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A General Comparative View of Stria, .... 1 

Review of the Authorities on the Geography of Palestine, . 22 


The Land of Canaan, with its Inhabitants as existing previous 

to the Conquest of the Countrt bt the Israeutes, . 104 

1. Names: Aram and Syria; Syrians, Aramieans, and Hebrews, 104 

2. The Land of Canaan and the Canaanites in relation to 

Phoenicia and the PhoenicianB, . ' . . .106 

8. The Primitive Population of the Country prior to its poeses- 

sion by the Israelites, .115 

4. Specification of the Tribes of Canaan in its broadest sense : 
the Perizzites, Hittites, Hivites, Amorites, Girgashites, 
and Jebusites, • . . . .119 


Tribes living outside of Canaan, with most of whom the Israel- 
ites came into permanent Relations of Hostility, . . 180 






The Upper Course of the Jordan, from its Source to the 

Waters of Merom, ...... 160 

DiscuRSiON 1. The Sources of the Jordan, and Upper Course as far 

as to Lake el-Huleh, . . . .163 


The Middle Stage of the Jordan Basin from el-Huleh to Lake 

OF Gennesareth, ...... 226 

DiscuRSlON 1. The Cultivated Plain of el-Batiheh; et-Tell; the 

Two Bethsaidas in Galilee and Gaulonitis, . 226 

„ 2. The Sea of Galilee or Gennesareth — ^Chinnereth — The 
Sea of Tiberias — Names, Situation, Navigation, 
Aspect of the Region adjacent — Creological Cha- 
racteristics — Hot and Cold Springs, Salt Waters 
— Earthquakes, Winds, Climate — ^Nature of the 
Vegetation on the Coast, . . . 235 

„ 3, 4. The Shores of the Sea of Galilee, . . .253 

(1.) The Galikean or West and North-west Side of the 

Lake, . . . . .253 

(2.) The South and South-east Side of the Lake, . 278 

,, 5. The Great Caravan Road from the East Side of the 

Lake to Damascus, .... 284 


The Lower Course of the Jordan, from Sea of Galilee to the 

Dead Sea, ....... 287 

DiscuRSiON 1. First Attempt to navigate the Jordan to the Dead 

Sea— Molyneux, . . . .287 

,, 2. The first Eastern Tributary of the Jordan — the 
Yarmuk or Sheriat el Mandara (Hieromaz) — Om 
Keis (Gadara)— The Hot Springs of Hamath or 
Amatta, ...... 299 



DiscuRSiON 3. The Three North-westerly Tributaries between the 

Sea of Gkdilee and Beishan — ^Tabor and Hennon, 308 

,, 4. Wadi Beisan — The City of Beisan and the Mountains 

of Gilboa— Jezreel, . . .821 

„ 5. The Jordan Valley south of Beisan, with the Western 

Tributaries as far as Jericho, . . 336 

„ 6. Partial Corrections and Additions supplementary to 

the Accounts of Burckhardt and De Bertou, . 340 

„ 7. Schultz* Excursions from Shiloh to Kefr Istunah 
(Alezandrium), Earn el Sartabeh, Karijut 
(Eoreffi), Burj el Farina, and el-Bassalija 
(Archelais), . . . . .342 

„ 8. Wadi Fassail and its Palm Gardens, . . 346 

„ 9. Dr Barth's Excursions between the Jordan and 

Nablus in 1847, 347 

„ 10. General Observations regarding the great Line of 
Watershed; the Absolute and Relative Heights 
of Localities on the West Side of the Jordan, . 352 


I. Geographical Positions according to G. W. M. Van de Velde, 359 

II. Altitudes according to Van de Velde, .... 373 

[II. Tobler'sjRerame of Works on Palestine, . . .391 

IV. Tristram^s Discussion on Site of Capernaum, . • .410 

V. Tristram's Visit to Beisan, . . . . . . 415 




|ROM the Sinai Peninsula, which we may regard as 
the vestibule of Palestine, we advance into the 
Promised Land by three routes : the first along the 
shore from Gaza to Askelon; the second on the 
track of the pilgrims, over the very back of the Tih plateau, 
in a path more or less trodden in the most ancient as well as 
in comparatively modern and in most recent times — ^gradu- 
ally exchanging the savage waste for the deepening green of 
the outlying southern eminences of the Jebel Chalil or Hebron, 
once inhabited by a thronging population, and covered with 
cities; and the third by the route which has been re-opened 
within our days — the most easterly one of all — that of Wadi 
Musa, through the depression' of the Araba and el-Ghor to the 
southern extremity of the Dead Sea, where the great gorge 
which runs through the whole length of Palestine finds its key, 
and solves the entire physical character of the country. 

Pursuing the habitual manner in which I have dealt with 
other countries, I shall not undertake to limit myself to such 
an exhaustive account of Palestine as would meet the wants of 
a biblical student :^ this has been well and thoroughly done by 
H. Reland and by K. von Eaumer. We have to do with a 
district which does not reveal itself to us in its highest interests 

> As this preliminary survey is literally rendered into English from the 
German, Ritter^s expression must be applied rather to his own work than 
to this condensed translation, which has been prepared with express refer- 
ence to the wants of biblical students. — ^Ed. 



when studied in its own special sections and subdivisions, but 
in its relation to all the countries which surround it, and in 
fact to the entire world ; and with a district, too, where all the 
phenomena of national and individual life are so inextricably 
mingled with those of the physical conditions of the country, 
that the result is a blending of characteristics so varied and 
comprehensive that there is not a land or a nation which does 
not find something of itself reflected there.^ 

As it is nowhere mere rough power or external greatness 
which gains sway in the higher departments of affairs, but the 
inward force, the soul of fire, the strong heart, so is it with the 
might and the authority of territorial domains. Palestine be- 
longs, so far as mere size is concerned, to the smallest and most 
insignificant countries on the earth ; but its name is one of 
those most often spoken and most universally loved. Wherever 
Christian men are found, there it is a hallowed name, to which 
sacred thoughts, feelings, associations, and convictions cling, 
and which is bound up with all that is most valued by the 
judgment or dear to the heart. And wherever heathen nations 
are found upon the earth, there this Holy Land is yet to be 
loved, until all eyes shall rest upon it as the birth-place of the 
true faith, and the scene of the grandest revelations ever made 
by God to man. 

And even the very banished children of Palestine, who 
never advanced beyond the knowledge of God's law^ and never 
accepted the fulfilling of that law in the words and works of the 
Saviour of mankind, are still bound to the country which their 
fathers loved, and conquered, and possessed. Their circle of 
ideas does not yet free itself from the land from which they 
have been driven out. The patriarchal ties — the belief in 
Jehovah the one God of their ancestors — the temple built on 
Moriah — the splendid procession of judges, prophets, lawgivers, 
psalmists, and kings — the very conquest which subdued their 
nation, and the banishment which made them exiles, have con- 
spired to perpetuate the bond which binds the Jewish people to 
their former home. Thither hundreds of Hebrews even now 
wander back, after troubled and shipwrecked lives, to find in 
the land of tlieir fathers a peaceful resting-place, at least for 

^ See this point finely developed in the opening pages of Stanley's and 
Tristam's works on Palestine.— Ed. 


their bones. They come from the East as well as from the 
West, longing for peace, and lay themselves down in a land 
which is theirs only as they may purchase some little fragment 
of it, making it their most cherished wish to die and be buried 
under the sacred shadow of Mount Moriah. 

Even their conquerors and oppressors, the hard and wilful 
Arabs and Turks, who now possess the land, share in the same 
fancy, which, though it be a folly, yet is a human and a touch- 
ing one. The Mohammedan places Palestine only second in 
sacredness to the birth-place of the prophet; and Jerusalem 
they designate as " el-Kods," or more exactly, " el-Guds," the 
Holy City. The pilgrimage to the Haram, Le. to the mosque 
which the Caliph Omar erected on the site of the temple of 
Solomon, is the most meritorious one which he can make, 
excepting that to Mecca. 

Within the narrow limits of Palestine we must look for the " 
foundations of that kingdom of truth as well as of error, which 
has now become a subject of historic inquiry : we must trace 
the latest results to their primitive causes in the geographical 
conditions of the country : for even here there is opportunity 
for such agents as the soil under man's foot, and the atmosphere 
over his head, to have influence. If every garden plot owes a 
part of the rapid progress in flowering and in fruitage to the 
skilful and the careful hand of the gardener, cannot every land 
in God's wide creation trace, under His whe direction, some 
measure of mutual action and reaction between the country and 
the people who inhabit it? Our historians have many things 
yet to learn, and even yet they continue to fall, into one-sided 
speculations, which betray them and lead them astray. But here 
is one elemental truth : history does not lie in a domain adjoin- 
ing nature, so to speak, but actually within the bosom of nature: 
history and nature are at one, as God looks down upon them 
from His canopy of stars. In studying the human soul, the mode 
of its training, the way of its working — and that is history — we 
cannot leave out of our view the outward field in which it finds 
its home, the world where it meets the phenomena which it 
investigates. In spite of the self-confidence of that pretence 
which science sometimes makes in the person of some of her 
votaries, of finding all that she needs within the soul of man, 
and in a mere world of subjective realities, we may boldly 


assert) that a close study of the outward world, as the souFs 
training place, is the only true key to history. 
/ And such a close connection between the local geography of 
the place and the mental characteristics of the people, b espe- 
cially to be traced where there was the peculiar simplicity and 
closeness to nature of the patriarchal inhabitants of Palestine : 
a simplicity and an intimate communion with the fields and the 
waters and the skies, traceable alike in the meadows of Meso- 
potamia, under the Assyrian heavens, and in the land to which 
the first shepherds found their way ; alike on the Euphrates 
and on the Jordan, at the foot of Ararat and of Hermon. To 
the same close connection can be traced the primitive settlers* 
wanderings all over Canaan, their incursions into Arabian 
territory, and their temporary sojourn in Egypt, then as much 
a centre in respect to the fertility of its soil as to intellectual 
culture. To the same may be traced the necessity which 
called for the giving of the law amid the thunders of Sinai, and 
the wandering of Israel through the Arabian desert Thither 
also is traceable the rise of twelve tribes in a land flowing with 
milk and honey, hard by the rocky crags of Petraea, Judaea, and 
Ephraij?*. Here, too, we find the significance of the Jordan 
valley, the deep course of the Kedron, and the gorge which, 
as it opened, swallowed up Sodom. To this we must ascribe 
the isolation of Jerusalem, and the towering up of Sion and 
Moriah, as if to call the whole world unto them. In this, too, 
we find the meaning of the harbours, the seas, the cedars of 
Lebanon, the dew upon Hermon, the fruitful vale of Sharon, 
the flowery plain of Esdraelon, the beautiful landscape of 
Galilee dotted with lakes, and the barren deserts which gird the 
plains and the palm trees of Jericho. 

Who can deny that there are individual features in the physi- 
cal character of a country which are not to be merely grouped as 
inarticulate and dead appendages to its soil, but are to be studied 
in their strong reflex action on the life of the people, affecting 
local traditions, affecting history, affecting the life of nations 
and states,' affecting religion and all thought? And if our earth 
does not swing around its sun, a mere dead, inorganic planet, but 
an organism, a living work from the hand of a living God, there 
must be a similar close and vital connection, like that between 
body and soul, between nature and history, between a land and 


its people, between physics and ethics, if I may so speak. It 
would certainly be impossible to conceive of the development 
of such a history as that of Israel taking place anywhere else 
than in Palestine. Nowhere else on the earth could that series 
of events, and that peculiar training which the people of. God 
had to pass through, have found a theatre so conspicuous to the 
eyes of all the world as that narrow land of Palestine. 

To grasp such a fact as this in its more general relations, 
and to hold it up ; to make every man understand how much is 
involved in the individuality of each country, in what is pecu- 
liarly its own physical features, and how deep and wide their 
influence is upon man, — is what gives to the science of geo- ^ 
graphy its dignity and worth. And it would be well deserving 
of much patient research, to trace the conditions and the laws 
which gave character to the primitive abode of the Hebrews, 
and to show how Providence led them up the steps, cut as it 
were in the rocks of their own soil, to the " large place" for 
which He was fitting them ; to indicate, too, the gain which the 
children of Israel found in their newly won Canaan ; to show 
how in that gain all races of men ever since have shared, and 
how the peculiarities of the physical structure of Palestine have 
come to be a kind of possession, so to speak, to men living at the 
very ends of the earth. The need is great for an exhaustive 
physical geography of Palestine ; and yet it must be confessed 
none has yet been written, despite the reports of thousands who 
have visited the Holy Land, and given us their oral or their 
printed reports. It is only within the latest years that any 
attempt in this direction has been made, and no thorough re- 
sults have yet been attained. The work which I oflFer must 
therefore be a tentative effort, rather than such a perfect work 
as can some day be expected, but for which the materials are 
not yet ready. 

Whoever is denied the privilege of looking upon the face 
of a country which becomes the subject of his study, and which 
. has been the scene of great historical events, will find that 
those very events, viewed in a true historical light, reflect as 
from a perfect mirror the physical characteristics of the country 
where they have occurred, and from which their influence has ^ 
gone forth to other parts of the world. To stand close to the 
subject of our studies is not always best : the special features 


are brought too much into view ; and the mind is in peril of 
being led astray, of losing the unity of the subject, and of 
being engulfed and lost in a whirl of details. The personal 
observations of tourists are not therefore always pure gold to 
the scientific student, because very few tourists have the acumen 
needful for the highest purposes of travel. The facts which 
observers bring back must be subjected to the crucible of learn- 
ing and thought before they become truly valuable; more 
especially, they must be subjected to the touchstone of history, 
and then their worth or their lack of worth appears. Often- 
times there are secrets which are passed over in a hurried, 
superficial way for hundreds of years, before the man comes 
who can bring out their meaning, and set them in a clear, 
strong light. 

That this has been the case with Palestine, admits of no 
question. Of the hundreds of thousands who have made their 
pilgrimage thither, of the thousands who have gone for the 
purpose of thorough observation and inquiry, how few there 
are who, with all that they have brought away for themselves, 
have added anything to the possessions of others, have aug- 
mented at all the sum of human knowledge about the Holy 
Land I A man cannot stand at the foot of a very lofty object, 
and distinctly see the point where it touclies the clouds ; and 
the majority of those pious persons who visit Palestine are so 
overcome by the touching associations of the place, that they 
lose their cool judgment, cast away the common standards by 
which they measure the objects of interest in less hallowed 
spots, and give us little which in a scientific point is valuable. 
One who stands farther away may be better able to discern the 
summit, than one who stands at the very foot of a mountain. 
On the wild crags of Switzerland, if you go too near, you are 
rewarded only by the view of an inextricable tangle of brush 
and confused rocks; but if you stand at a distance, you can 
make out all the details, and have before you the unity of a 
single combined picture. 

It is not otherwise with the point of view which science is 
compelled to take. Yet it has not been possible at all times for 
geographical science to gain such a point of view : thousands 
of preparatory steps have sometimes to be taken before it is 
reached. Only by a very gradual transition could the geography 


of Palestine be brought out from the thick clouds of darkness 
iwhich have so long rested upon its records and its sources : it 
was a country unknown to those outside of it, even in the re- 
motest periods of history : even its nearest neighbours, even the 
most accomplished nations of antiquity, knew little or nothing 
about it. Palestine was from the very outset a land set apart^ 
as Israel was a people set apart; and for two thousand years 
it remained so. No great highway led through it from nation 
to nation; all went by it, over the roads which skirted it 
without traversing it, and which all found their type in the 
sea-line which ran from the harbours of the ancient Phoenician 
cities to Egypt, along a shore which was almost devoid of 
havens. The adoption of the theocracy of Jehovah prevented 
all the other nations of antiquity from forming any ties of 
alliance with a people so separated from them by geographical 
conditions, and by mercantile, political, and religious opinions : 
the theocratic idea formed a perfect cordon around Canaan, 
and effectually separated all other nations from the chosen 
people which inhabited it. 

Palestine, considered in its connection with the whole of 
Syria, extends from the Isthmus of Suez and the Sinai Penin- 
sula at the south, northward to the middle terrace land of the 
Euphrates, where that river breaks madly through the southern 
branch of the Syrian Taurus. 

Syria is bounded by a great sea of sand on the east, as by a 
great sea of water on the west : it is separated, therefore, alike 
from the Orient and Occident, and set in a place of isolation. 
Had it been longer than it is, and narrower than it is, it must 
have been a mere link between the Armenian highlands of the 
Taurus and Egypt, and the whole course of its history must 
have been radically different from what it has been: there 
must have been a free flowing in of the comparatively rude life 
of the former, and with this a ready entrance of Egyptian 
culture, both of which would have met and coalesced in a third 
and new type of civilisation. The geographical situation and 
relations of Palestine conditioned its history from the very first, 
and appointed it to be a bridge arching across a double sea of 
desert sands, and of waters which the want of harbours made 
useless to it : it connected the Euphrates with the Nile, that 
the nation which God had selected while its representative was 


an aged Chaldee chieftain might pass safely to Egypt and 
thence hack to the place which He had appointed for its 
possession, thenceforth to he isolated from the world, and 
unimperilled by it./ No other country of the ancient world 
lay as Palestine, the southern half of Syria, did in this 
regard : the northern portion, Soristan, was far less advan- 
tageously situated ; lying on the great highway from Babylon 
and the Euphrates, it was early made a prey to the mighty 
armies of the East. Palestine lay in the same pathway, and 
yet she was spared, and for centuries no enemy came near her. 
Surrounded by the six great nations of antiquity, the splendour 
of whose culture is yet a marvel to the world — the Babylonians, 
the Assyrians, the Modes, the Persians, the Phoenicians, and 
the Egyptians— ^nd kept apart from them all, it was able to 
develop its monotheistic religion, to establish its own special 
polity, to create an entirely antagonistic system of national 
economy, and to arrive at perfect independence. 'There was 
no country so situated in relation to three great continents and 
five great bodies of water ; so that when the fulness of time had 
come, there was no delay in sending the gospel to the very ends 
of the earth. ^ May we not see in such a wonderful display of 
adaptive conditions, which have exerted a decisive effect on the 
whole course of history, and on the destinies of millions, more 
than the work of a mere random chance, more than the arbi- 
trary upheaving of the ground, the hollowing out of valleys 
and gorges at another place, and the letting in the waters of 
the ocean to form an arm of the sea at still another ? j When 
we arrive at a point of view where we command at a glance 
the whole course of history, and see great causes work out great 
effects — effects which work as broadly as they work deeply — 
may we not recognise the working of a Divine Mind above it 
all, controlling the issue as well as forming the plan ; and not 
alone in the past — having done all His task and resting thereafter 
— but still carrying on His work and perfecting it f Is it possible 
that claims can be made in the name of science to a profound 
study of the earth, when its very organic character is over- 
looked, when it is supposed to be a dead inert mass, and when 
it is compared with any of those bodies which we call inorganic, 
and which we invest with no life or being, and cast out from 
the list of organized things ? In a hundred places, which have 


exerted an evident inflaence on the course of history, a deeper 
study can detect what I call the earth-organism, meaning 
thereby a certain subtle but real organic power, which the earth 
puts forth and gives to its inhabitants, not to be confounded, 
however, with any life of the globe which pantheism may 
claim. And even in those places where no living connection ' 
is yet traceable between the country and the man, where the 
earth seems all thrown in hap-hazard forms, — sea, and gulf, 
and lake, and mountain, and plain, and desert, — Shaving no 
pre-arranged harmony of design and ultimate end as a home 
for man and as a field for history, it will be found in the end 
tliat even there God's plans were laid and His work was in 
execution no less fully and manifestly than in those places 
which we call the classic ground of history. 

Palestine's peculiar position in relation to the rest of the 
world was very early apparent. Surrounded by populous, 
wealthy, and powerful nations, it and its capital remained in 
their centre (see Ezek. xxxviii. 12, in umbilico terrcBy accord- 
ing to the LXX. quoted in Jerome), but untouched by their 
traiSc, and made inaccessible by desert sands and by seas, — 
kept secure by crags, and gorges, and mountains, — a country 
without great natural charms, without wealth, and presenting 
few inducements to the rapacity of outlying nations. Thus in 
a truly independent way, in the undisturbed cultivation of its 
rough and hard but richly remunerative soil, and unattracted 
to foreign fields by open roadsteads and favouring seas, it 
could develop fully the old patriarchal system, and fulfil the 
whole expectations concerning the people Israel. This it could 
accomplish by reason of its isolation, the faith of its people 
being kept pure from the superstitions which were accepted by 
the surrounding nations. 'And this order of things went on for 
century after century, till the time came for the special mission 
of the Hebrew people to terminate, and for their land to become 
the temporal home of a single nation, but the spiritual home of 
all. When the fulfilling of the law had come, and the outer 
bounds of the country had been broken through and the enemy 
had pressed in, the roads were opened at once for the dissemi- 
nation of the gospel all over the world ; and the very destruc- 
tion of the Jewish capital, and the scattering of that nation, 
which occurred simultaneously with the fulfilling of the law in 


the coming of the Saviour, were made means to the same 
wonderful end. 

This union of amazing contrasts, perfect isolation and inde- 
pendence, with the ability to go out from this isolation and 
establish commercial relations with all the greatest nations of 
antiquity — the Arabians, Indians, and Egyptians, as well as 
with Syrians, Armenians, Greeks, and Komans — ^is the most 
striking feature in the country destined to be the scene of 
the history of the chosen people. 

It is also an observable fact, and one which, even if it does 
not spring from the same physical conditions, is nevertheless 
closely connected with them, that the three great religions 
which emanated from that part of the earth — Judaism, Christi- 
anity, and Islamism — have proved themselves the ones for the 
reception of which men generally are most susceptible, and 
which have the greatest possibility of endurance. And these 
religions could only have gone out with the success which they 
have commanded, from a central region : had they sprung up 
in a country on one side, they would not have brought the dis- 
trict at the centre into speedy subjection. Even the realm of 
spiritual ideas is subject, therefore, to geographical conditions ; 
but it is none the less a free realm notwithstanding : for that 
law of the Spirit, Le. of God, although it is strong, and brings 
even the thoughts of men into subjection to it, yet rules in ac- 
cordance with the truest and most certified principles of human 

Looking now at Palestine more in detail, we discover that 
its barriers are very sharply defined on the west, the south, and 
the east, but that at the north it stretches away into Syria 
without a specially marked boundary line. Still, sharp mathe- 
matical lines are to be found nowhere in a scientific use of 
geography: it is connections rather than demarcations with 
which we have to do ; dependence rather than independence; the 
mutual action and reaction of nations upon each other, rather 
than their isolated development. Just as little as any one limb 
of an animal organism can be detached from the living whole of 
which it forms a part, and studied by itself and independently of 
its relations, can any part of the world be viewed by itself, and 
be exhaustively studied. This has been too much the case with 
the writers of our ordinary geographical text-books; and the 


lands which should have been exhibited in their living relations, 
have been presented as mere dead masses of rock and soil. We 
see, on the other hand, in every country, only a limb i?yhose 
relations to the organic body must be sedulously traced, and 
whose special functions cannot be understood till they are 
studied, not in the imperfect light which a mere fragment 
yields, but in the perfect light which the whole throws upon 
every constituent part. 

The principal character of Syria, of which Palestine forms 
only the south-western portion, is determined mainly by the 
direction of its mountain ranges : these, whether assuming the 
larger form or the smaller one of broad-backed hills, traverse 
the whole country in northerly and southerly lines. The Jordan 
and the Orontes run along the main valleys in just contrary 
directions — ^the former towards the greatest southerly, and the 
latter towards the greatest northerly depression. These lines 
serve to indicate the parallelism which obtains between the 
mountain ranges, the valleys, and the coast line of Syria. Three 
dijfferent kinds of territory are the result — three meridianal 
belts traceable all the way from the sea-shore to the eastern 

East of these two main streams lies the desert, a plateau 
ranging from 1200 to 2000 feet in height, and stretching away 
eastward in unbroken uniformity ; at the west is the coast, a 
belt varying in breadth; and between the two, the country 
proper, a broad mountain land, in elevation ranging from a very 
moderate altitude to the alpine proportions of Hermon, which 
towers 9000 feet above the sea. 

The belt which runs along the eastern frontier from north 
to south, traversing all Sjrria from the extreme limits of the 
Taurus to the Sinai desert, is not remarkable for any marked 
grandeur iu its physical features, and is tolerably uniform in 
its characteristics, being made up to a considerable extent of a 
broad plateau of steppe land, rock and sand and debris being 
freely intermingled in its formation, and forming an immeasur- 
able succession of high plains, whose effect is manifest in the 
course of the Euphrates, which has been driven to the eastward 
thereby, and removed from the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Mediterranean Sea. Dotted only sparsely with places of fertility, 
oasis-like, it has always been the home of wild, nomadic Beduin 


races, who, like Israel in its shepherd days, gain their sub- 
sistence by a restless wandering. Lying for the most part from 
one to two thousand feet above the sea, there are found here, 
in addition to the dry continental climate of the neighbouring 
Heja, a bright sky, hot summers, severe winters, and cutting 
winds, especially from the east and north-east. Dryness, a scanty 
supply of trees and of springs, are the natural result of these 
physical conditions, as we know is the case along the whole 
southern frontier of Palestine. Yet there aro certain portions 
of this tract which are very much favoured by their supply of 
water. For here is the great route for caravans on their way 
from the Euphrates to Arabia, passing from Zeugma, near el-Bir 
and Rumkala, southward via Aleppo, Damascus, el-Belka, on 
the east side of the Jordan and the Dead Sea to Medina and 
Mecca. All along the way there is a succession of oases, giving 
ample supplies of water for the needs of pilgi'ims, not lying in 
the direct line of travel, however, but causing it to turn and 
twist so as to embrace in its course these natural halting-places. 
The pilgrimage from Aleppo to Medina usually occupies forty- 
eight days, of which the half are usually consumed in Syria, the 
entire distance being what is embraced between 31° and 36^** 
N. lat., or about 364 miles. If we trace upon the map the chief 
halting-places of these pilgrims, we gain the clearest possible 
conception of their route. 

From the Euphrates the caravans require two days to bring 
them to Aleppo, lying 1200 feet above the sea,^ and at Se** 12' 
N. lat. ; thence to Horns (Emesa), on el-Aasi (the Orontes), it 
is a six days' march. Thence to Damascus, 33° 32' 28" N. lat., 
and at an altitude of over two thousand feet above tlie sea, it 
requires four days. From that point it is a nine days' march 
to Belka, at the north-eastern extremity of the Dead Sea ; and 
the last stage is thence to the Kalaat el Hassa or el Hossa, near 
Shehak, 31"* N. lat., at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. 
From that point the route lies for twenty-four days through 
Arabian soil, with the exception of the first three or four, 
which take the pilgrims over Kalaat, Aeneze, Maan, eastward 
from Petra to the Syrian Akaba, lying east of Jebal and Jebel 
Shera (Seir), through the intermediate territory of the ancient 
Syria Sobal, before they leave the country at the Akaba esh 
» Erdk. X. 955. 


Shamie or el Sham, and, crossing tlie rocky boundary, fairly 
enter the trae Heja. 

The second belt, running northward and southward — the 
maritime one at the west, the sea-coast of Syria — is of very 
moderate breadth, never over a few miles wide, and often 
reduced to a mere strip along the shore by th6 invasion of the 
rocky hills ; never uniform for any considerable way, but sub- 
ject to great diversities of form ; extending from Gaza along 
the coast of Palestine, embracing Sephala and the celebrated 
plain of Sharon, as far as Oarmel. Up to that point it has not 
been insignificant in its breadth ; but after leaving Carmel it 
begins to narrow, sometimes being reduced to a mere fringe 
between the rocky precipices and the sea, as we find frequenUy 
to be the case in northern Soristan. 

This maritime belt has therefore a certain analogy in its 
formation with the Arabian Tehama, which is subject in a 
measure to African influence, although it skirts the shore of the 
Red Sea. Still, as a western appendage of the Syrian mountain 
range, it is more abundantly watered, and is more fertile : by 
reason of its more northerly situation, it is less parched by the 
sun ; by virtue of its relation to the Mediterranean, it enjoys 
mild, moist sea winds, and a denser foliage in consequence; and 
from the great mountain chain in the background, it has more 
grateful land winds, and greater diversity in the seasons. There 
was, besides, in the providence of God, a great advantage in the 
want of good harbours, in the unbroken sea-line which served 
as a direct guide to coasters, but which offered no inducements 
to them to tarry. This feature characterized the southern third 
of the entire Syrian shore, that of Palestine, and was one of 
the appointed means of keeping the people of that land true to 
their destiny, as a people " set apart ;" while the middle third, 
that which belonged to Phoenicia, was abundantly provided not 
only with excellent harbours, but with large rivers, and with all 
the appliances which made them the first commercial nation 
of the globe, not only chronologically, but in the extent of their 
resources. This completed the contrast between the Phoeni- 
cians and Israel, allowing them to live side by side, and yet in 
perfect amity. 

The third longitudinal belt, the one lying intermediate 
between the two already specified, belongs in like manner to 


all Syria, but is so variously modified, that these modifications 
must have exerted a very powerful influence upon the charac- 
ter of the people inhabiting it. What a marked diversity 
between the eastern and the western sides ! — the gradual 
terrace-like ascent from the wooded and deeply green plains by 
the sea, step after step to the high, rounded, grassy hill pastures 
of the south, or to the steep, rocky, alpine mountains of the 
centre, as well as those more to the north ; and, on the con- 
trary, towards the desert frontier at the east, the abrupt naked 
descent into the long valley of the upper Orontes, and the yet 
more wall-like valley of the Jordan, scarcely presenting a trace 
of analogy to the features of the western side of this great 
mountain belt. The northward and the southward flow of 
these two rivers is not more in contrast in respect to direc- 
tion, than it is in all the natural types which are found there ; 
and this despite the fact that they are cradled in almost the 
same spring. The Orontes is not a marked river in the history 
of the human race : the Jordan, on the contrary, more favoured 
by nature with tributary lakes, and with richer and rarer gifts, 
has attained to a remarkable place in its influence on the des- 
tinies of man. The Jordan is the leading river of the land. 
As in the oriental mode of speech a spring is called the ^^ eye" 
of the landscape, so a river like the Jordan, fed by many 
springs, may be called the main artery of the land, quickening 
all life wherever it runs, giving occupation to all settlers upon 
it, and controlling even the movements of those who settle, by 
directing them to the most fruitful fields, and influencing 
vitally all commerce and all civilisation. Deriving its supplies 
of water from the snowy summits of Hermon and Lebanon, 
fed by their rains, by the stores which pour forth from the 
grottos and caves, and which are augmented by the lakes 
through which the Jordan flows, it is perennial in its influence ; 
and when all the other adjacent streams of the country are 
dry and valueless, the sacred stream flows on, still continuing 
its bounty. With perfect naturalness, therefore, all Palestine 
looks up to those beautiful snow-crowned heights, whence all the 
blessings of the land flow down the Jordan vale ; and plough- 
man and shepherd, singer and prophet, theology and poetry, 
catch thence their fairest symbols and their aptest similes. The 
depression of the Jordan valley is the most signal feature in 


the geography of Palestine, and confers upon the whole country 
what is most eminently characteristic of it For the Jordan is 
a river wholly unique : there is no other like it on the whole 
face of the earth ; a purely inland river, having no embouchure 
at the sea, and closing its course at the veiy deepest part of 
the Old World, and far below the level of the ocean, running 
parallel with the neighbouring coast, and yet never approach- 
ing it from source to mouth. Without the adjacent sea this 
river could not have an existence: it as well as the Orontes 
would totally disappear ; and the two valleys combined, with 
the exception of that formed by the lower Orontes after it turns 
abruptly towards the sea at Antioch, would constitute one 
unbroken cleft from the far north of Syria to the Red Sea 
itself. But now the Jordan, gathering its waters from snowy 
mountain-tops, and from permanent subterranean enclosures, 
flows over a succession of gradual terraces which are only 
partially arid, and through a succession of lake basins broken 
through and hollowed out of the solid rock : nowhere a true 
river system, but of very heterogeneous character ; having no 
tributary streams, but rolling rapidly here and quickly there, 
traversing a mere cleft riven through the whole length of 

The long mountain range running from north to south, and 
whose eastern base is washed by the rivers just mentioned, 
consists of a number of parallel ridges of peaks with their 
adjacent spurs, containing some lofty summits and some high 
rocky swells, with valleys lying between, all of which are at a 
considerable elevation above the sea ; the Yal Bekaa, in which 
Baalbec is situated, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, being 
3000 feet above the ocean level. There is no great valley 
crossing these ridges eastward and westward : for had there 
been, the Jordan would not have lost itself in a small inland 
sea, but would have broken through to the Mediterranean, just 
as the Orontes once apparently did at the Mons Casius of the 
ancients, where it takes a sharp western turn towards the sea. 
The great plateau east of the Jordan valley was purposely 
intended to sink at the north, and the mountain ranges west of 
the Orontes also, preparatory to their rising again in the great 
Aman and Taurus chains, in order to effect the complete isola^ 
tion of northern Soristan, and to allow a free passage for all 


the nations of Hither Asia to go from the Euphrates to the 
Mediterranean. Had there been a transverse yallej across 
Palestine, it would have been tamed to large accoant for this 
purpose, and the whole history of the country would have been 
different from what it has been. 

And not only is there wanting a deep central valley from 
the east to the west of Palestine, but there are also wanting 
any that lie high, any which may serve approximately for the 
purposes of travel or traffic. All the lines run from north to 
south, and there are almost no clefts which allow free passage 
between these lateral lines : the few insignificant ones which 
do thus bridge the hill and mountain chains have been con- 
verted into places of great local importance. In the' middle 
third of Syria (reckoning Palestine as the southern), the Leba- 
non range has proved an equally effectual barrier : it has but 
a single pass from Damascus to the Mediterranean ; and the 
people of the whole region have made little progress, and trans- 
mit faithfully from generation to generation the modes and 
customs and opinions of their remote ancestors. The towering 
mountains, with their difficult passes, so limited the possibilities 
of civilisation there, that it was nearly all centred in Damascus 
at the east, and in the Phoenician cities on the seaboard ; while 
on the rolling and more open and accessible hills of Palestine, 
men could labour more easily, and communicate with each 
other more readily; and the result was the building of the 
numerous cities of the south — Hebron, Sichem, Samaria, Jeru- 
salem, Nazareth, Safed, and others. Middle Syria can show 
no parallel to this ; as little can northern Syria ; and the 
civilisation of those regions was compelled to centre at Damas- 
cus, Aleppo, and Hamath, in consequence of their relation to 
the Euphrates. 

Although in the physical configuration of Syria, as I have 
thus far pictured it, a great share of the phenomena with which 
history has to deal may find its key, still there are other condi- 
tions, of which I must speak, which have also exerted a large 
influence. They are hypsometrical in their character : they 
deal with lines which do not run northward and southward, like 
those already studied, but eastward and westward, and which 
determine much of the hydrography of Syria. 

I allude to the colossal piling up within the middle third of 


the country, of the knotted masses which compose the Lebanon. 
The first result of this feature is the contrasted and divergent 
valleys of the Orontes and of the Jordan, each of them from 
sixty to seventy hours long (adopting the oriental method of 
measuring such distances) ; and the next is the formation of 
those abundant Phoenician streams which flow into the Mediter- 
ranean, as well as those which water the plateau of Damascus. 
Between the head waters of the two great Syrian rivers 
tower the two parallel ranges of the Lebanon (33° to 34^° N. 
lat.), dominating over all the landscape, branching out in all 
directions, and rising in some of their peaks to the height 
of 9000 feet. Among these colossal mountains we are not 
restricted longer to the mere valleys which run north and south, 
such as we have only found elsewhere ; but here are transverse 
ravines as well, through which the abundant waters of Lebanon 
flow out in all directions. Thus the Barada, which with its 
tributaries flows directly from the heights of Anti-Lebanon to 
the plateau at the eastern base, gives to Damascus its beautiful 
girdle of gardens, and then, having no outlet to the Mediter- 
ranean, disappears in the Bahr el Merdj, like the Jordan in 
the Dead Sea. 

On the western declivities there are many deep cross val- 
leys also breaking through, beginning at Nahr Kasmieh (the 
Leontes) at the south, coming up by Siir (Tyre), parting the 
knotted group of the Lebanon, and allowing for a great part 
of the year the free passage of the perennial mountain streams 
which dash grandly down, and enter the sea upon the Phoenician 
coast; a coast so richly supplied with harbours, and so favoured 
with the abundant irrigation of these numerous streams, and 
so securely protected from invasion on the land side by the 
wild masses of rock which advance almost to the sea-side, and 
so favoured by winds and currents and all the accessories of 
navigation, that from the earliest times every natural haven 
has witnessed the growth of a city upon it ; and from that coast 
men were attracted in the very infancy of the world to push 
out and explore other regions, and build up a commerce with 
other and ruder nations. 

What a contrast this presents to the lower coast of Syria, 
where there is to be found scarcely a single mountain stream, 
scarcely a brook even, and hardly a single harbour ; with 


almost the single exception of the Kishon (Keisun), north of 
Mount Carmel, embouching in the Bay of Acre 1 Not in the 
magnitude of the streams of Palestine lies their importance, 
for they are all very small, none of them longer than men 
march in two or three days ; not in their navigability, for they 
/ are all inaccessible to even the lighter kinds of shipping ; but in 
their terrace-formed valleys, and in the deltas and the peculiar 
line of plains along the shore to which their dashing waters, 
carrying down the finely crumbled detritus of the hills, give 
rise. There was no lack of fertile plains along the seaboard 
of Palesnne, and hence the industry of the early inhabitants 
won for it the fame of being a land flowing with oil, milk, and 
honey; and the Canaanitic agriculture, which converted the 
terraces on every hill-side into smiling gardens, was cited as 
the model of the whole Levant and southern Europe. The 
/ great difference between Phoenicia and Palestine was this, that 
the latter country retained within itself all the profitable land 
which its river-courses formed, and was able to avail itself of 
it. But the former country lost it in great measure ; the dashing 
mountain streams swept the fine particles of alluvium out to 
sea, and allowed the formation of no rich plains along the 
coast. This also tended to drive the people to the pursuits of 
navigation and commerce. ' 

This great mountain chain of Lebanon, then, struggling 
upwards towards the line of perpetual snow, but hardly any- 
where reaching it, yet gathering each winter enough of snow 
and ice to serve as a suificient supply for the summer to come, 
is what proves so rich and fruitful a blessing to southern and 
central Syria. Its loftiest summits are found, too, at the 
southern extremity of the chain; and this especially favours 
Palestine. The countries which cluster around the base of 
Lebanon are supplied with constant moisture, while those at a 
distance from it, the great Syrian plains, are scantily watered. 
The Holy Land may be considered as a great oasis in the 
desert. The entire domain of Egypt, Arabia, and Assyria is 
only scantily dotted with patches of verdure, or lined with it 
along the rivers' sides ; but the Lebanon once blessed all Pales- 
tine, and covered it with streams. 

Syria is divided, as we now see, not only into the three long 
belts which follow the direction of the meridian, the eastern or 


continental^ the western or maritime, and the central or the 
moantainous, bat it is also subdivided into southern, central, 
and northern Syria by other characteristics. The central 
portion is the province covered by the Lebanon, which sepa- 
rates as a mighty barrier the northern from the southern, and 
whose branches are so far inferior to it in size, that they can 
lay no claim to analogy in respect of altitude, but merely in 
respect of general configuration and physical character. 

Withput the Lebanon, Syria would not have differed essen- 
tially from Persia or Arabia, and would have been utterly 
unable to play that part in history which has been accorded to 
her. But with the towering Lebanon to yield supplies of 
moisture, Damascus could become not merely the delightful 
city of gardens which she has always been, but one of the most 
ancient homes of culture on the earth. The deeply indented 
shore on the west, with its rivers, and the harbours which were 
formed at their rocky mouths, could become the home of a great 
commercial people, and an outlet for all the products of the 
busy East. The northern portion, Soristan, the country which 
served as the track of travellers on their way from the most 
western bending of the Euphrates to the turning of the Orontes 
at Antioch, was the most meagrely supplied of all, and yet it 
was not unsupplied with the waters of the Lebanon ; while the 
southern third, Canaan, the later Palestine, was richly watered 
from Hermon down — was kept fruitful by the influence of its 
leading river — ^was made conscious of its own wealth, its own 
independence of the rest of the world, its own security : and so 
cherishing its own resources, and adding to them, it went on in 
its chosen path of inward growth, without foreign wars, and 
without any contact with the world without, until at last the 
time arrived when it too was made a prey, and was tossed up 
and down in the flooding and ebbing of battle. But that this 
could happen at all was indicated by the physical structure of 
the country, and by the manner of its connection through 
Coelo-Syria with Soristan. And yet despite this, and despite 
all the analogies which bind the southern third of the country 
to the northern third, there is enough left to bring Palestine 
out into amazing prominence as a country providentially ap- 
pointed as the home of a people who were to be " set apart." 

Both the northern and the southern sections of Palestine 


are effectually shut off from the central or the Lebanon pro- 
vince ; Palestine proper, or the land of the Jordan, is essen- 
tially divorced from Soristan, or the land of the Orontes. 
The latter river rises in the high Lebanon range, bat it 
very soon leaves it, or flows as a mere neighbour to its eastern 
base, the river being skirted on the east by the vast Syrian 
plateau. The Jordan, on the contrary, plunges down at once 
/' into a deep ravine, in which lies its entire course thereafter, 
its eastern margin not being a vast plateau, but a towering 
wall of rock, precipice-like, sometimes rising to the height of 
thousands of feet, and running back from the river in the 
form of cool, breezy plains, not destitute of pasturage. /This 
difference in the configuration of the two river basins made a 
great change in their historical influence; for whereas the 
Orontes, open on the east to the free advance of the wandering 
races who came westward from Hither Asia, presented no 
obstacle, the Jordan was effectually closed, and the hordes 
of the Heja menaced it in vain. The destinies of Soristan 
were consequently most intimately connected with those of 
Assyria and Mesopotamia : the basin of the lower Orontes was 
a highway for nations — a great channel for commerce, as the 
history of Tadraor, Palmyra, Antioch, and Aleppo shows — a 
connecting link between the East and the West, between the 
Euphrates and Asia Minor. Assyrians, Persians, Parthians, 
Homans, Greeks, Seleucidians, Saffanidians, Mongolians, and 
Turks, pressed into the land, and at present the Turcomans 
hold undisputed possession of it : wave after wave swept those 
away who had for a little season possessed it, and there was never 
time when any nation could abide there long-enough to form a 
history. But at the south, and along the Jordan valley, there 
never was any commingling of races : the barrier was effectual, 
and checked all invasion until that of the Mohammedans. The 
traffic of the Israelites under Solomon, in the Nabathsean 
period, as well as that of the patriarchs with Egypt, was not 
effected through the channel by which Joshua entered the 
land, but by traversing the Sinaitic desert. More temporary 
yet were the transits across the land of one of the Pharaohs, 
Alexander, and the SeleucidaB ; while the Eoman and Byzan- 
tine power found their limit outside of Palestine. 

The greater abundance of springs, brooks, rivers^ and lakes. 


must also be taken into account, as adding very much to tlie 
value of Palestine as the permanent home of a nation ; for the 
great lake (Famieh or Bohaire), found on some modem maps, 
between Hama and Antioch, and near Apomea, must be 
struck out, being placed there only by hypothesis, to preserve a 
supposed analogy between that district and that at the south. 

A third difference lies in the method and skill in a£Ti- 
culture among the Hebrews, who followed what I have indi- 
cated by the expression terrace-culture, — a method still in vogue 
on the Phoenician hills. What was not found in any one 
of the three divisions of Syria, were those broad fertile plains, 
the existence of which is essential to the existence of any 
extremely populous country. This want Phoenicia could supply 
by means of its large foreign commerce, which made the then 
known world a granary ; but Palestine and Soristan could not 
supply it. Both of these districts were removed respectively but 
a few days* march over the desert, from two countries which 
could furnish them with com in times of great scarcity : Meso- 
potamia to the latter, Egypt to the former. What an influence 
such a dependence gave to those great centres of civilisation, is 
well known : it conferred upon them their empire as well as 
their culture, and caused all power, and wisdom, and luxury to 
be briefly summed up, when men pronounced the names of 
Memphis and Babylon. 



[O give a complete catalogue raiaonnie of the sources 
whence our knowledge of the geography of Palestine 
is drawn, is not one of the objects which I have 
assigned to myself in the task on which I am 
engaged. Although I know of no work which exhausts the 
extraordinary riches of this field, yet there is an admirable 
preparation made, in view of this end, in the lists of authori- 
ties given by Reland, Pococke, Measel, Bellermann, Rosen- 
miiller,^ Berghaus,^ Hammer-Purgstall,* and more especially by 
von Raumer^ and Robinson,^ which last, as far as to about the 
end of the fifteenth century, is one of the most complete and 
critically perfect that we possess. Others which we have from 
the English and the French^ are valuable. 

The simple task remains to me, to refer to the original 
authorities to that extent which may be necessary to help me 
to exhibit in a broad and general way the manner in which I 
propose to treat the geography of Palestine, in order to grasp it 
completely, and to bring it up to that position where it shall be 
in our power to detect and eliminate old traditional errors, and 
to discover the gaps which are to be filled up in the course of 

* Rosenmiiller, Handbuch der UbliscJien Alterthwrnshunde^ vol. i. 1823, 
pp. 6-180 ; ErkenntnissqueUen der hiblischen AUerthumskunde. 

* H. Berghaus, Memoir zur Karte von Syrien, Gotha 1836, pp. 1 -21. 

» Rev. in the Wiejier JahrbUchem, 1836, 1839, 1843, v. 74, 87, and 

* K. V. Raumer, Pal&sHna, 2d ed. 1838, pp. 2-19. 
' E. Robinson, Bib, Researches, ii. 533-555. 

« John Kitto, Palestine^ the Bible Hist, of the Holy Land, Lond. 1848, 
pp. iv.-xxiii. ; Munk, Paksiine^ Paris 1845, pp. 654-658 ; Sur Us Voyages 
de la Palestine* 


futare discovery. A condensed historical survey of the course 
of events in the Holy Land, and of the authors who have 
recorded those events, will be the most satisfactory means of 
attaining the end in view, 


In times previous to the advent of Christ, Palestine did not 
draw universal attention to itself, as it has done since: it 
remained long unknown to the most splendid nations of anti- 
quity, the domain of a nation little regarded, little understood. 
Nor did it hold this obscure position except in accordance with 
the very will and counsel of God. Because no commerce knit 
its people to other nations, and because no common religious 
opinions bound them to the rest of mankind, their country 
remained intact, and was only invaded in times of exceptional 
disaster. As the land of Canaan, it was utterly unknown to 
the world : as that of the children of Israel, it first comes into 
note in the book of Joshna, during the wars which disturbed it 
at the time of its conquest, and its division among the twelve 
tribes. The Pharaohs had some knowledge of the people who 
dwelt in Canaan, but they never entered the land. Only 
Pharaoh Necho, in his expedition to the Euphrates, touched 
the valley of the Jordan on his way, and slew king Josiah at 
Megiddo (2 Chron. xxxv. 22). This is one of the few places 
in Palestine to which Herodotus refers (ii. 159). He speaks 
of it indefinitely as belonging to the territory of the " Syrians.'* 

The Assyrians and the Babylonians overran Palestine with 
their armies, but they never took the country under their pro- 
tection, or Acknowledged it as a dependent province. The most 
that they did was to subjugate it, and receive its tribute. The 
people were carried away captive to Babylon, and the land 
remained a wilderness, the spoil of any random settlers who 
might wish to occupy and possess it. Cyrus at length gave the 
people full permission to return to their own country ; but in 
the opulent Susa they were in little haste to see again the hills 
beyond the Jordan. Darius Hystaspis suffered them to offer 
their sacrifices to Jehovah ; Darius Codomannus bound them, 
after their return to Jerusalem, by an oath, never more to take 
up arms against him. 


Whatever, therefore, the inquisitive Herodotus learned in 
Babylon, Tyre, Sidon, or elsewhere, regarding this unknown 
land of Palestine, only related to what belonged to its west 
coast, to the neighbourhood of Gaza and Askelon and the 
Egyptian frontier, and is quite unimportant, valuable though 
his accounts are of the people and the countries in the imme- 
diate vicinity. Only under David and Solomon do we find 
Arabians from Sabsea and Phoenicians from Tyre entering 
Judaea, in consequence of hearing of the wisdom of Solomon, 
or for the purpose of assisting in the building of the temple : 
there appears then that short period of maritime connection 
between the people of Palestine and the remote East, of which 
I have already fully spoken in the account of the Ophir voyages. 

With the expeditions of Alexander the Great, the veil 
which had hidden the East from view so long was lifted ; and 
amid the rest that was disclosed, Palestine too was brought into 
view. That, after reducing Tyre, the conqueror marched 
through Samaria and Judaea as far as Gaza, is certain ; but 
w^hether he offered sacrifices in Jerusalem to Jehovah, as 
Joseph us^ asserts, and as the fathers all agree — not with the 
concurrence^ of later historians, however, despite the efforts of 
St Croix^ to establish Josephus' statement — is more uncertain ; 
but after that time, Palestine became a land fall of interest to 
Greek writers. For many Macedonians and Greeks accom- 
panied Alexander on his expeditions, among them Hecateus of 
Abdera, probably the first of his nation who diffused correct 
information regarding Palestine among his countrymen. His 
writings, however, like all those of his cotemporaries who 
described the country which we are now to study, were unfor- 
tunately lost. All that we can gather of them is to be gained 
from the quotations, perhaps a little garbled, which Josephus 
makes from them, or from the later compilation of Arrian 
relating to the history of Alexander.* Jerusalem was then, 

1 Fl. Josepbi Antiq. Jud. ed. Haverc. xi. 8vo, pp. 578-582. 

* Droysen, Gesch. Alexanders d. G. Berlin 1833, p. 197 ; Gesenius, 
in Ersch'a Encyclop, Pt. iii. p. 25 ; Fr. Chr. Schlosser, Universal-histor, 
Uehers, der Gesch, der alien WeU. Pt. iii. Abth. 2, 1881, p. 178. 

* St Croix, Examen critique des anciens historiens d* Alexandre le Grand^ 
sec. ed. Paris 1804, 4to, pp. 647-662. 

* Arriani, Exp. Alex, ii. 1. 


according to the statement of Agatharchides of Cnidos/ a very 
large city, well defended by nature and by art : its high priest 
Jaddus opened the gates and the temple promptly to the 
conqueror ; and " Jehovah interposed," says Josephus, " to save 
the place from destruction." At all events, the great Jewish 
capital was spared the fate which befell its proud neighbours. 
Tyre, Gaza, and so many other capitals. Palestine did not 
seem insignificant to the Macedonian king ; for we find him 
mentioning it, in a speech delivered to the army (Arrian, de 
Exped. AL vii. 9), as one of the new provinces of his empire, 
and placing a governor over the Jordan district, and Samaria 
as well. After the division of his monarchy, Palestine again 
fell out of notice; even the Seleucides had little to do with 
it ; and almost the only contact which the Lagides had with it, 
was in the taking away a hundred thousand of the inhabitants, 
and colonizing them on the Nile. Pompey \vas the first who 
made the Komans acquainted with Palestine : he destroyed the 
power of the last independent king in Hither Asia, Mithridates^ 
of Pontus, and then withdrew with his victorious army from 
Cilicia through Judsea to Arabia Petraea, plundering and dese- 
crating the temple of Jehovah on his way. Judaea was then 
disturbed by a civil war between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus : 
the Komans took no further part in it than to reduce the first 
to the place of a sacerdotal ethnarch, tributary to themselves, 
and to annex Palestine to Syria as a Roman province. The 
story is told in full by Josephus {Antiq, Jud, xiv. 3, 4), 
but the Roman historians have passed over it very cursorily. 
But not long after the time of Pompey, Palestine began to 
be a land of interest to the Romans ; and in the reigns of 
Augustus, Tiberius, Vespasian, and Titus, and particularly 
during the siege of the last, it was described with a good 
degree of detail. 

Still it must be confessed that the country was to the 
Romans nothing but a battle-ground, and its inhabitants 
nothing but enemies or tributary provincials. So far as their 
caatra and vicB militares extended, so far only did they take 
note of places and make reckoning of distances. Farther 
than their own garrisoned stations they did not care to go ; 

' Fl. Joseph. Antiq, zii. 1. 

* Job. y. MuUer, AUg. Gtach, i. p. 290. 


and hence we have no gradual toning down of what is 
light into what grows more and more obscure, but a sharp 
line between what is clear and what is gross darkness. Geo- 
graphy does not owe a great deal to Roman efforts : onljr a 
few of the great men of that country — such, for instance, as 
Cicero (Cic. de lege agraria contr. Bull. 25) — set any value 
upon it ; and neither Polybius, Strabo, nor Claudius Ptolemy, 
the great leaders in geographical science during the reigns of 
the emperors, were Eomans. That lustful Imperium Romanum 
had but one great object, and that was to absorb the whole 
orbis terrai^um within itself ; and whatever lay beyond the lines 
which marked the outer frontier of the empire, troubled the 
Eomans as little as what lies in the outer " barbarian" world 
troubles Mussulmen and Chinese. And when we add to this 
the absurd representations and the errors which prevailed 
about the Jewish nation, and found expression on the pages of 
the most accomplished and wisest of the Eomans, even of their 
greatest historians, it is not hard to see how little we owe that 
nation for a knowledge of the geography of Palestine. The 
Eomans derive the origin of the Jews from Crete, finding 
their only reason in the resemblance between Ida and Juda : 
they call Moses Bacchus, because they happen to discover a 
kind of iliyrms among the sacred insignia of the temple. 
Even Tacitus, who gives in his history (lib. v.) a brief compen- 
dium of Jewish antiquities, remarks that everything which a 
Eoman looks upon as holy, a Jew looks upon as profane, and 
vice versa. When Pompey entered the holy of holies of the 
temple at Jerusalem, he found there not a single image: a 
kind of horror seized him at the atheism of the Jews. And 
Tacitus gives his concurrence with Pompey in this matter, 
although he does acknowledge that the Jews claim to have a 
" God in their heart who is eternally unchangeable.** 

The so-called classic period of antiquity gives very little 
light to us in studying the ancient geography of Palestine: 
that which is so rich and valuable for determining the facts 
and the scenes of profane history, leaves us here without help. 
Yet the meagre accounts of Strabo, Diodorus, Tacitus, and 
Claudius Ptolemy should not pass unread ; nor Pliny, who gave 
the best compendium of the topography of Palestine {H. N. 
V. 14, 15). Nor are their itineraria and tables of distances 


withoat value; dii&calt as they are sometimes to make oat, and 
compare with the results of modem traveL 


In great contrast with the meagre list of authorities on 
Palestine which the classic writers display, is the abundant 
material which is supplied, to an extent unparalleled in any 
other country of the globe, by the native writers of the land 
itself. The history which they furnish flows uninterruptedly 
on like a full, freely-moving stream, watering the roots of the 
massive forests of the great primeval world of human destinies. 
Through the great trees the clear light of heaven can be dis- 
tinctly seen ; but here and there are great blots of darkness — 
the passages of Jewish history which are impenetrably obscure. 
The sources to which I refer are the Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testament, together with many valuable apocryphal 
writings. The writings of Josephus, too, are reckoned among 
our prominent authorities ; but their character is of another sort. 
The contents of the biblical books are not, however, to be 
considered as intentionally or directly geographical : they are 
so, as a general rule, only in a secondary sense ; and it is only in 
the last two of the books of Moses and in that of Joshua that 
we find tabulated lists of a topographical character. In many 
of the other books of the Bible, what is geographical is merely 
illustrative of the religious or historical meaning. Nevertheless 
great weight is to be allowed for just those statements which in 
a merely secondary sense are geographical ; for they are all the 
more trustworthy in their nature, that they were given without 
special design. They are of great service, too, in enabling us 
to gain a conception of the land as a whole, and to set it before 
us just as it was when the authors who allude casually to its 
geography wrote. This gives an inestimable worth to writings 
which throw an indirect light upon our path ; for those truths 
which are brought to us naturally and simply, and not in the 
dress of an artistic representation, are those which most com- 
mand our assent. We prize them most when we see them not 
isolated, but woven smoothly into the fabric of history. We 
have already found it so in a number of instances which met 
us in our study of the geography of the Sinai Peninsula : we 


have foand that we could interpret the records of the past 
best by familiarity with the nature of that land at the present 
time ;^ and we have also discovered a remarkable correlation 
between the events which are said to have transpired there, and 
the scene where they transpired. And it is just as strikingly 
the case in Palestine ; and the geography of that country, as 
we find it to-day, is the strongest testimony of the truth of 
that history which pui*ports to emanate thence. The natural 
scenery of Palestine speaks in but one voice in favour of the 
Bible ; every word of the sacred narrative receives its best 
interpretation by being studied in connection with the place 
where it was recorded. No one can trace without joy and 
wonder the verification which geography pays to the history of 
the Holy Land. So strong is the argument drawn thence, that 
the most subtle dialectician is baffied by it, and is entrapped 
in the net which his own sophistry has spun. 

In the biblical books, then, we have all the elements which 
we need to enable us to realize the natural characteristics of 
Palestine, and to set it before the mind's eye in all the glow 
and reality of a perfect picture. We are transported to the 
land itself, and see it for ourselves, gaining thereby a far more 
satisfactory impression of it than any description taken from 
without would furnish. Does not every reader, does not even 
the imaginative mind of childhood, reproduce, after perusing 
the picturesque narrative of Abraham's life, and form for itself 
a life-like representation of the land of Canaan and the knightly 
shepherd life of the patriarchs ? Does any one go over the account 
of the journey of Israel through the wilderness, and not picture 
to himself Edom and the lofty Sinai and Horeb ? The book 
of Joshua transports the reader across the Jordan to Jericho, 
takes him from the camp at Gilgal to the high hills of the 
Amorite princes and the other Canaanite kings ; and after the 
victory is won, speaks out before the eye a bright and living 
picture of the land as it lay divided among the twelve tribes of 
Israel. Could any one be introduced to the country by more 
competent guides? From the wilderness of Arabia, from 
Kadesh-Barnea and Beersheba in the south to the sources of the 
Jordan near Dan, and to the heights of Hermon and Lebanon, 
the Promised Land comes out in the narrative of Joshua in all 
^ See E. von Raomer's Palastina^ 2d ed. p. 2. 


its unity, and with all its characteristic features, in the best 
possible manner to aid us in our study of its geography. 

From the historical books which follow, we learn the political 
relations with other nations to which the geographical character 
of the country led ; the Psalmist and the prophets then lead us 
further on, and teach us what the people themselves thought 
of their own home, and of the lands adjoining. From the two 
we learn the connection between Palestine and its inhabitants 
on the one hand, and the history of the World and the will oif 
Jehovah on the other. And if the Pentateuch and Joshua 
give us the most important geographical data, it is not to be 
denied that we owe a great deal of illustrative material to the 
books of Judges, the Chronicles, the Maccabees, the prophets 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and others. 

The books of the New Testament give fewer detailed geo- 
graphical features than those of the Old; yet the graphic manner 
in which mountains and rivers, special districts, popular cus- 
toms, climate and seasons, architecture, and the fruits of the earth 
are touched, give us so clearly defined a picture, that the whole 
life of Jesus, His walks through the country, His teachings, so 
richly illustrated as they were by the scenes in which He lived, 
are intelligible not to the people of Palestine only, but to those 
of every land. And meagre as is the mere number of places 
mentioned in the New Testament, yet as clearness is worth 
more than number, the books of the Christian dispensation 
have a priceless geographical value. The names of Galilee 
and of the Sea of Tiberias enclose a whole world of hallowed 
scenes and memories. 

Outside of the Scriptures, Josephus holds the first and the 
only place among the native authors of Judaea ; for Philo of 
Alexandria, the later Talmud, and other authorities, are of 
little service in understanding the geography of the country. 
Josephus is, however, to be used with great care. As a Jewish 
scholar, as an officer of Galilee, as a military man, and a person 
of great experience in everything belonging to his own nation, 
he attained to that remarkable familiarity with his country in 
every part, which his antiquarian researches so abundantly 
evince.* But he was controlled by political motives : his great 

* Flav. Josephi, Opera omma, ed. S. Havercamp, Amaterlod. fol. 1726, 
T. i. ii. ; R. Traill, new translation of the works of Josephus; Phil. Charles, 


purpose was to bring his people, the despised Jewish race, into 
honour with the Greeks and Romans ; and this purpose under- 
lay every sentence, and filled his history with distortions and 
exaggerations. In his Jewish Antiquities he had no authorities 
but that which we enjoy in common with him — the Old Testa- 
ment; and in this field we can follow him, and correct many 
of his misstatements. But in his accounts of the great war 
which swept over his country during his life, and in the detailed 
topographical descriptions which he gives in connection with it, 
we are unhappily without any means of following and cor- 
recting him. To add to the uncertainties which perplex us in 
Josephus, he wrote his books at an advanced period of his life, 
and in a foreign land, and so either fell unavoidably into mis- 
takes about distances and like matters, or else purposely exag- 
gerated the simple truth. It may not be uncharitable to suspect 
that the latter was the cause of many of his errors ; for he does 
not conceal the duplicity of his nature in the sketch which he 
has given us of his own life. Nevertheless the authority of 
Josephus is great respecting the general geographical character 
of his own country; and his writings are to be accepted and 
used, with care indeed, but as a rich storehouse of original 
material, whose want could not be supplied. 


A third source is the Christian literature of the middle 
ages, so far as it touches upon Palestine ; and with this may 
be coupled some works of Moslem writers of the same period. 
The list of these given by MeuseU and others is so full, that it is 
not necessary for me to give it anew. I write only to specify 
one or two works which are worthy of the most careful study, 
among which is conspicuous, Blasius Ugolinus, Antiquitates 
SacrcBy Venetiis 1744-1769, 34 vols., which is a vast store- 
house of investigations regarding our subject, made by the 
most competent scholars and thinkers of many centuries. Nor 

Etudes historiq. ; Schlosser, i,a,l pp. 77-79 ; RoeenmUller, i.a.l pp. 7-11 ; 
De Wette, I^irhuch der hehr. judisch, Archaologk^ 3d ed. 1842, p. 7, 
etc. etc. 

1 Job. G. Meusel, Bibliotheca historica, vol. i. p. 2, Lips. 1784, pp. 1-112; 
Bosenmiiller, Robinson, eto. etc. 


should I pass by the celebrated Onomasticon Urhium et Locorum 
Sacrce ScripturcBy edited by Bonfrfere and Clericus, in which 
Eusebius and Jerome^ have indicated the situation of places 
mentioned in the Bible, so far as they were acquainted with it. 
Eusebius died about a.d. 340^ after living a long time in 
Palestine as bishop of Gsesarea. Yet, notwithstanding his pro- 
tracted residence, he never attained to that thorough geographi- 
cal knowledge of the country possessed by Jerome, the most 
learned of the theologians of the East. The latter was bom in 
Dalmatia, educated in Eome, and after travelling largely, 
pursued his studies so long in Palestine, that he seemed to be 
almost a native of the country. Eusebius* Greek geographical 
index to the Bible Jerome translated into Latin; but he did not 
stop there: he added comments and corrections, producing a 
result of great accuracy and value. He died at Bethlehem in 
420, after residing there for many years. Many errors which 
crept in from the Septuagint translation, many different ways 
of writing the same name, and the additions which have been 
made by later editors, to whose care we are probably indebted 
for the alphabetical arrangement, make it necessary to use 
the Onomasticon with a certain degree of caution, which is 
heightened by the fact that, at the period when Eusebius and 
Jerome lived, many of the localities mentioned in the Old 
Testament had long been forgotten, and their site was merely 
conjectural, or assigned by the voice of tradition, to which these 
good fathers too easily assented. Their accounts, where they do 
not palpably harmonize with the Scripture narrative, are to be 
subjected therefore to careful investigation.^ A new edition of 
their work, prepared with the aid of all the new critical and 
illustrative material which has been recently added to our sources 
of knowledge, is much to be desired ; and much light would be 
shed upon the Onomasticon by the miscellaneous writings of 
Jerome, in which he has made statements quite in antagonism 
to those in that work, and which are far more trustworthy, as 
the results of his latest and largest experience. Such a task 

1 Onomasticon Urhium et Locorum Sacrss Scrtptura — 1. Liber ffp Locis 
hehraicis^ etc,^ ed. Bonfrere, Paris ed. 1631, ed. 1659 recenBuit et auxit Joh. 
Clericus, Amstelodami 1707, fol. Also in Bl. Ugolini, Thes, vol. v. fol. 
1-379; and Rhenfredi, Pericula critica in loca Eusebii^ etc»f in Opp, 

* Robinson, Bib. Research, i. 225, 226. 


has but very recently been accomplished in connection with a 
yet earlier work, the Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum^ which was 
written in 333 by an unknown traveller from Aquitania (Bur- 
digala, Bourdeaux), who made a pilgrimage to the Basilica 
erected by Constantine the Great in Jerusalem, and whose 
account of the stations and distances in Palestine is the most 
ancient of all those which come under the present division of 
authorities. The Itinerarium Antonini and the Tabula Peutin- 
geriana give only names and measurements in Roman miles. 
Stephen of Byzantium, irepl iroketovy writing in the beginning 
of the sixth century, and the anonymous geographer of Ravenna, 
who in the fifteenth chapter of the second book cites the names 
of some fifty places in Palestine, which he probably culled from 
various itinerariay and threw together without any arrangement, 
have left us materials of only subordinate value. It is very 
different, however, with the travels of the palmers or pilgrims 
to the Holy Land, of whom I shall next speak. 


This name can be applied to nearly all the older narratives 
of journeys to the Holy Land ; for those travels were almost 
always undertaken with more or less regard to a religious end, 
and in a desire to view the scenes of the Saviour's life, to visit 
the places which commemorate the events of Old Testament 
history, and to tread the ground hallowed by the steps of saints 
and martyrs. Nor was this done out of a mere idle curiosity, but 
in the grave conviction that to look upon those sacred scenes was 
to help the soul to secure its salvation. That the ground which 
had once been so ennobled should be desecrated by the temples 
which Hadrian erected in honour of Venus, Zeus, or Adonis, 
only increased the desire of Christians to behold the places thus 
put to these shameful uses. Cyrillus^ is one of the few authors 
who witnessed and described the condition of affairs in Pales- 
tine before the purification which followed the accession of the 

1 G. Parthey et M. Finder, Itinerarium Antonini Augusti et Hierosolymi- 
tanum, Berol. 1848, prsrfat, xxxiv., and pp. 261-290, together with an 
excellent itinerary by the editor. 

* G. G. Reischl, TheoL de Pair, Cyrillic IlierosoL Episc, Opera qusssuper^ 
sunt 07«wia, vol. i., Monachi 1848 j VitOy p. xvi. etc. etc. 


Byzantine power to the control of the Holy Land; he wag 
bom A.D. 315, and in 347 was appointed presbyter, and then 
episcopus Hierosolymorum. In Catechia. xii. c. 20, he says: 
Bethlehem locum ante paucos annos f uisse sylvestrem. Catech. 
XV. 5: In loco, in quo crucifixus est, prius hortum fuisse, cujus 
adhuc vestigia et reliquiae manent. Catechia. ib. 9: Ante sepul- 
chri exornationam a Constantino f actam, speluncam fuisse sancto 
sepulchre pro vestibule, quae Constantini jussu erasa f uit. Porro 
sancta loca post annum 326 purgari et exornari caeperunt. 
When Helena, the mother of Constantino the Great, after the 
victory over Maxentius a.d. 312, and the adopting of the cross 
as the erfiblem on the Greek banners, began to build Christian 
churches on the sites of the Scripture scenes, the number of 
pilgrims to the Holy Land rapidly increased. She herself 
went thither in 326, and, according to Nicephori Histor. viii. 
c. 30, erected more than thirty chapels and churches in the 
country. Thousands followed her thither, many of them to 
remain. Countless unfortunates, who were the victims of the 
incessant persecutions of the Western Empire, fled thither to 
escape the cruelty which met them at home. Especially was 
this the case when, in 409 and 410, Alaric the Goth stormed 
Borne and ravaged Italy. The number who fled then to 
Palestine was beyond computation. Many of these put them- 
selves under the protection of Jerome, who was then living 
there, and who, in his letters, tells many a touching story 
of the woes of these enforced pilgrims and petitioners for 
his hospitality. The same sad history was repeated in every 
one of the descents of the barbarians upon the various 
Koman provinces. And when the Vandals scoured Christian 
Africa in 429, they drove from the land a great number of 
believers, who at once fled for refuge to the Terra Sancta 
near by. 

Meanwhile the attacks of these northern barbarians filled 
the minds of men who, though unbelievers, were yet inclined 
to Christianity, with dismay. And men who were enlightened 
by the gospel, saw, or thought that they saw, the hand of their 
God in all those sad events : they believed that His judgments 
^ were now poured out, and that He was pulling down all false 
idols from their high places, and asserting His own unrivalled 
sway. Prompted by the advice of St Augustine, the Spanish 

VOL. II. o 


presbyter, Paul Orosius/ wrote in 420 his history, in which 
this thought had free expression. 

Great numbers of the persecuted believers, as was said 
above, found peace and rest in the Holy Land — in the country 
of so many sacred memories. Besides, under the Byzantine 
sway, this province enjoyed a season of quiet and security which 
it perhaps never had before, and which it has not had since. 
It was not till long after this time that the sword of the Koran 
was drawn, and the soil of this land reddened with the blood of 
its inhabitants. In the fifth and sixth centuries it was densely 
peopled, and every part of its territory was covered with Chris- 
tian churches, even to the most sequestered nooks ; and it was 
one of the most flourishing provinces of the Empire of the East. 

In addition to the numbers of settlers and colonists who 
thronged to Palestine, there was a great increase among the 
clergy, the monks, and the hermits of the country ; in one word, 
among all who in that epoch, when the typical life of the con- 
vent was just finding expression, had turned their back upon 
the world, and were seeking a place of undisturbed meditation 
as the best preparation for heaven. The pious liberality of the 
imperial house of Constantinople, and particularly of Justinian, 
gave a fresh impetus to the establishment of churches, convents, 
bishoprics, and was seen at once in the edifices which arose, 
conspicuous among which was the Convent of Sinai (see Pro- 
copius, de JEdiJiciis Imperatoris Justinianiy lib. v. c. 6-9). Every- 
where churches, chapels, convents, with hospices close by for 
the entertainment of guests, showed the generous bounty of 
the 'Byzantine rulers. Not only were the fruitful valleys and 
hills of Jerusalem, Shechem, Nazareth, and Galilee, covered 
with luxuriance ; but cisterns, baths, hermitages, and grottos, 
transformed even the hitherto unpeopled desert into a home 
for man. The countless ruins which are still seen testify to 
the extraordinary activity and prosperity of those times. At 
the place where John the Baptist had led the Saviour down to 
the waters of the Jordan, the extreme sanctity of the spot was 
commemorated by a pavement of marble, and hundreds of 
thousands resorted thither to bathe in the sacred stream: one 

* Pauli Orosii, Presbyteri Hispani adversm Paganos Historiarumy libri 
vii. ed. S. Havercampus, Lugd. Batavor. 1767; lib. i. ad Aurelium Augua- 
tiuum, p. 1 et sq. 


itinerary tells us that there was a gathering-place for all the 
peoples of the earth. The valley of the Jordan was transformed 
into a hermitage, inhabited by throngs of recluses. The terrors 
and wonders of the Dead Sea drew so many monks to the wild 
recesses on its rock^ border, that about the year 600 it is 
asserted that not less than twenty monasteries stood there. 
Antoninus Martyr speaks of them in his itinerary, written at 
about that date : at one of them 10,000 monks are said to have 
dwelt ; and the grottos and caverns now observable in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Convent of St Saba — the almost inaccessible 
places of refuge for those thronging multitudes — even now fill 
the traveller with wonder. 

But soon there came a change, and all this fair prosperity 
was brought ta nought ; for in the seventh century the sword of 
the Arab passed over the land, and transformed it into a waste 
and a solitude. A remarkable combination of oppression, want, 
superstition, and a hallowed longing to see the scenes of Bible 
story, had peopled the land with refugees from Europe. But 
the tide turned ; and many who had gone thither with a desire 
to gain the salvation of their soul,^ were forced to flee from this 
terrible power, which came up from Arabia, and to leave behind 
the spiritual advantages of Palestine, bearing away with them, 
however, more palpable blessings still. 

To these supposed blessings, in addition to the forgiveness 
of sins itself, and the absolution which the church granted for 
many years in consideration of these pilgrimages, belonged also 
the relics, on the retaining of which the continuance of absolu- 
tion hinged. Thus was renewed in the Christian scheme the 
old pagan idea of the virtue contained in amulets, which, when 
brought home, served as a charm to secure the pilgrim from 
danger, and which could transmit their influence to others. The 
virtue of these relics increased rather than diminished with age; 
and their sacred power to charm away ill, descended as an heir- 
loom from generation to generation. The relics were, as a 
general rule, articles which had had a certain relation to the life 
of the Saviour, or to that of the apostles and martyrs. Earth, 
wood, water from hallowed ground and from the Jordan, gar- 
ments dipped in that sacred river — all were esteemed precious. 

1 Regarding the pilgrimages, see Wilken, GescMchte der KreutzzUge^ 
Leipzig 1807, Pt. i. pp. 3-19, 82, etc. 


In like manner, the pilgrim's staff, the shell with which he 
dipped the waters from the holy wells, palm branches, thorns, 
garlands, flowers like the roses of Jericho growing in the very 
desert, and reputed to have been carried by Mary in her flight 
to Egypt, had the odonr of sanctity upon them. The balm of 
Gilead, the pitch from the Dead Sea, were also esteemed very 
holy; but above all relics in value, were the bones of saints and 
martyrs, dragged out of their reputed graves, and given away 
even to the last fragments. 

Far more full of peril, and far greater the merit, when 
pilgrimages were made and relics taken away after the followers 
of Mohammed, the bitter enemies of all Christians, had entered 
Palestine as conquerors, and swept over the whole East. It 
was accounted as a deed of that poorness of spirit which Christ 
extolled, when the courage was exhibited that ventured to break 
through the iron bonds which the caliphs in 634 set around 
Jerusalem, in the establishment of their mosques there as well 
as through the Levant. Then, to make a pilgrimage to the 
land of the unbelievers was equivalent to mart3rrdom, and 
heaven was the certain reward for such a deed of daring as 
to venture thither. Those who returned safely after such a 
perilous undertaking, gained a high place in the estimation of 
their fellows; and worldly advantages quickly followed — for 
those who had ventured so far had learned to use their know- 
ledge to good purpose — and soon opened the channels of a 
lucrative trade with the people of Palestine. Those who went 
sent back to their friends full accounts of their adventures and 
perils^ glowing descriptions of the sacred places, and of life in 
this new field of experience: these accounts furnished not only 
entertainment to those who were left behind^ but edification as 
well ; and when transcribed, they were publicly read in schools, 
convents, and churches. The many hundreds of pilgrimages 
to the Holy Land gave rise to a voluminous mass of documents 
of the above character; and after the Crusades the number 
was so much augmented as to become literally beyond compu- 
tation. In their day they formed the favourite reading of the 
western world, being edifying and romantic at the same time : 
they were copied largely (not always without some changes 
and additions), and were passed from hand to hand, from 
convent to convent, from school to school, from land to land. 


Monks carefully preserved them as the most cherished memo- 
rials of the founders of the order or the abbey to which they 
were attached, or of the knights whose patronage and protection 
they enjoyed. All classes being so closely united by the ties 
of the church, had an interest in these memorials of eastern 
travel. Many hundreds of those documents have come down 
to us ; they display even now the marks of their wide diffu- 
sion. Many of them have been printed and given to the world. 
They generally bear some such title as — Peregrinaiio in Terrain 
Sanctamj Hodoeporicumy or Itinerarium, and they usually have 
an appendix containing the mirabilia mundiy de locis Sanctis^ 
or the like. Their values are exceedingly varied : in some there 
is displayed the whole range of learning which their authors 
could employ for the elucidation of Scripture ; in others, all the 
remarkable features of the Holy Land are touched upon and 
held up rather in a secular than in a sacred light: here are 
some which express the outpouring of some longing pilgrim's 
soul ; there, some which can only serve as guide-books for those 
who wish to know the main routes of travel : here are authentic 
and instructive transcripts from nature, trustworthy representa- 
tions of what has actually been seen and experienced; there, 
mere collections of idle tales and legends, xind the exaggerations 
of superstition, — mere copies, it may be, and repetitions of what 
had often been told before — the results of a morbid curiosity to 
see what is supernatural, and to find the Holy Land still the 
home of miracle. Such records as the last-named throw no 
light on those subjects which concern us in our present studies. 
In respect, too, to the period of time in which these accounts 
were written, their value is exceedingly varied ; but the careful 
use of them, taking them up in a strictly chronological order, is 
by no means a useless exercise, and often leads to unexpected 
light, and to results which are seen even at the present day. 
The most important of them, which were written before the 
time of the Crusades, are the accounts of the unknown author 
of Burdigala (Bourdeaux), of Antoninus Martyr, Arculfus, 
Willibaldus Bemardus, and Altmann. I have already alluded 
to the oldest of these works (a.d. 333), the Itinerarium Burdi- 
galensey or Hiero8olymitanum^ in connection with the condition 

^ £<L G. Parthey et M. Finder, in Itinerar. Antonini Augusti et HierosoL 


of the country at the most flourishing epoch of the Byzantine 
power, whose architectural triumphs and energy in establishing 
Christian foundations it commemorates. I have also referred 
to the— 

liinerarium Beati Antonini Martyris^ written about A.D. 
600, shortly before the invasion of the Mohammedans and the 
sad extinction of the Christian power in Palestine. About 
A.D. 700, Adamnus {ex Arculfo), de Lods Sanctis, libri iii.^ 
Arculfus, a French bishop, after his return from the Holy 
Land, was driven by a storm to the west coast of Scotland, and 
landed on the island of lona, where lived Adamnus, the abbot 
of the celebrated convent, and the head of the oldest theological 
school of northern Europe. He wrote down the account of 
the shipwrecked wanderer, and in the year 698 presented it 
to King Alfred of Northumberland. Beda Venerabilis (the 
venerable Bede) has only given one extract from that narrative 
in his Historia ecclesiastica. Arculfus' work displays the con- 
dition of Palestine at the close of the seventh century, at the 
very rise of the Mohammedan sway, and is therefore of great 

A.D. 722. St Willibaldi Vita, sen Hodoeporicum^ including 
the story of his pilgrimage to the Holy Land, is a work of 
value. The author was an assistant of Boniface in circulating 
the gospel through central Germany and the valley of the 
Danube, and in 742 he was made bishop of Aichstadt. 

A.D. 870. Bemardi Monachi Sapientis Itinerarium ad 
Loca Sancta* In the tenth century no travels to the Holy 
Land were written, so far as we now know. Bernard found 
at the time of his visit the Convent of John the Baptist, to- 
gether with many others not specified by name, on the Jordan 
near Jericho. The region could not have been the unredeemed 
desert, therefore, that it now is, 

* Itinerarium B. Antonini ex Museo Menardi JuUmagi Andium {Angers\ 
ap. Petr. Auri typogr. 1640; also in Ugolim, Thes, viL under the title 
Itinerar. Antonini Placentini^ fol. mccyiii.-mcczxix. 

' Gretesero, Ingolstadii, 1619, in Mabillon, Acta Sanctor, Ord. Benedicti, 
ssec. ill. P. ii. p. 499, etc. 

* Mabillon, Acta Sctor, P. ii. p. 366 ; and Acta Sanctor, ed. Bollandi, 
JuU, T. ii. fol. 485. 

^ Mabill. ib. ii. p. 523, and more in detail in Recueil de Voy, et Memoires 
de la Soc, degeogr. Paris, torn. iv. pp. 285-815. 


In A.D. 1065, Altraann, bishop of Passau, and afterwards 
founder of the Abbey of Consecration, on the Danube, west of 
Vienna, journeyed to Palestine^ under the guidance of Gunther, 
bishop of Bamberg, with several thousand laymen and some 
representatives of the clergy. The pilgrimage was not unat- 
tended with perils, and many of the company perished. This 
occurred shortly before the outbreak of the Crusades (1096) ; 
and the extracts relating to this journey, scattered through 
several authors, and found in the Acta Sanctorum^ throw much 
light upon the confused condition of affairs in Palestine during 
the oppressive sway of the Seljukian Turks.* Altmann died 
in 1090. 


Brings us to a more thorough acquaintance with the Holy 
Land. The accounts written before that epoch are compara- 
tively meagre, consisting oftentimes of little else than details 
of distances and the names of halting-places. But the Christian 
rule over Syria, extending from 1099 to 1291 — the control of 
Christian kings over Cyprus and Crete to a much later period, 
in the former till 1486— the commercial efforts of the Genoese 
and Venetians — the possession of Rhodes from 1310 to 1522, 
and later still of Malta by the Knights of the order of St John, 
the arch-enemies of the Turks, — tended to make Palestine more 
and more accessible, and to open it to the knowledge of Europe. 
The historical authorities of that period, collected in the Gesta 
Dei per Francos^ are a rich storehouse of material illustrative 
of the geography of the Holy Land. To the period of which 
I now speak belong William of Tyre, Jacob of Vitri, Fulcher 
of Chartres, Marin Sanudo of Venice, Saewulf the Anglo- 
Saxon, and others. 

A.D. 1096-1124. Fulcheri Camotensis' Gesta peregrinan- 
tium Francorum cum armis Ilierusalem pergentium. Fulcher, 
a monk of Chartres, accompanied Duke Robert of Normandy 

^ De B. Altmann, Ep. Pataviensi apud Gottuncenses in Austria^ in Act. 
Sctar. ed. Bollandist. Augosti, T. ii. pp. 856-376 ; Buchinger, Geachich. ties 
Furstenihums Passau, 1816, pp. 129-137. 

* Fr. Wilken, Gesch. der Kreutzzuge, Pt. i. pp. 39-41. 

• In Gesta Dei per Francos, ed. Bongars, Hanov. fol. 1611, pp. 881-440. 


in the first Crusade. His account extends as late as to tlie 
year 1124, and contains valuable material relating not only 
to Syria and Palestine, but to the northern portion of Arabia 

A.D. 1102-1103. Saewulfi ^ Relatio de peregrinatione ad 
Hiero8olymam et terram sanctam ; a writer, otherwise unknown, 
who seems, according to D'Avezac's researches, to have been an 
Anglo-Saxon, and whose name Saewulf us maj^ mean Wolf of 
the Sea Rovers. He finds three hundred monks living in the 
Convent of St Saba near the Dead Sea, and three monasteries 
on Mount Tabor. 

A.D. 1175. Gerhardi Frederici L in j^gyptum et Syriam 
ad Saladinum Legati Itinerarium? The short but admirable 
statement of the route taken by the close observer, Gerhard, 
Vicedominus Argentinensis, which differed from the routes 
usually taken by pilgrims, passing as it did from Egypt to 
Sinai, Bostra, Damascus, Sidon, Jerusalem, Askelon, and to 
Egypt again, is incorporated in the tenth chapter of the seventh 
book of the Chronica Slavorum. 

A.D. 1182-1185. Willermi Tyrensis Historia Rerum in 
partibus transmarinis gestarunij libri xxiii. William, the most 
learned and the most eminent of the men who wrote the his- 
tory of the Crusades, was elevated in 1174 to the bishopric 
of Tyre. He has left us a graphic picture, full of truth and 
merit, of the geographical character of the country as it pre- 
sented itself to him : he seems to have himself been a Syrian. 
Cotemporaneous with him is the work of a Cretan pilgrim, 
Phocas by name, who long lived the life of a recluse on the 
island of Patmos. His treatise, bearing date 1185, and called 
Joannes Flwcas de Lods Sanctis (^Acta Sanctor, Maju torn. ii. 1), 
is worthy of examination, as a production entirely independent 
of the accounts given by the crusaders. It contains, more- 
over, very good notices of the sacred localities. 

A.D. 1220. Jacobi de Vitriaco, Acconiensis Episcopi, 

* In Recueil de Voy. et de Menmres publ p, la Sociitd de geographit^ 
Paris 1839, T. iy. ; Relation des Voy, de Saewulf, p. Fr. Michel, Th. Wright, 
et D'Aveaac, pp. 817-854. 

* Chronica Hehnoldi Preshyteri et Amoldi Ahbatis Lubecenses, ed. H. 
BangertuB, Lnbec» 1659, lib. vii. c. 10, pp. 516-525. 

» Gesta Dei per Francos^ Ic. I M. 629-1046. 


Hiatoria Hierosolimiiana. Capitula centum} Jacob of Vitri, 
bom in the neighbourhood of Paris, took part in the Crusades, 
became bishop of Akka (Acre), and ranks after William of Tyre 
as one of the most eminent authors of his time. He describes 
with a very free pen the scene where the wars of the Crusades 
were then transpiring, and gives the first physical picture of 
the country which we possess, grounded upon actual observa- 
tion. His description of the natural history and characteristic 
geographical features is therefore not without value. See 
Capit. 82-91. 

A.D. 1306-1321. Marin Sanudo, named Torsellus, Liber 
Secretorum Fidelium Crucis de Terrce San^tce recuperatione et 
conservatione^ libri iii.^ The worthy Venetian, Marin Sanudo, 
after the loss of Jerusalem, spent the greater part of his life in 
making efforts to assist the regaining of the sacred soil by 
means of a Christian army. From his youth up, he tells us, 
he had cast his eyes towards the Terra Sancta. Five times he 
traversed the Levant in person, and collected all the knowledge 
that was attainable regarding the lands of the Saracens. With 
Venetian ships he examined the whole coast of Palestine, in 
order to discover what point would be most available for a fleet 
to be sheltered, and for any army to land successfully. In 
1306 he began to record the results of his observations; in 
1321 he finished it, and laid it, in connection with the four 
maps which accompanied it — one of the Orbis terrarum, one 
of the Terra Sancta, one of the Mare Syrium, and a plan of 
Acca — before Pope John xxii. and the most prominent of the 
kings of Europe, hoping thereby to raise them to a new effort 
to recover the Hdy Land. To no purpose indeed: but his 
work remains as an interesting monument of the condition of 
biblical geography at that time, and the most complete mono- 
graph which the middle ages have given us on any such theme 
as that; very incomplete, it is true, and in the third part only a 
compilation, but as a first effort, not without merit. 

A.D. 1307. Haitfioni Armeni Hiatoria orientalis? Other 

1 Gesta Dei per Francos^ l,c, i. fol. 1051-1149. See Mensel, BibL hist. 
vol. ii. P. ii. pp. 279-282. 

* In Gesta Dei per Francos. See Orientalis Historigg, torn. ii. Hanov. 
1611, fol. 1-281. 

» Ed. 1671, quarto. 


men of tliat time, too, filled with similar projects for awakening 
again the spirit which had led to the first Crusade, did much 
towards circulating facts regarding the Holy Land. Among 
them may be mentioned the well-known Armenian Christian 
Prince Haithon, who had entered a convent at Cyprus, and 
who, at the request of Pope Clement v., went to France in 
1307, to seek co-operation in another expedition to recover 
the Holy Sepulchre. Yet, of all the accounts which have 
come from men of this kind, Sanudo's is altogether the most 
valuable. But all these narratives were held in high considera- 
tion in Europe, and they did very much to make the people 
familiar with the character of the Bible lands. These narra^ 
tives were read with great avidity, and they were often appended 
to works of a very different nature ; from their own law books,^ 
for example. 

1283. Brocardi (Borcardi, Burchardi) Locorum Terrce 
SanctcB exactissima Deacriptio? This work was translated into 
German.* Robinson, who has carefully examined the many 
editions of this work, remarks that it appears to have been a 
labour of love, written in a convent by one who had returned 
from the Holy Land, so often was it copied and annotated by 
the hands of monks, and so much resemblance is there in all 
the various transcripts. And the work, as Busching justly 
said, was worthy of all this favour: for it gave not merely 
accurate names of places and tables of distance, correct pic- 
tures of the country and people ; but it portrayed with fidelity 
the natural productions of the land, though without giving 
their names. Its special value, however, is to be ascribed to its 
chronological statements ; for, as Deycks correctly remarks, his 
account, coming at a time when the Christian jurisdiction over 
Palestine had ceased, opened up the whole political status of 
the country to view. The difficulties, chronological and bio- 
graphical, encountered in this author have been critically 
examined by Beckmann.* The work of Brocardus has been 

^ Anthon. Matthsei, Analecta veteris asvi, torn. ii. p. 25, etc. 

2 Venet. 1519 ; in Simon Gryneus, Nov. Orbis, Baail 1532, fol. 298-829. 

' In the Reyssbuch des heil Landes, Frankfort 1548, Ft. i. p. 464, ed. 
of 1609, fol. pp. 854-^75 ; comp. Robinaon, Bih. Researches, ii. 588. 

^ John Beckmann, Literatur der dUem Reiseheschreibungen, vol. ii. p. 1, 
Gottingen 1809, No. 60, pp. 31-78. 


frequeDtly abridged ; the most successful effort to do so is that 
accomplished in the sixteenth century by Adrichomius.^ 

Of the treatises on the history of the Crusades, the cele- 
brated work of Michaud^ has contributed but little to the geo- 
graphy of the subject ; Reinaud's supplementary volumes are 
far more valuable ; and Wilken's and von Hammer's master 
works on this subject are truly admirable. 


After the Holy Land had passed into the hands of the 
Saracens, the interest felt in it did not die out in the West ; it 
.extended itself rather to the outlying and now opened districts 
farther east. We learn from the records of pilgrimages under- 
taken in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, that a change 
had begun : the journeys to the Orient had begun to lose their 
exclusively religious character, and to be in a measure secu- 
larized. They extended in some instances as far east as to India, 
and were undertaken sometimes in a spirit of mere romantic 

1356. Johannes de Montevilla. At the head of all the 
works which come under this division, is that volume of Travels 
which was written by Sir John Maundeville, composed in 
English or French^ at Liege,* in the year 1356, and giving an 
account of his thirty years' wanderings in the Orient. The work 
was soon translated into Latin, and into many of the European 
languages, enlarged by the engrafting of many idle tales from 
other hands, and' adopts by popular consent as one of the 
most delightful books of the age, containing, in addition to its 
geographical statements about the Holy Land, a whole com- 
pendium of mirabilia mundL His romantic and poetical turn 

^ Christ. Adrichomius, Theatrum Terras Sanctas ColoniaSj 1590. 

' Michand, Histoire des Croisades^ 5 vols, under his name, bat elabo- 
rated by Reinaud ; Bibliographie des Croisadea^ 2 vols. ; Fr. Wilken, 
Gesch. der KreutzzUge, 1807. 

3 J. 0. Halliwell, The Voyage and TravaiUe of Sir John Maundevilky 
Lond. 1889, in Reisshuch des hdL Landes, 1609, i. fol. 759^12. 

* Dr E. Schonbom, Bibliographische Untersuchungen iiber J, Maundeville^ 
Breslau 1840, p. 22 ; Rob. Bib. Researches, 1. p. xxiii. ; J. Gorres, Teutsche 
Volksbiicher, p. 62. 


of mind has not injured the value of those portions which 
give simple facts, as Robinson found after cai-ef uUy following 
in his footsteps. Halliwell and Schonbom, too, have shown 
that a great many passages in Maundeville which were supposed 
to be untrustworthy, are additions which have been grafted 
upon the original work. Yet with all this, and notwithstanding 
the closeness of his observation, he was too much possessed with 
the taste of his age for the marvellous, to be always best -pleased 
with the simple truth. He gave a book to Europe which had 
just the qualities which the public mind demanded, and he 
found therefore a large and an admiring public. Yet it, cannot 
be denied that the chapters which relate to Palestine (vi.-xi.) 
are instructive. 

A.D. 1336-1341 and 1350. Ludolphi de Suchen Libellus 
de Itinere ad Terrain Sanctam} This work is declared by 
Bobinson to be the most truthful of all the itineraries which 
have come down from the fourteenth century, notwithstanding 
its touch of the marvellous. The many manuscript and printed 
copies of Ludolph's work (not Rudolph), with names and dates, 
have made it difficult to arrive at the simple facts of the life 
of this excellent Westphalian pilgrim, the most celebrated — as 
his editor, a fellow-countryman, has said ^— of all the seventeen 
Germans who, in those earlier days, ventured to encounter the 
difficulties which lay in the road to Palestine. As mentioned 
above, his name was not Rudolph; and his absence did not 
extend from 1336 to 1350, as even Panzer supposed, but he 
made two separate journeys : the first in 1336, and extending 
over five years ; the next in 1350. This he himself states in 
his dedication to Baldwin of Steinfurt, bishop of Paderbom, 
the diocese to which his own parish church of Suchen belonged. 
He compares many objects which he saw in the East with those 
around his own home: Mount Tabor, for instance, with his own 
Isenberge; the Lebanon forests with Osning wood:^ he finds 

^ Robinson, Bib, Researches^ ii. ^40 ; Latin ed. Yenet. without date ; 
the oldest German edition, Von dem gelobten Lande und Weg gegen Jeru- 
salem, 1477. See Panzer, AnnaL 1788, No. 82, p. 100. 

* Dr Ferdin. Deycka, Ueher OUere Pilgerfahrten nach Jerusalem, mit 
besonderer Rucksicht au/Ludolph von Suchen Reisebuch des heiligen LandeSy 
Miinstei: 1848, p. 9, etc. 
' » De Suchen, in LibeU. c. 118. 


rivers which remind him of the Khine, and buildings which 
suggest the cathedral of Cologne ; the Turks he compares with 
the Frisians. He wrote his work originally in Latin, assum- 
ing the title of parochialU eccUsice in Suchen rector. In his 
book he makes the open declaration, that he had not seen 
all that he describes, but had drawn much from historical 
sources: yet what he saw for himself is a su£Scient testi- 
mony of his assiduous patience and unwearied pains to get at 
the truth.^ The various editions in German dialects^ have 
called out a great deal of scholarly effort among philologists; 
and the contents of his work have proved a rich mine of geo- 
graphical knowledge, particularly in that department which 
relates to the neighbourhood of the Mediterranean. 

A.D. 1336. Gulielmi de Baldensel Hodoeporicon ad Terram 
Sanctam. A German of Lower Saxony. His name is more 
correctly written Boldensleve or Alvensleben. According to 
Beckmann,^ his pilgrimage was contemporaneous with that of 
his countryman Ludolph. BUs account is not without value, 
but less instructive than that one to which I have just alluded. 

There follows a long list of records of travel to the Holy 
Land, whose worth is not such as to make it necessary to refer 
to them in detail. They are the productions of men of great 
diversities of gifts, as well as of social standing. Some of them 
have been incorporated in the Reisshuch des heiligen Landes ; 
some in other collections, those of Kamusio, Hackluyt, IJgolinus, 
Bergeron, Paulus, etc. ; some have appeared separately. Among 
the latter may be included that of Frescobaldi, 1384, which 
Robinson has omitted in his list. They mostly repeat the 
statements of travellers who had preceded them ; and for geo- 
graphical purposes they have no special value, although from a 
literary and antiquarian point of view they are not without 
interest. It is possible that one of these, which has never been 
traced — the narrative of a certain Koberto, who visited the 
Holy Land in 1458 — would have been more valuable; but 
although Count Giulio Porro states expressly that it is deposited 

1 Reisshuch des heil LandeSy 1609, L fol. 813-854, falsely called 

« In Deycks, p. 28, etc. to 61. 

* Respecting him, see J. Beckmann, Literatur der dllem Reiseheschr, ii. 
2, pp. 226-237. 


at Milan, it has been sought for in vain. Its title was, liineraria 
facta per lo Magnijico Cavaliere Signor Duo Roberto de San 
Saverioy Capitano da Jerusalem a Sancta Kaierina del A. 1458. 
It was only at the close of the fifteenth century that we have 
accounts of really great excellence, such as those of Tucher 
1479-80, Breydenbach 1483-84, and Fabri of the same date, 
whose records I have already had occasion to refer to in the 
description of the Sinai Peninsula. They have the same value 
for Palestine as for Arabia Petraea. To the list already cited 
I must add, with special commendation, the account of Felix 
Fabri of Ulm, which !Robinson considers preferable in point of 
exactness to the well-known work of Bernard de Breydenbach, 
Dean of the Mayence Cathedral. A new edition of Fabri's 
narrative was published in Stuttgard in 1843 by the Literary 
Association of that place. The work in its new form was en- 
riched by the laborious care of Professor Hasler^ of Ulm, who 
also read an admirable paper on Fabri and his work, at a meet- 
ing of German philologists held at Dresden in October 1844. 


Subsequently to the epoch in which the works hitherto 
alluded to fall, there came a change in the character^ of visits 
made to Palestine.' They not only lost a portion of that pious 
simplicity which had marked them, and that belief in the expia- 
tory value of the pilgrimage to those shores; but they began to be 
affected by the altered political relations of the Eastern Powers, 
and especially by the possession of Constantinople by the Turks, 
and the gradual encroachment of the Ottoman Empire upon 
European soil. Necessity and curiosity both prompted men to see 
what were the manners and institutions of this new and formid- 
able race, and what the condition and character of the country 

^ Fratris Felicis Fabri, Evagatorium in TeiTas Sancta, Ar alias et Egypti 
Peregrinationem, edidit Cimradus Dietericus Uasler, Gymnasii Regii Ulmani 
Professor, vol. i. ii., in BiUiothek des literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart^ 1843, 
vol. ii. pp. 1-480, and iii. 1-545. 

* Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. 541 ; F. Deycks, p. 25. 

^ The English reader will find the characteristics of the various epochs 
of travel to the Holy Land graphically summed up in the opening pages 
of Preasense's Land of the Gospel, — Ed. 


where they held sovereign power. This induced great numbers 
of knights, lords, and princes to make pilgrimages to the East ; 
and their accounts — those, for instance, of the Count Palatine ; 
the Count of Nassau, 1495; the Duke of Pomerania, 1496; the 
Prince Radziwill, 1583; and Baron Graeben, 1675 — accumu- 
lated in number, yet without a proportionate increase in value, 
owing to the complete ignorance of their authors about what 
had been seen and reported by preceding travellers. The period 
of the Reformation seems to have given a spur to pilgrimages 
to the Holy Land among those who remained faithful to the 
Catholic Church. The complete ascendancy of the Venetian 
marine, and the extensive commerce of Venice with the East, 
contributed to the ease and the security with which travellers 
could penetrate the Orient; and we find, accordingly, that there 
were many who, actuated by curiosity, sailed from Venice direct 
for places as remote as India and Persia even. The travels of 
men of an adventurous turn of mind do not seem to have been 
restricted to the Levant, to the well-known and often-traversed 
scenes of Bible story ; but in a larger scientific spirit than had 
as yet been applied to Palestine and Egypt, they ventured to 
explore a much wider field. We find Italians, Frenchmen, 
Englishmen, and especially Germans, making extensive travels 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to the East, in 
the course of which they usually touched Syria and Palestine, 
without paying any special attention to those more familiar 
lands. Among these I may mention the names of Pierre Belon, 
1546-49; L. Rauwolf, 1573-76; Delia Valle, 1614; Olearius, 
1635; Thevenot, 1652 ; Tavemier, 1665; Chardin, 1664; and 
Toumefort, 1700. This brings us down to the time when 
Pococke, Hasselquist, and Niebuhr opened a new era in the 
geography of the Holy Land. Among those worthy of parti- 
cular enumeration are the following, which I cite to the exclu- 
sion of many whose contents are meagre, and whose value is to 
be appreciated by the bibliographer solely. 

1507-1508. Martini a Baumgarten Peregrinatio; according 
to Robinson, a collection of brief papers from the hand of a 
competent observer. 

1546-49. Pierre Belon du Mans, Observations de plusieurs 
singularity et choses memorables trouvSes en Grice, Asie^ JudSe^ 
etCy en trois livres, Paris 1554, 4to. In this work (livr. ii. ch. 


Ixxiii.-cxii. fol. 135-151) are to be found a good topograpliical 
description of Palestine, and a trustworthy account of its natural 
history. P. Belon, a French physician^ is well known as a 
learned and close observer. 

Bonifacii a Kagusio Liber de perenni cultu TerrcB Sanctcej 
Venetiis 1573, 8vo. The work of the Franciscan monk, now 
only known by Quaresmius'^ quotations, is mentioned by 
Eobinson, who failed to find any traces of it. Quaresmius 
says of its author, " Vir insignis Apostolicus Prsedicator, post 
Stagni Episcopus, qui per novem annos Guardianus officio in 
sancta civitate Jerusalem magna cum laude functus est,*' etc. 
Tobler has also sought in vain for this work, in order to use it 
in his own zealous and exhaustive studies on Palestine ; and I 
have searched for it in the Library of St Mark in Venice, in 
the Imperial Library of Vienna, and in that of Wolfenbuttel, 
which is so rich in Italian works. Its great rarity seems to 
have precluded any further use of it than that made by 
Quaresmius, who speaks of its great value. It is suggested, 
therefore, as a fit object of future search. 

1573—76. Leonharti Rauwolfen, der Artzney Doctom und 
bestellten Medici zu Augsburg, Aigentliche Beschreibung der 
RaisSy so er von dieser Zeit gegen Auffgang in die Morgenldnderj 
etc., selbs volbrachty 3 Parts, Augsburg 1582, 4to.^ The con- 
clusion of the second part, chap. xii. fol. 273, and the whole 
of the third part of this excellent work, is to b^ specially 
recommended. Rauwolfs investigations into the natural 
history of Palestine, and especially his botany, have placed 
him very high; and he well prepared the way for the later 
efforts of Toumefort and Hasselquist. Many who have fol- 
lowed him have drawn largely from him. Breuning's ^ work 
is an example. I pass over the enumeration of his copyists. 

1616-1625. Francisci Quaresmii, Historica iheohgica et 
moralis Terrce Sanctce elucidatioy 2 torn. fol. Antwerp 1639.* 
This work is of less value in attaining a knowledge of the 

^ Ft. Quaresmius, Terrai Sanctm elucidation etc., Antwerpice 1639, 
torn. i. ; PrsBf. p. xxxv. See Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. 542. 

* J. Beckmann, Literatur der dltem Reiseheschretbungen^Ft. i. 1, pp. 1-21. 
» J. Beckmann, i.a.l ii. pp. 269-288. 

* Robinson, Bih. Research, ii. 644 ; K. v. Raumer, Pal p. 8 ; J. Beck- 
mann, i.a.l. i. p. 232. 


country than of the history of the Catholic Church there; 
and although very circumstantial and diffuse, yet not to be 
taken as a work of sufficient importance to be the standard of 
comparison for other works of similar ecclesiastical scope, such 
as those of Zuallart, 1586 ; Dandini, 1596 ; Cotovicus/ 1598 ; 
and Doubdan, 1651. Of these I need not speak in detail, 
and will only say that that of Doubdan,^ canon of St Denys, 
although overpraised by Chateaubriand, is a work of great 
learning ; and that by Dandini, a Papal legate to the Maronites,^ 
is valuable in the portions which relate to the Lebanon. 
Zuallart has interesting original drawings, charts, and maps, 
which have not seldom been closely copied by his successors, 
Cotovic among them : even in the single Spanish itinerary of 
any importance — that of Castello, 1656, published at Madrid — 
Zuallart's drawings are reproduced. 

1614-26. Pietro della Valle, Viaggiy etc. Sufficiently well 
known as a highly esteemed oriental traveller, whose researches 
in Egypt, Persia, and India have been praised even by Goethe, 
but whose account of Palestine is confined to a single letter 
written in 1616.^ Eobinson speaks of him as light and super- 
ficial ; von Raumer as soundly catholic in his faith, and yet 
frivolous. I have already made use of his valuable data in 
treating of the Sinai Peninsula. In respect of learning, 
literary excellence, and artistic character, his merits are not 
small. He brought to Europe the first copy of the Samaritan 
Pentateuch which was known there — the one now in the 
possession of the Imperial Library of Paris. 

1646-47. Balth. de Monconys, Journal des Voy.y Paris 
1695 ; sec. Partie en Syrie^ etc. In this instructive work, the 
eminent author, well known as a mathematician and a physicist, 
describes his journey through Palestine. 

^ n devotissimo Viaggioda Gerusalemme fatto e descritto^ in sei libri dal 
Sign. Giovanni ZuaUardo, Gavaliero del Santisdmo Sepolcro Tanno 1686, 
Roma 1587, iy.; Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum et Syriacum^ auctore Joanne 
Cotovico, AntwerpifB 1619, iv. 

* J. Doubdan, Voyage de la Terre Sainte, Paris 1657. 

8 Jerome Dandini, Voyage du Mont Lihan^ trad, de Tltalien, Paris 1675. 
See Beckmann, i.a.Z. ii. 2, pp. 855-868. 

* P. della Valle, German ed. Geneva 1674, Pt. i. fol. 132-174 ; original 
ed. Viaggi, Roma 1650-1658, 4 vols. 

VOL. U. 3> 


1655-59. Jean Thevenot,^ Relation cCun Voyage fait au 
Levanty Paris 1665, containing an admirable account of the 
author's stay in Palestine and Syria. The works of D'Arvieux, 
1658, and la Eoque, 1688, relate — the valuable portions on the 
Lebanon excepted — rather to the Arabs and to the political 
condition of the Levant. I must except the journey of the first 
through Palestine,^ which, however, embraces only twenty- 
seven chapters in the second book of his collected works. 
The Travels of C. le Brun, 1672, are very valuable on account 
of the drawings which the author, a Flemish artist, had an 
opportunity of executing in the East. Their contents in other 
respects are not of equal worth. Nor are the accounts of Nau, 
Suiius, 1644, and others, deserving of special consideration. 

1697. Henry Maundrell, Journey from Aleppo to Jeniea-- 
lemy Oxford 1703; the sixth edition, enlarged and enriched, 
with appendices, Oxford 1740. Robinson says of him : 
"Maundrell was chaplain of the English factory at Aleppo. 
His book is the brief report of a shrewd and keen observer, 
and still remains perhaps the best work on those parts of the 
country through which he travelled. His visit to Jerusalem 
was a hasty one." Von Raumer says of his book that it is very 
instructive, calm, and trustworthy. The unpretending author 
had the intention of merely giving his countrymen a supple- 
ment to the travels of his predecessor Sandys,' 1610-11, who 
enjoyed the entire confidence of his countrymen in consequence 
of his great accuracy. The friends of Maundrell caused his 
work to be published at Oxford. 

1697-98. A. Morison, Relation hutorique 3!un Voyage au 
Mont Sinai et a Jerusalem^ Toul. 1704. A cotemporary of the 
preceding, who, although not to be placed as his equal, gave us 
many valuable facts in our study of the Sinai Peninsula. The 
work of Robert Clayton, bishop of Clogher,* is not to be passed 

1 Thevenot (ue, Jean, nephew of Melechisedek Thevenot), Reiseheschrei- 
hung in Europa^ Asia^ und A/rika^ etc, Frankf. 1693, iv. ; after his Relation 
(Tun Voyage et Suite, Paris 1674, iv. 

* Laur. D'Arvieux, Voy. dans la Palestine^ etc., pub. par la Roque, 
Paris 1717 ; see the Ger. translation, Kopen. and Leipsig 1853, Pt. ii. 1-426, 
from his Memoires du Chevalier d'Arvieux, Paris 1753, 6 vols. 

* George Sandys, Travailes, etc., Lond. 1615. 

* Robert, Lord Bishop of Clogher, Journal from Grand Cairo to Mount 


without mention, although it confines itself exclusively to 
Arabia PetraBa. The learned Paul Lucas, who made a hasty 
run through Palestine in 1714, has also left a record of his 

1722, Thomas Shaw, Travels in Barhary and in the Levant 
This work, which was originally in the form of special treatises, 
is of especial value in connection with the antiquities, as well 
as the physical character of Syria, Phoenicia, and the Holy 
Land, and forms an admirable supplement to the work of 

1700-23. Van Egmond en Heyman, Reizen^ Ley den 1757 ; 
English translation : Travels, London 1759, 2 vols. Egmond 
was the Dutch ambassador at Naples; John Heyman was a 
professor of* oriental languages in Leyden. They united their 
accounts, and produced in their conjoint work one of the best 
treatises on Palestine ever written. 

