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BENJAMIN DAYIES, ph.d.,ll.d. 


jQeta edition 









Ihis work may be regarded as new, though not claiming 
to be original. Experts will find on every page some fresh- 
ness, indicating a measure of independence and of endeavour 
after progress, not however in a dogmatic but in a tentative 

The irregular and the harder forms of words will be found 
here placed in alphabetical order in the body of the Lexicon, 
and not (as usual) put by themselves at the end. In explanation 
of these forms and also of many difficulties pertaining to 
the syntax, frequent and fitting references are made to the 
Student's Hebrew Grammar or Rcediger's Gesenius, pub. by 
Asher & Co., London. 

In the treatment of the letters (e. g. S) H and *^), much 
has been done more fully to indicate and illustrate their 
affinities and interchanges, and also their formative uses or their 
effect in word-building (cf. Gram. § 81, Rem. 1). Some of 
these letter-changes (e. g. *1 = b), though rare in Semitic, as 
elsewhere, and therefore open to some doubt, may, however, 
be favoured by analogy in other tongues (cf. E. dairy = F. 
laiterie = L. lacteria, E. day = Irish lia = W. dydh = L. dies, 
Sans, dasan = lasan = L. decern = hiy.a = Lithuanian -lUca 
in dwylika = ouwSexa), and especially by the fact (so often 
overlooked), that the letters in question may really be both of 
the same class, for both "1 and b are either dentals or linguala 

- VIII — 

(see Gram. § 6, 4, c), as also T and ^ are both Unguals or 
palatals, and therefore not unlikely to pass the one for the 
other, as in pT^ = p'na. 

In the handling of roots and deriyatives (see Gram. §§ 38 
and 81), and especially of those that seem to have more than 
three radical letters (see Gram. § 30, 3), sundry improve- 
ments have been attempted, e. g. HJJsJ III, by^ I,il5^'n, pb II, 
rrti, bsj n, n^n:?, nee 11, n';)g, 'jng, fc^t&j?, b^'i, t})i% i»i2f , 
nn5nfc?» fiB*'P^'^5 pi»^^, ^^^^^.^ '^'^sso, "i:^!i», nin^n:?pt^, tiin^^n, 

V\'BT\. — It will be noticed that many roots are here surmised 
to be mimetic (else onomatopoetic, see Gram. § 1, 4), e. g. 
nnx IV, TX3 2, i^nb, 0^0 II, b:?© II, though they have not been 
so regarded by others, and though our Sanskritists may deem 
it undignified or unscientific to allow words to have such an 
origin, and hence must needs, for instance, connect E. coiv 
with Sans, gd (to go) and not with Sans, ghu, which is prob. 
mimetic and akin to H^^ (which see) to low, Arab. ^, Syr. 
1^, \Ld, I^*; comp. also Sans, kaukalis (r. kucJi to sound), 
xoxxuS, x6xxo, xoa$, L. cuculus, cucurio, coaxo, E. cuckoo, code, 
quack, W. gog, gwccw, Gaelic kuach, Manks kivag, which are 
all mimetic. 

As the Assyrian tongue is now allowed to be Semitic 
(see Gram. § 1, 2) f, various words (e. g. I'^'iJiJp, 'ji5"]D, ^Di^bs) 
are here tentatively traced to that source, rather tlian to the 
usual Sanskrit or Persian. 

Much attention is also given to the affinities and analogies 
between words, in different forms and of various dialects or 

♦ See Prof. Key's Estimate of the Sanskrit Language as the Basis 

of Linguistic Science, in Philological Society's Transactions for 1862 3 

pp. 113—160. 

t See also Dr. Schrader's exhaustive and conclusive article on the 
Assyrian Inscriptions and Language, in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgeniandischen Gesellschaft, 1872, pp. 1— 392j see Gram. p. 2, Note^. 

— TX — 

languages (e. g. nh, Dh, njDb, 5)5Jji, l?a); for there is now 
happily a growing conviction, that no tongue can be learned 
with proper interest and profit without paying heed to compara- 
tive philology. Even English is of late beginning to be studied 
in this more excellent way, owing largely, if not chiefly, to 
the labours of Germans and Americans. 

A work (si this sort has for many years seemed to me 
to be needed; and at last, after vainly urging others to do 
it, I committed myself to the task, finding encouragement 
from Dr. Payne Smith, the Dean of Canterbury, from Dr. 
Gotch, President of Bristol Baptist College, from my old 
American friend Dr. Hackett, Professor of Biblical Litera- 
ture in Kochester Theological Seminary, N. Y. State, and 
from Dr. W. Wright, Professor of Arabic in the University 
of Cambridge, who was often consulted with advantage. 

As however my health was impaired and I had not much 
spare time for giving effect to my plan, I was glad, in preparing 
the work for the press and carrying it through, to have ex- 
cellent help from two good friends, F. Bosworth,M. A. and 
A. J. Towell, both of whom, when theological students, were 
among the foremost in my classes, showing uncommon taste 
and aptness for languages, but especially for Biblical scholar- 
ship. The former gave his friendly aid in doing the letter 2. 
The latter did admirable service in preparing most of the 
other letters and in revising every sheet as it passed through 
the press. 

For valuable hints or words of encouragement I feel in- 
debted to a number of learned Hebraists and other orientalists, 
both at home and abroad. Special thanks are due to Dr. 
Johannes Eoediger, Assistant Librarian*) to the University of 
Leipsic for his aid in connection with the press. 

*) J^ow ri875l Librarij^n to tjie ynjversitv pf Bresjay, 

Credit is justly accorded to the publishers and to the 
printing-office for so well carrying out my requirements, in 
regard to the types and the general style of the book, which 
win praise from all. 

If it please God that this Lexicon, notwithstanding its 
many shortcomings, shall answer the end by really aiding 
students to gain a good knowledge of the Old Test. Scriptures 
in the original tongues, the coveted reward of my labour will 
have been vouchsafed. 

London, October. 1871. BENJ. DAVIES. 


Great pains have been taken to make this work, as 
now issued, still more worthy of the favorable reception it 
has met with, as shown by the ready sale of the first edition. 
— The English-Hebrew Index, now added as a help to com- 
position in the sacred tongue, has been carefully prepared by 
T. G. Rooke, B. A. Lend., one of the chiefest among my old 
students and beloved as a son. — I am indebted to various 
friends for useful hints, especially to Prof. A. B. Davidson, 
D.D., of the Free Church College, Edinburgh, and also to 
J. Frederick Smithy the translator of Ewald's Introductory 
Hebr. Grammar, published by Asher & Co., London, 1870. 

July, 1875. B. D. 


♦^* Contractions of Heb. words are often made by using simply the 
first letter with a stroke, e.g. 'b for "^S^ 'aforniTQ, '^forW, 8eeGrara.§5,4. 
The proper accent of each word is here marked under it by (^ e. g. -jr-JX, 
when it does not faU on the last syllable, where it usually does (see Gram. 
§15, 2); but Methegh (being only a subsidiary accent) is not often indicated, 
but' left to the student to supply, according to Gram. § 16, 2 and Rem. 
- The pause accent (see Gram. § 29, 4) is here mostly marked by (— ) 

def. , definite J a form of Chald. words, 

called emphatic in many Grammars, 
dem., demonstr., demonstrative. 
denom., denominative. 
diff., different. 
disj., disjunct., disjunctive. 
Dor., Doric. 
du., dual. 
E., Engl., English. 
ed., edition. 

e. g. (exempli gratia), for example. 
Egypt,, Egyptian. 
ellipt., elliptical. 
epic, epicene. 
epenth., epenthetic. 
esp., especially. 
Eth., Ethiop., Ethiopia. 
Ethpa., Ethpa'al. 
etym., etymology. 
eupbon., euphonic. 
f., fern., feminine. 
fin., finite. 
format., formative. 
P., Fr., French. 
fig-, figurative, figuratively. 
fr., from. .. 

fut., future, called imperfect in Kod iter's 
Gesenius, see Student's Ileb. Gram. 
§ 40, Note. 

G., Ger., German. 

Gael., Gaelic. 

gen., generally. 

gen., genit., genitive. 

gend., gender. 

gent., gentil., gentilic, see Gram. S 86, 2, 5. 

Gram., Student's Hebrew Grammar i. e. 
B.oe.liget'8 Gesenius, 91«l edition 
translated by Dr. Davies, published 
by Asher & Co., London. 

Gr., Greek. 

Heb., Hebrew. 

Hipb., HiphHl. 

Hith., Hithp., Hithpa'el. 

Hithpal., Hithpal^el. 

Hitbpalp., Hilhpalptl. 

Hithpo., Hithpol., Hithpolel. 

Hopb., Hoph'al. 

Hothp., Hothpa., Hothpa'ul. 

byperb., hyperbolical. 

ftbbrev., abbreviation. 

abs., absol., absolute. 

abst., abstr., abstract. 

ace, accusative. 

ace. to, according to. 

act., active. 

adj., adjective. 

adv., adverb. 

afform., afformative. 

Amer. Ind., American Indian. 

Apb., ApTi'el. „ ^ , . 

ap apoc, ojjocojjafed, also called Jusstwe, 

app., appos., apposition, see Gram. § 113. 

Arab., Arabic. e , o ,, 

Aram., Aramaean, see Gram. § 1, ^, U. 

App., Appendix. 

Armen., Armenian. 

art., article. 

Assyr., Assyrian. 

Beug., Bengali. 

Bret., Breton. 

c, const., constr., construct. 

card., cordinal. 

Cant., Canticles, Book of Solomon's Song. 

of., confer, i. e. compare or consult. 

Cb., Chald., Chaldee. 

cohort., cohortative. 

cog., coflfnafe. 

coll., collect., collective. 

com., comm., common gender. 

comp., compare. 

concr., concrete. 
cond., condi'f tonal. 

conj., conjunction, conjunctive, conjugation. 

conjug., conjugation. 

conjunct., conjunctive. 

const., constr., construct. 

consec, consecutive. 

contract., contracted. 

Copt,, Coptic. 

nop., copulative. 

correl., correlative. 

Dagh., DaghVsh. 

Dagh. f., Daghesh forte. 

Dagh. f. impl., Daghesh forte implicitum, 
see Gram. | 22, 1, Bern. 

Dan., Danish. 

$at., dative, 

— xn — 

f. •. (Id est), that ti. 

L q. (idem quod), aamt at or equal tOf 

often indicated by » as the yi^'n of 

Imp., imper., imperat., imperative. 
impera., impersonal. 
impl. (L. implicitam), implied, 
indef., indefinite. 
inf., infln., infinitive. 
intens., intensive. 
inter)., interjoc, interjection, 
interrog., interrogative. 
intr., intrans., intransitive. 
Ir., Irish. 
irreg., irregular. 
Ishtaph^ Jshfavf\*»l, 
Ital., Italian. 
Ittapa., Ithpa'al. 
Ithpe., Ithpe^el, 

Kelt., Keltic, see Oram. § 1, 4, Noto*. 
L., Lat., Latin. 
Lebrb., Lehrbuch, in quoting Ewald's Aus- 

fUbrliches Lehrbucb der Hebraischen 

Spracbe, 7th or 8th edition. 
lit., literal, literally. 
Lacon., Laconian. 
loc, local, see Oram. ( 90, 2. 
MSS, manuscripts. 
m., masc, masculine, 
Maq., Maqqi'ph. 
mid., middle, 
mod., modern. 
mimet., mimetic, commonly called onomato- 

poetic, see Gram. § 1, 4. 
neg., negative. 
N. T., New Testament, 
Niph., Niph'al, 

Nithp., Nithpa'el, see Oram. § Co, 9. 
n., name, noun. 
num., number. 
Obs.« obsol., obsolete i. e. not occurring 

in the Bible, though perh. in other 

Heb. books. 
AbJ., object. 
O. £., Old English. 
opp., oppos., opposed to, opposition. 
ord., ordin., ordinal. 
orig., original, originally. 

p., person; also pause, see Oram. § 20, 4. 

Pa., Pa'el. 

Farad., Paradigm. 

parag., paragogic. 

parall., parallel, see Gram. % 2, 5. 

part., participle. 

pass., passive. 

patr.,patron.,pa<ronymi«,aeeGram.§8G 2,5. 

Pe., Pe'al. 

Pent., Pentateu^. 

perf., perfect. 

perb., perhapp. 

pers., per 

PI., PVtl 

PH., PiHel. 

Pilp., Pilpel. 

Fhen., Phenician. 

pleon., pleonastic. 

pi., plur., plural. 

plur. excel., pluralis exellentio!, see Qrum. 

§ 108, 2, 6. 
plup., pluperfect, 
poet., poetic, poetry. 
Po., Po^el, see Gram. § 65, 1. 
Polp., Palpal, see Gram. § 55, 4. 
pr. n., proper name. 
pr. n. f., proper name feminine, 
pr. n. m., proper name masculine* 
pref., prefix. 
preform., preformative, 
prep., preposition. 
prepp., prepositions. 
prim., primitive. 
priv., privative. 
prob., probable, probably, 
pron., pronoun. 
pronom., pronominal. 
prop., properly. 
prosth., prosthetic. 
Pu., Pu'al. 

q. V. (quod vide), which see, 
r,, root. 
rad., radical. 

redup., reduplic, reduplicated, 
ref., reference. 
refl., reflexive. 
reg., regular. 
Rem., Remark. 
rel., relat., relative. 
S., Sanskrit. 

8am., Samar., Samnrilan. 
Sans., Sanscr., Sanscrit or 8ansl:rit. 
Sax., Saxon. 

sc, sell, (scilicet), namely, 
Sept., Septuagint. ' 

Shaph., Shaph'el. 
sing., singular. 
Slavon., Slavonic, 
St., state. 
subj., subject. 
subst., substantive. 
suf., suffix. 
Swed., Swedish. 
Symm., Symmachus. 
syn., synon., synonymous, 
Syr., Syriac. 

Talm., Talmiid, Talmiidic. 
Taph., Taph'el. 
Targ., TargHm. 

Tiph., Tiph'el, see Gram. § ns, S, 
tr., trans., transitive. 
trans p., transposition 
Turk., Turkish. 
Vulg., Vulgate. 
W., Welsh. 
wh., which. 
w., with. 

Lexicons constantly used or occasionally consulted 
in the preparation of this work: 

GESENIUS, Thesaurus Linguae HebrsesB et Chaldaeae Veteris Testamenti, 
in 4to. Finished in 1857 by his accomplished disciple and honoured 
friend Dr. Rcediger, to whom at his death he intrusted the com- 
pletion of the great work, which is now justly regarded as the chief 
authority in Hebrew. — Lexicon Manuale Heb. et Chald. in V. T. 
Libros, 8vo, 1833. Founded mostly on the above Thesaurus. Edited 
in English by Dr. Robinson in 1855, with great improvements, and 
now forming the best full Heb. Lexicon extant in our language. — 
Hebraisches und Chaldaisches Handworterbuch iiber das Alte Testament, 
7te Auflage 1868, edited by Dr. Dietrich, who has much improved the 
work throughout, especially in the treatment of roots and derivations. 

FUEST, Hebraisches und Chaldaisches Handworterbuch iiber das Alte 
Testament, 2te Auflage, 1863. Edited in English by Dr. S. Davidson, 
with the author's own Revision, 1867. — Veteris Testamenti Concor- 
dantise, including much lexicographical matter, folio, 1840. — Hebraisches 
Taschen-Worterbuch fiber das Alte Testament, new edition, 16mo, 1869, 

Zee's Lexicon, Hebrew, Chaldee and English, 8vo, London, 1840. 

Winer, Lexicon Manuale Heb. et Chald. in V. T. Libros, enriched with 
MS notes by the lamented Dr. Hdvernick of Konigsb.-'Tg. 

Modern Semitic 













1 I - 







n b, bh 



V.O wA r^ 







^ g» s^ 



"^ "^ ^ 







n d, dh 



? r ~ 






n h 


Cl OL — 







1 w 



o a — 







T z 



1 > - 







n ch 



w«* w^4 yLk 





t: t 


D • 


-^ -^ ^ 






" y 



>i-^ Wjfe Jh 




— "■ 



1 3 k, kh 



s^ ^ a 







b 1 



'^ V 1^ 







d:j m 



>i >3. :^ 







1= n 



V ^ ^ 





•*fi , 







wis wX3. H 






_^ « 









^ ''b. 1^ 








H 5 P, P^ 



ws '.a. a 


P q 











-I r 



9 r — 


123 sh 



..▲> s.^ ▲ 












n t 



Z L — 










Syr. Vowels; ^ a, " 

e, ' i, " 0, "^ u. 






H s 





Arab. Vowels: jt. a 

,— i,^u. 











Ancient Semitic Alphabets 

InBcr. of 


9th. cent. B.C. 

Cham. 5 2.2. 


Coins and 


Old. Hebr. 

Coins and 





8 th. — 1st. cent. 

B. C. 


1 ft cent. B. C. 

.- 4 th. cent. 
A. C. 

Heb. Inscr. 




































































I ( 

1 f 



































































J 1 







23 i^ 





O • 


































• P 















UJ mw^ 




















CS ^A'leph, the first letter in the 
Heb. Alphabet, and hence used as the 
numeral for 1 (cf. Apoc. 21, 6); but 
N stands for 1000 it\hi^). Its form 
on early Phenician monuments and 
Heb. coins is )^ or ^, whence the 
early Greek A and the later A; see 
Table of Ancient Alphabets (at be- 
ginning of this Lex.) and Schroder's 
Phonizische Sprache, Taf. A. Its 
name ^)>^ (Chald. ^^a^X, pi. "psbx) is 
from t]^X meaning a yoke -beast, ox 
or heifer; and its oldest figure probably 
pictured a bovine head , the form and 
name (hence iVXcpa) suggesting by the 
initial sound the force of the letter, 
which resembled the Gr. soft breath- 
ing (') or the Fr. h in homme, but 
was quiescent after a vowel (see 
Gram. § 6, 2, 1). 

i^ interchanges — 1 with M (espe- 
cially in Aram.) e. g. Tj*^?* = T]'^'!}> 
n&iV = nnb, it^pn = n^p; — 2 w. i 

TT TT' tIt '' \ 

e. g. ijta = "lia, i:x? = :3i?; — 3 w. 
•< e. g. t]Ci< = Cl&7, t]^^n=d'l'^; — 4 w. 

t or a e. g. nn&<=nat=n2i3; — 5 w. 

In e. g. ia:^5t = dan; — 6 w. » e. g. 
c:;5t=d:;55, nitn=a"n, x^a=Ch. 55a:i; 
-•T "T' -T -t' TT -S' 

— 7 w. 5 e. g. '".m = ^'irS; — 8 w. 
D e. g. hl^ = dno; — 9 w. S e. g. 
5?S5< = rSS ;'— 1 w'. p e. g. n i&J I = 'yip I ; 
^ n w. n e. g. n-'&t iii = nm i. 
° T T . T T 

i^ is often prosthetic, e. g. in n'^ta^K 

(nvjs), S)5H (t)a), ']5i< (^5), p'ltiit 

CjiS'n'n), but in such cases itmightagain 
disappear, e. g. in^'lTJt = ?Ht; Vsm 
= Aram. blilG, '^o-^ ; si3n3=il3n2S (cf. 
^In = ^n&t); in the formation of 
nouns it may have perhaps an interim 
sive or causative force (prob. of Hiph. 
or Aphel origin), e. g. STDX very dC' 
ceptive, n'ltti home-horn. But gene- 
rally this prosthetic use of K is 
simply euphonic, and analogous to 
aairaipo) = oTraipto, &a[joXo4 = <j«S- 
\oi, a.\ik\^(o = L. mulgeo = E. 
milk, Fr. esprit = W. ysprid = L. 
spiritits, iydiii = X^^^- — I^^ *1^® 
formation of verb-stems the &t is 
often an inorganic radical L e. does 
not belong to the ultimate or mono- 
syllabic root: 1) as initial, e. g. "nSi-J, 
p5i<; 2) as medial, e. g. SN^, «:X3; 
3) as final, e. g. X'lS, tit 3. 

iJCS (c. 'iSX, a&t only Gen. 17, 5, 
in prop, names 2X, ax, ''SX, *ia;«; w. 
suf. "lax, ^''3«, I'^ax, niSfit, d^'^SX; pi. 
ninN, c. niatt, w. suf. ^nbx dnhx or 

T' -;' - -J T ; 

dn'^nrtt; see Gram. § 96, 2, and below) 
m. father-, natural or spiritual. Then 
from the idea of father -hood, the 
word came to express: 1) benefactor, 
cherisher or sustainer, in the material 


sense. 2) teacher or adviser, father in 
the intellectual or moral sense, hence 
applied to teachers of the people, 
old men, prophets, priests, viziers, 
kings; e. g. Gen. 45, 8 SSjb '^3^'^il?;;':! 
TT^y^t^ and he made me for a father to 
Pharaoh, i. e. appointed me his 
Vizier. 3) lord or possessor (as en- 
joying paternal rights), nearly the 
same as bsa, this meaning esp. ap- 
pearing in composite Heb. names, 
and in the other Semitic dialects. — 
As founder of a family or a race, 
ax signifies: 1) chief of a family or 
tribe Gike Cj^i^X, ni*ni< r^^a uix-i, ^to, 
fit*i\p3, nisrn m"i), hence nx n"!? 
father^ s house, i. e. descendants of 
the head of a clan. 2) forefather, as 
•jim'Tfn 2X i. e. Adam,. 3) founder 
of a guild or profession or trade, i. 
e., the first worker or inventor, Gen. 
4, 21. — • This noun is primitive, for 
although following the analogy of 
those derived from a ii"b verb, 
both ai< and d6t are mimetic words, 
taken from the first and simplest 
sounds of infant lips, and are fami- 
liar as nursery names in most lands : 
an, Aram. lL|, fc<SX (hence a^S^a, 
Gal. 4, 6), Sliztzol, iz'j.Tcai, Jj.papa, avu^,,papa, fa-ther, Tza-trip,, 
Bans, pi-tri, Gael, ab, Turk. baJ)a, 
Amer. Ind. appd. 

li< Chaid. (w.suf.'^ax, r\^'2% "^rtiajt, 
def. etax, pi. '(nax, def. Knria6<)m., 
father,!, q. Heb. afit, Dan. 2, 23^ 

HH (w. suf. "^ait, pi. d'^ayt, c. ^s») 
m. prop, blooming-freshness, then 1) 
blossom - time , blooming-age ( hence 
^Pt), i<fri^oi='L.pube8) or also bright 
verdure Cant. 6, 11; Job 8, 12 "iaxa 
in its thriving or greenness. 2) fruit, 
hence Chald. ax fruit-month i. e. 
August, and in the Targ. ax stands 
frequently for n^fSat* "nD; r. aax. 

- T 

Ili^ Chald. (Talm. a^iX, def. fctSX, 
Syr. }-c] , w. suf. napX w. Nun inser- 
ted for Dagh. f.) same as in Heb., 
fruit Dan. 4, 9 ; hence Chald. aax to 
produce fruit. 

ni$ shorter form in prop, names 
for "^ax and interchanging therewith, 
e. g. tl'?;'SX and C]d5<"^^?|. 

1^, see aix. 

nZlCS I (obs.) akin to aW, to be 
bright or fresh, thenfo thrive, to bloom, 
by a common metaphor, as in Wt, 
7?5, n^iB, to yield blossoms. 

' Jf^ n(obs.) prob.mimet. to be 
hollow, only in Aram, a^ax flute] see 


5^tj55i5 (Persian) pr. n. m. perh. 
from baga-ddta i. e. God-given: cf. 

xnsa, injia. 

OcS (fut. lax^ and lax^) intr., 
prop, to be severed, forsaken (see ^'i^), 
hence 1) to stray in solitude, Ps. 119, 
176 ^a'x Mil) a straying sheep, lost in* 
the wilderness; Deut. 26, 5 'lax iat!6« 
a wandering Syrian, leading a No- 
mad's life and roaming about in a 
foreign place, cf. Is. 27, 13. 2) to 
lose oneself, to vanish, e. g. of the 
loss of heart (ab), of hope (M^jpFl); 
part, nis? ^ax (rarely c. ^ak) lack- 
ing counsel] then transfered to use- 
lessness, e. g. refuge (bia'o) vanishes 
Job 11, 20, the vision CjitJi) is useless 
Ez. 12, 22, w. bor yo of the pers. for 
whom something is in vain. 3) to 
perish, to be undone, of men, beasts, 
etc. ; hence *iaN perishing one, in this 
sense also at times w.^^'^itln b?^ Deut. 
4, 26. — Pi. lax (-r- for -^ as in 
PI??) , ^) io sever, scatter, to dissipate 
e. g. "Jin wealth Prov. 29, 3. 2) to 
destroy (of things), to bring to ruin 
(of men), to rob e. g. ab the under- 



sfanding Ecc. 7, 7. 3) to give up for 
lost Ecc. 3, 6, opp. to tl'I32. — Hiph. 
TiSKn and T^nxrifocaMsef 0^0 to ruin^ 
to destroy, Num. 24, 19, also w. the 

additions, u$r\ a"ip^, d'^r.Bn nnna. 

' T T ••• Sv • ' • I- T - 

— n^'^ax occurs as the 1 pars. fut. 
in Jer. 46, 8 (see Gram. § 68, 2, 
Kern. 1), the rad. fi< having quiesced 
and then disappeared. 

l5^. Chald., (fut. ^^xr, ^TD 
same as Heb. ^ax, to perish Jer. 10, 11, 

— Aph. "inin to destroy I>d.n. 2,12. — 
Hopk. 'I2^n, by a Hebraism, pass, of 
Aph. to be destroyed Dan. 7, 11. 

155^ (for^ak or after the form ^ri"i, 
?Vn) m. annihilation, ruin Num. 24, 20. 

tTiniS: f. 1) abyss Prov. 27, 20 
K'thibh. ' 2) lost thing Ex. 22, 8. 

n^nnSj m. in the K'thibh for 
*|i'n5X Prov. 27, 20, but possibly it 
should be read iTj^X. 

'ji'T^Nlin. 1) destriiction Job 31, 12 . 
2) place of destruction, the abyss, 
realm of the dead Prov. 15, 11. Per- 
sonified 'ApaoStov, rendered 'AuoX- 
Xuojv in Apoc. 9, 11; cf. ^K^. 

^nlZIlJ^ Ez. 28, 16, for?]73N&t Gram. 
§ 68,' 2* Rem. 2; from r. "156<. 

I'lniJ^ also y}'2'i^ (c. l-i^iX) m. de- 
struction. Est. 8, 6 J 9, 5. 


I |«iCN (<"')prob. same as 

T T , /. 

nix fo breathe after, to long for, then 
1) <o 6e toilling, vr.'bof obey 
Ps. 81, 12. 2) more active volition, to 
willorwish, w. itb (Ex. 10, 27) not to will 
(=)IX0), w. ace. of the noun or w. inf., 
but always of the will as resulting from 
inchnation and not design. — This 
mimetic root, taken from the act of 
audible breathing or panting is found 
in fnax, any, niit, r\^.r^, nin, nx^, njtin, 

T t' - r' T t' t t' t t' -t' - T' 

Arab. 8I5I, Sans, m (breathe), aTjfxt 
(S<o), L. flveo, atwo, pi\is, W. att'fZ, 

azoew (i. e. afflatus, the muse). Deriv, 
"linx, 'ji'^nx, nai^ntt, perh. ax. 

nUl^^ m. only Job 9, 26, perh. akin 
to ax thriving vegetation, hence reed, 
bulrush, cf. j<?3a. 

n^JJ^ (pi. D'^ax) m. elephant, akin 
to Sans, ibha-s, L. eftwr and our 
ivory, IX£<pa(;; only in d'^an (perh. for 
D'^SKii) in the compound D'^atiiTT ele- 
phant's teeth or tusks^ Copt. CiSOy 
(ivory); see d'^artsyj. 

luDI^, see ax Chald. 

^niJ^^ only c. of ax in pr. names ; 
so too in Phenician. 

i<^l&< Isai. 28, 12 for siax, from 

T ' t' 

r. Jiax; see Gram. § 23, 3, Rem. 3. 

"^iQi^j m. (according to Abulwalid 
from r. »^ax) craving or need Prov. 
23, 29, like ')''>aX; but Kimchi takes 
it for same as "^ix woe! Cf. aipoi, oua(. 

D^IH (for wax, c. diax Is. 1, 3, 
pi. d'^Wax, r. dax) m. prop, foddering, 
hence a crib or ra^k Job 39, 9. 

TDin5< (w. n cohort. n\aiax) 1 p. 

fut. of TIJia; see Gram. § 72, Rem. 2. 
ini^i^, see ax. 
mSi<, see niK. 

JIJCS (obs.)prob.i.q.naT,n3tt,fo 
slaughter, the t (or li) being exchang- 
ed for X as *irjX for 'ntnt ; cf. aXafvo) 
= CaXaivto, ^u^ov = L. jugum = E. 
yoke; hence 

nriiijl (for nnaw or nat) {.slaugh- 
ter, murder, only in Ez. 21, 20 (where 
Had in parallel clause), the Sept. 
making it a^aYia. 

rt'^tSllN; (only pi. dinisatf, r. nwa 
n) m.melons Num. 11,5; Targ.-j^iBB^a 
i. q. }i.Y)XoireTCU)V. 

"■l^ interj. Job 34, 36 how! ah! 
Prob. mimetic akin to '•iast and ''S; 

see nax. 

T T 


•^5^ pr. n. f. (n^ is father) 2 K. 
18, 2, for which h^nx 2 Ch. 29, 1. 

■"HiJ Mio. 1, 15 for K-^nN Hiph. fut. 
of i<ia; see Gram. § 76, 2, f. 

bb^'^niSt pr. n. m. (perh. father of 
might) 1 Ch. 11, 32. 

ClO^J**!!^ pr. n. m. (father is ga- 
therer) Ex." 6, 24; see t]0^ax, S]D^bx 
and C]bS<. 

!2^5i< (r. 35X I) m. prop, sprout^ 
hence ear of grain Ex. 9, 31 , time 
of ears (like «ri"}n, "I'^S)?), n'^^wNTi ^nh 
month of ^Abhibh Ex. 13, 4, i. e. of 
blooming or of green ears; this month 
Abib, later called '|&'^3, began with the 
new-moon of April (the Rabbins say 
of March) and was the first of the 
Heb. year, Ex. 12, 2, Deut. 16, 1. 

bl'y^i'l also b5^ni< pr. n.f. (father 
is exultation) 1 Sam. 25,3.32; K'thibh 
Vt'SJOX 1 Sam. 25, 18, see b^ia, b^a. 

m''^ Jer. 46, 8 for miSSX, r. 'iSit. 

I'l'^IllSl pr. n. m. (father is judge) 
Num. 1, il. 

I?*^''!Il^^ pr. n. m.(perh. father knows) 
Gen. 25, 4; cf. S^^bx, 5>n^itT'. 

n^!ILH or ^n^I2&|k pr. n. m. (father is 
pr) l^Sam. 8, 2;^2 Ch. 13, 1 ; but n^ax 
is pr. n. f. in 2 Ch. 29, 1 ; see •'3K. 

fc^^rr^lIllSt pr. n. m. (father is He) 
Lev. 10, l;'cf. b&j-'n^^, tt^STibi^. 

'l^rT'II^ pr. n. m. (prob. father is 
renown) 1 Ch. 8, 3. 

bl^H'^lH 1) pr. n. f. (father is 
splendor) 1 Ch. 2, 29; see bin, bb'^n. 

5]'n''ILi^ pr. n. m. (father is 
strength) Num. 3, 35. 

■jVllS^ (r. nsx) m., prop. adj. de- 
siring or begging^ poor Deut. 15, 4; 
hence as subst. a poor man Ps. 70, 6; 
f-'ax 'ija poet, for D''3i'iax the poor, 
Ps. 72, 4. 


Hj^l^ill^ i. longing, then 7wsi, only 
in Ecc. 12, 5. Others make it sti- 
mulant, specially caper-berries (mo- 
dern Heb. "psi'^SX berries in general). 

!l^ti'^!llN| pr. n. m. (father is good- 
ness) 1 Ch.'s, 11; cf. b^no. 

bti^'D^J; pr. n. f. (father is a shelter) 
2 Sam. 3, 4; cf. rT^:r. 

D^niifl pr. n. m. (perh. father of 
day) 1 K. 14, 31; cf. ^rax. 

bi^^O^lkS; pr. n. m. (father of Ma'el) 
Gen. 10, 28.' 

'?|^*''3*'!]5J| pr. n. m. (father is king) 
usual title of the kings of Philistia, 
Gen. 20, 2 ; 26, 1 ; comp. JlSJ'nQ, 55N. 

Il^3'^!illl»^ pr. n. m. (father is noble) 
1 Sam. 16,*8; cf. n^^^\ 

D?2^iIlJ|^. pr. n. m. (father is plea-' 
santness) Judg. 4, 6. 

Ip'^lILJJ^ pr. n. m. (father is a light) 
1 Sam. 14, 50; usually *i.3ax. 

riD^iH pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 6, 8, for , 
CjCN'^aN, which see. 

^TJJ'^njSt pr. n. m. (father is help) 
Josh. 17, i2; patron, ^"nt^n 'lax the 
Abiezrite: see ^IS^ii. 

' :• r: • 

lilb?"''!^; pr. n. m. (father is 
strength) 2 Sam. 23, 31. 

^'^^I^ (!■• ^^^ I) subst. (prop, adj.) 
m. strong one, a hero used only of 
God, Gen. 49, 24. 

'y^'^^ (r. ^ax I) adj. m. vert/ 
mighty, manly, hence subst. \) a 
valiant, ab ^y^'m the stout-hearted, 
Ps. 76, 6; obstinate Is. 46, 12; poet, 
used of a bold bull Ps. 60, 13, of a 
spirited horse Jer. 50, 11. 2) eminent 
one, a chief, t3'i»'"in ^'^2^^ tlie chief of 
the shepherds; ti^y^'2X< dnb food of 
the mighty (manna), Ps. 78, 25, Sept. 



D'T'n^lj pr. n. m. (fatlier of exal- 
tation) Num. 16, 1, 1 K. 16, 34; cf. 

r . T : - 

r»^'*i255 pr. n. f. (father of wan- 
dering) 1 "K. 1, 3; see !iui. 

;riT23"'nS| pr. n. m. (father of suc- 
cour) 1 Ch.* 8, 4; see $m 

"iVoJ^^IS; pr. n. m. (father of rec- 
titude) 1 Ch. 2, 28; cf. )^'\W\ 

*'^''15St pr. n. m. (father of gift) 
1 Sam. 26, 6; see ^UJ. 

DiblD^n^i; also DiblS:!^, pr. n. m. 
(father of peace) 1 K. 1 5,'2,* 2 Ch. 1 1, 20. 

"iSn"'!!^ pr. n. m. (father of abun- 
dance) i Sam. 22, 20; Mark 2, 26 

: mICS (poet.) only in Hi tli. to twirl 
or edclj/, to mount up in a column, 
said of smoke rolling upwards, only 
in Is. 9, 17: akin to T\^^, r\^'n, T\^^. 


^5^ (fut.baK::)akinto hm, bsx, 
1*1^3,^53, bB3, prop, to fall or sink down, 
to droop ; hence to ivither or languish, 
of a green field Am. 1, 2. — Hipli. 
to he sorroioful, of men, Ez. 31, 15; 
to cause to languish Lam. 2, 8. — 
Hith. prop, to show oneself drooping, 
hence as in Qal to mourn, w. b? or 
^!Jt of thepers. on whose account. — 
Cf. o^aXXo) = L. fallo = G. fallen, 
fehkn = E. fall, fail, to fell = W. 

^ml^ (obs.) akin to bb|: to wet, to 
be moist; hence to he fresh or greeny 
comp. Syr.V2iJ^rass. Hence ^nx 11. 

b?^^ I (c. -P3X Ps. 35, 14, pi. "i^sax 

Is. 61, 3, f. n^nx, pi. niVnx) adj! 
mourning Ps. 35, 14 or languish- 
ing Lam. 1, 4; r. bnx. 

53K II (r. ''?'2^)i.moistspot,meadoio, 
Mbliart V>5^« the great meadoiv 1 Sam. 

; 6, 18, where others read "jax for^2S. 
This noun occurs in sundry proper 
names , as : — 

bllij 2 Sam. 20, 18, for the full 

n^Ta n^n bn^^, w. hioc. n^at*, 

T-: •• •• t' ^ T,.. T» 

pr. n. f. (meadow of Beth Maakha) 
2 Sam. 20, 15, a town near MsJa 
(which see) at the base of Lebanon, 
west of Dan or Paneas. Also bax 
and D-^a V, 2 Ch. 16, 4. 

• 1- t' ' 

D^tOlSn blij pr. n. f. (acacia- 
meadow) a place in the plain of Moab 
Num. 33, 49, prob. also called d*iaTlJ 
in Num. 25, 1 , Mic. 6, 5. 

D^la'lS bll'R pr n. f. (meadow of 
vineyards) an Ammonite town Jud-g. 
11, 33; later 'A[3£Xa(X7r£Xd)V. 

nbin^J bl^ pr. n. f. (dance-mea- 
dow) a town in Issachar Judg. 7, 22. 

D^/ij? ^r^"^ pi'- n- ^« (water meadow) 
city at the base of Lebanon 2 Ch. 16,4. 

'D'^'J^'O b^ij pr. n. f. (Egyptians' 
meadow) place near the Jordan Gen. 
50, 11. Others read bax mourning 
to suit the context better. 

b?^ (w. suf. iVsx, r. b55<) m. 1) 
mourning Gen. 27,41 ; 'iJ^ MlH^ to make 
a mourning, w. 'b of the pers. for whom 
Gen. 50, 10. 2) a ivailing cry, Mic. 
1, 8; hence ^'^fl^JJ b3!>5 mourning for 
an only son i. e. intense grief Am. 8, 10. 

b^^ adv. 1) affirmative, truly, de- 
cidedly (early Heb.) Gen. 42, 21; 
2) adversative (late), hut, yet, Dan. 
10, 7, 2 Ch. 1, 4. — Akin to ^3 (w. N 

prosth.), Syr. '^^^-o, Arab. Jj; perh. 
from obsol. r. h'b^ = bbs to separate, 
in Pi. to decide; cf. D^3. 

yil)^ or bn^&^ (c. bn^it) m. river, 
stream, perh. river-district, used of 
the bank of the Choaspes C^^IU^), Dan. 
8, 2;r. b3^L 

\^^S I (obs.)akin. to hsa to htiild 
and "j^H to be firm, then perh. to flow 
steadily. Deriv. "jSK, nssx, 

Ww? n (obs.) perh. i. q. -jBiJ, to 
turn round. Deriv. "jnk. 

■jHi^ (in p. "jax ; w. suf. *ianx, pi. d'^ssx, 

C' 5J<) f. (m. only 1 Sam. 1 7,40) sf owe Ex. 
7,19';roc?A:inGen.49,24. 17a'Nls.30,30 
hailstone, fTi^^ 'x Ez. 28, 13 and "jH 'n 
Prov. 17, 8 precious stone; rT^SttJa 'vt 
Lev. 26, 1 j^ic^wre-sfowe (hence mosaic); 
3?b^ 'k Zech. 9, 15 sling- stone \ fig. 
« weight, n'iBJ*n 'k Zech. 5, 8 <^ 
fead weight, same as ^''^aii '^^ Zech. 
4, 10 the plummet; ^ins 'x Is. 34, 11 
plummet of desolation; r. 'jnx I. 

■jUjH Chald. (def. W2K) f. a stone 
Dan. 2, 34. 

1»121 "jHiJ Josh. 15, 6; see "jtia. 

bjijri "JSi^ pr. n. f. (stone of de- 
parture) name of a place, 1 Sam. 
20, 19. 

^5 n^ 1"?n P^' ^' ^•(snal'^e stone) 
name of a place E. of Jerusalem, 

1 K. 1, 9. 

*lT|rn "jlij pr. n. f. (the stone of 
help) name of a monument at Miz- 
pah, 1 Sam. 7, 12. 

"j^if (= "ifix a round plaie or disk) 
m. only dual B^a^x {pair of disks), 
hence 1) midm/c-sfoo/ consisting perh. 
of two disks Ex. 1, 16. 2) potter^s 
stool or wheels, in the East consisting 
of two disks Jer. 18, 3; r. )'3^ H. 

njSK pr. n. f. (perennial, r. "jax I) 

2 K. 5, 112 K'thibh, name of a river; 
see na^x. 

t2!3IIM m. prop, band, priests^ 
girdle Ex. 28, 4 , ornamental belt la, 
22, 21; from 1333 w. i< prosthetic: 
Chald. K^JIB. 



^5l&< pr. n. m. 1 Sam. 14, 51; 

see "is^SX. 

WjJiN to feed, to fatten, of beasts ; 
but only in part. pass. GJQJ* fattened, 
Prov, 16, 17. The orig. meaning is 

prob. the same as in the Arab. jSJI 
to collect, to bring together; then to 
fill in , to cram. Deriv. Diax , b^:a^t?^. 
Xn*:?3i:?5i|: f.(only in pl.)Ex. 9, 9 
pimples. Mains, blisters; from 5sia(w. 
6< prosthetic), Chald. Pilp. Sa5>3 fa 
boil tip. 


(obs.) to be white, to shine ; 
to be conspicuous; akin to y^^n, y^^f 
]^5^, Chald. ^<^n^t tin. Hence 

Y^^ pr. n. f. (perh. tin or 
brightness) name of a city in Issa- 
char, Josh. 19, 20. 

1?*?^ pr. n. m. (perh. gleaming, 
r. Y:ii<) Judg. 12, 8. 

|r — I^ I (obs.) to pound to dust, to 
crush; hence pnjj. — Prob. a mimet. 
root, the ultimate forms pa, "^a, as, ' 
pB being expressive of beating^ 
pounding, cf. 2)55, Ger. pochen, E. 

p-^CS n (Qal obs.) akin to pan, 
to grasp round; only Niph. paw to 
twine round one another, hence j to 
wrestle, to struggle Gen. 32, 25; akin 
in sense to bl]iB3. 

pD^} ^' dust, esp. fine and light 
Is. 5, 24, the coarser being "nfiSJ Deut» 
28, 24 (cf. p?, prii0; r. pai<'l. 

rijJiJIS; (c. npax) f. powder (of 
spices), only in Cant. 3, 6 bain npax 
powder of the merchant, i. e. aro- 
matic; r. pax I. 

UiN I (obs.) to be strong or 
fnt^^/y;pevh.akintonaa, "laa. Deriv. 
I -I'^ax, n-iax. 



l5»^ ^ (o^s.) akin to nsx, rrnfi, 
Aram. ITiQ, w^j^ (to fly), Arab. yf\, 
i)9 (alacer fuit), Sans, bhri, cpepw, 
L. /ero, E. bear (to lift), whence 
Wrd i. e. borne aloft; cf. opvn 
from 8pvu}Ai, L. avis = Gaelic ean = 
W. wan = olojvo^ from oiu> (cpepcu). 

■l!lli$ (r. ^lax II) m. win^ or 
pinion, Is. 40, 31. — Hence denom. 
Hiph. 'T'2Kii to take wings, to soar^ 
Job 39 , 26. ' 

rr^n^^ (poet.) t pinion or vring Job 
39, 13; pi. in Ps. 68, 14 rj^'ni'iax 
her wings, 

DIl'^ZllJ^ pr. n. m. (father of a 
multitude, as explained in Gen. 17, 5 
«= fan a&<, tarfi from Dri'i = D^-n, 
root expressive of the din and noise 
of a great throng) Abraham; also 
D'^aj? Abram. 

'n'^nK m. the Egyptians' word in 
hailing Joseph, Gen. 41, 43, perh. a 
noun (like •^9'^^) from t^'^S in inf. or 
imper. Hiph. or Aph., to bow the knee, 
to bless, hence ^ood luck! hail! Others 
takeitforCoptic AqpeK or ATipEK 
bow the head. 

D'lnSl pr. n. m. (like d^''3N, father 
of exaltation) Gen. 17, 5; also t3r|!"73N. 

^"^^^ pr. n. m. 2 Sam. 10, 10; 

see 'i^^ax. 

Dib"l2:^ pr. n. m. 2 Sam. 3, 3; 

see dibyi^ax. 
insi^ see m'ni'x. 

iNwiiN (obs.), in Arab, la-l , to flee ; 

iCI^ pr. n. m. (fugitive) 2. Sam. 
23, W. 

^ribiCX Is. 63, 3 for ipl^Nan, r. 
Pita to soil; see Gram. § 53, Rem. 6. 

Tui^ and JJ^ (perh. akin to i,iS, 
Ai3, 717 a;) pr. n. m. royal title of the 

Amalekite princes. Num. 24, 7, where 
the Sam. Pent, reads aiSN, prob. same 
as the Phenician aiajj for Amalekite 
Titan-king. Hence the gentilic noun 

'*?5^ (used of Haman) Est. 3, 1. 
10; hence the tradition of his Ama- 
lekite origin. 


JCN (obs.) to bind] akin to *7^a, 
MX, nax, ^nj^, np5. Hence 

-t' -t' -t' *-t 

rr^jJjt f. 1) band or tie Is. 58, 6 
naia ni'nriK t/oke bands; then bundle, 
e. g. aitx n^Sij 6mwcA of hyssop, 
Ex. 12, 22; 2) fig. band or ^roop 
2 Sam. 2, 25; 3) a compacting to- 
gether; hence arch, esp. vaw^^ of 
heaven. Am. 9, 6. 

T 1j5^ (poet.) m. nut; only in Cant. 
6, 11 TiaK n|a nut-garden. — tiix perh. 
i. q. Persian aghus (nut); but perh. 
it comes from ta5< to bind, as nuts 

- T ' 

form bunches. 

*1^35J (r. 15N) pr. n. m. the com- 
piler of the 30th Ch. of Proverbs. 
The name may be symbohcal, like 
Th'np, and denote assembler, i. e. a 
member of the wise men's assembly; 
comp. nisJGxb^a Ecc. 12, 11. 

iTHIjISI f. a grain or berry, as the 
smallest coin -weight; hence small 
coin, only 1 Sam. 2, 36 ; prop, some- 
thing round, i. q. iTia ; r. ^"na IV. 

1 JiN (obs.) akin to ^5&t, to cluster; 
see tiax. 

yJSS (obs.) akin to bVa, hi'$ to roll 

(of water), to flow in waves, to well; 

b5i$ m. only in Job 38, 28 ^a ^1?3K 
wettings of dew , poet, for dewdrops, 
r. bait; some make it reservoirs 

- T ' 

of dew. 

DI'bDii? pr. n. (2 wells) of a city 
in Moab, 8 miles fr. Areopolis Is. 1 5, 8, 


- T 

In Josephus trs^^, i^YaXXa, Ant. 
14, 1. 4. 

LJ«J^ (obs.)akin to fi^a, to gather, 

to flow together; hence dai< 1 and 
•jlaSN 1. 

U JJS (obs.) akin to 055), to be bent 
doum, to be sad. Deriv. DJ^v, D:i&< 2, 
•jioai^ 2. 

Q5^ adj. m. JowecZ down ; Is. 19, 10 
xbti '^53aj< sacZ owes o/" soul. 

03^ (c. Dax Is. 41, 18, butabsol. 
in Is. 35, 7, where d^a is understood, 
pi. l^''53a^^, but c. ^m^ like ^^a?) m. 
1) place where water collects, a pool 
Ps. 107,35, Gen. 7, 19; r. Wi^. 2) sedge, 
flag or ree^, which bends to the 
wind; r. nasj. The reed -brakes in 
the swamps served for shelter against 
enemies, and were often set on fire 
by them, Jer. 51, 32. 

IJVOi^^ m. 1) i. q. ti^i^ 1, pool Job 
41, 12. 2) i. q. t355< 2, rope, prop. 
rushcord, cf. a/oTvo^, Job 40, 26. 

jJiN (obs.) prob. akin to ')3a, )^'$, 
to enclose, hence to hold or contain; 
hence Aram. jI.Y j<3:!ij< vat, ^4^3:^i< 
pit. Hence 

1?^ (c. last, pi. ni'sajt) m. feasiw, 
^JPi *^Ki^ri ^a^t 6asiw o/" roundness, 
the round bowl. Cant. 7, 3. 

V] JCS (obs.) i. q. Chald. C)Ba, Aph. 
r,ax ^0 envelope; hence 

5^5^. (only pi. ta'^Bax) m. wiw^s (of 
an army), troops, only in Ezekiel, as 
in ch. 12, 14; but comp. diB33Is.8,8. 

IJiS (fut. ^ax;;) akin to n^ia, to 

gather e. g. crops, Deut. 28, 39; to 
assemble (see ^Jiax), fo /b?cZ w^, hence 
n^N. This stem had also the mean- 
ing of gaining, hiring. Akin to "i^a I, 
Chald. ^^'^, oL-^Bipio. Hence 





l^'JBNl Chald. (ctn^ax, def. fi<Pinax) 
f. ro//, fe^^cr Ezr. 4, 8, i, q. lieb. 

niax; r. "la&t. 

?|1^5^ (i< prosth.) m. clinched hand, 
fistBx. 21, 18; r. tp^: cf. Ger. ^n^f, 
our grab, grip. 

basins, libation &oi«feEzral, 9; r. aia. 
— N is prosth., h^- is a very an- 
cient noun -ending; see under letter \ 

f^'^S^ (pl. i^l'^^J^x) f. roll, scroll 
(only in later Heb.); then a letter or 
epistle, esp. used of royal briefs or 
edicts, 2 Ch. 30, 1. — Prob. r. -nax 
to gather together or 7'oll up, cf. Sihp, 
6i7cXa)|xa, L. volumen; but it may be 
Pers. or Ethiop. akin to (k-^yapoc,. 

l^ (like nx3) vapour, mist, prop, 
what wraps and conceals. Gen. 2, 6; 
r. ^!i5t. 

'IJ^, see nini'i^. 

— * JC^ I(Qal obs.) akin to 2!?<^ and 
liil'n, ^0 languish. — Hiph. to cause to 
pine, to vex, only 1 Sam. 2, 33, where 
inf. :s^"i&tb for n^'iNhb, see Gram. 
§ 53, Eem. 7. 

-^ J>N II (obs.) i. q. Arabic 1>j1, 
to train, hence in 

^^^7^ P^- '^' ^-(perh. God's train- 
ing, Arab, adab (culture) and 'bx) 
Gen. 25, 13. 

1 J^ (obs.) to be strong, Arab. 

at T 

^1, akin to ^!15<, "j^ij, Tt^, perh. to 
n-nui. Deriv. n^.y, ^inji, i^x, "jitix, -j^n. 
"^J^. (powerful one; perh. akin to 
^1}^) pr. n. of a Syrian and an Edomite 
deity and of kings, 1 K. 11, 17 ; cf. ^"iri. 

^'^^j i. q. "^"]i<, only in pr. n. ti^fi^ 
1 K. 12, 18 perh. for Cn-lSjt. 

♦rn'nij Is. 38, 15 for hn!Tn^{ 1 fut. 
Hith. of rrn^; see Gram. § 54, 2, b. 




D'n'nii^Ps.42,5, Ifut. Hith. of rri-n, 
w. suf. Q-7-. 

T\yi^, see nr^ix. 

i'^Nl pr. n. m. (for 'ji'nij mighty 
one) Ezr. 8, 17 ; r. ntjij. 

Diiyt, see fi^N. 

lilij (r. pN; c. 'J^■n^{, w. suf. ''iXN, 
pi. D'laSx, c. inx, w. suf. liH^t; w. 
pref. *'3Si<a, '^aSxi, "^iSx^) m. 1) rw^er, 
lord, used of a master, husband, God, 
etc.; esp. when a person addresses 
another as superior and styles him- 
self in5> Gen. 33, 44, or herself n^ax 
1 Sam/'l, 11 or nnsyj 1 Sam. 25, 27; 
2) 016-wer, possessor, 1 K. 16, 24. — 
Peculiarities in this noun are l)that 
•jinxn Ex. 23, 17, Mai. 3, 1 (rarely 
'J'i'iij Ps. 114, 7) is always spoken of 
God, in the same way as the super- 
lative title (Gram. §. 119, 2, Rem.) 
&"<3^i<n "isSx the Lord of lords Deut. 
10, 17; 2) that the plural is used 
strictly as such only in Is. 26, 13, 
Dent. 10, 17, Ps. 136, 3 D'lpX lords, 
and Gen. 19, 2. 18 ^yi^ my lords; 
but elsewhere always as a singu- 
lar, both in sense and syntax, not 
only of God (Ps. 136, 3) but also 
of men e. g. JiyijD D"';Hj^ a hard 
master Is. 19, 4;' I'lSSiO na3>3 as 
the servant so his master Is. 24, 2. 
This construction, often called the 
pluralis excellentice (Gram. § 108, 2, 
b), was prob. used first for the abs- 
tract idea of a quality or dignity, 
and then for the person possessing 
it; comp. our lordship for lord, also 
D'^rtbi* divinity or godhead for God 
(Gram. § 108, 2, Eem. 1 and Note 2). 
— The form 

"^5*^^ is used only for the supreme 
Lord, 6 Kupio^, and serves generally 
as a Q'ri or Massoretic reading for 
TV\t\\ see Gram. § 17. — The ending 

"<-;- is prob. for i-;:- my, so that 
•^anx prop, meant my lords, then (the 
force of the suffix being neglected, 
as in Syr. >*|.5jc, Fr. Monsieur) the 

divine majesty. The Lord (as above) ; 
see Gram. § 121, 6, Rem. 4. But it 
may perh. be only an old adj. ending, 
akin to the later ^—^, so forming a 
denom. from "jiTSt and meaning 
masterful, ap^ix6<;. Gram. § 86, 2, 
5; cf. -"m 

X^"^ pr. n. m. (strong one) Neh. 
7, 61, same as 'J'nN Ezr. 2, 59; r. TiN. 

'^I'T'^^ pr. n. f. (perh. two hills) 
city in Judah, 2 Ch. 11, 9; now 
Dura, westofHebron. Comp. A5wpa, 
Auipa, Jos. Antiq. 8, 10. 1. ib. 14, 5. 3. 

T&i^, see M'Tix. 

■j^'lsS; Chald. (i. q.Heb. ^T^^, tN, from 
•Tr) adv. prop, there, but used only in 
relation to time then, Dan. 2, 15. 
With a prefix 'p'lXa in that time = 
tJien, Dan. 2, 14. 

^E^7^ 2 Sam. 22, 43 for Dis^x, 
1 fut. Hiph. of pp'n, w. suf. '0-^\ 
Gram. § 20, Rem. at end. 

^'^'^S (r. nnij) adj. m. prop, he- 
girded,mighty ; hence \) great or large 
Ps. 93, 4, potent Ps. 136, 18. 2)illus- 
trioiis or noble Ps. 8, 2; e. g. ^Bb 
d'^'n'^'nN bowl of (i. e. for) princes 
Judg. 5, 25; )iXiri I'l^'iN the chiefs of 
tJie flock, i. e. the shepherds Jer. 25, 
34. 3) of moral greatness, excellent, 
Ps. 16, 3 da ^ssrr^D 'i^'i'nKi and 
(or even) the excellent in whom is 
all my pleasure, i. e. I delight in them 
alone; Gram. §. 116, 3: §. 123, 3. 

i^*^!)'lN| (Pers. akin to dSpo;) pr. 
n. m. Est! 9, 8. 

I U*jS (obs.) perh. akin to d-nr; to 

stamp doivn, to make solid by treading 

I on, to dam: hence Sn^'JX, the proper 




names ira'iijt, d'n6{, '^a'nx and perh. 

U i CS.(Qal only lon&t) prob. akin to 
O'n or n^TX (see below under Dix), to 
fce blood-colouredy CpSM 'la'ix <Aey 
tcere more ruddy than corals Lam. 4, 7 
(for other red-coloured objects cf. j'^J*, 
I'Jiah, nan). — Pu. only part. D-nxa 
Nah. 2, 4, pi. Q'^ann^ Ex. 25, 5 coloured 
red (Gram. § 52, Kein. 4). — Hipli. to 
sheto a red hue, only in l^'^'niSi^ Is, 
1, 18. — Hith. to redden (of wine), 
to sparkle Prov. 23, 31. — Deriv. 
DTN, D^X, DWX, ''3ia7^; comp. UX 

D*JK (without inflection ; about the 
root see below) m. 1) the name 
of the first human being, 'ASajx, 
Adam; hence mostly w. the art. 
D^xr Gen. 1, 26. 27 (cf. ^?2rr, )dm 
Gram. § 109, 2), whence the ex- 
pression fi'i!*"!? or d'ii<r|-'j2, child of 
Adam, poet, for a man, a mortal (o^v- 
6p(07roO Num. 23, 19, Ps. 8, 5, very 
often in Ezekiel when he is addressed 
from God, e. g. ch. 2, 1. 3, also ""SSl 
b'nx as the usual term (= D'^TWax) 
for men, Deut. 32, 8, 1 K. 8, 39, comp. 
Syr. (.▲J i-o. 2) man, Gen. 1, 26, col- 
lect, for mankind, men generally; 
Is. 29, 19 D"ix ^3i'^S^^ the poor of 
men i. e. the poorest; D'lX X'lB a 
wild ass of a man Gen. 16, 12 i. e. 
a very wild man, d'l&i ^'roS those of 
men who sacrifice Hos. 13, 2; esp. 
ordinary or mean men as oppos. to 
UTX Ps. 49, 3, Is. 2, 9, also for any 
man, anybody Lev. 1, 2, 3) man (a 
male, like ^"'N) only Ecc. 7, 28, 
where woman Srax follows as its op- 
posite, 4) pr. n. f. (firmness) name 
of a city on the Jordan, Josh. 3, 16; 
cf. H^n^t, •'p^x. — onx (ivOptoTTo;) 
may perh. come from r. D^N expres- 
sive of man's ruddiness or brightness 

of complexion; but probably (as the 
account of his creation somewhat 
implies) it is akin to •^^'IH (r. d^S) 
ground, for God is said in Gen. 2, 7 
to have formed n^n^^n-i^ . . . ft^xrrnN, 

T T -: T » • T T T '•' 

which is analogous to the Lat. homo 
from humus, and to '/ajxaiYsviQi and 
auxi^OcDV applied to man as earth' 
bom ; or else it is akin to d'n or Ma*! 

' T 

(r. •iD'i n) likeness, for God said in 
Gen. 1, 26 let us make man Mia5>i 
*iiWa'i3...d*i&t after our likeness; cif. 
1 Cor. 11, 7. 

D"BJ (r.d^it) adj. m., n^'i&t f., pi. m. 
d''53'7J$ blood-coloured or red Is. 63, 2, 
of the horse Zech. 1,8; ruddy, of the 
bloom on the cheek of youth Cant. 
5, 10. Subst. reddish pottage of len- 
tiles Gen. 25, 30, Sept. l4'Tr]fAa Tcu^j^ov. 

D'n^jl 1) pr. n. f. Jer. 49, 17, the 
mountainous country, Edom, Idumea^ 
reaching from the Dead Sea to the 
Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, after- 
wards called bsa Ps. 83,8, rsPaXirjvr), 
Gebalene, now Jebdl; d'lN '^,33 Idume- 
ans'Ps. 137, 7. 2) pr. n. m., the father 
of the race of Edomites Gen. 25, 25. 
30, in tradition variously explained; 
see lbs and n'^5>ia. 3) fordlN Aramcea, 
comp. 1 Ch. 18, 11 w. 2 Sam. 8, 12, 
as also d'nsjtfor dSx, hence also d''aiii< 
2K. 16, Q\k'thibh) for dipi'^iX (Q'ri). 

D'li^ (r. d"i&i) f. a red precious 
stone Ex. 28, 17 (Targ. )'^^'0 the red), 
Sept. aap5iov, L. sardius, our car- 
nelian or garnet. 

thi^ Job 31 , 34, 1 fut. Qal or 
Niph. of d:g^ 

DTO^JSI (reduplic. form, r. d'lK) 
adj. m.', nio^^nx f., pi. f. Wsa^^a'w 
Lev. 13, 19 reddish, red spotted; on 
the form see Gram. § 84, 23. 

»^'9t^ (^- ^^^'^ ^' ^^7^. w. sufi: 
T^7!!<, pl- t^'i^>'<) f. prop, firm 

ground, earth; hence 1) land or 
soil, for treading on Gen. 1, 25, for 
tilling Gen. 2, 5, as pulverised, hence 
(like 'iBr) dust 2 Sam. 15, 32, opp. 
to U'^'O Gen. 8, 8; nxiin. TlJ'^X man 

• I- ' ' T T -: 

of the land or hitsbandman Gen. 
9, 20; n^'ix nni< /o?;er o/" ^/le soil 2 
Ch. 26, 10; also used for the produce 
of the field Is. 1, 7. — 2) tract of 
land, territory/, country, as Hin^ ria^x, 
135 'nx, tre^T\ 'njt, hence DiDlX Ps. 
49, 12 lands, domains, 3) the whole 
earth, the globe Gen. 7, 4; 4) pr. n. f., 
a city in Naphtali Josh. 19, 36. — 
Comp. tHn, also Chald. denom. d'nx, 
Dlin to cast doion to the ground. 

» '^'97^ P''" °* ^' (fortress) a city in 
the circuit of Sodom, Gen. 10, 19. 
TO*niJ Is. 14,14 for nsnnx, Ifut. 

Hith. of ha-n; Gram. § 54,' 2, h. 

*'?i"0'1i< (r. dnx) adj. m. 1) red (in 
the hair) Gen. 25, 25; 2) ruddy (in 
the cheeks) 1 Sam. 16, 12. 

^'^^. V^- ^' f« (perh. human) city 
in Naphtali, Josh. 19, 33, together 

^'^aiS; (fr. dSx) adj. m., f. n'l^aniJt, 
pi. t^^anx, Edomite, Idumean Deut. 
23, 8, 1 k. 11, 1. 

D^1211S; pr. n. (red i. e. hiUs), a 
range of hills between Judah and Ben- 
jamin Josh. 15, 7. 

^^^9*^5$ pr. n. m. (Pers. = 56(j.r]- 
To;, unsubdued) Est. 1, 14. 

j JCS (obs.) akin to "TiiS:, I^IN, prob. 
'jl'n, fo make firm, to settle, hence to 
rule, govern. Deriv. "jiix, 'j'ntt, "jlit, 
'J'n;* and 

17? (strong), see "jlNba. 
"JmSI (perh. also 'j'i'nN) pr. n. m. 
(strong, r. *\^^) Ezr. 2, 59, Neh.7, 61. 

*0}^. (pi- ti''?>^, c. •'ini*) m. /bww- 
datiori Job 38, 6, pedestal Cant. 5, 

11 -^^^ 

T -I 

15; hence the basis of a pillar or 
timbers underlying wooden partitions 
Ex. 26, 19. 

''5'TJ^, see under llix. 

r'^. appears in compound pr. 
names sometimes as a Canaanite title 
(cf. A3(ovn), sometimes in Heb. pr. 
names; e. g. 

PJ-J""*?"^? P^* "• ^- (Adonis i. e. 
lord) king of Bezek, Judg. 1, 5; 

see pt2. 

n J?Sj!? or ^ri^Dni? pr. n. m. (Jn^ is 
lord) 1 K.' 1, 5. sl 

D''3TJ^, see linx. 

pniI"^:*"TlS; pr. n. m. Oord of 
righteousness), a Canaanitish king 
of Jerusalem, Josh. 10, 1. 3. 

'^15'^?"^^. pr. n. m. (the lord stands 
up, i. e. to help) it occurs Ezr. 2, 13. 
8, 13 for ilrt^a^N. 

' IT • -: 

'^T?"'? (s^® ^^'^^^) P^*- n. m. (the 
lord is exalted) 1 K. 4, 6; also prob. 
shortened into dlilX 1 K. 12, 18, also 
dliin 2 Ch. 10, 18. " 

I JiS (Qal obs.) prob. akin to ITX 
to gird around, Arab, yy] to get 
strength, prop, to wrap about, hence 
to be ample, large, great; then fig. to 
be powerful, honourable; cf. zxi'Qui-^ot:, 
said of men. — NIpli. to show oneself 
strong or magnificent Ex. 15, 11 ; in v. 
6 ^y}i<), part. w. 1 paragogic. — Hipli. 
I'^'n5<ii to make honourable, illustrious 
Is. 42', 21. Deriv. injt, list, 1lx, ni^N, 

^7^ (perh. honour, or Pers. dtar, 
fire) Est. 8, 12 (Chald. Ezr. 6, 15) 
name of the 12th month of the sacred 
year (from new moon of March to 
that of April) ; but in the civil year the 
12th was bsibx Neh. 6, 15. IIX was 
perh. the name of an old Sja-ian deity, 
as M5SP1 and b^bj< = ^h^ ' 




^^'nSl pr. n. (peril, tliresliing-floor), 
cf. *i"nx, w. ii loc. fTnnx, a place in 
Judah, Josh. 15, 3. Also pr. n. m. 
(grandee) 1 Ch. 8, 3; see "i"n5r"im 

'n'lK (r. "i^x) m. 1) = n'Tnx 
prop, a wrapping garment, hence a 
mantle or tunic Mic. 2, 8. 2) adorn- 
ment, splendour] hence (ironically) 
*'I?'J''? ^1?? i^^ splendid price! Zech. 
11,' 13. 

■^"nij Chald. (only pi. c. ^y\^) f. 
threshing-floor Dan. 2, 35 i. e. a 
large, elevated spot and stamped 
hard, as usual in the Eastj prob. 
from mx. 

~ T 

"TlSl m. i. q. nnx , perh. a Syrian 
deity, mighty one; perh. in ^.IJ^'^'iN, 

^ITB'I'INI Chald. (only pi. def. 
^<*!)??^7^?) m. Dan. 3, 2, a name of office 
in the Babylonian kingdom, meaning 
perh. nohle judges, or astrologers of 
(the god) ^Adar. 

5^*51-7*^ Chald. adv., Ezr. 7 , 23 
correctly, exactly, prob. akin to yj'n'? 
to study, or perh. ancient Pers. darast 
i. e. rightly. 

"iS'^'lK (pi. Q^33-i^X, Rabbin, also 
V'sn?) m. oapEixo;, da^'ic 1 Ch. 29, 7, 
a Persian 7'oyal gold-coin, value of an 
Attic ^puaou; (about 20 shilhngs 
Eng.); prob. from Pers. c?ora(king), cf. 
our coin a sovereign and see ttjj'^"!'!?, 
also ')ia3'n-i. 

]*l/23"l "^5 in 2 Mss. of Ezr. 8, 27, 
for the shorter "iSI'iX; the X being 
prosthetic, and 'j'lS-, V'«3" only adj. 
endings akin to -xo^, Sans. -kas. 

"^b^ j"Nl (= Tj^:sr| -i>nx) pr. n. m. 
(the king's majesty) of 1) a deity of 
the Sepharvites, who were taken as 
colonists to Samaria 2 K. 17, 31; 

2) son and murderer of Sennacherib 
king of Assyria 2 K. 19, 37. 

^^"^^ Chald. (= SJ'i'n) f. prop, arm, 
hence fig. power Ezr. 4, 23; i.q. Heb. 

'^?^'l^ pr. n. f. (strong, from 5>^'^^^) 

1) city in Batanea (Bashan), Num. 
21, 33, Sept. 'Eopasiv, 'Eopaiv, Eus. 
'A Spaa, Ptol. "ASpa, now Dra'a\ 

2) city in Naphtali Josh. 19, 37. 
^"^^.^ (from the m. ^'iriK; w. suf. 

■"^liJ!!*, Q!?1?!|?) f. 1) adj. luxuriant, 
mantling, noble, e. g. Ez. 17, 8 "jSa 
t\'y-}i< a noble vine. 2) subst. i. q. 
^■ix large garment, mantle 2 K. 2, 13 ; 
^^i?/t5Gen.25,25;3)^tory Zech. 11,3. 

UJ jSS (only in Qal inf. abs. ^IliJ) 
i. q. \i:i^"^Is. 28, 28 to thresh out. 

