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A COMPARATIVE STUDY 

OF THE 

BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU LANGUAGES 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 






A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE 

BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU 

LANGUAGES 



BY 



SIR HARRY H. JOHNSTON 

G.C.M.G., K.C.IS., P.Sc. (Canibs.), 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1919 



PREFACE 

This work on the Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages, of which the first volume is 
now published, was commenced about seven years ago, in pursuance of a plan determined 
— as related in the text — very much earlier in my life. It was already beginning to be 
printed in 19 14, when the War broke out. The effect of the War on the Clarendon 
Press, as on most other printing establishments, was greatly to delay the setting up in 
type ; at the same time, the indirect results of the War increased the material at my dis- 
posal and constrained me to write a longer and more comprehensive work than that 
which had been originally contemplated : for the campaigns in Africa took place for the 
most part in countries containing Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages, with the result that 
many vocabularies were supplied, and thus some languages were brought to light that 
were previously unknown. 

It has been thought best to publish the first portion of this work on its completion. 
The second part, an analysis and comparison of the phonology and word-roots, and 
a comparative examination of the syntax of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages, 
together with the conclusions to be derived from this evidence, is also finished ; but its 
printing and publication must await some relaxation in the present stress. 

The work has grown to such dimensions that I have to economize space and paper 
as much as possible. Therefore I must ask to be excused from tendering in detail my 
thanks and obligations to my numerous helpers, both 'living and dead. In a way, this 
acknowledgement is achieved by the very full Bibliography at the end of this volume, 
and I trust in that not to have omitted the name of any contributor of information. Of 
the personages in the past whose work has prompted this comparative study of two 
related language families of Western and Central Africa, there are five whom I should 
like specially to mention in a dedicatory sense : the Rev. Sigismund Koelle, the Agent 
of the Church of England Missionary Society, who composed the famous Polyglotta 
Africana and other studies of African languages at Sierra Leone between 1848 and 1854 ; 
Wilhclm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek, the Librarian of the Grey Library at Capetown, the 
real originator of Bantu studies ; Edward Stecrc, Bishop of Zanzibar, and author of many 
works on the East African Bantu ; the Rev. W. H. Stapleton, of the Baptist Missionary 
Society on the Congo ; and A. C. Madan, M.A., Student of Christ Church, Oxford, who 
has done so much to increase our knowledge of the East and South-central Bantu 
languages and of the Bantu syntax in general. It was mainly due to Mr. Madan's 



vi PREFACE 

intercession that the present work finally took shape and achieved publication ; and 
I have deeply regretted the fact that he has died (August 1917) before he could see 
it in a completed form. 

I also desire to tender my thanks to the British South Africa Company, Chartered 
and Limited, for the efforts made by its London Direction and its employes in South- 
central Africa to record hitherto quite unknown languages for the purpose of this book : 
and to the F'rench Government and His Majesty's former Ambassador in Paris, Viscount 
Bertie of Thame, for the facilities accorded tome in 1 915 to visit the camps and hospitals of 
the ' Senegalese ' soldiers in France. This asscmbl^e of negroes from all parts of French 
West and West-central Africa was a singularly fortunate circumstance, inasmuch as it 
enabled me not only to get an increased acquaintance with the Semi-Bantu languages, 
but at the same time to check the accuracy of Sigismund Kocllc's invaluable vocabularies 
which were transcribed sixty to seventy years ago at Sierra Leone, from freed slaves 
arriving there from all parts of West and Central Africa. 

I hope circumstances may permit of this study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu 
languages being published in its entirety while I am still able to correct the proofs, and 
while most of my numerous helpers are alive to appreciate the results of their collaboration. 

H. H. JOHNSTON. 

Poling, 

April 1919. 



LIST OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

PAGE 

A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO THE BANTU LANGUAGES .... i 

CHAPTER n 

THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES . 15 

CHAPTER HI 

ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF 366 BANTU AND 87 SEMI-BANTU LAN- 
GUAGES AND DIALECTS 39 

The Bantu Languages : 

Group A. The Nyanza Languages 45 

B. The Wunyamvvezi Languages 86 

C. The British East Africa Languages 98 

D, E. The Kilimanjaro) and Usambara Languages 113 

F. The Zangian Languages 129 

G. The Usagara-Ugcogo) Languages 141 

H, I. The Upper Rufiji and Lower Rufiji-Ruvuma Languages 154 

I (cont.), J, K. The Lower Rufiji-Ruvuma. North Ruvuma-North-east Nyasaland. and 

Ukinga Languages 169 

^ L. The Tanganyika-Bangweulu Languages 184 

M. The North-west Nyasa Languages 208 

N, O. The Vac)-Ngindco and Mogambique Languages 221 

P. The South Nyasaland Languages 236 

P (cont.), O. The South Nyasaland and Southern Rhodesia-Pungwe-Sabi Languages . 252 

Q (cont.), R. The Southern Rhodesia-Pungwe-Sabi and ^engwe-Ronga Languages . 268 

R (cont,), S. The ^engwe-Ronga and Becuana-Transvaal Languages .... 281 

S (cont.), T. The Becuana-Transvaal and Zulu-Kafir Languages 298 

U, V. The West Central Zambezia and Western Zambezia Languages . .... 318 

V (cont.), W. The Western Zambezia and North-west Zambezia Languages . . . 333 

X. The South-west Africa Languages . 350 

Y. The Angola Languages 366 

Z. The Kong(u or Westernmost Congoland Languages 378 

AA. The South Congoland or Luba-Lunda Languages 394 

AA (cont.), BB. The South Congoland and Upper Kwangu Languages . . . .411 

BB (cont.), CC. The Upper Kwangco and Kwangco-Kasai Languages .... 427 

CC (cont.), DD. The Kwangco-Kasai and Central Congoland (Luafige-L<omami) Languages 439 

DD (cont.), The Central Congoland (Luange-Lcomami) Languages 451 

DD (c^w/.), Sub-group DD I. The Central Congoland and Manyema Languages . . 462 



viii LIST OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

DD I {coni.), EE, FF. The Manyema, Middle Ltomami, and Elila-Lmwa-Lualaba (Bulega) 

Languages 473 

FF(«:<w«/.), GG, HH. The Elila-Lcowa-Lualaba, Ruwenzori-Semliki, and Upper Ituri 

Languages 4*^4 

HH (cont.), II. The Upper Ituri and Wele-Aruwimi (Ababua) Languages . • 496 

JJ. The Aruwimi-Lcomami Languages 509 

JJ {cont.), KK. The Aruwimi-Liomami and North Central Congoland Languages (Sub- 
groups KK 1, KK 2) 520 

KK {cont.). North Central Congoland Languages (Sub-group KK 3) 533 

¥iK(cont.). North Central Congoland Languages (Sub-group KK 4) 546 

LL. The Kwa-Kasai-Upper COgtowe (Teke) Languages 553 

LL {cont.), MM. The Kwa-Kasai-Upper OOgcowe (Teke) and Central a)g(o\ve Languages 565 
MM (<r^«/.), NN. The Central OOgcowe and COgtowe-Gaboon Languages . . -578 
NN (cont.), 00. The OOgcowe-Gaboon (Mpongwe) and Spanish Guinea-West Cameroons 

Languages 5^9 

00 (cont.). The Spanish Guinea- West Cameroons Languages (Sub-groups OO I, 00 2, 

003,004) 604 

00 {cont.). The Spanish Guinea- West Cameroons Languages (Sub-group 00 4 (cont.), 

00 5) 618 

00 (cont.), PP, OQ. The Spanish Guinea- West Cameroons (Sub-group OO 6), Manen- 

guba, and Middle Sanagi Languages ■ 630 

RR, SS. The Paiiwe or ' Faiig ' and Kadei-Saiiga-LtDbai Languages .... 642 
SS (coni.), TT. The Kadei-Lcobai (Upper Saiiga) Languages and the Fernandian 

Language and Dialects 655 

The Semi-Bantu Languages : 

A. The Cameroons-Cross River Languages (Sub-group A i) 672 

A (cont.). The Cameroons-Cross River Languages (Sub-group A I (cont.), Sub-group A 2) 698 

B-G The Northern Cross River Basin, Benue, Bauci Languages 716 

H, I, J. The Central Nigerian, South-west Tcogcoland, and South Sierra Leone Languages 732 

K, L, M, N. The South Guinea, Nalu, North Guinea, and Upper Gambia Languages . 750 

CHAPTER IV 

SUPPLEMENTARY ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO THE FOREGOING 

VOCABULARIES 773 

CHAPTER V 
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU LANGUAGES . . .785 

MAPS 

SKETCH MAP OF BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU -AREAS 818 

KEY-MAP GIVING NAMES S19 



ERRATA ET ADDENDA 

The printing of the first portions of this work began in 191 4, and the correction of the proofs was 
somewhat interfered with by the author's absence in America, and later on in France. A few errors, 
therefore, escaped his notice in the earlier chapters till after the printing-off had taken place ; or some- 
times words or phrases became erroneous on the receipt of further information from Africa. 

Also, during the printing of this book, much new material has been received, dealing more especially 
with the Konjco (No. i) and other Nyanza tongues ; with Taita (14), Nika (16), Caga Dialects (17-17 e), 
pambala (19), Zigula (20), Swahili (21-21 g), Pcogorco (28), Kidonde or Kimawanda (33 a), North 
Ngindto (55n), Makua (56), North Kuanyama or Humbe (91a), Kuvale (92 bj, OOlundombe (93), 
Sumbi (94b), Songto (97), Minungoj (112a), Hcolu (113), Mpama (167), Batende (i68a), and 
Kiwumbu (177). 

It has been thought more convenient to give the mass of the addenda and corrections at the end of 
the Vocabularies, the greater part of which were in print before this additional information was received ; 
and only to insert in the preliminary pages a correction of the errata in the earlier work. But readers 
specially interested in the languages above cited are advised in studying them not only to take note of 
the correction of errata here given, but of the additional information at the end of the book ; and students 
who wish to have before their eyes, without turning to the beginning or end of the volume, as complete 
a conspectus of the Bantu languages as can be produced at the present time, might insert with the pen 
the additions to and corrections of the Vocabularies in the appropriate places. 



On pages 3, 5, 6, 13, and 14, and wherever else the word occurs, for 'pojsa' read 'posa'. 

On page 7, and wherever else it occurs, for ' Herero' read ' Hererto '. 

At the bottom of page 14 should be added this sentence : ' and of the Semi-Bantu of Senegambia and 
Nigeria'. 

In the foot-note to page 16 a hyphen is missing in ' Tatoga-und-Irakuleute' . 

On page 17, in line 5, insert the word ' one ' after ' differing '. 

On page 19, line 20, 'preprefix ' must be substituted for 'prefix'. In line 34, instead of ' Class 6, 
its plural ', substitute : ' Class 6, apart from being the plural of Class 5 '. In line 37, instead of ' Classes 
9 and 10 were', read 'Classes 9 and 10 are'. In line 39, instead of 'Classes 12 and 13 were", read 
' Classes 12 and 13 are ', and instead of ' Class 13 (Ka-) could ', read ' Class 13 (Ka-) can '. In line 40, 
after ' Class 14 (Bu-) ', change 'was' to 'is'; and in line 41, 'Class 15 was ' should read 'Class 15 
(Ku-) is '. 

On page 20, in line i , the words ' but was ' should read ' but is '. In Hne 2, ' Class 16 represented ' 
should be ' Class l6 represents ' ; in line 3, change ' had ' and ' meant * to ' has ' and ' means ' ; in line 4, 
change ' existed, were ' into ' exist, are '. In line 5, for the word ' certainly ' read ' first quinary and then '. 
In line 1 7, after ' No changes ', insert the words ' in sense '. In line 19, after ' prepositions, and ', insert 
the word ' perhaps '. 

On page 22, line 5, instead of the words ' The Fula ', read ' The Semi-Bantu, the Fula *, and in line 6, 
after ' Wolof ', strike out the following words, ' the Temne '. In the footnote, Hne 7, strike out ' Temne ', 
and after ' Bantu ' insert ' Semi-Bantu '. At the end of line 9, instead of ' Sudanese ' read ' Sudanic '. 

On page 25, in line 3, after ' fusion ' insert the words ' some of. 

On page 26, line 4, instead of ' akin ' read ' related '. 



X ■ ERRATA ET ADDENDA 

On page 27, in line 4, for ' dates ' read ' date '. At the end of line 14, instead of ' And here ' read 
' And hence '. In line 25, instead of Africa has been a long process in unwritten history and cannot be 
compressed, &c. ', read ' Africa has not been a long process in unwritten history and can be compressed, 
&c. '. 

On page 29, at the end of line 5, the letter a should be deleted from ' defecations *, which word should 
read ' defections'. In line 33, instead of ' Bantu languages which ' read ' Bantu languages that '. 

On page 30, in line 8, the first two equivalerts of ' hair ' should be rendered -wele, -wili, and not 
•bele, -bUi. In line 17, among the word-roots for 'blood ' should be inserted -kila (after -rupa). 

On page 31 a table is given of the original 19 prefixes of the Bantu languages. It should be premised 
that this is the full list of prefixes with concord particles or answering pronouns. But in addition there 
are now known to be five or more other prefixes — locatives, or indicative of sex or honorability. These, 
however, are without concords. 

On page 32, line 4, ' m- before a nasal' should read ' m- before a labial '. 

On page 36, in line 9, the simple vowel system of Old Bantu should read : ' — 5, a, e, i, 5, and 
perhaps a* — '. 

On page 39, in the Title of Chapter III, the number of Bantu languages and dialects should be 
enlarged from ' 276 ' to ' 366 ' ; and of Semi-Bantu languages and dialects from ' 24 ' to ' 87 '. Similarly, 
on page 42, in the last paragraph but one and in the footnote, the figures 376 (total number of Bantu and 
Semi-n.intu languages and dialects) should be changed to ' 366, of which about 360 are illustrated '. 

On page 43, n the list of Bantu language Groups, P should stand for 'THE SOUTH NYASA- 
LAND LANGUAGES ',Q for 'THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA-PUNGWE-SABI LANGUAGES', 
and R for 'THE ^ENGWE-RONGA LANGUAGES'. 

On page 44, and paragraph, the Groups of the Semi-Bantu Languages should be rendered thus : 
Group A. (S-B.). The Cameroons-Cross River Languages. 

B. (S-B.). The Northern Cross River Basin Languages. 

C. (S-B.). The South-west Benue Languages. 

D. (S-B.). The Southern Benue Languages. 

E. (S-B.). The Central Benue Languages. 

F. (S-B.). The South-west Bauci Languages. 

G. (S-B.). The Central Bauci Languages. 

H. (S-B.). The Kaduna Basin (Central Nigeria) Languages. 
I. (S-B.). The Tcogioland Languages. 

J. (S-B.). The Southern Sierra Leone Languages. 

K. (S-B.). The South Guinea Languages. 

L. (S-B.). The Nalu Language. 

M. (S-B.). The North Guinea Languages. 

N. (S-B.). The Upper Gambia Language. 
Page 85. In the prefixes, &c., of Lu-Masaba and I.u-konde, among the forms of the sth prefix Ki- 
is erroneously given. It should read Ri-. 

Page ICO, col. 16, the root for ' Ear ' should read Sikirco. 

Page too, cols. 14. 15, 16, opp. ' Fire ', render the words Mwdcn, Moi-tu, Mw-hu as M>odo>, M-5tw, 

. ' Frog ', for C-ua read Cua. 
. ' Foot ', for Su-aiyo read Lu-aiyo. 
' Thorn ', for D-zala-g-umba read Dzala-gumba. 
. ' Wood ', the root should be spelt .kuni, -khuni, not •kumi, -khumi. 
' Inside ', for -a n-denji read -a n-denyL 
Page 113. The alternative name of the principal Caga dialect should be Mcofsi, not Musi. 
Page 114, col. 20, opp. 'Bull', for N-jeka read N-jeku. 

(Page 140. The concords of the 4th Class of prefixes in Swahili and Swahili dialects should be stated 
as mi", -ni, -i-), not (m-, mu-, i-). 

Page 153, last paragraph, for ' Lake Manyasa ' read ' Lake Manyara'. 

Page 198, col. 17. The word Ily-enza should be opposite ' Egg' and not ' Ear '. 

Page 228, col. 54, opp. ' Stone '. for Li-gonga read Li-ganga. 



and M^ohea. 




Page 1 01, col. 


12, opp. 


Page 1 01, col. 


14, opp. 


Page 105, col. 


16, opp. 


Page 106, col. 


J 3. opp. 


Page no, col. 


14, opp. 




Page 5, thirteenth line from bottom of last paragrapn, tor ' l.ewis (irants ' read 

Page 6, tenth line from bottom of last paragraph, for ' Ba-yeiyi ' read ' Ba-yeiye '. 

Page 7, fifteenth line from top, for •// read -//'. 

Page 10, fifteenth line from top, for 'Sudanese' read ' Sudanic ', and tenth line from bottom, for 
' C. Hermann ' read ' C. Herrmann '. 

Page II, fourteenth line from top, after ' Lutheran ' insert ' pastor and '. 

Page 12, twenty-first line from top, for ' Dr. Eduard Sachau ' read ' P. Hendle ' ; and on p. 791, par. 
28, instead of ' Prof. ' insert ' P. Hendle, edited by '. 

Page 29, one line from bottom, for " two hundred and seventy-six ' read ' three hundred and sixty-six '. 

Page 33, three lines from top, for ' consonantal ' read ' substantival '. 

Page 37, eight lines from top, after 'twenty-six' insert 'main '. 

Page 378, and again on page 803. In the summary of titles at the commencement of the Vocabu- 
laries on p 37S, and again in the bibliography on p. 803, Ki-yombe or Ci-luangoj should be numbered 
102, Ki-vili or Ki-vumbu or Lu-wumbu (N.Luangco) 103, and Ki-lumbco of Mayiivtha. 103 a, conform- 
ably with the Vocabularies. 

Page 792, par. 33, delete 'preliminary Corrigenda ct'. 

Page 798. In the paragraph numbered 76, the name ' Elmsley ' should be spelt ' Elmslie '. 

Page 81 5, twelfth line from bottom, for ' Sengalese ' read ' Senegalese '. 



1734 Johnston^ Uaittu. 



Sept. 1919, face p. \. 



ERRATA ET ADDENDA xi 

Page 231, col. 54, opp. ' This, these ', the demonstrative of the i6th Class should read Apa, not (ji)pa 
Page 237, col. 61 a, opp. ' Cloth ', for N-garu read N-saru. 
Page 315, col. 76, opp. ' Sit, remain, &c. ', instead of -jslaza read -slara. 

Page 350. The beginning of 4th footnote should run : ' This language in different dialects is, &'c.\ 
Page 353, col. 92, opp. ' Fear ', for OOn-uma read COu-uma. 
Page 355. In the English column, ' Man, vir.' is missing opp. to Ci)mu-rumendu. 
Page 359. The word for ' Nine' in col. 94 is perhaps better spelt £-cia, E-cieha ; and for ' Hundred' 
OO'Cita. In col. 92 the roots for ' Hundred ' may be -tyita and Cita, instead of -ta. 

Page 365. The last paragraph should read : ' 94. Umbundu is spoken in the Benguela and Bai- 
lundio districts of southern Aiigola, north of 14° 30' South latitude, south of the Kuvuj river, and of 11° 30' 
South latitude ; and west of the Upper Kwanza river.' 

Page 377. The definition of the area of the Kisama language (95) should be limited on the south by 
the Kuvo) river. 

Page 410. Last paragraph, the close of the definition of the area of 108-108 a should read, ' West of 
the Upper Lcomami, south of the Lubefu, and east of the Safikuru '. 

Page 553. In list of titles for ' 177. Ki-wumbco' read ' 177. Ki-wumbu ', and Ki-wumbu likewise 
on page 564. 

Page 606, col. 204, opp. ' Fire ', the figure ' which refers to the footnote should be removed from 
li-didi and placed after 'aji're', which concludes the sentence in brackets. And in the answering foot- 
note ' Mote-mote ' the two vowels o should be stressed o. 

Page 675, opp. ' Child', cols. 230-231, after Ma-nku insert Mu-pie (231). 

Page 690, col, 230, 231, opp. 'Nine', the whole passage of equivalents for 'Nine' should be rendered 
thus : 

Li-vojoj. 

Bojoj (230 b, 230 g). 
Sipo (230 i). 
Vua. 

plbco (230 c)- 
M-bu, Pfcdoi (230 j). 
Bb, Beo> {230 d). 
I-fi(23of). 
Ve, Be, Bemi. 
Tsiaiiuco (231). 
Page 696, seventh line from bottom, at the end of line an 'a' should follow ' indicate '. 
Page 698, in the list of languages, the line beginning ' (238. Olulciimu. See Appendix, &c.' should 
read ' (238. Olulcomo). 238 a. Ikom. See Appendix) '. 

Page 705, col. 244, opp. ' Thigh ', U-nau should becorrected to U-na&. 

Page 715, third line from bottom, ' Kwoi-Ibco' river should be spelt 'Kwo-Ibai'. 



CHAPTER I 

A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

Outside the range of the Semitic and Hamitic families of languages, as represented by Arabic 
and Amharic, the first types of African speech to attract the attention of Europeans and to be 
written down by them were members of the widespread BANTU group ; an association of tongues 
as closely interrelated as clear-cut and unmistakable in their peculiar characteristics as the Aryan, 
the Semitic, or the Malay families of speech. The Bantu languages of the central prolongation of 
Africa were of course totally unknown to the Graeco-Roman civilization of the Mediterranean, the 
cultured minds of which may just have been able to perceive (if they collected and collated the 
evidence of travellers) that beside the recognized types of Hamitic and Semitic languages of north 
and north-east Africa there were the tongues of the Nilotic negroes, of the Nubians, of the Tibu 
(Garamantes), and of the Fula and Wolof negroids on the Atlantic coast of the Sahara and along 
the banks of the Senegal river. And although we may assume on fairly sufficient evidence that 
the Arabian trading-cities of the Yaman and Hadramaut coasts had founded depots for commerce on 
the Equatorial East African littoral as early as the commencement of the Christian Era (if not 
before), and had likewise got into touch with the north end of Madagascar and the Komorco Islands, 
it is more probable that in those days— eighteen hundred to two thousand years ago — there were no 
Bantu-speaking negroes on the east coast of Africa. Consequently, though the merchants of south- 
west Arabia, who acted as important intermediaries in the Indian trade with the Roman Empire in 
Egypt, may have conveyed slaves from the Zangian coasts and islands to Egyptian slave-markets, it 
is doubtful whether these brought with them any Bantu syllables into the medley of tongues talked 
in the Mediterranean basin. 

But not long after Arab and Bantu first met on the east and south-east littoral of Africa there 
seems to have been a greater fusion of interests between them than between Arab and Kushite 
(Gala and Somali). The Arabs took up the stock language of the Zangian group somewhere on the 
coast between the Pafigani or Rufu river and the Ruvuma and turned it into the Swahili tongue of 
commerce that we know so well at the present day— the easiest and most widely spread of the 
Bantu languages. 

When the Portuguese rounded Cape Verde and reached the mouth of the Congo during the 
second half of the fifteenth century, they nowhere found a native language (excepting, of course, 
North African Arabic) sufficiently easy of pronunciation or simple in structure to be used as 
a medium of instruction and intercommunication, until they reached Bantu Africa. Their 
missionaries soon began to learn Kifi-kofigto and a little later the Mbundu speech of Aiigola. Kifi- 
kofigo) words are given in Pigafetta's description of the Portuguese Congo explorations published in 
1591. Kifi-kofigd) was committed to writing and to print (in the form of a treatise on Christian 
doctrine) as early as 1624 by a Jesuit (Portuguese) missionary ; and a Grammar (see Bibliography 
in Chapter IV) by an Italian missionary was published at Rome in 1659. Kimbundu of Aiig5la was 

1784 B 



2 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

illustrated by Italian missionaries in 1642 and 1661 ; and a Grammar of Kimbundu (by Diaz) was 
printed at Lisbon in 1697. A study of Luafigu) and Kakoiigco was carried out in the eighteenth 
century by French missionaries, such as' the Abbe Proyart. 

As early as 1505, but chiefly between the middle of the sixteenth century and 1760, Portuguese 
soldier-explorers and missionaries put into their writings numerous phrases of two East African 
Bantu tongues: Karana (' Mocaranga ') and Swahili. The amount of the first-named language 
which can be gleaned from these early records of Portuguese expeditions in Zambezia and on the 
Sufala coast is considerable, and has been conveniently collected for me by Mr. R. W. Hall, the 
Warden of Zimbabwe. Though carelessly transcribed by these sixteenth-century Portuguese, with 
little regard for grammar or plural prefixes, it is nevertheless easily recognized as Karana and as 
I easily translated. It shows such comparatively little difference from the same tongue spoken to-day 
after an interval of between four hundred and one hundred and fifty years that we should be puzzled 
to account for the rapid formation and divergence of the two hundred and twenty-six distinct 
Bantu languages of present times ; did we not remember that the Romance languages were not in 
existence in the fourth century of the Christian Era, yet were evolved with all their characteristic 
features by the twelfth century ; and that the French and Italian of three hundred and fifty years 
ago are not more dissimilar from the speech of to-day than is the tongue of the Rhodesian Mafuna 
from the 'Mocaranga' of Monomotapa recorded by the Portuguese sixteenth-century pioneers. 

A short list of words of the Komoro Islands Swahili— the dialect of Moihila— was written down 
as early as 1626 by Thomas Herbert, an Enghsh traveller who voyaged in that year round the Cape 
of Good Hope to Aden and thence to India, whence he returned overland through Persia, Caucasia, 
and Russia.' In the eighteenth century the Portuguese traders and officials on the Lower Zambezi 
took up the language of Sena and made it a kind of lingua franca in eastern Zambezia under the 
name of ' Chicunda '. [This Cikunda speech was the first Bantu language learnt by the English and 
Scottish missionaries who followed Livingstone, and a short manual of it was printed by the 
Rev. Dr. Robert Laws in 1879 or 1880.] As early as the seventeenth century, the Portuguese, with 
Kimbundu and Kipi-kongo) on their Atlantic coast possessions, Cikunda on the Lower Zambezi, the 
speech of Tete (Cinyungwe) on the Zambezi of the Cataracts, and the Citoiiga learnt by the Jesuit 
missionaries on the Middle Zambezi, had realized the truth about the wide range of the Bantu 
languages. In the eighteenth century they repeatedly referred in their writings to the similarity of 
speech between Aiigola and Mozambique. 

The Dutch explorers, following in the footsteps of the Portuguese along the West African coast, 
also began to interest themselves in these harmonious, easily pronounced Bantu languages. Barbot, 
' who wrote his Description of Guinea about 1682 (English translation first published in 1732), gave 
short vocabularies of Kip-kongoj and of a dialect of north-west Cameroons, probably Barundco.' 
Barbot was a Frenchman in the service of the French Royal Company of Africa, but he seems to 
have derived much of his information east of Senegal from the Dutch. In the latter half of the 
eighteenth century — the period of Cook, of La Perouse, of James Bruce — greater curiosity than ever 
before was evinced as to the languages of non-European peoples. The Dutch occupation of Cape 
Colony had attracted to South Africa a number of explorers— French, German, and Scottish. The 
strange Hottentot speech had already been transcribed to some extent by Wilson in 1691, and 
between 1705 and 1713 by Pieter Kolben, the industrious and intelligent Prussian explorer of South 

' These words of the ' Mohella ' language recorded by Thomas Herbert do not seem to be met with in 
the first (1634) edition of his travels. They were presumably collected in 1626, but were not inserted 
into his book until the 1677 edition was produced. He does not give a ' vocabulary ', as stated by 
R. N. Gust (Modern Languages of Africa), but a few words, such as Coguo (fowl), Gumbey (ox), Mage 
(water), Sinzano (needle), and Buse (goat). 

' As regards the words of Barundco said to have been collected by Barbot, I quote from Astley's 
Voyages and Travels, '^\:i\i\\%\\iiA.'va. 1746. They are the first five numerals: Mo; Ba ; Malela; Melei; 
Malau ; and are attributed to the ' land of Ambozes ' (Ambas Bay). 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 3 

Africa. But the Dutch had been slow in coming into contact with the Bantu peoples of South Africa. 
To the tribes of stalwart, naked Bantu negroes dwelling on the south and south-east coasts they had 
given the name of'Caffer', copying in this the Portuguese who had picked up ' Cafre ' from the 
Arabic Kafir (a heathen). Beyond Hottentot- and Bushman-land, in the centre of southernmost 
Africa, the Dutch began (about 1779) to be aware that there existed a ' nation ' of tall black negroes 
whom they called 'Beetjuaan ' by some corruption of an unidentified native word which has since been 
perpetuated as ' Bechuana '. It was made evident by about 1806 that neither ' Beetjuaan ' nor ' Caffer ' 
spoke anything like Hottentot or Bushman ; and equally clear that many of the Dutch slaves from 
Mo9ambique, Scofala, or Angola could make themselves understood by these tall negroes beyond 
the Great Fish river or north of the Orange. In 1772 an unnamed French missionary compiled 
a Kakofiga)- French dictionary, and in 1776 the first vocabulary of p<osa (Kafir) was printed, in the 
work of Andrew Sparrman, a Swede. In 1804 the Portuguese Cannecattim published his Angola 
Dictionary. In 1809 Henry Salt, a pioneer diplomatist of the British Government in East Africa, 
wrote down vocabularies of Makua, of some Yaco dialect, and of Swahili.' 

In 1808 the notable German traveller, Heinrich Lichtenstein, had grasped and expressed the 
idea (in a Berlin scientific periodical) that all the southern prolongation of Africa, from the Congo coast 
on the north-west, to the Equator on the north-east, was probably the domain of but one language 
family— excepting of course the narrow band of Hottentot-Bushman speech from Cape St. Francis 
to Cape Frio. [Lichtenstein's Travels in Southern Africa in 180J-6, were published in their English 
translation in 1812-15.] The pioneer missionaries of South Africa soon confirmed this theory by 
their practical studies, and there were always at hand in those days slaves from the Portuguese 
East and West African possessions and from Zanzibar to confirm the idea by contributing 
specimens of their more northern forms of Bantu. A vocabulary of the Makua language of Mozam- 
bique was, for purposes of comparison, written down from the dictation of a negro slave in Sumatra 
by William Marsden, the Orientalist, somewhere about 1778. He himself was an authority on the 
Malay language, but he became interested in African philology, and handed his Makua vocabulary 
to the scientific members of Captain Tuckey's staflT who accompanied that officer in 1816 in the 
attempt to explore the Congo from its mouth up stream. These men went there with the 
Bantu theory in their minds, though the comprehensive word ' Bantu ' was not then suggested. 
They refer to the existence of this one great family across the southern third of the continent in 
their contributions to the Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire (Report on the Tuckey 
Expedition) published in i8i8. 

Adrien Balbi, in his Atlas ethnographique du Globe, printed at Paris in 1826, precognized the 
existence of one great language family over all Africa south of the Equator (exception being taken 
for Hottentots and Bushmen). He based this theory on the observations of Moritz Rugendas, 
a Bavarian artist who had travelled through eastern Brazil in the early nineteenth century and 
had taken down descriptions of West Africa and scraps of speech from negro slaves.'' Douville, 

' Henry Salt was sent to convey presents to the Kings of Shoa and Abyssinia in 1809, to detach 
Ethiopia as much as possible from French intrigues against Egypt. On his way to Somaliland round the 
Cape of Good Hope, he stopped at Mozambique and there wrote down short vocabularies of ' Makooa ' 
(easily recognizable as Imakua) and ' Monjow ' (a jargon seeming like a mixture of Yaco, Gindto, and 
Northern Makua (Medio)). His words of ' Monjow' (re-spelt phonetically) are as follows : Mcalungon 
(God); Dyuva (sun); Muezi (moon); Tuundnwa. (stars); Muze (earth); Maiumbi (mountain); Mere 
(tree) ; Aumba . . . ? Numba (house) ; Etala (road) ; Meze (water) ; Sieinba (fish) ; Niyati (ox, evidently 
buffalo) ; Liguluwe (pig) ; Umpua (dog) ; Itepu (elephant or ivory) ; Nyama (flesh) ; Nune (bird) ; 
Eyunda (pigeon); Mulutpuiana (man); Ateate (father); Alumbu (brother); Bo) (sister); Manace 
(boy) ; Mutwe (head) ; Humpu (hair) ; Makutwe (ears) ; Unwa (mouth) ; Atigonda (war) ; (jiknazi 
(a bow) ; Impamba (arrows) ; LipongU) (spear) ; Uti (gun) ; Jete (salt) ; Jipanje (white) ; Ya-kuswers 
(red); -atigu (my). For a description of Salt's Swahili ('Sowauli', 'Sowaiel'), see the Bibliography of 
Chapter IV. 

' The results of his observations are said to have been published in or concurrently with his Voyage 
pittoresqtte et descriptif au Brhil, ? 1824, but I cannot trace them. Rugendas dealt with the languages 
of Angola and Mozambique. 

B 2 



4 . A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

a French traveller in Angola (probably in the interests of the slave trade) who much later became 
a secretary of the Paris Geographical Society, published a book on the Congo and Angola in 1832; 
and although his records of Bantu languages are very jumbled and full of inaccuracies, still they are 
not as apocryphal as they were afterwards esteemed. Douville not only mentions some of the 
principal language groups in Angola and the western Congo, but realizes through Portuguese 
information the importance of the Luba family beyond. 

In the 'forties of the nineteenth century great progress was made in Bantu studies. The 
(English) Baptist Mission had been established in Fernando Po, and John Clarke, one of its 
missionaries, had already put down on paper information regarding the Fernandian or Bube 
language. He also published specimens of 209 African dialects, taken down from the slaves who 
were landed at the Admiralty depot at Fernando Po. Although there were very few words of 
each language (some are more illustrated than others), yet his hearing was fairly accurate and his 
writing phonetically correct. His work has a certain usefulness even at the present day. At this 
time also the great Sigismund Koelle, like Krapf and Rebmann, a native of the kingdom of 
WOrttemberg, in southern Germany, and a clergyman of the Church of England, was employed by 
the Church Missionary Society to watch the interests of the freed slaves landed at Sierra Leone. 
He took advantage of this opportunity to collect the materials for his remarkable Polyglotta Africana, 
published by the Church Missionary Society in 1854. This work deserves the highest praise, even 
in comparison with philological work at the present day. It is the more remarkable, since it was 
compiled over sixty years ago. So far as the Bantu languages are concerned, Koelle proves 
to be more interesting perhaps than he ever anticipated. He placed on record not only many facts 
of Inner African geographj' which were to remain unrealized for several decades longer, but he 
wrote down in 1851-2 the speech of Bantu peoples who were not to be actually visited by the white 
man till — in some cases— the beginning of the twentieth century. Excepting here and there a few 
lapsus calami and errors due to mishearing or misunderstanding, his work is remarkably correct 
and also shows that many of the languages transcribed by him have changed but little in the 
course of sixty years. Nearly all his Bantu vocabularies are included in the scope of the present 
work. Koelle appreciated to the full the fact of the existence of this great family of closely-related 
African languages, but preferred to call it the ' South African ' family. He was not sufficiently 
acquainted with the structure of Bantu speech to include all his Bantu vocabularies under the same 
heading ; several of them appear as ' unclassified ' languages. A few are incorrectly named, but 
are easily identified by their affinities and the geographical information he gives as to their position. 
Considering the absolute blank of the map of Africa in those days, behind the coastline, his 
geographical delimitations of the spheres occupied by the enormous number of languages he tran- 
scribed (due to the collation of the information he took down from the freed slaves) is remarkably 
accurate, and has been a great help to myself and other recent writers on the Bantu and Semi-Bantu 
languages in identifying and locating the forms of speech which he recorded. 

Whilst Koelle was working at Sierra Leone and the Baptist missionaries at Fernando Po and 
the Cameroons,' the American Board of Foreign Missions was despatching evangelists to settle on 

' In referring to the work of the Baptist missionaries in early days in the Cameroons, I must 
specially signalize for notice and gratilude on our part the remarkable work achieved by Joseph Merrick, 
who- under circumstances of great difficulty printed a dictionary of the Isubu tongue in 1842 and 
a Grammatical Note in 1854 ; and of Alfred Saker, who issijed a grammar and vocabulary from his 
printing press on the Cameroons estuary, in 1855 •'■^'^ 1862. Merrick's work was the more remarkable 
in that he was a negro or mulatto who had received his education chiefly, if not entirely, in the island of 
Jamaica. He was one of the early recruits of the Baptist Missionary Society in its desire to establish 
civilized settlements for the relief of freed slaves on the coast of Equatorial West Africa. It is difficult, 
as one reads Merrick's dictionary of Isubu, to realize that this work was compiled so anciently as the 
'forties of the last century and by one who had such slight advantages in the way of education, though he 
had evidently made the utmost use of the instruction given him. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 5 

the coast of the Gaboon. Here they not only made the discovery of the Gorilla, but through the 
linguistic zeal of the Rev. J. L. Wilson, of Messrs. Preston and Best, and in later days of the Revs. 
R. H. Nassau, H. M. Adams, J. Bushnell, and of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Marling, they recorded the 
Kele or Kalai, the Mpongwe, the Benga, and the Paiiwe (Fang) languages of French Congo and 
Spanish Guinea. 

At the same period also— the 'forties and early 'fifties— the German naturalist. Dr. Wilhelm 
Peters, of Berlin,' was exploring Portuguese East Africa and writing down words of the Bantu 
languages spoken there. And those noteworthy pioneers of East Africa, the missionaries Johann 
Ludwig Krapf and Johann Rebmann (both of them natives of Wurttemberg, and, like Koelle, in the 
service of the English Church Missionary Society), were revealing the Bantu languages of Equa- 
torial East Africa from the Tana river to south-west Nyasaland, either through their travels or by 
the interrogation of slaves. Krapf realized the existence of the Bantu family, but called it the 
' Nilotic ', and later the ' Orphno-Cushitic ' ; very inappropriate names, considering that the Nile 
basin and the Kushite (Gala-Bisharin) race barely come within the Bantu sphere, and that there 
exist the well-defined and quite independent families of Nilotic negro and Kushite languages." 

Missionaries of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland simultaneously were settled at Old 
Calabar on the eastern confines of Southern Nigeria, and were exploring the hinterland up the 
Cross river. Though they collected little or nothing in the way of Bantu languages, they were 
enabling philologists to define the limits of the Bantu family on the north-west. 

In South Africa a great impetus was given in the first half of the nineteenth century to the study 
of languages by missionary work and by the explorations of Robert Moffat and David Livingstone. 
The first adequate grammar of pwsa (Kafir)' had been published by W. B. Boyce in 1834, and 
was succeeded in 1846 by a vocabulary or a short dictionary written by John Ayliffe, and Apple- 
yard's Grammar in 1850. Then came Lewis Grant's Zulu Grammar in 1859, and a Zulu Grammar 
and Dictionary by the eminent Bishop Colenso. But the great event in the history of Bantu studies 
was the appointment in i860 of Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek to be Librarian of the collection 
of books presented by Sir George Grey as a public library to Capetown. Bleek was born in 1827 
at Berlin, and was a student at Bonn University, where his attention was directed to the arrange- 
ment of South African languages and the affinities of Hottentot speech. He published a disserta- 
tion in Latin on this subject in 1851, and this attracting the attention of those who were advising 
the British Government in regard to the Niger expeditions, he was offered a post on the Niger 
in 1854 (in conjunction with Dr. W. A. Baikie) ; but his health prevented his taking up this appoint- 
ment. Instead he accompanied Bishop Colenso to Natal, where he began to study the Zulu 
language. Moving to Capetown in 1856 his value was at once appreciated by one of the few great 
Governors who ever went out to South Africa— Sir George Grey (a man whose services to the 
British Empire and the world at large have never yet been sufficiently appreciated). Sir George 

' Dr. Peters's travels took place between 1842 and 1848. 

" The Rev. Dr. J. L. Krapf issued from the Tubingen University Press (Wiirttemberg) Vocabularies 
0/ Six East African Languages in 1850, a Vocabulary of ^ Wakuafi' (Masai) in 1854, and compiled in the 
course of many years his Swahili- English Dictionary, which was published in London in 1882. Although 
this work is of great interest to students of the origin and affinities of the Swahili dialects, its value is 
marred by the author's eccentric orthography and his preference for the Mombasa dialect over that of 
Zanzibar. He is also too ready to include as ' Swahili', words really belonging to quite different Bantu 
languages spoken in his time by the slaves of the Arab settlers. Krapf also collected materials for a Nika 
Dictionary which was afterwards completed under the editorship of the Rev. T. H. Sparshott (1887). 

Johann Rebman or Rebmann^both spellings are used by him — one of Krapfs colleagues, had 
compiled an interesting study of ' Ki-niassa ' in 1853-5, which was not published till 1877. This was 
more or less the Ci-maravi dialect of the widespread Nyanja tongue. Rebmann also contributed to the 
above-mentioned Nika Dictionary. 

' As already mentioned, the Kafir language was first transcribed in print by Andrew Sparrman in 
1776. Sparrman was the naturalist to Captain James Cook's second expedition to the Pacific. 



6 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

Grey gave him a post as Government Interpreter at Capetown, which he enlarged into that of 
Librarian in i860. As early as 1856, however, Bleek, through studying the vocabularies written 
down by Dr. Wilhelm Peters, had not only grasped the unity of the great language family of 
Central and South Africa, but had proposed as an appropriate name for it the term BANTU, a term 
which he derived from the wellnigh universal word for ' men '.' Bleek considered that, despite 
variations in pronunciation, this term was so universal and so characteristic of the languages to 
which it belonged in exhibiting the detachable prefix and unchangeable root, that it should preferably 
be selected for their universal designation, for the additional reason also of its shortness and easy 
pronunciation. 

Bleek really laid the foundations of Bantu philology. In 1862 he published at Capetown the 
first volume of his Comparative Grammar of the South African Languages, and in 1869 the second 
volume (in London). He had previously brought out a handbook of Australian, African, and Poly- 
nesian philology between 1858 and 1863, and although his conclusions are too far-fetched, especially 
in detail, and are not borne out by a more scientific study of these African and Oceanic forms of 
speech, still he detected many an obscure truth or half-truth. In his scheme for the Comparative 
Grammar of the South African Languages he hampered himself by attempting to deal with Hottentot 
(and no doubt later on, Bushman) as well as with Bantu. As there is no affinity between the two 
groups other than that they are both forms of speech uttered by Africans, this was a mistake. His 
first volume deals only with phonology, and the second gets no farther than the nouns and their 
prefixes. But both volumes opened up as no other work has done, the fascinating interest of the 
Bantu languages to philologists, and even to the outside world. It is as easy to trace the affinities 
between one Bantu language and another as it is between those of the Aryan groups— perhaps 
easier. As a rule they are melodious languages with the phonology of Italian, and as easily pro- 
nounced. They are expressive, and compared to most other African speech families, comparatively 
simple and logical in their syntax. Bleek adopted an excellent system of orthography, one towards 
which we have somewhat reverted of late. 

He made the best of the scanty material at his disposal, which was indeed small as compared 
with what we have before us at the present day. It consisted of Krapf's, Rebmann's, and Steere's 
East African vocabularies of Pojkcomo) (which he used very little), Kamba, Nika, Swahili, and 
^ambala; Yao) (collected by Peters and Steere), Makua (Peters), Sena and Tete (Ci-nyungwi) ; 
of Tekeza (under which term he meant the Thonga or konga language of Delagoa Bay and 
Amatoiigaland), Sesutco, Sexlapi or Secuana; Zulu and Kafir (pcusa) ; of Yeye (Ba-yeiyi), with 
references to Rotse or Lui, Ta)ka or Toiiga, Nyefigto, Subia, Lujazi and Ma-ponda, all derived from 
Livingstone's MS. vocabularies ; * of Hercro, Ndofiga (Ovambco), Nan<o or Benguela, Angola or 
Bunda (properly, Ki-mbundu) ; of Kongto (Kipi-koiigio) ; Mpongwe, Kele (Dikele), Benga, Duala, 
Isubu, and Fernandian. Bleek's work, as already stated, did not get bej'ond the noun, its prefixes, 
and their concords. But it was of such an illuminating nature that its interest has prompted as 
many philologists to work for its completion as writers of fiction have been impelled to finish Edwin 
Drood. At any rate, the reading of his two slim volumes in 1883 inspired me with the determination 
to write this work now published, and to lose no opportunities for its preparation when my 
African travels or researches should enable me to collect material. 

' In its fullest form with the preprefix it is Abaniu or Ba,ba.ntu. The singular is Unmntti (archai- 
cally, Gumuntu). The root is -ntu, apparently meaning no more than 'object' in its essence, and 
deriving its precise and differing interpretations from its prefixes : thus (discounting preprefixes) Mu-ntu 
= ' a human being ' ; Ba.-n/u = ' men, people ' ; Ki-ntu or Ka-ntii is ' a thing ', and Bi-ntii or Tu-ntu 
' things ' ; Pd-ntu = ' a place ' ; Lu-tttit = ' a quality ' (of some kind) ; and Bu-ntu is ' humanity '. 

• Which, scarcely used since, now contribute to the information of the present volume, through the 
kindness of lileek's ultimate successor, Dr. L. P^ringuey. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 7 

Bleek divined or actually exposed many of the facts connected with the origin and structure of 
the Bantu languages. But from the very insufficient material at his disposal he was led into several 
wrong deductions. One of these— evidently a pet theory of his — was in regard to the origin of 
a Zulu term for God — Cdmit-kulutikulu, which may (or may not) have been at one time the Zulu 
term for this concept. He realized that this word must mean either ' the great, great one ', or ' the 
old, old one ' (for -kulu can bear both meanings, even in the same language) ; and seeing the tendencies 
of Zulus to ancestor worship and the deification of dead-and-gone notabilities, he thought he found 
in this the etymology of the much more widely spread Bantu term for God —Mulungu, — which 
he considered to be a contraction oi Cdmii-kulunkulu. As a matter of fact, the two words have no 
connexion. Cdmu-ktdunkulu had the interpretation and origin given to it by Bleek, but Mulungu 
is really the rain or the sky god, and is derived from a root, -lungn, which is sometimes applied to 
the firmament and sometimes (though rarely) to rain (see numerous instances in the East and 
Central African vocabularies). Bleek's other error was in regard to the preprefixes or articles and the 
concord particles. He noticed that the vowels preposed to the Zulu-Kafir prefixes («mu-, aba-, «li-, 
&c.) were detachable from the second syllable, the prefix proper {niu-, ba-, or H-, &c.) : that the 
preprefixes had vanished from a good many of the Bantu tongues, but seemed to recur in the con- 
cord particles ; yet that these particles, though in general offering considerable resemblance to the 
prefix, in some cases exhibited a strange dissimilarity. Thus, for example, the concord particle of 
the Ma.- prefix might be sometimes nia- and yet at others ga-, ya-, or a-. The concord particle of 
Mil- might be gu-, yu-, or u-. Inasmuch, therefore, as we cannot postulate for the conjoint pre- 
fix and preprefix, a mere duplication of similar syllables (we can do so in regard to the majority 
in such forms as baba-, biibu-,kiki-, lulu-, Sic), and cannot assume a hypothetical tnumti- for the first 
and third, and mama- for the sixth, how are we to explain the dissimilarity between the concord 
particle and preprefix, and the prefix itself (often that between mh- and gu-, mi- and gi-, ma- and 
ga-) ? Bleek's attempts to do so in paragraphs 407-10, 461-5, and "536 of his second volume do not 
hit upon the right explanation. A step nearer in this direction was made by the Rev. F. W. Kolbe 
in his Language Study based on Bantu (London : 1888), and perhaps in earlier works dealing with 
the Herero language ; but it was reserved for the present writer to find the most reasonable solu- 
tion of this enigma, when he studied in 1901 the archaic Bantu languages of the West Elgon district 
(see his Uganda Protectorate, vol. ii, pp. 891-2).' 

Bishop Edward Steere, who went out to East Africa as a member of the Universities' Mission 
in 1865, was a noteworthy pioneer in Bantu philology. He was the first to deal in a practical and 
intelligent manner with the Swahili language. His Handbook and Exercises were for twenty or more 
years after their first publication in 1875 the generally accepted means of acquiring that tongue, 
both for practical use and philological inquiry.^ Steere also was the first to set forth clearly the 
features of the Yaco language, of Ngindu), Dzalamoj, the Nyanyembe dialect of Nyamwezi, of ^ambala, 
and Makonde. In dealing with Ngindo) and Dzalamo) in 1869 he, at the same time, added a few words 
to our very slender knowledge of Ki-afigazija, the language of Great Komoro). This far-outlying 
ancient Zafigian ('Swahili') speech, together with the closely allied dialect of Anjuan, had, as 
already related, not only been one of the first written of the Bantu languages (by Thomas Herbert 
in 1626, in its Mwhila dialect), but had been studied by a Madagascar missionary named Elliott, 
and by Dr. Wilhelm Peters in the 'forties,^ and by Hildebrandt in the early 'seventies of the 
nineteenth century. 

Livingstone's interest in African languages waned somewhat through the pressure of other 

' See also p. 361 of the article on the Bantu Languages in vol. iii of the eleventh edition of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica. 

' Later editions have been issued by Mr. A. C. Madan, M.A. 
' His work is included in Bleek's Languages of Mozambique. 



8 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

cares after his first great journey across the continent. His Zambezi expedition of 1858-63 resulted 
— strange to say— in absolutely no additions to our knowledge of the south-east African Bantu 
languages ; though it was eventually, through the planting of missionaries in Nyasaland, the cause 
of a great advance of Bantu study. Livingstone's last journeys (in which he discovered the great 
Lualaba-Congo, crossed and recrossed Taiiganyika, reached Lakes Mweru and Baiigweulu, and 
penetrated the Manyuema country into the heart of the Equatorial forest) might have helped philology 
but f6r the fact that the vocabularies and language notes which he made in the course of five years 
never saw the light. In common with all the rest of his scientific material they were put on one side 
by his literary executors and apparently have now been lost. Dr. W. A. Baikie, of Niger fame 
(another pioneer of British Empire whose scientific work met with insufficient appreciation from 
pietistic minds), collected much linguistic information dealing with the Semi-Bantu languages to the 
south of the River Benue, but very little of this material has been saved for our information. 

In the middle of the 'seventies the Trans-African journey of Commander V. L. Cameron gave 
us (in all probability) the first definite illustration of the Lua (Luba) tongue, and enabled us better 
to understand old Portuguese records which suggested the continuity of Bantu speech across the 
continent. In 1877 the publication of H. M. Stanley's Through the Dark Continent conferred really 
g^eat benefits on students of the Bantu languages ; though I doubt if these were appreciated (except 
by Robert Needham Cust), for many years afterwards. Stanley indicated the Bantu character of 
the Victoria Nyanza and Tanganyika languages, and of those along the course of the Upper and 
Western Congo. 

Meantime French and French Swiss Protestant missionaries and those of the London Missionary 
Society ' had been adding to our knowledge of the Becuana and Rofiga groups of tongues in South 
Africa, and the great German explorations of south-central Congoland had begun, together with the 
missionarj' settlements in Nyasaland. These last were to produce the brilliant language studies of 
Dr. Robert Laws, of David Rufl'ele-Scott, and Alexander Hetherwick, besides the work of 
Alexander Riddel, Dr. W. Elmslie, and J. A. Bain, and, farther to the east, the studies of the 
northern Makua dialects by Bishop (as he afterwards became) Chauncj' Maples. 

Stanley's levin-stroke through the pitchy darkness of unknown Africa had started the opening 
up of the Congo from its estuary eastwards. George Grenfell had commenced his career as 
missionary-explorer in the Cameroons, and with his noteworthy colleagues, Thomas Comber and 
William Holman Bentley, was exploring western Congoland and commencing to note its languages. 
Kongo studies had been resumed, indeed, after a blank of nearly seventy years ^ by Dr. Adolf 
Bastian, who in 1875 published his work on the Luaiigco coast, which contains a good deal of 
interesting information regarding the western Congo and Gaboon languages. 

In 1880 the Egyptologist C. R. Lepsius— the inventor likewise of the Standard Alphabet— ^rc- 
ceded his Nubische Crammatik by a famous Preface on the Languages of Africa, in which occurs his 
definition of Bantu characteristics. But this preface, though remarkable at the period at which it 
was written for its extended knowledge, is based on some erroneous conceptions due to the lack of 
material for comparison ; and Lepsius's definition of Bantu peculiarities no longer holds good, since 
some of these are found to be shared by other African language families. 

When the last quarter of the nineteenth century opened, and with it began the tremendous move- 
ment of Europe on Africa, the time had arrived, evidently, in which some definite acknowledgement 
should be made of the interest offered by Negro languages io the world at large as a field of study. 

' The Rev. John Brown's Secwana Dictionary (now in its enlarged 1895 edition) was first published 
about 1877. 

' The last work on the speech of the estuarine Congo, published under the old Portuguese Roman 
Catholic missionary regime, was that of Father Cannecattim in 1809. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 9 

The task of tabulating all the extant information on this subject was undertaken by Robert Needham 
Cust, a retired Indian Civil Servant, who in 1883 published his Modern Languages of Africa. It does 
not pretend to be more than a history of linguistic research in Africa and a geographical enumer- 
ation and allocation of all the then known forms of speech in Africa from north to south, and east 
to west. But it is combined with the most extensive bibliography. Little attempt is made to describe 
the structure of these different types of speech, but evidence as to their relationships is sometimes 
adduced. Yet the work has been of the greatest help to students in many fields of African research, 
since its publication, and is still of value for the extent and correctness of its bibliography. It shows, 
in fact, a surprising amount of research, and personally I have seldom found any of its references 
wrong or misleading. 

In 1882 an Italian professor of Palermo, Giacomo de Gregorio, issued a work at Turin entitled 
Cenni di Glottologia Bantu, which, however, was little more than an extended review of Bleek's 
published writings. In 1884 the present writer had in his book on the River Congo given a little 
new information regarding the Bantu languages of western Congoland. In 1885, however, in an 
appendix to his account of the Kilimanjaro) Expedition, he advanced slightly the development of 
Bantu philologj' by the information there given, and by one or two novel deductions drawn from 
the work of earlier writers. During the 'eighties and 'nineties some progress was made in the 
enumeration and study of the tongues of south-west Congoland and of eastern and southern Afigola, 
through the work of German explorers— A. E. Lux, Otto H. Schutt, Dr. Max Buchner— and 
of Portuguese expeditions under Serpa Pinto (1878-80) and Capello and Ivens (1878-85). 

Between 1885 and 1888 the present writer investigated and wrote down ten or more of the 
Cameroons languages and several of the Semi-Bantu forms of speech on the border-line between the 
Cameroons and the Cross river region ; but little of this work has been published before its appear- 
ance in this book. During the same period Mr. J. T. Last, once of the Church Missionary Society, 
and later, and for long, a Government servant in Zanzibar, earned our gratitude by the printing of 
his Polyglotta Africana Orientalis, and by studies of the Kamba and Sagara languages. Mr. Last 
collected his information either direct from the natives of the different countries or by interrogating 
far-fetched slaves and porters in Arab caravans. The bulk of his work is surprisingly accurate, 
considering the difficulties of its transcription. He gave much new information for fixing the East 
African boundaries of the Bantu sphere. 

Amongst the first Bantu scholars of German South-west Africa were the missionaries or the 
sons of missionaries, the Rev. Dr. C. H. Hahn, Theophilus Hahn, the Rev. J. Rath, G. Viehe, Rev. 
F. W. Kolbe, and the Rev. H. Brincker; whose studies were published between 1857 and 1891. 
The extremely interesting Herero language had been written down as early as 1857 by Dr. C. H. 
Hahn. Its characteristics were fully revealed by Rath, Kolbe, Brincker, and others before the 
German political occupation of that region. 

In the 'seventies and 'eighties Primitive Methodist missionaries (coloured as well as white), 
such as William Luddington and Theophilus Parr, and Spanish Dominicans such as Juanola, did 
a great deal for the elucidation of the Bantu dialects of Fernando Po. Much of the work of the 
Primitive Methodists, however, has not yet been printed, but has been lent to the present writer for 
his assistance. 

The 'nineties of the last century witnessed a great advance in Bantu studies. The languages 
of the Western and Upper Congo were taken in hand scientifically by the British Baptist missionaries 
—notably Dr. W. Holman Bentley, Dr. A. B. Sims,' the Revs. W. H. Stapleton- and George 

' Dr. Sims did not belong to the British Baptist Mission, though in close relations of comradeship 
with its members. 

' Stapleton's research work in regard to the tongues of the whole Congo basin might justly be described 



10 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

Grenfell (though the work of this last was not revealed till after his death in 1906). Missionaries of 
the Congo-Balolo Mission— chiefly Messrs. Eddy, I. and F. T. McKittrick, did good work in con- 
nexion with the Lunkundu and Mongco dialects of the Lwlco language. To these workers in a field 
of exceptional interest must be added in the first decade of the twentieth century the Revs. John 
Whitehead, William Forfeitt, Lawson Forfeitt (at a later date), Robert Glennie, and John Weeks. 
Simultaneously, or earlier, the American missionaries were at work in southern Angola, where the 
great H^li Chatelain (of Swiss origin) dealt in a masterly way with the Mbundu language and 
kindred dialects, and where the Rev. Wesley M. Stover illustrated the Nana) or Umbundu of Bih6. 
In central Congoland, the Rev. W. M. Morrison, of the American Presbyterian Mission, gave us 
the first satisfactory exposition of the Luba or Lua language. George Grenfell had led the way 
(with Stapleton) in defining the northern limit of the Bantu family in the region of the Mubangi 
basin. Franz Thonner, a Viennese explorer, followed this up, and in 1899, as well as at later dates, 
revealed the existence of parcels of non-Bantu speech as far south as the northern banks of the 
Upper Congo. Stapleton, H. M.Stanley, William Forfeitt (especially), and Vice-Consul G. Babing- 
ton Michell, carried on this delimitation eastwards and showed us the existence of Sudanese tongues, 
like the so-called Bamanga, imbedded in areas of Bantu languages (Archdeacon Farler, of the 
Universities' Mission, and A. Downes Shaw, C.M.S., had earlier helped in the laying down of the 
northern Bantu limit in East Africa by recording the curious Mbugu of Usambara). 

The agents of the London Missionary Society (notably the Revs. J. Griffiths (Ki-lega), David 
Picton Jones (Guha and Mambwe),and W. G. Robertson (Bemba)) had opened up to our knowledge 
the western and southern Tanganyika tongues, in which direction some additional or parallel 
information was obtained by the present writer in 1889. French, Belgian, Dutch, and German 
Roman Catholic missionaries, preceded by the explorers A. Marche and the Marquis de Compiegne 
in the COgwwe basin (early 'seventies), Monseigneur Le Berre, Fathers Delorme, Dahin, and Reeb, 
Lejeune, Alex. Visseq, Butaye, 6m. Cambier, and, above all, De Clercq; ' Gustave de Beerst, P. H. 
Trilles, Eugene Hurel, P. Schumacher, I.M.M. van der Burgt, and A. Capus and J. Calloc'h— were 
putting down on paper at the same time and thenceforward into the twentieth century the languages 
of the Gaboon, of north-west and south-central Congoland, and the region between Tafiganyika and 
the Victoria Nyanza. Paul Kollmann, a German official in East Africa, in 1899 published useful 
vocabularies of some of the south Victoria Nyanza languages, which were treated more scientifi- 
cally at an earlier or a later date by Peres Eugfene Hurel, Loupias, Dufays, Schumacher, Alex. 
Arnoux, Menard, and A. Capus, and by Hermann Rehse and Hauptmann C. Hermann. I should 
also mention with due acknowledgements the services of Messrs. J. F. Cunningham, J. A. Meldon, 
S. Ormsby, and G. A- S. Northcote, of the Uganda Administration, who, between 1899 and 1909, 
worked at the recording of Victoria Nyanza and Albert Nyanza dialects as specified in the Bibliography 
following my vocabularies. Research of value amongst the (still little-known) tongues of south-east 
Africa was being done in the 'nineties and in the early twentieth century by the Swiss or French 
Protestant missionaries, Paul Berthoud (who dealt with the ^i-gwamba of the north-east Transvaal), 
E. Jacottet (who also gave us our first scientific account of Subia and Luyi, two languages of the 
Upper Zambezi), Henri Junod (^i-rofiga and its dialects and folk-lore) ; and by Bishop Smyth 
and John Matthews (pilefige or Ciopi), the Revs. Theodor and Paul Schwellnuss (Venda), A. H. 

as enormous ; only about a quarter has seen publication. A go,od deal of his work is incorporated in the 
present book. The remainder, unfortunately, is scarcely utilizable owing to accidents which attended it 
after his death, as we lack the English elucidation of the vocabularies, portions of which also are still 
missing. 

' Bantu philology owes much to the labours of P^re Auguste De Clercq in south-central Congoland 
(the Luba and Kanyoika languages especially), and to P6re J. Calloc'h for his work on the Ifumu or 
eastern Teke language and the Sudanese tongues of the western and north-western basin of the 
Mubangi. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES n 

Hartmann (Mapuna, Karafia), and W. A. Elliott, L.M.S. (Mapuna and pindebele). In northern and 
eastern Zambezia' good work was being done ere the close of the nineteenth century by Father J. 
Torrend, S.J., in regard to the Ci-tofiga of the Central Zambezi and Cuabco of the Zambezi delta. In 
the opening years of the twentieth century Edwin Smith gave a distinct uplift to Bantu studies by the 
publication of his Handbook of the lla (^ukulunibwe) Speech. The hnguistic work of the Universities' 
Mission between 1890 and 1906 must not pass unacknowledged. In addition to the remarkable 
contributions to Bantu hterature made by Mr. A. C. Madan, at one time a lay member of the Mission 
(contributions elsewhere enumerated), Archdeacon H. W. Woodward, and the Rev. W. H. Kisbey 
added to our knowledge of Zigula (Zanzibar coast), and the Rev. Herbert Barnes illustrated the 
Nyanja language of Lake Nyasa in its northern form. 

As regards the actual work of Bleek — the general survey of the Bantu tongues — the first forward 
step since Bleek's time was taken by Father J. Torrend, S.J., in his Comparative Grammar of the 
South African Bantu Languages, originally published in 1891. But the most noteworthy advance on 
Bleek was made by a fellow German, Carl Meinhof, a Lutheran missionary, who had probably studied 
the Bantu languages for some time before his first noteworthy publication, Grundriss einer Lautlehre 
der Bantusprachen, published at Leipzig in 1899, and added to subsequently by his Grundziige einer 
vergleichenden Grammatik der Bantusprachen ('Materials for a Comparative Grammar of the Bantu 
Languages '), besides many articles in German linguistic periodicals, which are referred to by me 
elsewhere in this work. One to whom all Bantu students must remain deeply indebted is A. Seidel, 
a great German philologist, whose studies of African languages have gone far outside the Bantu field 
(as have those of Meinhof), but who, from the early 'nineties onwards, has given to the world 
a series of admirable grammars or grammatical sketches, of dictionaries and vocabularies of east, 
south-west, and north-west Bantu languages. 

Nor in any record of Bantu discovery should the modern Portuguese be left out of account. 
Serpa Pinto, Capello, and Ivens, in their works of the 'seventies and 'eighties of the last century 
had, as already related, given vocabularies ofAfigola and north-west Zambezia Bantu languages 
which have been of assistance to investigators; but in the 'nineties, Henrique de Carvalho pub- 
hshed that really important study of the Lunda language which is referred to in the Bibliography ; 
and various Portuguese missionaries (especially Ernesto Lecomte and Affonso Maria-Lang) sub- 
sequently wrote excellent accounts of the northern members of the Herero group in southern Angola 
(Umbundu and Nyaneka). 

Bishop Steere had a noteworthy linguistic successor as philologist in a lay member of the 
Universities' Mission, Mr. A. C. Madan, who, beginning in the 'nineties with the illustration of 
Swahili, has brought out during the last few years works of considerable value, not only of specific 
languages such as those of Northern Rhodesia (Seiiga, Bisa, Lala-Lamba, Lenje), but on the structure 
and phonology of the Bantu languages in general. 

C. W. Hobley, almost the oldest now in seniority of service amongst the British East African 
officials, had in 1899 discovered the northernmost colony of the Bantu in eastern Africa — the Konde 
orHasa people of North-west Elgon, and had published a short vocabulary of their language in the 
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. In later years he contributed much information 
regarding the speech of the Kavirondco Bantu and of the Basuba (Kcosoava), as well as the Akamba 
of British East Africa. 

The Luganda language " received its first efficient treatment by a member of the Church 

' Into northernmost Zambezia (N. Rhodesia) the widespread Luba language enters, and the Bantu 
student was at one time mainly indebted to the missionary C. A. Swan for his knowledge of the southern 
Luba speech. Mr. Swan published in 1892 Notes on the Construction of Chiluba. But since then (1909) 
we have had the Kiltiba (Sangd) Dictionary of fimile Jenniges. 

'^ This Sanskrit of the liantu was, I believe, first put on paper by Stanley in the vocabularies of his 



la A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

Missionary Society, P. J. Pilicington, who was killed in 1898 in the mutiny of the Sudanese soldiers. 
Other members of the Church Missionary Society, the Revs. Blackledge, O'Flaherty, Walker, 
Hattersley, Purvis, H. E. Madox, and Crabtree,' and Dr. A. R. Cook, from this time onwards pub- 
lished works on Luganda, Ru-nyono, and on the interesting Masaba speech of West Elgon 
(originally discovered by Hobley). Mrs. Hildegarde Hinde wrote on the Kikuyu and Kamba 
languages. A. C. Mollis, Secretary to the British East African Administration during the early 
years of the twentieth century, materially helped our comprehension of the different dialects 
of Swahili by illustrating them in the Journal of the African Society. Swahili in the later years 
of the nineteenth and the commencement of the twentieth century had received additional treat- 
ment (additional to the still useful works of Steere and Madan) at the hands of Pere Sacleux 
and other French missionaries. Dr. G. C. BQttner, Carl Meinhof, A. Seidel (German philologists), 
and the Rev. W. E. Taylor, of the Church Missionary Society, the last-named being a leading 
authority on Swahili. [An excellent description of the Giryama dialect of the Nika language had at 
an earlier date been published by the same writer (W. E. Taylor).] An adjoining language, the 
^ambala, received in 191 1 the amplest treatment from the point of view of scientific philology by the 
German missionary, Karl Roehl. In fact, with the uprise of the German power in East Africa went 
hand in hand an investigation of the East African languages, chiefly, but not always, by missionaries 
Catholic and Protestant : C. Velten (Nyamwezi, Kami, Hehe, Swahili), Ferdinand WOrtz (Pwkojmoj 
and Tikuu), Ernst Brutzer (Kamba), A. Worms and M. Klamroth (Dzalamco), Bernhard Krumm 
(Matumbi), Fathers Cassian Spiss and Johannes Hafliger (Sutu and Mateiigco), R. Wolif (Kinga), 
C. Schumann (Nkonde), Dr. Otto Dempwolff'and Dr. Eduard Sachau (Pcogojru)). 

About the middle of the 'nineties, Miss Alice Werner commenced those studies of the Bantu 
languages which have made her subsequently so noteworthy, the more so as she writes with equal 
facility in German and French, as well as English, and has therefore contributed some of her most 
remarkable essays to French and German periodicals. Miss Werner's work in its critical insight 
into the structure of a language recalls that of Carl Meinhof, and of an equally great Bantu scholar, 
Bernhard Struck, whose illuminating articles have appeared at intervals in German and English 
publications during the last ten years. The Rev. W. A. Crabtree has also attracted attention as one 
able to deal with the Bantu languages from the general point of view of scientific philology by his 
essays in Xhe Journal of the African Society; while from Paris have recently been issued several 
notable studies on the Bantu languages by Mile L. Homburger. The most important of these is 
her i.tude sur la Phomtique historique du Bantou. Another interesting French contribution to Bantu 
literature is from the pen of Captain Avelot. It deals with the little-known OOgcowe and Gaboon 
languages, and is entitled Recherches sur I'histoire des migrations dans le bassin de VOgoue (see 
Bibliography). 

In the South African field there are curious gaps in our knowledge, and much remains to be 
done here. Unhappily, whilst we are waiting for it to be done languages and dialects are fading 
out of existence in the whirlpool of race movements which is going on. The most interesting of all 
the South African languages— Venda of the Northern Transvaal — had still a most imperfect 
vocabularj- until the Rev. T. Schwellnuss amplified it in a private communication for my information. 
The Kafir-Zulu dialects are insufficiently known, though thanks to the kindness of the Hon. R. 
Coryndon of Swaziland, of Lady (Florence) Phillips and their friends, the Swazi dialect has been set 

Through the Dark Continent, published in 1878. Probably Burton and Speke had first shown that it was 
a Bantu language by their works published in 1859 and 1864. Its general character and affinities were 
not however made clear till the publication in 1882 of the Outline Grammar of the Luganda Language of 
the Rev. C. T. Wilson, C.M.S. 

' For details, see Bibliography. The Rev. W. A. Crabtree has worked on the Masaba dialects, in 
addition to Luganda, but his material, if it has been printed, has not come under my notice. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 13 

forth in writing for the purposes of this book. The Zulu language has at last been fully exemplified 
in the Zulu-English Dictionary of A. T. Bryant ; a Kaftr {pusa)-English Dictionary was published at 
Lovedale Mission in 1899 by the Rev. Albert Kropf; an excellent Kafir (pwsa) Grammar by 
I. McLaren in 1906 ; and an exceptionally remarkable WOrterbuch der Sot/to- Sprac/ie {Siid-Afrika), 
by K. Endemann (Hamburg, 1911), gives us a full illustration of the Sutco or Sothco speech. 

Emin Pasha, when Governor of Equatoria, compiled a number of vocabularies, which, however, 
did not do more than assist to limit on the north the extent of the Bantu field ; but when he 
returned to take service in German East Africa he inscribed some interesting vocabularies of 
the Nyanza and Ituri forest languages, which after long concealment were brought to light and 
published recently through the energy of Bernhard Struck. In this connexion, though of much 
earlier date, may be mentioned the vocabularies published by Stanley in his Darkest Africa, the 
importance of which — scanty as they are— was not appreciated till within the last few years. 
Honourable mention should also be made of the work of Father Auguste van Acker in his 
Dictionnaire Kitabwa-Fran^ais ei Franfais-Kitabwa, published by the Congo Museum, Tervueren ; 
and the sumptuously produced Notes ethnographiques . . . sur les Bushongo, &c., by Emil 
Torday and T. Athol Joyce, which includes much linguistic information. Mr. Emil Torday, 
within the last fifteen years, has worked hard to place before the world the remarkable culture of 
south-central Congoland, and incidentally has collected almost the only information we possess 
regarding the curious Bantu languages north-east and north-west of the Luba field, besides 
illustrating several dialects of Luba. His researches have even extended as far north as the 
Ababua language group on the northern Bantu frontier. His work, published and unpublished, 
appears in the vocabularies of the present book. 

German work of recent years in the Kamerun Protectorate has scarcely resulted in those great 
gains to philological knowledge we had hoped for, seeing what has been accomplished in East and 
South-west Africa. The most splendid monument to Teutonic activity in this quarter lies almost 
outside the Kamerun region — the Monograph of Giinter Tessmann on the Fang people and their 
languages. Die Pangwe is deserving of international recognition (in common with a work by 
Dr. Leonhard Schulze, of earlier publication, on Namakwaland). Carl Meinhof, twenty years ago, 
collected and published much interesting information on the Bantu languages spoken in the basin 
of the Cameroons (Wuri) river (the West Kamerun or Duala group, as it might be called). Father 
Haarpaintner gave the first accurate account of the Yaunde speech (northern Pafiwe) ; Fathers G. A. 
Adams, P. H. Skolaster, H. Nekes, E. Schuler, H. Dorsch, and Captain Lessner have contributed 
valuable information about the tongues of the West Kamerun group between 1898 and 1910. In 
addition to their published articles, I am personally indebted to the English naturalist, Mr. Geo. L. 
Bates, for six valuable vocabularies of the leading Pariwe or Fang dialects, and for the only 
vocabulary extant of the Njiem tongue, which in some way connects the Pafiwe group with the 
corrupt Bantu languages of the Kadei-Lobai region. As regards these outlying jargons of the Upper 
Safiga, the Kadei, and the western bend of the great Mubangi river, our sole information comes at 
present from Mr. Geo. L. Bates, from the German explorer, Strumpell, and from Dr. Outilleau, 
a French medical officer who explored in 1910-11 the ethnology of the Sanga and Mubaiigi basins. 

Dr. Freiherr von Danckelmann and Dr. E. Zintgraff, in common with Captain Lessner, already 
mentioned, contributed much exact geography in map-making to enable us to locate Bantu tribes 
and languages in the western Kamerun, especially the invaluable vocabularies of Koelle. It is 
largely thanks to them and to Lieutenant Hutter (who with Dr. Hoesemann travelled over the 
northern versant of the Cameroons river basin in 1900-4) that we have been able to fix with some 
precision the boundary in West Central Africa between Bantu and Semi-Bantu. Several French 
officials, notably the administrator Clozel, the explorer-botanist Auguste Chevalier, and the far- 
travelled and industrious PereCalloc'h have thrown some light on the structure of these Semi-Bantu 



14 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

languages, south-west of the Central Sudan, between the Mubangi basin and the water-parting 
of the Kamerun coast-lands ; and Pfere Calloc'h and Captain M. R. Avelot have added to our know- 
ledge of the languages spoken in French Congo and the Gaboon. German explorers have dealt 
(slightly) with the interesting Semi-Bantu Bali group, between the Cameroons river and the Upper 
Cross river basin ; the English administrator and ethnologist, P. Amaury Talbot, has furnished us 
with full information regarding the ' almost- Bantu ' tribes (chiefly the Ekoi) between the Old Calabar 
region and the Rumbi mountains, information which has been supplemented recently by Mr. North- 
cote Thomas's Specimens of Languages from Southern Nigeria. [In this region also the author of 
this book travelled extensively some twenty-six years ago, to collect vocabularies for this Comparative 
Study of the Bantu Languages.] 

In concluding this historj' of the rise and progress of research into the Bantu speech family, 
I may perhaps be permitted to summarize my own credentials as a humble follower of the great 
philologists to whose memory my book is dedicated. It was the writings of Richard Burton, more 
especially, which first rivetted my attention on this subject. I knew something in general about 
the Bantu languages before I set foot in Bantu Africa in the year 1882. In the spring of that year 
I accompanied an exploring expedition under the Earl of Mayo, which was to investigate Portuguese 
South-west Africa. From Aiigola I proceeded to the River Congo, and with the help of H. M. Stanley 
penetrated into the then almost unknown region of the Upper Congo, transcribing languages in 
preparation for a continuance of Bleak's unfinished Grammar. In 1884 I learnt more or less 
thoroughly the Swahili language at Zanzibar, and shortly afterwards studied the dialects of East 
Africa and Kilimanjaro. Between 1885 and 1888 I was Vice-Consul in the Kamerun and Acting 
Consul in the adjoining regions of Southern Nigeria, and for three years gave myself up with ever- 
growing interest to linguistic studies in those directions, much of the results being privately printed 
by the Foreign Office. Between 1889 and 1896 I wrote down vocabularies and grammatical notes 
of the leading languages and dialects of eastern Zambezia, Nyasaland, and south Tafiganyika; and 
in two visits to South Africa made some acquaintance with piosa and Zulu. From 1899 to 1901 
I worked in situ at the Bantu languages of the Uganda Protectorate and the adjoining Congo forest. 
In 1904-6 and 1907 I took advantage of visits to West Africa to obtain (through correspondents or 
from travelling natives) additional information regarding Kamerun or Luafigo) languages. I had 
been asked to contribute the first article on the Bantu languages to the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
(tenth edition, 1903), and rewrote and enlarged that article for the eleventh edition. To further 
my Bantu studies, I paid several visits to Germany (the goal of all students of Africa before this 
unhappy war broke out). But in the pursuit of my investigation of the Bantu languages I have 
derived nearly as much information from Paris, Brussels, and Lisbon, as from Berlin, Hamburg, 
and Stuttgart. I should mention also that a good deal of my work has been checked in course of 
preparation by reference to natives of various parts of Bantu Africa, who, when coming to England, 
have been good enough to visit me and supply me with information and criticism. Many of the 
vocabularies here printed, though compiled (in some cases before I was born) by other travellers, 
have thus been tested by me in England, as well as locally in Africa, and have received in conse- 
quence certain corrections, additions, and explanations. 

In addition to the Bantu family, I have made some research into the North African dialects of 
Arabic and the Berber spoken in Southern Tunis, into Gala and Somali, the Nilotic and Masai tongues 
of Equatorial East Africa, the languages of the Central Sudan, of Southern Nigeria, of the Kru coast, 
and of the Mandifigiu peoples. 



CHAPTER II 

THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

What are the Bantu languages ? And why should they have been preferred as a special 
subject of interest in philological research to a degree far exceeding that of other language families 
of purely African location ? They constitute a very distinct type of speech which, as contrasted 
with others amongst the groups of negro tongues, is remarkable as a rule for the Italian melo- 
diousness, simplicity, and frequency of its vowel sounds, and the comparative ease with which 
its exemplars can be acquired and spoken by Europeans. The Bantu languages are attractive to 
the explorer not only from the harmonious adjustment of vowels and consonants, but from the logic 
of their grammatical structure, which, in the majority of these tongues, provides for a wide range 
and a nice discrimination in the expression of ideas. 

This one negro language family now covers the whole of the southern third of Africa, with the 
exception of very small areas in the south-west (still inhabited sparsely by Hottentot and Bushman 
tribes) and a few patches of the inner Congo basin. The Hottentot-Bushman region at the present 
day is limited to Great Namakwaland and the adjoining districts of Cape Colony and the western 
part of the Kalahari Desert, Kacokcoland, south of the River Kunene, and undefined portions of the 
plains between the Upper Kunene and the Okavaiigo). With this exception, and the now 
Europeanized portion of Cape Colony, Bantu Africa extends from Port Elizabeth and Kaffraria 
on the south to Fernando Pd and the vicinity of Old Calabar on the north-west, and to Lamu and 
the Tana river on the north-east. There are a few small enclaves of non-Bantu-speaking negroes on 
the north banks of the northern Congo, and patches of Hamitic, Nilotic, or unclassified tongues 
between the south-east corner of the Victoria Nyanza and Usambara in East Africa. But for these 
relics of pre-existing or invasive tongues, it might be said that the whole of this southern third 
of Africa contained but one indigenous speech family, the BANTU, and that it was only necessary 
to define the northern boundary of its range.^ 

The northern boundary of the Bantu field is still a little uncertain and not easy to delineate 
geographically. It may be said to start on the west coast of Africa in the Bight of Biafra (due 
north of the island of Fernando Po), at the mouth of the Rio del Rey in the southern portion of the 
Bakasi peninsula, which flanks the estuary of the Old Calabar river. From the eastern bank of the 
Rio del Rey the boundary is carried to the Ndiaii river, and thence with zigzags to the western 
flanks of the Manefiguba mountains of western Kamerun ; then to the junction of the Sanaga and 
Mbam rivers and eastwards to the Lower Kadei, and down stream to its junction with the Safiga ; 
from this point again eastwards to the Lobai river and down that stream to near its junction with the 
Mubangi. Then the border-line retreats west and south again, but once more makes for the Mubangi 

' VVe may suspect that in the Abongoi or Akwa of the Gaboon and the other Pygmy forest negroes 
of the Congo basin we have vestiges of peoples only recently converted to a corrupt form of Bantu speech ; 
but their jargon is nevertheless of Bantu type. 



i6 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

river in its lower course, crossing it above Ibefiga and extending eastwards to the Lower Moiigala, 
which it reaches at Lilcimi. Allowing for the enclave of the Sudanic Bondunga or Ndoiiga people 
who reach to the banks of the northern Congo at Lisala (near Bwpiotio), the Bantu border-line 
may be said to follow the water-parting between the Moiigala-Dua basin and that of the Ebaila, and 
then to cut across— east-north-eastward — to the Wele-Mubangi, near the falls of Bango) and the post 
of Jabir. Then another loop southward across the Likati and back to the Wele, after which the 
border-line declines south-eastwards to the Upper Aruwimi, below the confluence of the Nep<oka). 
Thence in little zigzags to the Lindi river, and abruptly west through the dense Congo forest back 
to the Congo main stream below the Lindi confluence (some distance west of Stanleyville). Next, 
the Congo is followed up stream past Stanleyville ; and then with a western loop for the Sudanic 
Bamafiga the Bantu frontier crosses the Lualaba-Congo once more and serpentines eastward to the 
extreme Upper Ituri and the south-west coast of the Albert Nyanza. The east coast of the Albert 
Nyanza is all Bantu as far north as Maguiigco ; and thence, in a south-easterly direction, the frontier 
keeps close to the west bank of the Victoria Nile till it enters the Busioga country near the northern 
shores of Lake Victoria. Crossing the Sito river, the Bantu boundary is carried (with an eastern loop) 
to the north-west slopes of Mount Elgon. From this point the boundary goes south-east and then 
abruptly south-west to the entrance of the Nzoia river into the Victoria Nyanza. The north-eastern 
coast-lands of the Victoria Nyanza are excluded from the Bantu sphere, and are populated by large 
colonies of the Gej^a or Ja-Iuco Nilotic negroes ; but from the southern entrance to Kavirondw Bay the 
frontier between Bantu and non-Bantu is carried south-east and south and is determined mainly by 
the rise of the lofty Equatorial plateaus. A great wedge of non-Bantu peoples comes from east and 
north, and touches the Victoria Nyanza at the head of Speke Gulf. From this point the Bantu border- 
line passes southwards in zigzags to the Luwambere river which flows into Lake Eyasi (throwing off 
sastward the Uraiigi peninsula of Bantu speech) and skirting Ugfogco attains to the Usagara and Nguru 
hills, thence curling east and north to the Rufu river. Crossing the Rufu the northern boundary of 
Bantu Africa encloses a north-eastern projection to the western, southern, and eastern flanks of 
Kilimanjaro). From eastern Kilimanjaro) the boundary-line returns coastwards, then once more 
describes a huge north-western loop up the valley of the Athi river to the Kikuyu country, and north 
again to beyond Mount Kenya and the sources of the Tana river. Along the Equatorial coast of 
the Indian Ocean there is a narrow strip of Bantu territory northward which includes the Swahili 
settlements of Witu, Lamu, and Patta,' and passes up the valley of the Tana river for a considerable 
distance. There are runaway, Swahili-speaking slaves on the Juba river, but they do not represent 
any ancient extension of Bantu speech in that direction. Yet it is evident that Equatorial Africa was 
at one time almost continuously Bantu in speech (save for the enclaves of Hamitic or Sudanic tongues 
such as MbuluBge and Mbugu or the click-using Useria and Sandawi) from the east coast of the 
Victoria Nyanza to the Indian Ocean ; and that into this Bantu sphere there came, several centuries 
ago, hordes of invading Nilotic Masai, Dorcobo), Nandi, and Ja-luo). These invasions reduced the 
area of the Bantu languages in Equatorial East Africa to islands and peninsulas. 

The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are, of course, Bantu ; Zanzibar being the metropolis of 

' South of this eastern boundary-line between the Victoria Nyanza and the Indian Ocean— a line 
which terminates on the sea coast at Kiuiiga in about i° 45' South latitude— there are several islands of 
Bantu speech— notably the Sunyu on Lake Natron, the Mbugwe on Lake ^L'^nyara, the Wa-meru 
(Caga) on Mount .Meru. Within the eastern Bantu area there are small enclaves of non- Bantu speech 
—TAtU^A (Nandi-Nilotic) on Speke Gulf and in eastern Unyamwezi ; Nege, Mbitlunge, and Wasi 
(Kushitic-Hamite) ; Sandawi (resembling JJushman) and UsMa ( IVangoinwia), between Unyamwezi 
andUgmgoi; and the perhaps ' Sudanic ' Mbugu in a small enclave in'northern Usambara. Besides, 
of course, the roving Masai and Donobci). A good deal of light is thrown on this complex ethnographical 
question in Ueber die Sprachen der Tatoga-und Iraknleute, "by Bernhard Struck, Berlin, 191 1. [In 
Honderabdruck aus ' Das Hochland tier RiesenkraUr ', by Ur. Fritz Jaeger.] 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 17 

the great Swahili language. The Komoro) islands — at any rate the Grand Komorto, Mtohila, and 
Johanna— come within the Bantu sphere, as their people speak ancient dialects of Swahili. 

The importance of this language family to Africa at the present day and in the near future is 
unquestionable. Throughout Africa, north of the Bantu border-line, you meet with a bewildering 
number of languages widely differing from the other and mutually quite incomprehensible ; and 
although there may exist linguae /rancae of Arabic (in its different dialects), of Pigeon-English, Creole- 
French, Hausa, or Portuguese, linguistic difficulties are relatively enormous, and have long delayed 
missionaries, traders, and representatives of Government from getting into close touch with the 
indigenous tribes. Moreover, most of these African languages, north of the Bantu field, are exceed- 
ingly difficult to pronounce and to acquire, whereas the leading features of the Bantu tongues are an 
Italian-like phonology and a relative simplicity of structure. Further, when once one Bantu 
language is acquired it is not very difficult to understand the structure and even the vocabulary of 
others. Assuming that a European knows nothing but Kipi-kongu) on the west or Swahili on the 
east, he can go far and wide over Bantu Africa with either of these tongues to help him, so universal 
in form are many of the word-roots indicating the simple concepts of everyday life. One could 
probably select twenty-five words of everyday intercourse which were common (or almost identical 
in form) to all the leading Bantu languages of the Cameroons, Congo, Angola, British South Africa, 
Portuguese East Africa, German East Africa, and Uganda. If, say, one started (as many an early 
pioneer like Livingstone did) with a band of porters or canoemen from the Zambezi, one might go 
far and wide to the north, west, and east, and with the slow rates of travel in pre-railway days, find 
one's porters accustoming themselves by degrees to the changes of dialect and language, till at 
length the caravan arrived at Tafiganyika, the Victoria Nyanza, or the Upper Congo, with its men 
still able to ask their way, or to understand the drift of what was said to them. Who that in 
earlier days explored Equatorial East Africa or Equatorial West Africa, or the very heart of the 
continent, has not realized the shock and interruption in easy relations when his expedition at last 
left Bantu Africa and arrived in a district where the languages belonged to another family — Nilotic, 
Sudanic, or Nigerian ? How completely at a loss he and his men felt, just as one who had more or 
less grasped the principles of the Romance languages of the present day, with no previous know- 
ledge of German, would feel on entering Alsace-Lorraine or southern Germany from France or 
Switzerland. Though, ol course, the differences would be far greater, since German, after all, is one 
of the many Aryan tongues and has an easily recognized community of origin and interrelationship 
with the Romance languages. 

There is no mistaking a Bantu language for a member of any other African speech family. 
A momentary glance at the numerals, at a dozen word-roots with their prefixes or suffixes, deter- 
mines the fact whether it is or is not a member of the Bantu family. The phonology also is as 
a rule distinctive, though appearances may be deceptive in the case of a few languages of the north- 
western part of the Bantu field. The semi-Bantu languages on this north-west borderland have 
a vocabulary which contains a greater or smaller amount of Bantu roots, and farther north and west 
there are other language families which display obvious resemblances and affinities with what may 
have been the Bantu mother tongue ; but outside the Bantu family there is no known speech group 
in Africa which displays all the characteristic features of Bantu word-construction and syntax and 
at the same time shows unmistakable affinity in word-roots. Curiously enough, there are languages 
in southern Kordofan, in Nigeria, at the back of the Gold Coast, or in the Sierra Leone region, the 
syntax or construction of which frequently recalls the Bantu idiosyncrasy ; but the word-roots of 
the vocabulary would be found wholly dissimilar. Or there are others, again, in West Central 

17S« C 



i8 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

Africa that exhibit a decided likeness to Bantu in their word-roots, j'et in syntax and word- 
construction are quite unlike the Bantu. 

The following propositions may be laid down to define the special or peculiar features of the 
Bantu languages : 

(i) The vowels of the Bantu languages are always of the Italian type, and no pure Bantu lan- 
guage includes obscure sounds like 6, a, a, and m. Each syllable must end in a vowel, though in 
some modern dialects in eastern and western Equatorial Africa, in Congoland, and South Africa, 
the terminal vowel may be elided in rapid pronunciation or may be dropped, or absorbed in the 
terminal consonant, generally in such cases a guttural or a nasal. No two consonants can come 
together without an intervening vowel, except one of them be an aspirate or a nasal (m, n, »), and 
no consonant is doubled in pronunciation. Apparent exceptions occur to this last rule where two 
nasals, two r's, two d's, or two ^s, come together through the elision of a vowel or a labial, or 
where the ordinary aspirate, nasal, or dental is reinforced so that it sounds like a double //, «, or /. 

(2) They are agglutinative ' in their construction, the meaning of the root-word being defined 
or enlarged and the syntax formed by the addition principally of prefixes, and secondarily of 
suffixes added to the root; but no infixes (that -is to say, no mutable syllable) is incorporated into 
the middle of the root-word. 

(3) The root, excepting very rarely its initial vowel or consonant or its terminal vowel, is 
practically unchanging ; though its first or penultimate vowel or consonant may be modified in 
pronunciation by the preceding prefix, or the last vowel of the root similarly, by the succeeding 
suffix. In the great majority of cases, however, the root-word remains absolutely unchanged 
through all syntaxial combinations. It is frequently monosyllabic and very seldom of more than 
two syllables in its original and underivative form. But it is impossible to trace back Bantu con- 
struction to a monosyllabic basis, as some writers have attempted to do. 

(4) Substantives are divided into classes or genders indicated by the pronominal particle 
(' prefix ') which precedes the root of the fully-expressed noun.' -These prefixes in an ordinary way 
have attributed to them, definitely, either a singular or a plural sense. With the exception of the 
abstract prefix Bu- (No. 14), no singular prefix can be used as a plural ; and although the and (Bd-), 
the 6th (Ma-), the 8th (Bi-), and the 12th (Tti-) are in some languages used in an honorific or 
collective sense, which causes them even to be applied like prefixes of the singular number, this 
use is easily traced down from a plural origin. There is a certain degree of correspondence between 
the singular and plural prefixes. Thus, No. i prefix (Mu-) takes invariably as a plural the 2nd Bd- 
(Wa-, Va,-, A-), though Ba.- may also in the less orthodox languages serve as plural to the singular 
of No. 9, or to nouns which have not been endowed with or have dropped their prefix. No. 4 (Mi-) 
nearly always serves No. 3 (Mu-) as a plural, though it may also be used with No. 14. No. 8 (Bi-) 
is practically the only plural of No. 7 (Ki-). The number of prefixes common to the whole family 
is perhaps seventeen, though there may be two other classes, Nos. 18 and 19 (Gu-, sing., Ga-, plural) 
which, if they cannot be shown to be ancient variants of Nos. 3 and 6, would raise the total number 
to nineteen. These seventeen or nineteen pronominal particles, three of which (15, 16, and 17) 

' ' Agglutinative ' is a classifying term which has lost its value ; for all languages are agglutinative in 
the sense that as a rule when a concept increases in complexity the word used for it enlarges in volume, the 
language being equally agglutinative whether the added syllables are tacked on to either end of the word 
or inserted in the middle. Even inflexions were originally due to additional syllables which .iffected and 
modified the root vowels by their proximity. To some extent, indeed, the Bantu languages are not 
strangers to inflexion. For instance, verbal roots may become ' inflected ' to express changes of tense, 
mood, and meaning. 

' In numerous Bantu languages certain classes of prefix may fall into desuetude and the root-word 
appear without a class-indicator. But in such case the noun's class is always present to the native's mind, 
and is indicated by its pronoun and its concord or adjectival particle. Class prefixes in Bantu, after all, 
are analogous to our ' class prefixes ' ' he ' and ' she ' in ' he-goat ', ' she-bear '. 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 19 

often decay into mere prepositions, are attached as prefixes to the roots of the nouns and verbs. 
Other monosyllables may be used as qualifying prefixes before noun-roots— chiefly in a masculine 
or feminine or diminutive (' father ' or ' mother ' or ' child ') sense ; but they have no ' concord ', no 
distinctive pronominal particle. 

(5) Bantu languages are especially characterized by the principle of the concord. In close con- 
nexion with the prefixes are similar monosyllables associated with each class of noun, which are 
prefixed to the adjective or numeral in correspondence with the noun, or serve the noun in the 
sentence as pronoun or as pronominal particle in the verb. They combine with a vowel (most 
commonly -a) to form a genitive copula ; and as an identifying suffix or prefix fuse with any interro- 
gative, relative, collective, or demonstrative pronoun, with adverbs or prepositions which refer to 
the noun they represent. The forms of these concord-particles or pronouns are usually like the 
prefix with which they are associated ; yet there is occasionally a dissimilarity showing diversity of 
origin.' From these concord-particles seem to have arisen, early in the development of the Bantu 
languages, ' preprefixes ', or additionally demonstrative articles (answering somewhat to the English 
'the'). These, when definiteness of utterance was desired, preceded the actual prefix.' In the 
most archaic forms of Bantu speech these preprefixes are syllables of consonant and vowel identical 
with the pronominal concord : thus the full form of the conjoined preprefix and prefix in Class i of 
the north-west Elgon dialects is Gii-mu, Gu- being the preprefix oi Mm- in both Classes i and 3. 
Ba-ba is the full form of the 2nd Class, and Ga-ma. of the 6th Class. But in all but the most archaic 
types of Bantu language, the prefix, if retained at all, is a mere vowel— i/-mu-, ^-ba-, A-ma-, /-mi. 

(6) With the aid of these pronominal and adjectival particles a complete ' concord ' is main- 
tained between the noun and its dependent adjectives, numerals, demonstratives, pronouns, verbs, 
prepositions, and (sometimes) also adverbs. 

(7) Suffixes of an adjectival, locative, or prepositional sense may also be applied to nouns, and, 
of an adverbial and postpositional quality, to verb-roots. 

(8) No sexual gender is directly recognized in the classes or categories represented by the 
nineteen prefixes with concord particles, or by the personal pronouns. These last make no 
distinction between ' he ' and ' she ', ' they ' (feminine), and ' they ' (masculine). But a distinction of 
sex may be conveyed to nouns and adjectives by sex-prefixes and suffixes (usually Na-, Nya-j Se-, 
Si-, Sa- ; -kazi and -rume). Of the seventeen or nineteen categories of nouns, the prefixes and con- 
cords of Classes i and 2 are chiefly reserved for human beings. Classes 3 and 4 have a great 
deal to do with trees, vegetables, and implements (especially of wood), and members of the body. 
Class 5 comprises many round things like fruits, eggs, stones, the sun, the eye, a tooth, a horn ; 
and is also associated with gigantic objects and augmentatives. Class 6, its plural, has a collective 
sense and refers to liquids, assemblages of people, animals, and inanimate objects; Class 7 (plur. 
No. 8) indicates tools, furniture, methods, 'kinds of, 'manner of doing things or of speaking'; 
Classes 9 and 10 were often associated with beasts, birds, reptiles, and fish ; Class 11 {Lu- or 
Du-) with ' long things ', rivers, tongues and languages, long stretches of country or ranges of 
mountains. Classes 12 and 13 were usually diminutives, but Class 13 (Ka-) could also be given 
a specially feminine, tender, and finally honorific sense. Class 14 {Bn-) was generally the prefix of 
abstract qualities, answering to our English suffix ' -ness' ; Class 15 was applied specially to certain 

' Thus, in many Bantu languages the concord-particle of the ist, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 9th, and loth 
prefixes, when it is used in a pronominal rather than adjectival sense, differs totally from the prefix. The 
1st prefix is Mu- ; its concord-particle when adjectival is niu-, so also may be its pronoun in the objective 
case ; but its pronominal particles in other connexions may be a-, gu-, yu-, ye-, u-, ka-, -kwe, &c. The 
6th prefix, J/a-, has an adjectival concord ma-, but a pronominal ji.'a- (ya-, a-). 

' Similar ' preprefixes ' are present in the Temne language group of Sierra Leone, that West 
African speech family which offers such a strong analogous resemblance in its syntax to Bantu. 



20 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

members of the body like ears, anns, and legs, but was mainly associated with ' doing', things, with 
verbs as an infinitive, with direction as a locative—' to ' or ' from '. Class i6 represented only ' place ', 
' here ', ' on ' ! or had to do with time. Class 17 meant ' in-ness ', ' inside '. Classes 18 and 19, where 
they existed, were given the signification of ' great size ', ' unusualness ', ' awfulness '. 

(9) Numeration in the original Bantu was certainly decimal. The root lor ten — kitmi— is 
virtually common to more than nine-tenths of the Bantu languages, and so in a lesser proportion 
are words for ' hundred ' {-kan* or -kdina). 

(10) Demonstrative prefixes and pronouns are often preceded by a directive '«-' {m- before 
labials) which emphasizes attention. Pronouns in the nominative case always precede the verb- 
root and the objective or accusative pronoun ; which last likewise ordinarily takes its place before 
the governing verb-root.' 

(11) The root-word of the verb, free from prefixed or suffixed particles, is always the 2nd person 
singular of the imperative. The sense, application, and complexity of verbal roots as concepts can 
be modified, enlarged, affected adverbiallj' in many ways by changing the terminal vowel and 
adding suffixes, some of which almost lead to a process of inflexion by the carrying back of their 
dominant vowel. In normal Bantu languages verb-roots end in -a. almost invariably. The verb can 
be given a passive instead of an active signification by means usually of a suffix. No changes of 
the verb-root are attempted at the initial ; but preceding the verb-root come the particles which 
indicate tense and mood, the pronouns, prepositions, and the syllables of negation. On the other 
hand, adverbial particles and occasionally particles with a relative or ' refer-back ' sense are tacked 
on to the termination of the verb-root. Negation is most commonly conveyed by prefixial particles 
— Ka-, Sa-, Ta-, Ki-, Si-, or Ti- (or variants of these), but also by negative suffixes or adverbs, and 
sometimes (additionally) by changing the terminal -a of the verb-root to -/. With very rare excep- 
tions, the prefix which turns the simple verb-root into an infinitive is Ku- (No. 15 prefix). 

(12) Prepositions are used, not postpositions ; the only exception to this rule being the locative 
'Hi (-nyi, -n, -«) meaning ' in ', which often accompanies the 17th prefix and concord, Mu-. Adverbs, 
on the other hand, when not treated as independent qualifying nouns or adjectives are suffixes, 
following the verb-roots or pronouns they govern. The most characteristic and widespread of the 
Bantu prepositions — in some cases not to be distinguished from Class prefixes- are «a-, ui- (with, 
by, and), -a (of), ku- (to), pa- (at, on), and mu- (in). 

These twelve groupings ^ of Bantu characteristics must be regarded as defining the features of 

' Sometimes in a fuller form (like the French moi) the objective pronoun is placed a/ier the verb in 
the corrupt north-west Bantu languages. There is also a doubtful exception in orthodox Bantu to the 
rule that the nominative pronoun particle shall precede the verb. This is the instance of the 2nd person 
plural of the imperative mood, wherein, in most Bantu languages, the pronoun particle (a very archaic 
one in form) -ni, follows the verb-root as a suffix {Pouia ! = love thou ! ; Penda-ni ! — love ye ! ). 

' C. R. Lepsius, in his introduction to his Nuhische Cratnmalik (I?erlin, 18S0), also gave at some 
length twelve propositions to define the peculiar character of the Bantu language family. These for 
a long time were regarded as the standard by which the Bantu features were to be appraised in setting 
them apart from other language types. But his definitions are not in all cases accurate, adequate, or 
intelligible, when a complete survey of the forty-six Bantu groups is effected — an impossibility in 
Lepsius's day. Summarized, Lepsius's propositions were as follows : 

(l) The prefixes of the nouns are the most outstanding features in the Bantu languages, and may be 
contrasted with the similarly characteristic suffixes of the Hamitic tongues. There are about eight 
different prefixes in the singular. [Lepsius was wrong here ; in his own day eleven had been computed; 
and even if he had argued that the three Mu- prejixes are to be counted as one — though their concords 
show them to be inherently different— we should still be left with nine, twelve being the probable total.'\ 
They may be most easily compared with the genders or sex class-divisions of the Hamitic ; but the Bantu 
prefixes have nothing to do with sex. Oh the other h.nnd, they fall into classes which distinguish 
humanity from what is not human— animals, trees and plants, implements, constructions, and other 
things, especially everything that is extraordinary, outstanding. Some stress should be laid on the 
tendency in the prefixes to distinguish between conscient beings and inconscient things. [This feature 
in Bantu is somewhat exaggerated by L.] The meaning of these prefixes, which must once have been 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES ai 

nearly all the Bantu languages. But to scarcely one of them cannot some exception be quoted — 
solitary or unusual, it may be— if careful research is made. In the same way, though all these 

independent root-words, is now no longer to be traced, and this fact alone would imply that the origin of 
the Bantu languages goes far back into Time. [The origin, yes j but not necessarily the 7>iigration- 
dispersal over Central and South Africa.\ 

(2) Sex differences appear unimportant to a primitive people, and perhaps from this arises the fact 
that in the whole array of negro languages there is no sex discrimination. [An incorrect and over-stated 
remark, in view of the indication of sex classification in the pronouns, articles, and concord particles of 
the Bofigcu, Bari, Masai, Musgu, and oilier obvious 7tegro languages.^ Lepsius then illustrates the extent 
to which sex discrimination penetrates the Hamitic, especially the Kushite group of those tongues. 

(3) Outside the limits of the Bantu languages, there exist no class prefixes. [How about Temne ? 
There are class prefixes also in other Semi-Ba,ntu tongues not known to Lepsius, like Avativie of 
SW. TctigOdland.\ But nominal prefixes, which have lost their original use, are found frequently in the 
second zone [/'. e. the Sudan and West Africa], and are also thus characteristic for their origin. [' Her- 
kunft ' — all this and much else in Lepsius' s twelve Propositions is very vague and of no clear application 
to the definition of Bantu salient features.] These nominal prefixes may be compared with the nominal 
suffixes in the Hamitic. 

(4) Personal pronouns are prefixed to the verb-root. There are no personal suffixes in Bantu 
[Lepsius has overlooked exceptions to this general rule]. This last condition is the opposite of what 
occurs in the Hamitic languages wherein personal suffixes permeate the speech. 

(5) In his fifth proposition Lepsius defines the principle of the concord. [Not altogether correctly, 
for he lays too much stress on the ' euphonic ' and ' alliteration ' theory. Euphony in vowel sympathy and 
in initial consonants undoubtedly infiuences the phonetics of the concord-particles, but does not prevent 
them sometimes from being dissimilar to the prefixes with which they are associated.] Traces of this 
concord or vowel harmony may be met with in certain Sudanese languages (' languages of the second 
zone '), sometimes in the noun, occasionally in the conjugation. In the last mentioned it is to be seen in 
the south Bantu. Traces of a vowel harmony, which is certainly more euphonic than anything else, since 
it arises from the vowel of the word-root, may nevertheless have some ancient connexion with consonantal 
alliteration. 

(6) In the Bantu languages, owing to the predilection for prefixes, there are no postpositions, only 
prepositions. [Incorrect : how about the locatives -m,-Xim, -la?] The Hamitic languages are divided in this 
respect : Libyan and Old Egyptian favour prepositions ; Kushite languages employ only postpositions. 

(7) The noun in the genitive case in the Bantu languages is placed after its governing noun, and is 
linked with the governing noun by a particle which is compounded from the latter's governing noun's 
prefix. Here again the practice is dissimilar in the two groups of Hamitic languages : Old Egyptian and 
Libyan follow the Bantu method ; the Kushitic tongues place the genitive before the governing noun. 

(8) The south Bantu languages arrange the pronouns and the verb so that the nominative comes 
first, then the verb, and then the object ; so that the verb comes between subject and object. In the 
Hamitic languages it is the rule that the verb either begins the sentence or closes it, so that subject and 
object come into immediate contact. 

(9) This word-placing in the Bantu is however modified when the object is represented by an 
abbreviated pronoun. This is inserted before the verb-root, but after the pronoun of the subject in the 
nominative case. The abbreviated pronoun representing the object in the sentence resembles [Lepsius 
thinks] an infix. In any case there is no parallel to this arrangement in Hamitic speech. 

(10) It is characteristic of the Bantu languages that every syllable should end in a vowel or a nasal 
consonant ; a difference without importance. This syllabic character tends through the isolation of the 
syllables to give a clearness of expression which does not exist in Hamitic speech. 

(11) Associated with this feature is the fact that, in contrast to the terminal enunciation, the initial 
utterance of words or syllables in Bantu may be frequently strengthened, particularly by the apposition of 
a nasal. Such, as an initial consonant has quite a different meaning and effect to what it would have at 
the termination of the word or syllable. While the nasals are of no more importance than other conso- 
nants in the final syllable, they are much more potent as an initial sound if followed by another consonant ; 
because in such case their tone element is almost equal to a syllable, probably because they are the 
remains of an earlier full syllable. [Lepsius' s meaning in this eleventh clause is far from clear, and the 
whole proposition is valueless. Perhaps he is alluding to the ' directive n ', frequently referred to in the 
present work.] 

(12) In his last proposition Lepsius descants on the influence of tones, of intonation in ancient 
African forms of speech, employed as in Chinese, Burmese, Siamese, and one or more groups of West 
and West Central African languages. He classes intonation as among the characteristics of the Bantu 
tongues. [ True, it plays an important role in Secuana and SesutU, and perhaps to a less degree in Zulu- 
Kafir. It is also an essential element in the pronunciation of Mpongwe and of the Fang or Panwe lan- 
guages of the north-west J- but— as a tneans of discrimination between monosyllabic words — roots worn 
down by attrition to a common semblance it is far from being one of the distinctive features of the Bantu 
languages 



22 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

points taken together constitute — with an array of numerals, pronouns, prepositions, noun-roots, 
verb-roots, and syntaxial features held in common— the outstanding marks that distinguish a Bantu 
from a non-Bantu language, it must not be supposed that anyone of these qualities or distinctions is 
peculiar to the Bantu family. Bantu phonology may be matched in some of the Sudanic tongues, 
and even (to a remarkable degree) among the Papuan and Melanesian languages. The Fula, the 
Wolof, the Temne, some of the Nilotic tongues and the Hottentot possess the principle of the con- 
cord;' in the Fula, in the languages of south Kordofan, of north Togoland, of Sierra Leone, nouns 
are ranked in a great variety of classes independent of sexual gender, each class being marked by 
a special initial sound, a prefix, or a suffix. Change suffixes into prefixes — a revolution which may 
take place somewhat quickly in a language (as witness the difference between Tudor English and 
Victorian English)' in the placing of prepositions— and you would have in Fula a form of speech 
very reminiscent of the Bantu family. The Bantu languages, therefore, do not strike one as foreign 
in their origin to Negro Africa, less so, in fact, than the Fula. Probably the parent speech was 
a prefix-using tongue of ' West African ' features spoken originally in the very heart of Africa, some- 
where between the basins of the Upper Nile, the Bahr-al-ghazal, the Mubafigi, and the Upper Benue, 
one of a chain of similar prefix and concord languages stretching from westernmost Africa to 
Kordofan. The first invasive move of the archaic Bantu seems to have been eastward, toward the 
Mountain Nile and the Great Lakes. The proto-Bantu folk were certainly once — many centuries 
ago— settled in the Nile valley north of the Albert Nyanza. One can trace their place-names still, 
in countries long since colonized by Nilotics or Sudanese. In this direction (the south-western 
part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan) they must have remained till at least as late as three or four 
hundred j'ears before Christ — late enough to have been in full possession of goats and oxen and to 
have received the domestic fowl ' from Egypt or Abyssinia. Then they embarked on their great 
career of conquering and colonizing the southern third of Africa. 

' This principle of the concord between the class prefix or termination of substantives and the 
adjectives, pronouns, and verbal pronominal particles dependent on them is by no means confined to the 
languages of the African negro and negroid. It may, indeed, like so many other ideas, have originated 
in Europe or Eurasia, and have spread to Africa. The concord is present in the Aryan tongues (Ilia, 
bona femina, &c.), in the Semitic and Hamitic languages. In these last the concord of the genders 
extends even to the personal pronoun ' thou ', which is rendered by feminine as well as masculine forms. 
In the Bantu, Fula, Temne, and other African ' class ' languages, the classes are many and do not refer 
to sexual gender ; in the Dravidian and certain of the Caucasus languages the categories are few, but 
likewise have no sexual reference. In the Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic (and Nilotic and some Sudanese) 
speech families, the classes may be three — masculine, feminine, and neuter — or merely two : masculine 
and feminine. 

' Teutonic English, like modern German and Dutch, was largely prefixial in its qualifying preposi- 
tions. Our ancestors said ' uprise ', ' uptake ', ' understand ', ' offset ', ' enfold ', where we, especially 
during the nineteenth century, would prefer the more analytical locution of ' rise-up ', ' take-up ', ' set-off', 
' fold-in ', &c. 

' I have employed this argument several times before, and so far it has not been successfully com- 
bated : namely, that the great dispersal of the Bantu from their first common area of development in the 
very heart of Africa cannot have taken place before they had received the domestic fowl and given it 
a well-marked generic name — Z-j/X-;/— which, by the by, is very like the early Persian names for 'fowl'. 
Now the fowl was first domesticated from the wild Callus ferrugineiis in India (or from the allied 
G. battkiva in Burma), about four thousand years ago. [It reached China as a domestic bird about 
1400 B.c] But it was totally unknown to the ancient Egyptians, or to the Greeks before the seventh 
century B.C. It did not reach Mesopotamia till about seven hundred years before the Christian Era, nor 
Egypt till after the Persian invasion of 525 B.C. Even supposing it spread rapidly up the Nile valley as 
a domestic bird, it could hardly have reached Central Africa for another hundred years— if so soon. Con- 
sequently for the fowl to have become so well-established amongst the Bantu as to have received a lasting 
and almost universal name amongst them, much time is required between the Persian invasion and the 
period of the great Bantu migrations : say 300 years. Amongst those negro races which do not speak 
Bantu languages, though they may be living in closest proximity to the Bantu, the word for ' fowl ' is quite 
different from the Bantu term (though this last may extend to the Semi-Bantu languages). Nor is it likely 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 23 

The most archaic Bantu languages at the present day are those of Bunyorio, Bukonjo), Ruanda, 
Buganda, the islands of the Victoria Nyanza, and the region of the north-west slopes of Mount 
Elgon (Masaba). It is reasonable to suppose that after the Bantu language-type came into existence 
— perhaps between the Shari basin and the Bahr-al-ghazal (its nearest relations are found in the 
Niger and Cross river basins) — its first great concentration lay in the region of the Great Lakes, in 
Equatorial Africa. Here it was shut off for a while from westward extension by the dense wall of 
Congoland forest. Southward, down the shores of Tafiganyika and thence south-west and west 
across the mountains and plateaus of southern Congoland to the Atlantic ; eastward and south- 
eastward to the Indian Ocean and the Zaiigian coasts ; southward across the Zambezi and 
Mashonaland to temperate South Africa swept the Bantu invaders, armed, it may be, with novel 
iron weapons and led by a Hamiticized aristocracy. They progressed, no doubt, as rapidly as the 
Zulu or Basuttti hordes overran Central Africa under the white man's observation in the nineteenth 
century. Here our forefathers or contemporaries have been able to testify to the spread of the 
Zulu clans and the Zulu tongue from the 35th to the 3rd degree of South latitude in about fifty 
years. 

The original Bantu invaders found no empty Africa before them. We may be certain from 
abundant evidence that Central and South Africa have been inhabited by man for many thousands 
of years, and probably by some black-skinned negro — forest negro, Sudanese negro, or Congo 
Pygmy — for an indeterminately long period, as far south as the Zambezi river. But South Africa 
proper, between the high plateaus of northern Becuanaland and the sea-coast of Cape Colony and 
Natal may possibly have been the domain exclusively of the Bushman and of the Hottentot hybrid 
down to the first Bantu invasions from across the Zambezi in (at a guess) about 700 a.c. South 
Africa then or earlier may have been partially depopulated from some cause — some epidemic of 
germ disease. Anciently— thirty, fifty thousand years ago, farther back still, perhaps— there existed 
in southernmost Africa a remarkable cave-dwelling type, the ' Strandlooper', whose skull bore less 
of a resemblance to the Bushman or the negro than to some round-headed, semi-Caucasian stock of 
the Mediterranean. This Strandlooper either co-existed alongside the Bushman or preceded and 
was followed by this specialized desert negro. In time the Straridloopers died out, leaving perhaps 
some traces of their presence in varied Bushman strains, and bequeathing to the Bushmen their 
wonderful gift of drawing and engraving, so reminiscent of the cave and rock pictures of the Solu- 
trian and Magdalenian Cave men of Europe or the Palaeolithic and Neolithic nomads of Algeria and 
the Sahara. 

We may imagine, however, some two thousand years ago, a South Africa beyond the Zambezi 
and Kunene rivers given up for a time to the dwarfish, steatopygous, yellow-skinned, click-using 
Bushman. 

The next disturbing element may have been the Hottentot ; a hybrid between negro and 

that the fowl was earlier introduced into East Africa by seafaring Arabs, thus reaching the Bantu home 
by another route long anterior to two hundred or three hundred years before Christ. The fowl was 
seemingly not introduced from Java or Sumatra into Madagascar by the early Malay colonists of that 
island ; but within the Christian Era by the Arabs ; and in Madagascar it bears no native name resembling 
the Bantu root-word -kul;u. It may nevertheless be argued that the fowl, like tobacco and the Brazilian 
Casarca duck, might have been introduced to the coast regions of Bantu Africa quite recently, long after 
all Central and South Africa had been ' Bantu-ized ', and have rapidly spread over the southern third of 
the continent, carrying its name with it. I5ut in that case why did not its name similarly reach the negro 
languages across the Bantu border-line.' Tobacco and the 'Muscovy' duck are nowhere known by 
universal names throughout Bantu Africa, though their Portuguese names of 'Taba' or 'Tabaco', and 
' Pato' may still survive here and there and be shared by Sudanic, Nilotic, Nigerian, and Bantu languages. 
The Bantu, it is to be noted, have, like the Aryans, remained faithful long after their dispersal to the 
word-roots referring to the animals, plants, implements, and abstract concepts known to them in their 
original home. 



24 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

negroid and some more northern Bushman race, which seems to have migrated from Equatorial 
East Africa south-westwards to the Central Zambezi and thence to the Atlantic coast near Walfish 
Bay, and on again southwards till the Hottentots entered (what is now) Cape Colony and displaced 
the Bushman. Later, it may be, there came other invaders from the north-east, by sea, rather than 
by land, the mysterious gold-mining, stone-building, monolith and phallus-worshipping people who 
originated the Zimbabwe walls, temples, and emblems. These are amongst the unsolved mysteries 
of Africa ; but the most striking of these stone cities, together with this whole impulse and 
procedure of gold-mining, most certainly were foreign to the Bantu arts and pursuits. The Bantu 
have seldom any word for gold. The tribes oldest in legendary history in South and East Africa use 
for gold an Arab word meaning 'moneys'. Zimbabwe and its like originally, perhaps, and cer- 
tainly later, early in the Christian Era, became associated with the exploring and trading voyages 
of the south Arabians ; and among the early writers of Islamic times there were to be gathered 
traditions that when the Arabs first visited the south-east coasts of Africa they found them peopled 
with ' Wakwak ' savages, who from the brief allusions made strike one as more like Bushmen than 
Bantu. The arrival of the Bantu hordes (the ancestors of the Karaiia; Becuana, Zulu-Kafir, 
Mapiigane, and Roiiga peoples), may have been the cause of the abandonment of the stone 
fortresses and mining depots by the sea-people whose forerunners designed or built them. After 
a time, however, the Arabs got into friendly relations with the Bantu colonizers, who in a much 
clumsier fashion imitated their mining and their stone-building. The Arabs, indeed, by their trade, 
their influence, and their slave-markets seem to have moulded the conquests of some early Bantu 
warrior-chief into that empire of the Mwenemutapa' — Lord of the mine— which the Portuguese 
found still a potent state when they reached South-east Africa at the commencement of the sixteenth 
century. 

The Bantu were quite possibly settled on the more northern coast of the Indian Ocean— the 
land of Zanj— at the beginning of the Christian Era. The early Arab traders from Mokha, Aden, 
Mokalla, and Maskat cultivated friendly relations with them. A hybrid type sprang up, the Swahili, 
or men of the ' Suahil ' (coast-lands). With the aid of the Arab daus (sailing vessels) many of 
these Swahili from the land of Zanj or Zafig (the Persian or Arab name for Black man's country, and 
the origin of ' Zanzibar ') colonized the Komoro) islands and even reached Madagascar, supplying 
the Malagasy dialects with numerous Swahili words. 

In the Congo basin the Bantu invaders often appeared as solitary huntsmen, boldly attacking 
the big wild beasts with their iron spears. Bantu culture throughout the Congo basin is closely 
associated with the iron spear— ^ongu, Kongu, Liangs. They probably found the Congo forests 
peopled already with forest negroes speaking tone languages of West African type or with a still 
more primitive people, the Congo Pygmies. There would even seem to be portions of the inner- 
most Congo basin which the tall Bantu have not yet penetrated and where there are only Pygmies. 
On the Northern Congo there still remain patches of non-Bantu territory inhabited by negroes 
speaking languages of an as yet unclassified type, vaguely styled ' Sudanic '. Somewhat similar 
to these are the Forest Lendu to the west of the Albert Nyanza. 

The first great Bantu migrations undoubtedly emanated from the vicinity of the Victoria Nyanza 
and north Tanganyika, and were directed round and not through the Congo forests. But in course 
of time, the Bantu communities founded in the region of the Albertine Nile and the Nyanzas, or 
farther still to the north-west between the sources of the Wele and the Aruwimi, broke through 
the wall of forest, and sent streams of migrants across the northern parts of Congoland to the 
Gaboon and the Cameroons ; reaching as their final effort the island of Fernando P6, which was not 

» Afwette = ■ lord ', ' monarch ' ; MuUpa. = ' mine ', ' digging ', ' excavation ', in the dialects of the 
Lower Zambezi. This the Portuguese corrupted into Monomotdpa. 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 25 

very anciently severed from a Cameroons promontory by some volcanic rift. Such an east-to-west 
propulsion might, in contact with the Nigerian peoples of the Cross river and Benue basins, have 
created bj' fusion the Semi-Bantu languages ; and no doubt one or two groups of such arose in this 
way and not very anciently. But it is more probable, taking all known facts into account, that 
a large section of the Semi-Bantu speech forms is either descended from sisters of the Bantu 
parent tongue {born in that central region north of the Benue, east of the Niger, and west of the 
Shari river), or has been originated by early, very early, south-westward migrations of the proto- 
Bantu before the great eastward move into the Nile basin and before the exact shaping of Bantu 
features had taken place. 

One is led irresistibly to deduce from the linguistic, ethnological, and anthropological evidence 
before us that at some such critical period in their career the negro speakers of the early Bantu 
languages were brought under the influence of a semi-Caucasian race from the north or north-east. 
Perhaps it was a gradual drifting into Central Africa of Egyptian or Gala adventurers coming up 
or across the basin of the Mountain Nile ; an infiltration of a superior type of man rather than 
a forceful invasion. Descendants of such ancient civilizers of Central Africa are undoubtedly to be 
seen at the present day in the Bahima, Ruhinda, Batutsi aristocracies of the Nyanza regions, the 
Mangbettu and Azande 'royal' families of the Nile-Congo water-parting, the Bafi-bupongoj of 
central Congoland, the Luba chieftains, and the many handsome-featured pale-skinned castes and 
ruling clans in so many of the Bantu peoples. Such good-looking ' negroid ' types may be 
encountered among the Zulus, the Becuana, the Hererto, the Alunda, Baluba, Manyuema, and the 
northern Congo riverain tribes, the Fang peoples, and the Duala of the Cameroons. Livingstone, 
Burton, Stanley, as well as later travellers, were all struck with the Egyptian-like features of the 
aristocratic families in the big Bantu states and kingdoms or among the warlike tribes of Central 
Africa, Similar aristocracies were noted by the pioneer missionaries and traders in southernmost 
Africa. 

The Bantu-speaking peoples of Africa, it might be here stated, do not constitute a race apart 
from other negroes or offer any homogeneity of physical type. But on the whole they represent 
so much the average negro type that ' Bantu ' is still in favour as a physical definition among crani- 
ologists. In reality, they are just fifty millions of negroes whose speech belongs to one of the 
many language families of 'negro type; only in this case the language family instead of being 
confined in its range to a hundred villages or two hundred square miles, is spread over the southern 
third of Africa— say over 3,500,000 square miles— from the Cameroons, the Northern Congo, the 
Nyanzas, and the Mombasa coast to Cape Colony and Natal. Bantu languages are spoken by Congo 
Pygmies and forest negroes of marked prognathism and stunted stature, by fuzzy-haired brown- 
skinned Fernandians still in the stone-and-wood age of culture, by tall-statured, handsome pale- 
skinned negroids with Egyptian profiles — the Bahima and BaCutsi, by great, burly, coarse- 
featured, downright, ' West Coast' negroes like the Wanyamwezi, the Baganda, the COvambco, and 
the folk of the Angola coast-lands ; by tribes with the yellow skins, broad, wrinkled faces of the 
slit-eyed Bushmen, by the very black-skinned, large-eyed comely Atoiiga of Nyasa, the semi-Arab 
Swahili or Karaiia, the stately Zulu, the mean-looking Batwa of Bangweulu, the Assyrian-like 
Baluba and Bupofiga), the simiesque Banandi of the Ituri forest or Babofigco of the Gaboon, and the 
all-round, moderately ugly, black negroes of average stature and average negro characteristics 
throughout the rest of South and Central Africa. 

Yet about the Bantu speech and the culture which accompanies it (ordinarily) there is a suggestion, 
strengthened by the association of these languages with metal-working (iron more especially), with 
agriculture, cultivated plants, and cattle-keeping, that adds to the impression derived from their 
legends, their religious beliefs, games, and weapons. It is that the Bantu language family was finally 
moulded by some non-negro incomers of possibly Hamitic affinities, akin at any rate in physique 



26 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

and culture, if not in language,' to the dynastic Egyptians, the Galas, and perhaps most of all to 
those ' Ethiopians ' of mixed Egyptian and Negro-Nubian stock that down to one thousand years 
ago inhabited the Nile basin south of Wadi Haifa and north of Kordofan. Such a race may even 
have been akin to the Tibu farther west, the Tibu of Fezzan, the Eastern Sahara, and the Libyan 
desert. We know that some of the weapons of the Central Congo are to be traced northwards to 
Tibu weapons and implements of ancient date. 

In spite of the suggestion of Egyptian influence in the domestic animals and plants of Bantu 
Africa (as also of the Western Sudan) and of the Egyptian profiles among the Bahima, I cannot but 
think this ' Egyptian ' influence over the Bantu was wrought indirectly through Gala, Ethiopian, and 
perhaps Tibu, through more or less Hamitic peoples influenced by Egyptian civilization of an early 
type. If much direct Egyptian influence had found its way to Central Africa from the Lower Nile it 
must surely have imported into Darkest Africa that deep attachment to Stone— for building and for 
worship — which emanated from the Mediterranean and south-west Asiatic peoples. But no skill 
in stone-quarrying, stone-carving or stone-building ever reached the Bantu, or for the matter of 
that, the Fula, the Mandingo), or the Hausa. Of all such arts the Bantu culture and languages are 
ignorant. 

The Baganda and Banyorco legends of the incoming strangers of remote antiquity, the wander- 
ing demi-gods (' Bacwezi '—ghosts, spirits) who came with long-horned cattle, trained dogs, iron 
weapons, religious theories, and the elements of civilization generally, make no mention of building 
in stone or of building at all. The very similar Ful shepherd aristocrats of Western Africa likewise 
had the ' Bantu ' culture, the herdsmen's craft, a simple agriculture with the hoe,'' an acquaintance 
with iron and copper (though copper plays a very secondary role in Ful and Bantu thought, legend, 
and speech) ; but no notion of stone-building. With the exception of the Bube or Fernandian 
indigenes, no Bantu people has been found living in an age of stone implements, though there are 
abundant evidences to show that nearly all Negro Africa (except perhaps the innermost forests of 
the Congo basin) went through ages of using flaked, chipped, bored, and polished stone weapons 
and tools. The Bushmen and Hottentots had remained in this stage, without knowledge of metals, 
using stone and also horn, bone, stick, thorn, and shell. Most of the forest negroes apparently 
adopted— or reverted to — wood before they were introduced to the use of copper. An industry in 
smelting and hammering copper, in exporting copper in the ingot or in manufactured form seems 
to have arisen a long while — many centuries— ago in Katanga, where the copper deposits are 
singularly rich ; and this trade in copper to have spread from south Congoland to north and west 

' It is curious that, but for a few obvious loan-words in the east of Africa, there is absolutely no 
Hamitic impression or affinity about the Bantu languages. Lepsius seems to have been impressed by 
the complete dissimilarity between the two language families. I cannot see myself much evidence of 
Hamitic influence on the structure, syntax, or origin of the Nilotic negro languages and the Bongto of the 
Egyptian Sudan— not such as there is for example in the Hausa and even Musgu. But one can detect 
in the numerals of the more eastern and south-eastern of the Nilotic tongues, and in a number of their 
nouns, evidence of Kushite (Gala and Somal) having long been in contact with the Nilotes, Masai, and 
Nandi. But one finds no such evidence in the Bantu languages, not even those of the Nyanzas, which 
are the most archaic. Yet in the regions where the purest Bantu speech exists you meet with these 
cattle-keeping aristocracies such as Bahima, Batutsi, and Ruhinda, whose physical resemblance to Galas, 
Somalis, even Abyssinians and Pharaonic Egyptians, is most striking. One can trace in the local folk- 
lore, religion, domestic animals, &c., the influence of the Caucasian or semi-Caucasian races of North- 
east Africa, but not a trace of their Hamitic languages. There is perhaps a little influence of the Nilote 
in the shaping of the Bantu mother language. Can the handsome negroids from the north and east who 
would seem to have been the leaven that stirred the Bantu dough more than two thousand years ago and 
who urged these Sudanic negroes to spread over and occupy the southern third of Africa have been 
derived from some stock like the Tibu which, though semi- Caucasian in blood, had received no language 
from the Asiatic Hamites ? 

' Though the Gala, even far inland in Equatorial East Africa, knows and uses the plough, no plough 
has ever been known to the Negro or the Fula. 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 27 

Congoland ; and southward as far as Nyasaland. Was it pre-Bantu ? We have no means of 
telling ; but there are many indications showing that the invasion of the Bantu was facilitated by 
the use of iron weapons, and that the working of iron ore and the fabrication of iron weapons and 
tools in Central and South Africa dates only from the Bantu conquest of the southern third of the 
continent. 

The spread of the more aristocratic ' negroid ' Bantu is also associated with the ancient 
Egyptian or Gala long-horned ox {Bos taunts aegyptiacus). This breed possibly had a west Asiatic 
origin, and it is evidently nearly related to the Indian humped ox. No trace of any wild progenitor 
has yet been found in its ancient habitat, Egypt and Ethiopia. It was obviously the first type of 
domesticated cattle in Africa. Later there entered East Africa the Indian Zebu breed, which may have 
also replaced the aegyptiacus type in southern Arabia. The Zebu, or humped type, crossed Africa 
from the east coast to western Congoland, the western Sudan, and western Zambezia, and travelled 
down the south-east coast of Africa to Zululand. The Hamites, I should say, had already intro- 
duced the long-horned aegyptiacus cattle to the regions south of the Victoria Nyanza. And here 
they were brought by that mysterious race, the Hottentot hybrid, to central South Africa and down 
the south-west coast to Cape Colony. At some unlcnown period afterwards the Bantu peoples 
round the Nyanzas received these long-horned cattle from the north and conveyed them in their 
southward migrations as far as Damaraland. Probably in all but the elevated regions of Central 
Africa these straight-backed, long-horned cattle died out from germ-diseases, which is why so many 
Bantu tribes at the opening up of Africa by the modern white man were without cattle or had 
adopted the humped cattle of Indian origin. Cattle, both of the aegyptiacus and indicus breeds, seem 
to have been introduced from Bantu Africa into Madagascar by Arab intermediaries and slave- 
dealers ; which is why a Bantu word for 'ox' is the chief term employed in Malagasy. 

One of the difficulties attending the acceptance of the theory that the ' Bantuizing ' of one-third ol 
Africa has been a long process in unwritten history and cannot be compressed within a period of about 
two thousand years, is the splitting up of the mother tongue into more than two hundred and twenty 
distinct languages, and the improbability of these languages with their marked idiosyncracies having 
sprung into existence in so short a period as is assigned by writers like myself. By searching 
Portuguese records in regard to the Koiigto or Karafia tongues we do not find a great difference 
between the speech of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the speech of to-day ; the 
numerals of the Bakwiri or Barundco at Ambas Bay (Cameroons) written down by some French or 
Dutch trader at the close of the seventeenth century are almost identical with the modern form. 

But with the evolution of languages, as of species. Nature— I believe— proceeds ^^rsmZ/ww/, alter- 
nately with slow progression. A great jumble of events, and lo !— new languages spring suddenly 
into existence. Those that suit the altered circumstances remain and continue their course for 
centuries with slow modifications. Not more marvellous would have been the rapid differentiation 
and specialization of the leading Bantu languages in Central and South Africa, between — let us 
say— the year One of the Christian Era and the twelfth century, than was the coming into existence 
of the Romance languages, engendered by the impact of the Goth, German, and Slav on the vulgar 
Latin of the decline and fall of Rome. No Romance language existed in the sixth century A.C. 
But, by the close of the twelfth century, Italian, Sicilian, Provencal, French, Castilian, Portuguese, 
and Rumanian were distinct, mutually unintelligible tongues; analytic where the parent Latin was 
synthetic, possessing an individual character which has not greatly altered in the slow subsequent 
changes. Dante's Italian of the thirteenth century would be perfectly intelligible in the streets of 
Florence to-day, and is not very different from the dialect spoken in Central Italy from the tenth 
century onwards. Yet in the sixth century no such language existed. We might almost say, 
judging from the Oaths of Strasbourg and other scanty evidence, that the French language was born 
and shaped in its essential features between the sixth and the tenth centuries. English which 



28 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

would have been almost unintelligible to an orthodox Anglo-Saxon of looo a.c. was created 
between about iioo and 1350. 

I am disposed to agree with Lepsius in the belief that the Bantu language-type, like the parent 
speech of the Aryans, has taken a very, very long time to shape out of some negro speech in the 
heart of Africa ; I am only arguing that the commencement of the sudden and rapid invasion of 
central and southern Africa by the Bantu cannot be referred back much earlier than the second 
century b.c. ; and that the differentiation of the more than two hundred distinct forms of Bantu 
speech occurred subsequently and rapidly. Six thousand years ago the Aryan Schwarmerei was 
probably just beginning, somewhere in eastern Europe. And there were then— I suggest— but 
the slightest dialectal differences in tribal speech amongst the Arj'an Russians to indicate that one 
group of clans would become the progenitors of the Aryan-speaking Asiatics — would in Asia generate 
the Tokhari, the Pisacha, the Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Zend languages ; another tribe Aryanize the 
Lithuanians ; yet another section (as they marched north-westward, westward, south-westward, 
or southward) become ancestors of the Slavs, or the Goths and Germans, the Kelts and Kelti- 
berians, the Itali, the Dakians, Thrakians, and Greeks. 

But if close resemblance in structure and syntax, if similarity of numerals and pronouns, and the 
possession in common of a great number of root-words of nouns and verbs, adjectives and preposi- 
tions are to be given full value as evidence of near relationship and of a recent origin from a common 
source, then we must regard the expansion and differentiation of the Bantu languages as a much 
more recent and rapid process than that which brought about the Aryanizing of all Europe and 
much of South-west Asia. 

The map of Bantu Africa will show the main directions taken in presumed history by the 
different streams of Bantu migration ; and an examination of the groups of Bantu languages will, 
after detaching true and widespread Bantu roots from their vocabularies, leave a residue which 
must represent the assimilated fragments of prior languages spoken by the peoples whom the Bantu 
armies conquered and fused with ; just as in the Keltic tongues, the Armenian, Albanian, and the 
modern Romance dialects there are words retained from languages of utterly different affinities 
which were in occupation of the land when the Aryan or Aryanized invaders came with their 
overpowering influence. Some very slight influence of Gala (a Hamitic 'white man' speech) can 
be traced through the East African Bantu, about four hundred miles south of the present Gala range 
in East Equatorial Africa. The Sudanic tongues, the Nilotic and Masai, even the Nubian and 
Kordofan languages have sent words from the north — chiefly of domestic animals, wild beasts, and 
trade goods— circulating through northern and western Congoland, through the Nyanza Bantu, the 
speech of Kikuyu, Kilimanjaro), Usambara, and the coast-belt of Equatorial East Africa. The 
unclassified, somewhat monosyllabic tongues of the Niger delta and the Cross river have influenced 
the worn-down Bantu languages of the West Cameroons. The influence on Bantu of Arabic, 
Portuguese, English, French, and Dutch is so palpable and (excepting that of Arabic and Persian) 
so comparatively modern that it hardly comes within the range of philological studies. It needs no 
explaining. Considering how long the Arabs and the Gala Hamites have been in influential contact 
with the Bantu of East and South-east Africa, and how powerfully the Aryanized Persians of the 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries a. c. influenced the Zafigian coasts and islands, it is surprising 
how comparatively few Arabic and Persian words have crept into Bantu speech. Swahili is by 
far the most Arabized of the Bantu tongues ; yet except in refinements of vocabulary often ignored 
by the common people, it remains essentially and very typically a Bantu language. The fact that 
the ancient and mediaeval Bantu invaders of eastern Zambezia and South-east Africa knew and 
cared nothing for gold till some incoming foreign people from across the seas taught them the value 
of that metal, is shown by the absence of any true Bantu root-word for ' gold '. The word by 
which 'gold' is rendered in the Zambezian and South-east African Bantu languages is— if not 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 29 

a variant of the Portuguese ouro or the Enghsh 'gold '— derived from Arabic, and usually 
a corruption of dir/tsm^ (iicidraiun, ndaUmit). 

Subtracting the foreign, the pre-existing elements from the modern Bantu tongues, we are left 
in nearly every group with a surprisingly large proportion of words traceable back to a common 
inheritance from Old-Bantu , from the pristine Bantu of North Equatorial Africa. Most of the defeca- 
tions from this rule are due to that human love of metaphor and trope, that dislike in timid or refined 
minds to calling a spade a spade, a devil a devil, a urinal a urinal. Totemism, superstition, would 
start a practice of referring to dreaded snakes not as ' nyoka ', ' the snake ', but as ' the long animal ', 
'the hisser', 'the coiler'. The Bantu tongues have as many paraphrases for alluding shame- 
facedly to the genital organs or the functions of generation and defecation as the most modest speech 
of Europe and America. The variations of Bantu vocabularies, especially in the south, have been 
mainly caused by Hlodnipa. This word— a verb in Zulu meaning ' to have shame ', to be ashamed ' 
— covers the practice of not calling sorhe common object, some beast, bird, fish, utensil, or 
geographical feature by its proper name if that name happens to be the cognomen of a near relative, 
a husband, father, brother, mother, great friend, or respected chief. The custom refers more to 
women's utterance than men's ; unhappy Woman throughout the long history of the ascent of the 
human species having always been regarded as unlucky, as an Eve doing the wrong thing and 
bringing down ill luck by offending the vague Powers of Nature and Fate. Consequently, in parts 
of Bantu Africa, if a woman marries a man named ' Lion ', though she may continue to call her 
husband shyly and whisperingly by his name, she will henceforth call the real lion, the ' roarer' 
the 'slayer of beasts ', the ' big cat '. Farther north, if the totem animal of the clan, or the most 
striking local example of divine or demoniac power is a crocodile, it might not do to be heard calling 
' crocodile ' (on the principle of letting sleeping dogs lie). So the crocodile —to the confusion of the 
inquiring philologist — is not called Ngwena or Ngandti, by one of its widespread Bantu names, but 
' the long one ', ' the sly one', 'the snapper-up ', or some other roundabout nickname. Evidently, 
however, as with family slang in our own land, a fashion in misnomers seldom starts from the 
vagaries of a few fantastics; otherwise the Bantu languages would not have remained after some two 
thousand years of dispersal so astonishingly true to type. 

Before the reader's attention is turned to the long series of illustrative vocabularies which 
I have thought it best to supply as a prelude to the discussion in detail of the existing Bantu lan- 
guages, it might assist him or her if I outlined the most striking features of the presumed Bantu 
mother speech. We can, of course, only deduce these from an analysis and comparison of those 
Bantu languages which have preserved the greatest proportion of widely-distributed word-roots in 
their vocabulary, or have similarly retained archaic forms of prefix, adjective, pronoun, preposition, 
adverb, and verb, which, from their recurrence and re-emergence in so many parts of South and 
Central Africa, would seem to have been part of the common stock of ideas in the original Bantu 
centre of dispersal. I shall thus have supplied some standard of comparison by which the diver- 
gency and the degree of divergency of the modern Bantu languages may be gauged, in the outcome 
of their development from the parent tongue of North Equatorial Africa, two to three thousand 
years ago. 

The following are examples of some among the many noun-roots of universal or considerable 
distribution in Bantu Africa ; given in the shape which they probably assumed in the original 
language or group of dialects (the Ur-Bantu of German writers, or as I prefer to style it in English, 
Old-Bantu) from which the two hundred and seventy-six Bantu languages and dialects of to-day 
are descended. 

' In its turn, no doubt, derived from the Greek drachma. 



30 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

Noun-roots 

Father (Se, Sa, Si ; Tata) ; mother (Nya, Na, Nyina ; Mama) ; brother (-ina, -dugu, -pangi) ; 
sister (-lumbu) ; maiden, virgin (-wali, -wala, -isika, -dumba) ; grandparent (Kaka, Kukoi) ; 
child, son (-keke, -ana, Meona) ; wife (-ka, -kaai) ; twins (-pasa or -longco). 

Chief (-kama, -ami, -fumu,' -keosi, -ini (-ene)) ; doctor, medicine-man (-fumu,' -ganga) ; witch, 
sorcerer (-Icoki, -sawi, -sawa, -lemba) ; thief, stealer (-ibi, -iba) ; man (-ntu, whence Muntu = a 
man, Bantu = men) ; male (-lume) ; female (-ka, -kazi, -kat>i) ; body (-wili, -biri, -zimba) ; skin 
(-gojba (-gcovi, -gcozi), -kanda) ; head (-tu, -twe) ; hair (-bale, -bili, -suki, -kisi) ; nose (-gulco, -puleo, 
•pula, -pomboj, -indto) ; eye (-isoo) ; ear (-tu, generally Ku-tu) ; lip (-Icomco) ; mouth (-nwa) ; tooth 
(•inco, -gegu, -songa) ; tongue (-limi, -laka) ; chin, beard (-devu) ; saliva (-te, Mate); neck (-kingca, 
-kcosi) ; shoulder (-bega) ; buttock (-takco) ; back, backbone (-gongoj, -uma, -tana, -busa) ; chest 
(-fuba,' -adi, -tulu) ; breast, nipple (-bele) ; heart (-tima— this word is sometimes used also for chest 
and liver) ; navel (-kcjfu, -kuvu, -tcotco, -kundi, -kombco) ; belly, stomach (-vumu, -fu, -nda, -mimba) ; 
bowels (-tumbto, -da or -ra). 

Arm (-bcokeo, -koaiMo) ; armpit (-apa) ; hand (-anda, -anja) ; finger or toe (-nwe, -nye, -kumu) ; 
finger-nail, and sometimes finger (-ala, -dala, -jala) ; penis (-bcolco) ; thigh (-berw) ; leg (-gulu, 
■rundcoj ; foot-sole (-ayco) ; vein (-sipa, -sisa) ; blood (-rcopa, -gazi, -nga, -kame or -gama) ; milk 
{•ziwa, -bele); fat, butter, oil (-fata'); bone (-fupa and -kupa,' -bisi) ; tear {-scozi, -ziga, -bezi) ; 
breath, life, soul (-conyu, -oya, -oyco) ; death (-fu, -fua >) ; ghost, spirit (-zimu, -limu, -banda, -dumba). 

Sky, and often God and rain (•g:ulu or -iguru, -julu, -lungu, -ingu) ; rain (-bula, -lungu) ; sun, 
sunlight, daylight (-juba, -ise, -sana, -laiiga or -tanga) ; moon, moonlight, month (-ezi from -ela, -era, 
to be white, shining, -gondco, -sungi) ; star (-ezi, -eti— perhaps from the same source as moon— and 
•nyenye, -iiini, -sonda, -tanda, -data or -jata) ; year (-aka, -vu) ; night or day (-lo> or -ileo— leloj is a 
widespread root for 'to-day' — naku, -siku, -tuku, or -fuku) ; darkness (-giza, -sise, -ilima, -rima, 
or -zima) ; wind, cold (-pepco) ; smoke (-ojsi, -isi, -iki, -ika, -dinga) ; fire (-lilw, -otco, from -ota, to 
warm, -pia, -bazu) ; charcoal (-kala) ; earth, ground, country (-si or -ti) ; stone (-bwe, -tadi, -ala or 
•bale, -manya) ; salt (-nyu, -ngtia, -kele) ; iron, iron ore (-ela or -bela, -uma, -tadi, -londw) ; water 
(-zi, -diba or -ziba) ; river, stream (-geda, -gazi or -giji, -iteo, -donga) ; lake, broad river, sea or 
(-ziba, -anza or -anja, -zadi, -sabi); mountain, hill (-scazi, -lima, -pili); river-valley (-rambco or 
•dambu) ; road, path (-dila, -gila, -handa, -bcoka). 

Tree, stick (-ti) ; dry wood, firewood (-kuni, -kui) ; thorn (-iba) ; grass (-ani, -asi) ; banana- 
tree (-gomba, -konda) ; banana-fruit (-tuki, -konde, -dizi) ; yam (-lungu, -coma, -kua, -rail) ; wine, 
mead, or beer (-alwa, -labu, -lafu or -Iwfu) ; mushroom (-btoa) ; forest (-bira, -itu, -zitu). 

Bee, honey (-uki) ; termite (-swa) ; fish (-swi) ; frog (-ula) ; snake (-coka, -piri (viper), -mamba 
(cobra)); crocodile (-kwena, -gandu, -mamba); egg (-ki, -landa) ; bird (-uni) ; wing, membrane 
(•papa) ; guinea-fowl (-kanga) ; francolin (-kwala) ; domestic fowl (-kuku). 

Beasts of all kinds — flesh (-ama) ; rat (-beba, -puku, -kusw) ; porcupine (-nungu, -gumba) ; 
elephant (-dcobco, -joofu, -damba, -dembto) ; hippopotamus (-gubu, -vubu) ; rhinoceros (-pala. -pem- 
bela) ; pig {-gulu, -guluba) ; buflalo (-ati, -aka) ; giraffe (-twiga) ; ox, cow, cattle (-gombe or -kcomto) ; 
milch-cow or breeding-goat (-gcoma) ; horn (-mbe, -pembe, -sengu, -iga) ; goat (-buzi, -budi, -peeni) ; 
dog (-bwa) ; cat (-paka, -simba '') ; leopard (-gwe, -koi, -sui) ; lion (-simba, -tare, -tambco) ; hyena 
(•pisi,' -mb wi, -bungu, -puru) ; monkey (-kima) ; baboon (-yani, -kolcobe, -ponibo)) ; ape (-zike, -scokto). 

Sorcery, fetish, religion, witchcraft, to bewitch (-luka or -duga, -sawa; -banda; -lemba, -kisi, 

' A marked correspondence in Bantu phonology exists between/ and /•, 7' and^, j and/, 2 and 7': 
so that we find especially in the West, but also in East Africa, -kumu alongside -fumu, -guia, alongside 
•vuta. and -futa., -kuba and -fuba, -fua and -kfta ; -suniu corresponding to -fumu and -suta to -vuta. 

" The range in meaning of this root is considerable. Sometimes it rises to ' lion', sometimes sinks 
to 'genet '. ' Query, cognate with old root for ' bone ' ? 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 31 

•flti) ; magic, medicine (-ganga) ; name (-ina or -zina, -itto) ; song, to sing (-imba, -imbu) ; fear, 
noun and verb (-coga, -copa, -tina, -tia) ; shame (-sconi) ; hunger (-zala, -ala) ; sleep (-Ico, Tulco, from 
the verb-root -la, -lala, to extend oneself) ; dream, noun and verb (-Itota, -duta)) ; dance, noun and 
verb (-kina, -bina) ; love, desire, noun and verb (-penda, -kunda, -tanda) ; intelligence, and verb ' to 
know ' (-manya, -manyi) ; goodness, good (-ema, -wa, -into, -nuga, -ntofu, -scoga, -bote, -bota) ; 
bad, badness, excrement (-bi) ; rottenness, rotten (-covu, -ora or -coza, -vunda) ; fierceness, bitter- 
ness (-kali) ; hardness (-gumu, -guma) ; smallness, little, young (-toj or -tu, -dongu, -ke, -nandi, 
■titi, -nini, -goinco, -ana) ; greatness, large (-kulu— from -kula, to increase — nene) ; oldness (-kulu, 
•nuna or -duna, -kuka, -kuta, -dala) ; young, new (-pya) ; whiteness, white (-ela, -eru, -tuka, -tuba) ; 
sickness (-dwala) ; shortness, (-fupi) ; length, distance, height, ' there ' (-le, -la, -de, -rare) ; ' within- 
ness ', inside (-da, -mu, -te) ; ' betweenness ' (-kati) ; place, ' hereness ' (pa-, -nco) ; house (-ndu, -zto, 
-zcobco, -dagco, -dabco, -umba— clay- walled); home (-ka, -kaya ; -anda, -banda, -ganda) ; canoe (-atoa) ; 
paddle (-kapi, -kasi) ; knife (-ale or -bale, -siu, -hamba, -panga, -paka, -pcokco, -mage) ; spear (-onga, 
-ofigeo, -furau) ;bow (-ta, -tta) ; arrow (-fwi, -soiiga, -bamba, -katto, -sala, -tegw) ; axe (-pasa, -bazoi 
or -bagu, -zuka, -gembe, -gimbu, -temeo) ; shield (-gabco, -guba) ; clothing— anciently ' skin ', 
' pelt'— cloth, blanket (-gubco) ; door, doorway (-kuki, -ugi, -ibi, -belcd, -pitu ; -liangco) ; drum 
(-gcoma) ; thing, property {-ntu, -ma or -uma). 

Prefixes and Preprefixes 
The original forms of the prefixes alone and of the preprefixes combined with them were 
probably as follows. It should be remembered that the preprefix is virtually identical with the 
'article ' of Aryan and Semitic languages. It is also the concord-particle and pronoun of the class to 
which the prefix belongs : — 

Prefix. Preprefix and Prefix. 

Class No. I. Mu- (singular) ] usually reserved for human Gu-mu- (Wu-mu-). 

r beings, and almost invari- 

,, „ 2. Ba- (plural) ) ably for men and animals Ba-ba-. 

„ „ 3. Mu- (sing.) Gu-mu-. 

„ „ 4. Mi- (pi.) Gi-mi-. 

„ „ 5. Di-, Li-, or Ri- (sing., sometimes used as an Di-di-, Ri-ri-, Li-li (I-ri-, E-ri-). 

augmentative) 

„ „ 6. Ma- (pi. and collective) Ga-ma-. 

„ „ 7. Ki- (sing.) Ki-ki-. 

„ „ 8, Bi- (pi. and collective) Bi-bi-. 

„ „ 9. N- (M-), if, Ni- (sing.) Gi-ni-, Yi-ni-, In- (Im-), In-, Ini-. 

,, „ 10. Zi-, Xi-, Ti- (pi.) Zi-zi, Ibi-, I-ti-, I-ti-n-. 

„ „ II. Du-, Lu-, Ru- (sing., a good deal associated Du-du-, Lu.lu-, U-lu-, Ru-ru-. 

with ' length ') 

„ „ 12. Tu- (pi. and collective diminutive) Tu-tu-, U-tu-. 

„ „ 13. Ka- (sing., nearly always used as a diminu- Ka-ka-, A-ka-. 

live) 

„ „ 14. Bu- (sing., collective, and sometimes dimi- Bu-bu-. 

nutive as plural to Ka-) 

„ „ 15. Ku- (sing., often used as preposition mean- Ku-ku-, U-ku-. 

'to', 'towards ') 

,, „ 16. Pa- (a locative, meaning 'place', ' at 'i ' °" ') Pa-pa-. 

„ „ 17. Mu- (a locative, meaning 'in ') Mu-mu-. 

„ ,, 18. Gu- (sing., augmentative) ? Gu-gu-. 

,, „ 19. Ga- (pi. to Gu-, augmentative) Ga-ga-. 



32 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

Associated with these preprefixes and prefixes, when they assumed the r6le of demonstratives, 
was the ' directive « ', a prefatory nasal which usually has the effect of ' this is so-and-so ' when 
preceding a noun or a pronoun, and which may be connected with either the gth prefix or with an 
old root meaning 'is', ' it is '. This initial «- («- before a guttural, nt- before a nasal) in many of the 
Bantu languages gives a more insistent character to personal pronouns or demonstratives, in the 
sense of't/iis, this one '. With the ' directive n ' affixed, these foregoing prefixes became in their 
archaic forms (and in this shape reappear in numerous existing groups) as follows ; — Class i. figu- 
mu ; 2. Mba-ba ; 3. Ngu-mu ; 4. Ngi-mi ; 5. Ndi-H, Ndi-di ; 6. Ifga-ma ; 7. Nki-ki ; 8. Mbi-bi ; 
9. Ngi-ni, Nyi-n' ; 10. Nzi-zi ; 11. Ndu-lu; 12. Ntu-tu ; 13. Nka-ka; 14. Mbu-bu ; 15. Nku-ku ; 
16. Mpa-pa. (No such nasalized demonstratives are traceable for Classes 17, 18, and 19). 

The most archaic forms which can be deduced for the Numerals are the following : 

1. -nwe, -nye, -guma, -dala (meaning ' finger ' or ' thumb ') ; -mu, -mto, -mwe, -musi, -mcusa. 

2. -ball, -bale, -bili. 

3. -tatu, -satu. 

4. -ne, -nai. 

5. -tanco, -sanco. 

6. -sambu; -kaga ; -sasatu, -sasaba ; -tandatu or Ntatu ndatu (3+3) ; -tupa, -tuba. 

7. Sambco, Sambco-bali ; Mpungati. 

8. -nana. 

9. -enda, Kenda ; Ifuka, Ivua. 

ID. -kumi ; -longco, Mu-longco ; -kama. 
(Plurals of tens — twenty, thirty, &c. — were Gama-kumi, Gimi-longco, &c. In the Bantu mother 
language there were no special terms for ' twenty ' as in the Semi-Bantu and Sudanic tongues, nor 
was reckoning by scores, as it is in them). 

100. Gama or Kama ; Dili-gana, Eri-gana. 

The original forms of the Personal Pronouns in the Bantu mother speech were probably these : 

I Mi, N, Ne, Ni. (Other modern forms like Ngi, Ngu, Ndi, Nze, Mbi, Mba are pos- 

sibly the original pronoun N- prefixed to particles meaning ' am ' or ' here '.) 
me -mi, -n-, -ni-, -iigi-. 

my -ngu, -iige, -m, -mi, -ni, -ne. 

Thou Gu, Owe (We), Ku-, Wu-. 

thee -ku-. 

thy -kto. 

He (she) Gu, Gwe (Yu, Ye), Ka-, A-. 

him (her) -mu- ; -ge, -ke, -ye. 

his (hers) -kwe, -ke. 

We Tu, Su (Si), Twe, Cwe, Swe, Hwe, Fwe. 

us -tu-. 

our -itu. 

Ye Nu, Nyu, Nwi (Ni), Mu, Mwe. 

you -ni, -nyu, -nu-, -mu-. 

your -inyu, -inu. 

They Baba, babco. 

them -ba-, -bu. 

their -babu. 

The reflexive pronoun 'self was probably -li- (-ji-, -zi-, -ri-, -i-, -e-). 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES • 33 

' All ' was rendered by -onse, -onte or -onke ; and in some senses by -cona and -ama. 
' Many ' was -ngi or -ingi, -vula or -bula, -bama. 

Adjectives were scarcely distinguishable from consonantal forms in Old-Bantu, and their more 
striking examples in persistence of word-root are cited with the nouns in the foregoing list. Several 
suffixes were probably employed in ancient as in modern Bantu to give an adjectival and adverbial 
sense to noun-roots, notably the widespread suffix -fu or -vu, which perhaps may be traced to an 
older form -bu, and be related to the 14th Class prefix. Adverbs were allied to nouns and pronouns, 
and prepositions likewise. Amongst these last, roots that are characteristically persistent and must 
therefore have been present in Old-Bantu are : pa-, on, at ; ku-, towards, to, there ; si- or -nsi, down ; 
-la, -le, -li, -di, -dia, far, distant, there ; nda, -da, inside ; -tei, -kati, between ; -eru, -nja, -nze, outside ; 
-pi, which ? where ? how much ? ; -nca, much, exceedingly, properly ; -mbele, before ; -pi or -fupi, near. 

The adverbial particles of negation, usually when employed with the verb, were prefixed or in- 
fixed in conjunction with the nominative pronoun particle which precedes the verb-root. They were : 

Ka- (becoming -kco, as a relative adverbial suffix) ; Sa- or Ta- ; Ki- ; Si- or Ti-. 

The following suffixes seem to have existed in the Bantu mother speech for incorporation with 
the verb-root at its terminal to modify, reverse, and extend its meaning. Already, perhaps before 
the divergence of the main groups occurred, it was becoming customary to change the pristine -a 
of the verb-root termination into -i to express negation or doubt, -e to give a subjunctive or potential 
sense to the verb,' -u or -u to indicate other changes of meaning. But in addition to this inflexion 
of the terminal vowel of the verb-root, a variety of suffi.xes came into use which have remained in 
force amongst nearly all the descendants of the Old-Bantu. 

These were in all probability : 

(i) -ba or -wa,^ probably one of the word-roots meaning ' be ', and used to turn a verbal root 
from the active voice to the completely passive ; that is to say, passive with the suggestion of an 
agent causing passivity. Example : Vu-leka, to leave ; \m-lekwa, to be abandoned (by some one). ' 

(2) -ka. This particle also turns a transitive verb-root into an intransitive, but indicates passivity 
without an agent directly causing it. The comparison of the -ka suffix with the -ba or -•wa, passive 
and the ordinary transitive verb-root used in an active sense, might be illustrated in English by the 
following example : ' He cools, chills ' ; this would be equivalent to the ac/ive verb in Bantu : ' He 
is chilly or cold ' : this would answer to the sense of the -ka suffix : ' He is cooled or chilled ' (by 
some one or something) : this would be implied by the -ba or -wa suffix. Thus if -pasua (a develop- 
ment oi-pasa) meant ' to split ' in Old-Bantu, -pasu'ks. would mean ' to be in fragments ', and -pasuvrtk. 
' to be split' (by some one). 

(3) -ga or -iiga. This suffix conveyed either a sense of thoroughness in action, or still more, 
continuity in the sense of the English participle termination -ing. It also inferred habitual or 
recurrent action. Example : -pula, ' beat ' ; -pulaga., ' beat thoroughly, continuously '. 

(4) -sa (za, jsa, sia ?) was causative. Thus if -lia was ' to eat ', -/«sa or -//sa would be ' to cause 
(some one else) to eat '. 

(5) -la, -ila or -ira and -ia (and -ela or -era or -ea, by absorption of the terminal -a ' ; also -ina or 
-ena) indicated doing a thing to, for, or by another person : as for example -fa = ' to die ' ; but -fia 
and -fira would mean ' to die for (or on behalf of) or through ' another person. 

(6) The vowel u (or in conjunction with the terminal a, oa) combined with -la or -ra, expressed 
a sense of reversal. Thus if -fuiiga meant ' to shut ', -fungxAa. would mean ' to open '. 

' Examples of the change to -/ and -e would be : Ni-pangB. or MpangK, ' I make ' ; Ni-pangt, ' that 
I make ', ' let me make ' ; and N-ki-pangi, ' I not make '. 

' In the Nyanza group and some ofthe western Bantu languages the passive suffix is -ibwa. 

' A +i constantly resolves itself into e in Bantu ; a + u into a). In these suffixes /, r, and ti, I and n 
frequently permute ; as well as s and^, j and z, b and w. 



34 " THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

(7) -pa was connected perhaps with the root meaning ' place ', ' location ', ' at ', but came to 
mean as a verbal suffix ' becoming ', ' developing into ', ' acquiring certain characters *. Thus from 
the adjective -nene, ' fat ' or ' large ', was made the verb -nenepa., ' to become fat ', from -bi arose 
-bipa., ' to become bad ' ; from -ugco ' fear ' was constructed -cogupa., ' to be afraid '. 

(8) -ana indicated reciprocal action : Ku-penda would mean ' to love ', but Ku-pendaaa. ' ' to love 
one another '. 

(9) -ama and -ta probably had a reflexive sense, meaning to do certain things for one's self. 
Thus -ima would be lengthened into -imsma, ' to erect one's self ; -pa, ' give ', became -/>Ata, ' to 
give one's £elf' or ' to get '. 

(10) -ile or -ide (with the variant -ine), perhaps also -isi (and, from their fusion, -itsi, -idzi, -ije) 
conveyed a sense of past or preterite action ; and in fact -ile (-ine, -ide, -ire) suffixed to the verb- 
root has become the chief form of preterite tense throughout the Bantu languages. The alternative 
iorm -isi (extended into -itse, -idzi, -ije, &c.) has to a great extent disappeared as an independent 
suffix, and is only traceable with difficulty in the composition of words. Thus, assuming -kunda or 
-gonda to mean ' love ' or ' desire ' in the Old-Bantu, it would become in most of the modern Bantu 
languages -kundiXt in the preterite sense of I (Thou, he, &c.) loved', or -gonzi (-gond-i%i), a form 
in which it actually exists in some of the Nyanza languages. More often the -itsi suffix united the 
other suffixes and verbal forms. It may really have arisen from an older combination of the -ide 
preterite with the -sa causative. The present form in Luganda (-idza) rather suggests this. 

In addition to these suffixes, the Old-Bantu, like some of its descendants, probably affixed 
other 'prepositional', locative, adverbial particles to the verb-root after the manner of -pa (No. 7 in 
this list. In this connexion -mu would mean ' in ', ' inwardly ' ; -kw, ' to ', ' towards ' (as well as from 
quite another root, ' not ') ; -ge (-je) would be interrogative ' how ? '—in modern Swahili u-td-fany»-'^e 
means 'how wilt thou manage it', or literally, 'thou— will— do— how.'' 

Probably in Old-Bantu, as in its modern descendants, the verb was conjugated by prefixed as 
well as suffixed particles ; and these last partook of the nature of prepositions (like ku, ' to ' ; pa, 
p«a, ' here ', ' now ', ' there ' ; -a, ' of ' ; na, ni, ' with '), adverbs and pronominal particles, related to the 
noiin prefixes— ka, ma, gu, la, da, nga, ngi— and mostly by auxiliary and abbreviated verbal nouns, 
such as li (di) and ba, meaning ' being ' ; ta, ya, ' doing ', ' going '. 

The most strikinglj' widespread verbal roots in the modern Bantu languages probably assumed 
the following forms in Old-Bantu : 



abuse, insult 


-tuka. 


beat 


-pula, -btila, -tera, -beta. 


bite 


-luma. 


breed 


-zala, -ala, -biala. 


bring 


-leta. 


build 


-lunga, tunga. 


bury 


-zika, -jika. 


buy or sell 


-gula, -suma, -tenga, -landa. 


come 


•iza, -pika or -fuka. 


cut, chop 


-tema, -baza, -senga, -kata. 


dance 


-kina or -bina. 


deny 


■kana. 


die 


-fu, -fua, -fa (-kwa). 


dig, hoe 


•lima. 


drink 


■nyiia, -niia. 



' This was sometimes extended to -sand, -ngdna. by fusion with other suffixes. 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 



35 



eat 

evacuate, defecate,rain, 

give birth 
fall 
fear 

fight, quarrel 
fish, catch fish 
give 

go 

heat, warm, cook 
hunt 
know 
laugh 

leave, cease 
love, want, desire 
press, milk 
rot 

say, speak 
see 
send 
sing 

sit, remain, abide 
sleep, extend the body, 
snore 



■la or -da, -lia or -dia. 

■nya (this root is related to the ' mother' or feminine prefix, nya-). 

-gwa, -bwa. 
-tia, -tina. 
•rwa, -rwana. 
•vuba, -luba. 
-pa, -nika. 

-genda, -gya (-ja, -ya), -tamba, -hamba (march, walk), -pita (pass). 
-5ta, -aka, -pi, -pika. 
-winda, -winga. 

•manya, -dzi, -dziwa, -jiwa, -azi. 
•seka or -seba. 
-leka, -sika. 

■panda, -kunda, -gonda, -funa, -tanda. 
-kama. 

-bora (-bwza), -bunda. 
-ti, -gamba. 
•bona, -lola, -laba. 
■tuma. 
■imba. 

-ikala, ■sala. 
■lala, -kcona or -gona. 



smell, stink 

stand, stop, be erect 

steal 

strike, kill 

watch, tend 

weep, cry, mourn 



•nuka, ■nunka. 

-g^ma, -sima. 

■iba. 

-ita, -tta, -ta ; -kuba, -buba, -bula. 

•linda. 

•lUa. 

The original concept of the verb in Old-Bantu was no doubt participial, of the ' verbal-noun ' 
order, the noun of action. But these verb-roots seem in Bantu to be older than most of the nouns 
that do not, like the verb-roots, terminate in -d ; as though actions were described before all but the 
most prominent oBjects. The original verb-roots were largely monosyllabic and never more than 
disyllabic ' (unless onomatopoeic) ; but I cannot agree with some authorities who have argued that 
the whole of the Bantu roots, substantival and verbal, can be traced back to utterances of a single 
syllable. Yet they tend that way, and perhaps, in the far past of African peoples, might have been 
traced to an ultimate affinity with a monosyllabic parent stock, which afterwards left behind more 
direct and monosyllabic tone-using descendants in the regions between the Cross river and the 
Volta. 

The simple verb-forms in Old-Bantu obviously ended in -a (with the exception of two or three 
irregular, interjectional verbs, such as Ti, ' say ' ; Njco ! ' come ! '; Li, ' be ' ; Pi, ' cook ', and various 
other meanings) ; and the majority of the nouns formed from verbs ended in -&) (probably from -au), 
-!, or -u. The -e termination of noun-roots may, like those that end in -a, have been very ancient 
and indicate independence of origin from verb-roots, or may — as so often occurs in verbal suffixes 
and prefixes— arise from the fusion of a- and -i. 

* It is noteworthy that many archaic word-roots in Bantu begin with a vowel and are disyllabic 
such as -d/i (buffalo), -dfs (heat), -isCt) (eye), -a/a) (canoe). 

D a 



36 



THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 



Indeed, in reconstructing the phonology of Old-Bantu, and especially of the still earlier African 
parents of that language family, one is led to assume a greater simplicity of vowel sounds even than 
exists to-day in the very Italian-like Bantu languages, and to postulate only o, a, i, and u for the 
original Bantu vowel equipment. So many of the existing u's and unstressed o's, as well as the e's, 
can be traced back to fusions of a and «, a and i, or to the broadening of u and i. 

As far as we can trace the phonology of Old-Bantu by comparing, one with another, the pro- 
nunciation of root-words in the more archaic Bantu tongues of the present day— notably the Nyanza- 
Taiiganyika-mid-Zambezian groups — we may surmise that it made no use of tones or clicks to imple- 
ment its resources in differentiating sounds ; and that, besides a simple vowel system — o, a,i, u, and 
perhaps u — it possessed the following consonants (interesting deficiencies being also noted) : — 

m, b, p, possibly w. 

V, f. These, however, may well have been absent in the pristine days, and 
have arisen subsequently, just before or just after the great dispersal, 
principally from b. 

Is, s, s. "G was doubtfully present, as a variant of / and s. ■£> almost certainly 
was absent; and is still of very uncommon occurrence compared with 6. 

d, t, I, n. R is doubtful as a radical letter, though often arising recurrently 
from / and d, and in turn producing z. 

i. J, if it had already appeared, arose from a palatalizing of d (dy, d) or g 
(gy) ; a lingualizing ofy, or a hardening of z. C, f, / were probably absent 
from Old-Bantu. 

y. In the primitive Bantu speech it is doubtful if y existed as a distinct pro- 
nunciation" from I and gl. 

n. This ringing nasal sound was probably heard when n preceded a guttural, 
and there may have been in Old-Bantu some of that general nasality of 
utterance which so strongly characterizes most of the negro languages of 
West Africa as to amount almost to a physical and racial trait— a distinc- 
tion still more to be remarked in Bushman and Hottentot and in the Semi- 
Bantu. But the « as an unsupported consonant (like the «^ in German or in 
the English words ' king ' and ' ringing ')— so common a feature in modern 
Bantu— can always be traced back to a fusion between n and g or k. 

The guttural y was probably absent from Old-Bantu, not having as yet arisen 
from the slurring of^g- or the faucalizing of w. 

k, g. But no X, X, or q. 

h was probably absent, though it was soon to arise from p, s, k, or /. 



Labials 
Labial-dental 



Dental-lingual 

Lingual-alveolar 

Palatal-lingual 

Palatal 
Palatal-faucal 



Faucal 
Aspirate 



Even in the Old-Bantu home there must have been a tendency among the dialects of the mother 
tongue towards an abrupt and wide-ranging variation between certain consonants— a psychic 
disturbance, so to speak, such as must often arise in aggregated genera and species of animals and 
plants or full-blown human languages, when they are about to produce great variations from type. 
And this sudden impulse towards varied pronunciation caused transitory or permanent permutation in 
consonants. Yet the permuted and the previous forms of word-root must have co-existed in the same 
tribe as they often do at the present day. These alternations were particularly marked as between 
labials and dentals— « changing to z,j to s, and /to 6 ; between labial and faucal— w and g,fa.Tid 
k, V and g ; between the lingual and the alveolar — / and d (together with r, which last is scarcely, 
distinguishable in Old or Modern Bantu from / and d) ; / and n, t and r ; and between the palatalized 
d and_/', d and z, t and s, / and c, s and f. P permuted easily to /and w, and still more readily and 
inexplicably to A, as soon as the great Bantu dispersal commenced. The aspirate, now so prominent 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 37 

in the phonology of the majority of Bantu languages, was almost certainly absent from Old-Bantu. 
No root-word traced back to its most primitive form discloses the presence of h among the Old- 
Bantu consonants. The modern Bantu aspirates represent an older p,f, s, or k, or the faucal gasp 
of a vanishing click in the pre-Bantu languages. 

In conclusion, I might state that I do not share the theory of certain German philologists that 
we should attribute to the Old-Bantu some degree of vagueness in consonantal utterance, resulting 
in y being the parent of the modern^ or w, 7' the antecedent of 6 and w, v and/; x of /^, and so forth.' 
The comparative study of the existing two hundred and twenty-six languages derived from Old-Bantu 
leads, on the contrary, to the conclusion that this mother speech of innermost Africa had broad, 
simple vowels, and distinct, well-defined consonants, almost limited in range to m, b, s, z, d, t, I, n, 
k, and g. In this respect, in the development of intermediate vowels and consonants between those 
of more pronounced type, the modern Bantu languages have only followed a parallel course to the 
Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic languages. It may be argued that the early articulate utterances of 
Man were vague in sound : undecided in vowel quality, and in the influence of tongue, of teeth, 
nose passage, and epiglottis on consonantal out-breathings. The extraordinary Bushman language 
family may be pointed to as an illustration of a very primitive form of speech surviving, and offering 
a similar vagueness in utterance. But the Bushman dialects may quite well be, like the Bushman 
race, examples of speech forms that have greatly degenerated and have been much specialized by 
isolation in South African deserts. And the vowel sounds of Bushman and Hottentot appear to me to 
be simple, few, and clearly marked, except for nasality of tone. It is their clicks which often obscure 
the values of the consonants. But even here we have no great range of subtle consonantal sounds 
as in the modern languages of Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia. The Bushman lan- 
guage, no doubt, like the race that uses it, is exceedingly ancient and shows the severe attrition of 
long usage. The simplification of vowel and consonant values (like the sudden simplification of 
customs after long slavery to tradition) tends to be one of those revolutionary occurrences which 
accompany the birth of a new language species or a new people : for instance, the Arabic dialects of 
the Sudan and of East Africa — rapidly becoming two new languages — are softening the more exasper- 
ating of Arab consonants and enlarging considerably the use of broad, distinct vowels ; Swahili 
Arabic, with the regular intercalation of vowel and consonant, is at the opposite pole to the Maghrib 
dialect of Morocco, which is mainly a collocation of choking consonants. One has only to compare 
the phonology of modern Arabic with that of the ancient Semitic tongues of Mesopotamia and Syria 
to realize (as also in the case of Polish and Russian, as compared to Yugo-Slav and Old Lithuanian) 
how languages tend as they spread, develop, and are more and more spoken, to differentiate their 
vowels and their consonants with ever-increasing complexity ; so that at last the speech becomes 
unspeakable by a newer generation or unpronounceable by an invading usurper. Then one of those 
radical changes takes place which gives birth to some new and more harmonious jargon : Latin 
becomes Romance, Greek changes into Romaic, the cumbrous Anglo-Saxon is modulated into the 
pleasantly Frenchified English of Chaucer, which we still speak. And I should not be astonished 
if, during the next twenty or fifly years, several languages of Africa and Western Asia — even 
Armenian, Lesghian, and Albanian— were scrap-heaped, and forms of speech with simpler, more 
melodious phonologies were adopted in their place. 

It is because the majority of the Bantu languages are so simple and clear in their phonology, 
so logical in their syntax that they are learnt with comparative ease by the stranger. The majority 
of them are much easier to master and to retain in the memory than Hausa, Ful, or Arabic. Those 

' Still less do I agree with their ' pooling ' problematic vowel sounds by the device of a heavily cir- 
cumflexed / ii). They cannot themselves suggest how this is to be pronounced. The circumflex is 
a shallow and out-worn mystification. 



38 DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

languages will survive — certainly Hausa and Arabic will, though I doubt whether the world or even 
the heart of Africa will tolerate for long the innumerable plurals and countless verb intricacies of 
the fantastic Fulde speech— but they will not spread much beyond their present limits. Already in 
northern Equatorial Africa Hausa and Sudanese Arabic are giving way to the Bafigala of North 
Congoland as a trade and administrative language, because it is a harmonious clear-cut, easily 
acquired, sufficiently expressive form ' of speech. Swahili is carrying all before it as the trade 
language of the regions between Galaland and the Zambezi. Zulu-Kafir will become the second 
language of South Africa if its exponents are wise enough to eliminate the silly clicks which at 
present mar its phonology and cause the European to take lip instead the ugly and stupid jargon 
known as ' kitchen Kafir '. 

The political importance ol the Bantu languages in the future will be as great as the political 
importance of the Indian vernaculars. This has been an additional inducement to me to study 
them. But it is perhaps the unwritten history of Negro Africa enshrined in their word-roots 
which has proved for me the strongest lure in this long-sustained work of research. 



CHAPTER III 

ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF 276 BANTU AND 
24 SEMI-BANTU LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS 

NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS IN RESPECT TO THESE 

VOCABULARIES 

The orthography, both in regard to African geographical names and the rendering of African 
languages, is that adopted throughout the volume and explained in detail elsewhere. A summary 
of its principles for convenience is given here in apposition to the vocabularies. 

M, b, V, p, / and w, are pronounced as in English. When any of these or other sounds 
are aspirated, the aspiration, if pronounced and distinct, is indicated by the letter h ' : and where it is 
less emphasized, by the Greek aspirate '. In numerous Bantu languages there is considerable 
indecision on the part of the individual speaker or the tribe as to the utterance of b and w, so 
that to the European listener the labial consonant is heard sometimes as a b, at others as a w, 
and occasionally as bv or vh. I have preferred to write it either w, b, bv, or v, according as the 
local or predominant pronunciation caught my own ear, rather than to impose accents on the w, 
which in reality give little help to the English student, who is sure to be understood by the native 
if he uses either a b, w, or v. Nevertheless this indeterminate, labial is represented by several 
writers well qualified to hold an opinion, as tu. Y is used by me for the consonantal t (the 
Germany). There is a great tendency to palatalize consonants in Bantu ; that is to say, to follow 
them by an f or a jv sound {dy, ty, ny, ky, gy). There is no other logical method of rendering this 
pronunciation than by adding the y to the palatalized consonant. Where, however, this 
palatalization (a very faint i or y) follows the terminal consonant and the employment of a _y might 
mislead the eye, the effect is better given by the vertical accent '. 