1737-40. Richard Pococke,^ Travels in the East, Lond. 
3 vols, f ol. Only the second part of this work relates to Syria 
and Palestine. Michaelis, and after him Eosenmiiller and 
Kobinson,^ have charged it as a fault in this thorough classical 
scholar, that he was not as well versed in Hebrew as he should 
have been; and they have with justice complained of the 
mixing up of what he personally saw with what he knew merely 
by report, or extracted from preceding authors. This is the 
more reprehensible in one who must have known how carefully 
Herodotus shunned that confusion which has so much marred 
Pococke's work, and brought it into bad repute. Yet there is 
considerable value, notwithstanding, in those parts of his book 
which are palpably the result of his own observation. 

1749-53. Fridr. Hasselquist, Reisen nach Paldstina, edited 
by LinnaBus, Rostock 1762. As the work of a naturalist and 
a disciple of LinnsBQS, this book is valuable, particularly for the 
light which it throws on the plants and the animals of Palestine. 

Sinai^ translated from a manuscript by the Prefetto of Egypt, etc., Lond. 

* Paul Lucas, Voyage fait en 1714, dans la Turquie VAsie^ Syrie^ 
Palestine^ etc.^ Amsterdam 1720-8, tom. i. liv. iii. pp. 200-273. 

* Rich. Pococke, Travels in ike East, Lond. 1743-1748, 3 vols. fol. 

» J. D. Michaelis, Oriental Bibl, Pt. viii. p. Ill ; Rosenmiiller, Btbl 
Alter, vol i. p. 85 ; Robinson, Bib, Research, i. p. 37. 


The editor appended a supplement on the natural history of 
Palestine, which Robinson is inclined to think the most com- 
plete scientific treatise on the subject which has ever appeared. 
With the help of Hasselquist, who completed what Rauwolf ^ 
and Tournefort began, and with A. Russell's^ carefully prepared 
list of the oriental names applied to the Jlora of the East, 
augmented by the later researches of Olivier, the identity of 
the native appellations and the modern scientific terms can be 
established, so far as is necessary in the study of the geography 
of the country. The Flora Pakestina^ may be also consulted, 
and the later works of von Schubert. 

1754-55. Stephen Schultz, Leitungen des Hochsten durch 
Europa^ Asiuy Africa^ Halle 1771-75. This author belongs 
to the small class of pilgrim devotees who have sprung from 
the Protestant ranks, in contradistinction to the many earlier 
Catholics who wandered to the mysterious East. Most of the 
Protestant travellers who explored Palestine with any care 
during the time now under review, were actuated by scientific 
and scholarly considerations, more than by religious impulse. 
It is only in the most modem period that religion and science 
have combined, as with Laborde, Robinson, von Schubert, and 
others, to prompt to an exploration of the scenes of biblical 

1760-68. Abb6 Mariti, Voyages dans Vhle de Chypre^ la 
Syncy et la Palestine^ Paris 1791, T. i. and ii. This work 
contains, with many repetitions of what had been told before, 
particularly in relation to the island of Cyprus, some useful data 
regarding Palestine. 

1761-67. Carsten Niebuhr's * Travels in Arabia have often 
been drawn from in the preceding volume. This work on 
Palestine appeared about a half century subsequently to the 

^ Vergleichung der Rautcolfschen Pflanzennamen mit denen in Linnt, Hist, 
gen, plant in Beckman Lit. der cUtem Reisebeschr. Pt. i. pp. 13-16. 

* A. Russell, Natural History of Aleppo, by P. Russell, trans, into 
Ger. by Gmelin, Gbttingen 1797, Pt. i. sec. 3, pp. 83-117. 

^ D. Benedicti Job. Strand, Sudermanni, Flora Palasstina, in Giov. 
Mariti, Viaggio da GerusaUmme par U coste delta Syria, ed. Livomo 1787, 
torn. ii. pp. 191-240. 

* C. Niebulir*8 Reisen durch Syrien und Paldstina nach Cypem. This 
includes Niebuhr's astronomical obBervations and minor papers. Hamburgh 


works which I have hitherto cited, and has been skilfully edited 
by Gloyer and Olshausen. What Bobinson says of Niebuhr 
is perfectly true: "He is the prince of eastern travellers; 
exact, judicious, and persevering." He gives the details of his 
journey through Syria and Palestine, with a series of plans of 
the cities of the country, not all of them new to us, not all of 
them correct now, owing to the changes of time; and yet his 
work, with all its defects, is far more valuable than the hasty 
productions of many modem tourists. 

1783-86. Volney,^ Voyage en Syrie^ Paris 1787, 2 vols. 
This work is universally known for the fidelity, the apprecia- 
tive illustration with which it points the moral, political, and 
religious condition of the people whom he visited. It is in the 
form rather of a series of treatises than of a journal of travel, 
or a detailed description of local geographical features; and 
in this it differs from the most of its predecessors. The high 
position where he stood to survey the East, and the consequent 
breadth of his view, made his work deeply instructive, and 
enabled him to present the mutual relation of nature and history 
there in a striking light. His great modesty caused him to 
keep himself veiy much in the background, and his work con- 
sequently lacks those details regarding his personal route, whose 
absence is always regretted by the careful reader. 

1792-98. W. G. Browne," Travels in Africa^ Egypt, and 
Syriay London 17^9. This work, admirable as it is, yet con- 
tains only a few brief chapters relative to the author's journey 
through Palestine. 

Alexander Russell's Natural History of Aleppo, a true 
classic on Syria, and valuable in its Palestine portion also, was 
edited by Patrick Russell, and translated into German by Gmelin 
of Gottingen. It closes the works of the eighteenth century 
relating to this subject in a worthy manner. 

1 E. F. Volney's Reise nach Syrien wid Mgypien in 1783-1786, Ger. 
cd. Jena 1788. 

* W. G. Browne's Rcisen in A/rika^ JBgypten^ und Syrien^ 1792-98, 
Berlin 1801. 



Before we pass to the consideration of the Christian writers 
of Europe who have made Palestine the object of their inves- 
tigations during the present century, it is necessary to refer 
briefly to a certain class of works, which, although not referring 
directly to the results of personal investigation, are yet valuable, 
as digests of what had been observed by others, and as studies 
preparatory to the prosecution of personal inquiry. In many 
cases I need mention them merely by name. They comprise 
such authors as Mohammed el Fergani,^ the astronomer, who 
wrote A.D. 833 ; Isstachri, his contemporaiy ; Ebn Haukal and 
Masudi, dating from the tenth century ; Edrisi and Abdallatif, 
middle of the twelfth ; Boahedin^ and his learned editor, end 
of the twelfth century ; Gakuti, middle of the thirteenth ; Ebn 
Batuta, 1324 ; Ibn el Wardi at the beginning, and Abulfeda 
at the middle, of the fourteenth century ; and Macrizi' in the 
fir^t half of the fifteenth century. These writers have all of 
them furnished more or less valuable geographical details ; but 
the most complete in that respect is the Syrian prince of 
Hamath,* in the Lebanon. Mejr ed-Din's History of Jerusa- 
lerriy translated from the Arabic into French by the accom- 
plished J. von Hammer, and published in the Fundgruben des 
Orients^ vol. ii. pp. 81, 118, 375, is praised by Eobinson as the 
most complete description of the Holy City ever written in the 
Arabic language. 

^ Muhamedifl Alfergani, Elementa Astronomica, arahice et latine cum 
nods, etc., Opera Jacobi Golii, Amstelodami 1669. 

* Bahaddini Vila Saladini^ ed. Alb. Schultens, ejusdem Index Geo^ 
graphictis, Lugdioi Batavor. 1732. 

^ In Taki Eddin Ahmed Makrizi, Histoire des Sultans Mamelouks de 
TEgypte, trad, de TArabe par Quatrem^re, Paris 1837, iv., contains very 
important contributions to the knowledge of Palestine. 

* Abulfedse Tabula SyriaSy ed. B. Koehler, etc. Lips. 1765 ; cum 
ezcerpto geographico ex Ibn el Wardii Geographia et Historia naturali. 
See also Rosenmuller, Handb. d, Alterthumsk. i. pp. 41-58 ; above all, see 
Reinaud, in Geographia d'AbouJ/eda, textus 1840, et traduct. Paris 1848, 
torn. L Introd. 


New works upon Palestine, from the hands of Arabian and 
oriental writers, either do not exist at all, or are of very 
little importance. The second improved edition of Abulfeda's 
Tabula SyrixBy which was to have appeared at Oxford under 
the editorial care of Koehler, has not appeared. Koehler's own 
work, the manuscript of which remained in the library of 
Lubec, his birth-place, contains, according to Hartmann,^ very 
little useful material. Eeinaud's translation of Abulfeda, en- 
riched with notes, and with the text, as given by H. Slane, 
1840, Paris, is far more valuable. It is to be regretted, that 
as yet we have no translation of the Turkish geography con- 
tained in the Jihannuma of Hadji Chalfa, a monk, which 
must be included among the most valuable that relate to the 
East ; yet we have to express our obligations here to the illus- 
trious orientalist, von Hammer,^ for the admirable selections 
which he has made from this very inaccessible, very important, 
and yet universally neglected geographical authority. 

In the earlier volumes of the Erdkundey we have often had 
occasion to refer to the Spanish traveller, Babbi Benjamin of 
Tudela' (1162-1173), the most valuable of all the Jewish 
writers. I entirely agree with Bobinson's judgment of the 
worth of this writer. Bobinson says that A. Asher's edition is 
the best of all. It has been asserted that this book is full of inac- 
curacies and idle stories, and that the author never visited the 
scenes described by him. But the first-named fault is often 
met in writers of that period ; and I have found in his treatise 
on Palestine,^ that so far as he goes, he bases his statements on 
his personal observations, and is quite as exact and trustworthy* 
as any of his cotemporaries. A long way behind him is the 
work of Babbi Petachia® of Batisbon (1175-1180). Very much 
is to be expected of the learned and appreciative criticism of 

1 Leipsig Lit, Zeit. 1822, No. 285. 

« Wiener Jahrh. 1836, vol. Ixxiv. pp. 89-96. 

• A. Aflher, The Itinerary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela — ^Text, Biblio- 
graphy, and Translation, London and Berlin 1840, vol. i. pp. 58-89. 
Compare Anmerhingen, von Tudela, 

^ Robinson, Bibl. Researches^ ii. 586. 

» Bullet, de la Soc, de Geogr. Paris 1848, T. ix. p. 66. 

• Rabbi Petachise Peregrinatio, etc., Altorf 1687 ; Hebrew and French, 
by El Carmoly, Paris 1881. in Nouv. Joum. Asiat. 1881, T. viii. pp. 
257-808, 353-418, an interpolated passage. 


Selig Cassel on Eabbi Benjamin ; and doabtless his efiForts 
will contribute much to do away with the perplexing want of 
uniform excellence^ in the matter and manner of the celebrated 
Hebrew authority. 

The distinguished Jewish scholar, Dr Zunz, has lately 
made ns acquainted with a work very highly praised by him- 
self, the production of another Jewish author, Esthori Parchi 
of Provence, who, being banished from his native land by Philip 
le Bel in 1313, went to the East, travelled largely in Palestine, 
and after a long stay there, produced his valuable work, 
Caphior wapheracliy 1332.^ The visit of this author to Bisan 
(Scythopolis) and to Galilee is particularly interestmg, and a 
translation would be desirable. 

The Itinera Mundi sic dicta Cosmographiay autore Abraham 
Peritsol, a Jewish Eabbi of Avignon, edited by Thomas Hyde, 
Oxon. 1691, contains in various chapters only material of a 
very general character on the Terra Israel. A whole series 
of Jewish pilgrims to Palestine exists, including such names as 
Samuel ben Simson de France, 1210 ; Jakob de Paris, 1258 ; 
Ishak Chelo de Laresa, 1334 ; Elias de Ferrare, 1438 ; Gerson 
ben Moseh Ascher de Scarmela, 1561 ; Urie de Blel, 1564. 
These, with an index of their routes, and with an interesting 
map, prepared by J. Lellewel, are to be found in the very 
recent and erudite work of Oarmoly :* for Jewish details, and 
for localities especially interesting to Jews, these works are 
valuable. I must not omit to mention the travels of the 
celebrated Jewish convert, Joseph Wolff,* made In 1823 and 

With the assistance of that rare work, Caphtor wa ferachy 
Jacob Kaplan of IMInsk has prepared his General Biblical 
Geography y Erez. Kedumin 1839, of which a German edition, 

^ Historische VersucTie, von Selig Cassel, Berlin 1847, pp. 1-24. 

" Dr Zunz, Nota 62 ; Essay on the Geog, Literature of ike Jews^ in Adiet*B 
ed. of Benjamin de Tudela, voL ii. pp. 260-262. 

* E. Carmoly, Itineraires de la Terre Sainte des xiu. a xvii. Siecle^ 
traduits de VHehreu et accompagnee de TdbUs^ de Cartes^ et d'^laircisse' 
mens, Bruxelles 1847. 

^ Rev. Joe. Wolff, missionary to the Jews, Missionary Journal, vol. ii., 
comprising his second visit to Palestine and Syria, in 1823-4, Londoa 


in lexicon form, was announced as in preparation by Dr M. 
Freystadt of Konigsberg. 

In 1845 there appeared from the pen of the distinguished 
German scholar, Rabbi Joseph Schwartz of Jerusalem, a work 
bearing the title, Safer Tebuot Haarez^ a. 5605, ue. a new 
description of Palestine. This is a work based upon personal 
observation. It has been of some service to me ; and yet, in the 
description of the country and its physical features, I have not 
found much that has not been long known. In learned illus- 
trations this author does not lack at all. And I may say in 
genera], that in most of the systematic treatises on the geo- 
graphy of Palestine, there is no lack of learning, both in the 
departments of biblical literature and oriental scholarship ; but 
unfortunately there is a great deficiency in positive facts, which 
are gained by personal inquiry and observation. This method 
of treatment has led to very uncertain results, and to many 
statements which are purely hypothetical : these could only be 
corrected by the direct personal observation which characterizes 
the researches made in the present century. Among the works 
of untravelled scholars, may be mentioned the following : — 

Samuelis Bocharti Hierozoicon, and his Geographia Sacra 
sen Plialeg. et Canaauy in 0pp. Lugdun. Batavor. ed. 3, 1692, 
3 vols. fol. first edit. 1646. The editio of the Hierozoicon sive 
de Animalihus sacrce Script ed. Rosenmiiller, Lips. 1793. At 
about the same time there appeared J. H. Ursini Arboretum 
Biblicumy Norimb. 1685 ; then Matth. Hilleri Hierophyticoriy 
Trajecti ad Rhenuni 1725, and Olavi Celsii Hierobotanicony 
sive de Plantis Sacrce Scripturce^ Amstelod. 1748 ; Scheuchzeri 
Physica Sacra^ A. e, Historia naturalia BiblicBj Augsb. 1731, 4 
vols. These writers preceded Hasselquist and LinnaBus. 

Johannes Lightf oot Ilorce Hebraicce et TalmudicoB ; a choro- 
graphical century ; searching out, chiefly by the light of the 
Talmud, some more memorable places in the land of Israel 
(Worksy vol. X. 1825). 0pp. Omnia^ Eoterdami 1686, fol. in 
vol. ii. 169-940. 

Christ. Cellariusin Notitice Orbie antiquiy etc.. Lips. 1706, in 
L^ibri iii. cap. 13, pp. 464-470 ; on Palestine, particularly in con- 
nection with classic authors : the most learned work of its time. 

Hadrian Belandi Pakestina ex monumentis veteribus iUus^ 
tratay Trajecti Batavor. 1714, and ed. Norimberg 1716, the 


first thorough basis of all the modern scientific works on the 
geography of the Holy Land. I may refer also to another 
work of the same distinguished scholar, Professor of Ancient 
Languages and Antiquities at Utrecht, Dissert, de Man Rubroj 
de Monte Geriziniy de Samaritanisy de Ophivy etc.^ in his Dis- 
sertationes MiscellanecBj Pars i. et ii. Trajecti ad Ehenum 1706 
and 1707. He was the first to make available the mass of 
materials collected by his countryman Olfert Dapper (Am- 
sterdam 1681, folio), and other works which had been prepared 
by men who had never visited Palestine. 

Edward Wells' Historical Geography of the Old and New 
Testament^ Lond. 1712. 

J. Ohr. Harenberg, Supplementum in Hadr, Relandi recen- 
sionem Urbium et Vicorum PalasstiruBy in MiscelL Lips, vol. 
iv. V. and vi. This author also produced the first valuable map 
of Palestine, Nurenberg 1744 and 1750. 

Joh. M. Hase, Professor of Mathematics in Wittenberg, 
Regni Davidici et Salomoncei descriptio geographica et historical 
Norimb. 1739, fol. A work prepared with great care, both in 
the text and the maps. 

Joh. Jac. Schmidt's biblischer Geographusj Ziillichau 1740. 
The work of a German scholar; a better compend than the more 
comprehensive and eminent work which preceded it, from the 
pen of the Benedictine Abbot, Augustine Calmet, Paris 1730. 
This treatise does not seem to have been known to Schmidt, 
versed as he was in literature. Its title is Dictionnaire Histor. 
Chronolog. Geographique^ et Littoral de la Bible. 

•W. A. Bachiene (mathematician and astronomer in Maes- 
tricht), historische und geographische Beschreibung von PalcestinOy 
with twelve maps ; intended to be a supplement to Eeland, and 
a tedious work, Leipsig 1766, 8 vols. 

Ysbrand van Hamelsveld, Aardrigk-hunde des Bibelse^ trans- 
lated into German, Hamburg 1793. 

A. Fr. Biisching's Erdbeschreibimgj Pt. ii. bbth. 1, 3d ed. 
1792 ; Palestine, from pp. 374-510. The first author who in- 
corporated the results of Niebuhr's observations in the East. 
His work, in accuracy, closeness, and the authenticity which 
results from the use of original documents, far surpasses all 
that had preceded it, and remains even to this day, and will 
remain, a master work in the department of geography. 


Conr. Mannert, Geogrdphie der Grieclien und RdmeTy in Pt. 
vi. B. 1; Arabiay Palestine^ and Syria, Numb. 1799. 

J. J. Bellennan, Bihlisehe Geographies 3 Pt. 2d ed. Erfurt 
1804. A manual of biblical literature, condensed^ and pre- 
pared by a master of oriental languages. 

C. F. Kloden, LandeskunSe von Paldstina, Berlin 1817. 
This admirable work, which displayed the mutual relations of 
history and geography in a more marked and excellent manner 
than even that of Volney had done, appeared after the impulse 
was felt which was occasioned by the discoveries of Niebuhr 
and Seetzen, for Burckhardt^s were not published till 1822. 
Kloden's work was accompanied by a carefully prepared map 
(the first after Eeland's), which was indebted for a part of its 
excellence to the skill of the French artist, Ch. Paultre. An 
essay on the flora and fauna of Palestine, written by Kuthe, 
and contained in the same work, is worthy of examination ; it 
is only to be compared in point of value with the production 
of Hasselquist already referred to. 

E, F. K. Eosenmiiller, Geographie von Paldsiina, in the 
second volume of his Handbuch der biblischen AUerthumskunde, 
Leipsig 1826. This work is characterized more for the 
breadth of the ground which it covers, and the extent of the 
materials which it comprises, than for the originality and depth 
of its own researches. 

F. G. Crome, Geographische kistorische Beschreibung des 
Landea Syrien (in its connection with Palestine), Gottingen 
1834. A thorough work, based on Burckhardt and Bucking- 
ham: the topography of Jerusalem is treated with an exhaustive 

PaldsUna^ by K. von Eaumer, Professor in Erlangen, 2d 
ed. Leipsig 1838 (1st ed. 1835). As a manual for biblical 
students, this work is a classic. The compactness of its matter, 
the clear arrangement, the scientific method, the completeness 
of the references to the Old and New Testaments, place this 
work far in advance of all compends of its kind. The rapid 
progress of modem investigation leaves something to be desired 
in the present value of the work ; but in high tone, delicacy of 
feeling, and fidelity, as well as in a large acquaintance with the 

1 In addition to this : Beitrdge zur biblischen Ge$chickte^ von K. v. 
Baomer, Leipsig 1818. 


relations of general science to his theme; the author is hardly 
to be surpassed. 


To these we are indebted, as will soon be seen, for invalu- 
able additions to our knowledge of the Holy Land. The 
works which our own age has produced are mostly the pro- 
ductions of eye-witnesses, and form a worthy supplement to 
those whose authors have already passed under review. In 
my previous researches, I have felt it a duty connected with 
the performance of the task which I had assigned to myself, to 
survey the entire literature of my subject, and to give such 
hints in relation to the value of all works of any importance, as 
would be of service to future students ; but in the field which 
now opens, it is doubtful how far such an attempt would be 
possible of completion. The majority of the works hitherto 
cited have had value rather to general scholars than to geo- 
graphers ; and in order to obtain even single grains of gold, it 
has often been necessary for me to pull to pieces great heaps 
of rubbish. But with the opening of the nineteenth century 
there is a great change. The amount of geographical material 
becomes then overwhelmingly abundant, and the facts which 
have been elicited (although repeated, it may be, again and 
again) are so embarrassingly numerous, that to examine them 
all requires an extent of time and an amount of strength so 
great, as to cause one to almost succumb and retire from the 
task. If, when Biisching wrote, 1781, he could say that it 
required whole months of preparation before he felt qualified 
to enter upon his account of Palestine, I may say that, after as 
many years of toil as he spent months, I do not feel ready to 
undertake a "Comparative Geography of the Holy Land" 
which shall be worthy to be regarded as a finished work. With 
all my effort it must be incomplete. It is only the conviction 
gained by experience, that even imperfect works may serve as 
a bridge to conduct future investigators to more ripened results, 
which gives me courage to enter upon this difficult field of my 

In the following list I shall do little more than refer to 
the authorities which are best known, without any attempt to 


characterize them.^ In the coarse of our future studies these 
will pass so closely under review, that the reader will be under 
no doubt of their comparative degrees of excellence. Mean- 
while the recapitulation of their titles * in full will save much 
trouble in future, in preventing the necessity of restating them 
with troublesome repetition. 

1800. E. D. Clarke, Travels in various Countries^ vol. iv. 
4th ed. Lond. 1817 ; Holy Land^ chap, iii.— ix. He was only 
seventeen days in Palestine. His work displays more general 
scholarship than positive acquaintance with the country. He 
advanced hypotheses, and went to extremes in his judgments, 
which have been much modified and corrected by those who 
have come after him. 

1807. Ali Bey (the anonymous Spanish Domingo Badials 
Leblich, who for a while was erroneously considered to be 
Burckhardt, and who, as a Mohammedan, attracted much in- 
terest in Europe), Travels, vol. ii. pp. 140-59, London 1816. 
His exact, though not voluminous narrative, has been of ser- 
vice to Berghaus* in constructing the map of Syria. Ali Bey 
was fortunate enough to gain access to the mosques. 

1805-1807. Ulr. Jacob Seetzen, Reiseberichte. In May 
1805, Seetzen,^ who was known in the East as Sheikh Mnsa, 
reached Damascus ; in March 1806 he travelled through the 
district of Belkah, on the east side of the Jordan ;^ in January 
1807 he traversed the country east of the Dead Sea as far as 
Kerak, being the first who explored this region ; and in the 
following year he passed from Jerusalem through the Desert 
of et-Tih, and thence to Cairo. In von Zach's Monatliche Cor^ 
respondenZf^ his valuable papers, which for a long time were 
scattered widely, were printed;^ but up to the present time no 

* J. V. Hammer-Purgstall, in Rev. of 18 works on Syria in the Wien- 
JaJirh. der Literat. vol. xlv. and xlix. ; again in 1836, vol. Ixxiv. pp. 1-102; 
also in 1839, vol. Ixxxvii. pp. 1-203 ; again in 1843, vol. ciii. pp. 1-68. 

2 H. Berghans, Geogr. Memoir zur ErlQuterung und Erkldrung der Karte 
von Syrieuj Gotba 1836, pp. 1-21. 

* Berghans, Syria Mem. p. 508. 

* Von Zach, MonatL Correspond. 1806, May, p. 608. 

* The same, 1807, xvi. Jnly, p. 79. 

* Die Kartographische Benutzung^ in Kloden und Berghans, ^ynailfewioir, 
pp. 7-9. 

7 The same, 1807, toI. xvii. Feb. p. 132. 


collection of this eminent German traveller's documents, jour- 
nals, and the like, has been published, to serve as the worthy 
monument of a zealous and eminent martyr to the cause of 
science. Less fortunate than his follower Burckhardt, himself 
a German, who traversed the same region, and who alone can 
be compared with him, Seetzen's writings are but little known 
to the world of scholars ;^ while Burckhardt's, under the auspices 
of the London Society, have been largely disseminated. I do 
not give up the hope, however, of seeing justice done to Seetzen 
in this regard. The reader has already noticed the large 
extracts which I have made elsewhere from his scattered 
papers, and needs no words of mine, I trust, to convince him 
that, despite the rapid progress made since Seetzen lived, much 
may still be learned of him.' 

1802. Lieutenanf^Colonel Squire, Travels through, part of 
the ancient Coeh-Syria. From his literary remains. The in- 
structive tour in Middle Syria was made in company with W. 
Hamilton and W. M. Leake.* 

1806-7. F. A. Chateaubriand, Itiniraire de Paris a Jeru- 
salem^ Paris, 3 vols. Written with enthusiasm, in the spirit of 
the old pilgrimages, more brilliant than instructive, and full of 
historical errors. See Munk, Palestine^ p. 657. 

1810-1816. Johann Ludwig Burckhardt of Basle, Travels 
in Syria and the Holy Landy published by the Association for 
promoting the Discovery of the interior parts of Africa, with 
preface by W. M. Leake, London 1822.* This work contains 
the record of his various travels in Syria, which were intended 
to serve as preparative to his labours of discovery in Inner 
Africa. His premature death at Cairo in 1817 disappointed his 
hope, as well as that of the world. The journey from Damas- 
cus to the Lebanon took place in the autumn of 1810, shortly 

^Respecting Seetzen^s pai>erB and journals, see a letter from Prof. 
Kruse in the Monthly Gazette of the Berlin, Geog. Soc. New Series, voL L 
pp. 296-300. 

^ It may interest the reader to know, that since the above words were 
written, Seetzen^s writings have been collected and published in Germany 
— the result largely of Hitter's personal influence. — Ed. 

* Robert Walpole, Travels in various Countries of the East, London 1820, 
pp. 292-852. 

^ German Translation, with critical remarks, by Dr Gesenius, Weimar 
1823, 2d Pt. 


after the visit of Seetzen, as also did that to Hauran ; in the 
winter of 1812 he went from Aleppo to Damascas ; in the 
spring, through the valley of the Orontes to the Lebanon, and 
again through Hauran to Tiberias and Palestine ; then in the 
summer of the same year, from Damascus through Arabia 
Petraea to Cairo, thence to make that journey of 1816 to Sinai 
on which we have already accompanied him. Burckhardt is 
recognised as one of the most admirable observers, and one of 
the most instructive travellers who have visited the East. His 
works have enjoyed the advantage of the editorship of Leake 
and Gesenius.^ 

1814. H. Light, Travels in Egypt, Holy Landy e^c, London 
1818; and (1815) William Turner, Journal of a Tour in the 
Levant, London 1820, 3 vols. 

1815-1816. Otto Friedrich von Richter, WallfaJiHm im 
Morgenlande, herausgegeben von J. P. G. Ewers, Berlin 
1822. These three works contain important topographical 
details, all of which have been turned to profitable service by 

1818. Thomas Legh, Excursion from Jerusalem to Wadi 
Musa, in William MacMichael's Journey from Moscow to Con- 
stantinople, London 1819. The fourth chapter contained the 
sketch of his tour from Jaffa to Kerak from April 2 to May 
17, 1818 ; then follows the journey to Petra and back. His 
course next is from Kerak northward along the east shore of 
the Dead Sea to Damascus and Aleppo. His narrative is brief, 
but of some value on account of the newness of his route. 
The narratives of his companions in travel, Irby and Mangles, 
were unfortunately not available to Berghaus in constructing 
his masterly map of Syria and Palestine.^ 

1817-1818. Charles Leonard Irby and James Mangles, 
commanders in the Royal Navy, Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, 
and Asia Minor, printed for private distribution, London 1823. 
Robinson has expressed his regret that the valuable record, 
though very hastily written down, of these remarkably obser- 
vant travellers has never been published to the world. They 
had for companions, in the valley of Lake Tiberias, Mr Wil- 

^ See Leake respecting the chartographical importance of the work in 
the preface; also Berghaus, Syria Mem. pp. 9-12. 
2 Berghaus' Syria Memoir, p. 18. 


liam John Banks, and in Kerak Mr Legh, whose brief narra- 
tive was referred to just above. The newness of the routes 
which they took/ particalarly in the region east of the Dead 
Sea, has given their work a, value altogether disproportionate 
to its humble pretensions. The fact that Irbj and Mangles' 
book was never published,' in the booksellers' sense, deprived 
von Raumer among others of its service: he had only the 
briefer narrative of Legh. And a yet greater subject of regret 
is it, that Mr Banks, after his many years of travel in the 
East, and with his very extensive information, should be so 
stubbornly reticent, at least in regard to the district east of the 
Jordan, rich as it is in places of the greatest interest to the 
historian and the antiquarian. 

I have alluded in the preceding volume to that part of 
Irby and Mangles' work which relates to the route from Kerak 
to Petra; and may now refer to Letter ii. pp. 174-236, the 
account of the journey from el-Arish and Gaza to Aleppo, 
including the excursion in 1818 to Palmyn^; Letter iv. pp. 
285-334, describing the route from Damascus through the 
valley of the Jordan to Nablus and Jerusalem ; and Letter v., 
describing the journey along the west coast of the Dead Sea 
to Petra, thence back to Kerak, and so up the east shore, 
and by a route which embraced Heshbon, Rabbath-Amman, 
Jeraj, and Tiberias, to Acre. The map which records 
their wanderings has received valuable corrections from the 
hands of Lord Belmore, Capt. Corry, and Lieut.-Oolonel 

1818. Robert Richardson, Travels along Hie Mediterranean 
and parts adjacent^ in company with the Earl of Belmore^ 1816- 
1818, London 1822, 2 vols. These gentlemen spent only a 
hundred and two days in Syria, traversing the more famUiai* 
routes of Palestine, as far south as to the region west of the 
Bahr el Huleh.* Dr Richardson has been called by English- 
men, in consequence of his accuracy, the Maundrell of the 
nineteenth century. 

^ Irby and Mangles, Trav, pp. 183, 232, 333 et seq. 

* When this was written. Hitter was not aware that Mr Murray of 
London had published the travels of Irby and Mangles, 2 vols. 16mo. 
1844.- Ed. 

« Berghaus, Syria Memoir^ pp, 19, 20. 


1816. J. S. BuckiDgham, Travels in Palestine^ through the 
countries of Bashan and Gilead east of the river Jordan^ includ- 
ing a Visit to Hie Cities of Geraza and Gamalay London 1822, 
2d ed. 2 vols.; with Travels (by the same) among the Arab 
Tribes inhabiting Hie countries east of Syria and Palestine^ 1825. 
The last named is a continuation of the first, which closes with 
the author's stay in Nazareth during February 1816. The 
second narrative takes up the story where the first drops it, 
and in the form of a somewhat tedious and disconnected 
journal of travel, takes the reader along the east valley of the 
Jordan as far as Antioch and Aleppo. Notwithstanding the 
bad repute into which this traveller has fallen in consequence 
of his appropriation of a part of the honour due to Burckhardt 
and Banks for their discoveries, and for abusing their confidence 
in his honour by publishing what was not confided to him with 
that view, and in spite of the great inaccuracy of Buckingham 
in matters which require historical and philological attainments, 
yet it would be unjust to deny him the credit due to a bold and 
ardent explorer, and a man whose careful measurements of 
angles, distances, levels, and the like, have served as very impor- 
tant data in enabling Berghaus to complete his admirable map,^ 
and to insert many particulars which must otherwise have been 

Less important and noteworthy are the unpretending narra- 
tives of some travellers who visited the Holy Land at almost 
the same time with those last mentioned : the observant Swiss 
J. G. Mayr,- 1812-13; T. R. JoliflFe, 1817, whose work is a 
valuable help to biblical students; Compte de Forbin, 1817-18, 
enriched with copper-plate sketches; F. W. Sieber,^ 1818; Sir 
F. Henniker, 1820-21 ; John Came, 1821 ; and Berggren the 
Swede, 1821, who paid special attention to the topography of 
Jerusalem. The works of all these writers are worth looking 
into, and are by no means destitute of merit. In relation to 
missions, the condition of the Jews resident in Palestine, and 
the religious state of the country, the writings of the mission- 

^ Berghaus, Syria Memoir^ pp. 12-16. 

3 Job. G. Mayr's Reise, St Gallen 1820. Only the fourth and fifth 
books need be consulted, pp. 801-432. 

' F. W. Sieber, Reise von Cairo nach Jerusalem^ Leipsig 1823 : with a 
few botanical remarks. 

VOL. n. E 


ariesy W. Jowett, Pliny Fisk, and Joseph Wolff, are the chief 
authorities; in what pertains to the Catholic foundations of 
the land, Dr M. A. Scholz, 1820-21, Reise nach PaldsHna und 
Syrien^ is the most competent guide. The writings of Ruppell, 
Laborde, and others, who have confined their researches entirely 
to Arabia Petrsea (so far as the country known in the broadest 
sense as the Holy Land is concerned), I need not allude to 

1829. A. V. Prokesch, Reise ins heilige Landy Vienna 
1831. Like all the writings of this author, interesting and 

A. Daldini, Viaggio di Terra SantUj Milano 1830. A work 
with which I am as yet unacquainted. 

1830-31. Michaud et Poujoulat, Correspondance d! Orient, 
Paris 1833, 7 vols. The distinguished name of the historian 
of the Crusades is not a correct voucher of the value of this 
work, which is of inferior value, and owes what excellence it 
does possess to the hand not of Michaud, but of Poujoulat. 
After the History of the Crusades was finished, its author went 
to Palestine, in order to study the ground of which he had 
written so much. The gentleman above named was his travel- 
ling companion. So meagre were the results, that, according 
to von Hammer,^ a most thorough critic, there are many inac- 
curacies in the parts which relate even to the country most 
closely connected with the sites made famous by the deeds of 
the crusaders. More recently still, 1836-39, Poujoulat's bro- 
ther Baptistin^ has visited the country to fill the gaps which 
existed in the earlier correspondence. His contributions will 
be found in vol. ii. pp. 1-508. 

1832-33. Edw. Hogg, Visit to Alexandria^ Damascusy and 
Jerusalem^ London 1835, 2 vols. The influence of the power- 
ful sway of Ibrahim Pasha in Egypt led to such a degree of 
security even in the adjacent Syria, that many travellers. English- 
men in particular, were induced to visit Palestine. It is true 
they often took the old familiar paths, they often dashed hastily 
through the country, they often repeated what had been told 
before, and yet they have contributed much that was new. 

1 In Wien, Jahrb. 1836, Ixxix. pp. 5-102. 

^ Baptistin Poujoulat, Voyage de VAsie Mineur en Mesopotamie, a 
PalmyK en Syrie, en Palestine et Egypt, etc , Paris 1841, 2 vols. 


It is unnecessary to name them all : only a few of the most 
eminent names need be cited here ; among them Dr Hogg^ 
whose work only touches upon Palestine in the second part ; 
John Madox,^ who has contributed some new topographical 
data regarding rivers, mountains, and celebrated places ; Rev. 
Vere Monro,^ whose instructive work has many points of ex- 
cellence ; Major Skinner,* 1833, who in his journey to India 
passed through Palestine as far as Damascus. Soon after 
these there followed J. L. Stephens, 1836, an American ; Pax- 
ton, 1836-38 ; Rev. C. B. Elliot,* 1836, who, in consequence of 
the valuable companionship of G. Nicolayson, a missionary of 
great experience and long residence, ought to have made valu- 
able contributions to our knowledge of Palestine, but whom a 
showy pretence to learning and etymological skill often led 
into gross errors. Palestine is in the second volume of his 
work. Lord Lindsay's* narrative, written in 1837, and full 
of youthful life, has been fully drawn from in the previous 
volume. Charles G. Addison and G. Robinson^ are instruc- 
tive in many particulars, especially in relation to the political 
condition and hydrography of the country. 

1831-33. At about the same date, two Frenchmen of 
deeply religious nature, and of distinguished talents, visited the 
Holy Land in the spirit of the devoted pilgrims of the middle 
ages, full of an earnest longing to receive a higher consecration 
of life amidst the sacred scenes of Bible story, and at the same 
time, while strengthening their pious feeling, to do good service 
to art and learning. Their model was the brilliant and fanci- 
ful work of Chateaubriand, their eminent countryman and 
predecessor. One of them, the experienced and accomplished 

^ John Madox, Excursions in (he Holy Land^ London 1834, 2 vols. 
Reviewed in Wien, Jahrh. vol. Ixidv, p. 39. 

2 Rev. Vere Monro, A Summer Ramble in Syria^ Lond. 1835, 2 vols. 

' Maj. Skinner, Adventures during a Journey overland to India, etc., 
liondon 1837. 

* C. B. Elliot, Travels in the Three Great Empires, 2 vols. London 1838. 
See Wien. Jahrh. vol. Ixxxvii. p. 41, etc. 

* Lord Lindsay, Letters on Egypt, Edom, and the Holy Land, Lond. 
1839, 3d ed. in T. ii. pp. 50-232 ; together with letter of Mr Farren. 

^ C. G. Addison, Damascus and Palmyra, Lond. 1838, 2 vols. ; G« 
Robinson, Travels in Palestine and Syria, London 1837, 2 vols. 


Father Marie Joseph de Geramb,^ a clergyman of the order of 
Trappists from the Abbey Mont des Olives in Alsace, had been 
driven by the Revolution of July from his peaceful home, and 
forced by the stormy waves which surged around him, and the 
wounds which his native land had received, to find a refuge for 
his simple nature in that holy city and home of his faith, for 
whose future in his mind, as well as in that of the young and 
glowing Alphonse de Lamartine,^ there burned a noble hope, 
which uttered itself in the fiery language of poetry and patriotic 
enthusiasm. De Geramb's work is the edifying and imobtru- 
sive description of what he had witnessed in the Holy Land 
as well as in Egypt.' Not so unpretending, however, are the 
Souvenirs of Lamartine. As the title indicates, they do not 
propose a scientific treatment of the theme ; and the language 
of a thorough orientalist is just, that nothing of a geographical 
nature is to be learned from Lamartine's work ; and quite as 
little that is authentically historic, since he, like Chateaubriand, 
has fallen into many an error. His work, which is universally 
known, is valuable for its rich poetic fancies, and its artistic 
delineation of the beauties of nature. With Father Geramb's 
work we must couple one which followed almost immediately 
after, written by Joseph Salzbacher, Prebendary of St 
Stephen's Church in Vienna, 1839, 2 vols. This work is an 
excellent contribution to our knowledge of the present position 
of Cathohc institutions in Palestine. 

1834. Marmont, Due de Raguse, Voyage en Hongrie^ etc.y en 
Syrie, en Palestine^ etc.y Bruxelles 1837, 4 vols. This work con- 
tains a very compact account of Palestine, the record of a very 
observant mind, and is particularly valuable in its political and 
military details. Its contributions to our knowledge of the 
physical character of the country are not unimportant, as his 
instruments were all trustworthy. 

We close this list of authorities on the general character of 
the country as a whole, by citing the three most noted works of 
all, whose authors followed each other in quick succession, and 

^ Rev. Pfere Marie Joseph de Geramb, Rdigieux de la Trappe, Pilgrim' 
age a Jerusalem et au Mt, Sinai en 1831-1833, Tournay 1836. 

^ Souvenirs, Impressions, Pemies, et Passages pendant un Voyage en 
Orient, par Lamartine, de TAcad^mie Fran^aise ; Oeuvres, Brax. 1838. 

» Wien. Jahrb, 1836, vol. Ixxiv. pp. 4, 15-21. 


traversed all parts of this inexhaustible country, everywhere 
bringing new and interesting facts to light. In the precedmg 
volume, I have so fully quoted from their works, that their 
most striking characteristics are already familiar to the reader ; 
and it is not necessary here to repeat formally, that they stand 
altogether in advance of those who preceded them. Von 
Schubert, Robinson, and Russegger, noble, honoured names^ 
are by a happy fortune my own personal dear friends ; 
and I cannot forbear returning them my warmest thanks for 
the free use of the records of their leisurely joumeyings and 
unwearied researches in the Holy Land, without which it would 
have been impossible for me to have ventured on the preparar 
tion of the present work, which owes its best and most impor- 
tant parts to the results of their patient efforts. 

Of Russegger's researches I have spoken so fully in the 
preceding volume, that it is unnecessary to recapitulate in this 

1836-37. Dr G. H. von Schubert, Reiae in das Morgen- 
landy Erlangen 1839, of which vol. ii. pp. 462—591, and vol. iii. 
pp. 1-390, contain the portion relating to Palestine and Syria. 
One of the most learned critics has said as truly as finely, that 
Schubert has caught the genuine spirit of the East as almost 
no one of his predecessors has done, and reproduced it with a 
fidelity and a heartiness which is quite unique, proceeding from 
that religious point of view, from which alone the philosophy, 
morals, customs, and mode of life in the East can be correctly 
appreciated. Without hunting after what is paradoxical, as so 
many who went before him have done, and without losing 
sight of what is essential and vital by reason of the abundance 
and multifariousness of his learning, this author, who undertook 
the difficult journey at the age of fifty-six, has accomplished 
his task with so much spirit and such signal success, and repro- 
duced his own impressions with so much freedom and life, and 
enriched the mind of his reader with so much that is new 
regarding the natural history of the Holy Land, that even 
where he recounts what is old and trite, his charmingly written 
narrative finds favour ; and everywhere, where he undertakes 
to depict the scenery of the country, he does it with a master's 

1838. E.Robinson and E. Qxmihy Biblical Researches in 


Palestine^ Mount Sinaiy and Arabia Petroea in 1838, drawn up 
from the original diaries, with historical illustrations by Edward 
Sobinson, Professor of Biblical Literature in the Union Theol. 
Seminary^ New Xork ; with new map and plans in five sheets ; 
London, J. Murray, 1841, 3 vols. The same title in the Am. 
ed. : Boston, Crocker and Brewster.^ 

This work, which was originally written in English in 
Berlin, was translated into German partly by the author him- 
self, and wholly under his personal supervision ; and the two 
editions, published simultaneously in London and Halle, as 
well as that which appeared in Boston, are the author's own. 
The only difference is in the dedication : the English edition 
being inscribed to Lord Prudhoe [the late Duke of Northum- 
berland] ; the American, to Rev. Moses Stewart, Professor of 
Sacred Literature in the Andover Theological Seminary ; the 
German, to the author of this work. The maps, which were con- 
structed with the rare skill of Dr Kiepert from the voluminous 
data furnished by Robinson, the result of his innumerable 
measurements, and which were lithographed in the most faith- 
ful and beautiful manner by H. Mahlmann, raised the charto- 
graphy of Palestine one step higher even than Berghaus had 
placed it ; and they remain perhaps the veiy finest efforts of 
skill which have appeared either in or out of Germany, and 
are inserted on account of their great value in the English, 
American, and German editions of the work. 

The union of that very close observation of the topogra- 
phical features of the country which characterizes the work of 
Burckhardt, with many preparatory studies, particularly with a 
thorough familiarity with the Bible, and with philological and 
historical criticism, and the thorough acquaintance with the 
colloquial language of the country enjoyed by Mr Smith, who 
had long been a missionary there, make this work, prepared 
as it was after the severest toil, a classic in its own field, — a 
production which has already set the geography of the Holy 
Land on a more fixed basis than it had ever had before, and 
which will ensure its continued advance. No previous work 
had collected a greater store of new and important discoveries 
of a historico-critical character, says the competent judge, 

^ It is hardly necessary to tell the reader that a later and enlarged 
edition, with subsequent researches, has been since published. — ^Ed. 


J. Olshaasen ; and the admirable principles of investigation 
which are unfolded in Robinson's work, will serve as a beacon 
for all future explorers, who shall endeavour to read the word 
of God by the light reflected from the scenes amid which it 
was recorded. The work has marked an epoch in biblical 
geography. The universally recognised merits of its author^ — 
who has been, as becomes a true scholar, not grudging in his 
commendation of worthy predecessors in the same field, but 
who has had at times, in his eager search after truth, to be the 
open foe of convent legends, the light tales of tradition, and the 
gross historical errors which lay in his way — have not prevented 
his being attacked by all kinds of adversaries, some of them 
men of superficial attainments, some of them men actuated by 
base motives or by passionate animosity.* But Eobinson was 
not engaged in defending a set of opinions, but in attaining 
the truth ; and knowing that every human work has its imper- 
fections, he did not pretend, as his own pages show, that his 
book was a completed production, but rather a careful essay' 
towards a result which he believed other men would come to 
fulfil in a more perfect manner than lay within his power. 
The task of his life, first to last, lay before him rather than 
behind him; and the German editor of his later researches 
(Rodiger) very justly says that Robinson's greatest merit lies 

^ Quarterly Review^ vol. Ixix. Art. v. pp. 150-185. Wien, Jalirh, der 
Literatur, 1W2, vol. xcviii. pp. 126, 159, and 1843, vol. cii. pp. 214-235, 
von J. Olshausen ; Hallische Allg. Liter atur Zeitung, 1842, Nos. 28, 29, 
pp. 218-240 ; Nob. 71-73, pp. 661-583, 1843 ; Nos. 110, 111, pp. 265-280, 
by Rodiger ; Gross of Wurtemburg, in the fourth No. of the Theol. Sltid, u. 
Krit. 1843, in Raumer, BettrOge^ 1843. 

2 Bulletin de la Soc. Geogr. de Paris, 1840, T. xiii. pp. 156-161, in Leon 
de Laborde, Commentaire geogr, sur VEzode, Paris 1841, in A pp. i. ; Rev. 
Geo. Williams, The Holy City, or Hist, and Topogr. Notices of Jerusalem, 

' Bihliotheca Sacra, or Tracts and Essays, etc., editor E. Robinson, New 
York, 1843. In this are Researches in Palestine, compiled by the editor 
from various communications from £11 Smith and R. S. Wolcott, with a 
map, pp. 9-88. The Reputed Site of Vie Holy Sepulchre, pp. 184-202 ; The 
Druzes of Lebanon, pp. 205-253 ; Bihliotheca Sacra and Theol Review, by 
Edwards and Park, New York, 1844, vol. i. ; E. Robinson, Notes on Bibli- 
cal Geog, pp. 217-221, 598-602, 794-800, vol. u. pp. 898, 400, vol. v. 
1846, pp. 184-214, and Nob. xi. and zii. Of the latter there is a German 
translation, Neue (Jntersuchungen Uber die Topographic Jermalems. 


in his kindling into life that great interest in the topography 
of the Bible scenes, which has prompted a very high class of 
minds to explore the region with exhaustive skill, — ^men like 
Schultz, KrafiFt, Tobler, and Gadow, whose works 1 shall have 
occasion further on to use so largely, that I forbear speaking 
of them in detail here. 

The readers of the preceding volume have already had occa- 
sion to observe, that in some cases, where the progress of recent 
discovery would seem to justify it, I have not hesitated to draw 
different conclusions from those reached by my honoured 
friend. Instances will occur in connection with Mount Sinai 
and Kadesh-Barnea. The superficial and not seldom bitter 
criticism which has fallen upon him from prelatical England 
and from Cathohc France, and the unworthy efforts which 
have been made in those two countries to undermine the results 
gained by the distinguished American, are in strong contrast 
with the thorough and impartial reviews of his work which 
have appeared in Germany. Such assaults would never have 
been made by men who stopped to consider what were the 
fundamental principles of Robinson's method of investigation : 
they are such as would be impracticable in many pilgrimages 
to the Holy Land ; but in one whose object was confessedly 
scientific, they are only to be spoken of highly, and are to be 
used as the correct standard of measuring all the works on 
Palestine which have been already cited in these pages. 

The two fundamental principles which Robinson and Smith 
have laid down for their guidance in determining the historical 
value of the traditions of Palestine, were these,, that different 
weight is to be attached — (1) to the later traditions which have 
arisen since Constan tine's time, and which, springing from the 
changed ecclesiastical condition of the land, have been largely 
diffused by those who were not the primeval inhabitants of the 
country, but resident aliens, so to speak; and (2) to the primi- 
tive and indigenous traditions, rooted deeply in the Semitic 
character, living in the mouths of the common people, and 
perpetuating themselves in the local names of places, since the 
Arabic now spoken is so akin in its general features to the 
Hebrew which it has supplanted, that it changes but slightly 
the old words, and leaves the roots visible; while the Greek 
never took a firm or lasting hold, and never grafted itself upon 


the national life of the land. Tlie names Diospolis, Nicopolis, 
Ptolemais, and Antipatris, have long since disappeared; while 
the still older names of Lydda, Emmaus, and others which will 
readily recur to the reader^s mind, are still found in the Ludd 
and Amwas of the present day. These indigenous words were 
never regarded as important by the Byzantine ecclesiastical 
authorities; nor were they observed by the earlier travellers, 
who surrendered themselves unreservedly to the guidance of 
monks, and contentedly received whatever they told them. But 
the more ancient tradition both Eobinson and Smith found 
never to deceive them; while that which was more modern 
continually appealed to other sources of testimony in confirma- 
tion of itself, especially the Bible, while it very oft«n stood in 
direct antagonism even to that to which it appealed. Seetzen 
had even earlier called attention to the value of the primitive 
Semitic traditions; for he too had found, in the neighbourhood of 
the Dead Sea, and in the lower valley of the Jordan, many words 
which carried him back to the remotest antiquity, and which 
since the time of Jerome had never found a record in literature. 
Of siich names Robinson collected a vast number, all of them 
of the utmost importance in enabling him to exhume, as it were, 
the ancient topography of Palestine. 

In order to gain unbiassed results, the American travellers 
shunned all the convents on their route, which had before been 
the almost exclusive lodging-places of pilgrims (Burckhardt and 
Euppell being the only exceptions). They abjured the com- 
panionship and the guidance of monks, shunned the usual 
routes of travel ; but when their materials were collected, they 
^ compared them with the often-told ecclesiastical traditions, only 
to the manifest falseness and untrustworthiness, be it said, of 
the latter. Three periods are to be discriminated, however, in 
the gradual formation of these discarded traditions; and, as a 
general principle, their value grows greater as we recede from 
the present time. The first period is that of the fourth century, 
whose representatives are the Itinerarium Hieroaolymitanum and 
the Onomasticon of Eusebius and Jerome, and the other writings 
of the last-namied divine. In these works there is a blending 
of ecclesiastical hypotheses and of popular words which dis- 
appear in the later literature, but which Bobinson found to 
survive in the mouths of the common people. The second 


period is that of the Crusades, whose traditions are the most 
fully portrayed in Brocardus, 1283, — a work of far greater 
value, in consequence of its compact topographical descriptions, 
than the two thick folios of Quaresmius, written in the middle 
of the seventeenth century. In him the follies of the eccle- 
siastical traditions come to their height. 

Following their uniform plan of travel, Bobinson and Smith 
did not lodge in the convents, but in the open air, or in the 
houses of the people, employed the Syrians as their guides, 
and struck across the country through the most retired and un- 
explored byways. Nor did they ask direct questions, which 
usually get the answer which the Arab thinks the questioner 
wants; but by the most indirect interrogatories and cross 
questions, and by comparing the answers gained from different 
persons, they at last felt, in most cases at least, that they had 
in some measure attained the actual facts. The services of Mr 
Smith, who had for many years been a missionary in Syria, 
and was perfectly familiar with the popular speech, were indis- 
pensable. Each traveller kept his own journal, but there was 
no comparison on the way: it was only when the work was 
composed, that the whole material was canvassed, and the results 

With these remarks, which seemed a necessary preliminary 
to the free use of Robinson's materials, I close my review of 
the published authorities on Palestine. I must not withhold 
the very cordial thanks which I owe, however, to those gentle- 
men who have not published the record of their travels, but 
who have favoured me with the fi'ee use of the manuscripts. 


The accumulation of material in the works mentioned above 
has awakened a lively interest in Palestine, and prompted the 
desire to explore more in detail what had been left for others 
to examine. The spirit of these investigators is a delightful 
one, and the results are in many cases very valuable, probing 
the subject to the depths without losing themselves in its 
breadth. And I must here acknowledge the value of the 


monographs, special papers, and briefer notes in some cases, 
which have been communicated in both printed and manuscript 
form, and in some cases by word of mouth. I can only cite 
the most important of them; for they are, in most cases, so 
scattered as to be inaccessible for reference should the reader 
desire a nearer acquaintance with their contents. 

Upon the hypsometrical observations made on the Isthmus 
of Suez, in the valley of the Jordan, and in the basin of the 
Dead Sea : 

Letronne, sur la Separation primitive des Basains de la Mer 
Morte et de la Mer Rouge^ et sur la difference de niveau entre 
la Mer Rouge et la Miditerranie, Paris 1839. The same, in 
Joum. des Savansy 1835, Aoiit et Oct.; and Col. Callier, 
Lettre in Joum. des Savansj Jan. 1836 and Aoiit 1838. Com- 
pare Callier, Note in Bulletin de la Soc. Giogr, Paris, Aout 

Letronne, TIsthme de Suez; le Canal de jonciion de deux 
mersy sous les Grecsy les Romainsy et les Arahes. Revue de deux 
Mondes, nSm\\.lUl. 

J. Vetch, Inquiry into the Means of a Skip Navigation 
between the Mediterranean and Red Seas^ London 1843. 

Von Wildenbuch, Memoire iXber das Nivellement der Land- 
enge Suez von Negrelli; and Dr Abeken, uher die Landenge 
Suez in Besiehung auf ihren fruhem Zustandy nach Localunter- 
suchungen. Both in MS. 

Compte Jules de Bertou, Itiniraire de la Mer Morte par la 
Glior a Ahahaj et retour 4 Hehronj 1838, in the Bulletin de la 
Soc. de Geogr. de Paris, T. xi. Paris 1839 ; also Capt. Callier, 
Note T. X. 1838. 

Compte Jules de Bertou, Memoire sur la Depression de la 
Valine du Jourdain^ et du lac AsphaUite; in the Bulletin above 
quoted, tom. xii. 1839, i. pp. 133-135, and P. ii. Nivellement 
du Jourdainy pp. 135, 136, with maps. 

J. Russegger, uher die Depression des Todten Meers und des 
ganzen Jordanthals vom See Tiberias bis zum Wadi el Ghor, 
in Poggend. Annal. vol. liii. No. xvi. pp. 179-194. 

E. Robinson, Appendix xxxvii. on the statements of Bertou. 

G. H. Moore and W. G. Beke, on ilie Dead Sea and some 
Positions in Syria, in Joum. of Hie Roy. Geog. Soc. of Lond. 
1837, vol. vii.; and in Bibliotheca Sacra, New York 1843. 



Dr G. Parthey, aher die Einsenkungen unter das Niveau des 
Meeresy 1838, MS. 

Dr Daubeny, The Destruction of Sodom and GomorraJij 
occasioned hy Volcanic Action^ in Jameson, Edinburgh Phil. 
Journal^ Nov. 1826. 

Alex. V. Humboldt, Hher die Depression des JordanthaleSy 
in his Central Asia^ also in his Cosmos. [Eitter's references 
are to the German edition.] 

Von Wildenbruch, Routiers in Paldstina und SyrieUj in 
Monatsberichte der Gesellscliaft fur Erdkunde^ Neue Folge, Pt. i. 
1843 ; his Vertical Section from Joppa to the Dead Sea by way 
of Jerusalem, and from Jerusalem to Lake Tiberias and the 
Sources of the Jordan, Pt. iii.; the Vertical Section from Beirut 
to Damascusy Pt. iv. ; and the same on the Climatology of 
Palestine, Pt^i. 

Dr De Forest, Contributions to the Climatology of Palestine, 
in Bibliotheca Sacra, New York 1844. 

K. V. Kaumer, Das dstliche Paldstina und das Land Edom, 
in Berghaus' Annalen, Feb. 1830; the same, das ostjordanische 
Judda, 1834, in Litterarischer Anzeiger fur Christliche Tfieo- 
logic und Wissens. 1834, Nos. i. and ii.; the same, Beitrdge zur 
biblischen Geographic, Leipsig 1843; the same, Abhandlung 
der tertiaire KaVcstein bei Paris und der Kalkstein des westlichen 

To these may be added many new topographical discoveries 
on new routes or in special localities, some of the most important 
of which are: 

Major Eobe, Country about the Sources of the Jordan, in 
Bibliotheca Sacra, New York 1843. 

Sam. Wolcott, Excursion from Jerusalem vi& Nazareth to 
Sidon and Beirut, in a letter to Eli Smith, in Bib. Sacra, 1843. 

Eli Smith, Visit to Antipatris, 1843, in Bib. Sacra. 

Sam. Wolcott, Excursion to Masada, in the same; also, 
Excursion from Sidon to Baalbek and I^ebanon, in the same ; 
also, Excursion to Mar Saba, in the same. 

W. M. Thompson, T7ie Sources of the Jordan, the Lake el-- 
Huleh, and tlie adjacent Country, in Bib. Sacra, New York 

W. M. Thompson, Journal of a Visit to Safet and Tiberias, 
in the Missionary Herald, Boston, Nov. 1837, xxxiii.; Noll 


and Moore, in the Joum. of the Roy. Geog. Soc. of London, 
vol. vii, 

E. Robinson's monographs on the following subjects: — 
Eleutheropolis, in Bib. Sacra, 1843; on Eleuiheropolis, in Bib. 
Sac. 1844;, on ArimathceOy in Bib. Sac. 1843; on Ramah 
of Samuel, Bib. Sac. 1844; on Legio, Megiddo, Maximian" 
opolisj in the same, vol. ii. 1844 ; on Gibeah of Saul, Rachels 
Sepulchre, in B. Sac. 1844, vol. i. ; on the City of Ephraim, the 
same, vol. ii. 

C. Gaillardot, Carte approximative der Ledja et des contrees 
environnanies, dressie pendant la campagne cC Ibrahim ^Pacha 
contre les Druzes, 1838. Taf . ii. in Berlin Monatsber. d. Geogr. 
Gesellsch. N. Folge, 1846, vol. iii. 

E. Gr. Schultze, Prussian Consul, Tfie manuscript Record of 
Six Visits made to Districts of Palestine very little known, from 
1845 to 1847, containing some discoveries, contained in a letter 
dated Beirut, Jan. 29, 1848. I may be permitted to add, that 
very important investigations are now going on under the direc- 
tion of Mr Schultze, and that the account of his journey through 
the whole province of Galilee, with the original documents 
relating to the Knights of St John, and their possessions there 
during the Crusades, in his hand, will be received with great 

I may also express my personal obligation for extracts from 
letters written by Baruch Auerbach in 1828 ; Dr Jost, 1830 ; 
Shwebel Mieg, 1832; A. Bram, 1834; W. G. Beke, 1837; 
E. Gross, 1844 ; as well as for the use of the journals of Dr 
W. Krafft 1845, Dr Barth 1847, and Mr Gadow.^ 

J. V. Hammer-Purgstall, Syrien, nach dem Dschihannuma 
des Hadschi Chalfa, in Wien. Jahr. d. Literatur, 1836, vol. Ixxiv. 
pp. 1-102. 

In the Joum. of the Roy. Geog. Soc. of London, vol. xviii. 
p. 2, 1848, are three important papers relating to the hydro- 
graphical character of Palestine : Robinson, Depression of the 
Dead Sea and of the Jordan Valley; Augustus Petermann, on 
the Fall of tlie Jordan; Lieutenant Molineux, Expedition to 
the Jordan and the Dead Sea, March 1848. The last contains 

^ H. Gadow, Ausflug von Jerusalem Hber Jericho au den Jordan^ das 
Todte Meer und nach Mar Saha, in Zeitsch, der d, morgenl. GeselL vol. ii. 
1848, pp. 52-66. 


the record of the first successful navigation and sounding of 
Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea. 

A great store of special observations relating to the upper 
valley of the Jordan^ and particularly its inhabitants, the people 
of the Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, and Hasbeiya, is contained in 
the uncommonly valuable, and in original authorities very rich. 
Missionary Heraldy "Bostony U.S., in vols, xxxiii. 1837, and xliii. 
1847, for whose welcome use during the years indicated I wish 
here to avow my deepest thanks and great obligations to the 
Board of American Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and to 
the edftors of the Herald. These thanks will only be confirmed 
in the course of this work by the evident service which I have 
drawn from the valuable writings of such men as Eli Smith, 
W. Thompson, De Forest, Van Lennup, Calhoun, Whiting, 
Hurter, Lanneau, Van Dyck, Beadle, and Hinsdale, among 
many others. 

Other authorities regarding Jerusalem and northern Syria 
will be cited further on, but now I will only append a list of 
some of the most serviceable maps of Palestine. 


There exists a mass of old maps of the Holy Land, so vast 
that I cannot undertake to survey them all and to report upon 
them; but the most of them are of interest only to the anti- 
quarian, or, at the highest, serve to explain the older volumes 
cited above, which, in fact, they were generally intended to 
accompany. But the efforts of Seetzen and Burckhardt gave 
a new impetus to the chartography of Palestine, which had 
necessarily to grow slowly up into its present fair proportions, 
rejecting the false and fanciful sketches with which our prede- 
cessors had to be content, and gradually giving the true physical 
and topographical character of the land. Much is lacking even 
yet, however, and much will be lacking so long as we are desti- 
tute of accurate astronomical, trigonometrical, and hypsometrical 
observations taken over the whole country. 

That in the present condition of affairs in Palestine there 
is not much ground for hope that this will be accomplished, is 
evident; but it is much to be regretted in behalf of science, that 


the results of the trigonometrical survey of the Jordan valley 
and of the coast of Palestine, undertaken by the English 
Admiralty, and completed in 1841, have not yet been published. 
I am very far from wishing to blame the officers of this branch, 
above all praise of mine as it is, and which has undertaken such 
varied enterprises, and carried them on with such energy and 
with so liberal outlay, and to which I am personally under so 
great obligations; for I know well what are the difficulties which 
must attend the work, engaged as the Admiralty is with enter- 
prises which extend to every part of the globe. But I have to 
regret, nevertheless, that I have not been able to use the results 
of that survey as the basis in part of the present volume. 
Molineux's Memoiry already cited, is a proof of the cordial 
good- will which the English Government^ bear to the progress 
of geographical science, as well as that of Sir Francis Beaufort, 
whose name is held in such estimation, and to whom I am 
under such a weight of obligations that I might venture to call 
him with pride my honoured patron. 

With Seetzen's manuscript map of the district from Damascus 
down the valley of the Jordan to the Ghor at the southern 
extremity of the Pead Sea, published in 1810 as a supplement 
to the Got/ia Monatliche Correspondenzy and engraved and con- 
structed under the care of Lindenau,* began the correct know- 
ledge of the district lying within the basin of the Jordan. 
After this appeared the work of the engineers Jacotin and 
Paultre,^ constructed under the auspices of the French Govern- 
ment. The possession of Egypt and south-west Palestine by a 
European power occasioned the preparation of that great topo- 
graphical atlas called the Description de VEgyptey whose last 
five plates, on a scale of nj^jl)^^ of the true size,* comprised the 
very valuable maps of Western Palestine. On these the coast 
roads from Gaza over Carmel and to Tyre and Sidon are laid 
down with praiseworthy detail ; the survey towards the interior 

^ W. J. Hamilton, Address to the Roy, Geog. Soc, of London^ May 22, 
1848, p. 16. 

^ Von Zach, Monat. Corresp, vol. X3ai. 1810, pp. 642-552. 

3 Paultre, Carte de la Syrie, Paris 1803. 

* Carte topographique de la Egypte et de pbisieurs parties des pays 
limitrophes^ levee pendant VExpediU de Varmee Frangais^ etCy construite par 
Jacotin, Colonel ; publ. par ordre du Gouvemement. 


of the country extends only as far as Jerusalem, Nablus, and 
Lake Tiberias, and northward to the neighbourhood of el-H{lleh 
and to the lower course of the Leontes ; beyond these limits 
the power of the French arms did not extend. Unfortunately 
the lack of astronomical observations, and a complete ignorance 
of the longitude, caused the whole coast between Gaza and Akka 
to be set one-third of a degree too far eastward. This led to 
much uncertainty, which was only removed, as far as the northern 
coast of Syria is concerned, by Captain Gauthier's observations, 
1816-20, but which remains in the southern half to the present 
day. It will only be removed when the results of the recent survey 
undertaken by the English Admiralty shall be published.^ 

Whatever could be accomplished by acuteness, and the power 
of combining the materials at hand, was effected in a really 
masterly way by 0. F. Kloden,^ in his map published 1817, 
which, however, he called, in consequence of its small scale, a 
mere first effort. With this may worthily be compared the chart 
constructed by Dufour,* which ought to bring into harmonious 
combination Gauthier's topography, Jacotin's surveys, Paultre's 
measurements, Burckhardt's routes of travel, and some still more 
recent observations. 

The rapid progress of geographical discovery in Palestine, 
due to Burckhardt, Buckingham, W. Turner, Kichter, Ehren- 
berg, Legh, and Henniker, made it possible, ten years later, 
for Berghaus to display his well-known chartographical talent 
in the construction of the map of Syria (Gotha 1835), to 
accompany his masterly atlas of Asia. This work must be 
reckoned among the most beautiful and most excellent models 
of modem geographical skill; and the admirable explanation 
furnished by the author corresponds happily with the value 
of the map which it accompanies. We have no need to speak 
of the value of this work in full, for Berghaus* has indi- 

1 Mr Hamilton, Address to the Roy. Geog. Sac, of London, May 22, 1848, 
p. Ixxiv. ; and Murchison, Address, May 26, 1845, p. cxxiii. in vol. xiv., 
and p. evil, in vol. zv. [The English maps are now issued.] 

2 C. F. Klbden, LandesJcunde von Palestina, Berlin 1847. See Preface 
to the Map, pp. 125-140. 

* A. H. Dufour, Carte de la Palestine adoptee par le Conseil Roy. de 
r Instruct, publ. Paris 1825; together with Analyse geographique, etc. 

* H. Berghaus, Geographisckes Memoir zur Erkldi-ung und Erldnterung 


cated in the most complete manner his sources and his principles 
of construction, and collected a rich store of authentic and well** 
an*anged data. His work opens a new era in the chartography 
of Palestine and Syria* 

I may remark of Berghaus' map, however, without entering 
into detailed panegyric, that one great excellence consists in 
the clear and accurate portrayal of the routes taken by such 
travellers as Burckhardt, Buckingham, Kichter, and others, as 
well as by the artistic and yet very natural manner in which 
it displays the varying elevation of the land, and fills in, in a 
manner which would hardly be suspected, and in accordance 
with his own fancy, controlled by the analogies of place and cir- 
cumstance, a mass of conjectural details to supply the deficiency 
of personal knowledge. This, although not warranted by all the 
circumstances, is the best thing that can be done until the whole 
country shall be thoroughly explored; for it prevents that sharp 
contrast between those parts of the map which display regions 
accurately examined, and those with which we are as yet unac- 
quainted, and serves to bridge over the necessary blank space. 
And how accurately Berghaus has done this conjectural work, 
may be seen by comparing his map with the statements of E. 
G. Schultze, made after his journey of discovery in 1847, when 
he traversed the country between Jebel Safed, north-west of 
Lake Tiberias, and Belad Bjerre, south-east of SAr (Tyre), and 
south of the Leontes ; a region which that traveller describes 
as poetry itself. 

If the absolute meagreness of personal observations made it 
imperatively necessary to fill in his map with the fancies which 
Berghaus' own imagination suggested, another want has impaired 
its accuracy in another respect. The mathematical observations 
which had been taken when it was constructed, were so few in 
number, that no minute triangulation of the whole country could 
possibly be effected; and it was impossible to calculate the angles 
and estimate nicely the distances without making some errors. 
Yet the thorough manner in which the work was done, so far 
as the larger triangulation is concerned, is so remarkable that 
minor corrections can easily be entered, and the whole attain 
an accuracy which is not at all possible in one of those most 

der Karte von Syrien, Gotba 1836, pp. 1-48. See a review of this by von 
Raumer, in Jahrb.fttr tdssensckafi, Kritik^ Feb. 1836, No. 27, p. 211. 


inaccurate and saperficial productions which the mere map- 
makers tarn out so abundantly to mislead the public. The 
weakest point of Berghaus' work, however, is one that has been 
referred to by others^ — its great deficiency in what relates to 
biblical geography. 

Yet the map of Palestine prepared still later by von Raumer 
did not, with all its accuracy, surpass its predecessor. It is, 
however, a work of great merit ; and in its mechanical con- 
stmction and its historical character it did much to pave the 
way for a subsequent map,^ smaller in scale, but very thorough 
and very satisfactory to fiible students. I must not omit to 
refer to one prepared by the accomplished J. L. Grimm, very 
valuable in its character, but lithographed in a hard and taste- 
less manner.' Its scale was ^^^o^o ^^ ^^^ natural size; its 
date of publication was 1830. 

Like geology, geography is a young and progressive science : 
it knows no pause, and with each year it gains new ground, 
and pierces to new depths ; and hardly five years had passed 
after the efforts last referred to had culminated in their great 
perfection, when rich material had gathered itself so profusely 
in this field, that it was necessary to construct a new and inde* 
pendent map of Palestine, which should, so far as the eastern 
shore of the Jordan is concerned, do little more than repeat 
what Berghaus had already given, but which in all that makes 
up Palestine proper, should be an original work. This task, 
which was to illustrate Robinson's Biblical Researches^ was 
accomplished by H. Kiepert in so masterly a manner, and in 
every respect so thoroughly scientific a spirit, as to win the 
applause of all scientific judges, and to be the model for all 
following works of its kind. The thousands of angles and 
measurements taken down by Robinson and Smith in their 
journeys by highways and byways, though lacking to a cer- 
tain extent the perfect accuracy of astronomical observations, 
have been applied so acutely and with such fine appreciation 

^ See Hiller's excellent review of von Raumer's Palestine^ and of Berg- 
haus' map, in Anzeiger der KonigL Bayr, Akad, der Wissenschq/len, Munich 
1836, No. 236, pp. 837-986. 

* Karte von Paldstina nach zuverldssigitten alien tmd neuen Quellen, von 
J£. V. Raumer und F. v. Stulpnagel. Gotha, J. Perthes. 

' Paldstina^ von J. L. Grimm, Berlin 1830. 


of the meaning of his guides by Kiepert, that I need only refer 
to his own memoir for the best and yet most modest eulogy of 
the work.^ It is enough to say, that accurate and close as were 
the descriptions and measurements of Burckhardt, those of 
the American travellers surpass even his. The two maps of 
Palestine are on the scale of 3:01^0^^ of the size of nature, that 
of Arabia Petraea only one-half of that. But in order to meet 
the universal want of a good map of Palestine for general use, 
and to still keep true to the latest discoveries and the highest 
scientific character, while shunning the sliallowness and imper- 
fection which the works of mere tinkers display, Kiepert pub- 
lished, in 1842, a map of Palestine of reduced size,^ on the 
scale of giTOdiyn of the natural size. This came to a second 
edition in 1843. In this work, not only did he retain the clear 
display of elevation which characterized the larger maps, but 
he published a new and original map of the country east of the 
Jordan, not following Berghaus any longer, but using still more 
recent materials than his predecessor had enjoyed. And at the 
time of my writing these words, Kiepert is engaged in revising 
the last-mentioned map, and in adding the results of the very 
latest investigations, involving a labour of which the copyists of 
copyists have no conception, — the men who follow their own taste 
and fancy, and think that a medley of names, thickly sown, and 
handsome colouring and artistic engraving, constitute a valuable 
map. They confuse dates, names, and varieties of spelling in 
the most irregular manner, and do more to perplex tlian to 
enlighten the student who consults them. Among the most 
noteworthy of these, which I purposely forbear to speak of in 
any fulness, is unfortunately to be reckoned a map of Palestine, 
drawn by the estimable Jean van de Cotte,* and published at 
Brussels by the Vandermaelen establishment ; a very attractive 
work, but of which it is enough to say in a single word, that, 
as the accompanying memoir indicates, though claiming to 

1 Atlas in filnf BldtL zu RohinsorCs Palestina, construirt von Heinrich 
Kiepert, und lithographirt von "W. Mahlmann, Berlin 1840-41. 

^ Karte von Palestine nach Robinson und Smithy bearbeitet Ton H. Kiepert, 
berausgegeben von C. Ritter. Berlin, Schropp, 1843. 

8 Carte topographique de la Palestine^ dresser d'apres la carte topo- 
grapbique de Jacotin, beaucoup augmentde par Jean van de Cotte, cure. 
Bruxelles 1847. 


be the product of five years' labour, it completely ignores the 
labours of Eobinson and Kiepert, and while using the works 
of Berghaus and Jacotin, yet appeals to the very earliest 
chartographical efforts relating to Palestine, and places the 
maps produced in the middle ages — those of Brocardus, Adri- 
chomius, etc. — in the same rank, and by the side of those which 
have incorporated the discoveries of Malte Brun, Chateaubriand, 
Lamartine, and Geramb, serving up the whole legendary 
medley under the name of a topographical map of Palestine. 
Far more faithful are the two American works just published, 
that of Colton in New York, and of Tracy in Boston, who have 
followed the latest and best authorities, much as they have left 
to be desired.^ 

To the fresh contributions which have been made to the 
materials available for chartographical purposes, in addition to 
the recent routes opened across the et-Tih desert by Eussegger, 
Callier, and Abeken, there are the following to be appended : 

A very valuable map of the whole western section of the 
upper valley of the Jordan has been prepared under the 
auspices of the French Government, but which has unfortu- 
nately not yet been published. The scale is j^oVod ^^ nature. 
I possess this work through the kindness of Col. Callier, and I 
can only regret that it is not accompanied by letterpress, which 
would add so much to its value. This is, in a certain measure, 
supplied by the hasty sketch^ which he has given of his wander- 
ings' through Syria, which extended from Gaza and Hebron to 
the sources of the Jordan and the Orontes, as far northward 
indeed as to Tripoli. CalHer's map gives also the routes of 
Beaufort de Ilautpouls and of A. de Caramans. 

[Major Kobe, Country around the Sources of the Jordan^ from 

1 Samuel Woloott, in Bihl Sacra, vol. iv. 1845, pp. 688-590. 

* Carte de la Syrie meridionale, et de la Palestine, dressee en 1835, d'apres 
les ordrea du Directeur du Depdt General de la Guerre, Lieut. -Gen. Pelet, 
p. CamiUe Callier, Chef d'Escadr. au Corps- Roy. d'Etat Major, d'aprea 
663 observations et reconnaissances faites en 1832 k 1833, a TEchelle de 

• Camille Callier, Voyage en Asie Minetire, Syrie, etc., Memoire in Bull, 
de la Soc. de Geogr. de Paris, Jan. 1835, 2 ser. T. iii. pp. 7-22. Com- 
pare C. Callier et Poulain de Boasay, Note sur qiielques explorations h faire 
en Syrie, en Palestine, et dans VArahie Petree, in Bullet, etc. T. ix. 1838, 
Dp. 40-49. 


the Biblioiheca Sacray 1843 ; a map accompanying an article 
already referred to.^ 

Plate V. to accompany the text of L. von Wildenbruch's 
article already mentioned, contains his routes in Syria and 
Palestine, very carefully detailed. 

E. Gaillardot's Map of the Ledja^ 1838 ; in the Monatsb, 

A small sketch prepared by S- Wolcott to illustrate the west 
coast of the Dead Sea, and giving the situation of I^Iasada. 

The publication of the Admiralty survey of Syria would 
revolutionize the existing state of knowledge, and would make 
it necessarj'- to reconstruct the maps of Palestine de novo. It 
is to be hoped that that event will take place,* and that the 
world will be enabled to enjoy the valuable results of that 
expedition which owes so much to the liberality of the English 

The results of this survey will embody the trigonometrical 
observations and the vertical measurements between the Medi- 
terranean Sea and the valley of the Jordan, and will establish 
the height of its lakes as compared with the sea-level. The 
points of triangulation embraced Jaffa, Jerusalem, and the 
Dead Sea, at the south ; and Cape Blanco, Saf ed, and Lake 
Tiberias, at the north.^ Valuable as have been the labours of 
von Schubert, de Bertou, Russegger, Moore, Beke, De Molineux, 
and von Wildenbruch, they can be regarded as merely pre- 
liminary to the perfected efforts which have been made under 
the auspices of the English Government. 

It may not be unprofitable to specify some of the illustrated 
works which have contributed to our more complete knowledge 
of the Holy Land. 

Eighty very beautiful views of the most striking landscapes 
in Palestine, executed on steel by the celebrated artist Bartlett.* 

^ Berlin Monatsber, der geograph. Gesellsch. das 4 Jalirg, 1843, Tab. 1, 
p. 125. 

* Murchifion, Address, etc, 1844, p. cxziii.; and 1845, p. cviii. [It 
should be added that Ritter's wish has now been accomplished. — Ed.] 

» W. R. Hamilton, Address, etc. 22d May 1843, p. Ixxiv. 

♦ The Cliristian in Palestine, or Scenes of Sacred History, Historical and 
Descriptive, by H. Stebbing ; illustrated from sketches ts^icn on the spot 
by W. H. Bartlett, London. 


By the same artist, in folio form, Comparative View of the 
Situation and Extent of ancient and modem Jerusalem; from 
sketches taken on the spot by W. H. Bartlett^ and lithographed 
by J. C. Bourne, London. 

The views taken by the Scotch painter, David Roberts,^ are 
of the very highest order of merit, giving a faithful representa- 
tion not only of the landscape, but also of the architecture of 
the country. 

In addition to these excellent authorities relating to the 
geography of Palestine, there is another class to be added, the 
same which is met in all the other ancient homes of civilisation, 
namely that derived from architecture, inscriptions, and coins,* 
although such are less common here than in many other coun- 
tries where the arts once flourished. They will be referred to 
in subsequent pages, for the study of them has progressed to 
a considerable extent. The architecture of the Romans is dis- 
criminated from that of the Saracens and Crusaders, and a 
large number of inscriptions have been successfully deciphered.* 

[Taking up this point where Ritter has left it, I subjoin a 
list of all works, important papers, and maps relating to the 
Holy Land between the commencement of 1852 and the close 
of 1865. It is believed that the catalogue is nearly perfect. — 

De St Martin : Les vieux Voyageurs h, la Terre Sainte d'en 
xiv""® and xvi"'® Siecle. Nouv. Annal. d. Voy. 1853. 

Strauss, F. A. : Sinai und Golgotha. 

Recentes explorations faites en diveres parties de la Palestine 
depuis le voyage de Smith et Robinson : 1. Recherches du 

^ La Terre Sainte^ Vues et Monuments^ recueillis par David Roberts, de 
TAcademie Roy. de Londres, avec une description historique sur cbaque 
Planche, edit. Bruxelles, Soc. de Beaux Arts, folio, 1843-1845, 10 

2 A. Boeckh, Corpus Liscript. Grsscarum^ vol. iii. Fascic. i. Berolini, 
fol. 184:4 ; Pare xxvi. Sec. v. Palsestina, Trachonitis^ et Auronitis^ fol. 244- 
274, from No. 4537 to 4666, ed. by J. Franz. 

* Theatrum bellorum a cnice signatis gestortim^ qtto scriptores illorum 
lemporum^ praesertim Archiepisc. Will, Tyrensis facilius intelligereniiiry man- 
datu Regiai Inscr, et humanior. Letter, Academ, disposuit et xri incidit, 
J. S. Jacobs. 1842. 


Capt. Newbold aux environs de Jerusalem. Nouv. Annal. 

de Voy. 1852-53. 
Schwartz, J. : Das heilige Land nach seiner ehemaligen und 

jetzigen geographischen Beschafifenheit. 
Plitt, Th. : Skizzen aus einer Eeise nach dem heih'gen Land. 
Schiferle, J. : Reise in das heilige Land. 
Gehlen, F. J. : Aus den Erlebnissen und Forschungen eines 

Pilgers zum heil. Lande. 
Gossler, H. : Pilgerreise nach Jerusalem. 
Eathgeber, A. : Palastina. 

Robinson, E. : Abriss einer Reise in Palastina in 1852. 
Zeitschr. d. deutsch. morgenland. Gesellsch. 1853. 
Fisk, G. : A Pastor's Memorial of the Holy Land. 
Cox, F. A. : The Geography, Topography, and Natural His- 
tory of Palestine. 
Guest, J. 0. : Geographical and Historical Dictionary of 

Macdougal, T. St 0. : Outlines descriptive of Modem Geo- 
graphy, and a Short Account of Palestine. 
Bannister, J. T. : A Survey of the Holy Land. 
Churton, H. B. W. : Thoughts on the Land of the Morning. 
Cox, F. A. : Biblical Antiquities. 
Wilbraham, C. P. : Description of Canaan. 
Anderson, J. : Wanderings in the Land of Israel and the 

Wilderness of Sinai. 
Three Weeks in Palestine and Lebanon. 
Hahn-Hahn (Countess) : From Jerusalem. 
Terwecoren, E. : Bethl^em, D'aprfes les notes in^dites de deux 

Voyageurs Beiges. 
An Excursion from Jericho to the Ruins of the ancient Cities 

of Geraza and Ammon. 
Lynch, W. F. : The Narrative of the U. S. Expedition to the 

Jordan and the Dead Sea, Review in the Journal d. 

Savants, Sept. 1851 and Aug. 1852. 
Lynch, W. F. : Official Report of the above. 
De Saulcy, F. : Voyage autour de la Mer Morte et dans les 

terres bibliques, execute de Decembre 1850 k Avril 1851. 
The same, translated and edited, with notes, by Count Edw. 

de Warren. Reviews of the same in the Dublin Rev. Oct. 

1853, and the Athenseum, 1853. 


De St Martin : Sur le Site de Tzoar ou Segor. 

Delesserti, E. : Voyage aux villes maudites, Sodome^ Gomorrlie, 

Tobler, T. : Denkblatter aus Jerusalem. 
The same : Topograpliie von Jerusalem. 
Zimpel, 0. F. : Neue ortHche topographische Beleuchtung 

der heilig. Weltstadt Jerusalem. 
Bartlett, W. H. : Walks about Jerusalem. 
Mariti : Etat present de Jerusalem. 
Michon : Authenticite du Saint-Sepulchre. 
Bartlett : Forty Days in the Desert. 
Berggren, J.: Fl. Josephus, der Fiihrer und Irrfiihrer der 

Pilger in alten und neuen Jerusalem. 
Note sur un voyage inedite h, la Terre Sainte en 1470. Nouv. 

Annal. d. Voy. 1854. 
Hilber, J. : Pilgerreise in das hell. Land in 1851-2, pub. in 

Belling, 0. : Der Christliche Fiihrer in das heil. Land. 
Gosse, P. H. : Ancient and Modem History of the Rivers of 

the Bible. 
Newbold : On the Lake Phiala. Jour. Eoy. Asiat. Soc. 1864. 
Fallmeyayer : Das Todte Meer, Abhand. der hist. Class, der 

K. Bayer. Akad. d. Wiss. 1853. 
The Dead Sea and its Explorers. No. 3 in Library of Biblical 

Ritter, C. : Mer Morte et ses bords : cours du Jourdain. See 

rinstitut. ii. sect. 1853. 
De Saulcy : Voy. autour de la Mer Morte. Noticed in Nouv. 

Annal. d. Voy. 1853. (See above.) 
Lynch's Work, translated into German by Meissner. 
Isambert : Rapport sur les voyages de Lynch et Saulcy. Bullet. 

de la Soc. de Geog. 1853. 
De Saulcy : La Palestine, etc. Revue de TOrient, 1854. 
Allen, W. : An attempt to account for numerous Appearances 

on the sides of the Basin of the Dead Sea. Jour, of the Roy. 

Geog. Soc. 1853. 
The Jordan and Idumaea. From the Monthly Vol. of the Rel. 

Tract Soc. 
La Gondamine : Jerusalem et les lieux Saints. Revue de 



Allen, W- : On the Watershed of Wadi el Araba. Jour, of 

Eoy. Geog. Soc. 1853. 
Notes on Syria. Putnam's Monthly, 1855. 
Von Kremer : Topographie von Damascus. In Zeitschr. d. K. 

Akad. d. Wissensch. vol. vi. 1855. 
La Syrie et la Palestine. In Revue de TOrient, 1855. 
Experiences in Mount Lebanon. Putnam's Monthly, 1855. 
Seetzen, U. J. : Reisen durch Syrien, Palastina, Phoenicien, etc. 
Strauss, F. A. : Sinai und Golgotha. 
Enault, L. : La Terre Sainte. The same, reviewed by Make- 

Brun in Nouv. Annal. de Voy. 1855. 
Pfeififer, J. : Reise einer Wienerin in das hcil. Land. 
Konig, J. : Palastina. 

Schultz, E. W. : Reise in das gelobte Land. 
Bassler, F. : Das heilige Land, etc. 
Roberts, D. : Sketches in the Holy Land, Syria, Iduma?a, 

Egypt, and Nubia. 
Bernatz, J, M. : Album des Heiligen Landes. 
Allen, W. : The Dead Sea, a New Route to India. 
Kenrick, J. : Phoenicia. The same, reviewed in the Nat. Rev. 

Wortabet, G. M. : Syria and the Syrians. 
Gicquel : Destruches, Beyrouth ; Situation, Commerce, Ac- 

croissement. Rev. de TOrient, 1856. 
Porter, J. L. : Five Years in Damascus ; including an account 

of the history, etc., of that city, with travels and researches 

in Palmyra, Lebanon, and the Hauran. 
Fragmente aus einer Reise nach Syria und Palastina. In Aus- 

land for 1856, No. 11. 
Westhaus, Th. : Palastina oder das heilige Land zur Zeit Jesu. 
Rathgeber, A. : Palastina, Land und Volk. 
Azais : Pelerinage en Terre Sainte. 
Ritchie, W. : Azuba, or the Forsaken Land. 
Stanley, A. P. : Sinai and Palestine. 
Van de Velde, 0. W. M. : Reise durch Syrien und Palastina. 

The same, in English and Dutch. 
Les Corrieres de Jerusalem. L'Athenaeum Fran9ais. 
Reiseskizzen aus Syrien und Palastina. Ausland 1856, No. 24. 
Gu^rin, V. : De ora Palastinae a promontorio Carmelo usque 

ad urbem Joppam. 


Des Eitters Bernard v. Hirschfeld im J. 1517 unternommene 
und von ihm selbst beschreibene Wallfahrt zum heil. Grabe. 
Herausg. von Mencwitz. In Mitt. d. deutsch. Ges. in 
Leipsig, 1856. 

Halin, H. : Die Keise des heil. Willibald nach Palastina. 

Loritz, P. M. : Blatter aus dem Tagebuch meiner Pilgerreise. 

Cinq Annees de voyage en Orient par Israel Joseph Benjamin 


Eesebeskrifningar ofwer Palestina och Egypten, etc. 
Beaumont, W. : A Diary of a Journey to the East. 
Robinson, E. : Bib. Researches in Pal. etc. 3 vols. 
Rosen : Ueber die Lage des alten Debir in Stamme Juda. 

Zeitsch. der d. Morgend. Gesell. 1857. 
Dupuis, H. L. and J. : The Holy Places. 
Hoffman, A. G. : Ein Gang durch Jerusalem. Ausland, 1856, 

No. 43. 
Tobler, T. : Die Baumwollenhohle in Jerusalem. Petermann's 

Mittheil. 1856. 
Wendt, R. : Der Teich Hiskias und der obere Gihon. Bullet. 

de TAcad. de St Petersbourg. 
Sinai, Palestine, and Mecca. A rev. in Ed. Rev. 1856. 
Syriens Schiffahrt und Handel in 1855. 
Delatre, L. : Esquisse de la Vie Syrienne. Rev. de T Orient, 

Reiseskizzen aus Syrienund Palastina. Ausland, 1856, No. 40. 
Farman, S. : Damascus and some of its Recollections. 
Conrad, G. : Das heilige Land. 
Aus den Briefen der osterreicheschen Pilger nach Pal. Bote 

f. Tirol, 1856. 
Poole, H. : Report of a Journey in Pal. Jour. Roy. Geog. 

Soc. 1856. 
Stewart, R. W. : The Tent and the Khan. 
Tobler, T. : Neue Forschungen in Jerusalem. In Petermann's 

Mittheil. 1857. 
Hoffman's Gang durch Jeru. Rev. in Ausland, 1856, No. 43. 
Guerin, V. : Description des mines d'Ascelon. Bullet, de la 

Soc. de Geog. 1857. 
Poole, H. : On the Determination of the Shores of the Dead 

Sea. Proceed. Roy. Geog. Soc. 1857. 
Marktscenen in Damascus. Ausland, 1857, No. 35. 


Asneung, X. : On the Dnises of Mt. Lebanon. Athenaeum, 

Apr. 25, 1857. 
Van Dale, J. H. : Beknopte aardrijkskunde von Palestina. 
Van Osterzee, H. M. 0. : Karte Schets der bijbelsch-aardrijks- 

Van de Velde, C. W. M. : Le Pays d'Israel. 
Wylie, J. A. : Buins of Bible Lands. 
Georgi, Otto : Die heiligen Statten der Christenheit. 
Stanley: Sin. and Pal. Reviewed in Nouv. Annal. de Voy. 1857. 
Eoth, J. B. : Eeise von Jerusalem und dem Todten Meer durch 

die Araba. In Petermann, Mittheil. 1857. 
Prime, W. C. : Tent Life in the Holy Land. 
Bassi, Aless. : Pellegrimaggio storico di Terrasanta. 
Passuello, Ant. : Viaggio a Gerusalemme. 
Clements, H. G. J. : Reminiscences of Pilgrimage. 
Strigl, J. : Getreue und urfistandliche Beschreib. der Zweit. 

Pilgerfahrt, etc. 
Petersen, Th. E. : Et Besag i Jerusalem og Omegn. 
Wolff, P. : Jerusalem (an illustrated work). 
Salzmann, A. : Jerusalem (a collection of photographs taken 

in the Holy Land). 
Petermann, A. : Die Meereshohe des Wady el Arabah. Pet. 

Mittheil. 1857. 
Bonar, H. : The Desert of Sinai. 
Hamilton, James : Sinai, the Hedjaz and Soudan, etc. 
Lottin de Laval : Voy. dans la Peninsule Arabique du Sinai, 

etc. Noticed also in Zeitschr. d. allg. Erdkunde, 1857. 
De Belgiojoso : Asie Mineure et la Syria. 
Malan, S. C. : The Coasts of Tyre and Sidon. 
Graham, Cyril C. : His discoveries noticed in Petermann's 

Mittheil. 1858. 
Wetzstein : Ueber die Wiisten Stadte im Hauran. In Zeitsch. 

d. allge. Erdk. 1858. 
De Caumont : Voyaige d'oultremer en Jhirusalem, etc. 
Bodemann, F. W. : Das heil. Land. 
Garbs, F. A. : Land und Volk des alten Bundes. 
Bonar, H. : The Land of Promise. 
Sacred Places : A Series of Ten Views. 
Toblers Wanderungen. Noticed in Petermann's Mittheil. 1858. 
Hatala, P. : Vezerlapok a szent f oldre. 


Hovanyi : Nehany Het a szent foldon. 

Valentiner, F. : Beitrag zur Topogr. des Stammes. 

Benjamin : Z. d. deutsch. morgenland. Gesell. 1858. 

Barclay, J. T. : The City of the Great King. 

Koth, J. B. : Beise nach Palastina. In Petermann's Mitt. 1858 

and 1 859. Same vols, contain other collateral articles. 
Porphirig, A. : Das Chrisdiche Morgenland. JEgypten und Sinai. 
Marsh, G. P. : Briefliche Bemerkungen iiber Petra. Z. der 

deutsch. Morgenland. Ges. 1858. 
Murray's Handbook for Syria and Palestine. 
Fearley, J. L. : Two Years in Syria. 
Kitto, J. : Palestine. 
Russell, M. : Palestine. 
Johnson, S. B. : Hadji in Syria. 
Azais et Domerque, C. ; Journal d'un Voy. en Orient. 
On a new Survey of Palestine. Petemiann Mitt. 1858. 
Loth's Travels, etc. P. Mittheil. 1857 and 1858 ; Zeits. d. all. 

Erd. 1858. 
The River Jordan, pictorial and descriptive. 
Rosen, G. : Ueber das Thai, etc. Hebrons. Z. d. deutsch. 

morgenl. Ges. 1858. 
Graham, 0. C. : Explorations in the Desert east of the 

Hauran. Pro. of Roy. Geog. Soc. 1858. 
Ritter, C. : Zwei Entdeckungsreisen durch Wetzstein und 

Graham. Z. f. allg. Erdk. 1858 ; Monatsber. d. k. Preuss. 

Akad. d. Wissen. 1858. 
Guys, Ch. : Considerations sur les Maronites et sur les Druses. 

Rev. de TOrient, 1858. 
Graham, C. C. : The Ancient Bashan and the Cities of Og. 

Cambridge Essays, 1858. 
Graham's Discoveries noticed in Z. f. allg. Erdkunde, 1858. 
Ritter's Report on Wetzstein's and Graham's Explorations. 

Trans, and pub. in New York Observer, May 1859. 
Bridges, G. W. : Palestine as it is. Photographic views. 
Thompson, W. M. : The Land and the Book. 
Soffr, F. : Pala^stina neb Zeme swata. 
Osburn, H. S. : Palestine, Past and Present. 
Present Condition of Palestine, discussed in Ausland 1859, 

No. 10. 
Lorenzen, F. R. : Jerusalem. 


Mayer, Ph. : Erinnerungen aus Jernsalem und Palastina. 
Altmuller, H. W. : Jerusalem nach seinem ortlichen Lage. 
Graham's Explorations. Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 1858. 
Hey, E. G. : Une Yisite aux Ruines de Kannaouat, dans le 

Hauran. Nouv. Anna!, de Voy. 1859. 
AVetzstein, J. G. : Reise in den beiden Trachonen und um das 

Hauran Gebirge. Z. d. allg. Erd. 1859. 
Wetzstein, J. G. ; Mittheilungen iiber Hauran und die 

Trachonen. Same journal and same date. 
Tobler, T. : Dritte Wanderung nach Palastina. 
Birdcatching in Palestine. Chambers' Journ. 1859. . 
Sallmann, E. : Wandkarte des heil. Landes. 
Nablus und die Samariter, Grenzbotcn 1860. 
Guys, H. : Beyrout et el Liban. 
Guys, H. : Voyage en Syrie. 
Documents sur la Religion des Druses. Rev. Orient, et Americ. 

Geo^. and Geol. of the Eastern Districts- of Syria. Ed. New 

Phil. Journ. 1860. 
Rey, E. G. : Voyage dans le Haouran. 
Wetzstein, J. G. : Reiseberichte iiber Hauran. 
Von Raumer, Palastina. 
De Zwart, A. 0. : Handleiding bij de aardrijkskuude von 

Granlund, V. G. : Palaestina. 
Unruh, G. : Der Zug der Israeliten. 
Cubley, L. M. : The Hills and Plains of Palestine. 
Bourasse, J. J. : La Terre Sainte. 
Isambert, E. : Une Visite au Temple de Jerusalem. Bull, de 

la Soc. de Geog. 1860. 
Domis, A. W. C. : Geschiedkundige geograf. statisticke schets 

outrent het Syrische rik, etc. 
Ponjade, E. : Le Liban et la Syrie. 
Dubois, Th. : Des populations du Liban, et principalement des 

Druses. In Rev. Germanique, 1860. 
Urquhart, D. : The Lebanon. Reviewed in Athenaeum, 1860. 
Cowper, B. H. : Sects in Syria. 
Die Maroniten. In Ausland, 1860, No. 37. 
Carnarvon : Recollections of the Druses of the Lebanon* Re- 
viewed in Athenseum, 1860. 


Documents sur la th^ologie des Druses. In Rev. Orientale el 

Americaine, 1860. 
Nachricht iiber die Keise des Consul Wetzstein's von Damascus 

nach Kal. Z. f. allg. Erd. 1860. 
Der Hauran, etc. In Ausland, 1860, No. 48. 
Hogg, J. : On Jebel Hauran. In Rep. of Brit. Ass. for tlie 

Ad. of Science, 1859. 
The Druses of the Hauran. In Colbum's New Monthly Mag. 

Von Kremer: iiber Damascus, etc. In Ausland, 1860, No. 31. 
Ein Ausflug von Damascus nach Sekka und Gassub. Z. f. 

allg. Erdk. 1860. 
Bellew, J. C. M. : Over the Lebanon to Baalbek. In Tem. Bar, 

Description de Baalbek. In Nouv. Annal. de Voy. 1860. 
Kitto, J. : Phys. Geog. of the Holy Land. 
Granlund, V. G. : Palaestina. 
Kutliner, A. : Geografie von Paliistina. 
Analysis of the Geog. of Palestine. 
Ludolf von Suchen : Reisebuch ins heil. Land. 
Gondek, F. : Wspomnienia z. Pielgrznki d. Ziemi Swetey, 

odbytej w. 1859, roku. 
Scherer, H. : Eine Oster Reise ins heilige Land. 
Fliedner, T. : Reizen in het heil. Land. 
Voyages en Palestine. In Le Tour du Monde, 1860. 
Messmer, J. : Das heil. Land. 
Tobler's Dritte Wanderung. Reviewed in Ausland, 1860, No. 

49 ; and in Nouv. Annal. de Voyages, 1860. 
De Bertou : Le mont Hor^ le Tombeau d' Aaron, etc. 
Kent, Ch. : Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Golgotha. In Colbum's 

New Monthly, 1860. 
Threte, H. : Jerusalem, seine Lage, etc. 
Rosen, G. : Topographisches aus Jerusalem. Z. d. deutsch. 

morgen. Gesell. 1860. 
The same: Ueber Nablus und Umgegend. Same journal, 

same year. 
Der Stand der Dinge zu Jerusalem. In Ausland, 1860, No. 31. 
Du Couret, L. : Life in the Desert. 
Heyd : Die italienischen Handelscolonien in Palastlna. In Z. 

f. d. ges. Staatswissenschaft. 


Ancapitaine, H. : Notes de Voyage. In Nouv. Annal. d. Voy: 

Screiben von Skene : Ueber die arab. Beduinen in Syrien. In 

Ausland, 1861, No. 15. 
Die Dmsen nach Berichten eines Drusen. Grenzboten 

Bourquenond, A. : Memoire sur les mines de Seleucie. 
Spall, A. : Souvenirs d'un voyage au Liban. In Le Tour du 

TVetzstein's Journey into Trachonitis and the Hauran. In New 

York Observer, 1861, No. 1969. 
Doergens, R. : Wetzsteins und Doergens Reise. In Z. f . allg. 

Erdk. 1860. 
Rey, G. : Voyage dans le Haonran. Reviewed in Nouv. Annal. 

d. Voy. 1861. 
3Ieen, J. A. : Histor. and Descrip. Geog. of Palestine. 
Tobler, T. : Das heil. Land, et<;. In Ausland, 1861, No. 1. 
The same : Die Omar Moschee in Jerusalem. Same journal, 

No. 14. 
Henan, E. : Mission scientifique en Orient. In Nouv. Annal. d. 

Voy. 1861. 
Desjardins, E. : La Phenicie orientale, et Occident. In Rev. 

Orient, et Americ. 1860. 
Poulain de Bossay: Recherches sur la Topog. de Tyr. In 

Bullet, de la Soc. de Geog. 1861. 
Aucapitaine, H.: Notes sur le Belad Haouran. In Nouv. 

Annal. de Voy. 1861. 
Doergens, R.: Astronomische Ortsbestimmnngen und baro- 

metrische Hohemessengen in Syrien und Palastina. In Z. 

f. allg. Erdk. 1861. 
Harvey, Mrs : Our Cruise in the " Claymore." 
A Visit to the Cedars of Lebanon. In Naut. Mag. 1861. 
Beaufort, E. A.: Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines. 

See also Athenaeum, 1861. 
Wetzstein: Lebensbilder aus der Beduinen und Drusenwelt. 

In Ausland, 1861, No. 30. 
De Bossay, Poulain : Recherches sur la Topog. de Tyr. 
Mongel Bey : Port de Said. 
Verzeichniss einer Sammlung von Reisen ins heil. Land. In 

Petzhold, N. Anzeiger fur liibliographie, 1861. 


Strauss, F. A. und Otto : Die Lander und Statten der Heiligen- 

Tobler, T.: Analecten aus Palastina. In Ausland, 1861, No. 37. 
Zimmermann, 0. : Geog. Analyse zu dem Versuch einer Con- 
struction der Karte von Galilaa. 
Ein Eundgang um Jerusalem. In Ausland, 1861, No. 32. 
Steudner: Die deutsche Expedition bei den Moses Quellen. 

In Petermann's Mittheil. 1861. 
Churchill : Mount Lebanon. 
Churchill : The Druses and the Maronites. 
Aucapitaine, H.: Etude sur les Druses. In Nouv. Annal. de 

Voy. 1862. 
Ilenan, E.: Mission archdologique de Ph^nicie. In Tlnstitut 

Sciences hist. 1862. 
Mission de Phteicie. Rev. arch^ol. 1862. 
Poulain de Bossay : Observations sur Tun des rapports de !M. 

Eenan. In Bullet, de la Soc. de Geog. 1862. 
Beke, Ch.: Harran of the Columns. In Athenaeum, 1861, No. 

Ainsworth, W. F. : Haran of the Bible. In same journal, No. 

Porter, J. L.: Site of Haran. Same, No. 1780. 
Beke, Ch. : Jacob's Route from Harran. Same journal. No. 

Beke, Ch.: Harran of the Bible. Same journal. No. 1792. 
Jukes, J. B.: Harran of the Bible. Same journal, No. 1796. 
Tischendorf, C: Aus dem heil. Lande. 
Sepp : Jerusalem und das heil. Land. 
Von Noroff, A.: Meine Reise nach Palastina. 
Travels in the Holy Land. Colburii's New Monthly, 1862. 
Unruh, G.: Das alte Jerusalem. 

Besuch einiger alten Todesstatten. In Ausland, 1862, No. 22. 
Ceremonies de la Semaine eainte k Jerusalem. In Le Tour du 

Monde, 1862, No. 119. 
Ein Besuch des Judenquartiers zu Jerusalem. Ausland, 1862, 

No. 1. 
Die Juden Jerusalem. In Ausland, 1862, No. 19. 
Zwei Ausfliige in die niihere Landschaft bei Jerusalem. Same 

journal, 1862, No. 17. 
Von Raumer, K.: Bemerkungen bczuglich der neuen Reise, etc. 


Beise van de Yeldes nach der Sinit. Halbinsel. PetermaBn*8 

Mittheil. 1862. 
Edwards, R: La Syrie^ 1840 to 1862. 
Desmoulins : Renseignments hjdrographiques et statistiques sur 

la C^te de Syrie. 
Gays, H.: Esquisse de I'^tat politique et commercial de la Syrie. 
liOuet, E.: Expedition de Syrie. 
Wetzstein : Ueber die Reisen des f rans. Waddinston in Syrien. 

In Z. f. allg. Erdk. 1862. 
Beke, Oh. T.: Excursion to Harran in Padan-Aram. In Pro- 
ceed, of Roy. Geog. Soc. 1862. 
Eeke and Porter : Site of Haran. In AthensBum, 1862, No. 

Ten Days on Mount Lebanon. In Tern. Bar, 1862. 
Hooker, J. D.: The Cedars of Lebanon. In Athenaeum, 1862, 

No. 1830. 
Wilkinson : same subject. Athenaeum, No. 1829 ; and Ausland, 

1862, No. 51. 
Bedslob, G. M. : Ueber die Namen Damask und Damast. Z. 

d. deutsch. morgen. Gesell. 1862. 
Damascus. In Ausland, 1862, No. 23. 
Bovet, F.: Reis door het heil. Land. 
Gerdes, E.: Naar Jeruzalem en het heil. Land. 
Garbs : Land und Yolk des alten Bundes. 
Isaacs, Ab.: A Pictorial Tour in the Holy Land. 
Tobler, T.: Analekten aus Palastina. In Ausland, 1862, Nos. 

26 and 52. 
Mansell, A. L. : Coast Survey of Palestine. In Naut Mag 

Bartlett, W. H.: Jerusalem Revisited. 
Souvenirs de Jerusalem. 
Jerusalem. In Auslahd, 1862, No. 45. 
Ceremonies de la Semaine sainte k Jerusalem. In Le Tour de 

Monde, 1862, No. 119. 
Ein Osterf est in Jerusalem. In Gelzer's Protest Monatsblatter, 

vol. xix. 
Grove, G.: Nabloos and the Samaritans. In Vacat. Tourists, 

Prout, T. J.: Ascent of Um Shaumur. In Proceed, of Roy. 

Geog. Soc. 1862, 



Forster, Ch.: Sinai Photographed. 

TischendorfPs Third Journey reviewed in Ausland, 1862, No. 33. 
Der Berg Sinai und sein Kloster. Europa, 1862, No. 35. 
Lockroy, E.: Voyage en Syrie. In Le Tour de Monde, 1863. 
Kenan's work on Phoenicia, reviewed in Z. f. allg. Erdk. 1863. 
Note 6n the Phoenician ruins of Amrit. Same journal. 
Communication de M. le Comte de Vogues. In Rev. archeol. 

Die geographisch. Lage von Damascus. In Petermann's 

Mittheil. 1863. 
Macgowan, D. J.: The "Keswick River" an Aqueduct. In 

Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 1862. 
Die Secten in Syrien. In Ausland, 1863, No. 40. 
Stahelin : Localitat der Kriege Davids. Z. d. deutsch. mor- 

genl. Ges. 1863. 
Wortabet, J.: The Hermon. In Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 1862. 
Beke, Ch. T.: Notes on the Excursion to Harran. In Jour. 

Roy. Geog. Soc. 1862. 
Mansell, A. L.: Surveying Trip through the Holy Land. In 

Naut. Mag. 1863. 
Richardt, Ch.: Dagbogsblade fra det Hellige Land i paasken 

1862. In Nordisk. Universetels Zidscrift, 1863. 
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Reise von Klein nach Gaza. In Ausland, 1863, No. 31. 
Die Osterwoche in Jerusalem. Globus, 1863. 
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Die Colonic Artas bei Bethlehem. In Ausland^ 1863, No. 9. 
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Erdk. 1863. 
Topographisches aus Nazareth. In Ausland, 1863, No. 42. 
Ackerbau der Franciscaner in Galilaa. Same, No. 10. 
Reise des Herrn Zeller von Nazareth in den Hauran. Same, 

No. 41, 
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Maunoir, C: Sur Texploration historique, etc., par M. de 

Saulcy. Bull, de la Soc. de la Geog. 1864. 


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Ausflug von Beyrout. In Ausland^ 1864, No. 18- 

Guys, H.: La Nation Druse, son histoire, etc, 

Beyrout. In Ausland, 1864, No. 3. 

Sprenger, A.: Qeographisches der Norm Baal in Syrien. In 
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Baur, C: Palastina. 

Volter, L.: Das heil. Land, etc. 

Pelgrimsreise naar het heil. Land. 

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d. Verhdl. d. K. Sachs Ges. d. Wiss. 1863. 

News from the Holy Land. In Athenaeum, Nos. 1901, 1904. 

Sandi, G. : Horeb und Jerusalem. 

Pierotti, E. : Jerusalem Explored. 