Dij S and Zl J . j b^ (w. suf .^5fiN, 
inJnx, fnznjji, Jinnnnj?] ?|nnn5<; "fut. 
^^^'?., ^^^'^.i 1 pers. SiiX Prov. 
8, 17 and Sfijt Mai. 1, 2; inf. often 
•n^iis;) i. q. nnx, prop, to breatJie 
after, hence to love as between 
sexes, to lust (— sa^ = aYaTtaco) 
1 K. 11, 1, or as between parents 
and children, or as friends, to be 
attached Gen. 37, 4, 1 Sam. 20, 17; 
hence to delight to do something Is. 
56, 10. — The modifications of this 
notion are partly shown in the 
construction; e. g. w. ace. of the 
pers. or thing to love Gen. 24, 67, 
Prov. 4, 6 ; w. b to shew love to some- 
body Lev. 19, 18; w. 3 to delight in 
Ecc. 5, 9 (like pn^) ; w. V before the 
inf. to like to do something, Hos. 12, 8 
p'vZJs;^ 3fisj; he oppresses w. pleasure '^ 
w. "13 in apodosis to be glad, that — 
Ps. 116, 1. Part. m. SfiX, f. nSHJ*, 
once w. 1 parag. in c. '^PiSJiX (Hos. 
10, 11) a friend or a loving and loved 
one, a beloved, ■'3«ix my friendls. 41, 8, 
cf. cpiXo; Gso'j James 2, 23, meaning 




more than 5'n Prov. 18, 24. — Nipli. 
only part, nnw 2 Sam. 1, 23 6ei«^ 
fovecZ, amiable. — Pi. to love fondly, 
only part. ar}X^ friend Zech. 13, 6, 
mostly ^over or paramour Ez. 1 6, 33. 

nJliJ (only pi. fi'^nrix) m. \) amour s, 
fig. in Hos. 8, 9. 2) loveliness, nb^JJ 
fiinnx Prov. 5, 19 a AiwiZ of loves, 
fond words for a cherished wife. 

nni< (w. suf. DShN, pi. D^nnx) m. 

— I ^ T t:it' -^ • tiit' 

/ove, fig. for lovers, Hos. 9, 10; 
amours Prov. 7, 18. 

DHi^ and n»j^ 1 fut. Qal of ShX; 
see Gram. § 68, 1, Bern. 

Imni^ f. 1) a /omw^ (verbal noun, 
prop. inf. c. of anx, Gram. §. 133, 1); 
hence w. ace. of the object 1 K. 
10, 9, Hos. 3, 1. 2) love Cant. 2, 4. 
3) a love (concr.), a beloved (as if fern. 
of ntix, as nsbg of T]^a) or a darling 
Cant. 2, 7. ^ ' 

S»l!3ni^(prob. redup.formPeWe/ 
of afns) to love excessively, only in 
Hos. 4, 18 nan iianx (= ^innanx) they love 

intensely, where, however, the per- 
sonal-ending itself is repeated, cf. 
••Mnnsax w. fin repeated, r. niaS; 
but perh. we may trace ^ati (for ^lan) 
to SJi^ to give and translate they love 
(to say) ^give ye\ 
^Dn ^^nu^ Hos. 4, 18, see ananx. 

llj CS (obs.) prob. akin to I^K, fo 
be strong, cf. ^*I3>. Hence 

^nJ^ pr. n. m. (might) Gen. 46, 10, 

J^niSl interj. i. q. fnrt mimet. of 
grief ah! oh! cd al, L. heu! 

tX^r\^ pr. n. m. (prob. water) a 
river between Babylon and Jerusa- 
lem, where Ezra rested w. the re- 
turning Jews; hence Ezr. 8, 21. 31 
J<irt5< ^ni and S<^nx '^nsn the river 

T -: - - : T -: - TT - 

Ahava, into which another river 
(^n:n) flows, not far from X^SCo 

(perh. a region in the Caspian range 
in the N. E. of Media). Whether 
rri'^nx is to be read, and the river 

TT X - ' 

Adiava in Adiabene is to be under- 
stood (Ammian. Marc. 23, 20), or 
whether it is to be taken as a desig- 
nation of the Euphrates, cannot be 
determined. — N'tix is not Semitic, 

T -: - ' 

but Pers. ah or av, S. dpas, L. oqua, 
Goth, ahva, Fr. eau, 0. E. ey, W. 
wy, avon, meaning water, stream. See 

T ; • T 

1^n^5 (r. ^njj,) pr. n. m. (strength) 
Judg. 4, 1, 'A (1)8; see ntiX. 

^siisnis; i fut. mph. w. suf. 3 s. 

m. and 3 demonstr. for ^I'l^Jt from 
W 1 ; see Gram. § 53, 7, § 58, 4. 

"^r**?^ i- q- ''^.'?^> ^^» adv. where? 
Only in Hos. 13, 10 i<1S5N ^jSV^ ini< 
where is thy king then? But some 
take it for an old pronoun "ifi or 
6<n = i<!in w. fi< prosth. as in ^^"S; 
but also 

"^flM 1 fut. apoc. Qal of n^n for 
n>nx Hos. 13, 7, yet not in Hos. 13, 
10: see above. 

^Plbi I (Qal obs.) i. q. b^fi to 
be bright, to gleam, to shine; — Hipli. 
to shed brightness, to give light, 
only Job 25, 5 lo! even the moon, 
b'liiX* fiib it diffuses no brightness, 
i. e. is not free from dark spots. 


yriCS n(obs.) perh. akin to b^in, 
bl3, to iUri'?!!! and contain. Hence 
^nt^ (w. suf. ^'bnx, r^TM< 'ohoVkha, 

V I ^ • t: T ' ' ; T T ' 

in pause ^^ni$ also '?i^ni<, "i^ntj; and 
rt^'brix, w. n loc. n^nk,'pi. d^b}^^tand 
d'^'bnk c. 'lbr^^t, w.suf. ds'i^nx, TT-^brix, 

. T ' •• t: T ' V •• t: T ' I r; T ' 

1*ibl-tN) m. 1) tent, of the Bedawin 
Arabs or Nomads, but also the Ta- 
bernacle, e. g. m^rn bnk, ^s^ia bnx, 

7 O •• T VI*' "I 

designations of the sacred tent, also 
called bnirt IK. 1, 39 (cf. Dnxn. 





l>?a?i). Hence the sJiell or exterior 
of the Tabernacle, in distinction 
from "ilTBia the dwelling or interior 
hangings; so also poet. Ps. 132, 3 
•'H'^a bnk pavilion of iny (licelling\ | 
bnja nisyj, bnk aui""^, a tent-dweller ov 
nomafJ. 2) dwelling-place, hence ^^ 
/etwjjfe i. q. bs'^n Ez. 41, 1, also the 
palace of the sun Ps. 19, 5 (compare 
n^nt Hab. 3, 11), also for D^-«J< hall 

Ez. 40, 16. 3) fig. like the Arab. JAI 
people, family Ps. 78, 67; 83, 7; Is. 
16, 5, Zech. 12, 7; jioet. patriarchal 
stock Judg. 5, 24 . 4) pr. n. m. (tent- 
dweller or nomad) 1 Ch. 3, 20. — As 
black hair -cloth, not white canvas, 
forms the Arab's tent covering, bni< 
can not well come from bfix to be 
bright, as most think; hence perh. 
another root may be assumed, h'ni^ II 
to contain, akin to ^in 5, b>i3, bb^, 

Ai-ab. J*-! ligavit, detinuit. Hence 

y| jNlIIprop.denom.ofbni<(fut. 
^nx;^) to tent, i. e. to pitch tents, to 
move with tentsQen. 13, 12. — Pi. fut. 
i)n? for bnK^ Is. 13, 20 (cf. C]|^ for 
tfsixo Job 35, 11) to encamp; see 
Gram. § 68, Bem. 2. Cf. bnj* II. 

brji^ (only pi. ti'i^'i^J? Prov. 7, 17 
or ri'ftnK Ps. 45, 9) m. lign-aloes, aloe- 
trees Num. 24, 6, Cant. 4, 14. — Like 
^■^5, I3*b, this word came perh. with the 
commodity from India, and hfence 
aYaX-Xo^ov, cuX-aXoT) and our word 

n^riij pr. n. f. (perh. fem. form 
of bfnj* tent) as symbolic term for Sa- 
maria Ez. 23, 4; others take it for 
n^nx her tent, because Samaria had 
her OAvn Temple. Cf. fiS'^^Cl'?* 

lSi^''5Mi^ pr. n. m. (father's tent 
or family), Ex. 31, 6. — ^fii* is em- 
ployed in pr. names in the same way 
as D?, t'^at., nt'a (n-^a). 

nS^'^niJ^ pr. n. f. (my tabernacle 
in her, fi'DT for nS") as symbolic of 
Jerusalem Ez. 23, 4. 

ni3Tbn&^ pr. n. f. (tent of the 

T T • t: T ■'^^ ^ 

height) wife of Esau Gen. 36, 2 ; also 
a tribe of Edomites Gen. 36, 14. 

)r\ibnU< (see V>Jnj^) f. aloe-trees, for 

T — J T t' ' 

their fragrance planted in pleasure- 
gardens among nard, myrrh, etc. 
Cant. 4, 14. 

tl'^^InU^ (Ps. 77, 4) 1 fut. Qal w. 
n cohort, from Hiari; Gram. § 75, 
Bem. 4. 

I< JCS (obs.) akinto^iix /os^Tie, 
to he luminous] hence 

1'iri5[^-pr. n. m. (perh. luminous, 
cf. '''11N, Boman Lucinius) 'Aaptbv, 
Aaron, first high-priest, brother of 
Moses Ex. 6, 20; as he was the an- 
cestor of the priestly family, the 
priests were called "plnx ija, "pris? n^S. 

IS;, c. iJJ^ (r. n^J<, cf. 1p) m. 
will, choice, desire, only in K'thibh 
of Prov. 31, 4 7ior for princes *^^X0 lit 
the desire of strong drink-, where 
the Q'ri has ''^l where? = not. 

'IH^ conj. or, either, inclusive and 
exclusive (Lat. vel and auf) prob. 
from iTiN, as the Lat. vel, ve, from 

T T ' ' ' 

velle (volo). It indicates 1) or, i. e. a 
free choice between different objects, 
without making either prominent 
Deut. 13, 2; at times repeated "ii*— lit 
Ex. 21, 31 whether (either) — or; but 
the following gradations also occur — 

2) or rather, modifying what was 
said before, e. g. 1 Sam. 29, 3 
D"»3^; fi.t"''fi< or rather these years. 

3) where the modification not only 
extends the first statement, but even 
formally sets it aside, or else, unless, 
perhaps. Is. 27, 5. 4) or if. Lev. 
26, 41, ellipt. for ""D 'ij<, putting quite 
a distinct case; hence 5) as condi- 




tional particle if (iav, si) 1 Sam. 
20, 10, distinguished from S5< which 
expresses not the disjunctive idea 
but pure contingency, and from 1^, 
usually employed in wishes. Cf. ^ib, dx. 

^K(perh. K'thibh in Prov. 31,4) adv. 
es IK where? = not] but see "Ji^ above. 

bK^K pr. n. m. (prob. will of God, 
from 1!J< and bx) Ezr. 10, 34. 

J'liN (obs.)prob. mimet. akin to 
a^X II to he hollow, Aram. S^ai<; {flute) 
= E. pipe = fife = W. pibell = Gael. 
piobtt] cf. 3ia I and pr. n. aia. 

lij< (pi. WnJt, r. asiit) m. 1) prop. 
water-skin, leathern bottle for water 
or wine Job 32, 19; comp. 1W, t^^2T^. 
2) the hollow belly (of conjurers), in 
which the conjuring spirit (Trut^ojv 
Acts 16, 16) dwells, and speaks as 
if out of the earth Is. 29, 4; hence, 
it means sometimes this demon 
Lev. 20, 27, sometimes the conjurer 
{i'^'^a.(jxp[\iM^o^) Is. 19, 3. 3) a necro- 
mancer, 1 Sam.28,3, who wakens the 
dead out of the earth, in order to 
unveil the future,cf.aii<in^5S 1 Sam. 
28, 7 a mistress of necromancy, a witch. 

IniliK (r. a!i&^) pr. n. (hollow 
passes) a place in the Arabian desert 
Num. 21, 10. 

b'^!2lK pr. n. m. (camel keeper) 
1 Ch. 27, 30, overseer of the camels 
of David, Arab. J^T. 

bli^K, see bax. 

T ' T 1 

HiS (obs.) akin to *1W , tr. and 
intr. to turn, to wind, to surround, 
then, in general, to be strong, mighty, 
cf. V^n, 'miJi?, etc. Deriv. Ilfit, ^Jta, 

I^Jl^ (pi. 'crn^'HC) m. prop, turner^ 
i. e. a piece of wood for stirring the 
fire; then a fire-brand Zech. 3, 2. 

riiTilK (only pi., r. nix) f. prop. 

turnings or surroundings, then ctr- 
cumstances or causes, hence account, 
Gen. 21, 9 wm'x b?, like W b?, on 
account of, ?]''ni'nj< hy Josh. 1 4, 6 on 
account of thee, nm-niTix-^s-b? 
Jer. 3, 8 for all causes that, i. e. for 
the very reason that. 

i i 1^ I i. q. Jiax (which see), prob. 
Niph. iiiX3 to be desired or fitting 
Ps. 93, 5; h^xa for niX3 to be desired, 
7ove/yPs.33,l, Cant. 1,10; seenx3. — Pi. 
to wish strongly, to crave for, to strive 
after, usually said of the soul UJS3 
Prov. 21, 10; comp. Is. 26, 9. — HitiK 
n^^xnn (fut. apoc. ixn^) Prov. 23, 3 to 
long after, prop, to shew oneself de- 
sirous, w. b for something Prov. 
23, 6; w. the ace. Mlxn nsixnn Num. 
11, 4 to long a longing i. e. to lust 
after. Deriv. IX (IX), perh. *'^X, WX, 
n^xn 1, '^IX^, prob. }T)X3. 

i IliN II (oliis.) mimetic and akin 
to •ix^=^'>ix, L. vce, G. weh, E. 
woe, Gr. <peu^ arab. ^jl (howl); 
all taken from cries of men or animals 
(cf. the bow-wow of dogs). Hence Sn^X. 

n vS ni perh. i. q. Min to measure 

T T 'i T T 

or mark off; only in Hith. fini|ixriri 
Num. 34, 10 you measure or mark off 
for yourselves; but perh. only a cor- 
rupted form for dr)'i|inrt = dri''i^rtfn. 
Deriv. WXFl 2, perh. nix a sign. 

n CS IV (obs.) i. q. ni3 n to rest, 
to dwell. Deriv. ''X coast or isle and 
auaau, 6aai«; cf. Arab. ,^31 to dwell, 
Syr. ]o| (see D'. Payne Smith's The- 
saurus Syriacus). 

nj!}^ (c. W^?, r. n\^ I) f. desire 
Deut. 12, 15, lV;St or longing Jer.2,24, 
often w. ttJBS 1 Sam. 23, 20. 

V%S (obs.) perh. i. q. tW to look 
ovi or hope; hence 

^V\i^ pr. n. m. (perh. hoped for) 
Neh. 3. 25. 

^I^t^ pr. n. m. (perh. emigrant, 
r. b.N) Gen.lO, 27 a Joktanite, who 
became patriarch of the Arabs in 
Uzal, at present, Sanaa. 

n^^rHi^ Jer. 4, 19, a mixed form, 
from nb'^nix and nbiinj^, see bw, bn\ 

TV T I T' ' -T 

ji|| pr.n. m. (perh. longing r. li^J*!), 

son of a king of Midi an, Num. 31,8. 

■'ii^ (="1111) mimet. root, see ^Inx, 

1) interj. woe! of complaint Is. 3, 9 
or of threatening w. b Num. 21, 29 
or ace. Ez. 24, 6; cf. oi, ouai, L. vce. 

2) subst. looe Prov. 23, 29. 

n^lK interj. woe! w. b Ps. 120. 5. 
The same as ''I'^t, w 'ri-— ^arag. as in 
Trn^, rit<bn, nsn and often in nouns 
and verbs, cf. Gram. § 90, 2. 

b'^IH (r. ^si&t I; pi. ti^Y)V^ and 

d'^bli^) m. mostly prob. wry, per- 
verse, hence 1) adj. foolish Prov. 
29, 9 , Hos. 9, 7 ; then subst. a fool 
Prov. 7, 22, opp. to D^^ Prov. 12, 16 
and to Dsri Prov. 10, 14. 2) ivicked, 
godless Job 5, 3. 

^Y% also ''b% i. q. b-'^K w. 
adj. ending "^-^ (see Gram. § 86, 2, 5) 
foolish Zech. 11, 15. 

tph^ b^^lJ? Jer. 52, 31 pr. n. m. 
of a king of Babylon, successor of 
Nebuchadnezzar. — Perh. the name 
means a mighty warrior, see bl5< I 
and r|'^^i'^a. 

b'^bii^ Hos. 11, 4 for ^'l^^^^<, i p. 
sing. fut. Hiph. of b?S<j Gram. §. 68, 
Kem. 1. 

blDi5< Ps. 60, 13 for bsx 1 fut. Qal 
of bsx. 

xjCS (obs.) akin to b^X I and b":^ 
to turn or tivist\ hence to he wrong 
(in mind), to he foolish. Hence, perh. 
NIph. bxiD from Vn3 to act the fool, 

16 Db^&^ 

Num. 12, 11; but see Kx;) I. Deriv, 

b-^ix, 'i^'iix, n^ix. 

,^*liN I or ^ CS (obs.) to Jmit or 
twist together, hence to he strong^ 
mighty, as in ptJi, n^jD, "luiiD. Deriv. 
b^lN, ^J«, Kx, i^Nj^Vs^, Vs and 

^'l^ II (obs.) to he hefore or in 
front of, hence to go hefore, to hegin\ 

Arab. Jjt, Chald. bix. Deriv. ^;^1» 

K'thibh of Neh. 12, 38. 

b^5^ (r. b>l!}^ I) m. prop, strength^ 
then hody Ps. 73, 4. 

^b^iS; Zech. 11, 15, see ^''IX. 

*'5^'»^ pr. n. m. of a river by Susat 
in Persia, Dan. 8, 2, Gr. EuXaio;, 
later XoaaTrn; (cf. Plin. Nat. Hist. 
6, 27), now the Kerah. 

^i^^ adv. from 'i5< 5 = el if and 
lb not, therefore = if not Num. 22, 
33, Sept. el |xi^ ; then whether not Js. 
47, 12, ordinarily jper/mps; hence em- 
ployed in fearing, douhting Gen. 24, 5, 
or hoping Am. 5, 15. 

U'b^t^ (only pi. c. -^Vil^^ K'thibh) 
m. 2K. 24, 15 the mighty ones, prin- 
ces; the Q'ri has '^)?''&<;, the usual form. 
See blX subst. above. 

Db^5^ I(perh.for fi^X^; c. t)^-, pU 
d"i^^i< c. ''^bx, r. d^x) m. 1) prop. 
something hound or jointed together, 
hence vmt?^, arch,hall,as d^'iJiJaS'ii d^ii&< 
1 K. 7, 6 fAe pillared vestihule, the 
porch; dSlBKfi d^x <^ AaZ? of judg- 
ment 1 K. V, 7. Sept. in 2 Ch. 15, 8 
render it vao^. — As to the root, 
comp. Ji"n55< vault from ^^5* to hind; 
perh. niS'a^sx Is. 13, 22 citadels may 
come in the same way from d^X : but 
Gesenius, Ewald and others trace 
d^^i< to b^X II to he in front; cf. 
TTpQvaoi;. 2) pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 7, 16. 




Db^i<II(prob.akin to i^^lX) adv. 
(adversative) prop, if not, hence hut 
perhaps, then but, nay but, as may 
suit the sense Job 2, 5, Gen. 48, 19. 
— Prob. the tih is akin to Sisib, Syr. 

T T IT ' "^ 

|iVi\, Arab, p not, and the *!&< is or 

as in ''b-!ix. 

tO^'^ (r. ^1i«: w. suf. TiVJlX) f. 
wrongness, hence 1) folly Prov. 5, 23, 
2) ffodlessness Ps. 38, 6. 3) perh. 
front rank (r. b^ix 11) j Prov. 14, 24 

'nh^ii. b^Vp3 n)3))i< precedence of fools 
is folly or ivickedness, w. play on the 
meanings of ir\h^i<, 

U iJS (obs.)akin toWn, Hart, Q^n, 
all mimet. like our hum, hubbub and 
expressive of noise, tumult or alarm; 

see D^^X. 

*1)J15^ pr. n. m. (loquMious or 
boastful, r. *^m I) Gen. 36, 11. 

pes (obs.) prob. akin to lin, n^ii, 
lias; (which see), to breathe ; to bloio or 
pant (cf. bnfi), fo &e vain as breath; 
hence fig. 1) ^o be nothing, naughty, 
toicked; then from hard breathing, 

2) to make effort, to labour or to 
toil, to be exhausted, to suffer. 

3) to earn by labour, i. e. to get gain 
or wealth; cf. IpYaCofAai. Hence *\y^, 
•jlX, and perh. "j^X, "jINin, pr. names 

l!!S(r. I'lfi^; w. suf. "T^i'ix Jer. 4, 14, 
tiix', pi. D^aiii Prov. 11, 7) m. 1) prop. 
breath (otTfxo;). Hence fig. nothing- 
ness, vanity Is. 41,29 (cf. ban breath, 
vanity); then naughtiness, worthless- 
ness, sinfulness, hence sinners are 
often caUed 'C.V^ *ib?b Job 31, 3, 
cf. 'x "in^a, 'x "^^Jpi?; falsehood, hypo- 
crisy, deceit, e. g. *)"!!< naip /^in^ 
lip Prov. 17, 4; idolatry 1 Sam. 15, 
23 (cf. ban, b"«bx), hence 'j.')J<-n''2 in 
the prophets scornfully for bx"n''Sl 

Hos. 4, 15; also idol Is. 66, 3. Also 
perh. I'^iX Ez. 30, 17 for "jk in Egypt 
and in )']Vi n?|3a Am. 1, 5 valley of 
the idol, i. e. Baalbec (HeUopolis in 
Syria) , see "(IX. 2) labour or sorrow 
(cf. h-Q^), distress, e. g. "^il'&flSi Gen. 
35, 18 son of my sorrow; Q''3li<-Dnb 
Hos. 9, 4 bread of sorroios, i. e. 
funereal repast (cf.i52J dnb); ')'}6t nnn 
Hab. 3, 7 under distress; cf. 'las?. 

"jiiS, "jbC (pi. tai.l'i5< Ps. 78, 51) m. 
1) toealth Hos. 12, 9; force, used 
like TJl poet, for son Gen. 49, 3, cf. 
Ps. 105, 36. 2) pr. n. of a city 
in Lower Egypt on the east bank 
of the Nile Gen. 41, 50, bearing the 

same name in Coptic (JDN and mean- 
ing the sun, yhich was there wor- 
shipped, hence the Greeks named it 
Heliopolis and the Hebrews UJ^^ ir^a 
Jer. 43, 13, perh. tiyii^i ^'iS is. 19, 
18. 4) pr. n. m. (idol or power), see 
')1J$n?pa;r. -j^x. 

*l3*lli^ and 13i^ pr. n. (powerful 
or rich; the ending i — , as in '^T^'1\ 
•ia?, ib^y:, being not the suffix but 
the formative ending "ji — ) a city in 
Benjamin, Neh. 7, 37. 

Wy^i< f. pi. in K'thibh 2 Ch. 
8, 18 for W*'»3X ships; perh. a parti- 
cipial form from n^^{; HI, comp. n^ah, 


T • 

DD'lK pr. n. m. (prob. wealthy, 
r. "j^Iit 3, w. the adj. ending Q-;-, as 
in dl^in) Gen. 36, 23. 

"Ij^IJJ^ pr. n. m. (strong, from "jl's^ 
w. adj. ending )-^) Gen. 38, 9. 

yj^iS (obs.) perh. akin to tjax, to 
surround, to contain; hence perh. 


T£^J^ Jer. 10,9 pr. n. of a gold region, 

whence Dna and ant were brought. 

— • If Hei)., the name is perhaps 

from an obsol. r. tBX, akin to Arab. 





yy vantage-ffvowid, high region', or 
from ''X coast and TB gold, hence 
gold-coast', but some identify it with 
'T'B'iK, 1 and "l being interchanged, 
as in pTa = pt!2. See tB^ia. 

TSii^, nSi^, n^2i< ( 1 K. 10,11) 
pr.n. of a gold region, which the ships 
of Solomon in company with the Phe- 
nicians (ships of Tarsliish) used to 
visit, on their return landing their 
cargo not far from Berenice, now 
Azium (naa "p^?) l K. 9, 26 and 
bringing gold (SHT, fins), sandahoood 
(Caribs^, Sans.mocha),precious stones 
(nnp-J "jnx), silver (C]03), ivor?/ 
(d*'2ti~'j^), apes (d'^Spj, peacocks 
(d'^^sn) 1 k. 10, 22. Hence 'l&i lartT, dn3 
goldofOphir; also *T^B1X alone iorgold 
Job 22, 24. — Whether this region is to 
be sought for in Arabia or in India 
is not yet settled ; nor can the deriv. 
of the word be given, but see TS15<. 

"|3i5<, "jS^^ (c. "jB— , pi. d'^SBis^, r. 
'iBS) m. wheel Ex. 14, 25, roller of a 
threshing-machine Prov. 20, 26. 

j^^iS 1) intr. to he compressed, 
narrow Josh. 17, 15. 2) trans, and 
refl. to press Ex. 5, 13; to press one- 
self, to haste, e. g. d'l'nn'na yi< Prov. 
29, 20 hastp in his speech; w. yo to 
force oneself away, to withdraw Jer. 
17, 16. — Hipli. pxn to press 
on, to urge, w. 3 of the pers. Gen. 
19, 15. . — Akin prob. to Chald. y^^ 
to press close, perh. to Heb. ynh, 
ynj , also t^n and M5. 

^!ji!J< (c. "i:?ix, pi. ni^isk, c. nl^sk, r. 
"»:^x) m. prop, what encloses (cf. dnin, 
dblr), hence 1) receptacle, granary 
Joel 1, 17, treasury for silver and gold 
2 Ch. 32, 27. 2) what is enclosed, 
hence store, stock 2 Ch. 11,11, treasure 
IK. 7,51. —In Zech. 11, 13 ^ri'in is 
perh. written for ^l^ixfi. — Hence 

the denom. 12X to gather into a trea- 
sury, fig. lay up in store Is. 39, 6. — 
Nipli. to he laid up in store Is. 23, 18. 
— Hipli. (only 1 fut. rrnziii^) to make 
treasurer, w. b?, Neh. 13, 13. 

»Tl?ii^ Neh. 13, 13 for irr^Ti^ 
(cf. rirj^^at) for !n^'^as<5< l fut. Hiph. 
w. n cohort, of r.ns5<; Gram. § 68. 
Hem. 1. 

lies or 1^ (after the form til) 
prop, to hum, hence intr. to he or 
become hright Gen. 44, 3, "Tli^ (perf. 
impers.) it is hright 1 Sam. 29, 10. 
Fig. to shine or to look hright Is. 
60, 1. — Nipli. 'TiW (fut. ^IX?) to 
become bright 2 Sam. 2, 32, to be 
illuminated Job 33, 30 where ^Ixb 
for ^iiiti^; part, brightened, splen- 
did or glorious Ps. 76, 5. — Hiph. 
'n'^xn (fut. ^i0 pro}), to caicse to hum, 
hence — 1) to light (a fire), to 
kindle, e. g. nst^ Mai. 1, 10; 2)fig. ^o 
make bright, to lighten e. g. the eyes, 
etc. Ps. 13, 4, to quicken or reviveVs. 
19, 9 ; to light up d^iS the countenance, 
to cheer Ecc. 8, 1, said esp. of God 
to look graciously Ps. 80, 4 (w. and 
without d^DQ) w. Kx, b?, a, h, nx 
(>i3n!S) Ps. 67, 2 towards, upon, at, to, 
with anyone; also to enlighten the 
mind i. e. to teach Ps. 119, 130. 3) to 
shed light, to illuminate Gen. 1, 15. 
Cf. frnx 3, perh. nn;>, ^;$;i, ^i<n. 

^i5< (pi. d-ini's^ only in Ps. 136, 7) 
m. (f. only Job 36, 32) collect., light, 
as the light of the sun Job 31, 26, 
but not used for a light or luminary 
CTi&tia), hence day- light Neh. 8, 3, 
lightning Job 36, 32, the sun Job 
37, 21, the dawn Job 24, 14. Used 
fig. for happiness Is. 9, 1, instruction 
Is. 51, 4, d-'^n "IIX light of life i. e. 
life itself Ps. 56, 14, di^Q "UK bright- 
ness of aspect, cheerfulness Job 29, 24, 
bxnb"^ nii^ Israel's benefactor or 




teacher Is. 10, 17, so d^iia ^Ifit Is. 49, 6. 
~ On "nxs in Am. 8, 8 see njts. 

T ' - T 

'n^i^ m. 1) a flame or hlaze, hence 
titi 'i^K flame of fire, flaming fire, 
hence ^!|K3 "I'^SJnn Ez. 5, 2 . 2) = 'niit, 
only pi. d'^'nx prop, lights, then region 
of light, the east Is. 24, 15, opp. to 
C!??!! ""^i?- 3) fig. light of faith, reve- 
lation Num. 27, 21, usually in union 
w. dijsn (cf. Ps. 43, 3) signifying light 
<ind truth, Ex. 28, 30 Q^anm d"'-i5<ri 
</ie ZJnm awd the Thummim (Sept. 
ot^Xwjk; xal aXyjOsia), i. e. the sacred 
lots or emblems (gems) on the breast- 
plate (yijn) of the High Priest. See 
fi''5ain. The supreme judge in Egypt 
also wore suspended from his neck 
a small image in sapphire as a vi- 
sible symbol of truth. 4) pr. n. of a 
city of the Chaldees in Mesopotamia 
Oen. 11, 28 (see d'^'nto); which name 
was seemingly still borne by the 
Persian fortress Ur, according to 
Anunianus (25, 8); but ^i^lX in this 
case would prob. be akin to *lh a 
"mountain, a fastness; cf. Zend and 
Sans, vara (fortress). 5) pr. n. m. 
(perh. illumination) 1 Ch. 11, 35; cf. 

TTfi^ f.i. q.'TiN, light Vs. 139, 12; 
fig. happiness Est. 8, 16; cf. nSl'^^. 

riil]^ 2 Ch. 32, 28 for W'n.N; cribs, 
see ni^Xi'r. n^X II. 

T ; •. ' T T 

"•■I^U^ pr. n. m. Ex. 31, 2 (cf. 
4>WTiv6(;), from *l^5< w. the adj. en- 
ding ''-7-. 

bi<'''1^5^ pr. n. m. (hght of God) 
1 Ch. 6, 9. 

n^'^l^Jj^, ^n^^l^lJ^ pr. n. m. (Hght 
of n;i) 2 Sam. 11, 14; Jer. 26, 20. 

Xn^^lX or l^^5^ (only pi.) f. green 
plants or herbs 2 K. 4, 39; Is. 26, 19 
'i( ba deiv of plants i. e. refreshing 

influence; r. *il'x to be bright, fig. to 
sprout; cf. y.3. 

W* liN (obs.) perh. to be strong or 
manly, to support, i.q.i:':bi^ll. Hence 
perh. ^^X, "jvji^.Nj I, uiNi"' I. 

il* lis I (obs.) akin to nnx and d!i5 
to cut in, to engrave or mark; hence 
perh. nix I, nx I. 

iv^S II (fut. niti.'^ as ^la;!) prob. 
akin to rtiK to be willing, to agree, 
w. V of tlie pers. Gen. 34, 16, or 
followed by -^riVab 2 K. 12, 9. 

AlNiN in (obs.) prob. to come in, 
i. q. nnx. Deriv. "jiniy:. 

AniS IV (obs.) perh. akin to y;.^ 
Chald. ^T\'^^, to be, to exist. Deriv. n'^X. 

riii< I (pi. nlnii , r. Mit I) m. im- 
pression, engraving, mark (written), 
hence in general 1) a characteristic, 
sign, token or proof , e.g. the sabbath 
Ex. 31, 13, circumcision Gen. 17, 11, 
sacrifice are mentioned as tokens 
(symbols) of the covenant between 
mh-> and Israel; niniit Ps. 74, 9 
sanctuaries, as the Arab. ^ayat. 2)mi- 
litary ensign of the several tribes 
Num. 2, 2, while b;i^ was the standard 
of 3 tribes together Num. 2, 2 — 9; 
fig. signs of times as din^iabJi ninit^ 
Gen. 1, 14. 3) in the most diversified 
fig. sense as e.g. memorial Deut.6,8, 
monumentlEiZ. 14, 8, warning, premo- 
nition Is. 8, 18, prodigy in general, 
a loonder or miracle Deut. 4, 34 (like 

nii^ II (w. suf. "^MX; see r\X 11 sign 
def. ace.) perh. meaning existence, 
being, then self(cf. auTO*;); r. n^ix IV. 

7K demonst. adv. of time (prop. 

that time), then, in relation both to 

the past, at that time (Gen. 4, 26) 

where therefore the perfect tense is 





suitable, and also to the future, 
thereupon (Ps. 96, 12), also w. perf. 
in fut. sense (Ex. 15, 15) and w, 
fut. in perf. sense (Josh. 10, 12); 
but T5>J is never pleonastic, since 
tij-*)^ (Jer. 44, 18) is = tx^ since 
(j^TO'p.from that time), nor ever causal. 
tjra (absolute) from then (s-nce), as 
tx of the past, hence = formerly, 
before, heretofore; also (relative) of 
the point of commencement in the 
past, hence followed by a noun (Ps. 
76, 8), an infinitive (Ex. 4, 10), or a 
finite verb (Ex. 5, 23), which may be 
rendered ever since. — tx is akin to 


ht (dem. pron.) just as our then is to 
the, this, that, there, and as tots, 
Lat. turn, tunc are to 6, i?), to; cf. 
•»]&«, Chald. I^^ix. 

iSTCS or nicS Chaia.(part. pass. 

T ■"• T ~I 

n\i< Dan*. 3, 22 for fitx, inf. J5t?3 for 
KtStia, w. suf. n;^Tp Dan. 3, 19) to light, 
to heat. — Akin* to ^m I whence \lis< 
fire; cf. Sans. ttsA = L. uro (ustum) = 
W. yssi. 

3TJS (obs.) perh.akin to ifeS and 

Si^a , to shine, which idea is often 
transferred to blooming, blossoming. 
Deriv. SIT^t and 

*^5T^ pr. n. m, (perh. blooming, 
r. n]S<) 1 Ch. 11, 37. 

mS Chald. only in part. f. U^^tiJ 

as adj. settled or decided Dan. 2, 5. 8. 
Cf. the Talm. H'^prab &i'nTi< decided 
to his purpose. — The root is perh. 
akin to 'iD^ , ffl^ I to set, hence 
different from btx, which most prefer 
(since 1 = b, as l?'i = b?"!), and so 
they render K-irK '^l-Q 6tn^^ the word 
(i. e. decree) is gone forth (i. e. has 
been issued) from me. 

t^'HTSl Chald. perh. adj. settled, 
firm Dan, 2, 5. 8; but see on It&t. 

^itb? (for tllT.X, r, nt5<) m. uajto- 
Ttoc, hyssop, an aromatic plant, which 
was used in bunches (iTnJiX) in the 
sprinklings of purification Ex. 12, 22^ 
The Phoenicians brought the name 
to Greece, as they did also many 
others, e. g. tVQpa (d'^aj^yj) auxa- 
jjiivo;, &<'*ap aixuoi, ps xujxivov, 'ns^ 

^illJ? (for ^iTX, r. "itN) m. 1) band^ 
fetter Job. 12, 18. 2) belt, girdle Is, 
5, 27. 

"^TISI (same as ti<, Chald. X}'}'^) only 
poet, demonst. adv. at that time, then 
Ps. 124, 3. 4. 5. 

■j'^TX Job 32, 11, 1 fut. Hiph. for 
n^^ (see I.TJi); Gram. §. 68, Eem. 1. 

n^3TlJ< (w. suf. J^n'n3t^^) f. a sacri- 
ficial term (r. I5T), a remembrance- 
offering (?iti3^), Sept. {xvTrjfJioaovov 
(see Acts 10, 31), Vulg. memorialed 
which brings the offerer into remem- 
brance before God, or which bring* 
God into honourable remembrance- 
with the offerer Num. 5, 26. Hence- 
incense Lev. 24, 7; hence perh. a» 
denom. Hiph. in Is. 66, 3 ^''Strn to 
offer, to cense. 


ylbs (fut.'iVlPi Jer.2,36for'ibt>^FY 
or '^^txn) to glide, move away, hence 
to depart, to flow off or ebb (of water) 
Job 14, 11; to vanish (of help) Deut.^ 
32, 36 where inbtx is 3 p. f. perf. 
for S^^TX; to be gone (oi food) 1 Sam.^ 
9, 7. — Pu. only in part. VtlN^ 
Ez. 27, 19 prob. for bj5>73 spun, hence 

yarn; i. q. Chald. bt?, Syr. '^"^ 
to spin. — Akin to b^t.^M, bt3 I. 

yliS Chald. (imp. hl^^ for bt^5 Ezr, 
5, 15) to 'go, to depart Dan. 6, 19. 

5Ti^ m. departure, hence, pr. n. 
btxfi "jbx (the stone of parting) 1 Sanu 
20' 19: r/bT5<. 

' J " T 




})1)f, Ezr. 5, 15 for bl^, see hj^ 

•jTijl, see )ik 

■jTSi (dual fi'l'ilS, pi. c. W3t>< from 
"^tx only in a prop. n. in Josh. 19, 34) 
f. the ear; so in the phrases 'xa "i2'n, 
^jt3 nia; 'H nan, 'n nba, 'x' nns, ; 

causing ears to hear Ez. 24, 26. — • 
Hence perh. as denom. Hiph 'pTNin 
to listen attentively/, prop, to prick . 

t*p f/ie ears (akin to Arab. ^) aus- 1 
€idtavit, from ^Jl) w. ace. Job 34, 2, | 
Oen. 4, 23 or b, b^^ Ps. 77, 2, b? Prov. | 
17, 4, "1? of pars, or thing. Spoken of 
Ood, to hear is to answer Ps. 5, 2 ; of , 
men, to ohey Ex. 15, 26. — We find 
in Job 32, 11 "pTX fut. 1 pers. for 
*j"'T^X, and in Prov. 17, 4 part. "pT^, for 
*pTS<^. See pr. names n:^3Tit, n;'5]N^''3T5<. 
— The root is prob. list (obs.) akin 
to "1^5, -jSi!: to he pointed, sharp, from 
the shape of the ear; cf. dxiQ point, 
And axouco, Sxpov and axpoaojiai. 

Cf. Aram. W^^i^t, jJjf, Arab. ^ JI, oui 
<o>T-6(;), L. «wm = aus in aus-culto 
<(z= auris + ce/^o = xeXXo) , hence to 
prick the ears), G. ohr, E. ear. 

|T^ I (Qal obs.) prob. to point, 
to sharpen; hence perh. Hiph. "ptNtn 
to sharpen or prick the ears, to listen; 
but see under )lk. Deriv. )l^, prob. 
^rk, pr. names "i-jx, ni'atX. 

jTcS n only Pi. "itx to weigh or 
proveEcc. 12, 9. The rootis perh. akin 

to )t^, Arab, ^jjjj <o weigh; hence 
ti^STK'a. — Part. pi. D'^STii^ Jer. 5, 8 
belongs to "jit or "jT^ 

"JTliJ (only -w. suf. ?^3tN) m. weapon 
or implement Deut. 23, 14 (cf. Chald. 
^iJ^X arms) ; r. "(tx I. 

»^'7^"'^ I'l^ pr. n. (perh. Sherah's 

ear or top) of a village built by an 
Ephraimitess (ITlX^r) 1 Ch. 7, 24. 

^lisri riiDT^^ pr. n. (ears i. e. 
summits of Tabor) a city in Naphtali 
Josh. 19, 34. r\13TJ< is from ^TX (ear 
or point). 

nDT5< (r. nst w. 6t prosth. like 
atDK, 'nTSX) an obsol. adj. m. drying 
up, hence perh. as denom. Hiph. 
h'^STxn to make dry e. g. *iii3 Is. 19, 6; 
see nsT. 

— T 

^?T!^ (adj. from ^tk) pr. n. m. 
(perh. long eared, cf. L. auritus) Num. 
26, 16. 

»T^3T5^ pr. n. m. (prob. ear of H^) 
Neh.^io, 10; see jtx. 

IriiN (obs.) perh. akin to pTn and 
Arab. ^)\ , to grasp or hold (so 
Dietrich); hence 

D''I5TH pi. m. manacles, bonds Jer. 
40, 1 ; prob. i. q. d'^iST. 

iT^ (fut. ^tx^ w. suf. '^3;i^5<!' Job 
30, 18) akin to ^^JiJ, ^GX to bind, to 
wrap round, hence to gird, w. ace. 
e. g. ta^^^n ^^^ ^^^^^ Job. 38, 3 i. e. 
to equip. Like all verbs of clothing, 
it takes the ace. of the garment (Gram. 
§. 138, 3),'TiTX "n^tx girded w. a girdle 
2 Kings 1, 8. — ' Niph. part, 'ntxs 
girded, w. 3 Ps. 65, 7. — Pi. to gird 
around, to arm, w. double ace. "'Sl^TH 
for ''3;^?xn 2 Sam. 22, 40; also fig. to 
put on joy or strength Ps. 18, 33 ; 30, 
12. — Hith. to arm oneself Is. 8, 9; 
to gird oneself, w. the ace. Ps. 93, 1. 
. — > This root is akin also to "1IT, "I'HT 
II, Sans, sird (string), aeipa, L. series, 
G. seil, Gael, sraith. 

?i"lTl^ (rare for 5'-it w. X prosth., 
r. SJ"!] ) f. the fore-arm Job 31, 22, 
the arm Jer. 32, 21. 

n'JTJj^ (r. m, w. X prosth., c. n"ntx, 
no pi.) m. 1) native, indigenous (of a 

* T : %• 



tree), growing where it sprang up Ps. 
37, 35; also of a person, a native h&v. 

16, 29 . 2) prob. pr. n. m. = tni lience 
'^ri'l^Tt? a patronymic adj. m. used of 
the descendants of JT^tx i. e. ITnT (see 
1 Ch. 2, 6) said of Ethan 1 K. \ 11 
and Heman Ps. 88, 1. 

^TT\1}^> see JTntwS. 

V \G> I (C'riN, in pr. names n!J$ and 

s>nti, wTsuf. ^Tj^, ^"^ns^, rpriN, w&j) 
sinintt, rj'^His;, d^'^n^ji ; pi. Q'^riN:, c "^n&j, w. 
suf. ^nx, rpnx", Ti?»^^i!, ^^T}^ (for ^^^tix 
Gram. § 27, Eem. 2, 5), in^HS;, ilD'iriN:, 
dD'iriX) m. 1) brother (see trinsj 
sister), whether fully such Gen. 
42, 4, or hy step-father Judg. 8, 19 
or step-mother Judg. 9, 21; when 
greater definiteness is needed the 
degree of relationship is indicated hy 
ni<")3, tax-'ja, n^nx Jt^j<"3. 2) fig. 
in still more diversified senses (like 
ax) e. g. a) friend, in reference to 
brotherhood in heart and soul 2 Sam. 
1, 26; in a more extended brother- 
hood in lineage, for a brother of the 
family, of the race, of the land, e. g. 
P) kinsman (in any degree) Gen. 14, 
16 (prop, nephew, cf. ch. 11,31); ■^)one 
of the same tribe Num. 8, 26; 6) a 
felloio country -man Ex. 2, 11; in 
reference to other men and peoples; 
e) a confederate, an ally Am. 1, 9, a 
neighbour or felloiv-man Lev. 19, 

17, or a fellow, a match (as to like- 
ness or companionship) Job 30, 29; 
hence C) the use of MX w. a preceding 
Tli'^X for L. alter — alter, the one — the 
other, one another, even of inanimate 
things Ex. 25, 20, if they are masc, 
e. g. Gen. 13, 11 l^nx ^?D ui'^X one 
from another, i. e. from one another; 
I'^nx-bx u;*'N Gen. 42, 28 owe to the 
other, i. e. looking to one another; 
Gram. §. 124, Rem. 4. So MX is used 
also w. 5?;^ Judg. 6, 29. — In Ez. 


18, 10 fix may perh. be either for 
^HX or for T|N;. — The word is prob. 
primitive and mimetic, like ax, dX; 
yet it is inflected partly as if from 
a r. rtJlX and partly as from a r, 
nnx (Gram. § 96, 2), both perh. 
akin to 'lh||', ll^X, tllX, meaning 
to join. 

lies n (mimet. akin to r. nnx III) 
interj. ah! oh! alas! (cf. Keltic acht 
och!) exclamation of grief, w, b^t 
Ez. 6, 11. 

n]Jj III (r. nnx I) f. prop, fire, 
then fire -stove, the fire -pot which 
in the East warms rooms in -winter; 
only in Jer. 36, 22. 23. — Akin to 
XDi<, Sans. Ms7i (to burn), ^axia, ia^apa, 
L. vesta, ignis, us- turn. 

ril^ Chald. (pi. w. suf. TpO? ^z^* 
7, 18) m. brother = nx in Heb. 

(IS (only pi. d'^nk) m. prop, how- 
lings, then hoiolet, owl. Is. 1 3, 2 1 , named 
after its doleful cry; akin to nx ahf 
hJiX III. — Comp. G. iihu, L. ulula^ 
F. hibou. 

iijnSl pr. n. m. (father's brother) 
Ahab 1 K. 16, 28, king of Israel B, 
C. 918—897. 

^'^^ pr. n. ni. for axnx Jer, 
29, 22.' 

■QnS pr. n. m. (perh. lovely, r, 
aSJ^ with !S: prosth. and adj. ending 
)-^) 1 Ch. 2, 29. 

irjJN i. q. ^Tn to unite, only in 

Hith. *»'7>nxt?!7 unite thyself Ez. 21, 
21 ; see under ^MX. 

^Hb? rarely ^^^?; m. (c. ^nx, pi, 
d'l'inx;" f. nnx (for ir\y};^), in pause 
t^nx) a cardinal number used as an 
adj. one (eli;, fiia, ev, L. unus, -o, 
-vm) but = first in specifying 
order of time, as 'iJiX di*"' first day 
Gen. 1, 5, Ezr. 10, 16, ui'inb ^nx3 on 




the first of the month Gen. 8, 5 (cf. fxCa 
Tuiv aappoiTOiV Acts 20, 7); placed 
twice Ex. 17, 12 or thrice 1 Sam. 10, 3 
it expresses a series (like L. unuSy 
alter, tertius)fit'st, second, third, where 
nx, ^sn or "iJTIJ can stand in 2d member, 

t' •• T • •• ' 

but 'inxii — ^i^Nii the one — the other 
also a distribution one each Num. 
13, 2; perh. like our a, an (= one) 
1 K. 20, 13 'irtx i<'i3D (like Trpocp-rjTY]^ 
Ti;) a certain prophet, 2) anyhody^ 
some one, either in the absol. state 
as I'^nxp 1T}1^, d'''??sr|p 'ins; l Sam. 
9, 3, or in constr. state D5>rt ^Hi^ 
Gen. 26, 10 any one of the people^ 
hence "inx "pX, nnx sib 1 K. 8, 56 
nobody. 3) the numeral may single 
out an object as already knoAvn or 
unique, hence the same Gen. 40, 5, 
sole Ez. 7, 5, so also, d'l'^rt^^ same 
Gen. 11, 1. The pi. is also for indi- 
viduals, some, a few. L. aliquot Gen. 
27, 44, but seldom for the sing., e. g. 
^Vr}i<^ l^'O Ez. 37, 17 they become 
one i. e. united. "iTiiO Ezr. 2, 64 «s 

T V : ' 

one i. e. together, so also 1t^^ ^li'^xS 
1 Sam. 11, 7; int? nnx^ Is.^ 27, 12, 
Ecc. 7, 27 owe after the other, one by 
one. — Hence perh. as denom. ^fiij, 
once in Hilh. to unite oneself 'Ez. 21, 
21. — ^Iix may be primitive but akin 
to ^hx, ^ti"^, Sans, eka, exaaxo^, W. 
ychydig (cf. G. einige). 

S II liN(obs.)ioJo^w,prob.denom. 
from MX brother. Deriv. iTini< n. 

T T -; - 

"iriJ^ (Sept. 5^£i, a^i, Copt.jpi-acH, 
in Heb. only collect, sing.) m. what 
grows by the water, marsh- grass, 
sedge, bulrushes, Nile-grass Gen. 41, 2, 
Job 8, 11. — Perh. from tinx to join 
or bindy as L. juncus from jungo, 
G. binse from binden-, cf. Targ. 
6<i?'P5 ree^ and rope, also a^oivo? 
(prob. from e^w, a^TQaw) rwsA, rope. 

^rii^, also ^)li^, for nx brother 
in pr. names. 

'^^n^5 (for 'i!in&{, r. ^nj^) pr. n. m. 
(union) 1 Ch. 8, 6, for which also 
^r^Vi in Gen. 46, 21. 

»^Jn^ I poet. (r. n^n #0 #cZ/, cf. 
JTi3tN) f. intimation or declaration, 
only Job 13, 17. 

f. brotherhood, only Zech. 11, 14. 

nitlJS| pr. n. m. (perh. brother- 
hood , r. ^^l^^^! II = MMx) , Interchang- 
ed w. r^'^m 1 Ch. 8, 4. 7. Patron. 
^rrnmn i Sam. 23, 28. 

rT'lriiJ^ Chald. (c. n'^1r^^^) f. =1 
Heb. MlhN; I declaration or solution 
of a riddie Dan. 5, 12: r. t^lJi. 

"^H-llniJ^^ pr. n. m. (perh. swarthy, 
r. fi^n w. N prosth. and adj. ending 
^—) 1 Ch. 4, 2. 

linjjj (r. ^ni<; pi. w. suf. "''ninx 
Ex. 33, 23) m. \)hinder part, back-side, 
rear Is. 9, 11, pi. c. '^'nrix Ex. 26, 12; 
as adv. behind , backward , back 
(opp. d"!]^, d'^SQ in front), behind, or 
in reply to the question whither "i 
backwards, back e. g. liniS: 'it, 'j< 5103, 
'fi< n^, '!$ nd; w. pref. "TinN^ back- 
ivard Ps. 114, 3, w. averted face 
Jer. 7,24; ^irii<^ from behind 2 Sam. 
10, 9; "nini^ii same as Tirixb in reply 
to the question wherel Pro v. 29, 11. 
2) generally, the west, western quarter, 
which the Shemites spoke of as be- 
hind, as if they were looking to the 
rising sun (opp. d"!]^ the front, the 
east) hence also adv. behind i. e. in 
the west Is. 9, 1 1 . 3) after-time, future, 
e. g. 'TiMNib in the future Is. 41, 23. 
opp. d'i|5 the past. — Hence perh. as 
denom. Hith. ^HNMrt in Ez.2l, 21 to 
turn oneself towards the west, as some 
would read for ^nxinJi. 


Xn^iriK (c. ninx, w. suf. I'ninx, once 
'inn^^ Num. 6, 7; pi. prob. W^nx 
see Gram. § 96, 2, only w. suf. T^ffHinit 
Ez. 16, 65 as from nnx, also t]f?''"'rt!>< 
Ez. 1 6, 52,1'in'in5t Job 42, 1 1 as fr. n^r^^t) 
f. sister (with the same shades of 
meaning as hl< brother) ; fig. a female 
relation Job 42, 1 1, a woman of the same 
tribe or people Gen. 24, 60 j ow a?/y, of 
confederate cities or states Ez. 16,65. 
It means other w. Si^JSt preceding it 
(even for things), as in ^^r)^l^x-l^^^ Jim 
(see Gram. § 124, Bem. 4) the one 
to the other Ex. 26, 3, like 'hii I32*^i< 
i*ini< ; also a female confidant or bosom 
friend Pro v. 7, 4, Cant. 4, 9. — lr\itm 
(Aram. nniJ^, jL.**) is prob. for W'n&t 
or ninx, as fem. of *inx = ni<, just 
as in niart. 

Tl J^(aldnto^n&<,Chald.':m;fut. 
Tnx->, once Th'^ 2 Sam. 20, 9, rarely mi<;i 
1 K. 6,10, Gram. §68,1; fut. 1 pers.w. 
H-;- cohort. nTn&< Cant. 7, 9 ; imp. ihl^, 
''mx Ruth 3, 15), 1) to grasp, seize 
(opp. rriT} Ecc. 7, 18) w. ace. ofpers. 
or thing Ps. 56, 1 ; also w. 3 Gen. 
25, 26 ; to hold fast, w. ace, as nl'nauj 
tlie eyelids Ps. 77, 5, so that they 
cannot close in sleep ; fig. to seize {pi 
terror) Ex. 16, 14 (cf. <p6,3o; \l hfzi 
-SJ.sch. Agam. 1. 1243), but also to take 
fright (as in Engl.) i. e. to be seized 
by terror Job 18, 20; also to catch, 
capture Cant. 2, 15, e. g. fi'^?'?^* 
d'lisrij, tn^'^; to hold tight, grasp, m, 
ace. or 2, e. g. n'nn t!in>^ (cf. L. am- 
plexus glddium) holding the sword 
Cant. 3, 8 . 2) to join together, fasten 
in, e. g. ^''pa in the loall 1 Kings 
6, 6, hence also to cover over i. e. 
to bind together with beams 
1 Kings 6, 10 (cf. ^51!<, dbx), to shut 
fast e. g. ninb^ Neh.V, 3/3) to take 
out (by lot) w. yo Num. 31, 30. -- 
Niph. trixa to be caught Ecc. 9^ 12, 

- T 

seized or held Gen. 22, 13 , but mM 
Josh. 22, 9 to become possessed of may 
perh. be denom. from Whs^ (a pos- 
session); to put oneself in possession 
Gen. 34 , 10. — Pi. thi< to shut up, 
only in Job 26, 9 n&3 - 'liQ tns:^ 
shutting up (veiling) the face of his 
throne. — Hoph. (only part. d'lT^t^^'a) 
to be joined, fastened w. b 2 Ch. 9, 18. 

tnijj Job 23, 9 for ntr|5<, 1 pers. 
fut. Qal apoc. of r. ntJi ; cf . Gram. 
§76, 2, c. 

Tni;^ pr. n. m. (seizer or possessor) 
Ahaz, 2 K. 18, 1; Sept. 'A^aC, Jo- 
sephus 'A^aCiT]!;, king of Judah B. C. 

744—728. See Jl^rn^t. 

n JHK (for Mnnji) f. prop, a thing 
Jield, a holding, e. g. *n3i5 Gen. 23, 4, 
nbrii Num. 27, 7; then property, 
whether movable or immovable. Lev. 
25,45. Perh. hence denom. Niph. tfiW 
(for TrtKi) to put oneself in possession, 
w. 3 of the thing Josh. 22, 9. Hence 

^Vl^ pr. n. m. (holder) Neh. 11, 13, 
in 1 Ch. 9, 12 ?Tltri\ 

nnnjj^, ^n^fnij< pr. n. m. (m 

T : — : ' it: — ; ^ ^ r 

holds) Ahaziah, 1) king of Israel, B. 
C. 897 — 895, 2 K. 1, 2; Sept. 'O/o- 
UcLc, 1 K. 22, 40. 2) king of Judah, 
B. C. 884, 2 K. 9, 16; cf. muSrW 

' ' ' T T : 

^1^}^ pr. n. m. (perh. a holding, 
r. tnx w." endig d— -) 1 Ch. 4, 6. 

InTnJ^ pr. n. m. (possession) Gen- 
26, 26.' 

I I) lOS I (obs.)intr. to bum, be on 

fire, hence MX IH; akin to Arab, ia-f 
heat, and to i^^H. I. 

' - T 

rirjCSlI(obs.) perh. akin to rjrij<, 
ni< brother, hence to join; hence ininx. 

nni^ m (obs.) to cry ah! oh!; 
hence to groan, to hoivl. Hence d'^r^'^^. 
— — Akin to mimet. MJ< HI, G. acht 




achzen, W. och! ochain (moan), 5/o;, 

»^?^n^ Gen. 31, 39 for n|i<^rTK, 

1 fut. Pi. of &<ttn (cf. Gram.^ §' 74, 
Rem. 4), w. suf. 3 s. fern. 

^tin^t, see r^n)<. 

^Vi^. Pr. n. m. (perh. brotherly; 
•»-7- adjective-ending) 1 Ch. 5, 15. 

''U^ pr- »• m. (prob. union, r. Mniji; 
cf. Zeij$i;) Gen. 46, 21; see ^>inx. 

DK^rii^ pr. n. m. (prob. for S!S:"iriiX 
father's brother) 2 Sam. 23, 33. 

^I'^H'^. Chald. (pi. ']^^r\i<) i. q.Heb. 
t^y^T} w. X prosth., a riddle, enigma 
Dan. 5, 12; r. ^iin. 

♦^^H'^? ^n^n^J?. pr. n. m. (bro- 
ther, i. e. friend, of n^) 1 K. 11, 29, 

2 Ch. 10, 15. 

l^rT'nNl pr. n. m. (prob. brother 
of renoAvn) Num. 34, 27. 

V)l&^ pr. n. m. (brotherly, for 
')iinN;)'2 Sam. 6, 3. 

riVnjSl f. pi. sisters, see nlnx. 

"^'^n^ pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of union, r. ^Jn^) 1 Ch. 8, 7. 

n^ti^riNi pr. n. m. (brother of 
goodness) 1 Sam. 14, 3. 

l^^'^nSJ^ pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
by birth, r. Hb"^) 2 Sam. 8, 16. 

riili^niS; pr. n. m. (brother of 
death) 1 Ch. 6, 10 but in 6, 20 nn^, 
hence MaaO Luke 3, 26. 

Tjb^'^riJ^ pr. n. m. (brother of a 
king) Ahimelech 1 Sam. 21, 2. 

1"'?'*'^^: P^' ^' ^* (pe^^^« brother 
of a gift) Num. 13, 22. 

Y?'9^r?^. pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of anger) 1 Sam. 14, 50. 

l^n^ pr. n. m. (brotherly) 1 Ch. 
7, 19.' 

'^'JJ'^r'^. pr. n. m. (liberal brother) 
1 K. 4, 14.' 

^??^^^. pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of pleasantness) AJdnoam 1 Sam, 
14, 60. 

pr. n. m. (brother of 
support) Ex. 31, 6. 

^Jj^'^n^^J?;. pr. n. m. (brother of help) 
Num*. *1, 12. 

^!?*''7^ pr. n. m. (brother stands 
up) 2 K. 25, 22. 

^T*^^ P^- ^- ^- (brother exalted) 
Num. 26, 38. 

^"^^n^ pr. n. m. (brother is bad) 
Num. 1, 1*5. 

^Jl^^HN; pr. n. m. (brother of the 
dawTi) 1 Ch." 7, 10. 

^"^"^n^^ pr. n. m. (brother of song) 
1 K. 4, 6." 

^SriTlNl pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of foily) 2 Sam. 15, 12. 

br|JJ$ Ez. 39, 7 (w. Dagh. f. impl. 
from hhn) 1 p. fut. Hiph. I will pro- 
fane, but the form bhX Deut. 2, 25 is I 
will begin. See Gram. §. 67, 5, Rem. 

^^n^ pr. n. f. (fat) of a place in 
Asher, Judg. 1, 31; from i^nl, w. N 
prosth., like StSX, \T=N, riMX, etc. 

''b'!!^ Ps. 119, 5, also ^bnj^ 2 K. 

5, 3 (prob. from h^^ oh! and ""b = 
'^—'^ would fAaf.O particle of wishing: 
oh that! Cf. ''^6. 

c^)^ pr. n. m. (perh. sickly, r. 
h^n I \v. N: prosth.) 1 Ch. 2, 31. 

n^jbn55(h-— toneless, as innbib) 
f., name of a precious stone Ex. 28, 19 ; 
39, 12, Sept. a}xe9ujTo; amethyst, but 
Josephus has d^^atr^; agate, cf. Apoc. 
21, 20. — If Semitic, n^bnx is perh, 
from Gbn I to he sound or firm. 

^^imHi^ (Achmethd, hence Echa- 
tana) pr. n. f. of the chief city of 
Media (xnp^p "^t?^? ^1 ^^T^) Ezr. 

6, 2; hence the names 'AYParava 


-aorifc^ 26 

(m and h interchanged) and later JEfa- 
madan, meaning according to Lassen 
(Ind. Bibl. III. p. 36) iTrTToaTaoia 
place for horses. 

^jlCni^^ pr. n. m. (perh. from 
m J^Onx I will trust in PT^) 2 Sam. 
23,' 34.' ' 

*!ni$, see "1115$ below. 
^niS< Chald. prep, after (by He- 
braism for nna or ^nN3); see '''iq5<. 

Ipibs (Qal only fut. 1 p. ^m = 
*ins<&?; cf?"nri;^) fo delat/ Gen. 32, 5. 
— Pi. "inx, 3 pi. siinx for si^HsV^ Judg. 
5, 28, fut. "ln^?^ part. D^'irtiiia Prov. 

23, 30,1) trans, to delay, hinder Gen. 

24, 56; to defer I^x, 22,28, 2)intrans. 
to linger Ps. 40, 18. — Hipli. ^^nin = 
*>"'r'?v? (cf. T^Slh = "T^n^ri) only fut. 
"ini'i (Q'ri) intrans. fo tarry, w. ■)?; 
*i3JiJ3h ia ^h'i'n'i awJ ^e t^^as behind the set 
;iwe 2 Sam. 20, 5; but see '^rt\ Hence 

irijj^ (w. Dagh. f. impl. = "nnN, c. 
^ns, pi. d'l^nit. Job 31, 10 "p'nnx, c 

i^nx; f. n'nnx, pi. W^ntt; G-ram. 
§ 22, l)prop.tarrying, delaying, hence — 
A) adj. 1) following, next, second (cf. 
L. secundus from sequor) Gen. 17, 21 . 
2) another, other, different e. g. fi'itt^J^ 
D'i'nni* other Gods 1. e. idols Ex. 20, 3, 
^y^^ '0'^*^ o> different spirit Num. 
14, i24. — B) adv. 1) absol. 'in&< else- 
where, in another way, perhaps in 
Ps. 16, 4. si^ii^ ^nx another way they 
hasten, i. e. after idols ; but better as 
adj. to anotJier (god). 2) constr. ^Ii^ 
a) of place elsewJiere (Gen. 22, 13); 
P) of time afterwards, then (Gen. 
10, 18). This ^hx appears very often 
as a particle. — C) prep. 1) const, 
sing, '^r!^<, like the adv. a) of place, 
behind, often w. verbs of motion, as, 
""!)i< t]!!"?, &<3, r^^rj, also w. pref. as 
"inx^ from after Vs. 78, 71 ; p) of time, 
after, as "jS ^hx Lev. 14, 36 prop. 

a/ifer so, hence thereupon. But far 
more frequently, 2) '''nny;, w. 

suf. ^^^12^, ■|'''^Jn!5?) 'n'^r'^^' ^^^^ ^^ subst. 
in 2 Sam. 2^, 23 n'*>?hri '^'^nxs wfA 
f/ie hinder part of the spear, cf. Ez. 
41, 15; else only as prep, a) of place, 
behind, after, hence like *^H!^5 w. verbs 
of motion, as 1^1^, Tl^n-, tj^'n, i^^"^, xa, 
"^inx ri^jJ, also w. other verbs, as 

•• -: — T T ' ' 

ti">^nn Jer. 50, 21, tt^p, nst, &<b?a Josh. 

. .■: V ' ' t't' tt' •• • 

14, 8; P) of time, after, afterwards, 
w. inf. Gen. 5, 4; "JS I'lJlX prop, a/ifer 
so i. e. thereafter, thereupon, for 
which later nkt I'lJiN; Ezr. 9, 10; cf. 
Chald. riS^ 'l'^n^^ affer fAis Dan. 2, 29. 
With other prepositions, as ''t?t!^'^ 
from behind (once in 1 Ch. 17, 7 
I'nnt^-'jTa), b ^'^rtx?? of place, behind 
2 Sam. 20, 2 ; or of time, after Neh. 
4, 7; 15 ^''i^nx'a 2 Sam. 3, 28; '^t"'!12^rbi< 
behind 2 K. 9 18, where b^^ denotes 
the direction and '&< the position; 
'i<"b? behind Ez. 41, 15 prop, upon 
parts behind, like '^5Q"b5 before in 
Ps. 18, 43; *^y^)^':^ in ' n^snti ^ i^n&$a 
1^. iAe spear hindwards 2 Sam. 2, 23, 
but see above under C, 2. — D) conj. 
mostly w. ^UiwN^, as "nuij? ^riJ<, ^m i'nr|i< 
a/fer ]fAa#; without ^m Lev. 25, 48; 
also ^m'jS-'i'n'n^a/ifer^Aa^ Gen. 6, 4. 

*1)ni^ pr. n. Ancestor of the Hushim 
1 Ch. 7, 12. 

^*'t!l^ Judg. 5, 28 for si"inj$ 3 perf. 
pi. Pi." of nrjN;; Gram. § 64,' Bem. 3. 

■ji^rii^ (from iril« behind) adj. m., 
jHiilJii? f. hinder, 1) /a^^er, later (opp. 

T^l)?. T^^i**!). "l''"''!!^^ ^"^"^ ^ ^^^^** ^^y 
Prov. 31, 25, 'ji'nnJS: 'li^ following gene- 
ration Ps. 48, 14, d-^Dhnx after ones 
i. e. posterity Job 18, 20; hence last 
as in Is. 44, 6. 2) western (see 'n'iniJt2) 
e. g. ')'i1J^lS«^ l^^t! ^^^ w;esi Sea, i. e. 
the Mediterranean, the east sea being 
the Dead Sea (Joel 2, 20). — As adv. 




•we find iiy^'n;^ last!?/ Dan. 11,29; also ] 
ninrxa, na-nx^ at last Ecc. 1,11. j 

T-;-T»T-:-T ' I 

rrnnj^ pr. n. m. (perh. an after- } 
brother, for nx^jnwS) 1 Ch. 8, 1. j 

irnniSI pr. n. m. (perh. behind 
a rampart) 1 Ch. 4, 8. 

""Xl? (^ch'^rt) Chald. adj. m. but 
used for f. n^")nt< w. sis^?3 Dan. 2, 39, 
iTT^n 7, 5, y^p 7, 20, prob. because in 
each of these cases a king was really 
meant, which prob. caused the adj. 
to be put in the masculine. 

^^'I^nj^ after, c. plur. of *lI^^^, see 
p. 26. — Also Chald. after Dan. 2, 
29, w. suf. "lin'^'l^nx Dan. 7, 24. 

"^^nj^^ Ex. 26, 12, see "ninit. 

V»0? (Q'riT!^'^?) Chald. prob. for 
"(•nriN, Heb. "p'^nN:, only in Dan. 4, 5 
"p'nnx 1? (prop, till afterioards) at last, 

in^^iri^ (also Chald. in Dan. 2, 28) 
f. latter time, hence the future, the 
end (opp. n^'TTi^';:) e. g. n'lri^n ni^nj^ 
Is. 2, 2; then the uttermost party 
as S^ti n'l^m Ps. 139, 9. Fig. as 
concrete, those loho come after i. e. 
posterity Ps. 109, 13. 

T^V-§ Chald. adj. m. 1. q. Heb. 
■|1^rix; see '^^y};^. 

In^S'nnjS; (prop. adj. f. of ^fftM^; cf. 
n^S'iHp) adv. backtva7'ds Gen. 9, 23. 
Cf. "nihx. 

D'^pS^^'lIJnK (c. ^i3- Est. 3, 12, 
Persian) m. pi. only in Est. 8, 9; 9, 3, 
Ezr. 8, 36, where it signifies sa- 
traps or viceroys. The')Q'nnrn5< 
'a - chashdar -pan = chashadra -pan 
(hence old Gr. l^axpaTCYj^ and the 
usual aarpaTrr)*;) which Bohlen 
makes the satrap of the military force^ 
but others better guardian of the 
•province, from the old Persian kshetr 
(province) and pdwan = ban (guar- 
dian). Neither explanation, however, 
suits the Heb. orthography, as the ! 

first member of the compound is ttJHit 
(khsha), if we may judge from the 
words, ^'il'^HN, "I'nn-UJriX, where 
kshair cannot apply. The compound 
is rather from khsha (\lJr!!?<), old Per- 
sian ksahya for csaya, modern shah 
(king) and darpan, old Persian derhCm 
(court - guardian), hence perh. it 
means king^s court - guardian. 

