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Full text of "Compatibility of fruits and vegetables during transport in mixed loads"

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COMPATIBILITY OF FRUITS AND 

VEGETABLES DURING TRANSPORT 

IN MIXED LOADS 



Marketing Research Report No. 1070 



Agricultural Research Service 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



This publication replaces and revises ARS 51-48, "Compatibility of Fruits 
and Vegetables During Transport in Mixed Loads," issued September 1972. 



Washington, D.C. Issued May 1977 



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COMPATIBILITY OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES DURING 
TRANSPORT IN MIXED LOADS 



By Werner J. Lipton, plant physiologist ; and John M. Harvey, plant pathologist 



INTRODUCTION 



Shippers or receivers of fresh fruits and veg- 
etables frequently prefer to handle shipments 
that consist of more than one commodity, the 
so-called mixers. In mixed loads, it is important 
to combine only those commodities that are 
compatible with respect to their requirements 
for (1) temperature, (2) modified atmosphere, 
(3) relative humidity, and (4) protection from 
odors or (5) from physiologically active gases, 
such as ethylene. To facilitate the choice of com- 
patible crops and to help avoid shipments of 
undesirable combinations, we have prepared the 
ensuing compatibility tables in which about 85 
crops are placed into nine compatibility 
groups. All factors enumerated above were 
considered in the groupings. 

Compatible commodities are those that can be 
shipped together without adverse effects on any 
one of them during the usual maximum transit 
period for the most perishable commodity in 
the load. Compatibility does not imply that 
crops in the same group now normally are, or 
likely will be, shipped together, but merely that 
they may be shipped together if circumstances 
demand it. 



1 Market Quality and Transportation Research Labo- 
ratory, ARS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 
8143, Fresno, Calif. 93727. 

The authors acknowledge the advice of R. E. Harden- 
burg, ARS, Beltsville, Md., and J. J. Smoot, ARS, 
Orlando, Fla., regarding holding temperatures for sev- 
eral commodities reported on in this publication. 



Grouping of the various commodities is based 
on evidence drawn from material published for 
individual crops and on our experience. Adverse 
effects of mixing incompatible or marginally 
compatible commodities would be greater when 
the transit period is longer. Thus, greater 
caution would have to be exercised for surface 
shipments overseas than for normal transcon- 
tinental shipments. In contrast, limitations on 
compatibility generally can be ignored during 
wholesale distribution requiring 1 day or less. 
During this period, temperatures should be 
adjusted to satisfy the needs of the most per- 
ishable item in the load, with due regard to 
chilling sensitivity of some commodities. 

The Recommended Transit Conditions given 
for each group may differ from the optimum 
temperatures and humidities for individual 
members of a group. However, within the limi- 
tations given in the previous paragraphs, the 
Recommended Conditions represent a satisfac- 
tory compromise. For optimum conditions for 
solid loads or for extended storage, consult one 
of the following references : 

• The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vege- 
tables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks. 
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Handbook 66. 

• Protecting Perishable Foods During 
Transport by Motortruck. U.S. Dept. Agr., 
Agr. Handbook 105. 

• Protection of Rail Shipments of Fruits 
and Vegetables. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. 
Handbook 195. 

3 



MARKETING RESEARCH REPORT 1070, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



COMMODITIES WITH SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS 



Avocados 

Ripening would be rapid at 55° to 65° F 
(13 to 18° C) ; chilling injury may occur below 
50° F (10 c C). 

Citrus Fruits 

Biphenyl, which is used as a fungicide on 
citrus fruits, may impart off-odors to other 
commodities. 

Lemons. — For holding 1 month or less, 32° 
to 55° F (0° to 13° C) is acceptable; for longer 
periods, 50° to 55° F (10° to 13° C) is neces- 
sary. 



Limes.— Do not hold below 45 C F (7.5 = C) 
longer than about 2 weeks. 

Oranges and Tangerines. — Compatibility de- 
pends on source. Florida-grown or Texas-grown 
oranges are shipped at 32° to 40° F (0° to 4.5° 
C), but California-grown and Arizona-grown 
ones are shipped at 40° to 44 3 F (4.5° to 7 C C). 