G and k are pronounced as in English, the g being always as in the words ' get ', ' give ', ' go '. 
The faucal k (the Arabic j) is represented by q. The Greek gamma (r, y) stands for the velar 
g (the Arabic c), which is often rendered in English by gh and which is pronounced like the 
French r grasseye, or like a lower utterance of x- This last— the Arabic r- and Scotch cli — is 
represented by x, which is to be taken as the equivalent of the Greek x. This is the value of g 
and ch in Dutch and in many German words ; but the more palatalized sound of the terminal ch, or cit 
before a consonant, so often heard in German in ichand licht, is represented by x. H is pronounced 
as in English or German, but the strong h of Arabic (^) is rendered by /;', or sometimes by the 
double h {hli). The faucal contraction of the Arabic ain ( ^) is represented by _L ; the mere 
elision of a vowel or consonant by the apostrophe, ' ; and the strongly marked hiatus (the Arabic 
/tam««)— which is the gap in pronunciation occurring between distinct words in English (such 
as 'still ill')— is shown by ;. The nasal consonant sounding like ng in 'ringing' is indicated 
by «, or the merely nasalized consonant or vowel by ~. A'' is pronounced as in English. When 

' There is much aspirating of consonants in numerous groups of Bantu languages. Wherever ph, 
th, dh,gh, kh, vh, &c., are encountered in this work they must be pronounced separately and with their 
true values : p-h, t-h, &c. 



40 NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS 

it is an initial consonant preceding another consonant it is slightly vocalized, something like the 
pronunciation of tm in the English word 'unto'. When it is doubled, like all other double 
consonants it is doubly pronounced. 

The Polish or dental / (f) is hea#d in some Bantu languages (as it is in Portuguese and 
Brazilian pronunciation) but not so prominently or with such etymological importance as to be 
worth discrimination. The ordinary Bantu / is alveolar, like the English. It interchanges with r 
to such an extent that little distinction can be made in transcribing certain languages, except under 
the circumstances mentioned below. One person may use /, another r in pronouncing the same 
word in the same tribe or clan. The ordinary Bantu r sounds very much Uke the r in the 
pronunciation of Germans or of educated English people. The rattled r of Spain or the southern 
half of France is present in a few Bantu tongues (such as the Nyoroj dialects) and is best and 
most logically represented by a doubled ;-. The cerebral r (r) of provincial English and of 
many South Asiatic tongues is virtually unknown in Bantu Africa. The velar r (r) is scarcely 
distinguishable from y, and should be thus expressed unless it can be shown to proceed from 
an older alveolar or dental consonant. R permutes most easily with / and d. In some languages, 
however, it is necessary to discriminate between r and / in writing and in pronunciation, because 
r has taken the place of/, as / may have of rf, in the prefix forms and word-roots. 

With regard to the dentals, s is always the upper or light hissing sound, as in the word ' hiss ', 
or 'saint'; z similarly is always the lower and heavier sibilant as in ' hazard ' and 'zeal'. The 
English sh and zh (French c/i and 7) are rendered by ^ and y ; the English //; in 'think ' and ' bath ' 
by t> ; and d/i (tli in ' that ' and ' bathe ') by d. T and d, when printed without aspirate, accent, or 
modification are to be pronounced as in English and most other languages. But the / in Bantu 
is often aspirated or pronounced explosively, somewhat as English people use the word ' utter ' 
when they speak of 'ut-ter astonishment'. The aspiration— as already mentioned— is indicated 
by the /; or the ' following the /; and the explosive quality by the accent ' (=/')• The / in Africa 
on the lips of natives often glides into an r sound. When it is most like an r I spell it thus, 
when most like a / I render it by / (or d, as the case may be). I do not think it necessary, from 
any point of view, to discriminate further between the various slurred 'or eccentric pronunciations 
of / by the tongues of Africans, as these variations are — at any rate in Bantu— of no etymological 
importance. The d in Bantu is occasionally (as is the /) heard as though doubly pronounced, and 
is in such cases doublj' written. The dental, alveolar, palatal, and lateral clicks in the Zulu-Kafir 
languages are represented respectively by tf, f, f, and;?. 

C stands for the combination of//, a fusion of consonants that is more conveniently represented 
by one symbol, the Italian c (as before ; and e). It often results from a palatalized k, which in 
some tongues is best rendered by ky; and is pronounced like the English ch in 'church'. 
Similarly j is used for the combined sounds of d^. Where these compound consonants appear 
to be doubled in pronunciation they are more logically rendered by tc and dj, as they are thus 
pronounced. Just as the c comes very near k^', so the j sound is scarcely distinguishable from 
the palatalized ct {dy). In some of the south-eastern Bantu languages there are palatalized b's, v's, 
and ^'s, which are a source of much unnecessary fuss and complication of writing by some who 
have rendered them on paper. They should be written in accordance with their local pronunciation 
as by, vyy py ; bz, vz, ps ; or b^, v^, and pf. 

The vowels of this phonetic alphabet are, of course, given their ' Continental ' values rather 
than those of the eccentric English spelling which grew up in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. O unaccented is pronounced as o in 'not' or 'doll': represents the sound of o 
in ' store ' or aw in ' gawd ' ; o is a little deeper than the average German pronunciation of that 
vowel and represents the sound of the English m in ' hurt ', or i in ' bird '. A, * (similarly shaped 
throughout, even in italics) always stands for the » in 'father', 'rather', 'gala'. The short 



IN RESPECT TO THESE VOCABULARIES 41 

sound of this vowel (similar to the English u in ' but', or the o in 'worry'), is represented by U, a. 
y£, a: is the equivalent of the English * in ' fat', ' gather' or the French e mfemme. Unstressed 
e has the value of «■ in ' met ', ' rend '. E, e is the e in ' fete ', or « in ' hate '. E, e gives the short 
sound of e in men' and e in ' there ' (really a fused diphthong between e and 6). I is the 
English i in ' hit ' ; /, /, the e in ' cedar', and ee in ' feet '. 0, u unstressed represents the u in ' pull ', 
' put ', ' bull ' ; and u, ii is the u in ' ruler ', and the 00 in ' mood ' (the French ou, German «). U,u = 
the French u. The sounds of o in 'bone' (French an and German oh) is represented by the 
Greek u. I have not thought it necessary to discriminate further between the various pronuncia- 
tions of the single symbol o (o, o, u), as to do so is quite needless for the philological understanding 
of my subject, and only an unnecessary puzzle to the reader's eyes. In some of the South and 
South Central African forms of Bantu there is a rather indeterminate vowel which varies in 
pronunciation between the short u in 'put' and the o in 'hope'. This is particularly observable 
in the Secuana group and in the tribal name ' Basutto '; which is ordinarily rendered ' Basoth<o ' by 
specialists and is actually pronounced more like Sutco than anything else, though to some it 
seems more akin to ScoQthoi. There is a vacillation also between the sound of i in 'pit' and « in 
'met' in many Bantu tongues; but in such cases I prefer to write it as i or e, according as the 
sound of the word struck my own ears or those of some trustworthy colleague in African 
philology ; for in the etymology of Bantu there is considerable permutation between e and / when 
they are unstressed. 

The stress mark is ", and the unstress ". Neither is employed unless the pronunciation of the 
vowel is exceptionally deep or light. The accent or pitch of the voice is indicated by '. This 
is so normally and frequently on the penultimate syllable that the accent is only employed when 
an exception to the prevailing rule in Bantu transfers the voice-pitch to the first, last, or other 
syllable than the penultimate. Monosyllables are not accented unless uttered with vehemence. 

The ordinary high and low voice tones in speaking J — ;- are best shown by employing 

the accent ' for the high tone and ^ for the low. The other tones of the speaking voice so prominent 
in the East Asiatic or West African languages are unrecorded in connexion with Bantu (wherein the 
manner of speaking more resembles the European mean than the voice production of Hottentot and 
Bushman, of West Africa, or Eastern Asia), and it is not necessary to provide for them in this work. 
The use of the high and low tones of the voice for purposes of etymological distinction is not 
common in Bantu and is only observable (perhaps) in the Becuana group and most markedly 
in the Panwe languages of the north-west Bantu area. Even here they scarcely come within 
the scope of the present work, which is not so much a pronouncing dictionary as a treatise of 
comparative philology. In the case of the southern Nigerian tongues, the discrimination of tones 
in language transcription is of great importance.' 

The conventional symbols S and j stand for ' male ' and ' female '. The essential and (in nouns) 
virtually unchangeable root of the word is printed in heavier type where it is necessary to hold 
it in view; consequently the reader will regard the lighter-printed syllables as changeable 
excrescences on the main concept— preprefixes*, prefixes, suffixes, and infixes. When there are 
articles or preprefixes present in a language they are usually, but not always, given in these 
vocabularies, so that the Bantu word takes its fullest form. But when in ordinary pronunciation 
the preprefix is dropped, the word is printed with only its customary class prefix (if any). 

The plural forms of the nouns are separated from the singular by a semicolon and begin with 

' A reference on this point might be made to my Phonetic Spelling (Cambridge University Press). 
The tones of the South Nigerian languages have been accurately described in Mr. Northcote Thomas's 
recent works (Harrison & Sons, and ' Man ', R.A.I.). 

' The preprefix is the vowel or syllable which precedes the actual prefix. 



42 NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS 

a minuscule letter. Frequently only the plural prefix is given, the rest of the word being the 
same as in the singular. When this plural prefix replaces a detachable prefix in the singular, 
it is followed (unless the whole word is printed) by .a hyphen (-) ; where the plural prefix is 
super-imposed on the singular form of the noun (which may be the bare root-word or retain 
its singular prefix), the plural prefix is followed bj' a plus sign ( + ), unless for the reader's 
special convenience the whole of the plural form is printed. When it is necessary to draw special 
attention to the plural form of the word, which may — verj- rarely — differ in slight degree from 
the root of the singular, the abbreviation pi. is prefaced. The hyphen preceding or following 
a word means that the root form must be preceded or followed by some varying detachable prefix 
or suffix. Variants of what is substantially the same term are separated from one another by 
a comma only ; quite distinct words by a full stop. Figures and letters in brackets are the 
distinctive number of a dialect, a peculiar word or two of which may be quoted as a variant, if 
it is not sufficiently distinct from the dominant type of language to be represented in a separate 
column. But figures may also indicate noun classes when connected with demonstrative pronouns. 
As many equivalents as possible are given for the one English term or concept, provided 
their composition bears on the etymological connexions between the Bantu languages. Ordinarily 
the most commonly used word is printed first; but because the reader from a partial knowledge 
of any of these languages here illustrated does not recognize an equivalent of the English test 
word he must not be in a hurry to conclude that this equivalent does not exist ; for it maybe scarce, 
recondite, or archaic, and thus have escaped his notice. Great care has been taken to attribute 
to no language or dialect words the existence of which cannot be attested ; but it may often 
be only among the wise men or old women of the tribe that the word is remembered or rightly 
applied. These vocabularies are intended primarily for etymological purposes, and do not 
necessarily represent the most modern and current form of speech, but all the words known to 
be or to have been in these Bantu languages since they first came under observation ; just as English 
or French might be illustrated by selections from the recorded speech of the three last centuries. 

The gaps in the columns mean that the author has been unable to find an equivalent native 
word, either because of the still very faulty nature of our records or because the concept is lacking 
where the language is spoken. In a very few cases the whole of the columns attributed to 
a form of speech may be blank. This provision of space serves a double purpose : it draws 
attention to the exact lacunae in our knowledge and may perchance stimulate research ; and it 
provides the necessarj' room for filling up these vocabulary forms completely in course of time 
and in later reprints. The name of the scarcely known language or dialect at the head of the 
column records its attested existence as a Bantu tongue ; and one object in the setting forth of these 
276 languages and dialects has been to place before the reading world as complete a list of known 
forms of Bantu speech as possible.' It is probable, indeed, that scarcely one distinct Bantu language 
now remains unlisted in this book under some fairly accurate and locally recognizable name, even 
though from deficient information I may not have enumerated all its dialects. As regards 
naming the languages, I have got as near as I could to the local designations. Where this was 
not possible, or it was vexatious to set aside some name long-established in European mouths, 
I have chosen the term most likely to lead the inquirer to the spoken tongue or to its printed 
records in literature. 

On referring to such for verification 01 my own version, a reader maj' chance to observe 
that the original European or American authority spells the word differently to its form in my book. 

' The largest number illustrated in previous works is fifty-six. My total is approximate, as it is not 
always easy to decide the separation between a language and a dialect. In all about 276 forms of speech 
are catalogued in the following vocabularies, and about 270 are illustrated. The specimens of Semi- 
Bantu are additional. 



IN RESPECT TO THESE VOCABULARIES 43 

In such cases I have departed from the original spelling In favour of my own phonetic system, 
in order not to puzzle my readers by perpetually varying methods of sound-representation ; 
or because I knew the other author's version to be incorrect in the light of later research. It 
must be borne in mind that I have travelled most extensively over Bantu Africa between 1882 and 
1907, and have put many orthographies to the test as regards local native pronunciation. Yet 
I respect other people's version of a word which may differ from my own (unless palpably an 
error in hearing, writing, or printing), and give, if need be, the alternate version. Similarly, should 
any very critical person peruse these vocabularies and find minute differences between the words 
here recorded and those he has been accustomed to hear pronounced in Africa, let him not 
too rashly conclude that I am wrong : we may both be right, but the critic may have listened 
to a different dialect or to a more precise or more careless speaker. Some of my own early work 
of the 'eighties in Bantu or Nilotic transcription was at one time hastily condemned as inaccurate 
by other philologists following in my tracks, and for many years I sat meekly under their rejection 
of my version, until fuller information came along (or previously buried work was unearthed), and 
I was found to have been right after all : it had merely been the case of a different dialect or 
a speech wrongly named, but genuine under another designation. Similarly, I have in this book 
resuscitated and rehabilitated the work of half-forgotten pioneers by transferring the vocabularies 
they had wrongly named or wrongly placed to their right titles and geographical allotment. 

The Bibliography which follows these language illustrations recounts in detail the sources 
ot my information. For convenience of classification I have arranged the Bantu languages into 
forty-six groups distinguished numerically by letters of the old alphabet. The formation of the 
groups is guided mainly by interrelationships, and a little by propinquity ; their sequence is geo- 
graphical, and commences in the north-east of the Bantu field with the most archaic and primitive 
examples of this speech family— the languages round the Edward, Albert, and Victoria Nyanzas. 
The course followed thence is southward and eastward down through East ^nd East Central 
Africa to Zululand and Cape Colony, and back northwards into the westeirn parts of Central Africa 
till the survey ends with the Island of Fernando P6. 

The following is a list of the groups for convenience of reference : « 



The Nyanza Languages 

The Wunyamwezi Languages 

The British East Africa Languages 

The Kilimanjaro) Languages 

The ^ambala Languages 

The Zangian Languages 

The Usagara-Ugo)go) Languages 

The Upper Rufiji Languages 

The Lower Rufiji-Ruvuma Languages 

The North Ruvuma-North-east Nyasaland Languages 

The Ukinga Languages 

The Tanganyika-Bangweulu Languages 

The North-west Nyasa Languages 

The Yato-Ngindoj Languages 

The Mozambique Languages 

The South Nyasaland-Southern Rhodesia Languages 

The Pungwe-Sabi Languages 

The Mapafigane-Ronga Languages 



BANTU : 




Group 


A. 


)j 


B. 


u 


C. 


)» 


D. 


11 


E. 


»J 


F. 


») 


G. 


)» 


H. 


»J 


I. 


J» 


J- 


' »» 


K. 


n 


L. 


11 


M. 


11 


N. 


11 


0. 


li 


P. 


11 


Q. 


1} 


R. 



44 NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS 

The Becuana-Transvaal Languages 

The Zulu-Kafir Languages 

The West Central Zambezia Languages 

The Western Zambezia Languages 

The North-west Zambezia Languages 

The South-west Africa Languages 

The Aiigola Languages 

The Koiigu) or Westernmost Congoland Languages 

The South Congoland (Luba-Lunda) Languages 

The Upper Kwangto Languages 

The Kwafigco-Kasai Languages 

The Central Congoland (Luange-Lwmami) Languages 

The Middle Lwmami Languages 

The Elila-Lowa-Lualaba (Bulega) Languages 

The Ruwenzori-Semliki Languages 

The'Upper Ituri Languages 

The Wele-Aruwimi Languages 

The Aruwimi-L(omami Languages 

The North Central Congoland Languages 

The Kwa-Kasai-Upper COgiuwe (Teke) Languages 

The Central OOgcowe Languages 

The OOgcowe-Gaboon Languages 

The Spanish Guinea-West Cameroons Languages 

The Manenguba Languages 

The Middle Sanaga Languages 

The Pafiwe (Fang) Languages 

The Kadei-Sanga-L(obai Languages 

The Fernandian Languages 

The Cameroons-Cross River Languages 

The Cross River-Calabar Languages 

The Benue Languages 

The Bauci Languages 

The Central Nigeria Languages. 

The Tcogojland Languages 

The Senegambian or Guinea Languages ' ' 

For the convenience of readers I append in an abbreviated form the scheme of phonetic system 
of spelling adopted in this book. 

Consonants : m, b, v, p,f, and w ; «, d, t, s, s, r, l,j, andy ; /;, g, k, as in English ; c like English 
ch ; X like ch in ' loch ' or in German machen ; i- like German cit in ich, licht (almost English 5//) ; 
y (Greek gamma) like g in modern Greek or the French rgrasseye or the Arabic gliaiit ; ^ = English 
sh; ^= English sli or French j\ d= English th in ' that ', and 6 = English th in ' think ' ; and « — 
the ng in ' ringing '. The dental click in Zulu-Kafir is d, the alveolar f, the palatal f, and the lateral;?. 

Vowels : a = English * in ' father ' ; a, the sound of 11 in ' but ' ; ce, the sound of <t in 'gather', 
'hat'; e = « in 'met', ? = « in 'fete*, i=e in 'there'; r= / in 'hit'; i,t = i in 'ravine'; o = o in 
' not ', o = in ' store ', u = o in ' bone ', o = « in ' hurt ' ; u = u in ' pull ', u = 00 in food ', « = 
French u. 



Group 


s. 


If 


T. 


ij 


U. 


»> 


V. 


'* » 


W. 


>» 


X. 


» 


Y. 


jy 


Z. 


)> 


AA. 


»> 


BB. 


>» 


CC. 


») 


DD. 


» 


EE. 


99 


FF. 


>J 


GG. 


if 


HH. 


J> 


n. 


JJ 


JJ. 


J> 


KK. 


)» 


LL. 


» 


MM. 


>» 


NN. 


» 


GO. 


» 


PP. 


)) 


• QQ. 


>» 


RR. 


)J 


ss. 


JJ 


IT'. 


SEMI-BANTU : 


Group 


A. 


j> 


B. 


» 


C. 


>i 


D. 


» 


E. 


ii 


F. 


)» 


G. 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

TOGETHER WITH DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHICAL ALLOTMENT OF EACH TONGUE 
AND EXHIBITION OF PREFIXES AND CONCORDS 

GROUP A 

THE NYANZA LANGUAGES 



Sub-group A i Konjoj 
I. Olu-konjco 



Sub-group A 2 Nyorco 
2. Uru-nyorco 
2 a. Ru-gufigu 



2 b. Ru-kycopi 

2 c. Uru-tcrw (Ru-soilgora, Ru-ireo, d^c.) 

z d. Oi)ru-hima 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjco 


Uru-nyorco 


Ru-gungu 


Ru-kycopi 


Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

ctntiR{i-iTa,&'c.) 


COru-hima 



Adze 

Animal, wild 
beast 

Ant 



Ant, white 
(termite) 



Ape (chim- 
panzi or 
gorilla) 

Arm 

Arrow 



Axe ... 

Baboon 
Back ... 

Banana 
Beard... 

Bee ... 
Belly ... 



E-suka; 
suka 
Eny-ama 



M-bali; p/. 

esim-bali. 

N-scoki 
Emi-lungulu 



Eki-tera ; ebi- 
M-pundu 

OOku-bcokco 

(jOmu-swa ; 
ami-. 
Eki-korco; ebi- 



Em-basa ; //. 
esiom- 

Efi-gerebe ; 

esiofi- 
OOmu-gongco 



CObu-karaata ; 

ama-kamata 
Esion-deru. 

(one hair of = 

OOnu-leru) 



En-cwaiiku. 
Em-baizi 

Eny-ama. 
Eny-emera. 
Eki-sorco 

OOru-hazi ; em- 
pazi. OOniu- 
zigya ; ba- 

En-swa. 
(Ki-swa = a 
termite hil- 
lock). 
En-kubebe 

I-sike. 
Eki-kuya; ebi- 

OOmu-kconco ; 

emi- 
(jOmu-tegco : 

emi-. 

OOmu-scogi. 

E-kimara. 

OOmw-ambi 
Eny-anzi. 

Em-pangco. 

En-demu 
Efi-kcobe 

(jOmu-gongco. 
Eki-bega 

Eki-tcoke ; ebi-. 

Eii-konje 
OJmu-leju, 

Ebi-reju 



Eny-ama. Eny-ama 

Ny-emera 

N-kwiri 



N-kuyege 

Eki-kuya 

COmu-kconco OOmu-kconco 
Bu-scogi Efi-gcowe 



M-pangco 



Ki-guri ; bi- 



(x)niu-gongco 



En-jcoki 



En-zcoki ; 

esion-ziuki 
In-daor /En-da. En-da 

Bu-kcole. 

Olu-isira 



Ma-vega. 

Mu-gongco, 

Ki-buni (loins) 
Ki-tcoke ; bi-. Eki-tcoke 

N-gonja 
Mu-redu, COmu-ledyu 

Mu-redju. 

(Ji-miri juiika 

= one hair of 

beard) 
K-eokyee ; //. En-jcoki 

b-cokyee. 
Mu-da En-da 



En-cwanku 

Eny-emera. 
Eny-ama 
Efi-kura 

Em-pazzi 



En-swa 



Ki-tera. 
Eci-kuya 

(x)mu-ko3nco 

OOmu-scogi 



Eny-emera. 
Eny-ama 

Em-pazzi 



En-swa 

Yi-siki 

OOmu-kconca 
OOmu-ambi 



E-hangu ; pi. Em-pangco 
m-pangu 

Efi-kerebe. Eii-kcobe 

Em-pundu 
OOmu-goiigco OOmu-gongco 



Eki-tcoke 
OOmu-ledyu 



En-jcoki 
Em-buri 
En-da 



Eci-tcoci 
Ebi-rezu 

En-zcoki 
En-da 



46 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2 c. 


2d. 


English 


01u-konjo> 


Uru-nyorti) 


Ru-gungu 


Ru-kywpi 


Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

antiRu-iTu>,crc.) 


Oi)ru-hima 


Bird 


Eny-wnyi ; 
esiony-. 
Uny-uni. 
Mu-isundi 


Eny-o>nyi 


Kiny-uni ; bi- 


Eny-unyi 


Eny-eanyi 

• 


Eciny-conyi 


Blood 


OOmu-sasi 


Esigama. 
E-samaga 


Mu-sagama 
<>rMu-samaga 


E-sagama 


E-sagama. 
E-samaga 


E-sagama 


Body 


OOmu-biri 


U)mu-biri 


Mu-biri 


OOmu-biri 


(jl)niu-biri 


COmu-biri 


Bone 


Eri-kuha; ama- 


E-gufwa, 
I-gufa ; ama- 


Ki-gufwa; bi- 


... 


I-gufwa; ama- 


I-guffa 


Borassus palm 


Eci-keoga 


Aka-tugu;o>bu-. 
Eki-kcoga 


Ka-tugca 


... 


Aka-kcoga 


Aka-tuga 


Bow 


OObu-ta; ama- 


CObu-tta ; 
ama-tta 


Bu-ta ; ma-ta 


OObu-ta 


OObu-tta 


(jObu-ta 


Bowels 


Aman-da 


Ma-ra {J>1.) 


. . . 


... 






Brains 


COb-ongto. 
Esion-cuere 


CObw-ongco 


Bw-ongeo 


CObw-ongca 


OObw-ongoa 


COw-ongcd 


Breast (man's) Eki-kuba 


Eki-fuba 


... 


. .. 


Eki-fuba 


Eci-fuba 


Breast 


Eri-bere ; ama- 


1-were ; ama- 


I-weri;ma-veri 


I-bere 


I -were 


I-bere 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


(ji)mu-hara or 


Omw-ana-wa-id<a Mw-ana-wa-ici 


Omw-ana-mau 


Omw-ena-we-itca 


Gmw-ene-w-esM 




Omw-ana-w-etu OOmu-genzi. 














COwa-nyina. 














Mu-nyanya. 














B-ene (;*/.)' 










Buffalo ... 


Em-bcogca ; 

esiom- 


Em-bcdgco 


Em-bugcD 


Em-beogco 


Em-bugco 


Em-bcdgco 


Bull 


En-de e-nume 


E-nimi, Numi 


Gi-numi 


... 


(Ente)eci-nume 


E-nimi 


Buttocks ... 


Ebi-kalero> 

(//.),Eri-takeo 
a.ms,-(o/ beasts 


Ebi-bunco 


Bi-nyo> (//.) 




Ebi-bunu 


Ebi-buncd 


Canoe 


(jObw-atco; am 
at<o 


CObw-atw 


Bw-atoi ; pi. 
g-ateo' 


Bw-ato> 


Obw-atto 


U)bw-ateo 


Cat 


Aka-jaiigo> 


En-jangu 


... 


... 


En-jangu 


En-zangu 


Charcoal ... 


• 1* 


Ama-kara 


... 


... 


Ama-kara 


Ama-kara 


Chief 


(jOmu-kama; 
aba- 


Mu-bitco.tOmu- 
kamwa; aba-. 
OOniu-nyoreo. 
U)mu-lemi. 
OOmu-kungu 


Mu-kama 




tOmu-kamwa 


OOmu-kama. 
OOmu-bitoj 


ChUd 


Omw-ana ; ab 
ana. CO-lume 
keke J. Aka 


• Omw-ana 

- „ com-cojo>=o 

■ „ mu-tci> = 5 


Mw-ana 

„ ob'-saiza=S 
„ mu-teo = 5 


Omw-ana 


Omw-ana 


Omw-ana 




mu-keke = in 


Mu-hal<d 










fan/ 












Cloth 


ODmu-tanda. 


COrau-tanda 


Ng-oyi (cotton) 


Ku-buku 


(Omu-tanda. 


COmw-enda 




Omw-enda 


(cotton) . 


Lu-vugoa 




Oru-goye 






{cot/on) 


Oru-goye 

(bari) 


(bari) 




(bar/.-). 
Oru-kcozi 




Cold 


Em-beheo. 
COmu-rombe 


Embehci 


... 


... 


Em-beheo 


Em-behw 


Country . . . 


Eki-taka 


En-si 


Ky-alco 


• . • 


En-si 


En -si 


Cow 


En-de esigija 


En-te e-zigija 


En-te gi-za- 
gidya 


En-te 


En-te e-bugu- 
ma 


En-te e-zigiza. 
N-gabe, 
K-gube. 
Ki-gaboj 



' B-ene is the equivalent of the B-ena {ha-ina.) further south, meaning^ kinsmen ', ' brethren '. 
' Perhaps this is a slurring of Gama-tco : vide Lu-masaba. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



47 



English 



Olu-konjco 



Uru-nyorco 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



3 b. 
Ru-kytopi 



2C. 

Uru-torto 

(Ru-songora 

antiRu-ira>, &'c.) 



2d. 
COru-hima 



Crocodile 



Day 



Devil, 
spirit 



evil 



Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 
Dog 



Donkey 
Door ... 



Dream 

Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant . , 

Excrement 



Eye 



En-dicoka 

(snake). 

I-hondue 
Ki-rco. 

Bu-hingi. 

Omw-esi, 

Omw-ise ( = 

daylight) 
(Omu-limu; 

aba- 



Mu-kumo> 

Em-bwa ; 
esiom- 



Bu-sSku. 

OOl-uyi, 

R-uyi; pi. 

esiony-uyi 
En-dcdtu 

En-gcoma 
OOku-twe; ama- 

twe 
Ere-ye; ama-yi, 

Eri-hui 
En-zcogu ; 

esicDn- 
Ama-gedzie. 
Ama-vezi. 
Ama-idzai 
Er-isoj 



Gi-nyunigim 



£n-sambia. 
Em-pyeo 



Eki-rco. I-zuba Mu-ki-rco. 
(jOmu-sana Ki-roj; ebi-rco. 



Hangwe 



OJmu-cwesi ; ... .„ 

aba-. 

COmu-zimu ; 

aba- 
COmu-fumu 

Em-bwa. M-bweni Em-bwa 

Eki-bwa (« big 

dog) 

En-kaina 
(jOru-higi ; //. Mu-zigeo 

em-pigi 



En-dcotco. N-d(osiri 

Eki-rutci> 
En-gcoma En-gcoma En-gcoma 

(jOku-tu; ama-tu Ku-tu ; ma-tu COku-tu 

Ei-huri ; ama- I-huri ; ma- 
huri 
Eii-jcajea N-zuzco; N-jej<o N-jcoju 



Face, forehead Wbu-su 

Fat Eki-sawu. 

Ama-guta {oil, 

butter) 
Father ... Tata. I-se. 

E-sa 



Ama-zi 



Er-ijSco ; 
ama-isco 



Ma-bi 

R-isco ; ma-isco Er-isco 
OObu-sco 



Fear .. 
Finger 



Fire 
Fish 



Foot .. 
Forest 



Eri-saga 

(jOmu-nwe ; 

eme-. 

OOmu-rcotco. 

Eki-kumco 
COmu-rirco 
Eyi-swe ; 

esi-swe. I-sui. 

1-sumbi ; esi- 
Eki-sandco. 

OOku-gulu 
OOmu-situ. 

Olu-loiige 



(jObu-s<o Bu-sco 

Eki-paju ; ebi-. Ma-savu 

Ama-gita (oil, 

6-<r.) 
Tata. 'Sco. I-se. Tata Tata. Baba 

l-se-nya)we 

(my). I-si. 

i-s<o 

En-kise. A-tinyiri 

OOku-tina 
COru-kumco; en- Lu-galco. Kalu OOmu-kumco 

Eki-ara; eby- 

(Eki-saiza = 

thumb) 

OOmu-rirco Mu-lirco Mu-rreo 

En-cui N-tui En-cii 



Eki-renge. Ki-renge. 

Eki-gere ; ebi- Ku-gulu 
Eki-bira Ki-bera 



E-kigere 



En-sambia 



En-sambia 



Eki-reo, Eci-rco Eky-iru ; ebi- 



COmu-cwesi (Omu-cwesi 



COmu-fumu 

Em-bwa. Em-bwa. 

Eki-bwa (a big Eki-bwa (a big 

dog) dog) 

Oru-higi ; eny- Oru-higi ; eny- 

igi igi 



En-doatco 



En-dcato0 



Eii-gcoma 
(Jl)ku-twe or 
(jOku-tuitu 
I-huli Ei-huri 



Efi-guma 
COku-tu; ama-tu 



En-deaba, 
En-dasba 

Ama-izi. 
Ama-tutorco 

Er-is<o 



En-zcozu 
Ama-zi 



Er-isu 



CObu-sco (jObu-sco 

En-sazu. Eki-sadzu. 

Ama-vutta, Ama-zita 

Ama-futa 

Tata. I-se, I-sco Tata. I-se, I -sco 



(Oku-tina 

Oru-kumco or 
OOdu-kumco 



OOmu-rreo 



OOku-tina 

(jOru-kumco ; pi. 
efi-kumco. 
Eki-ara 

tOmo-rrco 
En-cu. En-fwi En-tchu nr 
En-c5 or 
Em-fu 
Eki-gere ; ebi- Eki-gere ; ebi- 



Eki-bira 



Eci-bira 



E 2 



48 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


01u-konj<o 


Uru-nyorco 


Ru-gfungu 


Ru-kyeopi 


Uru-toroj 

(Ru-soiigora 

rtWRu-irco.dft.) 


COru-hima 


Fowl 


En-gookco ' 


En-kcokco 


En-kcoku 


Eii-kcakaa 


En-kcokco 


Eti-koakco 


Frog 


Eki-tere 


Eki-kere 


... 


... 




Eki-kere 


Ghost 


OL)mu-limu ; 


COmu-zimu ; 


M u-zimn 


... 


OOmu-zimu ; 


COmu-zimu ; 




aba- 


ami-. Eki-turu 






emi-. (jOmu- 
zummco 


emi- 


Giraflfe 


... 


N-tuiga 


... 


... 


En-tuiga 


.•• 


Girl 


... 


Mu-isiki 


••• 






... 


Goat 


Em-buri, Em- 
buli ; esiom-. 
Em-bene } ; 
pi. esem-bene 


Em-buzi 


M-buli 


Em-buzi 


Em-buze. 
Em-penne 5 


Em-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


Esa-mban (S). 
Em-faya 


Em-berabuzi, 
Em-paya (S). 


... 


... 


... 


... 


„ (she) ... 


... 


Buguma (}) 


... 


... 




... 


God 


Ru-hanga or 


Du-hanga.' 


Ka-tonda 


Ru-hanga 


Ru-hanga" or 


Lu-gaba or 




Du-hanga 


Ka-tonda 






Du-hanga 


Nyam-hanga 


Grandparent 


I-sekuru 


Is-en-kuru. 
Nyin-en-kuru 


... 


••• 


... 




Grass 


Om-wata. 


Om-wata. 


Bu-sibbi. 


• •• 


Eki-suki. 


Om-wata. 




Eki-suki 


E-tete. 

CObun-yansi, 

CObu-yansi 


Lu-saka 




E-scojco. 
E-tete. 
Em-burara. 
OObu-nyasi 


CObu-nyadzl 


Ground 


(x)mu-taka 


I-taka 


I-taka 


I-taka 


I-taka. Ahansi 


I-taka 


Ground-nut 


... 


Eki-nycobwa 




... 


Ama-kere. 
Eki-nycobwa 


Eci-nycobwa. 
Ama-kerre 


Guinea-fowl 


En-ganga 


Eki-tajumba 


Nku-jumba 


• •■ 


En-tajumba 


Eci-kanga 


Gun 


Em-bundu 


COmu-gaiigco 


Mu-duku 


• •• 


COmu-gaiigco 


Em-bundu 


Hair 


COlu-yuwiri ; 
esion-ziwiri. 
Se-suere. 

Bu-eya {on 
body) 


I-scoki ; ama- 
suki 


I-scoke (Bo-ya, 
on limbs) 


I-so>ke 


I-scoke 


I -scoke 


Hand ... ... 


Eki-ganza. 


Eki-ganja. 


Kiganja. 


Ki-ganza 


Eci-ganza. 


Eci-ganza. 




Eme-nue [i. e 


Ebi-ara ( = 


Mu-kwnco ; 




COmu-kconco 


COmu-kconco 




fingers) 


fingers). En- 
garto, (Ji)mu- 
kunu (also 
lower arm) 


mi- 








Head 


COmu-twe ; 
eme-twe 


tOmu-twe ; emi 


Mu-tue 


COmu-twe 


COmu-twe 


COmu-twe 


Heart 


(jOmu-tummeo. 
(jOmu-tima 


COmu-tima. 
tOmu-tuma 


Mu-tima 


OOmu-tima 


COmu-tummco. 
COmu-tima 


COmu-tima 


Heel 


Aka-sinziru ; 

cobu- 


Eki-sinzirco. 
Eki-kongcoijco 


Ki-sinzirco 


... 


Eki-sinzirco 


Eki-tsintsineo 


Hide 


Eki-ani. 
En-gcoba 


Eki-satco. 
Ol)ru-hu.OL)mu 
guta. En-gcoz 


Ki-satu. 
N-gcozi 


Ru-hu. M-pirn 


Eki-satco 


COru-hu ; em-pu 






{for slinging 












infants on back 










Hill 


Eki-cwa ; ebi- 


Eki-swa. 
Em-bara 


... 


- 


Oru-scozi 


... 


Hippopotamu! 


3 Eyi-sere ; esi- 


En-jubu 


M-vuvu 


... 


Em-vuvu. 
En-sere 


En-zubu 


Hoe 


I-suka 


En-fuka. 
Eni-funi 


... 


... 


... 


... 



Etnin Pasha adds the word vutte : perhaps in error. 



' Ru-hanga also means ' skull '. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



49 



English 



Olu-konjco 



Uru-nyorco 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 
Ru-kyupi 



Uru-toreo 
(Ru-songora 

andRu-ira, &'c.) 



2d. 
COru-hima 



Ojbw-coki U-coki 

Ei-hembe ; Ei-hembi 

ama-. En-kule 
En-jii. Ka; //. N-umba 

ama-ka. 

{0-mbsi= aiiAe 

house of) 
En-Jara N-zala 

I-ba,Ba (Barco) 
Em-pisi M-pici 

Iron Eky-coma, Eki-coma. Bi-uma 

Ec-coma. (Ji)bu-tale. 

M-seke OOmu-singa 

Island OOku-itsinga tfr Ei-zinga Ki-singa 

Eri-tsinga ; 

ama- 



Honey 
Horn 


(jOb-ukyi 
Eri-hembe ; 




ama- 


House 


Eny-umba ; 




esiony- 


Hunger 


En-zala. 


Husband . . 


En-jera 


Hyena 


Em-piti 



CObw-cDCi OObw-oaci 

Yi-hembe; ama- Yi-hembe;ama- 
Eki-kuli 



En-ju 


Eny-umba ; 
ama-. En-ju, 
En-^u 


En-zu 


En-jala 


En-jara 


En-zara 


Em-pisi 


Om-gwirarco 
Em-pisi, 
Em-pehe 
Eki-uma 


Em-pidzi 
Ec-utna 



Ei-zinga 



Eki-rwa 



Ivory ... . 


Er-inco 


Er-into 


El-inco la n- 


jeju 


... 


Er-inu 


Omw-inu 


Knee ... . 


Eri-rti 


a)ku-jii 


Ku-vivi or 


Ei 


... 


OOku-ju, 


OOku-zco 








vivi,Ma-vivi 




OOku-Zco 




Knife ... . 


(jOmu-hamba 


OOmw-ihiu. 
(jOmu-hor«. 
OOru-gesoj 


Ki-ambi 




Mu-yoo 


COmu-hyw. 
COmu-tambi 


OOmu-slu 


Lake ... . 


Efi-gedze 


Eny-anja 


Mu-sanga, 
Ny-anja 




... 


Eny-anza 


Eny-anza 


Leg ... . 


(jOku-yulu. 
M-biindu 


(jOku-guru. 
(x)mu-rundi. 
Eki-rumbu 


Ku-gulu 




OOku-gulu 


OOku-guru. 
COru-guru 


OOku-guru 


Leopard . 


En-gwe 


En-geo 


M-umwa 




Eii-gwe 


Eii-go) 


Eii-gwe 


Lion 


En-dare; esian- 


En-tale 


Ntali. PSimba 


... 


Eki-cuncu 


En-tare 




dare 














Lips 


OOmu-nyu ; 


OOmu-nwa ; 


Mu-mwa ; 


mi- 


(jOmu-nwa 


OOmu-nwa ; 


OOmu-nwa ; 




emi-nyu 


eme- 








emi- 


eme- 


IVIagic 


(jOmu-lcoyi. 
U>bu-ganga 


COmu-rcogcj, 
(jL>bu-r<ogco. 
Ebiama-hanoa 


Mu-ltogw 




'*• 


OOmu-rcoji. 
OObu-ganga 


OOmu-rugcd 


Maize 


Ebi-kusa 


Ebi-cori 


MiswH 




... 


Ebi-gnsa, 
Ebi-c<oli 


Ebi-cori 


Man 


(jOmu-ndu ; 


OOmu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 




OOmu-ntu 


OOmu-ntu ; 


OOmu-ntu ; 




aba-ndu. 


aba-ntu. 


ba-ntu 






aba-ntu 


aba-ntu 


Man, vir. .. 


(x)mu-lume 


(jOmu-sadja 


Mu-saiza 






Om-gwirarto 


O0mu-seizi;aba 


Meat 

Medicine .. 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama ' 
(x)mu-bazi 


Eny-ama 




Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Milk 


. Ma-tai" 


Ama-ta 


Ma-ta" 




... 


Ama-te 


Ama-te 


Monkey 


En-gende;esion 


• Eii-kende 


• •• 




... 


Eii-kende 


Eii-kyende 




Eii-gema 














Moon 


COmu-gesera, 


OL)ku-ezi. 


Mu-ezi 




(jOkwezi 


OOkw-ezi 


OOkw-ezi ; 




(jL)ku-esera. 


Om-wezi. 










am-ezi 




(jOkw-ezi 


En-zorco 














(moojilighf) 


[full moon) 












Mother 


Nya-nsansu. 


Mau. Nyto-k(o. 


•*• 




Mama. Mau 


.•. 


••• 




Mama 


Nyina. Nya-, 

Nya-bco, &c. 












Mountain .. 


(jL)bw-eruka. 


Oru-pcddzi 


Lu-S(ozi 




Ru-suzi 


Oru-scozi. 


I-banga; ama- 




Eri-lamboi. 








Ebi-rika. 


banga 




OObu-rambo) 










Oru-wanga ; 






{Uliff) 










em-panga 


» 



Also : OOmu-nojfu, 'flesh', ' boneless meat'. 



50 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olukonjco 


Uni-nyoru 


Ru-gungu 


Ku-kycopi 


Uru-torw 

(Ru-songora 

an^/Ru-ircd, &'c.) 


COru-hima 


Mouth 


Ubw-anto? 


Aka-nwa 


Ka-mwa 


Muka-nwa 


Oru-suga 


Aka-nwa 




Bu-n<o ? 












Nail (of finger 


Eci-ala ; ebi- 


E-nconcd 


Ncancd 


... 


E-nwnu 


E-ncuncd 


or toe) 














Name 


E-rina 


Ei-bara ; ama- 


I-bara 


... 


I-bara 


1-zina; ania- 
zina 


Navel 


COmu-kundi 






... 


... 


... 


Neck 


Ebi-cia. 


Ebi-tyia, 


Balagco 


■ *< 


Ebi-tyia. 


Ebi-tsta. (Ama- 




En-goto 


Ebi-kya (/>/.) 






Oru-tsia 


r^\La. = throat) 


Night 


E-kirco. 


E-kiroo. 


Muki-roj 


■ <• 


Eki-rco 


Nyeki-ro> or 




Wa-mira 


OOmu-irima 








N'yeci-rca 


Nose 


COmu-huri ; 
emi-. E-nindco 


E-nyindca 


Ny-indco 


N-indu 


Eny-indco 


Eny-indoj 


Oil palm ... 


• . . 


... 


••■ 


• • • 


... 


... 


Oac 


En-de ; esion- 


£n-te. £-nimi 


£n-te. Korwa En-te 


En-te 


En-te. 














En-gombe 














(ancietit term. 














nearly forgot- 














ten) 


Paddle 


... 


En-gahi. 
En-kasi 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Palm wine, 


OObu-abu 


Ama-rwa 


Bu-gemi 


• •• 


Ama-rwa 


Ama-rwa 


beer 














Parrot 


En-gusu 


En-kusu 




• •■ 


En-kusu 


Efi-kusu 


Penis 


£i-sulu ; esi- 
sulu 


Em-btolco 


Em-bcolco 


... 


Em-bor<o. 
Eci-borco 


Em-boroj 


Pig 


En-guluwe 


Em-punu 


M-punu 


■ •• 


Em-punu 


Em-punu 


Pigeon 


Eri-iba? 


Eri-iba ; ama- 
iba 


E-iva; ma-iva 


... 


Eri-iba; ama- 


En-kombe 


Place 


Aha-ndu. 
He-usi 


Aha-ntu. 
COwa- prefix. 
Omw-anya. 
Eki-ikarco 


Ma-gong<o 


... 


Aha-ntu. 
COmw-anya 


OOmw-anya 


Rain 


Em-bula 


En-jura 


N-dakali 


N-jiroa 


Em-bula 


En-zura 


Rat 


Em-beba;esiom 


- Em-beba 


Em-bewa 


... 


Em-beba 


Em-beba 


Rhinoceros 


En-kura 


En-kura 


N-kura 


... 


... 


En-kura 


River 


Eki-sesa. Oru- 
si. COmu-sia 
Embasa 


Eki-saru. 
Eky-ambu 


Ki-ambu 


Mu-gera 


Eki-saru 


Ec-ambeo ; ebi- 
ambu 


Road 


En-sera 


(Omu-handa. 
I-kute 


Mu-handa 


Mu-handa 


(jOmu-handa. 
OOmu-mpanda 


Wniu-handa 


Salt 


Mu-nyu 


Eki-sura 




Kisura 


... 




Shame 


En-s<oni 


En-seoni 


N-sconi 


... 


En-sconi 


£n-suni 


Sheep 


Em-buri. Em- 
bangali {? S) 


En-tama. 
Em-paya ($) 


N-tama 


En-tama 


En-tama 


En-tama 


Shield 


En-gabu 


En-gaboj 


Efi-gabu 


... 


Efi-gabco 


En-gabcd 


Shoulder ... 


.... 


Eki-bega. 
I-bega 


... 


... 


... 


I-bega; ma- 


Sister 


Mw-ale-we-itu 


Mu-nyanya. 


Mw-ana-ma-isi 


... 


COmu-nyanya 


OOmu-nyanya 




(i. e. our vir- 


COwa-nyina or 










gin). Mu-hara 


Wa-mau 










Skin 


En-gcaba. 
(Omu-nyue 


Oru-hu. 
(jOmu-biri 


Ki-satco. 
N-gcozi 


Ru-hu 


Oru-hu 


Oru-h'u; em-p5* 


Sky 


Olu-bcola. 
Olu-vura 


Ei-guru 


Ki-gulu 


I -guru 


Ei-guru 


Aha-iguru 


Slave 


Mu-iru ; ba-iru 
Mu-sana (9) 
COtu-lto 


COmu-iru 


... 


... 


(iOmu-iru 


COmu-iru 


Sleep 


CObu-ru 


Ku-basia 


Vi-ame ? 


COtu-ru 


COtu-ru 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



S» 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjco 


Uru-nyorco 


Ru-gungu 


Ru-kyo>pi 


Uru-toroj 

(Ru-songora 

andK\i-\Tai,&'c.) 


OJru-hima 


Smoke 


COmu-kL 
OOmu-eki 


COmu-ika 


Mw-ika 


... 


Omw-ika 


Omw-ika 


Snake 


Enzoaka 


En-juka 


M.piri' 


... 


En-2jok' 
OOmw-ana 


En-zcoka 


Son, boy ... 


COmw-ana 


OOmw-ana. 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 


OL)mw-ana. 






(jOmw-cojoj. 








(jOm-cozco 






Ak-ana; (obw- 














a.i\ei(littleson). 














OOmu-tabani 










Song 


Olu-imbw. 
Eri-wina 

(dancing song) 


Eki-zina 


Ki-zina 


... 


Eki-zinna 


Eci-zinnu 


Spear 


I-tumco ; ama-. 
I-tsummco 


Ei-cumoj 


E-fumu 


I-cumu 


I-cumco 


Ei-cumco ; ama- 


Spirit, soul 


COmu-zimu. 
Aka-hortoga 


CObw-tomezi.'' 
OJmu-zimu 


... 


... 


Omw-oyoj 


COmu-zimu 


Star 


En-gununco ; 
esion- 


Eny-inyizi. 
Eny-unyuzi 


Ny-izi 


Nyezi 


Eny-inyuzi 


Eny-onycozi 


Stick 


Omw-igco 


Omw-igco. 
En-kcani. 
Ku-himbca (a 
divining-rod ) 


Mu-beri 


Mw-ig« 


Eii-ktoni 


En-kconi 


Stone 


Eri-bwe ; ama-. 
Eri-gwe 


Ei-bare ; ama- 


E-bali; ma- 


Ru-bengu 


E-wie, Ei-bwe; 
ama-. Ei-bare 


Ei-bare ; ama- 


Stool 


Eki-tumbi 


En-tebe 




... 


En-tebe 


En-tebe 


Sun 


Eri-coba. 
Umu-ise 


I-zcoba 

* 


Zwba 


Izcoba. 

Umu-sana 
(= daylight) 


I-zoaba 


I-zcoba 


Tail 


(jOmu-kira 


(Omii-kira 




... 




OOmu-kira 


Tear 


COmu-soini ; 

cm-C! = s/iame) 


Ei-ziga 


Ki-ziga 


... 


Er-izi ; ama-izi 


Er-izi ; ama- 


Testicles ... 


Emi-hege ipl.) 


Ama-gcosi (//.) 


Ama-gcasi 


*•• 


Ama-gcosi 


Ei-gcosi ; ama- 


Thief 


Omw-ibi ; 
abe-ibi. 
COmu-higura 


Omw-ibi. 
OOmu-suma 


A-iviri 


• •■ 


COmu-summa 


COmu-summa 


Thigh 


Eki-hinga 


Eki-bereo 


Ki-beru 


• •■ 


a*. 


... 


Thing 


Eki-ndu. 
En-ganga 


Eki-ntu. Ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Eci-ntu. Ntu 


Eki-ntu. Ntu 


Thorn 


Ere-h'wa; ama- 


Ei-h'wa 


I-g<oa 


••• 


Eri-h'wa 


Ei-h'wa ; ama- 
h'wa 


Tobacco ... 


E-taba. 
Ka-sinse 


E-taba 


E-taba 


... 


E-taba 


E-taba 


To-day 


Munabwiri 


Derco. Hati 


Lerco 




Hati. Derco 


M-buenu 


Toe 


Aka-sanwe. 
Eri-nco ; 
ama-nco 


Aka-gere ; oibu- 


Ka-kumu ; 
efi-kumu 


... 


Aka-gere 


Oru-kumco ; en- 
kumco 


To-morrow 




Ny-enkya. I-jeo 


... 


. .. 


... 


... 


Tongue ... 


Lu-leme 


COlu-limi. 
En-gambu 


Limi 


O-rimi 


Oru-rimi 


(jO-rrimi 


Tooth 


Er-inyco, El- 
into ; am-enci> 


Er-Inco 


L-inco ; ma-inco 




Eci-inco ; 
ebi-inco 


Eri-inco ; ania- 
inco 


Town, village 


Eki-kale. (Obu- 


Oru-buga. 


Ki-kali ; bi- 


... 


E-kka. 


O-rrembco ; 




tala. E-tieka 


Eki-ka 






O-rrembco 


p/. en-dembco 


Tree 


COmu-ti ; emi-ti 


OOmu-ti 


Ki-sali 


... 


a)mu-ti. Eci-ti 


OOmu-ti 


Twins 


Aba-hasa 


Aba-ronga> 


Ba-loiigco 


... 


Aba-rongco 


Ama-hapa 


Urine 


Ama-soj 


En-kari 


En-kali 


... 


Eii-kari 


Efi-kare 


Vein 


... 


Eki-ny wa (?) 


... 


... 


... 


... 



Cf. words for ' viper'. 



Also the word OOru-coya = ' breath ', allied to the East Bantu root for ' spirit ', -coyco. 



5* 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjco 


Uru-nyorci» 


Ku-gungu 


Ru-kyeopi 


Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

I a/tdRu-iTai&'c.) 


COru-hima 


War 


Oru-hi 


OObu-lemu. 
OL)bw-emi 


Lamagco 


... 


CObu-lemu. 
Oru-gamba 


Oru-gamba 


Water 


Ama-gedzi. 
Ama-sii 


Ama-dzi. 
Eii-gezi 


Ma-izi 


Mi-jezi 


Ama-izi. 
Ama-tunga 


Ama-izi 


Well, source 


Eri-ziba ? 


I-ziba. En-gezi. 
Kitun-gezi 




... 


I-ziba 


Ei-ziba 


White man 


(JL)mu-jungu 


COmu-jungu. 
Eki-tuku 


Mu-2ungu 


• •• 


U)mu-zungu 


COmu-zungu 


Wife 


COmu-kari; aba- 


OOmu-kazi. 
Mu-ka- (w/M 

possessive pro- 
noun) 


Mu-kali 




COmu-kazi 


COmu-kazi 


Wind 


Em-behco. 
I-hunga 


Em-behco. 
I-huiiga. 
(jL)mu-yaga 


Mu-yaga 


• •• 


Em-behco 


Enibeheo 


Witch' ... 


COmu-rtoi. 
OOmu-kumeo 


COmu-rcogco 
M-bandwa 


Mu-lcogco 


... 


lOmu-lcogco 


COmu-lcogu 


Witchcraft 


OObu-rcoi 


I-rcogco 


• •• 


... 


... 




Woman . . . 


COmu-kari 


(jOmu-kazi. 


Mu-kali 


... 


(jOmu-kazi 


COmu-kazi 


Womb 




En-da 


• ■• 


... 


... 


... 


Wood 


Ru-kwe; pi. 
esian-kue 


En-ku 


En-ku 


En-ku 


En-kue. 
En-pa ri 


En-ku 


Yam 


Eki-hama 


Eki-rali 


••• 


... 


Eki-rali 


Eci-ra 


Year 


Omw-aka. 
Eri-bojga ( = 
sprouUngcorn 

new year). 


COmw-aka ; 
emi-aka 


Omw-aka 




OOmw-aka 


Omw-aka 


Yesterday... 


... 


I-j5 




... 






Zebra 


En-turege 


En-tulege 


En-tulege 


... 


En-tulege 


En-tulege 


One 


-guma, -Yuma 


-mu 


-mu 


•mu 


-mco (Du-meo) 


-mue 


Two 


-here, -were 


•biri, -wiri 


-biri, -wiri 


-bill 


-biri, -wiri 


-biri 


Three 

Four 


-satu 
-ne, -nai 


-satu 
-nai, -na 


-satu 
■na 


■satco 
-ne 


-^atu 
■nai 


-satu 
-na 


Five 


-tanu 


-tanco, -tanu 


-tanco 


■tanco 


-tanu 


-tanu 


Six 


(JL)mu-kaga 


OOmukaga 

{pi. emi-) 


Mu-kaga 


Mu-kaga 


(jOmu-kaga 


COmu-kaga 


Seven 


COmu-sanzu 


OOmu-panju 

(//. emi-) 


Mu-sanju 


Mu-sansu 


OOmu-sanju 


COmu-sanzu 


Eight 


COmu-nane 


COmu-nana 

(//. emi-) 


Mu-nana 


Mu-nani 


COmu-nana 


COmu-nana 


Nine 


Omw-enda 


Omw-enda 


Mw-enda 


Mw-enda 


Omw-enda 


Omw-enda 






( Memy-enda) 








Ten 


Eri-kumi 


I-kumi 

(pi. ama-) 


E-kumi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Eleven 


E-kumi na ci 
Yuma 


• I-kumi n'e-mu 


E-kumi n'em' 


I-kuminaki- 


mu I-kumi n'e-mco 


I-kumi n'e-mue 


Twenty ... 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-kumi ga- 




Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-bere 


a-biri 


biri 




a-wiri 


a-biri 


Thirty 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-kumi ga- 




Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-satu 


a-satu 


satu 




a-patu 
Ama-kumi 


a-satu 


Forty 


Ama-kumi a-ne Ama-kumi a-n& Ma-kumi ga-n& 


Ama-kumi a-nS 












a-nai 




Fifty 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-kumi ga- 




Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-tanu 


a-tanu 


tanco 




a-tanco 


a-tanu 


' 'Witch' 


stands also for 


wizard', 'diviner', 'magician'. 


'J'he better side of ' witchcraft' ii 


met with under 



' doctor' ' tnedicine man ', and ' medicine '. 'Magic ' may also mean ' religion ', 'fetish '. 







GROUP A 


: NYANZA LANGUAGES 




53 




I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjto 


Uru-nyoreo 


Ku-guiigu 


Ru-kytopi 


Uru-torto 

(Ku-songora 

rt«rfRu-iro>,Cf'f.) 


OOru-hima 


Hundred . . . 


Eri-gana 


I-gana 


Ki^kumi 


I-gana 


I-gana 


I-gana 


Thousand . . . 


Eri-gan' ne- 
guma 


(jOru-kumi 
(Ka-gana = 
10,000) 


Lu-kumi 


... 


... 


Ma-gana 
e-kimii 


I, me, my ... 


Ngie, Njie. 


Nycowe. N-. 


Nge. 


• •• 


Nyojwe. Ni, N-. 


Nytowe. N-,N1 




N., Ndi.. 


-un. -n-. -a-nge 


-a-ngco 




•n-. -a-nge 


-n-. -a-nje 




■n-. -a-ge 












Thou, thee,thy 


Ewe,Tami ! U-. 


Wewe, O).. 


Wewe. U)-. 


■ ■• 


Wewe. CO-. 


Iwe. 00-. 




•ku-. -a-yco 


•ku-. -a-we. •« 


-ku-. -to 




-ku-. -a-we 


-ku-. -awe 


He, him, his 


Oyu. A-. 


Uwe, Ye. A. 


Ye. A-. 


■ •. 


Iwe, Uwe. A-. 


Uwe, Oria. 




•mu-. -a-ye 


•mu^. -e, -yi 


-mu-. -todi 




-mu-. -yi 


A-, Ya-. 
•mu-. -ye 


We, us, our 


Sitwe. Tu-. 


Icwe, Icu. Tu-. 


Icwe. Tu-. 


Itwe 


Icwe. Tu-. 


Yitwe. Tu-. 




■tu-. -etu 


-tu-. -a-itu 


-tu-, -itu- 




-tu-. -a-itu 


-tu-. -a-itu 


Ye, your, our 


Inyue, Inyu. 


Inyuwe. Mu-. 


Nyuwe 


• •• 


Inyuwe. Mu-. 


Yimwe. Mu- 




Mu-. 


-ba-. -a-nyu 






-ba-. -a-nyu 


-ba-. -a-nyu 




•ba-. -enyu 












They, them. 


Aba. Ba-. 


Abto. Ba-. 


Bahco, Badi. 


>■• 


Abto. Ba-. 


Abto. Ba-. 


their 


-ba-. -a boj 


-ba-. -a^bu 


Ba-. 

-ba-. a-b<o 




-ba-. -a-bto 


-wa-, -ba-. 
-a-bu 



All 



This, these 



•usi,-tosi(ab-cosi, 
ey-tosi, g-tosi, 
esi-usi,ebi-osi, 

(UW-tOSi, &=€.) 



Yoj-yu, ba-ba ; 
(u-no>(7/-gu-nco, 
gi-nto or i-nto ; 
ri-nto, ga-neo ; 
ki-nto, bi-nto ; 
e-nto, si-nto ; 
lu-nto ; tu-nto ; 
ka-nco ; bu-nto ; 
ku-nco ; ha-nto 



-tona (b-tona, -tona 

y-tona, g-tona, 

bi-cona, z-tona, 

tu-tona, bw- 

tona, kw-tona, 

h-tona) 
Ngu-guorco-nu, -nco (wti/t class 

ba-nu ; gu-nto, prefix) 

e-nu ; di-nto or 

di-nu, ga-nto ; 

ki-nu, bi-nu ; 

e-nu, zi^nu ; 

ru^nu ; tu-nu ; 

ka-nu ; bu-nu ; 

ku-nu ; ha-nu 



-una 



That, those 



Yto-lia, ba-lia ; OO-nuna, ba- -ri {ivith 
oj-lia, gi-lia ; nuna ; gu-nu- prefix) 
ri-ria, ga-lia ; na, e-nuna ; 
ki-lia, bi-lia ; di-nuna ; o^c. 
e-lia or yi-lia: tO-li, oj-linya, 
si-lia; lu-lia ; ba-li,ba-linya; 
ka-lia; bu^lia; gu^li,gu^linya; 
ku^lia ; ha^Iia i^c. tb^gu,ba- 

li; a)gu,e-gi; 

e-ri, a-gto ; e-ki, 

e-bi; e-gi,e-zi; 

o-ru ; <i)-tu ; 

a-kto ; u)-bu ; 

co-ku ; a-hto 



class 



Bad ... 


.. -bi, -kirto 


•bi 


Black... 


-iraulu. 


•iragura 




G-iraguru 


0/ verb) 



•bi 



■bi 



-tona {&r'c.] 



(As in Uru- 
nyorto; but the 
demonstrative 
answering to 
'this here' is 
more often pre- 
ceded by the 
' directive n ' : 
Ngu-nu, mba^ 
nu ; iigu^nu, 
ngi^nu; ndi^nu, 
figa^nu; cr'c.) 

Ngu^li, mba^li, 
6-f. Ngu-gu, 
mba-bto ; Ngu- 
gu, iigi-gi ; 
d^c. 



Ttona (cr*^.) 



{Much as in 
Uru-nyorto). 
The demon- 
strative 'that', 
however, is -ria 
(to-ria, ba^ria ; 
gu^ria ; &-'c.) 



[root 



-bi 
•irugadju 



-bi 



54 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjco 


Uru-nyoreo 


Ru-gungu 


Ru-kycopi 


Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

tindRu-iTa,&'c.) 


OOru-hima 



Female 



•kali, humans -kazi. -isiki. 





and small 


•tco, mu^tco 




mammals; -esi- 






Yija, cows; -bu- 






wuma, cows 






andgoais;-(iivi- 






ene, general 




Fierce, sharp, 


... 


•roma {verb),^ 


bitter 




•rua {verb root) 


Good 


-w-ene. -buya 


-rungi ^ 


Great 


■kulu. -nene 


■kuru. -kcdtco 


Little 


■nunu. -ke 


•ke. •toitu 


Long 


-de, -le 


•raiha. •hangu 


Male 


■lume 


■sadja or •saija 
{men). •oajo* 
{children). 
•enume (c;r^«). 
rumi {birds) 


Old 


... 


•kuru {mostly 
in verbalform) 


Red 


•tuku 


\\xkxa&{verbal) 


Rotten 


... 


•junda {verbal) 


Short 


•kuhi 


•gufu. •ihi 


Sick 


-aluere. -kuni 


•rwara {verb) 


White 


•era 


•era, -ruwera 


Above, up, on 




Ha-iguru. 


top 




Eru^guru 


Before 


Ah-ese 


OOmu ma^isco^ga 
Na^mbere 


Behind 


..• 


Eny-uma ya 


Below, down 


He.nsi 


Ha^nsiya. I^fco 


Far 


... 


Ha-ra 


Here 


E-nco 


Ha^nu, Ku^nu 


In, inside ... 


W^mu 


UJ^mu, 

OOmun^da 


Middle 


• •• 


Ha-gati 


Near 




Ha^ihi 


Outside ... 


... 


Ah-eru 


Plenty, many 


•ngi 


■ingi 


There 


E^ria. Ha-li 


OO^ku. Ku^li. 
A^hco. Ha^li 


Where? ... 


... 


N^kaha ? 


No! 


I-yehe! 


Kwaha! Anga! 
A^a! 


Not {wi/h verb. 


Si^ (Si^ndi-, 


Ti^(ti,t<o,ta,ti^ 


as prejix, in- 


Si^wa- 


tu,ti-mu,ti^ba). 


fix, or suffix) 


Si^a, Si-tu-, 


•ta^(u^ta^,co-ta, 




Si^mu-,Si-ba-) 


a^ta-, iS^c.) 



•bu-sa Uf.Swa- 
hili ' Kabisa'. 
-bu^sa 7neans 
'in vain', 
'naked') 



•kazi. -zigise. 
•isiki 



•niruma (verb) •rruma {verb) 



•rung! 
•kcotcd. •kuru 

•taiteo. -titirco. 
-ke 
•raiha 
•saija 



•rung! 

•kuru. .pangu, 
•hangu 
•itce, •ce, -cice 



-seizi. •irumi, 
•cozcd {chil- 
dren), •enimi 

{oxen) 



•ikuru, •kura -ikuru 



■nanata {verb) 
-junda {verb) 
•gufu 

-rwaire {verb) 
•era {verb) 



Ha^iguru 

OOmu ma^sci>-ga 

Eny^uma ya 

Ha^nsi 

Ha^ra 

Ha-nco 

OO^mu 

Ha^gati 
Ha-ihi 
Aha^iru 
OOmw^eru.^ingi 
Ku^li, Ha^li. 
(jO.ku 



■tukura {verb) 

•guffu 

•ruara {7'erb) 
•era, -wera 

{verb) 

Ha-iguru 

COmu ma-sco-ga 

Eny-uma ya 

Ha-nsi 

Ha^ra 

Ha^nco 

OO^mu 

Ha-kati 
Ha^ihi 



•inji 

CO-ku. Ku^ria 



Kwaha ! N^ga ! Ngabusg ! 



{As in Uru- 
nyorca) 



(As in Uru- 
nyorw) 



-bu^s 



' Compare word for ' leopard' in Caga. 



Cf, Zulu and words for ' straight ', ' building'. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



55 



English 



Olu-konju 



2. 

Uru-nyor<a 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 

Ru-kycopi 



! 2C. 

I Uru'torco 
I (Ru-soiigora 
antiRu-iToi, eye.) 



2d. 
COru-hima 



To 



Eri- 



(Oku- 



Ku- 



(jOIcu- 



„ beat ... 


•tera 


■tera 


„ buy, sell 


■awcola, -wtola 


•timda. •gura 


„ come ... 


•asa 


•ija 


„ cut 


•dura 


•tema 


„ dance ... 


■bina, -wina 


•zina, -n-zina 


„ die 


■wa, •kuwa 


•fwa 


„ eat ... 


■lia 


-dia 


„ give ... 


•ha. (-bain com- 


•wa, -ha. 




position) 


•gaba 


» go 


•genda 


•genda. -gya 


„ kill ... 


-ita 


-ita 


„ know ... 


■kiasi 


■manya 


„ laugh ... 


-seka 


-seka 


„ leave off, 


•leka ? 


-leka. -siga 


cease 






„ love, want 


•sima. •yenda 


•enda. -gonza, 
-gondza 


„ see 


■langera 


•bcona, -dora 


„ sit, remain. 


•ikala 


-ikara 


abide 






„ sleep ... 


•rara 


•rara. •gojnya 




(Eri-rara) or 


{to pass the 




•lala 


night), •guna 
(snore). 
•niama, •bi^ 
yama ? 


„ stand, stop, 


>** 


•emera. •teka. 


be erect 




■imtika 


„ steal ... 


•iba 


•iba 



•viyama 



(jOku. 


OOku- 


•tera 


•tera 


•gura 


•tunda 


•ija 
•temera 


•iza 
-temera 


•zina 
•fa 


-guruka 
•fa. -akaba 


-dia 


•dia 


•wa, -ha 


•hwa, wa 


•genda, 

•iigenda 

•ita 


■njenda 
-ita 


■manya 
•seka 


-manya 
-seka 


•leka 


•reka 



-enda. -gonza -kunda. 

-n-yenda 
-bcona. -rora -bcona. -dora. 

■subora ? 
■ikala •ikara 



•rara. gcona 



-biama. -rara. 
-gcana 



-ema, -emera -ema, -emera 
•iba -iba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN OLU^KONJCO' 

Preprefixes are present in Olu^konjw. 

Class I. OOmu^ (concord omu-, yo)-, u- ?) ; 2. Aba^ (ba-) ; 3. COmu^ (comu^, gu-) ; 4. Emi- (ami-, gi-, 
yi-, i- ?) ; 5. Eri- (ri-) ; 6. Ama^ (ama-, a-, ga-) ; 7. Eki- (ki-) ; 8. Ebi- (hi-) ; 8 a.' Ebi-(bi-) ; 9. E-, Eyi-, 
En-, En-, Em-, N^ (M-) (en-, e-, ey-); 10. Esi^, Esiw, Esian^, Esion-, Esiony- (en- ?, esi- ?) ; II. Olu- 
or Oaiu-, Oru-, Odu-, OOnu- (lu-, du-) ; 12. Wtu- (tu-) ; 13. Aka^ (ka-) ; 14. CObu^(bu-); 15. a)ku-(ku-); 
16. Aha^ (ha-, he-) ; 17. OOmu^ (mu- ?). 



' The prefix above the line is the equivalent of the infinitive ' to '. The root of the word is also the 
form of the ind person imperative. 

' The concord particles are shown within brackets and commence with a minuscule and not a capital 
letter. The adjectival form is usually given first. 

' The 8 a prefix which is given here, and which is prominent in the West Equatorial Bantu 
languages, is nothing but the plural prefix 8 employed in a collective or singular sense : generally with 
a diminutive signification. 



56 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



PREFIXES, &c., IN URU-NYORCO, URU-TORCO, AND Ol)RU-HIMA 

Preprefixes are present. 

Class I. (Omu- (comu-, mw-, m-, figu-, gu-, togu-, cowco-, cu-, u-, a-); 2. Aba- (aba-, ba-); 3. OJmu- 
((omu-, <i)gu-, gu-), 4. Emi- (emi-, e-, i-, egi-); 5. I-, Ei-, Eri-, Ji- (in Rugungu) (eri-, di-, ri-, li-) 
6. Ama- (ama-, a-, aga-, ga-) ; 7. Eki- or Eci- (eki-, ki-, ci-) ; 8. Ebi- (ebi-, bi-) ; 8 a. Ebi- (ebi-, bi) 
9. En- (Em-), Eni- (Eny'-), Ng-, Yi-, Gi- (en-, e-, i-, eyi-, gi- ?) ; 10. Same as 9 (concord, en-, e-, i-, ezi-) 
II. Uru-, (jOru-,Odu- (oru-, du-, ru-) ; 1 2. (JL)tu-, Utu- (lotu-, tu-) ; 13. Aka- (aka-, ka-) ; 14. (jObu- (cobu-, 
bu-) ; 15. tOku- ((uku-, ku-) ; 16. Aha- (aha-, ha-) ; 17. OOmu- {preposition only). 

In Uru-nyoroj, if not in the other kindred dialects, an ' honorific ' prefix A- would appear to be 
present, especially in terms or titles of address as A-ba>ki !, A-bwcoli !, A-cali !, A-dyeri !, A-kiki !, 
A-mcoti !, &c., &c. The Nya- or feminine prefix is also present. 

Ru-gungu and Ru-kycopi would seem, from the very little we know of them, to agree with Uru-ny orco 
in prefixes and concords ; except that in Ru-gungu and perhaps in Ru-kycopi, the preprefixes are inclined 
to drop out of pronunciation. 



1. Olukonjco is spoken in the districts round the south and south-east flanks of the Ruwenzori range, 
and west of the Semliki river and of Lake Edward up to the Ituri basin, along the mountains of the 
Congo watershed southwards to the ist degree of South latitude. 

2. Urunyorco is spoken in Bunyono, east of Lake Albert and west of the Victoria Nile, Lake Kicoga, 
and the River Kafu. 

2 a. Rugungu is spoken in northern Bunyorto, especially between Fajaoj on the Victoria Nile and 
Lake Albert, in the district of Magungu. 

2 b. Rukycopi is spoken in the Nyono settlements along the west coast of Lake Albert. 

2C. Urutorco is spoken at the south end of Lake Albert (in Busoiigora) and in Toro), namely, the 
northern and eastern flanks of Ruwenzori and as far east as the frontiers of the kingdom or province of 
Buganda. 

2 d. COruhima is spoken in Afik<ole and Mportorco, east of Lake Edward, west and north of the 
Kagera river. 



GROUP A 

THE NYANZA LANGUAGES {continued) 



Sub-group A 2 {continued) 

2 e. Uru-karagwe (Ru-ragwe) 

2 f. Uru-kerebe ' 

2 g. Lu-ziba (Lu-sinja ') Ru-nyambu 



Sub-group A 3 North Tanganyika 

3. Urunya-ruanda a7id 3 a Ki-rundi 

3 b. Ru-ha or Ru-tutsi (Tusi ', Ki-jiji) 
Sub-group A 4 Buganda 

4. Lu-ganda {including Lu-sese 4 a and Lu-scoga 4 b) 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3-^ 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi 


Lu-sese 4 a, and 








Ru-nyambS 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-so>ga 4 b 


Adze 


... 


En-cankwi 


... 


En-torizci>. 
Umu-horca ? 


... 


E-gya. 
Em-baju 


Animal, wild 


E-nyama 


E-namenswa. 


... 


I-nyamaswa. 


In-yama 


N-scolu. 


beast 




I-ri ; ma-ri 




I-nyania. 
Iki-kcoku 




E-nangazi 


Ant 


Em-pazi. 


... 


OJbw-asi. 


En-ttozi. 


... 


N-sana-fu. 




E-niangu 




E-nyangoj 


Uru-sisi 




N-sansa. 

N-kcolcatu. 

Em-pazi 


Ant, white 


En-swa 


COmu-swa. 


En-swa 


COmu-swa. 


En-swa 


En-swa. 


(termite) 




En-swa 




Urun-swa ; 
in-swa 




N-kuyege. 

Ama-guye(//.) 

N-kwenda 


Ape (chim- 


... 


••• 


... 


En-jangwe 


... 


E-dzike, I-zike 


panzi or 














gorilla) 














Arm 


OOmu-kcanco 


Eri-gaico 


OOku-wcoku. 
OOm-koncij, 
Mu-kunco ; 
emi- 


Uku-bcokco. 
Umu-kconco 


Ukco-weokco ; 
ama- 


COmu-kconca 


Arrow 


Omw-ambi 


Omw-ambi 


Cx)w-ambi, 
OOmw-abi 


Umvv-ambi. 
Ubw-enge. 
Umu-tegco 
(snare, arrcnu) 


Umw-ambi 


OL)mu-sale, 
Aka-sale. 
OOmu-tegeo 


Axe 


Em-pas(o. 


(Ji)Iu-sinzco. 


E-senya ; ama- 


I-suka, In- 


Em-pasa ; //. 


Em-badzi. Em- 




I-sembe ; ama- 


Em-bezco. 




suka ; ama-. 


idzi-wasa ? 


baidi. N-ya- 






En-sena 




I-senyo> 


I-dzuma 


nzi. Em-pasa 


Baboon 


En-kcowe 


En-kcobe 


En-kcobe. 
En-kende 


Em-pundu 


... 


Efi-kcabe. 
N-sudde(4b) 


Back 


OOmu-gongto 


OOmu-gongco 


Om-gongco or 
Um-gongto 


OJmu-gongco ; 
emi-. Umu- 
gongco ; imi- 


Umu-gongoj 


OOmu-gongu. 
E-bega. 
Ki-dindco (4 b) 


Banana ... 


Eki-tbike ; evi- 


Eki-tcake; ebi-. 


Eki-tojke ; ebi-. 


Egi-tcoci; ebi-. 


... 


Eki-tcoke ; ebi-. 






Eki-hisye 


En-gamu 

{tree) 


Iki-ttoke (3 a). 
Um-ugwi(3a). 
Iki-agara {old 
R.) 




Gonja. M-bide. 
Efi-emco (4 a). 
Ki-go>gto (4 b). 
Eri-envu; 
m-envu 


Beard 


OOmu-lezu 


Ebi-rezu 


N-dedyu, 

Mu-reju 


Ubu-anwa or 
Ubyanwa 


... 


Eki-rebu.tOmu- 
levu (4 a). 
Eki-rebo. (4 b) 


Bee 


En-zcoki ; 
ne-nycoki 


En-zcoki 


Ny-coki 


En-z<oki. Uru- 
yuki. Uru- 
zuki ; in-zuki. 
Aka-sazi (3 a) 




Enj-uki 



' The Ki-kere we of German writers. ''■ Including the ' Ci-zinja ' ' Ba-zinza ', ' Ru-haya ' and ' Ki-mweri ' 

of German writers. ' Including Stanley's ' Ki-jiji ' and Last's ' Hulcohcolco '. 

* The second or lower word is generally Ki-rundi. Ki-rundi differs mainly from Ruanda in retaining L' and I <w 
preprefixes instead of (x) and E. A few words of the dialect spoken by the Batwa or Pygmies in Burundi are 
inserted on the authority of Father van der Burgt. 



58 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



2e. 
Uru-karagwe 



2f. 

Uru-kerebe 



2g- 

Lu-ziba 

(Lu-sinja) 

Ru-nyambu 



Urunya-ruanda 

and 3 a 
Ki-rundi (R.) 



3 b. 

Ru-ha or 

Ru-tutsi 

(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 



Lu-ganda, 

Lu-sese4a,a«(/ 

Lu-scoga 4 b 



Belly 


En-dft ; ama-da En-da. 


Umo-nda. 


E-bondco. 


In-da ; ama-da 


I-bunda; ama- 






Ru-bunda 


Uru-bunda ; 
m-bunda 


In-da 




Em-bunda 
(4 a). COlu- 
butco ; em-. 
N-da (4 b) 


Bird 


Eny-ojnyi 


En-coni 


Eny-uni. 


Eny-coni, 


N-zewa. 


Eny-conyi. 








Eki-kungu 


Iny-coni 


Inyconi 


N-coni (4 b) 


Blood 


E-s^gama 


En-s&gama. 
Eki-amba 


E-sagama 


Ama-rasco 


... 


OOmu-sai. 
Mu-sahi (4 a) 


Body 


Om-wili 


N-gingco 


Umu-biri 


COmu-biri, 
(jOmu-wiri 


Umu-wiri 


OOmu-biri 


Bone 


E-gufwa ; ama- 


I-gufwa ; ama- 


Um-gufa 


E-gufwa. 
I-gufa (3 a) 


... 


E-gufwa ; ama-. 
I-gumba ; 
ama- 


Borassuspalm Eki-kcoga; evi- 


... 


... 


... 


. •• 


AJja-tugu. 














Ci)lu-kcoma 


Bow 


OOvu-ta ; 


CObu-ta ; 


(Ovu-ta, 


(jOmu-hetteo. 


Umu-hetco 


Aka-sale. 




ama-ta 


ama-ta. 
OObco-kcoma ; 
ama- 


CObu-ta 


Umu-kekerco, 
Umu-waiigco 

(3 a) 




(jOmu-tegco. 

Bu-tta(4b) 


Bowels 


Ama-da 


Ama-ra 


Uru-ra; ama-ra 


In-da ; ama-da. 
Uru-ra; in-da 


... 


Ebien-da 


Brains 


tOvw-ongw 


(x)bw-ongco 


... 


COby-oingco 


... 


(jObw-ongu 


Breast (man's 


Eki-fupa 


Eki-fuba. 
En-korco 


Eki-fuba 


Iki-tuza 


... 


Eki-fuba. 
Aka-ligyi 


Breast 


I-vere ; ama- 


I-bere ; ma- 


Ma-bere 


I -were 


I-wele ; ama- 


I-bere ; ama- 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Omw-a-itu ; 


... 


Um-rumuna. 


Mw-ene-tata. 


Mu-sadza. 


Mu-ganda. 




av-a-itu 




I-lumbu, 

Ka-lumbu. 

Mu-kuru 


Umu-saza. 
Umu-hara. 
In-suti (3 a). 
Umu-kuru. 
Umu-rumuna 


Mw-ene-we 


Mwa-nyina. 
Mu.tabanl 

(4 a) 


Buffalo 


Em-bugco 


Em-bcogco 


Em-bcogco 


Em-bcogco. 
Im-bcogco 


... 


Em-bcogco 


Bull 


E-numi 


E-numi. 
Ki-masa 


Eki-masa 


Iki-masa. 
In-fizi 


Iki-masa; ivi- 


En-te sedume 
En-te numi 


Buttocks ... 


Eki-bunu; evi- 


Eki-bunu; ebi-. 


Uru-ende ; 


Eki-bunco. 


... 


OOmu-tulira. 






Eki-takco ; ebi 


m-pende. 

(Nyco = anus) 


Ama-takco 




Ama-takco. 
Mu-fundcs 

(4 a) 


Canoe 


Uvw-atcij 


tObw-atoa;ama- 


Ubw-atco 


Ubw-atco, 
Uby-atco 


Uw-atoa 


Eri-atco ; am-. 
Bw-ato3. 
E-bamvu 


Cat 


En-zangu 


Ru-baka ; 


Ny-aeo, 


En-turu. 


Iny-awM 


Ka-yayu. 






m-paka. 


Ny-amco 


I-tulco. 




Kapa ; 






En-simba 




I-jangwi. 

Akany-awu 




ba-kapa. 
Ka-jangwa 

(4 a). Mu-yai 
(4 b) 


Cattle 


Oru-gco ; 
ama-gca 


En-te 


Ki-remba 


I-'pco ; ma-pco 
In-ka 


In-ka 


En-te 


Charcoal ... 


... 


I-kara 


... 


I-kara ; ama- 




Li-anda ; 
am-anda 


Chief 


En-kama 


Mu-kama. 


OOmu-kama. 


OOmu-tutsi. 


Umw-ami 


COmw-ami ; 






Mu-hjnda 


OOmu-temi ; 
aba- 


Umw-ami ; 
ab-ami. Umu- 
tware; aba- 




ab-amL Mu- 
kama (4 a). 
Oi)mu-kungu 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



59 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese 4 a, and 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


ChUd 


Omw-ana ; 


Omw-ana. 


Umw-ana. 


OOmw-ana. 


Umw-ana ; 


COmw-ana ; 




aw-ana 


Eli-ana 


Um-keremeki. 
Um-tabari 


Mama 


aw-ana 


ab-ana. 
Ak-ana ; 
obw-ana. 
Aka-tco ; oibu- 


Cloth 


Omw-enda; 


Omw-enda 


Umw-endco. 


Oru-tabbi. 


Umw-enda 


N-goye, 




emi-enda 




Ulu-bugco 


Umw-enda 




OOlu-goye. 
Lu-bugo> 


Cold 


Em-behca 


Em-behco 


Mu-iaga 


Im-behu 


Im-behco 


Em-pewco. 
CObu-titi 


Country ... 


En-si 


Eki-alto 


En-si 


(Obu-taka. Iki- 
hukco, -hugto. 
In-si 


In-si 


En-si. Ebi-alca 


Cow 


En-te ; ama-te 


... 


En-te mu-kazi 


Eii-ka. In-ka. 
Ifi-gabe. 
A-yimara .' 


In-ka ; 
//. nifi-ka 


£n-te en-dusi 


Crocodile ... 


E-mamba 


En-sambi 


En-pambi 


In-guna (3 a) 


... 


E-gconya, 
N-gconya 


Day 


Eki-lco ; evi-lto. 


Lu-naku; //. 


Eki-lco. 


E-zorrto. 


I-zuwa. Iki-leo; 


Eki-rco (4 a). 




Om-zana 


n-naku 


tOmu-pana 


Umu-si ; imi- 


ivi-lco. Mu-usi 


COlu-nakco ; 






OOmu-sana 


Umu-nsi. 




e-nakco. Jeo. 










Oru-ntaga 




Mu-sana ( = 










{daylight) 




daylight) 


Devil, evil 


OOmu-zimu 


COmu-zimu 


E-mandwa 


Em-bandwa, 


I-mandwa 


Lubare ; ba 4- , 


spirit 








Im-bandwa 




Mu-sambwa 

(4 a, 4 b) 


Doctor (medi- 


A-laguza. 


tOmu-fumu. 


Umu-genge (?) 


(jOmu-pfumu. 


Umu-fumeo 


OOmu-sawco.' 


cine man) 


Um-fumu ; 
awa- 


OOmu-laguza 


Em-fumu 


I-niandwa. 
In-daruza 




(Omu-ganga. 
OOmu-fumu 


Dog 


Em-bwa ; 
ama-bwa 


Em-bwa 


Em-bwa 


Em-bwa or 
Im-bwa 


Im-bwa 


Em-bwa. 
(Ogu-bwa ; 
pi. aga-bwa. 
En-koidi (4 a) 


Donkey 


En-dcogcowe 


... 


En-dcdgcobe 


In-dcogcobe 


In-dcogcowe ; 
//. idzi-dcogco- 
we 


En-dcogoi 


Door 


Ur-ugi ; inz-ugi 


I-hara. 


Uru-igi; en-igi 


(jOmu-riang<o. 




(jOlu-igi, Lu-gi ; 




tOmu-langco ; 


I-lembcd. 




Urw-ugi. 




//. enz-igi 




emi- 


COmu-liangu 




I-lembca 




OOmu-liangco. 
OOmu-zigco 


Dream 


... 


Eki-rcdtco 


En-dcotw 


En-dutca. 
In-zuzi 


In-dutco 


En-dcotco 


Drum 


En-gcoma 


Eii-gcoma 


En-guma 


En-gcoma, 
In-gcoma 


... 


Efi-coma. 
N-gcoma (4 b) 


Ear 


OOku-tu 


COku-tui; ama 


- Uku-twi. 

Ili-twi ; ama- 
twi 


Ugu-tu 


Uku-twi ; ama- 
twi 


OL)ku-tu; ama. 
tco. OOku-tui 

(4 a) 


Egg 


1-huli ; ama- 
huli 


I -hull ; ama- 


I-huli. I-iiri 


E-gi ; ama-gi 


Eli-gi; ama-gi 


E-gi ; ama-gi. 

I-gyi(4a) 


Elephant ... 


En-scodzca ; pi 


En-zcozu 


En-yudyu, 


In-zoavu. 


In-scovu 


En-jeovu. 




nama-sudzco 




En-jcoju 


In-dayi (old 
R.) 




En-jcobu (4 a). 
N-deovu (4 b) 


Excrement 


Ama-zi 


... 


Ama-zi 


Ama-zi. Ama-se Ama-vi 


Emi-zi. Ama-zi. 














Ama-di (4 a) 


Eye 


El-isu ; ama-s<o El-isoi 


El-isoj, 
Ri-ipco 


2J-ipco or Ej-iSco 
or Ici-cico ; pis. 


IIi-ns« ; //. 
ama-nsco ; 


Er-isco; ama-sco. 
D-is<o.E-moni 










ama-pco, ebi- 
cico 




(4 a). L-isco; 












ma-isco (4 b) 



* Also, COmu-laguzi; see p. 67. 



6o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-hft or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi 


Lu-sese4a,aW 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Face, fore- 


OOvu-sto ; 


CObu-syco 




Oru-hanga 


Uw(jO-SU 


Ama-seo. 


head 


ama-sco 










Bu-enyi. 
Ma-isco (4 b). 
Eki-eni (4 a) 


Fat, oil ... 


Ama-zuta 


Ama-zuta 


Ama-dyuta 


Uru-gimbco. 
Ama-vuta, 
Ama-futa. 
Ama-zigwa. 
Am-eiigwa 
(oldK.) 


Ama-vuta 


Ama-futa. 
Ama-buta(4a). 
Ama-savu 
(4 b). 
COmu-zigco 


Father 


M-tata. Ise 


Tata. I-se. I-soj 


Tata. Ise. 

I -SCO 


Data.Tata.Ra. 


Data 


Kita. Sebo. 








^co. Se; aba-se 




Tata.Sa-. Se-. 


Fear 


OOku-tina 


(x)bu-tina 


Bu-tini 


Ub7-coba. 
COku-kuiiga. 
OObu-tina 


Uwu-tina 


Tia. (Obu-ti. 
En-tisa 


Finger 


OOlu-kumu ; 


Eki-ara 


Eki-ara. 


Uru-tcoki. 


Ulu-kumu. 


COlu-nwe ; //. 




en-kumu 




Oru-kumu 


Iki-kumwe 
(thumb) 


Uru-teoke. 
Eki-dcole ; ivi- 


e-nwe. COIu- 
galco. Eki-ala. 
COIu-kumco 
(4 a). Du-ala; 
pi. nd-ala (4 b) 


Fire 


Wmu-Hleo ; 


COmu-lilco 


Om-riru. 


Ci)mu-rirco. 


Umu-canwa. 


(Omu-lilco. Ka- 




ama- 


(Ku-ota = to 


Um-otoj; 


(Ku-ota = to 


Umu-lilco 


wai. (Ku-cota 






warm oneself) 


emi-otco 


■warm) 




= to warm) 


Fish 


En-fwi 


N-fwi. En-furu En-furu 


E-here. Em-fu. 


I-vui. In-siwi 


Ebie-nyanja. 










I-fwi,Uru-fwi; 




Em-fwi (4 a). 










in-fwi. Im- 




Em-pune (4 b) 










bcoga (old R.) 






Foot 


COgu-gulu ; 


COku-guru. 


Eki-renge 


Eki-renge 


Umu-lundi. 


Eki-gere. 




ama- 


Eki-gere 






Uku-guru 


Eki-renge (4 a) 


Forest 


Eki-tundu 


Eki-tuntu. 


Eki-bira. 


I-pamba. 


Hi-lungu 


Eki-bira. 






(Eki-bira = 


Eci-tundu 


Iki-bira 




Lu-kcola. 






sacred grove, 








COIu-kampa 






forest) 










Fowl 


En-kukco 


En-kcjk<d. 


En-k«kw 


Eii-kcokco. 


In-kcokco. 


Efi-kcokco. 






(Nkoakcorumi 




(I-sake=(rw/^) 


(I-kuiiguIume 


En-gcokco. 






= cock) 






= cock) 


(Se-gwanga 

= cock) 


Frog 


Eki-kele ; evi- 


Aka-kere ; //. 
ama-kere 


Eki-kere 


Iki-keri 


Iki-kere ; ivi- 


Eki-kere 


Ghost 




I-tunu 


Om-simu. 
Ki-zimu. 
Om-cwezi. 
Ki-ntunge 


COmu-zimu 


OJmu-zimu ; 
imi- 


COmu-zimu. 
Mu-dimu(4a). 
Omw-oyco 


Giraffe 


En-twiga 


En-twiga 


En-twiga 


... 


... 


£n-tuga 


Girl 


OOmu-isiki 


COmu-hara ; 


COmu-siki, 


Umu-kcob-ya. 


Umu-kcowa 


COmu-wala. 






aba- 


M w-ipiki 


Umu-kcobwa 




Mu-bara (4 a). 












Mu-guna (4 b) 


Goat 


Em-buzi ; ama- 


Em-buzi (//. 
same) 


Em-buzi 


Em-peni, 
Im-pene; pi. 
ama-hene 


Im-pene 


Em-buzi. 
M-budi (4 a) 


„ (he) ... 


... 


Em-paya. 
Ku-sabo>. 


I-m-paya. Em- 
buzi m-seja. 


I-sutwa.Iseku- 
rume. In-fizi. 
Iki-hebe (old 

R 1 


Ifi-gulati. 


... 


„ (she)... 


... 


Bu-guma 


Em-buzi mw- 
epiki 


Umu-guma, 
UwO-guma 

(old R.) 


In-dcogcosa 


• •• 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



6i 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3b. 


4. 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-hft or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and ■^a. 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese 4 a, am/ 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


God 


Ru-gaba; eii- 




Ru-gaba. 


Mu-rungu. 


Ki-mana. 


Katonda. 




gaba 




Ka-z«oba. 
Ka-tonda 


I-mana. 
Lu-hanga 


Mu-lungu 


Lubare.' 

Mu-sambwa. 

Ki.wumba(4b) 


Grandparent 


Guku. Kaka. 
Tatenkulu $. 
Mawenkulu 5 


Guku. Kaka. 
Isenkuru 




Isenkuru. Kcd- 
kuru tt. Nine- 
iikuru J. ^/jtf : 
Waba, I-waba 




Jaja 


Grass 


Evi-nyadzi 


I-nansi 


Bu-nyasi 


I-hamba. 

Ubu-atsi 




OOmu-ddco. 
E-subi, 
E-suwi. 
Bu-sambu 

(4 a) 


Ground 


E-zi. Na-hanki. 
I-taka 


I-taka 


En-si. I-taka 


a)bu-taka 
Iki-taka 


I-zi. Kuki 


I-taka, E-taka 


Ground-nut 


En-kalanga 




N-por« 


Eki-nyoobco. 
Ici-uba. 
Ici-ema. 
Ici-anza (3 a) 




Eki-nycobwa. 
„ -ny-uwebwa 
(4 a). L-id»; 
ma-idco (4 b) 


Guinea-fowl 


• >. 


Eii-kanga 


£n-curucumbi 


En-sakara. 
In-kanga. In- 
doyi [old R.) 




En-kcofu 


Gun 


E-huti 


N-bunduzico 


Em-bundudzi 


Em-bundu. 
Ifi-gcohco 


... 


M-undu 


Hair 


I-zcoke; evi- 


I-suke 


Uru-po>ke; en- 


Mu-tseotsi. 


Imi-sadzi. 


Em-viri, 




zuke 




^coke. 

Emi-papi, 
Ania-pajsi 


Umu-satsi. 
Ei-papi ; ama-. 
Ama-sunzu 


Uru-swiri 


COlu-viri. 
I-scoke (4 a) 


Hand 


OOmu-kunco 


Eki-ganza 


Eki-ganya. 


Eki-ganza. 


Iki-ganza. 


Eki-ganja(4a). 








Eki-batu. 


Uru-pi 


Ukco-wcokco 


Eki-batu, 








N-garco 




Eki-ratu. 














E-kconco 


Head 


COmu-twe; ami- 


OOmu-twe 


Um-twe, 
Umu-twe 


tOniu-twe; enii- 
twe. Umu- 
twe ; imi-twe 


Umu-twe 


OOmu-twe 


Heart 


Om-tuma ; 
em-tima 


OOmu-tima 


(jOmu-ganya. 
Omu-tima, 
Omw-irima 


tOmu-tima 


Umu-tima 


(jOmu-tima. 
E-meme {ster- 
num) 


Heel 


Eki-sinsinyco 


Eki-sinsinyco 


... 


Egi-tsintsinco, 
Iki-tsintsinco 




Eki-sinzirco 


Hide 


OOru-hu 


Eky-ahi; ebi- 


Uru-hii;em-pii. 
En-kanda 


... 


In-kanda ; idzi- 


E-diba. 
Eki-anjco 


Hill 


I-wanga ; ama- 


Mu-gongto 


Aka-vaiiga. 
I -guru 


Umu- ((7rAka-) 
scozi ; pi. imi- 

or utu- 


Umu-scosyi 


Ulii-scozi. 
(Ugu-swa = 
ant hill) 


Hippopotamus 


Em-fupii 


En-zubu 


En-yubu, 


Em-vubu. 


Im-vuvu ; idzi- 


Em-vubu 




or En-supu 




En-jubci> 


In-tondcome. 

In-vubu (3 a). 
In-tcotcomye 

{old R.) 




Em-bubu (4 a) 


Hoe 


I-gembe ? 


En-fuka 


I-gembe .' 
En-fuka. 
Efi-konju 


In-suka. 
I-gembe. 
I-funi 


I-gembe ; ama- 


Eii-kumbi 


Honey 


COvu-caki 


OObw-ttki 


tObu-odzi we 
nz-uki 


Emi-tsama. 
Uw-uki 


COvu-caki 


(Omu-bisi 



' In Lu-ganda OOlu-bale also means ' skull'. Vide note 2, /. 



62 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-8e8e4a,rt«(/ 








Ku-nyambii 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Horn 


I-hembe 


I-hembe 


Y-embe ; ama- 
embe. 
Em-pera 


I-hembe 


I-hembe 


N-ombe, Ka- 
gombe (horn 
as trumpet). 
I-hembe (4 a). 
Ej-embe; ama- 
embe. L-iga; 
ma-iga (4 b) 


House 


En-zu 


En-zu. (Ji)\va- 


N-dyu, En-zu. 


En-zco, In-zu, 


In-zco. 


Eny.umba. 






(at the house of ) 


N-joo, N-ju 


Aka-zu. 
Iny-umba 

(hut) 


Iki-banda 


En-ju. 
N.du(4b) 
Em-wamba. 
(E-ka = home) 


Hunger ... 


En-zala 


En-zara 


En-sadzi. 
En-jara 


E-sonji. 
In-zara 


In-zala 


En-jala. 
N-dala (4 b) 


Husband ... 




I-ba (her). 
I-ba-ni (my). 
Ba-ro) (thy) 


COmu-gori. 
Om-seidya. 
I-ba 


Umu-gabco 




Ba-(ba-ze = OT_)', 
ba-lo) = thy, 
ba-we = her). 
Mu-sadja 


Hyena 


Em-bidzi 


Namwe-birwe ; 


Em-pisi. 


Im-pyisi. In- 


I-fisi 


Em-pisi. 






//. naw'em- 


Em-pumi 


fisi. In-dumba 




Em-piti(4b). 






birwe 




(old R.) 




En-tagya 


Iron 


E-dzcoma 


Eky-eoma 


Eki-coma ; ebi- 


Mu-cuma or 
Ebi-iima. 
Umu-rinda 
(3 a) 


l-combela. 
I-dzuma 


Eki-uma. 
Ec-uma (4 a). 
Ama-tale 


Island ... 


... 


I-zinga ; ama- 


Eki-zinga 


Eci-rwa 


Iki-rira 


Eki-singa. 
Eki-dinga (4 a) 


Ivory 


... 


... 


... 


In-zc9VU 


... 


Ei-sanga lie 
n-jo>fu 


Knee 


Eki-zOi 


Eki-zwi 


Uku-dytii 


Eki-vi. I-bvi 


Iki-dziii ; 
ivi-zui 


E-bvivi ; ama-. 
COku-bwi ; 
ama-bwi (4 a). 
Ki-vu ; bi-vu 

(4 b) 


Knife 


Oru-isco 


Oi)mu-hyto, 


I0mu-iyo>, 


En-diga. 


Uni-iisca. 


Ak-ambe ; 




OOmu-jsico 


COmu-poj. 


Eki-hompoj. 


In-tambi 


cobu-ambe 






\ 


Em-banda 


In-gcota 






Lake 


Eny-anza 


En-anza 


Eny-andya, 


Eci-vu or 


Iny-anza. 


Eny-anja. 








Eny-anza 


Iki-vu. 
OOru-zi 


Iki-tanga. 
Tanganyika 


En-taba 


Leg 


Oi)ku-gulu 


OOkii-guru. 


COmu-rundi ; 


OOku-guru. 


Uku-guru ; 


(jOku-gulu. 






Mu-rundi 


emi-. 
COku-guru 


Umu-rundi 


ama- 


(jOmu-gere (4 b) 
(jOku-lenge ; 

ama- (4 a) 


Leopard ... 


En-zumura ; 


N-dara 


Eii-gco, En-goi. 


Efi-gwe 


In-dzumula ; 


Eii-gco, En-goi. 




ama- 




En-zumura 




ama-. N-gwe 


M-para (4 b) 


Lion 


En-tale 


En-tale 


En-tale. 
N-ganza 


En-tare 


In-tali 


Em-porogcoma 


Lips 


tOmu-nna ; 
emi-nna 


Emi-nwa 


Eki-nwa; 
//. emi-nwa 


Eme-niia 


Imi-nwa (//.) 


Emi-nua (4 a, 
4b). 
Enii-mwa 


Magic 


Emi-wadzi 


Bu-lugco. 


(ji)bu-wazi. 


(jOmu-rcozi. 


... 


OObu-lcogco. 






(Bu-ganga = 


COru-gisa 


OObu-ganga 




tObii-sezi. 






gunpowder) 








COniu-sirisimbi 

(4a). 

OJbu-ganga 
(good magic, 
gunpowder) 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



63 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b- 


4- 


English 


Urukaragwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,(i»(/ 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Maize 


Ama-poi 


I-lingwa 


Eki-cori 


Iki-gori. Ma- 
nyorconyorco 


... 


Ka-scoli. Bi- 
dcomia (4 b) 


Man 


OOmu-ntu ; 


COmu-ntu ; 


COmu-ntu 


COmu-ntu ; aba-, 


Umu-ntu ; 


OOmu-ntu ; 




awa-ntu 


aba-ntu. 




awa-. 


awa-ntu 


aba-ntu. 


Man, vir. ... 


Om-zaidza 


(Omu-seza 


... 


Umu-sore- 
I-mana. 
OOmu-gabco 


... 


(jOmu-saja. 
Mu-sada (4 b). 
COmu-zira 


Meat 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama. 
I-kembwa 
(3 a). 
I-tambwa 

(Pygmy) 
COmu-ti 


Iny-ama 


Eny-ama. 
En-sal wa. 
N-sdrua (4 a). 
E-mamba (4b) 


Medicine ... 


(jOrau-wazi 


OOmu-ti 


£m-bazi 


Umu-ti 


CObu-sahco. 














E-dagala 


Milk 


Ama-te (Ku- 
kama = verb) 


Ama-ta 


Ama-ta 


Ama-ta. (Ku- 
kama = verb) 


Ama-ta. 
(Ku-kama) 


Ama-ta 


Monkey ... 




Eii-kende 


En.kende 


En-kima 




Eft-kima. 
Eri-guku(4a). 
£n-kembea 

(4 b) 


Moon 


OOkw-ezi 


CDkw-ezi ; fl. 


OOmw-ezi. 


Umw-ezi or 


Ukw-edzi ; 


Omw-ezi. 






am-ezi 


Ukw-ezi ; 
pi. am-ezi 


Ukw-ezi 


am-edzi 


Mw-edi (4 a). 
(jOgw-egabco- 
gabco- E-zcoba 


Mother ... 


Mawe 


Nina. Mawe. 


Maha (living). 


Mama. Kco. 


Koiya. Mama 


Ma-. Nyco-ko). 






Nco-kco 


Mawe (dead). 
Nina, Nyina. 
Nyco-kco 


Mawe. 

Nyco-kto. Nina 
or Nyina 




Nyina 


Mountain ... 


I-wafiga 


I-banga 


I-banga, 
I-wanga. 
Uru-pcozi ; 
en-pcozi 

Aka-nwa ; 


Mu-camco 


Umu-stosyi 


COlu-scodzi. 
Lu-scodi (4 a). 


Mouth 


Aka-nwa 


Mu-nwa 


Umu-nwa 


Umu-nwa ; 


Aka-mwa 








utu-nwa. 




emi-nwa. 










Umu-lcomco 




Aka-nwa 




Nail (of finger 


En-zala ; evi- 


Ru-zara ; en- 


Em-pambco 


Ec-ara. 


••• 


COlu-ala ; 


or toe) 


ala 


zara 




Urw-ara 




//- enj-ala 
Lu-kumco (4 b) 


Name 


I-dzina; ama- 
dzina 


I-zina 


I-bara 


I-zina 


I-dzina 


Er-inya, 
Er-ina. 
I-bala (4 a) 


Navel 


(Ji)mu-kundi 


COmu-kundi 


Om-kundi 


... 


... 


E-kundi. 
En-dira 


Neck 


Evi-dza 


Ebi-kya (//.). 
Ama-laka 
(throat) 


En-gcotco 


E-zoosi 




E-kcosi. 
tObu-lagco. 
En-singco. 
Eii-kcotco. Bi- 
kie (4 a). Lu- 
kya. En-sikya 


Night 


Eki-lo). 


Eki-lco. 


Eki-lco 


E-^orco 


[•dzcolco. 


Eki-rco. Hu-ire 




COmu-itumbi. 


(Mvv-irima = 




Ubu-cugco 


(4 b). E-tumbi. 




((Ji)mu-ilima = 


darkness) 








(Eki-zikiza, 




darkness) 










En-zikiza = 

darkness) 


Nose 


Eny-indco 


En-indco 


En-indco, 
Eny-indco. 
Ki-ulco 

(nostril) 


I-zuru 


!-dzulu 


Eny-indco- 
N-indco (4 a). 
Eny-endco 

(4 b) 

F 2 



64 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





3e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-h& or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,a«</ 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Oil palm ... 














Ox 


En-te 


En-te" 


Um-,8embe. 
En-te 


lii-ka, En-k&. 
In-gora (old 
R.). 
? In-gombe ' 


In-ka"' 


En-te!' 
(Eii-ombe, 

obsolete except 
for ' horn ') 


Paddle ... 


En-gahi 


En-gahi 


En-gai. 
En-gasi 


In-gafi. 
Uru-pondcd 

(Pole) 


I-gefi ; ama- 


Eii-kasi 


Palm wine, 


Ama-rwa 


Ama-rwa 


Ama-rwa. 


En-zcoga, 


Ama-lcoha 


Omw-enge 


beer 






Lamba 


In-zuga. 
Uru-agwa 
(banana beer) 






Parrot 


Ki-suku 




... 


En-kuranga 


... 


En-gusu, 
Ki-kusu 


Penis 


Em-boroj 


... 


Em-boroa 


Em-borcd 


... 


Em-bcoloa. 

Mu-ncoma(4b). 
OObu-saji 


Pig 


Em-bunu 


Em-bunu 


Em-punu 


En-gurube 


In-guruwe 


Em-bidzi. 
Em-bidi (4 a, 

4 b) 


Pigeon 






Ek-iba 


E-numa. 
Aka-numa 


In-zewa 


E-jiba. 
I-yemba (^h). 
Ka-ibai ; 

bu-ibai (4 a) 


Place 


Aha-ndi 


Aha-ntu 


Aa-ntu, 
Aha-ndu 


Aha-ntu 


Aha-ndi 


Eki-fco. 
Awa-ntu. 
tOmu-tala 


Rain 


En-zula 


En-zura 


En-yura; en- 
dzura 


Em-vura 


Im-vula 


En-kuba. 
Ma-izi (4 a). 
Ma-di (4 b) 


Rat 


Em-bewa 


Em-beba 


Em-beba 


Em-beba 


Im-bewa ; idzi- 


E-mese. Em- 
beba (4 a). 
M-pube (4 b) 


Rhinoceros 


Em-pera 


En-kura 


Em-pera. 
N-kura 


I n-kura 


Im-pera 


En-kula 


River 


COmu-gera 


(jOmu-gera 


Wmwiga. 
Ka-iga ; tu-iga 


Ec-ambu. 
Umu-gezi 


Umu-gesi 


COmu-ga. 
Mw-iga (4 a). 
Ki-bale (4 b) 


Road 


(i)mu-handa 


OOmu-handa. 
(Ru-kongco = 

cattle road) 


Umw-anda, 
Umu-handa 


En-zira,In-zira 


In-jira 


COlu-gudeo. 
E-kubco. 

En-jira (4 b) 


Salt 


COm-wnyu 


OJmw-ojnu 


Um-conyu 


Um-unyu 


M-unyu 


COm-unyca 


Shame 


En-sa>ni 


En-sconi 


En-sconi 


In -Scan i 


In-sconi 


En-so»nyi. 
Bu-wemu 


Sheep 


En-tama 


Na-balega. 
(N-gondu = 

ravi). 

(Mu-tama = 
lamb) 


En-tama 


En-tama. 
In-sari (old 
R.) 


In-tama 


En-diga, 
Ki-riga. 
En-ziga. 
N-tama (4 b) 


Shield 


En-g^u 


En-gabcd 


En-gabu 


En-gabco. 
In-gaWdJ 


... 


En-gabco, 
Gagabco 


Shoulder ... 


I-wega ; ama- 


I-bega 


I-bega 


... 


I-bega ; 
ama-bega 


Bega ; ama- 
bega 


Sister 


OOmu-nyanya 


■ < * 


(jL)m-nyanya. 
Aka-lumbu 


Umu-hara. 
Umu-jsiki 


Umw-ipiki 


Mw-anyina. 
Mu-hara 
waitu (4 a) 



• In names of deities like Liya ngombe. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



6S 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-hft or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese 4 a, and 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-swga 4 b 


Skin 


En-kanda 


COrQ-hu. 


Uru-pupu 


Oru-hu, 


Umu-wiri. 


(jl)lu-SU8U. 






OOmu-bili 


Uru-sato> 


In-kanda 


COlu-guta, 














Du-guta. 














E-diba, 














E-diwa ; ama- 














liwa. En-guzi 














(for carrying 














children). 














Ir-iwa (4 a). 














Lu-u ; pi. 














em-pu (4 b) 


Sky 


I -guru 


I-gulu 


I -guru. 
Evi-re 


E-zuru, I-juru. 
Iki-rere 


I-dzulu ; i-juru 


E-gulu 
Wa-gulu. 
I-banga (4 a). 
Yaii-gulu (4 b) 


Slave 


tOmu-iru ; 


OOmu-iru. 


(jOmw-iru. 


Umu-hutu ; 


Umw-ereo. 


a)mu-du. 




awa-ini. 


COmu-zana 


(jOmu-zana ; 


aba-. 


Umu-zia 


(Omu-zana 




OOmu-sana 




awa- 


0)mu-ja; 
aba-ja 






Sleep 


En-tu-lo> 


En-ti-lco 


COtu-rco 


E-ti-roa 


••• 


Q)tu-lo>. 

N-dco-lo.(4b) 


Smoke 


Omw-ika 


Omw-ika 


(ji)mw-ika. 


COm-(otsi. 


Umw-o)dzi. 


OOm-uka. 








Um-copi 


Umu-yeotsi 

(3 a) 


Mfi-si 


M-wai (4 a, 

4b) "^ 


Snake 


En-zcaka 


En-zcoka. 
Em-piri 

(viper) 


En-y<oka. 
M-piri 


En-ztoka 


In-ztoka 


(x)mu-scota. 
N-ycoka (4 b). 
(En-jcoka = 
intestinal 

worms) 


Son, boy ... 


Omw-ana 


(x)mw-ana. 


Umw-ana. 


Omw-ana. 


Umw-ana. 


Omw-ana. 






OOmu-yanda. 


Um-codyco ; 


Umu-huiigu 


Mu-hungu 


(x)mu-tabani. 






COmw-wzco. 


ab-codyoj. 






OOmu-lenzi 






COmu-tabani 


OOmw-cojoj 








Song 


Sinna 


Ru-embco ; 
n-embcd 


Uru-dyeng<o 


CObu-zinnu. 
Uru-ririmbeo ; 
//. in-dirimboi 


... 


OL)Iu-imba. 
OOlu-emba 


Spear 


I-dzumu. 


I-kyumu 


E-dzumu;ama-. 


E-cumca. 


I-cumco 


I-fumco, 




Ekioi-kulia 




I-cumu 


I-cyumu. 
Uru-huka ; 
im-puka (3 a) 




E-fumco; ama-. 
E-kcoba 


Spirit, soul 


OOmu-zimu. 


OOmw-oyo) ; 


Umw-oyto 


OOmu-zimu ; 




Omw-oyoo. 




Omw-oyo> 


emy-oycij 




aba-. 
Umu-tima 




OOmu-zimu 


Star 


Eny-enyezi 


En-enezi 


Eny-enyenyco. 
N-sonda 


Eny-enyezi, 
Iny-enyeri. 

In-zatza (3 a) 


In-sonda. 
I-sata ; ma- 


Emu-nyenye 


Stick 


Eii-kuni 


Eii-keoni. 
Eki-sanzu 


Ei\-kconi 


En-kconi 


lii-kcDni 


OOm-ugco. 
Mw-igco (4 a, 

4 b) 


Stomach ... 


... 


Oru-fwco 


(jOru-fwa ; 
en-fwa 


... 


... 


COlu-butco 


Stone 


I-wale; ama- 


I-bale; ama- 


I -bare ; ama-. 
En-kulugusi 


E-wiye, I-buye; 
ama- 


I-liwe, I-wuye 


Lu-ija. Ej-inja; 
ma-inja. 
Ki-azi (4 a). 
Lu-azi. I -bare. 
M-balebale 


Stool 


Eki-tebe 


Eki-tebe 


Eki-tebe. 
En-tewi 


In-tebe 


N-tewe 


En-tebe 



66 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese 4 a, and 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki.rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Sun 


I-Z(owa 


I-zcoba 


I-zuwa, 


E-zcoba. 


I-dzua, I-zuwa 


En-juba. 






(Ma-langa- 


En-zuwa. 


I-zuwa 




(COmu-sana 






rara = sun 


S<oba, 






= sunlight) 






rays) 


I-zuba 








TaU 


COmu-kira 


OOmu-kira 


COmu-kira 


Umu-lizco ; inii- 


... 


(Omu-kira 


Tear 


.•• 


I-ziga; ama- 


Me-ise gco l-iso> 
("water of the 
eye) 


Omu-zige. 
Iri-coscozi (3a). 
Ama-^uzi (pi.) 


... 


E-dzigga, 
I-ziga 


Testicles ... 


Atna-gusi 


Ama-gcosi 


Ama-goisi 


Ama-bya 


... 


En-jagi. Ama- 
ngge. Ma-i 


Thief 


Na-iwa ; //. 
nawa-ibi 


OOmw-ibi ; 
ab-ebi 


COmw-ibi 


OOmu-sambco 


... 


OOmu-bi. 
OL)mw-ibi 


Thigh 


Eki-beroa 


Eki-berco 


Eki-bercd 


Eki-berto 




Eki-sambi 


Thing 


Eki-ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Eki-ntu ; 
ebi-ntu. 
Idzi-ntu 


Eki-ntu ; 
ebi-ntu 


Iki-ntu ; ivi-ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Thorn 


... 


I-hwa ; ama- 


I-wa 


M(u-sube. 
I-gwa (3 a) 


... 


Eri-gwa. I-hwa 

(4 a, 4 b) 


Tobacco ... 


I-tebe 


I-papco 


I-tabe 


I-tabe. 

I-fari(oWR.) 


I-tabe 


E-taba, Tabai 


To-day ... 


Bu-enoD 


Lerco 


Mbu-enu. 
Lelu 


Ougu-m-eosi. 
Leru 


Ugu-mu-tisi 


Leru 


Toe 


Oru-kumcd 


... 


Eki-ara 


Eki-gere 


... 


Ka-nulu. 
Aka-gere,(x)Iu-. 
Ki-nu (4 b) 


To-morrow 


Ny-edza 


OObw-ire 


Ny-enkea, 
N-encea 


Edjco 


Edzeo, H-ezco 


J" 


Tongue 


OOlu-limi ; en- 
dimi 


Oru-limi. 

\-\b.\s.b.( gullet) 


COlu-limi ; 
ndimi 


Eki-rimi 


Ulu-limi 


OOlu-limi 


Tooth 


El-in<» ; 


Eli-inco; m-enco. 


Il-inu; am-encd. 


Ez-inyco, 


Idy-enyw ; 


Er-inyu ; 




ama-inoa 


I-gigco(;«o/ar). 


Ri-inoi 


Ily-inoj ; 


am-enyco. 


ama-nyu. 






I-bongci} 




am-enyoj. 


Il-inyco 


D-inu ; 






(tooth gap) 




Iri-nyco (3 a). 
I-senge (tusk) 




ma-inu. 
Ama-songezu 

(incisors). 

Ama-gegu 

(molars) 


Town, village 


Oru-gto 


Eki-kale. 


tOru-gco. 


Uru-gto ; in-geo. 


... 


Eki-buga. 






(jObu-kindoj. 


Eki-arto 


Eki-kali 




M-buga (4 b) 






I-ka 










Tree 


a)mu-ti 


OOmu-ti ; emi-ti (JL)m-ti ; imi-ti 


Egi-ti; ebi-ti 


Umu-ti ; imi-ti. 


COmu-ti; emi- 












Iki-ti; ivi-ti 




Twins 


... 


Ama-rongca 


'." 


Ama-hapa. 
Ama-hombe. 
Im-panga 


... 


Aba-lofigu 


Urine 


En-kali 


En-kali 


• .. 


Eii-kare. 
Ama-gaiiga 

(animals') 


... 


Eii-kali 


Vein 


COmu-zi; emi- 


Mu-si, Mu-zl 


... 


Umu-tsi; imi- 


... 


COmu-suwa 


War 


Ama-dzumu 


Bu-lemu. 
Ku-rwana 


••• 


Ku-ruana. 
Iki-tero) 


• •• 


OOlu-talu. 
OOku-lwana. 
Kia,Iye(4b) 


Water 


Ama-izi 


Am-enzi. 
COtw-endzi 


Ame-izi. 
Ama-ozi. 
Ame-ndzi 


Ama-zi 


Ama-dzi 


Ama-dzi. Ma-di 


Well, source 


I-ziwa 


I-ziba 


I-ziba. Y-engto. 
En-cureo 


I-scoku. 
I-liba 


Miwa 


En-sulu. 
COlu-zi. 
Eki-diba 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



67 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,aW 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-suga 4 b 


White man 


OOmu-zungu 


Omu-zungu 


Um-wera 


tOmu-zungu 


Umu-zungu 


(jL)mu-zungu. 
Mu-dungu(4a) 


Wife 


Om-kazi; awa- 


Mu-ka 


Omu-kazi. 
Um-gori. 
Om-tedzi 


Umu-ka (3 a). 
(ji)mu-gore. 
Oi)mu-geni 

(iride) 


Umu-go)li; awa- 


OOmu-gcoIe. 
COmu-kazi. 
COmu.ka. 
COmu^kiala 


Wind 


Em-behoj 


COmu-yaga 


COmu-yaga 


Omw-iaga. 
Im-behco 


Im-behw 


Em^behco, 
Em^peweo. 
(tOmu-yaga 

= a gale) 


Witch 


(Omu-lojgi 


(Dmu-Ieogi ; 


O)mu-rcogi ; 


Umu-rcozi. 




COmu^lcdgco. 






aba- 


aba- 


Umu-pfumu 

{priest). Umu- 
vutsi {old R.) 




COmu-sawco. 
Ka.bcona 

{seer) ' 


Witchcraft 


COvu-rcogi 


(jObu-lcogi 


CObu-rcdgcd 


Ubu-lcozi 


... 


CObu-lcogco. 
CObu-sezi 


Woman . . . 


Om-kazi 


(jOmu-kazi 


COmu-kazi. 
OOmu-ka. 
Om-tedzi; awa- 


OOmu-gore 


Umu-gore. 
Umu-gcoligcoli. 
Umu-koowa 


COmu-kazi. 

Mu-kadi {4 a) 


Womb 


... 


... 




N-da 




COlu-butco. 
COlu-la 


Wood 


Oru-kwi ; 


COru-kwi ; 


OOru-kwi ; 


Eii-ku 




En-kti. N-kwi 




en-kwi 


efi-kwi 


efi-kwi 






(4 a) 


Yam 




■«• 


Eki-ra 


I-tuku 


... 


Eki-ra. Ki-rai 
(4 a) 


Year 


Mw-aga ; emi- 
aka 


Omw-aka; emi- 


Omw-aka 


Omw-aka. 
E-wcoga 


... 


Omw-aka 


Yesterday... 


Nyeki-leo 


N-egorco 


Nye-igorco. 
Ny-edzilto. 
I-dyco 


I-djorco 


Edzcolco. Erco 


J" 


Zebra 


E-ndorcd 


... 


En-tulege 


... 


... 


En-tulege 


One 


■mwe 


■mu, -mu 


-mwe, -mol 


-mwe 


■mwe, -mca 


-mwe, -mil. 
N-dala (4 b) 


Two 


•bili, -will 


■bili 


-bili, -biri 


•biri,-bili,-wiri, 
-byili 


■bili, ■will 


■biri 


Three 


•satu 


•sattt 


■patu 


•tatu or -patu 


•datu, ■tatu, 
■satu 


■satu 


Four 


-nne 


■na 


•na, -ne, -nei 


-nne, -nye 


■nne, ■na 


■nyS, -ne (4 a), 
■na (4 b) 


Five 


•tanu 


■tanu 


■tanco, -^anco 


-tanco, -sanco 


■tanco 


•tanu, -tanu 


Six 


Mu-kaga 


Mukaga 


Om-kaga. 


-tandatu, 


Mu^kaga, 


Mu-kaga ; 








Mu-kage 


-pepatu 


-tandatu 


(-kaga in com- 
position) 


Seven 


Mu-sanzu 


Mu-sanzu 


Om-panyu, 
Mu-panju. 
M-pamvco 


-lindwi, -ndwi 


Mu-sanzu. 
Mu-samvco. 
Ndui 


Mu-samba, 
Mu-samvu 
(-samvu in 
composition) 


Eight 


Mu-nana 


Mu^nana 


M-nana, 

Mu-nane 


Umu-nane 


I -nana, 
Mu-nane. 
-na-na (4 -f 4) 


Mu-nane. 
Mu-nana, 
-nane 


Nine 


Mw-enda 


Mw^enda 


Mw-enda, 
Mu-endai 


Iki-enda 


Ic-enda 


Mw-ende or 
Mw-enda, 
-enda 


> A/so the I 


voni iximu-Uiguzi/rom OOku-lagula ' /o prophesy ', 


which again is derived from COku-laga ' to show ', 



^ point out '. 



68 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and ^ a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,rtnrf 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-suga 4 b 


Ten 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


I-cumi. 

OOmu-rongoo 


I-jumi, I-cumi, 
I-kumi. 
Mu-longo» 


I-kumi 


Eleven 


I-kumi ne-mwe 
(I-kumi ne-bili 

= twelve) 


I-kumi nui-mu 
(I-kumi ne-bili 

= twelve) 


I-kumina-mwe 


I-cumi na-mwe 


I-cumi na-mwe 


Kumi na-mu. 
„ na n-dala 

(4 a, 4 b) 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi a-bili Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-wili 




ga-biU 


a-bili. 

Imi-rongcd 

i-wiri. 


awili. 

Imi-longu 

mi-wili 


a-wiri 


Thirty ... 


Ma.kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Imi-roiigb] 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-satu 


a-satu 


ga-patu 


i-tatu. Ama- 
cumt a-tatu 


a-tatu 


a-satu 


Forty 


Ma-kumi a-nne 


Ma-kumi a-nne 


Ma-kumi ga-ne 


Imi-rongco i-ne 


Ama-kumi 
a-nne 


Ama-kumi a-na 


Fifty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi ga- 


Imi-rongca 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-tanco 


a-tanu 


tanco. (60 = 
En-kagai) 


i-tanu 


a-tanco 


a-tanu 


Hundred ... 


I-gana 


I-gana ;;>/.ma- 
gana 


I-gana, I-^ana 
or K i-kumi 


I-jana, I-gana 


I-gana 


Eki-kumi. 
Ki-tufu 


Thousand . . . 


. .• 


Ki-humbi. 


Lu-kumi 


Iki-humbi. 




(jOlu-kumi. 






(Bi-humbi bi- 


(Efi-kumii-biri 


(Nzwvu = 




(Aka-sirivu 






bili = 2,000. 


= 2,000. 


10,000) 


' 


= IOO,OCO. 






Ki-sira = 


Ka-kumi = 






Aka-kadde 






10,000. Bi-sira 


10,000. 






= 1,000,000) 



bi-bili = 20,000. 
Ki-tabarwa 
= 100,000) 



Ka-umpi 

= 100,000) 



I, me, my 



Inye. N-, Ni-. Ine, Nene. N-. Inye, Anye. 
-n-,-ni-. -a-nge -ni-,-n-. -a-nge N-. 

•n-. -a-nze, 
-a-nje, -a-nge 



Thou, thee, thy Iwe. Wu-, O)-. Iwe. CO-, W-. Iwe. O)-. 

-ku-. -a-we -ku-. -a-we -ku-. -a-we 



He, him, his Uwe. Ntoliya. We.COgu.OJnu. OOgu. We. 



A -. OOliha. A-. 

-mu-. -we -mu-. -e 

We, us, our Itwe. Tu-. Itwe. Tu-. 
-tu-. -etu -tu-. -etu 



Ye, you, your Imwe. Mu-. Imwe. Mu-. 
-wa-. -a-nyu -ba-. -a-nu 



They, them, Awca. Wa.. Abco. Ba-. 
their -wa-. -a-wco -ba-. -a-bu 



All 



-na(ena); -una -una 



Ye. A., 
-mu-. -e 

Icwe, Ifwe. 
Tu-. 
-tu-. -etu 

Inywe, Ime. 
Mu-. 
•wa-. -enyu 

Abco, Awco. 
Wa-. 
•wa-. -a-'wco 



•cona. -co^e 

{Nynmbu) 



Jewe. N-, Ndi-. 
•^e, -nje. -n-, 
-ny-. -a-nje 



Wcowe, We we. 

U-. 

-ku-. -we. 

-a.we 
We. Uyu. 

Uwco. A-. 

•iwe. -mu-. 

-a-ge, -a-e 
Twebwe, 

Twese. 

•twese. 

-a-cu 
Mwebwe, 

Mwewe. 

-ba-. -mu, 

-a-nyu 
Abco, Awco. 

Ba-, Wa-. 

-bco, -wco. -ba. 

-wa, -a-bco, 

-a-wco 



Tu- 
-tu- 



Mu-, 



Nzewe. N-. 
•n-. -a-nze 



Wewe. U-. 
-ku-. -a-we 



Uyu. We. Ya-, 

Yi., A-. 

-we, -mu-, 

-a-ge 
Twewe. Tu-. 

-tu-. -a-itu or 

-a-ju 

Mwewe. Mu-. 
-imwe. -wa-. 
-a-nyu 



Awco. 
Wa-. 
-wa-. 



Wadia. 



Nze, Nde (4 a). 

N-, Nj-, Ny-. 

-nge, -nze, 

-ndi. -n(m)-. 

-a-nge 
Gwe, Iwe 

(4a,b).00-,U-. 

-ku-. -we, -co 

lye, Ye. A-, 

Ya-. 

-m-, -mu-. 

-ye, -e 
Ifwe, Fwe, Fe. 

Tu.. 

-tu-. .fwe, 

-a-fwe 
Imwe, Mwe. 

Mu-. 

-ba-. -mwe, 

-a-mwe 
Bco, Babco, Ibco. 

Ba-. 

■ba-. -bco, 

-a-bwe 



■se, -ese, -cose -coze, -cose 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



69 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 




3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu^ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Rututsi, 


Lu-sese4a,a»</ 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


This, these 


•nu 


-nu (co-nu, ba- 


-nu(gu-nu;iSf'f.) 


•nw {tvi/h 


•noa 




•nco ((u-neo, 






nu ; gu-nu, zi- 


o).gu, a-ba 


concord prefix) 






ba^nu ; gu^nu; 




Ha- (he-, ho-). 


nu ; li-nu, ga- 


(a-wa) ; (o-gu, 


u-yu, a-ba 






gi-nco ; li-nco. 




Ho)-gu, Ha-ba; 


nu ; ki-nu, bi- 


e-dzi or e-gi ; 


(a-wa) ; u-yu, 






ga-nco ; ki-nco. 




Heo-gu, He-gi 


nu;e-nu,zi-nu; 


e-li or e-ri. 


iyi; i-li, a-ya; 






bi-nco ; e-no or 




(He-zi) ; Ha-li, 


ru-nu ; tu-nu ; 


a-ga ; e-ci, 


i-ki, i-bi ; i-yi. 






i-nco, zi-nco ; 




Ha-ge ; 6^c. 


ka-nu ; bu-nu ; 


e-vi ;e.yi, e-zi; 
o-ru; eve. 


i-zi; u-ru; u-tu; 






lu-nco ; tu-nco ; 






ku-nu ; ha-nu) 


a-ka ; u-bu ; 






ka-nco; bu-nco; 










u-ku ; u-mu 






ku-nco; wa-nco; 
mu-nco; gu-no>, 
ga-nco). 


That, those 


-ft)-gu, -a-wa ; 


(u-gu, a-ba ; 


a>gu-&), aw-co ; 


u-liya, ba-liya ; 


-lia 




-li, -le (co-li or 




-co-gu, -e-gi ; 


o)-gu, e-zi; e-li, 


a>gu-<o, eji-co ; 


u-liya, i-liya ; 






yco-le, ba-li ; 




-e-li, -a-ga ; 


a-ga; e-ki, e-bi; 


elico, ag-oa ; 


6^f. (also -ria. 






gu-li, gi-li; 




-e-ki, -e-vi ; 


e-gi, e-zi; o-ru; 


eci-co; C!^c. 


-eya) 






(5^'f.) 




-e-gi, -e-zi ; 


co-tu ; a-ka ; 




u-ww, a-bco 






co-gu, a-ba or 




-o-ru ; -co-tu ; 


co-bu ; co-ku, 




(a-wco) ; cs^c. 






a-wa ; u-gu, 




-a-ka ; -w-vu ; 


a-ha. 










e-gi; e-li, a-ga; 




-oj-ku ; -a-ha ; 












e-ki, e-bi ; &'c. 




-co-mu 












in 4 a 




-(o-li, -wa-lia ; 


■liha (co'liha, 


co-linya or 


N-guyu,n-gaba 




,, 


OOy-co, ab-o> ; 




-gu-lia, gi-lia ; 


ba-liha ; gu- 


-rinya, 


(n-gawa) ; 






cogw-co, egi-eo 




-e-li; (^c. 


liha ; &^e. ) 


aba-linya. 


ii-gu-, ii-gi; 






or ej-eo ; ely-<o, 






(ogw-co, ab-co ; 


gu-linya ; Qt'c. 


n-ga ; fy^c. 






ag-co ; eki-o>, 






cDgw-co, ezi-co ; 


co-li or gu-ri. 


(according to 






ebi-co ; ey-oj, 






elyta; &'c. 


ba-ri ; ^c. 
N-gu, ? m-ba ; 
n-gu,n-gi ; ^'c. 
(this form is 
absent in some 
dialects) 


vowel of con- 
cord, with n 
^directive ' pre- 
posed) 






ez-ioo ; colw-co ; 
totw-co ; ak-eo ; 
(obw-co,cokw-co; 
avv-eo ; (Sff . 


Bad 


-vi 


-bi 


•vi, -bi 


■bi 


■bi 




-bi 


Black 


-na-ligula 


-iragura, -ira- 
guzu. sina 


-yilagula 


-irabula 




• • 


-duga (-la, -vu) 


Female 


-kazi 


-kazi. -zigiza 

(cows) 


-kazi 
-ipiki 


-kazi, -jigiya 


■gcole 


-kcowa 


-kazi. -wala 

(huntans). 














•pala. -dusi 
















{cattle), -nsen- 
















yi (birds) 


Fierce, sharp. 


-lila. -sala 


... 


-codzi. -cdki 


•rura 


-knii 




■kali. 


bitter 














•kambwe. 
-kanu. 
•kanga. -cogi 


Good 


-rungi 


-nuzi. -zima 
{healthy), -ru- 
ngi {'salted', 
' seasoned '). 
■ncdga {tender, 
gentle) 


-lungi. -zima 


-iza. -zima 


idza 




-lungi, -rungi 


Great 


-hangco 


•kuru. -hangco. 
■gazi. (Kutca 

= complete) 


-hangu 


-nina. -kuru 


nini 




•kulu. .nene 


Little 


•ke 


•tu. -ke. -noru. 
•scdle 


-ki, -nki, -ke. 
-nt<o 


-toya, -tco 




•• 


-tconco. -tto. 
-tiritu 


Long 


-laiiigwa 


leha (verbal). 
(Ku-leha = to 
be long) 


-la. -rere. -rai 


-ie. -ririre 


■lele. 


•la 


-wamvu, 
-wanvu 



70 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and^Ti. 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a, rt«^ 








Ru-nyambii 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-suga 4 b 


Kale 


-saidza 


•seza {men). 


•seja, -saija, 


•rume. In-fizi 


■lume. -masa, 


-lume, -nume. 






•azia{children) 


. •paija 




Ki-masa 


■sadja, -saja. 






-nume and 








•bandwa. 






■masa (cattle). 








-lenzi. 






•rumi (birds) 








-mpanga 

(birds) 


Old 


•gulusu. 
-keikulu 


•lame, -gurusi 
•kekuru 


•gulust. -kuru 


•kuru, •kecuru. 
■saza 


... 


-kade 


Red 


•tukula 


-tuku 


•tukura 


•tukura 


... 


•myu- (myu«fu). 
•twa-vu 


Rotten 


-sunza 


•zunzi (-zunda 


•nafu 


•bora 


••■ 


•vundu. •buvu 


Short 


-gufu 


■gufu 


•guvu, •gufi 


gufi 


... 


•mpi 


Sick 


-luaile 


■rwere (-rwara -dwara 


•rwara 




•Iwade 






verb) 










White 


-dzela, -gera 


•era. •katale 


•era, -eru. 
Kitare 


•era 


... 


■eru. -tuku 


Above, up, on 


Aha-igulu 


Hoj-ruguru. 


He^igulu, 


He^djuru. 


I-julu 


Wa-gulu. 


top 




I^gulu 


Lguru, E-gulu 


Ku-ruguru 




E-ngulu 


Before 


Ew-iso 


CjQbu-syco. 
Mbere ('the 
first ', ' in 
front ') 


Mbele, 
Ha-mbele 


I-mbere 


I-mbere 


Mberi, 
Wa^mberi. 

Muma-su ga 


Behind ... 


Eny-uma 


En^uma 


Ny-uma 


I ny-uma 


Kuny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Below, down 


.^ha-si 


1-fwoj. Ha^nsi Ha-si, Aan-si 


He-pfoj. Ha-si, 


Ha-si 


Wa-nsi 










Ha-nsi 






Far 


Ha-le 


Ha-ra 


Ha^li, Ha-rai 


Ku-re 


Ku-le 


Wa-la 


Here 


Aha 


Hanco. Ku-nu 


. Aha, Haha. 


Ha-noj. 


Ha-nu. Aha 


Wa-nu 






Ha-hoi. Hco^ku Kunu 


Aha-nyene. 














Aha. Inu. 














N-gaha 






In, inside ... 


Omu, COmunzu Mu. Munda. 


OOmu-, Mu. 


Mu, •mu. Mu- 


Mu 


Mu. Munda. 






Mu-nu 


Nda. -mu 






Mu-nu 


Middle 


Aha-gati 


Ha^gati 


... 


Ha-gati 


Ha-gati 


Wa-kati. 
Mu-kati 


Near 


•ikale, -ikeile 


Hehi 


... 


Ha-fl, Ku-fi. 
Bu-gufi. He-foa 


... 


Ku-mpi, 
Wa-mpi 


Outside ... 


Ah-ercd 


Ha-bw^eru. 
Ha^nza. 
H-esazi 


En^dya. 
Ah'eru 


Ha-nze 


... 


Bw-eru 


Plenty, many 


E-ngco 


-ingi. Mu^nco 


■ngi. Munu. 


I-nki, -i-npi 


... 


-ngi. Enyi-ngi. 








En-kunduguru 




Kamara (4 b) 


There 


Ha-liya 


OO^kwco. 


Kuli. Hcoku 


Ha-riya. A-hu Ha-dia. Ahu 


Wa-li. Eri. 






Ha-liha 








Ey-u 


Where? ... 


N-kahi ? 


Ha^i .' 


N^ka? 


He-he ? 


He-he? 


Wa? Oye? 


No! 


Nga! 


Pai! 


Ceke! Cei! 


Oya! Hasui! 
Leka! 


N-tawe ! 


Nedda! Si- 








Ta-li^kto ! 












Na^moi ! ( = 


N-takiu ! 












not one .') 


N-tahu ! 
Mambu ! 






Not (with verb. 


Ti. 


Nangu. 


Ta^ho) ; Ta-, ti- 


Si-, -ti^, •ta^ 


Ti, ta- 


Si-. Te-, t-, 


as prefix, in- 




Ti. -ta- 


Na- (with sub- 






-ta- 


fix or suffix) 






stantives ana 
numerals) 


r 






To 


COku- 


a)ku- 


COku- 


Uku- 


Uku- 


COku-, Eri- 


„ beat ... 


... 


■tera 


-tera 


•kubita. 
■kuma 


-kuwita 


•kuba. 
•komaga 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



71 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya^ruanda 


Ru.ha or 


Lu^ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,a«rf 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki^rundi(R.) 


(Tusi, Ki^jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


To 


tOku- 


COku- 


COku- 


Uku- 


Uku- 


(Oku-, Eri- 


„ buy, sell 


-gula 


■gula. -tunda 


-gula, -gura 


•suma (3 a). 
•gura 


-gula 


•gula. -tunda 


„ come ... 


■idza 


-iza 


•hika {arrive). 
•iza, -ija 


•za 


■za 


•Ja 


„ cut 


-zala 


•tema 


•tema. •sara 


•ca. •tema 


-tema 


•sala. -tema 


„ dance ... 


-Sana, -zana 


•zina 


... 


•byina. -kina 

{to sport, a- 
muse oneself ) 


-vina. -kina 

{to hop about) 


•zina 


„ die 


•kaba 


-fwa 


•zaha 


•pfa 


-fa 


•fa 


„ eat 


•dia 


•lya 


•la or -ria 


-lya 


-lia 


•lya 


„ give ... 


-m-pa 


•ha (-pa), -gaba 


-ha (m-pa) 


•ha 


-ha (-pa) 


•wa (-pa). 
•gaba 


,, go 


■genda 


-genda. -za. 
■rukco 


•genda. -ta 


•genda. -ja 


-genda 


•genda. -ita, 
•ta (tambula 

= lualk) 


„ kill ... 


•ita 


•ita. nega 


•ita 


•ica 


... 


•tta 


„ know ... 


■manya 


•manya 


•manya 


•menya. •zi 


-menya 


•manya 


„ laugh ... 


■seka 


•seka 


-peka 


•seka 


... 


-seka 


„ leave o£F, 


-leka 


-leka, -siga 


-reka 


•reka 


-leka 


•leka. -sigala 


cease 












{to be left) 


„ love, want 


-enda 


-enda 


-enda. gonza 


-kunda. .pima 


-kunda. 


•agala, 










•gomba 


•yagala. 














•enda. 










* 




•yenda 

{copulate). 
•eraka 


„ see 


•dewa, -lewa 


-bcona. -leba. 


-Icola. -reba. 


•buna. -rora. 


-wojnya. -Icola 


•laba. •Icola 






•dora, -rora 


-bcona 


•raba 




(•bcon-eka=i5«- 
come visible) 


„ sit.remain, 


■ikala 


-ikara 


-ikala. 


•ipala? 


-idzala 


■tula, -talama 


abide 






-pitame 






„ sleep ... 


-liama 


-nagira. -lala. 


-viyama. 


•sinzira. 


-liama 


•ebaka. •lala 






-mama 


-nyama 


•rara. •gona 

{snore) 




{tosettledown, 
become guiet) 


„ stand, stop. 


•jemelela 


-im-uka, -ime- 


... 


•hagarika 


•hagalala 


•ima, •imi^rira, 


be erect 




rera, -ime- 
reza {all from 
a root -ima) 








•im^uka 


„ steal ... 


-iba 


-iba. -suma 


•iba 


•iba 


-iba 


•iba, •ba. 
•kcona 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN URU^KARAGWE AND LU-ZIBA 

Preprefixes are present. 

Much as in COru^hima, but prefix No. 2 is Aba- and Awa-, No. 8 is Ebi- or Evi-, No. 14 is Ubu-, 
OJbu- and (jOvu-, No. 15 is sometimes COgu-. The 1st and 3rd prefixes are sometimes abbreviated to 
(A)m- and the 4th to Em-. The loth prefix is sometimes Ne-, sometimes Inz^. Concord of No. 6 is 
ma-, ya-, a-, or ga- ; of 4 mi-, gi- ji-, and zi- ; of 9 ni-, i-, e-, and gi-. 

The honorific Na^ or Nya^ prefix is present ; its plural is Na-wa-, Na^ma-. 



72 • ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN URU-KEREBE OR KI-KEREBE 
Preprefixes are present but not so much used as in preceding languages. 
Class I. COmu- (concord, mu-, (U-, U-, gu-, a-) ; 2. Aba-(ba-); 3. (Omu- (mu-, gu-) ; 4. Emi- (mi-, 
zi-, zy-) ; S- I-. Eli- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a-, ga-) ; 7. Eki- (ki-, ky-) ; 8. Ebi- (hi-) ; 9. En- (Em-), E- 
(n-, i-, e-, gi-); 10. En-, E- (n-, zi-) ; 11. Oru-, Oilu- (ru-, rw-) ; 12. OOtu- (tu-) ; 13. Aka- (ka-) ; 
14. a)bu- (bu-) ; 15. Cx)ku- (ku-) ; 16. Aha- (ha-, towa-) ; 17. Mu- {only as preposition). 
The honorific prefix Na- is present. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN URUNYA.RUANDA AND IKI-RUNDI 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. OOmu- orMrnxx-"^ (mu-, n-, yu-, gu-) ; 2. Aba- or Awa- (ba-, wa-) ; 3. tOmu- or Umu- 
(mu-, U-, gu-) ; 4. Emi- or Imi- (mi-, i-, yi-) ; 5. I-, Ili-, Iri-, Eli- (li-).; 6. Ama- (ma-, a-, ya-) ; 7. Eki-, 
Iki-, Ici- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Ebi-, Ibi-, Ivi- (bi-, vi-) ; g. En-, In- (n-, i-, yi-) ; 10. En-, In-, Ing-, Ni- (n-, i-, zi-) ; 
II. Uru-, Ulu- (ru-); 12. Utu- (tu-) ; 13. Aka- (ka-) ; 14. Ubu-, Uby, Uwu- (bu-. wu-)^; 15. Uku- 
(ku-) ; 16. Aha- (ha-) ; 17. Mu- {as preposition). 

The Nya- (Nya-ka) feminine or honorific prefix is present. 

PREFIXES, &C, IN RU-HA (RU-TUTSI) 
Much like Ruanda-Rundi. Preprefixes U-, I-, A-. There is, perhaps, a trace of the original 10th 
prefix (Zi-) in the form of Idzi-. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN LU-GANDA 
Preprefixes are present ; perhaps less used in Lu-s<oga. 

Class I. COmu-, (jl)wa- ? (mu-, u-, wto-, yco-, gu-) ; 2. Aba- (ba-); 3. COmu- (mu-, gu-) : 4. Emi- 
(mi-, gi-, gy-) ; 5. Eri-,' EU-, Ej-, E-, I-, Di- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a-, ga-) ; 7. Eki (ki-) ; 8. Ebi- (bi-) ; 
9. En-, En- (n-, e-, i-, yi-) ; 10. En- (Em-), En-, Enj-, Enzi-, Zi- (n-,e-,zi-) ; 11. COlu- (lu-) ; 12. OOtu- 
{little used) (tu-) ; 13. Aka- (ka-) ; 14. OObu- (bu-) ; 15. OOku- (ku-) ; 16. Awa-, ?OL)wa- (wa-); 17. 
OOmu- ?, Mu- (? concord absent) ; 18. Ugu- (gu-) ; 19. Aga- (ga-) pi. to No. 18. 

Also honorific sex prefixes, with the concords of Classes I and 2 : Se-, Sa- ('father', 'male'), plural 
Ba-, Se- ; and Nya-, Na- (' mother ', ' female '). The plural of Na- is sometimes Zi-na- ; more often, 
Ba-na-. 

2 e. Urukaragwe is spoken in the western coast-lands of the Victoria Nyanza south and east of the 
Kagera river, and north of Emin Pasha Gulf. 

2 f. Urukerebe is spoken on the large island of Bukerebe (Ukerewe) and the adjacent islands, and 
Bukerebe peninsula of the southern Victoria Nyanza, north of Speke Gulf. 

2 g. Luziba is spoken in the Businja country on the south and south-west coasts of the Victoria 
Nyanza, round Emin Pasha Gulf. 

3. Urunyartianda and 3 a Kirundi are spoken west of the Kagera and Lukoki rivers, east of the Rusizi 
and Lake Kivu and south of the Virunga volcanoes, and along the north-west coast of Lake Taiiganyika, 
north of the Malagarazi river-mouth. 

3 b. Ruha is spoken south of Karagwe and Businja and west of the Malagarazi-Nikoiiga river, to the 
eastward and southward of Kirundi. 

4. Luganda, Lusese 4 a, and Lusuga 4 b are spoken in the kingdom or province of Buganda and the 
adjoining district of Buscoga, to the north and north-west of the Victoria Nyanza, as well as in the Sese 
archipelago. The south-western limit is the lower Kagera river, the north-eastern the lower Si&) river. 

' Ruanda mainly differs fro}n Rundi in the preprefixes, preferring the vowels (Jl) and E /«> U and I. 
' The preprefix to 14 in Rundi is often 1- = Iwu. 

' In Lu-ganda this Eri- prefix has also the force of a preposition meaning ' to ', ^ from ', ' before ' 
{Rev. C. R. Blackledge). 



GROUP A 



THE NYANZA LANGUAGES {continued) 



Sub-group A 5 Masaba 

5. Lu-nyara 

5 a. Lu->wanga (Lu-kabarasi, Lu-rimi, ' Kavi- 

rondto ') and 5 b Lu-singa' 

6. Lu-masaba -(Lu-s«kwia, Lu-gesu, Lu-gipu) 

6 a. Lu-konde of N. JV. Elgon ' 



Sub-group A 6 East Victoria Nyanza 

7. Ki-guzii (Igi-zii, Ki-sifigiri) or Ki-suba 

(Ko) scijva) 
7 a. Ki-koria * (Ki-suna, Ki-tende) 





5- 


i^- 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kuria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gij5U, &>€. 


of N.W. Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki.suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Kui-suva ') 


Ki-tende 






a«rt'5bLu-singa 










Adze ... ... 






I-wayua 




••• 




Animal,wild 


... 


I-scolco 


Isin-tsui. 


••• 


••• 


•■• 


beast 






? I-sani 








Ant 


Olu-asi; am-asi. 


Li-afu. 


Li-afu. Namu- 




Ki-nsanako> ; 


•■• 




^i-ndangwe 


.Ulu-nawe. 
In-dukusi 


kurondco.' 




bi-. Ki-mconyu 




Ant, white 


Iswa; tsi-swa. 


I-swa ; tsi-swa. 


I-swa ; tsi-swa 


I-gwa or 


Cin-ctoke (//.). 


Eri-ge 


(termite) 


Si-swa or 
Ki-swa ; 

bi-swa 


I-ce ; ama-ce 




N-gwa ; //. 
ti-swa or 
tin-swa 


Isinzi 


Eri-geki 


Ape (chim- 


Bim ; yi-bim 


... 


... 




••• 


•.* 


panzi or 


{Sudanese ?) 












gorilla) 














Arm 


O0mu-ko>nco ; 


COmu-Xcanco 


Kumu-kconco ; 


Gumu-xcanu ; 


OOmto-kconu ; 


6L)ko)-btok«» 




emi- 




//. kimi- and 
kama- 


//. gama- 


ama- 




Arrow 


Es-esere. 


OOmu-wanca. 


Kumu-banoj ; 


Gumu-wanco. 


Umu-gwe, 


OOmco-gu ; 




Um-banto 


Li-sungu (5 b) 


kimi-. 
lOlu-kingto 


Kumu-; gama-. 
OOlu-sala ; eti- 
sala. Isi-sala; 
ibi- 
E-waiyuwa, 


OOmto-gu ; 
pi. eme- 


eme-gu 


Axe 


Yi-mbaci. 


Y-aiyua ; 


Im-basa. 


Igi-zire ; ibi- 


Ege-zire ; evi- 




H-aiwa or 


tsi-aiwa 


I-waiyua ; 


E-yaiyua 








Y-aiyua; pi. 




tsi-aiyua 










tsi-aiwa 












Baboon 


Bim. Li-pene 


Di-pene. 
lii-guci. 


In-kcobe 


Li-xuru. 


£ri-nu. 


Eiig&jge 






? Eii-kcobe 


Li-core. 








Li-wungwi ; 






Li-nyani 








ama-. I-bako> 










Back 


COmu-gongo), 
COm-gongco ; 

pi. emi- 


Mu-kongcd. 
Ny-uma 


Kumu-gongw 


Gumu-gongco ; 
gama- 


OOmogongu 


COmco-gongo) 


Banana 


Li-temwa;ama- 


Li-remwa. 


I -tore or 


Li.dcote ; gama- 


Ri-gcdmia ; 


Eri-toake; ama- 






Li.tcoki(5b) 


Li-tore ; 
kama-tore 


dcote. I-duti, 
E-dcoti ; //. 
iti-d(oti 


ama-. 

Eri-tojki; 

am.-i- 




Beard 


Wbu-nyasi (?). 


OObw-oya. 


(jl)bu-nwanwa. 


CObu-nwanwa. 


(Obo-ya. OOrto- 


(Orca-kaya, 




Bi-revu 


Bi-revu, 
Fi-revu 


Bi-sala (hair). 
Ki-lefu (chin) 


Ci-refu 


reru; cin-deru. 
Kanye-nycoboj 


(jOru>-ka ; ciii- 



' Lu-singa or Cula, /he language of the large islands off the south entrance to Kavirondca Gulf, is a dialect 
of Lu-wanga much mixed with Lu-ganda and Ku-kerebe words. '^ The ' Ketosh ' of Hobley (1902). 

' 7V;£ ' Muhasa' (y/ZfjWy (1899). * The ^Vi^^AnxAw.^ of German writers. 



74 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





5- 


i^- 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, drc. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






'Kco-SMva') 


Ki-tende 






<iW5bLu-singa 










Bee 


In-juki ; 


In-dzuxi, 


In-zuki ; 


En-juki or 


En-juki or 


En-cuke; cin- 




cin-juki 


In-zixe, 
In-zupi 


tin-zuki 


£n-dzuci 


En-c'uke ; ph. 
cin-juki, cin- 












ccoke 




BeUy 


In-da 


Yin-da 


Yin-da 


In-da 


In-da, En-dft ; 
cin-da 


En-da ; cin-da 


Bird 


Li-yuni ; ama- 


Ki-nconi ; 


Iny-cani. 


Iny-conyi ; tin-. 


Eciny-eoni, 


Ekiny-ojnyi ; 






ama-. 


Iny-enye ; zin- 


Gi-siriri ; bi- 


Ekiny-conyi ; 


evi- 






En-unyi (s b) 






pi. evi- 




Blood 


Ama-wanga 


Ama-lasiri 


Kama-lasiri 


Gama-lasiri 

ipl-) 


Amany-inga or 
Amainy-inga 


Ama-sere- 
Amainy-inga 


Body 


Ci)mu-biri 


Umu-biri 


Kumu-biri 


Gumu-biri ; 
gimi- 


(jOmu-biri or 
O0mo>-vere ; 
emi- 


U)m<o-viri; emi- 


Bone 


Li-gumba, 
Li-kumba ; 
ama- 


Ifi-kumba 


Li-gumba or 
I-gumba 


Li-gumba 


Eri-gwa; ama- 
Ywa. Eri-guha 
or Eri-«ga. Li- 
uga ; ma-uga 


Eri-guha ; ama- 


Borassus palm 


Axa-tugu 


..- 


... 






. .. 


Bow 


(jOw-ingu 


Ubw-ingeo. 
Bu-rra (R.). 
Wu-ta (5 bj 


OObu-ingu ; 
kim-. OOlu- 
ingco ; ts-ingu 


Bubu-ingu ; 
pi. gim-ingu 


Ubu-ta; ama-ta 


(Jl)ba)-ta; ama- 


Bowels 


Ama-la 


Ama-la 


Kama-la 


Gama-la 


... 




Brains 


(jObw-ongco 


(jOw-ongcd 


Bub-ongco. 
tObw-ongco 


Bubw-ongoa 


COw-ongw 


(jOb-ongoi 


Breast (man's) 


* . . 


■-. 


Ki-fuba,Si-fuba Ci-fuba 


Eki-kuba ; evi- 


Ege-kuba ; eve-. 














En-kuba; ciii- 


Breast 


(ji)lu-were 


Li-duru; ama-. 


Li-bele- Li-bele Li-bere 


(jOlu-bere ; cim- 


... 


(woman's) 




a)du-were(R.) 










Brother ... 


Omw-ana 


W-an'ta-ye. 


W-an'da-ye. 


W-an'da-ye 


N-dugi-ani. 


OJm.ura 




wa-ina. 


COmu-terwa ; 


W-an'-di-asi 




Omw-ana 


(omwetu 




Omw-ana 


aba-. 






mintu. 






wefu. 


Mw-ane-fu 






COmto-mura 






W-an'dae 








comintu 






(? Omw-ana 














dae = child of 














father) 












Buffalo 


Yim-beogoo ; 
cim- 


Im-b«ku, 
Im-bug(o 


Im-bcogca 


Yem-bcogco ; 
tim-bcogoi 


En-era ; cin-era 


En-era; ciii-era 


Bull 


Igi-ruxi 


Iri(5b). 
Tangana(5 b). 
I-surusi 


E-unwa 


• •• 


Eri ; pi. ici-eri 


... 


Buttocks ... 


Li-dakco ; ama- 


Li-daxco; ama- 


Kama-taxoj ; 
sing. Li-taxo3 


Gama-takco 


Eny-uma 


Ege-tunduru ; 
evi- 


Canoe 


Oi)bw-arco 


Ri-alco or Di- 
arru ; am-alco. 
Bw-atu (5 b) 


In-debe. 
Li-konkcol<o 


In-debe 


CObw-atoi 


Eri-atoj ; 
am-atca. 
CObw-atco 


Cat 


Yi-mondcd. 
Li-simba 


Li-simba 


In-jusi. 
Mii-yaga 


En-zusi 


Igi-simba; ivi-. 
E-kworco ; 
ci-kwor<o. 
Igi-cugu 


Ege-tangw; evi- 


Charcoal ... 


... 


Am-anda {pi.) 


*.• 


*.• 




... 


Chief 


Omw-ami 


Omw-ami ; 


Omw-ami. 


Oi)mw-ami 


Omw-ami ; av-. 


OOmw-kama ; 






aw-ami 


tOmu-kuru 




(ji)mu-nda; 
ava-nda. 
Umw-isia, 
Umw-isiki 


ava- 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



75 





5- 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Kikcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, drc. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Kco-scova ') 


Ki-tende 






a«rfSbLu-singa 










Child 


Omw-ana. 


Omw-ana. 


Omw-eti. 


tOmw-ana ; 


Omw-ana ; 


Omw-ana 




Ax-ana 


Mu-siani i. 
Mu-xana ^ 


Omw-ana ; 
bab-ana. 


bab-ana. 
(Ji)mu-cece 


av-ana 








Mu-kexS 








Cloth 


Yiny-anga 


In-anga. 
Yiii-gubM 


In-gubco. 
In-anga. 
OOmu-gaire 

(bark) 


En-gubco 


Efi-geobco; ciii- 


En-gibco ; ciii- 


Cold 




... 


... 




... 


... 


Country ... 


Esi-alco 


Esi-alco (R.). 


I-rcoba. 


Ci-aro> ; 


Eki-bala^ 


Eki-bara; evi- 




Itsi-aloa 


Epi-bala, 
Esi-wala ; 
fil.fi- 


Sisi-arco or 
Kiky-alco 


bibi-arco 


Oroj-gongco. 
Ri-rcowa 




Cow ... ... 


In-ombe ; 


Efi-ombe ; 


Si-songa. 


In-kafu 


En-ombe; ciii-. 


En-ombe 




cin-ombe 


tsifi-ombe. 
E-duasi (5 b). 


In-kafu. 
I-xafu 




Eii-kombe, 
C-ombe 




Crocodile ... 


I-gwena ; ci- 


I-gwena ; tsi-. 
I-gwina (5 b) 


I-gconya 


I-gcona or 
Ci-gcona 


E-gugbwie. 
En-oina ; 
cin-oina 


Eii-olna ; ciii- 


Day 


Lu-lalco ; 


In-dalco ; tsi-. 


Kumu-tixinyi. 


Gumu-tixini 


OObu-tukco. 


Orto-siku ; cin- 




cin-dalcd 


Mu-waso3(5b). 
Iny-angco (R.) 


Ki.fuku. 

(Kumw-cosi = 

daylight) 




E-gorco; ama-. 
(E-tera = <^«>'- 
light) 




Devil, evil 


(ji)mu-sambwa 


COmu-sambwa; 


Kumu-sambwa 


; Gumu-sambwa 


; Uru-swa ; cin- 


**• 


spirit 




emi-. U-sewi 

(5 b) 


kimi- 


gimi- 


swa 




Doctor (medi- 




Umu-fumti> 


Umu-sanje 


... 


... 


... 


cine man) 














Dog 


Yim-bwa 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa. 
Gu-bwa, 
Gugu-bwa (= 
big dog) 


Im-bwa ; 
tim-bwa 


E-sese ; ci-sese 


E-sese; ci-sese 


Donkey ... 




E-sikiri, 
E-sikidi, 
E-tikiri (5 b). 
Sisiri (R.) 


Li-tegere. 
I-sigiha. 
E-sigiria 


I-sigiha ; ti- 


Eri-tegere 




Door 


OOlu-iki ; 


(JL)!u-igi. 


Lulu-tsi. 


Gumu-riangco. 


Ege-sie. 


Ege-saku; evi- 




cin-jiki 


OOmu-riangoj 


Kumu-riaiigco 


Lulu-tsi 


Ege-sieri. 
Eki-ge ; evi-ge 




Dream 


N-dcota 


Li-lorco. 
N-dorre (R.) 


Kumu-rcola. 
00-rcora 


Bubu-lcota 


Kcomera 


*■• 


Drum 


lii-coma 


In-coma 


Efi-eoma, 
Ifi-gcoma 


En-coma 


Efi-kconu. 
En-coma 


Eke-gcoma. 
Embegete 


Ear 


COku-twi ; 


a)ku-rui, 


Kuku-tu, 


Kuku-tu ; 


Cl)-utco, 


(A)gO)-tui ; 




amaku-twi 


OOxu-rtii 


Kuku-ru, or 
Uxu-ru ; pi. 
kama-ru 


Gama-tu 


COg-utu, 
Ci)g-cotco ; 
ama-tco 


ama-tui 


Egg 


Li-ki ; ama-ki 


Li-buyu ; ama-. 


Iny-inga. 


Iny-ingu 


Eri-ge or 


Eri-ige ; 






E-gi (5 b) ; 


Li-gi ; karoa-gi 




Eri-gina ; 


ama-ige 






ama-gi 






ama-gina 




Elephant ... 


In-jcofu 


In-dztofu, 


In-dcofu, 


In-gicofu. 


En-jcobu 


En-jcogu, 






In-jtofu ; tsin- 


I-tscofu 


In-dzcofu 




En-c'ugu 


Excrement 


Ama-fwi 


Ania-fwi or 
Ama-fl 


Kama-fwi 


Gama-fwi 


Ama-bi, 
Ama-vi 


Ama-vi 


Eye 


I-mconi ; ci- 


I-mconi; tsi-. 
Er-isco (5 b) 


I-mconi ; 
tsi-mconi 


D-isco ; gam- 
esco. I-mconi 
ti-mconi 


Ir-isco ; ama- 


Ir-isco; ama- 



76 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





5- 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria; or 






kabarasi. and 


Lu-gipu, ^fc. 


o/N. IV. Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 




' Kco-scova ') 


Ki-tende 






a«rt'5bLu-singa 










Face, fore- 


Mu-muni 


Mu-muni 


Mu-mconi 


Bubu-sco ; 


OObu-sico 


OObco-sita 


head 








gimi-sico 






Fat, oil ... 


Ama-futa 


Ama-furra 


Kimi-nawa 

ipi.). 
Kania-futa 


Gama-futa 


Ege-tinia. 
Ama-guta 


Ege-tinia ; evi- 


Father 


Baba 


Baba 


Pips, 


Papa 


... 


... 


Fear 


OOmu-ti ? 


OOmu-rri. 
Bu-ruma. 
Di-eri (R.) 


Bu-iri, 
Umu-rri. 
Kuria 


Bubu-ti 


OOmu-ti. 
I-ruka 


■•• 


Finger 


tOlu-ala ; 


Ci)lu-terre ; 


Udu-wala ; 


Lulu-wala ; pi. 


Eki-ara; evi- 


Eki-ara ; evi-. 




cin-dala 


tsin-. (x)lu-ala 


tsints-ala 


inz-ala or 
tyin-jala 


or ebi- 


Ek-era ; 
evi-ara 


Fire 


(ji)mu-lilo> 


COmu-rireo 


Kumu-rirto 


Gumu-lirco 


COmu-rirco, 
COmoj-rerco ; 
emi- 


C0mo)-r6rco or 
OOmo-rerco ; 
eme- 


Fish 


In-geke 


Iny-eni. 


Jn-eni, 


Ki-neni (//. 


Eki-nswe, 


E-nswe ; 






£-mviia (5 b) 


Iny-enye, 
In-yeni 


same) 


E-nswe ; 
ebi-nswe, 
eci-nswe 


ci-nswe 


Foot 


(Oxu-kulu ; 


Ci-renge; fi-. 


Si-kire; bi-kire. 


Ci-gere; bibi- 


Eke-renge. 


Eke-sanyi. 




ama- 


U-gulu(5b) 


Ki-tanda girco 




Eke-sanyi 


Eke-renge 


Forest 


OOvu-mali 


COmu-tsurru 


Kumu-rongtolco. Gumu-tongcolco Egi-saka ; ebi-. 


Eke-saka ; eve- 








I-sali 




Eri-nani; ama- 




Fowl 


In-guxco 


In-goxcd. 
N-gcohco (5 b). 
Si-menyui 

{dim.) 


lii-gcoxco, 
I n-gcokco 


Eii-gtokco 


En-kcokco. 
Aciii-gcokto' 


Efi-gcokco 


Frog 


Li-pere 


... 


... 


... 


... 


t ■• 


Ghost 


Epi-xienu. 
COmu-sambwa 


(jOmu-fwa. 
Epi-zienu, 
Epi-xienu ; efi- 


Li-lalu ; kama- 


... 


Q)mu-kira. 
Eki-riri 


Eki-riri 


Giraffe 


... 


Aburu (5 b). 
In-zaya- 
mi-rumba (R.) 


Cangewa 


... 


• .« 


"'• 


Girl 


COmu-zana 


(jL)mu-xana. 
Mu-hala (5 b). 


Umu-xana 


... 


Omw-iseke. 
(Omco-subati 


OL)mu-subati 


Goat 


Im-buzi 


Im-buzi, 


Im-buzi, 


Em-buzi, 


Em-bori, 


Em-bori ; cim- 






Yim-buzi. 


Im-buri 


Em-busi ; 


Em-buri ; cim- 








Im-biiri (R.) 




tim-busi 


or acim- 




„ (he) ... 


... 


. .. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


God 


(Ji)lu-mbe 


Eri-uwa, 
Edi-uba 


I-kuru, Uere 


Mumu 


Eri-uba. 
Ivi-rica. Eny- 
asai ; ciny- 


Eri-coba 


Grandparent 


■ •• 




Kuka; ba-h 


Kuka; ba-kuka 




... 


Grass 


ODbu-nyasi 


CObu-nyasi. 

U-sui(sb) 


Bu-nyasi 


Ijubu-nyasi 


CObu-nyanzi. 
Eke-nyanse 


Eke-nyanke ; 

//. ama- 


Ground 


Li-ltoba 


Ri-rcoba 


Li-lcoba 


Ri-r<oba. I-doi 


Eri-zcoba. 
Ege-tie ; eve- 


Ege-kongco ; 
eve- 


Ground-nut 


In-jugu. Im- 
bande; cim- 


Im-bande ; 
tsim + 


Ma-yitco 




Im-bande; cim- 


... 


Guinea-fowl 


Li-xanga 


Ri-xanga. 
Li-khanga 


Li-xanga. 
N-kanga 


Li-kanga 


Eri-kanga ; 
ama-. Efi- 
kanga ; cifi- 


Efi-kanga ; cin 


Gun 


COmu-rondc* 


tOmu-rondto 


Mundu. 
Kumu-rundu 


Gumu-londco 


OOinu-rondeo. 
Umii-gungco 


... 



Hobley. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



77 





5- 


5^a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, fj«rf 


Lu-gipu, &-C. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna anti 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Ka)-8cova ') 


Ki-tende 






ami shLv-siaga. 










Hair 


Li-fwiri ; ama- 


Ui-swi;ama-su. 
Li-siii (R.) 


Li-cune, 
Li-tsune 


I-zune,Li-cuni, 
Li-swui 


E-tukia; ci- 


E-tukia ; ci- 


Hand 


Esi-kala ; ebi- 


Efi-galo> ; efi-. 


Ki-kcofu, 


Gi-gcofu ; bi- 


Egi-sanyi. 


Eke-sanyi. 






U-kconto (5 b) 


Si-k&>fu. 

Ki-kyaba. 

Si-amberi 




(Lmco-kconco 


(jL)m<i)-keonco 


Head 


(ji)mu-twe; emi 


COmu-rwe ; 
eme-rwe. 
C0mu-twe(5b) 


Kumu-twe 


Gumu-twe 


(Omu-twe; emi- 


COm(o-tui, 
COmto-tu 


Heart 


I-xcdIco 


Umw-oyca 


Kum-oy<o, 
Gum-oyco 


Gum-oyoB 


En-teme. 
Efi-korco 


En-korco 


Heel 


Esi-sircd ; ebi- 


Ki-sisiru ; 


Exu-gunyu. 


Eriku-gunyu 


Ye-tingirco. 


Ege-tingiru. 






bi-(?). Ki- 


Ng(o-gunyu 




Iki-taleiigi 


Eke-sugurco 






sisoru (R.) 










Hide 


Li-seru 


• •• 


Li-hafu 


Ri-hafu^ 




... 


Hill 




^i-kulu 


Lu-kingi ; 
tsifi-gingi 


Lulu-gingi ; tiii- 


... 


... 


Hippopotamus 


I-fubu; ci- 


I-fubu; tsi-. 


1-fubu. 


Di-fubu or 


I-fubu or 


Efi-gubco 






I-futo (R.) 


In-gidi 


M-fubu; ph. 
gaina-, tsim- 


Eii-gubco 




Hoe 


Im-bagu 


Im-baxco 


Im-bagco 


Em-bago> 




... 


Honey 


OL)bu-pi 


a)bu-jsi 


Bu-xi 


Ka-mana. 


OL)bu-sie. (ji)b(o- 


a)ba)-ke 






Bubu-ci 


ke. Ama-na 




Horn 


OOlu-ika ; 


Olu-ika ; 


Ulu-ika or 


Lulu-iga ; pi. 


COru-gu-cala ; 


(x)ra)-gu-cara ; 




cinj-ika 


tsinz-ika. 


Lulu-iga; //. 


tin-jiga or 


p/. cifi-gu-in- 


cin-g^-cara. 






Yim-bega ; 


tsin-jiga 


tsin-tsiga 


jala 


(jOru-tera; cin- 






tsim- 










House 


Iny-umba ; cin 


■ In-zu ; tsin-zu 


In-zu or I-tsu 


In-tsu, In-ju. 
Iny-umba' 


Eny-umba; cin- 


Eny-umba 


Hunger ... 


In-jala 


In-zala 


In-jara, In-zala In-jara,In-tsala 


In-jala, en-jara 


En-cara 


Husband ... 


... 


Um-satsojwe 

(R.) 


... 


... 




... 


Hyena 


Yi-nu ; ci-nu 


E.fusi, I-fisi 


Namii-nyu 


Namu-nyu 


liiy-anaco, 
Eny-anau 


E-niti 


Iron 


Esi-iima 


Exi-bia, 

Efi-bia, 
Evi-wia. 
E-cuma (5 b) 


Isi-uma, 
Iki-uma. 
Kibia 


Eci-uma, 
Kiki-uma 


Eki-uma 


Eki-coma 


Island 


Li-singa 


Di-cinga 


Lusiiiga 


Lulu-singa 


Eri-wunju. 
Eki-nyorco 


Eri- or 
Eke-ginga 


Ivory 


E-linco lye 


lr-inci> de 


Kumu-saiiga 


Gumu-sanga 


Ir-inco 


Er-inco 


■ 


n-j<ofu 


n-dzcofu. 
OOlu-ika (R.). 
Eri-inco 


gwe n-dzcafu 


gwe n-dzcofu. 
I-puku 






Knee 


Esi-xumba 


Di-sikamco 


Isi-sigamco or 
Iki-sigamco 


Di-sikamco. 
Iki-sikamco 


Eri-ru 


Eri-iii 


Knife 


Li-xande 


^i-rwdwa. 


Kuniu-banto ; 


Gumu-banco ; 


Umw-eyu 


COm-oyu. 






Yim-balco. 


//. kimi- 


//. gimi- 




Eke-gesco. 






Mw-embe (5 b) 








Eke-kebi 


Lake 


Eny-anja 


Iny-anza. 
Li-enga 


Iny-anza. 
Li-tiwa 


Iny-anja 


Eny-anja 


... 


Leg 


(jOxu-gulu 


COku-gulu. 


I n-dumbu. 


In-dumbu. 


(jOku-guru. 


COkco-goroa ; 






lii-guu. 


Kigere 


Ki-gulu. 


Ekeny-ama 


ama- 






Si-gulu (R.). 




Ki-genderco 










^i-rengi (R.) 











' Hobley in his Muhasa Vocabulary. 



78 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





5- 


S^a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7. 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-ko>ria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, &"€. 


o/N.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 




' Kio-s«va ') 


Ki-tende 






a«rf5bLu-singa 










Leopard ... 


Yin-gwe 


lii-gwe 


lii-gwe ; 

isin-gwe 


lii-gwe ; 
tifi-gwe, 
tyiii-gwe 


Eke-iri. £fi-go 


Eri-gwe 


Lion 


Li-nani 


Li-nani. 
En-diii (s b) 


I-talanyi. 
I-tojlani 


Li-nu 


••« 


... 


Lips 


(Omu-nwa ; 


(jOmu-nwa ; 


Kimi-nwa (pi.) 


Gimi-nwa {pi) 


Emi-nua (pi). 


Eke-nenevu 




emi-nwa 


emi- 


(Kumu-nwa) 




Ege-kcoba ; 




Magic 


Li-lukco. 


Li-lugo>, 


Li-rcogco. 


Ri-rugu 


eve* 
Eri-ro»geo. 


Eri-rcogu 




OOlu-mutana. 


Di-lcokco. 


Bu-lcosi 




Obu-kaiiga 






COlu-muwei 


Sirxanga 










Maize 


Ama-dumwa 


Ama-duma. 
Ka-duma (5 b) 


Nabu-kub« 


Gama-ganda 


E-bandco ; ci-. 
Ania-dumco 


Erinya-mtodcoma 
Eri-tumwa 


Man 


tOmu-ndu ; 


Ol)mu-ndu. 


Umu-ndu ; 


Umu-ndu ; 


COmu-ntu; aba-, 


(Jl)mu-ntu ; ava- 




awa-ndu 


Awa-ntu ; 
aba-ndu 


wawa-ndu, 
baba-ndu 


baba-ndu 


ava- 




Man, vir. ... 


OOmu-saca 


Mu-saza (s b) 


M-seja 


... 




... 


Meat 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Medicine ... 


... 


Um-sala 


Kama-lesi 


Gama-lesi 




... 


Milk 




Ma-weri 


Kama-beri 


Gama-beri 


Ama-vere 


Ama-vere 


Monkey ... 


E-xembca ; 


I-pima 


E-xima 


E-kima, 


Egi-kondco, 


Ege-kemb<o. 




ci-embco 




En-kima 


Li-nyani 


Eke-kondco 


Moon 


COm-iisi ; 
emi-usi 


Omw-ezi. 

Umw-ezi (R.) 


Kumw-ezi 


Gumw-ezi 


Q)mu-tienyi 


OOmu-eri 


Motlier ... 


... 


Mama 


Mayi ; ba -1- 


Mayi 




... 


Mountain ... 


OOlu-gulu ; 


OOlu-gulu, 


Li-kulu 


Ri-kulu ; gama- 


Egi-tunwa. 


Eii-guku 




cin-gulu 


Ipi-gulu 




kulu 


Iki-lima 




Moutli 


... 


Umu-nwa 


. .. 




Ama-ncba 


Ama-nooa 


Nail (of finger 


Li-dete; ama- 


Exi-tere ; efi-. 


Si-tere or 


Eci-tere, 


Eki-cara or 


(Orto-kojmcij ; 


or toe) 




Li-tere ; ama-. 
Di-tera (R.) 


Ki-tere ; bi- 
tere 


Iki-tere ; ebi-, 
bibi-. Ki-teta 


Oru-cara 


ciri-kcomco 


Name 


Eri-ta 


Iri-ra ; am-era 


Li-sina and 


E-sina or 


Eri-ema. 


Eri-ta. 








Li-lina 


Ri-sina 


Eri-eta. 
M-barenga 


Eri-na 


Navel 


... 


Li-khcofi 




... 


... 




Neck 


Li-k<osi 


Li-ko>si, 
Li-x«si. 
Gcosi (5 b) 


Di-kcosi 


Di-kcosi, 
Ri-kusi 


Ebi-gojti, 
Eri-gwti 


Eri-go)ti 


Night 


Es-irco; eb-irco 


Mug-irco. Isi-co, 
E?-irco. 
(Ci-rima = 
darkness) 


Musi-ro), 
Muki-rco. 
(Kiki-rima = 
darkness) 


Ci-reo 


(jl)bu-tukoj. 
(Eki-rima = 
darkness) 


(jOb(o-tiku; ama- 


Nose 


Am-ti>lco (//.). 
(Ebi-ulu (;)/.) 
= nostrils) 


Am-ulu ( pi.) 