I^DS"! MirnU^ Chald.(def.&<"«2Q'n'ny;ni< 
Dan. 3, 3) m. pi. same as the Heb. 

irS^lllTill^ (=«3'niy:-y:rtx) once in 
K'thibh yj'l'rnx Est. 10, 1, usual 
title of the Persian kings, as nss'ng 
was of the Egyptian, hence used of 
Sep^Y)^ (Est. 1, 1), KaixpudY]; (Ezr. 
4, 6) and 'AaxuaY^^ (Dan. 9, 1). — 
As to the etymology, the first part 
of the compound, as above in'jQ'n'n'uinN, 
is khsha (^JiX) = csaya, modern Pers. 
shah (king), which is also found in 
'Apxa-^ia^ (great-king) a name of 
the Armenian princes ; the other part 
Xb'^W, K'thibh tn'i?, agrees in ortho- 
graphy with the name of Ssp^irjt; 
as deciphered in the cuneiform in- 
scriptions , kshhershe (= kshehrshe) 
or kshwershe, where also, as here, 
the w (1) appears unstable; and 
as the ancient Persian khsh often 
appears in Greek as $ and in Heb. 
as \13, 3ep$Y)4 is at least in the old 
style of writing ('Apta-) $£p$ir)^ quite 
the same name. 

IT'lirtllSl (see ui'nlTiriH) only in 
K'thibh Est. 10, 1. 

^'in'^niSl pr. n. m. (Persian, perh. 
royal courier, adj. from "iWinX; see 
next word) 1 Ch. 4, 6. 

'J'nri'irniS; (Pers.) m., only pi. 
D'13'in'ink Est. 8, 10, some beast for 
riding- (named in connection w. TlJS'n, 
blD) used by the Persian post-riders, 
and called Tja'^ri-ja son of the mare Est. 




8, 10. According to the Rabbins, who 
render it dromedary, it might be from 
Pers. sJmfur a camel (of. dromades 
cameli, Curt. 5, 2) and ^linx (king), the 
l-pbeingthe adjective-ending; it may 
be fmile, from Pers. astera = Sans. 
agvatara (mule) therefore regii muli ; 
but the latest guess makes it mean 
provincial from kshatra (province). 
8ee ^-ay 

f^n^ (for rnn^ = ^"7^^' i^ P^^se 
r\n:|<, from m. ^irix, which see) f. nu- 
meral one, also first; but with various 
shades of meaning as in the m. ^hit. 
JnhlS; means as an adverb once, e. g. 
Ex. 30, 10 hi^'a nnis; once a year, 
c^suj uiViiib nnx l K. lO, 22 once in 

• T T ; - - ' 

three years, hsh nnx) nsin nni^ 2 K. 
4, 35 once hither and once thitJier. 

IriijNt Chald. imper. Aph. of nn? 
to descend Ezr. 5, 15. 

nrini^ 1 p. sing. fut. Niph. of nnn 

(w. h-^ cohort.) Jer. 17, 18; cf. Gram. 
§ 67, Bem. 5. 

tiJ^ (w. suf. lax, pi. d'ltsH; r. X^m, 
akin to taxb = i:&<b (db), Xa8(o, L. /af-eo, 
to hide) m. secrecy, concealment in 
speaking or moving, hence 1) d'^DlSt 
mutterings, sorcery, then sorcerer, 
necromancer Is. \^,Z. 2) often as adv. 
stealthily, secretly, softly, IK. 21, 27, 
also w. b as in *^l^V^ prop. «f w^ ease 
i. e. s?0!i;/y Gen. 33, 14; i:i<^ t]^r| fo 
go gently, of the waters of Siloah 
Is. 8, 6; ^'Sfh ''b-Dls:^ (act) gently 
for me to the youth 2 Sam. 18, 5; 
TJ^? 13K^ '^S'n Job 15, 11 a word gently 
<spoken) loith thee; but see verb DxK 

t2i^ Job 23, 1 1 for n^S<, 1 fut. apoc 
Qiph. of na3 ; cf. Gram. § 76, 2, b. 

iLm^ (obs.) to penetrate, to stick 
in: akin to ^T\ 

' -T 

T^iJ m. 1) buckthorn (rhamnus 

jicdiurus Linn.) Judg. 9, 14. Ps. 58, 10. 
2} pr. n. Atad Gen. 50, 10. 11. 

I^OJJ^ (by Syriasm for *)*lI3i<, hence 
the-^ not changeable, r.']ai<)m. prop, 
what is twisted, spun (linen or cotton), 
hence yarn, thread, only in Prov. 7,16 
d-n:i?3 "i^iwN: Egy2)tianyarn. Cf. 6&6vy). 

Uv Lb sN (obs.) tohide, conceal, akin 

to n-J!^. Deriv. 12^. 

LJ^iS (part. C)L:i<) fo close e. g. 
the mouth or ears so as not to speak 
or hear Prov. 17, 28 ; then of windows 
closed with lattices Ez. 40, 16. — 
lliph. only in fut. apoc. DMS;;;', to 
close Ps. 58, 5. 

I WiS (obs.) perh. akin to "jaS, ^^U 
to hind, to plait; hence 'j1a^^. 

iCiS (fnt.^'^i^';') to close, shut up, 

vj. ^r, Vs. 69, 16. Cf. "li^x, 'na^, 'n^s\ 

— Pi. (obs.) to hind or hamper. Hence 

1t3]J^pr. n.m. (perh. lame) Ezr. 2, 16. 

'ItiDH adj. lame, prop, hampered, 
as i3'i"37 *T^ '^'J;^ Judg. 3, 15 hampered 
i. e. disabled as to his right hand, 
hence left-handed. 

^t^ (perh. a pronominal root) adv. 
interrog.ti^Aere ? correlative to "^TN, but 
used in this form only w. suf. as "i'lSi 
where (is) he? hS^ii; tfj/iere (art) thou? 
d^x (once in Zech. 1,5 dti iT^i<;) where 
they 9 and in the forms i1^^^, ')';'i<. 
More used in its construct form, as 
follows: — 

''^ (c. form of "^X) adv. interrog. 
where? correlative to Chald. 'iii = fc<fn 
there, as its lengthened form "p&j; 
(where! = not) is correl. to "jli here! 
*»IS: (like "^N) never stands w. suf., and 
like that also passes for no, not (only 
in Q'ri of Prov. 31, 4, but see under 
M<). — Before pronouns and adverbs, 
it gives to them the force of inter- 




rogatives; see tinder •it"*'X or M.1"isi, 
Tl'iN, ^3*^!^, inb^'N:, s^?5'^^?, t-\ti'^j<. 

^i^ I (pron. root) interrog. adv. 
where? but implying a negative 
answer noiuhere; hence in some com- 
pounds as a formal negative (cf. 6r. 
a- priv. or neg., L. m-, Gr. and E. un-) 
as "^pa'^x Job 22, 30 not-innocent 
i.e.guilty] lii'S"'^^ pr.n. (ocxifxo;, i«- 
glorioiis) 1 Sam. 4, 21 ; b5t"ii< pr. n. 
(5Xo-/o;, un-ivedded) IK. 16, 31; 
perh. also '^^n'^!i< pr. n. not-tall i. e. 
short Ex. 6, 23; cf. Si^. 

''Nl n for ilX interj. ivoe! Tj^-'^St 
ynx Ecc. 10, 16 woe! to thee, land; 
"b ''.X (Ecc. 4, 10, if this reading is 
right) woe! to him. 

"'^Jl in (mimetic like ^H, "^IN; see 
hix II) m. prop, a howl, then hoivkr 
so named from its nocturnal cry 
or wail; only in pi. d''*!!< Is. 13, 22 

^X IV (prob. for ^)^ r. mx IV) m. 
pi. b'l^N, once "p^X Ez! 26, 18, c.i."?y!; 
prob. abode y hence 1) coa^t i. e. a 
maritime settled country as Tj're, 
Sidon, Tarshish, Ashdod; in the pi. 
usually of the distant sea-board parts 
of Asia Minor, the east and the south 
coast of Arabia. 2) shore-land, i. e, 
dry, habitable gi'ound in opp. to the 
sea and rivers, Is. 42, 15; hence 
d'lph'nn d'^'^xfi the distant coast-lands. 
for the islands of the Mediterranean 
Ps. 72, 10, also for the islands and 
coasts of India Ez.27, 15. 3) island^ 
as 'nr.Ba "^N isle of Cajphtor (Crete) 
Jer. 47", 4. Cf. r.N3 1 and see n*i< IV. 


«i 'iS prob. akin to rx^X, nj<'i fo 
he eager, then perh. tvilful, hateful^ 
found in perf. Qal only in Ex. 23,22 
^'in\H-Jnx ^WXT then I will hate thy 
haters, but very often found in the 
participle used as a noun, namely 

a'^^^ or !2|]iU^ ni.(na*)k f.) enemy, w, 
suf. ^:iy^, r^y^i<, pi. d'la'jk, c. ^T}<y 
f. w. suff. ''inn^k my she-enemy Mic. 
7, 8, also construed w. ace. as proper 
participle, ^Tn-nx n;^X Imting David 
1 Sam. 18, 29; r. n^K. 

tXT^ (c. na-ix; r. a^N) f. mmitij^ 
hate Gen. 3, 15. 

riH^b^, see a^ij^. 

l^lJ? m. a turn or fate (cf. •12D)> 
hence calamity Ps. 18, 19, t-uin Job 
31, 23; r. ^1X to turn or twist (like 

ib), cf. nliijt. 

n;Nl (for n^'X, akin to "^i^ HI; r. 
{n^t< III) f. 1) name of a clamorous 
bird of prey, unclean among the 
Israelites Lev. 11, 14, Sept. lxTi\ 
Vulg. vultur, perh. a falcon called 
by the Arabs yuyO, (from its cry), 
but it may stand for the entire 
class of vultures. 2) pr. n. m. (falcon) 
Gen. 36, 24. 

n))5S$ (from IN, as njn from "jn; 
in Jer. 37, 19 the K'thibh 'I'^N = "(Sl^IJ^ 
is perh. an old pi. form) adv. interrog. 
1) where? where now? (correlative 
txpyi here). Like ''X, it may imply 
a negative answer Jer. 13, 20. In 
Zech. 1, 5 drt n"»N is for D^N! ivhet^ 
(are) they? 2) indef. anyivhere Job 
15, 23, where it concludes the sent- 
ence; cf. Nah. 3, 17. 

tlr^)^ (only pi. d'^^X) m. prop, criers^ 
howlers, hence jackals Is. 13, 22; see 


iT^JSt pr. n. m. (greatly injured 
or hated , after the form *Tl3Tr) Job^ 
the well-knoAvn hero or leading per- 
sonage of the book that bears his 
name; Sept.'Ito^. Cf. 'Ooujdeucfrom 
6ou(7JO|iai to hate. 

bnT/^ISt pr. n. f. (unwedded, 5Xo^O(; 
L. Agnes) Jezebel name of the idola- 




trous wife of Ahab king of Israel 
1 K. 16, 31. Hence Isabella. 

nrj^ (for the usual nt ''.X) 1) in- 
terrog. adv. where? where now? Job 
38, 19. With "Jia it makes W^ ifi< 
wherefrom? Gen. 16, 8. See hT. 

Tj^X (for ns-'i&t) adv. 1) hoiv? 
The ns = ii3 implying comparison, 
and 1&5 having interrog. force. 2) 
without interrogation Euth 3, 18 
hoiv, 3) as interj. how! oh hoiv! 
Ps. 73, 19. 4) ironical, w. implied 
negation, hence like "'if; eqjaal to a 
negative Ex. 6, 12. 

*ll!2S"*'Nl pr. n. m. (o^xifi-Oi;, in- 
glorious, see '^Jjt I) 1 Sam. 4, 21. 

t^'T^ (see ^'iwS:) adv. 1) like Tj'^iS; 
hoiv? Deut. 1, 12 and without in- 
terrogation hoiv Deut. 12, 30; also 
as interj. how! Is. 1, 21. 2) like 
''N lohere? Cant. 1, 7, the T3 ex- 
pressing direction, where there? See 

•• ' T 

nS'pSl from '^n; w. suff. ins-:^- where 
(art) thou? Gen. 3, 9. 

T\ZP)^ (only in 2 K. 6, 13, Q'ri 
iD'^it) tohere, indirect interrogative. 

TO-^5^ (for nsa-iit) adv. hoiv? 

T IT •• ^ T IT ••' 

Cant. 5, 3. 

^ CS~ ^NiS I (obs.) f turn, move 
round, Gr. iXXto (elXeto, elXuw); cf. 
h^z, ^^h; fig. to he girded, strong or 
firm (cf. b^in, ^;pn); hence 

bj5? (after the formal:;?; pLd^i^JX), 
prop. m. but f. in Ps. 42, 2, intensive 
of b^K, prop, a strong ram or buck, 

but esp. stag, hart] Copt. F10Y!\' 
Except in Ps. 42, 2 (where ^^X is 
fem.) r^'^Jt or ii^'5< was later used 
for a hind; r. b^fi< or V^X I. 

b^t^ (c. b-'X, pi. t3'^b'ix,once ta^i^y: 
Job 42, 8, c. ''b-'K and ''Kh; r. b''i<) m. 

prop, strong one, hence 1) a mightt/ 
or foremost man, e. g. 'J^'i^iiJ'^ *^T^^ 
(Q'ri) ^^e no&/es o/" the land 2 K. 24, 
15. 2) great or strong tree (8pu;, L. 
ro&wr), hence <Ae oak, terebinth, palm 
(comp. nbji, "(i^it) especially in the 
plural ti'^Y^, d''Ks;Is.57,5. 3) ram, so 
named perh. for the strength of his 
horns Gen. 15, 9. 4) A term in ar- 
chitecture for pilaster or buttress, 
and so called either for its likeness 
to the rani's horn or for its firmness 
and strength 1 K. 6, 31, Ez. 40, 14, 
(Aquila xpiwjxa, else xpioO; hence 
sometimes pillar or post ; sometimes 
frieze, ornamental framework for 
the door; in general, some promi- 
nent part on the front of a building 
or wall (akin to D^^&t , r. ^^X II to be 
in front) , the nature of which must 
be fixed from the context. 

^T^ ^^' ''"'^) ra.poiver or force finly 
Ps. 88,' 5. 

nb;J^ (c. ^^^^t, pl.w>&<;, c t^'iyi^ 
Cant. ^2, 7) thind, h^itaa nb^i< a 
hind in the field Jer. 14, 5. Used as 
a term of endearment for a woman 
or wife Prov. 5, 19. See nb^N. 

1 U^5$ pr. n. (deerfield) 1) Leviti- 
cal city in Dan Josh. 19, 42, now 
Ydlo, 2) city in Zebulon. Judg. 12, 12. 

"p^'^J^^ pr. n. (Oakland, see "jllsN) 
1) city in Dan Josh 19, 43; Sept. 
*EXu>v. 2) pr. n. m. Sept. AlXu)[x, 
'EXu)|x Gen. 26, 34. 

riib'^iJ?, see lr^^^. 

Wb^Nt (r. V^'») f. strength or 
force, then help, only Ps. 22, 20. 

'b^'b^)^^ 1 fut. Hiph. of h'b-^ (Jer. 
48, 31); see Gram. § 70, Bern. 

h^V^ Mich. 1 , 8 I tvill go for 
ns'bx (to sound more like the f^^''5?'^i$ 
before it) for tJ^^, r. t^^\ 

Db^K 31 

T " 

Db^K or thi< (pi. G^aViK, n'i^^%x) 

m. usually w. d'^b'^X Ez. 40, 16, a term 
in architecture, perh. projection^ 
moulding, but very obscure though 
prob. akin to tb^lJ^ (r. dbi<) or to b^X 
(r. b^X II), the d-p in the latter 
case being a formative ending as in 


Ob^^^ pr. n. (w. n — loc. na^'^K 
trees, prob. palm-trees) of an encamp- 
ment of the Israelites in the Wilder- 
ness, Ex. 15, 27. 

yy^t^ Chald. (def. N3^"'N) m. iree 
Ban. 4, 7. 8; cf. Heb. "i^N, 'j'-iV.^; r. 

rt'^]^ and Xnib^'K (prob. = r\!lb^i< 
palmgrove) pr. n. of an Idumean sea- 
port (Elanitic Gulf) on the east branch 
of the Arabian Gulf, 1 K. 9, 26; 
Sept. AlXd)V, AlXa&; Joseph. AlXavY). 
The ending H-^- is Phenician, as in 
nS'i, Schroder'sPhon.Sprache, p. 170, 

inb^lS^ c. st.^f h^'sx a hind: fem. 

-.T.' - TT - ' 

of >^s<. 

T — 

^iriTSn Th"^^ (hind of the daion, 
fig. for the rising sun, called gazelle 
by the Arabs) in title of Ps. 22, 
denoting the subject or the music. 

U^S or U-li^ (obs.) i. q. Chald. 
Pael d,^5<i to alarm, akin to d^Ji (see 
C1X), to he noisy, to rage. Hence 

D"'1JJ adj. m., n^^x f., fearful, 
terrible Hab. 1, 7; i. q. fct'n'13. 

D^JJ (like \i^^) m. only pi. d'^a'^X, 
1) terrors Ps. 88, 16. 2) idols, as ob- 
jects of awe or terror, Jer. 50, 38; cf. 
nribsia from I'^a. 3) d'lais; pr. n. m. 
(giants, prop, frights), the original 
dwellers on the Arnon(now el-Mojeb), 
in the neighbourhood of AreopoUs 
(now Bahha) Gen. 14, 5, who were 
driven out by the Moabites Deut. 
2, 10; r. d'lX. 


hn^-'K, pi. nia'ix) f. terror, fear, 
6' g* mI?^ f^?'^^!! t^i^ fcdi^ of a king, 
i. e. which he inspires Prov. 20, 2; 
r. d"«s< or dSlK. 

■["^K i. q. y^v^ not, only in 1 Sam. 
21, 9 hs-(i::;-jii< is there not here? 
as if we had "pXli. 

'^'^ (from "i&f: and fc<3 where now!) 
1) where? only w. pref. "j^, as 'jl'X'a 
(Talm. y^pz for 'j;:'i<-')ia) tvJience? 
Josh. 9, 8; and also without a ques- 
tion from where Josh. 2, 4. Once 
in K'thibh "jxp 2 K. 5, 25. 2) perh. 
like the simple interrog. forms ifi<, 
■iX, only more constantly implying a 
negative, where? = nowhere I or more 
prob. akin to ')!l!5< to breathe, hence 
to be naught; hence nothingness, non- 
entity as in Is. 40, 23 "J^xb d'lSt'n ",1:^2^ 
ivho giveth (i. e. bringeth) princes to 
nothingness, Hag. 2, 3 ds'^rra i^iiO 
as nothing in your eyes. Hence, not, 
)''^-ni<ifnot Gen. 30,1. It denotes the 
idea of negation or nonentity only 
w. nouns, after which it stands in 
its absolute form as in Gen. 2, 5 d*ii< 
"j^tt prob. man (was) a nonentity (i. 
e. there was no body) to till the 
ground (see y^i< below). Only in Job 
35, 15 it stands as a neg. before the 
perf. in iSiSt 1|5Q "j^i^ prop, (as) nothing- 
ness his anger visited, i. e. his anger 
visited not >vith chastisement. — 
With pref. I^NSi a) as nothing, like 
y^l^}> to nothing Is. 40, 23; P) about 
nothing i. e. next to nothing, almost 
Ps. 73, 2 (like B?^3). — )y<-Q (see 
also under 1 above) a) without, Jer. 
30, 7 !iii73S y^)<-q lit. from nothing 
as it, i. e. without its hke; [5) of 
nothing, worse (or less) than nothing 
Is. 41, 24. — Before particles ''n^a "(^X 
not besides, ''n^lt 'j';'J< not apart 
from me. 


*j''lJ$ (construct form of I^X above, 
as •'K of "^i};; see its use w. suffixes 
in No. 3 below) adv. always negative, 
but perh. originally interrog. 1) as 
the absolute y^i^none Gen. 47, 13. 2) as 
construct before indefinite nouns, 
without, as ^BG^ )^Vitvithout number 
Joel 1, 6, ix "px unthout father', be- 
fore the participle, nobody, nothing, 
-inp3 ii&t Ps. 19, 7 lit. nothing of 
hidden, i. e. nothing is hidden, or 
without a thing hidden; before the 
infinitive, without, ')''2ii "pN; without 
understanding Ps. 32, 9, or also w. 
b before the inf. 2 Ch. 20, 6. 3) often 
as negative of to be (= Xb'^ \i^ Job 
9, 33 there is not), *ib 'j'^n; there is not 
to me, i. e. I have not (cf. ohy. Ijti 
}xoi, non est mihi), ^h^ .^ib y^i^ she 
had no child Gen. 11, 30, esp. w. 
suf. "^pp^ I am not, x\y^i^, ^rx, r^^Vi 
he is not, nss'^x, fi?5"'^<, firx, poet. 
ia'^rjt Ps. 73, 5. — The "negative 
notion may sometimes be rendered 
as nobody, none, sometimes as 
without', sometimes, nothing, hence 
^■ix 'j'lN; nobody, "irtt^; "pis: not one, 
none, Ji^Jiita "jij^ nothing, Vs ''p^^ 
nothing at all. It always retains its 
force in union w. other particles, 
as inbiT 'pN!, "spiba "px none besides 
me, '1*1533 i^x none to. me', after 
another negative, it strengthens the 
negation (as in Greek, see Gram. 
§ 152, 2) as ')'1^^ "ibap not at all 2 K. 
1, 3. — With pref. 'J^H is mostly = 
'pi*, only it is placed before the noun, 
to which it gives the notion of ne- 
gation as troyn 'j'^xa ivithout wall 
Ez. 38, 11 (equal to i<b3); Qiilii -pxb 
prop, to (one) without forces, i. e. 
to the powerless; ayi'i'i y^ixo unin- 
habited, but I'^sa is also ichile — not, 
before; 'j'^xb to whom — is not, i. e. 
w. the addition of the verb to be. 
— All these ^K, \X, "iN, ■)\s, 'p.H, 

32 TirjJ 

y^ifi, are pronominal stems, prob. hav- 
ing nothing in common w. a verb. 

VJ'^D'^J^ Ps. 73, 5 they are not, 
from y^Vi and suf. ia)'-r-, Gram. § 91, 
2, Eem. 3. 

^ITt^ pr. n. m. i. q. 'M^^IH, for 
which it stands Num. 26, 30; pa- 
tron. ^"^IT^; cf. bxi&<. 

n3^^ or n5^? (c. nS'iJii) Ephah, a 
dry measure, accord, to Josephus a 
fjL£Si}xvoc or 48 ^(oivixei; (about 1 V» 
bush. Engl.) or a na (L. amphora) in 
liquid measure = 10 'npi>= Vio '^^f? or 
^"3. Thus Mic. 6, 10 )il\ na'l^5 Ephah 
of leanness, i. e. scanty, Si^buJ »iB''!Si 
Deut. 25, 15 full Ephah; t^^'^i<'} JnS-'H 
Prov. 20, 10 two kinds of Ephah. — 
Perh. from tj^lit, akin to Copt. (DlTTl 
measure, Sept. olcpi. 

InS^J^ (='^t?i interrog. and nb here} 
adv.interrog. \)iohere? (7:00)18.49,21, 
2)hoio? what sort? (ttoIoO Judg.8,18. 

i<i3^i$ or 5<iS!^ adv. demonst. so 
therefore (ouv), for i^ia •!&{;, where 
*»;s;, as often, has not interrog. but 
demon, force. See itl'SN:, iStt, ns. 

"C^Nl (perh. lengthened from IL'tt 
from tm II, hence f. niL"yt, ;2:&^ in pr. 
names, pi. (poet.) 'D"^ti"^i< only Ps. 
141, 4, Prov. 8, 4, Is. 53, 3, usual 
d'lU;5^^ (for W^tii^ from Tliiax, r. «i3I< 
II),!?.*!!!;?!;?; poet.ii:'ii< ^^^ Ps. 4,3, 49, 
3) m. 1) a man, prop, a strong one 
(see note below); a) as to force, in- 
tellect and courage (L. vir akin to viSy 
cf. ^aa), 1 K. 2, 2, hence like onr gentle- 
man to express some eminence in 
opp. to d'njji common man Is. 2, 9, 
Ps. 49, 3 (cf. avTQp, SvOptoTro;; Ij. vir, 
homo); P) as to vigorous age 1 Sam. 
2, 33 ; 7) a male, as the stronger sex, 
hence even of male children Gen. 4, 
1, beasts Gen. 7, 2, and of the male 
in marriage, a husband Gen. 2, 24; 




8) man, as individual, a person Ex. 
4, 10, as collective, men Is. 21, 9, 
manJcind as opp. to God Job 9, 32, 
to beasts Ex. 11, 7. — Hence also in 
cases where neither sex nor strength 
nor age is regarded, it stands for 
inhabitants Judg. 12, 5, citizens Gen. 
24, 13, warriors or subjects 1 Sam. 23, 3, 
yi*^i< being also used collectively for 
people Josh. 9, 6 ; perh. relations e. g. 
D"iir3X tanb Ez. 24, 17 tread o/" men 
i. e. food sent to mourners by 
relations and friends; s) implying 
origin, possession, use etc., in union 
w. nouns in the genitive, to supply 
the lack of qualifying adjectives 
(Gram. § 106, 2, a), as 1J<in t'^if. 
1 Sam. 16, 18 a man of form i. e. 
handsome (L. formosus), ta'i'na'n 'i< 
Ex. 4, 10 a man of words i. e. fluent 
(L. facundus) and in like manner 
uiiX stands before IlK, ti^y^% T\iV02^ 

max, dw, n?p, V^rr, d^n, ntjrj, 
iab, dinsia, ni'ssn, nlnsin, nisn-in, 

etc. — 2) w. gradual laying aside 
of its nature as substantive, it an- 
swers to an adj. pron., a) in opp. 
to ni<, n'la^, ?n, e. g. Lev. 25, 17 
'in'la25-n^t yi'ii< win fiib lit. ye shall 
not oppress a man his fellow, i. e. 
one another (see Gram. § 124, Bem. 
4) or one — the other; p) any one, 
somebody (Sept. xU) Gen. 13, 16, so 
too dnx, t^■:^, tr^ty^, i K. 20, 17; 
Num. 1, 4 ha!ab uiii< ujij< lit. a 
rwaw a man to the tribe i. e. one 
to each tribe; 7) each. Gen. 15, 10 
Jinrn t^iicy^ i'^rys, «:ii< eacA part of 
it over against tJie other (lit. its 
friend). — From ^''J* perh. we get in 
Is. 46, 8 the denom. verb in Hiihpo cl 
^yj^li^inii show yourselves men i.e. be 

AT I • ^ 

intelligent; cf. dv6piCea0e. 

Note. ©""X may perb. be primitive, 
but more prob. it comes from 10VH IT 

(akin to IDSX II) to le strong, perb. akia 
to T(;, L. vis Ks vir, Sana, viras, Gael. 
fear, W. gwr (also wr, as dy uir thy 
man). With its other form ttJijX (for »?«?) 
from tuas II may be compared Sans, nar, 
dv^^p, L. nero (= nervus, veOpov), W. tier 
(the Almighty), nerth (might). 

riir2l"125^i< pr. n. m. (man of 
shame) Sept. 'le^oadi, Josephus 
'UpojOo;, son of Saul, 2 Sam. chaps. 
2—4, who is prob. also called b?3T2;x 
in 1 Ch. 8, 33. 

^'^ni23''5!l pr. n. m. (man of fame) 
1 Ch. 7,*18. 

"li^^JJ (dimin. of UJ^X, like )i:$yj 
')'i'n^:i) m. 1) prop, a manniJcin, then 
pupil of the eye (cf. xopy), xopaaiov, 
xopaaiSiov, Lat. pupa, pupula, pu- 
pilla ; see on flSS) » but usually w. 
\]^ Deut. 32, 10, once 'j';^ n? "jilT'^X 
Ps. 17, 8 i. e. pupil, eye^s daughter. 
2) fig. the midst, the heart or centre, 
as nb'ib -jiyiix Prov. 7, 9 eyeball of 
the night i. e. midnight; Tjirn 'ji^'^X 
Prov. 20, 20 (K'thibh) eye-ball (i. e. 
centre) of darkness, where the Q'ri 
has I^^N which some render dark' 
ness, as if from I^WI; cf. l^^. 

n1t2"'l2i''J5 pr. n. 2 Sam. 10, 6. 8. 
^ti'^Nl for itt?'^ pr. n. m. (perh. 
manly) 1 Ch. 2, 13, Sept. \zaaax. 

ri^ij (from MX IV) m. being, exist- 

tl^ijl Chald. (=Heb. ty, cf. o?)aia), 
def. xn'^X (Tahn.), pi. ''HiX (in an- 
cient form) m. being or existence^ 
perhaps possession , but always as a 
particle expressive of being, there 
is, there was, etc. In Bib. Chald. 
always in pi. ''Pi'^N! Dan. 5, 11, 
as ^^ '»n"'X, r|V ''H'^X, ''H'^X X^; 
w. suf. T^'^ri'^X Dan. 2, 26 <Aot« arf, 
ini'mx he is, xst^'^x «<;e are, Tib'^n'^H 
you are. Before participles it re- 
presents, like Xi^, tli6 substantiva 





verb to he. — • The r. is MX IV i. q. 
Heb. nilJ'i to be: seeTi:\ 

TT / 

'jin^'Nl (Q'ri after the form )i:i.^n) 
m. ingress, entrance, only Ez. 40, 15 
'jin'^j<rt *i?yj the door of entrance, hke 
•j'im'nn'^^'zech. U, lO. TheK'thibh 
'Jisnj}^'' prob. means the same and 
stands for 'j'inj*'^ after the form 'ji^Q^U:';; 

r. M&< ni = nhi<. 

T T 

^'in'^Jjl Chald. there is Dan. 5, 11; 
see ITiyi above. 

WNl pr. n. m. (adj. from n'^N 
existing, perh. mighty) 1 Ch. 11, 31; 
but ''n5< in 2 Sam. 23, 29. 

5j$^in*^Nl pr. n. m. (God is exist- 
ent, or perh. for ^N ^i^^ with me 
is God) Prov. 30, 1. 

DtJ'^K Ps. 19, 14 for dn^^ 1 fut. 
Qal of D^n ; see Gram. § 67, Eem. 3. 

^l^Jln'^Nl pr. n. m. (palm-coast or 
isle of palms) Ex. 6, 23. 

1^1'^^^ (for )ir\^,i<, ai modified into 
e, once "jnix Job 33, 19), pi. Di3n\x, 
adj. very extended, lasting, hence 
I) of time, constant, lasting ^ in 'Diy^ 
'f\^i< continual strife Job 33, 19; 
w. water, rivers, etc. often used as 
subst. continuity, constancy, strength, 
as ')n'l^^ t\T\'rvi streams of perpetuity 
Ps. 74, 15, inujp -jn^it^si 'ym his bow 
shall abide in strength Gen. 49, 24, 
'rpi< iili perennial pasture (others, 
abode of strength) i. e. Idumea Jer. 
49, 19; "jnitf; h'ni never failing brook 
Deut. 21, 4; hence without ^115 in 
1 K. 8, 2 we have d'^snxn n*i"' the 
month of floiving brooks, i. e. '^'^^iri 
(Chald.) the 7th month of the Heb. 
year, from the Oct. new moon to 
that of November. 2) firm, dur- 
able, hence )'n'^i< ''la a strong people 
Jer. 5, 15; hence d'^pri'^Jj^, a) mighty 
ones or nobles Job 12, 19; P) poet. 
rocks, V^i< '''^^I'a d'lDnij^n the rocks, 

earth's foundations Mic. 6, 2; so 
perh. also )ry^i< Jn;i5 dwelling of 
rock; j^erh.rocky or AarciinProv. 13,15. 
• — The r. "jT}*^ (whence w. K prosth, 

ini&t; like ntatt) is akin to "jns, n:n, 
"^ah; Sans. ian = T£iva>=L. tendo=G, 
dehnen=W. taenu, etc. 

I^n*^)^ pr. n. m. (persistent) a poet, 
singer and %vise man in the time of 
David 1 K. 5, 11, Ps. 89 (title), Sept. 

"s]^ (pronom. root, akin to ^3, n*3, 
)'3, "JSN;) adv. 1) prop. perh. like ■'S a 
relat. conj. on, L. quod, that, hence 
before dependent and governed 
clauses, e. g. Gen. 44, 28 and I said 
that (Tj!J<;) he is surely torn in pieces, 
Zeph. 3, 7 I said that (t]N:) thou wouldst 
fear me; hence, like ^3 and 8ti it 
is left untranslated before a direct 
quotation {or alio recta), or else like 
•^S, it can in all these cases be turned 
into a particle of asseveration surC' 
ly, certainly, yea. 2) adversative 
term, hence = but, yet, however, as 
also ''S, e.g. Is. 63, 8 and he said, yet 
C7\^) ^y people are they. Hence only 
w. notion of limitation, in its widest 
range of meaning, e. g. before the 
perf., to which it gives the force of 
a plup.; before nouns and adjectives 
where it must be translated just as 
the sense or context requires, e. g. 
only (Tj&<;) this time Ex. 10, 17; only 
joyous, i. e. quite joyous Deut. 16, 15; 
only (nothing but) vanity Ps. 39, 12; 
only vainly p'^'i T\i$'Ps. 73, 13; before 
imperat. only hear thou Jer. 28, 7; 
before fut. i\'^piXr\ itl'^Vi T]!?< only this 
may ye eat Lev. 11, 21. — "r^N p'l 
only alone, an intensive only Num. 
12, 2. 


(obs.) akin to "iSlsJ, Ip'^, 
to bind together, to fortify. Hence 




"llDI^ pr.n. (fortress, r. ^5!!j) city in 
Mesopotamia, Sept. i\pxd5 (W^?:; cf» 
pyJM? = P^Ja'^'n) Gen. 10, 10. which 
Bochart compares w. the river 'Ap- 
7a6Tr](; in the region of 2iTTaxT)VTQ. 
Ephraem Syrus read ^^X (tillage) 
and explains it as Nisibis in Meso- 

)ni3i$ 1 fut. Qal of nn3; Gram. 
§ 67, Rem. 3. 

STpi^ (r. S?3; vr. J* prosth. as in 
the form 'itSiS;) m. prop, deceit, false- 
hood, hut always used as adj. (w. 
^na understood) deceitful, lying (opp. 
to "jn"^?*), only Jer. 15, 18, Mic. 1, 14, 
where STSX stands for ST^Ut bna a 

T : - T ; - -I- 

deceitful brook, disappointing the 
traveller. See at3. 

- T 

3^15^^ pr. n. 1) i. q. nit3,city in 
Judah Josh. 15, 44. 2) sea-port in 
Galilee, on the coast of Asher 
between Acco and Tyre Josh. 19, 29; 
Greek ExSiTiTta (n'^'nSN), now Zib. 
See a'^T3 and fc<3tS). 

• : T-* 

IT jSI prop, subst. but used as adj. 
ra. hard, firm; hence 1) hardy, coura- 
geous, bold Job 41, 2; in a bad sense, 
harsh, cruel Lam. 4,3. 2) violent, 
deadly, of poison, Deut. 32, 33; r. 
•ntS = *^tp. Hence 

- T -'t 

"''^Tipi^l adj. m. fierce, cruel Jer. 
6, 23,^Prov. 12, 10. 

Jn^^^lTlDi^ f. fierceness, horribleness 
I'rov. 27, 4; the abstract ending W 
being attached to the adj. "''^J^!??; 
Gram. § 86, 6; cf. Min'i*l3. 

n^^lDN| f. prop, an eating, hence 
a meal 1 kings 19, 8; r. Vsx. 

II^^^Di^ pr. n. m. (perh. serpent, r. 
^■ax) Philistine king in Gath 1 Sam. 
21 ,11. 

^DiS (inf. bb.X, w. pref. bb^^b , w. 
8uf. iSix^ ^bsx; fut. h^ih, in pause 

bsfii"^, once «i^3ffi or ^^Vf^ for ^\>2^'» 
Ez.42,5) perh. akin to i^^'^TL to end, 
hence prop, to bring to nothing, hence 
l)to eat, w. b, 3, "iP or ace. of the food, 
w. unimportant shades of meaning; 
part, bskfi the eater Judg. 14, 14, 

i, e. the lion: cf. Arab. jTUf as an 

epithet of the lion. Often used of 
the sword, fire, hunger, pestilence 
which waste or destroy, of idols 
which consume victims; note the 
idioms, to eat the ground i. e. its fruits 
Gen. 3, 17; to eat bt'eadttake food 
1 K. 21, 7-, also to take a meal Gen. 
31, 54; w. the neg. ikh = to fast 

1 Sam. 30, 12 ; to eat at anyone^s table, 
i. e. to be fed by him Ps. 41, 10; to 
eat before God, i. e. to eat the sacri- 
fices Deut. 12, 7; to eat ashes like 
bread, i. e. to be in sorrow, Ps. 102, 
10; fo eat one's own flesh, i.e. to pine 
away Ecc. 4, 5 ; to eat the fiesh of 
anyone, i. e. to act cruelly towards 
him, esp. to backbite him Ps. 27, 

2 (cf. Chald. "p^J'^p ^?^ ^^ slander 
Dan. 3, 8); to eat loords, i. e. to re- 
ceive them gladly Jer. 15, 16, hence 
the vision of the roll given to be 
eaten in Ez. 2, 8 and Apoc. 10, 9; 
to eat a people i. e. to destroy them 
Deut. 7, 16; to eat from (ibstii) 
upper rooms, i. e. to take away 
from their size Ez. 42, 5; n31M3 bsx 
to taste of what is good Job 21, 25; 
!inb5i<n Vokhlehu Job 20, 26 is prob. 
for sints^XFl (so Eioald in Lehrb. d. 
Heb. Sprache, § 253; but Gesenius 
takes it for !in^35<ln in Pi.; the sense 
either way being it shall consume 
him. — Nipli. to be eaten Ex. 12, 46. 
— Pu. to be consumed, by fire Neh. 
2 , 3, by sword Is. 1 , 20. — HIph. 
bisxn (fut. b'lpx^ inf. once b'lsrf for 
biS5<fi Ez. 21, 33) io cause to consume^ 
^'i3ix Hos. 11, 4 give to eat. 




y JgS Chald. (fut. h'sxn) same as 
Heb. b?55 Dan. 4, 30. On "p^'pi? ^36^ 
see Y*y^' 

bljij (w. suf. "ftsK) m. 1) cafm^, 
the act itself, hence iV^^l; ''SV accord- 
ing to his eating Ex. 12, 4. 2) /boc?, 
esp. of fruits or of com, provision 
Gen. 14, 11, fig. food of fire or of beasts, 
vrey Job 9, 26. 

^iDi^ or ^!DK pr. n. m. (perh. from 
b?!i5t I am able, r. Vd'^) Prov. 30, 1. 

nb55< '^M/a ( r. ^DN) f. for ^ak 
/oOfZ Gen. 1, 29. 

?jb5^ Ex. 33 , 3 for ^^Sit 1 fut. 
Pi. of" ribs n w. suf.; Gram. § 27, 
Rem. 2, a. 

15^ (prob. "jS w. IS; prosth. or 
demonstr.) adv. i. q. Chald. ^Dli, 

Syr. —SOI , so, so ^rea%, hence 1) con- 
firming (Targ. xraTli^pS), certainly GrQn. 
28, 16. 2) Umiting, hut, yet Is. 53, 4, 
Ps. 31, 23; see "j?. No. 3. 

Vi5^ (prob. akin to tja^ I) prop. 
tnaA-e to how down, i. e. under a load or 
toil, hence to urge on, to press, only 
Prov. 16, 26 sin^a l^bsJ &2!J<-'i3 for 
/t« mouth (i. e. his hunger) presses 
on him i. e. drives him on. — Cf. 
Sans, kamp, xafXTTTU), xuirxo), L. 
cw&o, cumho, W. cammw. 

WJ^^^ m. prob. what causes to bend, 
hence weight, fig. authority, pressure, 
only Job 33, 7 »wjy burden C^BSX) 
M?iW wo< 6e ^eauy on him; in the 
Sept. ii ^eip [xou as if for "^BS, iden- 
tifying C]3I< w. i:]3; so too Kimchi. 

^|?^it Mic.6,6 for t)3&^ 1 fut.Niph. 
of C]B3. 

iwJS (obs.) to dig, to plough; 
akin to *>>13, ITiS, n^ip, ^p3, ^pauo), 
yapajao), L. co/o, caeZo, Sans. AaZ; 
all of mimetic origin (see Prof. Key's 

able Paper on the sound kar, in 
Philological Society's Transactions- 
for 1867, p. 375). Hence 'nSi^ and 

"^iDJJ^m. tillage, so taken byEphraem 
Syrus'for ^SX Gen. 10, 10. 

^^l}); (pi. d^'iSi^, c. ^"^^iti, w. suf.. 
d5'''n3i<; w.firm -;— ) m.prop. a digger, 
hence tiller of the land, husbandman 
Is. 61, 5. — Cf. 155*, aypoi, Jj.ager,. 
G. ^(fer, E. acre; akin to '13 cm?- 
tivated land, D'ns vineyard; Arab* 

03 J p p y 

^ITl, Syr. Ij^s), husbandman. 

n^3U< Hos.3,2 for h^S&tl fut.Qal 
w. suf. from in^3 II. 

, T T 

IZJDCS (obs.) = IIJ?^, G3^ ifo roZ^ 
or coi? up, as a serpent. Hence perh» 
pr. n. t"*::^. 

Cl*^?^ pr. n. f. (fascination, r. 
^^3) city in Asher Josh. 19, 25. 

bH I or ^t^ old demon, pron. 
slightly pointing out a thing = brt^ 
h^, T^h^ (weaker than til), like that, 
yon, hence its gradual sinking into 
the article the in Arabic, but in Heb, 
only exceptionally in ^IJ^'S^^N, d'^^asia^X, 
^"tiabii, perh. d^lpbit. 

55^ n a word of negation, akin 
to ^ibx thing of nought from hbi< II; 
hence prop. 1) subst., nothing, only 
in Job 24, 25. 2) a negative par- 
ticle (cf. iki, i<}, i<)i, *'^, '^^), adverb 
of dissuading or deprecating (not of 
direct or strict prohibition, where xV 
is usual) — \Lri, Jj. ne, lest, that not, 
nay! (I beg); a) always before the 
future of the verb (Gram. § 152, 1) 
in the apoc. form (where practicable), 
but w. n-p cohort, in 1st person, e. 
g. Ex. 16, 29 UJiit Na-i bx may no 
man go forth, Job 20, 17 K'n^ h^may 
he not see, Gen. 22, 12 ^^^ n^tlJn bj< 
stretch not forth thy hand, Ps. 25, 2 
nu;'i3&< bx may I not be ashamed. 




always in the tone of entreaty, not 
of command or of direct denial; P)not 
before a verb, but denying a sen- 
tence or thought understood, e. g. 
KS-Kh Gen. 19, 18 no, I prai/! i. e. 
let it not be so (of. fiiQ for }JL"r) 
^ouTO YevTjxai); "^hl'ss'lsx nay/ my 
daughters Euth 1, 13; ba-bx no 
■dew {he!) 2 Sam. 1, 21; nink-^ij no 
■occasions! 2 Sam. 13, 16. Perh. making 
a sort of negative noun in ni^~V5< 
immortality Pro v. 12, 28, Wp^y: (as 
one word) irresistible Prov. 30, 31. 
3) = (xi^ interrogative, where a nega- 
tive answer is expected, only 1 Sam. 
^7, 10 ye made no incursion to-day? 
but see Gram. § 153, 1. 4) in Ez. 
"9, 5 b? stands for bx, as bjt at times 
stands for b? in later books. 

51^ Chald. same as the Heb. above 
in No. 3 but only in Bib. Chald. as 
in Dan. 2, 24. 

5J^ I (c. bit, ''bx in pr. names, w. 
«uf. only 'ibtt Ps. 18, 3, pi. d'lbx, fibji 
Ex. 15, 11, c. ''bx; r.b^lXl) m. l)i. q. 
^■^X (c. b'ij{;)a strong or a mighty one, 
■« hero, e. g. d^la bx the hero of the 
nations, spoken of Nebuchadnezzar 
Ez. 31, 11, D'^^llaa *^\i< the strong ones 
(i. e. the mightiest) of the heroes 
Ez.32, 21. 2) abstr. strength, power, 
hence in Gen. 31, 29 'i"Ji bKb-ui"! it 
is (i. e. belongs) to the power of my 
hand, also negatively Deut. 28, 32 
^^^ ^^^ ?!?? ii is not (i. e. per- 
tains not) to the might of thy hand; 
<jf. bx'^ax. 3) especially is bx used 
in the meaning God, synonymous w. 
k(^^, b%'^bx mostly w. the quaUfying 
words in, f'^bsJ, i^ttJ, tihi'S, the living, 
most high, almighty, eternal God; cf. 
^iiaa bx the mighty God or hero, the 
Messiah Is. 9, 5 and 10, 21, but in 
poet, even without such words. Je- 
hovah is also called b&tii (w. the ar- 

•• T » 

tide), or b''Mb^5 bx, bx'niu^ 'irrbx bx, 
C^bx bx. Of gods of other nations 
merely bx is used, but mostly w. 
additions '^1, 135, IJix strange god, 
or bx-xb Deut. 32, 21 a no -god, etc. 
— Herewith are connected the idioms 
mountains of God Ps. 36, 7, cedars 
of God Ps. 80,11 i.e. the loftiest, the 
highest of their kind. The pi. d'^bx is 
also used for '^S'i^X or fn^ hence poet. 
Ps. 89, 7 ta'ibx ^33 sons' of God i. e. 
angels, see Gram. § 108, 3. — In pr. 
names, bx appears sometimes un- 
altered, as in bx*i3Q, sometimes as in 
"ijribx, ^'7'^bx, in the latter case it 
interchanges w. b?a, "IfT?, etc. — 
d'^bx in Job 42, 8 is for d-^b^X rams, 
seeb'iX; r. b^ix I. 

PJ^ II (c. bx, nearly always "blS-, 
poet. c. pi. 'ibx, w. suf. 'ibx, ^"^bx, 
I'^bx, !i3ibx, d'a-ibx, 'js'^bx, dn^Sx, 
dnbx, once drt'ibx Ez. 31, 14, poet. 
la^bx Ps. 2, 5) perh. an old subst. 
front (r. b^lN II, but see Gram. p. 229, 
Note *), used only as a sign of motion 
or direction to a place or object; 
hence practically this 

51f^ is a preposition, always "bx 
(followed by Maqqeph) except in 
2 Sam. 8, 7, 1 K. 7, 34, hence in the 
construct form, and meaning, to, to- 
wards,unto, into; a) in local relations, 
Tipo;, eU, L. ad, versus, in, hence w. 
verbs of motion e.g. tibl^Deut. 17, 8, 

•^bn, xi'a, n^iuj Gen.8,9,"'fna Ex. 25,1 6, 

nb^ Num. 24, 12, X'^sifl Gen. 19, 8; 
P) in intellectual relations as to the 
direction or reference of the mind 
(often implying also bodily move- 
ment) e. g. w. b^snn Gen. 20, 17, .liT 
Num. 25, 1, UJ'l'n' Is. 8, 19, fisa, 
dmri Jer. 26, 3, nst?nn Gen. 6, 6, 
where the notion of local move- 
ment or tendency is always pre- 
sent; also against, w. hostility im- 

plied Gen. 4, 8 I'^ni^-^iJt l^p ^^^^ 
and Cain rose against his brother. — 
■With verbs of speaking it indicates 
the person or object spoken to or o/", 
e. g. w. ^afi< Gen. 3, 16, Jer. 22, 18, 
nep Gen. 37, 10, Ps. 2, 7, ^J^-n Gen. 
8, 15, Job 42, 7, m:£ Jer. 27, 4, Is. 
23, 11; at times it stands for t^'in"^&t 
into, within, n^ati-bti into the house 
Gen. 19, 3, p'^n-bjt tt:B3 '7\^r\i3ir} Lam. 
2, 12 Zi/e is poured out into the bosom. 
— "With verbs of likeness, to, according 
^o,by:p5ls.l4,10,na^Ez.31,8. — With 
verbs implying addition, together 
with, besides, Lam. 3, 41 ^anab t^'^3 

7 7 I I** T ; T • 

bi<"^&^ fi^B3-^i< let us raise our 
heart (in addition) to (i. e. besides) 
the open-hand to God. — Before nouns, 
e. g. ''B'Vx Josh. 17, 4, according to 
tJie mouth, i. e. at the command; 
m^nsn-bx Ps. 5, l for the flutes; 
*)hb;an-biJi at the table 1 K. 13, 20; 
fi'^^1p"b^^ among thorns Jer. 4, 3 for 
the fuller '■pa-'i^^< Ez. 31, 10. — Com- 
pounds, 1'^^&<■b^^ to behind, after, w. 
verbs &<Si, lao, nGH; ^^N-'bi< where- to, 

T T ' - ' •• T ' V -: V ' 

whitherllx. 32, 34; mra-V&5Ez. 10, 2; 
DSn-Vs; to for-nothing Ez. 6, 10, diffe- 
rent from dsri; !r\"'3?3"bjt to within, 
inside-, b!i73"bi< to over, against, etc. 

^K III also >^)5^^, dem. pron. pi. 
for HT, r\fi<t, these, only in Pentateuch 
and 1 Ch. 20, 8; see M^Jt 

^5^ pr. n. m. (strong) 1 K. 4, 18. 

12J'*35^i< m. hail, Ez. 13, 11 "lanit 
^''na^x Ht. stones of the ice, i. e. hail- 
stones; from Tli'^na ice(Gr.xp6aTaXXov) 
and the old Heb. article; see bN; I. 

D^:a^iibj5$, see d^a^bx. 

^'IJ'?^ pr. n. m. (God's friend, Geo- 
91X0;)* Num. 11, 26. 27. 

n!?*^!?^^ pr. n. m. (perh. God's ac- 
quaintance) Gen. 25, 4. 

1 • i ^iN (obs.)prob.akintoArab.&J] 

38 rk^ 

to worship or adore, •^bj<II io swear 
and bx ^o<i or might, see r. b*lK !► 
Hence rribti. 

n^^ I (obs.) i. q. b>lS< I ^ 6<r 
strong, muscular, fleshy, hence njjblS;;. 
cf. b^lK body Ps. 73, 4. 

n^CS n perh. akin to bj<'^ to 
«;i^Z or wish; or perh. denom. from 
b&t Go^, prop, to invoke God, hence 
1) ^0 affirm or swear by God Judg. 
17, 2. 2)to intreat God, sometimes for 
harm = to curse Hos. 4, 2, some- 
times for pity = to beicail Joel 1, 8;^ 
but this use of Jibx is very prob. mi- 
metic, akin to bbss; I, bb\ — Hipb. to 
cause to swear, to adjure 1 K. 8, 31; 
in 1 Sam. 14, 24 b&<^1 from Jlb&^i for 
hbx^; Gram. § 76, 2, c. 

nb^^ (w. suf. ^th^ w. firm — ; 

T T ^ • • T T T ' 

pl. mby;) f. swearing, 1) oa^A, curse^ 
T^hiXn i<^ to come into an oath, i. e. to 

T T ; r ' 

swear Neh. 10, 30, iibxn tt'inSi to cause 
to come into an oath, i. e, to make 
swear Ez. 17, 13; hbjib n^n to bh for 

' ' T T : T T ' 

a curse Jer. 42, 18; hbN:-ln?:3U: oath of 
cursing Num. 5, 21. 2) a covenantor 
agreement, as being sworn to. Gen. 
26,28. — Cf.W.lhv, Gael. 7a, le, oath. 

tibi^i (r. b^&< I.) f. 1) oak i. q. iik^ 
but more usual, and meaning also* 
terebinth, strong and hardy like the 
oak (cf. 6puO Gen. 35, 4; cf. fbx, 
"jiby:. 2) pr. n. m. (strength) IK. 16, 6. 

nbi< Chald. (def. i<r\)^, pl. T^)i<} 
m. God, i. q. Heb. Jiibx, i)an. 2, 20; 
also for idols, Dan. 3, 25 "priVx ^5 a 
son of gods. 

n>lSl i' <!• T'^^ ^* ^^^> ^^ being 
strong Josh. 24, 26. Either a modified 
form for h^K from r. "b^^ I., or from 

T •• ' 

bbfit IV w. like meaning. 

flfi^ pron. d*em. pl. com., same 
as bx in w. dem. n — as in hit^. 




It refers to what follows (Gen. 2, 4) 
or precedes (Gen. 9, 19); mostly placed 
after its noun, as in Gen. 15, 1 
n|Nti D">'i2'nn, rarely before it(8sixTt- 
xci;) as in Ps. 73, 12. Chald. "plx. 

rj'b^, pi, ^^iib^, see nT^N. 

^^K Chald. interjec. see! lo! Dan. 
2, 31, same as si'i&fc (b = ^); akin to 
HN:'!, 6paaj = Xaco = Xsuaao), Sans. 
Ms, E. lo! = fooA:/, W. loch! (in /ocA 
act<;/ = Xeuaas IxeT, look there!) 

^!5i?l (later Heb.) conj. if Est. 7, 
4; for lb"d6j{ = Syr. al^), uniting 
wish and condition. 

riiblS5 (w. pref. niKs^ Dan. 11, 38 
and w. suf. iri'^xb Hab. 1, 11) m. a 
god, God (esp. in the pi. d1rf^^t for iT; 

the true God), Aram. i^5<, 01.^) (on 
which cf. D'. Payne Smith's Thes. 
Syriacus); see r. nSiJ. Job 12, 6 X'^Srt 
11^3 nibx Ae brings a god in his hand, 
i.e. his fist is his God; cf. dextra mihi 
deus inVirg.JEn.10.773. — Theuseof 
the singular (as = ni^J^m) for the one 
true God is more late or poetic (Neh. 
9, 17, Deut. 32, 15, Job 3, 4), the 
more ancient and usual form being 
the Plur. d'^tt^J^! (often called j?/Mra/iS 
excellentice or majestaticus, see Gram. 
§ 108, 2, b and the Note on Kem. 1; 
comp. d'^pN) , perh. because God 
was conceived of as the sum and 
substance of infinite forces (see bi^ 
3), cf. dib:^^3, di^^j5. As implying 
oneness of essence, this pi. is mostly 
construed w. the sing., except w. 
adjectives which at times take the 
pi. (Gram. § 112, Eem. 3; § 146, 2); 
but the plur. is used also to desig- 
nate a god Deut. 32, 39, and even a 
goddess 1 K. 11, 5. — Prob. used of 
rulers, priests (Ex. 21, 6; 22, 8; 
Ps. 82, 6) as representing poAver or 
God, cf. John 10, 35; but w. the 

article (d*^rf^5in) only for the Eternal. 
— Its most important constructions 
are a) before another noun, as ''fl^H 
npS>:: God of Jacob Ps. 20, 2; p) after 
another noun, where various relations 
are expressed, as d%'ibj< ''.33 sons of 
God i. e. angels Job 38, 7; d^rtPK XtTUfi 
man of God i. e. angel Judg. 13, 6, pro- 
phet 1 K. 13, 1, godly man Deut. 
33, 1 ; d'lrr^^^ ^t'^ba prince of God i. e. 
Abraham Gen. 23, 6; but w. tV^'^'O or 
d!JO we find tiiii^ nearly always for 
God; y) expressing what is pre-eminent 
or superlative, as godlike or belong- 
ing to God, e. g. dN'nbi* ^n ver?/ great 
mountain "Ps. 68,16: h'^rhifih JiM^a ^'':> 
a city great to God, i. e. in his eyes, 
hence very great, Jonah 3, 3; cf.Acts 
7, 20 ajxeioi tu) Gew. 

5n5K I m. prop, ingathering, hence 
time of harvest, 6th Heb. month, 
from the September to the October 
new-moon, Neh.6,15; r. ^^i< = b^:^ to 
gather in ov glean-, Chald. ^^5 grain. 

b^bjSl II m. = bib?< nought in the 
K'thibh of Jer. 14, 14. 

■jibK (w.-^ firm, Gram. §25) m. 1) 
prop, strong one, hence oak Gen. 
12, 6. Used in many names of places 
e. g. d*^55l3>^ ')ibx pr. n. (magicians' 
oak) Judg. 9, 37; ^iSin '&? pr. n. (oak 
of Tabor) 1 Sam. 10,^ 3; &<'!'?? ''sbx 
pr. n. (Mamre's oaks) Gen. 13, 18. 
iTni'a 'iS; pr. n. (teacher's oaks) Deut. 
11, 30. 2) pr. n. m. Gen. 46, 14; hence 
patron. ^S^N Num. 26, 26; r. Un, I. 

yi>^ m. 1) oak Gen. 35, 8; a mo- 
dified form of )')bVi, as n^X is of hbx; 
r. b^i< I or hhi^ IV. 2) pr. n. m. 
(strong one) 1 Ch. 4, 37. 

tfk^ or t^^ (r. t]b^) adj. m.prop. 
firmly joined, adhering to; hence 
1) attached, familiar, a friend Prov. 
16, 28; d-i*n^':ri ?|^^5t the friend of 
(one's) youth, i. e. husband, Jer. 3, 4, 




same as ?"n in verse 20. 2) attached, 
domesticated or tame, as Vl^hi^ ians 
Jer. 11, 19 a fame lamb, much attached 
to its owner. 3) ox i. q. t]}?,^, 
(as being tame) of com. gend., 15'^Blk>6< 
D*i^3Da our Jcine (cows) burdened, 
i. e. heavy with young Ps. 144, 14. 
4) denom. from C]bs< (family, 'prop, 
attachment), head of a family, chief- 
tain, to whom the fellow-members 
are bound Gen. 36, 15, <puXap^o^. 

123^^^^ pr. n. f. (perh. wild beast's 
lair, akin to ^^b lion, XT^ ; but Talm. 
turba hominum) a station of the Is- 
raehtes in the wilderness, Num. 33, 
13; r. 1iJb^ = tt3!il3 m. 

^IjbjJJ pr. n. m. (God's gift, 0£o6(i)- 
po;) 1 Ch. 26, 7 j cf. ^Sli*!. 

/ I ^OS (perh. akin to Jib'n) prop. 
to be turbid, only Nipli. nbw to be- 
come foul or corrupt, in a moral sense 
Ps. 14, 3 ; see lifiX 

']5'1^^ pr. n. m. (god is gracious) 
2 Sam. '21, 19. 

^'t^. ^^^ ^^ ^od in pr. names. 

^?)^. Jo^ 3, 22, see "IsiSi to. 

^^''^^ pr. n. m. (God is father) 
Num. 1, '9. 

5&? V&^_ pr. n. m. (God is mighty) 
1 Ch. 11,"46. 

nJnX^bijt pr. n. m. (perh. God 
Cometh; cf. jxapavaOa 1 Cor. 16, 22) 

1 Ch. 25, 4. 

^'7*''^'^ pr- n. m. (God is a friend) 
Num. 34',' 21. 

2 Sam.SJ 16. For which also 2>'i^V?3 
1 Ch. 14, 7. 

♦^T — ^' fO't-tail, weighing 10 or 
12 pounds on oriental sheep, which 
was burnt as sacrifice Ex. 29, 22; r. 
^b^ I to be strong, bulky, cf. ^mX body. 

njbb^ or ^^l,^'?^5 pr. n. m. (n^ is 
God)^*HXiac, Elijah 2 K. 2, 6. 

^iT'ipK pr. n. m. (prob. fn^ is God) 

1 Ch. 26,"' 7. 

5^^»l^!pK pr. n. m. (prob. He is 
God) Job chaps. 32 — 35 , Elihu. 

'^5''?in^b5J pr. n. m. (towards fn;? 
my eyes, according to Ps. 123, 1), 
Ezra 8, 4. 

*^r?'i''^^ pr. n. m. (to Pr« my 
eyes) 1 Ch.' 3, 23. 

Jj<!atl^b]^ pr. n. m. (God hideth) 

2 Sam. '23, '32. 

!r|'nn''bNt pr. n. m. (prob. God of 
harvest) 1 K. 4, 3. 

b vK (pi. to^^'^'bx) adj. m. naught, 
of no valvs, akin to hi<, tkh, not\ 
hence subst. 1) d^^'^bi*; nothingnesses, 
idols Lev. 19, 4; b^J^-iJ<;S'l healers 
of nothingness, i. e. worthless physi- 
cians Job 13, 4. 2) vanity Zech. 11, 17. 

D^ipjJ^ Job 42, 8 rams, see bu* I 

tj!3'^|2'^r>J^ pr. n. m. (God is king) 
Buth i', 2." 

"j'^bi?, 'p)^ Chald. (akin to Heb. 
m|!|*) demon, pron. these Dan. 2, 44; 
from the obsol. sing, bx this, w. the 
pi. ending "p— as in "pi?!, "pjfi^, ",3^. 

5^'?^'?^ pr. n. m. (God increases) 
Num. 1,' 14. 

Gen. 15, 2. 

^S^^^'bii; pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 8, 20, i. q. 

^?'^blS pr. n. m. (perh. God of the 
people) 2' Sam. 11, 3; b^?1JS? 1 Ch. 3, 5. 

TS^'bs^ pr. n. m. (perh. God of 
purity) Eliphaz Gen. 36, 4; Job 2, 11. 

^S*'?^^ pr. n. m. (God is judge, r. 
h\^) \ Cii. 11, 35. 




^nba'^b^ pr. n. m. (perh. God 
distinguishes him) 1 Ch. 15, 18. 
tibS'^bNI pr. n. m. (God is rescue) 

1 Ch!' 3, 6,"but W^B^X 1 Ch. 14, 5. 

^^2I''b5$ pr. n. m. (God is a rock) 
Num. 1, 5. 

'jS^'^bijI pr.n.m. (God hides) Num. 
3, 30, but"'ja:sbi< Ex. 6, 22. 

^I$*''?^pr- n.m. (perh. God loathes, 

r. it^lp; cf.Apoc. 3, 16) 2 Sam. 23, 25. 

D'^P^bb^ pr. n. m. (God sets up) 

2 K. 18^ 'l8; also t^'^p>'^;' 2 K. 23, 34. 

3!'512J''bN; pr. n. f. (God of oath) 
Ex. 6, 23, Sept.'EXiaapex; cf. Luke 
1, 7, Elisabeth. 

niS^blSt (Samaritan t'^h^) pr. n. 
of a western race of men ; hence also 
of their land on the coast of the Me- 
diterranean sea, whence pm'ple was 
fetched Ez. 27, 7 ; who are named (Gen. 
10, 4) among the descendants of Javan 
0^'^ = 'Iaov£(;, I(ove;) along w. Tar- 
shish, etc. ; hence proh. Elis in thePe- 
loponnesus or, in a wider sense, Sellas 
or JEolis, as the shell-fish, producing 
purple, was very plentiful on the 
Laconian coast, the gulf of Corinth 
and in the Archipelagus ; see ^)\ 

?ill23''b5< pr. n. m. (God is salva- 
tion) 2 Sam. 5, 15. 

l^^llj^b^J pr. n. m. (God restores) 

1 Ch. 3^ 24. 

3?^ir"'b55 pr. n. m. (God hears) 

2 Sam. 5, i'e. 

3>lD''bjJ; pr. n. m. (God saves) Eli- 
shah, the Prophet who lived 896—825 
B. C, 2 K. chaps 2—13. 

t^M'^b^il pr. n. m. (God judges). 
2 Ch.'^23, 1*.' 

nri^bjJ^ 1 Ch. 25, 27 ; see nin&<^!3S<. 

^ TIT • v: ' ' T IT • v: 

"n^i^l Chald. dem. pron. plur. these, 
i. q. 'J'^^X = Heb. M^X, from bx; the 
final t] is prob. an old demonst. ending 

akin to L. -ce in ec-ce (= i-xei, W. a-cw. 
Old W. i/-cha there) illic for ille-ce, 
Fr. fa, ce, d', cf. "nX 

^CS I (obs.) to lament; clearly a 
mimet. r. akin to hhli, Vb^, dXaXaCoj, 
iXeXsu, E. alas! halloo, yell, howl,wail, 
G. hallen, gellen, L. ululo, "W. wylo, 
Gael, ual-lam. Hence ''^V^' 

7^CS n (obs.) akin to bx, vh not, 

hence to beofnoaccount,Mvhence b''b(*. 
■ ■ 

y^CS III (obs.) akin to hh^,to 
gather in, to harvest; hence b^bxl. 

/^^SS rV (obs.) to he strong, akin 
to Is'lN ^J^\^ I; hence n^, 'Jl^5<. 

^bbi< interj. alas! Job. 10, 15 
lb ^"bhi^ alas! for me: see bb6< I. 

U^CS (Qal obs.)<o bind, see Si^abx, 
hence used in the derivatives a) for 
the binding and arching of a build- 
ing (see dbsix), like ^i^K; p) of being 
tongue-tied (see d^i<, dbx, ''SbbiS:); 7)of a 
silent, lonesome life, destitute of sup- 
port, hence unmarried or widowed. 
Niph. dbxa, to be tongue-tied (cf. 
6£(j|x6<; T^<; yXuxjjy]!; Mark 7, 35) 
hence dumb, mute Is. 53, 7. — Pi. 
d|N (intens. of Qal) to bind tight, 
bind togetJier Gen. 37, 7. 

, DbiJ, pi. a''53b^^, nlJsb&j; see bbiK. 

D^5J Ex. 15, 11, see bj$ I = b"^ 

DbJSj (poet.)m. 1) dumbness, silence; 

p'i;i d5^^ Ps. 58, 2 silence of justice 

i. e. dumb justice ; but dbj>^ here may 

well mean binding, hence feowd o/ 

justice. 2) prob. name of an old song 

or music Ps. 56 (title) d'^pm dbx nii"^ 

silent dove among those afar off (perh, 

I the Exiles, cf. ^IFi Ps. 74, 19); r.dbx. 

Ub^, see db:ii< I. 

D^i} (pi. d-^alitls. 56, 10) adj. m. 




tied (i. e. tongue-tied), dumb, as a 
permanent bodily defect (Gram. § 84, 
9), hence the Pi* el form, Ps. 38, 14. 

D^iJl 1 K. 7, 7 (in some texts), 
another form of d^*ii< porch. 

D^ijl Job 17, 10 (in some editions) 
for tih^i< but 

}T^'2bt^ m. pi. 1 K. 10, 11 (but by 
transp. d^Ja^a^x 2 Ch. 2, 7) almuff-trees, 
prob. red sandal-wood. — The name 
prob. consists of i;^^ from Sans, mocha 
(sandal-wood) and the art. bx the, 

ril2b;S| (from d'^X; pi. d'l^-, ni— ) 
f. something tied up, hence a bundle 
of corn, a sheaf (cf. d'^nn^s, ^^a^) Ps. 
126, 6; r. d^ij. 

n^i/jbi^ pr. n. m. (perh. the tall, 
r. ^"iia) of a people and region in 
Southern Arabia, perh. the AllumcBotce 
of Ptolemy, Gen. 10, 26. 

■^bia^i^ pr. n. f. (prob. = T|Vd nks 
king's oak) city in Asher Josh. 19,26. 

I^-?^ adj. m., ni^^N; f., made soli- 
tary/, widowed Jer. 51, 5; fem. as 


concr. a widow, Syr. jiJi^j], Gen. 

38 11; fig. also a state deprived of 
its king Is. 47, 8 ; r. dbs:. 

I^Q!?^^ m. widowhood, fig. of a 
state without its king, only Is. 47, 9. 

nj'objSl (pi.n'i3,53bx,w. suf.^^^ni'sia^is:) 

f. widotv Jer. 49, 11; see yobi^. 

Tiyyu^}^ f.(only pi.) cidatels, palaces 
Is. 13, 22. Perh. from d^i< to bind, 
to arch, cf. dV^ij^ hall-, but prob. same 
as Jn'iS^'lX which someMSS give (b =1). 

m^robX (w. suf. fnn^i^Vii, pi. 
d'iin>i3ab&<;j f. widowhood Gen. 38, 14. 
Fig. of the captive Jewish people Is. 
54, 4; from l^abi^. 

''D^S^J^ adj. m. (from d^lJt silence), 
only in union w. ''DbQ, nameless one, 
whose name is passed over in silence. 
Hence pronominally a certain one, 6 

Seiva, such a one (comp. our Mr, so 
and so) Euth 4, 1. 

■jbjSl, see l^lNt Chald. these. 

D?Db5$ pr. n. m. (God is delight) 

1 Ch. li,'46. 

Ilni^]^ pr. n. m. (God is giver) 

2 £."24, 8. 

iDbiJ (perh. for ^d5<^!>t) pr. n. of 
an Assyrian-Babylonian region Gen, 
14, 1, perh. same as 'W^'n, which the 
Jerusalem Targ. gives for it (see ^i^^^1^ 
■nt^^Jtbln) and which is mentioned Is» 
37, 12, so that h^ (oak), bn (hill) are 
only additions to ^&i<, 'n'ia5<, prob. for 
^W^ Assyria. 

