party, but should be defined as anyone who accepts Com- 
munist discipline and lives by it, and that means, of course, the 
members of the Communist Party as officially defined, and it also 
means a considerable nmnber of other people who, for one reason or 
another, are not formal members on membership rolls, et cetera. 

Therefore, what one is really asking about here is the hard core, the 
cadre, as the Communists call it, using an old military term, of the 
Communist operation. There seems to me to be, just observing things 



1010 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

over the course of many years, a cyclical phenomenon in the growth 
and development of the Communist parties. 

During periods when things are friendly toward them, when there 
are peoples' fronts, democratic fronts, war alliance situations, and 
they can operate freely and openly, a large number of people are 
attracted and become formal members of the Communist Party. 

But the very act of becoming a formal member of the Communist 
Party is the beginning of becoming a Communist, not the end. It is 
the first step toward the hardening toward a real Commmiist. 

In the course of a number of years, things get tougher. This hap- 
pens over and over again. The line changes. In 1936 and 1937, the 
Communist Party was all for democracy and was floriating and 
flourishing. 

In 1939 came the Hitler pact^ and it was under pressure for a while. 
Then in the wartime alliance, it blossomed again, in the late 1940's it 
was under attack again. During these changes, people who come in 
during the flourishing, open, easy period are, as it were, squeezed out 
by the difficulties of a hard period, leaving behind only the best, only 
the strongest, only the best trained. 

Therefore, I would say that the end of a tough period — and for the 
Communist Party of the United States I would say it is in the sun 
of coexistence emerging in a warm spring from a cold winter — that 
at the end of one of the tough periods the Communist Party is like 
a. boxer the night before a heavyweight championship bout. There 
isn't an ounce of fat on it. Its numbers include no one but the 
strongest, best, and firmest. 

It is ready to expand again, drawing in more and repeating the 
process. Therefore, I should say that the Communist Party of the 
United States, despite the fact that its numbers are, by percentage, 
considerably below 1945 membership or 1946 membership, is strong, 
lithe, and determined. 

Mr, Arens. Are there Communists who are not members of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Meyer. In the sense of men under Communist discipline who 
are not members of the Communist Party, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, the chairman announced in his opening state- 
ment that the scope of this inquiry was to encompass Communist 
training operations. Based upon your background and experience in 
the educational field of the Communist operation, can you tell us the 
scope of the Communist educational work ? 

Mr. Meyer. To understand what Communist educational facilities 
consist of, it is necessary to break ourselves loose from the ordinary 
conception of an organization, no matter how large and how all- 
embracing in its educational program. Communist "education" is 
not merely a matter of spreading to the members and people beyond 
the members a set of principles held, or of arguing for them, or 
propagandizing them, or agitating for them. 

This is its major purpose : to mold, train, transform the whole 
man. There are really, in Communist educational activities, two 
sections : 

(1) That part devoted towards external activity, toward propa- 
ganda, agitation, raising of issues for Communist purposes. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1 01 1 

The whole broad level of newspapers, leaflets, publications, mass 
meetings, radio and television, not largely done directly under the 
name and auspices of the party, but the influencing of this kind of 
thing, an entire complex operation of affecting sources of information. 
This is one side of the problem. 

(At tills point Messrs. Tuck and Willis left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Meyer. (2) The second aspect of the problem of Communist 
education, the part that you are here mainly concerned with, from the 
chairman's statement, is the task of taking people who have been 
attracted toward the Communist movement and making hard-core 
Communists of them. 

I would say that this second operation has three parts. The first 
part of it goes along with the public agitation and propaganda. It 
is the bringing of people towards the party, getting them in a position 
where they will become interested, where they can be brought into 
greater control and more of an operation performed on them. 

This is largely done by the methods I have already discussed, of 
public agitation and propaganda, and by forums, classes conducted in 
people's houses, open schools, such as the Jefferson School was. 

The second aspect is the earlier stages of the molding, the making 
of core Communists out of those who have already joined the party 
formally or have come under their discipline informally. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us from your own experience, sir, an 
illustration of each of these types of training or educational work? 

Mr. Meyer. May I first add the third phase for completeness ? 

Mr. Arens. Certainly. 

Mr. Meyer. (3) The third phase is the — it is what the party calls 
inner-party training schools, full-time schools of various kinds and 
lengths held specifically for the purpose of putting a final hardness, 
understanding from the party's point of view, toughness, on the Com- 
munist who is already approaching top leadership positions. 

Of the three I mentioned, examples would be, first, in the category 
of the drawing of people toward the party. I think any issue of 
the Daily Worker that you open you will find advertised forums, clubs, 
lectures, places which are current and popular issues of one sort or 
another, which will bring people who might be interested in that issue 
forward. 

Also, a Communist Party member will hold in his home a class or 
discussion group, which gets a number of neighbors or friends he 
has met or people he has worked with in activities of various kinds. 
Also, such schools as the Jefferson School itself have as one part of 
their activity a whole group of courses devoted toward bringing in 
peripherally interested people. That is the first type. 

The second type, the beginning of the training of Communists, 
new Communists, is conducted in a number of ways. First, every 
Communist Party meeting has an educational section, a portion of its 
agenda devoted to educational discussion. Then, a widespread series 
of classes is held within the party in a section or a district for newer 
party members. Thirdly, in schools of the Jefferson School type, one 
of the functions of those schools is to conduct classes that can be uti- 
lized for this purpose, for the first stage of training of the party 
members. 



1012 COMMUNIST TRArNTING OPERATIONS 

The third type of training consists of a network of schools, full-time 
party schools, from the local level — section schools — through district 
schools, to national schools, and finally to the international schools 
that have been run over the years under various names by the inter- 
national Communist movement. 

Mr. Arens. Describe the curriculum of these schools. 

Mr. Meyer. The curriculum, as it were, of those schools is important, 
but I would say secondary. What is mainly done is to put students, 
that is to say Communists who have already largely proved themselves 
to the party as excellent material for top leadership and for final core 
hardening, into an atmosphere for two weeks, four weeks, six weeks, 
on a local and district scale ; up to six months, a year, two years, on a 
national and international scale, such an atmosphere that every act 
and thought of their lives during that period will be considered by 
their teachers and by their co-students in terms of their absolute 
devotion to Marxism-Leninism, to communism, in terms of a constant 
scrutiny to see if there are any remnants of what the party calls 
"bourgeois influences," bourgeois ideas, that is to say, if there are any 
remnants deep in their soul of a Western belief in truth, in a funda- 
mental spiritual heritage, in a methodological or personal approach 
other than that of complete devotion to the Communist theoretical and 
practical position. This means that under the circumstances of such 
schools, apart from the formal classes and formal discussions, activi- 
ties from casual conversation at lunch to things written for a school 
newspaper, to odd remarks made in a recreation period, all of them 
become grist for self-criticism sessions, for grueling consideration 
under the supervision of instructor, director, and fellow-students of 
what they meant by saying this, what it means, how it comes down to 
some remnant of an idea wliich does not fit the Marxism-Leninism 
corpus. 

So what is in the Communist Party generally a continuing process 
of training in the sense that, in any activity, mistakes, errors, things 
done incorrectly from the party's point of view, are analyzed not 
merely as a mistake made, but what is the wrong in the Marxist-Lenin- 
ist understanding that made the man do it; so in these schools the 
whole process is crystalized, compacted, into a something very much 
like the novitiate of an order, in which immense pressure and discipline 
is placed for a period of time upon the person until he either breaks 
under the strain and is clearly seen not to be Communist leadership 
material, or has become a Communist man. 

Mr. Arens. What is the objective of the operation in training people 
in this life of discipline and obedience to communism? 

Mr. Meyer. The world revolution. The conquest of world power 
by the Communist movement. 

Mr. Arens. What is the objective of the world Communist move- 
ment? 

Mr. Meyer. The establishment of a world in which the Communist 
Party and the state, the international state, which it is establishing 
or which it looks forward to establishing, which is indistinguishable 
from the party as the Communist state in Russia is from the Com- 
munist Party in Russia, will have total power over the lives and ac- 
tivities of every citizen, in which the Marxist-Leninist, materialist 
philosophy will be a totalitarian monopoly of thought, in which the 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1013 

person will be, the individual person will be, but a cell in a larger 
entity, the state, the Communist society, which becomes an end in itself. 

It is true, and I should state this for the record, that Marxist theory- 
speaks of an indefinitely distant period when, because men have learned 
so much under the discipline of such a state to act as nonindividuals, 
the state, itself, will wither away and there will be a classless, state- 
less society. 

Actually, what they look forward to here is a conditioning so extreme 
that the human race would be transformed into an ant hill, in which 
there would not be needed a state, in which society would so dominate 
the individual will and thought of men that force would not be 
necessary. 

I do not think that this can ever be achieved, because I think that 
human beings are born with souls that will resist it. Therefore, I 
don't think the Communist state will ever wither away. 

Mr. Ahens. Mr. Meyer, I expect in a few moments to interrogate 
you specifically with reference to your own experiences in these train- 
ing schools, and more particularly with reference to the Jefferson 
School, which we feel appears to be a predecessor of the Faculty of 
Social Science. 

Before doing so, I should like to ask you one or two other general 
questions. 

Based upon your background and experience in the Communist 
movement, in the top flight echelon, are we engaged in a popularity 
contest with the Communist economic system ? 

Mr. Meyer. Our leaders seem to thinJc we are. 

Mr. Aeens. What is the nature of the struggle today ? 

Mr. Metee. The true nature of the struggle today is a desperate 
fight for existence on the part of the areas remaining free in the 
world, one which can only be solved, as long as communism remains 
cormnunism, by their total and absolute defeat in war. 

There is absolutely no possibility of defeating communism except 
by war, subversive or open, total or partial. I am not a strategist, 
and I am not proposing the strategy of that war, but that war is 
going on day in and day out, constantly. 

Mr. Arens. Does Khrushchev profess that the Soviet Union is for 
peace? 

Mr. Meter. Yes, he professes it in a certain way. But if one care- 
fully reads his serious theoretical statements, both at the 20th Con- 
gress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a few years age, 
and more recently, it is very clear that the peace that he professes is 
the peace of surrender by the free world and of Communist victory. 

Actually, all he has said is that "because of the growing weakness 
of the capitalist countries and because of the growing strength of 
the Soviet Union, it is possible that we will conquer them without 
having to have a filial, all-out war." 

That is the extent and limit of Klirushchev's peace gestures, that 
is the extent and limit of his peace sentiments. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a basis upon which the free world can negotiate 
with the Communist empire? 

Mr. Meter. The question that I would raise is a prior one : What 
is there to negotiate? The terms of our surrender or the terms of 
theirs? The only basis which I can see that would make possible 



1014 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

negotiation with the Communists would be the kind of negotiations 
that might occur in the field between the generals of two armies after 
a battle in which one or the other had won. I do not know what we 
are negotiating about. 

Let me just take the present example, since you asked that question. 
Khrushchev gave us a brutal ultimatum some eight months ago. Any- 
country recognizing the character of its enemy and receiving such an 
ultimatum, should have rej)lied to it in the only honorable way, by 
totally and absolutely ignoring it and saying, "If you wish us to leave 
Berlin, you will have to throw us out, and if you throw us out, that 
means total and general w^^r with the United States and all of its 
allies." 

Instead, we are negotiating. But what are we negotiating? As 
far as I can see, the only issues that the Communists are prepared to 
negotiate: two possibilities, either the terms of our withdrawal from 
Berlin, under some face-saving device, or generously to allow us to 
stay in Berlin while they extract secretly and privately some terrific 
concession about the Middle East or about the nonarmament of 
Western Germany or something of that sort. 

I want to come back to your question. I see no basis for negotia- 
tion between two civilizations, one of which must die if the other is 
to live ; and the reason I say that the other must die if w^e are to live 
is that of their very essence, the very essence of their being, it is that 
we must die if they are to live. This is not, I think, a negotiable 
matter. 

Mr. Aeens. Now, Mr. Meyer, before we come to the experience you 
have had in training schools of the hard core, as well as in the Jeffer- 
son School, give us just a word, if you please, sir, about the mental 
processes and spiritual processes through which you went when you 
disassociated yourself from the Communist movement as a hard-core, 
dedicated leader and instructor in this conspiracy. 

Mr. Meyer. I think the key ]:>roblem here was this: To what I 
had regarded as a good, I had devoted my whole life and energies; 
and, more than that, for the sake of that good I had done many things 
that my previous training had told me were evil, all sorts and varieties 
of activities that were good from a Communist point of view, because 
for a Communist everything or anything which forwards the world 
rerolution, the interest of the Communist Party, is good. 

Now, to maintain that sort of life, that kind of moral tension, you 
have to be absolutely and totally convinced of the good of the end 
foward which you are striving. 

This is a w^hole fabric. It is like a balloon that if you prick it in 
one spot, the whole thing will blow up ; and for a series of reasons too 
complicated to go into here, in the later years of the war doubts began 
to enter my mind. 

The process then was for me — and I think it is for anyone who 
breaks from the party at this level — one of a terrific effort to sew 
up the doubts; and once you start trying to do that, the doubts begin 
to sprout all over the place until events, your own activities and so on, 
bring you to a point at which you break your fonnal connection with 
the Communist movement. But this, I think, is only the beginning 
of the true l)T-pak wil li rommunism. 

Mr. Arens. AVhilc you were in the Communist movement, were you 
an atheist? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1015 

Mr. Meyer. I was an atheist. No one can be a hard-core Commu- 
nist without heinf^ not only an atheist, but a. sti'onjj; and convinced 
atheist. 

Mr. Arens. In your process of the re-evaluation of the Communist 
movement, did you acquire a faith in God to supplement, or to take 
the place of, the faith that you previously had as a dedicated ma- 
terialist, atheist? 

Mr. Meyer. Yes; although this is a late stage in the process. I 
said after the fonnal breach with the party it became necessary for 
me to work my way backward through a whole set of ideas that 
had led me to where I was. It means, first, a criticism and rejec- 
tion of the whole Leninist position ; then of the whole Marxist posi- 
tion, and that brings one face to face with the basic problem of 
materialism. 

I think some people have gone through this process, and very hon- 
orably, and very excellent enemies of communism have stopped some- 
where along this process and have not thought out their position as yet. 
]5ut as for myself, I think the Communist issue is not an economic 
issue, not a social issue. The Communist issue is essentially, I would 
say, summed up in a statement of Marx in the so-called theses on 
Feuerbach, comments on a German philosoi)her, he said "Philosophers 
have previously thought about the world and interpreted it in various 
ways. It is up to us to change it." 

I think the Communist position "it is up to us to change it" is put- 
ting man in the place of God and, therefore, in the end the Coimnunist 
question is the question of God or man. This, at least for me, Avas the 
road I took, and I am a convinced theist at this point. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, would you kindly give us a word in passing 
about your experiences as an instructor in the Workers School in 
Chicago; then a word about your experiences in the training of the 
hard-core, these revolutionists you have alluded to; and then we will 
move to the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, may I interpose one brief question 
having to do with the term of Communist discipline, which we on the 
committee have heard many times ? 

How complete, how all-embracing is Communist discipline? Is 
there any variance in the implementation of that discipline, let us 
say, as between a branch or a section or in one of the schools, such as 
the Jefferson School of Social Science ? 

Mr. Meyer. I would put it this W' ay : The ideal Communist is totally 
disciplined, disciplined in every element of his life, from his private 
life to his public activities. 

The Communists achieve this ideal to a greater or lesser degree, de- 
pending on their strength of character and personality, and to a de- 
gree the higher they rise in the movement, the more disciplined they 
have become. 

I will put it this way : A Communist working at a low level, in a 
l)ranch, for example, or some teacher in an unimportant school situa- 
tion, will be able to continue as a Communist when he is imperfectly 
disciplined, unless the breach of discipline concerned touches some key 
point of importance for the party. 

The higher in the movement, the more every act is scrutinized and 
every act becomes vital and essential. The ideal preached is com- 



1016 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

plete discipline at all times, and it is enforced at the lower level to the 
degree that it is necessary and to the degree that it helps to train the 
j)eople concerned. At the higher levels, more and more and more, un- 
til a top-level Communist who, even on a minor matter, makes a seri- 
ous breach, not only of discipline laid down for him, but of discipline 
he should have known for himself, is in very serious trouble. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Pursuing that point just one step further, what is 
the ultimate source ? Where does there reside the ultimate source of 
authority as between what is authentic and right in the Communist 
sense as doctrine or discipline ? 