Kam-oru 


Gam-ulu 


Emi-ulu 


•■• 


Oil palm ... 


... 


... 


. •. 


... 




... 


Ox 


In-ombe 


In-ombe. 


N-ombe 


N-ombe, 


N-ombe e-eri. 


E-gaini ; ci- 




i-ginixi 


E-hei is-urusi 


e-iinwa. 
1-huma. 
I -same. Kuhe 


En-ombe .' 
I-nasu. In-ti' 


N-tangana 




Paddle 




In-gasi 


... 


. .. 


... 




Palm wine, 


Omw-enge 


Omw-enge. 


Kama-rwa 


Gama-rwa 


Ama-rwa 


... 


beer 




Ama-lua 










Parrot 


lii-gusco 


lii-gusu. 
Ka-suku 


Kumu-lusi 


Kwasiti 


J 


... 



Hobley in his Muhasa Vocabulary. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



79 





5. 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcorla; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, Cf-iT. 


of N.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Kcu-scova ') 


Ki-tende 






and^ bLu-singa 










Penis 


Im-bcolca 


in-dinS 


In-dine 


In-dine 


Em-boreo 


Em-boroj 


Pig 


Im-bici 


Im-bidzi 


Isi-kgsg. 
Im-bidzi 


Isi-kgsg or Iki- 


Efi-kuru. 
Em-beci 


... 


Pigeon 


Li-gugu 


Di-wuzi 


Li-iizi. Na-hutu 


Ri-uzi 


Eri-ruma 


Eii-guti 


Place 


Esi-fco. Alia 


A-handu 


Handu 


A-ndu. Ha- 


A-halia 




Rain 


I-fula 


I-fula 


I-fula 


I-fula 


Em-bura 


Em-bura 


Rat 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Em-beba 


Rhinoceros 


... 


Ki-weco 




. • . 


... 




River 


Omw-alw 


COmu-cara ; 
imk 
Omw-alto 


Lu-luci 


Lu-luci 


(JOr-coci, 
Or-eoeci ; cin- 
dcoci 


Ege-saka; eve- 
COm-orco ; 
emi-oroa ' 


Road 


In-gira 


In-gira, In-jira 


I-tsira 


Ifi-gira 


Ifi-gira, En-cira 


En-cira 


Salt 


... 


Umu-nyu 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Shame 




Tsi-sconi 


In-s&ini; tsi- 
suni 


... 


... 


... 


Sheep 


Ri-konde 


Li-gese. 
Li-konde, 
Di-xande. 
Gonde (5 b) 


I-xese or 
In-kese 


Li-kondi. 
Li-hesi 


En-ondi 


Eriii-ondi 


Shield 


In-gabto 


Ki-kumbi (5 b). 
In-gab<o. 
I-humba 


N-gabco, 
Ifi-gcobco. 
Ki-tubi 


I n-gabco 


En-guba 


... 


Shoulder ... 


... 


E-wexa 




... 


Eri-gega ; 
ama-gega 


... 


Sister 


M-bcoccj 


Mw-ana wefu. 


Mu-kana wasi. 


• •• 


Nya-ruxa. 


(jOmio-subati ; 






M-bo>ts« (R.). 


W-an'dai 




Omw-iseke. 


ava- 






M-bo»swa. 


umu-xana. 




tOmco-subati 








(jl)mu-xana 


OOmu-gcogco 








Skin 


Lisi-xcoba 


Li-xcdba 


Si-xcoba. 
Li-hafu 


Ki-kcoba 


Eri-kcoba. 
Eri-o> 


Eri-serco. 
Eri-hu 


Sky 


Li-kulu 


Di-gulu 


Li-kuru or 
I-gulu 


Ri-kuru 


Eri-guru. 
Eri-coba 


Eri-coba 


Slave 


... 


Umu-sumba 


... 


... 


. . . 


... 


Sleep 


Cin-dcdlco 


Tsin-dcolto 


Li-rco 




Eci-toreo 


Eci-toroo 


Smoke 


COm-cosi 


Li-wsi, Eli-cosi, 
Omw-cosi 


Li-risi. Li-susi 


Ri-susi 


Eri-o)ki 


Ericoki 


Snake 


In-juxa 


In-dzuxa, 
In-dzcoxa, 
U-jcoka (5 b) 


In-jo)xa. 
In-demu 


In-jcoka 


In-juka 


En-ccoka 


Son, boy ... 


Omw-ana 


Omw-ana 


Omw-ana ; 
bab-ana. 
Om-soriri 


Umw-ana ; 
bab-ana 


Omw-ana. 
Omw-ana 
lomo-isia 


tOmco-risia 


Song 


COlu-embca 


Olu-imbto : 


Lu-emba or 


Lulu-imbeo ; 


Oru-embco ; 


Eri-vina ; ama- 






tsiny-imbo) 


Lulu-imboj ; 
tsiny-imboj 


tiny-imbco 


ciny-embco 




Spear 


Li-fumci> 


Di-fumco. 
I-fumco (5 b) 


Li-fumu; kama- 


Ri-fumco; gama- 


Eri-tumco 


Eri-timoa 


Spirit, soul 




^e-hembexto. 
Umw-oyo> 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Star 


1-nininini 


I-nininini. 
I-sului 

(planet) 


In-yenyesi 


In-yenyezi 


Ec'i-nenenene, 
Etci- 


E-nenanene. 
E-ninyone ; 
ci- 


Stick 


In-daboj7i 


In-dawupi. 


I-simbco or 


Im-pimbco, 


Eny-imbco 


COmovnangi. 






In-dabuYi. 


Im-pimbu 


Im-bimbco 




£n-imbco 






I-pimbco 











Cf. Swahili M-tu. 



G 2 



8o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





5- 


^J"- 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, 6-c. 


pfN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna ond 






Lu-rimi (R.), 




' K<i>-scova') 


Ki-tende 






<z»^5bLu-8inga 










Stone 


Li-kina 


Ri-gina, 
Axa-cina 


Li-bale 


Di-bale, 
Li-wari 


Eri-ena or 
Eri-gina 


Eri-gina 


Stool 


Esi-sala 


Ici-sala, 
Ki-sala 


... 




... 


... 


Sun 


Eli-iiwa 


Om-basa or 
Mu-basu, 
Mu-wasco. 
Eri-uba 


Iny-anga 


Iny-anga. 
(Ku-munco = 
sunlight) 


OOmu-basu 


COmui-basu 


Tail 


... 


Umu-pinga 


... 








Tear 


Li-sika 


Ri-sika 


Li-sika ; 
kama-sika 


Ri-sika 


Eri-riga 


Eri-isori 


Testicles ... 


Ama-neke 


Ama-nege 


Kama-nege 


Gama-nSgg 


Cin-getia. 
Eki-mbia or 
Em-bia 


Eri-nege ; ama- 


Thief 


Omw-ibi 


Omw-ifi ; ave-fi Omw-ifwi ; 


Umw-ifwi ; 


Omw-ibi 


Q)ma)-ivi ; 








aba-fwi 


baba-fwi 




ava-ivi 


Thigh 


••• 


Di-raiigco 


Di-rangco or 
Li-tangco 


Di-rangco 


Ekeny-ama. 

Iki-gwatu ; 

ivi- 
Ege-ntu ; 




Thing 


Esi-ndu ; 


E?i-ndu, 


Isi-ndu or 


Iki-ndu ; 


Ege-ntu ; 




ebi-ndu 


Exi-ndu ; 
efi-ndu 


Kiki-ndu; 
bibi-ndu 


bibi-ndu 


ebi-ntu 


evi-ntu 


Thorn 


Li-wwa 


Li-wwa 


Li-wwa ; 
kama-wa. 
Lulu-ala 


... 


Eri-gwa 


Eri-gwa, 
Eri-hua 


Tobacco ... 


In-daba 


In-daba 


I-raba 


**■ 


Tumbatco 


Eri-kumbati 


To-day 


Lerco 


Lerco. Bw-iri 
wa lerco (5 b) 


Lerco 

(Kia-lerca). 
Lunco 


Lerco, 
Rerco. 
Lunco 


Rerco 


Rerco 


Toe 


Oi)lu-ala 


Efi-tere. 
OOlu-ala 


Si-tere or 
Ki-tete 


Iki-tere 


Eki-ara ; ebi- 


Eki-ara, 
Ek-era 


To-morrow 


... 


In-kico (5 b) 


Kumu-gamba 


Guniu-gamba. 
L-itse 


Ancco 


N-kico. Icco 


Tongue 


COlu-Hmi 


a)lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi, 
Lu-limu 


COlu-meme ; ci- 


Oroj-reme ; 
cin-deme 


Tooth 


Er-into; am- 


Ir-inco ; am-inco 


Ir-ino> ; 


Ir-inco, Il-inco ; 


Ir-inco ; 


... 




enoo 




kam-enco 


gam-enco 


gam-enco 




Town 


Li-dala 


Ri-dala, 
Di-tala. 

Mu-gidzi (5 b) 


Mw-itcoxco. 
Ki-rimba. 
Lu-kala 




C5mu-ji ; emi- 


(J0ma)-ji, 
COmu-gi 


Tree 


OOmu-sala 


OL)niu-sala. 


COmu-sala. 


Gumu-ti ; 


Umu-ti ; imi-ti. 


Oi)mco-ti ; emi-tl 






Umu-ti(5b) 


Ki-sala. 
Kumwi-ti ; 
kimi-ti. Kumu- 
rongcolco 


gimi-ti 


Eri-tumbe or 
Eli-tumbe ; 
ama- 




Twins 


Ama-xana 


Ama-xwana. 
Ama-basa 


Ba-xwana 


Baba-kwana 


Eki-sare ; ebi- 


E-sare, 
Eri-sare ; 
(ci-, ania-) 


Urine 


Ama-nyi 


Minyale. 


M-enyari-re. 


Gam-enye ? 


Am-enyali. 


Amasi-nyorco, 






Ama-nyi 


Am-enye 




Usi-nyora 


Esi-nyorco 


Vein 


.. • 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


War 


Li-ye 


Li-Yie, Di-ye, 


Li-ye. 


Li-he, 


Ese-gi. 


Eri-hi; ama-. 






Li-he, I -ye 


Bu-scolu 


Ri-ye 


(Ku-rua-na = 

tofight) 


(Ku-tema-na 

= tofight) 


Water 


Ama-dzi, 

Ama-ci 


Ama-dzi, 
Ama-zi 


Kam-edzi 


Gam-edzi 


Ama-ji 


Ama-ci, 
Ama-nci 


Well, source 


... 


Ipe-weri 


... 


... 


•«• 


... 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



8i 





s- 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, c^c. 


of N. W. Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Kco-scova ') 


Ki-tende 






a»</5bLu-8inga 










White man 


COmu-sungu ; 
aba- 


OOmu-sungu ; 
awa-, aba-. 
Umw-eru (5 b) 


Umu-zungu 


Umu-zungu 


COmu-sungu 


COmoj-cungu 


Wife 


OOmu-xasi;aba- 


OOmu-xasi ; 
awa- 


(jOmu-xasi 


Umu-kazi 


COmcu-ke. 
OOmu-kungu. 
OOmu-ka 


OOmco-kare 


Wind 


Im-behco 


I-bcohu, 


Im-beeo. 


Im-behco 


Em-beheo. 


Em-beho». 






Iin-behcd. 


Li-yaga 




Omw-aga 


O0ma>-kama ; 






Omw-ieka 








eme- 


Witch 


(jOmu-Icdsi 


OOmu-lcijsi 
U-flra 


COmu-lcosi;aba-. 


Umu-lcozi 


(jOmu-rcoki 


6i)ma>-rcogi 


Witchcraft 


.* . 


OObu-lcosi 


... 


... 


.. . 


Woman ... 


OOmu-xana. 


COrau-xasi. 


OOmu-xana ; 


Umu-kana ; 


tOmoj-ke ; ava-. 


COmoj-kare ; 




COmu-xasi 


Umu-xaneo 


aba-. 


aba-. 


OOmcD-kung^; 


ava- 






(R.) 


(Ji)mu-xasi 


Umu-kazi 


ava- 




Wood 


Cixui 


Tsi-xui 


Tsi-xui. 
Ki-sala 


Tin-ku, 
Tfiin-ku ? 


COru-kco; ciii-ku 


(JL)r(o-ko>, 
COra>-kwe ; 
ciii-kwe 


Yam 


... 


I-fukwa 


Ki-kwa or 
Si-kwa 


Ki-kwa 


... 


... 


Year 


Omw-ika 


Omw-aka. 
tOmw-ika 


Ifula. 
Kumu-higeo 


Gumu-higcD ? 


Omw-aka 


(Jl)md-ka ; 
eme-ka 


Yesterday... 


E-kulu 


E-kulco 


Hi-ngcolcobe. 
I-kcolcoa 


... 


I-gorco 


Mu-gcorcoba 


Zebra 


A-pcotco. 
Ki-peot<o 


Sirgcoi, 
I-sirkcoi. 
Si-pia- 
ma-kondco 


l-sorco 


I-sigiria .' 


En-jage ; cin- 




One 


•lala, -dala 


-n-dala, -dala, 
-lala 


-twera or 
-terwa. -lala 


-mwe. -dwera 


-mu, -mco 


-moo, -mwe 


Two 


-viri 


-wiri 


-biri 


-wiri 


-beri, -viri 


•viri 


Three 


-datu 


-tarru 


-taru 


•datu, -ratu 


-satu, -tatu 


-tatu 


Four 


■nne 


-nne 


nne 


-nna 


■nye, -nne 


-nne 


Five 


•tanoj 


•rraneo 


ranco 


•tanco 


-sanco, -tanu 


-tanu 


Six 


-tanu na 


Sasaba. 


Sesaba. 


Mu-kaga 


-sanco (-tanco) 


•sansaba 




(si-)lala 


M-kaga (5 b) 


I -sasaba 




na i-mco 




Seven 


-tanca na 
(bi-)wiri 


N-safu. 

M-samvu(5b) 


Mu-safu 


Mu-safu 


-sanco (-tanco) 
na i-were 

(i-viri) 


Mu-hungati 


Eight 


■tanco na 


Mu-nane 


3i-nane or 
Ki-nane 


Ki-nane 


-sanco na i-satu 


M(o-nane 




(bi-)datu 






(i-tatu) 




Nine 


■tanu na 


Xi-enda or 


Si -en da or 


Ki-enda 


Ki-anda 


Ki-anda. 




(bi-)nne 


gi-enda 


Ki-enda 






K-enda 


Ten 


Li-xumi 


E-xumi 


E-xumi or 


E-kumi or 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 








Ki-kumi or 


Ki-kumi, or 


COmu-rongco 


COmu-rongu 








Kumu-rundu 


Gumu-rongeo ? 
Gumu-rundu? 






Eleven 


Li-xumi na 


E-xumi na 


Ki-kumi na 


E-kumi na 


I-kumi na i-mco 


I-kumi na 




n-dala 


n-dala 


-lala (or na 
-twera) 


•dwera 




(u-mu. 

Ncoi-kumi na 
o-mwe 


Twenty ... 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-xumi 


Kama-gumi 


G ama-kumi 


Ama-knmi 


Mi-rongu 




ka-wiri 


ka-wiri 


ka-bili. 


ga-bili. 


a-were or 


i-biri. 








Kimi-rundu 


Gimi-rundufor 


Emi-rongco 


Mi^rongu 








ki-biri 


Gimi-rongco .') 
gi-biri 


i-viri 


ni i-viri 



82 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Thirty ., 
Forty... . 

Fifty ... . 
Hundred . 

Thousand . 



Lu-nyara 



Lu-wanga, Lu- 

kabarasi, and 

Lu-rimi (R.), 

a«(/5 b Lu-singa 



Lu-masaba or 
Lu-gisu, &■'€. 



6a. 
Lu-konde 

of N.W.Elgon 



Ama-kumi 
ka-datu 

Ama-kumi 
ka-nne 



Ama-kumi 
ka-tanca 

Li-kana 



Si-zumi 



Ama-kumi 
ka-tarru 

Ama-kumi 
ka-nne 



Ama-kumi 
ka-rranco 



Kama-gumi 
ka-taru 

Kama-gumi 
ka-nne 



Kama-gumi 
ka-ranca 



Li-kana or Li-tondoi or 
E-pa kumira Kimi-rongeo 
orE-gana(5b) ki-kumi or 
Kama-kumi 
ki-kumi 
Ama-kana Kama-tondco 

ma-xumi ki-kumi 



G ama-kumi 
ga-datu 

Gama-kumi 
ga-nna 

Gama-kumi 
ga-ranco 

Ri-tondcD ? 
Gimi-rongci) 
gi-kumi ? 



Ki-guzii 
(Ki-suba or 
' Kcj-scava') 



7 a. 

Ki-ko>ria ; or 

Ki-suna and 

Ki-tende 



Ama>kumi (or 
Emi-rongci>) 
a-tatu (i-tatu) 

Ama-kumi 
a-nye or 
ga-nye. Emi- 
roiigu i-nye 

Ama-kumi 
a-tanu. Emi- 



Mi-roiigco 
i-tatu 

Mi-rongcoi-nne 



Mi-rongw 
i-tano> 



rongcd i-sanco 
Emi-rongco Eri-gana 

i-kumi 



I, me, my... Ni-sie, E-sie. Nyeni (R.), I-se. N-. 

Na-, N-. Ni-sie, E-sie. -sese. -n-. 

■n-. -a-fige N-, Ny-. -ase 

■sie. -n-. 
-a-iigi, -a-nje 
Thou,thee,thy E-we. U-. I-we, E-we. U-, 

-XU-, -XCO-. (0-. 

-a-o> -xca-. -yco 

He, him, his Ye. U-yu. Yi-, lye. Ye, Nu. 
A-. 00-yu. A-, 

•mu-, -mcd-. Ye-, 
-a-e- -mu-, -mo>-. 

-ye 
We, us, our E-fwe. Xoj-. I-fwe, E-fwe. 
•XU-. -e-fu, Ku-, Xu-. 
-e-fwe -ku-. -e-ru or 

-e-fii 
Ye, you, your E-nwe. Mu-. I-nyue. Mu-. 
•ba- .'. -e-nwe -wa- ?. -e-nyu 



(O-sojyu ? N- 



I-we. U-. E-we-we. U- 

-ku-. -co-wco. 

-co 
Ye. Ni-ye. Yco-. Ye ? VVw-yu. 

Ye-. A-, U-. A, U- 

-mu-. -e-we, -e 



Nje, Inje,Nojxi. 
Na-, N-. 
-n-. -ane 



I-we, Uwe. U-. 
-ku-. -a-<o 

Ye? Ere. A-, 
•mu-. -a-ye. 



They, them, A-ba. Ba-, 
their Wa-. 

-ba-. -a-oj 



A-b<o. M-babeo. 
Ba-. 

-ba-, -wa-. 
-a-oa, -a-bo> 



I-fwe, Fwe. I-fwefwe. Ku- 
Ku-. 
-ku- 

I-nywe, Mwe. I-yenyue, Mu- 

Mu-. 

•mu-, -ba-. 

-e-nyue 
A-bu, Bco, A-bcobco. Ba- 

Ni-bto. Ba-. 

-ba-. -a- we 



-a-ke 



N-twe. Tu-. 
-tU". -e-tu 



I-nyiie, Nwe. 
Mu- .'. 
-.'-. -e-nu 

A-bco, A-ba. 
Ba-. 
-ba-. -a-b« 



Inci. Uni. N-. 
-n-. -ane 



A-iye, Uwe. U ?. 

-ku-. -e-yo), 

-a-M 
U-yu, A-. 

•mu-. -a-ye, -e 



I-tu. Tu-. 
-tu-. -e-tu 



I-nu. Mu-.'. 
-?-. -e-nu 



M-baiyu. A-bco. 
Ba-. 

-ba-. -a-b*9, 
-a-u 



All 



This, these 



-cosi 



-cosi, -cose 



-nco (u-no>, 
ba-nco; ku-nco, 
ki-nco, li-nco, 
ka-nco; si-nco, 
bi-nco ; yi-nco, 



•nco (wu-nco, 
ba-nco(wa-nco); 
gu-nco, gi-neo; 
isr'c., much as 
in Lu-nyara). 



-esi (for persons 
down to 2nd 
pers. plural) 

-cosi (for 'them' 
and for all 
other things) 

-nco (u-nco, 
ba-nco; ku-nco, 
ki-nco; li-nco, 
ka-nco ; ki-nco, 
bi-nco ; i-nco. 



esi, -cost 



-onsi 



nco (cou-nco, 
ba-nco, ^fc, 
similar to 
Lu-masaba, 
vjith the slight 



-nu (co-noa, ava- 
nco ; a>g(o-nco, 
ge-nco ; ri-nco, 
ga-nco ; ke-nu, 
vi-nco ; e-no>. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



83 



English 



5- 
Lu-nyara 



Lu-wanga, Lu- 

kabarasi, and 

Lu-rimi (R.), 

anti^ b Lu-singa 



6. 
Lu-masaba or 
Lu-gijsu, d^c. 



6 a. 
Lu-konde 

ofN.W.Elgon 



7- 

Ki-g^zii 

(Ki-suba or 

' Ku-suva ') 



7 a. 

Ki-kcoria ; or 

Ki-suna and 

Ki-tende 



I 



ll 



This, these 


ci-ncd ; u-nco ; 


For the \kth 


tsi-nco ; lu-nco; differences of 


{continued) 


? tu-noj; xa>nco; 


class it is 


?rii-no>;xa-n<»; concord forms) 




bu-nco ; xu-nco; 


Ha-n«. Also: 


bii-nci>; xu-nco; 




wa-ncoora-nco; 


nguiigu-nto, 


ha-nco; mu-nco; 




mu-nu) 


mbaba-nco ; 


gu-no>. Y(i>nto, 






0^'t". 


bcoba-nco ; 
kwcoku-nco ; 
kicoki-neo, byu)- 
bi-nco ; ts(otsi- 
nco ; CJ^'t.) 




Uyu,aba; uku. 


Oyu or Uyu, 


... 




eki ; eli, aka ; 


aba (awa); 






esi, ebi ; eyi, 


ugu, egi ; eli ; 






eci ; ulu ; uru ; 


aga ; ejsi ; efi ; 






axa ; ubu ; 


eyi, etsi ; ulu ; 






uxu; awa or 


uru; axa; ubu; 






aa ; umu 


uxu; aha; umu 




That, those 


•Ha (ngu-lia,ba- 


■lia (u-ria, 


Uy-», ab-«; 




lia or mba-lia ; 


ngu-lia, cs'c.) 


o)kco-co, eki-co ; 




figu-Iia,fiki-lia; 




iry-oj, ak-eo ; 




ndi-lia, nka- 




iky-co ; c^'c. 




lia ; nsi-lia, 




YoL)-yoo, bco-bo) ; 




mbi-lia ; nyi- 




kwcok\v-co,kia)- 




lia, nci-lia ; 




ki(o; ia^c. 




ndu-lia ; ntu- 




■la or -ra (u-la, 




lia .'' ; nxa-lia ; 




ba-la, ku-la, 




mbu-lia ; nxu- 




li-ra, Qs'c.) 




lia; a^c) 






Bad 


•bi 


•bt 


-bi 


Black 


•mari.Ra-tenyi 


•imari 


-mali 


Female 


-xasi, duasi, 
•iduasi 


-xassi 


■xasi 


Fierce, sharp 




■lulu 


•-• ••■ 


Good 


-lai 


-lai 


■lahi 


Great 


-kali 


•kulu, -kali 


-gali. -tscohe 


Little 


•dudu 


■dutu, -dudu, 


-kexe, -kekke, 






-tutu 


-kece 


Long 


•rambi, -Iambi 


-rambi 


-lehi 


Male 


•swlire. -i-saca. 

-j&-<Hi>\ida<iult), 
•■ycole 


■sadza. -xcole 


-setsa. -sinde 


Old 


... 


-xcofu 


■gore 


Red 


... 


InzM-kanyoj 


-w-esemu 


Rotten 


-bcola 

(kwa-bcola) 


-bula 


■\iv>\A (verbal) 


Short 




-ibikiti 


-futyu. -mbi 


Sick 


... 


•luwala 


... • •• 


White 


Racari 


-marira. -lafu 


■wanga 


Above, up, on 




I -kulu 


In-gagi (hafi- 


top 






gagi, kun- 
gagi) 


Before 




l-mberi 


Mu-m«ni 


Behind 


Eny-uma 


Eny-uma 


Iny-uma Eny-uma 



ci-nco ; nu-nea ; 
?, kenco ; 
b(o-nco;kco-nu; 
ha-nco) 



O0yu,ava; uyu, 
eye ; eri, aya; 
eke, eve ; eye, 
eci ; urco ; ?, 
eke ; cobco ; 
cokco, ? 

-ria ((o-ria, ava- 
ria ; u-ria, 
e-ria ; ri-ria, 
a-ria ; ke-ria, 
ve-ria ; e-ria, 
ci-ria ; ru-ria ; 
.', ke-ria ; 
(obo-ria ; 
coko-ria; a-ria) 



Uyti, ava, &'c. 



■ria (u-ria, ava- 
ria ; gu-ria, 
gi-ria ; ri-ria, 
ga-ria; ke-ria, 
vi-ria; o^c.) or 

-ra(u-ra,ava-ra; 
gu-ra ; &'c^ 



•be -be 

-mwamu -mwam' 

En-kari, -kari -kari 



-uya, -ya -la 

-kuru. -nene -nene 
-ke, -ki -ke 



■saja. -gore. -saca .'. -gore. 

■isia. (children) -risia (chil- 
dren) 



-dabu, -rabu. -rabu 
•lafu 



I-gorco 



Ke-riu.Ki-gor« 



84 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





S- 


i»- 


6. 


6a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu^gipu, &"€. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-8una and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Ka)-so>va ') 


Ki-tende 






a/;//5bLu-singa 










Below, down 




A-si 


I-mwalu 




Anse 


Hanse 


Far 




Aa-le 


Ua.leyi 


... 






Here 


A-nci> 


Ha-noi 


Ha^nco. Ku-nu. 
Mu-neo 


Ha.nu 


Ai.gaV 




In, inside ... 


Mu 


Mu. Mu'kari 


Mu. Mu-gari. 
Mu-nda 




Ime 


Muse 


Middle ... 


... 


A-kare 


•gari. Ha.gari 




... 




Near 


... 


Ha-mbi 


Ha-mbi 




A.ne na 


Ne hane, 
I-hani 


Outside ... 


... 


Ul-uka. 
Lu-anyi 


Ha.tsie. 
I-bulafu 


... 


I siku 


Ki-bara 


Plenty, many 


-ingi 


•ngi 


•ngi 




•ngi 


• .• 


There 


E-ria 


E-ria, li-ria. 
OOxu-ria 


A-hto. Ha-la. 
Ku-la. Itai 


Ha-la" 


A-lia 


... 


Where ? ... 


E-na? 


He-na ? 


He-na ? 




E^raii ? 


Na.iare? 
A^iyare .' 


No! 


Aa! 


Tawi! 


Ta! Aa! 
Tawe! -busa! 


Dawe ! 


Yaya! Tindi ! 
Inci ! ? 


Aa! 


Hotiwiehverb, 


.tawe. Si- (Si-, 


-tawi. -ta. Si- 


Hi-, Ha-, 


... 


Ti- 


Ti- 


as prefix, in- 


So>-, Sa-,Sixu-, 


(Si-, Sco-, Sa-, 


-ka, -ta, 








fix, or suffix) 


Simu-, Siba-, 
with the differ- 
ent pronouns) 


Siku-, Simu-, 
Siba-) 


Bu-, Bula, 
Kula 








To 


COxu- 


00 xu- 


OOku- 


Wku- 


COku- 


OOku-, Ku- 


„ beat ... 


... 


-xuya 


-kupa 


>•• 




... 


„ buy, sell 


-kula 


•kula, -kura 


■gula 




-gura 


*•• 


„ come ... 


•yece ?. -eja, 
•ija 


-nzie, 
-ndzidza, 
-widza 


•tsa 


•** 


•ja, -ca 


■ja 


„ cut ... 


■xalace 


•xalace, 
■kalaxa 


-kala 


... 


-butura. 
?tema 


-vitora. -keba 


„ dance ... 


-xina 


•pina 


•kina 


> t • * 


•tenga 


-vina 


„ die 


-fwa 


•fwa 


•fwa 


-kwa 


-kwa, -gu-kwa 


-gu-kwa 


„ eat 


-dia, -lia 


•dia 


•lya 


. .. 


-lia 




„ give ... 


-wa (-ba) 


•ha (•ba, •be) 


•ha (-ba) 


... 


-wa 




., go 


-ao>? 


•dzia, -dza ?. 
-cenda 


-tsya. genda 


-genda 


•genda. -icia 


-genda 


„ kill ... 


•ita 


-irra 


-ira 


•ira, ita 


•ita 


•ita 


„ know ... 


•manya 


•manya 


•manya 


-manya 


•manya 


•manya 


„ laugh ... 


-cexa 


■tsexa 


-zeka 


-zeka 


... 




„ leave off, 


... 


•leka 


•leka 


... 


... 




cease 














„ love,want 


-enya 


-enya. •cama 


•gana 


•gana 


-e-tera. 
•mwanca, 
-hanca-na 


■hanca^na 


„ see 


■l<ola 


Icola (-dojla). 
-linga 


bcona. loola 


-beona 


-reora 


... 


„ sit.remain. 


(*• 


-ikala 


■ikala 


... 




> •* 


abide 














„ sleep ... 


•kcona 


' -kcona, •xcona 


-gcona 


-goana 


-lala 




„ stand, stop. 


... 


-ema 




... 


*•• 


>t< 


be erect 














„ steal ... 


-iba 


•iba 


-iba 


... 


•iba 


... 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 85 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN LU-NYARA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. COmu- (mu, u-, yu-, figu-) ; 2. Aba- or Awa- (ba) ; 3. OOmu- (mu-, ku-, figu-, u) ; 4. Emi-, 

Imi- (mi-, ki-, ngi-, i-) ; 5. Eri-, Eli-, Li- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma- ?, ka-, nga- ?) ; 7. Esi- (si-) ; 8. Ebi- (bi-) ; 

[8a. Ebi- used in singular or collective, and slightly diminutive sense] ; 9. Yi-, I-, In- (e-, yi-) ; 10. Eci-, 

Ezi-, Ti- (ci) ; 11. (jOIu- (lu-j ; 12. Uru- (ru-) plural to 13; 13. Axa- (xa-; ; 14. Wbu- (bu-, mbu-) ; 

15. COxu- (xu-) ; 16. ? Aa-, Wa- (a-) ; 17. Mu- {as preposition). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN LU-WANGA, &c. 
Much as in Lu-nyara ; except that concord of Class i is sometimes wu- and gu-, that of 3 ku- or 
gu-, of 4 ki-. Class 5 is sometimes Edi-, Di-, Ri-. Class 7 is Eci-, Ki-, Esi-, lae, and in Lu-singa Iki- ; 
8 is Efi-, Ifi-, but occasionally Ebi-, Bi-. 10 is Tsi-, and 16 is Ha-. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN LU-MASABA AND LU-KONDE 
Preprefixes are present. 
Class I. OOmu-, Umu-, Namu- (umu-, U-, y(o-) ; 2. Baba-, Sana- (ba-) ; 3. Kumu-crGumu- (kumu- 
or gumu-, ku- or gu-) ; 4. Kimi- or Gimi- (kimi- or gimi-, ki- or gi-) ; 5. Li-, Ki-, or Di-, Iri- (li-, ri-) ; 
6. Kama- or Gama- (kama- or gama-, ka- or ga-) ; 7. Si-, Ki-, Ci-, Iki-, Eki-, Eci-, Kiki- (si- or ki-, 
kiki-) ; 8. Evi-, Ibi-, Ebi-, Bi-, Bibi- (bi-, bibi-) ; [8 a. The same in a singular sense] ; 9. E-, I-, Yi- 
or Ye-, In-, In-, Iny- (e-, i-, yi-) ; 10. Tsi-, Ci-, Ti-, Iti-, Eti-, Etsi- (tsi- or ti-) ; 1 1. Udu-, Ulu-, Lulu- 
(lu-); 12. ?Ru-; 1 3. Aka- <?r Axa- (ka-) ; 14. OOwu-, OObu-, Bubu- (bu-) ; 15. (Oxu-, Uku-, Kuku- (ku-) ; 

16. Aha-, Ha- (ha-, hco-) ; 17. tOmu- (mu-, -mu) ; 18. Gugu- (gu-) {pi. Gimi-). 
There would seem to be superimposed honorific prefix : Na- ; //. Bana-. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KI-GUZII AND KI-KORIA 
Preprefixes are present. 
Class I. 0)mu-, (JOmco- (comu-, to-, yu-, ni-) ; 2. Aba-, Ava- (ba-, va-, aba-) ; 3. COmu-, COmto- (comu-, 
yu-, U-) ; 4. Emi-, Erne- (emi-, i-, e-, ye-) ; 5. Eri-, Eli- (ri-) ; 6. Ama- (ama-, a-, ga-, ya- ?) ; 7. Iki-, 
Eki-, Egi-, Eci-, Eke-, Ege- (ki-, ke-) ; 8. Ebi-, Evi- (bi-, vi-, ve-) ; 8 a ? ; 9. Yi-, Ye-, I-, E-, En-, En-, 
Eny- (n-, ny'-, e-, ye-) ; 10. Ci-, Cin-, Cin- (ny'-, ci-) ; 11. Oru-, OOrco- (ru-) ; 12. missing; 13. Eke- 
(ke-) ; 14. Oi)bu-, a)w-, Wbco- (bu-) ; 15. OOku-, COgu- (ku-, gu-) ; 16. Aa-, Aha- ; 17. .' Mu-, M03-, M'- ? ; 
18? 



5. Lunyara is spoken round Port Victoria and Berkeley Bay, immediately east of Bustoga and the 
Sito river, on the coasts and islands of the north-north-east shores of the Victoria Nyanza, and in the 
Samia hills and the lower course of the Nzoia river. 

5 a. Luwanga is spoken in Bantu Kavirondio, the basin of the Nzoia river, southwards nearly to the 
Yala river. The Lusinga dialect (5 b), is the language of Lusiiiga Island, near the entrance to Kavirondco 
Bay. It is much mixed with Luganda. 

6. Lumasaba is spoken in the region north of Kavirondco and immediately west and to some extent 
south of Mount Elgon; in the Masaba country of small extent, bounded on the west by theElgumi and on 
the north and east by the Elgonyi-Nandi. 

6 a. Lukonde is spoken in the northern part of the Masaba country, to the west-north-west of .Mount 
Elgon. 

7. Kiguzii is spoken south of Kavirondco Bay, in the Kcostova region east of the Victoria Nyanza, from 
the coast belt, as far east as the ascent to the Lumbwa-Mau plateau. 

7 a. Kikoria is spoken in the east coast region of the Victoria Nyanza south of Kcoscova and (approxi- 
mately) the 1st degree of South latitude, as far as the northern limits of the Unyamwezi group and the 
eastern range of Rukerebe ; and as far east as the steppe country of the Tatcoga and Dortobco. 



GROUP B 

THE WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



8. Ki-^api ' and Ki-rori 

9. North and North-east Nyamwezi (Ki-sukuma, 

Ki-rwana) 
9 a. North-west Nyamwezi (^i-sumbwa) 
9 b. West Nyamwezi (Ki-galaganza, Ki-vinza, 

Ki-bende, Ki-gala) 



9 c. South, Central, and East Nyamwezi (Ki 

•nyanyembe, Ki-kconoiigco/ Xi-ximbu, 
Ki-nankwila ') 

10 Ki-nyaturu or Ki-limi 



English 



Ki-^pi and 
Ki-rori 



Adze 

Animal, wild 
beast 
Ant 



Ant, white 
(termite) 

Ape (cliim- 
panzi or 
gorilla) 

Arm 

Arrow ... 



Axe ... 

Baboon 
Back ... 



Banana 



Beard 

Bee 

Belly.stomach, 
abdomen 
Bird 

Blood 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-stikuma) 



I 9 a. 

: North-west 
Nyamwezi 
j (^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



Ki-nyaturu 
(Ki-limi) 



Pisu 



N-dimu ; ma- 
dimu 



Lu-swa 



? I-sembe 



I-sangwa; ma-. 

Ka-jsif i ; 

tu-pisi. 

^i-lamba. 

i-tini ; ma- 
M-swa: mi-swa 



Ki-hendcd ; 



M-kconu 




Ku-wcdku. 


Ku-wo>ku 


Mu-kunoi or 


Mu-kconoa 


I-soiiga 




Lu-gconco 


... 


Ku-kconu 
Mto-ambi ; mi-. 
I-song^ ; ma-. 
N-geove. 
N-s«mo>. 


... 


M-pasa 




M-pasa 


... 


Mu-geta 
M-basa. 
I-sembe 


... 


Kuku, In 


kuku N-kcobe 


... 


I-guku. I-kcove 




Gongu 




M-gongoD 


M-gonga>. 
Kiim-suna 


Mu-gongco, 
M-gong«. 


M-gongco 


I-to>ki ; ma- 


Lu-tcoke. 




Ma-iingo> 
1-dtoke ; ma-. 








Gonza 




(Mu-gomba, 
N-samba]a = 




N-tesu 




Lu-saku 




plant) 
Ka-lezu 




N-suki 




Lu-zuki. 
L-coki 


... 


N-zuki ; 
ma-yuki 


... 


N-ta 




N-da 


N-da 


N-d4; man-dA. 
Ki-pu;maki-pu 


N-da 


N-ioni 




N-ci>ni 


Kany-uni ; tu- 


I-n<oni ; ma-. 
Ka-nconi ; tun- 


N-nomi 


Mi-niiiga 


(//•) 


Ma-gazi 


... 


Ma-gazi 


Zagami 



' Both so far quite unrepresented by published vocabularies, but presutned to be Bantu and ititerinediate between 
the Nyamwezi and Nyanza groups. See Bemhard S truck's map accompanying his dissertation on the speech of the 
Tatcoga and Iraku peoples in Dr. Fritz Jaeger's ' Sonderabdruck aus das Hochland der Riesenkrater'. Berlin, 1911. 

'^ Stern's and Meinhof's Ki-kconoiigu. ' Sfeere's ' Nyamwezi ' and Ki-nyanyembe. 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



87 



English 



8. 

Ki-^pi and 

Ki-rori 



Body 

Bone 

Borassus palm 
Bow 

Bowels 



Brains 

Breast (man's) 
Breast 

(woman's) 
Brother ... 



Buffalo 
Bull ... 

Buttocks 
Canoe... 



Cat ... 

Charcoal 
Chief ... 



Child .. 



Cloth ... 

Cold ... 
Country 



Cow 



Crocodile 
Day ... 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



90. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



10. 
Ki-nyatiiru 

(Ki-limi) 



M-edi 




Bu-gondu 


... 


Mu-wili 


... 


I-kuha 




... 


.(■ 


I-guha 


... 


Mu-hama 




... 


• ■a 




... 


Bu-ta 




Bu-ta ; ma-ta 


... 


Mu-hetw. 

Wu-ta 


U-ta 


Mu-la ipl.) 




Bu-la 


,., 


U-la. 
I-gombelca. 
Lu-ze ; u-ze 


... 


B-ongoa 




Bw-ongco 


... 


V-ongco, 
W-ongM 


W-angwe 


Ki-kuwa 




N-kuku 


... 


Ki-kuwa 


... 


I-wele ; ma- 


I-wele ; ma- 


... 


I-wele ; ma- 


... 


Mu-zuna 




Mu-zuna. 

(B-ine = com- 
panions : see 

A 46) 


I-lumbu 


Mu-suna. 
Mu-dugu, 
N-dugu. . 

(Ki-lumbu = 
brotherhood. 
Wu-dugu = 
brotherhood) 


I-lumbu (?) 


Buku 




M-bcokto ? 


M-bugu 


I-bcogco ; ma-. 
M-bcogco 


... 


Jeku ; ma-yeku 


N-zagamba 


... 


N-zagamba. 


N-ombe 










N-ombe 


fi-gcopia 










m-gcopi 




Ma-takoj 




Mu-hende 


... 


Lu-findco ; 
ma-lu-. I-goana 


... 


W-atoj ; m 


-atco N-galawa. 


... 


N-galawa. 


... 






W-at», 




Vw-ateo 








Bw-atoj 




M-gcoma 




C-aungu. 




Ny-awco 


Kany-acd ; tu- 


N-yawa 


Ny-au 


Li-zangu 












I-kala; ma- 


kala I-kala 


I-kala 


I-kala; ma- 




Mu-fumu ; 


ba- 


Mu-na. 
Mw-ami. 
Mu-ndeva;ba- 


... 


M-temi. 
Mu-hanya ; 
wa- 


M-temi 


M w-ana; 




M w-ana. 


Mtw-ana (S). 


Mw-ana 


M w-ana; ana. 


b-ana. K- 


ana 


Mu-na. 


M w-ana ; pi. 




Ka-ninya ; 


tu-ana 




Mu-yanda 


v-ana or 
w-ana. 
K-ana. 
Ka-keke 




pi-ninya. 
K-ana; //. 
pi-ana or 
tu-ana ' 


Mw-enda 




Mw-enda 


... 


Mw-enda. 
M-gutco. Bugu 


I-saa ; ma-saa 


M-behco 




Lu-pehco peh<o 


* •< 


M-behco 


M-pepco 


C-alco ; fi- 


alco 


^i-alco ; vy-alco. 
Li-piaico ; 
ma-vyaloj 




C-alco ; ti-alco 


• •• 


N-ombe 




N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


... 


fi-kima. 




n-kima 


n-kima 


n-kima. 




N-ombe 






N-ombe 


M-btogcoma. 




n-peki 






n-kut<o 


N-dcogcosa 




f*-wena 




N-gwina 


... 


N-gwina 


... 


Lu-siku 




Lu-siku 


... 


Lu-ipi ; n-ipi. 
Lu-siku. (Limi 

= daylight) 


U-tiku; ma- 


re are seemi 


ngly 


two ilurals to 1 3 


CKa.-)— both pi- 


andtu-. 





88 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ki-Mipi and 
Ki-rori 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9C. 
I South, Central, 
j afui East 
Nyamwezi 



ID. 

Ki-nyaturu 
(Ki-limi) 



Devil, evil 


K&we, I-behea M-sambwa ; 


M-gawoa; mi- 


Lim-dimi. 


M-sambwa (?) 


spirit 




n»i- 


I-pasa. 

Mu-zimu. 

M-sambwa 


Li-tun ga 




Doctor (medi- 


... 


Mu-ftunu 




Mu-lagiizi. 


... 


cine man) 








Mu-fumu 




Dog 


M-fwa, M-bwa M-bwa 


M-bwa 


M-bwa 


M-bwa 


Donkey 


M-hunda. 
I-dcagcdwe 


I-duguwe 


I-dugcawe 


N-SMve. 
N-dcogojwe 


N-doYwe 


Door.doorway 


Mu-liangco. 


Mu-zigca 


Mu-zigo>. 


Li-gi. 


... 




Mu-zigto 




Mu-vita 


Mu-zigco. 
Mu-vita 




Dream 


Ki-ruto> ; pi- 


... 


... 


Ipi-lwti or 
^i-lcoti or 
Ki-ltoti ; fi-lo>ti 


••• 


Dram 


N-coma 


I-guma (dance) 


... 


N-coma, 
N-gcoma 


... 


Ear 


Ku-tu; ma-tu 


Ku-twe ; 
ma-twe 


I-twe ; ma-twe 
Ki-twe 


Ku-twi. I-twi 


Ki-twe; ma-twe 


Egg 


I-ki ; ma-gi 


... 


... 


I-gi, Li-gi; 
ma-gi 


I-Yi ; ma-^yi 


Elephant ... 


M-huli (.puli) 


N-z(i»vu 


'"" 


M-huli ; 
ma-puli. 
Nzcovu 


... 


Excrement 


Ma-fwi 


... 




Ma-fi 




Eye 


D-is<u; m-isM 


L-isco ; m-iscd 


L-insM ; 
m-inscd. Il-is<d 


L-iso> 


Li-hcd ; mi-hto 


Face, forehead 


U-pu 


Bu-^iu 


... 


Vu-pu, W-isu 


... 


Fat 


Ma-kuta 


Ma-futa. 
Ma-savu 




Ma-guta 


... 


Father 


Bawa 


Baba. l-soi. 


Tata, Tate. 


Vava, Wawa. 


Tata 






I -pie. I-sa- 


Baba 


Tata. Wa- 




Fear 


B-tdwa 


B-uwa 




V-ojva. 
1-timwa 


... 


Fire 


M-otci» 


Mu-lircu 


Um-otco. 
Mu-lilw 


M-otcj. 
Mu-lilto 


M-otu 


Fish 


Si 


Nfwi 




N-somba 


... 


Foot 


Lu-pambala. 


Mu-gere. 


• t. 


Lu-geri. 


... 




Lu-geri 


N-gulu ; ma- 
gulu 




Lu-pambala 




Forest 


M-Sngco 


... 


*'* 


Pori. I-p51u, 
1-pcolu. 
Ikungu 


... 


Fowl 


Kcokcd 


Nktokco 


... 


N-guku 


• . • 


Frog 


*■• 


K-cola, Li-ei>la 


• • ■ 


Ic-ula 


*•• 


Ghost 


Mu-zimu 


M-ana (//.) 


... 


Mu-sambwa. 
Mu-zimu. 
Hcolcd. Lcozu 


... 


Giraffe 


N-twiga 


N-twiga 


... 


N-hwiga 


... 


Girl 


Mu-peki 


Mw-an'-ike. 


Ka-keke 


Mw-ani'-ke. 


••• 




Mu-hala. 


Ka-kuta 


M-hya. 








Mw-an'-ik'iowe 




Mu-di-ana. 
Mu-hala 




Goat 


M-buli, Puri, 
Pudi 


M-buzi 


Buzl ; ma-f- 


M-buli. M-buzi 


M-btii 


., (he) 


I-gulati 


N-gulati 


M-buzi 
m-gcdsia 


N-gulati 


N-gtilati 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



89 



English 



Ki-pisi and 
Ki-rori 



Goat (she). 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 
Nyamwezi 
(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9C. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



10. 
Ki-nyatara 

(Ki-limi) 



M-buguma 



N-dugcdsa 



God 


Lu-kubi. 


Li-nze. Nze. 


Li-walelo>. 


Mu-luiigu. 


Mu-ngu 




I-kulu. 


Lu-kubi. 


I-dzuwa. 


Li-nguluwe. 






Mu-lungu (?) 


Li-walelo> 


Mu-lungu 


Li-uva. 

Li.kuve. 

Li-weleleo 














Grandparent 


Guku? 


Guku 


... 


Guku S ; wa + . 

Mama 9 ; wa + 

Li-swa. N-dima 


... 


Grass 


I-s«>a; ma-scoa 


I-sara 






Ground 


Ma-salu 




... 


N-si, N-ci 


... 


Ground-nut 


M-hande 


Lu-kalanga 




Halaiiga ; 

mak^-. 
M-hande ; 
map-. I-ycova 




Guinea-fowl 


.. ... 


N-kanga 


••• 


Haiiga; mak-^ 


... 


Gun 


Mu-nducw 




... 


Mu-nduzi 




Hair 


N-zwiri, 


Mu-sasi ; mi- 


Lu-nyele ; 


Lun-dwili ; 


Lun-dwile ; 




N-yuile, 




i-nyele 


n-dwili or 


n-dwili 




Zuile 






n-zuile. 
Mu-sasi ; mi- 




Hand 


Ki-kanza ; pi- 


Ku-bcokco. 


Ku-wtokoj. 


Ku-kunco. 


Mu-k»n«(.') 






I-ganza .' 


I-kasa 


Ku-vtokco. 
I-ganza or 
I-ganda 




Head 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe, M-twe 


Mu-twe (?) 


Heart 


M-oyci) 




M-oyco. (I-tima 

= liver) 


I-tima. M-oyo). 
Mw-egco 


... 


Heel 


l-jsigina 


... 




I-^igino> or 
Ki-pinsila 


... 


Hide ... ... 


N-diri 


Lu-hu 


... 


I-kcova. Ka- 
gingi. Diri 


... 


Hill 


Ki-gongto 


... 


M-sojsi 


Ki-gulu. 
I.tunda 


... 


Hippopotamus 


N-guwu 


N-gubu. 
N.tcomombcii 




N-dcomondu or 
I-tumombw 


... 


Hoe 


.. 


N.fuka 


... 


I-suka. 
I-gembe 


I-gembe; ma 


Honey 


B-eoki 


Ru).<opi 


... 


Vu-ki, Wu-ki 


... 


Horn 


M-hembe 


M-pembe 


... 


M-hembe ; 
ma-pembe. 
Li-ega 


... 


House 


N-umba 


N-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


N-umba. 


Ny-umba 






Kaya 


Ka-sumba ' 


N-su ; man-su. 
I-vanza. Lzi; 
ma-zi 




Hunger 


In-zala 


Butamoj 


... 


... 




Husband ... 






... 


... 


... 


Hyena 


Piti 


I-fisi '" 


... 


M-biti;'ma-viti. 
I-witi ; ma- 
witi 


... 


Iron 


Ki-sinza. 


Si -coma 


^i-uma. 


I ci-uma. 


Ic-uma 




Ci-uma 




(Ny-ondco 
= hammer) 


Ki-sinza. 

Li-dini. 

Fi-suloi 




Island 


I-cinga 




Ki-pilwa 


Kisilwa. 
Ka-mwimpi 


.•» 



' Ki-bende. 



90 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



8. 

Ki-sasi and 

Ki-rori 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9£ 
South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



lo. 
Ki-nyaturu 

(Ki-limi) 



Ivory... 

Knee ... 
Knife ... 

Lake ... 



Leg ... 
Leopard 
Lion ... 
Lips . . . 
Magic... 



Maize . . . 
Man ... 

Man, vir. 



Meat ... 

Medicine 
Milk ... 

Monkey 



Moon ... ., 
Mother 

Mountain ., 

Mouth 

NaiK of finger 

or toe) 
Name ... 

Navel . . . 

Neck ... 
Night... 



Nose 

Oil palm ... 



Mi-nuga. 


N-kumbi 


... 


I-puli ; ma-puli. 


• •• 


M-huli 






Li-ncolia. 
M-huli 




I-cwi 


^i-vwi ; vi- 


... 


I-swi ; wa-swi. 
I-zu 


... 


Lu-pu 


... 


K-ele 


K-ele: ma+ or 


Mu-ye ; mi-ye 






tw-ele. Lu-su. 
K-ambi 












... 


Ny-anza 


Ny-anza. 
I-tawa 


Ny-anza. 
Hawa. 
I-lambo) 




Ku-kulu 


Ku-gulu 


Ku-gulu 


Ku-gulu 


... 


Suwi 


... 


... 


N-suwi 


... 


N-simba 


N.pimba 


. . . 


N-simba 


... 


Ncomu ; mi + 


Mi-lcomu {ill.) 




Mi-l<omco (//.) 




Bu-lcozi. 


Bu-lcozi 


... 


Vu-vina. 




Bu-kanga 






Vu-fumu. 

Vu-leogi. 

Vu-ganga" 




Dim-bukiri 


... 


... 


Mu-dege 


... 


Mu-nhu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-nhu ; 


Mu-ntu; a-ntu 


ba-nhu 


ba-ntu. 
Mu-geopa 


wa-ntu 


w-anhu 
Mu-lenzi. 
Mu-noogu. 
Mu-sumba 


... 


N-ama 


I n-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama. 
I-manda 


... 


Bu-kanga 


Bu-fumu 


>.. 


Vu-ganga. 


... 


Ma-bele 


Ma-wele 


... 


Ma-wele. 
Ma-fula 


... 


N-tumbiri 


N-kende 


••• . 


I-tumbiri. 
Kamy-anda. 
Ka-nkunga 


• •• 


Mw-eci. 


Kw-ezi. 


Mw-ezi or 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edi 


Nw-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


Umw-edi 






Maya 


Nina. 
Mwamayca. 
Mayoj. Noj-kco 


U-mai 


Maya. Nco-k(o. 
Nina 


I-yeo. Mama 


Lu-kulu ; 


Lu-kulu 


IVIsoozi. 


Lu-gulu 




fi-kulu 




Mu-tanda ? 






Mu-lcomw 


Mu-lcomu 


Mu-dcomto 


Mka-nwa 


Un-dcomca (?) 


I-noiiga 


Li-ala 




N-zala 


... 


D-ina 


I-gina 


I-sina 


L-ina or I-zina 

or L-inha 
I-nuku. 

1-kondco 


... 


N-hingoj 


Lu-kco^i 


... 


N-hing<o 


... 


Bu-ciku, 


Bu-feku, 


... 


Vu-siku. (Gita 


U-tiku 


Wu-siku, 


Bu-fuku. 




or Li-zima = 




U-fuku. (Giti 


Bu-ire. 




darkness) 




= darkness) 


Giti 








N-indco 


N-indeo 


Ny-indco. 
Im-puna 


In-indco. 
M-pula 


M-pula 



In Central and Eastern Nyamwezi the prefix of these words is pronounced Wu-. 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



91 



English 



Ki-jsapi and 
Ki-rori 



Ox 

Paddle 

Palm wine, 
beer 

Parrot 

Penis 

Pig 



Pigeon 
Place .. 



Rain 

Rat 

Rhinoceros 

River 



Road .. 
Salt .. 



Shame 
Sheep... 

Shield... 

Shoulder 

Sister... 

Skin . . . 
Sky ... 
Slave... 

Sleep ... 

Smoke 

Snake 

Son, boy 



Song 

Spear 

Spirit, soul 

Star 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9C. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



10. 

Ki-nyaturu 

(Ki-limi) 



N-ombe ii-wsa 


N-ombe. 
N-ziku 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 
N-ziku 


Ng^>mbe 


N-gyehi 


I-gyefi. 
Lu-gahya 


... 


Mu-dinh<o. 
Mu-saha 




N-sanza 




*" 


Vu-geme or 
Lu-agwa or 
I-tembci> 


N-turi, N-tui 


I-kusu 




• •• 


... 


... 


Bcolcd 




■ ■• 




... 


Ka-p<odi ; ba + . 


N-gurube 


• ■• 


N-guluwe. 


Ku-tupa;maku 


N-guluwe 






I-tumba, 
I-humba, 
N-humba 




N-kundu 


... 


*'. • 




••• 


Ha-nhu 






Ha-nse. 
Lu-andi 
Ha-findu 

(dimin.) 




Pula 


M-vula 


• •• 


M-bula 


M-vula 


Kcdsu 


N-ku3o>. 
Ka-kcosco 


... 


M-beva. 
I-kusu 




... 


I-pera ; ma- 


... 


I-pela or 
M-hela 


... 


M-ongo> 


Ka-bwiga 


■ ■• 


M-ongu ; mi -(- . 
Mami-ongu 
(aug. plural) 


Lu-dyi ; 
n-dyidyi 


Dzira 


N-zira.Lu-sese 


N-zila 


N-zila 


... 


MQ-nu 


N-s<oni 




Mu-nyu or 
Mw-enu. 
Lu-kele 

N-suni 


Mu-nyu 


N-hcdlu 


N-tama. 
N-gondi 


... 


N-ondi. 
N-hulu 


... 


... 


N-gaboj 


•«• 


N-gawa 
1-vega ; ma- 




I-rumbu. 


I-lumbu 


... 


Mumbu 


Mu-hanya ? 


M-vuna 










N-kulco 


Lu-hu ; m-pu 




N-guwu 


• ■• 


I-kulu 


I-runde 


... 


I-lunde 


... 


M-sese 


M-sere 


... 


M-sese 


Mw-anda; 
a-anda 


Tu-lca 


Tu-lco 


... 


Tu-1« 


• •• 


Y-coci. Li-uci 


Li-onpi 


... 


Li-usi 
N-zuka 


••• 


Tscoka or 


... 


... 


N-stoka 










M w-ana 


Mu-na. 


M w-ana 


Mw-ana. 


■ *• 


in-ktosa 


M w-ana. 
Mw-ene. 

Mu-yanda 


mu-geosya. 
K-ana ka- 
gcosya. 
Mka-lumendu 


Mu-yanda 




Lu-imbcd 


Lw.imbco ; 
n-imbco 


Lu-imbu 


Lu-imbu ; 
n-imbu 


... 


I-cimu 


... 


... 


I-cimu 


... 


Mw-engeji 


... 


... 


Mw-egu. 
M-oyu 


... 


^onda 


^onda 


Sonda ; ma-. 
I-tongwa 


^onda 


N -sonda ; ma- 



9» 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ki-^pi and 
Ki-rori 



Stick 



Stone . 
Stool . 
Sun . 



Tail ... 

Tear ... 

Testicles 
Thief ... 
Thigh... 
Thing... 



Thorn 

Tobacco ... 
Today 

Toe 

To-morrow 
Tongue 

Tooth 

Town 

Tree 



Twins 
Urine ... 
Vein ... 
War ... 



Water 
Well , source 



White man 
Wife 



Wind ., 
Witch 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. I 9 b. 

North-west | West 

Nyamwezi Nyamwezi 
(^i-sumbwa) 



9c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



10. 

Ki-nyaturu 

(Ki-limi) 



Nanga. 




Nkuni 




t-» 


Fimbco. 


Ka-ti ; pi-ti 


Mu-langa 










M-laiiga. 
Mu-ranga 




I -we 




I bale 




N-teb'e' 


I-vwe, I-gwe 
I-teve. I-sumbi 




Di-mi, Le- 


emi. 


I-dzcowa 




L-emi. 


L-imi. 


Di-yua 


Ly-ulja 








I-dzuwa. 
I-langala 

iKihende) 


Li-uwa 




Kila, Khila 


Mu-pira 




• • > 


Mu-kila. 


... 










Mu-^ila 




Di-s«ji ; mi-. 


Li-nscozi 




... 


Li-nscozi. 


... 


Mu-suji : 


mi- 








Mu-nscozi 




Ma-bo>lco 








.*• 


... 




Mw-ibi; b-ibi 


... 






Mw-ivi 




Si-tambo> 




Si-ber«o 






I-tangeo. I-tege 




Ki-nhu ; pi 


•nhu 


^i-ntu ; vi 


■ntu 




Ki-nhu ; fi-nhu 


Ki-ntu ; i-ntu 

(a/ so means 
'bead'). Ki- 
ntu; ma-ntu 


Di-ihwa ; 


ma- 






... 


Li-hwa. 
Mu-nhwa 


I-guya ; ma- 


I-tumbate 








... 


I-tumbate 


... 


Lelco 




Lerco 




. .. 


Lelco 


... 


Lu-ala 




... 




... 


Ka-ala 


... 


I-kcalu 




I-gorco 




... 


I-gcolco 


• *. 


Lu-limi 




Lu-limi 




Lu-limi 


Lu-limi. 
I-yombelco 


Lu-limi; n-dimi 


D-ino> 




L-inco 




D-incd 


L-inco 


L-inco ; m-ino> 


Kaya. M 


•puri 


... 




Lugcd 


Kaya 


... 


Mu-ti 




Mu-ti; mi 
Limu-ti ; 
mi-ti 


-ti. 

ma- 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 


Ma-wasa 








... 


Ma-\asa or 
Ma-basa 


... 


Mi-ne 




• ■• 




... 


Ma-su. 
Ma-tunzi 


• ■• 














... 




• .. 




• *• 


Mw-anzi. 


... 












I-timba 




Bu-luku 




Bu-lemcd 




Mu-kondc* ' 


Wu-lugu. 
Li-huya. 
Vu-lemco 


... 


Mi-nzi 




Mi-nzi 




Mi-nzi 


Mi-nzi 


Ma-dyi 


Lu-inzi 




I-ziba. 
Lu-inzi. 
Lu-scokb> 




Lu-inzi 


Lu-inzi ; n-inzi. 
I-vimbi 


... 


M -zungu ; 


ba- 


Mu-zuiig^ 


; ba- 




M -zungu 


... 


M-kima. 




Mu-geoli ; 


ba-. 


Mu-ke. 


M-guli 


■ .. 


Mu-ke 




Mu-kazi 
Mu-ke 


' 


Mu-kcota 






Im-pehu 




Ka-fulco 




... 


Im-behco. 
I-gunhu. 

Mi-aga (//.) 


... 


Mu.lcoki ; 


ba- 


Mu-Ioazi ; 


ba- 


... 


Mu-lcogi, -Icoji. 
Mu-swezi. 
Mu-kangco. 


... 






' Ki-bende. 




Mu-simbia 





GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



93 



English 



Ki-^ajsi and 
Ki-rori 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



10. 

Ki-nyatutu 
(Ki-limi) 



Witchcraft 
Woman ... 



Womb 
Wood... 
Yam ... 

Year ... 

Yesterday 

Zebra... 



One ... 

Two ... 

Three... 
Four ... 
Five ... 
Six 

Seven 

Eight ... 

Nine ... 
Ten ... 

Eleven 

Twenty 

Thirty 

Forty... 

Fifty ... 

Hundred 
Thousand 



Bu-l«ki 

M-kima ; 

I-peki 



M-hwi 
I-tuku 

Mw-aka 
Ma-zuli 
N-zcowe 



ba-. 



liu-luzi 
Mu-kima ; 

Mu-kazi. 

Mu-seki 



ba-. 



M-kima. 
M-kcota. 
I-ninga ; 
ma-ninga ' 



Lu-kwe; n-kwe 



Mw-aka 



Mw-aka 
I-gcolu 



Wu-lojji 
M-kema, 

Mu-kima. 

Mu-kazi. 

Mu-nhya. 

Mu-sieki 

Lu-kwi ; n-hwi 
Li-wuliga. 

I-jaasi 
Mw-aka 
I-gulco. Ma-zuli 
N-dulu 



Mu-xema ; a- 



N-da 



Scolco. -mco -mwine. Soru. Sulco. -mwe -mu. Scolco 

-mco 
•biri, -wili -bili 

■tatu. Yatu -satu. Yatu 
•nne -ne 

•tancd. N-hanco -tanco 
Sati. -tandatu Mu-kaga 



M-pungati 

I-nane or 

M-nane 
K-enda 
I-kumi 

I-kumi na 

lu-m<d 
Ma-kumi 

a-wiri or 

ya-wili 
Ma-kumi 

ya-tatu 

Ma-kumi 

ya-nne 
Ma-kumi 

ya-taneo 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 



.Mu-sanvw 

Mu-nana 

^i-enda 
I-kumi 



-vili, -wili 

-satu, -atu 

-nne 

-tanu. N -tanco 

Sati. 

-M -kawaga 
Pungati. 

M-samvu 
Mu-nane 

K-enda 
I-kumi 



I-kumi nasulu I-kumi na-mwe 



Ma-kumi 
ya-wili 

Ma-kumi 
ya-satu 



Ma-kumi 
ga-wili 

Ma-kumi 
ga-satu 



Ma-kumi y-ane Ma-kumi 



Ma-kumi 
ya-tanci] 
I-gana ; ma- 
Si-humbi 



ga-nne 
Ma-kumi 

ga-tanco 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 



-vili, -firi 

-datu. Yatu 

-nne 

-tanu. N-hanu 

M-kaga. Sati. 

■tandatu 
M-pungati. 

M-samvu 
M-nane 

K-enda 
1-kumi or 

Humi 

I-kumi na-mco 

I-kumi na sulco 

Ma-kumi a-vili 

or ma-wili. 

Hum' i-vili 
Ma-kumi 

a-tatu or 

ma-tatu 
Ma-kumi a-nne 

Ma-kumi 
a-tanco 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 



■mwe 

-wili, -wi 

■tatu 

■nne 

■tanu 

Mu-tandatu 

Mu-pungati 

M-nana 

K-enda 
I-kumi 

I-kumina'mwe 

Ma-kumi 
ma-wi 

Ma-kumi 
a-tatu 

Ma-kumi a-nne 

Ma-kumi 
a-tanu 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 



I, me, my ... 
Thou, thee, thy 
He, him, his 



Nene. N-, Ni-. 
-n-. -a-ne 

Bebe, Wewe. 

U-. 

■ku-. -a-kcd 
U-we, U-yu. 

A-. 

-mu-. -a-kwe 



OO-ne. N-, Ni-. 
-n-. -a^ne 

OOwe, (JObe, 

Wewe. U. 

-ku-. a-kco 
Uwe, U-yu. 

A-, Ya-. 

-mu-. -mwe, 

-a-mwe 

' Ki-bende. 



E-ne, U-nene. 
N-, Ni-. 
-n-. -a-ne, -ene 
Ewe. U-. 
-ku-. -a-kco 

A-we? Uyu. 
Ya-, A-. 
■mu-. -a^mwe, 
-a-kwe 



Nene. 



N-, Ni-. 
-a-ne 



Wewe. U-. 
-ku-. -a-kco 



Uwe. 
-mu- 



A-. 

, a-kwe 



Ne. N-, Ni-. 

-ne. -n-, -ni-, 

-a-ne 
We. U-. 

-kco. -ku-. 

-a-kco 
U-yu. U-. 

-kwe. -mu-. 

-a-kwe 



H 



94 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ki-pasi and 
Ki-rori 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9C. 

South, Central, 

anil East 

Nyamwezi 



lo. 

Ki-nyaturu 

(Ki-limi) 



We, us, our 
Ye, you, your 



They, them, 
their 



I-swe. Tu-. I-fwe. 

•tu-. -iswe, -tu-. 

•swe 
I-nweorl-mwe. I-mwe. 



Mu-. 
-ba-. 

Ba-boj 
Ba-. 
•ba-. 



■in we 



•ba-. 
■inu, 



Tu-. 

-fwe 

Mu-. 
-enwe, 
inyu 



Wawo). A-be. 
-ba- 
-a-b» 



Ba-. 

-a-b<a 



E-fwe. Du.,Ku-. 
-tu-. -itu, -etu 

E-mwe. Mu-. 
•wa- ? -enyu 



A-wawoj. Wa-. 
-wa-. -a-ww 



I-8we. Tu-. 
•tu-. -iswe 

I-mwe <?rl-nwe. 

Mu-. 

•va-. -imwe, 

-inwe 
A-vo>, A-va, 

A-wa. Va-, 

Wa-. 

-va-, -wa-. 

•vco, -a-wawu 



Se. Ku-. 

-se. -ku-, 
•itu 
Nye. Mu-. 
-a^nyu 



•tu^. 



A-wa. 
Wu-. 
-a-, -a-eo 



Wa-, 



All 



This, these 



That, those 



•cose or -ose 
(w^ose, y-ose, 
k^ose, fi-ose, 
c-ose, h-ose, 

U-yu, ba-ba ; 
u.gu,i^yi; i-di, 
a-ya; i-ki, i-pi; 
i-yi, i-ci; u-lu; 
u-tu ; a-ka ; 
u-bu ; u-ku ; 
a-ha 



'cona, -conane -onsi 



U-yco, ba-bco ; 
u-goj, i-yca; 
i-dico, a-hco ; 
i-kyco, i-^ico; 
i-yco, i-cio> ; 
u-lwco; u-twco; 
a-kco ; u-bwco ; 
u-kco : a-hco 



U-yu, a-ba ; 
u-gu, i-gi or 
i-zi; i-li, a-ya; 
i-si, i-vi ; i-yi, 
i-zi; u-lu; u-tu; 
a-ka ; u-bu ; 
u-ku ; a-ha 



U-yucr alu-yu; 
a-waorwa-wa 
or ala-wa ; 
u-gu, i-yi; 
i-dyi, aga ; 



-cose, -cose, -ose 
(cope pie = 
all together, 
entirely) 

U-yu, a-wa 
(a-va) ; u-gu, 
i-i ; i-li, a-ya ; 
i-ki, i-fi; i-i, 
i-zi; u-lu; u-tu; 
a-ka ; u-wu 
(u^vu) ; u-ku ; 
a-ha 



U-yto, a-bco ; 

u-gco, i-zico ; 

i-lico, a-yco ; 

i-sico, i-vyco; 

i-yco, i-zico ; 

u-lwco; u-twco; 

a-kco ; S^c. 
U-yconco, 

a-bconco, 

u-g(onco J &•€. 



U-yco, a-weo ; 
u-geo, &'C. 

-dia (u-dia, 
%va-dia; gu-dia, 
yi-dia ; di-dia, 
ga-dia ; &'c.) 



U-yco, 

u-gco, 1 
a-yco ; 
i-fco ; i- 
u-lco; 
a-kco ; 
u-kb> ; 



a-wco; 
-co ; i-lco, 

i-cco, 
CO, i-zco 

u-tco ; 

u-wco ; 

a-hco 



W-asco, asbi ; 

w-asco,asco(?); 

i-si (5), a-sa; 

k-asco, y-asco ; 

i-si, y-asi ; 

w-asco (11); 

tw-asco; ka-soa; 

w-asco (14) ; 

kw-asco 
U-yu or u-yu-i, 

a-waora-wa-i; 

u-lu(?), i-yi ; 

i-li, a-ya ; i-ki, 

i-yi ; i-yi, i-yi; 

u-lw-i ; u-tu-i ; 

a-ka (?), u-pu-i 

(8) (u-tu-i); 

u-bu-i ; u-ku-i 
U-yco, a-wco; 

u-lco, i-yco; Ofc. 
U-ya, a-ya; 

u-ya {or 

ilu-ya ?), miu- 

ya ; i-lyco, 

niu-ya ; ki-co 

or kiu-ya, 

i-yo-i or i-ya ; 

i-ya, i-ya; 

ulu-ya; utu-ya; 

aka-ya ; mbu- 

ya ; uku-ya 



Bad 

Black 

Female 



Fierce, sharp 



•hi, -vi 



Ku-wika ?. -bi ? -bi 



■VI, -wi 

-ilawuza. -api -iru 
■nkima. -seki -nkinia. -kima. -kcota fl;- -kima or-kema 

or -seke -ikcowe. -kazi. -iigcota 

-ke. -siki 
-kali ... -kali, -daici 



GROUP B: WUNYAMVVEZI LANGUAGES 



95 



English 



Ki-sasi and 
Ki-rori 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 
Nyamwezi 
(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9C. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



10. 

Ki-nyaturu 

(Ki-limi) 



Good 



Great 

Little 

Long,bigh,taIl 
Male 

Old 

Red 

Rotten 

Short 

Sick 

White 



Above,up,on 
top 

Before 
Behind 
Below, down 

Far 

Here 

In, inside ... 



Middle 
Near . . . 
Outside 



Plenty, many 
There 

Where? ... 

No! 

Not {u'!/h verb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



To 



beat 
buy, sell 
come ... 
cut 
dance ... 



-scoga 


-sojga 


-scoga, -ncoga 


•scoga. -fula. 
•ipa. -iza. 
■awela. 


•ija, •dya 
















•aneona 




... 


-kuru 


... 


•hanya. •kulu 


•ikiiii, •kuu 


• *• 


•dco {young). 


•ndco, -du, •tco 


•dco. •keke 


... 




•ndu 








-le 


-lele 


•teli, gulu ? 


•liku or •lihu 


-lipa {verb) 


-geosya 


-lume, -pelume. 


•gcosia. •dume 


•geosya, -gcosi. 


... 




-gcasia 


•lume 


N-gnlati 




... 


•kuru. -kukwe 


... 


-a^kale. •hanya. 
•namhala 


... 


... 


•kuli 


... 


hseku. •laluku. 
-a za 
•vcozu<7r-wco2U 


... 


-guhi 


•hihi "■ 
-Iwele 


... 


•guhi 
•IwUe 


... 


-ape 


•elu 


-ape 


•elu. •ape 


-eru 


I-gulia, 


Ku^gulu 


Munde 


Lgulya. 




Kwi-gulia. 






Hi^gulya 




Kwi-lunde 










Ku-mbele 


Ku-mbele 


Ku-mbele 


Ku-mbele 


-a mbele 


Kum-pirimu 


Kuny^uma 


Kuny^uma 


Kun^uma 


-a ny^uma 


Ha-si 


Ha-nsi 


Ha^nsi, 
Pa^nsi 


Ha^zi, Ha^si 


Ha-ngi 


Ku-le 


Ha^le 


Ku^tali 


Ha^li, KNkali. 
Ku^le 


Ha-li 


Ja-ha 


A-hco. H^eneo. 
Ha^ha. Aha 


Hco 


Ha^ha. A^hco 
U^ku 


... 


Mu- 


Meo. Mu. 
©•mwco 


Mu^ 


Mumu ; •mca. 
Mu-. M-gati, 

Mun-gati 


... 


Ha-kati 


Ha-kati 


Ha-kati 


Ha^gati 


... 


Gelagaha 




• •• 




Behe 


Ha-ndze 


H-eru 

•ingi. M^neo 

A^hi? 


... 


•nse or •nze 

( Ha^nse, 

Ku^nse, &•€.) 
•ingi. Bii. 

Vu-yaga 
Ha-hco. Ku-nu, 

Hu^kco 
•he.', •kco? 


... 


No> ! '" 


Byeo! 

Byulcolco ! 


Aconanga ! 


BycolNco! Pu! 
Yaya! 


... 


• •• 


•te^, •ta^, •ne 


• •■ 


•ha-, -ka-, •k'-, 
-nco 


•ti^ (•tu^), • 
-f- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


-tula 


•hula 


•kuba 


•tula. -tina 


•xua 


-gula 


•gula 


•gula 


-gula 


... 


■scoga. -iza 


•iza. -suba 


•iza 


•iza 


... 


•kata 


-tema 


... 


•tina 


... 


■kina 


-tuma 


•vina? 


•bina, -vina 


... 



ta^, 



u 2 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





8. 


9- 


9a. 


9 b. 


9c. 


10. 


English 


Ki-papi anii 
Ki-rori 


North anii 


North-west 


West 




South, Central, 


Ki-nyaturu 




North-east 


Nyamwezi 


Nyamwezi 




and East 


(Ki-limi) 






Nyamwezi 


(pi-sumbwa) 






Nyamwezi 








(Ki-sukuma) 












To 




Ku- 


Kii- 


Ku- 




Ku- 


Ku- 


„ die- ... 


... 


-fwa (-fwa-ga) 


•fwa 


... 




•fwa, ■fa, ■ca 


•kuya 


„ eat 


... 


■lia 


-lya 


■lia 




■lya 


■lya 


„ give ... 


... 


•ha 


■ha (-pa). 
-heledza 


■fumia (?) 




■pa, -pela 


■ha (-pa) 


„ go 


... 


•dya(dia-ga). 
•ca or .ja 


-zia, -dya 


■iya. ■yenc 


a 


■ja, -zya. 
■genda 


■ja. ■nji 
(Kw^inji) 


„ kill ... 


... 


•ha-ga 


•buha 


•vula^ga ? 




•wula-ga or 
■vula^ga 


... 


,, know ... 


... 


... 


■manya 


... 




•manika, 
-manica, 
■manya. ■na 


■iji (Kw.iji) 


„ laugh ... 




•seka 


■seka 


... 




•seka 


... 


„ leave off, 




■leka 


■leka 


■leka 




■leka 


• •. 


cease 
















„ love, want 




... 


■^ima. ■enda 


... 




■tcogwa 


■yanja 


„ see 


... 


•linga 


•buna 


... 




■wcona or 
■bcona 


-ona 


„ sit, remain, 


... 


•igesa. -ikala 


■ikara, -ekala 


■ikala 




■ikala 


■kala 


abide 
















„ sleep ... 


... 


■lala 


■lala 


-lala 




•lala. -kcanya 


-lala or -laa 


„ stand, stop. 


... 


•ima (-ima-ga) 


•ima 


-ima 




■ima 


•ima, -imika 


be erect 
















„ steal ... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




■iwa 





PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI-^A^I AND KI^RORI 
(Not yet known.) 

PREFIXES, &C., IN THE NYAMWEZI GROUP 

No preprefixes, except slight traces in western dialects — Ki.galaganza, Ki-bende, &c. 

Class I. Mu-, M^ (m-, mu-, u-, yu-) ; 2. Ba., Va^, Wa^ (ba-, va-, wa-) ; 3. M^, Mu^ (m-, mu-, gu-) ; 
4. Mi. (m-, mi-, i-) ; 5. !•, Di^, Li^ (li-, di-) : 6. Ma- (ga-, ya-, a-) ; 7. Ki-, Ci^, pi-, Xi-, Hi- (ki-, ci-, pi-) , 
8. Vi-, Fi-, pi- (vi-, fi-, pi-) ; [8 a. i. e. the plural prefix Fi- employed in a singular or collective sense, is 
dawning in Southern, Central, and Eastern Nyamwezi] ; 9. N- (n-, i-) : 10. N^, Ny^, Ng^, ii-, I- ^n-, ii-, 
zi-, ci-) ; II. Lu- (lu-) ; 12. Tu- (tu-) ; 13. Ka^ (ka-) ; 14. Bu^, Vu^, Wu- (bu-, vu-, wu-) ,- 15. Ku^ (ku-, 
ko)-) ; 16. Ha^ (ha-, ho)) ; 17. Mu. (mu-, -mo)). Prefixes often superimposed — Limu-, Mami^, Hafi^, &c. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN KI.NYATURU (KNLIMI) 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu- (mu-, u-, -yu) ; 2. A- (a-, -wa) ; 3. Mu- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 5. !•, Li^ (li-, i-) ; 
6. Ma. (ma-, a-) ; 7. Ki- (ki-) ; 8. I- (i-) ; 8 a. Pi.' (pi-, p'-) ; 9. N- (n-, nj-, i-); 10. Ji- (n-, nj-, i-) ; 1 1. 
Lu- (lu-) ; 12 ^ Tu- (tu-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. U- (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. apparently missing ; 17?. 



' Used as plural to Ka-, and also in a collective, almost singular sense, with tn- (12) as plural. 
* Used occasionally as plural to Ka-. 



GROUP B: VVUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 97 

8. Ki^ajsi and Kirori are spoken in the south-east coast region of the Victoria Nyanza south of the 
Gaya (Ugeya) settlements and of Kulia (Bakoria), east of Bukerebe islands and peninsula, west of the 
Tatojga and Doro)b(o steppes, and north of Speke Gulf and Busukuma. 

9. North and North-east Nyamwezi are spoken in the southern coast-lands of the Victoria Nyanza 
as far east as the extremity of Speke Gulf ; and as far south as the 5th degree of South latitude. 

9 a. North-west Nyamwezi is spoken in the western half of the south coast -lands of the Victoria 
Nyanza (away from the actual littoral which is occupied by Cizinja) and as far south as about 4° South 
latitude. 

9 b. West Nyamwezi is spoken in Western Wunyamwezi, east of the Buthindi and Malagarazi rivers 
and as far south as about 6° 30' South latitude. It extends to the east coast of Tafiganyika south of Ujiji 
and north of Kalema. 

9 c. South, Central, and East Nyamwezi are spoken in Southern, Central, and Eastern Wunyamwezi 
south of about 5° South latitude and north of the Katuma-Luiigwa-Mphiti rivers, approximately 7° 10' 
South latitude. (Does not extend to Ukimbu.) 

10. Kinyaturu is spoken in Turu or Nyaturu and perhaps also in the Iramba country to the north. 
Nyaturu lies to the east of Wunyamwezi, west of Ugcogco, Rangi and Tatcoga. 



GROUP C 



THE BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 


11. Kikuyu 


dialects.' 1 1 


a. Meru 


13. Pwkcomco 


15. Taveita 




12. Kamba 






14. Taita 


16. Nika (Giryama-Duruma-Digco) 




II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu ' 


Kamba 


Pukcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcdkcomcd 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Adze 


Xiya. I-tanda 












Animal, wild 


Ny-amco 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 














Ant 


Ki-gunyu ; 


N-jinji. 


Ozungu. 


Sambirco. 


Ma-cici (pi.) 


Tsuiigu, 




pi. i-gunyu. 


N-duti. 


Zunde 


Safu, Salafu. 


iMa-karakara. 


Tsalafu. 




Tii-girriri. 


N-guugu. 




Ki-semberu ; 


Kukimbiru. 


iM-fuadzi. 




Tj-araku or 


N-dcoagu 




vi-. Ki-tuku 


Safu 


Minyco. 




TSi-raku. 










N-gcolungcolco 




liambu. 












Ant, white 


U-keo. Mu-biia. 


Um-uti. 


Mi-dzwa {pi) 


M-zagu. Soya. 


M-sau 


Lu-tswa 


(termite) 


N-guiya 


M-bubu. 
Mu-bwa 




J-etca. 

N-gumbi. 

Tlyeha 






Arm 


U-cokcd;m-cokco. 
Ku-cokci> or 
Gu-cokco ; 
m-ukco 


Mio-kunco. 
Ku-cokco 


Mu-kunco 


M-kconco 


Mu-kconca 


M-k<oneo, 

Mu-kunco 


Arrow 


Mto-gue ; //. 


Mu-sie, Mu-ci, 


Dzahe. Vaneo 


Ki-ria, 


M-wasa. 


Mu-vwi, 




me-gue. 


Mu-zyi, Mu-ji 




Ki-rawa. 


M-vwi; 


Mu-fwi,Lu-wi. 




Mu-gui, 






I -waned 


mi-vwi 


C-embe. 




Mu-gwe (ii a) 










Gumba 


Axe 


i-danua, 
I-banwa, 
I-tsancoa; ma-. 


I-txoka ; ma-. 
E-angi. 
Ka-txoka ; tu- 


Ki-berya 


1-zcoka 


I-zcdka 


Tscoka. 
Mundu, 
Temco 


Baboon ... 


Ncogco orNugu 


Nguli or 
N-gula 


Fwe 


Sabao. Fwe, 
Fiiwe 


I-regen ; ma-. 
I-ragin ; ma- 


N-yani 


Back 


Mu-gongo 


Mu-ongo 


Mto-ongoi 


Mu-gongco 


JVIu-hongoj; mi- 


M-ongco 


Banana 


I-rigoj; ma- 


Ma-iyu //. 


Dzana 


I-rugco. 
N-demb<a. 
I-viinde ; ma- 


I-dioj ; ma- 


I-zu. 
Mu-gomba 

(tree) 


Beard 


R(o-teru ; //. 


Ki-nge. Ki-aiu. 


Ki-evu 


Zombi. 


I-kcaI<o; ma- 


Ci-revu, 




n-deru. Ki- 


Ki-ngebwa 




N-gafwa or 




Ki-dzeni, 




reru ; i-reru 






Gafa 




Ci-reru 


Bee 


J-uki or Nj-uki 


Nzuki, Ki-nyS 


Ny-uci 


C-eoki or 
Ny-nki 


Ny-ojki or 
Nj-uki 


N-uci. 
Ny-uci 


Belly 


N-daa. Ma-ra 


I-bii. I-vu 


Ma-humbeo 


Ki-fu ; vi-fu 
In-da 


N-deu. Ki-nena 


B-imba.'' 
Ki-nena. 
Tumbco or 
Humbco. 

N-da-ni 


Bird 


Ny-cani 


Ny-uni 


Ny-uni 


Ny-conyi 


N-dege or 
N-deYe 


Ny-uni. 
Tsongco 


Blood 


Sakame. 


N-t>akame. 


Mu-asi 


Paga, Baga. 


Sakame 


Mi-lats<o or 




N-bakame 


N-dakami 




Bigati 




Mu-ladzco 


Body 


Mw-iri 


M-wi, M-wiU 


Mu-ci 


Mu-mbi ; 
mi-mbi. 
Mu-wi;mi-wi. 
Mu-li; mi-ili 


Mw-uri; mi- 


Mw-iri 


Bone 


I-ende ; ma-. 


I-vindi ; 


Mu-fufa 


Indi or I-windi Ni-windi, 


M-scoza 




I-hindi ; ma- 


ma-vindi 






I-windi ;.ma- 





J 



' This name is sometimes ren{/ereci Iknyn or Gikuyu. For specijication of dialects, see geographical definition of 
Kikuyu at close of Vocabulary. Kif-imba is a dimin. of B-imba = little belly. 



GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



99 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


IS- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki-dabida 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Bow 


(OttA, U-ta, 
U-taa (I I, -I) 


U-ta. I-tumu 


U-ha ; ma-ha 


X-dana 


Wu-ta ; 
mawu-ta 


U-ha. Tana 


Bowels 


Ma-ra 


Ma-a 


Humbco 


Ki-nena. Vu-la 


... 


Humbco ; ma -1- . 
Ki-deme. I-fu 


Borassus palm 






..• 


... 


Mo-rowai 


Mu-gumco 


Brains 


Tombco. 
"Ci-kererioo ; 

ma + , 
'Ci-kerrioj 


Uco-ongoj 




U-ongco or 
Ongco. 
M-bongeo. 
Sukco 


W-ongoo 


Ongco 


Breast (man's) N-gonw. 


Kati 


Bagwi 


Lagaya 


M-bafu 


Laga. Fua 




I-ria ; ma- 












Breast 


Ny-ondo) 


• • • 


Wee ; ma-wee 


Ny-codco. 


••■ 


Hombco. 


(woman's) 








I-wele ; 
ma-wele 




Ere, ma-ere 


Brother ... 


Mu-ru. 


Nindu. 


N-dugu 


M-rnna. 


M-dw-etu. 


Mw-ene-hu 




Wama-ito). 


Mw-inai 




M-wan'-edu. 


M-du 


{also cousin). 




Mu-rata 






Wcokw-etu;//. 
ana-wcokw-etu 




N-dugu. 
Mu-kulu 


Buffalo 


M-tXdgOD 


Ni-ai. M-bw 


Ny-ahi 


M-bcogco 


M-beoyco 


Ny-ahi. 

M-bcogco 


BuU 


N -Jamba, 
N-degwa 


N-dzaco 


Sanga (Gala 
■word) 


N-jaco 




N-dzaco. 
(N-dzagamba 

= a monster 

bull) 


Buttocks ... 


L(o-cuze or 


Ki-tiimba. 


Ji-hakco ; 


pimba; ma + 
or I-cimba 


Ma-takco 


Hakco ; ma- 




Rco-cuze. 


Ni-takco 


ma-hakco 




hakco. Takco; 




I-tina 










ma-takco 


Canoe 


Ka-harati ; tai- 


N-galawa 


M-zefe 


C-ombco ; 
vy-ombo> 


N-galawa 


Dalu ; ma- -1- . 
(N-galawa) 


Cat 


Ka-ihca ; c-ihco. 
Mo-ruaru. 
M-paka 


M-baka 


M-fuateni 


Mu-nyaco; mi- 


Mu-nyawi 


Paka. Ny-au 


Charcoal . . . 


I-kara ; ma- 
kara 


Ma-kaa 


Ma-sinzi 


Ma-aka 


Ma-kala 


Kala or Ni- 
Rala; ma-kala 


Chief 


Mo-zamaki. 


M-tumia 


Hacu 


M-baa or 


M-fumwa. 


M-vieri. 




Mu-bamaki 






M-zuri. 
M-geosi 


M-fumu. 
M-gcosi 


Mu-tumia. 
Mu-^ere 


Child 


Mw-ana ;^/. ci- 


K-ana, G-ana 


Mw-ana; 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 


Mu-hcohco ; 




ana or si-ana. 


tw-ana. 


wa-ana 


K-anake. 


(m-do)5goa) ; 


a-hcohco 




K-ana;tw-ana. 


Kaci-ci ; 




Mw-anake 


wa-ana 






Ka-reg<o ; 


tuvi-ci 






(wa-dongeo). 






to- 5 
N-guco. Tama 








Kamw-ana 




Cloth 


N-gua 


N-guoa 


N-guca or 


N-guco. Suke 


N-guco, 










N-guweo 




N-guwo> 


Coco-nut palm 




Mu-nabi 


... 


Mny-anzigi or 
M-yarigi 


M-site 


Nazi 


Cold 


Hehcd 
Beb<o (II a) 


M-pepo, 
M-bebco, 
M-bevco 


Pebfto 


M-behco 


M-beheo 


Pehco 


Country . . . 


Sena. Pcorori. 


N.t»i 


Dzi 


N-ci. 


I-sanga. 


Tsi. 




Lu-kongo. 






I-sanga 


N-tere 


L-alco 




Fururi 












Cow 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe. 


N-gombe -ke 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe -ce. 




Mori {heifer) 


M-oma ; 
mi-6ma 




dyi-ke. 

N-ombe 

ya waka. Tagco 




N-ombe 

m-bice. 

Gcoma 


Crocodile ... 


Ki-ngangi 


Ki-nyangi 


N-guena 


Mamba. 
Ki-nganga 


Ki-nyane, 
Ki-nyan 


Mamba. 
M-kuena 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





n. 


12. 


13- 


14- 


'5- 


1 6. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokumu 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Date palm... 


Mu-kindu 


I-kindu 


M-tende 


M-tende ; 
mi-tende 


M-cangara 


Mu-kindwi 


Day 


O-tuku. 


U-tuku. 


Dz-iku. 


I-tuku; iTia + . 


Mu-si ; mi- 


Tsiku. 




(OOm-cdzi = 


Mu-t>enia 


(M-sikahi = 


Lavu. I-jiia ; 




(Mu-tsana = 




daylight.) 




daylight) 


ma-jua. 




daylight) 




M-benia 






I -dime. 
I-ruba 






Devil 


N-gtoma or 


M.bebco. 


M-suka 


M-kinya. 


Lu-hungu 


Pepco. Kcoma. 




N-gcoma- 


A-imcd 




M-beho) 




M-biiigu 




n-goni 












Doctor 




Mu-iti 


M-gangana 


M-ganga 


Mu-ganga 


Mu-laguzi. 
Mu-gaiiga 


Dog 


Hui, Gwii, 


Scohi. N-giti 


M-bwa 


Cucu. Kuci, 


N-gurco. 


M-bwa. Ka- 




or Ktii, or 






Kcosi 


I-guro; ma-. 


lubu. Kura. 




N.giti 






1 


Ki-baru 


Kurco. Dia 

{DigU] 


Donkey . . . 


N-digiri 


Ifi-goi. 
Mu-goi 


Harre 


M-cungu 


N-jcoe 


N-zcoeya. 
N-dzcowe 


Door 


Rigi ; ma+ ., 
Mo-romoin6 
or Mu-rcomco. 
Tkome 


Mw'comco. 
M-cobia 


Mu-jangco 


M-jang<o. 
M-nyangeo ; 
mi- 


M-benge 


Mu-riangco 


Dream 


I -rota. (JL)-rcoti. 


Ku-cota. 


N-dcobca 


Ku-lcotes<o; ma-. 


N-dcotco 


N-dcohco. 




Ke-rcoti ; pi. i- 


N-doatoj 




N-deod<o 




Ku-lcoha 


Drum 


Ke-hembi. 
Ru-imboa 


N-gcoma. 
Ki-bembi 


N-gcoma 


Gonda. 
N-gcoma 


N-goama 


N-gcoma 


Ear 


ru-tu ; Ma-tu. 
Gio-tto; ma-tcd 


Ku-tu or Gu-tu 


Sikito 


Ku-du ; ma-du. 
Ki-sikilco ; 


I-sikico 


Si-kirco 


Egg 


I-tumbi : ma- 


I-tumbi, 
E-vaa 


I-ji; ma-ji 


ma- 
I-gi; ma-gi 


I-gi 


I-gi. I-ji, I-di 


Elephant ... 


N-jo>gu 


Un-zuu 


N-dzcafu 


Ccovu. 
N-jcovu 


N-zcawu, 
N-zcobu 


N-dzcovu 


Excrement 


Ma-i. R(o-rua 


Ma-ii 


Ma-fi 


Ma-vi. Saru 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Eye 


Di-zcoorRi-txo; 
ma . (Ki-mtone 

= eyelid) 


I-txo 


Dz-idzco 


Ir-isco ; m-esco. 
Iz-izco ; m-esco 


J-isoa 


Dz-its<o, 

Dzi-dzco ; 

ma-dzco. 

(M.bconi = 

pupil) 
Usco 


Face, forehead U-zi<ao/-U-bio. 


U-tiiu 


U-s« 


U-pu or Wu-jsu 


U-Ujsco 




Ru-eri 












Fat 


Ma-futa or 
Ma-guta. 
Ngorconeo 


Mii-uta 


Ma-fuha 


Ma-vuta or 
Ma-vuda 


Ma-futa 


Ma-fuha 


Father ... 


Baba (my — ). 


Nau. Nu. 


Baba. I -si 


Aba. N-deyco. 


A pa. M-papa. 


Baba, Aba-, 




Nu. Tlca-guco 


Atsa. Baba 




N-dee 


(Wawe-co = 


Abe-, Bi- 




{thy-). I-W 








thy — . VVawe-e 






{his — , father 








= his — ) 






in general) ; 














//. ma.ibi 












Fear 


I-korora. 
Gu-oya. 
Kw-itigirra 


Ku-binye. 
Ku-kea 


a)ga 


W-cowa. 
W-eoga. 
Ki-ture ; vi- 


Fule 


COga 


Finger 


Ki-ara ; pi. 
ci-ara 


Ki-a ; //. bi-a 


Dtowe 


C-ala ; v-ala 


Ki-caa, Bi-, Vi- 


C-ala ; //. 
vi-ala and 
m-ala 


Fire 


Ma)-aki 


I-kca. Mw-adji. 
J-nki 


M-cohto 


Mo-dco; me-dco 


M6-tco 


Mo-hco; mi-ohco 



GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



lOI 





II. 


12. 


i '3- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcakumco or 


Taita 


Tavelta 


Nikn 




1 1 a. Mem 




Pfukcomoi 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digu) 


Fish 


Ki-unguyeo ; 
ci-. I-kuyu; 
ma-. 
N-guliJma 


I-kuyu ; ma- 


Dswi 


I-kumba. 
M-kunga. 
N-guluma 


N-guluma 


Sw: or Dzui. 
Kumba 


Foot 


Ga)-nyarere. 


Ku-u pr Gu-u. 


Ku-guu. 


I-panzi. Ku-gu. 


Ku-YU, W-atn 


Gulu. Gii. 




Ru-nyarire. 


U-nyai 


Cwacco (//.) 


Su-aiyco 




Lu-ayu 




I-kinya. 














Ku-gurru, 














Kco-guru ; ma- 












Forest 


I-zakaine. 


Mi-teo. E-ebu. 


Mw-ihu 


M-sidu: mi- 


Ki-titco 


Tsaka. 




Ki-baka. 


Ki-beka 




sidu. I-saka. 




Mu-sihu 




Mu-titeo 






Ki-lemba 






Fowl 


N-guku 


N-guku 


Khuku 


N-guku. 
Ka-nguku ; 
du-nguku 


N-guku 


Kuku 


Frog 


Ky-ura; ci-. 
Ke-ngere 


Mu-ndalali. 
C-ua 


Cuya 


Kic-tila 


Ic-ura 


C-ulwa.Dz-uleo. 
G-ula 


Ghost 


OO-kua 


Mu-nyi. 

N-gM 


Kcoma 


Ki-suka. Pepw. 
N-go>l<o 


Ki-vuri 


Kuma, 
Mu-kcoma 


Giraffe 


N-dwiga 


N-dia. N-duya 


• *• 


N-diga 


N-dea 


Tiya, Tia 


Girl 


Ka-reg», 
Ki-reg<o. 

M-wir-etu 


... 


Ci-ke 


Mw-ana-ke 


... 


Ki-dzana 


Goat 


M-buri, 


M-bui 


M-bui. 


M-buzi or 


M-buji 


M-buzi. Pee. 




M-bori 




Pee 


M-buri 




M-buzi 
ya-pee 


„ (he) ... 


N-bengi 


N-bengi 


••• 


Si-tima. J-igau. 
Orw, Horu. 
Fwandi 


Zenge 


N-denge 


„ (she) ... 


Mii-gcoma; 
a-g<oma. 
Ka-harika ; 
tui-barika. 
(K-ori = kid) 


M-baika 




Si-beni. Mu- 
guma gwa 
m-buzi. Mu- 
geoma; mi-. 
(Kam-buri = 
kid) 


Mu-yuma 


••• 


God 


N-gai ; ma- 
kai 


N-gai. 

Mu-lung^u 


Mu-ungu 


Mu-lungu 


I-zuwa 


Mu-lungu 


Grandparent 


GukaJ. 


Ume. Tsutsa 


Bibi?S.Yayej. 


AkeS. 


• •• 


Tsawe S. 




CcdCCO^ 




Zabuaje. 
Cauje 


Wawa^ 




Wawe 5. 
Hawe 5 


Grass 


N-yeki,N-yaki, 

N-yagi(D.). 

Rto-kengi/ 

Mi-rari 


Ny-eki,Ny-igi. 

Ma-bangu 


M-ani 


Ny-asi 


Ny-asi. M-ani 


Ny-asi. M-ani 


Ground 


Teri. TJi. Nisi 


I-beeo. Pa-nti. 
Ndi 


Dzi 


Ki-lambco. 
1-sanga. 
N-dcoe, N-doxo 


Si. N-tere 


Tsi 


Ground-nut 


N-jugu 


N-zu 


N-jugu 


N-dzugu, 
N-jugu 


... 


N-dzugu 


Guinea-fowl 


N-kanga 


N-ganga 


KcOCd 


N-gaiiga 


N-gelele. 
N-ganga 


N-ganga. 
Kahga 


Gun 


Mwi-cinja. 
M-cinga ; mi- 


M-cinga. 
I-vuti. 
Mu-singa. 
E-buuti 


Bunduci 


Bunduki 


Ki-pcolupcolcd 


Bundukui 


Hair 


N-jJiere. 
Rco-cueri. 
En-juri 


N-diku. N-zwi 


Uny-wii 


Sisiri. I-ridia 


Ny-ui, Nj-iii 


N-dzui. Ny-ere 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13. 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


PukcDmco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfukumoi 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digu) 


Hand... \.. 


Lu-he cr Ru-hi; 
//.he. 
Gw-uku 


Ku-cokco. N-ba 


Mu-keonco 


Mu-kunco. 
L-ui ; p/. c-ui 
or many-ui. 
Ki-kutcd 


M-ko>n<o 


M-kconco. 
Gandza 


Head 


Mu-tue 


Mu-tiie 


Ki-jwa 


C-ongoj, 
v-ongoj 


M-twi 


Ki-tswa 


Heart 


Ngorco 


N-dei. E-t>aiyu. 
N.g« 


M-eoc<a 


N-g«l<o 


Ngorco 


M-oyco 


Heel 


Ny-ariri. 
Sonua. 
Ki-tcogigcd 


E-jimbe. 
Ki-tIny«o. 
Ki-diny<a 


Ki-sikincd 


Gimbe 


Ki-siginco 


J-imbd. 
Ki-sikinco 


Hide 


R-cowa; nj-ojwa 


I-kcdIe 


Ci-iigci> 


M-rongo> ; mi- 


N-gingco 


Tingco, 
Ki-tingco 


Hill 


Ki-rima; i-rima 


Ki-ima, 
K-Ima 


Guba 


Ki-lima. 
Ki-fumvu 


N-duwi 


Ki-rima 


Hippopotamus 


N-gtieo 


N-guoj. 
Bakora 


Ufi-guu 


N-goluma. 
VuM. N-gueo 


N-gerere 


Ki-bcokco. 
WuiJ. M-fu 


Hoe 


I-t>anwa. 
Li-gembe (D.) 


Embe 


... 


I-genibe 


• ■• 


J-embe 


Honey 


00-coki of-CO-ke U-ki wa n-zuki U-ci 


U-ki or Wu-ki 


Wu-ki 


U-ci 


Horn 


Lu-hia or 
Ru-heha 


M-bia 


Pembe 


Lu-embe ; 
m-bembe 


I-hembe, 
Lu-hembe 


Phembe 


House 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba, 


Ny-umb^ 


N-umba. 




Ka-bunu 


Ka-tiunu 




Kany-umba. 
Ki-garo. 

(C-anda =/»</) 


(square). 
l-a.Q6a{roun<i) 


Ka-banda 


Hunger ... 


Ifaragu 


N-zaa, (?) 


N-dza 


N-jala, Ki-taba 


Nzaa 


X-dzala 


Hyena 


Hiti 


M-biti 


Fisi 


M-bisi. Fisi 


N-gojine. Baco 


Fisi 


Iron 


Mu-sanga. 
Mu-renga. 
Ki-kama. 
Ki-g6ra 


Ki-o) 


K-era 


C-uma. Ki-zia; 
vi-zia. Ki-ria 


C-uma. M-enya 


C-uma 


Island 


Ke-cunga 


Ki-biwa 


Ki-lulu 


Ki-uwa 


Ki-dara 


Ci-siwa. 
Ki-siwa 


Ivory 


Lu-hia la 
n-j<ogu. 
Mu-ong(o. 
Mu-gwongco 


U-vea 


Pembe 


Lu-embe ; 
pembe Iwa 
n-dzufu 


I-jegu 


Phembe ya 
n-dzcovu 


Knee 


I-rii fir I-ru 


I-yu. U-yi 


Ku-hi 


N-geokoroj 


I-kuiigurco 


Vu-indi 


Knife 


Lto-hico or 
Ka-hiyu. 
Ke-jiu (l I a) 


Ka-biu, Ka-viu 


Ki-su 


N-dagala. 
Ka-handi ; vi- 


Ka-handi ; vi- 


Ci-fiu. Ki-pu 


Lake, sea ... 


I-ria or Ka-ria 


I-ia. Ki-tsiwa 


U-kanga. 

Ru-kanga 


Ziwa. Ki-suwa 


• ••• 


Ci-swa. Ziya 


Leg 


Mcd-zimco. 
Ku-huru or 
Km- guru 


Mu-biimco 


Ku-guu 


Ku-gu. Ki-gulu 


Ku-gu, Ku-YU 


Gulu, Ki-gulu. 
Rondu ; 
ma-rondco. 
Mu-lundi 


Leopard ... 


N-gare 


N-gcoco. Efi-gco. 

Ifl-gCO 


Na-dcoze 


m-ge, Iii-gwi, 
In-gwa 


Lu-keri 


Tsui 


Lion 


Mo-rwzi or 


Mii-nyembco. 


Dzimba 


^imba. 


Simba 


Tsimba. 




Mu-r«t>i 


Tiimba 




Mu-nyambca 




Mu-nyambco 


Lips 


Ki-rumco ; //. 


Ki-lcom<o. Mcd- 


Mi-ycomw 


M-cdmcd. 


M-comco ; mi- 


Mi-lcomeo. 




i-rcomci> 


mu. Mu-comcd 




Ki-piniku ; vi- 




Dcomco 


JUagic 


(jO-rugi 


Uw-oi 


Dzawi 


U-cawi, 
VVu-sawi. 
Wu-ganga. 
U-sai 


U-sawi. 
Un-ganga 


U-tsai. (-Icoga 
= io bewitch) 





GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 


103 




II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


•5- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokumu 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Maize 


M-bemba 


M-bemba 


Ma-pemba 


Ibemba. 
N-dembe 


I-hemba 


Ma-tsere 


Man 


Mu-ndu ; pi. 


Mu-ndu; a-ndu 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ndu ; 


Mu-ndu ; 


Mu-tu; a-tu, 




a-ndu 




wa-ntu 


wa-ndu 


wa-ndu 


also M-thu 
and Mu-thu' 


Man, vir. ... 


Mu-rume 


Mu-rume. 
M-umiu 


Ci-umbe 


M-dogume 


... 


Mu-lume 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. 
Nama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama, 
Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Mu-baiga 


Mu-di 


Dawa {Arab.) 


Mwi-di 


... 


Mu-hasw 


Milk 


I-ria. 


I-ya. 


Ziwa 


Ma-zia, 


Ma-vee. 


Ma-zia, Vi-zia. 




(Ku-kama 


(Ku-kama, 




Ma-ziwa 


Ma-were 


(Kama = to 




= to milk) 


Ku-tjuma = to 

milk) 








milk) 


Monkey ... 


N-gema, 


N-t>enga. 


Cima 


N-gima. 


N-gima 


Tumbiri. 




N-gima 


N-beo. 
N-gima. 

N-deu 




Sawau. 
Mw-andaru 




Khima. 
Tshalu 


Moon 


Mw-eri 


Mw-ei, M-bui 


Mw-ezi 


Mo-ri or 
Mw-ori; //. 
me-ri, also 
Mw-ezi ; 
m-ezi 


Mw-eji 


Mw-ezi 


Mother ... 


Mai-itu. 


Mwai-ito) 


Mama. 


Mau or Ma we. 


lya. Mama. 


Mayoj. Maye, 




Nana. 




Nyto-kco. 


Mayu. Mae 


Me. Waya 


Ame-. 




Nyu-kwa. 




Nina 






Hmama. 




Nyina 










(Nine = his 
mother) 


Mountain ... 


Ki-rima; i-rima 


Ki-ima 


Yu-gongo. 

Mu-rima; mi-. 
Guba 


Ki-fumbu; vi-. 
Lu-gongoj ; 
cu-gongoj or 
nyu-gongco 


N-duwi 


M-iima. 
Mu-rima 


Mouth 


Mu-reomco; mi-, 
orKa-nwa;ta)- 


Mu>-umco 


Ka-nwa 


M-lcomco ; mi-. 
M-tomu ; 
m-emu 


I-tumbu ; ma-. 
Mcomu 


Ka-nwa 


Nail (of finger 


Lu-ara ; ci-ara 


N-gwa. Waa. 


J w-aa ; ny-aa 


Lu-kombe ; 


Lu-kombwe. 


Lu-kombe 


or toe) 


or ndu-ara 


U-gunyu 




ii-gombe. 
L(o-ala ; nyw-. 
Lu-akule ; 
cw-akule 


N-gombwe 




Name 


Reteoa; ma + 


Sietua, Dzitwa Sari 


I-zina or 


I-zina 


Dzina 










I-rina 






Navel 


Mu-kconyw. 


Mu-k<onyco 


Ci-ktofu, 


Mu-kuvu. 


M-kuju. 


Tcovu. Ki-tuvtt 




Lu-lila. 




Ci-kojvu 


M-dcocwa 


M-kudu 






Ki-kconya 












Neck 


N-gingto 


Ngingco, 
Njingca 


OOti. Tsinco 


Singu or 
Cingo) 


^ingco. Gcopi 


Tsingeo 


Night 


O-tukkco. 


U-tuku. 


Siku 


Ki-ci) or Ki-r<o ; 


Ki-». Wi-ii. 


U-8iku. (Kiza 




(N-duma = 


Tu-manna. 




vi-u 


Heki-u 


= darkness) 




darkness) 


(Ki-vindu or 
Ki-biindu = 

darkness) 










Nose 


Ny-uroj, 
Iny-uroj 


Iny-u. In-wiyu 


M-puya. 
(Ma-anzi = 
nostrils) 


M-bula or 
M-bua 


Fua. Fuoi 


Pula, Phula 



' Ka-dzi-tu, dimin. = '■ little person' . 



I04 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pukcomoi or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfukumu 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Ox 


N-degwa ; 
ma-tegwa 


N-zao 


N-gombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-dzaco. 
N-dewa ya 
ii-ombe, 
Ri-gombe, 
Ka-gonibe, 
Ki-gombe 


Paddle ... 


* • • 


Mu-iilwi ; mi- 


Pae ; ma + 


I-kasia; ma- 




Kafi 


Palm wine, 


N-joahi 


... 


Tembw 


N-jeovi 


Mawa 


N-gemua. 


beer 












Dumbu. 
Pombe 


Parrot 


• • ■ 




Ka-suku 


Ka-suku 


... 


... 


Penis 


0-rii». 
Mu-sita 


Kia 


Ciwa 


M-punga; mi- 


N-jabu 


M-bcolto. 
Ki-bcogeo. Ki- 
gande-gande. 
U-lume 


Pig 


N-guruwe. 


N-gue N-gee 


N-guyuwe, 


N-guwe or 


N-guwe 


N-guluwe. 




N-geri 




Guyuwe 


N-guluwe 




Ki-ambo> ; 
vi-amboj 


Pigeon 


Dutura, 
N-dutura 


Gia. E-biii, 
I-voi or I-wfli 


Ci-kwe 


I-ringoj 


I -beta 


Jia, Giya, 
N-^iya 


Place 


Haha. 


Pa-andu. 


Bfa-ntu or 


Ha-ndu, A-ndu, 


Ha-ndu 


Va-tu. Ha-thu. 




Ha-ndu 


Va-ndu 


Fa-ntu 


Ku-ndu 




Ku-tu 


Rain 


M-bura 


M-bfia 


M-vuya 


M-vua. M-vula 


M-viia 


M-vtila. Wula 


Rat 


M-bea 


M-bea 


M-panya. 
N-duru. 
N-dezi 


M-bewa. 
M-banya 


N-gtoswe 


Panya. 
Phanya. 

Mu-nyau 


Rhinoceros 


Huria 


M-bila. 
M-butsia 


Pea 


M-bela 


M-buria. 


Pera 


River 


Lu-hui or R-ui ; 


U-si, U-dzi, 


Dzana, Tsana M-«da, 


M-fureo 


Mu-ho> 




n-jcoe, nj-ui, 


U-tsi 




Mw-eda, 








ci-hui 






Mw-eta 






Road 


N-jira 


N-sia. N-dWa 


N-cia, N-jia 


Cia. In-jila. 


N-zia 


N-jira 


Salt 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyu 


Ki-sereri. 
Mu-nyu 


... 


Mu-nyu. 
Cumvi. 


Shame 


T«oni 


N-dconi 


Yu-dzwa, 
Yu-tswa 


Waya 


Sconi 


Haya. I-la 


Sheep 


N-ondu, 


I-londu. 


M-buzi. 


N-gonzi. OOsi 


ronji. N-onji 


N-gonzi. 
Durume 5. 




N-dcaromi, or 


Ng-«ndu 


(M-buzi 


Bauru. 






N-durume. 




ndume = 7-(j7«. 


N-gonde or 




M-buzi ya 




N -Jamba $ 




aho Re 


N-ondi (ram) 




gondzi 


Shield 


N-gcoorLo-ngo> 
Ra-ngco(ll a) 


N-gau 


Ngaco.Gamba 
Wante 


■ N-gaco 


N-gawto 


N-gao 


Shoulder ... 


Ki-andi 


Ki-tuM 


... 


Wega 


... 


Ki-turco. 
Dzudzuri 


Sister 


M-oi re-tu. 


Mu-tiaiya. 


I-mbu. N-dugu Umbu. 


Rumburia 


N-dugu 




Ma>-ari wa 


Mw-edu 




Wcokw-etu 








mai-to). 


wa-nya 




mbwaa. 








Mo-rua 






M-runa wa 








mwai-tu 






wa-ka, c^c. 






Skin 


Lu-ytia ; ci-Ytia 


. Ki-t>uma. 


Cingu. Kunu 


■ N-gcozi. 


Kikonde 


Kingco. Gwvi 




R-ua; nj-eoa 


N-dawa. 
A-lula 


N-gMsi 


M-rongeo. 
N-gingco 




Ganda. 
Ki-konde 


Sky 


I-tu or Ma-tu. 


I-tu, Mu-lungu Yu-wingu; 


Mu-lungu or 


Ma-jumbi 


Mu-lungu. 




I -nimbi 




//. wingu or 
m-bingu 


M-lungu-nyi 




M-bingu 


Slave 


N-gombco 


M-kombolwa. 


Mu-huma or 


M-sumye or 


M-zoroj. 


Mu-3unye 






N-dumba ; 


Mu-humwa 


Ki-sunyi. 


I-singa 








tu-dumba 




M-zumba 







GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



'05 





II. 


12. 


«3- 


14- 


15- 


1 6. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomu or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcamu 


1 (Ki-dabida- 




(Giryama- 










1 Ki-sagala) 




Duruma-Digos) 


Sleep 


To-rco 


Tu)-co. 


U-sindzizi 


Di-lco. 


Lu-wtohe. 


U-singizi, 






Sinzizi 




Haringa 


Ku-pinjia 


U-sindzizL 
Ma-lalto 


Smoke 


N-dcogco 


Dzi.uki. Su-iki. 
C-uci. Japu 
En-jcoka 


M-cdsi 


M-casi 


M-ojpi 


M-upi 


Snake 


Mu-raru. 


Ny-coka 


Ny-o>ka or 


N-j<oka 


N-zcoka. 




Nyamu.yabi ; 






C-coka 




Ny-coka 




pi. Nyamuci- 














yat>i 












Son 


Mw-ana ; pi. 


Mw-ana 


Mwana 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw-ana 




ci-ana 




mu-yume 


lume 


ki-iime 


mu-lume 


Song 


N-gtocu. U-inco. 


VV-abi. Winoj 


Mw-imb«.Wia L-umbco; pi. 


Ki-vin<i> ; vi- 


W-ira. 




Li-umba. 






c-umbco or 




Ny-imb« 




Ki-suka 






ny-umbco 






Spear 


I-timeo; ma-. 
I-tumco (ll a). 
Ki-ronjco. 

Mu-rama(lia) 


I-timu. 
E-tumco 


Fumeo ; ma + 


I-cumu or 
I-fumu. Lu-fu; 
nyu-fu 


I-cumu 


Fumeo 


Spirit, soul 


N-gor&j. 

Mu-oyco. 
N-geoma 


N-gua 


... 


N-gcolca 


■ ■• 


Ruhco (Arabic). 
Guma 


Star 


N.jata 


Ndata 


N-ycaha. 
Ny-ezi. 

Xy.enyezi 


N-donde. 
Ny-erinyeri 


N-dondo> 


Ny-enyezi 


Stick 


Siyare ; pi. 


N.deta. Ndata 


Dzimbo), 


N-data or 


Ka-muti.I-sibu 


N-data. 




ma-siare. 




Tsimboj 


M-zata. 




N-gongoj 




Ru-banju 






M-senge ; mi-. 
Cafigu 






Stone 


I-higa ; ma- 


I-bia ; ma-via 


I -we ; ma- we 


I -we. I-gco 


I-bwe 


Dzi-we. I-we 


Stool 


Ge-te ; pi. i-te 




... 


... 


... 


Ki-goigu. Ki-hi 


Sun 


Li-yiia, Ri-ua ; 
ma-. N-jua 


Sua, Tiua, Jua 


Dziia 


I-jua or I-ruwa 


I-zuwu 


D-ziia 


Tail (of an 


Ge-bita, 


Ki-sibe. 


Mu-cia 


M-kcoba or 


Ki-tize 


M-kira. 


animal) 


Ki-bita. 
Ki-tcomoi 


Mw-ibi. 




M-komba. 
Ki-rensi 




Mu-cira 


Tear 


Le-izeoli ; ma-. 
Re-iborri ; 
ma-iborri 


Me-boyi 


M-dzuzi, 
Mu-tsuzi 


M-bori or 
Lum-bori 


I-scoji 


Tscozi 


Testicles ... 


Hekke or 
Kekke 


Me-e 


Fumbu 


I-kende; 
ma-kende 


Ma-kedi 


Tende 


Thief 


Mw-i^i ; a-izi. 
Mw-ici ; a-ici 


Ki-iigii. 
Ki-ngeeu. 
Mu-yi. 
Mu-veni 


Mw-ivi 


Ki-toyi. 
Mw-ibi. 
M-sojki. 
Ki-tina 


Mu-hiwi 


Mto-ivi 


Thigh 


K-erco,Ki-eruor 


Ny-onga. 


Ki-weco 


Bara. N-dambi Ki-Ya ; vi- 


Ki-ga; vi-ga. 




//. ci-eru 


U-tambi.Ku-ii 




or N-dami 




Lu-agco 


Thing 


Ki-ndu or 
Ki-ndo>. pi. 
i-ndu or i-ndco 


Ki-ndu 


Ki-ntu; vi-ntu 


Ki-ndu oV 
Ki-ndu ; 
vi-ndu 


Ki-ndu 


Ci-tu or Ki-tu ; 
vi-tu 


Thorn 


Mw.igiia; mi- 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iwa; 
mi-iwa 


Mu-njwa. 
Mw.ia,Mw-iza 


M-pa 


Mw-iya. Kita. 
D-zala 
g-umba 


Tobacco ... 


M-bake 


Ba-aki 


Tumbakoi 


Kumbaku or 
Kitnbaku 


M-batu 


Kumbaku 


To-day 


OOm-iizi, 00m- 
ubi. Reti. 


Mu-t>eny'uu. 
U-munbi. 
E-ndim<o. 
Mu)-(onbu 


Yeco 


Leco 


Yoxa 


Rerco 



io6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokumco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokumcd 


(Ki-dabida. 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama 
Duruma-Digco) 


Toe 


Lu-ara 


Ki-a ; pi. si-a or 
ci-a 


D-ojwe ja 
ku-gtiii. 
D-cowe la 
ci-guu 


I-nu, Ma-noi 


Ki-caa kya 
ku-yu 


C-ala 


Tomorrow 


Ru-tsiu, Lu-ciu 


U-ni. Oa-ni. 
Ke-cok<a 


Ma-gura. 
Kesu 


Labu or Lau. 
I-ke^cd 


Yawto 


Ma-cerco 


Tongue 


Lu-limi or 


W-imi. 


Cu-imi or 


Lumi ; pi. 


•lumi 


U-limi or 




Rio-rimi 


Ka-nyua. 


J w-imi ; pi. 


c-umi or 




Lu-rimi ; 






N-gumba 


ny-imi 


ny-umi 




n-dimi. Kcolco 


Tooth 


I-gegM or 
I-geyo>; pi. 
ma- 


lyco. Ku-t>ekoj 


Gegco ; rT«a + 


I -gegco or 
I-jegco 


I-jeyco 


Dz-inco. Jegu 


Town 


Mu-jie, Mu-ciyi 


Mu-dzii 


Mu-dzi ; mi- 


Mu-zi. Kaia 


Ki-ongco 


Mu-dzi 


Tree 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 


Mu-ti, M-ti 


Mu-hi ; uii- 


Mw-iti(7/-Mu-di Mu-ti 


Mu-hi 


Twins 


Ma-aza. 


Ma-baba 


Ma-padza, 


M-asa. 


M-aza 


Ma-phatsa or 




Ma-haba, or 




M-patsa 


Ma-hega 




Padza 




Ma-hasa 












Urine 


Ma-zig^uma. 
Ma-bugumu 


Ma-timati 


Mi-kodzco 


M-kcocuco, 
U-gcoco, or 
Ma-gcocu 


M-kuzco 


Ma-kodzeo 


Vein 


Mu-kiha 


Mu-kiba or 
Mu-kiwa 


Mu-sipfa 


C-uga 


... 


Mu-siha 


War 


I-ta. M-bara 


Ka-co 


Vi-ha. 
N-kondco 


Wu-daorU-ta. 
Kondco 


N-gondoj 


Vi-ha. Khondco 


Water 


Ma-e. Rco-e, 
Ru-gi(ila) 


Ma-anzi 


Ma-dzi 


Ma-ji, Ma-ci, or 
Me-ji 


M-bombe 


Ma-dzi 


Well, source, 


Ki-bima 


Ki-bima 


Anga 


Ki-na; vi- 


... 


Ci-sima 


spring 














White man 


M u-zungu 


M u-zungu 


Mu-zuiigu 


M u-zungu 


M-zuingu 


Mu-zungu 


Wife 


Mu-ndu mu-ka 


Ki-beti. Mu-ke 


Mu-ke; wa-ke 


Mu-ke. Mu-ka M-ce 


Mu-ce. M-kaza. 














M-cethu 














{Digoo) 


Wind 


Hehco. 


M-bebea 


Ru-vutoj. 


M-behco 


N-gungu. 


Pehco,Lu-vehco, 




Lco-hugto. 




M-pefco 




M-behco 


Phevco. 




Ru-huhco 










Lavutco. 

Mu-nyefu 


Witch 


Mu-rcogi. 


Mu-g^nga; a-. 


Mu-dzawi, 


M-sabi, 


M-sawi 


Mu-tsawi, 




Mu-ganga 


Mu-oii 


Mu-tsawi 


M-sawi,M-sai 




Mu-dzai. 
Mu-lcozi ' 


Witchcraft 


U-roogi 


U-oii. V-oii 


Dzawi 


U-sabi 


... 


U-tsai. 
U-ganga 


Woman ... 


Ka-regco; tu- 


Mu-ndu mu-ka. 


Mu-ke 


Mu-ke, 


M-ce 


Mu-ce, 




{virgin). Mu- 


Mw-etu 




M-du-mu-ke, 




Dzi-ce, 




hild. Mu-ndu 






Mu-ka 




Ki-ce. 




mu-ka. Ku- 










M-gcoma 




gurra. (I-hu 














= isjovib, preg- 


■ 












nant woman) 












Womb 


I-hu. Ma-la. 
Mfi-pii. 
Ny-ungu 


Ma-a. Me-bi. 
Ki-nu. E-bu. 


Hum bed 


Ki-fu 


N-da 


?-alco, Fi-alco. 
Mimba, 




I-vuni 








Bimba 


Wood (fire- 


Loj-kii;^/. n-gu 


N-gii. E-kie. 


Yu-kumi ; //. 


M-bande. 


N-gwi 


Lu-kuni. 


wood) 




I-kco 


ii-khumi 


N-guni 




Khuni 


Yam 


N-guaci. Ki- 
kera. Ki-koa. 
Ge-kwa ; i-koa 

' Lit. ' the w/iii 


Ki-kwa. I-kwa. 
Ma-kwatsi 

{pi.) 

tier' , from whist 


li?ie^ being associi 


I-kco. I-kajiba 
ted with ivitchcr 


Ki-likwa 

ift. See Zulu. 


Ki-razi. 
Ki-bcomu 



i 



GROUP C: BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



107 



English 



II. 

Kikuyu 

1 1 a. Meru 



12. 
Kamba 



13- 

Pcokcomcd or 

Pfcokcomco 



14. 

Taita 

(Ki-dabida- 

Ki-sagala) 



Taveita 



Mw-aka; 

mi-aka. 

I-mera 
I-ra. I -co {th 

day before) 



Mw-aka 



Mw-aka 



Ki-tnu. Mw-aka Mw-aka 



E-co. N-e<o. Dzana. Tizvax I-gwco, I-gvilco. I-wuca 
(Essea = the (day before) I-juzi {day 

day before") before) 

N-jage, N-jagi N-zai. M-buru M-puru For«, Furoj Lo-itikoa 



16. 

Nika 

(Giryama- 

Duruma-Digw) 



Mw-aka 

Dzana 

Foroj 



One 



E-mu6 Mondi. -mwe Muj-dza -mu, I-mu. M-usi. -mwe ; Mwenga, 

-a dura Mwjeri or mwezu -mwe. M-eosi 

I-mweri. 
Mcoju or 
Mcosi 



Two 


I-hiri (-iri). 
I-giri, Eri 


He, -eri 


-wii 


-pili, -ili, -wi 


Eri, -eri 


H-iri, -iri 


Three 


I-zatu or 
I-bat>u 


-batu or -datu 


•hahu 


-datu or -tatu 


•tatu. N-datu 
and -tutu 


-hahu, -tahu 


Four 


I-nya, -nna 


-nna or -nya 


-ne 


-na, -nya, -ne 


-nne 


I -nne, -ne 


Five 


Izanoj. I-t»anu 


-tanu, -t>anu 


-tsanco 


-sanco 


-sanco 


Tsanco 


Six 


Sasatco. 
I-tandatu. 
-banbatu, 
•t>at>atu 


Xanbatu, 
Xandatu 


Handahu 


-tandatu or 
-zandadu 


Tandatu 


Handahu 


Seven 


N-guanja, 


Mco-anza, 


-fungahe 


M-fungati or 


Fungata. 


Fungahe 




Mu-guanja 


Mii-onza 




M-fungade 


M-fungate 




Eight 


Nyanya, -nana 


Nyanya 


-nane 


-nane or 
-nyanya 


Nane 


H-nane 


Nine 


K-enda 


K-enda 


K-enda 


K-enda, 
I-kenda 


K-enda 


C-enda 


Ten 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Kumi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Kumi. 

Mu-rongco 


Eleven 


I-kumi ne mwe 


I-kumi na 


Kumi na 


I-kumi na 


I-kumi na 


Kumi na 






ki-mwe 


mcodza 


mcojeri. 
I-kumi na 
i-mweri 


mwe. I-kumi 
na-mwezco 


mwenga 


Twenty .. 


Mi-rongto or 


Mi-ongco ele or 


Mi-yongo 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kum'eeri 


Mi-rongco i-ir 




Me-rungeo 


Mi-longco iri 


mi-wii 


nii-ili. 








i-iri or Ma- 






Mi-rongco -iwi 








kumi a-iri 












Thirty 


Mi-rongto 


Mi-ongeo or 


Mi-yongto 


Mi-rongo 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




(Me-rungco) 


Mi-longco 


mi-hahu 


mi-tatu. 


ma-tutu 


mi-hahu 




i-tatco or 


i-tatu 




Mi-rongco 








Ma-kumi 






i-dadu or 








a-tato3 






Ma-kumi 
a-dadu 






Forty 


Ma-kumi a-nna 


Mi-ongco i-nya 


Mi-yoiigco 


M i-roiigco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




or Me-rung&> 




m-ine 


mi-ne(wi-na) 


ma-nne 


mi-ne. 




i-nna 






or Ma-kumi 
nii-ne or a-na 




Ma-kumi 
ma-ne 


Fifty ... . 


Me-rungco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-yongco 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




i-tanco 


i-banco 


mi-tpanco 


mi-sanu, os^c. 


ma-sanco 


mi-tsanco 


Sixty ... . 


Me-rungco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-yongco 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




i-tandatu 


bandatu 


mi-handahu 


i-randadu 


tandatu 


mi-handahu 




(i-t>at>atu) 












Seventy . 


Me-rungco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-yongco 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




mu-gwanja 


monza 


mi-fungahe 


ni-fungate,&^f 


fungata 


mi-fungahe 



io8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcakumu or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




II a. Meru 




Pfukwmcd 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Eighty ... 


Me-rungo» 


Miongca 


Mi-yongos 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi nane 


Mi-rongco 




i-nana 


nyanya 


mi-nane 


wu-nyaaya, 
Mi-rongto 




mi-nane 


Ninety 


Me-rungto 


Mi-onga» 


Mi-yongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




k-enda 


k-enda 


k-enda 


ik-enda, b'c. 


k-enda 


cenda 


Hundred . . . 


I-gana 


1-yana ; pi. 
ma-yana or 
m-ana 


Gana ; ma- 


I-gana 


rana, I-yana 


Gana 


Thousand ... 


Giri 


M-ana 
ma-kumi 


(Arabk) 


Ma-gana 
i-kumi 


Ma-yana 
ma-kumi. 
Ki-hinde ; 
vi-hindi 


Ma-gana kumi 


I, me, my ... 


Nie. N-, Ne-. 


Ni-nye. N-,Ni-. 


Ami, Mimi. 


Imi, Ini. N-. 


Mi. N-. ^ 


Mimi, Minco. 




-nd-, -nj-, -ng-. 


-nye. -ni-, -n-. 


Ni-, Ny-. 


-n-. -a-ngu, 


-ni-. -a-ngu 


Ni-, N-. 




-a-kwa 


-a-kwa 


•ni-. -a-ngu 


-a-p<o, -a-pwa 




-mi.ni-.-a-ngu 


Thou, thee. 


Wee. U-, 0).. 


We, .Ni-we. 


Awe. Wewe. 


Uwe, OOhto, 


We, Uwe. U-, 


Uwe. U-, 00-. 


thy 


■ku.. -a-ku 


U-. 


U-, Ku-. 


a)ku. Ku-, U-. 


Wu-. 


-we-, -co. 






-we. -ku-. -go>. 


-ku-. -a-kto 


-ku-. -kco,-a-k<o 


-ku-. -a-k«o 








-k(o 










He, him, his 


CO-ria, Ulia. 


Uya, US, Miya. 


Jeje, Cece. 


I-ye or Uco. 


Ye, lye. E-, 


lye. Yu-, U-, 




A-. 


Yeyai. Ya-, 


Ka-, A-. 


CO., U-, A-. 


A-. 


A-. 




•nye. -mu-. 


A.. 


-mu-. -a-kwe 


-mu-. -a-ke 


-mi-, -mu-. 


-ye, -e(ze). 




-a-ke 


-m-, -mu-. 
-a-kwe 






-a-kwe 


-mu-. -a-kwe 


We, us, our 


I-zwe. I-bui 


Ibie. Oibi. Tu-, 


Swiswi. Swi-. 


I-si. Di.,D-,Ti-, 


U-swi. Tu-. 


Siswi, Swiswi, 




Tco-, Tu-. 


Ti-, I-tu. 


Hu.. 


T-. 


•tu-. -etu 


Si-iKo, Fwi. 




■tu-. -itu 


-ti. -tu-. -itu 


-hu-. -ehu 


•di-, -ti-. -edu, 
-du 




Wu-, U-, Hu-, 

Fw-. 

•swi. -hu-. -ehu 


Ye, you, your 


I-ngui, 


I-nyui. Mu-. 


Nywinywi. 


I-nyu. Mu-. 


U-nywi, 


Ninwi, 




I-nyuwe. Mu-. 


■mu-. -inu 


Mu-. 


-m-, -mu-. 


U-nwi. Mu.. 


Mwinwi. Mu-, 




-mu- (?). 




•mu-. -enu 


-enyu 


-m-, -mu-. 


Ny-. 




-a-nyu 








-enyu 


-nwi. -mu-, 
-m-. -enu 


They, them, 


Aria, Weu, 


Wa, Acoj, 


Waco. Wa- 


A-wa, A-wco. 


Waco. Wa-. 


Aco, A-ntu. Ma-. 


their 


Wa«. Maco-, 
Ma-. 
•wa-,-ma-. -a-co 


Andua. Asu. 

Ma-. 

-ceo. -a-. -co<o 


•wa^. -a-co 


Wa-, Wi.. 
-wa-, -wi-. 
-a-w<o, -a-vwe 


-wa-. -a-wco 


-CO. -a-, -a-co 


All 


•obe or -ose, 
ose (2), y-ose 
(4), m-ose (6), 
y-ose (8), 
ci-ose (10), 
t-ose (12), 
w-ose (14), 
h-ose (16), 
kw-ose (15) 


-onbe, -unde 


-onse, is'c. 
Pia 


•<ose. Putu 


-5se 


-cosi, -cosini 


This, these 


Uyu, awa or 


Uu or uyu, aa 


Hu-yu, ha-wa ; 


U-ti, u-yu, u-hu; 


Uu, awa, &'c. 


Yuyu, aa ; uii. 




aa ; uyu, ii ; 


or aya ; iiii. 


Hu^fi, hi^i ; 


a-wa ; u-gu. 




ii : riri, gaga ; 




riri, yaya or 


ii; ii, gaa; 


Hi^di, ha-ya ; 


u-YU ; ii ; i-li ; 




kiki, vivi ; ii. 




ama ; keki, 


ki-ya, i-ya ; 


hi-ci, hi-vi ; 


a-ya ; i-ki ; 




zizi; lulu; uu; 




ii ; ii, cici ; 


i-ya, zi-ya or 


hi^i, hi-zi ; 


i-vi; &c. 




kaka ; iiu ; 




rcorco ; tcotco ; 


zizi; uii; tw-ii; 


hu-yu ; hu-u 






kuku ; haha 




kaka ; uwu ; 


ki-i;uu;kw-aa, 


(I2|, ha-ka; 






(vava) ; 




kuku; haha 


wa-a, mw-aa 


hii-u ; hu-ku ; 
ha-fa ; hu-mu. 






mumu. 



GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



109 





II. 




2. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


• Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pukwmu or 


Taita 


Taveila 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 






Pfukcomoi 


(Ki-dabida- 




(Giryama- 












Ki-sagalaJ 




Duruma-Oigu) 


This, these 




U-yu, 


a-wu, 




U-o) or U-yco ; 




I -ye, aco, uw<o. 


(continued) 




u-yu, 


-yu, ^'c. 




a-wu ; u-gu 
or u-yco; i-yeo; 




iyoo, rireo, <5^'i^. 
-no> (yu-nco, 
a-nco, u-nco, 
i-nto, df^c.) 


That, those 


U-ria or (x)-ria, 


Uu-ya, 


aa-ya, 


Huyu-de, hawa- 


U-lya or u-ja ; 


• ■• 


Ye-,«-, 




a-ria ; u-ria. 


iSi^r. 




de (or huyu-le, 


wa-lya or 




yu-ya. 




i-ria ; ri-ria, 






hawa-le), huu- 


wa-ja ; gu-ja 




yu-yathu. 




ma-ria; ki-ria, 






dc, hii-de, &'c. 


or Yu-lya ; d^c. 




yu-yahu ; 




i-ria ; i-ria, 












a-riat'u, 




ci-ria ; rcD-ria; 












a-riahu ; 




tco-ria; ka-ria; 












u-riat'u, 




u-ria ; ku-ria ; 












i-riahu; d^c. 




ha-ria 












Hi-(Hi-yu,Hi-a; 
hi-u,hi-i; hi-ri, 
hi-ga ; hi-ki, 
hi-vi ; hi-i, 
hi-zi ; hi-lu; 
hi-vco ; dr'c. : 
also Hi-ca, 
Hi-rco, &'c.) 



Bad 



-ru, -uru. -buku -bugu. Tabisie, -suka or -zuka -lagelage. 
-vii -wasi 



-wiwi 



•ii 



Black 


-iru, -wiru 


-ziu, -wiu 


-euzi 


\y-ilu ; -a c-ilu 


-jiru 


Ny-iru, -iru 


Female 


-ka 


-ka 


-ke. -koave 


-ke. -awaka 


-ce 


ce. -te. -aci 
(sheep), -bice 
(cattle). -garaa. 
(cattle and hu- 
mans) 


Fierce 


-guruki. -cogi 

(-ri = sharp) 


-buku 


•kali 


-abili or -birie. 
-fia 


-ekahe 


•siru 


Good 


-ega, -wega. 
■sima 


-ze&j, -cecij 


-ema 


Ki-rani, -rani. 
-Icoli. -ica. 
-boie 


-edi 


■dzu or -dzu 


Great 


■nene 


-nene 


-kuu. Bora 


-mbwaha, 
-bwaha 


-baha 


•bumu. -nene 


Little 


-nyinyi, -nini 


-nini, Kanini 


-cucu 


-cace. -tini 


-dongu 


•tite, -dide. 
-tembe 


Long, high, 


-raia 


-wasa, -atsa. 


-yeya 


-lele. -laca 


-eza or -weza 


-re 


tall 




-bangau 










Male 


-rume 


-ume, -umiu 


•yume 


■lume- 
-a -wumi, 
•vumi 


-ume 


■lume, -dume 


Old 


-kuru, -tiuri. 


-ku, -nu, -tene 


•zee. -kuru 


-a kala or 


-a kae. 


-kare. -kuru. 




Ki-heti 5 






Kale. -fwie. 


-a-sakaa 


-vedi 5 
•kongwe, 








N-keku.-gcosi. 












Ki-demco 




-konga 


Red 


-tune, -tuni 


N-duune. 
M-weo> 


•kundu 


Ngundu, 
M -kundu 


-ii-kundu 


-tune, -dune, 
-kundu 


Rotten ... 


-uru or -buba 


-kico. -kigu. 
-ctou, -oju 


-lafa. -wuwa 


-tula, -worie 


-a kuwua 


•ula 


Short 


-kuhi 


-kupi 


-fufi 


-fupi 


-fuhi 


•fuhi or-ixAi. 


Sick 


-ruaru, -dwari. 
-rimu. 

Mo-ruaru 


.Mu-wao 


-cwaa, -jwaazi 


-konkwa, 
■koiigu 


-cwajua 


•IVl 

•gongoj, 
•kongu 



no 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



II. 

Kikuyu 

II a. Meru 



13. 

Kamba 



13- 

Poikcomca or 

Pfcokcomco 



14. 
Taito 

(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 



15- 
Taveita 



16. 

Nika 

(Giryama- 

Duruma-Digco) 



White 



au, -eu. -kundu (?) 


•nange. 


Mw-au, Nz-au (-zeru = holy, 


-cojkwa. 


pure) 


Mny-ange 



•ewa. Dy-ewa -eruve, -aruhe 



Above, up, on 

top 
Before 


I -guru 


Ulu, yulu 


Dzuu 


I-gulu 


Wanga 


Dzulu 


M-bere. Tene 


M-bee 


Usconi. Mbee 


M-bele 




M-bere 


Behind ... 


TSuta 


Edina 


Mo-ongoni wa-. 
N-sing6> ya 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 
Nga-luku 


Ny-uma 


Below, down 


Xini. TJi. 
Ruiigu. Cini 


Pa-anbi, 
N-Wni 


Dzi or Tsini 


M-saittge-ni. 
I-si 


Si 


Tsini 


Far 


Ko-raiya 


Ku-atsa 


Kuye 


Ku-lele, Kula 


Hae 


Kure 


Here 


Hafaa 


Vaa 


Habfa 


Aha 


Aha 


Hiva. Haha. 
Vava. Hanu 


In, inside ... 


-a beni. Xeni, 


N-janue. 


-ni. Ku-zimu 


-a n-denji. 


N-deni 


N-dani. Mu-, 




■ini 


N-dini ya 




Ko-mweni, 
A-mweni 




-mco 


Middle ... 


N-gatigati or 
Katikati 


Kati. 
Vco-kati 


Kahikahi 


Gati 


... 


Kahikahi 


Near 


-a ha-kuhi 
(•kubi) 


Pa-kupi 


Ha-fufi 


Ka-vui 


... 


Yevi, Hehi 


Outside ... 


N-ja. Ku-uma. 
Xima 


N-dza 


Yawa. Nse 


?i-gati 


^i-gati. Scome 


Ndze. Ku-nze 


Plenty, many 


•ingi 


•ingi. M-wita 


•inji 


•engi, -ingi- 
Lulilcoli 
Ahu. Alya. 


Fwanda 


-engi. Abau 


There 


Ku-ria. Ha-ria 


Waya. Ekuu 


Hu-kude. 


Hala 


Hariathu. -ku. 






Ku-ya 


Ha-bfade 


U-kco. Kulya 
Aja 




Vara. Hikco. 
Hahco. Vco. 
Kura 


Where? ... 


•ha?, -ka? 
Me-ha ? 
Me-ku? 


Na-ku?, -iba? 


Ku ?, kuni ? 


Hiyu? Hacd? 


Hi? 


Lavi ?, -hi ? 
Hikco? 


No! 


N-di-6ta ! Aca ! 
Kco-ti-ri ! 


Tiwco! 


Si-oy<o ! 


lii ! Haiya ! 
Mbai : 


Hai ! Si ! 


Mbai! Ha;a! 
Dzi! 


Not {with verb 


Ti-, -di, -ti 


Ti- (di-), -ti-, 


Si-, Ku-, Ka-. 


Si, Si-, Su-, 


■ •> 


Si, Si-, Zi-. 


as prefix, in- 




-ta- or -da- 


Ta-hu-. Ta- 


Sa- 




Kha-, Kh'-, 


fix, or suffix) 






mu-, Ta-wa. 
Too- (Tail), Te- 
(Tai),Ta-,6^f. 






ThA-, -ba 


To 


Kw-, Ku-, Gu- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-gcoba. -hora 


-kuna. -vcoa. 
-kanya 


-biga 


-kwita 


-biga 


-piga 


„ buy, sell 


•gura 


-ua. -feoja 


-guya 


-gula 


■ztora 


-gula 


„ come ... 


-coka, -ka 


■uka 


-dza 


-ja 


-za 


-dza 


„ cut 


-tema. -tinda 


-dila 


-huna 


-sinja. -dema 


-tema 


-tsinsa. 
-dema, -tema 


„ dance ... 


-bwiiba. -ina 
or -wina 


-songa. -ina(7> 
-taojka. 
-kuina 


- -Vina 


■haka 


-toruka 


-zaziga 


„ die ... 


-kua 


-kwa 


-fwa 


-fwa 


-fwa 


-fa 


„ eat 


■ria 


-ya.lika.-ums 


L -ca, -ja 


•jiga 


-la 


-rya 


„ give ... 


•hee. -ruta 


-nenga 


-bfa. -yavya 


-hawa 


-inga 


-va 


1. go 


-tiie, -zie, 
•inuka. -cera 


■enda. -bi 


-enda 


-gala 


-tonga 


-enda. -hua. 
-enenda. 
-hamba, 
-tamba. -laa 



GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



III 







II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 




English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomu or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 






1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcomcd 


(Ki-dabida^ 
Ki^sagala) 




(Giryama. 
Duruma-Digu) 


To 





Ko)-, Ku-, Gu- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


tJ 


kill ... 


■uraga. -urra 


■aa. -dila 


•yaga 


•laga. •pinja 


•kcoma 


•ulaga. 
•tsindza 


»» 


know ... 


■menya. 
■igua. -oi 


■dzi. -manya. 
-ese 


•dzi. .manya. 
■hambuya 


•manya 


•tisiwa 


•manya 


JJ 


laugh ... 


•tieka 


■t>eka 


•dzeka 


-seka 


-seka 


•tseka 


)> 


leave oif, 
cease 


■tig^. -lekia 


•eka, lekya 


•yadza 


•siga 


■piya 


•rica, •rega. 
•laca. -sia, 
-sika 


)> 


love,want 


■enda 


-kyenda, 
•enda 


•enda. .dzaka 


•saya 


•kunda, 
•kundie 


■hendza. 
•kunda 


)) 


see 


-ona. -rora 


■ona. -dzidza 


•cona 


•ona. -leola 


•wcona. 
•iyuwa 


•ona. .Iwla 


»» 


sit, remain, 
abide 


•ikara 


■ekala 


•kaa 


•kala, -kata 


•ikaa 


•sagala, -sala. 
•kala 


J» 


sleep . . . 


■kcoma. 
-cunga 


■mama, 
■kcoma. 
■likwa 


•sindzia. 
■yala 


•tungura 


•pinzia 


-lala 


JJ 


stand,stop, 
be erect 


■rugama 


■mama, 
•umama. 
•ungema, 
•ufigama, 
•umana 


•sumama 


•kaa kimu-si 


^•scoma 


•ima 


J) 


steal ... 


•iya 


•ya. nea. ngea 


•iwa 


■iva 


•iwa 


•ia, iya 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KIKUYU AND MERU 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mat-, Mu., M'^ (mu-, yu-, u-, (o-) ; 2. A. (a-) ; 3. Mco., Mu. (mu-, u-) ; 4. Me., Mi^ (mi-, i-) ; 
5. TJi-?, Ri-, Di., I. (ri-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-, a-) ; 7. KL, Ke-, Ge^, Gi^ (ki-) ; 8. !• (i-) ; 9. — , N., J^, Ny^ 
(i-, n-) ; 10. — , N-, Ny^, Ci^ (pi. also to i and 7) (ci-) ; 11. Rco., Ru^, Lu. (rto-, ru-) ; 12. Tco- (t(o-, tu-) ; 
13. Ka. (ka-) ; 14. (X>; XJ- (u-) ; 15. Ku-, Kco- (ku-) ; 16. Ha. (ha-); (17. only represented by the 
suffix -ini). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KAMBA 

Class 1. Mu., M. (mu-, m-, yu-, u-); 2. A- (a-) ; 3. Mu- M. (mu-, m-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 5. I. 
(i-, di-) ; 6. Ma. (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Ki. (ki-, ci-) ; 8. L, TJi- (i-, ic-) ; 9. N- (M^), -, Ny- (n-, i-) ; 10. N. (M-), 
— ,Nz^,Ny. (n-, ny-,zi-, ci-); 11. U.(u-,ni-) ; 12. Tu. (tu-) ; 13. Ka^ (ka-) ; 14. U. (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 
16. Pa., Va-, Wa^ (pa-, va-, wa-) ; (17. represented only by suffix ■ini). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN POOKOOMO) 

Class I. Mu-, M^ (mu-, yu-, ju-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi-(mi-,i-); 5. — ,Dzi-, 
Dz- (di-) ; 6. Ma. (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Ki- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Vi. (vi-) ; 9. N. (M^), Ny^, — (n- (m), i-, yi-) ; 10. Ny, 
N-, — (n- (m-),zi-); 11. Yu^, U^,Reo. (oM/orm) (yu-, ju-) ; 12. U- (u-) ; 13. Ka., K'.(ka-); 14. U; (u-) ; 
15. Ku. (ku-) ; 16. Fa- or Pfa- (fa-) ; 17. Mu- (mu-, -mu, -mco ; -ni). 

I 2 



112 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



PREFIXES, &C., IN TAITA 

A trace of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-, yu-, hu-) ; 2. Wa-, Va- (wa-, va-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, gu-, -yu-) ; 4. Mi- 
(mi-, i-); 5. Iri-,I-, Ji-, Izi- (li-, ji-,j-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-, ya-) ; 7- Ki-(ki-); 8. Vi-(vi-); 9. Ny-, N-,— 
(n-, i-) ; 10. Ny-, N-, Nyu-, Cu- (n-, ci- ?, ri-) ; 1 1. Lu-, Leo- (lu-) ; 12. Du-, Di-, Ru- (?) (du- ?) ; 13. Ka- 
(ka-) ; 14. U-, Wu-, Vu- (u-, vu-, yu-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha-, A- (ha-, ku-) ; 17. — (-ni or -nyi) ; and 
traces of a La- prefix in Taita and Nika. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN TAVEITA 
Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 5. I-, Iji-, Ni-? 
(li-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a-) ; 7. Nki- ?, Ki- (ki-) ; 8. Vi-, Wi- (vi-) ; 9. N- (M-), Ny-, — (n-, i-) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny-, 
— (n-, ji- orz\-) ; 11. Lu- (lu-) ; 12. Tu- (tu-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. Wu- (wu-,u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- 
(ha-) ; 1 7. absent ? represented by locative suffix, -ni or -ini. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN NIKA 

Class 1. Mu-, M- (mu-, yu-, w-) ; 2. A- (a-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 5. Ri-', Dzi-' 

(ri-, i-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga-) ; 7. Ki-, C, Ci- (ki-, c'-) ; 8. Vi-, Z^- (vi-, ^•-) ; 8 a. Vi-, Fi- Cvi-, fi-) ; 9. N- (M-), 

Ny'-, — (n- (m-), nyi-, i-) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny'-, — (n-, nyi-, zi-) ; 11. Lu-, Ru- (lu-, ru-) ; 12". U- (u-) ; 

13. Ka- (ka-) 14. U- (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- (ha-); 17. Mu- (mu- ; -ni). Traces of La- prefix. 



11. Kikuyu is spoken in the Kikuyu highlands, between Upper River Tana, and the Meru and Nyeri 
districts north-east and north-west of the northern slopes of Mount Kenya ; south-west, to the vicinity 
of Nairobi ; eastwards, to the TSeraka country. The Meru dialect (11 a) is said to be markedly distinct. 
It is spoken in the north-east portion of the Kikuyu area. The dialects of Kikuyu proper (which — 
standard Kikuyu — is the Kiambu of Fort Hall) are the following, according to Capt. G. St. J. Orde- 
Browne :— Nyeri (north-west Kikuyu); Ndia (south-west Kikuyu); Embu (Cuka, Mwimbe, Emberre, 
"Ceraka, and IgoDJi, east and south-east Kikuyu) ; and 1 1 a, Meru, or north-east Kikuyu. 

12. Kamba is spoken in Ukambani, between the Tana river on the north and the Ofigujlea hills near 
Kilimanjarco on the south. It is boimded on the west by Kikuyu and on the east by the Gala, Pcokcomo), 
and Giriama tribes. 

13. Pukcomo) is spoken in the country along both banks of the Lower Tana, behind the coast-belt. 

14. Taita is spoken in the Taita hills south of Ukambani, west of Giriama, east of Taveita and 
Kilimanjaro). 

15. Taveita is spoken in the Taveita settlement, south-east of Kilimanjaro). 

16. Nika is spoken in the coast country behind the Swahili fringe, from the Sabaki river on the north 
to beyond the Umba river in the south. 

» PL No. 4, Mi.. » ? 14. PL to Ka-. 



GROUP D 

THE KILIMANJARO) LANGUAGES 

17. Caga(Mosi or Ki-meoci) 

17 a. Ki-siha or ^ira 17c. Ki-rombu 

17 b. Ki-macame 176. Ki-meru 

18. Pare-Gwenw 

1 8 a. C-asu 



GROUP E 

THE USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



19. 

19 a. 


^ambala 
Bondei 






20. 


Zigula 








20 a. Nguru 
20 b. Ki-deoe 


20 c. 


Ki-kwere 


20 d. 


Kim-iima (Li: 


ma) 







17. 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &>£. 


Pare'-Gwenw 
18 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dtoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Animal, wild 


Nyama.Indco; 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama,Z-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. Kala 


Ny-ama 


beast 


ma-ndco 












Ant 


M-bwine.Safu. 


Ma-cici. Ma-ra. 


Cungu. Silafu 




Silafu. 


• ■■ 




Malw-ondto, 


N-geni. Safu, 






Utilitili. 




I 


N-ondto. 


Kcokombirco 






U-sawa 




1 


Faafu 












Ant, white 


M-sora. 


M-sau 


Mu-pwa 


M-swa 


M-swa 


■ •• 


(termite) 


N-sau (17 b). 












Sawa (17 d). 














M-keni (17 c). 














N-keoki (17 a) 












Arm 


Ku-wcdkco; ma-. 
CO-ojkco ; p/. 
ma-wkco or 
ma-akco (17a, 
b). M-ktonco 


M-ko>nu ; mi-. 
Ku-wcoku ; 

ma- 


Mu-kunco; mi- 


Mu-kconco ; mi- 


M-kojnoj 


Mu-kconco ; mi- 


Arrow 


M-fe. "M-fi. 


Mu-vwi ; mi- 


M-uvi, Z-uvi ; 


M-dali, M-sale. 


M-dali. M-sale. 


■ •• 




M-bale ; fi-ale 




m-pale. 


Hcosa ; ma + . 


M-fulw 






(17 d). 




(M-teg<o = 
trap-arrow) 


Golwa ; ma-f 
(wooden 
tipped). 
Ki-gumba 

(iron tipped) 






Axe, adze ... 


^ka ; ma- 


Zcoka ; ma -(- . 


Sezcd ; ma + . 
Ccoka. 


Hoya. 


Hoiya. Sezu. 


... 




s«ka. Ki-aara 


Ka-zcoka ; vu- 


U-hamba. 


Ki-huju. 




1 


//. fi-(l7d) 




Hoya ; ma + . 
Gembe; ma + . 
M-bajco 


M-kumco. 

Gembe, 

Jembe 


Gembe 




Baboon 


I-fie (17 d). 
I-fubi or 
I-fuwe 


I-puve (18 a). 
I -fcdlongu. 
Jcobco ; ma -f 


Ny-ani 




Ny-ani 


... 


Back 


M-ongco. 
Mu-hongco 


M-Yongoj 


Mu-gongo> 


Mu-gongw 


Mu-gongoa 


M-gongco 


Banana . . . 


I-ruu. I-ruYii; 


RiiYu;ma-ru-yu. 


Huti. Tonte. 


Huti ; ma -^ . 


Tonte; ma-f. 


... 




ma-. I-kundu 


En-didi 


Bcoku. 


Tonte ; ma -f . 


Tundwi, 






(17) {/ree). 




Mu-dizi. 


Tindi; ma-f 


1vaA.\(=tree). 






Nida (17 a). 




Mu-hoyco 


(tree) 


Huti (unripe) 




Beard 


N-gereroo. 
Ki-leri (17 d) 


Kcdlcd ; ma + 


Dezu 


N-devu; 
ma-devu 


N-devu 


... 


Bee 


N-juki. Suki. 
piki (17 d) 


N-juki 


N-yuki 


N-ytoki 


N-yuki 


... 


BeUy 


N-deu 


N-denyi. 
Ki-fii 


Tumboo 


I-fu 


Tumbto, 
Utumbw. I-fu 


I-nda ; //. 
zi-nda 


Bird 


Ndehe; fi-lehe 
or N-dee ; 
fi-lee. Ki-lehe; 
pi-. Ki-te; vi- 


N-deye 


N-dege 


N-dege 


M-dege 


N-dege 




(17 c). 


' M-pale is 


the correct form 


of the name. 







114 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, 6^c. 


Pare-Gwenoa 
1 8 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Jfguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Blood 


M-samu.U-sau 


Tsakame 


Sakami. 
M-p<ome 


P'come 


Sakame 




Body 


Ny-imbi. 


M-wiri; mi- 


Mu-ili<7rN-wili Mu-ili ; mi- 


M-wili 






Mu-ili.M-bihu 














(17). M-bili 












Bone 


I-fuo. I-fua. 
I-fuha 


I-7ua 


Mu-vuha 


Ki-vuha 


Vuha; ma-f 




Bow 


U-ha. VVu-da 
(17). U-rara 
(17 d) 


Wu-ra 


Luu-ta 


U-ta 


U-ta 




Bowels ... 


Ma-ula 


... 


I-fu 


I-fu ; ma- 


Ma-fu (I-fu). 
Ki-nkufiku 




Borassuspalm 


Sawerco 


N-dcogco; ma-f 


Mu-vumco 


M-bumco 


M-sala? 
Mw-andu.' 




Brains 


0-rongci>, //. 
nyo-. (Kibco- 
longeij=ji'«//) 


U-fura ; ma-f 


Uw-ongco 


Uw-ongco ; pi. 
b-ongco 


Ubw-ongto; //. 
mb-ongco 




Breast (man's) 


M-bafu ; ma-. 
Ki-ala ; pi-ala 


M-bafu 


Ki-fua. 


Ki-fua 


Ki-fuwa 




Breast 


I-vele, I-wehe ; 


Ki-kombe 


Tombto ; ma -f . 


Tombco 


Tombco 




(woman's) 


ma-. 

Ki-beeta ; si-. 
Ki-bojta; 
fi-bcota 




Ki-wele 








Brother ... 


N-dehe (0/ii 


M-dw-eru ; //. 


N-dugu. 


N-dugu 


N-dugu. 


N-dugu 




Caga). Mco- 


wa-dw-eru 


Lumbu. 




M-kulu. 






nco. Wa-ma, 




Mu-kulu. 




M-vuna. 






Mw-anama. 




Nw-ene-tu 




Mw-en'-etu 






Mw-ana-n-die 












Buffalo ... 


M-btixa, 
M-buhco, 
M-b<ogto 


M-bcoYco 


M-bcogoj 


M-bcogco 


M-bcogco 


... 


Bull 


Sau, N-^au 


N-sato, 


N-kambaku. 


Kambaku. 


N-jeka. 


N-ombe dume 




Kin-saco 


Tule. N-dama 


N-gombe 


N-g^ulumale 










ijuv.) 


fi-gtosi 






Buttocks ... 


Ma-dakco. 
O-rumco. 
Ki-sia. 
Ki-irarco. 
Ki-ruaruco. 
Ma-tulu 


^i-ndikcd. 
M-bweca 


Tako ; ma- 




Ma-takco 




Canoe 


N-galawa, 
Ngilawa 


... 


Dalu ; ma- 


Dalu ; ma + 


M-tumbwi 


... 


Cat 


N-kite. Paka 
or M-paka 


M-nyau 


M-nyaco. 
Con j we 


M-nyaco 


M-nyau 


... 


Charcoal ... 


I-kaa ; ma-kaa 




Ma-kaa 


Ma-kala 




... 


Chief 


Mange, Maiigi Maiigi ; wa + . 


Z-umbe. 


Z-umbe ; ma-f 


Z-umbe. 


J-umbe 






Mambco. 


M-fumwa 




M-temi. 








M-gcosi ; wa-. 






M-fumwa 








M-fumwa 










Child 


M-butu. 


Kamw-ana ; 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 




M-kcoku. 


wa + . 


m-kebe. Kaz- 


Mw-ana 


m-teke. 






M-ana,M-cona, 


£m-dconi 


anaka-kebej. 


m-teke 


M-dcodco 






Mw-ana, 




Ka-zana 










Uw-ana. 














K-csna ; wa- 














kcana 













GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



"5 



English 



17- 
Caga, &=<:. 



l8. 

Pare-Gwenci) 

1 8 a. C-asu 



19- 
Sambala 



19 a. 
Bondei 



20. 

Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-due 

20 c. Ki-kwere 



20 d. 
Kim-rima 

(Lima) 



Cloth 



Coco-nut palm 
Cold 



Country 



Cow ... 



Crocodile 



Date palm... 



Day 



Devil 



Doctor 
Dog ... 

Donkey 

Door ... 
Dream 

Drum ... 
Ear ... 



N-gruwco. 

Scjori. 

N-setcj ; mi-. 

Swaari 
M-site 
M-behco, Beco. 

M-biu. Ki-sie 

{17 a) 
U-ruka ; ma-. 

CO-ruka ; 

njo-ruka. 

I-sanga; ma- 
Mbe. N-ombe 

N-gumbe 

(17 b). 

N-umbe(i7d). 

N-ube (17 c). 

Umbe (17 a) 
Ki-nyanu; pi-. 

Ki-nyau ; fi-. 

Ki-nyah. 

Ki-nyani 
I-kangaci, 

Y-angaji. 

I-harara 
Nkojnu. 

N-saniii. 

Suku. M-firi. 

N-yimco ; pi. 

m-umco 
A-sukoi or 

Wu-sukoj. 

U-sukwa. 

U-ketco. 

U-kwale. 

Mu-rumu ; 

va-, wa-, or 

ba- 
Mw-aiiga, 

N-ganga 
1-kite ; ma-. 

M-bara. 

Ki-ite ; fi-ite 
N-dzoi. 

I-cungu. I-se 

Mw-ongto. 

Mw-aiigco 
I-lcodia or 

Nya-lo>dia. 

J-oria. 

N-ducosco 
N-gcoma. 

M-tiiigco 
Ku-du. Ku-rui. 

Ku-hi (17 a) 



N-guweo. puke, Guni Nguwco. 

Scoori. N-sori finnJ 



M-behto 
1-sanga 



Mu-nazi 
M-pehco 

Ni-pi 



Guni 

M-nazi; mi- 
M-pehto 



Ufi-umbe. Gcoma. N-ombe mo- 

Ki-nombe M-buguma. yele 

Mcdli (piv.) 



Ki-nyana ; vi- Mamba Mamba. 

Bcomu 



I-vangaci Mu-sala 



M-firi. Mu-si; Mu-pi. Siku. Siku 
mi-si (Mu-pi = day- 

light) 



Swi ; ma -f- M-pepo> 



M-pepw 



Suke 



Nazi 

Pehu. M-pehco 

Si 



N-ombe. 
M-buguma. 
Muli 



Mamba 



M-sala 



Siku. M-si, 
(Zuwa = day- 
light) 



M-pep<o 



Mu-yanga M-sangi 

Kite. I-gureo Kuli Kuli 

Z«e, N-zeoe Jcowe. N-j«awe 

M-punda. 

Ki-hongwe 
Mw-angco Lu-uvi M-langco. 

L-uvi ; ny-uvi 
N-dorco Scdzi. N-doot« Scozi ^^rN-jcozi 



N-gtoma 

Ku-rwi. 
1-sikico; 
ma-siki<i] 



N-gcoma 
Gu-twi 



N-guma 
Gu-twi 



N-ombe 

m-twanzi or 
M-buguma 



Kuli. M-bwa. Mbwa 
Si-kcoko> 



N-jcowa. 
M-punda 

L-uvi. 

M-langco 
Scozi ; ma- 



N-gcoma 
Gu-twe 



M-punda 



Gw-itwe 



ir6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


i8. 


19- 


19a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &'c. 


Pare-Gwenco 

l8 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcae 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Egg 


Li-borto. 


I -bore 


Tagi 


Tagi 


Tagi 






I -bar we. 














I -bore. 














N-gMJeo, 














In-go>^u 












Elephant ... 


^ufu. N-dufu, 


N-jtofu 


Temboa, 


N-thembco. 


N-tembea. 


• •■ 




N-joafu 




N-temboj 


Soavu 


ffgcagcami 




Excrement 


Ma-rifi, 
Ma-difl, Ma-fi, 
Ma-tufi. 
Ki-ala, Ki- 
rapi, Ki-rarco 


Ma-rifi, Fari 


Ma-vi 




Ma-vi 




Eye 


Ir-isco. R-iscd 


R-isco ; m-esca 


Z-ipto 


Z-ipco or T-isco ; 
m-esco 


Z-isci>. M-esca 


L-isco or S-isu 
M-esco 


Face, forehead Ki-amu ; f\- or 


Ki-amu 


C-ene; vy-ene 


C-ene; vy- 


U-soa 


*.. 




h-. Ki-sangu; 














fi- 












Tat 


Ma-fuha, Ma- 
fura, Ma-fuda. 
Ka-nda. 
Sunya 


Ma-fura 


Ma-vuta 


Ma-vuta 


Ma-vuta. 
Lii-gala. 
N-gulunya 


**t 


Father 


Baba. Wan-de. 


N-dica. Vava. 


Tate. Isco, 
Ipe 


Tate. Isca 


Tate. Isco, 


Tata 




N-deco, N-die. 


Apaa (i8a). 




Ise 






N-deye 


N-dica-fu), 












N-die 










Fear 


W-ilai. 0-wu. 
Wu-oawu. 
Wu-hcowa 


J-cawcoha 


OOga 


U-coga 


W-oaga 


• •■ 


Finger 


'Nni. Kimu-nu. 
Kimu-nyco, 
Ki-nyco. 

Mu-nco 


M-nywi. 
Fi-cala. 
Mu-nyu 


C-ala ; vy-ala 


C-ala ; vy- 


(?) //. Deole 




Fire 


M-ohco. 
M-odco. 

Mu-rca 


M-oru 


Mu-otto 


M-otoa 


M-otco 


M-5tco 


Fish 


I-kunga 


N-kunga 


Fi 


Fi ; mafi. 
Gcabu 


Ny-ama ya 
ma-zi. M-bisi 


... 


Foot 


Ku-dende. 


Ku-rende. 


Mu-lundi. 


Mu-lundi 


Ki-g^a ? Ha-za. 


Mu-gulu; mi- 




U-rende. 


Ku-mui ; //. 


Lu-ayoa. 




Lw-ayco 






tO-woo. 


ma-mui 


M-kcanca 










Nya-wayci>. 














Nu-tufii (Aee/) 












Forest 


M-sudu. 
N-gera. 
N-goroapto. 
N-gumi, 
N-gudu 


Ki-amrco 


Mu-zitu 


M-zitu 


M-bagu 




Fowl 


N-gnuku 


N-guku 


N-guku 


N-guku 


N-guku 


>• . 


Frog 


N-geli. I-lcura 
Kiloa. 
Ngwale. 
I-kilwa 


I-reome 


J-ula 


J-'ula 


J-ula 




Ghost 


Mu-rumu; va- 
orba-. N-gilica 
Ki-rinji; gi-. 
Ki-ripe; fi-. 
^i-rinje; fi- 


Ki-nje 


M-pepco. 
Mu-zimu 


M-zimu. Pepco 


Ki-zuli. 
N-kaka 





GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



117 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &--C. 


Pare-Gwenu 

18 a. C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 
20 a. Nguru 
20 b. Ki-dcoe 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 












20 c. Ki-kwere 




Giraffe 


Ny-coli, OOlii. 
N-dia 


... 


N-deya 


... 


N-twiga 


... 


Girl, maiden 


Mw-ali 


M-bori 


Mu-ndele; wa-. 
Ka-ndele ; vi-. 
Ka-vele 


Ka-ndele ; vi- 


M-ndele ; 
wa-ndele 


... 


Goat 


M-buni, 
M-buri. 


Im-bu^i. 
M-buru. 


M-buzi 


M-buzi 


M-buzi. 
M-peeni(2oa) 


M-buzi 


1 ,, (he) ... 


N-daina(l7b) 


M-buri 










001<o, Or&j. 


Oreo 


N-dcoltome. 


Fulata 


Fulata. Bebelu 


Bulata 


Horco 




Fulata 








„ (she) 


M-h<oma. 


M-ytoma 


M-balika. 


Tcogcota or 


M-buguma. 


Tcogcota or 




N-gcolto. 




N-tcoycota 


M-buguma 


N -tcogcota. 


M-buguma 




Sawana(i7d) 








Ka-vulata 




God 


I-ruva,E-ruwa 


Ruwa. Suva 


Mu-lungu 


Mu-lungu 


M-lungu 
Baba 5. Wau 5. 


Mu-lung^ 


Grandparent 


iMu-eku. 


Kcokfo 


Babai. Wauo. 
Weya 


Baba J. Wau 


... 




Babu 






Nyco-kwe 














m-ktilu 




Grass 


Ma-ra. Ny-asi- 
U-weresi 

(i7d) 


Ny-ansi. Ma-ra 


Fcoveo. Lu-puki 


Feovco ; ma-f. 
Inde ; ma -f . 
M-ani. Kusi 


Ny-asi. Z-ani ; 
m-ani 




Ground 


OD-rika. 


M-bai 


Lu-wangwa. 


?i 


Si 


... 




W-anda (17). 










Si. Sumbai 




U-longco 








Ground-nut 


... 




N-jugu 


Sugu 


N-jugu 


... 


Guinea-fowl 


N-ganga. 
1-rana. U-furu 
(i7b).N-gelele 


Ny-anga. 
Ngelele 


N-kanga 


N-khanga 


N-kanga. 

N-kelele 


... 


Gun 


Wa-lebcolco. 
Nge-bcole- 
bcolco. 

Ki-pcolcopcolco. 
Ki-alcolco ; fi-. 
M-bunduki 
(17c). 


Bwindiki 


Futi 


FuU 


Futi 




Hair 


N-dzui, N-ji. 


N-jui. N-zui. 


Fili 


FiU 


Lu-vili- (Lu-fili 


Lu-nyuele ; 




Ma-fuli, 


Seri 






^one hair) ; 


nyuele 




Ma.fili 








Fili 




Hand 


M-kconu, 


U-hi; ma-hl. 


Mu-kconco. 


Gasa 


M-keonco. 


Mu-ko>no> 




N-kconu. U-hi. 


M-kconto; mi-. 


Ki-gasa; -yasa 




N-konde. 






Kco-cokco 








N-gumi. 

Ki-fumba. 

Ki-gasa 




Head 


Mu-dco. N-roae. 
N-heoe. 

M-dcoe; mi- 


M-rwi. J-ongco. 
Mu-rue 


Mu-twi 


Mu-twi 


Mu-twe, M-twi 


Li-twe 


Heart 


N-goo. (I-hima 


N-goto or 


M-oyco. (I-ni 


M-oyco 


M-oyco. (Z-oyoj 


... 




= /ivt'r) 


En-gcoleo 


= /iver) 




= large heart) 




Heel 


Sedu, Sendu, 
or Ki-sendu. 
Ki-sinanco. 
U-tufeo ; nyu- 


Tutunye 


Ki-haya 


Ki-haga; vi- 


Ki-siginco. 
Ki-haga 




Hide 


^J-jconi, ^coni. 
N-dongco 


N-jconi 


Lu-kingco 


^u-kingco. 
Babu 


N-kingco. 
M-kcota 


... 


Hill 


1-bici 


... 


Ki-lima 


Ki-lima 


Ka-lima. 


• •■ 



Hippopotamus N-gerre, N-gerere 

N-gere 



M-vulu 



Ki-boiikhco 



I-tunda 
M-vulu. 
Ki-bonkco 



ii8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


•9- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &'c-. 


Pare-Gwenu 
1 8 a. C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dciie 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Hoe 


I-ebe (17 a). 
L-embe 


I-jembe 


... 


Gembe; ma + . 
M-gembe; mi- 




... 


Honey 


V-uki, W-uki 


Wu-ki 


U-ki 


W.«ki 


U-ki, U-ci. 
Wio-ki 


... 


Horn 


OO-be; bebe. 
O-mbe ; 
me-mbe. 
U-hembe; 
m-hembe. 
U-embe ; 
m-bembe 


U-embe 


Lu-vea ; //. 
fea or feya 


Lu-fea ; fea 


H-embe ; mp- 




Horse 


N-pungu 


... 


Falasi 


Falasi 


Falasi 


Farasi 


House 


Mba, N-umba, 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


N-anda ; ma- 




N-uba, 


I-banda. 


Kaya 


Kaya 


N-anda. 






Ny-umba. 


I-huru 






(Z-umba = a 






M-bii; fi-bii. 








large hotise) 






I-tengoj. 














M-calto. 














I-tongw 












Hunger 


N -jaa. Scotu 
(I7d). 


N-jaa 


Sala 


Sala 


Sala, Gumbco 


... 


Husband ... 


M-mi (17 a). 


Em-biionge 


M-gtopi. 
Mu-lume 


M-gwsi ; wa- 


M-goosi. 
M-lume 


... 


Hyena 


I-fisi. I-fulu. 


I-batw 


Fisi. Bau. 


Fisi. Bau. 


Bau. Fisi. 


• •• 




Sisi. I-rabulu; 




Ma-njakco 


Ndzaku ; ma- 


N-dilili. 






ma- (i7d) 








Ki-ngugwa 




Iron 


M-inya, 
M-enya. 
Ma-ringa 


M-inya 


M -Scorned. 
Ki-lama 


Ki-lama 


Ki-rama 


J-uma 


Island 


I-rua. K-ing^a. 
Ki-ringitia 


Ki-dara 


Ki-siwa. 
Kiluwa 


... 


Ki-luwa 


... 


Ivory 


co-be; //.bebe. 
Ma-hehco. 
U-embe Iwa 
pcofu. Ombe 
Ico nj-cofu 


regco or Gegco 


N-tembto. Fea 


Lu-fea. 
Temboj 


M-pembe za 
n-tembw 




Knee 


Nrl, N-dru, 
I-ndi, Ndii. 
Iriki. Ken 

(17) 
Ki-jsu; fi-. 


N-di 


Vindi. I-swi, 
I-zwi 


Vinti; ma + 


I-di ; ma-di. 
Vindi ; ma + 


... 


Knife 


Ki-andwi 


Tuni ; ma + . 


Tuni ; ma 4 


N-gtola 


• !• 




Ki-adu. 




Sime. 










Ki-co^ca. 




Lu-panga 










(Jl)-banga, 














Ki-andwi 












Lake, sea ... 


I-niwa 


... 


Ziwa 


Ziwa 


Ziwa 


<■■ 


Leg 


Ku-tendu, 
Ku-dende. 
U-rende 


Ku-rende 


Mu-lindi 


M-lundi. 
, Ki-fumba 


Ki-ga; vi-ga 


Mu-gulu 


Leopard ... 


O-basi. 
Ny-amanru 
(•7a). 
I-rumu. 
N-gwe 
(I7d). 
N-gulamu 


M-lula 


pui 


Suwi. Duma 


Sui. Duma 




Lion 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


•t* 



GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



119 





17- 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, dff. 


Pare-Gwenco 

18 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 
20 a. iSfguru 
20 b. Ki-dcoe 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 












20 c. Ki-kwere 




Lips 


M-lcomu. 
M-comco. 
I -rumbu. 
Fi-ramu (//.) 


M-umu, 
Mi-umu 


Mu-loamw 


M-lumca; mi- 


Mu-lcamu 


• •• 


Magic 


VV-anga, 
N-sawi or 
Wu-sawi 


U-sawi 


U-pawi 


ll -cawi. 
U-ganga 

(good) 


U-sayi 


• tf 


Maize 


Ma-hemba, 


I-emba, 


Mu-hemba. 


Mam-phemba. 


M -pemba 


• •• 




Y-embe, 


Pemba, 


Ma-pemba 


Ku-bonda 








I-mba 


Hemba 










Man 


'Nru ; va-. 


M-ndu ; wa-. 


Mu-ntu ; wa-. 


Mu-nthu, 


Mu-ntu; wa-ntu 


Mu-ntu ; 




Mu-ndu ; wa-, 


(£m-buonge= 


{M-gcopi=7/z>.) 


M-ntu; wa- 




wa-ntu 




va-. N-dumi, 


husband) 










'M-mi {vir.. 














husband). 














M-sorcd 














{warrior.. 














young man) 












Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine . . . 




... 


Mu-zi-yi 


M-ziye 


... 


,,, 


Milk 


Ma-lela, Ma- 
ruwa. (-kama 

= to milk) 


Ma-riwa 


M-ele 


M-ele (-kama 

= to milk) 


M-ele. (-kama 

= to milk) 


• •• 


Monkey ... 


N-gima. 
N-gcoonda. 
Ki-nangoyeo ; 

fi- or fi- 


N-tumbiri. 
N-gcoco. 
N-gima 


N-tumbili 


Tumbili 


N-tumbili. 
N-kima 


••• 


Moon 


Mw-eri, M-eri, 
Mw-iri, Mu-ri 


Mw-eri 


Mw-ezi. 
'Nw-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edzi 


Mw-edzi 


Mother ... 


Ma, Mau, 


Ma-co. 


Mu-lala (mid- 


Mami. M-lala 


M-nala. Mame. 