Chronologische Zusammenstellung der Baudenkmaler Jerusa- 
lems. In Ausland, 1864, No. 2. 

De Vogiies : Le Temple de Jerusalem. 

Eine Neue Entdeckung in den Konigsgraben Jerusalem. In 
Ausland, 1864, No. 7. 

Zur Emmaus Frage. Same joum. 1864, No. 19. . 

Eaton, F. A. : A Journey from Nazareth to Bozrah. In Pro- 
ceed, of the Roy. Geog. Soc. 1864. 

Noldeke T. : Ueber die Amalekiter und einige andere Nach- 
barvolker der Israeliten. 

Tischendorf s Journey, reviewed in Globus, 1864. 

Bida et G. Hochette : Excursion au Mount Sinai. In Le Tour, 
du Monde, No. 209. 

Bewegung des syrischen Handels in 1863. In Austria, 1864. 

Ausflug von Beyrut nach der Via Antoniniana. In Ausland, 
1864, No. 28. 

Rambles in the Des. of Syria. Reviewed in No. Brit. Rev. 1864. 

Ein Besuch bei Daud Pascha. In Ausland, 1864. 

Cortambert, R. : Aventures d'un artiste dans le Liban. 

Gaillardot, C. : Relation de la Campagne des Egyptiens dans 
le Hauran. In Nouv. Annal. d. Voy. 1864. 

Voyage de Jerusalem et autres lieux by Rosel, decrit en 1664. 

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of Boy. Geog. Soc. 1864. 
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1864, Nos. 1913 and 1917. 
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No. 43. 
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Note sur le voyage de M. le due d. Lynes. In Bull, de la Soc. 

de Geog. 1864. 


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Ausland, 1865, No. 14, 
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Mag. 1865. 
Van der Velde's letzte Reise. In Petermann's Mitth. 1865. 
Disconrs de Van de Velde sur la Palestine. In Rapport du 

Pres. de la Soc. de Geog. de Genfeve. 
De Pressense, E. : The Land of the Gospel. The same in 

French (original). 
Schlegel, Th. : Reise nach dem heil. Lande. 
Robertson and Beato : Jemsalem Album Photographique. 
Schick, C. : Die Gewolbe unter dem Gerichtshansen Jerusa- 
lem. In Ausland, 1865, No. 37. 
Schick, C. : Die Zionsquelle zu Jerusalem. Ibid. No. 38. 
Bertrand, A. : Les Ruines d*Araq-el-Emir. In Rev. archiol. 

Querin, V. : Le mont Thabor, etc. In Bull, de la Soc. de 

Geog. 1865. 
Vignes, L. : Extrait des Notes d'un Voy. d'Exploration a la 

Mer Morte. 
Lartet^s Untersuchungen des todten Meers. In Ausland, 1865, 

.No. 22. 
TfVetzstein, J. G. : Nord Arabien und der Syrisch. Wviste. In 

Z. f. allg. Erdk. 1865. 
D'Avril, A. : Le Peninsule Arabique depuis cent ans. In Rev. 

de Deux Mondes, 1865. 


Hughes, E. : Atlas of Bible Lands. 

Das heil. Land aus der Vogelschau. 

Handtke, F.: Wandkarte von Palestina. 

Barklay, J. T.: Map of Jerusalem. 

Jung, G.: Atlas zur Geschichte des Alien Bundes. 

Lionnet, A.: Bibel Atlas. 

Van Senden: Bijbel Atlas. 

Van der Velde, 0. W. M. : Map of the Holy Land, with Memoir. 

Van der Velde, C. W. M.; Plan of Jerusalem, 


White, A. T.; Tabular Views of the Geog. and Soc. Hist, of 

De Bruyer, M. D. : Ueber die Cartographie von Palastina. 
Leonhard, P. M.: Skolekart von Palestina. 
Eey, G.: Examen de quelque parties de la Carte de la Pal. de 

Van der Velde. Bull, de Soc. de Geog. 1859. 
Altmuller, H. W.: Relief plan von Jerusalem. 


De Bniyer, M. D.: Palastina ex veteris sevi monumentis ac 

recentiorum observationibus illustrata. 
Hughes, E. : A School Atlas of Bible Lands. 
Handtke, F.: Wandkarte von Palastina. 
Scheidel, J.: Maps of Palestine. 
Carte de Palestine portag^e en 12 tribus. 
Eltzner, A.: Das biblische Jerusalem. 
Hornung, D. : Biblische Geschichts Karte. 
Beiling: Karte von Palestina. 
Bayne: Panoramic View of Palestine. 
Garbs, F. A.: Special Karte von Palestina. 
Eeeive, F. : Wandkarte von Palastina. 
Holy Land. A Series of Views. 
Audriveau, J. : Carte de la Palestine. 
Porter, J. L.: Memoir on the Map of Damascus, Hauran, and 

the Lebanon. Jour. Eoy. Geog. Soc. 1856. 
Kiepert, H.: Karte von PaJastina fiir Schulen. 
Kiepert, H. : Wandkarte von Palastina. 
Beck, E.: Eelief von Palastina. 
Audriveau, J. : Palestine ancienne et moderne. 
Sallmann, E.: Wandkarte des heil. Landes. 
Kiepert, H.: Carte de la Syrie Meridionale, comprenant les 

montagnes du Liban, etc. 
Kaart von Syrie en aangrenzende landen. 
Van de Velde: The Lebanon. 
Plan von Palastina und der See Genezareth. 
Mediterranean, Syrian Coast, Saida, 1860. Issued by Hydrogr. 

Office. The same, 1861, Syria, Euad Anchorage. 
Tripoli Boadstead^ and Iskanderun to I^iarkhab. 


Berghaus, H.: Karte von Palastine. 

Scon4, S. H.: Typographische Kaart von Palestina. 

Garbs: Karte der biblbchen Lander. 

Winckelmann, E.: Wandkarte von Palestina. 

Carte da Liban, etc., dress6 au Depot de la Guerre, etc. Comp. 

Bullet, de la Soc. de Geog. 1862. 
Hergt, C: Wandkarte von Palasstina. 
Publications du Dep6t de la Marine. No. 1971, Cote de Syrie; 

Plan du mouillage de Sour. No. 1977, Plan, etc. de Tripoli. 

No. 1980, Plan, etc. de Saida. No. 1973, Carte de la Cote 

de Syrie, entre Ruad et Carmel. No. 1976, Plan, etc. de 

Kiepert: Karte von Palsestina. 
Eiess, R. : Die Lander der heil. Schrif t. 
Syria and Jerusalem. Hydrographic OflSce Map. 
Plan de Jerusalem, hebraique et chretienne. 
Syria, Ras en Nakura to el-Arish. Hydrographic OflSce series. 
Van der Velde, C. W. M.: Carte de la Terre Sainte. 
Carte des Pays explores par la Mission de Phenice, dresse au 

Depot de la Guerre. 
Maps in Tristram's Land of Israel. 
Maps in Thompson's Land and the Book. 





BITHOUT entering largely into an investigation re- 
garding the univenBality of the appellations Aramsea 
and Syria, — the question being one eagerly disputed, 
the etymologies involved being very uncertain,^ and 
the applications of the words themselves varying largely, — yet 
there are certain explanations to be made regarding the ancient 
names of places and people used in the country which now 
bears the name Palestine. For those names are in themselves 
historical documents of great value in acquiring a knowledge of 
the land and its inhabitants; and they cannot be passed over with 
neglect in this course of study, whether looked at from the point 
of view which I assume, or with reference to the facts which are 
drawn from a study of them. Although the name Shur, as the 
designation of a definite desert territory in the Sinai Peninsula, 
was brought to our knowledge particularly in connection with 
the transit of the children of Israel through it (Ex. xv. 22), 
and although Shur (giving rise to Shurians, Surians, or Syrians, 
who trace their descent through Aram from Nahor, Abraham's 
brother. Gen. xxii. 20-23) was the broader appellation given 

1 Hadr. Relandi Palmstinay Ic, viii. 48-48 ; G. WaM, Vorder undMittel 
Asien, 1795, Ft. i. pp. 299-327 ; Mannert, Geog, d, Gr. und Rom, Ft. vi. 
1, 1799; Paltestina und Syrien^ pp. 203, 432; Roflenmiiller, Syrien oder 
Aram, in Handbuch Bib. Alth. vol. i. 232-321 ; G. B. Winer, BibUscher 
Reahoorterbuch, 3d ed. 1847; Aram. i. pp. 79-81 ; Syria, ii. pp. 555-559; 
Assyria, L pp. 102-108. 


to the whole country lying between the Euphrates and Egypt 
(Gen. XT. 18)9 and especially the eastern part of that broad 
tract, the scene of David's fierce battles (1 Sam. xxvii. 8), — 
the name, apparently, one indigenous in that region, — ^yet at a 
later period it was applied by foreigners, and especially by the 
Seleucidse, the Greeks, Romans, Saracens, and Turks, to the 
country farther north, and under the form of SvpiOj Syria, 
Suristan, Ccele-Syria, came into general usage. The name 
Aramsea, on the contrary, as a mere genealogical appellative, 
applied to the same territory, derived from Aram, a son of 
Shem, and always used in connection with people of Semitic 
stock, is altogether less prominently brought forward, and never 
was adopted by foreigners, although Strabo used it once, and 
although it is not absolutely unknown among Arabian authors. 
The name Land of the Hebrews, or Ebrews, has only come 
into vogue since the time of Josephus (Antiq. Jud. vii. 9, 6, etc.), 
although Heber or Eber is mentioned as one of the descendants 
of Shem (Gen. x. 21), who is spoken of as a father of all the 
children of Eber, among whom are included the sons of Joktan 
and the sons of Abraham. He is spoken of (Gen. xi. 16) by 
many in our day as a merely mythical personage, like so many 
others who are mentioned in heathen records. It is thought 
that the etymology of the expression Land of the Hebrews indi- 
cates a country of wanderers,^ and may indicate a time when the. 
people were immigrants ; and such a name could only have been 
given them by the Ganaanites, and may refer to their former 
residence beyond the Euphrates, the Mesopotamian Aram, the 
Haran whence Abraham came. Yet this view of the origin 
of the name Hebrews or Ebrews is a subject of dispute ; and 
Ewald has conjectured^ an ingenious etjonology, connecting it 
with the Iberians found among tlie Caucasus. One ground 
of this hypothesis is, that the name of Arphaxad, the father 
of Eber, is still connected with the most northern province of 
Assyria, on the southern frontier of Armenia, and seems to 
point back to a northern home of the common stock, whose 
primitive name, dating from a most remote antiquity, was not 
supplanted when the children of Israel had conquered the 
country, and changed the entire character of the population* 

1 Rosenmiiller, t.a.2. i. p. 69. 

' Ewald, GescMchU des Volks Israel, Ft. i. 1848, pp. 832-885. 


It is a noteworthy fact in corroboration of this, that in the oldest 
records the name Land of the Ebrews or Hebrews is very rare ; 
it occurs in Gen. xl. 15, where Joseph is telling the story of 
his coming out of his own country. The expression is shunned 
in the Bible, even when the primitive Hebrew people, writings, 
and language are spoken of. 

Of far greater geographical and ethnographical import id 
the name the Land and People of Canaan, which takes us back 
to the gloomy vestibule of Palestine proper and its history, and 
to its condition before the children of Israel became the pos- 
sessors of the country, and while the struggle was still going on 
in which the name of Israel had even to struggle for existence. 


If Aram, or Aramsea, used in the strict sense of the most 
ancient period, was the term employed to designate the regions 
north and east of Lebanon, and towards the Euphrates and 
Mesopotamia, the name Canaan or Cenaan is the one generally 
employed to designate the district farther south. 

The country received its name from Canaan, the fourth 
son of Ham (Gen. x. 6, 15-19) ; and it is mentioned specifi- 
cally for the first time in the account of the coming of Abra- 
ham from Ur of the Chaldees first to Haran, and then to 
Shechem and Hebron. Among the expressions used in the 
Bible (Gen. xi. 31, xii. 6, xxiii. 19), we find this one, " And the 
Canaanite dwelt then in the land." The oldest specification of 
the limits of the country is that which is given in direct con- 
nection with the names of the various tribes (Gen. x. 15-19) : 
"And Canaan begat Sidon his first-bom, and Heth, and the 
Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, and the Hivite, 
and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the 
Zemarite, and the Hamathite : and afterward were the families 
of the Canaanites spread abroad. And the border of the 
Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto 
Gaza ; as thou goest unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, 
and Zeboim, even unto Lasha" (later Kallirhoe, on the north- 
eastern side of the Dead Sea). The southern border indicated 
^ H. Relandi, i. 1-8. 


here is the one which in the former volume I showed is the 
one formed by nature between Palestine and the deserts of 
Arabia Petrsea. 

When the children of Israel approached this country, and 
were about to divide it among the tribes, its boundaries were 
more definitely laid down (Num. xxxiv. 2-13). The corner 
towards the south or south-east was to begin at the desert of Zin 
near Edom, and to run along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea 
up to Akrabbim and through Zinna; and the "going forth" 
was to be from the south to Kadesh-Barnea, Adar or Arad or 
Addar, a place variously spelled, through Azmon, and thence to 
the river of Egypt, or brook which ran into the sea at el-Arish. 
The western border was to be the Mediterranean. The northern 
frontier line ran from the sea to Mount Hor (not the mountain* 
of Aaron named in Num. xxxiii. 38, but Hermon or Lebanon), 
thence to Hamath and Enan (Enan, terminus Damasci: 
Hieron. Onomast)^ therefore in the neighbourhood of Damas- 
cus. The line then ran to Sepham, to Kiblah on the Orontes, 
the place where king Jehoahaz was taken captive by Pharaoh 
Necho ; and then to Ain, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 
on the watershed between the Orontes and the Litani. Both 
of these last places have been recently discovered by Thomson.^ 
From that point the boundary ran along the east side of the 
sea of Chinnereth, i,e. Tiberias, then to the Jordan, and lastly 
to the Dead Sea. The Jordan was therefore the natural 
boundary of Canaan ; and, as Keland showed, the country to 
the east was not confounded with it. We have a proof of this 
in Num. xxxiii. 51, " When ye are passed over Jordan into the 
land of Canaan ;" and in the account of the use of the manna 
as food (Ex. xvi. 35), " They did eat manna until they came unto 
the borders of the land of Canaan." See also Josh. v. 12 : 
" And the manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten 
of the old com of the land ; neither had the children of Israel 
manna any more ; but they did eat of the fruit of the land of 
Canaan that year." 

According to this extension of the boundary of Canaan as 
far as to Sidon, the territory of the oldest son of Canaan, the 

^ W. M. Thomson, Letter on the Antiquities on the route from Baalbek 
to Hamath- and Aleppo, in Bib, Sacra, voL iv. 1847, pp. 404, 405, and 
Note, p. 408. 


country of the PhoBnicians must be embraced under tbe same 
general limits; and Ghna, the Old Testament form of the 
name of Canaan, was in use among the PhoBnicians, whose 
original founder's name — Phoinix (whence Phoinike and 
PhoBuike) — <ilosely corresponds to the word Chanaan^ Chanaina, 
Chananaioiy Canaanites^ from Ghana.^ 

The land and the people bearing this double appellation 
came therefore, from the very first, into the closest mutual re- 
lation, which extended itself so far as to influence the condition 
of the children of Israel, whose lot it was to take possession of 
one portion of the country, to be united by some ties of alliance 
to a part of its inhabitants, and to overthrow and annihilate 
another part. 

' The Phoenicians, considered by Herodotus, Strabo, Justinus, 
and many other Greek and Eoman writers, to be descended 
from the Persians, and to have entered the country by the way 
of the Eed Sea, looked upon themselves as aboriginal to the 
soil, and considered their gods the primitive deities of the place. 
Their first cities and their first ships they claimed to have built 
on the shores of the Mediterranean. Their most ancient history 
did not pretend to extend beyond the name Chna or Phoenix, 
which was attached to their country, entirely in contrast to the 
Hebrews, who traced tlieir lineage to the district beyond the 
Euphrates. This popular view of the Phoenicians, about which 
historians have striven* from the earliest to the present time, 
and which cannot be settled for want of sufficient evidence, 
harmonized at least with the view of the Israelites regarding 
the primitive inhabitants of Canaan. Movers, to whose ad- 
mirable investigations in this department we are so much 
indebted, suggests as a very important point, that there is one 
very certain source of evidence in favour of this view, namely 
that traced in the manifest traditions of the people of Canaan at 
the time of the Israelitish conquest, when the story of an ancient 
emigration to Canaan, and the consequent banishment or extir- 
pation of those taking part in it, could not have been extiii- 

^ Movers, WUrdigung der Berichte Uher die Herkunft der Phonizier, in 
Achterfeld and Braun, Zeitsch,filr PMlos. und Kathol Religion^ N. S. 1844, 
Jahrg. V. p. 7 et sq. ; Buttmann, Mythologus^ L 223. 

* Hengstenberg, de Rebus Tyriorum^ Berol. 1832 ; in opposition to Ber- 
theau, Gesch. der JsraeUten, p. 163. 


guished, had the e£fort failed. For the Mosaic records, and the 
books of Joshua, Samuel, and Judges, which occasionally touch 
upon this view, date from a period when a great portion of the 
population of Canaan lived in such close contact with the 
Israelites, that the history of the country prior to its capture 
must have been freely imparted to them. According to these 
authorities, the Canaanites west of the Jordan constituted a 
single nation, occupying the country from the time of the 
flood, and broken up into various tribes, whose primitive ancestor, 
a descendant of Noah, took possession of the country with his 
sons, of whom Sidon was the oldest. They are a distinct stock, 
therefore, from the later immigrants, the Philistines, Ammonites, 
Moabites, and Edomites, and must be discriminated from them. 
Their primitive claim to the land of Canaan was recognised by 
the old Israelitish patriarchs, by Abraham at Hebron, by Jacob 
at Shechem (Gen. xxxiii. 19), and was testified by the regular 
purchase of land. As for the races of giants, such as the sons 
of Anak and the like, who once in a while appear upon the 
scene, and who have been considered by some as a more 
ancient race of possessors still, there is no proof, even if they 
were not true mythic Titans, that they preceded the immigra- 
tion of the Canaanites, although they gradually disappeared 
before them. Yet other races are named as occupying the 
country in the primeval period of its history, who were probably 
extirpated at the time of the conquest effected by the sons of 
Eber or Heber. 

On the eastern frontier of Canaan, for example, the Emims, 
Zamzummims, and Horims, are spoken of as destroyed by the 
Moabites, Ammonites, and Edomites (Deut. ii. 10-12, and 
19, 20), and upon the west side the Avims at Hazerim were 
compelled to yield to the Philistines (Deut. ii. 23) ; but we 
never hear of Canaanitish tribes in this connection. The 
existence of Canaanites on the Mediterranean — that is, of 
Phoenicians — and of the same race in the interior, as confirmed 
by the views of the Israelitish invaders, is an important his- 
torical fact in connection with the relation between the land 
and the people. The Phoenician, like the Hebrew name Chna, 
written in the Alexandrian form Chanaan, Canaan, signifies, 
according to its etymology, terra depressa^ lowland,^ — an expres- 
* Roseniniiller, Bibl AlUrthumsk. I pp. 76, 76. 


sion in contrast with Aram, high land (probably along the apper 
Euphrates); and harmonizing, it may be, with the nature of the 
country thus named ; especially as a third form in common use, 
0-Chna (Ochna), designated the coast of Canaan, a lowland 
district corresponding to the strip of plain running the most of 
the way from Gaza to Sidon, and on which lay the great 
commercial cities of the land. 

Movers,^ in his admirable investigations regarding the land 
of Canaan, remarks, however, that in profane writers Phoenicia 
extends beyond the two cities of Tyre and Sidon, and embraces 
the territory of Aradus, Byblus, and Berytus, at the north, and 
extends towards the interior as far as Lebanon. If this is true, 
the signification of the name Canaan as lowland by no means 
corresponds to the physical character of Phoenicia, and is still 
less adapted to describe the interior of Palestine, which is rather 
a mountain land than the reverse. Moses has well depicted 
its character (Deut. xi. 11), where he says : " But the land 
whither ye go to possess it is a land of hills and valleys, and 
drinketh water of the rain of heaven." The conjecture is 
therefore a very natural one, that the name Canaan was origi- 
nally applied to a very much smaller district than at a later 
time, as was the case with Argos. The primitive name, 
boundaries, and condition of Canaan throw much light upon 
the state of the country just prior to its conquest by the 
Israelites, and lead to a far more certain knowledge of its 
geographical character than we could otherwise attain. This 
method is the most secure guide between the past and the 
present of Palestine. 

The application by Isaiah of the term " cities of Canaan " 
to Tyre and Sidon; the modern identification of the word 
merchant with Canaanite, which must have referred to the 
ancient commercial importance of the Phoenician cities; the 
allusion in Gen. x. 15 to Sidon, the oldest son of Canaan ; 
and the constant pre-eminence which is given to the name 
Sidon, all through the Old Testament, in respect to age, power, 
and splendour, show that in the primitive use of the word the 
term Canaan was closely connected with Sidon and Sidonian 
Tyre. And this view is confirmed by the etymology of the word, 
* Movers, Uher die Bedeutung des Namens Caiiaanf in the journal c[noted 
above, v. pp. 21-43. 


which in its radimentary form signifies a plain, and probably 
refers to the tract of level land ten or eleven hours' journey 
long, and an hour's journey broad, which follows the shore, 
lying between the Promontorium Album, three hours south of 
Sur (Tyre), and Nahr el Auli (Bostrenus), an hour north of 
Said (Sidon). 

Yet the name Canaan never was confined for any length 
of time to this contracted district, but was applied at different 
times to a tract of such varying extent, that incorrect ideas 
regarding it rose naturally, which we must understand if we 
would comprehend the character .of the different classes of 
population which inhabited it. 

The northern frontier of' Canaan — which was never more 
exactly laid down than in the account given in Num. xxxiv. 7, 
already referred to, and which, excepting during the reigns of 
David and Solomon, was never free from strifes between Israel 
and the adjacent nations — we are only able to trace in full from 
the records of Persian and Roman writers, while the boundary 
line on the east and south is fully described in the Jewish 

During the time of the Persians, according to Herodotus, 
Phoenicia, with Cyprus and with the Palestine portion of 
Syria, made the fifth department in the Persian Empire. It 
began in the north, on the southern border of the Cilician 
territory, at Poseidon ^ (Poseida in Pococke, now Cape Busseit, 
south of the mouth of the Orontes), a place founded by the 
colonists from Argos, and extended southward as far as to the 
Egyptian frontier. As the Persians continued to the Phoeni- 
cians their former rights and privileges, it is but natural to 
suppose that they retained intact the ancient boundaries ; and 
if so, Phoenicia extended northward as far as to the mouth of 
the Orontes; and Laodicea (now Latakieh) and many other 
places — Gobala, Heraclea, Paltus, Balanea, Kame — were 
reckoned as belonging to Phoenicia, yet are now known to have 
been also considered as a part of Canaan. 

At a later period, after the accession of the Seleucidse, and 
during the triumph of the Roman power, the river Eleutheros, 
now Nahr el Kebir, between Aradus and Tripolis (Ruad and 
Tarablus), became, according to Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, 

1 Mannert, Geogr. <le Gr. und Rom, vol. vL; Upper Syria, p. 452. 


the northern frontier of Phcenicia, which may have continued 
to be so regarded subsequently to that ancient period when 
the Phoenician inhabitants of Aradus pushed their territorial 
limits far beyond that stream. Yet, however old that extension 
towards the north may have been, it had no relation to the 
" low land " of Phoenicia, nor to the primitive limits of Canaan, 
from which, in the Old Testament, the three northern cities 
of Phoenicia — Aradus, Berytus, and Byblus — were expressly 
excluded. According to Gen. x. 19, no tribes of Canaanitish or 
Phoenician blood lived along the sea-coast north of Sidon. The 
inhabitants of the Lebanon too, the Giblites (Josh. xiii. 15), who 
lived in the domain under the control of Byblus and Berytus, 
were never spoken of as Canaanitish in their origin, — a fact 
which explains what has been learned but recently regarding 
their religious and social condition.^ The independent exten- 
sion of the Phoenician territory northward, beyond the limits 
of the ancient "lowland of Canaan," is indicated in the 
Mosaic record, in connection with Aradus (Arvadi), Arka 
(Arki), Sin (Sini), Simyra (Zemari), Hamath (Hamathi), by 
the expression. Gen. x. 18, " And afterward were the families 
of the Canaanites spread abroad." The Sidonian colonies 
worked northward, and planted themselves at Arad, Botrys, 
Tripolis, and elsewhere,* carrying the name of Phoenicia with 
them, but not the name of Canaan. 

The Southern and Eaatem Boundaries, 

If the northern limits of Canaan seem somewhat unsettled, 
and enlarge themselves somewhat indefinitely, in the south they 
have a compensatory construction, through the violent entrance 
of foreign tribes, who remained in possession of the country, 
and who had in some cases, as in that of the Philistines for 
example, taken possession prior to the Israelitish conquest. 
That region was taken into the reckoning at the time of the 
division by lot among the tribes, because it was included among 
the districts which had previously belonged to Canaan (Deut. 

1 F. E. Movere, Lie Fhdnizier^ Bonn 1811, vol. i. p. 8 et seq. 

* Bochart, Geogr. Sacr, P. ii. ; Chanaan^ s. de Coloniis Phcsnicum^ 
0pp. 1692, fol. 851; Hamacker, Miscellanea Phcenic. Lugd. Bat. 1828, 
lib. vi. 116-807 ; 0. G. Tychsen, Geoffr. Verhreitung phonieischer Muiizen, 
in T. Hartmann, Bremen 1820, Ft. ii. p. 496 et seq. 


11. 23). In Joshua's time, however, when he was " old and 
stricken with years," the country extended from the brook el- 
Arish, known as the river of Egypt, over the whole district of 
the Pentapolis, Gaza, Ashdod, Askelon, Gath, and Ekron (now 
Akir, south of Joppa and east of Yabna, Jamnia), according 
to Robinson.^ The Philistines could claim, therefore, to be con- 
sidered as Canaanites, although they did not extend so far north 
as to the Phoenician territory, which, according to the classic 
authors, Josephus, Pliny, Ptolemy, and others (Strabo not in- 
cluded), reached as far southward as the place where Csesarea 
was afterwards built, but no farther, since the little known 
patch of sea-coast between Caesarea and Ekron, in which the 
harbour of Joppa alone excited the attention or interest of 
foreigners, was reckoned as a part of Syrian Palestine. Pliny 
says, V. 14: Caesarea . . . finis PalaestinsB . . . deinde 
Phoenice. Carmel is called in Josephus a Tyrian, and in 
Hesychius a Phoenician, mountain; older references to this 
lower district are lacking both in sacred and profane writings ; 
and nothing definite can now be settled regarding it, excepting 
that the northern border of the Philistines seems never to have 
met the southern border of the Phoenicians. The people who 
lived in the intermediate district, and whose wars and aggres- 
sions are recounted in the book of Judges (see iii. 3), can only 
be reckoned among the Canaanites. And although the places 
lying more to the south — Joppa, Jamnia, Askelon, and Gaza 
—are spoken of by writers, from Pliny to Stephen Byz., as 
Phoenician, yet it is only in that broader use of the word 
which confounded Phoenicia with Canaan as the one land 
promised to Israel (Num. xxxiv. 5; Josh. xv. 4, 47). Pro- 
copius,* who wrote long afterwards, used language in a general 
way {Bell. Vandal, ii. 10, 449), when he says that in the 
most remote antiquity (he means the time of Joshua) Phoenicia 
extended from Sidon to the Egyptian frontier. It may be 
assumed as certain, that the people who lived on the coast 
received the name of Canaanites from the same physical pecu- 
liarity which has been mentioned as giving rise to it farther 
north, — namely, its low, plain-like character ; and along- the 
whole coast there are no tribes mentioned which were not of 

' Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. 227. 

• Hadr. Reland, Pal p. 60. 


Canaanitish origin, with the exception of the Philistines, who 
had broken into the country by violence, and settled there. 

It is very different with the eastern from the southern and 
western frontier : there can hardly be a true eastern boundary 
definitely spoken of, unless it be the great Jordan valley. 
There is no ground for believing that the aboriginal inhabitants 
of the central mountain region ever used the name Palestine, 
which, as has been already shown, was applied to the lowland 
district alone, and was first used by foreigners in connection 
with the level region along the coast, and especially by the 
Egyptians, in consequence of their commercial relations with 
the cities on the shore. It may be considered equally certain, 
that the Phoenicians never applied the name Canaan to the 
interior country : there is no proof that they did so ; and had 
they given it a name which was used in connection with their 
own domain at all, they would have called it Phoenice, which 
corresponded completely to the word Canaan, and applied that 
designation to the whole of Judaea. I may remark incidentally, 
that what was called the Paralia, answers only to the designation 
Palm-land, receiving its name, according to Calisthenes,^ ot4 airo 
^oivUtDV T»}9 Svpia<: r&v irapaKuw oIkovptoov, to (f)VTbv ekafie 
rriv TTpoarjyop^cu/ ; and Eeland adds : Quod ad nomen attinet 
Phoenices, id a palmis esse ductum, mihi videtur verisimile. 

It is not at all supposable that the aboriginal inhabitants of 
that Palestine mountain-land called themselves Canaanites, Le, 
Lowlanders, ev^n although they may have been of the same 
primitive stock; and all the less that they were divided into 
countless tribes, having no unity of purpose, as is evident from 
the manifest want of a common purpose and of combined 
counsels at the time of the Israelitish conquest. And if the 
whole country this side of the Jordan is sometimes designated 
as Canaan in the Old Testament Scriptures, it must be ex- 
plained by some special circumstances, unless it be a sufficient 
explanation that the etymological signification of the word had 
long disappeared, and the use of the word prevailing in Egypt 
had been arbitrarily transferred to the whole of Palestine. 

But Movers^ has shown, that in all the Bible passages the 

^ Arifitotelis de mirah, ausc. ed. J. Beckmann, Gott. 1736, p. 292 ; H. 
Reland, Pal p. 60. 
• Movers, uaJ. p. 41. 


word Canaan was applied as an obsolete name to the territory 
this side the Jordan^ and was used by the Israelites before 
they became familiar with that fact ; and after their conquest 
of the country it was employed only archaically, to designate its 
previous condition. All the Hebrew writers, from Josephus 
back, speak of the land of Canaan only when they refer to the 
primitive inhabitants of the land, or refer to the wanderings of 
the old patriarchs in it, or recount the promises of God, and 
their fulfilment. Where these conditions do not exist, they 
employ other names, like the land of Israel, and the land of 
Jehovah. It was impossible for the old name to remain after 
the physical condition of the country was understood ; and we 
find, accordingly, that at an early date the Israelites learned the 
etymological signification of the word Canaan : for in speaking 
of the Hittites, the Jebusites, and the Amorites, dwellers in the 
mountains were referred to ; while the Canaanites are said to 
have dwelt by the sea and by the coast of Jordan (Num. xiii. 
29). So, too, Joshua (xi. 3) speaks of ^^ the Canaanite on the 
east and on the west," referring to the people on the coast and 
in the Jordan valley ; and in most of the noteworthy passages 
in the book of Joshua, the low district near Jericho stands in 
close connection with the term Canaan, and in contrast with the 
mountain land of Gilead. We find the same in the allusions 
to the tribes of Eeuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, 
in Num. xxxiii. 51 and Josh. xxii. I need not tell the reader 
that the later fathers, and the whole ecclesiastical literature 
which followed, have given to the name Canaan a signification 
entirely different from its primitive one. 


Exactly in accordance with the reputed origin of the word 
Canaan, as the Lowland of the region now called Palestine, is 
the traditional account of the first settlement of the sons of 
Canaan directly after the Flood. Their names were borne by 
the cities which they built, — for example, Aradus, Arke, Sin, 
Simyra, Hamath, — while other personal appellatives were given 
to local districts, like Shechem, Eshcol, and Mamre. On the 
contrary, whole tribes — like the Giblites, the dwellers in moun- 


tains; the Sidonians, or the race of fishermen — bore names 
which were indigenous, and had gods^ — Baal, Astarte, Baaltis, 
Cosmos, Aion, Protogonos, Casius, Lebanon — of their own, and 
not imported from abroad. This was in strong contrast witli 
the Hebrews and Israelites, who traced their history, tlieii 
origin, their God even (who had already been the God of 
Abraham in Ur of the Chaldees), and all their traditions, to 
Inner Asia. And so we have two successive populations of 
one and the same land, both connected with the Semitic stock, 
yet displaying the greatest antagonism, and living in lasting 
hatred and contention. The want of all traditional information 
regarding the connection of the people of Canaan with the 
other Semitic tribes, seems to display itself very early in the 
genealogical record of the Canaanites as the descendants of 
Ham.^ I refer to the well-known Mosaic list of races, accord- 
ing to which the Hebrews traced their relationship through 
Eber to Shem, and yet the Hebrews and the Canaanites speak 
the same dialect. The Hebrews identified no close ties between 
these two races, as they did between the Aramaean and the 
most of the Arabian tribes — the sons of Joctan, Himyarites, 
for example. The mention of Canaan as brother of Mizraim, 
the head of the Egyptian race, and of Cush, the head of the 
Cushites, could not probably be made without some reference 
to the Canaanitish ideas of their national origin ; for if the sepa- 
ration of the Canaanites from the more eastern Semitic tribes 
had been of veiy early origin, all trace of the primitive unity 
would have been lost. The kindred tribes descended from 
Eber, and those who afterwards became the nomadic Hebrews, 
preserved the Aramaean dialect of the Semitic language, from 
which the Arabian had already broken loose ; but the Canaanites 
must long before have lost sight of the connection which bound 
them to the common stock, since the Hebrews, who emigrated 
to Palestine in the time of Abraham, found the Canaanites 
thus early a people claiming to have been long resident there, 
independent of the Aramaean and Arabian dialects, and pos- 
sessing a language which passed over more or less fully to the 
Hebrew patriarchs, as we find demonstrated by the real unity 
existing between the Hebrew and Phoenician languages. A 

* Movers, Die Phonicier passim^ and Zdtschr, i.a.l. p. 4 et sq. 

' Movers, Die alten Canaaniter^ in Zeitsch, N. F. Jahrg. vi. pp. 59-88. 


very remarkable exchange of a mother tongue at so early a 
period, and one which would be hard to explain and hard to 
believe possible as happening to a whole people, but which 
probably resulted, as Movers^ has shown, from the speedy and 
complete transfer of a closely united community like that of 
Abraham into a new atmosphere of language. To this un- 
doubtedly the frequent marriage relations entered into with 
the people of the country contributed (Gen. xxxviii., xxxiv. 2 ; 
Judg. xxi. 12 ; Ezra x. 18-44). 

In order to understand the character of the primitive popu- 
lation of Palestine, and the really unequal nature of the contest 
which brought the country into the possession of Israel, it is 
important to observe, that the so-called Canaanites cannot be 
regarded as a body of tribes closely united from the very 
beginning, but, so far as we can now ascertain, they were 
rent up into countless factions, and presented an instance of 
unexampled want of nationality. The very want of a common 
name to call them by is a remarkable phenomenon ; for Canaan, 
a term given by foreigners, is merely one drawn from the 
lowlands of the country, and is applied to those tribes which 
were not of Semitic origin, and were connected with the 
Egyptians, without any pretence to a proper application to 
those which did not belong to the Lowland, or Canaan, in the 
most limited use of the term. According to this, the descend- 
ants of Jebus (the Jebusites of the mountain land around 
Jerusalem), of Amor (the Amorites on the east side of the 
Jordan), of Girgas (the Girgashites on both banks of the 
Jordan), of Hiv (the Hivites in North Galilee), and of 
Hamath (on the east side of Anti-Lebanon), have only a 
nominal connection with the Canaanites, and are not to be 
understood to be of the same stock. 

This view is supported by the fact, that every king was 
the possessor of his own little domain. In northern Canaan, 
Joshua mentions thirty-one kings by name ; and the book of 
Judges (i. 7) speaks of seventy kings of the Canaanites who were 
conquered by the tribe of Judah. Countless fortresses and 
armed bodies of men, compelled to yield before the advance of 
the shepherd race of Israel, without any knowledge of war, 
had for centuries been engaged in mutual contest ; and yet one 
^ Movers, Dk alien Canaaniter, in Zeitsch, N. F. Jahrg. vi. p. 62 et sq. 


kingdom after another was reduced, and the whole country 
brought into subjection, in consequence of the want of a com- 
mon head, and a common bond of unity against the general 
foe, to which there seems to be no exception, save among the 
Philistines and in the case of Jabin king of Hazor, who sum- 
moned his neighbours, and met Joshua at the waters of Merom 
(Josh. xi. 1-6). This hasty combination, however, was to no 
effect, for there was no deep central principle of unity that 
could give security in time of danger. 

It is only from the violent convulsions which rent the 
Canaanite tribes in the most remote antiquity, that we can 
understand how widely sundered they were at the time of the 
invasion of their territory by the Israelites, and how scattered 
were single tribes in some cases, — as, for example, the Hivites, 
a portion of whom lived in the north, another in the middle, 
and another in the south of Palestine, as we gather from the 
scattered notices of them in the earliest books of the Bible. The 
Kenizzites, too, were found in various parts of the south, rent 
by internal faction, and scattered through Judaea and Edom. 
The Geshurites, whose boundaries extended from Hermon to 
Bashan (Josh. xii. 5 ; Deut. iii. 14), appear also in the south 
country near the Philistine territory (Josh. xiii. 12 ; 1 Sam. 
xxvii. 8), near the Egyptian frontier, where David met and 
overcame them. It is just so with the Girgashites and with 
the powerful tribe of the Amorites, who possessed a large terri- 
tory beyond the Jordan (Deut. ii. 24), and at the same time 
occupied a domain in the mountain land around Jerusalem, 
and sent out the five kings who were overthrown at Gibeon 
(Josh. X. 5). 

Among all these Canaanitish tribes there existed no genea- 
logical tradition giving rise to a general belief in a descent from 
a former patriarchal head, as there was among the other 
Semitic tribes, who called themselves sons of Ammon, of 
Edom, of Moab, of Israel, and the like. Even among the 
descendants of Sidon this was not the case ; and they did not 
speak of themselves as children of Sidon, but as Sidonim, and 
made no more mention of Sidon as the founder of the city and 
state, than of Hierosolymus or Carchedon as the founders of 
Jerusalem and Carthage. The Hittites alone form an excep- 
tion to this general rule : they traced their lineage back to Heth 


(Gen. X. 15), were called sons of Heth by the Israelites, and 
were held in a good degree of respect (Gen. xxiii. 5, 7). 

From what has now been said, it will readily be seen, 
although the data are very incomplete regarding these so- 
called Canaanite tribes, that they cannot be distinguished by 
any special characteristics of language, religion, or govern- 
ment from the neighbouring tribes, and not even by physical 
boundaries, since they occupied in some cases — that of the 
Amorites, for example — ^both sides of the Jordan. Yet, notwith- 
standing such occasional exceptions, the district east of the 
Jordan was never reckoned as belonging to Canaan ; nor were 
its inhabitants ever included among the Canaanites, although 
their names are mentioned as such in the list found in Genesis. 


The circumstances already mentioned show how important 
it is to gather up what historical facts we can regarding the 
various tribes which possessed Canaan, in order to understand 
the nature of the country in which Israel found its permanent 

We know as little of the immigration of the tribes which 
inhabited the interior highland region of Palestine, as of those 
which settled the lowland, or Canaan proper ; but there are so 
many passages in the Old Testament which hint at their con- 
dition, that we are not without the means of determining with 
a considerable degree of accuracy, what subdivisions those 
tribes were broken into, and what successive processes of con- 
quest and extermination they were subjected to : for the 
gathering up into the record which we now possess of the 
incidents which occurred in the time of the patriarchs, took 
place at a period when the recollection of the successive 
changes in the character of the country and its population 
could not have been wholly lost. 

The condition of the inhabitants of Canaan at the time 
of the patriarchs must have been very different from what it 
was five hundred years later, at the time of Moses. The land 
was sparsely covered with dwellings, and but thinly populated : 


herdsmen with their families wandered through it freely from 
one end to the other. When Abraham took up his abode near 
Bethel, he said to his nephew Lot, at parting with him, ^^ Is not 
the whole land before thee?" Abraham went to the south, to 
Pharan, and dug wells for himself at Beersheba ; and at a later 
day, Jacob went with just as little hindrance along the east side 
of the Jordan to Gilead, crossing the Jabbok at its ford, and 
set up his huts or booths in Succoth (Gen. xxxi. 47, xxxii. 22y 
xxxiii. 17). 

At the time of Abraham there existed but very few of 
those cities with which Canaan was covered at the time of 
Moses ; and the few which were standing received their names 
from persons then living, such as Shechem, from the chief of 
the Hivites (Gen. xxxiv. 2) ; Mamre, from the brother of 
Eshcol and Aner, the Amorite (Gen. xiv. 13, 24). Hebron 
alone seems to go back to the remotest antiquity. It is men- 
tioned as the place where Sarah died (Gen. xxiii. 2). It was 
built seven years before Zoan (San, Le. Tanis in Egypt), and 
kept its primitive name, while other places lost them when a 
new people took possession of them, — as, for example, Luz, 
whose name Jacob changed to Bethel (Gen. xxviii. 19). 

There is not a trace to be found in the old patriarchal 
records, of those warlike cities, and those bold, well-armed, and 
defiant tribes whom Joshua encountered five hundred years 
later : for after Lot had been taken captive by Chedorlaomer, 
we find that Abraham was able, with the three hundred and 
eighteen servants who were bom in his house, to pursue the 
enemy of his kinsman, to overcome him easily, to pursue him 
to Dan and Hobah near Damascus, and to take from him all 
his goods (Gen. xiv. 15). The inhabitants of the land at that 
early period appear to have been a peace-loving people, from 
whom the early Hebrews received no injury, but only kindness, 
as in the case of Melchisedec king of Salem (xiv. 18, xxxiv. 8). 
The Philistines, on the contrarj', were a hostile race, and in 
Jacob's time closed the wells, that the Hebrew patriarch might 
have no water for his flocks (Gen. xxvi. 15, 16). The princes 
of the country were then not at all the warlike kings whom 
the Israelites encountered, and they made no objection to the 
peaceful entrance of the nomadic Hebrews w^ho chose to settle 
among them. 


1. The PerizzUes, 

According to the biblical account, there were, at the time of 
the patriarchs, but two radically different primitive classes of 
population — the Canaanites and the Perizzites. In the account 
of the parting of Abraham from Lot, we read, " The Canaanite 
and the Perizzite dwelt then in the land." This sharp distinc- 
tion is repeated in two subsequent passages (Judg. i. 4, 5), 
where, after the death of Joshua, these two different races are 
named as existing in southern Judea. The omission of the 
important tribe of the Perizzites in the enumeration of the 
peoples of Canaan, Gen. x., is therefore not accidental, as they 
were regarded as radically different from them, and as such 
had their own special place in the list of tribes, after the most 
important Canaanitic names (Ex. xxxiv. 11; Judg.iii. 5). The 
Perizzites seemed to be distinguished from the Canaanites, who 
lived in citiss, by their nomadic habits; and even the etymology 
of their name, which signifies the separated, affords proof tliat 
they were the Beduins of that time, and shows that in the most 
remote periods there existed the same contrast which we now 
find among Arabs and Syrians. 

Besides the Canaanites, who are distinguished from the 
wandering Perizzites by their more regular and settled habits, 
their political condition, and their residence in towns, we find 
mentioned only two important races living in the country at 
the time of the patriarchs — the Hittites and the Hivites : there 
is no mention as yet of the Amorites, who afterwards became 
so powerful and important, and who pushed their way north- 
wards from the desert of Paran (Gen. xiv. 7, 13; Judg. i. 
34, 36). 

2. The Hittites} 

These are the oldest, and probably, at a remote period, the 
only inhabitants of the interior of Palestine. The coupling of 
their founder's name Heth (Chet) with that of Sidon in the list 
of tribes contained in Genesis, indicates their extreme antiquity; 
and in almost all successive enumerations, they take the first 
place after the Canaanites proper — that is, the Phoenicians— and 
only in two places are the Amorites named before them. Never, 
^Ewald, Ge«cA. i. p. 281. 


as Movers shows^ are other tribes — such as the Girgashites, 
Jebusltes, Hivites^ and others — ranked before them. And yet 
at the time of the conquest of Canaan they were by no means 
. the most formidable warriors, for the Amorites were the most 
powerful tribe. Indeed, at the time of Moses, they were quite 
insignificant: no cities are mentioned as belonging to them; 
they are not named separately as enemies of Israel, but always in 
connection with other tribes; while the cities of the Canaanites, 
Amorites, Ilivites, and Jebusites, are often spoken of as waging 
war independently against Israel. But the old place of honour 
was always assigned to this ancient and powerful tribe, notwith- 
standing its subsequent want of importance. 

The Hittites played an important part at the time of 
Abraham, when they were lords of the district around Hebron. 
They were p. people of gentle habits, living in well-regulated 
communities; and their intercourse with the ancient Hebrew 
patriarch was marked with the greatest courtesy during the 
negotiations for Sarah's burying-place (Gen. xxiii.). We read 
that Abraham displayed the greatest reverence before them 
(Gen. xxiii. 7) : " He bowed himself to the children of the land, 
even to the children of Heth; and he communed with them." 
The rest of the chapter relates in full the history of the trans- 
action. It is a remarkable fact that it was the Hittites who 
were in possession of Hebron, the most ancient city in the land, 
and a place built even before the oldest Egyptian city. The 
connection by marriage of Esau, the founder of the Edomites, 
with the daughters of the Hittites (Gen. xxvi. 34), confirms the 
high antiquity and the early importance of the tribe. They 
were the oldest, and in the beginning probably the only, lords 
of the land, the nomadic Jebusites excepted, since the people 
named second to them — the Hivites — settled only subsequently 
in the interior of the country. In the single place (Josh. i. 4) 
where the whole land of promise, " from the wilderness and 
this Lebanon, even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, 
all the land of Euphrates, and unto the great sea toward 
the going down of the sun," is connected with the tribe of 
Hittites, the language appears to be used archaically, and to 
refer to the primitive power of the tribe. At a very remote 
period^ the Hittites seem to have been divided, and to have 
^ GescDius, Comment, zu Jesaias^ i. p. 722. 


sent^ one colony to Cyprus, if that be the island of Chittim 
(Ezek. xxvii. 6), or the land of Chittim (Isa. xxiii. 1). 

At the time of tlie conquest of Palestine by Israel, the 
Hittites do not appear as the lords of the land. Scattered 
remnants of the tribe, however, are mentioned as late as the 
time of David; for Uriah (mentioned in 2 Sam. xi. 3, xxiii. 39) 
was a Hittite. Solomon brought all the remnants of the 
conquered tribes into bondage (1 Kings ix. 20) ; and the kings 
of the Hittites mentioned in x. 29 are not to be connected 
with Palestine, but with Cyprus or Chittim. And the passage 
in Judg. i. 26, which speaks of the building of Luz, in the 
land of the Hittites, refers to the same island ; for that tribe 
was never found so far north as Bethel, and " the man " who 
" went into the land of the Hittites " must have removed from 
Palestine to Cyprus. 

3. Tlie Hivites. 

This tribe, the second of the primitive Canaanitic ones, was 
a mountain people, and had its true home in the Lebanon. 
Josh. xi. 3 locates the Hivites near Mount Hermon, in the land 
of Mizpeh, i.e. between Jebel Sheikh and the sources of the 
Jordan ; and Judg. iii. 3 is more definite still in its language : 
"The Hivites that dwelt in Mount Lebanon, from Mount 
Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Hamath." They are 
mentioned as living there as late as the time of king David 
(2 Sam. xxiv. 7), and it is possible that in this northern moun- 
tain land they were a powerful people (Josh. ix. 1) ; but in the 
southern part of the country, conquered by the Israelites, they 
were not strong. Their geographical location readily explains 
the fact, that in the enumeration of the tribes of Palestine the 
Hivites always have the last place but one, and come just before 
the still weaker tribe of Jebusites, and that in the full list 
contained in Gen. xv. they are not mentioned at all. Yet they 
appear sometimes in connection with localities at the south, 
and removed a long distance from their real mountain home, — 
as at Shechem, for example, where they had had a settlement 
for a long time, and where Jacob bought a piece of land of a 
Hivite, in order to build a habitation upon it (Gen. xxxiii. 19, 
xxxiv. 2). They had another city still fartlier to the south, 
1 Movers, vi. pp. 80-84. 


and in the territory subsequently assigned to Ecnjamin — Gibeon, 
now Djeb, three hours distance north of Jerusalem (Josh. ix. 
3, 7y 15). Ewald^ suspects that the nanie signifies a ^^com- 
munity " in the Canaanitish language. This city, which was 
independent, preserved its existence, but was brought into 
vassalage to Israel, and compelled to be hewers of wood and 
bearers of water for the temple of Jehovali. There were also 
Ilivites farther south, who connected themselves by marriage 
ties with the Edomites, as the Hittites had done. They seem, 
therefore, to have been a race of powerful mountaineers, who 
embraced every opportunity to force their way southward, and 
were able in some instances to take up and hold a position 
surrounded by other and perhaps hostile tribes, and even to 
maintain themselves against such enemies as the Israelites them- 
selves, as they did in the case of Gibeon. The greatness of 
this city, the warlike training of its citizens, their republican 
constitution,^ while all the surrounding cities were under the 
rule of kings (Josh. ix. 1, x. 1, 2), were peculiar to the Hivites ; 
while their religious rites in the tower of Shechem, in the 
house of the god Berith (Judg. ix. 46, ix. 4, viii. 33), or El,' 
their highest divinity, show their connection with the Canaan- 
itish stock. 

4. Tlte Amorites.^ 

Although mentioned in the list of Gen. x. in connection 
with the other Canaanitic tribes, the Amorites do not appear to 
have been an independent people in the primitive patriarchal 
times. It is only later that they become important, and they 
are always mentioned as secondary in note to the sons of Heth, 
or Hittites. But in the Mosaic period they stand forth as the 
most powerful and most warlike tribe of the Canaanites. 
Although, with regard to the races already mentioned, we have 
only faint glimpses of their early history, and only discern tlieir 
settlements scattered over the country, and surrounded by a 

1 Ewald, Gesch, I p. 283. ' The same, p. 282. 

* Movers, p. 79 ; and die Phdnmer, pp. 255-316. 

* Movers, vi. pp. 84-87 ; Rosenmuller, Bill Alterthums, ii. p. 255 ; 
Gesenius, in Ersch, Encycl. iii. p. 382 ; Winer, Bihl, Realm, i. 54 ; Ewald, 
Gcsch. des Volks Israel, ii. 204, 208, etc. 

* Winpj, Bibl RealwdrUrbuch^ 3d ed. 1847, i. and iL 


still more ancient race of Anakim and Eepliaim, yet, says 
Movers, it is very apparent that the Amorites entered the 
country not long before the Israelitish conquest, and took 
possession of both sides of the Jordan. They probably came 
from a country at the south-east. In the oldest mention of 
them they are always connected with the Amalekites, who came 
from Arabia PetrsBa, and were overcome by Chedorlaomer at 
the time of Lot in the valley of Siddira, at the southern ex- 
tremity of the Dead Sea (Gen. xiv. 7). They dwelt at that 
time at Hazazon Tamar, or Engedi, according to 2 Chron. xx, 2. 
The account in Num. xiii. 29 makes the Amorites possessed of 
all the mountain land of the south : even the whole range of high 
lands from Horeb to Kadesh-Barnea, which Israel traversed, is 
called in Deut. i. 19 the mountain of the Amorites ; and Ewald^ 
conjectures that the name Amorite itself signifies the inhabitant 
of an elevated region. The passage (Gen. xlviii. 22) in which 
Jacob speaks of a lot of land which he had taken with sword 
and bow from the hand of the Amorites, can probably only 
be understood in connection with southern Canaan, as the field 
at Shechem had been purchased from the Hivites. The 
Gibeonites, however, who were a remnant of the Amorites, are 
spoken of (2 Sam. xxi. 2) as inhabiting the land, though their 
home was pretty far to the north. The Canaanitic tribes of 
the south, who blended in course of time their stock with that 
of the Amorites, assumed gradually tliat name as their common 
designation, and in the last days of Joshua the name Amorite 
was given to all the enemies of Israel (Josh. xxiv. 17, 18). They 
had also taken possession of the country east of the Jordan 
(Judg. ji, 8), the same district to which the Ammonites had 
long laid claim (Judg. xi. 13). 

This region, which Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of 
Manasseh received as their portion, had formerly been two 
great kingdoms, the southern one of which, and of Sihon king 
of Heshbon, lay between the Jabbok and the Amon, and 
extended from the desert on the east to the Jordan on the west 
(Judg. xi. 22 ; Num. xxi. 13, 34). The northern kingdom, that 
of Og, whose most important cities were Ashtaroth and Edrei, 
in Bashan, lay between the river Jabbok and Mount Hermon 
(Num. xxi. 33 ; Josh. xii. 5). In this kingdom of Og there 
1 Ewald, Gesch. i. p. 280, note. 


were sixty strong cities wdth high walls, gates, and bars, and 
many other towns without walls (Deut. iii. 5). 

Shortly before the invasion of the Israelites, Sihon the 
king of Heshbon had plundered and laid waste the territory of 
his southern neighbours as far as to the Amon (Num. xxi. 26) : 
he had forced his way southward as far as Akrabbim, and the 
Edomite city of Petra, where was the rock Selah (Judg i. 36). 
Yet both of these kingdoms early fell under the power of 
Israel; and the most formidable battle, the most triumphant 
victory, which preceded their taking possession of the land, 
stirred the Hebrews to songs of triumph, and gave them a fresh 
impulse in their career of conquest.^ 

The Amorites had likewise become very powerful in Judah, 
on the west side of the Jordan, at the time of the Israelitish 
invasion; stronger indeed than they had been before, when 
they lived at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. On the 
so-called mountains of the Amorites the Israelites met five of 
their kings. It required fierce conflicts to subdue them, such 
as those in which Joshua engaged at Gibeon, near Beth-horon, 
and the valley of Ajalon north-west of Jerusalem (Josh. x. 
1-14). The Amorite kings of that period iniled over Jerusalem, 
Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon, as the Scripture ex- 
pressly informs us. Although the nation was subdued, yet its 
power remained unbroken near the sea-coast ; for they pressed 
afterwards as far north as Dan and the mountains, and did not 
suffer the people to come down into the valleys (Judg. i. 34). 
They even began to inhabit Mount Heres in Ajalon and Shaal- 
bim (Judg. i. 35) ; yet the power of the tribe of Joseph was too 
weighty for them, and they were compelled to succumb, and had 
to pay tribute. At length, under Samuel, peace was made be- 
tween the Israelites and the Amorites (1 Sam. vii. 14) ; and with 
the increase of the Hebrew power, the strength and importance 
of the earlier inhabitants continually waned (Josh. xvi. 10). 

Thus we see that the Amorites were comparatively late 
invaders, whether they entered the central country of Palestine 
from Gilead at the east, or from the hill country of Judah at 
the south. Other tribes had previously occupied the places 
which they seized and possessed — the Moabites, Hittites, Danites, 
and Jebusites, unless the latter be considered a subordinate 
* Ewald, Gesch ii. p. 211 et seq. 


tribe of the Amorites. They cannot be reckoned among the 
primitive tribes of the land, although, on account of their long 
abode in the midst of the so-called Canaanites, they can be 
said to have belonged to them. 

The very places which they occupied show that the Amorites 
were a race of invaders ; for, like the Israelites, they took pos- 
session of the hill-tops, where their personal valour could give 
them the opportunity to rush down upon their enemies, and 
then safely withdraw ; but the cities built in the plains were 
well equipped for war, and were so familiar with all its arts, 
that they were not so easily overcome as some of the strong- 
holds on the lower hills. The book of Judges hints at this 
when it speaks of the tribe of Judah, which had been able to 
subdue Gaza, Askelon, and Ekron, but was checked by even 
more formidable foes (i. 19) : " And the Lord was with Judah ; 
and he drove out the inhabitants of the mountain, but could 
not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had 
chariots of iron." It was such a resistance as that implies 
which Hazor offered to Joshua on the plain of Merom (Josh, 
xi. 1-12). 

5. Tlie Girgasliites} 

These belong to the least important of the Canaanitic tribes, 
and seem to have immigrated into Palestine from the territory 
east of the Jordan. In the original promise given to Abraham 
(Gen. XV. 21), the Girgashites and the Jebusites have the last 
place, and in most of the successive enumerations of the original 
tribes of Canaan they are omitted. No mention is made of them 
after the conquest. It is possible, however, that the Gergesenes, 
mentioned in Matt. viii. 28, may refer to the descendants of the 
Girgashites,^ and that the term may be perpetuated for that of 
the old hostile tribe. Jerome and Eusebius speak of a city 
Girgasa, and Origen locates it near Lake Tiberias ; but nothing 
more is known regarding it, excepting that at the time of 
Jerome the name w^as ascribed to a little village on a hill ; from 
which Ewald^ acutely draws the suspicion that the place was 

^ Movers, ua,L vi. p. 87. 

* Mayer, Note v. in N. Test, Frankf. a. M. 1813, p. 13 ; compare Winer, 
Bihl Realw, art. Gadara, p. 384 ; Note to v. Raumer, Palast. p. 363. 
» Ewald, Gesch. i. p. 278. 


once the stronghold of the Girgashites^ which in Josh. xi. 
bears the name of Hazor, itself signifying a castle, or fortified 
hill. The place alluded to by Jerome lies near enough to the 
Sea of Galilee to correspond with the statement of Matthew ; 
but it does not harmonize with the conjecture that the Gir- 
gashites were a very unimportant tribe. 

6. The Jebusitea. 

These always close the list of the Canaanitic .tribes. Their 
hostile relations to their neighbours, and the express statement 
that Adonibezek the king of Jebusi, afterwards Jerusalem 
(Josh, xviii. 28), was an Amorite prince (Josh. x. 1, 5), show 
that the Jebusites were originally a branch of the Amorites, 
and that their king was properly included among the five 
Amorite kings who went out against Israel (Num. xiii. 29; 
Josh. ix. 1). They are probably mentioned as an independent 
tribe in consequence of their eminent bravery, displayed in the 
stubborn resistance which they offered to Israel. It was only 
at the time of David that they were thoroughly conquered, and 
even then they were not exterminated. The tribe was over- 
come by Joshua at the battle of Ajalon; but he could not 
prevail against their stronghold, afterwards Jerusalem, which 
towered above the valley of Hinnom (Josh. xv. 8). It is true 
that there was a temporary capture of the lower city, but the 
conquered possession was not held long, and we are expressly 
told (Josh. XV. 63) that the men of Judah were not able to take 
Jerusalem from the Jebusites. 

It was only after the accession of David to the throne of 
Israel, who resided for seven years at Hebron, the ancient 
capital, that war was carried on so successfully under the 
leadership of Joab, that the Jebusites were compelled to sur- 
render their stronghold of Jerusalem, including the mountain 
of Zion,^ which became thereafter the residence of David, and 
the capital of the kingdom of Israel. The name Jerusalem, 
which only aften^'ards became common, in taking the place of 
Jebusi, which had been the current appellation before, seems 
to have been in use to a certain extent even before this time. 
It does not seem to have been given by the Israelites, but to 
have been a name foreign to them, conferred upon the place by 
» Ewald, Gesch Pt ii. pp. 228, 583. 


the earlier popniation of the land. The etymology of the place, 
the " Inheritance of Salem," or the " Dwelling of Salem," in- 
dicates the same thing ; and the natural character of the spot is 
such that it must always have been a position of importance as 
a stronghold. 

Even after the capture of Jerusalem there remained some 
Jebusites there, like Araunah (2 Sam. xxiv. 16-25), who made 
peace with David, and were allowed to live quietly in their old 
home. Solomon reduced this remnant, as he did all that were 
left of the old tribes, into the condition of tributaries (1 Kings 
ix. 20). After the captivity, the Jebusites are brought into 
notice again (Ezra ix. 1), the old hatred having so far disap- 
peared, that marriages were negotiated between them and the 

TOL ir. 



|LTHOUGH I have sought to give in the above pages 
a tolerably definite idea of the limits of the territory 
of Canaan, and the character of its population prior 
to the time of the Israelitish conquest, because that 
early population exercised so great an influence over the whole 
subsequent history of the Hebrew nation, even down to the 
present time, yet I have by no means exhausted the ethnographi- 
cal and geographical character of the country in the earliest 
epochs of its history, the influence of the tribes of which I have 
spoken having extended far beyond the Canaanitish frontier, in 
the same way that David's domain reached southward as far as to 
the Red Sea, northward to Damascus and Sidon, and westward 
to Philistia; and just as the kingdom of Herod, the Roman and 
Byzantine district of Palestine, and the territory held by the 
Moslems and the Crusaders, extended not simply to the west 
bank of the Jordan, but embraced the illimitable wastes east of 
* the Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee, expanding at times till 
it reached to the Euphrates, and at times contracting to the 
former limits. 

In the preceding volume I have had occasion to refer to 
the southern approaches to Palestine: it now remains for me to 
speak of the primitive inhabitants of the country immediately 
contiguous to Canaan, since these people commanded the roads 
which led into the Promised Land, and had to be subdued or 
annihilated in order that Israel might have free entrance to 
Palestine, and might be kept separate from other nations. 

The materials for gaining our knowledge are, however, very 
scanty: there is very little that is trustworthy in the accounts 


which hare come down from the remote period with which we 
have now to deal, yet they do not justify us in passing over 
without a single glance what they do not describe in full. 

The most uncertainty is felt with regard to what I must 
speak of at the outset, and what may be called the beginning 
of the beginning of the subject, — namely, that which relates to 
the so-called race of giants which dwelt in the lands outlying 


Most histories of nations in their primitive state begin with 
the story of a race of giants. Among the Mandshurians, how- 
ever, Indians, Pehlvi, Persians, Kurds, Arabians, and Israelites 
also, we do not fall in with such stories; and we meet as little 
with the graves of giants among those nations as among the 
Trojans, the Homeric Laestrygones of the south, or the Huns 
of the north. 

The Rephaim or giants, the sons of Anak as they are called 
in the earliest^ narratives, seem to have been a race of men of 
much larger proportions than the Hebrews, who, like the Arabs 
of the present day, were probably small in stature (Num. xiii. 
33). In one of the oldest biblical narratives, that of Chedor- 
laomer's overthrow at the time of Abraham, and his repulse 
to the south as far as Mount Seir and the desert of Paran, we 
are told that this Syrian king slew the Rephaim at Ashtaroth 
Kamaim, the Zuzims at Ham, and the Emims at Kiriathaim; 
the two last being probably subdivisions of the first (Gen. xiv. 
3-6). The Emims are probably that strong and high-spirited 
people who had inhabited that region before the time of Lot, 
and had been so called by the Moabites. After they were sub- 
dued their country was called the land of Moab (Deut. ii. 10, 
11). The Zamzummims — that is, the men of evil counsel (Deut. 
ii. 20) — are probably the same as the Zuzims, for they lived in 
the same region, between the rivers Jabbok and Arnon, and, 
like the Emims, were a powerful tribe, as were the Anakims, 
who had previously lived in the country, and been conquered 
and robbed of their territory. 

This story, which dates from an exceedingly ancient period, 
1 Keil, Commentar Uber d. Buck Josua^ pp. 229-281. 


appears to rest on at least this basis of truth, that in this same 
district noith of the Jabbok in Bashan, king Og — that is, Long- 
neck — who lived at Ashtaroth, is spoken of as the last king of 
the race of giants.^ His iron bed, corresponding to his size, 
was exhibited as a memorial of him at Rabbath (Deut. iii. 11), 
possibly a basaltic sarcophagus* like those which are still to be 
seen in the country, — ^Noah's in the Lebanon, Nimrod's at 
Damascus, Hosea's at Szalt, and Aaron's on Mount Ilor. 

Yet it by no means follows, from the existence of these 
giants, that the Canaanitic tribes were in any way related to 
them, or resembled them in stature: there is no mention made 
anywhere of Amoritic giants. 

There are traces of the existence of Eephaim on the west 
side of the Jordan; and it is possible that the valley of Rephaim, 
west of Jerusalem, bounded on the north by the rocky valley 
of Hinnom (Josh. xv. 8), received its name from them at a 
very early period.* Yet what we know of them is mostly 
mythical; they are connected in the Septuagint and in Josephus 
in a general way with Titans and with giants. According to 
Joshua, they withdrew north of Mount Ephraim, among, the 
Perizzites (Josh. xvii. 15). Three of them were named as sons 
of Anak, and as living at Hebron. Their ancestor Arba, the 
greatest of his race, had once given his name, Kiriath Arba, or 
the city of Arba, to Hebron (Josh. xiv. 15);* yet it was but a 
temporary appellation: it appeared subsequently at the time of 
Abraham, and disappeared at the time of Joshua, when the 
three sons of Anak were driven from Hebron by Caleb (Josh. 
XV. 14). 

It still remains a subject of dispute, whether that almost 
unknown and only fragmentarily mentioned race of Anakim — 
always designated as the sons of Anak, which, as dwellers in 
cities, may be held to have been among the earliest inhabitants 
of the land, and to be reckoned in the same category with the 
nomadic Perizzites, who were driven out at the same time — is 
to be considered as Canaanitish in its character; or whether it 

^ Yon Lengerke, Kenaan^ p. 181 et sq. 
< Burckhardt, Reisey Geseniua' ed. L 42, 101, ii. 600, 716. 
» Robingon, Bib. Research, i. 219. 

* Keil, Commentary 07t Joshua^ Judges, and Rutky p. 150, Edio. 186-1 ; 
Ewald, Gesch. I p. 276. 


IS not, with a higher degree of probability, to be held as a still 
more ancient race, holding the country prior to its possession 
by the tribes with whom the Israelites came mainly in conflict.^ 
But this is certain, that it was a tribe of very tall and imposing 
men, filling the hearts of the Hebrews with a causeless fear; 
for they were not so dangerous as they seemed, and were con- 
quered by Joshua, and compelled to take refuge among the 
hostile Philistines along the sea-coast at the south-west. In 
the time of Saul,, who was himself a man of gigantic stature, 
and David, there appeared one of these colossal men, Goliath, 
among the enemies of the Israelites (1 Sam. xvii. 4). In 
Josh. xi. 21, 22, we read, ^^And at that time came Joshua, 
and cut ofiF the Anakims from the mountains, from Hebron, 
from Debir, from Anab, and from all the mountains of Judah, 
and from all the mountains of Israel : Joshua destroyed them 
utterly, with their cities. There was none of the Anakims 
left in the land of the children of Israel: only in Gaza, in Gath, 
and in Ashdod there remained." These are the men who, at 
the time of David, entered the field against Israel in the service 
of the Philistines, and under the name of children of Kapha 
(2 Sam. xxi. 15-22). 


This tribe is spoken of only twice as a very ancient conquered 
people (Deut. ii. 23 ; Josh. xiii. 3), who lived at Hazarim, and 
extended as far as to Gaza, but who were early exterminated 
by the Philistines. Nothing further is known regarding them. 
Among the cities of Benjamin, Joshua (xviii. 23) speaks of one 
called Avim. 

Very little more has come down to us about the Horites, the 
neighbours of the Canaanites on the south-east, and who dwelt 
in the mountains of Seir, Le. hairy, rough. From this circum- 
stance they are sometimes called Seirites; for their designation 
Horites seems merely to signify troglodytes, since they built 
their houses in the clefts of the rocks (Obad. 3). From the 
» KeU, i.aX pp. 229-231. 


mention made of them in Gen. xxxvi, 20, they seem to be an 
independent and indigenous tribe, and not to have immigrated 
into the region as the children of Israel did into Palestine, and 
as the sons of Esau did into the mountain land farther south. 
It was here, according to the very oldest records — those which 
date from the time of Abraham — that they were attacked by 
Chedorlaomer on his way from Elam, after he had conquered 
the giants on the east bank of the Jordan. In Gen. xiv. 6 we 
read, " And Chedorlaomer smote the Horites in their Mount 
Seir unto El-paran, which is by the wilderness; and they re- 
turned and came unto En-mishpat, which is Kadesh." In Gen. 
xxxvi. 20-29 the names are given of the sons of Seir the Horite, 
all of them princes. They are — ^Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 
Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; the name of the second is pre- 
served in the designation Syria Shobal. The son of the seventh 
was called Uz, a name which is familiar to us from its con- 
nection with the book of Job.^ The Mosaic document which 
relates the lineage of these Edomite princes must be the most 
ancient record of that mountain people; for in Deut. ii. 12 
we find this allusion, " The Horims also dwelt in Seir before- 
time, but the children of Esau succeeded them when they had 
destroyed them from before them, and dwelt in their stead : as 
Israel did unto the land of his possession which the Lord gave 
unto them." Whether in the book of Job (xxiv. 5-9) the de- 
pressed condition of these Horites or Horims is pictured in 
terms which would describe the status of Indian pariahs or a 
tribe of gypsies, as Ewald^ has conjectured, is uncertain ; but 
von Kaumer* has very successfully shown the remarkable con- ^ 
nection between Edom and Uz, in his comments on Lam. iv. 
21, " Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, that dwellest 
in the land of Uz.'* But of this I shall speak more fully in a 
subsequent place. 

1 OnomasL Euseh. 8,v, Idumsed ; Reland, Pal p. 72. 

« Ewald, Gesch. i. pp. 273, 274; Winer, i.a.l Horites^ i. 512; comp. 
v. Lengerke, Kenaan, p. 184. 

• K. V. Raumer, Das dstUche Paldstina und das Land Edom^ in Bergh, 
Amakn 1830, vol 1. p. 563, etc 



Esau, the son of Isaac, the first-born twin-brother of Jacob, 
is best known by the name Edom, the red, and in connection 
with his descendants the Edomites, who settled in Mount Seir, 
and drove out the Horims, who had dwelt there before. This 
ethnographical name is the one distinctively given in the Old 
Testament to the race of Esau ; for in Gen. xxxvi. 9 we read, 
"These are the generations of Esau, the father of the Edomites, 
in Mount Seir." His marrying into various Canaanite tribes, 
whom his parents esteemed as heathen, his withdrawal from 
Canaan when there was no longer room for his flocks as well 
as those of Jacob to subsist m the same country, the well-known 
enmity between the two brothers, and the mistrust which per- 
petuated itself in the next generation, affected for centuries the 
destiny of those two neighbouring but never allied nations, the 
Edomites and the Jews, and resulted at last in a settled national 
hatred (Deut. ii. 4, 8). 

At the first Edom must have pastured his flocks and herds 
just on the southern confines of Canaan, where, at the time of 
Joshua, the borders of the two countries met (Josh. xv. 1); and 
that northern position must have been the one early occupied, 
since the Horites were the prior possessors of Mount Seir, and 
the Amorites held the southern portion of the Dead Sea (Gen. 
xiv. 6, 7). The Edomites, at a late» period, forced their way 
south-eastward into the mountain region of the Horites, or 
Horims, where they found a more advantageous dwelling-place, 
and at last became lords of the whole territoiy. They were 
dwelling there at the time that Moses passed northward with 
the children of Israel to Kadesh-Bamea at the north-west, 
where the desert of Zin, which lay north of Paran and Edom, 
terminated. Kadesh, we are told in Num.. xx. 16, was the city 
on the northern frontier of Edom, and in its neighbourhood 
the old name of the mountain ("Serr") is still found in use 
among the Beduins. In consequence of the refusal which the 

^ H. Relandi, Pal cxii. de regione Edom, pp. 66-73. Gesenius, GescTi. 
der Edomiter, in Comm. to haidh, Pt. i. Leipzig 1821, pp. 904-913 ; ii. p. 
261. RoBenmiiller, Bihl AUerthumsk. iii. pp. 65-77 ; Winer, Edom, i. p. 
292 ; E. V. Raumer, i.a,l i. pp. 553-566 ; E. Bobinson, Bib, Research. 
ii. pp. 108-116. 


Edomites gave to the passage of Israel through their territory, 
Closes was obliged to turn back again to the ^lanitic Gulf, 
to make a circuit round the Seir range, and to pass into the 
district of Moab from the east (Deut. ii. 1, 8). The Seir range, 
which was in the possession of the Edomites, extended from 
the Dead Sea to the eastern arm of the Red Sea ; for the Seir 
of the Bible, with which the subsequent Mohammedan name, 
Jebel Shera, is allied, embraced a far larger tract of territory 
than that which was embraced by the word Seir as used by 
Arabian writers, who meant, when they used the word, only 
a subordinate part of the whole country to which the bibli- 
cal writers refer under the name of Seir. It is now a well- 
settled fact, too, that the Arabic word Shera, Le. extent of 
land, has only the accidental resemblance of sound to the name 
Seir, and cannot be considered identical with it or traced back 
to it. Sherak and Alsherak are the names given at the present 
time to the mountains north of Edom, and near Kerak : the 
brook el-Hassa, or Ashy, was the southern boundary of Moab, 
where the land of Edom began, and the region from that point 
on has taken the usual name of Jeb&l (Gabalitis). South of 
Wadi Ghoeir, the country is generally called Jebel Shera, 
extending as far as Tor Hesmah, and passing Petra. At the 
time of Moses, the power of Edom must have extended far to 
the south, and to the neighbourhood of the Red Sea : for we 
read in Deut. li. 4, 8, that Israel was obliged to pass by the head 
of that sea; and as this way could easily be closed against them, 
the injunction was especially valuable, that they should '^ take 
good heed unto themselves.** 

At the time of the transit of the Israelites, the heads of 
Edomite families had been made kings; and we learn from Gen. 
xxxvi. 31-43, that they had reigned in this country long before 
kings had been appointed in Israel. By this are not meant 
hereditary rulers of the same dynasty; but they appear to be 
princes chosen by lot, since the eight who are mentioned by 
name appear to have come from entirely different families and 
from entirely different places : compare 1 Chr. i. 43-54. Their 
names were Bela, the son of Beor ; the name of his city was 
Dinhabbah : after him came Jobab, a son of Berah of Bozrah : 
in his place Husham of the land of the Temanites : after him 
Hadad, a sou of Bedad, who conquered the Midianites in Moab; 


his city was named Avith: after him came Samlah of Masrekah: 
then Saul of Rehoboth by the river : after he died, Baalhanan 
the son of Achbor reigned ; and then king Hador, whose city 
was called Pai. Then follows a list containing eleven other 
names of Edomite princes, mentioned without any specification, 
excepting that they lived each in his own domain ; whence the 
conjecture seems plausible, that there was at that time a party 
of the Edomites living towards the north-east, who had connected 
themselves with the chief princes^ descended from Esau, and 
had remained in possession of Seir. 

Almost nothing is known regarding the cities ruled over by 
the above-mentioned Edomite princes. Dinhabbah we do not 
know at all, if it be not one* of two places mentioned by Eusebius 
under the name Dannaba, one of which was eight Eoman miles 
from Areopolis, as one goes towards the Arnon. 

Bozrah, in Edom — a place whose name has been written 
variously, Eusebius giving it as Bosor, but whose real position 
had never been known — has been confounded very often with 
the Bostra of the Greeks and Romans, in the plain of Moab. Its 
location was discovered by Burckhardt to be that of the modem 
Bussira ; and it is supposed by von Raumer,' on satisfactory 
grounds, to have been the place figuratively called the Rocky 
Nest of the Edomite eagle. It was afterwards visited by 
Robinson, and identified almost beyond the chance of mistake. 

Teman, unquestionably near the well-known caravan station 
of Maan, east of Petra, but not identical with it, as Colonel 
Leake supposed, belonged to the Temanites, whose seat seems 
to have been around the present Petra, in the very centre of 
Edom. Teman was celebrated throughout that whole region 
for the wisdom of its inhabitants. It was praised by the pro- 
phets Isaiah and Jeremiah, and some idea of its character can 
be gained from the words of Eliphaz the Temanite in the book 
of Job.* Whether Shuak, Burckhardt's Szyhharp^ is the 
city of Bildad the Shuhite, as Raumer suspects, ''.-lUst be left 
undetermined, although these ruins lie in the land of Edom. 
Naamah, the home of Zopliar, is wholly unknown; nor can 

1 RoBenmuUer, Bibl Alterth, iii. pp. 69-71. 
« Winer, i. p. 270. 

* K. v. Raamer, Das Sstllche Palast. ua,L i. p. 665. 

* Gesenius, Comm, zu Jesaias^ ii. 674. 


Buz, the city of Elihu, be identified on strict grammatical prin- 
ciples "with Bosta,^ south of Petra, or with the more northern 
Bosor, or Bozrah. Avith, the home of Hadad, is entirely 
unknown to us, as also is Pai. Whether Kehoboth by the 
river, the home of the Edomite Saul, was the Rehoboth of the 
Euphrates, or the Errachaby of Rauwolf near the mouth of 
the Chaboras, can only be determined by knowing whether this 
king came from a region outside of Edom ; for the domain of 
Edom never extended at that early date to the Euphrates.^ 
The location of Masrekah, the city of Samlah, is unknown, 
although Eusebius cites the name of a city in Gebalene under 
the name Masreca. Among the best known of the cities of 
Edom, although not becoming eminent till in the later wars of 
the kings of Judah, are Selah (Joktheel), or Petra (2 Kings 
xiv. 7; 2 Chron. xxv. 11-14); Wadi Musa, and the harbom*s 
of Elath and Ezion-geber. By the want of any history of their 
own, the Edomites are lost in obscurity during the successive 
centuries, and we obtain only the most casual glimpses of them 
during their wars with Judah and Israel. Saul, the first of 
the Hebrew kings, waged war with the Edomites, and slew a 
number of that race, who had pillaged a portion of his territory 
(1 Sam. xiv. 47) ; king David smote the Edomites in the 
Valley of Salt (1 Chron. xviii. 12), and gained so complete a 
victory over them, that he took possession of their cities ; and 
Solomon employed Elath and Ezion-geber as the ports whence 
to send his fleets to Ophir. The effort of one of the Edomite 
princes, who, while a mere boy, had fled to Egypt during the 
reign of David, been received with honour at the court of 
Pharaoh, and returned during the reign of Solomon powerfully 
supported to re-establish the dominion of Edom (1 Kings xi. 
14-22), was only transitory, and without results; for in the year 
914 B.C., when the second fleet was built by king Jehoshaphat 
in the harbour of Ezion-geber, we read expressly, " And tliere 
was then no king in Edom." 

The reception of Hadad in Egypt, the honour paid him by 
Pharaoh in giving him the queen's sister as his wife, and in 

1 K. T. Raumer, Pal p. 273 ; Winer, Bihl Realw, i. p. 206. 

* RoBenmiiller, Bihl AUerth. i. p. 270, and Note, p, 313 ; Winer, ii. p. 
808, Rechoboth hannabar. In NotUia Dignitatum^ ed. Booking, cap. xxix. 
ad p. 78, Note 17, ad p. 846, is unfortunately defective. 


edacating his children as of equal rank with his own, show tlie 
importance of Edom in the eyes of its powerfal neighbours. 
Although, soon after this, Jehoram king of Israel, and Jeho- 
shaphat king of Judah, in the course of their war against the 
i*ebellious king of Moab, were compelled to take their course 
through the desert of Edom, and form an alliance with the king 
of that country ; yet the latter was probably a mere deputy, or 
a real vassal, bearing the name of the king (2 Kings iii. 9). 

Under the son of Jehoshaphat, Joram king of Judah, the 
Edomites revolted utterly, and chose for themselves a king (2 
Kings viii. 20-22) ; after that time they remained in Selah or 
Petra (2 Kings xiv. 7), till after Amaziah attacked them, and 
Uzziah rebuilt Elath (2 Chron. xxvi. 2), and Eezin king of 
Syria had driven all the Jews out of the last-named port (2 
Kings xvi. 6). From that period they were wholly freed from 
the attacks of their now weakened northern neighbours. 

The Old Testament is from this time silent regarding the 
Edomites ; but in consequence of the downfall of the kingdom 
of Judah, Edom must, as we gather from some hints in the 
prophetic writings, have extended its borders farther towards 
the east and north ^ than ever before. At the destruction of 
Jerusalem the Edomites were enabled to obtain vengeance for 
their former subjection. They leagued themselves with the 
Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, and, in sympathy with the 
powerful Syrians, they rejoiced with songs of triumph over 
the downfall of Judah (Ezek. xxv. 8-14). The domination of 
the Chaldeans, however, swept away the Edomites too in its 
course (Jer. xxvii. 3). 

Although they appear thereafter in connection with wars, yet 
they no longer are an independent people. The unextinguish- 
able hatred of the Hebrews rested more heavily upon this 
nation of kindred stock, than it did upon the Chaldeans them- 
selves. In the cursings poured out upon Babylon, Edom is 
seldom' forgotten (Ps. cxxxvii. 7-9) ; and all the prophets 
struggle for pre-eminence, as it were, in hurling their evil wishes 
against it. During the captivity, and after it, as well as in the 
time of the Maccabees, the Edomites pressed up into Palestine 
as far as to Hebron ; and it is natural that an Edomite should 

^ G^eenius, i.a,L Comm. i. 906. 

> Qeaeaius, t.a./. i. pp. 907, 911, 912, ii. p. 261. 


seem to the embittered Hebrews a representative of natural 
hatred, and that the prophets should have made the judgments 
of Jehovah upon the wicked synonymous with His judgments 
upon Edom (Isa. Ixiii.). 

During the period in which the history of the ancient 
Edomites is hid from us in entire obscurity, there begins to 
be developed within the rocky fastnesses which had protected 
them another great power, that of the peaceful Nabathaeans, 
whom the successors of Alexander, Antigonus, and Demetrius 
tried in vain to drive from Petra, their central stronghold. It 
is hardly a matter of doubt that the rude Edomites were driven 
from their old home by the Nabathaeans, or at least compelled 
to do menial service in behalf of this great commercial people, 
while Petra rose, under its Meleks and Obodas, to independence, 
and to a splendour which roused the jealousy even of the 
Eomans. The Nabathaeans had no share in the hostile under- 
takings of the Edomites, and entered into close alliance with 
Palestine as little as with Phoenicia, and accepted only at a late 
period in their history the proffered friendship of the Roman 

Contemporaneously with the rise of the power of the 
NabathsBans, i,e. in the time of the Maccabees, the second 
century before Christ, the custom arose among historians of 
designating the northern Edomites, many of whom had settled 
in Judah, by the term Idumaeans, and their country Idumsea. 
This name was used by Josephus even, and was in general 
use among the Romans, who, in fact, applied it to the whole 
of Judasa. The Idumaeans proper were subdued by John 
Hyrcanus, 120 B.C., and were only permitted to remain in the 
country on condition of being circumcised. He hoped by this 
to incorporate them into the Jewish people, and he even placed 
Jewish rulers over them ; but the old national hatred was by 
no means lessened. 

Antipater, one of these prefects who were set over the 
IdumaBans, took advantage of the internal dissensions of the 
Maccabaean kings, and of the Roman influence, to strengthen 
his own power ; and his son Herod is well known in history as 
the first king of the Idumaean dynasty who took the place of 
the Edomite archon. How little the hatred and the desire of 
revenge existing among the Idumaeans against the Jews had 


been extinguished, is shown shortly before the siege and capture 
of Jerusalem by Titus, when the party of Zealots summoned 
20,000 Idumaeans into the city to plunder and murder the 
party opposed to them ; and this great army of robbers made 
good their escape before the Romans had attacked the place. 

Subsequently to that time w^e have more mention of 
Edomites, or of Idumseans ; and the names Gebalene, Palsestina 
Tertia, Arabia Petrsea, and others, come into more frequent 
use to designate the region. The old land of Edom is utterly 
forgotten, and the Idumaeans, with so many other tribes of that 
early time, are lost in the ocean of Arabs and Saracens. 


This tribe is spoken of by Balaam as one of the oldest in 
the world (Num. xxiv. 20) : " Amalek was the first of the 
nations ; but his latter end shall be, that he shall perish for 
ever," — a passage which briefly characterizes the whole history 
of the Amalekites. According to Gen. xxxvi. 12, they are of 
Edomitic origin, descending from Amalek, a grandson of Esau, 
although this statement does not seem to agree with the account 
in Gen. xiv. 7, according to which Chedorlaomer, after attacking 
the Horites in Mount Seir at the time of Abraham, turned 
northward towards Kadesh, and smote the whole land of the 
Amalekites, and also overcame the Amorites, who were then 
dwelling at Hazazon Tamar (Engedi). This account har- 
monizes better with the statement of the great antiquity of the 
Amalekite tribe, and also with the earliest Arabian records 
(though relatively very modem), which speak of an Amlfiq or 
AmlSq, a son of Aad, and a grandson of Chan, and ascribe to his 
very ancient family a residence at Jaman, but later a violent 
invasion northward. This race belongs, therefore, to that South 
Arabian stock which has no affinity with Abraham, as sons of 
Ham or Joktan (Gen. x. 7, 26-30). Gesenius held them to 
be connected with the Canaanites and the Carthaginians, of 
the latter of whom the Arabians used to say that they were an 

1 H. Reland, Pal. cxiv. de Amalacitide^ 78-82 ; Gesenius, Amalikiter^ in 
Ersch's Encycl, Pt. iii. p. 301 et Bq. ; Rosenmiiller, iii. pp. 90-94 ; 
Ewald, Gesch, i. 299, 300 ; Winer, Bihl Realw, i. p. 61 ; J. Lengerke, 
Kenaauy pp. 200-207, 


Amalekite colony in North Africa, Eeland has noticed it as a 
remarkable fact, that during the wandering of the Israelites 
through the Peninsula, the two nations, the Edomites and the 
Amalekites, are always spoken of in different terms; the latter 
being invariably alluded to as a natural enemy, the former as 
a race hostile to the Israelites indeed, but connected with it by 
old ties of blood« 

From the oldest records it is determined, with a great deal 
of certainty, that the oldest dwelling-place of the Amalekites 
was between Seir and Engaddi, and therefore on the south- 
west side of the Dead Sea ; but according to 1 Sam. xv. 7, their 
country had become much more extensive, and reached to the 
Egyptian frontier ; for Saul smote them " from Havilah until 
thou comest to Shur, that is over against Egypt." This 
Havilah is unknown^ to us, though it must be looked for in the 
southern part of Juds&a, although we have exactly the same 
expression just quoted applied to the dweUing-place of Ishmael, 
whose Havilah must be located farther eastward. Sur, or more 
correctly Shur, on the contrary, the desert on the way to 
Egypt into which Hagar was driven (Gen. xvi. 7), and where 
Abraham dwelt (Gen. xxv.^ 18), is the Desert el Jesar of the 
Arabs, and the real Egyptian boundary ; and Josephus could 
say with perfect truth, that the Amalekite territory extended 
from Pelusium to tlie Ked Sea. Samuel says, in express 
confirmation of the great antiquity of the tribe, that the 
'^ Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites, were of old 
the inhabitants of the land as thou goest to Shur, even unto 
the land of Egypt." 

We can now understand how it was that this ancient and 
powerful tribe was the first to attack the Israelites at Kephi- 
dim, on their way through the wilderness ; in which they were 
not the conquerors, however, but were overcome by Joshua 
(Ex. xvii. 8-13). Soon after that event, however, Israel was 
again attacked by the same tribe, which had allied itself with 
the Canaanites along the southern border of Palestine; and 
this time the united forces were successful, and the Hebrews 
were driven back from the hills of Arad as far as Hormah 
(Num. xiv. 45). They formed, therefore, a powerful popula- 
tion in the southern part of Canaan at a very early date, and 
^ RoseDmiiller, Bibl Arch ill. p. 157. 


extended westward as far as to the territory of the Philistines, 
where David overcame them (1 Sam. xxvii. 8). They even 
reached as far as to Gaza, and in conjunction with the 
Midianites, became so numerous, that ^^they came as grass- 
hoppers for multitude." The extreme eastern border of their 
territory, in which they are once named in conjunction with 
the children of Ammon, was Jericho, the city of palms, on the 
lower Jordan (Judg. iii. 13). According to the statement of 
Josephns {Antiq, ix. 9), the Amalekites joined the Edomites 
and the Gabalites in their war against Amaziah king of Judah, 
and were conquered in the Valley of Salt : yet in the accounts 
of 2 Kings xiv. 7, and 2 Chron. xxv. 11, there is mention only 
of the Edomites. Uzziah the son of Amaziah is thought by 
Ewald to have continued the war against them (1 Chron. xxvi.). 

These Amalekites, although they may have been at a very 
early period a very powerful nation, of settled habits of life, 
five hundred years after the time of Abraham, and during the 
life of Moses, were evidently a nomadic tribe, having all the 
ways and habits of wanderers. It seems probable that, after 
being driven from their central home in the Valley of Rephi- 
dim (the modem Feiran), they were compelled to adopt new 
modes of life ; and being too weak to attack Israel singly, that 
they allied themselves with other powerful tribes, and swept 
from place to place, as the Beduins do now, with no central 
spot to call their capital, and with no attachment to any special 
place. One of their kings, Agag, fell into the hands of Saul, 
taken in the very act of sacking and plundering the country 
along the Egyptian frontier. They were looked upon as a race 
of robbers (1 Sam. xv. 2-7) ; and it was thought right in the 
time of David and Saul to exterminate every man, woman, and 
child of the race. It was even laid as a great reproach on the 
good name of the latter, that he had showed any mercy to 
them ; and in Samuel that tenderness is mentioned as ^^ evil in 
the sight of the Lord." 

After the Amalekites had sacked Ziklag, a city on the 
southern border of Canaan, and had taken away every valuable 
thing, in revenge for their own former troubles at the hand of 
the Israelites, and had even taken captive David's wives, they 
were pursued by six hundred men of war, and utterly routed 
near the brook Besor (!) while they were indulging in their 


revelry. Only four hundred escaped, fleeing on camels (1 Sam. 
XXX. 1-22). 

After David had entirely subjected the country of Edom, 
there is no more mention of the Amalekites. Only once again, 
under Hezekiah, is there an allusion to a remnant of the tribe 
living in Mount Seir. In central Palestine, at the time of the 
judges, there is a trace of their name; for we read of a moun- 
tain district in Ephraim possessed by the Amalekites, in which 
one of the judges of Israel, Abdon the son of Hillel, a Pira- 
thonite, was buried (Judg. xii. 1*5). Nothing further is known 
of this branch of the tribe; but even this explains the passage 
in the song of Barak and Deborah, " Out of Ephraim was there 
a root of them against Amalek." There is no city of Amalekites 
mentioned in the very oldest records (Gen. xxxvi. 12, 16), 
although there was a " city of Amalek" subsequently, to which 
Macrizi alludes, and which, I think, must be identified with 
the Ptolemaic Pharan. 


Kenaz, the founder of this tribe, and Amalek, are named 
as brothers, grandsons of Esau, sons of Eliphaz, but by different 
mothers (Gen. xxxvi. 11, 12). The Kenites^ are spoken of in 
another passage as of equally great antiquity with the Amalek- 
ites (Gen. XV. 19, 21); and in Saul's time they were encamped, 
in company with the Amalekites, in the desert of Shur (1 Sam. 
XV. 2-7). They seem, therefore, to have been a small tribe 
tributary to that of Amalek. Yet their relations with the 
Israelites were far from hostile, even as early as the days of 
Moses. This is evident from the request which Saul made to 
them to withdraw from the Amalekites, and save themselves 
the slaughter which would otherwise have engulphed them all. 

It will be remembered that Moses, after his withdrawing 
from Egypt into the land of Midian, married one of the seven 
daughters of the priest of Midian; and at a later period, when 
Pharaoh his persecutor had died in Egypt, he tended the sheep 
oiF Jethro, his father-in-law, at the mountain of Horeb (Ex. ii. 
15-22). From Judg. i. 16, compared with iv. 11, it appears 
that the father-in-law of Moses was really a Kenite ; for his son 
^ Kofienmiiller, i,aX ii. p. 250. 


Hobab, the brother-in-law of Moses, and his immediate connec- 
tions, are called the sons of the Kenite, and are spoken of as 
having gone out from Jericho into the wilderness of Judah, south 
of the city of Arad, and as living there among the people of 
Judah. Another Kenite, Heber, separated himself from these 
sons of Hobab, and set up his abode at the oaks of Zaanaim, 
near Kadesh. 

This tributary of the great tribe of Amalek was therefore 
linked by old ties to the Jews, and mingled freely among them, 
as the Midianites had formerly done, for Midian was the son 
of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. xxv. 2). It may therefore be, 
that although the Midianites and Amalekites were formerly 
bound together by close ties, yet that now they were separated 
from each other by the interposition of Jethro in favour of 
Israel. The Amalekites lost their power ; the Midianites, re- 
moving to the more eastern part of Arabia, existed for many 
centuries; and the words of Saul (1 Sam. xv. 6) were well 
founded, when he said to the Kenites, " Go, depart, get you down 
from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them : for 
ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel when they came 
up out of Egypt." Jethro had welcomed Moses with kindness, 
had been amazed at the great deeds of Jehovah, and the won- 
derful deliverance of Israel, and had given excellent counsel 
regarding the government of the people (Ex. xviii.). He had 
even brought an offering to Jehovah, the highest proof of a 
kindly interest that he could ofTer, and one which was subse- 
quently renewed by the kindly offer of Hobab, his son, to con- 
duct Israel into the Promised Land (Num. x. 29-33). 

In the very early connection of Moses with Jethro's house, 
in the blessing given by Jethro to Moses, and on other grounds, 
Ewald^ finds reasons for suspecting an old alliance between the 
Kenites, Midianites, and Israelites, descended as they all were 
from Abraham. He also thinks that, during the journey of 
Israel through the Sinai Peninsula, these thre& tribes were so 
closely thrown together, that they in some cases constituted but 
a single body. This would explain the existence of so great 
a number of men as 603,550, the number of the Israelites, 
exclusive of women and children, — a number which would seem 
too large for the land of Goshen, but which might easily be 
^ Ewald, Gesch ii. p. 82 et sq., and i. p. 450. 


formed around Sinai by the aggregation of kindred tribes, and 
which would be needful to subjugate a land so thickly peopled 
as Canaan. 

From the last mention of the Kenites, it appears that thej 
were living in Judssa on terms of friendship with Israel, and 
that, like the Israelites, they had gone over from a tent-life to 
a residence in builded houses ; and when David had conquered 
the Amalekites in Ziklag, he sent a portion of the booty to the 
cities along the southern frontier that were friendly, and among 
them to the cities of the Kenites (1 Sam. xxx. 29). 

Not all the Kenites, however, could give up their free tent- 
life, and accustom themselves to the restraints of a house and 
the culture of the soil. In this respect they were not unlike 
the Beduins of to-day. 

Hundreds of years before the time of the prophet Jeremiali, 
Jehonadab, a son of Kechab (2 Kings x. 15, 33), and a de- 
scendant of the Kenites,^ who lived near Samaria in middle 
Palestine, had enjoined this simple tent-life upon his descend- 
ants in these words (Jer. xxxv. 6, 7): " Ye shall drink no wine, 
neither ye, nor your sons for ever: neither shall ye build house, 
nor sow seed, nor plant vineyard, nor have any: but all your 
days ye shall dwell in tents." The rigid adherence which this 
sect, that always bore the name of Rechabites, showed to the 
injunctions of their founder, was held up by the prophet Jere- 
miah as worthy of high praise, and was commended to Israel, 
which had so often been untrue to Jehdvah, as an instance of 
remarkable fidelity. This injunction against the use of wine 
was also observed among the Nabathseans ; and the Rechabites 
of Assyria, as well as those of southern Yemen, who boast of 
their descent from Hobab and Rechab, still adhere to it. Among 
the Mohammedans, too, the use of wine is forbidden. 


This is a tribe of very little importance, as it is mentioned 
only once in connection with the foregoing, and with the Kad- 
monites, of whom equally Kttle is known (Gen. xv. 19). We 
only learn this about them, that a part of them were scattered 
over the southern portion of Judaea at the time of the conquest 
1 V. Lengerke, Kenaan, pp. 107, und 203, 204. 


of Canaan, surrounded by other more important tribes, and that 
they were in some sense connected with Israel ; for Caleb, who 
was 80 efficient a helper in the work of bringing the land into 
subjection, and to whom the city of Hebron fell as his share, is 
spoken of as a Kenizzite. This tribe seems to hare pressed into 
Palestine from the south, as the Amalekites and the Kenites 
had done. A part of them seems, from such circumstances as 
Caleb's marriage with their daughters, to have been favourably 
disposed towards Israel, while another portion appears to have 
formed an alliance with Edom.* 


who are mentioned only in connection with the foregoing in 
Gen. XV. 19, seem to be a still less important tribe. They are 
spoken of rather as the " sons of the east" (Judg. vi. 3; Isa.xi. 
14), and seem, like many other tribes of similar character, to 
have foiced their way westward from the district lying farther 
east, as the Ishmaelites and Katurians did in ancient times, the 
Saracens during the middle ages, and the Beduins in modern 
times. The name does not indicate, therefore, a specific tribe, 
as those heretofore cited do. Among the rude nations which 
came from the district east of the Jordan, and from the south, 
those who leagued themselves with the Moabites were the most 
dangerous at the time of Moses (Num. xxii. 4, 7) ; and among 
them the Midianites were the most formidable,' for their num- 
bers were so great that they are likened in the sacred narrative 
to grasshoppers. Their power was so great, that they actually 
gained such ascendancy over the Israelites as to hold them in 
subjection for seven years, till Gideon released his countrymen 
from the yoke. The Midianites here mentioned are to be dis- 
criminated from Jethro's friends, who came from the neighbour- 
hood of the JBlanitic Gulf to meet Israel at Sinai : the former 
lived in the district north of the Amorite and Moabite territory, 
and had paid tribute to the Amorite king, till freed from his 
yoke, they had allied themselves with Balak king of Moab. With 
the victory of Gideon, all allusion to their name disappears from 

^ y. Lengerke, Kenaan^ p. 204 ; Ewald, Gesch i. p. 298 ; Winer, art 
Kenisiter und Caleb, pp. 207, 634. 

* Gesch. der VoUcs Israel^ ii. pp. 827-329. 


history. Coupled with these Arabian races which pressed in 
from the east, the Maonites are mentioned in Judg. x. 12 and in 
2 Chron. xxvi. 7, but it is only casually.^ The home of tliis 
tribe is unknown ; it is conjectured to have been the locality 
represented by the Maan of the present day, and there seems 
to be some probability that this was the case.* 


There still remain the two tribes which lived on the east 
side of the Dead Sea and of the Jordan, and which were re- 
motely allied by blood to Israel — the Moabites and the Ammon- 
ites. The territories were originally contiguous, and extended 
from the northern boundary of Edom to the fords of the lower 
Jordan. The country becomes specially interesting in connec- 
tion with the passage of the Israelites through it. 

After their long circuit round the unfriendly land of 
Edom, in the course of which they came as far south as to the 
head of the eastern arm of the Eed Sea, they reached the 
three stations Zalmonah, Punon, and Oboth, which indicate to 
us with considerable exactness the southern limits of Moab, 
over which the Hebrews passed (Num. xxxiii. 41-44). Jour- 
neying from Oboth, the record tells us, they encamped in Ijim, 
at the mountains of Abarim, " in the wilderness which is be- 
fore Moab, toward the sunrising" (Num. xxi. 11); or, as it 
is stated in Num. xxxiii. 44, " And they departed from Oboth, 
and pitched in Ije-abarim, in the border of Moab." In this 
neighbourhood, and on the road from Kadesh-Bamea, thirty- 
eight wretched years were passed (Deut. ii. 14), during which 
most of the serious difficulties which beset the Israelites were 
encountered, and during which also the whole generation of 
warriors who left Egypt passed away. Here, at the brook 
Zered, Moses laid his injunction upon the people not to trouble 
or wage war with the Moabites, for their country was not to 

1 Hengstenberg, Die Geschichte Bileams^ Pt. i. 1842, pp. 32-35. 

« V. Lengerke, Kenaan, pp. 204, 205 ; Ewald, Gesch. i. p. 284, ii. p. 
220, U.l 

' H. Relandus, cap. xx. Moabites; Gesenius, Philolog, crit. und histor. 
Commentar zur Isaias, Ft. i. sec. 2, Leipsig 1821, pp. 500-507 ; Eurze, Gesdu 
des 31oabitischen Volks und Staats, 


fall into the possession of the Israelites. "We have in this con- 
nection the allusion already cited (Deut. ii. 10), that the 
Emims were the former occupants of the country usually 
called Moab in the Bible, whose inhabitants were descendants 
of Lot, In Deut. ii. 13 occur these words: "Now rise up, 
and get you over the brook Zered." It is uncertain whether 
the stream here alluded to is the Wadi el Ahsa, the " brook of 
meadows," or the wadi of Kerak, farther north ; but a descrip- 
tion of the course is given in Judg. xi. 18: "Then they went 
along through the wilderness, and compassed the land of Edom, 
and the land of Moab, and pitched on the other side of Amon, 
but came not within the border of Moab ; for Amon was the 
border [that is, on the north] of Moab." 

This makes us acquainted with the boundaries, but not 
with the land itself, of the Moabites ; for the Israelites did not 
enter it : for their road lay to the eastward of it, as the great 
Arab caravan road lies east of the same territory at the present 
day. But though we gain no special insight into the character 
of the country, yet the biblical narratives, and later history 
also, shed some light upon the character of the people who 
inhabited it. 

From the account in Gen. xix., we learn that the Moabites 
were descended from Lot, who iled to Zoar after the destruc- 
tion of Sodom and Gomorrah ; but not daring to remain even 
there, withdrew to the mountains, and lived in a cave with liis 
daughters, where the oldest bore, to her own father, a son 
whose name was called Moab, and the youngest one who was 
called Ammi, and from whom the Ammonites sprang. The 
consciousness of a primitive relationship with these races, as 
with the Edomites, lived on in the minds of the Israelites for 
five hundred years, although, in telling the story of the impure 
origin of the Moabites and Ammonites, it is hardly to be denied 
that the descendants of Abraham displayed a certain scorn and 
loftiness, as if the heirs of a nobler name. For as it is stated, 
in the account of the warlike expedition undertaken by Che- 
dorlaomer (Gen. xiv. 6; Jer. xlviii. 1), that he conquered 
the Emims in Kiriathaim, Le. in the land subsequently known 
as Moab, and as Moses asserts (Deut. ii. 10) that in former 
times the Emims lived in this country, it is very probable that,, 
even prior to the emigration of Israel from Canaan to Egypt, 


the Moabites were the permanent possessors of the soil, and 
had been there fully five hundred years when the Hebrews 
returned. Nor was it otherwise, it would seem, with the 
kindred nation of the Ammonites on the north, who had dis- 
possessed the Zamzummims as far as the Jabbok (Deut. iii. 
16 ; Josh. xii. 2). This river was the boundaiy of the sons of 

Although the Israelites originally passed outside of the 
Moabite frontier, yet, as they advanced towards the north- 
eastern part of the territory, they were permitted free transit 
through it, and even to make encampments within it.^ This is 
shown from the list of halting-places, as well as from the story 
of Balaam: indeed, there are not wanting plain indications 
that Israel tarried a considerable time in this country; con- 
nected itself by close ties with the people of Moab ; and at a 
subsequent period, when it had taken possession of Canaan, 
that it looked back upon the period spent there with great 

This was the brilliant era of the victory over the common 
enemy of Moab and Israel, the two Amorite kings, whose sub- 
jugation was effected on the north frontier of the Moabites, 
and gave a fresh impulse to the success of the Israelites. The 
pleasure with which the Hebrews looked back upon that most 
splendid* of their early victories, shows itself in some frag- 
ments that remain of a triumphal song (Num. xxi. 14, 15), 
in the hymn which celebrated the conquest of Sihon (Num. 
XXI. 27-30), and in the refrain of cheerful melodies like that 
sung at the wells dug witli the staves of kings (Num. xxi. 17, 
18). The allusions^ to Ijim, Dibon, Gad, and Diblathaim 
(Num. xxxiii. 45-47) — places which are not in the desert, but 
in the heart of a fruitful country — show that Israel was not 
confined entirely to the wilderness, although it held firm to the 
command of Jehovah not to do injury to Moab. The Hebrews 
were even permitted to purchase food and water of the 

The reason of the mutual kindness of feeling between the 

1 Ewald, Gesch, ii. pp. 207-214. 

■ Hengstenberg'B Erlaiiterung der wichtigsten und schwierigstenAhschnitte 
des Pentateuchs^ Berlin 1841 ; Geschichte Bikams^ p. 235. 
» Ewald, Gesch, ii. pp. 209, 210. 


Israelites and Moabites, and which did not exist in the case of 
the equally nearly related but defiant Edomites, lay in the 
oppressed condition of the Moabites under the superior power 
of the Amorites. The reason that they did not undertake any 
hostile enterprise against Israel, was not so much because they 
supposed that the powerful Amorites would drive back the 
invaders into the desert, as from the hope that the victoiy of 
Israel would free them too from these new oppressors. 

For, as we have seen above, the Amorites, with their king 
Sihon at their head, had, shortly before the Israelitish invasion, 
set themselves against the Moabites, and against Chemosh the 
god of Moab, and had taken away all their territory between 
the Amon at the south and the Jabbok at the north. They 
had converted Heshbon also into their own capital. 

This act of robbery^ was all the more fraught with peril to 
Moab, that an Amorite kingdom had now thrust itself between 
it and its northern ally, the Ammonites ; for Ammon confined 
its exertions thereafter simply to the holding its southern fron- 
tier, the Jabbok, against the Amorites (Num. xxi. 24). 

This intermediate territory, which had been wrested from 
the Moabites, had to be crossed by the Israelites, in order that 
they might reach the fords of the Jordan, and enter the Pro- 
mised Land. The new possessors, the Amorites, would not 
permit a peaceful passage through it ; the sword was appealed 
to, and that great victory was won which was fraught with 
such momentous interests to Israel. 

Moses sent messengers from his camp, then in the wilder- 
ness of Kedemoth, %.e. the eastern country, to Sihon king of 
Heshbon, and bade them greet him with friendly words (Deut. 
ii. 26-37 ; Num. xxi. 21-26) : " Let me pass through thy land : 
I will go along by the highway, I will neither turn unto the right 
hand nor to the left. Thou shalt sell me meat for money, that 
I may eat ; and give me water for money, that I may drink ; 
only I will pass through on my feet." Sihon did not grant the 
request, however : he collected all his armed men, and attacked 
the Israelites at Jaazar. He was overcome, and his land taken 
from him, from the Amon to the Jabbok — ^that is, from the 
boundary of Moab to that of Ammon. All his cities were 
wrested from his hand, all the inhabitants destroyed, all the 
^ Ewald, Gtsck. ii p. 210. 


cattle taken away as booty : " From Aroer, which is by the 
brink of the river of Arnon, and from the city that is by the 
river, even unto Qilead [on the south side of the Jabbok], 
there was not one city too strong for us : the Lord our God 
delivered all unto us." This was the occasion which called 
forth the Song of Victory contained in Num. xxi. 30, full of 
exultant scorn over the downfallen Amorites, who had lately 
tyrannized so despotically over the weaker Moabites : " We have 
shot at them : Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon, and we 
have laid them waste even unto Nophah [Nobah of Judg. viii. 
11], which reacheth unto Medeba" ^ This was before Hesh- 
bon, afterwards rebuilt by Reuben, had become the important 
city which it afterwards was (Num. xxxii. 37). 

