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Full text of "A Comparative Study of Dreams of the Blind and of the Sighted with Special Reference to Freud's Theory"

COMPARATIVE STUDY ' ; " Pil-MAS 

OF THE BLIIID AIJD CI i::!' SIGHTED 

vJITH SPECIAL REFE?vZ::C"^- TO FP^EUD'S 

THEORY. 1913. 

BY FRED MORTOi: McCartney 



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A Comparative Study of Dre. n^.a of the ulind c-nd of the 
Sighted, with Specie! Reference to Freud's Ti.eor-. 



Contents. 

Ciu-.ptcr 1. .Ili.'jtorictl ourvey of Dream Theory, i-r.^e 3. 

Chapter 2.. Freud and i.^sycho-Analysl s, Pl e 10» 

Dr^ am Q,ucstionnaii-e, Poje ZO 

Chapter 3.. Tin Bins of the ulind and of the Si^ntcd, i-eye a,4 

Chapter 4. .Sensations and ],:ental Processes in Yn-.amB of tne 

Blind and of ti.e Sighted, rQ;-e 55. 
Chapter 5.. Somnambul is: , Reverie, and Conclusion. Pa-e 1 1 
Eibliorrr; phy,pace 80. 



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A Coinnaretive Study of Dr^-jonig of ti e Blind and of the Siehted, 
vjith o iCGir>l Koforerioo to Freud's 'T'hcory. 

Chr-nter 1, Historicol Survey of Drcora Theory. 

From t!ie very e'rrliest times of v/i.lch v;e have Dd outte recoi'Os, 
dresris have continued to cliallence tlie T.'Cikinc speculations, philosoi-hic, 
scientific, or idle, of t:ie hunrn riind, resultin'^'; in the formuleticn 
from time to time of various and diverse theories to account for this 
mysterious phenomenon. One theory vms no sooner rejected as untenable 
before enother r/as Ipunched, and not infrequently tv;o or more explan- 
ations coexisted side by side. But rll these solutions have been 
reached either t'lrourh metaphysical sneculation, or by m^rns of 
observations m.ode upon normal persons v/ithout reeprd to the probable 
effect resultinr from the suppression, deprivation, derancenent , or 
distortion of anyone or more of the physical senses or mentrl faculties.* 

It vfEs reserved for Heerman in ISZS, (nhose '.Tork v;r s not accessible 

/ 
to me except as utilised by Jastro.v), and for Jastrov;, to make a prr- 

liniincry study of dreacms of the sirhtless. 

It is desirned in the present piece of inv-sti-ation to continue 
the resea:oche3 of these pioneers comp rinc and contrasting throuchout 
the dreams of the blind v;ith those of the sighted end notin^; the 
interp -etation of points as civen by the Freudian Schr.oi . 

This treatise vrilL be divided into three parts. In tiic present 

chapter, it is intendea to ^ive a bird's-e;-e review of tlie history of 

dream theory; Vre second chapter will be devoted to an cxporsition of 

Freud's vie-;s vpon dreams; after nhich -Jill come the material of this 

study accomoanied by t!:e results derived t. erefrcm. 

^=^ Freud's t.-eory of dreams as set lorth in Chapter tv.o of this 
tr-atise, and nremonitory dref-m.s of illness siould be noted as 
exGei:tions. 



ITunoroua or) hv.ve been the theories C'lvcnced to explcin the 
phenori'^Tioii of drenmir.r, they readily cropp themselves, accordinc to 
J.£ul]y, nndor two hrr.da, suprrnnturol end naturel. The first of tliece 
Crou!)y yioldo two d.int.lnct types. Thun v/o have; A, tlie naive objective 
theory, jiccordlnr to which the di-eam i3 rr-^arded as the Inmediate effect 
of r.ome rorlity corr'^npondinf to th^ actu'^l ^^o^ld of our v;aking 
experie!ice; 13, tt;e reli-ious intemretations, whei-eby the drean is coji- 
ceived as the mediate result dependin'^ upon the volition and cornnand 
of sone absent bei nc; C, the scientific attempts at explanation of this 
phase of consciousness. Let us consider t'oce briefly in the oraer named. 

The primitive nar easily conceives cf evfirythinr as duelistic, 
whether aninate or ananinate, each side oi its nature capable of sepai-'te 
and independent activity. Sleep is viev;ed as tlie temporary disembodincnt 
of the 50i;l, and every precaution is tr^ken to leeve the sleep? r undis- 
turbed, lect t]:e spirit be frightened av/ay uermanently, and death ensue. 
The soul, thus freed for the tine beinc from its mnrtrl bends, v.cnders 
at random over the earth, but still endowed v.'ith tiie snme anpctitics, 
passions, and desires- rs its humen correspon'.lent . 

Sleep ceas's os soon as the soul is leunited T-ith th^-- bo'iy. Tlie 
dream is a frrrmentrry recollection in t}ie -..Tkir ■ strte of Trh't tlie spirit 
senses '.nd c:-:r<~rierccs durin" its nocturncl excursions. Thu':, our 
priri:eval mrn ±:ev.ns of an exciting chrse. In the rioi'nin;; he i-'calls 
this di'"r.'m, and d scribes it as one of the episodes er.cerionced by 
his spirit durin,^ its rovlr.cs of tlie previous niriit. 

Fassinr' nov; to tlie rcli::ious view, or t. vt one wldch int' rprcts a 
dream as due to the volition and conr,icnd of some absent beinc v,e find 
three types mcrlred out and dif fcrentieted; A, a messenf-er :v-y con\ey the 
deity's conr-nn!] to the slcerier; b, tlie chrer.t beinc raay spc;.k directly 
to t.'.e dreamer; C, trie message mfiy be conveyed by cr using a vision to 
xiass bofo3'e t' e passive soul.'" It is at once cpijai'ent, acceutinL' the 



relifjcu:? hyroth-'si;.; , V,y t c. dr- m Vvculr] ;t'£;cli to itGC.ir j<'> litt?.; 

r>i ii:i '^'.ifj-'T c'j; : •■'f^o t'.:r Cw cr-er itcarlit, ciDiT t!;rou'j^ ?il- o.Ti i'r'iviaucl 

efforts, T.' '\,- j'^.-..-;.i ■::.'■.(• cnother p'.i'::on, to cluoidcito the r.-; ninrj of 

Ilia dx" r::'!'- . i arlioul: rly wL's this tr't-.- of c; drrf.'m Wijlch o-.-cvi-i-cd 'Uvrinc 

a cririn, ir'^'ii^i'li.'-. 1 or ■pullic, mvl v;h.i h E':c"-ed to be rci't'- r.tic.r. In 

its intert. To cctis^fy this de.mr.nd, there crcsc a cl?cs of r-rr-or.s 

cl', i' inf; to possccs r.hill in divir.f ticn dr- ci;'.j bfin;^' one of th'" phenonejia 

with v.Iiieh t;icy liad to cope. Thus v;e :■■ td: 

"j^r-d it ccnie to prss thet in the i.oi'njnr; his spirit v.'cc trouble; cvA 
he .':ont T'-'id cc-lled for rdl the nr^^icicns of I^i'iTt, and ell the ir,e nen 
thereof; and I'l'CiT.oh told then; his drccn; end there T?r.E none t]:rt ccjld 
internrot ih^n unto the raoh. ". .Gen. 41 ;C 

"Then the kinc cornnanded to cell t})e m&^ricicns, and tl"e astrolorers, 
and the sorcerers, end t; e Cheldeans for to shov; the king ]iis di'eeins.".. 
Dj?n.2;C. 

Joseph and Deniel, inspired b'- Jeho'vieh Tiere each encbled to e; lichten 
their respective sov^reip.ns, rP: reoh end I^ebuchadnezzer, after the 
prof ens:' oncl intomrrt-ro lied i'iled; 'i-ile Jacob, Joseph, Laben, r-eniel, 
St.Petnr, Gt. Feiil, end rilct=-'B ^.'ife T;ere each eble to divine the inl;»=rt 
of their ov/n dreams recorded in the bcririturos. hu': prof essiontJ. 
interpret'-tion v;ns not clv/eps inirllible; and perhrps I ctn do no better 
in this conn.cction thfn to --uote Ilinpocratcs, his v;ords hfvinn been 
preserved to us by his disciple.Gi: If r. Z> 

"^"-r.ionf; urcar:^s, those 7;hich zxe of divine ori.-in and pres:'^.--! either 

to citi'-s or to individuals, fortunrte or unfortunr-te, events not incu^-red 

*3:?:en-!le3 of A, Gt.Pcul's h-ticedonian call, Acts 16;9, His dr:;aip. durlnr 
his voya--'to Itone, Acts 27: 2Z--Z5] of h, Leb'.n's drocn, '-en 21;£4; 
of C Jr.cob's dr eM at - t'nel, Gen. 27; 12 — 15, Joseph's trO dreens, Cen. 

317.5 o i]:ereoh'c. dr- c::-r, '-e::. 41; 1 — 7, tv;o of hebuchadnczr.ar *s dre&'-is. 

Den. 2, 'JeTi . 4;5 — 2C, and one of Drnicl's ov.n d^'Tms, -i^cccu'dcd in ch-ntT 
7 of his OT.'n property. 



■. b; the i'lult of th^ prrtics concernod, hcivG their interprctert;, v;ho are 
vhle to r'-r^if-n to th^m r.n -r.cct I'-.^cjiinc. There are q1c;o drrurii; In vlJch 
the cou] announces coroorenl r.ffecticn?, be it excess of fulnesc, or 
tlie evaci;£?tion of conxnitr.l thin ,s, or '. ^ it chence tov,Ti-d uriscenstoned 
thin,':s; end these are explcined by the sejie interpreter^!, who are some- 
times deceived, e_nd ycnetii^cs predict correctly, without l:nov;inr: why 
they sonrtiir.es succeed, tnd soriietirr.cs fcil." 

Tills fret led to the rendering of en obscure end double interpretcti on 
Qs.a meF.ns of inr.urinc tlie diviner Ereinst error. Absolute trust was 
reposed in tho r-nd-. ring, as is evidenced by Joseph beinc sold into 
Efypt to pr-vent hl-n from becominf- Lord over his brethren; and i'hareoh's 
precrutionnry irersures rrcinst the impendinf: frnine. In Greece and lione 
various uienns were resorted to to obt? in the ■.vill or r^andfte of a 
perticulnr deity rec' rdinr an enterprise ^bout to lo undei't^ken ; tfius 
pray-rs, fastin s, sncrifices, and sleeplnr in tcriples of Ineube-tion. o 

In the midst of -this implicit Iteith in the sup~rnf'turrl ori^-in of 
dreams,' v/e find r fev; scattered attem.fts at sdi^ntiflc expl "'nation. 
Democritus evolved the conception that dreads ere the products of 
simulac:.'a, or phantasms of corporeal objects, wiiich ar" constently 
floatin;- in the Pir, and v/hich attack t!ie soul during repose. lie did not 
discard the prophetic value of dreams, for: 

"lb is possible for the ir.aces wldch haunt us in sleep to reflect 
the states of th.e soul and tiie intentions of other people, and so 1 o 
rever-l th.c future." — i onist 11; 187. 

Plato, in the ninth bock of t'le Republic, affirms thpt the dreams 
of the virtuous diff-i^r from t-:ose of the unjust, and says th- t drf-ening 
illustrr.trs the dominant m.ental imjiulses and habits of the individual, 
thus form.lnr, a contlnu-^ty T7ith t>ie normal operations of fceiinf, and tijou;:tit. 



Aruitotlc refers dr- r.min.f to tJie fiction of objects of outwarc sense 
wliicli Inf.vcn hehind thon impressions upon the soul and bodily frerne. 
Ur-:o:ninr i.-o snid by bin to be the fujict^ oniric of the sensitive pert of 
tl-.e nind, but of thic no for as Itntrotic; and the dr6;am is defined os 
a phantrsm arir.ln.- from the notion of senr^ible perceptions vjhen it X 

present.-i i t:-elf to liin wno is csleep. He does not fail to note the 
tendency of the dr c:.i fc.ncy to greatly excrcerate impressions receivf,d 
durin^- the sleeping state. 

Cicero, in th.e iJivinEt ione, occupies a uninue pl::ce !,"-,onG ti^e 
nacient:; in his cor.iplete rejection of the Eup^ rn^ tiirrl ori.^.in of uraris; 
ivhile i-liny v/culd exclude from this catacory only the most obviously 
natural. 

It seemc n-turrl that physicians sLould have made the first 
observctions approxinctinp; the truth as to tlie cause of di-'^.ajns. Thus 
we find PI:ppocrctes asserting that dreans often arise from the action 
of the mind and the boay upon each othero Both he and Galen point out 
the premonitory c;u'racter of some dreams in t^:at they announce b'foi'e- 
hand bodily affections. Oriental doctrines rcf--r dr rming to the 
putholocical condit-'cn of the five orcans, hpart, lunrs, kidn-ys, spleen, 
and liv r. Thus, to dream of smoke is indicative of infected lunrr, 

■|/hen v,e apprcacli the rxdern theorirs, 7;e are greeted at tlie t^irosi-old 
by tv.'o controverted ru'stions. Is drcarainr continuous th'-ou;:hout deep, 
or only an incider.t^-l, flcetinc phenom'-non, occ-oriinc chi-.fly liurinc the 
transitional star;rr bctvieen sleepin,'- and .,£kin-?(a) Is tii"^ ili.-cam process 
accelerated bp.",on(\ the rapidity of tlie v, akin;- thou^h-t? (b) To 
settled ansT.'ers are fortlicom.inc to the first inruiry, v?hile to tl:e 
second, ■.'■codv/orth 4 has ci'ven us a very nice, and I think co'^rect, 
ansTjrr. His n thod is merely to time ti- ins of normal free 
associ L-tions, rtcrted at a c^ven si;:nrl, and stopped at any time, 
count tlic numl;c of im' r.-'^s in the trcin, and thereby ascertain 



the rapidity o'f" thr; ?:ssocictive procens. 



G. ]Jcsc;'rL' s, in conl'onnity with liin :^hilo3ophic principle, 
"I t'link, thc•^c^olt^ I vv.i," fovma it -very necessary ard convenient to 
raaintrin that dx-'roninf; i.i ccntinuouE thi'oui-hout the sleopinc ctnte, 
oth' rv,'ir.e he would hn.ve ceased to exist q portion of tlie time. Locke, 
on the other hand, held it to be absurd t)iv.t we shouli remember only r^.wih 
a fracticna] pert of our dr';ens if they vierc continuous for so long a 
time. He v;as ansv;ored by Lemnitz, v;ho maintained that in sleep the 
mind al;"rys has sane little perception or confused sentiments, thouch 
it m.ay not be conscious of it. iCant and Hamilton ^lere of th.e sj-ine op- 
inion. The latter lield thct the riind is never v^holl;^ unconscious nor 
inactive in sleep, and ur£:ed th: t a somnambulist rar:ly remcT^bers his 
acts; also, that ..iicn v;e are aroused from sleep, v/e alv/ays find oul'- 
selvcs dreaminr. On tlie other hand, physiolcrists are dispcsed to vicv; 
dreams rrt'rr rs, en incident than as a regular and constent accompcninct t 
of sleep, clrj., in~ tir^t h f.lthl'ul sleep is d_-e. rJess. 



b, IVoodT.'orth's anElysis of Maury's i'omous c^illotine dr^ em, recorded 
by JI..'^ IdiiK-ton 'a-ncc in Outlook 9R; GV5, and by otiier authors shows th; t 
it cont'iriGd not more then sixteen imrtt:C3, -..Inch mirht r-esily have 
passed throU;_li t'ne dr.cmcr's mind in four seconds. Tl is period v.-ould be 
readily undcr-cstirrted in the transitional sttce from sleepinr to 
wakin,", or, for thrt matter, by a wrkinf: observen, rs experience t''ac>.erc. 
i'urthf^rmoro, I believe it highly probable tr.'.t tlie I'allinr; rod initiated 
the di'erm by su^^estin'j the g^aillotine f'e mind pupplyinj th.e remninder 
of t! e dr in to h. nr.onize v/ith this suGC-stion but v/ith the seruentiel 
order vcv'rr^cd; oth-^rvi-ise, v/e have tJic nrobJ.er. of account infj for trie 
rod f:'llin ■ at precisely the rirh.t moment. 

Freud, in his Trcun Deutunc, Is-ce 297, translated Into Tvi^lish 
by A. A. Brill, vouches for the theory t'-^t t'e v;]iole fancy has been 
previously created in the sub-conscious, and is called into cor'.sciousr.asc 
as a T/hole upon recoivin^ the proper stimulus, thus supportln.:: the 
ecceler" tion idea. In ray ov;n experience, I have noted that 
instPntnncouE P'.Trk^ninr invrri^bly has ti:e effect of dissipating the 
dream iranedicitely. 



These ii'.; ces are not exclusively "visual . He v/es tins led to eoseri. 
ti-,.- t tl;e dreain proceES exhibits no extrrordinnry QccolerQtlon. '»e ere 
now rr-ndy to ct- to the modern throriea of dr^ erainr.. 

On the one hand there arc tho:3e v;ho conceive of raind C3 d spiritual 
substai't-;- which acts upon tlic body vjhile on the other hand -fie have 
those 7/I10 re;';-rd mental phenomena as the outcome of bodily chan[:'^'S 
as the result of ?:efined physiolocical processes. An intermediate 
position is also possible, one in v;hich tiiC mind and the body ere con- 
sidered as separate entities, yet connected in such a -.Tay as to react 
upon eech other. These theories account, not for the m.tthoa of 
dream producation, but for the cardinal factor in its causation, 

Metephysicic-ns commonly explain dreaming as broucht about by the 
suppression of som.e one of the mental faculties, the vjill and the y-'' 
critical faculty beinr; comm.orily selected out for this purpose. 

