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Full text of "Communist training operations. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-sixth Congress, first[-second] session...July 21 and 22, 1959"

i^^. 



Vf/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 



GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



us Doc 2.791 



Committee on Un-American Activities 
House 
86th Congress 



Table of Contents 

(Since these hearings are consecutively paged 
they are arranged by page number, instead of 
alphabetically by title) 



1. American National Exhibition, Moscow, '^IH<^ 
July 1959 

2. Communist Training Operations, pt.l "^iQ ^ 

5. Testimony of Clinton Edvard Jencks ^}'^^ 

k. Testimony of Arnold Johnson, Legislative \\d% 
Director of the Communist Party, U.S.A. 

5-7. Western Section of the Southern California . ^ 
District of the Communist Party, pt.1-5 

8. Issues Presented by Air Reserve Center %i^^^ 
Training Manual 



9-10. Communist Training Operations, pt. 2-5 

11-12. Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans in 
New York City and Puerto Rico, pt.1-2 



"^»v i 






COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

PART 3 

(Communist Activities and Propaganda Among 

Youth Groups) 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



FEBRUAHY 4 AND 5 AND MARCH 2, 1960 



Printed for tlie use of the Committee on Un-American Activitie 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



MAY 261960 
.Or 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19G0 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California OORDOxN H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Aren's, Staff Director 



CONTENTS 



PART 2 Page 

Synopsis 1323 

February 2, 1960: Testimony of: 

Herbert A. Philbrick 1340 

Andrew Ilyinsky 1357 

February 3, 1960: Testimony of: 

Albert Gaillard 1367 

Jesse Gray 1386 

Hunter Pitts O'Dell 1390 

Benjamin Davis, Jr 1391 

Leroy Wolins 1394 

Jacob Rosen 1398 

Fred Jerome 1402 

Appendix 1404 

PART 3 

Synopsis. See Part 2 1323 

February 4, 1960: Testimony of: 

Herbert Romerstein 1425 

Charles Wiley 1440 

February 5, 1960: Testimony of: 

Joseph Charles Jones 1451 

Paul Robeson, Jr 1462 

Alan Hugh McGowan 1467 

Joanne Alileen Grant I47l 

Julius Szentendrev 1480 

March 2, 1960: Testimony of: 

Marvin Markman 1487 

Afternoon session: 

Stephen Tyler 1493 

Index i 

zn 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
oj America in Conqress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULEiS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121 STANDING COMMITTEES 
i^ ***** ^ 

17, Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
****** t 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the difi"iision within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda tiiat is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all otlier questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The (Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House it the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

Vov the pur[)ose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such vvitncs.^es and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by anv such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such cliairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LI'OISIAIIVE OVERSlOm BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. lofj To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in dcvelopiim such amendments or related lenislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standin;: committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise contitiuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concrnefi of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch ot 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 
41 ***** * 

Rule X 

STANDING COAIMITTEES 

1. Thorc shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist ot nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWER? AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the e.xtent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-.\merican propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is mstigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American .Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-.\mericaii 
Activities, or any subco.minittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, ha.« 
recessed, or has adiourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witni'sst^s and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member 

* * ^ * * * * 

2G. To assist the House m appraising the administration of the laws and \u 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall studv all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House bv 
the agencies in Ihe e.xecutive branch of the Government. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Part 3 

(Communist Activities and Propaganda Among Youth Groups) 



THURSDAY, FEBRUAIIY 4, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American AcTnnTiES, 

Washington^ D.G. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-ALmerican Activities 
met, pursuant to recass, at 10 :00 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Old House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Honorable Francis' E. Walter 
(chairman) presiding. 

Subcommittee members : Representatives Francis E. Walter, chair- 
man, Pennsylvania ; Clyde Doyle, California ; Edwin E. Willis, Lou- 
isiana; Donald L. Jackson, California; and Gordon H. Scherer, Ohio. 

Committee members present during hearings : Representatives Wal- 
ter; Doyle; Tuck, Virginia; Scherer; and Johansen, Micliigan. 
(Appearances as noted.) 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and Donald 
T. Appell and Robert H. Goldsborough, investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. Who is your first 
witness, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Herbert Romerstein. Please come forward and 
remain standing while the chairman administers the oath. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF HEEBEET EOMERSTEIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

]\Ir. Romerstein. My name is Plerbert Romerstein. I live in 
Brooklyn, New York. I am a free-lance research specialist, and I do 
some writing. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Romerstein, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. I was a member of the Communist 
Party from 1947 to 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Did you subsequently, of your own volition, break 
with the Comnmnist Party ? 

1425 



1426 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

]Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did j^'ou make information at that time available to 
your Government respecting the Commmiist Party? 

Mr. EoMERSTEiN". Yes, sir. In 1951 I testified before the Internal 
Security Subcommittee. 

Mr. Arens. Have you subsequently' maintained an interest in Com- 
munist activities among youth organizations? 

Mr. EoMERSTEiN. Ycs, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Romerstein, it is our understanding that in the 
past simimer in order to acquire information for your Govermnent 
you attended the Vienna Youth Festival held in Viemia, Austria. 

I should like to have you, if you will please, sir, proceeding at your 
own pace, tell us something of the international structure of the group 
that sponsored the Vienna Youth Festival. 

Then we will proceed from there to discuss with you the local 
organization or organizations which sponsored the Youth Festival, 
and then we would like to ask you questions respecting the festival 
itself, which we understand you attended. 

May I, as a point of departure, ask you, first of all, on the basis 
of your background and current study, what is the current drive, 
current program, of the Communist operation on American soil in 
regard to youth? 

Mr. Romerstein. Sir, let me first point out that m^y primary pur- 
pose in going to Vienna was not to obtain information for the Gov- 
ernment, although the Government is always welcome to anything I 
know about anything, any sort of subversive activities against this 
country. 

My primary purpose in going was to present an American point 
of view in Vienna, because I knew American Communists would be 
going over there and pretending that the American people were 
supporters of Communist ideology. 

Mr. Arens. I did not mean to suggest in my question, Mr. Romer- 
stein, that you were going under Government auspices or that you 
were going, in any sense, as one in Govermnent employ to acquire 
information. 

Would you respond, if you please, sir, to the question with refer- 
ence, first of all, to the current program of the Communist operation 
on American soil to attempt to penetrate youth groups. 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. I have here a copy of the June 19.59 
issue of Political Affairs, which is the Communist Party theoretical 
organ and wliich was distributed in the party when I was a member, 
as well as being distributed today. It carries a report by Hyman 
Lumer, who served as, in effect, national youth director of the Com- 
munist Party. Although he is a middle-aged man he is national 
educational director and also took charge of youth work of the 
Communist Party. 

This is the report he made in April, 1959. 

He points out that a number of nonparty Marxist youth groups 
have sprinig up, chiefly on college campuses, and points to one in 
particular, in New York, which calls itself the Student Committee 
on Progressive Education, or SCOPE, for short. This organization 
is runnins: Marxist classes. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1427 

But he also points out that in one area, and this a quote: "In one 
area, there is a pre-teen group consisting of youngsters 11-12 years 
of age." 

'I'here is one important point I think we should mention. Some 
of these young people who are involved in the SCOPE group and in 
the group known as the "Call" group 

Mr. D0YI.E. What group is that ? 

Mr. UoMKHSTYAN. That is Call, C-a-1-1. 

This was signers of A Call to Youth which appeared in Political 
AtTairs in April, 1958. 

This group has frequently expressed its contempt for this commit- 
tee, its "contempt for American institutions, but when they receive 
their orders from the Communist Party they do not express con- 
tempt. Thej^ simply take those orders. 

Let me give you an example of this. This group wants the forma- 
tion immediately of a nationwide Marxist-Leninist youth organi- 
zation. 

Mr. Arens. AVhen they say a nationwide ]\Iarxist-Leninist youth 
organization in Communist jargon, what do they actually mean? 

]Mr. RoMERSTEiN. It may be called a Young Communist League, as 
it once was, or American Youth for Democracy or Labor Youth 
League or something else entirely. It is, in fact, the youth section of 
the Communist Party. They wish to set this up nationwide, as soon 
as possible. They have been discussing this for quite a while now. 

Because of the internal situation in the Communist Party, where 
some of the leaders of the party are in a different faction than the 
lenders of this youth group, the party has not permitted them to 
form this nationwide youth organization. Lumer points out in 
tlie article that this is not the time for such a nationwide youth 
organization. 

Let me point to something that I received when I was in the party. 
It is a publication called "Youth" and it was put out by the National 
Youth Commission of the Communist Party in 19-18. 

Tliey define a term they call "vanguardism." That is, they, the 
youtli, did not "understand that the party was the vanguard of the en- 
tire working class, including the youth, and that they did not have the 
responsibility of formulating general and overall political l^olic3^" In 
other words, the youth are not permitted to think for themselves. 
They are supposed to do what the party tells them to, and at the na- 
tional convention of the Communist Party in December, 1949 — pardon 
me — 1959, which I covered from the press room, a resolution was 
passed on youth which uses almost the exact same terminology. 

The ]3arty is the vanguard of the working class and, therefore, of 
its youth, as well as of non- working-class youth. 

It should not and does not delegate its vanguard role to any other 
group or organization. To do so would mean to set up more than 
one center of Communist leadership, more than one Communist Party. 

These young people wlio are so brave before congressional com- 
mittees knuckle down when the Communist Party tells them they can- 
not form a youth organization immediately and they have to form 
local committees until the Communist Party is able to establish a 
national youth commission to control tlie situation. 
51693— 60— pt. 3 2 



1428 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

I wonder about whether any of them might have courage to buck 
the Communist Party on tliis. As yet we have not seen any evidence 
of this. 

(At this point, Mr. Johansen entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. ScHERER. ^^^lom did you say was the author of that 
publication? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Sir, the Political Affairs ? 

Mr. ScHErjER. The article you were referring to ? 

Mr. EoMERSTEiN. The person was Hyman Lumer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Hyman Lumer. We had a Wilfred Lumer. Is he 
related to this man? 

JNIr. Arens. We had Hyman Lumer in Pittsburgh, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Lumer was also identified. 

Mr. Arens. There was a Wilfred Lumer. That was on another 
subject. Hyman Lumer is the educational director of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Scherer. Are they related? 

Mr. Arens. I do not think so. 

Would you kindly outline for the committee, Mr. Romerstein, the 
background and structure of the international setup which sponsored 
the Vienna Youth Festival held in Vienna, Austria, just last summer? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Ycs, sir. The festival was organized as the pre- 
vious six festivals were by two international Communist organizations, 
the World Federation of Democratic Youth, with its offices in Hun- 
gary, and the International Union of Students, with its offices in 
Czechoslovakia. 

The Chairman". What was the second one ? 

Mr. Eomerstein. The International Union of Students. These two 
groups are the international Communist youth and the student organi- 
zations. They set up what they call an International Preparatory 
Committee to run the Vienna Youth Festival which met in Stockholm 
in 1958 and decided that they would have their festival in Vienna. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose this question. What is the age bracket 
of those who are in charge of the international apparatus which has 
been putting on these youth festivals ? 

Mr. Romerstein. I have not run across any of them under thirty. 
Most of them are in their forties. In particular, the delegate of the 
Austrian Communist youth organization — all Austrian youth boy- 
cotted the festival except the Communist group called the Free Aus- 
trian Youth — their delegate to the Stockholm meeting tliat organized 
the festival was 46 years old. His name was Walter Wachs. He is a 
46-year-old youth. 

Let me point out once more on this question as to whether the Com- 
munists allow the youths to make decisions for themselves — the Ameri- 
can representative to the International Preparatory Committee was 
over 60 years old. His name is Holland Roberts, and he ran a Com- 
munist education institution in California called the California Labor 
School and was the American representative to the Communist World 
Peace Council. 

Mr. Doyle. You say he was over 60 years ol d ? 

Mr, RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. He was teaching school in 1918. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Did you say that the members of this preparatory 
committee that admittedly were Communist, averaged between 30 and 
40 years of age ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1429 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN., And sometimes as high as 50. But they do not 
admit they are Communists, except in a handful of cases where they 
openly state they represent Communist youth organizations. Some- 
times the organizations have democratic sounding titles. 

Mr. Doyle. I never heard of people of that age being youths, Mr. 
Chairman. It looks like they are adults, young adults. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Instead of youths. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. But the Communists are very frightened of per- 
mitting the youth to make any decision. 

This is the magazine of the World Federation of Democratic 
Youth, World Youth, and it appears in a number of different lan- 
guages, the same issue — in German, English, and Russian. But inter- 
estingly enough the Russian and English editions do not carry one ar- 
ticle that appears in the German edition, July 1959, that is, "American 
Youth Go to Vienna, by Holland Roberts, member of the bureau of 
the International Preparatory Committee." They were afraid to 
tell the American young Communists that their representative was 
over 60 years old. 

In the English copies of the publication this article does not appear. 
But in the German issue of this publication it does appear. 

The Chairman. You say the American representative of the youth 
at this festival was over 60. Who selected this boy of 60 ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Well, sir, I don't know who selected him, except 
that shortly before he turned up in Vienna he was in Moscow for 
a meeting of the World Peace Council, which is an international Com- 
munist front, and quite possibly he was one of the highest ranking 
Communists in Europe at the time and they just needed somebody 
to fill the post. 

The Chairman. He presumed to speak for this great Republic ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. And for American youth in particular, 
yes. 

Mr. DoTLE. I would think that even Communist American youth 
would feel ratlier insulted and let down to have come out of their 
total group only one man of 60 years of age to take the leadership. 

The Chairman. If you think the Communist youth were insulted, 
how do you think the 99 percent of the fine, redblooded, decent Amer- 
ican kids feel when somebody like that presumes to speak for this 
country of ours? 

Go ahead. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Ycs, sir. I did hear that many of them were 
very upset by it, and they were upset because Marvin Markman, who 
was head of the United States Festival Committee, was not permitted 
to become a member of the International Preparatoiy Committee, and 
instead this man was appointed. 

It is simply the question of the Communists not trusting young 
people, even young people who are Communists. They feel that 
every Communist is a potential ex-Communist, perhaps, and they can 
only trust the older ones. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, just one question. 

Do I understand that the gentleman you referred to, this young-old 
man, was Mr. Holland Roberts ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Excuse me, sir ? 



1430 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. JoHANSEN. What was the name of the gentleman v\ho repre- 
sented the American youth ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. HoUancl Roberts ; yes, sir. 

Mv. JoHANSEN. Isn't he an educator or hasn't he been in education ? 
Supposedly ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes. sir. He was the director of the California 
Labor School, which was the West Coast edition of the Jefferson 
School of Social Science. 

Mr. JoHANSEisr. Twenty j'ears ago was he a member of the board 
of directors of what Avas then known as the Progressive Education 
Association ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiisr. Sir, this I don't know from personal knowledge. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said he taught school as early as 1918 ; did you 
not? 

Mr. EoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. He said that in testimony before tlie 
California State Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. ScHERER. Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. Have you completed your presentation, Mr. Romer- 
stein, with reference to the International Preparatory Committee? 

]Mr. Romerstein. No, sir. 

INIr. Arens. Would you then complete that presentation ? 

Holland Roberts was not the representative of the youth as such; 
he was on the preparatory committee, was he not ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir ; he was on the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Representing the American setup on the International 
Preparatoiy Committee. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir, but also the International Preparatory 
Committee maintained control over the festival all during the festival 
itself. 

Mr. Arens. Will you continue and complete your presentation witli 
reference to the international setup before we get to the organizing 
committee in the United States ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. I^t me point out that at the first 
meeting of the organizing committee in the United States on Octo- 
ber 4, 1958, a representative of the International Preparatory Com- 
mittee was present. His name was Floyd Williston, and he is a Cana- 
dian, and he represents an organization called the Socialist Youth 
League of Canada. According to a letter of the official National Fed- 
eration of Canadian University Students, the Socialist Youth League 
of Canada is a branch of the Labor-Progressive Party, which has no 
elective representative in Parliament and is, in effect, the Communist 
Party of Canada. So this Canadian Communist, Floyd Williston, 
came down to help organize the American festival committee and 
Williston was also with the original preparatory committee meeting 
in Stockholm, Sweden. 

He has appeared at the meetings of the World Federation of Demo- 
cratic Youth, of which he was a secretary until their meeting in 
August in Prague; and here is a picture of Williston on a visit to 
Communist North Korea, subsequent to the World Youth Festival. 
With him is Tom Morris, who has taken Williston's position with 
the World Federation of Democratic Youth. Williston has since 
been removed, and quite possibl}' we will be accorded visits from Mr. 
Morris, another Canadian Communist, to help organize Communist 
vouth activities in the United States. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1431 

May I go a little further into some of the personalities avIio were 
involved in the organization of the festival I 

I heard here yesterday — may I digress for a moment — some people 
complaining that they did not want to appear on the same platform 
with Nazis. I don't know what they had reference to in particular. 
But I know that they did appear on the same platform wdth Nazis. 
The Austrian youth organization 

Mr. Doyle. Those were two young men before this committee yes- 
terday that I noticed read the same statement, the same text. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiiSr. Yes, sir. The Austrian youth organization, 
Junges Leben, reported during the festival that the Austrian Peace 
Council, a well-known Conmiunist institution, has meanwhile dele- 
gated its secretary to assist the permanent commission of tlie festival. 
The Peace Council has a special task of recruiting reliable interpre- 
ters. The interpreters were tlie people who ran each delegation. I 
think tliis will be testified to by other witnesses who know more 
about it than I do. 

The representative of the Communist Party of Austria and the 
Communist Peace Council was Max Schneider, a middle-aged Aus- 
trian Communist that run the delegation. The head of the Austrian 
Peace Council, the man who set up this program and wlio aided the 
International Preparatory Committee in setting up the international 
Youth Festival, was Heinrich Brandweiner. Mr. Brandweiner is the 
president of the Austrian Peace Council, a member of the World 
Peace Council, and a holder of the Lenin Peace Prize. 

On May 1, 1938, less than 6 weeks after Hitler invaded Austria, 
Mr. Brandweiner joined the Nazi Party and held Nazi Book No, 
6236254. This man, ^vho served as a stooge for the Nazis and be- 
trayed his ow^n country, Austria, now turns up betraying his country, 
Austria, to the Communists. 

This was reported by the Investigating Committee of Free Jurists 
in Berlin, which was making studies of various ex-Nazis and current 
Nazis working in the international Communist apparatus. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand that this man, an Austrian, a former 
Nazi, led the American delegation of Communist youth? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiiSr. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. What was it ? 

Mr. liOMERSTEiN. The Austrian Peace Council provided the man 
who led the American Communist youth. He was head of the Aus- 
trian Peace Council that organized the entire leadership. 

Mr. Doyle. Here we have the record of the American Communist 
youth being led by an Austrian Communist ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiisr. Yes, sir. 

]\Ir. DoYLE. Who was an adult ? 

]Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

]Mr. Doyle. About how old a man was he ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. He was in his forties. 

Mr. Doyle. In his forties ? 

^Ir. Romerstein. Yes, sir. 

Let me also say, as a Jewish American I was a little bit upset by 
Ben Davis presuming to speak for Negro, Puerto Rican, ancl Jewish 
youth, yesterday. 

As I said before, I attended the last convention of the Communist 
Party, in the press room. They did not admit the press to the con- 



1432 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

vention itself in December 1959. And Mr. Davis held a press con- 
ference, and I asked him whether the convention passed a resolution 
against Soviet anti-Semitism. He said there was no Soviet anti- 
Semitism, that this was something made up by John Gates and liis 
faction of the Communist Party, who have since been driven out. 

Frankly, people who cover up the Soviet anti-Semitism cannot speak 
for me in the United States. I am a Jewish American and I prefer 
to speak for myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Romerstein, would you now direct your attention 
and comment to the organizing committee in the United States for the 
festival? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. There were two organizing counnittees 
for the festival. One was the United States Festival Committee, with 
headquarters in New York, which was run by Joanne Grant and 
Marvin Markman and with the assistance of some of the people who 
did not themselves go to Vienna, such as Jake Rosen. 

But in Chicago there was another group called American Youth 
Festival Organization, which was run by Barbara Perry and tln-ough 
which a number of the non-Communist young people registei'ed. 

Many of the non-Communist young people also registered through 
the New York office, but a large number of them registered through 
the Chicago office. 

In my own case I originally registered tiirough New York. Tliey 
were distributing publications saying the festival was open to all 
young people regardless of political viewpoint. Soon I received back 
a letter from Joanne Grant and Marvin Markman telling me my 
application had been rejected. 

So I sent another application to Chicago to Barbara Perry and 
was admitted to the Chicago delegation, and that was the way that 
I went to Vienna. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have an experience with the New York group 
in a meeting? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. I distributed a leaflet at a meeting of 
the New York group, protesting my being barred from the delegation 
and calling this a witch-hunt, which it was. These were people who 
would bar other people because of their political beliefs. 

As a result of this, a group of the Communist hoodlums came down 
and tried to rough me up a bit and tore up the leaflets, and so on. 

I succeeded in retaining a few, and as the young people came to the 
meeting I allowed them to read the leaflet in my hand. 

I think you will hear more about the meeting upstairs, but I was 
not present at it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Romerstein, have you completed your presentation 
in outline form, at least, of the New York group and Chicago group 
of the organizing committees ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. May I just point to one more thing? 
The Austrian students gave some of the background of the indi- 
viduals who w^ere officials of the World Youth Festival. A delegate 
from Italy who was head of the Italian youth organization and was at 
that time head of the World Federation of Democratic Youth was 
Bruno Bernini, who was 40 years old. 

The delegate from Greece was 44 years old. Lubomir Dramaliev of 
Bulgaria sent a letter in which he indicated he was head of the students 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1433 

commission at the festival. Mr. Dramaliev is 35 years old and by 
coincidence is the son of tlie Bulgarian Commmiist Ambassador to 
East Germany. This 35-year-old student set up the student section ot 
the World Youth Festival. This goes on and on. I wdl not take up 
your time with it. 

But countless times these international Communist agents can no 
Ion o-er consider themselves youths. 

The Chairman. Did any of these youths have any voice whatsoever 
in tlie selection of their leadership ? i i • 

Mr. lloMERSTEiN. Well, sir, m many cases this leadership came 
from behind tlie Iron Curtain, where tlie young people have no voice 
in the selection of leadership. In the case where they came from 
Western countries, some of them were from the Communist youth 
organization and, as I pointed out before, have no voice of their own. 
They must carry out the dictates of the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. Did they select a chairman, according to demo- 
cratic jn-ocesses ? Did they have an election and nominate candidates 
for chairman and that sort of thing ? 

Mv RoMERSTEiN. Not normally. In the one case where we did have 
an election— perhaps I should tell the story now— Marvin Markman 
was the chairman of the United States Festival Committee with 
headquarters in New York. He was not elected to this. This was 
sort of an appointed office. When we arrived in Vienna, the majority 
of the American delegates, being non-Commimists, voted to elect our 
own chairman and we repudiated Mr. Marlanan. Subsequent to the 
festival, I attended a meeting of the United States Festival Com- 
mittee held in New York where Mr. Markman was once again intro- 
duced as the chairman. I asked him a question during the question 
period. 

I said, "Who appointed you chairman? We voted to repudiate 
you in Vienna." And I think his answer was typical. He said, 
"There are elections and there are elections and sometimes you can 
carry this democracy stuff too far." 

Mr. DoTLE. It looks to me like the American youth in the Com- 
munist outfit were led around by their noses by men from 30 to 60 
years of age, according to your record. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Eomerstein, would you pick up the thread 
of your presentation when you arrived at Vienna ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. In Vienna, there was a split in the 
American delegation on tliis issue of electing our own leadership and 
making our own decisions. I will not go into too much detail about 
this because I think it will be covered by another witness who was 
closer to the internal situation than I was. 

But the Communists at no time allowed the non-Communist young 
people to have a voice. They carried out the protracted negotiations. 
They played all sorts of parliamentary games, but they were definitely 
sure that young people who disagreed with them should not be heard. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Eomerstein, by the Communists, you mean not o- ly 
the Communist hierarchy that controlled the organizing commit ee 
of the international setup, but likewise the American Communist 
youth who attended; is that correct? 

Mr. Eomerstein. Yes, sir. That is quite correct. 



1434 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Akens. What experience did you have when you attempted to 
procure your credentials in Vienna? 

Mr. EoMERSTEiN. My credentials were challenged by the people 
who said they represented the New York delegates, although in 
Prague the majority, eren the New York delegates, had repudiated 
the Commmiist leadership. But for purposes of identification, the 
non-Communist group was usually referred to as the Chicago group 
and the pro-Communist group as the New York group. 

The New York leadership refused to accept my credentials, and 
the Chicago group voted overwhelmingly that all of us should be 
admitted, including myself and including some of the young people 
who had been born behind the Iron Curtain. 

This I think is of interest. Because of the terror that the Com- 
munists have that somebody v^lio knows something about communism 
will be able to reach their people, they attempted to bar all American 
young people who were born behind tlie Iron Curtain, that is, nat- 
uralized American citizens. I was born in the United States, but I 
Avas perhaps in the same category because I had been in the Com- 
munist Party. And the Communists fought as hard as they could 
to keep us out, although we had been accepted by the majority of 
American delegates and participated in the festival activities. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat did they do with reference to the Chiiiese dele- 
gation to the festival, from the standpoint of isolating them from 
other youths? 

]\Ir. IvOMEESTEix. The Chinese delegation did not live in the same 
barracks as the Americans, for example, but were housed in private 
homes of x\ustrian Communists in the city of Vienna. They v/ere 
she])herded around wherever they went. They were ringed by a 
circle of Chinese guards and around them Austrian Communist 
guards to make sure nobody got to them. 

Before the festival started, I attempted to hand out a leaflet to 
tlie Chinese delegates as tliey arrived at the railroad station and I 
was jumped by a group of Austrian Communist guards, which re- 
sulted in all of us being pulled in by the Austrian police. This was 
quite simple. They were afraid these Chinese would receive a leaflet 
explaining to them that American young people are anti-Communist. 