Grapes 

Compatible with other crops only if the 
grapes are not fumigated with sulfur dioxide 
(SO;;) in vehicle and if no chemicals that release 
SOj are included in packages. 



COMPATIBILITY GROUPS 



Group 1 



Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 32° to 34° F (0° to 1.5° C). 
Relative humidity: 90 to 95 percent. 
Atmosphere: Normally used on berries and 

cherries only — 10 to 20 percent CO^. 
Ice : Never in contact with commodity. 
Note: Most members of this group not com- 
patible with Group 6a or 6b because 

ethylene production by Group 1 can be 

high, and thus harmful to members of 

Groups 6a or 6b. 

Apples 

Apricots 

Berries (except cranberries) 

Cherries 

Figs (not with apples, danger of odor 
transfer to figs; also see Group 6a) 

Grapes (see Commodities with Special 
Requirements; also see Group 6a) 

Peaches 

Pears 

Persimmons 

Plums and prunes 

Pomegranates 

Quinces 

Group 2 

Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 55 to 65 F (13° to 18° C). 



Relative humidity : 85 to 95 percent. 
Ice : Never in contact with commodity. 

Avocados (see Commodities with Special 
Requirements) 

Bananas 

Eggplant (also see Group 5) 

Grapefruit, Arizona and California; 
Florida before Jan. 1 (see Com- 
modities with Special Requirements 
— Citrus Fruits) 

Guava 

Mangoes 

Muskmelons, other than cantaloupes 
Casaba 
Crenshaw 
Honeydews 
Persian 

Olives, fre?h 

Papayas 

Pineapples (not with avocados, danger 
of avocados' odor absorption) 

Tomatoes, green 

Tomatoes, pink (also see Group 4) 

Watermelons (also see Groups 4 and 5) 

Group 3 

Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 36 to 41 F (2.5 to 5.0 C). 
Relative humidity: 90 to 95 percent: canta- 
loupes about 95 percent. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN MIXED LOADS 



Ice : In contact only with cantaloupes. 

Cantaloupes 

Cranberries 

Lemons (adjust temperature to other 
commodity: see Commodities with 
Special Requirements) 

Lychees (also see Group 4) 

Oranges (see Commodities with Special 
Requirements) 

Tangerines (see Commodities with Spe- 
cial Requirements) 

Group U 

Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 40° to 45° F (4.5° to 7.5° C) ; 

beans 38° to 42° F (3.5° to 5.5° C). 
Relative humidity: About 95 percent. 
Ice: Never in contact with commodity. 

Beans, snap 

Lychees (also see Group 3) 

Okra 

Peppers, green (not with beans) 

Peppers, red (if with green peppers, 
temperature adjusted toward top of 
range) 

Squash, summer 

Tomatoes, pink (also see Group 2) 

Watermelons (also see Groups 2 and 5) 



Group 6a 

This group, except for figs, grapes, and 
mushrooms, is compatible with Group 6b. 
Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 32° to 34° F (0° to 1.5° C). 
Relative humidity: 95 to 100 percent. 
Ice: Never in contact with asparagus, figs, 

grapes, and mushrooms. 

Artichokes 

Asparagus 

Beets, red 

Carrots 

Endive and escarole 

Figs (also see Group 1) 

Grapes (see Commodities with Special 
Requirements, also see Group 1) 

Greens 

Leek (not with figs or grapes) 

Lettuce 

Mushrooms 

Parsley 

Parsnips 

Peas 

Rhubarb 

Salsify 

Spinach 

Sweet corn 

Watercress 



Group 5 

Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 40° to 55° F (4.5° to 13° C) ; 

ginger not below 55° F. 
Relative humidity: 85 to 90 percent. 
Ice : Never in contact with commodity. 
Cucumbers 