Cudv/orth reasons frcm the orderly coherence of dream in'.rginetions, 
and from tl-e novelty of their combinations, tj.et this ntcte crises 
from tlie action of the fant-.stical po'.er of the soul end not from any 
fortuitous dE'uces of the spirit; -.vhile Chopinlieuer believ-'d the excit- 
inc cause of dr^-ar.s is to be soucht in the impressions received from 
tiie int':rnel orf-ans of the orc:cnism throuch tlie s^Tupathetlc norvcus 
system. 

David Hartley is p'xited by Sully 5 to the effect that tiie elements 
of dreams are derived from three distinct sources: A, im.pi'cssions 
and iQe""as lately received; B, states of t'ne bcdily organs, especially 
of tlie stomach; C, ideas revived end restored to us thrcurh essoci'itlon. 
These three sources readily fall into two classes, peripheral, end 
central excitations, and tne dreams rrisin^ therefrom are rcsicctively 
desicnated by I.li es Calkins 6 as presentative and representative. Anyone 



V7ho hrs ci"'^Gn ci moment 'c reflection to his ov.'n drcBins v?ill not dip-'ute 
the pibtency of recency in tlie production of dreams. Kost of us have 

r 

doubtless liad di'eariis tr;.ceeble to sonr-tic stimuli indigestion, position 
in bed, chrmce of temperrture, eto. The fnird source will n ed no 
demonstrstion for anyone v/lio will cive tlie matter a brief oondi deration. 

In formul.-.'tins for us t]ie theory most widely eccerted by psyohol- 
Ot'-ists ouily stortr, with Hartley's contribution, then seeks to ansv;er 
tv;o ad'litionyl nuestlons. V/hy does the dream appocr to be so rcsl to 
the dr^rancT? To whr-.t ceuse or causes mu; t v;e attribute tie emotional 
hrmony of o. '^iven di^'^nm? 

In rcrl life v;e ore constantly the Yicti'is of illusi ons. liut 
these illusions nev:r continue to dom.inate us for any period, for v;e 
as constartly coi'rect or verify the impressions of one sense orccn by 
those of another. lTo\7, this is obviously impossible in sleep, since all 
tlie avenues of sej-ise are closed up, and can be aroused only yiU'a difficulty, 
Such impressions, then, as r'ach and excite the cortical centres have sole 
rigbt of 7/ay, and cannot be contradicted, Tl;is was led to the erroneous 
belief tnr-t the imacination is stronger in dreams tlian in v.akinc; life., 

In ansv;er to the second question Sully rays: "If any emotion, 
whether of a pleasurable or painful chrrcctcr, ^ets a certain footing 
in consciousness, it begins to play the tjTrant in relation to our ide.^s, 
and even our p^rcer.tions, by prcdisposinr;; the attention tcverd those mental 
images which hcrmoni;:e 'r^ith the state of feeling." Thus results the 
emotioncl conrruity of a dr*. ajn. 

Fo.' Sully, associ'-tion is very important. The mind is passive, and 
all se-'uenccs ajre referred to the action of association, com.plicated 
by the o-cr-i'ecurrlnr; introduction of ncv; initirl impulses, both peripheral 
and centr- 1, The denree of cohere ce in a civen dr'-ajn is due to ti;c 
reciprocal modi f ; c tionn of in^'f- s by their respective associative fordos, 
both d-f'nitc and specific, and indefinite and cenerol, under the con- 
trollinr influences of attention, v.-i-ich a-rin is stlr.ulr.ted by a sen-- 



^ 



// 



copsoious iinoulce to cccMre unity. 

Some Guch thcorj-- as this scens to be Dt the bcsls of ti'e vjork 
done by J'iss Cnlkins G_ at '..'elleslcy. She divides her di'' onr; into 
thone of p.'-. cen' r ticn end represer.t'^tion, ccco.ainfj: ns they tirise 
from pcriphcTCl or cr-'.'nic stiF.ull, or fron c erebrcl activity. Slie 
then str.tes the follcv/inr rules and principles. The drcel v.ill 
reproduoe in renerc-1 tie p-^rsons, pieces, and content:; of riceiit 
sense perception or of very vivid incrin' tion — not the objf-ctG of 
ordinrry i-c.rin; t ion, of thought, of emotion, or of vtIII so fcr as 
these nre not also perceived object.?. T]ie dr- rn is dintin-^in r.hf'd frcn 
v/pkinc exiierie':Ge in t/rL the fc?Tner presents; A, comparative ff-eble- 
ncss of attention and of Trill; j, 77ant of di ccri^-iinaticn ; C, relative 
lack of perce2)tlon. The incoherence in drear:s is to be accounted f-;r 
by the svjift c'lanrine imagery, and by the intrusion of presentation 
into the triin of tr.ou^ht. The absurdity, rhich she diFtin£uiEhed 
from inocl'.'rence, is due to T'eckness of judrment. 

-island 7 he s riven us an interestinr hypothesis in escribing 
dreams to t"..e action of nemory. i:y his teiin "I.lemory" he includes both 
instinct and hereditj'. Ilis idea is a repetition of that found in 
'.I'ordS'Vorth's "6de on Inctini. tions to Irmor tality. " Ke asserts as a 
noteworthy feet tlirt those in'':ividuals who come of inactive pt rents 
drTri but little; while those individucLs who are descended from an 
ancestry which has always led rn active ar.d stirrine life, such as 
the CczTrn.s ard the horse, dr-.a". most oft'n, 

3cl;-rn-r{E; , according to Freud, (b) advocct s or_"-r nic sections 
as the initirto.y --cuse of drear'.s, the dream be inc concerned with 
interpj'ctinf those sens:Jtions after some ixnner. The drecm activity, 
as this theorir;t putr it, strives to i-'-:presGnt si'-mbolically the natujec 
of the orfn from whiich the stirnlus proceeds. Th.e body is iraa'-;inc<i 
to be a houf^e, and each or vt. sone particular part of the house. 



;i':b.-.:rt (c) ijclicv s f '.t ti.e f'l.iiotion of the rlr jpi is to I'idtl'c 
r-nory oV u:.el-:33 -— --::-cr.E rcc<;lvod au..-in; tli- dcy, belJyvi:- th- t 
the drci-i tJiuc rc'rj err c caf ty \.'luc, clitr/rir- h-.:mful F.r.t'- rif.l into 
horT"l'-T,3. I'or i-.-'r- t:-:r 'L'-'.rn Is c nrocers of ppyri-ilc -^.l in i not ion. bv ens 
eye elininr-ti ons of ti:ou;:^ts nirpcd in the b-.:d. :o thus rrcr:l,cs to 
di-;ans ■:.:;.lir.c r.r.d unburdcninc rrcr-rti '■.s. The ir:^i,ilsc to a/ f :". li'.s in 
the r;iin'l Itrrif, In f c c: r'oli^arin- -./hi-"': dernnds dischrivo. 

^elcre (d) stands s]^or.sor i'or a nost inter- stin;;: hypothesis, 
namely, t.:- t ench i'.oa is enJo-cd v.l h a certain CTiciint of intcrn-jl fo.r-c' 
An unusucl ex[-:vience, as, for ezrnple, tlie d-^ath of a nenr relative 
or friend, ;'rr.-,vs hec.vily upon this supply of encrcy; hence, •.7hen the 
subject Irlls asleep, that ilea has not sufficient force left to me5-c 
itself felt as a drecri. On the other hand, comrn.pnplace ideas retain 
their store of enerry, end arc liereby enabled to assert themselves in 
the foiTa of dr~cns. His o,7n v;ords v/ill here be cuoted. 

"Sn rdrle r6n6ralc Ics idees oui ont obsede 1' esprjt pendant la 
veille ne rcYien:iant pas en reve; on ne reve d s evenencnts iP-portantc 
cue Ic'rn.'M- I'er'ooue ou lis preoccupait 1 'esprit a un haut decre s'est 
eloirn<?e. " 

Little s-ei'iis tc r .va bee;i done L -■;...•■■' .re rr.tholoiy- of di'cor-.s 
except to record remarkable instances. i:.oth Fere and Ficlc 9 described 
in detail cases in vjiiich certain types of drcens have follov;ed as the 
result of underlyinc patholoeical conditions, but so far as I have been 
able to ascertain, vje iiave no reliable r cord, based upon direct proof, 
as to the exact nature of these disturbances. 

a. Freud's Traum Dsutunc, Faje IG'J 

b. All i ef erences to Freud's Draun Deutunc ere understood to 
refer to the Fn^lish trrnsl- tion by A.A.Lrill, published by tiie I.'acriillan 
Co.II.Y.lQlZ, 

c. Cf. Freud'r: Trr un Dcutun~, i-c^xs 139, 4G7, G6 

d. Cf .A'-.erican Jourr.' 1 of i^sycholoyy "<ol. 5, Face C2. 



Cur kno'.iea:;e of the physiological coiviitions undorlyinj Siiid 
acconiinnyinc drcaminc is but little better. JJefore surveying: this 
evidence, ho->7ever, I shall fi.-st (.-Idcs. ty ^/ey of (ligression, ot t;\e 
vorious nleep hypothesis. 

Sidi:;' 10 and Poster 11 sunr.ri^e ti'.e numrous theories of sleep 
under five heads A, physiolocicel, ^7hich comprises the mechaniccl 
and chemicpl theories; B, nctholoricca ; C, hietologictil ; D, 
psycholoricel; I'., biolcGicr.l. Accrv'dine to the raechcnic-.l ti:eorics, 
sleep is rttributcble to alteretioi;s in tlie circulctory process. 
On the otnor J.and it v;03 held tl:rt sleep Is brought about by pressure 
of the blood upon the brain and spinel ncrrovf. Opposed to thin viev? 
is t!ie theory thrt sleep is due to cerebrf^l aenemie. Kammond, by 
means of the milometer, proved that the inter-cranial blood pressure fs 
less durin,';: sleep then in the T/aklnc state; and Howell 12 reached the 
same conclusion throunh ai elaborate series of plethysmoeraphic ex- 
periments. 

The suppat-ters of the chemical theories attempt to exploin sleep 
as the outcom.e of the loiTiation v.'ithin the blood end about the brain 
of some deliteriouG substrnce, lactic end ncrbonic acids beinp t.'.e -lost 
comn'.only d sici^fted of tl':ese foriT^-ticns. 

Patholocice.llj', sleep is vj e^ed as a kind of lecvirrinr: epileosy. 

■ ■hen v;e approach hii3tolo~y, v;e find sleep explainable en the 
assumotion of Interrupted neural cor.Uucti' !■• y . iatieue or otii-.-.-r causes 
■,7idcn the synapses by causinf; the dendrites to contrf;ct, so t::t the 
nervous cuiTent cannot circulste, and sleep eots in. GraOnr.lly the 
synapses are r' stores to nomif lity, ti:e circuit is r- --^etr Mirhed, and 
t;:e sleevior c:ic]:^s. 

I'sycho] 0,-y, in the v;or-'.s of I'anaceii^e, recerds sleep as "'^he 
restin.^ ti:e of consciousness." It is essential for tiie r.aintr nance cf 



\' 



of conscious activity. The explt'nftion is rormulated L;. Ileubsl. 
"I.xnt.-.l acti-;ity clencnds upon inconin;; P' rlphcral Gensory ctiinulotiors. 
'•^hen r:vir;h prriphcrpl sensory stimuLrtjons are absent, mental cctivity 
in In ilvymico, find pTo'^ji rcrailt.?!." 

An to tii'^ blo.loclo.'l cf'uno oJ' sl'^f^ii, it w^y bo boat suira'vri^.ed in 
the one v/ord, evolution. Sleep is tx hcbit v/Lich hcs been foined on the 
basis of the Ititcrn- tion p-;:riods of licl'-t and darkness. 

It is bryond mi' scope to inouire into the arguments and evidence 
for end arainct etch and all of tiicse hypotheses, so t .et I shall 
pass imnedictely to the physiolccicol basis of drcsminc. 

It is ass'Kied, says Sully, that each drecm ansv.-ers to some local and 
circunsdrilied cerebi'al excitation. As sleep comes on, tr^e brain sinl:s 
into a nuiescent st;te. Accovdini" to ic ttr 11 obser'. ations mcde in 

18?^1 upon a I'ontecelier v;omcn who had lont a oortion of !!■ r Elavil, 
shov; that tbe brain becomes at the same tine aenemic. It wr, observed 
^hat durinr ctivity, the paleness of the ortex ri:ave place to a rosy 
flush, the suritce I'occ, :;onetim'--3 even filling the openinr. :iut tlie 
record I'ils to state rriiether physicaJL or ncntrl activity is r, '"nt, or 
both, and no distinction is d_avrn bct.vcen ',aid.n~ and sleepirf: activity. 
■ ■e m'-y tli- rcfcrc acsume t at ejcai-eful sci'v.tiny v.'ould hr.vc rov':alrd soi-ie 
evidence of t,l;c sunplartinc of this aen- nia by t^e flush, c- en in 
dr cminr, v.hich is a kind of mental activity. Tl;e flush on the fact 
of the drcT.i'.er has often been noted as indicative of the sajnc condition, 
nam.ely, cerebral excitation, 

Kercicr, 13 in his Sanity and Insanity, has constructed upon this basis 
a iieli-'itful hypoth sis. He Gcsum.es t'.r.t the brain becomes --uiraccnt in 
sleer, but net every xrt of it simultaneously. Portions stand out here 
and there like islands, unsubmcrccd beneath the G-r.ercl flood of lethr.'rc.v. 
Str^ aric of :iervous er--r y circulrte i.-cn\: these islands, tlius conrectlnr 
tlicm. T'-is p-;rtial activity of the briin constitut s t'ne phenomenon of 



clrc&ninc, and would i''..'adjly ciccounl; for the inoon^ruity of drecuiis. 

Like evevy othor phn: e of activity, no natter of what orlf.in, dJ-'-om- 
in.2 hcs b'.en subjected to c-::pcripentction. It -.vould teke me too fer 
afield Lo diycufjs tids ni-'ttcr, qo 1 Imvc no orirln^l natter to O-ftr. 
but it is ii^tcrcstiiif, rince it denionstrct'-.s vdth whrt eesc and cert; inty 
drrains m- y be induced or effected. AndrcBs, 14, l^rmccdra, 11 Ilonroe.lC 
end ot.-mley 17 hsve ci''en the r-'fults of tl'.eir expo imonts; v/hile 'Jornin' 10 
does not cpcnl: of ch'caina, but conflner, his tittention to sleep exclunively. 

One v;ord in closinc, v/Mch T.ill else serve as a prrliminc-ry pre- 
paration for tie n^zt cliipter, as to the sicnificance of dr-'cns to !::y. 
Those v.-^io ctudy this ph.vse of conscious"er.s frora a scientific st- ndpoint 
are in-^lffi!ied to -tt'cii no si^jnificance to it, but coniinc thcrncelv-- to 
foiTfiulc -I inr tlie l^v;s :y T.hich it is ccntrclled, a::d to jTvcclin^- its 
. ounces. 

-Ironr: t-e rxss cf people, however, dr'cns ere net so re^-rirded. 'I'ruc, 
raany ;ercons speak derislv ly of the i'.ea t ct a dr-cn s'Oulf3 hnvc a 
TTieaninE, bi:t this is not borne out b y their conduct, nor their ircrc 
sincere utterendes. I have had nuiierous vcrbrl a^'d T.Tittcn rv-ui-sts to 
supply n-anlii 3 for -.Prious types cf di^eans; ard riost individuals ccnfcs" 
thct a bed diccri worries then. Thus we find dream interpretation to be 
not e'iti-":ly a thin:j of the pcst„ The follo'.in-; quotation, taken frcn the 
letter of 'n educcled, and not aiprrstitious t--Echer, is typical: "I have 
often wondered if, tlircu h tlie ir.edi'jm cf di":exis, we occasionally ret a 
glinpse into t::G future." Sur.ce drcairs as those recorded by i^ruce, 19 t'.ct 
of Prof. TlilprechtjEO and the telepathic drva^s of I.Iyers,21 make us stop 
and nond- r, ar.d h'-'.-^i ate to clacs then all as idle fancies. 



A Com: arative Studi^ of Dreams of the Blind and of the Sighted, 
with Special Reference to Freud's Theory. 

Chap. 2. Freud and Psycho-AnaL ysia 

In the preceding ch^ter I have reviewed somewhat ejigramatically 
the history of dream theory, and in a still more precursory manner 
that of sleep. In that survey, however, i reserved for this chapter 
the most modern dream theory, that reservation being based upon the 
psychological and psychiatrical significance of this discovery. I refer 
to the work of Sigmund Freud of Vienna. The facts of this theory 
have been corroberated by all who have taken the trouble to try out the 
psycho-analytic method scrupulously and conscientiously, and vdthout 
prejudice. The theory is based, not upon mere hypothesis, nor upon 
hastily adduced conclusions, but upon the careful and minute analysis of 
not less than fifty-thousand dreams. 

It was said in the last chapter that very little exact and scientific 
work had been done toward tracing the pathology of dreams. That 

assertion needs now to be modified. The subject of the present chapter 

22 
is purely pathological, for, as William A. White points out, every 

psychic fact or mental state is dependent upon some antecedent psychic 
fact or mental experience which exercises a determining influence over 
the present, and without v,hich the present would have been impossible. 
The work of the psycho-analyst consists merely in tracing back, link 
by link, bit by bit, the concatenation of mental experience, till the 
troublesome factor has been disclosed. 