The Hungarian youth, too, were ver}^ carefully controlled. This 
is an official press release of the International Preparatory Connnit- 
tee dated July 25 in which they said, "The Hungarian delegates will 
live on their ships in the swimming city on the Danube Winterhafen." 
The Hmigarian delegates were housed aboard ships on the Danube 
with guards around the ship to make sure nobody got to them. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Romerstein, this committee has been subjected to 
considerable attack, to which it is accustomed, in the course of the 
last several days, both from Communist sources and indeed from 
some ostensibly non-Communist sources, for bringing before the com- 
mittee under subpena young people who w^ere at the festival, each one 
of whom has been, of course, carefully screened by this committee 
and found to be in the Communist operation. 

Did these young Communists who attended the Youth Festival — 
and I say this almost with tongue in cheek — did these young Com- 
munists do anything to promote the American way in the festival? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1435 

Mr. EoMERSTEiN. No, sir; at no time. The majority of the Ameri- 
can delegates did, but this handful of Communists who were recog- 
nized by the International Preparatory Committee and who controlled 
the situation that way — these people did nothing to promote the 
United States. They frequently spoke against the United States. 
They distributed anti-American propaganda, and I have many exam- 
ples of the aiiti- American propaganda they distributed. 

Mr. Doyle. I would like to see one of those. 

Mr. RoMEKSTEiN. Yes, sir, 

Mr. AiiENS. Do you have some photographs that were distributed 
there, too, of alleged atrocities by American boys in Korea? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Let me first show yovi this poster. This was sup- 
posed to be a nonpolitical festival. I took this picture in Vienna of 
a poster being carried by some Japanese that said, "No More Hiro- 
shimas" at a nonpolitical festival. 

This is a picture taken of a mural drawn by a Guatemalan and 
exhibited during the festival as part of the official festival activities. 
It shows alleged American atrocities in Korea, such things as germ 
warfare, shooting people in the back, and all the other nonsense. 
In the case of shooting people in the back, this w^as the way the 
Communists murdered our prisoners-of-war. 

Mr. Arens. Were these young Communists mider subpena to ap- 
pear here and for whom such apologies and protests appeared in 
certain of the American press — did these young Communists get up 
at this festival and protest these germ warfare displays? 

Mr. Romerstein. No, sir. At no time. As a matter of fact, Mar- 
vin Markman, who spoke at this meeting I referred to before, held 
after the festival was over, in New York, said he saw no political prop- 
aganda during the festival. As a matter of fact, the only thing he 
saw, lie said, were people putting up signs saying "Freedom for Tibet 
and Hungary," and he thought it was a good idea that people were 
beaten up by Austrian Communist hoodlums, because it was a non- 
political festival. All over the place there was Communist political 
propaganda. 

Here is a leaflet containing greetings from the World Council of 
Peace, an international Commmiist front. A very interesting thing 
takes place here because, according to Austrian law, if you wish to have 
a leaflet printed the print shop was to be designated. The print shop 
for this leaflet called Globus Verlag has an address in Vienna. That 
same print shop printed this English and Spanish edition of the official 
festival newspaper and also prints this newspaper, Volks Stimme, the 
official organ of the Austrian Commimist Party. 

The Austrian Communist Party, for instance, has headquarters in 
the same building that produced the press literature and the greetings 
from the World Peace Council. 

Mr. Doyle. You would expect that kind of fraud and deceit; 
wouldn't you ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. You would. I, myself, on July 14, 
visited the press office of the International Preparatory Committee 
w^here I found a stack on the floor for distribution of copies of the 
Communist Party newspaper, Volks Stimme, and it was very fre- 
quently that we saw Commmiist literature. 

51693 — 60 — pt. ?. ?. 



1436 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

We saw this in the Soviet pavilion, this one in German and one 
in English : "They will live under communism," with the big ham- 
mer and sickle of the youth of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Here is an editorial that said : 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities has now used its subpena 
power to hale before it five young men and women who had the temerity to attend 
one or another of the World Youth Festivals, 

and so forth, the theme of the editorial being that this committee is 
midertaking to interfere with the right of young people to travel. 

The Chairman. Where was that ? , 

Mr. Arens. It was in The Washington Post, Mr. Chairman. 

Now, each one of these five, Mr. Romerstein, has been identified by 
competent witnesses mider oath as a member of the Communist Party. 
Did any of these Communists who attended the festival who are 
championed here in The Washington Post editorial, which criticized 
this committee for subpenaing them before us— did any of them do, as 
the Post suggests here, anything for America, for the American way of 
life, against communism at the festival ? 

Mr. Romerstein. No, sir. On the contrary. Everyone of them 
fought against those of us who were attempting to taunt the 
Communists. 

Mr. Arens, As one who is not a Communist and who attended the 
festival and who attempted to portray the American way of life and 
attempted to defeat the Communists there, do you feel that you are 
now ]>eing persecuted because we have invited you to appear before 
this committee and tell the Government of the United States what 
went on in that Communist-controlled festival ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Not at all, sir. As a matter of fact, in the next 
festival in 1962 if the Communists permit me to attend it, I will. 
I feel I have not been terrorized at all by this committee. I never 
have been. This is a committee of the Government of the United 
States that I support. 

Mr. Arens. Where is the next festival to be held, by the way? 

Mr. Romerstein. They have given us various answers to this. They 
are postponing it to 3 years instead of 2. It will be held in 1962, and 
they claim they have contacted the governments of England and Italy 
for permission to hold a festival in those countries and have received 
no answer. But the speculation, even in Communist circles, is that 
they will not permit the festival to be lield outside the Iron Curtain 
again, because of too much trouble outside the Iron Curtain. Perhaps 
the next will be held once again, as the first six were, in a Communist 
country. . 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting Communist 
arrangements or penetrations in Havana, Cuba ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. There will be a Latin Youth Festival 
in Havana, Cuba, in the second 2 weeks of July, 1960. Plans are 
under way for an American Communist youth delegation to go down 
to Havana to represent American youth at this conference. The de- 
cision to hold this conference was' made by the International Union 
of Students, once again an international Communist front; and the 
Castro government of Cuba is apparently very happy to allow the 
Communists to hold their meeting there. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1437 

Mr. Arens. Would you in your renuiiuino- few minutes of ]))esen- 
tation, please, Mr. Eomerstein, allude to the pro- and anti-Cominunist 
propajranda which was the subject of the operation there in Vienna? 

I saV to the coinniittee that another witness who also attended the 
festival, a line youiif? American, has information, he will tell about 
other incidents which occurred there. We are trying to avoid a dupli- 
cation of incidents. 

If you will just devote your attention to that subject, Mr. Eomer- 
stein, and then ^\e can proceed with another witness and the other 
incidents there. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. For example, during the festival, there 
was distributed the official greetings to the festival by Nikita Khru- 
shchev, who greeted the participants of the Seventh World Festival 
of Youth and Students in Vienna and gave his heartiest good wishes. 

According to an official press release of the International Prepara- 
tory Committee, tliere were speeches made at one of their meetings in 
opposition to the United States for throwing the atom bomb on Japan 
and things of that sort, and Hiroshima victims appeared at this rally. 

The hardest-fought bit of Communist propaganda was at a seminar, 
a student seminar on colonialism, and a number of the American 
delegates participated in this, and this was where some of the anti- 
Communist delegates attempted to put their point of view across. 

The Communists had condemned colonialism of England and 
France and alleged that the United States was a colonial power. 

When one of the American delegates, Jo Anne Melloi-s, w^ho "was a 
British subject but in the American delegation, stood up and pro- 
posed to the seminar condemnation of colonialism in Hungary and 
Tibet, they said they would not accept any resolutions, although the 
next day they passed a resolution against colonialism in Algeria. 

This is a German Commmiist magazine with a cartoon showing the 
festival symbol and people that they refer to as anti-festival at the 
bottom. One is Radio Free Europe making broadcasts, and the other 
is marked NTS (National Alliance of Russian Solidarists), which is 
the Russian anti-Communist group, giving out copies of "Dr. 
Zhivago." 

I met many of these people in Vienna who gave out copies of "Dr. 
Zhivago" to the Soviet delegates. This was very much frowned upon 
by the Soviet regime. I will not go too far into this, except to point out 
that all of the Austrian youth organizations opposed the festival 
except the official Communist Free Austrian Youth. The Commu- 
nists were very happy to tell the people in Vienna that tliere was an 
official festival committee at the City College of New York, that they 
were recognized by the City College as an official organization. This 
is true. What they neglected to tell the people of Vienna was that 
City College passed a resolution saying : 

Believing on the best available evidence, that the Vienna Yonth Festival Com- 
mittee is a propaganda effort of the Soviet Union, the SFCSA [Student-Faculty 
Committee on Student Activities] wishes to record its opposition to student 
participation in the CCNY Vienna Youth Festival Committee, but at the same 
time, recognizing the rights of students to publicize and encourage participation 
in it if they so wish. 

Buell Gallagher, the president of City College, was very outspoken 
and forthright, alerting the young people at the college of Communist 
sponsorship of the festival and the fact that the college frowns on 



1438 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

participation, but believes in democratic procedure. So he allowed 
them to form a Communist festival committee on the campus. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting a new Communist 
publication that is being developed in New York City called the 
"Organizer" ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. I do not have too much information about this, 
except that I know that the editors are Jacob Rosen, who Avas a 
witness here yesterday, and Jacob Meyer Stein, also known as Mike 
Stein, who was president of the organization called SCOPE which I 
referred to earlier in my testimony. This is the preparatory group 
for the setting up of the New York Marxist-Leninist youth organi- 
zation, completely under Communist Party control; and when the 
party feels that it controls the situation well enough, these young 
people will be permitted to form their nationwide organization. 

One other Communist publication just came out called "Studies on 
the Left." It is a journal of research in social theory and review. 
This journal is published in Wisconsin and attempts to reach post- 
graduate students. It is a sort of theoretic organ for post-graduate 
students. It carries articles by people like Herbert Aptheker, a 
member of the National Committee of the Communist Party who is 
not identified in the article as a Communist, and Albert Blumberg, 
another member of the National Committee of the Communist Party 
whom they do not identify as a Communist. 

This is a frequent Communist tactic, to pretend they are something 
other than what they are. In this case they present them as certain 
Socialist and left-wing scholars. In practice this is an organ of the 
ConuHimist propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the deferral by 
the Communists of a founding committee for youth activities pending 
the completion of the very hearings in which the Committee on Un- 
American Activities is presently engaged ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. That is my understanding. The plans have tnmii 
made to have the convention at the end of January, but this was 
postponed to avoid having to reveal this before the committee if they 
were questioned about it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, I have just a few. 

How old a man are you ? 

Mr. Romerstein. I am 28 years old, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You were in the Comnnmist Party 2 years ? 

Mr. RoivrERSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Why did you get out? 

Mr. Romerstein. Well, sir, I joined the party originally at the 
age of 15 and a half, believing sincerely that these people wanted 
peace and were interested in the welfare of young people, in fact, 
and the minority groups. But, after having been in the Communist 
Party for a while, I discovered that these people were interested only 
in achieving power. They were prepared to lie, cheat, and to organize 
slave labor camps in the Soviet Union in order to achieve world 
power. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1439 

When I began asking questions within the Communist Party about 
specific policies, I was expelled. This was May of 1949. I still re- 
mained ideologically a Communist. I believed that perha]:)S Moscow 
really was right, even though I had some minor disagreements; but 
I suddenly had time to read, being out of the party, and I began 
reading the party literature that I missed while I was in, old party 
literature, and by 1950 I was pretty disgusted Avith communism and 
I realized this was a conspiracy to take over the world and destroy 
the Government I live under. 

Mr. Doyle. How much schooling have you had ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEix. I have had about 2 years of college. 

Mr. Doyle. Two years of college. 

Mr. EoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. You are a Jewish American ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I think you referred to two of the young men who 
tebtified yesterday and claimed their constitutional privilege as 
Jewish- Americans. Or am I in error ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiisr. No, sir. They pretended they were claiming their 
constitutional privilege because they did not want to associate with 
Nazis, whereas in Vienna they had. 

Mr. Ben Davis — by no stretch of the imagination is he Jewish — 
pretended to speak for the Jewish-Americans, whereas the Soviets 
have real anti-Semitism. 

Mr. Doyle. You are an American. Why didn't you come here and 
claim your constitutional privilege ? 

Mr. Romerstein. I have notliing to hide. Sometime in the future 
if I am stupid enough to commit a crime, then I w^ill claim my con- 
stitutional privilege. 

Mr. Doyle. You came without a lawyer. "VYhy didn't you have a 
lawyer to protect your constitutional rights ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Because of my feeling that these constitutional 
rights would be protected by this committee, which has protected 
my constitutional rights. I saw no reason why I should not speak 
freely and tell tlie entire truth. 

Mr. Doyle. At the Youth Festival, according to my understand- 
ing and record, there was a good deal of roughhouse tactics in one or 
more places against some of the American delegates who were not 
Communists. Is that true ? 

JNIr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. That is true. I experienced this my- 
self, and a number of my friends in the American delegation were 
very badly pushed around. 

Mr. Doyle. When you and I use the term "roughliouse tactics" 
what do you mean? 

Mr. Romerstein. I mean, for example, that a British delegate to 
the festival was beaten imconscious and was carried to a hospital. 

Mr. Doyle. You said that in the seminars the American anti-Com- 
munists attempted to present their viewpoint and were prevented 
from so doing. 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Weren't they recognized as also having the right to 
present the American viewpoint, the anti-Communist viewpoint? 



1440 COMMUNIST TRAIXING OPERATIONS 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. When they first began to speak, before the chair- 
man of the session realized that they were gomg to present a view- 
point otlier than his, they were permitted to speak. 

In the case of Jo Anne Mellors, as she began to speak the Commu- 
nists set up yelling and howling, and the Russian translation of her 
speech was shut oil' so the Soviet delegates did not hear what she 
had to say. 

Then a number of Communists were chosen at the seminar on 
colonialism to answer her. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. I want to compliment you 
on what you have presented. 

The Chairman. Governor? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

The Chairsian. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Johansen? 

Mr. Johansen. No questions. 

The Chairman. I want to express the sincere appreciation of this 
committee for the cooperation that we have received from you in 
this distasteful task. You have made a great contribution to the 
preservation of the things that w^e all hold very dear. You are to 
be congratulated. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, please, Mr. Chairman, is Charles 
Wiley. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
adminsters the oath to you. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth^ 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wiley. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES WILEY 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Wiley. My name is Charles Wiley. I live in Flushing, New 
York. I am a writer on international affairs, and I have a back- 
ground as a research specialist on communism. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wiley, you will be testifying in a few moments 
respecting the Seventh World Youth Festival. I want, if we possibly 
can, to avoid unnecessary duplication with the material which was 
covered a little while ago by Mr. Romerstein. 

Will you, at your own pace, proceed to give us just a word of the 
initial arrangements made by yourself to go to the festival ? 

Mr. Wiley. My wife and I registered through the New York office. 
Mr. Romerstein explained the difference between New York and 
Chicago. W^e registered as official delegates and were given our dele- 
gate badges. I had not been identified anywhere as a non-Communist 
and I was accepted without question and, in fact, encouraged to go. 

Mr. Arens. You went in a separate group from the group in which 
Mr. Romerstein went ; is that correct ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1441 

Mr. Wiley. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Who was in charge of the New York office? 

Mr. Wiley. Marvin Markham, Joanne Grant, Jacob Rosen, Alan 
McGowan, the people that you are having here as witnesses, the 
hostile witnesses. 

Mr. Arens. All of whom, according to this record, have been identi- 
fied as members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wiley, so that we may avoid duplication, would you kindly pick 
up the theme of your testimony at your arrival at Vienna and direct 
your attention to the issue of the international Communist control of 
the American delegation ? 

Mr. Wiley. Yes, sir. In Vienna, an Austrian was attached to the 
American delegation as interpreter and general guide. As we heard 
from Mr. Romerstein, before we even went to Vienna there was inter- 
national Communist control. When we went to Vienna it was 
complete. 

On the first evening of the festival there was a split in the American 
delegation. The non-Communists demanded a chance to vote on who 
their chairman would be. The leader of the American delegation, or 
self-appointed leader of the American delegation at that time, staged 
a walk-out and all of the New York Communist delegates walked out 
of the meeting. 

Mr. Arens. You were credentialed as an American delegate? 

Mr. Wiley. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You might give us, if I can reverse the field here a 
moment, a little background of the information of the meetings that 
you may have attended in advance of actually going to Vienna. I 
apologize for skipping that one item of information, 

Mr^WiLEY. The only thing I can say that has not been said by the 
previous witness was that, at the meeting where Mr. Romerstein was 
beaten up and his pamphlets thrown in a sewer, they sent five of their 
biggest boys down to get him because he was handing out things that 
were contrary to their propaganda. 

Later, when they came upstairs there were three people in a room 
of about, I would estimate, 70 people at the meeting, when somebody 
complained about the roughhouse treatment given Mr. Romerstein — 
these three people said that this was the wrong thing to do, that we 
shouldn't have done it. 

The Communists at the meeting answered, "Yes, perhaps it was the 
wrong thing to do strategically. Perhaps it will get us some bad 
publicity." 

I did not hear anyone at that meeting, with the exception of these 
three people, say that there was anything wrong in beating him up 
except it might get bad publicity. The three people demanded a vote. 
The vote was held off by talk. 

Joanne Grant was sitting next to me at the meeting and I asked her. 
I said, "Why don't you have a vote as to whether or not he will be 
accepted as a delegate ?" 

I said, "It seems obvious from the meeting that you would win the 
vote anyway." 

And she said, "We are not going to have any vote on this. This de- 
cision has been made. It must stick and we cannot take any chances 
of having it changed." 



1442 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Are you under the impression thn.t the Communists in 
the American delegation thought that you might be one of their 
number ? 

Mr. Wiley. Yes, sir; I think that they did. If not one of their 
number, they thouglit I was certainly to the extreme left. When a 
crisis arose in Vienna when there was a split in the delegation, knowing 
a little bit of Communist jargon, I passed myself off successfully as 
an American Communist and I was with the American Communist 
leadership when it reported to the Inte7'national Preparatory Com- 
mittee, the international Communist machinery, on the split in the 
delegation. They walked out of the meeting M'hen they saw they 
would lose the vote. I was with them when they reported to Mr. 
Floyd Williston, a Canadian Communist, a top IPC official. I was 
allowed to go into the IPC headquarters that was guarded by an 
Austrian goon squad with the help of Mr. McGowan, who talked them 
into letting me in without a pass. I would like to thank Mac for 
that, very much. 

When we got in there Mr. Williston asked for a report and was 
given a report on the activities of the night before. His first question 
after the report was given to him was, ""Where was Max?" 

I will return to Max in just a second. 

The Communist leadership was very upset because it appeared 
that they had lost control of the American delegation and they were 
talking in terms of a compromise, in which there would be four dele- 
gates from New York and four delegates from the Chicago group put 
m char<re of the entire American delegation. 

Floyd Williston then told Mr. McGowan and Mr. Markman and I 
forget who else might have been there — at the time those two definitely 
were — he told them, "Of course, you understand that we will have to 
take back your special passes into the headquarters building, because 
if we have four from the other side as officials we cannot very well let 
you have passes without letting them have passes, and we can't afford 
to have them running around in here." That was inside the Inter- 
national Preparatory Committee building. So it was a free and open 
festival, "but we didn't want any non-Communist delegates running 
around the headquarters." 

The decisions for the American delegation were made by non- 
Americans. They were made by Jean Garcias, a French Commu- 
nist; Floyd Williston, a Canadian Communist; and Max Schneider, 
an Austrian Communist; and other international Communist leaders. 

They had a meeting at which no Americans were present to my 
knowledge. I was with most of the American leaders while the 
meeting was being held. 

Mr. Arens. Would you say that was thought control? 

Mr. Wiley. Definitely. The Americans had no decision, as far as 
I could see, as to what their strategy would be after the split in the 
American delegation. The orders came down from upstairs that 
under no circumstances would the two wings of the American delega- 
tion be brought back together again. 

After having made that decision and having decided in advance — 
and I think this is an interesting study of Communist strategy, es- 
pecially in the world situation where we are negotiating everywhere 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1443 

with them — after Iiavinc; decided in advance tliat tliere would be no 
agreement they then offered to enter into negotiations with tlie non- 
Communist Americans, and for a week they carried on the farce of 
negotiations day after day after (hiy, when they liad decided before 
they ever sat down that they woukl never come to an agreement. 

Mr. Arens. You sat in witli the fraction of the Communist 
movement there in Vienna which made that decision? 

Mr. Wiley. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. They, thinking you were a pro-Communist? 

Mr. Wiley. I sat in on most of the meetings for the first 2 days at 
the International Preparatory headquarters. I was there when Mr. 
Williston received his report. I was there when he told them they 
would have to take their passes away. I was there when the orders 
came down they were not to come to any agreement and to keep the 
delegation split, because they knew if there was a united delegation 
on a free vote they would lose control. 

Mr. Arens. Were you present when Paul Robeson, Jr., made the 
speech there? 

Mr. Wiley. I don't know which particular speech you are talking 
about. 

Mr. Arens. The speech in which he was condemning the United 
States of America. 

Mr. Wiley. I heard so many of the Communist leaders, including 
Mr. Robeson, attack the United States of America that I don't know 
which one you are referring to, but I heard all of them at one time or 
another attack the United States of America continually. 

There is one thing I would like to bring out which I mentioned 
before. That is Max Schneider. I have a memo here that I wrote 
out for myself, and I am reading this because I want it to be very 
definite, truthful, and to the point : 

Max Schneider was attached to the American delegation as "an interpreter." 
At the first meeting with Williston when the young Communists from the 
United States reported their difficulties, the first question, as I mentioned, that 
Floyd Williston asked was, "Where was Max?" Later I had a conversation 
with Max Schneider, at which ray wife was present, and I repeated what Floyd 
Williston said and I said, "Max, is there some problem among the leadership 
as to what guidance had been given the American delegates?" 

My wife and I put the following memorandum down immediately 
after this conversation was over. We ran to the nearest lonely spot 
and put it down so we would have it down pretty close to verbatim: 

Schneider was very angry at this. He said that Williston had not criticized 
him personally. He said that there was complete agreement in the handling 
of the American delegation. And then he said the following: "I take full 
responsibility for the action of the group." He said that at the meeting when it 
appeared that the non-Communist majority would force a vote and when he saw 
that the Communists would lose he said: "I personally gave the order to 
McGowan to break up the meeting and walk out." 

That is a direct quote. It was put down on paper immediately 
after he said it to my wife and myself. 

One thing that I brought up with Max Schneider. I asked the 
same thing of Alan McGowan. I asked it of Max Schneider. I 
asked it of Floyd Williston. And I asked it of a woman leader of 
the IPC, whose name I don't know. 

51693—60 — pt. 3 4 



1444 COMMUNIST TRAIKING OPERATIONS 

My question to each of them was approximately this: 

Isn't one of the big problems here in Vienna that the Communist Party lead- 
ers back in the United States did not give the proper guidance to the young 
people who were coming over here to do the really important job for the party? 

In each case I received the same answer, which was : 

Tes, that is a big problem. These young American leaders here did not get 
guidance. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wiley, you and Mr. Komerstein and one or two 
others have had a background of training and experience in coping 
with the international Communist conspiracy, and you know commu- 
nism. You know its strategy. You know its tactics and you know its 
techniques. 

Can you tell this committee, what was your judgment of the young 
Americans in the delegation who were non-Communists, how did they 
cope with the Communist tactics? Were they babes in the woods, 
or were they able to meet the Communists on their level and defeat 
them? 

Mr. Wiley. I think you can best describe the majority of the non- 
Communist delegates as boys who were sent to do a man's job. Some 
of them had read a little of Marx, they knew a certain amount of 
theory — and I should stress this here — there were notable exceptions, 
but by and large they knew some Communist theory, they knew noth- 
ing of Leninist tactics, and when they were put up against a trained, 
organized Communist machine they were simply rolled over. The 
Communists knew the parliamentary tricks, they knew every dirty 
trick in the book, and these American kids were just completely unable 
to cope with it. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about the Communist security in the 
use of violence ? 

Mr. Wiley. Yes, sir. I can. I can give you a few instances of it 
as reported in the press, and then I will be glad to give you a personal 
experience that I had. 

These are just a few of the examples of violence: Cameraman 
beaten on festival grounds; the leader of a West German television 
team was severely beaten and his cameras smaslied by the Austrian 
Communist guards. Another one: United Press International re- 
porter Ferdinand Wimmer was hustled ojff the festival grounds by 
guards. 

Willie RuflP, an American jazz musician, wlio had been praised 
peculiarly enough by the Daily Worker just a few days before for 
having appeared in Moscow, was beaten. 

Mr. Arens. Were you attacked personally ? 

Mr. Wiley. I was attacked personally during one of the main pa- 
rades at the festival. Eight other Americans and myself, all ac- 
credited American delegates, had joined the parade. We had seen 
signs which said, "Freedom for the Congo, Freedom for Algeria, 
Freedom for Spain." Our people put up some signs that said, 
"Freedom for Hungary and Freedom for Tibet." 

We were attacked by innumerable Austrian and Italian Commu- 
nist hoodlums. One of our number, Jo Anne Mellors, was knocked 
to the ground and trampled on. My wife, who was obviously preg- 
nant, was pushed around. The signs were ripped to pieces. At one 
point in the game, I would say, Miss Mellors had 15 people around 



COMMUNIST TKAIiSlJNG OPERATIONS 1445 

her, with three of them beating her. I rushed over to help her luid I 
took one of the Communists off of her. I was attacked from behind by 
an American delegate who called for help and was joined by Austrian 
and Italian goons and at one point I must have had 15 or 20 of them 
on me. 

Mr. Arens. On which side were the five young Communists who are 
under subj^ena of this committee, who are the objective of such solici- 
tation in this editorial and object of solicitation in the picketing'^ 

Mr. Wiley. Mr. Markman, at a meeting after the festival in New 
York, was asked about this and especially he was asked how a preg- 
nant girl had been beaten up. And Mr. Markman replied that, "After 
all, you shouldn't go to a parade like this because you got to expect 
to be hurt." 

When we asked why we should expect to be hurt at a peace rally, 
he refused to answer the question. 

Mr. Arexs. Except for the few Americans who were thoroughly 
conversant with Communist strategy and tactics because of extensive 
experience in dealing with Communists, what was the strategy and 
tactics of the non-Communist youth who did attend the conference? 