Mama 




Wa-ma. 


Ka-mangoj. 


wife in Bon- 




Nyco-kwe. 






Mayu. Mae, 


Mae 


dei). Nyco-kwe. 




Nin-e 






Ma ye 




Nin-e 








Mountain ... 


Subalco. 
I-fumbu. 
I-fufu. M-sari. 
U-rco ; pi. 
fikyu-rco 


Fumbu 


MQ-lima 


Lu-gulu ? 


Lu-gulu; ma-. 
Mlima. 
Lu-gundi 

(20 aj 


Ki-lima 


Mouth 


Ka-na. 
Fi-ramu. 
Dumbu, 
Rumbu, 
Lumbu 


Rumbu 


Ka-nwa 


Ka-nwa 


M-lcomco 


M-lcom«a 


Nail (of finger 


(jL)-paa ; pi. 


N-jala 


Kombe; ma + . 


... 


N-kombe 


■•• 


or toe) 


paa. X-caa; 
pi. n-jaa. 
N-jaa ; //. 
ma-njaa 




Lu-kombe ; 
ii-kombe 








Name 


Ir-ina. R-ina; 
//. mar-ina 


R-ina 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


J-ina 


Navel 


Nkim-bumbucu. 
M-kufu, 
Ki-kufu, Ktiti 


M-kufu 


Lu-kuvu 


Lu-kuvu 


Lu-kuvu 


■ •» 


Neck 


Singco, 
N-zingco 


Zingco 


Singco 


Siiigco 


Singco 


... 


Night 


Ki-co 


Ki-co 


Ki-lco. (Kiza 


Ki-co. (N-gima 


Ki-lco 


... 



I20 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, 6-t. 


Pare-Gwen<o 
18 a. C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zig^la 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Nose 


M-bu5, M-bua 


M-bua. Pula 


Pula 


M-phua 


M-pula 


Pula ; ma-hula 


Ox 


N-gumbe, 
N-ube, 
Numbe, 
Umbe, Mbe 


N-umbe 


N-ombe. 
r-ombe. 
N-jeku. 
M-palala 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 
M-palala 


N-ombe 


Paddle 


... 


... 


Kafi 


... 


■•- 


... 


Palm wine. 


Ma-loxoti, 


Ma-la>YCo. 


M-pombe 


Tembco 


M-pombe 


••• 


beer 


Ma-luY<oti 


Ma-wa 










Parrot 


Kasuku 


Ka-suku 


N-kwalu 


Kwalu ; ma 4- 


Ka-suku 


••• 


Penis 


M-b<olu. M-kia. 

U-rumbi(i7d) 


M-cuni or 
M-cunu 


Tam-beoloj 


M-bulcd 


M-bo)lco 


M-bcoIu 


Kg 


N-guve, 
N-guwe 


N-guwe 


N-guluwe 


N-guuwe or 
N-gumwe 


N-guluwe 


... 


Pigeon 


M-beta. 


1-beta 


^uwa 


N-giwa 


Suwa 


... 


Place 


Wa-nda, 
Wa-ndra, 
Ha-ndu, 
Wa-ndu, 
A-ndu 


Ha-ndu 


Ha-ntu 


Ha-ntu. 
Ku-ntu 


Ha-ntu 




Rain 


Fuo, M-vuti>, 
Vua 


Mvv-era 


Fula 


Fua 


Fnla 


... 


Rat 


N-gyaha. 


M-bewa. 


N-gwpwe 


N-geoswe. 


N-guS(o. 


... 




M-bewa 


N-gcoswe 

(18 a) 




Gule 


M-puku 




Rhinoceros 


Bia. M-bura 


Falu. M-pela 


Pela 


M-pela 


... 


River 


M-fongco. 
M-edenyi. 
Mu-reny'. 
N-denyi 


M-fo>nyi 


Mu-tco 


M-toj 


M-tu 




Road 


?ia, N-jia, 
N-jila 


N-jia, En-sia 


pila 


Sia 


Sila 


Sila 


Salt 


Mu-nyu. 
M-bala 


... 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyu. 
Cumvi 


Mu-nyu 


... 


Shame 


Sconu. Suni. 
I-reeze (17) 


I-rawa 


^ni 


Sconi 


Sconi 


... 


Sheep 


C-uondi ; fi-. 


M-ondco. 


N'-gojtoj. 


N-geot«. 


N-gcolco. 


... 




1-ccondi ; ma-. 


N-onzi (18 a) 


pamba. 


Samba. 


N-dcolcome. 






J-anria; ma 4-. 




N-kcjscoYColco 


Kusugoolco 


M-buguma J 






I-horima. 




(ram) 


(ram) 








(a)-luvi = 














lamb) 












Shield 


N-gaco, 
N-gaweo 


N-gawto 


N-gawto 


N-gaco 


N-gawco 


... 


Shoulder ... 


I-veva 


••• 


Wega, Eya ; 
ma + , ma 'eya 


Wega ; ma + 


Wega 


... 


Sister 


M -^igiugu. 


Lu-mbuya 


Lumbu. 


Lumbu 


Lumbu. 


N-dugu 




M-piki. 




N-dugu 




Zuguni 


m-twanzi. 




M-fuama 




mun-dele. 






Lumbu 




{17CI, 17b) 




M-vele ; -vela 








Skin 


N-dong«o, 
N-rongco, 
M-rongco 


Njconi 


Babu 


Babu 


N-kanda. 
N-kingco. 
M-kcota 


... 


Sky 


E-rua. I-buci 
(17). Ma-fusi 
(17 b). Ma- 
rumbi (17 d). 
I-ruhu (17 c) 


Ka-yu 


Lu-wingu, 
M-bingu. 
Mu-lungu 


U-langa 


Ku-langa 





GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



121 



I 





«7- 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


PInglish 


Caga, &^c. 


Pare-Gwencd 
18 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dbie 

20 c. Ki'kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Slave 


I-pinga,I-singa 


M-soro> or 
M-zorw; 
va-zorco 


M-pumba. 
Mu-puna 
Mu-tuiiwa j 

U-pipiza 


M-tumwa 


M-tumwa. 
Mn-dele 


M-tumwa 


Sleep 


Ma-dci>, Ma-rco. 


Ma-riM(I-laa = 


... 


N-tongco 


... 




Ru-co (17 d), 


7'erd) 












Tw-oo (17 c) 












Smoke 


Mu-zu, .\i-su 


M-tsi 


M-copi 


M-cosi 


M-cosi 


... 


Snake 


^wka, N-jcoka 


.N-j«ka, 
Ny-coka 


Ny-coka 


Ny-coka 


Ny-ooka. 

(Z-coka = dig 

snake) 


... 


Son 


Mw-ana. 


M-bwaiige. 


Nw-ana 


Mw-ana ; //. 


M-bwanga. 


iMw-ana 




M-paka. 


Mw-ana wa 




yu-ana 


Mw-ana 


inu-lume 




Mw-ana-ke, 


ki-umi 






m-gcosi 






M-ana-w-tomi, 














Ki-mana. 














M-sangi 














(17c) 












Song 


Ki-ibu ; fi-. 


Ofi-gora. 


U-ila; ny-ila. 


Zumco, (-imba 


W-ila 


... 




Ki-imbco ; fi-. 


Lu-mbco 


Imbco 


= /o sing-) 








Ma-fina 












Spear 


Fumco, I-fumti. 
M-bere 


Fumco 


Guha 


Guha 


Guha 


... 


Spirit, soul 


Mu-rumu 


... 


Mu-zimu. 
M-pepco 


Pepco. Lcohco 


M-zimu, 
M-oyco 


Mu-zimu 


Star 


Ny-enyeri, 
Ny-inyiri 


N-dondco 


Lu-tondco 


Tondoj 


Lu-tondco 


N-tondco 


Stick 


Ki-ri, Ki-di. 
M-senge. 
M.biiri.N-dici 


M-peiige 


N-gcoda 


N-gcoda 


N-kcome. 
Bankcola. 
Fimbco 


Fimbco 


Stomach ... 


Ma-ula 


... 


... 


I-fu ; ma- 


I-gu. Tumbco. 
Nda 


... 


Stone 


I -we ; ma-we. 
I-hio, Ny-ihca ; 
ma-hco 


I -we, I-bwe 


I-we. I-bco 


I-we ; ma- 


I-we 


••• 


Stool 




Ki-cumbi 


Ki-ti; vi-ti 


Ki-ti; vi- 




• •• 


Sun 


E-rtia, I-ruva. 
M-nengeri, 
N-nengeri ; 
mi-. (.M-ui = 
sitns/iine) 


M-bari. 
Suva 


Zuwa 


Zuwa 


Zuwa 


Dzua 


Tail (of an 


N-kia. N-desi, 


Mu-ngwapi. 


Mu-kila 


M-kila 


M-kila 


■ •• 


animal) 


.Mw-asi, 
N-gasi, 
.M-hasi. 
M-kuli 


M-sise 










Tear 


I-soru, I-saiu. 


M-sori 


pcozi ; ma -f . 


pcozi ; ma -1- 


Scozi 


• •■ 




M-cenyere. 




Zi-p<ozi ; ma- 








M-^erere 












Testicles ... 


M-b<olo>- 
ta^imba, 
N-dekere 


-M-beolco 


Ma-humba 


Ma-humbu 


Humbu 


• •• 




(17 c). M-bcoloj 










Thief 


M-wiwi. 
I-langco 


M-rangco 


M-bavi. 
N-wivi 


M-bavi 


M-bavi 


... 


Thigh 


Ki-nama. 
Ki-SMWU 

(17) 


Ki-nama 


N-onga. 
Ny-onga 


Ki-gudi 


Wambco 


• •• 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &'i:. 


Pare-Gweneo 
18 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Thing 


Ki-ndu, 
Ki-ndco ; fi-, ?i- 


Ki-ndco 


Ki-ntu ; vi-ntu. 
I-ntu ; 
ma-ntu. 
Nyi-ntu. 
Ka-ntu 


Ki-ntu ; vi- 


Ki-ntu 


Ki-ntu 


Thorn 


Mw-inga. 

Mu-pa, M-pa 


M-fwa 


Mw-iwa. 
Nw-iwa 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iwa 


• •• 


Tobacco ... 


Mbatu 


M-batu 


Tumbatu 


Tumbatu 


Tumbatu 




To-day 


T,alu, U-lalu. 
I-nu, 'N-nu, 
Lu-nu 


I-sanya. 
Ycoco 


Lelco 


Ultt 


Dyelco. 
(EIco = now, 
theji) 


Leco 


Toe 


Ki-mnyto. 


M-nywe wa 


Cala 


C-ala ca 


Dcole (dya 


... 




Ki-nu. 


ku-rende 




m-lundi 


Ki-ga) 






Ki-munu. 














Ki-munyco. 














N-ni (17 d) 












To-morrow 


N-gama. 

Desi(i7b,i7d) 


N-gama. 
Yaveo. 
M-tondco 


Ki-loi. Lu-vi. 
Mu-hitu 


... 


Luvi. Ki-sindco 


... 


Tongue ... 


No-ilimi, 
U-lumi, 
0-limi,U-limi; 
pu-limi (17 b) 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi. 
Lu-laka (of 
beasts) 


U-limi 


Lu-limi 


Limi 


Tooth 


l-y«o. Hehco ; 
ma 4- . Jeo ; 
ma-eeo 


reyco or Gegoi : 
pt. ma-gegco. 
I-yeco 


Z-inco 


Z-inco ; m-enco. 
(Ki-gegco, a 
long front 
tooth, a tusk) 


Z-inco. Gegco 


Dz-inco 


Town 


Mu-ri. Kanie. 
Ki-hongco. 
Mu-ngeo. Ki-aroj 


Ki-bare. 

Mu-ri 


Mu-zi 


M-zi. Kaya 


M-zi. Kaya 


Mu-kaia, 
Kaya 


Tree 


N-hi ; mi-hi. 
N-ri ; //. fi-ri. 
M-di ; nii-di 


M-ri. Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


M-ti. Umu-ti; 
//. imi-ti 


... 


Twins 


Ma-asa, 


M-hasa 


M-papa 


Pasa 


Ma-vyaza 


■ •■ 




M-baasa, 












M-hasa, M-aza 












Urine 


Ma-ji. 
Ma-u-hamco, 
Ma-ameo, 
Ma-faam<o 


Ma-mangco 


Ma-kcozco 


Ma-kcoza 


Ma-kcozco 




Vein 


•'• 


... 


L-uge 


M-sipi 


L-uge; ny-uge. 
Lu-basi ; 
m-basi 


... 


War 


Fi-ha. N-gondu. 
Fi-ta. Si-da 

(17) 


Fira 


N-kondco. 

(Ma-ta = 
weapons) 


Kondco 


N-kondco 


... 


Water 


Mu-ha. Mu-ra. 
Ma-ringa 


M-ringa 


Ma-zi 


Ma-zi 


Ama-zi ? 


Ma-dzi 


Well, source, 


... 




Ki-sima. 


Tekeloi 


Ma-lengu. 


Ki-sima 


spring 










Ma-zi. Sima 




White man 


M-zungu. 
N-zungu 


M-zungu 


Mu-zungu 


Mii-zungu 


Mu-zungu 


Mii-zungu 


Wife 


M-bora. 


M-ka. 


Mu-kaza. 


M-vyee. 


M-vyele. 


Mkangwa 




M-ka, N-ka. 


Em-bora. 


Mu-ke 


M-kaza 


M-kazi. 






Mw-ana-wa-ka. 


Em-deku. 






M-kaza 






M-fele;wa-fele 


M-ceku 












(17 c) 













GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



123 





17. 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &'£. 


Pare-Gwenoa 
18 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcae 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 

(Lima) 


Wind 


Beoa. N-dimu. 
M-behoa. 
U-tanu. 
M-kuma 
(17 c). U-rat«, 
Mbu-ratoj 
(I7d) 


M-kuma 


Pehca 


Pehca. 
U-hehco 


M -pehca 




Witch 


Mu-anga. 
A-lcaa. 
M-sawi, 
N-sawi 


M-sawi 


M-pawi. 

Mu-payi 


M-sawi 


M-sawi 




Witchcraft 


U-sawi 


... 


U-pawi. 
N-doYwa 


U-sawi. 
U-ganga 


U-sawi 


... 


Woman ... 


M-fele Mu-ka, 


M-ndu-m-ka 


M-vele, 


M-vyele 


M-vyele. 


M-twanzi 




N-ka. 


Laca. 


Mu-vyele. 




M-ndele 






M-bora. 


Em-bora 


Mu-ndele 










M-ndu m-ka. 














Mu-ali 














{virgin). 














Mu-humba 














(o/ii 7naid) 












Womb ... 


U -rco'oa. 
U-nene. 
U-rudco (17 c) 


I-lemwa 


N-da 


I.fa 


N-da. I-fu 


• 


Wood (fire- 


(x)-ktii, f*-gwi, 


N-giii 


Lu-kuni 


N-khuni 


Lu-kuni 


... 


wood) 


N-gu 


Em-pande 










Yam 


Ki-ya ; fi-. 
Ki-kwa ; fi- 


Ki-ya 


Ki-lungu 


Ki-lung^i 


N-kudumbe 


... 


Year 


Mw-aka, 
M-aka 


Mw-aka 


Nwaka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


... 


Yesterday 


Wu-kcowu, 
U-kwau, 
Kau, I-wco 


I-Yuca 


Zana. Tulco. 
Zuzi 


Zana 


Gulca. Zuzi 


... 


Zebra 


I-tikco 


I-tikca 


Punda 


N-kulca 


M-punda 
mi-lia 


... 


One 


-mui, -mu, -mca 


Mojsi, -mwi 


Bcasi. 

Mwe-iiga, 
-mwe 


Bcosi. 

Mwe-nga ; 
-mwe 


Busi. Mwe-figa 
or -imwe 


-mwe. Moaja 


Two 


•vili, -wii, -bi, 
-vi, -wi 


-wi. Y-eri 


-ili 


•idi, -ili, -ii 


-ili or M-bili 


M-bili, -will 


Three 


■hahu, .-raroj, 
-radu 


•tatu 


-tatu 


•tatu, -utatu 


-tatu 


•tatu 


Four 


-ini, -nna, -ina 


-nna, -nne 


-nne, -ne 


-nne 


-nne 


■nne 


Five 


■hanu, -tanu, 
■tancd, -ranu 


-tanu, -zanu 


-panu, -panco 


-panoa 


-panco 


-sanca 


Six 


-radahu, 
-ndaru, 
-randaru. 
Fi-tanu na 
ki-mu 


Ndaru, 
-randaru 


Ma-tandatu 


M-tandatu 


M-tandatu 


M-tanda 


Seven 


M-fuiigade, 
Fuiigare, 
Fungahi. 


M-fungare 


Mu-fungate 


M-fungate 


M-fungate 


M-fungati 
















Fi-tanu na 














fi-wi 













124 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 

Eleven 
Twenty ... 

Thirty 

Forty 

Fifty ... 
Sixty 

Seventy ... 

Eighty ... 
Ninety 
Hundred . . . 

Thousand . . . 
I, me, my ... 



Thou, thee, 
thy 



He, him, his 



'7. 
I Caga, iSfi:. 



1 8. 

Pare-Gwenu 

1 8 a. C-asu 



19- 
Sambala 



19 a. 
Bondei 



20. 

Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-d<i>e 

20 c. Ki-kwere 



20 d. 

Kim-rima 

(Lima) 



Nyanyi, Fi-nana 

Nyanya. 

Fi-tanu na 

fi-radu 
K-eda, K-enda, K-enda 

Ky-enda. 

Fi-tanu na 

fi-ina 
I-kumi I-kumi 



I-kumi na 

ki-mcd 
Ma-kumia-vili, 

or ha-wili, or 

ga-wi, or 

ma-wi, or 

a-wi 
Ma-kumi 

ga-raru or 

ha-raru, S^c. 
Ma-kumi 

ga-nna or 

ha-ana, &-'(. 
Ma-kumi 

ga-tanco, &^c. 
Ma-kumi 

ga-randaru, 

Ma-kumi 
m-fuiigade, 

Ma-kumi 

nyanya, c^c. 
Ma-kumi 

k-enda, &-'c. 
N-gama (17), 

I-hana, jana. 

Yana 
Lule. Kiku. 

Ma-hana 

i-kumi 

Nyinyi, Inyi. 

Ngi-, Ng-, 

Ni-, N-, Si-, I-. 

-ngi. -ni-, -pi-. 

-a-ko>, -a-kwa. 
^i-cowco, Ico, 

Ewe, I we. 

Wu-,Ku-,Ki-, 

Kcj-, 00-, U-. 

-ku-. -a-fco, -fu 
O), We, Ye, 

Yi-cowu. A-. 

-m-, -n-, -mu-. 

-a-ke, -a-kwe 



I-kumi na 
ki-mwi 

Ma-kumi 
ha-wi 



Ma-kumi 
ha-raru 

Ma-kumi 
ha-ana 

Ma-kumi 

ha-tanu 
Ma-kumi 

ha-randaru 

Ma-kumi 
ha-fungare 

Ma-kumi 

ha-nana 
Ma-kumi 

k-enda 
I -Yana 



Ma-yana. 
i-kumi 



Inyi. Ni-, N-. 
-ngi-, -nji-. 
-a-kwa 



Mu-nane 



K-enda 



Kumi 



Ibwe. 
-ku-. 



I -SCO. 

• m- 



M-nane 



K-enda 



Kumi 



M-nane 



K-enda 



M-nane 



K-enda 



Kumi 



Kumi. 
M-longco 
Kumi na -nwe Kumi na mcosi Kumi na imwe Kumi na mwS 



Mi-longcd 
mi-ili 



Mi-longco 
rai-tatu 

Mi-long<o 

mi-ne 

Mi-longco 

mi-panco 
Mi-longco 

mu-tandatu 

Mi-longco 
mu-fungate 

Mi-longco 
mu-nane 

Mi-longco 
k-enda 

Gana 



Mi-longco 
mi-ili or 
Mi-ongco 
mi-idi 

Mi-ongM 
mi-tatu 

Mi-ongco 
mi-nne 

Mi-ongco 
mi-panco 

Mi-ongco 
m-tandatu 

Mi-ongco 
m-fungate 

.Mi-ongco 

m-nane 
Mi-ongco 

k-enda 
Gana 



Kulija 



Imi. Mimi. 
Na-. 
-ni-. -a-ngu 



Ni-, 



U-, Ku-. 
-a-fco 



A-. 

-a-kwe 



I -we. Wewe, 

Weco. U-. 

-we. -ku-. 

-a-wco, -a-kco, 

■yco 
Yee, Yuja. A-. 

-mu-. -ycj, -ye, 

-a-ye, -a-kwe 



Mi-longco 
m-Idi. 
Mi-ongco 
mi-idi 

Mi-longco 

mi-tatu 

Mi-longco 
mi-nne 

Mi-longco 
mi-sanco 

Mi-longo> 
m-tandatu 

Mi-longco 
m-fungate 

Mi-longco 

m-nane 
Mi-longco 

k-enda 
Gana 



Mimi. 
-ni-. 



Na-^ Ki-. 
-a-ngu 



Wewe. 
Ku-. 
-ku-. 



a-kco 



Yeye. Ka-, 
-mu-, -m-. 
-a-kwe 



Ma-kumi a-idi 
or Ma-kumi 
ma-idi 



Ma-kumi 
ma-tatu 

Ma-kumi 
nia-nne 

Ma-kumi 
ma-sanco 

Ma-kumi 
m-tanda 

Ma-kumi 
m-fungati 

Ma-kumi 
m-nane 

Ma-kumi 
k-enda 

Gana 



Ma-gana kumi 



Miye. Muye 
(20 a). Ni-, N-. 
•ni-. -a-ngu 



Weye. Berewe 

(20 a). U-. 
•ku-. -a-kco 



Anye. 
-ni-. 



Yeye. Ayu 
(20 a). Ha-, 
Ka-. 

•m-, -mw-. 
-a-kwe 



Ni-, N-. 
-a-ngu 



Wee. 
•ku^- 



Yu-la. 
-m-, • 
-a-ke 



U-. 
-a-ko9 



Yu-,A-. 
mu-. 



GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



125 





17- 


1 


8. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, Q^c. 


Pare-Gwenco 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 


Kim-rima 






l8a. 


C-asu 






20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


(Lima) 


We, us, our 


Ise, Ese. Sco. 


Iswi. 


Tsu-, 


Ipwi, ^wico. 


Swiswi. Ti-. 


Suwe. Ki., Ci, 


Tiye. Ti-, T'.. 




Leo-, Lu-, Ta-, 


Swa- 




Ti-, T -. 


•tu-, -ti-. -etu 


Ti-, C-. 


-ti-. -etu 




Ti-, Dm-, Du-. 


-tsu- ? 


-eru ? 


-tu-, -ti-. -pwi, 




-ki-, -ti-. -etu 






-lu-, -du-. -ehu. 






-epu, -etu 










-a-ru, -a-du, 
















-a-mudu 














Ye, you, your 


Ine, Ini. Enyi, 


Imwe. 


Mu-. 


Inwi, Nwico. 


Nwinwi. Mu-. 


Nyuwe, Niiwe. 


Nyie. Mu-. 




Nyco. Mto-, 


-mu- 


-enu 


Mu- 


-wa-. -enu 


M-, Mw-, Mi-?. 


-enu 




Mu-. -nyi. 






-nyi. -wa-. 




-enu 






•mu-. -a-nu 






-enu 








They, them, 


Wcij. Aw a. 


Iwco. 


Wa-. 


Waco, Wawa. 


Waco. Wa-. 


Wa-dya. Wa-. 


Wa-la. Wa-. 


their 


Wa., Va-. 
■wa-. -a-wco, 
-a-mwawM 


-wa-. 


-a-wco 


Wa-. 

-aco. -wa-. 

-a-we, -a-co 


-wa-. -a-co. 


-wa-. -a-co 


•wa^. -a-co 


All 


-ojse 


-cope 




-CO^ 


-cose 


-coseni ; -cose 


•ote? 


This, these 


-cu, wu, e-u. 


-i-u; a 


-wa; i-u; 


U-yu ; a-wa ; 


U-yu ; a-wa ; 


Yu-nco; wa-nco; 


Yu^nco ot 




ii-u ; a-ava. 


i-i; dT'c. 


u-nu ; i-nu ; 


O^c, muck as 


u-nco ; i-nco ; 


hu^yu ; wa^nu 




a-wa ; u-fu, 






i-ji or jiji ; 


in ^ambala 


di-nco; ya-nco; 


or ha-wa ; 




i-fu, e-u, u-u. 






a-ya ; i-ci ; 




ki-nco; vi-nco; 


&--C., much as 




i-u ; i-i ; i-li ; 






i-vi ; i-nii ; 




i-nco ; zi-nco ; 


i}i Zigula 




a-ha, a-ga ; 






i-zi ; u-lu ; 




lu-nco ; 






i-ki ; i-pi, i-fi ; 






a-ka ; u-nii ; 




(? wa^nco 






i-i ; i-ti, i-zi. 






ku-nu ; a-ha ; 




= Class 12) ; 






i-tsi ; u-lu ; 






u-mu 




ka-nco ; u-nco ; 






? u-tu ; a-ka ; 










ku-nco; ha-nco. 






u-u, u-wu ; 










ha-nu, u-mu 






u-ku ; a-wa 














That, those 


U-lya, u-la ; 


-u-ya ; 


wa-ya ; 


^u-yu; ga-wa; 


-da (yu^da, 


Su-yco; sa-yco; 


Yu-dya ; 




va-la, va-lya. 


u-ya 


i-ya; 


fu-nu ; fi-nu ; 


wa-da, u-da, 


^-c. 


wa-dya ; &=€. 




wa-la ; fu-la, 


c^'c. 




si-ji; fa-ya; 


&'C.) 


Yu-dya ; 






fu-lya, u-lya ; 






&'C. 




wa-dya ; 






i-Ia;li-la;ga-la, 






Yu-ja ; wa-ja ; 




u-dya; 






ha-la ; ki-la ; 






u-ja;i-ja;ji-ya; 




i-dya ; Gj^c. 






pi-la, fi-la, (Sf'c. 






ya-ja; ci-ya ; 




Uyu ; awco ; 






I-t<a; i-v<o. 






vi-ya ; &'c. 




uwco ; iyco ; 






i-wco ; i-tco ; 






gu-yu-ja, c^'t. 




idyu ; ayco ; 






i-y<o ; i-lco ; 






U-yco ; a-wco ; 




dr'C. 






i-co ; i-kico ; 






u-wco ; i-yco ; 










i-fco ; i-yoj ; 






i-jco ; (Sj^c. 










i-toj; i-lco; 






^u-yco, yuyco ; 










i-t<o ; i-kco ; 






sa-wco, wawco. 










i-tco ; i-kco ; 






&'C. 










i-co (17b) 














Bad 


•bi, -bicu or 
-wicwa. -ka^a 
(17c) 

-rusa. -iu. -ngiu 


-icwa 




-wiwi. -bada. 
-baya 


-baya 


-iha 


■eha 


Black 


•uruhe 


•pize, -zize 


•zize 


-titu 




Female 


-ka, -kaki. 


-ka 




M-vyele, 


•ndele, -vyele. 


-vyele, -ndele. 


-ke. 




-kika. -fele 






-vyele. 


-buguma 


-buguma 


M-buguma 




(I7d) 






-n-gazi. -dele, 
•ndele. -kaza. 
M-buguma 

(for certain 
beasts) 






and -togcota 
(cattle and 
goats). 
■twanzi 
(humans and 
cattle). 


I73< 














K 



126 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, dr'c. 


Pare-Gweneo 

18 a. C-asu 


pambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Fierce, sharp 


■senge. -cohi. 
•ui. -kyai. 
•awi 


■wawie 


-kali 


•kai 


-kali 


... 


Good 


■sa. -ca. -nuru 


-hedi. -ca 


•yedi. tana 


-edi 


-edi 


•jomwa 


Great 


•nene, -iiani, 
a-nana, -nini. 
■due 


-rwe. -baha 


-kulu. -gima 


-kulu 


-kulu 


... 


Little 


•tutu, -nywa, 
-nya, -nyw. 
■nana 


•dii. -dori 


-dcodco. -zihi. 
(■yeke —fexv) 


-dudu 


N-dudco, 
-dcodco. (-jece 

=few) 


•dcodco 


Long,high,tall 


-lepe. apa, 


•aca 


•tali, •le 


-le 


N-tali; -tali 


-taU 


Male 


■aca 
■umi, Ici^umi. 


•umi 


-gupi. -lume 


-gcosi. (-dume 


•gcosi. -dume 


-dume, -lume. 




■sorco, ■nseru. 




or -lume 




•bulata 




-bunga (?) 






beasts) 






Old 


Kuo. ■kuu, 
■ku 


Kya^kala 


-dala. •huzu. 
•$akala, 
•pakaru 


•dala. Bw^ende 


-dala (also 
' hard') 


... 


Red 


-ii^gundu. 
I-tandara. 
■nare. Kya- 
motco 


-rcotojme 




Ca-lungu-lika 


-kundu 


•ktmdu, 
-e^kundu 


Rotten 


■biru. ■bicu 


•wua. U-boru 


•vizii 


•cola (-vunda= 

to rot) 


... 


... 


Short 


■fui. ■simba 




•gihi, zihi 


-jihi 


-guhi, -gihi 


... 


Sick 


■gorcj. ■ndore. 
■loxo. -saka. 
■ndwari 

(■Iwaa) (17 d) 


•ilua 


■tamu 


•tamu 


-a unyonge. 
-a utamu ; 
•tamu 




White 


•bco. ■ili. ■ewa. 
■lyi, -lya 


•ewa 


•zelu {light- 
coloured) 


-a nala 


-a ku-nala, 
•izaiigala, 
-nala, -naza 


•eupe 


Above, up, on 


Huye N^dcooj. 


Kayu 


U^langa. Kena U-langa 


Ku-laiiga 


Ku^canya 


top 


Kaale.Dcixoka 












Before 


M^bele 


M^cozya 


Ma-zu 


Ha mi-lundi ya 






Behind 


N^uma. N-ima. 

Ny-uma 


Ny^uma 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Below, down 


Si. Wa^nda. 


Mbai I -pi 


Hi-pi, Ha-pi. 


Ha^si 


Si 


Ha-si 




Sumbai 


pi 








Far 


Ku-lepe. 
Ku^aga 


Kua. Hale 


Ha-le 


Ha-le 


Ha-le 


Ku-lali 


Here 


I -ha. E-a. I.ya 


1-ha. A-ha. 
Kunu 


Aha 


A-ha, Ha-nu 


Ha^nco 


... 


In, inside ... 


Ki^idi Kari 


Ftopi. Ndeni 


N-dayi. Mu-, 
u-mu, -ni 


Mw-e-, -i, -ni, 
-mco 


Kun^dani 


... 


Middle ... 


Kahikahi. 
Karikari 


Gati 


Gati 


Gatigati 


Ku-gati 




Near 


Wa-fui 


Ha-fuhi 


H-ehi 


H-ehi 


Ha-guhi 


Ha-guhi 


Outside ... 


N-ja. B<oo>. 
Scuta, pa 


Bw-anga. N-ze 


Se 


... 


I-se, Ku-se 


... 


Plenty, many 


•ingi. Foi 


Fanda, -jinki 


•ingi 


•ingi 


-ingi 




There 


Kulya, Kula 


Kuya. Hala. 


A-hco, Ha-hto, 


Hada. U-kco. 


Ku-dya, 


... 






Ahu 


U-koo, ru-ko> 


Kuda 


Ha-dya, U-kco 




Where? ... 


Kahe? Ku? 
Kwi? 


Kwi ? Hito ? 


Hi? Hii? 


Hahi? Ahi? 
Kuhi? 


•hco ? -kco ? -mco ? 





GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



127 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20 




20 d. 


English 


Caga, Ss'c. 


Pare-Gweno> 

18 a. C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 
20 a. Nguru 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 












20 b. K 


-dcoe 














20 c. Ki- 


£were 




No! 


Ote! Ode! 
Ehe! 


Obe! Hai! 


... 


Chuu! 


N-kico! ] 


ICaka! 


... 


Not {with verb. 


gi, Ci. -ku. foj. 


Si. Sa- 


^\;f,BL-(lstpers. 


... 


Xa. -ki- 


(N-ki, 


-.» 


as prefix, in- 


•ndi 


Si-, Te- (T-U-, 


sing.), -ku- 




cr'r.),-ku-,-ka-. 




fix, or suffixY 


Si-, pi-. Hu-, 


Te-, Tetu, 


(Nku-), -ka-, 




-kaki, ka-ni, 






Ha.(i7a).pe-, 


Te-m-, Te-ve) 


-ka-ti, -ka-mu-, 




•ka-wa. 


-se- 






?«-, Sa- 


(l8a) 


-ka-wa, &■>€. 




(Ne-se-, 


u-se-). 






(17b)? 




Also -ke-, &•€. 
^e-, -se- {ist 
pers. sing.) 




also -hi- 


,-ha. 




To 


I- 


I- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 




Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-kapa. -kava 


-biga 


-tcowa 


-ttoa 


-tcoa 




-tcoa 


„ buy, sell 


•ula. -ka 


•zora. -taga 


-yula. taya 


•gula 


-gula. 


taga 


-gula 


„ come . . . 


-ja, -ca, -pa 


-ca 


•iza 


-eza. Stoto ! 

(imp.) 


-iza 




-za. Idzco ! 


„ cut 


•wehahco. 
■manyia 


-tema, -temia 


... 


-senga. 
-dumula. 
-dwisa 


-senga 




... 


„ dance ... 


-pina or -flna 


-fina 


•vina. -seziga 


•vina 


-vina. -seziga 




„ die ... 


-fa. -kcomeka 


•fwa 


-fa 


•fa 


-fa 




-fa 


„ eat 


-la, -lya 


-lya, -la 


-ja 


-da 


-dya 




... 


„ give ... 


-neka. -pa. 
-ninga, 
-nenga. 
-eleka (17 b) 


•neka. -inga, 
-inka 


-inka 


•inka, -enka 


-iiika 




•ha or •pa 


., go 


-henda. 


-vend a. 


-hita. -yenda. 


-hita 


-genda. 


-hita 


-hita, -pita. 




-tonga, -eda 


•tonga 


-tamba 








•genda 




(17b) 




(travel) 










„ kill ... 


-waha 


-waya 


•kcoma 


-kcoma 


•kcoma 




... 


„ know ... 


-manya. -ici, 
-ipi 
-seka 


-ici. -manya 


-taila 


-manya 


-manya 




... 


„ laugh ... 


-peka 


-seka 


•seka 


-seka 






„ leave off, 


-leka, -lekia 


-piga 


-leka 


■leka 


-leka 




... 


cease 
















,, love,want 


-kunda. -ori 


-furie. -kunda 


-kunda 


-kunda 


•unga 




... 


,, see 


-wtona. -luco. 
-Iwlia 


-wcona, -vtona 


-tona 


-tona 


-kaula. 
-wona 


-Icola 


... 


„ sit, remain, 


-kaa 


-kaa 


-kala 


•kala 


-ikala 




-kala 


abide 
















„ sleep ... 


-ilaa. -lala. 
-laa 


-lee. •pin^ia 


-lala. -gcona 


-gcona 


-gcona 




... 


„ stand, stop. 


-lyika 


... 


-kirn a 


-gcoluka 


-kimala 




-ima 


be erect 










-gcolcoka 




„ steal ... 


-iwa 


-iwa 


•bawa 


-bawa 


-bawa 




... 



Chiefly by suffix in the Caga group. 



K a 



128 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS L\ THE CAGA DIALECTS 

Very slight traces of preprefixes in the 5th, 9th and loth classes. 

Class I. M-, Mu-, N- (mu-, m-, wu-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, Va- (?Ba-) (wa-, va-) ; 3. M-, Ma- (m-, niu-, fu-, 
U-) ; 4. Mi-, N- (17 c, 17 e) (mi-, i-) ; 5. I-, Iri-, Ri-, — (Nyi-, Ni-? 17 a) (li-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ha-, ga-) ; 
7. Ki-, »ki-, C-, pi- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. ^i-, Fi-, Vi- (gi-, fi-, vi-) ; 9. N- (M-), »-, »g-, In- (n- (m-), i-) ; 10. N- 
(M-), ti; Hg; Nj-, In-, pu- (17 c) (ti-, tsi-, zi-) ; 11. Lu- (Nu- 17a), U-, 00- (lu-, ru-) ; I3. Tu- (In 17 b 
/>/. to Ki- and Ka-), (tu-) ; 13. Ka-, K- (ka-) ; 14. CO-, U-, Wu- ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Wa-, Ha-, A- (a-, 
wa-) ; (17 and 18 absent). Note.—l-, the sth prefix is used for the verbal infinitive instead of Ku-. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN PARE-GWENO) DIALECTS 

Very slight traces of preprefixes in Old Ki-mpale. 

Class I. M-, Mu- (mu-, m-, u-) ; 2. Va-, Wa- (va-, wa-) ; 3. M-, Mu- (fu-, mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. 1-, Ri- (li-) ; 6. Ma- (ha-, a-, nya- ') ; 7. Ki- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Vi-, Fi- (vi-, fi-) ; 9. N- (M-), N-, En- (Em-), 
— (n-, i-, y-) ; 10. N- (M-), N-, En-(Em-), — (zi-, zi-, tsi-, n- (m-), ny-) ; 11. Lu-, Nu- (lu-) ; 12. .' want- 
ing; 13. Ka- (ka-); 14. Vu-, Wu-, U- (wu-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- (ha-) ; 17. ? (-ni). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN ^AMBALA-BGNDEI-ZIGULA MRIMA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, Mil-, Nu- (mu-, yu-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mii-, M-, ffu- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. Dzi-, Zi-, Si- (Ti-), Li-, — (ji-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Ki- (ci-, ki-) ; 8. Vi- (vi-) ; 8 a. Vi- (vi-) ; 9. N- 
(M-), Ny-, — (i., n-, — ) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny-, — , Zi- (20 b), (zi-) ; 1 1. Lu- (lu-) ; 12. [Tu- is absent ; a prefix 
Wa-, Hwa-, Va- takes its place as diminutive-collective and as plural to Ka-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. U- 
[//. usually Ny-, M-] ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- (ha-); 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, -i, -yi). 



17. Caga dialects are spoken on the flanks of Mount Kilimanjaru) from Rombo) on the north-east to 
Macame on the north-west. Also the Arufa plain to the south and the outlying mountain ot Meru. 
Perhaps also the Mbugwe people on the south shores of Lake Manyara. 

18. Pare-Gwencij and 18 a. Casu dialects are spoken in the Ugwenoj and Mpare mountains south- 
south-east of Kilimanjaru) and east of the Kufu river. There is said to be a colony of Pare-speaking 
Bantu settlers in Sonyto, a district on the west of Natron Lake (far to the north-west of Kiiimanjaruj) ; 
but these may belong to the ^agi group. 

19. pambala is spoken in the mountain region of Upambala, north of the lower Rufu or Paiigani 
river. 

19 a. Bondei is spoken in the lowlands between Ugambala and the Swahili coast-strip on the Indian 
Ocean, north of the Lower Rufu. 

20. Zigula, 20 a. Nguru, 20 b. Kidue, 20 c. Kikwere, are spoken in theNguruandZigula(Uzeguha) 
countries south and south-west of the Lower Rufu and north of the Usagara mountains. 

20 d. Kimrima is spoken in the coast-strip south of the Pangani (Kufu) river and north of the 
Kifigani river, opposite Zanzibar Island. 

' Johnston in Ki-gwrento. 



GROUP F 

THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



21. Swahili (Ki-unguja) of Zanzibar; also Ki- 
hadimu or Ki-kae and Ki-rigoozi 

2 1 a. Ki-mvita (of Mombasa) 

21 b. Ki-amu. {21 q and. 2\ A. Ki-siu tir Ki-wzi 
and Ki-pate) 



2 1 e. Ki-tikuu (or Faza-Bajun) 

21 f. Ki-wibu (Ki-mrima and Kim-gaeo), and 

2 r g. Ki-ngtoje of A-figco^e 
22. ^i-aftgazija {Great Komoru I') and 22 a. 

Xi-nzuani {Johanna I^.) 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &'c.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Adze 


Sezco ; ma + . 


Sezco; ma + 


Sezco 




^coka la-pwa. 
Ny-embe 






Jeca,Yeca(H) 










Animal, wild 


Xy-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 














Ant 


Cungu. Siafu. 
N-gwirco 


Tungu. Siafu 


Tungu. Siafu 


Tungu. Siafu 


puiigu 


... 


Ant, white 


M-cwa 


M-twa 


M-twa 


Mu-twa 


U-swa 


•*• 


(termite) 














Arm 


M-kconco ; mi- 


M-kunco ; mi- 


M-kconco; mi- 


M-kconco ; mi- 


M-kconco; mi- 


Mu-hconco 


Arrow 


M-pale; mi-. 
C-embe ; 


Wanco ; ma-t-. 


Wanco, 


1-vanco ; ma-. 


Tsonga ; ma -»- . 


Sembe 




C-embe ; 


I-wanco ; 


C-embe ; 


M-omba ; mi- 






vy-embe 


vy-embe 


ma-wanco. 
C-embe ; 
z-embe or 
b-embe 


tj-embe 






Axe 


^coka ; ma + . 
Mu-ndu; mi- 


^ojka; ma + 


^coka ; ma -t- 


Scoka ; ma- 


Scoka; ma-f 


■ ... 


Baboon 


Ny-ani (//. 
sa?ne) 


Ny-ani ; ma- 


I-yonda or 
Yonda; ma+ 


I-yon8a ; ma- 


Ny-ane 


... 


Back 


M-goitigco; mi-, 
Mi'Ongcd (H) 


]VIa-ung<o 


Ma-ungco 


I-uiigca ; ma- 


Mu-ungco ; mi-. 
M-tana 


Di-iigoa; 
me-ngco 


Banana ... 


M-gomba; mi- 


M-gomba. 


M-gomba. 


M-sitani (tree). 


N-inga. 


... 




{tree). 


N-dizi 


I-zu ; ma-zu 


I-t>u; ma-t>u. 


Ri-samba ; 






N -dizii fruii). 






Ki-ccovi ; 


ma- 






Ma-zu 






tii-ccovi 






Beard 


N-devn 


N-devu 


N-devu 


N-devu or 
N-defu 


N-devu 


N-devu 


Bee 


Ny-uki 


Ny-uki 


Ny-eoki 


N-coki 


Ny-uki 


... 


Belly 


Tumbeo ; ma + . 


Tumbeo ; ma + 


Ma-tumbeo, 


I-cumbco ; ma- 


Mimba. 


Imba, Mimba. 




Ki-nena 




I-cumbco ; ma- 




Ma-tumbco 


Fu (22 a) 


Bird 


N-dege 


Ny-uni 


Ny-uni 


N-coni ; ny-coni 


Ny-uni 


Ny-unyi; zi-f 


Blood 


Damn [Arab.) 


Damu 


Damu 


Damu 


Damu 


... 


Body 


M-wili ; mi-ili 


M-will 


Ki-wiliwili ; 

zi- or bi-. 
Mu-ili ; mi- 


M-vili. Xia 


M-wiri 


... 


Bone 


M-fupa ; mi- 


M-fupa 


M-fupa 


M-fupa 


Kongcolco ; 

ma + 


p-iba ; z-iba. 
Mu-bwa ; mi- 


Borassus palm 


M-vumeo, 
M-vuma ; mi- 


M-vum&) 


M-tapa 


M-capa 


Mu-vuma ? 


... 


Bow 


U-ta; nyu-ta 


U-ta ; nyu-ta. 


U-ta ; nyu-ta. 


Ki-gwe ; 


U-ta. U-pinde 


U-ta 




or ma-ta. 


U-pindi; 


U-ca ; nyu-ca. 


bi-gwe. 








U-pindi ; 


p'indi 


M-pindi 


Uvu-ca; 








pindi 






mbu-ca 






Bowels 


Ma-tumb« 


Ma-tumbo> 


■ .■ 


... 


• ■• 


Ma-rumbca 



130 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 


21 a- 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-aiigazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-iigcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &■..) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Brains 


Ub-ongco ; 
mb-ongco 


Ub-ongoa 


B-ongoj; ma + 


Ib-ongco; ma- 


Uw-oiigeo 


... 


Breast (mac's) 


Ki-fua; vi-ftia. 
M-tima. 
Ki-dari 


Ki-fua. 
Ki-dari 


Ki-dari ; zi- or 

bi- 


Ki-dari ; bi- 


Ki-fua 


I-fuba, Xi-fuba 


Breast 


Ziwa; ma + 


Titi; ma-f. 


Ve ; raa-ve. 


I-vee; ma-vee 


Ri-wele ? 


Bele ; ma-bele 


(woman's) 




Wele; ma + 


Bu-bu ; ma -f 








Brother ... 


Ndugu. Kaka. 


N-dugu 


N-dug^. 


N-dii. N-dugu 


N-duye or 


Mw-ana nya. 




Dumbu (H) 




M-nuna 




N-dui 


Mw-ana 
nyahi 


Buffalo ... 


Ny-ati. Bcoku. 

M-btii [buf- 
falo's horn) 


Ny-ati. 
M-bcagco ; wa- 


Ny-ati 


Ny-aci 


Ny-ati 


• • . 


Bull 


Fahali ; ma + 


N-ombe dume 


Fahali 


Fahali 


... 


Konzco ; ma -)- 


Buttocks ... 


Takco ; ma + 


Takco; ma + 


Takco ; ma- 


I-cakco 


Ma-takco 


Nzii 


Canoe 


M-turabwi;mi- 


M-tumbwi; mi- 


M-tumbwi; mi- 


M-cumbwi. 


Mu-tumbwi. 


... 




Galawa. 


N-galawa 


N-galawa 


N-galawa. 


Ma^ua. 






Masua 






Masua 


Mu-kunu 




Cat ... ... 


Paka 


Paka 


Paka 


Paka 


Maka 


M-paha 


Charcoal ... 


Ma-kaa 


Ma-kaa 


Ma-kaa 


• •• 


Ma-kala 




Chief 


Jumbe. 
M-falume. 
M-kiiti 


M-faume 


M-faume 


M-falume 


M-falume. 
Mu-twaco. 
C-eke 


... 


ChUd 


Mw-ana. 


M-toatoa. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana or 




M-tutca 


Mw-ana 


Kij-ana 


Kij-ana 


Mu-tcoto» 


M-ana 
m-tsa 


Cloth 


N-guco 


N-guto 


N-guco 


N-guvco 


N-guco 


... 


Cold 


Baridi {Arab) 
P'epoj 


Baridi. P'epoo 


Baridi 


Baridi 


M-epco 


... 


Country ... 


In-ci. 
Jimbto ; ma + 
Ki-yambco 


N-ti 


N-ti 


I-ti 


In-ti or In-di 


N-si 


Cow ... .... 


N-ombe m-ke. 


N-ombe m-ke. 


Kcoco la ii-ombe I-kcoo> la 


■ .. 


Ny-ombe ii-ke 




M-tamba; wa 


Kcoco la 
fi-ombe 




ii-ombe 




orn-f& 


Crocodile ... 


Mamba. 
N-gwena. 
M-bulu 


Mamba 


N-gwena 


N-gwena 


N-gconya 


• •• 


Date palm 


M-tende 


M-tende 


M-cende 


M-cendeci 


... 


... 


(wild) ... 














Day 


Siku. M-cana 


Siku- M-tana 


Siku 


Siku 


Sikco. 
Mu-sana 


Haku .? 

M-tsana 


Devil, evil 


Zcoka; 


Hcoka, Zuka. 


M-zuka ; wa- 


M-buka ; va- 




M-subiani. 


spirit 


ma-zcoka. 
Ki-zuii 


Zimwi ; ma- 








Sera ; ma + 


Doctor (medi- 


M-ganga 


M-ganga 


... 


... 


... 




cine man) 














Dog 


M-bwa. 
Hufigwe (H) 


M-bwa 


M-bwa 


Im-bwa. 
J i m-bwa; 
- mijim-bwa 


Um-bwa 


M-bwa or 
M-ana 'm-bwa 


Donkey 


Punda 


Punda 


Punda 


Punda 


... 


M-pundra 


Door 


M-langco. 
Mw-angco 


M-langco 


M-laiigco 


M-langco 


M-riangco 


Mu-angco 


Dream 


N-dtotco 


N-deotco 


N -dcotco 


N-ducco 


... 


v 


Drum 


N-gcoma, 


N-gcoma, 


N-gcoma, 


N-gcoma. 


N-gcoma 


... 




Gcoma 


Gcoma 


1 -gcoma 


I-gcoma 






Ear 


Sikico ; ma + 


Sikico, ^ikico 


Sikizi, Sikibi 


I-pikico ; ma- 


Sikirco; ma-f. 


pipico; ma-f 










M-pilco (21 g) 


Kiyco ; ma + 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



131 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuti 


Ki-wibu 


gi-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &'^.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Egg 


Yayi ; ma + 


Yai ; ma -f 


li ; ma-ii 


Ingi; ma + 


R-i ; ma-i 




Elephant ... 


Tembeo. 
N-dcovu (H) 


N-deovu 


N-dcovu 


N-deovu 


N-embco or 
N-embu 


... 


Excrement 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Cu-bi 


Ma-bvi 


Ma-dzi 


Eye 


J-icco ; ma-cto. 


J-itco ; ma-tco 


Itw ; ma-tco 


Y-it<o ; ma-tco 


K-ipco; ma-j5co 


Dz-itsoj ; 




M-btoni 








ma-tsco 


Face, forehead 


U-Sco ; ny-usco 


U-soj; ny-usu 


U-SM ; ny-usoj 


Vu-sco ; ny-usoa 


U-sca; ma-SCO? 
Pa-cenye 


U-sco 


Fat 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-fuca. 
M-ori 


Ma-futa 


... 


Father 


Baba (o/d root. 


Baba 


Baba 


Baba. 


Vava. 


Baba. Ba-. 




pa.) 






(Sco-we = thy 
father). 

I-pe, -pe; 

ma-ise 
Ku-ca. 


pa 


Hala 


Fear 


W-<oga. 


Ku-ca 


Ku-ca 


W-coga 


... 




U-caji. 






Ki-cco 








•tipa, -tipci). 














Ku-tya 










, 


Finger 


Ki-d<ale ; vi- 


Ki-dojle ; vi-. 


C-anda ; 


Ki-yaa or 
Ki-jaa; bi-jaa 


J-ala ; vi-ala. 


X-a ; //. m-a 


i 




C-anda ; 


z-anda. 


Li-kombi 




\ 




vy-anda 


Ki-nwe ; 
t>i-nwe 








Fire 


M-otca ; mi-oteo 


M-5toa ; mi- 


M-otco; ny-otoj M-occo; ny-occo 


M-otco 


M-orco ; m-ero> 


Fish 


Samaki 

{Arab.) 


Samaki 


N-si. 
I-jisi ; 
mi-jisi 


I -si. I-jisi 


In-sui 


Fi; zi-fi 


Foot 


M-guu ; mi-, 
M-guyu (H) 


Guu ; ma-guu 


Giiia; ma-guii 


I -guu ; ma- 


Ri-ulu; ma-. 
M-ulu 


M-duu, 
Mu-ndru ; 
mi-ndru 


Forest 


Mw-itu; mi-itu 


Mw-itu ; 


Mw-itu ; 


Mw-icu ; 


Nundu 


Karco. 






mi-itu 


nyi-itu 


nyi-icu 




Mpa-harco 


Jowl 


Kuku 


Kuku 


Kuku 


Kuku ; pi. same 
or mi-kuku' 


Uku 


Kuhu 


Frog 


C-ura ; vi-ura 


C-ua ; vy-iia 


C-ua ; z-ua or 
b-ua 


C-uva-c-uva ; 
pi. ti-uva- 
ts-uva 


Rambe ; ma-f . 
Rume 


... 


Ghost 


Pepw. N-joozi. 

Ki-vidi 


Pepo) 


PepM 


I-buka; ma- 


... 


... 


Giraffe 


Twiga 


Tiga 


Tia 


Civa 


... 


... 


Girl 


Ki-jana. 
Ki-zinda. 
Mw-ali 


Mw-ana-mw-ali. 
Kij-ana 


... 


Kiy-ana 


Ki-simana 
mu-ka 


... 


feoat 


M-buzi {pi. 
sawe ) 


M-buzi 


M-buzi, M-bubi 


M-bubi 


M-buzi 


M-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


Beberu ; ma + . 
(Koxd la 


Beberu 


Beberu 


... 


... 


M-buzi n-dume 
(M-buzi di-se 
= ?) 




m-buzi, 












M-farika = 












feiiuile) 












Bod 


Mu-uiigu. 
Mw-enyiezi- 
mu-uiigu 


M-ngu 


M-ung^u 


M-ungu 


Mii-lungu 


M-ungu. 
M-enyizi- 
mgu. 

Mw-ezi- 
m-ufigu 



' Mi-kuku is an augmentative plural, probably taking place of No. 6. 



132 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuii 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-o>zi 




aig. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), A-c.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Grandparent 


Babui. Bibij. 
M-zee 


Babu 


Babu 


Bibi 


^aku. Bibi 


... 


Grass 


Ny-asi. 


Jani; ma-^. 


Yani ; ma + . 


ly-ani ; ma-. 


Mi-ani, 






U-kcoka. 


Ny-asi; ma-f 


Ny-ika ; ma -1- 


I-gugu; ma- 


Miny-ani (//.) 






Jani ; ma + 












Ground 


In-ci 


N-ti 


N-ti 


N-ti 


I n-ti 


N-si 


Groundnut 


N-jugu 


N-duu 


N-jugu 


U-tcokco ; 
tcokco 


... 


Tcobi 


Guinea-fowl 


Kaiiga 


Kanga 


Kanga 


Kanga 


N-kanga 


Kaiiga 


Gun 


Bunduki 


Bunduki 


Bunduki 


Bunduki 


Bonduki. 
Mudugwe 


Buduki 


Hair 


Uny-wele ; 
ny-wele. 
Ny-iwili (H) 


Uny-ele 


Uny-ee 


Un-ee 


Ny-uiri (21 f). 
Ny-uli (21 g). 


Uny-ele; 
nii-ele. 
Ny-ile 


Hand 


M-kconcd ; mi-. 


M-kunco ; mi- 


M-kcono> 


Mu-kconco. 


M-kconco. 


Mu-kconco or 




(Ki-ganja, 






Ki-canga 


Canja [palm) 


Mu-hconco. 




Ki-taiiga, 










Sanza. PI ; 




Kcafi = palm). 










ma-vi 


Head 


Ki-cwa 


Ki-twa ; vi-twa Ki-twa; zi-twa Ki-twa; fei-twa 


Ki-sua (21 f). 


Hi-tswa or 












E-pwa (2ig) 


^i-tswa ; //. 
zi-tswa 


Heart 


M-oyeo ; 


M-oyco; mi- 


M-oyco ; 


M-oyo» ; 


Mu-tima ? 


M-uyco or M-eo 




mi-oyco or 




ny-oyco 


ny-oy« 


M-oyco 






ny-oyo>. 














M-tima. M-eoa 












Heel 


Ki-fundco 


Ki-siginco 


Ki-pikinu ; zi-. 


Ki-singinyco ; 


Ki-nyunyu 


Tsinzconi. 




ca m-giiu. 




Ki-singino> ; 


bi- 




Koruwa 




Ki-siginto 




bi- 








Hide 


Ngojzi 


N-g<azi 


N-gcozi 


N-gcobi 


^ambala 


N-gcozi 


Hill 


Ki-lima 


Ki-lima 


Ki-lima 


Ki-lima 


Mu-angco ; 
mi-aiigco. 
N-drima 


M-ana 'xi-lima 


Hippopotamus 


Ki-bcokco or 
Bukco. 
Tcomondcd 


Ki-beokco; vi- 


Ki-bcokco ; zi- 


Ki-bcokco ; bi- 


Namondco 


? 


Hoe 


Jembe or 
Gembe 


Jembe ; ma- 


... 


I-yembe 


N-yembe 


... 


Honey 


Asali ya 


Asali ya 


Asali ya 


Asali ya 


Ansali 






ny-uki 


ny-uki 


ny-uki 


ny-coki 






Horn 


Pembe ; ma + 


Pembe 


Pembe 


Pembe 


Lu-nyanga ; 
pi. nyanga 


Nyoiiga 


House 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba. 
J-umba; ma-f 


Ny-umba 


N-umba 


Ny-umba 


Dagco^r Lagco; 

ma + (stone 
house). 
Ny-umba 
(■with thatched 
roof) 


Hunger 


N-jaa 


N-daa 


N-daa 


N-daa 


N-yela 




Husband ... 


M-ume; 
wa-ume 


M-ume 


M-iime 


Mu-vuli 


... 


Ma-rusa 


Hyena 


Fisi. 


Fisi 


Sumra ; ma-f. 
Sembra ; 


^umurwa. 
Pisi ; ma -f 


Fizi 


... 




Ki-ngubwa 










(spotted hyena] 




ma + . Pisi ; 
rns." 








Iron 


C-uma ; 
vy-uma 


C-uma 


C-uma ; z-uma 
or t>-uma 


C-uma ; b-uma 


C-uma 


^-uma 


Island 


Ki-siwa ; vi- 


Ki-siwa; vi- 


Ki-siwa ; zi- or 


Ki-siwa ; bi- 


Ki-sirua. 


... 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



133 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


pi-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H),<^.-.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 









Ivory 


Pembe. Buri 


Pembe 


Pembe 


Pembe 






Knee 


Gote ; ma + . 
Futi (H) 


Gcoti ; ma + 


Ondcd ; ma -1- 


1-gonjco; nia-f 


Lundi ; ma -*- 


Gunguncd or 
Gunguni 


Knife 


Ki-su ; vi-su 


Ki-su; vi-su 


Ki-su; zi- 


Ki-su ; t>i-su 


Ki-dzu 




Lake 


Ziwa. 
Bwawa (H) 


Ziwa 


... 


•■• 


N-tada or 
T-anda 


Dzia 


Leg 


M-guu. 
M u-undi 


Giiii ; ma -t- 


Guu; ma- 


I-giiu; ma- 


Ku-iilu ; 
ma-ulu. 
K-<olu ; m-colu 


M-undu 


Leopard ... 


Cui 


Tui 


Tui 


Tuvi 


^uvi 


. .. 


Lion 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


pimba 
Mu-rcomcd ; mi- 


... 


Lips 


Mi-comco (//.). 


M-dcom«; mi- 


Mu-como>; mi- 


Mu-oamcij ; mi- 


Dcomco ; 




M-dcomcD, 






I-dcomu; mi-(- 




ma-lcomoa 




M-l<omco; mi- 












Magic 


U-cawi. 


U-tawi. 


U-tawi. 


U-tavi. 


U-sawi ? 


... 




U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 




Maize 


Mu-hindi, 
Ma-hindi 


Mu-hindi 


Buru 


Buru 


... 


M-rama burii 


Man 


M-tu; wa-tu 


M-tu; wa-tu 


M-tu; wa-tu 


M-cu ; wa-cu 


Mu-nu; wa-nu 


M-tu, Mu-tu, 
or Mu-ntu; 
wa-ntu 


Man, vir. ... 


M-ume. 
(M-vulana = 

a young man) 


M-iime 


M-ume. 
M-vule 


Mu-vuli 


Mu-lume 


Mu-tu-m-iime 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Dawa (Arab.) 


Dawa 


Dawa 


Dava 


Dawa. Tiba 


*>> 


Milk 


Ma-ziwa 


Ma-ziwa 


Ziwa 


"Biwa 


Ma-ziwa 


N-zia 


Monkey ... 


Kima. 


Kima. 


Kima. 


Kima. 


N-kima 


... 




Tumbili. 


Tumbiri 


Tawau 

or Ki-tawau 


Tawau 






Moon 


Mw-ezi; mi- 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-ezi; ni-ezi 


Mw-ebi ; ni-ebi Mw-ezi 


Mw-ezi or 














M-ezi 


Mother ... 


Mama. Nina 

[Kihguzi] 


Mama 


Mama 


Mame. Inya ; 
ma-inya 


Mama 


Mama. Mma. 
Nya 


Mountain ... 


M-lima; mi-. 

Ki-ngurima 

(H) 
Ki-nywa or 


M-lima ; mi- 


M-lima ; mi- 


M-lima ; mi- 


Mu-aiigeo ; mi- 


M-lima, 
Xi-Uma 


Moutti 


Ka-nwa; ma-f 


Ka-nwa ; ma-l- 


Ka-nwa ; 


Ka-nywa ; vi- 


Ha-mwa. 




Ka-nwa ; 






t>a-nwa ' 




pi-nwa ; //. 




vi-nywa, 










zi-nwa. 




maka-nwa 










Ha-nyu 


Nail (of finger 


Uku-caa ; 


Uku-ca 


Un-yaa ; n-yaa 


U-dcoe; ma-dcoe Ombe (21 f). 


Fuu; ma-fiiii. 


or toe) 


ku-caa. N-yaa 

( Kihgodzi) 








Li-k(oie (21 g) 


Kufu; 
zifi-kcofu 


Name 


J-ina; ma + 


J-ina; ma-(-. 
D-yina ; ma-l- 


Ina ; ma-ina 


Y-ina ; ma -f 


S-ina 


Dz-ina 


Navel 


Ki-tcavu ; vi- 


Ki-tcovu; vi- 


Ki-tcijvu; zi-. 
Ki-ctovu ; bi- 


Ki-kcijvu ; t>i- 


M-toyeo 


Tuntu or 
Kcavu 


Neck 


Singco ; ma + . 


Singco ; ma -f 


Siingto 


Mito ; //. 


^ingco. 
Lu-keosi 


Singoi 




U-kcosi 






mi-mica 




Night 


U-siku ; siku. 


U-siku ; ma-. 


U-siku; ma- 


U-siku ; ma-. 


U-siku. (Kiza 


Uku. (Xidza 




(Giza = dark- 


(Kiza = dark- 




(Kit»a = 


= darkness) 


= darkness) 




ness) 


ness) 




darkness) 






Nose 


Pua. Puya (H) 


Piia 


Pua 


Puva 


M-ula, 
Inti(2if). 
Pula (21 g) 


M-biia or 
Pua 



9,th prefix showing the Ka- of the sing, to be a valid l^th prefix. 



134 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



Sleep 



Smoke 
Snake 



Song 

Spear 





21. 


21 a. 


31 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




2ig. Ki-ngo)je 


22a. Xi-nznani 




(H), ^-c.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Oil palm ... 


M-cikici 


M-cekece 




M-cikici 






Ox 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-gombe 


N-ombe 


N-yombe 


Paddle ... 


Kasia ; ma + . 
Kafi ; ma + 


Kafi 


Kasi 


Kasi 


Kapi? 
Kasia; ma-f 




Palm wine, 


Tembw, 


Temboj 


Tembw 


I-cembto 






beer 


Thembco 












Parrot 


Kasuku 


Kasuku 


Dura; ma + 


Dura 


... 


... 


Penis 


M-bcoto ; 


M-bw; mi- 


M-bcoM. I-borco I-voroj. I-v<oo> 


M-borto 


M-bto 




mi-bco<o. Ume 












Pig 


N-guruwe 


N-guiiwe 


N-guiiwe 


N-guuve 


N-guluwe 




Pigeon 


N-jiwa 


N-diwa 


N-diwa 


N-diva 


N-jiwa or 
N-siwa 


... 


Place 


Ma-hali or 
Pa-hali 

M-vua 


Ma-hali 


Ma-hala 


Ma-hala 


Va-hali(2ig) 


... 


Rain 


M-vua 


M-vua 


Vua 


M-vula 


M-vtia 


Rat 


Panya. 


Panya. Buku 


Panya. Buku Pana 


Panya. Puku 


Puhu 




Buku ; ma -f 












Rhinoceros 


Ki-faru. Pea 


Pea 


Pea 


Ki-faru 


Mera 


... 


River 


M-tw; mi-tco 


M-tco 


M-tco, M-Ceo 


Mu-cco 


Mu-tco 


M-rto 


Road 


N-jia 


N-dia 


N-dia 


N-dia 


N-pira 


... 


Salt 


C-umvi 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyw 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyto 


Mu-nyto 


Shame 


Haya (Arab.) 


Haya 


Haya 


Haya 


... 


. .. 


Sheep 


Kondcoco. 
Kondcoyo>(H) 


KondcMo 


Kondca 


Hondaxo 


Kondtolto. 
Putiputi 


Gonderu 


Shield 


N-gaco 


N-gaco 


N-gaco 


N-gavco 






Shoulder . . . 


Bega; ma + 


Fuzi ; ma + 


Fuzi; ma + 


Fubi ; ma + 


Ri-bega; ma-.? 


Vihto ; ma -f . 
Bega ; ma + 

(22 a) 


Sister 


Umbu; ma-f. 
N-dugu. 
Dada 


Umbu ; ma + . 
N-dugu. 
Dada 


Umbu. 
N-dugu 


Umbu. Ndu 


M-lumbu ; wa- 




Skin 


N-geozi 


Gtovi, N-g»vi, 
N-gcozi 


N-gtozi, 
N-gtobi 


N-gtobi 


N-gtozi 


N-gtozi 


Sky 


U-bingu or 
U-wingu ; 
m-bingu 


U-wingu 


U-wingu ; 
m-bingu 


U-wingu 


• •• 


' '• 


Slave 


M-tumwa; wa-. 


M-tumwa 


M-tumwa 


M-cumwa 


Mu-ja ; wa-ja 


M-ruma 



M-twana. 

Mu-hadimu 

Arab.). 

.M-jakazi j 
U-zingizi. 

(Ma.lalto = 

sleeping place) 
M-co;si ; mi-to{si 
Ny-toka. 

J-coka. (P'ili= 

venomous 

snake) 



U-siiigizi 



M-eo|si 
Ny-toka 



U-sindizi 



U-sindibi 



U-zingizi 



M-oa^i ; ni-co^i M-cosi ; ni-tosi R-topi 
Ny-toka N-coka Ny-toka 



Son, boy ... Mw-ana; 



wa-ana. 
Kij-ana; vi- 

U-imbto ; 

ny-imbto 
Fumto ; ma + . 

M-kuke ; mi-. 

Sagai ; ma -f 



Mw-ana 



W-imboa ; 

ny-imbto 
Fumto ; ma -^ . 

M-kuki 



Mw-ana 
m-vuli ; 
va-ana, 
va-vuli 
U-imbto ; 
ny-imbto 
M-kuki. Fumu I-fumto ; ma- 



Mw-ana ; 
wa-ana 



W-imbto 



Mw-ana; 
w-ana 



Mu-kuki 



U-dema 
M-tosi 



Mw-ana 
mtu-ume 



Fumco 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



135 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-aiigazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-eozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), arc.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Spirit, soul 


Pepoj ; p'epoj. 
Hcdka, Scoka. 
Ruhco 

{Arab.). 
Mzimu ; wa- 


P'epco, Pep«. 

Mu-zimu, 
Mzimu ' 


... 


Mu-t>uka 


Mu-zimoa 


... 


Star 


Ny-ota 


Ny-5ta 


Ny-ota 


N-o»ca 


N-ondcoa (2 if). 
M-tadcoa(2ig) 


Ny-ora, 
Ny-urra (22 a) 


Stick 


Finibco. 
Gongco. 
U-fitco 


Fimbcd 


Simbco 


U -simbco 


•>■ 


Tsimbco 


Stone 


Ji-we ; ma-we. 
M-bwe. 


Ji-we; ma-we. 
Dy-iwe 


I-we ; ma-we 


Iji-we; maji-we 


Ri-we ; ma-we 


Bui ; ma-we 


Stool 


Ki-ti 


Ki-ti 


Ki-ti 


Ki-ci 


Ki-ti 


Xi-ri 


Sun 


Jua ; ma + 


Jua; ma + . 
Dyua 


Yua; ma+ 


Yuva; ma+ 


N-yua, Jua 


I-dzua or Zua 


Tail 


M-kia ; nii-kia 


M-kia 


M-kia 


M-kiya ; mi- 


Ru-kira 


... 


Tear 


Ccozi ; ma + 


Tcozi ; ma + 


Tcozi ; ma -f 


I-tcot>i ; ma- 


Tscozi ; ma + 


Ma-tSMzi (pi.) 


Testicles ... 


Pumbu ; ma + . 
Tambcoa 


Pumbu ; ma -f 


Kende ; ma -f 


I-kende; ma- 


... 


Pumbeo. Qense 
or Konnezi 


Thief 


Mw-ivi; w-evi. 
Mw-izi; w-ezi 


Mw-ivi; w-evi 


Mw-izi ; w-ezi. 
Mw-it>i; w-ibi 


M w-ibi ; v-ibi 


Mu-ivi ; w-evi 


... 


Thigh 


PajaorU.paja. 
Ki-weco 


U-paja 


Ki-weco ; 
zi-weco or 
bi-weco 


Ki-veo) ; bi-veco 


Paja 


Paja 


Thing 


Ki-tu ; vi-tu. 


Ki-tu ; vi-tu 


Ki-tu ; zi-tu or 


Ki-cu ; bi-cu 


Ki-nu. (C-uma 


^i-ntu ; zi-ntu 




J-ambco; 




bi-tu 




= property) 




m-ambco 












Thorn 


Mw-iba ; 
mi-iba 


Mw-iba 


Mw.iwa, 

Mw-iva 


Mw-iva 


... 


... 


Tobacco ... 


Tumbakco 


Tumbakco 


Tumbakco 


Tumbakco 


Tumbaku 


... 


To-day ... 


Leco 


Leco 


Yeco 


Eco 


Lelco, Rerco, 
Reru 


Leco 


Toe 


Ki-dcole ca 
m-guu 


Ki-dcole ca guiJ 


C-anda ca guu. 
Ki-nwe ca 


Ki-yaa ca i-gu 


... 


^-aya pa m-diiu 


To-morrow 


KejSco 
U-nju 

(Kipemba). 


Ke^co 


guu 
Keisco 


Ke^co 


Ma-tsesu 


... 


„ the day Kepco-ku-twa. 


M-tondco 


M-tondci> 


M-condco 


M-tondco 




after 


M-tondco 












Tongue 


U-limi; n-dimi. 
Ki-dimi (H) 


U-limi 


U-limi 


U-limi 


Ru-rimi, 
Lu-rimi 


U-Umi ; n-dimi 


Tooth 


J-inco ; m-enco 


J-inco or 


Inco ; in-enco. 


I-enyco ; 


R-incoorR-inu; 


Dz-lnyeo ; 






Dy-inco ; 


Y-enco or 


m-enyco 


m-enco 


ma-nyco 






m-enco 


Enco ; m-enu 








Town 


M-ji ; mi-ji 
Kiji.ji; viji-ji 


M-ji ; mi.ji. 
Kiji-ji 


Mu-i; mi-L 
Kiji-yi 


Mu-yi ; mi-yi 


Mu-di (21 g). 


M-ji 


Tree 


M-ti ; mi-ti 


M-ti ; mi-ti 


M-ti, M-ci 


Mu-ci ; mi-ci 


Mu-ti 


Mw-iri, Mu-rrco 
or Mo-ri ; pi, 
ml-ri 


Twins 


Paca ; ma + . 


Pata ; ma + 


Pata ; pata- 


Pata ; pata- 


Ri-papa; ma-^ 


••• 




M-siwanda 




pata 


pata 






(H) 












Urine 


M-kcojco 


M-kcojco 


M-koyco. Bau 


Ma-nne 


Mi-kcojco 


Kcozco 


Vein 


M-pipa ; mi- 


M-pipa 


M-pipa 


M-pipa 


Mu-sipa, 
Mu-sipe 








' From -zimu, to become invisible, to be about to die. 





136 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 1 21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tiktiii 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-uzi 




21 g. Ki-ng»je 


22a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &'c.) 




21 d. Kipate 








War 


Vi-ta Vi-ta 


Zi-ta or TJi-ta 


Tli-ca 


Kondu. Vi-ta 


Huana 


Water 


Ma.ji Ma.dyi 


Ma-i 


Ma-yi 


Ma-zi, Ma-ji 


Ma-ji or 
Ma-zyi. 
Ma-pe (22 a) 


Well, source 


Ki-sima Ki-sima 


••• 


... 


. . * 


N-dzitsu 


White man 


M-zungu M-zungu 


M-zungu 


M-bungu 


Mu-zungwe 




Wife 


Mw-ana, Nana M-ke; wa-ke 
{distinct from 
' child ', means 
' mistress of 
household'). 
M-ke; wa-ke 


M-ke 


Mu-ke 


Mu-ka 


Mu-haza. 
M-pe 


Wind 


U-pepoa; p'epo] 


U-pepci) 


U-pepeo 


U-pepeo 


M-epo» (21 f) 


M-bevM, 



Witch 

Witchcraft 

Woman 



Womb 

Wood (fire- 
wood) 
Yam 

Year 

Yesterday 

Zebra 



M-ca'wi ; wa- 
U-cawi. 

U-aiiga 
Mw-ana-m-ke. 

M-ke ; wa-ke 

M-ji. Tumbcd 

la u-zazi. 

Mimba 
U-kuni ; kuni 

Ki-azi ki-kiiii. 

Jimbi ; ma -f 

Mw-aka ; mi- 

Jana. Jazi 

(day before) 



M-tawi 
U-tawi 

Mw-ana-m-ke 



Tumbco la 
u-zazi 

U-kuni 

Ki-azi ki-kuu 

Mw-aka ; mi- 

Dyana 



M-tawi 
U-tawi 

M-tu-m-ke or 
M-cu-m-ke 

Ma-tumbci> ya 
u-babi 

U-kuni 

Ki-azi ki-kuu 

Mw-aka 

Yana 



M-tavi 
U-tavi 

M-cu mu-ke ; 
wa-cu-wa-ke 

I-cumbco la 
ku-t>aa 

U-kuni 

Ki-abi ki-kuii 

Mw-aka; ni- 

I-yana 



Peva 
or Pevco 

M-psawi (21 f) M-gaiiga 

U-sawi 



Mu-ka 



Mimba 



R u-kuni 



Mw-aka ; mi- 



M-ru-m-se, 
M-tu-m-pe;//. 
wa-ntu-wa-se 



Xi-azi 



Punda mi-lia Punda mi-lia Punda mi-lia Punda mi-lia 



M-pa or 

Mu-aha 

Dz-ana, I-jana. Vto-^^ana. 

I-juzi {day Vaj-zuzi 

before) 



One ... . 


•mojja. Musi 


•mcaja. -mcosi 


•majya. 


-meoya. 


-mcodya,-mcoja. 


Monsi, Mcodze 








Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 


Mcozi 


Mundzi. 
Mcoza, Mcopa 


Two ... . 


•will, -bill, 


-bili. -wUi, 


-bili, -will, 


-bili, -vili, 


-biri, -viri 


-bili, -ili 




-wiri 


•pili 


-pili 


■pili 






Three... . 


.. -tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-cacu 


•tatu. N-atu 


-taru, -raru 


Four ... . 


-nne 


-nne 


-nne 


-nne 


-ne 


-nne. Nai 


Five ... . 


-tanoa 


-tanca 


•tanu 


-tanoa 


•tanu, -lanu 


-sanco, -tsanco. 
-dzanvu 


Six ... . 


.. Sita (Arab.). 
M-tandatu 


Sita 


Sita 


Sita 


M-tandatu. 
Sita 


N-tandaru 


Seven... . 


Sabaa (Arab.). 
M -fun gate 


Sabaa 


Saba 


Saba 


M-fungate. 
Saba 


M-fukari or 
-kare 


Eight ... . 


-nane 


Nane, -nane 


■nane 


-nane 


-nane 


Nane 


Nine ... . 


Kenda 


Kenda 


Kenda 


I -kenda 


Kenda 


Senda, 
Xenda, 
N-|Sinda 


Ten ... . 


Kumi. 
Mu-ongco; 
mi-ongco 


Kumi 


-kumi. 

Mu-ongco 


-kumi 


-kumi 


Kumi ; 
ma-ngumi 


Eleven 


Kumi na muja 


Kumi na muja 


Kumi na mu] 


,ra Kumi na mo^ 


/a Kumi na mcozi 


Kumi na mcoza 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



137 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ri-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &>£.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


M-eiigco m-ili 




nia-wili 


wa-wili 


ma-wili. 


ma-vili 


ma-viri. 


or M-iiigco or 




(-wiri). 




Mi-ongco 


Mi-ongco 


Inpiriri 


Ma-ngum' ili 




.Mi-ongco 




mi-wili 


mi-vili 


a Arab. 






mi-wili (-wiri) 








Iprin ?) 




Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-ngumi taru 




ma-tatu 


ma-tatu 


ma-tatu. 
Mi-ongco 
mi-tatu 


ma-cacu 


ma-tatu 


or raru or 

M-iiigco 

mi^taru 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma^ngum' 




ma-nne 


ma-nne 


ina-nne 


ma-nne 


ma-ne 


a^nne or 

M-ingco 

mi-nne 


Fifty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-ngumi 




ma-tanco 


ma-tanco 


ma-tanco 


ma-tanco 


ma-lanu 


tsanco or 
M-ingco 
mi-sanco 
(mi-dzanco) 


Hundred ... 


Mia (Arad.). 


Mia 


Mia 


Mia 


Ma-kumi 


I-jana or Sana 




Gana 








-kumi. Mia 












{Arab.) 




Thousand ... 


Ki-kwi; vi-kwi. 


Alfu 


Alfu 


Alfu 


? Ci-kwi. 


p-uhi; z-uhi 
(z-uhi z-ili = 




Elfu {Arab.) 








Mia kumi 














2,000) 


I, me, my ... 


Mimi. Miye. 


Mimi. Miye. 


Mimi. N.,Ni-, 


I-mi. N-, Ni-, 


U-mi, OO-mi. 


VVa-mi. Isi-, 




N-,Ni-. 


N-, Ni-, Hu-. 


Hu-. 


Hu-. 


N-, Ni-, Gi- ? » 


Ntsi-. 




-mi. -ni-. 


-mi. -ni-. 


■mi. -ni-. 


-ni-. -a-ngu 


•mi. -ni-. 


-ni-. -a-ngu 




-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 




-a-ngu 




rhou, thee, 


Wewe, Weye. 


Wewe, Weye. 


Wewe. U-. 


U-we. U-. 


U-we, Wewe. 


Wa-we. U-. 


i-thy 


U- 


U-. 


-we. -ku-. 


-we. -ku-. 


U-, Ku-? 


•hu-, -WU-. 




•we. -ku-. 


-we. -ku-. 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


-we. -ku-. 


-a-hco 




-a-kco. -wco, -co 


-a-kco 






-a-kco, -co 




He, him, his 


Yeye, Yee. A-, 


Yeye. Yu-, 


Yeye. A-,Hu.. 


I -ye. A-, Hu-. 


I-re. U-ye ? 


W-eye, Tsua 


. 


Hu-, Yu-. 


A-, Hu-. 


-ye. -m-. 


•ye. -m-. 


Ye-. A.,Ka.?, 


or U-nu. A-. 




-m-, -mw-. 


-ye. -m-. -a-ke 


-a-ke 


-a-ke 


U-. 


-m-. -a-he 




-a-ke, -ye ; 








-ye. -mu-. 






-we 








-a-ke, -e 




We, us, our 


Siswi,Swiswi, 


Siswi. Tu-. 


Sisi. Tu-. 


I-si. Cu-. 


U-fwe. Tu-, 


Wa-si. Tu-, 




Sisi. Tu-. 


-tu-. -etu 


-tu-. -etu 


•CU-. -ecu 


Ti-. 


Ri-. 




-swi. -tu-. 








-fwe, -swe. 


-tu- ? -a-tu 




-etu 








-tu-. -etu 




Ye, you, your 


Ninyi, 


Nyinywe. M-, 


Nyinyi. M-, 


I-ni. M-, Mu- 


U-miie. Mu-. 


VVa-nyi. Mu-. 




Nwinyi, 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


-wa-. -enyu 


-mwe, -nwe. 


-wa-. -a-nyu 




Ninywi. Mii-, 


-wa-. -enu 


-wa-. -enu 




-wa-. -enu 






-nyi, -nwi-. 














■wa-. -enu 












They, them. 


Waco. Wa-. 


Waco. Wa-. 


Waco. Wa. 


1-vco. Wa-. 


Wa-re. Waco. 


Waco. Tsawa. 


their 


-aco. -wa-. 
-a-co 


-wa-. -aco 


-wa-. -a-co 


•wa-. -a-vco 


Wa-, Va-. 
-aco, -WCO-. 
-wa-. -a-co 


Wa-. 

-wa-. -a-hcoco 



■ According to Joaquim d' Almeida da Cunha {Apontamentos . . . das linguas falladas pelos indigenas 
iofambique) in the Angope or Kingcoje dialect the verbal pronouns are Ki^, U-, A- ; Ni-, M^, A-. 



138 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-bizi 




21 g. Ki-ng«je 


22a. Xinzuani 




(H), ^-c.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 









All ... 


... 


-ote. Pia 


-ote 


-5te 


•ote 




Pia. Apa- 
(Apawa ?) 


•onji 


This, these 


Hu-yu; ha-wa; 


Hu-yu; ha-wa; 


Hu-yu, &'c. 


Hu-ii; 


ha-wa ; 


A- (a-yoj ; 


•nu (u^nu, 






hfi-u ; hi-i ; 


^^c. 




a'c. 




a-wa ; a-u ; 


wa-nu, &'c.) 






hi-li ; ha-ya ; 










a-i ; a-ri; 








hi-ki; hi-vi ; 










a-ya; a-ci ; 








hi-i (si-i)' ; 










a-vi; ar'c.) 








hi-zi ; hu-ii ; 


















hu-ii ; hu-ku ; 


















ha-pa ; hu-mu 














That, those 


Hu-y<o; ha-eo ; 


Hu-yu ; ha-eo : 


Ho-yco, ar'c. 


Hoj-co 


ha-co; 


■ •■ 


... 






hu-co ; hi-yco ; 


^-c. 




QT'C. 












hi-l<o ; ha-yo) ; 


















hi-cto; hi-vyco; 


















hi-yo) ; hi-zoj ; 


















hu-co ; hu-oj ; 


















hu-kco; ha-pco; 


















hu-mcj 


















Yu-le ; wa-le ; 


Yu-le ; wa-le ; 


U-le, dr-i-. 


U-le, wa-le, 


•re(l-re; wa^re; 


•le (u^le, wa^le. 






u-le ; i-le ; 


dr^c. 




va-le, 


&-<:. 


u^re; i-re; 


i-le, pi-le, ore.) 






li-le ; ya-le ; 










ri-re ; ya-re; 








ki-le (ci-le) ; 










ci-re ; vi-re ; 








vi-le ; i-le ; 










&^c:) 








zi-le ; u-le ; 


















u-le ; ku-le ; 


















pa-le ; m-le 














Bad ... 


... 


-baya, -baa 


-baya. -bco-vu 


•co-vu 


-co-vu 




-i (Mu-i). 
si ng-ema 


-wii, -bi 


Black... 


... 


-eusi 


-eiisi 


-eusi 


-eiisi 




•erufi 


-udu, M-udu 


Female 




-ke. -kojco 


-ke. -a ki-ke 


-ke 


-ke 




-ka 


-pe 


Fierce, sharp 


-kali 


-kali 


-kali 


-kali 




-kari 


Good ... 




-ema ; -zuri. 
■tco 


-ema 


-ema 


•ema 




-ema 


-ema 


Great ... 


... 


Bora. -kiiu. 
-kubwa. 
-nene 


-kuu. -kubwa 


-kiiu 


-kuru 




■kulu 


Bua-fu. Dibave 


Little... 


... 


•dcogoj. -cace 


-dcog<o 


-tcotco, -ccocco 


■dcoda 


-titi 


-tcotco. -pusu. 
-aba (few) 


•titi. Ka-, Ga- 

{as prefix). 
-nkinyi 


Long ... 


... 


•re-fu 


•re-fu 


-re, -re-fu 


-re-fu 




... 


... 


Male ... 




-ume, -dume 


-ume. -aki-ume 


-ume 


-vuli 




-lume 


-iime, -diSme 


Old ... 




-kukuii. -zee 


-zee. -kukuu 


-zee, -bee. 


-t.ee. 


■tiima. 


-vere. -se or 


-kuhu 










-kukiiu 


-kukuu 


■zee 




Red ... 




-ekundu 


-ekundu 


-ekundu 


-ehundu 


•eiindu 


kundu 


Rotten 




-to-vu, -bco-vu 


-co-vu, -bco-vu 


-covu 


-covu 




•bvunda 




Short... 


... 


-fupi 


-fupi 


•fupi 


•fupi 






... 


Sick ... 




-gonjwa. -well 


-wele. gonjwa 


-we, -dwe 


•w?e 




•Iwala 


-ade, mu-ade 


White 




-eii-pe 


■eu-pe 


-eu-pe 


•eu^pe 




•elu-pa 


-jeu. -eu 


Above, 


up. 


Juu 


Juu or Dyuu 


Yiiii 


I-yuu 




Julu 


U-zyu or Dzu 


on top 


















Before 


... 


Mbele 


Mbele 


Mbee 


Mbee 




Mbele 


Mbele 


Behind 


... 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Kwan- 


ima 


Ny-uma 


M-engco-ui 



' s replaces h in a few KtngUsi demonstratives ; i. e. S&-for Ha-, Si- for HI-. 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



139 



English 



21. 

Swahili 

(Ki-hadimu 

(H), &-(.) 



21 a. 
Ki-mvita 



21 b. 

Ki-amu 

21 c. Ki-Mzi 

21 d. Ki-pate 



21 e. 
Ki-tikuu 



21 f. 

Ki-wibu 

21 g. Ki-ngcoje 



22. 

^i-aiigazija 

22a. Xi-nzuani 



Below, down 

Far 

Here 

In, inside ... 



Middle 
Near 

Outside 
Plenty, many 

There 

Where? ... 
No! 

Not (wM verb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



Ci-ni 
M-bali 
Hapa. Huku. 

Hupcd 
Nda-ni. 

Hu-mco. 

Mu-, M-. -ni. 

Katika 
Katikati 
Karibu (Arad.). 

Pa-fupi 
Nje 
■ingi. Tele 

Hukco. Kule. 
Pale 

-pi .' Wa-pi ? 
Ahaa 1 Siyeo ! 
Si. -si-. Si-. 
Hu-. Ha-. 

Ku-teoa {^uiiA 
infinitives) 



Ti-ni 

M-bali 

Hapa 

Nda-ni 



Katikati 
Pa-fupi 

Nde 

•iigi, -ingi. 
Tele 
Pale. Kule, 

-pi .' Wa-pi .' 
^i(o! 

Si. -si-. Si-. 
Hu. Ha- 



Ti-ni 

M-bali 

Hapa 

Nda-ni 



Katikati 
Pa-fupi 

Nde 

-ngi, -ingi. 

Tele 
Pale 

Wa-pi? 
Siyco! 

Si. -si-. Si-. 
Hu-. Ha- 



Ti-ni 

M-bali 

Hapa 

Nda-ni 



Kaci 
Pa-fupi 



Nde 
•ngi. 

Pale 



Tele 



Kwa-pi ? 
Siveo ! 

Si. si-. Si- 
Hu-. Ha- 



Si-ni. Pa-nsi Won-si. M-si-ni 

Baidi M-bali 

Apa Hava (.'') 

... -ni, -mi, -mu 



Pepi 



-ngj, -ingi 



Vanu 

■ingi 

Hule Tsahoi 



-pi? 

Ebu ! Si 

Si. Si-, -si-. Si. Si-, -si-, 

Ku? Ka? Hu-. Ha- 



To 

„ beat 

„ buy, sell 

„ come ... 



,, cut 

,, dance ... 

„ die 

„ eat 

,. give ... 

,. go 



kill 

know ... 
laugh ... 
leave off, 
cease 



love, want 

see 

sit, remain, 

abide 
sleep . . . 
stand, stop, 

be erect 
steal ... 



Ku- 



■piga_ 
-nunua. -uza 

•ja (N-jeoco ! = 
imperative) 

-kata. -cinja 

-ceza. -randa 

•fa 

-la 

-pa. -tcoa, 

-tunza 
-enda, 

enenda. 

■pita 

■iia 
-jua 
-ceka 
-aca, -ata, 

-kwma. 

? -regea [to 

be /nose) 
-penda 
-ona 
-kaa (-kalia= 

remain for) 
■lala 
■simama. 

-ima 
•iba 



Ku- 
-piga 
•nunua. ' 
-uliza 
-ja, -dya 



-kata 

-teza 

-fa 

■la 

-pa 

-enda. -pita 



-ua 
-dyua 
-teka 
-ata 



■penda 

-ona 

-kaa 

-lala 
-simama 

-iba 



ai- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


U-, Hu- 


piga 


-bika 


-ilia 




nunua. -uza 


-nunuva. 
-kuba 


-uza 


-uza 


ya 


•ya 


-dya. -lawa. 


-ija. (Xto ! = 






( Jeo ! = im- 


imperative) 






perative) 




kata 


-kaca 


■sinpa 


*■• 


teza 


-tet>a 


-vina 


, ^ 


fa 


■fa 


-fa 


-fa 


la 


-la 


-ria 


-la 


pa 


-pa 


-pa 


-be. -va(22a) 


enda 


-enenda 


■enda, 


-enda, -senda, 






-enenda. 


-inda {past 






-tembera. 


tense : 






-ka 


■endre) 


iia 


-uva, -vua 


-waga. -ula 


-hua 


yua 


-yiwa 


-ijiwa 


■jua 


teka 


-teka 


-zeka 


-tepia 


ata 


-ata 


-reka. -asa 




penda 


-penda 


-penda. -saka 


-vintsa 


ona 


-vona 


-ona 


-hcona 


kaa 


-teti 


-ikala 


-kensa 


lala 


-iyala 


-lala 




simama 


-simama 


..• 


... 



-jepa 



•yepa 



•iba 



140 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN THE SWAHILI DIALECTS 

Virtually no traces of preprefixes, except in the 9th prefix in the Ki-unguja and Ki-mrima dialects 
(21 f and g). 

Class I. M-, Mu-, Mu- (aie, 2if) (m-, mu, yii-, ? hu-, u) ; 2. Wa-, (Va- sometimes in 21 e and f) 
(wa-, va-); 3. M-, Mu-, Mu- (21 f) (m-, mu-, u) ; 4. Mi-, Ny-, Ni- (21 c, d, and e) (m-, mu-, i) ; 5. — , 
Ji-, J-, Dy-, Ri- (21 f and g),Ni- (21 f ) (li, j-, r-, ri-) (21 f) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya) ; 7. Ki-, C- (ki, ci-, c'-) ; 
8. Vi- (21, 21 a, 21 f and g), Zi- (21 c), Tii- (21 d and e) (vi, zi-, t>i-) ; 9. In- (21 and 21 f >, N- (M-), H-, 
Ny-, — (— , n- (m-), ny-, nj-, iig-, i) ; 10. In-, N- (M-), H-, Ny- (— , zi, ny-, nj-, iig-) ; 11. U-, Lu-, Ru- 
(last two forms only in 21 f and g) (m-, u, lu, ru-) ; 12. (Absent throughout); 13. Ka- (almost absent, 
save for slight traces— with Vi- as plural — in Ki-unguja and the other northern dialects, but commoner in 
21 f and g) ; 14. U- (plural sometimes Ny-, but more commonly Ma-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Pa- (Va- 
in 21 f ), rarely Wa- (pa-, va-) ; 17. Mu- (mu- and -ni) — almost absent from 21 e. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN pi-ANGAZIJA, &c. 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, m, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi-, Me- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. Dzi (D'-, L'- .'), - (dz', dzi-, li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ? a) ; 7. ^i-, Xi-, Xi-, Hi- (fi-, xi) ; 8. Zi- (zi) ; 9. N- 
(M-),N-, Ny-, — (n-, i) ; 10. ? Zin-, N- (M-), N-, Ny- (zi ?, n-) ; 11. (missing) ; 12. (missing) ; 13. (rare) 
Ha-, Ka- (? ha-, ka) ; 14. U-, Vco- ? (u) ; 15. Hu-, U-, ? Gu- (? hu); 16. Wa-, Va- (va .') ; 17. ?(?-mu?, 
-mi, -ni). 



21. Swahili is spoken in Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia islands, and in the coast towns between the 
Pangani river, Kilwa, and Lindi ; also in an adulterated form right across Africa from Unyamwezi and 
Tafiganyika to the Lualaba and Upper Congo. Kihadimu or Kikae is the ancient dialect of Zanzibar 
island and Kinguzi the affected ' literary ' speech. 

21 a. Kimvita is spoken in the towns of the Mombasa coast-belt between Vanga and Malindi. 

21 b. Kiamu, 21 c. Kiwzi, and 2i d. Kipate, are spoken on the islands of Lamu and Pata, and in 
the Witu sultanate and the delta of the OOzi and Tana rivers. 

2 1 e. Kitikuu is spoken in Faza (north of Lamu) and at all the Swahili settlements along the coast 
between Kwaihu and the Juba river ; also north of the Juba river. 

21 f. Kiwibu (Kimrima and Kimgau) are spoken on the coast between the mouths of the Rufiji 
and the Ruvuma rivers (Cape Delgado) ; at I bo and in the Kerimba islands ; 21 g. Kingojje is spoken 
in the Swahili-Arab colonies of Angiope (Angoxa). 

22. Siaiigazija and 22 a. Xinzuani are spoken in the Komoroj islands (Great Komorco, Johanna, 
and Mwhila) : with the exception, p)erhaps, of Mayotte. 



GROUP G 

THE USAGARA-UGoaGO) LANGUAGES 



23. Dzalaraco 

23 a. Kami. 23 b. Ki-xutu. 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 
24-24 b. Kaguru (Northern Sagara)' 



24C-g. Southern Sagara dialects^ 

25. Gcogcd 

26. Irangi. 26 a. Kiumbugwe 



English 



23- 
Dzalamu 



23 a. 

Kami 

23 b. Ki-xutu 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 



24-24 b.' 

Kaguru and 

Northern 

Sagara 



24 c-g.' 
Southern 
Sagara 



25. 

GcOgCd 



26. 

Irangi 

26 a. Ki- 
umbugwe 



Adze 


TeiUco. 
N-hemo) 


N-hemcd 


N-temoa. 
Ci-widzoj 


N-temto 


N-temcd 


... 


Animal, wild 


Ny-araa ; //. 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 


dziny-ama 












Ant 


Mi-gege (//.). 
N-humbi- 
humbi 


Cia. 
Ifconyto 


Siafu. I-fulafu. 
Sungusungu. 
N-tiingi. 
Cufigu 




Ny-ungu 


Ny-ereri 


Ant, white 


Mu-swa 


Geiihe ; 


Mu-swa 


... 


M-mehe or 


Mu-swa 


(termite) 




ma-geiihe 






Mu-mehe. 
Ki-swa ; 
vi-swa 




Ape (chim- 


... 


... 


... 


... 




• •• 


panzi or 














gorilla) 














Arm 


M-kconco ; mi- 


Mu-kconu; mi- 
M-wcokco; mi- 


M-ka>nco ; mi- 


Mw-cokco 


Mw-tokoa ; mi- 


Twaliti 


Arrow 


M-sale .' 


Lu-htote. 
M-dumka 


Mu-vi. I-sagi. 
Lu-pcabeta 




Songa 


M-ui or Mw-ui ; 
mi-wui 


Axe 


^toka 


Wagoa ; ma + 


Ci-widzoj. 
N-temco. 
Sen goo 


Hengco 


Sengcd 


C-aria, 
Caha 


Baboon 


Di-kcdkco 




Ny-ani 


.•■ 


Ny-ani 


N-jai. Tui 


Back 


M-goiigto ; mi- 


M-gongoj 


M-gongco ; mi- 




Mu-gong<o;mi- 


Lekele 


Banana 


Nheo<o; 


N^uhu. 


N-xco. (Bcokco 




Tojke; ma-f. 


N-dizi 




mi-khcooj. 


(iM-gomba = 


or Di-bcoku = 




N-dizi 






M-zuzu 


tree) 


tree) 








Beard 


N-debvu 


N-debfu 


Ki-devu or 
Lu-levu 


N-devu 


N-devu 


N-deda 


Bee 


N-yuki 


N-yiiki 


N-juki 


N-zuki 


N-zuki 


N-yuki 


Belly 


Mu-nda 


I-nda. 


Ku-nda, 


Tumbcj ; ma-(- 


Tumbu ; ma -f . 


Guvia 






Mda. 


Mu-nda, 


1-nda; //. 


I-nda ; ma-da 








Tumbcij 


I-nda. 

I-tumbu. 

I-sile 


nyi-nda, 
mai-nda 






Bird 


N-dege ; 
dzin-dege 


N-dege 


I-dege : ma- 


N-dege 


N-dege 


Zcodie. 
N-dee 


Blood 


M-lcopa 


M-leopa 


Sakami ; ma-f 


Sakami 


Sakami 


S^gami 


Body 


M-wili 


... 


M-tufi 


Ku-wiliwili 


M-wiri or 
Ki-wiliwili 


... 


Bone 




Guha 


I -guha 


I-fupa 


I-fupa ; ma- 


... 


Borassus palm 


... 


M-vuma or 
M-vumco 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Bow 


U-pinde. U-ta 
Wanga 


U pinde 


N-ta or U-ta ; 
pi. mi-ta 


U-pindi 


Pindi. 
U-kunje 


... 



' The principal dialects fl/"Sagara speech spoken in the hilly regions of Ulugurii, Rubehai, and Usagara may 
he enumerated as follows : Northern Sagara, 24. Kaguru, 24 a. Itumba, 24 b. Kondua or Solwe ; Southern 
Sagara, 24 c. Ziraha, 24 d. Kwenyi, 24 e. Nkwifiya, 24 f. Ndunda, 24 g. Ngwila. 



142 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24C-g- 


25- 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru ami 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Bowels 


Tupe; ma+ 


Ma-tumboj 


Ma-tumbu. 

(U-fu = sto- 
mach of oxen) 


... 


Ma-tumbu 


... 


Brains 


U-l«teo 


U-bongco 


Ca-ongco ; vya- 


Uw-ongco ; ma- 






Breast (man's) Mbaga. 


Ma-mbaga 


Ci-fa 


... 


Pa-mbaga 


Ki-ku'a' 




M-ha-mbaga ; 














mi- 












Breast 


Mipa-mbaga. 


Tombco ; ma ■¥ 


I -tombco ; ma- 


Tombco ; ma- 


Ma-tombco 


I -tombco ; ma-. 


(woman's) 


Ma-tombco 










Ma-jcororco. 

Ma-susu 


Brother ... 


Kaka. M-kulu 


N-dugu. 


M-dugu ; wa-. 


N-dugu. 


N-dugu. 


Lumbu. N-duii 




M-d(odu. 


Magati. 


Mw-ene-tu. 


M-kulu. 


Lumbu 






M'Zuanda. 


Se-gulu 


M-vuna 


M-dcodco 








N-dugu (rela- 






wafigu. 








tion) 






I-lumbu 






Buffalo 


Tupa ; ma + 




M-bcogco 


M-bcogco 


M-bcogco 




Bull 


M-nhufi. 


N-ombe 


N-zambaku 


I-senga i-lume. 


N-jeku. 


M-jeku 




Bebelu 


n-dume. 

Senga 

m-bigalco 

(23 b) 
Dakco; ma + 




N-zeku. 
Khambaku 


Kambaku. 
? Kabakco 


... 


Buttocks ... 


Lu-kundu 


I-takco; ma- 


Ma-dakco 


I -dakco; ma- 


Ma-takco 


Canoe 


M-humbwi 


Mu-humbwi 


Mcokco 


... 


... 


M-tumbi 


Cat 


Nyaoj 


M-nyaco 


Nyaco. 
I-tulwa 




Nyaco 


Nyau 


Charcoal ... 






Li-kala ; ma- 




Ma-kala 


Ma-kala 


Chief 


N-dewa 


M-dema. 
Jumbe. 

(M-dewa = 

interpreter) 


M n-dewa or 
M-gcosi 




M-teme 


M-temi. 
M-sungati 
(26 a) 


Child 


Mw-ana. 


Cin-keli ; vin-. 


C-ana; 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 




M-dcodco 


Mw-ana. 
Gu-undila ; 
ma-undila 

(23 b) 


vy-ana. 
Ci-ali ; vi-. 
M-dcodco. 
C-aniki ; vy- 


M-dcodco 


M-dcodco. 
Ki-dzererco 


m-dudia 


Cloth 


N-guwcd ; zi + 


N-guco 


Mw-enda. 
Lu-ke 




Mw-enda 


Lu-enda ; 
mi-enda or 
ny-enda. 
N-gcona 


Cold 


Behu 


M-behco. 
Bfega 


M-behco. 
Ny-coba 


... 


M-behco 


Talala 


Country ... 


I-si 


I-si 


I-si ; zi-si. 
Ki-runga 


... 


I-si 


I-si 


Cow 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe 


M-buguma ya 




N-ombe. 


N-ombe inki 




M-buguma 


m-buguma. 

Senga 

m-twanzi 

'23 b) 


n-ombe 




M-buguma ya 
n-ombe 




Crocodile ... 


Mw-ena 


M-buru 


• •> 


■*. 


Mamba 


Mamba 


Day 


Siku. Um-ilsi 


Mu-si. Siku. 


I-jua. 


• 


K-ilco or C-irco. 


Siku. 




imi-si 


M-canya 


M u-gingco 




Ki-nguru 


Mu-si 


Devil, evil 


Kungu or 


I-dzimu ; ma- 


Isi-ntu i-kulu. 


I-kunga (24 c) 


Mu-zimu 


• •• 


spirit 


Di-kuiigu ; ma 




I-scoka; ma + . 
I-zimu 








Doctor (medi- 


M-ganga, 


M-ganga. 


M-ganga 


*•• 


Mu-ganga 


Mu-anga 


cine man) 


N-ganga, 
M-lagula, 
M-laguzi 


M-lagutsi 











GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGOJGCO LANGUAGES 



'43 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamu 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Dog 


M-bwa. 


Im-bwa, 


I-bwa or 


Mnyam-bwa. 


Mnyam-bwa, 


Kuli 




Ki-bwa 


Yum-bwa, 


Di-bwa. 


Nyaka-bwa. 


Im-bwa, 








Jim-bwa 


Dinyam-bwa; 

manyam-. 

Suku 


Di-bwa ; ma- 


Di-bwa 




Donkey ... 


N-deogcowe. 
Ki-hongwe 


N-deogcowe ; 

ma- 


N-dcogcowe 


N-dcogci>we 


N-dcogcowe 


N-dakwi 


Door 


Lu-ivi ; ny-ivi 


M-langco 


Lu-iji ; ma-. 
M-langco 


... 


Mu-langco 


Mu-riangu 


Dream 


N-dcozi 


• •• 


N-jcozi 


... 


. ■■* 


... 


Drum 


Gomboi. 

In-gcoma ; 
zin-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


... 


N-gcoma 


M-ina 


Ear 


Gu-twi ; 


Nghu-twe or 


Tu-twe ; ma- 


I-sikidza; ma-. 


Igu-twe, 


Ku-tu ; ma-tu 




ma-twi, 


Gu-twi ; 




Igu-twe; ma- 


iku-tu; ma- 






gama-twi 


magu-twi 










Egg 


Finga ; gama + 


Finga; nia + 


I-tagi; ma- 


... 


I-gankha or 
Ganga ; ma -(- 


Ya-i ; ma-i 


Elephant ... 


N-hemboj 


N-hembco 


N-thembco 


... 


N-zcofu or 
N-dembco 


N-jcou 


Excrement 


Ma-vi 


Ma-ve 


Ma-vi 




Ma-vi 


... 


Eye 


S-isu ; m-estt> 


Nenge; ma+ 


I-gisco; 


Z-iheo ; m-ehco. 


Z-isco, 


R-isco ; m-isco 






and dzi-. 


ma-gisco. 


Iz-ihco ; m-esco 


L-isco ; 








Z-isco or L-isco; 


D-isco ; m-esco 




m-esco 








m-esco 










Face, forehead 


Ki-anga 


Ci-hanga 


Fumda ? 
Ki-hanga ? 


N-dcosi ; 
ma-dcosi 


U-su. 
Kum-esco. 
M-esco 
ma-jeti 


N-gtirirco 


Fat, oil ... 


Gama-vuta or 
Ma-vuta. 
U-ncono> 


Ma-bvuta 


Ma-futa 


... 


Ma-futa 


Ma-kuta 


Father 


Tata, 


Baba. 


Baba 


Tata 


Scoga. 


Nani. Nanikco 




Thatha 


Tate 






Baba. 
Kcolori 


M-sedia. 
Tata 


Fear 


Di-wojga, 
Wcoga 


... 


Wcoga 




Mcoga? 
Wcoga ? 




Finger 


Ki-d«le. 
C-anda. 
Gumba 


Ci-dcole ; 
pfi-dcole. 
Z-ala 


Ki-dcole ; ci- 


I-dco!e 


K-ala. 
Ki-dcole 


C-ala ; vy-ala 


Fire 


Um-otco 


M-otco 


M-6tco 


M-otco 


M-otco. 
Ma-waa 


Kau. 

M-otco 


Fish 


Somba 


Somba 


I-jcoka 
dya me-dji 


... 


Coniba, 
Somba 


Somba 


Foot 


M-gulu; mi- 


M-gulu. 
Lu-ayco 


M-gulu ; mi-. 
I-jayco ; 
n-jayco 




Mu-gulu. 
Ki-gere 


I-gulu 


Forest 


Di-hulco, 
Umu-hulco. 
M-bagco 


Mu-hulco 


M-bagu 


M-bagu 


M-bagu. 
I-saka. 

Mu-ceme 


I-saki 


Fowl 


Ifi-guku or 
In-huku 


Nuku 


N-xuxu 


... 


N-kuku or 
N-kunkhu 


Kuku 


Frog 


M-bula ; mi- 


Butwa ; ma -f 


Bula; ma-^ 






C-ura ; vy-ura 


Ghost 


M-zimu. 
Kinya-mkela. 
Mii-lungu; mi- 


M-zimu 


M-yefu. 
Mfi-ye 




Mu-tima ? 




Caraffe ... 


N-hwiga 


Twiga 


N-dwiga 


... 


N -twiga 


Tula 



L 2 



144 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24C-g. 


25- 


26. 


English 


Dzalamoa 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Girl 


M-twanzi. 


Ci-gcole, 


M-dere. 


Mu-hinza 


Ki-hinza. 


Mu-hinja. 




Ki-gcoli 


Mw-ana 
ci-gcole 


Ki-gcoli 




Mu-tcogco 


Mw-ari 


Goat 


M-hene, 
M-pene 


M-pheni. 
M-peeni (23b) 


M-peeni 


M-peeni 


M-peeni. 
M-buri. 
Mu-tcogco-ta 5 


Mbuli 


„ (he) ... 


... 


M-vulata. 


Fulata. 


I-fulata, 


M-vulata 


M-buzi 






(M-togcota = 


Tcogcota 5 


M-vulata. 




mu-lume 






female) 




M-buguma. 
N-gadata 5 






God 


Mu-lungu ; mi-. 


Mu-lungu. 


Mu-lungu. 


Mu-lungu 


Mu-lungu. 


Balalco. 




Mw-ungu 


M-vula (23 b) 
(= rain) 


M-balco. 
C-comi 


... 


Mu-tari 


Mu-lungu, 
M-ungu 


Grandparent 


Se-kulu 


Se-kulu 


Kuku. 
Magconco ; 

wama- (j) 


... 


Yiya S. 
BabuS 


Baba. 
Mamei 


Grass 


Mi-jani (pi.) 


M-gina. 

Ma-bagco 


Mny-ari. 
N-yuju 


... 


Ma-hanza 


I-sambi 


Ground 


I-si 


I-si 


I-si 


... 


A-si 


I-si. N-si 


Ground-nut 


N-zugiJ. 
N-halanga 


... 


... 


... 


N-zugudu 


— 


Guinea-fowl 


N-hanga 


N-hafiga 


... 


... 


Kanga 


... 


Gun 


Bunduki 


Futi 


Bundiki 


... 


Bunduki 


... 


Hair 


Im-vili ; zim- 


Lu-vili ; 


Lu-vili ; 


Lu-vuile ; 


Lu-vuile ; 


Lu-guwati. 






ma-vili 


n-juile 


ma-vuile 
or m-vuile 


m-vuile. 
M-viri 


Ny-weri 


Hand 


M-kconco. 


Mw-coktij. 


M-kconoo. 


... 


Mw-cokco. 


Twaliti. 




Di-ganza. 


Ganza 


Mw-cokco. 




Ganza or 


Mu-kconco 




Ki-limbili ; vi- 




I-ganji 




Ganya 




Head 


Di-twi ; 


Li-twe or 


Di-twe or 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Baiti. 




gama-twi 


Di-twi 


I-twe; ma-twe 






Mu-twe 


Heart 


M-oyto 


M-oyoa 


M-tima. 
M-oyco 


... 


Mu-tcoga 


Kcolbi. 
M-oyco 


Heel 


Ki-siginyco; vi- 


Ki-segeyu 


Ki-sinyagir« 


... 


M-katalco 


... 


Hide 


Kwembe 


Li-kwembe ; 

ma- 


N-kiiigco 


... 


N-cingco 


Mo-mberu. 
N-diri 


Hill , 


Ki-gongco 


I-tunda. 
Lu-goiigco or 
I-gongco 


Lu-kwilco ; ma- 


I-tunda 


I-tunda. 
Ki-gongcd 


... 


Hippopotamus 


Ki-bonhca. 
Tcomondu 


N-hcomondco 


M-tcomondco ; 

ma- 


... 


Teomondco 


... 


Hoe 


Di-gembe; ma- 


Gembe ; ma + 


Li-yumbe. 
I -sire 


... 


I-sile 


I -sere 


Honey 


Uki, W-uki 


... 


Uki 


• •• 


Uci 


a)ki 


Horn 


N-hembe 


M-hembe 


M-pembe 
(? M-pombe) 


... 


Li-embe 


... 


House 


U-kaye, K'aya. 


N-anda. 


N-umba, 


N-anda, 


N-anda. 


N-khambi. 




C-anga ; vi-. 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba ; 


Ny-anda. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba- 




Ki-banda or 


(23 b) 


zi+. N-anda- 


Ny-umba 


Ci-banda 


cuico 




r-wanda, 




Mu-kcola. 










N-ganda, 




Ki-banda 










N-anda 












Hunger 


N-zala 


N-zala 


Cumbi 


... 


N-zala. 

M-kombe 


N-jala 


Husband ... 


M-kazanca. 
M-bigalo9 


M-kasana 


M-lume 


M-zererco 


M-umi 


Mu-lume 


Hyena 


N-dula 


Hcobwe. Bau. 
M-dula 


I-fisi. 
I-fipi 


... 


M-visi. 
Biti 


Pici 





GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGWGW LANGUAGES 


14s 




23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamu 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


GcdgOl 


Irangl 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Iron 


C-uma 


C-uma 


C-uma. 
Ci-bongi. 
N-dopa> 


C-uma 


C-«ma 


Lu-bvula. 
I-sanyenge 


Island 


S51co or 




... 


■*■ 


••■ 


Ir-iwa 




Di-s61oj ; ma- 












Ivory 


N-hembe 


M-hembe 


Nthembto 


... 


Lu-bali 


Lco-hembe 


Knee 


Vindi ; ma + 


Funda ; ma + 


Figameru 


... 


Guse 


K-iru (26a) 


Knife 


Mw-ele 


Mage. 


Ki-magi. 


... 


Mw-ere. 


L-upu ; ny-usu, 
L-ufyu ; 






M w-ere 


Nereza 




Maje 














ny-ufyu 


Lake 


Lamba 




I-lamba. 
I-siwa 


... 


I-ramba 


Lawa 


Leg 


Di-gulu. 
Ki-gonheo ; vi- 


Li-gulu; ma- 


M-gulu; mi- 


M-gulu ; mx- 


Mu-gulu ; mi- 


Kulo; mi-ulu. 

I-gulu ; ma- 


Leopard ... 


Duma; ma + 


Duma 


Gui; ma-f. 
Duma 


••« 


N-sui. 
Duma 


Suwi 


Lion 


Simba. 
N-gci>dci>mi 


Simba 


Nya-lcopala. 
I -simba ■ 


... 


Simba. 

Nya-lcijpala. 
Nya-tuni 


Simba 


Lips 


M-lcamo>; mi- 


Mi-lcomoj {pi.) 


M-lemeo ; mi- 




Ma-lcomu 


Ma-lcomcd 


Magic 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 




U-wai 


U-wai 


Maize 


Mu-hindi 


Ma-hindi 


I-tama or 
U-tama 


... 


Mu-hindi 


Mu-hindi 


Man 


Umu-nhu, 


Mu-nhu ; 


Mu-nhu 


Mu-nhu; wa-. 


Mu-nhu or 


Mu-ntu ; 




Imu-nhu, 


wa-nhu 




Mu-lume 


Mu-ntu 


wa-ntu 




Mu-nhu ; 














wa-nhu 












Man, vir. ... 


Mu-lume. 


M-lume. 


M-gwsi. 


• •• 


Mu-dimi. 


Mu-dimi. 




M-bigalco 


M-bigalco 


M-lume 




Mu-gcosi. 
M-zerereo 


Mu-lume 


Meat 


Iny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


. .. 


Ny-ama 


... 


Medicine ... 


I-dawa 


Mu-gcoda 


Mu-ti. M-geoda 


... 




M-weoda 


MUk 


Ma-bisi (?) 


M-ere, m-ele 
(ga ii-ombe) 


M-eli ; ma-eli. 
(Ku-kama = 

verb) 


... 


M-eri 


... 


Monkey ... 






Tumbili. 
Kima 


... 


Gedingwa 


Taha 


Moon 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edzi. 


Mw-ezi. 


t ■■ 


Mw-ezi. 


M-lenge. 






M-lenge 


M-lengi. 
M-lunga 




M-lenge 


Mw-eri 


Mother ... 


Mamu 


Wenye, 
M-wenye. 
Mama. 
(I-nyo» = va- 
gina) 


Mail, Wau. 
N-gina-, 
N-yina- 




Yaya or Yiya 


Ihyco, lyco. 

Mawe (26 a) 


Mountain ... 


Ki-lima 


Gongcd 


Lu-kwilco. 
I-tunda ; ma- 


... 


I-tunda 


Lulu 


Mouth 


M -lumen 


M-lum«a 


M-lcomu ; mi- 


Mu-lcomco, 
M-doomo) 


Mu-loamoj. 
Ku-mwa. 
Ma-laka 


Dida 


Nail Cof finger 


Iri-hombe; zi- 


N-hombe 


I-kombi. 


• *• 


Kombe. Zala 


Ci-riri 


or toej 






J -era 








Name 


Tagwa or 
Tangwa, 
I)i-tagwa 


Twaga 


I-sina. 
I-tagwa 


I-tagwa 


I-tagwa 


I-rina 


Navel 


Di-kuvu 


Kubfu. 
Ci-nena 


Tuduco 


... 


Mu-kuv« 


... 



146 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru a7id 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki. 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Neck 


Singco ? 
U-goosi 


Singco 


Singco 


... 


N-gcozi. 
Singco 


I-kingco 


Night 


I-kileo. 


C-irco. 


Kilco, 


... 


K-ir«o or C-iru 


U-ciku. 




(Dziza 


U-siku 


Cilco. 






Ny-colco. 




= darkness) 




(Lu-isa dark- 
ness) 






(Ki-lunya = 
darkness) 


Nose 


M-hula 


Im-pula; zim-, 
M.hula ; zim- 


M-pula; ma- 


M.pula 


M-pula 


Saiti ; 
ma-saiti. Pula 


Oil palm ... 


... 


... 




... 


... 




Ox 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe 


Palala. 






Senga; ma+ 


N-dafu 


Senga; ma+. 
N.koncojto 




N-dafu. 
N-gombe 


Paddle 


N.hafi 


... 


... 


... 


... 




Palm wine, 


U-gimbi. 


U-gema. 


U-gema. 


• t» 


Ma.Iusco 


I-rusco; ma-. 


beer 


Tembw. 
N-gema 


M-baali. 
Tembeo 


U.gimbi 






Nycou 


Parrot 








... 


... 


. 


Penis 


M-bcolca. 
Mvv-azi 


Temfia 


... 


... 


... 


M-bco" 


Pig 


M-tumbi. 
In-guluwe 


M-turabi 


N.gume. 
N-guruwe 


... 


N.gubi 


• •• 


Pigeon 


N-ziwa 


N-ziwa. 
Huwa 


N-jiwa 


N-d2!iwa 


N-ziwa 


... 


Place 


Ha-nhu 


Ha-nhu 


Ha-nhu, 
Ha-ntu 


... 


Ma.bala 


Ha-ntu. 
Ma-hare 


Rain 


Im-vula 


M-vula 


M-vula 


M.vula 


M.vula. 
Tconya 


M-btila 


Rat 


M-huku. 
M-bewa 


M-bewa 


M-buku 


... 


M.bewa 


Puku 


Rhinoceros 


M-tupa ; mi- 


Faru 


M-phera ; ma^ 




... 


M-pera 


River 


L,u-anda 


Mu-tsanda, 
Ci-tsanda. 
Lu-anda 


Lu-kcolongco. 
Lu.anda 


... 


Luenga. 
Kcolongco. 
M-ongco 


Mu-vuleo 


Road 


N-dzila. 
Di-kondco 


N-zila 


N-gila 


... 


Nizira 


... 


Salt 


M-kele. 
Ny-humvi 


Mu-nyco 


Mu^nyu 


... 


Mw-inu 


Saiigasco 


Shame 


Ki-nyala 


Ci-nyala 


Sconi 


S(oni 


Sconi 


Sconi 


Sheep 


N'hondcolco 


N-htolto. 
N-ondorco 


N-khcolco or 
Xcolu 


... 


N-khcolu. 
Nkoreo 


Mu-ndi 


Shield 


Kitkidzto 


N-guluma 


N-gula 


... 


N-gula 




Shoulder ... 


Yega; mi-ega 


Yega ; m-ega 


Yega ; ma + 


. . • 


I-wega; ma- 


..* 


Sister 


Lumbu. 
Di-lumbu 


Lumbu ; ma + 


Lumbu 


Mu-hadza ; 
wa-. 
Lumbu; ma-f- 


Mw-elumbu 


Lumbu. 
N-dugwe 


Skin 


Kwembe 


Li-kwembe 


Li -kwembe? 


... 


N-kuli 


(■ > 


Sky „. ... 


U-langa 


-r- 


U-laiiga. 
Vuijde 


... 


Vunde. 
W-aIco 


... 


Slave 


M>tumwa. 


M-fugwa. 


M-fugwa 


M-fugwa. 


Mu-lelwa. 


M-terewa. 




M-fugwa. 


M-tumwa. 




M'phangu 


M-fugwa 


M-rerwa. 




M-pinga 5 


M-pinga 5 








M-singa ; wa-. 
M-tumba 


Sleep 


Uttulu 


U-tul». 
Nongco. 
(N-daleo = 

sleepins-place) 


... 


... 


Sinzira 




Smoke 


Di-cosi 


Y-cosi 


M-cosi or 
Di-cosi 


• a* 


Li-co?i, 
Y-cosi 


... 





GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGWGO) LANGl 


JAGES 


'47 




23. 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamcd 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Snake 


N-zeoka 


Zcoka ; ma + . 
N -zcoka 


Nj-coka or 
Ny-coka. Pill. 
Ci-hililya 


... 


Zcoka 


Ny-coka 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana. 


M-soiigcolco. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana. 




M-hale 


Mw-ana. 


C-ana. 


Mu-dimi. 


m-lume. 


Mu-tawana 






Ka-bigalco, 


Ci-lume. 


Ki-songcolco. 


Ki-zererco 








M-bigalco 


Mw-aniki 


K-ana ; pi. 
tw-ana 






Song 


Lu-ila; ny-ila 


Ci-gcoma. 
Lu-imbco (?) 


Lu-imbu ; ma -f 


... 


U-imbco 


... 


Spear 


M-gcoha 


M-go>ha 


Mu-guha 


• •• 


M-gcoha. I-tari 


I-jimu ; ma- 


Spirit, soul 


Um-oyco. 
M-zimu. 
Im-behoj 


Um-oyci). 
Ki-dia 
Kinya-mkera 


Mu-zimu 


■ <■ 


Mu-zimu 


M-oyco 


Star 


Tondcij or 
N-hondeo. 
N-hilu 


N-tondco 


My-erezi; zi-t- 


N<tondwe 


Ny-eredzi. 
N-tondwa 


N-tondwe 


Stick 


N-hcota : 


I-bika.' 


I-bike ; ma-. 


N-xwekco. 


I-biki. 


M-ranga 




ini-khcota 


M-biviri 


M-phandco ; 


Mu-kcoti 


Kcomi 




Stone 


Di-bwe ; 
ma-bwe. 
U-bwe ; 
gama-bwe 


I-bwe ; 
ma-bwe 


ma- 
I-we or Di-bwe 

■ 


... 


I-bwe; ma-bwe 


I-we; ma-we 


Stool 


Ki-gcoda 


Ki-gtoda, 
Ci-gojda 


Ci-gcoda, 
Li-gcoda 


... 


Ki-gcoda 


... 


Sun 


Di-zuwa 


Dzuwa 


I-jua 


... 


I-dzua. 

Mu-asco 


C-coze. 
M w-asco 


Tail 


M-khila 


Mu-ingco 


Mu-se 




Mu-cira 


>*. 


Tear 


Hcozi ; ma + 


Hcotsi ; ma + 


I-scozi; ma- 


I-S(ozi ; ma- 


OOdzi 


... 


Testicles ... 


Pumbu 






... 


... 


M-bia 


Thief 


M-bavi 


Mu-hizi 


Mu-hiji ; wa- 


... 


Mu-izi 


>*• 


Thigh 


Hadza ; ma -f 


• •■ 


I-haja 


. . . 


C-ima 


... 


Thing 


Iki-nhu ; 
ivi-nhu 


Ci-fihu ; 
vi-nhu 


Ki-ntu; vi-ntu 




Ki-ntu; vi-ntu 


Ki-ntu; vi-ntu 


Thorn 


Mw-iba 


Mu-iwa 


M-ua ; mi-wa 


... 


Mu-wa; mi-wa 


*.• 


Tobacco ... 


Tumbaku 


... 


I-kondi 




Konde 


Tumbattt 


To-day ... 


Lelu 


Lelco 


Lelco 


Lelco, Di-lelco, 
Dya-lelco 


Zuari 


I-sikco 


Toe 


C-anda. 


Ci-dcole ca 


N-deole dya 


... 


Ki-dcole 


Memba ra 




Gumba 


m-gulu 


m-gulu 






kulu 


To-morrow 


Imi-tondco 


Irubfi 


Au-siku. 
I-tondco 


Mi-tondeo 


M i-tondco. 
Ci-laco 


Lu-vi. 
M-tondco 


Tongue 


Lu-limi ; 
n-dimi 


I-limi or 
Lu-limi (23 b) 


Lu-limi ; 
zinrdimi or 
malu-limi. 
Lu-Iaka 


... 


Lu-limi 


Lu-wa 


Tooth 


J -into, Dy.inw 


Dz-inco; m-ento, 


Inco, D-inco ; 


I:dzinco ; 


Idz-inco ; 


L-inco ; m-enco 




m-enu 


ma-zinco 


m-enco. 
Gegco ; ma -f 


ma-zinco or 
m-enco 


m-enco 




Town, village 


Kayi(?). 
Ki-rambui 


Kaya (7^Kaye. 
I!u-lulu 


I -kaya 


... 


Kaya 


Kaya 


Tree 


Mu-biki, 


I -bike, Li-biki. 


I-biki ; ma-. 


I-biki. 


I-biki. 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 




M-biki ; mi- 


I-bika (23 b) 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 


M-geoda 


Ki-biti 






(imi-) 












Twins 


Vi-basa (//.) 


... 


Pasa; ma-pasa 


... 


Hasa ; 

ma-hasa 


... 


Urine 


Ma-kuzu 


M-kuzu 


■ •■ 


Ma-tunzi 


Ma-tunzi 


... 



148 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gugu 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki. 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Vein 


... 


... 


N-kundi 


Ki^timba ; vi- 


Ki'kwari ; vi- 


I-pirira. 
Mu-kifa 


War 


N-hondw 


N-hondco 


U-khondco. 
Lewa 


... 


U^lugu. 
Ma-feta 


Feta. 
M-kondu 


Water 


Gama-zi 


Ma-tsi or 
Ma-zi. 
Lu-lenga ; 

ma- 


Me-ji or Ma-ji 


Ma.dzi. 
Ma^lenga 


Ma-lenga 


Nua. 
Ma-ji 


Well, source 


Sima or 
M-sima 


Ci-sima 


I-sima 


... 


... 


Ki-rimoyu. 

Ki-rinkazu 


White man 


M-zungu 


M-zungu 


Mu-zungfu 




Mu-zungu 


Mu-jungu ; wa- 


Wife 


Im-wehe 


M-wehe ; 


M-ke, Mu-ke. 


Mwe^ha; we-ha 


Mu-ke ; wa-ke. 


Mu-ke ; wa-ke 






wehe 


M-cekulu 


Mwe^he. 

Mu-ke. 

M-cekulu 


M-cekulu 




Wind 


Im-behu. 
Di-behoa 


Ubehco 


M-pheu 


... 


... 


Pehu 


Witch 


Mu-hawi 


Mu-hawi 


Mu-sai, 
Mu-hai 


... 


Mu-hai. 
M u-ganga 


... 


Witchcraft 


U-hawi. 
U-ganga 


Wu-hawi 


U-sai, 
U-hai 


... 


U-hai 


... 


Woman ... 


M-ke. 


Mu-ke. 


M-veli. 


M-kodzi; wa-. 


Mu-ndu^mu^ke. 


Mu-ntu-mu-ke. 




Mw-ali. 


M-pinga. 


Mu-ke 


M-pinga. 


Mu^dala 


Mu-iletu. 




M-pinga 


M-twanzi 








Mu-hinja 


Womb 


... 


... 


I-fii. 
I-sambu 


Nimi. 
I-sambu 


... 


Nda 


Wood (fire- 


Lu-pekoa. 


Ngojdi ; 


N-gudi ; zin-. 


N-gudi 


••• 


Kui 


wood) 


N-gcodi 


ziii-gcodi 


Bilu 








Yam 


Ki-gondeo ; vi- 


... 




... 


... 


... 


Year 


Umw-aka ; 
imi-aka 


Mw-aka. 
Ci-rimco 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Yesterday.., 


Ma-yci) 


I-gcolco 


Li-gulu 


Li-gulu. 
Di-gulu 


I-gulu 


Iju 


Zebra 


... 


M-hunda m-lia 


M-punda. 
N-juwe? 


... 


N-duge. 

Ku-rira 


N-dakwa ya 
i-sagi 


One 


■monga. 


Musi? 


-mwe 


Muse. 


Muse, 


Munce. 




Musi. 


Mwe-nga. 


(Di-mwe). 


-mwe 


Busi. 


-monga. 




•mwe 


•mwe 


Musi 




■monga 


■mwe 


Two 


•bUi 


-pili, -wiri, -ili, 


■idi (Ka-idi). 


-pili. -bili. 


-ijete (Me-ijete, 


-bili, -wiri 






-bili 


-ili (K-eli). 
ele (K-ele, 
P-ili) 


-ele 


Ke-ijete) 




Three 


•datu, -dathu 


-datu, -tatu 


-datu 
(Ka-datu) 


-datu, -tatu 


-datu 

(Ka-datu) 


-tatu 


Four 


•ne 


-nne, -ne 


•ne (Ka-ne), 
-nne 


•nne 


-ni, -ne, -ena 

(Ka-ne) 


•nne 


Five 


-thanu 


-thanu, 


-sanu 


-tanu. 


-hanu 


Salia. 






-sanu (23 b) 


( Ka-sanu) 


-hanu (24 a) 


( Ka-hanu) 


■«anu 


Six 


Sita 


M-tanda. 


M-tandatu. 


M-tandatu 


M-tandatu, 


1-sasatu, 






M-tandatu 


M-tanda (24b) 


-n-tadatu 


-sansatu 






(23 b) 










Seven 


Saba. 

M-f ungate 


M-fungati 


M-fungati 


M-fungati 


M-fungati 


M-pungate, 
M-fungate 


Eight 


Nane 


M-nane. 
M-nana 


M-nana 


M-nana 


Mu-nane, 
M-nana 


I -nane 



GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGCiJGOJ LANGUAGES 



149 



English 



23- 

Dzalamu 



23 a. 

Kami 

23b. Ki-xutu 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 



24-24 b. 

Kaguru and 

Northern 

Sagara 



24 c-g. 
Southern 
Sagara 



25. 

GugCd 



26. 

Irangi 

26 a. Ki- 

umbugwe 



Nine 


Kenda 


Kenda 


Kenda 


I-kenda 


I-kenda 


M-cenda. 
Kenda 


Tea 


M-Iongco. 
Mu-longco. 
Kumi 


I -kumi 


I -kumi 


I -kumi, 
1-cumi 


I-kumi 


A-fundika. 
Kumi. 
Mu-rongco 


Eleven 


M-longto na 


I -kumi na 


I -kumi na 




I -kumi nari 


Kumi na mwe 




-monga 


-mwe 


di-mwe 




-motiga 




Twenty ... 


Mi-loiigoj 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-loiigco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi awiri 




mi-bili. 


mi-ili or 


ma-idi, or 


mi-wili. 


me-ijeti 


Mi-rongco 




Iperini 


mi-wilt 


ma-ili, m-ele 


Mi-longco 




i-wiri 




(Arab.) 






mi-ili 






Thirty 


Mi-long<o 


Mi-loiigco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longco 


Makumi 


Ma-kumi 




mi-dathu 


mi-datu 


nia-datu 


nii-datu 


ma-datu 


a-tatu 


Forty 


Mi-longco 


Mi-loiigco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-loiigco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




mi-ne 


mi-nne 


ma-ne 


mi-nne 


ma-ne 


a-nne 


Fifty 


Mi-longco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 


A-fundika. 




mi-thanco 


mi-thanco 


ma-sanco 


mi-tanco or 
mi-hanco 


ma-hanco. 
(Ma-kumi 
ma-ntadatu 

= 60) 


Ka-hanco. 
Mi-rongco 
i-sanco 


Hundred ... 


Mi-longco 
kumi 


I gana 


I -gana 


I-gaoa. 
Mi-loiigco 
cumi 


I-gana, I-jana 


Gana ; 
nia-gana 


Tliousand ... 






Ki-dcole. 
Ma-gana 
ma-kumi 


... 


... 


... 


I, me, my ... 


Mia. Nene. 


Nene or A-nie. 


Anie. Ni-, N- 




Nene. 


Nene, Nanu. 




Niye. 


N-, Ni-. 


-nye, -neni. 




Ni-, N-. 


Ni-, N-, J-. 




N-,1 Ni-. 


-m-, -n-. 


-ni-, -n-. 




-ni-, -n-. 


-n-, -ni-. -a-ne 




-n-. -a-ngu 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 




-a-ngu 




Thou, thee,thy 


Geo ! Owe, 


Gwege, Wege, 


Agwegwe. U-. 


... 


Gwegwe, Gwe. 


Wewe, We. 




Gwegwe. 


or Agwee or 


-gwe. -ku-. 




U-, Ku-. 


U-. 




K'-, Ku-, U-. 


Egwe. 


-a-kco 




•gwe. -U-, 


•ku-. -a-kco 




-ku-. -a-gco 


U-, Ku-, Kco-. 
-ku-, -a-kco 






-ku-. -a-kco 




He, him, his 


Yuyco, Hey CO 


Yuye, Uyu. 


Aye. Yuyu. 


• •• 


Yuyu, Ayu. 


Yeye, lya. A-. 




Ka-, K-, Ye- 


Ayu. 


Ka-, Yu-, Y-, 




Yu-, A-, Ka-, 


-m-, -mu-. 


. 


Ya-, A-. 


Ka-, Ya-, A-. 


A-. 




Ya-. 


-a-kwe 


L 


•m-, -mu-. 


-m-. -a-ke. 


-yu. -m-, 




-m-. mil-. 




t. 


-a-ke, -age 


-a-kwe 


-mw-. -a-kwe. 




-a-kwe 




We, us, our 


Twee, 


Atie, Hetwe, 


Ase. 




Sese, Se. 


Susu. 




Twetwe. 


Tete. 


Ci-, C-. 




Ci-, C-. 


Tu-,Ti-. 




Tu-, T -. 


Tu-, Ti-. 


-se. -ci-, -C-. 




-ase. -tu-. 


•tu-. -i-swe 




•tu-. -e-tu 


-tu-, -ti-. -e-tu 


-e-tu 




-e-tu 




JTe, you, your 


Mwe or 


Amwee, 


Anyie. 


■ <■ 


Anye, Nyie. 


Nyunyu. 




Mwemwe. 


Hemwe, 


Mu-, M-. 




Mu-, M-. 


M-, Mil-. 




M-, Mu-. 


Mwemwe. 


-nye. -wa-. 




-nye. -wa-. 


? -W-. -i-nywe 




•wa-. -e-nu 


Mu-. 

-wa-. -e-nyu, 

-e-nhu 


-e-nu 




-e-nu 




They, them. 


Wco. Hewco. 


Wawco. Wa-. 


Waco. Wa-. 




Awco, Wa-. 


Wcoweo. Wa-. 


their 


Wa-, W-. 
-wa-. -aco 


-wa-. -a-wco 


-aco. -wa-. 
-a-co 




■wa-. -a-wco 


-wa-. -a-co 



As in the northern Siuahili dialects, hu-, the impersonal pronominal particle, may take the place of any pro- 
noun in the nominative case before verbs. 



'SO 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25- 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gugco 


Irangi 






23b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 



All 

This, these 



That, those, 
yonder 



-ose 

•no (yu-nca, 
wa-ncd, 6^i:.) 



That, those •« 



(He-co, he-ycD ; 

he-wo> ; &=€.) 
■dya 
(A-idya ; 

aw-adya ; 

a-Sdya ; 

a-idya ; 

a-didya ; 

a-gadya ; 

a-kidya ; 

a-vidya ; 

a-idya ; 

a-zidya ; 

a-ludya ; 

a-udya ; 

a-kudya ; 

a-hadya) 



•ose 

•nco (yu-nw ; 

wa-no> ; gu-nto 

<)ru-n&>; i-no>; 

li-n» ci/-di-no>; 

ga-nco ; ci-nco ; 

ti-nco, pfi-no>, 

orvi-nco; i-nto; 

zi-nco ; lu-nco ; 

u-nco ; ku-ncd ; 

ha-nco; tnu-nco) 

Hu-u; hi-ci ; 
hi-pfl ; &c. 

-ja (Yu-ja or 
ayu-ja ; wa-ja, 
awa-ja ; 6^t.) 

•da (23 b) 



-ose 

A-yu ; wa-wa ; 

a-u ; a-i ; a-li ; 

a-ga, a-ya; 

a-ci ; a-vi ; 

a-i ; a-zi; a-lu; 

a-u ; a-ku ; 

ba-ha 



-neo (Yu-n« ; 
wa-no) ; is^c.) 

•CO (Yuyco ; 
wawco ; ucd ; 
iyco ; didco ; 
gagw; Q^c.) 

-dia (yu-dia, 
wa-dia, 6-'c.) 



•ose 

Yuyu ; ha-wa ; 

hu-co ; hi-i ; 

lidi; gaga; 

cici ; vivi ; 

hi-i ; zizi ; 

lulu ; hu-u ; 

kuku ; ha-ha 



Yu-ria; wa-ria; 
U-ria : i-ria; 
ri-ria ; ga-ria ; 
ci-ria ; vi-ria ; 
i-ria ; zi-ria ; 
ru-ria ; u-ria ; 
ku-ria ; ha-ria 



-cozi, -cose 
-nu ((o-nu, -ncd, 

Hu-u or nhu-ii ; 
ha-wa or 
uha-wa ; 
hu-u or nhfi-u; 
hi-i or nhi-i ; 
hi-ri, is-c. ; 
ha-ya, <5ff. ; 
hi-ki, hi^vi, 



U-re o/-uo-re ; 
vva-re or 
nawa-re ; u-re 
or ue-re ; i-re 
or ue-re ; ri-re 
or na-rire ; 
ya-re or 
naya-re, Syc} 



Bad 


•i-ha. 
-i-hile 


■i-ha 


•e^ha 


•bi 


-e^ha. -bi 


•e-ha, we-ha. 
-kakco 


Black 


-hitu or fita 


•titu 


•titu 


• •« 


•titu. -iru 


-iru 


Female 


•ke 


-ke. 
•gcole 
M-buguma. 


-ke. 
•gojle. 
M-buguma 


... 


•cekulu, -ce 


•ke 


Fierce, sharp. 


•kali 


•kali 


•khali 


•kali 


•kali 


Adalawa. 


bitter 












•kare 


Good 


•nwga 


•nojga. 
•gcjya 


■ncjga. 
-swamu 


-swamu 


•swamu 


-bcoha 


Great 


•kulu 


•kuru 


■kulu 


... 


•kulu 


-kulu 


Little 


-dcddb) 


•dcodu 


-dcodca. 
-ngeke 


•dcodbi. 
•ana 


•dcodca 


-dudia 


Long 


-n-hali, -hali. 
•tali 


•tali 


•tali 


••* 


•tari 


-leha. 
-tali 


Male 


•lume 


•lume (dame). 
•beberu 


•lume. 
-gcasi 


... 


•lume. 
•gcosi 


•lume 


Old 


•kulu. 
•dala. 
•vyele 


•vele 


•g&jsi. 

•dala 


... 


... 


-cozi (Mw-cozi) 
or -oasi 

(M-eosi) 


Red 


•dunhwu 


•duiihu 


•dom-yu 


... 


•dunkhu. 

•dunu 


ere-fikundu 



' The latter forms are somewhat suppositious. 



GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGOJGCO LANGUAGES 



151 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24C-g. 


25- 


26. 


English 


Dzalamu 


Kami 


Kaguru arid 


Southern 


Gcogu 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki^ 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Rotten 




-gata 


•dcoda 




■imbi 


-vira 


Short 


-guhi 


-guhi 


•guhi 




•fupi 


-kuhi 


Sick 


-tamu 


-tamu 


-tamu 


,,, 


-tamwa 


-Iwala. -Iwaiye 


White 


•zelu 


•zeru 


•eru, -jeru 


•" 


-eru, -zeru, 
-geru 


•eru 


Above, up, on 


U-cana ya 


U-canya 


Ku-canya. 


Canya. 


Canya, 


M^weri. 


top 






Ku-langa 


U-langa 


ku-canya 


Kutbliti ? 


Before 


Ku-long»zi ya 


Ku-longcozi. 
Ku-mwandi 

(23 b) 


Ya-long<ola 


Ku-mwandeo 


Ku-mwandi 


Mbele. 
Mhele 


Behind ... 


Ku-cugu kvva-. 


Ku-cugu, 


Ku-nyuma 


Ku-mbele. 


Ku-mbele, 


Nyuma. 




Ki-scogo> ca 


Ku-cisojgco 




Ku-cisci>gco 


Ku-nyuma, 
Ku-mgongoj 


Sigya 


Below, down 


Ha-si 


Ha-si 


Ha-si 


Ha-si, Ha-nhi 


Ha-si 


Aha^si 


Far 


Ku-tali 


Ku-tali 


Ku-vali, 


Ku-tali. 


Ku-tali. 


Ko-le, Ku-le. 








Ku-hali 


Aku-la 


Pirimu 


Uxu-ata 


Here 


A-ha, A-hanoj. 
Baha 


A-ha, A-hanoj. 
Baha, Bahco 


Baha 


... 


Ha-ha 


A-ha. 
A-hco 


In, inside ... 


Mumu. Mu-na, 


IVIu, Mco. 


Mu-, -nda-ni. 




Mu. 


?Mu-. 




M-ua. Mg-ati. 


Muna, Mumco. 
M-Ie, JW-li. 
Mu-gati 


Ku-nda-ni 






-mu, -i. 
M-beri 


Middle 


Ku-gati. 
Ha-gati 


-gati (Ku-gati, 
Ha-gati) 


Ha-gati 


••• 


Ku-fanika. 
Ku-gati. 
Tu-rika 


Ku-gati ? 


Near 


Behibehi 


Behi 


Behi 


Behi 


Behi. Kariasi 


Behi 


Outside ... 


Ku-nze ya 


Ku-nse, Ha-nse 


Ku-nje 


• *• 


Ku-nze 


Ki-werwi 


Plenty, many 


Bw-andco. 
•iiigi. N-hani 


-ingi. N-hani 


Lu-ganco. -ngi. 
-mnco 


-ngi 


•nji (IVIe^nji) 


•cozi ? -munco 


There 


Kuku, 


A-haja, A-kuja. 


Kudia. 


... 


Kuria. 


•eokco. Pare 




Ku-kudya. 


Bahu 


A-kunco 




Kuku 






A -had y a 












Where? ... 


A-hi.' 
Kwahi? 


Kuli-hi .' 
Mw-ani? 
Kw-ani ? 


Huki? 


... 


Li-kwi ? 
Cili-kwi ? 


Ha^i? 


No! 


Bule! 


Bule! Sibfco! 


Ndawa ! 


■■• 


Nto ! Ncina ! 
Asima ! 


Wco! 


Not {with verb. 


Si-, hu., ha- 


Si. Si-, hu-, 


Si-, -si-. 


.•• 


Si- 


Si-, -si-. 


as firejix, in- 


(hatu, ha.m^, 


ha-, cs'c. 


Khali- 


t 




Ku-leka 


fix, or suffix) 
lo 


ha-vva). 
Si-ku- 


Inali 












Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


•tojwa 


-tcaia 


-tua. 
-halika 


-tcoa. -kupa, 
•koaba 


•katcowa. 
•ttowa 


-coma 


„ buy, sell 


•gula 


-gula 


•gula 


-gula 


■gula 


•cola 


„ come ... 


-eza, -iza, 
-idza, -vika 


-lawa. -iza 

(-izM ! = 
come !) 


•idza, -isa. 
•lawa 


-idza 


-za, -zala 


•ja 


„ cut 


■kanha 


•tema 


•tema. -seiiga 




•tema 


•tema. •kera 


„ dance ... 


... 


•*■ 


•vina 




-dawala 


•vija ? 


,. die 


-fa 


-fa 


-fa 


... 


•fwa 




„ eat 


•ja. -dya, -la 


•dya 


-dia 


... 


-ria 


•rya 


., give ... 


■eiika. -inka. 
•gulela 


-inka, -inha. 
•gcolela, -ga 


-inka 


•pa 


-scola or 
•kascola. 
•pa. -pera 


•ha 



152 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



23- 
Dzalamco 



23 a. 

Kami 

23 b. Ki-xutu 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 



24-24 b. 

Kaguru and 

Northern 

Sagara 



24 c-g. 
Southern 
Sagara 



25. 
Gugco 



26. 

Irangi 

26 a. Ki- 

umbugwe 



'0 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ go 


-genda. 


-genda. 


•luta. 


•luta 




-cula 


•ka 


•genda. 
•tamba 

{travel) 




„ kill ... 


-kcoma 


•kcoma 


•kcoma 


... 


„ know .;. 


•manya. -jua. 
-tanga 


•manya 


•manya 


... 


„ laugh ... 




•seka 


•seka 


<•• 


„ leave off, 


•leka!' 


•leka 


•leka 


... 


cease 


■asa 








„ love, want 


•londa 


•londa. 
•tcogula 


•enda 




„ see 


•ona. -Iwla 


•ona. •Icola 


•langa 


• •■ 


„ sit, remain. 


-kala, -sigala 


•kala 


•kala, •sigala 


•ikala 


abide 










,, sleep ... 


•basa, -wasa. 
•guna 


•gcona 


•gcona. 
•sisila 


... 


„ stand, stop 


-ima. 


-ima 


•ima 


•■• 


be erect 


-gtolwka 








„ steal ... 


■iba 


•iba 


•hija 





Ku- 


Ku- 


•jenda 


•eta, ita. 




•tamanya. 




•tamba 




(travel) 


■kcopcole. 


•bcola 


•pcola. 




■nenga 




•zua 


•manya. 




•tanga 


. . . 


•seka 


•reka 


•reka 


•wenda. 


•enda. 


•saka 


•saka 


•wcona 


•con a 


•kala 


•ikala 


•gtona 


■lala 


-wima, -ima 


•ima 


■hidza 


•iva 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI^DZALAMO) 

Preprefixes present in a specially demonstrative or pronominal sense. 

Class I. Um., Mu-, M-, Imu-,Im-(m,umu, yu-, y-, i-) ; 2. Wa-, Iwa- (wa) ; 3. Um-, M- (umu-, m-, 
u') ; 4. Imi^, Mi- (imi-, i) ; 5. — , Di^ (di, j) ; 6. Gama-, Ma^ (ma-, ga) ; 7. Iki-, Ki- (ki, c') ; 8. Ivi-, 
Vi- (vi, bvi); 9. In- (Im-), N^ (M-), N-, Ny- (n-, n-, ny-, i) ; 10. Dzi-, Z\; In^ (Im^), N^, »-, Ny- (dzi 
or zi, n-, ny-) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; is. (wanting); 13. (wanting. Ki- replaces Ka- as diminutive) ; 14. U- (u) ; 
15. Ku-, Gu- (ku) ; 16. Ha-, Ba^ (ha, ba) ; 17. Mu^ (mu, m). 



PREFIXES, &c., IN KAMI AND XUTU 

No preprefixes except in Class 3. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (m, mu, gu-, U-, ka-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Umu-, Mu-, M- (m-,mu-, nw-,u) ; 4. Mi- 
(mi-, y-, gi, i) ; 5. — , Li-, Di-, I-, Zi- (li, di, 1', j') ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga, g') ; 7. Ci-,Ki-, C- (ki, ci, c') ; 8. Fi- 
or Pfi., F'. (fi, f) ; 9. — , N- (M-), N- (— , n- (m-). "", i) {P^- sometimes, Class 6) ; 10. — , Zi-, N- (M-), 
N-,Ny- (zi,z',n-,ny'-); 11. Lu- (lu) (/>/. Classes 10, 4, and 6) ; 12. missing; 13. (missing, except in Xuttt 
numerals); 14. U- (u) {pi. same as Class 4); 15. Ku-, Gu- (ku) ; 16. Ha-, Ba- (ha, ba) ; 17. Mu- (as 
preposition only). 

• A. Worms {see Bibliography) also gives di- as a concord for the ^rd Class with a plural mi- ; perhaps 
by confusion with the augmcntatives mi- atuliA.- (No. 5). 



GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGGJGW LANGUAGES 153 

PREFIXES, &C., IN SAGARA DIALECTS 

(Slight trace of preprefixes in No. 5.) 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. M-, Mu- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 
5. _, I., Igi., Izi-, Zi-, Di- (di, li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ki-, Ci-, C- (ki, ci, c') ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , 
N- (M-), N- (n-, i) (//. sometimes. Class 6); 10. Zi-, N- (M-), it-, Ny-, S'-, Siny'- (zi, u) ; 11. Lu- (lu-) 
{/>/. Classes 6 and 10); 12. missing; 13. missing, except in numerals; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 
16. Ha-, Ba- (ha, ba-) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN GCOGW 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m, u-, yu-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mii-, M- (m-, mu-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. — , I-, Zi-, Li- (li, di, ri) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ki-, Ci- (ki, ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , N- (M-), it-, Ny- 
(n-, i) ; 10. — , N- (M-), N-, Ny- (n-, zi, z') ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. missing; 13. (in numerals only) ; 14. U- 
(u); 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Ha- (ha); 17. Mu- (as preposition only). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN IRANGI 

No preprefixes except in No. 5. 

Class I. Mu-, Mm-, M- (m, mu, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, Mca-, M- (m-, mu-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Iri-, R-, I-, — (r', ri, i) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya, a) ; 7- Ki-, Ci-, C- (ki, c') ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , N- 
(M-), N-, Ny (n-, i) ; 10. — ,N- (M-),N-, Ny- (n-, j', ji) ; 11. Lu-, Lm- (lu) ; 12. (missing); 13. Ka- (ka) ; 
14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku-, Koj- (ku) ; 16. Ha-, Pa- (ha, pa) ; 17. Mu- (preposition) (-mu, -i shortened from -ni). 



23. Dzalamu is spoken in Uzaramco, between the Upper Kingani and the Lower Rufiji rivers. 

23 a. Kami, 23 b. Ki-xutu, and 23 c. Ki-ruguru are spoken in Ukami, immediately west of the 
Middle Kingani river, north-west of Uzaramw and south of Uzigula (Uzeguha). Ki-xutu is the southern 
dialect of Kikami and is spoken in the basin of the Upper Kidunda-Kiiigani. Ki-ruguru is the speech 
of Uluguru, west of Uzaramco. 

24-24 b. Kaguru and Northern Sagara. These dialects are spoken in northern Usagara in 
the basin of the Upper Wami (Rubeho)), east of Ugojgco and west of Uzigula, excluding Uluguru. 

24c-g. Southern Sagara dialects are spoken in south and south-east Usagara, south of the Upper 
Wami river and north of the Ruaha. The Ngwila dialect is probably spoken south of the Ruaha opposite 
the Ndunda territory. 

25. Gcogco is spoken in Ugcogco, west of Usagara, east of Itumba and Unyamwezi, south of Nyaturu 
and Sandawi. 

26. Irangi is spoken in Irafigi and Burungi, north of Ugcogo) in the north-eastern basin of the Bubu 
river. The Ki-umbugwe dialect is spoken in an isolated patch (Umbugwe) immediately south of Lake 
Manyaza, 3° 45' to 4° South latitude. 



2 7. Hehe 

28. Pwgorw and Mahenge 



GROUP H 

THE UPPER RUFIJI LANGUAGES 

29. Safigco (Rori, Safwa) 31. Gaiigi and 31 a. Bufiga 



30. Bena 

GROUP I 

THE LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 





32. Ki-matumbi 3 


2 a. Ki-ndengerekco 


32 b. Ki-rufi 


ji 




27. 


28. 


2g. 


30- 


31- 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Fcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Maheiige 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. 
Ki-ndengerekco 


Adze 


Nemcii 


... 


... 


... 


... 


M-basco ? 
N-desco 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama. 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


... 


N-yama;ma-f . 


beast 


Li-kukcd, 
•ncokco 










Li-kcokco 


Ant 


Ny.arafu. 
Sisina. 
Nya.kongto. 
I-nemi ; 
ma-temi 


Salafu. 
Sungu. 
M-ce; 
wam-ce. 
Nam-tuta 




' 


■ a* 


Lu-pamba ; 
m-pamba. 
Lu-angala ; 
angala. 
Meya ; 
mi-meya 


Ant, white 


Lu-huwa ; 


Sua ; wa-sua 


■ .. 


... 


... 


Lu-nyaunyau. 


(termitej 


ny-uhwa. 
Lu-mehe 










Li-nenena 


Ape (chim- 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


panzi or 














gorilla) 














Arm 


Li-wcokco ; 
mi-wcokco 


Li-cokci) 


Gu-VGOXeo, 
Mu-w<okco or 
M-cdkci> ; pi. 
ma-wtokco 


Mu-wcokco 


M-wcokcD 


Lu-bcokco 


Arrow 


Lu-dibulcD. 


M-sale. 


Mu-sari; 


• • ■ 


... 


Nn-ale 




Ki-stonyoj. 


Li-wanco 


mi-sari 






(Mw-ale); pi. 




(Mvv-.ifwa = 










mi-ale 




arrow-head ) 












Axe 


Vega. Nemoj. 
Li-huka. 
Li-gimirco 


Li-wago) 


N-hemu ; 
ma-temu 


••• 


... 


Li-wagco ; ma- 


Baboon ... 


Li-puma or 
M-uma. 
I-kabiya 


E-yani 


... 


••• 


... 


Li-yani ; 
ma-yani 


Back 


Mu-gong<o. 
Lu-ngata 


N-gongco. 
M-bere, 
Cim-bere 


Mu-gongto 


M-gongw 


M-goiagco 


Fa-sanja 


Banana ... 


Ki-kcoa>. 
I-nuwco 


N-kwu ; 
Zin-kcou 


N-khco 


••• 


... 


N-geobco ; 
ma-kcobco 


Beard 


Nuza. 
N-defu 


Lu-lefu 


... 


... 


... 


Luleu, N-deu, 
Ki-leu 


Bee 


N-zuki 


N-juki 


In-yusi 


... 




N-yuci ?, 
U-yutsi 


Belly 


Li-reme or 


M-tima. 


U-tumbu, 


I.nda ; 


Ku-tumbco ; 


N-dumbco 




I-lemi ; 


U-tumbco 


I-tumbu 


Nyi-nda 


ma-. 






ma-leme. 








Yi.nda; 






Lu-fu. 








mayi.nda 






U-tumbco 








(31a) 




Bird 


N-dege, 
Ka-dege. 
Ny-uni 


M-pongoa 


Iny-uni 


Ny-uni ; ma -^ 


N-dege. 
Degi 

(31a) 


Ki-yuni ; //. 
i-yuni 



GROUPS H AND I: UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 155 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



28. 

Pcogorco ami 

Mahenge 



29. 

Sangco 

(Rori ami 

Safwa) 



3°- 
Bena 



31- 

Gaiigi, 

31a. Bunga 



32. 
Ki-matumbl 

3;a- 
Ki-ndengerekcs 



Blood... 
Body ... 

Bone ... 
Borassuspalm 

Bow 

Bowels 

Brains 
Breast (man's) 



Danda 

Mu-vile 



Li-zege or 
Ki-sege 



Breast 
(woman's) 
Brother .. 



Buffalo 
Bull ... 



Buttocks 
Canoe.. 



Cat 



Charcoal 
Chief ... 



Child ... 

Cloth ... 
Cold ... 
Country 
Cow ... 



A-zima. 

Ki-dibulo> 
I-nda. 

Lu-tumbu ; 

n-umbu 
W-usula. 

W-oiigongco 
Ma-mbaga. 

Ki-kiia (= in 

beasts) 
I-wele, I -were ; 

ma-wele 
M-nununa. 

Mwana-kw-etu 

Lumbu-lie. 

M-longw (a 

relation) 
M-bcogco. 

Sikiru ^ 
Nambakwa 



Li-dakco 
Ci-lyco. 

I-windi. 

Ki-pcogu 
Li-paka. 

Nyau 

Kala ; ma + 

Mii-twa. 

M-temi 

M-lugu 
Mw-ana. 

C-ali 



Mw-enda 

In-gala. 
Sisimco 
In-nyi, E-nyi 



Mu-azi 
N-cimba 



Ci-fupa. 
Ci-hondcd 

M-kconia 

U-pindi 

Vyamu-nda. 

Ci-seke. 

Lu-kutu 
W-ongcij 

Ci-fua 



M-buguma. 
Senga 



Ma-wele 

M-haca [also 
sister) 



Ny-ati. 

M-bcogco 
M-pofigM 



Li-takco ; ma- 
W-atco, m-atco 



N-kanto. 
Siuzi 

Ma-kala 
M-tua. 
M-koni 

Mw-ana 



N-gtico 

Ma-hundi 

M-lima 

Ng-ombe 
e-kolu 



Mu-wili. 
Gu-vili {pi. 
ma-vili ?) 



Ki-wuta 



Ki-fula ; fi- 



I-wele ; ma- 

Lu-kulu. 
Mu-nuniina 



I-kida; ma-. 
Khambaku 



Ru-watoj 



Lu-paka ; pi. 
mm.aka or 
mi-baka 



Mw-ana. 

Mw-ainjsi. 

(Mu-hinja = 

daug/iter. 

C-ana = son) 
Mw-enda 

Mm-ehoj or 

Mm-epco 
I-nhi 

M-buguma 



Mu-nununa ; 
wa- 



M-gulco or 
M-kulu. 
Mu-nununa 
(31a) 



Mw-ai, Mi-ai 
(Mi-azi) 
Y-ega 



Ki-upa 

N-nala ; 

mi-lala 
M-pinde ; 

mi-pinde 
Li-tumbu 



Bw-ongo 

Ki-uba, 
Paki-uba 

Ma-bele 

Nuna 



Nj-ati 



I-senga i-lume I-senga i-lume. 
N-ombe 
n-dumi (31 a) 



M-nyao> 



Mw-ana 



I-senga 
n-dala 



• •• 


Ma-takco 


... 


Li-ycome. 
Nyau 


... 


Yumbe, 




Jumbe. 
M-pindco 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana ; 


M-fwana(3ia) 


b-ana. 


[see Zulu) 


A-lau 




N-gubco ; 




ma-gubco 


... 


-ima 




Nima. 




Ki-lambco 


N-ombe 


... 


m-pinga. 




I-senga 




m-pinga. 
N-ombe 




m-kahan»(3ia) 



156 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





27. 


28. 


2g. 


3°- 


3! 




32- 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi, 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 




31a. Bunga 


32 a. 








Safwa) 








Ki-ndeiigerekco 


Crocodile ... 


Mamba or 
I-mamba ; pL 
ma-pamba 


Mamba 


... 


... 


... 




N-gwena ; 
ma-kwena 


Date palm... 


M-kindu 


Lu-kindu 


... 


... 


• •• 




... 


Day 


Mu-nyi. K-irco. 


E-jiia. Li-siku. 


Pa-munsi. 


... 


... 




Li-suba or 




Ki-gconco. 


(M-lungu 


Lu-siku 








Li-tscoba 




(Lu-isa = 


go-pala = day- 














daylight) 


light) 












Devil, evil 


I-scoka 


E-hcDka 


Lu-kwati. 


I-funya ; ma- 


I-kungu 


or 


M-bepto 


spirit 




Lu-dewa ; ma- 


M-kahaba 




1-kisi. 
I-kcoka 


(31a) 




Doctor (medi- 


M-lagusi ' 


M-ganga 


... 


... 


... 




N-ganga ; 


cine man) 














ama-ganga * 


Dog 


Im-bwa, 


Nanga. 


Xa-bwa, 


Im-bwa 


Nyaka-bwa. 


M-bwa ; 




Ka-bwa. 


(M-bwawa = 


Im-bwa. 




I-gaIco ; 


ma- 


ma-pwa. 




Igu-bwa ; ma- 


wild dog) 


l-korcowa S. 
M-barusi 9 
N-dcogcowe 




(3' a) 




Li-pumbe ; 

ma- 


Donkey ... 


Dcogtowi 


M-punda 


I n-dcogcowe 


N-deogcowa 


M-bunda 


Door 


M-lyangto. 
Lw-izi 


Mu-liangco 


... 








N-nyaiigco ; 
mi-liangco 


Dream 


N-deotco or 
I-Iutcd 


N-dcotoj. 
N-sawco 


N-dcotco ; sin- 


... 


... 




N-dcotco 

(Ku-lcota) 


Drum 


N-duzi or 
In-dusi 


Li-gcoma 


... 




... 




Li-sindco. 
Li-lunga. 
N-gcoma 


Ear 


Li-sikiza. 
I-twi ; ma-twi 


Li-pepe. 
E-kutu 


E-twe 


I-sikidza ; ma- 


I-gutwe 


ma- 


Li-kutu ; ma- 


Egg 


Li-kanga 


Li-gi 


Susu; 

ama-susu. 
Li-xanxa ; 
ama- 


... 


... 




Li.pinga 


Elephant ... 


N-dembwe. 
N-dembco 


N-tembm 


Jongwa. 
N-zcovu 


... 


... 




N.dembco ; 
ma-tembeo 


Excrement 


Ma-pi, 
Ma-fi 


Ci-kutu. 
Lu-puekeo. 
Ma-fi 




... 


... 




Ma-i 


Eye 


L-ihco ; m-ihoj 


L-isco ; ma-seo 


L-ihco 


Iz-ihco ; m-ehco 


Iz-ihco ; m-ehco. 


Li-yeo ; m-ingco 












L-esco ; 


m-esco 














(31a) 






Face, fore- 


Usco. 


C-eni. 


Kum-ehco ; 








Kum-inyto. 


head 


I-palas<d 


Kuma-sco 


am-ehco (//.) 








Ki-bungi 


Fat, oil ... 


Ma-futa. 
Ma-pama 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futha 


... 


... 




Ma-tita 


Father 


Dada, Dade. 


Tati. 


Dada. 


Dada Tata. 




Tate ; ba-tate. 




Isco. 


U-SM-gO). 


U-hesco 




Tate 




Ki-tati ; 




Ise 


U-sco-gwe 






(31a) 




aki-tati 


Fear 


Mu-hwehwe. 
I-duega. 
M-lcotco 


Li-€oga 


... 


... 






Bw-coga 


Finger 


C-ala ; fi-ala 


C-ala, vi-ala 


Ki-dori 


••• 


•*• 




Lu-kontsi, 



Fire .. 



M-oteo 



M-otco 



Motco 



Motco 



Motco 



Lu-konji ; 
fi-gontsi. 
(Li-gumba 
thumb) 
Mw-5to» 



•lagua=/t> heal with medicine. 



GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 157 





27. 


28. 


29. 


30- 


31. 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


Fish 


I-zwi. Somba Somba 


N-swi 






Omba ; ma- 


Foot 


M-gulu. 
Lw-ahw ; 
m-ahco or 
nz-ahco 


Li-gulu. 
Lu-sayu 


M-gulu 


M-gulu 


M-gulu 


Lu-gulu. 
Lu-ayco (sole) 


Forest 


Litkungu. 
Li-hala. 
M-hulu. 
M-situ 


U-punguti. 
(Lu-hcole = 
tallforest.) 
M-bagu 


Mw-ihaka 






Mw-itu. 
Mi-tela 


Fowl 


N-guku; 
Temba 


N-kuku 


N-guku 


... 


N-guku 


N-guku 


Frog 


C-ura, Ki-ula 


Nama-nycoraa 


... 


... 


•■• 


Ky-ula ; //. 
y-ula 


Ghost 


Luhe. I-iiala. 
I-suka 


E-hcoka ; 
M-oyco 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Giraffe 


N-dtinduru or 
N-tindulu 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Girl, maiden 


Mu-hinza. 


Mu-hinga. 


• •> 


Mu-hinza, 


Ci-gcoli. 


M-minja ; 




Mw-aruka 


Mw-aU. 
M-cengu 




Ki-hinza 


Mu-hinza 


ab-inja or 
a-inja 


Goat 


M-ene or 


M-buzi. 


Im-heni ; pi. 


M-buzi 


M-peeni. 


M-bui 




M-eeni. 


M-ene 


zim-. Or 




M-buhi ; ma- 






Ki-pene 




M-peeni, 
M-meni 




(31a) 




„ (he) ... 


Boiigco or 
Pongco 


M -pongco 


I pongco 


Pongco 


I-vulata. 
M-buhi 
m-lume (31 a) 


... 


„ (she)... 


Lcogcota 


M-buzi e-kolco 


Lcogcota 


M-buguraa 


M-buguma. 
M-buhi 
m-kahanco 

(31 a) 


•.• 


God 


N-gulwi. 


M-lungu ; pi. 


Mu-lungu. 


Mu-lungu. 


Mu-lungu 


N-nungu 




Mu-lungu 


wam-lungu 


N-rui, 
N-giirui 


N-guluwe 






Grandparent 


Kuku. 
Pape 


M-buzi 


... 


... 


•«• 


U-kulu. 

(M-buya = 
grandmother) 


Grass 


Li-scoli. 
Ma-hamba 


Lu-tundhu ; 
tundhu 


... 


... 


•*■ 


Ma-nyei 


Ground 


N-nyi. 
Lu-hanga. 
U-longco 


N-tambu. 
Mu-hanga. 
Pa-zi 


... 


... 


•»■ 


U-tcopi? 


Grotind-nut 


Li-ngeogco. 
Li-ngalanga. 
N-zugu 


Li-rawi 


••• 


... 


... 


N-tesa. 
Li-ycobe 


Guinea-fowl 


Nanga or 
N-ganga; pi. 
ma-kanga 


Khanga 


Li-xanga 


•*• 


... 


Li-kanga 


Gun 


Hute 


Huti 


... 


... 


... 


Kcolcopindco 


Hair 


Fwili, Fwiri 


Vuiri 


Im-fuile; pi. 
same or 
zim-fuile 


Lu-vuile 


Lu-vuile ; 
m-vuile 


Ny-wili 


Hand 


I-ganza 


Li-cokco. 


Umu-wcokco ; 


Mu-wcokco 


Mu-wcokco. 


Lu-bcokco. 






Ci-gaza 


ama-. Hi- 
ganja; ama- 




M-kconco(3l a) 


Ki-ganja 


Head 


Mu-twe, 


M-tui 


Umu-thwe ; 


Kumu-twe ; 


Kumu-twe;ma-. 


M-twe ; 




Mu-tuwe 




imi- 


mamu- 


Ci-mundila ; 


mi-twe 



vi- (31 a) 



M 



'S8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





27. 


28. 


29- 


3°- 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogoreo and 


Sangu 


Bena 


Gaiigi 


Ki-matumbt 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekoj 


Heart 


Ntimbula. 

Mu-tima 


M-oyto 


... 


... 


M-oyeo. 
M-tima 


Heel 


Ki-singancd 


Ci-sukuncd 




. '. • • . • 


Ki-nginoj 


Hide 


N.gingw 


Lu-kuli 


N-kwembi 


•" '■' 


N-gcoi. 
Li-kingco. 
Li-sambara 


HiU 


Lu-tanana 


Ci-gongo>. 
Ci-dugudugu 


I-tunda 


I-tunda 


Ki-tumbi 


Hippopotamus 


Fuco. 


Huhu. 


... 


••• 


Ki-bongoj. 




Lumondoi. 


N-dcomondu 






N-do>mond<» 




I-tumondco 










Hoe 


I-gimirco 


C-uka. 
E-huka 


I-kumburu 


... 


Li-jembe ; 
ma-. Li-gela; 
ma-. 


Honey 


W-uki 


N-juki 


... 


... ■•• 


B-usi^ 


Horn .;. ... 


Lu-pembe 


Ma-gcoli (pi.) 


... 


... 


Li-penga. 
Lu-pembe 


House 


Ny-anda. Cuto N-umba 


I-tembi, 


I-jumbi ; ma- N-anda. 


Ny-umba. 




(small hut). 




Tembe. 


I-henge; ma- 


Liy-umba. 




Kai. 




Iri-tembe 


(3' a) 


(Ki-umba = 




Ny-umba. 








nest.) 




Tembe. 








Mm-ambe ; 




I-jumbe 








mi-bam be 


Hunger ... 


N-sala. 

Mu-sale 


N.jala 


Jeinxa (?) 
In-zala 


... 


N-jara 


Husband ... 


Mny-ikcozi. 

Mun-geozi 








N-cengco ; 
a-cengco. 
Na-lume ; 
ana-lume 


Hyena 


Sakanga 

(spotted). 
Fifl (striped). 
N-segumbi 


M-t«te 

(spotted). 
M-duba, 
M-dula 
(striped) 


Fisi, N-fisi 




N-ttote 


Iron 


C-uma ; 


C-uma 


C-uma or 


C-uma C-uma 


Kij-uma ; 




fy-uma. 




Ci-cuma 




y-uma 




Ki-uma 










Island 


Ki-gunguli 


Ci.jinci. 
E-g^nguli 


Iri-siwa 




Ki-silwa 


Ivory 


Lu-pembe ; 
m-embe 


N-tembco 


... 


... 


Lu-pembe ; 
m-bembe 


Knee 


Li-fugamilb) or 
I-fugamirw 


Lu-nungunii 


... 


... 


Li-yuwa ; 
nia-yuwa 


Knife 


I-mage, 


Ci-mage. 


Magi 


••• ••• 


Ki-imbe. 




Li-mage 


Ci-fimbco. 
Ci-himbe 






Lu-embe 


Lake 


I-temela. 

Mu-tanda 


Li-tanda 


I-lamba. 
Iny-anja 


... 


Li-tanda 


Leg 


M-gulu, 


Lu-kconcokconu. 


M-gviru 


M-gulu 


Lu-gulu. 




Li-gulu 


Li-ondo> 






Lu-kongconu 


Leopard ... 


Ki-duma 


Duma 


Duma 


... 


Ki-tibi or 
Ubi 


Lion 


Ny-alopala 


Simba 


Ny-alopala 


... ... 


Imba 


Lips 


M-ltomw 


Li-rcomci> 


... 


■ t • ... 


Mu-kanco ; mi- 


Magic 


U-hawi 


U-ganga 


... 


... 


(Ku-lcoga = to 

bewitch) 


Maize 


Ma-zabeli or 


Ma-jani 


Ma-jaberi 




Ma-rombe 




Ma-sebere 













GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 159 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



28. 

Pcogoroi and 

Mahenge 



29. 

Sangco 

(Rori and 

Saf^va) 



30- 
Bena 



31- 
Gang! 

31 a. Bunga 



32- 
Ki-matumbi 

32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekcd 



Han 



Man, vir. 



Meat ... 
Medicine 



Milk ... 
Monkey 

Moon ... 

Mother 

Mountain . 
Mouth 



Mu-nu, 

Mu-nhu ; 

wa-nhu, 

wa-nu 
M-gcozi. 

Mu-waha 

Ny-ama 
Mu-gcoda 



Li-ziwa 

N-gedege or 
N-kedeke 

Mw-ezi. 

M-lenge. 

M-kcomi 
Ycowa, Yuwe. 

Ngina or 

Nina. 

Nyco-k(o 
Ki-dunda 



Mu-lcomu 



Mu-ndhu 



M-palu 



Ny-ama 
M-gcota. 

M-tera 

Ma-ziwa. 

Ma-wele 
Ka-biri. 

E-ripa 

Mu-ezi 



Mu-nhu. 
Umu-nhu ; 
aba-, awa- 

Umu-gwzi 



Ny-ama 
Tu-piycD 

Mw-ezi 



Mu-nhu ; wa- 



Ny-ama 



M-lenge 



Macd. Yuwa. Yuawa 

Unoj-kco. Nine-su) 

Unco-kwe 

Lu-gongto ; pi. Dunda or 
nongco Ki-duuda ; vi- 



Nail (of finger Lu-nyoowe. 
or toe) Nto-nerco; 

tu)-nerto 
Name Li-tawa 



Navel... 

Neck ... 
Night... 

Nose ... 

Ox ... 



Paddle 
Palm wine 
beer 
Parrot 

Penis ... 
Pig ... 

Pigeon 



Lu-dungn 



Singco. 

Ki-scogco 
K-Um, 

Pa-kilcd 

M-iila 



Gida. 

Senga. 

N-azeo 
Mu-tera 
U-gimboa 

Li-tui 

Ki-dondco 
N-gubi 

N-gunda. 
N-siwa 



Ci-kanua. 
M-lcomca 
N-konci 



L-ina. 

Li-tahu 
N-kufu. 

(Lu-komba 

siring) 
Singco 

C-iru. 
Pac-iru 

M-pula 



Mu-lcomta. 
Ru-mirca 



I-tagwa ; ma- 



Mu-lcamca 



Pak-iroo. 
Lu-siku 

Im-pula; zim- M-pula 



N-koiicolco. N-ombe 

^asa.i(Arab.). 

N-ombe 
N-kavi Ru-xafl 

U-jimbi 



M-bcolco 
N-tumbi 



N-ombe 



N-gundi. 
N-ciwa, 
N-dziwa 



Mu-nhu ; Mu-ndu ; 

wa-nhu. ba-ndu. 

Mu-ndu (31a) Mu-analume 



Ny-ama 



Mw-edzi. 
M-lenge (31 a) 

Mama. 
Mau (31 a) 



Mu-lumcd 



I-tagwa 



M-pula. 

Lu-pepela 

(3i„a) 
I-seriga. 

N-ombe (31 a) 



N-cengco = 

husband ; 

a-cengca {pi.) 
Ny-ama 
N-tela ; mi-. 

N-tende. 

Li-pcdsu 
Li-bele 

N-dumbili. 

Ki-tumbili. 

N-jei 
Mw-ei. 

Lw-ei 

Mau. Ki-mau. 
Nyo-ngoj 



Ki-tumbi. 

Li-tumbi ; 

ma-tumbi 
N-kanco 

Ki-cobca ; 
y-oobco 

L-ina ; 
mal-ina 
Ki-ku 



Ki-koi. 

Ingcd 
K-il<o. 

(Pali-bendoj = 

darkness) 
M-pulu ; 

ma-pulbi. 