I cannot hope to convince anyone of the validity of the con- 
clusions I am about to state, since I can, in the space at m^' disposal 

do little more than give a bare outline of the fundamentals of Freud's 
theoz-y. But I confidently trust that my readers will take the first 



opportunity to become acquainted with the more extensive literature 

upon the subject, and verify for themselves the claims made by tl^e 

23-S4 
originator. Ferenzzi remarks that each one must prove for himself 

the facto obtained by psycho-analysis. 

T2ie first fact with which Tie have to become acquainted is, that 

the dream consists of tv/o parts in contradistinction to each other, 

the manifest content, and the latent content. The former is what we 

remember and i-elate as the dream. It is the senseless, illogical, 

incoherent, often fra^nentary recollection of the conscious activity of the 

sleeping state. The latent content, on the other hand, sometimes called 

the underlying dream thoughts, is the entire netv.-ork of ideas, thoughts, 

associations, and experiences which are discovered to be the motivating 

source of the manifest content. This latent content, when completely 

worked out, which requires a painstaking effort, is found to be 

associatlvely congrous and coherent. It is found to contain certain 

well-marked experiential and ideational elements which I shall later 

seek to point out. There come to the surface not infrequently during 

the psycho-analytic process certain forgotten memories belonging to 

the experience of the individual, which have been, as it were, covered 

up. Another difference between the manifest and latent contents should 

be here noted, namely, that whereas the former is usually brief, and can 

be told or written in a few sentences, and is often disconnected, the 

latter is many times longer, often filling many pages, and frequently 

requiring hours to be developed; and it is quite closely connected. It 

would be well here to say a word concerning the psycho-analytic 

method, or, a s Brill terms it, psycho-analysis. 

The patient or subject is instructed to assume an easy and 

restifful posture. Freud preferred his patients to lie down, he sitting at 

the head; while Brill obtained his results by having the patient sit 

in an easy chair, the physician and patient facing one another. 



The dream is then related and divided by the psycho-analyst into iti 
parts or elements, each consisting of a single bit or i:.^;::e. The 
patient must now throw aside altogether the critique which he ordinarily 
exercises over his v/aking thoughts, thereby abrogating the selective 
control over his incoming ideas, and let his mind be perfectly open to what- 
ever associations may happen to come. The first bit of his dream is 
presented to him, and he relates faithfully every idea that occurs to him. 
Nothing, relevent or irrelevant, must be suppressed. TThen no further 
associations are forthcoming, the next image of the dream, or perhaps 
it may be a phrase or a single word, is tr^ ated in the same manner, and 
so on for the entire dream. The mass of associations thus obtained con- 
stitute the latent dream content. The manifest content is developed from 
the latent content by means of what is known as the distorting inechanism, 
which we shall not consider. 

There are four distinct distorting mechanisms concerned in the / 
process of dream building; A, condensation; B, displacement; C, dramat- 
ization; D, secondary elaboration. 

Condensation expl-ins how the large mass of associations constituting 
the latent content is capable of biing boiled do\7n, as it were, into the 
manifest content. 

The dream, therefore, is merely representative of the latent con- 
tent. Each element in the dream trails behind it a long chain of 
associations. Not only is this true, Uit each element in the latent con- 
tent is connected to several in the manifest content. The elements of 
the dream are not, therefore, representative in the accepted sense of 
the word. Thus the lines of association cross ajid recross each other, 
as shor.'n in the accompanying diagram. Yfere it not for this condensation 
factor, each dream, if we Bver dretoned, would coincide with the latent 
content; but this, as we shall later see, would not be permissible. 
In this fusion brought about by condensation, we should note that some 



. Df the elements in the manifest content are very rich in associatloi-s, 
while others furnish us with meagre connections. 

There are t-flo methods by which condensation may be affected, com- 
position, and identification. If the fusion of elements has taken place 
in the latent content, v?e have identification. Thus I may, in my v/aking 
life, identify one person or place with anotjier person or place. In my 

ft 

dream only one of these appears, but the analysis gives me to understand 
that the other one, with which this one was identified, is meant. 
Identification is concerned chiefly with persons and places. On the 
other hand, if the fusion of traits has taken place during the construction 
of the dream itself, we have what is called composition. One of my 
own dreans furnishes me with an example. I was in Indianapolis and went 
to call upon IMble B. during the afternoon. She lived on Laurel Street. 
Only her parents were at home, but they yiere very entertaining. Mable B 
is one of my home friends, but I haye a friends, Zoa H., living on Laurel 
Street in Indianapolis. Previous to the tire of this dream I had been 
in Soa's home only twice, one afternoon, and again the next monring. I 
have called at Liable 's home and found her absent. I have always wanted 
to live in Indianapolis. Now, since I would never have fused these 
Elements when aviake, they have taken place during the construction 
of the dream; hence we have composition. Thus it becomes apparentat 
once how a single image in the manifest content may represent a much 
larger portion of the underlying dream thoughts. 

Turning now to the second of the distorting mechanisms, dis - 
placements, we find a means or accounting for the bizarrences of dreans. 
Those elements which turn out in the process of anlaysis to be most 
significant are least emphasized in the dream, or else they are torn from 
their natural surroundings and installed in a foreign environment; while 





The circles in this diagram indicate the elements in the manifest 
content. The crosses represent the associative elements of the latent 
content. The straight, smooth lines connect single elements of the 
manifest content with one or more elements in the latent dream thoughts- 
while the dotted lines connect several of the elements in the manifest ' 
content to single latent dream thoughts. 



greatest stress is laid upon the psychically loss important elements. 
V/e thus see that there is no correspondence bet\7een the psychical inten- 
sity of a given element in the dr-am and its associative elements in 
the latent content. If we employ the phrase "Transvaluation of all 
values," v?e at once get a conception of the work accomplished by the 
displacement factor in dream formation. Examples of condensation and 
displacement are revealed only through psycho-analysis, Eind cannot, 
therefore, be given here. 

V/hen ve turn to the factor of dramatization, we find at the outset 
that dream imagery is predominantly, but not exclusively, in visual terms. 
The scene depicted in the dream passes before the sleeping consciousness 
as if being enacted from a theatrical stage. The dreamer is merely a 
passive spectator, while the dream is rehearsed before him. 

Just as the dramatist of real life must conform to certain rules 

in order to represent action, so the dream consciousness has its 

restrictions. J.Iental processes, judgnient, reasoning, etc., are not 

really a purt of the manifest content, but are taken bodily from the 

underlying dream thoughts. A dream is not, therefore, a piece of reasoning 

35 
work. I am v;ell avmre that the opposite viev; is held by llaveloc Ellis 

who contends that dr earns are predominantly exhibitions of logic, the 

accuracy of the logic depending upon the materials with which the dreamer 

is presented. The logical concatenation between two thoughts is indicated 

by the synchronous appearance representing them in the manifest content 

of the dream. If the cause of connection between two dream thoughts is 

indicated, it is done by making one thought represent the other, or else 

by a transformation of one into the other. An examination of dreams 

hhows that we do not find an alternative expressed. If a choice is to 

be made, it is not done by "Either, or," but the two are connected by 

"And," giving the dreamer both choices. Very frequently a dream is 

inverted, or a portion of it, in which case its meaning becomes quite 



'.' '•■'•' ■ 



obvious as soon as the conditions are reversed. This inversion ma: be 
with respect to the actual incident in the dream, or, with respect 
to its meaning. I shall illustrate the first frcm my ovm dreams. 

I was at the University v?ith Liarie H. , a sichtless friend. V/'e 
were going from Tirkwood Hall to the library by way of the Student 
Building. As we neared the flight of steps by the west entrance of 
the Student Building, I, as a sign^al that we were about to descent, 
pressed v;ith my left on her right hand, which had hold of that arm. 
But her foot slipeed and she fell. I 'asked her if she were hurt, and 
she replied, "Not much," Once, when alone, I slipped in the same 
place, and went to the bottom of tiie steps, but without serious con- 
sequences. Last spring, after I.^rie had been here attending my 
commencement, we were both in the home of a mutual friend in Indianapolis. 
Early in the evening we were all upstairs. There had been a mutual 
spirit of ti-asing all evening, and as we started to descent, I picked 
Ivlarie up in my arms. But my foot slipped on the third or fourt step. 
The same question and answer ere exchanged. This dream thus combines the 
two incidnets, and reverses the situation in the onfe. element of falling. 

Secondary elaboration is the name which Freud gives to the last 
of his means of distortion. Condensation, displacement, and dramat- 
ization are due to the activity of the underlying dream thoughts, or, 
more properly, to the endo-psychic censor, which we shall shortly con- 
sider. Secondary elaboration, on the contrary arises from the activity 
of the more conscious processes. To this factor is due whatever 
ordering sequence and consistency there mtiy be in the dream. Anything 
which serves as a connecting link between two portions of the dream, 
anything which determines the sequential order of the various parts, 
is attributable to secondary elaboration. 

In the dream making process there is exercised no creative act 
whatever. Fancies are sometimes interpolated bodily into the dream. 



in fact, there is in dr am construction nothing but previously fonrer 
mental processes transformed into the dream. The dream ignores the most 
obvious contradictions, makes use of highly strained analocies, and 
brings together v;idely differentiated ideas by means of the most super- 
ficial associations. 

By Tihy all this distortion? Any v/hy this complicated medhanieni? 
The answers to these interrogations can best be found if we consider 
the meaning and purpose of the dream. Such an inquiry will, perforce, 
take us into the very heart of Freudianism. 

In our every-day waking life we become conscious of many vjishes, 
some of which are realized, some of which may possibly be realized, and 
some of which are beyond our attoinment, either because of conventionality 
limited means, lack of opportunity, or other barriers. If a wish is 
granted, we no longer have anyting to do with it. If there is a 
possibility of its gratification, we at once set about to gain our end. 
Buf, if satisfaction of the wish is impossible, we, in common parlance, set 
about to rid our minds of it. In- reality, however, it is disnisaed 
only from consciousness. Suppressed though it be, it still lurks in 
the recesses of our sub-conscious strata. If a favorable opportunity 
offers, this suppressed or repressed wish will again assert itself 
in consciousness. But sane wishes are of such a nature that theyd; are 
not present themselves in their true guise. The sleeping state makes it 
easier for these wishes to assert themselves, and they are not slow to 
take advantage of the opportunity. In our dreanis, therefore, we realize 
the fulfillment of our wishes. In early childhood these wishes are 
literally fulfilled. 



The ciiild dreams by nieht that he ic inipossesaion of sor-.ethlnc 
that he has Been denied by day. But as the inhibitions of cociety 
are ci'adually ; uilt up within the child, as his little viorld expands and 
becomes more and more intricate, as his wishes become more numerous and 
varied, some of them are repressed and can make their way into con- 
sciousness only in discuise. Freud's formula mny therefoi^ be rendered, 
"A dream is the (disguised) fulfillment of a (suppressed or repressed) 
wish." Let me illustrate. 

In a dream, I had just leturned from school at Indianapolis, and 
-was informed by father that I had an overdraft at the bank. I called 
the cashier and inouired about the matter, infonning him that I still 

had 53.05 to my credit. He then explained it as not equivalent to an 
overdraft, but something which I could easily avoid. In my three years 
experience in decline at the Bloomington National Bank I never filled 
out the stubs of my checks, but carried the am.ount of my deposit in 
my Bemory. Two days after the dream I wrote and cashed a check for 
$3.05, and left my book to be balanced, calling for it two days there- 
after. I found upon reviewing mj^ checks that I was overdrawn sti.20, instead 
of being even as I had intended. Obviously the dream revealed my 
situation, but contradicted this in the information from the cashier, 
thus fulfilling my wish not to be overdrawn. I found a check for Cl.20 
•which I had given last spring, and w:iich, evidently, I had failed to 
take conscious note of, but which, nevertheless, had registered itself 
upon my unconscious mind. V/e thus realize in sleep what we cannot 
obtain when awake. Dreams are not, t'nerefore, as is commonly supposed, 
disturbers of sleep, but in their intent its guardians. 

The nature oi' the wish to be expressed determines whether it v.ill 
or will not appf-ar in disguise. Every thought or idea, before raining 
admittance into consciousness, must pass in reviev; before the endo- 



l.sychic cnnsor. Tl ir- censor is tje sum tot'.l of the inhibitions 
and conventiorolitics ^^r.lch are gradually .Toven into our psychic lif 
plus the criti-r.il faculty of tlie mind. Anythino vrdch is distasteful 
to this censor must find some means of evadine it in order to rain 
expression. The four m-chanisms discussed above, condensation, dis- 
placement, dramatization, and secondary elaboration, are nothinr more 
than Bieans of evading the censorship. In wakinp life the censor is 
active, and is aulck to repress any unvjelcome iuea. In sleep, however, 
the censorship relaxes its vieilance to a considerable degree, so that 
the subconscious thou-hts, by diseuisin,;; themcelves, may eluiie the 
censorship, and thus come to the focus of consciousness. 

i^xamininc nov? the latent content with a viev/ to ascertaining the 
sources of the materials that enter into the composition of the dream, 
v;e find that the dream : as its starting point in some recent extjorience. 

In the majority of cases this experience is found in the program of 

6 
the previous day. Lliss Calkins reports tliat 89'/c' and 90^?:^ respectively 

of the dr- arr.s in the t.vo diaries at her disposal were thus traced, 

while in the t.vo I have examined I find this element demon Etr!:.ble in 

90/1- and 85/^ respectively. Freud contends t).cit if we could get complete 

records in all cases, we would doubtless find that the previous day had 

contributed something toward the formation of each dream. The dream 

instif ator may be; A, a recent significant cxp-::rience directly represented 

in the manifest content; B, a recent si'-niricant experience indirectly 

represented in the manifest content b^ the appvarance there of an 

indifferent associated experience; C, an internal significant process, 

(memory), regularlj' fepresented in the manifest content by an associated, 

recent, indifferent fxrerience. This leads us to two concluGions; first, 

that the dream, never deals with trifles, but with experiences of great 

physchical importance; second, that these signifi :a'!t exreriences are 

most freone-itly concealed in the manifest content behind something trivial. 

Both th'/se conclusions are amply verified by prrycho-analycis. 



1?J 



The other two pecullEiritios of drp'ani memory, preference for recercy 
beinc already noted, ure exprnssed thus: experiences are selected 
other^7i3e than In our v/akiuc life; and, hyp'-rnmesi a for forcotten 
experiences. T; is last, vrhen traced out thorouehljr, reverts in most 
cases to infantile exiDeriences. Freud includ.: s in his term "Infantile" 
the early years of childhood also. The instance of a youns man who 
dreamed that he saw his childhood tutor and nurse in bed together is 
in point here; for, upon relating it to his elder brother, he was 
laughingly confir-ed. The dreamer was but three years of age at the 
time of th^se occurences. 

This example leads naturally to a discussion of the nature of the 
material v.ith which our dreams deal. All dreams of anxiety, says Freud, 
have a sexual basis; and in fact the vast majority of dreams have the 
same foimdation. by sexual Freud includes the 'ihole love-life of the 
individual, and do:3 not by any manner of means refer exclusively to 
the gross sexual. In his "Three contributions to the theory of sex," 
Freud sho\7s that the beginning of sexuality is not deferred, as most 
persons believe, to the period just prior to adolescence, but ti.at it 
dates almost from birth. 

Infants soon manifest signs of sexuality. Children are polyinorphus 
perverse, that is, if an adult behaved as a child does, he would be 
deemed sexually perverse. Thumb-sucking, displaying or looking at 
his genitals, or at those of other persons, various excitations connected 
with the skin in r::eneral, and the sensations accompanying- the bladder 
and anal discharges, all tend, directly or indirectly, to av.-aken and 
nourish the sexual. As the child gror.s oldor, ho-,7ever, no group of 
feelings ss repressed with more rigor, and yet no group of feelin s so 
completely dominates him as docs the sexual. His sex lile demands 
gratification, but conventionality represses and restrains it. Is it 
not normal, then, that sexuality should seek some outlet for its 

expression? In psycho-neurotics we invariably find sex pla^'ing a 



/- / 

pi'eponderatin,'- role in 1" rnishinf; dream vriahes. Since it is new knr v.n that 
abnormality is nothing more or less than exaf--gc; rated nonr.allty, is there any 
reason for exrpectin,'; th.it the dreams of normal persons shall differ 
essentially I'rom t'jose of abnormal pf.rnions? I think not. 

with this important inform-ition in hand, the reason for such manifold 
distortion in the manifest content becomes at once apparent. The sexual is 
rigidly repressed in v/aking life, when the censorhhip has been somiev?hat 
relaxed, those feelings, formulated into v/iches, strive to assert themselves. 
But tlie censor is not entirely asleep, therefore the censor must assume a 
disguise. Should the censor be eluded, it counteracts the v/ioh by sucsest- 
ing that "It is only a dream," and so allov/s the subject to slumber harm- 
lessly on. The diseuise is aifected through a mass of symbols, many of 
Tjhich retain essentially the same m'-.aninc for practically all di-eams; 
though the psycho-analyst must avoid too hasty and arnitrarj' a conclusion. 
Thus animals indicate sexuality, but the behavior of the animal must dedide 
for any rjiven dream, the nature of the v/ish. Long objects, candles, canes, 
etc., symbolize tlie male genital; V7Jdle boxes and other hollov; objects 
denote the fem-'.le genital. Flov/ers are apt to sirnify offspring, and so on. 

l.'e may nor; recast our formula into som.cv/hat like the lollovjing: 
"A dream is the (disguised) fulfillm.ent of a (suppressed or rtrpressed} v/ish, 
traceable, at least in the majority of cases, to infantile sexual memories." 