Mr. Wiley. Those that knew a little bit about communism tried to 
play the game the same way the Communists played it. In the par- 
liamentary procedure they tried to outsit them. On one occasion 
they did. By and large there was a tendency throughout, among the 
American delegates, best covered by the phrase often used, "Let's not 
rock the boat," because everything that was said in defense of the 
United States of America or the Western w^ay of life was attacked 
as antifestival, and the Commmiist strategy was to call anyone who 
defended our position, call them disrupters, and therefore most of the 
Americans let them get away with it. 

They entered these negotiations, these hopeless negotiations day 
after day, and I am sad to report that after the 8th day of negotia- 
tion — 7th or 8th day — one of the American non-Communist leaders 
came out and said, "Well, I think we made great progress today. 
I have very high hopes things are going to go better." 

Mr. Arens. That was after the Communists had determined in 
advance that they were to have no agi'eement. 

Mr. Wiley. And the non-Communists, incidentally, had been told 
by me exactly that before they entered the negotiation. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a fair characterization to say, except for the few 
who were at the festival who had had experience in dealing with 
communism, who miderstood Communist strategy and tactics and who 
were informed on that subject before they left — with the exception 
of those few, the non- Communist Americans were out-maneuvered in 
every respect in the festival? 

Mr. Wiley. Definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Wiley, was there an adult Communist from 
the United States in Vienna acting as an adviser to the American 
Communists or pro-Communist delegates? 

Mr. Wiley. I cannot testify directly on that. I know from other 
sources that there was, but I did not personally see her and I would 
rather not testify to something that I did not personally see. 

Mr. Arens. Have you any other examples of the control and manip- 
ulation by the international Communist apparatus of the American 
Communists and of the festival? 



1446 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Wiley. Yes, I think I can show you quite a few. I ah'eady 
mentioned their negotiations. 

Incidentally, to get it clearly on the record, by the estimates of the 
Communist leadership of the American delegation, they were out- 
numbered by two and a half to one within the American delegation, 
with some other delegates in doubt, not enough to bring up the Com- 
munist ranks to a majority. And, as it turned out, most of those that 
were in doubt at that time turned out to be non- Communist. So I 
would say before the end of the festival, when everything was deter- 
mined, the Communists were at least three to one underdogs among 
the American delegation. 

Some of their controls were the Communist propaganda which was 
passed out ; the same Austrian Communist guards who were beating 
up those who were handing out non-Communist and anti-Communist 
pamphlets were helping to hand out Young Communist League 
material from France and Austria. 

One interesting example of the complete Soviet control was when 
the Soviet delegation came on the field at the main parade. 

They had a sputnik pointed toward the sky, and as they passed 
the reviewing stand the Soviet delegation announcer said, "The dele- 
gation of the Soviet Union," and at that very minute the fireworks 
display went off and he started yelling "Sputnik, sputnik, peace and 
friendship." 

It was explained later that that fireworks display had gone off 
coincidently at the exact moment that the Soviet delegation, with 
the sputnik pointed to the sky, happened to go by the reviewing 
stand. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wiley, would you tell us if you went on then to 
Moscow ? 

Mr. Wiley. Yes, I did. My wife and I were both signed up as 
members of an American delegation from the festival that visited 
the Ukraine and Moscow. 

Mr. Arexs. Would you proceed to tell the committee the high- 
lights of that experience with reference to the youth activities? 

Mr. Wiley. We were shown a display that is hard to describe in 
many ways because it was almost unbelievable. Anti-Semitism was 
mentioned here yesterday by some of the comrades. While we were 
in the Soviet Union we saw anti-Semitism, and when we saw it 
the American Jewish Communists apologized for it among them- 
selves. They found reasons why they didn't really see it at all and 
explained it all away. And I am sure that after thej told their 
stories enough times they may begin to believe them themselves. 

On one occasion in Moscow, one of our Jewish American Commu- 
nists had talked to a Russian Jewish woman who told him about anti- 
Semitism in the Soviet Union. "V^Hien he got back to our hotel he 
told another American Jewish Communist about it. And the second 
fellow said, "Well, don't you know that under the Soviet constitu- 
tion you cannot have anv anti-Semitism? Did this woman give you 
any documentary proof?" 

And the fellow said, "Well, no. I just met her on the street and 
she just told me about it." 

He said, "Well, it is ridiculous. She is a capitalist agent," and so 
on and so on. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1447 

One-half hour later the first boy who had ori<rmally been ap- 
proached by this woman was explaining to other delegates about the. 
woman he niet who was a capitalist agent of some sort \yho was pass- 
ing out propaganda against the Soviet Union about anti-Semitism. 

Mr. Arens. In your experience in Moscow did you form a judg- 
ment as to whether or not there was a freedom of movement by the 
young people who were there, so that they could ascertain for them- 
selves what the truth was? 

Mr. Wiley. The Communists tried very hard to keep us from seeing 
much. One method they had of doing this was to give a single visa to 
56 people. Only one man had a visa stamped in liis passport. As far 
as the rest of us, if we had been picked up alone, we could not prove 
we were in the Soviet Union legally. Therefore, we could hardly 
wander too far away from the group. 

They had all sorts of tours arranged for us to see anything in the 
world, the youth camps, factories, all sorts of things that most people 
did not particularly care about. But we were asked to keep to the 
schedule. 

I will say that as some of the anti-Communists — and there were five 
of us on the trip — and some of the non-Communists, who became 
more and more anti-Communist as the trip went on, as we broke away 
from the delegation and just demanded not to go on these guided 
tours, we found — and this would be advice to any other Americans 
that go to the Soviet Union— that they are not going to shoot you if 
you just walk away from them, and the thing to do is just say, "I am 
not going on your guided tour today. I am sorry." And just walk 
away, and then you will get to see a little bit. 

Mr. Arens. Is there anythmg else of significance in your experience 
with the Youth Festival or your experience with the delegation that 
went on to Moscow which you would like to call to the attention of 
the committee? 

Mr. Wiley. In so far as Moscow is concerned, I think I have 
covered that pretty much. 

If I may have a few minutes, there are a few things that I would 
like to fill in. 

One of them is that The Washington Post editorial, which was men- 
tioned earlier today, has upset me very, very much. I cannot quite 
understand how a newspaper could so misrepresent something as that 
newspaper has. 

Those of us who went there as anti-Communists are very happy 
to see it put on the record what happened in Vienna, and to say that 
these people who went over to Vienna to present the American point 
of view are being hurt by these hearings is just pure nonsense, and I 
just cannot understand how that newspaper could ever write such a 
thing. 

A few other things that I did want to mention : I think that Con- 
gressman Walter has mentioned the possibility of the United States 
Government giving support to future festivals. I would like to say 
that aside from policy decisions — which of course we cannot go into 
here, that is a high policy decision — there are two other considerations,, 
and I think one of them has been fairly well covered here and that is 
the type of representation that you have. I think certainly we don't 
want pro-Communists going over there; I think we certainly don't 



1448 COMMUNIST TRAIXING OPERATIONS 

want uneducated — and I mean educated from the Leninist point of 
view — uneducated American non-Communists going because tliey 
are simply going to lose out in any direct combat, and I use that not 
as physical combat, but in any direct action between themselves and 
the organized Communist machine. We have to send knowing people 
if we send any at all. 

And I would like to say there is one other thing I think the American 
Government should be aware of before they send any Americans over, 
and this would essentially be in so far as American girls are concerned. 
There were a lot of things that went on in Vienna that bothered me 
very much. Paul Eobeson, Jr., one of your witnesses, I think here, I 
hope that he can tone his language down a little bit here, but that 
man used four-letter words around young American girls at some of 
the meetings that I attended with the Communist leaders that made me 
turn a little pale, and I was in the United States Navy a couple of 
years in the Pacific Ocean. 

The lio\ising in Vienna for the delegates in some instances I thought 
was pretty terrible. They had the American girls staying in tents. 
I took my wife over to the area, and I found that in the tent next to 
the one we were going to put her, there was a fellow running around in 
Jiothing but shorts. 

The delegates forcing their attention on girls for the sake of peace 
and friendship and a youthful international solidarity was pathetic 

sometimes. -r. • • -, j ,i 

I saw delegates go up to these pretty young Russian girls and throw 
their arms around tliem and kiss them and muss them up and do it, 
vou know, to have their pictures taken with them. 
' I understand, in all fairness to tlie festival, that some of the situa- 
tions in the tents were cleaned up after the first day or two. I did not 
get back there after the fii-st day or two, but I was told that they did 
start to ban fellows from going in the girls' tents over tliere. But I do 
■ know by the last day or two of the festival there were things going on 
out in public, out on the grass of the festival grounds, that would be 
pretty terrible. I would not want my daughter when she grows up 
to go to a festival in that atmosphere. 

■' Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. I think I just have two brief observations. 

One is, I think I suggested it before, that I would tliiiik that the 
young Americans in the liearing room wlio went as delegates under 
Communist control would feel pi-etly well let down or ashamed at 
what happened in their attack, or the attack of the young Communists 
even, on our own country, according to this testimony, and for not 
resenting attacks against the United States. I would think they would 
be pretty well ashamed. 

The other observation I wish to make is that T would think that they 
would feel pretty well let down in this revelation, whicli I think some 
of them must liave known, that they were being led around by adult 
Commimists of at least middle age. 

And the other observation I want to m:ike is that it seems to me 
that if there are any adults in tliis room who helped finance the trip 
of these young American Communists to the festival that they would 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1449 

feel let down certainly, because, indirectly at least, it amounts to adult 
American Communists financing an attack upon the United btates 
of America through the young Connnunists at the festival, who did 
not defend their own nation. , , ,-, ^ .■ --c 

Mr Wiley. There are two things I would like to mention it you 
have a second to do it. Is that all right, Mr. Chairman '^■ 

One is that, in view of the Post's editorial about the Anierican 
deleo-ates to the festival being punished by this committee, 1 have 
gotten together a list and I want to stress this— this is not a complete 
Tis^-but^it is a reasonably complete list. There are probably 2o or 
30 people in addition who should be on it. But this is the best that 

I could do. . -TT- rn^ • • ^• 4- f 

This is a list of Americans who were in Vienna, ihis is a list oi 
anti-Communists and non-Communists. In some places people w4io 
went along with the Communists sometimes, but at least on one occa- 
sion stood up against them and did not f oUow the party line. 

I could not possibly read it. There are a couple hundred names 
here. For the protection of those who did go to Vienna for the United 
States to present the American viewpoint, I would like to get this 
into the record if I could have it put in the record, Mr. Chairman. 

(Document marked "Wiley Exhibit No. 1" and retained m com- 
mittee files.) T-T-.^T^-T 

The Chairman. I would not be too disturbed by this Post editorial. 
The same issue of the Post had a story about a case being dismissed 
in a United States Court when actually only a count of the indictment 

was stricken. pi- i 

I would not be concerned about the accuracy of anything you read 

in that paper. 

I appreciate very much what you have done and I am sure our whole 
committee does. 

It is indeed unfortunate that the youngsters in this country, thirsty, 
as most of them are, for knowledge, are not made aware of the pitfalls 
that are along their path. • , <• • 

This sort of thing that you have just described is typical of it. I 
do not know how many young people will go to the next meeting who 
are anti-Communists. But it seems to me that in the consideration of 
the legislation that this committee has just had drafted, we ought to 
make very strong recommendations to the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs on the advisability of selecting people to attend meetings 
of this sort officially. Of course, if anybody else wants to go, that 
is a different storjr ; that makes no difference. But I think that the 
official representation ought to be people of whom we do not have to 
be ashamed. 

From what I know of this meeting there are a great many Ameri- 
cans that we certainly cannot be very proud of. 

That I think concludes the hearing for this morning. The commit- 
tee will meet tomorrow at 10 a.m. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :25 a.m., Thursday, February 4, 1960, the sub- 
committee recessed to reconvene at 10:00 a.m., Friday, February 5, 
I960.) 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Part 3 
(Communist Activities and Propaganda Among Youth 

Groups) 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.O. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Cormnittee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 :00 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Old House 
Office Building, Wasliington, D.C., Honorable Francis E. Walter 
(chairman) presiding. 

Subcommittee members : Representatives Francis E. Walter, Penn- 
sylvania, chairman ; Clyde Doyle, California ; Edwin E. Willis, Loui- 
siana ; Donald L. Jackson, California ; and Gordon H. Scherer, Ohio. 

Committee members present during hearings: Representatives 
Walter; Doyle; Scherer; Moulder, Missouri; Tuck, Virginia; and 
Johansen, Michigan. (Appearances as noted.) 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff director, and Donald T. 
Appell and Robert H. Goldsborough, investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Will you call your first witness, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Joseph Charles Jones. 

The Chairman. Mr. Jones, will you raise your right hand? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God ? 

Mr. Jones. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH CHARLES JONES 

Mr. Jones. I am Joseph Charles Jones, a student at Johnson C. 
Smith University, in Charlotte, N.C., in the theological department. 

The Chairman. What denomination ? 

Mr. Jones. Presbyterian. 

The Chairman. You are studying for the ministry ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Seventh World Youth Festival in 
Vienna this past summer ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, I did. 

1451 

51693— 60— pt. 3 5 



1452 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Doyle. May I raise the point that the witness is here without 
legal counsel. 

Mr. Arens. He is a friendly witness. 

The Chairman. This may be funny to some of you, but to those 
of us who are interested in trying to work out legislation, this is a 
very serious matter. The Chair will not tolerate any demonstrations. 
If there are any more, the room will be cleared. 

Mr. Doyle. I realize that, but I still raise the question that under 
our rules he is entitled to it, and I would like to have the record 
show that he waives it, if he does. 

Mr. Jones. I really saw no need for having counsel, Mr. Doyle, 
because I would hope that things brought out here would not need 
any legal comiseling. So I did not request it. 

Mr. Doyle. Excuse me for interrupting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Seventh World Youth Festival 
held in Vienna this past summer ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, I did. 

]Mr. Arens. Would you give us just a word, please, as to the rea- 
sons why your interest was first created in the festival and why you 
arranged personally to attend the festival ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. I had been working with a student organiza- 
tion, the United States National Student Association, which had 
taken a stand against the festival, because they felt it was a propa- 
ganda tool of the Soviet Government, using it to further the propa- 
ganda of the Communist Party. 

Because of my work with the United States National Student 
Association, I had become very familiar with the festival in Moscow. 
We had taken a stand against the festival by 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt? You are speaking so rapidly our 
reporter is having difficulty. If you would slow down it would be 
appreciated. 

Mr. Jones. Because of the discussion and background and research 
that went into finding out about the festival in Moscow, I came to 
realize that this was an important international meeting, important 
not in terms of furthering international cooperation necessarily, but 
important in terms of attempting to bring and sway people into 
thinking about the Communist Party and joining the Communist 
Party. Then I realized, in the past, the delegations that had gone 
from the United States had prepared a picture which I, as an Amer- 
ican student and as an American, did not feel really represented the 
whole truth of the American way of life. 

For instance, one of the things which was brought out in one of 
the festivals which were held in the past — there were two things that 
represented the entire spectrum of the American system; one of 
these was a huge picture, a huge display of a very vivid lynching 
scene — just that picture — which I think could convey pretty well 
something about our system, but also there was another presentation 
which attempted to convey, and did pretty well, that the American 
working classes were working longer hours, were getting paid less, 
had no security in jobs in any sense. Many of them could not get 
jobs while their capitalist war dogs, who were exploiting these peo- 
ple for their own ends, were attempting to create a situation where 
there could be no international cooperation. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1453 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know the source of that propaganda? 

Mr. Jones. It came from the delegations that purported to repre- 
sent the Americans there at the festival. 

Mr. Scherer. From our own? 

Mr. Jones. I would put Americans in quotations because these 
Americans, in fair analysis, would have to bo termed sympathizers 
of the propaganda line, are very hard-core Communists. I could 
not say about their affiliations. 

Mr. Scherer. They were delegates from this country ? 

Mr. Jones. They took it upon themselves to go. 

Mr. Scherer. They were people or persons from the United States ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. This was material you read in advance of your own 
trip to Vienna, was it not ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. It was propaganda material you read advertising the 
Vienna festival or telling about other festivals ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. This could be termed propaganda. Anything 
really can be termed propaganda, but I got my information from many 
sources. One of them was a group called the Independent Services 
for Information on the Vienna Youth Festival, a group out of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, which is financed by a private firm. This 
group attempted to get to the college campuses as much information 
about the festivals, the background of the festivals, the purpose of 
the festival, as they could to reach as many college students as possible, 
so those who did want to go to the festival could be very informed 
about what they were getting into, and this was not just a beautiful 
existence of coexistence, and people were not there just to meet and 
sing and dance. It was really a serious thing as far as the Com- 
munist Party was concerned. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, because of your interest in the festival, which 
was created by the propaganda leaflets you had seen and regarded 
as the misrepresentation of America in these festivals, determine 
that you were going to go and, as one American, attempt to find 
out what was going on and attempt, in your hiunble way, to make a 
presentation of the truth ? Is that what precipitated your interest in 



goin< 



■1 



Mr. Jones. That is exactly what precipitated my interest. 

I don't know if, in my humble way, I did anything at all; but I 
felt to have persons at the festival who were immuned, so to speak, to 
the line which was perpetrated there and to have pei*sons who could 
attempt to present in a rational manner the facts, not only about our 
system, but to attempt to analyze the facts about the Soviet system 
or any system, and to discuss rationally with these people at this 
festival what we felt w^as important. 

Mr. Arens. In your training at the religious institution where you 
are training for the ministry, you have developed, have you not, a 
firm conviction against the Commmiist ideology and for the ideology 
of freedom as we understand it under God ? 

Mr. Jones. I would rather say this, that I have formed a basic 
belief in the divinity of man, and if this belief contradicts the Com- 
munist Ime and, so, happens to go along with the American way, 



1454 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

fine. I would much rather think of myself as a person who has 
come to understand things in light of his religious orientation. 

Mr. Arens. You then sought to go to the Vienna festival? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. I had friends who were aware of both groups 
that were being organized to go to the festival from the United 
States — one group out of New York and another gi-oup out of Chicago, 
which was organized to attempt to counteraffect, so to speak, the 
group from New York. 

I found out who was heading the delegation or getting together 
the delegates from Chicago, and I informed her I would like to go, 
and to make all the necessary arrangements. 

Mr. Akens. We have had testimony on this record by two persons 
respecting the two groups and the leadership. We will not explore 
that with you now, but I would like you to pick up the theme of your 
presentation, if you please, upon your arrival in Vienna. 

The Chairman. Before you go into that, I wonder if I could 
develop something which has been causing me great concern. 

Has the college which you are attending received any propaganda 
from behind the Iron Curtain without solicitation — magazines depict- 
ing the so-called beautiful life among the freedom-loving Russians? 

Mr. Jones. We have, from time to time, received some information. 
One was sent to me personally, information and propaganda material 
I would say, on the World Federation of Democratic Youth, which 
is an international organization, so to speak, but which we have found 
to be quite Communist-controlled. 

This group did send information, and we have received other in- 
formation. Where it came from or why, I would not take it upon 
myself to say. 

The Chairman. We had a witness from the Treasury Department 
the other day testify about the millions of pieces of this propaganda 
going to schools and colleges without solicitation. Of course, it is 
apparently a military secret because I did not see anything about it 
in the press but I was wondering whether or not your school had 
been bombarded with this obvious propaganda. 

Mr. Jones. I would really decline because I wouldn't really know. 
I would not be in a position to make a statement on that. 

Mr. Arens. When you arrived in Vienna, could you tell us the 
incident with respect to your signing in as part of the American 
delegation ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. We had found that our group, the group out of 
Chicago, AYFO [American Youth Festival Organization], was not 
officially recognized and would not be officially recognized by the 
International Preparatory Committee because of the nature of the 
group, because we were coming to attempt to present a picture which 
they were obviously not attempting to present, and we would have 
quite a bit of difficulty being recognized. And we felt the best way 
we could do anything at all was to keep our identity as an independent 
group. 

When we got to Vienna early in the morning we were met by two 
persons who gave us a slip of paper and said, "Sign this, and we 
will fill in the top." 

This had at the top "Official American Delegation," which meant 
we would be linked with the group which was officially recognized 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1455 

by the International Preparatory Committee, and our identity would 
have been completely dissolved in this. 

Many of us refused to sign this, and many of us refused to sign any- 
thing that early in the morning. We did not know what was going 
on, and at four o'clock in the morning in Vienna we sought lodging. 
But we felt it was important to us to maintain our identity as indi- 
vidual Americans rather than to be linked with a larger group which 
would be sort of manipulated. 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell us the machinations or operations which 
led to the determination of the leadership of the Americans who were 
in attendance at the delegation, at the festival ? 

Mr. Jones. Upon the arrival we were quite aware of the fact that 
there were two factions among the Americans there. 

The meeting was called the night before the festival officially 
began, to attempt to present to us an outline of activities that were to 
proceed at the festival, what would be our official role there at the 
festival, what we were to do when we marched in the parade, this type 
of thing, to get us oriented to the festival. 

Many of us realized this was ridiculous, because no one was to say 
what we should do or how we should participate, and we met — all of 
the group, the aggregate of Americans there, met with their differ- 
ent identifications, et cetera. 

Of course, this meant a big clash. It was a clash between the 
group that had gone from New York and the group that had gone 
from Chicago. At that point the persons who had been appointed — 
by whom I don't know — but the persons who had been appointed to 
organize and direct the American delegations took over and pro- 
ceeded to manipulate the entire meeting. 

Those of us who went attempted to get the floor and attempted to 
bring in some rational, some semblance of the democratic process 
where you can vote on anything, elect your own leadership. 

The Chairman. Wlio presided ? 

Mr. Jones. There were two or three people presiding. 

I will just say one of the persons who has been cited here, so to 
speak, as a leader in that group presided. 

The Chairman. Who selected him ? 

Mr. Jones. I think the person was selected by the International 
Preparatory Committee. 

The Chairman. He was not selected by the American delegation? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir, not in the usual process of elections that we fol- 
low, where everybody has a chance to discuss the candidates and so 
on. And we felt this was ridiculous, because in any democratic 
process any group can assemble and elect its own leadership, whether 
it be at a Communist festival or not. This was the main reason for 
the conflict. 

Finally, the sort of hard-core people who were attempting to direct 
the meeting left, and we began to elect our own leadership. One 
Malcolm Kivkin up in Cambridge was elected by the democratic 
process to negotiate with the International Preparatory Committee to 
get us officially recognized as a group and to carry on the official com- 
munication between the preparatory committee and ourselves. 

Mr. Arens. Would you recount the experience you had at the festi- 
val in which Paul Eobeson, Jr. was addressing the delegation at which 
you were present ? 



1456 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Jones. In all fairness to those concerned, I think I should say 
first that the New York group had met the day after we had the big 
meeting and where there was a large clash, and they elected four 
people. 

The way the election went I don't know, I was not in the meeting. 
But they elected four people. I think it was stipulated that these 
four people were to negotiate with the group elected from Chicago in 
trying to work out some way that we could peacefully coexist at the 
festival. I understand this is the only reason these people were elected, 
and this was stipulated in the nomination when it was made. 

So, of these four people, Paul Robeson, Jr. was one of them. This 
was officially voted on by the group to negotiate. 

It has happened that these four people so took it upon themselves 
to attempt to represent in an official capacity the entire group of 
Americans there. The reason I say this, in this little example of what 
you asked me, there was a meeting of the American and Soviet students 
on the festival grounds. This meeting had been very well planned. 
Everything that was to happen had been planned. There was to be 
a cultural exchange between the Americans and the Soviets. 

The Americans had a group there, a choir which had been gotten 
together at the festival to attempt to represent the Americans, and a 
guitar player who sang folk songs and a couple of other guys. 

And the Soviets, while not there at the particular meeting, had the 
Soviet ballet, this caliber of thing, and I think you can see the dif- 
ference in the representation there. 

At this meeting the Soviet leader got up and, in very beautiful 
English, welcomed all of us there to the meeting and said they were 
very concerned with our peaceful coexistence and our cultural ex- 
change and felt this was good, and they welcomed us on behalf of the 
Soviet Government and delegation, we Americans. Then Paul Robe- 
son got up and in very beautiful Russian — I had a chance to listen to 
this when I got back in the States — in very beautiful Russian he said, 
"We accept the sincerity or the concern of the Soviet students for this 
peaceful coexistence. We think this is a beautiful example of peaceful 
coexistence, and we hope we can meet and exchange our ideas." And 
this was interpreted into English by one Althea Sims. 

I felt that this was somewhat a precedent that a person could stand 
up in this meeting and purport to represent the entire Americans. ^ So 
I stood up and attempted to get the floor on behalf of the other faction, 
of which I was a part, and the process of getting me away began to 
come in. So I just stood up and began to talk. 

I don't know exactly what I said, but I said I think that coexistence 
is fine, that in fact there is no other alternative. We have to coexist 
because we do exist. But I said I think to really coexist one must 
really represent very adequately and in an honest manner what he 
really believes, and if he does not believe this, then this is not a real 
cultural exchange because you do not have two representatives. 

On behalf of the Americans who had been misrepresented, I bring 
greetings, so to speak. 

I think the New York Times and other papers got hold of this and 
it was brought to our attention because of that. 

Mr, Arens. Did the Austrians boycott the festival ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. The Austrian V<^^i<"^i^ long before the festival 
had taken place, had made a statement they would not cooperate with 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1457 

the festival because they, too, realized this was not an attempt to 
maintain internationally an exchange and an attempt to promote in- 
ternational understanding, but it was a propaganda meeting of the 
Soviet Government. So they stated long before the festival they 
would not cooperate. 

However, the government had to go along with the festival because 
political undei-standing of history says the Soviets had occupation 
troops in Austria up until the early '50's and one of the agreements 
in the pulling out of the occupation troops is that the Soviet Govern- 
ment could hold a festival there in Vienna. 

So, while the government had to go along, the youth did not. They 
set up a counter- festival and they brought in some very well-known 
people. They had, first of all, inf onnation booths at all of the trans- 
portation centers there in Vienna to give people who were coming 
in — American students, tourists — information about the festival, in 
a nonpartisan mamier, just attempting to present the facts. Then 
they set up, across from the International Preparatory Committee, 
their headquarters, which had information from various sources. 
They had booklets, inf onnation, research they had done on the festi- 
val, on many areas of communism and many areas of Americanism, et 
cetera, and you could get information at all times. 