Eggplant (also see Group 2) 
Ginger (not with eggplant, also see 

Group 7) 
Grapefruit, Florida (after Jan. 1) and 

Texas 
Limes (see Commodities with Special 

Requirements) 
Potatoes (late crop) 
Pumpkin and Squashes, winter 
Watermelon (temperature adjusted for 
other members of group; also see 
Groups 2 and 4) 



Group 6b 

This group is compatible with Group 6a, ex- 
cept for figs, grapes, and mushrooms. 
Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 32° to 34° F (0° to 1.5° C). 
Relative humidity: 95 to 100 percent. 
Ice: Contact acceptable for all. 
Broccoli 

Brussels sprouts 
Cabbage 
Cauliflower 
Celeriac 
Celery 
Horseradish 
Kohlrabi 

Onions, green (not with rhubarb, figs, or 
grapes; probably not with mush- 
rooms or sweet corn) 
Radishes 



MARKETING RESEARCH REPORT 1070, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

Group 6b — Continued Group 7 — Continued 



Rutabagas 
Turnips 



Group 7 

Recommended Transit Conditions: 
Temperature: 55° to 65° F (13° to 18° 
Relative humidity: 85 to 90 percent. 
Ice: Never in contact with commodity. 
Ginger (also see Group 5) 



C). 



Potatoes, early crop (temperatures ad- 
justed for others) 
Sweetpotatoes 

Group 8 

Recommended Transit Conditions: 

Temperature: 32° to 34 c F (0° to 1.5 C C). 
Relative humidity : 65 to 75 percent. 
Ice: Never in contact with commodity. 

Garlic 

Onions, dry 



INDEX OF CROPS 



Crop Group 

Fruits 

Apples 1 

Apricots 1 

Avocados 2 

Bananas 2 

Berries 1 

Cherries 1 

Cranberries 3 

Figs 1,6a 

Grapefruit 2,5 

Grapes 1,6a 

Guavas 2 

Lemons 3 

Limes 5 

Lychees 3,4 

Mangoes 2 

Muskmelons, see vegetables and melons 
Nectarines, see peaches 

Olives, fresh 2 

Oranges 3 

Papayas 2 

Peaches 1 

Pears 1 

Persimmons 1 

Pineapples 2 

Plums and prunes 1 

Pomegranates 1 

Quinces 1 

Strawberries, see berries 

Tangerines 3 

Vegetables and melons 

Artichokes 6a 

Asparagus 6a 

Beans, snap 4 

Beets, red 6a 



Crop Group 

Vegetables and melons — Continued 

Broccoli 6b 

Brussels sprouts 6b 

Cabbage 6b 

Cantaloupes, see muskmelons 

Carrots 6a 

Cauliflower 6b 

Celeriac 6b 

Celery 6b 

Cucumbers 5 

Eggplant 2,5 

Endive and escarole 6a 

Garlic 8 

Ginger 5,7 

Greens 6a 

Horseradish 6b 

Kohlrabi 6b 

Leek 6a 

Lettuce 6a 

Mushrooms . 6a 

Muskmelons 

Cantaloupes 3 

Casaba 2 

Crenshaw 2 

Honeydew 2 

Persian 2 

Okra 4 

Onions, dry 8 

Onions, green 6b 

Parsley 6a 

Parsnips 6a 

Peas 6a 

Peppers, green 4 

Peppers, red 4 

Potatoes, early crop . 7 

Potatoes, late crop 5 

Pumpkins and squashes, winter 5 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN MIXED LOADS 



Crop Group 

Vegetables and melons — Continued 

Radishes 6b 

Rhubarb 6a 

Rutabagas 6b 

Salsify 6a 

Spinach 6a 

Squash, summer 4 

Squash, winter, see pumpkins and squashes, 
winter 



Crop Group 

Vegetables and melons — Continued 

Sweet corn 6a 

Sweetpotatoes 7 

Tomatoes, green 2 

Tomatoes, pink 2,4 

Turnips 6b 

Watercress 6a 

Watermelons 2, 4, 5 



ft U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1977 O — 228-412 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
HYATTSVILLE. MARYLAND 20782 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 

PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE. S300 



POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF 

AGRICULTURE 

AGR 101