The result of this brilliant victory is seen in the emphasis 
which is always afterwards laid upon the Arnon as the boun- 
dary of Moab, Israel claiming in behalf of Reuben the right 
to possess the territory southward as far as to that stream. Nor 
have we any reason for supposing that Moab made an effort 
to recover of the Israelites the territory which had formerly 
been theirs. It was not strong enough, indeed, to enforce any 
such claims ; but it is evident that the people of the country 
had not forgotten that their teiTitory formerly extended much 
farther to the north : for the name of the level district at the 
north end of the Dead Sea, opposite to the plains of Jericho 
(Josh. iv. 13, v. 10) and north of the Arnon, the northern 
boundary of Moab after the Amorites had taken away a part 
of their territory, long bore the name "the plains of Moab."* 
This title shows how fresh was the recollection of the former 
possession ; and at the time of Moses the Amorite invasion had 
by no means caused it to fade. After the apportioning of the 
territory to Reuben and Gad, however, the tribe could not 
sustain itself ; and the last allusion to it occurs in the book of 
Joshua, in connection with the allotting of the district to the 
Israelites (xiii. 32) : " These are the countries which Moses did 
distribute for inheritance in the plains of Moab, on the other 
side Jordan, by Jericho eastward." 

The locality known as the plains of Moab, although no 

1 Ewald, Gesch. ii. p. 212. 

* HengBtenberg, Die wichstigsten Ahschn. des Pentateuchs^ Pt. i, 184.2; 
Gesch. Bileams, pp. 226, 230 ; comp. Ewald, iL p. 217. 


longer belonging to the former possessors, became subsequently 
a place of great interest and importance to Israel. It was from 
it that the expedition against the Amorite king of Bashan pro- 
ceeded ;^ it was in its immediate vicinity that the effort of Balak 
to secure Balaam's curse upon Israel took place ; it was in these 
plains of Moab that Moses issued the laws which were to serve 
for the governance of Israel (Deut. i.) ; it was there that the last 
retaliatory war was waged against the Midianites (Num. xxxi.) ; 
it was in the district closely adjoining that Moses died ; and 
lastly, it was thence that Israel marched victoriously across the 
Jordan into Canaan (Josh. iii.). 

It appears, therefore, that after the success in the conflict 
with Sihon, Israel dwelt for a season in the land of the 
Amorites (Num. xxi. 31-35). During this time Moses despatched 
messengers to Jaazar [in the upper Jabbok, near the Ammonite 
boundary and that of the Amorite kingdom of Bashan]. The 
Israelites then turned (probably towards the north-east, leaving 
the country of the Ammonites at the west), and proceeded 
along the road to Bashan. Here they were met by Og, and a 
battle took place near Edrei, afterwards Adraa, in which the 
Israelites were victorious. The Amorite king, his sons, and all 
his followers, and sixty cities, were captured (Deut. iii. 4, 5). 
We then find the Hebrews encamping in the plains of Moab, 
just across the Jordan from Jericho. The name Shittim, Le, 
place of acacias, is elsewhere given to the place (Num. xxv. 1, 
xxxiii. 49). 

From Josh. xii. 2, it appears that the Amorite rule proper 
extended northward beyond the Jabbok as far as to the Sea of 
Chinnereth, Le. Galilee ; while the power of the Amorite king 
of Bashan reached from Ashtaroth and Edrei, extended north- 
ward as far as Mount Hermon {Le. to the foot of the Lebanon), 
and to the territory of the Geshurites and the Maachathites. 

It is not surprising that the power of Israel, exhibited in 
two such victories over the great Amorite kings Sihon and Og, 
should infuse a spirit of fear and dismay into the timid heart 
of the Moabite king Balak (Num. xxii. 23, 24). Uniting him- 
self to the elders of the Midianites, and in the true spirit of a 
shepherd race, comparing the conquering march of the Israelites 
to an ox that ^^ licketh up the grass of the fields," he did not go 
^ HeDgstenberg, i,a,l p. 25. 


boldly forth to meet and overcome the invader, but turned for 
help to the priests, invoking the special assistance of the most 
renowned of them — Balaam, a Syrian prophet or seer, who was 
living near the Euphrates^ (Num. zxii. 5, xxiii. 7). He sum- 
moned this man from his distant home to his own capital on the 
Amon, and sought to induce him to curse Israel : ^^ Come now 
therefore, I pray thee, curse me this people ; for they are too 
mighty for me : for I wot that he whom thou blessest is blessed, 
and he whom thou cursest is cursed." The story of this emi- 
nent seer, summoned from a place far away that he might blight 
Israel with his curse, unblinded with the honours paid to him 
by Balak, and stedfastly refusing to change his blessing into a 
curse, is declared by Gesenius^ to be a genuine epic, a delineation 
worthy of the greatest poet of all time. It gives, too, a very clear 
insight into the spiritual condition of the people then living, 
particularly of the Moabites. More than this, it affords a most 
trustworthy picture of the geographical* features involved in 
these historical events, whose mutual relations have of late 
been so carefully traced by European commentators, while the 
localities involved have been made the subject of the most 
careful search, as I shall have occasion in another place to 

For the present it is enough to say, that although the tribes 
of Eeuben and Gad, which were especially rich in cattle, 
desired very eagerly to enter upon the possession of the territory 
wi'ested from the Amorites, and which was remarkable for its 
excellent pasturage, yet the formal permission was not granted ; 
for it was suspected that the two tribes would be unfaithful in 
the great work of subjugating the country on the other side of 
Jordan, and would quietly settle down, leaving their brethren 
to fight without their assistance (Num. xxxii. 6, 16-18). It is 
clearly shown by the biblical narrative, that a portion of the 
early population of the country remained until its subsequent 
possession by the Gadites in the north and the Beubenites 
in the south (Num. xxxii. 33-38), while the half tribe of 
Manasseh, t.e. the descendants of Machir, were compelled to 

^ Hengstenberg, i,a.l p. 284. 
' GeBeniua, in Jesaias Commentary Part i. p. 504. 
» Hengstenberg, i,a,l pp. 4, 285-261 ; comp. Ewald, Gesch. ii. pp. 


straggle still with the Amorltes for the possession of the pasture 
land which subsequently bec|Lme theirs. 

Even after Israel had crossed the Jordan, warfare^ with the 
former lords of the territory east of that river did not wholly 
cease ; for what Balak wished, but did not dare to do, was after- 
wards undertaken by Eglon, one of the subsequent kings of 
Moab (Judg. ill. 12-30). He attacked the city of Jericho, and 
compelled Israel to pay tribute to him for two years. This 
yoke was at length cast off by the bravery of one of the 
Hebrews; and so much were the mutual relations of the Israelites 
and the Moabites changed after this, that for a long time, as we 
learn from the book of Ruth, such a friendly spirit existed, that 
Moab became a refuge for exiled Hebrews, or those who chose 
to live among foreigners rather than in their own land. But 
this condition of affairs was not permanent. Saul, David, and 
the kings of Judah as well as of Israel, were engaged in constant 
encounters with the Moabites, in which they sometimes had the 
advantage, and were sometimes worsted. David, however, 
subjugated them completely (2 Sam. viii. 2, 12, xxiii. 20), and 
compelled them to pay tribute ; and after the formation of the 
two rival kingdoms of Judah and Israel, a hundred thousand 
lambs, and as many rams, were exacted of the Moabites. After 
the death of Ahab (897 B.C.), however, they refused to pay 
tribute ; and the year after, during the reign of Jehoram, they 
had grown bold enough to send predatory expeditions through 
Canaan itself. At the time of Isaiah, the cities of the Amorite 
portion of Moab had come entirely into the possession of the 
Moabites. The tribes of Reuben and Gad had already been 
overpowered by the Assyrian Pul, Tiglath Pileser, and Shal- 
manezer, and carried into exile ; and the primitive occupants 
of their domain could press in and possess it again, as the 
Edomites did in Judah. It is veiy probable, too, that many of 
the places within the territory assigned to Reuben, Gad, and half 
Manasseh, never fairly came under the real dominion of the 
Hebrews, and always remained a nominal possession. This was 
very often the case with fertile tracts mentioned in the book of 
Joshua, lying in the territory of the Tyrians, Sidonians, and 
Philistines, and which, though spoken of as captured by Israel, 

^ Geseniua, Gtsch. des Modbit, VoUcs^ in Jesaias Comment, Pt. 1. pp. 


yet never could be strictly said to be held by tlieir captors for 
any available use. 

The Moabites next appear as the allies of Nebuchadnezzar 
and the Chaldeans (2 Kings xxiv. 2). They were unable to 
suppress their joy at the downfall of the Israelitish power, 
notwithstanding the old ties of blood which connected Moab 
and Israel (EzeL xxv. 8-11). Their later fate is unknown to 
us. It is possible that it was the same as that of the Amorites, 
who were attacked by Nebuchadnezzar five years after the 
destruction of Jerusalem, and carried into exile. 

The national hatred between the Hebrews and the Moabites 
had meanwhile mounted to the highest point : it uttered itself 
among the Israelitish people in the language of extreme scorn 
at the ignominious extraction of the Moab race. The prophets 
expressed the same in the curses which they heaped upon Moab. 
The Moabites responded not only in hostile and predatory 
attacks, but in words of derision and of boastful pride. 

Amos foretells the downfall of Moab as the result of its 
cruelty ; Zephaniah predicts the same as the penalty of their 
scorn and contempt ; Jeremiah turns against the Moabites 
afresh the curses of Balaam ; Isaiah does the same ; and Ezekiel 
condemns sternly their exultation at the downfall of Judah 
(Ezek. xxv. 8-11). 

In no ideal picture of brilliant victories, and of a golden 
future for Israel, was there wanting a scene depicting the 
subjection of Moab. The apparent drawing together of both 
races after the captivity, and the alliances by marriage which 
took place, led to nothing permanent ; and even this connec- 
tion was speedily checked by the theocratic zeal of Ezra and 
Nehemiah (Ezra ix. 1 ; Neh. xiii. 1). During the epoch of the 
Maccabees the Moabites are scarcely mentioned. Josephus 
speaks of some Moabite cities as existing between the Arnou 
and the Jabbok at the time of Alex. Jannseus {Aniiq. xiii. 15). 
Since that day, however, the name of that nation has dis- 
appeared, losing itself, like that of the Edomites, Midianites, 
Ammonites, and others, beneath the flood of Arabian tribes 
which set in from the east and covered all that land. 



This tribe, of similar descent with that of Moab — like that, 
too, the conqueror of the primitive people of the land, and sub- 
sequently the objects of Amorite rapacity — experienced a fortune 
similar in all respects to that of the Moabites. 

At the outset Israel did not interfere with the southern 
boundary of the Ammonites, the river Jabbok (Num. xxi. 24), 
but were contented, so far as the country east of the Jordan is 
concerned, with the territory which the Amorites held, and which 
they had wrested from the Moabites and the Ammonites, This 
occasioned many quarrels, especially since, during the time of 
Joshua and the first centuries of the judges' rule, the children 
of Israel paid idolatrous worship to the gods of their neighbours, 
including the Ammonites (Judg. x. 6), and contracted marriage 
alliances with their daughters. The Ammonites not only 
attacked the Hebrews on the east side of Jordan, but they 
passed over the river and attacked Judah, Benjamin, and 
Ephraim, carrying confusion wherever they went. At last, 
however, the Hebrews gained possession of Gilead, Jephthah 
at their head, and passed triumphantly through Manasseh and 
Mizpeh (at the foot of Hermon, including Banias and el-Huleh), 
Judg. xi. 33 : " And he smote them from Aroer [the northern 
place of this name near the head waters of the Jabbok, not the 
southern one on the Arnon], even till thou come to Minnith, 
even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a 
very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were 
subdued before the children of Israel." 

Their subsequent boldness in attacking Gilead, and the 
threats which they expressed against the city of Jabesh in 
especial, drew down the wrath of Saul upon them, who, by his 
victory over Nahash the Ammonite king, gained that recogni- 
tion as a warrior and a deliverer which subsequently placed 
him on the throne. At a later period, the treatment of the 
messengers whom David sent to the new king after the death 
of Nahash, with messages of kindness and consolatory words, 
led to a fearful retaliatory war, from whose destructive effects 
not even the prompt assistance rendered by the troops of 
Hadadezer the king of Syria could preserve the Ammonites. 
Terrible slaughters ensued: Eabbah (Babbath Ammon) was for 


years In a state of siege^ and at last captured, the crown torn 
from the brow of the king, all valuable property contained in 
the cities of Ammon taken away, and' their inhabitants cruelly 

New risings followed new subjections ; the same national 
hatred as in Moab inflamed Ammon against Israel. The 
Ammonites fought against Judah under Nebuchadnezzar ; and 
after the captivity they bound themselves to prevent the re- 
erection of the walls of Jerusalem. They were impelled to this 
by the command of Moses (Deut. xxiii. 3), ^^ An Ammonite or 
Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even 
to their tenth generation shall they not enter into the congre- 
gation of the Lord." At a later period, however, some of the 
Israelites, and among them Solomon, broke through this edict, 
and married Ammonite wives. 

Under Antiochus Epiphanes the king of Syria, who by his 
tyranny and scornful behaviour in the temple made his name 
hateful in Jerusalem, the Ammonites, his allies, found their last 
opportunity to avenge themselves on the Jews. This occurred, 
too, at a time when they were suffering greatly from injuries 
experienced at the hands of the last king of Syria, Antiochus 
III., who had despoiled their capital, Rabbath Ammon, after- 
wards known as Philadelphia. With the rise of Mattathias the 
Asmonaean, who, in conjunction with his heroic son Judas 
Maccabaeus, opposed the invasion of Antiochus Epiphanes, a 
new era of victory was introduced for Israel : the Ammonites 
were permanently driven out from the territory west of the 
Jordan, and in that east of the river their name disappeared 
like that of the Moabites before the new Arabian appellations 
had forced their way. The worship of their god Moloch found 
more favour west of the Jordan than that of the Moabite 

After this review of the tribes dwelling outside of Canaan 
and upon its borders, but not partaking of the strict Canaanite 
character, the Philistines alone remain to be spoken of. But 
as this people was entirely without close relations to the inland 
tribes already mentioned, and was a maritime nation of colonists, 
dwelling only on the south-west coast, and havbg peculiar 
institutions, a peculiar history, and great independence of other 
nations^ and then disappearing, their influence on Palestine and 


its fortunes was closely linked with certain definite localities, 
whose geographical relations we must understand before we 
can deal intelligently with the Philistines. I shall treat of 
these places in detail when I come to speak of the coast of 
Palestine. Meanwhile we pass to the special geographical 
character of the interior. 



rS our preliminary sketch has made us sufficiently 
acquainted with the general character of this most 
striking feature in the physical geography of Pales- 
tine, we will pass without further delay to study the 

river in detail — studying it in its upper, middle, and lower 




On the southern slope of the eastern Lebanon (Anti-Lebanon, 
or more correctly, Anti-Libanus, Ptol, v. 15, 8, etc.), which 
sends out two high spurs, one eastward towards Damascus, 
the other south-westward towards Hasbeya, lies intermediate 
between the two, a third and higher spur running southward, 
and forming the northern boundary of Israel — the majestic 
Hermon, known by the Sidonians as Sirion, and by the Amor- 
ites as Shenir, — names which indicate a bastion, or strong 
military post^ (Deut. iv. 48, iii. 9), Its scarped sides, which 
as early as the time of Solomon used to supply the inhabit- 
ants of the valley at its foot, Jerusalem, Tyre, and Sidon, with 
the luxury of snow, Abulfeda, a native of the district, spoke 
1 Bofienmiiller, Bibl Alierth. i. p. 235. 


of as nive immortali opertus ;^ and even now it is the friendly 
custom of the Jews in Hasbeya to offer their guests a draught 
of freshly melted snow water from Hermon. It is these ice- 
clad heights which feed the springs of the Jordan, flowing as 
they do above and below the surface to supply the great stream 
of Palestine. The passages in Joshua — for example, xiii. 5, 
^' All Lebanon toward the sunrising, from Baal-gad under Mount 
Hermon [i,e. from Panium, or more probably Hasbeya^, unto 
the entering into Hamath" — show clearly that the present 
snow-capped summit of Jebel es Sheikh (the Chief), with the 
southern appendage Jebel Heish, first thoroughly explored 
by Burckhardt and Seetzen early in this century, correspond 
precisely in situation to the Hermon of the Mosaic period. 

We are indebted in part to the two travellers just named, 
and in part to their successors in the same field, for a satisfac- 
toiy account of the country in which the sources of the Jordan 
are found, so far as it could be explored without the help of the 
best mathematical survey. 

Between Hermon and the Anti-Lebanon of Hasbeya is the 
fountain-head of the longest western arm of the Jordan, Nahr 
Hasbany. This, although alluded to by Furrer von Haimen- 
dorf in 1566, who passed through a portion of the Jordan valley, 
yet was first described by Seetzen with great accuracy in 1806, 
as the most northerly, and at the same time the most affiuent,^ 
branch of the river. This was a new view, for in ancient 
times it was not regarded as the chief source. Burckhardt,^ 
who followed the course of this mountain stream from its 
fountain-head directly southward to its entrance into the plain 
of el-Huleb, confirmed Seetzen's view, and then turned his 
course eastward around the southern foot of Hermon to the 
celebrated spring of Banias or Paneas (Gaesarea Philippi), 
which, as at Herod's grotto of Pan, adorned with a temple in 
honour of Caesar Augustus, was known to Josephus (Antiq. 
XV. 10, 3). In two other passages (Antiq. v. i. 22, and BelL 
Jud. i. 21, 23) he repeats the statement, that the source of the 

1 Abulfed» Tahul Syr. ed. Koebler, p. 96, Note 96. 
' Keil, Commentary on Joshua^ etc, on ch. zi. 16-23. 
8 V. Zach, Mon. Corr. xviii. 1808 ; Letter from Acre^ 1806, pp. 840-844. 
^ J. L. Burckhardt, Trav. in Syria and the Holy Land^ Lond. 1822, 
pp. 80-37. 



Jordan was under an arching rock, at the southern base of the 
mountain, and adds that the Napthalites had possession of upper 
Galilee as far as to Lebanon, and the springs of the Jordan^ 
which issue from Hermon. 

Here, in a charming spot on the southern extremity of the 
mountain range, according to the old account, the head waters 
of the sacred river made their appearance, where a dark grotto 
led to unfathomable reservoirs concealed within the limestone 
cliffs. This whole region, together with the neighbouring forest, 
and the peak towering above all, was in ancient time sacred to 
Pan, guardian protector of woods and of herds ; and his name 
seems to have given rise to the old appellation which, in a 
somewhat changed form, remains to the present time. 

According to this, there is no doubt as to the identity of the 
celebrated source of the Jordan, among the ancients and among 
natives of the country who have lived in comparatively recent 
time ; but Josephus speaks of yet another locality, Phiala, east 
of Paneas, which he held to be the true source of the Jordan ; 
and in four other places he alludes to minor springs that fed 
the river, and which he supposes to be connected with Dan 
and the setting up of the golden calf. Regarding both of the 
statements respecting the sources of the Jordan, there was 
for a long time a great deal of uncertainty ; and there must 
have continually been doubts and hjrpotheses, until there was 
a thorough personal examination of that richly watered and 
variously diversified landscape. The exact Burckhardt^ ex- 
plored the region in an admirable spirit of discovery, but with 
merely partial results, in his journey from the Hasbeya Valley 
to Banias; and on his return along the north side of the 
Lebanon to Damascus, in October 1810, as well as upon his 
second journey in June 1812, from Damascus via Kanneytra 
and Birket Nefah (which he erroneously held* to be Lake 
Phiala) to Jacob's Bridge, below Lake Huleh. 

Burckhardt was followed, of course with some deviations 
from the routes taken by himself, by several travellers whose 
observations are valuable : Banks, Irby, and Mangles* in 1818 ; 
Backingham and Schubert,^ 1837 ; Captain Simonds and 

^ Burckhardt, Trav. p. 48. « The same, pp. 811-316. 

• Irby and Mangles, Trav. pp. 286-291. 

* Schubert, Reiae^ iii. pp. 260-270. 


Eobe^ in 1840 ; the American missionaries, Wolcott and Thom- 
son, 1843 ; and lastly, by the very careful observer Dr Wilson,* 
in 1843 and 1844. To Wolcott and Thomson* I wish to ex- 
press a special obligation. 

In the following pages I shall gather up the results already 
gained, and endeavour to depict the physical character of the 
country where the Jordan rises, and to trace all its tributaries, 
thus far known, to their confluence in el-Huleh. We shall 
be obliged in the search to follow the explorers just named 
through highways and byways, and shall hope to find much 
light shed upon the connection of history and geography in 
this remarkable locality. 



1. The mountain system of Hermon {Jehel es Sheikli^j or of 
Southern AntirLebanoiiy with Jebel Safed and Jebel Heish. 

From the central group of Hermon or Aermon (as Jerome** 
heard it called), which towers above every other object, the 
study of the entire landscape proceeds. It is therefore a 
matter of regret that no one has as yet ascended its highest 
peak, which bears the common name of Jebel es Sheikh, or the 
Chief. All travellers have admired its majestic height, which 
was supposed by Russegger,' looking from Tabor, to be about 
9500 Paris feet. He describes the mountain as towering up 
sublimely into the clear blue sky, and as being covered with 
snow as far down as the Jebel et Teltsh. Previous travellers, 
who had approached from the south and the south-west sides, had 

1 El. Smith and TV. Wolcott, in BibUoth, Sacra, ed. b. E. Robinson, 
New York 1848, pp. 11-15. 

« J. WilsoD, The Lands of the Bible, Edin. 1847, vol. ii. pp. 111-325. 

» W. M. Thomson, The Sources of the Jordan, the Lake el Huleh, and the 
adjacent country, with notes by Robinson^ in Bibl. Sacra, vol. iii. 1846, pp. 

* Onomastic, s.v. Aermon ; Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 425. 

» Ruasegger, R. in Pal vol. iii. 1847, p. 180. 


observed only one peak ; but Wolcott, who looked at it from 
many points, discovered thajb it bad two, the nortliern one of 
which bears the name of Bint Jebeil.^ Eobinson^ even saw 
from Tabor only one summit, since the two which can be else- 
where seen, appear, when looked at from that point, to blend 
in a huge pjrramid. He was bafQed, as Pococke had been, 
with the plural form which the Psalmist had used, not without 
reason (Ps. xlii. 6) : " O my God, my soul is cast down within 
me : therefore will I remember Thee from the land of Jordan, 
and of the Hermonites," Le. Hermonim, instead of the singular 
form Hermon. Wilson' observed this double peak as he 
passed through the south-west comer of el-HuIeh, and has 
given a sketch of it in his Lands of the Bible. 

A far better point whence to observe the entire group of 
which Hermon is the centre, is at the northern end of Lake 
Tiberias, especially on the high plateau of Benit, a half-hour's 
distance north-east of the well-known city of Safed, which 
itself lies 3000 feet* above the level of el-Huleh. Towards 
the north-east may be seen, perched upon a rocky eminence, the 
castle of Banias ; and twice as far away towers in all its majesty 
the lofty Jebel es Sheikh, with its long narrow glaciers, which 
' stretch like white glistening bands from the crown of ice on 
the summit far down, and shimmer in the midsummer sun. 
The uncommon clearness of the atmosphere affords a distinct 
view of the whole mighty Lebanon range running from north- 
west to south-east, and of the Anti-Lebanon with Hermon at 
the south ; the two systems separated by the long and elevated 
valley of Bekka^ (Coele-Syria), through a great part of which 
the Litany dashes towards the south-west. How far the 
fructifying dews of Hermon, whose effects are very visible 
in the rank vegetation of the meadows, fields, and forests of 
the immediate neighbourhood, may extend their influence, is a 

^ Mr Porter discovered in 1852 that Hermon has three summits, the 
loftiest one of which is the most northern. The highest point has been 
ascertained by Maj. Seott to be 9376 Eng. feet.— Ed. 

3 Robinson, Bih. Research, ii. 250 ; BibL Sacra, 1843, p. 13 ; Abulf. 
Tab, Syr, ed. Koehler, p. 18, Note 78. 

«.J. Wilson, The Lands of the Bible, vol. ii. p. 161. 

^ Robinson, ii. 441. 

* Dr Steinheil, Hohen-messungen an/ v. SchuberVs Reise^ Bayr. Gel. 
Aug. 1840, No. 47, March, p. 382. 


subject on which we cannot now enter. It is enough to re- 
mark, however, that the passage (Ps. cxxxiii. 3), " As the dew 
of Hermon, and as the dew which descended upon the mountain 
of Zion," is only a simile, and that it can hardly be meant that 
the eflfect of the dews of Hermon were felt as far as Jerusalem ; 
for in Deut. iv. 48 (compare iii. 9) the name Zion is used with 
reference to Hermon itself. 

The Anti-Lebanon, or Jebel esh Sharkie, as it is called, 
meaning the east mountain, divides into two parts at the lati- 
tude of Damascus, which lies at its eastern base. Between 
these two divergent spurs Ls the Wadi et Teim, opening to- 
wards the south, and completely parallel with the basin of the 

The more easterly of these two side ranges extends in a 
south-westerly direction, and is the real continuation of the 
Anti-Lebanon. Its loftiest peak is the Jebel es Sheikh, or 
Hermon, lying between Rasheya and Hasbeya, and, according 
to some, towering higher than even Jebel Sanin, the highest 
peak of the Lebanon. 

South of Hasbeya this chain begins to lose its height^ which 
comes to its maximum in Hermon, and diminishes more and 
more till the Wadi et Teim, which is traversed by the Has- 
bany arm of the Jordan, opens north-west from Banias, and 
expands into the plain of el-Huleh, whither the Hasbeya 
branch continues its course, also following a generally southern 

The more westerly of the two divergent branches of the 
Anti-Lebanon, the one lying on the western side of Wadi et 
Teim, pursues a general south-westerly direction, and is lower 
and longer than the other : it runs along the south-east side of 
the basin of the Litany^ separating the Hasbany branch from 
it, but without having any distinctive appellation. South-west 
of Hasbeya, at the point where the Litany dashes in the wildest 
manner through the south-western Lebanon, this parallel spur 
of the Anti-Lebanon seems to press so hard upon it, that only 
a narrow ra^nne, as it were, is left between the perpendicular 
crags ; and through this ravine the Litany urges its tortuous 
way, its dominant course being north-west towards Tyre. Tlie 
Jordan branch of Hasbeya, on the contrary, runs south-easterly 
from this low spur of the Anti-Lebanon, its course being away 


from the sea, and giving the first hint of the existence of that 
great sunken inland basin of the Jordan.^ 

With this double, and even triple, breaking of the Litany 
in a place whose geological peculiarities seem to indicate a 
violent convulsion in the mountain chain,' the loftj Leba- 
non, the western chain of the two parallel ranges, comes to 
its maximum elevation. It continues its course for some dis- 
tance toward the south, a long broad line of hills traversing 
northern Oalilee, and bounding the basin of el-Huleh on the 
west. These sometimes rise to a considerable elevation, and 
sustain plateaus even 3000 feet above the level of the sea, — 
those of Benit, Hunin, and Safed, for example. The range 
comes to an abrupt termination in the hills of Nazareth, which 
decline steeply to the plain of Esdraelon. Here the Lebanon 
system may be said to close. 

The mighty Jebel es Sheikh or Hermon, in like manner, 
does not abruptly terminate the Anti-Lebanon range, but 
serves as a point of transition to a row of low broad-backed 
hills running directly southward, shutting in the Lake Huleh 
lowlands on the east, as Jebel Safed does on the west. This 
row of hills, which Burckhardt traversed throughout, is called 
Jebel Heish.* It is separated by the plateau of Jolan (Gau- 
lanitis) on the south-east by a patch of stony land, an hour's 
distance across, in which the Arabs often take refuge from the 
exactions and impressments of the pashas. Jebel Heish runs as 
far southward on the east of el-Huleh as Jebel Safed on the 
west (as Abulfeda stated* with entire accuracy), terminating at 
the northern extremity of Lake Tiberias, the Tell el Faras, three 
and a half hours north of the Sheriat or Hieromax, being the 
last eminence of the range. Here, with the steep crags north 
of Om Keis, the open country of Jolan (Gaulanitis) terminates, 
and Bashan (Batanea) begins. The commencement of the 
Batanean uplands is indicated by the southern chain of Wostye, 
and yet farther south el-Adjelun, regarding which Burckhardt 

1 E. Robinson, in Bib. Sacra, New Tork 1843, p. 14 ; together with 
the sketch entitled, Country around the Sources of the Jordan, 

' G. de Bertou, Mem. sur la depression^ etc., in Bulletin de la Soc. geog. 
de Paris, 1839, T. adi. p. 140. 

» Burckhardt, Trav. p. 287. 

* Abulf. Tab. Syr. ed. Koehler, p. 163. 


remarks that it would be entirely incorrect to connect these 
southern ranges with the more northerly one of Jebel Heish.^ 
We have as yet but meagre details regarding the altitude of 
the ranges and separate mountains alluded to above ; but the 
practised eye of my friend Eussegger^ has determined approxi- 
mately the height of some of the leading points. From him I 
quote the following details : — 


Height of Jebel es Sheikh (Anti-Lebanon), • • • 9500 

„ Ajlnn, east of the Jordan valley, • • • 6000 

^, Jolan (in Gaulon), 5000 

„ Plateau of Hauran, 2500 

„ Valley of Hasbeya, 1800 

„ the Peak of Jebd es Sheikh, seen from Tiberias, 8500 

Highest Peak of Jebel el Druz, 6000 

We have now closed our sketch of the mountain land 
adjacent to and connected with Hermon, or Jebel es Sheikh. 
From this diversified district flow the various streams which 
feed the upper Jordan, all of them advancing towards a common 
centre, the basin of el-Huleh, and that portion of the sacred 
river which lies north of Lake Tiberias. 

2. The east side of the Hermon system^ with the two main roads 
ichich lead from Banias to Damasctis. 

Burckhardt has displayed the physical character of the 
district indicated in the above heading. The central point 
which he selects to group the objects of geographical interest 
is Kanneytra, which lies on the main caravan route from Lake 
Tiberias to Damascus, one hour's distance east-south-east from 
Banias,. and the residence of an aga. It gives its own name, 
el-Kanneytra, to all the country south of Hermon. 

There are two main roads ^ which lead from Banias to Damas- 
cus, along the eastern slope of Hermon and the Anti-Lebanon 
system. The more southerly one of the two runs by way of 
Kanneytra and Sasa, and is the one selected by all caravans of 
pilgrims going from Jerusalem to Damascus and Aleppo, al- 
though it is exposed to the incursions of the Arabs, from its more 

1 See the corrected drawing in Berghans and Eiepert's Atlases. 

• Ruflsegger, Beise, iii. pp. 211-217. 

• Burckhardt, Trav, pp. 43-47. 


open character. The more northerly lies closer to the mountains, 
and is in part overhung by them. Burckhardt speaks of them 
both in detail, as he took the northern one on his way to 
Damascus, and the southern one on his return two years later. 

The Northern Route. — He foimd it a three days* journey 
from Banias to Damascus. Leaving the former city and its 
plain, he passed behind its old fortress, and ascended the 
mountain ridge of Jebel Heish, going by a number of huts 
belonging to the fellahs of Banias, who in summer tend their 
herds upon the uplands, and make cheese for the Damascus 
market, but in winter withdraw into their villages again. 
After the first hour and a half he reached a spring, a short 
distance beyond which lies the ruined city of Hazuri, which 
had never been visited by any traveller.^ The mountains, 
covered with pasture land and forests of oak, run north- 
easterly for another hour's distance, to the village of Jubeta, 
where live fifty Turkish and ten Greek families, which sup- 
port themselves by cultivating olives and tending cattle, and 
which belong to the domain of Hashbeya. Here Burckhardt 
spent the first night. The neighbourhood abounded in wild 
swine ; but wolves, bears, wild goats, and the common panther, 
were not seldom seen.^ The skin of the latter is very much 
prized by the Arabs for saddle-covers. Burckhardt heard that 
there were many ruins in the neighbourhood, but left it to some 
future traveller to explore them. Their names are Dara, 
Bokatha, Bassida, Aluba, Afkerdowa, and Hauratha. These 
seem to be the largest, and still exhibit walls and arches. Less 
important ones are Enzuby, Hauarit, Kleile. Emteile, Meshe- 
refe, Zar, Katlube, Kfeire, Kafua, and Beit el Berek. 

The second day's march brought Burckhardt, after three- 
quarters of an hour's journey, to the village of Mejel, in- 
habited by three or four Christian families, while the remainder 
of the population consists of Druses. These affiliate in part 
with the Christians and in part with the Mohammedans, keep- 
ing the fast of Eamadan, and imitating closely the example of 
the Druse emir of the Lebanon, whose plastic faith permits 
him to keep a Latin confessor in his house, and to visit the 

^ GeBeniufl' ed. of Burckhardt, i. p. 08. 

^ 7on Schubert, lUise in Morgenl. liL p. 119. See Gesenius* note to 
Burckhardt, i. p. 99. 


mosques when he is in Damascus. The village lies upon a 
small plain, which crowns one of the moderately high hills. 
The place is well suited to building, and has an abundance 
of springs. After an hour's journey Burckhardt passed the 
highest pomt of the eminence, which is in part composed of 
limestone and in part of a porous tufa, softer than that in the 
valley of el-Huleh. Oak is the prevailing wood ; but there is 
a tree — Khukh ed dib, t.«. Bear-plum — whose fruit is very 

An hour and a quarter farther towards the north-east he 
came to the Beit el Janne, i.e. House of Paradise, situated in 
a narrow wadi, at a place where the valley opens a little ; on 
the west side of it, several sepulchres are hewn out of the 
chalky cliff. A quarter of an hour farther on is a copious 
spring, called by the name of the village, and supplying water 
enough to turn a mill. A half-hour's walk eastward brings one 
to the foot of the mountain land. 

From this point the way bore east-north-east, having the open 
land of Jolan on the right, and the chain of the Heish on the 
left, along whose base Burckhardt continued his journey for the 
rest of the day, to the village of Kfer Hauar. On the eastern 
slope of the range lie a number of villages. The road passes by 
a pile of stones twenty feet long, two feet high, and three wide, 
bearing the name of Nimrod's tomb. In the time of Pococke,^ 
who travelled from Damascus hither in order to examine this 
monument, there seemed to have been some walls like those 
of a temple, fifteen feet square. At each end there still stands 
a great stone, and the whole structure did not seem to Burck- 
hardt different from Turkish graves in general. On the right, 
an hour and a half s distance away, lies Sasa,' a station on the 
southern route to Damascus. A half-hour's distance from 
Kfer Hauar, and after passing a couple of little towers, the first 
one of which lies upon a hill, is the Druse village of Beitima, 
where Burckhardt spent the second night. Cotton is cultivated 
throughout the entire neighbourhood. On the third day's 
march an hour bi'ought him to the village of Katana. The 
road winds along by the side of Jebel Heish, but subsequently 
bears away from the Damascus road northward. The stream, 

* Rich. Pococke, Description of the East, Ger. trang. 1771, Pt. ii. p. 187. 

* Koehler, Note 111, in Abulfed. Tab. Syr. p. 100. 


whose source is found near the village above mentioned, where 
it waters extensive gardens, runs eastward from the chain to the 
great plain of Damascus. At the north-east the range receives 
another name, Jebel el Jushe ; but in the neighbourhood of 
Damascus Jebel Salehie takes its place, or rather serves as a 
western link to bind it to Jebel es Sheikh. At Kefer Susa the 
gardens of Damascus begin. 

The southern road from Damascus, by way of Lasa and 
Kanneytra to Jacob's Bridge, below Lake el Huleh.^-— This route 
was traversed quicker than the former, in two days' journeys, 
or rather in twenty hours. 

The first day's march. — From Kefer Susa, south-west to 
Sasa, six hours. After the first hour he passed the village of 
Dareya, where the celebrated gardens of Damascus cease. It 
was the time of the com harvest, and the season also for irri- 
gating the cotton fields, whose plants were to be seen through- 
out the whole extent of the broad plain.^ 

In two hours and a half, after passing the little stream 
flowing from the west of Katana, the village of Kobab, lying 
at the western extremity of a low range of bills, was reached : 
eastward, towards the high plsun, are the villages of Moat- 
taneye, Jedeide, and Artus ; while west of the road, and in the 
direction of the distant mountain chain, are el-Ashrafe and 
Szahbnaya. Beyond Kobab the plain was cultivated for some 

Farther on, in the neighbourhood of the Seybarany river, 
which flows from the 8.W. and w. of Jebel Heish and es- 
Sheik N.E. towards Damascus, Burckhardt found a khan 
erected for the accommodation of the great caravans which go 
from Jerusalem and Akka through this district When the 
naturalist Bovd' arrived at this khan on the river, he was sur- 
prised to see a grove of willows and poplars, and states that it 
was the only instance of arboriculture which he had notic^ in 
his whole journey from Gaza to Damascus. The road follows 
the bank of the river, traversing no green meadows however, 

1 Burckhardt, Trav, pp. 311-816. 

^ Edrisi in Jaubert, i. pp. 849-855 ; AbulfedsB 7Vz&. Syrimy ed. Eoehler, 
p. 100. 

^ fiov6, Naturalifite, Redt, cTun Voyage h Damas, etc,^ in Bulletin de la 
Soc. G4ogr. de Paris, 1835, T. iii. p. 889. 


but a stony wilderness bearing the name of War-ez-Zaky, and 
used as a place of refuge by Arabs when closely pursued. An 
hour and a quarter farther on, several gravestones indicate 
the murders committed on travellers by Druses, who rush down 
from the neighbouring heights of es-Sheikh, and plunder and 
destroy all who come in their way and are too weak to resist. 
The Seybaranyhere runs through a deep bed of black feldspar, 
which is so prevalent eastward in Hauran. A half-hour^s dis- 
tance farther, a firm bridge crosses the stream, and the road 
runs on to Sasa, a well-built village at the foot of a solitary 
hill. It has a good mosque and a spacious khan, in which 
Burckhardt spent the night. 

Second day's march. — From Sasa to Jissr Beni Yakub, 
i.e. Jacob's Bridge, thirteen hours. According to Schubert's 
measurements,^ who took the road leading from Damascus to 
Sasa in April 1837, we learn that a seven or eight hours' 
march is taken along a moderately elevated plateau, traversed 
by a range of low hills, rising but about six hundred feet. 
Schubert estimated Damascus to lie 2186 Par. feet above the 
sea, and the Khan el Sheikh 2455 feet, and Sasa 2788 feet, 
— about six hundred feet, therefore, higher than Damascus. 
Burckhardt advanced with his little caravan from Sasa 
• south-westward, and soon passed a little stream called the 
Meghannye, which does not flow as one would expect to find 
it doing — north-eastward to Damascus — but south-eastward, 
probably pouring its waters into the Sheriat or Hieromax, and 
thus into the Jordan in its middle course. A bridge spans it, 
and then there follows a long reach of rocky land, at the end 
of which there is a growth of oak, above which Jebel Heish is 
seen towering. According to the observations of Bov£,' these 
oaks are found mixed with pistachio trees, often from nine to 
twelve feet in circumference, whose branches the Arabs burn 
for charcoal. A half-hour's distance farther the road passes a 
solitary hill, Tell Jobba, and a tract of uncultivated land ; and 
some distance farther on a ruined khan called Kereymbe, where 
begins the ascent to the mountain called Heish el Kanneytra. 
This peak is the true southern continuation of Jebel Heish, 
and seems to attain no special prominence in comparison with 

^ Dr Steinheil, Hdhen-messungen^ p. 882. 
* Bov^, i,a.l, iii. p. 389. 


the neighbouring heights^ the loftiest one of which^ crossed by 
Schubert, was 2815 Par. feet above the level of the sea. A 
prominent isolated eminence one and a half hour's distance 
from the road bears the name Tel Hara. After seven hours 
Burckhardt reached Kanneytra, which had been deserted by its 
inhabitants in consequence of recent attacks by Turkish troops. 
It is surrounded by stout walls, and has a good khan and a 
handsome mosque, tastefully ornamented with granite columns. 
Copious springs are found in the neighbourhood, and on the 
north side of the village there were some ruins which caused 
Burckhardt to conjecture that the place was the ancient 
Canatha. Schubert^ doubted the truth of this hypothesis, as 
he was not able to discover any traces of really antique struc- 
tures. According to him, the khan of Kanneytra lies 2850 
feet above the sea, on the Jebel Heish, which seems to sink 
rather than rise as it runs north toward Jebel es Sheikh. After 
a few hours* rest, a direction was taken towards the south-east, 
where the Tel el Khanzyr, and to the south Tel el Faras, rise 
as isolated peaks above the average level of Jebel Heish, 
without attaining any important altitude, however. An abun- 
dance of pasturage is found to supply the herds of the Beduins 
who range through the neighbouring country, and who during 
the heat of summer ascend the heights of Jebel es Sheikh. 
A low growth of Valonia oaks, accompanied by terebinths, 
covers the soil to an altitude of two thousand feet above the 

Only a half-hour's distance from Kanneytra, Burckhardt 
passed Tel Abu Nedy, with the grave of the sheikh of the 
same name. A good hour 8.w. of Kanneytra, he saw very 
near the road a pool of water called Birket er Ram, a hundred 
and twenty paces in circumference, and fed by two perennial 
springs. Huge heaps of stones in the neighbourhood seem to 
indicate the former existence there of a city a quarter of an 
hour's circuit. Five minutes' walk farther on, and behind a 
clump of oak trees, there is another basin or pool excavated 
in the black basaltic stone, but filled only with rain-water. 
Beyond this the road begins to assume a striking grade down- 
ward, leaving the mountain as it now does : nine and a half 
hours' farther on there comes into view on the left a swampy 
1 Von Schubert, fiewe, iii. p. 269. « Ibid, pp. 172, 262, 270. 


lake, Birket Nefah or Tefah, two hundred paces in circum- 
ference, near which are to be seen the traces of a former canal, 
probably connected with it. Burckhardt considered it to be 
the Phiala of Josephus. Schubert, who passed over the same 
road, only in the opposite direction, appears not to have seen 
this lakelet or pool: he speaks of descrying, an hour and a 
halfs distance to the north-east, one bearing the name of Abu 
Ermeil, which seemed to be a kind of gathering-place for the 
peasants of the neighbourhood.^ This Schubert thought to be 
Josephus' Phiala. Both travellers were mistaken, however : the 
true Phiala lies much farther north of this southern caravan 
route :^ it too bears the name Birket er Ram in the mouths 
of the local peasantry.* I shall have occasion to allude on a 
future page to the description which Thomson, as well as Irby 
and Mangles, have given of it. 

No subsequent traveller has alluded to the Birket Nefah, 
although the great Tell el Khanzyr, a half-hour south-west of 
it, has been mentioned by both Burckhardt and Schubert. 
The ground is described by them as covered with the finest 
pasturage ; the grass was so high as to be almost impassable. 
Southward, and towards Lake Tiberias, the hilly country from 
Tell et Taras to Fik or Feik, was intersected by several wadis 
running down to the lake : the caravan road turned from the 
hill of Khanzyr westward past some springs to the ruins of the 
city Nowaran,* which is named in the history of the Crusades, 
and of which there still remain some walls and massive hewn 
stones. These are found near a fine spring surrounded by walnut 
and oak trees ; from this spot a fine view is gained of the 
snow-covered Hermon. At Tell Nowaran begins the scarcely 
perceptible ascent over the basaltic formation,^ which, however, 
cannot be said to assume the definite features of a mountain 
chain. This district, covered with the finest pasturage east- 
ward to the river Meghannye already named, only one hour 
west of Sasa, the ^nezeh Beduins seized in 1843, and over- 
ran it with their flocks and herds, which, according to Wilson's 

1 Von Schubert, Reise^ iii. p. 265. 
^ See its true position in Kiepert^s map. 
• ' Seetzen in Mon, Corresp, xviii. 1808, p. 843. 

* Wilken, Gesch. der KreutzzOge, ii. p. 687. 

* Wihon, Lands of the Btble^ ii pp. 818-^24. 


estimate, comprised thirty-five thousand camels. This multi- 
tade, greater than he had ever seen, and which called forth 
from the Turkish guard at Jacob's Bridge the comparison of 
them with swarms of grasshoppers covering the land (com- 
pare Judg. vi. 5), reminded Wilson of the promise contained 
in Isa. Ix. 6, whose fulfilment seems to lie in a still remote 

From this plateau, which Schubert estimated to be 2800 
feet above the sea, Burckhardt descended': to Jacob's Bridge 
(Jissr Beni Yakub), where the Jordan flows through a narrow 
bed. The road at first winds gently down, till, at about a 
quarter of an hour's distance from the bridges, it plunges 
suddenly into the valley. This account agrees well with that 
given by Schubert.* From Jacob's Bridge, which, according 
to the latter authority, lies three hundred and seventy-eight 
feet beneath the level of the Mediterranean, the ascent to the 
top of the steep cliffs on the east side of the Jordan is extremely 
difiicult, requiring three-quarters of an hour's toilsome climbing 
to reach the plateau beai'ing the name of Medan, which lies 
875 feet above the sea, and therefore more than 1250 above 
the surface of the Jordan at Jacob's Bridge. 

These very exact and instructive particulars receive new 
interest from some observations of Dr Schubert, who crossed 
Jebel Heish on his way to Jolan and Iturea. On the highest 
peaks of this accessible range, covered everywhere with ver- 
dure, he found an abundance of Salvia Indicay shedding its 
delightful perfume all around, and blooming in all its beauty : 
in the azerole thorn-bushes which flourished between the oaks 
and the terebinths, the nightingales were singing their songs 
of spring. In the direction of Jolan, his eye feasted on the 
green of fair clumps of trees, and on the snow-white summit 
of Hermon at the north. 

On the following morning, the sky being remarkably clear, 
the massive mountain just named was so distinctly discerned, 
that it did not seem credible that it could be eight hours' 
distance away, as it really was. A cold wind swept up from 
Lake Tiberias, confirming the estimated height of Kanneytra 
above the sea, 2850 feet. 

1 Burckhardt, Trav. p. 815. 

« Von Schubert, /2ewe, iii. pp. 261-265. 


The caravan road to Sasa offers no special object of interest, 
with the exception of a frightful barren tract of basalt rock, over 
which a broad highway has been constructed, probably since 
Burckhardt's time. This crosses a stone bridge before enter- 
ing the castellated village of Sasa, supplied with its khan and 
bazaar. The place, lying among willows, poplars, and walnuts, 
bears the marks of a comparatively recent earthquake. The 
last-named tree (Juglans regia)j which is found all the way 
from the plains of central Europe eastward, through southern 
Turkey, Asia Minor, and to the district east of the Aral, 
thrives in this part of Palestine at a height of from 2000 to 
3000 feet. 

Farther on the road from Sasa to Damascus, along the 
shore of the Seybarany, in the region where cotton is cultivated, 
the poplar groves were filled with swarms of bee-eaters (merops 
apia8ter)y nightingales filled the air with their song, and beetles 
were creeping over the ground. The wind was cold, the ther- 
mometer had fallen as low as 3° R. ; and even as late as the 
26th of April, the young walnut sprouts were touched with 
the frost in the gardens of Khan es Sheikh, on the shore of the 
Seybarany, 2455 feet above the sea. 

3. The intermediate Cross Roady that of the ancient Via Romana^ 
from Damascus to Baniasj passing Lake Phiala, Gathered 
from the accounts of Irby and Mangles^ Tipping^ and 

Had it not been for the discovery in February 1818, by 
Irby and Mangles,^ of a third and more direct route still 
between Banias and Damascus, we should have still remained 
in doubt regarding the locality of Phiala. Their discovery, 
supported as it has been by the statements of subsequent tra- 
vellers, has put the question almost beyond a doubt. 

Irby and Mangles left Damascus on the 23d of February, 
and at the end of their first day's march reached Sasa, a place 
already alluded to. From this point they took a road to which 
Burckhardt had made no allusion, lying between the two taken 
and described by him, and entering Banias on the south side of 
the old castle. 

^ Irby aod Mangles, Travels, London, Letter iv. ; coinp. RobinsoD, 
Bib. Research, ii. pp. 437-440. 


The second day's march from Damascus^ from Sasa to 
Bauias. — The first part of the journey followed a winding stream, 
unquestionably the Meghannye, alluded to by Burckhardt, 
through a fertile plain, watered by several brooks, and dotted 
with the ruins of a number of mills. The ascent then began 
over a rough, rocky, and barren tract, displaying in some places 
the remains of a paved road, which seemed to be a Roman 
via militarisy once extending in a direct line from Damascus to 
Caesarea Philippi, and built perhaps by the tetrarch Philip, to 
whose activity in that part of the country Josephus alludes. 
West of Banias, Professor Hanel^ discovered in 1847 traces of 
an ancient road running to the chief seaports. The loftiest 
peak of Jebel Sheikh is seen towering in the distance. Snow 
was on the ground at the time of Irby and Mangles' 
\dsit, and in such depth that it was difficult to traverse the 
country with horses. Yet by and by the road became more 
passable, the rocky district began to assume a smoother aspect, 
the stones being piled up in heaps, in order to reclaim the 
pasture land, on which flocks of goats were seen feeding : the 
first bushes displayed themselves, increasing in number, size, 
and grace as the travellers went westward, and descended into 
a small but fruitful plain, lying exactly at the foot of Jebel es 
Sheikh. The grave of a Mohammedan saint was seen lying 
in the basin of a little stream, which seemed to rise in the 
mountains, and to run from east to west. It was plain, there- 
fore, that the travellers had passed the watershed of Jebel 
Heish (the southern continuation of es-Sheikh), between the 
valley of Damascus in the east and Jordan in the west. 

Yet it was necessary to ascend from this plateau to the 
higher land at the south. On the way they soon passed a little 
village, and were almost immediately afterwards surprised by 
the discovery close by them, on the left, of a little round lake, 
very picturesque in situation, about an English mile in circum- 
ference, surrounded by wooded cliffs, without any apparent 
outlet, the water very clear, still, and covered with water birds, 
recalling at once the Phiala of Josephus, and his conjecture 
that it is the true source of the Jordan. This, however, it 
cannot possibly be. 

^ Dr G. H&nel, ReisetagehucJij in Z, d, deutsch, morgen, Gea. vol. ii. 
p. 430. 


A short distance from the round lake/ a brook was crossed^ 
which flows into a stream of some length, along whose bank the 
travellers proceeded a considerable way, till they reached the 
old fortress of Banias, a lofty Saracen citadel. Their eyes were 
soon gladdened by the sight of the noble valley in which the 
city lies, and of the distant Lake el Huleh. Descending into 
the vale, beautified with its diversified kinds of shrubs, covered 
with a thick carpet of grass, and displaying here and there 
blooming fields of beans and com, they passed from winter to 
spring. The climate was entirely unlike^ that which they had 
lately experienced on the Damascus plateau, on the heights of 
Jebel Heish, and the elevated plain of Jolan, and the soft air 
itself testified that the travellers had reached the deep valley of 
the Jordan. They reached the city about five in the afternoon; 
but before entering, they had to follow for some distance a 
little stream* which came from Jebel es Sheikh at the north, 
and which played and roared along in the wildest manner 

Note. — Phiala the true source of the Jordan^ according to 
' ■ Josephus : Seetsen^a Birhet el JRam. No Jordan source 
according to the observations of Thomson^ 

Had it not been for the results of the most recent investi- 
gation, many doubts would rest upon the locality of Lake 
Phiala, which has been the subject of so many discussions 
since the time of Josephus, — ^Burckhardt assigning it one place, 
Schubert another, and Seetzen still another; but the latest 
inquiries have made it certain that it was the round and 
nameless lake which is mentioned in the narrative of Irby 
and Mangles. Kiepert^ has, with his usual exactness, placed 
it in its true position upon his map of Palestine ; but he has 
been unable to give it any name, saving that which Josephus 

The latter states {de Bell. Jud. iii. 10, 7), that the true 
source of the Jordan was at Lake Phiala. He describes its 
exact position in relation to Csesarea Philippi, and its distance 

> See representation of this in Eiepert^s map. 
^ See Barckhardt ; also Thomson, Bib, Sac, iii. p. 187. 
' Kiepert's Mem. to his map. 


from it. Its name he derives from its circular or wheel-like 
form. Its water, he asserts, never rises or falls. He also 
states that Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, threw chaff 
into the lake, in order to ascertain whether it had a subter- 
ranean outlet, and that it appeared at Panium, and proved the 
existence of such a passage. Thus much for the account of 

W. M. Thomson,^ while examining the country in the 
neighbourhood of the castle of Banias in 1843, learned from 
his guide's statement, made without any questioning on his 
side, that a conspicuous group of trees, six or eight miles to 
the east, indicated the position of a little round lake, about two 
miles in circumference, which has no outlet, and whose waters 
never change their height. He assured Mr Thomson that he 
had often seen it. It was too late in the day to visit the place ; 
but from the spot where he stood, the physical impossibility of 
any subterranean communication between this little round lake, 
which his guide called Birket er Ram, and the grotto at Panium 
was apparent. 

His guide went on to point out to him, up the sides of 
Hermon, and five hours' distance away, a place called Sheba, 
not very far from the snow masses of the great Jebel es 
Sheikh, a rock cavern, through which the Banias river runs : 
he asserted, moreover, that chafiF had been thrown in there, and 
that it had appeared at the Banias spring. There was no im- 
possibility in the way of this story, which probably is some often- 
repeated tradition of the place. Mr Tipping,* a landscape painter, 
who was taking sketches in the year of Thomson's visit, for 
the purpose of illustrating an edition of Josephus, visited this 
place, called Sheba, and found it as described, far up the sides of 
Jebel Sheikh, and just below the masses of snow which always 
cover its summit It was a little basin, only about two hundred 
and sixty paces in diameter, filled not by springs, but by the 
melting of snow water. In the summer it is dry. All the 
circumstances showed him that it could not be the source of the 
perennial Panium. He also visited the other basin, Birket er 
Bam, and found its position to coincide exactly with the state- 

^ Thomson, The Sources of the Jordan^ l.c. Bib, Sacra^ vol. iii. p. 189. 
^ Smith and Wolcott, communication to the Bib, Sac. 1843, pp. 
13, 14. 


ments of Irby and Mangles, and Seetzen, and with tbe location 
assigned it upon Kiepert's map. 

A subsequent visit of Thomson to the Birket er Eam, con- 
vinced^ him that it was unmistakeably the Phiala of Josephus, 
but that it cannot be the source of the Jordan* He took his 
way thither over a high mountain, and then across a plain 
covered with lava, traversed by a brook which ran south-west- 
wardly, and flowed into el-HuIeh. The distance of the Birket 
from the old fort of Banias is about three miles, and the direct 
distance from the Banias spring is about a three hours' walk. 
The round form of the pool or basin suggested the thought 
that it had been formed by volcanic agency* The edge is 
about eighty feet above the water line. The lakelet is about 
three miles in circuit* It was very diflicult to clamber down 
the steep sides; but having done so, he found the water in 
many cases full of rank reeds, seemingly shallow, and covered 
with ducks. There was neither inlet nor outlet to be perceived, 
and the water-marks seemed to indicate that its height does not 
vary through the year. The water cannot be drunk, whereas 
that of the Banias spring is cool, clear, sweet, and delicious. 
The pond is full of leeches ; and fishermen have taken from 
six to eight thousand during a single day. This creature is 
unknown, however, at the Banias spring. The amount of water 
which emerges at the latter place would exhaust the Birket er 
Ham in a single day. 

The tracing of the Joi*dan source to the little mountain pool 
of Sheba is just as absurd, since the latter, when swollen by 
the melting of the snows of Hermon,. discharges its waters 
through a visible outlet, traversing the valley of the Hasbany, 
and after running a three hours' distance, falls into the gorge 
of Suraiyib. A subterranean channel running southward is a 
physical impossibility* 

The collections of snow water on all sides of the ice-clad 
summit of Jebel es Sheikh have given rise to a number of 
popular stories, of which those cited above regarding the casting 
of chaff into them, and finding it again at Banias, are but 
specimens ; but this much is certain, that the account of Lake^-- / 
Phiala's being the true source of the Jordan, told by Josephus ( 
almost two thousand years ago, and remaining current up to 
^ ThomaoD, Ic. ill. pp. 191, 192. 


our own day, is now disproved for all time. Still, notwithstand- 
ing the foolishness of many of the popular traditions regarding 
these water-basins around Hermon, the investigation into their 
character promises to be very useful for agricultural purposes, 
and is highly to be recommended. 

4. The west and the south-west side of the Ilermon system : Hie 
Wadi et Teim and the Nahr Hashany^ as far as Ard el 
Huleh and Lake el Huleh. 

/^ This mountain region exercises so great an influence over 
Lake el Huleh (the waters of Merom), that it is necessary for 

/us to enter into a considerable extent of details regarding this 
valley of the upper Jordan, which derives new interest, if it be 
connected, as it not improbably may be, with the expedition 
undertaken by Abraham against Chedorlaomer, after that king 
had overcome Lot and carried away all his goods. We are told 
in the sacred narrative (Gen. xiv. 15), that "when Abraham 
heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained 
servants, bom in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, 
and pursued them unto Dan ; and he divided himself against 
them, he and his servants by night, and smote them, and pur- 
sued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus." 
Dan lay at the southern entrance of the valley of Hasbeya, 
through which a mountain road leads in three short days* 
marches over the chain of Anti-Lebanon (Jebel es Sheikh) to 
Damascus. The caravan road runs from Banias along the 
eastern base of Hermon. The expression, " unto Hobah, which 
is on the left hand of Damascus,** affords the greater proba- 
bility that Abraham followed this mountain path, since the 
village of Hoba or Choba, which Troilo* visited in 1666, lay on 
the north-east of Damascus,^ and if one took the eastern road, 
must have been on the right hand ; while in coming down the 
mountain path of the Anti-Lebanon pass, and following the 
Barada in a south-easterly direction, it must lie " on the left 
hand of Damascus," as the Scripture indicates. 

This mountain road, which Abraham probably followed on 
his way to meet Chedorlaomer at Hobah, was ascended in the 
reverse direction by Seetzen and Buckingham, who left the 
1 Von Troilo, Iteiseheschr. p. 584. 
' See this laid down on Berghaua' map. 


usual north route to Baalbec, and the west route to Beirut, and 
•turned south-westerly into the deep valley of Easheya and 
Hasbeya, which, before Seetzen's journey^ in January 1806, 
was almost wholly unknown to Europeans, and which he desired 
to examine on this very account. His narrative is brief, but 
its deficiencies have been amply made good by subsequent 

Rasheya and Hasbeya, says Seetzen, lie at the western base 
of the majestic Hermon, which, under the name of Jebel 
Sheikh, lifts its snowy head above all the neighbouring moun- 
tains. This peak, w^hich in winter time is inaccessible, he found 
to be composed of the same limestone which formed the whole 
Anti-Lebanon range. In passing over the chain on his way to 
Basheya, he saw in the distance the Mediterranean, and on the 
west slope of the range he found in the first village of Druses 
and Christians the ruins of a Eoman temple. One Ionic 
column alone, of the most beautiful construction, remained 
standing.^ In Basheya, where he arrived on the evening of the 
second day's march, he was detained by rain for several days. 
He found it situated upon the steep slope of a rocky mountain, 
the seat of an emir, under whose control were twenty villages, 
and in whose territory the whole of Hermon lay. On the 
23d of January he continued his march southward to Hasbeya, 
five hours' distance away. In the mountain districts adjacent 
to both Hasbeya and Kasheya, he found agriculture much 

The range consists principally of limestone, through which, 
however, there are dykes of a black porous rock, which Seetzen 
called trap. But the most remarkable geological feature 
seemed to him to be a pit of asphaltum, and which, though 
used for centuries, appeared never to have come under the 
observation of professed mineralogists. It lies on the slope of 
a limestone mountain, and discloses a number of shafts or pits, 
which widen as they descend, and from which immense veins 
of asphaltum run into the mountain. These have been partially 
excavated, and pillars have been allowed to stand, — a provision 

^ Seetzen, Letter from Acre, June 16, 1806, in Alon. Corresp. xviii. pp. 

' J. S. Buckingham, Travels among the Arab Tribes in East Syria, 
Palestine, Hauran, etc. p. 893. 


all the more necessary, since there has never been any division 
of the mine into compartments. The roof is an ash-grey slate, 
eighty feet in thickness. Seetzen let down a string a hundred 
feet long into the shafts, but could not touch the bottom ; he 
was assured the depth was twice as great. The asphaltum was 
brought to the surface by a windlass turned by oxen and men. 
The stratum of asphaltum had never been bored through ; it 
appeared to be of great dimensions. The mineral was used as 
a wash for grapes, to guard against insects, but the greatest 
part was sent to Europe. After two days' stay there, Seetzen 
went on to Banias. 

Buckingham pursued the same route, not in the winter, as 
Seetzen had done, but in the early spring, April 1816.^ Leaving 
the paradisaical valley of Damascus, where everything was in 
the perfection of its bloom, he passed north-westerly over the 
outer range of Roboch to the Anti-Lebanon. His course was 
up the gorge-like valley of the Barada, and the whole of the 
first day was spent in the ascension of the north-westerly range, 
with its wild crags, as far as Deir el Ekfaire el Feite, where 
he spent the first night. The view of Damascus, with its four 
charming rivers, as he saw it from the lowest part of the range, 
he mentions as indescribably beautiful. 

On the second day's march he left the regular north road 
running to Baalbec, and turned south-westward, traversing 
the vale formed by the mountain brook Mesenun, passing 
Demess and Keneisy, in order to enter the long valley running 
south-westward from Easheya and Hasbeya. This consumed 
the day until two o'clock. It required fully three hours to 
cross the north-eastern extremity of the long Jebel Sheikh, and 
reach the western descent. From the highest point in the pass 
he could see the great westerly chain of the Lebanon, often 
called, on account of the number of Druses inhabiting its sides, 
the Jebel el Druse ; and he could discern the whole Anti- 
Lebanon, north-east of Damascus, and south-westerly to the 
extremity of Hermon. 

At the highest point of this pass, too, only an hour west- 
ward of the source of the Mesenun, and in the depth of the 
defile, Buckingham discovered a small dark-red patch of the 
limestone, elsewhere so common, in direct contact with a group 
1 Buckingbam, Travels^ chap. ziz. pp. 884-399. 


of loose masses of the dark porous rock which Is often met 
with in Hauran, and by the shores of Lake Huleh and the 
Sea of Tiberias. This volcanic rock seems to have been thrust, 
dyke-like, through the whole superincumbent mass of limestone, 
and to have left these traces of the former convulsive powers 
of nature. It wears down in process of time into a fertile loam 
of a dark-red colour, which can always be discerned from a 
distance by an experienced eye. Buckingham remarks^ that, 
independently of this basaltic rock found in this gorge-like 
cleft, the whole appearance of the place was such as to leave 
no doubt in his mind that the mountain had once been rent by 
internal volcanic action. 

Near the village of Keneisy he found a small round basin, 
girded with a wall constructed with considerable artistic skill. 
The pool which had once been there was apparently used for 
the purpose of irrigating the valley, which begins at this point, 
and descends in a gentle slope and in a south-south-westerly 
direction to the farther side of Hasbeya and the plain north of 
Lake el Huleh. It bears the name Wadi et Teim (on Berghaus' 
map Etteine). Its upper portion forms the valley of Basheya, its 
lower one that of Hasbeya. In it the Jordan begins its course. 
An Arabian author, el-Ohulil, who wrote in the fifteenth 
century, speaks of the Wadi et Teim as a district belonging to 
the province of Damascus, having three hundred and sixty 
villages, and a dense population. This is confirmed by the 
numerous ruins which are found through the whole neighbour- 
hood. Between the eleventh and the thirteenth century this 
valley was first settled by the Druses, whose doctrines found 
their first recognition in the valley of Hasbeya.^ Prior to the 
diffusion of the peculiar doctrines of these people, the place 
was called Teimallah, and Temin in the Jihannuma of Hadji 

Three or four hours brought Mr Buckingham down as far 
as Rasheya. The spring had already begun to exert its influ- 
ence even there upon the corn-fields, the olive plantations, and 

^ Buckingham, Travels^ Lc, p. 891. 

^ Rosenmiiller, Anal Arab. iii. p. 22 ; and in Robinson, Bib. Research, 
ii. p. 438. 

* Von Hammer-Purgstall, in Journ. Asiat. 8d ser. T. iv. p. 483, sur lea 


the vineyards which adorn the ralley. The European cuckoo 
sounded forth its spring song : the inhabitants of the mountain 
call it by the name of Jacob's bird,^ believing that it is pro- 
claiming the praises of a canonized sultan Jacob, whose grave 
on a neighbouring mountain was visited by Burckhardt. 
Whether the tradition regarding this holy man has any con- 
nection with the patriarch Jacob, is undetermined. 

Kefr el Kuk, a city of three thousand Druse and Christian 
inhabitants, ruled over by an emir, has a round walled water 
basin, of a kind peculiar to the Anti-Lebanon, and often met 
by travellers on both sides of the range. Within the basin or 
pool there stands an upright Doric column, whose use seems 
to have been to show the depth of the water, and evidently of 
more ancient date than other antiquities of the place/' whose 
pillars, architraves, and arches display Greek inscriptions indi- 
cating the dense population which once inhabited this range. 

Easheya — which is built in a terrace-like form up the sides 
of the steep and rounding summit, the great castle crowning 
the height — has a population of from four to five thousand, half 
Druses, half Greek Christians. It has no mosque, because no 
Moslems live here, they having been almost entirely driven 
away from the mountain. Two Greek churches and a Syrian 
one were entirely filled on the 8th of April — a holy day — and 
were profusely decorated with images and lamps. Druses here, 
as in most parts of the mountains, live on terms of amity with 
the Greek Christians, and discharge their own mysterious rites 
and observances ; their girls and women are distinguished by 
the lofty horn (the tandur), which they wear on their heads. 
Above the castle of Easheya, itself in a lofty position, towers 
towards the south the far higher snow-covered summit of 
Jebel Sheikh, whose ice extended even in April within fifteen 
minutes' walk of the village. This elevated situation ensures 
a great degree of health to the people who reside there, and 
who are distinguished for their fresh complexions, their coral 
lips, and the piercing black eyes of their women and children. 
The mountains close by give refuge to many wild beasts — such 
as wolves and leopards — ^just as they did in the days when 
Solomon's Song was written (iv. 8): "Come with me from 
Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon : look from the 
1 Buckingbam, Trav. Lc, p. 892 ; Burckhardt, Trav. p. 32. 


top of Amana/ from the top of Shenir and Hermon, from the 
lions' dens, from the mountains of the leopards." This lofty- 
summit displays everywhere a high grade, except on the south 
side, where its descent towards Banias is more gentle; along its 
west side there runs a low parallel chain, called the Jebel Arbel, 
which forms the western wall of the long valley of Rasheya 
and Hasbeya. It is, however, a low range; and one who stands 
upon the loftiest point in Basheya can see completely over it 
to the third parallel chain of the Lebanon. The latter chain, 
which in the beginning of April was entirely covered with 
snow, Buckingham found to be called by many of the people 
of that vicinity Jebel ed Druse, although the ancient name of 
Libnan or Lebanon is heard even yet in the mouths of the 
common people. Its white aspect completely corresponds to 
the Arabic word meaning Snow Mountains, Jebel et Teltsh, 
as it is often called. The valley between the Jebel Arbel on 
the east, and the Lebanon range on the west, is that which is 
now known as el-Bekaa^ (more strictly el-Bohah); it is the 
Coele-Syria of Strabo, and La Boquea of William of Tyre. In 
it are found the renowned ruins of Baalbec. In a more general 
sense, this valley extends entirely across from th^ Lebanon to 
tlie Anti-Lebanon; the intermediate chain is of very little 
relative importance — so little, indeed, that the nomenclature of 
the peasantry ignores it, for they call the Lebanon the West 
Mountain, and the Anti-Lebanon the East Mountain.' 

On the way from Rasheya to Hasbeya, which Seetzen 
traversed in five hours, but of which he makes almost no men- 
tion, Buckingham passed a number of villages inhabited by 
both Druses and Christians. On the way there appeared a 
wild mountain stream, which rises above the village of Kanaby,* 
and which seems to be lost in the bottom of the valley. In the 
bed of this little stream there appeared that same black porous 
stone which is found in Hauran and around Lake Tiberias : at 
first only a wedge-shaped mass, of little importance, but farther 
on found in greatei: abundance. Three hours beyond the place 
where Buckingham discovered the basaltic rock, he came to the 
source of the Nahr Hasbany, an arm of the Jordan ; close by, 

^ Amana, a peak of this range. See RosenmuUer, Bibl Alierth, i. p. 284. 

« KosenmiUler, Bibl AUerth. i. p. 286. 

• Barckhardt, Trav. p. 4. * Burckhardt, Trav. p. 82. 


on an elevation just eastward^ stands the city of Hasbeya. 
Professor Hanel, who passed over this road in 1847, found the 
Druse villages upon it in better condition than those of the 
Turks and Arabs ; the houses were higher, and supplied with 

The Jordan, according to Buckingham,* rises at the lowest 
part of this valley, presenting itself at the very source as a great 
basin of the clearest water, from which it makes its escape by 
overleaping a dam, and produces a charming cascade. A little 
distance below, it is spanned by its first bridge. 

These general accounts have been fully confirmed by the 
more detailed narratives of Burckhardt and Thomson, whose 
courses of travel led them over a considerable portion of the 
route taken by their predecessors. Burckhardt passed,* in 
October 1810, from the ruins of Baalbec southward through 
the valley of Bekaa. He passed the fii-st night at a little Druse 
village on the narrow crest of Jebel Arbel, said by Eli Smith 
to be not more than a quarter of an hour's walk across. The 
next day he entered the valley of Hasbeya. It lies about five 
hundred feet higher than that of el-Bekaa, through which the 
Litany pursues its westward course. The spring which Buck- 
ingham had already described lies about a half-hour's distance 
from the village of Hasbeya. Burckhardt did not visit it, but 
Thomson in 1843* made it the object of special investigation. 
The water bubbles up through the soft slimy bottom of a pool* 
about eight or ten rods in circumference ; and as it escapes it 
is checked at once by a stone dam, forming the cascade which 
Buckingham observed in the winter time, but which is not to 
be seen in the early autumn. The water is abundant, however ; 
and below the dam there is a strong clear stream, in which 
fish are plentifully found. The first five miles of its course 
is through a narrow but very beautiful and highly-cultivated 
valley, densely shaded by willows, sycamores, and terebinths. 

^ Prof. Hand, Reisetagehuch, i.a.l p. 484. 

* Buckingham, Travels, I.e. p. 397. 
8 Burckhardt, Trav, p. 32. 

* Eli Smith, in Miss. Herald, vol. xli. 1845, p. 17 ; W. M. Thomson, 
The Sources of the Jordan, l.c. Bib. Sacra, vol. iii. p. 186. 

^ Compte de Bertou, Mem. sur la depression, etc., in Bulletin de la Soc. 
Geogr. de Paris, T. xii. p. 139. 


The stream then passes into a deep cleft of basaltic rock, whence 
it emerges into a great plain of volcanic origin, and then sinks 
by a series of very gradaal transitions into the morasses which 
surround Lake Hukh. Entering the plain just mentioned, it 
turns its direction a little westward, and runs about ten miles, 
and almost the same distance through the swamp land, entering 
Lake Huleh not far from its north-west corner. During its 
course hither it receives a large number of tributaries — the 
Banias branch and Tel el Kadi on the east, and the Mellahah, 
the Derakit, and numberless little brooks on the west, by which 
its volume of water is largely increased. The entire distance 
from the source to the lake is about twenty-five miles. 

Although in the higher portion of Wadi et Teim there is 
no permanent stream, and, as Thomson says, the channel which 
is seen there is dry for the greater part of the year, yet in the 
rainy season there rushes down the valley a great mass of 
melted snow water,^ which makes the bridge at the source of 
the Hasbany indispensable. 

Burckhardt describes Hasbeya as having seven hundred 
houses, half of them inhabited by Druses, the other half by 
Christians, mainly Greeks and Maronites : the number of Turks 
and Nasairites he describes as very small. The chief production 
of the place is olive oil ; the most prominent occupation of the 
people the weaving of a coarse kind of cotton cloth. The lead- 
ing man in the village was a Druse emir, dependent on the 
Pasha of Damascus, and having twenty-one villages under his 
jurisdiction, which included even Banias. At the time of 
Thomson's visit' in 1843, the emirate had passed into the 
hands of a Moslem branch of the house of Shehab. I shall 
have occasion subsequently to speak of the government and 
the Christian population; I will here merely subjoin a few 
words on the condition of the place and its Jewish inhabitants 
at the time of Wilson's visit, April 1843. According to his 
account, the town lies upon an eminence eight or nine hundred 
feet high. The population he estimated at five thousand, of 
whom one thousand were Druses, a hundred were Moham- 
medans, and four thousand Christians. The Jews form only a 
small colony of about twenty houses and a hundred souls. 

^ Wilson, Lands of the Bible, vol. ii. p. 189. 
* Mimonary Herald^ vol. zl. xli. zlii. 


They all belong to the Sephardim, whose ancestors immigrated 
from Austria. There are only two or three permanent traders 
among them ; the other vendors of goods are a kind of pedlars^ 
whose main business it is to lend money to the agriculturists, 
taking their pay out of the returns of the harvest. They have 
a synagogue, but no reading-room, as in Tiberias or Safed ; they 
are by no means a people addicted to study ; few of them under- 
stand Hebrew, and only eight or ten can write. Their hakim, 
Abraham den David, was at once butcher, teacher, reader in 
the synagogue, and the leading military man. Their taxes, 
which were formerly high — four hundred and fifty piastres — 
had, at the time of Wilson's visit, been raised to three thousand 
two hundred piastres. The demand of the Christians in Has- 
beya for the Arabic New Testament and Protestant writings 
was very great, and indicated a quickened state of religious life. 
The Greek priests were exceedingly incensed against the mis- 
sionary, Wilson, and endeavoured to persuade their people, 
though without great success, to return the books. A Druse 
of prepossessing dress gave the assurance, that if the English 
would guarantee protection to the Protestants, as the French 
had done to the Catholics, and the Russians to the Greeks, a 
hundred families would at once embrace Protestantism. He 
expressed his wish that the Druses might enjoy Protestant 
schools, nor was he at all reticent regarding his own religious 
opinions. The streets of Hasbeya run down the sides of the 
mountain, where there are no houses ; all the slopes are covered 
with olive and mulberry trees. The manufacture of silk, of 
cotton cloth, and olive oil, formed the chief occupation of the 
inhabitants. Yet every man has his little garden or his ter- 
races on the hill-side j and the words of Micah (iv. 4) seem to 
find exact fulfilment there, for each house is overshadowed by 
its own vine and fig-tree. At the time of Wilson's visit the 
summit of Hermon was still covered with snow, and the com 
was not yet in the ear. The custom of cooling the drinking- 
water with snow from the mountain exists unchanged from the 
time of Solomon (Prov. xxv. 13). Here Wilson saw for the 
first time the tantur or horn used as an ornament for the head. 
It is at present only worn by the women, especially the married 
ones, but was formerly Used by men as well (see Job xvi. 15 ; 
Jer. xlviii. 25; Ps. cxii. 9, cxxxii. 17, and cxlviii. 14). An 


antique gem also, which Wilson procured in Damascus, dis- 
played the tantar now worn bj the Druse women upon a man's 

Burckhardt^ describes the mineralogical character of Has- 
beya and its vicinity as interesting; in the wadi east of the 
town there is found a metallic substance, which he held to be a 
natural quicksilver amalgam. Cinnabar was said to be found 
also ; the soil is rich in iron ; and at a short distance to the east 
he found massive deposits of bitumen, which the peasantry sold 
to merchants from Damascus, Aleppo, and Beirut. Thomson, 
who visited the asphaltum pits, considered.' the amount of bitu- 
men inexhaustible, and thought that, if managed with care, 
they would become very profitable. 

The road leads in a direct course from Hasbeya over the 
very narrow ridge which separates its valley from that of the 
Litany. It passes the village of Kaukaba, and emerges at the 
hamlet of Barghaz, which stands close by the stream, as it 
dashes and foams through its gorge-like bed, spanned by an old 
Roman bridge. Perhaps it were more strictly true to say that 
below this bridge begins that cleft, impassable by the steps of 
man, and which the stream has cleft through the rocks of 
Lebanon, whose lofty peaks rise abruptly on the west. A half- 
hour below Kaukaba,^ and on the Hasbany, stands the khan of 
Hasbeya, a very large and old caravanserai of regular construc- 
tion, eighty paces square, with entrances on the east and west 
sides, the latter of which was so overladen with inscriptions, 
that even an experienced eye could scarcely make them out. 
The khan, as well as the remains of a once very elegant mosque 
close by, give evidence of the great depreciation of art in Syria 
in the present compared with former days. This khan yields 
a most unremunerative rent. The market on Thursday is 
attended by peasants from the whole Hasbeya district, el-Huleh, 
Belad-Beshara, Belat-Shukif on the Litany, Medj-Ayun, and 
Jezzin. A kind of pottery, largely manufactured in the neigh- 
bourhood, is offered for sale ; also the cotton and silk stuffs of 
Hasbeya, horses, mules, camels, donkeys, fine sheep, goats, oil, 

1 Burckhardt, Travels^ p. 83. 

• Thomson, Ic. iii. p. 186 ; comp. Compte de Bertou's Mem. Ic. But" 
Utin^ zii. p. 189 ; Wilson, Lands of the Bible, etc,, vol. ii. p. 191. 

* Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ Ic. ii. p. 192. 


butter, cheese, and other articles. These are displayed in slight 
booths or on the ground. The whole spectacle, taken in con- 
nection with the surrounding landscape, is a very romantic one. 

Thomson was especially surprised to see some fifty mill- 
stones offered for sale, made from the porous black stone which 
is used for that purpose in Hauran, and which seems to be the 
chief material which makes up the structure of the part of the 
mountain where the market is held. Thomson judged its 
appearance to indicate that the mountain had a volcanic origin. 
Passing over the stone bridge near by, he rode along the banks 
of the stream, following its downward course, and soon came 
to a fine growth of wood, which stood forth in strong contrast 
with the naked appearance of the mountain crags on every 
side. South of this he entered an extensive olive grove, through 
which the Hasbany continued its dashing course for the distance 
of an hour and a half ; but after passing out of this grove, he 
no longer heard the music of its waters, for it had passed then 
into the plain, and changed its course. 

Buckingham traversed the length of the Hasbeya valley, 
yet he did not pursue the road which leads along the bottom 
of it, but chose rather that which runs along the top of 
the low ridge ^ on the west. After a good day's march from 
Easheya, he arrived at sunset at a round, isolated, cone-shaped 
mountain, very like Tabor in its form, and filling up somewhat 
the Hasbeya valley. Upon it stands the city Hibl el Hawa, 
smaller than Easheya, and provided with a good khan, from 
whose gate the view extends down the deep and broad Jordan 
valley as far as Lake Huleh. At Hibl, the habitations of the 
Druse mountaineers cease, and a new population succeeds. 
Burckhardt, in his course down the valley, followed the western 
slope of Hermon. After the first two hours he arrived^ at 
Hereibe, a place that lies high above the river, and which is 
surrounded by olive vineyards, the fruit of which forms an 
important article of food among the mountaineers. West of 
the village stand the ruins of a fallen temple, twenty paces 
long, thirteen broad, with a vestibule and two columns still 
standing upright. The inner apartments of the temple are not 
materially injured ; it still exhibits a number of arched rooms, 

1 Buckingham, Trav. Ic, pp. 898-400. 
' Burckhardt, Trav. p. 84. 


and the relics of a staircase which formerly led to the roof, now 
fallen in. From this ruin Burckhardt came in an hour to the 
spring Ain Ferchan, and then, after ascending a mountain, 
three-quarters of an hour brought him to Rasheyat el Fuchar, 
a village of a hundred houses. The most of these belong to 
the Turks, the rest are inhabited by Greek Christians. The 
village affords a magnificent view of the Ard el Huleh, i.e. the 
circular plain of that name three or four hours away. In the 
distance Lake Huleh can also be seen. This village is remark- 
able as the place where the pottery ware, so much valued in 
the neighbourhood for its graceful forms and skilful painting, 
is manufactured. It finds a market not only in Hasbeya, but 
is carried as far as Jolan and Hauran ; almost every house in 
the village is a small pottery.^ 

Thomson,^ after leaving the long valley Wadi et Teim, and 
passing through the great olive grove at the south end, tra- 
versed the plain that lies there in forty-five minutes. He found 
it covered everywhere with lava, and ending in a steep slope, 
which led to a second plain much larger than the first, and 
exhibiting the same traces of volcanic activity. This one he 
found to slope gently to the marshes around Lake Huleh. His 
course led him eastward to Banias, which be reached in two 
hours and a half. 

Scattered over this barren plain, Thomson saw a few 
stunted oak trees, which, instead of beautifying the prospect, 
only made it more painfully desolate. Buckingham's account' 
confirms that of Thomson in this regard. He too, in his 
descent from the fertile valley, found on the lava-covered plain 
not a single olive tree, not a grape vine, and not a corn-field. 
No houses were visible ; and only a few tents served as the 
habitations of man. The only people visible were a few no- 
madic adventurers called Turkomans, who in the spring force 
their way in from Syria, and, partaking of the character of 
both Turks and Arabs, make use of both languages. On 
account of their predatory habits, however, they are considered 
a more abandoned race than even the wild Beduins. Crossing 

^ See ako Robinson, Bib, Eesearch. ii. p. 439 ; and Major Robe, in Bib, 
Sacra, 1843, pp. 14, 16. 
' Thomson, Ic, iii. p. 187. 
* Buckingham, Trav. Lc, p. dOO. 


the Hasbany, he found it at this season, the beginning, very 
broad and deep. Eastward he could see the high castle of 

Approaching this city, vegetation begins immediately to 
assume new vigour and beauty ; the hundred brooks that dis- 
tribute their waters through its neighbourhood, carry fertility 
everywhere, and make the place a miniature Eden. Josephus 
says of it, that it affords a profusion of all natural gifts; 
Seetzen^ alludes to the uncommon richness of its charms; and 
Burckhardt calls it rightly classic ground ; and surely it is so, 
for hither came Jesus Christ with His disciples, and taught in 
the neighbourhood, and loved to meet the people who assembled 
at the markets of Caesarea Philippi : here He loved to preach 
the gospel, and to speak to the multitudes of Himself as the Son 
of the living God (Matt. xvi. 16 ; Mark viii. 27). The parable 
of the sower is invested with new significance when read in the 
fruitful corn-fields which surround Banias. Wilson discovered^ 
in the wheat-fields a great number of places destitute of grass, 
and displaying a productive growth of a kind of tares, called 
by the Arabs Zawan, Before sowing, the seed of this is care- 
fully separated from the grain, lest it grow up and choke the 
harvest. This is eminently the Zizanion or Lolium of Matt, 
xiii. 25, which the enemy sowed among the wheat in the mght- 
time while the master lay and slept. It bears the same name 
even to-day. 

5. T/ie source of the Jordan at Banias; the dty of Banias; the 
Castle of SubeibeJif and the ruins of Hazuri Hazor. 

Seetzen, the first European traveller w^ho visited Banias 
since the times of Abulfeda and Brocardus, gave a very brief 
account of his stay there ; yet all that he did narrate has been 
fully confirmed^ by subsequent explorers. The small place ; the 
abundant spring with its attractive rock grotto ; the picturesque 
wall with its Greek inscriptions, dedicating the place to Fan 
and the nymphs of the fountain ; the charming environs, which 
Seetzen thought^ the most interesting in all Palestine, — a 

^ Seetzen, Mon. Correspond, xviii. p. 343. 

« Wilson, Lands of the Bible, vol. ii. p. 173. 

' Seetzen, in Mon, Corresp, xviii. pp. 343, 344. 

* Seetzen, p. 348 ; Wilson, Lands^ etc., vol. ii. p.. 174. 

BANIAS. 193 

judgment in Tvliich Wilson coincides ; the abundance of game 
of all kinds for the hunter, wild boars, foxes, jackals, gazelles, 
deer, hares, wolves, hyenas, bears, and panthers, — ^all of this is 
as Seetzen years ago asserted it to be. He was the first to 
ascribe the true origin of the Jordan to the spring of Banias, as 
a tribute to its beauty ; yet he did not refuse to recognise the 
Hasbany lying farther west as a longer arm of the river than 
the Banias tributary ; and it is unquestionable, that he laid 
very little stress on the probability of a third and intermediate 
stream's leading to the head waters, the Tell el Kadi, in con- 
sequence of his want of acquaintance with it. 

Burckhardt, who regrets the short stay which he was com- 
pelled^ by the want of money to make at that place, has yet 
given a very exact account of it, accompanied with a drawing 
of the grotto, and with copies of the inscriptions which he 
observed there. 

Banias, now a village of about one hundred and fifty 
houses* (at Burckhardt's time, 1810, there were only sixty), 
lies at the foot of Jebel Sheikh, and in a comer of the plain of 
Banias. Its population is mostly of Turks and Arabs, yet there 
is an intermingling of Greeks and Druses. The declivity of 
the mountain is here particularly fruitful, as well as the plain 
which lies before it, and both enjoy the uncommon advantage 
of having a dense growth of trees. The district which is most 
remarkable for its fertility extends half an hour's distance 
west of the town, and is thickly dotted with ruins, stone walls, 
pillars, capitals, and pedestals. This place is regarded by 
Wilson as unquestionably a part of the old city of Caesarea 

On the north-eastern side of the present village, the Banias 
river emerges from its source. That in ancient times it re- 
ceived honours as the fountain-head of the Jordan, is shown by 
the monuments which stand near it. Above the spring there 
may still be seen an upright limestone wall,^ in which several 
niches of larger or smaller size have been skilfully excavated, 
and ornamented with volutes. The most of these niches are 

1 Burckhardt, Trav. pp. 87-43. 
« Wilaon, Lands of (he Bible, ii. p. 176. 

^ GeseniuB' ed. of Burckhardt, i. pp. 494-497, Note ; Boeckh and Franz, 
Corpus Inscr. GrsBcar. vol. iii Fasc. i. fol. 244, Nob. 4587-4689. 


now filled with rubbish. The largest one, which is six feet 
high, and the same in length and width, stands over a spacious 
cavern, from which the river flows ; still higher is a second 
niche decorated with pilasters. At the distance of twenty- 
paces, and at the foot of the same rock, a couple of other niches 
have been hollowed out: every one bears its own Greek inscrip- 
tion. In one of them, which is decorated with a profusion of 
ornaments, a portion of a pedestal for a statue can be seen. 
The almost illegible inscriptions merely indicate that the place 
was sacred to Pan, whence its name Panion, or Faneion in 
Josephus, and the later name Fanias. They also tell us that 
►a priest of Pan (probably officiating here in a temple dedicated 
by Herod the Great to Augustus) caused the inscriptions to 
be engraved. Philip the tetrarch of Trachonitis, to whom at a 
later period this province was assigned by the Romans, built 
the city, and gave it the name of Cassarea Panias : it was also 
called GsBsarea Philippi, to discriminate it from the Gassarea 
Palestina on the sea-coast, and is so designated in Mark viii. 
27. Still later it was enlarged by Agrippa, and in flattery to 
the Emperor Nero was called Neronias. There is not known 
to have been any older primitive name of the place ;^ and here, 
differently from almost all the localities of Palestine, the Greek 
name has not been supplanted by an Arabic corruption^ of the 
old name, but has remained only slightly changed in form. 
The Panion of Josephus appears in the Banias or Banjas of our 
day, and in the Belinas of Benjamin of Tudela and the Cru- 
saders. Reland has indeed started the conjecture that there is 
no such connection; that the form of the present word deceives, 
and that it really dates to the days of the Phoenician supremacy. 
An inscription which escaped the eye of Burckhardt is found 
on the wall about five feet above the most eastern nichej and 
confirms the statement of Josephus, that Agrippa decorated 
Panias with royal bounty. It was copied by both Thomson' 
and Krafft ; it fills sixteen lines, but it has not been published. 
Around the spring there is a large number of hewn stones. 
The stream runs along the north side of the village, where are 
still to be seen a well-built bridge and some ruins of the ancient 

> Gesenius^ ed. of Burckhardt, Note to i. p. 483. 

• Abulfedse Tab. Syr, in Koehler, p. 96. 

* Thomson, in Bib, Sacra, iii. p. 194. 

BANIAS. 195 

city, the larger part of which appears to have been on the 
farther side of the river, where ruins are found extending back 
a' quarter of an hour's walk. These ruins are not found in 
any perfect condition ; there are no whole walls, only scattered 
fragments and detached stones, among which one unbroken 
pillar was visible. In the village Burckhardt saw upon the 
left a light-grey granite pillar, of about one and a half feet in 

The incompleteness of the narratives given by earlier travel- 
lers has been completely removed by the full accounts of sub- 
sequent explorers. Even Burckhardt failed to describe with 
any fulness of detail the cavern from which the Banias spring 
emerges, but Thomson^ has entirely filled the hiatus in our 
knowledge. The account given by Josephus of this great 
fountain is interesting ; but its condition is so much changed 
since he wrote, that his description no longer remains true. 
He tells us that when Herod the Great had accompanied Caesar 
(Augustus) to the sea on his way home, hq built in his honour 
a splendid temple of pure white stone. This he erected near 
Panium, a beautiful grotto, where flow the head waters of the 
Jordan. The place which was afterwards to be made cele- 
brated by this beautiful temple was of note even before, in 
consequence of this rare natural curiosity. 

The perpendicular wall, from forty to fifty feet in height, 
and running parallel with the ancient walls of the place, and 
standing only a few rods from it, displays not far from its 
middle part a high irregularly-shaped cavern, which at the 
present time, moreover, only penetrates the mountain a few 
feet. Th's place, according to Josephus, was the source of 
the Jordan. Professor Hanel,^ who visited the place in 1847, 
reports that the wall has been very much shattered by an earth- 
quake, whose results are to be seen in the thickly scattered 
fragments strewn around. It is very probable, however, that 
the pieces of rock so abundant there, are rather to be ascribed 
to the ruins of the demolished temple of Herod, of which there 
is nothing left standing. Other architectural objects which 

1 Thomson, Ix. Bib. Sacra^ iii. pp. 187-189 ; Wilson, Lands of the Bible, 
ii. p. 176. 

^ Dr G. Hanel, Beisetagebuch, in Zeitsch, d, deutsch, morgenland Gesell 
voL ii. p. 43. 


once served to adorn tlie place^ appear now to block up the 
entrance to the cavern, so that it could only be possible to dis- 
cover the true spring by removing the great mass of rubbish 
accumulated there. They are probably now sustained by an 
arch ; for Thomson conjectured that so many pieces of rock 
could only have been borne up by the strong support of a vault. 
If this were so, we should be able to understand the account 
which Josephus gives of the place, and perhaps to recognise its 
truth. The inscriptions and sculptured volutes found above 
have stood the weather well, and display traces of remark- 
able skill. Of the altar which Benjamin of Tudela^ (writing 
in 1165) supposed to be the pediment on which stood Micah's 
idol, mentioned in Judg. xviii. 17, and which he located beforo 
the Jordan grotto of Banias, there is, of course, not a trace to 
be found. 

Thomson gives a more explicit account of the situation of 
the city than his predecessors. Wilson* is still more full. 
Banias lies in the midst of hOls and mountains ; the surface of 
Lake Huleh cannot be seen from it, it being shut off from 
sight by intervening eminences. On these, Wilson,' as he 
looked southward, saw a place that was called Mazarah ; the 
hills themselves he found to bear the nameJebel Jura, or 
Jeidur, in the latter one of which he thought he discovered 
traces of the name Ituraea, which was given in ancient times 
to that region. Ain Fit lies still farther south, near the broad 
district of Ganlon, Golan, Gaulonitis, or Jolan, which em- 
braces the whole country south-east of Banias, and east of 
Lake Huleh. Like Itursea, it unquestionably owes its local 
name to the ancient and hitherto undiscovered city of Golan in 
Bashan, — a site which, with three others, was selected by Moses 
as places of refuge for those persons of the tribe of Manasseh 
who accidentally committed manslaughter. Subsequently the 
place was given to the children of Gershom (Deut. iv. 43 ; Josh. 
XX. 8, xxi. 27 ; 1 Ohron. vi. 71). The little plateau on which 
the city of Banias stands is a hundred feet higher than the 
neighbouring plain of the same name. The part of the town 
which lay within the ancient walls lay directly south of the 

^ Benjamin von Tudela, Itinerar. ed. Asber, 1840, i. p. 82. 
* Wilaon, Lands of the Bible^ ii. pp. 176, 822. 
» Ibid. Ic. pp. 173, 818. 

BANIAS. 197 

great spring, whose stream forms a deep bed along the north- 
western walls. A part of the water was formerly carried 
through a ditch or fosse, which protected the eastern wall, and 
which ran into the deep cleft formed by the mountain stream 
Wadi el Kid. Along the bank of the latter the southern wall 
was erected. The whole place was therefore surrounded by 
water. The walls were very strong, and protected, as the 
ruins now show, by eight towers : certainly a very formidable 
position ; an irregular triangle or trapezium, broadest at the east, 
— ^the whole so small as to be walked round in twenty minutes, 
and well justifying the remark of Irby and Mangles,^ that 
Caesarea Philippi could not have been a city of great extent. 

It is only in the north-eastern portion of the tract once 
covered by the ancient city, that the few wretched huts stand 
which form the present town. It lies, according to De Bertou's^ 
measurements, about two hundred and fifty-two feet higher 
than the Jordan spring at Hasbeya. The western part of the 
territory, which was included within walls, is now overgrown 
with a rank profusion of bushes and weeds, among which stand 
three mills, whose wheels are moved by the stream from the 
great spring. There is a fourth one on the southern stream, 
that of Wadi el Kid. 

The suburbs of the place, as they may be called, are far 
more extensive than the town itself ; for the whole plain is ^ 
thickly scattered with the fragments of pillars, capitals, and 
walls, all displaying the ancient splendour of Csesarea Philippi. 
Under a settled government, this place, now so pitiably sunk, 
would assume new importance, for its natural advantages are 
remarkably great. The soil of the neighbourhood is of extra- 
ordinary fertility, and yields a more ample harvest than that of 
any other part of Palestine. There is a noble terebinth tree ^ 
growing in the middle of the village, a thick carpet of grass; 
covers the ground, and extensive rice-fields greet the eye with 
their fresh green colour ; the neighbourhood abounds in boars, 
gazelles, and other varieties of game ; and partridges, ducks, 
and snipes^ are met in great profusion. 

1 Irby and Mangles, Trav. p. 289. 

' C. de Bertou, Mem. l.c. Ballet, xii. Table des hauteurs, 

3 fiurckhardt, Gesenius' ed. i. p. 91. 

* Irby and MaDglea, Trav. p. 289. 


Borckhardt is the only one who has pushed^ out from 
Banias in a north-north-westerly direction for any distance. 
His excursion extended about five miles, and on the way he 
discovered traces of an ancient paved road. He discovered the 
ruins of a city, to which he gave the name of Bostra. It stood 
on a bold height, which Seetzen had in vain attempted to 
ascend. The stones of which this old city was built were in 
many cases of remarkable size, and were hewn. There were 
the remains of some fountains, some shattered pillars, but 
nothing else which seemed particularly noteworthy. Although 
Burckhardt gave the name Bostra to the place, yet no city of 
this name seems to have been anciently there : Gesenius held 
it to be Bathyra, which Herod built as a stronghold against the 
predatory attacks of the people of Trachonitis. The whole 
region in the vicinity of this collection of ruins Burckhardt 
found admirably adapted for building purposes. Behind this 
place there rises an eminence of some pretensions, called the 
Jebel Merura Jubba.* 

Wilson,* on passing from Banias to Hasbeya, discovered a 
third way of communication between the two, which had been 
taken by Burckhardt ; one of special interest, in consequence 
of its traversing the lowest part of the defile through which the 
Hasbany runs. His road ran north-westward from Banias for 
about five miles, along the southerly base of Jebel Sheikh, then 
turned northward, and five miles farther on crossed the stream 
Nahr es Seraiyib, a branch of the Hasbany. Not far from 
that point is the narrow ravine through which the Hasbany 
pours. The basalt rocks which I have mentioned as found 
elsewhere here appear again, but they differ from those found 
in the neighbourhood of Lake Tiberias in the large proportion 
of iron which they contain. Farther up in the valley green 
sandstone is found, and the whole geological structure of the 
soil changes. The basaltic pass or ravine is surrounded by a 
very hilly country as far up as Hasbeya. All the wadis are 
full of olive and mulberry plantations, vineyards, and the finest 
corn-fields. In fact, the whole art of agriculture has here 
reached a stage far in advance of that found in every other 
place between Beersheba and Dan. 

1 Burckhardt, Gesenius^ ed. i. p. 92. See Thomson, p. 196. 

2 See BerghauB* map. ' Wilson, Lands of the Bible, ii. pp. 180-182. 


The restless Barckhardt^ made another excursion to the old 
Saracen citadel of Banias, which no European had visited 
before. It lies directly east of the great spring, and is three 
miles away. It crowns a hill fifteen hundred feet above the 
village of Banias, and afiPords a most extensive and charming 
prospect, extending beyond the barren Jebel Heish, Lake 
Huleh, and Jebel Safed. This castle, whose form is that of 
an irregular quadrangle, covers the whole of the extensive rocky 
and completely isolated spur of Jebel Sheikh, on which it 
stands. It is guarded on all sides by inaccessible gorges, and 
only on the north-east does a single narrow crag connect the 
hill with the main body of the range. Even here, too, there is 
a sudden descent of from two hundred to three hundred feet 
from the rock-crowned citadel to the narrow pass just alluded 
to. This north-eastern side, the only one that was approachable, 
was defended by walls, round towers, and bastions of extraor- 
dinary strength. The south side of the citadel is guarded by 
six towers, alternately round and square, through only one of 
which was the ascent practicable from Wadi el Kid. The 
walls on the south-west, west, and north-west, lead along the 
brink of a very steep precipice. Within the citadel the 
primitive rock has been left standing higher than even the walls 
themselves ascend ; and in this rock, cisterns, corn-chambers^ 
storehouses, and arched rooms have been hewn. At the west 
end of the castle there is a staircase cut in the rock, but now 
so broken that Thomson was unable to descend to ascertain the 
truth of the story that it leads to a subterranean passage con- 
necting with the Banias spring. It took Burckhardt twenty-five 
minutes to walk round this citadel ; Thomson estimates it to 
be about an English mile in circuit. He was astonished at the 
enormous magnitude of the fortress, and asserts that the style of 
the architecture was in many places exceedingly fine. A round 
tower, built with bevel stones, appeared to him to date back to a 
period long antecedent to that of the middle ages, — a supposition 
materially strengthened by the presence of many Saracen in- 
scriptions. One of these, bearing the date of the latest Crusades, 
indicates only the repairs which have been effected. This 
castle of Banias has been called, since the time of the Crusades,^ 

1 Burckhardt, Trav. p. 87. 

• Wilken, Gesch. d. KreutzzUge, ii. p. 569. 


Subeibeh, — a name which can hardlj be traced to that of one 
of the Arab tribes^ the Sabeib, which live gipsj-like in the 
neighboui'hood. These are only recent immigrants^ and derive 
their name rather from the citadel than the reverse. This 
desolate old castle^ whose size, strength^ and position most have 
once given it great importance, now serves only the fellah 
herdsmen of the Jebel Heish, giving them a place of refuge 
in the winter, in the night-time, and in severe storms. 

Only a little distance from this castle Thomson learned of 
the existence of a very old ruin, called Sheikh Othman el 
Hazur,^ — the same place where Burckhardt passed the Ain 
el Hazuri,^ and heard of the ruins of an old city of the same 
name. These remain as yet nnvisited, but we do not doubt 
that they would prove to be the relics of the ancient capital of 
Jabin king of Hazor, and before the time of Joshua the chief 
city of the whole northern basin of the Jordan (see Josh. 3d. 
1-20). Its position has hitherto been completely unknown, 
since neither Burckhardt nor Thomson thought of looking for 
Jabin's capital in that place. The hypothesis was formerly 
universal, that Hazor was on the west side of Lake Huleh. 

I ^eed not recapitulate the details which Robinson* has 
given regarding the history of Banias, its receiving the name 
Neronias in honour of the Emperor Nero, the fearful contest 
which Vespasian and Titus compelled to take place between 
Jews and wild beasts in the amphitheatre, its becoming a 
bishopric in the fourth century, its later fortunes at the time of 
the Crusades, and its entire desertion by the Christians in 1253. 

6. The Jordan Spring of Tell el Kadiy the minor Jordan of 
Josephus ; the situation of Dan {Daphne)^ and of Faneas. 

The accounts of this spring, and the stream which flows 
from it, are either wrongly given in the accounts of the early 
travellers of this century, or are so incorrect that many mis- 
apprehensions have been raised regarding it ; and these have 
not been wholly dispelled till the publication of the works of 
Thomson and Wilson. Seetzen considered* this spring as of 

1 Thoxnaon, Ic, p. 194. 

» Burckhardt, Trav. p. 44. 

' HobinsoD, Bib, Research, ii. 447 et seq. 

^ Seetsen, in Mon. Correfp, zyiii. p. 344. 


no importance; and Burckhardt's^ visit was so hasty^ or his 
opportunities of seeing it made so unfavourable by reason of 
the rainy weather which he experienced, that his account is 
erroneous, to the degree of putting it on the north-east instead 
of the north-west of Banias. This mistake naturally misled 
Berghaus in his map, and led to a displacement of all the 
localities in the neighbourhood. The results of Robinson's^ 
investigations permitted Kiepert to rectify this error ; but De 
Bertou* examined the whole subject with great care, and 
ascertained that Tell el Kadi is due west from Banias. 

To Buckingham* we are indebted for the first detailed 
description of this important spring. Riding west from Banias 
about an English mile (Thomson found it to be three miles), 
he reached a slight eminence, similar in appearance to an 
artificial mound. Its name was Tell el Kadi. From its centre 
there emerged five or six springs, the approach to which was 
much impeded by a thicket of bushes. The water from these 
different sources he found to flow into a basin a hundred 
paces in diameter, its bottom showing that new springs were 
feeding it from below. The outlet was a stream which runs 
southward, passing the grave of a certain Sidi Yuda Ibu Jakub, 
soon uniting with the Banias stream, and after running from 
twelve to fifteen miles, entering Lake Huleh. Riding for an 
hour westward from Tell el Kadi, Buckingham arrived at the 
Hasbany bridge, under whose three arches the river shot with 
a strong and rapid current. 

Thomson gives* somewhat more full details regarding this 
source of the Jordaa The hill or mound rises forty or fifty 
feet above the plain, is of an oval shape, and is wholly covered 
with oaks and other kinds of trees. It is evidently the result 
of volcanic action, and the place where the water springs up 
was the former crater of the extinct volcano. The south-west 
side of this crater has been worn away by the power of tho 

1 Burckhardt, Trav. p. 42. 

* Robinson, Bih Research, ii. 437. 

» C. de Bertou, Mem. l.c. Bullet. T. xiL p. 142. 

* Buckingham, Trav. p. 405. See also Schubert, Beise, iii. p. 115 ; 
Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. 437 et sq. ; Berghaus, Mem. to Map of Syria ; 
and Tristram's Land of Israel, p. 580. 

* Thomson, Tell el Kadi^ in Bih. Sacra^ vol. iii. pp. 196-198. See also 
von Schubert, Reise^ iii. p. 120. 


water issuing from the springs, — a clear, crystal stream several 
times as broad as that of Banias (according to Wilson, ten 
paces wide, two feet deep, and with an uncommonly strong 
current). The whole body of water does not run through this 
one channel, but that which issues from the highest part of the 
former crater passes down the south side of the hill, giving 
motion in its course to a number of grist mills, which, over- 
shadowed as they are by noble oaks, seem almost buried in 
the rank vegetation. The two streams, which form a kind of 
island, unite below the mills, forming a little river of from 
forty to fifty feet in breadth, which even in September, the 
driest time of the year, rushes vehemently down towards Lake 

C. de Bertou, who confirms this account in all essential 
particulars, fomid the absolute height of the springs to be three 
hundred and twenty-two Paris feet^ above the level of the sea, 
therefore two hundred and thirty-four feet lower than the 
source of the Hasbany, and four hundred and fifty feet lower 
than the Banias spring. Von Wildenbruch's^ measurements, 
however, made in 1845, show the height of Tell el Kadi above 
the sea to be considerably greater. 

The miller of the place, whom Thomson knew, pointed out 
in a south-westerly direction, and at a distance of three miles, 
a clump of trees, where, he asserted, the Tell el Kadi stream 
joins that from Banias. The place lies in the marsh land, a 
little distance north of a huge mound, whose appearance was 
similar to that of Tell el Kadi, and which Thomson supposed 
to be the remains of a second extinct volcano. The miller 
had often been there ; and according to his account, the united 
stream flows for some distance through the marsh land, and 
then enters the Hasbany. 

South-west of the Tell el Kadi are to be seen several 
deserted Arab huts of recent construction; and the locality 
seems to be so peculiarly exposed to miasmatic vapours from 
the marshes, that many have deemed it impossible for permanent 
settlements to be made there ; and Thomson was of the opinion 
that this was a conclusive reason that the celebrated city of 

1 C. de Bertou, Ic. Bull xii. p. 143. 

8 Von Wildenbruch, in Berlin Monatsber, der geograph, GeseU., new 
series, vol. iiL plate iii. p. 251. 


Laish, which the Danites once captured, could not have been 
in that region, as many have supposed. 

A few minutes* walk west of the Tell el Kadi the marsh 
land begins. It is intersected by a number of rills, which 
would, if united, form a stream of considerable size, but which, 
separated as they are from each other, flow in tortuous channels 
till they reach the lower marsh land, on whose borders are 
to be seen scattered rice-fields of great luxuriance. Not far 
westward Thomson arrived at the swollen Hasbany, whose 
channel here intersects the volcanic tufa of the plain, and forms 
a kind of ravine or gorge. De Bertou^ ascertained the width 
of the stream to be thirty feet in this place, and the height of 
the steep rocky banks to be sixty feet. After leaving this 
defile, which is not of long extent, the river divides into two 
arms, the narrower one of which was originally an artificial 
canal, probably constructed in ancient times for the irrigation 
of the otherwise unprofitable, but in reality thoroughly pro- 
ductive soil.^ This canal or western arm forms with the 
eastern one a kind of delta, at whose northern angle lies the 
pitiful village of el-Zuk. No one has traced the Hasbany 
proper below this point ; but Thomson followed the windings 
of the canal several miles westward, until it entered another 
stream flowing from the Merj Ayun, whose waters flow into 
Lake Huleh. 

We have now indicated the geographical peculiarities of the 
sources of the Jordan east of the river Hasbany, so far as 
modern discovery throws light upon them. We can therefore 
pass lightly over the hypotheses and vague conjectures concern- 
ing them, so freely indulged in by many who venture to criti- 
cise the descriptions of Josephus and other early writers. As 
instances of what I mean, I may refer to Leake's, and even 
Thomson's, decided opinion, that Banias stands on the site of 
the ancient Dan ; or, to take another instance, that the minor 
Jordan spoken of by Josephus was the Hasbany, a much 
larger stream than that of Banias. 

The true state ^ of the case with regard to Josephus' position 
is this. He held the Banias stream to be the chief source of 

* De Bertou, Z.c. xii. p. 143. 

' Robinson, Bib, JResearch. n. 434 et aq. 

» Robinson, Notes to Thomson in Bib. Sacra^ vol. iii. pp. 207-214. 


the Jordan^ and accepted the current hypothesis of his day, 
that Lake Phiala was connected with this source by a subter- 
ranean passage, — a position which modem observers have shown 
to be physically impossible. He spoke, indeed, of a stream 
which he called the minor Jordan; but by this term he certainly 
did not refer to the Hasbany, but completely ignored it. The 
reason for this was, that in the popular opinion of the Hebrews, 
only those springs which are found within the Promised Land, 
at any rate within the actual territory of Israel, could be 
reckoned as strictly belonging to the holy river. This could 
only be the Banias spring, and those in its immediate neigh- 
bourhood ; that of the Hasbany, lying among the high Anti- 
Lebanon range, was altogether outside of the Hebrew territory. 
It may be conjectured, without any straining of probabihties, 
that at an early period there was no connection, as at present, 
between the Hasbany and the stream formed by the union of 
the Tell el Kadi springs and that of Banias. Hydrographically 
speaking, the Hasbany is to be considered the true head waters 
of the Jordan, and its course would seem to have been a direct 
one to Lake Huleh, receiving no tributaries; while, on the 
other hand, the Banias and Tell el Kadi streams appear to have 
united and sent their independent contribution to the lake. If 
this is the case,^ Josephus was justified in passing entirely by 
the Hasbany, and in regarding it as merely a tributary of the 
Samachonites Lacus, but as having no connection with the 
sacred Jordan. 