Just a Yjord as to the role of somatic stimuli in the production of 
dreams. Hartley and the older writers, and l^veloc Ellis, a re inclined 
to accord a prominent place to this causOo On the other liand, Liss Calkins 
found it to be rather unimportant, and my o..n dreams verify her results. 
Freud vjould agree v?ith this conclusion. Ke says tl--.t a sleeper may i-eact to 
a somatic stimulation of a lively n>iture in anj- ofle. of four v.-ays; 
a. he mj.y ignore it, as in bodily diseare; b, he may feel it during, or even 
throughout sleep without dr-aming at all; c, he miiy be av.'akeded by it; and 
d, it may be woven into a dr an. In tiie last case, however, it ent'-rs in 



2- ^ 

'.''iscuirf;, and depenia upon tlje nature of the clreom. 

i3eCoj-e boclnnin/3 the work of psycho-analys i e, as has already been aaid, 
the subject must tbror; aside tl:e critlnue V7ith wluch he juoees his waking 
thoughts. He must do moi-e than this. He must aid actively in brr akinr do;vn 
the rsistance -.^aich is interposed between the analyst and certain elements 
in the latent content. Freud empirically found an intimate and l^eitimate 
relation betv.een the dejjree of confusion and incomprehensibility present In 
a given dr-^am, and the di^'ficulty erDerienced by the patient in corniTiunicat- 
ing the free associations leadinfr to the dr'. am thoughts. The anount of 
distortion V7as found to be related to th-^ resistance to the processes v;hich 
prevented the unconscious processes fromi becoming conscious. It therefore 
becomes important to break do.vn every psychic barrier to the free associations, 
for behind each resistance is concealed some experience or association of 
signific?.nce. In this same connection it is v luable to note thct the v;:ak 
points of a dream fabric are the first to drop out of consciousness; hence 
a dream i^elated at tT;o different times will present certain dif ferei;ces, 
which differences are of no small importance from the standpoint of the 
analysis. 

■'hatever else may be said of a dream, it is decidedly egotistical. The 
dream is alv.ays concerned v.'ith the dreamer, and with him alone, and lias no 
thought for other persons. True, other individuals appear in the dr-'-am, but 
it is eitijer because they have some relation with the dreamer, or becauE=- S>^ 
they conceal behind their personality that of tj:e dreamer. To I'epeat, dream 
thoughts are processes of the greatest person.al importance, never about 
matters v;hich concern others. 

Uo matter hov; different dreams may appear, careful analysis shows that 
all the dreams of a given night spring from a common source, and portr>,.y a 
common wish. Analysis may therefore be facilitated if the subject is able 
to recall more than one of his dreams for a given night. 

In closing, then, I can do no better than to use the final words of Dr. 



^7 

Ernest Jon-s, "Der Traum ist die via noria Lur Kenntnlss des UnbeTmsster 
ir. Seelenleben. " 



Drsoni Quostlonncire, 

1. General Ir.forration. 

A. li.'imo In l"ull, and conoral stato of liculth. 

B. Sex. 

C. Date of birth. 

D. Nationality, of parents. 

E. Extent of education; indicate hov? much of it v/as received before 
failure of sight. 

F. Describe your tei;iperarnent or disposition. 

G. Is your life more or less secluded and quiet, leavinr you much time 
for •editstion; or is it filled V7ith social, business, or other enc-ageinents? 

H. At v?hat ase di<i your sight begin to fail? "..hen did it recii its present 
condition? 

I. Indicate as nearly as possible the extent to '■.;.ich you see, 

J. Your usual hoar for retiring; for risinr, 

A, Do you sleep sou dly, lichtl;,-, brokejily, or continuously? 

L. ])o you in h'-alth dream constantly, that is, every niy"-t, or ^e_rly so? 

I.;. Do you usually dream one, or more than one dream in a circle nifl*? 

2. Character and effect of Dreams. 
Ao Do you ever have nici^tnare? 

E. Do you dream, of tJungs reyulsive to you in rahinc life; reptiles, 
toads, blc:>d, accidents, etc.? 

C. Do you dresj:: of friglitful objects and occurrences; stoirts, earthqu:.::es, 
volcanic eruptions, accidents by laud or sea, strcnce person?, places, or 
things, etc.? 

D. Do you dream of pleasant events, experiences, and places; your 
friends and relctivea, travel, etCo? 



E. Are your .va'iin-- aribitionc fuiriileU in :.our dreains? 
Y. Do yon drea'i of the dead, fre'.Miontl..- or rarely? 

G. Do tile dead in your dre.-.'j-s appear as living or as dead? 
II. Do such dreaiic, in the drear state, excite sympathy, Porrov;, joy, 
indifference, or vjhat? 

I. Do you dream over the events of the r-receedinr, day, cither exactly 
or slir:' tly altered? 

J. Do you fremic.ntly dream of the t]:incR uripen^ost in your i.iind in 
\7akinr; life? 

II, Ar- your drea':.': ever fulfilled, ficuratively or literally? 
Lo Vro:;t is ti-e effect upon you of a coed drean; of a bad drecm? 

3o Sensations in Dreanso 

A. Do you ever dream of falling, or flying? 

Bi "j'ith v,'hat are these dreains associated; bridges, staircases, l:oles, 
precipices, otc^? 

Co '.iTiat froup of sensations, visual, auditory, snell, taste, tactile, 
tenperature, or nuseular, seen to predoninate in your dreans, both in frequency 
and in ireportance? 

D. Do you in drems h-'ve visual inaces? 

E„ Are these ir'ares freeuent or rare? 

F. -Ji'e these ina-^es clear and sharply defined, or blurred and indistinct? 

G. Docs color ap-ear in your visu'il inai^es? 

II. '.xe t-; ese ii-ares noriral as you think of tl'iem, or see t);eri in v:akinc 
life? 

I. Do auditory sensatjons play an inportant role in your drears? 

Jo Are your auditor:.^ sensations limited to only a fev? sounds, or do they 
embrace a v/ido s'fhere as in ncnnal T;akinr life? 



K. Do you have distinct c:^ell sensations in dreams? 

L. Do you have taste sensations in drcf'jnn? 

11. Do tactile sensations frecuejitly au- eiT in your dreains? 

N. Sixe these sensations general over large areas of the body, or 
are the;, I'colised? 

0. Have you ever been able to read words or sentences in your accustomed 
embossed tyre? 

P. Do te. ijeraturo sens'dtions frequently a I'ear in your dreai.is? 

Q,. Do muscular sensatjons play an inporta::t part in your dreau life? 

4. i^notions and I/er-tal Irocesses in Dreams, 

A. Do hate, love, sorrow-:, joy, fear, envy, sexual excitation, pride, 
anper, je: lousy, or other emotions a rear in your dreans, or only a fev; of 
these; or is your dreari life indifferent? 

B. Do you carry on reasoning r/ithin your drearis? 

C. Do you ever solve difficulties in your dreans which have re rplcxed you 
in wakinc life? 

D. Do you in dreans observe objects very minutely? 

E. Is your dream ner.iory, as compared v/ith your -iaking neniory, stronger 
or wea.iCer? 

r. Have you ever remembered v/ithin a dream that you have had that dream 
before? 

G. Is there a tendency manifested in your dream.s to rerceive objects 
as larger or smaller than the normal? 

5. Sonnamlulistic Phenonena of Dre-'-r.So 

L. Do ycu m':ke unsucccrsfal effort.-: to move or speak in your dreams? 
B, Do you ever talk aloud in your sleep? 



C. Reveries. 

A. Do you iiave f-pveri?:; or dcy-diTons? 

B. '.ilvxt conditior.s are favorable lor nrotUicinc: them in your case? 

C. Relate in detail one or tvjo of your i-cveries. 

D. .:-re they becoiun.:: nore IrenueTit or rarer? 

E. ',lin.t is your feeling or attitude to'.-ard tlieii? 

7o Conclusion. 

A. Do you as a rule rerienber your dreoris T;eil upon awakeninr? Do you 
rer.:enber the somnExrabulistic features, or krovj then only from report? 

B. Are you tired or exhausted in tlie norninc after having h.ad a drt-ai'i in 
v;hich you eit.'.er did r.ove or speal;, or atte pted to nove or spcal'? 

C. ..'hat is trie effect upon you of an unusual ar.ount of dreominc? 

D. Do you employ any rietliods to influence your drearas? If so, descri-re 
them in full. 

E. To what causes do you ascribe your bad or disagreeable dTee.vc? 



A CO.i.-JlATIVi, c'J-JUY OF DR]:;j'S OF TIC'J ULliiU .J.Jj Ci'' Tlii oIGr/Il-ID, 

■..■■J.Tn 3Pi;Gi:i :'t:.-;F--iit:'cv to frj^ud's t:zchy. 

Chapter 3, Dre-.ns of the Llind and of the oichted. 

I have nov; Gc-;nleted tlie historical survey of dre:jji tJieory, ard uiri 
ready, after a fev; prelininary remarks, to attack the specific problem v.j.ich I 
have undertaken to sol-;e. T'liis problera is a detriled ezanination into the 
dreams of the blind and of tiie sighted, point by point, comparinc ,:.nd con- 
trasting the one v/ith the other. It is -y purpose to inquire Into the re- 
semblances and differences of tlicse tv;o classes of individuals MiVr. resTC ct 
to their drearis, an.d if possible, to seek a cause xihich will ader.uately account 
for these similarities and dissimilarities. It tlms becomes apparent at once 
that I a^m using the adjective "Comparative" in the title of this ^7ork i7lth a 
double m.eaning, namely, tliv.t of comparison and contrast. This is cractly v/liat 
I intended to do. It is unon the contrasting points tliat I shall lay the 
greatest stress, though the resenblance dare not be overlooked. 

As a side issue of t}iio subject, I stlcII endeavor to set fort;- the blind 
in their true light, iuch 7,'as the m.otive v;ith yihich I initiated and continued 
this research. T!:e blind have often been n-ainted in fiction and poetry, aiid 
have received soiiie m,entio!i frcri psychologists; but in literature they a" ear as 
abnormal, uncouth, uncanny beings, rerrese .tat j ves of some rare sp^.'Cies of 
creature. In Tsycbology tlie state-^fnts concerning tJ;is class arc for t}.e 
most part based upon current ideas and sayings, or else uron facts gleaned 
fromi too fe'.7 individuals, -is an era! pic, I need only mention the "Sijrth 
sense" idea, v.'iiich is ever:a7heTe current, and •.7aic.- has crept into i-'sychology. 
It is my hope in this thesis to contribute one rate to.ard a better under- 
standing of the sightless • s a class. If I succeed in this, I shall be con- 
tent, ierhans others vill study one by one the vast array of psychological 



differences and sinilaritios betv^ecn these t-.7o classes. 

I'y invent i cation has included not only dreans, but two kindred phases 
of activity; A, soruu-mbulism; D, reverie. T:,e rel(.;tion ar:onc tiicse tJ'roe 
is cuite jntiMate. Reverie rescribles dreaming;, according to Freud, in 
having a common sexular oricin, Scmnanbulism seems to belong to the province 
of Q doei:er slocp tlian docs tlio mere dream. Thin distinctirn munt suffice n 
here, deferring the more minute study until the proper place is reacl'ed. 

The ]:'.aterial3 for this treatise have been ca't'iered from five distinct 
sources; A, a nuestionnaire consisti^r of sixtj'--thj7ee questions, anJ which 
V7as placed in every school for the blind i^ the United States and Canada, and 
fifteen liluropean schools, including England, Scotland, France, £v7itzerl?_nd, 
Germany and Austria; 3, t-o dream diaries, m;'- ov/n, containing 174 dreams, and 
that of a frierd, 103; C, individual dreams and reveries accom.pamyine the 
questionnaire returns, or sent in by interested friends; D, additional facts, 
mostly in the v;a.y of verification of doubtful questionaire ansv/ers, ca-'th red 
through personal conversation V7herever ;:os3ible, otherTJise by caref'jlly 
v/orded correspondence; E, such literature as was available, though t':is last 
Tjas scanty indeed. The total returns to mif questionaire amounted to IOC 
from the blind, of vrnich t7?elve were ruled out on account of thie amount of 
sight possessed by tliose persons. The remaininf ninty-four are eitlier 
totally blind, or barely able to distincuish li';ht from darlniess, and came 
from various parts of the country, but do not represent all the states; while 
five are fro'u ILanover Cerm.ani/'. Only nineteen returns were received from the 
sighted, nest of these comine from, students of Indiana University; l:ence it 
will be neccss-^r:, to draw heavily upon the vrorh of other invcsti.-:,ator3 for 
this cl'.r.s of individuals. \ 



7 1. 



The net'-od of keepinr; tbe tvjo dream diaries v;a3 the sane as that 
emiiloyed by Tiss Calkins, nodified sufficiently to be adaptable to sic tlf^-ss 
persons. 'I'h'^ slate, as it is called, {3ee diacr.-im on nert pace), r/ith a 
sheet of paper in place, nas laid vjithin easy reach of the sleeper; the 
stylus and >7atch under the pilloiv. Upoi' VJakine from the dreara the subject 
noted do',-)n, the time and a fcv; words of the dream. At the first opportui.ity 
in the morninc tl.'e dream vias written out in full, comi.ents added, and 
Yilierever possible, it s connections vdth previous wakinc experience were 
traced. Botli these diiries have already been referred to in Chapter Two, 
and my ovm record furnished : e V7ith tliree illustrative dreaas. 

In classifyinc the material derived from tlie cuestionaire returns, the 
papers v/ere first divided according to sex. Each clcss v;as then divided into 
three grouDs, accordinc to tlie ace at v?hich sicht was lost. In the first 
class were placed all those Tiho had lost their vision during the first five 
years of life; thd second contained those who beca':e blind between the fifth 
and seventh years; wiiile in tlie t..ird is to be found all tl'cse who v.'ej.e 
deprived of sight after the seventh yec-r. 

It is quite a" arent, j owever, that no real differences are to be 
adduced from, this minute classif cation; hence tlie firuies are co-bined in 
two groups according to sex, except in ejection Tiiree, nuestions A and B 
excented, v/here sex distinction is obliterated, and the cl.isslf i c-tion 
according to date of loss of vision is retained. 

Tlie scanty returns from the sighted were lihevdse worked over on tl.e 
basis of sexo But t::cse ficures are too small to be of value in ost cases, 
so tht't I shall endeavor to confirm or disprove them, by drawing upon 
statistics from other sources. 

It was intended originally to make a study on the basis of sore of 



the otiier infonn-.it ion contained in section one of tlie nuestionaire, questions 
D, F, and Q bein:: desicnated for this purpone, but that study had to be 
abandoned in view of the fact that those tla-eo quest Jons were, in mcEt cases, 
too inddermately and variously ansr/ered to admit classification. Question E 
also served as criterion by vjhich to judge the paper, I shall nov? take up the 
material bit by bit, follo'.Tinc the ruestlonaire as a guide, becinr.lnc v;it h 
question A of Section 2„ 

The folloninc table will reveal the exact figures available for tliis 
study. 

Table PJ^<, 91 19^ 

Blind Sighted, 

M. F I,; F 

Yes 2O(64::0 17(2Gf.) 4(3?-:) 4(6C;0 

1-0. 11 45 3 

a. Uupibers follo'-ving the table deoign^'t ion indicate resrectively the number 
of blind and the sighted answering that questiono 

b. I'l and F in ti;e tables are sex designations. 

But, for t.-.'o reasons, no conclusions must bedr<v.7n from t'lis tabfc ; A, the 
inadequacy of tiie figures, especially these from t; e sighted; B, failure to 
comprehend exactly what characterizes a nightme.re. A glance at the table dis- 
closes the fact that the l;=.rgc-st group of cncvrers, namely, t/'cse fror' tJi e 
female blind, represent the 1' rest p'rce::ta-:e of t ct e having I'.igj.tmare, .-jiy 
correlation, therefoi'e, '.vould be grossly- riislcading. 

In corir on parlarce, a nightmare is synonjr-.ous vrith a fearl\il or 
oppressive dream, and doubtless this idea is Mrevalent in tl-e answers returned 

to m.y question, I sh.all t:.erefore parse to inquire into the real constituent 

37 

characters of nightmare, Jewell surmnri: es r&inmond and I.^naceine to the 

38 

effect that nightmare is a physical rat! er t;;an a nervous matter. Jones 



enuriierates the various thoorics thr.t huve been adva.-iced to erpl-j^in tlds 
imludy, for n I3 li:doc-d a r-^ulid:.'. Lovjcr bciievcG the condition is due to 
the collection 01" IjTiph in the fourtJi ventricle of tl^e brain. '.Villis 
ascribes it to t]ie ni::i:;c of inccncruous iiiatter in th.e blood vjith the nervous 
fluid in the cerebelluii'. Fossate would have uc believe it to be an 
affection of tl->e anterior colurm of the :;pinal ir.arrov? and the nerves arisinc 
therefrom. :L3ail] ey attributes it to undirected hwiors stoppinc the pussace 
of the ani'nal spirits so that the body can:!Ot Dove. llohnbaun assur^es that it 
is produced by the rresence of poisonous cases or miasnata. Splittrerber 
fantastically asserts that it occurs at certain phases of the noon. Laillar'-ei 
and Rousset lay the ailTnent to the cliar^e of cerebrid conrestion, hrdllarcer 
attributing it to primary conrestion, r;hilc hnusset states that it is due to 
active con-j-stion of the brain, brourht about by fearful or e;:citii;c ideas 
of the previous eveninr. Current opinion fron the tine of Calen ascribes 

nightr;are to rastric disturbances. There nay be of tvjo sorts, overeating-, or 
in the presence in the stonach of undicested substances. Lrasnus Darv;in 
affirms ni^htnai-e to be caused by the effort to arouse one's self fron tea 
deep a sleep. 