^yy^, pr. n. m. (God is witness) 
1 Chi 7,* 21. 

rr^S^!?!^ pr. n. m. (God is adorn- 
ment) I'Ch. 7, 20. 

^1^^-?^ pr. n. m. (God is my 
praises) 1 Ch. 12, 5. 

■nt^bH pr. n.m. (God is helper) Ex, 
6, 23; Sept. 'EXsaCap, later AaCapo;, 

J^bljbiJ and nb:j!:j}5 pr. n, (perh. 
God is high) a city on the east of 
Jordan, so named perh. from the 
Moabite worship of 'ji'^^S? ^&!;, in 
Beuben, and now called in Arab. 
'El-'Al, Num. 32, 3. 

llTC^bjJ? pr. n. m. (God made) 
Jer. 29, 3.' 


S| ^CS(fut. t]^5<::Prov.22,25)prob. 
akintod^S<, Chald. i^S^, t]S^, to bind, 
to join ; hence t^^^a family, a thousand, 
i. e. a crowd, and an ox (see C]^^X) 
as being attached, tamed or taught; 
hence to learn, Prov. 22,25 C)^!!<ttn"'j5! 
lest thou learn. — Pi. to cause to learnt 
to teach,vf.1 accusatives Job 15, 5; part. 
ri^^=tl^&«;^Job35,ll.— Hiph.,denom. 
from t^^_, Ps. 144, 13 n':B''V5<^ bringing 
forth a thousand. 

Pjbi^ 1) only pi. d'^S^x tame or 


t]^^ 43 


domesticated (beasts), only of the ox 
and cow, com. gend. (like jBooc, L. 
bos, E. beeve, Kelt, bu, bo, once Cj^bx 
in Ps. 144, 14. 2) prop, combination 
(of numbers), hence a multitude (cf. 
nnn'i), then one thousand 1000, dual 
D'^Bbx 2000, pi. d'^sbx thousands. The 

. I- • - ' -^ • T -: 

object numbered stands mostly in 
the singular after the numeral, later 
often the other way. — From this 
the denom. Hiph. part. n'iB^V^^^ Ps. 
144, 13 making thousands,!, e. bearing 
very many. 3) a union of a thousand, 
i. e. of a great number, hence some- 
times (hke MhQirp) a family, a sub- 
division ofatribeJudg.6, 15. 4)pr.n.f. 
of a city in Benjamin Josh. 18, 28. 

r|blSl Chald. a thousand (Heb. qbx) 
Dan. 5, 1. 

tsbSblJ^, see S3bB"^bl< and labs. 

b?Bb!S^ pr. n. m. (God of recom- 
pense) i Ch. 8, 11. 

f IwS (Qal obs.) akin to 7l&< to 
press together; only in Pi. yhiti to 
press hard, to urge strongly, Judg. 
16, 16 ; i. q. Samar. y^i<0> = ^) to force. 


I T T 

D^pb]J< (perh. for bx not, put ex- 
ceptionally w. d^p in imper. rise thou 
not) m. only in Prov. 30, 31 d^pb&< T^^^ 
152^ a king against (t:^ as in Ps. 94, 16 
and *n2J&< implied) who?n rise thou not 
i. e., who is irresistible, or with whom 
the people is (as if d^p were Arab. 
*j5 people, w. the article bx), but it 
may be ivith whom God is, the true 
reading having been prob. d'^tt^J*, see 
Gram. Note^ on § 35, Rem. 1. 

n3]^55}^ pr. n. m. (God is maker) 
1 Sam. i,' 1. 

''^P'?^ pr. n. of a small town 
perh. in Galilee, birth-place of Nahum. 
Nah. 1,1. gentilic ^'^pbi^. — Perh. the 

name means God of the bow; cf. 

tip = niy^. 

1Z3 ^CS (obs.) perh i. q. t^h III to 
be strong; hence perh. dlb^. 

^^'^P'f^ pr. n. (perh. God of 
birth) a city in Simeon Josh. 19, 4 
and Judah Josh. 15, 30j see "iMn. 

&<prib&5, np— , pr. n. (perh. God 
of consternation, see r. .&<|^Pi) a city 
in Dan, Josh. 19, 44. 

Ypribb^ pr. n. (perh. God of re- 
storation, r. "jplp) a city in Judah, 
Josh. 15, 59. 

UiN (prim, and mimetic; w. suf. 
''as<, pi. n1ai<}f.,properlythefirstlisping 
or lip-sound of a babe, em, am, ma, 
hence mother; dS;i nx Est. 2, 7 father 
and mother i. e. parents, dx has the 
same shades of meaning as 2i<, Ps. 
27, 10; being used also for step-motJier 
Gen. 37, 10, grandmother 1 K. 15, 10, 
or any female ancestor Gen. 3, 20; 
fig. for a benefactress Judg. 5, 7, owner 
Job 17, 14; tljen transferred to 
mother-earth Job 1, 21, to a people 
Jer. 50, 12, to a metropolis (i. q. n^X 
mother-city) as the mother producing 
and sustaining the inhabitants, hence 

y'lx, bnti, *y^^, d3?, bi'x^, st^ia, dinn, iss 
are usually thought of as feminine. 
diti T^:? 2 Sam. 20, 19 aa^yawdmo^/ier; 
i. e. metropolis ; "V^y^y^ d!S; the mother 
way,i.e. the chief road from which an- 
other branches off as a cross-way Ez. 
21,26; perh. =Tj'^';!^'&i'^. — diJtis inflect- 
ed as if derived from d^X (really a de- 
nom. from this noun), but is doubtless 
(like nx) taken from infant lips, as 
most nurseries in the worldcan testify; 
cf.Sans.Wia,Gr. (xaia, fAafXixa, |XTrj-Tr^p, 
L. mam-ma, ma-ter, Kelt, mam, Ger. 
^wme, Ger., WM^fer, 

mo-ther,Ar3ib.J omm,Copt.waw, Esqui- 
mo am-ama,Maltese am, Slavon. wa-i j. 


DNI (perh. a pronom. root) akin 
to yn, Syr. J , Chald. )i<, )'n, Arab, in, 
Copt, aw, Etliiop. em; cf. Gr. oiv, -j^v, el, 
Lat. an, en, si, W. ai, os, also E. if, 
which answers very much to D5< in 
sound and sense, perh. also in origin: 
all these particles prob. being origin- 
ally demonstrative like &<>i, bll, T}, Sj'r. 
1 01, . 01 ; hence prop, there! if now! 
But practically t35< is an interrog. or 
■conditional particle, like our if. 1) 
adv. interrog. (like tl, Gr. ^, Lat. anl 
num?) if? whether? — a) in a simple 
or direct question (for li)withoutbeing 
dependent on a foregoing clause 1 K. 
1,27. — p) in an indirect or dependent 
■question, ei, if, whether, usually after 
verbs of asking, inquiring, doubting, 
looking 2 K. 1, 2, Cant. 7, 13.— 7) in 
a disjunctive question whether — orl 
the clauses of which are connect- 
-ed thus, nx— n in Josh. 5, 13 nnjt ^libh 

' • -: ' T - IT .. 

^a'^IS^'Dt^ whether for us art thou or 
for our foes ^.'Di<) — SnGen.l7, 17(L.swe 
— sive),'Di< — d5< Job6, 12,w. emphasis 
on 1st clause t:!i<1— !:]&j;n Job 34, 17. 
If the question is continued further, 
with different subjects, then there 
may standi! — dIS;'] — fi, or more varied 
rr — t3i< — tt'bJi — n Ps. 94, 9. — 2) Here- 
with many connect a negative sense 
no, not (as if = fcib, only in effect, 
not in reality, any more than our if 
is ever really no) especially in protest- 
ing and swearing, e. g. Ps. 95, 11 J 
■sioare "jiisis^-fiiS^ if they shall enter, 
Sept. el elaeXeujovtai (cf. Heb.3,11), 
Vulg. si introibunt; where neither 
"DX nor el is strictly neg. any more 
than si and if, but the not is only 
inferred from the clause to be mentally 
supplied, thus if they shall enter then 
my oath will be in vain, which cannot 
be; cf. "lyt, ''S:, ''i*, ")>*<.— 

3) conj. if, in conditional sentences, 

44 ni3^ 

tiV di< if not, w. the fut. Judg. 4, 8, 
also w. perf. '^n'^ilJ^ dl< Ps. 7, 4, Ruth 
2, 21 Jl^3di<n?,^olvTeXeaa>(Jiv, 
w. a participle Judg. 9, 15, w. infin. 
constr. Job 9, 27. — Here belong 
also those cases, where di<(likei/*) may 
be conveniently rendered by when, 
since (Gen. 47, 18 Am. 7,2), comp. 
Ger. wenn (if) = wann (when), or 
other shades of meaning suited to 
the context; di< ^3 after a negative 
clause is but, else after an affirmative 
it is for if, that if; in wishing d&jt, at 
times united w. fc<3, is if now! oh 
that! — In composition, di<t! = '!!<Vil, 
Jj.nonne'i expecting answer Yes Num. 
17, 28, Job 6, 13; &<^ di<,a) is not? 
Is. 10, 9; p) if not Ps. 7, 13; 7) after 
a negative but Gen. 24, 38; cf. el 
|ir), L. nisi, Chald. &t^>i for 5<b-di< 

^!}^piJ^-2J^ (Hos. 4, 6 in some texts) 
1 fut. Qal of dX^ w. suf. 1^ and fi< for M 
cohort., perh. meant to be pronounced 

i^l2Sl or n^i? Chald. (pi. ^^izi^) f. 
ell, cubit Dan. 3, 1 ; see Heb. HSN;. 

n/2iS (obs.) perh. akin to diax 
fo^om;* hence perhaps 

n^^JJ} (w. suf. in^K, ?]n'o^?, pi. 
n'^!^a^^, c mh^ax, w. suf. dfi'inri^K) 
f. hand-maid, maid-servant, female 
slave, hence 'tji'^s son of a female 
slave = slave Ex. 23, 12. ^H^ais; was 
used for I even by free women in 
addressing a superiorormaster 1 Sam. 
1,11; Chald. !!<DN and sinaN, also inax. 
— Max is prob. mimet. and akin to 
G. amme, all used for a nurse. 

TT>^^. i. q. n^^x terror; r. d^iJ^ord^lX. 
^ n^i< (c. tym, dual d^n^ait, pi. niax; 
fromdx mother) f. \) mother-city, ame- 
tropolis; thus in the phrase in 2 Sam. 




8, 1 David took the bridle of the me- 
tropolis out of the hands of the Phili- 
stines, i. e. subdued the city. 2) a 
foundation, D'^B&n niax Is. 6, 4 foun- 
dations of the thresholds. 3) mother 
(perh. joint) of the arm, i.e. fore-arm 
"below the elbow joint; hence, as a 
measure, cubit, ell, about=18 inches; 
fig. measure, as in Tj?^^ ^^^ Jer. 51, 
13 the measure of thy robbery. 4) pr. 
n. of a hill (perh. mother-hill i. e. chief 
hill) 2 gam. 2, 24. 

n^Nl (from d6<, of. dk^) f. a 
people, a community or race; only pi. 
Di535t Ps. 117, 1, nlfflX Gen. 25, 16. 
niax ILii^'n Num. 25, 1 5 head of peoples; 


of. Arab. &«I ^ummah a people. — 
Prob. akin to dX and so meaning 
those sprung from a common mother 
(cf. uaxpia); but see d^X. 

ni2S; Chald. (pi. 'pSX, def. &<J^5<) 
f. a people, tribe Dan. 3, 4. 

X^'ini35^, see nax. 

■jl^JlJj I m. \) a builder, architect 
(= -,a5<); in Pro v. 8, 30 used of wis- 
dom, personified as a female artificer, 
but without the fem. form (Gram. 
§ 107, 1, Rem.); but some take it here 
for supporter. 2) pr. n. m. of king 
of Judah, B. C. 644—642, 2 K. 21,18. 

I^^ij II for "il^rt a multitude, only 
in Jer. 52, 15 by a Chaldaism. 

■j^llSiJ III pr. n. of an Egyptian 
god, Amon, 'AfXjxwv, Jer. 46, 25, in 
the ancient Egyptian language, Aum, 
fully Aum-Re i. e. Amon-Sun. He 
was chiefly worshipped in Thebes 
(f^ax-XS Nah. 3,8, Greek AioaTroXiO. 
Amon signifies according to Cham- 
pollion, elevation\ cf.o^ixjBov, L.ww&o. 

"|^/35< (for^ii^x; pi. d-ipJiax, d'^a^N, 
c. ^3*)53i<) m. prop, a stay or prop, then 
trustiness, fidelity, Deut. 32, 20. The 
pi. designates , 1) as a collect, abstract, 

fidelity, Prov. 20, 6 d'^Sl^X tl^)< a man^ 
of fidelity, i. e. trusty; 2) concrete, Ps. 
12, 2 where d'^i'l^X as part. pass, of 
y^^is trusted ones, itkjtoi the faithful. 
nD^'^yj (from -jJlTSX; pi. Waiax 
Prov. 28, 20) f. 1) firmness, Ex. 17, 12 
in3^^5< 1''^'^ 'iiT^'^ and his hands were 

T TT • : - 

firmness, i. e. firm. 2) security Is. 
33, 6. 3) faithfulness, of God Deut. 
32, 4; also of men towards God, 

hence faith, trust, Syr. |Zaliia-.cnj 

Sept.TuiaxK;, Hab. 2,4 comp.Gen.15,6. 

yi^)}^ pr.n.m. (courageous) father 
of the prophet Isaiah, Is. 1, 1. 

^)2^ pr. n. m. Ezr. 2, 57, but "fiV)^ 
in Neh. 7, 59. 

D^/^&< for d-^^-ix, see d*^5<, d'lJt 
0"*^^, see najt. 

]^T'2i< pr. n. m. (faithful) for 
•jla^X 2 Sam. 13, 20, as if from a form 
'j'lax = Syr. .,--^] true. See p^sj. 

^"^m, yi21S (Is. 28, 2), Y^J$ adj. 
m. 1) strong, nis y73i< mighty in 
strength Nah. 2, 2; w. sb Am. 2, 16 
strong of heart, bold; y'^jajj -i\2^^ ^Ae 
conspiracy was strong 2 Sam. 15, 2. 
2) abstr. strength Is. 40, 26; r. ir^tt. 

^''SSl^ (r. "lax II) m. Ai^/i, hence 
a) perh. mountain-top Is. 17, 9; P) 
tree-top, ^''ajj uixia ow <^e Aeadf o^ 
the tree-top Is. 17, 6. Cf.'i-}7a&<, d'iN. 

b)2^ or b52&5 akin to bait 

— T •• T " ' 

(which see),<o fall, to droop, to lan- 
guish, only part. TjO^^ ^^^^ •'^^ ^^^ 
is <% heart languished (through 
passion) Ez. 16, 30. — Pulal b^ax 

(so nbbax, nbbat<, sibbawS, ^ibbax) to 
be withered (of plants) Is. 24, 7, /aw- 
guishing (in sickness) Ps. 6, 3; also 
to mourn Is. 19, 8. 

bb/5i$ (pl.d^bbai<)adj. m./aw^Mi(?, 
K;ea7J, only Neh. 3, 34. Redupl. from 




^"3X; perh. the -^7- has remained firm 
from the original intrans. notion; see 
hm. Cf. oifipXu;. 

U a2CS (obs.) akin to tsp^ , d^a to 
join, to combine. — -This root is prob. 
connected w.the primitive D&|; mother, 
as the natural bond of union; also 
w. nas^, the same word modified and 

T T ' 

expressing dependence or subordina- 
tion, hence a woman dependent on 
the family or bound to it, as also tll^S^ 
means a woman tied to the family (cf. 
oouXy] from Seo), L. famula from a\i.a 
= simul) ; hence a people as being a 
union (cf. 6^|xoO was called h^N, t35>. 
Distil pr. n. f. (a rendezvous) city 
in Judah Josh 15, 26; r. d^5<. 

TObs I akin to r. pSJ I, 'J^;;, 1) 
trans, to make firm, to found, to prop 
up, to build, hence flS^J* pillar, "j^K 
and "jlaJt architect; to sustain, to 
nurse i. e. to carry Lam. 4, 5, hence 
the part, "jpk sustaining, hence nurs- 
ing-father or guardian, TraiSaytoYOi;, 
Num. 11, 12; f. narjk a nurse Ruth 
4, 16. 2) intrans. to be firm, hence 
to be reliable, trusty, faithful; part, 
pass. tD'^S^'ax prop, depended on, i. e. 
the faithful, TtiffToi, Ps.31,24. — Nipli. 
a) to be made firm, part. y2^}_ taipTS 
a firm, sure place Is. 22, 23; iia^ijnsib 
ye shall not be established or secure 
Is. 7, 9; (3) to be durable, lasting, 
sure Hos. 5, 9, "jaxa n'^S an abiding 
house (posterity) 1 Sam. 2, 35, but 
also of a chronic sickness Deut. 28, 
69, of an unfailing supply of water Is. 
33,16; y) to be nourished, carried, as 
a child. Is. 60, 4; 5) to be faithful, 
true, such as can be depended on, used 
of God Is. 49, 7, a servant Num. 12, 7, 
messenger Prov. 25, 13, a witness 
Is. 8, 2. — Iliph. to hold firmly, w. 
3 on to something, hence to trust 

in, to credit as true, absol. Is. 7, 9; 
to believe w. 3 (^jfT^S Gen. 15, 6 in 
the Lord); oftener w. b Gen. 45, 26, 
Ex. 4, 9; w. 'IS Job 9, 16; also w. 
infin. Job 15, 22; w. ace. Judg. 11, 20; 
perh. to halt, of the war-horse in Job 
39, 24, where others prefer to believe. 

TQ'a^ II (Qal obs.) akin to ^^"^^ 
right hand, hence denom. Hiph. 
(fut. -pJ??^!?) to turn to the right Is. 
30, 21 ; cf. Gen. 13, 9. 

TQiS Chald. Aph.'jp'^r: Dan. 6, 24, 
i. q. HipH. of )'q^ I, to trust; part, 
pass. I^'iti'a Dan. 2, 45 trusted, faithful. 

*i*^^ m. prob. exercised, skilled, 
hence architect, artist, Cant. 7, 2; 
r. )'qi< I. 

V^'i^ adj. m. firm, faithful, hence 
a) subst. fidelity, -j^N; ^^tj'piji God of 
faithfulness Is. 65, 16, comp. Apoc. 
3, 14; P) adv. truly Jer. 28, 6, cer- 
tainly, chiefly as confirmation at the 
end of sayings Num. 5, 22, Ps. 41, 14. 
Hence djxiQV often in Bib. Gr., Neh. 
5, 13, but Sept. mostly Yevolxo so 
be it! Ps. 72, 19; r. "(lax I. 

I'^^SSl m. truth, faithfulness, Is. 
25, 1*; r. )^^ I. 

nj /-JIS* (r. "i^sjl) f. 1) fixedness, hence 
allowance, i. e. wages Neh. 11, 23; 
firmness i. e. a compact Neh. 10, 1. 
2) pr. n. of a mountain ridge of An- 
tilibanus (Talm. 'i'iiaN:) Cant. 4, 8; 
hence also name of a river 2 K. 5, 12 

(novr^J>iyl Barodi, Greek Xpocro^- 

^oaO because it flowed down from 
'Amana. The K'thibh in 2 K. 5, 12 
has f^SS!^ (a and a being often inter- 
changed). — The name may refer to 
the mountain's firmness or the river's 
perennial fiow. 

nj^JJ^ (only pi. ni3i3&<) f. columns, 
pillars' 2 K. 18, 16; r. "(^X I. 

T : T 

515^)^ ('omwa, from pk) f. 1) 
hringing up, fostering, Est. 2, 20. 
2) for fiJ^X (Jdmnd'm) as adv. <rM?y 
Josh. 7, 20. 

nS^i? 2 K. 12, 1 6 for rt iiax /Jcfe/ify. 

liD^jy; pr. n. m. (faithful) 2 Sam. 
3, 2. Cf. 'i13''^X. 

D553S, DJ^JXCfrom 'j'9b<)adv. frw?y, 
certainly 3 db 34, 12, Gen. 18, 13. 

WtDb^ f. 1) perh. as sing, of 
riaiok in 2 K. 18, 16 columns, posts. 
2) fostermother'Rnth. 4, 16; r. "jiaxl. 

yxjn, Dan, ba^jprop. ^0 &e sAarp, 
hence to be alert, strong; used of 
the feet, to be swift (comp. yti<); 
of the mind, to be dauntless 2 Ch. 
13, 18; w. "jia fo be stronger than, to 
prevail over. Gen. 25, 23. — Pi. 
1) to make firm, i. e. stiff and un- 
bending, e. g. ^^^v^^^ y^-^'^ ^^ 

thou shalt not make thy heart hard, 
1. e. obstinate Deut. 15, 7; to make 
strong, i.e. establish e.g. a house 2Ch. 
24, 13, heaven Prov. 8, 28; to make 
courageous, bold, through assistance 
given, Deut. 3, 28; to confirm, e. g. 
the sinking knees, Job 4, 4; 2) to set 
off or pick out, to select, e. g. t3'i!!<;"')3 
the son of man (i. e. Israel) lohom 
thou hast chosen (n^^!!<) for thyself 
Ps. 80, 18; w. a to select among Is. 
44, 14. — Hiph. to act courageously 
Ps. 27, 14. — Hitli. to shew one- 
self bold, alert, hence of alertness 
1 K. 12, 18, of firm resolve Ruth 
1, 18. Hence Y^12\< and 

y'53ij (pi. d'^S^X) adj. m. active, 
fleet, used of horses in Zech. 6, 3, 7; 
but others refer it here to some strong 
colour, e. g. deep red (after the Sept. 
TTU^^oi in some texts), as if we had 
y^Tan, which see under yxili. 

47 -17^1$ 

y^5^ m. bravery, strength, only in 
Job 17,' 9; r. y^X. 

yiSH, Y^JJ^, see Y^^^' 

ir^"^ (r. y?5<) f. strength, only 
in Zech. 12, 5. 

^"112^ pr. n. m. (brave) Neh. 11, 12. 

n;5?^-2J$, ^n^ST'^y: pr. n. m. 
(strength of fn^) kiiig of Judah, B. C. 
840-11, 2 K.\2, 22; 14, 1. 

I/2CS I (prob. mimetic, see ^^lal; 
cf. our mumble, murmur) fut. ^ait"» 
w. disjunct, accent and in pause, but 
^/a!!<'si with conjunct, accent and 1 
consec. ,1 p. sing. laX, inf. c. "nax, 
'nbijisi, ^T2^ (always for ^afi<^), 1) to 
say; differing from ^3"n to speak, ^^6t 
being almost always followed by what 
is spoken, which 'na'ndoes not require, 
e. g. Lev. 1, 2 speak ^3'n to Israel 
and say Tp^^) to them (here follows 
what is to be said). So *ni3itb,lit. 
for to say i. e. saying = namely, is 
used as a formula of quotation, 
where then the very expression 
follows Ex. 6, 10 or the ace. of 
what is said Jer. 14, 17, which latter 
but rarely appears to be omitted, 
e. g. Gen. 4, 8 Cain said (it, namely 
what God had spoken to him in 
v. 7), where the Samar. adds fnsVa 
M^iaii let us go to the field and the 
Sept. oieXGwfAEV eU to tteSigv. — The 
person to whom one says a thing 
is put w. ^X or ^ Gen. 3, 16. 17; 
also ©/"whom 2 K. 19, 32, Gen. 20, 
13, Ps. 3, 3; or w. ace. as in Gen. 
43, 27 your aged father DPi'n?3!St nm 
whom ye said, i. e. ye spoke of; hence 
w. V to name or call Is. 5, 20, so 
*yn'Oik named Mic. 2, 7; also as the 
context requires, it may be to admon- 
ish Job 36, 10; to promise 2 Ch. 
32, 24; to praise Ps. 40, 11; to an- 
nounce Ex. 19, 25. 2) to think Ex. 




2, 14, elliptically for the full ex- 
pression :i\52i "ia!S; to say in the 
heart i. e. meditate Gen. 17, 17, Ps. 
4, 5 (cf. cpYjfxi in Homer). 3) to com- 
mand, chiefly in later Heb. as Est. 
1, 17, in 1 K. 11, 18 i^ -iaj< onb he 

' ' ' - T vr.' 

ordered bread for him. — Niph. 
*iax3 to be said, w. h, b^^ to somebody 
Num. 23, 23, Ez. 13, 12; w. h also 
to be named Hos. 2, 1; ib-*ia5<"i ttj'i'ip 

' ' V IT" 't 

holy shall be said to him i.e. he shall 
be called Is. 4, 3. "nax;^ (impersonally) 
it is said, esp. in quotation Gen. 
10, 9, Num. 21, 14. — Hiph. to cause 
to say, w. the ace. e. g. irj'^ias^yn He has 
made thee say, i. e. has pledged 
thee, Deut. 26, 18. — Hith. *i5fl5<nn 
to boast or lift up oneself "Ps. 94, 4; 
but this might belong to *iaN; 11. 

IQiNn (obs. unless perh. in Ps. 
94, 4) to be high; akin by metathesis 
to d^isj (cf. b?b = dbb) and dNi'n. 
Hence ^'^ax, ''^bX; perh. also the 
title Emir, denoting eminence^ used 
of princes. 

IaJCS Chald., 3 fem. ln"naj? for 

nti^!?*, fut.''ia5<.':, inf. ^-qm-q, ^-q-q 1) to 
say, by mouth Dan. 2, 25 or by 
writing Dan. 7, 2j part. pi. 'j'^'^^ij 
saying they are, i. e. it is said Dan. 

3, 4. 2) to command Dan. 2, 46. See 
the Heb. na^^ I. 

- T 

"n^K poet, (in sing, only w. suf. 
i"iaj< Job 20, 29, pi. D'l'^'3^^, c. ^y^'HC) 
m. i.q. ^aj*, \) a saying, ivord, utter- 
ance, hi< '''n^i< if^orcZs of God Num. 
24, 16; ^S'^ '''n'3i< 103 Ae ^ave beau- 
tiful utterances (poetic eflPiisions) 
Gen. 49, 21, 1. e. he spoke with grace; 
cf. ^^aii, ni'ia, n?^, •nj^y:, nas*, dsb 'in:oi<. 
2) utterance = 6eAes^, bjia llpj^ nbVi3 
<Ae portion of his behest from God, 
i. e. his divinely appointed lot Job 
20, 29; r. ^a^ I. 

"I^^il Chald. (pi. )'^y2i<) m. lamb,. 
prop, for IteSJ wool- bearer, cf. L. 
laniger (from na?) = Heb. ^ast w;oo?), 

Ezr. 6, 9. Syr. jj^f, Arab. ^[, 

Zam&; prob. hence dfxvo;. 

^^K pr. n. m. (perh. tall, r. nai!*. 
11) Jer. 20, 1. 

"^^^ (poet.) m. 1) a word, poetic 
speech (cf. ejio;) Ps. 19, 4, song of 
victory (Ittivixiov) Hab. 3, 9. 2) 
promise Ps. 77, 9. 3) Uke ^3"n a 
matter or fAtw^ Job 22, 28; r. ^DfiJ I. 

123^^ (obs., r. "n^N; H) m. height, 
mountain range, hence gentilia 

»Tl52ij;(c.n:ia5<,^iaN, c. nSax;. 
r. 'laxl) f. utterance Vs. 18, 31,. 
poetic speech, a song Gen. 4, 23. 

^T}"^^. f. i. q. f^'^?i<, only Lam. 
2, 17. ' ' 

naJ^ pr. n. m. (mountaineer or 
highlander) Amorite, a Canaanitish 
race of people on what was subse- 
quently the Mountains of Judah Gen.. 
48, 22. Sept. 'Afxof ^aiot; their land is 
named in Josephus AjAwpiTK;, 'AfJio- 
p(a. Prob. from ^bVi, r. *ia5< H. 

^'^laSl pr. n. m. (prob. eloquent, 
r. ^ax I) Neh. 3, 2. 

^TT^^:^ ^Ht?^^: P^- n- «i- (pro- 
mise of }n^; cf. Geocppaaroi;) 1 Ch. 5, 

37; 2 Ch.\9, 11. 

53^^2]J^ pr. n. m. of a king of 
Shinar Gen. 14, 1; perh. for bB^^t 
for t\'^m = &]•?!&< (tj'ij^) w. a inserted 
for the Dagh. f., w. b-^- as dimin. 
ending; cf. A^^aira^iTi;, a region 
of northern Assyria, also *iTU3"B'nij: 
proper name of a Shemite. 

w/3CN (obs.) akin to 'd^T2,topass: 
away. Hence 




123'^5< m. prop, of time, ly-gone, 
past, hence \) yester-night^ last flight 

(cf. Arab, j-ol ems, yesterday) used 
as adv. Gen. 19, ^^\ yesterday in 2 K. 
9, 26, opp. ^na = "inx? after-day i. e. 
to-morrow. 2) wi^^f in general, only 
Job 30, 3 iiKl^ uipH f7«e m^M o/* 
desolation, i. e. nightlike wastes, as 
Kimchi, Eashi and other Eabbis ex- 
plain ; r. ^^!!<. 

ri^K (for n3^i<, w. suff. I'nDX: r. 

V V; V I" -:' • ": ' 

yQ)< I) f. firmness Ps. 19, 10, hence 
1) certainty Josh. 2, 12. 2) /aifA- 
fulness Is. 59, 14, fnt//i Gen. 42, 16, 
trueheartedness Gen. 24, 49, usually 
in connection w. IbJi, fclVyJ. See pi< I. 

.. ,...7 X I - T 

XTinri/JISl (only c. and w. suf. 
"inrIna^<:, pi. c. ninPitax) f. a sack or 
bag Gen. 42, 27; perh. prop, cloth, 
from nna fo spread out, like r^riESMr) 
cZoaA: from MBa; cf. p'O. 

^^^^ pr. n. m. (truthful, from 
riiai* w. adj. ending "•-:-) Jon. 1,1; 
where the Syr. has «^^^ Max&aToi;, 
as if they took ^n^ for ^lr\'Q^. 

^yr02^ Chald. adj. f. for n'^3Pl73X 

• T : V "f • T : v 

(r. lO^a) strong, powerful, perh. i<;e//- 
hipped, from "J^Sl^^ Aips, regarded as 
the seat of strength, Dan. 7, 7; on 
the use here of the masc. form for 
the fem. see on '^'inx. 

• t: t 

"iH interrog. adv. where? whither? 
1 Sam. 10, 14, in the Targ. for 'i&<, 
shortened for "^Ji^ (cf. ym and "im), 
hence -(Xia ivhence? 2 K. 5, 25; ']i<■'^? 
ttwfi^ ivhen? hoiu long? Job 8, 2. 
Earely for Siix which see below. 

"ji^, see "jli^ . 

5<55^ Chald. Dan. 2, 8, oftener "Tu^ 
pron. 1 pers. i. q. Heb. '^SS J. In 
Dan. 7, 15 l^3^^ ^TA^ lit. my spirit I 
(i. e. even mine), the fi5K used for 
emphasis; see Gram. § 121, 3. 

&^5^ (also hSK Jon. 1, 14) ^annB, 
for St3"nx, interj. of intreaty, ah now! 
ah I pray thee! at the beginning of 
a sentence Ex. 32, 31 where the 
merely enclitic fit3 cannot stand. In 
very pressing intreaties the J!<3 can 
be repeated Gen. 50, 17. 

n^pjJjl Chald. Dan. 4, 9, see ax. 
5>^!3^< Chald., see r. 5>'^^ 
•^5^ pron. /, see N3X. 

lnjJ|^ interrog. adv. ivhither? (prop. 
where-ward? from IX w. h-^ local) 
in double questions, il^i<) — Wa"'^N 
ivhence? — and whither? Gen. 16, 8, 
or )'y^->2i\ — nsx whither? — and 
whence? Judg. 19, 17, or nsj*"] — "^ab 
to whom? — and whither? Gen. 32, 
18; Jn35<"'i? till when? how long? 
Ex. 16, 28. Some texts have n5x 
for n^^t in Ps. 139, 7. — Without 

T IT ' 

interrog. nsx") Ji3X hither and thither 
1 K. 2, 36.^42. 

I^"^^ i. q. n35<, from IX w. h— 

V IT ^ T it' It » 

for n-p loc. 2 K. 5, 25. 

n JCS I mimet. akin to n_3S<, "jSnil, 

•JSK, p3X, ^0 sigh, to lament Is. 3, 
26. Hence •i^3i<, n*3XFl; cf. av?a. 

T • i' T • -: - ' 

nJCN n (Qal obs.) akin to 

T T 

iisrt I, h3S> in, to hoio or incline, 

T T ' T T ' ' 

hence fo »wee^ or approach; hence 
perh. Jn&^ MJi</i (for nsx). — Pi. ri|i< 
prop, to make something tend or 
incline some way, hence (said of 
God) to cause to occur Ex. 21, 13. 
— Pu. to he made to occur, to befall 
Prov. 12, 21; Ps. 91, 10. — Hitll. to 
seek (for oneself) opportunity or oc- 
casion, w. b against somebody 2 K. 
5, 7. — Hence r^3^<n, n3J<n. 

' T -: -' T -: 

i IJiS in obsol. in Semitic but 

T T 

prob. akin to veo), to swim or /?ort#, 


+ IT 


L. no, Bret, neui, "W. novio, Sans. 
niv] perhaps akin to "jsii fish, i. e. 
swimmer; hence '^SN, iT"5K. 

' • t:' T • t: 

nSi^ Jon. 1, 14: 4, 2: see t<2&^. 

T IT ' J > J X IT 

^^^. pers. pron. ive, only in 
K'thibh of Jer. 42, 6, where the Q'ri 
has the common formisriiij, but the 
former is better here; hence the 
suffixes ^13-7-, ^3-7-, ^5-;7-, and the 
afformative ^3 — e. g. sij^iap. 

"fl^i^ Chald. pers. pron. m., 'j'^SK 
f. i. q. Heb. dfi, ''^, they Dan. 2, 44; 
7, 17; from "J^in, *jiil and the prefixed 
demonstrative particle liS; = "Jii. 

12Ji3i< (= Chald. 11J5&5, whence 

v; T v. ' 

perh. pi. b'^^aJS?, c. '^uisx; but see 
Note on ui'^ist) m. 1) human being, 
like d'i&5, but only in poetry; rarely 
for man as individual as in Job 5, 17, 
usually collective (hence without a 
pi. form) for mankind Deut. 32, 26; 
poet. llJ'iSi^-'ja Ps. 144, 3. Often in 
poetry w. the accessory notions a) of 
the crowd (cf. oyXoz, = L. vulgus), 
hence lUl'iS^ ^Tl*^? w?. o, vulgar stylus 
Is. 8, 1, i. e. in the popularly le- 
gible writing; ^) base men Job 25, 
6; Ps. 8, 5. But the meanings a and 
P do not necessarily belong to the 
proper sense of UiisK; see Ps. 8, 6. 
2) pr. n. m. (a man) Enosh Gen. 
4, 26. 

riJCS (Qal obs.)akintorj55<I,']5r; 
n, p3fi<, only Niph. nsxa to lament, 
to moan, 66apeaGai, w. ^2? Ez. 9, 4 
or w. 1^ Ex. 2, 23 of the object for 
which one mourns, also absolute 
Lam. 1,4; said of animals Joel 1, 18. 

♦^^^3^. (w. suf. "'nnaj^, pi. ninsjt) 

f. complaint Ps. 102, 6; sigh Ps. 31, 
11. In Is. 21, 2 r^nn^^<-^3 a// /^er 
sighing i. e. caused by her, the 
suf. should have Mappiq, J^— ;r.n^X. 
i^5ni3Nj Chald. pers. pron. 1. q. 

Heb. ililnSH, we Dan. 3, 16; also in5r;35< 
Ezr. 4, 16. 

Mjnjl^ pers. pron. 1 pi. com. we\ 
once !155< Jer. 42, 6. As in all pers. 
pronouns, an (—SIX) is prob. a de- 
monstr. prefix, and ^isr; is perh. equal 
to >13!S, w. the prosthetic letter T\ har- 
dened for N, like the Chald. 'i5t!=1?^- 
The .shortened form siihS (Gen. 42, 
11) occurs but 6 times. 

'^ T --^^ P^'* ^- ^' (perh. panting) a 
city in Issachar Josh. 19, 19; see 1Ii5. 

^'ji^Xin pause 'i3!}<)pers. pron. 1 p. 
com. /, from '1-;— (a form for I still 
retained as a suffix) w. demonstr. 
pref. an. Usually in the nom. case 
(J), rarely in oblique cases {my, me) as 
explained in Gram. § 121, 3. See ''Sbx. 

^5^ m. ship, mostly collective ship- 
ping, a fleet, 1 K. 9. 26; no plural. 
Very rarely a ship, and then treated 
as if fem. e.g. in 1 K. 10, 22; U'^^ i5!J< 

o ' ' • 1- • t: 

oar-ship Is. 33, 21. — The etym. is 
doubtful; but it may be from rtSUt 
ni; cf. vau^, L.waws, Sans. waws, Pel's. 
5^U, Arab. (^^'^, Ger. nachen. 

•^^?§ (Pl. t^'i''???, once K'thibh 
ni^5i&< 2 Ch. 8, 18) i. a ship Jonah 1. 
3 ; a noun of unity, therefore taking 
the plural Gen. 49, 13. 

In^5^ f. sighing, lamentation Lam. 
2, 5; cf. dcvia; r. n3i< I. 

^})^ Chald. they; see 'J*l3i<. 

U^^^jNI pr. n. m. (the people's 
sighing) i Ch. 7, 19. 

^ JC^ (obs.) perh. to be pointed or 
sharp. Hence perhaps 

t|5K m. perh. some pointed tool or 
instrument used in building, an awl 
or graver, for marking and designing 
(comp. 1''^^); hence in the Sept. and 
Symmachus aod(xa(; (steel point), used 
for engraving, cf. Chald fc^ip^St, Svu^. 

!• T 

51 1S5i< 

Only in Amos 7, 7 r^^^? main ?fJaZ/ o/" 
<Ae graver, i. e. built by plan and 
measure; v. 8 I set the graver (sc. 
of desolation) in the midst of my 
people, i. e. I will destroy utterly, as 
if by plan and measure. But most take 
T|3^^ here for tin or lead (Sans, ndga 
or vanga), and hence jp^wmwef, which 
suggests substantially the same mean- 
ing in this very obscure passage; 
■comp. Is. 34, 11. 

^'pD^^Cin pause 'i^blj) personal pron. 
com. gend. J, the primary and fuller 
form belonging to the ancient period 
of the language, and hence oftener 
found in the Pentateuch, but in later 
writings e. g. Ezekiel, Chronicles, it 
gives place, w. few exceptions, to the 
shorter form ''SH. — It is formed like 
the Coptic AN OK from the demonstra- 
tive particle an, and the wide spread 
pronom. form6A;i, Sax. ic, Dutch ik, 
Ger. ich, i-^in, L. ego, E. I, Sans. aham\ 
see Gram. § 32, Note on Kem. 1. 

I J5^ i. q. rxy», I, only Hitli. ^t^T^ 
to htmoan oneself JjQxn.Z, 39; ^o mur- 
mur Num. 11, 1; Sept. YOYYuCeiv. 

U JCS akin to T1J5S, Syr. aajf,prop. 
to press, to urge, hence to force, only 
in Est. 1, 8. Cf. Syr. wiaxaJ, avajjo), 

DjSS Chald. i. q. Heb. G5i<, only 
in Dan. 4, 6 no secret presses thee, 
i. e. troubles. 


JC\ (fut. t)2!*;:) prop, to breathe 
through the nose, to pant or snort 
through anger, hence to be angry, 
w. a at somebody 1 K. 8, 46 ; Ps. 85, 6 ; 
absolutely Ps. 2, 12. — Hith. to be 
angry, w. 3 of person against whom, 
Deut. 1, 37. — This root is mimet. 

akin to nxQ, nsiB, nsi, uiss, 5]^3; 

irveo), L. paveo, E. patit, blow, 
breathe, puff, snuff, G. schnauben, 
or some such sounds in all tongues, 
expressive of breathing and often also 
anger or temper; cf. I[jitcv£(ov (XTtei- 
X^(;xal(p6vou Acts 9,1. — Hence t\^Tl 

nose, anger, Syr. j-ajf (pi. ]^}) face^ 
Arab. «-fti|. 

S] J!S Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. &)?!*. 

t|?JSl Chald. (only pi. 'j'^B3S<, w. suf. 
^^iB;^c) m. face, prop, the nostrils 
of man Dan. 2, 46; i. q. Heb. d^BX. 

n35!5^ f. name of an unclean bird 

TT -: 

Lev. 11, 19, Deut. 14, 18; so called 
from its hard breathing or hissing, 
when provoked, hence angry bird\ 
according to the Sept. sandpiper {yji- 
paSpiOi;); others say the heron \ 
others the parrot, as in the Arab, 
version; r. t]3&J. 

pJCN (fut. p55*^) prop, to cry w. 
anguish,henceto groan, of the wound- 
ed Ez. 26, 15. — Niph. to sob, sigh 
Ez. 24, 17. — Mimet. and akin to 
n3J<, pin, p55. Cf. 5yX"*» ^- ^'^ffO, Dan. 
and Swed. anJcen, Ger. enge, W. yng, 
E. anguish. Hence 

(TliJJISt (c. np3&5) f. 1) a cry of an- 
guish, moaning Ps. 79, 11, Mai. 2, 13. 
2) perh. a kind of lizard ^ so name 1 
from its cry Lev. 11, 80; cf. ns 2. 


yCN I (Qal only in part. ^^3S:) 
to be evil, dangerous, deadly, of an 
incurable disease or wound Job 
34, 6; fig. of grief Is. 17, 11; of an 
evil day Jer. 17, 16; morally 
of the heart Jer. 17, 9. — Nipli. 
to be dangerously ill, sick unto death, 
2 Sam. 12, 15. — Akin to d-IS, 

<»aJ , wXU, Arab. jS^; voaso), Sans. 
nag, L. noceo, P. nuire, "W. nuweid. 


JCN n (obs.) perh. akin to UTOX 




to he strong. Hence, perhaps, ^I'SSjf, 
Chald. U55X: cf. "ina, "135. 

1233^5 Chald. (def. K^5b^ Dan. 2, 38, 
also ^ii^^^f Dan. 5, 21, &<ii3^^Dan. 4, 13 
K'thibh, pi. d'^uiaxDan. 4, 14) human 
beififf, man, i. q. Heb. ^^^J. See 
Note on U3''^{. 

D^lfiDijI m. men-, pi. of xii^i< which 
see: also of Chald. Vii< in Dan. 4,14. 

' T v: ' 

II JffS (obs.) perh. akin to SiSfiJ to 
incline to, to meet. Hence perh. tn^^HI 

prep, loith for T\)^\^/, cf. Arab. Jm* 
to meet. 

nriSi?; Chald. (Q'ri TT]^^) i. q. 
Heb. ^^Pl^f;, pron. 2 p. s. m. thou, Dan. 
2, 29 (from nn + IX; see rtrni<), for 
which iniX in com. gend. is always 

put in the Masoretic Q'ri. Arab. cJl, 
Syr. uf, Maltese ?/nf, Ethiop. an-ef«. 

"l^DDI^ Chald. (i. q. Heb.dPIX) pron. 
2 pers. pi. m. of nj^?!??;, ^e Dan. 2, 8 ; 
in Targum "i^Pli*:, Syr. ,oiJ|, Arab. 

CS w JS (obs.) akin to n^Nt, ^mfo 6e 
strong, hence fo ^ea/. Chald. !Ji&X, Syr. 

|jo|,Arab. U«l; cf.ffa6(o,au>Cto. Hence 

JJ^DX pr. n.m. (healer or physician) 
king of Jndah (B. C. 955—914) 1 K. 
15, 8. 

I i WiN (obs.) perhaps akin to ^*lt to 
trouble, injure, hence "jlbx; cf. Arab. 

^Jl to hurt, perh. xtqoco to vex, L. 
ccedo, Gr. schaden, E. scathe. 

"n^Di^ (r. T\^i<) ni. unguent-flask, 
only 2 k. 4, 2 ; cf. "l^lSN from "i^S. 

■jIDJJj m. trouble, harm Gen. 42, 4; 
r. nDfi<. 

T T 

^^DJ$ (for ^siGX, pi. d'l'l^DX Ecc. 
7, 26) m. bond, fetter Judg. 15, 14; 

"i*ibHfi r\'i3 <Ae fetter-house, prison 
Jer. 37, 15; r. 1&i<. 

*l^Di? Chald. m. same as Heb. llbSt 
bond Dan. 4, 12; r. "iDX. 

tl'^pij (r. ti&i<) m. the in-gathering 
(oUvmt), harvest Ex.23, 16; CT'pSJh lift 
f^e /easf of in -gathering, Ex. 34> 
22. Cf. tji^n, 3'iSi<, "I'l^i, ^'^lii?. 

^I'^piJ (r. "i&i<) m. fettered one^ 
prisoner Job 3, 18, Ps. 68, 7. It 
differs from isi&x, which is more 

T ' 

participial; see Gen. 39, 20. 

I'^SJ^ (intensive form for I^CX) 
m. 1) captive Is. 10, 4. 2) pr. n. m. 
Ex. 6, 24. 

lID2S(obs.) to pour out, toanoiiit; 
akin to T^^D (cf. 15i<='niial), Ti&il, perh. 
T|llii<: deriv. Ti'^ON. 

DptfS (obs.) akin to W^, db;^, fa 
set, to put by; fig. to heap together; cf. 
Chald. "jCX, Syr. ^il. Hence 

DpiJ (only pi. Q^^G!?<) m. sfore- 
houses, granaries Deut. 28, 8, (cf» 

JlDplS^ pr. n. m. (perh. thorn}'^, from 
n.50 after the form 3t=X) Ezr. 2, 50. 

"nSppl^ pr. n. m. of an Assyrian 
Satrap, ' said to be i!C}^'^'1) !^?^ Ezr. 
4, 10. — Perh. from the Zend uhaina 
= osna great (i. e. J^^*^) and par 
prince (i. e. ^^'7'^)5;^); but it may be 
Semitic, akin to Heb. 'bssnin to attack 
(w.b?, Gen. 43, 18); cf.liriTTEaeTvTivu 

WpJlJ pr. n. f. daughter of the 
Egyptian priest Potiphera, wife of 
Joseph, Gen. 41, 45; Sept. 'Aa£ve{>, 
'AasvveO; Copt. AC-NFIT; hence 
ns is = IT^a Neit ('AOyJvY) , Minerva) 
and &X (=\t:*=Sans. as, Kelt, gs, is) 
she is; i. e. she is of Minerva i. e. 
devoted to her. 

D'n3?C5^ Zech. 7, 14 for D^5?D5* 
"-:iT •• ' "-tiT-f 



I fut. Pi. of '^•y see Gram. § 23, 3, 
Bern. 2. 

r|DS, fut.C)b«;^,w.8uf. 'l5£b^t^ w. 

« dropped in tfck 1 Sam. 15, 6 for 
tltXit for S]b^^X Mic. 2, 12 (w. ri-^, 
nspX Mic. 4,' 6) , tlDh Ps. 104, 29 for 
t]DXn for C]b5<n Ps. 26, 9; prop. 
to scrape or sweep together, hence 
1) to gather (fruits) Ex. 23, 10, Ruth 
% 7; (money) 2 K. 22, 4; (wine) Deut. 
16, 13; (people) i.e. to assemble Ex. 

3, 16; w. b? 2 K. 22, 20 or w. bx Gen. 
42, 17 of the place to which. 2.) to 
gather or draw up, e. g. the feet 
Oen. 49, 33; to with -draw e. g. the 
hand 1 Sam. 14, 19, light or bright- 
ness Joel 2, 10. 3) to gather to one- 
self, to receive Deut. 22, 2, Josh. 20, 

4. Hence to restore i. e. to heal a 
leprous person so as to be again 
received into society 2 K. 6, 3; to 
gather up or keep together (said of 
a marching army, cf. L. agmen clau- 
dere), i. e. to bring up the rear, Is. 
.58, 8. 4) ^0 gather in or fafce away; 
thou gatherest or taJcest back tJieir 
life Ps. 104, 29; God gathers my 
reproach, i. e. he takes away Gen. 
30, 23. — Nipll. qGW 1) prop, to 
gather oneself, hence to be gathered, 

w. bx (Lev. 26, 25), w. h (2 Ch. 30, 3), 
w. b? (2 Sam. 17, 11) of the place to 
which; w. br also against somebody 
Gen. 34, 30. 2) to be taken away, in 
death e. g. Gen. 49, 29 "ia^'-PS r,&X5 he 
was gathered to his people, also 
^^nnn^-bx Judg. 2, 10 (comp. Num. 
20, 26) i. e. to betake oneself to 
them (inbiityj, Sept. qcOTf);, the realm 
of the departed), distinct from 
mere burial Gen. 25, 8; hence to 
vanish, to perish Is. 16, 10. 3) to 
be received back, i. e. restored, said 
of a healed leper Num. 12, 14, of 
exiles Is. 11, 12. 4) to be put back 

of the sword Jer. 47, 6. — Pi. to 
gather diligently Is. 62, 9 ; to take in 
or entertain hospitably Judg. 19, 18; 
to bring up the rear, to hold troops 
together Num. 10, 25. — Pu. to be 
gathered together Is. 33, 4; w. b? 
against Hos. 10, 10; n£b>{ ^m'».they 
are gathered in croivds Is. 24, 22. — 
Hi til. to gather themselves together, 
Deut. 33, 5. — tlt^< is prob. mimet, 
akin to t]>lb, S]t^, HBG, all expressive 
of shaving, sweeping, scraping to- 
gether; cf. L. scabo, G. schaben. 

jrjDJ^ pr. n. m. (assembler) chief 
singer and poet in David's time 
(1 Ch. 6, 24) Asaph, whose descendants 
even in Nehemiah's days were still 
singers, Neh. 7, 44; r. tjbX. 

tp^ (only pi. ts'^SSGN, c. 'iBbX) m. 
gatherings, d^Bbxri n^a house of the 
stores, i. e. store-house 1 Ch. 26, 15; 
d''"i5^ "iBbX stores of the gates Neh. 

tp^ (pi. c. "iBbX Mic. 7, 1) m. 
leasing, in-gathering {oi crops), har- 
vest, Is. 32, 10, fig. b^&nrt '&< 33, 4 
the locusVs harvest i. e. locust-eaten. 

nSDN| (r. fi&X) f. gatheHng to- 
gether, assemblage or crowd, Is. 24, 
22, where it serves as adverb. 

nSpi^ Mic. 4, 6, see r. qbN. 

nSDN; (only in pi. niS&N) assem- 
blies, n'lBpiJ^ ''V^a masters i. e. (mem- 
bers) of assemblies i. e. of the wise 
(D''psh) Ecc. 12, 11, orperh. masters 
of collections, i. e. compilers or 
authors of books. 

D^BC!^., see fjOwX. 

^SD& 1 Sam. 15, 6, 1 fut. Qal, 
but in 2 K. 22, 20 part. Qal," of qDwNt, 
w. suf. 2 p. sing. 

ClpS?lS| m. prop, crowd of people 
of all sorts or from all quarters scraped 
together, hence used of a mixed 




multitude, only in Num. 11,4 t^&Bbitrt 
(w. K quiescent) the rabble. Redupli- 
cated form (cf. our riff-raff) like 
VnbnQ, ^n^nui: cf. a^ :sn5) Ex. 

12, 38. 

i^D'^BDH Chald. adv. diligently, 
carefully, speedily Ezr. 5, 8; Sept. 
4toi{ji(Oi;, iirifxeXuii;, ItciSI^iov. — 
Said to be of Persian origin us-parna 
(perfectly); but perb. it is Semitic, 
from *1B& in Apbel or Hiph. form, 
w. old adj. or adv. ending i<5 — (cf. 
rii*|jj!5<); so also perh. from ypacpo) 
we may best derive axpiptb^. 

5^f\S3plSl (Pers.) pr. n. m. Est. 9, 7 
(cf. 'AaTcaSaxrji;, 'Aaira8y)(; asaPer- 
sian name, Diod. Sic. II. 33) perb. 
from asp(borse)and da=ddta (given), 
horse-given i. e. gift of tbe god Bra- 
mab who bad tbe form of a borse. 

iDCS (fut. ^b&<'i or ^DN'i, w. suf. 

and pref. IJll^t^^?^; inf. w. V, ^bitb, 
^bxb, part. pass. d'^TiWi = d^i^iibJ^ln 
Ecc. 4, 14) akin to *Ti!S;, *^1^, 1) to 
bind together, to fetter, to hold captive, 
tbougb not bound 2 K. 17, 4; fig. 
bound by tbe fetters of love Cant. 
7, 6; 'V['o^ prisoner Gen. 40, 3. 2) to 
fasten, e. g. tbe foal to (^) tbe vine 
Gen. 49, 11; to yoke fast or harness, 
e. g. tbe kine to tbe cart 1 Sam. 6, 7 ; 
hence to make ready or prepare (a 
carriage) Gen. 46, 29; i^^tj'^'n 'nbij 
to join battle 1 K. 20, 14; fig. to pro- 
mise solemnly, in a vow of absti- 
nence, e.g. iuisr'b^ n&i!< ^bt^^ to bind 
a restraint on himself, i. e. to take 
on oneself a solemn engagement not 
to do (opp. 'TiJ to vow to do) Num. 
30, 3. Cf. Chald. "iblJ^ (to bind) to 
forbid, "TiflN (to loosen) to allow. — 
Niph. n&vN^S to be fettered Judg.16, 6; 
to be held captive Gen. 42, 16. — Pu. 
to be taken captive in war Is. 22, 3. 

"^T^ (perh. restramt) found in 
Assyrian pr. names, as in ^b!>?^Si. 

^DN;, 1&5J!l(c. St. 'n&yt, w. suf. 
I'n'n&x, pi. n'l'nCiN;) m. vow of absti' 
nence, restraint, inhibition Num. cb» 
30; ^&i< n^n^ Num. 30, 14 oath of 
abstinence ; r. 'n&!J<. 

^5^ Chald. (c. 1bi<, def. X'ibi*) m. 
prohibition, interdict, Dan. 6, 8; 
Sept. 6pia|JL6^, SoYjxa. 

'ji'nin"'nDi5 pr. n. m. (Sept. and 
Euseb. 'AaopSav; Tob. 1, 21 ^a^ep- 
Sovoi, Alex. 2a^£pSu)v; Joseph. 
^jaapa^oSoa^, Na^opSa^), king of 
Asysria after Sennacherib (about 
B. C. 696) 2 K. 19, 37, Is. 37, 38. — 
Prob. Semitic from '^&^5 (^^?^) re- 
straint and li'nri (r. Tirt) sharp; hence 
perh. sharp disciplinarian. 

O'lfe^? Hos. 10, 10, 1 fut. Qal of 
^b;', as'^'if l&S, Gram. § 71. 

"^X^jO^ pr. n. f. (Pers. 8;UU*, sitareh, 
Sans. siri,6iaTrip,'L.astrum,Ger.sternf 
E. star, Breton steren, W. seren; cf. 
Sn'nh^^) wife of Abasuerus (Xerxes) j 
she was before named i^'o'i'n (myrtle) 
Est. 2, 7; Sept. 'EaOrjp, ^Esther. 

3^i} Chald. m.=Heb.'}^'3J, tcood Dan. 
5, 4, Ezr. 5, 8; 5< and 5>, S> and S 
being often interchanged, as shown 
under each of these letters. 

fjiJ^ I conjunctive particle, same- 
p -- 

as Syr. wsj, Chald. t\i<, Arab. >-?, also; 

denoting generally additio7i, acces- 
sion (of something greater or more 
important), hence too, yea morCy. 
even, also (comp. da w. like force). 
It adds emphasis e. g. d573i*-!:)fi< 
yea truly Job 19, 4; it ex- 
presses augmentation e. g. to thee 
belongs the day nb';ib '^ Sr]5< and 
(added to that) to thee the night P&. 
74, 16; thou art beautiful, my beloved. 




and (in addition to that) gracious 
Cant. 1, 16. — Compounds: D^TJX 
added to which, yea also Lev. 26, 44; 
■^STiy! added that, yea more that 
Hab. 2, 5, in Gen. 3, 1 for ^S) qKTi 
is it even (i. e. can it "be) that God 
hath said? Hence (like L. nedum), 
after an affirmative clause, how 
much more 2 Sam. 4, 11, but after 
a negative, hoio much less Job 25, 6. 
— ClN is prob. from &]SX, akin to 11 
AooA; (whence the conj.1), to Saxxs.ubh, 
ap (to join), Gicpo), oLTzxto, Ger. haften. 

t^ II (for t]:fi<, r. fl5N); w. suf. 
•^BX, dual d'^BX, no pi.) m. prop. 
breathing, hence the member by 
which we breathe, the nose Num. 
11, 20; also anger, t\i< W'n breath of 
the nose, i. e. the violent breathing 
of a passionate person, Job 4, 9; 
often in the dual d'^BX, 1) prop. 
the nostrils Gen. 2, 7, but mostly fig. 
anger, as in d*]B^^ 'r]"^5< slow of anger, 
i. e. long-suffering Ex. 34, 6; ^2p 
C^B!?? short (i. e. quick) of anger, 
impatient Prov. 14, 17. 2) the face 
(a part for the whole) Gen. 3, 19, 
e. g. ii^'li< D'^BX the face to the ground 
Gen. 19,"' 1; ^ri 'iBxb 1 Sam. 25, 23, 
before the face of David, for the 
usual ''SBK 3) tivo persons (like D'^iB, 
irpoawirov, Jj. persona), 1 Sam. 1, 5 
ts'^BX PtitA n;D owe portion of two 
persons, i. e. a double portion. 4) pr. 
n. m. 1 Ch. 2, 30. 

t^f^ Chald. i. q. Heb. S]i< I, also, too 
Dan. 6, 23. 

Dm^J^SI^ Deut. 32, 26, 1 fut. Hiph. 
of ii&jB w. suf. Dii — ; see Gram. 
§ 76, Rem. 19. 

lSCS(fut. lhl0 to bind, to gird 
round, w. b of person and 2 of ob- 
ject. Lev. 8, 7. — Prob. akin to ns^, 

r'2^, -jns, Arab, oltf {to bind). 

12&5» see niBN. 

TlrlZ^ (c. n:jBX, w. suf. ')TUm: 
r. 1BN) f. 1) a girding or fasten- 
ing on, e. g. I'MBi^t ai;3n girdle of 
its fastening Ex. 28, 8. 2) a covering, 
coating Is. 30, 22. 

'j'lS!^ (w. srlf. iinsx) m. cosffe, 
palace, only in Dan. 1 1, 45 ; Syr. |j|^f . 
— Perh. from ^BX to bind, to arch (cf. 
d^lN, h^ax), formed like ')'^b:£. SeepB. 

nSCS (imp. IBX for IBX Ex. 16, 

23, futyrTB5<-i, once sinshl 1 Sam. 28, 
24) trans, to bake Gen. 19, 3, in Lev. 

24, 5, w. double ace. (see Gram. 
§ 139, 2); n£5< baker Gen. 40, 1, fem. 
pi. niBX 1 Sam. 8, 13; diBXrt ^b 
chief- baker Gen. 40, 2. — Nipli. 
nBi<3 fo 6e baked Lev. 6, 10. — Cf. 
£<|;a>, ^Tcxao), ireTCTw, W. pobu, L. 
popina. Sans, paktas (tueittoi;), G. 
backen, our 6aA:e; also L. coquo. 

nSi^, see nB"iX. 

T •• ' T •• 

^SlS< Ex. 16, 23 imp. Qal for 1BX 
from nsx, cf. Gram. § 23, 3, Rem. 2. 

iSJ;^, KiSJ!^ (from i<B, HB) demons, 
adv. 1) prop, here, but always of 
time (like ttotI), noiv then, in ani- 
mated discourse, e. g. fZo this then 
(IKIBX), wy sow Prov. 6, 3; now then 
(Ibn:), who is he? Job 9, 24. 2) still w. 
the original meaning, similar to h3, 
thus, e. g. Job 24, 25 if not so (1B5<:); 
also affirmative w. IS so, KIBti -,3 dX 
if so noiv Gen, 43, 11. 

liSi<, ISX (c. "IIBX; r. 1BX) m. 
1) covering, used of the upper gar- 
ment of the priests, an ephod, a cope 
Ex. 28, 4; of a king (acting as priest) 
2 Sam. 6, 14; Sept. i'KM\i[c, shoulder - 
garment. 2) idol or image Judg. 8, 
27. 3) pr. n. m. Num. 34, 23. 

TSCS (obs.) perh. i. q. Arab.)3l, to 
spri?ig up, to be high; see TBIit 




nScS (obs.) akin to WB, ns;", to 
puff, to pant. Hence 

n'^BK pr. n. m. (panting) 1 Sam. 9, 1. 

b'^SK (r. ^BX) adj. m., n^'^BS^ f. 
prop, drooping, hence bending down 
in the stalk, late, unripe, Ex. 9, 32. 

d'^Bi^, see C]^^ II. 

P^'SISJ I adj. m. strong, powerful, 
hence subst. d'lp'lB^^ strong ones, fig. 
miwna '^P^'S^ bars of copper Job 40, 
is'; r.' pBN:. " 

p^'SJJ n adj. m. (c. p'l&X) flowing, 
hence subst. stream Ps. 42, 2, a 
river-bed Is. 8, 7, sea-bottom 2 Sam. 
22, 16, va/fey (cf. bw) w. a stream 
Ez. 6, 3; perh. from pBiJ I = pa^ fo 
6e deep; but see pBiJ: n. 

p'^S^I pr. n. (fortress) of a city in 
Asher Judg. 1, 31; called also pBlS. 


JUCS (obs.) akin to biJ^, h^^ I, 
prop, to fall or sinJc, as the sun, to 

^ "lis 

set, hence to become dark; Arab. J^ I; 
also said of plants, to be drooping or 
tender; hence 

555J adj. m. sunless, dark, e. g. 
the day Am. 5, 20. 

555^ m. sunset, darkness, Job 3,6; 
fig. concealment Ps. 11, 2; mischance 
Job 23, 17. 

ri^SNl (r. bBi<:) f. darkness, gloom 
Ex. 10, 22 (cf.^Bk), w. I^Yh Prov. 
7, 9; opp. ^^y}:^ Is! 58, 10; r. bsij. 

55S]^ pr. n. m. (prob. judgment) 
1 Ch^ 2,* 37; r. b^B. 

ly iS (obs.) akin to !i5B I, to turn, 
to revolve; hence 

■jSijt (pi. w. suf. l-iiBN: for l-^iBX 
m. around, a turn{^. TrspioSo^), 
season, 1'i3B5<"b5> in'n 'nn'n a word 

' T ; T - ■. T T T 

spoken in its turns, i. e. in due 
season, only Prov. 25, 11. 

■jBi^, see -(Bix. 

wSN i. q. DbB fo e«(f, fo fail, to 
vanish (cf. din) Gren. 47, 15; hence 

DB5< (dual d^&B5<, c. ibBJl:) m. 1) 
end, 'j^'nx ~ '^GBl>< ew^ (extremities) 
of the earth, i. e. distant lands 
Deut. 33, 17; d'^&B5< the two ends 
i. e. the soles of the feet, Ez. 47, 3 
D'^DBlJ^ '^a wafer fAaf covers the soles, 
cf.' d'^sia, d^snia ^a. 2) adv. wof, 
without, prop, subst. nothing, nobody, 
e. g. all her princes are nothing 
(DB^t) Is. 34, 12; is there yet any one 
w. thee? and he said, no one (DBX) 
Am. 6, 10; not, e.g. not C^hli^p OBK) 
from with me i. e. not by my order 
Is. 54, 15; hence dB^^Sl in nothing 
of = uibsi without, e. g. Si^pln dBXS 
without hope Job 7, 6; Tis? dBKti 
nobody more? 2 Sam. 9, 3; dB5<^ of 
or /Vom nothing i. e. as a nothing 
Is. 40, 17; 'la dBi< except that Am. 
9, 8 ; hence only, however, yet Num. 
13, 28. — "^dBi^ Is. 47, 8 same as dBH, ^ 
formed as "^nbiit, Gram. § 90, 3, a. 

D^^*n 05^< pr. n. of a place in 
Judah 1 Sam. 17, 1; see d'^JS'n dQ. 

• ^iN (obs.) to breathe, to blow, 
to hiss; mimet. r. akin to •nS'B, !li<B, 

' T T ' T t' 

nsiB, 5>BS, Arab. ^l5 fo snort, E. fo 
|)W^. Hence 

3^?iJ< (in pause 5>B5<) m. i. q. b^rt, 
breath, hence S^Biftp = TT^^j <^^ly i^^ 
5>BS<^ t3Sb^B yowr ^f?orA; is of breath 
i. e. of nothing, vain, only in Is. 
41, 24, where others read dBi<^ with 
the same idea. 

n^Sl^ m. (f. Is. 59, 5) prop, the 
blowing or hissing one (akin to 'S'S'l), 
hence poisonous serpent Is. 30, 6 ; r. 
5>Bi<: or TOB. — The ending rt-^ may 
be modified for n — ; cf. hSbsJ, STisiT 
and others. 


5»]DCS (poet.) prop, to join on, 
hence to press or crowd, to surround 
w. ace. Ps. 18, 5; w. b? Ps. 40, 13. — 
Prob. akin to 11 hook, Sans, ap, ubh 
(join), Stctco, oi<pco, G. haften: deriv. 

pDcS I (obs.) perh. akin to pa^ 
to be sunken, deep, hence perh. p*'l)!!< 
II valley. 

pDNlI (obs.) perh. akin to pia, 
pp3, perh. hSG I, to pour out, to flow, 
gush forth. Hence prob. p'^BS< II 
stream, also valley; cf. bni 

p2CS akin topSK, P'^Tl,to wind 
or <if;is^, hence to he firm or strong; 
only in Hith. ^0 force oneself, pBNlniJ^l 
nbi^n rt^^&ti and I constrained myself 
(i. e. did myself violence) and offered 
the sacrifice 1 Sam. 13, 12; to control 
oneself Gen. 43, 31; thy compassions 
towards me restrained themselves i. e. 
did not shew themselves Is. 63, 15. 

pSlSl pr. n. (fortress) 1) city in 
Asher, Josh. 13, 4; called also p'^BK 
Judg. 1, 31. 2) city on the east of the 
sea of Galilee, 1 K. 20, 26. 3) city 
in Issachar, near Jezreel, 1 Sam. 4, 1. 

n]jSi5 pr. u. (fortress) of a city in 
Judah Josh. 15, 53 ; r. pBi<. 

iDbs I (obs.) i. q. 1*15, *I*IS3 to 
break, to crumble or pulverize ; hence 

V I" 

*lD^ II (obs.) i. q. "nS^ (= ^B3) to 
cover, where 5> is weakened into &<; 
hence 1SJ5. 

nScS III (obs.) = rrns I to bear, 
to carry; hence t3';i'nBit, 'ji'^'lBX. 

ISISt m. I) ashes, ^vo-p. pulverizing, 
(cf. p'n dust, r. pp'n to be pounded;) 
hence lBX"''Vjj?3 proverbs of ashes 

57 ^^^^^.. 

i. e. worthless Job 13, 12; IBK nsH 
feeding on ashes, i. e. delighting in 
vain things Is. 44, 20, cf. Iil'n »sy, 
^BXl ^B5(mark the paronomasia) (iu8< 
and ashes Job 30, 19, fig. of worth- 
lessness. 2) animal ashes, perh. in 
Num. 19, 9, for 'jUJ'n which is the re- 
gular word for that idea; r. 1BX I. 

^35^^ m. cover, esp. head- cover, 
1 K. 20, 38; r. ^Bi< II.; cf. Chald. 
t^'na^g turban, Syr. JigSV, Arab. 

In'^Si^ (pi. b'^ln— ) m. the young 
(of birds), a nestling Deut. 22, 6; from 
JT^B w. !l< prosthetic. 

"iV^SSl m- litter, 'palanquin, (po- 
petov, L. ferculum, only Cant. 3, 9j 
r. ^B5< in = niQ I. 

- T T T 

Of'il?^ 1) pr. n. m. (fruitfulness ; 
r. JT^B i., w. fct prosth.; cf. Gen. 41,52) 
name of the second son of Joseph, 
Ephraim, who was afterwards the 
head of a tribe, Gen. 41, 52. After 
the division of the kingdom, an 
Ephraimite dynasty Avas for a long time 
at the head, hence Ephraim = Israel, 
Is. 7, 2. 2) name of the territory of 
the tribe, so called after the founder 
Num. 1, 33. 3) mount of Ephraim 
(D^'iBX Irt) extending from the plain 
of Jezreel to the mountains of Judah 
Josh. 17, 15. 4) forest of Ephraim, 
(d^'^BX *i5'^), near Gilead 2 Sam. 18, 6. 
5) pr. n. of a city in the wilderness 
of Judah 2 Sam. 13, 23 = )':^'^^,, 
the 'E^paifi of John 11, 54 and 
'Ecpptbv in Eusebius. 