Josephus speaks of the minor or smaller Jordan in four 
different places. One is where he alludes to Abraham's attack 
upon the Assyrians who had carried Lot captive. His words 
are : " to Dan, for thus is the other source of the Jordan called" 
(see Gen. xiv. 14, 15). In the second passage Josephus asserts 
that '* the spies of the Danites made a day's journey farther 
into the great plain, which belonged to the city of Sidon, and 
which is not far from the' mountains of Lebanon and the 
sources of the smaller Jordan : thither went the Danites, and 
built the city of Dan on the site of Laish or Leshem." The 
account, as it is given circumstantially in Judg. xviii. 7, 28, is 
as follows : ^^ Then the five men departed and came to Laish, 
and saw the people that were therein, how they dwelt careless 
Country of the Sources of the Jordan^ in Bib, Sacra for 1843, p. 12. 


after the manner of the Zidonians [Sidonians], quiet and secare; 
and there was no magistrate in the land that might put them 
to sliame in anything, and they were far from the Zidonians, 
and had no business with any man ; • . • and there was no de- 
liverer, because it was far from Zidon, and it [Laish or Leshem] 
had no business with any man; and it was in the valley 
that lieth by Beth-rehob. And they built a city, and dwelt 

The third passage in Josephus speaks of the setting up of 
the golden calves by Jeroboam the first king of Israel, who 
introduced this mode of worship from Egypt. One of these 
he set up at Bethel, the other " at Dan, which lies near the 
source of the minor Jordan" (1 Kings xii. 29). 

The fourth passage describes Seleucia, which lay upon the 
Samachonites, a lake thirty stadia broad and sixty long, whose 
marshes extend "/tte;^^ Aa^vq^ jftopiovy Tnyyi? expvTo% airpe- 
^ov<TL 70V fiiKpov KoKovfievov ^lopSdvrjv vrrb tov tyi^ XP^Joij^ 
0oo<$ vedv, TTpooTrifiirovaat t& fieydX^^* (de BelL Jud, iv, 11). 
From this passage it is plain that the Daphne mentioned in it 
must be identical with or near to tho place spoken of elsewhere 
as Aavov, Adva, and Advri, whose location is exactly that spoken 
of in connection with the minor Jordan, and as that where the 
golden calf was set up. Eeland and Havercamp did not con- 
sider Adtpvf) and Advrf as two different places, but held the 
name Daphne, occurring only once as it does, erroneously given 
in place of Dan, since there is no proof that the name Dan was 
subsequently changed to Daphne. De Bertou's and Dr Barth's* 
hypothesis, that the name is derived from that of the oleander, 
which is so prevalent there, is not to be condemned as hasty or 
superficial ; nor is Thomson's opinion to be rashly cast aside, that 
Daphne and Dan indicate two different places, which lay so near 
together as to be confounded together in popular speech. Dan 
he concluded to be Banias, and Daphne a place in the suburbs, 
coincident with the Tell el Kadi. 

Wilson's accidental discoverv^ solved all the difficulties; for 
the miller spoken of above gave the name Shedshar ed Difnah 
to a small clump of trees two miles south of the Tell el Kadi. 

1 Von Raumer, PalOstina^ p. 126, note 29, b. 

» Dr H. Barth, Tagebuch, MS. 

« Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ ii. p. 173. 


This IS the Aa^vri of our day, the Difnah or Oleander Grove 
of our day, and manifestly the little grove spoken of by Thom- 
son.^ The passage in Josephus is therefore to be taken literally, 
where he says that " the Samachonites extends to Daphne, but 
not to Dan," — a new proof how important the closest local sur- 
veys of the geography of Palestine as it now is, is for the ascer- 
taining its geography in historical epochs, in order not to follow 
groundless hypotheses, and thereby to introduce all sorts of 
confusion into the understanding of ancient authors, of which 
we have countless examples.* 

AH these passages in Josephus, remarks Robinson, tnani- 
festly discriminate between the smaller Jordan and that of 
Banias, of which, in the fourth one, Josephus speaks as the 
greater Jordan. Thomson remarks, however, that there does 
not seem at the present day to be any natural reason for this 
distinction. The *^ smaller Jordan" of the Jewish historian 
is evidently the stream flowing from Tell el Kadi, and the 
title of pre-eminence was given to the stream on whose banks 
stood the beautiful temple of Paneas, and whose waters issue 
from the great grotto of Panium. 

That the Paneas of Josephus is not identical with Dan, is 
seen very clearly in the passages already cited from him, and 
in others which occur in his writings. Eusebius, too, visited 
Paneas, and discriminated between it and Dan. Jerome, too, 
makes distinct allusion to it in these words: ^^Dan viculus est 
quarto a Paneade mileario euntibus Tyrum, qui usque hodie sic 
vocatur. De quo et Jordanius flumen erumpens a loco sortitus 
est nomen." Dan seems, therefore, to have been a settlement 
at the Tell el Kadi. It is no sufficient proof to the contrary 
that there are now to be seen no remains of a temple dating 
back to the time of Jeroboam,' nor that the region is supposed 
to be inimical to health, in consequence of exhalations from the 
marshes. There are traces of former cultivation there, and 
north of the fountain there are traces of houses once standing 
there : a proof, at least, that the place was once regarded as 

1 Thomson, Lc, iii. p. 197. 

* See Onomasticon Hieroiu s.v, Dan^ confirmed by Gesenius ; also Wilson, 
Lands of the Bible, ii. pp. 171, 173. 

' Burckhardt, Gesenius* ed. i. p. 95. See also Wilson, Lands of tht BibUy 
ii. p. 172. 


habitable. The Arabs do not regard these exhalations Insalu- 
brious ; and besides, the question may be permitted, whether at 
the time of a much denser population of the whole country than 
now exists, there was not a better drainage than at present, which 
prevented the existence of miasma. 

Still another argument for the situation of Dan at the Tell 
el Kadi.^ In Judg. xviii. 28, the Labh or Dan is said to have 
been " in the valley that lieth by Beth-rehob." Compare this 
with Num. xiii. 21, where, in the account of the sending of the 
spies to examine the country, we are told that " they searched 
the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Kehob, as men come 
to Hamath," — an expression equivalent to the later one, " from 
Dan to Beersheba." Here, therefore, there is an allusion to a 
place situated just at the entrance of the mountain-road leading 
to Hamath. This corresponds exactly to the position of Dan in 
Aram-beth-Rehob, the territory alluded to in 2 Sam. x. 6, and 
spoken of in Judg. i. 31 as unconquerable by the tribe of Asher, 
only gained by the Danites by the help of treachery. 

7. The west side of the Hashany ; the Merj Ayun ; the springs 
and brooks of Jebel Safed; Lake el Huleh the Lacus 
Samachonites and the Waters of Merom of the ancients. 

From the bridge over the Hasbany at el-Ghujar, Bucking- 
ham gradually ascended the hills lying at the north-north-west, 
and after half an hour arrived at the Merj Ayun, a place 
lying on his right hand, and at a considerable elevation. He 
afterwards passed a number of villages which Berghaus has 
set down conjecturally upon his map, but of whose position 
enough is known with certainty to enable us to say that they 
form the line of watershed between the upper Jordan and the 
Litany. Buckingham's sickness prevented* his making any 
observations of importance, — a fact to be regretted all the more, 
since very few have followed him over the same route : even 
Seetzen and Bnrckhardt never explored the country lying on 
the west side of the Hasbany. Irby and Mangles, however, 
succeeded, in February 1818, in reaching the western bank of 
this river ; but they found the marshes so dangerous, that their 
horses nearly perished in the mud. This season, it will be 

^ Rosenmiiller, Bib, AUerth. i p. 252. 
* Buckingham, Trav. p. 407. 


remembered, is the wettest of the whole year. Their peril was 
of conrse such as to prevent their making any observations, till 
they succeeded at last in reaching the extreme western side of 
the plain, the somewhat drier and higher road leading to Saf ed* 
The whole plain, according to Irby and Mangles, was literally 
covered with flocks of wild geese, ducks, snipes, and all sorts 
of wild-fowl. At the foot of the mountain range they saw a 
village in which stood some Boman ruins, and higher up there 
opened before them a broad panorama which embraced at once 
Lake Huleh and the Sea of Tiberias.^ 

Neither von Schubert, Kussegger, Bobinson, Bobe, nor 
Wolcott succeeded,' in consequence of the incessant anarchy 
and hostility of the Druses, in exploring the western portion 
of the Hasbany valley. We are therefore the more thankful 
for the use of the diaries of Eli Smith and Thomson, the 
account of Major Bobe, and that of my young friend Dr 

A short distance from the bridge over the Hasbany, and 
close by the border of the marshes, the traveller meets an 
extensive basaltic dyke about two hundred feet in thickness 
and three hundred paces in width.^ Its course is directly from 
north to south, directly parallel with the western momitain 
ridge, and several miles in extent. It forms the eastern wall, 
so to speak, of the Merj Ayun.* It is traversed by the moun- 
tain stream, of which mention has already been made, in connec- 
tion with a canal leading westward from the Hasbany. From 
the bridge over this river, to the western range of mountains, 
Thomson estimated to be about twelve miles, and the extent 
of the plain north of the marshes about ten. 

Merj Ayun forms* a district under the Druse government 
of the Lebanon. It is a fine tract of land ; it lies west of the 
Wadi et Teim, and is bounded on the west by the wild valley 

^ See also Burckhardt, Trav, p. 42 ; Wilson, Lands of (he Bible^ ii. p. 
168 ; Irby and Mangles, Trav, p. 290 ; Dr H. Barth, TagebucJi, *is. 1847. 

2 Major Robe, in Bib. Sacra, pp. 9-14 ; Robinson, Bih, Research, ii. 
434, 439. 

« Wilson, Lands of the Bible, vol. ii. p. 165. 

* Will. Tyriens. Uistor, xxi. 28, p. 1014. See also Dr Barth, Tageluc\ 
1847, and Bib. Sacra 1848, p. 13. 

* Wilson, Lands of ike Bible, ii. p. 166 ; Robinson, Bib. Research. iL 
442 ; Thomson, Ic. iii. p. 206. 


of the Litany, and on the south-east by the great basaltic dyke 
already referred to. It forms an almost round basin, is nearly 
level, is arable, and well watered. Whether Ayun has any 
connection with the Hebrew Ijon, in the neighbourhood of 
Dan and Naphtali (1 Kings xv. 20 ; 2 Chron. xvi. 4), is uncer- 
tain. Thomson holds it to be the same, and speaks strongly 
of its uncommon beauty and its .ample supplies of water. 

Thomson,^ on leaving the union of the canal with the 
Ayun stream, and on ascending the rough road leading to the 
Castle Hunin, was surprised to see the resemblance in point of 
extent between Lake Tiberias and Lake Huleh, including its 
marsh land. To him the evidence was conclusive, that the 
latter lake once covered with its waters a large portion of the 
swamps which now fringe it. Indeed, it often happens that 
in the winter time, after heavy rains, the marshes seem to be 
transformed into a series of connected pools. How easily the 
hydrographical character of a lake like this may be affected, 
is shown by the circumstance that, at the instigation of a 
number of agriculturists, Ibrahim Pasha was persuaded to 
allow some rocks to be blasted which stood at the outlet. The. 
result was an immediate fall in the waters of the lake. The 
soil thus reclaimed yielded for several years a most abundant 
harvest, but at length the soil deposited at the outlet raised 
the waters to their former elevation. Thomson was assured 
that the whole lake could be drained at little expense. 

Major Kobe's map exhibits four little streams flowing from 
the mountain ridge w^est of the lake soUth-easterly till they 
enter its waters. Their names are Ain es Serab, et-Thahab, 
el-Masiah, and el-Barbiereh. Wilson gives ^ these names with 
comparatively little difference in their forms. South of these 
streams is the larger one of Ain Belat, whose source is a 
hundred and ten Paris feet above the level of the sea. Still 
farther south, and only a quarter of an hour's walk from the 
north-western comer of Lake Huleh, is the uncommonly 
copious spring of el-Mellahah. This Thomson ascertained to 
be twenty rods in circumference and two feet in depth. The 
water was lukewarm, and unpleasant to the taste : the stream 

^ Thomson, he. iii. p. 201. See also C. de Berton, Mem. zii. p. 144 ; 
and Wikon, Land» of the Bible, ii. p. 166. 
« Wilson, U. u. p. 166. 


that conveyed it to the lake was forty to fifty feet wide. 
Wilson says it may be ranked among the more prominent head 
waters which feed the Jordan. 

The district in the immediate neighbourhood of this spring, 
Thomson says, formed the largest continuous extent^ of grazing 
land that he had ever seen. It is completely level, and covered 
with rushes and grass. Countless flocks of white sheep and 
black goats, every one with its shepherd before and the dogs 
behind, traverse it in all directions from sunrise to sunset : 
herds of camels and cattle animate every part of the plain. 
Buffaloes are seen wading in the mud, wild, destitute of hair, 
thin in their build, with flapping ears, staring eyes, and power- 
ful tusks. There is nothing poetical in the appearance of 
these creatures, as in the reem^ praised by Job, David, and 
Isaiah, and which, though called the unicorn, seems to be the 
wild buffalo, still the same untameable creature as when de- 
scribed* in Job xxxix. 9-12. 

South-west of the el-Mellahah spring, and only half a mile 

from it, is the north-western corner of the lake. The north 

portion of el-Huleh is subject to the control of Hasbeya. 

J Strictly speaking, the name is only applicable to the northern 

' half, but its application to the southern has become universal. 

The northern shore is muddy, but the southern is steep and 

\ stony. The breadth Thomson estimated to be about seven 

miles, but towards the outlet it is much narrower. All its 

sides, excepting the northern, are sharply defined, and arable 

land comes down even to the water's side. 

De Bertou gives^ the depression of the surface of Lake 

\ Huleh as eighteen and a half feet below the level of the 

; Mediterranean. Here he thinks the true Ghor begins. 

I The name el-Huleh has been universally applied^ to this 

lake since the time of the Crusades ; yet its original application 

seems to have been at a much earlier date. It has been con- 

^ Thomson, Z.c. p. 200. See also Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 487. 

> RoBemnUller, Bib, AUerthk, iv. pp. 199-204. 

' Yon Schubert, Eeise, iii. p. 117. See also Wilson, Lands, etc. ii. p. 
167 ; Dr Roth, Zoology, in Harris, The Highlands of Ethtopia, vol. ii. 
Append, p. 425. 

^ G. de Bertou, l,c, zii. p. 145. 

' Roeenmiiller, Bib. Alterthk. i. p. 258, Note 70, p. 809, and n. pp. 175, 


jectored^ that the name of Hul, a son of Aram (G^n. x. 23), 
has some connection with the word Huleh^ the more as Aram's 
possessions comprised the northern part of Syria, the country 
immediately contiguous. There is the more probability in this, 
that the word Hul signifies just such a depressed valley as that 
in which Lake Huleh lies. Josephus calls it by a term whose 
etymology is unknown, Lake Samochonites ; in the Old Testar 
ment it is designated as the waters of Merom, i.e. waters of 
the highlands ; and in the adjacent plains Joshua gained his 
memorable conquest over Jabin king of Hazor, and the princes 
who were allied with him, and brought the northern part of 
Palestine under the dominion of Israel. Strabo and Pliny 
allude to this lake under various designations. The former 
speaks of the marshes north of Lake Gennesareth, in which 
grow aromatic rushes and the calamus. Pliny, too, speaks of 
these as the natural productions of the place ; and Schubert's 
discoveries showed that they were perfectly truthful in their 

From the narratives of some travellers who visited Lake 
Huleh during the middle ages, as well as in the writings of 
Cotovicus (1599) and Quaresmius (1622), we leam^ that in dry 
summers the whole bed was dry, nothing remaining but an 
extensive swamp. Cotovicus asserts tliat he has seen it when 
it was shrunk into a little pond of not more than five hundred 
paces in circumference. 

8. Tlie Mountain Cities on the Western Range^ or Jehel Safedy 
111 or Hihl {Abely Abil)y in the Merj Ayun {Ijon)y Hunin^ 
Kedeshy and Safed. 

The western continuation of the Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, as 
well as the small neighbouring ridge of Arbel, and which now 
bears the general name of Jebel Safed, is interesting to us as the 
location of several localities of historical importance, and which 
have been made the object of recent careful inquiry. Among 
the names which are connected with this range, are those of the 
biblical Ijon, of Ibl (Abel), Hunin, Kedesh, Benit, and Safed. 
Of these the Hunin and Kedesh are the most interesting^ as 
probably affording the best due to the situation of the extremely 

^ Bosenmiiller, Bib. AUerikk. i. p. 258. 

' Qnaresmiiis, Ehtcid. Terr. Set. ii. viL c. 12, foL 872. 


ancient city of Hazor, the most powerful place in the northern 
portion of Canaan, and the residence of Jabin, the mightiest of 
the Canaanite kings. 

All of these places lie in the least known portion of Qalilee, 
the northern part, on the eastern confines of the PhoBnician 
territory : they offer, therefore, only probability instead of cer- 
tainty, in a comparison of the past with the present : still, 
meagre as are the sources of our knowledge regarding them, 
they are not unworthy of our investigation. 

(1.) The Hibl of Buckingham ; III of Eli Smith ; Ibl or AMI 
el Hawa of Thomson ; and the Alii el Kamh of Thomson. 
Tlie various places bearing the name of AbiL The Abel- 
bethrmaachah and the Ijon of Scripture. 

Buckingham's diary seems to give the situation of the place 
Hibl with accuracy, as lying on a conenshaped mountain, which 
rises over against the southern contraction of the Hasbeya 
river. Eli Smith, in passing from Ain el Mellahah past Ain 
Belat, passed through a place called Ibil or Abil,^ and thence 
passed on towards the Litany bridge. When Thomson passed 
from the lower Hasbany Valley, in the volcanic plain lying on 
his way to Banias, he was told that on the mountains at his left 
there were the three places, Ibel or Abil el Hawa, el-Khiyam, 
and el-Ghujar. Of these, the first-named was said to be the 
one farthest to the south-east, and eastward of Merj Ayun. 
On Ejepert's map there is also entered another Abil, to which 
the affix el-Kama is made : it lies farther south-west, and near 
the southern extremity of the Merj Ayun, and south of the 
Druse village of MetuUah. On Robe's map, however, this 
name is placed farther to the south-west, on the road past Wadi 
Diflah ; while at the locality south-west of the Merj Ayun 
there is the simple name Abil, and the more easterly one on the 
Hasbeya is entirely wanting. From this it is impossible to tell 
whether there are two or three places of the same name in that 
vicinity, and which of them is thQ Abel of the Old Testament.^ 

From Hunin to that western Ibl or Abil el Kamh, 
Thomson rode directly north, his course for the first half-hour 

^ Robinson, Bib, Besearch. il. pp. 454, 459. 

* See also Wilson, Lands of (he Bible^ ii. p. 166 ; ThomaoD, iii. pp. 187, 
204, 206. 


taking him over the ridge of the high plateau, and through a 
thick growth of oaks and other trees. On one of the adjacent 
hills a company of female camels was pasturing with their 
young, — a sight altogether new to him. The herd was the pro- 
perty of an Arab tribe which had encamped north of Hunin. 
Descending with considerable abruptness for some minutes, he 
crossed the barrier line between Belad Besharah and Merj 
Ayun, and left Abil on the east, lying several hundred feet lower 
down. This Abil, a large Christian village, is so celebrated for 
its excellent wheat, Le. Kamh,^ that it is generally known as Abil 
el Kameh. 

Bobinson thought it quite probable^ that the Merj Ayun 
is the Ijon of the Old Testament, but was unable to come to 
a decision whether this Abil, or some other, was the Abel or 
Abel-beth-maachah of Holy Writ. Thomson, however, was 
decidedly of the conviction," that the Abel el Kamh which he 
passed through was the biblical Abel, because in the Scriptures 
it was very often coupled with Ijon, while the latter, judging by 
the pronunciation, is identical with Ayun. This view Bobinson 
in subsequent years has assented to. It only remains to say, 
that Buckingham alone has mentioned a place as Merj Ayun, 
which was elevated above the road which he took, and was on 
his right : perhaps the ancient Ijon, which would then command 
the valley on the east as Abil would do the west. 

Abel is discriminated from Beth-maachah in the passage 
where we are told of Joab (2 Sam. xx. 14, 15), that he " went 
unto Abel and to Beth-maachah ;" but in 1 Kings xv. 20, both 
places, unquestionably in consequence of their proximity, are 
called by a single word, Abel-beth-maachah : ^^ Benhadad smote 
Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah, and all Cinneroth, with 
all the land of Naphtali.'* Li other passages Abel is spoken of 
without the addition of any other word, as in 2 Sam. xx. 18, for 
example. In 2 Chron. xvi. 4, in the repetition of the account 
of Benhadad, Abel is given as Abel-maim, which, however, is 
no other place than that which in 2 Sam. xx. 19 is spoken of 
as a city '^ peaceable and faithful — a mother in Israel," t.e. one 
of the chief cities. Reland,^ who was unacquainted with the 

^ Von Schubert, JRetse, iii. p. 115. 

* Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. 217. 

* Thomson, Ic. Bib. Sacra, iii. p. 204. « H. Rdand, Pal p. 519. 


position of the modern Ibl, came to the correct conclusion that 
the place could not have been an eastern one, but must have 
been a Galilean city west of Paneas ; for in 2 Eangs sr. 29, 
where mention is made of Tiglath-Pileser the king of Assyria, 
and his invasion of northern Palestine, the places which he 
captured are probably arranged with some view to their geo- 
graphical position. The record runs : " In the days of Pekah 
king of Israel, came Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria, and took 
Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and 
Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and 
carried them captive to Assyria." 

The exact position of this place Abel seems to be, then, 
on the west side of the valley and stream which run from 
Merj Ajnin to Huleh, and below the opening into the Merj, 
on a very well defined tell or hill, whose slope ran far away 
southward. This position gave it its advantages for raising 
fine wheat, and to fit it to become in ancient times a '^ mother 
in Israel," a parent of cities. But, at the same time, the account 
of Tiglath-Pileser's carrying into captivity a portion of the 
inhabitants, shows how early another population pressed in, and 
perhaps mixed with the remnant which had been left there. 
But regarding the changes wrought in this way, we have no 
accurate data left to us. 

(2.) The Castle Hunin. 

Thomson was the first traveller who ascended the peak of 
Jebel Hfinin, 2500 feet high, from the Merj Ayun, and the 
first to give a detailed description of the castle on its summit. 
He devoted special attention^ to the place, since he believed it 
to be the site of the ancient city of Hazor, the former metro- 
polis of North Galilee. The castle is visible from Banias. It 
is rectangular in shape, and is nine hundred feet long by three 
hundred broad. The central castle was well defended with 
fosses and towers, of which Thomson has given a detailed de- 
scription. The main point of interest is, however, that this 
great structure, which is evidently Saracenic in character, rests 
upon a foundation of the same large bevelled stones, clampied 
with iron, which are found in the remnant of Solomon's temple 
in Jerusalem, in the Hippicus Tower, also there, and in the 
^ ThomBon, Z.c. iii. pp. 201-208. 


remains of some of the Phoenician cities, Buad for instance 
(the Aradus of the ancients), and more strikingly still in Tor- 
tosa^ opposite. These remains all seem to date back to the 
epoch of Solomon. Besides the places just alluded to, Thom- 
son tells us that they have been seen by him in the walls of 
Banias, and at esh-Shukif * on the Litany. Wolcott observed 
the same architectural forms in the foundations of Baalbek, on 
which the beautiful temples were built apparently at a subse- 
quent epoch. They have also been traced near Byblus,' at 
Jebail (Gebal). In all these places they are uniformly different 
from any stones left by Greek and Boman architects, and must 
evidently be referred to a very remote antiquity. 

These facts seem to warrant our referring this skilful work- 
manship in stone to the people of Gebal or Byblus, the Grb- 
lites, who were included in the promise of subjugation by 
Israel (Josh. xiii. 5), but who were in trath never subdued, and 
always were connected with the PhoQuicians. In 1 Kings v. 
17, 18, we are told that ^^the king (Hiram) commanded, and 
they (the Giblites) brought great stones, costly stones, and 
hewed stones, to lay the foundation of the house," etc. The 
prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 9) says of them, that they were the ship 
carpenters of Tyre ; and it is probable that they were teachers 
of architecture to the Jews of David's and Solomon's time. 

From this it is right to infer that Hunin is a place of great 
antiquity; and situated so near to the Tyrian territory as it 
was, it is not unlikely that it was the seat of an ancient Canaan- 
ite prince. This gives a degree of colour to Thomson's opinion, 
that that seat was the capital of Jabin, the head of the alliance 
of north Canaanite chieftains. Hazor is mentioned in Josh, 
xix. 86-38 in immediate connection with Kedesh, which was 
but a short distance south of Hfinin ; and in 2 Kings xv. both 
places are spoken of together, though in a reversed order, 
Kadesh first and then Hazor, just as we have Gilead, Galilee, 
and all Naphtali. Further, Josephus tells us that Hazor lay 
upon a lofty mountain, impending over the Samochonitic Lake, 
which happily describes the location of Hiinin. Kedesh, which 

* Thomaon, Missionary Herald^ 1841, vol. xxxvii. p. 99. 
« Thomson, le. Bib. Sacra^ iii. p. 207. 

' Wolcott, Excursion from Sidon to Baalbekj in Bib, Sacra, 1843, 
No. vii. p. 85 ; comp. Robinson, in Bib. Sacra, iii. p. 213. 


is mentioned several times in Scriptore in immediate connection 
with Hazor^ lies somewhat farther towards the south : it has a 
similar situation^ a similar castle, apparently dating from the 
same epoch ; and, according to Thomson, everything speaks in 
favour of Hazor^s having been at Hfinin, or in the immediate 

The only thing which is wanting to give this view a positive 
character, and to commend it to every one, is the want of any 
similarity between the sound of the modem name and the pre- 
sumed ancient one, this being an argument of the first degree 
of importance in establishing the identity of modem places 
with ancient ones. It is true the situation is a favourable one, 
and the prospect from it, as described in the glowing words of 
Thomson,^ is one of the most comprehensive in the whole Holy 
Land. It embraces the Lebanon range and Hermon, Bashan 
and Gilead, Moab and Judah, Samaria and Galilee, the plain 
of Coele-Syria, and that around Lake Huleh. 

(3.) Kedeshy Kedesh^Naplitali : tJie KvBouraa of Eusebius and 


The mountain lying south of Hiinin, and some miles distant 
from it, has been ascended by De Bertou, and found to be 1258 
Paris feet above the sea. We have, however, no detailed 
description of it. Major Eobe^ passed it on his way from 
Lake Huleh to Safed, but did not ascend it. Eli Smith visited 
it in 1844, but has published no full account^ of it, although 

^ Captain Wilson, in his recent exploration, made important ezcava- 
tions on the site of these ruins. The western building he found to be a 
tomb containing eleven loculi ; the eastern one he ascertained to be a 
temple of the sun, of about the same date as Baalbek. Close to the temple 
was an altar with a Greek inscription, and a finely worked sarcophagus. 
Stanley conjectures (5. and P, p. 893) that Hazor is above Banias, on the 
southern slopes of Mount Hermon. Robinson, however, on what seems 
more adequate authority, places its site at Tell Khuraibeh, one hour^s 
distance south of Kedesh. See B. R. iii. 865. Porter, too, in his Five 
Years in Damascus, vol. i. p. 804, has some remarks worth consideration 
respecting the site of Hazor. His theory has the more probability, from 
the similarity between the name Hasiir which he heard, and the ancient 
Hazor. — ^Ed. 

' Thomson, Ic. iii. p. 203. 

• Major Robe, Ic. Bib. Sacra, 1848, p. IL 

* Bib. Sacra, voL liL p. 208. 


he wrote out a full manuscript report. Bobinson did not 
extend his researches thither. De Bertou^ tells us that he saw 
some inscriptions there^ but he did not copy them^ and makes 
onlj an incidental allusion to them. Benjamin of Tudela^ 
visited the place in 1165^ and speaks of it as Kedesh-Naphtali. 
He found no Jews living there then, but discovered a few 
graves of rabbins, showing that at an earher period there had 
lived there people of his o^n religious communion. 

The king of Kedesh was conquered at the time of Joshua, 
in common with the other Canaanite chieftains of the north : 
the place is often alluded to in connection with Hazor and 
other strong posts of that region (Josh. xii. 19). At the 
subsequent distribution of the country, Kedesh was assigned to 
the tribe of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 37), and was afterwards, under 
the title of Kedesh of Galilee, made one of the cities of refuge 
to which those who had committed accidental manslaughter 
could flee, and be spared the retribution by blood which was 
allowed under other circumstances by the Mosaic law. The 
two other places named as cities of refuge were, Shechem on 
the mountains of Ephraim, and Hebron on the mountains of 
Judah (Josh. xx. 7). Kedesh, too, was one of the three cities 
in Naphtali which were made over to the Levites (Josh. xxi. 
32) ; a place, therefore, not without importance. It gains its 
greatest celebrity, however, as the home of the hero Barak, who 
was summoned from Kedesh by the prophetess Deborah to 
engage in battle with Sisera (Judg. iv. 6, 10). Sisera was the 
chief captain of a mighty prince, Jabin (the second of that 
name, the first having been killed by Joshua). He lived at 
Hazor, and for twenty years had held Israel in vassalage. 
Barak, we are told, collected from Zebulon and Naphtali (i.e. 
from the south-west and the north-west) ten thousand men, 
and withdrew to Tabor, at the foot of which the battle was 
fought and the victory won. Hazor can therefore scarcely be 
looked for in the neighbourhood of Kedesh, nor in the imme- 
diate district west of the waters of Merom ; for had it been 
there, how would Barak, in a city so little removed, have been 
able to summon his men, and make all the preparations for war ? 
Regarding Sisera, we are told that he lived at Harosheth of 

1 0. de Berton, Z.c. BulkL xii. p. 145. 

' Benjamin von Tudela, Itinerar, ed. Afiher, 1840, i. p. 82. 


the Gentiles, — a name which is mentioned three times (Judg. 
iv, 2, 13, 16). Yet in 1 Sam. xii. 9 we are told that Israel 
came under the dominion of Sisera at Hazor. The sitnation 
of Harosheth is undetermined by actual discovery,^ yet it seems 
probable that it must be looked for in the neighbourhood of 
Hazor, the residence of the king, and that it was not in the 
immediate vicinity of Kedesh, on the south-west comer of 
Lake Huleh, where it has been set arbitrarily on some maps. 
There is no argument for this position in the biblical narrative. 
In Judg. iv. 13 we are told that " Sisera gathered together 
all his chariots, even nine hundred chariots^ of iron (in contra- 
distinction to the common wooden ones), and all the people 
who were with him, from Harosheth of the Gentiles unto the 
river of Kishon." The result is given in ver. 15 : " The Lord 
discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and all his host, with 
the edge of the sword before Barak," so that Sisera alighted 
from his chariot, and fled towards Harosheth on foot: the 
direction is not given us. Then follows the account of his 
reception in the tent of Heber, and the manner in which he 
met his death at the hands of Jael. It has been common to 
transfer tha locality of this story to the west, but it seems to be 
without good reason. But if Harosheth of the Gentiles is to 
be understood as a general gathering-place of people of various 
tribes and nations, it seems natural to locate it on the east side 
of the Jordan, east of Banias, and at the base of Hermon, for 
that region has always been characterized as a rendezvous of 
Syrians from the north. And it is just there that we find the 
locality of the Hazuri, discovered by Burckhardt, and which I 
am led to believe indicates the site of the ancient Hazor. 

Eusebius and Jerome give in the Onomasticon (under Cades) 
no new information regarding the locality of Kedesh, which 
they hold to be identical with Kedoissa : the first states that it 
is eight, the second that it is twenty, miles from Tyre; but both 
agree that it is near Paneas. They confirm the statement of 
Josephus, that the place lay on the confines of Galilee and Tyre, 
from which circumstance this populous border city, which lacked 
none of the materials of war, was always full of bitterness 
against the Galilseans, and ready for battle with them. The 

1 Von Raraner, Pal p. 126. 

' Eeil, Commentar zu Jos, p. 207 (trans, in 01ark*8 For. TheoL Library). 


territory wa8 subsequently overrun by Tiglath-Pileser as far as 
to this border city (2 Kings xv. 29). 

Robinson/ who doubts the identity of Hiinin and Hazor, is 
inclined, in view of the want of water at the former place, the 
probable nearness of Kedesh to the lake, and the consecutive- 
ness of the GalilsBan localities mentioned in several places (Josh, 
xix. 35-37 ; 2 Kings xv. 29), to place Hazor south of Kedesh. 
He expected to find, between Kedesh and Safed, ruins which 
should confirm him in his doubts. He did not know that, in 
1844, Eli Smith discovered* important ruins three miles south 
of Kedesh, although the name bore no resemblance to that of 
Hazor. It was called el-Chureibeh.* The place was not visited 
by Smith in person, who only heard of its existence from the 
country people. Should it prove to be the Hazor of the Old 
Testament, the spring near it would probably be found to be 
the En-hazor of Josh. xix. 37* 

(4.) SafeAor SafeU 

The south-western arm of the Hermon system, extending 
along the west side of the Hasbany and the Lake el Huleh, 
Jebel Safed, received its name from the city and the castle of 
Safed, which lie on the extreme southern elevation of the long 
range, where it declines steeply eastward towards el-Huleh and 
southward towards the lake of Tiberias. Irby and Mangles 
visited the place in 1818 ; Burckhardt, in 1812, ascended it in four 
hours from Jacob's Bridge. The place had then six hundred 
houses, a quarter of them being occupied by Jews ; the place 
being one of those which they esteem holy, although it has no 
recorded connection with the history of their nation. 

Robinson^ visited Safed in June 1838, Thomson after the 
great and destructive earthquake of 1837, and Wilson in 1843. 
At the time of that great convulsion the place had a population of 

1 Robinson, BibL Research, ii. p. 435 ; and Bih. Sacra^ iii. p. 212. 

« Bib. Sacra, May 1847, vol. iv. p. 403. 

' Gapt. Wilflon, in his recent tour, discovered a hill a little more than 
two mUes aonih-east of Kedesh, on which were important rains : he could 
trace the walls of the citadel, and a portion of the wall. He regards this 
place as the site of Hazor, instead of accepting Tel Chureibeh as the locality. 

^ The reader is referred to fall details regarding Safed in Robinson^s 
Bibl. RueareheSf and in Wilaon^s Lands of the Bible.-^ED. 


about lOyOOO; of whom the half were Jews.^ Safed stood at the 
centre of a district which felt the shock most sensibly, and most 
of the city was seriously injured* The buildings were, however, 
soon repaired ; and at the time of Robinson's visit, in the next 
year, the place was well on the way to its restoration. The 
])eculiar structure of the rows of houses up the side of the hill 
has been the source of much destruction both of life and pro- 
perty ; for the toppling over of the higher rows carried ruin to 
all below. The houses of the Jews' quarter, being the poorest 
constructed of all, suffered the most. The castle, which has 
been esteemed a very strong structure, was rent completely into 
fragments, with a great loss of hf e to those who had fled thither 
for security. Thomson,^ the American missionary at Beirut, 
hastened thither with all speed, bringing a physician, and such 
supplies as could be transported; yet all that could be done was 
insufficient to meet the wants of the terrified and flying popu- 
lation. The hasty departing from the city of those who had 
been spared, recalled to Thomson's mind the flight of Lot and 
his daughters from Zoar at the time of the destruction on the 

The district in which Safed is found was probably once 
included within the ancient limits of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 
32-40) ; and Herbelot considers that it was the former capital 
of the tribe, although no mention is made of the place either 
in the Old Testament or in the New. Maundrell' holds 
that this was the place which the Saviour had in mind, and 
probably in sight, when He spoke of a city upon a hill that 
could not be hid (Matt. v. 14). 

The elevated situation of Safed ensures it fresh and pure 
air in summer, and, like Jerusalem, it enjop a healthy climate: 
in winter, numerous clouds gather around the two round hills 
which tower up a half-hour's distance farther north. The 
country in the immediate neighbourhood of the city has extensive ' 
vineyards, olive plantations, and gardens, in which the pome- 
granate and the fig flourish. The valleys around are very 
fruitful. The rearing of these articles, the dyeing with indigo, 
the weaving of woollen stuffs, occupy the inhabitants, who, on 

^ Wilaon, Lands of the Bible, ii. p. 164. 

* Thomson, Visit to Safed, in Missionary Herald, Jan. 1837. 

' An opinion which has been repeated by most xecent traveIler&--ED. 


account of their indnstrj, have a deserved prominence over 
those of some of the neighbouring towns^ Their high situation 
assures them an extensive view/ especially from the castle : at 
the south-east, Lake Tiberias is seen ; at the east the elevated 
table-land of Jolan (Gaulonitis)^ intersected by deep valleys and 
gorges running to the sea ; beyond that the limits of the Leja 
(the Hauran) can be discerned, from which rises in marked 
pre-eminence a single peak, Jebel Kuleib, or Kubeib (Kelb) 
Hauran, the Hauran dog, which Col. Leake considers to be the 
Mount Alsadamus* of PtoL v. 15. Farther south, beyond the 
lake and the Ghor, are seen the ranges of Ajlun and el-Hossn, 
in the ancient country of Bashan or Batanea ; in the south rise 
Tabor and the Samaritan mountains ; directly east and north 
are naked peaks, while Hermon is generally veiled from sight 
by the intervening clouds* 

Note by the Author. — Situation of Hazor^ the capital city 
of king Jahin^ and the metropolis of northern Canaan^ on 
the east side of the Waters of Merom^ and identical vrith the 
ruins of Hazuri near Sheikh Oman el Hazur or Ain el 
Hazuri (the En^hazor of the ancient Jewish history). 

It remains for me to state the grounds of my dissent from the 
opinions already laid before the reader regarding the situation of 
Hazor, which has been supposed by nearly all travellers to be 
upon the west side of the waters of Merom and the sources of 
the Jordan. I think it is to be looked for, on the contrary, in 
the ruins of the place called Hazuri, which Burckhardt names 
in his work, but which he failed to connect with the very im- 
portant place which we know the ancient Hazor must have been. 
He passed on the Damascus road, running east from Banias, 
after a walk of an hour and a half, a spring known as Ain el 
Hazuri, and learned that, at an hour*s distance still farther 
north, lay the ruins of a city called Hazuri. Thomson received 
a confirmation of this fact while he was at the citadel of Banias, 
he being told that at a very short distance away there is a very 
ancient ruin called Sheikh Othman el Haziir. This did not 
remind him of that very old city of northern Canaan, whose 
name was so identical in sound, and which played so important 

^ Robmson, Bibl Eesearch. ii. p. 438 ; Wilson, Lands, etc.^ ii. p. 159. 
* Col. W. M. Leake, Preface to Burckhardt, Trav. p. xii. 


a part in Jewish history, the reason clearly being that the idea 
that Hiinin was the ancient Hazor had so firmly taken posses- 
sion of his mind. As the distance of the ruins is, at the most, 
not more than two and a half hours from Banias, and they are 
not more than an hour's walk from the citadel, it is to be hoped 
that some future travellers will take pains to ascertain whether 
I am correct in supposing that the ancient Hazor was identical 
with the el-Hazuri alluded to by Burckhardt. But till there be 
found good reason for thinking that I am wrong, I must believe 
Ejepert^ justified in connecting the two places on his map of 
Palestine, as was the case in the time of the judges and kings. 
My grounds for this conviction are as follows : — First, The 
remarkable and very close similarity in the names in a district 
very little visited, in which tlie old indigenous appellations 
perpetuate themselves from age to age and from century to 
century with almost no change. Secondly^ The commanding 
position which was chosen, lying as it did upon the direct road 
between upper Canaan and the Syrian Damascus. Its history 
seems to extend back to the very earliest pre-Israelitic period. 
Lying as it did upon the main highway between upper Canaan 
and Damascus, it formed an excellent situation on which sub- 
sequently to build jin Israelite fortress above the sacred spring 
which supplied the head waters of the Jordan. The position 
was one which was capable of becoming of the same interest 
as a border city of Israel as it had been under Jabin, on account 
of its ancient location on the confines of the Syrian, Damascus, 
and Canaanite territory. Thirdly^ It is not a matter destitute 
of weight, that Burckhardt speaks of the shrine of a Moslem 
saint upon the Damascus road — since the Mohammedans often 
bury their holy men in places of historical importance — and 
that this Ain el Hazuri, or spring of Hazuri, singularly corre- 
sponds to the En-hazor mentioned in Josh, xix., where Hazor 
is separated by the interposition of Edrei and Kedesh from 
En-hazor.^ It is manifest that Hazor and En-hazor were two 
different places; and this led Eli Smith, in looking for the 
location of the latter, to set it at the profuse spring of Mellahah 
on the west side of Lake el Huleh. Belaud" declares his 

^ Kiepert, Bibd Atlas, nach den neuesteti und hesten Hul/squeUen^ Tab. ilL 

* See Keil, Commentar zu Josua, p. 854. 

* H. Belandi Pal pp. 123, 706. 


opinion that the frontier city, Hazor-enan, mentioned in Num. 
xxxiv. 9, is identical with the spring of Hazor. In Eusebius 
and Jerome the same place, under the simple name of Enan, is 
spoken of as a frontier town towards Damascus ; and in Ezek. 
xl. 17, where the northern boundary is given, the full name 
Hazor-enan is found. 

In confirmation of this is the second passage in the Ono^ 
maaiiconx 'Hvaacop icKripov Ne^oKeifi' Keirai teal avtorefm 
*A<r&p, Jerome repeats : Enasor in tribu Nephtalim. Po- 
sita est supra Asor: so that we can scarcely doubt that the 
situation of both Azor and En-hazor was east of Banias. In 
Thomson's narrative, the very ancient ruins of the city receive 
no name, but the shrine at the spring is called by him Sheikh 
Othman el Hazur : here, however, Burckhardt seems to have 
observed no ruins. 

Fourthlj/f It may be remarked, that in the account of the 
invasion of Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings xv. 29), the arrangement 
of the names of places is such that Hazor forms the transition 
from the cities of Naphtali — that is, the last-named in tracing 
the order from Kedesh to Gilead, — an arrangement which cor- 
responds accurately with the geographical order, from the west 
side of the sea to the eastern one, and thence to the country far- 
ther inland. Fifthly^ From Josh, xi., where the conquest over 
Jabin by the Hebrew leader is narrated, the following inference 
is to be drawn. Hazor is represented as the royal residence, 
which Josephus calls "Atrmpo^y and which, he says, vnkpKeiTai 
T^9 SepLexwvlriSo^ Xlfivrj^ ; which Thomson interpreting to refer 
to a high mountsun overhanging the sea, referred to Hiinin. 
Robinson,^ on the contrary, remarks that the passage does not 
necessarily refer to any eminence at all, but only a place near 
to the sea : thus judging, he preferred the site of Kedesh as 
the probable location of Hazor to Hfinin, ten miles farther 
north, or Banias, still farther. But Josephus, in his description 
of the Samochonitic Lake, states that it, with its marshes, ex- 
tended as far northward as Dan, and so to the very neigh- 
bourhood of Banias. It could be brought, therefore, into near 
relations with Hazor. This is made the more certain by Keil's 
remark, that the Greek of Josephu^ may be interpreted as 
referring to the district lying north of Lake el Huleh. 
1 Robinson, Bib» Sacra^ hi, p. 212. 


In Josh. xi. 8^ among the people who are named In contra- 
distinction to the mountain tribes of the north country, the 
Hivites are mentioned as living ^' under Hermon in the land of 
Mizpeh." The country referred to here can only be the great 
plain which extends north of Lake Huleh, from its narrow 
western margin eastward past Tell el Kadi to Banias, and 
thence on to the outlying spurs of Jebel Heish, on which lie 
the ancient ruins of Hazuri, which may with justice be said to 
command the lake. 

It is only upon this level tract that use could be made of 
the chariots, which would have been useless in the mountain 
land at the west. This use of these formidable engines of 
war, especially alluded to in the account of the campaign of 
Jabin ii. king of Hazor (Judg. iv. 2, 13), where nine hundred 
iron-bound ones were employed, was particularly adapted to 
the Syrian plain east of the Jordan. The use of these in the 
mountain land may have been the cause of the sudden over- 
throw of Sisera, since in the highlands of Safed they would 
become a source of embarrassment rather than of help. At a 
third period — ^at the time of the Maccabees — allusion is made 
in Josephus' narrative^ to a irehiov ^Aao^py whither Jonathan 
withdrew on his way from Lake Gennesareth to meet king 
Demetrius ; and this can refer to no other place than the great 
plain of Banias and el-Huleh. 

If now the conflict under Joshua, who advanced from Gilgal 
(Josh. X. 43), ue. from the west and south side of the Jordan, 
took place at the west, between the waters of Merom and Kishon, 
the statement made in Josh. xi. 8 shows that a part of Jabin's 
forces were driven north-westward' towards Sidon, and that 
another part was driven "into the valley of Mizpeh eastward," 
i.e, the plain of Banias, where two places of further flight stood 
open, one up the Hasbeya vale, the odier by the Damascus 

The next step in the sacred narrative is (ver. 20), that 
" Joshua turned" (giving up the pursuit), " and took Hazor, and 
smote the king thereof with the sword; for Hazor was before- 
time the head of all those kingdoms." In ver. 11 we read 
that " he burned Hazor with fire ;" and ver. 13, that " as for 

1 H. Relandi Pal pp. 262, 372, 597, 708. 
< Kdl, Com. zu Jos. p. 209. 


the cities that stood still in their strength, Israel bnmed none 
of them, save Hazor only/' The cities which stood on the 
hills in the FhoBnician frontier were spared this it seems. In 
all this account there appears no reason for doubting the 
identity of Hazor and el-Hazuri. That the name lived ^ on 
after the destruction of the city, is evident from the allusion in 
Judg. iv., where we are told that a second Jabin king of Hazor, 
whose chief captain Sisera lived at Harosheth of the Gentiles, 
had again become powerful, and for twenty years had compelled 
the Israelites to pay him tribute ; a vassalage which was only 
ended by the heroic deeds of Barak and Deborah on Tabor. 

Nor does Hazor disappear then and there from history: for 
Solomon, the great patron of architecture, we are told expressly 
in 1 Edngs ix. 15, built, in addition to his temple and palace at 
Jerusalem, Hazor, Megiddo, and Gazer (which the Egyptians 
had destroyed) ;* and therefore in the ruins of Hazuri we have 
reason to expect to find traces of the architecture of Solomon's 
' age : for altibough Tiglath-Pileser, in his conquest of Pekah 
the king of Israel (2 Kings xv. 29), captured Ijon, Abel-beth- 
maachah, Janoah, Kedesh, and Hazor, together with Gilead, 
Galilee, and the whole land of Naphtali, and carried the 
inhabitants into captivity;' yet we can hardly deem it probable 
that he converted the places themselves into hopeless ruins: 
the foundations must have been too thoroughly laid for that, 
as we know from the instances elsewhere which remain to the 
present time. 

Yet still, in spite of the destruction by the Assyrians, the 
name lived on till the time of the Maccabees, and the great 
contest between king Demetrius and Jonathan the Maccabean 
took place upon the plain of Hazor (1 Mace. xi. 67). 

^ Ewald, Gesch, der Volks Israel^ ii. p. 253. 

■ Von Raumer, Pal p. 188. 

• Comp. Joseph. AiUiq, ix. 11, and H. Belandi, Pal p. 697. 







|E now advance ta the discussion of the middle course* 
of the Jordan, beginning at the place where it 
emerges from Lake el Huleh, and continuing on to 
the place where it leaves Lake Gennesareth to enter 
upon the third stage of its cours^ which is analogous to the 
second, although with scHue change in the relative proportions 
of the natural features, and with some essential differences in 
the physical character of the t?^» 

This middle course extends from north to south in the 
normal direction of the whole river system, and is of almost 
the same length with the upper course, which reaches from the 
Hasbeya spring to the southern extremity of Lake el Huleh, a 
distance of ten ot twelve hours. 

The real emergence of the Jordan from d-Huleh has been 
observed by*few travellers, since the great Damascus road, 
which they usually take, crosses the Jacob Bridge, a short 
distance farther south. Only von Wildenbruch^ has given 
more attention to this point than the most of his predecessors. 
According to his barometrical measurements at Jacob's Bridge, 
the water level of Lake Huleh does not vary much from a 
hundred feet above the sea (according to De Bertou, 322 

^ Yon Wildenbruch, ProJU, in Monatsber. der Berlin, CkieJL voL lii. 
Plate lii. p. 251. 


Paris feet). Wildenbmch found that at Jacobus Bridge the 
water of the Jordan was 84*4 Paris feet above the sea. . If his 
measurement of the level of Lake Tiberias is correct (793 Paris 
feet below the Mediterranean), the fall of the Jordan between 
the bridge and the lake is 877*5 Paris feet. According to the 
measurements of De Bertou, the hypsometrical difference be* 
tween the citj of Tiberias and Hasbeja is 956 French feet.^ 

According to Burckhardt,' the southern extremity of Lake 
el Huleh is about threenjuarters of an hour's distance above 
the Jissr Beni Yakub, or Jacob's Bridge, which in his time 
designated the frontier of the pashalics of Damascus and 
Akka. On this account a custom-house was stationed there,^ 
and tribute was levied upon all Christians who passed over the 
road. This disappeared together with the Turkish guard-house 
at the time when Egypt had the control of the Syrian govern- 
ment, and caravans had an undisturbed right to the free use 
of the road to Damascus. Wilson found a Turkish garrison 
here in 1843, however : the soldiers were in the greatest dis- 
may in consequence of the daily expectation of an incursion of 
Beduins from the Euphrates. 

There are to be seen here the ruins of a once large and 
stately khan, buUt of basalt, on the east bank of the Jordan : 
^ only scattered blocks among the grass mark the place where it 
once stood. Yet the place is much used as a camping ground^ 
in consequence of the springs found there, and the nearness of 
the sacred riven Of the castle erected there by the crusaders 
only a few fragments remain. 

The bridge still stands in tolerably good condition. Von 
Wildenbmch^ endeavoured to follow the course of the Jordan 
down from it, but the roughness of the land affected hb ther- 
mometer so unfavourably as to put it out of the question. 
Three-quarters of an hour below die bridge he came to a mill, 
in whose neighbourhood was a square fort dating back to the 

^ See alao Schubert, Rette^ iii. p. 254 ; and A. Petermann, On (he Fall 
of ike Jordan^ in Joum, of (he Roy. Geog. Soc, xviii. p. 90. 

' Bnrckhaidt, Trav. p. 816. 

' Schabert, Beue, iii. p. 258. 

« Wilson, Lands of (he Bible, ii. p. 316 ; Bot^, in Bulkt Ic. iiL p. 888. 

' Wildenbmch, MS. oommanication ; comp. De Bertoo, Mem. sur la 
depreenon, in ByJkdn de la Sac. de Cfeog, xiL p. 164. 


times of the Crusades. He did not dare to bathe in the stream 
itself, which roars and foams through thickets of oleander on 
both sides, and which he calls appropriately a continuous 
cascade. He selected for his bath a mill-race three and a half 
feet deep, where the rapidity of the stream, although much less 
than in the current proper, was so great that he could scarcely 
stand without supporting himself by something. 

Jacob's Bridge, with its three arches, is forty-five paces in 
length and thirty in width, is built of basaltic stone, and is in 
good condition, it having been repaired by Jezzar Pasha. The 
river beneath it has a breadth of eighty feet, and a depth 
seldom of four feet : it must have been a very dangerous place 
for a ford, if we accept the legend which connects it as such 
wdth the fortunes of the ancient patriarch. The plants and 
shrubs which abound on the shore at this point are mainly 
the oleander, here most thrifty and attractive, the cross-thorn 
{Rhammis spina Christi)^ the wild small-leaved olive (the 
zakkum of the Arabs, EUagnua angu8tifolius)y and where there 
are marshy lands, the papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus) in 
uncommon size and abundance. 

This bridge, Jissr Beni Yakub, Le. the Bridge of the Sons 
(also Benat, i.e. the Daughters, a name which Robinson thinks 
the more correct one) of Jacob, in ivhose neighbourhood king 
Baldwin in 1178 erected a stronghold, in order that he might 
the better hold the country in check and command the Damascus 
road, does not seem to have been built at that time, for WiUiam 
of Tyre speaks expressly of the Vadum Jacoby i.e. the Ford of 
Jacob. The old legend was, that the patriarch, on his return 
from Mesopotamia, after sending messengers to his brother Esau, 
and dividing his company of followers into two psorts, passed 
over the Jordan at this place (Gen. xxxii. 7, 8). But we know 
from the biblical narrative that Jacob took his course by way 
of Mahanaim and through Gilead — a country rich in pasturage 
for his numerous flocks and herds — while he himself (Gen. 
xxxii. 22) took his two wives, and the two maids, and the 
eleven children, and crossed the ford of Jabbok.^ The Jabbok 
mentioned here is the Wadi Serka, much farther to the south, 
and an easterly tributary of the Jordan.^ The ford is even 

* Von Raumer, Paldst. p. 248. 

* See Geseniiis* ed. of Barckhardt, iL p. 599, and Note to p. 1060 ; 


now recognised at Kalaat Serka, on the regular Damascus road 
which runs through the country east of the Jordan. From 
that point Jacob passed along the lower course of the Jordan, 
and thence to Succoth and Shechem. The connection of the 
Vadum Jacob is therefore proved by no more authentic testi- 
mony than that of a legend, as baseless as the uncounted num- 
bers with which the whole country swarms. 

Jacotin's map gives the name of the bridge as Jiser Benat 
Yacub, ue. the Bridge of the Daughters of Jacob. He derives 
this from Seetzen/ who thought that it might be possible to 
justify or to find some basis for the legend, by supposing that 
the other portion of Jacob's followers crossed the Jordan here, 
and that the fact perpetuated itself in the name of the spot. 
Through this ford, where subsequently, and at a date not now 
precisely known to us, the bridge was built, the great road from 
Damascus to the Sea of Galilee ran, passing thence to Akka, 
the chief port between Carmel and Tyre. It thus passed round 
Hermon and the Anti-Lebanon, while the direct road from 
Damascus to Sidon and Tyre must have always passed directly 
over the whole Lebanon range. The three avenues of com- 
munication alluded to in the preceding pages are the chief 
ones which connected the very ancient city of Damascus with 
northern, middle, and southern Canaan. It is the middle road 
which received in the middle ages the name Via Maris ;^ it was 
always the chief avenue between Syria and the great Phoe- 
nician cities. It is uncertain whether it received its name 
from the Mediterranean, or from the small Sea of Galilee, 
which it passed at the ancient city of Capernaum (Matt. iv. 
13). There are good grounds' for receiving either interpreta- 
tion. The physical character of the Jordan below that Vfidum 
Jacob was unquestionably the controlling cause which opened 
this via maris leading from the land of culture, although of 
the Gentiles or heathen, to upper Palestine, Zebulon, and 
Naphtali ; and this converted Capernaum into an important 
frontier city, and a chief custom-house station. Its officials, 

comp. von Raamer, Das bstliche Pah und Edom, in Annal i.a,L vol. i. 
p. 653. 

* Seetzen, in Mon. Corr. xviii. p. 845. 

* Quareflmius, Elucid. Terra Sctss. T. L lib. i. fol. 19. 
' Gesenins, Comment, zu Genesis^ Pt i. pp. 850-854. 


the publicans or collectors of custom, were tHe men from whom 
Jesus selected several of His disciples (Matt. ix. 9 ; Mark iL 
14 ; Luke y. 27). Isaiah also refers to the same locality, where 
he speaks (ix. 1 and following verses) of the nation' that sits 
in darkness as destined to see a great light. Through these 
repeated allusions, this spot has become one of the classic places 
of the earth. 

The historical importance of this Jacob's Bridge, in connec- 
tion with the mercantile interests of Palestine at the present 
day, is not less than it was at the time of the Omsades. 
Modem times have converted it into an important militaiy 
position, commanding as it does one of the great roads to 
Damascus.^ It was the most advanced post which was taken 
possession of by Napoleon, but was left by Murat on the 2d of 
April 1799- 

Seetzen did not follow the course of the Jordan any farther 
southward, as he was anxious to penetrate the hill country 
l3ring east of Lake Tiberias, — a region entirely unexplored.' 
He could find no one who would venture to act as his guide, 
such was the untamed rapacity of the Beduins in that quarter. 
At last, however, an Arab agreed to take him to his sheikh, who 
was troubled with some affection of his eyes. Seetzen, who was 
known as Sheikh Musa, and who also enjoyed the reputation 
of being a hakim, made use of subterfuge, and agreed to go 
into the interior for the purpose of curing the eyes of the 
Beduin chief. His course was at first along a range of basaltic 
hills east of the Jordan, — ^a wild and desolate-looking part of 
Jaulan, the ancient Gaulonitis. After two hours he reached 
the village where his guide lived ; there he spent the night, and 
the next day took horse and ascended some hills which gave 
him a very fine view of Lake Tiberias. His course took him 
through the small village of Tellanihje' (more correctly et- 
Tell), lying on the margin of a very fruitful plain abounding 
in aloes. This plain reached to the lake, and had apparently 
been formed by deposits from the Jordan. Thence he turned 
away from the sea into the dry Wadi Szemmak, in which he 
found the ailing chief living. The case was a clear one of 

^ Bobinson, Bib. Research, ii. p. 441. 
* Seetzen, t.a.Z. xviii pp. 846-348. 
' For its position, see Seetzen^s map. 


cataracty and all care was hopeless. Yet, in order to be able to 
visit the rest of the coontiy east of the lake^ Seetzen told the 
chief that he wonld undertake to help him if he would send a 
guide with him along the shores of the lake to collect a kind of 
herb which grew there, and which he would send back by the 
hand of the guide. This was acceded to, but the latter proved 
faithless, refused to take the right road, forded the Jordaoi near 
its confluence with the lake, robbed Seetzen of his horse and 
gun, and left him to find his waj on foot along the already 
explored west bank of the river to the city of Tiberias.* The 
place where he was deserted was in the neighbourhood of the 
ruined khan of Bat Szaida,^ a place whose historical interest he 
failed to discover. 

Josephus gives the distance from the Samochonitic Sea to 
Lake Oennesareth as a hundred and twenty stadia, i,e. a six 
hours' march ; but Burckhardt learned that it is not over half 
that distance. He did not follow down the border of the stream 
farther than Jacob's Bridge, however, as his course led him,^ 
westward to Safed. This part of the Jordan has therefore 
never been visited throughout,' and we lack any description of f 
it, though it is to be inferred that it is a brawling and rapid 
stream, and passes between steep banks of limestone and basalt. 
Nothing is known of cascades excepting the rapids where von 
Wildenbmch was obliged to turn back on account of the diffi- 
culty of canying his barometer, and where he essayed to bathe. 
Eli Smith explored the country for an houi^s distance north of 
the entrance of the Jordan into the Sea of Galilee, and found 
no rough water there. 

In the course of this little excursion he first reached the 
fertile plain el-Batiheh (alluded to by Burckhardt under the 
name of Battykha), which seemed to him a tract sometimes inun- 
dated by the rise of the river. It is hemmed in on the north and 
east by high hills ; those on the north come close to the river, 
and confine it to a very narrow bed. The appearance of the 
fertile plain el-Batiheh was such, that Seetzen alluded to it as a 
delta formation of the Jordan, formed by the retarding action 
of the south wind in the downward course of the river at the 
time when its waters are heavily freighted with the mud which 

^ Seetzen, Mon, Corrup. zviii. p. 848. 
> See Abulfeds Syrim^ ed. Eoehler, p. 447. 


it brings down from the mountains. The river here is less 
broad than at the Dead Sea, and only about a third as wide as it 
is at Jericho — sixty to seventy-five feet : the water has an idle 
motion and a melancholy aspect as it creeps through the plain ; 
in some places it can be waded^ but in others it is too deep. 

Mr Smith took advantage of a day when his companion 
Eobinson was ill with fever, to visit the ruins of et-Tell (erro- 
neously called Tellanije by Seetzen), which, situated on a hill 
not far away, attracted him strongly. His course led him 
through the ruined village of el-Aradj, whose houses were once 
built of basaltic stones. A little farther he encountered the 
•remains of the village of el-Mes'adiyih ; after this, of Dukah, a 
place which had been built on a more extensive scale, but of the 
same basaltic materials. He then crossed the plain el-Batiheh 
alluded to above, and observed carefully the fellahin called 
Ghawarineh,^ or dwellers in the Ghor, and saw the same kind 
of buffaloes wallowing in the swampy ground which are so 
abundant in the marshes of el-Huleh. The plain is the property 
of the Turkish Government, and only a share of the harvest falls 
to the portion of the poor, insulted, and degraded peasants who 
till it ; a race of men prohibited from wearing arms, and there- 
fore at the entire mercy of the rapacious Arabs. They are a 
race whose position is analogous to that of the pariahs of India; 
they speak the Arabic language, but they are the especial object 
of detestation to the Arabs themselves. Eli Smith is the only 
traveller who has* carefully observed them : he estimates their 
number at Zoar, at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea, at two 
hundred, and those at Jericho and the plain of Batiheh at two 
hundred families and a hundred and fifty families respectively. 

From this plain Smith directed his course northward to et- 
Tell, the most extensive of all the ruins in the neighbourhood, 
and which appears to have been the chief place in the neigh- 
bourhood, although it has entirely lost its old name, and is only 
used by the Ghawarineh as a place to store their grain. The 
ruins cover a large part of the hill (Tell), and are really 
extensive : they, as well as those which he had already seen in 
the vicinity, consisted of basaltic stone. 

Seetzen, at the time of his visit, conjectured that this place 

^ Eli Smith, Bands of the Ghawarineh, in Missionary Herald, voL : 
pp. 87-89. 


was the ancient Bethsaida Julias^ on the east side of the Jordan, 
in the province of Gaulonitis, — a place which had previously 
been confounded with another Bethsaida, on the west side, in 
Galilee. Keland first, and after him Bachiene, pointed out 
the incorrectness of confounding two places so different, and 
showed that there must have been two Bethsaidas, one on each 
side of the lake. Seetzen was the unconscious discoverer of 
them both, and entered them both in his map. The places 
I'emained unexplored, however, till the time when Eobinson 
and Smith visited their neighbourhood.^ Both places were in 
the immediate vicinity of the Sea of Galilee, although its waters 
do not touch them at the present day : they were both fishing- 
places; and the name Bethsaida itself gives token of the occu- 
pation of the inhabitants, Beth signifying ^^ place," and Saida 
" fishing." From one of these two places Jesus chose fishermen 
to be His disciples, in the other He fed the multitude with bread 
and with fishes. 

It is a well-established fact that Peter, Andrew, and Philip 
were from Bethsaida in Galilee. But had it not been for a 
decisive passage in Josephus, it would have been scarcely sus- 
pected that allusion is made, though without any particulariza- 
tion, in the gospel narrative to a second Bethsaida. Josephus 
tells us that Philip, the son of Herod, tetrarch of Ituraea, 
Trachonitis, Gaulonitis, and Batanea, and thus the ruler of the 
territory east of the Jordan (comp. Luke iii. 1), after complet- 
ing the ornamentation of Paneas, converted Bethsaida, a mere 
hamlet by the sea, into a city, placed colonists in it, gave them 
rights and privileges, and called the place Julias in honour of 
Julia, the daughter of the Roman emperor. This Bethsaida 
cannot be rightly transferred to the west side of the sea, as 
Brocardus and others have done, because the tetrarchy of 
Philip did not extend thither; and just as little to be relied 
upon is the opinion of the learned Lightfoot, who thinks that 
the Bethsaida of Galilee mentioned in John xii. 21 is to be 
located on the east side of the sea, giving in explanation the 
statement that, in an enlarged sense, Galilee was sometimes made 
to embrace territory beyond, the Jordan. Cellarius^ thinks 

1 See also von Ranmer, Pal pp. 121-128, and Notes 20 and 21. 
* Chr. GellarinB, Notitia Orbis Antiqtii, Lips. 1706; Aria^ lib. iii. c. 13, 
fol. 633. 


that the question is one of the most difficult in the whole range 
of biblical geography: and it was so in his days, before the 
researches of modem trayellers threw so much light upon it 
as they have done ; but now it is nearly or quite certain that 
the writers of the gospel narratives refer to two different 
Bethsaidas, even although ' they do not specifically couple the 
name of the one which was in Gaulonitis with the additional 
name Julias, which it bore. Whateyer doubt arises about the 
question in its present stage of investigation, springs from the 
fact that, regarding the Bethsaida of Galilee, wq have only the 
evidence which is found in the permanence of the name itself 
as exhibited in the modem Bat Saida or Szaida, there being no 
ruins to mark the site of a form^ city. Yet no conclusive 
argument is to be drawn from the last fact ; for the same is 
the case with many other well-known places of antiquity, 
whose architectural monuments have entirely passed away. 
Capemaum, Banias, Dan, the noble city of Tiberias, and a 
hundred others, have little or nothing to ^ibit of their former 

This argument may be applied still more forcibly ^ the 
ruins of Tell, on the eastern side. There are the traces of a 
large city, but every architectural decoration has passed away. 
Yet, aside from the allusion of Josephus to an important capital 
there, Pliny has not passed over it in silence, and speaks yet 
more definitely still of a city on the east side of the Jordan, 
and in that neighbourhood : ^^ Jordanus in lacum se f undit — 
amoenis circumseptum oppidis, ab oriente, Juliade et Hippo," 
etc. So long as there was supposed to be but one Bethsaida, it 
was extremely difficult to harmonize various allusions to it ; but 
when it was found to be almost beyond doubt that there were 
two, the task became a simple one. The eastem Bethsaida is 
mentioned only twice in the Gtispels — ^in Luke ix. 10, and Mark 
viii. 22. It was the place where Jesus fed the five thousand at 
one time, the four thousand at another time, and restored the 
sight of the blind man. The western place of the same name 
is most prominently brought into notice as the original home of 
several of His disciples. It is evident, moreover, that the now 
deserted shores of the lake were in continual communication at 
that time by means of boats. 




1. Names. 

GhinnereiU is the oldest name which this sea bears in the 
books of Moses (Num. xzziv. 11, and Dent. iii. 17). Joshua 
seems to have taken the name (zii. 3) from a place of which 
we only know this, that it was on the shore of the lake (Josh. 
zix. 35). That, however, it occupied the same site which 
af terwwrds was covered with the city of Tiberias, which Herod 
built, and w^ich, according to Jerome, bore the name of 
Chennereth, is destitute of historical proof; for the site of 
Tiberias belongs to the territory of Zebulon, while Chinnereth 
lay in the more northerly domain of Naphtali (Josh. six. 35), 
which embraced only the northern half, the sea-coast. This is 
also clearly shown in the account of Benhadad's conquest of 
the land of Chinnereth (1 Kings xv. 20), where allusion can 
only be made to the shore of the northern half of the basin : 
the place mentioned there would seem to be an ancient city 
of Chinnereth, which subsequently disappeared, and whose 
situation cannot on any grounds be considered as identical with 
that of the more modem Tiberias. There are other grounds, 
too, for not accepting the identity of the two places.^ These I 
shall allude to on a future page. The name Chinnereth, it 
may be remarked, is not used in reference to the sea in the 
Old Testament, excepting to designate the boundaries of some 
of the tribes. Far more common in the Bible is the mention 
of the Sea of Gennesareth, the origin of whose name is uncer- 
tain, although it is educed by Lightfoot from Chinnereth: 
transiit nomen Chinnereth in Genesor. The name is mentioned 
several times in the New Testament, although in some of the 
allusions not the sea alone is referred to, but a portion of the 
coast (see Matt. xiv. 34, and Mark vi. 53). This appears to 
indicate a small tract of the western shore about midway between 
1 Rosenmuller, Bibl AUerlhk. ii. Pt. IL p. 76. 


the northern and the southern extremities of the lake. Josephos 
gives the dimensions of this ^^ land of Gennesareth" as only 
thirty stadia in length and twenty in breadth. Kobinson 
supposes that the place corresponded with the modem fertile 
tract called el-Ghuweir, the little Ghor, which lies between 
Mejel at the south and the Khan Minyeh at the north. This 
is strengthened by the glowing description which Josephus 
gives^ of the spot, coupled with the etymological meaning of 
the word Genesor, "garden of riches:" compare Lightfoot: 
"ab amoBuitatem regionis, hortis ac paradisis #refertissima&." 
The name Genesera is the one most fi*equently applied to the 
lake by Josephus, Strabo, Pliny, and the Komans. The name 
Sea of Galilee, which appears in Matt. iy. 18, on whose waters 
the fishermen Peter and Andrew were casting their nets, was 
derived from its situation contiguous to Galilee, a province 
which did not extend to the eastern side of the lake. This 
name must have been a comparatively modem one,^ since the 
name Galilee was originally applied merely to a small tract, in 
connection with which other districts like Kedesh and Naphtali 
were sometimes mentioned (see 2 Kings xv. 29). At the time 
of Solomon and EUram, Galilee was still an unimportant dis- 
trict, and appeared to the latter to be, with its twenty cities, 
an insignificant gift to be made by Solomon in return for the 
cedars of Lebanon which had been carried to Jerusalem for 
the temple and the new palace. It was only with the extension 
of the meaning of the name Galilee under the Maccabees, 
when Zebulon and Naphtali were added to the original dis- 
trict, and the whole west coast was known as Galilee, that the 
lake itself could receive the same name* After the city of 
Tiberias became, at the time of Herod Antipas, the metropolis 
of Galilee, the name of this capital was used generally to 
distinguish the water on which it lay ; and so we have, as in 
John xxi. 1, the Sea of Tiberias. This at length became the 
general designation of the lake, and was corrupted into Tabaria, 
which is the Arab name at the present day. 

^ Robinson, Bib. Besearch. IL pp. 399-414. 

^ Gescnias. Comment, zu Jesaias, L p. 350. 


2. Astronomical and Hypsometrical Situation^ Extent^ Depthy 
and NamgabUnesa. 

At the slaggish entrance of the Jordan into Lake Tiberias 
there is no place of importance. Between Jacob's Bridge^ which 
is eighty-four feet above the level of the sea, according to von 
Wildenbmchy and the surface of the Sea of Galilee, there is 
somewhere a point where the level of the river and that of the 
ocean are identical, but this place has never jet been ascer- 
tained. Sjmonds^ estimates the surface of Lake Tiberias to 
be 328 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, von Wilden- 
bruch 845 feet. The latitude of the northern eztremitj of the 
Sea of Galilee was fixed by Lieutenant Molyneux,^ during his 
expedition to the Jordan in 1847, to be 32° 52^' N. The heat 
at noon on the day when he took his observation, August 23, 
was 103'' Fah. in the shade* He discovered, in the course of 
his exploration of the lake, that it is much broader as well as 
longer than it has been supposed by those who had been unable 
to sail upon it, and had been compelled to judge by the eye. 
He estimated it to be from eight to nine miles broad, and about 
eighteen long. It had always been supposed to be a lake of 
great depth : he found this to be a mistake, however, as the 
deepest place which he discovered only ranged from a hundred 
and twenty to a hundred and fifty-six feet.' Molyneux's exa- 
mination of the Sea of Tiberias by means of a boat was one of 
the first attempts of the kind, and the little craft was carried 
from the Mediterranean, — an operation which in some places 
was attended with great difficulty. In modem times there 
seems to be no use of this lake for the purposes of navigation ; 
and yet at the time of the Saviour it seems to have been much 
sailed upon, whole fleets being sometimes on its waters at once. 
When the forces of Titus besieged the city of Tiberias, large 
numbers of the people flocked into the boats : Vespasian caused 

^ Dr Petermann, in an article on the fall of the Jordan, in vol. xyiii. 
Jour, Lon. Roy. Qeog. Soc.^ thinks it unquestionable, that accurate as are 
Symonds' general measurementB, particularly those relating to the Dead 
Sea, some great and unexplained error vitiates his estimate of the depres- 
sion of Lake Tiberias, and makes it altogether untrustworthy. — Ed. 

* lient. Molyneux, of H.M.S. ** Spartan," Expedition to the Jordan and 
the Dead Sea^ in Joum. ofihe Roy. Qeog. Soc. xviii. p. 107. 

» W. J. Hamilton, Address to the Roy. Geog. Soc. ofLondon^ 1848, p. 76. 


other ones to be built in order to follow them ; and a naval 
engagement ensaed, in which as many seem to have perished 
at sea as had abready on the land. Josephos gives the niunber 
of these as 6500. The fishing in the lake now seems to be 
carried on from the shore alone. In the last oentniy, and 
early in this, a boat was seen by Pococke, Seetzen, and Bnrck- 
hardt^ on the waters of the lake, bat at last it disappeared, 
and was mentioned no more. The only other traveller besides 
Molyneux who has ventured to explore Lake Tiberias by means 
of a boat, is Count de Bertou. The results of his observations 
are given on his own map, and in his report to the Greographical 
Society of Paris. Unfortunately we are unable to compare it 
with Uie results of Molyneux's expedition, since the untimely 
death of the officer in command, before he had time to work out 
what he had done into intelligible shape, has deprived us of 
many of the most valuable fruits of the English expedition.^ 

3. The Pieturesqueness of Lake Tiberias. 

As one approaches the lake from the west, the eastern side 
being inaccessible even at the present day in consequence of 
the unsettied state of the country, the first glimpse' which is 
gained of the basin of the Sea of Tiberias is from the summit 
of Tabor, whence its entire outline can be seen. The surface 
of the water is invisible, however; and even from the BEattin 
peaks, the Mount of the Beatitudes according to the legend, 
only the north-east comer can be descried,^ although one 
would get the impression from the fanciful and hasty descrip- 
tions of travellers, even the most recent, tiiat the whole lake 
can be seen in all its beauty from some of the adjacent heights. 
This is not true; but instead of this there are excellent oppor- 
tunities of studying the high but evenly-levelled mountain 
ranges of Bashan and Gilead, as well as those of Jaulan 
and Hauran, which are seen towards the east and south. As 

^ Barckhardt, Trav. p. 832. See TriBtram, p. 428. 

' I omit at this point the detailed result of De Bertou's measurement of 
the distances between the viUageB on the shores of Lake Tiberias : the 
original statement may be found in the BuUetin de la Soe, de Geog. Paris. 
1889, zii. pp. 146-149.— Ed. 

> Roberts, The Holy Land, vol. x. Plates 27, 28. 

4 Robinson, Bib. Hesearck. ii. p. 855. 


the traveller approaches the sea, the water long remams con- 
cealed^ and does not come into view till the edge of the deep 
basin is reached, down which there is a descent of more than a 
thousand feet. The reasons for the great historical interest of 
the lake do not fail to strike even the most casual observer,^ even 
although the landscape cannot be compared on the score of beauty 
with many others in the world. There are lacking in this regard, 
not mountams of height enough to be attractive, but those 
bold forms which are so striking in the eminences amid which 
the Swiss lakes nestle: there are also wanting the rich green 
meadows and the attractive forest trees which are found in the 
neighbourhood of the American, Scotch, English, and Bavarian 
lakes, with their mild beauty. Around Tiberias we have only ) 
bare rocks, some light-coloured, some black, a shore almost 
treeless, and whose grass even is withered, while the dark sur- 
face of the lake itself is unrelieved by a single white sail. And 
yet, despite all, the place exerts a charm upon every stranger 
who approaches it; for it is a holy place in the land both of 
promise and of fulfilment : it is the field of the early ministries 
of Jesus, the home of His disciples, often their place of refuge 
from their persecutors: its solitaiy places have often been 
hallowed by the words and deeds of the Saviour. And this 
gives to the landscape, despite its present desolate appearance, 
a peculiar and indestructible charm of its own, — a charm which 
reflects itself in the simple records of the Evangelists; as, for 
instance, in the allusions to the throwing of the nets into the 
sea, the abundant supplies of fish which the disciples brought 
to land, the scattered sheep, the sheep which follow the good 
shepherd, the only door to the fold, the lilies still found abund- 
antly gracing the field, and many others which will recur to 
the reader. 

But this lake must not be supposed to be destitute of its 
own real beauties too, particularly in the spring months, before 
the sun has power to wither die young growths. Seetzen 
tells us^ that in aU Palestine there is no district to compare 
with this in respect to natural beauty, — 'not now, indeed, 
what it was once, when art lent its kindly and powerful aid, 

^ Irby and Mangles, Trav, p. 294; Robinson, Bib. Eesearch, ii. p. S80; 
Rnssegger, Reise^ iii. p. 131 ; v. Schubert, Reise, iii. p. 281. 
' Seetzen, in Man, Corresp» xriii. p. 31S. 


and made the shores of Tiberias one of the gardens of the 
world. The present aspect of the spot — with its heaps of 
ruins, which attest the action of past earthquakes ; the whole 
eastern shore a field where wild Beduins practise unchecked 
their arts of plundering; the western side a desolate waste, 
exhibiting here and there the hamlets of the few inhabitants 
who take the place of the once dense population — ogives no clue 
to the appearance which Lake Tiberias bore at the time of its 
past glory.^ 

If we turn to the Tiberias of the past, we find that ^osephus 
praises not only the beauty, but also the fertility, of the 
shores of the lake, as well as the mildness of the atmosphere 
there. All the forest trees throve there, little as we should 
think it now ; and whatever was planted attained an excellent 
growth. Walnuts, he goes on to say, which generally love a 
cool climate, grew in profusion; and together with them the 
palm, which requires the intensest heat. Nor were there lack- 
ing figs, olives, and groves, which need a temperature inter- 
mediate between that demanded by the walnut and the palm. 
Josephus alludes again to the singular character which the 
shores of the Sea of Gennesaret have, of uniting productions 
which generally are not found to inhabit the same region, and 
says that this is only possible in a place sheltered by a system 
of ascending terraces. He asserts that European fruits were 
able to thrive there; and that such was the nature of the 
climate, that vines and figs would ripen ten months out of the 
year, while other fruits were to be always seen in a perfected 

If there is a place in the world which answers the condi- 
tions which Hipppcrates summed up in the expression, the 
^^ mingling of seasons," and which may be taken as the ideal 
of a perfect climate, it is that of the Sea of Galilee. It is the 
nearest possible approach to a perpetual spring. There is the 
same harmony in the natural world there which we sometimes 
meet in the characters of *men — a perfect balance of parts. And 
so on the shores of Tiberias we have the finest fruit and the 
most perfect growths of all kinds :• we have the conditions also 
which ought to give us the most admirably formed animals and 
the highest type of man. So long as men were expecting to find 
1 Yon Schubert, TUitt^ iii. p. 252. 


a paradise on the earth, here was the place where there was the 
most encouragement to look for it. With all the change in 
the political and social relations of men, the physical character 
of the neighbourhood is not changed, excepting so far as has 
been occasioned by the neglect and the idleness of the inhabit- 
ants. The broad sheltering basin of the lake, with its terrace 
gradations, is particularly favourable to the growth of tropical 
productions ; and even at the present day, the date palm, the 
citron, the pomegranate, the indigo^ and rice^ plant, and the 
sugar-cane,^ are found there, although their culture is miser- 
ably neglected. The heights around, on the contrary, are visited 
by cool, refreshing breezes. The free draught of the south 
wind, up the direct course of the Ghor, as well as the protec- 
tion which is afforded on the northern side against the cold 
winds of Asia, together with the moisture which is indirectly 
furnished by the snow-crowned peak of Hermon, which towers 
grandly in view,* cannot be overlooked in taking an estimate of 
the great advantages enjoyed by the sheltered basin of Lake 
Tiberias. Josephus alludes particularly to the number of 
excellent springs which are found in its neighbourhood, as a 
feature by no means to be overlooked. And in view of all 
these varied attractions, it may be safe to conjecture, that 
unimportant as are the benefits derived from this renowned lake 
at the present time, in the future its industrial value may again 
be equal to what it was when cities dotted both its shores, and 
a teeming population passed their life by its waters. 

4. Geological Characteristics^ Volcanic Formations^ Basalt 


As we enter upon the discussion of the geological character 
of the basin which contains the Sea of Galilee, we see at a 
glance that it is simply one element of the Jordan valley and 
Dead Sea, which extends due north and south for a distance of 
sixty hours. This is the Ghor, or Sunken Valley of the Arabs, 
extending from Hasbeya to the ^lanitic Gulf as a continuous 
cleft — the deepest one that is known to us. Its many varieties 
of aspect, including those found in the Sinaitic Peninsula, do 

1 Seetzen, i,a,l pp. 349, 350. 

* Ali Bey, Trav. ?i. p. 260 ; and RobiiiBon, Bih, Research, ii. p. 403. 

* Bov^, Recit Ic. BuUetinj ill. p. 388. * Russegger, Reise^ in. p. 131. 


not permit our seeing at once the unity which characterizes the 
long length of the Qhor, or recognising the volcanic nature of 
the result of convulsi9ns which took place doubtless antecedent 
to human history.^ That those convulsions took place, is well 
authenticated by the existence of large masses of volcanic rock 

^ which have broken through the superimposed crust. The 
frequent earthquakes which occur ; the form af the basin of 
Gennesarety which Russegger thinks crater-shaped (though 
certainly incorrectly, as Wilson has conclusively shown ^) ; the 
hot springs on the border of the lake ; the many caves scattered 
far and near ; the constitution of the country east of the Jordan, 
in evident geological connection with the Ghor ; the large 
deposits of naphtha in the valley of Hasbeya ; the springs of 
the same and of hot water in the neighbourhood of, and even 
in, the Dead Sea ; the lofty crystalline masses of the Sinaitic 
Peninsula, and the porphyritic dykes which are found near the 
southern extremity of this ^reat cleft ; all confirm the theory, 

^that powerful volcanic forces have been at work there. 

An important part in all this has been played, unquestion- 
ably, by the black basaltic rock, which increases in extent as we 
approach Lake Tiberias from the north and west, and which 
appears again in the neighbourhood of Damascus, on the east 
side of the Jordan, passes down through the Leja, Jaulan, 
and Hauran, to the Sheriat el Mandhur (Hieromax), and 
back again to the Sea of Tiberiits. It thus forms a colossal 
basaltic triangle,^ bearing the name of the Basaltic Trachonitis. 
The Sheriat el Mandhur breaks through it from east to west ; 
and out of the depth of the cleft thus occasioned issue the 
boiling springs of Om Keis or Gadara,* which are similar to 
those found in the neighbourhood of Tiberias. Seetzen thinks 
tliat the small river just mentioned forms the southern boundary 
of the basaltic region. 

In passing from Acre, first towards Mount Tabor, and then 
to Lake Tiberias by way of Hattin, Russegger^ first encoun- 
tered volcanic rocks on the banks of the Nahr Mechatta, or 

^ Russegger, Beise^ iii. p. 184. 

* Wilson, Lands of the Bible, ii. p. 151. . 

^ E. y. Ranmer, Das dstUche PaldsL in Annal 1880, i. pp. 554-561. 

* Seetzen, Mon. Corresp, xviii. p. 358 ; Geeenius* Burckhardt, L p. 424. 

* Rofisegger, lUise, iii. pp. 258-261. 


Kishon, — a vast basaltic dyke, which has forced its way through 
the limestone, retaining its characteristic black colour, blistered 
in appearance, and exhibiting zeolites here and there. A second 
dyke of the same nature, and no less massive, is found running 
from north to south, in the normal direction of the Ghor, as 
one leaves the plain of Esdraelon, and approaches the hills 
around Nazareth. The hills around the village, however, do 
not display traces of the volcanic stone ; but they, in common 
with the whole Galilean mountain system, are composed of the 
same limestone which is found in the neighbourhood of Jeru- 
salem. But north of Nazareth, between Kefr Kana and the 
Sea of Tiberias, there is a reappearance of basalt dykes, on 
such a scale of greatness,^ as to cause the belief that the con- 
vulsions which threw them to the surface will explain the 
curious contortions which the Jurassic and dolomitic formations, 
met with all the way to the Gulf of Acre, exhibit. The graceful 
Tabor exhibits traces, too, of having. undergone the pressure of. 
subterranean forces, which have largely affected its appearance ; 
and these are all the more apparent, when it is compared with 
the low mountain usually known as Little Hermon, which 
stands isolated on the eastern border of the Plain of Esdraelon. 
Tabor abounds with holes, which, according to Bussegger, have 
generally a cave-like appearance, and are supposed to be caused 
by the emission of suppressed gases, when these have become 
so powerful as to force their way to the surface.^ 

In the fertile rolling upland called Ard el Hamma, about a 
thousand feet^ above the level of the sea, and at the eastern 
base of Tabor, the rock is covered with soil, and very seldom is 
visible : the greater part, however, is strewn with fragments of 
basalt^ and other kinds of rubble, much of it cinder-like, and 
some exhibiting zeolites. Near Kurun Hattin {Mom heaiitu- 
dinis)^ and along the southern slope, there runs from west to 
east a valley whose surface is tolerably flat, and which slopes 
gently to the basin of Lake Tiberias: in it are found two 
cisterns and the ruins of a khan. The main road from Tabor 

1 Russegger, Reise, iii. p. 262. 

* K. V. Raumer, Dr. tertiare Kalkstein hei Paris und der Kalkstein des 
westl PalOst. in BeitrSgen 1843, p. 65. 
' Rufisegger, Reise, iii. p. ISO. 
' Bussegger, Reise : Das ProfiL Tab. vii. 2. 


to Damascus runs through it,^ leaving the city of Tiberias at 
the right. At the northern end of this valley basalt appears, 
forming an immense dyke nearly two and a half miles broad.* 
This runs down toward Lake Tiberias, and close by its border 
it towers up in the form of a knoll, the top of which is eight 
hundred feet above the level of the sea. This cannot be the 
result of any mass of molten matter flowing down, but rather 
the result of subterranean pressure, causing immense superin- 
cumbent masses to give way, and to allow the volcanic rock 
below to jet up and form its wedges and dykes, which still 
attest the terrible throes of nature. There are traces of these 
throughout the neighbourhood. North of the basalt, near the 
Hattin mountain, and close by the Safed hills, Sussegger saw 
places where the Jurassic rocks have cloven down to the level 
of the lake, by the violence of volcanic forces. 

Directly below the mighty basalt knoll just alluded to, 
jextends the crater-shaped .basin of Lake Tiberias, surrounded 
by high mountains, only broken by the cleft through which 
the Jordan takes its way. The whole eastern side of the lake 
seemed to him to be a wall of limestone, behind which lay the 
plateau of Hauran. No professed geologist has examined the 
east side of the Sea of Galilee, and I am compelled to doubt 
whether Russegger's view of what was eight or nine miles at 
least from him, can be accepted as reliable evidence; for it 
not only conflicts with the general statements of travellers in 
Hauran, that basalt is found very largely there, but it will be 
remembered by the reader that Seetzen,^ at the time of his 
hasty visit to the blind chief, recorded on a preceding page, 
speaks of the prevalence of a dark-brown basaltic stone on his 

The west shore, however, was thoroughly examined by 
Eussegger, and was found to belong to the Jurassic formation, 
excepting in the places alluded to, where basalt had been inter- 
jected in such vast dykes that they show how general the 
action of the ancient volcanic forces must have been. I cannot 
omit mentioning that in one of the valleys, running in a north- 
north-westerly direction from Lake Tiberias to a point on the 

^ Robinson, Bih, Research, ii. p. 894. 
2 Wilson, Lands of Hie Bible, ii. p. 112. 
* Seetzen, Mon, Corresp. xviii. p. 853. 


south-west side of Safed, there is a depression three or four 
hundred feet in length and a hundred feet in breadth, with 
steep lava sides running down to a depth of forty feet. A 
little pool fills the bottom of it. It is supposed to be the crater 
of a now extinct volcano,* now known as Birket el Jish. It has 
been thought that at the time of the violent convulsions which 
once shook this region, this volcano may have been the centre. 

The city of Tiberias, which is close by the lake,^ stands 
upon the lower extremity of a great basaltic dyke, which, 
although by no means uniform in its appearance throughout its 
course, yet seems to have no other lack of uniformity than 
would be occasioned by the amount of resistance which it 
encountered at the time of its upheaval, and the varied rates of 
cooling which it experienced. 

Von Schubert^ found the shore of the lake composed of 
limestone of several formations — a large part of it chalk, how- 
ever — and interspersed with the solid masses of basalt mentioned 
by Russegger and others. Out of this black basalt the walls 
of Tiberias are built, many of the houses, the most ancient 
structures in Tell Hum, and, in short, the larger part of the 
architectural remains which are met on the shores of the lake. 

At the surface the basalt has usually crumbled into shape- 
less blocks, covered with a white, earthy, decomposed substance, 
resembling phonolithic stone. Where the shape of the original 
masses has been wholly lost owing to exposure, there results a 
rich dark earth which is extremely fertile. The hot salt and 
sulphur springs which gush up in those regions, and the 
frequent earthquakes which abound in the neighbourhood of 
the lake, attest the volcanic nature of the whole region. From 
a very early antiquity the hot springs of Tiberias have attracted 
attention to themselves. They lie south of the city, on the 
southern edge of the great basaltic dyke,* but they spring not 
from the basalt itself, but from the Jurassic limestone and 
dolomite. This is yellowish-white in colour, and displays the 
shells clearly when it is quarried. Its strata extend from 
north-west to south-east, with an inclination of 15^ towards the 

^ Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 423, 424. 
' RuBsegger, Eeise^ iii. p. 260. 
» Von Schubert, Reise, iii. p. 237. 
^ Bossegger, Bdse^ liL p. 261. 


south-west. In the gorges which sink to the level of the 
lake, hasalt is everywhere found, unquestionably forming side 
branches of the main dyke, and creating a network of great 
complexity and extent. 

5. The Hot Salt Springs of Tiberias. 

These springs, which have been noticed from a very early 
period. He about a mile south of the city. Josephus often 
mentions them under the names of Emmaus and Ammaus, 
probably a Greek form of the Hebrew Ilammathy i.e. warm 
baths : the Arabic word Hammam^ by which they are now 
generally known, is a corruption of the Hebrew. Seetzen 
thinks^ that if these springs were in Europe, they would form 
one of the most attractive bathing-places in the world. Burck- 
hardt found a bathing-bouse erected over the one nearest to 
the city, and furnished with two apartments. The spring 
which is used is the largest of the four hot ones, and the supply 
of water is great enough even to turn the wheels of mills !* 
The three other hot springs, or really four, if one counts two 
smaller ones lying side by side, are two hundred steps farther 
south; and the most southern one, which is so shallow that 
the hand can scarcely be dipped into it, is the hottest of all. 
These baths are much resorted to by people afHicted with 
rheumatism, scurvy, and leprosy, from many parts of Palestine 
and Syria. 

Von Schubert found 'the hot springs to have a temperature 
of 48^ Reaum., and to contain salt and a solution of iron. He 
compares the waters with those of Carlsbad : at the bottom he 
observed sulphur and lime globules, coloured red with the oxide 
of iron. Not merely the warmth of the springs themselves 
seemed to be favourable to the persons afHicted with palsy, 
who use their waters, but the warmth of the nights there 
also seems beneficial. There prevails around Tiberias a true 
hothouse climate, and the palm flourishes there as well as in 
Akaba and Alexandria. On the north side of the city of 
Tiberias also, at Szermadin, there is a warm brook of about 
twenty degrees Reaumur,* which rushes forth from a cavernous 
outlet in the rock, and whose waters taste of salt and iron. 

* Seetzen, 3/on. Corresp. xviii. p. 849. * Burckhardt, Trav. p. 829. 

• Von Schubert, Beise^ iiL p. 239. * Ibid, p. 245. 


Its banks are abundantly overshadowed with the beautiful 
evergreen oleander with its rose-like blossoms, a true delight to 
the eyes, recalling the expression in Ps. i. 3, " A tree planted 
by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his fruit in his 
season." Still farther north there are found copious warm 
springs issuing^ from the basalt rocks, and forming brooks of 
considerable size, that dash down the steep declivity leading to 
the sea. The great number of these springs, and the abundant 
supplies of water which issue from them in a region very 
scantily supplied with springs of fresh water,^ hint very strongly 
at volcanic activities once at work there, to which they probably 
owe their existence. 

The Hammam at Tiberias are the best known of all on the 
shores of the lake, although the hot springs at Om Keis, in the 
neighbourhood of Gadara, which were visited by Burckhardt 
and Buckingham, are no less remarkable in respect to size. 
According to Kussegger's observations, the springs south of the 
city of Tiberias issue from ground which has been formed by 
a combination of basalt and limestone rubble; and although 
forming several little rivulets of water, yet the various indica^ 
tions made it certain to his mind that one parent supply is the 
source of all. About the year 1833,' Ibrahim Pasha built an 
elegant bath-house, furnished with a marble basin, and adorned 
in the luxuriant manner of European establishments of the 
same kind. At that time the water of the chief spring was 
conducted to this bath-house by an artificial canal three 
hundred paces long. As the water bursts forth to a height of 
two or three feet, Russegger thought it probable that the real 
source might be in the mountains lying directly behind the 
baths. In the course of time there have been probably many 
changes in the number and size of the springs: these it is 
impossible to ascertain. I cannot forbear, however, alluding 
to the statement of Isthakri* (middle of the tenth century), that 
the springs issue from the ground at the distance of two para- 
sangs from the city, and that the water was so hot that a hide 
thrown into it would very soon lose its hair. He remarks, 
moreover, that for culinary purposes the water can only be 

^ Schubert, ifewe, iii. p. 251. * Burckhardt, Trav. p. 882. 

» Wilson, Lands of the Bihk, ii. p. 127 ; Tristram, p. 428. 

* Isthakri, Buck der Lander^ pp. 85, 86 ; Edrisi, Jaubert's ed. i. p. 847. 


used by mixing with that from common springs : the people of 
Tiberias usually take theirs from the lake. In the twelfth 
century the springs appear to have yielded more profusely than 
they have since. Edrisi gives the names of four which were 
used as baths ; he says, besides, that there were other ones 
farther south which were much resorted to by the sick. 

The water of the main spring Kussegger found clear, with 
a strong salt taste, and a very perceptible smell of sulphuric 
acid. The temperature he found to be 46^ Keaum. when that 
of the air was 11^'' : it was scalding hot, and could be used for 
bathing only after cooling. An analysis of the water gave him 
as bases^ nitre, talc, lime, and potash: as acids, free sulphurous, 
hydrochloric, and sulphuric. Thick deposits he did not perceive, 
only a slight sediment: Robinson discovered red and green 
discoloration of the glass in which he allowed it to stand and 
settle. Von Schubert found the heat to be 48**; Robinson, who 
was there only a short time thereafter, records that it ranged 
from 48^ to 49|°, a trifling amount higher than it was in the 
winter when Russegger examined the temperature. At the 
time of the great earthquake of 1837, it was found that not 
only was the heat of the water much increased, but the amount 
of water was very much enlarged, — a fact which seemed to hint 
not at all obscurely at a connection between the springs and the 
volcanic activities which were displayed then on so extensive a 
scale. Lieut. Molyneux,^ who examined the springs in Aug. 
1847, found the temperature to be 130** Fahr.,*or about 44° R. 
Earlier measurements of the thermal state of the springs are 
aot known to have been made. 

6. The Earthquake of liZl. 

The British consul at Beirut, Mr Moore, states,^ in his report 
to the Royal Geographical Society regarding the earthquake 
which was felt in 1837 in Beirut, Cyprus, Damascus, and the 
country to the south, extending as far as Jerusalem/ that the 

* Molyneux, Exped. in Jour, of Roy. Geog. Soc. of London^ xviii. p. 107. 
^ Lieut. Lynch, of the American expedition, found the heat of the 

q)ring8 in April 1848 to be 143° Fahr.— Ed. 

* Moore, in Jour, of the Roy. Geog. Soc, vii. p. 101. 

« Thomson, Journal of a Visit to Safet and Tiberias^ Jan. 1837, in 
Missionary Herald^ vol. txxiii. pp. 433-442. 


city of Tiberias suffered much more from the upheaval than 
did the region in which the hot springs are found : the subter- 
ranean channels which convey the water to the surface seemed 
to act as the natural conductors of the pent-up gases^ and pre- 
vent the effects of their explosion. Though Tiberias did not 
suffer so seriously as Safed, yet it was left little better than a 
heap of ruins, and a thousand people — a third of the inhabitants 
— perished. For weeks after the chief convulsion, tremblings 
of the ground were experienced. The heat of the warm springs 
increased to such an extent at the time, that the thermometers 
which could be obtained were inadequate to record it ; and not 
only was the temperature higher, but the supply of water poured 
forth was greater than it had been for years before. While the 
rivers in other parts of Palestine and Syria — that at Beirut, for 
instance — forsook their beds, and left them dry for hours, the 
supply poured into the Sea of Tiberias from the hot springs 
was so largely increased, that, according to some accounts,^ 
the lake was sensibly raised above its ordinary level. There 
were rumours^ also that flames were seen breaking out in 
various places in Hauran and Jolan. These, however, lack 

A statement made to Keland by persons who had returned 
to Europe from Palestine, shows that just an opposite effect 
has been produced upon the springs by previous earthquakes, 
and that the Tiberias springs have been closed for a consider- 
able length of time. About 1710 they yielded no water for at 
least three years : it may have been a longer time, for there is 
no evidence to show at what period they began to flow again. 

The extent of territory affected by the great earthquake of 
1837 extended from north to south, and was about five hundred 
miles in length, and about ninety in breadth. There is no 
authentic information received regarding its manifestation on 
the east side of the Jordan. 

7. Water J Wind^ Climate^ and Vegetation, 

Regarding the lake itself, full accounts are yet wanting ; 
yet from what can be learned, in addition to the measurements 
already referred to, it becomes shallow towards the southern 

* Caiman, in Kitto, Phys. EisU of Pal p. xdL 
2 Wilson, Lands of the Bible, vol. ii. p. 129. 


extremity. Molyneux gives the depth near the outlet as 
eighty-four feet : at the south-east comer, near Semak, Burck- 
hardt^ was able by swimming to form some conjecture as to the 
depth; at any rate, he encountered none of the reeds and 
sedge which make really shallow places,* The water of the 
lake is sweet, and supplies a great part of the city with that 
which is needed for culinary purposes, there being no fresh- 
water springs in the neighbourhood. Both Burckhardt and 
von Schubert^ found fresh-water snails on the shoBC^as well 
as the other kinds of shell-fish which they met on the lower 
Jordan. The former traveller was unable to find any fishes 
at the southern end of the lake, where once the town of 
TarichsBa* lay, which derived its name from the curing of fish 
there ; but at the northern end he found an abundance, parti- 
cularly of carps (binni), and a kind of flat fish (mesht), a foot 
long and five inches broad. At the time of his visit the right of 
fishing in the lake was hired out by the people of Tiberias for 
seven hundred piastres, but the boat* which the fishermen had 
used was then unfit for use. Otto von Richter^ saw men stand- 
ing up to their waists in water, and catching fish in hand-nets; 
they seemed to him to be no less successful in their labour than 
the fishermen of a remote antiquity were. Kobinson pr^es 
the fine-flavoured fish of the lake, the silurus, mugil, and spams 
galilaeus of Hasselquist. Von Schubert confirms the statement 
of Josephus, that in the Sea of Tiberias are found the same 
kinds of fish which are met in the Egj^tian IjOcus Mareotis 
near Alexandria, and hence calls the Sea of Galilee the source 
of the Nile. Wilson declares that the fish of Lake Tiberias 
are excellent : he mentions the cyprinus bennii, the mesht 
(which he thinks was the spams galilaeus of Hasselquist), the 
mormyrus, which, according to Sir Gardiner Wilkinson,^ is a 
native of Egypt, and the oxyrinchus of the ancients. Wilson 
also speaks of seeing water-fowls upon the lake, among them 

1 Burckhardt, Trat\ p. 276. * Ibid. p. 832. 

« Von Schubert, Reise, iii. p. 238 ; Tristram, pp. 428, 437. 

* Seetzen, Mon, Corresp. xviii. p. 350. 

* Burckhardt, Gesenius' ed. i. p. 433, ii. p. 676. 

* Otto von Richter, WaUfahrten, p. 60. 

^ Wilkinson, Manners of ike Anc. Egypt, vol. iii. p. 58. 


f With regard to the statement of Clarke and others/ that 
the waters of the Jordan pass through the sea from one end to 
the other without mingling with those of the lake, Kobinson 
and other modem travellers have been able to ascertain nothing 
confirmatory : it is probably an enx)r occasioned in great part 
by an expression of Josephus, and strei^hened by Willibold, 
as well as by the learned Pausanias. Some of the Jewish 
rabbis, too — Jichus ha Abot, for instance — have claimed to be 
able to trace the course of the river through the lake ; and even 
Irby and Mangles say^ that at certain places the surface of the 
water is seen to be disturbed by the onward motion of the river. 
It may be that this is a matter which is more or less affected by 
changes in the amount of water, and by other varying circum- 
stances, and cannot be reduced to any general statement. 

Burckhardt states^ that the level of Lake Tiberias is some- 
times raised three or four feet during the rainy season, — a 
phenomenon perfectly intelligible in view of the many brooks 
which flow into it. Turner goes so far as to assert, that at the 
time of the heavy rains many houses are in part under water. 
The confined inland situation of the lake exposes it to the most 
violent winds and storms (Matt. viii. 23; John vi. 18); and 
this has caused a very boisterous character to be ascribed to it. 
Bussegger^ witnessed a tempest sweep over the sea about the 
last of December, dashing waves against the shore with great 
violence ; and yet on the land scarcely a breath of wind was to 
be felt. Five hundred feet higher, on the western bank, a very 
severe cold wind was experienced, coming from the distant 
Hauran plateau, which was then covered with snow. Bussegger 
suspected that the wind struck the surface of the lake at such 
an angle as to be reflected again and glance off, striking the 
shore high up the slope of the basin, and literally leaving the 
city of Tiberias beneath the motion of the atmospheric current. 
A more protracted stay than travellers usually make would 
throw much light upon this phenomenon. 

Turner,* while bathing near the north gate of Tiberias, 
discovered that in one place the water rose to the height of 86® 
Fahr. (24*^ R.) : elsewhere the temperature was much cooler. 

* Ruasegger, Retse, ill. p. 132. * Irby and Mangles, Trav, p. 295. 

■ Burckhardt, Trav. p. 832 ; W. Turner, Journal, ii. p. 142. 

^ Russegger, Reise, m, p. 136. * Turner, Joum. ii. pp. 141, 144. 


The inference was natural, that beneath the spot where he was 
swimming there are powerful hot springs. A burning sirocco 
was blowing from the south at the same time, — a wind which 
in the nights often causes great storms upon the lake. In the 
month of August, Lieut. Molyneux experienced at noon a heat 
of 103° Fahr. in the shade. During the summer these south 
winds are very common: they parch all the vegetation, and 
cause it to ignite at the touch of a single spark. When this 
occurs, the wind, overdriving the flames far and wide, effects 
a great deal of damage. Burckhardt tells us^ that it is the 
custom of the land, if such a conflagration result from the fall- 
ing of a single spark from a tobacco-pipe, to put the smoker to 
instant death. Gesenius' calls attention to the fine commen- 
tary these accidental burnings give to some passages ; in Isa. 
V. 24, for example, " Therefore, as the fire devoureth the 
stubble, and the flame consumeth the chaff," etc. In the 
spring-time there is nothing of this arid aspect to be seen, and 
the whole district is one mass of leaves and blossoms. 

The hot south winds, and the terraces which surround the 
lake, must have a great influence upon the whole course of 
vegetation, and must occasion the marked contrasts which are 
exhibited there in the various seasons. The west winds which 
prevail in Syria during the summer* are not able to strike the 
deep-lying west coast of Lake Tiberias: the situation of the 
city is therefore far from healthy, and fevers abound. The 
high plateau region in the neighbourhood, which is covered 
with snow in the winter, as well as the eternally snow-capped 
Lebanon not far away, cannot exert in their turn a less marked 
influence upon the vegetation of the shores of the lake than 
the hot south, wind does. Von Schubert remarks^ that the flora 
of the highest part of the basin around the lake is precisely 
that of Nazareth and the base of the Carmel range, while 
those which grow at the lowest part are the same as those which 
are found at Jericho. Burckhardt thought the heat at Tiberias 
equal to that experienced at the Dead Sea. This explains the 
ancient praises of the palms and the balsam shrubs which used 

* Burckhardt, Trav. p. 331. 

' Gesenius, Notes to Burckhardt, ii. p. 1056. 

• Burckhardt, Trav. p. 820. 

^ Yon Schubert, lUiae^ iii. p. 232. 


to be found in both locab'ties; but although palms are still 
found growing in the neighbourhood of Tiberias/ von Schubert 
was unable to discover any trace of the balsam. Strabo's 
allusion ^ to fiaka-afiovy on the shores of Gennesaret, seems to 
arise from a hasty confounding of the place with Jericho. 
Still it is evident^ as Cotovicus has shown/ that many plants 
which once throve on the shores of the lake are found there no 
longer. The narrow plains along the shore, remarks Burck- 
hardt, would be able to produce every kind of tropical fruit ; 
yet the inhabitants of Tiberias content themselves with raising 
wheat, barley, dhurra, tobacco, melons, grapes, and some kinds 
of garden vegetables. The melons* are of the finest quality, 
and are in much demand in Acre and in Damascus, being sup- 
plied a month before those raised in the vicinity of those places 
come into the market. 

The winters in Tiberias must be somewhat more severe 
than in Jericho, for snow is sometimes, though very rarely, 
met there : at the time of Robinson's visit, the wheat harvest 
was ended on the 14th of May at the latter place, while at 
Tiberias the last was not housed before the 19th of June. 
Sesam, cotton, and indigo are to a certain extent raised^ upon 
the borders of the lake. 


I. The Galilean or west and north-west side of the Lake. 

The present desolate aspect of the country around the Sea 
of Tiberias is in the most marked contrast with the great pro- 
sperity which was exhibited there at a former day, when the 
cities which only exist at present as shattered and crumbling 
ruins were thronged with a busy population. Only the western 
shore of the lake is trodden by civilised men to-day, and the 

1 Burckhardt, Trav. p. 323 ; von Schubert, Reise, iii. p. 235. 

* Gesenius, Notes to Burckhardt, Pt. ii. Note to p. 105. 
« Cotovicus, Itinerar. ed. Antw. 1619, p. 358. 

< Burckhardt, Trav. p. 322. See Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. p. 388. 

* Abulfed» TaJnd. Syr. ed. Koehler, p. 35. 


only two places even there which are at all important are Safed 
and Tiberias. The wild tracts of Jolan or Gaulonitis, east of 
the lake, and the savage land of the Gadarenes north of the 
Sheriat el Mandhur, with the ancient cities of Gadara, Hippos, 
and Gamala, whose ruins may be seen on the summits of the 
distant hill-tops, have never been visited by any' Europeans 
with the exception of Seetzen and Burckhardt, and even 
they were able to catch only stolen glimpses of the unsub- 
dued, and inhospitable region. No one has ever been able to 
pass around the lake, as Seetzen wished to do; and all we 
know of the population there is gathered from the few obser- 
vations of Seetzen and Burckhardt, taken under exceedingly 
unfavourable circumstances. 

On the west coast of the lake and in the adjacent valleys 
there are several walls, springs walled up, caves, graves, and 
other tokens of former habitation : these are in many instances 
surrounded by fortresses, some of which appear to date back 
to a very remote period, others not further back than the time 
of the Saracens. These have never, however, been carefully 
studied : we only know them from the casual allusions to them 
by hasty travellers. 