Mr. ]\Ieter. Theoretically, of course, the party will say the doctrines 
of Marxism-Leninism give the guide, and the best Marxist-Leninists 
interpret. The best Marxist-Leninists, by definition, are the higher 
Communist authorities. 

So if you have a dispute at a branch level, it is the section organizer, 
and if the section organizer has a dispute it is the district organizer, 
the national secretary, the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union, the political bureau of the Communist 
Party, and finally No. 1, whoever he may be. 

It is necessary, when you have a secular doctrine, a secular religion, 
almost, with a set of principles that have to be interpreted if you want 
to maintain unity, that somewhere there is somebody who makes the 
decision, and that, in practice, has always meant the Secretary of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union. First Stalin and now Khru- 
shchev. 

The Chairman. I think this would be a good point for a recess. 

We will take a recess of 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken, with the following members of the sub- 
committee present: Chairman Walter and Messrs. Jackson, Scherer, 
and Johansen.) 

(At the expiration of the recess the following members of the sub- 
committee were present : Chairman Walter and Messrs. Jackson and 
Scherer.) 

The CHAiRMAisr. The committee will be in order. You may proceed, 
Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Meyer, would you now recount for us the highlights 
of your teaching experiences in the Workers School and in the train- 
ing schools, training programs of the hard core? Then we will get 
into the Jefferson School in a few moments. 

Mr. Meter. I was responsible, which is a party word for "in charge 
of," for the entire educational activity of the Illinois-Indiana District 
during the years from about 1937 to 1941. At a previous time I did 
some educational work on a section level, and the last year I was in 
Chicago I was primarily in organizational work but maintained con- 
tact with the whole educational apparatus. 

I also was simultaneously director of the Chicago Workers School. 
Perhaps I should take the Workers School first. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. We want just the highlights, if you please, 
sir. 

Mr. Meyer. The Workers School is a predecessor to the Jefferson- 
type schools (and Chicago later had the Lincoln School, which was 
the Jefferson type) ; somewhat narrower, somewhat more directed to 
people who are members of the party, but essentially the same func- 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1017 

tion as the Jefferson School, that is, training in theoretical matters of 
a Communist kind, at the same time for Communists and non-Com- 
munists who were close to the party. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us some of your experiences, just a few of 
your typical experiences, in training the hard core in the secret 
sessions ? 

Mr. JVIeyer. In training the hard core, and I will take a typical 
school, a six-weeks' school, the students are picked very carefully in 
consultation with the district leadership of the party. 

Arrangements are made for them to leave any activities that they 
may have. They can be held in a camp, let's say ; let's take a single 
one, in one of the camps under party supervision, where a whole area 
is put aside. The students are brought in, and a series of courses 
(which seem to be similar in general outlook all the way from the 
shortest to the longest school) are taught, courses in political economy, 
Marxism-Leninism, strategy and tactics, party organization, and 
whatever the issues at the moment are in the broader world outside 
the party. 

But the real aim of the school — and as a director of such a school it 
is constantly in mind — is not really to theoretically train during this 
period, but to test in various ways the caliber, breaking point, ability 
to accept discipline, of the students concerned. 

This is done in a number of ways, but primarily the teachers of 
the school, the director, have constant daily discussions of the char- 
acter, development, et cetera, of the students under their domination, 
under their supervision. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly give us a word about your ex- 
perience in the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Mr. Meyer. I taught at the Jefferson School the last year I was in 
the party. I taught some of the hard-core courses. 

The names used have varied from one school to another and from 
one time to another, but essentially^ the courses are in the principles of 
Marxism-Leninism. I believe they were called principles of scientific 
socialism in the Jefferson School. 

I also participated in a group of instructors of these hard-core 
courses which worked out the curriculum and methods in these courses. 

Mr. Arens. Was the Jefferson School controlled lock, stock, and 
barrel by the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Meyer. Lock, stock, and barrel. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I should like to display to you a copy of an 
exhibit which is already incorporated in this record, Exhibit No. 11, 
a chart which our staff has prepared, entitled "Faculty of Social 
Science, New York." 

In the first column appear the names of the instructors of the 
Faculty of Social Science as taken from the bulletins and announce- 
ments which they have issued. In the next column appear the lec- 
turers or instructors of the Marxist Forums. In the next column 
appear the instructors of the Jefferson School of Social Science. In 
the next column, those of the School for Democracy; next column, 
those of the New York Workers School. Finally, a column indicat- 
ing those who have been identified publicly under oath as members of 
the Communist Party. 



1018 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Would you, based upon your background and experience and 
knowledge of teclmiques and strategies of the Communist Party, 
knowledge of individual Communists, glance at the first column there 
and tell us who, to 3'our certain knowledge, were instructors in the 
Jefferson School of Social Science who are likewise instructors at the 
Facultj^ of Social Science and who, likewise, to your certain knowl- 
edge, were members of the Communist operation ? 

Mr. Meyer. One part of the answer: I know nothing about the 
Faculty of Social Science faculty. I only have your listing here. Do 
you wish me to read that ? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

Mr. Meyer. That is not to my personal knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Herbert Aptheker is listed in the bulletin of the Faculty 
of Social Science as director of the Faculty of Social Science. He 
was likewise an instructor at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

What information do you have, if any, respecting him ? 

Mr. Meyer. A member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Was he, to your knowledge, an instructor at the Jef- 
ferson School of Social Science ? 

Mr. ]\Ieyer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about his function as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Meyer. Primarily, in my experience of him, a writer of mate- 
rials and a teacher in the Communist courses, et cetera. 

Mr. Arens. Harold Collins is listed in an announcement of the 
Faculty of Social Science as secretary of that school. He, according 
to the bulletin of the Jefferson School of Social Science, was an 
instructor and a chairman of the Marxist Institute. 

Do you have any information respecting him ? 

]\[r. Meyer. In the period tliat I was at Jefferson School, he was 
an instructor, one of the inner core of instructors and a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. The next person to whom I should direct your atten- 
tion is Myer Weise, listed in the bulletin of the Faculty of Social 
Science as an instructor, listed likewise in the bulletin of the Jefferson 
School of Social Science as an instructor. 

What information do you have, if any, respecting him? 

Mr. Meyer. I don't remember him. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps we could proceed with greater dispatch if you 
would go down the chart and tlie first name you recognize, stop, and 
we will proceed from there. 

Mr. Meyer. Irving Potash I knew from general party activity as a 
member of the Communist Party and a member of its Central Com- 
mittee and political bureau. 

Mr. Arens. He is listed as an instructor at the Faculty of Social 
Science ? 

Mr. Meyer. Yes. 

Philip Foner, listed here as an instructor at the Faculty of Social 
Science, I knew as a member of the Communist Party and as an in- 
structor at the Jefferson School. 

Sidney Finkelstein is here listed as an instructor at the Faculty of 
Social Science. I did not knoAv him personally. I knew he was an 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1019 

instructor at the Jefferson School and certainly very close to the party. 
As a matter of fact, a manuscript he once wrote was given to V. J. 
Jerome, tlie party's national educational director, who asked me to 
read it for him for party censorship. So I assume he was a member 
of the party, but I didn't know him. 

Henry Klein, I don't recognize the name. 

You want me to leave out the names I don't recognize ? 

Mr. Arens, If you please. 

Mr. Meyer. Louis Weinstock I knew in general party activity as 
a member of the (^ommunist Party and an active one. 

******* 

Henry Black I knew slightly. He is listed as librarian at the 
Faculty of Social Science. He was librarian of the Jefferson School 
of Social Science. I have no personal knowledge of his party mem- 
bership. 

Joseph North I knew in general party activity. He is listed here 
as lecturer at the Faculty of Social Science. He taught classes at 
Jefferson School. He was editor of the Sunday Worker, editor of 
the New Masses, member of the Communist Party. 

Harry Wells — I have only a vague recollection of him. 

William Patterson I knew very well in Chicago as a leading mem- 
ber of the Chicago district of the Chicago party. He was at one time 
assistant editor of the Daily Record in Chicago, a Communist news- 
paper, and later district bureau member in Chicago. He is listed here 
as a member of the Faculty of Social Science. 

Arnold Johnson I have known as an active leader of the Com- 
munist Party. I see that he is listed as an instructor at Jefferson 
School. I don't remember him there. He is listed as a lecturer at 
the Faculty of Social Science. He has been in top leadership in 
the party for many years. 

Victor Perlo I don't know, only what I read in the newspapers. 
I don't know^ him personally. 

:ic H: * * * * * 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Meyer, I display to j^ou now Exhibit No. 8-A here- 
tofore incorporated in this record, which lists the courses of instruction 
at the Faculty of Social Science and the instructors. 

Would you glance at the courses of instruction and, based upon 
your background and experience as a Communist instructor, kindly 
give us your appraisal of these courses ? 

Mr. Meyer. I would say, glancing at them fairly rapidly, that 
they follow the same pattern that the courses in Communist Party 
open schools from the days of the Workers Schools right through the 
Jefferson School until now have always followed. First, the core 
courses: Courses in political economy, in Marx's Capital, in United 
States history — taught from Marx's point of view — in elements of 
Marxism, essentially a course in Marxism-Leninism on a simple level. 

Then a second set of courses, such as Philosophy of History, Marxist 
Philosophy for more advanced students; and then the more popular 
courses, which I have spoken of as attempting to draw people to- 
ward the movement, such courses as the Social View of Painting, the 
National Liberation Struggles, The World Today, still taught by 



1020 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Harold Collins, I see, who also taught a similar course at the Jefferson 
School; Socialism and Capitalism Today. Courses designed toward 
bringing in people Avith certain interests, and perhaps not as deeply- 
theoretical as some of the core courses. The general pattern seems to 
be very similar, glancing at them. 

Mr. Jackson. I notice tuition fees. 

Mr. JVIeter. Tuition fees were always charged in these schools. 
They were to a large degree self-supporting. Not entirely, as the 
party had to subsidize in various ways. But as much was raised 
as could be. 

Mr. Jackson. I assume there were certain scholarships. 

Mr. Meyer. Plenty of scholarships, yes, through party units or to 
trade unions or any other groups of that sort that would use them. 

Mr. Jackson. Were their necessary living expenses also taken 
care of ? 

Mr. Meter. The Jefferson Schools are evening schools, that is, you 
go to one course a week or two courses a week. In the party inner 
schools, of course, they were totally paid for by the party and totally 
taken care of. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience in the 
Communist Party and the information you have acquired respecting 
the Communists who are instructors at the Faculty of Social Science 
and the courses which are taught at the Faculty of Social Science, do 
you have a judgment as to whether or not the Faculty of Social Sci- 
ence is a Communist operation ? 

Mr. Meter. On every bit of evidence available to me, I would say 
it definitely is a Communist operation. It looks exactly like similar 
Communist operations have always looked, and seems to be a lineal 
descendant of a long line of ancestors, all Communist operated and 
controlled. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have no further questions of this 
witness, if you please, sir. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. Jackson. I have no questions, but I should like to make a 
general observation. 

Certainly the testimony of Mr. Meyer impresses me as being among 
the most compelling I have heard since I have been a member of the 
committee. Thank you. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Meyer, in the forepart of your testimony I believe 
you said that today the Communists dominate about two-thirds of 
the globe, did you not? 

Mr. Meter. A rough estimate ; yes. 

Mr. Scherer. And that considerable progress toward that end has 
taken place in the last 12 to 13 years ? 

Mr. Meter. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. The United States has been engaged in a tremendous 
foreign aid program over that same period for the purpose, princi- 
pally, of stopping the onrush of communism throughout the world. 
How effective has been our foreign aid program ? 

Mr. Meter. In my opinion, the only part of our foreign aid program 
that has been effective is military and quasi-military aid to the few 
countries that have shown a real desire to fight and to defend them- 
selves. I think the rest of it is so much waste energy. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1021 

Mr. ScHERER. Why ? 

Mr. Meyer. For this reason : The Communist issue is not a belly- 
issue. It isn't a question of poverty versus plenty. It is a question of 
ideas. Our aid program cannot rescue backward countries from the 
Communist ideas for one simple reason. There are only two ways in 
which a backward country can become an advanced, industrial coun- 
try. Both ways require the accumulation of capital. The one way is 
through the American and Western European way, which takes a 
little time, requires sacrifices, and also allowing people to make profits, 
if they have the energy and the ability to advance production. 

The other way is to grind the initial capital out of the faces of the 
poor and of the people by Communist terror methods. Our foreign 
aid cannot impart a belief in the principles of freedom that lead to a 
free economy. It can, therefore, only be utilized to lay the founda- 
tions (since we do it through governments and through states) of a 
socialist type of economic organization. 

It seems to me that it has, in this sense, no function whatever ex- 
cept in the sense of aiding peoples who are already determined to fight 
and who need arms and strengthening of their armed forces through 
peripheral economic aid. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wlien one of these backward countries is flipped, as 
we might say, suddenly into the Conununist orbit from the Western 
orbit, do the people have anything to say about it, or is that done by 
a few people at the top who control them ? 

Mr. Meyer. It is inevitably done by a small group of people, par- 
ticularly in the so-called backward countries, which have no depth of 
democratic institutions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then it wouldn't make much difference how much 
foreign aid we had given to these people in order that they might feel 
favorably to the West, would it, if that is the process that takes place ? 

Mr. ]\]j:yer. Not only that, but I doubt very much if anybody feels 
favorably toward you if they get a handout from you anyway. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask you one more question. 

Can we fight this Communist menace by the cultural exchange pro- 
grams that have been going on in the last few years ? 

Mr. Meyer. In my personal opinion — well, referring back to what 
I said a little earlier about the manifold Communist Party educa- 
tional activities, I would say it must be a great relief to the Commu- 
nist educational apparatus to no longer even have to pay any atten- 
tion or worry about one whole section of its work, because that section 
of its work, the popularizing of the Soviet Union and of its "great 
achievements," is being done for them under the auspices of the high- 
est officials of the United States, in great expositions in New York and 
elsewhere, Moscow. 

The fact of the matter is that even supposing that our exhibitions 
in Moscow did influence in our behalf a considerable number of citi- 
zens of the Soviet Union, the only net result would be to increase the 
population of the slave labor camps. 

Nothing we do in Russia can do more than incline a few people 
toward us who will be promptly removed ; whereas, the whole soften- 
ing up aspect, the most forward aspects of Communist education in 
the capitalist countries, putting forward a favorable opinion of the 
Soviet Union and a favorable opinion of their slave society, is carried 



1022 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

on now under the aegis of the Government of the United States, and 
it really is a shame. 

Mr. ScHERER. WTiat effect does our participation in some of the 
other conferences have upon the people behind the Iron Curtain who 
may not be dedicated Communists? AVhat effect would that have? 

Mr. Meyer. I would think its effect would be — and I think there is 
evidence in people I have spoken to and in books I have read to this 
effect — that it makes them feel they might as well find some way of 
making their peace with communism, because we are not going to 
help tliem. 

I take it by conferences you mean negotiations of the kind that are 
going on now. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. Where we meet with them. 

Mr. Meyer. Meet with them and shake hands and talk and talk and 
talk. 

Mr. Scherer. And have pictures taken. Do they use that as propa- 
ganda? 

Mr. Meter. Constantly. 

Mr. Scherer. For what purpose do they use that propaganda ? 

Mr. Meyer. Essentially^ to weaken the will to resist, and to say to 
the i)eople that they use it on, "The United States is obviously coexist- 
ing with us, so you are stuck." 

Coexistence, in fact, the very idea of coexistence, can only mean to 
a person living under Communist rule, that you are stuck with it for 
the rest of your life. 

Mr. Scherer. Thank you very much. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, I want also to commend the very 
lucid and informative testimony. 

I do want to ask just one question which is elemental and perhaps 
even naive. It is a question that a great many of our fellow citizens 
ask us. I refer now particularly to Americans. 

AVh}' do people become Communists? Is it an idealistic appeal? 
What are the bases or facts ? 

Mr. Meyer. In my personal experience and my judgment, most 
Americans, Englishmen, let us say. Westerners of the most advanced 
Western nations who have become Communists, become so for idealistic 
reasons. And if they can become Communists for idealistic reasons 
and they do, there is something deeply wrong with the education in 
the broadest sense that Western society is today giving to its young 
people in the traditions and heritage of the West. 