Li-pulco; ma- 



U-wimbi 

N-gwalu ; 
ma-kwalu 

N-gube ; 
ma-gube 
N-dutu 



M 2 



i6o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





27. 


28. 


29- 


3°- 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorca and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori atid 
Safwa) 




31a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


Place 


Panu. 
Ki-wungu 


Pa-kaya, 
U-kaya. 
Pantu 


... 


... 


... 


Pandu 


Rain 


N-dconya. 
Ifugu. 
Ttonya 


I-vula 


N-hconya 


••• 


... 


Ula 


Rat 


M-buku. 
M-bewa. 
Gcole. 
Gongongco 


M-beya, 
Ka-dwirco 








Ki-puku. 
N-gule; 
ma-kule 


Rhinoceros 


I-mera, M-ela 
or Li-pera 


Tupa 


... 


... 


... 


... 


River 


Ru-aha. 
Lu-nginalco. 
Mu-kcoga 


Lu-eni. 
Lu-cemba 


M-keoga 


■•• 


• >• 


Lu-kemba 


Road 


I-nazi, N-gazi ; 
ma-gazi. 
Ka-kazi. 
I-kuya 


N-jira 


In-zila 






N-dila 


Salt 


Mu-nyco 


Mu-nu (a Utile 
= Tu-nu) 


Mu-nyu 


... 


«■• 


Mwi-nyoj 


Shame 


In-yconi 


Zconi 


N-sconi 


• •• 


■ >> 


tOni 


Sheep 


I-ncolco ; 
ma-kcolco. 
Ki-kcolco 


Nolco.^ 
M-fungamco 


Nkhcolco 


... 


Li-nondi 


... 


Shield 


N-gwembe 


Ci-kcopa 


... 


... 




Li-pende 


Shoulder ... 


Li-wega. 
Lu-kombe ; 
nombe 


Ma-wega 


... 


■ ■* 


... 


Li-pamba ; 
ma-bamba 


Sister 


Mu-haza 


M-haja m-dala Lumbu. 


Mu-hadza 


Mu-hadza. 


N-numbu; 








Mu-basa 




I-lumbu (31 a) 


a-lumbu. 
N-kuwe 


Skin 


Ki-gcolya 


M-papha 


... 


■•• 


... 


N-gcoi. 
Lu-kanda. 
Kingco 


Sky 


U-langa 


M-lungu. 
Li-kusi 


Iri-wingu 


•*. 


U-langa 


Ku-nani, 
Pa-nani 


Slave 


M-fugwa. 


M-anda 


M-fugwa. 


M-lelelwa ; wa 


M-fugwa. 


M m-anda ; 




Ma-teka. 




M-khami 




M-sutu (31 a) 


ab-anda 




Mnya-wingi. 














M-leluwa 












Sleep 


Tulco 


M-p<o<>>ta. 
(Ku-gonja = 

verb) 


... 


*•. 


... 


Ki-gconto, 
Lu-gconco 


Smoke 


Ly-usi. Li-susi Li-cosi 


... 


».. 


... 


Li-oi 


Snake 


N-suka 


N-jcoka 


Iny-oxa 


... 


... 


Li-pili. 
N-kuya 


Son, boy ... 


M-swamu. 


Mw-ana. 


C-ana. 


Mw.ana. 


Ki-song^lco. 


Mw-ana 




Mame. 


M-zererco. 


Mw-ana 


Ka-kwa- 


Mw-ana 


na-lume. 




(f/.-8wamu = 


= Mu-dimi 


ci-lume. 


midzi 


m-lume. 


Mwu-hungco ; 




good) 




M-soiigcolco. 
N-dimi 




Mfw-ana 
mka-lume 
(31a)- 
Li-ziuha 

(31a) 


ba-hungco 


Song 


W-imboj, 
Lu-imbco ; 


Sambco 


Lu-jimbco ; 
n-jimbco 


... 


... 


Lu-yimbco. 
Mw-ambco; 



ny-imbco 



GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES i6i 





27. 


28. 


29. 


30. 


31- 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Saiigco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengereku 


Spear 


Li-sala. 
N-goya. 
Mu-gcoha 


M-gcohco 


M-harara 


... 


... 


Ki-lenge 


Spirit, soul 


Niimbula. 
Lu-he ; nze-he 


M-oy». 
M-lungu; 
wam-lungu 


••• 


**• 


... 


... 


Star 


Ny-enyezi. 


N-tondco 


N-tondwe. 


N-tondwe 


N-tondwa. 


Lu-tondwa ; 




N-scota 




Vi-nycota (/5/.) 




Nya-redzi 


n-dondwa 
Lu-tcow-ana 


Stick 


Lu-gcoda. 
Lu-ambco. 
Lu-flmbco. 
Lu-kwegco 


Mu-humbati 


I-gcoda. 
N-kwegco 




N-khwekco 


Bco-kcola 


Stone 


Li-ganga. 
Li-hwahwa 


Li -hue 


Di-nganga ; 
ma- 


... 


... 


Lu-ala 


Stool 


Ki-gcoda. 
Ki-degu. 
Ki-tengco 


Ci-gcota 


... 


... 


..• 


• ■• 


Sun 


Li-zcowa 


M-jence 


Li-dzuva 


Li-jtia 


I-dzua 


Li-luba 


TaU (of a 


Mu-kira 


Lu-cira 


•.. 


-•• 


... 


N-kila 


mammal) 














Tear 


Li-hcozi or 
Lu-ihcozi ; 
pi. mi-hcozi 


Li-scozi 


••• 


... 


.•• 


Li-coli ; pi. 
m-coli 


Testicles ... 


... 


N-tongi ; zin-. 
Kambako 


... 


... 


... 


N-dongeo 


Thief 


Mu-hizi 


M-kewa. 
Iwa 


... 


... 


... 


Ma-jibi ; 
ba-jibi. 
Mu-i ; ba-i. 
Ny-ibi 


Thigh 


Ki-ma. 
Ki-werco 


Li-paja 


... 


... 


... 


Ky-ima. 
Li-bandco 


Thing 


Ki-nu 


Ci-ndu 


Xi-nhu ; 
fi-nhu 


... 


... 


•I-libe,. 
Ki-libe. 
Ki-dibe 


Thorn 


Mw-ifwa or 
Mu-fwa 


Lu-sonthto 


... 


... 


... 


Mw-imwa 


Tobacco ... 


Sayco. 
N-dyani 


Tumbak«a 


... 


... 


... 


Tumbakcd 


To-day ... 


Na-munyi, 
Ne-ngconi 


Lerco 


... 


... 


Lelco 


L-inco 


Toe 


C-ala 


C-ala 


... 


• a. 


... 


Li-gumba 


To-morrow 


Mi-Iau, 
Imi-rau 


Ci-lau 


... 


... 


... 


Ma-lau 


Tongue ... 


Lu-limi. 
Lumi-angu 


? Li-rimi 


Lu-limi. 
Uru-miri? 


Luaimi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi ; 
n-dimi 


Tooth 


L-inco. 
Li-gegwa 


L-inco 


L-inco 


Iz-inco 


Iz-inco. 
M-scokcole 

(31a) 


L-inco ; m-inco 


Town, village 


Lu-sitco. 
I-ringa. 
M-ji, Kaye 


U-kaya 


Mu-zi 


... 


Kaya, 
I-kaya 


N-cengco, 
Tsengco. 
U-kaya 


Tree 


Li-biki, 


Mu-ti. 


I-gcoda. 


... 


M-g(oda 


N-tela; 




Mu-biki. 


M-tera. 


1-pipi. 






mi-tela. 




M.gcoda 


Ci-biki 


Iri-piki, 

or Umu-pixi ; 

ama-, imi- 






N-kongeo ; 
mi-kongco 


Twins 


Wanya-wendani 


Ma-wira 


... 


... 


... 


Ma-paga 



iGz 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



28. 

Poagoroa and 

Mahenge 



29- 

Sangbi 

(Rori and 

Safwa) 



3°- 
Bena 



31- 
Gangi 

31 a. Bunga 



32. 
Ki-matumbi 

32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 



Urine Ma-tunzi 

Vein N-dera; 

ma-dera 

War Li-galu. 

Honita 



Water ... Lu-lenga 

Well, spring, Ki-pera 
source 
White man Mu-zungu 

Wife M-dala. 

Mw-aha 



Wind 

Witch 
Witchcraft 
Woman .,, 



Womb 
Wood (fire' 
wood) 

Yam ... . 

Year ... . 

Yesterday. 
Zebra... . 

One ... . 

Two ... . 



Three... 

Four ... ., 

Five ... . 

Six ... . 

Seven... . 



Im-epco. 

Nala. 

I-gudwa 
Mu-hawi 



M-dala. 
Mu-dzima 



Kuma' 
Lu-s4gala ; 
n-sagala 

Mw-aka 

Li-gcoleo 
Sengere 

? Monga. 
-mui 
•will, -wiri 

•datu 

•tai, -tei 

■banco 

Mu-tanda. 

Mu-tandatu 
Mu-fungati 



Ma-kwezcd 



M-kondua 
(warrior). 
Ma-kondGa. 
U-kali 

Ma-ji 

Ci-sulu. 
E-negu 
Mu-zungu 
M-dala 



M-pepco. 
Li-yega 

M-ganga 

U-ganga 

M-dala 



Ma-lenga 



Mu-zungu 
M-dala 



Ma-lenga 



Mu-zungu 
Mu-ka 



Mu-dala. 
M-jima 



Mu-dala; wa- 



M-tima 
M-bato. 

N-gcodi, 

Tu-g«di 

C-aka ; vy-aka 

Li-cu 
M-punda 

•mco. (monga U -monga. 

= other) -mwe. -moj 

•wili -wili (Si-wili) 



Ma-renga. 
Me-se (31 a) 
I-sima 

Mu-zungu 
Mw-ehe. 

M-kahanco 

(31a) 



■tatu 



M-cece. 
-cece 



•tatu or 
(Si-tatu) 
thathu 

■na (Wa-na, 
Si-na) 



Mcosi 
Pili, -wili 



•tatu (Ka-tatu) 



M-pinga. 
M-kcodzi. 
M-kahanco 
(31a) 



Mw-aka ; mi- 



Mcosi. 

Weka (31a) 
•bili, -wili 

(Ka-bili). 

Scona (31a) 
-tatu (Ka-tatu). 

Wa-lila (31a) 



Ma-k<i>jci>, 

Ma-kcozco 
Mu-kule ; 

mi-kcdle. 

}i-gcolengo]le 
N-gondoj 



Ma-tsi 

Ku-lose 

N-jungu 
N-nwawa ; 

//. a-lwawa. 

N-yumbeo; pL 

a-yumbeo 
M-bepcj 



Mw-abi ; 

b-abi 
(Ku-luga = (o 

bewitch') 
N-wawa. 

Ny-umbo>. 

Ki-lumbu 

(bride) 

Ny-ancu. 
Anyu. 
N-deketu 

Caka, Saka, 
Pa-saka 
L-is<o 



-bili 



-tatu 



-tai (Ka-tai) -ne (Ka-ne). -n-cece,-n-cene 



Mco-hanu or -sanco 
-hanco 

Mco-hanco 

na(li)-m&) 
Mco-hanco 

(ma)-wili 



M-tanda 
•na na-datu 



-banco 
(Ka-hanco) 
M-tanateo 

M-fuiigati 



M-cece. -dai 

(Ka-dai 31 a) 

-banco. Fundoo 

(31a) 
M-tandatu. 

M-td (31 a) 
M-fungati. 

M-fii (31 a) 



Mw-anco 

Mw-anco na 
(yu)-mco 

Mw-anco na 
bili 



' Ki-kuma = vagina. 



GROUPS H AND I: UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 163 





27- 


28. 


29. 


30. 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcagorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekca 


Eight 


Mu-nana 


Ma)-hanoj 
(ma)-tatu 


M-nana 


M-nana 


M-nana. 
Mu-nana 

(31a) 


Mw-anco na 
tatu 


Nine 


I-gonzi, 


M(D-hana> 


Sanco na 


I-kenda 


I-kenda. 


Mw-anoa 




I-gonza. 


m-cece 


wa-na (or 




Mu-fwanco 


na n-cece 




I-kenda 




si-na) 




(31a) 




Ten 


I-cumi, 


Li-rongoj 


I-iumi or 


I-fundika ; ma- 


I -kumi. 


Nongco gu-mco 




I-kyumi. 


li-mco. -kumi, 


I -cumi 




Li-hundu ; 


{pi. mi-longco) 




I-funduka 


-cumi, or 
Li-cumi 






ma- (31 a) 




Eleven 


I-kyumi na- 


Li-cumi na 


I-xumi 




... 


Nongco gu-mco 




mui 


(li)-mto 


pa-canyali-mco 






na yii-mco 


Twenty ... 


Ma-cumi, 


Ma-rongco 


Ama-xumi 


Ma-fundika 


Mi-longco 


Mi-loiigco 




Ma-kyumi 


ma-wili or 


ga-wili or 


ma-wili 


mi-wili. 


i-bili 




ga-wili 


Ma-cumi 
ma-wili 


Simariri 
munhu {to 
stand up one 
vian /) 




Ma-hundu 

scona 




Thirty 


Ma-kyumi 


Ma-rongco 


Simariri 


Ma-fundika 


Mi-longco 


Mi-longco 




ga-datu 


ma-tatu 


munhu, 

pa-canya 

i-cumi 


ma-tatu 


mi-tatu. 
Ma-hundu 
ma-lila (31 a) 


i-tatu 


Forty 


Ma-kyumi 


Ma-rong<a 


Simariri 


Ma-fundika 


Ma-longco 


Mi-longco 




ga-tei 


m-cece 


wanhu 
wawili 


ma-tai 


mi-ne. 
Ma-hundu' 
ma-dai (31 a) 


in-cece 


Fifty 


Ma-kyumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-cumi 


Ma-fundika 


Mi-loiigco 


Mi-longco 




ga-han<o 


mco-hanco. 
(Ma-rongco 
niu)-hanco na 
limco = sixty, 
and so on) 


ga -sanco or 

Simariri 

wanhu 

wa-wili 

pa-canya 

icumi. 

(Simariri 

wanhu 

watatu=j/>/j' 

and the other 

decades on the 

same plan) 


ma-hanco 


mi-hanco. 
Ma-hundu 
ma-fundcd 
(31a) 


i-anco 


Hundred . . . 


I-gana 


Ma-rongco 


Wafile wanhu Ci-gana 


Mi-loiigco 


... 






cumi or 


wasanco 




mi-hanco. 








Ma-cumi 


{there died Jive 




mi-longco 








ma-cumi 


men .'). Also 
I-gana. 




mi-hanco, 
di-merera 




Thousand . . . 


Imbirima 








... 




I, me, my ... 


Nene. 


Nene. Ne-figa. 


Y-une. Mia. 


Ne-ene. 


Ne-eni. Ne-iiga 


Ne-figa. 




Ndi-, N-. 


Na-, N- (M-). 


Ni-, N-. 


N-, Ni-. 


(31 a). 


Ni-. 




•n-, -ni% 


•n-, -ni-, -m-. 


•n-. -a-ngu 


-n-. -a-ngu 


N-, Na-, Ni-. 


•ni-, -ny. -n'. 




-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 






-n-, -ni-. 
-a-ngu, 

-a-ne-iiga 


-a-ngu 


Thou, thee, thy 


Wewe. Bewe, 


Gwe-nga. Gwe! 


0-iwe, (Owe. 


We-we. 


Gwegwe, 


We-iiga. We ! 




Bee. 


Gu- 


U-, Gu-. 


U-, Ku- ? 


Wewe, 


U-. 




U-. 


-gu-. -a-k« 


■gu-. -akeo 


-ku- ? -a-kco 


Gwe-nya. 


•ku-. -a-kco 




-ku-. -a-ku 








Ku-, U-, W-. 
-ku-. -a-ko*, 
-a-gwe-nya 





164 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





27. 


28. 


.29. 


30- 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorcd and 


Sangoi 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki^matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndefigerekco 


He, bim, his 


Yuyco, Uyu. 


A-yu. 


Yuyu. 


U-yu. 


A-yu. Yu^no), 


Yu-embe. 




A-, I.. 


Ka-, Ga-, Yu-. 


Ya-, A-. 


Ya-, Ka-. 


Yuyco. 


Yu-, A-. 




•mu-. -a-kwe 


•m-. -a-kwe 


-mu-. -a-kwe 


-mu-.> -a-kwe 


Ka, Ya- 

•mu^. •e, 

-a-kwe, 

-a-yu-no) 


•kumu-. kum'-, 
-kun. -a-ke 


We, us, our 


Hwehwe or 


Twe-iiga. 


Au-se. Yu-se. 


Xwexwe. 


Twetwe. 


Twe-iigco. 




TLvrexrwe. 


Tu-. 


Ti-, Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Twe-nga(3ia). 


Tu-. 




Tu-. 


-tu-. -e-tu 


-ti- or -tu-. 


•tu^. -e-tu 


Tu-. 


-tu-. -i-tu 




•tu-. -e-tu 




-e-su 




-tu-. -e-tu 




Ye, you, your 


Nyenye, 


Mwe-nga. 


Yu-mwe. 


Nyenye. 


Mwemwe. 


Mwe-nga, 




Nyenyu, 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Mwe-iiga. 


Mwe. 




Nye-re. Mu-. 


-gu — ni ', ace. 


■wa-. -e-nyu 


-wa- ? -enu 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 




-wa-. -e-nyu 


-enu 






?-wa-. -e^nyu 


•kwa-. -inu 


They, them. 


Wawco, I-w<i>, 


A-wa. 


Wawo. 


Aweo. 


Awa. 


Bembe. 


their 


I-wa. 


Wa-. 


Wa-, Ba-. 


Wa-. 


Wa. 


Ba-. 




Wa-. 


•wa-. -aco 


•wa- or -ba-. 


•wa-. -awco 


•wa^. -awco 


-kwa-. (-a-be 




-wa-. -aoa 




-awco 






= their) 


All 


Mbe-li (-li or 
•ri represents 
'is',' are'). 


-ose-re or -a»se 


-ose. -ona 


•ose 


•cose, 
-coha (31 a) 


Omwike. 
-ote, -cote 




Mbe-fi-ri = all 












things (Class 














8). Mbe-wa-li 














= all men 














{Class 2) 












This, these 


U-yco, i-wa; 


A-yu, a-wa; 


... 


##• 


A^yu, a^wa ; 


"Si—yxii, Class i\ 




u-gu, u-g<o, 


a-gu, a-i ; 






&-£. 


a— ba „ 2 ; 




i-gi ; i-li, i-ri, 


a-li, a-ga; 








m— gu » 3, 




i-ga; i-ki. 


a-ci, a-vi; 








mi— yi „ 4 ; 




i-fi; i-ye, 


a-i, a-zi; 








li-li „ S, 




i-zi ; u-lu ; 


a-lu ; a-tu ; 








ma— ga„ 6 ; 




u-tu ; i-ka ; 


a-ka ; a-u ; 








ki— ci „ 7, 




Geo ; u-ku ; 


a-ku ; a-pa ; 








i-yi „ 8 ; 




i-pa 


a-mu 








a— yi .,9,10; 



That, those 



Yu^lA, wa-lA; 
gu-U, gi^rd ; 
li-rA, ga-li ; 
ki-rA, fi-rd.; 
i-rA, zi-rS. ; 
lu-lA ; tuld ; 
ka-ld ; ii-lA ; 
ku-rfl ; pa-1^ 



U-lia, wa-lia ; 
gu-lia, i-lia ; 
li-lia, ga-lia; 
ci-lia, vi-lia ; 
i-lia, zi-lia ; 
lu^lia ; ci^t. 



•la (yu-la, 
wa^la ; u^la ; 

&'C.) 



lu— lu „ II; 

tu— tu „ 12; 

ka—ka,, 13; 

u— u „ 14; 

ku— ku„ 15; 

pa — pa „ 16 
•nco (yu^nco, 

ba^nco, drc.) 
•lya (yu-lya, 

ba^lya; gu-lya; 

&=c. : and 

yuyu^lia, 

baba-lia ; 

gugu-lia, d^v.) 



Bad 



•anange-fu, -kcomu 
•co-fu. -e-lia ? 



' The gu- particle is an infix, the -xA a suffix. 



•bi. -ke-ha 



e-ha. 
-wi-pa (31 a) 



•baya. •bcou. 
Nyata 



The word-root comes between, where the dash is placed. 



GROUPS H AND I: UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 165 



English 


27. 
Hehe 


28. 

Pojgoro) and 

Mahenge 


29. 

Sangco 

(Rori and 

Safwa) 


30- 
Bena 


31- 

Gangi 

31a. Bunga 


32- 
Ki-matumbi 

32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekcii 



Black 


•titu 


•titu 


•tita 


Female 


-m-dala. 
•buguma 


-e^dala 


•hinja 


Fierce, sharp, 


•kali 


■kali-pa 


■kali. 


bitter 






•teni 


Good 


-noa-fu. 


•here-pa. 


•ncd^fu 




-noo-ga 


Nco.ga. 
Nama. 
(-swamu = 
beautiful) 




Great 


•kcomi. 


•kulu 


•kcome 




(-kula = to 








become big) 






Little 


•dcodu 


•didi. •dididi 


•dcodco 



Long 
Male 

Old 



Red .. 
Rotten 
Short ... 
Sick .., 

White 



•tali 



•tari 



■hinza. 
•dala 



•nco^fu 



•tali 



kambakwa. 


•epalu 


-ci-lume, 


•lume. 


-gcozi, 




•dume 


-kcozi. 


•Vina, 






-wina 








gcogcolu 




M^kulu. 
•mtua. .tcoka. 
-e^kcolco 


••• 


dunu 




•cere 


-n^duhu 


gata 




•puere 


•■• 


fupi 




•fupi 


-fufu 


■tamwa 




•luala. (U-tami 
= noun) 


... 


•eru. (• 


era = 


•eru 


•balafu, 


to become clean, 




•ewara-fu 



... 


-m-bili, -p 


kcodzi. 
•kahanca(3ia) 


pilia 

•kongwe, 

-gongcoe. 


... 


-awa 
•kali 


ncoga, 
Ka-ncoga 


•ncogati. 
-ki-bcota. 
K5ti 



pUi, 



•dcodco 



-tali or -tati. 

-le-fu (31 a) 
•lume, •dumi 

(31a) 



■eru, •jeru 



•kulu 



•tsene, •tsini. 

•tsake. 

Ki-pela 
•lascd (mu-lasco 

= u-nasco) 
-lume ; 

-na-lume 



"white) 



•go! 



-kele 
-bcala 
•ipi 
-tamwe. 

-luile 
•u (mw-u, ba-ii, 

mi-u, c^c). 

•lya. 

Ku-meta 



Above, up, on Pacanya 
top 



Before ... Mu- or 

Ku-longcolco. 

Ku-mihco ku- 
Behind ... Ku-mbele, 

Pa-mbele. 

Ku-mgongo 

ku- 
Below, down Panyi. 

Pasi 



Far 
Here 



Pa-tali, 
Ku^tali 

I-pa. Paha, 
Baha. Kconco 



Pampindi, 
Ku^mpindi 



Ku)-rongcolco, 
Ku-longcolco 

Ku-mberi. 
Ci^mberembere 



Pazi. 

Pi-fungco 

Ku-tari 



Canya 



Ku^mwandi, 
Ku-longcodzi 

Ku^nyuma 



Pa^nzi. 
Pa^si 

Ku-tali 



Canya 



Ku-ntalco 



Kuci-scogoo, 
Ku-mbele 



Ha-si, 
Pa-si 

Ku-tali. 
Pa-gi 



A-pa, Ha-pa 



Baha 



Ku-canya. 

U-langa. 

Ku-mbindi 

(31a) 
Ku-mundi, 

Ku-mwandi 

(31a) 
Ku-mphele, 

Mu-mbele 

(31a) 

Ha-nkhi. 

Ha-si. 

Pahi (3 1 a) 
Ku-tali. 

Ku-taluka 

(31a) 
Hanco. Panco 

(31a) 



Ku-nani, 
Pa-nani 



Nungi. 
Mungi 

N-cugu, 
Ku-sugu 



Pai 



Ku-lipite. 
Ku-talu 

Papipi. Apa. 
Papu 



i66 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



28. 

Ptogorto and 

Mahenge 



29- 

Sangco 

(Rori and 

Safwa) 



30- 
Bena 



31- 

Gangi 

31a. Bunga 



32- 
Ki-matumbi 

32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekoa 



In, inside .. 



Middle 

Near ... 
Outside 



Mu- 



Pa-gati, 

Mu-gati 
Pipi 
Kw-ibala or 

Ku-iwala 



Plenty, many, OOIco-fu 
much 



Mu- 



Pa-kati 

Pa-behi 
Ku-nja. 

Ku-sa. 

Pa-nja 
Vua. 

Tangala 



There... 
Where ? 



No! 

TAo\.{'withverb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



Ku-la, Pa-la. 

Uku 
■iya ? -i .' 

(Ku-iya or 

ku-i ? mu-iya 

or mu-i ? piya 

or pi?) 
Ndala ! 

Ndema ! 
Si. Nd*. 

S'-,si-,-s 

■persons') ; 

Si— nda; Si — 

la (not yet) 



A-kto. 
Palia 
-coci? 



Mu- 

Pa-kati pa 
Behe 

■nji 

Uku 



Pipi. I-palupi 



Mu- 

Ha-gati 
Behi 

•ngi 

Kula 



Mu-. Mu-lia. 
Mumco. Ndani. 
-bi {neg. ' not 
in ' is -bui) 



Pa-pipi 
Pa-nyangco, 

Pa-ntsa, 

Pa-nja 
Segege. 

-anatsima. 

■ingi. 

-ycolu-ka. -yai 
Kulya. 

Palya 
-kwEJcu ? 



Ndala ! 

Si-, Na- {impera- 
(all five) ; -na- 

(not yet). 

-ndiri. -hera 

(suffixes) 



Ndali 



Ndala ! 



Ntupu 



ro 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ki-, Ku->, Kwi- 


Ku- 


»j 


beat ... -toaa, -tcawa 


■kcoma 


•thowa 


-tcaa 


)» 


buy, sell -hemela. -gula 


-ktopa 


•gula 




»» 


come ... -za 


-iza 


-iza, -jinza 


• •■ 


■it 


cut ... -tema 


-dumula. 
-tema 


-dtimora 


... 


)j 


dance ... -heziga 


■wina-. 
sambcii 


... 


... 


j> 


die ... .fwa 


•fua, -hwa 


■fwa 


•ifa 


»» 


eat ... -daknla. -lia 


-dia 


-lia 


-lia 


»» 


give ... -pa, -pela, 
•pera 


-pa 


-pa. -pela 


-pera 


>» 


go -hera. -luta 


•genda 


-jenda. -ruta 


-luta 


>j 


kill ... -wula-ga 


-kuma 


-ula-ga 




n 


know ... -uzera. 


-maana. 


. . . 


. • . 




•kagula. 


(■maani = 




. 




•tambula. 


/ know not) 








-manyi {in 










a negative 










sense only) * 










' According to Last and Meinhof the ku- 


prefix is often ki- 


in Stngiu 



... 


-lili or -liri (neg. 




suffix] ; -bcoi, 




-kwakco (32 a, 




32 b) ; -ki— lili 




(rare) ; -ka-, 




-na- (condi- 




tional and ' not 




yet); -kani- 




{neg. verb) ; 




kana- (subj. 




neg. prefix) 


u- 


Ku- 


tojwa. -tula, 


-kumbwa 


■hutula 




gula 


.' -pima 


idza. -bwera 


-isa 


• ■a 


■tema. 




-pingwa 


... 


■ina 


•fwa, -fa 


•wa 


■lia. -n^emena 


-Iya 


gawila 


-peya 


-luta. 


■enda,-yenda. 


-hamba(3ia) 


■buka 


■■1 


-kcoma 




-manya. 




-kutanga 



' /. e. ' Not to know '. 



GROUPS H AND I: UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 167 





27 




28. 


29. 


30- 


31- 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi, 


Ki^matumbi 








Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekeo 


To 


Kii- 




Ku- 


Ki-, Ku-, Kwi- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ laugh ... 


•heka 




-seka 


•hexa 


•hexa 


... 


■kweka 


„ leave off, 


-leka 




-leka 


-lexa 


... 


... 


-leka 


cease 
















„ love,want 


•enda. 


-kera 


•fira 


•gana. 
-naigela. 
•s^kura 


... 


... 


•penda 


„ see 


•ona. ■ 


lulera 


•ona 


-bona, -wona 


... 


... 


•bojna. -Icola 


„ sit,remain, 


-kala 




•ikaala. 


-kala 


•kala" 


•kala. 


■dama. 


abide 






-kawa. 
-Hfuga 






•tama 


-tama 


„ sleep ... 


-gcona 




•gconya 


-igcona 


... 


... 


•gunya 


„ stand,stop, 


-ima 




-gojltoka 


•imilila. -ima, 


•wima 


•wima. 


-yima. 


be erect 








-jima 




.gulcoka 


-gcolcdka 


,. steal ... 


■hiza 




-iwa 


•ija 




• •■ 


•yiba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI-HEHE 

Virtually no preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m, u-, yu-, y'-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, gu) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, gi) ; 
S. Li-, I-, — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga, gl-) ; 7. Ki- (ki) (plural sometimes in No. 6) ; 8. Fi-, Vi- (fi, vi) ; 
9. — , N- (M-), N-, Ny. (n-, i) (plural often in No. 6) ; 10. — , N- (M-), »•, Iny-, Ny-, Nze- (zi, z') ; 1 1. Lu-, 
Nco- (lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) (perhaps plural to 11 sometimes); 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 
16. Pa-, Ba-, I-pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- as preposition only ; 18. Igu- (in one or two words like ' Igu-bwa'). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN PCOGGRO) 

No traces of preprefixes except in 9th Class. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m, gu-, gw-, yu, u-, ga-); 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. M-, Mu- (m-, mu-, gu) ; 4. Mi- 
(mi-, i, y-) ; 5. Li-, E-, I- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ci- (ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. In- (Im-), N-, — (n-, 
i); 10. Zin-, Zi- (zi); 11. Lu- (lu) {pi. Nos. 10, 4, and 6); 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- 
(u) ; 15. Ku- Gu- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 



PREFIXES, &c., IN SANGO) 
Preprefixes present in some classes. 

(mu, ju-, gu- ?) ; 2. Aba-, Awa-, Wa-' (ba, wa) ; 3. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, gu) ; 

5. Iri-, Ri-, I., H-, Di- (ri, li) ; 6. Ma-, Mi- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Xi-, Ki- (xi, ki) ; 

In- (Im-), In-, Iny-, N-, — (n-, ji); 10. In-, &c., and perhaps in some dialects 
Zin- or Sin- (ri or si, n-) ; 11. Lu- or Ru- (lu, ru) ; 12. Tu- or Thu- (tu) ; 13. Xa- or Ka- (ka) ; 
14. Wu-, Bu-, U- (wu or bu) ; 15. Ki-, Kwi-, Ku- or Gu- (ki or ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 



Class I. Umu- Mu 
4. Imi-, Mi- (mi-, gi) 
8. Fi-, Vi- (fi or vi) ; 9. 



• Va- according to Meinhof; which symbol means that the consonant varies between B and W. 



i68 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN BENA, GANGI, AND BUNGA 

Slight traces of preprefixes in Nos. 9 and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, yu-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, gu); 4. Mi- (mi-, gi ?) ; 5. L, 
Izi-, Li- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga?) ; 7. Ki-, Ci-, C- (ki, ci) ; 8. Vi- ? (vi .') ; 9. I-, In- (Im-), N-, N-, Ny- 
(i, n-) ; 10. (same as 9); 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12? probably absent; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- 
(Gu-) (ku) ; 16. Ha- (ha) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN KI-MATUMBI 

Traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, N-, Mm-, Nn- (mu, yu-, u-) ; 2. Ba-, Ab'-, Aba-, A- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N-, Nn-, 
— (n-, mu-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i, -yi) ; 5. Li-, — (li) ; 6. Ma-, Ama- (ma-, ya or ga) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. I- 
(yi-. i) ; 9- N- (M-), Ny- (n- (m-), yi, i) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny- (n- (m-), yi, i) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. Tn- 
(tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 



27. Hehe is spoken in Uhehe ; the country in East Africa between the 9th degree of South latitude 
on the south and the main stream of the Middle Ruaha on the north ; between Mahenge and Upcogorco 
(the Upper Rufiji) on the east and the Sangco country on the west. 

28. Pcogorco and Mahenge are spoken in the Mahenge and Pcogorco countries, south of the Lower 
Ruaha, west of the Rufiji-Luwegu, north of the Upper Luwegu, and east of Uhehe and the Upper Rufiji. 

29. Sangu (Rori and Safwa) is spoken in the long strip of Usangco (a portion of which is sometimes 
called Urori). Usango) is bounded on the east by Uhehe and Fuagi ; on the south by Ubena and the 
head-streams of the Great and Little Ruaha ; on the west by Usafwa and the upper course of the Mpimbo 
river ; and on the north by Ugcogto and Itumba and 6° 30' of South latitude. 

30. Bena is spoken in Ubena and Lupembe, bounded on the north by Usaiigu>, Fuagi, and Uhehe, 
on the west by Ukifiga and the north Nyasa mountain country, on the south by Upangwa and 9° 30' 
South latitude, and on the east by Matumbi, Uhehe, and Fuagi. 

31. Gaagi and 31 a. Bunga are spoken south of Uptugoro), in the basin of the Luwegu and Marafi- 
gandu affluents of the Rufiji ; east of Donde and north of the Magwaiigwara (Bango)ni-Zulu) and of the 
Wazutu or Wasutu. 

32. Ki-matumbi is spoken in the coast region between the Lower Rufiji and Matandu rivers, east of 
the Donde and Wangindco countries. West Matumbi (quite isolated) is spoken in a small area between 
the Pito) and Ruhinje (Upper Rufiji) rivers, south-east of Ubena, south-west of Mahenge-Upcogoro), 
between South latitudes 9° and 10°. Kindet;gQrekca and Kirufiji are northern dialects of Matumbi very 
little known. 



GROUP I 

THE LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES (continued) 
33. Mwera. 33 a. Ki-donde 34. Makonde. 34 a. Mavia (Mabiha) 

GROUP J 

ITHE NORTH RUVUMA AND NORTH-EAST NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



35. Sutu (Ma-nundi)^ 
35 a. Ki-matengco 



36. Paflgwa 

37. Kese or Kisi 



GROUP K 

THE UKINGA LANGUAGE 
38. Kiiiga 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



|Adze 


... 


.' Ka-wedco 


Li-vagco 


... 


Aka-wagco 


Aka-zunu ? 


&.nimal,wild 




Ny-ama. 


Ny-ama. 


I-nhanco 


... 


E-iianu ; 


beast 




Li-cene 


Ki-kcdkco 






i-nanu(-kanu) 


A.nt 


... 


N-jalahu ; din- 


Li-nyagconyagco. 
Halato. 


... 


Di-gongoro3 ; 
ma- 


Eli-dunungu ; 
ama-. Eli- 








Hyungcohyungco 




halasu ; ama- 


Ant, white 




U-cece 


Li-icere. 


... 


... 


Um-mehe ; 


(termite) 






M-ehe. 
Ng-umbi. 
M-keke (35 a) 






emi-mehe 


A.pe 


• *• 






. • . 


.. . 


... 


Ann 

\ 


M-kconu ; mi- 


Ku-kconu ; ma-. 
Ufi-koanoi ; 


Li-wcokco or 
Ku-wcokoj 


Ili-bcoxco 


Ki-wcokco ; fi- 


Eki-vcokco ; 
ama- 


Arrow 


M-pamba 


Li-hyonga ; 
raa-. M-umba 
tni-umba 


Li-honga ; ma- 


... 


Ru-cinji ; 
n-jinji 


Un-dasco ; 
emi-lasco 


Axe 


Li-wagco ; ma- 


M-bedco ; 
dim-bedco 


Li-wagco, 
Li-vagco ; ma- 


... 


Iri-wagco (or 
Di-) ; ma- 


En-zunu 


Baboon 


... 


N-yani; wa + 


Li-yani or 
Li-jani 


... 


Di-jani 


En-yani. 
Eli-jani. 
E-nele,Li-kele 


Back 




Kum-ongco or 


M-gongco or 




N-gongco. 


Uii-gongco ; 






Ci-ccanytij 


N-gongco 




Ki-wunu 


emi- 


Banana ... 


... 


Jfcowco ; di -f . 
Ifcohcovco. 
I-nconco ; di- 


Li-tcoki 




Di-kombwe 


Efi-ovco ; 
iii-ovu. Eli- 
koveo; ama- 


Beard 




Ci-leu. 
U-rinda. 
Ci-revu. 
Ci-dambe 


Ki-njwemba. 
In-deu 




Ru-refu;n-deftt 


Ulu-leau 


Bee 


... 


Ny-uci or 


N-juki: ;*/. 


In-juxi 


Lu-, Du-, or 


Ulu-juke; 






Ny-utisi 


in-susi. 
Lu-yusi 




Ru-juki ; pi. 
n-juki 


in-zuke 


Belly 


•■• 


Ci-tumbco 


Li-reme. 
Mii-nda. 
Lu-turabco 


•" 


Di-derae ; ma-. 
Ma-tumbto 


Eli-tumbu 



The correct pronunciation may be Zutu. 



170 



•ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37. 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki. 
matengca 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Bird 


... 


Ny-ehe ; 


N^dege. 


... 


Ki-dege ; vi- or 


Eki-dege; isi- 




wany-ehe. 


Ki-yuni ; 




fi- 






Ny-uni; wa + 


hi-yuni (35 a) 








Blood 


Mi-adi (//.) 


Mw-azi or 
Mw-ahi 


... 


Mw-azi 


Un-kisa 


Body 


Li-wimba. 


Mu-vili. 


Umu-bili 


Um-bere 


Um-ana ; 




M-iri 


Higa 






emi-hana 


Bone 


Li-wangwa ; 


Li-fupa. 


• •• 


Ki-fupa 


Eki-tsege ; 




ma- 


Li-jege 






isi-tsege 


Borassus pal m 


Mu-ngore 


M-kcoma 


• •• 


M-kcoma 


... 


Bow U-pinde; ma- 


U-pindi 


U-pindi ; pi. 
m-pindi 


... 


U-pende 


Ulu-Yonde ; 
ini- 


Bowels 


* •• 


Ci-mbende? 


Ma-tumbu 


• •• 


... 


Uvu-tumbco 


Brains 


• •• 


... 


W-ongco 


• •• 


W-ongco 


Uvw-ongco 


Breast (man's) 


... 


Pam-tima 

(' near the 


Ki-vimba. 
N-ganga 


Xi-fuba 


Ki-fua 


Eki-pambaYa 




heart'). 












Ci-huwa 










Breast 


Ma-wele (/)/.) 


Ma-wele 


Ili-bele 


Di-were ; ma- 


Eli-vele; ama- 


(woman's) 












Brother ... 


Ndugu. 


M-dongo ; 


... 


M-benawi, 


Um-atsa [from 




N-uiigu, 


wa-longco 




Ba-benawi 


the root 




N-unu, 








-hatsa). 




N-ungtoni. 








Un-nuna ; 




M-nongco ; 








ava- 




wa-longco 










Buffalo ... 


Ny-ati 


N-jati, 
Li-yati 


Im-bcogco 


N-jati 


Em-bcogoa. 
Ugu-bcogco 


Bull 


N-ombe 


N-kunzi. 


... 


N-ombe 


E-nambakco 




m-numi 


N-kambaku 




li-kambakco 




Buttocks ... 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takto 


Ama-dax<o(//. 


Ma-dakco ; di- 


Ama-dakco 


Canoe Yi-tumbi 


Ki-pepe or 


Uatw, 




Bw-atco ; 


... 




Li-pepe ; 


Hw-atu ; 




ma-watco 






vi- or ma-. 


mi-yatu 










Ri-pepe (34 a) 










Cat 


M-aka ; wa + . 


M-lamu. 


Ixi-phaxa 


Ka-namanga ; 


En-yavu 




M-inja (34 a) 


Li-hycomi. 
M-buyali. 
Ka-namanga 




tu- 




Charcoal ... 


... 




Ili-xala 


... 


Eli-kala 


Chief Yumbe 


M-kulungwa. 


Mu-twa. 


... 


Mu-tua ; 


Uii-kuludeva. 




Umu (34 a) 


Li-k(dsi 




aba-tua 


Un-twa 


Child 


Mw-anyace '. 


M w-ana ; 


Umw-ana 


Mw-ana ; 


Um-wana ; 




N-diogeo. 


w-ana 




ab-ana 


av-ana. 




Mw-ana. 








Umm-enza ; 




Nunu 








ava-henza 


Cloth N-guM 




N-guwco or 
In-guwu. 
Ny-ura. 
Li-hya 




N-gcowco 


Eki-lundco. 
Un-salwa 


Cold 


M-ehcd 


M-pepo>, 
Im-bepu, 
Ki-pepto 


... 


*•* 


E-nala (-kala) 


Country ... 


Ci-lambu. 


M-lima 


Iny.hi 


N-dema 


Eki-lunga. 






Ri-kaya (34 a) 








E-ni (-ki) 



U-nyace = childhood. 



GROUPS I, J, K: RUFIJI-RUVUxMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



171 





33- 


34- 


3S- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 

33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 
Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengoi 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Cow ... ... 


• • • 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


I-senga. 


N-ombe 


E-senga. 








ii-ginda. 


In-dama ' 


n-dara 


Em-buYuma 








Yu-nkoru. 


{heifer) 












Li-tcoli 








Crocodile ... 




N-wena. 
Ci-rembe 


Li-gwina or 
Lin-gwina 


... 


N-gwina 


... 


Day 




Li-dua ; ma-. 
Mo>-hi 


Li-gconco. 
Li-suwa. 
Mu-hi. 

(I-mini = (/«y- 
light) 


Ulu-siku 


Di-gconcd 


Eli-tsuva. 
(Pamu-nyi = 
daylight) 


Devil, evil 


... 


Li-hcoka ; ma- 


Li-huka ; ma- 


• ■■ 


Di-rongoj 


Um-lungu ; 


spirit 












emi- 


Doctor (medi- 


... 




N-ganga ; 


Umu-ganga 




Un-tunanya ^ 


cine man) 






wa-ganga 








Dog 




Li-bwa. 


Garu. 


Im-bwa. 


Iri-bwa. 


Em-bwa 






Nawanga ; 


Im-bwa, 


(Axa-bwa = 


Nyaka-wa 








wa+ or 


Yim-bwa, 


small dog) 










Navanga 


Li-bwa 












(14a) 










Donkey ... 


... 


N-jowe ; 
din-jeowe 


M-bunda 


... 


M-bonda 


Eli-gcodcovwe. 
E-munda 


Door 


... 


Lu-idi ; 
din-jidi (//.). 
Nangwa 


M-lyaiigoo or 
N-diaiiigu 


... 


N-diangco 


Un-diango3. 
Ulw-itsi 


Dream 




N-dcotco 
(Itota = verb) 


N-d<otco? 
(-Icota) 


-Icotha 


Di-rtotcii 


Ama-yoanasivi 


Drum 


... 


... 


N-coma or 
lii-gajma; 
pi. hin-gcoma 


■ •• 


N-oma 


Eli-kule. 
I-neiigela. 
En-gatinga 


Ear 


Ku-tu ; ma-tu 


Ku-tu ; ma-tu 


Li-kutu ; ma- 


*>• 


Ri-kutu 


Era-bulu-ku-tu 


Egg 




Li-i ; ma-i. 
Ka-i; tu-i 


Li-kaiiga ; ma-. 
Li-humbi ; ma- 


Ili-xanha 


Di-fumbi 


Eli-kana 


Elephant ... 


N-dembw 


N-embco, 
Un-embeo ; 
pi. in-embco 


N-dembco 


... 


N-dembco 


E-tsungwa 


Excrement 


... 


Ma-wi, 


Ma-fi or Ma-hi. 


• . > 


Di-fi, 


Ama-kcotu. 






Ma-vi 


Ki-ndco-tco-hi 

(35 a) 




Ma-fi 


Ama-daba 


Eye 


L-ih» ; 
m-ehca 


L-ih« ; 
m-eh« 


L-ihco ; m-ihco 


Il.ih«; 

am-ihu 


Id-ihcj; am-ihci> 


El-iboi ; am-ihu 


Face, fore- 


... 


Kum-ehco. 


Pam-ihco 


••■ 


Kuma-sco 


Eki-bake (fore- 


head 




C-eni 








head) 


Fat, oil ... 


... 


Ma-huta or 
Ma-uta 


Ma-futa or 
Ma-huta 


Ama-futha 


Ma-futa 


Ama-suta 


Father 


... 


Wawa. 
Tata 


Dadi, 
A-tati 






U-dada ; 
ava-dada 


Fear 




U-opa 


W-coga 




B w-coga 


Ulu-dwado) 


Finger 


N-goihe 


C-ala. 


Lu-konje, 


... 


Du-konji ; 


Ulu-konze ; 






Ci-kon<o. 


Lu-kondzi. 




ti-gonji 


i-nonze 






Yu-kombi 


Lu-wumba 












(34 a) 










Ftfe 




M-otea 


M-oteo 


•>■ 


M-ot(o 


Umw-otoj 


Fish 


... 


In-swi. 
Hiomba; di + 


Somba or 
Homba 


... 


Somba 


E-somba; ini- 



Axa-dama = calf 



There is possibly also the luord Umu-lagutsi/r<»« the verb -lagula. 



172 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
mateiigco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Foot ... 

Forest 

Fowl ... 
Frog ... 

Ghost... 



Giraffe 
Girl .. 

Goat .. 



„ (he) ... 

„ (she) 

God 

Grandparent 

Grass 

Ground 

Ground-nut 

Guinea-fowl 

Gun 

Hair 

Hand 

Head 

Heart 

Heel ... ... 

Hide 



Li-ulu ; 


Mu.gulu. 




Lu-ayco, 


Ulw-ajco ; 


ma-ulu. 


Ku-guru ; ma-. 




nj-ayto 


inz-aj(o 


Lu-ayco ; dinj-. 


Lu-nyaw 








Ri-dcodco. 










Li-kambatu 










Mny-itu. 


M.hitu. 


«•• 


Ma-behe 


Eli-hanzj ? 


Nundu. 


Ki-tesa. 








Mw.itu 


Li-sati. 
Li-pululu 








Ifuku; wa+ 


N-kuku 


Ifi-huxu 


N-guku 


E-fiuku ; 
ini-kuku 


C-ula; vy-ula 


Li-nycotu. 

Ly-ula ; 
m-ula (35 a). 
Li-ungula 








... 


M-fuki. 


Limu-lungu. 


Mu-rongco 


Um-pepco; ava 




Ki-wuta ; 


Mami-lungu 








i-wuta (35 a) 








Na-haku ; 


N-sikani 


• •• 


• •• 


Um-enza 


wanaraa- 










M-budi ; 


M-ene. 


... 


M*ne 


E m-ene 


dim-budi 


M-buhi (35 a) 








Li-bebehu 


Li.pongco 


>*. 


. .. 


Em-ongco 


M-budi 


M-buguma. 


... 


... 


Em-buguma 


n-kongwe 


N-ginda 








Nam-panga. 


Mu-lungu. 


... 


Mu-rungu 


Un-giduve 


Moria. 


N-dungu 








Nungu 










Wiwi; wa + 


Hukuru $. 
M-buya. 
Papa 


... 


... 


U-kuku i. 
U-papa 5 


W-ahi or 


Many-ahi 


... 


Diny-asi 


Eliny-asi 


Gw-Rhi ' 










... 


M-lima. 


• •• 


Di-dcopi 


Eki-lunga. 




M-sisi 






E-ni 


N-tesa or 


Li-lawi 


... 


Di-rawi 




N-teca 










Nanga 


Li-cundu 


... 


Di-cundu 


... 


Ri-uti 


Huti 


.*• 


N-dusu 


... 


U-wimbco 


N-jwiri. 
Li-yunzu 


... 


Di-junju 


Ulu-juwili 


M-kwneo. 


Ki-wcokco. 


Ili-ganja 


Ki-kcofi 


Eki-Yanza. 


Un-kconco ; 


Ki-ganja 






Eki-vcokco 


ma-. Li-anda. 










Pa-ianja 










M-twe or 


M-twe. Mu-tu Umu-twe 


Mu-tu 


Un-twe 


Mu-tu 


or Umu-tu 








M-tima ; mi- 


M-tima ; mi- 


(Mun-tima = 


N-dumbura. 


E-numbula. 






liver) 


(Un-tima = 
liver) 


(Un-tima = 
liver) 


Ci-hinginco 


Ki-tende. - 


... 


Ki-sekeseke 


Eki-seveja ; isi 



Nyungunyungu Ki-hingini 
Dabala. Ki-kumba 

Ma-peo; di-f 



' Old Bantu : Bu-asi. 



GROUPS I, J, K: RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 173 





33- 


34- 


35- 


;?6- 


37- 


3?- 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki. 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 


Hill 


... 


Li-ciiiga ; ma-. 
M-rima 


Ka-dunda. 

Ka-tumbi ; 
hi-tumbi 

(35 a) 


... 


... 


Ulu-nyika ; 
i-nyika 


Hippopotamus 


... 


Namondco 


N-dci3monda> 


14'ubco 


Domondco 


... 


Hoe 


• •• 


Li-yembe 


Li-gera ; ma- 


... 


... 


Eli-kumbulco 


Honey 


... 


Uci 


Uci 


... 


W-uki 


Uvw-coke 


Horn 


... 


Lu-pembe. 
Lim-embe 


Li-nyero>. 
Pembe 


• •• 


Di-nyerco 


Eli-palasa. 
Ulu-suga 


House 


Ny-umba. 


N-ande. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba 


Eny-umba. 




Y-umba (big) 


1-nandi. 
N-duli (34 a) 


N-anda 


Ixi-ny-umba; 

ifi- 




E-saka. 
Eli-heve 


Hungfer 


... 


N-dala. 

N-dcoba (34 a) 


N-jara 


In-jala 


Nj-ara 


En-zala 


Husband ... 




N-nume ; 
wa-lume. 
M-twau (thy) 


"^-dumi, 
A-lumi. 
Ny-ongcolo> 

(35 a) 




... 


Un-gcosi, 
Uii-Ycosi 


Hyena 




Nana or 
Li-nana 


Li-tunungu, 
Li-pundwa 
(spotted). 
Li-luliekalera, 
Li-hekera 
(striped) 


I-fifi 


Bondera 




Iron 




Ci-tali 


C-uma, 
S-uma (35 a) 


... 


Ki-uma 


Eki-uma. 
Un-dapca 


Island 


*•* 


Ki-tingwe. 
Li-tanda 


Ki-sengerere. 
Ki-lumba 

(35 a) 


• •• 


Ki-rwa 


... 


Ivory 


... 


N-embco. 
Li-wenwa 


L-inco la 
n-dembo> 


... 


Ru-pembe 


... 


Knee 


... 


Li-lundi 


Li-fugamisco. 
Li-yugwa 




Di-pefu 


Eki-sugamilco 


Knife 


Ki-maye, 
Ci-maye 


Ci-pula 


■Ci-pula. 
Ki-peni 


... 


M-pamba 


Um-mage 


Lake 




Li-tanda 


Li-tanda 


... 


... 


Eli-lamba, 
E-nyanza 


Leg 




Ku-iilu ; ma-. 
M-balu. 
Li-dcod<o 


Li-bondco. 
Ku-guru. 
Lu-weza(35a) 


'•• 


Ki-rundi 


Eki-lunde. 
Un-soni 


Leopard ... 


... 


Huwi, 
Li-liuwi, 
Juhi 


Li-huwi. 
In-sui 


... 


N-torcome 


Eli-duma. 
(Eli-bwi = a 
ckita) 


Lion 


"• 


Himba, 
Li-himba. 
In-tumi 


Li-himba. 
Li-bonjco 


... 


... 


Eli-bonzu 


Lips 


■ •> 


Lu-yeye ; 


Sf-dcomco ; 


Umu-lcomco ; 


N-dcomco ; mi- 


Un-dcom« ; 






ndin-jeye. 


mi-lcomco 


imi- 




emi-lcamoa 






Lu-lcomco ; 














di-lcomco 










Magic 




U-hiawi, 
U-hawi. 
(Ku-luha = to 

bewitch) 


U-cawi or 
U-hawi 


Uwu'hawi 


Wu-hawi 


Uvu-havi 


Maize 


>•• 


En-gedia. 
Di-mnri 


Vla-rombe, 
Ma-lombi, 
Ki-lombi 


... 


Di-rombe 


Ama-tsebele 



»74 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34. 


35- 


36. 


37. 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengto 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kifiga 


Man 


Mu-ndu ; 


Mu-nu; wa-nu 


Mu-ndu ; 


Umu-nhu ; 


Mu-ndu; aba- 


Umu-nu ; 




wa-ndu 




wa-ndu 


aba-nhu * 




ava-nu 


Man, vir. ... 




M-uume ; 
wa-lume 


Vl-gtozi. 
M-kambakto 


... 


... 


Un-gtosi ; ava- 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


My-ama 


>•• 


Ny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Medicine ... 


M-tera 


N-tela 


M-tera. 
Ki-biki 


... 


N-thende 


Un-tuguva. 
Un-tufiaya' 


Milk 


... 


Ma-were 


-u-ziwa. 
Lu-visa 






Ulu-kamto. 
Eli-tsiva. 
(•kama = to 

milk) 


Monkey ... 




Ny-ima. 
Ci-nengco 


M-tumbiri or 
Li-tumbili 


... 


M-bwengto 


E-nilili ; 
ini-kilili 


Moon 


... 


Mw-edi 


Mw-ezi or 
Mw-ehi 


Umw-edzi 


Mw-ezi 


Umw-etsi 


Mother ... 




Hiyi; 

wa-hiyi. Tuyi. 
Na-ntole. 
Ma-nyukwe 

(34 a) 


Mau. 

A-nyongto, 
Nyongorto. 
Nytokto. 
Nina 






U-juva ; ava-. 
(Uvanytokto 
= thy — . 
Uvanyina = 

his -) 


Mountain ... 




Li-cinga. 

Mu-angto. 
Ci-cungto. 
Li-tumbi(34a) 


Ki-dunda. 
Ki-tumbi 




Ki-dtonda 


Eki-dugala 


Mouth 


... 


Ka-nywa. 
Cika-nywa 


N-kanu. 
N-dtomto or 
M-ltomto 


... 


».. 


Un-dumoa 


Nail (of finger 


... 


Di-nombe (//.). 


Lu-zipto. 


... 


Ki-cogu 


Ulu-konze, 


or toe) 




U-kombe 


Suwu ; hi-iiwu 






I-nonze 


Name 


L-ina 


L-ina 


Li-hina 




Di-hina ; ma- 


Eli-tavwa 


Navel 




N-ungu ; di + 


Lu-kufu or 
N-kuhu 


... 


... 


Ulu-tumbu 


Neck 




Li-ktoti; (i!5/.) 
din-gtoti 


Singto or 
Hingu 


I -singto 


Singto 


Un-singto. 
En-gtosi 


Night 


... 


C-ilto. 


K-ilto or 


... 


K-irto, 


Ek-ilto. 






(Ci-hi = 


I-kilu. 




Pak-iroj 


(Uvu-titu = 






darkness) 


(Lw-ihi = 
darkness) 






darkness) 


Nose 


... 


M-tila; di + 


M-enerto. 
Im-bulu(35a) 


... 


... 


E-mento 
(-pento) 


Ox 


... 


N-ombe 


Li-boyi. 


I-senga. 


N-ombe. 


E-senga. 








N-kawi. 


In-dama 


Li-kambakco t> 


Un-gide. 








N-ombe. 






Efi-gwada 








N-tondtola 








Paddle 


... 


... 


Ng-ahi; 
in-gahi 


... 


... 


... 


Palm wine, 




U-alwa (native U-gwimbi 


... 


... 


Uvu-gembe 


beer 




beer) 










Parrot 




... 


Li-kwalu 


... 




... 


Penis 


... 






. . . 


M-borto 


... 


Pig 




N-guluwe ; 
din + . 
Im-petumwa 


N-guruwe or 
Li-guruwi. 
Li-paiigto 

{bush pig) 




N-guruwe 


Efi-gube. 
Eii-gwehe 



' lli-nhu = tall fellow. Ugu-nhu = hulking fellow. Aka-nhu = little man, in Pangwa. 
' There is in Kinga the verb -lagula, which has to do with witchcraft medicine. 



GROUPS I, J, K. : RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



'75 





33- 34- 


35. 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera Makonde 
33 a. Ki-donde 34 a. Mavia or 
Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35a._^Ki. 
matengu 


Paiigwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kifiga 



Pigeon 




Li-deia 


N-gnnda. 
Li-jiwa, 
N-jiwa or 
In-ziva 


... 


N-jewa 


En-uta (-tuta) 
Eii-gundya 


Place 


Pa-ndu 


Pa-hali. Pa-wa 
Ma-hala. 
Pa- 


Pa- Ki-kunja. 
U-tamu 


... 


Pa-ngonu 


... 


Rain 




M-bula. 
M-nungn. 
Mu'lungu 
(34 a) 


M-vula or 
I hula 


Im-fula, 
Axa-fula 


I-fura 


E-sula 


Rat 




Li-kula. 


Li-panya. 


... 


Di-kenje 


Embeva 






Gingondu 


Li-kuli. 
Im-buku 








Rhinoceros 




M-ela; di + 
or wa + . 
Ci-caheo (34 a) 


Ki-pembere 




... 


... 


River 


... 


Lu-hundi. 


Lu-kemba. 


• •■ 


Ru-scokoi 


Ulu-gasi ; 






Mu-tco (34 a) 


Lu-si. 
Ma-gasi 






ifi-gasi. 
Eki-hulu 


Road 




N-dila. 
In-dira (34 a) 


N-jira 


In-jila. 
Axa-jila 


N-jera or 
N-dera 


En-zila 


Salt 




Mu-nyu 


Mw-inyco. 
Hi-hungu 


... 


... 


Umw-iny« 


Shame 


... 


Li-eonyi, 
Li-hyconi 


^coni or 
I-huni. 
Li-hamu 


Iny-hconi 


... 


I-8o>ni 


Sheep 


... 


Nondcolco. 
Kondoo (34 a) 


M-berere or 
Lim-belele 


... 


Di-nosi, 
Mi-nosi 


E-iioolco 


Shield 


.. . 




Ki-kcopa 


... 


... 


En-gwembe 


Shoulder ... 




Li-wala ; ma- 


Li-vega ; ma- 




... 


Eli-vega 


Sister 




Nuinuna. 


M-lumbu, 


... 


N-dumbu. 


Um-atsa. 






N-umbco 


N-dumboj 




Ba-rumbu 


U-mama. 
Un-nuna. 
(Vu-nconu = 

sisterhood) 


Skin 




Mapto; di + . 
Y-ambala 


Lu-kanda 


... 


Ki-kcowa 




Sky 


... 


Li-win gu. 
Ku-canya. 
Di-undi 


Li-zuru. 
Ku-nani. 
M-bingu 




Ku-kianya 


Ku-kyanya 


Slave 


Mu-wanda 


wa- M-ntone ; wa- 


M-sutu ; wa-. 
M-banda ; wa- 


... 


... 


... 


Sleep 


.4. 


Lu-unco 


Lu-geonu 




Ru-gonto 


E-toIcd 


Smoke 


... 




Ly-cosi, 
Li-cohi. 
Li-hycohi 


Ili-cosi 


Di-cosi 


Eli-usi 


Snake 




M-hyongco;mi-. 
In-ycoka. 
I-piri 


Li-ycoka 


In-juza 


Idi-juka. 
Ma-ycoka 


Eli-lalwe 
(-dalwe). 
Ulu-jcoka ; //. 
in-zcoka 


Son, boy ... 


... 


M-nemba; wa-. 


Mw-ana. 


. . . 


Mw-ana. 


Un-swamba.' 






Imw-ana 


M-songorco 




N-songorco 


N-dume 






i-nume 











* Un-swamb-'ango) = my son. Un-swamb-'oj = thy son. Un-swamb-e = his son. Un-swamb-itu = our son. 
Un-swamb-inyco = your son. Un-awamb-avio = their son. 

N 2 



176 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengoi 


Pafigwa 


Kese (?rKisi 


Kinga 



Song 


Li-imb(o; ma- 


Lu-himoa; di-. 
R-imbco (34 a) 


Lu-kimco. 
Ny-imbeo. 
M-hambco 




... 


Uru-embu 


Ulu-embco 


Spear 




M-kuci ; mi-. 
Ci-ndimbo>. 
Ri-umco. 
Li-hionga 

(34 a). 
Mu-nya 


M-kondco. 
N-kcoha 




••• 


N-g(oha 


Eli-gcoba; ama 
Eii-gcoha 


Spirit, soul 


-.* 


... 


... 




... 






Star 


... 


Nondwa ; di + . 


Lu-tondwa ; 




... 


N-dondco. 


Ulu-tondwe. 






Ci-nondi 


n-dondwa 






Ru-tondco 


I-nondwe 






(34 a) 












Stick 


• .- 


Ka-lawi ; tu-. 


M-sagi. 


Ulu-fimbco 


N-sagi 


E-sonzco. 






Ci-koncij. 


N-donga. 








Un-saga. 






Simbu. 


Lu-hyatu ; 








Ulu-saga 






I-ntogco (34 a) 


hyatu 










Stone 


Li-ganga 


Li-anga or 
Ri-anga ; 
ma-iaiiga. 
Li-wia, 

Ma-wia (34 a) 


Li-ganga. 
Ili-wu 






Li-ganga 


Eli-ganga 


Stool ... ... 


■ •• 


... 


... 






... 


Eki-tameleo 


Sun 


• •• 


Na-mayu. 
Ri-diia or 
Li-dula (34 a) 


Li-juwa or 
L-yuwa 


Hi 


dzuba 


Di-juwa 


Eli-tsuva 


Tail (of a 


• f ■ 


In-cira, 


M-kira or 


u 


nu-xila 




Un-kUa 


mammal) 




N-cira 


N-kila 










Tear 


,,, 


Mi-codi [pi.) 


Li-hcoli ; ma- 


M 


i-hcodzi (pi) 


Li-hcosi 


Ulw-ihotsl 


Testicles ... 


... 


Ri-mumba 








Di-tongco 


... 


Thief 


... 


M-wiwi. 
Inku-iwa 


Mw-ivi or 
Mw-ihi 




... 


Mu-heji ; aba- 


Um-etsi 
(-hetsi) 


Thigh 


... 


Ci-ya 


M-hungula 




... 


... 


... 


Thing 


• •■ 


Ci-nu ; vi-nu 


Ki-ndu ; 


Ik 


i-nhu ; fil. 


Ki-ndu ; 


Eki-nu ; 








hi-ndu or 


ifi-nhu 


ti-ndu 


isi-nu 








vi-ndu 










Thorn 


... 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-ifa, 
Mw-iha ; 
mi-ha 




... 


Mw-ifwa 


Un-tula ; emi 
Un-twinyco ; 
emi- 


Tobacco ... 


... 


Wria 


Li-mbakco. 
Li-hcona 




... 


N-gambco. 
Di-hona 


E-sajco 


To-day 


Lelco 


Lelco. Nerco 


Lerco. Li-linu 






Lerco, 1-rerco 


E-lelco 


Toe 


... 


Ci-konco 


Lu-konje Iwa 
mu-gulu. 
Lu-gumba 




... 


... 


Ulu-konze 


To-morrow 




Lu-undu 


Ki-rau 




... 


Ki-rawco 


Ki-lavco 


Tongue ... 




Lu-limi or 
Li-limi 


Lu-limi; 
i-nimi 




... 


I.u-konji, 
N-gonji 


U lu-limi 


Tooth 


L-inu; m-encd 


L-inco 


L-inco ; m-inco 




... 


Ir-inco 


Elinco 


Town 


... 


Kaya 


Mu-zi. 
Li-kaya 




... 


A-kaya 


Uvu-tsenge. 
Isi-jumba, 
Eli-tsumbe 


Tree 


M-kongoj ; mi- 


N-tela. 


M-tera. 




• *■ 


Di-behe. 


Um-beki, 




M-tera 


1-nandi, 
M-nandi, 
Mu-landi ; 
mi-landi 


M-kongco. 
Ki-biki 






N-thende 


Eli-beki. 
Un-tuYuva 



GROUPS I, J, K : RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NY ASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



177 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengoo 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Twins 


... 


Ma-ha. 
W-ana wa 
ma-ha 


Ma-papa or 
Ma-paha 




Di-pasa; ma- 


U-nyali-pasa. 
Uvamwi-pasa 
(both in singu- 
lar sense) 


Urine 


... 


Ma-kwedu 


Ma-kcocco. 
I-mahi 


... 


Ma-kojcij 




Vein 


t •* 


... 


... 


Umu-sipha 




Un-sipa 


War 




N-ondw. 
Hondcd 


N-gondo> 


— 


N-gondu 


Uvu-tavangwa 


Water 


... 


M-edi 


Ma-gasi. 
M-asi 


•■• 


Ama-ji 


Ama-yasi 


Well 


••• 


• •• 


Mw-eru wa 
ma-gasi. 
Ki-liwa 


Ixi-sima 


... 


'•• 


White man 


-M-iungu 


... 


... 


... 


Mu-sungu 


Un-sungu ; 
ava- 


Wife 


... 


M-dyau [thy). 
M-mahi ; wa- 


M-dala. 
M-bumba. 
Mama 


■•• 


M-gori; ba- 


Un-dala. 
Un-wehe 


Wind 




M-mepeo ; 
di-mepu 


M-pungco. 
Ki.pepco. 
M-hwahi 


Im-heph(d 


M-bepu 


Em-epco. 
Eki-scola 


Witch 


... 


M-hyawi 


M-cawi. 
M-hawi. 
M-gainga 


Umu-ganga 


Mu-hawi; ba- 


Um-avi ; 
ava-havi 


Witchcraft 




U-hyawi 


U-cawi 


... 


... 


Uvu-havi 


Woman ... 


N-koiigwe, 


M-mahi ; wa-. 


M-dala. 


Umii-dala ; 


Un-dara ; ba-, 


Un-dala. 




Yuan-kongwe 


Un-kongwe 


M-bumba 


ava-. (Mu-ki 


awa- 


Um-enza ; 




wa-koiigwe 






dala = little 
woman ; pi. 
va-kL-dala) 




ava-henza 


Womb 


.. . 


... 


Li-reme 


... 


... 


... 


Wood (fire- 


.. . 


Lu-kuni 


Sagala. 


•*. 


Im-bawu 


Iny-^gala 


woodj 






Handzu 






(-hagala, 
•sagala) 


Yam 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Ki-tu5 


... 


Year 




Mw-aka. 
C-aka 


Mw-aka 


Umw-axa 


Mw-aka 


Umw-aka 


Yesterday... 


... 


Li-d«, Li-ndu 


Goru. Li-zu 


. .. 


Goroi 


I-Yolo 


Zebra 


... 


... 


Li-punda or 
M-bunda 


... 




Em-unda 



One .. 

Two .. 
Three.. 

Four .. 

Five .. 

Six .. 

Seven.. 



•will 

•latu; i-tatu 



Ng-ancij, 

■ganco 
-g-anco na 

(gu)-m&j 
•ganu na will 



•bili, •biri 

-tatu (N-atu) 

N-cece. 

Mu-cece 
Ny-anoj, -anco. 

Mu-anco (34 a) 
Ny-anto na 

i-mu 
Ny-anco na 

ni-bili 



•monga. -mto. -mwi (Ji-mwi) Ka-mu 
Yu-mcij 
•will -will (Dzi^wili) Tu-were 

-datu, -tatu -datu Tu-datu 

(Dzi-datu) 
•na (Dzi^na) N-cece 



m-cece or 

N-dzesi 
-hancd 

•banco na 



monga 
-hanco na will Heneka 
mu-hana 



-hanco (Dzi-) Tu-hanco 
Mu-tanda Tu-lintanda 

Tu-limhanco 



-pamatcd 

•veli 
-datu 



•ni 

-hanco 

-n-tanatu 

•lekela-ku- 
pamatco 



178 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Eight 


•ganoj na 


Ny-anu na 


-banco na datu 


Mu-nana, a/so 


M -hanco na 


-nana 




tatu 


n-atu 




Heneka 
k-coha (k-coha 

= ' over all ', 
' superior ') 


tu-tatu 




Nine 


■ganu na 


Ny-ano» na 


-hanco na 


Fundika 


M^hanco na 


-budika-ku- 




xexe 


n-cece 


m-cece 


mu-hana ' 


n-cece 


pamatcd 


Ten 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Fundika k-coha Ccomi 


Ki-tsigco, also 










and Ma-budi 




Un-d6vulco ; 
pi. emi- 
16vulco 


Eleven ... 




Kumi na i-mu 


Kumi na yi-mu 


Ki-dzigto.' 
(22 = Ki-dzigco 
ka-vili. 33 = 
Ki-dzigco 
ka-datu) 


Ccomi na 
ka-mco 


Ki-tsigco-na- 
pamatco 


Twenty ... 


••. 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


... 


Ma-kcomi 


Ki-tsigco 






ma-wiri or 


ma-wili 




ga-were 


ka-veli 






Ma-kumi 














m-eli 










Thirty ... 


... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


• •• 


Ma-kcomi 


Ki-tsigco 






ma-tatu 


ma-tatu 




ga-datu 


ka-datu 


Forty 




Ma-kumi 
n-cece 


Ma-kumi 
n-dzese 


... 


Ma-kcomi 
m-cece 


Ki-tsigco ka-ni 


Fifty 


.., 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


• •• 


Ma-kcomi 


Kitsigco 






ny-ano) or 


ma-hanco 




m-hanco 


ka-hanco 






mamu-ancd 










Hundred ... 




I-gana 




... 


Ma-kcomi 
ga-likcomi 


Emi-levulco 
kitsigco 


Thousand.,. 


... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


I, me, my ... 


Ne-yw. 


Mi-pa. 


Ne-nga. 


... 


Ne-iiga. 


U-ne. Ne. 




N-. 


N,, Mb- 


Ne-, Ni-, N-. 




N-,Ni'-. 


Nd'-, Nde-, 




•ni-, -n-. 


-n-,-gu-,-ngu-.' 


-ni-,-n-. -a-ngu 




-n-, -m-. 


Ndi-, Ndi-. 




-a-ngu 


^a-ngu 






-a-ngu 


■ne. -ni-. 
-ny-. -a-ne, 
-a-ngco 


Thou,thee,thy 


We-yoj. 


We-pio. We. 


We-nga. 


... 


We-figa. 


Uve. Ve. 




U-. 


Wara-kco. 


Wewe, 




U-. 


Vu-, U- 




tku-. -a-ku 


U-. 

-ku-. -a-ko> 


Yu-we. 

U-. 

•ku-. -a.kco 




•ku^. -a-kco 


-ve. -ku-. 
■yco, -ve, 
-a-kco 


He, him, his 


A-ycowa. 


Nane. Nahie 


Yuyu. Mw-ene 


-a-ke, -a-jco 


Ycora. 


Umw-ene. 




A-. 


Nanye. 


A-, U.. 




A. 


A-, I-, Ju-. 




•m-, -mil-. 


A-, I-, Ya-. 


im-. -a-ke, 




■mu-. m^. 


-mw-ene. -m-. 




-a-kwe 


•we. -mu-, 
•m-. -a-ke 


■ene 




-a-ke 


-mw-. -ye, 
■ene 


We, us, our 


Twe-y(o(?) 


Wepa. 


Twe-nga. 


... 


Twe-nga. 


U-vwe. Vwe. 




Tu-. 


Were-tu. 


Twetwe. 




Ti-. 


Vwevwe. 




•tu-. -etu 


Tu-, Ti-, T-. 


Tu-. 




•tu- ?, -ti- ? 


Tu-. 






•tu-. -etu 


-tu-. -etu 




-a-itu, -itu 


-tu-. -a-vwe 
or -itu 



' Klamroth gives ■\iSinsi, »^/ -hanco 
' leave out from the others '. 



Apparently '-hana'(Mu.hana) means 'side', ' onone side\ and' Heneka' 



The peculiar numerals (^Paiigwa are explained by Klainroth as connected with finger notation, vide p. yep, oj 
his ' Kurze Skizze' {Mitt. Sem. Or, Spr,, Vol, X). ' Mavia (34 a). 



GROUPS I, J, K : RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



179 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38- 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. ^Ki- 
matengoa 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 


Ye, you, your 


Mwe-yo). 


Mwe-p(o. 


Mwe-nga. 


Mwe-nga. 


U-nye. Nye. 




Mu-. 


U-mue. 


Nyenye. 


Mu.. 


Nyenye. 




■wa-. -enu 


Mu-. 

-wa-. -enu 


M-, Mu-. 


•ba- ? -inu 


M-, Mu-, N- 
-va-. -a-nye 
or -inyco 


They, them, 


Wa-na ? 


Wa-nanu). 


We.ne. 


Ba-ra. 


Avene. Vene. 


their 


Wa-. 


Wa-ya. 


Wa-. 


Ba- (Wa-). 


Va-. 




•wa-. -waoj 


Wa-. 
■.wa-. -aw 


•wa,-. -a« 


•wa-. -a-woj 


-vco. -va-. 
•ene, -avw 


All 


-coha 


-cohe 


•oha •onha 


•uha (? cosaka, 
? emphatic) 


-oni 


This, these 


A-yu, a-wa ; 


A-yu, -yu; 


A^yu, a-wa ; 


Uyu, aba 


Ve, v«; gcoco, 




gu, a-gu, a-yi; 


a-wa ; a-u. 


a-u ; 6^<;. 


(aw a) ; ugu. 


gyco ; lyco, 




a-li, a-ga ; 


a-i; a-li, a-noj; 


•la(u.la; wa-la; 


egi; eri, 


Yco ; kyco, 




a-xi, a-yi ; 


ci-n(i), vi-no) ; 


arc.) 


aga; &=€. 


syoj ; jco. 




a-yi, a-yi ; 


i-no), di-no) ; 






tsoj ; Iwoo ; 




? a-lu ; ? aka ; 


lu-nco ; tu-no) ; 






twto ; kco ; 




gu,a-vu, a-u?; 


ka-nu) ; u-no) ; 






vwco ; kwco ; 




a-ku ; ? a-pa 


ku-nii); pa-n(u; 
mu-iKo 






pco : mwco ; 
gwco 
Uju, ava ; 
ugu, egi ; 
eli, aya ; 
eki, isi ; eji, 
its: ; ulu ; 
utco ; aka ; 
uvu ; uku ; 
apa; umu; 
ugu 


That, those 


A-yu-la, 


U-ya, wa-ya ; 


... 


Yu-ra, ba-ra; 


Ujw-a, avco ; 




a-wa-Ia ; 


u-ya, i-ya ; 




gu-ra, gi-ra; 


ugw-a, egy-(o, 




a-gu-la ; cr'c. 


li-ya, a-ya ; 




re-ra, ga-ra ; 


&'C. 






ci-ya, vi-ya ; 




^-c. 


u-Iya, va-lya ; 






i-ya, di-ya; 






gu-lya, Mya; 






lu-ya ; tu-ya ; 






fy^C. 






ka-ya ; u-ya ; 






Juju, vava ; 


• 




ku-ya ; 6-1:. 




• 


gugu, gegi; 

Jujwa, vavM, 

Ng-uju, 
ng-ava ; 
ng-ugu, 
iig-egi ; 

ng-eli,ng-aga: 
iig-eki, ng-isi; 
fig-eji, ng-itsi; 
ng-ulu;ng-utu: 
ng-aka ; 
ng-uvu ; 
ng-uku ; 
ng-apa ; 
ng-umu ; 














iig-ugu 



i8p 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Bad 

Black 



Female 
Fierce, sharp 
Good 

Great 



Little 

Long 

Male 



Old 



Red .., 
Rotten 
Short... 
Sick .., 



White 



■kulu 
■xuku 



•kiwa. -nyata 
-a na-pi, -pi 



-n-gongwe. 

■mahi 
•kali ; -kali-pa 

(to be — ) 
Cihi. (Ku-ncaa 

= to be sweet, 

good) 
•kulu. 

Na-norco 

•cigi. -diokco 

•lehu 

-na-nume. 
N-dume 

-a tangu. 

ce-kulu, 

ce-kelu. 

Na-norco 
-a huwi 

-ipi, -wipi 
-Iwala. 

(U-lwala = a 
disease) 
-a nibe, -pe. 
-nahi. 
-helela {to 
be-) 



-haki 

•titco. 

-pili 



•yiru. 



-i-dala. 

-m-buruba 
•kali 

•maha 



-baha, 

-waha. 

-n-kulungwa 
•debe. -suku 

•tali 
-gusi 



-bi-fu 

-thalamu. 
•thithu, 
n-hitbu 



•xali 



M^gugulu 



•dunu 

•kata. -wcola 
•fupi or -yipi 
-tamu. 
-rwara 

-wara-fu. 
-huhu 



-nci>-fu 



■vola. 
-fuphi 



■bofu 



-be-fu 
•titu 




-VI VI 

-titu 


-n^dara 




-n-dala 
■talamu 


•ncs-fu 




•noiga ; •nunu 


-baha ; 




-m-baha 


-gorongto 




•ccokco. •nandi 

N-gambaku 


-debe. 

Ki-sekele 
-tale 
-lume, N-dume 

-gwsi. 

-kambaku 


... 




-gojgcoloj. 
-lala 

•dunu 
•vco-su 
•supi 
-tamu 



-futu 



-vala-su 



Above, up, on 
top 



Before 
Behind 



Below, down 
Far ... 



Here ... 

In, inside 
Middle 
Near ... 



Mu-ha. 
Ku-canya, 
Pa.canya 

MoD-hyu 

Ku-hye or 

Kw-hye. 

Ku-nyunia 
Pahi 
Kucu. 

Ku-kala 
Panco. Pana. 

Wcopcopapa, 

Upcopapa 
M-kati. 

Ifi-kati 
Pa-kati 



Pa-can ya. 
Pa-nani 



Ku-longcolco. 

Pa-lungi pa- 
Kum-bele. 

Mu-nyuma 

Pahi 

Kurtali 

Kconco, Kuni. 

Pa-ni. 

Pamba 
Mu-gati, 

M-kati, P'-,Pa- 
Pa-kati 



Pasi, Phasi 



A pa 
Mu-kati 



Pha-gati 



Na-nyenje Pa-pipi 



Pa-kyanya. 

Nana, 

Pa-nena. 

-oni (Mw-oni, 

6f^c.) 
Mbu-longolo 

M-bele 



Pasi 
-vu-tale, -tale 

Baha. 
Kunco 

Umwa. 

Mu-gati 
Pa-gati, 

Ku-gati 
Pipi. Kvv-ipi 



GROUPS I, J, K: RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES i8i 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38- 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengcs 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Outside 



Plenty, many 



There 

Where ? ... 
No! 

Not (with verb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



To 

„ beat ... 

„ buy, sell 



„ come ... 

„ cut 

„ dance ... 

„ die 

„ eat 

„ give ... 

» go 

„ kill ... 

„ know ... 

„ laugh ... 

„ leave ofiF, 

cease 

„ love,want 

„ see 

„ sit,remain, 

abide 

„ sleep ... 

„ stand, stop, 

be erect 

„ steal ... 



Pa-nji, 
Pa-nda 



■ndi. 



N-ndi, 
•uhe 



Kuya. Paya. 

Kuncd 
Kwaci ? 
Itamiia ! 

Hi-, Hu-, Ha-, 

Ha-tu, (s^c. 
•na- (sudj.) 



Ku- 
•kcoma. 
•tarega 
•hyiima 



■ida 
•kanana 

•wina 
•hwa 

•lya 

•wina or 
•winya 
■hwena 

■ulaya. -lia 
•manya. 
•maiya 
■hyeka 
-leka 

•penda 
■ona, -wona, 

■Icola 
■ikala or 

•kikala 
-lala (/ie 

down) 
•hyimila. 

•takaluka 
•iwa 



Mw-ibala. 

Kw-ibala. 

Ku-ndza 

Pa-ndza 
•omehere. 

Vululu. -ingi 

Ukco, Kula, 

Pala 
Kwa .> Ku ? 
Nco ! Nale ! 

Ndd! 
Na-. Sa- ? 

•kcotcoka 

{ne£: verb, to 

abstain from), 

■ndeka 



Ku- 
-tuwa. 

•puta 
•gura. 

•lomba. 

•hemela 
•bwera. -hisa 
-tema. 

•hikita 
•hina 
•fwa. -hwa 

•lya 

•pera. •pa^.' 
•hamba 
•genda 



Uxu- 



•ija 
•vula. 
-hongula 

•fwa. 

(U.xu-fwa) 
•lya 



•para 
•lura 



•kcoma 
•manya 

•heka 
•leka 

-gana. 
•wcona. 

•tama 

•gwna. 
•gcozela 
•yima 



•hija. •yiwa 



•genda 



•hexa 



•buna 
•ixala 

■gcona [to 

sleep with) 
•ima 



S-ingi 
Para 



Dietu ! (•kana ! 

to refuse) 
•ri (suffix). No 
negative pre- 
fixes. Com- 
pare Ya- 
matumbi) 



Ku- 



•gura. 
■himera 

•ica, •iza 



•jumba 
•fwa 

•ra 
•pa 

•wcoka 



•manya, 
•manye ' 



•ronda 
-rcora 



•hedya 



Ku-nzi, Pa^nzi 



•olosu, 

■ongosu, 

•ongesu 
Palya. 

Kuku 
Ndapi? •ku? 
Baku! 

Na^. Kita-. 
•ga (negative 
suffix for in- 
finitives, 
future, and 
imperative), 
Jco— ga (not 
only) 

Uku- 
•tuva. 
•bitsula 
•gula 



•itsa 

•kumbela 
•swa 

•lya 
•pa 

•beha. -vuka. 
•luta. •genda 
•buda 
■manya 

•heka 

•leka, •lekela 

•gana, •yana 
•vuna. -lala 

•tama 

■guna 

•ema. -simika 

•hetsa 



' \^Vi-r\y'\vMi = not to give. 

' •manye-ri = /7/i7OT not. Kese has negative verbs or auxiliary verbs like Ki^matumbi. 



1 82 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI-MWERA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m-, u-, yu-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, gu) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, yi, i-) ; 
5. Li-, Ji- ?, — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ci-, Xi-, Ki (?) (xi-, xi) ; 8. Vi- ?, 1- (yi-, i) ; 9. N- (M-), »■ 
(n-, i) ; 10. same as 9; u. Lu- (lu) ; 12. ?; 13. ?; 14. U- (u-, gu?, vu-?); 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- 
(pa); 17. ?. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN MAKONDE AND MAVIA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, N- (m-, mu, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N-, Yu- (34 a) (m-, mu-, u) ; 
4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 5. Li- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Cj-, Ki- (ci, ki) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. N- (M-), N- (n-, i) ; 
10. Lin-, Ndin-, Din- (di, liii-) ; 1 1. Lu- (lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- 
(pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

PREFIXES, &c., IN SUTU-MATENGO) 

No preprefixes except in Nos. 9 and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, N- (mu, m, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Li- (li-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-); 7. Ki- (ki-) ; 8. I-, Hi-, Vi- (hi-, vi-) ; 9. Yin-, In-, N- (M-), N-, Ny-, 
— (n-, i-); 10. I-, In-, N- (M-),»-,Ny-, Hy-, — (i-?,zi-?); 11. Lu- (lu-) ; 12. missing in Sutu, Tu, Tw- 
in Ma-teng&j; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. U-, Hw- (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Pa- (pa-); 17. Mu- (mu-), A- 
honorific. 



PREFIXES, &c., IN PANGWA 

Preprefixes present in full. 

Class I. Umu-(mu, .'gu-) ; 2. Aba-, Ava-, Awra- (ba-) ; 3. Umu- (mu-,gu); 4. Imi- (mi- ? gi) ; ij. Hi-, 
I- ?, Ji- ? (li, ji ?) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, ga .') ; 7. Ixi- (xi) ; 8. Ifl-(fi); 9. In- (Im-), (ji,j, n-.') ; 10. ?Dzi-(dzi); 
II. Ulu-(lu); 12. ?; 13. Aka-(ka); 14. Ubu-, Uwu- (bu) ; 15. Uxu- (xu) ; 16. Pa-,Pha- (pa); 17. Mu-? 
(?); 18. Ugu-(gu?). 

PREFIXES, &c., IN KESE 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Uin-,Un-, Mu-, M-(mu,?); 2. Aba-, Bu- (ba) ; 3. Um-, Un-, Mu-, M- (mu, ?) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, ?) ; 
5. Idi-, Iri-, Di- (ri, di) ; 6. Ma- (? Ama-) (ma-, ga ?) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. Fi- or Vi- (fi or vi) ; 9. In- (Im-), 
— , N- (ji, j, n- ?); 10. ? same as 9; 11. Uru-, Ru-, Du- (ru) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Aka- (ka) ; 14. Wu-, U-, 
Bu- (wu?) ; 15. Ku- (ku); 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu-. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN KINGA 
Preprefixes present. 

Class 1. Umu-, Um-,Un',Un-,U-(iim-,un-,-mw-, ju-, U-, ve) ; 2. Va-(va, V(i)-) ; 3. Umu-, Um-, Un-, 
Un- (mil-, un-, gu,>u) ; 4. Emi- (emi-,7i, i-) ; 5. Eli- (li) ; 6. Ama- (ama-, ma-, ya) ; 7. Eki- (ki) ; 8. Isi- 
(si) ; 9. Eni-, Eny-, En- (Em-), E- (en-, ji, i-) ; 10. Ini-, Iny-, Inz-, In-, E- (n- (m-), tsi, i-) ; 11. Ulu-, 
Uru- (lu, ru) ; 12. Utu- (tu); 13. Aka-(ka) ; 14. Uvu- (vu) ; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Pa-, Ba- (pa, ba) ; 17. Mu- 
(mu-, m-, ii) ; 18. Uyu- (yu). 

Also the Nya prefix, without concord. 



GROUPS I, J, K: RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 183 

33. Mwera and 33 a. Kidonde are spoken in the hinterland of the Lindi coast district of German 
East Africa between the Mbemkuru river on the north and the Lindi or Lukuledi river on the south, 
and extending sporadically to the Riivuma. To it seems to be allied the widespread but unrecorded 
dialect of the Wadonde, which extends from the Middle Rufiji and its Marafigandu affluent on the north- 
west to the Mbemkuru on the south. 

34. Makonde and 34 a. Mavia or Mabiha are spoken in the coast regions of German East Africa 
and northern Portuguese East Africa immediately behind the Swahili sea-shore settlements ; between 
the Mbemkuru river on the north and the Msalu or Marari. 

35. Sutu (Manundi) and 35 a. Kimatengco are spoken in the Magwafigwara or Afigconi country of 
south German East Africa, north of the Portuguese frontier and Upper Ruvuma, south of Upafigwa and 
the basin of the Upper Rufiji ; east of the Marafigandu and the Mtetesi-Muhesi. The Wamatengoj 
extend their range to the east coast of Lake Nyasa, south of the Kisi coast-belt and Ruhuhu river. 

36. Paiigwa is spoken in Upangwa, a very mountainous tract to the north-east of Lake Nyasa ; 
east of the Livingstone mountains and west of the Pitu river \ and south of the Bena and west Matumbi 
countries. 

37. Kese or Kisi is spoken on the north-east coast of Lake Nyasa from the northernmost point of 
the lake, southwards to the River Ruhuhu. 

38. Ktiiga is spoken in Ukifiga, north of the north end of Lake Nyasa, south of the Upper Ruaha 
basin, west of Ubena and east of Nkonde and Ukukwe. 



GROUP L 

THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



39. Ka-bwari. 39 a. Ki-lega' 

40. Guha 

41. Tabwa 



42. Bemba (Ki-emba) 

43. Lufigu 

43 a. Mambwe 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a- 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Adze 


Ke-Ionda 


M-bajco 


Ka-temco 


Im-bafi 




Ka-pasa. 


Animal, wild 


N-ama or 


Ny-ama 


N-nama 


I n-nama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 


Ny-ama 












Ant 


Lu-asi; fi-asi 


M-basi. 


Mu-naco. 


Im-pasi. 


Kalandu 


Simu-nyemwe 






Bu-niegene 


M-pazi 


Awa-nangi 




N-kalandu. 
Im-pasi 


Ant, white 


Mu-swa. 


N-jcowa. 


Bu-swa 


Ulu-swa 


W-«nyi 


U-coni 


(termite) 


Lu-sunga ; 
sunga 


N-swa 


- 








Ape (chim- 


Scoku 


... 


N-sci>kco 


In-scokci> 


• •• 


... 


panzi or 
gorilla) 
Arm 














Ku-bcokco; ma- 


Kii-beokeo; ma- 


Ku-bcoku 


Ku-wcokco 


I-kasa 


I-kasa; ma- 


Arrow 


Mw-ambi; mi-. 
Ki-kenge. 
I-scoma (39 a) 


M-bi. M-ketco. 
Mu-sari ; mi-. 
N-sari ; 
mi-sari 


Mu-vwi 


Mu-fwi 


Umu-vwi 


Mu-vwi ; mi-. 
Lu-kyetco ; 
ii-kyetto 


Axe 


M-basa. 


Ka-temco ; tu- 


M-bazco. 


Li-sembe. 


Im-pasa 


Im-pasa. 




M-bwacu. 




M-bavi. 


1 -sembe ; ma- 




M-pattd. 




I-yiika. 




Li-zembe 






I-se ; ma-se 




Lu-kasu ; 














ii-gasu (39 a) 












Baboon 


N-gama 


Tcjlue 


N-kcolwe 


Korcoe, 
Kolowe 


Kolcoe 


Kol<oe or 
Ya-kolcoe 


Back 


Mw-ono, 


N-gonto or 


Mu-ongco. 


Mu-sana. 


Mu-sana. 


Mu-sisi. 




M-ongeo 


M-gongto 


Mu-sana 


In-uma 


I-tundu 


I-tundu 


Banana ... 


Ki-co ; //. bi-co. 


Tcoka, Ttoke, 


Li-konde; ma- 


N-konde. 


Konde 


N-konde. 




Konde; ma + 


Tuki; ma-t- 




Li-ttoce(/r«iV). 
1-tcoce (wild) 




(tree = Mu- 
fuka) 


Beard 


Lu-levu. 
Ka-levu ; 
Tu-levu = 
{hair of). 
N-delu (39 a) 


Ka-lesi ; tu- 


Lu-levu. 

Mu-efu 


Mw-efu 


Ki-lezu 


Ki-lezu 


Bee 


Nz-tiki 


Ny-uki, 
Nj-uki 


N-zuki. 
N-zimu 


Ulu-^imu. 
Ici-papi 


In-zimu 


N-zimu 


Belly 


Vumu. 
I-kundu 


Gumu 


Li-vumco. 

(\^\-\ya. = liver) 


Di-fumoj 


In-dilwa 


N-diliwa 


Bird 


Ka-nuni ; tu- 


U-ncijni ; mi-, 
Ka-nconi 


Ki-coni ; vi- 


Ki-oani, 
Iki-toni. 
Ci-pele 


Ki-unyi 


Ki-uni 


Blood 


MQ-si. Ma-si 
(39 a) 


Mi-leoa, 
M-Icoha 


Mu-lupa 


Mu-lcopa ; mi- 


Uw-azi 


Uw-azi 


Body ... ... 


Mu-biri 


M-bili 


Mu-bili 


Mu-wiri 


Mw-idi 


Mw-ili 


Bone 


Fua; ma + . 
Ku-ha (39 a) 


Kuja or 
Kudza ; 
ma-kuja 


Li-kuza. 
Li-fupa 


Li-fupa 


I-fupa 


Fupa 


Borassus palm 


Kcoku 


Belewili;ma + 


Ka-bilibili 


Mu-kti>ma 


Mu-kuma 


Mu-kcoma 



Kilega, us spoken near Lake T»hganyik», is akin to Kabwari ; but it is really little else than No. 144. 





GROUP L 


: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 


I8S 




39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Luiig^ 


Mambwe 


Bow 


Mw-eiteo ; mi- 


Bu-ta 


Bu-ta 


VVu-ta, 

Ubu-ta 


U-lapwa; ama- 


U-lapwa 


Bowels 


Mi-la 


Mi-la 


N-da. Ma-la 
(Bu-la) 


Ma-la 


Ma-la ya 
limun-da 


Ama-la 


Brains 


Ma-ka. 
Ha)-kese(39a) 


B-ongo 


Bu-oiigto. 
Tomfwe 


I-tompwe 


Tompwe 


Uw-ong6» 


Breast (man's) 


Ki-ari 


Ki-ali 


Ki-fuba. 
N-kulco 


Ki-fuba 


Ki-fua 


Ki-fua 


Breast 


Bele ; ma + 


Bele 


Li-bere ; ma- 


I-bere ; ma- 


I-ede; ma-ede 


... 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Mw-an'-itu. 


M\v-an'-etu. 


Ki-nsanga, 


Umu-nyina. 


U-lupwa ; pi. 


Mw-ina, 




Mu-butwa. 


M -umi. 


N-dum-ya, 


N -dume 


n-dupwa. 


Mu-nyo- 




Mu-tamba 


Mu-kingu 


Mw-ine, 
N-dum-esa>, 




M w-ina 




BufFalo 


M-ca. M-bwco 

(39 a)^ 


M-cogco 


M-b<oco 


Im-bbxo 


Im-bcoco 


Im-b<ohco 


Bull 


Mu-tungula 

(39 a) 


... 


... 


... 


... 


M-pambasi 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-tako>. 
Ma-kuma 

(39 a) 


Ma-takeo 


Li-takco. 

Mu-pani. 
M -putu 


Im-puti. 

Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


... 


Canoe 


Bw-atu; m-atu Bu-atu 


Bw-atco, 


Bw-atco 


U-atco 


Uw.atco 








Kabw-atco 








Cat 


Ka-nyab<o. 
Mw-era (39 a) 


N-yavu 


Ka-mensi. 
Ka-paka 


M-paka. 
Sumbwe. 
I-ccona 


N-yau 


N-yau 


Charcoal ... 


.. . 


... 


Li-fita 


Umu-fita 




Ma-ka la 


Chief 


Mu-twale. 
Numbi. Mil- 
Icahwe (39 a) 


Koilco 


Li-kcol<a. 
Im-fumu 
Mu-sumba 


Im-fumu 


Mw-ene; a-ene 


M-fumeo; 
a-fumco. 

Mw-ene 


Child 


Mw-ana. 
K-ana. 
M-alaika 


Mw-ana 


Mw-an-ike or 
Mw-a'-ike. 
Mw-ina; //. 
b-ena 


Mw-ana, 
K-ana; pi. 
utw-ana 


Mw-ana ; ana 


Mw-ana ; ana 


Cloth 


Mw-enda. 


Mw-enda 


N-salu. 


I n-salu. 


I n-salu 


In-saru. 




N-gUVM 




My-enda 


Ici-rundu 




Mw-enda. 
Mw-era 


Cold 


M-pekeo, 
M-peho> 


M-behto 


Mu-pepw 
Ka-sama 


Im-pepco 


... 


M-pepco 


Country . . . 


Ki-baleo ; bi-. 
Mu-ziu. 
Bu-samb<o 


1-nzi 


Ky-alco 


Ici-alto. 
Im-paiiga 


M-panga 


In-si. 
M-panga 


Cow 


N-ga 


N-ome 


N-gombe 


N-ombe. 


I n-ombe 


N-ombe 




ii-gazi-ana. 




li-kcota 


Kombe. 




ya-nki. 




M-kaci wa 






Ifi-keota 




N-daraa 




n-ombe 










(heifer) 


Crocodile ... 


N-wena. 
Nandu, 
N-gweniia 

(39a) 


N-wena 


N-hwena 


I n-wena 


Ifi-gwena 


Ifi-gwena 


Date palm... 


Ka-pue 




Mu-tende 






... 


Day 


Bu-su, Lu-su ; 


Bu-sigi'; pi. 


N-siku. 


Uwu-piku ; //. 


W-anda ; 


M w-anda. 




ma-su {pi.). 


ma-sigi. 


Kcoba {= day- 


in-piku 


pi. m-anda 


Mu-sanya. 




Mu-i^uba 


Mw-ijuva 


light) 






N-sangalala 




(flight). 










(daylight) 




1-Iumbu; ma 














(39 a) 













1 86 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Devil, evil 


I-dima ; 


M-kisi 


N-gulu. Ki-wa 


Ki-nkala. 


Ki-wa ; vi-wa 


Ki-wa 


spirit 


nia-rima 






Ici-banda. 

Mii-pasi. 

Ki-wa 






Doctor (medi- 


Mu-fumto 




.Mu-fianga 


In-naiiga. 


Si-nanga 


Si-nanga 


cine man) 








Si-iianga 






Dog 


Ka-bwa or 
Im-bwa 


Kam-bwa ; tu- 


Ka-bwa 


Im-bwa 


Sim-bwa 


Sim-bwa 


Donkey ... 


Kapa. 
M-punda 


N-genga 


W-ankenka ; 
pi. baw-. 
Ka-balwa. 
Kikco 


In-dcokwe. 
M-pelembe 


N-dokoi 


N-dogcowe 


Door, door- 


Ki-vi ; hi-. 


N-jianeo; mi-. 


Mu-lyangco. 


Mw-inpi. 


Ki-sasa 


Ki-saza ; 


way 


Mw-anco 

(doorway). 
Mu-kinda 

(39 a) 


Ki-limba 


Ki-bi. Ki-izi 


Ci-wi or 
Ici-bi 




ki-sekco 


Dream 


Ku-l<dta. 
N-jcoci 


K-ilco; bi-. 
N -dcotco 


Ki-lcotco. Ka-lco 


Ki-rcotco. 
Ulu-Icotco 


Ki-lcotco 


N-dutco 


Drum 


N-coma or 
N-gcomto. 
Mu-lile 


N-coma 


N-coma 


N-coma 


Ifi-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


Ear 


Ku-tui. 
I-twi 


Ku-tii ; pi. 
ma-tii. 
Ku-tui 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi 


Ku-tui 


Egg 


I-ye. C-ayi; 


Uji ; ma-uji. 


Li-yi : ma-yi. 


Di-ni 


Di-enza ; ma- 


Li-ensa ; 




pi. m-ayi 


Husi 


Li-teta 






m-ensa 


Elephant ... 


N-zcovu. 
N-jtou {39 a) 


N-ycogi 


N-zcovu 


In-seofu 


I n-zcovu 


N-z«avu 


Excrement 


Ma-vi. Tu-bi 


Tu-ivi, Tu-bi 


Tu-vi 


Ama-fi 


Ama-vi 


... 


Eye 


D-isu; m-eseo 


L-isco 


Li-nsco 


Di-nsco 


Di-nsco 


Li-nsco ; 
ma-nsca 


Face, forehead 


M-esco. 
Ki-ene 


Ku-kieni, 
Ku-merco 


Lu-kebu. 
M-ensco 


Kum-ensco 


Kuma-sco 


Kuma-nsu 


Fat 


Ma-futa. 
Ma-kuta (39a) 


Ma-kita 


Ma-futa 


Ama-futa 


Ama-futa 


Ma-futa. 
Ma-ncona 


Father 


Tata- (wane). 


Tata. Sco, Se, 


Tata. Ta-we 


Tata. W-isco, 


... 


Tata. Sco, 




I-po. I-^a-ke. 


cr^c: ? Tutu 


= my ; Sco or 


W-isi 




I si 




l^a-tata. 




Wi-sco = thy ; 










Bi-p5 (both 




Se, Wi-se = 










these latter pis. 




his ; Si-twe = 










and honorific 




our ; Si-nwe 










sing.) 




= your; Si-boj 
= their 








Fear 


Hu-coba, 
B-coba 


Bw-eny« 


Ki-tinco. 

(Ku-tina = to 

fear) 


Mw-ensco 


In-tete 


N-tete 


Finger 


Mu-nwe. 


Nwe ; mi-nwe. 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nue. C-ala; 


Umu-niie; 


Mu-uwe 




Mu-sai ; mi- 


M-nye 




ifi-ala 


mi-nue 




Fire 


Ka-iia. Tu-iya 


Ka-ia 


Mu-lirco 


Mu-rirco 


M-otco 


M-otco 


Fish 


Swi. 

Me-vera (//.) 


Ny-ama 


Li-sabi. 
Ki-kulu 


I-sabi, 
Li-sawi 


In-sui 


Nswi 


Foot 


Ki-kasa. 


Ki-kasa ; bi-. 


Ku-ulu. 


Lu-kasa 


Ifi-gazco (//.) 


Lu-azco ; 




Ki-limba ; vi-. 


Ku-guru 


Ma-ulu 






iri-gazci> 




I-tindi (39 a) 












Forest 


Ki-bila. 
Numbe 


Mw-itu. 
Ki-tundu 


Mw-itu 


Mu-situ 


Mu-situ 


Lu-tala 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



187 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Fowl 


Ngcokw 


N-gcokco 


N-k<oko, 


Ifi-kcokco 


lii-kcokco 


N-kcokco 


Frog 


Ki-ula 




Ki-iila 


C-ula 




Ki-iUa 


Ghost 


Mu-zimu; mi-. 


N-kisi ; mi-. 


Ki-zwa. 


Mu-pasi 


Mu-pasi. 


Mu-pasi 




Ki-kuli 


Naya ; 
bi-nyaga 


Mu-pasi ; nii- 
{ancesiral 
spirit). 
N-gulu {evil 
spirit) 




Mu-zimu. 
Mu-za 




Giraffe 


. .* 




Twiga 


I-ci-liama-luba 


. .. 


N-wiya 


Girl 


Numa 


M-pakasi 


Ki-nundwe. 
Mu-kaziyana 


... 


... 


Ka-ki. 
Mu-kaziana 


Goat 


M-uzi. 
M-buci (39 a) 


M-uji. Buzi ; 
ma-buzi 


M-buzi 


Im-buzi 


1 m-buzi 


M-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


... 


... 


Ka-pwata. 




• ■■ 


Sawe 


„ (she)... 
God 






M-pumbwe 








Kabezia. 


Ka-bejea. 


Leza. Leza- 


Mesa, Li-lesa. 


I-leza 


Mu-lungu. 




Firie. 


M-pungu. 


ma-langu 


Umu-lungu 




Leza 




Ny-ambi 


Lezi' 












(39 a) 












Grandparent 


N-guku. 


Ba-kuli. 


Ba-k«te. 


Fi-kolwa. 


... 


Kuku. 




Ba-kalukisi 


Ba-kcote 


Ba-kuku 


Awa-kcola. 




Sco-kulu, 




KPI.) 




Vi-kcolwe. 
Ba-kulu 


Pi-kulu, 

gco-kulu, 

W-ipi-kulu 




Isi-kulu 


Grass 


M-ani. 
Lu-suku 


Y-asi. Ki-asi ; 
bi- 


6i-kusi 


Ki-ani. Ifi- 


I-scote 


I-scote. 
Ka-sanza 


Grovind 


Lcoba 


Ma-bue 


Bu-longto. 
Ma-l<oba, 
Ma-lundco 


Mu-sidi 


I-vu 


Mu-sili. Pa-nsi 


Ground-nut 


Ka-zuzu. 
Ka-lima 

(39 a) 


Ka-jugua 


M-balala 


Iri-kalanga. 
In-^iama 


M-balala 


M-balala 


Guinea-fowl 


Kanga. 
N-ganga, 
Manga (39 a) 


Kana 


Li-kanga 


Di-kanga, 
N-kanga 


I -kanga 


Kanga 


Gun 


Bundusi. 
Ke-boivye 

(39 a) 


Bunduki, 

N-gcohoj 


M-futi. 
Ki-pcolupcolu. 
Bu-ta 


M-futi 


M-putu 


M-putu 


iTair 


M-vuire. 
Suki (39 a) 


Ny-uwele, 
N-jili 


Lu-vwili. 
Mu-sisi 


Mu-sisi 


N-yele 


N-yele 


Hand 


Ki-anzanza. 
K(o-buku). 
Ki-basabasa. 
M-anja(39a) 


M w-iswe ; ma- 
Ku-b<okco 


M u-n we. 
Ki-zanza. 
Ku-bukco 


Lu-pi ; ma-pi 


I-kufi 


I-kasa 


k 


Mu-twe 


Tue 


Mu-twe 


Mu-tue 


Mu-twe ; mi- 


Mu-twe. 
N-kcotco 


Heart 


Mu-tima 


N-tima 


Mu-tima 


Mu-tima. 

(Um-weco = 

life) 


Mvv-enzeo. 
(I-tima = 

liver) 


Mw-enzco. 
(I-tima = 

liver) 


Heel 


Ki-sukulu. 


Ka-sindagoloj. 


Ka-singinto. 


Ka-tende ; 


Ki-ntunta 


Ki-ntunta. 




Ka-bili-bili 


Ka-sindagulu 


Ka-sinzilco 


utu-. 








(39 a) 






Ici-tende 






Bide 


L-ii. Ki-sava 


Ki-lenga. 


M-papa. 


Umu-kupco. 


... 


Ki-kwera. 




vi- (39 a) 


Ki-sewa 


Ki-kanda 


I m-papa. 
Iii-kanda 




M-papa 








' Lezi = clouds. 







1 88 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a- 


Ka-bwari 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 


Lungu 


Mam b we 




39 a. Ki-lega 






(Ki-emba) 






Hill 


Ki-rimbi. 

Lu-uba (39 a) 


Lu-gulu. 
Mu-tenda 


Ka-pili 


Ulu-piri 


... 


Ka-mwaraba 


Hippopotamus 


N-uvu, 
N-guvu (39 a) 


Ny-igi 


Ki-cofwe. 
M-vubu 


I-pcofwe. 
I m-vuvu 


In-kambwe 


Ki-vuii 


Hoe 


Lu-kasu 


Lu-kasu 


Lu-kasu 


U lu-kasu 


Ulu-kasu 


I-se; ma-se 


Honey 


B-uki 


B-uki 


B-uki. Bu-iki 


B-uci^ 


U-gyi 


Uki 


Horn 


Di-a ; m-eya. 


Lu-ega ; 


Li-seng^u ; 


In-sengto 


Im-pembe 


Pembe. 




Lu-iya; fig-iya 


me-ega 


ma-sengco. (Cf. 
I-seiiga, ox) 






N-tandala 

(spiral) 


House 


N-zu ; ma + . 
N-dabu ; 
ma-Iabu. 
Ke-susco, 
M-scoso) (39a) 


Sibco. 

N-dzese ; 
ma-zese 


N-sesi. 
N-ganda. 

Mu-tanda 


N-anda 


N-anda 


N-ganda 


Hunger 


N-zala 


Ny-ala 


N-zala 


In-sala 


N-zala 


N-zala 


Husband ... 


I-be ; bai-be 
(39 a) 


M-palume 


Mu-lume 


... 


... 


Mu-kalamba. 
lya 


Hyena 


Ci-mbwe. 


Ki-mbwi ; bi- 


Ki-mbwi. 


Ki-mbwi. 


Ki-mbwi 


Ki-mbwi. 




Ki-mbwi 




Lu-sumpa. 

Lu-pula- 

n-kalamu 


Buya. 

Ci-nsokcota. 

Ici-nsumpa 




A-sugutu 


Iron 


Ki-uma. 


Ki-geala, 


Kiela. 


Ki-eala. 


Iki-eala ; 


Ki-era 




Ki-kale 


Ki-gera 


Mu-tapw 


U-lungu 


vi-eala 




Island 


Ki.lila. 
Ki-kila 


Ki-lela 


Ki-lira 


Ki-rira. 
Ci-siwa 


Ki-dila 


Ki-lila 


Ivory 


Di-a or Li-a 


Me-neo ga 


L-ina lya 


1-dinco lya 


D-inco la 


Pembe zia 




lye n-zcovu. 


n-yeogi 


n-zcovu 


n-scofu 


in-zcovu 


n-zcovu 




Mu-banga 












Knee 


U-vui. 1-lu. 
Ma-vui. Ma-lu 


SI; ma-si 


Li-kufi 


Di-kufi or 
Li-kcofi 


Kw-kcola 


Kto-kcola ; ma- 


Knife 


Mw-ele ; mi-. 
Ki-wabi. 
Lu-bato ; 
m-bau (39 a) 


Lu-hete. 
K-ele ; 
tw-ele 


Mu-ere 


Mw-ele. 
Umu-pene 


Mw-ele 


Mw-ere 


Lake 


Ki-riba 


N-duyi, 
N-gukw 


Bu-biza, 
Ki-ziba, 
Ki-lambe, 
Y-embe, 
N-kcokco 
( Tanganyika) 


Ici-pula 


Li-emba 


Lu-si. 
Li-emba 


Leg 


Kulu. 

Mu-indi. 
I-tindi (39 a) 


Ku-gulu 


Ku-ulu; ma- 


Mu-konsco 


Kulu 


Ku-ulu. 
Mu-ulu 


Leopard ... 


N-we 


Nge; n-gwe 


Ka-mfuma 


Im-bwiri 


Nangu 


I-naiigu. 
Ka-mboto 


Lion 


N-dambwe 


M-tambwe 


N-kalafiga 


Ifi-kalamu 


... 


Ki-sama 


Lips 


Mi-lcomeo (;*/.) 


Mi-rcomoo (//.) 


Mi-lcomco (//.) 


Mu-rcomco 


Mu-lcomco 


Mu-lcomco 


Magic 


Bii-lojzi. 
N-gisi. 
Bu-laco 


Bu-ganga 


Bu-Icozi 


Bw-anga. 
Ubu-lcopi 


Uw-anga 


Uw-anga. 
(Mu-lcozi = 
magician) 


Maize 


Ki-saka. 
Ma-sail gu. 
C-ebele (39 a) 


Ki-saka 


Ki-sange, 
Ny-ange 


Iny-aiige 


Ki-saka 


Ki-saka 


Man 


Mu-ndu ; 


Ndu ; ba-ndu 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu; a-ntu 


Mu-ntu ; a-ntu. 




ba-ndu 




ba-ntu 


ba-ntu 




(Ukalamba = 

manhood) 


Man, vir. ... 


... 


M-palume 


Mu-lume 


... 


... 


M-onsi. 
Ka-lume 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



189 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Meat 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Nn-ama 


In-ama 


I ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine . . . 


Bu-Iaoi 


Mi-ti 


Bufi-anga. 

Mi-ti 


Umu-ti 


... 


Mu-lembco 


Milk 


... 


Ma-bele 


Ma-bere 


Ulu-kama. 
I-piba 


... 


I-ziya. 
(Ku-kama = 
to milk) 


Monkey ... 


Ka-kene 


Ng-ema. 
N-kima 


M-penge. 
M-bele 


Mu-penje. 
In-cima 


Sangye 


N-kima 


Moon 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-eji. 

Kw-ezji 


Mw-ezi, 
Kw-ezi. 
(Lu-samcd = 
moonlight) 


Mw-ezi, 
Mw-esi 


... 


Mw-ezi 


Mother ... 


... 


Maju. 


Ya-ngu. 


Ma-yo), 


... 


Ya-ng(o. 






Nyoj-kco. 


Nco-ko). Nina. 


Nto-kto, 




Niu-ko). Nina 






Nana. Nina, 


Nine-twe 


Nyina. 










&^c. 




Mama. Na- 






Mountain ... 


Mw-ala 


N-tandb>. 
Lu-gulu- 
lu-kata. 
N-guru 


Lu-pili 


Lu-piri ; 
im-piri 


"'. 


Mw-amba 


Mouth 


... 


Ka-nya, 
Ka-nwa 


Ka-nwa 


Aka-nwa 


• •• 


Ka-nwa 


Nail (of finger 


Nz-ala 


Lu-ala; m-ala 


Li-zala, 


W-ala, Lu-ala, 


liig-ala (//.) 


K-era; tu-era 


or toe) ... 






Lu-ala 


Du-ala ; pi. 
iig-ala 






Name 


I-zina 


Zina, S-ina 


L-ina, Li-zina 


I-^ina, 
Li-zina 


I-zina 


Zina 


Navel 


< •• 


■ •• 


Mu-toateo 


Umu-tcoto) 


N-kombco 


N-kombco 


Neck 


Kcosi 


N-ginco 


Mu-kojsi. 
N-kcotoj 


Mu-kcopi 


N-singco 


N-singco 


Night 


N-esu. 
(Ki-rima = 

darkness.) 
Bu-tu ; ma-tu 


Bu-sigi. 
U-fiiu. M-joj. 
(Mu-fitco = 
darkness) 


Bu-siku 


Bu-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku 


Nose 


... 


J-ulu. 
Mu-hembe 


Mu-cona ; mi- 


Um-cona. 
(Ici-punda = 

nostril ) 


M-pum» 


M-punco 


Oil palm ... 


Ki-azi 


Ki-gadzi 


Li-tonge 


Ku-imbu. 
Takwawa 


Ki-azi 


N-gazi 


Ox 


Nga ye-lume. 
N-ombe (39 a) 


N-ome. 
(Y-analume) 


N-ombe; baii- 


N-ombe 


Y-onsi 


Ng-ombe 


Paddle ... 


... 


N-kai. N-gafi 


Li-kafi 


Umu-kafi 






Palm -wine, 


Ma-lua 


Bw-arwa 


Bw-arwa 


Ki-bale. 


N-zamba 




beer 








Mu-tondco 






Parrot 


N-gusu 


N-gusu 


Ka-suku 


Ki-rongci>. 

Mu-cence 


Kusu 


... 


Penis 


Mu-lua 


Boloa 


Lu-tcotwe. 
Bu-kandi.' 
Bu-kala 


Bu-kala, 
Ici-kala 


Im-bolu 


M-bolco 


Pig 


Nulube 


N-guluwe 


Ka-pcoli. 
N-gulube 


Ka-pcoli 


Ka-poH 


Ka-pori. 
Mu-ngili 


Pigeon 


Ka-pele 


N-gunda. 
N-jiba 


N-kunda 


N-kunda. 
Cipele 


N-kunda 


N-kunda 


Place 


Ha-ndu 


A-nzi 


Panu, pa- 


A-pa. I-calco. 
Pa- 


Palia, Pa- 


Pa- 



' Ki-bola = a man with a poor penis, impotent. Lu-bcola means a sting; Li-bcola = a testicle. 



190 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a- 


English 


Ka-bwari 

39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki.emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Rain 


M-vula 


M-ila. M-bila 


M.vula 


Im-fula 


Im-vula 


M-vula 


Rat 


M-beba 


Li-nde ; ma-nde 


M-puku 


I m-puku 


Ku-sulu 


M-bea. Kuza 


Rhinoceros 






Ki.pembele 


Ici-pembere 


... 


Tupa 


River 


Mw.ela 


N-kone ; //. 
mi-kone. Lu-ji. 
Mu-tutco 


Ki-ezi, 

Mw-ezi. 
Mu-mana 


Mu-mana. 
Ic'-ambe^i 


L-uzi ; fig-uzi 


L-uzi 


Road 


In-zila 


N-yila 


N.gila, 
N-zila 


In-sila 


N-zila 


N-zUa 


Salt 


... 


M-kele. 
Mu-nyu 


Mu-kele 


Umu-cere. 
Umu-fumbco 


... 


Mu-silya. 

Mu.kyere 


Sliame 


... 


... 


Bu-sconi 


In-s<oni 


N-soini 


N-s<oni 


Stieep 


Mu-kcokcd 


N-kcaku 


Mu-kcok«. 
M-fwere 


Im-panga 


M-fuele 


Fwere 


Shield 


N.gavu. 
N.abM (39 a) 


... 


N-gabu 


... 


... 


Ki-syaiigu 


Shoulder ... 




... 


Ki-kcope. 
Li-kombe 


Ukii-bea. 
Ici.kcope 




Ki-iye 


Sister 


N-gazi 


N-gazi 


Kazi-amw.ine 


In.ka^i. 
Umw.ina 
Mw.inyina. 
Mu.viala 


Kazi ya 
mw-ine 


Kaki 


Skin 


Ki-renga 


Ki.lenga 


Lu-anza ; 
iig-anza 


Ifi.kanda. 
Ici-papa 


Im-papa 


N-k»a. 

M.papa. 
Mu.kwera 


Sky 


Ma-ulii. 


Gulu, Yulu. 


Mu-yulu 


Ifi.kuba. 


I-yulu. 


I-ulu 




I-yubu 


(Lezi = cloud, 
God) 




I-lesa, 
I-leza 


(I.kumbi = 
clouds) 




Slave 


... 


M.jya 


Mu-zyco. 
Bu-kcolca. 
Ka.lume 


Umu-pya. 
Ka-polo 


... 


Mu-zya 


Sleep 


Ka-lca 


Tu-loo 


Tu.lco. Kcona 


Tu.lco, Utu.lto 


Utu.loj 


Tu-lco 


Smoke 


Mu-si 


L-ingi ; m-ingi. 
Mw-inki 


M-unsi, 
Ky-unsi 


I^.unsi, C.usi 


C-unsi 


Ki-unsi 


Snake 


Nz-coka 


N-yeoka 


N.zojka 


In-suka 


N-zcoka 


U-zeoka 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana 


Mw.ana lume. 


Mw-ana lume 


M w-ana- 


M-onsi- 


Mw-ana. 






Mvv-anike 




m-wa-ume. 
(Umw-aice = 
boy) 


(Ak-anya ; 

utu- = boy) 


Mw.ankye. 
Mu.fumendu 


Song 


Lu.imco ; pi. 
ny-imu 


Lu-imco ; pi. 
ng.imco. 
Lu-imbco 


Lu.imbco 


Lu-imbcd ; pi. 
iny.imbca 


Ulu-imboj 


Lu-imbcd 


Spear 


Fumcd ; ma- 


Simco, Fumu 


Li.fumco 


I-fumco 


I-sumu 


I-sumco 


Spirit, soul 


... 


M-kisi 


Mu-tima. 
Mu.pasi 


Ub-umi. 
Umu-papi 


... 


Mu-pasi 


Star 


Ka-iilii ; 
tu-tilii 


Ka-mbalambala 
Ka-ngemogemto 


Lu.tanda 


In-tanda 


In.tanda 


Lu-tanda 


Stick 


N-gojni 


Ka-bubi 


Ka-pini, 
Ka-mama, 
Lu-bangto 


In-kcdta. 
In-konteo 


N.tuwa 


... 


Stone 


Bue. 

Ma.bwe 


Bue or 
Di.bwe ; 
ma-bwe 


Libwe 


Di.bwe 


I. we 


I. we 


Stool 


... 


Ki-wala. 
Ki-hcdna 


Ki-puna. 
Ki-tebe 


Ici'ptma 


... 


Ki-limba 


Sun 


2^uba 


Juba, Juva 


Kwba. 
Ka-zuba 


Ka-suba 


Aka.sanya 


I-ransi 


Tail (of an 


Mu-kila 


M-kUa 


Mu-kiln 


Umu-cira 


... 


Mu-sinda 


animalj 















GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



191 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Tear 


Lu-so>zi 


Li-soozi; me- 


Li-nsuzi 


Idi-nscosi, 
Mu-nsMzi 


Li-ns«azi 


Mu-nscosi 


Testicles ... 


Bcdlco 


Ma-uli 


Ma-peke. 
Ma-bcola. 
Li-puli; ma- 


Ma-wula>. 
I-teole. 
I-gwampa 


Ma-tulu 


I-tulu 


Thief 


Mw-ivi ; 


Mw-ibi ; 


Mw-ivi. 


Mu-noj. 


Mu-pupu 


Mu-ivi 




b-evi 


b-ebi 


Ki-ponda 


Pompwe 






Thigh 


I-bimbi(39a) 


... 


Li-tanta. 
Li-teberco 


I-tanta. 

Ulu-tungu 


Im-pamba 


Lu-tungcd. 
M-pamba 


Thing 


Ki-ndu; 


Ki-ndu ; 


Ki-ntu, 


Ki-ntu; ifi-ntu. 


Ki-ntu 


Ki-uma ; 




bi-ndu 


bi-ndu 


Ka-ntu 


Ic-uma 




vi-uma 


Thorn 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iba 


Mu-unga 


M-unga 


M-unga 


M-nnga 


Tobacco ... 


Fwanga 


N-jungc9 


N-sunkco. 
Fwanka 


M-fwaka 


Fwaka 


Fwaka 


To-day 


Bu-na bu-su 


Bu-legulu 


Lenu, Lelw. 
N-dakai 


Lelca 


MelM 


Lelco 


Toe 


Ki-Rln 


Ki-ala. 
Lu-nw; ma-nca 


Mu-nwe 


Ki-kondcij. 
Ci-kumco 


Ki-kando> 


Kandoa ; ma -f 
Ki-kand» ; vi 


To-morrow 


... 


J"' 


Lu-kere. 

Ma-ir<a 


Ma-irco 


Mu-tondco 


Ka-tondo3 


Tongue ... 


Lu-limi 


Lu-Hmi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi ; 
in-dimi 


Lu-limi 


Tooth 


D-inco ; m-enco 


L-inco 


L-inoa 


D-ineo 


D-inco 


L-inoa ; m-inco 


Town 


Lu-zi ; pi. n-zi. 
M-ua {for 
M-bua) ; 
pi. tna-bua 


N-gutu 


Mu-zi. 
N-kutu 


Mu-si 


U mu-zi 


Mu-zi 


Tree 


Ki-ti; bi-ti 


N-ti; mi-ti 


Mu-ti, 
Kimu-ti. 
Kasala 
{bush) 


Mu-ti, 
Ci-ti 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


Twins 


Ma-asa 


Ma-asa 


Ma-pasa. 
(Li-pasa 

= twin). 
M-pundu. 
(Nam-pundu 
= mother of 
a twin) 


Bam-pundu 


Ma-pasa 


Yam-pundu 


Urine 


Ma-sca 


Ma-s<o 


Ma-su 


Ma-su 


Tunzi 


Ma-tunsi 


Vein 






Li-sipa 


Ulu-k«le. 
Umu-pipa 




Lu-kcole 


War 


Bi-ta 


Bli-luba 


Bu-kali 


Fita, Vi-ta. 
In-kondu 


Mu-sika 


N-kondto. 
Vi-ta 


Water ... 


Ma-zi 


M-ema. 

Ma-dzi, 
Ma-ji 


M-enda. 
M-enzi 


Am-ensi 


Ma-nzi 


Ma-nsi 


Well 


■ •• 


{\.yx-l\=pool) 


Ka-tubu. 
Ki-ima. 
Ki-lindi 


I-fwe, I-tapa. 
Ici-sima 


... 


Ki-ziya 


White man 


Mu-zungu 


N-dzungu ; 
ba-dzungu 


Mu-zungu 


Mu-sungu 


Mu-zungu; a- 


Mu-zungu ; a- 


Wife 


N-kazi-ana 


N-kasigco 


Mu-kazi. 
Muk«lo> 


Mu-ka. 
Mu-kasi 
or -kazi. 
Mu-kcolo> 


Wa-ne (?) 


Um-uki 


Wind 


M-be« 


N-yaya 


Mu-ela 


Im-pepw 


Um-iiza 


Um-uza 








' Cf. Lu-ganda. 







O 2 



192 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42- 


43- 


43 a- 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Giiha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


niambwe 


Witch ... 


Mu-lcozi. 


Neogi, 


Mu-lcozi ; ba-. 


Ifi-ulu, 


Mu-lcozi 


Mu-lcazi 




Mu-fumoo 


Mlcogi; 
ba-ncogi 


N-dcozi 


In-gulu. 
Mu-lcosi 






Witchcraft 


Bu-lcozi. 
N.gisi 


Bu-ltogi 


Bu-lcozi 


Wu-lcosi, 
Ubu-lcopi. 
Ubu-panda 


Uwu-lcozi 


U-lcozi. 
Uw-anga 


Woman ... 


M-kazi. 
(Numa = 
virgin) 


M-bnknji. 
M-pakasi 


Mw-anakazi 


Mu-kasi. 
Umu-sange 


Mw-6.nakyi 


Mw-Anaki 


Womb 




••• 


Ki-nyco. 
N -kongwe (= 
also vagina). 
Limi (foetus) 


Kongwe, 

I-nyco (=also 

vagina). 

Li-fumco 


••• 


N-dUiwa 


Wood (fire- 


N-guni 


N-gnni 


N-kuni 


I n-kuni 


N-kwi 


Nkwi. 


wood) 












N-si 


Yam 


Ri-zumu. 
Ki-kulu 


Ki-gatpi 


Ki-lungrwa 


Ki-rungwa 


Ki-rungu 


U-lungu 


Year 


Mw-aka 


Ki-mula 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Yesterday... 


Mu-kese 


Bu-la-bu-sigi 


Lu-kere. 

Ma-ir<o 


Ma-irco a-dia 


Mu-tondco-lia 


Mu-tondco 


Zebra 


Ki-twasi 


N-damwe. 
N-gcolco 


N-galika 


Ki-bycobyco. 
M-kcolcotco 


Ki-ngalika 


Li-nka. 
Ki-orwa 


One 


•mwe 


■mu 


-umco 


-maa 


-mwi .or 
•umwi 


W-enga, -onga 


Two 


•biri 


-wiri 


•bili 


•bidi (-wiri) 


-idi 


-in 


Three 


•tatu 


-tatu, -satoa 


-tatu 


■tatn 


-tatu 


•tatu 


Four 


•nne 


•na 


-na 


-nne 


-ni 


-ni 


Five 


■tanco 


-tanco 


-sanco 


-sanco 


•sanco 


-sanu 


Six 


M-tanda 


N-tanda 


Mu-tanda 


Mu-tanda 
or Vili- 
miD-tanda 


Mu-tanda 


Mu-tanda 


Seven 


N-diH 


Ki-Iuwa. 
Mu-sambco 


Ki-lcoba 


Apa-i-nye- 
apa-itatu. 
Yi-sanco na 
viwiri 


Ki-ne ru wari 


Ki-ni-m-bali 


Eight 


Mu-nana 


Mw-anda 


Mu-anda 


Ki-ne. Ko-nse- 
konse 


Ki-nani 


Ki-nani 


Nine 


Kenda 


Habula. 
Ki-tema 


Fundi 


Fundi, 
lu-bali. 
Pabula 


Fundi 


Fundi m-bali 


Ten 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Li -kumi 


Lkumi or Li- 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Eleven 


Kumi na -mwe 


Kumi na 


Li-kumina-mco 


I-kumi na 


Kumi na 


I-kumi na 






ka-mco 




i-mco 


i-mwi 


w-enga(-onga) 


Twenty ... 


Mi-long» 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi a-iri 


Ma-kumi 




i-biri^ 


ga-were 


a-bili 


a-bidi 




y a-iri 


Thirty 


Mi-longo 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




i-tatu 


ga-tatu 


a-tatu 


a-tatu 


a-tatu 


ya-tatu 


Forty 


Mi-longco 
i-nne 


Ma-kiimi ga-ni 


Ma-kumi a-na 


Ma-kumi a-nne 


Ma-kumi a-ni 


Ma-kumi a-ni 


Fifty 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




i-tancd 


ga-tanco 


a-sanco 


a-sanco 


a-sanco 


a-sanu 


Hundred ... 


Zana. 


Zana. 


Ki-nunu. 


Mw-anda. 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 




Lu-kama; //. 


Lu-kama 


Li-kumi na 


Umw-andco 








ii-kama (39 a) 




n-zala 








Thousand ... 


Ki-nconu 


? 


? 


Em-pcos^comco 


? 


? 





GROUP L 


: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 


193 




39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 »• 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 
(Ki^emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


I, me, my . . . 


Nene. 


Nene. 


Nene. 


Ne^wco, J.ne, 


Nene. 


Nene. 




Na., N-. 


Na., N-, Ni-. 


Ne., N-. 


Ne.bu), Nine, 


H: 


N.. 




•n-. -a-ne 


-n-,-ni-. -a-ne, 
-a-mi 


-n-. -ne 


Ne.ka. 

N^. 

•n-, •ndi^. 

-a^ndi 


•n-. -a-ne 


•n^. -a^ne 


Thou, thee, thy 


An-ue, 


Giie. 


Wewe. 


I-we, We-b(D. 


Wewe. 


Wewe. 




CO-. 


0)-. 


We-. U-. 


U-. 


u.. 


u.. 




•ku-. -cdbe 


-ku-. -«we, 


-ku-. -cobe 


-ku-. -ube,-ei>be 


•ku^. -a^kca 


•ku.. -a-ku 


He, him, his 


U-ria. 


•coge 

Gu-i(o. 


Ozu, (0-lya, 


Uyu. 


Wi^dia. 


We. 




Wa-, A-. 


Wa-. 


We-ne. 


U-, A-. 


Wa. 


A-, Wa-. 




-m-, -mw-. 


-mu-. -ege 


U-, A-. 


-kwe. -mu-. 


-mu-. -a-kwe 


-mu-. -a-kwe 




-a-e 




•mu-. -a-kwe 


-a-kwe 






We, us, our 


Be-twe. 


Be-twe. 


Fwefwe, 


Fwe-bca. 


A-fwefwe. 


Sweswe. 




Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Fwe-bo). 


I-fwe. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 




-tu-. -etu 


-tu-. -a be-twe 


Tu-. 
-tu-. -etu 


Tu.. 

-isu. -tu-. 

-esu 


•tu-. -itu 


•tu-. -ittt 


Ye, you, your 


Be-nwe. 


Be-nyi. 


Mwemwe, 


Mwe-bo). 


Mwemwe. 


Mwemwe. 




Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Mwe. 


I -mwe. 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 




•ba- ? -enu 


-ba- ?, mu- ? 
-a be-nue 


Mu-. 

-mu-,-mi-,-ba-. 

-enu 


Mu-. 

-inoj. -mu-. 

-enoj 


■mu-. -inu 


-mu-. -inu 


They, them, 


Babo>. 


Babco. 


Baba, Ba-lya. 


Babcd, Wawo). 


Au. 


0). 


their 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 


A-. 


A. or Ya.: 




-ba-. -babu 


-ba-. -a bebbi 


-ba-. -bco 


-ba-. boj. 
-a^beo 


•a-, -a-eo 


■a.; •ya-. -a-co 


All 


-ose 


-onze 


•onse 


•onse 


-onsi 


-ensi, onsi 


This, these 


Uu, baba ; iiii. 


Guju, baba ; 


Uzu, aba; O'c. 


Uyu, aba; 


Wi, aa ; u, 


Wiwi, aa; 




ii ; didi. 


guju,giji;6-f. 




uwu, iyi ; 


ii; &•€. 


uu, ii ; Src. 




gaga .' ; kiki, 






ili, aya ; ici, 








bibi; &-c. 






i& or iyi or i^i; 
ulu ; utu ; 
aka; ubu; 
uku; apa; 
umu (uwu) 






That, those 


U-lia, ba-lia ; 


Gu-lia, ba-lia; 


U-lia, ba-lia ; 


Uyw, a,bco; 


Wi-dia, a-dia; 


Wi-lia, a-lia; 




u-lia, i-lia, ; 


gu-lia, gi-lia ; 


&'C. 


&^c. 


^-c. 




&'C. 


iSr'c. 




U-lia, ba-lia ; 
u-lya, i-ria; 
li-ria, a-lia ; 
ci-ria, fi-ria; 
i.ria, fi-ria ; 
lu-lia; tu-lia; 
ka-lia; bu-lia; 
ku-lia; pa-lia; 
mu-lia (a-lia) 






Bad 


•bl 


■hi 


•bi. •bi^pire 


•bi 


•wi 


Ku-eola 


Black 


-ilu 


•gasuke 


•a-fi. .fit-ile. 
-a ka-fifi 


-ya-fita 


-tifl 


-tifi 


Female 


•zi-ana 


-ba-kadzi 


•kuta. .kazi. 
Mw.anakazi, 


Mw-anakasi, 
Na-kapi 


•nki or -nci 
Mw^anaci 


-dnaki 








Kazi.ana 







194 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





39- 




40. 


41. 


43. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 


Gnha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 


Luiigu 


Mambwe 




39 a. Ki 


•lega 






(Ki^emba) 






Fierce, sharp 


■kali? 




•kali 


■kaU 


■kali^pa 




•kali^pa 


Good 


■swa. 




■scoga 


•weme. 


■suma. 


•zipa 


Ku^zipa, •zipa 




-vaci 






■suma' 


■wama 




•suma 


Great 


■kule. 




-kulu. -kata 


■kata. 


■kulu. 


•kalamba. 


•kuru. 




-kuru. 




•la 


■kulu 


■kalamba 


•kulu 


•kalamba. 




■ile 




•kuju 


■kalamba 






<u-m^pito 


Little 


-kcale. sekase. 


•anike. -ke. 


•nini. ■nconu. 


■nini 


-nonu 


•nunu 




■keke. 


■sese 


•sicd 


■ike 








Long,high,taIl 


•le (39 a) 




■la 


■le. -tari. 
■le^pele 


•tala. -le^pa 

(verb) 


... 


-tari 


Male 


-lume 




-ba-lume, 
■lume 


■lume 


Mwa-ume. 
■lume, 
-ka^lume 


•onsi 


•onsi, M-onsL 
-ka-lume 


Old 


•kongwe (39 a) 


■kute. 


■kotele, kcote. 


■kcote 


••■ 


-a mpiti. 








■kulu 


(Ku^keota = to 
be old) 






-a^kcota 


Red 


... 




■kasuke 


■kasi- 
•kasik^ile 


•kapika. 
•sata 


... 


-yenzu 


Rotten 


•boa-vu" 




■boj^le 


■beo^lele 


■bco-la 


• •• 


-oala, Ku-cala 


Short 


... 




■ihi 


■ipi 


■ipi 


■ipi 


-ipi 


Sick 


... 




•lugua. 

-m-isa 


•Iwere. 
Ku^tonga. 
(Ku^lwala) 


■Iwala, 
■luere 






White 


•aa 




■munge. 
•munke 


-a swe. 
buta 


-ya wuta, 
•buta. 
-pemba 


•tiswe 


-tiswe 


Above,up,on 






He^gulu 


Ku^manga. 


Ku-mulu, 




Pa-pera, 


top 








Pe-yulu 


Pa-mulu, &"€. 




Ku-pera 


Before 


... 




... 


Pa-kyeni pa-. 
Ku.ntanzi 


Ku-ntanpi 


... 


Ku^mansoj? 


Behind ... 


... 




Ku-nimba 


Ku^kyamba. 
Ku^musana 


Ku-nnuma, 
Pa-nnuma 


... 


Ki-sila 


Below, down 


... 




Ha^nsi 


Pa^nsi. 
Ku^insina 


Pe-samba, 
Kw-isamba. 
Ku-npi. 
Pa-npi. P-efwe. 


•■• 


Ku^isika 


Far 








Ku-tali 


Ku-tali 


... 


Ku^tari 


Here 


A-no) 




Haha" 


Vapa. 
Ko>-nu. 
Pa-nu. 
Pe-nka 


Apa 


Apa 


Apa. Pa^no) 


In, inside ... 


Mu- 




M^na 


IMlcd-nu. Mu-. 
-meo 


Mu. Mukati 


... 


Mu^. -mca 


Middle 


... 




Ha^kati 


Pa-kati 


A-kati 


• •• 


Mu^kasi 


Near 


... 




Ha^buyi 


Pepi-nu. 
Pabw-ipi 


Pepi. Kw-ipi 


• •• 


Pipi 


Outside ... 


... 




Ha-nje 


Pa-nze 


Ku^nse, 
Pa^nse, 
Mu^nse 


• •• 


Ku^nsi 


Plenty, many 


-i.ni 




-i-ni or -i^nyi 


-ngi. -vula 


-i^ngi 


•ingi 


-i^ngi 


There 


Kuku 




Ku^lia 


Kco-lya 


Ku-lia, Pa^lia 


Kuku 


Papeo 


Where? ... 


I? 




Hi? Kwi? 


Pi ? Ku-pi ? 


•kwi? 


... 


Pi? 



Bw-inu = adv. well ! good! Ku-wama = to be good. 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



195 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 
(Ki.emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


No! 


Wayi! 


Nabena ! 
Ndagile ! 
Mm ! Itgu 


Abe ! N-deoco. 
Fcoco. Te. 

(adv.). 


Lika ! lyco. 
Awe ! 


Awe 


Awe! 


Not {with verb, 


-si- {after pro- 


•si-, zi-, -di-. 


Si. ; ■si- ; Ta- 


Te.. -^l- (1st 




•ta-, •sya- ; 


as prefix, in- 


nominal pre- 


(all persons) ; 


(Tco^, Ta^tu, 


pers. sing.). 




Si- 


fix, or suffix) 


fix, Ne-si-, 


•ngeo, •koo 


(Sv<;.);.fco;^pa, 


Ta^u-, Ta-, 




•mco (neg-. 




A-sa-, Tu-sa-, 




-sile. Na-ndi-. 


Ta^tu, Sr'c. ; 




pronominal 




is^c.) 




Tana — e (not 
yet). Te-kuti- 


■i^. •kana, 
■leka^ 




suffix) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


. .. 


-bula 


-uma. -puma 


■uma. -puma 


• ■• 


•uma 


„ buy, sell 


■ula 


•gula, •ula 


-ula 


-gita 


• •• 


•kara 


„ come ... 


-vwa 


•sia. -hika 


•iza. -fika 


■isa 


■ •• 


-iza 


„ cut ... 


•tena 


-kala, 
-gala 


... 


... 


... 


•putula. 
•sinda 


„ dance ... 




-keena 


•kinda 


■cinda 


... 


•kina. 
•kiondcd 


„ die 


-fwa 


•kia 


•fwa 


•fwa 


... 


■fwa 


„ eat 


•ria 


-lia 


.lya 


•lya 


... 


•lya 


„ give ... 


-kua 
(Ku-kua). 
•elezia. -wa, 
wele 


■ha 


■pa 


•pa. 
-para 


■pa 


•pa. 
•pera 


,, go 


-yata 


-gia. (Gi-ile = 
pret.) 


-ya. -ila 


•ya. -enda 

(walk) 


... 


•pita 


„ kUl ... 


-wa 


-niga 


■ivaya 


•ipaya 


... 


■kcoma 


„ know ... 


•izi 


•manya 
-iji, -dzi 


•mana. 
•iziba 


•manya 




■manya 


„ laugh ... 


•seka. 
-seva (39 a) 


-seka 


•seka 


•seka 


•seka 


■seka 


„ leave off, 




-lekela or 


•leka 


■leka 


•leka 


•leka 


cease 




-leka 










„ love, want 


•sima 


•Icogelelwa. 
-tcokela. 
■kunda 


-temwa. 
-kunda (co- 
pulate) 


•kunda, 
•temwa 




•kunda 


„ see 


•mona 


■mona 


■mcona. (-Icola 

= to look) 


-mcona 




•Icola. ■ona 

(pret. ■wene) 


„ sit, remain, 


... 


■ikana 


■ikala 


■ikala 




•tensi. 


abide 












-ikala 


„ sleep ... 


■lala 


■lala. 
■biji 


-lala 


•sipula. •lala 

(to lie down) 




-kasula. 
•lala 


„ stand, stop, 




■jimana 


■imana 


•ima 




-imilila 


be erect 














,, steal ... 


-iba 


■giba 


•iba 


•iba 




■iha 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KABWARI AND KI-LEGA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu^, Mw- (mu, u-) ; 2. Ba^ (ba) ; 3. Mu^, Mw- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi^ (rai-, i) ; 5. Di^, 
!■ (di) ; 6. Ma. (ma-, ga?) ; 7. Ki-, Ky^, €'■ (ki, ci) ; 8. Bi- (hi) ; 9. N-, Ny, »■ (n-, i) ; 10. N., Ny-, 
V- (n-, i-, zi.'); 11. Lu-, Lco^ (lu) ; 12. Tu^ (tu) ; 13. Ka^, Ke- (ka) ; 14. Bu^, Vu^, U^ (bu, vu) ; 
15. Ku^ (ku) ; 16. Ha- (ha); 17. (prepositional) Mu-. 

Traces of -ana, diminutive suffix. 



196 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN GUHA 

Virtually no preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (m, wi-, u-, gu-, ju-) ; 2. Ba- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N-, U-, — (mu-, gu) ; 4- Mi- (mi, 
gi-, ji) ; 5. Li-, — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. BJ- (bi) ; 9. — N- (M-), »-, Ny, In- (n-, gi-, 
ji); 10. In.,N- (M-), N-, Ug- (ji orz\); 11. Lu-, L»- (lu, lo); 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. Bu- 
(bu) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Ha-, A- (ha-, a) ; 17 (as a prepositional prefix). Mu-. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN TABWA 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, Mw- (mu, u-, zu-) ; 2. Ba- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, Mw- (mu-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 5. Li- (li) ; 
6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. Bi- or Vi- (bi, vi) : 9. N- (M-), »- (n-, i) ; 10. N- (M-), N-, Kg- (zi-, i) ; 
II. Lu- (lu-); 12. Tu- (tu); 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. Bu- (bu) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa); 17- Mu- (mu). 
Si- iionorific or ' male ' (or ' father ') prefix. 

Several of the prefixes— notably Ba-, Ka-, Tu-, Ki-, Bi- (Vi-), Lu- are used in addition to others 
(making two prefixes in all) to qualify words— as : Ki-mu-ti ; Vi-mu-ti. Ki- and Vi- are used as aug- 
mentatives. Lu- as the ' long ' prefix, Ka- and Tu- as diminutives. * 

PREFIXES, &C., IN BEMBA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu- (mu, u-, yu-) ; 2. Aba-, Awa- (ba, wa) ; 3. Umu- (mu-, u-, wu) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, i, 
yi-) ; 5. Hi-, I- (li) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a, ya-) ; 7. Iki-, Ici- (ci) ; 8. Ifi- (fi) ; 9- In- (Im-). N-, »g- 
(n-, i) ; 10. In-(Im-),N-,Ng-, pin- (n-, fi); 11. Ulu-, Du- (lu) ; 12. Utu- (tu) ; 13. Aka- (ka) ; 14. Ubu- 
(bu) ; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Apa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN LU»GU AND MAMBWE 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Mu- (mu, wi-, u-) ; 2. A- or Ya.- (a); 3. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, u) ; 4. Imi-, Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Di-, Li- or I- (li, 1'-) ; 6. Ama or even Yama, Ma- (ma-, ya-, a) ; 7. Ki-, Ci- (ki, ci) ; 8. Vi- 
(vi); 9. In- (Im-), N- (n-, i) ; 10. In-, Ingi-, Zin- (zi) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 
14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu). 

Si- is used as an honorific prefix, apparently from a root meaning ' father '. 



39. Kabwari is spoken on the north-west coast of Lake Tanganyika and is called either Mwaka- 
bwari or Kibakabwari. Kilega (39 a), at first taken to be a related dialect, is in reality a distinct language 
equally related to Nos. 143, 144, which is spoken inland of the Bwari coast-belt as far north as Lake Kivu 
and the range of Ruanda, and as far west as the allied Elila-Lcowa or Balega group (EE.). 

40. Gulia is spoken on the west and north-west coast-belt of Lake Tanganyika from Ubwari on the 
north to about 6° 30' South latitude on the south and inland to the basin of the Lualaba-Congo. 

41. Tabwa is spoken on the west and south-west lands of the Tanganyika basin, from about 6° 30 
South latitude to Cameron Bay (south-west comer of Tanganyika) ; and inland to the vicinity of the 
Lualaba and the Rua or Luba domain. 

42. Bemba or Kiemba is spoken in the western part of the Nyasa-Tafiganyika plateau, northwards 
to the south-west corner of Tanganyika and to the north end of Lake Mweru and the Upper Lualaba, 
and southward to Lake Bangweulu and the Cambezi river. 

43. Luiigu is spoken at the south end of Lake Tanganyika between the Leofu river on the west and 
the Kilambco on the east. 

43 a. Mambwe is spoken in the region immediately east of the south end of Lake Tanganyika, 
south to the Upper Saisi river and the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau and north to Maraungu. 



GROUP L 

THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES {continued) 



44 a. Bco^wa.Usi (Bausi) 


44 b. 


Lala-Lamba 


46 


. Nya-lungwa (Rutigwa) 


44. Bisa (Wisa) 


45. Fipa. 45 a. South Fipa 47 


. Ci-na-mwanga 




44 a. 


44v 


44 b. 


45- 


46. 


47- 


English 


Boi;^wa. Usi 


Bisa (Wisa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa ^ and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 


Nya-lungwa 
(Rungwa) 


Ci-na-mwanga 


Adze 




M-basoj 


M-basoi 


M-pateo 




Im-pasa 


Animal, wild 




I-nama 


I-nama. 


• •• 


••• 


... 


beast 






Ci-kcokoj 








Ant 


... 


M-pasi. 
Mu-nyeng^ 


Ci-wengele. 
Mu-nayu. 
M-pasi 


Kalandu 


... 


... 


Ant, white 




Mu-swa. 


Mu-swa. 


,,, 


• .. 


... 


(termite) 




Huwensi 


Mu-wenpi 








Ape (chim- 


... 


... 


... 


I-sike 


... 


... 


panzi or 














gorilla) 














Arm 


... 


Ol)k(o-bukco or 
Ku-w«koa ; 


Ku-wukco ; ma- 


I-kasa. 
Uii-kojnoj 


... 


••• 


Arrow 


... 


ma- 
Mu-fue ; mi- 


Mum-fwi 


lii-kyetoj; 
iii-kyeteo. 
Mu-vwi or 
Umu-vwi 


... 


••• 


Axe 


... 


I-sembe ; ma- 


I-sembe. 
Ka-temoa. 
M-baT)iri> 


Im-pasa. 
M-palanga 


... 


Im-pasa 


Baboon 


... 


Kcolcoe 


Kcolcoe 


• *> 


... 


... 


Back 


... 


Mu-sana 


Mu-sana. 
I-ntima 


In-thindi. 
N-gongoj 

{hump) 


M-suna. 
Kum-suna 


In-sizi' 


Banana ... 


... 


Li-konde; ma- 


I-t<oce. 
I-kconde 


In-sambala. 

N-dizi. 
Mu-konde 


... 


• ■• 


Beard 


... 


Mw-efu 


Mw-emfu. 
Mw-embe 


Iki-rezu. 
Ka-lezu ; tu- 


... 


... 


Bee 


... 


fn-simu 


Lu-simu; n- 


In-zimu. 
N-zuki 


... 


In-zimu 


Belly 


... 


Ma-la. I-fumco I-fumoo. N-da In-da 


In-da 


... 


Bird 


... 


N-uni or 
Niii-uni 


N-uni. C-uni. 
K-coni 


C-uni 


Ny.uni ; 
uny-uni 


Iny-uni 


Blood 


... 


Mco-lupa 


Mu-lwpa. 
Ka-luwula 


Bw-azi 


... 


Uw-azi 


Body 


... 


Mu-wiri 


M-wili 


..• 


... 


Umu-wiri 


Bone 




Li-fupa 


I-fupa 


... 


... 


... 


Borassus palm 


... 


... 


..• 


... 


... 


..* 


Bow 


... 


OOwu-ta; ma-ta U-ta, 


Vu-lahwa. 


... 


... 








Bu-ta 


U-ta (S.) 






Bowels 


... 


Ma-la 


Ma-la 


Ama-la 


... 


Imi-Ia 


Brains 


... 


Tompwe 


Tompwe; wa + 


• >■ 


... 


• •• 


Breast (man's) 


... 


Ki-fua 


Ci-fuwa. 
N-tiwi 


Ki-fua 


... 


Ci-fuwa 


Breast 




Li-were ; 


I-wele ; ma- 


Ama-bele (//.) 


• ■• 


Ma-bere 


(woman's) 




ma-were 











' (A''.) indicates northern dialects and Ki-pimbwe ; (5.) the southern, 45 a. 
' The ib which appears in these vocabularies is an undecided b verging on w. 



198 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



44 a. 
Bcozwa. Usi 



Brother .. 

Buffalo 

BuU 

Buttocks .. 
Canoe 
Cat 

Charcoal .. 
Chief ... .. 

Child ... .. 
Cloth 

Cold ... .. 



Country 
Cow ... 



Crocodile 
Day ... 



Devil (evil 
spirit) 

Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 
Dog 



Donkey 
Door ... 



Dream 

Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 

Excrement 



44v 
Bisa (Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 
Nya-lungwa 

(Rufigwa) 



47- 
Ci-na-mwanga 



Mw-ina ; 


Mu-w'. 


Mu-nina. 


I-lumbu 


Umu-nyina 


we-ina 


(Mu-w-anji ; 
Mu-W'owe). 
Mum-bale 


Mu-tca. 
Mwi-eki (S.) 






M-b«Mo 


Nj.ati. 
M-bcowco 


M-bcogu 




... 


Mu-cende 


Mu-cende. 
Mu-ombe 


... 


... 


... 


Ma-takto 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


t ■• 


.. . 


Bu-atco 


U-ateo 


Bw-athco 


... 


Ubw-atto 


Ty-oana 


M-paka. 
C-cona 




U-nyaw 


... 


Mi-sangalala 


Ma-simbi 


I-kala ; ama- 


... 




M-fumco {pi. 


M-fumco. 


I-yiimbe. 


• .. 


Umu-fumu or 


m-fumu) 


Mu-sumba. 
Ka-longa 


Um-wene ; 
aya-, aba- 




Im-fumu 


K-ana; tw-ana 


Mw-ana. 
Ka-ice 


Mw-ana 


Ka-keke 


U mw-ana 


In-salu 


N-salu. 
N-guwco 

(bark) 


Mw-enda; 
mi-enda. 
N-seketa. 
N-sarco 




Ivi-zwalco 


M-pepco. 


Mpepoj. 


... 


... 


... 


Mu-tonto> 


Mu-tontoo. 
Celele 








Ci-alu 


Calco 


Iky-arco 


... 


N-si. M-bali 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 
yana-kazi or 
m-pwisi 


N-ombe 


N-ombe ; 
zin-ombe 


lii-ombe 


lii-wena 


iW-andu 


N-gwena 


... 




Lu-siku. 


N-siku. 


Vw-anda ; pi. 


• •• 


M-pindi 


(K4-so>va = 


Ka-suwa 


am-anda. 






daylight') 




Ci-ngulco 






Ki-wanda, 


Simwe or 


Nulu. 


... 


Ici-wa ; ivi-wa 


Ci-wanda 


Ci-simwe. 
Ci-wanda 


Muzi-zimu. 
Mu-kisi 




Eka-nama 


Mu-laye. 


Si-fianga. 


Ifi-ngatiga ; 




Si-iiaiiga. 


Mu-iianga 


Nanga 


bafi- 




Si-ka-pemba 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa. 


I-vwa (N.). 


Um-bwa ; 


Sim-bwa 




Mum-bulu 


Isim-bwa ; pi. 


ma-bwa 






{wild) 


yasim-bwa. 
Kasim-bwa ; 
tu- 


Umco-dcogcowe 




Mw-insi. 


Ci-si ; fi-si. 


... 


... 


... 


Mu-liango> 


Ci-wi. 
Ci-sasa. 

Mu-liangco 








N-ccDsi. 


Ci-lcotoi. 


Ki-rcotco 


... 


••• 


N-dutcD 


Ccosi 








N-ooma 


N-eoma 


N-gtoma 


... 


... 


Ku-twe; ama- 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi ; 


I-twe ; 


lU-ku-twi. 






ama-twi 


ama-twe 


Ily-enza 


Idi-ni; ama-ni 


I -Sana. I-ni, 
Li-ni ; ma-ni 


■■■ 


... 


... 


Nyi-sci»fu 


N-scofu 


N-zcovu. 
N-tirya (S.) 


... 


... 



Tu-fi 



Tu-fi 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



199 



English 



44 a. 
Boizwa. Usi 



44v 
Bisa ( Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 

Nya-lungwa 

(RuSgwa) 



47- 
Ci-na-mwanga 



Eye 

Face, forehead 

Fat 

Father 

Fear 

Finger 

Fire 

Fish 

Foot 

Forest 

Fowl 

Frog 

Ghost 



GiraflFe 
Girl .. 



Goat ... 

., (he) 



God 

Grandparent 

Grass 

Ground 

Ground-nut 
Guinea-fowl 

Gun 

Hair 



Id-insoa ; 
am-ensbi 

Kum-ensoj 

Ma-futa 

Tata. Wisi 

Umw-ensoj 
Mu-nfie 

Mu-lil» 

In-swi 
Lu-kasa : ma- 

Ic-onde; 

ifi-onde. 

Mu-situ 
N-kcokcd 

C-ula 



Isco, 

L-is<o ; m-esu. 

M-ba>ni 
C-insoa. 

N-ktope 
Ma-futa. 

Ci-kasa 
Wata, Bata 

(= my father), 

Wisi. Wis-oj. 

Tata. Si 
Umw-ensco. 

(Ku-tina, 

Ku-co-pa) 
Mu-niie 



Mu-lilco 

In-swi. I-sawi 
Lu-kasa. 

Mu-siele 
M-panga. 

Ma-yanga 

^f-kcokco. 

N-sumbi 
C-ula. 

Wombe ; 

wa-t- 



L-iso>; il-inscd Il-isca; am-es« 



Ma-futa 

I-tata ; //. Tate ; wa-tate 

ya-tata (S.) 



(jierb : 
Ku-oyoa-ha) 

Mu-nwe ; 

imi-nwe. 

Ki-ara 
Mu-riro). 

M-oth« (S.) 
N-swi. I-sawi 
I-gasa. 

I-kandu 
Mu-situ 



Um-oto) 



N-gcakco 



Il-insoi ; 
am-insu 



Ma-futa 

Tata, E-tata. 

E-yisi, 

Umukwa-si, 

Mon-si 
Uku-tina 



Umu-nwe 



Umu-lireo 

In-swi 
Ili-nama 



In-kcakcd 



Ikin-singwa. 


Cin-singwa. 


Mu-zimu ; 


mi- 


Mu-zimu 


Umu-zimu ; 


Mu-pasi. 


Ci-wanda. 








imi- 


Mu-simu 


Mu-pasi 










Kam-butu. 


Mu-sungu, 


• •• 




Ka-keke. 


Umu-kazi-ana 


M-buli. 


N-sungu. 






Ka-kuta. 




Mw-ali 


Mw-ali. 
Mu-simbi ; 
wa-. M-oye 






Kadi-ana 




M-buzi 


M-busi 


M-buli 




Im-buzi ; 
ama-buzi 

Im-buzi 
in-gcosia. 
Im-buzi 
in-goita 
(female) 


Im-buzi 


Lesa m-kulu 


Lesa 


Leza 




I-dzuwa 


Leza 


Kuku 


Si-kulu S. 
Na-kvdu } 


... 




... 


Yisi-kuru 


Li-sani; ma- 


C-ani 


••• 




-.. 


I -state 


N-si, Pan-si, 


Mu-sili. 


In-si, 




• .. 


N-si 


In-si 


Pan-si 


I -si 








M-balala 


N-siawa 


Bu-futha 




••• 


... 


Li-kanga ; 


Li-kanga 


I-kanga 







.*• 


ama- 












M-futi 


M-futi 


Mundusi 




*.• 


... 


I-sisi 


Mu-sisi. 


Mu-sisi. 




I-nyele 


I-nyele 




I-saku 


Ma-yuiri 


(PQ 







300 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





44 a. 


44-- 


44 b. 


45- 


46. 


47- ^ 


English 


Bea^wa. Usi 


Bisa C^isa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

4Sa.SouthFipa 


Nya-lungwa 
(Rungwa) 


Ci-na-mwanga 


Hand 


... 


Ki-sanza; ifi- 


Lu-pi ; mu-pi. 
Ci-sanza 


Ku-kconeo. 
Ki-ganza 


I-kasa 


I-kasa ; ma- 


Head 


... 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Ki-twe 


I-twe 


Umu-twe 


Heart 


... 


Mu-tima 


Mu-tima. 
N-tiwi 


Mw-enzo». 
(I-tima=//wr) 




Umw-ezoj 


Heel 


... 


Iki-tende 


Ci-tende. 
Ka-sisUoj 


... 




... 


Hide 


... 


Im-papa 


Ci-sewa 


Mu-kwa. 
Ki-ganda 




... 


HiU 


... 


Aka-lima; utu- 


Lu-pili. 
Mu-tunta 


Aka-piri ; utu- 




• •• 


Hippopotamus 


... 


M-viiu, 
M'Vubu 


M-viiii 


N-tcomombw. 
N-tcomondo>. 
In-fii. 
N-kambwe 






Hoe 


... 


Lu-se; ma-se 


Lu-se 


... 




.*. 


Honey 


... 


Uw-uci 


U-tici^ 


V-iinci. B-uki 


... 


N-zima 


Horn 


... 


Ili-sengco ; 
ama-. 
N-colwa 


Lu-sengco ; 
i-sengca. 
M-bata 


Lu-hembe 


... 


*•" 


House 


... 


Nanda 


Nanda. 
Nanda; ma+ 


N-umba. 
N-ganda 


Iny-umba ? 


I -nanda 


Hunger ... 


... 


N-sala 


N-sala 


N-zala 


... 


>•• 


Husband ... 


... 


Mu-lume 


Mu-lume 




... 


>•• 


Hyena 


... 


Iki-mbwi 

{old dialect). 
Ci-mbwi 


Ci-mbwi; wa-f. 
Ci-mbcoleo 


I-viti." 
Ki-mbwi 


... 


M-pumpi 


Iron 


... 


C-ela 


C-ela 


C-ele ; fy-ela 


Ny-ond<a 


••ii 


Island 


... 


Ki-sinziri. 
Ki-rumba 


Ci-si. 
N-sumbu. 
Ci-tcobco 


Ki-sera 


... 


••• 


Ivory 


... 


Ny-ina 
n-zcovu 


I-nyanga 
n-s<ofu 


Lu-hembe Iwa 
n-zcovu 


... 


••• 


Knee 


... 


Li-konluo 


I-kufi 


... 


... 


I-kwkola 


Knife... ... 


... 


Mw-ere. 
C-amcd. 
Ci-weyoa 


Mw-ele. 
Lu-wepi. 
Ci-mai. 
Ci-pula 


Mw-ere. 
N-kumba. 
Lu-kala 




■ •• 


Lake 


... 


Ci-siwa. 
Mu-mana. 
Iny-anja 


Ci-siwa. 

Nyanja 


Mu-mana. 
Ki-rambi. 
Ikwa. 
Ki-ziba 


••• 


E-sumbi 


l^ET 


... 


Mu-konz«. 
K-ulu 


K-ulu; m-colu. 
Mw-endoj 


Ukw-ulu 


^1. 


Ili-nama 


Leopard ... 


... 


Ifi-gCf* 


In-gco; wafi-gw. 
M-balale. 
N-kense 


Ka-bwima. 
In-gwe 


... 


... 


Lion 


... 


N-kalamu 


N-kalamu 


N-simba. 
I-kalanga 


... 


••♦ 


Lips 


... 


Mi-rcomcd 


Mu-lcomcij ; mi- 


Mi-r<omeo 


... 


... 


Magic 


... 


N-dcoci 


U-ltosi. U-fwiti Ubu-lwzi 


... 


... 


Maize 


... 


Vi-tonga. 

Ma-saka 


Ci-tonga. 

Ma-tawa 


... 


... 


... 


Man 




Mu-ntu; 


Mu-ntu ; 


U-ntu ; ba-ntu 


Umu-ntu ; 


Umu-ntu ; 






wa-ntu, 


wa-ntu 


(S.). U-nthu; 


awa-ntu 


awa-ntu 






ba-ntu 




ba-nthu. 
Mu-nu; va-nu 
(N.) 







GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 





44 a. 


44v 


44 b. 


^ '^^' ■ 


46. 


47- 


English 


Boj^wa. Usi 


Bisa (Wisa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 


Nya-lungwa 


Ci-na-mwanga 








Ki-pimbwe 


(Rungwa) 












45 a. South Fipa 






Man, vir. ... ... Mu-lume 


Mu-kulu 






••• 


Meat ... N-ama 


In-ama 


>■• 


«.• 




Medicine ... ... Mu-ti. 


Mu-samu. 


Un-ti 


... 


... 


Mu-yanda 


Mu-ti. 
Mu-nkwala 




• 




Milk ... Mii-kaka 


Mu-kaka. 
Ma-kapa 
{■)s.BxasL=verb) 


Ma-ziva 


... 


... 


Monkey ... ... I-sanje 


N-sanje. 
I-tumbwili 


••• 


... 


••• 


Moon ... Mw-ezi 


Mw-esi 


Umw-ezi 


Umw-edi 


Umw-ezi 


Mother ... ... Ya-ngu or 


Nyina ; ba-. 


I-mainga 


U-mai 


Nyina 


Na-ngu. 


Bama or 








Nyina. 


Wama. Na. 








Nyco-kcii 


Nyoj-kco or 
U-noj-ku) 








Mountain... ... Ulu-pili ; ma- 


Lu-pUi 


Mw-amba. 
Mu-piri 


... 


Mw-amba 


Mouth ... ... Aka-nwa; utu- 


Ka-nwa ; 
tu-nwa 


Aka-mwa 


Umu-loomw 


Umu-lumco 


Nail (of finger ... Ici-ala ; ifi. 


I-ala; m-ala 


• •• 


• •• 


... 


or toe) Di-ala; 










ma-ala 










Name ... I-sina 


I-sina 


Zina 


• ■■ 


Zina 


Navel ... Mu-twtco 


Mu-tcdtco. 
I-kombeo. 
Mu-kcowa 


Mu-sojfu 


... 


... 


Neck ... Mu-nkcosi 


Mu-kcosi 


N-sing<a 


■ ■• 


N-singco 


Night ... Bu-siku. 


U-siku. 


Bu-siku. 


... 


Uwu-siku. 


(Im-finsi 


(M-finsi 


(N-finsi 




(M-finzi 


= darkness) 


= darkness) 


= darkness) 




= darkness) 


Nose ... Um-ona (old). 


M-punoo 


Culu. 


[m-puna 


••• 


Im-punco 




M-cona 






Oil palm ... ... Mu-sikisi 




... 


•■• 


... 


Ox ... In-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 




In-ombe 


Paddle ... ... lii-kafi 


N-kafi 


Mu-kingi 


• ■• 


.*■ 


Palm wine, ... Ama-nyemco 


... 


... 


... 


Vi-m-pensya 


beer 










Parrot ... ... Cusu 


... 


... 


... 




Penis ... Wukala. 


Um-bcaloa, 


... 


... 


.*• 


M-bcolu 


Mu-bcolto 








Pig ... N-guluwe. 


N-kumba. 


N-guluwe 


..• 


Ka.pwli 


N-kumba 


N-guluwe 








Pigeon ... ... Ic-iwa; if-iwa 


N-kunda. 


Ki-huli 


... 


• ■• 


or iv-iwa 


C-iwa ; f-iwa 








Place ... Apa. 


Ci-fulco. 


Alaha 


... 


;.• 


Pa-conde 


Pa. 








Rain ... M-vula 


M-vula 


... 


... 


... 


Rat ... Mbewa. 


M-bewa. 


... 




••• 


Kuswe ; ba + 


Kuswe 








Rhinoceros ... Ici-pembele 


Ci-pembele. 
N-kuli 


... 


... 


•«• 


River ... Aka-nika; tu-. 


Mu-mana. 


Mu-longa 


... 


••• 


Mu-mana. 


I-nika. 








Mu-ronga 


Mu-longa 








Road ... Insila. 


N-sila. 


N-zira 


•.« 


N-zira 


N-kwakwa 


Mu-seu 








Salt 


... 


Mu-keri 


Mu-cele 


Mi-kere 


*.• 


I-membe 



202 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





44 a. 


Bisa (i^isa) 


44 b. 


45. 


46. 


47- 


English 


Boi^wa. Usi 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 


Nya-lungwa ? 


Ci-na-mwanga 








Ki-pimbwe 


(Rungwa) 












45 a. South Fipa 






Shame ... ... In-sconi 


N-stoni. 
N-ktope 


... 


... 


In-soani 


Sheep ... . Im-panga 


M-panga. 
M-belele 


M-fwere 


... 


Ifi-onzi 


Shield ... ... Ntdu 


N-gaweo 


... 


• •• 


... 


Shoulder ... ... Ici-fusi. Ici-pi 


Ci-fusi. 
Ku-weya ; 
ma-weya 


... 


••• 


Ici-weya 


Sister ... N-kasi. 


M-ii-. N-kasi. 


... 


U-witu ? 


N-kazi 


Ini-kas'. 


Mum-bale 








Skin ... N-kanda. 


Mu-kopco. 


Ki-ganda 


• •• 


• •• 


Ci-kumba 


Ci-wewe. 
Ci-pale 








Sky ... I-kumbi 


I-ulu. 

M-ulu 


I-yulu. 
Ma-fimbi (//.) 


I-gulu 


Yulu 


Slave ... Ka-pcolco; ba + . 


Mu-sya. 


Mu-^a ; ya-za. 
Un-^a; ^ 


Mu-zia 




Um-usya ; 


Ka-lume. 




- 


aba + 


Ka-pcolco 


aya-^a 






Sleep ... Utu-lco 


Tu-lco. 
Sinsila 


... 


... 


■•• 


Smoke ... ... Uw-usi ; 


Usi 


Mw-onjsi or 


... 


••• 


am-cosi 




Iki-unsi 






Snake ... ... I-seoka 


N-scoka 


... 


... 


In-zcoka 


Son, boy ... ... Mw-ana lume 


Mw-ana lume 


Mw-ana 
mu-lumendco 


Mw-ana. 
Mka-lumendu 


Umw-ana 


Song ... Ulu-imbeo; 


Lu-imbco ; 


Lu-lundwa 


... 


... 


ny-imbco 


ny-imbco 








Spear ... I-fumoa 


I-fumu. 
Mu-kondco. 
Mu-sumbu 


I-sumco ; ama- 


... 


... 


Spirit, soul ... OOmu-simu 


Mu-pasi. 
Mu-simu 


... 


Mu-zimu ; mi- 


Umu-zimu 


Star ... N-tandala 


Lu-tanda. 
Ka-tandala. 
Ka-wanga 


Lu-tanda 


[-tongwa 


N-tanda 


Stick ... ... ... Ici-ti. 


Kaci-ti. 


N-tuba. 




N-sonzco 


Mu-sakeo 


Mu-kcotco 


Ka-mama 






Stone ... I-bwe 


I -we. 


Iri-bwe. 


... 


I-we; 




I-hwe 


Vinga, 
I-finga 




ma-we 


Stool ... Ici-ptma or 


Ci-puna 


N-thebe 


... 


... 


Iki-puna 










Sun ... Ka-sojwa 


Ka-suwa 


Limi. 
Aka-zua 


i-dzuwa 


I-lanzi 


Tail (of an .„ Mu-kila 


Mu-cila. 


... 


... 


... 


animal) 


Ci-suka 








Tear ... Mun-seozi. 


Mu-scosi 


Lin-scozi 


... 


Imin-soazi 


Mun-scopi 










Testicles ... ... Ma-kandi. 


I-kolwa. 


... 


... 


• •• 


Ama-cende ? 


Ma-cende 








Thief ... Pompwe;ba+ Pompwe. 


Mw-ifl 


... 


Umu-nw ; 




Mu-ngco 






awa-nco 


Thigh ... Ici-weloo 


Ci-welco. Ci-sco 


... 


••• 


• •• 


Thing ... Ici-ntu; 


Ci-ntu ; 


Iki-nthu ; 




Ici-ntu; 


ivi-ntu 


fi-ntu 


ifi-nthu 




ivi-ntu 


Thorn ... ... Mu-figa 


Mu-figa 


... 


... 


Umw-unga ; imy 


Tobacco ... ... Fwaka 


Fwaka 


N-suiigu 


... 


..• 


To-day ... 


... 


Lelco 


Lelco 


I-rerco 


... 


I-lerco 





GROUP L 


: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 


203 




44 a. 


44-. 
Bisa (Wisa) 


44b. 


45. 


46. 


47- 


English 


Bco^wa. Usi 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 


Nya-lungwa 


Ci-na-mwanga 








Ki-pimbwe 


(Rungwa) 












45 a. South Fipa 






Toe 




Ici-kumco 


Ci-kumcd 








To-morrow- 


••• 


Ama-irco 


Ma- ilea. 
Ma-suzi 


... 


... 


Mu-tondco. 

{Za— day after) 


Tongue 


>•• 


I-rimi ; ama-. 
Ulu-limi ; 
n-dimi 


I-limi. 
Lu-mini. 

Mu-laka ' 


Lu-limi, 

Ulu-limi 


Ulu-limi 


Ulu-limi 


Tooth 


... 


Ir-incii; am-enu 


Inco, 
Il-inoo ; 
m-enoa 


ll-inco ; m-enu. 
lli-cekcd ; 
ma-cekco 


Il-inu ; am-inu 


... 


Town 




Mu-si, Mu-si 


Mu-si 


Un-zi ; imi-zi 


... 


K-aya; tw-aya 


Tree 


"• 


Mu-ti 


Ci-ti 


Umu-ti or 
Un-thi ; 
imi-ti. Ki-ti 




Umu-ti; 
imi-ti 


Twins 




Wam-pundu 


Ma-pasa. 
Wan-tembwa 


I-hasa ; 
ma-pasa 


... 


... 


Urine 


... 


Mi-s« 


Mi-kcosco. 
Mi-ame 


Ma-tunzi 


... 


— 


Vein 


... 


Ulu-sipa 


Lu-pipa 


... 


... 


... 


War 


... 


Vi-ta 


... 


... 


... 


. . . 


Water 


... 


M-ezi, 
Me-nzi 


M-enda. 
M-enzi 


Ma-nzi, 
Ama-nzi. 
Ami-nzi 


Ama-ndi 


Am-inzi 


Well, source 




Ici-sima 


Mu-kaloi. 
Ci-sima 




... 


.... 


White man 


... 


Mu-sungu 


Mu-sungu 


Un-zungu ; va- 
or ba-zungu 




... 


Wife 


... 


Mu-kasi ; awa- 


Mu-kasi ; wa- 


Mu-kcota ? 


Mu-kcata 


Umu-ci 


Wind 


... 


Mw-era 


M-pepco. 
Ka-wesia. 
Ci-pupu 


M-behoj 




Um-iiza. 
Mu-pera 


Witch 


... 


M-fwiti, 
I-fwiti 


N-dcosi. 
M-fwiti 


Mu-loozi 


• •• 


... 


Witchcraft 


... 


Uwu-lwci 


U-lcosi. 
U-fwiti 


Bu-lcozi 


... 




Woman ... 




Mu-kasi 


Mw-anakasi 


Mw-anace 


Mw-ana 
mu-kcota. 
Mu-kadi 


Umw-anaci 


Womb 


... 


I-fumco 


I-pafu. I-mita 




. •• 


Uwu-la 


Wood (fire- 




In-kuni 


N-kuni 


Lu-kwi ; 






wood) 








n-khwi 






Yam 


... 


Di-peta, 
Iri-peta ; ama 






... 


... 


Year 


... 


Mw-aka 


C-aka. 
Ci-limika 


Mw-aka 


... 


Umw-aka 


Yesterday... 


... 


Ama-ireo 


Ma-iloj 


I-yulu 


... 


... 


Zebra 




Im-bisi 


Cim-bwete. 
C-tolwa. 
Ci-ngeoli 


... 






One 




-mu 


-mco 


-mwi. -onga 


•mwe 


•mwi 


Two 




•wiri, -wili 


-wili 


-biri, -yiri 


-wili 


-wiri 


Three 




•tatu 


•tatu 


-dathu, -tathu 


•satu 


•tatu 


Four 




-nne 


-nne 


•ne, -ni 


-nne 


•ni, -ani 


Five 


... 


•sanco 


-sanu 


■thanca or 
-sanu 


•tanco 


•sanco 



7%« root of the tongue, -laka is an ancient and widespread Bantu root for ' tongue '. 



204 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



44 a. 
Bozwa. Usi 



44v 
Bisa (Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



4S- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 
Nya-lungwa 

(Rungwa) 



47. 
Ci-na-mwanga 



Six ... . 

Seven... . 

Eight... . 

Nine ... . 

Ten ... . 
Eleven 

Twenty . 

Thirty 

Forty ... . 

Fifty ... . 

Hundred . 
Thousand , 

I, me, my . 



Thou, thee, 
thy 



He, him, his 

We, us, our 
Ye, you, your 



They, them, 
their 



-sanco-na- 


•sancd-na- 


Mu-kaga (N.). 


M-kawaga 


Mu-tanda 


kamcd. 


(ka)-mco. 