The western coast was once inhabited by the Galilean 
mountaineers, from whom many of the apostles were selected 
(Acts i. 11, ii. 7), — an active, remarkable people, despised by 
the Jews, but honoured by the Saviour, and made the medium 
of diffusing the gospel among the Jews as well as the Gentiles. 
Josephus, the rigid Pharisee, praises the Galileans on the score of 
their extraordinary industry, their agricultural skill, their thrift 
in business, and the valour which they always displayed. The 
sea-coast was 'strewn with cities and villages, and the population 
must have been an exceedingly dense one, else Josephus would 
not have been able to say that it would have been an easy thing 
for him to raise up an army of a hundred thousand volunteers 
for the defence of Galilee against the Romans. Some of their 
towns contained 15,000 inhabitants each. Not tlie tenth part 
of this number could be called together at the present day. 
The east side of the lake, on the other hand, seems always to 
have been inhabited by restless, unsettled tribes, unable, as 
Josephus says, to live in peace : their fixed abodes were upon 
the tops of hills, and some of their ruins may be seen at the 


present time, — as, for instance, those of Gamala, Hippos, and 

Although, in comparatively modem times, Tiberias has 
become the chief place in Galilee, in Josephus' day Sephoris 
was the most important place ; and the mountain district known 
by the name of Galilee seems to have been more inland than 
the tracts belonging to Naphtali and Zebulon, extending from 
the springs of the Jordan to the outlet of the Sea of Chinnereth. 
This district only subsequently became a part of Galilee. 

A proof of this Gesenius^ finds in the primitive application 
of the name Galilee to a region very unimportant in size in com- 
parison with that which the province of Galilee subsequently 
became: see the allusion to it in the times of Solomon and 
Hiram, in 1 Kings ix. 11 and 2 Kings xv. 29, where it can only 
mean a limited tract of Naphtali. This is yet more plainly seen 
in Josh. XX. 7, "Kedesh in Galilee, in Mount Naphtali ;" and this 
expression, Kedesh in Galilee, is one of very frequent occur- 
rence (Josh. xxi. 32; 1 Chron. vi. 76). RosenmuUer's claim,^ 
that the words "in Galilee" are annexed merely to distinguish 
it from another Kedesh, seems superfluous, since the expression 
" in Naphtali" would have been suflBcient to distinguish it from 
the Kedesh in Judah and that in Issachar. It may be set down 
as tolerably certain, that the Kedesh whose position we have 
already fixed on the north-west side of the waters of Merom, 
was a central spot in the ancient province of Galilee, at a period 
when the shores of the subsequent Sea of Galilee could not 
strictly bear that name. The word has been supposed to be 
derived from the Hebrew Galil or Galilah, which originally 
signifies a circle, and which could naturally be applied to a 
region whose proportions were continually expanding. And 
here we find the first clue to explain the scorn which was 
universally displayed toward Galileans, and which appears in 
the New Testament as exercising a decided influence upon the 
Israelites in their relations to the Teacher of Nazareth (Matt. 
xxvi. 69 ; Luke xxiii. 6) ; the scorn to which Isaiah alludes as 
to be taken away when Galilee should attain her promised glory 
(Isa. ix. 1, 2), " Nevertheless, the dimness shall not be such as 
was in her vexation, when at the first He lightly afflicted the 

^ GeseniuB, Commentar zu Isaias, i. p. 850 et seq. 
* Rosenmuller, Bibl AUerthk. ii. p. 42, 


land of Zebulon, and the land of Naphtali, and afterward did 
more grievously afflict her by the way of the sea, beyond 
[this ^de of : Luther's Germ, trans.] Jordan, in Galilee of the 
nations. The people that walked in darkness have seen a great 
light ; they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon 
them hath the light shined." The ignominy which rested upon 
Galilee was occasioned by the fact that, in spite of the bravery 
of the people of Naphtali and Zebulon, they had, from the very 
time when their territory was apportioned to them, been willing 
to receive the Gentiles or heathen among themselves. They 
remained in closer alliance with their idolatrous neighbours 
than any of the other tribes. Of Zebulon the prophecy had 
been spoken, ^^ He shall dwell at the haven of the sea ; and he 
shall be for a haven of ships ; and his borders shall be unto 
Sidon." This implied industrial and commercial occupations 
which were foreign to the genius of the Hebrew policy, and led 
first to the transfer of twenty Galilean cities by Solomon to 
Hiram king of Tyre (1 Kings ix. 11); and subsequently to 
idolatry in Dan, at the head waters of the Jordan, on Hermon, 
and in other parts of the mountain land. The marriage of 
the Israelites with the daughters of the heathen followed as a 
matter of course; and this unrighteous connection, together with 
the idolatrous worship, was the occasion of the scorn expressed 
by Isaiah, as well as by Matt. iv. 15, in those words, " Galilee 
of the Gentiles," which had become current. The ill repute 
in which the Galileans stood may have been increased by the 
misfortunes endured at the hands of Benhadad and Tiglath- 
Pileser, as well as by the coarse Syrian dialect, and the strong 
guttural^ accent of the mountaineers, and many other things 
which throw light upon the question put by Kathanael to Jesus, 
^* Can any good thing come out of Nazareth I" (John i. 46, 
vii. 52.) 

1. The City of Tiberias^ the Taharia of the present time? 

' It was only in the time pf Herod i. that Roman luxury was 
introduced into that part of northern Palestine which extends 
from the Sea of Tiberias, the Banias spring of the Jordan. 

« Winer, Bib, Realw, i. p. 888. 

s H. Reland, Pal pp. 1036-1042 ; Rosenmiiller, Bib, AUerihk. ii. p. 74 ; 
V. Raumer, Palast. p. 138. 


Herod ii., generally known as Antipas, the builder of Sephoris 
and Betharamphtha Julias, and the brother of Philip, to whose 
munificence Csesarea Philippi and Bethsaida Julias owed their 
erection^ was the founder of the city of Tiberias, whose name 
was derived from the well-known Boman emperor and patron 
of Herod. He preferred the sea-side to any other place of 
residence, and surrounded the palace which he built there with 
dwellings for his court, with amphitheatres, bath-houses, and 
temples. Josephus tells us, that in order to make room for all 
his buildings, he was obliged to remove several graves which 
occupied the spot which pleased his fancy. Here he put up 
costly works of art, some of which in their ruin Burckhardt 
thought^ he recognised, among them a bas-relief of a lion 
strangling sheep ; but Scholts regards this rather as Phoenician 
workmanship. More recent investigation still shows that this 
is modem ; and Mr Banks, at the time of his visit, while carefully 
examining the relic referred to by Burckhardt, discovered an 
Arabic inscription, leaving no room to believe that such a work 
left by Herod has survived the lapse of time. The changes 
effected by Herod were doubly distasteful to the orthodox Jews, 
as it was entirely against their traditions for any one to build 
upon the graves of the dead. So, in the early days of Tiberias, 
there were but few Jews who settled there : Herod was driven 
to the expedient of compelling Galileans to be his builders; 
Gentile colonists were induced by liberal gifts to settle in the 
new city; the place grew rapidly, and at the time of the Saviour 
had become very flourishing. 

It is not probable that any older place occupied the site of 
Tiberias, for the reason just referred to, namely, that the Jews 
always placed their graves just outside of the city or town 
where tiiey lived ; but this affords ground for supposing that 
there may have been a place of some importance in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood.^ The Talmud speaks of a Bakkath near 
by, and identifies this with the ancient Hammath. It has also 
been supposed to be the same as the Chinnereth referred to in 
Josh. xix. 35. 

1 Bnrokhardt, Trav, p. 821. 

' See also Jicfans ha Abot, in Carmoly, IHniraireB^ pp. 385, 446 ; also 
Borckhaidt, Geseniiu' ed. li p. 574 ; and Herbelot, Bib, Orient, s,v. Lok- 
man; Gnnther Wahl, Koran, p. 383. 

VOL. n. B 


In the Gospels there is no allusion to any visit of the Saviour 
to the city where His most formidable opponent lived. After 
Herod had caused John the Baptist to be beheaded (Matt. xiv. 
1-22), Jesus withdrew to the east side of the sea, and amid the 
solitudes there He fed the great multitude who went out to see 
Him, supplying the wants of five thousand at once. After- 
wards He returned (13th and 14th verses) to Gennesaret, on 
the western side of the lake. The beastly excesses and the vices 
of the Roman court had been transferred to this rankly growing 
capital of the weak and yet cruel princes of Galilee. Tiberias 
remained the metropolis of that province till the Emperor Nero 
placed Agrippa ii. over Galilee, when Sephoris became the 
capital. Always in quarrels with the parent city of Jerusalem, 
the inhabitants surrendered voluntarily to Vespasian, and their 
city was spared. It became in the time of the great Jewish 
afflictions a refuge for the rabbis. The great tribunal of the 
Sanhedrim was transferred to Tiberias, after having held its 
sessions for a while in Sephoris. Thirteen sjmagogues subse- 
quently arose in Tiberias ; and in the beginning of the third 
century a school of Jewish legal lore was established,^ which 
afterwards attained to great celebrity, and became the centre of 
those who clung to the literal traditions of the Jewish faith. 
This city became, in consequence of the founding of the Tal- 
mudic school, the place where the Hebrew language was spoken 
in its purity ; and Jerome speaks with a certain degree of com- 
placency of the advantage which he had enjoyed in learning 
Hebrew of a rabbi of Tiberias. 

In the fourth century, Constantino the Great built the first 
Christian church which had ever been known in that city, and 
named it after St Peter, in allusion to his former residence on 
the shores of the lake close by. The builder of it, who was a 
baptized Jew, is said to have taken the materials for the church 
from an unfinished temple, the Adrian um, which had been used 
as a bath. Justinian, with his love of magnificence, surrounded 
the city with massive walls ; in the year 449 it became the seat 
of a bishopric, but this was subsequently included within the see 
of Nazareth. The city was sacked by the Caliph Omar in the 
seventh century, and subsequently by Saladin^ in the thirteenth, 

1 J. Lightfooti Opp, omn, Roteod. fol. 1686, vol. ii. foL 223-230. 
« Abulfeda Tab, Syr. ed. Koehler, p. 81. 


when it was much injured. It began then to pass into a state 
of ruin ; its palaces, churches, synagogues, did not again resume 
their old splendour, and the ravages of earthquakes only com- 
pleted the desolation. From that time Safed enjoyed the pre* 
eminence which till then had been the possession of Tiberias 

The ancient city seems to have extended at the time of 
Josephus as far along the shore of the lake southward^ as to 
the hot springs, and the ruins which are seen at the present 
day confirm the account. The modem city is about a mile 
distant from the baths, and is built of the fragments of the 
ancient one. The numerous blocks of stone, many of them of 
Egyptian syenite, of granite, and of marble, which strew the 
ground, particularly in the neighbourhood of the hot springs, 
are in the strongest contrast witli the poverty and squalor of the 
present town, whose walls were twenty feet high at the time 
of Burckhardt's visit, but which have been so shattered by 
the earthquake of 1837 that they are not longer of any avail 
against the attacks^ of the Beduins; and the garrison which 
defends the city is compelled to put up its tents outside, and 
encamp there. Burckhardt, Turner, and Scholtz have each 
spoken^ fully of the condition of the city and of its inhabitants 
(particularly of the Jewish portion) at the time of their visit, 
and I need only refer to their statements. Wilson,* describing 
his visit in 1843, speaks fully of the state of the city after the 
great earthquake had done its work. Of the population which 
Burckhardt found in Tiberias, about four thousand souls, only 
the half were there at the time of Eobinson's visit. The part 
of the city which had been destroyed was not restored ; the 
place was wholly open on the lake side, and not a trace could 
be found of the formerly jealously closed Jewish quarter. 
At the northern extremity, Burckhardt, as well as Irby and 
Mangles,* discovered the remains of a very ancient portion of 
the city lying high above the lake, and its walls were profusely 

1 Burckhardt, Trav, p. 820 ; Scholtz, Reise in Pal 1822, pp. 157, 218. 

* Wilson, The Lands of the Bible, ii. p. 112. 

« Burckhardt, Trav. pp. 820-331 ; TV. Turner, Journal, etc.^ ii. pp. 
140-144 J Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 880-386. 

* Wilson, Lands of the Bible, ii. p. 113. 

* Irby and Mangles, Trav. pp. 293-296 ; Burckhardt, Trav. p. 820. 


adorned with columns of the most beautiful red granite, sup- 
posed to be Egyptian in its origin. On some of the threshing- 
floors near by, Robinson discovered shafts of polished syenite, 
three feet in diameter.^ Russegger discovered a portion of the 
old church of St Peter standing near the lake, and took up his 
lodgings for the night in the confessional, only eight feet above 
the surface of the water. The filth,^ the miasma arising from 
the soil, the vermin bred in the sultry atmosphere, have caused 
it to pass into a proverb, that ^^ the king of the fleas holds his 
court at Tiberias." This Wilson found only too true ; and 
while excavating one of the arches of the Jewish synagogue, 
he plucked these vermin off his clothes in handf uls : the walls 
were literally red with them. The Arabs content themselves 
in their misery by saying* that it is "the curse of Allah.** 

Formerly Tiberias, with a dozen of the adjacent villages, 
formed a district of the pashalio of Acre, and the Jews paid a 
yearly tribute of three tliousand five hundred piastres for the 
protection which they enjoyed. The garrison* did not consist, 
as at Saf ed, of Mogrebin from Africa, but of men from Affghan- 
istan and Cashmere.^ In consequence of the large immigra- 
tion during the past century of Spanish Jews called Sephardim, 
and whose language is still that which they brought with them, 
as well as by the settlement of numerous Polish and German 
Jews, called Ashkenazim, who came from various parts of Syria 
and the Levant, there are to be seen many grey beards in 
Tiberias as well as in Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed, the four 
sacred cities in one of which they hope to die, and by their 
dying to avert the impending vengeance which otherwise awaits 
the world. This delusion® has been made general in conse- 
quence in part of the incorrect interpretation of Deut. xxxii. 43, 
" Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people; for He will avenge the 
blood of His servants, and will render vengeance to His adver- 
saries, and will be merciful unto His land and to His people,'* 

^ Robinson, Bib, Research, li. 385. 

' Bnickhardt, Trav. p. 320 ; Turner, Joum,^ etc., U. p. 142 ; Irby and 
Mangles, p. 294. 

* Irby and Mangles, Trav, p. 292. 

* Bnrckhardt, Trav. p. 320. 

* W. Turner, Joum,, etc.^ ii. p. 142. 

* Asher, Benjamin von Tudela^ iL p. 93. 


which is interpreted as if the country could make good the sins 
of its people, and as if they who were buried in Palestine would 
not be called to a future account. It is this delusion which 
brings so many every year to lay their bones in the ground 
which is endued with such saving virtues. And Tiberias has, 
in spite of all its misfortunes, been a favourite resort of the 
Jews who came to the Holy Land ; and the Jewish population 
has experienced also more lenity at the hands of the Turks, than 
that of Damascus and some other cities. The Jews carry on 
less trade, and are less proficient in industrial pursuits, than 
elsewhere : they spend the most of their time in Hebrew studies, 
and in religious contemplations. In the libraries Scholtz found 
manuscripts of the fifth century, and Hebrew and rabbinical 
books from European presses in Amsterdam, Lisbon, Italy, 
Germany, and Constantinople.^ Among the evils to which 
they are exposed, not the least is the plague, which is not a 
stranger in Tiberias. It will be a question which only the 
future can solve, whether this city shall ever rise again from 
the low condition into which it has sunk. But the long- 
cherished delusion, that the Messiah will make His appearance 
at Tiberias, is one which is so confidently maintained, that many 
foolish devotees will yet be persuaded thither. The Scripture 
passage which is pleaded in favour of this opinion is Isa. ix. 2, 
'^ The people that sat in darkness have seen a great light," etc.: 
they who repeat it have no conception that the fulfilment of 
the prophecy has already come, and was referred to by John 
the Baptist in Matt. iii. 12-14. 

At the time of Wilson's' visit (1843) there was a popu- 
lation of about 2000 inhabitants, of whom eight hundred were 
Jews. The great destructiveness of the catastrophe of 1837 
does not seem to have prevented population from returning to 
Tiberias. There are the same Jewish sects there which Burck- 
hardt found — ^the Sephardim and the Ashkenazim. Wilson 
studied their ways with a curious eye, and was received as a 
guest by the chief rabbi. The Sephardim are mostly natives of 
Tunis, Morocco, Fez, and other parts of northern Africa. In 
addition to their synagogue, they have three public rooms 
where young men read tlie Scriptures and offer their comments. 
The conversation of this sect is carried on mainly in Spanish 
1 Scholtz, Beise, p. 248. > WOson, Lands of the Bible, ii. pp. 129-184. 


and Hebrew, very little in Arabic. They have almost no con- 
nection with Europe. The Ashkenazim are not so numerous, 
embracing a population of about three hundred, while the 
Sephardim amount to five hundred. They are from Austria, 
Russian Poland, and Galicia, and use the Polish language : they 
do not pay tribute as a rule to the pasha of Acre, as most of 
them are provided with passes, and are under the protection of 
European consulates. The information which Burckhardt gives 
regarding the Jews of Tiberias relates, according to Wilson, 
only to the Ashkenazim, whose worship as it is conducted in the 
synagogue is very striking. At the daily reading of the Psalms 
of David, the listeners accompany with gestures, which often- 
times are very earnest, and their voices chime in in a very high 
key : they often imitate trombones and trumpets through the 
hollow of their hand, and beat time with their fists and feet. 
The references to the coming of the Messiah excite the wildest 
excitement throughout the synagogue, which subsides into quiet 
as the worshippers take their way homeward.^ 

2. EIrMejel (Migdol)^ Magdala; eUGliuweir {Little Glior\ 
or the Plain of Gennesaret; the Wadi el Hamniam; ilie 
Kalaat Ibn Maan^ or Hammam; the Castle of Doves. 

North of Tiberias, on the west coast of the lake, a single 
day's journey takes the traveller through the sites of Magdala, 
Bethsaida, Gennesaret, and Capernaum, — scenes of classic in- 
terest in connection with the New Testament. Few traces of 
their former aspect are now to be seen, however. 

Going northward from Tiberias, we meet in half an hour 
a small wadi, through which a path may be taken which will 
lead into the regular road from Tabor to Damascus. Here lie 
five or six profuse springs near together, to which the name 
Ain el Berideh has been given,* i.e. the " cool fountains," to 
distinguish them from the hot ones south of Tiberias. They 
have a warmer temperature than the air ; at least this was so 
at the time when the point was tested: the atmosphere was 
84® Fahr., the springs 86^ The water is very clear, and only 
slightly brackish. Eobinson was unable to decide whether the 

^ See Tristram^s account of the present state of Tiberias, Land of Israel^ 
pp. 424, 496. 

' Robinson, Bih, Research, ii. p. S94. 


cisterns which had been built to hold the water were ancient 
or modem; they were, however, overshadowed by oleanders 
and by nubk-bushes. Irby and Mangles speak^ of them as six 
Roman baths of mineral water, and of a lukewarm temperature: 
this Wilson confirms. Schubert speaks of a small arm of the 
lake about a mile north of Tiberias, into which runs a brook of 
warm water, that issues from a cavity in the rock over which 
oleanders grow profusely. His account as to distance agrees 
with that of the travellers already referred to in this connection, 
although Schubert gives^ the name of Szermadein to the place. 
Yet it cannot be denied that, in respect to the number of the 
springs, the form and extent of the wall which encloses them^ 
and the characteristics of the water yielded, there are discre- 
pancies' in the various travellers who have alluded to them, 
only to be explained by their concealment beneath the oleanders, 
and by the more or less hasty manner in which they have been 

Passing northward, we find the shore somewhat higher than 
before, and soon come to an open plain, in which lies^ the 
pitiful little Mohammedan village of Mejel, once enclosed 
within walls which are now a heap of ruins. Seetzen^ spent a 
night there, and estimated the distance as one and a quarter 
hours from Tiberias : he writes the name Majel, Burckhardt 
Mejel. The latter recognised the place, judging from the 
name, as the site of the ancient Magdala, from which Mary 
Magdalene probably received her name (Mark xv. 40 ; Luke 
viii. 2) ; a place which, according to the whole tenor of the 
Gospels (comp. Matt. xv. 29, 39, with Mark viii. 10), must 
have lain on the west side of the lake.* Dalmanutha, which 
Mark mentions in connection with it, appears to have been on 
the border of Magdala : its name does not seem to have been 

And, indeed, it is a singular thing that the name of a little 

^ Irby and Mangles, Trav, p. 800 ; Wilson, Lands of (he BtbUy H. p. 135. 

* Von Schubert, Beise, iii. p. 245. 

^ See Buckingham's Trav, in Pal ii. p. 884 ; Eitto, Palestine^ Phys, 
Geog, of, ii. p. 284, Note 6 ; Burckhardt, Trat;. p. 820. 

* Robinson, BSb, Research, iL p. 897. 

* Seetzen, Mon. Corrtsp. xviii. p. 849 ; Burckhardt, Trav. p. 820. 

* K. V. R&umer, PaL p. 122, Note; also p. 180 


fishing village lying on the border of the sea, and sheltered by 
high cliffs, has continned to be called as it was in the Saviour's 
time, while many of the great cities of the world have wholly 
disappeared. And we have the more reason to be grateful in 
this instance, from the fact that this one is so closely connected 
with the memory of Mary Magdalene. 

The supposition that Magdala was on the east side of the 
lake,^ where indeed there was a "Migdol by Gadara," is 
entirely groundless ; and there are even in the Talmud repeated 
allusions to Magdala as being in the neighbourhood of Tiberias, 
and a favourite resort of learned Jews.^ The expression " by 
Gadara" was unquestionably added to the other place of this 
name, in order to distinguish it from the home of Mary 
Magdalene. Gesenius thinks^ it probable that the Migdal-el 
alluded to in Josh. xix. 38 as one of the cities of Naphtali is 
the Magdala on the western shore of Lake Tiberias ; but as 
the Hebrew word indicates the Tower of God, and as the 
domain of Zebulun covered the territory south of Capernaum 
(which lay, according to Matt. iv. 13, on the borders of 
Naphtali and Zebulun), the view of Gesenius does not seem 
admissible, though the name Migdal is a Hebrew word which 
exactly corresponds to the Greek Magdala, and although 
Buckingham claims to have discovered the remains of a square 
gate which he thinks to be of very ancient origin. Wilson 
discovered^ that a band of gipsies, fifty in number, had taken 
up their abode in Mejel, and gained a living as tinkers, 
ipusicians, and as agricultural labourers; they claim to be 
Mohammedans. Wilson addressed them in one of the dialects 
of India, and was understood perfectly, — a sure proof of their 
Indian extraction, of which they had lost all tradition. They 
lived in huts which they built for themselves out of dry rushes. 
He remarks that the village is not without traces of ancient 
walls and foundations, perhaps belonging to the Magdalum 
Capellum Magdalas Marice to which Breydenbach alludes. 

From the springs at Tiberias the shore runs north-west^ as 

^ Soholtz, Rdse, p. 168. * lightfooti 0pp. Omn. ii. p. 226. 

^ (jreseniiu, Note to Barckhardt, ii. p. 104 ; comp. Baomer, p. 130, 
Note 89. 

* Wilson, Lands of the Bible, ii. p. 306. 

' Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 897 ; Burckhardt, Trav. p. 359. 


far as to Mejel, then it bears north-east. The hills of lime- 
stone, interspersed with basalt dykes, come down very near to 
the sea up to that point, and then recede, leaving a fine 
crescent^^haped plain two or three miles long and a third of 
a mile wide, at the northern extremity of which is Khan 

At the south-west this plain begins to ascend gradually 
to a height of three or four hundred feet, towards the high 
plateau of Sahel Hattin : the Wadi el Humam (the Hammam 
of Burckhardt), winding down the same elevated tract in a 
south-westerly direction, breaks through the ridge, and north 
of the same runs to the sea. Towards the west and north the 
high land rises less steeply from the sea, and to a less altitude. 

On the high precipitous cliff on the north-west side of the 
Wadi el Hum&m, and a half-hour^s distance west of Mejel, 
lie the ruins of Kalaat Ibn Ma'an, described by Burckhardt, 
Irby, and Mangles. A careful study of them is needed 
yet, in the opinion of Olshausen,^ to set at rest some ques- 
tions of great historical interest, supposed by him to be con- 
nected with them. Burckhardt heard' much about this old 
castle, which was named after the son of a certain Ma'an, 
or, according to some, was more strictly designated Kalaat 
Ham&m, or the Castle of Doves, in consequence of many 
wild pigeons being found in that neighbourhood. Schubert 
confirms the reason of the latter name, for he found large 
numbers of turtle-doves which had made their nests in the 
cavities of the wadi. Burckhardt describes the castle as a 
singular structure, apparently made by connecting ancient 
caves, many of them of large size, by means of passage-ways, 
building up rude external walls where weak places existed, 
and here and there breaking up the interior in the same 
way. A single footpath leads into it from below, running 
up so steeply that a horse cannot ascend it; in the interior, 
which is large enough to shelter six hundred men, there 
are several cisterns cut in the rock. The walls are at present 
in a very imperfect state : a few arches testify to the Gothic 
character of the structure, and make it probable, according 

^ Olahatusen, Rev. in Wien Jahrh, vol. di. p. 216. 
* Burckhardt, Trav. p. 831 ; v. Schubert, Reise, iii. 251 ; Wilson, 
Landsy eto., ii. p. 188. 


to Burckhardt, that it was the work of the crusaders. Mr 
Banks, with his companions Irby and Mangles,^ spent two 
days in examining the place, but did not publish the result of 
his investigations. He held the castle to be the Jotapata 
which Josephus mentions, in which conclusion I do not agree, 
as will be seen in another place. Mr Banks is very certain, 
however, that the citadel is older than the Homan occu- 
pation of Palestine. In the various recesses which previous 
travellers^ considered to be burial-places, not a trace of what 
might indicate sepulture there was seen. On the way from 
Mejel to this castle, there were passed on the left side the . 
remains of several convents, as they seemed,— one built close 
against the steep wall ; and on the other side was the village of 
Erbed or Irbid, where were seen some Koman ruins. This 
Irbid or Irbil is the Arabic form for Arbela, probably the 
house Arbel, or Beth-arbel, mentioned^ in Hos. x. 14, which 
was destroyed by Shalman. It is without question the site of 
the caves of Arbela, where robber hordes used to issue forth 
and attack Herod as he went to Sephoris ; it is also the place 
which Josephus fortified against the Romans. Yon Eaumer, 
Robinson, and Wilson all agree in thinking that the whole 
body of evidence makes this certain. The last-named traveller 
has paid particular attention to the admirable character of the 
place as a defensive post. It commands the road from rocky 
Galilee to Damascus ; it communicates directly with the Castle 
of Doves. Another road runs to the Wadi Rabadiyah, another 
(open for a part of the year at least) to Wadi el Amud, and 
still another to the great spring Ain et Tin at the Khan 
Minyeh. Wilson* confirms Burckhardt's descriptions of many 
natural caves in the limestone range, which earlier travellers 
took for burying-places,* but he says that they begin in the 
upper third of the perpendicular rock-wall. The plunge down 
into the Wadi Hammam is very precipitous. On the side of 
the ravine opposite to Kalaat there are other caves which 
travellers before Wilson had not noticed. The so-called 
Kurftn Hattin, or Horns of Hattin {Mons beatitudinis), are 

* Irby" and Mangles, Trav, p. 299. * Tristram, p. 448. 
« H. Relandi, Pal p. 675. 

* Wilson, Lands of the Bibk, ii. pp. 138, 807-309. 

* Clarke, Trav. torn. iL p. 466. 


only the continuation of the rocky Wadi el Ham&m, whose 
topographical character could not fail to be remarked at a very 
early period, although the ruined walls upon them seem to 
date only from a modem period. 

The fertile plain, at whose south-east comer the present 
village of Mejel with its gipsy population lies, bears the local 
name of Ard el Mejel :^ elsewhere it is known among the 
Arabs as el-Ghuweir, or the Little Ghor, and corresponds, 
even in the details of extent, to the district, thirty stadia long 
and twenty broad, which Josephus designated as Gennesar or 
Gennesaret, and which he pictures in the most glowing colours, 
although it may be with a touch of exaggeration. From 
Mejel to the Khan Minyeh there is a straight path, about an 
hour long, leading near the lake. Burckhardt, who entered 
the plain from the north, says that the pasturage is so rich 
there that it has become a proverb in the neighbourhood : on 
the shore he found sedge and rushes, but no traces of the 
aromatic reed which Strabo ascribes to Gennesar. He found 
the plain scattered over with the trees which bear the names 
dum and thedety probably the sidr or lotus napeca. Seetzen, 
who also entered the plain on the north side, was charmed 
with the place, and thought it worthy of having been one of 
the favourite resorts of the Saviour. It was near it that he 
discovered^ the Khan Bat Szaida, referred to in a preceding 
page. Von Schubert, who entered the plain from the south, 
speaks' of its great fertility; he also alludes to the brooks 
which enter from the west and water it, particularly the Wadi 
el Ham&m, which comes down from Hattin ; he also speaks, as 
does Burckhardt also, of a village called Senjol lying in the 
heights of the west. In this, however, he follows Berghaus' 
Atlas, which in its turn is based upon Burckhardt's statement. 
But neither Robinson nor Wilson, in their exceedingly careful 
examination of the plain of Gennesaret, were able to discover 
such a place, and the former supposes that Burckhardt con- 
founds Irbid (Arbela) with it. Both Robinson and Wilson 
allude in the strongest terms to the fertility of the plain, which 

1 Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. 442-447 ; Wilson, Lands of the Bibkf ii. 
pp. 136-140, 806 ; Burckhardt, Trav. p. 819. 
' Seetzen, Mon. Carresp, xviii. p. 848. 
' Yon Schubert, Reise, iii. p. 251. 


remains just as it was at the time of Josephus, excepting that 
it is now used miunly for pasture, and lies fallow. The soil 
consists of a black loam formed by the mingling of decomposed 
basalt with the alluvium of the lake. In the morasses which 
occur, rice flourishes finely, and the few acres which are else- 
where under cultivation yield ample returns of all kinds of crops. 

^ On the west side, directly below the Castle of Doves, 

and at the opening of Wadi el Ham&m, Robinson saw the 

, ruins of a village called Chvu*bel Wadi el Hamam. Wilson, 

who entered the plain at the outlet of this wadi, made his way 

X along the west side, passing the ruins of Abu Shusheh, which 

Robinson^ speaks of as a mere ruined village, without memorials 

of antiquity. Here Wilson found some storehouses, in which 

the Arabs deposited the results of their harvestings. This place 

^ Pococke* thought was the Bethsaida of the Gospels, because, in 

^ reply to his direct questions put to the Arabs whether it were 

/ not so, he was told that it was called Baitsida. He speaks of 

/ seeing there cisterns and buildings, among them a large church, 

' with a door of finely wrought marble, and several pillars. No 

subsequent eye-witness confirms his account, however. It may 
be, that whatever he may have seen, has been converted into 
the corn magazines of the Arabs, to which Wilson alludes. 

3. The Springs and Brooks of the Plain of Gennesaret : the 
Khan Minyehy at the northern extremity : Bethsaida^ the 
Bat Szaida of Seetzen. 

Robinson took his way from Mejel through the plain, 
following an artificial watercourse, which led him to the out^ 
let of the Wadi Rabadiyah, which has been already alluded to. 
Towards the south he discovered in the plain a spring called 
Ain el Mudanwarah, or the '^ round fountain :" it was walled 
up, and was about a hundred feet in diameter and two feet 
deep, but was so overgrown with bushes that few travellers 
have ever observed it Pococke, however, alludes to it under 
this name,^ and supposes that near it lay the ancient Caper- 
naum, — a view which Robinson at first held, but which he was 
obliged to relinquish, from not finding any architectural relics 

^ Wilson, Lands^ etc.^ ii. p. 810 ; Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. 340. 
s R Pococke, Trav, Ger. ed. ii. p. 99. 
« Pococke, Pt. ii. p. 105. 


whatever in the neighbourhood. He remarks that the water 
of the spring is of service in supplying the plain with mois- 
ture, but not nearly so much so as the stream which courses 
down the Wadi Eabadiyah, and which is distributed over the 
northern and the southern part of the plain.^ 

Kobinson, who did not follow the direct path along the sea- 
coast, selected, for the better examination of the whole tract, a 
western course, which led him not far from the base of the 
cliff, and near the opening of the Wadi Rabadiyah, On his 
way he passed a limestone pillar, twenty feet in length and 
two feet in diameter, in whose neighbourhood, however, he was 
unable to discover any trace of a former town. The northern 
portion of the plain he found less abundantly watered than the 
southern : here and there the ground was dry, and thistles were 

The Khan Minyeh was. reached by Bobinson, following his 
roundabout way from Mejel, in an hour and a half. Seetzen, 
however, was a quarter of an hour longer^ in reaching the 
place, which he calls Bat Szaida, and which I think, notwith- 
standing, is the one mentioned by Bobinson under the first- 
mentioned name. The statement of Seetzen, that the place 
was deserted and the khan fallen, together with his being 
obliged to cross a brackish brook coming from the north a short 
time before he reached it, is so consistent with the accounts of 
other travellers, and with Burckhardt's explicit allusion to the 
brackish brook Ain Tabegha, whose waters drove the wheel of a 
mill, that it puts it almost beyond question, that the deserted 
khan mentioned by Seetzen is identical with that which so 
many other traveUers have spoken of by another name. It is a 
singular fact, and one that cannot be overlooked, that the khan 
alluded to has been called Minyeh for many generations ; for 
even Bahaeddin, in the Vita Saladiniy gives it this name. The 
appellation has been changed, it is true, in the arbitrary method 
of spelling Arabic words ; but it has remained essentially the 
same, despite its varied forms. Mini, Menieh, Elmenie, el- 
Moinie, Almuny, Mennye, etc. And almost no one of those 

1 Joseph! Opp, omn. ed. Haverc. T. ii. fol. 268 ; Note «, in Casauh. 
Exercit. edit. Lend. p. 299. 

' Seetzen, Mon. Correqt, zviii. p. 548 ; Borckhardt, Geseniiis^ ed. ii. 
p. 558. 


who have used any of these appellatives, has heen apparently 
cognizant of the name which Seetzen gave the place. And 
Bobinson and Wilson, whose efforts were so great to identify 
every possible spot in the neighbourhood of the Lake of 
Tiberias, laid no importance whatever upon Seetzen's statement 
regarding Bat Szaida. 

Bethsaida, the city in Galilee which bore that name, and 
the home of Andrew, Peter, and Philip (John i. 44, xii. 21), 
must, according to Mark vi. 45, 53, have lain^ in the neighbour- 
hood of Capernaum, as did Chorazin also, which is spoken of 
in direct connection with Bethsaida (Matt. xi. 21 ; Luke x. 13). 
Eusebius and Jerome state that Capernaum was in existence 
in their time, and that it lay close by the sea« This Eusebius 
could testify explicitly to, since he had been on the spot. He 
also states that Chorazin was two Boman miles from Caper- 
naum, but lay in ruins. 

It is unquestionably the fact, that travellers in Palestine, 
as w^ell as elsewhere in the East, are very certain to receive 
the answer which they hope to get, when they put leading 
questions; and on this account it was a first principle with 
Bobinson, for which we cannot be too grateful to him, never to 
put questions in such a form as would indicate what he ex- 
pected or hoped the answer would be. He might have largely 
increased the list, had he wished, of the glaring errors which 
have crept into geography, in consequence of the habit of 
putting leading questions, and of trusting to the answers. But 
in this case Bobinson seems to go too far in suspecting the 
possibility of monkish legends attaching themselves to this 
deserted place, as well as in distrusting Seetzen on tlie ground 
of believing too readily, — a man whose acumen had led him 
shortly before to such striking results in the discovery 
of Bethsaida Julias on the east side of the lake. Bobinson 
thinks that Seetzen heard the name Bat Szaida because he 
was so much off his guard as to ask leading questions. But 
Seetzen says expressly that the khan was uninhabited and 
deserted, and therefore no legend could be connected with it. 
Besides, had he followed a legend, as Pococke and others did, 
the ruins would have been exliibited farther away from the 
lake, and not in such a place as would show that there must 
^ Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. pp. 404, 409. 


have been a mere fishing village. If Bethsaida had been a 
place which the monkish tales invested with any special interest 
or sanctity, the name would have been given to it in the 
descriptions of the countless pilgrims to the spot. But this has 
not been the case ; and only in Cotovicus — who spent some time 
in 1598, in company with a fishing caravan, at the spot — do we 
meet the name Bethsaida^ applied to the place. Seetzen gives 
no reason, indeed, for adopting this name Khan Bat Szaida, 
excepting that, coming from the eastern side of the lake, he was 
left there by his guide Hussein, and compelled to find his way 
alone back to Tiberias. From this guide he seems to have 
learned the name; and it may be, that the dwellers in the 
remote and unfrequented country farther east had preserved 
more carefully the name of a New Testament fishing village, 
than those had done who stood more in the great line of travel 
over the Via Maris : there the term appears to have given way 
to the word Minyeh ; and only those who live more apart 
from intercourse with men keep the old name in a form almost 

4. Klian Minyeh ; the Springs Ain Tin and Talighah ; tJie way 
to Tell Hum ; Ruins of Capernaum^ 

The Khan Minyeh^ was once a large building composed of 
basaltic tufa, but now lying in ruins. It served the necessities 
of the large number of caravans which used to follow the Via 
Maris, and tarry here on their way from Jacob's Bridge at 
the north-east to Tiberias. Here the mountains come down 
very closely to the lake, and follow its border on to the place 
where the Jordan enters. Between the khan and the lake 
there is a large spring, whose waters flow forth in sufficient 
quantity to form a brook : the spring is called Ain Tin, from a 
fig tree which overshadows it. A short distance south of the 

^ J. Cotovicus, liinerarium Hierosolymitanum et Syriactim, Lc. p. 358. 

* In illustration of this it may be remarked, that the people in Grold- 
Bmith's native village always call it now '* Auburn," the name given it by 
the poet ; but in the retired country a few miles away, the peasants speak 
of it as Lishoy, the old name. — En. 

• Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. p. 405 ; Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ ii. 
pp. 138, 141. (See an extract from Tristram's Land of Israel, with refer- 
ence to the sites of Capernaum, Chorazin, and Bethsaida, in the appendix 
to this volume.) 


khan there is a low knoll, on which lie rains of consideraole 
extent. They do not, it is true, indicate any great degree of 
antiquity, and Robinson was unable to learn that they bore any 
name.^ North of the khan the plain closes, and a steep rocl^r 
path leads up from it over the hill which presses close to the 
lake, and descends, after a distance traversed in about twenty 
minutes, to the shore again, where lies the village Ain et 
Tabighah,^ with its jetting springs pouring forth their lukewarm 
and brackish water in such quantity as to even drive several 
mills. To the east there is a round cistern, and known by the 
name Ain Eyub, the spring of Job. The wall which sur- 
rounded this cistern Wilson thought was constructed like those 
of the Roman baths, and Buckingham conjectured that it had 
once served that purpose; yet his description is so much 
indebted to his fancy, as to detract very mudi from its value. 

From this point,^ according to Robinson, the path runs 
along the brow of the line of hills whose base presses close to 
the shores of the lake, and which are neither so steep nor so 
high as those which are met farther south. The ground is 
thickly strewn with fragments of basaltic stone, between which 
shoots up the grass. Soon the traveller arrives at the ruins of 
Tell Hum, which lie near a slight curve of the shore, and 
somewhat above the level of the sea, and which are commonly 
considered to mark the site of the ancient Capernaum. Behind, 
the land rises gently and to a considerable height. The path 
winds along high up above the lake, and at length approaches 
^ the place where the Jordan enters. In order to see the ruins 
it is necessary to leave the path, and to come down the rough, 
rocky side of the hill. Robinson and Wilson both found the 
distance from the Ain Eyub to Tell Hum about that of an 
hour's walk. To go from the Khan Minyeh to Tell Hum 
requires about an hour and twenty minutes. 

Neither Seetzen, Burckhardt, nor von Schubert were able to 
observe the ruins of Tell Hum^ with special care. Buckingham 
described them in considerable detail, it is true ; but I prefer to 

1 Bnckingham, Trav, in Pal, ii. p. 836 ; von Schubert, Beise^ iii. p. 252. 
' RobiDson, Bib, Eesearch. ii. p. 407 ; Wilson, Lands of ifie Btbky ii. 
p. 142. 

* Buckingham, TravelSj n. p. 839 ; Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 407. 

* Buckingham, Trav. IL pp. 846-861. 


trust the accounts of Robinson^ and Wilson, rather than 
to accept his, wliich do not always betray a truth-loving 
nature. The ruins are of a place once evidently of importance, 
but now in a state of perfect decay and desolation. They 
extend for half an English mile along the coast, and as far into 
the interior. They consist of the fragments of ancient walls 
and foundations, and only two are in any tolerable state of 
preservation. Of these only one can be said to be standing. 
The rank growth of bushes and weeds has prevented travellers 
making any careful measurements of Tell Hum and the extent 
of its ruins. The one structure which is standing is near the 
shore of the lake, and is evidently of modern origin, although 
it is composed of the architectural fragments of the old and 
perished city. Bobinson thinks that it is the marble church 
which Pococke^ speaks of seeing there. Not far away lie the 
ruins of a building of great extent, and which, in respect of 
elaborate workmanship, seemed to surpass anything to be 
found in Palestine. The length Eobinson could not ascertain 
with exactness ; yet he assigns a hundred and five feet to the 
northern wall, and eighty-five feet to the breadth from east to 
west. Within this area there lay at the time of his visit several 
pillars scattered around, wrought out of the indigenous lime- 
stone, and decorated with beautiful Corinthian capitals, hewn 
architraves, elaborate friezes, and pedestals, many of which, 
however, were much out of their original place, perhaps owing 
to the influence of earthquakes. The pillars were not long, 
but of considerable diameter ; and there were found, as in a 
church of Tyre, only on a larger scale, the double columns, 
otherwise unknown in Palestine, standing on a double pedestal, 
but hewn out of a single block. Wilson saw pieces of marble 
not indigenous to the place, scattered among the ruins. Some 
masses of stone, nine feet long and half as wide, and orna- 
mented with sculpture, may have served as door-posts, and as 
coverings of the gates of a temple or church, possibly as 
sarcophagi. The whole place, taken in connection with the 
great devastation of the fairest decorations by the tooth of time, 
dashed by the ripples of the lake, and left to no other com- 

^ Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 407-411 ; Wilson, Lands, etc., ii. pp. 

« Pococke, ii. p. 106. 
VOL. II. 8 


panionship than that of the waters, is calculated to awaken the 
saddest feelings in the mind of the traveller. 

Bobinson, who, on grounds which seemed to him to justify 
him, did not accept the identity of the Khan Minyeh with 
the ancient Bethsaida, but, on the contrary, held that place 
to be the site of the ancient Capernaum, was unable to 
assign to Tell Hum the name of any place known historically 
to us. Most travellers have agreed, however, that Tell Hum 
was the ancient Capernaum, although opinions vary exceed- 
ingly regarding the situation of the three cities on which 
Jesus pronounced the curse recorded in Matt. xi. 21-23 — 
Bethsaida, Chorazin, and Capernaum — there being no marked 
local memorial of them. Yet Robinson thinks that such a 
memorial exists in the name of the spring Kafer Naum, which, 
according to Josephus, watered the lovely plain Gennesar: 
the name signifies etymologically Nahum's Village. But as 
this could not have been originally the appellation of a spring, 
Bobinson conjectured that it must have been connected with a 
town or hamlet lying in the immediate neighbourhood. The 
spring itself seemed to him to be one of the most profuse, and the 
most abundantly supplied with fish, to be found in the whole 
plain of Gennesaret ; and Josephus says of it, that some called 
it the Vena Nili, since it produces a fish like the coracinus, 
found in the lake near Alexandria. There seemed to Bobin- 
son to be reasons enough for believing that the ruins on the 
knoll near by, although they do not seem to be very ancient, 
if not the site of the khan itself, are connected with the site 
of the ancient city of Capernaum. He is not the first who 
has taken this ground, for Quaresmius had no doubt that the 
Khan Minyeh stands where Capernaum once stood. But, on 
the other hand, most travellers who have paid attention to 
the question — Marin Sanudo, Ban, Pococke,^ and Burckhardt 
— have held that Tell Hum occupies the site of the ancient 
city of which we speak, — an opinion which Dr Wilson, a 
more recent explorer, has placed on grounds of the highest 
degree of probability. The main reasons which Dr Wilson* 
adduces will appear in what follows. The name of the spring 
Capharnaum does not necessarily imply that the town of the same 

^ Pococke, ii. p. 105 ; Bnrckhardt, Gesenins* ed. ii. p. 558. 
s Wilson, Lands qfthe Bible, ii. pp. 138-149. 


name lay close beside it : nay, in Palestine, instances where the 
village and the spring bearing the same name are a consider- 
able way apart are very common. Besides, it cannot be that 
Josephus refers to the Ain Tin near the Khan Minyeh when 
he says that the spring which he mentions watered the whole 
plain of Gennesaret : it lies on the north-east extremity ; and 
the whole district cannot be said to be so largely indebted to 
it as to the large round enclosed spring in the middle of the 
plain, the Ain el Mudauwarah, or as to the waters which pour 
through the Wadi Kabadiyah, and are then carried to almost 
every part of Gennesaret. 

The allusion in Matt. iv. 13, "Jesus came and dwelt in 
Capernaum, which is upon the sea-coast, in the borders of 
Zebulon and Nephthalim," is very definite, but unfortunately 
the precise location of the border of those two tribes is unknown 
to us. Pococke's conjecture that the Wadi Lymun forms the 
boundary is mere hypothesis, and deserves no serious considera- 
tion. The name Capernaum does not appear at all in the Old 

A place of the name Capernaum is mentioned but once by 
Josephus ; but that single allusion makes it seem more probable 
that the place was where Tell Hum now is, than where the 
Khan Minyeh lies. In the battle which Josephus waged with 
the Romans at the entrance of the Jordan into Lake Tiberias, ' 
he writes that he should have gained the victory had his horse 
not fallen into the morass, and he himself been wounded. He 
was at once carried by his men to a place called Cepharnome, 
where he lay in a feverish state for a day, while his followers 
pursued the enemy. When they returned in the evening, at 
the instigation of his physicians, he was carried during the 
night to Tarichsea, south of Tiberias. But is it not natural to 
suppose that the wounded men would be carried to the place 
called Tell Hum, which was but about an hour's distance from 
the battle-field, instead of more than twice that distance to the 
site of Khan Minyeh t The two names, the Capharnome of 
Josephus and the Capharnaum of the New Testament, are 
very similar: Reland has shown that Caphar readily passes 
into the form Caper, and in one edition of the Jewish historian 
we have the reading Ka<f>apvaovfi instead of K€<f>apv(Ofifj ; they 
both unquestionably indicate the same place. 


From the account given in Jolin vi. 3, and 17—21, of the 
miraculous feeding the five thousand, which, as we have already 
seen, took place on the north-east side of the lake on the moun- 
tain near Julias Bethsaida, it appears that Capernaum was not 
far from there, since the people hastened to meet the Saviour, 
and do not seem to have taken a long detour around the head 
of the lake to come to the place where he was. In Mark vi. 33 
we are told that they "ran afoot" to meet him, and that their 
speed was so great, in fact, that they even anticipated his own 
arrival, as we learn from Luke ix. 10 and Matt. xiv. 13: this 
is much more probable if they started from Tell Hum than 
from the Khan Minyeh. These reasons, taken together, seem 
to outweigh the argument which is drawn from the probable 
contiguity of a spring which bears the name of a village 
(Kaphar Nahum, the hamlet of Nahum), and that of the 
village itself. According to the view of Rodiger ^ the philolo- 
gist, the word Tell, Le. Hill, is often interchanged with Caphar, 
i.e. hamlet ; and if that were the case in this instance, and if 
the word Nahum merely lost the first syllable, we have left the 
name which is given to the place to-day, namely Tell Hum. 
Eodiger states that the etymological derivation sometimes given 
to the word Hum in this connection, namely " drove of camels," 
is not correct, since it should be written Aaum, and not hum. 
The passage which Robinson cites from Arculf us, substantiating, 
as he thinks, the identity of Capernaum with the E[han Minyeh, 
and which Reland had already quoted in full, Wilson thinks 
applies more strictly to Tell Hum, as the lake must lie south- 
ward from Capernaum, while it is at the east of Khan Minyeh. 
Arculf us was not at the spot itself; he only describes what 
he could see from the Mona Beatitudinisj or Kurun Hattin. 
From the position where he stood, Capernaum seemed to be 
surrounded by no wall, but to lie on a narrow strip of shore 
between the mountain on the north and the lake on the south 
side, and itself extending from east to west (quae, Caphamaum 
scil. murum non habens angusto inter montem et stagnum co- 
artata spatio per illam maritimam oram longo tramite protendi- 
tur, montem aquilonali plaga, lacum vero ab australi, habens, ab 
occasu in ortum extensa dirigitur). Robinson's objection, that 
the gently rising hill behind Tell Hum is hardly important 
1 Rodiger, Rec. in AUgemein. HalL Lit Z. 18^2, April, p. 581. 


enough to be dignified by the name of mountain, is removed 
bj the consideration that Arculfus' view was a distant one, and 
from a point where the background appeared to form part of a 
mountain ridge. Indeed, the very cautious Keland founds upon 
this quotation the conviction that Capernaum lay by the shores 
of the lake, very near the entrance of the Jordan. Turner 
remarks in his volume of travels, that Burckhardt^ once spoke 
with him about a place lying in the neighbourhood under con- 
sideration, bearing the name Kafer Naym; but nothing further 
is known about such a spot, and Burckhardt makes no allusion 
to it in his work. 

On the grounds which have been given in the preceding 
pages, it 'seems to be the least contradictory to the statements 
of those most qualified to make them, and to be in itself the 
most probable, that Bethsaida and Chorazin^ are to be looked 
for at the neighbouring points now known as Ain Minyeh and 
Ain et Tabighah, while Capernaum is represented by the 
modem Tell Hum, at most an hour and a half s distance from 
Bethsaida. South of the Khan Minyeh, as far as Mejel, that 
is, between the ancient Bethsaida and Magdala, lies the fertile 
plain of Gennesaret : an hour's distance north-east of Tell Hum 
or Capernaum, the Jordan flows into the Sea of Galilee. Still 
we can only say that this is the most probable solution of the 
difficulties in the way ; we can by no means insist that the 
matter is placed beyond a doubt. Yet in weighing this question, 
the opinion of some of the older pilgrims,* who have not hesi- 
tated to, speak very decisively, is not to be very highly valued ; 
for some, Felix Fabri and von Breydenbach, never visited the 
spot.* L. de Suchen, writing in the middle of the fourteenth 
century, says, without any attempt to speculate on the matter, 
that these places . are such a desolation, that it is impossible to 
tell where they lay. According to Epiphanius, Oonstantine 

* W. Turner, Journal^ vol. ii. p. 143. 

2 Captain Wilson has ascertained, during his recent explorations, that 
the ruins of Ghorazin at Kerazeh are far more important than was pre- 
viously suspected: he states that they cover a much larger extent of 
ground than Tel Hum, and that many of the buildings are in an almost 
perfect state, excepting as regards the roofs. — Ed. 

« Set, WiUibaUi Vita, in Mabillon, Acta Set. T. ii. fol. 374, 376. 

^ Fel. Fabri, Evagatorium^ ed. Hassler, vol. ii. p. 45 ; de Breydenbach, 
ed. Spirens, 1502, fol. 26a. 


gave a certain Josephus the privilege of building at Caper- 
naum (where the Jews had before been allowed to live) a 
Christian church, at the same time as in Tiberias and in Die 
CaBsarea. It may have been this church which Antoninus 
Martyr,^ some time prior to the year 600, went from Tiberias 
to visit. Is it not probable that the ruins of the extensive and 
highly ornamented building at Tell Hum, already referred to, 
may be the relics of that Basilica ? The architecture is not 
opposed to such a conjecture.* 

[For an interesting discussion on the subject of the sites of 
Bethsaida, Chorazin, and Capernaum, see extract in Appendix 
from Tristram's Land of Israel. — Ed.] 


II. The south and south-east side of the Lake. 

Here, as in so many other parts of the Holy Land, Seetzen* 
leads the way into new and unexplored regions. He left 
Tiberias on the 6th of February 1806, in order to examine the 
country around the southern and south-east parts of the Sea 
of Tiberias, and rectify the errors which had crept into the 
maps of that district. At the southern extremity of the lake 
he discovered rubbish and relics of walls, which he concluded 
once belonged to the city of TarichsBa, a place which sheltered 
the Jews after Tiberias had been surrendered to the Romans, 
and which held out against Titus and Vespasian. The Roman 
emperor determined to destroy it, in order that the war should 
not be protracted longer in that quarter. The place was 
strongly protected; and in the waters before it there was a 
large number of the boats, which had been made ready, in case 
it was necessary to fly, and escape to other strongholds beyond 
the lake. Titus encountered a small party of the Jews without 
the walls, and engaged them : they fell back to the city ; and 

* Itinerar. D, Anton. Plac.^ in Ugolini, Thes. vii. fol. mccix. 
^ Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 406. See also Wilson, Lands, etc.y ii. 
p. 160. 

» Seetzen, M&n, Corresp, xviii. pp. 850-354. 


while the gates were opened for them to enter, the Romans took 
advantage of the time and pressed in, and effected fearful car- 
nage. Those of the inhabitants who were spared betook them- 
selves to the boats ; but even in this their purpose was defeated. 
Vespasian caused a number of fishing-boats to be made ready at 
once, and pursued the Jews over the waters of the lake, com- 
mitting more bloodshed there, if possible, than he had done 
before upon the land. The number of captives afterwards 
made slaves is reported to have been 30,000 ; and six thousand 
ablebodied men of the number are reported to have been em- 
ployed on the excavation of a canal through the Isthmus of 
Corinth. Those who escaped became freebooters on the east 
side of the Jordan, or betook themselves to the fortifications 
of Gamala, where they underwent a subsequent siege. The 
situation of Tarichaea (from rapi^o^^ a place where fish is 
salted) Seetzen thought he had discovered, from the existence 
of a layer of salt covering the ground of a place where the 
desolation seemed to be perfect, and which bore the name 
Ard el Malahha, the place of salt. According to Josephus, 
Tarichasa lay upon an elevation; it cannot therefore, in Burck- 
hardt's^ opinion, be looked for on the site of the present village of 
Szemmak, or on the east side of the Jordan. . But Banks dis- 
covered, at the southern extremity of the lake, between the 
shore line and the mountains, the remains of an aqueduct^ and 
of walls, which he thinks belonged to the ancient city of which 
we are now speaking, and which seems to have lain in part 
upon two hills, one of which is close to the outlet of the lake. 
This part of the old town seems to have been surrounded by 
ditches, which are now filled with water when the Jordan is 
high. It is an hour^s walk, according to Wilson, from the 
baths of Tiberias to the site of Tarichsea. A quarter of an 
liour^s distance south-east from the lake lies the miserable 
village of Kerak,^ inhabited by a small number of fellahin, or 
cultivator of the arable land in that neighbourhood. The 
southern shore of the lake here begins to run, at a height of 
from ten to forty feet above the level of the water, though 
without a steep slope : along the margin there is a narrow 
and rough path, which on the east side changes to a strip of 

1 Burckhardt, Trav, p. 275. * Irby and Mangles, Trav, p. 800. 

» Wilson, Lands of the Bible, ii. pp. 124-129. 


sand. The water of the Jordan, which passes at the outlet 
under the shade of a long and dense thicket of oleanders on the 
west side, is not dark and muddy, as it is before it enters the 
lake : it has lost its sediment, and become as clear as crystal. 
The river is about thirty feet wide, and six feet deep in the 
middle. It begins its series of remarkable windings not far 
from the ruins of the first ancient bridge. A hundred paces 
below this one, which is traced with some difBculty, there are 
the far more discernible remains of a Roman bridge of ten 
arches.^ Wilson calls it Kanaiterah. From it there is a much 
finer view of the whole lake than is gained from the northern 
extremity, since the mountains on the east side tower up very 
prominently. The bridge can no longer be used ; and when 
Dr Barth^ visited it, he found that the water rushed so vehe- 
mently between the arches, as to make it necessary to exercise 
the greatest care in crossing the river. 

The only travellers who have penetrated the country east 
of the Sea of Tiberias are Seetzen and Burckhardt, although 
it must be confessed that they were able to make no thorough 
exploration, and only reached one or two places of interest. 

Seetzen went first down the broad valley of the Jordan, the 
Ghor, which, in consequence of the steep sides of the mountains 
on both sides, he likens to the vale of Bkaa, although there is 
very little of the majesty of the mighty Lebanon and Anti- 
Lebanon ranges to be seen here. He passed by the old Roman 
bridge which spanned the Jordan, and in a few hours came to 
a bridge of five arches which crossed its first eastern tributary, 
the Sheriat Manadra. A half-hour farther on he reached the 
second bridge over the Jordan, if Kanaiterah be reckoned the 
first, called Jssir el Medjamea, at whose western extremity 
there was a khan with a small garrison. From this bridge he 
turned back, having attained one object of his mission, which 
was to learn whether the Sheriat Manadra (Hieromax, Yarpiuk) 
flows directly into the lake, as had been supposed, or into the 

The next day he entered the high land of Jolan on the 
cast side of the lake, and climbed a rocky mountain, upon 
whose summit was the deserted Khan el Akabeh Phik, a 

* Irby and Mangles, Z.c. p. 801. 
« Dr H. Barth, Tagehuck^ 1847, MS. 


locality which seemed to him to correspond to Josephus' de- 
scription of the fortress of Gamala, one of the last places of 
refuge for the flying Jews. Here, in the mountain fastness 
which was called Gamal% from a* fancied resemblance to a 
camel's hump, they defended themselves for seven months 
against the legions of Titus and Vespasian, but were at last 
compelled to surrender. Hunger and the ferocity of the 
Boman soldiery spared, it is said, but two of the whole number 
who had found shelter there. 

Farther north, about opposite the middle point of the 
eastern coast of the lake, Seetzen reached the Phik or Fik 
itself (the Feik of Burckhardt), only two hours south-east of 
the place where the blind sheikh lived whom he had visited 
before, as described on a preceding page. He thus accom- 
plished, though not in the mianner he expected, his plan of 
passing around the lake, and exploring its whole eastern shore. 
Of the remains of »three of the cities which once belonged to 
the Decapolis — Hippos, Capitolias, and Pella — he could gain 
no information. He purposed to go from Phik to the ruins of 
Mkes (Om Keis) on the southern side of the Sheriat Manadra, 
but could find no guide to show him the way thither: the 
Amatha (hot baths), three hours from Phik in the Valley of 
Manadra, was known to the guides, but for fear of the wild 
Beduins no one ventured to conduct him thither. An hour's 
distance west of Phik, on the shore of the lake, Seetzen saw 
the marked ruins of Kalaat el Hossn, lying on the summit of a 
mountain of dark brown basalt ; it was afterwards considered 
by Banks and Leake to be the ancient Gamala. From this 
point Seetzen proceeded south-east to el-Botthin (Batanea, 
Bashan), which is separated by the Sheriat Manadra from 
northern Jolan (Gaulonitis). 

Burckhardt^ entered the Ghor on the first week of May 
1812, and found the barley harvest almost ended at that time, 
although it was not expected to be ready around Lake Huleh 
till half a month later. In the Ghor all the herbage was then 
dry, while the heights of the eastern Hauran, which he had 
just left, were covered with grass. Without instituting any 
measurements, he calls the Ghor one of the greatest depressions 
in Syria, and, like Seetzen, compares its general aspect to the 
^ Burckhardt, Trav, p. 274. 


Bekaa valley, between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon: 
ranges. His keen perception did not lead him astray when he 
declared that the depression was nearly as much lower than 
the general level of Hauran and Janlan, as the average height 
of the line of mountains on the east of the Ghor ; although, of 
course, he did not conjecture that it lay below the level of the 
ocean. The heat, which he found here greater than in any- 
other part of Syria, he ascribed to the concentration of the 
sun's rays between the cliffs, and to the impossibility of feeling 
the cooling west winds. He confirms a remark made by 
Volney, that there are few regions in the world where more 
marked contrasts are crowded into the space of a few miles 
than here, where are to be seen from the same spot the per- 
petual snows of Hermon, the fruitful plains of Jaulan, with 
their charming carpet of flowers, and the desolation of the 
parched and torrid Ghor. 

At the entrance of the Sheriat Manadra into the Jordan, 
Burckhardt estimated the width of the Ghor at one and a half 
to two hours ; he followed the bushy banks of the river to the 
village of Szammagh, consisting of only forty huts, and standing 
on a soil composed of loam and masses of black basalt not 
yet comminuted. A quarter of an hour^s distance west of the 
village he discovered the outlet of the lake.^ Between the 
outlet and the first bridge over the Jordan he heard that there 
are two fords. 

From the village of Szammagh, Burckhardt^ passed in 
three-quarters of an hour to the height on which stands the 
Khan el Akabe, near a spring by which, the great road runs 
from Hauran and the Ghor through Jolan to Damascus. A 
quarter of an' hour's distance farther on lies Ain Akabe, a 
much larger spring ; and still another quarter of an hour away 
the top of the ridge is attained. Then follows a level road of 
an hour and three-quarters, in order to reach the Feik of 
Burckhardt, or Phik of Seetzen : it is about four and a half 
hours distant from the village of Szammagh. 

Nearer the lake, and only an hour east of the last-named 
village, lies the solitary village Cherbit Szammera, containing 
some ruins of ancient buildings. Lying on the east side of the 

^ Burckhardt, Gesenius* ed. i. p. 433. 
.« Burckhardt, Trav, p. 278. 


Sea of Tiberias, it 'seemed to Barckliardt to correspond with 
what would be the probable situation of Hippos, regarding 
which neither Josephus nor Jerome have given us clear infor- 
mation. The former merely says that it was situated in the 
district of Hippene, which was on the eastern border of Galilee, 
and probably to be reached by crossing Lake Tiberias. To the 
north, along the sea-coast, Burckhardt saw the locations \>f two 
deserted places, Doeyrayan and Tell Hum. Three-quarters of 
an hour north of the Khan el Akaba he saw the half-ruined 
yet still inhabited village of Kefr Hareb. Seetzen's map gives 
north and east of Feik the names of several ruins,^ showing, at 
least, that this high part of Jolan was not always so desolate as 
it is now. 

The village of Feik, lying at the commencement of one of 
the wadis which run westward to the lake, and yet on land so 
high as to command an extensive view, Burckhardt found in- 
habited by two hundred families. A walk of three-quarters of 
an hour leads from this place to the steep and solitary eminence 
on which stand the extensive ruins el-Hossn, which Burckhardt 
considered to indicate the site of Argob or Kegaba ; Banks 
and Leake, of Gamala. I am inclined to think, however, that 
el-Hossn corresponds rather to Hippos than to Gamala, which, 
according to Josephus, was no solitary mountain, but had 
directly at the back of it a broad plain, on which the approaches 
to the city were guarded by walls and ditches such as those 
which are suggested by Seetzen's description of the Khan el 
Akaba. Near Hippos stood, we are told by Eusebius and 
Jerome, the great castle of Apheca,* which may have been the 
Aphik mentioned in Judg. i. 31 as one of the places which the 
tribe of Asher was never able to overcome so far as to drive 
the original inhabitants out. 

From the earliest times Feik seems to have played an im- 
portant part as a caravan station on the great highway through 
Jolan to Damascus. In Burckhardt's time it was the only 
district east of the lake which belonged to the pashalic of Akka. 
The hospitality of the place this great traveller found to be 
something surprising. Indeed, he says that a traveller may 
spend a whole month in Hauran and Jolan without paying a 

> Burckhardt, Trav. p. 279. 

' In Onom, s.v. ^A^ud. See Gesenius' note to Burckhardt, i. p. 589. 


para for his entertainment, yet little gifts on his part are not 
refused. Around Feik Burckhardt saw olive trees growing, 
showing that the plateau is not too high for them to thrive ^ 
and on the flat roofs of the houses the people were compelled 
to guard themselves from the heat of the sun's rays by means 
of mats. Of ancient buildings there are but few traces, although 
the remains of two towers may be seen. 



The only road passing from the east side of Lake Tiberias 
through Jolan is the caravan route leading from Feik to Damas- 
cus, nearly parallel with the Kanneytra road at the north-east. 

Burckhardt is the only traveller who has yet explored this 
district, and his brief record must be our only guide. North- 
east of Feik, and on the farther side of the cultivated district, 
begins the modern Jolan,^ whose southern frontier is fortned 
by the Wadi Hamy Sakker and the Sheriat. The ancient 
Gaulonitis was not so extensive, embracing a mere strip along 
the eastern shore of Lake Tiberias and the upper Jordan. The 
district around Feik Burckhardt considered to be the province 
of Hippcne : Argob he thought to be the most northern tract, 
three or four hours' distance from Feik, and closed by Jebel 

Burckhardt's first day's march was from Feik to Nowa ; 
the second carried him to Damascus. A half-hour beyond the 
starting-place were the ruins of Radjoin el Abhor, an hour's 
distance north-east of which was the village of Jebein, and 
three-quarters of an hour to the left the fallen village of el-Aal, 
lying on the side of the same Wadi Semek or Szemmak, in 
which Seetzen discovered the tent of the blind sheikh. On the 
farther side of the wadi, in which many reeds grow which the 
Arabs use in making mats, lies Kaffr Berdoweil, — a name which 
recalls the times of the Crusades, as it is a corruption of Bddwin 
or Balduin. 

1 Burckhardt, Trav, pp. 281-284. 


The high plain continues, bat is uncnitivatcd. It yields, 
however, excellent pasturage for camels and neat cattle. The 
road passes by Ram, a pool formed by the rains, and an hour 
and three-quarters wide, with a spring near it. Two and a 
quarter hours farther on are the extensive ruins of the city of 
Chastein, built of blocks of black basalt, with traces of an 
edifice which once must have been attractive. To the left, two 
and three-quarter hours away, Burckhardt saw Tel Zechy; 
and an hour and a half farther, Tel el Faras at the southern 
extremity of Jebel Heish. 

Three hours farther on he descended from the high land 
into Wadi Moakkar, which runs southward to the Sheriat 
Mandara. To the left, three and a half hours away, he left 
the ruined village of el-Kebur; and passing over the Wadi 
Seyde, Burckhardt reached in three and three-quarter hours 
the bridge which crosses the Wady Hamy Sakker. Along the 
whole way he met peasants and Arabs on the way to the Ghor 
to gather in the barley harvest. From this bridge it is but two 
and a half hours to the Sheriat. 

Four hours more brought Burckhardt to the spring Ain 
Keir, and a few minutes more to Ain Dekar. South of the 
road thus far, with the exception of the village of Jebein, there 
had been no regular settlement ; nothing more permanent than 
the encampments of Beduins. Burckhardt dined at Tfeil, 
which is one of the most important villages in Jolan, and has 
a population of eighty to a hundred families, who live in the 
half-ruined houses of the place : the largest building, a mosque, 
seems once to have been a Christian church. 

After leaving Tfeil the plain was for the most part covered 
with fine fields of wheat and barley. A half-hour^s distance 
north of Tel Jemera Burckhardt saw Tel Jabye, with a village 
on it; and one and three-quarters beyond Tfeil he found Nowa, 
where he encamped for the night. This is one of the most 
important places in Jolan, and was once a city a half-hour in 
circumference. Neve (so called in the Itin. Anton,^ and the 
Nova of Abulfeda^) was a Jewish city in the eparchy of Arabia, 
and is mentioned by Jerome, although confounded by him with 
Nineveh.^ According to the Itinerar, it lies thirty-six Eoman 

" Itin. Antonin. ed. Parthey, 196, 198, pp. 88, 89. 

* H. Reland, pp. 217, 909, 910 ; Gesenius, note to Burckhardt, i. p. 540. 


miles from Capitollas, on the Sheriat Manadra, and sixteen from 
Gadara/ — data which may lead at some future time to the iden- 
tification of the former. Burckhardt found here a multitude 
of fallen private dwellings, and the remains of some which were 
used for public purposes: a temple, of which a pillar still 
remains, has been transformed into a mosque. At the southern 
extremity of the place stands a small square massive structure, 
probably a mausoleum ; and on the north side of the town are 
the remains of another square but large building, of which 
nothing continues in a state of completeness excepting the 
entrance, elaborately adorned with sculptures. There are 
several springs and cisterns in the city, and the grave of a 
Turkish saint. 

The second day's march brought Burckhardt to Damascus, 
as already remarked. Two hours north of Nowa lies the village 
of Kosem, on the southern frontier of the district of Jedur or 
IturaBa, and on the northern confines of Jolan, though some 
consider Nowa to be on the boundary. The places passed after 
that were Om el Mezabel, Onhol, and the Tel el Hora, the 
highest hill in the plateau of Hauran and Jolan. Then fol- 
lowed Semneim and Jedye, where the cultivation was very 
poor. All these villages have pools or cisterns not unlike in 
character the Lake Fhilaa, which has in another place been 
spoken of in connection with the sources of the Jordan. 

Burckhardt then passed Deir el Aades, Tel Moerad, Tel 
Shak-hab, a village with a small castle and abundant springs, 
and War Ezzaky, with its fallen Khan Ezzeiat. Here the mill- 
stones for the Damascus market are hewn. The road then 
passed the Khan Denur and the village of el-Kessue, the latter 
of which is but three hours from Damascus. 
1 H. Reland, Pa^.-p. 694. 





i! WO efforts to navigate the waters of the Jordan have 
been made in rapid succession daring the present 
century; the one undertaken by the English Lieut. 
Molyneux in 1847, and that of the American Capt. 
Lynch in 1848. The death of the former almost immediately 
after accomplishing a part of his mission, and before he could 
give any special attention to the Dead Sea, has prevented our 
knowing all that we should wish to learn regarding the scientific 
results of the expedition; while there has not come into my 
hands the account of the American expedition of Lynch,^ — a 
document that will be awaited with great interest. Molyneux 
has, however, left behind him a valuable sketch of his explora- 
tion of the Jordan, which, if not so full as could be wished, 
gives a vivid picture of the dangers encountered, and of the 
general physical character of the Ghor. 

No one has yet been able to go on foot^ along the shore of 
the Jordan between the Sea of Tiberias and the Dead Sea; and 

^ The account reached Prof. Ritter in season to be used in his discussion 
of the Dead Sea, and will there be found fully cited. To supply the want 
of the earlier chapters, I have condensed Lynches account of his voyage 
down the lower Jordan, and inserted it directly after the compressed 
narrative of Molyneux. — £d. 

' This must now be qualified, since Lynch divided his party, some 
taking the boats, and the others forming a guard along the shore. — Ed. 


yet, by putting together the glimpses which have been caught 
by those who have partially traversed it, and by comparing 
these with the landscape as seen from the river, we have a 
tolerably complete picture of the Ghor. It is known that two 
at least of the earlier pilgrims — Antoninus Martyr and Willi- 
bald — together with King Baldwin i., passed down the valley 
of the lower Jordan, but they have left us no account of what 
they saw upon the way.^ 

In following Molyneux's narrative, it must be borne in 
mind that his expedition was undertaken in the driest time of 
the year ; and that during the wet season, and with a flat boat 
instead of a ship's dingy, he might have been able to shun 
many of the dangers and hardships which he encountered. 

The upper portion of the lower course has already been 
alluded to in my account of the southern shore of Lake 
Tiberias. I have spoken of the Roman bridge with five arches, 
which was discovered by Seetzen near the place where the 
Sheriat Manadra enters the Jordan ; of the faint traces of a 
Soman bridge of ten arches, the Kanneiterah of Wilson, 
directly below the outlet of the Sea of Tiberias ; and also of 
another bridge over the Jordan, two and a half hours farther 
south, the Jessr el Medjomie of Burckhardt. This preparation 
will enable us the better to enter upon the study of the lower 
course of the sacred river. 

Molyneux^8 Boat Exploration^ of the Jordan in 1847. 

First day. Aug. 25. — The river was at first a hundred feet 
broad and four or five deep : the first turning brought him in 
sight of a large rained ridge, the arches of which having all 
fallen, completely obstructed the passage. Here the difficulties 
commenced ; and for the seven hours that the party travelled the 
first day, they scarcely ever had water enough to float the boat 
for any consecutive hundred yards. Many of the wild Arabs 
accompanied them along the banks of the river, possibly to 
rejoice over or to take advantage of any accident which might 
befall the boat. In many places Molyneux found the river 
split up into several small streams, and consequently without 
much water in any of them. About an hour and a half after 

1 Robinson, Bib, Research, li. p. 380. 

' Molyneux, Exptd. in Joum. of die Roy. Geog. Soc. zviii. p. 108. 


starting they came to a full stop, and were obliged to take 
everything out, and carry the boat upwards of a hundred yards 
over rocks and through thorny bushes; and in many other 
places afterwards it was nearly as bad. The Ghor was here 
about eight or nine miles broad ; and this space is anything 
but a flat — nothing but a continuation of bare hills, with yellow 
dried-up weeds, which look, when distant, like com stubbles. 
These hills, however, sink into insignificance when compared to 
the ranges of mountains which enclose the Ghor, and it is 
therefore only by comparison that this part of the Ghor is 
entitled to be called a valley. 

Molyneux was surprised to find a great number of weirs 
running across the river; but most of them appeared to be 
only loose walls of stone, mud, and tarf, rising three or four 
feet above the water. Some of them were within less than a 
hundred yards apart. These weirs turn the stream into small 
channels, which irrigate the little green patches on either side, 
and produce the scanty vegetation on which the Arab tribes 
subsist. These weirs they had generally to pull through to 
make a gap large enough for the boat to pass ; and sometimes 
they were obliged to build them up again afterwards, to avoid 
having trouble with the Arabs. From the top of one of them, 
which was of more solid masonry than the rest, they had to 
launch the boat. When approaching the village of Summakh, 
they had high, steep, sandy cliffs all along the banks of the 
river, particularly on the left: the place itself they found 
perched upon the top of a round sandy hill, and looking as dry 
and as miserable as the rest of the country. Here he encoun- 
tered an Arab sheikh, who claimed to have the control of the 
territory for two days' march down the river : he demanded six 
hundred piastres for the privilege of passing through the 
district; but as Molyneux refused to give more than two 
hundred, he at last accepted that, and promised to give his 
protection. He proved to belong to the powerful tribe of 
Beni Sakkers, who inhabit a large portion of the Ghor. 

After passing the village of Abadiyeh, and going a little 
farther, Molyneux reached the ruins of el-Buk'ah, where he 
determined to spend the night. The place itself consisted of 
nothing more than the ruins of two villages, one on each side 
of the river ; the mere walls remained. Just above there was 



a small waterfall, down which it was necessary to ease the 

Second day.^ — ^The river was so shallow below cI-Buk'ah, 
that the boat was seriously injured by the stones, and at 
length Molyneuz was compelled to make it be carried by the 
camels. From a hill above the road which the party then took 
they had a fine view of the whole valley, with its many Arab 
encampments, all made of the common coarse black camel-hair 
cloth. Very large herds of camels were to be seen in every 
direction , stalking about upon the apparently barren hills in 
search of food. The Jordan had split into two streams of 
about equal size after leaving el-Buk*ah; and its winding 
course, which was marked by luxuriant vegetation, looked like 
a gigantic serpent twisting down the valley. After forming 
an island of an oval form, and about five or six miles in circum- 
ference, the two branches of the Jordan again unite immediately 
above an old, curiously-formed bridge. This bridge [the Jessr 
Medjamie of Burckhardt], which is still in such good preserva- 
tion that the road passes over it, consists of one large, pointed 
arch in the centre, with two smaller ones on either side, and 
over the latter there are three or four small arches of the same 
shape, which go quite through the masonry. On the western 
bank, opposite the end of the bridge, there is a large ruined 
building of a square form, and not less than two hundred feet 
each way: it had been well built, and even now has the 
remains of a fine massive gateway composed of very large 
stones. The walls of this quadrangle were high and loopholed, 
and had several well-built towers, some of which had windows, 
and in the centre stood a' large cistern. The bridge was built 
of a very dark stone abutting against the solid rock. Here 
they launched the boat again, and found a great improvement 
in the depth of the water. 

Molyneux found the country along the banks of the Jordan 
very populous, and became convinced that it would have been 
utterly impossible to have succeeded in going down the river in 
opposition to the Arabs. The Ghor now began to wear a much 
better and more fertile aspect. It appears to be composed of 
two different platforms : the upper one on either side projects 
from the foot of the hills which form the great valley, and is 
^ Molyneux, 2.c. Joum, xviii. p. 111. 


tolerably level, but barren and nncultivated. It then falls 
away in the form of ronnded sand-hills or whitish perpendicular 
cliffs, which enclose this smaller valley ; but generally it winds 
in the most tortuous' manner between them. In many places 
these cliffs are like walls, and entirely preclude the possibility 
of communication between the river and the cattle above. At 
this part of the Jordan the lower plain seems to be from one 
and a half to two miles broad, and so full of the most rank and 
luxuriant vegetation, like a jungle, that in a few spots only 
can anything approach its banks. Some of the bushes and 
ferns are veiy beautiful. There was abundance of game seen 
on the way, but Moljmeux had no opportunity to observe it, 
the trouble encountered with the Arabs was so great. The 
altercations which arose harassed him incessantly, not to speak 
of the continued danger of an attack. The seven loaded 
barrels which he carried around his own person secured a 
tolerable degree of respect, but the worry of the day was 
enough, as he says, to drive a reasonable person mad. The 
tribe which undertook to be his first escort, the Beni-Sakkers, 
were caiTying on war with the Anizees, and it was from these 
that an assault was at any moment to be expected. Molyneux 
makes no mention of the windings of the river, excepting to say 
that it would be quite impossible to give any account of the 
various turnings of the Jordan in its way from the Lake of 
Tiberias to the Dead Sea. 

Third day.^ — The place where the party had bivouacked 
was called Attah. There the lower valley, through which the 
river more immediately runs, breaks out into a magnificent 
plain, extending from the foot of the hills on either side across 
the Ghor, but with a high slip on the western side, where the 
large Ai^ab village of Beisan stands. The party was soon 
obliged to motint to the top of the high western ridge, as they 
passed in sight of Beisan. The country there appeared very 
different from that which they had passed since leaving Lake 
Tiberias. The ground abreast of Beisan, and as far westward 
as Molyneux could see, was f ei*tile, well watered, and cultivated, 
chiefly with Indian corn. It is also thickly inhabited : hundreds 
of small sheds could be seen studding the plain, with men 
watching the crops, and slinging stones to keep off the birds. 
1 Molyneux, Exped, Lc. p. 114. 


Molyneux thought the view from this point over the valley 
of the Jordan one of the finest things he had seen: an 
abundant vegetation extending up the slopes of the eastern 
hills, which are crowned with trees up to the summit, and 
everything growing in the wildest luxuriance; while on the 
western side, the higher steppe breaks down into steep sand- 
hills or whitish perpendicular cliffs, with only here and there 
the means of ascent. The river, as usual, winds very much, 
with banks about twenty feet in height, of brown clayey soil, 
somewhat resembling those of the Thames, and for some 
distance on either side a thick and almost impenetrable jungle. 

They made but a short journey on this day, as it was neces- 
sary to send to Beisan to get barley for the horses and food for 
the Arabs: the tent was pitched on the small island of el-Kerma, 
on the western side of the river. That day did not pass with- 
out more serious trouble with the Arabs : the difficulties were 
those experienced in passing through an enemy's country, in 
addition to the great labours inseparable from the low state of 
water in the river, and the difficulty of getting supplies of food. 
The heat was insupportably hot — 108° in the tent; and the 
commander of the expedition here began to give signs of yield- 
ing to its influence. The water sufficed, however, to float the 
boat, but there were hundreds of places where a man could 
leap across from stone to stone without wetting his feet. The 
party procured with difficulty some flour and melons from 
Beisan ; but the Beduins generally will sell nothing : indeed, 
they appear to have but little to spare, rich as the country 
appears to be. From seeing a quantity of deposit in the plain 
of the Jordan, and the marks of water in various places at a 
distance from the river, it was evident that the Jordan widely 
overflows its banks: the sheikh informed Molyneux that in 
winter it is occasionally half an hour across, wtiich accounts 
for the luxurious vegetation in this part of the Ghor.^ 

Fourth day.^ — This night a dew fell so heavy that the 
leader of the expedition woke up wet through. The river con- 
tinued to be good for th^ boat, but there was no good road for 
the camels. The country through the early part of the day 
was very fine, well watered, and fertile : the river ran through 
1 See Burckhardt, Trav. p. 842. 
* Molyneux, Exped. Lc. xviii. p. 116. 


the best part of the valley : very soon the higher terraces on 
either side began to close in, and to narrow the fertile space 
below ; the hills became irregular, and only partly cultivated ; 
and by degrees the whole Ghor resumed its original form, 
entirely different from the neighbourhood of Beisan* The 
zig-zag course of the river was prettily marked by lines of green 
foliage on its banks, as it veered from the cliffs on one side to 
those on the other. 

This day did not go by without more altercation with the 
Arabs, but fortunately it passed by without bloodshed. Moly- 
neux learned from the sheikh the number of the great tribes 
inhabiting the Ghor: the Ameers about eight hundred men, 
the Beni-Sakkers six to seven hundred, and the Anizees fifteen 
to sixteen thousand. 

Fifth day.^ — Leaving the camping-place, which the Arabs 
called Fath- Allah, and after giving directions to the boat, the 
party mounted the hills east of the river. The Jordan here 
runs near the foot of the western mountains, which fall away 
in steep cliffs to the water's edge, so that the narrow plain of 
the river, in but very few places, attains to the breadth of half 
a mile of cultivated ground. The lower hills to the eastward 
can be considered little more than a continuation of the high 
range of mountains : they are barren and uncultivated, with 
the exception of occasional wooded patches, and here and there 
some stunted shrubs or trees covered with sharp thorns. The 
water this day was very troublesome, having many shallows 
and some large falls, and the ruins of a bridge took some time 
to pass, so that the boat was nearly six hours and a half 
traversing a distance by water which some members of the 
party traversed in three hours by land. 

At about noon the boat reached a place on the river not 
far from Abon Obeidah, and about an hour and a half to the 
north of Wadi Zerka, called by the Arabs Seguia.' The cliffs 
on the western side are soft limestone, quite bare, and in some 
places they cannot be less than three or four hundred feet 
high. In one spot only they were observed to be of a reddish 
hue. This day the men in the boat shot two tigers and a boar. 

Sixth day. — Leavmg Seguia in the morning, at half-past 

' Molynenx, Exped, Ic. xviii. p. 118. 
» Burckhardt, Trav. p. 347. 


nine, they were abreast of the large old square castle of el- 
Rabua^ perched on Jebel Ajloun, where Ibrahim Pasha, when 
he held this country, kept ah Albanian guard ; but at present 
no one inhabits it. * At Seguia the river continues to run near 
the western hills ; and between Abon Obeidah and the cliffd 
which terminate the upper ground on that side, there is a con- 
siderable plain with many trees, and apparently well cultivated. 
This plain may extend perhaps eight or ten miles from north 
to south, the river Zerka bounding it on the latter side. The 
Jordan there again crosses the Ghor obliquely, and everything, 
except about its immediate banks, becomes barren and desolate. 
About noon they descended from the upper ground into the plain, 
through which the river runs, and which is here very remark- 
able, being particularly level and very green ; and the contrast 
between it and the white cliflFs which bound it on either side 
making it look like one large green river. This was an event- 
ful day to the party, for the company which was in the boat 
was attacked when the leader of the expedition with some others 
were a few miles in advance on the shore : the boat with its 
contents was taken by the Arabs, and the men, stripped of 
their clothing, were permitted to go. As the men did not 
make their appearance, after this disheartening intelligence 
reached Moljmeux, he pressed on during the night towards 
Jericho, entering it about daybreak the next morning. 

Thus ended the reconnaissance of the Jordan by an English 
party ; the loss of the boat made it impossible to do much more 
at this time. It was aftenvards recovered, however, and the 
missing men in due time made their appearance at Tiberias, 
having endured very severe sufferings. When we shall ad- 
vance so far in our inquiries as to examine the Dead Sea, we 
shall have to revert again to the narrative of Molyneux. 

Lieut. LyncKa Voyage down the Lower Jordan from Lake 
Tiberias to Beisan {Bethsliean), 

The scenery, as the party left the lake and advanced into 
the Ghor, which at the outset is about three-quarters of a mile 
in breadth, assumed rather a tame than a savage character. 
The rough and barren mountains skirting the valley on either 
hand stretched away in the distance, like walls to some gigantic 
3 Burckhardt, Trav. p. 266 ; Irby and Mangles, Trav. p. 306. 


fosse, their southern extremities half hidden or entirely lost in 
a faint purple mist. The average breadth of the river near 
the outset was about seventy-five feet ; the banks were rounded, 
and about thirty feet high, luxuriantly clothed with grass and 
flowers. There were the anemone, the marigold, occasionally 
a water-lily, here and there a straggling asphodel close to the 
water's edge, but not a tree nor a shrub. The party lost sight 
of the lake five minutes after leaving it. The water was about 
ten feet deep, and was clear. They had no difficulty in the 
navigation till after passing the first bridge, whose ruins are 
very marked. They then encountered the first of that series 
of rapids which was thereafter to be the source of so much 
danger and difficulty. Lynch had a great advantage over 
Molyneux in his metallic boats, which were merely bruised and 
dented as they came in contact with the sharp rocks of the 
rapids, where wooden boats would almost infallibly go to pieces. 
Lynch found only eight inches of water in this time of flood, 
and concluded correctly that the river would be very dry in the 
later months of summer. 

After passing the rapids they pitched for the night, just 
upon the edge of the Ghor. A little to the north, the Ard el 
Hamma swept down from the left. The lake was concealed, 
although in a direct line quite near, and a lofty ridge over- 
looked them from the west. The soil here is a dark rich loam, 
luxuriantly clothed, three feet deep with flowers : the purple 
bloom of the thistle predominated ; and the yellow marigold 
and pink oleander were occasionally relieved by the scarlet 
anemone. The rocks nowhere crop out, but large boulders of 
sandstone and trap are scattered over the surface. Among 
the flowers seen there, in addition to those already named, were 
the Adonis, or pheasant's eye ; the briony, formerly used in 
medicine ; the scabiosa stellata, in great luxuriance ; and two 
kinds of clover. 

The second day only brought an increase of labour and 
hardship ; for hardly had they started in the morning, when 
they found the river impeded by rapids to such an extent, as 
to make the progress by boat well-nigh impossible : indeed, it 
would have been hopeless, had there not been an old mill sluice, 
which was closed by stones, but which, when opened, formed a 
tolerable means of passing round the formidable breakers. 


There were five successive cascades in the river ; and the entire 
f all^ within a short distance^ was eighteen feet. After passing 
this dangerous spot, the water was stiller and deeper. The soil 
on the banks was fertile, but entirely uncultivated. The surface 
of the plain was about fifteen feet above the river, thence gra- 
dually ascending a short distance to a low range of hills, beyond 
which, on each side, the prospect was closed in by mountains. 
In the afternoon they passed the village of Abadiyeh, a large 
collection of mud huts, on a commanding eminence to the 
right: the people — men, women, and children — all hurried 
down the hill towards the river when they saw the Americans. 
It was impossible to tell whether the inhabitants intended to 
molest them ; for the boats swept by with too much rapidity 
for them to carry their designs into execution. The banks of 
the river were clothed with luxuriant verdure, — the rank grass 
here and there separated by patches of wild oats. The moun- 
tain ranges forming the edges of the upper valley, as seen 
from time to time through gaps in the foliage of the river 
banks, were of a light-brown colour, surmounted with white. 
After passing nine rapids during the day, the water became 
clearer, and was eight feet deep r the bottom was hard : there 
were small trees in thickets under the banks ; and advancing 
into the water, principally tarfas, or tamarisks, and willows. 
Fish were frequently seen : ducks, storks, and a multitude of 
other birds rose from the reeds and osiers, or plunged into the 
thickets of oleander and tamarisk which fringed the banks : 
beyond were frequent groves of the wild pistachio. 

At eight in the evening they reached the head of the falls 
and whirlpool of Bukah, near which they encamped for the 
night. Here are two ruined villages, one known as Delhemi- 
yeh, the other Bukah. They were destroyed, it is said, by the 
Beduins. Many of the villages on or near the river were 
inhabited by Egyptians, placed there by Ibrahim Pasha to 
repress the incursions of the Arabs. Now that the strong arm 
of the Egyptian bull-dog, as Stephens aptly calls him, is with- 
drawn, the fate of these villages is not surprising^ The 
Beduins, in their incursions, rob the Eg}'^ptian fellahin of their 
produce and the crops. Miserable and unarmed, the latter 
abandon their villages, and seek a more secure position, or trust 
to chance to supply themselves with food (for of raiment they 


seem to have no need), until the summer brings the harvest 
and the robber. Once abandoned, their huts fall into as much 
ruin as they are susceptible of, which is nothing more than the 
washing away of the roofs by the winter rains. The whole 
route through the day ran through an extensive plain, luxuriant 
in vegetation, and presenting to view, in uncultivated spots, 
richness of alluvial soil, the produce of which, with proper 
culture, might nourish a vast population. The average width 
of the river during the day had been forty yards, the depth 
from two and a half to six feet. 

The course of the river the next day was characterized by 
a succession of cascades and rapids more formidable than those 
which had been passed the previous day. Nothing preserved 
the boats from going to pieces upon the rocks excepting the 
fact that they were made of metal. During the afternoon they 
passed the mouth of the Yermak (Hieromax), forty yards wide, 
with moderate current. Not long after the old bridge came 
into sight. Near this stood a cliff, which Lynch climbed in 
order to reconnoitre the river. The crest was crowned by a 
ruined khan, while at the foot of the hill large masses of 
volcanic rock or tufa were lying about, as if shaken from the 
solid mass by the spasm of an earthquake. The khan had 
evidently been a solid structure, and destroyed by some con- 
vulsion, so scattered were the thick and ponderous masses of 
masonry. The bridge gracefully spans the river at this point. 
It has one large and three smaller Saracenic arches below, and 
six smaller ones above them^ — four on the east, and two on the 
west side. The river, deep, narrow, and impetuous, flows 
through the larger arch, and immediately branches, the left arm 
rushing down a nearly perpendicular fall of about eight feet, 
and scarcely a boat*s length ahead encountering the bold rock 
of the eastern bank, which deflects it sharply to the right. The 
right branch, winding by an island in the centre, and spreading 
over a great space, is shallow, and breaks over a number of 

Above and below the bridge, and in the bed of the river, 
are huge blocks of trap and conglomerate; and almost im- 
mediately opposite is a great fissure exposing perpendicular 
layers of basalt, the structure distinct, black, and porous. 
Upon the left bank, which is about sixty feet above the river, a 


short distance up, were twenty or thirty black Beduin tents, 
with a number of camels grazing around, — the men seated in 
groups ; the women, the drudges of each tribe, passing to and 
fro, busied apparently in culinary preparations. Just below 
the bridge they encamped for the night. The only tributary 
which had been passed thus far was the Yermak, coming in 
from the east, as wide and as deep nearly as the Jordan. 
The bridge is on the road from Nablus, through Beisan to 

The next day the party reached the utmost limits of 
cultivation, and approached the lower Ghor, a perfect desert, 
traversed by warlike tribes. On the first heights of the Ghor, 
to the eastward, is the village Sidumad ; the village Jumah is 
on the western bank. 

There are evidently two terraces to the Jordan, and through 
the lower one the river runs its labyrinthine course. From 
the stream, above the immediate banks, there is on each side a 
singular terrace of low hills, like truncated cones ; this is but 
the bluff terminus of an extended table-land, reaching quite to 
the base of the mountains of Hauran on the east, and the high 
hills on the western side. The peculiarity of form is attribut- 
able, perhaps, to the washing of rain through a long series of 
years. The hill-sides presented the appearance of chalk, 
without the slightest vestige of vegetation, and were absolutely 
blinding from the reflected sunlight. At times the boats were 
perfectly becalmed, the trees and bushes which lined the banks 
intercepting the light air that came down from the mountains, 
when, even at this early season (April), the heat was intense; 
and the birds, ceasing to sing, hid themselves among the 
foliage, from which the noise of the boatmen did not startle 

The first hour of the journey, which was through a most 
beautiful tract of alluvial, the country was entirely destitute of 
cultivation ; nothing but a rank luxuriance of thistles and wild 
grass indicating the natural productiveness of the soil. The 
variety of thorns and thistles was remarkable. Along the banks 
of the river ran a singular terrace of low hills, in shape like 
truncated cones, which extended quite to the base of the 
mountains. From thistles and wild grass they advanced into 
utter barrenness and desolation, the soil presenting the appear- 


ance of chalk, without the slightest vegetation. Around and 
quite near were large flocks of storks, in no manner alarmed or 
disconcerted ; some even stood on one leg, in quiet contem- 
plation of the unusual spectacle which the caravan presented. 

That night they camped two hours' distance from Beisan, 
where we take leave of the party for the present. 



It is to the bold Burckhardt that we owe the identification, 
in 1812,^ of the ruins of G^idara and the hot springs in their 
neighbourhood. Since then the place has been visited and 
described by Irby, Mangles, and Buckingham.^ 

The first important tributary of the Jordan, directly south 
of Lake Tiberias, and about two houi*s distant from it, enters 
the river directly below the ruined village of el-Bukah. It 
is the Hieromax of Pliny, ** Gadara Hieromace praefluente." 
Strabo and Ptolemy made no allusion to it. In the Talmud it 
is mentioned under the name of the Jarmoch,' whence springs 
•the appellation Jarmuk,^ which has become common among 
the Arabs, and which Edrisi uses as early as the twelfth 
century. It was probably not a boundary river in the old 
Hebrew times, for its name is never met in the biblical 
writings. It receives the name which is now generally given 
to it (the Menadra) from an Arab tribe dwelling on its banks, 
the Menadhere, The name Sheriat, which is joined with this, 
is one which it shares with other rivers, and indicates a ford 
which is used as a watering-place, — a name which is also, 
applied to the Jordan in consequence of the passage of the 

* Burckhardt, Trav. pp. 270 274. 

' Dr Anderson, a member of the American Dead Sea Expedition, ie a 
still more recent explorer. His account may be found in Lynches volume. 

* Lightfoot, Opp, omn. in Centuria Ckorogra. cap. iy. fol. 173. 

* Edrisi, in Jaubert, T. i. p. 338 ; Abulfeda Tabul. Syr. ed. Koehler, 
foL 148. 


Israelites through it. The Jordan is distinguished from the 
Sheriat Menadra by the appellation el-Kebir, Le. the great 
river ; it is veiy seldom called by the Arabs the Jordan, or in 
the older form, el-Urdan. 

The head waters of the Sheriat el Menadra, or Mandhnr, 
issue from the distant tracts of the Jebel Hauran and of Jolan 
(Auranitis and Gaulonitis), although it may be a little difficult 
to tell at what precise spot to localize their source. Burckhardt 
names four tributaries, the most northern one of which is the 
Hereir, whose fountain-head is in the swampy tract near Tell 
Dilly, on the pilgrim road south of Damascus, between the two 
stations el-Szanamein and Shemskein, on the border line of 
Jeidur (Iturasa) at the north, Jolan (Gaulonitis) in the west, 
and Hauran (Auranitis) in the east. Only the smaller tribu- 
taries from Jolan — Wadi Moakkar, Wadi Hamy Sakker, and 
Wadi Aallan, which are crossed on the route from Feik by way 
of Nowa to Damascus — lie west of the Hereir ; the other two 
known ones are on the east. The one is the Nahr Rokad, which 
flows through eastern Jolan, not far from Ain Shakhab ; and 
the other is the Buj, and comes from Mezereib. 

The springs near the place last mentioned, the first castle 
south of Damascus, and three hours south of Shemskein, are 
well known on account of their abundant supply of water and 
fish. The spot is a favourite stopping-place for caravans on 
the way to Mecca ; they make the final preparations for enter- 
ing on the great march through the Syrian and Arabian deseits. 
These springs, whose waters, when they come together, form a 
lake half an hour in circumference,^ and flow into el-Buj, are, 
if not the most distant, at least the best known and the most 
abundant feeders of the river which takes the name Sheriat not 
far from Abiela, and which subsequently passes the sites of that 
ancient city and Capitolias. Its shores are tilled by the Men- 
adhere Arabs, who live in tents and move from place to place, 
but never forsake the river : tiiey sow wheat and barley, and 
in their gardens raise grapes, citrons, pomegranates, and many 
kinds of vegetables, which they sell in the villages of Jolan and 

As we go westward the river-bed becomes narrower, and is 
closely hemmed in between the rocks on both sides. In this 
* Burckhardt, Trav. pp. 241-246. 


cleft^ and north of the height on which are the ruins of Om 
Keis (Gadara)y lies the long row of the hot and very profuse 
medicinal springs of the Gadarenes, among which that of Ham- 
met esh Sheikh is one of the chief. From this point the river 
runs in a north-westerly direction, following the rocky valley ; 
and after pursuing a course of two or three hours' duration, it 
enters the Jordan. The Sheriat is full of fish, its course is 
rapid, its shores thickly overgrown with oleander ; its breadth, 
where it enters the Jordan, is stated by Burckhardt^ to have 
been about thirty-five paces in May ; its depth, four or five feet. 

As the lower course of the Sheriat el Mandhur is of especial 
interest in connection with its history and natural history, I 
shall connect the discussion of it with that of the Jordan 

Om Keis, i.e. Mater astuticBy is the modem name of a great 
village which lies west of the district of Kefarat, and near the 
highest part of the ridge which bounds the valley of Lake 
Tiberias and the Jordan on the east ; with its hot springs, it 
lies far above the deep cleft through which the Sheriat flows, 
about an hour's distance north of the ruins. The southern 
declivity of Om Keis is bounded by the small Wadi Araba, 
which runs westward into the Jordan parallel with the Sheriat 
according to some authorities, or, according to Burckhardt,' 
terminating the Sheriat itself before it enters the Jordan. The 
place, which was discovered by Seetzen,' and called by him 
Mkes (an abbreviated form of Om Keis), is said to lie on the 
summit of a mountain, formed by the junction of the Sheriat 
valley and Wadi el Arab. He found the steep sides of the 
mountain, to which he ascended from the cavernous southern 
side called Jadar, i.e. Gadara, to be composed of limestone, 
with frequent deposits of flint. He regarded the Sheriat as the 
natural geological boundary of the basalt tegion of Jolan and 
Hauran on the north, and of the limestone^ of Jebel Ajlun 
and Jilead on the south. 

The name Jedur, which Seetzen found current among the 
shepherds^ on the south-east slope of the mountain, would indi- 
cate that the ancient Gadara was in the neighbourhood, even if 

1 Burckhardt, Trav. p. 273. • Ibid. p. 271. 

' Seetzen, in Mon. Corresp. xviii. pp. 417-420. 
* Ibid. p. 863. * IHd. p. 857. 


the Roman architecture on the summit did not confirm the 
same when taken in connection with Pliny's and Jerome's 
statements. The former says : Gadara Hieromace prsBfiuente ; 
the latter, under the word Gadara, says : Urbs trans Jordanem 
contra Scythopolim et Tiberiadem, ad orientalem plagam sita, 
in monte ad cujus radices aqusB calidae erumpunt, balneis super 
sBdificatis. Although the name Jedur is given to a large part 
of the Hauran territory east of Om Keis, and upon the north 
bank of the Sheriat, and therefore seems to denote the province 
in whose midst the ruins and hot springs lie, yet this cannot 
affect the name of the ruin itself ; and all the grounds which 
have been adduced to disprove the location of Gadara at this 
place are^ as Leake and Gesenius show, without any real worth. 
Leake^ remarks that Burckhardt was not able to make the 
distance of the ruins of Om Keis from the Hieromax and the 
hot baths harmonize with the position of Gadara ; but Eusebius 
and Jerome say explicitly that the hot springs are not in close 
proximity with Gadara, but some distance away, at the foot of 
the mountain on which the ruins lie. In another place we are 
told in the Onomasticoriy '^ est et alia villa in vicinia Gadarse, 
nomine Amatha, ubi Calidae aquae erumpunt," perhaps the 
Hammath, i.€. hot baths, of Josh. xix. 35, which Keil ^ holds to 
be identical with Tiberias. This is enough to set Burckhardt's 
doubts aside. According to Josephus, the city was restored by 
Pompey, and taken subsequently by Vespasian : Strabo^ does 
not know the place, and confounds it with Gaza ; Pliny locates 
it in the Decapolis of Peraea ; and Josephus calls it the Metro- 
polis PersesB, which the coins also confirm. The place attracts 
great interest to itself in consequence of the healing of the man 
possessed of demons (Matt. viii. 28, Mark v. 1, Luke viii. 26);^ 
and there can be no doubt, says Gesenius, that the caves which 
are described here by travellers are the same in which the people 
similarly afflicted concealed themselves. Belaud has mentioned 
the high esteem in which the baths were held in the first cen- 
turies of the Christian era. 

1 Leake, Pref. to Burckhardt, Trav. p. iv. ; Geseniua' Note to Burck- 
hardt, i. p. 427. 

^ Keil," Comment, zu Josua^ p. 863. 

3 GroBBkurd, Not« to Strabo, Pt. iii. p. 260, Not. 1. 

« Von Raumer, Pal p. 240. (Tristram, p. 458.) 


Seetzen describes only in general terms the ruins of Mkes 
which he discovered, and ascribes them to some finely built and 
rich city of ancient times. This, he tliinks, is made evident 
not only by the remains of pillars and buildings, but also by 
the large number of sarcophagi, many of which are profusely 
decorated with figures in i*elief, and with carved garlands. 
They have in many cases been remarkably well preserved. 
It surprised Seetzen to find that all of these were made of 
basalt, probably brought from Jolan. He discovered at Mkes 
several large and finely wrought caves, but not a single house. 
A half-dozen families were living in caves, whose size he was 
not able to measure on the outside ; he only learned how really 
spacious they were by going inside one, where he was hospitably 
entertained by the occupants. In order to assure himself of 
the identity of these remains with those of the ancient Gadara, 
which had once been so celebrated for its baths that they were 
thought to be only surpassed in the whole Roman empire by 
those of BaisB, Seetzen inquired where they were, and discovered 
their locality at the foot of the mountain on the north side, and 
an hour's distance away, though but a few steps from the river 
Sheriat. He saw the steam arise from the hot springs, but he 
could not reach them, the river being so much swollen by the 
long-continued rains as to be unfordable. 

Burckhardt^ came in May 1812, from Hauran westward, 
by way of Abil and Hebras, reaching Om Keis on his way. 
Here he was surprised to find an entire mountain covered with 
ancient ruins, although only the summit bore the traces of a 
compact city. He seems to have heard nothing while there of 
the hot springs near by, for he returned from the Jordan the 
next day to make a special examination of them. He found 
the same caves and sarcophagi which had been mentioned by 
Seetzen : of the latter he counted seventy. On the summit there 
were several hewn stones and fragments, but no perfect build- 
ings. On the west and north-west sides of the mountain he 
saw the remains of two great amphitheatres, one of which lay 
very deeply hollowed out of the steep sloping rock, with a very 
small arena, but with seats, ascending so high that the upper- 
most row is forty feet above the lowest. The more western of 
the two theatres was in much the best state of preservation. 
1 Burckhardt, Trai;. pp. 271-273. 


The largest part of the rains were to be seen still farther west 
on a tract of level ground^ where along a paved street there 
could be seen a large number of shattered pillars, capitals, and 
fragments of temples. With the exception of the two theatres 
and a single column, which were of grey granite, Burckhardt 
found all the architectural remains to be of the indigenous 
limestone which constitutes all the mountain land south of the 
Sheriat as far as to Wadi Zerka. He (in this agreeing with 
Seetzen) found in the whole Jebel Ajlun as far as to Beni 
Obeid no more black basalt ; and only on the way from Hebras to 
Om Keis, on the south shore of the Sheriat, did he see the last 
alternating layers of basalt and limestone. It is quite clear that 
the ravine into which the lower Sheriat flows is only a break in 
the basaltic rock, through which also the hot springs have been 
able to cleave a way for themselves. 

Burckhardt's visit the next day to these springs has made 
us able to understand their location. He found ^ the first one 
lying about an hour and three-quarters distant from Szammagh, 
where he had spent the intervening night. The river flows 
through a deep bed, having banks of basalt in some places a 
hundred feet high, to whose black sides the green upon the top 
forms a very striking contrast. The smell of sulphur is per- 
ceptible a hundred paces off from the springs. Grass and 
bushes grow thickly around, and a few old palms are also seen. 
The main spring jets from a basin forty feet in circumference, 
five feet in depth, and surrounded by walls which have partly 
fallen in : the brook which runs away to the Sheriat is so hot 
that one can hardly bear to dip the hand into it; it covers 
the stones with a thick sulphureous crust, which the Arabs 
detach to rub their horses down with. The basin was originally 
cemented and covered, but of the structure which surmounted 
it only a few fragments and a broken pillar remain ; all the 
large rocks have been much affected by the power of the 
steam. This spring bears the name of Hammet es Sheikh, 
and is said to be the hottest one of all. Only a few steps away 
is another spring of a lower temperature, but surrounded with 
ruins of some ancient structure there : this is called Hammet 
er Rih, and is connected subterraneously with the larger spring. 
Burckhardt learned that there are eight similar fountains, and 
1 Burckhardt, Trav. pp. 276-278. 


that the most distant of them is two and a half hours farther 
from the Jordan than the first. They are said to be f oand upon 
both sides of the river. It is to be regretted that since that time 
no naturalist^ has carefully examined these interesting springs. 
Burckhardt learned that in the month of April the largest 
springy Hammet es Sheikh, is visited by many sick people of 
the adjacent country for the sake of its medicinal qualities : they 
even come from places as far away as Nablus and Nazareth, 
and stay as long as two weeks there : the place is considered 
even preferable to the springs at Tiberias. Antoninus Martyr 
visited^ the baths of Gadara about the year 600, and calls 
them ThermsB Heliae ; he says that they were much visited by 
persons afflicted with leprosy. Eunapins of Sardes, the rhetori- 
cian and physician, who lived towards the beginning of the fifth 
century, says that two of the smaller fountains were called Eros 
and Anteros ; in the Talmud they are named the warm baths 
of Gadara; Ensebius and Josephus call them Amath and 
Amatha (Hamath). Irby and Mangles, who visited Om Keis ' 
in 1818, spent the night in one of the holes — which was large 
enough, according to their report, to^shelter thirty men — ^with a ' 
family which received them very hospitably. Their stable was 
at the farther end of the long catacomb, while they occupied 
the hither extremity. In ascending the hill they found remains 
of the ancient city walls, and the cemented pavement of the 
streets so well preserved in many places, that the marks of 
wheels could in some places be seen. The main avenue was 
accompanied throughout its length by rows of pillars. The 
ancient necropolis could be made out on the northern side, where 
the clefts, excavated to a considerable depth in the rock, and 
guarded by swinging doors, showed the site of former sepul- 
chres. These doors in some cases were still swinging upon 
stone hinges. On the outside panels were carved and adorned. 
The result of a visit to the baths was only to confirm the 

^ Dr Anderson, a naturalist who accompanied Lynches expedition, was 
prevented by the want of time from even seeing them at all, although he 
made a hasty visit to the ruins on the hill. The necessity of pressing with 
all haste down the Jordan rendered such a course imperative. See also 
Tristram, Land of Israel, p. 458. — ^Ed. 

^'Itinerar. Beati Antonini Mart, ex Muse. CI, Menardi^ 1640, 4, 6. 

* Irby and Mangles, Trav. Lett. iv. pp. 296-298. 



account of Barckhardt ; yet the temperature of the chief springs 
was found to be lower than it had been observed at Tiberias^ 
and the crust on the hottest basin was rubbed by the Arabs 
upon the skins of their camels. 