I think the thing which is wrong is not a matter of lack of special 
courses about this or that, but a deep underlying relativism that per- 
meates our intellectual world and is ashamed, afraid, or too weak or 
intellectually too weak to stand up for, grasp, and understand and 
carry on the immense tradition of freedom and religion of Western 
civilization and of our Founding Fathers. 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. I thank you very much. 

The (yHATRMAX. Mr, Meyer, I do not want to belabor the i^oint, but 
I am inclined to agree with you that ])eople become Communists be- 
cause they are idealists, Init the thing tliat I could never understand is 
how a person who is an idealist could remain a Communist when he 
saw things like Hungary, and so on and so forth. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1023 

Mr. Meyer. I think that is a very good question. I am glad you 
give me the opportunity to go a little further. Most people become 
Communists for idealistic reasons. Then they are subjected to a 
process which, building on that idealism, develops a toughness to 
all sorts of evils and horrors, until finally on an originally idealistic 
basis, which still gleams in one tiny comer of the personality, you 
will do anything. 

Therefore, every man, I suppose, has his breaking point. Some- 
where along the line something will happen, or at least it has happened 
to many people. It is just a little too much to take. It may be a 
big thing or it may be a little thing. 

Then suddenly the contradiction that you have just raised is appa- 
rent. Then a person ceases to be a Communist. But to many it does 
not seem to happen. 

The Chairman. Is communism in any sense of the word political ? 

Mr. Meter. Only secondarily, I would say. Only in the sense that 
politics has to do with power. It is primarily — it is certainly not 
political in the sense of an American political party, because an Ameri- 
can political party accepts certain fundamental principles and then 
proceeds to differ within those principles. 

The Chairman. The thing that disturbs all of us is that there are 
too many people in high positions, the courts, and so on, who speak 
of the Commimist Party and communism as being political ; and any 
attempt that is made to regulate activities that we believe are dis- 
loyal is regarded as an attempt to interfere with political beliefs. 

I am never sure whether these people are naive or whether they 
are willing tools of the conspiracy. 

Mr. Meter. Fools or knaves, one or the other, I am afraid. 

The Chairman. You think they are one or the other? 

Mr. Meter. Political in the sense of an American political party, 
the Communist Party certainly is not. Perhaps the simplest thing 
to do would be to take the reality that exists in the world and declare 
a state of cold war with the Soviet Union, in which case the Com- 
munist Party's right to exist legally would be abolished and instead 
of having to twist around semantics in the courts, we would be fac- 
ing the reality, which is that all the guarantees of the Bill of Rights, 
all the guarantees of the Constitution are for the preservation of a 
free American society ; and infiltrating enemies of an alien organism 
deserve no protection except the protection of due process, which even 
a spy arrested in time of war deserves. 

So we don't have to twist around the Bill of Eights affecting other 
organizations and other people for an organization of the kind for 
which there is no parallel in the history of civilized societies. This 
is an agency of an external organization, hostile to the very being, 
the very meaning and being, hostile to the philosophy, the religion, 
and the way of thought of the West, and as such, is not a political 
party in the American sense. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. If the chairman will yield, freedom cannot be per- 
mitted to become the freedom to destroy. 

Mr. Meter. I would agree with that, to the degree that you are 
speaking of a serious external enemy. I think we have to be care- 
ful of little people who have ideas that may sound as if they are 

43643— 59— pt. 1 5 



1024 COMMimiST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

destroying freedom, but who are not dangerous. I think the old law, 
the old rule, of clear and present danger applies here. I think it is 
a pretty good one. 

The Chairman. May I ask a question with respect to the activi- 
ties of tliis comniittee ? 

From your close and intimate knowledge of the movement in the 
United States, has the Committee on Un-American Activities made 
a contribution toward reducing the activities by bringing to the peo- 
ple an awareness of what it is ? 

Mr. Meyer. I think an immeasurable service. I think your serv- 
ice has its greatest impact at different times, has a greater impact at 
one time than another. Every agency of Government and the press 
is today blanketing ; as a matter of fact, I would say that your activi- 
ties today are, therefore, three times as important, a dozen times as 
important, because you are one of the very few areas plugging away 
week after week, month after month, making a record, which gives 
the lie to most of what is being said about the Soviet Union, about 
coexistence and so on. 

I think this committee is of the greatest importance. 

The Chairman. Unfortunately for some people, we have not be- 
come discouraged by the attacks made by the Communists, the fel- 
low travelers, and the apologists. I am sure that I voice the senti- 
ments of the entire committee when I tell you that we are deeply 
indebted to you for this perfectly magnificent contribution. We 
hope to make use of it. 

Mr. Meyer. Thank you. 

Mr. ScHERER. His testimony is so effective that I would like to send 
copies to some judges. 

The Chairman. I would like to send it not only to judges, but 
I would like to send it to the Association of University Professors 
just before they meet at their next couA^ention where they will adopt 
resolutions censoring various colleges for discharging fifth amend- 
ment professors. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, before calling the next witness, may 1 
announce for the record and for the enlightenment of the commit- 
tee that we have been unable to serve a subpena on the director of 
the Faculty of Social Science, whom we wanted to be the first wit- 
ness when we got into that organization. It is our information that 
he is presently in Europe on a United States passport. Therefore, we 
were unable to serve him with a subpena. 

Mr. ScHERER. What is his name ? 

Mr. iVRENs. Herbert Aptheker. 

Mr. ScHERER. He has been identified as a member of the Com- 
munist apparatus? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Harold Collins. 

The Chairman. Mr. Collins, will you raise your right hand? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Collins. I do. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1025 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD COLLINS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Collins. My name is Harold Collins, C-o-l-l-i-n-s. My resi- 
dence is 194 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

With regard to my occupation, I must avail myself of the privilege 
afforded me by the fifth amendment of the Constitution and decline 
to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena whicli 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Collins. I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Collins. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr.EEiN. David Rein, 71114th Street NW. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee under oath what your occupation is, you would be supplying 
information that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Collins. I do, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the gentleman who preceded you to the 
witness stand ? 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. This gentleman took an oath a little while ago before 
this committee and swore that while he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party he knew you, sir, as a member of the Communist Party. 

We would like to give you now an opportunity to deny that identi- 
fication while you are under oath. Do you care to avail yourself of 
that opportunity ? 

Mr. Collins. I do not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I should like to display to you a photostatic 
reproduction of an article appearing in The Worker of January 18, 
1959, in which an announcement is made of the opening of classes at 
a school known as the Faculty of Social Science at 80 East 11th Street, 
New York City. 

According to the Communist Worker of January 18, 1959, the 
teaching staff is headed, and I will quote, "The teaching staff is headed 
by Herbert Aptheker and Harold Collins, respectively Director and 
Secretary of the Faculty, and includes, among others," and then it 
lists a number of persons. 

Kindly look at this article which I now display to you and tell this 
committe while you are under oath whether or not the characteriza- 
tion and identification of yourself as secretary of the Faculty of Social 
Science is true and correct. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. Wlien I received the subpena 

Mr. Eein. I wonder if we can have whatever pictures are going to 
be taken so as not to interrupt the witness. 

Mr. Collins. When I received the subpena, I had no knowledge 
of the subject matter of this investigation. It has become clear from 



1026 COIvIMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

the opening statement of the chairman and from the nature of the 
preceding testimony tliat this is an investigation into the fieki of ideas. 

The history of this committee with regard to such investigation is 
quite clear, is well known, not only to myself, but to many other Amer- 
icans, as a history not of investigation but of the attempt to try and to 
punish ideas, to' try and to punish ideas which are different in any 
sense from the ideas of the committee itself. 

I will not lend myself in any way to such an effort since I believe it 
fundamentally violates the first amendment of the Constitution, 
which guarantees certain constitutional rights, such as the right to 
speech, press, assembly, and petition, and I will further not lend 
myself to any effort to supply a link in a chain of evidence that may 
be used against me, and, therefore, I decline to answer the question 
with regard to this exhibit on both the first and the fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Collins Exhibit No. 1," and retained m 
committee files.) 

The Chairman. We are not attempting to do any of the things 
that you have stated, and you know it. What we are tiying to do is 
make some provision for amendments to the law that will make this 
great Republic of ours able to deal adequately with the kind of sub- 
version vou teach. <. • j? 

We believe that you can give this committee a great deal of informa- 
tion that would be of assistance to us in drafting this legislation, 
which I hope will have some teeth in it. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, kindly tell the committee where and when 
you were born. 

Mr. Collins. I was born in New York City on June 7, 1911. 

]Mr. Arens. Kindly give us a word about your fonnal education. 

Mr. Collins. My formal education included elementary school, 
high school, and college education in the College of the City of New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you complete your formal education i 

Mr. Collins. My formal education was completed at the College of 
the City of New York in 1 930. 

Mr. Arens. And what degree did you receive ? 

Mr. Collins. I received the degree of bachelor of arts. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give us the principal employments you have 
engaged in since you completed your formal education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer the question with regard to my 
employment at any period since the termination of my formal educa- 
tion on the constitutional privilege afforded me by the fifth amend- 
ment, which protects me against being compelled to be a witness 
against myself. 

'Mr. Arens. Have you been engaged in any occupation since you 
concluded your formal education "concerning which you can tell this 
committee without giving information that might be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Collins. I must request that that question be explained to me. 
I do not understand it. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about any employment in which you 
have been engaged since your completed your formal education with- 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1027 

out giving inforiiiatioii th:it might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding? 

Mr. Collins. In declining to answer that question for the grounds 
previously given on the fifth amendmentj I must nevertheless assert 
that I do not consider my refusal as an indication of any character 
of any employment I ever had. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Collins. The same declination ; the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. And in wliat city are you employed ? 

Mr. Collins. That question, again, sir? 

Mr. Arens. In what city are you employed ? 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. And in what State are you employed ? 

Mr. Collins. The same objection ; the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I think you should direct the witness 
to answer the question, in what State he is employed. How can that 
incriminate him ? 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Collins. I continue to decline and I offer the same grounds for 
my declination. 

The Chairman. You decline to answer the question in what State 
you are employed on the grounds that to give any answer to that ques- 
tion might incriminate you? 

Mr. Collins. I do, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a thermofax reproduction of an article 
appearing in the May 23, 1944, issue of New Masses, regarding a Phila- 
delphia forum being held at the Ne^v Century Club in that city on 
"How to Win the War ! And Win the Peace I" It lists as chairman, 
Harold Collins, secretary of the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Kindly look at this advertisement which appears in the Xew 
Masses of that issue and tell this committee ^vhether or not you are 
truly and correctly characterized there as the secretary of the School 
of Social Science. 

( The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Collins. The same grounds as I have given previously to the 
answer. 

(Document marked "Collins Exhibit No. ?" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, sir, a thermofax rbproduction of the 
bulletin of the Jefferson Scliool of Social Science, listing the courses 
taught and the instructors. 

In this bulletin, Harold Collins is listed as an instructor of two 
courses. Kindly look at this document as I display it to you and tell 
this committee whether or not you are truly and correctly character- 
ized there as the instructor at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I have already given my position with regard to 
questions concerning matters of discussion of ideas and of educational 



1028 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

institutions, and I decline to answer on the ground of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

The Chairman, I am surprised that you decline to answer with 
respect to educational institutions. You certainly were very quick to 
answer about your own education, where you went to college and the 
degree you received. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Collins. I continue to decline on the grounds of the first and 
lifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Collins Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Aeens. Now I display to you, sir, a thermofax reproduction 
of a bulletin entitled "Introducing Ten New Classes in Marxist 
Theory and its Applications," Academy Hall, October-December, 
1957, in which are set forth a nmnber of courses and the instnictors. 

I invite your attention to the course offered on Thursdays, starting 
October 31, in which Harold Collins is listed as the instructor, in the 
Science of Marxism: an Introduction, an approach to the study of 
Marxist theory, its application, and the like. 

Kindly look at this document which I now display to you and tell 
liiis committee whether or not you are tridy and correctly identified 
there as the Harold Collins who was the instructor of the Marxist 
course just described. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I decline for the same reasons. 

(Document marked "Collins Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you a thermofax reproduction of the 
Communist Worker of December 28, 1958, in which a feature story 
appears entitled "Education Eoundup," by Harold CoUms. 

In this aiticle, this feature article by Harold Collins, among other 
lajiguage appears the following: 

And so to our third and final item — the forthcoming Winter of the Faculty 
of Social Science, which is scheduled to open three weelts from now, on Jan- 
uary 19. 

Several hundred people attended the classes given at Adelphi Hall during 
the last school year by members of what has now become The Faculty; and 
hundreds of others have taken part in the first Fall Term and Intersession of 
the new institution at 80 E. 11th Street, which started business this October. 

Kindly tell the committee while you are under oath whether you are 
correctly identified as the author of that article appearing in the 
Communist Worker. 

(llie document was handed to the witness.) 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Collins Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you a thermofax reproduction of an 
article from The Worker of June 21, 1959, telling about the current 
courses at the Faculty of Social Science, in which Harold Collins and 
others are listed as the instructors. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1029 

Kindly look at this document which I now display to you and tell 
this conimittee, while you are under oatli, whether you are truly and 
correctly identified as an instructor at the present time at the Faculty 
of Social Science. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Collins Exhibit No. 6," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I display to you a reproduction of a chart that 
has already been identified and admitted in evidence as Committee 
Exhibit No.ll, which lists the current instructors of the Faculty of 
Social Science and persons who have been instructors at the Jefferson 
School of Social Science. 

Kindly look at that document which is now displayed to you and 
tell this committee while you are under oath whether or not you rec- 
ognize names there of any of the persons who are presently teaching 
at the Faculty of Social Science who were instructors at the Jefferson 
School of Social Science. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

(At this point Chairman Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr, Collins. The same answer ; the same grounds. 

(For Committee Exhibit No. 11, see p. 995.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that each of these 
several exhibits which have been displayed to the witness be appro- 
priately marked and incorporated by reference in the record. 

Mr. Jackson (presiding). They will be so incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, tell the committee while you are under oath 
if you are at this instant a hard-core member of the international con- 
spiracy known as the Communist Party. 

Mr. Collins. I don't know of the existence of any international 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Jackson. You are ordered to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. It seems to me that I have answered the question, sir, 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair is not recognizing the answer in the words 
of the witness. The witness is directed to answer the question pro- 
pounded by counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I have given the answer that I understand to the 
question, as I understand it. 

Mr. Jackson. My understanding of the question, Counsel was : Are 
you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Collins. I respectfully submit that that was not the form in 
which the question was put to me. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Perhaps counsel could rephrase the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. We will rephrase the question this way : 

Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist Party ? 



1030 COJVIMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Aeens. Do you presently have information respecting the in- 
doctrination and teachmg of persons in an institution in communism 
by persons who, to your certain knowledge, are members of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer that question on the gromids of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

]Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer, have you any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, you became a member of the Communist 
Party when you were at the City College of New York, did you not ? 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
already given. 

Mr. Scherer. And you have been a member of the Communist Party 
since that time ? 

Mr. Collins. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Practically all the compensation you have received 
since you graduated from the City College of New York has come 
directly or indirectly from the Communist apparatus, has it not? 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer on the grounds already given, 
on the privilege accorded me by the fifth amendment not to be 
compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer on the grounds of the protection 
afforded me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question if he has ever traveled abroad. How could 
that possibly incriminate him ? 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question con- 
cerning foreign travel. 

( Tlie witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Collins. I continue to decline on the same grounds as stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you ever in the Armed Forces ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever make an application for a passport? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you ever used any name other than that of 
Harold Collins? 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you honestly believe that to tell us whether you 
used a name other than Harold Collins might lead to a criminal 
prosecution ? 

Mr. Collins. I have already indicated that I will not supply a 
link in a chain of evidence that may be produced by this committee, 
and I therefore decline to answer that question on the grounds already 
stated. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1031 

Mr. SciiERER. Have you used a name other than Harold Collins 
in connection with any illegal activity ? 

Mr. Collins. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Johansen? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Mr. Weise. 

Come forward, please. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Weise. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MYER WEISE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, DAVID 

REIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Weise. Myer Weise, 141-02 79th Avenue, Flushing, N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Weise. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Weise. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Kein. David Kein, Yll 14th Street, NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. To accommodate us, will you spell your name? 

Mr. Weise. M-y-e-r W-e-i-s-e. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed, Mr. Weise? 