They also attempted to promote discussions in front of their head- 
quarters, discussions between anyone who wanted to discuss them, 
but mainly between Americans or Westerners and Soviets or Com- 
munists. They went on constantly. 

They also had trips to the Hungarian border. They provided 
the delegates to the festival busses to go down to the Hungarian border 
in order that they could see the barbed wire, the tours, and the Soviet 
Curtain, I suppose you would say, and this had a tremendous effect 
on many people. 

Many of the delegations from the Eastern European countries who 
were attempted to be controlled by their leader did go and see this, 
and many Westerners really had a chance to see what this Iron 
Curtain was. 

They had a service to get information from all areas of the festival, 
everything that went on. They had people sort of undercover, like, 
to get into all of the meetings, all of the seminars, and get information 
back to the headquarters so that they could publish this, and they 
presented — and this is the last thing on this — they presented simul- 
taneously, when Paul Robeson, Jr. was being presented by the festi- 
val in the town, they presented Ella Fitzgerald, who is quite an accom- 
plished professional musician. They presented her in another part 
of town as an attempt to counteraffect. I think it was pretty well. 
There were pretty close to 80,000 people there. 

Mr. Arens. Did Robeson at any time while speaking, purporting 
to represent American youth, reveal that he was a member of the 
Communist Party, the very instant he was speaking? 

Mr. Jones. I never lieard him say he was a Communist. 

This may sound a little naive on my part. I didn't know he was a 
Communist, if he is. I did not know his affiliations, and still don't, 
until I got to talking with him personally ; and we had many disagree- 
ments in attempting to present to some of the Africans and Asians 
facts about the United States, because everyone has his own package 



1458 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

of facts. But I didn't hear him at any point say that he was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ; if he is, I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us, Mr. Jones, that you had deliberations 
and discussions with some of these young people who were there, these 
yoimg people from Conununist countries who were themselves Com- 
munists. I should like, if you please, to get your reaction on this 
record as to why it is and how it is that these young people accept 
the Communist ideology and Communist way, as contrasted with the 
freedoms we have in the West. 

Mr. Jones. This is quite a job for such a person as I to answer. I 
would have one or two observations toward this. 

I think one of the reasons that a person, say in the Eastem-Euro- 
pean-bloc countries, would become Communist is, first of all, the 
information they have at their disposal is somewhat lacking in terms 
of presenting an interpretation of what is ^oing on. We know this 
from many sources — the group I am workmg in, the United States 
National Student Association, has attempted to get exchange students 
in Poland and the Soviet Union itself. 

One of the main reasons they give us — they don't say this, but the 
type of education is completely geared toward indoctrination toward 
the Communist line and the Communist way of thinking. The Soviet 
students have to give periodically the Marx Manifesto. They have to 
repeat this to persons. The whole educational system, so to speak, is 
somewhat geared toward this. 

I hesitate to say why they have. In analyzing this, I think the 
Communist students, in general, are much more dedicated and under- 
stand much more thoroughly what it is they live by, why, and what 
it is they are to do, than many of us Americans. They have accepted 
what communism is, they know what they are doing, and they are 
trained in the dialectics. They are trained in whatever area they are 
specializing in, very rigidly, whereas many of us do not understand 
very much about our system, do not understand what is going on, or 
much about international affairs, and we do not really know what it is 
we believe. 

Mr. Arens. Let me interpose a question there. 

Notwithstanding the fact that you were subjected to the pressures 
of Communist indoctrination at the festival, and were in intimate 
contact with the Communists there, you maintained your faith in the 
concepts of freedom and of God, did you not? 

How do you account for the fact that you were able to perceive the 
fallacies of the Communist ideology and the Communist way and 
some young students were not, they were taken in and brainwashed 
and conditioned, some of whom are perhaps even in this hearing 
room? 

Mr. Jones. Again that is a big order. I will attempt to do it. 

I think in mv undergraduate studies I had courses in logic, courses 
in the humanities, which enabled me to attempt to analyze basic prob- 
lems in a logical manner. And also I have had quite an orientation 
in the Christian tradition. My father is a minister. 

I think because of these two elements, because of mv basic guidance 
and belief in the human dignitv of man, the individuality, the free- 
dom of the individual, T was able to analyze verv critically for myself 
and for others, not only the fallacies in communism, mind you, but the 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1459 

fallacies and manifestations of democracy which, because we being 
human, have come out in our system. 

I do believe this, however, and I will commit myself very readily to 
this : I do believe that our system itself lends itself much more to the 
solution of the problems that man will encounter. 

I tliink our system itself, which has as tlie preamble to the Constitu- 
tion a basic recognition of the human individual, 1 think this is 

^^^Mr. Arens. Did the young Communists with whom you talked in 
any sense admit any defects in the Communist system '? 

Mr. Jones. No. This was impossible. 

I think they realized this, and I think one of our main areas wliere 
we did most, if this is possible, was in, fii-st of all, admitting our im- 
perfections and pointing out to them that we had the freedom to do 
this and they did not. . ,. • • .1 

The minute they admitted there were imperfections in the sj^tem 
they were no longer a party member, and this was told to me by Com- 
munists who defected. The minute they admitted defects they were 
put out of the Commmiist Party. v • t 

Mr Arens. Did the young Communists express to you the discipline 
in their thinking, in their attitudes, in their lives, to which they are 
subjected within the Communist framework ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. I think any of us who really had a chance to talk 
to a Communist who was Communist because of education realized 
rio-ht away that he was so disciplined that he could not attempt to 
thmk in terms of our way of life, so to speak. He could not even listen 
to this because he knew for himself, or he felt he knew for himself, the 
final answers to everything, that their system was the final answer. 
And they were so disciplined that to admit there was something which 
they had which was wrong, was almost impossible. 

Mr. Arens. Did he arrive at that conclusion on the basis of his own 
reasoning, his own analysis, or was it a question of conditioning and 
imposition from the top down ? ... 

Mr. Jones. Again, m my way of thinking, I would submit this is 
condition. These persons reached this condition because of the very 
rigid indoctrination they receive even from the time of birth to the 
point where they were there at the festival. I do not really believe — 
and this again is personal — that this was done on their own, that they 
analyzed the facts about all systems, about political systems. I would 
really believe this was done 'because of the very rigid indoctrination. 

Mr. Arens. We have other items we could pursue with Mr. Jones, 
but they have been covered by other witnesses, and we are trying to 
avoid repetition of incidents or subject matter. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions? 

Mr. Moulder. How were you financed on your trip to Vienna? 

Mr. Jones. 90 percent of my financing to Vienna came from a loan 
which I made for myself, which I am paying back now. There was 
some money, somewhere between $50 and $100, which was given to 
me by a group out of Chicago. Their finances, I think, came from a 
private concern ; specifically, I don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know how the young man who carried the 
Stars and Stripes in that parade was chosen ? How was he selected 
to carry them ? 



1460 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Jones. In keeping with these proceedings, I know he was not 
elected by the delegation there. He was appointed by some group 
which we did not have direct access to. 

Mr. DoTLE. In other words there was no vote by the American 
delegation that any particular person should be chosen to carry the 
Stars and Stripes in the parade? 

Mr. Jones. No. In fact, there was a vote against allowing anyone, 
any one person to purport to represent and speak on behalf of the 
entire group. We made a statement that no one person can make a 
statement on behalf of the entire American delegation there, and 
this particular resolution was signed by some 200 people. 

Mr. Doyle. You took time and had time to analyze, at least briefly, 
why you felt, from your experience there and elsewhere, that the 
Communist youth look at things differently than the American youth 
who is not a Communist. In other words, you stated — and I wrote 
it down — you felt he knew the final answer to everything because of 
his rigid indoctrination. 

Do you think, in view of that statement by you, that there is a 
level at which the young people in our country, the United States of 
America, should be rigidly indoctrinated in what they believe? 

Mr. Jones. I don't believe our system lends itself to indoctrination. 
I think this is a basic right of academic freedom. 

I do not feel we should attempt to indoctrinate people by using the 
same methods that the Soviets use. This would be a negation. But 
I do feel in some way we have to get across, not only to the American 
young people, us, but we have to get across to many more Americans, 
what is going on in international scenes in terms of our system. In 
fact, I think this is not an option at this point. It is necessary if we 
are to survive in this whole international struggle. 

If I may, I would like to make this final statement : 

We found at the festival that it is much easier, much, much easier 
to be anti-Communist than it is to be a good responsible American. 
You can point at all the shortcomings of the Communist system, but 
it is another matter when you get down and begin to attempt to get 
people to vote and you attempt to understand for yourself what we 
believe in, and attempt to work in a rational manner \^ithin our 
system. 

We found many of the people who went to the festival were not 
anti-Communists in the sense that we pointed out the stupidity of 
these people at all costs, but many of us wanted to sit down and dis- 
cuss in a rational manner the problems in light of our miderstanding 
and their understanding. There were many Americans who did this 
much more effectively, much more effectively than the persons who 
were going to try, at all points and at all costs, to disrupt the festival in 
a violent way. 

A most important area there was our discussion in reaching these 
people who were not thoroughly convinced of the Communist system, 
who had not been thoroughly indoctrinated, and we attempted to 
present our understanding of freedom and democracy to them. There 
were many Americans there who did this very effectively. 

Mr. Doyle. You said the minute they admitted there were any 
imperfections in the Soviet system they were put out of it. Should 
we in America undertake to educate and train our young people that 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1461 

the American system is 100 percent perfect like they do in the Soviet 
educational system ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Doyle, I think this would be almost reaching a point 
of being ridiculous if we tried to do this. I think our system itself 
has the freedom, gives each individual the freedom to analyze for 
himself and come to realize that our system is not perfect in that 
sense, and also come to realize that the Soviet system is not perfect. 

I do feel we have as much indoctrination as possible. We have to 
stand up in our classrooms and pledge allegiance to the flag of the 
United States. We are taught, to some extent, what it means to be a 
citizen of the United States. But this is not the same type of rigid 
indoctrination, and I do not feel we should attempt to do this. 

Our system has its flaws, but who are we to indoctrinate people and 
say it has not ? 

Mr. Doyle. I thank God I am an American citizen, and I want to 
be free to always believe what I want to believe, and I don't want to 
be a totalitarian tool, either for my Government or for anybody's. 

It seems to me the young people, some of whom are smiling broadly 
at much of what you have said, even including some Negro people in 
the room — it just seems to me that the idea of an American youth 
being desirous or willing to stay in any group where there is totali- 
tarian teaching and thinking, is repugnant. 

I want to compliment you on your statement. I think some of 
this is basic in connection with our study of legislation. It is an 
approach to the problem, and that is why I have taken the time to 
question you. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I am not sure whether we have on the record in 
these hearings — and I would be willing to have it repeated — what 
was the total attendance from the United States at the festival. 

Mr. Jones. I don't think anyone really has been able to calculate 
this. The main reason is, even though there were listed people for the 
New York and Chicago groups, there were many Americans in Europe 
for the summer who knew about the festival and whom we managed 
to get into the activities by various means and who attempted to do 
the same things we were trying to do. So, to give a figure would not 
be possible. 

In terms of the delegations from New York and Chicago, it was 
estimated that there were between 250 and 300, something of that 
nature. It did not reach the quota of 400 which had been given to us 
by the International Preparatory Committee. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Of this number, is there any way of estimating how 
many were under Conmiunist control, the percentage of the 250 ? 

Mr. Jones. It would be a very difficult job. I can attempt to do 
it. I think there were at best — persons under the direct influence or 
willfully or knowingly allowed themselves to be under the Communist 
control, less than 10 percent. 

The Chairman. Mr. Jones, we appreciate very much your coopera- 
tion. It is indeed fortunate that there were people like "you to attend 
this youth conference; otherwise I am afraid the youths in other 
sections of the world would have gotten the wrong impression about 
typical Americans, and we appreciate your cooperation. 

(Witness excused.) 



1462 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Paul Robeson, Jr. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL ROBESON, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Robeson. My name is Paul Robeson, Jr., 408 West 128th Street, 
New York City ; electrical engineer and translator. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today in response to a subpena 
issued by this committee ? 

Mr. Robeson. I am. I would appear no other way. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Will counsel please identify himself. 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Robeson, prior to November 24, 1958, had you made 
any application or applications for a United States passport? 

Mr. Robeson. Well, I have had a United States passport since, oh, 
it must have been the early 1930's. I think I went over there as a 
child, to England as a child ; Austria, Switzerland, the Soviet Union, 
And a great many places. I have traveled a great deal. 

I had a passport until mine was taken away from me at the time 
my father's was revoked, and my passport was kept from me until 
the year, along in 1958. In fact, when I did apply for a passport, my 
family wanted to visit my father and mother who were in England 
at the time. We had applied somewhere in the fall of 1958 to travel, 
to spend some time with my mother and father in England. 

It is an ironic thing that we immediately got passports for our two 
children, but the State Department notified us they would consider 
whether or not they would grant us our passports. 

Mr. Arens. Did you then receive a passport in 1958 or shortly 
thereafter? 

Mr. Robeson. We did, after having to demand it and stating, if not, 
we would have to go to court to get it. 

Mr. Ajrens. This period when you received your passport was 
shortly after the decision of the Supreme Court in the Kent-Brielil 
case? 

Mr. Robeson. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to lay before you a photostatic repro- 
duction of a passport application and ask you if this is a true and 
correct reproduction of the application which you filed in 1958 for the 
passport which you said you received at that time. 

Mr. Robeson. May I confer with counsel ? 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Certainly. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1463 

Mr. Robeson. This appears to be fully accurate as far as I recognize, 
yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Eobeson, I observe here on the second page of 
this passport application a question, in fact 3 questions : 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party? (Write "yes" or "no") 
Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? (Write "yes" or "no") 
If ever a member, state period of membership. From to . 

You will observe in this document, which you have identified as a 
true and correct reproduction of the original application filed by 
yourself, that these questions are not answered. 

Mr. Robeson. Blank, blank, blank, yes. 

(Document marked "Robeson Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. You did not answer them. 

On the date on which you filed this application for a passport, 
which, according to this document which you have identified, was 
October 21, 1958, were you on that day a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Robeson. The Supreme Court ruled very clearly before then 
that the State Department or nobody has any right to ask on a pass- 
port application any questions about political associations or being a 
member of anything. So I was perfectly within my legal rights, and 
I think it is a disgrace to invade political beliefs on a passport appli- 
cation. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly answer the question now ? 

Mr. Robeson. Would you give them one at a time ? 

Mr. Arens. On October 21, 1958, the date on which you filed this 
passport application, were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Robeson. I am going to decline to answer that question on sev- 
eral grounds, and I want to state the grounds. 

Mr. Arens. You are reading now from a prepared statement ? 

Mr. Robeson. I have some notes, but I can manage to state my 
grounds pretty clearly. 

So, if I may state them, I think, first of all, that the committee— -it 
is well known the committee violates the rights of free speech and vio- 
lates the first amendment. It has no right to inquire into people's 
political beliefs and associations. 

The second particular reason why I am going to decline to answer 
it, especially before this committee, is because it is well known that 
the committee harasses those who fight for Negro equality, and, con- 
trarily, it shields and gives aid and comfort to segregationists and the 
people who support the policies of segregationists, and it shows in its 
use of not only professional informers but self-confessed Nazis and 
Fascist collaborators. 

Furthermore, I think the purpose of the hearings here, the manner 
in which they are being conducted and the history of the committee, 
shows that it is the committee that is attempting to poison the minds 
of young people with the ideology of McCarthy ism. And I think the 
manner in which the committee got its appropriations here by 
sneaking 

Mr. Sciierer. I suggest regular order. 

Mr. Robeson. It is a gross misuse of taxpayers' money, and this 
committee is one of the instruments being used by segregationists to- 
undermine and prevent the enforcement of civil rights of Negroes;. 



1464 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

and, therefore, as a Negro who advocates the immediate enforcement 
of these rights, I feel it is necessary to invoke the thirteenth, four- 
teenth, and fifteenth amendments in refusing to answer questions of 
the committee, and I want to assert the provisions of the fifth 
amendment. 

The Chairman". I was sure you were going to get to the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Robeson, a couple of days ago there was a young 
man who testified that he was a member of the Communist Party and 
that he participated in the youth activities of the Communist Party. 
He was a member of the Negro race, a very fine young man. He testi- 
fied about the fraud of the Communist Party, attempting to use the 
issues of the Negro people to further their conspiratorial apparatus. 

In the course of his testimony while he was under oath — and if he 
lied to this committee, he will be subject to perjury prosecution — he 
testified that while he was a member of the Communist Party, up until 
just a few months ago, he knew you as a member of the Communist 
Party. That is a conspiratorial apparatus that mowed down the 
freedom fighters and has created havoc over the world. 

We would like to give you now, while you are under oath, an oppor- 
tunity to deny that testimony, an opportunity while you are under 
oath to expose this man Gaillard if he lied to us, an opportunity to 
put squarely on the record testimony by yourself, while you are under 
oath, that will show, if you think so, that he was a paid informer and 
that he misrepresented and he falsified. 

Do you care now to avail yourself of the opportunity to deny the 
validity and truth of the testimony of Albert Gaillard that he knew 
you as a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson. The committee seems to be expert in speaking for 
these Negroes and about Negroes. I think you should let any Negro 
speak for himself. You keep talking about how nice this one is or 
that one is. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I request that the witness be directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Robeson. I do not care to answer something about this. 

The Chairman. We can understand that, of course, but just answer 
the question. 

Mr. Robeson. He asked me if I cared to answer the question, and I 
do not care to answer it. 

The Chairman. I understand that. It goes without saying. 

Mr. Arens. We just wanted to give you an opportunity to answer 
the question. 

Just a few minutes ago there was a young man who swore before this 
committee that he heard you address the Sixth World Youth Festival 
in Vienna. 

Mr. Robeson. Would you repeat that ? 

Mr. Arens. A young man who was under oath a few minutes ago 
said he heard you address the Sixth World Youth Festival — the 
Seventh World Youth Festival in Vienna. 

Mr. Robeson. My understanding was that the festival was some- 
thing where thousaiids of young people got together to discuss— — 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1465 

Mr. Robeson. — and I think it is a disgrace; you are trying to cover 
up the fact tliat the United States went to subvert the festival like this. 

Mr. Scherp:r. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. After he has had sufficient time, proceed to the next question. 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Robeson. I am directed to answer the question ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Robeson. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds 
as before and on the additional grounds that this hearing has been 
organized, not only to discredit the festival, but to talk about so-called 
Communist domination and what-not of the festival, when it is public 
knowledge all over the press of the United States that the purpose of 
many Americans in high places, in Vienna and in the United States — 
and it is to the credit of American youth from various public reports 
that evidently few, nevertheless, but one organized basis — I have many 
clippings here — went to disrupt the festival. I heard Mr. Jones say 
exactly that. 

The Chairman. I misunderstood him. 

Mr. Robeson. I think it is disgraceful to go for the purpose of 
disrupting violently 

The Chairman. I certainly hope you are not presuming to speak 
for American youth. 

Mr. Robeson. I am speaking for myself. 

The Chairman. That is right, and only yourself. 

Mr, Robeson. It is the committee that presumes to speak for me and 
other Negroes, since you never do anything about civil rights. 

The Chairman. I know a lot of Negroes who resent that. 

Mr. Robeson. I would be glad to quote 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Did you presume to speak for American youth at the 
Seventh World Festival ? 

Mr. Robeson. I just got finished saying I don't presume to speak for 
anybody except myself. 

Mr. Arens. Did you presume to speak for the young Americans who 
were at the Youth Festival ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson. It is obviously a loaded question, Mr. Arens, and I 
don't think — I am not going to attempt to give a loaded answer, and 
decline 

The Chairman. Ask another question, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Did you address a group at the Sixth World Youth 
Festival and speak on behalf of the Americans who were in attendance 
there? 

Mr. Robeson. You said the Sixth ? 

Mr. Arens. The Seventh. 

Mr. Robeson. Would you describe that so I can understand which 
one you are talking about? Was it the one in Moscow at which I 
understand, from the public reports on that festival, that there were 
American delegates in Moscow at that festival in large number and of 
all kinds of political views, perhaps as many political views and 
sharper, or differences as sharp as supposedly at the Seventh World 
Festival, and, yet, things went off very well ? 



1466 COMJVIUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

I think one of the reasons, evidently the atmosphere in Moscow and 
the Soviet press did not set up a hostile atmosphere, as was generated 
particularly by certain parts of America, and I will come to that in a 
moment, which in that hostile atmosphere which evidently attempted 
to make this thing in Vienna a cold- war battlefield. Of course, in that 
atmosphere, the political difTerences that existed, I imagine, in many 
delegations — but in that atmosphere, and Mr. Jones pointed out the 
things which went far beyond argument and attempted to disrupt 
things, and I think it shows the Sixth Festival, the reports from that 
show clearly that in an atmosphere where the situation is getting into 
a cold-war battleground and an either-or proposition and people can 
sit down and talk, no matter how many political differences or shading 
of political view^s — however you want to put it — exist in the delega- 
tion, in the American delegation, that they can work out their prob- 
lems and participate in the festival, and the arguments they have can 
be worked out when they get back to America. 

Mr. Arens. Now will you kindly answer the question? Did you 
address the Seventh Youth Festival in Vienna on behalf of the Ameri- 
cans who were present ? 

Mr. Robeson. You just asked me that question. 
Mr. Arens. Will you kindly answer it, please ? 

Mr. Robeson. I decline on the same grounds because 

Mr. Arens. Wlien you made your passport application and filed it 
with the Department of State in October of 1958, were you then plan- 
ning on going to the Seventh World Festival in Vienna ? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson, I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
because it is a loaded question. If you want to ask me loaded ques- 
tions, I am perfectly willing to say I decline. 

The Chairman. Are you declining to answer questions ? 
Ask another question, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. In the passport application which you filed, you list 
here the purpose of the trip and the coimtries to be visited. You tell 
the State Department under oath — or at least with your signature, I 
presume under oath — the purpose of your trip, for which you seek a 
United States passport, is to visit your family, and a vacation, and the 
country to be visited was England. That is true, is it not? 

Mr. Robeson. What is true? Wliat is on the application is obvi- 
ously true, because I said it. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy didn't you tell the State Department when you 
filed this application that you intended to go to Vienna to the Seventh 
World Youth Festival ? 

Mr. Robeson. I will consult with counsel. 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson. Again it is a loaded question because I never said 
at the time I filed anything on there than is on that application. So 
I don't see what the purpose of it is. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell the State Department the truth in this 
application when you told them you intended to only visit your family 
and vacation and to only go to England ? 

Mr. Robeson. Would you repeat the two halves of the question? 
Repeat it in two halves ; first, whether I told the truth. 
(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1467 

Mr. KoBEsoN. Tlie question is a loaded one and it does not say at 
all 

Mr, Arens. I suggest this record reflect an order that the witness 
be directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Ask another question. 

Mr. Akens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Robeson. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I have no other questions of this witness. 

(Witness excused.) 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Alan McGowan. Please come forward and remain 
standing wliile the chairman administers an oath. 

The Chairman. I am sure that some of you did not hear the warn- 
ing that the Chair issued some time ago about demonstrations. It is 
indeed unfortunate that the American people cannot see the. perform- 
ance that is going on here today. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. McGowAN. I do so affirm. 

TESTIMONY OF ALAN HUGH McGOWAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. McGowAN. I am Alan Hugh McGowan, 225 East 70th Street 
in New York City, and at present I am a student. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. McGowAN. I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. McGowAN. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Speiser. Lawrence Speiser. And I am director of the Wash- 
ington office of the American Civil Liberties Union. My address is 
1612 1 Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you engaged as a student ? 

Mr. McGowAN. At Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. 

Mr. Arens. Give us your age, please. 

Mr. McGowAN. I am 24 years old. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for a United States passport? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many times have you applied for a United States 
passport ? 

Mr. McGowAN. Once for a passport and once for a renewal. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic reproduction of a 
passport application bearing the signature of yourself, Alan Hugh 
McGowan, and ask you if this is a true and correct reproduction of 
the passport application. And I lay before you now a photostatic 

51693— 60— p. 3 6 



1468 COMMUNIST TRArisrmG operations 

reproduction of a renewal application, and ask you if it is a true and 
correct copy of the renewal filed by yourself. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. This appears to be a correct copy. 

(Documents marked ''McGowan Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. In invite your attention, Mr. McGowan, to page 2 of 
this passport application on which appear two questions : 

Question No. 1 : Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 
(Answer "yes" or "no") 

And the answer appears in there, "No." 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? (Answer 
"yes" or "no") 

And the answer in there appears, "No." 

Did you put those answers there to those questions, the two "No" 
answers ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. I object to that question because it violates my 
rights of free speech and association which is guaranteed to me in the 
first amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arexs. You are reading now from a prepared statement? 

Mr. McGowAN. I have some statements here, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Go ahead. 

Mr. McGowAN. This committee violates the rights of all people 
called before it. This committee only seeks to channel thoughts. It 
has no right to inquire into my, or any other person's, political beliefs 
or associations. 

Secondly, I object to the question because there can be no valid, 
legislative purpose in asking the question. The question, like so many 
asked by this committee, is only asked to try to expose me and count- 
less other Americans to public disgrace, and is asked only for the sake 
of exposure. 

I feel, lastly, that I object to the question on the grounds that the 
United States Constitution holds that I cannot be compelled to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. This witness, I submit to the Chair, has waived his 
grounds for objection, for the reason that I displayed to him a photo- 
static reproduction of his application, and he testified that it is true 
and correct. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. I continue to object to this question, and I decline 
to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at the very instant you wrote "No" on this 
application a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. This is the same question, and it will get the same 
response : I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you were a member of tlie Communist Party 
the very instant you wrote the word "No" in your passport applica- 
tion, in response to a question concerning your Communist Party 
membership, you would be supplying information that could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1469 

Mr. McGowAN. Mr. Arens, I objected to the question, and I stated 
my grounds. The grounds still hold, and I decline to answer the 
question under those same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Arens, was that application this witness made 
for a passport, under oath ? 