•tandathu 






M-tanda (old) 


Mu-tanda 


(S.)^ 






•saneo-na- 


Ci-luwa. 


M-pungate 


M-samvu 


Mu-nenu- 


tu-wiri. 


-san(o-na-(tu)- 


(N.). 




la-m-bali 


M-fungati 


will 


M^tanda (?) 






(old) 










Sanoa-na-ta- 


•sancii-na-(tu)- 


Mu-nane, 


Mu-nane 


Ka-nani- 


tatu. Ici-nani, 


tatu 


•nane 




mon-si 


Ki-nani (old) 










Sanoo-na-'nne. 


Sanco-na-'nne 


Kenda (N.). 


Kenda 


Mu-fundi- 


Mw-enda((7/(/) 




Ka-mpusyw' 




kam-bali 


Di-kumi or 


I-kumi 


Li-kumi, 


hkumi 


I-kumi 


Iri-kumi (old) 




I-kumi 






Di-kumi la 


I-kumi na-'mu 


Li-kumi ni 


... 


•••* 


di-mco 




•mwi 






Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Araa-kumi 


a-wiri or 


a-wili 


ya-yili 


ga-wili 


y a-wiri 


ya-viri (old) 










Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


a-tatu or 


a-tatu 


ya-tatu 


ga-tatu 


ya-tatu 


ya-tatu 










Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


a-nne 


a-nne 


ya-nne 


ga-nne 


ya-ni 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


a-sanco 


a-sanco 


ya-sanw 


ga-tanu 


ya-sanw 


Mw-anda. 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda ; 


I-gana 


Umw-anda 


Iki-kumi (old) 




mi-anda 






Ki-rcoba, 


... 


• > t 


••• 


• *• 


Ki-rcowa 










I-ne. Ne-wco. 


Ne-wo). Ne. 


Nene. ^ N-. 


U-nene. 


Nene. 


Ni-ne. N-. 


Ni-ne. N-. 


-ni-, -n-. -a-ne 


N-, Ni-. 


N-. 


-ni-, -n-. -a-nji 


-n-. -a-nji, 
-a-ngi 




•ni-. -ene ? 


-n-. -a-ne 


We-wco. U-. 


We-wto, We. 


We, Wewe, 


We. U-. 


Wewe. 


-we. -ku-. 


U-. 


Ne-we. U-. 


-ku- ? -a-kw 


U-. 


•wwe 


•we. -ku-. 
•wwe 


•ku-. -a-kw 




-ku^. -a-kw 


I-ye, Ye. 


I-ye, Ye. 


Ye-ne ? 


U-yu. A-. 


We-ni, We-figa 


U-, A-. 


U^, A- 


U-, A-. 


•mu-.' -a-mwe? 


A-, W-. 


-ye. -m-,-mu-. 


•ye, -mu. 


-mu-. -a-kwe 




Mu- (imper- 


-a-kwe 


-a-kwe 






sonal), -raix: 
-a^kwe 


I-fwe, Fwe. 


Fwe-wco, Fwe. 


Sweswe. 


CO-sweswe. 


? Sweswe. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


•fwe. -tu-. -esu 


-fwe,-tu-. -esu 


-tu-. -itu 


-tu-. -etu 


■tu-. -itu 


Mwe-vo). Mu-. 


Mwe-wco, Mwe. 


Mwemwe. Mu-. 


Mwe. Mu-. 


Mwemwe, 


•mwe-, -mu-. 


Mu-. 


•mu-. -inu 


•mu- ? -inu 


Mwe. 


•enu 


-mwe. -mu-. 
-enu 






Mu-. 
•wa^. •inn 


Bawu. 


Waww (Babw), 


Be-ne. Ya-. 


U-ww. Wa-. 


A-ww. 


Ba-, Wa-. 


Mbw, Mba. 


•ya-. -a-bw, 


-wa-. -a-ww 


Wa-. 


-WW. -wa-. 


Wa-. 


-a-ww 




•wa-. -a-ww 


-a-wto 


•WW. -wa-. 
-a-ww 









'^ A form recorded by Stanley. Doubtful. 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



205 







44 a. 


44;, 


44 b. 


45- 




46. 


47- 


E 


nglish 


Bcozwa. Usi 


Bisa (Wisa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 


Nya 


•lungwa 


Cina^mwanga 












Ki-pimbwe 


(Rungwa) 














45 a. South Fipa 








All 






•onse -onse 


■onsi 


•onsi 




•onsi 


This, 


these 




Uwu-, uyu- ; awa ; uwu, uyu ; 
iyi ; ili or idi ; a ; ici ; ifi or 
ivi ; iyi or ii ; isi ; ulu ; utu ; 
aka ; uwu ; uku ; apa ; umu 


-u or -wi ; -ya ; 

u- ; yi ; li ; 

ya ; ki, ci ; 

fi ; i ; zi ; lu ; 

tu; ka; bu; 

ku ; ha ; mu 
•no» (wi-no), 

ya-nw, u-nco, 

yi-nco, (S-c.) 






A-yu-, a-wa- ; 
a-wu^, a^yi- ; 
a-li-, a-ya- ; 
a-ci-, a-vi- ; 
a-i-, a-zi-, 
a-lU", a-tu; 
a^ka^, a-wu- ; 
a-ku-, a-pa- ; 
a-mu- 


That, 


those 




N-gu; mba; n-gu; n-ji; n-di ; 
ii-ga ; n-ci; m-vi t'r m-fi ; n-ji ; 
n-si; n-du; n-tu ; fi-ka; m-bu; 
n-ku ; m-pa ; m-mu 

Uww, uyeo ; awca ; &>€. 

N-gco ; m-bco ; 6^c. 
-no> (u-nco, figu-nw, &'c.) 

•dia or -lya (u-lya, iigu-lia, 
mba-dia, is^c.) 

Also: demonstratives with a 
negative sense : ' not this ', 
' not that ', &>€. ; formed by 
duplicating class concord : 
mumu, wawa, mumu, ii, cici, 
lulu, S^c. 


Wiwi ; yaya ; 
uwu ; yiyi ; 

-lia, -lya, -rya 
(wi-lia, ya-lya, 

&'C.) 

•Wco ; -yaco ; 
&^c. 

-nina, -neya 
(wi-nina, ya- 
neya, 6-1:.) 






W-enye w-ee, 
wco-nye 
w-coco (l), 
wa wco-nye, 
wa wco-nye 
wcoco (2); 
wco-nye 
wcoco (3), 
yco-nye 
ycoco (4) ; 
lyco-nye 
lycoco (5), 
yco-nye 
ycoco (6) ; 
cco-nye 
ccoco (7), 
vyco-nye 
vycoco (8) ; 
yco-nye 
ycoco (9), 
zico-nye-ziwco 


















(10) ; &^c. 



Bad 

Black 

Female 

Fierce, sharp 
Good 

Great 

Little 
Long, high, 

tall 
Male 

Old 



Red .. 
Rotten 
Short.. 

Sick .. 



White 

1734 



•wi, wi-pa 


•wi, •fi-, -wi-pa 


-yi-fu. -yi-ha 


-bi 


•fita 


■fisi, -fita 


-fi-su 


• •• 


-ana^kasi 


-kasi, 
-ana-kasi 


•ce 


•kcota 


•kali 


•kali 


-kali 


• •• 


-wama 


-ine. -ne. 
-wame, -weme 


-ziha 


-ncoga 


•kulu 


-kulu 


-kulu 




■ike. -nini 


•ce. -ke. -nini 






•tali 


•tali 


-tali "' 


... 


-lume 


•lume 


•onsi, -cosi 


-lume. 






(Mw-onsi) 


-dume 


-kcote. 


•iikcota. 


... 




•kalamba. 


•kulu. 






•cekulu 


-pemba 






-kasika 


-kasika. -sweta 


■kasuke 


... 


-cola 


•cola 




... 


•ipi 


•ifi, -ipi. 


•guhi'(N.). 






•nini 


•ihi (S.) 




-Iwele 


-Iwele, 


•luile (verb). 


... 


(Ku-duara = 


•Iwala 


•Iwala, 




to de sici (old)) 




•dwala 




-a wuta, -buta 


■tuisi. -tuwa. 
■wuta, -buta 


-tiswe 


... 



-ci 



•cete. -longco. 
-zima 
•kuru 



-Iwale 



206 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



44 a. 
Bco^wa. Usi 



44v 
Bisa (Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 
Nya-lungwa 

(Rungwa) 



47- 
Ci na-mwanga 



Above, up, on 
top 
Before 

Behind 
Below, down 

Far 

Here 



In, inside ... 
Middle 

Near 

Outside 
Plenty, many 
There 



Where? ... 



No! 

Not {with verb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



To 



beat . . . 
buy, sell 
come . . . 
cut 

dance ... 
die 
eat 
give ... 

go 

kill ... 
know ... 
laugh ... 
leave off, 

cease 
love,want 

see 



sit, remain, 

abide 
sleep ... 

stand, stop, 

be erect 
steal ... 



Pa-mulu, 


Ku-mulu 


... 


•gulu. 


. . • 


Ku-mulu 






I^gulu 




Pa-ntansi 


Pam-ensco. 
•ntansi 


... 


Ku^mbele 


... 


Ku-numa 


Ku-numa 


• • • 


Ku^nyuma 




Pa-nsi, Ku-nsi 


Pa-npi, Ku-npi 




Pa-nsi 


. .• 


Ku-tali 


Ku-tali 


Ku-tali 


Ku^tali 


... 


Kuneo, Mpanw. 


Kimco. 


... 


Panu 


•<■ 


N-ku, M-pa, 


Panca 








&•€. 










Mu, Mwa 


Mu-kati 






Mu-, Mwi 


-kati 


■kati 






Pa^kasi 


Pepi 


Pepi 


Hihi (Pipi) 


Pimpi 


... 


Ku-nze 


Kw-isonde 


... 




• •• 


-inji, -iiigi 


-inji, -indyi 


. . . 


... 


• •• 


M-paria, 


Ku-lia, 


... 


... 


• •• 


N-kuria, 


Pa-lia 








Kudia 










Ku? Kwi.' 


Ku-lipi ? 


-kwi ? 




Li-rikwi ? 


Kwi-la-kwi? 


Kwi-la-kwi ? 
Ku? 








Yai! lyto. 


lyco. Te ! 


Yco ! Nto ! 


... 


••• 


Ta! 


Tau. Kcokco 


Ahe! 






Ta. Ta-pari-. 


Te. Ta-pali. 


-ta-. -ku-. -si 


• •• 


•ta^; •ti^. 


Si", Ta-u-, 


Teti- [all per- 


{jiegative verb) 




•sina. 


Ta-a-, Ta-tu, 


sons) -yaxa. 






•%\(neg.ofto 


Ta-mu-, 


pi-,N-pi,Ta-u-, 








Ta-ba-. 


Ta-a-, Ta-tu, 








•i- (with im- 


Ta-mu-, 








perative) 


Ta-wa-, &'c. 








(Oku- 


Ku- 


Uku- 


Uku- 


Uku- 


•puma. -pama. -kuma 


-huma. -uma 


Pula 


... 


-wula 


-sita 


... 


... 




•isa 


-iza 


-idza 


-yiza, -fika 


■tema. -ceka. -sesa 


... 


... 


• .• 


-fina, -siana. 


-kinda, cinda 


•bina. -kina 




•cina 


-fwa. -sila. -sweka 


■fwa 


-fwa 


•fwa 


-dia. 


-lia 


•lya 


. •■ 


•lya 


•pa. 


-pela 


-ha 


-pela 


•pa 


•ya. -ima. 


-enda. -pita 


-ya. -hita 


•pita 


-ya 


■kcome-ka. -ipaya 




... 


-kuma 


•isiwa, -isi 


-manya 




-manya 


•seka 


•seka 


• •< 


-seka 


•leka 


•leka 




•leka, 










■reka 


•temwa. -londa. •fwaya. 


-kunda 


• •* 


•kunda. 


■funa 






-londa 


■wona, -wena 


151a. -laba, 


-wuna (-wine 


... 


-Icola. 


•lawa. 


-langa 


= preterite). 
■Icola 




■lainga-nyia 


-ikala 


... 


-ikala 


-ikala 


■lala. 


-sinsila 


•sendama. 

(■oaz.= snore) 


... 


-pune-ca 


•ima. 


-imilila 


•ima. 
•imika 


-imilila 


-yila, 
-yimi-rira 


•iba, •iwa. -pamba. -pcoka 


•iya 


... 


... 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 207 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN THE EISA DIALECTS 

Preprefixes present in Bisa but nearly absent in Lala and Lamba. 

Class I. Umu-, OOmu-, Mu- (mu, m-, wu-, yu-, gu, u-) ; 2. Aba-, Awa-, Wa-, Ba- (wa-, ba-) ; 
3. Umu-, (jOmu-, Mu- (mu-, m-, wu, yu-, gu, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, yi, ji, !-) ; 5. Idi-, Iri-, Hi-, Li-, I- (li) ; 
6. Ama-, Ma- (ma-, a, ga) ; 7. Iki-, Ici-, Ki-, Ci- (ki, ci) ; 8. Ivi-, Ifi-, Fi- (vi, fi) ; 9. In- (Im-), N-, N- 
(M-), Ini-, Ni- (n-, yi-, -ji-) ; 10. same as 9 and with Ny- (si) ; II. €lu-, Lu- (lu-, -du-) ; 12. Utu-, Tu- 
(tu-) ; 13. Aka-, Ka- (ka-) ; 14. Uwu-, Bu-, U- (wu-, -bu-, u-) ; 15. OOkto-, tOku-, Uku-, Ku- (ku) ; 

16. Apa-, Pa- (pa) ; 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-). 

PREFIXES, &c., IN FIPA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Un-, Mu- (un-, -mu-, wi-, u-) ; 2. Ba-, Va-, Ay a-, Ya- (ba-, ya-, va-) ; 3. Un-, Umu- 
(un-, wu, U-) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, i-, yi-) ; 5. I-, Hi- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Iki-, C- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Ifi- (fi) ; 

9. In-(Im-),I-(in- lim-), i); lo. In- (Im-) (zi-) ; 11. Ulu- (lu-) ; 12. Utu-(tu-); 13. Aka-(ka-); 14. Bu-, 
Vu- (bu-, VU-) ; 15. Uku-(ku-); 16. Ha- (ha-) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

Ipi- or Isi- is used as an honorific prefix. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN NYA-LUNGWA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, U- (m-, mu, u-) ; 2. Wa-, ?Awa- (wa) ; 3. Umu- (m-, mu-, ?) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, i?) 
5. m-, I- (li?); 6. Ama- (ma-, ga-) ; 7. ?Ci-, ?Ki- (?ki, ci,) ; 8. ? ; 9. On-, Un-, In- (Im-) (n-, i ?) 

10. Zi- (zi); II. OOlco-, Ulu-? (lu?); 12. ?; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. ?; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Apa? (pa) 

17. Umu- ? (mu-). -ana diminutive stiffix. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-NA-MWANGA 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu- (mu, yu, u-) ; 2. Awa- (awa-, wa) ; 3. Umu- (mu-, uwu, u) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, yi) ; 5. Hi-, 
I-(ili-, li); 6. Ama- (ma-, aya, ya) ; 7. Ici- (ici-, ci) ; 8. Ivi- (ivi-, vi) ; 9. In- (Im-), In-, Iny-, N- (m-, yi); 
10. same as 9 (izi-, zi) ; 11. Ulu- (ulu-, lu) ; 12. Utu- (utu-, tu) ; 13. Eka-, Aka-, Ka- (aka-, ka) ; 14. Uwu- 
(uwu-, wu); 15. Uku- (uku-, ku); 16. Apa-, Pa- (apa-, pa) ; 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, mwi-, -nye, -nyi). 

Si- ' father ' prefix ; E- honorific personal prefix ; -ana diminutive suffix. 



44 a. Bco^wa and Usi dialects are spoken in the region south of Lake Mweru, west of Lake Baiig- 
weulu and north of the Luapula river. Also on the islands of Lake Bangweulu. 

44. Bisa is spoken east of Lake Bangweulu, south of the Cambezi river and the nth degree of 
South latitude, west of the Luangwa and south of the 13th degree of South latitude. 

44b. Lala-Lamba is spoken north of the Luusefwa-Muluiigup rivers and the Butoiiga country; 
west of the Mucinga mountains and the Bisa country ; east and north of the Kafue watershed, south of 
Lake Bafigweulu, south and west of the Luapula river, as far west as the Upper Lualaba, and north to 
about 10° 30' South latitude. 

45. Fipa is spoken on the south-eastern shores of Lake Taiiganyika south of the Luguvu river and 
Wukawendi ; as far east as the Mkafu-Rurigwa river, the depression of Rukwa Lake and the Nyamwanga 
people, north of the Kilambo river and the Lufigu-Mambwe peoples. 

46. Nyalungwa is spoken east of Fipa, between the Mkafu and Rungwa rivers, north of Manda and 
the Rukwa depression and south and west of the Nyamwezi (Kimbu) dialects. 

47. Cinamwaiiga is spoken in the middle portion of the northern part of the Nyasa-Tafiganyika 
plateau between the Nyika and Mambwe peoples, and between the sources of the Cambezi river and the 
valley of the Saisi river. 

P 3 



GROUP M 

THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



48. Uiigu (Ici-wungu) 48a. Ki-manda ' 

49. Ipi-nyixa (Ipi-wanda, Ipi-wiwa) 

50. Ici-wandia (Ici-rambia, Ici-ndali) 



51. Ikinyi-kiusa (N-konde). 51a. 'M-wamba', 

Ci-scociri or Iki-kukwe 

52. Ci-henga^ 52 a. Ci-tumbukan«(f Ci-kamanga 

53. Ci-tonga. 53 a. Ci-siska or Ci-sisya 





48. 


49. 


50. 


51- 


52. 


S3- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ifi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu " 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Adze 


Ka-temco ; tu- 


AKa-themcj 


Aka-themco 




Ka-temco 


Ka-temco 


Animal, wild 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama, 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 








Kiny-ama-na 






Ant 


In-sungwa 


In-d6ndumi 


Ici-ndundu 


N-gesa. 
Umu-ng^ulu, 
Mu-nguru ; 
a-f and'xmx-. 
Nka-nyegesi. 
N-sewere 


Ki-ndundu ; vi- 


Ny-erere. 
Sungunungu 


Ant, white 


Ru-swa 


Ru-8wa; ama- 


Uru-swa ; ama- 


Iki-ulu. 


... 


Mu-swa 


(termite) 








Un-swa ; 
mi-swa. 
In-swa. 
M-bulika 






Ape 


• •• 


... 


*•• 


... 


• •* 


•.• 


Arm 


Um-ktonoj ; 


I-xoanoj; ama-. 


Ici-anza 


Ru-pifwa(5ia). 


Ka-wcoko> ; //. 


J-anja ; 




imi- 


Umu-fitonoj 




Lu-kongi ; 
iii-gongi. 
Lu-ete. 
Lu-mojlume. 
Iki-bukco ; 
//. ifi- 


ma- 


m-anja 


Arrow 


Umw-ambi 


Li-ere; am-ere 


Umu-vwi ; imi- 


Un-tipuru ; mi- 


Mu-vcoe 


Mu-vwi 


Axe 


In-demco 


Themto 


In-themco 


In-duwanga 


M-bavi 


Ka-temco ; tu- 


Baboon ... 


In-dumbi 


Im-bwadyi 


U-korwe; awa- 


Kaki; ba + . 
M-bwengi 


M-bweiigco 


Mu-nkweri ; 
■pi. vvamu- 


Back 


M-gongoj or 


Um-tenzi; imi-. 


Um-ongeo ; 


Lu-gongco. 


Mu--yongco. 


M-sana 




Uii-gongco ; 


Umu-sana 


imi-. 


Ro-mia ? 


Muci-wunu 






imi- 




In-sizi 


N-sana 






Banana . . . 


N-gombwe 


N-kombwe 


N-kombwe ; 

ama-. 
Iki-yindya 


Ili-tojki; ama-. 
N-gegoj. 
Iki-jinja. 
N-difu (51 a). 
N-diali (51a) 


Di-kombere 


Dcoci or 
Ru-deoci ; 
//. ma-toci 


Beard 


N-devu 


N-defu 


Iki-refu 


N-defu or 
Ru-refu 


Mw-embe 


Mw-embi 


Bee 


In-zuci 


Ndu-zupi, 
N-zupi 


Uru-zimu ; in- 


N-dznki or 
In-yuki 


Ru-zimu 


N-juci 


Belly 


In-da ; 


Ru-anda ; 


A-kati. 


Ru-anda. 


N-tumbco 


N-tumbco 




nyin-da 


iny-anda 


Mu-kasi 


Ili-fundtibili. 

Mun-da. 

N-domboroj 

(SI a) 







Ki-manda is said to be no more than a dialect ^yUngu. 



Including Ci-pcoka. 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



209 



English 



48. 
Ungu or 
Ici-wungu 
5 a. Ki-raanda 



49. 
I?i-nyixa 



50. 
Ici-wandia 



51- 
Ikinyi-kiusa 
(N-konde) 

51a. 
M-wamba 



52. 

Ci-henga 

52 a. 

Ci-tumbuka 



Ci tonga 

53 a. Ci-siska 

or Ci-sisya 



Bird 


In-uni, Ic-coni 

ivi- 


Ipi-yunyi ; hi-. 
I-nuni 


Iki-yuni; ivi- 


In-juni 


Ki-yuni 


Ci-yuni; vi- 


Blood 


U-landa 


M-nanda 


Uwu-yazi ; 
amabu--yazi 


I-rcopa or Ili- 


N-do>pa 


N-dcopa 


Body 


Um-wiri 


Mu-wiri or 
Mu-vili 


Umu-wiri ; 
imi- 


Um-biri ; imi- 


M-tupi 


Ru-vavu 


Bone 


I-fupa 


I-fupa 


I-fupa ; ama- 


Ru-fupa; pi. 
i-fupa or 
ama-fupa 


Ci-wangwa 


Ci-wanga 


Borassus palm 


M-kcoma 


I-xuma ; ama- 


Umu-kcoma ; 
imi- 


N-kcoma ; imi- 


M-k<oma 


Mu-vumu. 
Di-kama 


Bow 


Uwu-ta 


Wu-dabi 


Uwu-ta; ama- 


Wu-pindco ; 


Wu-ta 


Wu-ta 


Bowels 


Uvvu-Ia 


Uwu-ra 


Ama-ra 


imi- 
Uwu-ra 


Ma-tumbcd 




Brains 


Uw-ongco 


Uw-ongco 


Uw-ongo3 


B-ongco 


W-ongcij 


W-ongo9 


Breast (man's) 


Iki-fua 


Ipi-fua 


Iki-fua 


Ku- or 
Ki-pambaya 


Ki-fua 


... 


Breast 


Ama-were 


I -were; ama- 


I -were ; ama- 


I-were ; ama- 


Di-were ; ma- 


Ma-wee 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Mw-an-'itu. 
I-lumbu 


Umu-ninu. 
Umu-zuna. 
VVa-mw-inyu 


Umu-zuna 


U-niiguna. 
Umw-ina ; 
ab-ina. 
Um-suma ; 
awa- 


M-nununa 


Mu-kuwangu 


Buffalo 


Im-bcoo> 


Im-bcogcd 


Im-bcogco 


Im-bugu>. 
Inj-ati 


Nj-ati 


Nj-aU 


Bull 


In-dume 


N-copa 


N-kambaku 


N-gambaku 


• • t 


... 


Buttocks ... 


Ama-takca 


Ipi-duru ; ivi- 


Uru-tungu; in- 


I-tanga ; ma- 


Di-takoj ; 
ma-taku 


Ci-skunku ; 
vi-skunku 


Canoe 


Uw-atco 


Uw-atto 


Ubw-atco ; 
amaby-atco 


Bw-atco; 
mi-atco 


W-atu 


W-atu 


Cat 


I-nyaco 


U-nyawu ; 


Aka-nyawu ; 


Niaru ; 


M-buyaco. 


M-buya« 






awa-. 


utu- 


wa-nyaru. 


(K-ana-m-anga 








Alia-nyawu 




Aka-ruk'a 


? little child of 
the coast) 




Charcoal ... 




. .* 


... 


Ama-wawoj 


... 


... 


Chief 


Umw-ene ; a- 


Umw-ene ; 


Im-fumu 


Ili-fumu 


Fumu. 


Fumu. 






amw-ene 




{counsellor) ; 
Mw-ara-fi-ari 
aw-ara-fi-ari. 
Umu-twa ' 


M-fumu; //. 
ma- 


Akweni 


Child 


Umw-ana; 
aw-ana 


Umw-ana. 
Umu-cece 


Umw-ana 


Umw-anike ; 
aw-anike. 
Uiikeke. 
Umw-ana 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 


Cloth 


Mw-enda 


Umw-enda 


Umw-enda 


Umw-enda ; 


N-guweo 


Saru 


Cold 


... 


... 


... 


imi- 
Iki-pepco. 

Ma-kute 


... 


... 


Country ... 


In-si 


In-si 


In-si 


Iki-su ; ifi- 


C-aru 


C-aru 


Cow 


In-ombe. 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 




1-senga 


n-tiganco 


n-dama 


In-dama. 
lii-gcolombe 


yana-kazi 


yi-ntikazi 


Crocodile ... 


In-dco;51u 


N-dcoworoa 


lii-wina 


Ifi-gwina 


Mii-wina 


Mu-n»na 



' Ubu-twa = lordship. Mw-ara-fi-ari is often pronounced Mw-ana-fi-ari. 



2IO 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



J8. 

Ungu or 

Ici-wungu 

48 a. Ki-manda 



49. 
Ipi-nyixa 



. SO- 
Ici-wandia 



51- 
Ikinyi-kiusa 
(N-konde) 

51a. 
M-wamba 



Ci-henga 

52 a. 

Ci-tumbuka 



. 53; 
Ci-tonga 
53 a. Ci-siska 
or Ci-sisya 



Day Uwu-siku. Uw-anda; Ubu-anda or 

I-siku am-anda. Uby-anda 

Mu-sanya 

Devil Um-zimu;a-, I-piwa. Umu-zimu 

awa- Umu-kwalanzi 

Doctor (medi- ... Umu-ganga 

cine man) 

Dog Im-bwa Im-bwa. Im-bwa 

(N-thende = 
ditch) 



Donkey 
Door ... 



Dream 
Drum .. 



Ear ... 
Egg ... 
Elephant 
Excrement 
Eye ... . 



In-dugwe. 

l-siiika 
Ulu-igi ; p/. 

ing-iyi or 

in-iyi 
Ki-rotto 
In-coma 



I-dcogoowi 
I^i-riangco 

I^i-r5tca 
N-thaya 



Face, foretiead Kum-insco 



Kum-insu 



Fat .. 
Father 



Fear .. 
Finger 

Fire .. 
Fish .. 

Foot .. 



Ama-futa Im-pama 

U-tai; awa-tai Tata. 
Yise 



Uw-owa 

Ul-towe. 
In -to we 

Um-otco. 

Umu-lilcd 
In-swi 



Iki-nama. 
Un-gulu 



Uw-coga 
Ru-sanzca 



Umu-rirto. 
Umvv-otco 
In-swi 



Uru-aiyto. 
Ny-aiyeo. 
I^i-nama 



Im-bunda 

Uniu-riangco. 
Uru-tanga 

Iki-rotcj 
In-coma 



I-twe or Iku-twi Iku-tu 

Iku-twe; ama- 

I-yi ; ama-yi I-dyi ; Iri-enza 

ama-dyi 

I-zeovu I-zo)Vu In-zcofu 

Ama-vi I-vi ; ama-vi I-mvi ; 

ama-mvi 

Iri-nsu; ama- Idi-insco; Ir-insoj 
am-inscii 



Kum-insco 
Ama-futa 

Uw-»!a 
Ur-owe 

Um-otco 
In-swi 

Iki-nama 



Uwu-siku. 

(Pa-mcosi = 

dqy/i£-/ti.) 

In-gulila 
M-basi. 

Ru-embe 
I-nanga. 

Un-nyagco 
Im-bwa. 

(Im-bwa 

nya-mbara 

= i. Im- 

bwakazi = 5) 
Im-bunda 

Uru-igi ; 
ny-igi 



Wu-siku. 
Suka 



Ci-wanda. 

Ki-hene 
Si-iianga 

N-cewe. 
Nyim-bwa ; 
zim- (52 a) 



Punda 
Mu-riangu 



In-jcosi Ci-rutu 

In-coma. Ncoma 

Iki-mbimbi. 

N-dingara 
Im-buni. Ku-tu 

Ku-tu 
Ili-fumbi; ama- Sumbi ; ma- 



I-scofu, 

N-scovu 
Ama-fi, 

Ama-vi 
Idi-sco ; 
ama-sco. 
Ru-sige ; i-sige 
Kuma-sco ; 

ama-sco. 

Iky-eni ; 

ify-eni 
Ama-futa 
Tata ; aba -I- . 

Ugu-sco ; aba-. 

Ugw-ise. 

Un-kco 
W-oga 

Ur-obe, 

Ur-cowe ; 

in-we 
M-oto> 

I-swi, In-sw^i. 

M-berere. 

N-gumba 
Lu-jaijco, 

Ru-yayco 

or UUi-jajo ; 

/>/. in-yayco, 

in-jajco 



Zoavu 

Ma-vi 
D-isco 

Kuma-sco 
Ma-futa 

B-ofi, W-ofi 
Mu-niie 

M-5tco 
Somba 



C-ayco ; 
vi-ayco 



M-sana 



Si-nanga 
Gam 



Punda. 

Bori 
Kcomco ; ma + 



Ku-rcota 
If coma 



Ku-tu or 
Gu-tu 
Zia ; ma-f 

N-jcovu 

Ma-vi 

J-isu 

Ci-su 
Ma-futa 



W-eni-ma-nta. 

Ku-opa 
Mu-niie 



M-5to9 
Somba 

Pazi ; ma + 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 





48. 


49. 


50. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci -tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 


* 


48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Forest 


M-situ 


I -situ 


Umu-situ 


Ulu-singi 


Ma-kuni 


Mu-situ 


Fowl 


Ifi-guku 


In-guku 


In-guku 


In-guku 


Kuku 


Ny.<uli 


Frog 


... 


... 


... 


Iki-ula ; ifi-. 
Iki-ura ; 
ifi-ura 


... 


... 


Ghost 


Umu-zimu 


Umu-zimu. 
Ipi-nziunguri 


Umu-zimu. 
Iki-nsiunguri 


Un-siuka ; 
mi-siuka. 
In-siunguru 

(= shadow) 


Ci-wanda 


Ci-wanda 


Giraffe 


... 


• .• 


..• 




... 


..• 


Girl 








Un-sungu. 
Un-dindw-ana ; 

awa-lindu-ana 






Goat 


Ini-buzi 


Im-buzi 


Im-buzi 


Im-beni 


M-buzi 


M-buzi 


M (he) ... 


Li-pongco 


Ili-pongoa 




M-bongco 


... 


... 


., (she) 


Lugcota 




... 


Im-beki 


... 


... 


God 


Mu-rungu. 
U-zuwa 


Umu-ruiig^u, 
Umu-lungu 


Umu-rungu 


M-bamba. 
Ki-ara 


Mu-rungu 


Mu-rungu 


Grandparent 


... 


... 


... 


Mw-isukuru S. 
Un-nyenya 5 




... 


Grass 


I-sote 


I -sure, 
I-scole 


I-scote 


Ir-isco, 
Il-isu 


U-teka 


U-teka 


Ground 


I-rongo> 


I-twpe 


Iri-ongcij 


Um-fu 


Dongco 


Pa-si 


Ground-nut 


Im-balala 


Im-balala 


In-siawa 


I-siawara 


Ru-siawa ; 
syawa 


M-barara 


Guinea-fowl 


I-khaiiga 


I-xainga 


I-kaiiga 


Ili-kaiiga 


N-kanga 


N-kanga 


Gun 


Bundusi 


Bundusi 


Iny-undusi 


I-ndusco ; ma- 


Fuuti 


Futi 


Hair 


I-nyere 


In-sisi. 
Vu-sepe 


I-sisi 


In-yuwire 

ipl.) 


Sisi 


Sisi 


Hand 


I-yaza 


I^i-anza. 
Umu-fieonoj ; 

ama- 


I-kasa 


Iki-anja. 
Iki-bcokcd ; ifi-. 
Li-wtokco 

(SI a) 


Ci-manja 


Ci-kufi 


Head 


Umu-twe ; imi- 


I-tue 


Umu-tii 


Un-tu, Mu-tu; 
mi-tu 


Mu-tu 


Mu-tu 


Heart 


Um-oyco 


Umw-aya 


Um-oyco 


N-dumbura, 
N-dumburu 


M-oyeo 


Mu-tima 


Heel 


In-dinginya 


I?i-hankari 


Ici-tende 


Iki-tende 


Ci-grunu 


Ka-ngcolingeoli 


Hide 








N-guba>. 
Ulu-gubcogubto. 
Um-papa. 
Iki-kanda 




Cu-kumba 


Hill 




... 


... 


Ki-amba. 
Ki-fimba 


... 


... 


Hippopotamus 


I-vuii 


Im-vuwu 


Im-vuwu 


I-fuwu. 
I-fubu. 
In-dumondoj. 
N-gupi 


Ci-gwere 


Ci-gweri, 
Ci-bweri 


Hoe 


... 


... 


... 


Li-kumbulu 


• •■ 


... 


Honey 


Uw-uci 


Ubu-upi 


Uw-uci 


R-uki 


W-uci 


Uci 


Horn 


Im-pembe 


Uru-pembe 


Uru-pembe 


Ru-pembe ; 
m-bembe 


Ru-sengwe 


Sengwe, 
Li-sengwe 


House 


Iny-umba 


Iny-umba. 
H'-aya; 
tw-aya 


Iny-umba 


Iny-umba. 
Ki-waga. 
Mw-idu 

(51a) 


Ny-umba; zi-l- 


Ny-umba 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





48. 


49. 


50. 


51- 


52- 


S3- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-hefiga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Hunger 


In-zala 


In-zala 


In-zala 


N-jara. 
In-dzara 


N-jara 


N-ja 


Husband ... 


■ •• 


... 


... 


Un-dume ; 
aba-lume 


... 


... 


Hyena 


Im-bisi 


N-zumbi 


Uci-mbui 


Iki-ndingco. 
Ili-patama ; 
ama- 


Ci-mbwe 


Pundu ; 
a-pundu 


Iron 


Ic-era. 
Ili-cuma 


Ipij-era 


Ic-era 


Iki-era 


C-uma 


N-thali. 
M-porokcdtcd 


Island 


In-tipa 


... 


Ici-ntenserezia Lu-sungoa. 


Ci-rumba 


Ci-rwa 










Ru-syengesisi 






Ivory 


Ru-pembe 


U ru-pembe 


U ru-pembe 


M-bembe 


Mu-nyainga 


Mu-nyanga 


Knee 


1-kokoIa 


If-izwi 


I-kukora 


Li-fundu 


Kongconu 


Gongconoa 


Knife 


Ru-kamanga 


Umu-fiu 


Umu-fiu 


U-magi ; mi- 


Ci-maye 


Ci-mayi 


Lake 


Ikwa 


U-sumbi 


U-sumbi 


Sumbi. 
Iki-siba 


... 


... 


Leg 


Um-ntindi 


I^i-nama 


Iki-nama 


Iki-rundi ; ivi- 

or ama- 


Rundi; ma- 


C-iga; vi- 


Leopard . . . 


N-gcoi 


In-zoiwe 


Un-ziera 


Ili-wole. 
Ili-bcole. 
N-jusi 


Yi-ngeo 


Nya-rubwi 


Lion 


... 


... 




In-galamu 


... 




Lips 


Mi-lcomco (//.) 


Umu-rtomoj ; 
ama- 


Umu-rwmM ; 
imi- 


Un-dcomcd ; 
mi-roimco 


Mu-rtomco 


Mi-rcomoj 


Magic 


Un-d<ozi 


Uwu-ro>zi 


Uwu-rcozi 


N-dwsi 


Wu-hawi. 
Mu-nkhwara 


Fwiti 


Maize 


Ma-saka 


I-saxa 


Iki-rombe 


Iki-rombe; ifi- 


N-g5ma 


Ciii-goma 


Man 


Um-tu : 


Umu-ntu ; 


Umu-ntu ; 


Umu-ndu ; 


Mu-ntu ; wa- 


IVlu-ntu ; wa- 




awa-ntu 


awa-ntu 


awa-ntu 


or aba-, awa- 






Man (vir.)... 






Nya-mbara 


Un-dume. 
Unnya-mbala. 
N-kangali 
(51a) 






Meat 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-yama 


Medicine ... 


• ■• 




... 


Uii-kcota 


Mu-nkhwara 


. . . 


Milk 


... 


... 


— 


Iki-senga. 
Ulu-kama 




Li-wise 


Monkey ... 


Im-bwadzi 


In-tumbi 


I-tumbiri 


Kabukabu. 
Kaukau. 
Salila 


M-buyi 


Pusi 


Moon 


Unw-ezi 


Umw-ezi 


Umw-ezi 


Umw-ezi 


Ny-aiiga 


Mw-ezi 


Mother ... 


U-mai ; awa- 


U-nyina 


... 


Yuwa (?r Jiiba. 

Un-nyco-kco. 
Un-na 


... 


-.. 


Mountain . . . 


Umw-amba 


I-gamba 


Ici-piri 


Iki-amba 


Ru-piri 


Piri 


Mouth 


Un-dcomto ; imi 


I-lcomu 


... 


Nka-mwa 


... 


■ >• 


Nail (of finger 


I-ningwa 


Uru-zura 


Ur-owe ; 


Ki-ara. 


Nj-cowe 


C-ara 


or toe) 






iny-cowe 


Ur-o»we(si a). 
Iky-ala 






Name 


Ir-ina 


Iz-ina 


Iz-ina 


In-g^amu 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


Navel 


... 






Ili-tumbu 






Neck 


I-singca 


In-sing(o 


In-singu 


I-keosi 


Mu-kusi. 
Singed 


Kcasi" 


Night 


Wu-Riku. 


Wu-siku. 


Wu-siku. 


Bu-siku. 


Usiku. 


U-siku 




(1-cisi = 


I-pisi 


I-kisi 


I-kilco. 


(Cisi = 






darkness) 




(Pa-kiru = 


darkness) 












darkness) 







GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



213 





j8. 


49. 


50. 


,.51. 


52. 


53- 


English 


Uiigu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikmyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-toiiga 




Ici-wungu 






(K-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Nose 


Im-pula 






Im-bula 






Oil palm . . . 


... 






. . . 


... 


M-sikisi 


Ox 


In-ombe 
in-dume 


In-ombe 


In-ombe 


In-ombe 
im-fule. 
(Aka-gombe = 

small ox) 


N-ombe 
yana-lume 


N-ombe 


Paddle ... 


... 


... 


... 


Ru-kafi ; 
in-gafi 


... 


... 


Palm wine. 


... 


... 


... 


Ubw-alwa 


... 


Ma-kama 


beer 








(ieer) 






Parrot 


... 


... 


... 




... 


N-kulekwe 


Penis 


I-rua 


Wu-xara 


Im-borco 


Im-borco, 
Im-bolco. 
Ili-sinco; 
ama- (51 a) 


M-borco 


U-ka. 
Tongco 


Pig 


U-kapodi 


I-guruwe 


In-guruwe 


In-guluwi 


Ki-henehene 


N-guriJi 


Pigeon 


In-dziwa 


N-gugu 


In-toazi 


N-gungu 
widza. 
N-gunda 


N-jiwa 


Khunda 


Place 


W-ono> 


Pawu-gconoj 


Uwu-raru 


Bu-gconco. 
Witugarco 


Pa- 


C-aru 


Rain 


I-vula. 
In-semba 


Im-vura 


Im-vura 


I-fura 


Vura 


Vua 


Rat 


M-biringa 


U-kuza 


U-kuza 


Im-bewa 


M-bewa 


Ma-janca (pi.) 


Rhinoceros 


... 


... 


... 


Pembele or 
Ki-pembere 


... 


... 


River 


Uni-bana; imi- 


I-dzendze. 
U-sumbi 


Uru-izi. 
U-sumbi 


Uru-isi. 
Ulvv-esi. 
Sumbi 

(51a) 


Mu-ronga 


Mu-sinji 


Road 


I-zira 


In-zira 


In-zira 


In-jira, 
In-dzira. 
Um-pulco, 
Um-pusco 


N-tcohwa 


N-teowa 


Salt 


... 


Li-veya 


... 


Um-unyu ; 
imi-unyu. 
Iki-lambco 


... 


... 


Shame 








I-sconi 






Sheep 


Inozi 


I-nonzi ; 
ama-gonzi 


I-nonzi 


In-osi 


Berere 


M -berere 


Shield 


... 


... 


... 


lii-guru. 
Ili-tera 


... 


... 


Shoulder ... 


... 


... 


*•> 


Iki-beja 


... 


... 


Sister 


Mumbu or 
Rumbu. 

Umw-engi ; 
awa- 


I -rumbu 


Umu-yemba 


I -rumbu ; ama- 


Dumbu 


Mu-sice 


Skin 


In-cimba 


In-gora 


Iki-kuwa 


Iki-kanda. 
In-g^bco 


Ci-cimba 


Ru-wavu; ma- 


Sky 


Ku-lulu 


Kumw-anya. 
I-wingco 


Kumw-anya. 
I-wingu 


Kumw-anya. 
I-wingu 


Kuc-anya 


Mi-tambu 


Slave 


Umu-dzia ; 
awa- 


... 


... 


Im-pina, 
Um-pina 




... 


Sleep 


Utu-rco 


Utu-rto 


Utu-rw 


Utu-rco 


Tu-rco 


Ku-ru. 
U-siwa 


Smoke 


Idi-cosi 


Iri-cosi 


Ic-usi 


Ili-5si 


J-cosi 


J-cosi 


Snake 


In-zuka 


In-jcoxa 


In-zcdka 


N-jeoka 


N-jcoka 


N-jcoka 



814 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





jS. 


49- 


SO. 


SI- 


. 52- 


53- 


English 


Ung:u or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Son, boy ... 


Umw-ana 


Umw-ana 


Umw-ana 


Umw-ana ; 
ab-ana. 
Umw-anike ; 
aba-. 

Un-dumi-ana ; 
aba-lumi-ana 


Mw-ana. 

Mw-ana-lume. 
K-ana 


Mw-ana 


Song 


Uru-imbca 


Uru-imbca 


Uru-imbci> 


Uru-imbco 


Lu-imb<o 


Ru-sumeo ; 
sumu 


Spear 


Lupalala 


Im-parara 


Im-parara 


Ifi-gwegto. 
N-gurco (51 a). 
Iki-kcosa 


Mu-kondco 


Mu-k5ndco 


Spirit, soul 




M-pepto 




Um-ojjco; imi- 


... 


. . . 


Star 


N-tongwa. 
Ny-cota 


Uru-zota 


Uru-tondwa 


Uru-tondwa ; 
in-dondwa 


Ny-enyezi 


Ny-enyezi 


Stick 


N-tuwa 


Ndisa 


M-kcomu 


In-giri. 
Ki-piki 


N-thonga 


N -tonga 


Stone 


I-finga 


I -we. 
I-vwiga 


I-bye Qr i-bwe 


Idi-bwe ; ama- 


Ri-be, Di-bwe ; 
ma-we 


Mw-a; mi-a 


Stool 


... 


... 




Iki-kcota 


... 


... 


Sun 


M-sanya. 
Idi-uwa 


I-ziia, 
I-zuva 


I-zua 


Idi-suwa. 
Camba (51a) 


Dazi 


Dazi 


Tail (of an 


... 




... 


Un-swigara ; 


... 


... 


animal) 








imi- or wa-. 
Um-pepe 






Tear 


Um-scozi 


In-scozi 


In-stozi 


Iri-swsi ; ama- 


Di-scozi 


Mi-scozco 


Testicles ... 


1-turu 


I-turu ; ama- 


I-turu ; ama- 


Uru-tungu ; 
in-dungu 


Di-tongco ; ma- 


Ma-toiSgco 


Thief 


Umw-ivi 


Umw-iwa 


Um-unto 


N-heji ; ba-heji Mu-iikhungu 


Mu-nkuingu 


Thigh 


... 


... 


In-sangeo. 
Ny-uma 


N-dapatapa 


... 


... 


Thing 


Iki-ndu 


Ifi-ntu, 


Iki-ntu 


Iki-ndu ; 


Ci-ntu; 


Ci-ntu; 






AKa-ntu. 




ifi-ndu 


vi-ntu 


vi-ntu 






Ic-rnna ; 














ivw-uma 










Thorn 


Ir-ifwa 


Idi-imviva. 
I-cese 


Um-unga 


Mw-ifwa; 
im-ifwa 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Tobacco ... 


I-tumba 


I-tumba 


I-tumba 


Iii-gamb<o 


Hcocona 


Fcoja 


To-day 


Leru 


Merco. 
Umu-san'-unoa 


I-lerco 


Di-rinu. 
Umw-ising:u. 
Um-visi-ugu 


Lerco 


Le 


Toe 


Um-niie 


Uru-sanzu ; 
in-sanzu 


Uru-sarara 


Ur-6iwe; 
iny-owe 


Mu-nue 


... 


To-morrow 


M-laco 


N-davi 


M-dawi 


Ki-laboj 


Ma-cerco 


... 


Tongue 


Lu-limi 


Uru-miri 


Uru-rimi 


Uru-rimi 


Ru-rimi 


Li-limi 


Tooth 


Il-inco 


Idi-inu 


Ir-inco 


Il-inco, Ir-inco ; 
am-inco 


U-inco; m-inu 


J-inu ; m-inyco 


Town 


K-aya ; ma-f 


liik-aya 


Ak-aya ; 
utw-aya 


K-aija ; 
tu-aija 


Mu-zi 


C-aroD, vy-arco 


Tree 


Um-ti 


I-kwi; 

ama-kwi 


I-kcomu> 


Um-piki ; imi-. 
In-giri (51a) 


Kuni 


Cimu-ti. 

Mu-ti 


Twins 


I-mbaza; ama- 


I-pasa ; ama- 


I-pasa ; ama- 


I-pasa ; 
ma-basa. 
Wam-basa 

(51a) 


Ma-pasia 


W-ana na 
mw-oli 


Urine 


Ma-tuzi 


Aman-tunzi 


Ama-tunzi 


Ma-tusi 


Ma-tuzi 


Ma-kcozco 


Vein 


... 


... 


... 


Ru-kcole ; 
n-gcole 


... 


... 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



215 





^48. 


49- 


50. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Gi^toiiga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci^siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


War 


U-luwu or 
Bu-luwu 


Uwu-rugu 


Uwu-rugu 


Bu-ite. 
Uw-iti. Ki-su 


N-khondco 


Nlihondco 


Water 


Ama-zi 


Amin-zi 


Amen-zi 


Mi-si or Me-si 
{correctly 
Ame-si). 
Ma-lenga 
(51a) 


Ma-ji 


Ma^ji 


Well, source 


. .. 


... 


• .* 


Ik-ina ; if-ina 


• .. 


. • . 


White man 


Um-ziungu ; 


Umu-zungu 


Umu-zungu 


Mu-zungu ; 


Mu-zungu ; 


Mu-zungu ; 




a-ziungu 






ba- or wa- 


wa- or ba- 


a- or wa- 


Wife 


Um-cima-ne 


Um-ipi 


Mu-kazi 


Ufi-kikuru; ba-. 
Uii-kazi 


Mu-kazi 


M-tikazi 


Wind 


Im-bepco 


Im-pep<B 


Im-pepoa 


Um-berco; imi-. 
Im-bepto 

(51a) 


Mw-era 


M-phepco 


Witch 


Um-loazi 


Umu-rc9zi 


Umu-rcozi 


N-dcosi ; 
ba-rcosi '. 
Mu-rtosi (5 1 a) 


Mu-hawi ; wa- 


Fwiti 


Witchcraft 


Bu-lcijzi 


Uwu-l»zi 


Uwu-reozi 


Bu-r<osi 






Woman ... 


Mw-anace. 


Mw-an'tanda 


Mw-anakazi. 


N-kazi ; ba-. 


Mw-anakazi 


M-tikazi ; 




Un-kima ; 




Umu-kazi 


Ufi-kikuru 




an-tikazi 




awa- 












Womb ... 




... 


... 


I-papirco (51 a). 
Ubu-gcogco 


... 


... 


Wood (fire- 


In-gwi 


Uru-kwi 


Uru-kwi 


Du-babu ; 


N-kuni 


N.khuni 


wood) 








//. im-babu 
or im-bau 






Yam 


... 


I-tugto 


Iki-tuwu 


Iki-tugu. 
Iki-tuwu (5 1 a) 


Ci-awca 


Ci-yaco 


Year 


Umw-aka 


Umw-axa 


Ic-aka 


Iki-enja. 
Iki-inja 


Mw-aka 


Ci-limi-ka 


Yesterday 


Y51u 


... 


Ma-byira 


Ma-jwloj, 
Ma-yorto 


Ma-yireo 


... 


Zebra 


M-sami 


U-jiga 


U-corwa 


I-sendzewere 


Bori 


C-apinda 


One 


Ka-mwi, -mwi 


eoka. W-cokco 
(W-toka, 
Y-uka) 


-coka, w-eka. 
Y-caka, iw-eka 


-mco. (Ju-mo), 
Ku-moj) 


■mo> 


-mtoza 


Two 


•wiri 


•wiri, -vili 


•wiri, 
-vili 


-beli. 
•wiri ? 


•wiri 


•Wl 


Three 


-tatu 


tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


•tatu 


Four 


•ni 


■nne 


•nne 


-na 


-naye 


•nai 


Five 


-sanu 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi^sanco 


•lianco 


-sanoi, 
Tu-nkonde 


-ii-khonde 


Six 


Tuli-ntanda ; 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi^sanco 


I-liano3 


Sanco 


Konde 




also Ka-kaga 


na puru 

WCdku 


na purwe 
iw^eka 


na ru-mcij. 
Ntandatu 


na ka-mu 


di ci-mcoza 


Seven 


M-pungate. 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi^sanci) 


I-hanco 


Sanco 


Konde 




Ka-funga 


na puru 
wa-wiri 


na purwe 
wa-wiri 


na i-wiri 


na tu-wiri 


di vi^wl 


Eight 


M-nane. 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi-sanco 


I-hanco 


Sanco 


Konde 




M-nana 


na puru 
wa-tatu 


na purwe 
wa-tatu 


na i-tatu 


na tu-tatu 


di vi^tatu 


Nine 


I-cenda. 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi-sanu 


I-hanu 


Sanco 


Konde 




Kenda 


na wa-nne 


na wa-nne 


na i-na 


na tu^naye 


di vi^nai 



Un^nyagco = priest in religious mysteries. 



2l6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





J^- 


49. 


50. 


51- 


53. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici^wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Ten 


I-kumi 


I^kumi. 
I^^umi 


I^kumi 


Mu-rongM or 
M-longco; //. 
utu-longco 


Kumi 


Cumi 


Eleven 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


I^kumi 


Mu-rongM 


Kumi 


M-kati 




na ka-mwe 


na puru 
w-coka 


na purwi 
iw^eka 


na ru-mco 


na ka-mco 


ci-mcoza 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongo> 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-cnmi 




ya-wiri 


ga-wiri. 

Ama-^umi 

ga-vili 


ga-wiri 


ma-wiri ; or 

Utu-longto 

tu^beli 


ga-wiri 


ya-vi 


Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma^rongM 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-cumi 




ya-tatu 


ga-tatu 


ga-tatu 


ma-tatu. 

Utu-longco 

tu-tatu 


ga-tatu 


>a-tatu 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma^cumi 




ya-ni 


ga-nne 


ga-nne 


ma-na. 

Utu-long<a 

tu-na 


ga-naye 


ya^nai 


Fifty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-cumi 




ya-sanco 


ga-fundisire 


ga-sancd 


ma-hanco. 

Utu-longco 

tu-lianco. 

(s!X/y = 

Utu-longco 

n-tandatu) 


ga-sano> 


yaii-konde 


Hundred ... 


Igana. 


■ ■■ 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi kumi 


Ma-cumi 




Ka-gana 




geka i-kumi 


mu-rongco 




yafi-konde- 
mi-kumuku 


Thousand... 




... 


... 




• •• 


... 


I, me, my ... 


Nene. 


I-ne. Nene. 


U-ne. Nene. 


U-ne. Ne. 


I-ne. 


Yi-ni. 




N-, Ni-. 


- N-. 


I-ne. — , N-. 


N-, Ni-. 


N-, Ni-. 


N-. 




-n-. -a-ne 


-n- (•m^). 


•n. (-m-). 


-ni-ne. -n-. 


-ni-, -n-, -ndi^. 


•ndi^. -a^ngu 






-a-ne 


-a-ne 


-a-ngu 


-a-ne 




Thou, thee, 


Wewe. 


I -we. 


U-we. 


Ugwe. Gwe. 


I -we. 


Yi^we. 


thy 


U-, W-. 


U-, Yu-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U. 


U-. 




•ku-. -a-ku 


-ku-. -a-x', 
-a-xco, -a-fici> 


•ku-. -a-kco 


-nu-ngwe. 
-ku-. -a-kco 


•ku-. -a-kco 


-ku-. -a-kco 


He, him, bis 


Wiyco Ayu. 


Wu-yco. 


Yuyco. 


Dyudyco, Jujco. 


Yuyu. 


Uyu. 




Y'-, A-. 


Uwene. 


A-. 


Jco. A-. 


A-, Wa-. 


Wa-. 




•mu-. -a-kwe 


A-. 

•m-, -mu-. 
-a-kwe 


•mu-. -a-ce 


-gwe. -m-, -n-, 
•n-. -a-ke, 
-a-kwe 


-m-, -mu-. 
-a-ke 


•mu-. -a-ke 


We, us, our 


I-sweswe. 


Sweswe, 


Sweswe. 


Uswe. Twe. 


I-se. 


Yi-fwe. 




Tu-. 


I-swe. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Ti- 


Ti-. 




-tu-. -e-tu 


Tu-. 
-tu-. -itu 


•tu-. -itu 


•uswe. -tu-. 
•etu 


-ti-. -itu 


•ti^. •idu 


Ye, you, your 


Mwemwe or 


Mwemwe, 


Mwemwe. 


Umwe. Mwe. 


I-mwe. 


Yi-mwe. 




U-nyenye. 


I-mwe, 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


M-, Mu-. 


Mu-. 




Mu- 


Mwe-ka. 


•inu 


-umwe. -ba-. 


•mu^. -inu 


•mu-. -inu 




? -wa-, -mu-. 


Mu-. 




-enu 








-e-nyu 


-va- -inyu 










They, them. 


Wawco. 


Wuwoj. Ava. 


Wawoj. 


Awa, Aba, Bco, 


Awco. I-wco. 


Yi-weo. 


their 


Wa-. 


Ba-, Wa-, Va- 


Wa-. 


Babco-, Ba-. 


Wa-, Ba-. 


Wa-. 




•wa-. -a-wo) 


•wa-. -a-ww, 
-a-vto 


-wa-. -a-wco 


•bco. •ba-. 
-a-bco 


(52 a). 
-wa-, -ba^. 
-a-wcj 


•wa-. -a-wco 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



217 





48. 


49. 


50. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ifi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


All 


-ose, -onse, 


-onti, -ont' 


-onse 


-osa 


•ose 


-ose 


This, tliese 


pie 


Unu, awa or 


We, awa .' ; 


Ju- ; ba- ; gu- ; 


Uyu, awa, 


Uyu, awa ; 






ava ; ?, ? ; 


wu, yi ; &'c. 


gi- ; li- ; ga- ; 


aba ; uwu. 


wuwu ; O'c., 






irijgania; Syc. 




ki-; fi-; ji-; 
si- ; ru- ; tu- ; 


iyi ; ili, a-ya ; 
ici, ivi ; iyi, 


much as in 
Heiiga- 


• 








ka- ; bu- ; ku- ; 
pa- ; mu- 


izi; ulu; utu; 
aka ; uwu ; 
uku ; apa 


Tumbuka 


Tliat, those 


• >• 


•ra. (U-ra, 


-ra. (Yu-ra ; 


Uju ; aba ; 


-ra or -wa 


... 






wa-ra ; 6-'c.) 


wa-ra ; (sfc.) 


ugu; egi; ili; 


(yu-wa, b-a ; 








Wu-yo> 


Wco, awoj ; 


aga ; eki ; efi ; 


wu-wa, yi-ra ; 








(Vu-yco), 


wto, iyaj ; 


eji ; esi ; ulu 


li-ra, ya-ra ; 








vva-wco ; 


lico, gco ; &^c. 


or uru ; cs'c. 


ci-ra, vi-ra ; 








wu-ycj, yi-yeo ; 




Jujco ; babu ; 


yi-ra, zi-ra ; 








di-lcd (li-lu), 




dx'c. 


a-c.) 








ga-gco; &=€. 




-la (ju-la, ba-la 


Mw-eniyu, 








•ninco, -ni- 




(a/j<)ju-la-ju-la. 


b-enaba ; 








(wii-ninco (6) ; 




ba-la-ba-la, 


w-eniwu, 








vi-ni-vi (8)) 




&'c.)\ gu-la, 
gi-la; &€.) 


y-eniyi ; 












1-enili, 














g-enaya ; 














c-enici, 














vy-enivi ; 














ye-niyi, 














z-enizi ; 














Iw-enulu ; 














tw-enutu ; 














k-enaka ; 














6-<r.' 




Bad 


■wi. -eha 


•wiwi 


•wiwi 


■bibi. -gasi 


•hene 


-heni 


Black 




-hiru. -iru 


-tifl 


-titu 


-fipa 


■fipa 


Female 


N-kima, 
•kima 


■rindu 

{humanity). 
•an-thanda 

{animals) 


-anakazi 


-n-dindu-ana. 
-bwa-kazi. 
-gi-kuru 


■anakazi 


-ntikazi 


Fierce 


>■■ 


■kali 




-kali, -ugi 


... 


... 


Good 


•scoga 


■inza 


•iza 


■nunu 


•erne 


-a-mampa 


Great 




-m-piti. 
■kani 


-kuru 


-kurumba. 
-ny-wamu 


-kuru. -rara 


-kuru 


Little 


... 


■indu; ■ndu 


-nandi 


-nandi. 
-nini 


•dono. 
-ntini 


■mana^vi ; 
-mana 


Long 


-tali 


■tali 


... 


-tali 




... 


Male 


•lume ; 


-an'a-vuri. 


•rume-ndo). 


-n-dumi-ana. 


•anarume 


■rumi 




n-dume, 


-nuza 


-anarumi. 


-nya-mbara. 




(yi^nturume) 




■dumi 




-n-kambaku 


-n-gAmbakoj 






Old 




• .• 




■kuru, -kulu 


... 


... 


Red 


... 


... 


... 


•fube-fu, 
kese-fu 


••• 


... 


Rotten 




... 


... 


-olu 


... 




Short 


... 


... 


... 


■pimba 


. .. 


!!! 


Sick 


... 


•pungco 


... 


-bina 


... 




White 


... 


-zeru 


•swe-pu 


■erco, -elu 


-tuwa 


-i^tuwa 



' Also: Mw.eni.yu^ra, b-eni^ba^ra, dr"!:. 



2l8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



48. 

Ungu or 

Ici-wungu 

48 a. Ki-manda 



49- 
Ifi-nyixa 



50. 
Ici-wandia 



51- 

Ikinyi-kiusa 

(N-konde) 

51a. 
M-wamba 



52. 

Ci-henga 

52 a. 

Ci-tumbtika 



53- 

Ci-tonga 

53 a. Ci-siska 

or Ci-sisya 



Above, up, on C-anya 



top 
Before 
Behind 
Below, down 

Far 

Here 

In, inside . . . 



Middle 

Near 

Outside 
Plenty 
There 

Where? .. 
No! 

Not (with verb 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or snfiix) 



Ku-mbele 
Kun-yuma 
Pa-nsi 
Ku-tali 



Pale-pipi 



Nco! 



To 



beat ... 
buy, sell 
come . . . 
cut 


Uku- 
-pcdla 

•iza "* 


dance ... 
die ... 
eat 


-wu-fa 
•lia 


give ... 
go 


■pa 
•genda 


kill ... 
know ... 
laugh ... 
leave off, 


... 


cease 
love,want 


... 



see 

sit, remain, -kala 

abide 
sleep ... 
stand, stop, -wima 

be erect 
steal ... 



Pamw^anya 


... 


Pamw-anya, 
Kumw-anya 
N-kyeni 


Pa-hanya 


Ku-hanya 


Mw-isinda 


... 


N-yuma 


Kun-yuma 


Kun-yuma 


Pa^nsi 


... 


Pa-si 


Pa^nsi 


Pa-nsi 


Ku-tali 


... 


Pa-tali 
Apa 


... 


... 


U-mu 


••' 


U-mu. 
Mu-n(o. 
Mumcd 


Mukati 


... 


... 


••• 


N-kati. 
Pakati 
Pa-pipi 


Pa^kati 


Pa-kati 


Kulu-vazu 




Pa-ndja 


Ku-nja 


Ku-nja 


-inji 


-enji 


-ingi 


-ingi 


-nandi 


Kura. 


Para 


Para. -pco. 


Para, -pco 


Kuwa 


Mumwo} 




Uku. 






^i-ni-pi ? 


• • • 


Pcoki? 


N-ku? 




Ndari ! 


Awe! 


Mma! 


Cara! Aja ! 


Ca! 


Ta-, -ta-, -ti-. 


Ta-, ti-, -ta- 


•di^, ■ti^. 


-ta. -ti-; -ta 


Reka. 


•ndali 




■ga^, ■ka^. 


-k&j. Si- (as 


Kuti-. -ca 






■nga-, ■ngi. 


a prefix to 


Si-, -livi 






na, ■na 


all persons and 
tenses in 
Tumbuka). 
•rivie (neg. 
verb) 


(neg. verb, 
' cannot ') 


Uxu- 


Uku- 


Paku-, Uku- 
■kcoma 


Ku- 


Ku- 


•kara 


■wura 


•ula, -ura 


•guura 


-saska 


-inza 


■iza 


-isa 


•iza 


-za 


•temera 


-temera 


-butira 


-tema. 
•temera 


•dumuwa 


■kwanga 


•cina 


-fina 


•vina 


•tumba 


■fwa 


-fwa 


-fwa 


•fwa 


■fwa 


•ria or -dia 


-dia 


-dia 


■lia 


-rya, -rya 


■pa 


•pa 


•pa 


■pa 


•ninka 


•wuha. 


-wuka 


-wuka, -biika. 


-wuka 


•ruta 


-jenda 




-enda 






■gcoga 


-kuma 


-gojga. -kuma 


•kcoma 


•baya 


-manya 


-menya 


•manya 


-manya 


•iziwa 


•sexa 


-seka 


■seka 


•seka 


•seka 


-leha 


... 


-leka 


•reka 


•reka 


•kwanza 


•ronda 


-ronda. 


•penja. 


■lembe. 






•gana 


-temwa. 
•ronda 


■kumba 


■Iciila, -dora. 


-ndora 


-ngeta. 


•wuna 


•cona? 


■enya 




•ona 






••• 


• •• 


•tugala 
-gcona 


•kara 


•kara 

•ra (Ku.ra) 


•imilila 


... 


■ema 


... 


... 


•iwa, -iva 


-iba 


•iba. -heja 


-iba 


•bba 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 219 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN UNGU 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Urn-, Un- (umu, um-, u-) ; 2. A-, Awa- (awa-, a) ; 3. Umu-, Um-, Un- (umfl-, 
um-, u) ; 4- Imi-, I- (imi-, yi ?) ; 5. Idi-, Iri-, I-, Li- (li) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, ya ?) ; 7. Iki-, Ic'- (ki, ci) ; 
8. ?; 9. I-, In- (Im-), N- (n-, i) ; 10. Inyi-, Nyi-, In-, Ing- (n-, i-?, zi?); li. Ulu-, Ru- (ru, lu) ; 
12. Utu-, tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka-(ka); 14. Uwu-, Bu- (vvu-) ; 15. Uku-, Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa-; 17. ?. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN ipi-NYIXA AND ICI-WANDIA 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Um-, U- (umu-, -m-, -mu-, wu-, u-, vu-) ; 2. Awa-, Aba-, Ava- (awa-, aba-, ba, 
va) ; 3. Umu-, Um-, U- (umu-, um-, wu, u-) ; 4. Imi- (imi-, yi) ; 5. Iri-, Hi-, Hi-, Izi- (li-, di) ; 6. Ama- 
(ama-, m'-, ga, ge, ? gama) ; 7. Isi-, Ici-, Iki- (gi-, ki, ci) ; 8. Ivi-, Ivw-, Bi- (vi-, vw'-) ; g. In- (Im-), 
Ny- (n-, yi) ; lo. Zi-, In-, Ny- (zi) ; 11. Uru-, Ulu- (lu) ; 12. Utu- (tu) ; 13. A&a-, Axa-, Aka- (fia-, 
xa-,ka); 14. Uwu-, Bu-, Vu- (wu-, vu) ; 15. Uxu-, Uku- (ku-, xu) ; 16. Apa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN IKINYI-KIUSA (N-KONDE) 
Preprefixes present very markedly. 

Class I. Umu-, Um-, Un- (un-, um-, umu-, -m-, -n-, ngu, gu-, ju-) ; 2. Aba-, Awa- (aba, ba) ; 
3. Umu-, Um-, Un- (un-, um-, gu) ; 4. Imi- (imi-, egi, gi) ; 5. Hi-, Idi-, I- (ili-, eli-, li) ; 6. Ama- (ama-, 
ma-, aga-, ga) ; 7. Iki- (iki-, ki, -eki) ; 8. Ifi- (Ivi- .?), (ifi-, fi, -efi) ; 9. In (Im), Iny- (in- in-, iny-, i, ji, 
•eji) ; 10. I- and usually same as 9 with the addition of si as pronominal particle ; 11. Ulu-, Uru-, Udu- 
(ulu- (uru-), lu (ru) ), pi. I-, In-, and Nyi- ; 12. Utu- (utu-, tu) ; 13. Aka- (aka-, ka) ; 14. Ubu-, Uwu- 
(ubu-, ub'-, bu); 15. Uku- (uku-, ku); 16. Apa- (apa-, pa); 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-) ; 18. Ugu- (?ugu, 
gu), //. Aba-. 

The -ana diminutive suffix is present and a good deal used. 



PREFIXES, &c., IN HENGA (TUMBUKA) AND TONGA' 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (m-, mu, u-, yu-) ; 3. Wa-, A-, Ba- (wa, ba) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, wu, u-) j 
4. Mi- (mi-, yi); 5. Ji-, J-, Di- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya) ; 7. Ci-, Ki- (ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , Yi-, N- 
(M-) (n-, yi); 10. — , N- (M-), Zi- (zi, n-) ; 11. Ru-, Li- (ru, lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka); 14. U- 
(u); 15. Ku(ku); 16. Pa (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

' In the northern dialect ^Tonga (Ci-siska) and in a lesser degree in Tonga itself and in Henga 
rt«rf Tumbuka occurs the remarkable phonetic combination {/or Bantu) of %\i in pronunciation. 7 his 
really descends from sy and in some districts is heard as sx or ly. 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

48. Ungu is spoken in the region immediately east of Lake Rukwa in the valley of the Sofigwe-Lupa 
river ; as far south and east as the Upper Sofigwe and Usafwa, as far west as Wanda and Unyixa, and as 
far north as Ukimbu. 48 a Kimanda is spoken on the north-east shore of Lake Rukwa, west of Ufigu. 

49. Ijsinyiza, with its allied dialects, is spoken in the region of the Nyasa-Taiiganyika plattau 
between Lake Rukwa and the Cambezi basin ; eastwards to Wufigu and Urambia and westwards to the 
Mambwe and Fipa countries. 

50. Iciwandia and its dialects are spoken in the eastern part of the Nyasa-Tafiganyika plateau 
between the sources of the Cambezi and great Luafigwa river on the south and the Unyixa and Ukukwe 
countries on the north. Also in the mountain country of north-west Nyasaland between Bundali and the 
southern Soiigwe at the loth degree of South latitude. 

51. Ikinyikiusa and 51 a Ikikukwe are spoken at the north end of Lake Nyasa from the Rukuru 
(Karonga) river on the south-west to Langenburg and the Rumbirco river on the north-east ; and some 
distance northwards into the mountainous interior as far as Bundali, Porcotoo, and Ukinga. Their range 
includes the Ukukwe country. 

52. Cihenga and 52 a Citumbuka are spoken over a considerable portion of north-west Nyasaland 
from the loth degree of South latitude in the north to the valley of the great Rukuru and lat. 1 1° 30' in 
the south. Their range as Ci-heiiga in the north and east and Ci-tumbuka in the west and south extends 
from the west coast of Lake Nyasa on the east to the valley of the Luangwa river (Sefiga country) on 
the west. 

53. Citonga and 53 a Cisiska are spoken in the coast-lands of west Nyasa from Usisya or Usiska 
(Ruarwe) Bay on the north to the small Luafigwa river in the south (latitude 12° 30' South). It is 
especially the language of the Bandawe district, the ' Atonga' country. 



54. Yaco 



GROUP N 

THE YACO-NGINDO) LANGUAGES 

55. Ci-ngindco (North Ngindco, South Ngindw) 55 a. Ci-mpwtca 



GROUP O 

THE MOgAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



56. I-makua (Tulugu, ' Mo(ambique') 

56 a. Northern Makua (Meteo or Medco, M-bwabe) 



56 b. Lomwe (Western Makua) 

57. I-cuabo> or Cuambw (' Quelimane') 





54- 


.55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaw 


Ci-ngindoi 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabu or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambu 






South) 


'Mofambique ') 


Metcd or 


Makua 


('Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcotco 




Medco 






Adze 


Ka-wagco. 
Semu 


M-bcopco (55 a) 


I-basu 


... 


... 


Semu 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama. 


Ci-lwhi ; hi-. 


En-ama 


In-ama 




N-ama 


beast 


Ci-ko>ku 


Ci-keokco(55a) 










Ant 


Salau. 


Harahu. 


E-tui ; 


E-nenele. 


Talakoo. 


N-yerere 




Li-pipi. 


I-pamba, 


f>L tui. 


1-talaku 


Ny-ipini 






M-bamba 


M -pamba 


E-nenele. 

M-ZCdZOJ 








Ant, white 


N-jece, 


M-keke 


O-vera 


N-cere. 


Namara-koleo. 


U-cece. 


(termite) 


U-cece. 
M-gumbi. 
Ci-kula. 
U-likwi 






U-cepe 


U-wepi 


Ma-gugu 


Arm 


M-kconci> 


Ci-wcdku ; hi- 


M-onci>; 
mi-ono>. 
Na-teke ; 

mi-teke 


M-ono> ; 

pL mi-5n<o 


Mu-coneo ; 
mi-ojnci> 


M-canct 


Arrow 


M-pamba 


M-pamba; mi- 


N-tere; ma- 


M-teri ? 


N-tere; ma- 


Mu-vi 


Axe 


Li-waga> 


Li-wagto 


E-pazco or 


I -paced 


E-pasu. 


Badu; di-. 






Li-waco (55 a) 


1-basu. 
Ma-inpadu 




Ka-^emu 


Semco 


Baboon ... 


Li-jani. 
M-cimbco 


Li-yani 


Kule or 
Kcoli 


Kcole ; a- 


Mn-yani 


Bongwe 


Back 


N-gongo, 


Ngongeu 


M-tana ; mi-. 


M-bana 


M-tana 


M-tana. 




M-goiigco 


N-yima (55 a) 


M-^ogca. 
I-duli 






Dttni 


Banana ... 


Li-gombco 


Li-tcoki 


Nika. 
E-nika. 
(Mi-niga = 

tree) 


I -nika 

(//. same) 


M-bipu ; 
pi. mi-wub<o 


Ma-figwi 


Beard 


N-deu 


Ci-njuemba. 

N-defu,N-dehu 


E-rcori. 
E-reru 


E-rori 


E-reru. 
E-bwetu 


N-devu 


Bee 


N-yuci 


N-juci 


E-zui. 
E-nui ; 
i-nui 


I-nui 


E-nii 


Nui ; de + 


Belly 


Ci-nena. 
Ki-tumbco, 
Lii-tumbco 


Lu-tumbeo, 
Uru-tumbeo 


E-rugulu 


Ma-nipc9 


E-rukulu 


Ci-fu ; vi-fu. 
Ma-subto. 
E-rugulu. 
Mimba 



1 



222 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yau 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabcd or 






(North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambeo 






South) 


'Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






5 5 a. Ci-mput«i> 




Med» 






Bird 


Ci-juni 


Ci-yuni ; 
i-yuni orhx- 


Mwa-niini ; 
fil. api-. 
E-nuni 


Sanuni ; 
//. a + . 
E-niini 


E-palame 


Balame ; de -1- 


Blood 


Mi-azi or 


Mw-ahi, 


E-pcome, 


I-p<ome 


Li-kame. 


M-lo)wa. 




Mi-asi 


Cahi, 
Mw-asi 


I-ptome 




Mu-lcova 


Maiim-loipa 


Body 


Ci-wiru. 
Ci-ilu 


M-biri 


E-rutu 


I-rutu 


Ka-dada 


Ma-nugti 


Bone 


Li-upa 


Li-hupa, 
Li-fupa 


Ni-kuva ; ma- 


Ni-kuwa; ma- 


Li-kuwa. 
Ni-gcokwjcokci> 


Ni-kuva; ma-. 
Li-kuva; ma- 


Borassus palm 


M-laza. 
N-gwalangwa 


N-kcoma-fi-gcoma 


M-vumcd 


... 


M-gwarangwa 


... 


Bow 


U-kunji 


Wu-ta. 


MuQ-ra ; mi- 


Mu-ra ; 


Muu-ra. 


U-ra, 






U-pindi 




miu-ra. 
E-nyangara 


COra 


Wu-ra ; 
miwu-ra 


Bowels 


N-dumboj 


Ama-tumbu 


Ma-rubco 




Ma-rupoa 


... 


Brains 


U-tutu. 
U-wong<o 


W-ongci> 


(jO-gcogw 


U-keoko 


Ma-rcohi 


W-ongoj 


Breast (man's) 


Pa-m-tima 


... 


E-betco. 

Mu-rima 


Vami-rima-ni. 
Ekagaja 




Zonpe. 
Wam-rima-ni 


Breast 


Li-wele; ma- 


Li-were ; ma-. 


Ma-bele (//.) 


Ma-pele(//.) 


Li-wele ; 


Ni-bere; ma- 


(woman's) 




Ma-wela(5Sa) 






me-ele 




Brother ... 


A-kulu. 


N-dongco : 


Mu-lebale. 


Mwa.muna-ka. 


Oi)-hande; a-. 


M-bale. 




M-kulugco. 


//. ma-longco. 


M-rwkoro>, 


A-mwuna 


Muna-munoi 


Rare 




M-pwa'-. 


M-nununa, 


M-reogoroj ; a-. 










M-pwanga ; 


Nununa(5Sa) 


Mu-hima 










//. aci-pwanga. 




(-aga = my). 










M-longco 




(A-muzi 
= brethren) 








Buffalo ... 


Nj-ati 


Nj-ati 


En-ari. 
Itada 


In-ari 


En-ari. 
Pulubu 


N-ari 


Bull 


N-ombe ja 
ji-lume. 
M-kombaku 


Li-kambakos. 
N-gombake 

(55 a) 


lii-ope 


... 


... 


... 


Buttocks ... 


Li-takco; ma- 


Ma-takcd 


Ma-kutu 


Ma-kutu 


Ma-ru 


Ma-rao> 


Canoe 


W-atu ; 
ma + . 
Li-galawa. 
Li-gungwa 


U w-atu 


Mw-adia. 
E-kalawa ; i- 


Ikalawa 


Mw-atea 


Mw-adia ; nii- 


Cat 


C-io»me ; 


M-buyari. 


M-kanu. 


Paka ; a + . 


Mo-hae 


Paka 




i-ycome 


Ki.mlamco ; fi- 


Kwadu 


M-inja 






Charcoal ... 


Ma-kala 


Ci-tihi 


Ma-kala 


Ni-kala ; ma- 


Ma-kala 


Li-kala; ma- 


Chief 


Aci-mwene or 


M-fmncD. 


M-bewe 


A-mwene. 


A-mwene 


Fumu. 




Mci-mwene ; 


A-mbuya. 




M-bewe 




Mambu 




//. wa-i-mwene. 


Bambeo ; 












M-tenga 


ma-wambeo 
(55 a) 










ChUd 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana; wa-. 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-an-hima ; 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana. 






Ak-ana; utw-. 


pi. ana-ga 


pi. aci-hima. 




Mu-ima 


• 




Ka-keke ; tu-. 
Ki-lemba; vi- 


(-aga = my) 


Mw-an-gudu 






Cloth 


N-guoa 


N-guwco 


Guu ; e-guoi. 
(I-pida 

= bark) 


I-kuco 


E-kUM 


Gucii 


Cold 


M-bepoa 


Ci-pwepwe 


CO-riria 


I-pico 


Na-kudu 


... 


Country ... 


Mu-si. 
Ci-rambco 


M-dima 
or N-dima 


E-lab« 


I-wani 


E-lapu 


N-zicD 



GROUPS N AND O: YAtO-NGINDW AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



223 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57. 


English 


Yaw 


Ci-ngindu 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabu or 






(North and 


(Tulugn, 


Makua and 


Western 


Ctiambu 






South) 


^ Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


i'Queltmane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcdtu 




Medoi 






Cow 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


E-nope. 


I-n5pe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 




ja n-kcolu 


ya ii-kcoro> 


Ifi-ope 

yco m-tiana 


yo m-tiana 


am-tiana 




Crocodile ... 


N-gwena 


M-wina. 


E-gtonya 


Ik-oanya 


Eki-tonya. 


Nya-kcokco ; 




or N-gconya 


In-wina 






Mu-kaku 


ma-t- 


Day 


Li-uwa. 


Li-cuwa ; 


OO-hiu. 


Ni-huku. 


CO-hiu ; 


Siku. 




(Mu-usi = 


//. ma-cuwa. 


co-tana 


U-t>ana. 


ma-hiu. 


Mu-tana. 




daylight) 


(MQ-nhi = 
daylight) 




M-cua 


(60-tana = 

daylight) 


(Labo> = 

daylight) 


Devil, evil 


Li-swka ; ma- 


Li-ho>ka 


Ni-pepa? 


Ni-|Suka. 


A-nepa 


M-zimu 


spirit 








M^nepa; mi- 






Doctor (medi- 


Juam-tela 


,,, 


M-naka. 


M-naka 


... 


I-nanga; di- 


cine man) 






M-gulukana 








Dog 


M-bwa 


Naka-wa; pi. 


Mwala-bwa ; 


Mwala-pwa; 


Mwana-pwa ; 


Mwana-bwa ; 






wakanaka-wa. 


//. Ela-bwa 


pi. acila-pwa 


ana-pwa. 


ana-bwa 






Jim-bwa; 






Samla 








im-bwa 










Donkey 


M-bunda 


M-bunda. 
N-jcowe 


Puru; a + 


Puru; a-f- 


... 


..a 


Door 


M-langoj. 


N-diangto, 


M-kora; mi- 


M-kora. 


Am-lakeo-ni. 


I-sekcd. 




Li-tan ga 


M-lyangto 




N-jele. 
M-lakto 


CO-lageo 


M-lagu. 

M-su<a 


Dream 


Li- or 


Ma-h«ka. 


0-lcoha 


U-ltoha ; 


(jO-rcoha 


Ma-tulu. 




Ma-sagamiloj 


Ku-lcota 




ma-luhco 




U-rcaa 


Drum 


N-gcoma 


Ma-hambco 


E-gojma 


I-koima 


C-kcoma 


N-coma 


Ear 


Li-pikaniI(o 


Li-kutu 


Ni-aru ; //. 


Ny-aru ; 


Li-naru. 


Ni-oru ; 








m-aru 


m-aru 


M-aru. 
Ni-wiwi 


//. ma-yant 


Egg 


Lin-danda. 


Li-humbi 


Ni-ycoce; 


Ny-o9ce ; 


L-ci)ci ; 


N-zai; 




Li-umbi. 




m-cijce 


m-coce 


m-coci. 


ma-zai 




Li-Jele. 








Ni-hala^u^ 






Li-kononda- 














Li-taji 












Elephant ... 


N-dembu 


N-dembu 


rebbca or 
E-tebco 


I-tepo> 


E-tepcd. 
Na-kumali 


Dcau; 

de- or ti -f 


Excrement 


Ma-i. 
Ma-nyi. 
M-cimba 


Ma-hi 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Ma-pi 


Ma-ri 


Eye 


L-iseo ; 


L-ihu, 


N-itu; 


N-iboa; 


L-itu; 


N-inti ; 




m-es<o 


L-ihco ; m-ihca 


m-etco 


m-ebw 


m-etu 


m-etco 


Face, forehead 


Pau-syoj. 


Ci-wtingi 


Jl)w.ito>. 


E-kove. ^ 


W-itoa-ni. 


Kupe. 




Kum-eso» 




E-yuji ; i- 


W-itco. 
I-k(owe 


E-kcove 


COm-et»-ni 


Fat 


Ma-uta 


Ma-huta 


Ma-kura 


Ma-kura I 


VTa-kura. 
E-kura. 
Ma-lesu 


Ma-kura 


Father ... 


A-tati. 


A-tati, Titi 


A-bibi, 




Baba 




Wese. 


Aka-tate 




A-biribi ; 








( Wese-gwe = 






pi. same. 








his father) 






(A-tata = 

ancestors) 






Fear 


W-o)ga 


W-<uva 


U-cukula OOva 


Ma-ta. W-Mva 


Finger 


C-ala; 


Ci-uwu ; 


S'i-k(ok«. 


I-Jisi. E-punu. 


[-bunco ; 




//. iy-ala. 


hi-nwu. 


E-legwe ; 


Ni-kcoko9. 


Mu-ne; 


vi-bunci). 




(Ci-kongM = 


N-gonji, 


i-legwe 


E-libue. 


mi-ne 


I -bun we ; vi- 




thumb) 


Ci-angonji ; 

hi- 




(Ni-ata = 
thumb) 







Q 2 



224 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


. 55- 


56. 


;6a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yato 


Ci-ngindu 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabci> or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambu 






South) 


'■Mozambique ') 


Metcd or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcatco 




Medco 






Fire 


M-oto>. Li-otcd 


M-otco 


M-oro> 


M-orco 


M-ulu. 


M-otoa; 




{warmth) 








M-orto 


mi-ot(d 


Fish 


Somba 


Li-homba, 

Hyomba(55a) 


E-htoba 


I-bcopa 


E-homba. 
I-tubi 


Oba 


Foot 


Li-sajco, 


Lu-ayco ; malu- 


Ny-ato ; 


Mw-eto9 


Ny-alu 


Nny-aloo. 




Lu-sayu. 


N.gonji(55a). 


m-aoj. 






Mw-edco 




Li-kau 


Li-koiiunu 


Bi-kawi 








Forest 


M-sezco. 


Mi-koiigco(;)/.). 


E-tapa. 


Mw-ibupi. 


CL)-sambene. 


Mw-iru. 




Li-gonde 


Ma-ham ba. 
Ci-hcoli (55 a) 


E-takwa 


Mu-iiii 


Mu-hiru 


Paka. 
Kcokula 


Fowl 


N-guku 


N-guku 


Mwala-ku ; 
ela-ku. 
E-kii 


Ila-kii 


Mwana-ku. 
E-k5 


Mwana-ku. 
E-ku; 
pL re-ku 


Frog 


Ci-ula ; y-ula. 
Li-ula ; 
//. m-cola. 
Na-sonda 


Li-ngula 


Mu-rojnyi ; mi- 


Ma-rapi 




Na-idue ; a + 


Ghost 


M-zimu or 
M-simu 


Ci-wanda 


M-nepa 


M-nepa 


M-nepa 


Mu-zimoa; 
a-zimco 


Giraffe 


N-ja 


N-dwilca. 
C-unju 


... 


I-tata 


... 


... 


Girl 


Amvv-ali, 
Mw-ali ; 
w-ali, 
aci-wali 


Mu-hinja. 
Na-waji ; 
wakana-wali. 
Mii-yake; wa- 




M-irao 




Li-buru ; ma- 


Goat 


M-buzi or 
M-busi 


M-buhi or 
M-ene 


E-buri 


E-puri 


E-puri. 
E-cehu 


M-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


Tonde 


Li-poiigco 


E-ltobw-ana 




... 


... 


God 


M-lungu 


M-bamba. 
M-lungu 


M-luku 


M-luku 


M-hale. 

Mu-rimu 


Mu-lugu 


Grandparent 


M-buje ; 


Bwabu. 


Gbwui, 


A-muna. 


... 


Bibi. 




am-buje, 


Kaka (55 a) 


Gwia. 


A-buya 




Na-buiya 




acam-buje 




Tata 








Grass 


Li-nyasi 


Ma-nyahi. 

Li-nyasi(j/»^.) 


Ma-lajsi 


Ma-nyajsi 


Ma-nasi 


Ma-ani 


Ground 


Li-taka 


Li-taka. 
Lu-kumbi. 
Li-dupi 


O-toope ; 
ma-tope 


I-wani 


E-taya 


Taka 


Ground-nut 


N-jama. 


N-jugu. 


Ma-nduvT 


M-tepa 


E-lco. 


Ma-ndiiwi 




M-tesa,N-tesa 


Ma-rawi 




Ma-ndawi 




Guinea-fowl 


N-ganga 


Li-cundu 


E-kaga 


I-kaka. 
I-kolcolu 


E-kaga. 
E-kcolulco 


Kaga 


Gun 


U-ti, 
ma-iiti 


HuU 


Ka-buti; i + 


Ka-pwiti 


Ka-puti. 
M-tapikoa. 
M-bila 


Futi; de-t- 


Hair 


Lu-umbu ; 


Li-junju, 


E-karali 


I-karari 


M-ehe, 


N-titi. 




pi. umbcd 


Li-unju. 






M-ihi 


Mu-riU 




or ma-umbu 


N-juile 










Hand 


Li-gaza, 


Li-wcokcd. 


Wa-sanja ; 


M-ta or 


N-tata; ma- 


N-dada, 




Li-gasa 


Ci-ganja 


e-sanja. 

N-tata 


M-baba ; ma- 




N-nada, 
L-anda ; ma- 


Head 


N-twi ; 


N-duturu. 


Mu-reo 


Mu-rru, 


Mu-ru. 


Mu-ru 




mi-twi 


Mu-twe, 
M-iitu 




Mu-ru 


Li-kuva 




Heart 


N-tima, 
M-tima ; mi- 


M-tima. 
M-oyco. 
N-ntima 


M-rima 


Mii-rima or 
M-rima ; mi- 


Mu-rima 


M-rima 



GROUPS N AND O: YACO-NGINDO) AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



225 





54- 


.55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindu 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






(North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'■ Mozambique 'j 


Metu or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcatu 




Medu 






Heel 


Ci-ndende 


Ci-sukururoj 


E-gcogwinoj. 
E-keotsa; i- 


I-kcotcokutco. 
E-kcokwinyco 


Eny-ingala 


I-tilini. 
E-guguncd 


Hide 


Li-kombwa 


Hi-ega .' 


E-kataka 


N-dabala 


E-^abala 




Hill 


Li-tumbi, 
Ka-tumbi 


Ci-tumbi ; hi- 


Mw-ageo 


N-rima. 

Mw-akoa 


Namw-agoj 


... 


Hippopotamus 


N-dcdinond(o 


N-dtomondw 


Tcomondu 


I.pitu 


Napetu. 
E-pwitu 


Tomodco 


Hoe 


Ci-leka 
Li-jela 


... 


E-hipa. 
Ni-npadu 


I -hi pa 


M-peseri 


E-iba, Iba ; 
v-iba 


Honey 


Ma-sega 


W-uci 


O-ravoj 


U-raeo woj 
i-ntJi 


Ma-kalapa. 
I-niii 


Uci and Ui 
or W-uyi 


Horn 


M-seng<o. 
Li-penga, 
Li-wengwa. 
Mny-anga 


Mara or 
Li-mara. 
Li-nyelcij (55 a) 


Eny-aka 


Mny-aka. 
Ni-penga ; 
ma- 


Ny-aka 


Ny-aka 


House 


N-yumba. 


N-yumba. 


En-upa 


Iniipa 


Mpa, 


N-uba, 




Ka-jumba. 


N-khati 






£-mba 


n-umba ; //. 




Li-kcome. 










den-umba 




Li-wasa 












Hunger 


Sala 


N-jara. 


E-dala 


I-bala 


E-tala 


Dala 


Husband ... 


A-sconoj or 
M-sconcogcd 




... 


M-lojpw-ana 


Namu-Ikwe 


... 


Hyena 


Li-tunu. 
Li-tunungu 


Li-pundu 


Ku-zupa; a + 


Ku-jupa ; a + 


iCu-zupa. 
E-japua 


N-tika. 

Nam-gudu. 
Nyamu-ngunu 


Iron 


Ci-pala. 
M-lapco 
(iron ore) 


Li-vumbu. 
C-uma. 
Ny-eiige 


E-yiima 


I<yuma 


Vl-kcokco 


U-tale 


Island 


Ci-lwa ; i-lwa. 
Ki-rumba ; 
i-rumba 


Ci-lwa ; 
fi-lwa 


E-kisira 


N.tinji 


[t)ci-lwa 


Suwa 


Ivory 


Mny-anga. 
Li-penga 


N-dembco 


Miny-aga 


Ny-aka nw 
tep<o 


Vlu-yaka 


Ny-aka 


Knee 


Li-rungci), 


Ci-yuwa ; 


Ni-kuta ; ma-. 


Ni-kuba ; ma- 


Li-kuta 


Ni-bodco or 




Li-lungoj 


hi-yuwa 


Ne-geota. 
tO-gtokora 






Bondo] ; ma- 


Knife 


Ci-pula. 
Ci-maje 


Ci-pura 


Mw-aico 


Mw-aloj I 


Vl-padL 
Beni 


M-beni 


Lake 


Ny-asa. 


Lu-ci N-rata 


N-tia ; An-tia 


•>• 




Li-tanda 






nia-tia 






Leg 


Lu-k6nguIcL> 


Ci-wuru ; ma-. Mw-etco; 


Mw-edco Mw-etu 


Mw-edco. 






Li-gulu(55a) 


pi. m-etto 






Mw-entoj; mi- 


Leopard . . . 


Ki-suwi, 


Li-huwi or Ci- Havara 


Havara Keregere. 


Nya-nigwe ; 




Ci-sui 








Severe 


ma-f 


Lion 


Li-simba 


Li-simba Karamu 


Karamu. Mw-atto 


Pcodcogcoma. 










Mu-kaiigu ; 




Mu-andcae 










pi. amu-kangu 






Lips 


Lu-gumco ; m-. 


Mi-rcomoj N-dere 


[•yanco U-lcamco 


Vli-rumoa 




M-lomco ; mi-. 














Lu-jemco 












Magic 


U-sawi 


U-hawi. O-kwiri 


U-kwiri U-kwiri 


Senga. 






Hi-hilu (55 a) 








Ma-le 


Maize 


Ci-manga ; 


Ci-rombe Na^kuco 


Ma-kuco ; Na-hepwe 


S^am-bedi. 




i-maiiga 






ana-ku(o 




Li-vilamanga 


Man 


Mu-ndu; wa- 


Mu-ndu; wa- M-tu; a-tu 


M-tu ; a-tu Mu-tu; 


Vlu-tu ; a-tu. 












a-tu 


Mu-ntu ; 
a-ntu 



226 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


J5- 


S6. 


56 a. 


S6b. 


57. 


English 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindo> 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambu 






South) 


'■Mofambique ') 


Metoa or 


Makua 


CQuelhnane ') 






55 a. Ci-mpoatu 




Med CO 






Man, vir. ... 


Juam-lume 


Mu-lume. 


M-lcopw-ana ; a-. 


M wam-lopw-ana. 


M-lc9gw-eni 


Mua-mtina. 






Ka-kombco 


Mu-lugw-ana 


Mu-loobw-ana 




Mu-lcopw-ana 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ci-liwi 


En-ama 


In-ama 


En-ama 


N-ama 


Medicine ... 


Ci-lagu. 
M-tera, 
M-tela 


... 


... 


M-rete 


... 


... 


Milk 


Li-kama. 
Ma-wele 


Lu-kama 


... 


Ma-pele 


... 


Ma-knka 


Monkey ... 


Ki-tumbiri 


Li-tumbiri 


Koatoi ; a + 


M -pap we. 
Tupili 


Na-karama 


Kcolu or 
Koru 


Moon 


Mw-ezi. 
Li-tumba 


Mw-ehi 


Mw-eri 


Mw-eri 


Mw-eri 


Mw-eri 


Mother ... 


A-maco. 
Aci-kulu-gwe 


Akw-itu 


Mae 


Manyi 


Maa 


U-ma 


Mountain ... 


Li-tumbi. 
Li-cenje 


Ci-tumbi 


Mw-aku 


Mw-aku 


Mw-agu 


Mw-aiagco 


Mouth 


Ka-mwa 


Ka-nwa. 
M-lumco, 
Nn-dcomcij 


M w-ano>. 
Ey-anc» ; 
iy-anco 


I-yanw. 
Ma-lagu 


Wayanuni 


Mu-lcomu 


Nail (of finger 


Ci-kalawesa 


Ci-uhu 


E-kata; i- 


E-kata ; 


E-karuka. 


Y-ala ; 


or toe) 








i-haba 


Ma-karu (//.) 


vi-ala 


Name 


L-ina ; 
m-ena ' 


Li-hina 


N-zina 


N-cina 


N-sina 


N-zina 


Navel 


Ci-scou 


•*. 


M-jombeo. 
N-teku; mi- 


M-teku 


N-twku 


Mu-toy«. 
Mu-tcoku 


Neck 


Lu-kcosi ; ma- 


Hingu. 
Li-kcoloimelco 


Sikoi or 
E-sikco. 
Milco 


I-^iku 


Li-k«hi. 
Na-lukcolcdku 


Nikwti 


Night 


C-irco, 
C-ilo>. 

(Ci-pi = 
darkness) 


K-iru, 
K-iIco 


O-hiu 


Uhiii 


Ma-hiu 


Ma-tiu 


Nose 


Lu-pula 


M-bunu 


E-pula 


[•pula 


E-puna 


Punoj 


Ox 


N-ombe 
ja ji-fure 


N-ombe 


E-n5pe 


[■nope 


Eii-ombe 


N-ombe 
ya kapadu 


Paddle ... 


N-gavi 


... 




... 


... 


N-ombo» 


Palm wine, 


U-cima, 


N-dahi' 


Sura 




U-wema 


Wiema. 


beer 


U-cema. 

Ma-jenga. 

U-kana, 

(Utu-lwa = 
sweet beer) 










(W-alwa =• 
beer) 


Parrot 


Na-mame ; 


Li-hekwa 


E-kwia 


E-kuei 


Na-mame 


••• 




pi. aki + , 














aci-f-. 














N-gwalu, 














N-gwesi 












Penis 


Li-oloj, 
Li-wcolcd. 
Y-alto 


M'boru 


M-boalcd 


..« 


M'pcolcii 


Sondu 


Pig 


Li-guluwe, 
Li-gcolule 


Li-uluwe, 
Li-guluwe 


E-guluwe 


I-kuluwe 


Guluwe 


Guluwe 


Pigeon 


N-juwa. 


N-juwa, 


E-knnda. 


N-cia 


N-bia 


Ka-ngaiwa. 




N-gunda 


N-jiwa 


Nzia 






Na-nyeokco; 



' Maj-ina = respect. 



GROUPS N AND O: YAOJ-NGINDGJ AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



227 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


l^aoj 


Ci-ngindeo 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'Mozambique ') 


Metcd or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcotco 




Medo> 






Place 


Ki-ramboj. 
Pa-. Ma-l<o. 
Pa-ndu 


N-dima 


Ni-bar«. 
Va-tu 


Va-citu 


E-lap<o. 

Ni-burco 


M-but«» 


Rain 


Ula ; ma -t- 


I-hura, 


E-bula. 


I-pula 


M-sonkwe. 


M-zogwe or 






Hula 


Suwa 
Ni-kule; ma-. 




E-bula 


Mu-tjseokwe 


Rat 


Li-kooswe. 


M-cenje 


Ni-kule ; ma- 


N-silu. 


M-cilu, 




Li-buku 




E-mede 




Ma-cili {pi.) 


N-jilu; ma- 


Rhinoceros 


M-bela. 
Ci-pembere 


— 


M-cojjo), 
N-jcojo> 


Pela 


pe-pembere 


Pueti 

(hippo ?) 


River 


Lu-sul(o. 
Lu-jenda 


M-kuka, 
Nn-kuka 


Mu-rci> 


Mco-luku 


Mu-hici. 
OOlu-si 


Ny-anja 


Road, path 


Li-tala. 
Li-kondu 


N-dira 


E-piro) 


E-pirco or 
I-piro> 


E-tila. 
Em-pitoj. 
Me-dala 


Dila 


Salt 


N-jete 


>*• 


Ma-ka 


Ma-ka 


Ma-ba 


Mu-inyu 


Shame 


Sbjni 


Hooni 


Haya 


I-^coni 


... 


... 


Sheep 


N-gojza. 
li-gondcolcd 


Berere. 
Li.nuhi ; ma- 


E-butibuti 


I-kondorc». 
Putiputi 


E-pila 


Bira '" 


Shield 


Ci-kupa 


Ci-kcopa 




Ici-kcopa 


... 




Shoulder ... 


Li-koyw 


Li.wega 


Ni-kata ; 
ma-kata. 
E-turi 


Ni-kaba. 
W-eturi 


N-turi. 
Ni-kata 


E-turi; vi- 


Sister 


Lumbu ; 


M-gtoli. 


N-rubco. 


U-rcokora. 


Mii-rukco. 


M-lcogco. 




pi. aca + 


M-numbo» 


Mu-rcogora 


A-rcogora 


A-b<osie 


Mu-nanti 


Skin 


Li-pende. 


Ki-ega 


E-kata-ka. 


U-rapala 


Ni-kada. 


Li-kugu ; ma-. 




Li-kombwa. 




Ni-kuli; ma- 




Tebe 


Li-kwimba. 




Li-kunami 












Sky 


Kw-iunde. 
Ku-inane. 
Li-unde 


Ku-nani. 
Ma-hundi 


W-irimu 


I-rimu. 
Ni-hute 


Mi-rapoj 


N-drabu 


Slave 


M-kapcolca 


M-manda ; 
a-wanda. 

M-banda ; 
a-wanda (55 a) 


M-sare ; a- 


I-pota. 
A-kaporco. 

M-lcoku 
(M-lwkw-aka); 
//. a-lcokii- 
(a-lcokw-aka) 




Mu-bare 


Sleep 


Lu-gconci» 


Lu-goonto 


0-ruba. 
E-ko3ve 


I-keove 


E-rulu 


Tu-lw 


Smoke 


Li-eosi 


Li-cohi 


Mw-ipi 


Mw-ipi, 


Mw-isi. 


Mw-ici or 








Mco-insi 


E-tutu 


W-uji 


Snake 


Li-jcoka 


Li-coka, 
Li-juka 


E-nua, 
E-nco-ya 


I-ncoa, 
I-ncoya 


E-ncoa 


Ncoa; de + 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana, 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 




(M-songcolo, 


K-ana 


m-lcopw-ana 


pi. ap-ana 


m-lcopw-ana 


m-leopw-ana 




M-canda = 














boy) 












Song 


Lu-imbco ; 
ny-imbeo. 
Ma-lumbo3 


Lu-imbcd ; ny- 


E-zib» 


N-cipti>; ma- 


... 


Ny-imboo 


Spear 


Li-panga 


M-kuha 


Ni-vaga. 
Songa 


Ni-vaka 


Li-vaka 


Mw-alagu ; mi- 


Spirit, soul 


M-tima? 


Umi 




M-rima ? 


Vl-kuluba 




Star 


N-dondwa 


Lu-tond&>. 
N-dondwa(55a) 


E-tcodwa 


I-tcotwa 


Teneri 


Neneri 


Stick 


Ngongco. 


M-bihi. 


E-kcopco. 


I-kupu. 


2m-wiri 


N-dwdoa. 




Bokcola. 


M-sagi. 


N-tale ; mi- 


N-tonda> 




Fimbcoa 




N-dindisco 


Himbati 











238 



ILI-USTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





S4- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yau 


Ci-ngindb> 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


1-cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


' Mogambigue') 


Metcd or 


Makua 


(' Quelimatu ') 






5 5 a. Ci-mpoatco 




Medu 






Stone 


Li-gonga. 
(Li-wala = 
rock) 


Iri-we ; ma-. 
Li-w» ; ma-u 
(SSa) 


N-lugu ; ma- 


N-luku 


Lugu. 
Ni-bucwa 


Mw-ala 


Stool 


Ci-tengu 


Citihu 


E-hlce 


I-hice 


... 


... 


Sun 


Li-tiwa 


Li-uwa, 
Li-cuwa 


N-zua 


N-cuwa 


N-8ua 


N-zua, 
N-tscoa 


Tail (of an 


M-cila 


... 


... 


Mw-ila 


*•• 


Mu-ira 


animal) 














Tear 


M-seozi, 
Li-susi 


M-hcali ; mi- 


W-unla 


Mi-bori 


M-8(odi 


M-tori 


Testicles ... 


Li-tongcd ; 
ma-tong<o. 
Lu-pwala 


Ma-tongw 


E-kete 


•■• 


E-pulu 


Puru 


Thief 


Jua-wi 


M-kungu. 
Mw-ii ; w-i 
(55 a) 


Mw-iyi; 
eyi 


(Ow-iya 


Nim-iya 


M-bava 


Thigh 


Ci-walco. 


Lu-leta 


I-tari. 


M-baja. 


Na-tundulu 


Taku; 




Li-ciga 




Mw-ebeli ; 
pi. me-beli 


Na-tundulu 




ti-baku ; di- 


Thing 


Ci-ndu ; 
i-ndu 


Ci-ndu ; 

hi-ndu 


E-tu 


I-tu 


E-lu 


I'lcobco; vi- 


Thorn 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iha. 
Nn-ha; mi- 


Mw-iwa ; 
m-iwa 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-uva 


Mu-nga 


Tobacco ... 


Scona 


Li-hcona 


Scone 


^cane 


Scola. 


Fcodia 










Hcora 




To-day 


Lelu 


La-rinu, 
La-linco 


E-lelco 


Lelcd 


E-lelco 


Dabunco, 
Dabuinco 


Toe 


Ci-ala. 
(Ci-kongoa = 

big toe) 




Pitco 


Ni-kuku ; ma- 


E-kcokoo 


I-bunco 


To-morrow 


Ma-lawi 


. .• 


M-elco 


M-el» 


(O-jsepelu 


Ma-ngwana 


Tongue 


Lu-rumi 


Lu-lime 


N-Umi 


N-limi 


Lumi 


M-lumi 


Tooth 


L-in». 
(Li-jengu = 
molar. 
Li-soiigco = 

canine) 


L-ineo ; 
mi-no> 


N-innu ; 
m-ennco 


Ninoi 


L-inu 


L-inco 


Town 


Mu-zi. 


Mu-zi. 


E-labco, 


E-lagwco ; i-. 


Wa-wani 


M-zinda. 




M-tete 


Ci-kaya; hi- 


E-lagwco ; i- 


I-tcogco, 
E-tegco; i- 




Mu-bi ; 
mi-bi 


Tree 


M-tera, 


M-tengo>. 


Mu-ri. 


Mw-iri ; 


M-t^pikco 


Mu-ri 




M-tela 


M-bihi. 

Nn-tongci). 

Nn-kongco 


M-tali 


mi-iri 






Twins 


Ma-wira 


Ma-paha 


M-asa 


Na-vata, 
Ma-vata 


An-asa 
am-bili 


Ma-gwira 


Urine 


Ma-kwezcij 

{verb, 
Ku-tunda) 


Ma-kcoj<o 


Mi-nyeozu 


U-ruca 


U-ncosco 


Mi-rudu 


Vein 


M-tasi ; mi-. 


... 


M-tinga ; mi-. 


M-titari; mi-. 


. • • 


Mu-jiji ; 




M-sindo> ; mi 




N-tiga ; mi- 


N-sempfa 




me-jiji 


War 


N-gondw 


N-gondeo 


E-kotoj, 
Kodcd 


I -kcotco 


E -kcotco 


Kcodco 


Water ... 


M-ezi 


Ma-ji. 


Ma-ri, 


Ma-pi, 


Ma-inji. 


Ma-inje 






Ma-ci (S5 a) 


Ma-zi 


Ma-si 


Ma-hi 




Well, source 


Ci-sima. 
U-liwa 


Ci-liwa. 
Ci-hunu 




I m -para we. 
I-himi. llupi 




... 



GROUPS N AND O: YACU-NGINDCO AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



229 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


n- 


English 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindeo 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


^ Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci^mpcotu 




Medco 






White man 


M-zungu 


M-sungu 


M-gunya ; a- 


Aguinya 


M^zungti 


M-zugu; 
va-zuku 


Wife 


A-sconu ; pi. 


M-bumba. 


M-ti-ana ; a-. 


M-t»i^ana 


Mw-ar-aka 


Mw-adie, 




ac'a-sconco 


Ny-umbco 


Mw-ar-aga 






Mw-adi 


Wind 


M-bepoj. 
M-bungco 


M-bepeo 


E-peu 


1-peco 


Li^pevco. 
E-tako> 


Pevoo 


Witch 


M-sawi 


M-hawi 


M-kwiri. 
(OO-lcoa = 

to bewitch) 


M-kwiri 


M-kwiri 


M-kuri 


Witchcraft 


U-sawi 


U-hawi 


U-kwiri 




... 




Woman ... 


N-kongwe ; 


Mu-hanco. 


M-ti-ana 


M-bi-ana. 


M-ti-ana 


Mu^i^ana. 




ac'a-. 


M-kigi ; pi. 




Mw-ana-ti 




Mu^iy^ena ; a- 




M-bumba ; 


aki-kigi. 












aca-f 


M-bumba 

(55a) 










Womb 




N-dumbco 




I-rukula 




... 


Wood (fire- 


Lu-kwi ; 


Hanju 


E-kuni' 


I-kuni 


E-kntii' 


Mu^ri 


wood) 


n-gwi. 
Lu-sasu ; sasu 












Yam 


Li-peta. 
Li-jimbi 


Ci-paru 


Eki^razi 


Ni-peta; ma- 


E^telu 


M^zama or 

Mu-tsama 


Year 


C-aka ; y-aka 


C-aka ; y-aka 


Ey-aka 


Y-aka 


Mny^aka 


Gale 


Yesterday 


L-isco. 
Li-jusi 


Li-gorco 


N-zana 


M-jana, 
N-jana 


... 


Nzilu 


Zebra 


M-bunda 


M^bunda, 
M-punda 


E-tugeo 


I-puta 


Mu-pisi 


... 


One 


•mu 


•mwe, 
-mco 


Mcoza 


I-mcoka 


Mcosa, 
Mcoha 


Moda 


Two 


-wiri, 


•wiri, 


Bill or 


Pili 


Pili 


Bill, biri, 




-wili 


-viU 


Peli 






-beli 


Three 


-tatu 


•tatu 


-tatu, 
-tarco 


•taru 


•taru 


•taru 


Four 


•cece, 
N-cece, 
M-cece 


N-cece. 
I-cece 


■jepe 


•pe?i, 
•cepe 


-nai 


-nai 


Five 


•sanco 


Mu-hanco 


•tanu 


•banu 


•tanu 


•tanu 


Six 


•sanco 


Mu-hanco 


-tan' na mcoza 


•banu 


•tanu 


•tanu 




naki-mco 


na ci-mcoe 




na i-mcoka 


na m-coha 


na moda 




or -sanco 














ku-pambula 














li-mco 












Seven 


•sanco ni i-wiri 
or -sanco 
ku-pambula 
ga-wili 


-banco ni wili 


-tan' na peli 


•banu na pili 


•tanu na pili 


•tanu na beli 


Eight 


•sanco ni i-tatu 
or -sanco 
ku-pambula 
i-tatu 




•tan' na taru 


•banu na taru 


•tanu na taru 


•tanu na taru 


Nine 


-sanco 
ni m-cece 
or -sanco 
ku-pambula 
m-cece 




•tan' na jejie 


•ttanu na -jiepi 


•tanu na nai 


•tanu na nai 



230 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57. 


English 


Yaeo 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






(North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'Afofambigue') 


Metu or 


Makua 


CQuelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpo>tcd 




Medco 






Ten 


Li-kumi 


Kumi. 


M-leagcd, 


Kumi. 


Li-kumi. 


Kumi 






Li-cira 


Mu-lcogcd 


Mu.lcogto 


M-l<okco 




Eleven 


Li-kumi 


Kumi 


Mu-lcagu 


Mu-ltogco 


Li-kumi 


Kumi 




ni ki-mco 


na ci-mo>e 


na mcoza 


na i-meoka 


na mcoha 


na moda 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


M-lcogu 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kum-m-edi 




ga-wiri (also 


ga-wiri. 


mi-ili 


m-eli 


me-eli 






in Old Vauj, 


? Ma-cira 












Di-jira ; 


ga-wiri 












pi. ma-jira — 














teste Bleek) 












Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-loogco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




ga-tatu 


ga-tatu 


mi-raru 


ma-raru 


ma-raru 


ma-rarco 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-lcogu 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




n-cece 


-ncece 


mi-jepe 


ma-cepe 


ma-nnai 


ma-nai 


Fifty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-lcogcd 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




ga-sanco or 


m-hanco 


mi-tanu 


ma-banu 


ma-tanu 


ma-tanu 




m-sanco (sixty 






(sixty = 








= Ma-kumi 






Ma-kumi 








m-sancd 






ma-banco 








ni li-mco) 






na ni-mcoka) 






Hundred ... 


Li-gana 


Li-cira ' 

(li-mwe) ; 
pi. ma-cira. 
I-gana 


M-lcog<o 
zene m-lugw 




Ma-kumi 
m-lcokco ? 


Zana 


Thousand... 


Mw-anda ' 


... 


... 


... 


■■• 


Ci-kwi 


I, me, my ... 


Ne-ju, U-ne. 


Ne-iiga. 


Mico. 


Mi. Mi-nyano. 


Mi-a, Mi-anco. 


Mi-co. 




N-, Ni-. 


Ni-, N-. 


Ki-. 


Ki- 


Gi- 


N-, Ndi-, Di.. 




•n-. -a-ngu 


-n-, -ni-. -a-ngu 


-ki- or -gi-. 
-a-ga 


-ki-. -a-ka 


-gi-. -ka 


-di-. -a-ga 


Thou, thee, 


U-gwe,Gwe-ju 


We-nga. 


We. 


U-we. We-yu. 


I-we, I-we-anco. 


We-yo). 


thy 


u.. 


U-. 


0)-, U-. 


U-. 


(0-, U-. 


U-. 




•ku.. -a-kco 


-ku-. -a-koj 


•hu-, -wu-. 


-U-. -a-co 


-U-. -a-o 


-U-. -a-o 


He, him, his 


A-jco, A-jeojoo. 


Nunco ? Yg> ? 


-a-co 
a)le. 


Ycoyco. 


E-y». 


lye-ne. 




A., Ju-. 


Yombe. 


0)-, U-. 


A-. 


U-. 


U-, Ba-. 




•m-, -mw-. 


A-. 


-m-. -a-we 


-m-. -a-we 


-mu-,-m.. -we 


-U-. -a-i 




-a-kwe 


•m-, -mu-. -a-ke 










We, us, our 


Uwe, Uwe-iu. 


Twe-iiga. 


Hi-o), Hi-nya>, 


Hi-yano). 


Hi-yanco. 


I-y(o. 




Tu-. 


Ti-. 


Hi-yan(o. 


Hi-yco. 


Ni-. 


Ni-. 




•tu-. -e-tu 


-ti-. -i-tu 


Ni-. 

■ni- (?-gi-, 

-ki-). -e-hu 


N-, Ni-. 
-ni-. -i-hu 


•ni-. -i-hu 


-ni-. -e-u 


Ye, you, your 


Umwe, 


Mwe-iiga. 


Nyu, Nyu-o), 


Nyenyu. 


Nyu-anco. 


Nyu-co. 




Umwe-ju. 


Mu-, M-. 


Nyenyu. 


Nyu-a). 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 




M-, Mu-. 


•mu-. -i-nu 


M-, Mu-. 


M-, Mu-, N-. 


-e-nyu 


-e-nyu 




•wa-. -e-nu 




-hu-. -e-nyu 


-n-, -ni-. 
-i-nyu 






They, them. 


Wa-le. Ao). 


We-nga ? 


Ahtowa. 


Ya-yco. A-yco. 


A-yco. 


Aw-ene. 


their 


A-. 


Wombe. 


A-. 


A-, Ya-. 


A-. 


A-. 




-a-, -wa-. -a-ca Wawere? 


-wa-, -ha-. 


. -a-, -a.ya 


•wa-. -a-e 


•a-, -a-wa 






Wa-, A-. 


-a-ya 












-wa-. -a-to, 














-a-wcij 











' This sometimes means one humired, and apparently sometimes merely ten. 
' Mw-anda in Yaco means ' a great number which cannot be counted'. 



GROUPS N AND O: YAOJ-NGINDOJ AND MOgAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



231 







54- 


,55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


En 


glish 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuaboa or 








{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 








South) 


'Mozambique ') 


Metcd or 


Makua 


{' Quelimane') 








55 a. Ci-mptotco 




Medco 






AU 





-ose; 

•ose-pe 


•uha 


(Ote-ne 


-onke-a 


Ate-ne ; 
-te-ne 


-obe-ne 


This, 


these 


A-jco orjn. 


U-yu, a-wa ; 


U-la, a-la ; 


U-la, a-la ; 


U-yco, a-yco ; 


U-du, a-wa ; 






a-wa ; a-u, 


?, ?; i-ri. 


u-la, ci-la ; 


u-la, ci-la ; 


u-yu; ? 


u-bu or oj-bu, 






a-ji; a-li,a.ga; 


a-ga; is'c. 


n-na, a-la ; 


n-na, a-la ; 




? ; e-ni ?, 






a-ci, a-i ; a-ji, 




i-la, ci-la ; 


i-la,ci-la(?lo); 




a-ma ? ; i-ci ?, 






a-si ; a-lu ; 




uu; va-a; 


iiii; va-a; 




i-vi ? ; ? ; de-ne, 






a-tu ; a-ka ; 




muu 


muu 




esi?; &'c. 






a-u ; a-ku ; 
















o-pa; a-mu. 
















A-juju ; 
















a-wawa ; dr'c. 
















Aju-noo, 
















awa-nco ; 
















au-nco ; ^'c. 












That, 


those 


(Ju-ele-ju ; 


J(o-la ; wa-ra ; 


U-le ; a-le ; 


U-le ; a-le ; &>€. 


(lO-le; a-la; 


Udu-le ; awa-le; 






w-ele-wa ; 


?; ?; le-ra; 


u-le ; ci-le; 


Yto-le ; ya-yca ; 


cD-le; &'c. 


ubu-le ; ^'c. 






w-ele-u ; 


gaTa; &■€. 


n-ne ; a-le ; 


yto-le; ceci-le; 










j-ele-ji ; 6-c.) 




&-€.; 


une-ne ; 










A-jco, a-wco ; 




va-le (16); 


ya-le (6) ; 










a-<a ; a-jeo ; 




mu-le (17) 


ye-le ; ceci-le ; 










a-lyoj ; a-goa ; 






woj-we (14) ; 










dr'c. 






va va-le (16); 






[ 




Aju-la, Awa-la; 






ma)mu-le(l7). 










au-la, aji-la ; 






T;i-(o.la(i); 










ati-la, aga-Ia; 






pi-a-yco or 










aci-la, ai-la; 






pi-ya-la (2) ; 










aji-la, asi-la ; 






pu-ya)-la (3) ; 










alu-la; ^'c. 






pi-ceci (4) ; 
pi-ne-na (5) ; 
pi-ya-la (6) ; 
pi-ye-la (9) ; 
pi-ceci (10) ; 
pu-wcowu (14); 
pi-vava, 
vava-w (16) ; 
w(jow-o> (15) ; 
pu-mcomu(i7). 







Bad ... . 


Expressed by 


•himu. 




Wcolcj-wa, cr'c. 


•nanara 


(0-warara 


•takala 




* not good'' ; 


•bi 




-co.bakala 










also -bi = 
















* black', 














Black... . 


'angry'. 
•pilyuu ; 


•piri 




-o-ri-pa. 


-o-ri'pa. 


-oj-ri-pa 


-wri-ba, 




•pilila, 






-co-takala 


-u-takala 




-u-ri-pa. 




•bi^ 












Ki-ko«de-le 


Female 


•kcongwe. 
■kcolu 


•dara. 
■klgi. 
•ana-wa 


ke 


•ti-ana 


•bi-ana 


•ti-ana 


•i-ana ; 
•seva 


Fierce 


■kali 






... 


•caca 




, 


Good .,. . 


•mboane. 
•kcota. 
•lumba-na 


•nco^fu. 
-halile. 
•nyahi 




-o^rera 


-co-rera 


-to-ha-pa ; 
-o^rera 


-u^kcode^ra 



232 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


S7. 


English 


Yaoj 


Ci-ngindoi 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabo> or 






(North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


CQuelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mputu 




Medco 






Great 


•kulungwa 


•kurungu. 


-kulu-bale ; 


•kulu-bale. 


-tukutcoku. 


•indimiia. 






•kulungwa 


-ulu-ljale. 
-wu-niia 


•mulu-pale. 
-wu-nua 


-ulu-pale 


-e-ula 


Little 


•nandi 


•cuku-pe. 


-am-kane, 


•kani 


-nanju. 


I-nconco. 






-ncuku 


-kane. 
-yeya 


or -kane. 
-ye-wa 


■ncononconcd 


-e-nye-wa 


Long 


■leu. 

-leu-pa 

{verb) 


"• 


-to-rega-ma 


-co-tali-va 


•cimpa 


-u-la-pa 


Male 


-lume. 


•pongco. 


•lubw-ana 


-m-lcopw-ana 


Mwa-luku; 


•lubw^ana. 




■kambakco 


-ana-lume. 
-kambako) 






•leopw-ana 


Pogeo 

(animals) 


Old 


-kulu ; 
-kala 




Wu-wala 


-co-kalai. 

Ehto-tala. 
-ulu-pale 


... 


Kalamba 


Red 


•cejeu 


... 


-o-peria 


-kwila. 
co.pera 


... 


... 


Rotten 


-uule 


• ■• 


-vunya 


-unta 




-u-vunda 


Short 


-upi, 
-ipi 


... 


•kuvi. 
0)-kuve-ha 


-kuve-a 


•ivisi. 
An-ivisi 


... 


Sick 


-Iwele, 
-Iwala 


... 


-wo-reya 


-reta. 
-we-reiya 


... 


•reta 


White 


■swela 


-bara-fu 


-o-tela 


-o-tela 


Yco-wela 


-cena 


Above, up, 


Canya. 


Ku-nani 


-va-zulu 


-m-culu, 


... 


-va-zuru 


on top 


Pa-canya. 
Ku-inani. 
Pe-nani 






va-culu 






Before,in front Ca-mbuju, 


I-mugi. 


U-hcol« 


Mi-hoilu 


... 


U-zogoru 




Pa-mbuj<a 


Pa-lungi 










Behind, last 


-n-yuma. 
Ca-mbesi 


In-yuma 


U-duli 


U-buli 


... 


... 


Below, down 


Ku-si, 
Pa-si. 
Kw-iwanda 


Pa-hi 


Va-ti 


Va-W 


... 


-va-ti 


Far 


Ku-tali-ka 


Kuli-pa 


(x)-tawene. 

Va-de 


U-tai. 
Va-be 


... 


... 


Here 


Apanu 


A pa 


Vava. 
Unco. 
N-nu 


Va 


Ava. 

Va! 


(Okuneo, 
Apanco 


In, inside ... 


Mw-e. 
M-kati 


M'., Mu- 


Mu-hina. 
Ne-bani. 
Mw-a-, -ni 


Mhina; -ni 


M-, -mw-e 


M^, Mu-are 


Middle ... 


Cisi-kati, 
Cili-kati 


... 


Iri-are 


Iri-ari ya- 


... 


■are 


Near 


Pa-ngulu 


Pahipahi 


Wa-kivi-ru 


Wa^tama 


... 


I -kuvi 


Outside ... 


Ku-sa 


Ku-uma, 
Pa-uma 


U-ta(?). 
Va-de 


Va-be 


... 


U-dambco 


Plenty 


-jinji 


•ingi 


-njene 


•inji 


-n-ceni. 
-n-cici 


•inji 


There 


Kulakula. 

Ku-nio 


Kura 


Vale, 
Vavoj. 
N-we 


Vale 


Uwto 


Apale 


Where? ... 


Kwa-pi?. 


■•• 


Va-i.' 


Va-i? 


... 


U-vi? 


• 






Va.yi.' 









GROUPS N AND O: YACO-NGINDOJ AND M0(;;AMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



233 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Ya« 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






(North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'Mo(ambique') 


Metco or 


Makua 


(' Quelimane ') 






55 a. Ci-mputu 




Medco 






No 


N-gwamba I 


Lietu ! 


lii! Aa! Ata ! 


Kiimoi ! 


Aki-pale ! 


Seye ! Ke ! 


Not (u'ith verb, 


Nga., Nge-, 


Ki- (isipers. 


A^ki-, A^gi^(ij/ 


X-V\(\stpers.); 


A-ki 


Ka. 


as prefix, m- 


Ngi-, Ngu-, 


sin^.). 


pers. sing.) ; 


Ka., K'. ; 






fix, or suffix) 


Ngini., 


■lietu (nega- 


Ki.crGi-.Ku-; 


-hi- (-si-) ; and 








Ngana-i 


tive suffix). 


Ka- [all per- 


much as in 56 








Ngunu- ; 


Nga- ; .nga^ ; 


sons) ; Ne-, 










»gasa-, 


Ka-, ka- ; 


Ni- (subj.) ; 










»gisi-i 


•naka- (55 a) ; 


-na^ ; •hi-; 










Ngusu. ; 


•tupu (neg. 


•le (suffix). 










Ngi-kini-, 


verb) 


-na- (infix) 










Nga-kana-, 














Ngu-kunu- ; 














-ka (-ga-) -ga 














(or -je) ; 




. 










•kasa-, -kaja- 












To 


Kii 


Ku- 


0)- 


U- 


U- 


U-, 0)- 


„ beat ... 


•menya 


•puta. 
-menya 


■mana 


-wata 


... 


-vada 


„ buy, sell 


•suma 


-gura 


-tumi-ha, 
-tuma 


•buma 


-tuma-li, 
-tuma 


-ngula 


„ come ... 


■isa or 


-ica 


•wa 


■ua 


-rwa 


da 


„ cut 


•ica 
-tema 


-dumura 


-tigila 


■Wkila 


-kata, 
-kakata 


-rema. 
-gwada 


,, dance ... 


•wina, 
-ina 


•ihina 


•rugunea. 
-wina 


-twela. 
-wu-ina 


■ihina 


-ceta 


„ die ... 


•uwa 


•fwa, 
-huwa, 
■hwa 


•kwa 


•kwa 


■pwa 


-kwa 


„ eat 


■Ha 


•ria, 
■dia 


-ja 


-Ua 


■ca 


■ja 


,. give ... 


-pa 


-pa. 
•pika. 
-wana 


•va-ha 


■kumi-ha ; 
■nya. 
•va^ha 


-inya 


•va-a 


,. go 


-enda ; 


•genda, 


-rua; 


■wet>a. 


-rcoa; 


-dwa. 




-jenda ; 


-enda 


•eta 


-rcoa 


-ka 


-famba 


„ kill ... 


-ja 
•ula.ga 


■ku>ma 


-iva 


■wiva 


-ipa 


-pa, -upa 


„ know ... 


■manya 


-manyi, 
•manya 


-zuela 


■cuela 


■suwela 


-zewa 


„ laugh ... 


■seka 


-heka 


-tea 


■tiea 


■tea 


•bea 


„ leave off, 


-leka 


•leka 


•hia 


-hia. 




■tia 


cease 








-leha 






„ love, want 


-nonyela. 


•londa. 


■tuna ; 


-tuna 


-tuna ; 


■dana ; 




•saka 


-hana 


•ntuna 




-iikwela 


■funa 


„ see 


•wona, 
-ona. 
Icola 


•Icola. 
•liiiga 


•ona 


-wcona 


■cona, 
-kcona .' 
•bali 


■cona 


„ sit, remain, 


•tama 


•tama 


•kala^ti 


-kala-tii 




■kala-ti 


abide 














„ sleep ... 


•gona 


•gona. 
•gcolco^ka 


-rupa. 
■ncona, 
•kcona 


■rupa 


... 


■gcona 


,, stand, stop, 


■ima, 


•yima 


•eme^la 


•weme-la 


... 


■ime-la 


be erect 


•jima 












II steal . . . 


■jiwa 


•jiba 


•wia 


•wiya 


•iya 


•iba 



234 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN YAO) 
No preprefixes. 

Class I, Mu-, M-, Ju-, A-, Aci-, Aca- (m, ju-, jua-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, A-, A-ki-, A-ci-, A-ca- (wa-, -a-) ; 

3. Mu-, M- (wo)-, U-) ; 4. Ml- (mi-, ji) ; 5. Li- (li) ; 6. Ma- (gama-, ga) ; 7. Ci-, Ki- (ci, ki) ; 8. I- (i, yi) ; 
9. Ny-, N- (M-), a. ai, jan'-) ; 10. Ny-, Kg-, N-, N- (M-), — (si) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka 
(ka) ; 14. U- (u-, wco) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (m-, mu-). 

Also the prefix Na-, without concord. 

The plural double prefixes Aci-, Aki-, and Aca- seem to be used (together with A-) in both a plural 
and a singular sense, and always as a token of respect or politeness. Aca- is an honorific prefix, = ' Mr. ' 
or ' Sir ', when preceding a proper name. This particle becomes 'Ce in south-west Yaculand. The Ci- in 
these prefixes is sometimes heard as Ki- (as also in Ci-ngind<o), and may be nothing but the 7th singular 
prefix in an augmentative sense. The 'Ce or 'Ca (Ace-, Aca-) may be the equivalent of the 'father' 
prefix ^a-, pi-. Si- in cognate tongues. When Aci- is employed in a singular sense in Yaco, its plural 
prefix is Wa-i- (2 + 8), which would strengthen the supposition that Ci- = Ki- (No. 7). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-NGINDO) AND CI-MFOOTtO 

Traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, Nn- (mu, jfo-, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, A- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, Nn- (mu-, wu, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Li-, — (li, ri, le-) ; 6. Ma-, Ama- (ma-, ga, -ya) ; 7. Ci- (ci-) ; 8. Hi-, Fi-, Vi- (hi, fi, vi) ; 9. In- 
(Im-), In-, Iny-, N-, Ny-, Jim- (n-, i) ; 10. same as 9 (hi, hy, i) ; 11. Uru-, Lu- (lu) ; 12. Utu-, Tu- (tu) ; 

13. Aka-, Ka- (ka) ; 14. U-, Hu- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Apa- (pa) ; 17 ? Na-, Na-ka- (honorific) ; //. 
wa-ka-. Aka- (13) is also honorific in some words. There are traces of a La- (' time ') prefix. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN THE MAKUA DIALECTS : I-MAKUA, MEDO), LOMWE 

Only faint traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, A- ', Mwa-, Mwala, Mwara (possibly a contraction or slurring of ' Mw-ana ') (m-, 
mu, mwam-, u-, to-, yo)-, tii-) ; 2. A-, E-, Aci-, Api-, Api-mi- (a, co-, ya-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (m-, mu-, u, wto-, 
wi-, yto) ; 4. Mi-, N- (mi-, i, ci-) ; 5. Ni-, N-, Li-' (n, ni) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, to-, (ova-, a, ya-) ; 7. Surviving 
without definite concord as E-, Eki-, I-, Ici-, Ey-, Y- ; 8. ly-, I- or absent ; 9. E- or I-, In-, En-, Yco- (i) ; 
10. 1-, E-, Coa- (i-,ci) ; 11. missing; 12. missing; 13. Ka- (without concord and treated as of Class I with 
Class 2 superimposed as plural ; 14. U-, CO- (u, wco-) ; 15. U-, CO-, Wca- (u, wco-) ; 16. Va- (va- ? pu, ? pi, 
p<o ?) ; 17. (plural also to 16) M-, Mu- (mu-, mco-, m-, -ni). 

-ana diminutive suffix. 

Also Na- prefix with A- as plural, superadded. According to Maples, Na- (which is inseparable from 
root-word) has usually the concord of Class I , but sometimes that of Class 5 or Class 9. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CUAMBCO 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, m, -du, u-) ; 2. A- (anciently Va-) (a) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, -bu-, u-) ; 

4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 5. Ni-, N- (anciently Li-) (ni, ? li) ; 6. Ma- (ma- ?) ; 7. Ei-, I-, Ci- (i, ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 
9. — , N-, Ny- (n-?, i ?) ; 10. Di-, Ti-, De-, Re- (?de-, di); 11. missing; 12. missing; 13. missing; 

14. U-, Wu- (old) (u) ; 15. U-, CO- (u) ; 16. Apa-, Pa-?, Va? (pa ?); 17. M- (?). 

-ana diminutive suffix. 
Nya-, Na- as prefix without concord : plural. Ana-, Anya-. 

' Honorific singular prefix, derived from No. 2. "^ In Lomwe the ith prefix is usually Li-. 



GROUPS N AND O: YAOJ-NGINDU) AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 235 

54. Yaco is spoken from the Middle and Upper Ruvuma river in the north to the south-east coast of 
Lake Nyasa, the Upper Shire, the middle of the Shir^ Highlands, and Mlanje Mountain in the south; 
especially along the valley of the Lujenda river as far east as the Medo) and Lomwe countries. 

55. Cingindco is spoken chiefly inland between South latitude 8° 30' and the watershed of the Middle 
Ruvuma river; west of the Matumbi and Mwera languages, and east of Pogorco, Sutu, and Nindi ; also 
in scattered colonies on the Kilwa coast : Cimpcotco, in the East Nyasa coast-lands between South 
latitude 10° 40' and 11° 30' ; as far east as Upper Ruvuma river. 

56. Imakua is spoken in the Mozambique district of Portuguese East Africa between the Lurito 
river on the north and the Tejufigco river in the south ; and from the sea coast westward to the Lomwe 
country. 

56 a. Northern Makua is spoken in the interior of Portuguese East Africa between the Ruvuma 
river on the north and the Luriio on the south, between the Kerimba or Mabiha country on the east and 
the Lujenda valley on the west. 

56 b. Lomwe is spoken in the region west of the Makua people and east of the Lujenda ^•alley 
and Lake Chilwa. The northern range of the Lomwe dialect is about 14° of South latitude, and its 
southern limits lie a little to the south of the l6th parallel. 

57. Icuabco <7r Cuatnbco is spoken in the coast district of Ouelimane, north of the Zambezi delta, as 
far as the Mazemba or Tejuiigco rivers. Inland its range reaches nearly to Mounts Cipertoni and 
Mtotomtonco and the Upper Lukugu river. 



y 



GROUP P 

THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



58. Ci-mazarco (Ci-kunda or Ci-gunda) 
58 a. Ci-podz« 

59. Ci-nyungwi ('7>/f ') 593. Ci-sena 



60. Ci-mbco (Ci-cinjiri) 

61 a. Ci-mananja (South Nyanja) 

6r. Ci-nyanja (East Nyanja) 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarca 


Ci-podzu 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbo» 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Adze 


N-semco ; 
an-semcd 


... 


Paza? 


N-semco 


N-sompto. 
Zenga 


... 


Animal, wild 


N-ama; 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. 


Ny-ama. 


beast 


din-ama 








Ci-rombw 


Ci-kcokco 


Ant 


N-yerere. 


N -yerere 


N-yarere. 


N-tuta. 


N-yerere. 


N-yerere. 




Gugu ; ma + . 




Ma-gugu. 


N-cirafu 


N-yanyaco. 


Li-ntumbwi 




Nye; 




Nye; 




Li-ntvmibu. 






ma-nye. 




ma-nye 




M-dzcodzco 






N-dcodu ; mi- 












Ant, white 


U-cenje. 


U-yece 


Mu-cenye. 


Ka-lanzi 


Ci-swe. 


N-swa. 


(termite) 


U-jeci; ma-. 

N-yamu; 

din-yamu 




U-cenpe(59a) 




In-swa. 

Ka-lanzi. 

U-lomwe 


Ci-swe. 
N-gumbi 


Arm 


N-gconu ; mi- 


N-kci>nco; mi- 


M-ktonco. 
N-gconw; mi- 


N-cafu 


M-kconco 


M-kconco. 
Janja 


Arrow 


Mu-bvi; mi- 


M-phina 


Mu-bvi. 


M-pamba 


Mu-bvi. 


Mu-bvi, 






(same in 


Mu-zeve ; mi- 




Ci-songa. 


Mu-vi ; mi- 






plural, but 






N-cetci> 








-dzi = plural 














concord) 










Axe 


M-badzco or 


M-badzc» 


M-badzo> or 


Li-wagco 


N-kwangwa. 


N-kwangwa 




Badco. 




Badu; 




Ka-temo>. 


or Xwafigwa 




Ka-nyimbwi ? 




ma-badcd 




Gcoma. 
Ganco. 
Ka-nyembe. 
Pomp we 




Baboon ... 


Bongwe. 


Bongwi 


Bongwe ; a -t- . 


Bongwe 


N-yani 


N-kwere or 




Korco; 




Koro; 






Mii-kwele. 




a-korto 




a-koro 






M-xweri ; wa- 


Back 


N-tana ; mi-. 


Wa-korokoro. 


M-sana. 


Gongca 


M-sana. 


M-sana. 




Ku-nduyu 


Perepere 


Ku-nduyu 




M-buyco 


M-buyo) 


Banana 


M-figu 


Figu (li-J ; 


Ma-figu (pi.) 


Ma-gonibwa 


N-tcoci. 


N-tcoci 




{Portuguese) 


ma-t- 




(pi-) 


M-lanya 




Beard 


N-debvu or 
N-devu 


N-debvu 


N-debvu or 
N-devu 


N-debvu 


N-debvu 


N-debvu 


Bee 


N-juci or 
N-nji; 
din-iiji 


N-yui, 
N-uzi 


Ny-uci. 
N-uji ; 
din-uji 


Ka-luma 


N-juci 


N-juci 


Belly 


Ci-fu or 
Ji-fu. 
Mimba 


Mimba 


Ci-fii. 
Mimba. 
Ma-tumbo> 


Cin-tumbco 


Mimba 

(abdomen). 
(Ci-pfu = 
stomach. 
Ci-nena = 

puhcs) 


Mimba 


Bird 


M-balame 


M-barame 


M-balame 


M-balame 


M -balame 


M -balame 


Blood 


Mu-lcopa 


Mi-rcopa 


Mu-lo>pa 


Ma-gasi 


Mw-azi 


Mw-azi 


Body 


Ma-nungu ; //. 
mama-nuiigu 


Ma-nuiigeo 


Ma-nungoj 


Tupi 


Tupi ; ma ■¥ 


Tupi ; ma -^ . 
Ma-lungco 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



»i? 



English 



58. 
Ci-mazarco 
(Ci-kunda) 



58 a. 
Ci-podzcd 



59- 
Ci-nyungwi 
59 a. Ci-sena 



60. 

Ci-mbco 

(Ci-cinjiri) 



61 a. 
Ci-mananja 

(South 
Nyanja) 



61. 
Ci-nyanja 

(East 
Nyanja) 



Bone 


Kug(i>da> or 
Gugcodu ; pi, 

ma + 


Gugudu 


Ku-gcodco. 
Gcogcadu 


Li-gci>do> 


Pfupa 


Ci-fupa, 
Fupa 


Borassuspalm 


Bvumu; ma + 


M-dikwa 


Dikwa 


Bvumto 


M-vumo). 

M-laza 
U-ta 


Ci-gwalangwa. 


Bow 


U-taor U-ra; 


U-ta ; ma + 


U-ta, U-ra; 


Cima.figanze 


V\'u-ta or 




//. au-ra 




au-ra (//.) 






U-ta 


Bowels 


Ma-rtimboi 


... 


• .. 


• •* 


Ma-tumbci> 


Ma-tumbw 


Brains 


W-ongco or 
Y-onoj; dji- 


W-ongCi) 


W-ongco. 
Y-ofito ; dzi -f- 


Tompwe 


Uw-ongo> 


W-ongco, 
Uw-ongo* 


Breast (male) 


Ci-kua 


... 


Pa-m-tima. 
Didi. 


Pa-m.tima-nzi 


Ci-pfua ; 
zi-pfua 


Ci-fua 



Breast 
(female) 

Brother 



t 



Buffalo 
Bull ... 
Buttocks 
Canoe... 

Cat ... 
Charcoal 
Chief ... 

Child ... 
Cloth ... 

Cold ... 

Country 

I Cow ... 



Bere or Be ; 

iTia + . 

Tconyeo ; ma + 
M-bali; 

a-balL 

N-siaor 

N-jira; di-f. 

M-pwa. 

Drongco 
Ny-ari or 

N-ari 
N-ombe 

ya ka-pali 
Ma-rakco or 

Ragco; ma-t- 
Mw-adia. 

C-ombco ; 

vi-ombco 

M-bhaka ; 

a-phaka 
Kala; 

ma-kala 
M-fumu; ma-. 

Ji-ni ; vi-ni 



Mw-ana ; 
ana 

N-guco; 

difi-guco. 

N-kuco ; ziii- 
Ci-ridu ; 

vi-ridu ("i Port. 

^frio,freido') 
Idz-ikco ; 

ma-ikco. 

N-drunda; 

nii-runda 
N-ombe ; di 4- 

yan-sika-naor 

di-sika-na 



Bere ; ma -v 



M-bali 



Nz-ati 

N-ombe 
mo-mbwa-na 
Ma-takco 

Mw-adia 



M-phaka 



M-fumu 



Mw-ana ; 
ana 
N-guco 



T-igu 



N-ombe. 
I-siga-na 



Ci-fua or 

Ci-kua 
Bere; 

ma-bere. 

Zuku ; ma -f 
M-bali. 

N-sia, 

N-jira. 

M-pwa 



Ny-ati 



Ma-takco 

Mw-adia. 

Mu-kondco. 

C-ombco ; 

pi-ombco (59 a) 
M-paka 



Mambco. 

Mu-pinda. 
Fumu 



Mw-ana ; 
ana 

N-guco ; 
di n-kuco or 
diii-guco [pi.) 

Ci-ridu 



Dz-ikco ; 
ma-ikco 



Li-zamwe ; ma- Bere ; 

ma-were 



M-bali 



Ny-ati 



Ma-takco 
Bw-atco 



M-lamu. 
Mw-enye 

M-fumu 



Mw-ana ; 
ana, b-ana 
Li-fuka 



N-taka 



N-ombe ; 

zi- or di-. 
N-ombe 
ya n-sika-na 



N-ombe ; 
zin-ombe 



Njira. 
M-bale. 
M-longco 



Nj-ati 

M-pongco 

Ma-takco. 

N-kcolco 
N-galawa. 

Bw-atco; ma-l- 



M-paka 

K-hala. 

Tsimbe; ma + 
M-fumu. 

Lundu. 

Bambco. 

Ci-rembwe. 

M-buye 
Mw-ana. 

Ka-nda 
N-garu 



Zizira. 
Ci-sanu 

Dz-ikco ; 
ma-ikco 



N-ombe 



Ma-wele 



M-lofigco. 
Mpwa. 
M-bare, 
M-bale 



Nj-ati or 

Ny-ati 

M-pongco 

Ma-takco 

Bw-atco ; ma + 



M-paka. 
M-bwiyaco 
Ma-kala 

M-fumu. 
M-kulu 



Mw-ana ; 
w-ana 
N-caru 



Zizila. 
M-pepco 

J-ikco; 
ma-ikco 



N-ombe 
ya taji 



238 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59v, 


60. 


61 a. 


6i. 


English 


Ci-mazaru 


Cipodzto 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbu 


Ci-mananja 


Ci«yanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Crocodile ... 


N-cona; pi. 
a + or di + 


N-oona 


N-cona. 
Nya-koakca 


N-conantondo> 


N-cona 


N-oana, 
M n-cona. 
M'amba 


Day 


Tsiku or 
Siku. 
N-tana. 
M-punga 


Ma-sikati 


Siku 


Tsiku 


N-siku 


Siku. 
U-sana 


DevU 


N-zimu 


A-fiti 


N-dzimu. 
Tsa-n-dukwa 


Li-fuka; ina + . 
Gcogoa 


M-zimu 


M-zimu ; 
wa-zimu 


Doctor 


Ifanka; ma-t-. 


... 


N-ganga; zi + 


... 


Si-nanga 


Si-nanga 



Dog 



Sa-penda ; 
ma + . 

Mw-iyanya ; 
a-yanya 

Mw-ana-m-bwa Mw-ana-m-bwa Mw-ana-m-bwa; Im-bwa 

ana-m-bwa. 



Donkey ... Bum; ma + 
Door,doorway Ci-tsekco; vi-. 

Ci-dzaco. 

N-suco ; mi- 
Dream ... Tuleo; ma + . 

N-dcota 



Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 

Excrement 
Eye 

Face 

Fat 

Father 



I n-coma ; 

pi. difi + 
B-aru ; 

m-aru 



N-suco. 
M-suco; mi- 

Ku-rcota 



N-coma 
Ku-tu 



Zai or l-Azai; Zai, 



Fear ... 



pi. ma.zai 
Dcou or 

N-tcou; pi. 

an-tcou 
Malu-bvi 

L-isco ; 

m-esco. 

D-isco ; 

mad-isco 
Kcope ; ma -f . 

Ci-usco 

Ma-kura 

Baba ; a -t- . 
T/ie honorific 
Sa- or Se- 
prefix 



Ma.nta. 
Ycopa, 
Gcopa 



Li-zai ; ma- 
N-zco 



Matu-bvi 

D-isco ; 
ma-su 



N-khcope 



Ma-fttta 



Gcopa 



M-bwa ; 
zim-bwa 

Ci-sekco ; pa-, 
N-suco 

N-dota 



N-coma ; 

zi- or di- 
Ku-tu ; ma + . 

Ba-rco ; 

ma-rco 
Zai ; ma -f 

N-zcou 



Matu-bzi 

D-isco ; 
ma-sco. 
M-bconi 

Kope; 
n-kcope. 
N-kuma 

Ma-futa 

Baba. 

The honorific 
Sa- or Se- 
prefix 



Ma-nta. 
Gcopa 



Ci-tsekco. 
N-kcowa 

N-dota 



N-coma 
Li-pilikanilco 



Lin-danda 



Gam 



Ci-tsekco ; zi- 
Fa-kcomco 

N-tulco ; 

a-tulco. 

N-deota. 

Ma-lcota 
N-coma 

Ku-tu or 

Khu-tu ; 

maku-tu 
Dzira ; 



N-jcobvu. 
Dzimwe 



N-dembco. 
Ma-tsutame 

Ma-ngwenu (?) Tu-bzi ; ma -^ . 

M-cimba 
Dz-isco ; D-isco, dfc. 

ma-sco 



N-kcope. 

Ci-tseo 



Ma-futa 



Ma-nta 



Ma-futa. 

Ncona 
Tate; 

a-tate. 

Probably also 
the honorific 
Tsa- prefix. 
This is some- 
times Atsa- 
Ma-nta. 
Ci-ntente. 
Ci-ntewe. 
N-tenu. 
(Ku.copa=7'^.) 



Gam 



Bulu ; ma + 

Ci-cekco ; vi- 

Pa-kcomo> 

Lcota. 
Ku-lota 



N-coma ; zi -t- 
Ku-tu; ma + 

ZUa 
N-joavu 



Tu-bi or 

Ma-vi 
D-isco 



Ma-sco. 
N-kcope 

Ma-futa 

Tate; 
a-tate 



Ma-nta. 
(Ku-copa=T'i.) 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



239 



English 



58. 
Ci-mazarco 
(Ci-kunda) 



58 a. 
Ci-podzbi 



59- 
Ci-nyungwi 
59 a. Ci-sena 



60. 

Ci-mbcii 

(Ci-cinjiri) 



61 a. 
Ci-mananja 

(South 
Nyanja) 



61. 

Ci-nyanja 

(East 

Nyanja) 



Finger 

Fire ... . 
Fish ... . 

Foot ... . 

Forest 
Fowl 

Frog, toad 
Ghost 



Giraffe 

Girl ... 



Goat ... 

„ (he) 
.. (she) 

God ... 



Grass... 
Ground 



Ground-nut 



Ci-bunu : vi- 


Ci-buno>; vi- 


Mu-nwe ; mi-. 


Ka-pfunya 


C-ala ; 


Cala; 






Ci-bunu ; vi-. 




dz-ala 


vy-ala 






C-ara; pi- (59 a 








M-otu ; 


M-Stea 


M-otoj 


M-otoj. 


M-oteo 


M-5t« 


mi-otco 






Nan-sail 






N-somba or 


N-somba 


N-somba or 


N-somba 


N-somba 


N-comba 


I-somba ; 




I-somba; 








di- or yi- 




di-, yi, or zi- 








Ny-al<o. 


Ny-ala 


Ny-alw. 


Mw-endco 


Mw-endoj. 


Mw-endoa. 


Tavu ; ma -t- 




Mvv-endci>. 
Tavu ; ma -f . 
N-say<o 




Pazi 


Pasi or 
Pazi 


Mu-situ 


M-situ 


M-situ 


N-situ 


M-situ. 
N-kalang». 
Teiigco 


N-kalangu. 
M-situ 


Mw-ana-m-kuku- N-kuku 


Mw^na-n-kuku 


N-kuku. 


N-kuku 


N-kuku 


Yi-kuku ; di-. 




Kuku, 


Dzoye 






Sekese 




Yi-kuku ; 

di-, zi- 








Nya-cidwe ; 


... 


Nya-cidwe ; 


... 


C-ule; a-^. 


C-ulwe. 


a + 




a -f . guri. 
Sezi; ma-^ 




Nam-tusi 


Ci-lealombe 


M-dzukwa. 


Dzimu 


Mu-zukwa ; 


• •• 


M-dzukwa 


Ci-dzodcogwa; 


N-dukuyu ; 




a-zukwa. 






//. vi-. 


nia + . 




N-dukuyu. 






M-zimu 


Kwiri; a + . 




Kwiri ; a + . 








N-zimu ; mi- 




N-zimu ; mi- 








Mw-ali ; 


... 


Buru; ma4- 


• •• 


M-sika-na. 


Mw-ai'i! 


mi-ali. 








Namw-ali. 


Butu 


Mw-ensika-na. 








Ka-tsimba. 




Butu or 








Butu 




Burn ; ma + 












M-buzi 


M-buzi 


M-buzi; di-f 


M-buzi 


M-buzi. 
Gugco 


M-buzi. 
Gcogca 


Bcoku ; ma -f 


Sa-beokeo 


Bcokco ; ma- 


M-pema 


Tonde, 
Ci-tonde 


Pepe. 
M-pongo» 


M-buzi 


• •• 


... 


... 


M-cota. 


M-buzi ya 


ya tsika-na 








M-buzi 
ya kcoleo. 
M-soati 


taji 


Mu-lungu or 


Mu-lungu 


Mu-rungco (a/so 


M-pambe 


M-lezi. 


Mu-lungu 


Mu-iungu 




= ' rain ') 




M-pambe. 
Mu-lungu. 
Ci-uta ' 




M-buya 


... 


M-buya 


... 


Khcolu ; ma -f . 
M-buye 


Am-buye 


Ma-nyasi 


Ma-nyasi 


Mau-dzu. 
Ny-asi; ma-f 


Ma-nyazi 


Mau-dzu, 
U-dzu 


Ma-uju 


U-kaka ; ma+. 


Ma-taka 


Taka. 


N-taka 


N-taka 


N-taka 


N-kaka. 




U-kaka 








Ma-raga (//.). 












Taka 












Ma-nduwi 


Ma-ndiii 


Ma-nduwi. 
Dzi-ndwe; ma- 


Ci-wirinkate 


N-tedza 


N-teza. 
M-balala 



' M-lezi, /row Ku-leza, fo sustain. Ci-iita = M? rainbow. M-pambe = //i^ '■ excetler', also ^ great rain' and 
thunder'. 



R2 



240 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podro* 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mboi 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Guinea-fowl 


Kaiiga 


Kanga 


Kanga 


N-joipilco 


N-kanga 


N-kanga 


Gun 


M-futi 


Futi 


M-futi 


M-oteo ('Jire') 


M-futi 


Futi 


Hair 


Sisi or 
I-titi 


Sisi 


Ititi. 
Tsisi 


T-sitsi 


Tsitsi. 
M-pombe 


Cici 


Hand 


fiantia or 


Dz-anja ; 


Dz-anja ; 


Dz-anja ; 


Dz-anja ; 


J-anja ; 




Danta; 


ni-anja 


m-anja. 


m-anja. 


m-anja 


m-anja 




m-anta 




Da-nta ; 
m-anta 


Ka-funya 






Head 


Mu-ru 


M-sorco 


M-sorco 


N -soldi 


Mu-tu 


Mu-tu; 
mi-tu 


Heart 


N-drima ; 
mi-rima 


N-rrima 


M-tima 


M-tima 


M-tima 


M-tima 


Heel 


I-tiri. 


Ji-sondto; bi- 


Ci-tiri. 


Cin-zoiigciiniku Ci-tende ; dzi-. 


Ci-katco; vi- 




Ci-bili. 




Ci-tende. 




Ci-ndende 






Tavu ; ma + 




Tavu ; ma + 








Hide 


Tembe; ma + 




N -tembe ; ma -1- 




Ci-kcopa, 
Ci-kwapa. 
N-guco (of 
sheep or 
goat) • 


Ci-kwetu. 
Ngulu 


Hill 


Piri 


... 


Piri 


••• 


Ci-tunda. 
Piri 


Piri 


Hippopotamus 


Tomondcd 


M-vu 


M-vu 


Dumondtd 


M-vii ; 
am-vu. 
M-pangwei 


M-viiu. 
Ci-gwele 


Hoe 


Ji-simba; vi- 


... 


«.« 


... 


Kasu. 
M-dzedze. 
Guco 


Kasu ; ma -f . 
Ci-nkojma 


Honey 


Uwi. 
Ma-sinci 
a n-uji 


Ma-ta 


Uci. 

Ma-sinci 
a n-uci 


N-juci 


Uci 


Uci. 
Ma-seka 


Horn 


Ny-anka 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga. 
Mandadalala 


Ny-anga 


N-ciwa. 
Ny-anga. 
Li-penga 


House 


N-umpa or 
N-umba; di- 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba. 
Banja 


Ny-umba. 
Li-banda 

(oblong) 


Hunger 


N-tala 


N-daya or 
N-da 


N-jala 


Ca-lema 


N-jala 


N-jala 


Husband ... 


Mu-ombw-ana; 
a-. Ma-muna; 
a + 


... 


Baya 


... 


Mwa-muna 


Wama-muna 


Hyena 


Na-nkunu or 
Nya-nkunco 


Tika; ma + 


Tika 


Pesi. 
Lubvu 


Fisi; ma-t- 


Fisi ; wa-f . 
Fid 


Iron 


U-tali 


M-para 


U-tale 


Dzi-fuzeo 


Ci-tsulu. 

M-pala 


Ci-oulo> 


Island 


N-sua ; di + 


Pan-sua 


N-sua 


Ci-gunda. 
Ci-senjerere. 
Ka-lungu 


Ci-si; 
dzi-si. 
Ci-lumba 


Ci-lwa ; vi-. 
Ci-rumba; vi 


Ivory 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


N-dembw 


Ny-anga 
ya n-jeobvu 


Ny-anga 
ya n-jcovu 


Knee 


I-bondca; ma- 


Bonded 


Bondto ; 
i-bondcd 


Bondco 


Bondco 


Ci-gonconco. 
Bombconco 


Knife 


M-beni 


M-peni 


M-peni. 
Ci-su 


M-beni. 
M-kaloj. 
M-p<op<a 


M-peni 


M-peni. 
Ci-pula 



' showing that the otiginal sense o/N-gubco (cloth) was a hide for wearing apparel. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



341 





58. 


58 a. 


59v 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podzeo 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbo> 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Lake 


Ny-ansa ; 

di+ or ma. + 


... 


Tavare. 
Ny-anza 


... 


Tamanda. 
Oziwe 


Ny-anja 


Leg 


Mw-endo> 


Mw-endea 


Mw-end<o 


Mw-endeo 


Mw-end<a 


Mw-endu 


Leopard . . . 


Nya-lugwe 


Nya-rugwe 


Nya-lugwe 


Ka-mbuku 


Nya-lugwe 


Nya-lubwe 


Lion 


N-kalam&> 


... 


}?-kalamcd. 
M-pondorco 


... 


M-kangu 


M-kaagci> 


Lips 


Mw-ioMnu. 
Mi-icomco 


Mu-r<omoi 


Mi-rcomo) 


Mi-loimu 


Mi-la>mci> 


Mi-lo>mca 


Magic 


... 


Ufiti 


Ma-le 


Tsenga 


U-fiti. 
Tsefiga. 

Ma-ere 


U-fiti 


Maize 


Piamanga 


Ma-pira- 
manga ' 


Ma-pira- 
manga 


Pa-mangwe 


Ci-manga. 
Ka-gcolu 


Ci-manga 


Man 


Mu-tu ; a-tu 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-tu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 






a-ntu. 


a-ntu or 
wa-ntu 


pi. zi a-ntu 


a-ntu 


wa-nta 


Man, vir. ... 


Mu-mbw-ana. 
(U-swaka. = 
manhood ) 


... 


Mwa-muna. 
Mu-mbw-ana. 
M-swaka 


Mwa-mna 


Mwa-muna 


Mwa-muna 


Meat 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


M-nufu. 
Ny-ama- 
N-kwiru 


Ny-araa 


Medicine ... 


N-drombwe ; 
mi-rombwe 


... 


Ma-ngware. 

Mu-tombwe 


... 


Ma-nkwala. 
U-sinanga 


Ma-nkwala 


Milk 


Ukaka 




Ukaka 




M-kaka, 
Nkaka. 
Ma-ziwa. 
Ma-ere or 
Bere. 

(Ku-kama = 
verb) 


Li-kama 


Monkey ... 


Kcolco. 
N-simbu 


Korw 


Kolca. 
Pusi. 
N-pima. 
Bonkwe 


N-janjama 


Pusi ; a + . 
N-cima 


Pusi 


Moon 


Mw-eri ; mi-. 
Dendendi ; 

ma + 


Mw-edai 


Mw-ezi. 
Mw-eri 


N-dende- 
ke-zuwe 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


Mother ... 


Mama 


• •• 


Mama. 
N-dende 


••• 


Mai ; ma-. 
Maco 


A-mai 


Mountain ... 


Piri 


Piri 


Piri 


Piri 


Piri ; ma -I- 


Piri 


Mouth 


Mu-rumoi. 
Nga-nwa 


... 


Mu-rumcd 


... 


Ka-mwa 


Ka-mwa 


Nail (of finger 


N-geole. 


Ky-ara 


Ny-ala or 


Ci-ka-nam-bira 


Ci-kabadco. 


Ci-kabadco 


or toe) 


N-yaya, 
N-aia ; 
din-aia 




N-para ; zin-. 
N-gore(59a) 




Ka-dabto ; ti- 




Name 


Dz-ina 


Dz-ina, 


Z-ina 


Dz-ina 


Dz-ina ; 
ma-ina 


J-ina; 
ma-ina 


Navel 


Mu'jombco ; mi-. 
Mu-ombw; mi- 


... 


... 


... 


M-combu. 
Ci-dudu 


M-combo> 


Neck 


Kcdsi or 
Kuti. 


Kcosi 


Kuzi 


Ci-kcota 


Kusi, 
Khoisi 


Khcosi 



Ci-gtogoj 



Ma-pira-maiiga = sorghum of the sea coast. 



242 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


S9- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaroi 


Ci-podzu 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbos 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Night 


Ma-tiku. 
(Dima = 
darkness) 


Ma-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku. 
Tsiku. 
(M-dima = 
darkness) 


U-siku. 
(Ci-dima = 

darkness) 


Nose 


Punu ; pL rai- 


M-punu 


Punco 


•-•■ 


M-punoa 


M-punu 


Ox 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-tofiga 


N-ombe 


M-fule. 




ya ka-pale 




ya ka-padcj 




ya m-fule 


N-ombe 


Paddle ... 


N-ombco. 

(Ku-capa = 
verb) 


• *• 


N-ombu 


•*• 


Capa, 
Kapa. 
N-gombca 


N-kafl 


Palm wine, 


W-iema. 


U-cema 


U-cema 


N-soamco 


U-cema 


U-cema 


beer 


Badwa; ma + 












Parrot 


Cin-cerekete. 
Lomwe 


Tangwi 


N-geowe. 
•^i-mpie 


Ci-nkwe 


Ci-nkwe ; dzi- 


Ci-nkwe ; vi- 


Penis 


Sondco. 
M-borco; di + 


M-boro> 


Sondco 


M-bo>lco 


M-boolco, 
M-bcole.' 
Cende 


M-bolu 


Pig 


N-kumba ; 

man- 


N-kumba 


N-kumba 


Gudani 


N-kumba 


N-kumba. 
N-guluwe 


Pigeon 


Kafiga-iwa, 
N-khanga-iwa 


J-iwa 


Kaiiga-iwa 


... 


N-kunda. 
N-jiwa 


N-kunda 


Place 


M-buro>. 
Dalco ; ma + 


M-butci> 


M-butoo 


M-butu 


M-butoo. 
Ma-lca 


M-butco. 
Ma-lM 


Rain 


Mu-ungu ; ^ 
mi-unku(^/.) 


Mu-lungu.^ 
Ana-vumba 


M-vula 


M-bvula 


M-bvula 


Vula 


Rat 


Ciu 


N-ciru ; ma- 


Ciru 


Koswe. 
Gudani ? 


Koswe; ma-f. 
M-puku 


Koswe. 
M-bewa 


Rhinoceros 


Ci-pempere;vi- 
Dcogoi. 
Pwele 


••' 


Ci-pembere. 
Pueti 


... 


... 


Ci-pembere 


River 


D-ombasi. 
N-guoj; 
mi-guca 


Ny-anza 


Ny-anja. 
Ci-mazi. 

Mu-kuroi 


Ny-anja 


Ny-anja. 
M-tsinje 


M-cinje 


Road 


N-sia 


Nsia 


N-jira 


N-jira. 
Kw-alala. 
N-kwasa 


N-jira 


N-jUa 


Salt 


Mw-enyu 




Mu-inyu 


... 


M-cele, 

M-cere. 
Ci-cere. 
Ci-kungu. 
Ci-duloj 


M-cele 


Shame 


Ma-nyasi. 
Ma-nyadco 


... 


Ma-niazwi 


"• 


Ma-nyazi. 
U-nyala 


N-ceoni. 
Ci-sconi. 
Ma-nyazl 


Sheep 


Bia; di + 


Bia 


M-bira. 
Bvu. (Bvu- 
rume = ram) 


N-kcdsa 


N-koisa. 
Bira 


M-belele. 
N-kusa 


Shield 


Dcaa; ma + 


... 


... 


••« 


Ci-kcopa. 
M-kupco 


Ci-ktopa 


Shoulder ... 


Ci-turi ; vi- 


... 


Pewa 


»a* 


Ma-nyembe. 
Puzi ; ma + . 
Pewa ; ma + 


Pewa; ma+. 
Ci-kuta 


Sister 


N-ronkorioj. 


M-bau. 


Mw-ana-n-kazi M-longco 


M-longw; a- 


M-longo»; wa- 



M-bai. N-gu. Mw-ana- 
M-pwa siga-na 



' Derived from -txola, (o pierce; a widespread Bantu verb-root also meaning' sting'' 
''■ Compare root-word for God, -lungu, in East African Bantu. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



243 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Cimazarto 


Ci-podzM 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbcd 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




593. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 



Skin 


Ktinku. 


Kungu 


Kanda. 


Kungu 


Kungu. 


Kungu. 




I-kamba 




N-tembe 




Ci-kcopa 


Ci-kwetu 


Sky 


Tambco ; ma + 


Tambcd ; ma + 


N-tambto 


Ku-dzulu 


Khcogulco. 
Tambco. 

Kumw-amba. 
M-nenere 


Mi-tamboo (/>/.) 
M-lenga 


Slave 


Ka-porca 






• •• 


Ka-pcolco. 

M-ntemba. 

M-donda. 

M-dza-kazi, 
Tulco 


Ka-polco. 
M-keole ; wa- 


Sleep 


Ji-ruto or 


Ji-ruea 


Tulw 


Tulco 


Li-tulco 




Ci-rueo. 














Tu-l<o 












Smoke 


Uci ; ma + 


Uci 


Uci 


N-tunzi 


Utsi 


Uci 


Snake 


N-»ka 


N-wa 


Ny-ojka 


N-jcoka 


N-jcoka. 
(Mamba 

= cobra, 
M-pwi 

= viper) 


N-j»ka. 

M-pili 


Son, boy ... 


Mwa-ima. 


Mw-ana 


M w-ana 


Mw-ana wa 


M-nyamata 


Mw-ana. 




Mw-ana 


nombw-ana 


mwa-muna 


m-lumbw-ana 


(youth). 


M-nyamata 




m-ombw-ana ; 








Mw-ana 






anaombw-ana 








wa mwa-muna 




Song 


Ny-imb«; di + 


Ny-imbco 


Ny-imbcd ; zi- 


Ny-imboj 


Ny-imbco 


Ny-imbco. 
Ma-lumbco 


Spear 


Dipa. 

N-tungu; a + 


Mwa-raiigcii 


Dupa 


N-kondca 


N-tung<a. 
N-gamco 


N-tungco 


Spirit, soul 


Mu-unkwa. 
N-zimu ; a + 






••• 


Manda; a-f. 
M-zimu ; 
a-zimu. 
M-oyo» 


M-zimu. 
M-oyco 


Star, planet 


N-eneri, 
n-neri 
N-inyezi; 

ma + 


Tondcoa 


N-tondcowa. 
Ny-enyezi. 
Tanda 


Ny-enyezi 


N-yenyezi. 
N-dondwa. 
N-tanda 


N-tondwa 


Stick 


Golomondco. 


N-donga 


N-gcoloimondb 


. N-dciidci> 


N-dcodco. 


N-dcodco. 




Fimbu 




M-simbcd 




N-gcolcomondco 


M-simbati 


Stone 


Mw-ala; mi- 


I-bwe, 
ma-bwe 


Mw-ala 


Tsanga-la-bwe 


Mw-ala ; 
mi-ala 


Mw-ala ; mi- 


Stool 


M-pandto ; mi- 


... 


Panyeo. 

Mu-panda 
(59 a) 


... 


M-pandco 


M-pandco 


Sun 


Dzuwa, 

Zua ; ma + 


Zua 


Zuwa, 
Dzuwa 


Dzuwa 


Dzuwa 


Jua 


Tail (of an 


Njia ; 


• -• 


Mu-^ira 


... 


M-cira 


M-cila 


animal) 


mi-jia 












Tear 


M-sori 


M-sori 


Tscozi; ma + . 
M-scozi, 
N-swdzi ; 
mi- 


M-scozi 


M-scozi ; mi- 


M-scozi ; mi- 


Testicles ... 


Ma-jendi. 
M-pumba. 
Ci-tconconca; 

vi- 


Ma-jende 


M-pumba. 

Ma-cende 


... 


M-pulumoi. 
Ma-tcodzco. 
Ma-cende, 
Ma-cenda 


Ma-cende ? 


Thief 


M-bava. 
J-ieo. 

Wo-yanda ; 
u>-yanda 


M-bava ; ma- 


Bava 


M-bala 


M-bala. 
M -kungu 


M -kungu. 
Wo-kuba 



244 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaru 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mb(o 


Ci-maiianja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Thigh 


... 


... 


Mu-endco. 
Cafco 


... 


N-cafu 


N-cafu 


Thing 


Cintco; vi- 


Ci-ntu ; //. 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu ; 






vi-ntu or 


bzi-ntu or 




dzi-ntu. 


vi-ntu. 






pi-ntu 


pi-ntu (59 a) 




Ka-ntu ; 
ti-ntu 


Ka-ntu ; 

ti-ntu. 

C-uma 

(things, 
property) 


Thorn 


Mu-nka 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Tobacco ... 


Foria, 
Foiya 


Fcodia 


Fojdia 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


To-day ... 


Dam-bwinto 


Dam -bunco 


Leico, 
Lerco 


Lerco 


Lerco 


Lerco, 
Lelco 


Toe 


Ci-buno> or 


Ci-ara ; 


Ci-bunco 


Ka-funya 


C-ala, 


C-ala ; 




Ji-bunu 


pi-ara 






Z-ala 


vi-ala. 




ca tavu 










Ci-koiigco 


To-morrow 


Ma-ngwana 


Ma-ngwana 


Ma-ngwana. 

Mu-kupa 


... 


Mawa, 

Ma-ngwana 


Mawa 


Tongue 


I-yumi 


Li-rumi 


Ri-rimi 


Lu-lime 


Li-la ka. 
Lu-limi, 
Li-lumi 


Li-lime 


Tooth 


Dz-inu 


Dz-inw ; 


Z-into 


Dz-inco ; 


Dz-inco ; 


J-inco; 






ma-nco 




ma-nco. 
M-singco 

(molar) 


ma-inoi 


ma-inco 


Town, village 


Mu-di 


Mu-dzi 


M-zinda. 
Mu-dzi 


M-zinda 


M-zinda. 
Mu-dzi ; mi- 


Mu-dzi, 
M-zinda 


Tree 


Mu-ri.^ 
N-tengco; 
mi-tengco 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 


M-tengco 


M-teiigoj 


M-tengco 


Twins 


Ana-pata (;>/.). 
Pata ; ma + 


Ma-pata 


Anam-pasa 


M-pasa 


M-pasa 


Wa ma-wili. 
Ma-wira 


Urine 


Mi-rundco. 
Ci-kodzco 


Mi-tundcd 


Mi-tundco 


M-kudzco 


M-kodzco 


Ma-kcojco 


Vein 


Dzi-via; mi-via 


... 


Nka-konkaka. 

U-dzingo>. 
Ru-zuangto 


..♦ 


M-sempa or 
M-tsempa. 
M-dzipe 


... 


War 


I-kondu. 
Dipa ; ma + 


N-kondM 


N-kondu 


M-pamba 


N-kondco 


N-kondu 


Water ... 


Ma-dzi. 
Ma-sinje, 
Ma-sinke 


Ma-sinje 


Ma-zi 


Ma4zi 


Ma-dzi 


Ma-ji' 


Well, source 


M-cela 


... 


Mu-pera, 
Mu-dzera 


•v 


Ci-sime 


Ci-time 


White man 


M-tsunku 
M-dzuiikti 


N-zungco 


M-zungu ; a- 


M-zuiigu 


M-zungu, 
N-zungfu ; a- 


M-zungu ; wa 


Wife 


N-gadi, 
N-gadJe ; 
a-gadie 


N-kazi 


M-kaz' ace 

(= his wife) 


N-kazi 


N-kazi. 
M-tsaneo; 
a-tsanco 


M-kazi ; wa- 


Wind 


Pevwoj, 
Pepw, 
M-pepu. 
M-uya 


Peww 


M-pepo) 


M-pepco 


M-pepco 


M-pepco 



' Ci-ny-ezi means dampness, moisture. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



24S 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podz(i> 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbo» 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Witch 


M-kwiri. 
Ku-mbasa. 
(Ku-lodza = 

verb) 


M-kwiri 


M.fiti 


M-sawi 


M-fiti 


Wau.flti 


Witchcraft 


U-kwiri 




U-fiti 


U-sawi 


U-fiti 


U-fiti 


Woman . . . 


M -tsi-kana 


M-si-gana 


M-liazi 


M-kazi 


M-kazi, 


M-kazi; wa-. 



Womb 
Wood (fire- 
wood) 
Yam 



Year 



Yesterday 
Zebra.. 

One .. 
Two .. 

Three .. 
Four .. 
Five .. 

Six .. 
Seven.. 

Eight .. 

Nine .., 
Ten .. 
Eleven 



Budu ; ma+ 
Kuni ; di + Kuni ; 

n-kuni 
M-pama 



J-aka 

Zurcd 

M-ziii; mi- 

P«si, 

-bcote 
Piri, 

•biyi. 

lei, -ill, -ei, 

-wiri 
Raru, 

-tatu 
Ci-na, 

■nai 
-tanu, -f>anu, 

-sanu. 

■jsanu 
-tantatu. 

Tan-a-bode 
Ci-nomwe ; 

•nomwe. 

Tan-am-biyi 
Sere. 

Tan-a-taru. 

-^anu 

ndi -tatu 
Femba. 

Tan-a-nai 
Kuml 



J-aka ; 
pi-aka 



? N-zura, 
.'N-zilo* 

M-bizi 

Ptosi, 

-bcozi 
Piri, 

-wiri 



-tatu 

•na 

-sancii 

-tandatu 
-nomwe 



A-sere, 
-sere 



Femba 
Kumi 



N-kuni 

M-pama 



C-aka ; 

bz-aka, 

py-aka. 

Gore ; 

ma-gore 
Zurco 

M-bizi 

Pcosi, 
-bcodzi 

Piri, 
•wiri 



-tatu, 

-thatu 
-na, 

-nai 
-panu 

•tantatu 

Ci-nomwe, 
-nomwe 

Seri, 
Sere 



Femba, 

•pfemba 
Kumi, 

Khumi 
Kumi na pcosi. 

Kumi na 

ni-btodzi 



N-kuni 
Ci-cece 

Ny-aka 



Mcddzi 
•wiri 

-tatu 

•nai 

•sanu 

N-tanda 
? 

•tanataru 



Kumi 
M-pambu 



N-kazi ; a- 
M^bumba.' 
M^si-kana 



N-kuni 

Ci-lazi ; dzi- 

Peta. 

M-pama 
C-aka ; 

dz-aka. 

Ma-k<onci> 



Dzulu 

M-bidzi 

•mcodzi 
-wiri 

•tatu 

-nai 

-sanu 



•sanu ndi 
-mcodzi 

•sanu ndi 
-wiri 

-sanu ndi 
•tatu 



fsanu ndi 
-nai 
Kumi 



Wam-kazi ; 

wana-kazi. 

M-bumba ; 

//. acim- ( = 

a dependant) 
Mimba 
N-kuni. 

M-tengeo 
Cim-benya; vi- 



C-aka ; 
vi-aka 



Kumi na pcosi f>r Kumi na bcozi 
Kumi ni bote. 
(Kuminaei = 

twelve) 

' See Yao). M-bumba means a female relation or dependant. 



Kumi ndi 
ci-mcodzi 



Julco. 
Jana 
M^biji 

•mcsji 
•wUi 



•tatu 
-i-nai 
•sanu 



•sanu ndi 
i-mcoji 

•sanu ndi 
•will 

•sanu ndi 
-tatu 



-sanu ndi 
-i-nai 
Kumi 

Kumi ndi 
i-m<oji 



246 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58a. 


59-, 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyung^wi 


Ci-mbu 


Ci-mafianja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Twenty ... 


Ma-Yumei. 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


? 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kum'ei 


a-wiri 


a-wiri. 

Ma-kumi 

ma-wiri 




a-wiri 


ya-wiri or 

Ma-kumi 

a-wili 


Thirty 


Ma-Yum-a-rarca. 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


• >« 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 


a-tatu 


ma-thatu 




a-tatu 


ya-tatu 




a-raracd 












Forty 


Ma-Yum-a-nai. 


Ma-kumi a na 


Ma-kumi 


... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 




ma-nai 




a-nai 


ya-nai 




a-nai 












Fifty 


Ma-Yum-a-banu. 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


• %• 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 


a-sancij 


ma ^anu. 




a-sanu 


ya-sanu 




a-tanu. 




(Sixty = 










(Sixty = 




Ma-kumi 










Ma-kumi 




ma-tantatu) 










a-tantatu. 














Seventy = 














Ma-kumi 














a-nomwe) 












Hundred ... 