Mr. Weise. I am at the present time employed as a salesman han- 
dling investments. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Weise. For the last three years. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been connected with the Faculty of 
Social Science in New York City ? 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee of your connection with the Faculty of Social Science you 
would be supplying information that might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weise. I would say that in the context of the present situation, 
of how this committee works, I think it might be possible that it 
would be used that way, and therefore I decline on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Weise. I was born in 1910 in the Ukraine. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Weise. I came to the United States in 1929. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Weise. Yes, sir. 



1032 CO]MMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arexs. And when and where were you naturalized? 

:Mr. Weise. 1937, New York. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you were naturalized, did you take an 
oath to support and defend the Constitution of the United States 
against all enemies, foreign and domestic ? 

Mr. Weise. I believe so. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you at the instant you took the oath a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr, Arexs. Now I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article of the Communist Worker of November 16, 
1958, page 15, describing some courses to be held at the Faculty of 
Social Science and the instructors; and the course in "The 'New 
Capitalism,' " according to this article, is "Myer Weise." 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee, while you are 
under oath, wliether or not you are truly and correctly described 
there as the Myer Weise, who is the instructor at the Faculty of Social 
Science. 

(Document handed to witness.) (Witness conferred with his 
counsel.) 

Mr. Weise. I decline to answer that question under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Document marked "Weise Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Now, sir, I display to you a photostatic reproduction 
and announcement of the Workers School, 35 East 12th Street, New 
York, April 12 to July 2, 1937. It is an announcement of the spring 
term courses. Tliere is a course listed here as "Marxism-Leninism 
II". The instructor under that is "Meyer Weise." It is described as 
follows : 

This course will present the further development of Marxism in the epoch 
of imperaialism. Leninism, which is the Marxism of the epoch of imperialism 
and proletarian revolution, will give the student an understanding of the theory 
and tactics of the proletarian revolution — 

and so forth. 

Kindly look at this document Avhich I now display to you and tell 
the committee, while you are under oath, whether or not you are truly 
and correctly described there as the "Meyer Weise" who is the instruc- 
tor in the course at the Workers School. 

Mr. Weise. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Weise Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. What is the date you became a citizen ? 

Mr. Weise. 1937. 

Mr. Arexs. And this bulletin which I just displayed to you is 1937? 

Mr. AVeise, could it be that in 1937, when you were naturalized as a 
citizen of this Republic, you were then teaching in a Communist 
school ? 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment, 

Mr. Arexs. What was your employment in 1937 when you were 
naturalized as a citizen of the United States ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1033 

Mr. Weise. a garment worker. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any other employment? 

Mr. Weise. No. That is wliere I made a hving. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any other occupation ? 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of an announcement from the Workers School, the win- 
ter term of 1943. A number of people are listed as instructors in 
Marxism and Leninism, including "Meyer Weise." Kindly look at 
this document which I now display to you and tell this committee, 
while you are under oath, whether or not you are the "Meyer Weise" 
listed there as instructor in the Marxism-Leninism course in the 
Workers School in 1943. 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Weise Exhibit No. 3," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of the Communist Daily Worker of April 2, 1956, and 
invite your attention particularly to an article entitled, "Offer Ke- 
f resher Course on 'Capital,' " as follows : 

A lO-session evening course on "Highlights of Marx's 'Capital' "' will be taught 
by Myer Weise in the Spring Term program of the Jefferson School of Social 
Science, beginning the week of April 9. 

Kindly look at this document which I display to you and tell this 
committee wdiether or not you are the Myer Weise who taught the 
course at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

( Document handed to witness. ) 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Weise Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I display to you, if you please, a thermofax 
reproduction of a bulletin of Academy Hall, October-December 1957, 
listing a number of courses and a number of instructors, including 
"Boom and Bust in the U.S. Economy, Myer Weise." 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee, while you 
are under oath, whether or ]iot you are truly and correctly identified 
as the Myer Weise w^ho taught tlie courses in Marxist theory at this 
training school. 

( Document handed to witness. ) 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Weise Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you a photograph of a speaker. In 
this photograph, underneath the speaker before the microphone is 
the caption "Meyer Weise." That photograph was taken, so we have 
been advised, at a May Day celebration in Union Square, in New York 
City on May 2, 1956. Kindly tell this committee whether or not that 
is a true and correct reproduction of your own likeness as a speaker 
at the May Day affair in 1956 in New York. 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 



1034 CO^lMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

(Document marked "Weise Exhibit No. 6," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

(At this point Mr. Sclierer left the hearmg room.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that each ot tlie 
several documents which have been displayed to the witness be appro- 
priately marked for incorporation by reference in the record. 

Mr. Jacksox. They will be so incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently employed as a teacher at the Faculty 
of Social Science in New York City ? 

Mr.WEiSE. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been employed at the Jefferson School 
of Social Science in New York City ? 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Weise. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

******* 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness will be excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. i^JtENS. Mr. Irving Potash. 

Mr. Jackson. You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Potash. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING POTASH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Potash. My name is Irving Potash. My residence is 222 West 
23d Street. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please, sir ? 

Mr. Potash. I don't believe that this investigation is legal or con- 
stitutional. I don't think the subject matter of inquiry gives the 
committee the right to conduct such investigation. I therefore invoke 
the first amendment and the fifth amendment in refusing to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Potash. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Potash. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, 25 Broad Street, New York. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien and where were you born ? 

Mr. Potash. In the Ukraine, in 1902. 

ISIr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. Potash. 1913. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1035 

Mr. Potash. No. 
Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 
Mr. Potash. No. You heard me. No, I said. 
Mr Jackson. Will the witness keep his voice up a little bit ? 
Mr. Arens. Will you kindly tell us when you came to tliB United 
States ? 
Mr. Potash. In 1913. . . 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the principal occupations you have 

had since 1913? • p ,i t 

Mr Potash. I refuse to answer that question tor tlie reasons 1 
gave before. I invoke the first and the tifth amendments m that re- 
Mr. Arens. Have you ever been convicted of a felony ? 
Mr". Potash. I refuse to answer that question. 
Mr. Arens. Have vou ever served time in a penitentiary ? 
Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer on the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. ^, • T^ < 1 1 

Mr Vrens. You were one of the 11 Communist Party leadei-s con- 
victed at Foley Square, New York, in 1949, under the Smith Act, were 

' Mr. Potash. I invoke my constitutional rights under the first and 
the fifth amendments in refusing to answer. , tt • i c- ^ ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been deported from the United States { 

Mr! Potash. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that in 1955 you were 
deported to Poland. I ask you to affimi or deny that assertion. 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. It interests me, Mr. Counsel. If he was deported, 
how did he get back? 

Mr. Arens. That is the next question. 

In 1957 did you make an illegal enti-y into the United States? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you living in December of 1956 ? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. "WHiere were you in Januaiy of 1957 ? 

Mr! Potash. The same answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you were convicted and 
served time in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary on a charge of reenter- 
ing the United States illegally in 1957. If that is not the case, kindly 
deny it while vou are under oath. 

Mr. Potash. I invoke my rights under the first and fifth amend- 
ments and refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present place 
of emplovment ? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer on the same gronnds. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of the Communist Worker of April 12, 1959, in which an 
announcement is made in an editorial of the opening of the spring 



1036 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

term of the Faculty of Social Science in New York City. I read to 
you now, if you please, sir, an excerpt from that editorial : 

"Among its teachers" — that is, of the Faculty of Social Science — 

Among its teachers are to be found such writers and educators as Herbert 
Aptheker, Victor Perlo, and Sidney Finkelstein as well as such labor and 
political leaders as Irving Potash, Louis Weinstock, * * * 

and others. 

Kindly look at this document I display to you and tell us whether 
or not, while you are under oath, you are truly and correctly identi- 
fied in that editorial as one of the teachers or instructors at the 
Faculty of Social Science. 

Mr. Potash. I will not be a party to an investigation designed to 
persecute people for their ideas. I refuse to answer under the first 
and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Potash Exhibit No. !,'■ and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Jacksox. Mr. Counsel, let's put the record straight. This com- 
mittee is not engaged in persecuting people because of their ideas. 
We are attempting to get at the core of a conspiratorial apparatus. 
That is tlie sole function of this. 

As we go along, it seems we might make some progress. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee, while you are under oath, whether oi- not you are presently 
engaged as a teacher at the Faculty of Social Science you would be 
supplying information that might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Potash. Yes. Under the present answer, the present context, 
I will say "Yes" to the question you asked me. 

Mr. Aj?ens. Mr. Meyer, would you kindly come forward and stand 
here a moment ? 

Mr. Potash, this gentleman standing here, who is now looking you 
in the face, took an oath this morning and while he was testifying he 
said that he was a one-time member of the Communist Party, and 
while he was a member of the Communist Party he knew you, sir, as 
a member of the Communist Party. We want to give you an oppor- 
tunity now, while you are under oath, to deny that identification and 
to do so while you have available in your presence, looking you in the 
face, the man who identified you as a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Potash. To my best recollection this is the first time I see this 
man. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Meyer's identification of you as a member of 
the Communist Party true and correct? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer that question under the first and 
fifth amendments. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1037 

TESTIMONY OF FEANK S. MEYER— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Meyer, you have been previously sworn on this rec- 
ord by this committee, have you not ? 

Mr. IMeyer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see in the hearing room now the person whom 
you identified earlier today as a person known by you to be Irving 
Potash, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Meyer. And of its Central Committee and of its political bu- 
reau. 

Mr. Arens. And, sir, would you kindly point him out to this com- 
mittee, the person known by you to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Meyer. The gentleman sitting in front of the microphone. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING POTASH— Resumed 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Mr. Chairman, can we ask the photographer not 
to take pictures ? It is quite distressing. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Potash, kindly tell this committee what 
names you have used other than the name of Irving Potash. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer this question on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been acquainted with Frank S. Meyer, 
who preceded you on the witness stand and who stood here a few mo- 
ments ago and repeated his identification of you as a person known 
by him to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Potash. I repeat, to the best of my recollection I — this is the 
first time I see the man. 

Mr. Arens. Didn't you see him at Foley Square when he testified 
in the trial of the 11 Communists ? 

Mr. Potash. I don't remember seeing him there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party at any time in your life ? 

Mr. Potash. To my best recollection I never knew anything about 
this man. I never knew him, to my best recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Was he in error when he testified a little while ago 
that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer that question under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, tell us about your travels abroad. Have 
you been to Red China ? 

Mr. Potash. In the context of this investigation and the time, I 
refuse to answer this question on the ground of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Communist Daily Worker 
of Thursday, August 23, 1956, entitled "Irving Potash : Writes from 
China." It says : 

(Note: Irving Potash, one of the 11 national Communist leaders convicted in 
Foley Square in 1949 under the Smith Act, and who vpas deported in 1955, upon 



1038 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

his release from prison, is at present touring tlie People's Republic of China as 
an observer and correspondent. Upon the completion of his trip in late Sep- 
tember, Potash will write a series of articles on his observations of the New 
China. 

Excerpts of a letter to Eugene Dennis written by Potash shortly after his 
arrival in Peking in mid-July have been made public by Dennis and appear below.; 

Kindly look at this article appearing in the Daily Worker and tell 
this committee, while you are under oath, whether or not you are the 
author of the article or the letter appearing in the Daily Worker, 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Potash. Considering the unconstitutional objectives of this 
investigation and the work of this committee, I refuse to answer this 
question on the ground of the first and hfth amendments. 

(Document marked "Potash Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received a United States passport ? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answ^er that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for a United States passport? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to ansAver that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. What name have you used in your life other than the 
name of Irving Potash ? 

Mr. Potash. You asked me that question before, but I don't mind 
saying again I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you a photostatic reproduction of an 
article appearing in the Evening Star of Washington, D.C., January 
5, 1957, with a photograph, entitled, "Potash Seized by FBI For Illegal 
U.S. Re-entry" : "Irving Potash, one-time top American Communist," 
and tlie like. 

Kindly look at this article and tell the committee whether or not you 
are truly and correctly described there as the Irving Potash who was 
seized by the FBI for illegal entry. 

(The witness conferred wdth his counsel.) 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer this question on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Potash Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article in the Communist Daily Worker of Jan- 
uary 7, 1957, in whicli a photograph appears of you, apparently taken 
some few years ago. The article is entitled, "Jail Potash Following 
Return Here" and states, in effect, that Irving Potash, the former union 
leader who served a five-year term in Leavenworth Prison under the 
Smith Act is being held in New York because of an unauthorized re- 
entry into the United States. 

Kindly look at that article and tell the committee whether or not 
the facts and circumstances described there with reference to yourself 
are true and correct. 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer that question on tlie grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Potash Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Noav, I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article in The Worker of Sunday, August 31, 1958, 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1039 

in which a photograph appears of yourself, and underneath the 
photograph : 

IRVING POTASH was released from Atlanta I'enitentiary this week, after 
serving two years on a charge of re-entering the country without a permit. 

and so forth. 

Kindly look at this article I display to you and tell the committee 
whether the facts stated there are true and correct to the best of your 
knowledge. 

Mr. Potash. Under the circumstances of this investigation, I will 
refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "Potash Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now an instructor on the staff of the Faculty of 
Social Science in New York City ? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. I ask, almost with reluctance because it is so obvious — 
are you now, this instant, a member of the international conspiracy 
known as the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Potash. That is a loaded question. I don't understand it. 

Mr. Jackson. Let us unload it. Are you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you in attendance, Mr. Potash, and I assume 
you were, as defendant during all of the trial sessions at Foley 
Square, New York? 

Mr. Potash. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Jackson. You were there at all times ? 

Mr. Potash. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I want to ask counsel a question. 

You said this man was deported. To what country were you 
deported, sir? 

Mr. Potash. I beg your pardon, I am sorry. 

Mr. Scherer. To what country were you deported when you were 
deported ? 

Mr. Potash, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. What country was it, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. He was deported to Poland and re-entered from Poland 
after touring around the Communist empire. 

Mr. Scherer. He was convicted for illegal entry ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir; and he is now in the country teaching at the 
Faculty of Social Science. 

Mr, Scherer. Wliy is he in the country today ? 

Mr, Jackson. Would you tell the committee your present status, 
vis-a-vis the Immigration Service ? 

Mr. Potash. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

43643— 59— pt. 1 6 



1040 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. ScHERER. He served his jail sentence for illegal entry, and when 
did he complete that jail sentence ? 

Mr. Arexs. 1958. ^ , , , - 

Mr. ScHERER. Do we know of any action that has been taken to 

deport him ? „ , r /-. 

Mr. Arens. I have to confess I know of none, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. ScHERER. We do not know? 

Mr. BoNORA. Poland has turned hnn down, apparently. He is 
here. They have to find another country to accept him. 

Mr. ScHERER. I would like to ask the staff, Mr. Chairman, to sup- 
ply that information for the record. 

Mr. Jackson. If the staff will, make an effort to ascertain the pres- 
ent status of the witness. ,r ^1 . 

Mr. Arexs. We will make every effort to do so, Mr. Chairman.^ 

Mr. Scherer. Can you tell us what your present status is ? 

Mr. Potash. No, sir; I would not. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 

I should like to call Mr. Meyer back to the stand. 

Will you return to the stand, Mr. Meyer ? 

TESTIMONY OF FEANK S. MEYER— Eesumed 

Mr Jackson. Under the oath previously administered, we will pro- 
ceed to ask just a couple of questions in light of the apparent conflict of 

testimony. .^ ^ , t^ , o i. • i 

It is my understanding that you testified at the Foley Square trials ; 

is that correct ? 

IVTt TVTfyer Yes sir. 

Mr*. Jackson. For how long a period of time were you on the 

stand ? 

Mr. I^Ieyer. I, to my memeory, was on several hours. It was not a 

full day but a good part of the day. _ , 

Mr. Jackson. You were on for several hours m giving testimony. 

Is there anything further that you can add, in light of the conflict 

of testimony, which might serve to be of assistance to the committee 

so far as the failure of the previous witness to have any recollection 

of ever having seen you before ? tvt t> 

Mr. Meyer. I never worked in direct work with Mr. I otash m 
party activities, but during the years that I was in active work in the 
United States, from 1934 to the war, he was most of that time in top 
party leadership; and I have seen him in large central committee 
meetings ; I have seen him around the New York national party office ; 
I have'imdoubtedly met him on a number of occasions personally. I 
have not, in actual fact, ever been involved in the direct activity he was 
in He was largely in trade union work in that period. But I knew 
him, as I knew all of the top leaders of the party. I think it is unlikely 
that he does not remember me at all. I was one of the top leadership 
of the Chicago District, one of the large districts. I was m and out 
of New York from time to time. 