All those theories, lov.-ever, niss tiie essential poi'^t, nuf.ely, tj;e 
predisposition of the sufferer to t]'e attaches. 

This is esseiitioJL, ar:d T/itrout it these otJier t) eories are n.il, 
AG to the ear-marhs of nicl-tnare, or Arir-st attack, as Jones e^rpresses 
it, affirrinc thet tlicre is no v/crd in Irf-lish wliich so well cor'.biries the 
fearful arprehen: ion, panic-stricken terror, and awful anxiety, dread, 
and anguish, the: are three in nunber: A, aconizinc dre".d; B, sense of 
oporession of weicht on tl:e ci;est whic!. alar^i^cly interferes with 
respiration; C, conviction of helpless paralysis, '..'e need not here note 



the subsidiary cii^^racteiT. 

ITow, if VIC revert to Freud, and assune T/ith Jones that _nc2t is closply 
connected uitli tlie sercual, '/;e have a Tforkable hjT3ot::Ocis. ./e have alreedy 
noted that the greater tlie re:;ressinc influence exerted by tlie endo-psychic 
censor, the nore distorted is the dream that reui-esents the fvafillment of 
that v/isb. "/e nay noi? add that, wlien tbe distortion is not sufficient to 
conceal tlie v/lsh, that is, v.-hen the conflict is so G^eat that no coriT-roi'iise 
is possible, sleep is broken, and the subject awakes. "Je have already seen 
the importa -ce of sex, a;:d rJGor '.vith vrhich it is repressed, .'^supiir^, then, 
that ni:::]tinare is alv;ays an expression of ir.te':::e r-ental conflict centering 
about some forii of repressed sexual desire, r/e '■^y note '.Valler's observation, 
confimed by Jon'-s, tliat tMs co: plaint is r:cre prevalent arjor^ un arried 
T7omen than ainonc, the riarriedo 

'Yhan the desire s' o"/3 such veherence as to t'lreaten to cverpov.'er the 
repressing; force exercised by conscious:'ess, and at the same tine is of s-'.ch 
a nature as to be in the liighest decree inaccaptable, then vie have present 
the conditions for the -'ost violent mental conllict inaGinable, In proof of these 
seem.incly- chi crical assertions, it is instructive to note tlic^t the translation 
of these desires into consciousness is follov/ed by the immediate disaiipearai.ce 
of the sj-TTiptoms. 

Table 23. 68 19, 

Blind SiGhted. 

1.1 F I.I F 

Yes 17 (53^^) 57 (esf:) 7 {50^!) 4 (66::) 

Wo 15 19 5 3 

Despite the s' allness of the above fiioires, v?e find tiiat they tally 
very closely, there beii'C ^ variation of only 5';' and 2-/j resp ctively for the 



inale and the fen^ale oontrlbutora. V/iccam'^' rer. rts out of 20=] retuxnc 

as drearlnn of tl.ln.n they abhor in wakinc l^.fe. Tnis lower flru.e i.ay 

probably be due to the strnncth of the idea of abhorepoe as contrasted 

vn-th that Of repulsivenes3. One thlrc at least is e,,arent fron the table. 

that the blind receive ideas of repvasivenesc as freely, ,s easily, and in 

practically the sa^ne proportion as do the seeing Superficially t;,is would 

seen a contradiction, since vision is so all -import ant. T.e repulsiveness. 

then, would beem to lie, not in the i^ediun by which it is transmitted 

to the blind, but in the relation of the nind itself to that object. It 

TOuld seem to be a quality possessed by the idea independently of sense 

perception, \!e ,,.ust not fail to notice in passins that the fer.ales reveal 

a hieher percentage of these dreams than do the m.iles. This fact is wholly 

in accordance with the more sensitive fem,inine mind. A woman will recoil 

from an object or situation which a man regards as quite comr.onplace. 

Table EC. 07 19. 

Blind Sicnted 

I.I F H p 

^^^ -2(69; ) 33 (60:) 7 (58^;) 4 (6O:;) 

^To 10 22 C 3 

• Here again we see a fairly close correlation between the dreams of 
the blind and of the sigiited. Two explanEtions nir-ht be offered for the 
excess of the blind over the seeinc; first, that the number of tJie latter is 
too small to ad_nit of any valid conclusions; second, that the blind, being 
deprived of sight, must depend more upon tlieir i- aginative powers than is 
required of thicse wh.o have vision. It goes wit: out saying that ir.acina- 
tion al^es victims of us all. A blind nei'son will hoar a sound and 
being unable to identify it, will construct a h^-pothetical caune» The same 



The same rdcht easily he transferred to drcvjnl.i I'e. The lliiitation of 
blindness oxTers j'et another solutioji vj'iich I will illustrate by exa nle. 

A sjiort ti' e Qco, as a pure jol:c, I sl.ov.ed a kitteji to a younc I'-dy 
T7hom I Icnev; to have u regular phobia for cats. Ciie v/as on t e oj^posite 
side of t]ie street, but irs-ediately t?olc tc flirht. Ilad she been va thovit 
sip:ht, I would have been eble to a nroach i":ear enough to allcw her to 
touch the aniiial. In tnis case the fear T/ould have been inteiisified by 
tlie close proxiniity of tfie 1- aclned danger. 

One I'lore peculiarity is noticeable in table 2C, najTiely, that fear Feens 
to be more i^'evalent in t iie nale eribers than in the female in case of t}ie 
blindo V/e naturally expr-.ct women to be raore sensitive to fear, as in the 
case of tlio sighted, but the condition is reversed for the blind. The 
answer is simple. It is nuite a cornon thinr; to see sightless nen goi^^C 
about the streets alone, even in crowded citjeso Girls and wcnen, however, 
without siGi''fc> ^-^'^' not seen out alone. I jave ore totall^ blind lady 
acquaintance wiio will not under any conditions cross the road alone in front 
of her hcne; while another irfonned me that she never ventured farther 
than the blcok in which sne lived. A sic'itlcss lady never r-ocs out except 
in company with someone upon whom she can dei'end. In this ociidition she does 
not ac uire a certain nervous tension t];,?t licr siglitless brother unconsciously 
assumes. She de.r-ends solely upon er rtiide. The blind rai!, on trc con- 
trary- mjist he alert tr^i atte tive, n:id I'ot 1'^ frequently ':ets ii'to hazardous 
places, he does net c:-nscic-.:sly feel fc r, but it is t: cro, nevertiielcss, 
in a verv subtle form, and crops out ordy in oxceyticnal cci^es. I do net 
mean to imnly that f e blind va; is in any red da gor unon the stroots. He 
uses his '.ars for eyes, a-d is rerfectly s?fe. It is morel the difference 



in habit between the sexes t}-ct 1 tyi trying; to onnhasize. Is t]iere any 
Tei\son for supposinr; th^t t.i-.is tendency nir,! t not enter into drevc-life as 
a predispoGinr, factor? Only a fev; Inatci'ccs did my papers np-cify the fenr- 
producinp- objec, so that the above is mere hypothesis, based upon uctur.;! 
v/akinc conditiors. TMs, lioviever, could be cde mately determined only from 
a study of c. lar^e number of dreams. The elonent of fear is v;i oily absent 
in my record; v;hile in th-it of , H. , v.ho became totally blind at thirty, 
and v;lio noycossod considerable siclit until lier twenty-sixth year, frirhtful 
objects, as do all others, ap^^ear visually as to a normal individual. 

Table 2Do 89 19. 

Blind Sighted 

M F II F 

Yes ,-39(97^) 57(95,1) 11 (CS;',) 6(86^) 

No 1 2 11 

The lo-i7ered percentaixs in this table on the psa'-t of the sl{:;-.ted erqu-oss 
nothinr but t)ie inade'juacv of these fi,n.ires, si: ce the^e is onl^- one in each 
sex claii.'J.ng not to have pleasant dreaj-is. 

But, tahinrj the fif;;ujes as they stand, they are corroberative of the 

assertion th'it tlie dream-life strives to ci'-''' us v;hat ne TJant in 7'akin,';-. 

40 
Certainly v/e idl v;ant pleasure, ,,'eed .-nd Vall:'jn report 'ho follcv/inr' 

f injures, based upon a total of .181 drea"'s. 

Pleasurable emotions in 140, neutral in ir:3y disacrecable in "lO. 

ronxoc'" records only tv;o pleasurable reactions, 29 ma' e or less painful 
out of a total of 117 dreai'.:-; containing e: ction. Ti>ese firaiv s -.vould seen 
to contradict the above table, bat not so. '..'ced and Ilallc.m's fifn'res arc based 
upon onlv seven subjects. Torroo has a total of 15 fc- ^le subjects, v.ho pl;icc 
in his h:ind3 ,".C7 drc-; s, but he fails to i-dicate tl'.c c uruatpv of tlie 
remainin:;: 170, T;hicn r.'i must su-^-pose to be neutral. }ic liJx'.'ino fails to 



charactrri: c t!ie romainin:: OG 'Ire.ur'.a out oi' t)ie 117 emotional ones. 
Ill addit:on, "nis subj-cts v/ero Irstructe'l to attend specifically to tlie typos 
of iina--,ery, ;jnd to tracinc the conne-;tioii of each dre-aiii T,'ith walcinc 
exoer'enec, so th.at the conolusicis of neitliri' of these autiors invri idate 
the resulLs of our table. Loth these aati.ors fail to state v/hether the 
eiiTotions arouss in correciiondfrnce to the por.'icns, places or situations 
in the dr< c'lc. :Jinco, in v/akinc life r.t Ifact, tl;e object or situation 
presenttd to the jndividua]. dctci-ninec; t e enoti ns, after making allov. ■■; ce 
for h.is nervous cons ititut ion, I s! all here introduce my table sijO'vinf the 
various er'otions. If I a'' not unj-ii dtul of tj.o eritoional rervci'sion in drea's, 
but since rv papers as a rule do not s^e.-ify th.c objects cai cin-j re:ul.':ion, 
fear, and pleasure, v.'o nay overlook th.e connection betv/een tlie erotion ai'd 
its ohj ct. 

Tfeblc 4--. ?1 18 
Elind oichtecl. 

7 

m 

27 
27 

2 10 

15 10 

2 

4 



Ilate 


4 


Love 


14 


Sf rrov/ 


f) 


Joy 


12 


jinvy 


1 


Fear 


21 


Sex 


n 


Pri de 


A 


r-ncer 


11 


Embarr- 




assment 


o 


Dream 




Zimotion 


10 


Unoiiiot- 




ional 


o 


jealousy 


1 



10 



The curv- on the next pare -.vill llluatrute tiiese ficures er-jiphicaHj^ . 

Jer;ell rsports tlint about hrJf Ids ouesticmaire retuniD, but does not 
specify the luunber, 3vy that tiieir dreojis tend to Tollov; t}io under cm-reit 
of tlieir eiaotional life. I siiall refrain from enuneratinp or discussinc 
any of the theories th.ut have been advanced to explain the origin of eiotion 
in drensia, end proceed at once to tne v.ce "idcli I Intend to i-ake of t.hia 
table. .J.I0V.' me first to state m;,- belief th;-t if the nupiber of sir: ted con- 
tributors equaled that of the blind, there v/ould be found Ijttle subjective 
differej-eeo The difference, if discoverable, r.'ould scarcely er-cecd that 
revealed in tables .niJ ?nd C. I do not think -.ve arc to infer, a- our tal-les 
\7ould indicate, that tiie blind are excessively emotional. I s'oLl tlierefore 
ignore the meacre fi^nres from the E;';hted, L:nd bare n:' conclusion upon the 
much fuller table fron the blind. 

A glance at the table reveals thut love, sorry, joy, fear, seaual 
excitation, and dream eiiotion, iv'.jch last includes all of most of tiie emo- 
tions v;it out indicatin?: any of them definitely, are the riost prominent in 
drea;>]-life„ These arc also, i^erhaps, ^-ost nroninent in raklnr, life. Pulinc 
out love, sc-:eiial excitation, and dreaJi er-otion, wiiich tliree are un^^uestionably 
connected and concerned 77itli the x sexual, v/e have left joy, sorrow, and 
fear. Y.or. I maintain that the.ee th-ree are also connected ^7ith the sexual 
and th£it to this connection is due their prominence in dreams. Let us ta^E 
a minute to investinate. 

'.Thatever else may excite joy, certain it is that this ei.otion is not 
absent from sexual excitation of any kind 7;"iatsoever. So r<.uc]i T;ill be 
adr-itted. Hy first poi'it is t en estallished. Su pose, faov?, tliat sexraul 
Cnatification is not obtalp'tble. Tlie subj-ct ray a ear and beliave per- 
fectly n'^riralo "et bene^^th the neneer of a'pearance there is an unrest, a 



dissatisfaction. Juppose onco r.ore t}iat precnancy has resv;l'ec). The 
prospective ■ ,ot '"cr is assuiled v;ith c host of hct; feellnpr., new so.-sations, 
new t-oucht.". In citier of these tvio sir positions, is it to bo. doubted that 
a subtle S'^rrov; v;iLl rot be uresent, even thoufh it is not specifica. ly 
defined by tiie subject? The sex life is intended to be C-^tified, but in 
that c^^iti-Tifation, or l''.ck of (gratification, It rnt^jls scrrov,'. jio'v for 
fear. Doubtless f e; r exerts a powerful restrainiic influeiice o^.cr the sex- 
ual in the case of the umaarried. Go- ventionaJ.ity, fear of probabl: con- 
sequences, fear of cc tractin; scne cr.e of ti e venereal diseases, ajl eater 
into this fear. 

In the event of prarnancy, assiminc t'lat t^e .air are narricd, tlcre is tiie 
fear on the part of the not]:er that she nay !iot survive, wiile tJia sa- e fear 
in behalf of t:;e notl'or is not absent fron the fatlier's rp.ind. I do act con- 
tend that all joy, fear, a d sorroT; are of ses'.ial oricin, I nerely hold t er' to 
be constituents of the sexijal. I no'.v addvoe t^eae six eroticrial states, Io"e, 
joy, sorrov;, fear, sexual excitation, an.'' dreaii cot ion, as a confer' ati on of 
Freud's t'-eory relative to the rr'pond-rar.ce of the sexual in the production 
of our drea- a. If v;e rccoynize all t/iase to be related to the aexur-l as I 
hold t-ievi to be, there ou^-ht to be r.o difficulty in nal:in£: tiie adduction 1 
have T;ade. hi-en ti ese e-^otions a ear in a areata, they nay be recn.rdrd as 
attached to so- c object or situation '■;' ich is coacealing soietiiiG oH a 
sexual nature. Doubtless the tv;o cases of c^^barrass'iont , and tl'ose of jealoucry 
if v,'e lanev; tl:o cxcitinc cause, would ra-dil;- yield up their sexual connection. 

It is yjita noticeable fror even a h.asty cX^^oe at t}.G table that the 
fcrales are ^rcatl^- in excess ever tlie r-alas in their enotion?! life. Cnly 
in case o^ fr^ r do the r'.alcs exceed, •_ ■ d f is is nor? than counterbalaiccd by 
the dreari crotion. The arju- cnts in favor of fear as one of the conconitaats 



of the cc:oirJ., ever, thoufjli tliG:ce Ic nore reL.con iov this eniibtion on tb.p pj^rt 
of the fcD-j.le than of thn "-le, are not therefore i "Validated. 

Table DU. ZB 17. 
Elind Sic'l'ted 

:; F " I.I y 

Yes 10(07,:) K-UK) 5(04'/.) 7(07,',') 

Eo IC 17 11 

The al normally hirj^' iiercentQ[:e indicated by the sighed rales is dno, 
untuectionably, to the criallnecs of the fic'J'SG. The same fact ae^' s to hold 
VJith respect to the ot'ier ficures, for the ci:_htless females, t:! ic'' .~io up 
offers the I'^r.^-'^-t niri^er of ansT.'ers, presents at the same time the lf.i77est 
affirr.ative rcrce ";t?p-e. V.'l^cam indicat'^s th^t nan;.' of her contributors :.:reari 
of the thinrs u.-^per-'iost In tlieir riinds in wahinc life, particularly of t'neir 
ambitions: but she cites inst-'^jices from younc adolescents alriost exclusively. 
It T/ould seen, however, tliat ambition does net enter constantly into drca.is, 
for many of my subjects state th t they dream only occasionally of the ful- 
fillment of treir ambitions. Any deduction from this table would be ex- 
ceedingly hazardous, since the fieures indicate that the answers are sufficient. 









Table 


CF, 0. 


L 17. 








Frequent 


Bl: 
li 
3(H9,-) 


Lnd 


F 

25 (42^) 




I.I 

7(e-<:: 


Sichtf 
) 


3d 


F 
2(33',') 


Rare 


10 (ro:) 




28(47;:) 




4(3G>: 


) 




^(267. 


Ko, 


«-/ 




7 













Table 2G 70 9 
Elind SiEhted 



I.I 
Livine 17 (04;: 



F n F 

37(73^) '1(C7';') 2(07',; 



Dead 5(1G;.) ^(G-) 2(3^^ K^^^) 



Both 



5(10';:) 11 (2i;;) 



Tabic ^H. G8 G 



Blind 



SJc";!'ted 



Joy 



5(24; 



Indifl'er- 5(24', 

ence 

Sorrow 3(14' 

Sa'^e as in 
T/akinG life8(S8-J 

Fear 



ib(3b:.;) 

^-(9;:.) 
13(2Bf:) 

12(?5f.) 



2(55^) 

3(50;".) 