Dzana, 
Zana; ma-t- 


Zana 


Dzana 




Dzana 


Zana. Cila.' 

(The Arabic 
numeral Mia 
more often 
employed) 


Thousand... 


Ci-kwi, 


Ci-kwi ; 


C-uru ; 


• •• 


Ci-kwi 


Kalume 




Ji-gwi ; 


pi-kwi 


bz-uru. 




(derivedfrom 






pi. vi-kwi, 




Ci-kwi ; 




No. 58) 






pi-kwi 




pi-kwi (59 a) 








I, me, my ... 


I-mi. 


I-mi, 


I-ne. 


I-ne. 


I-ne. 


I-ne. 




Ndi-, Na-, N-. 


I-mi wano). 


Ndi-, Nd-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi-, 




•ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


-ndi-. 


•ndi-. 


-ndi-. 


•ndi^. 




-a-iika. 


-a-nka 


-a-ngu, -a-nga 


-a-nga 


-a^nga 


-a-nga 


Thou, thee, thy 


I -we. 


I -we. 


I -we. 


I -we. 


I-we. 


I-we. 




U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U^, 


u.. 




•u. 


-ku-. 


•ku-. -aw 


-ku-. 


■ku-. 


•ku. 




-a-geo, -a-kco 


-a-keo 




-a-kci> 


-a-kcd 


-a-keo 


He, him, his 


I-yene, I-eni. 


1-ye. 


l-ye. 


I-ye. 


I-ye, U-yu. 


I-ye. 




A-. 


A-. 


A-, Wa-. 


A-. 


A-, Ye-, 


A-, Wa-. 




•m'-. -2je, 


•m-. 


-mu-, -m-. 


-m- 


-m-. 


-m-, -mu-. 




-a-pe 


-a-ce 


-a-ce 




-a-ce 


-a-ce 


We, us, our 


I-su, I-si-, 


I-fe 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 




I-su-wanci). 




Ti.. 


Ti-, 


Ti-. 


Ti-. 




I-. 




•ti- 


•ti-. 


•ti-. 


•ti.. 




-e-su 




-a-tu 


-a-tu 


-a-tu 


-a-tu 


Ye, you, your 


I-nyu. 


1-mwe 


I-mwe. 


I-nu. 


I-nu. 


I-mwe. 




Mu-, M-. 




Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Nco-, Mu-. 


Mu-. 




-e-nyu 




•nj, -ku, -ni 
(ohj.). -a-nu 


-a-nu 


•ku- 
-a^nu 


-a-nu 


They, them, 


A-wene. 


Awoj 


I-wco. 


I-w&>. 


I-wto, AWM. 


Iwu, Awcd. 


their 


A-. 




A-, Wa-. 


A-. 


A-. 


Wa-. 




•a-, -a-o 




•a-, -wa-. -a-o 


-a-, -a-o 


-a-, -a-o 


-wa-. -a-o 



Cila (Di-cila, Li-cila) is a vague numeral for a large number, which appears in Yam and Ngindo) 
as ' t-wenty ' or ' hundred'. See also North CoHgo and Fernando Pi vocabularies, p. 230, 



GROUP P : THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



247 



English 



58. 
Ci-mazarco 
(Ci-kunda) 



58 a. 
Ci-podzcd 



59- 
Ci-nyungwi 
59 a. Ci-sena 



60. 

Ci-mbei) 

(Ci-cinjiri) 



61 a. 
Ci-mananja 

(South 
Nyanja) 



61. 
Ci -nyanja 

(East 
Nyanja) 



All 


•ote-ne 


-onse-ne 


-entse. 
•ontse. 
-entsene 


•onse 


-onse 


•opse 


This, these 


•uyu, -awa ; 


-uyu ; au 


&-(.-. -yu, -wa ; -yu, 


-u, -awa ; -u. 


•nw (u-nu ?, 


( The same as in 






•yi ; -ri, -ya ; 


ii, dfc: and 


a-nw, u-nu ?, 


Mananja, 




-wene-u, 




-ci, -bzi (-pi. 


much as in 


i-nu ?, li-nu, 


allowing for 




•wene-wa, 




59 a); -yi, -zi; 


Mananja 


a-nu, ci-nu, 


slight differ- 




a^c. 




-ru, -ri-, -tu ; 

-ka ; -bu ; -ku ; 

■pa ; -mu 
Uyu, awa ; 

uyu, iyi ; (Sr'c. 
-nw (u-nw, 

wa-nu ; u-nco, 

i-nco ; &^c.) 




zi-nu, &^c.) 
Uyu, -yu ; -u, 

awa ; uwu, 

•u; iyi,-i; 

-li, ili; -u, 

awa ; -ci, ici ; 

-dzi, idzi; 

•i, iyi ; -zi, 

izi ; -li or -lu, 

ili ; -ti, iti ; 

•ka, aka; -bu, 

ubu or -wu, 

uwu; -ku, 

uku; -pa, 

•apa ; -mu, 

umu 
•mene(u-mene, 

a^mene, 

u-mene, 

i-mene, 

li-mene, &■•€.) 
A-mene-yu ; 

a^mene-wa ; 

u-mene-u ; 

i-mene-i ; 

li-mene-li ; 

•mwe (u^mwe, 
a-mwe, &•(.) 


ence in concord 
particles. 
•mwe is muck 
in use as a 
demonstrative 
root.) 


That, those 


•ye(u.ye;a-ye; 




•yeo, w«o ; yco, 
yco I reo, yco ; 

Uyw, aww ; 




Uyu ; au ; uu ; 

iyu ; «5^'6". 
•ja or -dya 
(u-ja ; a-ja ; 












u-ja; i-ja; 










•re(u're; wa-re; 




li-ja; &'c.) 





u^re ; i-re ; 
ri^re ; ya-re ; 

cSr»<r.) 



Bad ... 

Black... 

Female 



•i'baya 
•rimba. 

•psi-pa 
•tsika-na. 

•seva 



Fierce, sharp, -gaie 
bitter 



•i-baya . 
•rimba 

•siga-na 



•i-pa 
•swi'pa. 

•psi-pa 

•sika-na. 

•seba 



•kari 



■sakala 
■da 

•kazi 



•Ipa 
•da. 

•bi 
•tadzi, 

•kazi, 

•m-sutl. 

m-kuta. 

•kulu 
•kali 

(•kali-pa) 



•ipa. -bi 
-ku-da. 

•bl . 
-kazi. 

•taji {animals) 



-a u-kali 



248 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Cipodzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci^mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Ci^nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Good 


-didi 


-didi 


•didi 


•bwinoi 


-bwincij. 
-kuma 


•bwinoa 


Great 


-n-dumu-ka 


-n-dimu-ga 


-kulu 


-n^kulu 


•kulu. 
-tatao. 
•nete. 
•tunta 


-kulu 


LitUe 


•nunoi 


-iiciinoi 


•nconu 


-u^ncanu 


•noinco. 

•ce^pa 


■nconu 


Long 


-to-la-pa, 
-cu-ya-pa 




-tari 




•tali, 
•tali^ka, 
•tani^mpa. 
Ku- 


■tali 


Male 


-m-umbw-ana. 


-i-nombw-ana 


Mwa-muna. 


M-pongoo. 


-muna. 


Mwamuna. 




-ya m-cobw-ana. 




-pongu 


a-miina 


•ponged 


M-pongo» 




Sa- tn-pong(o 












Old 


-a-gai 


... 


-karamba 


• •• 


•kale, 
•kalamba 


-kale 


Red 


-fia 

(co-fia) 


... 


•fuira 


•*• 


•psyu, 
•pyco. 
•fiira 


-a ku-fuila 


Rotten 


-vunda 


..• 


•bvunda 


• ■• 


-cola, 
•bvunda 


•vunda. 
•cola 


Short 


•via 

(ii)-via) 


... 


•fupi 


• •• 


-fupi, 
fupi-ka 


•fupi 


Sick 


-co-yada 


•dwara ? 


•dwara. 
-tenda 


... 


-dwala 


•dwala 


White 


•cena, 
-jena 


•cena 


•cena 


-yera 


-era, 
•yera. 
-dembe. 
-mbu. 
-tuwa. 
•ndala 


•yera 


Above, up, on 


Pa-dzuru, 


*•• 


Ku^zuru, 


••• 


Pa-m«-amba. 


Pa-mw^amba 


top 


Pa-duyu 




Pa-zuru 




Ku^dzulu. 
Nana 




Before 


•tsagoru 


... 


Ku'dzugoroa, 
Pa-tsugoru 


• •• 


Tsugolca, 
Pa^tsogoroj. 
Ca^mimba. 
Cam^pumi 


•ccogcolco 


Behind ... 


Kun-duyu 


... 


Mum-btiyco, 
Kum^buyco. 
Mun-duri 


• •• 


M^buyca, Pa- 


-m^buyco 


Below, down 


Pati 


• •• 


Pa^nze, 
Pa-ntsi. 
Mu-fufuntsi. 
Mu^nyantsi 




•nsi, Pa^nsi 


•nci, 
Pa-nsi-po) 


Far 


-gun-dala 


... 


N-gure. 
Ku-tari 


... 


•tari, 
Ku-tari 


Ku^tali 


Here 


runu, 
Kunco. 
Panca 


Apa 


Kuno> 


Kunco 


Kunco. 
Panco. 
Pompa 


Kunco. 
Apa 


In, inside ... 


Ngari. 
M., Mwi-, 
Mu- 


... 


Mu-katl 


'•• 


Mu^, M'.. 
Momwe 


Mkati. 
Mu^ 


Middle 


Pa-kati 




Pa-kati 


••• 


Pa-kati 


Pa-kati 


Near 


■andamana 


... 


I'a^fupi 


••• 


Pa-fupl 


Pa^fupi 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYAS ALAND LANGUAGES 



249 





58. 


58 a. 


59;, 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mboj 


Ci^mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Outside ... 


Ku-dambco 


... 


Ku-npa 




•nja 


•bwalu 










(Pa.nja), 














Ku-nja 




Plenty, many 


•inji. 
-mw-eni 


-nji pa 


-z-inji 


Ma-ere 


-m.biri 


-m-biri. 
-ny-inji. 
-ii-khana 


There 


Apai. Awo), 


• •■ 


Apoj. 


Apu 


Apcd. 


Apcd. 




Avco, 




Ku-re. 




Uk<o 


Lkco 




Apcd. 




Ukto 










Apaa-a. 














Ukw 












Where? ... 


Ku-ti ? 


... 


Komwe ? 
Ku-pconi ? 


... 


Ku^ti ? 
Pa^ti ? 


Ku-ti ? 
Pa-ti ? 


No! 


Tayu ! 
Nyonyoo ! 


... 


Tayu! 
Aiai ! 
Kwe! 


I-ai! 


lai! 
I^si! 


lai! 


Not (with verb. 


Se-, Si.. Ka- 


... 


Si- (all per s). 


Si^ 


Si^,Sa^';N^ka^; 


{Much the 


as prefix, in- 


andmuchasin 




Ne-, Ka-, 




U^ki-; -sa^; 


same as in 


fix, or suffix) 


No. 59 




Nkha-(59a); 
-rini, -ribe, 
•be, -bi; tayu 

(59 a) 




-i (-tai, -te), 
•be, -bi, or -je 
(suffixes 
applied gener- 
ally to aux- 
iliary verbs) 


Idananja) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-bubudwa 


... 


•menya 


... 


•menya 


•menya 


„ buy, sell 


•gura 


... 


•gula, 
-gura 


■gula 


-gula. 
-suma 


-gula 


„ come ... 


-da, 
-da 


... 


-dza 


•dza 


•dza 


-ja 


„ cut 


-dura, 


... 


-dula. 


•dula 


•dula. 


-dula. 




-duya. 




-gwata 




•tema. 


•tema 




-rema 








•kakata 




„ dance ... 


■jina, 
-ceta 


-bvina 


•bvina, 
■bzina 


-bvina 


•bvina 


•vina 


„ die 


■kwa 


*■• 


■fa 


-fa 


•fa 


'fa 


„ eat ... 


•ya 


... 


•dia 


■dia 


•dia 


•dya 


„ give ... 


-vasa, 
-pasa 


... 


•patsa, 
-pasa 


■patsa 


-patsa 


■paca. 
•niiika 


., go 


-nenda. 


... 


-nenda. 


■nka 


•nka. 


•yenda. 




-enda. 




-yenda 




-yenda 


•muka 




•famba. 














•pita 












„ kill ... 


-upa 


• •• 


-pa 


■pa 


•pa 


•pa 


„ know ... 


■dziwa 


... 


-ziwa, 
-dziva 


■dzive 


•dziwa 


-jiwa 


„ laugh ... 


-teka 


■ >. 


-seka 


•seka 


•seka 


-seka 


„ leave oflf, 


-leka 


• •• 


•reka 


... 


•leka. 


•leka. 


cease 










•sia 


•sia 


„ love, want 


•konda 


• Si -ndi = 
Su 
Sa 


■funa 

= nnt I. Si 
= not thou. Si 
= not he. A 


•konda 

ti = not we. 
mu = not ye. 
sa = they not. 


•konda. 
■anja, 
-yanja. -funa 


•konda. 
•funa 
{search for) 



250 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANCxUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59-^ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaru 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbo* 


Ci-mananja 


Ci.nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ see 


•una 


... 


•ona 


... 


•ona. 
•bcona 


•ona. 
-penya 


„ sit, remain, 


■kaia 


• •■ 


•kara 


... 


-kala. 


-kala 


abide 










■tsala 




„ sleep ... 


-gciina 


• ■• 


•gcsna 




■guna. 
■lala 

(io be worn 
out) 


-guna. 
•lala 


„ stand, stop, 


•imea 


■ •• 


■da. 


..• 


-ima 


•ima 


be erect 






•ima 








„ steal ... 


-ba, 
■iba 


... 


■ba 


•ba 


•ba 


-ba. 
•landa 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CI-MAZARO) AND CI^PODZO) 

No preprefixes, except in Class 16. 

Class I. Mu^, M^ (mu-, m, u-, -yu) ; 2. A- (a-, wa) ; 3. Mu^, M-, N-, N- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 

5. -, D'-, Dz'., Di., Li^ (li) ; 6. Ma^ (ma-, a) ; 7. Ji^, Ci-, Yi (?) (ci) ; 8. Vi-, Pi-, Bi- (vi) ; 9. N-, Ny-, 
— (n-, i) ; 10. Di-, Din-, N^, Ny^ (di) ; 11. missing?; 12. missing.?; 13. Ka. (ka), //. Vi. ; 14. U-,Wu. 
(u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Apa- (pa) ; 17. M-, Mu- (m-, -n). 

The Sa- or Se- (father) prefix and Na- (mother) prefix are present. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-NYUNGWE AND CI-SENA 

Slight traces in Class 9 of preprefixes in Ci^nyungrwi. 

Class I. Mu^, M- (Ngu^*) (mu-, m, yu-, u-, iigu-) ; 2. A-, Wa^ folder form, Va-) (Mba-') (wa, 
mba-); 3. Mu-, M- (Ngu-') (u-,iigu) ; 4. Mi- (Nji- ') (i-, yi, nji-) ; 5. — . Dzi-, Dz'-, D'- (Ndi^') (ri, ndi-) ; 

6. Ma- (Nga-'i (ya-, a, ma-?, iiga-) ; 7. Ci- (? Si- in Ci-nyungwe) (Nci-*) (ci, nci-, nc'a); 8. Bzi-, Bz'-, 
Psi-, Pi- (Ci-sena) (Mbzi-, Mpi-') (bzi, mbzi-, mpi-) ; 9. In- (Im-), N- (M-), Ny-, I-, — (Nji- ') (i-, yi, nji-) ; 
10. same as 9, and Zi- (59), Di- (59 a) (Nzi-, Ndi- ? ') (zi-, di-, nz'a-) ; 1 1 . Ru-, Ri- (? Ndu-') (ru-, ndu ?, 
ndi-); 12. Tu- (Nthu-') (absent in Ci-sena, where its place is taken by Pi- (8); very little used in 
Ci-nyungwe, and then generally prefixed to the singular prefix of another Class. Concord, tu, nthu-, 
nth'-) ; 13. Ka- (Nkha-') (little used in Ci-nyungwe and generally prefixed before the retained prefix of 
the word which Ka- turns into a diminutive. Concord, ka, fikha-) ; 14. U-, Bu- (Mbu-') (u-, bu, mbu-) ; 
15. Ku- (Nkhu') (ku, iikhu-) ; 16. Pa- (Mpha-') (pa, mpha-) ; 17. Mu- (Nghwa-') (mio-, mu-,nghu-). 

The Sa- or Tsa- (masc, honorific) and the Na- or Nya- prefixes are present. 



PREFIXES, &c., IN Cl-MBO) (CI-CINJIRI) 

Traces of preprefixes in No. 9 Class. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, m, u-) ; 2. A-, Wa-, ?Ba-'' (a-, wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (rau-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i); J. Li-, Dzi- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ?) ; 7. Ci- (ci) ; 8. ? ; 9. In- (Im-), N-, Ny- (i ?) ; 10. ?same as 9 
(concord?); 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12.?; 13. Ka- (ka); 14. U-, Bu- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa); 
17. Mu- (mu-). 

• With nasal directive N- (M-). 

' I have heard ' Ba- '/or No. 2 prefix inland, south of the Ruui, near Mount Ciperuini. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 25^ 

PREFIXES, &c., IN CI-MAIfANJA AND CI-NYANJA 
Traces of preprefixes in Classes 16 and 17. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (Ngu-') (m-, mu, u-, yu-) ; 2. A-, Wa- (61 a) (a-, wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N- (Ngii-") 
(mu-, u, ngwa) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i, -yi) ; 5. — , Dzi-, Dz'-, Di- (li) ; 6. Ma- (Nga- •) (ma-, a) ; 7. Ci- (? Nci-) 
(ci) ; 8. Dzi-, Zi- (zi) ; 9. — , N-, Ny- (i-, yi, n-, nj-) ; 10. — , N-, Ny-, Zin- (zi) ; 1 1. Lu-, Li- (scarce) 
(lu, \\), pi. No. 6 superadded); 12. Ti- (rare except in East Nyanja) (ti) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (bu) ; 
15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Apa-, Pa- (Mpa- ') (pa) ; 17. Umu-, Mu-, M- (mu-, m-). 

The Tsa- or Sa- ('master oi'— plural, A-tsa-) and the Na- (plural, A-na-) prefixes are present, 
with concords of 1st and 2nd Classes. The plural A- or Wa- (No. 2) is often used' as an honorific 
prefix in a singular sense. Sometimes this is combined with Ci- (No. 7) and produces by fusion Ca- or Ce- 
(or Ke-). To this again may be prefixed A-, so that Ace- is a common honorific prefix. Na- is some- 
times followed by M- (N-) and Ka-, producing the compound prefix Namka or Nanka. 

Note also the particle I-, applied often to the pronominal and adverbial roots or prefixes, ' with the 
idea of emphasis ' (Ruffele-Scott, Mahanja Dictionary). 



58. Cimazaroi is spoken on the Lower Zambezi between the Ziwe-Ziwe and Shird confluence and the 
beginning of the delta. 

58 a. Cipodzcd is spoken in the Zambezi delta between the River Mahindu) in the north and the Luabu 
in the south. 

59. Cinyungwi is spoken on both banks of the Lower Zambezi, west of the Ziwe-Ziwe confluence at 
Sena, especially at Tete and Sena, as far west as the 32° of East longitude, where it grades into Cinseiiga 
and Cinyai, and as far north as the Makanga country, the watershed of Lake Nyasa, where it grades 
into Maravi or Cipeta. 

60. Cimbco is spoken on the Lower Shir^ and in the Macinjiri country south of the Ruca ; also along 
the east bank of the Lower Shir^ river down to Mount Morambala. 

61 a. Cimananja is spoken in the Shir^ Highlands and the regions of south Nyasaland where Yao) 
does not prevail. It extends from Mount Mlanje and Lake Cilwa on the east to the Rucd river and the 
west Shird district on the south and west. 

61. Cinyanja is spoken in the coast-lands along the east of Lake Nyasa, from about 11° 30' South 
latitude southwards to about 13° 30'; also on the islands of Likioma and Cisumulu ; and wherever 
Anyanja settlements still exist among the Yaco people of east Nyasaland. 

' These forms are relics of the ^prefix plus directive nasal ' which appears more prominently in 
Ci-nyungwe and in south-west and south Bantu. 

'' ' Almost universal before names of people '. Rev. Herbert Barnes in 'Nyanja-English Vocabulary,' 
1902. 



GROUP P 

THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES {continued) 
61 b. Ci-peta (Ma-ravi) 61 c. Ci-cewa (West Nyanja) 62. Ci-nsenga (Seflga) 



GROUP Q 

THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA-PUNGWE-SABI LANGUAGES 

63. Ci nyai (Ci-nyau or Lcoze) and Ci-nanswa 
64. Karana ' dialects (Ci-swina, ^una, e-t.) 64 a. Ci-ndau (Va-ndau, ' Sofala ') 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64.^ 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, is'c) 


(Va-ndau, 
' Sofala ') 


Adze 


Ka-temu 


... 


M-bazo> 


... 


M-bez«. 
Tsendco 


Tsendco. 
M-bezco 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


• •• 


Ci-rombeo. 


M-buwu, 


beast 










I-muka, 
M-huka. 
Ci-kara 


Ci-rombco. 
M-huka 


Ant 


Ny-erere. 


Li-ntumbwi 


M-pasi, 


• •• 


Hu-nyunyu. 


Cu-sunji, 




Li-ntumbu ; 


(//. same) 


M-pansi. 




Rii-menyco. 


Usunji or 




niali + . 




M-nyanyau 




-sweswe 


Sonzi. 




Nyanyao 








(ma- ; bu-) 


Tscotsa 


Ant, white 


N-swa, 


... 


C-usi. 


Mu-tate ? 


Mi-cenye(j*/.). 


Mu-cenje. 


(termite) 


Ci-swe 




Mu-swe 




Sxwa. 

Mi-juru {pi.) 


Mu-tate. 
I-^wa 


Arm 


M-kciincii. 


Z-anja ; 


Kw-anja ; 


Lu>-boik<o 


Ru-bukcd ; 


Bukco ; ma -f 




Dz-andya ; 


m-anja 


m-anja 




pi. ma- 






m-andya 












Arrow 


Mu-bvi 


Mu-vi; mi- 


Mum-vwi 


Gtoba. 
Sakasa 


Mu-sebe. 
N-gcabe. 
Moriene. 

Moj-vi 


Um-paca; mi- 
Mu-pewe. 
M-hatu 


Axe 


M-kwaiikwa. 


Xwangwa 


M-bazci). 


U-bga. 


l-^anu. 


M-behura; ma- 




Guma 




Ka-temto ; tu-. 
Ci-temco 


I-sanu 


Ganco. 

Demcd. 

Di-muru. 

Badzu. 

Hubya 


Baja. 
Santco 


Baboon 


N-kwere. 
Ny-ani. 
N-cimbco 


M-xweri ; wa ^■ 


Kulcoe 


Tede; ma + 


I-gudu. 
Dirco. 
I-bvene. 
Gudoi 


Dede. 
Korco ; 

;5/.,i + . 
Pfene 


Back 


M-sana. 
M-buyo> 


M-sana 


M-sana. 
Ku-vuli 

(cf. shadow) 


M-tootca 


M-pana, 
Mu-sana. 
Ci-bunw 


Mu-sana 


Banana ... 


N-tcoci 


N-toice 


Ci-konde ; vi-. 
Mumbu 


... 


Htdboa. 
Hcova 


Keoboj ; ma -1- 


Beard 


N-debvu 


N-debvu 


N-devu 


Dempfn 


\-debvu. 
In-devoj 


M-birutAnco 



' To this group belongs the 'Kilimanse', ' Chilimanse' of African explorers of the middle nineteenth century. 
Karana is the Makalaka of Livingstone. There is considerable dialectic variation in Karanga or Karana as well 
as in the local pronunciation of the principal name of the language, which was formerly Karanga a/id now is more 
often Karana (to the Becunna, peoples it is Kalaka). The principal local dialects are {besides Ci-ndau) .• Ci-manyika, 
Ci-govera, and Ci-mali. But there is not enough information to hand to separate them further. 



GROUPS P, Q : THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 253 





61b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci.peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, iyc.) 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala') 


Bee 


Nj-uci 


Nj-uci 


N-zimcd 




Iny-coci 


Iny-nci 


Belly 


Ci-pfu, 


Mimba 


Vumu 


Ptombu, 


I -mimba. 


In-da-ne. 




Ki-pfu; 






m-ptombu 


Dumboj. 


U-tumbco 




pi. -psi. 








Ci-su. 






Mimba ; ma + 








I-niimbu 




Bird 


M-balame 


M-barame 


K-o>ni ; 


I-|siri. 


I-piri 


I-ciri or 








tuni. 


N-y»ne 


I-piri 








C-uni 








Blood 


Mw-azi 


Mw-azi 


Mu-rcopa 


Ma-leopa 


Ma-rcopa 


Rcopa. 

Mu-siya 


Body 


Tupi. 

Ma-rung<o 


Tupi; ma-t- 


Mu-wiri 


M-bili 


Mu-biri 


Mu-hiiiri 


Bone 


Pfupa or 
Li-fupa 


Fupa 


M-fupa ; mi- 


Fupa; ma-f 


I -pfupa. 
Godco 


Goodco. 
Fupa ; ma + 


Borassus palm 


M-vumoj 


M-vumcij 


... 


• •• 


M-lala 


Mu-cindwi ? 


Bow 


Bu-ta, 


Wu-ta ; ma -^ 


U-ta; 


Lto-ta 


Bu-ta. 


Bu-ta ; 




U-ta; 




mau-ta 




Bu-dade. 


mbu-ta 




pi. ma + 








I-dantire 




Bowels 


Ma-tumbu 


Ma-tumbu 


Ma-ra 


... 


Mabu-ra 


Mimba. 
N-kumbu. 

Wu-ra 


Brains 


B-ongM 


Uw-ongoj 


Tompwe. 
W-ongo» 


••• 


Bu-runi. 
Bu-rupi. 
Bu-ruzwi 


U-ruvi ; ma- 


Breast (man's) 


Ci-pfua. 
N-tima 


Ci-fua 


Ki-fua 


Hana or 
Gana 


Ci-fuba. 
Hana 


gi-fua 


Breast 


Bere ; ma + 


Ma-were (pi.) 


Ma-ziwa 


Gamu ; 


I-^amu, 


Dundu. 


(woman's) 








//. ma-f- 


I-aamu. 

Ma-zuku [pi.) 


Diti; ma-l- 


Brother ... 


Sibweni. 


Mbare. 


Ka-rangcozi ; 


Nungu-na. 


Hama, 


Kcoma ; ba -(- . 




M-pwa. 


M-longcd 


vi-. 


Mu>-lukca-ana 


M-kcoma. 


Ne-vanji. 




M-bali. 




M-kwa. 




M-kuru. 


Mu-nukuna, 




N-jila or 




M-lisa 




Mu-nu. 


Mu-kuna 




N-gila 








Mo-rombala. 
U-niinu-na 




Buffalo ... 


Nj-ati 


Ny-ati or 

nj-ati 


M-bcooi 


Parapara 


Iny-ati 


Iny-ati. 
gawa 


Bull 


N-ombe 
a-ina 




N-ombe 
i-lume 




N-kconco. 
I-handira. 
I-hconco. 
I-hunzi 


Mu-kconco 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-takoj 


Ma-tako> 


Ma-taku 


Nunzi 


I-bat«. 
Ma-takca. 
Dakco 


M-bata ; 
man-bata 


Canoe 


Bw-atco ; ma + 


Bw-atoj 


W-atto, 
Uw-atco; 
maw-atcij 


I-gwa 


Bli-atco, 
Bv-ateo. 
I-gwa 


M-garaba ; 
ma-garaba 
(Ngalawa) 


Cat 


M-paka 


Ccona; 
wa-cuna 


M-buyao>. 
Ccona 


... 


Une-mange 


Cima-ngcobe. 
Paka 


Charcoal ... 


Kala; ma + 








Ma-rahla 


Ma-simbi 


Chief 


M-fumu; wa + 


M-fumo> 


Fumu, 
N-fumu. 
Akw-eni. 
A-bwana 


Mambca 


Di pe, ?e ; 
//. ba-se. 
I-cinda. 
Mw-ene. 
I-hcosi. 
I-hcosi afe ?. 
M-rongco. 
Mambco 


Mambco ; pi. 
maji-mambco. 

Mu-cinda 



»S4 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6ib. 


6ic. 


63. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravij 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, S^c.) 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala'; 


Child 


Mw-ana; 


M w-ana ; 


Ka-saza; tu-. 




Mnw-ana ; 


M w-ana ; 




w-ana 


w-ana 


Mw-ana 
m-tont«. 

Lu-cece(ma+) 




//. b-ana. 

M-cece. 

Ci-bhyere 


ab-ana. 
^i-pwere 


Cloth 


N-saru 


Saru 


Salu. 
N-yula. 
N-anza 


Nguza 


Jira. 

N-gubco 
(a goatskin 
pelt) 


Jira or 
Gira. 
Guvco; ma-f 


Cold 


... 


... 


M-pepca. 
U-tontole 


M-tutu 


Imepco. 
Candcd 


Imepco 


Country ... 


Dz-ikco ; 


Z-ikco, 


Cialu 


In-yika. 


Iny-iga 


Iny-iga. 




ma-iku 


muz-ikco 




Ma-vu 




N-ika ; ma-f 


Cow 


N-ombe \va 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


... 


In-ombe 


M-gombe 




m-kazi ; 


ei-kazi 


ana-kazi 




hadzi. 


kazi ; 




pt. zi + 




or i-kazi 




I-mcou 

(? ostrich) 


;*/. m-gombe 
zio-kazi. 
Umbe 
kaji 


Crocodile ... 


Ntona 


Nn-oana 


M-wena, 
N-wena 


N-gwena 


l-gambiiiga. 
I-gagwe, 
I-garhwe, 
I-gavwe 


N-gcomombco ; 

ma-f. 
N-gwena 


Day, daylight 


Tsiku. 


Siku. 


N-siku. 


... 


I-^uba. 


I-^^uba, 




Sana 


M-sana 


(Ka-suwa = 

daylight) 




M-si. 

Mu-si 


Zuva ; ma-f. 
Ma-pati {pi.) 


Devil, evil 


Tscoka; ma-t-. 


Ci-wanda ; vi- 


Li-pawi ; ma- 




Ci-bandu. 


Mu-caici or 


spirit 


M-zimu ; wa- 








C-erco 

{spirit) 


Mu-^aip. 
^awe 


Doctor (medi- 


Si-nanga; wa + 


Si-nanga 


N-ganga 


... 


I-nanga 


Ci-remba 


cine man) 














Dog 


Garu ; wa + 


Garu 


Im-bwa ; 
zim-bwa 


Im-bga 


M-bha. 
M-bcoga 


Im-bya. 
Im-bwa; 

mam- 


Donkey 


... 


... 




... 


M-bizi [zebra) 


M-bongorco. 
Bemhe 
Ruvi ; ma -f . 


Door, door- 


Ci-tsekeo, 


Kconico 


Ci-sasa. 




I-gconi. 


way 


Ki-tsekeo. 
Pa-kojmco 




Mu-liangca 




M-kcoba. 
M-subco. 
Dimba 


Mu-suvco 


Dream 


N-dcota 


N-do>ta 


C-eozi 


... 


Rcota 


Rcotco ; ma -f 


Drum 


N-coma; 

pi. zi + 


N-coma 


N-coma 


N-geoma 


N-gcoma. 
I -dumba 


N-gcoma ; ma- 


Ear 


Ku-tu ; ma-f 


Ku-tu ; ma + 


Li-twe. 
Kwa-tu ; 
ma-tu 


Zebe 


N-zebe or 
N-zeve. 
I-gere. 
I-twi 


Ku-zwa. 
In-dzeve 


Egg 


Dzira, 
Dzela 


Dzira 


I-gumbi 

or Li- ; ma- 


Zae; ma + 


I-zai 


Zanda ; ma -f 


Elephant ... 


N-jcobvu 


N-jeobvu 


N-Zcovu 


... 


N-^cowu 


N-jcohu ; ma- 


Excrement 


Tu-bzi 


Tu-vi 


Tu-vi 


... 


Ma-tcokco. 
Matu-zwi 


Matu-vi 


Eye 


L)-is<d, 


L-isco 


R-isco ; 


Egco ; m-egco 


Z-isco ; 


N-jisco ; 




Dz-iseo ; 




m-esco or 




m-esco 


ma-ji^co 




ma-Sco 




me-nsco 








Face, fore- 


Ci-dzco ; 


Kuma-sco 


Kuma-nsco 


• •• 


Ima-n^co 


Hcope. 


head 


//. psi-. 








Hu-su 




M ma-SCO. 














M-pumi 













GROUPS P, Q : THE SOUTH NY'ASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES ^55 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63. 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


(iiiilects 
(puna, isfc.) 


(Vandau, 
'Sofala') 



Fat, oil ... 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


... 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Father 


Tate, 


A-tate 


Wa-ta. 


•.• 


U-dade. 


Baba. 




Tete, 




Aw-isi 




Bambco. 


\-f^ {' chief ')> 




Wa-tate 




(Aw-isi wakco). 
An-sco 




Palea 


Se- prefix 
{or Ji ?) 


Fear 


Ma-nta. 
(jOpa. 
Ki-ntente 


Ma-ntha 


Ku-topa. 
U-cowa. 
Mw-ezto 


B(o-tiha 


I-hana 


Ko-uteoca 


Finger 


C-ara ; 


C-ara ; 


Mu-ntie ; mi- 


Mu-ng<oe; me- 


Mu-nwe 


Ci-nfie ; 




ps-ara 


vy-ara 






(Gu-nwe = 
thumb) 


//. zi-nue. 
Gu-nwe 


Fire 


M-otc» ; mi- 


M-otti> 


M-otciJ. 
Mu-lilo> 


M-otoo 


M-otco, 
Mw-oteo, 

M>-OtM 


Mo-rirco ; mi-. 
M-otco 


Fish 


N-somba ; 

tsi + 


N-somba 


Sawi ; ma- 


Lube 


I-h5be or 
Yobe 


Hoabe, 
Howe ; ma -(- 


Foot 


Padzi. 


Mw-endoj ; fl. 


Kw-endco ; mi- 


Le-hcdka or 


I-gumboj. 


Mu-renge 




Mw-endu 


Miny-endto 


Ulw-ay<o ; 
malw-ayto 


Le-gcoka 


Ny-ar« 


{or -renje) ; 
mi-. Ci-renge 


Forest 


N-kalangco 


Thengco 

4 


M-sanga 


•■• 


I-paka. 
1-dzese 


Gua^a; ma-f. 
Sangu. 
Dondcd 


Fowl 


N-kuku 


Kuku 


Kuku 


••• * 


I-huku. 
Hukco 


Ukco; ma-f 


Frog 


C-ule ; 

ps-ule 


■•• 


C-ule; a + 


... 


I-zura. 
I-taca 


Dafl. 

Mu-tawa;ma- 


Ghost 


Ki-dzudcogwa 


; M-tunzi ; mi- 


Ci-nsingwa. 


Ma-rombM(//.' 


M-nweya. 


Z-ungube. 




//. psi- 




Ci-wanda. 
Cim-vwili 




Mu-dzimu. 

M-oyco, 

C-erw 


Mu-dzimu 


Giraffe 


... 


•■• 


... 


... 


Xwisa, 
N-swiza, 
I-suma 


... 


Girl 


Butu ; ma + 


Butu ; ma + 


M-buntu. 
M-simbi 




Mu-sikana. 
M-andara. 
M-siga-na. 
Hombe 


Mu-swa-na. 
M-handara 


Goat 


M-buzi ; zi- 


M-buzi ; zi + 


M-buzi ; zi -^ 


Puzi 


M-budzi 


M-buji, 

M-busi ; ma-f 


„ (he) ... 


Donde, 
Tonde 


••• 


••• 


... 


Gcotcogcotco. 
Nongco. 
M-bcocco 


Gutcokcotco. 
Gweme 


„ (she)... 


M-buzi 
wa m-kazi 


... 


... 


... 


Nunzwi, 
Dumbzi. 
Bembza 


... 


God 


Mu-lungu. 


Cuu-ta 


Reza, 


Mu).limu. 


Mw-ari, 


Ma-rure. 




M-panibe. 




Leza 


(Mco-limoj 


M-nwali. 


Mu-ruSgu 




Ciu-ta, 




{thunder) 


miu-kuru = 


Mu-dzima 






Cuu-ta 






great God) 






Grandparent 


M-buyco. 
A-ni-buye 


... 


Asi-kulu 


... 


U-tateguru. 
M-buya 5 


Mum-kuru. 

Se-kuru. 

Wa-m-buya 
C-ani. 


Grass 


Maii-dzu 


U-dzti 


U-j5wa ; ma-. 


Roj-gtoa 


U-swa. 








U-cani. 




Bu-hwa. 


Bu-swa 








U-zu 




M-heova. 
Ru-swiswi 





' Mu-bari =/>a/v«/. 



s 2 



256 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BAl^TU LANGUAGES 



English 



61 b. 
Ci-peta 

(Ma-ravi) 



6$c. 

Ci-cewa 

(West Nyanja) 



62. 
Ci-nsenga 



63. I 

Ci-nyai, 1 
Ci-nanswa 



64.^ 
Karana 

dialects 
(^una, dr-c.) 



64 a. 

Ci-ndau 

(Va-ndau, 

'Sofala') 



Ground 



Ground-nut 
Gmnea-fowl 



Gun 
Hair 



Hand ... 

Head ... 
Heart ... 

Heel ... 
Hide ... 



N-taka 



N-teza. 

N-tentsa; mi- 
N-kanga ; 

zi+ or 

tsi + 

M-futi; tsi + 
Tsitsi 

or Tsise ; 

ma + 
Dz-anja ; 

m-anja 

Mu-tu, 

N-tti ; mi- 
M-tima ; mi- 



M-rtota. 
Pa-si, 
Pa-nsi. 
C-alco. 
Li-tco 
Ka-mburundzi N-ziama 



N-kanga 



Futi ; zi + 
Sitsi 



Dz-anja ; 
m-anja 



N-kaiiga ; zi- 
Li-celwe 

Futi; zi + 
Sisi 



C-anzanza 



Mu-tu; mi- Mu-twe, 

Mu-tu 
M-tima ; mi- Mu-tima 



Ma-vu 



Ny-emba 



Vuzi ; ma -f . 



Lco-bcokcii. 

C-aga or 

C-aha 
I-soro). 

M-pongorw 
Dunga 



Ci-tende; psi-. Ci-tende; 
Ci-kongconu ; 
psi- or dzi- 

Ci-kupa 



vi- Ka-tende ; vi- Ci-cinco 



M-kupo). 
M-papa 



Lu-pasa 



Hill 


Ki-dumbi; psi- 




Ka-pili 


• (• 




M-dunda 








Hippopotamus 


1 M-vii 


M-vii 


M-vu, 
M-vflu 


... 


Hoe 


Ka-su ; raa -f 


... 


Kam-bwili. 
M-suka 


... 


Honey 


Uci or 
Buci 


Uici 


Uci wa 
n-zimu. 
U-uci 


... 


Horn 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga. 
Lu-sengo» 


... 


House 


Ny-umba ; 

zi- or tsi + 


Ny-umba ; zi-f 


N-anda; zi- 


N-gomba. 
(Kio-mcoga 
at home) 


Hunger 


N.jala 


N-jala 


N-gara 


M-dala 


Husband ... 


Mwa-muna 


... 


Mu-lume 


... 


Hyena 


Fisi ; wa- 


Fisi; wa-f 


Ci-mbwe, 
Ci-mbwi 




Iron 


Ci-sulo> 


Ci-tsuru 


Ci-sengco. 
C-ela 


Dare 


Island 


Ci-lwa. 
Ci-rumba ; 
//. psi- 


Ci-phcole ; vi- 


Ka-ndindi ; vi- 
N-sumbu 


... 


Ivory 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


Miny-anga 
n-jwvu (//.) 


... 



I-vu. 
M-sece 



N-emoa 
I-haiiga 



I-pfuti 
Vuzi ; ma -h . 
Sisi 

Ru-bcakco. 
C-ansa 

M-sorco, 

Miu-soreo 
M-oyoj, 

Mw-oyeo, 

Mv-oyoj 
Ci-tsitsinu, 

Ci-tsinoj. 

N-hende. 

Ci-dondoba 
DebYe. 

Palame. 

I-guguta. 

N-gubo> 
1 -gcamco, 

Ci-gcomco, 

Ka-kumu 
M-vubu. 

N-gwindi 
I-badza 

B-uci 



Runy-aiiga. 

I-scona 
I-mba. 

Umba. 

Ifi-umba 
N-^ara 
Mu-rumi, 

Mio-rume 
Ci-pere. 

Tika 
I-dari, 

Dale. 

I-mangura 
1-ciwi 



Runy-anga 
gwe-;)cowUj 



Ma-vu. 
Ny-iia 



N-duwe. 
N-zungco 
Hanga ; ma- 



M-futi; ma-f 
Vudzi ; ma + 



Many-ara? 

{fingers) 

Ny-ara 
M-sor<o; ma- 

M-oyoa ; ma + 



Ci-sisinindco; 
/i/.zwi-sisinindcd. 
Ci-^inindu ; 
zwi- 

Dehwe, 
N-hewe 



Duntci 



M-vco. 

M-vuhu; ma-l- 
Badza 

H-uci 



Ny-anga; ma-f 

M-basco ; ma-. 

Ny-umba. 

Mba 
N-jara 

Mu-rume 

Tika; ma + . 

Bere; ma-t- 
U-tare ; ma-. 

Simbi 

Ci-jsirgwa; 

zwi-. 

3-irwa 
Runy-anga ; 

ma- 



GROUPS P,Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC, LANGUAGES 257 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, Qfc.) 


(Va-ndau, 
' Sofala ') 


Knee 


Kongconco. 


Kongconu 


Koiiku. 


Guna; ma-f 


I-bvi. 


I-dvi ; ma-. 




Bonded ; 




N-kcokcoIa 




(-pfugama = 


Go-kcove 




ma-ondu 








to kneel. Cp. 
E. Bantu) 




Knife 


M-peni 


Ci-pula. 
M-kal« 


Ru-ezi or 
Du-ezi ; ma + 


M-paka 


I-panga, 
Baiiga 


Ci-panga ; zi- 


Lake, sea ... 


Taware. 
Nyanja 


Ny-anja 


Ci-tenga 


•«• 


D'ibi. 
i-gawa. 
Ny-anza 


Gandwa 


Leg 


Mw-endco ; pi. 


M-soroa 


Mu-konzci). 


. .. 


Ci-dzwa. 


Mu-renge; ma . 




ny-endco or 




Kw-endoj 




Bimbira. 


Gumbu 




mi-endco 




{pi. mi-endco 
or m-endeo) 




I-gumbco 




Leopard ... 


Nya-ribwe 


Nya-rubwe 


I-ngto, 
Ka-ingco; 
pi. vika- or 

IU- + 




[-ngwe. 
M-bada 


Kamba; ma-^ 


Lion 


N-kangw ; mi- 


M-karamu 


N-kalamu 


C-umba 


3umba. 
I-mondorco 


Pondorco. 












^umba 


Lips 


Mi-lumu 


Mi-lcorneo 


Mi-rcomco 


Mi-lwmeo 


Vli-reomco 


Ma-rcomco 


Magic 


U-fiti. 
Ma-ere 


M-sinanga 


Lcozi. 
U-fwiti 




Rcowa, 
Bu-royi, 
Bu-rcowi. 
Bu-iianga. 
Gwere 


Nin ji ; ma + 


Maize 


Pa-manga 


Ci-manga 


Vi-tonga. 
M-sali 




Ci-maiiga. 
Ci-bakwe 


Bonore ; ma + 


Man 


Mu-ntu ; wa- 


Mu-ntu; 
wa-ntu 


Mu-ntu ; wa-. 




Vlu-nu ; 
ba-nu 


Mu-ntu; 
ba-ntu 


Man, vir. ... 


Mwa-muna 




Mwana-Iume. 
Mu-Iume 


Mco-rume. 
N-kcoma-na. 
(Moj-sika-na, 
young man) 


Vl-rumi. 
(N-zuma, 

young man). 
Jaya 


Mu-ruihe 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


>J-ama or 
Ny-ama 


... 


ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Ma-nkwaru 


... 


... 


VIo-rimw Mu-ti. 


Mu-tomb<a 












Mu-rimco. 














M-ponga. 














Inyanga 




Milk 


N-kaka. 


Ma-ziwa. 


M-kaka 


M-lcaka. 


Mu-kaka 




Ma-ziwa 


M-kaka 






(Ku-kama = 

to milk) 




Monkey ... 


Pusi. 


Pusi. 


Ma-ncanca (//.). 


1 


-^kco 


Ccokco ; ma + . 




N-cima 


N-cima 


N-sanji. 
Ceta. 






Korea ; 
ji- or jji- 


' 






M-boiigwe 






Hoon 


Vlw-ezi 


M\v-ezi 


Vlw-ezi Ngu-ezi. Miiw-edzi, 


^lu-eji 










(Gu-eti = 


Mw-ezi, 












moonlight) 


Mv-edzi 




Mother 


Mai; 


Maye Wa-ma. 


Mai Mayi 




//. wa-mai. 




Nyina. 










Ma- 




Ny«-k(i) 








Mountain ... Piri ; 


Phiri Lu-piri: ma + . 


I 


-gcomeo Dundu ; ma + 




ma-piri 




Cilu-pili 






Songwe 


Mouth 


<a-njwa 


... 


va-mwa : tu- 


Mu-rcomco Mu-rcomco 


Nail (of finger 


Vy-ara. 


Ci-kamba ; vi- C-ala ; vy-. Zala Run-zara Du-ara ; ma -f 


or toe) 


Ci-katawu 




Lun^i-ala ; {>!. 
nzi-ala. 






Umwe ; 
ma-umwe 



2=;8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6ib. 


6i c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Cicewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karaiia 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, &-f.) 


(Vandau, 
' Sofala ') 


Name 


Dz-ina ; 
ma-ina 


Dz-ina ; 
ma-ina 


Z-ina 


Sidara. 
Setha 


I-zita 


N-zima; ma-H 


Navel 


M-combo> ; mi- 


M-combo> 


... 


... 


I-guvu, 
I-combco 


Ci-kuvu 


Neck 


Kusi 


Khcosi 


Mu-kcosi 


Huleo 


M-tsipa, 

Mu-tsiba 


Hurco; ma-f 


Night 


U-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku. 

(Finzi = 


Suku 


Bu-siku. 
(Dima = 


U-siku. 
Si-rima. 
Bu-^iku 








darkness) 




darkness) 


Nose 


M-punco 


■•• 


M-punco 


M-inea 


M-inco, 
Binco. 
Pconco 


M-irco 


Ox ...'... 


N-ombe 


}f-ombe 


N-ombe ; 


N-gombe ; 


N-dume. 


N-ombe ; ma + 




ni-fule 




pi. vi- 


pi. iii-gombe 


N-zombe; 

zi + . 
N-ombe ; 

ziii- or i- 




Paddle ... 


M-capco 


... 


Kafi- 

(Ku-capa = 

verb) 


... 


Mu-capcD 


Kafe 


Palm wine, 


U-cema 


... 


W-alwa (beer) 


... 


Uc-arwa (beer) 


U-cema 


beer 














Parrot 


Ci-nkwe ; 
psi-nkwe 


Ci-mpse ; 
vi-mpse 


Kupekcope 




I-hwenka, 
Ci-wenga 


Guanga ; ma ■^ 


Penis 


M-borto 


M-boreo 


M-borco 


... 


M-borco. 
Cam-bcokco 


M-bcoloj 


Pig 


N-guluwe. 
Nkumba. 

M-dudu 


N-guruwe 


N-guruwe 


... 


Humba. 

N-guluve 


N-gumbi;ma-h 


Pigeon 


N-kunda. 
N-jiwa 


N-jiwa 


C-iwa ; 

v-iwa. 


... 


N-jiba 


Cora ; ma + 








N-kunda 








Place .* 


P«. 

(in ?nany 
combinations). 
(Ma-rco = 
a sleeping- 
place) 


Paja 


C-aru. 
M-alco. 
Pa-. 
Apa; peo- 


Panco 


I-dzimba. 
Dunu. 

iJu-garco 


U-garco ; ma- 


Rain ... ... 


M-bvula 


M-vura 


Vua. 
M-vula. 
Ma-inza. 
(Mi-lcoci = 

heavy rain) 


M-vula 


M-vura 


M-vula 


Rat 


M-bwea, 


Ktoswe 


Li-rindie ; ma-. 


... 


I-gonzco, 


Ngonsco ; 




M-bewa. 




M-bwewa. 




Gco:;co. 


ma-f 




Kcoswe 




Kcoswe 




M-bewa 




Rhinoceros 


Ci-pembere 


Ci-pembele 


Ci-pembele 


Ci-pembere 


I-nema 


Tema, 
N-hema 


River 


Ny-anja 


M-sinje. 


Mana or 


Lo-ngira. 


Kw-izi. 


Mu-rambco ; 






Ny-anja 


Ka-mana 


Ku-ezi or 
Kit-izi 


Rg-wizi. 
Ru-kcoba 


mi-. 
Ru-izi 


Road 


N-jira 


N-jira 


N-zira, 
N-jila 


... 


N-2iira. 
Mu-gwagwa 


N-jira. 

Mu-va 


Salt 


N-cere or 
M-cere 


? N-cere 


Mu-nyu 


Mto-nyu 


Mu-nyu, 
Mo-nju. 
Cayi 


Mu-nyu. 
Mu-tomba 


Shame 


M-nyartij. 
Ma-nyazi 


Ci-suni 


N-suni 


Ma-nyadzco 


I-^coni. 
Ku-nyara 


Ny-cowa 



GROUPS P, Q : THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 259 





61 b. 


61 c. 


63.^ 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, dr"*:.) 


(Va-ndau 
'Sofala') 


Sheep 


M-bira. 


Bira 


M-belele; vi + 


Guae. 


I-hwai, 


Bu-iji; ma+. 




N-kusa. 






N-godcobge 


Gai. 


Gundata ; 




M-pojuIoj S 








I-gondobhye 


ma-f. 
Hondcohwe 


Shield 


Ci-kcopa. 
M-kupoj 


... 


M-papa 


I-jsangu 


I-nuboa, 
N-hcoww 


Duvu 

(N-deoVto) 


Shoulder ... 


Puzi or 
Pcasi 




Pewa ; ma + 


Pfutsi 


I-pfudzi. 
Ma-peco. 
I-bipitco 


Fudpi 


Sister 


M-loiigco or 


Mlongco ; 


Mu-kwasoj. 




I-hanzwadzi. 


Mu-kunda;ba-. 




Mu-rongci> 


//. wa-rongoa 


M-lisa. 
M-longcosi 




Bali. 
Hama 


Anju-azi 


Skin 


Kungu 


Khunga 


Kanda. 
Ntembe. 
Mpapa 


Lto-kanda 


I-ganda. 
I-guguta 


Dcobco ; ma -f 


Sky 


M-tambu 


M.tambco 


Mu-kumbi. 


-dinga 


I-denga. 


N-gore ; ma-. 








Kum-ulu. 


(U-dinga, 


Gore 


Cf. year 








Leza 


CO-linga, 
OO-tinga) 






Slave 


Mu-temba. 
Ka-porco;wa + . 


... 


Ka-poleo. 

Mu-^la 5 


... 


Mu-randa. 
I-nabha. 


Mu-batwa 




N-tsa-kazi 
Tii-1« 






Mu-rombw. 




Sleep 


Tu-ru 


Tu-lco. 


OOpe. 


I-heope, 


Hope. 








(Ku-lala, 7 •«•/') 


((u necope = ^« 
is with sleep) 


Hope. 

Ku-bata {verb) 


Ku-vata 

{verb) 


Smoke 


U-tsi, 
Wu-tsi 


Uci 


C-usi 


... 


Bu-tsi. 
Ci-utsi 


Vu-ci, 
Vu-si 


Snake 


N.jcoka 


N-jojka 


N-jcoka 


N.yojka 


Iny-cijga 


Ny-ooka; ma-l- 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw-ana ; 


• •• 


My-ana. 


Mw-anaruma; 




mwa-muna. 


mwa-muna 


w-ana 




M-lisa-na. 


ba-. 




N'Zombwe 








M-kcoma-na. 
Mnw-ana 


Mu-rumbv-ana, 
Mu-rumbw-ana 


Song 


Ny-imbu 


Ny-imboj 


Ulu-imbci> ; 
nz-imbco 


... 


Ci-imbco. 
Ru-ombcd ; dzi-. 
Ru-iyco 


Ru-yco; ma-f . 
Rgw-iyoa 


Soul, spirit 


... 


... 


••• 


■" 


My-eya, 
Mw-eya ; 
mw-iya 


•«• 


Spear 


N-tungoo ; tsi + 


M-kondo> 


Fumw ; ma- 


... 


I-pfumu ; ma- 


Mo-kond»;mi-. 
Tungco 


Star 


N-yenyezi 


N-thanda 


Ny-enyezi. 
N-tandala. 
Lu-tanda ; 
pi. vin- 


N-yerezi 


Iny-enyedzi 
or N-jenezi 


N-yaredzi, 
Ny-eredzi. 
Tondoi 


Stick 


Ndcodoj ; zi- 


N-dcod(o 


Kcota ; viii-f-. 
Ka-nkule 


Su-imbu 


I-swimbcij.' 
Mu-dong<o. 
Pzimbco, 
Pswimbo* 


N donga ; 
ma-)-. 
Ru-ponda 


Stone 


Mw-ala ; 
mi-ala or 
ni-ala 


Mw-ara; mi- 


Dz-iwe ; 

ma-we. 
M w.ala 


Im-bge 


I-bhye. 
I. bye 


Bwe ; ma + 


Stool 


M-pandco ; mi- 


..• 


Ci-limba 


... 


Ci-garos 


.■■ 


Sun 


Dzuwa, 
Dzurua, 
Dz-uruwa 


Dzuwa 


Ka-zuwa- 
Zua 


Suba 


I-^uba. 
I-zwari. 
Dzwa 


Zuba 


Tail (of an 


M-cira 


M-cira 


M-cila 


• a* 


Mn-wisi, 


Mu-swe 


animal) 










My-ise. 
Mu-pwe 





26o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6ib. 


6i c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, &=€.) 


(Va-ndau, 
' Sofala ') 


Tear 


Dzbizi ; 

nia-suzi 


M-suzi 


Mu-nscozi; mi- 


... 


M-s«dzi 


Mu-kcoji ; ma- 


Testicles ... 


Ma-tcodzco. 
M-pulumeo 


Ma-cende 


Ma-kandi 


... 


Ri-cende; ma- 


Ma-cende 


Thief 


M-kungu. 
Mbara 


M-kungu 


Pompwe; vi + 


Im-bafa. 
I-nuba 


I-babva 


Mu-bi ; ba-. 
Im-bava 


Thigh 


N-cafu 


N-cafu 


Ci-tewerco, 
Ci-tawelca. 
Ci-welbi 


Kumba; ma-f 


Ci-dhla, 
Ci-dza 
Ci-tumbi 


... 


Thing 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ki-ntu; vi-. 


I-zue ; 


Ci-nu ; 


Nc-ir«;//. 




psi-ntu, 


vi-ntu. 


(C-uma 


ma-zue 


zw-inu. 


zw-irca or 




iDzi-ntu. 


(C-uma = 


= things. 




C-irco 


few-irco. 




Ki-ntu ; 


property) 


property) 






^-uma 




pfi-ntu {oid) 












Thorn 


Mu-nga ; 
mi-nga 


Mu-iiga; mi- 


MQ-nga 


... 


Mu-wa 


Mu-dziia, 
Mu-ndzwa 


Tobacco ... 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


Fwaga 


... 


I-feodya 


Forya, 
For-ya, 
Fcoldya 


To-day 


Lerco 


Leru 


Leroj 


Eku-zuinto 


Nasi 


Nya-masa. 
Nya-mapi 


Toe 


C-ara ; 
ps-ara 


C-ara ; 
vy-ara 


Ci-kumco 


... 


Ciku-nwe, 
Gu-nwe, 

Mu-nwe 


Mu-niie ; mi- 


To-morrow 


Mawa 


Mawa 


Ma-ilco. 
Mawa 


Ma-iagcoana 


Ma-ngwana 


Ma-ngwana 


Tongue ... 


Li-lime or 
Li-rume ; 
//. ma-nime 


Li-rimi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Ru-rimi 


Ru-rimi ; ma- 


Tooth 


Dz-into ; 


Dz-inu ; 


L-into 


M-enca (//.) 


Z-inco ; 


N-zinco. 




ma-no> 


ma-neo 






m-eneo. 
(Zeyco = 

molar) 


Dzeycd 


Town 


Mu-dzi 


Mu-ji 


Mu-nzi ; 
mi-nzi 


M-pa, 
Mio-pa. 
Kanye. 
(' Kw-etu ' = 
our town) 


Mu-^a. 
Dorupa 
{Dutch) 


Mu-zi ; mi- 


Tree 


M-tengca. 
N-toyangco ; 

mi- 


M-teiigti> 


Ci-muti ; 
vi-muti 


Mco-tondco 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti. 
Mum-buti; 
mam- 


Twins 


M-pasa 


Ma-pasa 


Ama-pasa 


... 


Ma-wambe. 
Ma-zana 


Zinya-mbire or 
Manya-mbjre. 
Ma-patxia 

Mu-tundco. 


Urine 


M-kodzca 


M-ktojci> 


M-kcszta 




M-tundco 














Mu-kamco 


Vein 


N-tsempa ; 

mi" 


... 


... 


... 


Mu-tsinga 


Mu-tsinga 


War 


N-kondco 


Kondco 


N-kondco 


... 


Gugwa. 

Mu-renga 


Fumco. 
Hondco 


Water 


Ma-dzi 


Ma-ji 


Ma-nzi 


... 


M-vura. 
Dirira 


Um-vura. 
Ma-ji 


Well, spring 




■ •• 


••■ 


Ziba 


[■dzime. 
Mu-godi. 
Giwa, 
Kiwa. 


Dziwa 


White man 


M-zungu ; wa- 


M-zungu ; wa- 


M-sweta ; 
a-sweta 


Kiwa ; ma -I- 


M-rumbi. 
M-zungu 


Mu-zuiigto 



GROUPS P,Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 261 





61 b. 


6ic. 


62. 


63. 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravl) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, dfc.) 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala') 



Wife 


M-kazi ; wa- 


M-kazi; wa- 


M-kazi 

(called by 
husband 
' mw-ana ') 


••• 


M-kadzi 


M-kazi 


Wind 


M-pepc* 


Phepco 


M-pepeo. 
Ciii-knka 


... 


I-mepu. 

Mfi-wandu. 
Mn-weya 


M.pepu. 
M-bambara 


Witch 


M-fiti 


Fiti 


N-fwiti 


... 


M-royi 


Mu-rroi 


Witchcraft 


U-fiti 


... 


Ma-lcoza. 
Ufwiti 


••• 


Bu^royi 


Bu-rroi, 
Wu-royi 


Woman ... 


M-kazi ; wa- 


M-kazi; wa- 


M-kazi 


Mco.katsi 


M-kadzi 


M-kazi 


Womb 


Mimba 


Mimba 


Vumco 


... 


Ci^su. 
I-mimba 


Zwaru 


Wood (fire- 


Ci-dziki ; psi-. 


Kuni 


Saiiga. 


Hunye 


I^huni 


Huni 


wood) 


Ci-kuni. 
N-kuni 




N-kuni 








Yam 


Ci-razi; bzi- 


Ci-nkumba ; vi 


... 


••• 




... 


Year 


C-aka ; 


Ci-rimika 


Ci-limika. 


••• 


I-kore or 


Gore, 




bz-al(a 




C-aka 




Ri-kore. 
My-aka 


Gule 


Yesterday... 


Dzulco 


... 


Ma-ilco 


... 


I^zuru 


Zuru 


Zebra 


M-bidzi 




Ci-mpwete; vi- 
M^bwete ; 
//. aci + 




M-bizi 


Buiji 


One 


•modzi 


•mcdzi 


•mu 


Mutse, 


■nwe 


Pwsa. 








(Ka-moa) 


•mutse. 
•mwe? 


(M-nwe). 
•putsi 


?.mwe 


Two 


-wiri 


•wiri 


•wiri 


•bili, 


•bin. 


Piri, 








(Tu.wiri) 


•will 

(M-bili) 


Piri 


•biri 


Three 


•tatu 


•tatu 


•tatu 


-tatu. 

(N-atu) 


-tatu. 
N-atu. 
N-hatu 


•tatM 


Four 


•nai 


■nai 


•ne 


•na. 

(I-nna) 


•na . 


•na, 
-ni 


Five 


•sanu 


•sanu 


-sanu 


Canu, •canu 


•panu 


•canu, 
•^anu 


Six 


•sanu ndi 


•sanco ni 


•sanu na •mu 


Tanatu 


Tanatu, 


Tantatu 




•modzi or 


■mcozi 


(Ka-mu) 




Tanhatu 






N^tanda 












Seven 


•sanu ndi 


•san«a ni 


•sanu na 


pi-nongwe 


Nomnwe or 


Ci-nume or 




•wiri or 


-wiri 


•wiri 




Ci-nomwe 


Si-numwe 




Dzimbi, 




(Tu^wiri) 










Tirimbi, or 














Tsimpi 












Eight 


■sanu ndi 


•sanco ni 


•sanu na 


^to-sere 


Tsere, 


Sere or 




•tatu or 


•tatu 


•tatu 


■ 


Ru-sere, or 


Zere 




Duera, 








Zere 






Dwere 












Nine 


•sanu ndi 


•sanco ni 


•sanu na 


Fubamwe 


Fumbanwe or 


Fumbawe or 




■nai or 


•nai 


•nai 




Pfunibamve. 


Fumbamwe 




Mu^inda 








Femba, 
Pfemba 




Ten 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kume 


Gumi or 
Kume 


Gumi 



262 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 




Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 


English 


(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, 6-f.) 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala') 


Eleven ... 


Kumi pambu 


Kumi 






Gumi ne 


Gumi na 




(ci)-modzi or 


n-kate 






i-mwe 


pcosa 




Kumi ndi 


(ci)-mojzi 












(ci)-modzi 












Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Kume 


Ma-gumi or 


Ma-gumi 




ya-wiri or 


a-wiri or 


a-wili 


m-bili 


Ma-kumi 


ma-biri 




Ma-kum' 


ya-wiri 






ma-biri or 






a-viri 




.^ 




Ma-kumi 
ma-yiri 




Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


..• 


I 


Ma-gumi 


Ma-gumi 




ya-tatu 


ya-tatu 






ma-tatu 


ma-tatu 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


... 


... 


Ma-gumi 


Ma-gumi 




ya-nai 


ya-nai 






ma-nna 


ma-ni 


Fifty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


... 


... 


Ma-gumi 


Ma-gumi 




ya-sanu 


ya-sanco 






ina-panu 


ma-canoj 


Hundred ... 


Dzana or 
Ki-kondye ; 


Zana 


Zana 


I -zana 


Ri-zana ; ma- 


Zana or 
Ki^zana 




pi. dzi-kondye 




... 


... 


... 


Gumi 


Thousand... 


Dzi-kondye 
kumi 


Ci-kwi 








re^zana. 
Gumi re 
ma^jana 


I, me, my ... 


I-ne. 


Ine. 


Ne-o), Ne. 


1-ni. 


I-mi or 1-ni. 


I-nini. Di-ni. 




Di-, Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


Ni-, N-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 




•ndi-. -ne. 


-ne. -ndi-. 


-ni-, -n-. 


-ndi-. 


■ndi-. 


-ndi-. 




-a-nga 


-a-nga 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngo> 


Thou,thee,thy 


I -we. 


1-we. 


We-o), We. 


I -we. 


I-we. 


I-wewe. 




U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 




•we. •ku^. 


-we. -ku-. 


-ku-. 


-gu-. 


-gu-, -ku-. 


-ku- 




-a-kca 


-a-koj 


-a-kci> 


-a-kco 


-a-kb> 


-a-ko> 


He, him, his 


I -ye. Wico. 


I -ye. 


Yeo-ve or Iw-ca, 


I -ye. 


I-ye. 


I-we. I-ye. 




A-. 


Wa-, A-. 


Ye-. 


a)-. 


U-, A-. 


U-. 




•ye. -m-. 


-ye. -m-. 


U-, W-, A-. 


-mu-. 


■mu^. 


-mu-. 




-a-ci, -a-ce 


-a-ce 


■mu-, -m-. 
-a-kwe 


-a-ke 


-a^ke 


-ena 


We, us, our 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 


Seco, Se. 


E-sw. Tco-ga. 


I-su. I -si. I-fe. 


1-sisu. Tisu. 




Ti-. 


Ti. 


Ti-. 


Tco-, Ti-. 


Ti-. 


Ti-. 




•fe. ti-. 


•fe. •ti^. 


-ti-. 


•ti-. ? 


-ti-. 


-ti-. 




-a-tu 


-a^tu 


-a-su 




-i-du 


-e-dco 


Ye, you, your 


I-nu. 


I^nu. 


Mweco, We. 


E-mcoi, 


1-mnwe, 


l-mwimwi. 




M-, Mu-. 


Mu.. 


Mu-. 


Ni-mwi. 


l-myi. 


Mu-. 




•nu. -ni-,-ku- 


•nu. ? 


-ni. mu- 


?. \ 


Mu-. 


-mu-. 




-a-nu 


-a-nu 


(also with -ni 

suffix). 

-a-nu 




•mu-. 
•inyu 


-inyu 


They, them, 


A-wa, I^wco, 


Ya-wa. 


tO-ve or A-ww, 


■> 


l-bo> or I -Wco. 


Ivco. 


their 


A^wcij. 


Wa-. 


Wco. 




Ba-, Wa-. 


Ba-. 




Wa-. 


-wa. -wa-. 


A-. 




• -ba-, -b« 


-ba-. -bu 




-wa. -wa-. 


-a-weo 


•a-, -wa-. 










-a-o 




-a-o 









All 



ise -onse -onse -ose-pa -cose or -ose 

* ' Ngu-etsi enu)- kara' = the moon sits down; i.e. thirty days are complete. 



-ese, 
Mu-ese 



GROUPS P, Q : THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC, LANGUAGES 263 



English 



61 b. 
Ci-peta 

(Ma-ravi) 



61 c. 

Ci-cewa 

(West Nyanja) 



62.^ 
Ci-nsenga 



63- 

Ci-nyat, 

Ci-nanswa 



64. 
Karana 

dialects 
(puna, ^'c.) 



64 a. 

Ci-ndau 

(Va-ndau, 

'Sofala') 



This, these 



I 



That, those 



Bad . 
Black . 



Female 



Uyu ; awa ; Uyu; awa; Firstly,thepre- 
u- ; i ; iri ; 6^c. (tnuch as prefix : as U- 

awa ; ici ; in Ci-peta) in U-mu-, A- 

ipsi ; i ; izi ; in A-wa 

ili (ulu) ; iti ; (U-muntu = 

aka ; ubu ; The, this man). 

uku; apa;, Secondly: 

umu. Uyu, awa ; 

Uy<o, aco ; uu, uu, ii ; ili, 

iu ; &=€. awa ; ici, ivi ; 

iyi, i^i ; ulu ; 

utu ; aka ; 

uwu ; uku ; 

apa 
•nu (yu-nu, 

wa-nci> ; u-nco, 

i-nco ; 6^^:.) 



Fierce, sharp -kali 



-dya (u-dj 


/•a, 


• ■• 


•la (yu-la,wa-la; 


wa-dya ; 


QT'C.) 




u-la, i-la; 6-<.-,) 


•mene (a-mene, 




Also the n 


Sr-f.) 






directive (ni-, 
ny-, na-. n-) 
Na-ye, na-wco; 
n-yu(?), n-yi; 
n-di, fi-ga ; 
n-ci, m-bi ; 
n-yi, ni-^i ; 
n-du; n-tu; 
n-ka ; m-bu ; 
is-c. 


•i-pa ; 




•i-pa 


•i-pa ; 


•bi 






■wi 


Biririri. 




ya ku-da 


•fi-pa 


-ku-da. 








•da. 








Biriwiri 








-kazi 




•kazi 


•kazi 


•kali 




... 


•kali 



i-dema 



•katsi 



Uyu or 1-ye 
(1), aba or 
i-baba (2) ; 
uyu or i-ye or 
i-hoyu (3), 
i-yi (4) or 
iyoyi ; iri or 
irire or irori 
flr iji (5), aya 
or i-wcowa or 
awco (6) ; ice 
or iccdce or 
iceciya (7), 
izwi or ezwi 
or izwcozwi or 
idzi or edzi or 
idzcddze (8) ; 
iye or iyoye 
(9), idzi or 
edzi or 
idzcodze or 
ijojji (10); 
uru or iruri 
or ugu or 
i-guri or 
i-ga>gu(ll); 
(12 and 13 
apparently 
missing) ; 
hugu«t7r 
i-gcogu(i4); 
ugu or i-gcogu 
(15); papa(?) 
(16) 

Uyoa, abco ; 
i-bco ; ^fc. 

U-ya, ba-ya ; 
o-ya, i-ya ; 
S^c. 

lyeu-ya, 
ibcoba-ya ; 
&fc. 



Hoya orhoyu, 
aba or awu ; 
hoya or hoy u, 
iyeo or eyi ; 
eri or eji, 
aya or cowa ; 
eci or ecipu, 
edzi or ezwi ; 
eye or eyi, 
edzi or eji ; 
egu or hugu 
(II), (14), (IS) 



i-pa 


ka-jsata, 




•pata 


duna, 


•swl-pa ; 


•nema, 


-si-pi. 


•dema. 


-si-fu 


•swi^fu 




kadzi; 


-hadzi 


•hadzi 




ne-hapa 


... 



264 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





61 b. 


6.C. 


62. 


63- 


64.^ 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyat, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanjaj 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, is'c.) 


(Va-ndau, 
' Sofala '; 


Good 


•bw-inu 


-ya bu-enco 


•weme ; 
-cowama 


... 


-ru-rama. 
-naka. 
-buya 


-naka. 
-pcone, 
-pswene. 

(Bi-|Scone) 


Great 


•kuru 


■kuru 


•kulu 


• •■ 


-kuru, 
-huru, 
-guru 


•kurco 


Littie 


•nunu. 
•ce-pa 


•ce-pa 


•tontco 


• *• 


•dcokco, 
-diki. 
-dukco-ane 


-dcokco, 
•duku. 
•tsonga 


Long 


•tali 


... 


•tali 


• •'• 


•re-fu. 
■re-ba 


-re-fu 


Male 


•mwa-muna. 


-mwa-miina. 


-lume 


• •• 


-kconu. 


•kesnea. 




M pwongo) or 


M-pwongco 






-dume. 


-dume 




M-pongco. 








-rume. 






•ina 








-handira 




Old 


-kale 


-a kaluamba 


-kale. 
-coOccota, 
-kuta 


... 


-kare. 
-kuru. 
■paru 


-harahwa 


Red 


-flira. 
-psyu 


■ •• 


•sweta 


-tsuku 


-tsuku. 
-paba. 
■pswuku 


-puka 


Rotten 


-cola, 
•bvunda 


... 


"fiAlA 


••• 


•bora 


•wora 


Short 


-fumpa. 
-fupi 


... 


•fupi 


... 


-fupi 


-pfupi 


Sick 


•duara 


... 


-Iwala 


... 


•gwara 


-rwara 


White ... 


-yera. 


•yera 


-tua 


-ebve. 


•cena. 


-cena 


. 


•yela 






-pfene 


•jena 




Above, up, on 


Pa-mw-amba 




Kum-ulu 


Mco-gcomco 


Pe-^^ugu, 


Ku-msoru 


top 










Pa-zuru. 

Pa-msorco. 

Gu-denga 




Before 


Pa-tscagorca 


• •• 


Pa-ntanzi 


Pa-mberi 


Pa-mberi 


Pa-mberi 


Behind 


Pa-m-buyoo 


... 


Pa-nseli, 
Pa-vuli 


... 


Pa-sure 


-sure. 

Ma-sure 


Below, down 


Pa-nsi 


• •• 


Kunya-nsi, 
Pa-nsi 


... 


Pa-si. 
Nya-si 


Pa-si. 
Pa-nyasi 


Far 


Pa-tali 


... 


Ku-tali 


... 


Ku-re. 
Re-fu 


Tambco 


Here 


Apa. 
Panco. 
Kunco. 
Pompa 




Kunco. 
Apa 


■ •• 


Nco, 
Panco, 
Panu. 
Pa-. 
Papa- 


Panco 


In, inside ... 


Mgati. 


... 


Mkati. 


*•* 


Mkati. 


Mu-. 




Umu 




Mu- 




Mu- 


Mu-kati 


Middle ... 


Pa-gati 


... 


Pa-kati 


• •> 


Mkati 


Pa-kati 


Near 


Pa-fupi. 


... 


Pa-fupi 


..• 


Pe-dyu. 


Pe-dico, 




Pa-furapa 








Pa-fupi 


Pe-dlco, 
Pa-hlco 


Outside ... 


Pa-nja, 
Ku-nja 


... 


Ku-nja 


... 


Gu-nze 


Pa-nze 


Plenty, many 


-m-biri 


... 


-ny^inji 


-n-cinci. 


-,.in2ji 


-lingi 



Panya 



GROUPS P, Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC, LANGUAGES 265 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63. 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci.ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, &•(:.) 


(Va^ndau, 
'Sofala') 


There 


Apcd. 




Ap<o. 


? 


•ku. 


A^pcd. 




Ukco. 




Ukco. 




I^kcaku 


I-yoa. 




Pompu. 




Ku-la, 






U-keo 




Ku-mene 




Pa-la 








Where? ... 


Ku-ti ? 
Pa-ti ? 


... 


Kuni? 


Va-pi ? 
■pi.' 


•pi.' 


-pi.' 


No! 


lai! 


... 


lai! Na-na! 




Gwete ! 
I^nema ! 


Ahina! 


'^ot{withverb. 


Si-; sa-; n-ka-, 


... 


Nga-. Te-, t-;. 


... 


Ha-, A^ ; -sa^. 


A- {and chang- 


as prefix, in- 


n-ki-. -je, -be. 




-liye- ; -lico- ; 




•si^', •t«^ 


ing terminal a 


fix, or suffix) 


-bi 




Msa- ; -sa- ; 
•ye; •ve 

suffixes 




•singa- ; 
A — ti- — , 
A-ka — , 
A —nga- — . 
•rega- {infin.) 


to i) ; -sa- {and 
as in Karana) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Kco- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-menya 


-menya 


•nyata 


... 


•rcoba, 
•pfura, 
•pura 


•rua 


„ buy, seU 


-gura 


• ■• 


-sita 


... 


•tenga ; 
•jsupa. 
•^ambadzira 


•tenga 


„ come ... 


•dza 


-za 


•za 


... 


•uya, 
•buya 


-za. 
•via 


„ cut 


-tema 


-tema. 


■tenda. 


... 


•tema. 


•tema. 






-senga 


-tema 




•ceka 


-gura 


„ dance ... 


•bvina 


-vina 


•vina 


•pambira 


•dzana ; 
•tamba 


-zina. 
-tamba 


„ die ... 


-fa 


•fa 


•fwa 


-fa 


•fa 


•fa 


„ eat 


-dia 


-lia 


-lya 




•dya. 
•la. •dhla 


-rga 

(Ku-rga) 


„ give ... 


-ninka ; 
•padza 


... 


-pa; 
-pela 


-pa 


•pa 


•pa 


., go 


•yenda. 


-enda 


•ya; 


•venda ; 


-hamba, 


•enda. 




-enda, 




•yenda ; 


•vamba. 


-famba, 


-famba 




-eaka 




•pita, 
-luta 


•enda ; 
•pinda 


-enda, 
-inda, 
-wenda 




„ kill ... 


-pa 


... 


•paya 


•baya 


-baya, 
-buraya 


-uraya 


„ know ... 


•dziwa 


•jiwa 


•ziwa 


•ziba 


-dziba 


•ziba, 
•ziwa 


„ laugh ... 


-seka 


... 


-seka 


••• 


•sega 


•seka 


„ leave off, 


•leka or 


-leka 


•leka 


..• 


•rega 


•rega 


cease 


-reka 












,, love,want 


-konda ; 


... 


•temwa. 


•ncoda. 


■da 


•no>da. 




-anja 




•pangwa 


•da 




-da 


,1 see 


-tona 


... 


-lula. 
-cona 




•bcona, 
-tarira 


-ona, 
-vcona 


,, sit.remain, 


•kala. 


... 


■kala 


•kara, 


■gara 


■gara 


abide 


-sala 






-gara 

(pret. -kere) 


Kpret. -gere) 




„ sleep ... 


•guna 


•guna 


-lala. 

(•ktona = 
snore) 


•bata 


•bata. 
•rara 


■vata. 
•rara 


' -si- iti Karana also has the meaning of ' in the habit 0/' as well 


as a doubtful meaning approachin 


g the negative. 



266 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6ib. 


6ic. 


62. 


63- 


64-. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci 


•peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karaiia 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 


(Va-ndau, 














(puna, 6-c.) ' 


'Sofala') 


To Ku- 




Ku- Ku- 


Ka>- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ stand,stop, -ima 




•ima .ima ; 


... 


-mira, 


-sim-uka 


be erect 




•panama 




-miriga. 
-sima ; 
-siniba 




„ steal ... -ba 




■punsa 


-tonga 


-ba. 
•tapa. 


-ba 












-tora 





• PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CI-PETA AND CI-CEWA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (yu-, u-, -m-, mu-) ; 2. Wa-, A- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N- (u, mu-) ; 4. Mi-, Ni- 
(mi-, i) ; 5. — , Di-, Dzi-, Dz-, Zi-, Li- (especially in Ci-cewa) (li, ri) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-, a, wa) ; 
7. Ki-, Ci-, C (ci, ki) ; 8. Psi (bzi), Pfi- (old), Vi- (Ci-cewa) (psi-, vi) ; 9. N- (M-), N-, Ny'-, — (i, n-, 
ny-) ; 10. i,i- (zi) ; 1 1, (rare) Li-, Ri- (li-, ri) ; 12. (rare) Ti- (ti) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U-, Wu-, Bu- (bu-, 
u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa); 17. Mu- (mu-, -mco). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-NSENGA 
Slight traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, Um-, M-, — , Si-, Asi-, Aci-, A-, Awa-, Wa- (mu-, m, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, A-, Awa-, 
Aci- (wa-, a) ; 3. Mu-, Um-, M- (u-, -u-) ; 4. Mi- (i) ; 5. — , Li- (li) ; 6. Ama-, Ma- (a-, wa) ; 7. Ci- 
(ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. N- (M-), Ny-, N-, Nj- (i) ; lo. same as 9 ; also Nz- (concord zi, ^i) ; 11. Ulu-, Lu-, 
Du-, Ru- (lu) ; plur. Ma-lu ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; plur. sometimes Vi-, sometimes Tu- ; 14. U- 
(u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa-, Apa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

The honorific prefixes are Si- and Ci- (more often preceded by A-) and also the plurals A- and Awa- 
used in a singular sense. There is much doubling of prefixes, Ci-mu-, Vi-mi-, Ka-mu-, Tu-a-, Vi-u-, 6^c. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-NYAI (CI-NANSWA)' 

Traces of preprefixes in Classes 9 and 14. 

Class I. Mo>., Mu., Nu.>(?) ; 2. ? (?) ; 3. M-, Mit-, Ngu-, Gu- (?) ; 4. Me-, Mi- (?) ; 5. — ,"l-, Ji-, 
Le-(?); 6. Ma- (?) ; 7. ?; 8. ?; 9. In.(Im-), Iny.,N., - (?) ; -10. ?; n. L«- ; 12. ?; 13. Ka- ; 14. Ub'-, 
U-, Bo>.(?); 15. Km.; 16. Pa-, Va- ; 17. M«-. 



' Very uncertain. The recorded fragment (^ Ci-nyai h^is evidently been garbled by a Mu/cu»na 
interpreter. 



GROUPS P, Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 267 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KARANA DIALECTS AND IN CI-NDAU 
Virtually no preprefixes, except in concords and demonstratives. 

Class I. Mu-, Mco-, U- (?), Mnu-, My (mu, u-, ye-, yu-) ; 2. Ba- ', Wa- (aba, ba) ; 3. Mu-, Mo>-, 
M-, Mnu-, My'- (u, yu-, uy'-) ; 4. Mi-, M'- (i, iyi-) ; 5. Ri-, I-, Ji-, or Zi- (Zi- is usually an augmenta- 
tive), — (r'-, ri, ir', ij'-) ; 6. Ma- (a, aw'-, w') ; 7. Ci-, Ji- ? (ci-, ic') ; 8. Zwi-, Dzi- (zwi, dzi-, izw'-) 
8a(?). Swi- (swi) (//. Bu-, Vu-, No. 14)"; 9. N- (M-), I- (i, iy'-, eyi-) ; 10. same as 9 ; and Dzi-, Zi-, 
Dzin-, Ji-, Jin- (dzi-, ji-, idz'-, ij'-, eji) ; 11. Ru-, Rhu-, Rg- (gu-, ru, uru-, ugu-, ur') ; 12. Tu- (toi-, itcu) ; 
13. Ka- (ka-, ikco) ; 14. Bu- ', By-, Bhu-, Wu-, Vu-, U- (bu, by-, iboj, ubco, uhwio) ; 15. Gu-, Ku-, Hu-, 
U- (gu-, ugo)) ; 16. Pa- (pa-) ; 17. Mu- (m-, -mu). 

The Nya- prefix is present in ' Sofala ' (Ci-ndau) and so also is Ji- as an honorific prefix : perhaps 
the Nyanja Ci-. Wa- is occasionally an honorific prefix in the plural. The diminutive suffix -ana is 
present. 



61 b. Cipeta is spoken west of the Upper Shir^ river on the south shores of Lake Nyasa as far to the 
north-west as the Lintipe river ; thence southwards to the sources of the Ruongwe and the Ciritse- 
Luafigwe and westwards over the Undi country almost to the north bank of the Zambezi and the vicinity of 
the great Luaiigwa confluence. 

61 c. Cicewa is spoken in the south-west coast-lands of Lake Nyasa, south of the Nyasa-Luaiigwa 
river, north of the Lintipe and the Upper Bua and east of the great Luaiigwa watershed. 

62. Cinsenga is spoken over a wide range of country, chiefly the whole eastern half of the valley of 
the great Luaiigwa river from near its sources down to its confluence with the Lunsefwa and to the Undi 
or Maravi country. The ' Unsefiga' region (as it is called by the Anseiiga) is however invaded on the 
east by colonies of Ra-tumbuka and Aiigoni-Zulus and on the west by Babisa and Balata. 

63. Cinyai is spoken in south central Zambezia, south of the Middle Zambezi between the Hanyani- 
Angwa affluent on the east and the Gwai-^aiigani river on the west. On the south it grades into the 
Karaiia dialects of Matebele- and Mapunaland ; on the north into Cinsefiga and Maravi. Under the 
name of Cinyau it is spoken at Zumbco. 

64. Karana dialects are spoken south of the Zambezi, from near the Zambezi on the north to the 
Upper Sabi river, Zimbabwe, the borders of the Mapfigane country and the Matopto hills on the south ; 
east to the Anglo-Portuguese frontier, westward to the range of the Nyai language and the Zambezi plains. 

64 a. Cindau is spoken in the coast country south of the estuarine Zambezi, from about 18° 40' South 
latitude southwards past Beira to the River Gorofigcozi in Sofala Bay. It also extends inland in patches 
to the mountains separating Portuguese South-East Africa from Rhodesia. 

' There is a tendency in one or more Karana dialects to pronounce the initial b more dentally, more 
like a V. 

' This prefix Swi- is a diminutive. 



GROUP Q' 

THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA-PUNGWE-SABI LANGUAGES {coniinued) 

65. Ci-teve 66. Rongerco (Ba-zaruteo /■".) 

65 a. Ci-tombwji or M-tombcoji 67. Ci-rue^ (' Vatua' of Burue or Burue) 

68. Ma-pafigana ('Shangaan ', ' Chaiigana ') 



GROUP R> 

THE ^ENGWE-RO^GA LANGUAGES 

69. ^eiigwe or Gi-tonga (Southern ' Vatua' or ' Inhambane") 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 
(Ba-zarutu) 


Ci-nie 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Adze 


... 


... 


Li-pata. 
N-tsanga 


... 


N-tsanga 


Li-pada 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama 


Ku-jsonza 


Bz-eare (//.). 


Ny-ama-zana 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. 


beast 






Ny-ama 






Bz-eare (//.). 
Bara. 
Gi-rengoj ; pi- 


Ant 


Sundzi 


Sunji 


U-sunzi 


Tu-tuane 


U-sunje 


Scokole. 
U-gugude 


Ant, white 

(termite) 
Arm 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


M-uo> 


Mu-vukeo. 


Boikfo 


Mu-<i>ko> 


M-koinca 


Mw-uku 


RambukulcD ? 




M-kton<o 










Bcokco, 
Rcokco 


Arrow 


M -sen we, 

M-sewe 


M-paca 


Tare 


M-paca 


M-kondco 


Li-pogco. 
In-sebe. 
Tungi. 
N-gcowe 


Axe 


Sandu 


Buire 


pi-pwka 


Beura 


Sandw 


Li-ycoga. 
^i-pcoka. 
Li-cad CO 


Baboon ... 


... 


... 


... 


In-fene 


In-dede. 
?Ko>lco 


Im-fene ; 
jim-fene 


Back 


M-sana 


Sure 


IMi-sana {pi.) 


M-sana 


Me-sana {//.) 


^i-kcose. 
Gi-wunu. 
In-deza 


Banana ... 


Kcobu ; ma + 


M-kcobu 


M-kcobco 


Ma-kcobeo (pi.) 


M-kcobo> 


Mu-kcova. 
Mu-abco 


Beard 


M-puiigco 


M-pungco 


Devu 


M-pungM 


M-ptmgu 


Ki-revco. 
Gi-lidco 



• The reader will notice that the designations of Groups Q and R differ somewhat from those given on page 43, 
and corrected in Addenda at Corrigenda. The later rendering is more in accord with affinities and geographical 
distribution. 

' The inclusion o/Ci-rue in Croup Q is rather problematic, as is the language or dialect itself, which may be more 
nearly related to No. 76 (A-ngoni or Gaza). Many ' Vatua ' or eastern Zulu words have been incorporated into 
No. 69 f^engwe). Vatua merely means ' Bushmen , ' fiygmies'. It is explained in the Notes. 

' Bleel^s ' Inhambane'. IVe hai'e here no doubt a mingling of distinct dialects, the preponderating type of lan- 
guage being the Gi-toiiga of Inhambane. 



GROUPS Q, R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 269 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombwji 


Rongerto 

(Ba-zarutoa) 


Ci-riie 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Bee 


Ma-ve (;)/.) 


N-yusi 


N.yukl 


N-yuci 


N-yuci. 
(Ma-ve; //. 
= wasp) 


N-kabini. 

L-ombe or 
Lombe 


Belly 


Dane 


Dane 


Mimba 


Dane 


Mimba 


Gi-rumbco. 
Mimba. 
Kirre 


Bird 


Ciri 


Ciri 


Dziri 


Ciri. 
Ny-oani 


Ciri. 

Iny-ooni 


Nyambane, 
Nyanyane. 
In-yconi ; }i + 


Blood 


Un-gaze 


Gazi 


M-lcopa 


Mu-rcopa 


M-lupa 


Nuba. 
Mu-lupa. 
Kata 


Body 


M-virto 


M-uiri 


Mu-mire 


M-uiri 


Mu-bire 


Gi-bili; ?i-. 
M-irri, M-irre 


Bone 


Fupa ; ma + 


Pondu 


Fupa 


Fupa ; ma- + 


Fupa; ma--(- 


Ki-rambu ; fi-. 
Gi-kugulu 


Borassuspalm 


... 


• •■ 


*.> 


Dekwa; ma-t- 


... 


... 


Bow 


U-ta 


U-ta 


Hu-ta 


U-ta 


Hu-ta 


Wu-lavu, 
Vu-lahu. 
Hu-rra, 
Wu-ra 


Bowels 




*.. 


• •• 


... 


... 


Ma-hembe 


Brains 


U-rtobzi 


U-r«bzi 


U-lubzi 


U-rtobzi. 
K'cobto 


U-rubzi 


B-ongto 


Breast (man's) 


• .. 


• •• 


A-ana 


Ci-fua 


A-ana 


Gi-fuba 


Breast 


Diti 


Diti 


... 


Diti 


.. . 


Tsombu ; ti + 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Bu-rurto 


Hama 


Duni 


M-ko>mu 


Mu-kcoma 


Ndi. 
N-duye. 
Mu-longu 


Buffalo 


Iny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Iny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Nz-arri 


Bull 


... 


... 


... 


... 


• •• 


Gi-kula gya 
ii-ombe 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-takoj 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takci> 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takca 


Ma-tagu 


Canoe, boat 


Garaba 


M-kumbe 


Ci-ngalabawa 


M-kumbe 


Galaba 


Wu-aru. 
N-galaba 


Cat 


Paka 


Mangwe 


M-baka 


Mangwe 


M-baka 


Gimanga 


Charcoal ... 


... 




... 




... 


Ma-gale 


Chief 


Mambco 


Mamboj 


Hasi 


M-koase 


Mambca 


Husi, E-husi. 
Pfumu. 
Mu-ni. 
(M-buzu = 

kingdotn) 


ChUd 


Ci-pgere 


Mu-ana 


MCi-ana-na 


Mu-fana 


Ci-pwerere 


Mu-ana-na;ba-. 
Gi-ana-na ; 
pi. ^'-ana-na 


Cloth 


Guco 


Ma-cira (//.) 


In-do>z« 


Hia 


Ufi-guoo. 
Jira 


Ma-kila. 
Tiii-guu [pi ) 
Mw-enda: my- 


Cold 


*•* 


><■ 








Gi-rame. Pibu 


Country ... 


Ny-ika 


Nyika 


Ny-ika' 


I-zue 


Ny-ika 


Li-tigu. 
Li-fuma. 
Wu-langa 


Cow 


M-ombe -kazi 


Gabe -kazi 


Gombe a-kaji 


M-kcomto 


Gombe a kaji 


Nombe. 
Tere 


Crocodile ... 


Guena. 
Gomombu 


Guena 


Un-gwena 


Gomombco 


Un-gwena 


N-guna, 
Gwenya, 


1731 












In-gwenya 
T 



270 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutco) 


Ciriie 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Day, daylight 


Sik» 


Zua 


Nyama-se 


Tonga 


Zua 


Gambco 
or Dambco. 
Li-cigu ; ma- 


Devil, evil 


Pongeo 


Mu-zimu 


M-fukwa 


Zi-tuta (?//-) 


Mu-lungca 


Mu-fukwa. 


spirit 












Gi-kuembco 


Doctor (medi- 


•..* 


... 


... 


... 


-.. 


In-yanga 


cine man) 














Dog 


Im-bga 


Im-bga 


Im-bwa 


In-dja 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa ; 
//. ji-mbwa 


Door 


M-suu 


M-suu 


Tu-vi. 

Mu-sua 


Ci-vae 


Lu-vi. 
Mu-sua 


Lu-bati. 
Ki-kene. 
Li-dimba. 
Ny-angwa 


Dream 


Ku-r«ta 


Hcope 


Ku-lcoca 


U-tcomco 


Ku-lcota 


Ku-lora 
{verb). 
N-dorco; ji + 


Drum 


Gcoma 


Gcoma 


In-gcoma 


Zinyu-mbuyco 


Gcoma 


lii-gcoma 


Ear 


Zeve 


N-zeve 


Dema 


N-zeve 


lii-gibe 


N-jebe or 
N-zeve; ji + . 
Dema. 
N-dejeli 


Egg 


Ma-zanda {i>l.\ 


Ma-zanda (//.) 


M-anda 


Ma-phanda 


Zanda 


Danza, 

Li-anza ; 
m-andza 


Elephant ... 


DZOMO 


Dzcoco 


Zcooa 


N-joovco 


Djcoco 


Jcovco, 
I n-jeovco. 
En-^olfoo 


Excrement 


Matu-ji 


Matu-bzi 


Matu-bze 


Mtu-bvi 


Mata-bze 


Ma-cimba 


Eye 


J.isco ; 


J-isco ; 


Dz-isco 


J-icco ; 


J-isco 


L-isco or 




ma- + 


ma-so> 




m-ecco 




D-ipco ; //. 
ma-^co 


Face, forehead M-kcope 


Hcope 


Hcope 


U-sco 


M-esco 


Gcoe 


Fat, oil ... 


... 


... 


Ma-futa 


... 


Ma-futa 


Tsumbeo. 
Ma-fura 


Father 


... 


... 




... 


... 


Babe. 
Ny-ehe 


Fear 


Ku-tia 


Ku-tia 


Ku-tia 


Saba 


Ku-tia 


Ku-taba, 
Ku-caba 


Finger 


Bg-inco 


Gu-niie 


Tun-duala {;>/.) 


Mu-nfie 


Ciku-niie 


Lu-tico, Le-tiu. 
Ny-al^ 


Fire 


Mu-riro9 


Mu-riru 


Mu-rirco 


Basco? 


Mu-rirw 


Dzirco, 

In-dzilco. 
Mu-nilco. 
N-delco 


Fish 


Hcoe 


Hcoe 


A-hcobe 


C-andzi ? 


A-hcobe 


In-janj6. 
'Bi-canve(//.) 
Ki-kaga ; 
pi-kaga 


Foot 


Scoka 


Scoka 


Mu-kondco 


I-nyau 


Lu-scoka 


Ci-pama. 
M-lenge. 
Muii-gondco. 
Gi-rende 


Forest 


M-sora 


Guaca 


Mi-ti 


Cati 


Mi-ti 


Ti-simbco, 
Ti-sinya(;i/^.) 
Kwatt. 
Li-kabe. 
Gi-tsinga 


Fowl 


Huko 


Hukco 


Hukca 


Kukco 


Huku 


Kugu 



GROUPS Q, R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, SENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 271 





65. 


65 a. 


65. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongeroo 
(Ba-zaruto>) 


Ci-riie 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Frog 














Ghost 


R'-fuba. 


Ku-patika. 


Vuli "■ 


Kco-coioa. 


M-vuii' 


In-zuti. 




Ce-ngejua. 


Ce-ngwajco 




Ka-tipinzioa 




Gi-kwembco 




U-jsinga 












Giraffe 


... 


••• 


... 


• •• 


• •* 


... 


Girl 


... 


... 


... 


"• 


•" 


Gi-ana-na. 
Gyagaja-na. 
Gia-gadi-ana 


Goat 


Budzi 


Budzi 


M-vuta ? 


Budzi 


Buji 


Psete. 
Buti, 

M-bute. 


„ (he) ... 


... 


.•■ 


... 


... 


• 


Pongco ; ji -H 


„ (she)... 


... 


... 




... 




... 


God 


M(o-lungo» 


Mu)-lungu 


Mum be 


Pe-zuica 


Mumbe 


Tilco, 
I-tilco. 
N-tsuma. 
Nunguiigulu 


Grandparent 


... 


... 


... 


... 


••• 




Grass 


Mu-anje 


Mw-enji 


Ma-tate 


M-cane 


Ma-nsua 


Gi-anye. 
Sinya. 
Ma-kuco. 
Mu-asia-na 


Ground 


Pa-si 


Pa-si 


Ma-vco 


Pa-nzi 


Pa-si 


Ma-fu. 
Sawa 


Ground-nut 


Man-diie 


Man-zungoj 


Ma-ndcoim 


Man-dungcomani 


Ma-ndcoim 


Ma-nga; ti-(-. 
N-ycome; ti + 


Guinea-fowl 


Hanga 


Hanga 


Mangera 


Pangeya 


Hukco^ 
i manga 


Mangera ; ji -f 


Gun 


Futi 


Futi 


M-vuti 


Ci-bamco 


M-futi 


M-benye. 
Ki-pisa. 
Gi-bamco 


Hair 


Vuzi 


Vuzi 


Ma-vudzi (//.) 


Zi-nue (//.) 


Ma-vudzi (//.) 


Mi-sise. 
Mu-duju 


Hand 


Ny-ara 


M-anja (//.) 


Ny-ala 


S-anja 


Ny-ala 


Gi-anja or 
C-anja ; pi. 

ma-nja 


Head 


M-sorco 


M-sorco 


Mu-solco 


Khanda 


Mu-sorco 


^cokco.^ 
N-sungco; mi-. 
Mu-hungco. 
Mu-hugwco 
Pala. 


Heart 


M-oyu 


M-oyco 


M-oyco 


Cizico or 
■cizico 


Vl-oyco 


Im-bileo. 
M-onyco; mi- 


Heel 


Ci-kcokora ga 
n-scoka 


Ci-sisindco 


Ki-rendze 


Ru-nyau 


Si-dimindco 


Gi-renza. 
Gi-cinidoi 


Hide 


• • • 


.*• 


*•• 


... 




Li-dcowco 


Hill 




... 


... 


... 


... 


Gi-gonyco, 
Gi-gcomco 


Hippopotamus 


M-vu 


M-vuca 


Vugco 


Bcoma 


VI-vuw 


M-vuco. 
Em-bama 


Hoe 


• •• 


... 


• •* 


... 


... 


Pata ; ma -f 


Honey 


Uci 


Uci 


Pudzi ^ 


U-iombe 


Suzi. 


Wu-lombe 










Hu-uce 




Horn 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


Bi-zua 


Pondco ] 


Ny-aiiigu 


Lu-nanga. 

Ti-monza(//.). 

Kweco 


House 


Ny-umba 


Pasco, 

M-pasco 


Ny-umba 


In-djco, ] 
In-ji 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba, 
Ny-omba 

T 2 



272 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 

( Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Hunger 


N-zara 


N-zara 


Zala 


N-jara 


Jala 


In-jala 


Husband ... 












Ncona. 
Muhcoma. 
Mw-ama, 
Mw-ane 


Hyena 


Bongco 


Bongco 


Duku 


Pisi 


Bongco 


M-isi. 
Dugu ; nia -f 


Iron 


Simbi 


Simbi 


Bu-tare 


Simbi 


U-tare 


^i-kedzi or 
Gi-kete; fi- 


Island 


M-cetoa 


C-iwi 


Me-tundco (//.) 


Ci-tsina 


Ci-lundoa 


Gi-runzto, 
Gi-rungco 


Ivory 


Maz-into a 


Iny-anga a 


Ny-anga a 


Pondco ra 


Ny-anga 


Lu-onzco. 




ZCKO 


ZbXd 


jcoco 


n-jcoo> 




Li-nanga 
la n-jcovco 


Knee 


Ma-ve (//.) 


I-bvi 


Gcogcobvi 


Doyu 


Gcagcobvi 


Dzcolco. 
Pugumudi. 
Dondu ; 

ma + 


Knife 


Ci-panga 


Ci-panga 


Um-panga 


C-ikco 


Ci-panga 


Mu-gala, 
N-kala. 

Mu-kwa-na 


Lake 












Li-tsivu, 
Li-civa. 
(Bimbi = 

sea) 


Leg 


Mu-renge 


Mu-renge 


Gumbco 


Mu-enze 


Gumbco 


Nengi, 
Nenge ; mi-. 
Ritandco 


Leopard ... 


Kamba 


Kamba 


Kamba 


lii-gwe 


Kamba 


Ifi-gwe. 
Kamba 


Lion 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Bondco, 
Bonda 


Lips 


Mu-rcomeo 


Mu-reomco 


M u-lcomco 


Mu-icomco 


Mu-lcomco 


Mi-ltomco or 
I-ncomco (//.) 


Magic 


•■• 


... 


Mu-lcoi 


... 


Mu-loi 


M-oi or 
Bu-loi. 
Wu-nanga 


Maize 


Ma-bconore 


Ma-bconore 


Ma-fundi 


Mumbco 


Ma-fundi 


Ma-hira. 
Gi-fake 


Man 


Mu-ntu ? 


Mu-ntu ? 


... 


Mu-ntu ; 
a-ntu 


Mu-tu? 


Mu-tu; pi. 
ba-tu 


Man, vir. ... 


Mw-anarume 


Jaha. 

M-anarume 


M w-analume 


Mu-esa 


M-anahume 


Na-nuna. 

Mu-ma ; 
ba-ma 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama-zane 


Ny-ama 


• Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


Mu-rende ; 
mi-rende. 
Ma-kani 


MUk 


... 


• •< 


... 


... 


... 


Ma-pisa 


Monkey ... 


Ma-tede [pi) 


Tede 


Samba 


... 


Kcolco 


In-^cogco 


Moon 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edzi 


Mw-eje 


Iny-anga 


Mw-eje 


Mw-ete. 
N-gima, 
Mu-gima 


Mother ... 


... 




? A-mai 


• •• 


... 


Maiji 


Mountain ... 


Ma-tundoj {pi.) 


Duntco 


Duntco 


Tawa 


Duntco 


Gi-gcomco ; fi- 


Mouth 


*. . 


■ •• 


• *• 


■ •• 


• •• 


Gi-hcofu. 
Li-kana. 
Ci-pcofu 



GROUPS Q, R : THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, fiENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 273 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongeroo 

(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-riie 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Nail (of finger 


Du-ara 


Dzipca 


Indu-ala-na 


Dzipco 


Du-ala 


Ki-kata. 


or toe) 












J.nunala. 
Gi-ala ; ^i- 


Name 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


B-izeo 


Z-ina 


L-ina 


Navel 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Mu-rugcD. 
N-dende 


Neck 


M-sipa 


M-sipa 


Huleo 


M-sipa 


Hulw 


N-tamco, 
N-amto. 
N-kojlco ; 

//. mi- 


Night 


Sik« 


M-sikca 


Bu-sikco 


Sukw 


U-sikco 


Bu-sikto. 
(Gi-dema = 

darkness) 


Nose 


... 


■ •• 


... 




... 


Tomfu ; 

//.ti + 


Ox 


M-ombe 


Gabe rume 


Gombe 
mw-ana hume 


Kumco 


Kumdzi 


B<oa. 
Kuze. 
Hcobe; ti + 


Paddle ... 




• •• 






... 


... 


Palm wine, 


U-cema 


Ci-sura, 


Bu-tsema 


Ku-kaya 


U.cema 


Wu-cema, 


beer 




U-cema 








Anga 


Parrot 


Guaiiga 


Dzapazapa 


... 


Guanga 


... 


... 


Penis 


Borco 


Boroi 


M-beolco 


M-tondco 


M-bcolco 


Lu- or 
Li-bcolco 


Pig 


Kumba 


Gurue 


Kumba 


Gurue 


Kumba 


Kumba ; ji + . 
In-guluwe 


Pigeon 


Jiwa 


Jiwa 


Dziba 


Jiwa 


Jiba 


Li-tuba 


Place 




Pa-m-tundoa 


Mu-tundco 


1-zue 


Mu-tund« 


Gi-ta. 
Mu-to, 
Mu-^te. 
Danga 


Rain 


M-vura 


M-vxura 


Vula 


Ma-ndzi 


Vula 


Im-vula. 
N.tsuma. 
N-jaji 


Rat 


Konzco 


Kundana ; 

ma + 


Gcosco 


Kundana 


Gonjo) 


Konjua, 
Konjw 


Rhinoceros 




... 


• •• 




... 


Bembere 


River 


Mu-ranibco 


M-fuia ? 


Me-lambco{//.) M-fuia 


Me-lambco{^/.) 


Nambco. 














Mu-ccogco 


Road 


M-seu. 
Jira 


Patw 


Zira 


Jeia 


Jira 


Jera, 

In-jela, 
N-jila ; ji- 


Salt 


... 


• •• 


• ■• 


>■* 


... 


Mu-nyu 


Shame 




• .. 






... 


... 


Sheep 


Puizi 


Puizi 


Vuta "" 


Im-vu 


Vuta"* 


M-vuta. 
W-ivto ; 
ti-ivu 


Shield 


... 


... 


• ■• 


••• 




Dcobco 


Shoulder ... 


... 










Kata 


Sister 


Hama 


Andi.atsi 


... 


Datu-eto) 


Teta-je 


Ma-kwer<a (//.). 
N-dconi 


Skin 


Jubco 


Duu 


Songe 


Ci-kumba 


Dcobco 


^onge. 
Di-zcobco, 
Li-dcowco. 
Ccogi 

Ba-cani. 


Sky 


Gure 


Ma-kore 


Kco-hombe 


Pe-zulo) 


Gojle 














N-jaji 


Slave 


... 




■■• 


••• 


■ >• 


Pumbi 



2 74 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6s. 


6s a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombojji 


Rongero) 
(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Sleep 


Hupe 


Hupe 


Hcope 


Tongoj 


Hcope 


Bu-rongo>, 
Wu-rongco 


Smoke 


Use 


Ji-utsi 


Mu-isi 


Mu-si 


Hu-isi 


Mu-si, 
Wu-ci, 
Wa)-zi 


Snake 


Ny-oaka 


Iny-uka 


Ny-ooka 


In-hojka 


Ny-oaka 


Iny-coka or 
Ny-«oga 

Mw-ama-na 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana 


Ci-pgere. 


Mw-ana 


Mu-fana 


Mw-ana. 






Mw-ana 






Ci-pwerere 




Song 


Ku-imba 


Runy-imbco 


Ku-emba 


Ku-cabeia 


Gcoma. 
Humbu 


Lu-simu. 
Ku-imbelela 


Spear 


M-kondoa 


M-kondb> 


Mu-kondu 


Ci-t'ibw 


Mu-kondcd 


Mu-kondto. 
Tari. 
Li-fumco. 
Klare ; 

ma-klare 


Spirit, soul 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Ci-kwemboa. 
Li-puboj 


Star 


Ny-erezi 


Ny-erezi 


Ny-areje 


Zinya-ezi (//.) 


Tondu 


Jiny-eleji (;>/.).' 
Ny-uladi 


Stick 


Donga 


Donga 


Gori 


M-tcoma 


Goori 


Nonga 


Stone... ... 


Pfie 


Ma-pue (//.) 


Bwe 


I-ce 


Bwe 


Ri-kwe or 
Ri-bwe. 
Gi-windi; pi- 


Stool 


• •• 


... 


... 


... 


... 




Sun 


Zua 


Zua 


Zuba 


Tanga 


Zuba 


Li-dambco. 
Li-ani. 
In-sani 


Tail 


... 


>•• 


... 


... 


... 


M-r<otcD 


Tear 


M-sunzi 


Ma-s«azi (/>/.) 


Me-s«ji {pi) 


Zinyam-bezi 


Me-s«^j'i ipi.) 


Mi-ptoti. 
Ronge ; 
ma-t- 


Testicles ... 


Ma-cende 


Ma-cende 


Ma-kendi 


Ma-sende 


Ma-cende 


Ma-kenzi 


Thief 


Kuba 


Bava 


Bava 


W-iaba 


Bava 


L(-kamba. 
M-bafa ; ji + 


Thigh 


... 


• ■> 


... 


... 




Tombi ; 

ma-H 


Thing 


Ci-reo 


Ji-roa 


Ci-rw 


U-tto 


Ci-rto 


Gi-loj ; ji-. 
Ko-kare 


Thorn 


Mi-zeo {pi.) 


Mi-zua {fl.) _ 


Mu-zua 


Ema-hiva(^//.) 


Mu-sua 


Mw-iba. 
Mu-zua 
or -tua ; mi- 


Tobacco ... 


Forga 


Forga 


Forga, 
Folya 


Gwai 


Folya 

(Portuguese 
' Folha') 


Fcole. 
I-fole 


To-day 


Inyama-se 


Inyama-se 


Nyama-si 


Inyamu-ce 


Nyama-si 


Mu-hunu. 

Nyamu-ci, 
Nyamu-ca. 
Nyau-se 


Toe 


Ji-no9 re swka 


Ji-nco 


Gume 


[i-noa-ja ra 
u-nyau 


Ci-kume 


Lu-tihco. 
Li-tiu 


To-morrow 


... 


... 


... 




••• 


Ma-nguane. 
Ji-mindu 


Tongue ... 


Uru-rimi 


Ru-rumi 


Lime 


U-imi 


U-lime 


Lu-rime 


Tooth 


Z-inco 


Z-inu 


M-eneo (/>/.) 


Z-iu, 
Z-in«a 


M-en« (//.) 


D-inw ; 
ma-noo. 
Li-kwaha ; 
ma-kwaha 



GROUPS Q, R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC, LANGUAGES 275 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongeroj 

(Ba-zaruteo) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Town, village 


M-tercopa 


Dircopa. 


Ny-ika 


Dirupa. 


Ny-ika ya 


N-te; 




(Dutch). 


Mu-pa 


ba-zungcd ' 


I-kaya 


ba-zungco 


mi-te. 




Mu-zi 










N-danga 


Tree 


Mu-ti 


Mbu-ti. 
Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


M-ti 


Mu-ti 


Mu-^imbco. 
Mu-ri. 
N-tanda; me- 


Twins 


Manyam-biri 


Manyam-biri 


Ma-ba 


Ma-pac<a 


Manya-bire 


Ma-ha^a, 
Ma-pasa 


Urine 


Tundco 


Tunda 


Ma-tund» 


Mi-tundco 


Ma-tundu 


Mu-runzu. 
Ku-rundza 

{verb) 


War 


Fumco 


Huondco 


Imbi 


U-imbi 


Imbi 


Li-tunga. 
Tsunga. 
Ny-umpi. 
Ny-imbi. 
Iny-epe 


Water 


Kuma 


M-vura 


Villa 


Ma-ndzi 


Kuma 


Ma-ti 


Well, spring, 


... 






... 




Nambco 


source 














White man 


Mu-zungM 


Mu-zungco 


Mu-zungco ; ba- 


Mu-iungco ; 
a-iungco 


Mu-zung» ; ba- 


Mu-lungco; ba- 


Wife 


Mu-kazi 


Mu-kadzi 


... 


M-fazi 


... 


Mu-kate or 
G-ade. 
Ng-aja 


Wind 


Dutcd 


Dutcd 


M-pepw 


M-vya 


M-pepco 


N-kayi. 
Li-pubco 


Witch 


M-roi 


U-takati 


Mu-loi 


Ku-nkui 


Mu-loi 


Noi, 
I-neoi, 
Doi^ 


Witchcraft 


... 


... 


• •• 


... 


... 


Wu-nanga. 
Bu-roi (?) 


Woman ... 


Mwana-kazi 


Mw-adzi mai 


Mwana-kaji 


M-fazi 


Mwana-kaji 


Mwafi-gaji. 
Nyamayi. 
Mu-gade? 



VT UlliU ... 

Wood (fire- 
wood) 
Yam 


M-fisore 


M-fisore 


... 


Mu-karara 


... 


Tiii-gconi 


Year 


Kore 


Kore 


Gole 


Zuia ra 
pe-zuiw 


Gore 


Mw-aga ; mi- 
Lembe. 


Yesterday... 


... 




• •• 


... 


... 


Mu-gua 
Nya-noya. 
Bu-noava. 


Zebra 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Nya-tuleo 
Mangua 


One 


Pcosi. 


Pcosi. 


Pusa. 


Mu-nyi, 


Pousa. 


•mfie. 




-mwe 


•mwe 


-mwe 


■nye 


•mwe 


Moyu. 
Mwedeo, 

Moidco 


Two 


Piri, 


Piri, 


Pire, 


-bihi 


•wire 


-m-bire, 




-wiri 


-wiri 


-wire 






-bili, 
-vili. 
-bere, 
-bede 



' Li/. : ' country of the white man '. 



276 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





65. 


6s a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 
(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-riie 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Three 


-tatco 


■tatoa 


•tatoj 


-tatu 


■tatco 


•raru. 
■tarrco, 
■rarco 


Four 


-na 


•na 


Mu-na, 
-nft 


-ne 


Mu-na, 
-na. 

Mu-longa 
mu-na 


-ne, 
■ni, 
-na 


Five 


-sanco 


-pancd 


-panca. 
Hu-bande or 


■panco 


■panco 


Li-bande or 






Ru-bande. 








Lu-bande 






-tanco, 
-panco 


Six 


Tandatoa 


Tandatoa 


Tandatco. 


-panb3 na 


Tandatco. 


Tandarco 








Mamu-mwe 


me-tu 

{or mu-ntu) 

mu-nye 


Mamu-mwe 


(old). 

Li-bande na 

li-mwedco. 

■panco-a- 

li-mwe. 

Ni-ji-mwe 


Seven 


Ci-nume 


Ci-neame 


Ci-nomwe. 


■panci) na 
a-ntoo 


Ncomwe 


Li-bande na 








Nami-vire 




-bili. 










a-bihi 




Ni-ji-m-bili 


Eight 


Sere 


Sere 


Sere. 


■panco na 


Sere, 


Li-bande na 








Name-tatca 


a-ntoj 
a-tatu 


I -sere. 
Name-tatco 


tatu. 

Ni-ji-n-arco 


Nine 


Femba-mwe 


Femba-mwe 


Fumba-mwe 


-panco na a-ntb 
wane 


Fumba-mwe 


Li-bande 












na-na. 














Numu-ne. 














■panco 














a-mu-ne 


Ten 


Gume 


Gume 


Kue-gume 


^ume 


Gume 


Kume or 












Li-kumi 


Eleven 


Gume na 


Gume na 


Sume-mu-mwe 


Sume na 
mu-ntu 


Sume ina, 


Kumi ni 




i-mwe 


i-mwe 




mu-mwe 


i-mwe. 










mu-nye 




Kumi na 
mwedoj 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-pum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 




a-biri 


a-biri 


a-wire 


a-bihi 


a-wire 


bari ' or 
Ma-kum' 
a-birre or 
Ma-kumi 
ma-bili 


Thirty 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-pum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kumi 




a-tatco 


a-tatco 


a-tatcd 


a-tatco 


a-tatco 


ma-raru. 
Ma-kum' 
an-arreo 


Forty 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum>a-na 


Ma-pum' 


Ma-kum-a- 


Ma-kumi 




araiigcomu-na 


arangcomu-na 




wa-ne 


longo)-mu-na 


ma-na. 

Mu-na-ma-na 

kume 


Fifty 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-pume 


Ma-kum' 


Ru-bande 




a-panu 


a.pancd 


a-panca 


a-panco 


a-panco 


la ma-kumi. 
Tana-mana- 
kume 
Ma-kumi 
li-bande ^ 



Note the West African -bari (' two ') 



Sixty = Ru-bande (Ru-pande) na ma-kumi na kumi mwedco (Bleek). 



GROUPS Q.R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, [sENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 277 



f 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombuji 


Roiigerco 

(I5a-zaruto») 


Ci-riie 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Hundred ... 


Zana 


Zana 


Zana 


Zana. 

(ri-nye = one) 


Zana 


Li-zane 


Thousand . . . 


Zana gume 


Zana gume 


? Lu-bande 


Zana ptmie or 


Gumi 


Kume 








ma-zana 


^ume na 


na-ma-zana 


gama-zana. 








(? 500) 


ma-zana 




Ma-zana kumi 


I, me, my ... 


I-ninca. 


I-nini. 


Ki-ne. I-ne. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-na, I-ne. 


Eni. 




-a-figco 


-a-ngoa 


Di-, D'-, Ni-. 

•di-. 

-a-ngu 


-ha-me 


Mi-, 
-ni-, -n-. 
-a-ne 


Nyi-. 
•nyi. 
-a-ngu, -a-ne 


Thou, thee, thy 


I-wewe. 


I-wewe. 


K-ena. 


Ue-na. 


We-na. I -we 


Uwe, Iwe. 




-a-kco 


-a-ku 


-a-kco 


-a-ksa 




U-. 

•uwe. -a-gco 


He, him, his 


I-ena. 


I-ena. 


Ki-na. 


I-ena-ico. 


... 


Uye. Oyu. 




U-. 


-a-kwe 


-a-pe 


Yu-. 




U.,A-. 




-a-ke 




-a-kwe 




-mu-. 














-a-ye, -a-ge 


We, us, our 


Tiseo, 


Isco. 


Tis». 


Tico-kco. 


Ti-na. Itu 


Hihi. 




I-susu. 


-e-dca 


-e-dco 


Si-. 




Hi-. 




-a-doj 






-iti; -ki-ti 




-hi-, -a-tu 


Ye, you, your 




Mu-ese. 


»*. 


longwe. 


• •• 


Enu. 




-e-nyco 


-e-nyoj 




a-nu 




Mu-. 

-mu-, -mi-, 
-a-nu 


They, them. 


... 


• •* 


... 


•■■ 


We-iia 


Aba. 


their 












Ba-. 

-y-awe, -a-we 


All 


J-ese, 
-ese 


-ese 


•ose 


■oiige 


-onke 


■ope? 
N -tsabco, 
Cabco 


This, these 


U 


Uo> 




Ym 




Uyu, awa ; 
uwu, ii ; 
ili, aya ; 
egi, epi; 

•yco (u-ycD, 
ki-yco, &'c:) 


That, those 


... 


-ondcou 


... 


•ya 


... 


-le (u-le, &'c.) 


Bad 


Ka-pata 


Ka-pata 


... 


-ka-bie 


... 


Kio-i-pa. 
Ka-ndigwadi. 

I-bi-hele 


Black 


•pipa 


-Sifbl 


••ipa 


-nyama 


-nyame, 
•nunyame 


•ntima, 
-nlima. 
Ny-ipula 


Female 


■kazi 


-kadzi 


-a sate 


-faza-na 


-a-sate 


-a-sate 


Fierce, sharp, 






... 




... 


... 


bitter 














Good 


Ka-naka 


•dizi. 
Ka-naka 


-yana 


-ce 


-selya 


•cambe, 
•camba. 
-i-nene 



278 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6s. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombtoji 


Roiigercd 
(Ba-Tiarutco) 


Cj.rtie 


Ma.pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Great 


■kuru 


•hurco 


-reba 


■kuico 


■da 


■lera. 
■de. 
•kongcolcd 


LitUe 


•dukco 


•dcokco 


■dcokw^ane 


-n-ana 


■muny-ane 


■sosgcony-ane, 
•muny-ane. 
■dcokw-ana. 
In-dcDtco 


Long 


■ ■• 


■•• 


... 


■te 


... 


•la^pile 


Male 


•nime 


-rume 


-ana rume 
■hume 


■duna 


-ndcada 


•nuna. 
■ndcoda 


Old 




... 


... 


•*• 


••• 


•kalekale ; 
•kuramba. 
•cikwa. 
O-kumbele 


Red 


>•• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


-a-favi^la 


Rotten 




... 


... 


... 


... 


■wenila 


Short 


... 


... 


... 




... 


■fupi, 
■fubi 


Sick 


... 


... 


• •• 


... 




■dwale 


White 


•cena 


■cena 


-pena, 
■cena 


■ccope 


■poape 


•p»pe ; 
■pena 


Above, up, on 












Bindi. 


top 












Ba^cani 


Before 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Lmbele or 
Mbeli 


Behind ... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Tagco ku-. 
Hw-ane 


Below, down 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Baba^ci. 
Ba^si 


Far 




■ ■« 


... 


• •• 


• •■ 


Mw^ingco 


Here 




... 


Pondupco 


... 


lapa 


Kwaba. 
Kunaba 


In, inside ... 


• •• 


... 


... 


... 


• •• 


I-ndani 


Middle 


■ >• 


... 


... 


... 


• •• 


Ba-kori 


Near 


... 


... 


... 


... 


• •■ 


Va.fupi or 
Ba-fubi 


Outside ... 


• •• 


... 


... 


... 




Baba^nie 
■zitere.' 


Plenty, many. 


■bea 


-geona. 


Anda 


•bea 


■inge 


much 




■bea 








-ingi 


There 


Apoo 


I» 


Genoa 


le 


Na-paia 


Abco. 
Aba 


Where? ... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


Iti-pi? 
Ba^pe ? 
B-ebi ? 


No! 


... 


Ahina ! 


... 


... 


... 


Ne! 
Karu! 


Not [with verb, 


A. 


A- 


A- 


A. 


• •• 


■ka- ; -si- ; 


as prefix, in- 












-nga-. 


fix, or suffix) 












-mwalco 

(with nouns). 
Gima = 
never. Ter- 
minal -a 
changes to -i 



' Compare Swahili Tele. 



GROUPS Q, R : THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 279 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutto) 


Ci-itie 


Ma-jsangane 


Sengwe 
(Inhambane) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku^ 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 










... 


-beta 


„ buy, sell 


... 


... 


-tanga ? 


... 


•tanya 


-tenga, 
•renga, or 
-jsawa 


„ come ... 


•via 


■via 


-uya 


-buya 


-buya 


•ta. 
-bua, 
•buya 


„ cut 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


-kcoka. 
-pila 


„ dance ... 


•tamba 


-tamba 


-lamba 


•ajaia 


-sina 


•hana. 
-kina, 
-gina 


„ die ... 


•fa 


-fa 


•fa 


-fa 


■fa 


-fa 


„ eat 


•rga 


• •■ 


-dia 


•r^a .' 


-lya 


•la or •ga 


„ give ... 


-pa 


•pa 


-pa 


•nika 


-nika 


•ninga. 
•ba 


„ go 


•nenda, 
•enda 


•enda 


•pinda 


-hamba 


-ambia ? 


•ya. 
•inda or 
•enda 


„ kiU ... 


•oral 


■oraya 


-gula 


-buiaya 


■gumia 


•gubia. 
•jaya. 
•songa 














„ know ... 


-gisiva 


■zuia 


•ziziwa 


-wiaazi ? 


ea-gu-aze 


•ti, 
-tiba 


„ laugh ... 


■seka 


•seka 


•seka 


-peka 


-seka 


■hega, 
•{seka 


„ leave off. 




... 


... 


... 


• ■• 


•dijsa, 
■dica. 


cease 
























-ciya 


„ love, want 


... 


... 


•funa. 
•bzinga 


... 


-funa 


-funa ? 
-halaja 


„ see 


-cona 


una 


... 


■bcona 


-ona 


-wona. 
(•keja = 
/ooi) 


„ sit,remain, 


... 


*■• 


... 


... 


••• 


-kala 


abide 














„ sleep ... 


••• 




... 


... 


... 


•lala, 
•ilala. 
•roiama 


„ standjstop. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


•emila. 


be erect 












-ema 


„ steal ... 


-ba 


... 


■ba 


*•• 


•ba 


•ba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CI-TEVE, CI-TOMBCDJI, CI-RUE, RONGERO) 

AND MA-pANGANE 

Preprefixes are present in Classes 9 and II. 
Class I. Mu., M-, A^' (concord, .') ; 3. Ba-, A^ (Ci^rue) (ba-, a) ; 3. Mu-, »!•, ? Gu^ (?) ; 4. Mi-, 
Me. (?) ; S. Ji-, Dzi-, - (ri) ; 6. Ma- (a) ; 7. Ci-, Ji-, Ki- (ci) ; 8. ?Bzi- (?) ; 9. In- (Im-), Iny-, US-, N-, 
Ny-, — (?) ; 10. same as 9?, Zi- (Ci-rue) (zi) ; 11. Ur»-, Ulu-, Ru^ (ru, lu) ; 12. ? missing ; 13. Ka ? 
(Ci-rue) (?); 14. U^, Hu-, Bv, Bg^, Bu^ (concord probably same as prefix); 15. Ku^ ; 16. Pa^, Pe- 
(pa) ; 17. ? (-ni, -ne) ; ? 18. Gu^. 

The Nya- (Inya^) prefix is present. 

' ? A^ honorific. 



28o ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &c., IN pENGWE (INHAMBANE) 
Traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, Wa-' (mu-, yu,u ?) ; 2. Ba-, Wa- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N- (wu ?) ; -4. Mi- (i) ; 5. Li-, 
Di-, D', — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya) : 7. Gi-, Ki- (gi, ki) ; 8. ^i-, p'- (in dialects, Zi-, Bzi-) (fi-) ; 9. In- 
(Im-), N-, Ny-, — (i, n-) ; 10. Jin-, Ji-" (ji) ; 11. Lu-(lu); 12. ? missing; 13. ? missing; 14. Wu-, Vu- 
Bu- (u-, bu) I 1 5. Ku-, Hu- (Ku-) (ku) ; 16. Ba-, Va- (pa-, ba, va-) ; 17. ? Im- (-ni, -ne). 

The Nya- prefix is present and the -ana dimin. suffix. 



65. Citeve is spoken behind the Sofala coast of Portuguese South-east Africa, east of the Rhodesian 
frontier, between the Upper Pungwe river and the Buziw. 

65 a. Citombcoji is spoken in the region behind Sofala, about the upper waters of the Buzicu and as 
far south as the Sabi. 

66. Rongerco is spoken on the Bazarutto coast and islands south of the Lower Sabi river. 

67. Cirue is spoken in the Bcorue country and Gorongcoza, between the Rhodesian frontier on the 
west and the Sofala-Zambezi coast belt. 

68. Ma^angane is spoken between the Middle Sabi river and the Limpcopco, east of the Rhodesian 
frontier ; also in southernmost Rhodesia. 

69. ^engwe is spoken in the coast district of Inhambane from Cape Sao Sebastiao to Cape Corrientes. 
' Wa- (ist Class), perhaps, is honorific. ^ Perhaps in some dialects Tin-, Ti-. 



GROUP R 

THE ^ENGWE-RONGA LANGUAGES (continued) 



70. Ccopi or pi-tswa (^i-leiige, Hleflgwe) 

71. Thofiga or Ronga ' 



71 e. ^i-loi (Nwa-lungco) 
7 1 f. ,Si-gwamba 



GROUP S 

THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 
.72. Ci-venda 73. Se-suthw 73 a. Se-pedi (Peli) 



I 





70. 


71- 


71 e. 


71 f.. 


72 


73- 


English 


Ccopi or 


Ronga 


^\-\oi or 


^i-gwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-suthw 




Si-tswa 
(^i-lenge, 




Nwa-lungca 






73 a. Se-pedi 




Hleiigwe ?) 












Adze 


N-zanga 


^i-kumu 






Lu-kwea 


Petlu 


Animal, wild 


Ci-hari 


^i-hari 


... 


pihari. 


Ci-puka. 


Se-cedi. 


beast 








^i-vanja-na 


Ci-d&jdco. 
Ci-vanda 


Se-eoka. 
Se-bata-na 


Ant 


Vu-stokeoti 

(ants in 
swarms) 


N-suktoti, 
Bu-sukcoti 


N-sukcoti 


Vu-sukcdti 


Lu-sunzi 


Phcophulco 


Ant, white 


Mu-swa. 


-.. 




Mu-hlwa 


Mu-cenze. 


M(o-swa, 


(termite) 


Vu-scohaha 








Mu-tywa 


Vco-swa 


Arm 


Ptokco 


Btokto; ma + 


Bukco ; ma 4- 


Vcokco ; ma + 


Vcohcj ; ma. + . 
C-anda 


Le-tsuxco ; 
ma-vcoxto. 
McL>-xcona>;me 


Arrow 


N-gcove, 
N-tsiri. 
N-seve 




Cem-beti 


N-seve ; 
mi-seve 


Mu-sevhe 


Mco-kcovo; me- 
Mco-seme; me- 
Mcosevco. 
Mio-tswe. 
M(o-tsu 


Axe 


N-gwangwa ; 

ci- 


Kaula ; ma + 


... 


^i-hluka 


M'badu 


La)-mela. 
Se-lepe 


Baboon 


Fene; 
pi. tsi + . 
Psene or 
Pryene 






M-fene; ti-t- 


Tyhcoheo, 
Thubcd 


Moj-ktoni. 
Cwene 


Back 


N-sana 


N-hlana 


Moo-hlana; me- 


N-hlana 


Mu-tana 


Mco-tlhana, 
Mcohlana. 
Mco-keotoj. 
Se-hulcohcolco 


Banana ... 


N-komva. 

N-ceiige; 
n-tsenge 


N-senge 


... 


N-kombva 


Mu-omva 


... 


Beard 


Ci-letsu 


Ma-lepfu {//.). 
In-defeo 


Ma-lebvu 


Ma-lebvu 


N-debvu. 
Lu-lebvu, 
Ku-debvu 


Ma-lelu ; -telu 


Bee 


Nombe ; tsi- 


Ny-ojsi 


Ny^opi 


Ny-eosi; ti + 


N-eoci 


N-cose. 




(//•) 








Le-pcoka-ne 


Belly 


Mimba. 
Susu 


Khuri 




Khwiri 


Thumbu 


Mco-rcopa. 
Lcp-vala ; 
pi. li-pa'.a. 
Se-nana 
(abdomen) 



1 



' According to H. Junod,1\\ori%a. or Ronga divides into the folloiving dialects : 7iaBila (north-east); 71b 
Hlanganu (west); 7 1 c Jonga (71'est central } ; 71 d^\-k.onie (south, on Afa/uta river), ^i-loi 71 e, 0/ the North-east 
Transvaal, is probably only a dialect o/"Thonga ; and tite same must be said about ^i-gwamba. 



282 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71. 
Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
^i-grwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



7^3. 

Se-suthcb 

Tl a. Se-pedi 



Bird Ci-nyana Nyanya-na 

Blood Ncoha Ngati 

Body M-idi;//. mi+ M-iri 



Borassus palm N-lala; tni- 
Bow Vu-lasu 



Bowels 



Brains 



W-onga 



Ci-tamulcd 



Ndeu ; 

ti-ndeu. 

Rumbu ; ma + 
B-ongwe;ma + 



Breast (man's) N-g:anga ; 
itsi + . 
Ci-fuba 



Breast 

(woman's) 
Brother ... 



Cumbu ; 

tsi + , ti + 
Makwa. 
Nongco 



^i-fuba 



Bele ; ma + 

Makwa.' 
N -disa-na 



Buffalo 
Bull ... 

Buttocks 



Ny-ahi 

M-bcowa. 
Duna 



Ny-ari 
N-kuzi ; ti + 



M a-taku ( //.). N -caku, 
Ny-onga; tsi- N-thaku 



Canoe 


Gw-aru. 


By-atu. 




Tareo 


In-cene 


Cat 


W-onga. 
(Tsimba = 

a wild cat or 
leopard) 


^i-paka-na 


Charcoal .. 


Khala 


Khala ; ma -f 



pi-nyanya-na; 


Ci-n<oni ; zwi- 


Non', 


swi- 




Nonya-na 


N-gati 


Ma-lofha 


Ma-li. 
Le-teli 


Mm-eri ; mi -I- 


Mu-vili 


Mm-ele, 
Se-vele, 

Mw-vele 


Rambcd ; ma-l- 


^ambos 


Le-xwele. 
Le-^apu ; //. 
ma-rapoa. 


Vu-ra*" 


Vu-ra" 


Vo-ra." 
N-kcope. 
Se-phetha 


Ma-rumbu 


Ma-rumbu. 


Vco-la. 




Vhu-la 


Ma-umo>. 
Se-bco 


By-ongco 


Vhu-luvhi 


Vco-cokco, 
Vci)-bcokcij 


^i-fuva 


Damu 


Se-fexa or 

•phexa. 

Pe-*uba. 

Se-fura ; le-. 

Peta 
Le-tsele ; 

ma-vele 


Makwa 


Mu-k<oma-na. 


N-naka. 




Mu-rathu 


Nw-ana 

{with poss. 

■pronoun). 

Wa-mine. 

Mo)-ena. 

Mco-xeolco. 

M(o-nya-ne 


Ny-ari 


N-ari 


N-are. 
Kxulumco 


••• 


M-buhu 


Pcooj, 




{cf. root words 


Pcohto, 




for' Buffalo') 


Phcolu. 
Kxutcokco 


N-jakcd ; ti -f 


Ma-rahb> or 


Se-bono, 




Mu-rahu 


Se-vunu. 
Ma)-raxo) ; 
me ; 

Se-rcopa. 
Le-ra<o 


By-acco ; ma + . 


Gungwa 


Mco-korto 


pi-kaka-fu 






^i-manga 


Ci-mange. 


Phaxa. 




Phaha 


Se-maka. 
Tlcoli 



' Makw'eru = my, lit. 'our' brother. 
Meikw-enu = thy {your) brother. 
Makw-abu = his (their) brother. 



GROUPS R, S: THE pENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 283 



English 



70. 

Ccapi or 

^i-tswa 

(Si-lenge 

Hlengwe .') 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

fji-loi or 

Nwa-lungca 



Chief 


Li-busca 


^i-fuyco. Hcosi 




(■busa = to 

govern). 


Hcos-ana. 
Mu-fumo>. 




In-kcoma 


(Ku-fuma = 


Child 


Mfi-ana-na 


to rule) 
Nw-ana 


Cloth 


Mu-enda ? 


Ma-rojto). 


Cold 


M-behto, 
Pehco 


Kapura-na 
pi-rami 


Country .. 


Ikco; 
ma-ikco. 
T-ikco ; ma + 


T-ikco 


Cow 


N-ombe. 


Hcomu ya 




Hcotnu 


n-tsele. 
gi-fuyco? 

(= chief) 



Crocodile... N-geona; tsi + 

Day, daylight Di-siku. Siku or 

(Tsikari = Di-siku; ma -f 

day-time) 



evil 



Devil, 
spirit 

Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 



Dog 



N-diki. 
N-guluvi 
Nanga 



Im-bywa 



Donkey 
Door, door- 
way 
Dream ... Ci-lcohco 



M-bongcolco 
Timba 



Drum ... 
Ear ... 
Egg ... 

Elephant 



N-gcoma 

N-dzeve, 
N-zeve 

D-anda ; 
m-anda 



Ifanga ; ti -f 



M-bya-na. 
Yim-bya 



M-bongcolco 
Ci-falco 

Norco; 
mi'lorco 



Mun-tinti. 
Danda-ne 
N-dhlebe 

T-andya ; 
m-andya 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



71- 
Se-suthco 

73 a. Se-pedi 



N'Zoafu; tsi- N-dlcopfu 



\-dlcopfu 



Husi 


Khoasi. 


Kxcopi. 




N-duna 


Ma-pale. 
Mco-rena. 
(Le-fumco' = 

riches) 


Nw.ana ; 


Nw-ana 


Nw-ana, 


va-ana 




Mw-ana ; 
v-ana 


N-guvu ; ti -f 


Nw-enda. 


Kxai. 




Sila 


Kcovco 


^i-rami 


Ci-fefco or 


Phefco. 




Phephco 


Vco-ruru. 
(Ma-riha, 
Ma-rexa = 
cold season) 


T-ikco; ma-f 


^angco 


Le-fatse. 




Naha 


Hcomco ya 


Khulukadzi. 


Kxcomco. 


n-tswele. 


Khcolcomco 


(Kxanwa = 


(Hcomco = 




milch cow. 


cattle ; pi. 




Kxcomco, 


ti-hcomco) 




l.\-Me = cattle) 


N-gwenya 


Ng-wena 


Kwena 


Siku 


Mu-si. 


Mio-se. 




Dyuvha 


Mco'hla. 
Le-tsatsi. 
Ny-ene. 
Nakco 
(time, season) 


Nanga 


Nanga 


Naka 

Mco-vei. 
Mw-alafi ; 
va-alafl 


M-bya-na 


M-b-ya. 


M-p2|a, 




M-bya, 


M-pya. 




M-bwa 


Mco-tlape. 
Pheke 


Nn-anzwa 


Vco-thi'; pi. 
ma-hco-thi 


M(o-liaku 


Norco ; 


Mu-lorco ; mi- 


Li-loro, 


mi-lorco 




Ha)-lora. 
Torco. 

Bo-rcokcd 


N-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


Kcoma 


N-dleve 


N-deve 


Tseve 


T-andya 


Gumba. 


Le-he. 




{egg-shell is 


Le-kxcopa. 




Ganda ; 


Le-nata. 




ma-kanda) 


Le-cae,Le-tsae 


N-dlcopfu 


N-d»u 


Tlcou 



' M(u-fum' a-hali = Queen, lit. ' chief— female.' 



284 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Coapi or 

^i-tswa 

(^i-lefige, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-luSgeo 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci -vends 



7J- 
Se-sutbu 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Excrement 


Mi-cimba {pi.) 
N-dojve 


... 


Eye 


D-is<o ; 


T-ihlto ; 




ma-soj 


tna-hlu 


Face,forehead Kcohe; tsi + . 


Bu-sco. 




Ma-seo-ni. 


L-isto. 




M-ombco 


M-ombco 


Fat 


Ma-fura or 
Ma-fuha 


Ma-fura 


Father 


Tati 


Tata-na. 
feorw'- 

(ftorw'aiiga= 
my father, 


Fear 


Ci-tavu. 


Bu-toya. 




Ku-tava 


N-cabu, 




{verb) 


Ku-caba 


Finger 


Li-tsihu 

{pl. tsi-) 


Li-tihco; tin- 


Fire, heat... 


N-dilco, 


N-dyil»; mi-. 




Ndilu. 


(M-otye = 




(Ku-coka = to 


light of fire) 




■warm oneself. 






•coka = roast. 






-cota, root 






word) 




Fish 


Tsanzi ; tsi + 


N.hlampfi;ti + 


Foot 


N-kondco 


N-kondyco ; mi- 


Forest 


... 


Mu-chu, 
Mu-thu. 
N-timu 


Fowl 


N-guku 


N-kuku, 
Huku 


Frog 


... 


... 


Ghost 


N-guluvi. 
M-oya 


M-oya 


Giraffe 


... 


N-hutlwa or 
Huhlu 


Girl 


Li-kenji. 


N-hwa-na ; 




Ci-kunzu. 


wan-hwa-na 




Mu-hora-na. 






Nya-mayi. 






M-biri 





K-isco 



N-cabu 



Ma-cimba 


Ma-cimba 


Le-sepa. 
Le-thete 


T-ihlco; ma + 


Itco, 


Le-is<o ; 




D-iteo, 


ma-so> 




D-isto ; 






m-esco, 






ma-toi 




M-omboi 


Khwfe, 


M(o-xo>fe. 




Khufe-ni. 


Phateo. 




Ci-fatuwco 


Se-fata. 
Le-bala 


Ma-fura 


Ma-pfura 


Ma-iura, 
Ma-fura. 
V(u-no>na 


Tati-ana 


Khcotsi 


Rara, 
Hara. 
N-tata. 
Papa 


N-caveo 


Ny-ufhu 


Mco-voifco. 
Tsabu 


Ri-tihoj ; //. 


Mu-nwe. 


Moj-nto ; 


tin-tihoo 


Gu-nwe 


me-neo 




{bigfinger. 


Mco-nw-ana 




thumb) 




N-jUca ; 


Mu-Ulco. 


Mco-leloj, 


mi-rileo 


M-otco 


Vo)-lilo>. 




{poetical) 


M-olleo (73 a) 



N-hlampfi 


Khcovhe 


Xlapi 


Nenge ; 


Mu-lenze 


Le- or 


mi-lenge 




Lcu-naco. 
Le-cotco, 
Le-kcotco 


^i-hlahla 


Daka 


Se-kxwa. 

Mo-ru (73 a) 


Huku 


Khuhu 


Kxcoxco, 

Mc.)-kcokco 


... 


Ci-runzi 


Se-hcohco. 
N-ketu. 
N-koolane 


M-oya 


... 


Mtjo-limco ; me 


... 


... 


Thuhlco, 
Thutwa, 
Thutco 


N-hwa-na ; 


Mu-sidz-dna 


Mon-tsana. 


ba-hwa-na 




Mco-nyana. 
Mw-4le, 
Nw-ale ; 
v-ale. 
Mio-thepa 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 285 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(pi-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71- 
Ronga 



Goat 



(he) . 

(she) 



God 



Grandparent 



Grass . 



Pongo 



Ma-bongwe 

M-beha 

In-kulukumba. 
(N-guluvi = 
a departed 
spirit) 

Kcdkw-ani 



M-buti. 
Sim-but-ana 
= kid; pi. 
P?i- 



Kukw-ana 



Vu-asi 



By-anyi 



Ground 


Ma-fu 


Mi-saba (//.) 


Ground-nut 


Tsi-numi or 
Ti-numi 


... 


Guinea-fowl 
Gun 


M-hangela 
Ci-bamu 


^i-balesa 


Hair 


N-sisi 


N-sisi 


Hand 


D-anza; 
in-anza 


^i-papa 



Head ... . 


I-pungu, 


N-hlcijkco;mi + 


Heart... 


In-pungu 
.. M-bilu 


M-bilu 


Heel ... 
Hide ... . 


Ci-hende 


^i-renje 
Si-khumba. 
. N-tehe 


Hill ... . 


Ci-dyuri 


N-tyunga 


Hippopota 
Hoe ... 


mus M-vulwa 
N-suka 


M-pfubu. 
(IJwa-m-pfubu, 

hotwrijic) 


Honey 


Vu-lombe 


Bu-lombe 


Horn ... 


.. Kehu 


Li-hondai ; //. 
tim-hondw 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73^ 
Se-suthco 
73 a. Se-pedi 



M-buti 


M-budzi 


Puli 

Thuku, 
Phuku 

Mco-ribi 


^i-kwembu 


Mu-dzimu 


Moo-limoj 


Kukw-ana 


Ma-khulu(/5/.) 


Mu)-xcolcoxcolo>. 
N-kxcono> 0. 
Kcokco, 










Kuku. 






Rra-kxcolco $ 


By-anye 


H-atsi. 


Vco-yan, 




Fundwi ; 


V^an. 




ma-hundwi 


M(o-nyane 




{thick grass) 




Mi-saba {pi.) 


Ma-vu 


Vco-theoa. 
Lefa-ce. 

Mco-bu 


Ma-nza (pi) 


N-duhu 


T-luu, 
Tuu, 

ti + orx\-\- 


Maiigelu 


Khanga 


Kxaka 


^i-bamco 


Ci-bamu 


Tlhcobolco. 
McD-pcopcd 


N-sisi 


Ma-vudzi. 

Mam-wele 


Mto-riri 


^-andla 


C-anda 


Le-bcohoi. 
Se-atla, 
Se-ata ; 

pi. ti- or ri- 
Mto-xwnoj ; 

me- 


N-hlcokeo 


Thohco 


Hlcohco. 
Xlcokco 


M-bilu 


M-bilu 


Pelco 


Si-renje ; swi- 
N-hlonge 


Ci-rethe 


Se-rethe 


Mu-kumba 


Moi-kxupa. 






Le-papa. 






Se-tlalco 


Ganza 


Ku-tava. 
Ma-vhundu 


Thava-na 


M-pfuvu 


M-vuvu 


Kuvu; ti-. 
Ma-rcota-ne 


^i-kcomu; swi- 


Dzembe ; 


Se-xuma. 




ma-lembe 


Mo)-hcoma 


Vu-lombe 


Vu-ci. 


V-cose, 




Mu-toli 


N-«se. 
Le-tlcoli 


Rim-honjeo 


Lu-nanga 


Naka 
(Se-, L(o-). 
Le-phcatcd 

u 



286 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

^i-tswa 

(pi-lenge, 

Hlengwe?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 
gi-loi or 
Nwa-lungcd 



71 f- 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73; 
Se-suthu 
73 a. Se-pedi 



House. 



Htmger 
Husband 
Hyena 
Iron ... 



Island 
Ivory... 



Knee 



Knife ... 



Ny-umba. Yin-dlu ; ti + . N-dyangco 

Kaya {home). Kaya 
Vw-akori 



N-zala 



Ndlala 



N-dlala 



Mw-aha-na;va- Nuna. 

N-kata ; ba- 
M-hisi M-hisi 



Ci-kete 



Ci-ningu 



N-simbi 



N-simbi 



Dundu, 


Tscoleo 


Lundu ; 




//. tsi + 




Mu-kwa 


Mu-kwa; mi 



Lake 


. 


Tiba ; ma-f. 
(Lw-andle * 


Leg 


Nenge 


sea) 

Nefige ; 
mi-lenge 


Leopard .. 


. 


Yiii-gwe 


Lion 

Lips 

Magic 


. N-gala, 

Nala 
N-lebete; , 

mi-lebete 
Vu-nanga. 

Vu-loyi 


N-dyau; ti-f 

N-gala 
Numco; 

mi-lcomco 
Vu-roi 



Yiii-gwe 



Maize . 



Ma-faki 



^i-tamu 



Yin-dhlu 


N-du, 


N-tlu; li-. 




Ku-du, 


N-tco ; //. 




Li-du. 


ma-to8. 




(Vumba = 


(Le-tscopa, 




clay walls of 


M(o-vcopa = 




house) 


clay walls 
of a house) 
(-umba). 










Mvv-akco; //. 






ni-akco. 






(Hae = home) 


N-dlala. 


N-dala 


Tlala. 
Le-phafu 


Nuna; va-l- 


Mu-nna 


Tcota. 
Bco-hali 


M-hisi 


Phele 


Phiri. 

Le-flri-tscoane 


N-simbi 


Tsimbi. 


Vco-rale, 




Lu-rale 


V<o-rala 




(metal). 






N-gwedi 






(iron ore) 




Si-hlala 


Ci-tanga-dzime 


Sekeli 


... 


Lu-nanga 


Se-l(opa 




Iwa n-dcou 




Ccolco 


Gcona. 


Khuru. 




N-dolco 


Le-nole. 
Le-tcolco 


Mu-kwana 


Lu-fanga ; //. 


M(i)-faka, 




phanga. 


Mco-phaka. 




(Ku-panga = 


Se-thipa 




small knife, 






Banga = 






large knife) 




Tiva 


Dzivha 


Le-wata. 
Le-tsa 
Le-coatle' 


Nenge 


Gvv-endco, 


Le-kcotco. 




Mw-endco 


Le-cotu. 
Mco-comoj 


Yiii-gwe 


N-gwe 


N-kwe. 
Le-naco. 
Le-pcoxco 


... 


N-dau 


Tau. 
Le-kakuba 


Neomeo ; 


Mi-lcomu (pi.) 


Pcounama. 


mi-lcomco 




Ma)-lcomco;me- 


Swa vuri-goama Ma-dambi. 


Vco-fephe. 




Ma-lingco. 


Vtu-loi. 




Vu-nanga 


(Xa)-loya = 
to bewitch) ' 


' Ma-vele 


Ci-kcoli 


Se-fela. Chake 



' Evidently borrowed from Zulu. ' Le-coatle is the posa Ulw-andhle (-anja) = sea. 

' Additional words for magic and magician, soothsayer, diviner, ^c, in Se-suthco : — Mco-kcome, Vto-loi, Mto-loi, 



M(i)-lekco, -leka, -Icoa, -loiea. 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 287 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

gi-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungoB 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



7|. 

Se-suthcd 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Man 

Man, vlr. ... 


Mu-ndu ; 
va-ndu 


Mhu-nu ; 
bha-nu. Also 
Mu-nhu 
(/onga) and 
Ma>-hu. 
(Dyaha = 
young man) 
Tsuna 


Meat 

Medicine ... 


Ny-ama 

Vu-nanga. 
Mu-rende 


Ny-ama 


MUk 


Ma-hwa. 

Ma-si 


N-tywamba 


Monkey ... 
Moon 


Kavu ; tsi + 
N-cima 


Hw-eti' 


Mother ... 
Mountain ... 


Mamani. 

(Nyco = 
vagina) 

Dyuri 


Mama-na. 
Nwa- 

(wi/h posses- 
sive particle) 
N-haba 


Mouth 


Ci-pcofu 


Ncomco ; mi + 


Nail (of finger 
or toe) 
Name 


C-ala ; pi. 
s-ala 
T-ina; ma-f 


Bitco ; ma-f 



Nbw-eti 



Mana 



Navel... 
Neck ... 
Night... 

Nose ... 
Ox ... 



Tamu or 
N-dhamu 



In-kava 



En-k51<o. 

^i-kcosi. 

Namu 
Bu-siku 



Vu-siku. 

N-tema. 

(Puu = 

darkness) 
Tomvu; ma-f Nhompfu, 

A-nonfoo; ti-f 
N-ombe Hcomu ; ti + N-ktomu 



Mo-nhu ; pi. 
ba-nhu 



Nuna 



Ny-ama 

Mi-vu 



Mu-thu ; va- 



Ma-fi, 
Ma-si 



N-kab<o 
N hw-eti 



Manana 

N-cava 

Ncomco ; 
mi-lcomco 

N-hwala 

Vitco ; ma -f 

N-hlana 
Vu-siku 

Ti-nhumpfu 
Havi 



' T/ie sound of thick milk falling in clots. 



Mu-nna 



N-ama 

Mu-re ? 
Mu-songa 

Mu-khaha. 
Ma-fhi. 

{verb— -hama, 
-yama) 

Nw-edzi, 
M-edzi. 
(C-edza = 

' moonlight ') 
Mme 



Thava, 
•tava 

Mu-lcomco 



Lun-ala ; //. 
n-ala 
Dz-ina 

Lu-khcovco ? 

Mu-tsinga 

Vu-siku 

Ningco 

Kholcomco 

(with various 

prefixes 

-gcolcorau, 

■kolcjmco). 

Phulu 



M<o-thu ; 
va-thu 



Ma>-ncana. 

Mo.nna;//.va-. 

Va)-t<ana. 

Tcota 

N-ama 

Vu-re. 

Mco-lema. 

Bto-laco 
Ma-fi, Ma-fsi. 

Le-bese. 

Bele.' 

(-xama verb) 
Kxavco 
Nw-eli, 

Kxw-eli. 

(Se-etsa = 

' moonlight ') 
Mme. 

Mama 



Thava. 

M(o-kulco. 

Le-looti 
Mu-lcomco. 

Mcoma. 

Le-hanco 
Len-ala, Lco- 

Le-ina. 

Le-bitsco 
Ma)-huvu, 

Mto-khubu. 

Le-khuthu 
Thameo. 

Mco-lala 

Va)-six<u, 

Vco-sixco. 

(Le-fifi = 

darhness) 
N-koo ; lin-kca. 

M-mcopoo 
Kxcomco. 

Li-ve. 

Phcolco 



V a 



288 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Ctopi or 

^i-tswa 

(Si-lenge, 

Hiengwe .') 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



Ci-venda 



73- 

Se-suthco 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Paddle 

Palm wine, Vu-adwa. 
beer Vu-cema 



River... 
Road ... 
Salt ... 

Shame 
Sheep... 
Shield... 
Shoulder 

Sister... 

Skin ... 

Sky ... 
Slave... 

Sleep ... 
Smoke 



Wombe; ma + 
By-ala 

{beer). 

Bu-sura 



Parrot 


... 


... 


Penis 


Peke? 


^ircd? 


Pig 


Kumba. 
(N-guluvi = 
a departed 
spirit /) 


N-gulube 


Pigeoli 


Ci-duva-ne 


Tuba; ma+ 


Place 


M-bangu. 


M-bangu. 




N-da». 


gi-bati 




N-yumuj-imu 


{} sleeping-) 




Helc<»( 'mahali 




• 


Swah.) 




Rain 


N-zuma 


... 


Rat 


M-beva. 


M-beva. 




Konzco 


Khondlcd 


Rhinoceros 


Ci-dawane ; 
mu-kombcd 


Me-lembe 



Nambu 
N-zila 

Mu-nyu 

N-gana 

' M-vuta. 
Hamba 
I-cang^ or 
Tlangu 
Kata 

Nongcd 



N-zuma-ni 
Mu-kumbi 



(Ma-lalcd = 

place) 
Mb-utsi. 

M-usi 



Nambu. 

N.fula 

N-dlela 

Mu-nyu 



Im-pfu 
Hamba ; ti -t- 
^i-tlhangu 

Katla ; ma + 



Makwa 

N-hlonge. 

N-thee 
TU« 
^i-kirawa. 

N-hltoko3. 

Nanda 



M-usi 



V(o-cema 


Mu-thcobi. 


Vto-yalwa 




Halwa 


(beer) 


Hcokwe. 


Khwamba 




Ny-enga 






M-bolco 


N-ny«o ? 


N-teatoj. 
N-cucu. 
PojIco. 

Mco-sukw 


N-guluve 


N-guluve 


Kcolcove. 
Fariki 


Tuva 


Li-ivha 


Le-eva, 
Le-eba 


N-jau 


Fhe-thu 


Fe-l<o. 
Ng-alco 


M-pfula 


M-vula 


Pula 


M-beva 


Buku 


Le-phcohco 
Peva ; li + 


... 


... 


Phera. 
Tsukulu. 
Tsere. 
Le-xcofoi 


Nambu 


Mu-lambco 


N«ka. 
Mo>-lapci] 


N-dlela 


N-dila 


Tsela 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nu 


Le-tswai. 

(Mco-ny« = 
a relish to 
food) 


Ti-ngana 


Thconi 


Xlon, 
ti-xlon 


Nyim-pfu 


N-gu 


N-ku ; li-, ma- 


^i-tlangu 


Ci-tangu 


Se-phemelo). 
Thebe 


Katla; m + 


^ada 


Le-ruli. 




Le-xetla. 






Le-zcape 


Makwa 


Khala'dzi 


Mo]-xcolco. 

Mco-rathco 


N-jcoVco 


Lu-kanda 


Le-thalco. 
Kcobu 


Tilto 


Lu-tombo> 


Le-xcoli-mu) 


Khumbi 


Phuli 


Moj-ruwa; va- 
Le-kape, 
Le-kapa ; ma 


Vu-roSgu 


Khojfhe 


Le-itho3. 

Bu)-rcokco 


M-usi 


M-utsi, 
\'-utsi 


M-topi 



GROUPS R, S: THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECU ANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 289 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

Si-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungcd 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73- 

Se-suthu 

73 a. Se-pldi 



Snake 
Son, boy, 
youth 



Song 

Spear 

Spirit, soul 
Star 

Stick 

Stone 



Thief 

Thigh 

Thing 

Thorn 

Tobacco . . 



Mamba 
Nw-ana, 

Mu-fana, 

N-sata-na. 

N-jambi. 

Jaha. 

Jambi-ana, 

Nuna-na 
N-emboa. 

N-dhandu 
Di-cari 



Dhloazi 
Ny-eleti ; 

tsiny-eleti 
N-cisco. 

Kutongelco. 

N -donga 
Diri-gwe; ma- 

Ci-windi 



Ny-eoka 
Mu-fana ; ba- 

Nw-ana ; 

ba-ana. 

Dyaha 



Li-simu ; //. ti- 

Tlhari ; ma + . 
Fumu 

M-oya 
Ny-eleti 

Ny-onga ; ti + . 
N-khabi 

Ri-bwe, 
Dyi-bye; ma + 



Ri-bye 



Stool 


... 


... 


Sun 


D-ambu or 
Gambw, 
T-ambu ; //. 
mad-ambu 


D-ambu 


Tail 


N-cila, 
N-kila 


N-kUa 


Tear 


N-rongco ; 
mi-rongco. 
N-Stotsi ; mi- 


Ny-embeti ; mi 


Testicles .. 


Ma-kende 


... 



Dy-ambco 



M-bafa ; tsi + . ^i-yibi ; pgi- 
(Vu-kamba = Kamba 

robbery) 



M-lenge 



Ci-lto ; zi-. 
(C-uma = 

things, 
property) 
Mu-pa 



Fcola, 
Fcowa 



Tombi, 
An-cumbi 



N-cumu ; mi- pi-lco ; 

Pfi-ld) 



Mu-twa 



Fcola 



Ny-coka 
Nw-ana 



N-oowa 
Mu-rwa 



Ri-simu 



Lu-imbco 



N'coxa 
Mo-rwa. 
Mco-fana 



Kujsa 



Thlari 


Pfumu. 


Le-rumco ; ma-. 




N-nthi 


Ccoza. 
Le-tlele 


M-oya 


M-uya 


Mco-limco ; va- 


Ny-eleti 


Na-ledzi 


Na-leli 


N-honga 


Thanda 


Le-re ; 

ma-re. 
Mco-sema 


Ri-bye ; ma + 


T-ombco 


Le-swika, 
Le-itswe, 
Le-ntswe. 
Le-ywe, 
Le-ye. 
Le-v^e 


... 


Ci-dzulto 


Se-tulco 


Dy-ambco ; 


Duva, 


Le-laka. 


m-ambu 


Duvha 


Le-tsatsi, 

Le-caci. 

Le-vakco 


N-cUa 


Mu-cila 


Mo-sela. 
Le-ccova. 
Mco-hatla 


N-hl«ti 


Mu-tcodzi ; mi- 


Keleli. 




or ma- pi. 


Mco-xcokxco 


Ma-kende. 


Ma-cende 


Le-kata ; ma-. 


Vu-djco<onyoj 




Le-scothco ; 

ma-. 

Le-rete 


Khamba 


M-bava. 


Se-liva. 




Fobvu. 


Le-fcotha. 




Dz-iva, 


Mco-utswa, 




T-iva 


Mcu-utswi 






Le-sufu. 
Se-rope. 
Le-vale ; //. 
ti-pale 


Ci-loa ; 


Ci-thu, 


Se-lco. 


p^i-lbi or 


Di-thu 


Nthco;//.K-f. 


pi-lcd. 




Taba 


Swi-lco 






Mu-kwa 


Mu-pfa 


Le-eva. 

Ma-eva, 
Mco-tlwa; me- 


Fale 


Fcola 


MtO'Ccokco 



290 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





^70- 


71- 


71 e. 


71 f. 


73. 


73- 


English 


Co>pi or 

^i-tswa 

(gi-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


Ronga 


gi-loi or 
Nwa-lungco 


^i-gwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-suthc& 
73 a. Se-pedi 


To-day ... 


Ny-ansi 


Namu-nhla 


... 


Namu-nhla 


Namu-si. 
Naa-si 


Ka-lieno). 
Ka-jenco. 
Na-se. 
Namco-se. 
Le-iuncd 


Toe 


... 


... 


... 


gi-kujw-ana 


Ci-ku-nwe. 
Gu-nwe 


Mco-nw-ana. 
Mcj-noa 


To-morrow 


• •• 


Mun-duku 


... 


Mun-juku 


Ma-cel«o 


Mco-so 


Tongue 


Li-dimi 


Li-dyimi 


Ri-rimi 


Ri-rimi ; 
tin-jimi 


Lu-limi ; //. 
n-dimi 


Le-leme, 
Lo)-leme 


Tooth 


D-inos ; 


T-inyco; 


... 


T-into ; 


L-incd, 


Le-inco ; 




ma-nco 


m-enyca 




m-inci> 


Inu; 

ma-nca 


ma-inco, 
me-eneo 


Town, village 


N-ti; 
mi-ti 


Mu-ti. 
N-tsindya 


... 


Mu-ti 


Mu-di 


Mo)-tse 


Tree 


N^dongoa, 
N -donga. 

Mu-pi 


Mu-ri 




Mu-ri 


Mu-ri 


Mco-xlare; 
me-. 

Le-fate, 
Se-fate. 
(Ma).re, 
Vo-re = 
drug, poison) 


Twins 


Ma-hasa 


... 


..• 


Ma-hahla 


Li-fata ; ma- 


Ma-fa^a 
(sing. 
Le-faxla) 


Urine 


Ma-rundoj ? 
(Ku-runda 
verb) 


Mu-ronda 


... 


Mu-runja 


Mu-rundca 


Mto-roteo. 
Mcu-tlhapco 


Vein 


... 


... 


... 


N-siya ; mi- 


Lu-tsinga 


Le-sika. 
Mcu-thapu 


War 


Ny-imbi 


Fumu. 

Mu-bangu. 
Y-impi 


Mto-bangu 


M-bangco 


N-ndwa 


fci-ra. 
Le-pheke. 
Xco-lwa 


Water ... 


Ma-ti 


Ma-ti 


Ma-ti 


Ma-ti 


Ma-di 


Ma-etse. 
(Bio-liba = 
deep waier) 


Well, spring, 


Ci-sima 


... 


• ■■ 


gi-dziba 


Ci-sima 


Se-liba. 


source 








(also ocean, 
abyss) ; pi. 
p^i-dziba 




Ma>.pima. 
Mco-tsweli 


White man 


Mu-tlojka. 
N.dima 


Mu-lungu ; ba- 


... 


Mu-lungu ; va- 


Mu-lungu. 
Mu-khuwa 


Le-kxoia; ma- 


Wife 


Nsi-kaU. 


N-sati or 


... 


N-sati. 


Mu-sadzi 


Ma)-xaca, 




N-katsi. 


Wan-sati, 




N-kata 




Mco-xali. 




N-hrima. 


Ababa-sati, or 








(Se-antco = 




(Vu-katsi = 


Baba-sati 








a woman who 




marriage) 










succeeds her 
sister as 

wife) 


Wind 


Puhco 


M-hehoo, 


... 


M-oya 


M-uya. 


Phefw. 




(Li-puhco ; 


M-oya 






Phephco 


Le-limeo ; 




tsi-puhco) 






. 




ti-timu 


Witch ... 


Noyi; va-f 


Noi. 
Mun-guma 




Noyi; 
va-loyi 


Mu-loi 


Ma)-fifa, 
Mio.fifi. 
Mu>-leki, 
Mu-leko>. 
Mu'loi 



GROUPS R. S: THE ,SENGVVE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 291 





70. 


71- 


71 e 


71 f. 


72. 


73- 


English 


Ccopt or 

Si-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


Roiiga 


^i-loi or 
Nwa-lung« 


^i-gwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-8uthc& 
73 a. Se-pedi 



Witchcraft 


Vu-loyi. 
Ku-loya(i/^r*) 


... 


< •• 


Woman ... 


N-katsi 


Wan-sati. 






{bride). 


Em-psele 






N-satsi 






Womb ... 


Susu. 
Mimba 


Khuri 




Wood (fire- 


Kuni ; tsi 4- 


Li-kunyi ; 


, ,, 


wood) 




ti-hunyi 




Yam 


N-silu 






Year 


Lembe ; ma + 


Nvvaka. 
Lembe; ma + 
M-ak'a)no) = 
this year 
(M-aka) 




Yesterday 


Nya-neova, 
Nya-tuleo 


Ttoloj 


... 


Zebra 


Mangwa. 


M-hangwa ; 


... 




Duva 


ti + 




One 


-mweyoj, 
■m we Ceo 


-nwe 


•&we 


Two 


-m-bidi 


-biri, 
-bidi 


•beri 


Three 


•raru 


-rani or 
N-haru 


-raru 


Four 


-ne 


Mu-ne 


•ne 


Five 


Li -hand i 


N-tlhanu 


■thlanu 



Six . 

Seven. 

Eight . 
Nine . 

Ten . 



{Combinations {Combinations -thlanu 

(j/^Li-handi <?/■ N-tlhanu na nwe 

and the first and the first 
four numerals, four numerals) 

Vide ^i-lenge 

Grammar) 



-kumi 



Khume 



Khume 



• •• 


Vhu-loi. 


Vo3-loi. 




Vu-nanga 


Tcoco. 
Ma-lcowa. 
H<D-reba. 
Hco-neha 


N-sati 


Mu-sadzi, 
Ci-sadzi 
{dimin.) 


Mu)-sali 
Popelea 


Ri-kunyi 


Lu-huni ; pi. 


Kxon, 




khuni. 


Li-kxon, 




(Guni = 


Le-xon 




a big piece) 




N-hlata 


Mu-rambu 


... 


Lembe 


Nw-aha, 


Nw-axa {y^ a), 




M-aha ; 


Ny-axa, 




min-waha 


Ny-aha 


Teolco 


Mu-lcovha 


Ma^lojva, 
Ma-ltova-ne 


Mangwa 


M-bidi 


Pitse. 
Qwaha 


•nwe 


-thihi 


•nje. 
•nwe 


•beri, 


•vili, 


•veli 


M-biri 


-vhili, 


(•peli, 




M-bili 


•beli) 


•naru, 


-raru. 


•rarco, 


-raru, 


-tharu 


■tharco 


N-haru 






Mu-ne 


-na, 
-nna 


•ne 


N -thlanu 


-tanu, 
-thanu 


■xlanco 


{Combinations 


•tanu 


•ratarco, 


o/N -thlanu 


na thihi. 


-thatarco. 


and the first 


-tanAnthihi 


Mco-tave 


four numerals) 




{i. e. thumb). 
Tselela 


)j 


Tungula. 


Li-pupa {or 




Thanu 


M CO -pupa ; 




na m-bili 


t. e. the index 
finger on the 
hand) 


ij 


Thanu 


Voo-fera 




na tharu 


me-nto e 
me-veli 


9t 


Thanu 


Se-nyane 




na-nna 


Vu)-fera 

moo-noj 

o-te 


Khume 


Fumi, -humi 


Le-stome 



i 



393 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





70. 


71- 


71 e. 


71 f. 


7.. 


73- 


English 


Cupi or 


Ronga 


pi-loi or 


Si-gwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-suthc6 




pi-tswa 

(Si-lenge, 

Hleng:we ?) 




Nwa-luiigu 






73 a. Se-pedi 


Eleven 


Kumi ni 


Khume 




Khume na 


Fumi na 


Le-peome cwa 




-mweyoB 


na -nwe 




fi-nwe 


n-thihi 


xa-nwe or 
xa-nye 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kume 


Ma-khume 


Ma-khume 


Ma-humi 


Ma-^come ale 




mam-bidi 


ma-biri 


ma-beri 


ma-beri or 
mam-biri 


ma-vili 


ma-veli 


Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kume 


••• 


Ma-kume 


Ma-humi 


Ma-pcome ale 




ma-raru 


ma-raru 




ma-raru 


ma-raru 


ma-tharco 


Forty 


Mu-ne 


Mu-ne wa 


• •• 


Mu-ne wa 


Ma-humi 


Ma-pcome ale 




wa ma-kumi 


ma-kume 




ma-kume 


ma-na 


ma-ne 


Fifty 


Li-handi la 


N-tlhanu wa 


*•• 


N-thlanu wa 


Ma-humi 


Ma-peome ale 




ma-kumi 


ma-kume 




ma-kume 


ma-tanu 


ma-xlanco 


Hundred . . . 


Tsana; wa-f 


Dzana 


Dzana 


Dzana 


Dana; 
ma-dana 


Le-kxcol5 


Tliousand ... 


Kumi da 


Khume da 


••• 


Khume ra 


Ma-dana 


Se-kete; li- 




ma-tsana 


ma-dzana 




ma-dzana 


a-fumi 




I, me, my ... 


A-ni. Mi-na. 


Mi. Mi-ne. 


Mi-na. Me-e. 


Me-na. 


N-ne. 


Me-na, N-na. 




N-, Ni-. 


Ndyi-. Ndi-, 


Nri-. 


Nji-, Ndi-, 


N-, ? Ndi-. 


Ke-. 




-ni-. -a-ngu 


Nd'.,Ndzi-,Ni-. 


-nri-. -a-nga 


Nda- 


-n-. -ndi. 


-m-, -n-. 






-ndi-. -ene. 




-ndi-. -a-nga 


-a-nga 


ka, -esco, 






-a-nga 








-a-me 


Thou,thee,thy A-we. We-na 


We. We-ne. 


We-na. We-e 


We-na, Vco-na. 


I-we, Vhco-ne. 


We-na. 




U-. 


U-, Ku-, W'-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


0)-. 




-ku-. -a-ku 


■nhu. -ku-. 


-nhu. -ku-. 


■U-, -ku-. 


-U-. -vhto-ne, 


-XCO-. -eno. 






-a-ku 


-a-ku 


-vci3-na?-a-ku? 


-a-u 


-xcoxco, -xco 


He, him, his 


Yu. Ye-na. 


Ye-ne. Ye. 


Ye-na. Ye-e. 


Ye-na. 


E-ne 


Ye-na. 




Ya-, A-, 0).. 


A-, 0-, I-, 


A-. 


0)-. 


U-, A-. 


A-, O)-. 




-mu-. -a-kwe 


A-wa-, I-wa-. 
•mu-. -a-kwe 
or -a-ke 


-mu-. -a-ke 


-mu- ? -nw, 
-nwe, -kwe 


-mu-. -a-we 


-mco-. -xwe, 
•xaxwe 


We, us, our 


A-tu. Hi-na. 


Hi-ne. Hi. 


Hi-na. He-e. 


Hi-na. 


Ri-ne. 


Re-na. 




H'-, Hi- 


Hi-. 


Hi-, H'-. 


Hi-. 


Ri-. 


Re-. 




-hi-, -a-tu 


-hi-, h'-. 
-iru, -eru 


-hi-, -e-ru 


-he-, -eru 


-ri-. -a-su 


-re-, -re-na, 
■rco-na, -ecco, 
-esco 


Ye, you, your 


A-nu. Mwi-na 


Nwi-ne. Nwi 


Nwe-na. 


Nwe-na, Mi-na. 


Inwi. 


Leo-na, Le-na. 




Mu-, M'-. 


Mi-, M-, Nw-. 


Nwe-e 


M-. 


Ni-. 


Nye-na. 




-mi-, -a-nu 


-m-, -mto-. 
-nwco, -inu, 
•enu 




-mi-, -mu-. 
•enu 


-ni-. -a-nu 


Le-. 

-le-. -le-na, 
-Ico-na, -enco 


They, them. 


A-va. Vto-na. 


Bo>-ne. Bco. 


Bco-na. Bcou. 


Bco-na. 


Va, Vha 


co-na. Bco-na. 


their 


Na-. 


Ba-, B'-. 


Ba-, Va-. 


Ba-, Va-, Be-. 


Vhco-ne. 


Va-, Ba-. 




-va-. -a-we 


-ba-. -a-bu 


-ba-. -bu 


-ba-. -bco, 
-vco 


Va-. 

-va-. -a- vco 


■va-, -ba-. 
-vco-na,-bco-na, 
-a-vco, -a-bco 


AU 


-cose. 
Hikwe- 


Hikwa- 
(Hikw-eru = 


Hikwa- 

-epe {in the 


Hikwa- 


-othe 


-oxle 






all we ; 


sense of ' that 










Hikwe-nu = 


is all'} 












all ye ; 














Hikwa-bu = 




' 










all they ; 














Hikwa-wu, 














Hikwa-yu, 














&-€.) 











GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 293 



English 



This, these 



That, those 



70. 

Ccopi or 

^i-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
[ji-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73- 

Se-suthcd 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Yu-, va- ; 

yi", Cs'c. 
A-yu-wa, a-yu ; 

a-va-wa, a-va ; 

a-wu, a-wu-wa; 

a-yi, a-yi-ya ; 

a-di, a-di-ya ; 

a-wa ; a-ci-ya, 

a-ci ; a-si, 

a-si-ya ; a-yi, 

a-yi-ya ; a-tsi, 

a-tsi-ya ; a-li, 

a-li-ya ; a-vu, 

a-vu-ya ; a-ku, 

a-ku-wa 
Aycij, avw ; 

cs^c. 
Ayu-lee (i) ; 

ava-lee (2) ; 

is'c. 
Ayu-leyaa (l); 

&'c. 



wu-, Lw-e-, Iw-eyi, Leo, Ico-yi, 



la-ba ; lea or 
Icij-wu, le, 
le-yi ; le-dyi, 
la-wa ; le-^i, 
le-pfi ; le-yi ; 
le-ti ; Ico-lu ; 
le-byi ; Ico-ku ; 
la-ha 



Lw-eym (l), 

la-bco (2) ; b^c 
Lwa-ya, 

Iwa-ya-n, 

ye-lw-e (l), 

la-ba-ya, 

la-ba-ya-n (2), 

bcj-la-ba, 

bco-la-bco (2) ; 

led, loa-wu, 

lca-W(o, 

loj-wu-ya, 

Ico-wu-ya-n, 

wco-lto-wu (3), 

Qr'c. 



la-ba ; Ico-wu, 
le-yi ; le-ri, 
la-ya ; le-ci, 
le-pci ; le-yi, 
le-ti ; rca-lco ; 
lye-byi; loi-ku; 
la-ha 



Leo, ba- ; la-, 
le- ; le-f i. 
le-swi ; Ss'c. 



Lo-ye; &'c. 
Lu-ya, lu-yan, 

yco-lco, 

yco-lo-yi (i); 

ba-la-ba ; 6^6- 



Uyu, ava ; 

uyu, -iyi; 

ill, aya; ici, 

izwi ; 6fc. 
Ho-yu, ha-va; 

ho-yu, he-i ; 

Ss'c. 
Ho-yo), ha-v(o; 

he-yco : S^c. 