•^D^SIS; Chald. (def. pi. N^a^lBwX) 
m. Ezr. 4, 9. Inhabitants of a state 
G'nBX in Assyria, perh. for Parrhasia 
in the east of Media, or Prusias 
(Cellar. adPlin.Ep. 10, 15), or better 
Persia (OtiS) w. X prosthetic. 




''5P'^|Kand''5X^D'lSii|Chaia. (def. 
pi. K|^3 — ) pr. n. of a people (or perh. 
two tribes) in Assyria, concerning 
whom nothing is known Ezr. 4, 9. 

In'n5i< Gen. 48, 7, w. Jl — local 
nn^BX; gentilic 'in'nSJt 1) pr. n. m. 
(fruitful) = d^'naj? Ps! 132, 6. 2) pr. 
n. of a city in Judah, Euth 4, 11, 
elsewhere called Dh^ T\^^ Gen. 48, 7 ; 
more fully nn^BX bnj) ty^^ Mic. 5, 1 ; 
hence ''^I'^BJS; an Ephrathite, Beth- 
lehemite l' Sam. 17, 12; pi. d'ir\'nB&^ 
Ruth 1, 2. 3) pr. n. f. of a wife' of 
Caleb and hence perh. the name of 
a place, (hri'lBtf n^3),l Ch. 2, 19. 

AiSJS (obs.) Arab. cJi*] to avert; 
perh. the r. of nBl'a a portent, 

T\B^^ Jer. 20, 7, 1 fut. Niph. apoc. 
for nnsit, from Jins. 

DriSpi?! Chald. adv. in the end, at 
last; prob. for nbsii, from n&5< = &B!j^ 
w. the adverbial ending d-^ — , as in 
dJ<!nQ (but perh. i. q. Pers. *f ji end, 
at last), ptiJiPi d'lsb^ dhs^t) and 
at last thou causest damage to kings, 
only Ezr. 4, 13. 

^i^CS I (obs.) perh. for yiii^ to 

shine, or for S^:y to fashion; hence 
perh. )'^3m. 

^t^C^ n (obs.) perhaps akin to 
ns^ to he willing; hence "jS^iiJ?. 

1 llHifc]^ pr. n. m. (perh. splendour, 
r. i^X i)"l Ch. 7, 7; ^^Jl^ntj? 8, 3. 

iS pr. n. m. (perh. willing, r. 
2^^ n) " Gen. 46, 16;^:t!!<in Num. 

5^5^55 (w. suf. "isia^SK, pi. W3>a:j.x; 
r. 51; :' n w. Jjt prosth.) f. finger Ex. 
31, IB, forefinger Lev. 9, 9; 5)a:£^^ nb:u 
Is. 58, 9 to stretch out the finger, by 
way of mocking (cf. Persius2, 33); fig. 
finger-breadth, i. e. measured across 

the 4 fingers Jer. 52, 21; d'ln^ij^ 'i^ 
finger of God i. e. his power Ex. 8, 15 ; 
31, 18; w. Uib^^l, toe 2 Sam. 21, 20. — 
From 555^ n to catch, take, as in Ger. 
and E. finger is from fang en = O. 
E. feng to catch; cf. 6dxTuXo<;, L. 

digitus, from 6£^-0}Ji,ai. Arab. J^T, 
Syr. pixS ? finger. 

Ji'lSi^UJ Chald. (pi. 'jl^a^f^i) f. finger 
Dan. 5, 5; toe Dan. 2, 41. 

ro^^i^ Ps. 139, 8, 1 fut. Hiph. 
5?^^, w. rt-^ cohort.; Gram. § 71. 

b'^l^JJ (r. ^^5J ; c. pi. "'l?'iSi<) m. prop. 
leaning upon, hence 1) a noble, perh. 
as leaning on his ancestry Ex. 24, 
11. 2) for b^it side, on which some- 

/ Vl" 

thing leans, Y^^^ '^1?''^^ ^^^ ^icZes 
of the earth i. e. its extreme parts 
Is. 41, 9; like ni'^lp. 

b^S?lJ< (pi. c. 'il?'^Si!;<,n1 —Jer. 38, 12) 
m. prop, firmly supported, hence 
joint, e. g. of the hands Jer. 38, 12, 
i. e. the knuckles or perh. elbows 
Ez. 13, 18; r. ^^5<. 

^^iS (obs.) aldn to biSJo lean 

**T« -t' 

on, hence ?:£&<, b'llSl^, ^^S^t. 

' Vl"' • t' 

y^"^. (w. suf. *^\'l'^) m. prop, sup- 
port, si(fe,^:iXD from the side 1 Sam. 
20, 41 ; as prep, beside, at, near Gen. 
41, 3. Hence denom. 

V^iN to put aside, to take aujay, 
separate (cf. ^ia, voacpiCto) Num. 11, 
17, w. )'D of place; w. h of person 
for whom Gen. 27, 36 to select for 
one. — Nipli. to be separated, of 
space Ez. 42, 6. — Hipli.(fut. b^U^^I) 
to take away, sever from Num. 11, 
25. — ' Perh. b^X w. this meaning is 
akin to ^23. 

51^5^ 1) pr. n. m. (noble) in pause, 
bss< 1 Ch. 8, 37, 2) pr. n. of a place 
(side) Zech. 14, 5; r. bsij. 




^n^b?&5 pr. n. m. (perh. PP has 
selected) 2*Ch. 34, 8. 

U!^^S (obs.) perh. for dS5 to be 
strong \ hence 

DiSijl pr. n. m. (i. q. fiS3> strength) 
1 Ch.*2, 15. 

iTl!Ji?i? (i. q. JTiSS w. !^ prosth., 
r. ^?s) f! 1) step-chain, ankle-chain, 
proh. in Num. 31, 50. 2) arm-band, 
bracelet; perh. from its similarity to 
the ankle-band, 2 Sam. 1, 10. 

pHt^ 1 fut. Qal of p^'^'y Gram. 

I^CS akin to ^23 , to heap to- 
getlicr, store up 2 K. 20, 17. — Niph. 
to be stored up Is. 23, 18. — Hipli. 
cause to store up, i. e. appoint some 
one over the stores, Neh. 13, 13, fut. 
1 pers. iT7:ii&t3 and I made treasurers. 
Deriv. 'nslx. 


ll^^j^ pr. n. m. (treasure) Gen. 
36, 2*1. 

^'^J^ 1 fut. Qal of i:i^ or -iS;;' II; 
Gram. § 66 or § 71. 

^^^'i^ Jer. 1, 5, 1 fut. Qal w. suf., 
r. ^S^ II; but in Is. 42, 6, 1 fat. Qal 
w. suf., r. -n^tS. 

' -T 

(T^pl^ prop, ad^.m.intefiselt/ glotv- 
ing, sparkling, hence subst., gem, ^}^^ 
rrnpJi perh. carbuncle-stones, only in 
Is. 54, 12; r. mj? to burn. 

^pNl only in Deut. 14, 5, epic. 
roe, roe-buck, Lat. caprea, capreolus; 
others, capra, she-goat; in either case 
pX is the stem, w. ending i = "jl". — 
Perh. from p5X = p5^, for its slender 

neck; more prob. like Arab. j3^'** 
she-goat it means beautiful; r. Arab. 
^] to admire; cf. 'in^. 

tl]5>^ 1 fut. Qal of np^; Gram. 
§ 66, Rem. 2. 

ntlf^i!? Is. 56, 12. 1 fut. Qal of 
npb, w. n — cohortative. 

I- t' t 

»l&<'^pi< 1 Sam. 28, 15, for K^ipX 
r. it'ip; Gram. § 48, 3, Eem. 

^j^, see T;i<. 

CS ICS I (obs.) perh. i. q. rrns* 
to be strong, courageous; cf. ^pr^-;, 
the mighty one, Mars; fipeioc 
brave. Hence perh. N'nx pr. n. 
b&i"3X, "^bxiy, pr. n. ^^J"'■]^[, perh. 

S^b^ II (obs.) perh. i. q. fTnx III 

to burn, to glow; cf. ^ix. 

^^^. pr. n- m. (might) 1 Ch. 7, 38. 

b^'J^'^J?^ (K'thibh) m. hearth, Ez. 
43, 15, fr. i<-iX II; Q'ri has bx^-^X. 

JJ TT' .. .-; 

bj^'^Jj^ = b^^^X only in pr. n. ''^X^N. 

b^i)^, see ^X-nx. 

b^t"lji (only w. suf. B^X^it Is. 33, 7) 
m. the strong one, the mighty one, 
hero, and collect, heroes, formed perh. 
from &t*i5< (^^1&<) and the ending ^^:- 
(acc. to the form ^^1?), to wh'*ch also 
the doubling of the I points (&*'—). 
Others take it for ^^^ *''^^^ lion of God; 
but fail then to account for a) the 
shortening of the '^'IX into ^i<, P) the 
doubling of the I in Si< for bx. 

^blJ^^i^ pr. n. m. (heroic) Gen. 
46, 16, Num. 26, 17: in the latter case 
it is patronymic for *^'^^X'^5<, from 

DbK'^i^ Is. 33, 7; see ^Ji'ntt. 

11 JiS (fut. i'-iit;!) akin to i<B'7,fa 
bind, stitch, weave, only fig. (as in 
weave plots, xaxa ^aTrxsiv) to lie in 
ambush, to lurk, w. h Deut. 19, 11; 
w. )>'$ of pers. Judg. 9, 34; also w. 
ace. of object Prov. 12, 6; part, n'ljt 
one who lies in ivait Josh. 8, 2; col- 
lect, an ambush, liers-in-wait Judg. 

l^K 60 

T -; 

^0, 33. — Pi. only part. ^'^^'^1!$^ Murk- 
er s, liers-in-wait, w. b? Judg. 9, 25. — 
Hiph. (only fut. S'n^l, ace. to Kim- 
chi = a';i5<?l) to lay wait, l Sam. 15, 5. 

■^^^ pr. n. f. (ambush) of a city 
in Judah, Josh. 15, 52; gentilic '^3'1&< 
2 Sam. 23, 35. 

m'^H m. 1) ambush, a lurTcing Job 
38, 40. 2) lurking-place, covert 3db 
37, 8 (cf. S'HKia, iinbp). 

D'nij (w. suf. I'a'nx, taa^K) m. plot- 
ting, laying plots Jer. 9, 7. 

bi^lll'li? (fully, bi<3^5< n'^a, q. V.) 
pr. n. of a hamlet in upper Galilee, 
^Arhela in Naphtali, Hos. 10, 14. 

nSl'^Jj? m. locust Ex. 10, 4, esp. 
the kind appearing in large swarms 
igryllus gregarius) ; r. nn'n to he many, 
to swarm, hence prop, sivarmer. 

f. collect, weavings, hence intrigues, 
•only in Is. 25, 11 he i. e. God makes 
Ms (Moab's) pride fall doivn together 
tv. the plots of his hands. 

Ti^^^, (v. n-ni?; pi. ni^'iy;) f. prop. 
the latticed work, hence a window, 
being closed w. lattice and not glass 
Hos. 13, 3; dove-cote Is. 60, 8; chim- 
ney, for the smoke passed out through 
a latticed hole, Hos. 13, 3; nia'ny; 
•d^p'vart windows of the heaven, perh. 
sluices, to letdown the rain Gen. 7, 11, 

Xn*l!ll'1)S| pr. n. f. (dove-cotes) of a 
place in Judah 1 K. 4, 10. 

3^5*1^^ f- (obs.5)n'n w. N prosth.) 
m. TOsSx, c. roanx; see Gram. § 97, 1 
1) card. numb, four, before noun Gen. 
23,16 or after noun Josh. 19, 7; also 
fourth (Zech.7, 1) in specifying time; 
w. suf. dinsa^x the four of them Ez. 
1 , 8, 10 ; dual, ts^'lnSJS'n&t fourfold 2 Sam. 
12, 6; pl.ts'^ra'ix/brfy Gen. 8, 6; often a 
round number, perh. in Gen. 7,17, Jon. 
3, 4, Ez. 4, 6; see 5>?^ 'i:?''^^, 5>5n. 

2) pr. n. of an Anakite giant after 
whom was named the city, Ti^'^p 
SS^X = "jiian Gen. 23, 2. 

3^5^^ and n^^'li^ Chald. i. q.Heb. 
four Dan. 3, 25. 

3 JCS (fut. Ass;: Is. 59, 5, 2 pers. f. 
^:^y<n Judg. 16, 13) 1) to plait, the 
hair into locks, Judg. 16, 13. 2) to 
weave, e. g. of the spider (hence apa^VT] 
and L. aranea; cf. Ger. spinne, E. spi- 
der, from spin) Is. 59, 5; part, ii'^j^ a 
weaver Ex. 28, 32, f. m^jt 2 K. 23, 7; 
pi. m. d^ii'ij^ weavers, fi'^iJ'nii* ^1W 
weavers^ beam 1 Sam. 17, 7. Cf. i*iia, 

yy^, m. 1) plait or braid (of hair) 
Judg. 16, 14. 2) weaver^ s shuttle Job 
7, 6. 

IS'njS? (ah-n w. 6< prosth.) 1) pr. n. f. 
(i.e. prob. cloddy) of aregioninBashan, 
east of Jordan, having 60 cities, Deut. 
3, 4, 13. Some compare w. it a iS"!) 
in the Mishna, and hi^S'lit'i'l in the Sa- 

' T T . 

maritan translation. -— • The meaning 
is (from a5"n) rich in clods, i. e. deep- 
soiled, fertile (ipi^wkoc,). Its present 
name is v^') ^cLjib; it abounds w. 
ruins. 2) pr. n. m. (heap) 2 K. 15, 25. 

15?^'^ Chald. m. i. q. Heb. l^pX. 
Perh. from !i*ii< to weave, w. 1 insert- 

- T ' 

ed (cf. "iliyjt^^?, IJPi^?), therefore, 
prop, loeb, perh. purple Dan. 5, 7. 

Tii ji$ m. box, chest 1 Sam. 6, 8. — 
Prob. from t5X = tnx to hold, w. ^I 

- T - T ' 

inserted as in D'i3"iTtJ for t35U3. 

'^'^y^ (i. q. Chald. "jl&^x) m. perh. 
prop, web or cloth (r. ^y<); or from 
Bii'n = fi)?*^ ^0 t(;orA: in party-colours, 
hence, in general, j9ifrp?e (Sept. Tcopcpu- 
pa, Vulg.j9Mrpt«ra)Ex.26, 1, a precious 
Ayo, got from certain shell-fish found 
on the coasts of the Mediterranean; 
diff. from nbsFi the cerulean purple. 




Also fig. for purple cloth Prov. 31, 22. 
Better prob. from Sans, ragaman, 
dyed red or purple. 

I J^ (obs.) prob. = T^^ to descend, 
or ITi"! to rule. Hence 

T T 

'n'^J^ pr.n. m. i. q. TiX (descender 
or ruler) Num. 26,40; hence gentil. 
n. 'i^'nx Num. 26, 40. 

'j^'^'^i^ pr. n. m. (descender or 
ruler) 1 Ch. 2, 18. 

I MiS I (obs.)i.q.5<'niJf oftesfroM^, 
powerful. Hence perh. ''"IJJ, fi;?"i!5, 

n 'CS II (poet.) to pull or pluch 

T T 

Cant. 5, 1, Ps. 80, 13; to collect 
(see ■)i'^^^); cf. aip(o. Hence perh. 

ni^ix. rv^'^% rrnix, iIin. 

I i lbs ni (obs.) i. q. N-nx n, rnn 
to hum, Lat. are-o^ ar-deo, uro. 
Hence bx-i^X. 

Fl liN IV (obs.) mimet. and akin 

T T 

to Sans, ru, rav, drav, wpow, W.rhyo, 
L. rugio, rudo, E. roar; all obviously 

onomatopoetic. Hence '''IX, •^l^'^St. 

XTji^ Cord) Num. 22, 6, for "nk imp. 
Qal of '"itii^; cf. n^J^ from iSJ^. 

^*1JSt Chald. (pronom. root) prop. 
there! hence see! lo! Dan. 7, 2, 7, 13. 
From *l^^ = bi< = bii demonst. pron.; 
Coptic ro, or, la: perh. akin to •^!$'^, 

n^^lNt pr. n. m. (perh. descent, r. 
n-nx) Num. 26, 17; gentil. '^'nntt Gen. 
46, 16. 

"^yi^ pr. n. f. (for 1^*1 w. &5 prosth., 
place of refuge, r. ^'I'n) an island-city 
on the Phenician coast, north of Tri- 
poli, ApaSoc, Arvad Ez. 27, 8, now 
Ruwdd, hence gentil. n. '^^5'15< Gen. 
10, 18. 

•^3'^5S» (r. fT^HH to pluck; pi. T\'\y^, 

c. ni'iK) f. manger, crib or rac/i:, hence 
in general, stall or stable, 2 Ch. 

32, 28. Syr. ]lho\, Arab. ^)t m&. 

.4 stall of horses, cf. G. gespann , E. 
span or pair, 1 K. 5, 6 f]^X B'^^a'^x 
Qip-lO HTiist forty thousand stalls 
(spans) of horses. 

T^*lK (only pi. D'lnx Ez. 27, 24) 
adj. m. prop, cedar-like, hence firm; 
denom. from t*lX, r. t"iX. 

niD^^K, see ns^N. 

n'J^^lS; pr. n. f. (height, r. fi-iX) 
city in the region of Shechem, Judg. 
9, 41; perh. for r\^T\ 2 K. 23, 36; 
Eusebius makes it Eemphin, not far 
from Diospolis. 

D"'12in>|; K'thibh for d''aS&< 2 K. 
16, 6. 

DlSri'nJS^ Is. 33, 10 for n^i^intt l fnt. 

Hithp'ol. of d!in; see Gram. § 54, 2, b, 
■ji^K (w. art. 'ji'HiJfi, c. "jl-iX; r. 
rrnij to collect) f. (m. in 2 Sam. 6, 6; 
but f. in 2 Ch. 8, 11) prop, receptacle^ 
hence, box, chest, for money 2 K. 
12, 10, for a mummy, i. e. a coffin, 



Gen. 50, 26; Arab. ^jjl^J and ^])\ 
ivooden chest, esp. coffin. Chiefly 
used for the sacred chest of the tables 
of the law, the ark, called I^^^?^ lllJSi 
the ark of the laiv or testimony Ex. 
25, 22 ; in'^'^3«i "jilN ark of the covenant 
Josh. 3, 6; Vlln^ -ji-iN 1 Sam. 5, 3. 
njI'^^H pr. n. m. 2 Sam. 24, 20; 

see n;'?':'^, 

T JCS (obs.) perh. akin to 'J^'iN, prop. 
to be pressed together, hence hard, 

firm; Arab, "fy] to be compact, firm. 
Hence perh. Cl'^nx in Ez.27,24 cords 
firmly tivisted. Hence perh. ti'ig = 
fhX'O; and certainly 

T'^ij^ ni. 1 )cetZar (prop, firmness, r, 
ny) the cedar of Lebanon, a tall 

ni^^ 62 

T : - 

tree, Is. 2, 13, Am. 2, 9; wide-spread- 
ing Ez. 31, 3; formerly plentiful on 
Lebanon Ps. 29,5, Is. 40, 16. 2) cedar- 
work i. e. wainscoting 1 K. 6, 18. 

Chald. i^nx, Syr. ]}i], Arab. 3^^ 

♦^n^ (from fnx) f. (w. collect, 
force; cf. rt^^, y^} cedar-work, cedar- 
wainscoting, Zeph. 2, 14. 

D^T^n^^ Ez. 27, 24; see tsi*n5<. 

Pines I (nofut.Qal,theperf. only 

"■ T 

in Job 34, 8) to go, to travel or 
journey ; part. rt'ni< travelling, hence 
wayfarer (cf. iniD) Judg. 19, 17; 
fi'^ri'ni^ "jilsa Jer. 9, 1 Zod[^e of travellers. 
Deriv. n'i^^, nn'ii^, pr. n. rTnjJ. — 
This r. is akin to T^^Jn, Sans, arch 
(to go), ep^-ofjiai, iXO-sTv, perh. L. 
wiercor (cf. 5pT)^ = Mars), E. mar- 
cher, marchand, E. march, merchant 
(cf. pedlar from #0 23a^; L- i^ecZ-is). 

n jis n (obs.) akin to 'r\!^'$, to 
arrange, to appoint. Deriv. •iri'nx. 

n^K pr. n. m. (for h'lJ* wanderer) 
Ezr. 2,^5. 

1T\^ (pi. n1n"ny;, c mlrriij, w. suf. 

1) way i. q. Tj'!}'^ but in this sense 
only in poetry Gen. 49, 17; fig. walk, 
manner of life Ps. 119, 101; Zoi or 
destiny Job 8, 13: also poet, for tra- 
veller Job 31, 32, in pi. Job 6, 19; 
cf. nh'nk. 2) manner, course (of na- 
ture), "diyiS3 rn'^, Gen. 18, 11 the 
course (i. e. monthly) like the women. 

tT\^ Chald. (pi. "jn^iij, w. suf 
•Jinn'nx) f. same as Heb. Dan. 4, 34.. 

nrriU^ (from n"ni<) f. prop, a jour- 
neying; then company of travellers, 
caravan, Gen. 37, 25. 

♦l/l'^ISt (r. rrnx n) f. the appoint- 
ed measure (of food), portion; hence, 
allowance for support Jer. 40, 5; f^fi'^^ 

T^^tn 2 K. 25, 30 constant support; 
a meal or mess Prov. 15, 17. 

'^^IS; (pi. d^;i'n&5 1 K. 10, 20; else- 
where ' ni-i'ijs; 1 k. 10, 19) m. lion, 
prop, the roarer, from r. Si'nN IV, or 
perh. the courageous beast, &p£i-o?, 
from n^X I , after the form "h'^ (cf. 
''Sb, fi<'isb^UJ^]3)Num.24,9; nli^nxS'iM 
young lion Judg. 14, 5 ; W'l'nx ^ia /ions' 
t^Ae/p Jer. 51, 38; fig. an emblem of< 
strength and valour Num. 23, 24, of 
fierceness and cruelty Prov. 28, 15. 

55^'^'^H m. 1) perh. great hero = 
Vx'nx, b'lJt'JX (cf. i»?5'^'ni< in Pheni- 
cian, Aryhas), or lion of God (for 
bx 'I'lK), i. e. lion-like champion, heroi 
a) collect. 2 Sam. 23, 20 nxia bx'i'nx ^};d 
two lion-like champions of Moab; 
used of Jerusalem in Is. 29, 1 perh. 
for city of heroes, but better for 
God's altar, p) hearth (r. r^ntj III) of 
God, i. e. the altar of burnt-oflfering 
Ez. 43, 15 Q'ri. 7) pr. n. m. Ezr. 8, 16. 

^''l^'^lSl pr. n. m. ( perh. Pers. 
worthy gift) Est. 9, 9. 

5^!n'l^'^)S| pr. n. m. (Pers. worthy 
gift) Est. 9,' 8. 

tl^^^i^ (for STilX, collect, for 'il5<). 
1) m. lion. Gen. 49, 9. 2) pr. n. m. 
2 K. 15, 25; cf. Cceur de Lion. 

tl^"^}^ Chald. (pi. def. 6<n-/'i"iS Dan. 

•• : — '^ TTT : - 

7,4) m. same as Heb. lion, Dan. 6, 8. 

n^^ (pi. ni-i^ix) i. q. hi-nj^. 

tjl^'^lSlIs. 16, 9 prob. for T^^p^ 
1 fut'^Pi.'of mi. 

^ T T 

"nV^^^ pr. n. m. (Assyr. lion-like, 
L. Leoninus)j a) king of Ellasar, Gen. 
14, 1. P) officer at Babylon, Dan. 
2, 14. — 'I'lX is lion, 'rji(='r]^-) is the 
adjective -ending = Sans, -ka, -xoi;, 
L. -cms; see under the letter d. 

tT'y^, see 'n^lK. 

'^D'^'njS (Pers.) pr. n. m. Est. 9, 9: 
perh. Sans. Aryasdya sagitta Ariae. 



^ JCS (obs.) peril, akin to r^'n:^, to 
he arranged, adjusted, hence perh. 

^ JwS (fut. "1^)0 akin to r^'^, 
prop, to stretch, hence to he long, of 
branches Ez. 31, 5; of time to wear 
on. Gen. 26, 8, Ez. 31, 5. — Hiph. 
to stretch (i. e. put) out, the tongue 
Is. 57, 4; to lengthen days Deut. 22, 
7; fo farry long Ecc. 8, 12; fig. to 
put off', delay, e. g. anger (DX) Is. 
48, 9; to he made long 1 K. 8, 8. •—- 
Akin to Syr. w9, opsYco, L. rego, 
O. reichen, E. reac/i, "W. rhawg. 

^)^^ Chald. (= Heb. "r^^N), part, 
pass. 'r^'^'iK adapted, fit w. bEzr.4,14. 

"Tj jK adj. m. long, found only in 
«onstr. St. T]"^fi<, e. g. '^laxri T|'n&< Ez. 
17, 3 /ow^ of pinions i. e. long- winged; 
^'•'^ '^!^. ^ong of spirit Ecc. 7, 8, 
i. e. long-suffering, opp. to short- 
tempered; b^'SX "Ti^^f, long of temper 
{hence Sept. and N. Test. {AaxpoQo- 
fio^) forbearing, long-suffering Ex. 
34, 6. 

I]'^^^ m. 1) a putting off', delay, 
C)5< t]"!?!* Jer. 15, 15 i. e. patience. 
2) pr. n. (length) a city Areca, 
Arecca (in Ptolem.) on the Tigris, on 
the border between Sasiana and Ba- 
bylonia, Gen. 10, 10; hence, gentil. 
''iS'nX Ezr. 4, 9. 3) pr. n. of a city 
in Palestine, hence the gentil. n. 
''3'ni< Josh. 16, 2. 

Tl'^iJ adj. m. ns'iN f. long Job 11, 
9, enduring 2 Sam. 3, 1. 

^\^ (w. suf. iS'nx) m. length Gen. 
6, 15*; w. dip;> Ps7 21 , 5 length of 
days, great age; di^a^ 'r^'H^ as long 
as life i.e. for life Ps.23,6; d^BX T]';^i< 
^patience Prov. 25, 15. 

i^S'^i^ and riS'iyt Chald(from'r^'ni*) 

f. a prolonging , continuance, Dan. 
4, 24; 7, 12. 

Kl2|l^J$ Chald. (w. suf. WnsS'ix) 
f. i. q. xns'i (w. !X prosth.) knee 
Dan. 5, 6; prob. by metathesis for 
Ti'^a, Syr. (.o9a«s knee. 

niD'^b^ and H^^^iH f. adjustment 
or bandage, hence healing, 'i< hriTaX 
Is. 58, 8; 'fct nnb:? Jer. 8, 22 healing 
arises or comes on, hence 'x Ji^S^ 
Jer. 33, 6 <o heal; of walls ^o repair 
Neh. 4, 1 ; see r. "^"^i^. 

^13'1^^ Chald. (def. pi. i<.':33'nx) adj. 
m. Ezr. 4, 9; gentilic from t^'nx. Gen. 
10, 10. 

^^^'^ gentil. n. from Tj':ii< 3, ^Ir- 
c/w^e. Josh. 16, 2. 

U jJS (obs.) i. q. dn, d5<'n, h^'n, 

diD-n, d'iri, d^n, d-n^ in, ^o be high. 
Hence d'njt, "j^^X. 

d'^Nt (c. d'iit)pr. n. (highland) 
Aramea, in its widest extent inclu- 
ding Mesopotamia (d^'ntnj d'nx Gen. 
24, 10) but chiefly Syria, Judg. 3, 
10, 1 K. 10, 29. Aram is mentioned 
as the son of Shem in the ethnolo- 
gical table in Gen. 10, 22; the Greeks 
called the people Api|Jt,ot, 'ApajxaToi; 
among the Hebrews, however, the 
name stands only for Syrians, con- 
strued w. sing. 2 Sam. 10, 14, w. pi. 
2 Sam. 10, 17. The several districts 
of Aramea were p^^.l? d^iX 2 Sam. 
8, 5; h'^y^} d^&5 Gen. 24, 'lO; d-nx 
n35>^ 1 Ch. 19,' 6; nniij d^lX Ps." 
60, 2; nh-) n^a d-njl 2"sam. 10, 6; 
f"?^. 1!?5 Gen. 25, 20.' 

D^^lSl pr. n. m. (high one) a) grand- 
son of Nahor, Gen. 22, 21. P) an 
Asherite, 1 Ch. 7, 34. 

■ji/J'INl (pi. c. ms^^N, as if from 
nsb'nx) m. palace, fortress, citadel. 
Is. 25, 2, Am. 1, 4; usually com- 




pretending many buildings, hence 
w. n^a 1 K. 16, 18. 

^7J")K, i. q. ijalljt, fem. n'^a'nit, adv. 
in fAe Aramean or Syriae (tongue) 
Dan. 2, 4 ; see Q'^X. 

■•BtlH gentil. m., n^53"nit f. (1 Ch. 
7, 14), ^{.-^'^l^'y^ Arameans, Syrians, 
of western Syria 2 K. 5, 20; of Me- 
sopotamia Gen. 25, 20; by aphaere- 
sis d^sa^in for D'la'nNn; 2 Cb. 22, 5: 
see Gram. § 23, 3. 

^"i'^'njJ^ pr. n. m. (cf. L. Palati- 
nus, from 'J'ia'n&i) 2 Sam. 21, 8. 

I jOSl(obs.) prob. akinjbo Arab. 
j^oT adhina and ^^ ranna (prick up 
the ears), also ^y) anna (to be 

alert), hence to he sharp-eared, alert; 
hence Syr. p9J wild goat, Ta:^'i< 

j JCS II (obs.) perh. for 'j_5'n to trill, 
to make a tremulous noise, of a tall 
tree when moved by the wind, hence 
perh. )y<, na'nk 

1t^ pr. n. m. (perh. wild goat; 
r. I^i i) Gen. 36, 28. 

■j'^^J, see 'j1^5< ark. 

1*]1SJ m. l)the pine (tree) Is. 44, 14; 
cf. I'^n. Perh. from 'j'lit II, because 
of its tremulous sound when shaken 
by the wind. 2) pr. n. m. (a pine) 
1 Ch. 2, 25. 

T\2l^ ^5^ com. gend. a hare Lev. 

viv : ~ <=> > 

11, 6; Arab. »yJ^I amah, Syr. w^J)] 

arneh the same word, but without 
the fem. ending r\— 7- of the Heb. 
form. — The word SS'iJt belongs to 
all the Sem. dialects, but as no 
obvious or satisfactory root has 
hitherto been found, one may ven- 
ture to suggest that it is akin to 
"J^iX I, and comes from )}}< ear (= "j'^X, 

cf. pT2 = p^a, Arab. ^3). = 3^, E. 
hlaze =hlare) and the adj. ending -ab 
ox -eh, Sans. -bha or -•?;«, Gr.-po(; (see on 
the letter '2 and on )lk)', so that it 
means eared, i. e. having long or 
sharp ears. This result is favoured 
by analogy in the L. auritus ( of 
hare and of ass), in W. ysgyvarnoy 
(hare) from ysgyvarn (ear); and it 
may also throw light on L. asinuSy 
W. asyn, F. dne, Gr. Svo; (cf. L. 
pono for po-sino). It. asino, Sp. asno^ 
Ger. esel, E, ass, all referring to the 
animal's long ears (see on )li<). 

yd}t^ and p^K (noisy or mur- 
muring, perh.r.'jj'n w. J< prosthetic) 
name of a torrent and valley (^ri3) 
Num. 21, 13. Present name ^yAA-yJf 
el- Mo j eh. 

•^i^r''^^ P''- n. m. (perh. joy of fn]^, 
r. )^'-^)2 Sam. 24, 18 K'thibh. 

15 .^ pr. n. m. (perh. sharp-eared^ 
r. X^^'l) 1 Ch. 3, 21. 

'W^^ pr. n. m. (perh. jubilant, r. 
'ji'n w. i< prosth.) a Jebusite, on the 
site of whose threshing-floor Solo- 
mon built the temple, 1 Ch. 21, 15 j 
ns^liJ^ in K'thibh of 2 Sam. 24, 16. 
Elsewhere Jiaif!^ 

< jfS (obs.) perh. akin to p'^'$, to 
flee. Hence perh. ^"^i^. 

i/ jJS Chald. (obs.)i.q.Heb. pX. 

U^'^JSI Chald. (def. i^'^^i^) m. 1) the 
earth, Dan. 2, 35, i. q. Heb. 'J^'IN, 
changing "j^ into 5>, as often in Ara- 
mean. 2) the ground, and as adv. 
on the ground, hence loiv, helow, 
w. "(0, Dan. 2, 39 "r^-O ^'Sy^ loiver 
than thou. 

^Ty^ Chald. adj. m., f. t^'^^'y^ as 
subst. the hottom (of a pit) Dan. 6, 25. 

W JCS (obs.)i.q.n5'nlI, l)tostretch 




out, lie extended, Arab. ^^^ hence 
perh. C]'nK region, in l^ss'nx. 2) to 

knit, plait, Arab. t-3^I to knot] akin 
to StS'i I, ^ocrTco; perh. hence IB'^N. 

V|*1i^ m. region, prop, aw expanse, 
only in" 1TI?3B'iN. n 

TS'IK pr. n. f. (perh. border, r. q'^ij 
2 w. format. I-7-) of city and region 
of Syria, not far from nan, 2K.18, 34. 

TO^S'nj^ pr. n. of the third son of 
Shem; also of a people and region 
named after him Gen. 10, 22, prob. 
the province A^jiaira^^Txii; in north 
Assyria. The Chaldeans are said to 
be derived form this Semitic race; 
and the name comes perh. from 
f)'!5? region and luis = 1b3 or '^'nbs 
(which see) Chaldee; hence Chaldean's 

} J*S (obs.) perh. akin to t"nfi<, 

Arab. 3; I to he compact, 'y^ to be 
firm or hard; hence 

y^JJ (w. suf. i^^X, w. art. y^^t^, 

w. n-p loc.n^-iK, pi.n'i:£'ix, c.hizj'iN) 
f. (rarely m. as in Gen. 13, 6), 1) the 
earth, the land as hard and firm in 
opp. to the fluid and waving sea 
Gen. 1, 10; the earth or globe in opp. 
to the heavens Gen. 1, 1, in this sense 
^^^ including the sea. 2) earth, as a 
material Ps. 12, 7. 3) the ground, 
ns'ix to the ground Gen. 33, 3 ; one's 
country/, fatherland, esp. among 
the Hebrews Joel 1, 2; land or field, 
as property or estate Gen. 23, 15; 
territory/ Euth 1, 7. 4) inhabitants 
of a land Gen. 11, 1. The pi. ni^S-nxri 
signifies lands Gen. 26, 3, esp. 
heathen lands 2 Ch. 13, 9. — Arab. 

j«;), Aram, x^'nx, j^^?) . 

^^'^^ pr. n. m. (perh. firmness) 
1 K. 16, 9. 

ptji?. Chald. (i. q. l^^K, 3) changing 
into p;' def. NlD^X) f. the earth, only 
Jer. 10, 11; but often in Targums. 

I JCS (1 pers. perf. '^t^l'^5*, imper. 
JTnx 'oVa w. n cohort, for "ij< Num. 
22, 6, fut. ^k^) to curse, w. ace. Judg. 
5, 23; d1"i-i'n")&< day-cur sers 3 obd, 8, 
magicians who professed to make 
certain days unpropitious. — Niph. 
only part. D'^'^ND cursed, w. a of the 
curse Mai. 3, 9. — Pi. ^I'nx to curse 
greatly Gen. 5, 29 ; d^^'ixan D^xsri the 
curse-causing waters Num. 5, 22. — 
Hoph. 'ix^in to be cursed Num. 22, 6. 
Deriv. h'iNa. — Prob. akin to n^N 11, 


Arab, yib to abhor, detest; apa-o}ji,at 
to curse, apa curse. 

^'^ T? pr. n. of a district in Ar- 
menia Gen. 8, 4, still so called, 
between the Araxes and the lakes 
Van and Orumia; then for Armenia 
Jer. 51. 27 la^'^X (cf. naisn, 13a). 
Targ. makes it ^l^'np, "jl^'^i?, K^i^'^p 
(cf. Kurdistan). 

"^ . ^ pr. n. m. (for *'"n^n moun- 
taneer) 2 Sam. 23, 33. 

lu JC> (Qal obs.) prob. akin to TSJ'n^ 
to grasp or seize, to appropriate. — 
Pi. ia'njt, usually w. ace. n^x, to take 
to (b) oneself a wife (hke ^m) Deut. 

20, 7 ; without JTjaN, to espouse, marry 
2 Sam. 3, 14. — Pu. 3. f.perf. nr;n'ii< 
she is betrothed Ex. 22, 15; part. pass. 
nb^i&^a betrothed Deut. 22, 23. 

U jJS (obs.) i. q. Arab. J.)^ to 

seek after something, to desire. Hence 

IniD'^i^ f. desire, longing, only Ps. 

21, 3, Sept. 8ir\aiz. 

rihX, see nHix. 

NnCl2:r)n'n&^ (Persian) Ezr. 7, 
: : - : - : r . ' 

1. 7, also 5<riirirnr]'^&$ Ezr. 4, 8, 
xn^^rin'iN; 4, '7,' pr.' n. 'm. 'Apxa^ep- 





^Tjc, king Artaxerxes (named Pseudo- 
Smerdes) Ezr. 4, 7 ; Artaxerxes (Lon- 
gimanus) Ezr. 7, 1. The spelling 
appears to be that of the inscriptions 
of Nakshi-Bustam, and of several 
Pehlevi medals, akin to Arta- 
shetr, i. e. mighty king. 

IDi^ (r. tim I; w. suf. im Job 
18, 5, dam Is". 50, 11) f. (rarely m. 
as in Job 20, 26) fire Ps. 104, 4; the 
fire of God, i.e. lightning Job 1, 16; 
fig. anger, of God Deut. 32, 22; Zeal, 
ardor, of men Jer. 20, 9 ; war Num. 
21, 28; m ITnjD to kindle afire, excite 
war Is. 50, 11; destruction Job 15, 34; 
heat or scorching of sun Joel 1, 19; 
flashing of weapons Nah. 2, 4, of 
gems Ez. 28, 14. — Akin to nfi< H. 

12:&5 Chald. (def. Nm) i. q. Heb. 
m, ^re Dan. 7, 11. 

ISlJjl (= 115;^) m. existence, being, 
hence ^Aere is 2 Sam. 14, 19, Mic. 6, 10 ; 
prop. part, of ^^i&i = W&t IV to he. 
See nii<. 

1235^ ( 'osA) Chald. (pi. def. fi<^"^!!<) 
m. foundation Ezr. 4, 12; r. Tl5;^5< 11. 

Zl^CS(obs.)perh.i.q l3irri,Arab. 

ww&I, V*''Sa., fo <Awfc. Hence perh. 

b!lLl2JK pr. n. m. (perh. for b^? nm 
God's thought) Gen. 46, 21; hence 
patron, ''^am Num. 26, 38. 

'k^^i^ V^' n. m. (perh. thoughtful, 
r. "ySJ^) Gen. 36, 26. 

?!I11CI55 pr. n. m. (prob. swearing, 
r. 5>n^ W. i< prosth.) 1 Ch. 4, 21. 

b?3tZ3&5 pr. n. probably i. q. "&^^ 

n\aa q. v. * 

l\LN (obs.) akin to STt^ to shed, 
to pour out; i.q. Chald. "im, Syr. j-*.( , 

Arab. IJj to water. Deriv.^UJX, fTTTi?!?<. 

T©j!«^ m. outpouring, hence a place 

where a brook pours down, ravine, 

water-gully ; only in d'^^li? 'nm ra- 
viwe o/" torrents Num. 21, 15. 

iTlTtCK (pi. r\iny:&<) f. outpouring, 
hence the base of a mountain, gully 
or ravine Josh. 10, 40; JiapQSi m>TOX 
^^e ravmes o/ Pisgah, i. q. the foot 
of the mountain Deut. 3, 17. 

li'niCJ^ pr. n. (stronghold, r. ^n^ 
w. &t prosth.) one of the five royal 
cities in Philistia Josh. 11, 22 (called 
"ACwTo; Acts 8, 40), now a village, 
Esdud; gentilic adj. 'i'iitTmJosh.13,3, 
fern. n^i'il'HirN (pi. ni^^^T^!??), as adv. 
in the Ashdod dialect Neh. 13, 23. 24. 

r\'^1235^ f. declivity, sloping descent 
= iTim, so some would read for 
M m in Deut. 33, 2 ; but see n'n. 

niZJtS (obs.) i. q. t^i<, yimil to 
he firm (cf. I'l;, L. vis = vir); fig. to 
heal. Deriv. ti^m, t^^^ti<, iWi, 

T • 

tWi< (w. suf. dSn^X) f. fire, only 
Jer. 6^ 29 (in K'thibh) Vi'iSSJ tan^g 
hy their fire the lead (is consujned); 
where the Q'ri is n'nS:? din WV^^i by 
fire the lead is consumed; i. q. i<XSVi 

niBi? f. (for riT^iX fem. of TlJ^X, c, 
nm Gram. § 96, 2, w. suf. ipim, 
?;rim, once '7\t^m Ps. 128, 3; pi. d"i"^3 
for d"'lU3y; by aphseresis, c. ''^DS , once 
ni^H Ez. 23, 44) woman, of any 
age or condition, married or unmar- 
ried Gen. 2, 23; female of animals 
Gen. 7, 2 ; w;i/e, opp. to husband Gen. 
24, 3; ?|'^ii< nm w?i/*e o/" f/i^ father, 
step-mother Lev. 18, 8, cf. 1 Cor. 5, 1. 
h^&t^ — i^ np^ <o fa/ce to oneself — 
for a wife, i. e. to marry Gen. 4, 19; 
term of reproach for a weak, cowardly 
man Is. 19, 16; prob. pleonastic or 
in apposition, in JlJIt Sl^X harlot Josh. 
2, 1, ^5b*iS tray; concubine Judg. 19, 1, 
nsiabx nm wcZom; i K. 7, i4j 



nx'^n? trm prophetess Judg. 4, 4, 
nibx'iip'] JT^ax Lev. 24, 10; w. gen. 
of attribute, h'^r\ Trim a woman of 
icorthnnth 3, 11, d''3^7a nrUK quarrel- 
some woman Prov. 27, 15, D'^i^iST nu;s< 
« harlot Hos. 1, 2; emphatic of a frwe 
woman such as she ought to be, Ecc. 
7, 28. Followed by mnij or nwi 
owe — another (see Gram. § 1 24, 2, Rem. 
4). Cf. Chald. Nnx, def. Nnnx, fc<nPl3fi<, 
pl. "pUia; Syr. jiajj, pi. U3. 

iTlBiJ (from ttJX /?re w. old fem. or 
collect, ending f\—^ as in "nl^^iX, <^t?iz?? ; 
c. n;BX, c. pi. im) m. sacrificial fire, 
hencesam/?cc(cf.7ropa fromirup)Lev. 
22, 22; offerings in the widest 
sense Lev. 24, 7; cf. the expressions, 

rrin^^ nrr^a n*!^ nm sacrifice of 
eweet odour unto the Lord Lev. 1, 9, 
ri'rp ittji< sacrifices of the Lord Lev. 
2, 3. 

n^'^ICJj^ (only pi. w. suf. n^n=isi;i3&t 
in K'thibh) pillar, prop Jer. 50, 15; 

r. nm. 

T T 

I^ITSJ (c. "jii^JJ^t; r. I^i^ II) m. dark- 
ness, gloom, only Q'ri of Prov. 20, 20; 
where the K'thibh has'j'iuJ'iJSt, which see. 

n^Tlii} or '^'^m (only w. suf. 
*\*|!im, pi. w. suff. '\'^'^m; r. "^m I) f. 
1) step, going Ps. 40, 3, mi/ foot took 
hold of his going i. e. I kept to the 
path he set me Job 23, 11; fig. con- 
duct Prov. 14, 15. 2) i. q. ^^lUJxn, a 
species of cedar, Arab, sherhin; only 
in pi. d'l'im-na lu: ^liiJij 'VfTf^ thy 
deck they have made of ivory (i. e. 
of ivory inlaid in the wood-work), 
daughter (i. e. a product) ofthesherbin- 
cedars, Ez. 27, 6; r. ITTX II. 

^^^i< also ^l*©^ f. 1) i. q. "^^'^^ 
a step, going Job 31, 7. 2) pr. n^ 
(perh. a plain, w. Tl—^ loc. iTnii';y>., " 
r. "i^N n) Assyria Hos. 9, 3; fully 
ims I'^x Is. 7, 18; nn533 Y^i<landof 

Nimrod = ^Vv23X Mic. 5, 5; originally 
only a small province (now Kurdis- 
tan) w. the chief city Wp'^J, where also 
were the cities p*i, hbs, ni3> nia'm 
Gen 10, 11. 12; but afterwards Assy- 
ria in its widest extent (Is. 10, 9, 10) 
so that even its sections. Babylonia 
(2 K. 23, 29) and Persia (Ezr. 6, 22)^ 
bore the same name; Ptol. 'Ajjupia, 
Strabo ' ATOUp(a ("nim Chald.). 3) perh. 
Syria Is. 19, 23, according to some. 
4) D'^n^liax pr. n. of an Arab tribe 
Gen. 25, 3. 5) perh. pr. n. of a city in 
Assyria Gen. 2, 14, later Seleucia. 
6) pr. n. of a district in Asher, whence 
'I'liiwn 2 Sam. 2, 9. 

^^Htl'i^ pr. n. m. (blackness, r. 
in;B) 1 Ch. 2, 24. 

n^tDlJj (' oshya) f . support, founda- 
tion, only in Q'ri nini^m Jer. 50, 15; 

r. nm. 

T T , 

K'^'^uDNt pr. n. (high or celestial) of 
a god in Hamath 2 K. 17, 30; prob. 
akin to !ni3TB to be high (whence 07^^ 

H'^'^uJU^ Mic. 5, 13, see STlTlJfit. 

ti'^tiK (pi. c. ''^'^m) m. 1) foun- 
dation, then ruins, i. e. site of a 
ruined building, only in Is. 16, 7; r. 

iiiuix II = rim. 

■■ T T T 

ntj^lSSj (pi. d^yi'^m Hos. 3, 1, 

jni^iyjj; Cant. 2, 5; r. ^5< II) f. cake, 
prop, something pressed together 
(cf. n'^ri'iQ^jTrXaxosi;), hence "^^"^m 
d'^iSSJ raisin-cakes, for idol sacrifice 
Hos. 3, 1 , for a journey 2 Sam. 6, 19 , 
for refrp''>hment Cant. 2, 5. 


: j ^CN (obs.)perh. akin to rjIblH, 
T|5&I,^o bind, to knit together. Hence 
perh. T^uix, \ot)<. 

'rriJIS^ m. perh. prop, string, hence 
testicle', only in Lev. 21, 20; but as 
it is used also of the female in the 




Arab. *X*«^, the root may rather he 

akin to Arab. j^a-< (riffare, Ppe^siv), 
nsir, pW II, n)5;r, all meaning to pour 
out, to water or w;ef, hence "T\^5< may 
refer to the sexual use of the part, 
and he the origin of op'/K; (r = s as 
often). Cf. L. testis, testiculus, proh. 
akin to tingo, xi^-^oi ; cf. It. tastare = 
G. tasten = L. tango = 6i'(x-cf.vui = E. 

D'^Sti;^ Jer. 25, 3 inf. ahsol. Hiph. 
of dD^;"see Gram. § 53, 3, Eem. 2. 

bMI^ (pi. nibbm, c. rih^m, n'bsm ; 

perh. from T|^X w. the dimin. ending 
V- — , cf. b3>aa, bh^n, bb'np; else from 
bsuj to hind together) m. 1) prop, a 
stringing together, hence a cluster or 
bunch, as of grapes Is. 65, 8 ; w. ta^ns? 
Num. 13, 23; w. ",£35 Cant. 7, 9;V3ri< 
ns'SiTi bunch of cypress blossom Cant. 
1, 14; proh. date-clusters Cant. 7, 8; 
cf. Talmudic S'^Zia buJ ^'STTX cluster 
of eggs i. e. ovary, Chald. bhp 
grape-bunch, perh. from S^lD #o &iwd 
2) pr. n. of a valley (rich in grape- 
clusters) near "ji^nn Num. 13, 23. 3) 
pr. n. m. of a Canaanite Gen. 14, 13. 
TDSlTK 1) pr. n. of a son of naJJ 
Gen. 10, 3. 2) pr. n. of a Japhetic 
race and region named after him, 
t5ir\U5< in the vicinity of Armenia Jer. 
51, 27; the modern Jews fancifully 
take it for Germany. 

*l3tpii< (r. ^?\r II, w. &< prosth.) m. 
1) traffic or wares Ez. 27, 15. 2) 
present or tribute Ps. 72, 10. 

/^li^CS (ohs.) to he firm, pressed 

together; akin to I^SJ, Arah. j}| to 
he firmly rooted. Hence 

b'OJ|$ m. a tamarisk Gen. 21, 33. 

D^^^Num. 5. 7, alsoDlZJi^ 

- T •• T 

Lev. 4, 13 (fut. fii-wN;.;:, pi. ^'>2t'i0 

akin to d^T^, d?a^, cf. Syr. .oinA^f^ 

1) prop, to lie wild or waste, to her- 
desolate, e. g. 'jl^^ili Hos. 14, 1, ri2Tn 
Ez. 6, 6 . 2) fig. ;fo &e laid waste, to he 
condemned, i. e. to he morally ruined 
Ps. 34, 22, Jer. 2, 3, Prov. 30, 10. 
3) to he guilty, to transgress, w. b of 
the person against whom Lev. 5, 19; 
w. 3 Hos. 13, 1 or V Lev. 5, 5 of the- 
thing wherein. — Nipli. dmi to 
be destroyed, of flocks Joel 1, 18. — ► 
Hipli. prop, to make desolate, hence 
to punish or destroy Ps. 5, 11. 

Dti^J (pi. d^Ts'iTN) m. 1) fault, guilt 
Gen. 26, 10. 2) an act incurring: 
guilt, a trespass Num. 5, 7. 8. 3) the 
sacrifice whereby the guilt was ex- 
piated, a trespass-offering 1 Sam. 6, 3,, 
Is. 53, 10; it differs from Snsttsri (see- 
Lev. 5, 1—26); r. dUix. 

DllJlJ^ adj. m. guilty, i. e. either 
charged w. a fault Gen. 42, 21, 2 Sam. 
14, 13, or under obligation to expiate- 
a fault Ezr. 10, 19 ; r. titi^. 

n/9^5J^ (pi. Wts^x, w. suf. ^niaiiix 
Ps.69, 6Jf. prop. inf. Qal, hence ri^^JX^ 
ns to trespass in it Lev. 5, 26, but 
mostly as a subst. 1) trespasslteY. 4, 3,. 
trespass -offering Lev. 5, 24. 2) con- 
demnation 2 Ch. 28, 13. 3) fig. idol, 
llliaili riia'uiitSi d'lSJaTliirt those who swear 
by the guilt (idol) of Samaria Am. 
8, 14, where some take it for ria'^Tp!* 
goddess of S. ; see &^^'^ll35<. 

^^;3^i5 (r. ^m; only pi. d'^S^ypS) 
m. solitudes, wilderness, i. q. f^.'l^^:! 
region of shades, hence d'^ri^Sd^S^^ixa; 
in the desolate places as the dead Is. 
59, 10. The Eabbins render itdark- 
ness. Others taking it for d'^S^'^ 
(Gen. 27, 28, r. )^^) read in the fertile 
fields we were as the dead. 

Tro2m, nnr/2m,(c.'mbm,vh 

nilpuix ; r. ^T?^) f. 1) a night-watch. 




the third part of the night, cpoXaxVj 
L. vigilia Ps. 63, 7; the first watch is 
called m'ipm TL'K'n head of the watches 
Lam. 2, 19; the second H'nbmri 
.n3'i3''ntn the middle watch Judg. 7, 19; 
and the third *>j52r5 nnam the mor- 
ning watch Ex. 14, 24. In N. Test, 
age there were 4 watches, after the 
Eoman custom, Mat. 14, 25. 

in'^b'tii^ f. same as rrn^m, Judg. 
7, 19." 

jTZi/CS I (obs.) to be hard, firm, 
Ohald "jm 1. q. "jU:?; hence pr.n. Jiayix. 

I wtS n (obs.) to he obscure, dark-, 
hence perh. "j^iyJ!??. 

:25l2?l§ (w. suf. '^aiUJJjt) m. a windoiv 
or lattice, prop, breathing or cooHng 
place Judg. 5, 28. Windows in the 
east are latticedfor coolness. *«»«-" The r. 
is 23';r (w, J< prosth.), akin to S'lia, t\ti 
to breathe. 

nj'Oi^ pr. n. (fortress, r. "jm I) of 
two cities in Judah Josh. 15, 33. 43. 

ji^UN pr. n. (support, r. ^rd w. 
i< prosth.) of a eity in Judah Josh. 
15, 62. 

V] UN (obs. akin to eiS<Ti5, 5JSX, 
t)lU3, all mimet. to express breathing, 
whispering, muttering; hence the my- 
sterious noises or tokens of conjurers, 
to use magic, i. q. Syr. s.&a] . Hence 

C|1?5J Chald. (prop. part, of J:)m, 
only pi. •J'^sm, def. fit^STTN.) m. ma- 
gician, enchanter Dan. 2, 27. 

Tl^Di^ Heb. and Chald (pi. Heb. 
C*^B*^X) m. enchanter, magician (but 
different fr. t;:vS3^) Dan. 1, 20; 2, 10. 

HBlfl^ (w. suf. inBtX; r. nS'IJ I) 
f. 1) a quiver, prop, grasper, holder 
<cf. our holster for a pistol-case) Is. 

22, 6; inBTTiN ''ia SOWS of hie quiver 
i. e. his aiTows Lam. 3, 13. 2) perh. 
pi. nb^ix (r. ne^ II to heap) dung- 
hills 1 Sam. 2, 8; but perh. better 
make tn'sxN a dunghill as m. sing, 
-from neb (w. e< prosth.) to deposit. 

Tj.St)K pr. n. m. (prob. horse's nose) 
of achief eunucliDan. 1,3. — Kodiger 
takes the word from the Persian 
asp (horse) and ndsd (nose). 

IBlCi^ m. measure, portion (from 
r. 1E^ to hold) 2 Sam. 6,19; the ancient 
versions render it piece, as if from r. 
^ayj I to break. 

- T 

HDlSK (only pi. hiPiS'^X) f. dung- 
hills, only Lam.4, 5; r. DB^ to set or 

tiSW^ (r. ns^ w. K prosth.) m. 
prop, a deposit or dimg, then dung- 
hill Ps. 113, 7; nbt'xri "nsd dung-gate 
Neh. 2, 13; cf. 3, is.' 

njjlfl,? 1 K. 19, 20, see r.pXJ L 

1 l5pl^Xpr.n. of one of the five royal 
cities of the Philistines, between Gaza 
and Jamnia (Sept. 'AaxciXwv, 1 Mac- 
cab. 'AffxaXtoviov) Judg. 1,18; gentil. 
adj. "^ii^ipm Josh. 13, 3; still 
called ^^ Mo ... f . ^Asqaldn by the Arabs. 
- — Perh. the name comes' from 
Vj5^r to weigh, hence a balance, 
as expressive of its traffic; cf. Tare7i- 
tum, Tapa"^ = talentum, xaXavxcv. 
As the district was said to be rich in 
onions, these were perh. called on 
that account, ascalonice, escalotes, our 
shallot, a kind of onion; but more 
likely this vegetable got its name 
from L. esculentus. 

I^JCS I akin to *i!l«: II, to go 
Prov. 9, 6;hencenTr5Jl. 

llZJCS II akin to '^Ui"' to he 
straight or even (cf. l"i:s 2, *i!|US*, 
•nViSPl); fig. of the straight-forward 


course or progress of undertakings, j 
hence to he prosperous-^ hence ^itpJit 
in ''t?'^' — P'« '^ fnoke straight^ to 
direct the steps Pro v. 4, 14; to cause 
to step^ to lead along Is. 3, 12; fig. 
to right or defend Is. 1, 17; to pro- 
nounce happy, to congratulate ^^Q^i, 
jAaxapiCw, Gen. 30, 13. — Pu. ^\^s< 
to he led along Is. 9, 15; to he made 
happy Ps. 41, 3. 

I \Z3CS (obs.) perh. akin to ^t^ 
to hind; hence perh. V&?'^y?i< and 

^tDSt 1) rel. pron. for all genders 
and numbers, who, which, also that 
which, what (on its rather notable 
syntactical usage see the Gram. 
§ 123). As the most important par- 
ticle in dependent sentences, it stands 
at the head of clauses where it 
strongly marks relation, and is supple- 
mented by a pron. or suffix accord- 
ing as the ^yJK may belong to the 
subject Deut. 20, 15 or the object 
Jer. 32, 3; e. g. ^ who lives (*im 
NSin) Gen. 9, 3, where St^in forcibly 
adds the nominative idea to the 
merely rel.^iuix; whom he imprisoned 
('i6<^3 ^m) Jer. 32, 3, where the suf. 
i — adds the objective idea to ^i^X. 
This supplementing is necessary, if 
*lU^^^ refers to a subordinate notion 
e. g. "i^'^^P '^^SS? whose harvest Job 5, 
6; "ft nujk to whom, where 'nm 
expresses neither the subject nor the 
object; but *iyiit is sufficient alone if 
it refers (adverbially = where, when, 
why, how) to substantives of place 
Gen. 35, 13, time 2 Sam. 19, 25, manner, 
reason or way 1 K. 11, 27. — 
As "lUJ!}* prop, expresses merely rela- 
tion, it may express that idea in 
various constructions (see Gram. 
§ 123, 1) e. g. BTU ^m where, nm 

70 ^tii< 


Bi23a whence, Tm'^ im whither; even 
w. the pron. of the 1st and 2nd per- 
sons C^n'i'^3 "^m,, ^^nt^^in ^m); on 

the contrary, in most languages it 
is possible only w. the 3rd person.. 

— When the context or the sense 
of a clause readily suggests the rela- 
tive idea, the relative pronoun i» 
very often omitted (as in Engl.)- 
e. g. dh^ vb y"n6<a in a land (which 
is) not theirs Gen. 15, 13, a pit 
(which) he made Ps. 7, 16 (see- 
Gram. § 123, 3). — "ym is often (a» 
in Engl.), esp. in poetry, used a* 
involving its antecedent, i. e. a per- 
sonal or demonst. pronoun (Gram^ 
§ 123, 2), e. g. h^h n-iS^ nm Jer^ 
32, 24 (that) which (= what) thou^ 
spdkest comes to pass, 1 K. 5, 22 
'^'^^ t?^^^ "^^^. tM< "^W^^ I have- 
heard that which (= what) thow 
sentest to^ me. 2) rel. conj. (Gram^ 
§ 155, 1) that Ex. 11, 7, hecauseDeut^ 
3, 24, as Ex. 14, 13, how Job 37, 17^ 
when lK.8, 9 ; w. prep. ^IIUKS in thaty 
ntt?i<Sas, ^tm since, ^\iJ&t-b? for* that^ 

— On "Wii as prefix, see 'llJ. 

"^^^ pr. n. m. (prosperous; cf^ 
Eu6ai{j.a)V, Felix) 1) a son of Jacob 
Gen. 30, 13; gentil. n. '''im Asherite 
Judg. 1, 32. 2) pr. n. (fortress) of 
a city Josh. 17, 7. 

^^IJJ (pi. d'^^m) f. 1) i. q. ^iiUhj (r. 
^m ijstep, going, fig. way Job 23, 11. 
2) sherhin-cedar, f "^ipis; T\^ = made 
of sherhin-cedars Ez. 27, 6 ; r. ^■':bi< II» 

*ltDfi< (only in pi. c. ''^^J? and w, 

suf. ^^y^, dS'^^m, 'I'^^i^&t, in|^m 
Prov. 29, 18) m. happiness, prosper^ 
ity (prop. -pi. felicities, hlessednesses); 
used only before a noun or prono- 
minal suf. as a sort of interj. ^y2i< 
^m ttj'^xn Ps. 1, 1 happy the man! 
who — ; 'T^'^ytii< happy (art) thou! 
Deut. 33, 29 ; r. nt^i< II. 




"niD^ (w. suf. ^*y:^) m. happinesSf 
only Gen. 30, 13; r.* -)^r^^ II. 

^llSfc^ f. for ^;tt!< step, only Job 31, 7. 

b^^T?^ pr. n. m. (God binds, r. 
-ittTN) 1 Ch, 4, 16. 

nbij'^tiijt pr. n. m. (God makes 
happy) i Ch. 25, 2. 

tvm, trrm mic 5, 13 (pi. 

oi'^iax, mSirx) f. prop, happiness (cf. 
L. Fortuna), hence Ashera, name 
of the Phenician and Syrian goddess 
of blissfulness or fortune (Acppo- 
61TY], Fewtts) 1 K. 15, 13 (elsewhere 
n'ln^p?), united w. b?a 1 K. 18, 19; 
the pi. for her images 1 K. 14, 23. 

bS^'^iCSl pr. n. m. (i. q. ^i<'^^Vi) 
Num. 26,'31. 

i^D^ISK Chald. m. wall Ezr. 5, 3; 
cf. r. ^T2J«: n fo be upright; or perh. 
r. "jm I ^0 6e strong. 

123125 b5 I (obs.) i. q. Chald. KtJt, 
rr^ to burn, togloio; hence ttJN, rnax, 
n;2j;r. — Cf. Sans, ush (to bum), L. 
ttro (t«s-si), ai6(o, L. cBstas, G. Aeiss, 
our heat, W. 0£?y» (a kiln). 

123123 SJ5 II (obs.) akin to Arab. JLl 

fo maA;e /?rm i. q. fiT^X fo fee /?rm 
or strong, Deriv. yi^^TN, Stt^^TTX. 
— Hithpo. yj^i&<rn to show oneself 
manly or strong Is. 46, 8; but this 
may be a denom. from tn^. 

n^K f. (c. of rrm, Gram. § 96, 2, 
but perh, the absol. state in Deut. 
21, 11, 1 Sam. 28, 7, Ps. 58, 9, Jer. 
13, 21) woman; see tw»,. 

55^ni^}l^ pr. n. (perh. hollow-way, 
r. b&tyT for h^t) of a city of Dan, 
Josh. 15, 33(Sept.'Ej0a6X, 'AjrawX, 
Euseb. 'Ej&aouX). 

n^'nniDK Chald. m. insurrection 
Ezr. 4, 15; 'r. ^"vq. 

TWiS pr. n. m. (perh. uxorious, 
from mrx) 1 Ch. 4, 11. 

VrilDS; Chald. Dan. 5,3,perf. 3 pi. 

for ITi^lJ, r. nniij. 

n53riiri5j Josh. 15, 50and?T2ri'lDH 
Josh. 21, 14 pr. n. (perh. renowned, 
r. ^^xb) of a Levitical city in Judah, 
not far from Hebron. 

nJJ Chald. m. i. q. Heb. nix, sign^ 
token, portent Dan. 3, 32 ; r. W&t I. 

rii^ (in pause PIN, i. q. inx) pron. 
f. thou Gen. 24, 23 , for an-ti, as nnx 
for an-ta\ rix may stand also for the 
masc. Fin, Num. 11, 15,Deut.5,27. 

riJl$ i. q. fiPiN pers. pron. m. thou, 
1 Sam. 24, 19.' 

inj$ I (w. suf. inx pi. d-inx, n-^nx 

Is. 2, 4, w. suf. aS'iPlN Joel. 4, 10) 
m. ploiv-share, coulter, hoe 1 Sam. 
13, 20, prop, the cutting instru- 
ment, r. WN I to cut in, to dig; but 
as the forms d'^lnx, DS'^riN occur, 
some consider r\N as derived from 

nnx = n>ii< i. 

- T 

t^Jj^n (before Maqqeph"lnN,w. most 
suffixes hk, but see below) emphat. 
pron. self (prob. akin to auxoi, Gram. 
§ 117, 2, Note) prob. from an old 
demonst. pronoun, e. g. Josh. 22, 
17 is it a trifle for us Ti?"^^ 
'niJa this very iniquity of Pe'or? 
It is generally a sign of the definite 
accusative, hence used 1) w. suffixes 
in order to express the ace. of the 
personal pronouns; e. g. Gen. 12, 12 
ii'srj'i '^riki "inx ^la^in they kill me and 
thee they will save, where the em- 
phasis or antithesis requires the per- 
sonal pronoun. So if the verb has 
two pers. pronouns as objects, where 
the suff. on the verb can express 
only one, the other is then put w. 
rx and the appropriate suf. as 
•^nk me, lanx i*s, inx him, nnk her, 


^rk m. "r;nk f. thee, d^nx m. (Q^riX), 
•janx f. you^ dnix m. "jnbt f. them 
(rarely dnnjt Gen. 32, 1, dnnifi< Ez. 
23, 45, "^nnin, V. 47). 2) before sub- 
stantives, mostly if tbey have the 
art. or a suffix, or are in c. state 
or are proper names or otherwise 
made definite (Gram. §117, 2)- e. g. 
Gen. 1, 1 God created injtl d-^a^n n5< 
Y^^i^ the heavens and the earth; '^a■^^< 
whom? that which *i^X"n&<; this 
J^J-n^^; all b^■n^^. On the rare 
cases where ini^t stands before an in- 
definite ace. (e. g. Ex, 21, 28 ^ifi<-lnit 
nm-n&5 1&<) see Gram. § 117, 2, Eem. 
— On the few cases where H1J5 seems 
to stand before a nominative, see 
Gram. § 143, 1, Eem. — Cf. Chald. 

n;^, Syr. £*-.;perh. Heb. tu;^, Gr. ouaia, 

L. essentia, Sans, vasu, G. wesen, W. 
wi/dh (presence). 

n}< III ('1M<, w. suf. "^m, ^m, (in 
p. T|tnfi<), fem. T\^i<, inx, ^iDrix, dstnsf, 
dPllit; but in Kings, Jerem. andEzek. 
^rk, ?]nx, see Gram. § 103, 1, Rem. 1) 
prep, at, by, with, toward Ps. 67, 2 
(perh. for rii5< approach or nearness^ 
r. n^X II), -nt* nauj to lie with Gen. 

T T •" V - T 

19, 33; -n5< 1:q:? to stand with, to help 
Num. 1, 5; -nj< n^ia n'ns to make 
covenant with Ex. 34, 27. It is equal to 
d^, the two hardly differing except 
perh. like \x.zxh. and auv, the former 
perh. expressing accompaniment and 
the latter (pS) connection. In Gen. 4, 1 
J have gotten a man (chield) nilT^-n:* 
w. the Eternal i. e. with his presence 
and help (cf. Sept. IxxYjaafxifjv oiv- 
GpcDTTOv 8ia Tou 0£ou, Vulg.^er deum, 
Syr. Pi.Vi>^). — n^?X3 from with, 

i. e. away from Gen. 8, 8 (like dS^a, 
Pr. de chez quelqu'un), after verbs 
of departing, sending, receiving, 
buying, begging. *^T\i<^ Is. 44, 24 
Q'ri (= d:r' ItxauToO in John 5, 30) 

72 s^^iriijj 

but the K'thibh iPiiS: "^^ gives the best 
sense who (was) ivith me? — Prob. 
akin to fjista, {X£ao(;, L. medius, 
Sans, mid (adapt), G. mit, 0. Norsk 
vidh, E. with. 

tli^ also l^'^^^, sign of def. accu- 
sative, see r\N n. 

SSn^^, nJlSSl Chald. (= Heb. 

nns<) 3.'perl. pi. inii, ihf. &<np=&tm^, 
imp. pi. iny;, to come Dan. 7, 22, Ezr. 
4, 12. — Aph. "in^n, inf. ii^n^H, to 
bring Dan. 3, 13. — Hoph. (a sort 
of Hebraism for Ittaphel) to be 
brought, perf. 3 pers. f. ir\'^ty^t^ Dan. 
6, 18, pi. si^n'iln 3, 13. 