1(17,;) 



i(Eo;:) 



Dre;]Lni3 of the dead are ojiite coKi"on; but to tl^.e individual unacaiai-'tod T?ith 
drearas other tlian his o\7n, it inirht seer stran^-e that there should be exhibited an 
attitude so out of kcepirn vrith death as is joy or indifference. ;ji crarii'-aticn 
into the t, pes of these dread's throws but little lieht upon tlie inouii'y cortainod in 
the above statf-ront. h'e note fror_ table EC- th-.it the largest peroentace of these 
answering tlie 'uestion drears, of t}iem as liY.'.r.r, but tlus does not correspond v::th 
those 7;ho desi:3nate their attitude as joyf'i.l, oinilar inconsistencies exist v/ith 
respect to the otl'er attitudes or e:'otions„ Table r.F shows us that nest people at 
scr.e time or other dream of the dead, either as living or as dead, t;:ou£;h a creater 
number of people have these dreans but rarel:;. 'Jinoe no quentitative dif fere^-ccs 
that can be relied UT)on a--::cai', either in respect to sex, or by v;av of ccmparison 
bet.veen tiie blind and the seeing, the differences being too fluctuating in 
re ard to sux, or .ased upon too srall figures Iron tiio s:g]ited, ..'e sliall Ui rn to 
the origin of such dreams. 

i'myone v/iio has passed through a bereave '--nt is struck with tl;e fact tb t tlie 
lost, contrary to e::pectation, do^s not a pe r in drca-.s. Sue), a cc;iditic:; cf 
affairs dem,andr, an ejrnlanation, v.-hich is cffersd by l^Slage, whose t oory .'us 
rcviGv.od on •'.-j. o i:: of t-iis v;cn'>, bt v; ich v,i]] be- r ve^^etition ^cre jn t':i: 
connection, hv-r icV.^:, says helag-, is e do^ed :;it- a certain ..r-ou t o" i: tergal 
force. If t-us zur^ 1/ is ;!e-..vily drav;n u. on during th- da; , as in the care of 
d^ath, there ir n< t sufficient energy left -t --i^-ht tc r^.iae th-t iO-. tc tho 



level of ocnr-cicurnsss; Lonoe the failure of thz^t id-a to a^ p-..r in drer-c. 
-Ji uninpcrtant idea, on t; r cmtrary, retui?^c its enercy, and ec ia enabl-d 
to rine to ccnrciousnc';" j.n cle-m. I v;ill r.,:- ote U6la/(ce. 

"En rf:,':l(= c^r.'.'^rale Ir^ jd^ec Ciui v.nn obG'5d''; 1 'esprit pendavt 2a vcillc 
no revic-r-iienl. rnc en ev6; on r.o rov- dec iv^noir.cnts important squc Icrs^ue 
I'Spoquo ou ils prCoccuriait 1' esprit a un Kaut docr6 c'est eloicn^e." 

Vflien tlie ',7-i:irK- turaO.t lius r-nh-ided, IcEceninG t' ereby the draft U])on t'le 
inter-nal eiinrc.' of the idoa, the experience of vj"iic>i that idea is reprose-.tative 
beeins to force itself into drea^- conscicuGness. '.fnen re seek to delve i\to 
th.e orifjin of Lhic qtovv of di'e.-jj^.s, v/e mrat +i'rn to Jii.^jnurd Freud. 

As cur tables i"/:iicate, tlie dreaner frecuently r.anifests unconcern tc .ard 
the dead in pia drea:ia. T'-iiG is iner^rrli cable until v?e are in possession of t:'.e 
latent drea^^i thouriits, vhen it becoy-es at once a parent t>iat the death id a ic 
merely serving as a cloa^-; to a ^lore ir'portar.t but suppressed mental corrde:;, 
Th^ drean r is vot interded to re' ard sericusl;- the idc-e. of d.atb., a. d sl decs 
not. Ore of i'reud's patients fur^is'ies an GxaJiple. j;-.e dreamed of the de.-th 
of her nephev . but fe'.t no ci'ief. -Jialysis revealed thut at tiie funeral of 
another nephev/ she hr,s :;et tlie nan 7iJici:i she Ic-ec, but froin v;hoiii she i.ad been 
separated by t'le ccntrivance of her people; a:'d that she t}ien, at the th';e of 
the drear, had a tichet to a concert v/j.ere she e:qoected to see ti^e ^an. Th.e 
dream therefoi'e anticipa ed by a fer; hcurs her e7;pectation„ L'f ccK.rse slie 
felt no sorro"'. 

',7e have already beccire fa iliar rith t e v;ish-fulf illii^q attribute of 
drear.G, and Me shall non see if t is v.'ill a ply to t'.o t^—'e of dre?;is under 
crnsideratiop. -•-s c'-ildre-' v;e ver; often, T'^en s(-et Inc crosses o)ir natii, v.ish 
either tli;'t v;n die, or that the offendin;: part;- die. Of courre th^ce v;is- es 
become repressed os 7;e r,To;-i older, but tliey arc reverth.el'-ss retaJned in the 



sub-conscious mind. In this state these wishes may slumber on for years, until 
a favorable opportunity offers, when they come to the surface of consciousness 
in dreams, unrecognized by us as our own creations. This, in general, aay 
operate irespective of sex, 

V/hen, however, we find, as we so often do, that the son or daughter dreams 
of the death of the parent of his or her sex and manifeats joy or indifference 
toward the situation, we must seek another explanation. This we find in the 
so-called Oedipus Complei, Every normal individual is so constructed as to de- 
mand sexual gratification. This includes, not only the gross sexual, but 
companionship with the opposite sex, thoughts, imaginations, and reveries center- 
ing about sex, and many more subtle manifestations. This craving is not absent 
even from young children, so that we find the daughter becoming attached to the 
father, and the son to the mother. The child, too, often projects himself into 
imagination into the place of the parent of the same sex, who thus becomes, as it 
were, a rival for the favor of the other parent. The child often exhibits un- 
bounded joy when the absence of his rival parent makes it possible for him to 
realize more nearly his desires. Of course I do not wish to be understood '"'at 
the child has any idea of sexuality in the comr:only accepted sense of that 
word, Tliis attachment between the child and parent of opposite sexes is vlat 
Freud has termed the oedipus complex. In dreams of the adult it often finds 
expressions in actual intercourse. In normal individuals the oedipus complex 
is suppressed with growth in years, but analysis of drear.s of the death of the 
parent of the saine sex readily reveals the true basis. In such dreams we 
invariably find joy or indifference exhibited, never sorrow, sjonpathy, awe, cr 

kindred emotions. 

Turning now from Freud, we will conclude tliis discussion with a few 
additional remarks. If, after the death of a beloved relative or friend, tlie 



'J 



bereaved person dreams of that friend or relative as dead, there is apt to 
accompany the dream a keen sense of realization of the truth, and the sleeper 
will dream in sorrow. One of my contributors vrrites that during the past 
year and a half since her father's death, to whom she was deeply attached, she 
has dreamed of his funeral five times, and each time awakened in tears. 
Apparently this is an exception to the wish- fulfilling motive of the dream, but 
the absence of the analytic associations will prevent a discussion of this 
matter. If the dead appear in the dream as living, it may be due either to a 
wish to see and communicate with them once more, or to Inability on the part 
of the dreamer to realize the truth of the death of the friend or relative. 
Again, in real life we entertain and display all manner of attitudes toward 
death, ranging from the keenest sorrow to almost complete indifference, de- 
pending upon the relation of the dead to ourselves. In the dreams we find the 
same variability of attitude exhibited, but depending in this case largely 
upon the purpose of the dead in each particular dream. 

Let us now consider the relation of our dreams to our weiking experience. 
Table 21 will give us the necessary data. 



Table 2 1, 70 17 



Sighted 

M F 

3(27>o) 5(50^;) 

4(36fs) 3(50f.) 



Accepting the table of fig\ires for the blind, we find that there is a 
slight sex difference, that the females seen to dream over the events of the 
preceeding day to a somewhat greater extent than do the males. This fact is 
perfectly in accord with Delage's theory of the internal energy of ideas. 



Altered 


Blind 
M 
16(59fo) 


F 
28(64fo) 


Exact 


1{^) 


zm) 


Both 


3(11/.) 


4(9fo) 


Neither 


7 


10 



The monotony of female life as compared T7ith the variability of that of the 
male would, upon this hypothesis, tend to produce exactly this result. This 
same sex difference is found among the blind in virtue of the greater in- 
dependence of the boys. During school life, and these statistics came moe tly 
from pupils in schools, this difference is less marked. But during the 
vacation it becomes widened, since the girl without sight, unless she has 
Interested friends, is left to while away her time as best she may, usual ly 
at some monotonous task, or else in sheer idleness. It would seem plausable, 
too, that the blind should more often dream of the experiences of the previous 
day than do the seeing, owing to the limited opportunities of the foriuer; but 
in the absence of adequate figures from the sighted, such a conclusion would 
be hazardous. 

Closely akin to t!:is question is that of the prominence in dreams of 
thoughts uppermost in the mind in waking, which vdll now receive our considera- 
tion. 

Table 2J, 79 17 

Blind Sighted 

M F M r 

Yes 20(69^5) 36{803t) 7(64^.) 5(83^;) 

No 9 9 4 1 

It is currently believed, though often refuted by prolific dreamers, 

that the thoughts, ideas, experiences, etc, upp ermost in the mind in waking 

life enter into dreams. Several remarkable dreams have been produced in 

proof of this belief, among which we may mention that of Prof, Hilprecht 

as the most notablso M-SS Wiggam found thut 29 out of 222, 13?!-, dre;jned of 

things upper; lost in their :'inds in waking. Our table shows us three things: 

A, that the belief is not altogether groundless; B, that there is probably 

no quantitative difference between the blind and the sighted in this respect; 

C, that there is a sex difference. The firures agree more closely thai 





Blind 






M 


F 


According) 


21(73J^) 


48(89^) 


to dream) 


8 


6 



insufficient figures, but for the most part inexplicable. Some dreai.iB ^thout 
a doubt are fulfilled, and the fulfillment is easily explained; while with 
others it seems as if some miraculous agency T?ere at work, Llany so-called ful- 
filled dreams are such only by virtue of interpretation, some incident in 
waking life being twisted to fit the conditions. But consideration of this 
nature need not detain us longer. 

Table 2L. 81 16 

Sighted 

M F 

5(50^.) 3(50f.) 

5 3 

Jewell shows that about one half the returns he received claimed to 
experience no effect from the dream, which coincides exactly with the figures 
from the sigl:ted in our table. Evidently, thep,, the blind are more strongly 
influenced by their dreams than are the seeing. Only a knowledge of the life 
and conditions incumbent upon loss of vision can furnish ns with the key to 
this problem, Vision is so all-pervasive in its potentiality that the flocd. 
of impressions and sensations derived through this channel quickly dispels 
any effect that the dream might have, Y7ith this channel closed, the mind has 
greater leisure to turn in upon itself. The effect of any impression cam ot be 
so quickly dissipated. This has been assumed to be the fact, but those who 
advance it have exaggerated beyond all bounds the difference in this respect. 
It is probably, however, d-rspite our figures, that the majority of persons, even 
including the sighted, are more or less subtlely effected by t.eir dreams, 
at least, during the earlier hours of the daj', y 

To summarise the chapter, then, we find; A., that nigiitmare isnot so 
coraiiion as supposed, and is of sexual originK; B, that repulsiveness is a mental 
not a visual property, and is therefore shared by the blind; C, that the blind 
are slightly more predisposed to fear than are the seeing, and the male blind 



might be expected from the smallness of those from the sij^hted. This very 
fact T/arns us to beware of attributing to the sightless man any psychic 
peculiarities differentiating hin from Lis seeing conpanion, Differei.ces 
there are, indeed, but they must be proved, not assuiaed as heretofore. Of 
course, it is not to be xmderstood that these dreams occur with any greet 
degree of frequency, for most of my ansvrers indicate their raxity. Does this 
table, then, contradict the theory of DSlage? I think not. In the first 
place it is ouite clear that intense grief is more exorbitant in its demaitl a 
upon energy than are the ordinary ideas which preoccupy the mind, so that any 
important idea during the day might easily retain sufficient energy to make 
itself felt in dreams. In the second place, DSlaxge does not state the whole 
truth. Tie have already noted the capricious nesa of dream memory, and this 
may have something to do with the results of the table before us. At any 
rate, it is cuite certain that we occasionally dream of that which is uppeirxast 
in the mind when awake o 

The sex difference, which is here quite narked in both classes, is 
explicable, I believe, on the same principle as are many other similar 
differences, namely, the m.onotony of the feminine life as compared with tl-e 
masculine. Even under the best conditions, the girl is restrained by con- 
ventionality to a greater extent than is the boy, which would tend to minir.ize 
the draft upon her energy, thus giving free play to DSlage's prii.clple. 

Not infrequently do we he^^r of dreams being fulfilled, so that a oiestion 
was framed upon this point in the questionaire. The following table gives the 

results. 

Table 2K 75 17 
Blind Sighted 

M F H F 

Yes 18(58fo) 17 (39?^) 2 (18f.) 2(33f.) 

NO 13 27 9 4 

This table expresses a confusion and heterogeneity due partially to 



more than the female; D, that pleasant dreams occur to the vast majority of 
persons, blind or seeing; E, that the females are more emotional than the 
males, and that those emttions most akin to the seiual axe most prominent 
in dreams; F, that ambition enters into dreams, but to a very uncertain 
extent; G, that the blind differ little from the sighted with respect to dreams 
of the dead, and that such dreams often represent wish fulfillment; H, that 
the events of the proceeding day figure more prominently In the dreaiis of the 
females than of the males; I, that the same sex difference is discernible 
■with respect to prominent 77aking thoughts and experiences; and J, that the 
blind axe more strongly effected by their dreams than are the sighted. 



A Qonparatlve Study of Drear;s of the blind and of the 
Sighted, with special Reference to Freud's Theory. 

Chap. 4. 
Sensations iind I'.ental Processes in Dreans of the Llind and of 
the Sighted. 

Resuming our comparative study of the dreair.s of the blind and of the 
seeine at tlie point where it v;as dropped in the preceeding chapter, r.Q shall 
survey the riass of evidence placed at our disposal by returns to sections three 
and four of the questionaire. Our attention is therefore first attracted to 
dreams of flying and of falling, in connection •nith vihich are inserted tables 
5A and B. 

Table 3A. 89 16 
Blind 



Flying 


M 
6 


3 


11 

l&fo 


F 

5f. 


Falling 


8 


26 


E4r^ 


46fo 


Both 


8 


18 


24f. 


ZZio 


Neither 


11 


9 




l&'^o 





Sighted 




M 


F 
1 


M 


F 
17^ 





5 




BZ'^o 


10 





9lfo 




1 





9r. 





Table 3B found on next page. 

Little nore is accor-plished by this table than to establish stnti stictCLly 
the fact that such drearis, designated by Havelock Ellis as aviation drears, 
are not altogether unlmoTm. I can, therefore, make no deductions fron these 
figures. Table 5B, hov/ever, v;hen taken into consideration ■.;ith other geographical 
matter, reveals one interesting feature, nanely, that those T3ho associate their 
dreams of flying and of falling rith precipices live in lianover, Gerr.an^r; Utah 
and North Carolina. 



'.(, 



Ttib^e 3B 50 

Precipice, 10, 

Bed, 2, 

r/indow, 2, 

Staircases, 8, 

Holes, 7, 

Buildings, 3, 

Fallins backward, 1, 

Top of hich objects, 2, 

Falling in water, 2, 

Cellar, 2, 

Stone \7all, 1 

Bridges, 6, 

Lcdder, 1, 

Rocking chair, 1, 

Great height, 4, 

Flying nachine, 1, 

Caverns, 1, 

Hills, 4, 

IvLacliiner , 1, 

bear pits, 1, 

Building construction, 1. 

No other definite geographical traces were discernible. In the case where 
the flying machine figures as the associated object, we may consider it de- 
notative of sex, as it T?as given by a male; -.-rhile rocking chair and bed cone 
from femfiles. 



As to the cause of this dream aviation, Ellis T7ould ascribe it to 
respiratory, cardiac, or CQstric disturbcuiceo, accompanied by a eupersen- 
aitiveness of the !)kin in dreutis of fallin;:, or by derrral anaesthesia in 
the event of flying. These two factors tocether make it possible for 
subjectivation to occur, and the dreamer either falls or flies, depending upon 
the appropriate alteration in the skin sensitivity. In case of object ivation 
the dreamer becomes a passive spectator while a dream personality perforps 
the feat. 

C§3ar de Desme affirms that dreams of flying constitute an hallucinatoyy 
phenomenon of an exclusively physiological kind, and ore not an evidence of 
the existence of an astral body. 

G. Stanley Hall, evidently forgetting that he is discussing dream.s of 
flying, says that "Vi'e have here a faint, reminiscent, atavistic echo from the 
primeval scene, and that such dreams are really survivals of psychic vestigial 
remains com.parable to the rudim.entary gill slits not uncomr.only found in man 
and other mammals, taking us back to the far past v.hen man's ancestors 
needed no feet to svjim or float." 

Freud, hov;ever, infoiViS us that both dre&' s of flying and of falling 
are manifestations of sexual symbolis:% Ellis }:as doubtless civen us the 
cause of at least many of tl'.ese drea-ts, ?.'hile Freud has reve:.led their 
significance. 

The author would beg to m.ake a modest suggestion through the medium of 
an illustration. Several ye^rs ago I had a dream in which I feil into a 
cistern from V7hich all the water had been drawn. As I awoke almost 
instantaneously, I was enabled to verify by introspection, corroberated by 
report, that I had, by a nervous erqilosion, made a vertical Jur.p. In this 
case the falling actually occurr- d, but was Y;oven into the dream of the 
cistern. 