Lu.ya,le-ya(i); 
le-fiya (7), 
le-swiya (8) 



(jO-neo-yu (l), 
v-ene-va (a) ; 
y-ene-i (9) ; 

QJ'C. 

tO-nto-yco (i), 
v-ene-vo) (2) ; 
y-ene-yco (9) ; 

00-noj-hco-yu, 
co-nto-ho-yoj 

v-ene-ha-va, 
v-ene-ha-vo) 
(2) ; O'c. 
U-la, va-la ; 
u-la, i-la ; 

H«o-u-la, 
ha-va-la ; 
he-i-la is)\&fc. 



E<o, va-io; oj-co, 

e-io; le-a),a-a); 

se-oj, ce-oj ; 

lca-(o ; V^co-O). 
E-neo, va-nu ; 

le-ncd, ^j^c. 



Eco-la, va-la ; 

o-la, e-la ; 

le-la, a-la ; 

se-la, ce-la ; 

e-la, ce-la ; 

loj-la ; vijM-la 

(14) or 
Eu)-na, va-na ; 

-ne (E(o-ne ; 



Bad 


-walu. 


Ku-bi-ha. 




Ku-bi-ha 


-fani 


Black 


-nzi. -ntima 


-ntima 


Female 


-satsi. 


-sati. 




-katsi. 


-kati, 




-m-baha. 


-ati. 




-psele 


Mi-, -ntjsele 


Fierce, sharp 


... 




Good 


-nene. 
-ti or 
•ati 


■nene 


Great 


-kulu. 


-kulu, 




•hombe 


■hulu. 



-bi-ha 



-ntima 
-sati 



-kulumba 

Little N-d<ot<o, -tongoj. 

N-dcotw-anani -tyana-na 



-kulu 



-tongeo 



•bi-ha (verb). 

(.pret., 

-be-hile) 
■ntima 
•sati 



-WO) leva 

•nene. 
-co saseka 

•ktilu. 
kulukumba 



-thongco, 
■ncoiigu. 
■thanana 



■VI, 

-vhi 



•ve, 
•mpe 



-tswu. -rema -ntsco, -tsto 



■kadzi, 
■hadzi, 
■sadzi 

■hali 

■vhuya 

•hulu 
■tuku 



-xali. 

-tse-hali. 

•sali. 

•tsali 
•xale, •xala. 

•lila {bitter) 
•tie 



xcolu. 
•nene 

{quantity). 
-n^gata 
•nyane. 
•nyenge. 
•nana 



294 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



o7°- 
Ccopi or 

gi-tswa 

(pi-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71; 

Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
Si-gwamba 



. 72- 
Ci-venda 



Long,high,tall -la-pa. 

-le-ha 
Hale Nuna, 

-dvina 



Old ... 

Red ... 

Rotten 
Short... 

Sick ... 

White... 



N-dcaw, 

N-ZbXO. 

Psuu, 

•psu-ka 
-bca, 

-mbco 
-fuhi. 

-kuma 

-Iwala, 
-Iwali, 
•Iwatsi 

-djaa. 
Ku-basa 



•lan-foD. 

-o le-ha 
•tune, 

-nuna 



-khale 

-a li-bung^ 



-bcola 

-wa ku-gcoma. 

•fuefui ? 

-suhi? 
•babya 



-wa ko) le-ha 



Above,up,on 
top 


Ci-tsimwi ka 


A henhla 


Before 
Behind 
Below, down 


Ma-soj-ni ka 
N-sana ka 
Ha-nsi ka 


Ma-hlwe-n 
N-thaku ka 
A ha-nsi ka- 


Far 


Ku-le 


Ku-le-ni 


Here 


Aha-wa 


Hale-n. 
La. 
Lcomu' 


In, inside ... 
Middle 


Ndani ka. 
-a-kahi ka. 
Mu- 


Nden— ka. 
Ma-kari — ka 

Ma-kaH, 
gi-kafi 


Near 

Outside ... 


Ku-fuhi ka 
Ha-nze ka 


Ku-suhi — ni 
Ha-ndle — ka 



-nuna 



-a khale 



-co tswuka 



■boila 



Se-suthcli 
Ti a. Se-pedi 



-la-pfu, 
-la-fu 
-lume 



■lala 



-tswuku 



•lele, 

-tcopu 
•ncona. 

-tuna. 

■pheke, 

•keke. 

-lume 
-kekcolu, 

•xcoloi. 

-tala 
•hivilu 



-boolu 



-is> kuma. 


-pfufi 


-khuts-ane, 


•suhe 




•khufe. 
■khup-ana 


-a vabya-ka 


-Iwala 


•Iwala. 
•kcala 


-co basa 


-cena 


-eu, 

-phepa. 
■c5, 
•tua. 
-seu, 
-tsweu 


Henhla ka-, 


Nthla ha. 


Nthla. 


Henhla, 


N-ntha. 


Xco-limu 


le henhla 


Dulu 




Ma-hlwe-n 


Phanda 


Pele 


N-jaku 


Mu-rahu 


Mu)-raxu 


Ha-nsi ka 


Fa-si-ha-, 


Fa-se. 




Da-si-ha- 


Tla-se, 
Vatla-se 


Ku-le 


Ku-le 


Xio-le, 
Hio-le 


Hale-nu 


Hafa. 


Fa, 




Fanu. 


Va. 




Henefa. 


Muna.' 




Afa 


Kamu." 
Muklu 1 


Njen. 


If genu. 


Mu. 


^i-kari ka 


Ngei. 
Ngumu ' 


Vco-te. 

-n. Katen 


^i-kari 


Fari. 


Xare, 




Vu-kati ha 


Le-kxate. 
Mco-kxala 


K(o-suhe 


Tsini ' 


... 


Ha-ndle 


Nda 


Ntie, nte. 
Ka-nte, 
Kwa-nte 



' A trace here of Class 17 ; likewise in the -n and -ni suffixes. 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LA^fGUAGES 295 





„7°- 


71- 


71 e. 


71 f. 


73. 


7J- 
Se-suth^ 


English 


Coapi or 


Ronga 


gi-loi or 


^i-gwamba 


Ci-venda 




^i-tswa 
i^i-lenge, 




Nwa-lungw 






73 a. Se-pedi 




Hlengwe ?) 












Plenty, many 


•ngl. 
Anda 


-nyingi 


... 


N-jalo9. 
-nyingi 


-n^ji 


Nee. 
Bo-ngata 


There 


Ahale, 


Lahaya. 


Kuna 


Lahaya 


Fala, 


Media, Mconco, 




Ahawa. 


Kulahco 






Hafala. 


Mulaa 




Ahi 








Henefcd. 
Hafco, Afoj, 
Henefala 


(see note, 
p. 294). 
Vale. Kcoco 


Where? ... 


Ha-hi? 


Kw-ini ? 


Kw-ihi ? 


Kw-ihi ? 


Nga-fhi ? 


Kae.', 

-fe ? ' 

Nya! 


No! 


Ge! 


I-hi! 




Ehg! 


Aiwa! 














Ce! 


Not (with verb, 


A-hihi. 


A-, Aka-, 


... 


A-, -nga- 


-si- 


Ha-, Haa-. 


as prefix, in- 


A-yi-wa. 


Aku-, -nga-. 








-sa-, -sa-ka-, 


fix, or suffix) 


Hinga. 
A., Aka-, 
Ak'-, -nga-, 
•si-, -sanga- 

(and change of 
terminal a 
into i) ; 
-ngambi-, 
-ambi- 


•liki-, -hingi- 

(and alteration 
of terminal a 
of verb-root 
to i) ; -nga-bi-, 
•nga-cuke-, 
Si- not yet), 
Sanga- 








-ka-ke-, 
•ke-ke-, -se- ; 
•e-soi- (notyet)j 
(and aorist 
terminal -a 
changes to -e) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Kco- 


Ku-, K(o- 


U- 


Xo)- . 


„ beat ... 


-hima. 
-peka 


-ba. 
-da 




... 


• •• 


-tea. 
•khcoba. 
•capa. 
-cotla 


„ buy, sell 


-renga 


... 


... 


-pava, 
-savisa 


-renga 


-reka 


„ come ... 


•vuya. 
-ngcona ! 
•ta 


-ta. 
-buya. 
-pfa 


■ ■• 


•ta 


-da 


-tla. 
-tlcoxi 


„ cut 


-tema 


•cema, 


• ■ • 


■peka 


-cea 


-tsela 






-tyema 








„ dance ... 


•kina, 
-sinya 


-kina 


... 


-cina 


-cina 


■vina, 
-bina 


„ die 


-fa 


-fa 


... 


-fa 


-fa 


-pwa 


„ eat 


•gya 


-da 


... 


-dya 


-la 


-lya 


.. give ... 


■nika. 


-nyika. 


.■• 


-nyeka 


-nea. 


-fa. 




-ha (-pa) , 


■hwa 






-fa 


-nea. 
■kata 


„ go 


-enda. 


-ya. 


•ya. 


■ya 


-ya. 


•ya. 




-tsula. 


-famba. 


-famba 




(Venda 


-ea. 




-famba. 


-hamba 






possesses 


-eta. 




-ya 








-enda, in 

derivatives) 


-feta. 
•kita 


„ km ... 


-baya (old), 
-paya 
■dziva 


-diaya 


... 


■diaya 


-vhulaha 


-voalaea 


„ know ... 


-tiba 


•tiba 


■tiva 


-diva 


•tseva. 














-itse 


„ laugh ... 


■seka 


-hleka 


•• 


-hleka 


-sea 


-sexa, 
-tseha 


„ leave oflF, 


■leka 


•tika 


... 


•tyika. 


-litpa or 


-lesa 


cease 








-tyikila 


■Uca 





' In sense of ' which place f '. 



296 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


70. 

Cojpi or 

Si-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


71- 
Ronga 


71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 


71 f. 
^i-gwamba 


72. 
Ci-venda 


73- 

Se-suthu 

73 a. Se-pedi 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


K<o- 


Ku-, Ko). 


U- 


Xto- 


„ love, want 


-randa 


-dyula. 
-randa 


... 


-randa, 
-randya. 
-lava 


-funa 


-rata 


„ see 


■vuna 


■buna, 
-laba, 
-labisa 


•buna 


■vuna. 
(-laba = 
search) 


-vona 


•vona, 
■Vuna 


„ sit, remain, 


•kala 


-chamisa. 


•tchama 


-sala. 


•dzula 


■^la or 


abide 




•thama, 
-tama. 
-sama. 
-sala 




-tyhama 




■xlala or 

•sala. 

-lula 


„ sleep ... 


- -ruama. 


-tlela, 


•tlela 


•elela . 


-lala. 


-lala. 




-lala 


-yetlela 






■edela 


-rubala 


„ stand.stop, 
be erect 


■ema. 
-emela 


-yima 


• •■ 


-yima 


•ima 


-yema, 
-ema, 
■emela 


„ steal ... 


-pa. 
-kamba ? 


■yiba 


... 


-yiva 


■tsa, 

-tswa 


-utswa. 
•uba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CCOPI, RONGA, AND DIALECTS, INCLUDING 

pi-GWAMBA 

Few traces of preprefixes, except in southern dialects of Si-ronga and Si-konde. 

Class I. Mu^, Mhu^, Mu^, Amu (^i^konde), Wa^ (honorific) (mu, yu-, u-) ; 2. Ba^, Bha^, Va-, 
Baba- (honorific), Aba- (^i-konde) (ba, va-) ; 3. Mu-, M-, Mu-, Nu-, N-, Amu- (pi-konde) (wu, u-) ; 
4. Mi- (rai-, i, yi-, j'-) ; 5. Dyi^, Ji^, Gi^ (in Cupi), D'^, Di^, Ti^, T-, Ri-, — (dyi-, ri, gi-) ; 6. Ma-, 
Ama- (ma-, ya-, a) ; 7. gi., Ci^ (fi, ci) ; 8. Pzi^, Bzi^, Swi^, Zwi^, Si^ (psi-, pci-, bzi-, swi-, zwi-, si) ; 9. In- 
(Im^), Yin, N-, Ny-, «f-, — (n-, i, yi-); 10. Tin-, Ti-, Tsin-, Tsi- (ti, tsi) ; 11. Li-, Ri- (li, ri) ; 
12. missing; 13. missing; 14. Bu-, By-, B'-, W'-, Wu-, Vu- (Cupi) (vu-, bu, by-); 15. Ku^, Ku^, 
Khu- (ku) ; 16. Ha^ (? Pa- in some Ronga prepositions). Aha- (ha-, pa) ; 17. Mu^, M- (scarce) (-mu, 
-ni, -n). 

Si^ is a masculine and honorific prefix in Ronga. Nwa- is an honorific and qualitative prefix often 
masculine in sense, with concords of Nos. I and 2 ; Mi- is a feminine prefix ; the Nya- or Na- prefixes are 
present (usually masculine). Rara- is a ' father ' prefix, sometimes complementary to Mi-, the ' mother ' 
prefix, -nyana and -ana are diminutive suffixes. The preprefix vowel is either a, e, or i, where present. 



PREFIXES, &C, IN CI-VENDA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu^ (mu, U-, yu-, co-) ; 2. Va^, Vha- (va) ; 3. Mu-, N- (mu-, u, yu-, (o-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i, yi-, 
ye-) ; 5. Li-, Di-, I- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Ci- (ci) ; 8. Zwi-, Bzi- (zwi-, bzi) ; 9. — , N- (i, ? n-) ; 
10. • — , N- (often only represented by an aspiration of initial consonant of root-word); 11. Lu- (lu) ; 
12. missing; 13. missing (unless 'Ku- takes its place); 14. Vhu-, Vu- (vu) ; 15. U-, Hu-, 'Ku- (u-, 
hu, 'ku); 16. Fa-, Fha- Pha- (fa) ; 17. missing? (-mu, -ni) ; 18. Gu^, G'^ (.'gu). 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 297 

In addition there are two prefixes not easy to classify. Ku- (spelt by Meinhof and some missionary 
authorities 'Ku, and described as ' semi-nasal ', but by other informants rendered simply Ku-) is a prefix 
in the singular number, used very decidedly as a diminutive, with prefixes 8, 10, and 14 as plurals. It 
replaces No. 13 (Ka-) ; and, but that the change from Ku- to Ka- is unprecedented in Bantu, might be 
taken for a modified form of 13. No. 8 is also diminutive in application. Di- (a variant of No. 5) and 
Gu- (? No. 18) are markedly augmentative. There is not only the diminutive suffix -ana; but this is 
often doubled -anana. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN SE.SUTHOi) AND SE-PEDI 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Moj-, Noj. (mo), eco-, e-, to) ; 2. Va- (va-) ; 3. Mm- (ma>-, co, 6-) ; 4. Me-, Ni- (rare) (me-, e) ; 
5. Le- (le, y'-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Se- (se) ; 8. Ri-, i-i- (ri, ce-) ; 9. — , N-, Jf- (— , n-, e) ; lo. i.i ', Ri- 
(? Di- in Se-pedi) (ri-, tse, ce-) ; II. Le- (rarely Loa-) (Ico-, le); 12. missing; 13. Xa-^ Ha- (almost 
extinct, rare in a prepositional or adverbial form); 14. Veo- (vcu, v^to-) ; 15. Xca-, Hoj- (xoa, h(u) ; 16. 
Fa-, Va- (fa, va-) ; 17. Mw (-n). 

The Na- or feminine prefix is present ; also the -ana diminutive suffix. 

No/e that in the Se-sutbco of the French missionaries a more ' Secuana ' complexion is given to the 
prefixes and concords ; thm-efore Xa- takes the place o/Ha.-, Xco- ofRa; Va- becomes Ba-, Vco- becomes 
Bed-, and Fa-, Ha-. 



70. Ccopi is spoken on the coast of Portuguese South-east Africa between Cape Correntes and the 
mouth of the Limpojpco. 

71. Ronga is spoken in Tongaland (Delagoa Bay district), between the mouth of the Limpoopco river 
and Lake St. Lucia — inland to the Lcobombco mountains and the Komati river. 

71 e. ^iloi is spoken in the Eastern Transvaal and Portuguese East Africa, between the Lipalule and 
Umkojmati rivers. 

71 f. ^igwamba is spoken in Portuguese South-east Africa and the North-east Transvaal between 
the Limpiopu) and Lipalule rivers and as far north as the south-east flanks of the Zoutspansberg. 

72. Civenda is spoken in the North and North-west Transvaal, and perhaps also immediately north 
of the Limpcopo) river in Southern Rhodesia. 

73. Sesuthco is spoken in Basutoland and the eastern part of Orange Free State ; Sepedi in the west 
and south-west of the Transvaal. 

' The initial consonant of the &th and loth prefixes in Sesuthu is often spelt L where it is not heard 
as R ; but most authorities seem to be agreed that this alveolar consonant approximates more to the 
Polish t, which is therefore used in this book. In any case the prefixed 'L or R is derived from an earlier 
D and that from a still earlier Z. 

^ The form Ka- which appears so covunonly in Se-suthto and in cognate tongues is really a con- 
traction of Kwa- (Ku -t- a). 



GROUP S 

THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES {continued) 
74. Se-cuana Z>/a/<f<:/f ' 74 a. Se-mafigwatca 74 b. Si-kcolcolco 74 c. Njenji ^r Zinzi 



GROUP T 

THE ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 

It,. ^'b%z.{^ Kafir' dialects) 75 a. Zulu 75 b. Swazi 75 c. Tebele (Sin-debele) = 

76. Gaza-A-ngojni i^N.E. Zulu) 





74- 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


Se-cuana 


posa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


{Kafir dialects)" 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngMni) 




74 b. Si-kcolulco 














74 c. Njenji 












Adze 


Petleo or 
Petlu. 
Paloj (74 b) 


Isi-penpe. 


Isam-potco 


Sa-ndele 


Isa-ndeli. 


Kin-jenje. 


Animal, wild 


Se-cedi. 


I si-lea. 


Isi-leo. 


Si-lco ; zi-lco 


Iny-amaza-ne 


Iny-amaza-na 


beast 


Se-toka. 

Se-batana. 

Fcolcofcolco 

(74 b) 


I-bubesi. 
Im-bulu 


Iny-amaza-ne 








Ant 


Ccoswa-ne, 


Isa-pompulco. 


Pompolco. 


In-tfutfwane. 


Izim-pcolcompcolco. 


M-bamba. 




Cco^wa-ni. 


Im-bo>va-ne 


Im-bcova-ne. 


Itin-dangcose 


Ubu-nyongco 


In-tuta-na ; 




Si-rui (74 b) 




In-tutw-ane 






izi- 


Ant, white 


Mu-tlwa, 


In-tlwa 


-hlwa. 


Umu-hlwa 


Umu-hlwa 


Mu-Bwa 


(termite) 


Moj-tlhwa ; 
//. me-. 
N-thlwa. 
Bu-twa (74 b) 




Mu-hlwa or 
Umu-hlwa 








Arm 


Le-cohci> ; //. 


Um-konto. 


Um-koanco. 


Umu-khconco. 


Ifi-galco, 


C-anja ; 




ma-bcoxcd. 


Isi-konu. 


In-galo) ' 


In-galco 


U-galu 


ny-anja. 




Li-zubu. 


In-galco 








In-galco 




Li-stofto (74 b) 












Arrow 


Mco-cwi, 
Mio-cu, 
Mco-ci. 
Li-P"(74b) 


U-tcolco, 
I-tolco. 
U-dalco 


Um-dibipeloj 


Ubu-c<oki 


Um-ccokco 


M-ccohi. 
Um-dibiccolco 


Axe 


Se-lepe. 
Se-kxubco. 
Chaka (74 b) 


I-zembe 


I-zembe. 
Im-bazco. 
I-gaulco 


Li-zembe or 
I-zembe. 
Im-bazco 


I-hlcoga 


Li-zembe ; ama- 


Baboon ... 


Cwene. 


Im-fene. 


Im-fene. 


Im-fene; iti-f. 


In-dwanu 


Li-ani 




Kxatla(74a). 


In-g51eo 


In-zinga. 


In-gcobiyane 








Pombwi(74b) 




lli-konde 









' 74 represents the speech of the Ba-tlarco, I?a-tlapin (or -xlapin), Ba-rcolon, Ba-hurutse, Ba-wanketsi, and 
Ba-kwena. 74 a stands for the Se-mangwatco of Khama's country and the f^gaiiii basin (Se-twana) ; 74 b is 
Si-kcolcolco, the ' MakUilCiilU)' trade language of the Upper Zambezi valley; and y^c, Njenji or Ziazi, would seem to 
be the northernmost vestige ofCxs&rxa. influence in N. BarUtseland, The many Si-luyi (Si-rcotse) words in Si-kcolcolco 
are not given. 

' 7 he word Le-tevele in Se-suthco = ' Red Kafir '. 

' The dialects include Fengu, Bada, and Pondco words, and the woman's speech, Hlconipa. HI- after a word is 
an abbreviation for Hlconipa. (F.) stands for Fengu. 

* The Old Bantu root -bcokco for ' arm ' probably exists in Zulu in the words Um-bcokco {elephant's trunk) and 
Ulu-bcokco {a long staff for old men, a ' long arm '). 



GROUPS S, T : THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 299 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


Posa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatto 


(Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolcolca 














74 c. Njenji 












Back 


Mu-tlhana. 


Um-blana. 


Um-hlana 


Um-hlana. 


Um-hlandhla 


M-sana. 




Mu-kotla. 


Um-vS. 




Um-hlubulco 




Ki-nutu 




Mu-kcokcotcd 


I-qolco 












(74 b) 












Banana 


Li-kondi (74 b) 


... 


U-kcova 


U-kcova. 
Ifi-kamaiigco 




Li-huva 


Beard 


Tedu; 


In-cebe. 


I-levu ; ama-. 


Isi-levu ; iti- 


In-devu, 


Ki-refu 




di-tedii 


In-devu; u- 


Isi-levu 




Isi-devu 




Bee 


N-cose, 
N-ootshe ; 

pi. di--f . 
N-tsi-ya- 
n-cotsi 


Iny-osi 


Iny-cosi 


Iny-osi ; iti- 


Iny-cosi 


Luny-cosi 


Belly, abdo- 


M-pa 


Isi-su. 


Isi-su. 


Isi-sii ; iti- 


Isi-su 


Lu-Stt 


men 


Lo)-bala. 
M-ba (74 b). 
Mu-hcolu 
(74 b) 


Isi-nene 


Um-bili-ni 








Bird 


N-cony-ane 


In-taka, 
I-daka 


Iny-oni. 
In-taka 


Iny-oni 


Iny-oni 


Ny-<ani 


Blood 


Ma-di, 


I-gazi. 


Igazi 


In-gati 


I-gazi or 


N-gazi, 




Ma-H. 


I-bende. 






In-gazi 


I-gazi 




Le-tsadi 


Ubu-bende 












(•wound ) 


(blood of 
cattle) 










Body 


Mm-ele ; 


Um-zimba. 


Um-zimba. 


Um-timba. 


Um-zimba. 


M-zimba. 




//. me-ljele. 


Isi-bili 


Isi-bili, 


Isi-bili 


Isi-bili 


M-biri 




Mu.bili(74b) 


(the trunk, 
torso) 


Um-bili 

(trunk) 








Bone. 


Le-sapco ; //. 
ma-rapco 


I-tambco 


I-tambco. 
Isi-tupa 

(small bone, 
finger bone) 


Li-tsambco 


I-tambb9 


Li-tambu 


Borassus palm 


Mu-kulwani, 

Mu-lala (74b) 


... 


I-laka 


Mala 


Mala 


Li-lala. 
M-kcoma 


Bow 


B<o-ra ; //. 


Is-apeta, 


Um-dibityelco 


Ili-gubu. 


Um-dibityelco. 


M-ccohi 




ma-ra. 


Isi-peta. 




Bu-tycoki 


In-gcobelco 






Le-kampha-ne 


In-pumbu 












Bu-ta (74 b) 












Bowels 


Le-la ; 
ma-la 


Ama-tumbu 


Ama-tumbu 


Ema-tfumbu 


Ama-tumbu 


Lu-tumb<a. 
M-biri-ni 


Brains 


Bco-bcokco 


Ubii-dcopco, 
-qcopu 


Ubu-dcopco 


Ubu-dopco. 
Bu-<;5pco 


Ubu-dcopco 


U-dopco or 
U-qopco 


Breast (man's) 


Se-huba. 
Si-fuba(74b) 


Isi-fuba. 
U-ganga, 
U-kaka (F.) 


Isi-fuba 


Isi-fuba 


Isi-fuba 


Ki-fuwa. 
N-ganga 


Breast 


Le-tsele ; 


I-bele; /5/.ama- 


I-bele; ama- 


Li-bele or 


I-bele; ama- 


Li-wele; ma- 


(woman's) 


ma-bele. 
Li-sweli (74 b) 






I-fele ; ama- 






Brother ... 


N-kxconco-ne. 


Um-na- 


Um-ne. 


Um-na; pi. 


Um-na, 


M-fco. 




M(i)-Xcolcoli. 


(U-nina-we). 


Um-kulu-we 


boni-na. 


Um-ne. 


M-tana-. 




Mo-nna'-, 


(Um-na kwetu 




Um-zalw-ane. 


Um-zalw-ane 


M-kuru. 




"Nna-ke, Ss'c. 


= our brother). 




Um-fco ; 




Ki-nini 




Mw-ana-heso). 


Um-7,alw-ana 




bom-fco, 








Ka-iseli. 






-aba-fco. 








Mu-hulw-ani 






Um-na-ketfu 








(74 b) 













5 



300 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74. 
Se-cuana 


p^^^ 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatoj 


{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-ko>lcolu 














74 c. Njenji 






• 






Buffalo ... 


N-af, 
N-are. 

N.ali(74b) 


Inyati 


Iny-ati 


Iny-atsi 


Iny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Bull 


P5o.' 
Pcdhco (74 b) 


In-kunzi 


In-kunzi 


In-kunt'i 


In-kunzi 


... 


Buttocks ... 


Le-^axco ; //. 


Izi-bunoi ; urn-. 


Izi-tibili. 


Iti-bunco. 


Izi-bunu 


Li-takto; ma- 




ma-raxco. 


Iny-onga. 


1-tyweba 


In-tsula 








(Lca-razoa = 


J.kafu. 












large but- 


Im-pundu. 












tocks) 


Izi.bini 










Canoe 


Mw-koreo 


Um-kombe 


Kepe (Isi-). 
Um-kumbi 


Um-khumbi 


Um-kcolco. 
Isi-kepe 


M-kumbi. 
Li-gwamba 


Cat 


Phaxe 


Im-paka 


Im-paka. 


Madu, 


Uii-kazi ; 


M-paka. 








Im-bwdhla. 


Mat'u; 


on-kazi 


M-lamu. 








In-dluzi 


oj-mat'u 




N-wawi 


Cattle 


Ma-tlhape. 
Li-kumo> 

(74 b) 


In-kcomu. 
I-nomb'e^ 


Izin-kumco 


Itin-kcamu. 
lii-ombe ? 


In-kcomco 


N-kcomca 


Charcoal ... 


Le-xala ; ma-. 
Ma-pala(74b) 


Mahle 


Ama-lahle 


Ema-lahle 


Ama-lahle 


... 


Chief 


Kxcosi. 


lii-koasi, 


In-kcozi, 


In-g(Dsi ; ama-. 


lii-kcozi 


Li-kcozi. 




(Bco-xcosi = 


liikcos', 


In-kcos'. 


Si-kulu 




Li-duna. 




chieftainship). 


In-gcos'. 


In-duna 






M-lum-zana 




Mu-rena(74b) 


Uku.mkani 










Child 


Nw-ana ; 


Um-ntw-ana ; 


Um-ntw-ana 


Umn-tfw-ana. 


Um-ntw-ana. 


M-tw-ana 




b-ana 


aba-ntw-ana. 
U-sana ; 
in-tsana. 
U-sapoj ; 
in-tsapca 




In-gan' 


lii-gane 




Cloth 


Kxai. 
Kubo. 

Si-apalo»(74b) 


Ifi-gubco 

{blanket). 
Um-nyobe 


In-gubto 


lii-gubca. 
Li-hiya 


Iri-gubco 


Ny-ura 


Cold 


Tsi-didi. 


■gudula. 


Ma-kaza. 


Ema-kata. 


Ma-kaza 


Li-qwa 




Se-rami 


-banda. 
I-pepco. 
Ubu-sika 


Ma-kazi 


Ama-kati 






Country ... 


Le-hatshe. 
Naha (74 b) 


Ili-zwe 


Ili-zwe 


Ili-ve 


Ili-zwe 


Li-zwe 


Cow 


Kxumco e 


In-komcd. 


In-komu 


Iii-komci>. 


In-kojmco-kazi. 


N-kumco-kazi 




nama-xadi. 


Imazi 




lii-kom-ati 


In-sikazi 






Kumu e 


yen-kcomu 












sihali (74 b) 












Crocodile ... 


Kwena 


In-gwenya 


lii-gwenya 

* 


In-gwenya 


lii-gwenya 


N-gwenya. 
In-gwa ny-ama 


Day 


Le-tsatsi. 


U-suku ; 


U(lu)-suku. 


Ulu-suku. 


U-suku. 


Lu-siku. 




Mu-tsi 


in-tsuku. 


Umu-hla 


Umu-hla 


I-lana 


M -plana 




Mw-tlha. 


I-mini. 












Li-zazi (74 b) 


Um-hla. 

Uku-sa. 

U m-sco. -sa 










Devil, evil 


• X 


I-zabula-ne. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


spirit 




Um-pcolcogu 











■ Cf. M-boigu, ^buffalo'. 

' This word is only used in the Hlconipa or woman's dialect. An interesting sun'ival of the -ombe for ' cow ', ] 
' cattle ', preserved in the Hlcanipa dialect. 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 301 





74. 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


pSsa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


{Ka/tr dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcol<olco 














74 c. Njenji 












Doctor (medi. 


leaka, 


Iny-angi or 


Iny-anga, 


Iny-anga. 


Iny-ana. 


Ny-anga 


cine man) 


Naki. 
Mw-alahi 

(74 b) 


Um-. 
Is-anu-se. 
Um-nisi. 
U-gcixa 


Um-elapi 


Iny-angi 


Is-anu-se 




Dog 


N-ca; 

din-ca. 
M-psa. 
Se-heke S 


In-ja. 
I-bet'a {HI.) 


In-ja 


In-ja 


In-ja 


Yin-ja. 

Kayin-ja 


Donkey ... 


Phike 


Im-bongolco 


Im-bongoloj 






Li-duwe 


Door, door- 


Se-cwalco. 


Um-nyaiigco, 


Isi-valoj. 


Isi-valco. 


Isi-val<o. 


Ki-vareo. 


way 


Si-kwalco. 
Mco-yako 
(74 b) 


U-hlango>. 

Isi-valcd. 

I-sangco 


Um-nyangco 


Um-nyangco 


Um-nyangco 


Mi-aiigeo, 
Li-sangco. 
M-samco 


Dream 


Torco 


I-pupa 


I-pupa. 


Uku-budza. 




Li-pupa. 




{see ' sleep '). 




Ili-pupoi 


Li-budvoj. 




U-tongoa 




(Lora = 






Uku-b'ojda 








to dream. 














Mco-lori = 














dreamer) 












Drum 


M(o-ro>pa. 


I-gubu. 


Isi-gubu. 


Ifi-gungu. 


In-kunu 


Numburu 




Mu-lupa(74b) 


(In-go()ma = 

a song or 
dance sung to 
drum accom- 
paniment) 


(In-gcoma = 
a dance to the 
dru?n) 


In-ttmibula. 
Isi-gube 






Ear 


Tsebe. 


In-dlebe, 


In-dlebe. 


In-dhlebe 


In-dlebe 


N-plewe, 




Zebe (74 b) 


In-jlebe 


Uku-tu 
{behind the 






N-jewe 


Egg 


Le-e ; 
ma-e. 
Li-yi (74 b) 


I-canda. 
I-tyanda (///.) 


ear) 

I-danda or 
I-qanda 


I-dandz'a 


I-qanda 


Li-qanda 


Elephant ... 


Tlcou. 

Tcou(74b,c). 


In-dloovu, 
In-jlcovu 


In-dlwvu 


In-dhltovu 


In-kubu 


N-jslcofu 


Excrement 


Bu-bi : 


U{lu)tu-vi, 


Utu-vi (Ulu-). 


Ubutu-vi. 


Ubutu-vi 


Ma-simba (//.) 




ma-bi. 


-tu-we. 


Ma-simba(^/.) 


Ama-simba, 








Se-bi. 


Uku-nya 




Ema-simba 








Ma-sepa {pi.) 






{pi.) 






Eye 


Le-Itlhco ; 


Il-isu ; 


Il-isM ; 


Il-isco ; 


Il-ihlco ; 


L-isco; 




ma-itlheo. 


ama-sco. 


am-eblca. 


am-ehlcd 


am-ehlco 


m-es(d 




L-itto (74 b) 


Il-ihlu; 
am-ehlcd 


(Um-bcanto = 

vision) 








Face, fore- 


Se-ha-tlh5xoj. 


Ubu-sto. 


Ubu-sto 


Ubu-sco. 


Ubu-so) 


U-SM 


head 


Pata(74b) 


I-bunzi 




I-bunti 






Fat, oil ... 


Ma-hura. 

Ma-fula(74b). 
Ma-fura (75 c) 


Ama-futa. 
■noncd 


Ama-futa. 
-nona 


Ama-futs'a 


Ama-dcobco 


Ma-futa 


Father 


Hara, 


U-so>, 


Ubaba. 


U-baba, 


U-baba. 


Bawa. 




Kara; 


U-yise = 


U-yihlio. 


Babe. 


U-yihlco. 


Isu, 




//. ba-ra. 


father. 


U-yise 


U-yihl«. 


U-yise 


Ise 




Ha-re. 


U-bawco = 




U-yise 








Rra. 


my father. 












N-date(74b) 


U-yihlco = 

thy father 










Fear 


Poiho. 
Boiha 


Uk'-oyika 


Ukw-esaba 


Ukw-esaba 


U-valco. 
Ku-saba 


N-gwara. 

Ku-sawa 


1734 












X 



30» 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





74. 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


posa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




7^ a. 
Se-mangwatco 


{KAfir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-ko>lcoleo 














74 c. Njenji 












Finger 


Mo-nw-ana ; 
//. me- 


Um-nwe ; 
imi-nwe. 
(U-bonzi, 
Isi-tupa = 

thumb) 


Umu-nwe 


Umu-nwe. 
(Isi-tupa = 
thumb) 


Umu-nwe 


Mu-nwe 


Fire 


Mco-lelco 


Um-lil<o. 
Um-basco. 
(Uku-ota = 
to -warm. 
Is'-ota = 
heat) 


Um-lilco. 
(Uku-5ta = 
to warm one- 
self at fire) 


Um-lilco 


Um-lilco 


M-basco 


Fish 


Tlhapi. 

Tapi(74b) 


In-hlanzi, 
In-tlanzi 


In-hlanzi 


In-hlanti 


In-hlanzi 


^anzi ; pi. 
zi-^anzi 


Foot 


Lco-naco ; di-. 
Li-utu (74 b) 


U-nyawco 


U-nyawco. 
Um-lenze 


Ulu-nyawco 


Ulu-nyawoi 


Lu-nyaco 


Forest 


Se-kxwa. 

Mu-situ (74 b) 


I-hlati 


I-hlati 


I-hlats'i 


I-hlati 


Li-jslati. 
M-dondco. 
Li-pcogorco 


Fowl 


Kuku. 
Kcohco (74 b) 


In-kuku 


In-kuku 


In-kuku 


In-kuku 


N-kuku 


Frog 


Se-xwaxwa. 


I-sele. 


I-selesele. 


I-sele 


I-pcopu 


Cule. 




Sini-beotwi 


I-poapeo 


In-dhlandhla 






Li-curuwe 




(74 b) 












Ghost 


Se-dimco, 


Um-londe, 


Isi-tunzi. 


Si-yiya-ne. 


Isi-tuhw-ane. 


Li-^lcozi 




Dimco ; 


Um-nyanya 


Ili-dhlcozi 


Um-kcobco. 


Um-kcobco 






b(o-dimu. 






Isi-tunti 








Bu-lombco 














(74 b) 












Giraffe ... 


Thutlwa. 
Tutwa 

(74 b) 


I-duwa. 
U-ncohuda 


In-dhlu-la-mi-ti 




In-tudhla 


• *• 


Girl 


Mco-setsa-na. 


In-tombi. 


In-tombi. 


In-tfombi. 


In-tombi 


N-tombe, 




Mto-rcoba. 


In-domba-zan' 


Cjikiza 


I-cici. 




N-tomba-zana 




Mu-sisa-na 
(74 b) 
Pudi. 






In-t'ombi 






Goat 


Im-b'uzi. 


Im-buzi. 


Im-buti 


Im-buzi 


M-buzi 




Puli(74b) 


I-bokwe 


Isi-buzi-kazi 5 








„ (he) ... 


Phoko 


Im-pongco 


Im-pongco. 
Isi-beva 


... 


... 


Li-pongco 


God 


Mu) -dimco 


U-hlangd ; pi. 
in-tlangA 
(' sun '). 
U-thip<o 


U-tipco 


Un-kulu-fi-kulu, 
Mu-kulu 
mu-ndanti, 
Um-kulule 


Um-limco 


Mu-lung^ 


Grandparent 


Hara-mio-xcoloj. 
Rra-rn'mw-xoalco. 
Kuku ; ho) + 

(74 b) 


U-bau-m-kulu. 
U -ma-kale 5 


U-kulu. 
U-kcoko> 


Gcogco 




Gcogco 


Grass 


Bco-yanu, 
Bu-dyanu. 
Bu-jwafigi 
(74 b) 

Le-hatshe. 


U-tyani. 
Ifi-kcota. 
In-da 


U-tyani 


Ubu-tyani 


Ubu-tyani 


U-cani 

i 


Ground 


Um-hlaba. 


Um-daka. 


Um-hlaba 


Um-hlaba 






M-bu. 


U-daka 


Um-hlabati 










Li-fasi 

(74 b) 


{soil) 










Ground-nut 


In-dhlubu 


In-dhlubu 


Aman-tongama 




Li-tabele 










ne 







GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 303 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


7SC. 


76. 


English 


posa 

{Kafir dialects) 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolcoloj 














74 c. Njenji 












Guinea-fowl 


Kxaka 


Im-pangele 

(' he runs 
before') 


Im-pangele 


Im-pangele 


I-tendele 


Pangea. 
t*gera-ii-gera-ne 


Gun 


Tlhcobcalo. 

Ttob«lco(74b). 
Tcoborco (74 c) 


Um-pu. 
Um-bobcij 


Isi-bamu 


Isi-bamu 


Um-pcobto 


Ki-bamtt 


Hair 


iMo-riri ; me-. 
Mu.lili(74b) 


U-nwele, 
I-nwele 


U-nwele 


Lu-nwele ; ti- 


U-nwele 


Lu-nwele 


Hand 


Se-atla. 

(Lco-xcohe = 
palm). 

Li-zcohco(74b) 


Is-anthla, 
Is-andla 


Is-andhla 


I-hlanza, 
Is-anza, 
Is-andhla 


Is-andhla 


C-anja 


Head 


Tlhoxo. 


In-tloakoa. 


I-kanda. 


I-kanda. 


I-kanda. 


Li-kanda. 




Tcohco (74 b) 


Ifi-klcokcd. 
Ifi-kanda 


In-hlcokco 


In-hlcokcd 


In-hlcoku 


^cokco 


Heart 


Pelco. 
Pilu (74 b) 


I-papu. 
In-tliziyco. 
Um-pel<o 


In-hliziyco. 
Um-damangu 


In-hlitiyoj 


In-hliziyco 


^izico 


Heel 


ge-rete, 
Se-rete. 
Li-zcotu (74 b) 


Isi-tende 


Isi-tende 


Isi-tsendse 


Isi-tende 


Ki-tende ; vi- 


Hide 


Le-tlalco 


Isi-kumba. 
U-gogco. 
In-hlonze 


Isi-kumba 


Isi-kumba. 
Ulu-goga> 


Isi-koikco 


Ki-kumba 


Hill 


ThtotS. 


Isi-duli, 


Um-mangw. 


In-tsaba. 


In-taba 


Ka-ntawa. 




T'aba. 


In-duli 


I-duli. 


In-t'aba 




Ki-duli 




Li-lundu(74b) 




In-taba 








Hippopotamus 


> Kubu 


Im-vubu 


Im-vubu 


Im-vubu 


Im-vubu 


Ki-bwkca 


Hoe 


Mco-xtoma. 
Mu-huma 

(74 b) 


I-kuba. 
I-kaba 


I-kuba 


I-kuba 


I-kuba 


Li-quwa. 
Li-kwece 


Honey 


Din-ojse. 


Ub-usi. 


Ub-usi. 


Itiny-cosi. 


Iny-cosi 


Uci 




Lin-wzi (74 b) 


Ug-uzi 

{Pondui). 

In-dindi 


UI-uju. 
Iziny-cosi 


Ulu-ju 






Horn 


Lw-naka 


U(lu)-pondM 


U{lu)-ponda>. 


Ulu-pondvoj ; 
itim-pondvM 


Ulu-pondco 


Lu-pondco 


House 


N-tica; 


In-thlu, 


In-dhlu. 


In-dhlu 


In-dhlu. 


I-plu. ^ 




ma-tlcd. 


In-dlu. 


I-kaya 




I-kaya 


N-gongwe. 




Gae, 


U-pande ; 








Ku-kaya 




Le-gae. 


iii-pande, 












N-du (74 b) 


ulu-pande. 
fl-kaya = 

home ') 










Hunger 


Tlala, 
Tala (74 b) 


In-dlala 


In-dlala 


In-dlala 


In-dlala 


Li'pangco 


Husband . . . 


Mco-noana. 
Mu-nna (74 b) 


Um-yeni.' 
In-doda 


In-doda 


In-dva>dsa 


••• 


N-dwela. 

Lin-dcoda 


Hyena 


Phiri. 
Thukwi. 
Si-tuiigwani 

(74 b) 


Im-pisi. 
Ifi-duka 


Im-pisi. 
I-dela-bu-tongeo 


Im-pisi 


Im-pisi 




Iron 


Cipi, 
Ts'ipi. 


In-tsimbi. 
Isi-nyiti, 
Izi-nciti 


In-simbi 


In-simbi 


In-simbi 


Simbi. 
U-tali 




Sipi(74b) 












' Ubu-m<a = a 


welling. Ubu-me = condition. l-mo> = abode. Um-mi = inhabitant. 



X 2 



304 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


Dosa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatoj 


{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kuloilco 














74 c. Njenji 












Island 


Se-tl'ake. 

Si-coli(74b) 


Isi-qiti 


Isi-qingi 


Isi-hlenga 


Isi-hleni 


Ki-rumba 


Ivory 


Lti)-naka 


Ama-bamba 


U-pondo) 


Ulu-pondvco 


U-pondco 


Li-zinyo9 lya 








Iwe n-dhlcovu 


Iwe n-dhlcovu 


Iwe n-kubu 


n-plcofu 


Knee 


Le-nole. 
Li-ngwele 

(74 b) 


I-dcolu 


I-dcolco 


Li-dv'colco, 
Li-d'colco 


I-dcolco 


Li-doroa 


Knife 


Thipa. 


Isi-cece. 


U-mese 


Umfi-kwa. 


lii-qamu 


Mu-kwa. 




Tipa(74b) 


I-mela 




I-gcodywa 
Li-dibi. 




M-kondco 


Lake, sea ... 


Le-ts'a. 


I-d'ibi. 


I-dangu. 


I-dibi 


Ki-siwa. 




Li-sa(74b) 


I -dike. 
I-dweba. 
Isi-ziba. 
Ulw-andle ; 
pi.\- 


Ulw-andhle 


I-dami 




Lu-anpe 


Leg 


Le-kutu ; ma-. 
Le-utu (74 a), 
Ki-utu (74 b) 


Um-lenze. 
In-tungco 

(shin) 


Um-lenzi 


Um-lent'e 


Um-lenzi 


M-lenze 


Leopard ... 


Le-nau. 
N.gwi (74 b) 


lii-gwe. 
I-hloizi, 
In-dlcozi 


Ifi-gwe. 
lii-gwavu 


In-gwe 


In-gwe 


lii-gwe 


Lion 


Tau 


In-damse. 


I-bubesi. 


I-bubesi, 


Isi-lwana 


M-pondoreo. 






Ifi-geonyama. 


Im-bube. 


Im-bube. 




Ki-rwani. 






I-bubesi 


In-gconyama 


In-gconyama 




M-pcozongco. 
N-gwenyama 


Lips 


Pcounama. 


Um-lebe; imi-. 


U(lu)-debe ; 


Udebe. 


In-debe 


M-lcomco ; mi- 




Mu-lcomcd 


Isi-lebe ; izi-. 


izin-debe. 


Bebebe 








(74 b) 


Im-bojvu 


Imi-lcomco 








Magic 


B(o-loi. 


Ubu-ti. 


In-takatco. 


Uku-loya. 
Um-lingoi 


Ubu-tagati. 


U-takati. 




T«oc» (74 b) 


{The root 


(Ubu-lcozi == 


(Loya = 


U-lcowi 






-Icoza 


magical 




to bewitch) 








connected with 


•whistling, 












ventriloquial 


ventriloquism] 












■whistling). 














Isiny-angco 










Maize 


Mm-idi. 


Um-bcona. 


Um-bila 


Um-bila. 


Umu-mbu 


Mu-mbu. 




Mco-vcopu. 


Um-bilco. 




Um-lungu 




Ki-manga 




Se-maka 


U-tiya 












(74 aV 














M-bo»nyi 














(74 b) 












Man 


Mu-thu; 


Um-ntu; 


Umu-ntu ; 


Umu-ntfu;aba- 


Umu-ntu ; aba- 


Mu-ntu ; 




ba-thu 


aba-ntu. 
M-fco 

(a mortal) ; 
aba-fco ' 


aba-ntu 






wa-ntu 


Male 


Mu>-nuna, 
Mo-nna. 
(Boj-thcj = 
manhood) 


In-dcoda. 
In-duna 


In-dcoda. 
-silisa. 
In-duna 


Um-duna 


In-duda 




Meat 


N-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Mo-re. 
Mto-lemw. 
Setl'are. 


I-yeza. 

Ubu-ti. 
Isi-ny-angoj 


Umu-ti. 
I-kubalco 


Umu-tsi 


Umu-ti 


Mu-ti 




Mu-li-ana(74b) 











Cf. Ci-manga of\iM>. 



From Um-fo) {mortal), comes fern. Um-fazi (-f azi). 



GROUPS S, T : THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 305 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mangwatco 

74 b. Si-kcolcolu 

74 c. Njenji 



75- 
posa 

(Kafir dialects) 



75 a. 
Zulu 



75 b. 
Swazi 



75 c. 

Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



76. 
Gaza 

(A-ngcani) 



Milk 


Ma.si, 


Ama-si. 


Ama-si. 


Ema-si. 


Ama-si. 


Lu-isi. 




Ma.p'. 


U-bisi. 


U-bisi 


Lu-bisi 


Lu-dagca 


Ma-si 




(•xama = 


(-senga = 












to milk). 


to milk. 












Mu-silili, 


■kama = 












Li-bisi (74 b) 


to squeeze 
teat) 










Monkey ... 


Kxatla. 
Kxabco. 
N-jcokco (74 b). 
Bonji (74 b) 


In-kau 


In-kau 


In-kau 


In-kau 


Li-geoca-ne 


Moon, moon- 


Kxw-edi. 


I-nyanga. 


I-nyaiiga. 


Uluny-ezi. 


I-nyana 


Nyanga 


light 


Nw-edi (74 a). 
Kweli (74 b) 


Uny-ezi. 
(Ikw-ezi = 
planet) 


Uny-ezi 


I-nyanga 






Mother ... 


Mma. 


U-ma. 


U-mame. 


Make. 


U-mame. 


Mama. 




Me (74 b) 


Nyeo-ko) 


U-nyeo-ku). 


U-mame. 


U-nyco-kco. 


Nyco-ko). 






(thy). 


U-nina 


U-nyco-kco. 


U-nina 


mna 






U-nina 




U-nina 










(his, mother 














in general). 














(I-nyto = 














vagina) 










Mountain ... 


Le-ncwe. 
Thaba 


In-taba 


In-taba 


In-tsaba 


In-taba 


N-tawa 


Mouth 


McD-lcomco 


Um-lwmu 


Um-lcomeo 


Um-lcomco 


Um-lcomco 


M-lcomco 


Nail (of finger 


Lcon-ala 


U-zip<o 


U-zipco 


Lu-galco 


Ulu-zipeo 


Lu-zipco 


or toe) . . . 














Name 


Li-ina. 
Le-bitsoj. 
Li-biz« (74 b) 


I-gama. 
I-bizco (HI.) 


I-bizco 


Ili-bitco 


I-bizco 

> 


Li-bizcs 


Navel 


Khubu. 


In-kaba. 


In-kaba 


In-kaba. 


In-kaba 


N-c|awa 




Mu-kubu(74b) 


Isi-bonco 




Isi-bonco 




Neck 


Thamto. 


In-tamoj 


In-tamco. 


In-tsamco. 


In-tamco 


N-tamu. 




Mu-lala(74b) 




Isi-jingco. 
Um-qala 


Umpimbeo 




M-sunduru 
Ki-natco 


Night 


Bco-sixco. 
Ba)-siu (74 b). 
Li-fifi (74 b) 


Ubu-suku. 
(Ubu-flfi = 
darkness) 


Ubu-suku 


Ubu-suku 


Ubu-suku 


U-siku 


Nose 


N-kS. 

N-ku(74b) 


I-pumleo, 
Um-pumlco. 
Um-bombco 

(the bridge) 


Im-ptimulco. 
Um-bombco 


Im-p'umulcd 


Im-pumulco 


M-pumulco 


Ox 


Kxcomcd. 


In-kcomcd. 


In-kabi. 


In-kabi. 


In-kabi 


N-kcomco. 




Kumco (74 b). 


In-gcomco. 


Im-bapu. 


I-nombe 




Li-boya. 




Pulu (74 b) 


In-kabi 


In-kcomoi 






Kawi 


Paddle ... 


Si-laboj (74 b) 


U-pini 


I-pini 


Ulu-gwehla 




. . . 


Palm wine, 


Bco-yalwa, 


Ubu-tyalwa, 


U bu-tyala 


Ubu-tywala. 


Ubu-tyala 


U-cwala. 


beer 


Bu-jalwa 


U-tyala 




Bu-fyema-ne 




U-gai 


Parrot 


. . . 


Isi-kwenene 


... 


Isi-kwe 




... 


Penis 


Polo. 


U(lu)-bolco. 


U(Iu)-bolco. 


Ulu-bolco. 


Ulu-boloa. 


... 




N-cuku 


Um-tondu 


Um-tondo) 


Um-tcotco 


Um-tondoa 




Pig 


Kulube. 


In-gulube. 


In-gulube. 


Ifi-gulube. 


Ifi-gulube 


N-guruwe 




Kulubi (74 b) 


I-hangu 


In-kcotcotco 


I-unji 






Pigeon 


Le-eba. 
Le-peoi. 
Liba (74 b) 


I-zuba. 
I-hcdbe 


I-juba 


Li-tuba 


In-kwilimbi 


Li-jiwa 



3o6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mangwatu 

74 b. Si-kulcolu 

74 c. Njenji 



75_- 
posa 
{Kajir dialects) 



75 a. 
Zulu 



75 b. 
Swazi 



75 c. 

Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



76. 

Gaza 

(A-ngconi) 



Place Heloa; 

ma-helca. 

Xcolo. 

Lu>-baka. 

Ha- (prefix) 

Rain Pula_ 

Rat (sometimes Le-budi. 
large mouse) Le-kcote. Peba 
Rhinoceros Chukudu. 

Keninyani. 

KobaSba. 

Kxetlua 
River N-coka. 

M(o-lapca 
Road Tsela. 

Zila (74 b). 

Mu-kwakwa 

(74 b) 



Salt .. 



Shame 

Sheep... 
Shield... 

Shoulder 

Sister... 

Skin ... 
Sky ... 

Slave... 



Le-cwai. 
Li-swai (7 b) 



Di-tlhon ; ma- 
Bu-swaba 

(74 b) 

N-ku. 

N-gu (74 b) 
Thebe 



Le-rudi. 

Le-xetla. 

Li-heta (74 b) 
Kxan-tsadi, 

Kxai-tsadi. 

Kai-seli (74 b) 
Le-tlalo. 

Li-talco (74 b) 
Le-xco-dimco. 

Li-hu-lim<o 

(74 b) 
Mco-lala: ba-. 

Le-xoba. 

Le-lata;ina.g. 

(Mo.tl'anka 

= servant), 

Mu-tanga 

(74 b) 



In-dawo) 



Im-vula 
Im-puku. 

I-buzi 
Um-kombe 



In-dawu 



Im-vula 
I-buzi. 

Im-puku 
U-peja-ne 



Um-lambo>. 

Um-fula 
In-dlela. 

Um-b'udu 

(HI.). 

Um-endeo. 

In-tlele. 

Um-zila 

(cattle or 

waggon track) 
I-tyuwa. 

I-tyiwa. 

(Mu-ndu = 

sour, brackish. 

-munya ■= 

sucking ; 

-munyu = 

' sweets ') 
In-tlconi. 

(-hlcona == 

to be afraid). 

1-hlazco 
Im-vu. 

I-gusa 
I-k'aka. 

I-kawu. 

I-hau 
I-gdalaba 



U-dade ; 
tei-dade 

Ulu-su 

I-zulu. 
Isi-bagabaga 

I-ko>bcoka 



Um-lambco. 
Um-fula 
In-dlela 



Umu-nyu-sa. 
Mu-nyu 
(also ' acid ') 



Izin-hlconi, 
Ama-hlconi. 
I-hlazu 

Im-vu 

Isi-hlangu. 

I-rau or 

I-vau 
I-hlombe. 

I-deba 



U-dade 

Isi-kumba 
I-zulu 



In-Cjoibuka. 
Isi-(^ili 



In-dzawto 



Im-vula 
I.gundw-ane 

Um-kombu 



Um-fula. 

Um-lambco 
Um-kangco. 

Um-gwancco. 

In-dhlela 



Lu-tswayi. 
U mu-nyu 



£ma-hluni- 
In-hlcani. 
I-hlazcd 

Im-vu 

Isi-kapu, 
Ili-hawu. 
Si-hlanga 

Li-hlombe. 
Li-debe 

U-dzadze 



Lu-gogoj 
Li'-tulu 

Si-gdili 



In-dawdi 



I-zulu 
I-gundw-ane 

I-beja-ne. 
Um-kombu. 
Um-hojfu 

Um-lamboa. 
Um-fula 
In-dlela 



I-cwai 



In-hlcani 
Im-vu 

I-hlombe 

U-dade 

Isi-kcoku 
I-zulu 



Um-sutu. 
I-cina. 
Li-h(oli 



N-dawti>. 
Ki-kunga 



M-vula 
Li-gundw-ane. 
M-bewa 



M-fula 
N-jira 



Mu-nyu 



^coni ; 

zi-pconi 

Yira-vu ; 
zim-vu 



Li-sombe 

U-dade ; 
o}-dade 

Ki-kumba 

Li-zuru 



Mu-fu. 
M-cawa 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 307 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a- 


75 b- 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


Posa 

(Kajir dialects) 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwateo 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngwni) 




74 b. Si-kcolcdlcd 














74 c. Njenji 












Sleep 


Boj-roko. 
Bu-lcakco 

(74 b) 


Ubu-tongco. 
Ubu-tuya 


Ubu-tongco 


Ubu-t'ongoo, 
Ubu-tfongco. 
Zela. 
U-lele 


Ubu-tofioa 


U-tong(o 


Smoke 


Mcj-si, 


Um-si, 


Umu-si. 


In-tfutfu. 


In -tutu 


Mu-si 




M-usi 


Ulu-si 


I si -si 


In-tut'u 






Snake 


N-oxa, 
N-coha. 

(Si-bidi = 

viper) 
(74 b) 


Iny-oka. 
(I-mamba = 
pythmi). 
I-fcoli. 
I-nunu 


Iny-oka. 
(In-hlwatu = 
python). 
I-mamba. 
(I-pimbi = 
puff-adder) 


Iny-oka 


Iny-oga 


Ny-oka 


Son, boy ... 


Mo-rw'-. 


Um-ana, 


Uny-ana. 


Um-sawa. 


ln-d«ada-na. 


M-tw-ana. 




(Mo-rw-ake = 


Uny-ana, 


In-dcoda-na 


In-dvcodza-na. 


Um-fa-na 


M-ta'. 




my son. 


Um-fa-na. 




In-dcoda-na 




M-fa-na 




Mo-rw-aoj = 


Ifi-kwenkwe 












thy son) 












Song 


Pina 


I-(!ulco. 


I-gama. 


lii-gcoma. 


Isi-hlabeli. 


U-yimbfis 




(dance, also). 
Koma 


In-gcoma 


I-hubo 


Isi-hlabelelco 


I fi-gcoma 








Isi-hlabelelco 










(drum). 














Binco (74 b) 












Spear 


Le-rumw 


Um-kontco. 
Isi-kali, 
Isi--yele 


Um-kontco. 
Isi-yeleyele. 
I-qaqa 


Isi-kali 


Um-kontoo 


M-kondco 


Spirit, soul 


M-oJa. 


Um-oya. 


Um-oya. 


Um-kcobco. 


Um-oya. 


... 




Mw-eya, 


Um-pwlcogu 


Um-lcozi. 


M-pefumlco 


Um-pefumulco 






Mvv-ea. 




I-dhlcozi. 










Mcu-dimca 




I-tongco 








Star 


Na-ledi 


Ikw-ezi. 
Ifi-kwe-fikw-ezi 
Ifikany-esi 


Ifikany-ezi. 
Ikw-ezi 


liikany-eti 


liikany-ezi, 
Ifi-kwe-kw-izi 


Lukany-ezi 


Stick 


Tsamma. 


Ulu-ti. 


Ulu-ti 


Ulu-ti. 


Ulu-ti.^ 


N-duku. 




Thupa. 


In-t'onga. 




In-dvuku. 


In-tona 


N -tonga. 




T«ba-ni 


Ulu-swazi ; 
in-tswazi 




In-dugu 




Lu-swazi 


Stone, bare 


Le-ncwe ; 


Ili-tye, 


Ili-tye 


I-gbwe. 


Ili-tye 


Li-ce 


rock 


ma-ye, 
ma-dye. 
Li-jwe (74 b) 


Ili-ce. 

Ili-wa. 

I-tala 




I-je, 
I-j'e. 
Ili-tye 






Stool 


Si-pula (74 b) 




Isi-hlalco 


Si-hlalco 


Isi-hlalco 




Sun 


Le-tsatsi. 

Li-zazi (74 b) 


Manga. 
!-gala. 
Is- Ota (HI) 


I-langa 


I-laiaga. 
I-cisa 


I-laiia 


Li-ranga 


Tail (of an 


Mco-xatla. 


Um-sila 


Um-sila. 


Ili-^ba 


Um-sila 


Li-ccowa. 


animal) 


Mu-hata 

(74 b) 




I-ccoba 






M-sira 


Tear, tears 


Keledi. 

Mw-wkco(74bJ 


Inye-mbezi 


Unye-mbezi ; 

pi.\- 


Inye-mbeti 


Inye-mbezi 


Nye-mbezi 


Testicles ... 


Ma-rete 
(sing, le-rete). 
Li-leta (74 b) 


Ama-sende, 
1-sende 


Ama-sende 


I-sendze ; ama- 


... 


... 


Thief 


Le-xcodu. 
Li-pcoH (74 b) 


I-sela. 
Ny-ong«za 


I-sela 


Li-sela 


I-sela 


M-bafa 


Thigh 


Se-reope. 
Si-lupi 

(74 b) 


I-tanga 


I-tanga 


I-tanga, 
I-tsanga 


... 


... 



3o8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


pSsa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwat(o 


(/Ca/ir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolcoloa 














74 c. Njenji 












Thing, things, 


Se-15, Se-o. 


I-ntto ; 


I-ntu ; 


I-ntfu ; 


I-ntcd 


I-ntca; 


property 


Di-15, Di-6. 


izi-ntco. 


izi-ntco. 


iti-ntfoa. 




zi-ntcd 




Si-ka (74 b). 


I-ni. 


Ulu-tco 


I-nt'ou 








N-too ; tu-tci> 


U-t'oa 












(74 b) 












Thorn 


Mu-tlwa ; mi-. 


I(l-i)va ; 


Ili-iva ; 


Iliny-eva. 


Il-iva ; 


L-ifa ; 




Mu-klwa. 


am-eva. 


am-eva 


Emany-eva 


am-eva 


m-efa 




Mw-utwa 


Ukw-eva. 












(74 b) 


Um-nga; 

imi-nga. 

Um-kiwa-ni 










Tobacco ... 


Mco-ccokaa. 
Gwai (74 b) 


I-duba 


U-gwai 


Ili-gwayi. 
I-kwai 


U-gwai 


Li-gwayi. 
Li-fcoli 


To-day 


Xo-mpi yencd. 
Ka-yenca. 
Ka-cek<o(74b) 


Nam-hla. 
Nam-hla-nje 


Namu-hla 


Lcomu-hla 


Lamu-hla 


Namu-pla 


Toe 


Mo-nw-ana 


U-zw-ane ; 
in-zw-ane. 
(Ulu-zw-ane ; 
Izin-zw-ane) 


U-zw-ane 


Ulu-zw-ane. 
Lu-tw-ane 


U-zw-ane 


Lu-zipoa Iwa 
lu-nyau 


To-morrow 


Kamco-^o. 
Kamu-seo(74b) 


Ngom-sco 


Ngcomu-sto 


Nge-mu-scj. 
Ku-sasa 


Umu-seo 


Ku-sasa 


Tongue 


Lio-leme ; //. 
di-teme. 
Li-limi (74 b) 


Ulw-imi 


U(lu)-limi. 
(Ui-laka = 
uvula, soft 
palate, root 
of tongue) 


Ulu-lwimi 


U-limi 


Lu-limi 


Tooth 


Le-ino ; 
m-enu 


I(li)z-inyeo ; 
am-enyeo, 
ama-zinycd 


Ili-zinyco; ama- 


Li-tinyeo ; ama- 


I-zinyco ; ama- 


Li-zinyu ; ma- 


Town 


Mco-tse. 
Mu-zi (74 b) 


Um-zi 


Umu-zi 


Umu-ti. 
Weba-lumbi 

{i. e. the place 
of white men) 


Umu-zi 


Mu-zi 


Tree 


Se-tl'are. 
Kcota (74b,c). 
Mo-re {cts a 
source of 
medicine) 


Um-ti ; imi-ti 


Umu-ti 


Umu-tsi. 
Isi-hlahla, 
Si-hlcohla 


Isi-hlahla 


Kimu-ti 


Twins 


Ma-hatla 


I-wele ; 
ama-wele 


Ama-pahla. 
Ama-wele 


Ema-pahla. 

Ema-wele 


Ama-pahla 


Li-papa ; ma- 


Urine 


Mco-trapco. 


Um-damco. 


Um-tycobingoj. 


Um-tfondvco. 


Um-tondoa 


M-tundcd 




Mu-lutu (74 b) 


Um-kamto. 
Um-tondco. 
Ubu-tuntioj 


Um-tondcj 


Um-tundu 






Vein 


Lu-sika ; 
di-tsika. 
Muthapu 


Um-tambco? 
(Um-sip'a = 
sinew, nerve, 
vein) 


Um-tambw 


Um-tsambo> 


Um-tambu 




War 


Di-ra." 


Uku-lwa, 


Izi-ta, 


Im-pi. 


Ugu-lwa 


Yim-pi. 




Xco-lwa.'' 


Uku-lw-ana. 


Uku-lwa. 


Uku-lwa 




Ku-lwa 




N-twa (74 b). 


U-tabi. 


Im-fazwe. 










Tl'abanu 


Im-fazwe. 


Im-pi 










(74 a) 


Ubu-fa 











(violence) 



» The classical ' W-ta.' 



• The classical ' Ku-rwa '. 



GROUPS S, T : THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 309 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mangwatco 

74 b. Si-kulcolu 

74 c. Njenji 



75- 
posa 

{Kafir dialects) 



75 a. 
Zulu 



75 b. 
Swazi 



75 c. 
Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



76. 
Gaza 

(A-ngoani) 



Water ... 


M-etse. 
M-ezi (74 b) 


Ama-nzi 


Ama-nzi 


Ema-nti. 
Ama-nti 


Ama-nzi 


Ma-nzi. 
Lw-anjse 


Well, source 


Se-diba 


Um-tombco. 

Ama-ze 


Um-tombco 


Um-jeleo 


... 


Li-puputoo 


White man 


Se-khoaa ; pi. 


Um-lung^ ; 


Um-lungu ; 


Um-lumbi ; 


Ili-kiwa 


... 




di-khua. 


abe-lungu 


abe-luingu 


aba-, abe- 








Le-khcoa;ma-. 














Mu-kuwa 














(74 b) 












Wife 


Mio-sadi. 


Um-ka. 


Um-ka ; pi. 


Um-ka. 


Um-fazi. 


M-fazi, 




Mu-ta-wa-ka 


Um-fazi 


om-ka. 


Um-fati. 


Um-ka 


M-fasi 




(74 b) 




Um-fazi; pi. 
aba-fazi 


Um-sikati 






Wind 


Pheho. 


I-pepco. 


Isi-pepto 


Um-oya 


Isi-pepco. 


M-oya ; 




Mo-iya (74 b) 


Im-bepci>. 
Uni-oya ; 
imim-oya 






Um-oya 


mi-oya 


Witch, sor- 


Mco-loi. 


l-gqwiya. 


Um-takati. 


Um-loyi. 


Um-tagati 


M-tagati. 


cerer 


Se-hep'e(74a). 


Um-takati. 


Um-lcozi. 


Um-tsakats'i 




Ny-anga. 




Se-tlwdi. 


Um-lcozi. 


Um-gcoma. 


Iny-anga. 




M^lcowi 




Mu)>takhati. 


Isa-nuse 


Um-lcozi-kazana 


Um-gcoma 








Mu-loyi (74 b) 


(/;^£7;«-nuka).' 
I-pinganisa 










Witchcraft 


Toxo. Bm-loi. 


Ubu-takatco. 


Ubu-takatco 


Ubu-tsakatsco. 


Ubu-tagatco. 


U-takati. 




Boj-tubi, 


Isi-pinganiscd 




Uku-loya 


Ubu-loyco 


U-lcowi 




Bu-loyi (74 b) 












Woman ... 


Mu-sali, 


Um-fazi 


Um-fazi. 


Um-sikati 


Isi-faza-na. 


M-fazi 




M(u-sadi. 


(/. e. ^female 


-kazi. 




Um-fazi 






Mco-reoba. 


tnorial""). 


I-nina 




. 






Tsali, 


-kazi. 












Cadi = 


Ifi-kaza-na. 












women in 


I-nina 












general 












Womb ... 


PupSlco. 


Isi-zalco. 


Isi-su. 


lii-gcobcoti. 


Um-hali^kazi 






Se-bcopelco 


(Enya = 

vagina) 


Isi-zalco 


In-hlapco 






Wood (fire- 


Lco-xon ; 


U(lu)-k'uni; 


In-kuni 


Ulu-khuni ; 


In-kuni 


Lu-kuni ; 


wood) 


di-kxon 


In-k'uni. 
I-hlati 




tin- 




ziri-kuni 


Year 


Nw-axa ; 
liny-axa. 
Ny-axa. 
Mw-aha (74 b) 


Umny-aka 


Umny-aka 


Uny-aka ; 
iminy-aka 


Umny^aga 


Mny-aka 


Yesterday... 


Maabane 


I-zwloa 


I-Zcol(d 


I-tuloa 


I^zcolu 


I-zcoloi. 
Pe-zorco 


Zebra 


Pitse. 


I-dawu, 


I-dube, 


I-dfuba, 


I^dube 


Li-duwe 




Pizi (74 b). 


I-dauwa. 


I -tube 


I-duba 








Kululu (74 a) 


I-dube. 
I-kwaxa. 










One 


•nwe. 


I-tjwaya 
I-nye, 


I-nye, 


I-nye, 


•nye 


•nye. 




■mwe (74 c). 


•nye 


•nye 


•nye 




-mcozi 




N-tlha. 














•ngwe (74 b) 













To smell out. In-ganga = a man of high position. 
Uku-lcoza = to -whistle, bewitch. Um-lcozi = a ventriloquist. 



-ganga = bold, exalted. Ukuny-anga = to bewitch. 
" From Um-fco (« person, a mortal) -^ -azi. 



3JO 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


posa 

{Kajtr dialects) 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 






(Sin-debele) 


(A^ngconi) 




74b. Si-kulcolu 














74 c. Njenji 






> 






Two 


Peli. 
-beli. 
•bele (74 c) 


-bini, 
-m-bini, -bill 


-bili 


-bili 


■bUi 


•will 


Three 


Tharto, 
•rarti). 
-tal«, 
■lalco (74 b, c) 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-tsatfu. 
tatu 


•tatu 


•tatu 


Four 


Nne. -ne. 
■nem 74 c) 


-ne, 
-nne 


-ne 


•ne 


•ne 


•nne 


Five 


Tl'anco, 
-tanco (74 b). 
Keta-li-zcohco 

(74 b)'. 
Li-kitalizco 

(74 c) 


-hlanu, 
-tlanu 


-hlanu 


•hlanu 


•hlanu 


•planu or 
-sanco 


Six 


Thatarco. 
-ratarco. 
Tp'elela. 
Keta li-zcohco 

ka-ngwe(74b) 


•tandatu 


Isi-tupa' 


Si-tfupa, 
Si-tupa 


•tan tatu 


•planu na 
mcozi 


Seven 


gupa 


-pabela. 


Kombisa ' or 


Li-sontfco. 


Nconye 


•planu na 






Kombile or 


I-sondco 




wUi 






In-pomba 


I-nk5ta 








Eight 


Fera {or Roba) 


-bcopco. 


piya-ngalco 


Si-pcohlongco. 


Fida 


•planu na 




ele me-beli, 


-b'cozco. 


lorn-bile * 


Gcobe-n-galco- 


nem-bile 


tatu 




or Fera 


-m-bcopco. 




m-bili 








"m-eli 


Isi-pcohlongco. 

Tcoba 

'mnwem-bini 










Nine 


Fera 


I -tcoba. 


^iyagalco 


piyagalto- 


Fida 


•planu na nne 




mo-nw-ana 


Tcoba 


lu-nye ' 


lu-nye. 


ncomu^nye 






coli mo-ncoe 


'mnwem-nye 




Geobe-galeo- 

lu-nye 






Ten 


^comg, 
Le-peome. 

Li-pumi(74b). 
•sumwe (74 c) 


1 -pumi 


1-pumi 


Li-pumi 


Cumi 


I •cumi 


Eleven 


^come-cwa- 


I-pumi 


I-pumi 


Li-pumi-lwi- 


Cumi 


I-cumi na 




ka-nwe 


elina-nye 


na-nye 


iiga-nye 


na nye 


mcozi 


Twenty ... 


Ma-pcome 


Aina-pumi 


Ama-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma-cumi 




ale-ma-beli. 


ama-bini 


ama-bili 


ma-bili 


ama-bili 


ma^wili 




Ma-pumi 














ama-beli(74b) 












Thirty 


Ma-pcome ale 


Ama-pumi 


Ama-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma^cumi 




ma-tharco 


ama-tatu 


ama-tatu 


ma-tsatfu 


ama-tatu 


raa^tatu 


Forty 


Ma-p<ome ale 


Ama-pumi 


.■\ma-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma^cumi 




ma-nne 


atna-ne 


ama-ne 


ma-ne 


ama-ne 


ma-nne 


Fifty 


Ma-pcome ale 
nia-thanco 


Ama-pumi 


Ama-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma-cumi 




ama-tlanu 


ama-hlanu 


ma-hlanu 


ama-hlanu 


ma-planco 


Hundred . . . 


Le-kxcolo. 

Li-kcoleo(74b). 
Mi-anda(74b) 


I-kilu, 
lli-kulu 


I-kulu 


Li-kulu 


Li-kulu 


... 


Thousand... 


Sikiti 


I-wtUca 


1-kulungwa-ne 


lii-kulungw-ane 


Isi^giti 


... 



' Finishes the hand'. ' ' The thumb '. 

^iya izin^galco ezim^bili = ' leaves two members ' (/'. e. fingers) before ten. 

^iya n-galco lulu-nye = ' leaves one member'. 



^ Point' {with index finger). 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECU ANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 311 



English 


74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 
posa 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolcolcd 














74 c. Njenji 












I, me, my ... 


N-na, 


M-na, Mi-na. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-nne. 




Nk.a.N.,N-co., 


Ndi-, Di-. 


Ngi-, Nge-. 


Ngi-. 


Ni-. 


Ngi- or Ndi-. 




K-ea., K-e-, 


-di-, -ndi-. 


-figi-. .mi. 


•mi. -ngi-. 


-ni-. -mi. 


-ngi-, -ndi-. 




K-a-. 


-m, -mi. -a-m 


-a-mi 


-a-mi 


-a-mi 


•mi. -a.mi 




-n-, -m-. -me, 














-ka (my) 












Thou, thee, 


We-na. 


We-na. 


We-na. 


We-nu. 


We.na. 


We-na. 


thy 


(x)- or (Jd&: 


Ku-, U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 




■xo>.. -xaxco, 


-ku-. -we,-ku, 


-ku-. -we. 


•ku-. -we. 


•gu-. -kca. 


-ku-. -wu. 




-h-au (74 b) 


-kco. -a.kco 


-a.kco 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


-kco. -a-kco 


He, him, his 


E-na, E-ne. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 




Ye-na (74 b). 


U, Ka-, A-. 


U.,E-,A-,Ku-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-, A-, I-. 




E., A-, 0)., 


-m-. -ye. 


-mu-, -m-. 


•m-. -ye. 


•mu-, -m'.. 


•mu.. -yu or 




OO-a-. 


-a-ke 


-ye,' -ke. 


-a-ke 


•ke 


-ngu, -ke 




•mw-. -xaxwe. 




-a.ke 










-ha-i (74 b) 












We, us, our 


Rco-na, Cu-na. 


Ti-na. 


Ti-na. 


Tsi.na. 


Ti-na. 


Ti-ni. 




Lu-na (74 b). 


Siti-, Si-. 


Si-, Sco-. 


Si-. 


Si-. 


Ti-. 




Re-, Roj-, 


-ti. -ti-. 


-ti, -iti. -si-. 


-si-. 


•si^. 


•«•• 




Re-a-. 


-etu 


-etu 


-tfu, -tu 


•itu 


-itu 




•re-, -rco-na, 














•cco-na 












Ye, you, your 


Lco.na,Nye-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni^na. 




Mi-na (74 b). 


Ni-. 


Ni-, Nco- 


Ni.. 


Ni- or Li-. 


Mu^. 




Leo-, Lco-a-. 


-ni-. -nini, 


-ni-. -ini. 


-ni.. 


•li-. 


•wani-. 




-Ito-. -Ico-na, 


•ni. 


•enu 


-nu 


•inyu 


-inu 




-nye-na 


-enu 










They, them. 


Beo-ne. 


Bco-na. 


Bco-na. 


Bco-na. 


Bco-na. 


Weo^na. 


their 


Bco-na (74 b). 


Ba-. 


Ba-, Be-, Bco-. 


Beo-, Ba.. 


Ba-. 


Wa-. 




Beo-, Ba-. 


•ba-. -a-bco. 


•ba-. -bco. 


-ba-. 


-ba- 


-wa-. -co or 




•ba-. -bco-ne 


-babco, -bco 


-a-bco 


•bco 


bco 


-wco 


All 


-tlhe ((o-tlhe, 
&^c.). Kau-fela 
(74 b) 


■onke 


•onk-ana, 
■onke. 
Ku.pela 


•onke 


-onke 


-onge 


This, these 


E-oj, e-nco ; 


Leo, aba ; Ico, 


Leo, Icona ; 


Leo, aba ; leo. 


Leo, la-ba; leo. 


Leo-yu, la-wa ; 




ba, ba-nco ; 


le ; eli, la ; 


la-l}a ; Ico, 


le ; eli ; Q^c. 


le; le-li, 


Ico-u, le-i ; 




CO, co-nco ; e. 


esi, ezi ; le, 


Icona ; le, 




la-wa ; le-si. 


le-li, la-ga ; 




e-nco; ye. 


ezi ; colu ; 


lena; le-li ; 




le-zi ; le. 


le-ki, le-vi ; 




ye-nco; a. 


cobu ; coku ; 


la, lana ; 




le-zi ; Ico-lu ; 


le-i, le-zi ; 




a-nco ; se, 


apa 


le-si ; le-zi ; 




Ico-bu ; Ico-gu 


leo-lu ; lu-tu ; 




se-nco ; tse. 




le, lena ; 






la-ka ; Ico-wu ; 




tse-nco ; ye. 




le-zi ; Ico-lu ; 






Ico-ku ; la-pa ; 




ye-nco ; tse, 




Ico-bu ; Ico-ku 






Ico-mu 




tse-nco ; Ico, 














lu>-nco ; bco. 














bcD-nco ; xco, 














xcj.nco ; fa, 














fco, ha, he-nco. 














Ya or yco ; ba. 














baco ; u or 














wu, e, yco ; 














le or leco, cfc. 














(74 b) ; -ani 














(74 b) 













Ngiiye = emphatic ' it is he '. 



312 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 
Dosa 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatcp 


yK»fir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolulo» 














74 c. Njenji 












That, those 


E-co, ba-M ; 


Lco-wcu, Lco-wa; 


Loa-wa, Ico-wio ; 


Lco-wa ; e-loa ; 


L-uwoa, 1-aboa; 


Lcoyani or 




CD-CO, ey-eo ; 


ab-co, aba-ya ; 


la-bo) ; Ica-wco; 


d^'^. 


1-oawco, le-yco; 


Luya ; 




ye-co, a-co ; 


lu-wa>, lco-wa ; 


le-y(o ; le-lco ; 




le-loa, I-awco ; 


La-wa-yani, 




d^c. 


le-yio, le-ya ; 


la-wco; la-wa; 




le-sco, le-zca ; 


La-wa-ya; dr'f. 




co-le, baJe; 


el-co, eli-ya ; 


le^so) ; (S^f. 




le-yoa, le-zoa ; 






(o-le, e-le; 


la-\v<o, 


Loaya or 




loj-loj ; loj-boa ; 






ye-le, a-le; 


la-waya ; es-co, 


loa-wa-ya ; 




Iu)-kco 






6-f. 


esi-ya; ez-co. 


la-ba-ya; &'c. 




Lco-wa-ya ; 






■all (74b) 


ezi-ya ; le-yo), 
le-ya ; ez-co, 
ezi-ya; col-co, 
tolu-ya ; cob-co, 
cobu-ya ; cuk-oa, 
u)ku-ya ; ap-co 
With N direc- 
tive : — If ku, 
■nkco; -ba.-bco. 
Ngu, -figco ; 
-ntsi, -ntsco ; 
•li or -Ico, -nga 
or -ngco ; -si 
or -SCO, -zi or 
-zco ; -lu or 
-Ico ; -bu or 
-bco ; -ku or 
-koa 


With N direc- 
tive : — If gu, 
■figoa; -mpa, 
&'c. ; -nku ; 
-ntsi; -nti; 
-nka; -si; -zi; 
-ntsi ; -zi ; -lu 
-ntu ; -mpu ; 
-ku 




la-ba-ya ; 

&-C. 

With N direc- 
tive : — nu, 
•mpa ; -fiku, 
-nsi ; -nti, 
-nka; -nsi, 
-nzi ; -nsi, 
-nzi ; -ntu ; 
-mpu ; -fiku 




Bad 


-ike-pco. 
(Xoj-ike-pa = 
to be bad). 
Ma-8we (74 b) 


•bi 


-bi 


■u 


-bi 


•wi 


Black 


•ncco. 
-nsu (74 b) 


-mnyama 


-mnyama 


•mnyama. 
-ntima 


-mnyama 


-mnyama 


Female 


•cadi. 


-kaza-na. 


-si-faza-na. 


-n-sikati 


-sifaza-na. 


-ifazi. 




-nama-xadi. 


-kazi. 


-si-kazi. 




-sikazi 


-isikazi 




-hali(74b) 


-m-azi. 
-fazi 


-kazi 








Fierce, sharp 


-xale. 


Giala.. 


Nco-laka. 


N<o-lunya 


Lco-laka. 


•kali 




Bco-xale. 


-kali. 


-kali 




Lu-hlanya 






-hali (74 b) 


(Uku-lcola = 
to sharpen). 
-bazi 










Good 


•lem». 


-hie. 


-hie. 


-nhle. 


-luna, 


-pie 




-nde(74b) 


-m nandi. 

(Uku-lunga = 
to be good). 
Cf. LugAndA 


Fanele. 
-lunga, 
-lungi-le 


-lungi-le 


•Infinite, 
-m-nandi 




Great 


■gcolco, 
•zcolco. 
•hulu (74 b). 
•tuna (74 b) 


-nene, 
-kulu 


•kulu 


-kulu 


-kulu 


•kuru 


Little 


•nye. 

•nyenyani, 
-nyani (74 b) 


•n^indi. 
-n(3iny-ane. 
-efi<Je 


•ndi(!i 


•nda-ne. 
-n(ja-ne 


■niiii 


-nyani 


Long,high,tall 


-telele 


-da; 
-de; 
-de-pa 


•de 


■de 


de 


-de 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 313 



English 


74. 
Se-cuana 


75- 
Qosa 


75 a. 
Zulu 


Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


(Ka/ir dialects) 






(Sin^debele) 


(A^ngeoni) 




74 b. Si-kcdlulcd 














74 c. Njenji 












Male 


■nuna. 


-doda. 


-n-duna. 


■dfuna, 


•lisa. 


•dcoda. 




•tuna (74 b) 


•duna 


■duda. 

■lisa, 

■silisa. 

-ma-lume 

(relation) 


■duna 


•duna 


•duna 


Old 


Cu>-hala. 
Su^pezi (74 b) 


■dala 


•dala. 

•guga 


■dsala 


•dala 


•dala, 
-dara 


Red 


Kwibidu. 
Hubidu. 
•fubelu (74 b) 


•bomvu 


•bomvu 


•boavu 


•bomvu 


■bomvu 


Rotten 


-bodu. 
•bojla, 
-bcoli^li 


•bojU^le 


-buli^le 


bcoli^le 


■boali^le 


■vira. 
■bcola 


Short 


Khutsh^ane. 
Kusw-ani 
(74 b) 


•fupi. 
•fus^ane 


•fupi 


-fipa, 
-flea, 
-duze 


•fity^ane 


■fic^ane 


Sick 


•Iwala. 
Ba)-b<ola. 
•kula (74 b) 


■Iwelwe 


•gula-yo), 
•gula 


•gula 


■gula 


•gura 


White 


Ceu, peu. 


•mhlojpe. 


-mhlcope. 


-mhlcope. 


•mhlojpe 


■mslcope 




(Chw-ana, in 


•ca<^aula 


-ndwe 


-kanya 




1 




a feminine 


(very like 












sense). 


qaqaula) 












•sweu (74 b) 












Above, up, on 


Xco^dimco. 


P'e-zulu, 


Pe-zulu, 


E-tulu. 


Pe^zulu, 


Pe-zuru 


top 


Gco^dimcd 

(74 a). 
Hu-limcd 

(74 b) 


Pe^zu 


Pe-zu 


Nge-tulu 


Pe^zu 




Before 


Pele. 


Pa-mbi, 


Pa^mbi, 


Nge-mbile. 


Pa-mbile 


Pa-mbele^pa- 




Pidi(74b) 


Pa-mbili, 
Pa-mbile 


Pa^mbile. 
Ku-qala 


E-mbile 




(or -kwa-) 


Behind 


Movraxo. 
Mu-lahco 

(74 b) 


E^mva 


Ka^muva. 
Ngase^muva 


Nge-mtiva 


E^mva. 
Esi^pundu 


Muva 


Below, down 


Kwa^tlhats'e. 
Kwa^tasi 

(74 b) 


Pa^ntsi. 
Eza-ntsi 


Pa-ntsi 


Ngenda^nsi, 
-ntha^si 


Pa^nsi gu 


Pa-si 


Far 


Kxakala. 
Huli (74 b) 


Ku-de 


Ku-de 


E-kudze-ni. 
Kudze. Le. 
Ka.cane 


Ka^cana 


Ku^de^ni 


Here 


Ha^no), 


Apa 


Lapa. 


Lapa 


Kco^na. 


Apa. 




Fa-no). 




Keo-na-lapa 




Pa. 


Ku^na. 




Xo>-na. 








Lapa 


Pcone^rapa 




Kwa^no). 














Kwa-nu (74 b) 












In, inside ... 


Mco. 


Pa-kati. 


Pa-kati. 


Nge^katsi. 


Pa^gati. 


Mu-kati. 




-n (suffix). 


E ni. (-mco 


E ni 


E ni 


E ni 


Mu^ ; -ni. 




Ten. 


as a noun-root, 


(suffix) 






£■ 




Mwahali 


7iieaning 












(74 b) 


' dwelling ') 










Middle 


Xare. 
Kahali, 
Fa^hali (74 b) 


Pa-kati 


Pa-kati 


Em^katsi^ni 


Pa^gati 


Pa-kati 



314 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



74- I 7; 

Se-cuana '^^ 

„ 74 a. l(A-«/fr dialects) 

74b. Si-kulcoloij 
74 c. Njenji | 



75 a. 
Zulu 



75 b. 
SwEuei 



75 c. 

Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



76. 

Gaza 

(A-nguni) 



Near 



Outside 



Plenty, many 
There 



Where ? 



No! 



Xa-fihe, 

Xa-uhi. 

Ha-ufi, 

Ka-ufi (74 b) 
Ntle. 

Kwa-ntle. 

Kwa-ndi (74 b) 
Ntsi. 

Ha-hulu 
Hon, 

Xcona. 

Hale, 

Fale. 

Ten, 

Teni ' (74 b). 

F<a. 

Mani (74 b) 
Ka-e ? 

Ka-i? 

Nya! 



Ku-fupi 



I-ndle, 
Pa-ndle, 
E-ndle 

Ninzi 

Apu. 
Paya 



Not (wM verb, Xa-, Ha- ; 

as prefix, in- Se-, Si- ; 

fix or suffix) Sa- ; -ba, 
-6-pe, -pe 
(suffixes) 



To 

„ beat 

„ buy, sell 
,, come 

.. cut 

„ dance 
„ die... 
» eat 

.. give 



X(o- 
-betsa. 

-nata. 

-Ota (74 b) 
•reka, -leka 
•tla, 

•ta (74 b) 
■sexa, 

-seha. 

■puma (74 b) 
-bina 

■pwa 

■ya. 

•ja. 

-ku-ra (74 b) 
-aba. 
-naea. 
•nts'a. 
-fa (74 b) 



Futy-ane. 
E-doze 



Ipa-ndhle 



Ningi 

Lapco. 
Kuna. 
La- 



E-dfute. 
E-tuze 



Pi-na ? 



Hai! 



A-, Ana-, Ka-; 
-nga-, -nge- ; 
-nga, -anga. 
Musa- 

(Musa-ni-) 
luith impera- 
tives. Also 
by changing 
terminal -a of 
verb-root to -i 

Uku-, Uk* 
-beta 



Pi.> 
U -pi-na ? 
N-pyipi ? 

Ca ! 
Hail 
Qabcd! 

A- ; -nga-, 
•nge-, -ka- 
(not yet) ; 
•nga-. Also 
by changing 
terminal -a 
of verb-root or 
auxiliary verb 
into -i 



-tenga 
-iza, 

■za 
-sika. 

-tena 

■sina, 

-pina 
•fa. 

-bcopa 
•dla, 

-tya, 

•ja 
-nika. 

■pa 



Uku- 
•tyaya 

-tenga 
-za, 
-eza 
-sika 

-sina 

-fa 

-dhla 

-nika. 
•pa 



Futy-ane 



Hgapa-ndhle Ipa-ndhle 



Nyenti 

Lapu. 
Kwna 



Nini 
Kci>nap<o 



Pa-fic-ane 



Pa-nje or 
Pa-n^le 



Lapu. 
Na-paya 



Pi? 


Pi? 




Pi?; 




Na-pi . 




•pi? 


da! 


Aci! 




Nco! 


Ca-bo) 1 {very 






da! 


like Ka-bo) !) 








A-; -nga^; 


A-, Ka 


; -na-, 


A-, Ka- ; -nga- 


-nge, &'c. 


•ge- ; - 


na, •fie, 


•fioj-, -ng<u-; 


(terminal a 


•zana 


(neg. 


-nga. -si (in 


of verb-root 


verb). 


Yaka- 


verb 'to be') 


changes to i) 


(Yeka 


•ni-) 






with impera- 






tives. 


Also 






terminal a 






into -i, 


<5^'C. 




Ku- 


Uku- 




Ku- 


•caya 


-caya 




-caya 


•tsenga 


-tena 




•tenga 


•ta. 


■za 




•za 


-fika 








•juba 


•siga 




-sika 


•gidza. 


-gida. 






•gida 


•sina 






•& 


•fa 




•fa 


-dhla. 


•dhla 




•^la 


-nkiba 








.•pa. 


•niga. 




-pa. 


•nika 


-pa 




•pasa 



' Rather remarkable form, related to North-West Btntu. 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 315 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-maiigwatco 

74 b. Si-kulcolca 

74 c. Njenji 



75- 

Dosa 

(Kafir dialects) 



75 a. 
Zulu 



75 b. 
Swazi 



To 



go 



Xco- 
-ea, 



Uku-, Uk' 
■hamba. 



Uku- 
hamba. 



Ku- 
-hamba. 



75 c. 
Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



Uku- 
•hamba. 





■eta. 


-ya. 


-ya. 


•ya. 


•ya 




■ya(74b). 


-enda (to go 


(-endco = a 


-muka 






-zamaya 


away to be 


going) 








(74 b) 


married). 
(-endu, -endco 
= road, 
swift). 
-muka. = to 
go away 








„ kill ... 


-bcdlaea, 
•bcolaya 


-bulala 


•bulala 


•bulala 


-bulala 


„ know ... 


•itse. 


-azi, 


■azi. 


•aU 


•azi 




-ziba (74 b) 


-az' 


(-manya = 

to join to- 
i^ether) 






„ laugh ... 


-cexa, 
tse'xa. 
-seha (74 b) 


-hleka, 
•tleka 


•hleka 


•hleka 


•hlega 


„ leave off, 


•lesa 


-yeka 


-yeka 


•yeka. 


•yega. 


cease 








•suka 


•yege-Ia 


„ love, want 


•rata. 


-tanda. 


•tanda. 


•tsandza. 


-tanda 




-lata (74 b) 


-enda 
(marry). 
-funa (want) 


-funa 


•funa. 
■kanuka 




„ see 


buna. 


•bona 


-bona 


•bona. 


-bcona. 




■leba 






■buka 


-kanela 


„ sit, remain, 


-dula. 


•hlala. 


•hlala 


-hlala. 


-hlala 


abide 


-hara. 
-ina (74 b) 


-co-tama 




•sala 




„ sleep ... 


•rcobala, 
Icobala. 
(Ha>-laco.= 
sleeping-place) 


•lala. 
-kona, 
•xcona = 

S7wre 


•lala 


•lala 


-lala 


„ stand, stop, 


-ema 


•ma. 


•ma. 


•ma, 


-ma. 


be erect 




•simama. 

•yima. 

•cumama 


•simama 


•ema. 
•kaula 


•ema 


,, steal ... 


•ucwa. 


-b^, 


•ba. 


•ba 


•eba 




•uzwa 


•iba, 
-eba 


•eba 







76. 

Gaza 

(A^ngooni) 



Ku- 

•hamba. 
•ya 



•yaze, 
•yeza 



■seka 

-leka. 

-sia 
-tanda 



-bcona. 
-buka 



•slaza 
•lala 

•yima 

•yiba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN SE^CUANA AND SI-KOOLOOLO) (74b) 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mco., M^, Jfw^, Mu^ (74 b) (w-, a)-, mco, eco) ; 2. Ba^, Be^ (ba) ; 3. Mco^, Ifw^, Mu^ (74 b) 
(w-, o>, mo)-) ; 4. Me^, Mi- (74 b) (me-, e, ea-) ; 5. Le-, Li- (74 b) (ye-, le) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Se^, 
Si^ (74 b) (se, S-) ; 8. Li^, Di^ (tse-, ts-, li, c'-), Bi- (in 74 b) ; 9. — , N- (e, c-) ; 10. Li^, Di- (tse-, ts-, 
li, c'-, CO)-) ; II. Leo-, Lu- (74b) (Ito); 12. missing in Secuana but Tu- in 74 b ; 13. Xa- (e.'jtinct so far 



3i6 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

as concord goes), Ka- (with ka- concord) in 74 b ; 14. Bco-, Bu- (74 b) (bto, yio-) ; 15. Xeo-, Ku-, Hu- 
(74 b) (xo), x'-); 16. Ha-, Fa- (rarely used in Secuana, present in 74 b) (ha, fa-, xto, h'-) ; 17. Mc»-, Mwa- 
(-n, -ni, 74 b). 

The Na- prefix is present, though not noticeably. Its plural is usually Bco+ . The suffix diminutive 
•ana is much used and generally in a feminine sense. There is a real ' feminine ' gender in Secuana and 
Sikcolcalcd, conveyed by the -ana termination. 



PREFIXES, &c., IN pOSA AND ZXTLV 

Preprefixes present and much used. 

Class I. Umu-, Um-, U- (u-, co-, um-, om-, m, mu, -ye, wu-, fiku-, -ngu) ; 2. Aba-, Ba-, Abe-, (i)- 
(ba, b'-, -mpa) ; 3. Umu-, Um-, U- (u-, wu, um-, mu-, m-, -ngu, -iiku) ; 4. Imi-, I- (i, yi, mi-, -ntsi) ; 
5. Hi-, I- (li, 1'-, -nti) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a, wa (-wa-), w'-, afig'-, ay'-, -iika or -nga) ; 7. Isi-, Is'- (si, s'-) ; 
8. Izi- (zi, Z-. -nzi) ; 9. In- (Im-), I- (in-, i, yi, -ntsi) ; 10 Izi-, Izin- (zi, zin-, -nzi) ; 11. Ulu-, U- (lu, 
-ntu) ; 13. missing ; 13. Ka- (only surviving as an adverbial prefix to numerals and roots referring to 
time and space or honorific titles) ; 14. Ubu- (bu, -mpu) ; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Apa-, Pa-, Pe-, E- (only 
surviving as a prefix to prepositions or adverbs); 17. absent (concord, -mco, a rare suffix, and -ini or 
-ni locative suffix). The place of Pa- and Mu- (16 and 17) and to some extent of Ku- is taken by the 
locative particles O)- and E-, possibly both derived from the fusion of a with u or with i respectively. 
E- may be an abbreviated Pe-, as in Swazi it is We-. 

The diminutive suffix -ana (also -ane) is present, and as in Nos. 73 and 74 conveys a feminine 
signification. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN TEBELE (SIN-DEBELE) AND SWAZI 
Preprefixes present. 

The prefixes are much the same in Tebele as in Oosa-Zulu, except No. 15, which is Gu-, Ugu-, in 
place of Ku-, Uku-. 

In Swazi the Sth prefix is more usually heard as Li- and not I- or Ili- ; the full form of the 6th 
.prefix is usually Ema- instead of Ama- ; Iti- takes the place of Izi- (No. 10) ; itge- is a locative prefix 
which takes the place of No. 16. The shortened locative prefix E- in Zulu (which may be derived from 
Pai-) becomes We- in Swazi in some adverbs. 

In Gaza-Ngcuni preprefixes are not so much in use as in the more western and southern dialects. The 
concord of Class i is sometimes -yu. In Class 2, Wa- or Awa- (concord wa, -mba) takes the place of 
Aba- ; the concord of Class 6 is ga ; the 7th prefix is pi-, Ci-, and even Ki- (ci, -ke) ; the Sth prefix is 
Vi- (vi), but perhaps Zi- in the south ; Classes 12 and 13 (Tu-, Ka-) are present and much in use, probably 
borrowed from the indigenes. Class 16 is Pa- and Class 17 Mu- (-mu, -ni). 

In Zulu, Swazi, and Tebele there are traces in the demonstratives and adverbs of a locative La- 
(Lcd-, Le-) prefix. 

In addition to the well-known Cuana-Suthcfi languages and dialects, I have recorded the possible 
existence of one which, from scarcity of materials and geographical definition of locality, it is difficult to 
rank as an independent speech. This is known as Njenji or Zinzi, and is mentioned by Capello and 
Ivens. It is said to be spoken near the northern borderland of Northern Rhodesia in Eastern Barotseland. 
One or two travellers have suggested that it is a vestige of the Hurutse (Guana) dialect which preceded 
Sikcdloilu. The following is all that there is to illustrate it so far : 

' Elephant ' = Li-ttou ; ' fat ' = Ma-fura ; ' gun ' = Tcaboroi ; ' tree ' = Kcota. Numerals : I = -mwe, 
-mumwe ; 2 = -bele ; 3 = -laloj ; 4 = -nem ; 5 = Li-kitalizeo ; 6, 7, 8, and 9=5 (Li-kitalizco) plus i, 
2, 3, 4; io = Li-sumwe; 20 = Ma-sume-ama-bele ; 30 = Ma-sume ama-rarco; 40 = Ma-smne 
ama-nem. 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 317 

As regards the pronouns, ' I ' (before a verb) is Na ; ' thou ', W-ena ; ' he ', Y-ena ; * we ' Ru-na ; 
' you', Kimi-na ; ' they ', Kibeo-na. 

' Rotten ' = -bcorire ; ' go ' = -zamaya ; ' sit ' = -kuna ; ' stand '= -lukema ; ' sleep ' = -lubala : 
' eat ' = -cia. 

It is probable that Capello and Ivens simply wrote down a few words of the most corrupt fomi of 
Sikcolcolu which had penetrated into northern Barotseland. At the same time, the form Li-kitalizu for 
' five ' is remarkable for its close correspondence with the Keta-lizcohco (' finishes the hand ') of Sikulcolca 
(74 b). For the present Njenji or Zinzi may be catalogued as 74 c. 



74. Secuana dialects are spoken in Bechuanaland, north of the 28th degree of South latitude; west 
of the Transvaal and of the pa^i river and south of the 20th degree of South latitude. Bounded on the 
west approximately by the Kalahari desert and Lake Ngami. 74 b. Sikcolulco is the trade language and 
lingua franca of the Upper Zambezi basin and Barotseland west of the Victoria Falls, north of Khama's 
country, south of the Zambezi-Kabompco confluence, and east of the 20th degree of East longitude. 

75. posa is spoken in eastern Cape Colony (including Pondcoland) south of the Drakensberg. 

75 a. Zulu is spoken in Natal and Zululand up as far north as Lake Santa Lucia and the Upper 
Pong(ola river (Usutu). 

75 b. Swazi is spoken in Swaziland. 

75 c. Tebele is spoken in Southern Rhodesia by the Amandebele Zulus. 

76. Gaza-Angconi is spoken in Gazaland (south-west part of Portuguese Trans-Zambezian East Africa) 
and sporadically up to Lower Zambezi. Again in West and in East Nyasaland. 



m 



GROUP U 

THE WEST CENTRAL ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 



77. Lenje (Upper Kafue) 

78. Ila or Yila (Ci-ila, ^ukulumbwe, ^ala). 

78 a. Ci-lumbu 



79. Tonga {' Batcoka ', Tcotela, N-dawe, 

Lima, Leya). 79 a. Ci-we 

80. Subia (^ubia, ^ubea) 



GROUP V 

THE WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 
81. Yeye (Ma-kcoba, Bakheoba) 82. Nyeiigoo (South Luyi, ' Bampukusu ') ' 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


(' Batcoka ', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakheoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 



Adze 


M-bezco 


I-bezco 


Im-bez<a 


M-bezco 


M-beco 


Ma)-engi 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama, 


Muny-ama 


Muny-ama; ba- 


I-nycdlcozi ; zi- 


Mu-nyasia ; ba- 


Iz-ama 


beast 


Muny.ama 












Ant 




Mu-puka. 
Bafi-mu-nyeu. 
Bumbu-swa. 
Bu-sulubi. 
Mara-jenji 


Li-neco ; ma-. 
In-silibi. 
Ka-nyenyene 


Ka-huka ; bu- 






Ant, white 


Mu-swa ; mi-. 


Lu-mcoma. 


C-ulu ; pL 


Lu-mcoma. 


... 


... 


(termite) 


N-swa 


Mu-lan^i 


z-ulu. 

M u-cenje. 

I n-swa 


Mu-nanzi ; 
//. mi- 






Ape (chim- 


Sokwe 


• ■• 


Pcogwe, 


N-zcokco; ba-t- 




... 


panzi or 
gorilla) 
Arm 






Sokwe ; ba + 








Li-ansa ; 


I-tapi. 


Ku-bcokco or 


Ku-bcdkco ; 


En-gorco. 


Kcokco 




m-ansa. 


Mu-kconco. 


Ku-b<ogco; ma-. 


//. ma-. 


Le-cdkco 






Mu-kconco; mi 


Ku-bcokco 


Mu-kconco 

(fore-arm) 


Ka-; tu- 






Arrow 


Mum-fwi or 
Mu-fwi 


Mu-vhwi 


Ka-lembi; tu-. 
Mu-vwi ; mi- 


Mu-zwi ; mi- 


Ko-co. Rii. 
Mco-vi. 
Mco-cu ; me- 


Mco-kiri ; me 


Axe 


K-embe; 


K-embe ; 


Ci-aiikuni. 


M-bezco. 


Efi-kakara. 


Kamu 




tw-embe. 


tw-embe. 


K-embe ; 


In-salume 


Ka-embe 






C-embe ; //. 


Bu-kana. 


tw-embe. 










f-embe 


I-bahga 


Bu-kanco 








Baboon ... 


Scokwe 


Pombco ; ba -f 


Scogwe or 
Sokwe ; ba + 


I-pombwe 




... 


Back 


Mu-sana. 
I-sule 


I-numa. 
Bu-kcome 


Ku-suli ; ma-. 
I-sule. 
Mu-sana 


Mu-sana ; mi- 


Mco-^na 


M-ongco 


Banana ... 


Li-konde ; ma- 






I-konde; ma- 






Beard 


Ci-lesu, 
Mu-lesu 


Mu-levu 


Ci-lezu; zi-. 
Mu-lezu, 
In-dezu 


Ka-lezu. 
N-dezu, 
N-dethu 


In-dezco 


Moj-levco 



' Livingstone's Banyenka. 



GROUPS U, V : THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 319 



I 





77. 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (guku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengcd 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


(• Batoaka ', 




(Ma-kwba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukusu ') 








N-dawe, Lima, 












Leya) 














79 a. Ci-we 








Bee 


^uki, 
N-suci 


In-zuki. 
Kan-sama 


In-zuki 


Im-puka 


... 


... 


Belly 


Li-fumco 


I-bumbu. 
I-fu, 
Ci-fu 


I -da or 
Ndi-da. 
Bumba. 
I-kulu 


I-vumco ; ma- 


a)-ra 


Li-vcomcd 


Bird 


Ka-yuni ; 


Mu-zune, 


Mu-yuni 


Ka-zuni ; ba + 


M-yene or 


E-yiinye or 




t-uni (pi.). 


I-zune, 






N-yini ; zi + 


N-yunze 




Ci-yuni ; 


Ka-zune {dim.) 










Blood 


fi-yuni 
Wu- [or 
Bu-)loawa 


Bu-lcaa 


Bu-lcoa 


Ma-laha 


Ma-rcapa 


Ony-enka 


Body 


Mu-wili 


Lu-seba. 
In-seba 


Mu-bili 


Mu-biri 


Mu-biri 


Mco-iri 


Bone 


Ci-fuwa ; pi-, 
Li-fuwa 


Ci-fua. 
Indi. 
iMw-indi 


Ci-fua 


Ci-ftiha ; pi. 

ma- or zi- 


... 


Se-fcopa 


Borassus palm 




Ka-lala 


? Kan-kunka 


... 




■ . . 


Bow 


Wu-ta {or 
Bu-ta ; //. 
ma-ta 


Bu-ta 


Bu-ta 


Bu-ta ; 
ma-ta 


Boj-ta 


ca-ta 


Bowels 


Ma-la 


Bu-la ; 
ma-la 


Bu-la 


Mi-la 


Le-kcopu 


... 


Brains 


W-ongto 


B-ongM 


B-ongoa 


Bu-lubi 


... 




Breast (man's) 


C-amba ; 
g-amba 


C-amba 


C-amba 


Ci-zuba; zi- 


Se-dzuva 


... 


Breast 


Li-wele 


Lu-kealc0. 


Lu-kcolcd or 


• ■• 


Ze-vere ; 


... 


(woman's) 




(I-bele = 

udder) 


Du-kcoloj 




ma-vere 




Brother ... 


Mu-kw-esu. 


Mu-ci^i. 


Mvv-anike ; ba-. 


Mw-anc-angu. 


Mco-panga. 






Mu-kw- iposs. 


Mu-kandco. 


Mu-pati-afigu. 


Uii-kcosi 


Moi-z-atu 






suffix added) 


Mu-nina. 
(Bu-nina = 

brotherhood) 


Mu-kul-anoj 

afigu. 

Mw-alco, 

Mu-ce, 

Mu-nyina, 

Mu-kw-esu. 








Buffalo 


Ny-ati 


Muny-ati 


I ny-ati 


I ny-ati 


Onj-ati, 
Ony-ati 


Ny-ati 


Bull 


Mii-cende. 
Mu-sune 


Mu-cende 


Mw-enze ; 
b-enze 


... 






Buttocks ... 


Li-taku ; ma- 


Ma-takcd 


I-takto; ma- 


I-takco ; ma- 






Canoe 


Wu-atco ; 
m-atco 


Bw-ato> 


Buw-atco ; ma- 


Buw-atco ; 
m-atcd 


W-«tu 


W.at«" 


Cat 


• . . 


Kaze 


Mangoi 


Ci-noonco ; zi- 


>>• 


... 


Charcoal ... 


Ma-pimbi 


Ma-pimbi 


Ma-sizi 


••■ 






Chief, king 


Mw-ame 


M w-ami 


Mw-ami 


Si-mwine. 
N-k«si. 
M-fumu 


3i-kate 


Fcomco 


Child 


Mw-anike. 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana, 


Mw-ana ; 


Nana(?). 


Mto-keke 




Mw-ana. 


b-ana. 


K-ana 


b-ana. 


M-cona 






Ka-cece 


Mw-anice. 

Mu-;5ale. 

Ka-npco 




Mu-hwile ; 
ba-hwile 







Y 2 



320 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengea 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, gala) 


('Batcoka', 




(Ma.kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tojtela, 

i\-dawe, Lima. 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 


i 
1 
1 


Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 


Cloth 


N-salu, 


lii-gubu. 


I-sani. 


I-sila. 


Le-tsera 


Le-ina 




N-gu>^co, 


I-sani. 


I-sUa. 


In-gubco 








Li-sani. 


Bu-luba 


In-gubto 


(= skiji, 








^ule. 






covering) 








Lu-kwa (iari) 












Cold 


M-peyco 


Im-peyoa 


M-pey<o 


... 


Om-pepco (?). 
Se-pipo» 


... 


Country ... 


Ci-si 


In-pi 


In-si 


lii-kanda 


Ici-se 


M(o-dionga 


Cow 


M-pwipi. 


Im-pwi^i. 


Im-pwizi 


N-ombe 


N-gombe 


N-gombe 




N-ombe 


In-ombe. 
(Bu-tanga = 
cattle) 


in-gombe 


yana-kazi 


eii-kaze, 
N-kombe 




Crocodile ... 


N-tali. 
Ci-tale. 
N-gwena 


Ci-wena ; ba-, 
zi- 


I n-tali or 
In-tale 


N-gwena 




... 


Day, daylight 


Siku. 
Li-sua. 


Bu-piku. 


Bu-zuba. 


I-zuba; ma- 


Ma)-8e(?) 


Mco-si (?) 




Bu-zuba, 


I-zuba 










C-ilo», 


I-zuba. 












K-ilca 


Mun-za 










Devil (evil 


• •• 


... 


Muzimu 


••■ 


Mu)-zimco ; ba- 


... 


spirit) 














Doctor (medi- 


Mu-nganga. 


Mun-ganga. 


Mu-silisi 


Si-anga 


N-anga 


N-anga 


cine man) 


Mu-sendepi 


Mu-pidipi 










Dog 


Mu-bwa, 


Mu-bwa. 


Mun-kala. 


M-bwa or 


Om-bwa 


... 




Ka-bwa 


M-biza 


Mu-bwa 


Um-bwa 






Donkey ... 


... 


Im-bongcolu 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Door, door- 


Mu-liango>. 


Citendele. 


I-kcoma. 


Mu-diangco 


... 


**• 


way 


Ci-sasa 


Mu-diangu 


Ci-jasico. 

Ci-liangco, 

Mu-Iiangco 








Dream 


Ci-lcdtca 


Ci-lcdtoa 


-Icota {verb) 


•Icota {verb) 


... 


... 


Drum 


N-»ma 


In-gcoma 


In-gcoma 


In-gcoma 


... 


... 


Ear 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi 


Ka)-ti, Ku-ti 


Ku-tue 


Egg 


Li-i; ma-i 


I-i ; //. ma-yi 


I-ji 


I-yi ; ma-yi 


... 


... 


Elephant ... 


N-sufu 


Mun-zojvu 


In-zojvu 


In-zcovu 


On-jcovco 


N-dambi 


Excrement 


Ma-pi. 
Tu-pi 


Ma-^i 


Ma-ziii. 

Ma-zi 


TQ-iizi 


... 


... 


Eye 


L-isco; 


D-inso> ; 


L-isco, 


D-insco ; 


^■*P"' ,., 


Li-bico 




me-su 


m-ensu. 
(Im-b<one = 

pupil) 


L-ipw, 
L-insco 


m-ensco 


am-ep«j. (Also 
Le-ikleikion, 

according to 
Livingstone) 




Face, foreheac 


I Wu-?u 


Bu-pu 


Bu-syu 


Bu-su 


... 


... 


Fat 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ama-zi, 
Ama-dze. 
(Ma-puta = 
cream, milk) 


Ma-bimae 


Father 


Tata. 


Tata. 


Tata. 


Ta-y<u. 


Tati, 


Tate 




Isca. 


U-sca. 


U-sco, 


I -SCO, 


N-tate 






I-pi 


U-pe, U-pa. 
(Mu-kwa = 
father-in-law 
and many 
vague relation 
ships) 


U-se, 
U-pa. 
W-isi. 
Si- 


I-se. 

N-danda. 
Si-, Se-, Sa-, 
Su- 







GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 321 



I 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ha (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengto 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


('Batcoka', 




(Ma-koaba, 


(South Luyi, 


• 




78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Twtela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 








79 a. Ci-we 








Fear 


Y-«wa 


Ku-tia {verb). 
B-uwa. 
Mam-puba 


Kw-iua 


Ku-tiya {verb) 


... 


... 


Finger 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nwi 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nwe; mi- 


Moj-nwe; me- 


Fire ... ... 


Mu-liloo. 
(-cota = to 
warm oneself 
by fire) 


Mu-diloj 


Mu-lilcd 


Mu-dilu 


Mon-giroj, 
Mon-dirco, 
Mon-deroa 


Mbu-iji 


Fish 


N-gwi. 
Lun-swi 


In-swi 


Mu-swi. 
In-swi ; nin- 


In-swi 


N-pwe ; 
zin-pwe 


E-bi 


Foot 


Cim-panta. 
Mw-endco 


I-tende. 
Ci-fumba 


Ci-tuta; zi- 


I-tende 


^e-kondoa 


Li-kondca ; ma- 


Forest 


Lundu, 


Mu-sanza. 


Lu-saka. 


Mu-ziika 


Gco-mcoti. 


Mco-thutu * 




Li-lundu. 


Ka-saka 


I-paka. 




Si-te 






Mu-sansa. 




Londe. 










Lu-saka 




Mu-siteo 








Fowl 


N-kuku 


lii-kuku 


In-kuku 


Ifi-kuku. 
N-kcobto 


N-kcoku. 
Si-enjepi 


Supiia 


Frog 


Wombwe 


Bombwe 


Cula ^ 


• • • 


... 


... 


Ghost 


Mu-jsimu ; //. 
mi- 


Mu-zimca. 


Mu-sangu. 


I-saku 


Mo)-zimco 


... 




^i-kazwa. 


I-banda ; 












Kan-cinya 


ma-banda 
{cf. Ru-anda) 








Giraffe 


■ >■ 


In-tutwa 


I-tutwa 


• ■• 


Om-bape 


■ *. 


Girl 


Mu-moye. 
Mu-lindu. 
Kam-wali 


Mu-pimbi. 
Kamw-ale 


Mu-simbi ; ba- 


... 


Moo-kana 


Mon-donda 


Goat 


M-pongoj ; pi. 


Im-pongoj 


Im-pongco 


Im-pene 


(O-puli. 
M-pene 


M -bongo 


,, (he) ... 




M-ongb> 


Si-jembwe 




. . . 


M-bongoa 


,, (she) ... 




... 


M-ongco 
Mu-donta 






... 


God 


Lesa 


Leza 


Leza. 

Ku-julu 


Leza 


OO-reja 


Ny-ampi 


Grandfather, 


Kapa. 


Kaka. 


Si-anene, 


. .. 






grandmother 


Mu-wipikulu 


N-kambco 


B-anene 








Grass 


W-isu ; pi. 


Bw-izu. 


K-ezu. 


Bu-izu. 


Mo-dzcddzco, 


Mco-nye 




m-esu. 


C-ani. 


Bw-izyu. 


Ma-ne 


Mcj-podzcd 






M-ani. 


Mu-seme 


K-ani, 










Ci-seokwe 




M-ani 








Ground 


N-pi 


In-pi. 


Iny-ika. 


I-vu 


Le-vu ; 


Mo-mvoa 




lii-kanda. 


I-pukeo. 




moo-vu 








I-vhu 


N -devu 








Ground-nut 


N-yemu 


In-yeme0 


In-dongto 


N-dongo) or 
In-dongco 


CO-yengora 


... 


Guinea-fowl 


N-kanga 


In-kaiiga 


In-kaiiga 


Ifi-kanga 


■ •■ 


• •. 


Gun 


Futi 


In-tubcolu 


In-futi. 
In-tcobcdlu. 
Ci-fwefwe 


In-tcobulu 


Tu-boroa 


• •> 


Hair (of head) 


Li-susu, 

Mu-susu 


I-sus«. 
In-suki 


I-pupu 


In-suki 


Zi-n^izi, 
^e-pipi or 
pe-paipi 


Hcoki 



^ 



' Dr. Livingstone' s spelling is followed. This is sometimes 6 and sometimes ' th ', without its being certain whether 
the writer intends 1> or an aspirated t (th) to be understood. 



322 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


('Batuka', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 
N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 
79a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 


Hand 


Li-ansa. 
Lu-paka 


I-tapi 


I-janza 


I-anza 


Ri-anja 


Se-kaha 


Head 


Mu-twi. 
Ci-twi 


Mu-twi 


Mu-twi 


Mu-twi 


Ma)-porco 


Mco-twe 


Heart 


M-oyu 


M-Cijzoj ; 
mi-uzco 


M-oyo> 


Ifi-kulco 


(ji)m-oyco 


McD-tima 


Heel ... ... 


Ci-fiindi. 
Ka-pipilcd 


Ci-pindi 


Ka-singi. 
Ci-cindinde ; 


Ci-sizina 


... 


.-. 


Hide 


Ci-kanda. 
M-paya 


I-salco. 
Ci-kanda 


ZI- 

I-kanda 


Ki-kabi 


Eri-gcoco. 
Si-kabi 


Mu-komba 


HiU 


Ci-lundu. 
Lu-pili 


Lu-pidi 


Ci-lundu 


E-bwe 


Ccoe 


Kco-bina 


Hippopotamus 


Fuwu or 
M-fuwu 


Ci-vhubwe 


Im-vuvu 


Um-vuvu 


On-v<ovoj, 
On-vuvu 


N-vu 


Hoe 


Li-se 


I-amba 


... 




Si-pamba 


Li-temu 


Honey 


W-uci 


Bw-ici, 
B-uci. 
Kan-sama 


B-uci 


B-uci 


... 


■ ■* 


Horn 


Lu-ica ; 


Lu-iya ; 


Lw-ija. 


Lu-zia ; 


Le-singa 


L-ia 




m-eca. 


m-eya. 


Mw-embo> 


ma-zia. 








N-pansa 


C-anza. 

Lu-sengeo 




Lo-iya 






House 


N-anda, 
N-anda; 
pi. same, or 
si-, ma-. 
Mu-sumba 


I n-anda ; //. 
m-anda. 
(-anda = 

roof). 


liig-anda ; pi. 
m-anda 


N-zubco ; ma- 


N-ju 


N-duco 




L-ongco ; pi. 










Hunger 


N-pala 


In-zala 


In-zala 


In-zala 


En-jara 




Husband . . . 


Mu-lume. 
Ibe; 
b-ebe 


Mu-lumi 


... 


Mu-kwa-me 


A-rora 


... 


Hyena 


Suntwe 


Ka-bwenga 


Suntwe ; ba- + 


Un-tuu ; pi. 
n-tuu 


Om-porco, 
Uni-puru 


Sene 


Iron 


C-ela. 


C-ela. 


Ci-bulco 


In-simbi ; zi- 


O-tari. 


L(o-ondco. 




Wu-tale 


Bu-tale. 
(In-pimbi = 
iron imple- 
ments). 
I-bulto 






Ka-ira 


OO-tale. 
Loj-elco 


Island 


N-sumbcd 


Ci-lwa 


Ka-stia. 
In-sumbco 


Ci-da; 
zi-da 


... 


... 


Ivory 


Lu-ica 


-.. 


Ny-anga 


Iny-anga. 
Ma-ziya (pi.) 


... 


... 


Knee 


... 


I-vhwi 


I-zwi. 
Kongcojcd 


I-zwi 


Li-dzi, 
Li-dza ; 
ma-dza 


Ma-nue (pi.) 


Knife 


Lu-wepi ; 
m-bepi 


Im-pcokca 


Ka-pang& 


Intipa. 


Ka-furu. 


M-cokco 








Ka-fcolco 


E-ferco 




Lake 


I-^iba 


I-dambwa 




..• 


... 


Leg 


Mw-endco 


K-ulu. 


K-ulu ; 


Mu-hindi. 


M-on(!u or 


M(o-fupa 






Mw-endco, 


ma-ulu. 


K-ulu ; fil. 


M-onzco 








I-tende 


Mw-endco, 
Mw-endi 


ma-ulco 







GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 323 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengoj 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


(' Batcoka ', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 




. 


78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


'Bampukupu') 


Leopard ... 


^i-luwe ; wa + 


^i-luwe 


Si-lwe 


N-gwe 


Nkue 


N-bco 


Lion 


N-kalamu 


Sumbwa, 
U-pumbwa. 


Mu-lavu. 


N-davu 


On-tavco 


N-de 






Mu-kalamu. 












In-davu 


N-emba 








Lips 


Mu-lcameo ; mi- 


Mu-lcomcd 


Mu-lcomco ; mi- 


Mi-lcomco 


Si-porco {sing.) 




Magic 


Wu-lc»|si 


Bu-l«2ii 


Bu-lcozi 


Ma-bibco 






Maize 


Man-cewele 


Ma-ptapwe 


Ci-pcoga. 
Ma-pcopwe 


Mun-dale 


... 


... 


Man 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; ba-. 


Mu-ntu; 


Mu-ntu ; 


COmto-toa; pi. 


Mco-noj ; 




wa-ntu. 


Mu-lombw-ana 


ba-ntu. 


ba-ntu. 


ava-tco. 


ba-nco 




Mu-lume, 




Mwa-lumi 




Mco-rume 






M\v-analume 












Man, vir. ... 


*>• 


N-dumb-ana 


... 


Mu-kwa-me;ba- 






Meat 


Ny-ama 


Bu-zane. 
Ny-ama 


I ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ony-ama, 
Ny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Medicine . . . 


Mu-samco. 
Mi-yandaC//.). 
Wu-ganga, 
M-anga 


Mu-samoo 

(' tree ') 


Mu-samu 


Mu-sameo 


Ci)-anga 


00-anga 


Milk 


Ma-kupa. 
Ma-ndili. 
(•kama = 

verb) 


Mu-kupa. 

Ma-bipi, 
Hw-anda. 
(-kama = verb) 


Ma-kupa 
(-kama) 




Ma-suta 


... 


Monkey . . . 


Scokwe. 
C-anga. 
M-puya 


Sukwe 


Ceta 


I-pombwe or 
Um-pombwe 


... 


>.. 


Moon 


Mw-epi 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-eze 


Mw-ezi 


(ji)kw-ere or 

Ku-izi 


Ku-ebi 


Mother ... 


Mama. -ma. 


Ba-ma; ma-. 


Ba-. Ba-ma. 


Ma-yco. 


Ma. 


Nana 




Nco-ko). 


Noa-ko), 


Ku-liswi. 


Mama. 


Nyena 






Nina 


Ba-ina 


Ba-nyco-kco. 
Ny-ina 


Nyco-kco. 
Nyina. Na- 






Mountain ... 


Mu-lundu. 
Lu-pili 


Mundu 


Ci-lundu 


I-lundu 


... 


... 


Mouth 


Mu-lcomco. 
Ka-nwa 


Mu-lcamoi. 
Ka-nwa 


Ka-nwa 


Ka-hcolco or 
Ka-gcolco 


Cisi.porco 


Ka-nwa 


Nail (of finger 


Lu-ala 


Lw-ala 


I -gala. 


I-zala 


Eii-gara ; 


Thala 


or toe) 






Li-ala, 
lli-ala 




zen-gara 




Name 


L-ina ; 
m-ena 


I^ina 


Iz-ina 


Iz-ina 


... 


... 


Navel 


Li-kombco 


Lu-kombco 


Lu-kombco 


... 


... 


... 


Neck 


Singco. 


In-singcD. 
Mu-k«pi 


In-singco. 


N-singca 


£-zong(o. 


Dingco 




Kcopi 


Kun-kcosi 




M(o-lcoco 




Night 


Wu-siku 


Ma-piktt 


Bu-siku. 


Ma-siku. 


Ma-sukco. 


(jO-thikco. 








(Mu-dima = 


(Mo-rima = 


(Mco-rema = 


(Mi-lema = 








darkness) 


darkness) 


darkness) 


darkness) 


Nose 


^conco 


I-nangcd. 

(Ma-nangoj = 

nostrils. 

Mu-ombombu 

= bridge) 


Im-pemco. 
Ti-pconco (?) 


I-thcolco 


Le-rco, 
Le-irco 


Li-oilco 


Ox 


N-ombe 


Mu-sune 


M-ongco ; 
bo-ngco. 
Mu-sune ; ba- 


N-gombe 


OO-porco. 
N-gombe ; 
zifi- 


N-gombe 



324 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengoj 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


( Batcoka ', 




(Ma-k«ba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tojtela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 


Paddle ... 




In.kapi 


In-Sbige. 
Ki-jazco 


Ki-rahco 


Se-rapco 


Se-laboo 


Palm wine, 


W-alwa 




Bu-kandi. 


N-zaru. 


OO-ara. 


Ma-lci>vu 


beer 






Bu-kcokoj. 
Im-b«te 


Ma-lcovu 


U-kube 




Parrot 






• •■ 


N-kwenga 




.>• 


Penis 




In-teoni. 
Im-pala. 
(I.bcolM = 

testicle) 


In-tcdni 


In-tconi 






Pig 


N-guluwe 


N-gulube, 
Culube. 
Ku-ntula. 
(^a-nk<ale = 

■wart-hog) 


M-uma. 
Sici-pongu. 
Mwin-giri. 
In-kulube 


In-jili 


On-gire 
(wart-hog) 




Pigeon 


N-kulimba 


In-kwidimba. 
In-^iba 


In-kwilimba 


In-kuba 




... 


Place 


Wu-loa ; 


Bu-sena. 


C-il«. 


Ci-baka. 


... 


... 




ma-lco 


Cikadi-lco. 
Ku-ntu 


A-Ha 


Ha-ntu 






Rain 


Fula. 
Mi-lcoci 


Im-vula. 
Leza 


Im-vula 


Im-vula 


Yto-vora, 
(jO-vora. 
En-fera 


M-vula 


Rat 


Kcoswe. 
M-bewa. 
Fukco 


pi-ko>swe 


I-ko>s«, 
I-kco^cd. 
In-kuswi 


Im-peba 


... 


'•• 


Rhinoceros 


Ci-pembele 


^em-pela 


Ci-pembele 


Im-pembele 


On-pojgcojco, 
CO-^ongcodzo> 


Le-pembele 


River 


Mu-longa 


Mu-longa 


Mu-longa 


Lw-izi.^ 
Mu-longa; mi- 


Mo-ronka. 
Ka-dom'. 
E-klu 


Ma>-lonka. 
Li-coka 


Road 


N-pila. 
Mu-kwakwa 


Mu-kwakwa. 
In-zila 
Mw-ineo. 


In-zila. 
Mu-kwakwa 


In-zila 


N-jera 


N-dera 


Salt 


Mu-nyu, 


... 




Ku-tsuai 






Mw-inyu 


Tw-inca (dim.) 










Shame 


N-sconi 


In-suni 


In-8»nL 
Bw-eme 


Ku-swaba 

(verb) 






Sheep 


M-belele 


I-mbelele 


I m-belele 


Im-belele 


Un-ku 


M-berere 


Shield 


... 


I n-tubo> 


In-t<obcd 


Komba 


Le-lclebe 


Tomba 


Shoulder ... 


Ci-fupi 


Ci-funzi. 
I-kuk(o 


Lu-ezco. 
Egw-ezito;ma- 
Ikuku 




Ze-kwaba (pi.) 




Sister 


••' 


Mu-cizi. 
Mu-kw', 
Mu-kwa 


Mu-cizi 


N-cizi angu. 
N-cizi or 

Un-cizi 


Mco-ganya 




Skin 


M-paya. 
Ci-kanda, 
Li-kanda 


Lu-kanda 


Lu-kanda 


Cirkabi 


En-gojoj 


> *• 


Sky 


I-jnlu. 
Ku-julu 


I-zeulu 


I-julu. 

Ma-jcoba 


I-ulu 


L-eru,' 
L-iru 


Li'ulu 


Slave 


Mu-pa 


Mu-^ike 


Mu-zike 


M(o-bik-ana 


Mco-via 


M-peka 


Sleep 


Tu-lo) 


Tu-lco 


Ifi-onzi(-gonzi 

{•)i.an&=veri) 


. 


... 


... 






' Cf. Lerco, Lelcd = ' to-day ' in most Bantu tongues. 





GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 325 



English 


Lenje 
(Upper Kafue) 


78. 

Ila (puku- 

lumbwe, ^ala) 

78 a. Ci-lumbu 


^79. 

Tonga 

(' Batccka', 

Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 


80. 
Subia 


81. 

Yeye 

(Ma-kcoba, 

Bakhcoba) 


82^. 

Jfyengco 

(South Luyi, 

' Bampukujsu ') 



I 



Smoke 


Wu-pi 


Snake 


N-scoka, 




Ci-scoka 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana. 




Mu-sankwa 




Mu-lombe 


Song 


Lu-imbco ; 




ny-imbco 


Spear 


Li-sumco 




Li-tempco 


Spirit, soul 


Mu-pimu 


Star 


Ny-enyepi 


Stick 


Lu-sakco 


Stone 


Li-bwe 


Stool 


Ci-una 


Sun 


Li-sua 



Bu-pi. 

I-pi 
In-zcoka 

Mw-ana. 

Ka-mbe^i. 

Ka-lombw-ana 
Lu-imbcd 

I-sumco. 
I-yoiiga 

Mcj-za 

In-tongwe^i. 
(In-tanda = 

meteor, even- 
ing star) 
Ka-samco. 
Lu-suti. 
Mu-saku 

I-bwe. 

Mw-ala 

Ci-una 
I-zuba 



Bu-si 

In-z5ka 

Mw-ana 
mu-lorabi 

Lu-imbco ; 
iny-imbco 
I-sumco ; ma- 

M-oya. 

Mu-jsimu 
Kany-inyezi. 
Iny-enyezi 

Ka-pondco. 

In-kcoli. 

Ka-kcoli. 

Ci-samu 
I-bwe 



Ci-bula 
I-zuba 



Bu-si 
In-zcoka 

Mu-swizu 

Lu-zimbco 

Mu-dinga, 
Mco-ringa 
M<u-hcot>a 

lii-kani 



In-kcoli. 
In-cupa 



Mu-si 



Mu-si 



Mo-romb-ana. Mcj-ebese. 
. M-cona ? M-cona 



I-bwe 



I-zuba. 

(Ka-mwi = 
burst of sun- 
shine. 

Ka-nyange = 
heat of sun) 



Ru-anga or 

Loj-aiiga 
OOm-eoa 

Sienj-ata ; 
ziny-ata 



Ka-ti. 
Ka-kcone ; 
pi. zin-kcone 

Le-weri. 
Cue; 
ma-we 

Le-ba or 
Li-va. 
(Li-e = light) 



Tail (of an 


Mu-cila 


Mu-cila 


Mu-cila 


Mu-cila 




animal) 












Tear 


Mu-scopi 


Mu-scoj;i. 


I-scozi. 


Mu-nscozi. 




Testicles ... 


• . . 


Ma-bcolco. 
(-cende = a 
bults scrotum) 


In-cendi 


I-bcolco; ma- 




Thief 


Mw-ifi or 
Mw-ipi 


Mu-teu 


Mu-teco 


Mu-sa 


... 


Thigh 


Li-wekco 


Ci-belco 


Ci-belco. 

Mu-kascolco 


... 




Thing 


Ci-ntu, 


Ci-ntu; 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu 






Ka-ntu 


bi-ntu, 
si-ntu. 
Ka-ntu 


zi-ntu 






Thorn 


Mum-fwa 


Bw-iya ; 


Mu-mvwa. 


Mu-iya ; 








m-eya 


Kam-vwa 


mi-iya 




Tobacco ... 


Fwaka 


Tombwe 


Tombwe. 
Pcolia 


Tombwe or 
U -tombwe 

(honorific) 


Miu-tombe 


To-day ... 


Sunco. 
N-piku i-neo 


U-sunu 


U-siinu 


Sunco 


... 


Toe 


Ka-kumco, 


Ka-lulcome ; ci- 


Mu-nwi. 


Ci-zala. 


Z-ena.' (//.) 




Ci-kumeo. 




Ka-nwe. 


Ci-kandeo 






C-ondo> 




Ci-kumco 







Li-onga ; ma- 
M(o-kco 



Thi-kcone 



Li-we 



Li-cowa 



1 



;26 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


11a (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


(' Battoka ', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 


To-morrow 


Cilco. 
I -scon a 


U)-zuna 


I-junza. 
I-jhcona 


I-zcona 


Le-ca 


Pe-onda 


Tongue 


Lu-jimi. 
Mu-laka 


Mu-laka. 
Lu-dimi. 
Lu-laka 


Lu-dimi 


Lu-limi 


Ru-rime 


La)-lime 


Tooth 


L-inu ; 
m-enoo 


D-inca 


D-ino> ; 
m-enco 


D-inco ; 
me-inco. 
Di-ziya ; ma- 


Am-encs {pi) 


Li-yeg»; ma- 


Town 


Mu-pi 


Mu-n^ji 


Mu-nzi 


Ma>-zi 


Ma).zi 


Li-mbco. 
M-onde 


Tree 


Ci-samco ; pi-, 
mu- 


I-samcd. 
Ka-sanzi 
{dim.) 


Ci-samco 


Ci-samcd 


Si-te 


E-pakco 


Twins 


Ma-pasa. 
Ma-pundu 


Ma-nga 


Ma-inga. 

Ma-m-bili 


Mam-biri 


... 


... 


Urine 


Mi-kusco 


Mu-npu 


Ma-npu, 
Ma-nsico 


Mu-sihu 


... 




Vein 


Lu-pinga 


Ka-jsinga 


Lu-singa ; 
in-singa 


... 


. 


... 


War 


N-kondw 


In-kondu 


lii-kondco 


Ifi-kondco 


(Kco-rua-na = 
tofi^ht) 


... 


Water 


Ma-npi. 
Lu-inpi 


Me-n^i 


Ma-nzi. 
Me-nda 


Me-nzi 


Am-i 


Me-yo9 


WeU 


Mu-kaleo 


Mu-kalcd 


Ci-kala 








White man 


Mu-lungu or 
Mu-rungu 


Mu-kua; {pi.) 
ma-kua 


Mu-kua ; pi. 
ma-kua 


Mu-kuwa 


... 


... 


Wife 


Mu-kasi. 
Mu-ka 


Mu-ka:^i. 

(Mw-ina-figu 
= my wife). 
Mw-ina- 


Mw-anakazi. 
Ma-lel<a 


Mw-anakazi 






Wind 


M-pey«, 


Mu-weo. 


I-giiwco, 


Lu-huhco 


Pipco. 


... 




Lu-wco. 


I-kunku 


I-gueo 




Mco-pcopco 






Mu-woa 












Witch 


N-fwiti. 

Mu-l(opi 


Mu-lco^i 


Mu-lcozi. 
Mu-looco .' 


Mu-lcozi. 
(Ku-lcowa = 

to bewitch) 


... 


... 


Witchcraft 


Wu-fwiti, 
Wu-lcopi. 
Wufi-ganga 


Bu-lcd^i 


Bu-lcdzi 




.. • 


• *■ 


Woman ... 


Mw-anaka|si 


Mu-kai-ntu. 
Mu-ka^i. 
(I-kai-ntu, 

&'C. 

Bu-kai-ntu 

= woman- 
hood). 


Mw-anakazi 


Mw-anakazi 


Mco-kazi 


Mco-kathi 


Womb 


. . ■ 


I-zadild 


C-aba-ce-mbele 






>.• 


Wood (fire- 


N-kuni 


Lu-kuni 


Ifi-kuni. 


Lu-kuni ; iii- 




• «• 


wood) 






Ci-samco 








Yam 


... 


... 


Cim-bondongco 


Bu-idi 


... 


... 


Year 


Mw-aka; mi- 


Mw-aka ; mi- 


Mw-aka, 

Mw-aga ; imi- 


Mu-aka 


M(o-aka 


Mco-aka 


Yesterday... 


C-llco 


CO-zcona 


I-jiln 


I-zcona 


Oreo 


Li-kcolcoa 


Zebra 


U-bipi 


Ci-bizi 


Im-bizi 


M-bizi 


M-bl 


M-bi 



GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 327 





77- 


78. 


79. 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


NyengM 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


(Batcoka ', 




(Ma-ktoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-Iumbu 


Tcotela 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 




Bakhwba) 


' Bampukupu ') 








79 a. Ci-we 








One 


-o-mwe, 
-nwe 


-o-mwi 


•mwi 


Yo-nke. 
•mwe. 
•ngi 


(Ma).)keke 


•moya 


Two 


-oj-wil-co, 


-(u-bili, 


■biU 


-co-bele, 


-viri (va-viri) 


-bibi, -ibi 




-i-wili, 


-bidi, 




•bele 




{perhaps also 




-wili 


-bili 








•ibe) 


Three 


-tj'tatwe, 


-co-tatwe, 


■tatwe or 


-co-tatwe, 


•tatco 


•atoj or 




-i-tatwe, 


-tatwe, 


-tatu 


-tatwe or 




-hat« 




-tatu 


•tatu 




•tatu 






Foixr 


-o-nne, 
-i-nne 


-oo-ne, 
■ne 


•ni or -ne 


-co-ne, 
•ne 


-ne 


-i-nne 


Five 


-o-sanwe 


-w-sanwe. 
•sanu 


■sanu or 
•sanwe 


-co-sanwe or 
-sanwe, 
or Zimane 
anza 


Mawari-anja* 


-tanu 


Six 


Mw-aya 


Ci-sa mbomwi. 


-sanu a 


Zimane anza 


Mawa ri-anja 


•moya (begin- 




mu-nwe 


Ka-k»le(78a) 


ka-mwi 


niyi-mwina 

[and other 
circumlocu- 
tions) 
Zimane anza 


va-raqa 


ning on left 
hand) 


Seven 


Mw-aya 


Ci-lcoba. 


•sanu a 


Mawa ri-anja 


•ibi (continuing 




-(o-wil-o) 


Tu-k«le 
tu-bili (78 a) 


tM-bili 


ni zoj-bele 


va-rasupi 


on left hand) 


Eigiit 


Mw-aya 


Lu-sele. 


-sanu a 


Zimane anza 


Mawa ri-anja 


•hatcii (continu- 




-w-tatwe 


Tu-keole 
tco-tatwe 

(78 a) 


tco-tatu 


zco-tatwe 


va-njenisa 


ing on left 
hand) 


Nine 


Mw-aya 


I-fuka. 


-sanu a 


Zimane anza 


Mawa ri-anja 


-i-nne {continu- 




-o-nne 


Tu-k&jle 
tu)-ne (78 a) 


tu-ne 


ni zco-ne 


va-rane 


ing on left 
hand) 


Ten 


Li-kumi 


I -kumi 


-kumi 


I -kumi or 
I-kume 


-kcomiki 


•tanu, also 
Li^kume 


Eleven 


Kumi 


1-kumi 


I -kumi a 


I •kumi ni 


Va-kwmiki 


N i-kume na 




n'o-mwe ? 


dio-mwi 


ka-mwi 


yo-nke 


va-raqa 


ka-moya ' 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kumi 


Mawa ri-anja 


Na ka mco-tanu 




(o-wil-co 


co-bili 


a-bili 


co-bele 


ava-tto va-viri 




Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kume 


Mawa ri-anja 


... 




u) -tat we 


(o -tatwe 


a-tatu 


co-tatwe 


va-raqa 
ava-to va-tato) 




Forty 


Ma-kumi 
o-nne 


Ma-kumi co-ne 


Ma-kumi 
nga-nne ' 


Ma-kumi co-ne 


... 


... 


Fifty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


... 


>•• 




co-sanwe. 


co-sanwe. 


a-sanu 


a-mane anza 








(Ma-kumi 


(.Ma-kumi adi 




or Ma-kumi 








mw-a-y-a 


ci-sambomwi 




oj-sanwe 








mu-nwe = 


= sixty) 












sixty) 












Hundred ... 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 


... 




Thousand... 






Mi-anda 
ili-kumi 




... 


... 



^ 



' Ri-anja = hand in this strange compound. Twenty is ' hands of two men '. Thirty seems to be ^five x six ' 
' 12 = N i-kume na tu^ibi. 13 = N i-kume na tu-atu. 16 = Na ka moya. 17 = Na ka tu.ibi. 
' According to Tor rend. 



328 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77. 


78. 


Tonga 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


('Batcoka', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Twtela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci'We 




Bakluoba) 


'Bampukusu') 


I, me, my ... 


Ne-w(o. Me, Ne. 


tO-me. 


I-me, Me^bo). 


I. me. 


Ge-me. Ndi. 


Ma., N., Na^ 




N-, Ndi.. 


Ndi-me-na. 


I -me. 


Ni-. 


Me. 






•n-. 


Ndi., Nda-. 


N^. 


•ni-, -n-. 


Na^, Nd'^ 






•me, -a-ngu 


•n-, -m-. 
•me, -a-ngu 


-ndi-. 

-a-ngu 


-me, -ngu 






Thou, thee, 


We-wco. We. 


U-we. 


U-wi, 1-we, 


Kwe. 


Gwe 


*<• 


thy 


0)! 


Nd-iwe-na. 


Ue^bco, 


u.. 








u.. 


U-, Wa.. 


Ye^bu). 


•ku. 








•ku.. 


■ku-. 


U^. 


•we, -koj 








■we, -U'kco 


•we, -ze, -koj 


•ku^, -a^ku 








He, him, his 


We-w(o. We. 


Wa-lco. 


U^we, N-gwe. 


I-ye. A.di. 


Mu (?). 


Mu (?). 




U-, A-. 


Ngu-we^na. 


U-, A-. 


U-, Mu-,<;rA-. 


U-, ii>: 


U^, Mco- 




•mu-. -we, 


U-, Wa-, A-. 


-mu-. -n-gue, 


■mu-. 


•mcd-. 






•wco, -ngwe, 


•mu-. .we, -ze, 


-a-kwe 


-ye, -kwe 








-a-kwe 


-kwe 










We, us, our 


Swe-woj. 


U-8we. 


I-swe, Swe-bu>. 


I-swe. 


... 


• •• 




Tu.. 


Ndi^swe-na. 


Tu.. 


Tu-. 








■tu-. 


Tu^, Twa-. 


-tu-. 


-tu- 








•swe, esu 


-tu.. 
•swe, -isu 


-esu 


•swe, -etu 






Ye, you, your 


Mwe-wco. Nm. 


U-mwe. 


I-nwi, I -mwe. 


I-nywe. 


... 


■ •• 




Mu-. 


Ndi-mwe-na. 


I-nyne-b<o. 


Mu.. 








•mu-. 


Mu-, Mwa-. 


Mu-. 


•mu^. 








•nwe, -mwe. 


-mu-, -ma-. 


-mu.. 


•nywe, -enu 








-a-nu 


•mwe, •inu 


-enu 








They, them. 


Wa-wu). 


Ba-lco. 


Abto. M-babco. 


Bco. Ba-di. 


... 


>>• 


their 


Wa-. 


M-beobco^na. 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 








-wa-. -awe or 


Ba-. 


ba- 


•ba-. 








•awe-wco, -wco. 


•ba.. 


abu 


•bw 








•aw-co 


.boj 











All 

This, these 



•onse 



Uyu, nguyu, 
awa, m-bawa; 
uu, nguu ; ii, 
njii; ili, 
n-dili ; aya, 
n.gaya; ici, 
njici ; isi. 
njipi; ii, 
njii; ipi, 
njipi ; ulu, 
ndulu; utu, 
ntutu ; aka, 
iigaka ; uwu, 
mbuvvu ; uku, 
iiku ; apa, 
mpu ; umu 



•onse. 

(-o-nge^ana = 
a few, some) 
We-zu, we.ncj ; 
baba, ba.nu ; 
we-zu, e-zi, 
enu ; ledi, 
aza, a-nco ; 
ceci, pepi, 
se-nco orbiebi, 
bie-nco ; e2;i, 
e-nu, pepi, 
se-nu ; Icolu, 
l(u-nco ; tcdtu ; 
&fc. ; kaka ; 
bobu ; kcoku ; 
awa(<»ra-nti>) 



'Onse 



Oyu, (ou-neo ; 
aba, aba-nto ; 
oyu, ei, 
ei-nw ; eli, 
eli-nco, aa-nco, 
aya ; eci, ezi ; 
ei ; ezi ; colu ; 
utu ; aka ; 
ubu ; uku ; 
awa (pa-nu) ; 
umu, (omu.nu 



-onse ; onke ; 
-una ' 

Uzu or zu-nu, 
aba or ba-nu ; 
uu or u-nu, 
ii, cr^f. ; edi, 
aa ; ici, izi ; 
ii, izi ; ulu; 
utu ; aka ; 
ubu ; uku ; 
aba ; umu 



•nu (co.nu, &'€.) 



■onke and .una (.ena) are also used as a suffix, in the sense of ^ some ', ' alone ', ' together'. 



GROUP U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 329 



English 


Lenje 
(Upper Kafue) 


78. 

Ila (puku- 

lumbwe, jSala) 

78 a. Ci-lumbu 


79- 

Tonga 

('Batcoka', 

Twtela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 


80. 
Subia 


81. 
Yeye 

(Ma-kcoba, 
Bakhcaba) 


82. 

Nyengoj 

(South Luyi, 

'Bampukupu') 



That, those 



Oy-co, nyto-yoa, 
aw-oa,mbaw-o}; 
u-co, mbu-co, 
i-Qj, nji-ci> ; 
il-<o, ndi-loi ; 

U-nc9, rigu-noj, 

wa-ncd, 

mba-no> ; &•€, 
U-lya, 

ngu-lya, 

wa-lya, 

mba-lya; ^'c. 



Wez-cij, bab-co ; Oy-oa, a-bw ; 

vvez-eo, ei;-to ; &'c. 

Qs'c. (Ou-lia, aba-lia; 

We-dia, &■>(;. 

ba-dia; we-dia, 

ye-dia ; &=€. 



U-zeo, a-bco ; 

u-zo), iy-co ; 

edi-eo ; &>€. 
Zu-na, ba-na ; 

u-na, ji-na or 

i-na ; di-na, 

a-na ; &=€. 
Ngu, njiye, 

mba ; ngu, 

ngcowco, 

nji; 6^'c. ; ndi, 

figa; nci, 

nzi ; nji, 

nzi ; ndu ; 

ntu ; ilka ; 

mbu ; nku ; 

mpa, mpahcd ; 

moimco 



-ya (to-ya, is'c) 



Bad ... 

Black... 
Female 



Fierce, sharp 
Good 

Great 



Little ... 



Long, high, 
tall 



Male ... 

Old .., 

Red .. 

Rotten 

Short.. 
Sick .. 

White 



-wi, 

-wiwi 
•sia 
•Kasi, 

-anakapi. 

•pwizi. 

-a lu-tundu 
-kali 
-wotu. 

-ine 
•nene. 

-kulu. 

■kandcd 
-nini. 

-ce, 

-ke 
-lamfu. 

-lale, 

•kale {time) 

•lume, 

-analume, 

-n-dume 
■kulu. 

-cembele. 

-a cindi 
•fwete. 

-ka^ika 
-wcala. 

-funda 
•fwifwi 
-ciswa. 

-Iwapi 
-tuwa. 

•twite 



-biabe 

■pia 
•jjaJii. 

•tumbe. 

-pwizi 

•kadi 
•beotu 

■kandco. 
•kcomena 

•pontci> 



•lamfu 



•lomb^wana ? 

•lombi. 

•lume 
•cembala 



•bi 

-sia (verbal) 
-kazi. 

-ziazi. 

-m-pwizi 

-kalala 
•botu 

-pati 



■nini 



-lamfu 



-enzi. 
-a-lumi 



•subila 

•txo^i 

•fwafwi 
•Iwapi 

-tuba 



•yuma 

-ciswa 
•tuba 



•bi 

■seha 
•kazi. 

-ina-kazi 



-kadi 
-Icotu, 

-dtotu 
-kando). 

•kulu 

-tiini 



-nde or 

-i-ndende. 

■le, 

-lele 
-in-kwame ? 



-kulukulu 

-subila 
-bcolete 
•fcdhifuhi 

•tuba 



■sipa 
•kazi, 
•kaze 



•hure, 
•kure, 
•tl'uri 

f ece (.'), 
•ce (?) 



•elco 
•kathi. 
■kabi 



•nine 



•nyconyu 



•korto^moj-kcome 



•loibathi. 
•kare 



Bw^tua, 
•tcoa 



•kehco 



33° 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Toiiga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengu 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


(' Batuka ', 




(Ma-kuba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe,Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhuba) 


' Bampukupu ') 


Above, up, on 


Ku.julu ; 


-i-zeulu 


I -julu 


-e-yulu, 


KcD-rira 




top 


pa- (or a-) 
julu 






-i-yulu 






Before 


Kunembco 


Ku-mbele 


A-mbele 


Ha-busca 


... 


■ ■• 


Behind 


P-esule, 
Kw-isule 


Mu-numa 


■isule (Ku-) 


Mu-isule, 
-isule. 
Ku-icu 


... 


... 


Below, down 


Ku-npi, 


Ku-npi, 


Mu-nse. 


H a-nsi, 


Ep-epe 


Ku-ezi 




Pa-npi 


A-npi 


A-nsi 


Ku-nsi, &-C. 






Far 


Ku-lamfu, 
Ku-lale 


Sakene 


Ku-le-ku-le 


Ku-le, -le 


-re. (COkhu-re, 
?i-re) 


Kcona-le-pa 


Here 


Awa. 


Mu-nu), 


0-ku-noj. 


Ha-no). 


Ku-ni. 


Ku-nco 




M-pa. 


Koi-nu], 


Awa 


Aha. 


Ku-tiri 






M-pece. 


A-nu 




The(?) 








Pa-no), 














Ku-nco, &'c. 












In, inside ... 


Mu-. 

Mu-kati 


Mu- 


Mu-. 

Mu-kati 


Mu- 
U-mco. 
Mumu 


... 


... 


Middle ... 


Kati 


Mu-kati 


Kati 


Kati 


Kate 




Near 


•fwifwi 


A-fwafwi, 
Ku-fwafwi 


A-fwi, 
A-fwifwi 


Ha-ftohi. Ha- 


Pa-pupe, 
Se-pupe 


Pepi 


Outside ... 


Pa-nse, 
Ku-nse^ 
Pa-nsengwe, 


A-nsengwe, 
•nseiigwe 


A-nze 


Ha-nze, 
Ku-nze 






Plenty 


■ngi, 
Wu-ngi 


Bw-ala. 
-nji, 
-njinji 


-ifigi 


■ingi 


•*■ 




There 


Ku-no), 


Mcamco. 


0-ko). 


Ahcd. 


Kco-na 


Kco-na. 




Kulyco, (s'c. 


Kcokto. 
Awco 


A-nto. 
Pa-munya 


Ha-na, dfc. 




Kco-nyiko) 


Where? .. 


Ku-li?, 6-<:. 


Kwi? 
Ukwi ? 


Ku-li ? 
A-li ? 


Ku-hi ? 
Ha-hi ? 
■hi.' 


Ko-ri ? 


Ku-pi-ne ? 


No! 


Ta-wa ! 
Kaka! 


Pe! 


Pe! 


Nanta ! 


Patlco ! 




Not [with verb 


pi (l.f/ pers. 


Si-, Ta- (also 


Si-, Too-, Ta- 


Ki-, Si-, Ka-. 


Ka-. -se-, -si-. 


Ka-, Se- 


as prefix, in- 


sing.) ; Ta- 


«jtfo/"Ku-ina= 




Keti.. -sa-. 


Pa-(?) 




fix, or sufiix) 


(with other 
pronouns) ; 
Ku-, Ta- (in 
infinitive) 


to be without, 
not to, not to 
have, a nega- 
tive verb) 




(Ki is a nega- 
tive verb. 
Ki mbabantu 
= not the men 






To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


-Ym- 


Kco-, Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-uma. 
■panda 


-iima 


■uma 


... 






„ buy, sell 


•ula ; ^ita 


•ula 


-ula (K'ula = 

buy) 




•cora, 
wora 


-ola 


„ come ... 


-isa, -sa 


-eza 


■eza. -bcola 


-iza. -bula 


-iya 


• •• 


„ cut 


■tema 


■kcosula 


-tema. 
tenda 


■temena, 
■tema 


... 




„ dance ... 


-pana 


■^ana 


■ziana 


-zana or 
-t>ana 


•imba 


-kina 



GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 331 





77- 


78. 




79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengu 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, 


Sala 


(' Batcoka ', 




(iMa^kuba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-liimbu 


Tcotela, 




Bakhuba) 


'Bampukusu' 










N^dawe, Lima, 
















Leya) 
















79 a. Ci-we 








ro 


Ku- 


Ku- 




Ku- 


Ku- 


K<u-, Ku- 


Ku- 


„ die 


fwa 


•fwa 




•fwa 


•fwa 


•fa, -fu 


•fa 


„ eat 


■lia 


•dya 




•lia 


•dia 


•lia 




„ give ... 


-pa 


•pa 




•pa 


•ha 


•kunda 


•naba 


„ go 


■ya. 


•ya. 




•ya. 


■enda. 


•enda 


-enda. 




-enda, 


•enda, 




-nda, 


■ya 




-ea 




•yinda 


-endenda. 


•ndenda. 












•ila 




•nika 








„ kill ... 


-jaya 


•yaya 




-jaya 


■ibaya 


•ra(?) 


•ipa 


„ know ... 


■ipi 


■W 




•ziba. 
•izi 


•izi 


•daivu.' 
■tzire 


•iva(?) 


„ laugh ... 


-seka 


•seka 




•seka 


-seka 


•peka 


•aye 


,, leave off, 


-leka 


•leka 




■leka 


-leka 


•Use or 
•lijsa 


■teneka 


cease 














„ love,want 


■yanda. 
•sum a 


-funa 




•yanda. 
(■kunda = 

copulate) 


-saka 


•sene (?) 


-binge 


., see 


■wcona. 


•bcona 




•bcona 


■buna 


-muna. 
•liaia (?) 


•muna. 
•lepa 


., sit, remain, 


-ikala 


•kala 




•kala 


■kala or 


•sikama 


•ikala 


abide 










•kada 






., sleep ... 


■oona (-gwna) 


•una 




-una 


•lala 


•rangara 


•kindama 


., stand, stop, 


■ima, 


•^ima 




-ima 


•zima (?) 


•gema (?). 


■imana 


be erect 


■imika 










•ima 




,. steal ... 


•ba, -iba 


•iba 




■ba (Ku^ba) 


•iba 


•iva, •iba 





PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN LENJE 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu- (mu, u-, uyu, iigu, nguyu); 2. Ba^ orWa.- (ba or wa, mba, mbawa) ; 3. Mu- (mu-, 
U-, uu, mbu, ngu, figuyu) ; 4. Mi^ (mi-, i-, nji) ; 5. Li^ (li-, ndi, ndili) ; 6. Ma^ (ma-, a-, ya, iiga, ngaya) ; 
7. Ci^ (ci-, nci, njici) ; 8. ^i^ (?i-, npi, njifi) ; 9. N^ {M-), »•, Ny-, — (i-, ii, nji) ; 10. N- (»!•), N-, Ny-, — 
(pi-, npi, njipi) ; 11. Lu^ (lu-, ndu, ndulu) ; 12. Tu^ (tu-, ntu) ; 13. Ka^ (ka-, iika, ngaka) ; 14. Wu^, Bu- 
(wu-, bu-, mbu, mbuwu) ; 15. Ku- (ku-, fiku) ; 16. Pa^, A- (pa-, a-, mpa) ; 17. Mu- (mu). Masc. and 
fem. prefixes (Si- and Na-) exist but are little used. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN ILA AND CI-LUMBU 

No preprefixes, except in Classes 9 and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, U^ (honorific) (mu, u- (co), we, ngu, -zu) ; 2. Ba- (ba-, mba) ; 3. Mu- (rau-, u, iigu, 
-2u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i, nji, -2^1) ; 5. I-, Di- (di-, 1', ledi, ndi-) ; 6. Ma^ (ma-, a-, figa (figu), -aza) ; 7. Ci^ (ci, 
nci-) ; 8. ^i-, Bi- (pi-, bi, npi, mbi-) ; 9. In- (Im-), In-, Ing-, Iny- (i, in-, ni-, -^i) ; 10. In- (Im), In-, 
Ing^, Iny^ (pi, in-, npi-) ; 11. Lu- (lu-, ndu) ; 12. Tu- (tu-, ntu); 13. Ka^ (ka-, iika (fiku) ; 14. Bu^ (bu-, 
mbu) ; 15. Ku^ (ku-, iiku); 16. A- (a-, awa, figa) ; 17. Mu^ (mu-, mco). Also the masc. prefix Si^, Se^, 
or ^a.; and the fem. prefix Na- ; and the extended form of the diminutive (No. 13), Kanga-. 

' Doubtful. 



33» ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &c, IN TONGA AND Ci-WE 

No preprefixes, except in Nos. 4, 9, and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, U- (mu, U-, yu-, ngu-) ; 2. Ba- (ba, mba-) ; 3. Mu- (mu-, u, -yu, ngu) ; 4. Mi-, Imi- (mi-, 
i-, ei, nji-) ; 5. I-, Li- (li, ndi-, -ndeli) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a-, aya, figa) ; 7. Ci- (ci, nci-) ; 8. Zi- (zi, nzi-) ; 
9. In- (Im-), In-, Iny'- (n-, i, nji-) ; 10. same as 9, or Zi- (zi, nzi-) ; 11. Lu-, Du- (lu, ndu-) ; 12. Tu- 
(tu, ntu-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-, nka) ; 14. Bu- (bu, mbu-) ; 15. Ku- (ku, fiku-) ; 16. Pa-, A- (pa-, a-, nipa ; 
17. Mu- (mu-). There is a Si- or ' father ' prefix, and a (rarer) Na- or ' mother' prefix. U- seems to be 
an honorific prefix. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN SUBIA 
No preprefixes, except in Classes i, 9, and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, U-, Um- (mu, u-, ye, zu, njumu-) ; 2. Ba- (ba, mba-); 3. Mu- (mu-, u (o>), uu, 
iigumu-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-, ii, njimi) ; 5. Di-, I- (di, I'-, ndi-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a, nga-, ngama-) ; 7. Ci- 
(ci, nci-) ; 8- Zi- (zi, nzi-); 9. In- (Im-), In-, Iny'- (in-, i, nji-) ; 10. same as 9 (zi-, nzi); n. Lu- 
(lu, ndu-, ndulu); 12. Tu- (tu, ntu-); 13. Ka- (ka-, nka); 14. Bu- (bu-, mbu); 15. Ku- (ku-, nku) ; 
16. Ha- (ha, mpa-) ; 17. Mu- (mu-, -mco). 

The honorific male and female prefixes Si-, Se-, S'-, and Na- are present. U- is an honorific 
prefix. The diminutive suffix -zana or -ana is much used. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN YEYE OR MA-K(i)BA AND NYENGCO' 

Preprefixes present sometimes, especially in Classes i, 2, 6, and 9. 

Class I. COmcd-, Mco-, (mu), u-, ?) ; 2. Ava-, Va-, Ba- (ba, va-) ; 3. Om'-, Mco- (mo)-, u, ?) ; 4. Me-, 
Mi- (?) (?) ; 5. Le-, Li-, Ri-, Ni- (82), Ze (?) (li, ri-) ; 6. Ama-, Ma- (?) ; 7. ^i-, Se- (?) ; 8. Zi-? ; 9. On-, 
Om-, 0-, In-, En-, Ny'- (?) ; 10. Zi-, Zin- (zi-) ; 11. Ru-, Lu-, Leo- (lu) ; 12. Tu-, Teo- (tu, tco-) ; 13. Ka- 
(ka) ; 14. Bu-, W»-, CO- (?) ; 15. OOkw'-, COkhu-, Koo-, Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Pa-, Ep- (?) ; 17. ? 



77. Lenje is spoken in Northern Rhodesia between the Lukinga mountains and Upper Kafue in the 
north, and the Mulunguije-Lunsefwa river in the south ; bounded eastwards by the Balala, north-west 
by the Kaonde or Southern Luba, westwards by the Bayila and Basala and south by the Batoiiga and 
Basefiga. 

78. Ila (Yila, pala) and 78 a. Cilumbu are spoken in the basin of the Lower Kafue as far north as 
about 14° of South latitude and as far south as 16° South latitude. 

79. Tonga and 79 a. Ciwe are spoken in the basin of the Central and Upper Zambezi river, mainly 
on the north of that river, as far east as the Lower Luafigwa, and as far west as Sepeke and the Tcotela 
or Tutala country and the western bend of the Kafue (say 15° 30' South latitude). 

80. Subia (^ubia) is spoken in the region west of Segeke, between the Linyante, Ccobe, and Zam- 
bezi rivers, mainly to the south and west of the Zambezi and as far south as Pandamatenka. 

81. Yeye (Makcoba, Bakhcoba) is spoken in the region between the Upper OOkavaiiga) river and the 
shores of Lake Ngami, west of the Moremi stream, east of Ongo)va. 

82. Nyengco is spoken in western Northern Rhodesia, west of the Ccobe or Kwando river, north 
and east of the OOkavangco-Kwitio and south of about 16° South latitude. 

' There is little trace of preprefixes in Nyengco. The material for the study of both these tongues 
is exceedingly scanty and derived from Livingstone and Andersson. Their interpreters have severally 
imported Secuana and Hererco corruptions into the form of the words. 



GROUP V 

THE WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES [continued) 
83. Si-luyi ' or ' Barotse ' 83 a. Si-kwafSgwa 

GROUP W 

THE NORTH-WEST ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 



84. Luena (Lu-ina) or Lubale 

85. Mbunda 853? Ka-luiana^ 

86. Lujazi (Lu-imbi)' 86 a. Ngafigela 

86 b. Western Mbwela (' Ambwela ') 



87. Nkoya ' (Si-iikoya) 

87 a. Mbwela 

88. Kicokto (Kicokwe, Jok, Ci-bokwe) 



English 



83- 
Si-luyi or 
' Barotse ' ' 

83 a. Si- 
kwangwa 



84. 

Luena or 

Lubale 



85. 

Mbunda 

85 a. 

? Ka-luiana 



86, 

Lujazi ' 

86 a. Ifgangela 

86 b. Western 

Mbwela 



87. 

Nkoya 

87 a. Mbwela 



Kicokco or 
Ci-bokwe 



Adze ... 



Animal, wild 
beast 



lAnt ... 



|Ant, white 

(termite) 



lApe 



I Arrow 



M-beco, 
M-bayoj 

I-ama-na (p/.), 
Si-ama-na 



U-twa 



N-jcokco ; 

an-j<okco 
Ili-kaa. 

Kco-bukco or 

K-cokco ; 

m-cokca 



Umu-poj ; 

imi-poi. 

U-lembe 
Si-repe. 

Sam CO. 

Umu-binge 



Kany-ama ; 
vatuny-ama 

Li-kenyi ; ma- 



Ka-swa ; 
tu-swa or 
vatu-swa 



Ka-tsembe ; tu- 



Ka-hitu ; tu-. 
^i-ama-ua ; hi 

Tu-mwemwe 

iPQ (85 a) 

Mu-swa ; mi- 



tu- 



Li-wuk<o ; ma- Li-boskw : ma- 



Mw-ivwi ; 
mi-ivwi 

N'-gimbu ; ^iri- 



Mu-kili ; mi-. 

Lu-ku|sa. 

Mu-vi ; mi- 
N-gimbu ; tii + , 

Ci-banga; hi- 



M-baico. 
N-gyimbu 

Ka-setco, 

Ka-sitca. 

N-cit&j. 

Ny-ama 
Ka-lume ; 

(86 a). 

N-tsiritsi 
Im-bundyi ; 

zim -f . 

Ma-kezi(^/.) 
Ka-mumi ;• 

ba-, tu- (86 b) 
Ku-vo>kci> or 

Li-bcokca; ma-. 

Li-vo>kca ■ 

(86 a). 

Dzi-bcokco 

(86 b) 
Mu-kuri, 

Mu-kiri; mi-. 

Mu-tyili (86 a) 
Gimbcd, 

N-gyimbu, 

N-gemb<o. 

N-dyimbu 

(86 a) 



Ka-t>embe, 

Ka-dembe 

(87 a) 
g i-ama-na ; bi-. Ny-ama 

Ny-ama (87 a) 



Di-sendi ; ma- 



Ka-mumi 

Di-beokw. U-weokco; //. 

Dzi-bcokco m-<okoo. 

Mco-se 



Mu-vi ; mi- Mu-ivi ; mi- 



Ci-banga ; bi-. Ka-sawu 
^i-baiiga ; bi- 



' A/so known as Luiana and Lue ; as Sikubu ; and in different dialects as Si-kwangwa (83 a), Si-kcoma (83 b), 
^ and Si-kwandi (?) (83 c). 

* TAe Ka-luiana 0/ Capello and Ivens may be a dialect of Mbunda; So also may be the ' Miponda, ' of various 
early explorers, though the ' Mapondd' of Livingstone seems more related to Lujazi. 

' The Balojdzi of Livingstone {apparently also called LvLArabi) and perhaps also the Ma.pondA of the same writer. 
Ngangela appears to be nearly the same language in its western form ; so also Western Mbweln {the speech of the 
Ambwela or Bdtnbwela of S. E. Angola). 

* Nkoya and Mbwela {which may be allied to the ' Ambwela ' of Angola — 86 b) only seem to differ dialectally. 
Other dialects of the same stock are known as Ma-jsapa and Si-galu. 

17>< Z 



334 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





83- 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Nkoya 


Kicdku or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


853. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Baboon ... 


?N-JMku 


Sukcd. 
Puya ; va -t- 


Buya? 


Puya; bam- 


Puya ; bam- 


..• 


Back 


M>onge» ; 


Ny-ima. 


Mw-ongo>; mi- 


Ny-ima. 


Ma-fube. 


• •• 




mi-ongco 


Jim-bunda 

{loins) • 




M-ongco. 
Lum-pati ; 
zi-(86a)^. 
Mwa-langa 


Kuny-ima 

(87 a) 




Banana ... 


Li-konde ; ma- 


Li-konde ; ma- 


Li-konde ; ma- 


Li-hondyco. 
Hoiigia 


... 


Dikondi ; ma- 


Beard 


Mu-Iep«a ; nii^ 


W-evu 


Mu-jeW; min- 


Mu-ezi or 
Mun-jezi. 
Mu-levu(86b) 


Mu-levu ; mi- 


U-evM 


Bee 


M-uka; ti + 


Puka; va-f* 


M-uka; t,i + . 
Lu-puka ; 
puka 


Puka or 
M-puka; va + 


Puka, 
Lu-puka 
(//. im-puka, 
87 a) 


Puka ; ma -1 


Belly 


Li-pume* 


Mu-jimuor 


L-imoo; 


Imco, 


Di-vumu. 


Jimu; ma-t- 




Li-pmnbu 


Li-^imw. 


m-emto. 


Limco, or 


Ji-fu ; ma- 








Lu-fu ; 


Di-vumco 


Zimu 


(87 a) 








jilu-fu 










Bird 


Ny-unyi; iti-. 


Ka-jila;V^- 


Ka-bila; tu- 


Ka-zlra; tu-. 


Ka-yune ; ba-, 


Ka-jila; tu- 




Aka-unyi; utu- 


tu- or vatu- 




Ka-t»ela ; tu-. 
TJisi. 

Ka-zila (86 a) 


tu- 




Blood 


U-nyinga. 
Ma-nyenga 


Ma-nyinga 


Li-ninga 


Ma-ning^. 
Ma-nyeiiga. 
Sonde (86 a) 


Mu-keba 


Ma-yinga, 
Ma-nyenga 


Body 


MwUi. 
L-oitco or 
L-utu . 


Mu-jimba ; mi- 


Mu-bila; mi- 


Mu-bila, 
Moj-bela, 
Mu-vila 


L-utu; 
biny-utu. 
{fil. Ma-rutu, 
87 a) 




Bone 


Si^fcoba; i-. 
Si-fuba 


Li-fuhwa ; ma- 


Ci-biya ; bi- 


Ki-tea, 
^i-tea. 
Li-tsiha 


^i-fupa ; bi- 


• •* 


Borassuspalm 


... 


■ <a 


*•• 


Kcome 


... 


... 


Bow 


U-tib; ma-ta 


U-ta 


Bu-ta ; ma-ta. 


Li-khupu. 
U-ta, 
Bu..ta, 
Vu-ta 


pi-pandeo ; bi- 


U-ta 


Bowels 


Mu-la; mi-la 


Ma-jingwaor 

Ma-^ingwa 


Mu-la; mi-la 


Mi-ra, 

Mi-la. 
Li-sandya 


Mu-la; mi-la 


'*• 


Brains 


U-lui 


W-ongo» 


Ki-pvgi » (85 a). 
W-ongoj 


Vu-ongco. 
Ma-vu (86 a) 


U-lui. 
U-ruyi (87 a) 


... 


Breast (man's) 


... 


... 


... 


N-suka. 

In-tulM(86a) 


... 


... 


Breast 


Li-ele; m-ele 


Li-vele; raa- 


Li-bele ; ma- 


Vere ; ma-. 


Di-bele, 


Pamboj 


(woman's) 








Li-vele (86 a) 


Ji-bere 




Brother ... 


M-ina 


Soagco. 


M-ana 


N-kulu-ntu. 


Mu-kondco. 


Pwetoj ? 




iyoung-er). 


N-dumba or 


wa-yala. 


M\v-ana-et«). 


Yayi 






Mu-kulu 


N-dumbwa 


Mu-na nana ; 


Ka-lenge. 








{elder). 




ba-f 


Yaya 








Mw-abange; 














abange 













' Where one authority spells ' j ', another substitutes ' ^ '. 



Noteworthy. 



GROUPS V, W : THE WESTERN AND NORTH-WEST ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 335 





83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Nkoya 


Kicokco or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Buffalo 


N-otco. 

Iny-aU, 
Iny-aci 


N-gombe wa 
pasa 


Ny-ati; t>i-H 


Ng-ati 
(? Ny-ati). 
Pakasa. 

In-yati(86a) 


N-gombe 


M-buau 


Bull 


... 


• •• 


• •■ 


M-onti 


... 


... 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


Ny-onga; bi- 


Li-takco ; ma- 


Ma-takco 


... 


Canoe 


W-atco 


W-atto ; 


W-atco; 


W-atco, 


W-atco ; 


W-atco 






m-atu or 


m-atco 


Vu-atco, 


m-atco 








ma-w-atcij 




Bw-atco. 
M-birika 






Cat 


Si-nunu 


Ka-mepi 


... 


M-bisi 


... 


... 


Charcoal ... 


Ma-kala 


... 


Li-nungu. 


• •• 


. . . 










Ma-kala 






Chief, king 


M-bumu. 


M w-ana-n-gana; 


Mw-ene ; 


Mw-ene ; 


Mw-ene ; 


Ka-lamba. 




Mco-lia. 


pi. vami-ana- 


ba-be-mi-ene 


vami-ene ' 


bami-ene 


Mw-ana-fi-gana. 




Mu-ywandi ; 


n-gana. 








Ki-lcoloo. 




//. a-ywandi 


Mw-ata. 
Mu-kulwa-ne 








Jaka? 


Child 


Mw-ana ; a-na 


Mw-ana ; //. 


Mw-anike ; 


K-anike. 


Mw-ana. 


M-cona. 




K-ana ; 


mi-ana and 


ba-anike. 


M-cona 


Wamu-kata ; 


Ka-lenge 




tw-ana. 


v-ana. 


Ka-keke ; 




baba-kata. 






Mw-anuke. 


Kemba : 


batu- 




Ka-nunke; 






M-pututu 


va-kemba. 
Ka-nyike; 
va-nyike 






ba-tw'-anunke 




Cloth 


Ulu-ambi. 
I-kubela 


Li-hina 


L-ina 


I -nanga 


... 


... 


Cold 


Om-pcolu, 
Kum-btola. 
Mu-bebco 


Ci-pika 


Ci-sika(85a). 
Li-bika 


Le-t>ika. 
Ma-sika. 
N-tuema.' 


... 


Cika 


Country ... 


Li-tunga. 
Mu-ronga 


Li-fuci 


lyi-futi; ma- 


Nonda. 
Ci-fute, 
Tyi-huti 


Di-tunga. 
Ji-tunga (87 a) 


Ki-fuci 


Cow 


N-gombe ; tin 


N-gombe 
ci-hueveo ; 
van-gombe 
va-ci-huevco 


N-gombe; tiiii- 


N-gombe 
na-tcola. 
N-gyindi, 
N-dyindi 

(86 a) 


lii-gombe ; 
tiiii-gombe 


N-gombe 


Crocodile ... 


N-gandu, 
Ifi-gandu, 
Un-gandu 
{hotiorific) 


N-gandu 


N-gandu ; feiii- 


N-gandco 


N-gandu 


N-ganzu 


Day, daylight 


Li-ywa, 


Li-neki ; ' ma-. 


Li-tangwa 


M-ene. 


Mu-tena. 


... 




Ili-ywa ; 


Li-kumbi;ma-. 




Li -tang wa 


Mw-ana (Z^ a) 






ma-ywa. 


Mu-sana ; mi- 












I-nji, 














Mw-inji 












Devil, evil 


Ka-munu. 


Li-hamba ; ma- 


Ka-ilabiiigu 


Hamba 


... 


... 


spirit 


U-lumba 












Doctor (medi- 


Nanga 


Cim-buki ; vi- 


Cim-banda; 


Cim-banda 




M-buki 


cine man) 






bim- 








Dog 


M-bwa ; 


Ka-wa ; 


Ka-tali; tu- 


Ka-tari, 


Ka-wa ; 


Ka-wa ,• 




am-bwa 


vatu-wa 




Ka-tali 


ba-tu-wa 


tu-wa 


Donkey ... 




Cim-bulu 


' Noteworthy. 




' 





Z 2 



33<5 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


»koya 


Kicokco or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Ifgangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western