1 Irvine Potash was placed under order of supervision on Mar. 18- 1959. Efforts to 
secure travel documents have been unsuccessful to date. (Final order of deportation 
against Potash is dated Jan. 28, 1957.) 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1041 

Mr. Jackson. The reasonable assumption would be that he would 
have knowledge of you; is that your thought? 

Mr. Meyer. Yes. Not as an intimate coworker, but in general. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. SciiEKER. When you testified in Foley Square, was your testi- 
mony, or any part of it, directed toward him? 

Mr. Meyer. To my memory, not. I testified generally on the con- 
spiratorial grouping and specifically on three or four of the 11. 1 
don't believe that 1 said anything specifically about Mr. Potash. It 
is some years ago now, but that is my memory. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Johansen? 

Mr. Johansen. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the exhibits 
that have been displayed to Mr. Potash be appropriately marked and 
incorporated by reference into the record. 

Mr. Jackson. That will be done. 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 12 :25 p.m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, JULY 21, 1959 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Kepresentative Morgan M. 
Moulder presiding.) 

(Member of the subcommittee present at time of reconvening: Mr, 
Moulder.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hyman Lumer. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lumer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HYMAN LUMEE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself name, residence, and occupa- 
tion. 

Mr. Lumer. My name is Hyman Lumer. My residence is 640 West 
153d Street, New York. 

In reference to my occupation, I shall invoke my privileges under 
the firet and fifth amendments and decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You are apj)earing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lumer. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, 25 Broad Street, New York. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lumer, where were you when you were served with 
your subpena to appear before this committee ? 



1042 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

(The witness conferred -vTitli his coimseL) 

(At this point Mr. Willis entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. LuMER. I shall decline to answer on the same grounds, the 
first and fifth amendments. 

]Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest now the return 
of the United States Marshal showing service on this witness at the 
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Seattle, Wash., be incorpo- 
rated by reference in this record. 

Mr. Moulder. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Lumer Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Lumer, where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Lumer. I was born in Brooklyn, N.Y., jime 29, 1909. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word about your education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Lumer. I attended high school, college, and graduate school. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes ; it did. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you complete your work at the graduate 
school ? 

Mr. Lumer. 1935. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. Cleveland. 

Mr. Arens. And what degree did you receive ? 

Mr. Lumer. Ph. D. degree. 

Mr. Arens. And you are a doctor ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Lumer. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a doctor of philosophy ? 

Mr. Lumer. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what has been your principal occupation i?ince 
you completed your course and obtained your degree of doctor of 
piiilosophy. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I sliall decline to answer that on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

]\Ir. Arens. Have you been engaged in any occupation since you 
obtained your Ph. D. degree concerning which you can tell this com- 
mittee without revealing facts that could be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Aeens. Now, sir, I display to you, if you please, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Communist Worker of 
July 18, 1958, which tells about the Communist Party parley estab- 
lishing party policies and roles. 

In the course of this article, the following appears : 

The national committee approved, without a dissenting vote, the selection 
of oflBcers of the national committee previously elected by the NEC on authority 
granted to it by the February meeting, subject to later approval. 

They are Eugene Dennis, national secretary ; Robert Thompson, executive 
secretary; James Jackson, Negro and Southern affairs secretary; Hy Lumer, 
educational director, 

and others. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1043 

Kindly look at this article aiid tell this comiiiittee, wliile you are 
under oath, whether or not you are truly and accurately described 
there as the educational director of the Communist Party. 

Mr. LuMER. I shall decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Lumer Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Akens. Now, sir, I display to you, if you please, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Communist publication 
Political Affairs. This is entitled "The American Road to Socialism." 
It is an article by James S. Allen for the editorial subcommittee of 
the draft program committee in which Mr. Allen states that : 

The 16th National Convention of the Communist Party, meeting in February 
1957, instructed the National Committee to proceed with the preparation of 
a basic written program, which will "define clearly and unequivocally the view- 
point of American Communists on all fundamental problems of the struggle 
for socialism in the United States." 

Then in the footnote are listed the members of the draft program 
committee, including Hyman Lumer. 

Kindly tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether or 
not you helped formulate the national education program in the recent 
past of the Communist conspiracy in the United States. 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Lumer Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I display to you, if you please, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Communist Worker of 
Sunday, January 11, 1959, telling about a number of courses that 
have been established at a new school called the Faculty of Social 
Science, and in the course of this article appears a listing of the courses 
and the professors. One of the professors is listed here as Hyman 
Lumer, national education director of the Communist Party. 

Kindly tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether or 
not you are truly and accurately described as one of the professors or 
instructors at the Faculty of Social Science. 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that question on tlie same 
grounds. 

(Document marked "Lumer Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I display to you, if you please, a tiiermofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Communist Worker of 
Sunday, November 30, 1958, in which Hyman Lumer is described as 
one of the lecturers of a Brooklyn Marxist Youth Forum to be held at 
Brighton Center, 3200 Coney Island Avenue. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee, while you 
are under oath, whether or not you are accurately described as a par- 
ticipant in that enterprise. 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Lumer Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been an instructor at the Jefferson 
School of Social Science ? 



1044 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Now sir, I would like to recite to you a compilation of 
factual information which has come to this committee from its in- 
vestigative processes respecting your recent activities and ask you, 
while you are under oath now, to affirm or deny them. 

It is the information of this committee that on June 16, 1959, you, 
Hyman Lumer, educational director of the Communist Pai'ty, held 
a training course in Xcav York City where nine people were present, 
in which you were instructing them in strategies and tactics and un- 
derground activities of this conspiratorial organization know^n as the 
Communist Party. 

If that is not true, kindly deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

( At this point Mr. Johansen entered the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Arens. Where were you on June 16, 1959 ? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. It is further the information of this committee, and I 
put it to you as a fact, that on June 20 to June 28, you held a training 
course in Detroit with eight people present, all hard-core, disciplined 
revolutionaries. 

If that is not true, please deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. AVhere were you between June 20 and June 28, 1959 ? 

Mr. JjUmer. I decline to ansAver on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. It is further tlie information of this committee that oi\ 
June 29 to July 4, you held a training course in Los Angeles for hard- 
core revolutionaries and that you, pursuant to directions wliich you 
have received from James Jackson, who received them from Moscow, 
were in Los Angeles training the revolutionaries in revolutionary 
techniques. 

If that is not true, please deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Where is Yablon Center in Los Angeles ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that part of the underground 
training that you were giving to the comrades to overthrow this Gov- 
ernment by force and violence, destroy this Constitution, this whole 
society of ours, in this conspiracy known as the Communist Party, was 
held at Yablon Center, 7213 Beverly Boulevard. 

If that is not true, please deny it while-under oath. 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. In Detroit, it is the information of this committee from 
our investigative sources that, in addition to yourself, there were Carl 
Winter, chairman of the Michigan Communist Party, and Thomas De- 
witt Dennis, Jr., as instructors, and that the places of instruction in 
Detroit were in the following places, shifted from day to day : The 
Craine Studios, tlie home of Wadell Clark, 2499 Sheridan, and the 
home of Jim Smith. 

If there is any factual information, any ])ortion of what I liave just 
said, which is in the slightest degree untrue, please deny it while you 
are under oath. 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1045 

Mr. Arens. Do you know James Jackson, Jr. ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer that also on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you yesterday ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I shall decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Were you yesterday en route to Washington from Seat- 
tle where you were conducting these Communist training courses? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Where do you propose to go after your release from your 
subpena here ? 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you intend to pursue your underground Communist 
training courses with the hard-core cadre of revolutionaries to over- 
throw this Government by force and violence? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, an international Communist 
agent with the mission of training the hard-core revolutionaries in 
the processes and techniques and strategies of that conspiracy to over- 
throw this Government by force or violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. Would you care to repeat the grounds on which you 
decline to answer ? 

Mr. Lumer. The first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present 
occupation ? 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever changed your name ? 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever changed your facial identifications ? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that in the recent past you 
have been deep in the miderground of this conspiratorial apparatus ; 
that you did change your name ; you did change your facial identifi- 
cations so that you could, you thought, avoid detection. 

Mr. Lumer. I shall decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information now resj^ecting current ac- 
tivities of the Communist conspiracy in the training of the hard-core 
cadre, the tecliniques of infiltration, penetration, sabotage, and sub- 
version ? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that also on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you are now, this in- 
stant, one of the leaders of the underground movement of the Com- 
munist Party and that you are engaged now, full time, except for this 
interlude when you are appearing before this committee, as an instruc- 
tor of the hard core of the Communist conspiracy. 

If that is not true, deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest tliat will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 



1046 CORIMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Moulder. All of the documents referred to by counsel and sub- 
mitted by counsel to the witness will be admitted into evidence and 
made a part of the record by reference. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Willis ? 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

Mr. iMouLDER. Mr. Johansen ? 

Mr. JoHAXSEN. Xo questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the witnesses for this 
afternoon, and I respectfully suggest that you announce a recess until 
10 o'clock tomorrow morning, when we will proceed with other wit- 
nesses. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 2:25 p.m., Tuesday, July 21, 1959, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, July 22, 1959.) 

(Members present at time of recess: Eepresentatives Moulder, 
Willis, and Johansen. ) 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS— PART 1 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 22, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, House Office Build- 
ing, Washington, D.C, Hon, Francis E. Walter (chairman) presid- 
ing. 

Committee members present: Francis E. Walter, of Pennsylvania; 
Morgan M. Moulder, of Missouri ; Clyde Doyle, of California ; Donald 
L. Jackson, of California; and William E. Miller, of New York. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff director, and Frank 
Bonora, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Leon Josephson, please come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEON JOSEPHSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
SAMUEL A. NEUBUEGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Josephson. My name is Leon Josephson. I reside at 161 West 
16th Street, New York City. I am the manager of a restaurant owned 
by my brother. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Josephson, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Josephson. Yes, sir. 

]\Ir. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Josephson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself. 

Mr. Neuburger. Samuel Neuburger, 225 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any occupation other than your employ- 
ment as a restaurant manager ? 

1047 



1048 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I don't know what you mean by occupation. Some 
other source of work from which I derive money ? 

Mr, Arens. Are you engaged in teaching work of any kind ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. In view of the fact that the Smith Act makes ad- 
vocacy of tlie principles of Marxism-Ijeninism punishable, and in 
view of the fact that the McCarran law carries certain sanctions to in- 
dividuals who are comiected with certain organizations, if the organ- 
izations are cited and do not register, I invoke the protection of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. xVkens. Are you one of those who is advocating what you have 
characterized as Marxism-Leninism ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JosEPHSON, The same answer. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, a thennofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in The Worker of November 16, 
1958, entitled, "Marxist Courses," in which are listed the courses ancl 
the instructors, at the Faculty of Social Science, including one Leon 
Josephson, who is listed as one of the instructors. 

Kindly look at this article and tell this committee whether or not 
you are properly, truly, and correctly characterized as an instructor 
in the Faculty of Social Science in New York City. 

ISIr. JosEPHSox. I decline to answ^er on the basis of the fifth and first 
amendments. 

(Document marked, "Josephson Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you a copy of an article appearing in New 
Masses of April 1, 1947, entitled "I am a Communist," by Leon Joseph- 
son, in which Leon Josephson says, among other things, "I am a Com- 
munist. Like all Conununists, and like most Americans, I am also 
anti-fascist." 

Kindly look at this article and tell this committee, if you please, sir, 
whether or not you are the Leon Josephson who identified himself 
as a Communist in that article. 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the first amend- 
ment and the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Josephson Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever taught in the Jefferson School of Social 
Science in New York City ? 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax repro- 
duction of a bulletin of the Jefferson School of Social Science in New 
York City, in which Leon Josephson is listed as one of the instructors 
in that institut ion in the fall of 1956. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or not 
you are correctly identified in that capacity of instructor. 

]Mr. .Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1049 

(Document marked "Josephson Exliibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are vou a member of the bar of any State ? 

Mr. JosEPHsox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When and where did you become a member of the bar 
of a State? 

Mr. Josephson. I became a member of the bar of tlie State of New- 
Jersey in 1921. 

Mr. Arens. And are you presently a member of the bar of the State 
of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Josephson. I am presently a member in good standing of the 
bar, but have not practiced since 1932. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taught any law courses ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. Are you fearful that if you an- 
swered the question as to whether or not you taught law courses you 
might be subjected to a criminal prosecution ? 

Mr. Josephson. Yes. If the course was a course in the philoso- 
phies of law, from Plato on up, including Marx, it certainly would 
come under the provision of the Smith Act making it illegal to 
advocate the principles of Marxism and Leninism. 

The Chairman. What you are saying, then, is that you have been 
violating the Smith Act and you don't feel that you ought to be 
compelled to admit it ? 

Mr. Josephson. I am not saying that at all. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taught courses on Soviet law ? 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax repro- 
duction of an article appearing in the Daily Worker on April 6, 1954, 
in which Leon Josephson, an attorney, so it is announced, will teach 
a 10-session course on "Soviet Law" at the Jefferson School, beginning 
the week of April 19. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or not 
the facts recited therein are, to your knowledge, true and correct. 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "Josephson Exhibit No. 4," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

Mr. Josephson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Josephson. A number of times. 

Mr. Arens. When was the last time you traveled abroad ? 

Mr. Josephson. The last time I traveled abroad was in 1935. 

Mr. Arens. Did you travel on a United States passport ? 

Mr. Josephson. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever visited the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Josephson. I 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1050 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you written articles respecting the individual 
in Soviet law ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JosEPHsox. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arexs. Can you tell us whether or not, based upon your study, 
the individual in the Communist countries is granted the right of 
habeas corpus ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Josephson. I may answer that from my opinion and my know- 
ledge of Soviet law that they have no formal habeas corpus pro- 
ceedings, but they have a proceeding which, in effect, is similar to 
our habeas corpus. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you acquire this knowledge that you 
have of Soviet law ? 

(Til© witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Josephson. My knowledge of Soviet law was acquired mainly 
from American sources, the books of Professor Hazard of Columbia, 
Professor Berman of Yale, of Gsovski at the Library of Congress. 
There have been in the last five years fully 100 books written on So- 
viet law and probably three or four hundred articles in law journals 
and scientific magazines. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other source from which you have derived 
your knowledge respecting Soviet law ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Josephson. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arexs. Does the Soviet le^al system provide for a witness the 
privilege of not giving information that could be used against him 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. JosEPiisox. From my personal knowledge of Soviet law, the 
privilege applies to a defendant, but not to a witness. 

j\Ir. Arexs. Did you, in the course of your study of Soviet law, 
make a study of the slave labor system in Soviet Kussia ? 

Mr. JosEPiisox. I might say I am writing a book on the compara- 
tive systems, both so far as theory and practice is concerned, which 
I hope to get out by the first of the year, and I will be glad to send 
you a copy of my book. 

Mr. Arexs. And are you, as author of that book, a member of 
the Communist Party engaged in furthering the interests of the in- 
ternational Communist conspiracy by undertaking to portray a false 
picture of Soviet law ? 

Mr. JosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arexs. I display to you, if you please, sir, a copy of an article 
appearing in Mainstream of May 1957, by Leon Josephson entitled, 
"The Individual in Soviet Law," m which the author, Leon Joseplison, 
takes to task an individual who suggests that there is less than con- 
stitutional privileges afforded people in the Soviet Union. 

Kindly look at this article and tell this committee whether or not 
you are the author of that article. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1051 

(The witn(;ss conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JosEPHsoN. In view of the fact that the editors of this maga- 
zine have been subpenaed from time to time, I decline to answer on 
the basis of the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Josephson Exhibit No. 5," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you a propagandist for the Communist conspiracy 
in the United States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. eJosEPHSON. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairaian, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions? 

The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Henry Klein. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Klein. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY KLEIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
SAMUEL A. NEUBUEGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Klein. Henry Klein, 88-09 Shore Parkway, Howard Beach, 
New York. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please, sir? 

Mr. Klein. I am an assistant production supervisor. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere, please, sir? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein. In a printing establishment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other occupation? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein. I have no other occupation from which I receive 
compensation. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other occupation from which you do 
not receive compensation — in the nature of employment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein. Sir, in view of the line of questioning of this com- 
mittee, in view of the policies of this committee, I wish to take my 
rights under the fifth amendment and not answer that question. 