The most critical antiquarian researches ^ which have been 
made in our time into the architecture of Gadara, as well as in 
other places in Persea, have been made by Mr Banks, who was 
accompanied by Buckingham. The latter, however, made use 
of extracts and copies of drawings made from the papers of the 
former by a seaman, evidently of good intelligence and skill, 
but with no knowledge of science or art. To those Bucking- 
ham has appended an immense mass of irrelevant quotations, 
and a tedious narrative of his own, filling forty-four pages upon 
Gadara alone. Whatever worth they have, is to be attributed 
to the extracts made from Banks. It is most deeply to be re- 
gretted, for the sake of science, that the latter still persists in 
withholding from the public the extremely valuable results of 
his own observations. 

I will detach from Buckingham's pages only a few observa- 
tions.^ Among the three* first sepulchre caves which are met 
in entering the city from the east, the stone door of the third 
was in a state of perfect preservation. On entering the place, 
the first chamber was found to be seven feet high, twelve paces 
long, and ten broad ; then came a second chamb^, measuring 
ten by twelve feet, and regularly hewn. The portal, archi- 
trave, and doors are all of the same black basalt out of which 
the sarcophagi are made. The architrave is adorned with 
three roughly-sculptured busts, with bare head, full faoe^ and 
prominent ears. 

There were other caves of similar aspect r one with ten 
niches for cofBns, and smaller ones for the reception of lamps : 
the architrave of this one was decorated externally with a 
garland. In many of the vaults sarcophagi were found. 
The greatest number of these, however, were to be seen 
scattered around over the top of the hill: they were all of 
black basalt, and were adorned with garlands, busts of Apollo, 
and little Cupids ; also with family coats of arms. Other oma- 

1 Irby and Mangles, Trav. Lett. iv. pp. 296-298 ; Quarterly Review^ 
vol. xxvi. p. 889 ; comp. Gesenins* Burckhardt, Ft. i. Note, pp. 530, 537. 
s Buckingham, Trav. in Pal, vol. ii. chap, xziii. pp. 252-296. 


ments were wanting. There were fully two hundred perfect 
sarcophagi counted here, not to speak of the countless frag- 
ments which strewed the ground. 

The city, whose ruins extend from east to west half an 
English mile, and a quarter of a mile from north to south, dis- 
plays on the east a portal of the ancient gate. Beneath passed the 
main street, running westward, fifteen paces broad, and paved 
in the most admirable manner with black basalt blocks. It runs 
for the most part past colonnades of Eoman and Corinthian 
pillars, while the remains of others are also scattered around. 
There are also the relics of temples and two theatres, to which 
may be added another near the baths. So many are the proofs 
of ancient splendour and of a dense population, where now 
there is almost unbroken solitude t Burckhardt saw not a soul 
in Om Keis, Buckingham only a few families in the tombs, 
while at the northern side of the village, and on the site of the 
ancient necropolis, there are only pitiful hovels, constructed 
mostly of the fragments of broken sarcophagi. He reckoned 
the whole population as two hundred souls ; and their wan- 
dering through the tombs recalled vividly to his mind those 
Gadarenes mentioned in Luke viii. 27, who did not dwell in 
houses, but in tombs. 

In one of these a waggon-maker had taken up his abode : 
in another, which was adorned with an elegant architrave, 
and an admirably constructed stone door, which moved lightly 
on its hinges, was a cistern to which a flight of steps descended, 
and by its side a vault : in one apartment twelve feet square 
stood a perfect sarcophagus, which had been converted into a 
meal-chest and a receptacle of other provisions. The people 
of the place had a different physiognomy from other Arabs — 
not so dark as the swarthy Beduins, who are always exposed 
to the weather, but with a strongly marked African cast of 
features. The women had curly hair, thick lips, and promi- 
nent teeth. They insisted that their stock had always in- 
habited the neighbourhood of these springs. They had neither 
horses, camels, goats, nor sheep, but the finest herds of buffaloes 
and dogs. 

Buckingham visited^ the springs as well: he found the 
tents of some Beduins in the neighbourhood. The northern 
1 Buckingham, Trav. Ic. ii. pp. 297-308. 


shore of the Slieriat has, he says/ a dark, fruitful soil, which is 
here and there tilled.* 



South of the confluence of the Jordan with the Yarmuk, 
the vallej widens and displays an oasis-like fertility and beauty. 
On the western bank lies the only place of importance, Beishan. 
Burckhardt, in his cross journey from Nazareth to Abu Obeida 
and Szalt, paid particular attention to the district which we are 
about to describe ; Irby, Mangles, and others, followed him over 
much the same route which he himself took. In one day,* 
July 2, 1812, Burckhardt passed with a caravan from Nazaretfi 
across the south-eastern end of the plain of Jezreel, passing 
Mount Tabor, and a number of fountains near Endor and Om 
et Taybe, on his direct road to Beishan, reaching, after about 
seven hours, the village of Merassrass, at the top of a row of 
hills, whence begins the descent from the plateau to the depres- 
sion or Ghor in which the Jordan lies. 

North of the village just mentioned is the Wadi el Bireh, 
which runs from the south base of Tabor to the Jordan ; and 
south of the village is Wadi Oesche, whose general course is 

^ Dr Anderson, who has already been mentioned as hastily examining 
the ruins of Gadara, has added nothing of material importance to the 
accounts already cited. His description of the theatre, cited from his 
manuscript notes in LyncKs Dead Sea Expedition^ p. 197, is more full than 
that of the others. According to his report, it is half oval in shape, and 
the short diameter, t.6. the length of the enclosed space, is about eighty 
feet, the entire diameter about a hundred and twenty feet. At the upper 
edge of each step is a cornice several inches in breadth. The seats are 
interrupted by five passages, converging towards the centre of the open 
space below. Exterior to the seats are three concentric walls, furnishing 
a covered corridor of eighteen or twenty feet width within, and an ou^er 
opening occupied by staircases ascending to the upper gallery, on a level 
with the hinder seats. — Ed. x 

^ See also Buckingham, Trav. ii. p. 808 ; and von Haumer, Pal p. 44, 

• Burckhardt, Trav. pp. 342-344. 


the same. North of Wadi el Bireh there is only one tributary 
of the Jordan known to us to come in from tlie west, the Wadi 
el FejaSy which runs from the northern side of Mount Tabor. 
South of the Wadi Oesche is the Wadi Beishan, which passes 
through the midst of the town bearing that name, carrying fer- 
tility and beauty wherever it goes. 

These four tributaries — Wadi el Fejas, Wadi el Bireh, 
Wadi Oesche, and Wadi Beishan, all of which flow into the 
Jordan from the west — do not merit the name of Sheriat, like 
the Mandera; but are, in truth, mere wadis, having a tem- 
porary stream during the rainy season, and therefore not with- 
out influence on the adjacent valleys, hills, and villages. On 
this account, I cannot omit to speak of them before coming 
to describe the geographical character of Beishan. The dis- 
trict which they drain forms a considerable part of the basin of 
the middle Jordan ; and the ready access which they afford to 
the hill country of Galilee, has always given them great his- 
torical importance.^ 

All the four wadis named above run in almost parallel 
lines to the great Jordan depression ; their course being short 
and the descent rapid from the long mountain chain, which 
presents itself here, in the region south of Galilee, in a more 
plateau-shaped and broadly-arched form than in the most ele- 
vated districts of Samaria and Galilee. The springs which 
feed them are found upon the watershed line between the 
Ghor and the Mediterranean : their waters, pouring as they 
do into a stream lying from eight hundred to a thousand feet 
deeper than the sea-level, and having so short a course, must 
run with proportionately greater violence than those which, 
like the Kishon, debouch on the western coast. The line of 
watershed is not a straight, but a very winding one, connecting 
the three mountain groups standing on the common plateau. 
Tabor, the smaller Hermon (more correctly Jebel el Dahy), 
and Jebel Gilboa. These mountains form the arc of a circle 
on the eastern side of the plain of Esdraelon; but they are 
disccoinected from each other by the wadis alluded to above, 
and converted into little isolated systems, the line of direction 
in each of which does not run north and south, but parallel 
with the wadis, ue. from north-west to south-east. 

^ See Hammer-ForgstAll in WUn, Jahrb. 18S6, vol. Izxi^. p. 46, 


1. Wadi el Fejas^ and its head springs in tJie Ard el Hammer 

The most northern of the wadis named takes its rise north- 
north-east of Mount Tabor, between it and the mountain chain 
west of Lake Tiberias, and flows south-eastward from the 
village of Hattin, on the northern edge of the plain Ard el 
Hamma,^ plunging at last rapidly down to the Jordan valley. 

This elevated plain, the Ard el Hamma, although covered 
with basaltic fragments,^ has a very fruitful soil, and yields 
fine crops of dhurra, although in dry seasons the ground opens 
with wide cracks, whence thistles and thorns spring with great 
rapidity. Burckhardt says of the plain, that a large portion 
of it is overgrown with the wild artichoke, which produces a 
small blue flower, which has been considered by some the ** lily 
of the field" referred to by the Saviour. 

The road from Tabor to Damascus crosses the plain Ard el 
Hamma, and passes the Khan el Tudjar, where every Monday 
the peasants meet and have a market,' Kefr Sabt, Subieh, and 
Hattin, the last named lying near the double-homed and saddle- 
shaped pass known as the Kurun Hattin. These two knobs, 
between which passes the road leading northward, rise only 
about sixty or eighty feet above the plain, whose elevation 
above the sea is estimated at about a thousand feet. The 
northern part of the plain in the neighbourhood of the Kurun 
Hattin has a deep historical interest : for here it was that the 
Sultan Saladin gained so complete a victory in the year 1187 
over the army of the crusaders,* that the latter never recovered 
from it, and were soon compelled to withdraw entirely from 
Palestine. A modem legend, entirely unfounded, however, 
has made this place the scene of the miracle which supplied 
five thousand persons with bread. 

North-west of the village of Subieh may be seen the little 
hamlets of Turan and Kefr Kenna,^ the latter of which, lying 

1 Burckhardt, Trav, p. 333; Kobinaon, Bib. Besearch, ii. p. 369; 
Ruflsegger, Reise^ iii. p. 130. 

* Burckhardt, Trav, p. 333 ; Buckingham, ii. pp. 321-323. 

« Buckingham, Trav. in Pal. ii. pp. 320-322 ; Wilson, Lands of the 
Bible, ii. pp. 108, 305. 

* Wilken, Cttsch. der KreutzzOge, iii. p. 282 ; Reinaud, in Michelet, Extr. 
iv. p. 194 ; Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 376-485. 

' Robinson, Bib. Researches, iL pp. 346-352. 


five miles north-east of Nazareth, has been erroneously con- 
sidered the Gana of GalUee mentioned in John ii. The brooks 
of this place flow westward, while those of Subieh enter the 
Jordan* The watershed line therefore crosses the plain on 
the north side of Tabor, and is undistinguishable with the 
naked eye. 

2. The Wadi el Bireh and Mount Tabor. 

This wadi is the second of the tributaries of the Jordan 
which come in from the west, below Lake Tiberias. It takes 
its name from the village of Bireh, which it passes, and begins 
at the southern base of Tabor, the celebrated mountain which 
rises on the western boundary of the Jordan valley, and which 
is the more carefully to be observed, because, while it is the most 
characteristic peak which dominates over the Ghor, it forms a 
barrier between it and the great plain of Jezreel or Ezraelon. 
This slopes gradually to the Mediterranean, and is traversed 
by the Kishon, a not unimportant stream, whose head waters 
spring from the north and west base of Tabor, giving it all the 
character of a watershed mountain, and conferring the same 
physical peculiarity upon the surrounding plain. 

Tabor, whose etjrmological meaning appears to be umbilicuB^ - 
was called by the Greeks Atabyrion, and is designated by the 
Arabs of the present day as Jebel Tor, or the mountain. And 
really it deserves this title of pre-eminence, as the most isolated^ 
and most prominent landmark of all Galilee, its cone-shaped 
figure being seen from all sides' towering above the plain, and 
the low hills which stand near it. Although it only rises about 
eight hundred feet above the plain called Ard el Hamma, at its 
north-eastern base ; only about sit hundred feet above Nazareth, 
a little to the north of west of it ; although it rises but very 
slightly above Jebel ed Duhy or the smaller Hermon at the 
south, and reaches^ only a height of seventeen hundred and 
fifty Paris feet above the sea ; yet its relative position to the 

^ Rdand, Pal pp. 881-836 ; Bosenmiiller, Bibl AUerthk. p. 105; also 
Note 10, p. 188 ; von Raumer, Pal pp. 87-89. 

* Burckhardt, Trav. p. 884. 

« Roberts, La Terre Sainte, liv. ix. Vign. 26 : Le Mont Thahor, 

* RoBsegger, Reise^ ill. p. 159 \ Stemheil, m Gel Aus. d. Bayer. Akad. 
d W. 1840, No. 47, p. 888. 


coantry around it leaves the impression that it is twice as high 
as it really is.^ Jerome says of it : Thabor^ terminus Zabulon ; 
mons in medio Galilsese, mira rotunditate, sublimis, etc. It was 
the boundary between the tribes of Zebulon and Issachar (Josh, 
xix. 12; 22). The Chisloth Tabor which Joshua mentions was 
a place which lay at the north-west base of the mountain, and 
was sometimes reckoned in the territory of one tribe, and some- 
times in that of another.^ In Ps. Ixxxix. 12, the glory of 
Tabor is compared with that of Hermon. On the north side, 
from Khan el Tudshar, Burckhardt required three hours to 
climb the mountain. Wilson, who ascended by the same way, 
discovered above the khan, and not far from it, a spring,^ whose 
waters flow from the north-east side of the mountain, wind 
around its base, and enter the right fork of the Wadi el Bireh 
on the south side. From tliis spring the observer can see that 
Tabor is not a perfect cone, as it has been commonly sup- 
posed, but that its longer axis extends from east to west. The 
isolation of this mountain has doubtless been the reason for its 
being made by the earlier ecclesiastics the scene of the trans- 
figuration of the Saviour, described in Mark ix. 2 : '^ Jesus 
taketh with Him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth 
them up into a high mountain apart by themselves." Beland^ 
and Wilson have placed beyond doubt the fact, that the word 
^^ apart" refers not to the solitary position of the mountain, but 
to the seclusion of the disciples themselves. Both endeavour 
strenuously to show that the Mount of Transfiguration was in 
the neighbourhood of Hermon and Gassarea Philippi. The 
New Testament does not throw any light upon the matter; the 
very earliest legend places the scene of the transfiguration on 
the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem.^ It is only since the 
time of Gyrillus and Jerome that Tabor has been connected 
with this sacred episode in the life of the Saviour. Eusebius, 
the predecessor of both, describes Tabor, but he evidently 
knows nothing of such a legend ; for assuredly he would not 

^ Volney, JBewc, ii. p. 172. 
' Eeil, Comment iiber Josua^ pp. 388, 343. 

' BobiDBon, Bib, Research, ii. p. 331 ; Wilson, Lands of (he Bible, ii. pp. 
90, 107 ; von Raumep, Pal. p. 123. 

^ Reland, PcU. p. 335 ; Wilson, Lands of the Bible, ii. p. 100, Note 3. 
.' Itin. Anton. Aug. et Hierosolymitanum, ed. PartUey, 1848. 


have passed by it in silence, if the tradition existed in his time. 
The historical data which we possess, show that the summit of 
the mountain was employed, without any intermission, between 
the times of Antiochus Magnus, 218 B.C., and the destruction 
of Jerusalem under Vespasian, as a stronghold, and was by no 
means the scene of peace and solitude whither one would flee, 
anxious to escape the turmoil of the world. The consecration 
which quiet and seclusion give was only reached after the 
fortresses which once crowned its summit had been laid low, 
and all Palestine had become a scene of desolation, and the 
home of idle, legendary fancies. The architectural remains 
now to be seen upon the summit confirm the account of the 
character of the fortifications which it once sustained ; and in 
addition to that evidence, we have the statements furnished by 
the crusaders regarding the devastations made by the Saracens 
under Sultan Saladin in 1187, and Sultan Bibar in 1263. The 
latter converted the whole into a scene of utter desolation ; and 
so it remains to the present day.^ 

The most common ascent of Tabor is from Nazareth, the 
north-west side. This is also the easiest ascent, because the 
height of the adjacent plain is greater than on the north-east 
side. The path, at first tolerably level,^ and then ascending in 
a serpentine course, is beautified by varieties of grass, and by 
overshadowing oaks and thickets of bushes, in which von 
Schubert' heard, on the 19th of April, countless birds sing- 
ing their morning song, awakening within him the solemn 
thought, that here once walked Jesus. Tabor rose before him, 
arrayed in its inajQtle of forest^ and isolated from all its neigh- 
bours, like an altar in a plain ; and even if it were not the 
hallowed mountain on which Peter heard the voice from 
heaven (2 Pet. i. 18), yet it was the place alluded to in the 
inspired words of the Psalmist : '^ The north and the south. 
Thou hast created them ; Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in 
Thy name" (Ps. Ixxxix. 12). 

At the left of the road running north-westward there runs 
a low range of hills, which form the natural connection between 
Tabor and the heights around Nazareth. Over the top of this 

^ Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. pp. 362-869. 

* Hid. p. 860 ; Wilson, Lands of ike BibU, ii. p. 100. 

• Ton Schubert, Reise, iii. pp. 178-180. 


range runs a road which was taken by Robinson, while Wilson 
and von Schubert pursued the one first named. This is the 
great Damascus route, and passes by the little village of Daburi, 
the Dabira of Eusebius and Jerome, the Dabaritta of Josephus, 
and, it may be, the Deberath which, according to Josh. zix. 12, 
belonged to Issachar. And since the popular belief has trans- 
ferred to Tabor the scene of the healing of the son who was 
a lunatic, and whose father brought him to the Saviour, 
Eaphael has with fine judgment and taste introduced the sum- 
mit of Tabor and the angelic personages upon it into his picture 
of the Transfiguration, and secured for it that immortality 
which so perfect a work of art can give. Von Schubert tells 
us that the direct ascent of the mountain begins near the ruins 
of a Christian church, and is at first steep and difficult. One 
does not need to go more than a third of the way to the top 
before he discerns the round wooded summit which, when 
reached, proves to be a small plain slightly inclining westward. 
The path up is extremely circuitous, and in some places too 
steep to ride over. It usually takes from an hour and a quarter 
to an hour and a half to reach the summit. Tabor is clothed 
with woods to the very top— one of the greatest rarities among 
the mountains of Syria.^ The dark green of the walnut, the slim 
azederach, the rose-bushes, the yellowish white styrax blossoms, 
the pistachio and oak trees ; all these and many others beautify 
the path to the very summit, where a view of immense extent, 
embracing Galilee, Samaria, Persea, and extending as far north- 
ward as the snow-crowned Hermon, richly repays the toil of 
the ascent. 

Yon Schubert ascertained the height of the valley in which 
Nazareth lies to be eight hundred and twenty-one feet above 
the sea, and that of the hills around to be from fifteen to 
sixteen hundred feet. The altitude of Esdraelon, at the foot of 
Tabor, is four hundred and thirty-nine feet above the sea-level,^ 
while the surface of Lake Tiberias, on the eastern side of the 
plateau on which Tabor stands, is five hundred and thirty-five 
feet below the ocean-level. The summit of this mountain is, 
according to von Schubert's measurement, 1748 feet above the 
sea, or about 2283 feet above Lake Tiberias. Yet it is not the 

^ Russegger, Beise^ iii. p. 129. 

« Von Schubert, Rcise, iii. pp. 168, 174, 177. 


absolute height of Tabor, but its position in relation to the deep 
Jordan valley, and the great plain at its base, that gives it the 
appearance of an altitude which At does not possess. And one 
of the phenomena most striking to an observer standing upon 
Mount Tabor, is the sharp contrast of colour presented by the 
deep green broad plain just at its base, to the blinding white of 
the snow-crowned Anti-Lebanon, the intense blue of the moun- 
tains of Ephraim and Judsea, and the pale green 6f those of 
Gilboa. In this, and in the recollections suggested by many 
places in view from the summit, and in the inexhaustible 
varieties of natural beauty, there is enough to charm the spec- 
tator and bind him there with as strong a fascination as any 
Alpine prospect could do.^ 

Towards the north-east is to be seen the distant and lofty 
Jebel Sheikh ; west of that, the high range of the Lebanon ; 
still nearer, Jebel Safed, with the peak which the city of Saf ed 
crowns. Directly at the foot of Tabor, and in the same direc- 
tion, is the most northern arm of the great, but here rolling, 
plain of Esdraelon, extending north-eastwardly as far as to 
Kurun Hattin, and north-westwardly as far as Sef urieh and 
Kana el Jelil, more or less dotted with hills, and animated 
with the villages and encampments of the Arabs. Only a 
small portion of Lake Tiberias is to be seen, although its out- 
lines ai*e distinctly marked. Behind it, and farther to the 
north-east, the high plateau of Jolan is clearly seen ; farther 
south, the flat table-land of Hauran ; and still farther south, 
Bashan and the mountains of Gilead, which in winter are 
capped with snow, but which in spring display even at a dis- 
tance the same green pasture lands which they had in Moses' 
times. Moab rises sharply up from the horizon like an impass- 
able wall, which, however, a nearer view would show to be rent 
with a thousand titanic seams. 

In the direct neighbourhood of the mountain, the view 
north-eastwardly takes in only a small tract of the Jordan 
valley ; for the Ghor is hid from sight by its high western wall. 
Even on the south, the situation of Beisan cannot be discerned, 
although the depressed valleys of Wadi el Bireh and Wadi 

^ Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. pp. 857-860 ; Roasegger, Reise, iii. p. 
180 ; Wilson, Lands^ etc,^ ii. pp. 104-106 ; Strauss, Sinai und Golgotha^ 
pp. 401-403 ; Richter, WaUfahrt, p. 61 ; (Tristram, Land of Israel^ p. 498.) 


Beisan are in full view, and although the wider tract through 
which they pass before entering the Jordan may claim to be 
considered a part of the Jordan valley itself. Of the Dead 
Sea nothing is to be seen. Towards the south, Jebel et Dahi, 
or the smaller Hermon, shuts off the prospect, particularly of 
the mountains of Samaria; but as it is considerably lower than 
Tabor, it does not hide the heights of Gilboa. Wilson recog- 
nised with perfect distinctness, at the south foot of Tabor, the 
great depression^ which runs from the village of Endor souths 
eastwardly to the Jordan. He heard the name l^Iirzah applied 
to the upper part, — ^a name which is with great probability con- 
nected with the same Meroz^ which was cursed by Deborah 
(Judg. V. 23). Close by the beginning of Mirzah, whose 
waters flow into the Jordan, lie the sources of a small tributary 
of the Kishon.' Here, therefore, south of Tabor, the same 
phenomenon repeats itself which we have already observed in 
the Ard el Hamma, namely, the existence of the watershed line 
on the plains which lie between the groups of mountains just 
west of the Jordan. 

On the northern slope of the smaller Hermon, or Jebel 
Dahi, are to be seen the villages of Dahi, Nain, and Endor, the 
latter of which have a deep religious interest. They lie in the 
upper valley of the Wadi el Bireh. From the summit of 
Tabor, Jebel Dahi is seen to have two peaks, of which the 
northern one is the less elevated : between the two there lies a 
high plain, whence runs Wadi Oeshe, parallel with Wadi el 
Bireh : in the summer time it is dry. Still farther south of 
Wadi Oeshe the depression of the Beishan valley is to be seen, 
running directly west from the Jordan to Ain Jalud, in the 
plain of Esdraelon, and at the north-western extremity of the 
Gilboa ridge. From this place, too, flows westwardly a tribu- 
tary of the Eishon ; and here, as on the plains farther north, 
the watershed follows the plains between the moimtains. 

The view westward from Tabor is no less interesting than 
that southward. Both give an impression with regard to the 
topographical character of the country far more accurate and 
satisfying than could be gained by traversing all its parts. The 

1 Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ Ic. iL p. 106 ; Robinaon, Bib. Eesearch, 
ii. p. 855. 

« Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ ii. pp. 90, 107. ■ Ihid. pp. 89, 90. 


view westward extends diagonatly across the broad and gently 
sloping plain of Jezreel or Esdraelon, the Merj Ibn Amer of 
the Arabs, about twenty miles in length and ten in breadth, 
according to Burckhardt. At its western end, above Lejun 
and Megiddo, tower the wooded heights of Carmel, whose 
altitude is almost precisely the same as that of Tabor, about 
1500 feet ; whence the conjunction of their names in Jer. 
xlvi. 18. The northern view is closed by the hills of Nazareth ; 
but still farther north, there may be seen in the extreme dis- 
tance, and under a favourable condition of the atmosphere, a 
line of silver — the Mediterranean Sea. 

From this broad panoramic picture we turn to study more 
closely the place where we stand — the summit of Tabon Accord- 
ing to Burckhardt,^ it is from one to two miles in circumference, 
and according to Kobinson it is an elliptical plain, about a mile 
across in one direction, and about half a mile in another. At 
the south-western part there are a number of walls and ruins 
to be seen ; the whole top is overgrown with grass and bushes, 
but the growth of trees does not extend beyond the edge. 
Wilson was surprised at finding a patch of oats upon the 
top ; probably the last results of the settlement there early in 
the century of a number of Greek families, who had been 
driven from Hauran, and had taken refuge on the summit of 

The ruins on the top belong to different epochs. Around 
almost the whole of the edge can be seen the remains of a thick 
wall, composed of great stones, many of which are bevelled. 
These both Robinson and Wilson suppose to indicate the exist- 
ence there of a strong fortress at a very early day. We know 
that even in the time of Deborah and Barak, Tabor was a strong- 
hold, for here ten thousand men arrayed themselves against 
Sisera (Judg. iv. 6, 12). Polybius tells us that Antiochus 
Magnus fortified the summit of this mountain, 218 B.o. The 
principal ruins are found on the eastern and southern sides of 
the summit, and consist of a confused mass of walls, sepulchres, 
ditches, arches, and foundations of houses, many of the stones 
bevelled. There is to be seen also a pointed Saracenic arch 
built in the middle ages. It is called the gate of the winds. 
At the time of the Crusades, churches and convents were on 
^ Burckhardt, Trav. p. 334 ; Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 352. 


the top of Tabor,^ and Willibald speaks of their existence there 
as early as the eighth centur}',^ although there is no proof that 
the Empress Helena ever bailt a church there, as she is asserted 
by some to have done. 

Burckhardt* observed that during the most of the summer 
the summit of Tabor was surrounded in the morning with 
thick clouds, which disappeared later in the day. He found more 
dew to fall there than anywhere else in Syria. Bobinson ob- 
served the same phenomenon; and Maundrell^ alludes expressly 
to the amounf of moisture which he found on his tent in the 
morning in the plains of Jezreel. This phenomenon reminds 
us of the often-mentioned dew* of Hermon. How important it 
was regarded to the existence of vegetation on the neighbouring 
moimtains of Gilead, may be seen by the prominence given to 
the falling of dew on the fleece of wool before Gideon's conflict 
with the Amalekites (Judg. vi. 37-39). 

3. Wadi Oesche and Hie Jebel ed Dahiy or Little Hei^mon. 

The valley known as Wadi Oesche is completely terra 
incognita : of its lower course we know nothing further than 
that Burckhardt^ passed through it on his way from Endor to 
Beisan. It runs from a high plateau on Little Hermon^ be- 
tween its two peaks, and passes down its eastern slope, passing 
thence on to the Jordan. Jebel Dahi, the name applied by the 
Arabs to the mountain, appears to derive its name from that of 
the village of Dahi on its western slope. Burckhardt^ paid 
little attention to the physical character of the valley as he 
passed through, and gave no names of localities; but the 
researches of Robinson did not leave even these undetermined ; 
and as the result, we have on Kiepert's map the villages of 
Afleh, Salam el Fuleh, ed-Dahy, Endor, Nein, Tumrah, Urn 
et Taiyibeh, Murussus, and Eumieh. 

^ Von Ramner, Pal p. 38. 

' Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. pp. 858, 359. 

« Burckhardt, Trav. p. 835. 

* Maundrell, Joum. Oxon. p. 57. 

' IHn, Antonini^ ix. fol. mccxii., in Ugolini, Thes, vol. vii. ; ibid, edit. 
Julimagi Audiom, fol. 8. 

• Burckhardt, Trav, Gesenius' ed. ii. p. 591 ; Robinson, Bib, Research, 
ii. p. 856. 

' Burckhardt, Trav. p. 242, 


The name Little Hermon^^ which is applied to Jebel ed 
Dahiy has been in use since the fourth century. It is not 
alluded to in the writings of the Old or New Testament. 
Jerome alludes to it twice, and erroneously connects with it the 
Hermon mentioned in Ps. Ixxxix. 12, ^^ Tabor and Hermon 
shall rejoice in Thy name," having supposed that the conjunc- 
tion of the two names was meant to correspond to the relation 
of the two mountains, which stand almost side by side. The 
Hermon alluded to there, as well as that spoken of in the plural 
form in Ps. xlii. 6, Hermonim [translated Hermonites in the 
Eng. version], refers imquestionably to the double-peaked Jebel 
es Sheikh. The false ^ application of the word Hermon quickly 
found favour with the ecclesiastics, and was adopted by them ; 
but the Arabs of the coimtry have never shown the slightest 
inclination to call Jebel Dahi by the name of Hermon. In fact, 
the mountain is neither massive nor high, neither beautiful nor 
fruitful ; it is a barren, shapeless mass, its highest part lying 
towards the west: only the villages on its slope have any 
historical interest. 

Endor is the ancient place of the same name, situated in the 
territories of Manasseh, where dwelt the soothsayer or "witch" 
consulted by Saul (1 Sam. xxviii. 7). It was also the place 
where Sisera was overthrown (Ps. Ixxxiii. 9, 10). Its position 
has been discovered by recent explorers. 

Nain, now a little hamlet, just south of the last-mentioned 
place, has been visited by pilgrims since the time of the Crusades, 
as the place where the young man mentioned in Luke vii. 11 

To the west, but very near, are the village of Dahi, from 
which the mountain derives its name, Fuleh^ and Afuleh, now 
in a state of great decay, and standing at the western base, on 
the very border of the plain of Esdraelon, and at the line of 
watershed between Tabor and Jebel el Dahi. These places 
bore in the time of the Crusades the name Castellum Faba ; 
they were in the common possession of the Hospitallers and 
the Templars, but were taken and sacked in 1187 by Sultan 

^ Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. p. 826, and Rodiger, Rec. ; oomp. Rosen- 
muller. Bill Alter, ii. Note 6, pp. 185-137. 
* Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 319, 820. 
» lUd. p. 828 ; Wilken, Gesch. der Kreutz. iii. pp. 231, 267. 


Saladin. In modem times, the locality which Burckhardt^ 
designates bj the name of Fele was the scene of a battle 
between the French under General Kleber and the Turks, in 
which an army of 2000 men routed a Turkish ^army of 25,000. 
In 1843, Wilson, on passing through this neighbourhood, dis- 
covered the traces of ancient walls, which showed him con- 
clusively that Jebel Dahi, like Tabor, was once fortified as a 

Just here it is, at the western angle of Little Hermon, that 
the great Damascus road, running north-eastward, divides into 
two arms, the right one of which runs along the east foot of 
Tabor through the Wadi Bireh, to the Klian et Tujar (this 
is the road most travelled'), and the left follows the north- 
western side (mostly taken by Christian pilgrims who wish to 
visit Nazareth and ascend Tabor), meeting the other at the 
khan, and thenceforward making but one road. Traping the 
Damascus road in the reverse direction, it runs from the west 
side of Tabor south-westward, passing the villages of Fuleh 
and Afuleh, which lie on the eastern margin of the plain of 
Jezreel, on the line of watershed^ between the Mediterranean 
and the Jordan, which, as has already been remarked, is not 
to be traced at all with the eye. The level tracts which lie 
between the mountains described above, do not show even the 
slightest wave of land which would direct the tendency of the 
streams which rise there, yet they form the natural watershed 
notwithstanding. The village of Solam,* south-east of Fuleh, 
on the last southern bluff projecting from Little Hermon, and 
opposite to Zer'in, at the head waters of Wadi Beisan, is an 
insignificant, sqXialid cluster of houses, but which, from its 
position, commands the whole plain of Jezreel as far as Carmel. 
It is the Shunem which, witfi Jezreel and ChesuUoth, was 
appointed to be the boundary of Issachar (Josh. xix. 18); 
it is also the place where the Philistines encamped when 
Saul had gathered all Israel on the mountains of Gilboa, 
and went for counsel in his despair to the sorceress of the 
neighbouring village of Endor (1 Sam. xxviii. 4). It is the 

* Burckhardt, Trav. p. 339. 

« Wilaon, Lands of the Bible, ii. p. 39. « Ihid, p. 90. 

^ RobinsoD, Bib. Research, ii. p. 331. 

* Von Raumer, Pal p. 139. 

WADI BEISAtr. 821 

Sanem vrhenoe the fair maid Abishag was brought to David 
(1 Kings i. 3) ; it was the home, too, of the widow who 
received Elijah in so hospitable a manner, and who afterwards 
rode across the plain of Esdraelon to Carmel, to implore him 
to restore the life of her son (2 Kings iv. 8-25). Eusebios 
speaks of Shnlem as lying five Koman miles south of Tabor ; 
which coincides well with the situation of the modem Solam, 
for the discovery of which we are indebted to Monro. 



Burckhardt entered Wadi Beisan,^ the fourth and most 
southern of the parallel transverse valleys, and passed up and 
down the whole wadi, without discovering the spring whence 
its waters flow. Irby and Mangles visited it while on the same 
road which Molyneux took from Lake Tiberias, and traversed' 
it southwards as far as the Jordan. No traveller since their 
day has followed Wadi Beisan to its source, and it remains a 
field for new discovery ; for the greater number of tourists and 
explorers have merely passed by the spring at Jezreel, lying 
on the confines of the mountains of Gilboa and the plain of 
Esdraelon, because there passes the great Damascus road from 
Samaria via Jenin to Nazareth, as well as to Tabor and Tiberias. 
From this point we become acquainted with the mountains of 
Jilbon, the source of the Beisan stream, which springs here 
from its northern slope, and takes its course through the Wadi 
Beisan. There is also a road which leads directly from Jenin 
north-eastwardly' over the Gilboa range to Beisan, passing 
Fakua and Jilbon, the ancient Gilboa. At the west end of 
the range is the route taken by von Schubert* and Wilson, 
running northward to Nazareth, and passing Zer'in near the 

^ Burckhardt, Trav. Geseniiu' ed. IL pp. 591-595. 

> Irby and Mangles, Trav, pp. 301-804. 

> Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. pp. 816, 317. 

* Yon Schubert, Reise^ iii. pp. 164-168 ; Robinson, Bib. Reseatxih, ii. 
pp. 815-331 ; Wilson, Lands of the Bible, ii. pp. 84-91, 303, 304. 
VOL. U, X 


fountain of Jezreel. These travellers never went eastward 
into the Beisan valley farther than to a spring of which I shall 
speak in another place. The exploration of Wadi Beisan 
seems to be the more desirable, since it appears to be the 
deepest and flattest depression which connects the Mediterranean 
Sea with the Jordan valley. 

There are only three points connected with the present 
division of our subject, of which, in the absence of sufficient 
authorities, I venture to speak: the first is Zer^in, or the 
ancient Jezreel ; the second, the mountains of Gilboa ; and the 
third, the city of Bethshean, tl^ Scythopolis of the Greeks, and 
the Beisan of the present day. 

1. Zeririy or the ancient Jezreel; the Fountain of Jezreel^ in 
the upper part of Wadi Beisan. 

The junction of the Beisan valley, which at its western 
extremity is a broad plain, with the eastern part of the plain of 
Esdraelon, is so perfect that the watershed cannot be detected 
with the eye, and justifies the application of the term ^^ Open 
Gate "^ applied to it by von Kaumer. It is indeed the natural 
transition between the great plain of Esdraelon and the flat and 
plain-like Wadi Beisan. The pillars of this gate may be said to 
be Jebel Dahi or Little Hermon on the one side, and the Gilboa 
mountains on the other. The existence of a broad open space 
connecting Esdraelon with the Jordan valley, is in entire vari- 
ance with the generally accepted notion of an almost unbroken 
Syrian range running from north to south. Still Bobinson 
declares^ decisively that there is a plain of from two to three 
miles in width lying between Gilboa and Little Hermon, and 
stretching away eastward as far as the city of Beisan, whose 
acropolis-like site he could distinctly discern. Standing at Zer^in, 
he could see the blending of the two plains just before his eyes. 

To mark the precise line of watershed would be impossible, 
for the eye can detect no visible sign of the blending of the 
eastern with the western plains. The line appears, however, 
to run northward from Zer'in past the villages of Fuleh and 
Af uleh, and south of Zerin to the ruins of Sundela. 

Coming from the south-west on the high road from Jenin, 

^ Von Raumer, PaL p. 44. 

' Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. pp. 315-^1* 


one discovers, after passing Sundela, the village of Zer*in, 
from which the unbroken plain of Esdraelon or Jezreel extends 
westward^ as far as the eye can reach. It was a surprise to 
Eobinson, on reaching this place, to find himself standing on 
the brink of a precipice a hundred feet in height, and facing 
northward. This forms the abrupt termination of the moun- 
tains of Jilbon or Gilboa. At the foot lies the valley of 
Beisan, a plain two and a half miles in width, beyond which 
rises gradually Jebel Dahi or Little Hermon. 

This village of Zer^in, at present in decay, and consisting 
of only a few houses standing among ruins, lies absolutely as 
well as relatively high, and commands a view of the Beisau 
plain on the east, and the Esdraelon plain on the west. The 
latter derives its name from that of the ancient city of Jezreel 
(Josh. xvii. 16), where it is spoken of as lying in a valley. 
The Jezreel of the Hebrews became the Ezdraelon of the 
Greeks and the Stradela^ of the middle ages; the Arabs of 
the present day call it Zer'in. We know from the account of 
Eusebius that the territory designated by the Hebrew word 
Jezreel was exactly coincident with that called by the Greeks 
Ezdraelon. The Arab word Zer'in arose naturally from the old 
Hebrew form, since the last syllable, el^ very often passes over 
into en and tn, — for example, Israyen instead of Israel, — ^the 
weak aspirate j is lost, the ea is transposed into se or ze^ as is 
very often the case in Arabic words. The crusaders recognised 
the identity of the names,^ and William of Tyre says that in 
his day Jezreel was known as Gerinum. 

The ancient Hebrew name employed by Josephus in his 
Antiquities has continued to cling to the city, to the spring 
found beneath it, and to the valley sloping away gently toward 
the east, — the same in which the Midianites encamped (Judg. 
vi. 33). The Greek name Ezdraelon, which Josephus does not 
use, is now applied to the great plain stretching away west to 
the city of Jezreel (Zer^in). 

This name Zer'in, or Zer^ain, as Wilson writes it, seems 
to have more relation to the celebrated spring (Ain) which 

^ Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 319. 
• Itinerar, Hierosol, p. 586, ed. Parthey, p. 276. 
' Robinson, Bib, Research, ii. p. 821 ; Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ ii. 
p. 87, 


is found near the village, and which is spoken of in 1 Sam. 
sxix. 1 as a place of encampment : ^^ The Philistines gathered 
together all their armies to Aphek ; and the Israelites pitched 
by a fountain which is in Jezreel/' The place is of insignifi- 
cant importance compared with its splendour in the days of 
Ishbosheth the son of Saul (2 Sam. ii. 2, 8, 9), and when 
Ahab and Jezebel once had their royal residence there, and 
coveted the vineyard of Naboth, and brought upon themselves 
the judgments of God. Wilson counted^ thirty or forty huts 
in the present village, and scattered fragments around, among 
which were a number of sarcophagi, which Robinson had 
already noticed, and held to be a mark of the former import- 
ance of the place. At a second visit Wilson saw eleven of 
these, and held them to be the work of the ancient Israelites.^ 
He also discovered traces of basaltic quarries which had not been 
observed before. Among the ruins'he found an ancient square 
tower, which both he and Robinson ascended, and whence an 
extensive prospect was to be had. At the north was Jebel 
Dahi and the mountains of Nazareth and Galilee. Westward 
the Carmel ridge was seen stretching to the sea : in the distant 
east and beyond the Jordan the mountain walls of Bethaniyah 
(Bashan) and Ajlun (Eglon) were to be descried. Still 
nearer, and in the same direction, was the Tell Beisan, the 
acropolis which towers above the site of the ancient Scythopolis. 
Westward, and at about the same distance, Lejun with its 
minaret could be seen confronting Carmel. This place was 
the ancient Legio; and near it was Maximianopolis, which 
Jerome locates in the plain of Megiddo. Each of these places 
is about nine miles from Zer'in, the intermediate station. The 
tower referred to above seems to be a monument dating from a 
very early period, — ^perhaps that of the prophet Elijah, — ^and 
may be the very one mentioned in the account of Joram's 
sickness at Jezreel, and the approach of Jehu, his adversary, 
over the plain below. The latter was evidently coming up 
through the Wadi Beisan, the ancient Bethshean. The account 
is given in 2 Kings ix., and the 17th verse gives a very distinct 
idea of one topographical peculiarity of the ancient city of 
Jezreel. The allusion is in the following words : ^^ And there 
stood a watchman on the tower of Jezreel," etc. 

» WilBon, Lands of the Bihle^ IL pp. 87, 803. 


More satisfactory testimony to the identity of the place 
noticed by Eobinson and Wilson with the Jezreel which 
flourished three thousand years ago, can hardly be imagined. 
The argument is strengthened by a word or two occurring in 
1 Kings iv. 12, where, in the account of the twelve officials 
appointed to provide for the wants of Solomon's household, we 
read: ^^Taanach and Megiddo, and all Beth-shean, which is 
by Zartanah, beneath JezreelJ^ etc The last words exactly 
describe the impression which the view from Zer'in made upon 
the travellers of our day who looked down from it upon the 
depression of Wadi Beisan.^ 

Wilson tells us that, on his descent from Zer^in, on the 
northern side of the declivity, he came unexpectedly upon a 
fountain which supplies the present village with water. This 
seemed to him to be probably the spring mentioned in 1 Sam. 
xxix. 1, around which Israel encamped when the Philistines 
came up into the plain of Jezreel and offered battle. This, 
however, is the fountain Ain Jalud, farther east, which 
Bobinson visited. Wilson, on his second tour of exploration' 
in that neighbourhood, was struck with the regular descent of 
the valley towards the east ; he discovered, moreover, several 
brooks whose waters were of great advantage to the crop 
of oats which he found growing there. The soil seemed to 
liim to be formed from the crumbling of the basaltic rock 
of the neighbourhood, and to owe its fertility to this com-> 

Bobinson, like Wilson, descended the north face of the 
bluff on which Zer'in stands, and after a walk of twelve 
minutes he came to a cluster of springs, whose waters, after 
breakmg from the ground, formed for a little distance separate 
channels, and then joined in a common brook. The name which 
he found given to it was Ain el Meiyiteh, or the Dead Fountain,^ 
because it used to dry up. At the time of his visit, however, it 
had been dug out, and its waters turned to a useful purpose in 
irrigation. This seems to be the spring which Wilson thought 
the true Ain Jezreel mentioned in the Scriptures. But twenty 

iSee Wilson, Lands, etc.y ii. p. 87; Dr E. G. Schultz, Zeitsch. d. 
deutsch. morgenl Qes. vol. iii. p. 48 ; and Gross, Anmerk. p. 58. 
> Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ ii. pp. 88, 803, 804. 
* Bobinson, Bib. Research, ii. p. 824. * Ibid. pp. 828-825. 


minutes' distance eastward of this, Robinson discovered a very 
large spring, which seemed to him to have no slight claims to 
recognition, as the one alluded to in the sacred record. It 
breaks forth from beneath a waU of conglomerate rock, which 
forms the base of the Gilboa mountains (Gilboa signifies in the 
Hebrew a boiling^ spring) ; and the supposition seems a natural 
one, that the name was transferred from the fountain to the 
range. The water is of an excellent quality, and forms, directly 
below the cleft whence it flows, a fine clear pool, full of fish. 
The brook which forms the outlet of this turns the wheel of a 
mill, and then passes on, unquestionably to be the upper waters 
of the Wadi Beisan, although this name is not there in use. 
The term by which the fountain is designated by the Arabs 
is Ain Jalud, t.e. Goliath's Spring, — Jalud being the Arabic 
form of Goliath.^ The connection of the name of the giant 
who encountered David with this spring is evidently merely 
fanciful, springing from the fact that a great battle was once 
fought here between the Israelites^ and the Philistines (1 Sam. 
xxix. 1, 11). 

This spring was one better adapted, from its ample supply 
of water, to be the camping-place of the Hebrew army, than 
the one found near the village of Zer'in. And the place which 
witnessed the death of Saul and Jonathan (1 Sam. xxxi. 1-^) 
has not been allowed to remain there many centuries without 
drawing other armies to its neighbourhood. Its situation at the 
intersection of the roads running north and east, as well as its 
ample supplies, of water,^ made this place a famous resort in the 
time of the Crusades; for by this spring passed the nearest 
and the most comfortable road for the Saracen hordes under 
Saladin to come up from the Jordan after crossing from Persea. 
At this spring they could encamp before entering the mountain 
land of Galilee and Samaria, and rest themselves and prepare 
for battle. William of Tyre, the chronicler of the Crusades, 
was familiar with the fact that this great fountain, then called 
Zubania, was the source of the Wadi Beisan stream ; for he 

1 RosenmuUer, Bihl Alterthk. ii. p. 111. 

> Bahaeddin, Vita Saladini^ p. 53 ; Wilken, Gesch. d, KreuzzUge, iiL 
p. 281, Note 146. 

* Itinerar, Antonini Augtuti, etc.^ ed. Parthey, p. 276. 

* Zeitsch, d, deutsch, morgetiL Ges, vol. iii. p. 48. 


not only speaks distinctly of it, but he confii*ms his testimony, 
by stating that the pool which it fed was so full of fish as to 
supply the troops which were with him with a full meal. I 
have already alluded to Eobinson's interesting discovery of fish 
in the same waters. 

The earliest account of the division of the conquered 
country among the tribes (Josh. xvii. 11), informs us that 
Beisan or Bethshean (Scythopolis), the possession of Manasseh, 
though within the limits of Issachar, was settled by a Canaan- 
ite population, which Manasseh was too weak to conquer and 
to espel^ (Judg. i. 27). The Canaanites were dwelling at that 
time in several cities of that region — ^Endor, Thaanach, and 
Megiddo— as well as Bethshean. At that period of the ascend- 
ancy of the tribes in actual possession^ the descendants of 
Joseph, who were divided into two tribes, Ephraim and half 
Manasseh, were very much discontented with the portion 
assigned them (Josh. xvii. 14-18), because, although a nume- 
rous people, they had but one share. The result of their com- 
plaint was, that Joshua recognised the justice of their claims, 
and bade them go and cut down the forests, and make for 
themselves a place in the country of the Perizzites and 
Bephaites. Their answer was : ^^ The hill is not enough for 
us ; and all the Canaanites that dwell in the land of the valley 
have chariots of iron, both they that are of Bethshean and her 
towns, and they who are of the valley of JezreeL" From this 
and from what follows, it seems clear that the mountains of 
Gilboa are here meant, extending as they do from Bethshean 
(Beisan) to Jezreel, and that the broad gentle slope from Beisan 
to Jezreel, sinking into the plain itself, is set in direct contrast 
with the " land of the valley." It was only this plain of 
Jezreel, and that north of Lake Huleh, that was then accessible 
to the chariots of the Canaanites. It was in this plain of 
Jezreel that Joram king of Israel, and Ahaziah king of Judah, 
went forth in chariots to meet the enemy : it was here that 
Jehu passed in a chariot to Samaria to meet the faithful 
Jehonadab (see 2 Kings ix. 21, s. 15). And Wilson,^ in 
leaving the hilly district of Judsea, utterly unfitted for Vehicles, 
and entering the plain of Esdraelon at Jenin, was surprised 

1 Eeil, Commentar zu Josua^ p. 818. 
* Wilson, Lands of the Bibky ii. p. 803. 



to see how entirely it differed from the country which he had 
previously traversed, and how easily it might be crossed by 
excellent highways, if the custom of the country admitted of 
the use of vehicles* In the days of the Jews, the plain was so 
associated with the use of the chariot, that this term became 
to a certain extent an exponent of the power of the people 
inhabiting the plain : the chariot was the gloiy of Ephraim, as 
the horse was of Judah (Zech. ix. 9, 10). 

There is this remarkable inference to be drawn from the 
passage cited above from the book of Joshua, that at the time 
of the Israelitish invasion, the mountains of Gilboa and the 
country adjacent were covered with dense forests, of which not 
a trace now remains, and which made them a more secure 
asylum for those who sought protection, than open fields could 
be. And it seems to have been a shrewd device of the great 
Hebrew chieftain, the counselling the descendants of Joseph to 
go up into the mountain land ; for it would lead to the laying 
bare of the whole country, and would compel the original in- 
habitants to come out from their places of refuge, and make 
open resistance to the invaders. It is unquestionable, that the 
mountains of Gilboa present a very different appearance to 
that of Joshua's time. And when Wilson emerged at Jenin 
from the moantain countiy of the south, and entered the most 
fertile district of all Palestine, the plain of Esdraelon, in all the 
broad expanse over which bis eye iS^nged, there was not a single 
tree to be seen.^ 

2. The Mountains of Gilboa^ now Jelbun (Jelbon), or 
Jehel Fukua, 

Unimportant as the mountains of Jelbon may seem to be 
at the present time, in consequence both of their physical in- 
significance and the uninteresting character of the few people 
who inhabit them, both of which circumstances have caused 
the range to be entirely overlooked by travellers ; yet, to one 
interested in Hebrew history, these mountains have even a 
classical interest. Who could pass by the range, and not think ^ 
with tenderness of the friendship of David and Jonathan, and 
recall with painful interest the song of the former, when the 
latter had perished in the battle of the Philistines : " The beauty 
^ Wilson, Lands of the Bible^ it. p. 85. 


of Israel is slain upon thy high places : how are the mighty 
fallen I Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their 
lives, and in their death they were not divided." The impre- 
cation of ver* 21 is also found in the same dirge: ^^ Ye moun- 
tains of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither let there be rain 
upon you, nor fields of offerings," etc. ; for the Philistines had 
contended with Israel, the latter had been vanquished, and Saul 
and Jonathan had fallen upon the mountains. Saul's armour 
was suspended in Ashtaroth, and his body hung upon the walls 
of Bethshean (1 Sam. xxxi. 1, 10). Afterwards, his bones, 
together with those of Jonathan, were brought by the royal 
Psalmist and hero, David, to Zelah, in the territory of Benjamin, 
and buried in the grave of his father Eish (2 Sam. xxi. 14). 

As one passes on to the mountain-land of Samaria, through 
the narrow pass in which Jenin (Ginoea) lies, at the south- 
east bend of the plain of Esdraelon, a walk of two hours 
brings him to Zer'in, on the north-west bluff of the mountains 
of Gilboa. From that point the range runs in a south-easterly 
direction, till it is terminated by the steep wall at whose foot 
runs the Jordan. Coming from Jenin to Zer'in, one has on 
the right hand the southerly slope of Gilboa in view ; and the 
brooks which rise there flow westward into theKishon, although 
in the summer they are all dry. The streams which flow into the 
Jordan on the other side are entirely unknown. Burckhardt^ 
speaks, indeed, of a Wadi el Maleh ; but no one has visited it. 

Directly after emerging* from the defile, the traveller sees, 
across the south-eastern bend of the fruitful plain of Esdraelon, 
the whole Gilboa range, along whose western flank the road 
northward leads, passing a number of uninteresting spurs or 
bluffs. The mountains, or more strictly, the hills of Gilboa, 
exhibit nothing striking or pleasing in their general contour : ' 
they are not lofty ; they exhibit very little green pasture-land, 
and no tilled fields; while forests are utterly wanting. The 
broad and naked strips, and steep barren escarpments of lime- 
stone, are far more obvious to the eye than the patches of 
green. The line of elevation seems to be a south-easterly con- 
tinuation of that of the Carmel range ; and with the exception 

1 Burckhardt, Trav. p. 845. 

* Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. 318. 

s Wilson, Lands of the Bible j ii. pp. 85, 86. 


of one or two breaks, but a few miles across, the chain may be 
said to be complete, from the Carmel promontory to the Ghor. 
Northward of this continuous line there was unquestionably, 
at a very early period, a lake of considerable magnitude, whose 
waters broke through the place where now the channel of the 
Edshon is, leaving the fertile plain of Jezreel behind. The 
road from Jenin to Zer'in passes the places Araneh, Jelameh, 
and Sundela.^ Bounding the northern end of the range, there 
is to be seen first the village'of Nuris, then Mezar or Wezar, 
having at a distance the look of a fortress, and farther south- 
east the village of Arabbunah. Still farther in the same 
direction, but upon the southern slope, lies Fukua,^ which 
gives the modern name to the range. Robinson locates the 
village of Jelbon (Gilboa), whose existence was not known 
before his day, and whose name is identical with the former 
designation' of the mountains, on the northern side ; but this 
was a mistake, and the later investigations of Schultz have 
shown conclusively that it was on the southern slope. 

The traveller last mentioned has devoted much attention 
to the geography of Gilboa, in order to throw light upon the 
places mentioned in the book of Judith. Although recognising 
the lack of an authentic historical character in this apocryphal 
book, yet he supposed, with good reason, that the author in his 
topographical descriptions would have adhered closely to literal 
fact. The result of his investigations showed him that his 
conjecture was well founded; that the author of the book 
of Judith was thoroughly acquainted with the geography of 
Gilboa. Looking for Bethulia,^ the scene of the heroine's 
career, he was directed* to the village of Beit-Efah^ (or Ilua), 
which seemed to him to be the same word slightly changed. 
It lies on the northern slope of the mountain, as one goes from 
Fukua towards the Beisan valley. Its whole geographical 
character convinced him of the truth of his discovery^ The 

1 Robinfion, Bib. Research, ii. p. 319. • Ibid. p. 316. 

3 Ibid, pp. 316, 817. See also RoBenmiiller's Bib. AUerthk. iL p. Ill ; 
Reland, Pal p. 344, and cap. ziiL 

* Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 323-856. 

* Von Raomer, BeitrSge zur bibl Geog, p. 19, art. Belueir. 

^ £. G. Schultz, Mutt, iiber eirie Reise in Samaria, in Zeitsch. d. Deutsche 
Morgenl Ges. vol. iii. pp. 48, 49 ; and Gross, Anmerk. pp. 58, 59, 


Belmah of the book of Judith, Schultz supposes he has found 
in the modem Berameh, near Jenin. Dothan, or Dothaim, 
which was near Belmah, was also the object of his careful 
search. The location has not been with exactness ascertained ; 
but Schultz supposes it to have been south-west of Jenin, 
where the plain of Esdraelon enters for a little way the moun- 
tains of Samaria. Dothan, it will be remembered, lay upon 
the highway which the Ishmaelite merchants were compelled 
to travel ; for it was while they were in their regular march 
that they bought Joseph of his brethren (Gen. xxxvii. 17). 
Gross,^ in his remarkably close critical observations, conjectures 
that the old highway running from Samaria northward did not 
pass, as now, Engannin (Josh. xix. 21), the present Jenin,' 
according to Joshua, but by Dothan. See Gen. xxxvii. 17, 
and the account of the Syrian invasion, 2 Kings vi. 13. The 
discovery of the site of Dothan is one well worthy of the 
attention of future explorers. Unfortunately, Schultz was not 
able to visit the place which has been conjectured with the 
most probability to have been the spot«' 

3. Beiaan (Bethslieariy BetJishany Scythopolis). 

We turn now from the Gilboa range and the fountain of 
Jezreel, and pass south-eastward through the "Great Gate" 
leading down to the Jordan, for there lies the third object of 
our special inquiry* This is the site of the city of Beisan, the 
renowned Scythopolis of the past^ whose discovery and identifi- 
cation we owe to Burckhardt. 

Seetzen* has already descried the place from Wadi Jabis 
beyond the Jordan, a deep gorge which lies directly opposite to 
Beishan, and of which he says that it is the natural boundary 
between Botthin and Ejlan, — a circumstance which must have 
given to Beisan, situated as it was at the outlet of this portal 

^ Yon Ratuner, Pal p. 149, Note 107, and Append, pp. 21, 22. See 
Gross, Anmerk. as above, p. 58. 

' Bobinaon, Bib, Research, ii. 815. 

' Since these pages were written, the site of Dothan has been definitely 
ascertained by Robinson and Yan der Yelde. The hill on which it lay is s. w. 
of Jenin, about five miles from it, and near the southern margin of the 
plain of Esdraelon. See also Tristram (p. 132), who there saw a long cara- 
van of mules and asses, laden, on their way from Damascus to Egypt. — Ed, 

* Seetzen, Mon. Corresp, xviii. p. 423. 


ta northern and southern Persea, great historical importance. 
The Syrian hordes, from the earliest times down to Saladin, 
understood perfectly the value of that portal to Samaria and 
Galilee. Situated as Beisan is in the Ghor, midway between 
Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea, at the most fertile and most 
accessible spot on the western bank, at the junction of the road 
running eastward and westward with that running north and 
south, it must always have been a place of much consequence 
and influence. That it has not retained that placQ up to the 
present time, is due to the want of stability in the political 
relations of the country, and to the frequent incursions of Arab 
robbers who come into Palestine from the desert, choosing as 
their highway this very accessible one tlirough the Wadi 
Beisan, the most convenient south of Lake l^berias. Since 
there is not now, and for centuties has not been, anything 
to hinder them, tribes of wandering Beduins have for ages 
swept through that open gate like swarms of grasshoppers, 
and have become by successive stages the possessors of the 
whole country, while the primitive inhabitants have betaken 
themselves to the walled cities. And of the ancient glory 
which Beisan once had, the largest and most important of the 
cities which formed the Decapolis, and the seat of a bishopric 
(afterwards transferred to Nazareth), nothing now remains but 
a mass of ruins and a few squalid houses. Even in 1182 the 
once lordly Scythopolis had become a small and imimportant 
place; still it was strong enough to withstand successfully 
the first assault of the Sultan Saladin,^ who was compelled, 
after beleaguering it, to raise the siege. Yet the place fell 
before his repeated attacks, and the inhabitants were com- 
pelled to take refuge in Tiberias, whose walls they deemed 
more secure. Saladin, on his entrance, found the city desolate. 
The archbishop of Tyre' tells us that in his time the place was 
beautified with a few elegant buildings of marble, testifying to 
its former splendour, but that the place consbted mainly of a 
cluster of mean, hut-like houses, built upon swampy ground, 
and that the number of inhabitants was very small. At a later 
period the place is scarcely named. Edrisi' tells us that it was 

1 Wilken, Gesch. d. KreuzzQge, iii. pp. 210, 230. 
« Wm. Typ. Histor. Ub. xxii. fol. 1037. 
s Edrisi, in Jaubert, T. i. p. 239. 


an insignificant village in his day, that several date trees grew 
there, and much of the aamanie (a kind of rush), which the 
people used to weave into mats. Ahulfeda^ speaks of the 
place under the name of Baisan (the word Scythopolis was 
utterly unknown to the orientals), and says that it was very 
small, unencompassed by a wall, but well watered, and sur- 
rounded by a very fertile district. 

Eecent travellers describe its condition as very little im- 
proved. Burckhardt^ merely remarks of it, that it lies on a 
tolerably elevated position on the west side of the Ghor, where 
the mountain range sensibly falls off in height, and that it 
marks an open gateway to the central part of the coimtry. 
About an hour^s distance south of the village the mountain 
chain begins. The ancient city, he says, was watered by a 
stream now called Moiet-Beisan, %.e. the waters of Beisan, 
which distributes itself through a number of small channels. 
Bm'ckhardt found the ruins of Scythopolis to be extensive ; it 
was originally built along the banks of the stream, and could 
not have been less than three miles in circumference. The 
only monumental relics which he was able to discover consisted 
of black hewn stones, foundations of houses, and fragments of 
pillars. He saw only one shaft still standing. In one of the 
little hollows formed by the stream he found a dam, constructed 
with some skill, and on the left bank there stood a khan for 
the accommodation of caravans on the way from Jerusalem 
to Damascus. 

Th^ inhabitants of the seventy or eighty houses still standing 
in Beisan Burckhardt found in a very sad condition, being 
greatly exposed to the predatory incursions of Arabs from the 
Ghor, and compelled to pay a severe tribute. The contrast is 
most striking between the present and the past of this now 
insignificant place. It attained great magnificence at the 
instance of Pompey the Great, who passed through on his 
tour of conquest, and left on the east bank of the Jordan and 
in this city of Scythopolis the marks of his power and taste. 
His successors lavished even greater treasures in the construc- 
tion of other Syrian cities, of which we have the distinct traces 
in the admirably preserved monuments east of the Jordan, 

1 Abulfed© Tab, Syria^ ed. Koehler, p. 84. 
* Burckhardt, Trav. pp. 841-544. 


while the splendour of Scythopolis has utterly departed. Among 
the ruins the theatre is the best preserved, although it is wholly 
overgrown with bushes and weeds. Irby and Mangles^ took 
accurate measurements of it, because the arrangements of it 
were peculiar. The front measured a hundred and eighty feet 
across. In one of the most hidden vomitoria there lay a heap of 
skulls, in which vipers were seen curled. No one can conjecture 
how many Christians have here met the fate of martyrdom. 

The city walls, and the former fortress, the Acropolis of 
the place, are still to be seen. North-east of the latter, and 
outside of the walls, are several interesting tombs, whose stone 
doors are still secured in their old places by the stone rivets 
which were originally inserted for that purpose (see 1 Kings 
iv. 13). In some of these tombs sarcophagi have been found, 
and triangular niches in which to set the sepulchral lamps. 
South-west of the Acropolis there exists a fine Roman ^ bridge, 
and beyond it a paved via militarisy unquestionably a portion of 
the great Damascus road running to Samaria and Jerusalem. 

The present condition of Beisan has been depicted bj 
Molyneux since Burckhardt and Irby and Mangles were there ; 
but there is no detailed report of the aspect of the ruins, since 
very few travellers pass by it, preferring the safer ford of the 
Jordan at Jericho, or that below Lake Tiberias, when taking 
their excursions into the country east of the river. The Arabs, 
too, in this neighbourhood, are very bold and troublesome to tra- 
vellers. C. de Bertou* is the only traveller who has studied the 
whole of the middle Jordan valley, but he was unable to make 
any stay at Beisan, and hence we lack a description from his pen * 

In Hebrew history this place was known as Beth-seaD, 
Beth-shean,^ and Beth-shan, %.e, house of peace; and Beisan 
is evidently a mere corruption of the older word. At the 
time of the Israelitic invasion of Canaan, Beth-shean is men- 
tioned as standing near the wooded range which belonged 

1 Irby and Mangles, Trav. p. 801. • Ibid, p. 803. 

' C. de Bertoa, Mem. sur la Depression, in Bulletin de la Soc. Geog. de 
Paris, T. xiL p. 161. 

* See in appendix to this volume an account of Trisfcram's visit to 

' Bosenmiiller, Bib, AUerthk, iL Note 8, p. 105 ; and Gesenius* Note to 
Burckhardt, p. 1056. 


to Manasseh ; but although given to this tribe, it never came 
into their formal possession, owing to its strength. The people 
were merely compelled to pay a certain tribute, they were never 
reduced to actual submission (Josh. xvii. 11, 16; Judg. i. 27). 
Only at the time of the Philistines' victory over Saul did Beth- 
shean fall into the power of these enemies of Israel (1 Sam. 
xxxi. 10) ; but during the reign of Solomon it had been 
wrested from the Philistines, as may be inferred from 1 Kings 
iv. 12.^ 

Soon after the captivity, the name Beth-shean fell into 
disuse, and the name Scythopolis took its place. The origin of 
the latter word is uncertain. I am not disposed to coincide 
with the theories* which attribute it to an invasion of Scythians 
into Palestine, of which history contains no record; and 
although Zephaniah, Joel, and Jeremiah (see the latter, chap, 
iv. 5, 6) speak indefinitely of the attack of certain powerful 
enemies from a distant country, yet there is little reason to 
think that they were Scjrthians. At all events, whatever may 
have been the origin of the name Scythopolis, it had no per- 
manent possession, and yielded in favour of the Arabic cor- 
ruption of the ancient and scriptural Beth-shean.^ 

After the expedition of Pompey through Syria and Pales- 
tine, and his destruction of so many cities, the Romans began 
to restore what they had destroyed, and on a scale of even 
greater splendour. Gabinius, the successor of Pompey and 
the predecessor of Crassus, restored and fortified Scythopolis, 
Samaria, Gamala, and many other cities. The peace and 
security which the Roman rule confirmed, made Scythopolis 
the most powerful of the ten cities which formed the Decapolis; 
and although the only one on the west side of the Jordan, yet 
it was recognised as the head of the union. Thence came 
many people to hear the Saviour of the world; and in the 
account given in Matt. iv. 25, the importance of Scythopolis* 
seems to have caused the use of the word Decapolis as its 

^ Von Ranmer, Pah p. 144. 

* See Winep, Bi6Z. Bealw. i. p. 176; H. Reland, pp. 992-998 ; Gesenius' 
Note to Burckhardt, iL p. 1058 ; G. Syncellus, ed. Dindorfii, p. 405. 

* See G. Gedreasus, p. 136, ed. Im. Bekker. 

^ Fleischer on the Codex Rescripius, in Z. de Deuisch, Morgen, Ges. i. 
p. 150. 


synonym. At the time of Eusebios and Jerome^ it was a 
place of some splendour, and the seat of a bishopric. At a 
later period it became, the chief bishopric in Falestina Secnnda, 
and possessed a celebrated convent. Under Jnlian the Apos- 
tate's reign, the most fearful cruelties were practised upon the 
Christians ; and the exposed position of the place caused the 
continuance of them at the hands of barbarian invaders, until 
the Franks, in order to escape this treatment, removed the 
bishopric to Nazareth** 



Continuing our course southward from Beisan along the 
valley of the Jordan, we must confess that if our knowledge 
northward of that point is only partial and fragmentary, 
south of it it is still more so. All the territory lying between 
Beisan and Jericho must be considered a terra incognita : what 
we know of it, is indebted to the hasty flights of two or three 
travellers through the country, under great disadvantages for 
enabling them to take observations. The western side of the 
river is almost as much unknown as the eastern ; and what we 
know has been learned in part by hearsay, and in part by 
glimpses which have been caught from high and distant places^ 
all to be rectified by subsequent nearer and more careful in- 
vestigations. Yet we are, it must be confessed, a great way 
removed from the stage of ignorance about the country which 
was experienced by that master in the art of observation, 
Burckhardt, when he set out from Beisan to go southward 
through the Ghor by way of Abu Obeidah to the mountain 
ridge Jilaad es Szalt, on the south-east side of the Jordan, and 
south of Wadi Zerka. We have not only the record of Moly- 
neux's boat voyage down the Jordan, scanty as it is [and the 
more full narrative of Lynch], but casual yet repeated allusions 

^ Beland, Pal p. 995 ; Gesenius^ Kote to Boickhardt, ii. p. 1058 ; von 
Baamer, Pal p. 147 ; Winer, i. p. 175 ; Rosenmuller, Bib, AUerth. i. p. 
173, and ii. p. 105. 

« Reland, Pal p. 996. 


on the parfc of other travellers, which do something to dispel 
the darkness which used to rest upon this region. 

Burckhardt^ is the first who threw any light upon this great 
blank in our geographical knowledge. He alludes to the great 
number of brooks which in the rainy season come down from 
the mountains in all seasons, and give nourishment to a luxuri- 
ant growth of grass and weeds ; yet the greater part of the 
valley, according to hils report, is an arid desert, the ground 
betraying many marks of ancient volcanic action, and only 
here and there tilled. Near Beisan the soil is marl through-* 
out, supporting trees only here and there, but giving susten- 
ance to a plentiful harvest of bushes and reeds. 

The rivers^ which flow into the Jordan, south of Beisan, and 
on the west side, are four in number — Wadi el Malih, Wadi 
Mejedda, Wadi el Beydhan, and Wadi el Fariah. The two first 
specified are mentioned in the Jihannuma by the same names. 
On the east side, Burckhardt mentions other four — Wadi el 
Arab, Wadi el Koszeir, Wadi et Taybe, and. Wadi el Seklab. 
These are all mentioned in the Jihannuma. He also gives 
the names of three cities — ^Fassail, el-Oja, and Ayn Sultan — 
leaving the impression that they are found nearer Beisan than 
Jericho, and that there are no other ruins between the two. The 
reports of subsequent travellers show, however, that Burck- 
hardt, generally so punctiliously exact, has fallen into alight 
inaccuracies here, as the true order of the rivers on the western 
side is different from that given by him, and as the ruined 
cities which he mentions are found in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Jericho. And in addition to the cities mentioned, 
Schultz has identified conjecturally Archelais, Alexandrium, 
Fhasaelis, Kypros, and others^ 

It is impossible entirely to overlook the full report which De 
Bertou has given of the results of his journey down the valley, 
although his meagre command of the Arabic has rendered many 
of his results of less value than they would otherwise have been. 
But it is not to be doubted, that others who may subsequently 
go over the same ground will find his observations of great im- 
portance. Yet, as Bertou*s course led him along the tops of the 
hills which bound the valley on the west, we cannot learn from 

^ Buickbardt, Trav. p. 844. 

> Yon Hammer-Pargstall in Wien, Jahrh, 1836, vol. Ixxiv. p. 62. 



him the details relating to the lowlands so fully as from Mol j- 
neux [and Lynch]. 

, De Bertou found the breadth of the Ghor to be about thirty 
thousand f eet, or not far from five EngUsh miles. The country 
declined gradually towards the south-west as far as Sukkot, and 
was only partially cultivated : the grain was then in its most 
advanced stage. At Sukkot, De Bertou discovered some frag- 
ments of oolumns, and some traces of earthworks, leading him 
to the conclusion that there was once a city. The Jordan, 
opposite to Beisan, was found to be 1027 Paris feet below the 
level of the sea. There must be, therefore, between Lake 
Tiberias and that spot a fall of 305 feet. 

He had great difBculty in procuring an Arab escort down 
the river ; and all whom he could procure were vagabonds and 
robbers. They called each other Satans ; a name which Barth^ 
afterwards heard used by the members of the Beni-Saker tribe. 
He was obliged to leave all his valuables behind him at Beisan, 
and thus in this state he entered upon a most dangerous 

He first crossed the brook Abu Fares,* and seventeen 
minutes later the Wadi Shubash. Twelve minutes more 
brought him to the spring Ain er Radghah, which springs from 
an eminence, on whose summit are ruins, including fragments 
of pillars and the tomb of a saint: the name is not known. 
Twenty-five minutes farther on the Wadi Fatun is crossed ; and 
twelve more, Ain Kaun. A little farther beyond, the valley 
narrows, the mountains on the west advance towards the east ; 
and a little southward the Wadi el Malih breaks through, enter- 
ing the Jordan directly opposite the Wadi el Hemar, which 
comes down from the Jebel Ajlun.® 

After passing the Wadi el Malih, or Salt Valley, De Bertou 
remarks that there is an immediate change in the vegetation : 
up to that poiat there is a vast quantity of sappy growths, such 
as grass, small clover, anemones, and lavender, while southward 
there is only a dry parched soil, on which grow light grass, 
immortelles, and thistles. 

From Wadi el Malih to Wadi el Faria there is a road of 

> Dr H. Barth, Tagebuch, 1847, MS. 

> De Bertou, Mem. Ic. zii. p. 155. 
• Burckhardt, Trav. p. 345. 


eight hours* length, crossed by a full doaen of wadis, which 
come down from the west, and tenninate in the Jordan. The 
first of these is the Wadi Fyadh, which divides into several arms: 
the second, Wadi Jamel, a very deep watercourse, enters the 
river opposite the bold shore on which the Ealaat er Babbad 
lies. The Jordan here runs through a line of white knolls, 
which look as if they were a row of fortifications extending to 
the Dead Sea. They are dry and salty, producing no green 
thing, while the banks of the stream are accompanied by an 
unbroken and dense thicket or jungle. The Jordan sometimes 
overflows its banks to such an extent here, that the Arabs say 
of it that it is ^^ as wide as a sea." South of Wadi Jamel,. and 
a half-hour away, is the Wadi Bkia. At its entrance into the 
Jordan, the barometer recorded the depression as 1036 Paris 
feet below the sea, showing that while there has been a fall 
between this point and the Sea of Tiberias of 314 feet, between 
it and Wadi Beisan there has been a fall of only nine feet. We 
come next in our southward course to the Wadi Abu Sadra, 
and afterwards to the Wadi el Faria,^ a very important halting- 
place for travellers. It is well supplied with sweet and good 
water, and the land adjacent is tilled by the Arabs: the weather 
is so hot there, that the barley is ready for harvesting in the end 
of April. De Bertou found that the Arabs were familiar with 
the great depression of the Ghor, and believed it to be below 
the surface of the ^^ great sea," — a suspicion which, had it been 
known, might have led to an early confirmation on the part of 

Below Wadi Faria, the mountains, which have for the last 
part of the way crowded the Jordan into a narrow pass, here 
recede, and give the same breadth which was last seen at 
Beisan : this continues to be the case as far as to the Dead 
Sea. From Wadi Faria to Eiha or Jericho the distance is 
nine hours, in which at least a half-dozen wadis must be 
crossed. They are the Wadi el Abyad, the Wadi el Fasail 
(remarkable for producing a rare^kind of wood called rocka 
— dstua arhorea — occasionally seen on the Sinai Peninsula, 
frequently met in Oman, in the Hejas, and around Mecca, 
and used for giving lustre to the teeth), the Wadi el Aujeh, 
Wadi Abu Obaideh, Wadi Hermel, Wadi Diab, and Wadi en 
^ De Bertou, Mem, Ic. xii. p. 158. 


Nawaimeh. The second of these wadis is thought to have 
been the site of the ancient Phasaelis^ and the name itself is 
believed to be a corruption of that of the old citj. In the 
Wadi el Aujeh, too, de Bertou saw extensive ruins, which 
seemed to hint at the early existence of an important place 
there; and at the Wadi en Nawaimeh the aqueduct arches 
were seen. 

From Riha or Jericho de Bertou prosecuted his researches 
as far as the Dead Sea, and with a barometer ascertained it to 
be 1290 Paris feet below the surface of the ocean.^ 



Sukkot — The existence of a collection of ruins known as 
Sukkot (apparently a contraction of Sukkotopolis, which is in 
its turn a corruption of Scjrthopolis), and, according to Burck- 
hardt, lying not far from Beisan, is confirmed by the existence 
of a tribe of Arabs bearing the name of Sukkot. Unfortunately 
the locality of it has never been inquired into by any subse- 
quent inquirer: and we have a mere allusion to it in the 
narrative of Wilkes, that five miles from one of their places of 
encampment the ruins of Sukkot were said to lie.^ 

It will be remembered by the reader, that the first place 
where the children of Israel encamped was called Succoth, t.^. 
booths or huts, meaning little less than a place of temporary 
shelter (Ex. xii. 37 ; Num. xxxiii. 5). The same name is also 
given to the place (Glen, xxxiii. 17)' where the patriarch 
Jacob put up sheds for his cattle after passing the Jabbok, 
before he crossed the Jordan and came to Shechem. The 
statement in Josh. xiii. 27 confirms the existence of a Succoth 
in the valley of the Jordan, not situated on a height, but in the 
valley proper, and belonging to the territory of Gad, though 
formerly tributary to Sidon. This place was on the east side 

^ Robinson, Bib. Research, i. p. 569. 

' Irby and Mangles, Trav. p. 478. 

* Koeenmuller, Bib. AUerthk. ii. p. 159 ; KeH, Comment, zu Joma^ p. 260. 


of the river : it is afterwards mentioned as a city near to Fenuel, 
both of which Gideon punished on account of their rebellious 
spirit (Judg. viii. 5-17). In Ps. Ix. 6, a division of Shechem 
and of the valley of Succoth is spoken of, both of which David 
should role — ^probably an allusion to the stay of Jacob in both of 
these places. In 1 Kings vii. 46, we are told that Solomon cast 
the metal vessels which were to be used in the temple in the clay 
ground of the Jordan valley between Succoth and Zarthan : 
the latter place, we are told in 1 Kings iy. 12, was near Beth- 
shean and beneath Jezreel. These accounts seem to indicate 
that on the west side of the Jordan there was a place bearing 
the name of Succoth ; for it is hardly probable that the situation 
of extensive foundries would be mentioned in connection with 
it, if a large river like the Jordan separated them. Eusebius 
and Jerome both speak of Succoth as a temporary halting- 
place of the Israelites as they came out of Egypt ; but Jerome, 
in his commentary on Gen. xxxiii. 17, says :^ Sochoth est usque 
hodie civitas trans Jordanem hoc vocabulo in parte Scythopoleos. 

It seems to me to have been most probable that there were 
two Succoths, one on each side of the Jordan, — ^the eastern one 
being in the neighbourhood of Penuel, the western one in the 
neighbourhood of Zarthan; the two being in the broad fine 
valley near the mouth of the Jabbok, so well adapted to serve 
as pasturage for the patriarch on his way to Shechem. It is 
to be hoped that some future traveller will take time to investi- 
gate into the ruins which are now said to be standing there. 

With regard to the course of the Wadi el Malih, we have, 
in addition to the allusions of. Had je Ghalfa and Burckhardt to 
its lower course, the statements of Berggren, Robinson, and' 
Schultz, who have traced its upper course eastward of Jenin. 
Robinson, it is true, only saw this wadi from a distance, from 
the neighbourhood of Wadi Faria;^ but Berggren' passed both 
on his way from Nazareth, by way of Zerin, to Tubas, and 
thence to Nablus. While on the way from Tubas (probably 
the Thebez where Abimelech received his death at a woman's 
hand, Judg. ix. 50-57), he came to the brackish brook Wadi el 
Melha, which was strong enough to drive the wheels of mills. 

1 H. Reland, Pal pp. 992, 1022, 

' Robinson, Bib. Research, i. p. 567 ; comp. ii. p. 817. 

3 J. Berggren, Resor, in Europa och Osterlande, pp. 338, 339. 


The Wadi el Faria has been in a measure examined by 
Irbj and Mangles^ while on an excursion in 1818 from the 
Jordan to Nablus. They do not mention it by this name, but 
allude to a Beit Forage, which seems to owe its name to the wadi 
in question. Yet their course was so rapid that their narrative 
gives comparatively little light upon the subject.' They lost 
the way in the necessity which they encountered of crossing 
the Jordan without a guide ; but it is probable that the ruins 
of Agrarba, which they passed, indicate the site of the ancient 
Akrabi, of which Otto von Richter speaks, but which he did 
not see. Acrabi is spoken of by Eusebius and Jerome as being 
nine Roman miles from Neapolis, on the road to Jericho and 
the Jordan. 




It is to the enterprise of Schultz,^ the late Prussian consul 
at Jerusalem, that we owe our knowledge in great part of the 
watershed lying east of the main road from Jerusalem to 
Nablus, and he was the first to visit the site of Akrabah. Its 
position is found to confirm the statement of Jerome, that it 
was three hours distant from Nablus. This gave a good datum 
for chartographical purposes. 

Schultz* course led him from well-known stations on the 
Nablus road, Sinjel and Seilun (Shiloh), eastward, stopping 
first at Turmus Aja, wh^e he spent a night.^ North of this 
station he discovered Kan jut, the ancient Korese : he then made 
a little excursion still farther east, to the edge of the Jordan 
valley, till he came within two hours of Kam el Sartabeh: 
he passed the village Kefr Istunah, with its very remarkable 
ancient ruins of temples or castles, which cannot be more 
modem than the time of Herod the Great. He then turned 
back to Seilun. 

^ Irby and Mangles, Trav, pp. 826-329. 

* Dp E. G. Schultz, MiU. in Z. d. Deutsch, Morgenl Ges. vol. iii. p. 46. 

• Robinaon, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 266-270. 


This Kef r Istunah is a village standing upon a hill^ detached 
from the loftier range on the east. There stands in the village 
an ancient fortress, a part of which is still in good condi- 
tion, while elsewhere only the foundations are to be seen. The 
stones are in many places as colossal as those in the external 
wall of the Haram in Jernsalem — those in the base of the 
tower of David (Hippicns). This he conjectured to be the site 
of the ancient Alexandrium, which was so celebrated as a 
fortress subsequent to the times of Pompey, and particularly in 
connection with the siege of Gabinius. Josephus states that it 
lay near Korese. 

Much earlier, indeed^ Scholtz^ had discovered some ruins, 
bearing the name Kafr Setuna, Le* the village of Istunah, and 
Wolcott thought that he had discovered the ruins of Alexan- 
drium in the more southern ones of Azzil ;^ but this spot is too 
far removed from Korese to justify his conclusion : the identi->> 
fication of Schultz has many more chances of probability. The 
Prussian consul was shown the high point called by him the 
E!am el Sartabeh (the Kum Surtubeh of Robinson),^ which 
was pointed out to him from Jericho : this seemed as if it 
might afford a good site for such a fortress as that of Alex* 
andrium ; but no European traveller has yet ascended it. It 
is said to have ruins upon it ; and the peasants told Schultz 
that there was a great iron ring in the wall. Its distance from 
Karijut prevented Schultz visiting it, and he was compelled to 
inspect it with a telescope some miles away. Unquestionably 
the ascent of that point would throw much light upon the 
topography of all the adjacent districts 

The Alexandrium at which Pompey tarried on his way from 
Scythopolis to Jerusalem, was not built, remarks H. Gross,* by 
Herod the Great, but by the warlike king Alexander Jannaeus, 
from whom it derived its name. His son and grandson. Axis- 
tobulus I. and Alexander, used this fortress as an armoury 
during their wars against the Romans and the party of the 
high priest Hyrcanus. After the Roman proconsul Gabinius 

^ J. Scholtz, Beise in Paldstina. 

* Wolcott^ in Bib. Sacra, 1843, p. 72* 

* Robinson, Bib. Besearch. i. pp. 338-568. 

* Gross, Ammrk. zu Schultz, in Z, d, Deutsch, Morgenl, Ges. vol. iii. 
p. 53. 


had destroyed it^ Aristobalas sought to restore it againi but 
was unable to do so. Subsequently Herod the Great strength- 
ened the position, and made it his chief treasury. The fortress 
was a family possession of the later Asmonaeans, and their 
family burying-place. The founder of the citadel, Alexander 
JannsBus, was not himself buried there, but in Jerusalem, as 
was also his grandfather John Hyrcanus. The tracing of the 
date given by Josephus would be all the more easy, if tombs 
should be discovered at the reputed Alexandrium, since that 
would make it almost certain that these sites were identical. 

The Horn of Sartabah does not seem to correspond well with 
the site of Alexandrium, as it appears to be too far from Korese ; 
but it seems to be exceedingly well adapted to serve as a signal 
station, as the Mishna Bash Hasham indicates, although Beland, 
who cites this, does not pronounce authoritatively upon the 
point (^lontes Sartaba et Gerophna videntur etiam montibus 
terrse Israeliticse adnumerandi, nam in his faces quassatsB sunt 
ad indicandum novilunium). According to Keland, the new 
moon was first signalized on the Mount of Olives, then on 
Sartabah, then upon Gerophna (perhaps a peak on the east side 
of the Jordan), and then on the more distant heights of Hauran. 
The hostile Samaritans, Gross conjectures,^ initiated these sig- 
nals in the neighbourhood of Sartabah, in order to deceive the 
Jews. The line of mountains running northward was well 
adapted to serve as a basis of fire-signals, to communicate the 
times of celebrating a feast to the entire nation ; and the pro- 
minent position of Sartabah, standing as a boundary point 
between Judasa and Samaria, caused it to play a very important 
role. It was unquestionably from its summit that the signal^ 
for the great national feast was given, that of harvest and 
thanksgiving, in the seventh or sabbath month, after the early 
spring feast. The announcement of the new moon, too, was 
from this mountain also ; and it seems not impossible that the 
iron ring of which the peasants spoke to Schultz may have had 
some connection with the fire-signals of the Jews. 

Subsequently Schultz visited Karijut, Jalud, and Jurish.^ 

1 Gross, Anmerk. zu Schultz, in Z, d. Deutsch, Margerd. Ge». vol. iii. 
p. 64. 

« H. Ewald, Die AUerthumer des VoUcs Israel, pp. 354, 862, 869, etc 
» Ewald, iM.l pp. 46, 47. 


Beyond the last-mentioned place Akrabah is to be seen, 
separated from it bj the Wadi el Makhf orijeh, in which the 
brook Momnr of the book of Judith is to be recognised. 
Akrabah, too, appears to be the "Ekrebet near to Ohush,*' 
lying on the Momur. Karijut was seen by Kobinson^ from 
Sinjel, and identified by him with the ancient Coress. Gross^ 
agrees with Bobinson, and at the same time thinks that this 
word Kopiat, is a corruption of the old Hebrew word Kirjath, . 
which appears so frequently in the Old Testament Wolcott* 
visited this village of Karijut, but did not succeed in finding 
any traces of antiquity there. 

Another conjecture of Schultz, that the Enon where John 
baptized (John iii. 23) was in the neighbourhood of Akrabah, 
has been so completely set aside by Gross,^ that I need not refer 
to it now. North of the Karn el Sartabah, and on the line of 
watershed, is the conspicuous ruin of Burj el Faria,^ two hours 
distant from Meithalon,^ and in a very interesting location ; it 
cannot, however, be identical with the Pirothon of 1 Mace. ix. 
50. In the neighbourhood of Meithalon rises a hill crowned 
with ruins — Tell Khaibar, the changed name -of that Hepher 
which we meet with in Josh. xii. 17 and 1 Kings iv. 10. 

In the lower course of Wadi el Faria, and near its mouth, 
Schultz heard of the existence of ruins which seemed to him 
to indicate the site of Archelais. Already Kobinson,^ without 
' knowing of their existence, had conjecturally located that 
ancient city in this wadi. It was built by the cruel ethnarch 
Archelaus, who also built a magnificent palace in Jericho, and 
the aqueduct of Neara. After ten years' rule here he was 
summoned to Eome, and sent as an exile to Gaul. Archelais 
and Phasaelis are mentioned by Ptolemy as being north of 
Jericho, but Alexandrium is not named. 

^ Bobinson, Bib. Research, ii. p. 2C7. 

* Gross, Anmerk, %,a.l p. 64. 

» Woloott, in Bib, Sacra, 1843, p. 72. * Ibid, pp. 55, 56. 

^ Schultz, Mitt, in Z. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Ges, iii. p. 48. 

* Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 813, 814. ' Ibid. i. p. 569. 


l)ISCtJESlON Vllt. 



At the moath of the Wadi Fassail there are ruins which 
are well known to the Arabs^ and which, according to Schultz, 
can be no other than those of the ancient Phasaelis. Bobinson^ 
ascertained from Sheikh Mnstapha the names of all the leading 
wadis running from the west to the Jordan, and found them 
to agree closely with the list which, in its now revised and 
confirmed form, has been given on a preceding page. Robinson 
remarks, without specifying any particular locality (excepting 
conjecturally suspecting that el-Aujeh might prove to be the 
correct site), that the ancient Phasaelis must have been in the 
territory which Herod once rescued from its desert state, and 
converted into a tract of great fertility : the name, Bobinson 
supposed, has been perpetuated in the word Fassail. The 
allusion of Brocardus to a village Phasellum, lying a French 
mile north of Diik, led him to his conjecture, for this point 
coincided with el-Atjeh. But now that the ancient position 
of Ghirbet Fassail is confirmed, it is unnecessary to suppose 
that the ancient city was connected with a wadi whose name 
differed so widely from its own ; and it is a question whether 
Gross is not correct in his conjecture, that the ruins at el- 
Aujeh do not indicate the locality of the citadel of Kypros,* 
which was built by Herod, and named in honour of his mother. 
Monro,* however, thinks that the ruins which he saw nearer 
Jericho indicate the state of that fortress. Phasaelus was 
named in honour of Herod's brother, and was given first to his 
sister Salome, and was afterwards conveyed by her, together 
with Archelais, to Julia, i,e, Livia, the wife of the Emperor 
Augustus. It is to this circumstance that we must attribute 
Pliny's knowledge of the advanced stage of the palm culture 
there, — a culture which was not confined to Jericho, but 
extended to all the country in tlie neighbourhood. The palm 
gardens of Phasaelis are mentioned specifically in the will of 

^ RoblzuBon, Bib. Research, i. pp. 5G8, 569. 

• Gross, Anmerk. i.a.L p. 64. 

* Monro, Sunaiier Ramble, i. pp. 158, 162. 


How entirely difiFerent from its present appearance the 
Jordan valley must have looked when the great highway from 
Jerusalem to Jericho extended northward through the fertile 
Ghor, beautified by nature and art, the wadis liberally watered 
and filled with vegetation; and Kypros, Phasaelis, Archelais, and 
Scythopolis lying not far away from the traveller's course as he 
took his way northward to Tiberias and Caesarea Philippi I 

Robinson passed^ from the Elizabeth Spring, or Ain es 
Sultan, by way of Nawaimeh to Bethel, and from his account 
we learn the topography of that region. Near the end of his 
course he struck the old road between Bethel and Gilgal, which 
was used by the prophets. The cisterns hewn by the way 
made it evident that the ancient highway took that direction. 



1. From Jericho by way of the Waters of Dosh {Ain Duk)y 
Wadi Newmneh {Nawaimeh)^ eUUja (el-Aujeh), Jebel 
Guddusy the cave of Nejmehy the ruins of Samirehy Mreir^ 
Jaluj and Kabelany to Nablus. Taken in Feb. 1847. 

Von Wildenbruch ^ and Eli Smith ' both purposed to make 
a careful examination of the valley of the Jordan, and the dis- 
trict adjacent, but were prevented carrying their plans into 
execution. I am therefore all the more indebted to my friend 
Dr H. Barth * for making two rapid runs through the country, 
which, although under very unfavourable circumstances, have 
thrown considerable light upon a region of which we have here- 
tofore known but little. It is to be hoped that some future 
traveller will continue the same line of investigation, using 
what Barth has collected as a basis. The trip which was made 
by the latter was occasioned by the failure of all his efforts to 
secure guides through the territory east of the Jordan. This 
compelled him to open a new route from Jericho to Nablus. 

Under the protection of four armed men on horseback, Barth 

* RobiiiBOD, Bibl Research, i. pp. 672-675. 

* Von Wildenbruch, MS. 1849. 

* H. Gross, Anmerk, p. 68. 
« Dr Barth, 1847, MS. 


left the spring called A in es Sultan, and passing several graves 
and the tomb of a saint, and encountering very uneven country^ 
at the end of half an hour reached the fruitful valley known 
as the Waters of Dosh. Leaving this, and passing the ruined 
village of Muldam, he reached first the Bas el Ain, and then 
the upper Wadi Nawaimeh. This wadi takes its origin on the 
east side of the road from Jerusalem to Nablus, near Taiyibeh. 
(Ophra) and Eumon (Simmon), and runs eastward towards 
Jericho. From the site of the tower above Taiyibeh, on one 
of the highest elevations of the ridge, there is a fine panorama 
of the whole eastern slope towards the Ghor, the Dead Sea, 
and the mountains of Belka and Jebel Ajlun. 

Dr Earth's course took him to el-Ujah (the el-Aujeh of 
earlier travellers), and thence to the left, leaving the site of 
Phasaelis some distance to the right. The violent rain and 
cold wind and hail interfered very much with the comfort of 
his journeying, and drove him for shelter to a cave which 
appeared to lie among ruins dating from Canaanite times. 
This place, which bears the name Nejemeh, appears to serve 
as a refuge for the people of Jebel Guddus during the rainy 
season, while they let their cattle run at large over the adjacent 
grazing grounds. 

Unfortunately the weather was too inclement to allow many 
observations to be made, and the crowd of beings who were 
packed together in this subterranean compartment made the 
place most uncomfortable — a true Tartarus. 

The next day the rain continued with little diminution, yet 
Barth found it better to ride through the rain than to endure 
longer the imprisonment of the cave. In about forty minutes 
after starting, the narrow gorge through which he was compelled 
to pass opened into a fine basin girt with mountains, where he 
thought there must be a paradise in pleasant weather. Passing 
on a little farther, he came to a prominent hill which his escort 
called Samireh. Seetzen's map here gives the name Szamra. 
At this place, ruins with fine hewn stones were pointed out to 
him; they evidently indicate the existence there of a once 
flourishing city : the heights around were full of caves which 
were inhabited by families. 

This ruined city is unquestionably the one of which 
Eobinson was told in Jericho, as lying north of the Wadi Na- 


waimeh ; it is called by him es-SumrahJ This seems to be the 
more ancient Shamor on Mount Zemaraim (2 Chron. xiii. 4, 
19)y whence Abijah the king of Judah sammoned 'his armies 
into the field to meet Jeroboam, and pursued him beyond Bethel 
and Ephron (now Taiyibeh). There seems to have been a 
city also, called after the mountain on which it stood, Zemaraim ; 
for in Josh, xviii. 22, a place of that name is mentioned in 
direct connection with Beth-el and Beth-arabah, as a city in the 
territory of Benjamin. It is unquestionably the same place as 
that connected with king Abijah ; and in Grimm's map,^ and 
in a Beyiew by Heller, it is treated as identical with el-Sumra 
and with Zemaraim. Eosenmiiller^ remarks that the name 
Samaria was applied to a district (1 Kings xiii. 82) before the 
city which bore the name was built (1 Kings xvi. 24). But as 
the Zemaraim of Abijah is known to be centuries older, there 
seems to have been, long prior to the time of Omri, an older 
Samaria (Shamram), which later was entirely forgotten ; for 
the later building was effected when the house of Jeroboam 
had become entirely extinct, and when Omri had purchased the 
mountain of Samaria of Semer, and had laid the foundations 
of the city of Samaria, which was afterwards to become so con- 
spicuous. Jerome was familiar with the fact that there had 
been two Samarias, one of which was subsequently known as 
Sebaste, while the other was lost from historical records till Dr 
Barth had discovered the locality bearing the name Samireh. 

The next interesting object which he reached in his ride, a9 
he went on breaking a path for himself in this unexplored region, 
was the little village of Mreir, situated on high land, and built 
of regularly hewn stones, on which, however, he failed to find 
any inscriptions. Leaving this place, he passed down into the 
valley, and then entered a ravine full of terraces, which evi- . 
dently must be of great antiquity, and were constructed of great 
stones, in order to prevent ^e soil being washed away by the 
floods. Going on thence, he came to Jalud,^ which had before 
been seen by Schultz, and which lies near the ruins of Karijut. 

^ Robinson, Bib. Research, i. p. 568. 

* Keil, Comment. zuJosua, p. 822 ; Rev. in MUncher Gel Auz. 1886, p. 

< Rofienmiiller, Bib. Alterihk. ii. p. 103. 

* Robinson, Bib. Research, ii. pp. 266, 267. 


He must have passed very near Kefr Istunah^ the supposed 
Alexandrlum^ though he heard no allusion to the place. He 
afterwards- came to the village of Kabelan, which had already 
been seen and mentioned by Robinson.^ The rest of his course 
was also over ground which had been examined by those who 
had gone before him* 

2. Dr BarilCs Second Excursion from Nablus eastward^ north of 
the Guddxis routCy by way of Bet (passing Salenij or Shalem) 
to Tanay Churbet Sammery and tlie Wadi Ferray or Faria : 
the discovery of a via militarisy and the important place Bet 
Dejan {Tirzahy or Beth Dagon). 

A second attempt which Barth ^ made to reach Szalt and 
the east side of the Jordan by a more northern routOi was un- 
successful, but it resulted in throwing L'ght upon two or three 
localities which are of considerable interest. 

This time he left the Guddus road at his right, and took 
his course eastward. The first hour or two carried him over 
ground which had been examined by others, but soon, bearing 
a little more southward, he came to a rocky elevation command- 
ing a plain finely tilled, romantically situated, very open to the 
sun, and displaying a profusion of olive and fig trees, and 
grape vines.' The village close by had fifty houses, all built of 
ancient hewn stones. Near it was a small chapel. He here 
. encamped for the night. 

The next morning he started early, conducted by a guide 
of the tribe Beni Salem. Here, in this name, is unquestionably 
preserved the ancient Shalem* or Salem, the city of Shechem, 
to which Jacob came on his way from Mesopotamia to Canaan 
(Gen. xxxiii. 18). For more than three thousand years, there- 
fore, that old name has clung around the same spot, and has 
perpetuated itself in the language of the people. Robinson 
discovered a village Salim east of Nablus, from which the 
Arabs derive their name Salem. It lies in a line with two other 
villages, Azmet and Deir el Hatab, and is the most eastern 
of the three. They all lie upon high land bounding a wadi 
on the north, which runs from the great Muchna plain to the 

1 Robinson, Bih. Research, ii. p. 272, Note 6. 

» Dr H. Barth, 1847, MS. 

• Robinson, Bib. Research. iL p. 280. * Ibid. p. 279, Note 1. 


Jordan. The existence of this ancient name in connection 
with a village so near to Nablus or Shechem, shows at least 
that it is not necessary to consider the name Shalem in Gen. 
xxxiii. 18 as identical with Shechem — as has been done by 
Eusebius, Jerome, and others — ^but that, as Raumer^ showed 
before the modem village of Salim was discovered, the name 
Shalem was given to a place of even greater antiquity than 

This Salemite Arab then took Barth on till they came to a 
great cistern hewn out of the rock, and bearing the name of 
Tana. One hour beyond that they discovered a group of hewn 
stones lying around in rows, as is often the case on the hills of 
Palestine: the place was called Ohurbet Sammer, and may 
perhaps hint etymologically at the time when the ancient name 
of Samaria was given to this region, of which more than one of 
the cities may preserve a trace. Barth went farther on, far 
enough to glance down the Wadi Ferra in its lower course, and 
see that it continues from Nablus to the Jordan. The hostility 
of the Arabs prevented his continuing his course, and compelled 
him to turn round and retrace his steps, though by a different 

Taking a course a little northward of that by which he had 
come, he arrived at courses of walls, indicating in the manner 
of their placing a former military road fourteen feet in breadth, 
to which we have but a single allusion in the Tabula Peutin- 

Three-quarters of an hour^s distance from the road he dis- 
covered, upon a broad and prominent hill, extensive ruins of 
hewn stone, while at the foot, and girded with rocks, was a fine 
piece of arable land^ On the western slope of the hill he dis- 
covered the locality of another ancient city, now bearing the 
name Bet Dejan, and consisting of about two hundred houses, 
mostly built of large stones taken from the ruins of the perished 
city which once stood on the site. There were also seen several 
cisterns, and a cloaca built of massive stones. This Barth 
thinks to have been an important place, perhaps the Ganaanite 
royal residence Tirzah mentioned in Josh. xii. 24 ; the same 
also in which the kings of Israel resided, till Omri removed 
his capital to Samaria* The last of the ancient line of 
1 Von Raumer, Pal p. 159, Note 128. See Beitr&ge, p. 32. 


Israelite kings closed with Zimri, who burned himself with his 
palace in Tirzah to the ground. Omri, his successor^ reigned 
six years there before he bought the mountain of Samaria 
of Shemer for two hundredweight of silver, and built a capital 
for himself there. Brocardus^ asserts that Thersa lay three 
miles east of Samaria, and that thence it was three miles 
farther on towards the Jordan to Thapne. The name Thersa 
seems to be another form for Tirzah ; and the latter corresponds 
well with the Hebrew Beth-Dagon, a name which appears in 
Judah (Josh. xv. 41) and in Asher (Josh. xix. 27), but which 
does not appear to be met elsewhere in the Old Testament. It 
is possible, however, as Bobinson conjectures,^ that a Beth- 
Dagon, not mentioned in the Bible, may have been here. 

Dr Barth's farther course took him through an interesting 
tract before he reached Nablus, but not specially noteworthy, 
excepting for the ruins of a small place called Tali, and a water 
reservoir cut out of the rock, apparently to subserve the uses of 



From the foregoing accounts, which relate exclusively to 
the course of the tributaries on the right bank of the Jordan, 
we get a view of that gradual extension northward, of the line 
of watershed, which follows the course of the Syrian range of 
mountains. I have already touched upon that watershed in 
discussing that portion of the vale of Esdraelon which lies where 
the Kishon and the Beisan rivers part their waters. From 
that point it extends southward over the plain el-Muchna, near 
Nablus, past Turmus, Aja, and Sinjel, to Beitin (Beth-el), 
Taiyibeh, and Rumon, where Wadi Mutiyah begins its course 
towards Jericho, and so on, still southward, to the beginning of 
the Kedron, north of the height on which Jerusalem lies. 

This whole district, the broad ridge of a high, uneven table* 

1 Brocardofl, Descr, Terr. SanctSBj in Gryssens, Nov, Orbis^ p. 809. 
> RobiDson, Bib, Research, ii. pp. 242, 280, Note 1. 


land, is intersected by many deep, rough valleys, which sink 
towards the Jordan, growing more steep and wild throughout 
their course, but which are more gentle and terrace-like in 
their descent westward towards the Mediterranean. The great 
road from Jerusalem to Nablus, and so on northward to Tabor 
and Tiberias, follows the line of watershed, because it has the 
fewest depressions to cross, and for the most part leads through 
a countiy easily traversed. It is just on that line that the most 
important cities were built, not only in the Canaanite, but in 
the subsequent Jewish time ; for there it was a difficult task to 
command the vales. Upon this line lay Bethel, Shiloh, Nablus, 
Shechero, Tirzah, Jezreel, and many other ancient residences of 
the patriarchs Abraham and Jacob, — the places where the ark 
of the covenant was kept during the days of Samuel and Saul, 
the most important fortresses and royal cities of the Canaanites, 
as well as of the later kings of Judah and Israel,-^until, through 
political and other circumstances, other localities were brought 
more prominently forward. 

Between the ravines, clefts, and wadis which cross this 
uneven table-land, there are frequent rocky crags and ridges 
which stand in some connection with it, and which yet thrust 
themselves boldly eastward, and slope abruptly towards the 
Jordan valley. These are in great part the sites of ancient 
fortresses, towers, watch-posts, whose ruins, generally of hewn 
stones, cover the ground, their great extent testifying plainly 
to the large population of the country in ancient times. The 
shallow depressions often cross ^ each other on the line of the 
watershed, and then part : their courses are therefore often 
hard to trace, particularly in the diy season, when there are no 
brooks which of themselves show the natural direction of the 
waters. Oftentimes wadis lie very near together in their 
commencement, which in their later courses are far apart, even 
if they do not take diametrically opposite directions: in this 
case they leave scarcely any ridge between for the comfortable 
passage of caravans. There is such a multiplicity of details, 
and at the same time such a lack of marked and dominant 
forms, that it is very difficult to completely master the geography 
of the central region. On the high line of the watershed the 
road can be taken now on the right side and now on the left, 
1 RobinsoD, Bib, Research, i. pp. 268-438. 


according to the wish or the business of the touristy the political 
condition of the country, and the comparative degree of security 
of the different parts of the country. This has occasioned a 
great many different reports of travellers, many of which seem 
to contradict each other. If the east side is followed, there is a* 
succession of rocky paths, some easy, some difficult, compelling 
to much climbing up and down the defiles, some of them leading 
to interjacent valleys, which are exceedingly fertile in spring, 
but which in summer dry up and become parched and waste. 

From seeing this district in the dry season, the impression 
has become only too general, that the whole Jordan valley 
between Beisan and Jericho, and extending westward even as 
far as the high lands of Judasa and Samaria, is a desert. This 
impression, though conveyed by travellers as guarded as 
Burckhardt even, is really a false one, and there are only a 
few tracts which are so thoroughly neglected as to present the 
appearance of waste land.^ On the contrary, the countless 
ruins which are found in this district, the traces of olive plan- 
tations and of vineyards, the fields, even yet partially tilled, 
and in particular the very fertile patches of meadow land and 
pasture lands for cattle, show what nature intended that this 
tract should be, and that it is \x> human improvidence and folly 
alone that it is due, that a country once so fruitful should be 
surrendered to the mere occupancy of lawless Beduins. 

The citations from travellers given in the preceding pages 
show conclusively how far eastward of the line of watershed 
the bounds of population extended in former times. Un- 
questionably the careful study of that line of watershed^ and of 
the character of the wadis on the east, and an exact estimate 
of the heights and depressions of the district between that line 
and the Jordan, would throw much light upon the physical 
character of the entire district. At present we have not a 
specific measurement of any but the most important heights 
upon the watershed line between Jerusalem and Tabor. These 
give but general results regarding the elevation of the district 
above the sea.^ 

* Von Schubert, Reise^ iii. p. 73. 

« Von Wildenbruch, Profil Mon, Ber. vol. iii. p. 251 ; Von Schubert, 
Erdl, and Steinheil, in Milnch. Gel Anz. 1840, p. 882 ; Bufieegger, Ueber 
die Depression^ etc,^ in Poggendorfs AnndL p. 186. 


They are the following : — 

1. Absolute Heights above the Ocean, 

1. Hebron, 2644 Paris feet above the sea, according to von 


2. Jerusalem, 2349 feet (v. Wildenbruch), 2472 (v. Schubert). 

3. Ain Yebrud, n. of Bethel, and near the origin of Wadi 

Mutiyah, or W. Nawaimeh, 2208 feet (von Wildenbruch). 

4. Sinjel, near Turmus Aja, 2520 feet (von Schubert). 

5. Nablus, at the origin of Wadi Faria, 1568 feet (von 

Wildenbruch), 1751 (von Schubert). 

6. Jenin, 258 feet (von Wilden.), 514 (von Schubert), at the 

southern source of the Kishon. 

7. Plain of Esdraelon, on the road from Jenin to Nazareth, 438 

feet (von Schubert), i.e. at the western base of Tabor, 
and at the source of the northern source of the Kishon. 

8. Plain of Nazareth, 821 feet (von Schubert). 

The heights rising above this high and yet varying plateau 
are — 

Mount of Olives, 2509 feet (von Wilden.) above the sea. 
Mount Gerizim, 2398 feet (von Schubert) „ „ 

Above the vale of Nazareth is the convent, 820 feet (von 
Schubert), 1161 (Russegger). The summit of Tabor is 
1683 feet (von Wilden.), 1747 (von Schubert), 1755 

The depressions eastward below the level of the Mediter- 
ranean are — 

1. The Dead Sea, 1351 feet (von Wildenbruch), 598 (von 

Schubert), 1290 (De Bertou), 1341 (Russegger), and 
1231 (Symonds). 

2. Jericho at Ain Sultan, 640 feet (v. Wildenbruch), 527 (von 

Schubert), 717 (Russegger at Riha). 

3. Lake Tiberias, 793 feet (v. Wildenbruch), 535 (v. Schubert), 

625 (Russegger), 307 (Symonds). 

2. Relative Heights above the surrounding district. 

The relative heights of the localities just indicated must 
have far different relations to each other than to the level of 


the Mediterranean^ which is common to them all : this is the 
case because the Jordan basin, with which they all have more 
or less connection, has no uniform level, but is constantly rising 
towards the north. I cite a few places, in order to show their 
relative height, but must compare together those which are on 
the same parallel of latitude. The measurements are mainly 
those of von Wildenbruch and von Schubert. 

Relative heights, as they appear to the eye of a traveller on 
the east side : 

1. Jerusalem above the Dead Sea, 2344 + 1351 = 3700 Paris 

feet. The Mount of Olives is about two hundred feet 

2. Ain Yebrud, above Jericho at Ain Sultan, 2208 + 630 = 

2838 : above the plain of Jericho, 2208 + 926 = 3134 

3. Mount Gerizim, above Lake Tiberias, 2398 + 793 = 3191 

Paris feet : above the city of Nablus and the Muchna 
plain, only 1377 feet. The city of Nablus, 1568 + 793 
= 2361 feet above Lake Tiberias. 