In turning nov/ to the nost sicnificant group of questions before us for 
solution, it is first necessary to peruse carefully the fourteen accompanying 
tables, 59 — Q ts. inclusive, excepted. For this group of questions I have 
obliterated sex distinctions, because they proved valueless, and have divided 
my answers into three groups, the first group containing those individuals T(ho 
lost their sight before the close of the fifthyear; the second, those who became 
blind betvjeen the fifths and seventh years; and the third, tliose who lost their 
sight after the seventh year. The reason for this classification v;ill foilovi. 
One 7;ord of v/arning. No correlation between the figures in table 3C and those 
in any other table of this group is to be sought, because in nnsv7ering question 
3C manj^ persons indicated two, and some tliree groups of sensations •i7iiich seer.ed 
to them to be of e^^ual inportanoe in their drears. It mas imppssible to draw 
the expected distinction as to frequency and inportanoe of these various grouiE 
of sensations, since only one contributor out of the 89 drew this distirction. 

As indicated at the opening of this treatise, there are two pioneers in 
dreams of the blind, Jastrow, and Heermann, Both found that ".hen vision was 
lost prior to the beginning of the sixth year, no dream vision, the term designa- 
ting the faculty of seeing in dreains, was to be noted. 

Table 3C. 89, 17 
Blind Sighted 

16 
3 

7 

r 





Visual 





3 


17 


Auditory 


29 


4 


20 


Tactile 


21 


2 


8 


Iv'iuscular 


7 


1 


5 


Gustatory 


6 





1 


Olfactory 


1 





1 


Temperature 


1 





2 


Intuition 


2 









The term intuition is used to desicnate nere conscious- 
ness of surroundines, not perceived thxoucli i.ny special 
sense channel. 

Table 3D 80, 16 
Yes 3 3 29 16 

No 38 2 5 

Table 5E 32, 16 

Frec^uent 1 3 19 15 
Rare 2 7 1 

Table 3F. 32, 16 

Distinct 1 3 16 14 
Blurred 2 10 2 

Table 3G 30, 15 

Yes 1 3 25 12 

No 2 3 

Table 3H 31, 16 

Yes 3 3 25 15 

Ho C) 1 

Table 31 85, 18 
Yes 44 4 22 6 

Wo 7 19 12 

Table 3J 73, 12 

V/ide 33 3 18 8 

Limited 14 8 4 

Table 31: 83, 18 

Yes 16 1 14 4 

llo 34 4 14 14 

Table 3L 91, 18 
Yes 30 3 21 6 

No 29 9 12 



Table 31.1. 86, 18 
Yes 34 C 22 12 

No 16 2 10 6 

Table 3N 66, 10. 

General 11 5 6 

Localized 27 2 21 4 

Table 3P 76, 18 

Tes 32 2 20 8 

No 16 1 5 10 

Table 30, 79, 17 

Yes 35 2 21 14 

No 13 8 3 

32 and 14 persons in this class are reported by the respective men. If sight 
failed betvfeen the fifth and seventh years, dream vision occurred in f) ur out 
of six of Jastrow's subjects, and in two out of four of Heermann's. 20 and 25 
subjects respectively were reported as losing their sight after the seventh 
year, and all see in their dreans. It is nore important here to bear in mind 
the distinction made at the beginning of chapter 3, that only subjects are in- 
cluded in this classification vjho are either totally blind, or who can barely 
distinguish light from darkness. 

JastroT; deduces the folloT/ing theory in explanation of the facts as head 
Eeermann found them. The brain reaches its maximum size at, or sJiortly after 
the eighth year. Prior to this period all t]\e centres are sirnltuneously de- 
veloping. It requires at le^st five ye-rs for the visual centres to attain 
sufficient development so that they may maintain their activity if dcprivedof 
external retin-.il sti ul-tion; hence decay of the occipital centres sets in if 
sight is destroyed during the first five years of life. The possibility of 
maintaining independent, internal, visual activity vrhen the brain is deprived 



A' 



of external stimulation depends upon the previous development of these 

centres; hence from the fifth to the seventh year is the critical period. 

But after the seventh year the occipital centres are capable of riaintuining 

their activity, even when deprived of external retinal stimulation. Jastro? 

haa probably surmised the correct cause of the facts as he found them, bit I 

shall produce evidence in this chapter to shov; that his divisions cannot be 

too arbitrarily made. 

In the matter of cerebral development, it is interesting to note LU.£s 
42 
Shinn's observations made upon her niece. She discovered that during the 

third year a child acquires a fair knoT/ledge of the principle colors, which 

indicates, I believe, consider, blenent development of the visual centres. There 

is, then, unlecs her niece were precocious in this respect, but one inference 

possible, namely, that tTJO years at le;;st is required after this period to 

insure sufficient stability of the occipital centres as to enable them to 

maintain their activity independently of external retinal stimulation. 

In his study of dreams of the blind, Jastrow states that it is comm.only 
believed that those r.lio lose their sight at the fourth, tlilrd, or even second 
year, retain some traces of visual imagery, but that it has not yet been 
possible to discover them.. I shall nofv discuss three cases in vjliich si ght 
V7as lost before the close of the fifthjr year, and in which dream vision has 
been retained. 

Nancy J., 46, who became totally blind at tlrree years, has frequent 
dream vision. Not only does form appear, but more remarkable, color also. 
She is able to describe objects naturally and intelligently in visual tenr.s. 
Her ans?:ers to many and various questions bore close scrutitijr from a competent 
judge, I was unable, hov;ever, to ascertain vihether there is any precocity 
in the familv. Her images are in every respect quite clear and distinct, and 
conform, exactly to her r.aking visualization. 



Dorothea Ivayer, 25, bec-.irie totaUy blind at the beginninc of her 
fourth year, -ud yet retains visual in..ces in her drea;Tis. These, ];of; ever , 
are infreciuent, and are devoid or color. Tlie visualized objects conform 
to her wakinc i'-aeery, but are only indistinctly visualized. 

Paul E., 22, who is consenitally blind, distinguishing only light fm 
darkness, reports that he has had one drean visual ir'aee. It consisted uerely 
of a brilliant flash of licht, more btilliont than his miking ir.agination has 
ever permitted him to conjure up. Helen Ileller reports u sinilar phenomenon 
in her account of her dreams as reproduced by Jastrovj. 

These three cases have been verified by careful and minute .uestions; 
hence prove that the visual centres may, at least in exceptional cases, attain 
sufficient development before the fifth year to give rise to internal activity 
independent of esternal retinal stimulation. An investigation of three other 
cases 7ms atterjpted, but no replies vrere received, hence their ansvjers on 
vision were rejected. One other case, ho^vever, deserves mention. 

Frances L., 21, who became totally blind at six months of age, maij.tained 
that she occ.:.sionally had dream vision. In a dream she saw a man v/hom sbe ted 
met for the first ti; e the previous day, and v.as surprised to learn later 
that she had received a correct inage of him in the dream. The ir.age -.7as r.ot 
detailed, ho7;ever, and she kno'.vs nothing of color. In the actual meeting of 
the previous day, she had form.ed an idea of his height, eund that . is manner 
was pleasing. Not very much could, under the circumstances, have been added 
in the dream. She does not give her dream picture. One or two explanations 
may be offered. Her dream worked over and utilized in^^ressions received 
sub-consciously during the previous day, combining them in a thought or wcrd 
picture. She m.ay have confused the later description of the man with the 
dream, remembering the composite picture thus formed as the dream. Probably 



both these explanations contribute elements to the situation. She asserts 
that she is never able in v/aking life to visualize, not even in reverie. 

In contrast to' this group of cases, let us no;" pass to a consideration 
of two instances where blindness after the seventh year is follov.en by a 
total lack of drean vision. 

James J., 20, was attacked at one year of age by a fever whicli iripaired 
his vision. He was able, however, to enter the public schools at six, where 
he continued till nine, making nomal progress. At this period liis sight be- 
gan to fail, which caused his withdrawal from school. At fourteen, after 
a steady diminution of vision, he was totally blind. 

Dolores D., 22, was unusually active as a child. At nine an accident 
destroyed the sight in one eye, followed by sympathetic inflammation in the 
other, leaving her totally blind within a few months. She attended the 
Colorado School for the Blind, and at present is just completing her first year 
in college. 

Jaines J, does not say whether or not he has a memory of color, nor of 
fonn as perceived visually, but he does not visualize in waking or in drea. s, 
Dolores D,, on the other hand, has a perfect remembrance of colors, is able 
to visualize form, features, and outline in her waking imagination and reveries, 
but her dream-life is devoid of all traces of dream vision. 

As to the group who became blind betT.een the fifth and seventh years, 
two never have dream vision, three do, one of thc-se, L!ary C, who becurre 
totally blind at five and a half years, very frequently and distincijy, includ- 
ing color. 

Jastrow has doubtless drawn the true dividing.: lines, but tlie five 
cases alre-:;dy cited, togetl:er with tlie tiiree unverified ones, which were di s- 
carded, prove that the lines cannot be arbitrarily detcrlned. Precocity 
must be reckoned with, and other factors, at present unidentif .■ ed, are likely 



fc'f 



to intervene and destroy dream vision, even where sight is retained until 
after the critical period. 

Jastrov; [_;ives the averc^ce age of loss of sight for those v;ho have 
color vision in dreujiis as 16.6 years, v;hich is v,onderfully meanincless, ^s I 
shall presently demonstrate. I find on ny list 28 persons nho have colcr 
vision, the tiii;e at which loss of sight occurred varying from three to thirty- 
five years, giving an average of 13.43 years, or 3.17 years less than Jastrow's 
average. If I rule out the three persons v<ho becEDae blind between 24 ani 35, 
I reduce my average to 11.48 years. It therefore becomes clear that such in 
average is v;ithout meaning. 

jlnother question of interest which naturally arises is, do the blind rver 
dream of reading tactile prints?. Jastro\: is of the opinion that this rarely 
or never occurs. Sighted persons read in dreams with their eyes, why should 
not the blind read with their fingers? Me will seek our answer in the 
figures of the following table. 

Table 30. 85, 17 

12 3 

Yes 30 59-;; 1 20^0 14 4Cfj 6 35f= 

No 21 4 15 11 

This table proves conclusively that tactile reading in dreams is r.ot 
unknown, and that it is mo^t likely to occur where the subject has been bltdd 
from early dhildhood. Those who have first learned the ink-print seldom 
dream of tactile reading, and when they do, it is frequently very unsatisfactory. 
In some instances the dreamer is unable to ascertain whether he read Point or 
Braille. r,!uny of my contributors have read and remembered entire letters, 
and I myself, before one of the final exa^.inatio^3 of the fall tem, in the 
university, read one of the questions which failed to appear in the list 
next day. Tie may then consider this (;uestion settled. 



V 



Jastro'.v reports the ctise of a young nun who visualized the objects nd 
scenes of Iiis childhood, but never those of his post blindness period, 1^ 
questions did not enable ne to Gather any siriilar material. One girl related 
to me, hoTfever, that she occasionally dreams of being in a ■wood v/ith a numbe 
of people, and sees everything distinctly, until her companions in fun run 
avfay and hide, when she is unable to see anything, A man who lost his sight 
at seventeen al\Tays visualizes in dreavis, except when he mal:es a conscious 
effort to do so, v;ben liis visual activity ceases. 

In the absence of vision in dretms, we are confronted with the problem <f 
ascertaining the relative importance of the other senses, Jastrow here found 
that he ring v;as first, which is borne out by table 2C, tactile standing next 
in importance. These two senses together serve the sightless inthe stead d 
vision. Audition would naturally supersede touch because of the wider range 
of the former. 

By way of comparison between the blind and the sighted, the fo lowing 
table in per cents is instructive. The first column represents the total of 
S81 dreams of seven sighted subjects, reported by '.Veed and Ilallam; the second 
is based upon 116 dreams from I'arie H. , who became blind at thirty; while tie 
third column is derived from 177 dreams of my own. I might add that I lost 
my sig'it at seventeen months of age. 



Visual 


9555 


9lf, 


00^ 


Auditory 


69f. 


72f. 


875J 


Tactile 


OOfl. 


27;!' 


6Z'/o 


Muscular 


00^: 


51^'. 


ear. 


Gustatory 


06f. 


02^:^ 


05fj 


Olfactory 


07;: 


08';' 


085' 



These figures merely Indicate the possible tendency in the respective 



conditions, but statistics of this nature, baaed upon a large number of 
dre;un diaries, are needed in ord.r to ussicn to each £roup of sensations its 
proper place in importance in dreans, bot}; of the blind and of the si^hfeea In 
my discussion I have left out of account the flcurcs from the sigi.ted, becau3 e 
of their meagreness. The first column in the above table is representative 

of the general concensus of opinion, and must suffice. 

43 
Titschener seems to be of the opinion that taste dreams are a rarity. 

The above table largely supports that idea, yet it reveals a fair number of 

gustatory dreams. In my own case the taste has often persisted after awakening. 

Table 4B. 69, 16 

Blind Sighted 

M F M F 
6 4 60^0 67 





M 


F 


M 


F 


Yes 


19 


31 


68/j 


76 


No 


9 


10 















Table 4 C 


72, 


17. 








II 


F 


M 


F 


F 


F 


M 


F 


Yes 


9 


19 


29^1 


46fb 


9 


1 


82^. 


17?; 


No 


22 


22 






2 


5 







The second of these two tables is too confused to adrdt of utilir,ation. 
The two v/ere introduced together by 7;ay of contrast. ]3oth sj-ow that reasoiing 
is an i:iTportant factor in dream-life, thouch, as one of my papers expressed it, 
it is "Unreaconable reasoning-." Ellis affirms the dominance of reasoning, 
pointing out that its fallaciousness is due to the materi'ils at the cormand 
of the slumbering brain. Freud, on the other hand, maintains that reasoning 
does not take place in the dream itself, but that it is transferred bodily from 
the latent content. At any rate v;e find reasoning present in the dream. The 
best examples of correct reasoning are to be found in the field of I.lathem.atics, 
though other instance s are not unkaown. I shall cite one instance of correct 
reasoning from mj' ovm dreams. 

A fevf nig'ts ago I dreamed that Dr. L. informed me th:-t only the comp- 



letion of the composition of this thesis 7.-as recutred by the first of June, 
and that I had till June ^2 to make and file the tv;o copies vjith the department. 
I calculated th t June P.Z cane on Sunday, counting forv;ard from June IB, 
corar.-.en cement day, which is Viednesday, andthat, to be safe, I would have to He 
my copies of the thesis on Saturday, June 21, I thought it stroiige that I 
should be allo\-;ed to graduate before completing my work. 

In normal T/aking life vje find manifested all degrees of observation, 
varying from the n-.ost detailed scrutiny to the perception of mere aitline. I 
was anjcious to see if these individual differences v.ere discoverable in dreams, 
and accordingly I framed a question to this effect, the results of vvhid- are 
given In the follcwing table. 

Table 4D. 82, 16 

M F H r II r i-i F 

Yes 18 32 60f. 62/. 5 4 45f. 60^J 

No 12 20 6 1 

By personal interviev/s I Tfas permitted to ascertain in a nu-'ber of cases 
that the habit of observation in vraking life is transferred to the drean state. 
Those who observe minutely when awake, therefore, tend to do so in their cteaJtB . 
The sex difference of 35f. for the sig'^ited in the above table will not be con- 
sidered, as it probably indicates nothing more than lack of material. There 
is this to be noted, however. Illnuteness for the seeing differs widely ftm 
minuteness for the blind. Vision enables the subject to make a much tier dis- 
crimination of details than is perndtted by any of the other senses. On the 
other hand, cultivt.tion of audition a. d touch by the blind gives ther in these 
respects a superiority over the seeing. T- is surcriority is gre _ tly exag- 
gerated by current belief, however. -Jiy sighted individual co ,ld easily, vdth 
a little atteition directed to the cultivation of touch and he:;rinc, rE ke 
rapid improvements in these two senses. T is proble- of minuteness, then, is 



still open er invest!. /..tion, as our figures yield no reliable concludions, 
unless we accept the appearance of practical equality of the sezes. of the 
tlind in this res^^ect. Our table would seem to indicate that at least 50^:^ of 
persons do observe more or less in detail, even in their dreans. 

7>e shall now pass to a brief study of memory, based upon the figures de- 
rived fr.n two questions, vjiicli, however, do not furnish adequate materials 
for the subject. 

Table 4E. 66, 16 



Hypemnesia 


M 
2 


F 
2 


M 

09^; 


F 
05fj 






M 
2 


F 



B8^. 


F 

oof. 


Amnesia 


18 


35 


78^ 


eifo 






9 


5 


82-: 


100 Jb 


Same 


3 


6 


IZ^ 


07 fo 
Table 


4F. 


78 



17 









Yes 


11 
15 


F 
31 


1! 
48^j 


F 
66j5 






6 


F 
3 


I.I 

55^. 


F 
005^ 



No 16 15 5 3 

If these tables areto be accepted as valid, and I adnit the possibility of 
question 4S h-jvinc been risunderstocd in some instances, '.ve have the Collovjing 
interesting fact, namely, that the larger number of individuals anchibit an 
amnesic condition of mem.ory in dreams, a smaller number displgy a hypBrmneslc 
condition, \7hile another small number notice no difference between their 
waking and dream me'nories. The characteristics of mem.orj'' in its selection 
of experiences for the iream were noted in chapter 2, where we saw that one 
of these conditions, the recall of childhood experiences, provides en opparrtunity 
for hypermnisia. An examination of the various types of memory, including 
paramnesia, which does not appear in our tables, would take us too far afield, 
Ellis has written a very comprehensive chapter on the subject, to which the 
reader is recommended. 