Mr. Arens. There is an affidavit attesting to the truth, which he 
signed. Whether or not he actually submitted himself to an oath I 
could not say, but there is an affidavit. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a United States passport pursuant to 
the application which we have displayed to you ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully, while you are under oath, whether you received a United 
States passport pursuant to this application you would be furnishing 
information that could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Seventh World Youth Festival at 
Vienna ? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. McGowAN. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated, and I would like to say that I will decline to answer 
all questions that are of the same character. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you now certain photographs 
which have been identified, taken at the Vienna festival, with your- 
self in attendance, and kindly tell this committee whether they are 
true and correct photographs of your physical features as they were 
taken in Vienna. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. This is, in effect, the same question, and I decline 
to answer for the same reasons I stated before. 

(Documents marked "McGowan Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. McGowan, a young man yesterday, by the name 
of 

The Chairman. Before you go into that, I am going to direct you 
to answer the question of whether or not you attended this conference. 

Mr. McGowan. I am directed to answer the question ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. McGowan. I decline to answer the question on the grounds I 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe if you would answer the 
question as to whether or not you attended this meeting, this youth 
conference, you might be subjected to a criminal prosecution? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowan. Yes. 

The Chairman. What was criminal about this youth conference? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowan. I am here with an attorney, and I am not em- 
powered to argue the legal question, but the answer is yes. 



1470 COMIVIUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

The Chairman. Your lawyer told you, you might be prosecuted 
criminally because you went to Vienna to the youth conference? 

(The witness confers with his coimsel.) 

Mr. McGowAN. The answer is yes. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. McGowan, yesterday a gentleman testified, a fine 
young American who attended this festival. He testified, in part, 
from notes he had made while he attended the festival. Among other 
tilings from his notes, he testified under oath yesterday that a known, 
identified international Communist agent stated to him, "I person- 
ally gave the order to McGowan" — that's you, sir — "to break up the 
meeting and walk out." 

Did an international Communist agent by the name of Max Schnei- 
der give you in Vienna, Austria, orders to break up the meeting of 
the young Americans who were in attendance in Vienna last summer? 

Mr. McGowan. Mr. Arens, I have stated that I will refuse to an- 
swer questions that are of the same character. This question, I think^ 
is of the same character, and I therefore object to the question on the 
groimds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. He says he objects to the q^uestion. 

Are you refusing to answer on the basis of your rights under the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. McGowan. I am objecting to the questions on the grounds 
previously stated, and I refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Does that include the invocation of the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. McGowan. Yes, it does. 

Mr. Arens. Your predecessor to the witness stand, who likewise 
has been identified as a member of the Communist Party, testified 
against the disruptive procedures at the Vienna festival. Did you 
participate in disruptive practices which were under Communist 
orders ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. McGowan. That is a compound question, and I decline to an- 
swer it because it is of the same character as the questions before. 

The Chairman. And for the same reasons ? 

Mr. McGowAN. And for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Albert Gaillard testified before this committeCj a day 
or so ago, that he served as head of one part of that apparatus in New 
York City up until a few months ago. He said that while he was a 
member of the Communist Party — while he was under oath he said 
this — he knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 

Was he telling the truth or was he in error ? 

Mr. McGowan. Mr. Arens, that is just another way of asking the 
same question and it is of exactly the same character, and I refuse to 
answer under the same grounds previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. McGowan. Mr. Arens, that is the same question, and the same 
response. I refuse to answer under the grounds previously stated.^ 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that would conclude the staff in- 
terrogation of this witness. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1471 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Joanne Alileen Grant. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to say that I noticed that that handclapping 
comes from the first two rows of about 18 people, and it just seems to 
me that you young people should have lived in the United States long 
enough to be respectful when there is a public meeting on and to com- 
ply with an orderly conduct of the meeting. 

I cannot help but say I am greatly disappointed in seeing that there 
are about 18 or 20 young people on the first two rows who apparently 
deliberately are violating the orderly process of this meeting. I am 
ashamed to find that there are that many in the audience of about 250. 

It seems to me that you ought to at least respect the orderly conduct 
of this meeting, whether you are Communists or not. 

I notice a lot of you are grinning at what I am saying. I am just 
ashamed of you ; that's all. 

The Chairman. Mr. Doyle, my emotions are just the opposite. I 
feel very proud of the fact that only a handful of this vast crowd have 
apparently put the stamp of approval on the testimony of these obvi- 
ous witnesses. 

Will you stand up and raise your right hand, please. 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Miss Grant. I do so affirm. 

TESTIMONY OF JOANNE ALILEEN GRANT, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Miss Grant. My name is Joanne Grant. I live at 410 Central 
Park West in New York City. I am a secretary. 

Mr. Arens. 'Where are you employed, please ? 

Miss Grant. I work for the delegation of India to the United 
Nations. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Miss Grant. Since September. 

Mr. Arens. Would you repeat your answer ? 

Miss Grant. I work for the delegation of India to the United 
Nations. 

Mr. Arens. Where is your place of employment? In the United 
Nations Building ? 

Miss Grant. 3 East 46th Street. It is the mission headquarters. 

Mr. Arens. You have been employed there how long ? 

Miss Grant. Since September. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee? 

Miss Grant. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Miss Grant. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel please identify himself ? 

Mr. Speiser. Lawrence Speiser. I previously identified myself in 
the record. 



1472 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Were you the executive secretary of the United States 
Festival Committee located at 246 Fifth Avenue, New York, New- 
York? 

Miss Grant. I am going to refuse to answer that question and I 
would like to state my reasons. 

Mr. Arens. You are reading from a prepared statement? 

Miss Grant. I am going to declme to answer that question because,, 
first, I feel the committee is not questioning me for any proper legisla- 
tive purpose, but merely for the purpose of exposing me to public dis- 
grace and for the mere sake of public exposure. 

Secondly, I object on the grounds that it is in violation of the first 
amendnient under the Constitution. I feel no committee of Congress 
has a right to inquire into my personal beliefs or associations. 

Thirdly, I feel that this committee's questioning deprives me of due 
process of law in not permitting me or my attorney to cross-examine 
my accusers, and it is depriving me of other procedural rights I have 
under the due process law of the fifth amendment. 

Fourth, I object to the question on the ground that the United 
States Constitution holds that I cannot be compelled to testify against 
myself. 

When and if any such further questions are asked and I say I de- 
cline to answer for reasons already stated, I refer to these reasons. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you use the fifth amendment ? 

Miss Grant. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to lay before you now two or three docu- 
ments. The first is a thermofax of a letterhead of the United States 
Festival Committee with the date. May 6, 1959, bearing the signatures 
"Marvin Markman, Chairman," and "Joanne Grant, Executive Sec- 
retary." 

Kindly look at that document and tell us if it is a true and correct 
reproduction of your signature in that capacity as executive secretary 
of tliis festival committee. 

Miss Grant. How can I identify it ? There is nothing on it except 
two figures. 

Mr. Arens. Is that your signature ? 

Miss Grant. I can't say. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Were you the executive secretary of the U.S. Festival 
Committee in New York ? 

Miss Grant. I just refused to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Grant Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I should like to call your attention, if you please, to an 
article appearing in the CALL, a publication of July, 1959, an article 
by Walter K. Lewis, who— and I will summarize the article— tells 
about the use of the Soviet dancers, the Bei-yozka dancers, here in 
the United States at fund-raising affairs to raise funds for the dele- 
gation which went to the festival in Vienna. 

Can you give us firsthand information from your own knowledge 
respecting the fund-raising affairs participated in by the Soviet 
dancers on American soil to raise funds to send people to the Vienna 
festival ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Gr.\nt. I refuse to answer this question on the basis of the 
reasons already stated. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1473 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read you one or two sentences which we 
think are very important in this article : 

Joanne Grant admitted that Nocolai Burov, Secretary of the Soviet U.N. 
Mission, aided in getting the dancers and that he also attended another fund- 
raising event sponsored by the U.S. Festival Committee. 

Did you so state as recounted in this article which I have just read 
to you ? 

Miss Grant. You are just repeating the same question that you 
asked me, and I refuse to answer it. 

Mr. Arens. Let's be sure the record is clear on this : 

Joanne Grant admitted that Nocolai Burov, Secretary of the Soviet U.N. 
Mission, aided in getting the dancers and that he also attended another fund- 
raising event sponsored by the U.S. Festival Committee. 

Is that a truthful quotation of your statement ? 

Miss Grant. This question fits one of my reasons for objecting to 
the questioning of this committee very nicely. 

You are talking about someone who wrote an article in something 
called CALL, Walter Lewis. He is not here, and my lawyer and 
myself are not able to cross-examine. He is accusing me of something. 
I refuse to answer on this ground and all the other grounds I pre- 
viously stated. 

(Document marked "Grant Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know anything of Nocolai Burov ? 

Miss Grant. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate with him in fund-raising events to 
raise money for the United States Festival Committee. 

Miss Grant. I refuse to answer that question on ground previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Seventh World Youth Festival at 
Vienna? 

Miss Grant. No, I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Were you able to get a passport to attend ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Miss Grant. I did not apply for a passport. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Sixth World Youth Festival in 
Moscow ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Grant. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, after you attended the Sixth World Festival 
in Moscow, go to Red China ? 

Miss Grant. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. ^ 

Mr. Arens. In the course of the last several days have you partici- 
pated in a Youth Against the House Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee organization ? 

Miss Grant. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now an original letter signed by your- 
self, "Joanne Grant, Member of Youth Against the House Un-Amer- 
ican Activities Committee," dated January 28, 1960, which has been 



1474 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

sent far and wide. I should like to read it to you and ask you if this 
is a true reproduction, if this is the original signed by yourself : 

Gentlemen : A group of young people has been subpoenaed to appear before 
the House Un-American Activities Committee on February 2-5. The only link 
between these individuals is that they have at one time or another participated 
in a World Youth Festival. 

We believe that this attack on the youth of our country who have vigorously 
worked for international peace, understanding, and cultural exchange is in di- 
rect contradiction to President Eisenhower's peaceful exchange program. 

We would appreciate it if your organization would send an observer to the 
hearings on February 2-5, in Room 226, Old House Office Building, so that he 
may be able to report on the operations of the House Un-American Activities 
Committee. 

Is that your signature which I have just displayed to you? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Grant. This is not my signature. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of this group ? 

Miss Grant. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you authorize your signature to be affixed there 
by some other person ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

The Chairman. What were you reading from, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. A letter bearing the signature of Joanne Grant. 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Grant Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Scherer. Miss Grant, are you a member of this organization, 
Youth Against the House tin- American Activities Committee? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 
I have declined to answer that question already. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that the address of this committee is 
Eoom 201, 421 Seventh Avenue, New York City ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you not last Sunday night, January 31, at 8 :00 
p.m., attend a rally of this organization at the Fraternal Club House 
in New York City ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know Mr. Clark Foreman, the director of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. You were there, and isn't it a fact that Mr. Clark 
Foreman was the master of ceremonies for that meeting ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know Pete Seeger ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Pete Seeger 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know Mrs. Dorothy Marshall ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that Mrs. Marshall was there ? 

Miss Grant. Why is it you keep asking me to talk about other peo- 
ple ? I refuse to answer on the grounds previ ously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. I will ask you, were you there ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Otto Nathan of this group was there, was he not? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1475 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Sciip:rer. Didn't all of these people address this rally ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact that the headquarters of Youth Against 
the House Un-American Activities Committee is in Koom 201, 421 
Seventh Avenue, New York City ? 

Miss Grant. You just asked me that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am going to follow^ up with another question. 

Isn't that the same room which is the headquarters and office of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't that also Mr. Clark Foreman's office as director 
of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have seen Mr. Clark Foreman here during the 
hearings, have you not ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Mrs. Dorothy Marshall, from California, has been 
here also, has she not ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Are any of the people I mentioned under 40 years 
of age ? 

Miss Grant. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Foreman was here in the front row all day yes- 
terday, which he had a perfect right to be. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Grant, a day or so ago Albert Gaillard testified 
before this committee that he had, until just a few months ago, been 
in the Communist Party, in the youth section of it in Harlem, as 
president. He said while he was in this Harlem youth section of the 
Communist Party he served in closed Communist cell meetings with 
hard-core members of the Communist Party. Among those persons 
whom he identified on this record under oath as persons known by 
him to a certainty to be members of the Communist Party was your- 
self, Joanne Grant. 

Would you care to avail yourself of the opportunity to deny the 
validity of that testimony ? 

(The witness confers with her comisel.) 

Miss Grant. No ; I do not care to. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Grant. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff interroga- 
tion of this witness. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Scherer. In connection with the questions I asked this witness. 
I would like to offer in evidence a press release from the Youth 
Against the House Un-American Activities Committee, Room 201, 
421 Seventh Avenue, New York City. This was released to the press 
on Thursday, January 28, 1960. ( For document marked ''Grant Ex- 
hibit No. 4a;" see pp. 1476 and 1477.) 

On December 28, 1959, 1 received a letter from the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee signed by Clark Foreman, its director. I ask 
that there be introduced in this record the letterhead of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee. I am introducing this letterhead solely for 



1476 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

the purpose of showing that the address of the Emergency Civil Liber- 
ties Committee is the same as that of the organization, Youth Against 
the House Un-American Activities Committee. (For document 
marked ''Grant Exhibit No. 4b," see p. 1478.) 

I wish further to state that the investigators of our committee have 
visited the headquarters of Youth Against the House Un-American 
Activites Committee at 421 Seventh Avenue, New York City, and find 
that they occupy the same rooms and use the same staff as the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee, and that the telephone number 
listed on the press release of this so-called youth organization is one 
of the telephones of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee at 421 
Seventh Avenue, New York City. 

The Chairman. These documents will be made a part of the record 
and marked "Grant Exhibits Nos. 4a and 4b," respectively. 

Grant Exhibit No. 4a 

[News from Youth Against the House Un-American Activities Committee, Room 201, 421 
Seventh Avenue, New York, OX 5-2698, for release Thursday, January 28] 

SUBPOENAED YOUTHS HAVE 'NO INTENTION' OF COOPERATING WITH 
HOUSE INVESTIGATORS: PLAN BUSSES FOR PROTEST IN WASH- 
INGTON 

Five New York youths, subpoenaed to testify before tbe House Committee on 
Un-Americau Activities during liearings in AVasliiugton into youth activities 
February 2 to 5, have described the hearings as an "attack on the spirit of Camp 
David" and an attempt "to discredit youth exchange and international under- 
standing." 

The five youth, all of whom have participated in one or another of various 
international youth festivals in the past six years, have announced that they 
"have no intention, whatsoever of cooperating with the Committee in its attempt 
to smear all those who want a peaceful world." 

The five are : Joanne Grant, 29, 410 Central Park West, New York City ; F7-ed 
Jerome, 20, 320 Second Avenue, New York City ; Alan McGowan, 24, 225 East 
70 St., New York City; Patil Robeson, Jr., 32, 408 West 128th St., New York 
€ity; and Jacob Rosen, 21, 636 West 174th St., New York City. 

AH five of the subpoenaed youths will appear before the committee with 
counsel which will be supplied bv the American Civil Liberties Union. 

YOUTH AGAINST THE HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMIT- 
TEE, a group set up to oppose the hearings, has announced that it will sponsor 
buses leaving New York Thursday morning, January 28, at 6 a.m. (from Times 
Square) to carry an estimated 100 youths to Washington to protest the hearings 
in visits to Congressmen. 

The youth committee will also sponsor buses next Wednesday, Feb. 3, for 
youths to observe the hearings. 

WE, THE UNDERSIGNED AMERICAN YOUTHS, HAVE PARTICIPATED 
IN ONE OR ANOTHER WORLD YOUTH FESTIVAL OVER THE PAST SIX 
YEARS ; TOGETHER WITH TENS OF THOUSANDS OF YOUNG PEOPLE 
FROM ALL NATIONS IN THE WORLD, MEETING TO EXCHANGE IDEAS 
AND CULTURES, AND TO MAKE FRIENDS. 

LAST WEEK AVE WERE SUBPOENAED BY THE HOUSE COMMITTEE 
ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR HEARINGS IN WASHINGTON D.C. 
ON FEBRUARY 2 TO 5 DESIGNED TO DISCREDIT YOUTH EXCHANGE 
AND INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING. WE CONSIDER THESE 
HEARINGS AN ATTACK ON THE SPIRIT OF CAMP DAVID WHICH IS 
SPREADING THROUGH THE WORLD TODAY. WE BELIEVE THE WAL- 
TER'S COMMITTEE WOULD, IF IT COULD, SUBPOENA PRESIDENT 
EISENHOWER TO PREVENT HIM FROM GOING TO THE SUMMIT CON- 
FERENCE AND THE SOVIET UNION THIS SPRING. 

WE OPPOSE THE UN-AMERICAN COMMITTEE AS UNCONSTITU- 
TIONAL IN ITS VERY FRAMEWORK, OPERATING TO REESTABLISH 
THE INQUISITIONAL SYSTEM OF GUILT BY ACCUSATION. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1477 

WE HAVE NO INTENTION WHATSOEVER OF COOPERATING WITH 
THE COMMITTEE IN ITS ATTEMPT TO SMEAR ALL THOSE WHO WANT 
A PEACEFUL WORLD. 

JOANNE GRANT, 410 Central Park West, N.Y., 29, Bachelor of Arts in jour- 
nalism and political science, 1951, Syracuse University ; graduate studies. New 
York University ; Public Relations writer ; former president of National Women's 
[Professional Journalism Council ; attended Moscow Youth Festival ; executive 
secretary of U.S. Festival Committee. 

FRED JEROME. 820 Second Avenue, N.Y., 20, graduated this year cum laude 
from City College of New York ; BA in English ; member Phi Beta Kappa ; for- 
mer news editor of college newspaper ; student council representative to National 
Student Conference ; attended 1955 Warsaw Youth Festival. 

AL McGOWAN, 225 East 70 Street, N.Y., 24, graduate engineer from Yale Uni- 
versity ; leading member of the Yale Players ; member of steering committee of 
the American delegation at Vienna Youth Festival. 

JACOB ROSEN, 636 West 174 Street, N.Y., 21, senior studying history at the 
•City College of New York ; representative of Student Council to National Stu- 
dents Association ; head of International Agency of Student Government ; at- 
tended Moscow World Youth Festival. 

PAUL ROBESON, Jr., 408 West 128 Street, N.Y., 32, graduated with honors 
from Cornell University ; Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering ; elec- 
tronics engineer ; translator-editor ; member Tau Beta Phi, national engineers 
Tionorary society and Electrical Engineers honor society ; attended 1959 Vienna 
Youth Festival. 

Room 201, 421 Seventh Avenue, New York. OX ford 5-269 ti. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make a few observa- 
tions at this point. 

In these hearings we have seen how the Communist apparatus has 
exploited youth ; how one of its objectives is to control and dominate 
various youth organizations. The evidence is clear that the World 
Youth Festival in Vienna last year was dominated lock, stock, and 
barrel by the Communist apparatus. One of the significant things 
was the fact that youth leaders of many of the delegations were hard- 
core Communists between the tender ages of 40 years and 60. 

Since these hearings were scheduled by the Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities, the Communist apparatus and some people who should 
know better have been crying crocodile tears about this investigation. 
I think that the evidence adduced would indicate to any mibiased 
persons that these hearings were more than needed and that the basis 
for the attack upon the committee from some quarters was wholly 
unwarranted. 

It is significant that the exploitation of youth was continued during 
these hearings. The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, which 
two congressional committees have found to be Communist dominated 
and controlled, has, as it has done so many times in the past, injected 
itself into these hearings. 

We must remember that the principal objective of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee is to bring about the abolition of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities and to discredit its members. 
Its second objectve is to curb and weaken the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation and discredit its great Director, J. Edgar HooA^er. Its 
third and most sinister role is to bring about the repeal of the Smith 
Act, the Internal Security Act, the Coimnunist Control Act of 1954, 
and other legislation that enables this Government to deal with the 
forces which would destroy this Nation from within. 

The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, chairmanned by an 
identified Communist now under indictment, has sent its paid agents 
into cities where the Committee on Un-American Activities has held 



1478 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 
Gbant Exhibit No. 4b 



EMERGENCY CIVIL LIBERTIES COMMITTEE 

421 SEVENTH^AVENUE, NEW YORK 1, N. Y. • OXFORD 5-266i 

December 28, 19 59 



HARVEY O'CONNOR 

Chairman 
CORLISS LAMONT 

Vice-Ctiairmon 
DR. SAMUEL SRUBIN 

JOHN SCUDDER 

Secretary 
LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

General Countel 
CLARK FOREMAN 

Director 

MRS. EDITH TIGER 
Asst. Director 

NATIONAL COUNCIL 

Executive Commitiee 

Henry Abramj, N. T. 

M,i Eleanor Brussel, N. Y, 

Or. Charlei W. Collins, N. 1. 



Ku« Nil 



N. t. 



r.n M. Picltering. N.J. 
Louii I. Redding, Del. 
1. Philip Sipjer. N. Y. 
Morion Stayis, N. J. 
J. Raymond Walsh, N. 
Palmer Weber. N. Y. 
Bernard Waller, N. Y. 



Byron Alle 



Md. 



John S. Atloe, Pa. 
Edmund O. Austin, N. 
Rev. William T. Baird, 
Prof. Stringfello 



N.J. 



Abraha 



acher, N. Y. 



ien. Mass. 
Rev. John W. firodbury, N. Y. 
Mrs. Anne Braden, Ky. 
Prof. John Ciardi, N.J. 
Homer C. Clay. Md. 
Prof. Rooert S. Cohen, Mass. 
Prof. Edward U. Condon, Mo. 
Ernest Dalgllsh, Pa. 
Hon. Hubert T. Dolany, N. Y. 



b. Di; 



III. 



Prof. Dorothy W. Douglas, Pa. 
caniamin Dreylut, Calif. 
Ur. Robert Ellis, Ore. 
Prof. Thomas I. Emerson, Conn. 
Dr. Marynia Farnhom, N. Y. 
Laurent B. Frantz, Call). 
Rev. Stephen H. Fritchmon, Calif. 
Oeniel S. Giilmor, N. Y. 
Joshua W. Sitt, Pa. 
Prof. Harvey Goldberg, Ohio 
Rabbi Robert E. Goldburg, Conn. 
Prof. David Hober, N. Y. 
Prof. Fowler Harper, Conn. 
John N. M. Howells, Mass. 
Leo Huberman, N. Y. 
Mrs. Edna Ruth Johnson, Fla. 
Prof. Erich Kahler N. J. 
Robert Kenny. Calif. 
Mrs. Rockwell Kent N. Y. 
Ignacio L. Lopez, Calif. 
Conrad J. Lynn, N. Y. 
Prof. Curtis D. MacDougell, III. 
Mrs. Dorothy Marshall, Calif. 
Carey McWllliams, N. Y. 
Prof Clyde Miller, N. Y. 
Man e. Millman, Pa. 
Prof. Broodus Mitchell. N.J. 
Mrs. Alc.ne Austin Mufson, N. Y. 
Prof Helen U. Phillips, Pa. 
Victor Rabinowiti, N. Y. 
Harry I. Rand, D. C. 
David Rein, D. C. 
Richard L. Ritman, III. 
Prof. Arnold Rogow, Pa. 
Robert Rosenwald, N. Y. 
Guy Emery Shipir 



Ur: 



A. W. Sir 



S. C. 



ird J. Sorr 
Edgar Stillman, Jr., N.Y. 
Mrs. Nancy P. Straus, D. C. 
Robert Were Straus, Md. 
Paul Sweory, N. H. 
. John R. Thompson 



Mlu Olive Van Ho 



N. Y. 



Rev. Arthur E. Walmsley, N.Y. 
David Wesley. Pa. 
Frank Wilkinson, Calif. 
Henr, Willcox, Conn. 
Prof. William A. Williams, Wis. 
Prof. H. H. Wilson, N.J. 
Prof. Francis D. V/ormuth, Utah 
Milton Zaslow, Calif. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1479 

hearings. Its purpose in so doing has been to stir up opposition and 
hatred against this committee by the use of typical, well-known Com- 
munist techniques. 

As soon as these current hearings were announced, the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee again got busy. There suddenly sprang 
up an organization called "Youth Against the House Un-American 
Activities Committee." I shouldn't say "sprang up," because this is 
no more a youth-sponsored organization than were some of the delega- 
tions to the World Youth Festival in Vienna, which has been the sub- 
ject of testimony. 

This synthetic organization w^as created by this Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee, whose principal objective is to destroy the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

I have here before me a news release from this so-called "Youth 
Against the House Un-American Activities Committee." This press 
release on its face shows that the headquarters for this youth organi- 
zation is Room 201, 421 Seventh Avenue, New York ; that its telephone 
number is OX 5-2698. Believe it or not, the headquarters and execu- 
tive office of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee is also Room 
201, 421 Seventh Avenue, New York City. The telephone number 
OX 5-2698 has been checked with the telephone company in New 
York. This is one of the two telephone numbers listed in the name of 
the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee in Room 201, 421 Seventh 
Avenue, New York. This press release is entitled : 

Subpoenaed Youths Have 'No Intention' of Cooperating 
with House Investigators: Plan Busses for Protest in 
Washington, 

It is dated for release January 28, 1960. The content of this re- 
lease has the same telltale characteristics as the many other releases 
issued by the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee at other hearings 
of the Un-American Activities Committee throughout the United 
States. 

The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee's executive director, 
Clark Foreman, has come from New York. He has been in the hear- 
ing room with tkis group who supposedly share his office and tele- 
phone. Here we have another example of a youth group organized, 
led, and exploited by a 50-year-old youngster who rmis the Com- 
munist-controlled and dominated Emergency Civil Liberties Commit- 
tee. Here again we have an example of the most vicious type of fraud 
and deceit^ — an attempt to lead the people of this comitry to believe 
that youth has organized against the Coimnittee on Un-American 
Activities. 

On Sunday night, January 31, at 8 P.M. a rally was held by this 
group called "Youth Against the House Un-Ajnerican Activities 
Committee" in the Fraternal Club House at 110 West 48th Street, 
New York City. 

Who do you think was master of ceremonies of tliis youth meeting ? 
None other than Clark Foreman, who urged those that had been 
subpenaed to defy this conunittee. He told those present that "ex- 
ample is a powerful weapon." He pointed out that recently at hear- 
ings of the Un-American Activities Committee in San Juan, a Puerto 
Rican informer changed his mind about testifying because other 
witnesses refused to do so. 