The Chairman. "What policy of this committee are you talking 
about ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein. Well, sir, in view of the past series of questionings of 
previous witnesses before this committee of the policy of this com- 
mittee seeking to establish links in a chain which may tend to in- 
crhninate individuals, it is for that reason, sir, I take advantage of 
my rights under the fifth amendment. 



1052 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

The Chairman. This committee has never endeavored to create a 
chain of circumstances that would lead to a criminal prosecution. It is 
a congressional 

Mr. Klein. In view of my opinion of what has happened under this 
connnittee, I wish to take advantage of my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Klein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Klein, I am. 

Mr.ARENS. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Neuburger. Samuel A. Neuburger, 225 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us when and Avhere you were born. 

Mr. Klein. In the United States, January 1911. 

Mr. Arens. Where in the United States ? 

Mr. Klein. Brooklyn, New York. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

(The witness conferred wdth his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein, My formal education — I am a graduate of high school in 
the city of New York. I did my undergraduate work at the College 
of the City of New York, and I received my masters in education at 
that institution. 

Mr, Arens. When, sir ? 

Mr. Klein. Sir? 

Mr. Arens. When, please ? 

Mr. Klein. I received my bachelor of arts in 1932, my master of 
science in education in 1933. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Klein, No, sir. 

Mr. Arens, Tell us about the other formal education, 

Mr, Klein, I did graduate work at Columbia University towards 
my doctorate. 

Mr. xVrens. Did you receive your doctorate ? 

Mr. Klein. No, sir ; I did not complete my work. 

Mr, Arens, Please tell us about the principal employments which 
you have had, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein. Sir, I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Arens. Have you been engaged in any employment since you 
completed your formal education other than the employment which 
you related in your present identification 

Mr. Klein. Sir, I plead my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Concerning which you can tell this committee without 
revealing information wliich might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein, Sir, I am sorry, but I still invoke my rights under the 
fifth amendment, 

Mr. Arens. Have you been employed in the public school system 
in New York City? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1053 

Mr. Klein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When were you employed in the public school system? 

Mr. Klein. In the public school system from 19;38, I believe, to 
1940 or 1941. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. What precipitated your disassociation ? 

Mr. Klein. I invoke my rights under the fiftli amendment not to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
your engagement as a teacher in the public school system in New 
York City? 

Mr. Klein. I again invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you one of the instructors at the Facidty of Social 
Science in New York City ? 

Mr. Klein. I again invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you a thermofax reproduction of an an- 
nouncement that the Faculty of Social Science, 80 East 11th Street, 
at Broadw^ay, will conduct a series of courses, one of which is entitled 
"Marxist Theory of the State," by Henry Klein. 

Kindly look at this document, and tell this committee whether or 
not you are accurately and truthfully described as instructor in that 
course at the Faculty of Social Science. 

Mr. Klein. Again, sir, I will not answer under the rights of the 
fifth amendment. 

(Docmnent marked "Klein Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been connected with the International 
Workers Order ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Klein. I refuse to answer that question, sir, under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you the educational director for New York City 
of the International Workers Order, sir ? 

Mr. Klein. My answer is the same, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, if you please, sir, a reproduction 
of a photograph of yourself, with the caption, "Henry Klein, new 
IWO Educational Director of New York City," giving biographical 
data respecting yourself, and the future outlook for the International 
Workers Order, appearing in the October 1941 issue of Fraternal 
Outlook. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or 
not you are truthfully and accurately described there as the educa- 
tional director of the International Workers Order. 

Mr. EIlein. I will not answer under the fifth amendment. 
(Document marked "Klein Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you also taught in the Jefferson School of Social 
Science ? 

Mr. Klein. I will not answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, sir, a thermofax reproduction 
of an announcement of the Jefferson School of Social Science, in which 
Henry Klein, who formerly taught at Brooklyn College, is listed as 
one of the instructoi^ at the Jefferson School for September-Decem- 
ber, 1947. 



1054 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or 
not you are truthfully and accurately described there as an instructor 
at the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Mr. Klein. Sir, I cannot answer that question, under the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Klein Exliibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

]Mr. Arens. Have you ever instructed at Brooklyn College in New 
York City? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you an instructor there ? 

]Mr. Klein. I held various grades between 1933 and 1938. 

Mr. Arens. What did you teach ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klein. I taught ancient and medieval history. 

Mr. xYrens. And what status did you have in the school— just an 
instructor? 

Mr. Klein. First as reader, then fellow, then as student. 

Mr. Arens. In the period of your connection with the Brooklyn 
College, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Klein. Sir, once again I will not answer that question under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I display a thermofax reproduction of an announce- 
ment, "Introducing Ten New Classes in Marxist Theory and Its Appli- 
cations," to be held at Academy Hall, New York, October-December, 
1957, listing a number of courses and the instructors in these courses, 
including Henry Klein's course on "Changing Systems : Hurnan His- 
tory," to include such subjects as what is meant by revolution, is social- 
ism inevitable, and the like. 

Kindly look at this document which I now display to you and tell 
this committee whether or not you are truthfully and accurately de- 
scribed there as an instructor in the classes in Marxist theory as an- 
nounced in this bulletin. 

Mr. Klein. Sir, once again I cannot answer that question under the 
fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Klein Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Klein. My answer is the same, sir. ^ 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have information that you could 
supply to your Government via this committee respecting the machina- 
tions and operations of the Communist Party in the United States 
and respecting persons known by you, to a certainty at the present 
time, to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Klein. Sir, I cannot answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 



COMIVIUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1055 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Esther Cantor. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mrs. Cantor. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ESTHER CANTOR, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
SAMUEL A. NEUBURGER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mrs. Cantor. My name is Esther Cantor. I live at 809 West 177th 
Street, in Manhattan, New York City, and I am a housewife. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mrs. Cantor. Yes. 

JMr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Cantor. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Neuburger. Samuel A. Neuburger, 225 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arexs. "VMiere were you born ? 

]Mrs. Cantor. New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your education, please. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cantor. My formal education was I am a graduate of Blue- 
field High School, in West Virginia, and I completed three and one- 
half years at Hunter College, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your work at Hunter College ? 

Mrs. Cantor. About 1935. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, the principal employments you 
have had since you completed your formal education. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cantor. I decline to answer that question under the protec- 
tion of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee iruthf ully while you are under oath the employments you have 
had since completion of your formal education you would be supplying 
information which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. Cantor. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You discussed a moment ago your formal education. 
Do you distinguish that from some other type of education, informal 
education or training which you have had ? 

Mrs. Cantor. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that, if you please, ma'am. 

Mrs. Cantor. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received training in Communist training 
schools ? 

Mrs. Cantor. I decline to answer that question. 



4.3643— 59— pt. 1- 



1056 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Are you an instructor at the Faculty of Social Science 
at 80 East lltli Street, New York City ? 

Mrs. Cantok. The same. 

Mr. Akens. I beo; your pardon ? 

The Chairman. You have stated that you declined to answer the 
question. For what reason do you decline to answer the question? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Cantor. Well, first, because I believe I have an absolute right 
to do whatever I am doing, and secondly, because the answer may in- 
criminate me, and I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. So when you said or answered by refusing to 
answer, you mean that you refuse to answer because of the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mrs. Cantor. I understood that ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. May I display to you a thermofax reproduction of an 
article appearing in The Worker of June 21, 1959, listing a number of 
persons as instructors, and a number of courses being tauglit at the 
new school, the Faculty of Social Science in New York City, including 
Esther Cantor, as one of the instructors. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or 
not you are truthfully and accurately described as one of the in- 
structors. 

Jilrs. Cantor. I decline to answer. The same. 

(Document marked "Cantor Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you been the State legislative director of the 
Communist Party in New York State? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

INIrs. Cantor. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you 

Mrs. Cantor. Of course, everything is out m the open, but I still 
decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat do you mean "everything is out in the open"? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Cantor. Well, actually, my life is an open book, as you gentle- 
men well know, but under the needs of a situation imposed by a com- 
mittee such as this, and prosecutions which have been taking place, 
I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. When you speak of your life being an open book, is part 
of the open book a chapter in which you are, or were, the State legis- 
lative director of the Communist Party for New York State? 

JMrs. Cantor. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, if you please, ma'am, a thermofax re- 
production of an article in The Worker of November 23, 1958, en- 
titled, "National and State legislative Activity Mapped By CP 
Leaders," in which Esther Cantor is described as "State legisla- 
tive director," who is presenting a program of the Communist legis- 
lative objectives. 

Kindly look at this document which I now display to you and tell 
this committee whether or not you are truthfully and accurately de- 
scribed as the State legislative director for New York State of the 
Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1057 

Mrs. Cantor. I decline to answer, sir. I decline to answer. 

(Document marked "Cantor Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Cantor. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr, Arens. Do you at this instant have loiowledge of the machina- 
tions and operations of this conspiratorial operation known as the 
Communist Party, operating presently, and do you have present 
information respecting persons who, to your certain knowledge, are 
members of this conspiratorial organization, known as the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Cantor. The only conspiracy that I can recognize in this 
country is one directed against the school integration issue and labor. 
T know of no other conspiracy and, therefore, decline to answer on 
the grounds of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Sidney Finkelstein, please come forward. Remain 
standing while tlie chairman administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your liand, Mr. Finkelstein? 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Finkelstein. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY FINKELSTEIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID KEIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Finkelstein. My name is Sidney Finkelstein. I live at 522 
Stratford Road, Brooklyn, New York City. My occupation — I call 
myself an esthetician 

Mr. Arens, I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Finkelstein. I am a writer on theory, philosophy of the arts, 
esthetics, philosophy of arts and music. I write on that subject. I 
have written books on it. 

Mr. Arens. Is that your sole occupation ? 

Mr, Finkelstein. It is my sole occupation, though I can say that 
on the basis of my writings I have been asked to give lectures. 

Mr. Arens. Where have you lectured ? 

Mr. Rein. May I raise a point, Mr. Chairman ? 

I understand that this witness was before the committee just two 
years ago. I wonder if we could have a ruling of the chairman, as the 
chairman has made in other occasions, that we are not going to go 
over stuff that has been gone over before. 

Mr. Arens. We don't propose to do so. The witness at that time 
was here in connection with another school. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 



1058 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly answer the question. You told us about your 
lectures. I am asking you where you lectured. 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. Well, I decline to answer that question for two 
reasons. One is that — well, one is that the effect of an investigation 
like this, it seems to me to be one that would intimidate the free ex- 
ploration of coritroversial ideas that are necessary for a good educa- 
tion and for our country's progress, and since the first amendment 
of the Constitution prohibits laws that would abridge freedom of 
speech, I think that an investigation that would have this intimidat- 
ing effect would not serve a constitutional, legislative objective. That 
is one reason for declining. 

The other is that since there is a process of associations which might 
link me with certain activities that might involve other problems, 1 
invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment to the Constitution that 
a witness cannot be compelled to testify against himself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the witness volunteered the statement 
that he was a lecturer. I believe he has opened the door. 

I respectfully suggest that he be ordered and directed to answer 
the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. You 
have opened the door for this answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FixKELSTEiN". I dccliue to answer for the reasons given that 
to name places might set up some kind of associations and, therefore, 
I feel I have the privilege of declining, and declining for the reasons 
given. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Finkelstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. FixKELSTEiN. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Reix. David Rein, 711 Fourteenth Street Northwest, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. Arexs. When and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Fixkelsteix. In New York City ; July 4, 1009. 

Mr. Arexs. Give us a brief summary of your education. 

Mr. Fixkelsteix. The New York City public schools and high 
schools. College of the City of New York, Columbia University, and 
New York University. 

Mr. Arexs. AVhat degrees do you hold, please, sir ? 

Mv. Fixkelsteix. I hold a bachelor of arts degi-ee; I have a master 
of arts degree in literature ; a master of arts degree in the history of 
our country. 

Mr. Arexs. Did that complete your formal education ? 

IMr. Fixkelsteix. Yes ; that does. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you have any other education of an informal 
variety ? 

Mr. Fixkelsteix. I am not quibbling, sir, when I say that all read- 
ing, that is, all serious reading, is education. I am not trying to 
quibble on this. 

!^^r. Arexs. Aside from the reading which we all do, have you at- 
tended any training courses of any variety other than the training 
which you received in your formal education? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1059 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. Again, I am not quibbling, but there have been 
training courses as part of the United States Army. To be factual- 

Mr. Arens. Any training courses other than those that you received 
in the United States Army ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. No, uot to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Have you attended any Communist training courses? 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. Well, I decline to answer any question with that 
name in it for the reasons given, on the basis of the fifth amendrnent, 
and any possible associations that would be set up by those questions. 

Mr. Arens. Are you an instructor in this newly formed organiza- 
tion known as the Faculty of Social Science in New York City ? 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. I decline to answer that for the reasons given. ^ 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what "Socialist realism" is ? What is 
"Socialist realism" ? 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. I liave read a good deal about it, and I have been 
thinking about it. I could say what I think it is, but I must say I 
don't know of any dictionary definition which says this is so. All I 
could give is my opinion. 

Mr. Arens. Do you teach or have you taught any courses on Social- 
ist realism ? 

Mr. Finkelsit:in. I decline to answer any questions — that question, 
for the reasons given. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax repro- 
duction of The Worker of April 19, 1959, listing a number of courses 
being taught at the Faculty of Social Science in New York City, and 
the instructors. 

This article carries the name Sidney Finkelstein as the instructor 
on Socialist realism. 

Kindly look at this article and tell this committee whether or not 
you are truthfully and accurately described there as the instructor 
at the Faculty of Social Science on Socialist realism. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Finkelstein. I want to say briefly that all my ideas on any 
topic — I would be very glad to discuss them. They represent my own 
thinking, solely, and my own investigations, but on this question as to 
my relationship to an institution, I must decline to answer for the 
reasons given previously. 

(Document marked "Finkelstein Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

The Chairman. Do I understand you correctly that you fear if 
you would answer this question concerning your connection with 
this school you might give testimony that could be used in a criminal 
case? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Finkelstein. Yes. There have been criminal cases. Person- 
ally 

The Chairman. What is there criminal about this school that you 
are disturbed about ? 

Mr. Finkelstein. Sir, with all respect, I don't know, I haven't 
thought, of ary thing criminal about any school. I base my remarks 
or answers on the basis that there have been, in a matter of history, 



1060 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

certain criminal cases, and these involve matters of ideas and a whole 
chain involvino: ideas; and ideas, perhaps, can lead to being called 
conspiracies or crimes. 

I personally believe that this kind of thing the American people 
■will, with good sense, repudiate. But that is aside from the point. It 
is for that reason of this existing situation that I decline to answer the 
question. 

Mr. xi.RENS. Do you want to express yourself as to whether or not, 
in your judgment, the American people will repudiate Communists 
and connnunism ? 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. I can only say that the American ])eople will, in 
the long run, always do what they feel to be best for them and what 
the majority feels to be best to do. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taught at the Jefferson Scliool of Social Sci- 
ence ? 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. I decline to answer that for the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, if you please, sir, a thermofax repro- 
duction of a bulletin announcing the courses and the instructors at the 
Jefferson School of Social Science. One of the courses listed, "How 
To Listen to Music," is under the instructorship of Sidney Finkelstein. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or not 
you are truthfully and accurately described there as the instructor of 
that course. 

Mr. Finkelstein. It is a course in how to listen to music. I decline 
to answer this on the basis of the reasons previously given. 

(Document marked "Finkelstein Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have 3^ou taught courses in the Marxist theory at Acad- 
emy Hall ? 

Mr. Finkelstein. I decline to answer that for the reasons pre- 
viously given.) 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, if vou please, sir, a bulletin entitled, 
"Introducing Ten New Classes in Marxist Theory and Its Applicsi- 
tions." October-December 1957, to be held at Academy Hall, 853 
Broadway, New York, in which, among other instructors, Sidney 
Finkelstein is listed as the instructor on Social Philosophy of Art. 

Kindlv look at this document and tell this committee whether or not 
you are truthfully and accurately described there as the instructor in 
social philosophy. 

Mr. Finkelstein. Excuse me, sir. It says social philosophy of art. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Social philosophy of art. Is that the 
course you taught there ? 

Mr. Finkelstein. I decline to answer that for the reasons previ- 
ously given. 

(Document marked "Finkelstein Exhibit No. 3", and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you likewise instructed at the Metropolitan Music 
School? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Finkelstein. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Communist 
Party? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1061 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. I decline to answer that for the reasons previ- 
ously given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, this moment, have information which you 
could give your Government, via this committee, respecting the mach- 
inations and operations of that conspiratorial force in the United 
States known as the Communist Party and the identification of per- 
sons who presently are, to your certain knowledge, members of the 
Communist Party ? 

^ Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. Well, I would like to register a personal objec- 
tion to what I think is the kind of subjective and emotional adjec- 
tives in that question, but I decline to answer that for the reasons 
previously given. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that will conclude the staff inter- 
rogation of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. Jackson. The witness referred to the emotional adjectives. 
I should like to ask the witness if he knows whether or not the 
Communist Party is a conspiratorial apparatus. 

Mr. FiNKELSTEiN. Sir, w^iat I meant by emotional adjectives, things 
like machinations, conspiratorial, what I simply meant is that these 
are not factual. They refer to — they are the kind of words that 
arouse very violent feelings which tend to cloud looking at facts, 
what are facts and not facts, and that is why I made that remark. 

And furthermore, they are subject to so many different interpreta- 
tions. A thought to somebody else could be a conspiracy, just the 
advancement of a thought and purpose. That is just on the question 
of vagueness that I made that remark. 

But I do decline to answer your questions, sir, with all respect, 
because of the reasons I have previously given. 

Mr. Jackson. I am trying to get it out of the realm of emotion, into 
the realm of fact. But you are not helping a great deal in that regard. 

I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Susan Warren. Please come 
forward and remain standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Miss Warren. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SUSAN WARREN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Miss Warren. My name is Susan Warren. I live at 110 Christopher 
Street, New York City. I am a free-lance writer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Miss Warren. lam. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Miss Warren. I am. 



1062 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Counsel, please identify yourself. 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 Fourteenth Street, Northwest, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. For the purpose of identification, is it Miss Warren 
or Mrs. Warren ? 

Miss. Warren. Miss Warren. 

Mr. Rein. May I make the same comment with respect to this wit- 
ness as with regard to the previous witness? This witness has also 
been before the committee quite recently, and I assume the interroga- 
tion will not go into matters which were already covered. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born, Miss Warren ? 

Miss Warren. I was born in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your formal education. 

Miss Warren. I went to the regular grammar school and high 
school, and I am a graduate of Rutgers University with an A.B. 
degree. I have taken postgraduate courses at Columbia University. 

Mr. Arens. What were your postgraduate courses in, please ? 

Miss Warren. The history of Chinese history and civilization and 
the Chinese language. 

Mr. Arens. Have you sort of specialized in Chinese culture and 
Chinese civilization ? 

Miss Warren. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever visited China ? 

Miss Warren. No, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lectured and written on that subject ? 

Miss Warren. I must decline to answer that since my feeling is 
that this committee is interested largely or, I would say, mostly, in 
exposure and punishment and, therefore, I am going to take advantage 
of my privileges under the fifth amendment and decline to answer that. 

The Chairman. Maybe I can get you on the right track. We are 
not interested in exposure for exposure's sake, in order that somebody 
might be punished. What we are interested in is developing facts 
that will enable the Congress of the United States to enact legisla- 
tion that will protect our Republic from the new phases of this inter- 
national conspiracy. We are not interested in exposing anything ex- 
cept insofar as it might relate to that purpose. 

Mr. Arens. Now, ma'am, if you please, may I display several thermo- 
fax reproductions of ai-ticles respecting some of your lectures on 
China. 

The fii-st is an advertisement appearing in The Worker of March 
22, 1959, in which you are listed as one of the instructors at the 
Faculty of Social Science in New York City, and it states your lec- 
ture there is on "Chinese Communes." 

Kindly look at that article and tell this committee whether or not 
you are truthfully and accurately described as one of the instructors 
at the Faculty of Social Science in New York City who lectured on 
Chinese communes? 

Miss Warren. With all due respect to the chaii'man of the com- 
mittee and what he said, I have been following the activities of this 
committee in the papers for many years, and I have noticed a singular 
lack of interest in facts and a great deal of exposure and punishment. 
Therefore, I must continue to decline under my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1063 

(Document marked "Warren Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. There appeared before this committee several months 
ago, five clergymen who had escaped from the Communist regime in 
Red China. They testified about tlie commime system there; how 
families are broken up; and about the Mholesale nnirder of an esti- 
mated 20 million people in Red China. 

They also testified about the tortures inflicted upon the people ; about 
incidents in which the Red Chinese Communists would actually pull 
people apart by lioi*ses, and about the murder of old people so that 
their bodies could be used for fertilizer. 

Have you, in any of your lectures on the situation in Red China, 
touched upon that Subject matter? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Warren. Mr. Arens, I haven't said that I gave any lectures on 
China. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lectured on China ? 

Miss Warren, I decline to answer that for the reasons stated pre- 
viously. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been editor of the Far East Spotlight ? 

Miss Warren. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you a thermof ax reproduction of an article 
in The Worker of February 2, 1958, in which the following article 
appears : 

Lecture on Chiua 

"China — From Liberation to Socialist Transfoi-mation" — will be the theme of a 
lecture Monday evening Feb. 3, at 8 : 30 P.M. in the new class in "The World 
of Socialism Today" at the Adelphi Hall, 74 Fifth Avenue. Sue Warren, formerly 
editor of the publication, "The Far East Spotlight," will be the speaker. Admis- 
sion is $1. 

Kindly look at that article and tell the committee whether or not 
the facts recited are, to your knowledge, true and correct. 

Miss Warren. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Warren Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Have you been an instructor at the Jefferson School of 
Social Science ? 

Miss Warren. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a thermofax reproduction of a 
bulletin of the Jefferson School of Social Science in which the in- 
structors are listed, including Sue Warren, B.A., Rutgers, formerly 
educational director, New York County Committee, Communist 
Party. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or 
not the facts recited there are, to your knowledge, true and correct. 

Miss Warren. I decline to answer that for the reasons previously 
given. 

(Document marked "Warren Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



1064 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Aeexs. Have you, in your lectures and in articles you have 
written, made it clear to your listeners and readers that you have 
never been to Red China ? _ 

Miss Warrex. I have never said that I have written any articles. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you, ma'am, a photostatic reproduction of an 
article appearino^ in The Worker of November 13, 1949, entitled "No 
Place for the Chinese People?" by Susan M. Warren, in which the 
Chinese Communist regime is lauded, and in which great complaint is 
registered because the Chinese people, not the Communist regime, 
but the Chinese people, are precluded from admission to the United 
Nations. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or 
not you are truthfully and accurately described there as the author of 
that article. 

Miss Warren. I decline to answer this for the reasons previously 
given. 

(Document marked "Warren Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Do they have a real democracy in Red China now? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Warren. I might say this, Mr. Arens : that in my studies of 
China, I would very much like to go to China and study its social 
system, have contact with its people, but I am afraid that the policy 
that we follow, which a good part of the people in this country and 
many spokesmen have said is an ostrich-like policy, of sticking our 
heads in the sands, not allowing us to go, et cetera, keeps me from 
that. So I couldn't discuss anything. I wouldn't want to discuss any- 
thing without having seen. 

Mr. Arens. You did discuss it — 

The Chairman. Perhaps if you stood where I did in Hong Kong 
and talked to intelligent people who had just gotten out, somehow or 
other, from behind the Iron Curtain, you would get an understanding 
of the starvation, of the misery, and the things that the people are 
subjected to. That is a very easy place to find out about that. 

Mr. Arens. But Ma'am, you just said that you would like to go 
there so you could discuss it. You did discuss it, nonetheless, did 
you not, because I have here a photostatic reproduction from the 
Communist Daily Worker of April 8, 1949, in which a forum series 
is listed. The title of the forum series is, China, New People's 
Democracy, and the speaker is listed as Susan Warren. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or 
not you did give the lecture on that subject. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Warren. I decline to to answer this for the reasons previously 
given. 

(Document marked "Warren Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Warren. I decline to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting present operations 
of the Communist Party in the United States, and do you presently 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1065 

have knowledge of persons who, to your certain knowledge, are mem- 
bers of the Communist Party now ? 

Miss Warren. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
mider tlie fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. You made the statement that this committee was 
not interested in the facts. You based that statement upon an opinion 
you formed from reading the newspapers. 

Could you be more specific in that respect as to what facts you 
believe we ai'e not interested in ? 

Miss Warren, Well, let me just say this: that I noted that Justice 
Black, in his dissent in the Barenblatt case, stated very specifically 
that the purpose of this committee was exposure, and its reason for 
existence was punislnnent. 

Mr. Moulder. That is not what I am referring to. What facts 
do you possess or have knowledge of which you believe we are not 
interested in? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Warren. I must say that I find this a very confusing ques- 
tion. I don't understand it. 

Mr. Moulder. You made the charge — 

Miss Warren. I don't think that you are really interested in the 
facts. 

Mr. Moulder. "\^niat facts? 

Miss Warren. In any facts that I or any other witness may give at 
this committee. The facts are actually the least part of this. What 
you are interested in is making an exposure, and your minds are 
made up before we ever come in here. 

Mr. Moulder. You certainly haven't cooperated in giving us any 
facts. 

Miss Warren. I haven't for the reasons I stated. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions? 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Louis Weinstock. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the evidence you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Weinstock. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS WEINSTOCK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself for the record by giving your 
full name, address, and occupation or profession. 

Mr. Weinstock. Louis Weinstock, and I live at 24 Metropolitan 
Oval, New York City. 

Mr. Arens, And your occupation ? 

Mr. Weinstock. My occupation is a house painter, a house 
painter 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 



1066 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Weixstock. In a painter's lanorua^e, I am a smearer and I 
smear walls, not people. 

Mr. Akens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Weinstock. I do. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Weixstock. 1 am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you please identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 Fourteenth Street, Northwest, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Weinstock. At Satoraljaujhely, Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Weinstock. May 14, 1903. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for peiTnanent 
residence ? 

Mr. Weinstock. April 1924. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Weinstock. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when did you become a citizen ? 

Mr. Weinstock. Sometime in October 1930, in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization ? 

Mr. Weinstock. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party as of the 
time you were naturalized as a citizen ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer this question based on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you employed as an instructor at the Faculty of 
Social Science in New York City ? 

Mr. Weinstock. Your previous question was what is my occupa- 
tion. I said I am a house painter and I am employed as a house 
painter. 

Mr. Arens. Is that your sole and exclusive employment ? 

Mr. Weinstock. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Do you also teach at the Faculty of Social Science in 
New York City? 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer that question based on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I display to you, if you please, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article in the Communist Worker of January 4, 
1959, in which a number of persons are listed and a number of courses 
to be given. There is a course to be given by Louis Weinstock, of the 
Faculty of Social Science, according to this article. 

Kindly look at this article and tell the committee whether or not the 
facts recited there are, to your knowledge, true and correct. 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer this question on the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Weinstock Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed in your present 
occupation ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1067 

Mr. Weinstock. On and off I have been a painter since I finished 
my apprenticeship. That was 1924 or 1925. 

Mr. Arens. Have yon, on and off, likewise been an instructor in 
various institutions, various schools ? 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer this question on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an instructor in the Workers School in New 
York City as early as 194o ? 

Mr. Weinstock. I believe that the first amendment of the Constitu- 
tion and the fifth amendment of the Constitutioii protect me from an- 
swering this question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not jou were an instructor in the y\"orkers School 
in New York City, you would be supplying information that could 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Weinstock. I guess I answered the question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Weinstock. I answered the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

]VIr. Weinstock. Yes, I do feel that way. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I display to you a photostatic reproduction of 
an article in the Daily Worker of December 3, 1943, in which Louis 
Weinstock is described as one of the instructors at the Workers School 
in New York City. 

Kindly look at that article and tell this committee whether or not 
the facts recited there are, to your certain knowledge, true and 
correct. 

Mr. Weinstock. I would like to answer this question with the 
fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Weinstock Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you likewise been an instructor at the Jefferson 
School of Social Science in New York City ? 

]\Ir. Weinstock. I decline to answer the question on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, a thermofax 
reproduction of a bulletin of the Jefferson School of Social Science, 
in which Louis Weinstock, among others, is listed as one of the in- 
structors in that institution. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or 
not the facts recited there are, to your knowledge, true and correct? 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Weinstock Exhibit No. 3," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name other than the name 
pursuant to which you are appearing today, Louis Weinstock? 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer this based on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad on a United States 
passport ? 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer this question on the fifth 
amendment. 



1068 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

_ Mr. Arens. I display to you, if you please, a photostatic reproduc- 
tion of a passport application made in August 1958. According to the 
passport application, the applicant is Louis Weinstock. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or 
not this is a true and correct reproduction of the passport application 
filed by yourself with the Department of State for a passport to go to 
Hungary. 

Mr. Weinstock. "VVliat did you say the date of this was ? 

Mr. Arens. 1958. 

Mr. Weinstock. Would you look at it again, please ? 

Mr. Arens. To go to France and Belgium ; I beg your pardon. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee whether or 
not that is a true and correct reproduction of a document filed by 
yourself with the Department of State. 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer this question on the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Weinstock Exhibit No. 4," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to Europe on a passport in 1958 ? 

Mr. Weinstock. I declme to answer this question on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party as of the 
time you filed your passport application to go to Europe? 

Mr. Weinstock. I decline to answer this question based on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Weinstock. I likewise decline to answer this question on the 
fifth amendment, 

Mr. Arens. Do you personally have information respectmg certain 
persons who, to your knowledge, are members of the Communist Party 
and information respecting the activities of the Communist Party in 
the New York area ? 

IMr, Weinstock. I decline to answer this question based on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of tliis witness. 

Tlie Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

If not, the witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Mr. Richard Wilson Reichard. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath to you. 

The Chairman, Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
notliing but tlie truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Reichard. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP RICHAED WILSON EEICHAED 

Mr. Reichard. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question? Is my inter- 
rogation a repetition of the previous interrogations under the same 
heading? 

The Chairman. Well, I do not know, frankly. Is it, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1069 

The Chairman. Is it related to the Faculty ? 

Mr. Arens. Not to the Faculty, to the scope of the inquiry. 

Mr. Reiciiard. It is related, then, and will appear in print under 
the general heading of "Communist Training Operations" ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you taken the oath ? 

Mr. Reichard. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly take a seat ? 

Mr. Reichard. Would you answer me whether it is going to ap- 
pear 

Mr. Arens. That is a matter to be determined by the committee. 

Will you tell the committee your full name, address, and occupa- 
tion ? 

Mr. Reichard. My name is Richard Wilson Reichard. I live at 305 
Greenbrier in Arlington, Virginia. I am a teacher. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed? 

Mr. Reichard. I am this year not employed, by my own volition. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have arrangements for employment ? 

Mr. Reichard. I do. I have a two-year contract as associate profes- 
sor of European History at George Washington University. 

Mr. Arens. To begin when ? 

Mr. Reichard. At the beginning of the fall term. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you last employed ? 

Mr. Reichard. I was last employed at Washington College, Ches- 
tertown, Maryland, for two years. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us where and when you were born. 

Mr. Reichard. I was born on August 26, 1923, at Atlantic City, New 
Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word, please, sir, about your formal 
education. 

Mr. Reichard. I was educated in the schools of Allentown, Pennsyl- 
vania. I did my undergraduate work at Lafayette College, in Easton, 
Pennsylvania, in the good State of Pennsylvania. 

I did my graduate work after the war, taking both an M.A. and 
Ph.D. in European History at Harvard University. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Reichard. Tliat indeed completed my formal education. 

Mr. Arens. During your tenure as a student at Harvard University, 
did you have any connection with any organizations there, other than 
regular student classes and the like? 

Mr. Reichard. Mr. Arens, you will permit me to think for a mo- 
ment. If I had counsel here with me, I would be able to consult with 
him. 

Mr. Arens, this question comes upon me suddenly. I am anxious 
to give what testimony I can before this committee 

Mr. Arens. Were you connected with the Young Communist League 
at Harvard ? 

Mr. Reichard. I will 

The Chairman. ^Yhat was the answer ? 

Mr. Reichard. I don't think I was finished answering the question, 
as a matter of fact, and I am a little confused as to which one I am 
answering. 

The Chairman. You were asked if you were a member of the Young 
Communist League and answered something. Wliat was your answer ? 

Mr. Reichard. Mr. Chairman, I was making a general 



1070 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I raise this question, please ? 

I do not think that it has been stated yet that this witness is en- 
titled to have counsel with him. It occurs to me, from his hesitancy 
and attitude when the last question was asked him, that it may be 
that he should be instiiicted that he has the right of counsel. 