4. The plain of Esdraelon, at the foot of Tabor, 438 + 739 = 

1231 feet. 

5. Vale of Nazareth, 821 + 793 = 1614 feet. 

6. Mount Tabor, 1683 + 793 = 2476 feet above Lake Tiberias : 

above the plain of Esdraelon, 1309 feet. 

The impressions which grow out of this blending of absolute 
and relative heights are very curious and perplexing. In some 
cases, as in that of Gerizim for example, the absolute height is 
not equal to that of the German Brocken, while the relative 
height is hundreds of feet more. There may, too, be found 
villages and towns lying on the plateau which forms the water- 
shed, and which are as high or even higher than some peaks 
of mountains which have celebrated names. Jerusalem, for 
example, lies as high as the summit of Gerizim, and six hundred 
feet higher than that of Tabor ; while the Mount of Olives is 
eleven feet lower than the plateau at Sinjel and Turmus Aja 
on the great road to Damascus. The whole of the high ridge 
which runs northward from Jerusalem, with its rolling sur- 
face and frequent ravines, shelves away towards the plain of 


Esdraelon till it attains an absolute elevation of only about 
three or four hundred f eet, where a short district of lowland is 
formed^ which passes eastward through the Gate, so to call it, 
of Jezreel, and connects with Wadi Beisan and the Ghor. It 
gradually ascends on the north, first swelling upward in the 
vale of Nazareth, then attaining the heights on which Safed 
lies ; and then passing on, forms the connecting ridge between 
the mountainous country of the south and the Lebanon. 

We close these remarks with a weighty observation of 
Gross^ regarding the physical character of the region which 
we have been considering. He notices that, in the district 
lying between the Wadi el Aujeh and Turmus Aja on the one 
side, and Wadi Faria on the other, the central mountain region 
thrusts itself farther towards the east than it does elsewhere, 
and the heights along the eastern border of this elevated dis- 
trict attain an altitude equal to that of the more western ones. 
The slope towards the Jordan is consequently much shorter 
there than in the parallel of Jerusalem and Hebron, and at the 
same time not proportionally steep, since the comparatively 
slight depression of the Jordan valley does not make so great a 
fall necessary. 

1 H. Gro68, Anvnerh, in Z. d, Deutsck, Morgenl, Ges. vol. iii. p. 67. 




Names of Places. Lat. N. G^r^J^Jich! 

Tarftbulus (Tripolis) : the village at the 
harbour, Minet Tar3,bulus, by con- 
struction of itineraries from Beiriit, 34° 27' 0" Zb^iT 5(r 
Seetzen, Aug. 1766, obs. of alt., . 34 27 30 

Tar&bulus, house of the French consul, 

by construction as before, . . 34 26 35 50 10 

Berghaus, from Gauttier and Hell, . 34 26 24 35 50 25 

Oapt. Corry, • . . . 35 50 40 

Ras esh Shukah (Theuprosopon), . 34 19 30 35 38 30 

The lat. is from Hell and Gauttier 
(Berghaus' Memoir)^ the long, de- 
rived from the long, of Tar&bulus. 
Perhaps the long, of Hell and 
Gauttier refers to the highest 
summit of the promontory, . 85 41 13 

Our fig. refers to the most western 

Maj. Scott's map, . . . 34 18 15 35 39 30 

El-Batrdn (Botrys), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 34 16 30 35 38 

Jebeil (Byblus, Gebal), by construction 

of itineraries, . . . . 34 8 30 35 37 30 


Namefl of Places. Lat. N. ^q^^^^ 

Beirdt (Berytus), castle n.e. side of the 
town, from the Admiralty map of 
Beirut Bay, C. H. Dillon, 1842. 
The long, by construction of 
triang. from Saida and the coast, • 33** 54' 42" 35° 29' 30" 
Callier^s map, . . . . 33 51 30 35 27 15 

Maj. Scott's map, . . . 33 54 5 35 27 35 

1&&& Beinit, by construction of triang. 

from Beirut, Saida, and the coast, 33 54 20 35 27 
Berghaus, from Gauttier and Hell 

(evidently erroneous), . • 33 49 45 35 26 5 

Deir-el-Kamar, by construction of itine- 
raries, 33 43 25 35 35 0. 

Eiblah, by construction of triangles and 

itineraries, . . . . 34 27 30 36 33 30 

Kamoa el Hurmul, by construction of 

triangles and itineraries, . . 34 21 30 36 24 15 

The Cedars, by construction of triangles 

and itineraries, • . • 34 13 45 36 1 25 

Ba'albek, ruin of the large temple, by 
construction of triangles and itine- 
raries, 33 59 30 36 10 5 

Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries (the long, is far too much w.), 33 58 10 36 2 5 

Arrowsmith's map (from Corryf), .34 20 36 13 20 

Zahleh, Centre, from construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 33 51 15 35 53 35 

Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, . . . . . 33 49 10 35 49 45 

Jubb Jenin, from construction of itine- 
raries, 33 37 45 35 46 40 

Zebedany, from construction of itme- 

raries, 33 43 35 36 4 20 


NanuBofPW Ut. N. ^^^^l 

Zuk Wadi Barada, from Porter^s survey, 

compared with other itmeraries, . 33*» 38' 30" 36*^ 4' 65" 
Eitter (xvii. 1278) gives, . . 33 40 36 9 

Saidnaya, by construction of Porter's 

survey, 33 44 36 18 25 

Kuteifeh, by construction of Porter's 

survey, . . . . . 33 45 50 36 34 30 
Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 33 43 36 41 6 

Yabrud, by construction of Porter's sur- 
vey, 34 1 30 36 37 25 

Nebk, by construction from Porter's 

survey, 34 3 55 36 43 40 

Kara, by construction from Porter^s sur- 
vey, 34 12 30 36 45 15 

Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 34 12 36 51 45 

Hasya, by construction of Porter's sur- 
vey, 34 27 20 36 45 45 

Saida (Sidon), Sea Castle, from the Ad- 
miralty map; observations of H. 
A. Ormsby, I.N., 1833, • . 35 25 

From construction of triangles, . 33 34 35 21 50 

Berghaus, MS. letter of Capt. 

Washington, . . • . 33 34 5 35 21 48 

Callier's map, . . . . 33 34 35 21 30 

Niebuhr, 33 33 15 

Berghaus, observations of Hell (the 
house of the French Consul, which 
is a little more 8. than the Sea 
Castle), 33 33 40 35 21 18 

Eas Suraf end, the low round cape, from 
construction of triangles and itine- 
raries, 33 28 5 35 17 15 


Names of PW Lat. N. ^^,t 

Berghaus (observations of Hell), the 
ruined tower on a projecting rock 
30" to tlie N. and 45" to the E. of 
the cape, . . , . SS^^SC 0" 35° 18' 54" 

Nahr el Kasimiyeh, mouth, by construc- 
tion of triangles and itineraries, , 33 20 20 35 14 15 

Tur (Tyre), the ruined lighthouse on 
rock N. side of city ; observations 
of H. A. Ormsby, 1831, . . 33 17 35 15 

Tur (Tyre), the minaret, by construction 

of triangles, .... 

Berghaus, from Gauttier and G. Vial, 

Callier's map, .... 

Maj. Scott's map, 

Ras el Abiad (Cape Blanco), N. end of 
westernmost cliff, by construction 
of triangles, .... 

Berghaus, from Galiano, 

Berghaus, from Hell and by construc- 
tion ; perhaps Galiano's and Hell's 
observations refer to the central or 
highest part of the broad promon- 
tory, 33 12 10 35 8 65 

Maj. Scott's map, . . . 33 10 30 35 9 30 

Ras en Nakura, the ruined tower on the 
summit, from Symonds' triangles, 
and based upon the lat. and long, 
of Akka, . . . . 33 5 25 35 6 40 

Berghaus ace. to Gauttier, . . 33 5 10 35 5 35 

Akka (Acre), the castle, Admiralty map 

observations of O.H.Dillon, 1843, 32 54 51 35 8 
Niebuhr, from observations of two 

stars' alt., 15th Aug. 1766, . 32 55 23 

Major Scott's map, . . . 32 55 25 35 8 20 

Lynch's map, . . . . 32 56 35 4 20 

33 16 50 

35 12 

33 17 

35 12 45 

33 17 10 

35 12 15 

33 16 

35 11 20 

33 10 25 

35 10 50 

33 11 30 

35 7 15 


Names of Places. Lat. N. ^^^^l 

Callier's map, . . . .32*^ 56' 55" 35° 4' 15" 

Jacotin, . . . . . 32 56 35 23 30 

Berghans, from Gauttier and Hell 

(the French Consulate), . . 32 55 35 35 4 15 

Berghaus, letter from Capt. Washing- 
ton, 35 4 20 

The mean lat. of Dillon, Niebuhr, 
Scott, Gauttier, and Hell, for 
Akka, castle, . . . . 32 55 16 

The long, from Gauttier and Hell, . 35 4 30 

Haifa, castle on sea-side, by construction 

of Symonds' triangulation and the 

adopted position of Akka, . . 32 48 45 35 45 

Obs. of J. Aylen, master of H.M.S. 

Madagascar, 1832 (Admiralty 

map), 32 52 35 2 

These observations are evidently not 

Mount Carmel, the convent, from 
Symonds' triangulation and Akka's 

position, 32 49 30 34 58 30 

Berghaus, Marquis de Chabert, • 32 50 34 58 55 

Mount Carmel, the north-westernmost 

cape, 32 50 25 34 58 20 

Berghaus, reduc. from his position 

of Akka, • . . . 32 50 25 34 58 

Mount Carmel, el-Mohraka, reduc. from 
Akka*s position by Symonds' tri- 
angulation, . . . . 32 39 20 35 6 

Athlit (cast. Peregrinorum), reduc. from 
Symonds' triangulation and by 
itineraries, . . . . 32 41 30 34 56 15 

Berghaus, from Hell, who mistook 

these ruins for those of CsBsarea, 32 41 5 

Tantura, the ruined tower, constructed 

from triangulation, . . . 32 35 50 84 55 


Names of Pkc«. Ut. N. ^^^^_ 

Jezzin, by constructign of itineraries, . 33° 34' 0" 35''33' 0" 

Hasbeiya, Emir's palace, . . . 33 25 13 35 41 

The lat. from Lynch's table of lat. and 
long, in his official report; the long, 
reduc. from construction of tri- 
angles and itineraries. 

Kul'at esh Shukif (Belfort), from con- 
struction of triangles, . . 33 20 30 35 32 

Banias, centre of village, constructed by 

triangles, . . . . 33 16 35 41 30 

Berghaus, by triangles, obtained from 
itineraries of Burckhardt and 
Buckingham (erroneous), . . 33 9 20 35 45 -5 

Tibnin, castle, constructed by triangles, 33 12 30 35 25 35 

Bahr el Huleh, 8. end, where the Jordan 
issues from the lake, constructed 
by triangles, . . . . 33 3 20 35 38 15 

Jisr Benat Yakub, constructed by tri- 
angles, 33 2 20 35 38 40 

Berghaus, by construction of triangles, 33 2 50 35 38 35 

Safed, the ruined castle on the summit 
above the town, from Symonds' 
triangulation, . . . . . 32 58 30 35 31 50 
Berghaus, 32 57 42 35 30 25 

Lake of Tiberias, N. end, entrance of 
the Jordan, by construction of 
Symonds' triangulation, . . 32 53 50 35 39 20 

Observations of Lynch (official re- 
port), 32 53 37 

Observations of Lieut. Molyneux, . 32 52 30 

(See Bitter, xv. 283 ; from Joiim. 
B. Geogr. Soc. vol. xviii. 1848, p. 

BerghauS| • • . • . 32 55 


Names of Places. 


Long. E. of 

Tubariyeh (Tiberias), the castle, 

The latter is from Lynch's observa- 

g2»46' 14" 

35° 35' 50' 

tion, which agrees perfectly with 
the lat. as derived from Symonds' 

Major Scott's map, 

Calliei's map, .... 

32 47 
32 46 15 

35 32 
35 36 

Isambert's map, . 


32 46 32 

35 33 20 

Corry in Arrowsmith's map, . 


32 46 18 

35 30 30 

Berghaus, .... 


32 48 8 

35 32 35 

Lake of Tiberias, southern end, issne of 

the Jordan, . , . . 32 42 21 35 37 55 

The lat. is from Lynch's observations 
(oflScial report), agreeing perfectly 
with the latter as obtained by 
Symonds' triangnlation. 

Mount Tabor, ruined convent on sum-f 

mit, from Symonds' triangnlation, 32 41 30 35 25 30 

Nazareth, centre, from Symonds' tri 
Major Scott's map 

Calliei's map, 
Berghaus, . 
Lynch's map. 

32 42 35 19 55 
32 42 35 17 
32 42 35 35 18 30 
32 42 58 35 16 40 
32 43 5 35 19 

Damascus, the castle, by constraction 

from itineraries, , . . 33 31 20 36 15 30 

Berghaus, from Seetzen's observa- 
tions, 1805, . . . . 33 32 28 ' 

Berghaus, from construction of itine- 
raries, 36 20 15 

There may be a difference of 30" or 
40" in lat. between the castle and 
the place of Seetzen s observation 
which Berghaus does not men- 
tion (probably the Latin convent). 
Taking this into account, the lati- 


Names of Places. Ut. N. ^^Igi^Jjch. 

tades, as obser\^d by Seetzen, and 
obtained by construction in Van 
der Yelde's map, seem to agree 
within 30". 
Porter^smap(aveyears in Damascus), Z^Z^ 25" 36'' 6' Aff 

Katana, by construction of Porter^s sur- 
vey, and itineraries, • . . 33 27 20 36 4 15 

Mount Hermon, ruined temple on sum- 
mit, by construction of triangles, . 33 26 10 35 49 30 

Kesweh, by construction of itineraries 

and Porter's survey, • . . 33 22 10 36 13 25 

Berghaus,byconstruction of itineraries, 33 26 36 15 35 

S'as'a, by construction of itineraries, . 33 17 45 36 3 30 

Kuneitirah,byconstructionof itineraries, 33 9 35 49 30 
Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 33 8 3 35 62 7 

Sunamein (Acre), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 33 7 50 36 9 

Nawa (Neve), by construction of itine- 
raries, 82 57 36 1 45 

Tseil, by construction of itineraries, . 32 53 30 35 57 5 
Berghaus,byconstructionof itineraries, 32 50 53 35 54 45 

Tell el Feras, by construction of triangles, 33 10 35 51 55 
Berghaus, by construction of triangles, 32 56 28 35 47 42 

Fik(Apheca), by construction of triangles, 32 46 10 35 44 25 

El-Mazarib,byconstructionof itineraries, 32 46 35 36 6 
Berghaus,byconsti*uction of itineraries, 32 46 20 36 13 32 

Dera(Edrei),byconstructionofitineraries,32 42 20 36 9 5 

Eshmiskin, by construction of itineraries, 32 53 36 10 

Edhr'a (Zora), by construction of itine- 
raries, 32 55 55 36 13 

Berghaus,byconstruction of itineraries, 33 1 22 36 19 35 

Arrowsmith's map, . • . 32 58 36 21 30 


Names of Pkces. ^ Lat. N. ^^^^.^ 

Musmeih (Phaenos), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . .33° 10' 45" 36^ 22' 30" 

Bathaniyeh (Batanea), by construction 

of Porter's survey, . . . 33 2 40 36 41 40 

Kunawat (Kenath), by construction of 

Porter's survey, . . . 32 47 30 36 36 

Kuleib (highest peak of Jeb. Ha'uran), 

from Porter's survey, . . 32 39 50 36 39 

Berghaus,byconstructionof itineraries, 32 39 35 36 47 55 

Sulkhad (Salcah), by construction of 

Porter's survey, . . . 32 28 25 36 39 30 

Berghaus,byconstructionof itineraries, 32 29 30 36 52 48 

Busrah (Bozrah), by construction of Por- 
ter's survey, and other itineraries, 32 29 40 36 26 30 
Berghaus,byconstruction of itineraries, 32 26 25 36 40 5 
Berghaus, Arrowsmith's map, . . 32 35 30 36 27 15 

Irbid (Arbela), by construction of itine- 
raries, 32 34 30 36 20 

Berghaus,by construction of itineraries, 32 39 48 36 2 32 

Abil(Abila),byconstruction of itineraries, 32 39 30 35 53 

Um-Keis (Qadara), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . • 32 37 80 35 43 10 

Tubakat Fahel (Pella), by construction 

of triangles, . . . . 32 27 10 35 39 5 

Jisr Mejami'a (on the Jordan), by con- 
struction of itineraries, compared 
with Lynch's route, . . . 32 37 5 35 36 

Beisan (Beth-shean), the Tell, by con- 
struction of triangles, . . 82 29 45 35 32 15 

Berghaus, 32 35 25 35 32 33 

Berghaus, from Corry in Arrow- 
smith's map, . . . . 32 29 30 35 35 55 

Lynch's map, • . . . 32 33 


Names of PL^ces. I^t. N. "^^^^ 

Zer'in (Jizreel), by construction of tri- 
angles, . . . ." . 32" 32' 40" 35' 21' O' 

Jebel Duliy, wely on the summit, from 

Symonds' triangulation, . . 32 36 15 35 22 20 

Jenin (en-Gannim), by construction of 

triangles, . . . . 32 26 40 35 20 

Kaisariyeh (Csesarea), the castle at sea- 
side, by construction of itineraries, 32 29 30 34 52 40 
Berghaus, from Gauttier, • . 32 32 25 34 53 4 
Berghaus, Jacotin, . . . 32 32 34 54 5 

Yofa(Joppe),the citadel, from Symonds* 

triangulation, • . . . 32 2 34 47 25 

Niebuhr, observations of two stars' 

alt 32 3 22 

Callier's map, • • . . 32 3 20 34 43 45 

Hell (Berghaus), , . . . 32 2 30 

Gauttier (Berghaus), , . . 33 3 25 34 44 15 
These observations refer, perhaps, to 

a point somewhere in the northern 

part of the city; whereas the 

citadel is in the southern part. 

Allowance of 30" might conse- 
quently be made. 
Maj. Scott's map, . , . 32 6 25 34 45 20 

Maj. Scott's too northerly position 

must be explained from his too 

northerly position of Jerusalem. 

Ramleh, the martyr's tower, from Sy- 
monds' triangulation, . . 31 55 5 34 54 
Berghaus, from Jacotin, . . 31 56 18 

Berghaus, from Robinson and Smith's 

itineraries in 1838, . . • 34 50 15 

Yebnah (Jabneh), by construction of 

triangles, . • • . 31 51 10 34 47 


Names of Pl^eB. Ut.N. ^^^^ 

Jerusalem, the citadel, from Symonds' 

triangulation, . . ... 31*^46' 50" 34° 47' 0" 

Niebuhr, 1766, obs. with great care, • 31 46 34 
Seetzen, for the Convent of Terra 

Sancta, 31 47 47 

Moore and Beke, . , . . 31 45 45 
Capt. Oorry (the long, by moon's 

distance), . . . . 31 46 46 35 12 51 

CaUier's map, . , . . 31 47 40 35 15 20 

Lynch's map, . . • . 31 46 40 35 13 

Berghaus (the lat. from itineraries and 

long, from itineraries of Bobinson 

and Smith, 1838), compared with 

Seetzen's moon's distances, . 31 46 42 35 13 41 

Bobinson (lat. B. R. p. 183), as com- 

mnnicated by the Admiralty in 

London to Mr Finn, H.M. Consul 

in Jerusalem, . . . . 31 46 35 35 18 30 

Seilun (Shiloh), by construction of tri- 
angles and itineraries, • . 32 2 30 35 17 55 

Nabulus (Shechem), wely on Mount 
Gerizim, by construction of tri- 
angles, 32 10 10 35 17 5 

Sebustiyeh (Samaria), the ruined 
church, by construction of tri- 
angles, 32 14 50 35 12 30 

Kum Surtabeh, from Symonds' triangu- 
lation, and our own bearings, .32. 5 45 35 31 20 

Jordan, ford of the Nabulus es Salt, 
road, from construction by triangles 
and itineraries, • • . 32 6 30 85 35 10 

Jisr Damieh, near the ford, • • 32 7 15 35 35 

Lynch's observations at encampment 

near Jisr Damieh, . • • 32 7 24 

VOL. II. « A 


Names of Places. Lat. N. ^^^^t 

Er-Riha, tower, . . . .31" 51' (X' 35" 28' 20* 
Berghaus, 31 52 47 35 30 5 

Kul'at er Rubud, by construction of tri- 
angles, 32 19 20 35 47 30 

Berghaus^ construction of itineraries, 32 25 45 35 56 26 

Jerash (Gerasa), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 32 17 35 56 50 
Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 82 21 30 36 6 6 

Arrowsmith's map, . . . 32 20 50 36 5 25 

Astronomical observations of Moore, 32 16 30 

Es-Salt (Ramoth-Gilead), by construc- 
tion of itineraries, . . . 32 1 50 35 47 30 
Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 32 6 26 32 50 13 

Amman (Rabbath-Ammon), by con- 
struction of itineraries, . . 31 55 30 35 59 30 
Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 31 59 8 36 3 8 

Hesbon (Heshbon), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . • 31 44 55 35 48 55 

Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, . . . • . 31 50 18 35 54 33 

Um el Rusas, by construction of itine- 
raries, 31 34 20 36 6 15 

Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 31 39 52 36 12 40 

Shihan (Shihon), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 31 25 15 35 45 50 
Berghaus, by construction of itine- 
raries, 31 30 8 35 47 5 

Kerah (Kir-Moab), the castle, by con- 
struction of itineraries and triangles, 31 13 20 85 43 10 


Names of Place. Ut. N. ^J:^ 

Babba (Rabbath-Moab), by construction 

of itineraries, . . . .31° 19' 35" 35^ 42' 30" 

The Dead Sea, 8. end; Jeb. ITsdum, 
cave, by construction of itineraries 
and triangles, . . . . 31 6 25 35 26 35 

Kul'at Um-Baghek, by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 31 10 50 35 24 10 

Sebbeh (Maaada), by construction of 

triangles, . . . . 31 19 30 35 24 30 

Ain Jiddy (Engedi), the fountain, ob- 
servations by Lynch, . . . 31 27 55 36 28 
Long, by construction of triangles, . 35 26 15 

Ain Terabeh, Lynch's encampment near 

the fountain, observ. with care, . 31 35 54 35 27 15 
The fountain, a little more 8., . • 31 35 35 35 27 20 

Ain el Feshkhah, Lynch's encampment 

near the fountain, . . . 31 42 54 35 30 12 

Long« by construction of triangles, . 35 29 5 

W. Zerka Ma'in, mouth, by construction 

of triangles, . . . . 31 36 15 35 34 40 

W. Mojib (Amon river), Lynch'u camp 

near the mouth, . . . 31 27 50 35 36 

BeitLahm (Bethlehem), Latin Convent, 
derived by triangles from Symonds' 
position of Jerusalem, . • 31 43 35 35 13 40 

El-Khulil (Hebron), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 31 31 35 8 25 

Moore, by astronomical observations, 31 31 30 

Callier^s map, . . . . 31 31 10 35 12 15 

Lynch's map, • . 31 32 30 35 8 20 
Berghaus, calculated from azimuth 

of Jerusalem in Seetzen's map, . 31 31 30 85 12 25 


Names of Places. Lat. N. ^^^^g, 

Arrowsmith's map, . . . ^V ZQI GT 35° Iff 15" 
Robinson (Bib. Res. ii. 432), the long. 

is derived from itineraries from 

Jerusalem, Bamleh, Gaza, and 

'Akabah, • • , . 31 32 30 35 8 20 

Beit Jibrin (Elentheropolis), by construc- 
tion of itineraries, . . . 31 36 34 56 

Esdud (Ashdod), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 31 43 30 34 42 45 

Askulan (Ashkelon), the khan, by con- 
struction of itineraries, . . 31 38 34 36 30 
Berghaus, from Gauttier, • . 31 39 34 31 

Ghuzzeh (Gaza), the highest minaret in 
centre of the town, by construc- 
tion of itineraries and triangles, . 31 29 45 34 33 10 

Berghaus, MS. letter from Captain 

Washington, . . . . 31 28 34 30 

Berghaus, constructed from Gauttier*s 

position of Yafa, . . . 31 27 20 34 27 

Callier^s map, • . . . 31 27 45 34 30 15 

Maj. Scott's map, . . . 31 35 5 34 31 10 

These figures show great discrepancy. 
But as Askulan's latitude is pretty 
secure, and as we could not make 
a great mistake in the distance, 
which we travelled over from As- 
kulan to Gaza, we feel rather con- 
fident in Gaza's latitude as ob- 
tained by our construction. 

Bit es Seba (Beer Sheba), the wells, by 

construction of itineraries, . . 31 16 10 34 54 25 

Kumub (Thamara), by construction of 

itineraries, . . . . 31 6 35 7 45 

Elhulasah (Elusa), by construction of 

itineraries, , . .. 31 5 30 34 49 




JebelAkkar, .... 6980 Mansell. 
Dhor el Elhodib, or Jebel el Mes- 

kiyeh, highest sum. of Lebanon, 10051 

Fum el Mizab, near the former, 

N.E. of the Cedars, . 9996 

Another summit s. of the Cedars, 9553 

High ridge s.w. of the Cedars, . 9209 

The Cedars, .... 6315 

Scott ; Mansell, 

Mansell ; 9621, von 



Scott; 6700, Man- 
sell ; 6400, Eus- 
segger; 6264, von 
Schubert; 5898, 

Source of the torrent of Bsherreh, 

below the Cedars, . . . 6437 Mansell. 
Highest point of the Lebanon 

Pass on the road from Baalbek 

to the Cedars, . . . 7624 

Mar Eliyas, E. of Kanobin, 6044 

Deir Saideh, N. of Kanobin, . 5513 

Hazmn, w. of Bsherreh, . 5292 

Ehden, 4747 

Ainat,vill.on road Cedars — ^Baalbek, 5317 

Jebel Ayto, summit, . . 6347 
Ayun el Allak, springs E.8.E. of 

Tanurin, .... 6435 

Von Schubert. 



V. Wildenbruch. 

V. Schubert. 






Merj Ahin, meadow basin in the 
N. part of Lebanon, 

Lebanon Pass, s.w. of Akurah, • 
Source of Nahr Ibrahim, near 
Akurah, .... 
^xiKa, • • • • • 

Jebel Sunnin, .... 

Jebel Sunnin, N.w. top, 
Jebel el Keneiseh, . 

A summit immediately south of 

Jebel el Keneiseh, 
Another summit a little more 8.E., 
Another summit s.w. of the former, 
Another summit still farther 8.W., 
Summit s. of Ain Khureibeh, 
Tomat Niha (the twin peaks), the 
highest summit of southern 
Lebanon, • . • • 

Pass of el-Jurd, N. 
Keneiseh, . 

of Jebel el 

5600 Scott; 5577,French 
Carte du Liban. 
4296 Allen. 

5972 Von Wildenbruch. 

4560 Allen. 

8162 Mansell ; 8554, 
Scott; 8283, Mar- 
shal Marmont. 

8062 ManseU. 

6824 Scott ; 6666, Man- 
sell ; 6660, Carte 
du Liban; 7245, 
V. Wildenbruch. 

7232 Mansell. 

7290 Mansell. 

7054 Mansell. 

6748 Mansell. 

6153 Mansell. 

5620 Mansell ; 6070, 
Carte du Liban. 

5762 Scott; 4905, Allen; 
4969, Due de 

Pass el-Mughitheh, 8. of Jebel el 

Keneiseh, .... 5342 V. Wildenbruch. 
Pass of the new carriage road near 

Jebel el Keneiseh, . . 4462 Carte du Liban. 

Khan Mudeirej (Beirut carriage 

road), .... 4814 V. Wildenbruch; 

seems too high. 
Khan Buweiset el Hamra, . • 4003 Carte du Liban ; 

3852, V. Wilden- 
Summit w. of E^han Mudeiref, . 4929 Mansell. 



Bhamdan^ • . . . 

Khan Hosein, .... 
E^an to the E. and above Kehaleh, 
Summit S.E. of this khan^ . 
Khan Shekh Mahmud, 
Mar Ishaja, .... 
Convent between Mar Ishaya and 
Bhonisy .... 
Muristahy .... 
Jezzin, ..... 

Deir Mishmushy, 

Bum, ..... 

Bummiet Bum, summit N. of Bum, 

KefrMIlkeh, .... 
Jebeah, the castle, . 
Jurjua, ..... 
Beit Miry, convent, . 


Areiya, . 
Deir el Kula'h, 

Bukfeiya, .... 

A summit w. of Meruj, 
Mar Eliyas er Bas, . 
Deir Luwisa, near Nahr el Kelb, 
Mar Yusuf el Burj, near Nahr el 
!Kelb, .... 

Mar Bokus, near el-Beirut, 
Zuk el Gharb, 
Keifun, ..... 












Mansell; 3792, 



Carte du Liban. 




Carte du Liban ; 

2875, De Bertou. 
V. d. Velde. 
V. d.Velde; 3351, 

De Forest. 
De Forest. 
De Forest. 
Mansell; 2173, in 

ManselFs map of 

Beirut roads. 
Hutter, quot. in 

Bitter, xvii. p. 

Von Wildenbruch. 
De Forest. 
Mansell; 2089, in 

Mansell's map of 

Beirut roads. 
Mansell ; 3073, 


505 Mansell. 

582 Mansell. 

3062 Mansell. 

2963 ManseU. 



Aitehy .... 

. 2102 


El Ghazir in Kesrawan, 

. 1161 


Summit e. of Burjeh above Wadi 

M'amiltein, • 

. 2004 


Barj Rihani, • 

. 290 


Eoined castle of Semar, 

. 1823 


Bas es Shukah, 

. 618 


Deir Belment, 

. 946 


Summit 8. of Deir Belment, 



Mar Yakttb, . . . , 



Naby Safi (Jebel Eihan), . 



KefrMilkeh, . . . , 


De Forest. 

Jebeah, the castle, • 


De Forest. 

Jurju'a, .... 


De Forest. 

Naby Saa (Jebel Rihan), • 



A summit N.E. of it, . 



Naby Sejud, . . . , 



Naby Abu Rekab, . 



Lebanon Pass 8. of Tomat Niha, 


De Forest. 

Kefr Huneh, • • • . 


De Bertou; seems 
too low. 

Jisr Burghuz, . . « . 


De Bertou. 

Belat, village s. of Jisr Burghuz, 


De Forest. 

El-Madineh, in Wadi Jermak, , 


De Forest. 

Amun and Kefr Tibnit, . 

. 1790 

De Forest. 

Kul'at esh Shukif, . 

, 2205 

De Forest; 2115, 
Mansell; 1990, 
Carte du Liban. 

Nubathiyeh, the khan. 

. 1475 

V. d.Velde;1280, 
Carte du Liban. 

B[han Mehemed 'Aly, 

. 1062 

V. d. Velde. 

Zifteh, . . . 

. 1180 

Carte du Liban. 

Tell Dibbin (Ijon) in Merj Ayun, 


Carte du Liban. 

Jisr Khardeli under Kul'at es] 


Shukif, • 

. 700 

De Forest ; 559, v. 

Highest point of road from Kan- 


kaba to Jisr Burghuz on ridge 


between the Litany and Has 


bany, . , . . 

. 2300 

De Forest. 



Ukbijeh, village on Eas Suraf end, 


Mansell. ^ 

Zekfazakiyeh, .... 



Sidara, ..... 



Naby Seir, . . • , 



KefrDibbeh, . , . . 



Zerariyeh, .... 



Summit s. of the khan near bridge 

on the Nahr el Kasimiyeh, 



El-Halusiyeh, .... 



Marakeh, .... 



Ter Dibbeh, between Marakeh and 




Hattin, ..... 



Eaukab el Hawa, 



Aulam, ..... 



Mount Carmel, convent, . 


Symonds ; 603, 
Mansell; 620, von 
Schubert ; 551, 

Mount Carmel, highest part, 






El-Mohraka, .... 


Symonds ; 1837, 

Summit of hills e. of Iksim, 



Kefr Lam, .... 



Highest part of ridge west of el- 

Lejjun, .... 



Naby Iskander, above Um el Fahm 

I, 1866 


Bluff rocky point near Csesarea, 




Jebel Julbun or Fukua, 



Fukua village, 


Highest point of Gilboa range, . 




Von Schubert; 420, 
Allen; 275, von 
Wildenbruch ; 
708, Mansell. 

Highest summit of ridge E. of Jeni 

n, 1773 


Shekh Shibbel, above Kefr Kud, 



Yabud, .... 

. 1315 



Zebdeh, .... 



Ridge w. of Arrubeh, 



Peak S.W. of Fahmeh, 





Naby Shekh Mujahid, nearTer- 

shiha, .... 



Yaniih, ..... 



KuratJedin, .... 



El-Bukeiya, .... 


V. d. Velde. 

Summit s. of el-Bukeiya, west of 

the pass to Bameh, 



Pass to Rameh, 



Akka, castle, .... 


Symonds ; 


Kam el Hanaweh, . 


Symonds ; 


Summit 8. of the same. 






Kubarah, .... 



TeUHazur, .... 



Tell Hazwa, south of the last, 



Summit 8.E. of Tell Hazwa, 



Kum Hattin, .... 


Both; 1191, 


sell; 1096, Allen, 

Plain of Esdraelon, at the base of 

the Mount of Precipitation, 



Plam of Esdraelon, at a well near 

el-Fuleh, .... 



Plain of Esdraelon, lowest part of 

road between Zerin and Na- 

zareth, .... 


V. Schubert. 

Plain of Esdraelon, at 8.B. base of 

Tell MetselUm, . 



Zerin, . • • • . 



Jebel Duhy, .... 


Symonds ; 


Ard el Hamma, high plain above 

Tiake Tiberias, 






Bidge above Nimrin, 





Sommit above el-Buweineh, 

. 1859 


Uzair, . . ... 

. 1384 


Rummaneh, ... 

. 1235 



. 1003 


Jebel Kaukab, 

. 1736 

Symonds ; 1851, 

Wely, N. of Kaukab, 

. 1523 


Summit s.w. of E^ukab, . 

. 1126 


A summit above Tumrah, . 

. 1249 


Abilin, • • . • 

. 526 


Shef a 'Amar, • 

. 533 


TeU Kurdany, 

. 150 


Jebel Jef at, near Jebel Kaukab, 

. 1600 

By estimation. 

Turan, on road from Nazareth 


. 872 


Naby Isma'il, above Nazareth, 

. 1790 



. 1265 

Roth ; tha mean 
from eight obser- 
vations taken in 
1858, between 
1125 Par. and 
1213 Par.; Ru&- 
segger, 1237. 

Nazareth, Latin Convent, . 

. 1182 

Allen ; 874, von 
Schubert; too low. 



Von Schubert. 

Mount Tabor, . 


Roth ; 1865, our 
map; von Wil- 
denbruch, 1793; 
AUen, 1995 ; 


ManseU, 2017. 

Mount Tabor, n.e. base, . 



Mount Tabor, N.w. base, . 






Mount of the Precipitation, 

. 1441 


Base of the same. 



Naby Bayazid, 



Naby Kubeibat, 



Highest part of road on ridge 8.w 

of Fendekumiyeh, 

. 1819 



Beit Lid, .... 






Kuriyet Hajja, 



Pass over Lebanon from el-Banik, 



El-Basttriyeh, .... 



Hanawehy .... 






Summit s.w. of Tibnin, 



Summit between Yathir and Kan- 

zoh, ..... 



Belat, temple ruins, . 


Kulat Shemma, . . « 



Telllrmith, .... 



Tower on Eas Nakura, 



Bas Nakura, top of pass, . 



Alma, top of pass, . 




Kades above the Huleh, * 


De Bertou. 




Safed; castle, .... 


Symonds ; 


Roth ; 



Safed, western part of town, 



Summit E. of Safed^ 



Jebel Safed, summit N. of Safed, 



Summit s. of es-Semmuy, . 



Khan Jubb Yusuf, . 


V. Schubert. 

Jebel Jumuk (or Jermak), 



Jebel Zabud, .... 



Summit k.e. of Rameh, 



Jebel S'as'a, northern summit. 




Jebel S'as'a, southern summit, 



Fasuta, .... 



Castle of Tripolis, 





Russegger ; 


De Forest ; 



Bur Eliyas, • • • . 


Carte du Liban. 

Azirteh, on the Zahleh Sunnin 

road, . . . • . 


Carte du Liban. 



Mar Takbala el Memj, church 
near the coal mines of el-Juar, 

Maklain el Bed^ coal mines, 

Mar Hannah el Keneiseh, . 

El-Juar, .... 

Kurnayil, emir's castle, 

Bzebdin, coal mines, . 

Natural bridge near the sources of 
Nahr el Kelb, 

Sulima, emir^s castle, 

Shumlan, on Beirut D. el Kamr 
road, . . • • • 

Abeih, . . • . • 

Mtara Abeih, n.e. of Abeih, 
Mejdel-Aya, N. of Abeih, . 
B'awirteh, • . • . 

Summit 8. of B'asir, . 
Jisr el Eidj, on Nahr Damur, • 
Beit ed Din, emir^s birthplace, 

Deir el Eamr, 

El-Baruk, village near the source 

of the Nahr el Auwljr, . 
Jett, near Eakun, 
Tell Manasif, b. of Kefr Saba, . 
Nabulus, Greek Convent, • • 

Alam Uda, wely on Jebel Sleiman, 
Valley of el-Mokhna,near Hawara, 
Summit above Lubban, 
Nabulus, Jerusalem road, top of 

first ridge s. of Nabulus, 
Bed of wadi on Nabulus-Jeru- 

salem road, below Lubban, 
Summit of ridge s. of Lubban . 
Top of ridge beyond Sinjil, 




Von Wildenbruch. 




De Berton. 


De Forest; 2977, 













Scott; 2419, De 



Carte du Liban. 








Von Wildenbruch; 

•1866, von Schu- 
bert; 1850, Al- 


len; 1464, Poole. 










Allen; Poole, 2020, 
too low. 





Von Schubert ; 
3128, Mansell. 

Ain Haramiyeh, 


Poole ; too low. 

Deir Abu Meshal, . 


Symonds ; 1592, 

Deir Ghusaneh, 



Beit Eima, . • . « 


Van de Velde. 

Mejdel, ... * 



DeirBalut, . . . . 



El-Mezra'ah (Nabulus-Jerusalem 

road), .... 



Tell Azur, 8. of el-Mezra'ah 



Taiyibeh, .... 


Symonds; 3116, 

Ain Yebrud .... 


Von Wildenbruch ; 
1766, Poole. 

Amutiyeh, ..... 



El-Aujeh, ruins E. of Taiyibeh, • 


Symonds ; 2593, 

Bethel, .... 



El-Bireh, , . . . 


Poole; 3042, Allen, 
too high. 

Summit K.E. of Auza, 



Merj el Ghurruk, Plain of Sannur, 



Jebel Haskin, 



Summit 8. of Yasir, . 



Summit w. of Kul'at Melha, 



Naby Belan, .... 



Mount Ebal, .... 



Mount Gerizim, Shekh Gannim, 


Mansell; 2650, von 
Schubert; 2408, 

Summit N. of Beit Dejan, . 



Jebel Jedua, .... 



Naby Sleiman el Farsi, 



Shekh Ibrahim, 



Sebustiyeh, .... 


Mansell; 1549, Al- 
len; 1120, Poole; 
986, von Schu- 



Jebel Eumntnl, s. of Ain Dak, . 
Naby Samwil, 

Beit Unia, . . • • 

Summit N.E. of Janiyeh, • 
Summit above Katanah, on Jeru- 

salen^-Yafa road, . 
A summit farther west, 
Jerusalem-Yafa road near Eulo- 

nieh, . . ... 

Jerussdem-Yaf aroad at AinDHbeh, 
Jerusalem-Yafa road below Saris, 
Jerusalem, Bab Wady Aly, 
El-Atrun, road in the valley, 
El-Kubab, road below, 
Bamleh, martyrs' tower, 

Bamleh, the convent, 

Surafend, . • • « 

El-Fejjeh, village E.N.E. of Jaffa, . 
Yaf a, castle, .... 
Summit of low ridge between el- 

Fejjeh and Bene Ibrak, . 
Jebel um Deirej, summit N.w. of 

Surah, . . • . 

Deir el Hawa, 

Beit Atab, ...» 
Dahr es Saleh, summit w. of 

Solomon's pools, . 
Mar Eliyas, . . * . 

Jerusalem, terrace at Prussian 
hospice, .... 

Jerusalem, highest N.w. part of 
the city, .... 

Jerus'alem, the Latin Convent, • 

Jerusalem, threshold of Yaf a gate, 




Symonds ; 8193, 










Lynch; 1527,Poole. 

Lynch ; 867, Poole. 
Lynch; 857, Poole. 
Lynch; 445, Poole. 
Symonds ; 408, 


Lynch; 244, Poole; 
273, WUden- 

















ManseU ; 2207, 






Bossegger ; 2636, 
von Schabert 


Von Wadenbruch. 



Mount Zion, c®naculum, . 


Von Schubert. 

Mount Zion, Protestant grave- 

yard, .... 



Hezekiah's pool. 



Mount Moriah, 


Von Schubert. 

Pool of Siloam, 


Von Schubert. 

Ain Eogel, .... 


Roth; 1996, Lynch, 

Gethsemane, .... 



Bridge below Gethsemane, 


Von Schubert ; 
2284, Allen. 

Mount of Olives, highest top. 


Roth; 2724, von 
Schubert; 2674, 
von Wilden- 
bruch ;. 2908, 

Mount of Olives, wely E. of 

church, .... 


Symonds, too low; 
2138, Poole, 
much too low. 

Mount of Evil Counsel, 



Eussian Convent at Mount Gihon, 


Mansell, too high. 

Bethany, .... 



Bir el Hodh (Jerusalem-Jericho 

road), .... 


Von Wildenbruch ; 
1284, Poole. 

Khan el Ahmar (on do.), . 


Von Wildenbruch. 

High mountain 8. of es-Sumrat, . 


Symonds ; 1137, 

Top of last descent on this road, . 


Von Wildenbruch. 

NabyMusa, . . . . 



Birket el Hataba (Jerusalem — 

Mar Saba), 



Mar Saba, idtar of the church, . 


Lynch ; 725, von 
Schubert ; 740, 

Valley of the Kedron below Mar 

Saba, .... 



Jebel Fureidis, 



A summit about four miles E J^.E. 

of Jebel Fureidis, 





Bethlehem, convent, 


Russegger ; 2567, 
von Schubert. 

El-Burak, castle at Solomon's 

Pools, .... 


Roth ; 2251, Poole 
(the great foun- 
tain above the 

Wady Urtas, the farm, 

Bameh, ruins N. of Hebron, • 


upper tank). 

Kurmul, ruins S. of Hebron, 



' Ain Tawaneh, 8.B. of Hebron, . 



Arab camp in Wady er Email, . 
Hebron, • . . • 



Russegger ; 2840, 
von Schubert. 

Hebron, before the quarantine- 
house, .... 
El-Kereitein, .... 



Dura, Naby Nuh, . 
Shekh 'Aly (Dawaimeh), . 
Tell Jedeideh, N. of Beit Jibrin, 



Naby Ahmed (Arak el Mensiyeh), 
Naby Yunas, K. of Esdud, 
Ruins of Askelon, highest part, • 
Shekh Arduan, N. of Gaza, 



El-Moutar, s. of Gaza, 



TellDaheb, .... 



TellelAjur, .... 



Edh-Dhoheriyeh, . 

Semua (valley below), 

Bir es Seba, .... 

Jebel Rukhy, .... 

El-Khulasah, .... 

Kurnub, .... 


Von Schubert. 
Von Schubert. 

Top of Nubk es Sufa, 


Von Schubert. 

El'BvMa {CosU-Syria) and Antilebanon Range. 

Kamoa el Hurmul, . 


De Forest. 

El-Hurmul, the village, . 
Bridge over the Orontes near el* 


De Forest. 

Hurmul, • . . • 


De Forest 




Orontes, source at Deir Mar 

Maron, .... 


De Forest. 

Watershed between Orontes and 

Leontes, .... 


De Forest. 

Ba'albek, .... 


Russegger; 3807, 
von Schubert ; 
3800, Mansell ; 
3551, von Wil- 
denbruch; 4166, 
Allen; 3838, 
Carte du Liban. 

Jisr Temnin, bridge near el- 

Merj, .... 


Von Wildenbruch ; 
3141, Allen. 

Jebel esh Shurky, highest top, . 


By estimation. 

Antilebanon, highest summit near 

Ain Hawar, 


Carte du Liban. 

Serin, N. of Wadi Yaf of eh, 


Von Schubert. 

Masy, ..... 


Von Schubert. 

Surghaya, .... 


Carte du Liban. 

Zebedany, .... 


Russegger; 3760, 
von Schubert ; 
4135, Allen. 

Bludan, ..... 


Porter ; elsewhere, 

Pass on Damascus, Beirut road 

above Zebedany, . 


Russegger and v. 
Schubert; 4714, 
von Wilden- 

Plain of Zebedany, . 



Plain of Zebedany, at the fountain 

of Barada river, . 



Mill on Barada, five miles below 



Von Wildenbruch. 

Fall of the Barada, near the pass 

of Zuk Wadi Barada, . 



Inscriptions of Abila, 


Von Wildenbruch. 

Jebel Kasyun, above Damascus, 



Eefr Suseh, .... 


Carte du Liban. 




Dimes, on Damascus-Beimt road, 

Yuntah, • • • • 

Es-Suweireh, .... 
Basin of Kefr Kuk, n.b. slope of 

Mount Hermon, . 
Hasbeija, emir^s palace, • 
Hasbeiya, • • • • 

Boad over Khalwet el Bijad, 
Ain Jurfa, near Hasbeiya, 
Hibariyeh, near Hasbeiya, . 
Basheiya el Fokkar, • • 

Bridge, on Nahr Serayib, . 
Banias^ N.£. angle of terrace, 
Banias, bridge over the Jordan 
branch, • • • • 

Banias, • • • • • 

2400 Eussegger; 2269, 
Wildenbruch ; 
2186, Schubert; 
2286, Carte du 
Liban ; 2200, 
Porter ; 2437, 

3825 Allen; 3514, Carte 
du Liban. 

4860 Porter. 

4433 Carte du Liban. 

3500 Porter. 

2160 De Forest. 

2510 Roth; 1920, Bus- 


2711 Bussegger. 

2374 Bussegger. 

2261 Bussegger. 

2475 Bussegger. 

1237 Bussegger, 

1147 Bussegger. 

1272 Both. 
2200 Both. 

Country south of Damascus. 

Elian es Shih, 

S'as'a, on Damascus-Banias road, 

Kuneiterah, . 

Jubata, . 

Lake Phiala, . 

Plateau of Tell Khanzir, 

Tell el Harah, 

Tell Abu Nida, 


Gadara (Um-Keis), 

Hot baths near Gadara, 

Jebel Hauran, Tell Abu Tumeis, 

2616 Von Schubert. 

2973 Von Schubert. 

3037 Von Schubert. 

3485 Both. 

3304 Roth ; 3175, Doer- 


3000 Von Schubert. 

2965 Doergens. 

4114 Doergens. 

1652 Doergens. 

1204 Both. 

550 Both. 

5000 Doergens. 



Jebd Haaran^ el Eleib, • 



Jebel Hauran, Tell Jeineh, 



Tibneh, .... 



K. er Rubad (wadi below), 



Bunneh, • . • • 



Wady Zerka, below Burmeh, 



Pass over Jebel Jilad, 



Ea-Salt, .... 



Highest part of road from Es- 

Salt to Amman, . 



Eerak, first floor of a house in the 

village, «... 



The Depression VaUey. The Jordan and Dead Sea. 

Jordan, fountain near Hasbeiya, . 


De Forest. 

Jordan, ford below Hasbeiya, 


De Forest. 

Jordan, khan below this ford, 


De Forest. 

Jordan, fountain at Banias, 


De Forest (com- 
pare Banias) ; 
863, De Bertou. 

Tell el Kady, . . • . 


De Forest; 537, 
von Wilden- 
bruch ; 344, De 

Bridge on the upper Jordan, 


Roth, without stat- 
ing which bridge. 

Sukeik, .... 


Thomson (Land 
and jBooi, p. 362). 

Ruins of Gamala, . 


Thomson (Land 
and Soo*, p. 384). 

Ain Belata, .... 


By estimation (see 
Memoir^ p. 181). 

Bahr el Huleh, 


By estimation; 273, 
Mansell ; 282, 
Roth; De Bertou, 

Jbr Benat Yakub, . 


Von Wildenbruch. 
The bridge is 
30^ above the 




Lake Tiberias, level, 


Lynch ; 755, De 
Bertou ; 666, 
Russegger ; 570, 
von Schubert ; 
845, von Wilden- 
. 328, Symonds. 

Lake Tiberias, greatest depth, • 


Lynch ; 156, Moly- 

Tiberias, in front of the castle, . 



The Jordan, bridge near Semakh, 



The Jordan, at el-Buka*a, . 



The Jordan, at Jisr Mejami'a, • 


Lynch ; 779, Roth. 

The Jordan, at 32^ 26' 54" lat., . 



The Jordan, at 32' 9' 18" lat., . 



The Jordan, at 32^ 6' 39" (Jisr 

Damieh), . • , . 



Kum Snrtabeh, 



Jericho (er Riha), . 


Symonds ; 798, 

. Poole ; 764, Rus- 

segger; 562, von 

Schubert; 1034, 

De Bertou. 

Ain es Sultan, 


Von Wildenbruch. 

Jordan, pilgrims* bathing-place, . 


Poole; 1376, Rus- 

Jordan, ford on road to es-Salt, • 



Kasr Hajla, . • . . 



Dead Sea level, 


Lynch; 1312, Sy- 
monds; 1377, De 
Bertou ; 1430, 
Russegger; 1441, 
Wildenbruch ; 
638, von Schu- 
bert ; 1367, 
Bridges ; 1316, 

Dead Sea, greatest depth near 

Ain Terabeh, 


Lynch; Moore and 
Beke, 1800. 


Dead Sea, depth off Ain Jiddy, . 1128 Lynch. 
Dead Sea, depth north end of 

peninsula, • . • . 642 Lynch. 

Cliff of Terabeh, above the level 

of the Dead Sea, . . . 1306 Lynch. 

Cliff of Terabeh, under the level 

of the Mediterranean, . . 11 Lynch. 

Bas Mersed, under the level of 

the Mediterranean, . . 1113 Above Dead Sea, 

200, Poole. 
Bir Ain Jiddy, under the level of 

the Mediterranean, • . 603 Poole. 

Masada Cliff, bottom of path on 

eastern side, . . • 750 Poole ; above Dead 

Sea, 563. 
Ruins of fortress in W. Embag- 

hegh, 931 Poole ; above Dead 

Sea, 382. 
Ez-Zuweirah et tahta ruin, . 345 Poole ; above Dead 

Sea, 968. 
Wadi some yards below, • . 1027 Roth. 

JebelUsdum, . . . 1316 Roth ; 900, Poole. 

Bedawin camp in Ghor es Safieh, 1172 Roth. 


As I have endeaYoared to give a^ perfect an account as 
possible of the existing Palestine literature, supplementing 
Bitterns list in this volume with one which comes down to the 
present year, I have thought that it might not be inappropriate 
to insert Tobler^s resumi, and his piquant, and frequently, it 
must be supposed, judicious and correct remarks, contained 
in his Dritte Wanderung nach Paldstina. Tobler is the first 
living authority, so far as the literature of Palestine is con- 
oemed ; and no man has gone through more painstaking efforts 
than he, to extend the area of our knowledge respecting the 
Holy Land. It is all the more to be regretted that his brusque- 
ness and occasional haste make his critical remarks less valu- 
able than they would otherwise have been. — ^Ed. 

1. Works known or conjectured foUh the utmost probability to 
proceed from personal explorers. 

728. Willibald : Heinrich Hahn shows, in his thorough 
treatise on the journey of St Willibald to Palestine, that he 
was there between the years 727 and 729. 

1170. Descriptio itineris in Terram Sanctam (by an anony- 
mous writer), in Joh. Georg« Eccardi Corpus histor. medii sevi. 
Lips. 1723. Full of breaks, and mere verbiage. 

1175. FeteU (strictly Fretell). Laurent identifies Fretellus 
with the pseudo-name Eugesippus, which does not strictly satisfy 

1187. Plagon, incorrectly translated into English. 

1212. Willebrands von Oldenburg Beise nach Palastina, 
pub. in Latin by Dr Laurent, and in German with illustrative 
comments. Valuable as this edition is, it contains little that was 
not in that of Leo Allatius^ 

1217. Thietmari Peregrinatio. Ad fidem codicis Ham- 
burgensis cum aliis libris mauuscriptis coUati edidit, annota- 


tione illustravlty codicem recensam, scriptursd discrepantiam, 
indicem rerum et verborum adjecit J. C. M. Laurent. Ham- 
bnrgi^ 1857. 4to. By far tlie best edition, and more complete 
than that of Jul. de St Genois or mine. 

1294. Riccoldo or Biculdus: a manuscript. Itinei*arius 
fratris Richoldi ordinis fratrum Praedicatorum, in the Wolfen- 
biittel Lib. 

1314-1322. Parchi. In the second volume of the Itine- 
rary of Benjamin of Tudela, there is an article on the Geo- 
graphy of Palestine, from Jewish sources, by Dr Zunz. In 
the same work there is an extract from Khafthor va^ferach of 
Esthori B. Mose ha-Parchi, a contemporaiy of Abulfeda and 
Maundeville. Asher, the editor, regards this as the first and 
most important author on the topography of Palestine. The 
book has some value, but it is overrated by Robinson. 

1336. Baldensel. The Itinerarius Gulielmi de Baldensele, 
taken from a Wolfenbiittel MS. by C. L. Grotefend, and 
inserted in the Zeitsch. des histor. Vereins fur Niedersachsen. 
Probably the last edition. An edition (probably Latin) ap- 
peared in Venice in 1480. 

1340. Maundeville: Latin, Italian, German, and English 
editions of his travels. I have also found a French translation 
bearing these words ; "Celiure est apele Mandeville, 1480;" 
and then without mention of time, place, or publisher, <* Man- 
teuille compose p^ messire Jehan de monteville cheualier natif 
d' angleterre de la ville de saint alain. lequel parle de la terre 
de promission, de hierusalem, et de plusiurs pays, villes et isles 
de mer, et de diuerses et estranges choses, et du voyage de 
hierusalem.'* The copy before me is incomplete, and is orna- 
mented with four coarse woodcuts. Count de I'Escalapier of 
Paris possesses a paper MS. in folio : Cy commence le liure des 
parties doultre mer lequel f ut fait et ordonne par messire Ih&n 
de mandeville. 

1384. Sigoli : The older edition of this traveller, edited by 
Niccolo Frescobaldi, appeared in Florence in 1829. 

1395. Sarebruche : Journal contenant le voyage faict en 
Hierusalem et autres lieux de deuotion, tant en la terre Saincte 
qu'en ^gypte. Par . . . Seigneur Messire Simon de Sare- 
bruche Cheualier, Baron d'Anglure, au Diocese de Troyes, en 
Tannfe 1395. A tolerably good work. 


1410. SchUdtberger or Scheltberger : A new edition taken 
from the Heidelberg MS. by K. F. Nenmann, and more enjoy- 
able than the one edited by Penzell, prefaced with an introduc- 
tion by himself, and enlarged by comments from the pens of 
Fallmerayer and Hammer-Purgstall. 

1419. Caumont : Voyaige d'oaltremer en Jh^rusalem par 
le Seigneur de Caumont Fan 1418. Public . . • par le Mar- 
quis de la Orange. Paris 1858. This meagre account is inte- 
resting notwithstanding. 

1422. Lannoy : Voyages et ambassades de messire GiuUe- 
bert de Lannoy, 1399 to 1450. 

1433. Philipp the last Count of Katzellenbogen : Pilger- 
f ahrt nach ^gypten und Palastina in 1433 and 1434. Printed 
in the Vorzeit of 1821. 

1449. Gumpenberg : Evidently taken from an older work. 

1470. Itinerary by William Wey : MS. in the Bodleian Lib. 

1476. Albrecht von Sachsen : Found also in the collective 
work, Itinera sex a diversis Saxoniss ducibus et electoribus . . . 
in Italiam omnia, tria etiam in Palaestinam et terram sanctam 
facta. Studio Balthasaris Mencii. WitebergsB 1612. The 
pilgrimage of Albrecht was preceded, by a short interval, by 
that of Frederick iii. 1474, and followed by that of Henry i. 
1499, and again in 1500. The two last mentioned accounts 
are not important, but they should not be wholly overlooked. 

1479. Tucher, in Pol Strassburg, Knoblochtzer, 1483. It 
appeared in connection with Gumpenberg in 1561. 

1480. Voyage de la sainte Cit6. 

1480. Santa Brasca: Viaggio a Gierusalemme. Milan 

1480 and 1483. Fabri : The first German edition appeared, 
so far as I can ascertain, in 1557, under the title, Elgentlich 
beschreibung der hin und wider farth zu dem heyligen Landt 
gen Jerusalem, vnd f urter durch die grosse Wiisten zu dem 
Heiligen Berge Horeb und Sinai. Eine Mission oder Epistel 
an vier Edle, die beim hiel. Grabe Bitter worden sind, geht 
dem Pilgerbuch, welches densdben ihr Kaplan, Bruder Felix, 
hat gemacht, voran. Nur auf Bitten hin hat er das nachge- 
hende Biichlein gemacht aus meinem lateinischen buch, das 
ich fur mich selbst habe gemacht Correctly printed in the 
Beyssbuch des heil. Landes. 


1482. Josse van Ghistele. His report appeared in the 
Flemish language, edited by De St Genois, and also in French, 
in Lyons, 1564. 

1483. Breydenbach : The first German edition known to 
me is, Die heyligen Beyssen gen Jherusalem zu dem heyl. grab. 
Meyntz: E. Rewich, 1486. With wood engravings. Lat. 
Mogunt. 1486. FoL The prorector of the George Augustus 
University, Jacob Wilhelm Feuerleins Einladung zu einer 
Feyer der Konigl. Deutschen Gesellschaft auf den 13 Hor- 
nung 1750. With this a treatise by Bemhard von Breyden- 
bach, Reise in das Gelobte Land, appeared in Gottingeo. 
Feuerlein says that he used four editions^ one of which was 
beautifully illustrated, written in High German, and still pre- 
served by the Breydenbach family. He speaks of a Latin 
edition of 1484, a High German one of the same year, a Low 
German one issued soon after, and a French one in 1489. 

1487. Le Huen. The edition of 1522 in Begnault. De 
Hody cites this passage : Des saintes peregrinations de Jheru- 
salem, et des environs et des lieux prochains, tir^ du latin de 
Bernard de Breydenbach, par fr^re Nicolas de Huen. 

1506. Guylforde 2 Pilgrimage to wardes Jherusalem. Lon- 
don 1511. 

1508. Noe : Yiaggio al S. Sepolcro. I have also seen an 
edition published in Venice in 1587. On the title-page of the 
one seen by me stands the sentence : comporto dal R. P. fra 
Noe dell' ordine de S. Francisco. 

1510. Wanckel : Ein Kurtze vermerckung der heyligen 
Stet des heyligen landts in und umb Jerusalem. Jobst Gut- 
knecht. Wanckel spent six years in Palestine. The work is 
closely condensed, and should not be wholly overlooked. 

1517. Hirschfeld s Des Bitters Bemhard von Hirschfeld 
im Jahr 1517 untemommene und von ihn selbst beschriebene 
Wallfahrt zum heiligen Grabe. Aus einem in der gross- 
herzogl. Bibliothek zu Weimar befindlichen Manuscripte. 
Herausgegeben von A. von Minckwitz. Contained in Mittfiil- 
ungen der deutschen Gesell. zu Erforschung vaterland. Sprache 
und Alterthumer in Leipzig. T. O. Weigel, 1856. A very 
unimportant document : only a little of it deserved to be printed. 

1518. Lesaige: Chy sensuient les gistes repaistres et 
despens Que Moy Jacques Lesaige marchant demourant a 


Douay ; Aj faict de Douaj • • • en la Saincte cit6 de Hieni- 
salem. . . . Impiime Nouuellement a Cambraj, B. Brassart, 
Au depens da diet iacques. This book is written in so fresh 
a style, that it deserves being glanced at. 

1519. Tschudi. Edition with different title. Freiburg 

1519. Stulz : Beschreibung der Pilgerfahrt gehn Hieni- 
salem, 1519. To be seen in the Lucerne City Library. Not 

1527. Pascha, French: La Peregrination Spirituelle; 
vers la terre saincte, comme en Jerusalem, Bethlehem, au 
Jordan. Compos^e en langue Thyoise, par feu F. Jean Pascha, 
D. en theologie« This is rather a book of edification than of 

1535. Gassot. Jacob Gassot wrote a description of the 
journey from Venice to Constantinople, but it did not touch on 
Jerusalem. This is a new token of the haste with which 
Chateaubriand makes his assertions. 

1545. Copie du Saint Voyage de Jerusalem En partie 
fait et renouvell^ le vrze Du mob D'aoust Lan de grace 1714. 
Bather a registration of the holy places than a record of travel : 

1549. Begnauts Discours du Voyage d'outre mer au 
sainct Sepulcre de Jerusalem, et autres lieux de la terre Saincte. 
Par Anthoine Eegnaut. Lyon 1573. With many woodcuts 
worth noticing. The prayers of the Latins are fully given in 
this work. 

1550. Tenerreyo : Itinerario de Antonio Tenerreyo. Lis- 
boa 1829. 

1552-1559. Bonifaclus von Bagusa, Planographie. The 
style of this writer is condensed and clear. He has entered a 
little upon topographical matters, and seems to have been im- 
plicitly followed in these by Quaresmio and Morone da Maleo. 
Li his first volume there is nothing geographical : it contains 
only prayers, orders of divine service, and of processions. 
What is strictly topographical is only woven in, to make the 
places hallowed by tradition more evident. The book confines 
itself to Jerusalem and its vicinity. This author is not to be 
overlooked because so many havQ trodden in his footsteps. 

1 555. Giraudet : Discovra A^ voiag^ d'ovtre mer av Sainct 


396 APPENDIX. , 

Sepulchre de Jerusalem, et autres lieux de la terre Saincte : 
Et du mont de Sinai. . . . Par Gabriel Giraudet Prebstre. 
Tolose 1583. Unimpoitant. 

1556. Muntzer, Keyssbeschreibung. . . . WolfifgangMiit- 
zers von Babenberg. Von Venedig aus nach Jerusalem. Niim- 
berg 1624. Unimportant. 

1556-1559. Seydlitz, trans, into Dutch by Augelen, 1662. 

1563. Hanns von Godem : Beschreibung einer Rais geen 
Jerusalem : MS. 

1564. Helfifrich. A later edition. • . • Jetzunder auffs new 
ubersehen, und mit etzlichen Figuren gemehret. Leipz. 1589. 
The woodcuts moderately good, although some are poor. 

1583. Lauffen: Filgerfahrt nach Jerusalem. Manuscript 
in the Library of Lucerne. This document would not pay for 

1593. De Hault : Le voyage de Hierusalem . . • conte- 
nant Tordre, despence, et remarques notables en iceluy. Unim- 

1596. Kootwyck: Travels translated into Flemish in 

1600. Verscheyde Voya^en, ofte Eeyssen gedaen door 
Jr. Joris van der Does na Constantinopolen. Dordricht 1612. 

1600. ChristophHarant: Putowany anebCesta. Translated 
into German under the title, Wallfahrt aus Bohmen in das 
Judenland, 1608. 

1600. Jean Paleme: Peregrination en Egypte, Arable, 
Terre Sainte, Syrie, etc. Lyon 1606. 

1601. Timberlake : Discourse of the Travailes of two 
English Pilgrimes . . . written by Henry Timberlake. London 

1600-1611. Tlie Travels of four Englishmen and a 
Preacher into Galilee, Judea, Palestine, Jericho, etc. London 

1604. Beauveau: Relation Journaliere dv voyage dv 
Levant faict et descrit par . . . Henry de Beauveau. Beveu 
augmente et enrichy par I'Autheur de pourtraicts des lieus les 
plus remarquables. Nancy 1619. Unimportant. 

1 604. De Breves : Relation des Voyages de M. de Breves f aits 
en Hiervsalem, Terre Saincte, Constantinople, etc. Paris 1630. 
Worth examining, if only in respect to the names of localities. 


1610. Boucher. His work appeared in Troyes^ 1610. 

1612. Pesenti : Peregrinaggio di Giervsalemme. Brescia 

1619. De Yos : Journal ofte Beschryvinge van do Jeru- 
salemsz Bejsei gedaen ; by Adrian de Yos. Delft 1655. 

1621. Des Hayes: Yoiage de Levant Fait par le com- 
mendement dv Boy en Fannie 1621. Par le Sr. D. C. Paris 
1624. The abbi'eviation I think to be Du Castel, although 
others have considered it to be De Oormenin. This work is 
worth examining ; and so, too, are the authorities which it gives 
in connection with the text. 

1622. Bibes : Belacion del viage de la Santa Civdad de 
Hierusalem, y otros higares adjacentes en la misma Tierra 
Santa. Par Fray Baymundo Bibes. Barcelona 1627. Con- 
taining some observations of value. 

1627. Castillo : El devoto Peregrine, y Yiage de Tierra 
Santa. Compvesto par el Padre Fray Antonio del Castillo. 
Madrid 1655. This writer was governor of the Holy Land, 
and gives many interesting particulars regarding the country. 

1631. Stockove : Yoyage du Levant. Bruxelles 1650. 

1633. Heerlycke ende gelukkige reyze naer het heyligh 
landt ende stadt van Jerusalem beschreven ende bereyst door 
breeder Jan Yanderlinden. Antwerpen 1634. 

1636. Neitschitz. This traveller visited the Holy Land 
in 1630. His book has little value. 

1640. Berdino : Historia dell' Antica e Modema Palestina, 
descritta in tre parti, dal Y. B. P. F. Yincenzo Berdino. 
Yenice 1642. This writer was for several years general-com- 
missary in Palestine. 

1650. La Syrie sainte: ou la Mission de Jesus et des 
P&res de la Compagnie de Jesus en Syrie. Par Joseph Besson. 
Paris 1660. 

1650. Belation nouvelle et exacte d'un voyage de Ta Terre 
Sainte. Paris 1688. Unimportant : a work wholly religious, 
yet not bitter towards those who have a different faith from the 

1651-1658. Mariano Morone da Maleo. This author (the 
title of whose work is very long) appears to have been a care- 
ful observer, and to have collectei), tnucli that could be profit- 
ably used* 


1658. Thevenot: Gedenkwaardige en zeer nawkeurige 
reizen van Thevenot. Amsterdam 1681. 

1660. Cheron : Conferences spiritvelles, ov L'Eloge, et la 
Belation da Voyage de Jerusalem fait en Fan 1660. Paris 
1671. Pious ; and not very instructive withal. 

1660. Poullet : Voyages du Sr. Poullet, Nouvelles Rela- 
tions du Levant. Very little about Jerusalem in thb work ; 
but what little there is, looks well. 

1660. Slisanzky: Beyssbeschreibung nachher Jerusalem 
und dem heil. Lande. 

1663-1670. Le voyage de Galilee. Paris 1670. This 
book deserves examination. 

1665. Banzow, Joh. v. : Beisebeschreibung nach Jerusa- 
lem, Cairo, und Constantinopel. Copenhag. 1669. 

1666. Deschamps, Bardi^lemi t Voyage de Li6ge k Jeru- 
salem et en Egypte. Liege 1678. 

1665-1668. Gonzales : Jerusalemsche Beyse gedaen ende 
beschreven door F. Antonius Gonzales. Antwerpen 1673. 

1670. Jouvin: Le voyageur d'Europe oi est le voyage 
de Turquie, qui comprend la Terre Sainte et I'Egypte. 

1671. Goujoni Histoire du voyage de la Terre Sainte. 
Par Jacques Goujon. Lyon 1671. 

1699. Felix Beaugrand: Voyage. Paris 1700. 

1700. Antonio da Venetia : guida f edele alia santa citta 
di Gierusalemme, e descrizione di tutta Terra Santa. Venetia 

1700-1709. Egmond en Heyman : Ter Drukpersse bezorgt 
door Job. Wil. Heyman. His work is worth examination. 

1702. Beymann: Grundtliche Belation, Oder Wahrer 
Bericht und eygentliche Verzeichnuss, etc. By N.* Beymann. 
This book is worth reading, and contains some valuable his- 
torical notices. 

1707, 1710, 1713. Solik : Fasciculus Myrrhse in campis 
PalsBstinse coUectus. BrunaB 1716. Close style, not critical, 
and hardly usable. 

1712. Hietling : Peregrinus afifectuose per Terram Sanctam 
et Jerusalem a devotione et curiositate conductus, etc. 1712. 

1715. Voiage de M. Turpetin Pr^tre der diocesse Dorleans 
dans les Saints Lieux de Jerusalem. This work contains some 
notices of value. 


1715. Benzelius. Dr Henrik Benzelius journeyed through 
Palestine, and communicated his observations to Gjorwell's 
Svenska Merkurius. 

1725. A. M. Myller : Peregrinus in Jerusalem. Fremdling 
zu Jerusalem, etc. Wien and Nuremberg 1735. 

1726. Chrysanthos. This writer published, in 1726, a 
work giving a glowing account of Jecusalem, and of the 
Sepulchre of Christ. 

1730. Angeli: Viaggio di Terra Santa. Venezia 1738. 

1731. ToUot: Voyage fait au Levant, contenant les de- 
scriptions d'Algier, etc. Paris 1742. 

1733. K. F. V. Hopken und Eduard Carson: Stora 
Svenska Herrars Besa. Stockholm 1768. 

1735. Cecilia: Palestina owero primo Viaggio di F. 
Leandro di Santa Cecilia Carmelitano Scalzo in Oriente 
scritto dal medesimo. Boma 1753. It b worth looking 

1738. Korte, Beize naar Palestina. Amsterdam 1781. 

1767. Mariti: Die Istoria came out in Paris in 1853 
under the title of Histoire de F^tat present de Jerusalem. The 
translator, excellently as he has done his work, has yet sup- 
pressed the fact that the original dates from 1767, and con- 
veyed the impression that the book is a new one. 

1772. Jerusalemsche reize gedaen ende beschreven door 
Marinus Geubels* Tot Dendermonde 1780. 

1772. L. F. Cassas : Voyage pittoresque de la Syrie, de 
la Ph^nice, de la Palestine, etc. 2 vols. fol. An expensive 
book even now, and a work, moreover, never completed. The 
text contains contributions from many celebrated savans, and 
the plates are very accurate and faithful. 

1776. Beize naer het heylig land, gedaen in de jaeren 1776 
en 1777, en beschreven door Joannes Andreas Jacobus Bothier. 
Autwerpen. Without date. 

1783. Korobeinikof, a Bussian, was sent by the Czar to 
Jerusalem, and published an account of his journey. 

1788-1790. Bscheider: Das heiUge Land, nach seinem 
gegenwartigen Zustande geschil^^yt 'von F. G. Bscheider. 
Augsburgh 1798. One of the iUo«^v eni^y*^^^ \)ooks which the 
Franciscans have written about ^ ^j^xe. 


1800. Wittman: Beisen in der europaischen Tiirkey, 
Kleinasien^ Syrien, tind ^gypten. Leipzig 1804. 

1806. Chateaubriand, firuzelles 1851. In three vols. 
Also Chateanbriand illostr^. Paris 1853. Mostly poor en- 
gravings; that of Bethlehem not to be identified. Only a 
pain to look at them. There are Italian editions of this writer, 
published at Florence in 1828, and in Naples in 1844, and 
extracts in Milan in 1826. It has gone through three German 
editions. In his Memoires d'outre tombe, the author manifests 
self-satisfaction enough; indeed, he goes so far as to suppose 
that his descriptions are exact. He says, **Tous les voyageurs, 
k Jerusalem, m'ont ecrit pour me f^liciter et me remercier de 
mon exactitude, wie Julius Folentlot (I'exactitude des descrip- 
tions)." I afterwards fell in with things not so exact in him. 

1806. Seetzen. The publication of this traveller's works, 
so valuable in many respects, is a most praiseworthy act. 

1814. Bramsen : English Travels in Egypt, Syria, Pales- 
tine, etc. London 1815. 

1816. Irby and Mangles. There is a newer edition of 
their travels [than the one used by Ritter]. London 1844. 
Condensed in style, and containing many valuable facts. 

,1817. Joliffe: Travels. Published in French and in 
Dutch. Paris 1820, and Amsterdam 1822. 

1817. Forbin. A work magnificently got up, atid con- 
taining drawings by Gros, Thi^non, Louise BouteUler, Hippo- 
lyte Lecomte, Bourgeois, Daguerre, Bouton, A. Deseynes, 
Hersen, and Baltard. Well drawn, but very inaccurate ; and 
it is a sin and a pity that so much money has been expended 
on a work so faulty. 

1817. Viagem de hum peregrine a Jerusalem, e visita que 
feez aos Lugares Santos. Fr. Jodo de Jesus Christo. Lisboa 

1821. W. R. Wilson: Travels in Egypt and the Holy- 
Land. London 1823. 

1822. Wolf : Missionary Journal and Mem. of the Rev. 
Joseph Wolf. London 1824. 

1823. Jowett: Travels. Enjoyable. 

1823. Fisk: A Pasterns Memorial of the Holy Land. 
London 1853. 

1826. Yaliani, Luigi : Travels. 


1827. Jahn : Travels. Mayence 1828. The work of this 
trath-lovingy intelligent Catholic is worth reading. 

1829. Prokesch ; Oversat af Christian Winther. Kjoben- 
havn 1839. 

1839. George Fisk: A Memorial of Egypt, Jerusalem, 
and other principal localities in the Holy Land. Lond. and 
Leipz. 1859. 

1832. G. Robinson : Voyage, avec vues, cartes, et plans. 
Paris 1838. Some of the lithographs are endurable, and one 
can get through the text. 

1833. Vere Monro : Travels. Noticeable. 

1833. Arundale: Illustrations of Jerusalem and Mount 
Sinai ; including the most interesting sites between Cairo and 
Beirout From drawings by F. Arundale. London 1837. 
His merits in throwing light on the Haram of Jerusalem are 
well known. 

1833. Pallme : Meine Eeisen durch Syrien und Palastina. 
Without date. The young merchant tells his story honestly ; 
some notices of his are useful. 

1834. George Jones: Excursions to Cairo, Jerusalem, 
Damascus, etc., from the U.S. ship " Delaware.'* New York 1836. 

1835. Kinglake : Eothen. A very vivid delineation. 

1836. J. G. Fassler : Beise nach ^gypten und dem heil. 
Lande. St Gallen 1840. 

1836. Martin Kreutzhuber: Leben, Wanderungen, etc. 

1840. Not usable. 

1837. Lindsay, Lord r Letters from Egypt, Edom, and the 
Holy Land. Merits some examination. 

1838. D. Holthaus: Wanderungen, etc. Barmen 1842. 
This man went as a travelling tailor. 

1838. Puckler-Muskau: Die Euckkehr. Berlin 1846. 
Some things in this are useful. 

1838, 1852. Bobinson : Biblical Besearches. English and 
German editions. Though so many have gone through Palestine 
since 1838, yet no one has attained to the clearness and the 
excellence of Bobinson, and our thanks are due to him ever. 

1839. Kinnear: Cairo, Petra, and Damascus. London 

1841. This book should hardly be overlooked. 

1839. Beise Skizzen aus dem Morgenlande. Zweibrucken 
1841. Hardly worth the reading. 

VOL. II. « 


1839 or 1840. James Erving Cooley : The American in 
Egypt; with Rambles through the Holy Land. New York 

1840. D. Millard : Journal of Travels in Egypt and the 
Holy Land. New York. 

1840. E. Joy Morry : Notes of a Tour, etc. Philadelphia 

1840. Dawson, Borrer : Journey to Jerusalem. London 

1842, 1853. Bartlett. Text not good. Robinson makes 
great account of Bartlett's artistic productions, but they are far 
inferior to those of Ulrich Halbreiter. 

1842. Wolcott, Samuel: Notices of Jerusalem, in Bib. 
Sacra. 1843. 

1843. Herschell : Visit to my Fatheriand. 

1843. Wanderungen im Morgenlande, in 1842 and 1843, 
by Dr J. A. Lorent. Mannheim 1845. Not usable. 
1843. Hahn-hahn: Travels, 1845. 

1843. J. P. Durbin: Observations in Egypt, Palestine, 
etc. New York 1845. 

1843 or 1844. Warburton : The Orescent and the Oross. 
Some things in this are noteworthy. 

1844. 1859. Tischendorf : Travels in the East. 

1845. Georgi : Die heiligen Statten. Leipz. 1854. Finely 
got up; the views taken from Roberts' and Mayer's works. 
The text is a compilation. 

1845, 1857. Tobler, T.: Beitrag zur medizinischen Topo- 
graphie von Jerusalem. Berlin 1855. Die neuen Forschun- 
gen, in Ausland, 1855. Forschungen zur nahem Kunde von 
Jerusalem, in Petermann's Mittheilungen, 1857. Wanderungen 
in Palastina, 1857. Planographie von Jerusalem. Memoir 
accompanying Van der Velde's Map of Jerusalem and Vicinity, 
Gotha 1857. 

1846. Les Pterins Eusses. ParMme. Bagrief-Speransky. 
1846. Gadow: Mittheilungen iiber Jerusalem aus dem 

Tagebuche eines Augenzeugen. Konigsberg. Worth reading, 
yet not critical. 

1846. Oassini : La Terra Santa descritta dal Padre 
Francesco Oassini da Perinaldo. Geneva 1855. A little 
book, with touches of fun and humour here and there ; the 


author, though a Franciscan, does not follow all the traditions 

1846. Ausfiihrliche, Beschreibung meiner Reise nach Bom 
und Jerusalem. Von Joseph Schilling. Tuttlingen 1854. 

1847. Wolff : Jerusalem. With thirty-six wood engrav- 
ings. This handy little book not only gives a good idea of the 
chief objects of interest in Jerusalem, but it also contains some 
new matter. 

1847. Reise ins Morgenland, untemommen von J. H. 
Schulthess. Zurich 1854. 

1848. Gasparin : Journal d'un Voyage au Levant. Par 
Mme. de Gasparin. Paris 1848. This book, though the work 
of an enemy to the traditions, is pietistic, overloaded, and not 
at all valuable. I must express my wonder that Roman 
Catholics think this lady, who has the most meagre scientific 
acquisitions, or her husband. Count de Gasparin, to be notice- 
able objects enough to attack. Such opponents ajs these, are, 
in truth, too insignificant. The friends of tradition would do 
better to attack the thorough Robinson, but he is little known 
in France. 

1848. Lynch : Ofiicial Report of the United States Expe- 
dition to explore the Dead Sea and the River Jordan. Balti- 
more 1852. Important. 

1849. H. B. W. Churton : Thoughts of the Land of the 
Morning ; a Record of Two Visits to Palestine. London 1852. 

1850. The Dead Sea, a New Route to India. By Captain 
Wm. Allen. London 1855. Worth looking into. 

1850. Pigeory : Les Pfelerins d'Orient ; Lettres artistiques 
et historiques sur un voyage dans la Syrie et la Palestine. 
Paris 1854. Not a thorough work. 

1850. Patterson : Journal of a Tour in Egypt, Palestine, 
Syria, and Greece. By James Laird Patterson. London 
1852. An unimportant work ; the mere polemic of a modern 
Catholic against the Protestants. 

1850. Du Camp: Egypte, Nubie, Palestine, et Syrie; 
Dessins photographiques. Paris 1852. Some parts of the text 
are interesting, but the most is weakly, and there is great con- 
fusion. I was expecting much from photography in enabling 
me to judge as to the architecture of Palestine, but was dis- 
appointed after examining this work* 


1851. The Lands of the Messiah, Mahomet, and the Pope. 
By John Alton. London 1852. Of little value. 

1851. Christina Trivulci di Belgiojoso : La vie intime et la 
vie nomade en Orient, In the Rev. de deux Mondes. One has 
to ask the question how such light wares found a place in a 
journal of that character. 

1851. Dandolo : Viaggio en Egitto, nel Sudan, in Siria 
ed in Palestina, di Emilio Dandolo. Milano 1854. Well 
written, but containing little new. 

1851. Pilgerreise in das heil. Land. Von Johann Hilber. 
Bruneck 1853. 

1851, 1856. Schiferle : Zwcite Pilgen'eise nach Jerusa- 
1am und Rom, 1858. Characterized by animosity towards 
those who have a different religious faith from the author, 
especially Protestants. This is the chief merit of the book. 
The second pilgrimage is poorer than the first. 

1852. Thomas : Travels in Egypt and Palestine. By J. 
Thomas. Philadelphia 1858. This little book does not richly 
repay perusal. 

1852. Ohnesorge : Der Zions Pilger ; Tagebuch auf der 
Reise nach Jerusalem. Berlin 1855. Instead of exact infor- 
mation, the reader gets a kind of baptized declamation. 

1852. Dupuis : The Holy Places ; a Narrative of Two 
Years' Residence in Jerusalem and Palestine. By H. L. Dupuis. 
A book written with no scientific end in view, and intended 
mainly to advance the interests of Protestantism in the Holy- 
Land, and yet not without many new observations. 

1852. Stephen Olin : Travels in Egypt and the Holy 
Land. New York 1853. 

1853. Ziegler : Meine Reise in den Orient. Leipzig 
1855. One who is not on the watch for scientific knowledge 
about the country would probably be satisfied with this book. 

1853. Vogu4 : Fragments d'un Journal de Voyage en 
Orient. Paris 1855. Although the author keeps rather too 
closely to the French literature of the subject, yet his produc- 
tion merits perusal. 

1853. Stanley : Sinai and Palestine. This work is marked 
for its generalizations, and for the comparisons introduced 
between the subject-matter and legendary and historical matters 
not directly in the line of discussion. 


1853. Shadows of the East, from Observations in Egypt, 
Palestine, Syria, etc. By Catherine Tobin. London 1855. 

1853. Thrupp : Antient Jerusalem ; a New Investigation 
into the History, Topography, and Plan of the City, Environs, 
and Temple. Cambridge 1855. This work manifests indus- 
trious research ; yet there are some archaeological hypotheses in 
it which are a little surprising. 

1853. Travels in Europe and the East By S. J. Prince. 
New York 1855. Hasty work. 

1853. Pictures of Palestine, Asia Minor, etc. By Bayard 
Taylor. London 1855. 

1853. Illustrations of Scripture. By H. B. Hac&ett. 
Boston 1855. 

1853. Jerusalem, seine Vorzeit, Gegenwart, und Zukunft. 
Von F. Liebetrut. Unimportant. 

1854. Stewart : The Tent and the Khan ; a Journey to 
Sinai and Palestine. By R. W. Stewart. Edinburgh 1857. 
The author brings together much that is interesting, but he 
does not command sufficiently well the English ^literature of 
the subject. 

1854. Beaumont: A Diary of a Journey to the East. 
By W. Beaumont. London 1856. With useful observations. 

1854. V. Gu&'in: De ora Palaestinae a promontorio 
Carmelo usque ad urbem Joppem pertinente. Parisiis 1856. 
A thorough production. 

1854. Salzmann, A. : Jerusalem ; Etude et reproduction 
photographique des monuments, etc. What I have seen of 
this work has not satisfied me at all. 

1854. Fisher Howe : Travels in Greece, Turkey, and 
Palestine. New York 1854. 

1854. Benjamin Dorr : Notes of Travel. Philadelphia 1858. 

1855. Clements : Eeminiscences of Pilgrimage to the 
Holy Places of Palestine. London 1857. This light work is 
made up of three lectures. 

1855. Malan. Bethany : a Pilgrimage. By S. C. Malan. 
London, without date. A pleasant little book. 

1855. Pelligrinaggio storico e descrittivo di Terra Santa 
del Alessandro Bassi. This WorV is wortli looking \nto. 

1855. Pasuello, Ant.: Via,, •n d GeiuaaAemme. Yetona 
1857. ^^ 


1856. Petersen: Et Besog i Jerusalem og Omegn. Af 
Th. E. Petersen. Particularly devoted to new investigations. 

1856. Bonar : The Land of Promise ; Notes of a Spring 
Journey, etc. London 1858. There is little in this book of 
special interest, yet some details are worth noticing. 

1856. Prime : Tent Life in the Holy Land. London and 
New York 1857. The author writes well, lively, and with 
American self-confidence ; his studies are very limited, however. 

1857. Frankl : Nach Jerusalem ! A very interesting pro- 
duction, throwing much light upon the Jewish relations of 

1856. Sketches of a Tour in Egypt and Palestine. London 
1857. Unimportant. 

1856. Guida del Pellegrino devoto in Terra Santa. Boma 
1856. A little book ; easily read. 

1856. Bitchie: A^uba, or the Forsaken Land. Edin- 
burgh 1856. Theological rhetoric. 

1855-1857. Barclay: The City of the Great King. 
Philadelphia and London 1857. The darker side of this book 
presents a faultiness in the arrangement of the material, a lack 
of knowledge of languages, — e.g. Locus Patriarci, 329 ; Piscina 
Gemilares, 321 ; anima regnit, 228, — untrustworthiness in the 
historical statements, very meagre indications of authorities, 
much that is taken from other works and thrown together con- 
fusedly, and a love of hypothesis ; while the bright side brings 
into view many valuable investigations and observations, so that 
the book has permanent value. The errors in Latin are espe- 
cially abundant in the plan of Jerusalem under the Crusaders, 
taken from my work without any giving of credit. Barclay 
has also taken without acknowledgment plates from Bartlett's 
and Williams' works. It is painful to think that a missionary 
of the gospel, a man sent out to extend the domain of truth, 
possessed moreover of a very pious pen, should allow his vanity 
or his love of money to lead him into deceptions such as these. 

1855-1857. Sarah Barclay : Hadji in Syria, or Three 
Years in Jerusalem. Philadelphia 1858. Very lively, and at 
the same time accurate, pictures. The best work on Palestine 
from the pen of a lady. 

1855. Osbom: Palestine, Past and Present. By H. S. 
Osbom. London 1859. It is a pity that a book containing so 


little that is new or good should be in such excellent type and 
of such fine paper. 

1854 and 1857. Murray: Handbook for Travellers in 
Syria and Palestine, etc. This is an admirable manual. Yet 
perhaps I may be allowed to say, that if the author had not 
simply cited my works, but had read them as well, he would 
have been able to give more accurate delineations of many 
things. In the interpretation of antiquities, the chief author of 
this work (Porter) is too hasty. 

1851, 1856. Fliedner, Th. : Reisen in das heil. Land. 
Kaiserwerth, without date. Important in relation to the estab- 
lishment of deaconesses' institutions in the Holy Land, but 
containing much that is light and monkish. 

1857. Conrad : Eei2en naar de Landengte van Suez, 
Egypte, het Heilige Land, door F* W. Conrad. 'sGraven- 
hage 1858. 

1857. W. M. Thomson : The Land and the Book, etc. New 
York 1859. The author spent twenty-five years in Palestine. 

1857. Buchanan, B. : Notes of a Clerical Furlough. 
London 1859. A lively and attractive description, but lacking 
in thoroughness* 

1858. F. N. Lorenzen : Jerusalem. Keil 1859. Sketchy, 
but readable ; tourist work* 

2. Works of those who either cei*tainli/y or probably y never visited 
Palestine personally. 

1456. Lud* de Angulo : Cod. bibliothecaB Vadianae S. 
Gallensis, chartaceus, eleganter scriptus a L. de Angulo. Very 
little valuable relative to Palestine. 

1590. Jerusalem au temp de notre Seigneur J. C. ; legende, 
topographique, etc. Par Adrichomius. Lyon 1857* 

1648. La description de la Palestine et des lieux de cette 
Province, etc. Unimportant. 

1649. Calaorra, istoria cronologica delld Provincia di 
Siria e Terra Santa di Gerusalemme. Venetia 1649. 

1819. La Terre Sainte, ou Description ded Lieux le plus 
celebres de la Palestine. Unimpottant. 

1831. Ferrario : Descri^i(^il delU Palestina o storia del 
Vangilo illustrata coi monuio^ • et^' Milano 1831. Unim- 
portant ^tif 


1832. Viaggi di Gesi Cristo o descrizione geografica de' 
principali luoghi e monumenti della Terra Santa. Torino 

1834. Crome : Geographisch-historische Beschreibung des 
Landes Palastina. Gottingen 1834. Containing much that is 
good, but also much that is hurried. 

1837. La Terra Santa ed i Luoghi illustrati dagli apostoli. 
Torino 1837. Unimportant. 

1843. Topographie de Jerusalem. Thfese par A. Coquerel, 

1845. Munk: Palestine. Paris 1845. Good, but behind 
the times. 

1845. Palastina. Von Fr. Arnold. Careful work. 

1847. Le livre d*Or des families ou la Terre Sainte. 
Par J. A. L. Bruxelles 1847. A work to be looked into. 

1852. Eussell: Palestine, or the Holy Land. London 
1852. Tolerably useful. 

1852. Jerusalem et la Terre Sainte ; Notes de Voyage, 
etc. Par I'Abbe G. Finely printed and engraved, but other- 
wise of little value. 

1854. Laorty-Hadji, La Syrie, la Palestine, et la Judie. 
Paris 1854. 

1855. Phoenicia. By John Kenrick. London 1855. A 
carefully prepared work. 

1856. Ein Gang durch Jenisalem. Von A^ G. Hoff- 
mann. Agreeable and instructive. 

1858. Schauplatz der heiligen Schrift oder das alte und 
neue Morgenland, etc. Von Dr Lorenz Clem. Gratz. The 
author has carefully investigated his subject. 

1858. J. A.Barstow: Bible Dictionary. London 1858. 
Better, and more in correspondence with the present stage of 
our knowledge, than the work last mentioned. 

1859. The article of Arnold on Palastina in Herzog*s 
Beal-Encyclopadie is worth looking at. 

The chief Magazines which relate Up the Holy Land are the 
following: — 

Missionsnotizen aus dem h. Lande. Herausgegeben vom 
Wiener-General-Kommissariate der h. Lander. Wien 1846. 
Worth examining. 


Das heilige Land. Organ des Vereins vom h. Grabe. 
Koln 1857. This journal contains much usable material. 

Neueste Nachrichten aus dem Morgenlande. Pub. by W. 
Hoffmann, F. A. Strauss. Berlin, beginning at 1857. Less 
full than the Cologne journal, and of far less value. 

The Jerusalem Intelligencer. Printed in Jerusalem. Pub. 
by Henry Crawford. 


Tlie Editor has taken the liberty of extracting from Mr 
TristrarrCs Land of Israel his discussion on the question 
of Hie site of Capernaum^ Choraziny and Beihsaida ; and 
also an account of that autho/s visit to Beisan ; and he 
may he permitted to take this opportunity of recommending 
the reader to peruse a work which he has no doubt U would 
greatly have gratifiedr Bitter to luive studied. 

From Tristram* 8 " Land of Israel,^* p. 440. 

I HAD now repeatedly visited the sites on the western shores 
of the lake, the identification of which with the several cities 
where most of oar Lord's mighty works were done, is a question 
of no little difficulty. Each writer has propounded a theory 
of his own ; and, reluctant as I always feel to differ from the 
views very decidedly expressed hy the learned and cautious 
Dr Eohinson, I must even follow the example of my prede- 
cessors^ and, in so doing, endeavour to give my reasons for my 

We have only two ancient authorities to guide us as to the 
geographical position of Capernaum, Chorazin, and Bethsaida 
— the New Testament and Josephus. The land of Gennesaret, 
according to hoth, was situated on the western side of the lake, 
for thither our Lord passed over when He had been at the east 
side. Josephus describes it as thirty furlongs in length and 
twenty in breadth, the exact extent of the Ghuweir, so fruitful 
that all sorts of trees will grow upon it, and enjoying perpetual 
spring. Not the slightest question can arise as to the identifi- 
cation of Gennesaret with the modem el-Ghuweir. Dr Robin- 
son has clearly shown that Capernaum and Bethsaida were in, 


or close to^ this plain. After the death of John the Baptist, 
our Lord withdrew by water to a solitary place at the north- 
east end of the lake. Here He fed the 5000, and then desired 
His disciples to pass oyer, according to St Mark, to Bethsaida ; 
according to St John, they went towards Capernaum. When 
our Lord entered the boat, immediately, says St John, it was 
at the land whither they went; while, according to SS. Matthew 
and Mark, they came into the land- of Gennesaret. The argu- 
ment for the position of Capernaum in the plain of Gennesaret 
has been summed up very clearly by Lightfoot. Josephus, 
after describing in glowing language the fertility and climate 
of Gennesaret, goes on to say : " It is watered by a most fertile 
fountain, which the people of the country call Caphamaum. 
Some have thought this a vein of the Nile, since it produces a 
fish like the coracinuSy in the lake near Alexandria." Will Tell 
Hiim answer the conditions of the geographical indications of 
the Evangelists or Josephus t I conceive it will not in any 
respect. The great argument relied on by its advocates is 
philological, Hiim being supposed to be tlie contracted form 
for Tell na Hiim, "Tell" being naturally substituted for 
"Kefr" when the spot ceased to be an inhabited village. The 
next argument is founded on the extent of ruins at Tell Hilm, 
not equalled elsewhere near the lake. The philolo^cal argu- 
ment is certainly entitled to great weight, so long as it does not 
clash with historical geography. The existence of extensive 
ruins cannot alone have much force, since Capernaum was not 
the only city ; nor do we know that its edifices were the most 
important among the many lost cities which studded these 
fertile shores, although it may have been the largest place. 
The ruins may have been better preserved at Tell Hiim than 
elsewhere, from the hardness of the rock, which, unlike the 
soft soil of the plain of Gennesaret, could never bury the frag- 
ments of overthrown buildings, and also on account of its 
greater distance from Tiberias, for the edifices and fortifications 
of which, the materials of the nearest ruins would naturally be 

But, on the other hand. Tell H^i^ "^'^^ ^^^ ^^^ *^® condi- 
tions of the Evangelists, for it ^j^ixnot be said to be in the land 
of Gennesaret; nor of JosenV. for t\iete is no fountain at 
Tell HAm; and to place, ^uv^^^T)t T\\omsoti, ^^ inhaUted 


CaperDaum at Tell Hiim^ and the fountain Caphamaum of 
Josephus at Ain Tabighah, two miles to the southward, would 
be, as Dr Eobinson remarks, an improbable and unnatural 
conjecture. Even were it so, the fountain of Tabighah is 
neither ^^ yovtfiayrdrrj^^ nor *^ TroTt/tcoTan;/' whichever reading 
we adopt. It is close to the edge of the lake, away from the 
plain, and by no possible metaphojr can be said to water it, for 
it is separated by two miles of distance, and by an intervening 
spur of the hills. 

Khan Miniyeh, or Ain et Tin, the site selected by Dr 
Robinson, better meets the * requirements of the inspired text, 
for it is in the land of Gennesaret, on its northern edge. But 
I conceive that beyond this point the argument fails entirely. 
The words of Josephus are clear : the plain is watered through 
its course (StApSerai) by the fountain Caphamaum. Dr Robin- 
son evidently feels the difficulty, and assumes that Josephus, in 
mentioning the fountain, could hardly refer to it as the main 
source of fertility to the plain; and, to relieve himself still 
further, selects the worse reading irortfiMyrdrrf for yovifiayrdrrfy 
while he pleads that Ain et Tin ^^does occasion a luxuriant 
verdure in its vicinity and along the shore," which it certainly 
does for the space of a few yards. 

But when we come to the Round Fountain of Ain Muda- 
warah, we find a spot in perfect harmony with the accounts of 
the Evangelists and of Josephus, and, in fact, the only possible 
locality which will harmonize all the accounts. Here is a 
fountain in the centre of the western boundary of the plain, 
sending forth to this day a copious stream which exactly bisects 
the Ghuweir on its way to the lake, and is the most important 
source of fertility in the plain. The stream from Wady Hamim 
waters the southern end, the Wady el Amiid the northern, 
while this supplies the central plain, and is not less copious nor 
less permanent than the others. Its waters are in high repute 
for their salubrity, and are resorted to by invalids from a con- 
siderable distance. But the most decisive argument in its 
favour is to my mind the statement of Josephus, that Oaphar- 
naum produced the KopaKlvo% a fish like that of the lake near 
Alexandria. The fact is, that the remarkable siluroid the cat- 
fish, or coracine {tcopaKlvo^;) (Clatias macracanthuSf Gunthr.), 
identical with the catfish of the ponds of Lower Egypt, does 


abound to a remarkable degree in the Round Fountain to this 
day. As I mentioned above, we obtained specimens a yard 
long, and some of them are deposited in the British Museum. 
The loose sandy bottom of this fountain is peculiarly adapted 
for this singular fish, which buries itself in the sediment, leaving 
only its feelers exposed. It is doubtless found elsewhere in the 
lake itself, for I have a specimen obtained at the south end 
beyond the baths of Tiberias, but it was not to be seen on the 
surface like other fish ; while here in the clear shallow water it 
may, when disturbed, be at once detected swimming in numbers 
along the bottom. But it is not found at Ain et Tin, where 
the fountain could neither supply it with cover nor food ; nor 
could we discover it at Ain Tabighah, where the water is 
hot and brackish. It is somewhat amusing to refer to the 
speculations of various writers about the fountain and the 
coracine, not one of whom seems ever to have thought of look- 
ing into the facts of the case. Dr Eobinson actually seizes 
upon the statement of Josephus as an argument against the 
Round Fountain. "More decisive, however, is the circumstance 
that the fountain Kaphamaum was held to be a vein of the 
Nile, because it produced a fish like the coracinus of that river. 
This might well be the popular belief as to a large fountain on 
the very shore, to which the lake in some seasons sets quite 
up" [?] " so that fish could pass and repass without difficulty. 
Not so, however, with the Round Fountain, which is a mile 
and a half from the shore, and which could neither itself have 
in it fish fit for use, nor could fish of any size pass between it 
and the lake." — Robinson, Res. iii. 351. 

If the worthy Doctor's arguments be worth anything, we can 
only exclaim, So much the worse for the facts 1 Dr Thomson 
follows suit in the same tone. Speaking of " the fable about 
the fish coracinus^ he proceeds : " We may admit that this fish 
was actually found in the fountain of Capernaum, and that 
this is a valid reason why the Round Fountain near the south 
end of Gennesaret could not be itl" — Land and Booky p. 354. 
Dr Bonar, in combating the claims of Ain et Tin, assumes the 
coracine to be " a fish quite different from any to be found in 
the lake," which does not necessarily follow if it were a remark- 
able and abundant production of the fountain ; for Josephus 
could never mean to imply that the fish could not or did not 


pass to the lake, when evidence to the contrary must have been 
before his eyes. Dr Bonar^s note^ while demolishing most 
sstisfactorily the claims of Ain et Tin, supports in every parti- 
cular the interpretation here advanced, though he does not seem 
to have been aware of the existence of the Kound Fountain. I 
conceive that its claims to be the Gaphamaum of Josephus 
must now be admitted, as being " prolific," " fertilizing," and 
" irrigating the plain.** 

We may observe, in c<»rroboration, that from Matt. xiv. 35 
and Mark vi. 55, our Lord appears to have healed many on 
His way from the shore to Capernaum. This would naturally 
occur, when, after the boats had been run ashore on the beach 
at the mouth of the Wady Mudawarah, Jesus walked across 
the plain to His own city — Capernaum being placed at Ain 
Mudawarah. The positions of Bethsaida and Chorazin at Ain 
Tabighah and Tell HAm respectively would naturally follow, 
as Dr Eobinson has shown, Bethsaida being to the north of 
Capernaum, and probably between it and Chorazin. 

Wherever the cities stood, the absence of remains and the 
obliteration of their very names more utterly than of those of 
Sodom and Gomorrah, testify to a fulfilment of that prophetic 
woe, which, though not denounced against the walls and stones, 
but against those who dwelt in them, is illustrated by their 
erasure from the face of the earth — " cast down to hell," lost, 
and forgotten, though consecrated by the presence and mighty 
works of the Divine Saviour. Capernaum in its oblivion 
preaches to Christendom a sermon more forcible than the 
columns of Tyre or the stones of Jerusalem. 


From TrUtrarrCs " Land of Israel" p. 499. 

April 6. — At sunrise I bade farewell to my faithful coad- 
jutors and Mr Sandwith, and with Mr Zeller accompanied Mr 
Egerton-Warburton's party, for our eleven hours' ride, by 
Beisan, sending the mules direct to Jenin. Our course, for 
road there was none, lay across a long series of rolling plains, 
reminding us of the Sussex downs in their general appearance, 
though the soil was rich and loamy. The ride to Beisan 
(Bethshean of old, and the Scythopolis of later antiquity) 
occupied four hours. We saw not a tree; and the rolling 
downs, as we inclined eastward, developed into wadys, which 
convey occasional streams to the Jordan. We came to one 
inhabited and apparently flourishing village, Kefrah, with some 
ancient ruins of large stones, bearing the so-called Jewish bevel, 
one of these ruins having belonged to an edifice of some size ; 
also several ruined villages, whose grass-grown sites were marked 
afar by a deeper green than clothes the rest of the downs, one 
of them called Marusseh (?) ; and these were all we passed till 
we reached Beisan. 

The whole of the rocks are limestone, with many boulders 
and fragments of basalt sprinkled over them, and in one place 
we crossed a continuous basaltic dyke. Generally, however, 
the igneous formation was extremely superficial. 

Half a mile north of Beisan stand the ruins of a noble 
Saracenic khan, with many of its arches, and its courtyard 
perfect. Three of the four columns which supported a canopy 
over a marble fountain in its centre, are still standing. The 
whole is built of large dressed blocks of black basalt and white 
crystalline limestone alternating^ and has a very beautiful effect. 


After ridmg through these ruins, we descended into a little 
valley, the Nahr Jaliid, where a perennial stream of sweet 
water was fringed with canes and oleanders in full bloom. 
This we crossed by a fine Eoman bridge of a single arch, much 
decayed. Constructed, however, of hard black basalt, it has 
been able to withstand in some degree the ravages of time 
and the carelessness of Moslems. Higher up the same stream 
we saw another bridge of three arches, and lower down the 
buttresses and spring of the arch of a third, these latter both 
built of limestone, and very finely worked. 

Just beyond, and separated by a narrow ridge, is a second 
stream, also perennial ; and on the peninsula formed by these 
two, with a bold steep brow overlooking the Ghor, stood the 
citadel of ancient Bethshean — a sort of Gibraltar or Con- 
stantino on a small scale— of remarkable natural strength, and 
inaccessible to horsemen. No wonder that it was long ere 
Israel could wrest it from the possession of the Canaanites. 
The eastern face rises like a steep cone, most incorrectly stated 
by Eobinson to be " black, and apparently volcanic," and by 
Porter, " probably once a crater.'* Certainly there are many 
blocks of basalt lying about ; but if any person walks round to 
the east side of the hill, he will see that it is simply a limestone 

We could easily recognise the spot where Burckhardt must 
have stood, when he saw but one colunm standing, though 
from other positions we could count more than twenty. But 
Sheikh Ibrahim's visit was evidently a very hurried one. 
Having tied our horses to some standing columns at the foot 
of the Acropolis, we climbed to a mediaeval ruin, under the 
shade of which we ate our luncheon, sheltered from the glare 
of the noonday sun, and lookmg down on the extraordinary 
bridge which, with its high-peaked arch, seems once to have 
carried a wall or a fortification across the ravine. A black 
kite came down to share our meal, which we shot, as also the 
ortolan bunting, being the first of either of these migrants 
which we had seen. 

Climbing to the summit, we enjoyed the finest panorama, 
next to Gerizim, which Central Palestine affords, and spent 
half an hour in examining it with delight. Spread at our feet, 
yet far below us, the vast plain of Jordan stretched north and 


south far as the eye could reach ; and in its centre we might 
trace the strangely tortuous course of the river, marked by a 
ribbon of dark shrubs and oleanders, through the otherwise 
treeless plain. Facing us, nearly ten miles to the north, was 
the gorge of the Hieromax ; nearly opposite was a long narrow 
plateau, raised a few hundred feet above the Ghor, on the edge 
of which the glass enabled us to descry the ruins of Tubaket 
Fahil, the ancient Pella. Gradually sloping back to the crest 
of its lofty plateau, picturesquely dotted with oaks, but nowhere 
in a forest mass, and scarred by the ravine of the Yftbis and 
the Seklab, stretched the whole front of Gilead ; to the south- 
east the lofty Castle of Kefrenjy towered, and behind it rose 
the higher summits of pine-clad Ajlun, the scene of our well- 
remembered ride from Siif, until theysloped down to the deep 
valley of the Jabbok. Beyond this, through a thin haze, we 
could detect the blue outline of the supposed Nebo, and the 
mountains of Moab in a long ridge fringing the Dead Sea, the 
view of which was shut out by the spur of Kum Surtabeh, 
projecting from the west. I could thus console myself, that 
though baulked of my projected ride down the Ghor, I had 
traversed most of it, and seen the whole of it, excepting six 
miles to the north of Surtabeh, and was quite satisfied I had 
lost nothing of the slightest interest. 

The Ghor, clothed with a rich robe of clovers and lucernes, 
was everywhere dotted with the black parallelograms which 
mark the Beduin camps, the only habitations of man till the 
wretched village of Jericho is reached. Turning again from 
north to west, the noble Crusading ruin of Belvoir stood 
beetling on the highest point overhanging the plain by Wady 
Bireh; and just behind it rose snow-streaked Hermon, then 
Jebel Duhy (Little Hermon), between which and Gilboa the 
plain of Esdraelon gently sloped toward us, showing the reach 
along which Jehu drove his chariot from the ford in our front 
up to Jezreel. To the south a range of sparsely wooded hilb 
embayed the valleys and the Ghor as far as Kum Surtabeh. 

How clearly the details of the sad end of Saul were recalled 
as we stood on this spot I There was the slope of Gilboa, on 
which his army was encamped before the battle. Round that 
hill he slunk by night, conscience-stricken, to visit the witch of 
Endor. Hither, as being a Canaanitish fortress, the Philistines 

VOL. II. 2 D 


most naturally brought the trophies of the royal slain, and 
hung them up just by this walL Across the ford by the 
Y&bis, and across that plain below us, the gallant men of 
Jabesh Gilead hurried on their long night's march to stop the 
indignity offered to Israel, and to take down the bodies of their 
king and his sons. 

Descending from the ancient fortress, where the ruins of 
the more modem citadel were in large measure composed of 
beautiful marble columns, and some capitals built horizontally 
in tiers or lying across the massive walls, we next came to the 
remains of a very perfect amphitheatre, with all the vomitories 
and corridors intact, though not of very large size. We noticed 
the oval recesses half-way up the galleries mentioned by Irby 
and Mangles. 

Then crossing the third stream (a very small one, with water 
slightly sulphurous), we visited the ruins of a fine Greek 
church, since perverted into a mosque, with a Cuphic inscrip- 
tion inserted over an inner doorway, but now nearly roofless, 
excepting two or three arches and a small tower. Here there 
is a fourth little stream, and the modem village, a collection 
of earth and stone built kennels, circular and flat-roofed, about 
twelve feet in diameter, and each having one aperture about 
three feet square. They were the very worst among all the 
miserable hovels of this wretched land. It is scarcely conceiv- 
able how any human beings can inhabit such styes : but such 
is the contrast, nowhere more startling than here, between 
ancient civilisation and modem degradation. These people 
are Egyptian immigrants, and are grievously oppressed by the 
neighbouring Beduin. To ns they were civil and obliging, no 
doubt in awe of Agyle's horsemen. I noticed a clump of 
palms, the last lingering relics, and also a quantity of the 
medicinal aloe {Gasteria farsanicmay H. and Ehr.), growing 
wild on the slope, from the ruins to the Jordan valley, — another 
relic doubtless of past cultivation. 



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