1480 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Foreman lavishly praised Harvey O'Connor, the chairman of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, who is an identified Communist 
and presently under indictment. 

Pete Seeger, an identified Communist who refused to answer ques- 
tions of this connnittee about his membership in the Communist 
Party, a man who has entertained for Communist causes over the years 
and certainly can no longer be classified as a youth under any cir- 
cumstances, lent his talents to the evening. 

Dorothy Marshall, who is head of the Citizens Committee To Pre- 
serve American Freedoms, an organization cited as a Communist- 
front, who has been bombarding members of this House with 
propaganda against the Committee on Un-American Activities, was 
present and spoke. She has a long record over tlie years of service 
to Communist- front organizations. In fact, the Citizens Committee 
To Preserve American Freedoms is an adjunct of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee. 

Mrs. Marshall addressed the rally and stated that a Member of 
the Congress was going to make a speech in a couple of weeks on the 
floor of the House against the Un-American Activities Committee. 
Mrs. Marshall is certainly well beyond that age where she can be 
classified as youthful. She has been here in the hearing room, 
shepherding those young people who have been induced to come here. 

Dr. Otto Nathan, another person who refused to answer questions 
of this committee about his membership in the Coromunist Party, a 
man well up in years, also spoke at this rally and described the glory 
of defying this committee. 

Rev. Lee Ball read a letter from Dr. Willard Uphaus which had 
been sent from jail, where he is serving time for contempt. 

In view of this record and what I have just said, I am wondering if 
those news media which attacked the committee for conducting this 
hearing will now have the decency and courage to admit their mis- 
take in prejudging the purpose and objectives of this hearing, and 
will so advise the American people, some of whom may have been 
misled by some of the reports and editorials that were written. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Julius Szentendrey. 

The CHArRMAN. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth,, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP JULIUS SZENTENDREY 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Szentendrey. My name is Julius Szentendrey. I am secretary 
general of the Association of Hungarian Students in North America. 
I live in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you bom ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. I was born in Budapest, Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. You were bom where ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. In Budapest, Hungary, in 1935. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a word about your education. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1481 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. I attended the law school of the University of 
Budapest from 1953 to 1950. Then I left Hungary after the Hunga- 
rian revolt was crushed by the Soviet forces. 1 then came to the 
United States. I went to the School of Sciences at Harvard, and I 
studied the Arabic language. 

Mr. Arens. I expect in a little while to refer to your experiences 
while living under a Communist regime, so that some of these students 
here and others can get a true account of life in a country under Com- 
munist domination. I should like to ask you, however, first of all, did 
you attend the Seventh World Youth Festival held in Vienna, Austria, 
this past summer ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. Yes, I did. 

The Chairman. When did you leave Hungary ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. I left Hungary on December 7, 1956. 

The Chairman. Where did you cross over ? At Fohnsdorf ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. No. I crossed at a Hungarian town called Szom- 
bathely. It is close to Fohnsdorf. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Youth Festival in Vienna this past 
summer ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your interest in the festival, and why did you 
want to attend the festival ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. I wanted to attend the festival because I have 
seen communism in action, and I wanted to see how it aifects other 
people who have not seen it, and I thought it might be of some help 
by sharing my experiences with others, so that other naive people who 
came from the so-called non-Communist nations and did not have any 
firsthand experience with Soviet tactics could really be enlightened. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just the highlights of your experience, please. 

Mr. Szentendrey. The festival, according to my estimate, did not 
work out quite as the festival organizers had planned to have it work 
out. 

I can answer, first, as to the fact that it was held in Vienna — for 
the first time not behind the Iron Curtain. The population was not 
controlled by police forces, and there was more possibility for people to 
go from organizations that weren't Communist or who were objective 
toward the issues. And also I can attest to the behavior of the festival 
guards, who were Austrian. 

Mr. Arens. Were the young people in the festival who were Com- 
munists permitted by the hierarchy of the Communist tyranny to 
mingle freely with a person, such as yourself, who knew communism 
in action, as in contrast to its deceitful presentation ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. No. The delegates lived in the fairground, but 
the delegates from Eastern Europe, the so-called people's democracy, 
for instance, the Hungarian delegation lived on two ships. No one 
was permitted to enter the ships unless by permission of the head of 
the delegation. The Hungarians and the other East European dele- 
gations always went sightseeing supervised by their leaders and by so- 
called tourists who came to Vienna as tourists. But later we learned 
many of them were members of political parties. If someone started 
to talk to them, they were not allowed to answer. They said they did 
not speak any foreign language. They had to get foreign delegates 
to interpret, and the translators were only those who were approved. 



1482 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Would you characterize it as a controlled apparatus 
of the young Communists by the hierarchy of this tyranny ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Ycs. One of the members of the Hungarian 
delegation — I forget his name — said it was a festival that went under 
supervision, and they were not allowed to communicate freely with 
other membere. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have experience where the Communist dis- 
ciplinarians would shunt you aside when you tried to talk to the other 
young people there who were in the Communist apparatus ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. Yes, I was arrested by the festival police, by 
the Austria festival police, and they found some Hungarian Commu- 
nists on the fairgrounds, and they told me they wanted to take me to 
the ships and they also told me I was a Fascist. 

Mr. Arens. They use the term "Fascist" or "Nazi" against anyone 
who is not a Communist ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. It does not mean something coherent. It means 
somebody who is not a Commimist. 

Mr. Arens. In part, for the benefit of the young Communists who 
have appeared in this proceeding today and their dupes sitting in the 
audience, can you tell us from your own experience, having lived in 
Hungary, what it is like to live under a Communist regime? 

Do you, first of all, in a Communist regime have freedom of 
religion ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. No. Communists regard religion as one of its 
most hostile adversaries. They put priests to trials, call them spies 
for Western powers. They take away the schools of the church. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know this from your own experience while 
living in Hungary, up to a few years ago ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What about the schools ? Do you have academic free- 
dom in these schools ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. No, we don't have any academic freedom in 
Hungary. The schools are the most important means of getting 
under their influence. They try to indoctrinate the youth because 
they don't care much about the older people. They want to indoc- 
trinate the youth, and they want to make them into human machines 
who are indoctrinated with their ideas. 

]\Ir. Arens. Part of the Communist fraud that they perpetrate 
on young people here in this country is that Communists are really 
liberals, and it has sort of an attraction to the imaginative young 
people to be liberal. Can you tell us now were the Communists liberal 
in Hungary ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. No, they weren't. For instance, Leninism, which 
is the term they constantly use to denote the Communist ideology, 
is made a compulsory subject in all schools, particularly large uni- 
versities, and much time is devoted to study of Marxism, Leninism, 
and political philosophy. Nobody is allowed to read works of mod- 
em philosophies or other theories. They are branded bourgeois or 
petty bourgeois or capitalistic. They say they want to keep people's 
minds clear. 

Mr, Arens. If there were a free election in Hungary tomorrow, 
what percentage of the votes would the Communists get, based on 
your experience in that country ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1483 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Shortly after the end of the Second World 
War there was an election in Hungary, and 83 percent voted against 
Communists when the Soviet occupation forces took over power. 
Later, there was a Hungarian revolt, which I could denote as another 
kind of upheaval. Perhaps only 1 percent of their country, who 
stuck to the Communist line, wanted to go back to llussia after 4 or 
5 days. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us your experiences in summary form. We only 
have a few minutes before the members must go to the floor. 

Will you tell us your experiences as a student in Hungary during 
the Hungarian revolution, so that these young Communists who are 
in this room now, with smiles of cynicism on their faces, might begin 
to comprehend — if it is possible to penetrate their conditioned minds 
on this — what it is for a young person to live in the awful tyranny 
of communism. Please tell us of your experiences in Hungary dur- 
ing the Hungarian revolution, and how it started. I understand you 
were one of the witnesses of it \\']ien it first broke out. 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. After the Conmiunists took over in Hungary in 
1958, the schools were secularized, which meant the State took over 
control. Only the textbooks approved by the party could be used, 
and many of the teachers regarded as reactionaries were discarded. 

The admission into the higher education was made on political 
grounds, not on grounds of educational ability or academic results. 
There was w^hat they branded as the "enemy class." In the elementary 
school the teachers had to mark their students with A, B, C, or X, 
which were not grades, but it meant the political affiliation of the 
parents. X meant a student could not get into the university. 

Mr. Arens. In view of the time problem we have here, may I in-^ 
vite your attention to the date October 23, 1956. Wliere were you 
and what happened at that time in Budapest, on October 23, 1956? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. On October 23, 1956, there was planned a pe;ice- 
ful demonstration, which was the method of the Hungarian National 
Student Association at that time, and we planned to go to one of the 
statues of a f onner Hungarian. 

Mr. Arens. You were all students ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. YcS. 

Mr. Arens. And there was a planned protest against them ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Yes. against faults and mistakes of the regime, 
but sometimes even they themselves admitted it. 

The demonstration was first banned, but a few hours before that 
time 

Mr. Arens. You say this liberal Communist regime banned the 
demonstration ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Ycs, but a few hours before the set time, because 
of public pressure, the ban was lifted. Police were concentrated in 
the cities, and secret police, we were advised, the day before. And 
also there were rumors that the Russian troops that were stationed in 
the countryside were moving toward Budapest, the capital city. 

The demonstration force made one or two speeches in front of the 
parliament building. 

Mr. Arens. 'WTiat happened at the demonstration then ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. The police called on the people to disband, and 
there were other groups of people in other parts of the city, such as 



1484 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

at the parliament building. Some of the group started to pull down 
a statue of Stalin which was on a site previously occupied by the 
Catholic Church, and a statue of Stalin had been erected. Others 
went to the radio building, and they wanted to broadcast 16 points of 
their demands. 

A group of four or five people went into the building. Nobody 
asked whether they were allowed to enter, and after they didn't come 
back for more than half an hour, the people began to be worried about 
them and asked the guards what happened, and the guards then 
started shooting at the unarmed group. 

]\Ir. Arens. The guards started shooting at the unarmed group ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Ycs. They also brought in Hungarian military 
forces. 

Mr. Arens. How old were these youngsters who participated in the 
demonstration at which the Communist regime shot into the crowd ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. The students were from high-school age to about 
25. They were at the age when people are usually at universities. 

Mr. Arens. About 150 Hungarians were executed the other day. 
They were alleged to have been participants in this freedom fight, this 
struggle for freedom. They were 14 or 15 years of age when they 
participated and, according* to the information we have, they were 
executed right after they had reached the age of 18. 

Is there a law there in Hungary under this Communist regime 
that allows them to keep youngsters 14 to 15 until they reach 18 and 
then kill them ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. According to the civil law, no ; but according tc 
the military law, if somebody has passed 16 years of age at the tmie 
of committing a crime, he can be executed. 

Mr. Arens. What happened next, after the guard shot into thi= 
crowd of students who were peacefully demonstrating against this 
regime in public ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. The people, surprisingly enough, disbanded 
But then they attacked the guards with bare hands, took awaj 
the weapons from some of them, and then the soldiers who wen 
brought into the neighboring streets started giving them heavj 
weapons. 

Mr. Arens. The soldiers of Hungary joined the students? 

]\Ir. SzENTENDREY. YcS. 

Mr. Arens. AVliat happened next ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Then street fighting lasted for 4 or 5 days, anc 
snipers were wiped out. 

Mr. Arens. In their international propaganda which they dis- 
seminate to comrades and to those w^ho are dupes in this apparatus 
the Communists say that this Hungarian revolution was not a revolu- 
tion at all, that it was inspired by the Fascists and people like the 
Un-American Activities Committee, and the like. Was it a spon- 
taneous revolt against communism in w^hich you participated, or was 
it something inspired by Fascists, imperialists ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. It started first against State authority. Per- 
haps it would not break out into a ]-evolt if they did not shoot on the 
people, but the dissatisfaction was there and nobody liked the regimej 
But without their attacking first, there would not have been anything^ 

Mr. Arens. We have taken voluminous testimony on our recordJ 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1485 

from time to time, as have otlier committees, respecting the awful 
suppression there by Klirushchev and his forces, and tlie open deceit, 
duplicity, and the like, where they took the peace negotiators from the 
freedom fighters out and slaughtered them, etc. We will not at- 
tempt to duplicate all that, but 1 only want to ask you what happened 
to you as a young freedom fighter there. 

Grive us the account of what happened to you, please. 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. I'lic noxt day I was arrested by the security 
police because of street lightings. I was kept in prison for several 
days. They called us Fascists and traitors and threatened to shoot us. 
I suppose they would have shot us if they had the courage to do so. 
They were shooting outside in the city, and I think that is what kept 
them from it. 

Mr. Arens. How long did the secret police keep you ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. For five days, until the freedom fighters won a 
strike attempt. 

Mr. Arens. Then you eventually escaped and came to the West, to 
the free world? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Yes, after 3 or 4 more weeks in Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. I did not want to duplicate the events of the uprising 
because it is so much a matter of public record now. I just want to 
ask you one final question, Mr. Szentendrey. 

You have seen communism in action, and you have lived as a stu- 
dent and young person under communism in action, you have seen 
what commmiism does, you have seen suppression by communism, 
and you have seen likewise, I am sure, some witnesses here today, 
young Americans who are Communists, who are in this apparatus. 

As the chairman said, the overwhelming majority of the young 
American people are not falling for this. 

Do you have any words that you can say now, as a youth who has 
lived under communism, to the other young people in the United 
States respecting this Communist operation which is penetrating the 
youth over the world ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. I think I should say that communism has a face 
which it likes to show outside, and then it has its own practice of deal- 
ing with people and dealing with their countries it has occupied. In 
this second aspect it is very dangerous for all the human rights and 
the public freedoms — freedom of speech, religion, the church, and 
everything else. 

The Communist dictatorship is a dictatorship by a small minority 
of the people over the whole nation, and they do not have any con- 
tact. They have allegiance only to the Communists and the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Are these young people here who have been identified 
as Communists, free agents as Communists, or are they part of an 
apparatus of control and condition ? 

Mr. Szentendrey. I think some of them are actually card-holding 
members of the party or just believe their ideology and they spread 
the ideology. They could be regarded as Communists. It is not so 
much a question of membership. 

Mr. Arens. Are they free agents? 

Mr. Szentendrey. I think they are free agents on their own view 
and nobody forced them to be. 



1486 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arens. Is a Communist permitted to have free thoughts ? Is 
he permitted to dissent? Is he permitted to have freedom in the 
sense that you and I can disagree on our philosophy or outlook ? 

Mr. SzEXTENDREY. Suice they never do it, I don't think they are 
permitted to have their own critics. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest this will conclude the staff inter- 
rogation of this witness. 

Mr. JoHANsLX. You spoke of communism as being dangerous to 
freedoms and rights. Is communism dangerous to the very rights of 
the Constitution of the United States which some of these witnesses 
before this committee in this hearing have invoked for their own 
protection ? 

Mr. SzENTENDREY. Siuce communism overtly regards the United 
States as their No. 1 enemy, I think it is only fair to say that it is dan- 
gerous against the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. The committee appreciates very much your co- 
operation. 

I might say, as an individual, having particpated in the plans under 
which you and other freedom fighters came to the United States, it 
makes me very proud of the fact that I did participate in assisting^ 
])eople like you who obviously appreciate those institutions that are 
so dear to all of us, and we appreciate your assistance very much. 

The committee is recessed. 

(Whereupon, at 12:30 o'clock p.m.. February 5, 1960, the commit- 
tee recessed subject to call of the Chair.) 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 
(Communist Activities and Propaganda Among Youth Groups) 

Part 3 



V/EDNESDAY, MARCH 2, 1960 

United States House of Eepresentativ-es, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-Americax Activities, 

Washington, D.C 

EXECUTIVE session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a.m., in room 226, Old House Office 
Building, Wasliington, D.C, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) 
presiding. 

Subcommittee members : Representatives Francis E. Walter, chair- 
man, Pennsylvania; Clyde Doyle, California; Edvrin E. Willis, 
Louisiana; Donald L. Jackson, California; and Gordon H. Scherer, 
Ohio. 

Committee members present during hearings: Representatives 
Walter, Doyle, Scherer, and Johansen, Michigan. (Appearances as 
noted.) 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; Donald T. 
Appell and Robert H. Goldsborough, investigators. 

The Chairman. Would you rise please? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give v^ill be the truth, 
the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Markman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARVIN MAEKMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID EEIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Markman. Marvin Markman, 2528 Cruger Avenue, student. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Markman, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Markman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Markman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, R-e-i-n, Til Fourteenth Street, KW., 
Washinjjton, D.C. 



' Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

1487 



1488 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

The Chairman. What is the residence of the witness ? 

Mr. ]\L\RKMA]sr. New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Markman, kindly give your age? 

ISIr. Markman. Twenty. 

Mr. Arens. And would you give us a word about your educational 
background ? 

Mr. Markman. I was educated in New York City and graduated 
City College of New York with a bachelor of arts degree, 1960, 
January. 

Mr. Arens. You are presently a student where ? 

Mr. Markman. I am not attending school this term. 

Mr. Arens. AA^iat is your occupation ? 

Mr. Markman. I am not employed now. 

Mr. Scherer. Where did you attend school last term ? 

Mr. ]\LvRKMAN. City College of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Markman, some 3 or 4 weeks ago this committee 
took testimony with respect to activities of a number of young people 
who had attended the Seventh World Youth Festival held in Vieniui. 

I should like to first of all display to you a thermofax copy of a let- 
terhead entitled "United States Festival Committee, 246 Fifth Avenue, 
New York 1, N.Y.", on which are listed the national staff. On this 
letterhead appears, among other names, the following: "Chairman, 
Marvin Markman." 

Kindly look at that letterhead and tell this committee if you are 
properly identified there as chairman of the United States Festival 
Committee. 

Mr. Markman. At this point I will have to refuse to answer that 
question on the following grounds : 

First of all, it is public knowledge that the festival aided in bring- 
ing young people from all parts of the v/orld together in a spirit of 
friendship and mutual understanding. Today, when peace is the 
central issue facing mankind, these hearings counter the policies of 
the President in his attempts to achieve world peace and discourage 
young people in working for this goal. 

Secondly, of all, I feel these hearings attempt to stifle and harass 
young people who in their actions promote the democratic heritage 
of our country by attending such festivals, by defending the Bill of 
Rights, by working for civil rights and civil liberties. 

I don't believe this committee has any right to inquire into my po- 
litical beliefs and associations. And I claim the benefits of the first 
and fifth amendments. I refuse to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Markman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell us how you attained the status as chair- 
man of the United States Festival Committee? Were you elected or 
were you appointed? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same to this question. 

Mr. Arens. So we won't waste the committee's time or your time, 
do you here and now refuse to ans^^■er all questions respecting the 
United States Festival Committee and any status or post you may 
have occupied with it ? 

Mr. ]\Iarkman. INIy answer remains the same. 

]VIr. Arens. Do you refuse to answer any questions respecting the 
United States Festival Committee and your chairmanship of it? 



I 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1489 



Mr. Markman. Yes. , . t <. tt a 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Markman, have you ever applied lor a U.b. pass- 
port ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, ^^ P^^otostatic 
reproduction of a passport ai)plication executed on October 2, 1958, 
bearing the signature of Marvin J. Markman, which we have procured 
from the Department of State. . , , p -^ 

I ask you firet of all, please, sir, to examine the last page ol it on 
which appears your signature and tell us whether or not that is a true 
and correct reproduction of your signature. 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Marlauan, you will obsen^e on page 2 of this 
photostatic reproduction of the pass]3ort application, blanks which 
appear af tei' questions : "Are you now a member of the Communist 
Party ^ Write yes or no." "Have you ever been a mem.ber of the 
Communist Party? Write yes or no." "If ever a member, state 
period of membership, from to ." 

I invite your attention specifically to these items, and I ask you 
whether or^iot at the time you executed the passport application, as 
indicated here in 1958, you were then a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. M.\RKMAN. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. In the passport application under the question re- 
specting the purpose of vour proposed trip the following appears: 
"Tourist." Under the heading, "List eacli country to be visited" ap- 
pears: "England, France, Italy, Austria, and Switzerland." 

Did you in 1958 intend to make a trip to England, France, Italy, 
Austria, and Switzerland as a tourist? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in 1958 at the time you filed your passport 
application, contemplate a trip to Europe for the purpose of engaging 
in preliminary arrangements for the Youth Festival to be held in 
Vienna ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. AnENS. Was a U.S. passport issued to you pursuant to the 
application which you filed with the State Department? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Leonard Potash ? I observe here in this pass- 
post application that he is given as a witness to your signature. 

Mr. Markman. My answ^er remains the same. 

(Document marked "Markman Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Is Leonard Potash to your certain knowledge a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Did you leave the United States in 1958 ? 

Mr. ]\L4.rkman. My answer remains the_ same. 

Mr. Arens. Did you travel to Europe in 1958? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Marknam, I display to you a thermofax repro- 
duction of a report of an organizational meeting of the United States 
Festival Committee held October 4, 1958, and ask you to examine 



1490 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

it and tell lis if that report is factual ^vllen it states, "The meeting 
opened at 10:45 a.m. with introductory words of welcome by the 
Chairman, Marvin Markman * * *." 

Mr. IVIarkman. My answer remains the same. 

(Document marked "Markman Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

The Chairma^st. Where was this meeting? 

Mr. Arens. In New York. 

Now, Mr. Markman, on the record which we are continuing today, 
we have had the testimony of responsible witnesses under oath to 
the effect that the leadership of the United States Festival Commit- 
tee was comprised of persons who were known to be membei'S of the 
Communist Party. 

Do you have information bearing on that subject matter which you 
could supply to this committee at this time? 

Mr. Markma^t. My answer remains the same as before. 

ISIr. Arens. Mr, Charles Wiley was a member of the United States 
Festival Committee delegation. Did you know him? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of his testimony, Mr. Wiley testified 
that the leaders of the United States Festival Committee, whom he 
identified as Marvin Markman, Paul Robeson, Jr., and Alan Mc- 
Gowan, received instruction on how they should operate within the 
American delegation from the leaders of the International Prepara- 
tory Committee, whom he identified as Jean Garcias. a French Com- 
munist ; Floyd Williston, a Canadian Communist ; and Mas Sclineider, 
an Austrian Communist. To your knowledge is this testimony of 
Mr. Wiley's true ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in December of 1958 and in January of 1959 
participate in preparations for a festival in Vienna, Austria, known 
as the Seventh World Youth Festival ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Markman, on this record, which we are continu- 
ing today, Mr. Herbert Romerstein, Charles Wiley, and Charles 
Jones testified to the effect that at a meeting of the majority of the 
American youth in Vienna a vote was taken on a motion and adopted 
which rejected the leadership of the United States Festival Commit- 
tee. Were any votes taken which rejected the leadership of McGowan, 
Paul Robeson, Jr., and youreelf , to your knowledge ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same, 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a thermofax reproduction of a 
report which has been identified to this committee by reputable wit- 
nesses under oath as a report issued in Vienna, Austria. 

This report bears the typewritten names of Marvin Markman, Al- 
thea Sims, Paul Robeson, Jr., and Alan McGowan, 

The first paragraph of this report reads : 

The elected representatives of the United States Festival Committee have 
been negotiating with the American Youth Festival Organization in an attempt 
to end the destructive split among us, 

and the like. 

Kindly look at that report and tell us whether or not you authorized 
your name to be affixed to the report. 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1491 

Mr. Markmax. My answer is the same. 

(Document marked "Markman Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arexs. Since yon were subpenaed to appear before this com- 
mittee in the current hearings, have you issued any public statements 
respecting the hearings? 

Mr. Markman, My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arkxs. I dispLay to you now, if you please, sir, a thermof ax 
reproduction of a statement issued by the Emergency Civil Liberties 
C^onnnittee, whcih contains a statement of ]\Iarvin IVIarkman who is 
identified as having served as chairman of the United States Festival 
Committee at the Seventh World Youth Festival in Vienna in the 
smnmer of 1059. 

Is this statement which I now display to you a true and correct 
reproduction of a statement prepared and issued by yourself under 
the auspices of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee respecting^ 
the instant hearings in which you are noM' appearing? 

Mr. Markmax. ]\Iy answer remains the same. 

(Document marked "Markman Exhibit No. 5" and retained in the 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. I now display to you a photostatic reproduction of a 
report from the United States Festival Committee issued, according 
to the terms of the document, at 5 o'clock on January 26, 1959, and 
I ask you if the attack upon the individuals and organizations con- 
tained in this report was, like the attack contained in your statement, 
intended to give aid and comfort to the Communist control of the 
Seventli World Youth Festival ? 

Mr. Mz\RK5iAN. My answer remains the same on this. 

(Document marked "Markman Exhibit No. 6" and retained in 
connnitteo files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Markman, I display to you a thermofax repro- 
duction of an article appearing in the Communist Worker a few day& 
ago, February 28, 1960. 

I should like to read you a few paragraphs from it and then I will 
display the entire document to you. 

It is entitled : "N. Y. City Marxist Youth Group Formed." 

The Lincoln holiday weekend saw the formation of "Advance," a Marxist 
youth organization, in N.Y. Some 125 youth from the five boroughs discussed 
and ratified Jake Rosen's report for the organizing committee, then adopted 
a political program, and reports on education and social, culture and sports. 

and the like. 

I am skipping several paragraphs. Then the following appears : 

Following the adoption of the report and the selection of a temporary name, 
oflScers were elected. Paul Perlman was named president unanimously. Other 
officers elected were Jake Rosen and Marvin Markman, vice presidents, Mike 
Stein, educational director, and six delegates-at-large. 

Kindly look at this article that appeared in the Communist Worker 
a few days ago and tell this committee whether or not the facts recited 
there to your knowledge are true and correct. 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the sam.e on this. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the person who was elected vice president 
of this new Marxist group which was formed in New York City just 
a few weeks ajro, named Advance ? 



1492 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same on that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is this group to your certain knowledge controlled by 
persons known by you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same on that. 

(Document marked "Markman Exhibit No. 7" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Markman, are you now, at the time of your ap- 
pearance today before the Committee on Un-American Activities, a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same on that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Markman, I should like to display to you, if you 
please, sir, three photographs which have been identified to this com- 
mittee by reputable persons who attended the Vienna World Youth 
Festival, as photographs of groups of persons, including yourself, 
taken at Vienna. 