?!^llllni5^ pr. n. m. (with-Baal) king 
of Sidon 1 k. 16, 31 ; Joseph. 'I&dpaXo;, 
ElOtopaXof; (b'$'2 I'PiSj; w. him Baal). 

I iJn^^ Deut. 33, 2,^ni^ Is. 
21, 12 (pi. "^^m = siiixn^j Jer. 3,^2]" fut. 
^f^^!:> ^0?^ f^^?!! Is. 41, 25, pi. l'^J^i<^ 
w. suf. *i3^n5<;^, part. pi. f. ni^Kx, imp. 
I'liniJi, see Gram. § 76, 2, c), fo come 
(poet, for J!<'i2),w. h or 1:? of the pers. 
Jer. 3, 22, Mic. 4, 8 ; to befall, w. ace. 
Job 3, 25 ; to go, pass away, of years 
Job 16, 22; W'^nifitri coming events 
i. e. the future Is. 41, 23. — Hiph. 
to brifig i. q. ii^^'n; Jiirh for ^"^inxn 
3 pi. perf. in Is. 21, 14, but 2 pi. 
imp. in Jer. 12, 9. Deriv. "jin'^JSl. 

nri5^ (r= fiT\ii<, as in Aram, and 

T - ^ T : -' 

Arab.; in pause iilrijt) pron. 2 pers. 
m. sing, thou, also written PH; and 
tns. The real root-syllable is T\'n, to- 
gether w. an older form *lln (analogous 
to ^Ti), as the fem tn te, together w. 
an older form '^T\ (analogous to '^rt), 
an being only a prefixed demon- 
strative particle as in ^abx an-oJci. --— 
Cf. Sans, tvam, L. tu, au, Dor. t6, W. 
ti, G. du, E. thou. 

^"T^"^^. 1 fut. Hith. of5>n;^, Gram, 
§ 69, 2.' * 




*jiriJJJ (pi. nbhN) f. she-ass Gen. 
32, 16, wnx-ia son of his she-ass 
poet, for his ass's colt Gen. 49, 11. — 
Generally traced to "jriX (an assumed 
root) to go sloicly; but it may well 
come from irx, Arab. ^3l, ear ; hence 
the long-eared, as in L. auritus, asi- 
nus, G. esel, etc.; see on f^23'iJt. 
, "yiD^ Chald. com. gend. furnace, 
oven Dan. 3, 6; prop, fire, akin to 
m, ai&£iv, AiTvrj, jEtna, W. odgn 
(a kiln), tan (fire). 

p^niS< (K'thibh of Ez. 41, 15) m. 
a break or offset, in buildings, a gal- 
lery, Targ. t^iT, Sept. axoa, irept jtoXov ; 
r. pns. 

■•riJS (only K'thibh) i. e. ''tlX (from 
•ipiSX) 2 pers. pron. f. i. q. t^St thou, 
only Judg. 17, 2, 1 K. 14, 2, Jer. 4, 30. 

^^^ pr. n, m. (perh. for Ji^m 
with M^) 2 Sam. 15, 19, 22; in'ii< in 
1 Ch. 11, 31. 

^""^^ for !!^nx imp. pi. of hni<; 
Gram. § 76, 2, c and § 23, 3, Eem. 2. 

p^rilJ^ i. q. psipix m. an offset, 
portico or gallery Ez. 42, 5; r. pna. 

D!nX (older form dsir:i35<) pers. 
pron. 2 pi. m.;g^e. — d^irn (the aw is only 
a demonst. prefix) is still met w. in the 
suf. Sim; cf. Chald. "jJinsx, ')!in&5 Syr. 
^o^l ye. 

Dri5^ pr. n. of a district in Egypt, 
Ex. 13, 20; Sept. 'O&wjJ., Copt. ATIOM 
i. e. boundary of the sea. 

b^/jn^ Mic. 2, 8, bi/Jtn^J l Sam. 
4, 7, bi'jri^ 1 Sam. 10, 11 (=bsia-n!Jl, 
like ^1^ - bx) prop, before; hence 
adv. yesterday; but in Mic. 2, 8, Is. 
30, 33, aforetime, of old. See ^^l^, and 
b-I^Pi shortened from bi^ainx. 


(obs.) perh. fo take short 
steps, like the ass; but see "jlnx above. 

]T^^i see 'jn'iN. 

"jinSl only Ez. 34, 31, i. q. hjnx ye, 

riDflK m. jpresenf, reward, esp. 

a harlot's hire Hos. 2, 14; r. nsni 

w. J55 prosthetic. 

tl'Tl'S^ Gen. 31, 6, iltlT)^ Ez. 13. 

r I" - ' ' T I" - ' 

20, pron. 2 p2. f. ye. 

^'2T\^ Jer. 3, 22 for !l^J<n^{ = i|rn^< 

IT T ' IT T !• T 

we come; r. Jinfct. 

' T T 

^'^ST'.J^ pr. n. m. (perh. munificent, 
r. nan I) 1 Ch. 6, 26. 

']?1^^5 (w. suf. ''Mnit pL cii;DrK; 

r. lil^li = !^5l? I w. X ' prosth.) "m. 
1) gijft, present, esp. a harlot's hire 
Ez. 16, 34, Deut. 23, 19; fig. of fruits 
or produce, as if gifts to or from 
idols Hos. 9, 1 ; Is. 23, 17 n|?nS (for 
rrSSlnN) her gift. 2) pr. n. 1 Ch. 4, 7, 
one of the sons of Helah. 

pijCS (obs.) perh. akin to pr'i, 
prys, to remove, to shift forward^ hence 
peril. pJinx, p-^nx. 

^jDgriiJ Jer. 22, 24, 1 fut. Qal of 
pnS; see Gram. § 58, 4. 

lijCS (obs.) akin to 'nm, l^ia: II, 
n^iin I, to go about; hence fi'^'^^X, cf. 

y • T -s 

Syr.jjZf place and 

lln^ Chald. (def. 6t"nnx) m. place 
or room Dan. 2, 35, Ezr. 5, 15; ''"n "^n!^ 
i. q. Heb. "n^lij* Sp^s l?/ace where = 
t(;^ere Ezr. 6, 3; hence ^riK^ i. e. 
^nxa after Dan. 7, 6; w. suf. "T^'ina 
a/fer thee Dan. 2, 39, cf. filpa. 

^*^'!'^^ pr. n. (places, r. 'insj) a 
place in south Palestine Num. 21, 1. 

ilZjCS Chald. (obs.)prob. aJcinto 
Heb. ijSyi<, 'atOw, Sans, ush, to burn^ 
hence "i^nx 

ZlZjCN (obs.) akintonnn, nns, 

WX I, to cut or smite (cf. Sans, kat 
= L. quafiOf in-cutio) ; hence ri&(; L , 

^ Beth, the 2d letter in the Heb. 
Alphabet; hence used also as the 
numeral for 2. Its early form on 
Phenician monuments and Heb. coins 
is T or -^j whence the Greek ^ or 
K, and B. Its name ri'ia (Kabbinic 
pi. '•pn*'3, mn^a) is from n^'S house 
or tent, which prob. its earliest shape 
rudely resembled; the form and name 
(whence Gr. B^xa) suggesting by 
the initial sound the force of the 
letter, which is like our b (3) or softer 
like hh or v (3); see Gram. § 6, 3. 

H interchanges — 1 with its kin- 
dred labials \ a, & (see under each), 
e. g. fct'''^3=^<''"l5^, 35=15, V:i3=^2Q, 

bns = "^li^, Chald. S-nis"! = Syr. 
w^9oj, 'J'i3i'n = 'jia^'n; — 2 w. palatals 

and gutturals, e. g. 'IIS = I^IB = '^^3 1, 
^!|3J I, *^sin I, ^*lp I (cf. 7:u>; = xui;; 
Tttitoi; = L. egmts = Gaelic each); — 
3 w. dentals, e. g. I^n = ^^h 2 (cf. 
61; = L. his). — The doubling of the 
Beth is changed in the dialects (or in 
words adopted from them in western 
languages) into mh, e. g. in Aram. 
3^3X = L. amhubaia; ^^S"!"^, Mepojx- 

3 seems in some words to be a 
format, ending, e. g. 3nN: (r35'ni<), 

^^3>\», S-np?, 3S*in (cf. 1^:^in'lV&3, 
tl^:-inC]^l22>), 33'13, 35n2;33? (see each), 

Arab. •t'jJ^ Zocwsf from jJLa. = pA. 
= tia = 053 ^0 collect together, wmjJ 
adorned from ^j;J^3 ornament, Syr. 
*.a49Q-o from ^^ pierce, perh. 

» nnS? from > nN^;perh.akinto the 
endings d — , tS-7-, B— — , Dl — (see 

under 53) and prob. adjectival, thougl* 
the force is now lost; cf. the adj.. 
endings -i{Jlo;, -}1(ov also -^f\c„ -^0^ 
(e. g. axpi-piQ(; from Sxpo;, xoXop6<; 
= x6Xo;); Sans. -6/ia (i|") in vali-bha 
(wrinkled) from vali (wrinkle), -va 
(^) in Jcesa-va (fair -haired) from 
^esa(hair); li.-bus in mor-bus, acer-bus, 
^ A) pref. prep. (Gram. § 102, 2 
and § 154, 3, a) generally used to ex- 
press in, tvithin, among (iv), but 
with differences of meaning, evolved 
perhaps in the following order: 1) the 
purely local, temporal, or circumstan- 
tial idea of being, resting or acting in 
or at any place, hence — a) in, at (in 
answer to wherel) as ri'^33 in the 
house, y^i^^ in the land, ti'^'D'^^ in the 
heavens, *i?^3 in the gate, Ti:'jpp3 in 
the sanctuary, ]'^^3 in or at the well; 
and in many idioms (where its proper 
force of m is not lost, though we have 
to render it differently to suit our 
usage); e. g. ^^^^i *]'y_ eye to eye, 
nam ni^, ai^h's y:"ln, dl^a m*\ 

ln3U:3 r\3^, t3»B3 OS^S. In the sense 

T - : T - ' - r : - r 

of in, etc. , many sorts of verbs are 
construed with it, especially verbs of 
believing, confiding, delighting in, or 
the contrary, e.g. 3 "ntiTS, "paxri, JlDS, 

nbh; 31173, ;ijn3, Ntsn.W'Q, "ii'-o, ia3: 

xr' : -t' -.7 tt' -t' -t' -t' 

verbs of inquiring or choosing, etc. 

e. g. ^ tly^, bjtb; 3 1)j3, n:2i, 3fni<, 
nxito, ^'^a, tb^, y^':^, bxa, b?a,V?a,i3i5; 
verbs of sense (bodily sensations or 
mental perceptions) e.g. 3 tlNl, T\Xn,to 
look at, 3 5)DTr fo Zisfew ifo, 3 xr^y} to 
smell of, 3 i<il5 ^0 ca?^ ow, 3 ttiaa <o 
approach to, to touch, 3 pSI fo cZeave 
to, 3 p-rnn, 3 tm, to take hold of. 


a sai to touch, a sas to light on or 
hit, a tnib <o muse on, M^H, T^^^}, 
n», a 'la'n, in which cases it may 
be translated upon, over, concerning. 
With this notion of rest in, at, etc., 
is then connected — P) the idea 
of accompaniment, with, at, hy, in 
the sense of nearness or of in- 
strumentality, whether this accom- 
paniment has the notion of helping, 
or attending on, serving as an in- 
strument, or of ruling and effec- 
tuating, which we may have to ren- 
der in Eng. by in, through,hy means 
of, etc. as in !nn:£ba, d-^sna, w^^ina. 

Hence by prefixing a to substantives 
a great many adverbs and adjectives 
are in effect expressed, e. g. Kaa 
with (prop, in) might, i. e. mightily; 

so "-^pa, T^'iisa, •'Vvsa, Wit^a, na^iana, 

Bha, la^ia. in this signif. it stands 
after the verb which by its help ex- 
presses the idea of accompaniment 
(Jby, through) e. g. a fita?, xa, ^"n^, dnp, 
*j|5B ; a 155 to do worJc through some- 
body; a tWi to receive interest 
through somebody, i. e. to make a 
loan; a 5>aTi:3.— 7) upon, when raised 
objects are spoken of, e. g. 'nna upon 
(prop, in) the mount. 2) The idea of 
motion (eU)) as it were in to some- 
thing, hence a) at, towards, but always 
implying nearness and so differing 
from bist, in which motion toicards, 
but without proximity, is expressed 
(in answer to whither?). In this 
way several verbs of motion are 
construed with a, e. g. a "jlna to give 
in or into, a Tp-n to tread in or on 
(see Gram. p. 325, Note ^). So too 
verbs of ruling (cf. letter P above) 
3 ^2:? to keep in, to restrain; a tti'^, 
ilj^ ; verbs of contending or opposing 
in any way, e. g. a ai'i, tDhba, 'nan, 
^)>p, pns, bnn, ci^p,' Mnii, &<sp, 
(in such cases the Lat. too uses in, 

with the ace. case in the same sense). 
— Fig. a is used for marking a rule : 
in (the manner), according to, e. g. 
T|'!?l7a in (according to) the manner, 
^la'ia according to the command of, 
n^sa according to the counsel; hence 
often according to (L. secundum), 
as, like as (like 3, for which perh» 
it is sometimes an error in writing). 
P) within, among, as a part in the 
whole, e. g. d'^'iuipa among the 
conspirators = a conspirator, bsa 
among all, ^"^fs^ among my helpers 
= my helper Ps. 118, 7; and in this 
signif. the 3 is used with verbs the 
action of which refers merely to a 
part of the whole, as a nSii to smite 
among (i. e. part), "Jnx Jnsri to smite 
(i. e. all). So too 3 ^^ti, nn^, V?6<. 
If) in regard to, as a brief way of 
including the whole, e.g. rt^fn 33 ClWa 
(among) in regard to fowl and cattle; 
used fig. e. g. Job 23, 13 God is ^ihita 
in one, i. e. He is one or unique; 
also Is. 40, 10 ptna fttia'' He comes 

' ' T T : T 

in a strong one, i. e. as mighty; cf, 
F. en in vivre en honnete homme. 
Its use in these last examples has 
given it the name Beth essenticB. 

As to derivation, this prep, a is 
prob. akin to !S<'i3 or to Jn^a (so Ge- 
senius and most) or 'j'^a (so Ewald^ 
Lehrbuch, § 217, ^) but Fiirst and 
Dr. Payne Smith (Thes. Syriacus,. 
col. 429) regard it as a primitive in 
the short form &*, ascertained by 
a comparison of languages; the 
former labouring in vain to prove 
nearness to be its primary sense^ 
but the latter accepting in as its 
original force. — "With suff. "^a, ?]a, 
naa, in p. and fem. T|3, 13, n3, 133, 
033, "jDS, dhSandDS, !l5an3, "JflS and 
iiSiiS; w. other particles 1?3, "liSS. 

B) 3 also appears — 1) as abbrev. 
of ')3 in some proper names, as ^•7'33> 

• » 

to^^a, still more frequently in Arabic. 

2) as abbrev. of ^"^3, only in the 
names of places, e. g. }T;iFi;:i3>Si i. q. 
'5)"n''a; but in neither case should 
this abbrev. be stretched too far. 

3) perh. also for b?a e. g. )^ for 
*j3>V?a = lisJa b?a. 

^ Chald. in, same as the Heb. 

^^3, see 5<'ia. Cf. Sans. v& (go), 
pi-w, pai-vo), pa-6o;, L. via, va-do, 
O. E. wade (go), W. bant (off). 

HiQ 1 K. 14, 12 inf. of &<ia, but 
rti^a 1 K. 13, 7 is imperative. 


n55<la Buth 1, 19 inf. of Uiia, w. 

T IT ' ' 

«uf. 3 pl. f. and rt-^ demonstr. (see 
Oram. § 32, Bern. 7, § 91, 1, Eem. 2). 

njJ^Hl (for njj'ia,) f. entrance, only 
Ez. 8^5 (cf. "iln^S); r. &<ia. 

la^K^ Chald. adj. (only in fem. 
xlef. 5<lnu:!i&ta) evil Ezr. 4, 12; r. ma. 

liS«il (Qal obs.) i. q. ^>ia, to bore, 
to dig, so in general many roots mid. 
« (5< 5)) are identical with verbs mid. 
1 (V'5) ; hence — Pi. ^Jta 1) to carve in, 
to engrave on tables Hab. 2, 2. 2) 
to dig out (the sense), to explain Dent. 
1, 5. — Akin to liiB, L. foro, G. 
iohren, E. bore, cpplap and pdpaGpov. 

• ^21 (with n-:p local JTnxa, w. 
«uf. ^'ij^a, pl. K-iia, c. n\N:a)'f. i) 

pit, i. q. *iia Ps. 65, 24. 2) a well, fully 
tai'sn 0"!^ nxa Gen. 26, 19 MJeW of 
living waters. 3) pr. n. of encamp- 
ment of the Israelites in the Wilder- 
ness Num. 21, 16, fully d■'^^^ 'nxa Is. 
15, 8 (heroes'- well). 4) pr. n. of a 
place in the tribe of Judah Judg. 
9, 21. 5) "nsta nb5>a (mistress of a 
well) also merely V?a 1 Ch. 4, 33, 
pr. n. of a place in the tribe of Simeon 
Josh. 19, 8. 

76 lliHSl 

D^bi^ ^5^Sl, see ni^a. 

''J$'^ ^nb ni$:a pr. n. (perh. well 
of the living looking one) of the well 
of Hagar Gen. 16, 14. 

5^1123 ^H!i pr. n. (well of oath or 
covenant) of a city on southern 
limit of Palestine, B/jpaaPe^, Gen. 
21, 31. 

*n)J<^ (prop. "i&<a, K'thibh for nia 
2 Sam. 23, 15) f. prop, pit, hence a 
cistern, reservoir, pl. W'li^a Jer. 2, 13; 
r. "ij^a = ^!ia. 

— T ' 

^"^^5 pr. n. m. (a well) 1 Ch. 7, 37. 

TT\^^ pr. n. m. (a well) 1 Ch. 5, 6. 

inm^^ pr. n. (wells) of a city in 
Benjamin' Josh. 9, 17, Eus. BrjpwO, 
now el-Bireh; gentil. "^nniJia 2 Sam. 
4, 2 and "^nHa 1 Ch. 11, 39; cf. i-na 
for 'I'n.Ha. 

ll;?^"^?^ nh^n pr. n. of an 
encampment of the Israelites in the 
wilderness Deut. 10, 6, called also 
II^SJI: 15a Num. 33, 31; see *j|?55\ 

^"nKHl pr. n. m. (L. fontanus) Hos, 

IZJCS^ (fut. ma^) prop, to have 
a bad smell, to stink Ex. 7, 18; fig. 
to be bad, wicked (see Hiph.) i. q. 
Chald. ma. — Nipli. ma? to shew 
oneself bad, to become hateful, w. 
a, ~ T\^_, i. e. to be in ill odour tvith 
some one 1 Sam 13, 4. — Hiph. 
yj'iyiarj 1) prop, to cause to stink Hcc, 
10, i; fig. to make loathsome, w. a 
Gen. 34, 30; >i3n'i'n-ns< tJPimari ye 
made our odor stink Ex. 5, 21. 2) to 
stink Ex. 16, 24; fig. w. a to be 
hateful 1 Sam. 27, 12, Prov*. 13, 5. 
— Hith. to make oneself hateful, 
only iimainrt, w. d5> 1 Ch. 19, 6. 

WjJSZl Chald. to be evil, w. ^3) to 

• • • 

displcasei)2in.6,15 (opp. Dba); see ma. 




123^^1^ b^sh (w. suf. it-XS) m. bad 
smell, stench Am. 4, 10, Is» 34, 3 (cf. 

nsn:!); r. ^"xa. 

tlirijt^l f. a bad-smelling plant, a 
weed, only Job 31, 40. 

Cl235^!ll m. pi. prop. adj. bad 
(e. g. Di23>), but as subst. bad 
ff rapes, ivild grapes Is. 5, 2j r. uiita. 

nf\U<^ Chald., see "in&<, "nna. 

n^lll (only c. mna w. -^firm) f. only 
Zech. 2, 12 y^^'S naa apj?^ o/" the 
eye, the pupil, perh. from a^S (cf. S'^a 
Talm. hole, pit, Chald. xaa^afe); but 
as the pupil is also called 1^^ ma ')l'ui*'!!< 
Ps. 17, 8 lit. mannikin of the daughter 
of the eye (i. e. the little image one 
sees of himself when looking into 
another's pupil), and simply ''\^^ na 
Lam. 2, 18, it is likely that Siaa (prob. 

for ni<aita, Arab. yt.'fK puellus, akin 
tola) isamimet.word, akin to L.jpw^^^, 
pupilla, Syr. jLci^, j-Jo-ao (see Dr. 
Payne Smith's Thes. Syriacus), our 
babe, baby, boy, h.puer, irate, N. Am. 
Indian pappooSyW. baban,'F.poupon, 
which are all taken, like ajij and dS, 
from infant lips; cf. xopY) a girl, also 
the pupil of the eye. 

^'i!!! pr. n. m. (perh. boyish, 
akin to Jnaa) Neh. 7, 16. 

b^^ (w. h loc. nbaa) Babel, Ba- 
bylon, pr. n. of the chief city of 
Babylonia Gen. 10, 10, also the king- 
dom of this name Is. 14, 4, which at 
the time of the Persian supremacy 
also meant Persia Neh. 13, 6. — Ac- 
cording to Gen. 11, 9 the name appears 
to stand for ^aba from r. bba 2 and to 
mean confusion; akin to b^'ba, Syr. 

^!!.«£iius to mix, Arab. J^J«i conj. 11. 
to stammer, G. babbeln, E. babble, L. 
halbus, pappapo; (see 1 Cor. 14, 11), 

all suggestive of confused or unin* 
telligible speech. 

*bn5 Chald. (pi. def. &<.':baa)Ba&y- 
Ionian, gentilic from baa Ezr. 4, 9. 

j5 (only K'thibh) m. food Ez. 25,. 
7 (cf. cpaYto); it should, however, beaa 
(cf. sans) , unless the Q'ri ta booty is 
correct, as in all the ancient versions. 

l32 (fut. ^aa-^, ^aa*^ Mai. 2, io> 

1) fo cover, whence 15 a clothing. 

2) fig. #0 conceal, hence fo act covertly y 
to deceive (cf. b^ia), ^o c/jeaf, abs. Job 
6, 15, or w. a Mai. 2, 14, rarely w. "i^l 
Jer. 3, 20, or ace. of the pers. whom 
one deceives or faithlessly forsakes, 
Ps. 73, 15; part, d'l'iaa faithless ones, 
revolters Is. 24, 16; )']'^t^ la'a the wine 
(i. e. the drunkard) is treacherov>s 
Hab. 2, 5. Hence 

"15.111 (w. suf. ^"riaa, pi. a^'^aa, c. 

•insa,' nliaa only Ps. 45, 9, w.' suf, 
rpnHaa) m. but f. Lev. 6, 20, covering, 
clothing; hence 1) es-p. outer-garment 
(like b^3J^) Gen. 39, 12, covering 1 K. 
1, 1, a cloth Num. 4, 6. 2) conceal- 
ment, treachery Jer. 12, 1; rajnne 
Is. 24, 16. 

rilir^lH f. pi. treacheries Zeph. 3, 
4; perh. f. sing, like niD^rt. 

1 ijS (w. the —^ firm) adj. m., 
only f. ""Tili^a faithless Jer. 3, 7. 

^j^'^ pr. n. m. (if not Persian Ba- 
7aTo^* Herod. 3, 138, perh. for '^IS ',a, 
■il a = '^i a a son of the people) Neh. 7,19, 

^^j3, on account of, see bba. 

J^SHjUI pr. n. m. (Pers.) Est. 1,10; 
i. q. ttriaay? which see. 

"in^lS, 5^5jn?5 pi'- n. m. (Pers.) 
Est. 2,* 21; 6,"^ 2V prob. i. q. 5<naa. 

1^ I (w. suf. i-na, pi. di^a) m. 
separation, isolation (r. ^t!? 1^» hence 
1) a separated thing, part; pi. parts of 
the body, members, limbs Job 18,13; 




nasi 13 part for part Ex. 30, 34, see 
under lab; Jii^lPl ViW I'na Job 17, 16 
into the secltisions or solitudes of the 
grave they (hopes) descend* 

IS n m. prop, thread, yarn, cord 
(r. Tia n to hind) J a) coll. linen, white 
linen (cf. y^"^, 13 "^5??? i^7wfe linen 
breeches Ex. 28, 42; pi. D'^'nS absol. 
Ziwew clothes Ez. 9, 2; P) branches, 
so called from binding and inter- 
weaving, hence only pi. ta'^'ns, '3 tvss$ 
Ez. 17, 6 to put forth branches, Mwia 
's Ez. 19, 14 staff of branches ; then 
^ofes, staves Ex. 25, 13, prob. as being 
made of branches; 7) fig. nobles Hos. 
11, 6, bearers or supports of the state. 

^5 in (only pi. d'l'na) pratings Job 
11, 3; then praters, liars Is. 44, 25; 
r. 113 in. 

.T T 

prop, to prate, hence to 
lie, to invent 1 K. 12, 33; part. sing. 
Neh. 6, 8 d&^ll^ (for d5<l'3) prating 
them; akin to fi<i:33, 113 III. 

' T t' - T 

H- JiH I akin to 132$, tta, 5)^3, 
Chald. 5)T3, fo &e cwi o;f or severed, 
to he forlorn, part. 1113, Hos. 8, 9 lonely. 
— The primary syllable 13, T\'2, t3, ^2 
in 113, ^13, nn3, ^n3, in3, tt3, 2>:23, 

- x' - r' - t' - t' _ _j - t' - t' 

1^3 is prob. mimet. and suggestive of 
cutting, cleaving, then dividing, etc. 

1 j3 n (obs.) perh. akin to 1&« 
to bind; hence 13 11. 

n J3 in (obs.) akin to &<13, &<t:3, 
PaxTO-XoYeTv, to prate; hence 13 m. 

Tllil m. separation, loneliness (r. 
113 I), then adv. separately, alone 
18.^27, 10; also 113^ Ps. 4, 9. 

' ' T T t ' 

^"1^ pr. n. m. (part) Gen. 36, 35. 
"^5, see ''I. 

♦^n^ P^- ^' "^* (perh. for Ji^132>) 
Ezr. \b, 35. 

^""I^ (pl. tJ^bi13, r. bl3) m. name 

of a metal, by which a kind of ftn 
is understood Num. 31, 22 (xacraJ- 
xepo;, Aram. t^l^DGS); the pl. d'^biia 
Is. 1, 25 signifies perh. the sorts or 
parts of tin-alloy, or the dross which 
had to be separated (r. ^13) from 
the pure metal. 

7 J^ (Qal. obs.) akin to ^113, 
113 I, to separate; hence Niph. 
bi3i to separate oneself, to live alone, 
w. "i^ Num. 16, 21; hence fig. to go 
away, generally, to be separated, shut 
out Ezr. 10, 8; w. hi<, "b to be sepa- 
rated to or on something I Ch. 23, 
13, hence to be selected ^zr. 10, 16. — 
Hiph. to sever Lev. 1, 17, to divide 
or part (cf. 1*^1£)<7), fig. to distinguish 
w. "pSil — "ps Gen. 1, 4, Lev. 10, 10, 
')i3V-'-p3 Is. 59, 2, b-j'13 Gen. 1, 6; 
but in the sense of severing from 
w. )'0 Num. 8, 14, ^0 shut out, w. 
b^'>2 Is. 56, 3; to separate to, w. h 
1 K. 8, 53; absol. Ez. 39, 14. 

^"llS (c. bl3) m. a part, only in 
ITJ^-^lSi Am. 3, 12 piece of an ear, 

ribh:a m. psox-xov, psaxiov, 

bdellium, prop, sweet-smelling resin, 
or the gum-drops of an Indian tree; 
hence, from the granular form, 
pearls, with the whiteness of which 
the grains of manna are compared 
Num. 11, 7, mentioned Gen. 2, 12 
along with the ruby (dJi'lU) and gold, 
as valuable products of India (•1^'^'lH 
which the Targ. on 1 Ch. 1, 23 ex- 
plains as itn^b^lp WSJ^Ba ini< place 
of the production of pearls). — This 
word is prob. from r. bl3 to eX' 
tract or select as precious ; the ending 
Tl—r- being diminutival or adjectival 
and akin to 5-7- in i^pS, "^-7- in 
t^llp, p-7- in piasJl, and to -axoc 
(cf. cpapfxaxov from cpup[xa); see 
more under letter 0, p. 191. 

m 79 

1'lSl pr. n. m. (perh. y^)'2L Danite, 
hence in Targ. for Samson; better 
for inn? = "jTHny) name of a judge 
in Israel 1 Sam. 12, 11. 

break through, to make a breach; 
whence p'la. 2) as denom. to repair 
n breach, to rebuild 2 Ch. 34, 10. 

p j2L (w. suf. TjP'ia Ez. 27, 9) m. 
« breach, a gap 2 K. 12, 6; hence 
denom. pna (only 2 Ch. 34, 10) fo 
repair dilapidated buildings. 

"lp*l^ pr. n. m. perh. for ^|5'n-')a 
(i. e. slabber) 2 K. 9, 25. 

I jill Chald. (i. q.Heb.\ta,ntB; 
Pa. ^^aVo scatter Dan. 4, 11. 

i U ImI (obs.) perh. akin to Q^^fo 
he silent, still; hence to be empty, 
waste; hence 

^»l!Il (for 1^3) m. wasteness, emp- 
tiness; akin to irin and thrice used 
in assonance with it, Gen. 1, 2, Is. 
34, 11, Jer. 4, 23. 

Ljrj3 (obs.)prob. akin to y^:iito 
ihine, gleam. Hence 

t3i j2l m. marble (used for pave- 
ments), perh. alabaster, only Est. 1, 6; 
Sept. cj.jxapaY5iTT)i;. 

^b^n^ Chald. (c. nsiV'ifia) f. ea- 
gerness, haste Ezr. 4, 23; r. bha. 

'n'^tl^ adj. m. dazzling Job 37, 21 ; 
T. ^na. " 

'j'^5»J? 2 Ch. 1, 4 forl^^nha, i. e. 
*'^'iT\ (see "l^llS) w. a and art. for relat. 
<see Gram. § 109, Rem. p. 245). 


H \^ (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
T. ^ri73 I to haste. — Niph. i) to be 
alarmed, to tremble Ps. 6, 3. 4. 
•2) fig. to do something with alarm, 
hence to flee Judg. 20, 41, to hasten 

after something, w. b Prov. 28, 22; 
hence the secondary notion of sud- 
denness, to perish suddenly Ps. 104, 
29; part. f. ^ibiiaa as subst. sudden 
ruin Zeph. 1, 18. — Pi. bna, fut. 
bfia"^ to make to fear, to alarm Ps. 
2, 5; fig. to cause to hasten Est. 2, 
9. — Pu. to be hastened Est. 8, 14, 
nbin'aia nbn: property hastily gotten 
Prov. 20, 21. — Hiph. to hurry Est. 
6, 14; to frighten away 2 Ch. 26, 20. 

^Tj^ Chald. (same as Heb. bfia) 
not found* in Pe. — Ithpe. inf. as 
subst. iibfnainh hastening, speed Dan. 
2, 25. — Pa. to terrify Dan. 4, 2. — 
Itlipa. to be terrified Dan. 5, 9. 

nbll^ f. terror Lev. 26, 16, 

T T V ' » 

sudden ruin Is. 65, 23 ; r. Pha. 

UFl^ (obs.) to be dumb, mute, 
said of cattle, as devoid of articulate 
speech. Hence in later Heb. D^X is 
also used of beasts, as '^a'lia is of 
men. — This root (in Ethiop. behm) 
is mimet. like Dfrn, fisi'n, d?3l, M^n, 
{jLU(o, E. dumb, hum, mum, L. wtt-tus, 
Sans, mutas, (x66oi;, W. mud, all 
being taken from nature. Hence 

ni2n^ (c. nana, as nbxu: from 
nbb^uj, w. suf. riFi^Qiia, liiD^na, pi. 
ni^na, c. wana) f. prop, dumb beast, 
then cattle, as collect., esp. tame 
beasts Gen. 1, 24, hence used of 
sheep, goats and oxen; beast of 
burden Gen. 34, 23; poet, also of 
toild beasts < Hab. 2, 17; often w. 
y^ixn Is. 18, 6, r^ym i Sam. 17, 44, 
'inia Ps. 8, 8, ^5'^ Mic. 5, 7; Jn^na 

- T ' ' -I- ' ' T •• : 

including both "|K:£ and *ij5a Gen. 
47, 18. 

r\i^ri5(prop. pi. ofn^na)&eas<s; 
but prob. used as a plur. excel. 
(Gram. § 108, 2, b) constr. w. sing, 
masc, behemoth, hippopotamus, the 
Nile-horse, only Job 40, 15; but 

inn 80 


most now say it is Heb. only t>y 
adoption and slight adaptation from 
the Egyptian or Copt. TT-FgB- 
MCJDOyT p-eJie-moout (whence also 
came lirTroTcoTafAo;) meaning the 
ioater-ox,a,s the hippopotamus is called 
also in Italian bo-marino. 

jlji (obs.) perh. to be pressed 
together, to be thick, perh. hence 

in*^ (pi. nisina Judg. 1,6) f. the 
thumb (w. ^I'), but also the great toe 
(w. h^'^) Ex.' 29, 20. 

"lilIZl pr. n. m. (thumb) from whom 
the name of a place "jiiisl "j^Jj; Josh. 15, 6. 

pri^ (obs.) to shine, thenfo be 
white ; Ax3,m.. piy2^, s-^oi-dI. Hence 

pinm m. only Lev. 13, 39 a whitish, 
pale skin - eruption i. e. scurf or 
tetter; Sept. aXcp6<; (= L. albus). 

IFI^ (obs.) i. q. Syr. 5<n.r5 to be 

bright, white; hence '^^t\2. — This 
r. is akin to irup, irpyjOco, Sans, prush 
(btirn), L. fur-nus, G. feuer, E. 
f>re, bright. 

j^tlln Ez. 26, 15 for il^inna inf. 
Niph. of Tt\ w. prep. 3. Perh. the 
—^ is owing to dagh. f. impl. in 
the t\ (Gram. § 27, Eem. 2, 6). 

tr\*1inlll f., pi. Jnnris, whits spots on 
the skill, Lev. 13, 2.39; r. ^na. 

HMtl^ Lev. 26, 43 for JTO^flS, 
inf. Hoph. of d^^ w. suf. 3 f. and 
prep. S (see Gram. § 58, 3, Rem. 1). 

ffS 13 (perf. xa, pi. sii^a, siJ^a Jer. 
27, 18, fut. 6<a^) 1) to enter w.'b5<, b 
of place Gen. 6, 18, or w. H-;- 
loc. Gen. 12, 11, poet. w. ace. Ps. 
100, 4 (cf.L. ingredi urbem), also w. 
bj* of thepers. Gen. 6, 20; often w. 3 
to go within, to penetrate Ez. 2, 2. 
It occurs in various relations, as 

irm. - (^?) bx J<3 to go to a woman 
Gen. 19, 31 (cf. L. coire spoken of 
sexual intercourse); to go in (spoken 
of a bride) Judg. 1, 14; to go out and 

in fttn!) J<:£'i 1 Sam. 29, 6 i. e. to 

T rT ' 

conduct oneself; w. d^fi "^SBp before 
the people i. e. to be their leader 
2 Ch. 1, 10, also as in Josh. 14,^ 
11; to enter (i. e. to become a. 
party) in a covenant H'^'iasi Ez. 16^ 
8; to enter upon an office 1 Ch. 27, 1; 
to enter into days, i. e. to be far 
advanced in years Gen. 18, 11; t(y 
set (of the sun), prop, to go in (oppos. 
!>t^;^ to come out) ; to go to (bx) one's 
forefathers, i. e. to die Gen. 15, 15 
(cf. tld5<); to come in, spoken of pro- 
duce Lev. 25, 22, revenue 1 K. 10, 
14. But its first and oldest sense is 
to go, when the end to be arrived 
at is added and the goer is thought of 
as on the starting-point, e. g. HSit 
t^a'^^ax whither am I going? Gen. 37^ 
30; fig. to live i. e. go about, w. nx, 
d:^' to associate ivith. 2) to come i. 
e. to arrive (oppos. T]^'^), w. ^J», ^?, 
1^, h or ace. of pers. or place (cf, 
TMr\^ and Ip^ofxai, to go or to come)y 
hence w. a to come with something^ 
i. e. to bring Ps. 66, 13; fig. ^o bring^ 
forward, to mention, e. g. itatj 
niiasa I will mention the mighty acts 
Ps. 71, 16 (cf. 'I'^atti) i. e. I will 
praise them; w. "n?, VjJ^ to equal 
2 Sam, 23, 19; of things, to come tOy 
to reach, w. ^)th to come before 
i. e. to be considered Gen. 6, 13, NS 
^5 to come upon, to attack, of foes, 
also of poverty, which falls upon 
any one, in this sense poet. w. ace. 
orb; to surprise {sQQ ^'^''^)] ^o arrive^ 
to be fulfilled (wish or petition) Prov. 
13, 12. — These grammatical forms 
need to be noticed: 3 f. w. suf. ^S^ifcO, 
2 f. t^a and ni<a, 3 pi. ^xa but 
S|S<3 Jer. 50, 5, 1 pl.WJXa, ^153; inf. N3^ 

s^n 81 

-w. suf. ?|N3, iisxa, in pause ?|N3, 
•jxia, ^lania; imp. fc<a, nxia, fut. 
^{h;', ^<h^^, fii$bn, w. suf. ?]xbri, ?)n&thn 
Job 22, 21. — Hipb. K'^ani (fut. x-^V, 
apoc. &<3^) causative of Qal in all its 
meanings, hence 1) to cause to come 
in, to bring in i. e. lead into Gen. 6, 
19, hence to place the hand in the 
bosom Ex. 4, 6 1 to put into a grave 

2 Ch. 28, 27 ; to lead in (the bride) into 
the house Judg. 12, 9. 2) to lead to w. 
h, bx, to bring, bring forward; to 
offer Gen. 4, 4; to bring on (evil 
or good) w. ^?, b, bx; fo ?e< come, 
to fulfil promises, wishes Is. 37, 26. 
3) to bear, e. g. t<;Ao tears (i<'^aJi) 
/its God in his hand Job 12, 6; to 
gain Ps..90, 12; fig. w. h^5^^ to Jj/^^ 
upwards, to lift Ps. 74, 5. — Mark 
these Hiph. forms , l^'^atn, "^nxiln , w. 
suf. 'I'^nK'^nn, 2 pi. tanx'^an; part, fif^aa 
and "^aa, inf. w. prep. Si'^a^ (for 

ti'ianb), imp. *»ari, xan, fi^ian, fut. i. 

ising. '^ax — Hoph. pass, of Hiph., 

3 fem. nxan Gen. 33, 11. — Cf. Sans. 

T \ ' 

vd (go), ^(t-in, pai-vo), piSo^, L. vado. 

^7\^ (obs.)akin to aa&<, aas, to 
hollow ; hence Aram, aiax fiute , Lat. 
ambubaia (flute-player), the m being 
inserted for Dagh. f. as the n in the 

Arabic form >~»y^\; cf. Syr. |.^jsas, 
E. pipe, pump, W. ptb, pibell (a 

Ji'\ml (obs.) perh. akin to Syr. 
|.^s food, Sans, ft^wji' (eat), (pay- etv, 
to eat, to /eed; see iia, 5ain5. 

T*l3 (fut. Tia^) akin to nta, tiS|3, 
prop, to treacZ or trample, hence 1) to 
despise, w. ace. Prov. 1,7; but oftener 
"sv. b, to show contempt for some body 
Prov. 11, 19. 2) fig. to treat with 
impunity, w. b Prov. 6, 30; hence 

T^^ m. 1) contempt Job 12, 21, 


derision Prov. 12, 8. 2) pr. n. m. Gen. 
22, 21. 3) pr. n. of an Arabian family 
Jer. 25, 23 ; gentilic ^na Job 32, 2. 

riT^m f. prop, contempt, fig. ob- 
jects of contempt, only Neh. 3, 36. 

**hI21 pr. n. m. (perh. Buzite) Ez. 
1, 3. 

ntiiia, see naa. 

*'55 pr. n. m. Neh. 3, 18, perh. 
i. q. "laa Neh. 7, 16. 

^•13 prob. akin to 'r^ax, part, Tjat , 
to tangle, hence to perplex; only 
Niph. "^ias to &e perplexed Est. 3, 15; 
part. pi. d'^aa? Ex, 14, 3 entangled. 
Hence ha^iaa. 

T ; 

^•13 (obs.) akin to ba"^ I, bas II, 

Arab. jO, Jy^^ flow, esp. urine, etc. 
1) to spring up or issue forth, to flow; 
hence bia 1, b^a^. 2) to produce, of 
branches, cf. b>ia 3, ba, bari. — Prop, 
mimet. akin to Sans.|)/t*, pXuw, cpXuci), 
L. bullio, fluo, pluo, E. flow, G. wal- 
len, buhlen. Hence 

y^l^ m. 1) a streaming, rain, hence 
probably the name b^a H'y^^ 1 K. 
6, 38 rain-month, the 8th Heb. month, 
from the November to the Decem- 
ber new-moon, b^ia here may perh. 
be for the idol ba = b^*a. 2) produce, 
increase Job 40, 20, i. q. nj<iatn. 3) 
bough, prop, what is produced, hence 
Y^ bia Is. 44, 19 branch of a tree, 
i. e. a block or log of wood. 

U^^ (obs.) to be high, prop, to 
rise upwards, to tower; hence tiiaa. — 
Prob. akin to Pa)fx6(;, pouvo^, Gael. 
ben (hill), L. mons (mineo), Breton 
menes, mane, W. myn-ydh, ban, 
pen (top), ponio (swell up), ^owc (hil- 
lock), E. bank, bench, G. baum, Pers. 
6am (top), ban (tree). 

p«3 or j ^ (2 sing, nsa, part. pi. 




fi'^aa; inf. and fut. from 'j'^a) prop, to 
separate, distinguish, hence to mark, 
then 1) i. q. Arah. ^U, to be clear, 
hence to discern, w. a, h and ace: 
to notice by the senses, e. g. eyes, to 
• see Prov. 7, 7; the ears, to hear Job 
23, 5; the touch, to feel Ps. 58, 10. 
2) to attend, w. hi< Ps. 28, 5, h Ps. 
73, 17, b? Dan. 11, 30, a Dan.' 9, 2 
■w. ace. Ps. 5, 2. 3) ^0 perceive, w. 
•^3 1 Sam. 3, 8; <o Aiwotw, w. ace. and 
h Ps. 139, 2 fAoM knowest my thought 
^"^"i^/i to have insight Jer. 49, 7. — 
Niph. -jiaa (i sing. "^Wia?, part, fas) 
to show oneself knowing, intelligent, )i'2^ 
*na'n knowing of speech, i. e. eloquent 
1 Sam. 16, 18. — Pil. "jSia (fut. 3. 
sing. w. suf. *ih33ia'^) to consider w. 
attention Deut. 32, 10. — Hipli. '■pati 
(2 pi. fima^ari, part, -paa; fut. 'jia;', 

apoc.'jia*, inf. "pafi, w. suf. ^S'laii, imp. 
•jah) 1) to cause to understand, to 
teach w. 2 ace. (Gram. § 139, 1) or 
w. h of pars, and ace. of thing Job 
6, 24; mostly however agreeing 
•with Qal, hence — 2) to perceive Is. 
28, 19, w. a to take notice of Neh. 
8, 'l2, to be skilled in Dan. 1, 17, 
hence "jiag knowing, wise, skilled 
Prov. 8, 9. — Out of the Hiphil form, 
by the rejection of the preformative 
>i w. its pointing, as perh. in other 
verbs 'l"3>, a new Qal ("j^a) was perh. 
made, but w. the same meaning as 
the Hiph. ; thus '^n'is'ia (for ^inip^an), 
inf. I'la Cj^'ari), imp. "jia, siD^a; perhaps 
no verb I's can be taken as strictly 
radical. — Hithpol. XSianfi, prop, to 
make oneself attentive, hence to fix 
the attention w. hit. Is. 14, 16, b? Ps. 
37, 10, n? Job 32, 12, a Jer. 30, 24 
or ace. Job 37, 14, in general, to 
mark or consider Jer. 2, 10, to com- 
prehend Job 26, 14, Ps. 119, 100. 

nW^pr. n. m. (insight) 1 Ch. 2, 25. 

^il^lH pr. n. m. (perh. wise, r. )^2) 
Neh. 11, 15; also ^Sa in 9, 4. 

. w-|3 (fut. G^ia;', D'a^) i. q. oa^, nta, 
to tread, hence fig. 1) to tread to the 
ground, to trample on (enemies) Is 
14, 25. 2) to despise e. g. food Prov. 
27, 7 ; part, d'l&la for d^pa Zech. 10, 5. 

— Pil. DGIa (once GITia Am. 5, 11) 
to trample on, of the hostile invasion 
of theHolyLand Jer. 12,10. — Hopll. 
part.&a^i^ doivn-trodden Is. 14, 19. — 
Hithpol. part. fem. in Ez. 16, 6, 
t^'^p'ia riDOian^ trodden down in thy 
blood, i. e. polluted and despised. — 
&*ia is a mimet. r. akin to t^ia, Mr a, 

' T t' 

Sans, pad (foot), 'E.pad, path, foot, G. 
fuss, pfad, TiaTo^, 7ro5-6;, Ji. ped-is, 
W. pedol (horse-shoe) ; all expressive 
of a treading sound or foot-fall; cf, 
our pit-pat, 

^J u (obs.) to bubble up, akin to 
2)aj<, {!<a3, Syr. j-Ls, 5>a3, n^a, cf. 
Chald. 5)ai'a to bubble forth ^ Copt. 
BEBF to boil up. Hence nrasa^?. 

\( ' u (obs.) to be white, shining, 

— Akin to yi^, ya^, u:1a, Chald. 
•^sa, yas, -^ax, b. Ger. biess, mod. 
Ger. t<;eiss, E. white. Hence Ji^'^a and 

y^!ll m. (3u(7ao<;, byssus, fine 
white cloth, cotton or linen Ez. 
27, 16 (cf. Luke 16, 19), so called for 
its whiteness (cf. TIJU), ^^in); r. y^'^. 

Y^Sj i3 pr. n. of a rock (shining, 
glittering, r. yia) 1 Sam. 14, 4. 

|r'l«J (obs.) akin to pjsa prob. 
to pour out; hence to make empty, to 
desolate; hence 

njj^^ f. emptiness, only Nah. 
2, ll.'^ 

'np'lS m. prop, a denom. from ^ij^a, 
hence a herdsman, but used in Am, 
7, 14 for n^n shepherd. 




m3 (only inf. w. prep. '^^^\) 1) 
i. q. ^xa, fo tore (L. forare), to dig; 
hence fig. to investigate Ecc. 9, 1. 
2) perh. #0 protect; akin to Sans, rar 
(to defend), G. loehren, O. E. were 
<defend), Zend, vera (rampart), Pers. 
hara (castle); hence perh. •T^'^3. — 
^iia is prob. akin also to *i^B, "I5n, *I13>, 
1^3, ^^ip; cf. Tr6i4=xai;, 7rou(;=Kelt. 
€08, lUTTo; = L. eg-MMS. Hence 

niS (w. n-7- loc. n"i3, pi. n'na, 

r\'"ii<a Jer. 2, 13) m. 1) jpi^ 1 Sam. 
13, 6, hence dungeon Is. 24, 22, fully 
•nan n*^:! Jer. 37, I6; fAe grave e. g. 
*via"1? Prov. 28, 17 to the grave; 
*^i'2"^yy\'^ descenders to the grave i. e. 
the dead Ps. 28, 1; Tia-'^anx stones 
of the grave, i. e. stone graves Is. 14, 
19; *iia"''n3'n;;) the recesses of the 
<}rave, its depths Is. 14, 15. 2) cistern, 
tvell Gen. 37, 20. 3) pr. n. tTn&fn ma 
<kettle-hollow) 2 Sam. 3, 26. 

U13(^a, n^a, wiia, '^nra, Qwra, 

^ ' T I ' T : I ' • : I ' V : t' 

Tijia; fut. uila"^) Aram, nna, Zo^i: (cf. 
li. pudeo) 1) i. q. ]^^a, prop, fo fatrn 
white, to 2mle, e. g. the sun Is. 24, 23. 
^) perh. prop, to change colour, to 
turn pale or to blush (for shame) Ezr. 
^, 6 (some men turn pale, others turn- 
ing red, when they feel ashamed; cf. 
vlOa, ^jH, Talm. -pabri), mostly w. )^ 
of the cause Ez. 36, 32. Fig. a) to 
he disappointed in hope Job 6, 20; 
io come to shame, to he deceived w. 
*,^ Jer. 2, 36, hence ^ia-n? 2 K. 2,17 
even to being ashamed i. e. till they 
felt embarrassed. [3) of inanimate 
things e. g. Hos. 13, 15 his fountain 
will be ashamed, i. e. dried up. — 
Pi I. ui^^la to delay, prop, to shame or 
disappoint expectation Ex. 32, 1 (cf. 
njia-n;?). — Hiph. iii^an and ui^a";!! 

interchanging forms w. uia^, fut. 
llS'iai'i, 1) to put to shame, to deceive 

(expectation) Ps. 14, 6; to disgrace 
Prov. 29, 15; 2) to act deceptively, 
basely, hence part, ui'^ag shameful, 
wicked (opp. b'^aiap) Prov. 10, 5. — 
Hith. uiuiiarrr take to oneself shame, 
hence to be ashamed Gen. 2, 25. 

^•13 (obs.) perh. i. q. y;xa to be 
bad. — Pil. ;i:i!:ia perh. to bring evil 
on, perh. in b^-b? Orp'^Jia Am. 5, 11, 
but see Dia. — Hiph. I ui^an to 
act badly Prov. 14, 35. — Hiph. II 
\li*iain to become bad or corrupt, 
to perish Joel 1, 12. 

niTlS f. shame Ps. 89, 46. 

T , , ' 

DljplClS Am. 5, 11 prob. for 
daGDia inf. Pil. of G^ia ; see UJ^a. 

il^^ Chald. to pass the night, to 

lodge (cf. Heb. "j^lb) Dan. 6, 19; prop. 

to house, the verb being denom. from 

n'^a house. 
• I" 

TIS Zech. 4, 10 for ta or Wa to 

X^ (w. suf. wa; r. tta) m. spoil, 
plunder, mostly w. b rt^ii Is. 42, 22, 
or b -ins Jer. 17, 3. ---^ Cf. G. heute, E. 
booty, F. butin, It. bottino. 

SSTZl (only in 3 p. pi. ^IXTa) perh. 

for Mta, fo <rcarZ Joiyw, <o destroy, 
only in'ls. 18, 2 'i:£'nx t5*''nr|5 JlKia "lOJt 
whose land floods (iterh. hosts of foes) 
tread doivn; others better take it for 
5>?a, Chald. 5>Ta, Syr. \}£> to cut up, 
divide, referring to Ethiopia as divided 
up by rivers. 

iiTS (part, nr'a; fut. apoc. ta;?i) 

i. q. t>ia to tread, hence to despise, w. 

ace, V» b?; ^T?^ ''^^^ ^^*^- ^' ^ ^*^^^ 
he scorned w. his eyes, i. e. he looked 
disdain; liD^il htia Prov. 19, 16 rfe- 

' T T : v 

spising his own ivays, i. e. living 
recklessly. — Niph. only part, nna, 
pi. D"itaa, despised Is. 53, 3, — Hiph. 

- "" 6* 



only inf. hl'tafi to make contemptible 
Est. 1, 17. Hence 

tlTSl (c. hta) adj. m. despised, only 
Is. 49, 7 ^"Bi " SiTSi despised of soul, 
i. e. of every man. 

njSl (r. tT3) f. i. q. I^prei/ or booti/ 
Ezr. 9, 7, often w. ''nt or V^UJ Dan. 

' ' • S T T 

11, 24. 

TT3 (pi. sitra, il3Tia or mta Deut. 

"— ^ ^-^ : IT ' : I- T I - 

3, 7, fut. tb^, inf. t2, imp. pi. JlTSl) 

1) 1. q. t^3 fo despise Zech. 4, 10. 

2) i. q. *7ia prop, <o cut , off, hence to 
plunder or spoil, to rob (same in Aram, 
and Arab.) w. ace. of the pers. or 
place which is plundered, Gen. 34, 
29. — Niph. tba (pi. siThj, inf. tinfi, 
fut. tia'p) to be plundered Am. 3, 11. 
— Pu. to be robbed Jer. 50, 37. 

'jVJSl(r.nTa)m.cowfew_p^Est.l, 18. 

n^SnVtHl (perh. for H'^T n^a place 
of olives; W^T, m^T being perh. only 
another form of f^^T = tr\y) pr. n. of 
a district in the south of Judah, 
Josh. 15, 28. 

y±^ (obs.) perh. to be hard, firm, 

cf. pa!jdX-Tr]<; iron-marble, of which 
Pliny says, quern vocant basalten, 
ferrei coloris atque duritiei, unde et 
nomen. — Hence perh. bpa, the "l 
being inserted as in Gb^S for &&3. 

pT3 (obs.) i. q. p^ia (1 = ^) to 

break forth (of hght), to be bright. 

pT^ m. i. q. pna brightness, light- 
ning, only Ez. 1, 14; r. pja. 

pT-^ pr. n. (lightning) of a city 
not far from Scythopolis iSam. 11,8, 
Sept. BsCex. 

lT3 (fut. ^b^) to scatter Dan. 
11, 24. — disperse or rout Vs. 
68, 31. —Akin to \rB, Aram. ^'iSj 'r^ 
fo scatter. 

84 ina 

t^lntlS pr. n. (Pers. emasculated) 
a Persian eunuch Est. 1, TO. 

1'in^ m. i. q. "jhia a ^Wer of metals^ 
assayer Jer. 6, 27 (on the form see- 
Gram. § 84, 3); r. "jria. 

ImITI^ (w. Dagh. impl.Xm. watch-^ 
toiver, only in Is. 23, 13 Q'ri; r^ 


*1^n^ (for'^isina w. Dagh. impl.,. . * 
hence pi. d^^sins, c. "^yn^; r. ^h3 II> 
m. prop, ripened or mature, hence 
a youth Ruth 3, 1 0, arrived at man'& 
estate, but unmarried, and liable to» 
military service, hence \)ften for 
young warriors Is. 9, 16. 

r\1^^n^ f. pi. i. q. d^^iina time of 
youth, youth Ecc. 11, 9. 

D'^'n^nS, m. pi. young days, youth^ 
Num. 11, 28 I'^'^fia? from his youth; 
r. "ina II. 

— T 

■J^JlS (for "(iina) only in K'thibh 
of Is. 23, 13. 

^/^)13 (c. ^"^riSi) adj. m. chosen, 
subst. choice one, niiT^ ^'^^'^ ^^' S- 
Moses Ps. 106, 23, pious men Is. 65^ 
9, the Messiah Is. 42, 1 ; r. ina I. 

^rj3 prob. akin to ^?a 2, Syr. 
VA.»*r) loathing (Mod. Syr. "^.i*^ 
to envy), to loathe,to abhor,w. ^ Zech. 
11, 8. — Pu. only part. H^rrhp (in the 
K'thibh, n^nbp Q'ri) Prov. 20,' 21 h^r,5 
ribnh^ an inheritance envied or 

jmS (fut. 'jria:^) i. q. ^na i, i) 

to try (by heat), prop. perh. to make 
to glow, to melt (hke v)*]:^), to purify 
(through fire) e. g. Job 23, 10 he puri- 
fies me (from dross), I come forth 
as gold. 2) fig. to test or prove e. g. 
the heart Ps. 7, 10, God Mai. 3, 10. 
3) fig. to watch, prop, to investigate; 
hence "j^irta watch-tower. — Niph. to 

be tried Jot 34, 36. — Pu. only Ez. 
2»1, 18 ^ro. 9> is tested. 

1^^ m. pryinff-place, watch-tower 
Is. 32, 14. 

iHh m. trial, proof, "jna "jnii Is. 28, 
16 sfone of proof i. e. a tried foun- 
<lation-stone; prob. hence paaavo;. 

^ ^PQ I (fut. 'inn:') i. q. 'jna, i) 
prop, to glow, to make hot, to melt 
€. g. metal by heat, hence fig. to try, 
*»:3? *>!iDn ?]''f)*^na I tried thee ii^^ 
furnace of affliction Is. 48, 10; of. 
Note. 2) to examine, hence 2 Ch. 34, 
■6 K'thibh'Dn-^na *in3 he searched 
their (the idolaters') houses. 3) to 
€Lpprove (after trial), <o choose, w. ace. 
Job 9, 14, a Deut. 16, 7, b? Job 36, 
21 ; ib ^na ifo c/ioose /or oneself Gen. 
13, 11; w. I^a to prefer Ps. 84, 11; 
part, 'n^ina (pi. c •'^jJina) jJW-Zred, chosen 
Judg. 20, 15. 4) to delight in (cf. 
L. diligere, delectari) w. ace. Gen. 
€, 2, a Is. 14, 1, b 1 Sam. 20, 30, 
and yi 2 Sam. 19, 39 (cf. no 3 w. 
■^y). _ Niph. ^naa <o &e chosen, w. 
*ja <o be preferred Jer. 8, 3; partnnas 
chosen, w. "^^ choicer than Prov. 22, 1, 
IV. b of the person, to he pleasant to 
€ome one Prov. 21, 3. — Pu. only 
in Ecc. 9, 4 K'thibh'nna': to he selected. 

Note, "jna and "^mS are the same (the 
liquids r and n being often interchanged) 
and may be traced to the ultimate or 
monosyllabic root "jn = "TT, perh. akin 
to ^'^1 '^Tl to lurn, 3"5~ <o parch, xalto, 
«7i).6a), xipcpu), L. ardeo , caleo , candeo, 
^arlo , G. gliihen , hohle, E. glow, coal, 
'Char, W. gvorea (heat), glo (coal). 

irjiH II (obs.) prob. i. q. 'isa, 
Chald. *i5a, to he ripe, mature; hence 
*i^na = *»Jina a youth. 

D^'^n^ pr. n. (perh. hot places, 
r. nna I) of a town in Benjamin, 
beyond the mount of Olives 2 Sam. 

85 "jin^si 

3, 16; gentil. •'al'nna 1 Ch. 11, 33, 

once ''anna 2 Sam. 23, 31. 
• \ i- 

bdOill, riL^ill mimetic and 

T T T T 

akin to K'na, *ina III, paTTO-XoYStv, L. 
hlatero, G. plaudern, to prate ^ to 
babble; hence Pi. K^a to talk idly or 
rashly Lev. 5, 4. Hence Kl^ar and 

ntihl (only n-jia Prov. 12, 18) 
m. prob. idle talk, prating, opp. to 

riyZl I (fut. n-ja*;) perh. akin 

to nnQ, nne to he open, hence 1) fig, 
to confide y^r. a Ps. 28, 7, h^ 2 K. 
18, 20, bx Ps. 4, 6, w. V Jer. 7, 4, 
part. n^Lia trusting (see Gram. § 50, 
3, Hem. 2), w. a Is. 26, 3. 2) to feel 
confident, to be secure (cf. T]'^a) e. g. 
Prov. 11, 15 he who hates suretyship 
nii'a lives securely; hence to be un- 
concerned, in a good sense Is. 12, 2, 
and a bad sense Prov. 14, 16. — 
Hiph. n'^aan (fut. apoc. nwa^) to make 
secure Ps. 22, 10; to inspire with 
confidence, w. bx Is. 36, 15, ^5 Jer. 28, 
15. -— Perh. akin to Sans, pat 
(expand), Tretato, li.pateo, pando; cf. 
our openness in the sense of confidence. 

MOS n (obs.) perh. to be 
bulging, thick; hence perh. n'^aax 

nt3l2L (r. ni:a I) m. 1) confidence, 
security Is. 32, 17; nul^ as adv. 
securely (for which also naa stands 
Mic. 2, 8), especially w. a\l?^ Lev. 
25, 18, )y2 Deut. 33, 12. 2) pr. n. of 
a Syrian city 2 Sam. 8, 8, for which 
in 1 Ch. 18, 8 we find nnaa (perh. 

nnp^ f. trust, security la. 30, 15; 
r. n-ja i. 

- T 

■jintjill m. strong cojifidence Is. 
36, 4; hope Ecc. 9, 4; r. naa I. 

ninths' 8G 

MntpS f. pi. lit. confidences, then 
tranquillity Job 12, 6; r. niiS I. 

"PUZI prob. akin to b'^a, ^n3, 
fo sever, hence <o leave off e. g. work, 
to rest or cease, only.Ecc. 12, 3. _ , 

^lO!I1 Chald. 1. q. Heb. Vja. — " 
Pa. 'b^a (pi. 1^^?, inf. &<^U2) prop, to 
separate, to hinder Ezr. 4, 21. 

iL^a^ (obs.) perh. akin to "(tjQ 
to stretch out; hence to distend (cf. 
■)t:a), #0 expand either in length or in 
breadth. Hence 

■jtSlIl (w. suf. '^iiaa) f. 1) prop. JeZ/^ 
(from expansion) Prov. 13, 25, often 
womb (generally w. DN) e. g. Ps. 22, 11 
153X "jijaia from the tvomb of my 
mother; "jwa '^'^5 Gen. 80, 2 fruit of 
the ivomb, children; in Job 3, 10 j 
">5i:a (for ^-Bi^ V^a) my (i. e. my j 
mother's) ivomb, cf. Job 19, 17, 2) fig. 
the innermost part, the heart e. g. 
Prov. 18, 8 "i^a ■'"n'lri chambers of the 
heart; bto "^^, Jon. 2, 3 /Ae 6e//?/ 
(Sept. xoiXia, Vulg. venter) of the 
grave (Sheol) ; cf. a";|5. 3) a term in 
architecture, a belly, on the pillars, a 
kind of protuberance 1 K. 7, 20. 4) 
pr. n. (perh. paunch) of a city in the 
tribe -of Asher Josh. 19, 25. — Cf. 
W. poten, E. pudding, paunch, G. 
bauch, all expressing the idea of bul- 
ging or protuberance. 

nDtiHl (only pi. D"'::pa) m.pistacia- 
nut Gen. 43, 11, so called from the 
bellied shape; r. "jua. 

D^Dti^ pr. n. (prob. pistacias) of 
a city in the tribe of Gad, Josh. 
13, 26. 

*'S1 particle of entreaty (from *^S^ 
petition, r. n^a; cf. Va for Va), 
pray! always united w, ''D^ e. g. 

T • 

Gen; 43, 20 ''inx ^3 pray (Sept» 
osojxeOa) my lord i. e. by my lord'* 
leave; cf. Aram, ^s'aa, Syr. '^'^'^^ 

]% see "pa. 

I «, see ■j'la to discriminate. 

" ■'21 (c . from "["^a ; r. *,>ia) 1 ) m. separa^ 
tion, interval, dual D'^pa the space 
between two Jiosts (xa }A£Taiy((xia);^ 
1 Sam. 17, 23 n"5art ^^x the mam 
between the tiDO hosts (Sept. 6 avYjp 6> 
pieaaio^) i. e. the champion, Goliath^ . 

2) prep. (pi. m>a, c. "ira), w. suf. 'ira,, 
^Ip'^a (in p. r^5^a), isia; also in pi. I'lra,, 
iirra, d=^ra, tsi^ra; and pi. f. rii3"'a,. ' 
>i3'ini>a, Dnii'^a) betiveen, among- 
(if the limits are included) e. g» ■ 
D'^nx-'i'ia, DWrt-'pa among bretli^ 
ren, betiveen the eyes, i. e. on th& 
forehead. For between — and wa 
find the idioms -pasi — "pa Gen. 1, 7^ 
b — "pa Gen. 1, 6, "pab — "pa Is, 
59, 2, b!i — "pa Joel 2J 17; hence- 
the verbs Avhich express separatio» 

(b^nan, n^sn, b^iaa ",r3, it^', T^^Vfi^ 
2):i^,"i3D'r, rriiri, fan, nsj'i) mostly' 

take this prep, in one of these pleo- ' 
nastic ways; sometimes this pleonasm 
means whether — or (L. sive — sive} 
e. g. Lev. 27, 12, 2 Ch. 14, 10, 
The pi. forms Wi'^a, li'^a are used 
esp. w. pi. suffixes. — Compounds:. 
n1ra-bx, "pa-bx, inbettveen; "pa-b^ 
up between Ez. 19, 11; "pap from 
betiveen, hence Gen. 49, 10 d'^b^'n '^'^a^ 
prop, from between his feet i. e. from 
his begetting; pleon. "pap — "pap Ez, 
47, 18 out from betiveen; b nirap 
from among Ez. 10, 2 (cf. \ brp^ 
b rjnPip) ; 'J'^sa Is. 44, 4 in between. , 

l^ln Chald. same as Heb. between^ 
Dan. 7, 5. 

riJ^Hl f. discernment, understand'^ 
ing Is. 33, 19; ni^a s)"!;; (= "iSiainri) 




fo possess insight ta'^Fir^ as to the 
times 1 Ch. 12, 32, cf! DW "^^ni 
Est. 1, 13. 

n5^!a for i^i'^a Chald. i. q. Heb. 

T • T • 

understanding Dan. 2, 21. 

n^'^Sl (only pi. ti'^T^) f. e^^, so 
called for its whiteness (r. ^^IS), d^Zt'^a 
ni2T5 forsaken eggs Is. 10, 14. 

S^lnil"j5''ni Ps. 45, 10 for rpn'''^|5?3 
fr. ^15^," f. ri^^'] (Gram. § 20, 2,'" J). 

^^;il m. t<;eZ/, only Jer. 6, 7 Q'ri 
for the K'thibh ^ils. 

HTS (late Heb.) f. 1) castle, ci- 
tadel, palace; often in the phrase 
nn^an )t'^Xii, as in Neh. 1, 1, but in 
Neh. 2, 8 the fortress of the temple 
is prob. meant, called also Bapi*; 
and Antonia. 2) a chief city, e. g. 
Shushan Est. 9, 6. — rrn^S may 
well be Semitic (= ^^''^^^ strong, 
hence strong -hold)-, but perh. it is 
akin to Sans, pura (fort), Pers. haru 
(castle), papn, pupaa (citadel of 
Carthage), luupYO^, Syr.lZj-uo. 

n*3^3 Chald. (def. m'T^^) f. 
fortress, citadel, spoken of the chief 
city Ecbatana Ezr. 6, 2. 

castles 2 Ch. 17. 12 ; formed from n'n^3 
and the fem. adj. ending H*^?— . 

Jn'^IIl (w. n— loc. tin'ja, c n'^a, w. 
n-^ loc. nn*ia,^ w. suf. in-^a, ^jn^^a, pi. 

Qina hottini perh. ford'^Pisa, sing.n.33, 
or iditim, c. "^na, Gram. § 96) m. 
1) prop, any building (r. nsa as Sojxoc 
from 6e{X(o) or covert (r. 5<ia ^o enter), 
hence /iot«se, #en<, ^w^, castle, palace, 
temple; for all these regarded as 
structures or things entered into 
■were each called a house. Fig. tr^a^a 
Gen. 15, 3, n-^a-n^b"; Gen. 17, 12, 
a home - horn slave (L. verna) ; 
B^iSJ-n'^a Ecc. 12, 5, house of eternity, 

i. e. grave. IT^a in later Heb, stood 
for a part of a house or palace, as 
Est. 7,8 T^^Jn iiF}'^^ tr^a wine-drinking 
chamber i. e. banqueting-hall; n^a 
diTTSn Est. 2, 3 the harem. 2) place 
in the widest sense: a) place of 
tarrying, for men, beasts, the dead; 
hence for nether -world Job 17, 13, 
haunt Job 29, 6, nest Ps. 84, 4, cob- 
web Job 8, 14; P) place where a 
thing is found or kept; hence re- 
ceptacle, box, case, uisa "^fta Is. 3, 20 
scent -cases, smelling-bottles; d'^Pia 
D'l^abEx. 37, 14 places for the bars; 
SJ'HT D'^nxG n-^aa i K. 18, 32 about the 
space of 2 seahs of seed; d'^pax n'^3 
Job 8, 17 stony spot; ni"iap-nia Neh. 
2, 3 grave-yard; nia'iina rr^^ Prov. 
8, 2 ^Zace o/" streets i. e. where they 
meet; 7) in general the inside, what 
is within (opp. to ■J'Sin) esp. so in the 
adverbial use e. g. iin"»a towards the 
inside; fin'^a^a, n'^ais on f^e inside, 
within; h tr^a b n-^ap, n^a:!??, within 
something; h in'^aa bjt fo within 
something. 3) house in figurative 
sense, or what in our mind belongs 
to a house, as ivife, children, people, 
servants, who, taken together, make 
a family, race, people, hence for 
all these, e. g. house (people) of 
Israel; house (tribe) of Levi; house 
(family) of David; aij n^a father's 
house, ancestral family, sub -division 
of a tribe (diff . nns^^) ; pi. nlasj n^^a 
ancestral houses (Gram. § 108, 3, c), 
in which case however H'^a is often 
left out, if ^K"i, ^\a, i<*^:i's (chieftain) 
precedes. Rarely f^'^a appears to 
mean goods or property Gen. 15, 2. 
4) m'^a stands in the names of many 
cities and places, as ')|i5<"n''a (idol- 
house) a city in the tribe of Benjamin 
Josh. 7, 2 ; bj^-n^a (God's-house, now 
Beittn) Gen. 35, 1, l^h Josh. 18, 13; 
gentil. "^bxin n"^a the Bethelite 1 K. 