The Chairman. He knows it, because he just volunteered a moment 
ago 

Mr. DoTLE. I ki'ow he volunteered that, but I would submit that if 
he is in a mental attitude where he wants counsel before he proceeds, 
he should have it. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Witness, you have, since you have been sub- 
penaed 

ISIr. Doyle. I think counsel should make it abundantly clear that if 
he wants counsel, he may have it. 

Mr. Arens. I think that can be made clear. 

Mr. Witness, since you have been subpenaed, have you contacted 
counsel ? 

Mr. Eeichard. Yes, I have contacted counsel. 

Mr. Arens. And you knew all the time that you had the privilege 
of counsel ? 

Mr. Reichard, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question : During your tenure as a 
student at Harvard University, were you connected with the Young 
Communist League ? 

Mr. Doyle. May I make this question clear in view of the fact that 
I raised the point ? 

Are you satisfied now to proceed and answer questions without the 
presence of counsel by your side ? 

Mr. Reichard. I prefer to proceed by myself. 

Mr. Doyle. All right, sir. 

Mr. Reichard. I prefer to proceed by myself, but I humbly request 
the right to think at moments. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Go ahead and think, but the question is : Were you a 
member of the Young Communist League at Harvard while you 
were there ? 

Mr. Reichard. As a free United States citizen, I will join what or- 
ganizations I want to join; and under duress before a congressional 
committee, I will not report any of those organizations; and, there- 
fore, I take the fifth amendment since it is my understanding that this 
is the only way that I can proceed on this coui*se. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you were, from 1946 
to 1949, the leader of the student unit of the Communist Party at Har- 
vard LTni versify and that you were branch organizer for the Second 
Harvard College Undergraduate Branch of the Communist Party 
from 1948 until 1949. 

Mr. Reichard. Undergraduate? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Reichard. Well, this follows along the same line of proceeding. 
I heard this interchange previously about opening doors. I am not 
anxious to open any doors, so I am taking the fifth amendment. 

I will join what organizations, what associations, I wish. I will 
not report these activities to a congressional committee. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1071 

Mr. Arens. Did you join tlie Communist Party while you were at 
Harvard ? 

Mr. Reichard. I decline to answer because this indicates whether 
I was or was not a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. After you completed your formal education, tell us your 
first principal employment. 

Mr. Reichard. I was an instructor at Stanford University in the 
glorious State of California. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time, please, sir? 

Mr. Reichard. Between 1950 and 1953. 

Mr, Arens. Did you have some type of a teaching fellowship in the 
interim at Radcliffe ? 

Mr. Reichard. No. If I can clear that up, I believe that, to the best 
of my knowledoe, my first teaching was a teaching fellow at Radcliffe 
from— it would be 1940 to 1949, and then Harvard, 1949 to 1950— 
it is the same thing, then Stanford 1950 to 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you live when you were teaching at Stan- 
ford, please, sir? 

Mr. Reichard. I lived at an address in Menlo Park, which I am 
not able to recall. I lived subsequently the major part of time at a 
Greer Road address in Palo Alto, which would be difficult for me to 
remember. 

Mr, Arens. Were you transferred from the Communist operation 
in Harvard to the Communist Party at Palo Alto when you were teach- 
ing there ? 

Mr. Reichard, Gentlemen, if I answer that question, then I am tell- 
ing you what my politics are. This is what I am resisting and, there- 
fore, I am taking the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. You are not under the impression that communism 
is politics, are you ? 

JNIr. Reichard. Are you asking me this question as to personal knowl- 
edge or as to just a citizen's opinion? 

The Chairman. Just as to your own feeling about it, 

Mr, Reichard, If you are not asking me a question of personal 
knowledge, I feel very strongly on this point. 

The Chairman, I would not ask you about your personal knowl- 
edge at all. I would just like to know whether you are proceeding 
on a false premise. 

Go ahead. 

Just forget about the question. 

Mr. Reichard. I am proceeding on a false premise, if I can say that 
to Mr. Walter. 

Mr. Arens. May I inquire ? 

^Vliat was your next employment after your disassociation from 
Stanford — in 1953, I believe? 

Mr. Reichard. Subsequent to that, I did research in Holland and in 
Italy for a period of about 18 months, 

Mr. Arens. Under what auspices did you do that research ? 

Mr. Reichard. My primary — primarily I sold my automobile, sold 
some other assets, and lived for less than $100 a month in Europe. 
It can be done. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

43643— 59— .pt. 1 8 



1072 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Reichard. My next employment — if I can ask your indulgence 
on this point — I was next employed in a business capacity with a non- 
profit organization in New York City. This organization is controlled 
under servitive auspices, and I would humbly request that I not be 
directed to name that organization. 

Mr. Arens. Were you connected with any educational institutions ? 

Mr. Eeichard. I was not connected with an educational institution 
between the time that I was at Stanford in 1953 and the time that I 
was employed by Washington College in the fall of 1956. 

Mr. Arens. And where is Washington College, please, sir? 

Mr. Reichard. Washington College is at Chestertown, in Kent 
County, Maryland. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you employed at Washington 
College in Chestertown, Maryland ? 

Mr. Reichard. I was employed as an assistant professor of History. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Commmiist Party during 
your employment as an assistant professor of History at Washington 
College ? 

Mr. Reichard. That is the same old question. As a free citizen, I 
will join what parties I want and I will not report to congressional 
committees on them, and I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party 
during your professorship at Chestertown, Maryland, at Washington 
College, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Reichard. I do so honestly apprehend. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Reichard. Subsequent to that, I did what I had done before, 
and I sold some things and I lived as best I could, as I have during 
the past year, because I am writing a work on the history of German 
social democracy, which is tlie opposition to Chancellor Adenauer in 
Germany. 

I am writmg a work on the history of this party, and I wish to 
finish it, since I have been doing it for ten years. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Reichard. That is the same old question. To this I give the 
same old answer, adding the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Reichard. May I make just a few sentences? 

The Chairman. Yes, of course. 

Mr. Reichard. I would like to say that I have been brought down 
here, as best I can see, from the Washington Post, and from the 
testimony of witnesses yesterday, which I heard from the beginning 
until the end, and today the entire subject of this testimony, to the 
knoAvledge of the people in this audience, has been Communist train- 
ing schools. 

I would like to state that I have never been in any way connected 
with Communist training schools; that I do not know the individuals 
who were brouglit up here to the stand, although I saw everyone 
give their testimony. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1073 

I further suggest that the reason why I was brought up here in this 
inquiry is solely the fact that this committee does not have evidence 
against me and, therefore, it has brouglit me in under this lurid title 
of Communist training schools. 

The Chairman. Just a moment. 

You were not brought here under any lurid title at all. You were 
brought here because we felt that you were sufficiently interested in 
the preservation of our form of government to assist us in the inquiry 
that we are undertaking. 

Now that you have made this statement so freely and have said 
everything that you have felt like saying, maybe you would be will- 
ing to answer a question that I would like to ask you. 

Are you now a Communist ? 

Mr. Keichard. I will not answer that question on the basis of the 
other. I was making a general disclaimer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in the chairman's opening statement, 
the chairman made it clear that this inquiry was not exclusively the 
Faculty of Social Science. The chairman made it clear that in the 
process of Communist indoctrination, Communist professors some- 
times subtly do indoctrinate students. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be in executive session, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. There is a witness subpenaed who will be heard 
in executive session this afternoon at two o'clock in the committee 
room. 

The committee is now recessed. 

(Present at time of recess: Representatives Walter, Doyle, and 
Miller.) 

(Thereupon, at 11 :30 a.m., Wednesday, July 22, 1959, the commit- 
tee was recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m., same day.) 



INDEX 



iNDrvrouALS 

A Page 

Adenauer (Konrad) 1072 

Asosto (Olira) 978 

Albertson, William 993, 995, 1005, 1006 

Allen, James S 1043 

Allen (T.) 978 

Amter (Donald) 977 

Aptheker, Herbert 977, 982, 984, 986-993, 995-997, 1018, 1024, 1025, 1036 

B 

Bailin (I. B.) 978 

Beal, Fred E 1002 

Bentley, Elizabeth 1003, 1006 

Berman (Harold J.) 1050 

Berry, Abner 982 

Bick (Abraham) 977 

Black, Henry 995, 1002, 1003, 1019 

Black (Hugo L.) 1065 

Blauvelt, Mildred 997, 1006 

Bonoskv, Philip 992, 995, 1004 

Bradley (Francine) 978 

Brownell, Herbert, Jr 975 

Budish, J. M 992, 995 

Burdett, Winston 1003 

O 

Cain, Harry P 975 

Canning, William M 1000 

Cantor, Esther 969, 995, 1002, 1055-1957 (testimony) 

Clark (Joseph) 977 

Clark, Tom 974 

Clark, Wadell 1044 

Coddaire, David J 975 

Coleman (Samuel) 978 

Collins, Harold 968, 983, 984, 986, 988, 989, 

991-993, 995-997, 1018, 1020, 1025-1031 (testimony) 

Colon, Jesus 977, 983, 987, 995, 1006, 1007 

Crenovich, Michael 991, 995 

D 

Davis, Benjamin J 993 

Dennis, Eugene 1038, 1042 

Dennis, Peggy 992 

Dennis, Thomas Dewitt, Jr 1044 

Du Bois (W. E. B.) 977 

F 

Feuerbach (Ludwig) 1015 

Finkelstein, Sidney 969, 977, 978, 983, 984, 988, 989, 991-993, 995, 

1000, 1018, 1036, 1057-1061 (testimony) 

i 



11 INDEX 

Page 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley 984, 992 

Foner, Philip S 982, 995, 999, 1000, 1018 

Foster, William Z 1006 

Friedman (Bernard) 978 

Fuchs, Herbert 1006 

G 

Garfield, David W 999 

Goldway (David) 977, 978 

Goodelman (Aaron) 978 

Gordon (Max) 978 

Green (Jack) 977 

Gsovski (Vladimir) 1050 

H 

Hammett (Dashiell) 978 

Hazard (John N.) 1050 

Herbert, Thomas J 975 

Hunton ( Alphaeus) 978 

J 

Jackson, James E., Jr 966, 972, 973, 992, 993, 995, 1007, 1042, 1044, 1045 

Jerome, V. J 984, 1019 

Johnson, Arnold 991, 995, 1005, 1019 

Johnson (Howard) 978 

Josephson, Leon 968, 984, 988, 992, 993, 995, 1002, 1047-1051 (testimony) 

K 
Karlson (William) 978 

Khrushchev (Nikita) 1004, 1013,1014,1016 

KleLn, Henry (L.) 968,977,983, 991, 

992, 995, 1000, 1001, 1019, 1051-1054 (testimony) 
Kowall, Marlane M 1004 

L 

Lenin (V. L) 965, 972 

Levine (Benjamin) 978 

Loman (Charles) 978 

Lowitt (Julian) 977 

Lumer, Hyman 966, 968, 973, 

993, 995, 999, 1041-1046 (testimony) 

M 

Marshall (Horace) 978 

Marx (Karl) 1015 

McHale, Kathryn 975 

Meyer, Frank S 966-969, 997, 

1007-1024 (testimony) ; 1036, 1037 (testimony) ; 1040-1041 (testimony) 

N 

Nahem, Joseph 991, 995, 998 

Neuburger, Samuel A 1047, 1051, 1055 

Noble (Harry) 977 

North, Joseph 992, 995, 1003, 1019 

O 

Oak, Liston M 1002 

Oncher (Harry) 978 

OsherofE (Abe) 977 



INDEX HI 

P Page 

Patterson, William L 995, 1005, 1019 

Pavlov (Ivan) 998 

Perlo, Victor 977, 984, 986, 

992, 993, 995, 1006, 1019, 1036 

Piatt (David) 977 

Potash, Irving 968, 995, 998, 999, 1018, 1034-1040 (testimony) ; 1041 

Prago (Albert) 977, 978 

R 
Rabinovpitz, Victor 1034, 1041 

Reichard, Richard Wilson 969, 1068-1073 (testimony) 

Rein. David 1025, 1031, 1057, 1061, 1065 

S 

Sachs (Beatrice) 977, 978 

Sanders (Betty) 977 

Santiago (Jose) 978 

Schappes (Morris U.) 978 

Selsam, Howard 977, 978, 982 

Signer (Herbert) 978 

Smith, Jim 1044 

Stachel (John) 977 

Stalin (Josef) 1016 

Strickland (Ed) 977 

Strunk, Arthur P 999 

T 
Thompson, Robert '. 992, 1042 

W 

Warren, Susan 969. 978, 991, 993, 995, 1001, 1061-1065 (testimony) 

Weinstock, Louis 969, 992, 995, 1001, 1019, 1036, 1065-1068 (testimony) 

Weise, Myer 968, 977, 978, 983, 

984, 987, 988, 991-993, 995, 997, 998, 1018, 1031-1034 (testimony) 

Weller (Marvin) 978 

Wells, Harry K 977, 978, 984, 987, 992, 998, 995, 1004, 1019 

Wilkerson (Doxey A.) 977, 978 

Williamson (Mel) 977 

Winter, Carl 1044 

Z 
Zipser (Arthur) 977, 978 

Oeganizations 

A 

Abraham Lincoln School (Chicago) 999, 1000, 1005, 1016 

Academy HaU 980, 981, 984, 996, 997, 1033, 1054, 1060 

Adelphi Hall 984, 996, 997 

Association of University Professors 1024 

B 

Brooklyn College 1053, 1054 

Brooklyn Marxist Youth Forum. (See entry under Marxist Forums.) 

O 

California Labor School 1000 

City College of the City of New York 999, 1030 



IV INDEX 

Communist Party : 

Great Britain : ■!•««• 

Central Committee 1008 

Student Bureau 1008 

Soviet Union : 

Twenty-first Congress, February 1959 1007 

United States of America 968, 995, 999, 1005, 1042, 1043 

Central Committee 968, 1018, 1037, 1040 

District 8 (Illinois and Indiana) 1008,1016 

Labor Commission 1006 

National Committee 995, 1007, 1042 

Massachusetts : 

Harvard University student unit 969, 1070 

Second Harvard College Undergraduate Branch 969, 1070 

Michigan 1006, 1044 

New York State 995, 1002, 1005, 1006, 1056 

Industrial Section 1002 

New York County Committee 1001, 1002, 1063 

State Committee 1002, 1006 

Ohio, State Committee 999 

Pennsylvania 1006 

Craine Studios 1044 

F 

Faculty of Social Science 966-970, 972, 

980, 984, 985, 989-993, 99&-1007, 1017-1020, 1025, 1028, 1031, 1032, 
1034, 1036, 1039, 1043, 1048, 1053, 1056, 1059, 1062, 1066. 
Social Science Library 1003 

G 
George Washington University 969, 1069 

H 
Harvard University 969, 1069, 1071 



International Committee Against War and Fascism 1008 

International Workers Order, New York City 1000, 1053 

J 

Jefferson School of Social Science 965-970, 972-979, 

995-1008, 1011, 1017-1020, 1027, 1033, 1043, 1048, 1049, 1053, 1060, 
1063, 1067. 

Bookshop 979 

Jefferson Forum 979 

Marxist Institute 1004, 1018 

Marxist-Leninist Institute committee 997 

M 

Marxist Forums 980, 995-1001, 1003, 1004, 1006, 1007 

Brooklyn Marxist Youth Forum 1007, 1043 

Marxist Institute. {See entry under Jefferson School of Social Science.) 
Marxist-Lennist Institute committee. {See entry under Jefferson School 

of Social Science.) 
Metropolitan Music School, Ine 1000, 1060 

O 
Oxford University, October Club 1008 

R 
Radcliffe College 1071 

S 

School for Democracy 974, 976, 995, 996, 999 

Stanford University 1071 



INDEX V 

U 

Page 

United States Government, Subversive Activities Control Board 9G5, 

972, 973, 975 

W 

Walt Whitman School 999 

Washington College (Chestertown, Md.) 969, 1069, 1072 

Workers Schools : 

Chicago 1005, 1008, 1016 

New York 974, 976, 995, 997, 1001, 1003, 1032, 1033, 1067 

Y 

Yablon, Misha Cultural Center (Los Angeles) 1044 

Publications 

Communist, The lOOS 

Daily Record 101^ 

Daily Worker 1002, 1008 

Far East Spotlight 1063 

National Review 966, 1007 

New Masses 1003, 1019 

Political Affairs 996 

Worker, The 1003, 1005, 1019 

O 



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