Kindly look at this first photograph which I display to you and 
tell this committee whether or not it is a true and correct reproduc- 
tion of your physical features. 

Mr. Markman. A very bad photograph. My answer remains the 
same. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a true and correct photograph, however ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. I display to j^ou two similar photographs identified to 
this committee as having been taken at Vienna, in which your phys- 
ical features appear. 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same on this. 

(Photographs marked "Markman Exhibit No. 8" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Paul Perlman who was named president 
a few weeks ago of this new group known as Advance ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

]Mr. Arens. Is Paul Perlman to your certain knowledge a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Jake Eosen and Mike Stein who like- 
wise, according to the Communist Worker of February 28, 1960, were 
elected as officers of this new group formed in New York City, to be 
known as Advance ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same on this and I really 
don't think that the committee has a right, moral or constitutional, to 
question my personal associations or beliefs. 

Mr. Arens. We don't want to question your associations or beliefs. 
We only want information respecting communism or persons who, to 
your certain knowledge, are members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Markman, according to the Communist Worker of Sunday, 
February 28, 1960, the Advance organization, which some 125 youth 
have apparently joined, adopted an educational program which will 
support the Student Committee on Progressive Education and the 
Faculty of Social Science. 

Can you give us information from your own knowledge as to 
whether or not both of these organizations, the Student Committee 
on Progressive Education and the Faculty of Social Science, are 
controlled by individuals who, to your certain knowledge, are mem- 
bers of the Communist Paity ? 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1493 

Mr, Markman. My answer remains the same. 

The Chairman. What is the name of that ? 

Mr. Arens. The new group is called Advance, A-d-v-a-n-c-e. 

It was just formed, according to the Conmiunist Worker of Febru- 
ary 28, 1960, a few weeks ago. 

The Chairman. What is the name of the other organization ? 

Mr. Arens. The two other organizations which have an alliance 
with the Advance, according to this article, are the Student Commit- 
tee on Progressive Education and the Faculty of Social Science. 

The Chairman. The Faculty of Social Science is successor to the 
Jeffereon School. 

Mr. Arens. The chairman will recall we had hearings on that very 
issue some several months ago. 

Mr. Chairman, we have covered with Mr. Markman the principal 
points of inquiiy we had in mind. 

There are a number of incidental matters we could inquire into, but 
with his answers remaining the same all the way through, I dislike 
to unpose upon the committee's time further. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? ^ 

According to my recollection there were two groups, one from 
Chicago and the other from New York. 

Did that mean that they all lived in those two cities ; do you know ? 

Mr. Markman. My answer remains the same on that. 

The Chairman. All right. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 10 :25 a.m., the hearing recessed until 2 p.m. the 
same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, MARCH 2, 1960 

The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m.. Representative Francis E. 
Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Members of the subcommittee present at time of reconvening : Rep- 
resentatives Walter and Scherer. 

The Chairman. We will come to order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the next witness is Mr. Stephen Tyler. 

The Chairman. Mr. Tyler, do you solemnly swear that the evidence 
you shall give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Tyler. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHEN TYLER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Tyler. My name is Stephen Tyler. My residence is Hotel 
Regent, 2720 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Tyler. My occupation is free-lance writer. I am also a part- 
time radio panelist. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a word about your personal 
background and education? 

Mr. Tyler. I am 26 years of age. I was brought up in New York 
City, and left school at the age of 16, and I am mainly self-educated. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a word, please, Mr. Tyler, about your pro- 
fessional experience as a writer. 



1494 COMMUNIST TRAINDsTG OPERATIONS 

Mr. Tyler. I began doing some writing at about 21, when I left 
for Europe. That was January 1956, and I remained 4 years in Europe 
and IMorocco and lived in most of the major countries. I worked 
for Reuters News Service for a while and published several articles 
in magazines. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Tyler, did you and your wife attend the Youth 
Festival held in Moscow in 1957 ? 

Mr. Tyler. Yes, we did, 

Mr. Arens. Briefly please, sir, tell us what occasioned your visit 
to the Youth Festival. 

Mr. Tyt.er. My wife and I saw in the Youth Festival an opportunity 
to see the Soviet Union and Moscow. 

Mr. Arens. Where were vou when you contemplated going to the 
Youth Festival? 

Mr. Tyler. We were in London at the time, and we saw an ad- 
vertisement in a British student magazine, saying that anyone under 
35 could go to the Youth Festival as travelers. And as a writer I 
wanted to see Moscow and Russia with my own eyes. 

xlt thg time it was impossible to get any more than a 10-day visa 
to Russia, to my knowledge. This Youth Festival enabled us to 
stay in Russia for 5 weeks. 

Mr. Arens. How were your expenses paid? 

Mr. Tyler. We paid the expenses to go to the Youth Festival our- 
selves. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us an indication of the cost? Roughly 
speaking. 

Mr. Tyi.er. $130 each. It included the room, the board, and the 
transportation from London to Moscow, and back. 

Mr. Arens. Now, in order that we will not, on this record, Mr. 
Tyler, duplicate items of information which have been the subject 
of testimony h\ other witnesses, may I ask you to recount, first of all, 
the scenes whidi you beheld there at the Youth Festival under Com- 
munist auspices? 

Mr. Tyler. To my experience, there are two purposes of a youth 
festival : 

(1) To convert young people from the Western and uncommitted 
nations over to communism; and (2) to give the Communist peoples 
the idea of foreign youth converting over to the Communist cause en 
mnsse. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us a few examples of this, please? 

Mr. Tyler. Yes. Here are some examples of the first purpose : 

Two great rallies were held at Lenin Stadium, which seats ap- 
proximately 100.000 people, during the Youth Festival. My wife and 
I attended one of these — the opening Youth Festival ceremonies. Re- 
fusinar to partake in it, we sat in the bleachers with the Russians, so 
we were able to see it from their point of view. 

As at least 100.000 Russians looked on, and as the TV and the movie 
cameras ground awav. delpgations from — at least it seemed — almost 
every country in the world marched in a circle around the stadium, 
each cnrrving their national flajis. They then assembled in prear- 
ranjred spots set up behind colored streamers in the center of the field. 
Everv dolesration carried its national flag, and many carried various 
comm.unistic slogans. The spectacle was calculated to be exciting and 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1495 

to create enthusiasm by the use of much music, color, and the strategic 
placing of cheering teams about the audience. 

The stadium was well equipped with microphones, so that although 
many Eussians in the audience appeared no more tlian mildly curious 
and only clapped brieliy, the loudspeakers presented an almost con- 
>tant din of thunderous applause. 

I wondered at the time if there weren't records of applause being 
played. It was either that or the microphones were set up in such 
a. way among the audience, and especially among the cheering teams 
within the audience, that every possible sound could be picked up. 

When all the delegations had marched, danced, and sung their way 
around the field and were assembled, the spectacle was, briefly, this: 
Dozens of national flags from throughout the world, carried by 
enthusiastic youth assembled under the great Youth Festival insignia ; 
dozens of Soviet flags high above set in the circle above the field ; and 
rhe smiling faces of Khrushchev applauding and looking on. Then 
hundreds of peace doves were let loose in the air. To the easily con- 
ditioned mind, it represented the youth of the world endorsing com- 
munism and/or peace and friendship. 

From the photograpldc point of view, Communists could not have 
made more use of the Youth Festival. 

Mr. Arens. Have you seen any evidence of the use of these photo- 
graphs ? 

Mr. Tyler. Yes. During the next 3 months — from Peking to 
Prague — photographic displays, under glass, were set up in the 
streets, showing the passersby photos of the above-mentioned grand 
display and photos of every stage of the festival. Favorites were 
of the youth of the world shown singing or dancing under the ham- 
mer and sickle. 

Judging from my own experience, the Communists often set up 
meetings for the sole purpose of getting good camera shots. One 
example of this was a meeting we attended in Moscow with an archi- 
tects' union. There were two rooms. In one we were feasted with 
wine and strong vodka. After Americans and Russians were in a 
gay and intoxicated mood, we were herded into a second room, with 
a stage above, on which stood crossed American and Russian flags 
and huge portraits of Lenin and Stalin. As the youth drunkenly 
danced and sang, the group was surrounded by a ring of chairs. In 
back of the chairs were assembled movie, TV, and still cameras and 
sets of floodlights. One head cameraman directed the proceedings 
of all the cameramen and the handymen who pushed the chairs into 
the group at a given signal, thereby pressing the group — uncon- 
sciously — closer together. It represented an excellent shot : American 
youth dancing under Lenin, Stalin, and Russian flags. 

I counted at least 12 movie cameras and the same number of still 
cameras. The photos of this "meeting" we saw later in Peking in 
a street display, imder glass, as well as in picture displays in Moscow. 
The whole affair looked, and was handled, exactly as if it were a movie 
set, and the Am.erican group were the extras. 

My wife and I stood out of view of the cameras. 

I saw dozens of such shots displayed in newspaper and magazines 
throughout the Communist world. The festival was fully covered 
by Soviet TY and by newsreel. There was hardly a meeting I at- 



1496 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

tended where professional photographers were not present with their 
flashbulbs or movie cameras. 

Mr. Arens. Now, you said you thought there was a second purpose 
for the festival. Would you kindly give a few pertinent examples 
of that purpose ? 

Mr. Tyler. Yes. Examples of the second purpose of youth festi- 
vals — that of converting foreign youth over to the Communist side — 
are as follows : 

Eveiy day during the festival, meetings were arranged between 
delegations from Communist and non-Commimist comitries. The 
American group in this way met groups from almost eveiy Com- 
munist country. 

The procedure was that we would first be served tea and cake, dur- 
ing which time official greetings were exchanged, speeches made, and 
then perhaps a display of folk music, followed by a general mixture 
of individuals who got off into little groups. 

As the Communist delegates were inevitably Young Communist 
League officials who had gotten top honors in political science and 
Marxism-Leninism courses, the Communists were able to present a 
uniform point of view to the comparatively untrained non-Commu- 
nists — and present it well. These personal discussions greatly con- 
tributed to the indoctrination — and I might say, the Communist 
delegates presented points of view somewhat in contradiction to the 
average man in the street of a Communist country. Where the many 
we met in the street inevitably admitted the crimes of Stalin and 
often other bad points about their government, the trained delegates 
were unable to see anything bad about any facet of the theoiy and 
practice of communism. 

Other methods of indoctrination were guided tours to factories and 
collective farms and schools. Also during the festival many seminars 
were held. 

Wlien applying for admittance to the Youth Festival, we were 
asked in the applications what our main interests and hobbies were. 
As a result, meetings were arranged between Communists and non- 
Communists of the same occupations and interests. Seminars were 
held for teacliers, engineei-s, medical and law students, to name just 
a few. Seminars were also held for those interested in music, paint- 
ing, sculpture, and even stamp collecting. Every speech at these 
seminars was fraught with propaganda. For instance, at painting 
seminars, it was explained that art must be intelligible to the masses 
and present the problems and the aspirations of the masses, et cetera. 

Much literature was handed out at the festival. A free hardbound 
book on the Soviet Union was given to each delegate, presenting sta- 
tistics comparing Tsarist days with the present, a history of the revo- 
lution and a histoi*y of Russia, and was well salted with propaganda. 
Magazines on the festival and a picture book on Moscow were also 
handed out. We even received a tube of "Peace and Friendship" 
toothpaste, depicting scenes of Westerners, Chinese, Negroes, and 
Russians, smiling and shaking hands. 

We found ample evidence that Russians, when in groups, will nei- 
ther talk freely with each other nor with foreigners. 

Of about a dozen Russians which my wife or I invited at various 
times to our hotel, only one of that dozen accepted, the others giving 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1497 

excuses which seemed to have been made up, especially as all of them 
were willing to talk to us for hours on the street, and many gave us 
their addresses and begged us to write to them. 

The one person that did come to our (quarters was a militaiy official 
who, as he related, was high up enough in the Communist hierarchy 
to receive the full text of the famous Klirushchev report which criti- 
cized Stalin. 

Mr. Arens. Have you any other examples you would care to give us 
Mr. Tyler? 

Mr. Tyler. Yes ; for instance : 

My wife and I became friendly with a young lady who, although 
generally in favor of Mai-xism, had many bitter criticisms of the 
regime, especially concerning the favoritism in the universities shown 
to the children of bureaucrats. She related that the children of 
party members, or bureaucrats, would go on into the universities 
of their choosing with very little trouble, while those whose parents 
had no place in the Communist hierarchy often had very difficidt 
times getting into the universities or the courses of their choosing. 
She also said that the children of the bureaucrats were given the 
type of work assignments which they requested that were offered in 
the large cities, while the children vviio were not from bureaucratic 
families or whose families were not in the party were often given 
assignments in Siberia or in the outskirts of the Soviet Union or 
assignments of work which they did not want upon completion of 
their imiversity courses. 

This young lady refused to visit us at the delegates' quarters, say- 
ing that plain-clolhes secret police were always about and would re- 
port anyone who visited us. 

Mr. Arens. Was this young lady the only Russian to tell you about 
the omnipresent secret police ? 

Mr. Tyler. No. Other Russians which we met, or which friends 
of ours met, had the same thing to say, that is, that there were plain- 
clothes secret police hanging around our living quarters who were 
there to spy on visitors. 

AVhen leaving my wife after a day together, she would walk with 
my wife to within a couple of blocks of the delegates' quarters and 
then say goodby, for the previously stated reasons. She would never 
discuss politics within hearing distance of any Russians, and on sev- 
eral occasions when such discussions were being held and someone 
passed, she would instantly change the subject and make such re- 
marks as "Isn't that a beautiful building?" et cetera. 

This was typical of the fear that Russians have in talking in 
front of other Russians, of giving their political views in front of 
other Russians or Communists, and I would like to name the follow- 
ing example of this : 

I knew a member of the Canadian Communist Party who thought 
that everything in Russia was honey and roses. This Russian young 
lady, of course, knew the true situation. She was able to talk about 
the preference shown children of bureaucrats, about the fact that 
there were impediments put in the way of traveling within the Soviet 
Union, that it was difficult to get into Moscow, and a number of 
other complaints. 



1498 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

I wanted to introduce the Canadian Communist to this Russian 
young hidy. In introducing them, they talked in a friendly way for 
a while, and then the Canadian mentioned that he was a member of 
the Communist Party, whereupon the young Russian girl got very 
scared. She looked absolutely shocked, and from then on, during the 
conversation, she was constantly on her guard and presented to us 
and to him a completely different view of the Soviet Union tiian that 
which she had previously given to us. 

All of a sudden she started spouting the party line. 

Mr. Arens. Did the young lady discuss this matter with you later? 

Mr. Tyi.er. When he left, she was very surprised that we brought 
him along and seemed angry with us. I think because she saw he was 
a member of the party she associated him with the secret police, the 
bureaucracy, and the dictatorship, of which she was afraid. This 
seemed to me to be the obvious thing. 

Another typical example of our meetings with others at the festival 
was this : My wife met a girl drama student who was leading a large 
group of younger students to the delegates' quarters. Russians did 
sometimes come to our quarters on guided tours. She, my wife, and 
two Russians translators were having a discussion on art. The girl 
mildly disagreed with the translators and, during the discussion, she 
winked at my wife, came over to her and said, "We have the same 
opinions ; let us go outside and talk." 

Once outside, they continued their discussion of the liabilities of 
"socialist realism" in art. The girl went on to say that the artist 
should be able to paint as he liked. The girl was generally in favor 
of the idea of IMarxism, but against the practice of it. Before getting 
down to the discussion, the girl declined to sit on a certain bench, 
saying that it was underneath an open window. 

I can name many examples of discussions I had with groups of Rus- 
sians in Moscow University, at public meetings, or on the street. With- 
out exception all such discussions had a stilted quality to them. Dur- 
ing 3 weeks in Moscow I spent liours every day engaged in political 
discussions, and never once saw Russians disagree with each other on 
any but the most minor details. 

After a while, however, I learned to know when the Russians were 
secretly agreeing with me — a deep look directly into my eyes, or a 
silent nod, were such indications. 

On several occasions Russians approached me after a long discus- 
sion, during which time they had said notliing; and when their com- 
patriots were not listening, they would say that they agreed with me. 

During such talks Russians would look at me or other non-Com- 
munist Americans who were speaking with awe and seemed never to 
tire of our words. On several occasions my wife and I found chance 
intimate discussions on the street, turning into lectures on our parts. 
Within a matter of minutes the group listening to us would expand 
from one or two, to as many as one hundred. 

The other Americans in the group had similar experiences. Two 
Americans had brought along tlie United Nations report on Hungary 
and read it in Red Square to an audience of hundreds. 

Although all Russian students must take coiu'ses in political science 
and Marxism-Leninism and were far better informed of their coun- 
try's political policies than American students are informed of our 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1499 

country's stand, I rarely saw Russians defend (^omnnmist ideas or 
facts with the gusto that the American Conununists disphiy. "W'lien 
Russians did talk with giisto, they usually turned out to be Komsomol 
or some other officials. 

If I were asked in a word to describe the average Russian's attitude 
toward the political situation in his country and abroad, I would say 
"self-enforced indifference." That is, they try to be indiU'erent to 
what is going on, because it is a matter of survival to them to be 
indiffei-ent. Yet that political inditl'erence disappears as soon as con- 
tact with Westerners is made. 

It is of interest to note that, Avhile passing through Moscow on our 
way back from China, we were unable to telephone or even get the 
address of the American Embassy. At the time we were staying at 
a very large modern hotel. I spoke to the two solemn men in their 
late thirties who had introduced themselves to us as "from the Youth 
League," and who were acting as translators and guides. After- 
making repeated requests to get the phone number of the embassy 
from them, and facing rejoeated delays and evasions, one of them 
finally indignantly stated that we were asking the impossil^le — the 
phone number was not available. I know that at the time there 
were three girls at the hotel switchboard. 

Mr. Arens. Was it easy to travel about on your own in Moscow? 

Mr. Tyler. Because of where our living quarters were situated, I 
would say it was very difficult to travel about Moscow. In this way 
individual tours were possibly subtly discouraged. From our quar- 
ters it took approximately one and a quarter hours to get to the center 
of the city by bus and subway. We had to be back at our living 
quarters twice during the day for meals. 

Hundreds of buses were available for guided tours, but none to 
shuttle delegates or individuals between the living quarters and Mos- 
cow proper. 

We also found it difficult to get into the homes of Russians, and 
only visited one Russian at home — the aforementioned official. 

During my time in Russia I wrote two letters home wliicli never 
got tliere. Both were strongly ant i- Communist and probably were 
destroyed, because in 4 years in Europe I never wrote one letter home 
which failed to reach America, 

My wife and I took the names of several Russians and their ad- 
dresses and wrote to them from Western Europe. We received one 
reply from each of them, which were very friendly replies, begging 
us to write again. We wrote and then received no further letters 
from them, from an}^ of them. 

On speaking to non-Communist Americans and English who had 
attended the Youth Festival, they had almost exactly the same ex- 
periences, that is, the Russians did not reply to their letters, or would 
reply once. 

The one very anti-Communist letter that I wrote from China also 
never reached America. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly tell us the circumstances pur- 
suant to which you and your wife journeyed from Moscow and into 
Red China? 

Mr. Tyler. All the Americans in Moscow were invited on a free 
tour through Communist China, lasting approximately 7 weeks. The 



1500 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

invitation to iis was given by the All-China Federation of Democratic 
Yonth, through the Chinese Embassy and the Chinese delegation to 
the Youth Festival. 

Approximately 140 Americans were invited to China, of whom 43 
accepted the invitation. 

ISIr. Arens. Now, would you proceed to tell us, in your own way, 
the significant occurrences which you observed on your visit to Red 
China? 

Mr. Tyler. We spent about 8 days on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, 
travelhig from Moscow to Peking. We changed trains at the Man- 
churian border. 

We were well taken care of; we had two full cars for the 43 people 
on the trip, plus a dining car. 

We arrived in China August 24, 1957. In my opinion, our Chinese 
tour occurred for the same reason as the Youth Festival, for the pur- 
pose of embarrassing the United States of America and adding extra 
propaganda for the Communist fire. The invitation was accepted by 
my wife and me for two reasons: Firstly, practically all the indi- 
viduals wlio accepted the Chinese invitation were Communists or 
fellow travelers; and in order to cover the China trip, CBS, NBC, 
UP, and AP had picked up correspondents from among the 43. Of 
the four correspondents which they hired, three of them liad had 
intensive Communist connections, though I cannot say that any were 
Conununist Party members. I don't know. One of them, however, 
told me lie had been a member of the American Labor Party. 

My wife and I realized that they would give an entirely arbitrary 
view of Communist China, because they seemed to know all about 
it before they even left. Tliey were going there with closed minds. 
Our ambition was to try to do some reporting on our own, which we 
subsequently did. 

T worked with Reuters News Agency, and sent in approximately 
14 dispatclies, most of which appeared on the front pages of the 
Renter subscribers in America. Most of these dispatches were in 
contradiction to the reports sent out by the other members of the 
press. 

In effect, the Chinese were inviting 43 American passports stamped 
"Not Good for Travel to Communist China." 

For propaganda purposes we were allowed a 2-hour interview with 
Chou En-lai, and were able to meet such notables as Janos Kadar, 
Premier of Hungary. The only person in the group who met ]\Iao 
Tse-tung, who is normally inaccessible, was Joanne Grant. 

We saw the following cities in China: Port Arthur, Dairen, Tien- 
tsin. We spent approximately 2 weeks in Peking. We saw Wuhan, 
Changchun, Nanking, Shanghai, Hangchow, and Canton. 

iNTr. Arexs. Was a particular schedule followed while in Cliina? 

IMr. IVler. Yes. Generally it was the same routine as the Youth 
Festival — guided tours to factories, farms, schools, sports palaces, 
and so forth. Morning, noon, and night, there were events sched- 
uled — about four or five each period of the waking day. 

Getting off by ourselves presented no problem, however, as almost 
all the liotels were in the centers of the cities. 

There were two exceptions, however, where hotels were in the 
suburbs. Both were built after the so-called "liberation." Those were 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1501 

ill llanujchow and Nanking. Our time in each city seemed de- 
pendent On how much there was that was "post-liberation" to show 
us. The Conmiunists were obviously making an attempt to shower 
us with a show of progress. If one didn't get out alone, he got a 
view of unending new buildings. If there were only six new build- 
ings in a city of three million, we would see them all and then go on 
to the next city for the next batch of new stuif. 

My wife and I, being fairly seasoned travelers, realized what an 
erroneous view one could get from guided tours, and so spent much 
of on I- time wandering around alone. The view we got was frankly 
(juite different than much of what had been reported by other trav- 
elers. Witli the exception of Peking, we saw little that was new. 
Our method Avas to get into a petty cab and tell the driver to just 
take us around for 2 liours or so. And we could ride for hours and 
see not one new dwelling or new building of any sort. 

The C'hinese have made quite a thing of tlieir guided tours. 'I'hey 
invite groups — Communist and non-Communist alilce — of trade 
unionists, writers, playwrights, professors, politicians, and so on. 
For these tours they have a regular, unvarying program. I found 
this out partly from reading books by people who had been on these 
tours and partly from Western newsmen in Peking. 

We ran into at least eight other groups of tourists who, like us, were 
invited to Communist China. All of them had about the same itiner- 
ary we had. 

Not only do the tourists go to the same places, but they meet the 
same people, such as Yung Hung Zen, described to me by the liead 
of Reuters Peking, as "China's Little Capitalist Boy," president and 
inheritor of the Sung Sing Textile Mills. 

Mr. Arens. Did Mr. Yung spend any time with the x\merican stu- 
dents? 

Mr. Tyler. He spent the whole 5 days we were in Shanghai point- 
ing out the sights, translating, and lighting our cigarettes. 

He has been mentioned in a number of books written by Western 
Europeans who went to China, as typical of the new capitalists who 
were well cared for and are now productive members of society. 

From what I saw, and from what Western newsmen told me, he 
and many others of his type are no more than paid tourist guides and 
paid spreaders of Communist jargon. 

Mr. Yung tells naive stories of capitalists happily giving up (heir 
factories, dollars, and stocks to the people. Judging by foreign writ- 
ers, such as Simone de Beauvoir, he does an excellent job of convinc- 
ing the naive that no one, not even capitalists, have been mistreated in 
the "New China." 

We went to Mr. Yung's factory, or one of his factories, and he ad- 
mitted to us that he had entertained approximately one group of for- 
eign tourists a week in his factory over the last year. He also invited 
us to his home in two different groups for dinner, one group going 
one night and the next part of the group going the other night. If 
he gave as much time to each tour that he gave to our particular tour, 
he must have been kept very busy by the pure act of showing tour- 
ists around and giving his line of propaganda. 

The man's mind seemed utterly devoid of anything other than Com- 
munist propaganda, and he mouths the same propaganda that one can 



1502 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

read in any Chinese newspaper and magazine and that one hears 
from one end of China to the other, from ofiicials, transhitore, and 
those that are invited to gatherings betAveen tourists and Chinese. 
Xot only the same opinions, but the same phrases, yveve heard from 
"the typical ^Yorkers, fisheimen, boatmen, engineei-s," et cetera, that 
we were introduced to during the trip. I frankly learned that al- 
most every one of these professional tourist greeters are outright 
liars. 

Mr. Arexs. Would you elucidate on this point, please, Mr. Tyler? 

Mr. Tyler. For instance, four ditferent individuals whom we met, 
all well qualified, told us that (1) no Chinese can change his address 
or travel without government permission; and (2) every Chinese car- 
ries a passport listing his economic class, the names of his associates, 
relatives, friends, where they live, what they do, and containing his 
autobiography since the age of eight. 

These facts, however, wei-e flatly denied by every inteqireter and 
most of the people we were purposely introduced to at official func- 
tions. 

There is an individual knovrn among correspondents as "China's 
Little Christian Boy." He is head of the Marxist Catholic Youth 
League, but occupies the same tourist guide function as Yung Hung 
Zen. 

In Shanghai, I and Mr. Dan O'Connell attended a meeting called 
for our benefit by the Marxist Catholic Youth League. We talked 
to a number of young people. They have the same line of thouglit 
and propaganda that we could read in any Chinese magazine and 
that we had been hearing from one end of China to the other. 