• I- 

16, 34; ^St>^n-n'^3 (side-house) city 
in Samaria Mic. 1, 11; bt<3").^-n'^2i 
(God's covert -house) Hos. 10, 14, 
Arbelain Galilee 1 Mace. 9, 2; in''21 
•jHs^ V^a Josh. 13, 17 city in Reuben; 
■>i<"i3 n'^a 1 Ch. 4, 31 city in the 
tribe of Simeon; JT12 tn'^a Judg. 
7, 24 (for iTnaj 'a passage-house, cf. 
B/jOapapa John 1, 28) city on the 
Jordan; 'nn? 5^^? (wall-house) 1 Ch. 
2, 51 city in the tribe of Judah; 
h^htk n*«a (place of rolling oif) Neh. 
12, 29 city between Jericho and the 
Jordan; b^isa H'^a (camel-house) Jer. 
48, 23 city in Moab; B'^n^a'l n^^a 
Jer. 48, 22 (place of 2 fig-cakes) city 
in Moab; 'ji:i"n T!^^ (Dagon's temple) 
city in the tribes of Judah Josh. 
15, 41 and Asher Josh. 19, 27; 
f^'i:Qiy;'a}n n'^2 (place of wastes) Num. 
33, 49 city in the tribe of Reuben; 
1j55>n n'^a (place of binding) 2 K. 
10, 12 city not far from Samaria; 
tiyi Xn'^a (summit -house) Josh. 13, 
27 city in the tribe of Gad (Livias), 
called also )y\ t^*'a (mountain-house) 
Num. 32, 36; •^^5^| 'a (partridge-house) 
Josh. 15, 6 a Benjaminite city ; h'^a 
)yn (grace-house) 1 K. 4, 9 city in 
the tribe of Judah or Dan; lllh 'a 
(hollow-place) name of two cities in 
the tribe of Ephraim Josh. 16, 3, 5; 
•13 'a (pasture-place) 1 Sam. 7, 11 a 
Philistine spot in the tribe of Judah; 
fi'^3^^ 'a (the vineyard-house) Jer. 
6, 1 city in the tribe of Judah; 
Wftta^ 'a (place of lionesses) city in 
the tribe of Simeon Josh. 19, 6; 
dhb Jn'^a (bread-house) Bethlehem 
Ruth 1, 1 city in the tribe of Judah 
now Beit Lahm, gentilic adj. Pi'^a 
^T^'n'^ 1 Sam. 16, 1 Bethlehemite; 
iTiSJb a (place for a gazelle) Mic. 
1, 10 city in the tribe of Benjamin; 
6<"ib^ 'a (garrison-place) Judg. 9, 20 
name of a castle in Shechem; 

83 n^n 

• I- 

•jiSa 'a (place of abiding) Jer. 48, 
23 city in Moab; fi3?^ 'a (perh. 
dingle-house) 2 Sam. 20, 14 city at 
the foot of Hermon; Waa^^a 'a 
(chariots'-house) Josh. 19, 5 city in 
the tribe of Simeon; STirja' a (leopard- 
house) Num. 32, 3t city in Moab; 
I'lS 'a (pleasure-house) Am. 1, 5 
a royal city of Syria; " ri.l^t? 'a 
(perh. strong-as-death place) Neh. 
7, 28 city in the tribe of Judah; 
pri5 'a (valley-house) Josh. 19, 27 
city in the tribe of Asher; WSSJ 3 
(perh. echo - house) Josh. 15, 59 
in the tribe of Judah; riDSJ a 
(echo-house) in the tribe of Naph- 
tali Josh. 19, 38; d'^3>nn ^p5) 'a 
(shepherds' binding -house) 2 K. 10, 
12, V. 14 1p3> 'a; na'n? 'a (desert- 
house) Josh. 15, 6 a border- town 
between Judah and Benjamin; 
dVq 'a (escape-house) Josh. 15, 27 
in the south of Judah; li^Q 3 
(Peor - house) Deut. 3, 29 city 
in Moab; ysiQ 'a (scatter - house) 
Josh. 19, 21 place in Issaahar; 
•1^2 'a (rock-house) Josh. 15, 58 city 
of Judah; aih'^'a (street-house) Judg. 
18, 28 city of Asher; &<B'n '3 (house 
of the giant) 1 Ch. 4, 12; "jN^' 'a 
(quiet-house) Josh. 17, 11 also 'jui's 
1 Sam. 31, 10, "JUJ 'a 2 Sam. 21,' 12 
city in the tribe of Manasseh, later 
2xu06Tro>ac, now Beisdn; iiisi} 'a 
(acacia-house) Judg. 7, 22 city on 
the Jordan; Uia^li 'a (sun-house) 
Josh. 21, 16 a city in Judah, gentil. 
'^t^'-m 'a 1 Sam. 6, 14; nsiBrn 'a 
(apple-tree-house) Josh. 15, 53 in the 
tribe of Judah. — Perh. in'^a comes 
from Wa to lodge, but more prob. 
from naa to build (so Gesenius) or 
6<'ia to enter (so Dietrich), Wa being 
really a denominative verb derived 
from it, as G. hausen from Haus. 
Possibly r\']a may be akin to Ger. 




bau, hude, E. ht/e, booth, Polish huda, 
Caelic both, W. bwth. 

tS]'^ Chald. (c. n-ia, def. &tn-2, 

nn-ja, w. suf. pn*;?, pi. T'na) m. i. q. 

Heb. house Dan. 2, 5; fct^tsa rr*^ 
treasure-house Ezr. 5, 17, N^'^sp n'^n 
^OMse o/" Me records, the archives 
Ezr. 6, 1. 

]^% (c. 'jri'^2) m. palace Est. 1, 
5, akin to T\']X 

^DI3 (obs.) = nsa, fo (?ro2? or 
tricTcle, to flow scantily; hence 

i^lj^ (pi. d'^itra) m. prop, trick- 
ling, weeping, hence pr. n. of a tree 
similar to the balsam-shrub (prop. 
dripper or weeper i. e. of gum or 
resin) 2 Sam. 5, 23; Ksa^f p^l?. pr. 
n. of a valley Ps. 84, 7, where perh. 
the balsam-tree grew, with a play 
on fisa weeping, or where perh. 

they had scanty supply of water, 

nDin (fut.naa'^, apoc. f,a::) prop. 
to flow in drops, hence to weep Gen. 
43, 30; to weep at or for, w. ace. 
Oen. 23, 2, w. b? Lam. 1, 16, ^ 
Ez. 27, 31, \ Jer. 22, 10, but w. b? 
also to weep against or before Num. 
11, 13, upon Gen. 50, 1; partf. rj*3ia 
Lam. 1, 16. — Pi. w. ace. to beweep, 
to bewail Jer. 31, 15. — isa in Mic. 
1, 10 perh. for I'ssa in Accho; else 
inf. abs. Qal of nsa.' 

niD^L m. weeping Ezr. 10, Ij r. 


T T 

*l*l!Di (pi. tni'nba mostly of beasts 
but d'^'^ba of men ; r. 'iDa) m. prob. 
opening i. e. of the matrix (see Ex. 
13, 12), hence first offspring (whether 
of men or of beasts) Neh. 10, 37, then 
the first-born, firstling Gen. 25, 13, 
the eldest son on the father's side 
Gen. 49, 3; also fig. foremost or chief 

(since the first-born son had many 
privileges, cf. ST^isa), e. g. Job 18, 13 
T\yQ *>"i3a chief one of death, i. e. a 
most deadly disease; d'^^T *^'T'^^ ^^^ 
first-born of the poor i. e. the very 
poorest Is. 14, 30. Hence perh. denom. 
Pi. *i3a to make a *>l3a 1. e. to give 
one the birth-right or the first-bom's 
share Deut. 21, 16, but see "123. 

1^S!S (r. ^isa) sing, only in Is. 
28, 4 (in some texts), else only pi. 
d'^'nsisa, d"«-iaa m. first-fruits, '»'^>i33 
d'^ass first-ripe grapes, early grapes 
Num! 13, 20; d'^-iaan dnb bread of 
the first-ripe grain Lev. 23, 20; di^ 
d'^'i^iaafn dag of the first-fruits Num. 
13, 26, else the feast of weeks Ex. 
34, 22; later TcevxrjxoaTTQ 2 Mace, 
12, 32 (cf. Acts. 2, 1 the Pentecost) 
because falling 50 days after the 

nniDS, mba (r. -laa) f. d 

first offspring (pi. W'nba) Gen. 4, 4. 
2) seniority Gen. 43, 33, birth-right 
Gen. 25, 31; JTnbtiJn laota^ the right 
of primogeniture Deut. 21, 17. 

iT^^S^, i. q. JTnsiaa, only in Jer. 
24, 2 nin^iaarj ^ii<)P)figs of the first-ripe 
ones i. e. the best figs; r. ^33. 

rr^^^'Hl f. early-fig Mie. 7, 1 ; prob. 
also in Is. 28, 4, where PT^^aa stands 
in some texts. The Moors call it 
beccore and the Spaniards albacora. 

Xn'^^DSl pr.n. m. (first-birth) 1 Sam. 
9, 1. 

WDS f. weeping, only Gen. 35, 8; 
r. naa. ^ 

T T 

^5^1 (in pause ''Sa, w. suf. "'I'Sa; 
r. fiDa) m. prop, trickling, hence 1) 
dripping of water in a mine Job 28, 1 1 
(cf. Scxxpuov and rt:?^"^). 2) weeping 
e. g. 2 Sam. 13, 36 \h^ ''sa Jisa to 
weep a great weeping i, e. make a 
very great mourning. 




D'^lDlH pr. ri. (weepers) of a place 
Judg. 2, 1. 

nT55 (from 'n'lDSi for -ilbsi) adj. 
f. first born or eMes^ (daughter) Gen. 
19, 31, opp. JT^'^S^t youngest. 

T^^3k f. i. q. WD3 weeping, only 
Gen. 50,* 4. 

\tJmi (Qalobs.) akin to "i|53,fo 
break, to burst open (e. g. the matrix 
or shell), hence to ripen, to mature 
(cf. L. maturus from mater), to 
be early, fresh or young. — Pi. 1) 
to bear early fruit, e. g. Ez. 47, 12 
*i3ai iiTiJ'inb it bears early in its 

" - I T T v:t " 

months, its monthly crops soon ripen. 
2) to treat one as a first-born, i. e. 
to give him the birthright Dent. 
21, 16, cf. "Tisa. — Pu. to be treated 
as firstling Lev. 27, 26 i. e. to he de- 
voted to God. — Hiph. to bear a 
first child Jer. 4, 31. — Pu. and 
Hiph. may be denom. from ^133. 

^I^T^ (only in pi. c. '^t!'??) in* young 
camells. 60 6, cf. b'ot for any camel. 

"nlDlil pr. n. m. (perh. firstling), 
genti'l. '•'^33 Num. 26, 35. 

n'^5'? (from 'nss) f. young she- 
camel, only Jer. 2, 23. 

niDiH, see h"Ti33. 

T : ' T ; 

^1lD!ll pr. n. m. (prob. for W^nsS 
youth) 1 Ch. 8, 38. 

"•^lil^ pr. n. m. (adj. from "l^S, 
youthful) 2 Sam. 20, 1. 

51^ I (also bs in compounds) m. 
prop. i. q. 'il?3 (r. rj^3) nothing Ps. 
17, 3; hence adv. not (only poet, for 
xb), before verbs in the perf. Ps. 10, 
11, but chiefly in the fut. Ps. 10, 4; 
then it may mean (like bx) that 
not, lest Ps. 10, 18; rarely not yet 
i. e. scarcely Is. 40, 24. The following 

forms also appear ^bs, ''inVs, '''n35"l33, 

^5 II perh. for b?3 but prob. for 
bs, only in pxbs (which see). 

^IH Chald. m. heart Dan. 6, 15> 
prop, purpose, resolve; Syr. JLo. • — 

Prob. akin to '|^3 or hh's to discern 
or judge; perh. to Sans, val (to 
choose), L. «;o^o, pouXi^, Gr.wollen,'E* 
will, W. ewyllys. 

b^ (akin to ^2)3 = b?3 perh. beget- 
ter, a male, r. bl3) m. ^e/, Belus, Is. 
46, 1, the Babylonian god (answering 
to the planet Jupiter, hence Jupiter 

Belus, with the Sabeans ^.-aS the 
planet Jupiter); see *i3p, ia. 

2S^!Zl Chald. (i. q.Heb. nV3),only 
in Pa. fut. i<\yi Dan. 7, 25 to vex 
or hurt, in Targum for 55'iln, 

I'lK j!^ pr. n. m. (prob. strong- will 
or stout-hearted, from b3 and pX) 
father of king Merodach-baladan Is* 
39, 1. 

"nSI^^bill Dan. 7, 1 for nuxuiba. 

«i ^— i (obs.) akin to pbs and p'^3 
#0 SreaA; /brf/t, as water or as light; 
hence Hiph. i'^^nn, fut. Il'ibn;^, part. 
:iil33T3, 1) to cause to break forth, to 
spread abroad, e. g. ^ilj devastation 
w. ^5 of the pers. Am. 5, 9. 2) <o 
waA:e bright, to cheer up, i. e. put 
on a bright face Ps. 39, 14, Job 9, 27. 

n^^ni pr. n. m. (perh. brightness) 
Neh.\2, 5; r. 5^3. 

'^^Ip^ pr. n. m. (perh. bright) Neh, 
10, 9;'r. nb3. 

1*nbni pr. n. m. (perh. for 1^?^ "ja 
son of strife) Job 2, 11. 

n^3 (fut 11^3"^) akin to ^3^, ^33. 
1) to fall aivay, to fail, to be worn out. 




of clothes (perh. akin to itaXaio;), 
w. ^y^a from upon i. e. from off 
the back Deut. 8, 4; fig. of the 
wearing out and falling to ruin of 
the heavens and the earth Is. 50, 9, 
like used up clothes. 2) to fall off, to 
waste away, as the body through age 
Gen. 18, 12, troubles or illness Job 
13^ 28. — Pi. to cause to waste away 
Lam. 3, 4; fo bring to an end, to spend, 
Job 21, 13 d^'^a'^ Siw? ^^-y^, they pass 
their days in good fortune; fig. to 
harass (a people), only in 1 Ch. 17, 9 
inknV, where I'n^sMs perh. to be read. 

nbm Josh. 19, 3, see nbsJS and nnba. 

nbSl adj.m., n^S f., ivorn out, of 
clothes^ Josh. 9, 4, of nature Ez. 
23, 43; r. Jlbs. 

i • P^ i. q. bna Job 24, 17 to he 

— T " ' 

fiwid; only in Pi. !n^3 (K'thibh of 

Ezr. 4, 4) ^ terrify, to scare. Hence 

nnb? (sing, only in Is. 17, 14, 

pi. nirib?, c. nin^3; r. n?3) f. 1. q. 
n^fia, terror, sudden ruin, m'M^3 
n'rab^ Job 24, 17 terrors of death- 
shade; Job 18, 14. nin^n ^h-n_ king 
of terrors; Ps. 73, 19 mn|3-]^ sissn 
they perish from sudden terrors. 

nnbni 1) pr. n. f. (perh. timid) 
of the mother of the tribes of Dan 
and Naphtali Gen. 30, 3. 2) a district 
in Simeon 1 Ch. 4, 29, also rhv^ 
Josh. 15, 29 and It^S Josh. 19, 3. 

inbUl pr. n. m. (timorous) Gen. 
36, 27; r. nbs. 

ib^ Chald. (r. Si^a) f. toll, tribute 
Ezr. 4, 13, prob. consumption, as a 
tax on articles consumed or as a con- 
suming of the people's substance 
(of. xyq), excise. 

y:ib!ll (only pi. c. ^«i^2 and "ilVs 
Vloive) m. old clothes, rags, only Jer. 
38, 11. 12 (cf. Syr. U^)\ r. t\\'^. 

n2I^^lrt:bn Dan. l, ? pr. n. m. 
given to Daniel in the Babylonian 
Court; see 1S&<'rV3. 

**>1!I1 (r. n^3) m. 1) destruction, only 
in Is. '38, 17 "'^3 nrr^!^ "^tBa Fip^n 
thou didst hug my soul from the pit 
of ruin i. e. didst tenderly save me. 
2) lack, nought, nothing; hence as adv. 
of negation i. q. K^, joined w. nouns 
or verbs, a) no, un-, without, as Job 
30, 8 D'i:"'^^3 no-name, without fame 
i. e. infamy; n']^-"'^3 (= "^^33 in lack, 
jibs in the parallel clause) without 
ivater Job 8, 11; Dipa-"'^3 without 
(a vacant or clean) place Is. 28, 8j 
r]iTlj:Q-i^3 unanointed 2 Sam. 1, 21; 
n:!ian-'^V3 unturned Hos. 7, 8. 8> 

T -: • : ' 

not, before verbs perf. Is. 14, 6 
Tiirn ''\>3 and fut. d*lpn *t^3 Job 
41, 18. — With prepositions, ''P33 
in not = without, e. g. Job 35, 1ft 
n?'i"*'^33 ivithout knowledge i. e. un- 
awares Job 36, 12; "^^sb after verbs 
of motion Job 38, 41 bsx "ibsb, or 
of result ph-'i>3> Is.' 5,' 14; 
nn"''b3V fearless Job 41, 25; ''^Sp 
because not Deut. 9, 28, so that not 
Job 18, 15; '^^S-'i? till lack or failure 
Mai. 3, 10; '^^3-'b^ because not Gen. 
31, 20. See bs, &<b. 

b^'bln m. (r. bbs 2) mixed fodder, 
provender (cf. Jtisd^) Job 6, 5; 
hence the denom. fut. ^3^^ in Judg. 
19, 21 and he gave fodder. 

TMrb^ (for ria-'^bs) subst. i. q. 
r^-o'^^'O ^ ' prop, not-anything, i. e., 
nothing, merely poet, in Job 26, 7. 

b?^b!ll (from ^^3 not and \>Tl '^^ 
Hiph. to' 'profit) m. prop, no-profit^ 
hence 1) worthlessness , wickedness^ 
as V?'iib3 lii'^yj ivorthkss or abandoned 
man 1 Sam. 25, 25, so also w. -)^. 
1 Sam. 25, 17, w. n3 1 Sam. 1, 16 a 
wicked ivoman, w. i3'n Ps. 41, 9 an 

~ T- 

evil thing, 2) destrtiction Ps. 18, 5; 
also destroyer Nah. 2 , 1 ; hence in 
later usage and in N. T. BsXiaX or 
BiXiap 2 Cor. 6, 15 for 6 Kovrjpo;, 

i5 y3 (fut. Vn^) akin to V^3, ^2^, 
"^3!*, ^5\» 1) to well up, flow, to pour 
over, part. pass. Ex. 29, 40 b^lba over- 
fioived, i. e. poured over; hence to he 
■anointed Ps. 92, 11. 2) fig. to pour 
together i. e. to mix (cf. L. confundo, 
coy^lo)), to confound (of language), 
Oen. 11, 7 n^ns (1 pi. fut. Qal w. Ji-p 
cohort, for mV33, see Gram. § 67, 
Bern. 1 1) let us confuse tinsb their 
speech; hence ^33. 3) denom. from 
^"'bs, to mix food, to fodder (beasts) 
Judg. 19, 21. 4) perh. to mingle in 
sexu^il connexion, to defile; hence 
rerh. bspi, cf. ^sn. — Hithpo. ^^ianrt 
to mix oneself, w. 3 Hos. 7, 8. 


U ^J prob. akin to d'13, only 
ii^f. Qi^3 Ps. 32, 9 to check or restrain, 
w. a bridle; Syr. >i.Sr:i. 

D521 m. denom. from obsol. D^3 

fitill used in Arab. jJj fig (cf. 1)5*3 
from *1)53), only in Am. 7, 14 d!?3 
t"^2pta nipper of sycamore-figs, i. e. 
helping to cultivate and gather a sort 
of figs or mulberries produced by the 
Teal sycamore-tree; prob. an em- 
ployment of the shepherds; cf. Jrapiy. 

• '^ml (fut. 55^3*]) mimet. akin to 
5iib, Syr. ^ nS\, > ,ws\, 1) to eat 
greedily, to swallow down, said of 
men Is. 28, 4, beasts Ex. 7, 12; 
fig. to destroy utterly Prov. 1, 12. 
■2) fig. 'li?'? ^i^^ ^? Jo^ 7, 19 until 
J swallow down my spittle i. e. 
for a moment; ellipt. Num. 4, 20 5^33 
<inf. Pj.) like a swallowing down (of 
fipittle) 1. e. for a moment. — Niph. 

92 pba 

2?b33 fo he swallowed up (by foes), 
i. e. to be overcome Hos. 8, 8; hy 
wine C]";^'!?"')?) i. e. to he intoxicated 
Is. 28, 7 (cf. -i']^ "la^bri Is. 28, 1). — 
Pi. 5J^3 (in pause W^3 Is. 3, 12, inf. 
5J^3 Num. 4, 20, fut. 55^3^ ?^3i<) 1) 
utterly to sivallow down, but only fig. 
to sivallow down iniquity i. e. to 
practise it freely Prov. 19, 28. 2) as 
in Qal, to destroy Job 2, 3, annihilate 
Ps. 35, 25. — Pu. to he destroyed, 
exterminated Is. 9, 15; 2 Sam. 17, 16 
lest S^fSS") it he ruined (i. e. lest there 
be ruin) to the king and his troops. 
— Hith. lit. to swallow up oneself, 
hence to vanish away Ps. 107, 27. 

yy3. (w. suf. 'il^bs, iSJ^S) m. 1) 
prop, a swallowing up, then what is 
swallowed Jer. 51, 44. 2) destruction 
Ps. 52, 6. 3) pr. n. of a pers. Gen. 
46,21 (patron, is'bs Num. 26, 38), also 
of a town, called also 1^'i^ Gen. 14, 2. 
iii3. Num. 4, 20, see r. 5)^3 2. 

^"IS^^. (''t!?^? only w. pref. yq, 
*>n5^3^ ;* from ^3 or ^3 and 1^* prep.) 
prop, not unto or as far as, nothing 
to or for, only w. suf. pi. '^'1:^*^3 Gen. 
14, 24 not for me, i. e. do I ask any 
thing, but in Gen. 41, 16 it pertains 
not to me; Gen. 41, 44 '?J'''7?^3 without 
thee ; '''nS'^sri hesides me Is. 43, 11. 

DS^iJlIl l) pr. n. m. (destroyer, 
from 5>^3 w. ending t — ; cf. Arab. 

SJj swallower) a heathen prophet, 
Sept. BaXaafJL, Num. 22, 5. 2) pr. n. 
of a place 1 Ch. 6, 55. 

p y3 (Qal only in part. w. suff. 
jnp^is) akin to 5^3 and p^3 to hredk 
out or pour forth, hence f o devastate 
Is. 24, 1. — Pii. to he laid waste, 
only in part. Mjp^^ Nah. 2, 11. 

pblS pr. n. m. (devastator, r. p^3) 
Num. 22, 2. 

'iSi^TCblil Dan. 5, 1, once "nSTrKba 
Dan. 7, 1 * (Babyl.) pr. n. m. of the 
last king of the Chaldeans. — The 
name perh. means "Bel who (is) 
prince" from ba = b?3, KU: = "iy;6< (as 
sign of relative or genitive) and 

I^^l^jl pr. n. m. (searcher, from 
TC^a Chald. to search) Ezr. 2, 2. 

nb!^ (r. nba; cf. nbs, r. hds) 
I. q. P3, ^3, *i^a, prop, lack, nothing; 

'^ribla 1) adv. not (= &<'V, '^Via) 
1 Sam. 20, 26. 2) prep, (for ''tnbna i. q. 
J<b2) without Gen. 43, 3, besides Gen. 
21, 26; w. suf. ''tn^S besides me Hos. 
13, 4, but also without me in Is. 10, 4. 
3) conj. (for ^I'iJjt "^nba) besides that 
Dan. 11, 18; DX '^Fi^Sl Am. 3, 4 
unless. Before nouns (like "i^Sl, xba) 
not, without, un-, as 1 Sam. 20, 26 
iina ''n'ba not-clean, unclean, ""Pi^a 
iTiO Is. 14, 6 without cessation, un- 
remitting; before inf. w. ? of purpose 
or result for not, lest Lev. 26, 15 
nfe "^Fi^sb /or wo^ to do i. e. so as 
not to do, ban. 9,11 ?1>3'i ""^^^^ ^o 
*as not to hear; more rarely before 
the finite verb, in perf. Ez. 13, 3, in 
fut. Dan. 11, 18. — With prepositions 
•'Pibab (onceb ^Phi^ 2 K. 23, 10) be- 
fore inf. to not, so that wof Ex. 9, 17, 
before the finite verb so that not Jer. 
23, 14; ''inVap because not, w. suf. 
Num. 14, 16; ''Piba-l? until not, w. 
perf. Num. 21,' 35. — The form 
■ipiVa is from nbs w. the old genitive- 
ending "i-— (Gram. § 90, 3, a), like 

ni3^, w. n— loc. innas, pi. 
nia3, c. ni^a, K'thibh ^niaa w. — 

firm (see Gram. § 25), but Q'ri ^T}^^ 
Is. 58, 14 as if from n^2 (Gram. 
§ 87, 5, Rem. 1), w. suf. '^ni^ca, 

93 ISl 

^•^ni^oa, I'^n'iaa (r. t^ia) f. prop, an 
elevation (cf. ptofi-o;), hence 1) a 
height 2 Sam. 1, 19; esp. a sacred or 
altar -height 1 Sam. 9, 12; the 
shrines or chapels built on emi- 
nences were called W^an ''Ra 1 K. 

T - •• T 

13, 32, the priests niaan "^rna l K. 

12, 32; sometimes n^aa is for H'^a 

/ 7 T T 

Miaain the hill-shrine to signify the 
places of unlawful worship on emin- 
ences in or near the cities 1 K. 
11, 7, on the hills of Judah 1 K. 

14, 23, and in the valley of Hinnom 
Jer. 7, 31. Some of them were only 
a sort of curtain-tents, called riiaa 
nlfi^Vp Ez. 16, 16. 2) strong-hold, 
fastness, hence fig. Ps. 18, 34 he sets 
me 'iJn'iaa"^? on my high places, i. e. 
in safety; Am. 4, 13 (of God) tread- 
ing yyi, ''n^a'b^ on the citadels or 
fastnesses of the earth, i. e, possess- 
ing it as its lord and king; so 
too in Job 9, 8 and Is. 14, 14. 3) a 
grave-mound, sepulchre (cf. pa)[i,6;, 
L. tumulus) in Ez. 43, 7 and perh. 
also in Is. 53, 9, where this sense 
answers well to 1"iap in the parallel 
clause. See the r. D^a. 

bn'-2^ pr. n. m. (= ^fJ^'-iS son 
of circumcision, i. e. a Hebrew) 1 Ch. 
7, 33. 

V2!^, see 1*2. 

t^i/J!^ pr. n. of district Num. 21, 19, 
fully b?a ni^a (heights of Baal) Josh. 

13, 17. 

"'TCQ'H b^mHhe c. pi. of naa (as 

•• t: IT ^ T T ^ 

if from n^a), prob. for ''MaS (Gram. 
§ 87, 5, Eem. 1). 

■j^ (pi. Ci'^sa) m. a sage Jer. 49, 7 
prop. part. r. "jia. 

■jlIL (c. -ja, rarely "ja Prov. 30, 1, 
•i^a Gen. 49," 11, "iaa Nurii. 24, 8j 

w.'suf. iaa, •, t]:?; pi. Q"^?!, c. "^sa; 




r.hiS) m. 1) son (cf. na), fully "i^ri? 
man-child Jer. 20, 15 (cf. olo; S^^yjv 
Apoc. 12, 5); a Jcing^s son, a prince 
Is. 9, 5, fully rj^.^')^ Ps. 72, 1; pi. 
ft'iaa sons at times for children 
Gen. 3, 16 (cf. texva). — Fig. sons 
of my father Gen. 49, 8 or of my 
mother Gen. 43, 29, i. e. my brothers ; 
Joel 4, 6 sows of Javan (cf. oTe; 
'A^aiaiv) i. e. Greeks; sons of the 
poor Ps. 72, 4, i. e. the poor. — The 
word "iSl, like nx father, hJj brother, 
is very manifold in its applications. 
Hence a) as to age, hoy, a youth 
(like -aT;) Pro v. 7, 7. P) grand-son 
Gen. 29, 5 (so *ia in Ezr. 5, 1), esp. 
tD-^DS Gen. 32, 1, fully D^^an '',53 Ex. 
32,7. 7) descendants^ posterity, hence 
in the names of peoples, as "PHIS' iDSi, 
^x'niz:'' 'a, Jiisirri 'a, Ammonites, Is- 
raelites, children of Judah i. e. Jeivs; 
for inhabitants of any city or place, 
€. g. Ps. 149, 2 "ji^s "isa sows ofZion 
i. e. its people, na^'i^ri *i3a Neh. 7, 6",- 
for a community, hence e. g. Am. 
9, 7 d^'^^D "^sa Ethiopians. 8) a foster- 
son or a i<;ardl, pupil, disciple, protege 
or favourite (cf. TiaT^, filius), e. g. 
1 K. 20, 35 sows o/" <7ie prophets, i. e. 
their disciples ; children of the living 
God i. e. those whom He cherishes 
Hos. 2, 1 ; also for angels and rulers, 
see under fi^*^■^^?; Gen. 15, 3 sow of 
the house, i.e. a slave horn and bred 
in the house (L. verna) ; sons ofBashan 
i. e. rams reared in its pastures Deut. 
32, 14; sows of the quiver, i. e. arrows 
Lam. 3, 13; sows of the East i. e. 
dwellers there Gen. 29, 1; Job 1, 3; 
Judg. 6, 3. e) of beasts, a young 
one, as young pigeon rT:'ii-']a Lev. 
12, 6, lah&i^-ia his foal Gen. 49, ii; 
moreover of plants Gen. 49, 22 n'n'E"'|a 
young branch. purely fig. express- 
ing a certain dependence, e. g. of 
time, in stating age, e. g. Ex, 12, 6 

nst^ia owe year old, Gen. 5, 32 -*|2 
n5\ami<g ^^nbOO years old; Jon. 4, 10 
son of a night, i. e. produced in one 
night, but Gen. 37, 3 sow of old age 
means a son born when his father 
was old; or of property or quality, 
as sow of wickedness br?ba""|a 
1 Sam. 25, 17 i. e. a wicked man, 
CiH""]!! Is. 56, 2 a human being (Sept. 
SvOpwTTo;), ^';ln"'(a a valiant 2 Sam. 
2, 7 (comp. T£xva OTraxo^^ 1 Pet. 

1, 14); but niSJi ",a in Deut. 25, 2 
worthy of a smiting^ f^.ll?"'!? ^ Sam. 
20, 31 worthy of death (cf. uio; rrj^ 
arcoXeia^ John 17, 12). 2) 'j3 pr. n. 
m. 1 Ch. 15, 18; perh. also in "|ab 
Ps. 9, 1. — From la or "|a is got perh. 
a denom. h;a in Niph. (only in fut. 
nsax) to obtain sons Gen. 16, 2; but 
see n|a to build. • — This noun "ja or 
"ja is prob. primitive like asj, Hit, D&t, 
and is the same as ^a (the liquids w 
and r often interchanging), see on 
naa which is akin; but nearly all 
regard nsa as the root. , 

in Chald. sow, but only in pi. 1*133, 
c. ''.sa (in sing, "na only is used) Dan. 

2, 25; Syr. jL, pi. ^:^^. 
niD^'Hi^'P pr. n. m. 1 K. 4, 11, 

TT • -: I V ■•^ ' ' 

see a'irax. 

*'5^i^"in pr. n. m. (son of my 
sorrow) Gen. 35, 18. 

'nDS"l!lL pr. n. m. (son of a hero) 
1 K. 'i', 13.' 

1p'^""IlIL pr. n. m. (son of a dagger) 
1 K. 4,' 9. ' 

*11»l"11Il pr. n. m. (son of 'T^•^ 
or ^"IS a Syrian idol) of 3 kings of 
Damascus, IK.15,19; 20, 1; 2K.13,3. 

DSn"!!!! pr. n. m. (perh. son of 
wailing) Jer. 7, 31. 

Jnn^T"7lZl pr. n. m. (perh. son of 
strength) I'Ch. 4, 20. 

n^n-jn 95 

^^In""!!!! pr. n. m. (son of liberty) 

1 K. 4, 8. * 

^"^ri""!!!! pr. n. m. (son of valour). 

2 Ch. 17, 7. 

15r!"'^Sl pr. n. m. (son of pity) 
1 Ch/4, 26. 

'^'^'Tl'lr^ pr. n. m. (son of kind- 
ness)* 1' K. 4, 10. 

1**l3^"^Sl pr. n. m. (son of the 
right-hand, i.e. of good luck) 1 Sam. 
i)f 1 in some texts for "pa" 32. 

''52]^"1!Zl pr. n. m. (son of my 
people or confederacy) Gen. 19, 38. 


J^, see il33. 

n J3 (fut. .152'], 12;"^ rarely Mi^^i, 
n.;2xi, inf. abs. nba, const, niss, w. 
8uf. '^'';n'i32 Ez. 16, 31) 1) to build 
Oen. 8, 20; w. ace. of the thing 
Oen. 10, 11 (rarely w. h) and of 
the material 1 K. 18, 32 (rarely 
w. 2) ; to lay a foundation 1 K. 6, 1 
■of. 2 Ch. 3, 1 ; w. ace. of the place, 
to build upon 1 K. 6, 1 5 ; w. 2 Neh. 
4, 4 to build up in something; w. 
^5 Lam. 3, 5 to build against. — Fig. 
^ to form, w. h Gen. 2, 22. 2) of places 
in ruin or out of condition, to rebuild, 
to restore Am. 9, 14, Ps. 122, 3 Jeru- 
salem n^>l32ii the rebuilt, Mai. 1, 4 
we will restore ms'in the waste-places. 
3) fig. to grant family prosperity 
i. e. descendants 1 Sam. 2, 35; to 
malce prosperous, of peoples Jer. 24, 6. 
— Niph. to be built Num. 13, 22, of 
persons in Mai. 3, 15 to be promoted ; 
Is. 44, 28 to be rebuilt; fig. in Gen. 
16, 2 h.32K i^ii5< til'Si^s perhaps I shall 
be built up (i. e. have sons) from her. 
Hence •'^32^, ni32Pl, ')^32, n^32, 
n32^ and perh. "JSI, r.2, ^2!* 

TIj!!!, ^ J!I1 ChaW. (l. q. Heb. 

{132) to build Dan. 4, 27; part. pass. 
n32 Ezr. 5, 11; inf. fit32a,n^32^ Ezr. 
5, 9. — Ithpe. to be built Ezr. 4, 13. 

^513 1 Sam. 25, 8 for si36<2, r. Kia. 

IT ' it' 

'^^'33 pr. n. m. (perh. building) 
Neh. 7, 15. 

t^lDlS daughters, see ri2, 

t|'^piD!ll Ez. 16, 31 for -r^ni'sa inf. 
of •^32, w. suf. 2 fem., see Gram. 
§ 78,' Eem. 2. 

LJ J^ (obs.) to bind; akin to Sans. 
vant (to surround), G. winden, binden, 
E. wind, bind; L. vincio, W. banad 
(= banal) the broom plant, so much 
used for binding; cf. cjTrapTOi. Hence 

^Vli pr. n. m. (built) 2 Sam. 23, 36 , 

^'S^ , see ''3J12. 

P*^^" ^Sin pr. n. (sons of lightning) 
of a city in Dan, Josh. 19, 45. 


n^D^ pr. n. m. (perh. tn^ built 
up) 1^ Ch. 4, 36 i. q. sin;!32. 

n^i^ f. (i. q. •)^32) building Ez. 
41, 13; r. ^32. 

' ' T T 

D^5S 1 Sam. 17, 4 for d'^i'^a, 
see 'j'^2. 

0*^5^ sons^ see "j^; Gram. § 96. 

1*'^^!l^ pr. n. m. (son of right- 
hand, i. e. good luck) the patriarch 
Benjamin^ founder of one of the 12 
tribes Gen. 35, 18; gentil. '^?''a';-'J2 
Ps. 7, 1, plur. ipri'; 'i.!:2 Judg. 19, 16. 

X^"^ m. (i. q. t\^l'2) building Ez. 
41, 12 after the form ')';'3p; r. n32. 

"j^SlS Chald. i. q. Heb. building 
Ezr ."^6, 4. 

^D^T;!!! pr. n. m. (prob. our son) 
Neh. 10,' 14. 

- ; 

D'1l5"''5la pr. n. Jer. 49, 28. Ez. 
25, 4! 10 (LXX. Ktbi/Ji), 

Uj^ Chald. to he angry Dan. 
2, 12; akin to O^ia, WN; (of. D53=&5I3). 

W?!21 pr. n. m. (perh. for h^n? 
bubbling) 1 Ch. 8, 37, Kl^aS lCh.9,43. 

n*'*l'10Sl pr. n. m. (in council of 
n;v) Neh. 3] 6. 

"•DSl pr.n.m.(perh.i.q."'S3 bright) 
Ezr. 2, 49. 

DDH, see 0^3. 

iDi (obs.) prob. akin to Aram. 

"~ V T 

•nbS, i-M-o fo contemn^ hence of fruit 
contemned as unripe, to he sour^ to 
be unripe; hence 1tJ3 and 

'ID^ m. collect, sour or unripe 
gropes Is.18,5 (but d'^d^Sm^c^^ropes). 

*1DSL m. = Ifeia, only Job 15, 33. 
^<lb;3, see ns'S. 

T : ' T : 

)• ail (obs.) perh. akin to ^13 fo 6e 
separated, removed. Hence perhaps 

172 and n?lll, w. suf. '''l?3, 'lanss, 
■ ?;753, in p.?];i?3, t]n?3, in^3, finsJS, ^linrs 
and Jia'^jlSSAm. 9, 10, n3^?3, D^S^S) 
perh. prop, subst. m. removal, hence 
behind; early considered as a prep, 
made up of 3 and "i?. The meanings 
in use show the following wide di- 
versities: 1) near something, by the 
side of (j^erh. likeL.apwdf),as 1 Sam. 4, 
18 ijyan "i;) ^?3 at the side of the place 
(1^) of the gate, for which 'i?"b5< 
stands in 2 Sam. 18, 4. 2) behind 
(close to), differing from ^)1K which 
expresses behind at a distance, esp. 
thus in the expression "1.53 '^5'? to 
shut behind (close to) an object, e. g. 
Judg. 3, 23 he shut the door I'l^S 
behind him on going out; Gen. 7, 16 
I'n^S after him (i. e. at his heels) 
after he got in; dh^ ^^3 ^Sb 1 Sam. 

96 nr^B 

T T 

1, 6 fo c?ose behind (or aftowf) f/iff^ 
«(;om6 i. e. to render it barren ; Jol> 
1,10 hast thou not fenced in2>3 behind 
(or around) him? Judg. 3, 22 aw 6? 
f Ae fat closed up 3Ji|«n "i^S behind' 
the blade, i. e. so that the hilt alsa 
penetrated; Job 22, 13 bs'n2> "i?3 be- 
hind the darkness, i. e. wrapped in 
gloom. 3) nearness (implying motion) 
away among, amidst, as Is. 32, 14 
nill^'a "1^3 away among caves; Joel 

2, 8, ri^^n 'iSS among the missiles; 
hence it may at times be rendered 
through, out of, e. g. Gen. 26, 8 
•ji^nti n^^S through the ivindoiir 
2 Sam. 20, 21 n^inri "i^S through 
the ivall, i. e. by some opening 
in it, as in Acts 9, 25 6ia to'> 
xziyoiiz, 4) nearness (motion or 
rest), all round something (cf» 
No. 2), hence around Ps. 3, 4^ 
differing from 3*i3& round about, 
without implying nearness; esp. with 
verbs that denote placing round, fen-- 
cing in, closing up, covering over 
(*>5^, ^'iS, T|*i^, •)&, dS^n), hence for,. 
equivalent to about, esp. with verbs 
of interceding, asking, satisfying,, 
(or compensating), covering, standing^ 
up for in conflict (^^Qnh, ^a,3, p?t,. 

pTnnri, yit)^, ttbi, y^i^i ^a^); Joh 
2, 4 "TiSJ 153 ^12) sA;iw /or shin, i. e. 
is given to satisfy or as equivalent.. 
With pref. prep. ^^'3ia from behind, 
w. b, as Cant. 4, 1 "T^n^a^^ ^5373 /orfA 
from behind thy veil. 

"lb?!!!, see W. 

n>3 (fut TO3^ 2 pi. 'j!l''5>3tn Is. 
21, 12, imp. pi. W3 Gram. § 75, Kem» 
4) i. q. ?!13, 5)33, fo bubble, to ivell up, 
hence #0 6oi;7 Is. 64, 1 m TO3rt 
d'^a fire boils water; fig. fo boil over 
w. strong desire, hence to long for, 
to seek. Is. 21, 12. — Nipli. to be 
swollen, then to swell out, to project 

n3?n 97 

T : 

Is. 30, 13; fig. to be sought out Obad. 
6; hence ^2>n, ^^. 

n2'5i iX$11 Chald. to pray, 
Dan. ey 1*4 nrvi^S 2^53 Ae prayed his 
prayer, w. D*!^, 1^ and ft"7^"')«. 
2) to seek Dan. 2, 13. — Pa. "i?? *0 
pray earnestly Dan. 4, 33. 

'^^ Chald. (w. suf. nnW3; r. «53) 
f. prayer, petition Dan. 6, 8. 

nb^J^lS (married r. b?a) pr.n.Is.62,4. 

■jii^^^ see 'jisJSL 

T13^!I1 pr. n. m. (perh. torch, r. 
•153) 5eor Num. 22, 5, Sept. Bstbp, 
but in 2 Pet. 2, 15 Boaop, 3J for X 

D'^ln^J^^ (w. suf. iT'nwa) m. pi. 

terrors Ps. 88, 17, Job 6, 4; r. n?3. 

T*?3 (obs.) perh. for t^a (cf. 
tt'na = J<'na) as denom. from t2>a (r. 
TT5), hence fo 6e strong, firm; hence 

Tl?!il 1) pr. n. (perh. firmness) the 
pillar on the left hand in front of 
the Temple 1 K. 7, 21; cf. 'j'^a^, the 
name of the other. 2) pr. n. m. 
Kuth's husband, Ruth 2, 1. 

LJa/3 (fut. a^a"^) prob. mimet. 

akin to W2 (which see), Chald. y?2, 

Syr. w.^i»«o, to beat or strike (w. the 

foot), hence 1) to kick Deut. 32, 15. 
2) w. 3, to tread or trample on, fig. 
to despise or spurn 1 Sam. 2, 29 

^y^ m. prayer, only Job 30, 24 
'':?3 itb nought is prayer; r. n:?3. 

D^5Sl Is. 11, 15, see d*'S. 

^"^5^1 Ps. 73, 20forn'»rn3; r.'lWI. 

^^^^ m. coUect. ca«/e Ex. 22, 4 
(like •^a•^^, li.pecv^,-ooris) prop. /JcZfZ- 
cattle, from 153 fo browse. 

b?^ (in prop, names b?3, b:?3, 
Aram. V53, hence »b3) w. suf. "^^53 
•nb^S; pi. fi^53 (at times for sing., 


cf. Gram. § 108, 2, 6), c. ''^JS?, w. 
suf., J7*ib?3, "jv}"^!??? m. lord, possessor, 
prop, a begetter (see below). It de- 
notes: \) possession and control, e. 
g. n'^3Jn bss Judg. 19, 22 master of 
the house, Jt^n; brs Ex. 21,3 husband; 
Di'niSJ? ^53 Joel 1, % husband married 
in youth; Is. 16, 8 ft'^'ia ib5>3 masters 
(warriors) o/" fAe nations; hence in 
union w. nouns (see Gram. § 106, 2, 
a) to mark 'property, as 2 K. 1, 8 
ford 0/* hair, i. e. hairy, Gen. 37, 19 
ni'tf^Hrt '3 the dreamer, i. e. the one 
having dreams; ta^iW b?3 Ex. 24, 14 
one having a lawsuit or controversy, 
as to what any one ought to have, 
but has not Prov.3, 27. 2) before the 
names of cities, inhabitants ox citizens- 
Judg. 9, 2. 3) bssn pr. n. of aPheni- 
cian deity (Belus), prob. the planet 
Jupiter, which however the Greeks 
always called ^HpaxX^i;; see bs. The 
pi. D'^bl^S means images of Baal Judg. 
2, 11. — bS3 is frequently found in 
Punic inscriptions and in pr. names, 
as in Hannibal (b^S'^Slti favour of Baal), 
Hasdrubal (b?3tl'nt'?help of B.), Adher- 
bal (b?3'n'i^x''hero of B.), Abibal 
(b?3'i3y5 ' father of B.), and we find 
b:^3 in Heb. names, as 5r\'^']3 ^53 
Judg. 8, 33 also n'i"]3 bj< Judg. 9, 46 
covenant-god, cf. Zso; opxioi; ovDeus 
fidius; 3ii3T b3?3 fly Baal (see 3ii3|); 
m'SJQ-'b^S, see ^i:>B. 4) also place, as 
possessing what it contains (cf. ri'^S), 
in union w. names, e. g. with 1^, "p^ii, 

I^Pl. 5) pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 5, 5. — Hence 
b'ib353, nb?3, M^'3,b3, andperh.brs as 
denominative. ■ — The root being very 
uncertain, b?3 = bs is given here as 
a primitive, which is common to 

the Semit. tongues, Syr. '^.^j Arab. 

Jxj , Ethiop. ba Z; but perh. it is akin 
to b*ia to flow (of seminal flow in sex- 





ual connexion), hence to marrt/, to 
be husband. — Hence perh. b?a. 

b?^ Chald. Ezr. 4, 8 i. q. Heb. 

b?a, also ^a. 


(fut. ^^a*^) perh. denom. 

from ^53, or rather akin to b^ia, 
1) fo fte husband or master, to rule 
Is. 26, 13, w. b 1 Ch. 4, 22; w. 3 
Jer. 3, 14 fo marry; Jim b?2 #o 6e- 
c(WM€ husband of a wife, to marry 
Mai. 2, 11; part. act. pi. (for sing.) 
Tj'^fea thy husband Is. 54, 5, part, 
pass. fern. hb^SJa Is. 54, 1 and Gen. 
20, 3 b>2 f^^i?3 married to a hus- 
band. 2) fig. perh. akin to bna, b?5, 
fo reject or despise, w. 2 Jer. 31, 32 
(cf. i^jfAsXirjaa Heb. 8, 9). — Niph. to 
be married Prov. 30, 23. 

» l^^^l^ f. 1) a mistress or possessor, 
e. g. ri']3<l f^^?2 mistress of the house 
1 K. 17, 17, ai"}* '2 a ivitch 1 Sam. 28, 7, 
comp. the use of the masc. b:^2. 2) fig. 
for a region or city, in pr. names, a) 
city in the N. of Judah Josh. 15, 9, 
otherwise b?2 ni^'np, d'^^!^'; f^:"^)?; P) 
in the S. of this tribe Josh. 15, 29, 
otherwise tih'z, ii'nb'z. 

T r ' T : • 

Xr\l5!^!21 pr. n. (prob. mistresses) of 
a city in the S. of Judah Josh. 15, 24. 

t\'V2'2 ''b^^_ pr. n. (perh. Baals 
of heights) of a district Num. 21, 28, 
called also b5>2 ^22 Josh. 13, 17. 

13 t" -T^ pr. n. m. (a gracious 
lord) Gen. 36, 38. 

3^^^ '??"^ pr. n. m. (whom the lord 
knows)! Ch. 14, 7, also 5>'^:;!V^^ 2 Sam. 
6, 16. 

n^b?5 pr. n. m. (n;i is lord) 
1 ChT 12,5. 

D^b^ill pr. n. m. (perh. for Ui'ibs)? 
lordly, from b^2, cf. y3'^22? and see on 
V3 — as a formative ending) Jer. 40, 14; 

but some texts have d'^bS'2, so too 
Josephus in Antiq. 10, 9, 2. 

Snb?.? (for nb2>2, fem. of b?2) 
pr. n. (mistress) of a city in Dan 
(Josephus BaXed), Josh. 19, 44. 

• "JI^Sl pr. n. of a place (Sept. Baiciv) 
Num. 32, 3, perh. for p ^^2 (= b^'2 

^5?^' »^5?.^ pr. n. m. (perh. 
for ttaS'^jSl i. e. sorrowful, see on 
2 on p. 75) 1 K. 4, 12; 2 Sam. 
4, 2. 

)• 3 (fut. 'n?2';) akin to &<^2, nna 
II (see below), 1) to browse, to feed 
upon; prob. hence 'n''5'2 cattle and 1:^2 
(which see). See Pi. and Hiph. 2) to 
consume w. fire, to burn up, P;?. 83, 
15 «s fire '^'^'niTi kindles up a forest; 
mostly w. 2 Job 1, 16 God's fire fell 
from heaven and burnt up the flocks 
and the servants. 3) intrans. to burn 
(esp. of combustible materials bur- 
ning up of themselves) , JT^^2 nst 
Is. 34, 9 burning pitch; hence to be 
kindled Is. 1, 31, Hos. 7, 4. 4) as 
denom. of ^1^2 or 'l'i5>2, to be bru- 
tish Jer. 10, 8, see under "1:^2. — 
Niph. to become or make oneself 
brutish Jer. 51,17; cf . Syr. 9j.LsZ| 
to be fierce. — Pi. 1SJ2 (fut. '13)2':, 
inf. ^i^2) 1) to feed on, to consume, 
e. g. field or vineyard Is. 5, 5, w. 2 
Ex. 22, 4. 2) to set fire to (wood) 
Lev. 6, 5, to light (a fire) Ex. 35, 
3, to bm-n up or consume Is. 44, 
15. 3) to destroy or sweep away, 
w. "JSI from somewhere 1 K. 22, 47, 
w- '^y^^ after somebody 1 K. 14, 
10, i. e. to make a clean riddance; 
13J2 Ii^'n Is. 4, 4 a spirit of destroy- 
ing (extermination). — Pu. to be 
khidled e. g. a stove Jer. 36, 22. — 
Hiph. (causative) like Pi. in all its 




three meaning*. — This r. is prob. 
mimetic, found in Semitic (as above) 
and in Gr. Popa (pt-ppd)-JXO>), W. 
paw7', poru, bara, L. voro, E. forage, 
hrowse, bread, Gr. brod. 

*1?5. m. prob. akin to ^'':?3, prop. 
hrutishness,stupiditi/ ; "n?3 TlJ'^y; a maw 
of brutishness Ps. 92, 7, but else only 
as adj. stupid, brutish, Ps. 49, 11. 
Hence the denom. ^^3 (fut. ^'$':p) to 
he brutish Jer. 10, 8; part, "ni^a Ps. 
D4, 8 brutish. — W\^\i. 1523 to become 
hrutish Is. 19, 11. 

K'^^lS pr. n. m. (perh. a brand) 
1 Ch^ 8, 8. 

rr^l^lll f. a burning, esp. of crops 
in the field Ex. 22, 5; r. -1S2 2. 

lZj0/3 (obs.) perh. akin to Chald. 
y?a=Heb. 13^2, to tread down, hence 
to be valiant; hence 

i^lUI^IS pr. n.m. (valour) of a king 
of Israel (953—930 B. C.) 1 K. 15, 16. 

7TW2. pr. n.m. (perh. for rr^br^ 
work of TT^) 1 Ch. 6, 25 j see under 
letter 3, p. 74. 

iTT^ri'i?^ pr. n. (for rrT\tt n^a) 

•of a Levitical city Josh. 21, 27, but 
in 1 Ch. 6, 56 niiwr?. 

il^i (Qal obs.) akin to Syr. 
2^^ to fear, — Nipli. r^ns C^^^^^S 
Dan. 8, 17 for "^ninrns) to be afraid, 
w. 1.5573 1 Ch. 21, 30 and ^iS^^ Est. 
7, 6 of some object (cf. VCy^, y'^'S, 

*TnB, nrii). — Pi. n?2 (3 sing. f. w. 
.suf. "^annrs, sitnnra for isinnrs, part. 

f. t]r©a?3 1 Sam. 16, 15 from n?a?3 
for nns»373; fut. nri*;) to terrify Job 
3, 5; fo come upon suddenly 1 Sam. 
16, 14. Hence 

nri3^!ll f. fear or terror Jer. 

T T : ' 

«, 15. 

yS m. slime or mire Jer. 38, 22; 
r. -jrsa. 

Tin^^H!:! Ez. 47, 11 for i-^m'sa 

from nS3. 

n^ni (pi. w. suf. T'nfi<S3 Ez. 47, 
11) f . a sioamp or marsh Job 8, 11 ; 
r. 1^23, in Talm. ^3^3. 

^i^IiSlH (r. "n^S) adj. m. inaccessible, 
steep, only K'thibh of Zech. 11, 2. 

*1^21^ m. perh. in Job 22, 24 for 
*IS3 ore, but see "i13. 

"•illZlL pr. n. m. (bright) Neh. 7, 23; 
see "^DS. 

T^^S m. 1 ) prop, cutting off, hence 
grape- gathering , vintage Is. 24, 13, 
like *liS|5 cropping off (cf. 1"i53T, 
t]*^bX, 3'i35<). 2) adj. m. in Zech. 11, 2 
Q'ri^ vv^here the K'thibh is 1!i:J3, 
inaccessible, lofty; r. 1:^3. 

y]i£^ (obs.) fo 6e peely, to have 
coatings; akin to b^Q fo s/rtp. Hence 

b!I!Il (only pi. D'l^SS) m. prop. 
2)eelings off, hence owiows Num. 11, 5. 

^i^i3^!ll pr. n. m. (in God's shadow 
i. e. protection) Ex. 31, 2. 

r\^blh!5 pr. n. m. (stripping off) 
Ezr. 2, 52; but in Neh. 7, 54 n"!?:??. 

r\^b2?!^ , see n!lb^3. 

^«|^ (fut. SJ^i-i, imp. 5)^3, w. 
suf. dSJ:t3 Am. 9, 1 for Q55S3) akin to 
S?2Q, *i:S3, 2J)53, 1) prop, to cut up 
(Talm. to break bread); intr. to be 
tvounded Joel 2, 8; T|?^3 in Jer. ^1, 
13 is perh. infin. w. suf. T\^'P fi<3 
*^3J:£3 nsit </i?/ enc? cometh, the ell of 
thy cutting off, i. e. when thou shalt 
be cut off as a web according to a 
fixed measure; in Am. 9, 1 fi^SS break 
them in pieces (for d5:23). 2) fo rend 
in pieces, to spoil or plunder Job 27, 
8; esp. in Prov. 1,19 5JS3 ??3 (cf. G. 
geld - Schneider , a money -sharper) 

^:i3, 100 

"■ IV 

gaining lucre, extortioner or frau- 
dulent dealer. — Pi. ?2ia (fut SJ^n*)) 
to cut of Job 6, 9, to rob Ez. 22, 12; 
fig. fo finish, to complete Zech. 4, 9, 
hence to fulfil something Is. 10, 12, 
Lam. 2, 17. 

^??. (in pause 55:23 , w. suf. &i*^3) 
m. prop, a cutting off or seizing, 
hence fig. l)gain, Gen. 37, 26 S^a-Mg 
what profit? 2) esp. unjust gain, 
Mthy liccre Is. 33, 15, Ex. 18, 21. 
3) plunder, rohhery Mic. 4, 13, Jer. 
51, 13. 



^ ^iwl (ohs.) i. q. p|^3 fo gush 
out, Aram. ^3^3 <o bubble out; hence 
ya, naa. — The :£ and p are inter- 
changed in sundry words, e. g. V'nx 
= Chald. fi<p^X. 

•t ! - 

pik^ to swell up, to blister or 

to have tumours, to gall (of the 
feet) Deut. 8, 4, where Sept. has ixu- 
Xto&rjaav, but in Neh. 9, 21 Sie^^a- 

p^^ m. dough Ex. 12, 34, as 
swelling or rising by fermentation 
Hos. 7, 4. 

)np^!^ pr. n. (perh. a swelling) of 
a district Josh. 15, 39. 

liZ3 (fut. ^isn-') 1) to cut out 

- T ' • \ 

or offQ. g. grapes (hence ^OTpu^) Lev. 
25, 5, to gather in (the vintage) w. 
ace. of the vineyard Deut, 24, 21; 
hence 'T'Sa grape-cutting (cf. *Ti:^|5 
corn or fruit cutting), 1^3 vintager 
Jer. 6, 9; fig. of a destructive foe 
Jer. 49, 9. 2) to restrain, to sepa- 
rate off on all sides, hence to fortify 
(of walls, cities), in part. pass, "l^l^a 
(K'thibh n'l^S Zech. 11, 2), fortified, 
strong Deut. 3, 5, Is. 2, 15; fig. Ps. 
76, 13 he restrains or cuts off 'n'^n^ 
the spirit of princes; Jer. 33, 3 
ri'i'1^3 secluded i. e. things cut off 

from view or knowledge. — Niph, 
(pass, of no. 2 but only fig.) to be 
restrained or debarred. Job 42, 2 &<V 

tVB)^ T^^ "ni^S"^ no plan is precluded 
from thee, i. e. too difficult for thee. 
— Pi. ^S3 (fut. 'n^3'J, inf. ^^3) to 
fortify Jer. 51, 53.Proi3. hence 

^?ni (only in Job 36, 19 '^SCSl) for 
l:;S3; perh. hence fistaXXov, metaL 

1^3; (in p. ^23, pi. d'^'n^S) m. l> 
ore or precious metal, i. e. gold or 
silver Job 22, 24 (as being mined 
or dug out, r. ^^3). 2) pr. n. (a 
mine) of a Levitical city of refuge 
in Eeuben (Sept. Bojop) Deut. 4, 43. 

fTnifc!^ (r. "niis) f. prop, inclosure, 
hence Mic. 2, 12 sJieep-fold (cf. fc<Vp-5), 
2) pr. n. (prob. fortress, i. q. ^^3^> 
of a city in Edom, prob. the present 
Busaireh, south-east of the Dead 
Sea Is. 63, 1; but in Jer. 48, 24 it. 
appears as a Moabitish city, having 
prob. changed masters. 

"jl^SS!!! (r. ^:23) m. citadel or for- 
tress Zech. 9, 12. 

D^n'SS^ (pl. nn^3)f. prop, a cutting 
off (of rain) , hence drought (Sept» 
dppo^ta) Jer. 17, 8; r. "n^s. 

p^Hp^, p^)^5 m. \)sUnbottler 
flask 1 K. 14, 3, so named for it» 
bubbling or gurgling when emptied;. 
r. p>l3 or pp3 ; cf . Syr. j..^Q.a.^, also- 

p6[XpuXo(;. 2) pr. n. m. (emptying> 
Neh. 7, 53. 

il^P^P^ pr, n. m. (prob. empty- 
ing by'n^j Neh. 11, 17. 

^pl^p^ pr. n. m. (perh. emptier,. 
r. pp3 w. "i-j- as formative ending;, 
see on the letter 1) 1 Ch. 9, 15. 

''p^ pr. n. m. (prob. i. q. M^p3p2)< 
Num. 34, 22. 

^n^p!^ pr. n. m. (same as ''pS) 
1 Ch.'25, 4. 



>T T 

J'^P^ (only pl.a''5'^pa)m. fissure, 
€lcft, esp. breach in a wall Am. 6, 

11, Is. 22, 9; r. 5?pa. 

• )P3 (fut. r;?^'], inf. w. suf. 
t:j'p2) akin to 5>^a, ypB, 1p3, to cut 
or cleave asunder, hence to wound 
Ez. 29, 7, fo sp/if (wood) Ecc. 10, 9, 
to divide (the sea) Ex. 14, 16, hence 
to rip up Am. 1, 13, to open up (a 
spring) Ps. 74, 15; to hatch Is. 34, 15; 
■fig. to break into (a camp or a city) 
2 Sam. 23, 16, to invade 2 Ch. 21, 
17. — Niph. 5J|5n3 to split oneself, 
hence fig. to be rent 1 K. 1, 40, 
to open up (of the ground) Num. 16, 
31, fo break forth, of water Prov. 3, 
■20, light Is. 58, 8 ; fig. to be stormed 
<of a city) Jer. 52, 7, to be hatched Is. 
59, 5. — Pi. ?;3a (fut. 5>]5n";) <o sp/i* 
or rend Gen. 22, 3, Hab. 3, 9, to hatch 
Is. 59, 5. — Pu. to be rent or ripped 
Josh. 9, 4, Hos. 14, 1, Ez. 26, 10 
nr^iina ^"^^ a cify broken into, 1. e. 
taken. — Hiph. to cause to open up 
i. e. to storm (a city) Is. 7, 6 ; w. ^^^ 
to break through to, 2 K. 3, 26. — 
Hoph. to be stormed (a city) Jer. 39, 

12. — Hith. to be rent or cleft Mic. 
1, 4, Josh. 9, 13. 

S'iPlS. m. prop, a split, hence part, 
half, but only of the half-shekel Gren. 
24, 22, Sept. 6pa^[j.TQ. 

&^l^^ f. Chald. valley Dan. 3, 1. 

n^jpn (c. n5|5a, pi. misJjTS; r. ^Jpa) 

f . sunken ground, a depression, valley 
<prop. a split or rent in the hills) 
Deut. 8, 7, Is. 41, 18, also a wide 
plain (in open country) Gen. 11, 2, 
Sept. itsSiov; fsS^'T? f^?p^ iJ^^ valley 
-or plain of Lebanon , between Anti- 
libanus and Hermon Josh. 11, 17; 
often united w. names of places, e. 

g. "ins'a nr;5S 2 Ch. 35, 22. 

Iriri mimet. akin to p^ia, ?!ia, 
to gush or bubble out, to pour out, 
to empty (esp. a bottle p^Spa), hence 
1) trans, to empty out, fig. to despoil 
(a people) Nah. 2, 3, to depopulate (a 
land) Is. 24, 1. 2) intrans. to be poured 
out, hence spread abroad, Hos. 10, 1 
pp'a *jSa a spreading or luontriant 
vine. — Niph. p53 (!^1?^,5 fem. like 
nbni Gram. § 67, Bem. U, fut. pb,*], 
inf. pSi\i) ^0 be emptied out Is. 
24, 3, to vanish (m^) Is. 19, 3. — 
Po. ppia to depopulate utterly Jer. 
51, 2. 

1|?3 (Qal obs.) akin to 'nsa, 
5)p3 , 1) to cut or cleave open , hence 
fo |??oif? (the ground), hence "ipa 
plow-cattle, like L. armentum for 
aramentum; fig. <o 6reaA: /brf/i (of 
light), hence ^p*a daybreak. 2) #0 
ftreafc into, to search (cf. L. rimari); 
hence Pi. ^pa (fut. *ipa^) to discri- 
minate, w. VT?! I^6V. 27, 33, w. h to 
judge, to consider Lev. 13, 36, w. a 
to consider w. pleasure, to admire Ps. 
27, 4, w. ace. to consider or ponder, 
for the sake of defending Ez. 34, 11 
or of punishing (cf. l^'^jsa). 

1)25 Chald. 1. q. Heb. "npa, 
Pa. ^pa to search, to investigate 
Ezr. 4, 15. — Ilhpa. to be searched 
Ezr. 5, 17. 

'Ipl:^ (pi. O'^'ipa; r. ^pa) com., col- 
lect., ^vo^.plowing-beast{Q,i. L. armen- 
tum = aramentum), cattle (for field- 
labour) Ex. 21, 37, fem. in Job 1, 14, 
used for a single head or beast, an 
ox or a cow, a beeve (^i\15, cf. ^xs, 
lib; Vfi^, ^IB'Jl), but mostly it signi- 
fies oxen, horned cattle, for which 
the plur. ta'i'npa is found only in Am. 
6, 12, Neh.'lO, 37, 2 Ch. 4, 3. — 
-i;^a - )T. bull-calf Gen. 18,7, *ipa-,a IB 




f/ounff ox Num. 29, 2, ^i^S"')^ ^asj from somebody Dan. 1, 8, w. V? for 

young calf Lev. 9, 2 ; constr. as fern 
pi. cows in Gen. 33, 13 nibs "i|53 
wti^e/i kine; hence 'npis herdsman 
Am. 7, 14. — Ewald prefers to trace 
'^i^S to 'ij^a to cleave i. e. the hoof; 
hence cloven -hoofed beast. 

*1]5!II (pi. ta'^'^i^S) m. prop, breaking 
(of the morning-light), day-break, 
morning, r. *i|5a (but ^J^a as r. of 
"ipia may be akin to 'IJIS fo gloiv)\ j 
n*!:? 1? ^pS-')^ Ex. 18, l^ from dawn \ 
till dark; "^J^ain ^'^b^^? the morning 
watch Ex. 14, 24; hence ^pa is esp. 
the next morning Ex. 29, 34. As adv. 
in the morning, early, 1|;?3 Ps. 5, 4, 
'npaSj'njDiib (poet.) Ps. 30,' 6; distri- 
butively morning by morning, each 
morning, '^paa "ipiaa, '^pab l)D3b, 
fi'i'il^a^, d'l^i^n^ Job 7, is"; in Ps. 
90, 14 "npaa has perh. the sense 
soon, for which *i|52? stands in Ps. 
49, 15. 

5^'^]^'^ (c. f^'!'i?5) f- ^ searching or 
inspection, only in Ez. 34, 12; r. "nps. 

Jn'n^^f .scntfiw^ or animadversion, 
chastisement, only Lev. 19, 20; r. ^p2. 

IZJlPS (Qal obs.) akin to "ip3, 

Chald. turta, to search for, to seek 
after, tcish for, to choose; only in 
Pi. tira (fut. Uijsn";) l) to seek 
earnestly, abs. 2K. 2, 17 and w. ace. 
Gen. 37, 15; hence 1 K. 10, 24 to 
seek the countenance of the khig. 

somebody Est. 4, 8. 5) to inquire 
about, w. yq Dan. 1, 20. — Pu. to be 
sought Jer, 50, 20. 

»lti|55 (w. suf. ''in^'lsa) f. entreaty 
Est. 5^ 8 ; r. Uij52. 

^!^ I (poet, in Ps. 2, 12, w. suf. 
'^'iSl Prov. 31, 2) m. son, only in these 
two passages in Heb. for "jln, but 

usual in Aram. 13, j.^. In Ps. 2,, 

12 *in !ip^3 kiss the son (see v. 7 and 
comp. Is. 9, 5), some take 'nin for 
purely ov sincerely, as in theVulg.. 
adorate pure, cf. 'IS II. — • 13 and 

13 are the same (1 = 3), and of mi- 
metic origin (see on ^S and ^^33). 

*ll5 II (r. 11^) adj. m., M13 f. 
1) approved, chosen Cant. 6, 9. 2)^Kre,. 
c?ear Cant. 6, 10; 33^ "^^ pure of heart 
Ps. 73,1. 3)cZeawi.e.ewp^^Prov.l4,4. 

^1^ III m. for 13 corn, only Am. 
5, 11, 8, 6, Ps. 72, I'e. 

"n^, ^% m. \) grain, corw,,prop. 
what is consumed, /bo(i, as gar- 
nered Gen. 41, 35, or in the field 

Ps. 65, 14 (cf. Arab. ^ wheat, "L.fary 
farina). 2) field, as yielding pasture,, 
grain and other articles for con- 
sumption, hence the country Job 39,- 
4. — Prob, from hl3 II = 12>3 fo 
feed, popa, cf. L, pascuum; but said 
to be from 113 to sever or cleanse. 