But there is one feature that is very striking in our tables. It is 
commonly asserted that the blind are endowed with extraordinary memories. This 
assertion is traceable to at least two sources; A, records of prodieies in this 
respect; and B, superficial observation, coupled with a profound failure to 
comprehend that blindness does not necessarily abnormalize an individual. I do 
not believe it can be proved that the blind as a class are endowed with extra- 
ordinary memory powers. If good memory is the property of the blind, it results 
from the fact that the blind depend more upon retentiveness than do the seeing, 
which, In itself, would tend to insure a certain amount of cultivation of this 
ability, but not to the extent commonly affini;ed. In any event, we do not find 
the dreams of the blind preponderately hypermnesic, though it is not necessary 
that a good waking memory be treuisferred to the dream-life. As a matter of 
fact we find all manner of perversions in dreams, as has been repeatedly 
emphasized. 

Frequently there is, as is shov/n in table 4F, a memory within the dream of 
having previously had that dream before. Both Miss Wiggam and Jewell speak 
of this phenomenon, and the latter ascribes it to different depths of sleep, the 
memory being in a different depth from the actual dream, Freud, however, offers 
the following explanation. The wish has succeeded in eluding the endo-psycMc 
censor, and lest the dream be taken too seriously, some such remark as "It is only 
a dream," or, "I have had that dream before, " is inserted in the drear: by the 
censor. If this sort of memory be taken as a hypermnesic character, we f:nd 
even here that the blind do not greatly outdo the sighted. 

Table 4G. 78, 18 
M F 

OZfo OOyS 

83^. 95^. 





M 


F 


Larger 





1 


Smaller 


1 





Abnormal 


5 


1 


Normal 


29 


41 



M 


F 


M 


F 






















3 


1 


25f. 


17;*. 


9 


5 


75;; 


83Jb 



o.\ 



,1 \ : . ■ ' '> 



Miss 7/iggam speaks of a tendency in dreams to magnify objects, which 
furnished the suggestion for this question, Tliis table indicates an over- 
whelming tendency on the part of dreams to preserve the normal size of objects, 
while at the same time revealing a departure from normality in a few instances, 

We may now summarize the chapter briefly thus: A, dreans of flying and 
of falling have a seiual significance, though they may be initiated by somatic f 
stimuli; B, those who lose their sight prior to the fifth year do not dream 
of seeing, leaving precocity out of account; those who become blind between the 
fifth and seventh years may or may not have dream vision, depending upon the 
developr:ent of the occipital centres previous to the loss of sight; while all 
who become blind after the seventh year see in their dreans, barring certain 
unknown factors; C, the blind do dream of reading tactually; D, minuteness for 
the blind and the sighted is different, and needs further study; E, there is 
no evidence for attributing to the blind the supposed extra-ordinary memory 
endowment, but we have rather a freer exercise of memory by the blind than by 
the sighted; and F, dream-life tends to preserve the normality of objects. 



A Comparative Study of Dreams of the Blind eind of the 
Sighted, with Special Reference to Freud's Theory, 

Chap, 5. Somnambulism, Reverie, and Conclusion. 
We have thus far been occupied with the study of dreams, comparing 
and contrasting those of the seeing with those of the blind. We shall now 
continue the same method, considering two kindred phases of activity, somnambu- 
lism, and reverie. Let us therefore turn without further ado to the tables 
on Somnambulsim, 

90, 



Yes 
No 



Yes 
No 







Table 


5A. 


M 


F 


M 


F 


24 


47 


7S5^ 


82?^ 


9 


10 










Table 


5B. 


M 


F 


M 


F 


23 


40 


74^ 


6755 


8 


18 










Table 


5C 


M 
17 


F 
17 


M 

6155 


F 
33^ 



89, 



80, 



Yes 

No 11 35 

Table 5D. 83, 
M F M F 
Yes 2 5 06fo 1055 

No 30 46 11 



16 








M 


F 


M 


F 


8 


3 


73f« 


60% 


3 


2 






17 








M 


F 


M 


F 


3 


3 


275^ 


50% 


8 


3 






14 








M 
6 


F 
3 


M 
7555 


F 
CO55 


2 


3 






17 

M 



F 

1 


M 


F 
17% 



Yes 

No 12 15 







Table 7B. 


M 


F 


M F 


13 


41 


52% 7355 



81, 15, 

M F M F 
5 5 56% 85% 



Chllde is reported by Jewell as finding somnambulistic features in 4)% 



/ ^ 



males and 30°to females, and 41^ and 375^i reported that they talked In their 
Bleep. The group of tables above show a range in the case of the blind from 
66^ to 825b displaying some form of somnambulism, and 175^ to 75^^ for the 
sighted. It is very probable that Childe did not Include in his somnambuiistic 
features the milder manifestations such as unsuccessfully attempted movement, or 
actions performed witliout leaving the bed. But the figures from the sighted , 
although they tsdly quite closely in ir.ost respects with those of the blind, are 
too insufficient to admit of any adequate comparisons. It is quite noticeable 
from table 7B that sonmambulism, attenpted or executed, has a tendency to 
leave the sleeper fatigued or exhausted in the morning. It was u nable %q 
ascertain numerically how many of my contributors remembered their somnambulism, 
as that portion of question 7A seems to have been quite generally overlooked. We 
will accordingly pass to the consideration of the nature, and the condition 
favoring, somnambulism. 

In my questionaire, and In ray work, I have used the phrase "Somnambulistic 
phenomena" to include all physical activity during sleep, whether that activity 
be executed and In a pronounced form, as in sleep-walking; whether it be more 
circumscribed in extent, or In the part of the body effected, as talking, or 
whether It be only attempted activity. It is distinguished from dreairis in that 
it is physical activity during sleep, while dreamng is mental activity. This 
distinction will, I believe, partially account for the rarity T?ith which somnambu- 
listic features especially all tint but the more subtle forms, are recalled upon 
awakening. This leads to a second distinction between dreaii.ing and somnambulism, 
namely, that whereas the former is the activity of, and is confined to the 
higher nervous centres, the latter is brought about by the activity of the 
lower centres, which liave been split off from the higher, and are acting 
independently. 



This fact prevents the" higher centres from taking cognizance of the 
resulting activity, and of course bars out memory. A third distinction is 
yet possible. Dreaming, or rather that portion of nocturnal consciousness 
which we remember as the dream, is a product of the lighter stages of sleep, 
most frequently of the transitional stages; vrhile somnambulism belongs to the 
province of a deeper sleep. 

V/e may regard an unsuccessful effort to move in a dream as intermediary 
between a true dream and somnambulism, since it contains a drean, and in 
addition an effort at movement. 7/e may therefore inquire with Bradley** why 
movement fails to occur. He states his problem thus: when we dream of 
movement, why can we not execute it? In answer o this interrogation, he 
deduces two reasons; A, comparative weakness of the psychic states during sleep* 
and B, lack of definite knowledge as to the eract position of the body 4n 
reference to its environment. He affirms that the mental states in dreams 
are, despite our feeling about the matter, weaker as compared with waking life. 
In considering the second of his reasons Bradley says that any movement is 
impossible unless we have a definite knowledge of the position of the member 
t6 be used. Vfe must know its relation to externeil objects. I cannot raise 
my arm until I know that it is in some other position, and until I know in 
what position it is. How, in dreams this knowledge is absent, and hence 
movement is impeded. 

A third reason might have been added, namely, that there has not 
resulted a splitting in the nervous levels, and consequently the motor 
centres are still inhibited by the higher. This separation is requii^eu to 
produce true somnambulism. 

The next subject to engross our interest is that of reverie. This 
topic is of special interest in view of the fact that the blind are comnionly 



believed to be abnormal day-dreamers. I shall present the statistical material 
at my command, then proceed to inquire into the validity of this belief. 

Table 6A. 86, 16 



Yes 

No 



M 
22 



F 
46 



10 



Depression, 2 

Pleasant surroundings, 1 

Reading, 4 

Music 3 

Solitude 26 

Listening to stories, 1 

Riding on train, 1 

Quiet, 7 

Lcnesome, 4 

Walking rapidly/-, 1 

After retiring, 5 

Care-free, 1 

Failure, 1 

IlonotonouE sound, 1 



M F 
75fj 82^ 



M F 
?0f. 100^ 









Table 6D. 


52, 




U 


F 


M 


F 


Oftener 


6 


17 


Z2^ 


52^ 


Rarer 


7 


11 


zefv 


ZZfo 


Seme 


6 


5 


3255 


i5«; 



1 

Table 6B. 74. From blind ordy. 
Idleness, 2 
Perplexity, 1 
Writing stories, 1 
Sitting before fireplace, 1 
Annoyance, 1 
W..en singing, 1 
Ilechanical work, 2 
Fatigue, 1 
TTarm day, 5 

Q,uiet and in good health, 1 
Warm place, 1 
Anticipation, 1 
Success, 1 
Summer breeze, 1 
16 



M F 

2095 67?^ 

50fj 17^ 

30fo 17j6 



Table 6E. 43, 17. 





M 


F 


lA 


F 


Enjoy 


11 


22 


79ji 


76fo 


Inspiration 












Dislike 


3 


6 


2lfo 


2lf. 


Uninteresting 





1 




OZfo 



M 
5 


F 
4 


M 
45fo 


F 
67f. 


2 


1 


lefo 


17^- 


1 


1 


09fs 


I75S 


3 





26fo 





If the figures of our tables ajre to be trusted, ne certainly find no support 
for the popular opinion. It is strange that the variation should be nine and 
ten per cent respectively betv/een the seres in the two classes, and that this 
variation should be in favor of the same sex in both groups. Were it not for this 
fact, we T/ould be entitled to accept with some hesitation the figures from the 
sighted. But I take it that they represent somewhat near the average. In any 
event, it would be improper to discard them upon no better evidence than mere 
current belief. But, if we accept the figures as approximating the truth, we have 
on our hands the problem of justifying the calim made by the tables, namely, that 
the sighted are more addicted to reverie than are the blind. Before undertaking 
the solution of that problem, l*t me first define, or rather characterize reverie. 

Reverie is a w king fantasy, characterized by partial or complete absent- 
mindedness and unconsciousness of surrourdings, pertaining either to the 
possible, probablp, or desired future of the individual, or else to the past 
as it might have been. It thus differs from dreams in that it occurs in the 
waking state, but it resembles them, according to Frued, in its structure and 
and behavior. It, like the dream, is the fulfillment of a wish, and reverts to 
infantile memories and experiences; and, like the dream, it is indulged to a certain 
extent by the censor. Brill, in his Psychoanalyiss, traces the various stages of 
the reverie thus: there is first a drawing anaj^ from the present. The first 
stage is that of fantastic exaltation, the content of which deals with the 
individual's hopes and aspirations. This is followed by a dream-lil.e withdrawal 



from reality. The third stage is distinguished by a euspenaion of consciousness, 
and by absent-mindedness, during which there are no thoughts, so to speak, \ 
'Tholo episodes are then folltjwed by depression, c):iaraoterized by anxiety with its 
concomitant manifestations. 

Returning now to the problem bef-re us, we shall seek our answer in the 

45 
causes of reverie, the material of which is found in table 6B. Partride, who, 

In conjunction with E, H . Lindley, collected S37 returns to a questionaire on 

reverie, groups his 99 causes into three classes, general conditions, such as 

heeilth, environment, weather, etc., mental and emotional, and hypnotic. The 

second group exhibits a strong reactioneiry tendency against unpleasant situations 

or thoughts, therein resembling the dream. In the third group ar-e to be found all 

those objects which appear to the senses, especially to the eye and to the ear. 

Sky, clouds, trees, music, etc. are to be found in this category. Now, it is quite 

obvious that this third group must be largely excluded from the lives of the blln-^, 

7/hereas nmay persons reported by Partridge said that they could not studj- if 

sitting where they could loo'c out of a window, a sightless individual would be 

unaffected. This would tend to reduce greatly the probability of the occurence 

of reveries. But this is not the whole story. The very fact that vision has 

such a wide range gives its possessor Innumerable opportunities f«r variety. One 

of the favorable conditions for inducing reveries is monotony; hence vision vould 

tend to nullify the effects of this factor. Deprive an individual of sight, and 

his range in any respect is greatly narrowed. At best he can get througli his 

own efforts what transpires within his hearing. Even this has to be guessed at 

very imperfectly at times. Cut off from external stimulation to a large extent, 

the blind individual has to turn his thoughts in upon hi: self. And what does 

he find there in his mind? V7ell, very often th«t mind is as impoverisl^.ed as is 

bodily reactions to external stimuli. r.onotony without and within, what is he to 

del There is but one norr.al, natural thing that he will doe He will try to 

forget the present ..ith all its linitaticns and roughnesses, and w:ll construct 



for himself an ideal present where, even though his blindness still persist, 
he is freed from its ha^idicap, and moves about at ease in his id-^.ally con- 
structed vjorld. His defect is unnoticed by others, and he is supremely happy, 
until he is suddenly recalled to the stern reality. Blindness, the?i, tends to 
make the individual introspective. 

But this predisposition on the peirt of the blind to introspection has been 
greatly exaggerated, as I believe tabel GA clearly demonstrates. If it existed 
to anything like the extent currently designated, it ought to more nearly 
counterbalance the absence of the majority of the hypnotic causes. I do not 
maintain that the blind are not Introspective, but I do hold that this tendency 
is unduly exaggerated in the public mind. In my acquaintance embracing a few 
hundred persons partially or altogether sightless, I recall only five who were 
abnormlly given to day -dreaming, four boys and one girl. Of these five, one 
was mentally -neak, and was at one time thought to be in the first stages of 
dementia; one v?as exceptionally nervous, which he still retains to a marked 
degree, though he has somehwat outgrown his abnormal reverie condition; one 
had defective hearing, while the girl and the other boy are not so well known 
to me. 

These facts would seem to suggest a certain relation between reverie and 

46 
abnormality; and J. Crichton Brown has shown that abnormal reverie is 

pathological. He has shown Its relation to epilepsy, and statistically traced 

its inheritability. The person entirely free from reverie, whether blind or 

seeing, must either have e^ery minute of his time ta::en with work tJat requires 

more or less thought, or else he must be abnon;:al. 

In all cases where I was able to secure furtJier information not contained 

in the answers to tlie qucstionaire, I fou'-d thut any chrnge in the frequency of 

reverie was quite closely correlated with the occupied time of the individual, 

and the nature of his work. If his time was decreased, either by adding more 

duties, or by diminishing the mechanical viork to give place to newer tasks. 



•>lt- 



ttie reveries became less frequent; while if his time were increased by 
diminishing the work requiring thought, op by increasing the mechanical work 
his reveries became more frequent^ 

As to the attitude toward reveries, i»e find an evidence that the 
phenomenon fulfills its mission in a large number of cases by sweetsning life* 
Those who expressed a dislike or unconcern for reveries were Influenced to a 
very high degree, as I had opportunity to verify, by the popular sentiment 
toward this phenomenon, especially as considered in relation to« the blind.. 

}fy actual reverie material is too meagre to permit me to enter into a dis- 
cussion of the nature of this state as induced in the blind, and Mr. Partridge 
has dealt quite fully with the manifestation in the seeing. This field, however, 
offers a valuable opportunity for an investigation of the mental contait of 
the blind man's mind, and I hope it will be conscientiously taken up by some 
Tinprejudiced psychologist. 

The remainder of the questions of the questionaire will here be ignored for 
two very good reasons; A, their insignificance, psychologically; and B, the 
scantiness of the returns received. It was hoped that some material would 
have been derived from question 7A to throw some light upon the memory state of 
the blind, but I was disappointed in that, only a conqiBratively few answers 
being received to the questions; so that the figures will not be here given. 

We may now conclude this work with the following brief summary; A, y^ 
Freud's theory is by far the most reasonable yet offered for the explanation of 
dream pheonomena; B, that both classes tend to be alike in their dreams with 
respect to pleasant dreams, emotional content, dreams of the dead, memory 
processes, and preservation of the normality of objects; C, dreams of the 
blind manifest sex differences .in regard to presence within the dreams of fear, 
prominent waking thoughts, daily work, emotional content; D, the blind exceed 



the sigiited in respeots to the presenoe in their dreams of the element of 
fear, the effect upon the waking consciousness of the dream; E, repulslTeness 
in dreams is possible and frequent for the blind; F, the question of minute- 
ness, which differs in the two classes, that of memory, and of reason, will 
bear further study; G, the blind are not more given to. reverie than are the sightei 
E, the blind do dream of readiJig tactually; I, J°astrow'8 conclusions respecting 
the relation between dream vision and time of Ics^. of alght are reasonably ' 
correct, but we must reckon with other factors, of which precocity la one* 



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1 



14. Andrews, G. A., Studies in Dream Consciousness; Araerican Journal 
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17 Stanley, H. M. , Artificial Dreams; Science, N. S., Vol. 9, page 
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page 714—718. 



> 



i 



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/ 

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'v,:a 



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mjB'^^^<- 




ij 



BF1078 r.c.3 

M12 7 McCartney, FRED m. 
A COMPARATIVE STUD J Y OF DREAMS 
OF THE BLIND AND OF THE SIGHTE 



WITH flPEC:y^^l|^|g^ENCfi 
FREUD Is TKEORy. \t. 



TO 



BF1078 C.^3. 

M127 

McCartney, Fred Morton 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 

DREAMS OF THE BLIND & of 
SIGHTED. 1913 




V?/:^ 







by /^CO 

m 4S307 
CHICAW. IL S0819