The Chinese have a thoroughness to their attempts at indoctrina- 
tion which the Eussians do not possess. In IMoscow we were able to 
purchase copies of The New York Times, which were sent direct to 
our delegation with Russian permission. In China, repeated requests 
for Hong Kong newspapers were met with repeated evasions. When 
I requested them in the name of the group in Peking I was told that 
there were shipping difficulties in sending them such a long distance; 
when we requested tliem in Canton^ — 40 miles from Hong Kong — we 
were told that there were monetary exchange difficulties. This is in 
spite of the new American cars in the streets, in spite of the Kodak 
film in every camera store, in spite of the American whiskey and the 
English clothes for sale. 

I might say from my observation of China tliat tlie Chinese have 
little difficulty in getting the American goods that they want. 

In a locomotive factory in Manchuria we even saw a brand new 
piece of hea^^^ American machinery. 

]Mr. Arexs. Give us a Avord please. iVIr. Tyler, on the Cliinese in- 
doctrination program. 

Mr. Tyler. There was almost constant indoctrination. In every 
city, upon arrival, we would be sent to a hotel and given a lecture 
before even going to our rooms, usually containing statistics which 
seemed to me to ])e outright lies. 

To give a strong example of what seemed to be exaggerated statis- 
tics, we were told that in Shanghai in 1048 there were three cases of 
robbery or blackmail reported every minute; now^ they say there is 
an average of four robberies or blackmailing cases every year. This 
in a city of six million ! 



COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 1503 

The factories we saw presented a similar spectacle. Most were old, 
containing "preliberation" American or .Japanese machinery, and ;yet 
we would be given statistics showing the rate of production rismg 
steadily, from 11)48 to V.):u, to heights of 10, 20, 80 times. 

When I pointed out the contradictions between the old machines 
and the Gargantuan statistics, I was told that before the "liberation," 
these factories had not produced at capacity and that the workers, 
being bitter, worked as little as possible. Frankly, from my own 
experiences, I feel that China has been giving the world very much of 
a story with exaggerated production statistics. During our whole 
time in China there was exactly one all-new^ factory which any of the 
group visited — a truck building plant in Changchun, though in most 
factories we saw at least one new Chinese or Russian machine. 

But we did not see enough new machinery or buildings to justify 
the great rate of production increases which have been released by the 
Chinese to the world since 1951. 

At times the lies of the interpreters became ludicrous. On two oc- 
casions college buildings which had already become aged and were 
at least 20 years old, were pointed out to me as post-liberation 
buildings. 

A railway car we were riding in was said by an interpreter in a 
little speech to the group to be on its first run. But it showed every 
sign of dating back to the 1030*s — its metal being discolored and worn. 

In the face of such lies, barrages of propaganda and speeches, one 
begins to feel his mind unu'illingly cooperates with the Communists. 
Tiiere is a calculated attempt to misuse words by the Chinese in order 
to create ceiiain associations, "American" or "English" are always 
followed by words "imperialists" or "aggressors." "Chinese" or "Rus- 
sian" are always followed by the words "peacemakers" or "people." 
jS^ot one word can be said about the West without a gentle sprinkling 
of such terms as Fascists, warmongers, exploiters; not one word about 
tlie Communist nations without the usual assortment of such terms 
as democracies, freedom, friendly, and so on. 

Mr. Arexs. Please tell us the efrects of their indoctrination 
program. 

Mr. Tyler. When one listens to several speeches a day — before 
meals, on a guided tour, after meals, on arrival and departure from 
cities, et cetera — is in constant consultation or discussion with the in- 
terpreters, and is presented with constant Communist literature, one 
develops a series of Pavlovian associations which are onh^ repressed 
with difficulty. One begins to feel as if his mind were floating on air 
and his thoughts devoid of substance. 

I believe the Chinese tour, which hundreds, if not thousands, of 
foreigners go on every year, is a w^ell planned and calculated attempt 
to indoctrinate by the use of Pavlovian techniques. Unfortunately, 
because the Chinese Communists are so thorough and are such open- 
faced liars, they are bound to have more success in indoctrinating 
foreigners than do the Russians. 

Tlie majority of people in the group were Communists or fellow 
travelers. Of about six nonpolitical members of our group, about 
half turned strongly anti- Communist, and the other half turned 
strongly pro-Communist as a result of the tour. 

I would say this tour does have an excellent indoctrination eifect 
from the Communist point of vievr on those peoples from the poor 



1504 COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

nations of the world, which make up the majority of the guided 
tourists in China. 

I am saying this, judging from my own experience of meeting 
Burmese delegations, Indonesian delegations, Indian delegations, 
Cuban, Egyptian, and delegations from other underdeveloped 
countries. 

In closing, the fact is that Russia is poor and totalitarian ; America 
is rich and free. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Tyler, for your testimony. 

Mr. Tyler. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to be of help. 

("Whereupon, at 3 :40 p.m., Wednesday, March 2, 1960, the hearing 
was adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

A Page 

Abrams. Henry 1478 

Allen, Byron 1478 

Aptheker, Herbert 1438 

Aronson, James 1478 

Atlee, John S 1478 

Austin, Edmund O 1478 

B 

Baird, William T 1478 

Ball, Lee 1480 

Barr, Stringfellow 1478 

Beacher, Abraham 1478 

de Beauvoir. Simone 1501 

Belafonte, Harry 1417 

Bernini, Bruno 1432 

Blumberg, Albert 1438 

Boudin, Leonard B 1478 

Boyden, Walter Mrs 1478 

Bradbury, John W 1478 

Braden, Anne 1478 

Brandweiner, Heinrich 1431 

Brant, Irving 1335 

Brussel, Eleanor 1478 

Burov, Nikolai (Ivanovich) 1331,1473 

Burstein, Nelson 1338, 1339 

O 

Chou En-lai 1500 

Ciardi, John 1478 

Clay, Homer C 1478 

Cohen, Robert S 1478 

Collins, Charles W 1478 

Condon, Edward U 1478 

Corley (Mrs. ) 1375 

Crouch, Paul 1400 

Crown, Joseph H 1478 

D 

Dalglish, Ernest 1478 

Danielsen, Gordon 1369 

Davis, Ben, Jr 1328, 1329, 1370-1376, 

1383, 1384, 1387, 1391-1394 (testimony) ; 1431, 1432 

Delany, Hubert T 1478 

Dickerson, Earl B 1478 

Douglas, Dorothy W 1478 

Dramaliev (Lubomir) 1432, 1433 

Dreyfus, Benjamin 1478 

1 



ii INDEX 

E Page 

Eisenhower, Dwight D 1417,1474 

Ellis, Robert (H.) 1478 

Emerson, Thomas I 1478 

Ervin, Willie 1371 

F 

Farnham, Marynia 1478 

Fitzgerald, Ella 1457 

Foreman, Clark 1335, 1474, 1475, 1478-14S0 

Forer, Joseph 1391, 1398, 1402, 1462 

Foster, William Z 1352 

France, Royal W 1478 

Frankel, Max 1400 

Frantz, Laurent B 1478 

Fritchman, Stephen H 1478 

G 

Gaillard, Albert 1328- 

1332, 1367-1386 (testimony) ; 1387-1390, 1393, 1400, 1464, 1475 

Gallagher, Buell 1437 

Garcias, Jean 1442, 1490 

Gates, John 1392, 1432 

Gillmor, Daniel S 1478 

Gitt, Joshua W 1478 

Goldberg, Harvey 1478 

Goldburg, Robert E 1478 

Grant, Joanne Alileen 132?5, 

1330, 1331, 1374, 1432, 1441, 1471-1480 (testimony) ; 1500 

Gray, Jesse 1328, 1329, 1367, 1368. 1370-1375, 1379, 1381-1384, 1386 

Grubin, Samuel 1478 

H 

Haber, David 1478 

Hall, Gus 1337 

Harper, Fowler (V.) 1478 

Harris, Ernest 1371 

Hitler 1431 

Hoover, J. Edgar 1337, 1345, 1477 

Howells, John N. M 1478 

Huberman, Leo 1478 

I 
Ilyinsky, Andrew 1327,1828,1357-1366 (testimony) 

J 

Jackson, James (E.) 1376 

Jerome, Fred 1329, 1330, 1402-1403 (testimony) ; 1476, 1477 

Johnson, Edna Ruth 1478 

Johnson, Manning 1400 

Jones, Joseph Charles 1330,1332,1451-1461 (testimony) ; 1465, 1466, 1490 

K 

Kadar, Janos 1500 

Kahler, Eric 147S 

Kenny, Robert (W.) 1478 

Kent, Mrs. Rockwell 1478 

Khrushchev (Nikita) 1329, 13.56, 1400, 1421, 1437, 1485, 1495, 1497 

Kuusinen. O. V 1359 

L 

Lamont, Corliss 1478 

Laski, Harold J 1406 

Lavrov, V 1421 



INDEX iii 

Page 

Lavrov, A'ladimii- S l-i')'' 

Lenin (V. I.) 1495 

Lewis, AValter K 1472, 1473 

Lopez, Iguacio L 1478 

Lowitt, Julian 1349 

Lumer, Byman 1325, 1351, 1426, 1428 

Lumer, Wilfred 1428 

Lynn, Conrad J 1478 

M 

MacDougall, Curtis U., Ill 1478 

Mao Tse-tung 1500 

Markmau, Marvin 1328, 1330, 1332, 1374, 1429, 

1432. 1433, 1435, 1441. 1442, 1445. 1472, 1487-1493 (testimony) 

Marshall, Dorothy (N.) 1474,1475,1478,1480 

Matusow, Harvey 1400 

McGowan, Alan 1325, 1331, 

1373, 1374, 1441-1443, 1467-1471 (testimony), 1476, 1477, 1490 

McSwain, Lennie 1369 

McWilliams, Carey 1478 

Mellors, Jo Anne 1437, 1440, 1444 

Meyer, Frank S 1333,1334 

Mevers, AVilliam 1478 

Miller, Clyde 1478 

Millmau, Max R 1478 

Mitchell, Eroadus 1478 

Morris, Tom 1430 

Moy, Alma 1371 

Mufson, Aleiue Austin 1478 

Murtazaev (Kayum) 1411 

N 

Nathan, Otto 1474, 1480 

Nixon, Russ 1478 

O 
O'Connell, Dan 1502 

O'Connor, Harvey 1478, 1480 

O'Dell. Hunter Pitts 1328, 1329. 

1373, 1376. 1377, 1379, 1380, 1383, 1389, 1390-1391 (testimony) 

P 

Perlman, Paul 1491 

Perry, Barbara 1432 

Philbrick, Herbert A 132^1326,1340-1356 (testimony) 

Phillips. Llelen U 1478 

Pickering, John M 1478 

Potash, Leonard 1489 

R 

Rabinowitz, Victor 1478 

Rand, Harry I 1478 

Redding, Louis L 1478 

Reeve, Carta 1328, 1375 

Rein, David 1478. 1487 

Ritman, Richard L 1478 

Rivkin, Malcolm 1455 

Roberts, Holland 1330, 1428-1430 

Robeson, Eslanda (Mrs. Paul Robeson, Sr.) 1350, 1351 

Robeson, Paul, Jr 1328, 

1330, 1331, 1351. 1374, 1377, 1378, 1443, 1448, 1455-1457, 1462- 

1467 (testimony) ; 1476, 1477, 1490. 



iV INDEX 

Page 

Robinson, Freeman 1328, 1373, 1374 

Rogow, Arnold 1478 

Romerstein, Herbert 1330,1332,1425-1440 (testimony) ; 1441, 1444, 1490 

Rosen, Jacob (also known as Jake and Jack Rosen) 1328, 

1329, 1373, 1374, 1398-1402 (testimony) ; 1400, 1432, 1438, 1441, 

1476, 1477, 1491. 

Rosenwald, Robert 1478 

Ruff, WiUie 1444 

S 

Schneider, Max 1431, 1442, 1443, 1490 

Scudder, John 1478 

Seeser, Peter (Pete) 1474,1480 

Shipler, Guy Emery 1478 

Simkins. Mrs. A. W 1478 

Sims, Althea 1456, 1490 

Sipser, I. Philip 1478 

Somers, Bernard J 1478 

Speiser, Lawrence 1386, 1390, 1394, 1467, 1471 

Spencer, Austin 1838 

Stalin (Josef) 1495 

Stavis, Morton 1478 

Stein, Jacob Meyer (also known as Mike Stein) 1438,1491,1492 

Stein, Mike. {See Stein, Jacob Meyer.) 

Stillman, Edgar, Jr 1478 

Stone, Martha 1349 

Straus, Nancy P 1478 

Straus, Robert Ware 1478 

Struik, Dirk 1346, 13.56 

Sweezy, Paul 1478 

Szentendrey, Julius 1331, 1332, 1480-1486 (testimony) 

T 

Thompson, .John B 1478 

Tiger, Edith 1478 

Tsenin, Yury 1421 

Tyler, Stephen 1332, 1493-1504 (testimony) 

Tyler, Mrs. Stephen 149-1-1501 

U 
Uphaus, Willard 1480 

V 

Van Horn, Olive 1478 

Vinogradov, N 1421 

W 

Wachs, Walter 1428 

Walmsley, Arthur E 1478 

Walsh, J. Raymond 1478 

Watson, .James L 1375, 1384 

Weber, Palmer 1478 

Weller, Bernard 1478 

Wesley, David 1478 

West, Leonard 1338 

Wiley, Charles 1330-1332, 1440-1449 (testimony), 1490 

Wiley, Mrs. Charles 1440, 1443, 1444, 1446, 1448 

Wilkinson, J^rank 1346, 13.51, 1478 

Willcox, Henry 1478 

Williams, Herbert 1328, 1.370 

Williams, William A 1478 

WillLston, Floyd 1430, 1442, 1443, 1490 

Wilson, H. H 3478 



INDEX V 

Page 

Wimmer, Ferdinand — 1444 

Wolins, Leroy 1329, 1394-1398 (testimony) 

Wormuth, Francis D 1478 

Y Z 

Young 3377 

Yung Hung Zen 1501, 1502 

Zaslow, Milton 1478 

Zhimerin, D.G 1421 

Okganizations 

A 

Adelphi Hall 1370, 1373, 1374 

Advance 1491-1493 

All-China Federation of Democratic Youth 1500 

All-India Students' Federation (AISF), 15th Conference, January 1959, 

Udaipur 1412 

All Japan Federation of Student Autonomies (Zen Nihon Gakusei Jichikai 

Sorenzo-Zengakuren ) 1412 

American Civil Liberties Union, Washington, D.C., office 1386, 1467, 1476 

American Student Union 1342 

American Youth Congress 1342, 1352 

American Youth Festival Organization (AYFO) Chicago (see also World 

Youth Festival, Seventh) 1330,1432,1454,1490 

American Youth for Democracy (Massachusetts) 1343,1344,1347,1355 

Artek 1351 

Asian-African Youth Conference, February 2-8, 1959, Cairo 1411 

Association of Hungarian Students in North America 1331, 1480 

Association of Vietnamese Scouts — Hoi Huong Dao Vietnam 1412 

Austrian Peace Council 1431 



British National Union of Students 1406 

Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute 1331, 1467 

Burma Young Monks' Association. (See Young Monks' Association, 
Burma.) 

C 

California Labor School 1428, 1430 

Cambodian Socialist Youth. {See Royal Cambodian Socialist Youth.) 

Cambridge Youth Council 1325, 1341, 1342, 1344, 1346 

Canadian Labor Progressive Party 1430 

Central Chorus of Japan (Nippon Chuo Gasshodan) 1412 

Chicago Council of American-Soviet Friendship. {See entry under Na- 
tional Council of American-Soviet Friendship.) 

China Marxist Catholic Youth League 1502 

Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms 1480 

City College of the City of New York 1329, 1398, 1437, 1477, 1488 

Vienna Youth Festival Committee (Seventh Youth Festival) 1437 

Comintern. (See International, III.) 

Committee of Youth Oragnizations of the U.S.S.R 1411, 1421 

Communist Party, Austria 1431, 1435 

Communist Party, Canada 1430 

Communist Party, Poland 1408 

Commtmist Party, Soviet Union 1359 

Twenty-first Congress, January 27, 1959, Moscow 1421 

Communist Party, USA 1329, 1351 

National Structure : 

National Committee 1325, 1326, 1349, 1351-1353, 1393, 1438 

National Youth Commission 1427 

Seventeenth National Convention, December 10-13, 1959, New 

York City 1325, 1326, 1337, 1352, 1353, 1392, 1426, 1427 

States : 

New York State 1328, 1370, 1375, 1384 

New York (Manhattan) Harlem 1328, 1368, 1370, 1373 



Ti INDEX 

Conference for the Defense of the Rights of Youth, 1953. (8cc entry 

under World Federation of Democratic Youth.) 
Conference of Youth of Africa and Asia, Cairo. {See Asian-African Youth 

Conference. ) Page 

Council of Cuban Youth 1420 

Council of Japanese Youth 1420 

Cultural Seminar in Italy (see also "World Federation of Democratic 

Youth) 1408 

Czechoslovak Union of Youth (CSM) 1419, 1421 

Czechoslovakian Union of Students 1361, 1406 

E 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 1334-1336, 1474-1480, 1491 

F 

Faculty of Social Science 1492, 1493 

Free Austrian Youth 1428,1437 

G 

General Union of Iraqi Students 1416 

Globus Verlag (print shop in Vienna) 1435 

H 

Harlem Council. (See Lower Harlem Tenants Council.) 

Harlem Youth Congress 132S, 1329, 1332, 1371, 1372, 1375, 1383 

Hungarian National Student Association 1483 



Independent Services for Information on the Vienna Youth Festival 

(see also World Youth Festival, Seventh) 1453 

Indian Congress Party (India) 1420 

International, III 1359, 1404 

International Agency of Student Government 1477 

International Association of Democratic Lawyers 1361, 1405 

International Gathering of Rural Youth, 1954. (See entry under World 
Federation of Democratic Youth.) 

International Organization of Journalists 1361, 1405 

International Preparatory Committee, International Union of Students. 

(See entry under International Union of Students.) 
International Preparatory Committee, World Youth Festival, Seventh. 
(Sec entry under World Youth Festival, Seventh.) 

International Union of Socialist Youth 1410 

International Union of Students 1327, 1330, 1361-1363, 1405-1422, 1428, 1436 

Executive Committee 1362, 1406-1408, 1415, 1416 

First World Student Congress, August 1946, Prague 1362, 1406, 1407 

Fourth World Student Congress, 1957 1409 

International Preparatory Committee 1362, 1406 

Latin Youth Festival, July 1960, Havana, Cuba 1436 

Second World Student Congress, August 1950. Prague 1408 

Secretariat 1362, 1407 

Investigating Committee of Free Jurists (Berlin) 1431 

J 

Jefferson School of Social Science 1493 

Johnson C. Smith University (Charlotte, N.C.) 1330,14.51 

Junges Leben (Austrian youth organization) 1431 

K 

Khmer Students Union (Sahakheap Nicett Khmer), Cambodia 1412 

Korean Democratic Youth League 1416 



INDEX vii 

L Page 

Labor Youth League 1352 

Latin Youth Festival. (See entry under International Union of Students.) 
Lower Harlem Tenants Council 1329, 1386, 1388 

N 

National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (NTS) 1437 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Chicago Council 1394 

National Council of Choirs (Japan) 1412 

National Federation of Canadian University Students 1430 

National Student Conference 1477 

National Students Association. (See U.S. National Student Association.) 

National Union of Brazilian Students 1415 

National Union of Students 1412, 1413 

National Youth Lobby 1342 

O 

Oberlin College 1338, 1339 

Otisville Training School For Boys (New York) 1368, 1369 

P 

Partisans of Peace 1407 

People's Rights Party 1375,1384 

People's Youth of Yugoslavia 1421 

Polish Youth Union (Poland) 1408 

Progressive Education Association 1430 

R 

Rangoon University Students' Union 1415 

Republican Party ; Young Republican Club, Oberlin College 1338, 1339 

Reuters News Agency 1494, 1500 

Royal Cambodian Socialist Youth 1412 

S 

SCOPE. {See Student Committee on Progressive Education.) 
Seminar of Rural Youth in Bulgaria {see also World Federation of Demo- 
cratic Youth) 1408 

Seminar of Sports in Hungary (see also World Federation of Democratic 

Youth ) 1408 

Seminar of Working Youth in Rumania {see also World Federation of 

Democratic Youth) 1408 

Socialist Youth League of Canada 1430 

Socialist Youth of Burma 1412 

Southern Negro Youth Congress 1352 

Soviet Information Bureau 1421 

Student Committee on Progi-essive Education (SCOPE) 1374, 

1426, 1427, 1438, 1492, 1493 

Sung Sing Textile Mills 1501 

U 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of: Embassy, Washing- 
ton, D.C 1329, 1395, 1397 

United Nations : 

India Mission 1331, 1471 

Soviet Mission 1331, 1473 

United States Festival Committee. {See entry under World Youth Festi- 
val, Seventh.) 

United States Government : Treasury Department — Customs, Bureau 

of 1327, 1.3.57 

United States National Student Association 14.j2, 14.58, 1477 



ViU INDEX 

W 

Page 

Women's International Democratic Federation 1360, 1405 

World Council of Peace. ( -See World Peace Council. ) 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 1327, 

1330, 1361-1363, 1405-1422, 1428-1430, 1432 

Fifth Assembly, August 10, 1959, Prague, Czechoslovakia 1420 

International Conference in Defense of the Rights of Youth, March 

22-27, 195:^. Vienna, Austria 1408 

International Conference of Working Youth, August 8-18, 1948, War- 
saw, Poland 1407 

International Gathering of Rural Youth, 1954 1408 

Southeast Asia Conference, April 1948, Calcutta 1407 

See also: 

Cultural Seminar in Italy. 
Seminar of Working Youth in Rumania. 
Seminar of Rural Youth in Bulgaria. 
Seminar of Sports in Hungary. 

World Federation of Scientific Workers 1.361, 1405 

World Federation of Trade Unions 1360, 1405 

World Peace Council (also known as World Council of Peace) 3360, 

1405, 1407, 1428, 1429, 1431, 1435 

World Youth Conference, October 29 to November 10, 1945, London 1361, 

1362, 1406 
World Youth Festivals: 

First Youth Festival, July 20 to August 7, 1947, Prague 1407, 1409 

Second Youth Festival, August 14-28, 1949, Budapest 1407, 1409 

Third Youth Festival, August 5-19, 1951, East Berlin 1407, 1409 

Fourth Youth Festival, 1953, Bucharest 1408, 1409 

Fifth Youth Festival, July 19.55, Warsaw, Poland 1408, 1409, 1477 

Sixth Youth Festival, July 28 to August 11, 1957, Moscow 1329, 

1332, 1409, 1473, 1477, 1494-1498, 1500 

Seventh Youth Festival, July 26-August 4, 1959, Vienna 1323, 

1329-1332, 1334, 139.3-1395, 1399, 1400, 1409, 1410, 1420, 1426, 1428, 1429, 
1432-1437, 1439-1446, 1448, 1449, 1451-1457, 1460, 1461, 1464-1466, 1469, 
1470, 1472, 1473, 1477, 1481, 1482, 1488-1492. 

International Preparatory Committee 1330, 

1428-1431, 1434, 1435, 1437, 1442, 1454, 1455, 1461, 1490 

United States Festival Committee (New York) 1330-1332, 

1429, 1432, 1433, 1472, 1473, 1477, 1488-1491 
See also: 

American Youth Festival Organization (AYFO). 
Independent Services for Information on the Vienna Youth Festi- 
val. 



Young Communist International, Fifth Congress, 1929, Moscow 1360, 1404 

Young Communist League 1342-1346, 1351, 1352, 1355, 1360, 1404, 1496 

Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) 1348 

Philippines 1411, 1412 

Thailand 1412 

Young Monks' Association, Burma 1412 

Young Progressives 1342 

Young Republican Club, Oberlin College. (See entry under Republican Party.) 

Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) 1348 

Philippines 1411, 1412 

Thailand 1412 

Youth Against the House Un-American Activities Committee 1331, 

1332, 1393, 1473-1476, 1479 

Youth Committee for Ben Davis 1372, 138.3 

Youth for Victory 1342 

Youth for Wallace 1342 

Yugoslav Union of Students 1408 



INDEX ix 

PUBUCATIONS 

Page 

About Young Girls 1413 

Amsterdam News 1375, 13S2, 1389 

Assembly (of the World Federation of Democratic Youth) 1421, 1423 

Congressional Investigations and Bills of Attainder 1335 

Control Figures for the Economic Development of the U.S.S.R 1421 

Culture and Youth 3410 

Cz(ichoslovak Youth 1421, 1423 

Dr. Zhivago 1437 

Economy of the Soviet Union, Past and Present 1421, 1422 

Education in the U.S.S.R 1421 

Great Seven- Year Plan, The 1421 

Handbook of Asian Youth and Student Organizations 1411 

Health Protection in the Soviet Union 1421 

lUSY Survey 1410 

Information Bulletin 1410, 1411, 1421, 1423 

Information Service 1418 

Jeunesse du Monde (World Youth) 1414 

Key to a Big Heart, The (book) 1421 

Masters of Deceit (book) 1345 

Medical Student 1413 

Mlodiez Swiata (World Youth) 1414,1423 

New World Review 1350 

News Service 1417, 1418, 1421, 1423 

Organizer 1438 

Political Affairs 1349, 1351, 1426 

Radar 1421,1422 

Rural Youth 1410 

Soviet Budget, The 1421 

Story of an American Communist, The 1392 

Students for Peace 1415, 1419 

Studies on the Left (journal) 143S 

Tribuna Lidu (Polish newspaper) 1408 

Voice of Youth (newspaper) 1405 

Volks Stimme 1435 

WFDY News 1421, 1422 

Washington Post, The 1436, 1447, 1449 

Way To Further Economic Progress, The 1421 

Working Youth (publication) 1410 

World Student News 1364, 1365, 1413, 1421, 1422 

World Youth 1363, 1365, 1410, 1413, 1418, 1421, 1422, 1429 

Young Worker 1419 

Youth 1427 

Youth and Sport 1410 

Youth Life 1421 

o 



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