-" T 

^!^ Chald. I. m., w. suf. ni3, pL 

1. e. 

to visit him in order to obtain I T?^ (^^e -jS) son Dan. 6, 1, "pribx 13 

his favour; to seek God C^lpTi&t UJ|33) 
Ex. 33, 7 is to apply oneself to him, 
to worship him Ps.40, 17. 2) to strive 
after, to aim at, e. g. 'b n^l some one's 
hurt Ps. 71, 13, 'b ^'B5 some one^s life 
(either to take it Ex. 4, 19 or to pre- 
serve it Prov. 29, 10), w. b Job 10, 6, 
Prov. 18, 1. 3) to demand, w. yq, 
Is. 1, 12. 4) to entreat, w.^p, ^?S^?, 

a son of the gods Dan. 3, 25; also 
grandson or descendant Ezr. 5, 1. 

^S Chald. II. m. , def. Nl3, fields 

country Dan. 2, 38. Arab. y>, Syr, 
^, Heb. 13. 

12L, once 'n^!3i (r. 113) m. 1) clean' 
ness, purity, ^"^^1 liaPs. 18, 2\ purity 
of the hands, fig. for innocence 




2) for r\'i'i'3, prop, what cleanses, hence 
salt of lye, alkali (for soap) Job 9, 30. 

iS l3 (fut. VCa^) 1) prop, to cut 
or carve\ hence to form, to create, 
esp. of God's making or creating the 
world Gen. 1, 1; nto^ N'na Gen. 2, 
3 he made creatively, i. e. perh. 
by making it anew out of chaos, cf. 
miurb bi?;;n (Gram. §. 142, Rem. 1). 
— NIph. to he created Gen. 2, 4; 
to be made or done'Ex. 34, 10 ; iX'nas D? 
a created people (i. e. that was yet 
to be born) Ps. 102, 19. — Pi. ifna 
to cut or fell (a forest) Josh. 17, 18; 
to cut down, to kill Ez. 23, 47; to 
carve, to fashion Ez. 21,24^. Cf.Arab. 

iyi to cut or create. 

iS i3 (Qal obs.) akin to ITiS H, 

f -r tt' 

tt'na, K^a, fo feed; hence Hiph. fo 
cause to feed, to fatten l Sam. 2, 29 ; 
hence ^'^'^3. 

• T 

TJ'I^^ISI same as T^nxia, T^nHa 
(which see, the 2 and a often inter- 
changing) 2 K. 20, 12. 

'^Nl'nlll pr. n. (perh. my planning) 
of a place 1 Ch. 4, 31j see under 
n-^s p. 88. 

fr'iX^ll pr. n. m. (PT^ created) 
1 ChT 8,^^21. 

^Il^'n^ (like ^ri'in ; only pi. fi'^'iS'ia 
1 K. 5, 3) m. name of an uncertain 
fowl; perh. geese, since they cackle 
or babble so much; for the word is 
mimetic like our babble, Arab, y^yj 
barbara, 'L.murmuro,'^ap^apoq,'y see 
under ^33. 

I la^ i. q. 1"iB #0 scatter, hence 
fo /miZ Is. 32, 19; hence 

TIH^ m. hail Ex. 9, 18; also "JSX 
^13 hail-stone Is. 30, 30. 

T T _ ' 

nh^ (r. 'TIS; pi. D'i'n'^3) adj. m. 
bestrewed or besprinkled (of colour). 

spotted or piebald Gen. 31, 10, Zech. 
6, 9. — Hence irapSoc, Jj.pardus; 
also (r = n) ttcxvOtjp, L. panthera; 
cf. Syr. poijjD leopard, W. ftWf/i 

(spotted), Arab. J^ a striped garment. 

^tlr^. P'^- II- (perh. hail) of a place 
Gen." 16, 14; r. nns. 

n l3 I (obs.) i. q. fi<'n3 to cut; 
hence ri'^'13. 

n 1-3 n akin to &t^3, ^5J3 (which 

T T .. t' - T V 

see), iTnslII, to feed, to eat, 2 Sam. 12, 
17 QhV rTn3 to eat bread, cf. 13, 6. — 
Pi. to devour, only inf. nil3 Lam. 4, 
10. — Hiph. TH^T} to cause to eat, 
w. two ace, 2 Sam. 3, 35. 


to se- 

I M^ ni akin to 'n"i3. 

T T -^' 

par ate or se?ecf 1 Sam. 17, 8. 

T]i'^!S Josh. 24, 10 inf. Pi. for 
t^i'ns from r. 'r^'^. 

tj^1!S pr. n. m. (blessed) Jer. 32, 12. 

D1*l^ (only pi. d'ii2i"i3) m. varie- 
gated cloths, only Ez. 27, 24 Msa 
diai'lS treasure - chests of party- 
coloured stuffs, prob. damask; r. d^iS. 

'©I'nSl m. 1) tree of the fir class, 
cypress or pine Is. 55, 13, the wood 
of which was applied to many uses, 
e. g. for floors, musical instruments, 
lances, etc. Hence 2) a spear Nah. 
2, 4. 3) musical instrument 2 Sam. 
6, 5. — Prob. from r. 'TIS w. old 

' - T 

formative ending ^i", see under 
letter yj; but cf. Ti:-13, t'n3. 

M"l!ll (pi. d'iini"i3) m. cypress or 
jpiwe Cant. 1, 17, i. q. ^i"i3; UJ and n 
often changing, esp. in Aramean. 
Cf. PpaOu. 

r\i'n!l f. perh. in Lam. 4, 10 for 
W13 nourishment, but see r. »n*i3 H. 

T ' T T 

n^'^lIL f. food, nourishment, only. 
Ps. 69, 22 ; r. tTO, IL 

nninn 104 

T " 

ninillll pr. n. (perh. for nnllKS 
wells) of a city in Aram Zobali 
Ez.47, 16; some take itfor BrjpoTOi;, 
now Beirut, the well known Syrian 

T j3 (obs.) perh. akin to ttJ'na I, 
D"iQ, If?) ^0 ^**^ or pierce; perh. hence 

JniTO pr. n. m: 1 Ch. 7, 31 
K'thihh, in']T'l4 Q'ri (perh. from 
^3 son and h'lT , ln*it olive, hence 

.1-7 7 

glistening; or perh. wounds, from 

5T"n^ (w. suf. '^^t'ns) m. iron 
or sfee? Gen. 4, 22, named for its 
hardness or its use in cutting,' 
fig. iron sceptre Ps. 2, 9, i. e. hard, 
strict rule. Cf.Chald. bns, Syr. |3]j^ 
iron. Fig. a /e^fer Ps. 105, 18, iron 
<oo?Deut.27,5, 2 K. 6, 5. — The root 
perh. is bta (which see), or rather 
T'na w. ending b-^-, as in bia'ils. 

^^I*?^ pr. n. m. (steely, cf. L. 
ferreus) 2 Sam. 17, 27. 

M JJ (fut. rrnn";) proh. akin to 
n^2 I, ptia, trnB, p'lB all mimetic of 
sound of breaking; hence l)to break 
through or aioay^ to flee with haste, w. 
''35^ Gen. 35 7, ''iS^p Jon. 1, 3, "ja Is. 
48, 20 of the pers. from whom one 
hastens, or flees away, w. 'i^p from 
the power of somebody Job 27, 22, 
r&t53 from near 1 K. ll, 23; w. btt 
Num. 24, 11, b Neh. 13, 10 or ace. 
of the place whither one flees 1 Sam. 
27, 4; w. yo of the place whence 
one flees 1 Sam. 20, 1; w. ""^nx to 
flee after, to follow 1 Sam. 22, 20. 
2) fig. w. T|l"n3 Ex. 36, 33 to push 
through something = to bolt through, 
perh. prop, denom. from T^'^^2. — 
Hipli. H'^'^^ii l)to put to flight Job 41, 
20, to drive awag'N eh. 13,28. 2)denom. 
from ni^3 to bolt or bar Ex. 26, 28. 

^^m, see rr^'na. 

— • T ' - . T 

'^^Sn'n^ gentil. n. Barchumite 2 
Sam. 23,' 31, see d'^'ina. 

"^"^^ m. perh. serenity, only Job 
37, ll', from JTIS lU like "'"iB, or 
rather as explained under rTnu and i\ 

^^% pr. n. m. (for I'nxs, L. fon- 
tanus) 1 Ch. 7, 36. 

&<^'n3. (r. N^a adj. m., hi<'i^3 f. 
fed, fattened of beasts Gen. 41, 2, 
men Dan. 1, 15, fat or rich (food) 
Hab. 1, 16, nij'i'nsri the fatling Zech. 
11, 16. Cf. L. adeps, akin to daps, 

nK'^'1^ f. a creation, a novelty, 
new thing] only Num. 16, 30j r. fit'ni. 

TT^3, f. 1) food 2 Sam. 13, 5. 2) 
fatted, adj. or part. pass. f. (after the 
Chald.way) only inEz.34,20 n^'ni ht) 
a fat sheep, where however some 
texts read nit^^a from &<^"t3; r. i<na. 

n^^^, TTO. (for ni-nS; hence 
pl. d^ri'i'na) 1) adj. m, fleeing ov^ fugi- 
tive Is. 43, 14; fleet, quickly gliding 
(of a serpent) Is. 27, 1. Job 26, 13. 
2) pr. n. 1 Ch. 3, 22. 

n*''n2l m. 1) i. q. n'l'na fugitive, 
prob. in Is. 15, 5 fi'^h'i'na her fleeing 
ones. 2) fig. a bar, cross-bar, prob. 
passing through (rings or other 
fastenings) to hold boards together 
Ex. 26, 26; also a bolt or bar for 
securing a gate or door Neh. 3, 3. 
In Jon. 2, 7 the bars of the earth, 
barricadingits recesses,or Vi^ttJ; r.^^iS. 

d'''}!Zl (for D^'i&tSl wells) pr. n.of a 
place 2 Sam. 20, 14. 

W"**!!!! pr. n. m. (gift, r. 5)^3) 
Gen. 46, 17, patron, '^^''^'nsi Num. 

m^"]^ (r. h-ia I) f. prop, cutting 
up (of beasts in sacrifice , see in'13) ; 
hence fig. contract or covenant Gen. 

T\^^^ 105 

21, 27; perh. the custom was for the 
covenanting parties to pass between 
the parts of the cut up victim (Gen. 
15, 10). n'l'iSl is used for any covenant 
<between peoples Josh. 9, 6, friends 
1 Sam. 18, 3, persons marrying Mai. 
2, 14), but preeminently the covenant 
•God made with the patriarchs, later 
with Israel, hence sometimes used 
for promise, law, or parts of the co- 
venant; Ez. 30, 5 n'l'ian ■jr'nit the co- 
%'enant-land, i. e. Palestine; Mai. 3, 1 
n'^'^Sirt T^X^ia the messenger of the 
€0ve7iant, i. e. Messiah; Deut. 9, 9 
Ti'i'iaii Kn^ib the law-tables. More 
rarely tii'nSl is taken elliptically for 
mediator of the covenant Is. 42, 6, 
token of the covenant, i. e. circum- 
cision Gen. 17, 10, people of the co- 
venant Dan. 11, 28. To conclude an 
agreement or covenant is expressed 
by h'ns Gen. 15, 18, d^pfi, "jlns, fib, 
r^'i'nna ^5:?Deut.29, l l,'sa xa; to break 
it, by nt5, b|n, '^jsu:, n-^grr. — in form 
and sense, tn'^'^S may well come from 
n^all^o eat, hence prop, not a cutting 
vp (of the sacrifice), but an eating of it 
together, or a feast, as a token of the 
agreement made between the parties 
{see Gen. 31, 54), which is also implied 
in rib?3 r\*i'n3 Num. 18,19 covenant of 
salt. This derivation, first given in 
Lee's Heb. Lexicon, was received with 
«ome favour by Gesenius and others. 
lr\''^^(from'n3w. fern, ending n'^—) 
f. prop, what cleanses (r. "T^a), hence 
vegetable alkali, salt of lye, for wash- 
ing Jer. 2, 22 or refining Mai. 3, 2, 
named together w. *iri3 vtxpov, which 
was a mineral alkali ; but the former 
was obtained from various alkaline 
or saltish plants. Cf. borax, come 
prob. through the Arabic. 


' j J-J (fut. Tj^^";) prob. akin to p-na, 
to break, hence to break down, thence 

1) to bend, 2 Ch. 6, 13 fi'^S'ns-b? ^"n^. 
lit. to bend on the knees, hence to 
kneel, comp. Dan. 6, 11; Ps. 95, 6 
Oh come, Sis'^^J let us kneel (before 
God) i. e. worship or prat/^ hence 

2) to bless (often in Piel) but in Qal 
only part. pass. Tj^'na blessed, esp. in 
the style of greeting, Ruth 2, 20 

njn^'b t]^ia. Gen. 24, 31 wrr; r\v^^. 

— Niph. '^'naa to bless oneself or to 
be blessed Gen. 12, 3, see Hith. — 
P«- Tl'^Sl, X!^ only in Num. 23, 20, 
Ps. 10, 3 (fut. Ti'^a';; inf. Tj^a, Tji'^a 
Josh. 24, 10), 1) to adore, to worship 
(by praising, invoking) on bended 
knees, w. ace. of the obj. (cf. Mat. 
17, 14 YOVUTTEToiv auTOv) Ps. 104, 1; 
sometimes w. the addition fi^a 
Deut. 10, 8 in or at the name i. e. to 
worship the divine name by invoking 
it in prayer. 2) to supplicate some- 
thing (of God), either a blessing, hence 
said of priests Num. 6,23, of prophets, 
Deut. 33, 1, of dying parents Gen. 
27,4; or sometimes a curse, hence fo 
curse 1 K. 21, 10, Job 1, 5; 2, 5 (cf. L. 
sacer in good or bad sense); in general 
to bless w. ace. Gen. 27, 27, rarely ^ 
Neh. 11, 2, w. 2 accusatives to bless 
w. something Deut. 12, 7, also w. a 
of the thing Gen. 24, 1 ; in the same 
way God is said to bless, to prosper 
(men) by his word of blessing Gen. 
1, 22 and giving it effect Gen. 12, 
2; to greet or salute (at meeting) 
1 Sam. 15, 13, to wish well (at 
parting) 1 K. 10, 66, to bid fare- 
ivell; hence to part with or re- 
nounce, perh. euphemistically to 
curse in Job 2, 9 nal B^nbx "n^a 
curse God and die! — Pu. *rpz, 
part. Ti'^ap, to be blessed J oh 1, 21. 

— Hiph. t^'^'^aii to make to kneel 
down, e. g. camels for resting and 
drinking, Gen. 24, 11. — Hith. to 
bless oneself Deut. 29, 18, w. a of 



the God whom one invokes Jer. 4, 2, 
or the person whose prosperity one 
invokes for himself Gen. 22, 18, where 
the pass, shall be blessed suits well, 
as seen in the Sept. (comp. Gal. 3, 8) 
and Targum, and as proposed by Ge- 
senius and most. — Deriv. T^T'S* 

nans, ns^a, JirriDns, JDnis^c'^, prob. 

Chald. i. q. Heb. T;^3 to 

kneel Dan. 6, 11. — Pa. T|"}a i. q- 
Heb. 'r;'^a to bless, w. b Dan. 2, 19. 

'?]'13. (dual ti'^S'na, c. iS'^a; sing. 
only in Is. 45, 23) f. a knee, prop, a 
break or bend: Ez. 7, 17 D-^sna-bs 
all knees, dual w. plur. sense (Gram. 
§ 88, 2, Bern.); r. '^'^3. 

1\"^^ Chald. f. i. q. Heb. '^'12, a 
fewee Dan. 6, 11. 

^KD*^^ pr. n. m. (God blesses) 
Job 32, 2. 

fl^*^ (w. n interrog. •n^'nSii Gen. 

27, 38, w. suf. "^na^a, c. ni-ia; pi. 
nis'ns, c. nls'iS) f. l) blessing, as God's 
benediction, a divine gift or &ewe- 
f action Ps. 3, 9, or as a desire or 
supplication for blessing Gen. 27, 12; 
in Prov. 11, 25 naia t^^thesoul of 
blessing, i. e. a person of beneficence 
or liberality; JiS'nn ^m ^m 2 K. 18, 
31 make ye with me a blessing, i. e. 
peace, regarded as good fortune. 2) 
concr. happy or blessed man Gen. 12, 
2. 3) pr. n. f. of a valley by Tekoa, 
perh. for n^^Sl, 2 Ch. 20, 26. 4) pr. n. 
m. 1 Ch. 12, 3. 

iTI^'!]^ (c. ^2*13, pi. nl3^2, w. the 
—;:- immovable) f. a pool or pond (r. 
'nt'^)* perh. so named from the kneel- 
ing or bending at it to drink or to 
draw water Nah. 2, 9, Is. 7, 3; but 
possibly it may come from ^^'12 to 
break or gush out. — Hence Span, al- 
berca, through the Arabic. 

n^^lla , ^n^^';)^ pr. n. m. (bless- 
ing of n^) 1 Ch. '3*, 20, Zech. 1, 7, 
Sept. Bapa^ia;. 

D^^ Ecc. 3, 18 inf. Qal of 'n'la 
w. suf. fi . 


U Jml (obs.) perh. akin to d^3 

to bind, to interweave; hence perh» 



D'n^ Chald. disj. conj. but, yet Dan, 
2, 28. Prob. akin to d'^Q to sunder. 

' - r 

1^5*1^ pr. n. (perh. field of settle- 
ment , "^3 and Jl^S) of a place near 
UJt}i5 Num. 32, 8. 

• J^ (obs.) perh. to make a 
present, said to be akin to Arabic g^j. 
Hence perh. 

3^'nlll pr. n. m. (perh. gift) Gen. 
14, 2. '* 

nS^'lHl f. perh. a present in 1 Ch. 
7, 23 ; but others prefer making it in, 
evil, i. e. a misfortune. 

TPj^ akin to pt3, to break or 

send forth lightning, to flash forth 

Ps. 144, 6; hence p'^^, np^3. 

Prob. mimet. akin to T\^^ I; cf. Lat. 
frac-tus, G. brechen, E. break, wreck, 
W.briiv, brau, fero^ (crushed barley, 
malt) , rhwyg , rhych, Breton frika^ 
Gr. ^-^Y-vupii, Sans. ruj. Hence 

P^^ (pi. d'^p'i?) m. 1) lightning^ 
prop, flash (r. P"!i3); ^'nti p'na flash 
of the sword, i. e. gleaming sword 
Deut. 32, 41; poet, also simply p'13: 
Job 20, 25. 2) pr. n. m. (thunder-bolt^ 
Punic Barcas, cf. L. belli fulmen 
forScipio) Barak Judg. 5, 1. 

D^pH!^ V^' ^' 111* (perh. breaker, 
r. p'ns w. old format, ending lol — v 
like G — in X^-Qth and UJ — in W^B) 

T T : - T T » •' 

Neh. 7, 55. 

■jljl? (only pi. B'^S^T.SJ) m. prop. 
what breaks in pieces hence crushers 




called for 

or threshers (noun of the form ")^^X) 
Judg. 8, 7, said to be sledges or roll- 
ers set with iron or :flint teeth ; ac- 
cording to others they were certain 
thorny plants; r. p'na. 

f. emerald Ex. 28, 17, so 
its brilliance; r. PI'S. 
— Cf. jiapaYSo;, a[xapaY6o<;, L. 
smaragdus, whence our emerald, F. 
emeraude, G. smaragd, 

^E"?^ f. a later form for np^2, 
Ez. 28,' 13. 

I J-3 (1 pers. perf. "^W^a, inf. w. 
suf. D'na Ecc. 3, 18, like Tj'l? from 
T|?b) akin to JX'na, 1) prop, /o sever, 
e. g. Ez. 20, 38 D'^'l^isil ^T&ys. I 
separate the rebels; part, 'ni'ia chosen, 
selected 1 Ch. 9, 22. 2) ^o 6e clean in a 
physical sense, polished Is. 49, 2; in 
a moral sense, ^^tt^'e, STn^iia nsb jpwre 
speech Zeph. 3, 9. 3) <o ^roi?e or test, 
Ecc. 3, 18 d'n^b /or to prove them 
(cf. 'nJiab in Ecc. 9, 1). — Niph. "nna 
(imp. si'lSn Is. 52, 11, part, "ins) /o 
waA:e oneself pure (in a moral sense) 
Ps. 18, 27. — Pi. to purify or 
cleanse Dan. 11, 35. — Hipli. to clean 
(corn) Jer. 4, 11, fo cleanse (arrows 
from rust) i. e. to polish or sharpen 
Jer. 51, 11. — - Hitli. to purify one- 
self Ban. 12, 10; to sheto oneself pure 
Ps. 18, 27. In 2 Sam. 22, 27 'linn is 
used for 'T^Sr^P} in Ps. 18, 27. Hence 

^3 n, nia, m^, perh. ttii^a. — Cf.L. 
^wrws, jpw^ws, W. pwr, ^er, E. _pMre. 

w J^ (obs.) perh. akin to fiS, 
<o CM^, to pierce; hence perh. ^i"i3, 

^'^'^^ pr. n. m. (perh. son of 
wickedness, i. e. wicked, from -"ja 
3;b;i) Gen. 14, 2. 

il IJ (obs.) perh. i. q. uiia 
fo cit^ or heio; hence niia. 

^^*^? pr- n- (perh. same as firi'la) 
of a city 2 Sam. 8, 8. 

^IICjI (always ^libSUi w. art.) pr. 
n. (perh. sedgy, r. IbS II) of a brook 
near Gaza 1 Sam. 30, 9; Sept. Boaop, 
Josephus BaaeXo;, now esh-Sheria. 

♦TliiD^ also irnto f. 1) glad 
tidings, good netvs (0. E. gospel} 
2 Sam. 18, 22. 2) reivard for good 
netvs 2 Sam. 4, 10; r. ^ia3 I. 

^ ^4^-i perh. akin to ^hvo to wave 
(cf. Dirs = fi^b), oaXo;, L. sa?to; 
hence 1) to hulhle up, to boil, to be 
cooked Ez. 24, 5. 2) fig. to ripen 
(as if boiled or baked in the sun) 
Joel 4, 13; cf. ireTTTO), itsaaw, L. 
coquo, G. kochen in this twofold sense. 
— Pi. b'^aa fo cause to boil, to cook 
(flesh etc.) Ex. 16, 23; part, b^aia a 
cook Ez. 46, 24. — Pu. to be boiled 
Ex. 12, 9. — Hipli. to make ripe 
(prop, to cook) e. g. grapes Gen. 
40, 10, to bring them to maturity. 

bl5^ adj. m. boiled Ex. 12, 9j 
fern. i^Vdia , as subst. something 
boiled or sodden Num. 6, 19. 

^bm, see ^. 

Db^jl pr. n. m. (for G^yi"']^ son, 
of peace) Ezr. 4 7. 

Ulu^ (obs.) to smell sweet, to 
be fragrant; Aram. fi&2, >ai4n, akin 
to dD s«(?eei swe/^, Arab. <bUL{, 
paXaa[x-o;, our balsam, balm, F. 
baume. Hence C3b3, DiU3, dilJa, 

- : jT ' T : . ' T : • 

Dto (w. suf. "laira) the balsam, 
balsam- tree, only in Cant. 5, 1; r. 


- T ^ 

Dir^L and DtDlH (pi. d'^aiaa) m. i) 
balsam- scent, fragrance Is. 3, 24. 
2) spice, spicery d'^aiaa "'Uix'n cAie/^ 
s/}ices Cant. 4, 14; diua-'j^Sp Ex. 30, 




23 spice -cinnamon ("ii^Sp, xivvapiov) 
= D^n-nsp the sweet cane Ex. 30, 23 ; 
tm-^s mn Ez. 27, 22 fAe best of all 
spicery. 3) the haUam-tree, Cant. 6, 2 
fibinn nilJl'nSiAe beds of balsam- plants. 

t^^QIDlH pr. n. f. (fragrance) Gen. 
26, 34. * ^ 

n^i23l2l, see n^i'^2. 

|lU^ (obs.) prob. akin to pS fo 
•fce expanded, level; hence ']^^3 and 

ItDl^ pr. n. (in prose y^^, the 
champaign country) of a region east 
of Jordan Num. 21, 33, famous for 
■oak forests Is. 2, 13 and meadows 
Deut. 32, 14; Samaritan "J'^pn?, Sept. 
Ba(jav,EusebiusBa5avTTi^; Josephus 
Baravata, Batanea, now el-Bottin. 
— Perh. the name is akin to D^S, 
referring to the fragrant vegetation. 

I*©^ (only w. il-p loc. or parag. 
firm,* from r. ttJia w. the ending 
■^-^, perh. as m 'jT'ns., which see) dis- 
■ffrace, only Hos. 10, 6. 

riDtplS shame, only Hos. 10, 6j see 

W w^ to tread down Am. 5, 11; 
•see &ia. 

I w«ii I (Qal obs.) prob. akin 

to niae, 'nna, nns, Chaid. ^uis, 

— t' -t' -t' -:' 

7 V 

Syr. i-!iu»,fo my o^en; hence in Pi. 
^iaa Jer. 20, 15 (fut. "^m"^), 1) fo 
•«nwowwce, to tell out, mostly what is 
pleasant, at times what is unpleasant ; 
hence w. the addition of ilw in the 
ace. as in 1 K. 1, 42 I'^ZJ^tn ilD thou 
wilt announce good; t'k'nt}^ 'n'vasi 
to announce praisels. 60, 6, ii^'^'a'^ help 

1 Ch. 16, 23; in 1 Sam. 4,'l7 it is 
used where even a defeat is an- 
nounced. 2) to tell good tidings, to 
bring good news, w. ace. of the pars. 

2 Sam. 18, 19; cf. eurj^YeXiC^'O xov 

Xaov Luke 3, 18. — Hith. only in 
2 Sam. 18, 31 let the king "iHS^ty^ be 
openly told; cf. ^^Q. 

n Li/^ II (obs.) perh. to be fresh 

or cool, Arab. ^ grassy; hence 
perh. ^I'ba. 

1^^ III (obs.) perh. fost^'eZZ out, 

to be plump, akin to ^Nia 11; hence 

"I'tD^ (c. ^ba, w. suf. '''iba, pi. 

d^'lba Prov. 14,* 30; cf. aapxe;) m. 
1) flesh opp. to bone (in the bodies 
of men and of beasts) Gen. 2, 21; 
hence body (opp. yj&5) Is. 10,-18; 
^ba n^S"^ 6o^% fatigue Ecc. 12, 12; 

" . ^-■ 

perh. for skin (as the Arab. y«i.j) 

in Ps. 102, 6. 2) fig. a) = adp$, for 
a human being, a mortal, 'iba ?'i'TT 
2 Ch. 32, 8 human arm (i. e. mortal, 
weak). P) for all men, mankind Gen. 
6, 12; as opp. to God or spiritual 
existences Is. 31, 3, implying frailty 
and sin Gen. 6, 3. y) for all living 
creatures, men and animals, Gen. 
6, 13. 6) blood -relation Gen. 29, 14 
(cf. IJ^TT). In Gen. 17, 11 perh. for'iba 
Tiyy$, the parts of shame, L. pudenda, 
Ex. 28, 42; r. ^ba III. 

ito Chald. (def. S^'iba) i. q. Heb. 
•nba, flesh Dan. 7, 5. 

IJDliSl Ex. 32, 1, see Pil. ofnttSia. 
mir:^ (w. suf. 'Tjinm; r. wia) f. i) 

S^awe Ps. 40, 16 (perh. prop, change 
of colour), fully Cl'^SB nba Dan. 9, 7 
colouring of face; disgrace, dishonour 
Is. 54, 4, 'a bab, hasi fo fee covered 

7 7 — t' T T 

w. shame. 2) a contemptuous word 
for idols Jer. 3, 24. 

inilJia i. q. nba only in nbai'i. 

Ti^ I (fem. of la; contract, from 
n5aorn5a,Syr. -tflji bath; w. suf.^na, 
pi. niaa , c niaa) f. daughter Gen. 11, 29; 




also like "ja used in many senses: 
hence grand- daughter ^ female de- 
scendent Gen. 6, 2, adopted daughter 
Est. 2, 7, young woman Gen. 30, 13, 
disciple Mai. 2, 11, inhabitant of a 
city Is. 3, 16, just as "jS also is used. 
r3 is used not only w. names of 
cities and lands or D? for inhabitants, 
but for designating age in the female 
sex, daughter of 1, 2, 10 years, i. e. 
a female of that age ; and in poetic 
imagery, e. g. Gen. 49, 22 daughter 
of a tree, i. e. branch; Ecc. 12, 4 
daughter of song, i. e. singer; Ps. 17, 
8 daughter of the eye, i. e. the pupil ; 
daughter of the city, i. e. the sub- 
urbs or adjacent district Num. 21, 25. 
See "ja. 

t^5 II (pi. d'lria) m. in Ez. 45, 10 
but f. in Is. 5, 10, bath, measure for 
liquids about 8V2 gallons; hence [3a- 
TOi; Luke 16, 6, and perh. Ger. bulte, 
bottich, Eng. butt; r. nna. 

TO; Chald., pi. "pn? Ezr. 7, 22, 
bath (measure); i. q. Heb. r>3 II. 

D'^nit'"^5 pr. n- (daughter of 
many) of a gate Cant. 7, 5. 

3?;2T23"Xn^ pr. n. f. (daughter of 
oath) mother of Solomon 1 K. 1, 15; 
called also 

?^ti"ln^ pr. n. f. (daughter of 
oath, r!l\!J softened from SJS^C) 1 
Ch. 3, 5. 

nil^i (obs.) perh. akin to nna 

T T 

= nriQ, to break up or destroy; hence 

nri^ f. desolation i. q. rira, only 
Is. 5, ^6."^ 

ilTO (only pi. inina) f. desolation, 
only Is. 7, 19 ninan '^'bni the valleys 
of desolations; r. nna. 

?J^^ln2l pr. n. (perh. abode of 
God) of a place in Simeon 1 Ch. 
4, 30, but in Josk. 18, 4 ^inS; also 

pr. n. m. perh. for Vxina (man of 
God) Gen. 22, 22. 

nb'^nSl (pi. mbsina; r. bna) f. 

virgin Gen. 24, 16, prop, secluded^ 
chaste (7cap0evo(;); also used of a 
betrothed virgin (not yet married) 
Joel 1, 8, Sept. vujxcpyj. Fig. of 
cities Is. 23, 12 and countries Lam. 

1, 15, perh. as not having been con- 
quered. — Perh. b^ina is little or 
young daughter, from na, b^ — being 
a diminutival ending, as in b^l^rj. 

D^'lp^ln!!! Tn.Tg\.virgin state,virginity 
Lev. 21, 13'(cf. D-iailbs, D''3)5t, di"]!l53); 
j&g. tokens of virginity Deut. 22, 14. 

tl^ln^ pr. n. f. (daughter of !n^> 
1 Ch. 4, 18. 

D^'niH houses, see lr\^2. 

^iji^ (obs.) akin to b'la, to se- 
parate, to seclude; prob. hence nVina. 

TPij^ prob. akin to fira, to cut 
up; only Pi. pfia to cut to pieces 
Ez. 16, 40. 

li_l«i akin to "inS, only in Qal 
and Pi. C^Fia) to cut to pieces, split, 
only Gen. 15, 10; hence "ina. 

"1X1^ Chald. for nnxa (i. q. *>nxa 
in place of), hence after, TJ'^ns cifttT 
thee Dan. 2, 39. 

^r)2l (w. suf. *i*il^a) m. piece, part 
Gen. 15,10; also asp/iY,^na">'i«7 Cant. 
2, 17 mountains of splitting i. e. moun- 
tains cut up by gorges or defiles. 

1^*lln3l m. a ravine, only in 2 Sam. 

2, 29 li^inan as pr. n. of a ravine on 
the eastern bank of the Jordan: 
perh. for y^Tj n^a Num. 32, 36. 

nZnS (obs.) akin to pna, nna 
and nne, to cut or mark out, hence 
1) to measure; hence ran. 2)^0 cut 
off, to destroy; hence nna. 

J Gt'mel, the 3d letter in tlie Heb. 
Alphabet; hence used also for 3. Its 
early form on Phen. monuments and 
Heb. coins is A > whence the Greek 
"] or p I , the Boman C and G; 
see Table of Ancient Alphabets. Its 
name b^^a, biaa is from baa camel, 
the head and neck of which it rude- 
ly pictured; the form and name 
(whence Gr. Taii[ia) suggesting by 
the first sound the force of the letter, 
which as in Greek was our ff hard 
(as in ffod, get), but with a slight dif- 
ference between a gh and a g (see 
Oram. § 6, 3). 

J interchanges — 1 with its kin- 
dred palatals (see under each) e. g. 

t3a=!D53, n''nsa= lL»^, 'T?a = "i:7)5, 

*75j< = "nsx = ^p:^, even with i, as 5>na 
= i-n^ n (cf. ^t'3 = ^^^), cf. E. go = 
%[io = i(o,'E.gate=0. 'E.yate='W.iet; 
— 2 with gutturals (see under each), 

e. g. &'na = bin = tj^n = d'isj, ni^isx = 

O -T -T -T -T'- :•.• 

Ik V 

}.^o^; — 3 with labials, e. g. 
Vsa = BupXo?, (cf. YXecpapov = [BXe- 
<papov), perh. b:?a = ^5)3 = bn3, but 
the interchange of these sounds is 
most familiar in other tongues (see 
imder S p. 74); — 4 w. liquids, e. g. 
m«j = JnViT in, cf. [j^oyi^ = iiolic,. 

I^ seems to be a formative ending 
(akin to T^-t" ^^^ '^-t") in i^plS from 
bpa, aii-n from "JW. 

5<5 (for ^!??,?i; r. ri!!<a) adj. m. 
elated, proud Is. 16, 6. The c. pi. 
•ixa only in the Q'ri of Ps. 123, 4 
Q'^a'i'i ''J<a^ proud oppressors , but see 

Tim ""' 

nCsH I (fut. ?^^{:^■l) akin to fi<5b, 

T T •= • "^ ^ 

nala fo sprout, to groio up, of plants 
Job 8, 11; to rise, of swelling water 
Ez. 47, 5; prob. to he high, of the 
head Job 10, 16. Fig. to he exalted, 
majestic, of God Ex. 15, 21 ; also to he 
haughty, see fc^a, tn&ta. Cf. Syr. 

nCSil n (obs.) to he deep, hollow, 
hence '^a, i^'^a, i^'ia, W'^ija. — Akin to 

Arab. 2!ja-, L. cavus, Bret, cav, W. 
cat* (hollow). 

!n)^5 f* i'*'*^^} only in Prov. 8, 13; 
r. riita I. 

T T 

riJ^B (pi- '°^i^'?i) adj. m. Z*'/!{ef? ty?, 
high, lofty Is. 2, 12; in a bad 
sense, haughty Jer. 48, 29; often for 
ungodly (opp. 13Si) Prov. 16, 19, Sept. 
uPptaxai; r. tixa I. 

^J^^iJ^^ pr. n. m. (God's majesty) 
Num. 13,' 15. 

niJStB f. exaltation, in a good 
sense, highness, majesty Deut. 33, 26 ; 
in a bad sense, pride, haughtiness 
Ps. 73, 6, fig. of the raging sea Ps. 
46, 4 ; excellency, splendour Ps. 68,35. 

d^!5^]J^3i (only pi.) m. redemption, 
only in Is. 63, 4 'ibn&ia my redemp- 
tion, the pi. being used here perh. 
as abstract (see Gram. § 108, 2, a)', 
but it may well be the pass. part, of 
bxa my redeemed ones. 

•]i>^5 (r- ^^h ^- "P^^:' pi- ^^t^>) 

m. prop, mounting, swelling, fig. 1) 
excellency Is. 4, 2 ; majesty, S'p5?^ 'j'i&ia 
fAe Majesty of Jacoh, i. e. Jacob's 





God Am. 8, 7 (cf. bK-nt*^ hSJ 1 Sam. 
15, 29), but the Holy Land in Ps. 
47, 5; y^^^T} li&^J tJic glory or pride 
of Jordan, i. e. its gi'een and wooded 
banks Jer. 12, 5, Zech. 11,3. 2) pride, 
haugldiness Prov. 16, 18, Is. 16, 6; 
pride of waves Job 38, 11; pi. only 
Ez. 16, 56 T]'^^31!!<a thy arrogances 
<cf. L. superbice, F. hauteurs, our 
high airs). 

W^^5 (w. firm -7-) f. 1) mm^, 
mounting up, Is. 9, 17 "j^i^ MXw 
<i mounting up of smoke, Ps. 89, 
10 D^n Wxaa ^xla ruling over the 
swelling (or pride) of the sea, of God. 

2) loftiness, vaunting, W^tS!! ^^S"! f^ey 
«j}eaA; m haughtiness Ps. 17, 10. 

3) ornament, splendor Is. 28, 3; 
r. nxa I. 


"p*^^.? (only pi. fi'^il'^xa) adj. m. 
])roud, only in K'thibh of Ps. 123, 4; 
but tbe Q'ri reads d'^si'^ "'^5a proud 
ones of oppressors i. e. proud oppres- 
sors (Gram. § 112, Kern. 1); r. nxS I. 

rii''5<5 f- Pl- «^a^%s Ez. 7, 6; 

«ee ''a. 

yJSH (fut. "^^Xy^) 1) trans. <o re- 

lease, to set free what was bound or 
fettered; hence a) to deliver, to save 
from enemies Ps. 107, 2, bondage 
Ex. 6, 6, captivity Is. 43, 1, dangers 
Gen. 48, 16, w. ace. of the obj. and 
*l^ (Hos. 13, 14) or "n^i^ of the person or 
thing from which, Jer. 31, 11; to 
redeem what is devoted, holy, i. e. 
to release the restraints on its use. 
Lev. 27, 13; to ransom what is sold, 
i. e. to buy it back from its possessor, 
Lev. 25, 25; hence Job 3, 5 let dark- 
ness and death-shade ^iJilsxr;'! redeem 
tt i. e. may they recover possession 
of the day, alluding to Gen. 1, 2. 
p) With b'n to demand hack the blood 
of the slain, i. e. to avenge it on the 

slayer, only in part. Wn bxia the 
avenger of blood Deut. 19, 6, without 
d"nn in Num. 35, 12. 7) As the right 
of redemption and duty of blood- 
rev*»nge belonged only to the next 
of kin, hence bxia stands for a blood- 
relative Lev. 25, 25, Euth 3, 12; libxa^ 
(one) of our kinsmen Ruth 2, 20. 
6) The bxia had to marry the child- 
less widow of his kinsman, hence b5<a 
(denom.) to act a kinsman's part, 
i. e. to marry the widow, Ruth 3, 13. 
2) intrans. (perh. akin to h'S'^ and 
bVrt 11) to be loose, free, i. e. to be 
unrestricted, hence profane, for the 
Hebrew considered what was holy as 
debarred and inaccessible to the un- 
clean; but this sense is obsolete in 
Qal (cf. the Rabbinic 'nPip set free, 
i. e. lawful, opp. to ^l&Jt bound, i. e. 
forbidden; comp. Ps. 146, 7); hence 
in general, to be desecrated; comp. 
bbn n, also Vjt. — Nipli. 1) bxjij to 
be redeemed, released Lev. 27, 33, 
Is. 52, 3; to ransom oneself Lev. 25, 
49. 2) b^b^ (Gram. § 51, 2, Rem.) to 
be profaned, polluted, e. g. by blood 
Is. 59, 3; Lam. 4, 14. — Pi. b&^5 to 
defile Mai. 1, 7. — Pu. bs^ta to be de- 
filed, part. bxSia polluted (food) Mai. 
17, 12, to be made unconsecrate, i. e. 
to be degraded from sacred office 
Ezr. 2, 62. — Hipli. to soil, to make 
unclean, with blood Is. 63, 3 (only 
perf. 1 pers. ''l^^NitJ^ by Aramaism 
for "iJnbjjiili). — Hilh. to defile oneself 
w. unclean food Dan. 1, 8. 

ZJl^S (only c. pi. '^bita) m. profa- 
nations, only Neh. 13, 29; r. bxa 2. 

n^lSlSi f. 1) redemption, esp. repur- 
chase of a field that had been sold, 
Lev. 25, 24; hence right of redemp- 
tion Jer. 32, 8, comp. v. 7 w. aQTj3^ 
expressed ; d^l':) t^|^?. perpetual right 
of redemption Lev. 25, 32; price of 




redemption Lev. 25, 26. 2) relation- 
ship, wliich involved the right of 
redemption, ^r^N:^ ^Xg^i< Ez. 11, 15 
men of thy kinship, i. e. thy rela- 
tives; r. bj^a. 

n? (r. n^a; w. suf. "laa, pi. D^sia, 
m'aa) m. something gibbous, bulging 
up, arched, convex; hence 1) ridge, 
e. g. of the altar, i. e. its top (Sept. 
TO uij>0(;) Ez. 43, 13; hence the back, 
of men Ps. 129, 3, of animals Ez. 
10, 12; of a shield, its bosses Job 
15, 26; bulwarks, ramparts in Job 

13, 12. 2) a vault, hence brothel (cf. 
L. fornix), because prostitutes often 
sat in such arched cells or booths 
Ez. 16, 31; the rim of a wheel 1 K. 
7, 33: 'li3'^5J Waa lit. arches of his 
eyes, i. e. his arched eye-brows Lev. 

14, 9, only the fem. pi. being used 
in this sense. — Cf. xucpoc, li.gibbus, 
W. cefn, Or. giebel, E. gable. 

. S? Chald. (w. suf. '^aa) m. the 
back, as in Heb., Dan. 7, 6 h'S 
a^aa on its backs (pi. for sing, like 
Ttt vwra) but the Q'ri has Jnaa, Sept. 
eTravo) auxrji;. In the Targ. and 
Talm. aa-b?, ''3a -b? is a prep. i«2?ow, 
= ''iQ'i'? in Heb. 

ISB (part, of asia), only in pi. d'l^a 
ploughers 2 K. 25, 12, inK'thi])h; 
see a^a. 

ins (only pi. d'^lsa ; r. i*ia) m. some- 
thing cut out, hence 1) piece of wood, 
board or j?/awfc 1 K. 6, 9. 2) ^if, 
cistern Jer. 14, 3. 3) i. q. aia ?octts< 
Is. 33,4, perh. so called for its cutting 
off vegetation. 

^a, liii pr. n. (a pit, r. S^ia) of 
a place 2 Sam. 21, 19, but 'ita in 1 
Ch. 20, 4. 

13 Chald. (def. ttaa, pi. 'j'^aa; r. 
25a) m. pit, den, of lions Dan. 6, 8. 

bslin (obs.) akin to asiS, to cut 
out, excavate; hence 

^^15 (pi. tDiJ!<aa) m. cisfem Is. 30, 
14;i)OoiEz. 47, 11. 

!ll!ll5(obs.) akin to }^?a,5)na, ft]B3i 
<0 &e cttrve^, rising as a hill or sinking 
as a hollow; hence to be crooked,, 
bent. Deriv. aa, "jinaa. Cf. xuirxo). 

' J^ Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb» 
a^a, 1) to dig; hence aa. 2) <o fip- 
cowvea;, high; hence aa. 

H!^? (only pi. Waa, cf. aa) f. arch 
or broiv of the eye Lev. 14, 9 ; felloe 
(of a wheel) Ez. 1, 18. 

1^5^ (3 Perf. f. i<T}^^ Ez. 31, 5 j 

inf. nnaa Zeph. 3, 11 ; fut. naa% 

3 pi. fem. fli^naari Ez. 16, 50 for 
nina^Fi) akin to l^aa, 1) to be high 
or tall, a tree Ez. 19, 11, the 
heavens Ps. 103, 11, a man 1 Sam. 
10, 23. 2) fig. to be exalted Job 
36, 7; aV Piaa heart is high,i. e. 
takes courage 2 Ch. 17, 6, in a bad 
sense, to be haughty Ps. 131, 1; said 
of a person, to be proud Jer. 13, 15» 
— Hipli. «T^an to make high, exalt 
Ez. 17, 24. Adverbially w. inf. iiniaa;? 
&]^5> they make high to fly, i. e. they 
soar on high Job 5, 7, but without 
f]JlS> in Job 39, 27 to fly high (see 
Gram. § 142, 4, Eem. 1), comp. Is» 
7, 11, Ps. 113, 5. Hence 

niii adj. m. high (i. q. naa), only in 
constr. as in n^l'p l^aa tall of stature 
Ez. 31, 3; a^ fnaa haughty of heart 
Prov. 16, 5. 

nilB (c. '^sa) adj. m., ntiaa t 

1) high or tall, of stature 1 Sam, 
9, 2, a tower Is. 2, 15, moun- 
tain 57, 7, gate Jer. 51, 58, wall 
Deut. 3, 5, horn Dan. 8, 3, gal- 
lows Est. 5, 14; fig. high-minded. 




f^naa the proud Is. 5, 15. 2) subst. 
^ei^^i 1 Sam. 16, 7; nrtba i?Wdfe 
1 Sam. 2, 3. 

nlii (w. suf. inaa; pi. c. "^naa) 

m. 1) height 1 Sam. 17, 4; Job il, 
8. 2) highness, majesty Job 40, 10. 
3) pride, s]? I'nna _pWcfe of heart 2 Cb. 
32, 26; nn I'nna arrogance Pro v. 
16, 18; C]t< PT?a lit. loftiness of nose, 
i. e. disdain Ps. 10, 4. 

nZlU (obs.) = Syr. \A^, to 
gather or collect] hence "^aa. 

WnHB f. haughtiness Is. 2, 11; 
r. nsa. 

b^iii also bins (r. baa; w. suf. 
*>V^na, pL d'^^ina w. sing, sense 1 Sam. 
6, 6, cf. TepfxaTa for Tep|xa, E. 6or- 
cfcrs for border) m. boundary -line 
(prob. akin to ban twisted cord), hence 
1) limit or bound in general Deut. 
3, 16, Judg. 11, 18; tr^ biiaa the 
icestern border Num. 34, 6; edge or 
margin Ez. 43, 13. 2) a bounded di- 
strict, region or country included 
within borders, ''33)33^ b^oa Gen. 
10, 19; d':;^^? bsiaa-bs Ex. 10, 14; 
bxiiu'' biina-ba l Sam. ll, 3. — 
Hence the denom. P2a to bound, 

- T ' 

see p. 114. 

nb^DB (poet., pi. r\iV>!ina) f. border 
Is. 28, 25; margin of the land, sea- 
shore, Ps. 74, 17; limit Num. 34, 2; 
then a bounded district Deut. 32, 8. 

^i^3 also ^in^ (r. ^sa) m. 1) as 
adj. strong or mighty Gen. 10, 8; 
^iaa bx Is. 9, 5 mighty hero or perh. 
mighty God, as in Is. 10, 21, comp. 
Deut. 10, 17. 2) subst. mighty one, 
hero Jer. 51, 30, Is. 3, 2; in bad 
sense, tyrant Ps. 52, 3. — b'^n "liaa 
mighty one cf strength, i. e. a) mighty 
warrior Judg. 6, 12, or simply war- 
rior Josh. 1, 14; P) mighty one in 
wealth, i. e. very rich man Buth 2, 1 

comp. 2 K. 15, 20; 7) mighty one of 
worth, i. e. an energetic successful 
man IK. 11, 28. 

K;^i? Chald. (def. Nin^^aa; r. nna) 
f. might Dan. 2, 20, 23. 

n^^nii (r. laa; w. suf. •^ri'nsiaa) f. 

strength Ecc. 9, 16; valour Judg. 8, 
21; fig. /brce, proivess Judg. 18, 21 
mightiness of God Is. 33, 13, Ps. 
145, 11; mighty acts ni'n'iaa of God 
Deut. 3, 24 ; victory Ex. 32, 1 8 ; oj^jjres- 
sion Jer. 23, 10. 

n^Il (obs.) akin to fnna, fo be 
high, of the forehead; hence 

tXllI^ adj. m. prob. high of fore- 
head, i. e. forehead -bald, only Lev. 
13,41, while 'n'^p (ht. swoo^A) means 
6aM behind Lev. 13, 40; hence 

JTiTl^S f- bci^d forehead Lev. 13, 
42 ; fig. baldness or bai'e place on the 
outer or right side of cloth, Lev. 

13, 55; opp. mn'^is. 

^'il^ pr. n. m. (collector, r. HSa) 
Neh. 11, 8. 

D'^!!lB pr. n. (cisterns Jer. 14, 3, 
or locusts Is. 33, 4) of a place not 
far from Jerusalem Is. 10, 31. 

»15'^12B f. curdled milk, cheese, 

T • : ' ' 

only in Job 10, 10; r. 'J^a. 

^^'IIL? m. akin to tT?ap, xuirsXXov, 
chalice or goblet Gen. 44, 2, comp. 
Jer. 35, 5; fig. the cup of flowers,^ 
calix Ex. 25, 31; r. 5>5a. 

*l^!23 adj. m., iTn^na f. mighty, 
ruling, leading, but used only as a 
subst. lord, master, only in Gen. 27, 
29. 37; fem. mistress, but used only 
for a queen, i. e. king's wife 1 K. 11, 
19 or king's mother 1 K. 15, 13. 

n^l'^m, see "T^aa. 

IC'IIB m. something stiffened, fro- 
zen, hence prop, ice; fig. crystal, so 




called from its similarity to ice, only 
Job 28, 18: r. uina. 

^33 pi'ol). akin to "nnajb^nT bi3, 

1) to turn, to plat or combine, to twist 
together, as a cord or rope, hence 
b^aa, n^^na, robna, nVa;;??; fig. to he 
high, hence ^35, ^5?^* 2) ^^ denom. 
of b^ina (fut. ^aa*^), fo ftowwd! or limit, 
as in Josh. 18, 20; to set as a boun- 
dary Deut. 19, 14; w. 3 to border 
upon, as in Zech. 9, 2. — Hiph. to 
enclose around Ex. 19, 12, 23. Hence 

^!il^ pr. n. (Arab. Ja:^ ye&eZ moun- 
tain) of a Phenician city, now Jebeil, 
the little mountain ; in Greek BujBXoi; 
(Y = p, cf. yXyj^cdv = pXrj^cDv) Ez. 

27, 9; gentil. n. '^'b-aa Josh. 13, 5; 
pi. Ci-^bna Giblites 1 K. 5, 32. 

^i2^ (r. bna) pr. n. of a moun- 
tainous region South of the Dead 
Sea, Ps. 83, 8 ; still called Jebdl (hills). 

bnS, see ^!Ca. 

In^IlB (iorTr\'?'2^) f.wreathenworJc, 
hence something laced together, 
Jn^ibna tyiny^ wreath-like chains Ex. 

28, 22 ; r. \>^^. 

jZIirl (obs.) i. q. 55a, l&S, to he 

gibbous, to curve, hence "jsa hunch- 
hacked, y:'2^ peakg mountain, knolly 
ridge, njina cheese, prob. from the 
bulging form. 

"jlZLB adj. m, hump-backed Lev. 
21, 20. 

nD33 Job 10, 10, see na'ina. 

pI15 (only pi. t'^sna) m. hack, 
ridge, d^ssna ^fi mountain of ridges 
Ps. 68, 16, in V. 17 fi^333a D"«")n in 
apposition; cf. Homer's TroXuSstpoK; 
OuXufXTTO?, II. 1, 499. 

3^ZL3 (obs.) akin to asa, 2)33, 2)3)5, 
to he vaulted, curved, boivl-shaped; 
hence to be arched, hilly; hence 

5^!n5 pr. n. (hill) of a Levitical 
city in Benjamin, about a mile north 
of Jerusalem Josh. 18, 24; also called 
X^mi^ 5)3_a 1 Sam. 13, 16. 

5^:jl? pr. n. m. (prob. hill) 1 Ch. 
2, 49!" * 

n;?l? (pi. W'3J3a) f. 1) hill Is. 40, 
4 ; dbl2)" ns>3a Hab. 3, 6 hills of eter- 
nity, i. e. primeval. Zion is called the 
hill of God (njn"; n?3a) Ez. 34, 26, 
as Bethel in earlier time was called 
D^Tbi^n n5)3a 1 Sam. 10, 5; the word 
seems to be used for ?ia3 in Jer. 3, 

T T ' 

23, hill of idolatrous worship. 2) pr. 
n. of several cities lying on hills, e. 
g. a) city in Benjamin, which as the 
birth-place of Saul was called t"i?3a 
b!l&<^ 1 Sam. 11, 4; gentil. n. "^n^ia 
1 Ch. 12, 3; p) city in Judah, Josh. 
15, 57; r. 5>3a. 

"jiS^Ilj pr. n. (of or on a hill) of 
a city of the Hivites Josh. 10, 2, in 
Benjamin Josh. 18, 25; gentil. n. 
^p-ll, 2 Sam. 21, 1. 

^S'DB m. small cup, hence the 
calix or corolla of flowers , e. g. the 
flax (was) blossom, i. e. was in flower, 
Ex. 9, 31. — From S)3a w. the 
dimin. ending V- — , akin to xutc- 

t^?!l5 pr- ^- (^ill) of ^ city about 
3 miles north of Jerusalem in Ben- 
jamin Josh. 18, 28; called also f^3a 
D'^ribi<rt 1 Sam. 10, 5, where prob. 
God's ark was in the house of Abi- 
nadab 1 Sam. 7, 1 ; n^X 'a (hill of 
Ammah) not far from in'^a in Benja- 
min 2 Sam. 2, 24; 3'na 'a (leper's hill) 
place to the west of Jerusalem Jer. 
31, 39; Snb^snn 'a (perh. the hill of 
beauty) in the south of the wilder- 
ness of Ziph 1 Sam. 23, 19; JTIl'^rt 'a 
(perh. the archer's hill) a place not 
far from Gilgal Judg. 7, 1; Dnp'iD 'a 




(hill of Phinehas) a city in Ephraim 
Josh. 24, 33. 

\mlm\, also I Jiir^ (hence 3 pi. in 
pause si"iaa 2 Sam. 1, 23; fut. naa*^) 
akin to ?3a, 'las, prop, to bind or 
^t^^is^ together^ hence #o 6e strong or 
mighty Gen. 7, 18; also fo prevail, 
overcome Ex. 17, 11, b^n *aa <o fee 
mighty in means, i. e. rich and do- 
minant Job 21, 7; w. b? ot^er Ps.ll7, 
^; w. Ip, 13^ siisa <A<?y are stronger 
than J, i. e. too mighty for me Ps. 65,4 
<cf. Gen. 4, 13); w. 2 among iCh.. 5, 2; 
w. h according to Jer. 9, 2. — Pi. to 
make strong, to help, w. ace. Zech. 
10, 6, 12; B'i^:;h 'a to strengthen forces 
i. e. put forth more strength Ecc. 10, 
10. — Hiph. to make valid or confirm 
(ri'1'13) Dan. 9, 27 ; to exert strefigth, 
j)revail Ps. 12, 5 (see Gram. § 53, 2, 
Eem.). — Hith. to shew oneself strong, 
w. ^5 over the enemy Is. 42, 13, 
i. e. to conquer him; to he defiant, 
w. bx against Job 15, 25; to grow 
insolent Job 36, 9. 

^na (pl.d'i'nia; r. ^laa) m. l)strong 
one, a man (chiefly poet, for ui'^yt) 
Ps. 34, 9; a warrior Judg. 5, 30, 
Deut. 22, 5; but also like "nst, it is 

' T T' 

used for male, hence a husband 
Prov. 6, 34, and also for a man-child 
Job 3, 3 ; when used in opposition to 
God, it is a human being, a mortal 
Job 4, 17, as woman in the East is 
scarcely taken into account; Q'^'^Siib 
man by man Josh. 7, 14. 2) pronom. 
like yi'ij^ (Gram. 124, 2, Rem. 1), each, 
every one Joel 2, 8. 3) pr. n. m. (a 
brave) 1 K. 4, 19. 

ijS archaic or crude form of 
*lia (Gram. § 84, Nos. 10, 11 and 
Note 2) m. a man Ps. 18, 26, comp. 
2 .Sam. 22, 26. 

IIS Chald. (pi. 'j'l^aa, def. fi<5^aa, 

as if from ^ish) i. q.Heb. ^SS, a man 
Dan. 2, 25. 

1^5 pr- n- (fort, r. "nna) of a place 
Ezr. 2, 20 ; j»rob. for-jlsaa, cf. Neh. 7,25. 

^15? Chald. (c. pi. 'I'naa) m. hero, 
mighty man Dan. 3, 20. 

'nlUSi, see ^Tisa. 

^^J';^^S Chald., see 15a. 

5K^'^Z13 pr. n. (mighty one of 
God) of an angel Dan. 8, 16; cf. 
FappHQX. Luke 1, 19. 

ri'^na (for n-n-^na, n-naa, fem. of 
'n*'3n; w. suf. '^l^'paa) f. lady, mistress 
Gen. 1 6, 4, Prov. 30, 23 ; Wj^Tap n"naa 
mistress of kingdoms Is. 47, 5. 

U^^») (obs.) to freeze, i. q. Arab. 

j*^; but prob. akin to hiaa (cf. 
Chald. aaa = ;rJ5a fo coZ^ecO in the 
primary notion, to draw or gatJier 
together, hence to be compact; hence 

■pin!!l5 W' n. (elevation, r. aaa) of a 
city in Dan Josh. 19, 44; comp. Chald. 
fi<n55. YappaGa in John 19, 13. 

jH (w. n local haa, w. suf. ^aa, 

T ^^ TIT ' • -» 

pi. riiaa) m. roof, prop, covering 
Josh. 2, 6, 8; fig. cover of altar, 
i. e. the top Ex. 30, 3. — Perh. from 
hxa I, redup. t^axa w. the meaning tt 
be high (cf. D'^ia) ; but prob. from "jsa 
to cover, whence lasa, hence asa = 
?oa = aa (like ri'73 from ^3*12, r. ^^13). 
Cf. L. tectum from ^e^Oj "W. ty , td, 
fr. <o*, Gael, teagh fr. tuighim, G. 
cZacA fr. decken, E. thatch fr. dec^, 
{JTEYT) (= TeyoO fr. axlyo), Sans. 

^B (r. ^"la I) m. 1) coriander, prob. 
because the grains have on them little 
furrows Ex. 16, 31. 2) fortune, prop, 
a deciding, apportioning, w. the art. 
lan the (god of) destiny, i. e. Baal 
Is. 65, 11. 





*l^ same as "la 2 (r. ^Jia I) m. 1) 
luck 153 Gen. 30, 11 in K'thibh, Sept. 
^v TUX"?] tw ?McA:, fortunately/, but 
the Q'ri has ^5 &53 fortune cometh. 

2) pr. n. m. (luck in Gen. 30, 11; 
but troop is the sense implied in 
Gen. 49, 19; cf. ^^I'na) son of Jacob, 
and head of a tribe: ^a Vni the brook 

> T -I- 

of Gad, i. e. Jabbok, 2 Sam. 24, 6; 
gentilic n. '^'75 Gadite Deut. 3, 12. 

3) pr. n. m. (luck) of a prophet in 
time of David 1 Sam. 22, 5. 

^5*7^ Chald.(only def. pi. U^J^^'^a) 
treasurers Dan. 3, 2, 3; same as nsita 
= 1), which see. 

*l3n^ in pr. n. ^^'i?''! "^^^ (cavern 
of the defile, r. ^^a P Num. 33, 32, 
station of the Israelites in the Wil- 
demes, same as ITna^a Deut. 10, 7. 

^3lB (w. h loc. ii'i- — ) pr. n. (a 
defile, r. Tia I) of a place in the wil- 
derness Deut. 10, 7, i. q. 'la^art ^h 
Num. 33, 32. 

I j3 I (Qal obs.) akin to tta, 
^^T}, T73 I> ^^2), Tij?, to cut, to make 
a gash; hence perh. ^^'la troop (cf. 
L. odes), 'la fortune (as deciding or 
portioning out events). — Hithpo. 
n'nanri to cut or wou/nd oneself, in 
mourning Jer. 16, 6, in idolatry Deut. 
14, 1, 1 K. 18, 28. — The ultimate 

root ^a, ta, ^n, yn, ns, na, ^p, f'p etc. 

(for hewing, cutting etc.) is mimetic 
and akin to E. cut, gash, scathe, Sans. 
gath, oji^io, L. ccedo, G. scheiden, 
schaden, see Gram. § 30, 2. 

) jli n (3 pi. fut. Ji-nia;; Ps. 
94, 2l7"akin to 'lax, perh. TT^ia, ^0 
bind together, combine, to troop; they 
combine against (b?) the soul of the just 
Ps. 94, 21; hence prob. I^lia troop. — 
Hithpo. Itjann to croxod or frooj? 
together Jer. 5, 7 , Mic. 4, 14. — Cf. 
"W. cydio (to join). 

) J^ Chald. (imp. I'na) fo Act^> or 
cut down Dan. 4, 11, 20, cf. Heb. I^al* 

n 7^ (obs.) akin to Tia I, to cut 
TT -^ ' 

axvay, crop off; hence JTia, ^i-it, •n^^'ia,, 

fTlB or iTiS (only pi. w. suf.. 
l^iW'ia) f. banks of a river, prop, cut- 
ting or tearing away of the earthy 

Josh. 3, 15, Is. 8, 7. — Cf. Arab. ja. 
coast, L. litus from losdo, dtxxT^ fr^ 
SY'^oixi, also E. sAore from shear. 

rrn^ f* prop, fortune, then epithet- 
of the star Venus as the sign of good, 
fortune. Only in pr. n. JTna ^:|rt (court 
of fortune) Josh. 15, 27. 

^^15 (pi. di'7^ia, once nl'isiia Jer, 
48, 37) m. 1) a cut or gash Jer. 
48, 37; a furrow Ps. 65, 11; r. "tjll. 
2) prob. from r. Tiail, a troop or 
band Gen. 49, 19; isinart ''iSi sows- 
o/" ^^e /roop, troopers 2 Ch. 25, 13;^ 
poet. ^^ia tiS daughter of a tnoop 
i. e. soldiers Mic. 4, 14; "^"i^^Sf 
rtirr^ bands of n^, his angels Job 

25, 3, his inflictions Job 19, 12. 

Cf. W. cad (army), Irish catha, L.. 
ccedes, Chald. J^'nasia. 

T : 

binS' ^^^^ (c.y^a, ^Sa, also -bns 

in Q'ri Nah. 1, 3; r. b^a)adj. m., Slbi'if 
f. great in the most various senses,. 
e. g. in size and extent, vast Nunu 
34, 6; mighty Gen. 39, 9; ni^^a in^ 
Solent things Ps. 12, 4; distinguished 
Ex. 11, 3; m'bSa mighty things Job 
5, 9; ^I'laSi Irtbrt fAe Ai^A or chief 
priest Hag. 1, 1; the day is still 
great, i. e. it is yet high day Gen.. 
29, 7. Of age, older Gen. 10, 21,. 
oldest Gen. 27, 1 (see Gram. § 119);. 
of stature, tall Josh. 14, 15. — As- 
subst. in ^5>Ht ^ha greatness of thine 
arm Ex. 15, 16. 





rbn^, rhn3>, nlsia (r. *>^a) 

i, greatness, majesty of God Ps. 145, 
S, of a king Est. 1, 4, of a courtier 
Est, 10, 2; renown 2 Sam. 7, 23; 
tnighty acts nl^^iia Ps. 145, 6. 

Tj^'^? (only in pi. d'^S", WEJ"; r. 
t)'?a) m. reproaches or revilings Is. 43, 
28; 51, 7. 

nS^ISi f. scorw, only in Ez. 5, 15; 

r. ci^a". 

IIIB pr. n. Josh. 15, 58, see "nSa. 

*'15 P''' °* ™* (fortunate) 2 K. 15, 
14; also a Gadife Deut. 3, 12. 

*na (pi. di^-ia 1 Sam. 10, 3, c. 
•»'il5 Gen. 27, 9; r. iil^) m. a kid 
Oen. 38, 23; mostly w. D^i-t^, as "'l^'ia 
fi^iwri A:icfe of the goats Gen. 27, 16. 

*'"nS pr. n. m. (fortunate, from *ia 
2) Num. 13, 11. 

I^J^'^'HS pr. n. m. (God's good luck, 
i. e. from him) Num. 13, 10. 

ri^'l? (only pi. I^'nl-ina K'thibh 
for Q'ri m^^) f. banks, only 1 Ch. 
12, 15; see nnj. 

' ' TT 

nj"3 (only pi. ni^na; from ^i^a) 
f. a she-kid, only Cant, i, 8. 

b^'75 (only pi. ta'^Vna; r. bna) m. 
prop, twisted or wreathed things; 
hence, 1) fringes, tassels Deut. 22, 
12. 2) fig. wreaths, festoons on the 
capitals of columns 1 K. 7, 17. 

123'^'JB (r. uina) m. ^eap, hence 1) a 
shock or stec/c of sheaves Ex. 22, 5 , 
Job 6, 26; 2) a mound over a grave, 
€L tomb Job 21, 32. Cf. inas. 

/** iil, once ^ iii in Job 31, 18 

-T "T , ' 

•ipjna, see Gram, § 121, 4 (fut. ^^^% 
prop. i. q. Aram.'^^, b^a, to bind, 
itvist (cf. b-'^a), hence ^o 6e firm, 
strong (akin to Syr.\^ nape of the 
<neck, for its strength) as in other 
verbs of binding, e.g. ban, b^n, pTH; 

then gen. fo 6e or become great (full 
grown) Gen. 38, 14, high or extolled Ps. 
35,27, mighty Jer. 5, 27, ricA Gren. 26, 
13, important Gen. 41, 40, precious 

2, Sam. 26, 24; to grow up Job 31, 
18. — Pi. b^a (at end of a clause 
b'na see Gram. § 52, Eem. 1) to cause 
to grow, let groiv (hair) Num. 6, 5, 
(plants) Is. 44, 14; to magnify Josh. 

3, 7; to bring up (children) Is. 1, 2; 
fig. to extol or praise, w. b Ps. 34, 4, 
or w. ace. Ps. 69, 31. — Pii. to be 
brought up (of children) Ps. 144, 12. 
— Hiph. to make great or large 
(favour) Gen. 19, 19; to make high, 
to lift up Ps. 41, 10; b^i^an w. or with- 
out nib^b (cf. Gram. §' 142, Eem. 1) 
to do great things Ps. 126, 2, Joel 2, 21, 
to act proudly Ps. 38, 17, Joel 2, 20; 
to make great the mouth (w. SiQ and 
b?) i. e. to speak insolently Chad. 12, w. 
hB3Ez.35,13.— Hilh. to shew oneself 
great Ez. 38 , 23 ; to behave proudly 
Is. 10, 15, Dan. 11, 36. 

5 Ji» (pi. 0. '^b^?) s-dj. m. growing 
Gen. 26, 13, 1 Sam. 2, 26; strong, 
lusty w. *im Ez. 16, 26. 

b*"IB, see blna. 

T' T 

WS (w. suf. Ibna, once Ib-ia Ps. 
150, 2) m. greatness Ez. 31, 7; fig. 
honour, majesty, of God Deut. 3, 24, 
of a king Ez. 31, 2; anb 'a greatness 
of heart, i. e. pride Is. 9, 8. 

b*!!? pr. n. m. (huge) Ezr. 2, 47. 

tlT)"!^, see hb^i^a. 

»^^btl3, ^•n.^blB pr. n. m. (great 
is fn;;) *2 K. 25, 22, Jer. 39, 14. 

^v<^^ pr. n. m. (I magnify, viz. 
God) son of Heman 1 Ch. 25, 4. 

• l3 (fut. 5)^5'') akin to n'la I 
(which see), s>ta, r-na I, ^'i'^ u, s^;^, 
to cut off (beard) Is. 15, 2, to Jiew 




doum or fell Is. 10, 33, fig. to destroy 
(a city) Lam. 2, 3; break asunder 
Zech. 11, 10, 14; to cut oif (arm or 
horn), i. e. to destroy power 1 Sam. 
2, 31, Lam. 2, 3. — NIph. to he cut 
down Is. 14, 12; to he extirpated (of 
a people) Judg. 21, 6; to he cut off 
Am. 3, 14, Ez. 6, 6. — Pi. »"n3i, but 
^Ija w. distinct, accent, to smash 
Deut. 12, 3; hreaJc to pieces (bars) 
Is. 45, 2; hreak off (horns) Ps. 
75, 11. — Pu. to be felled Is. 9, 9. 

1*13^^3 pr. n. m. (prob. feller 1. e. 
mighty warrior, r. 5''i5) Judg. chs. 
6 — 8; Sept. FeSscov. 

iDS'nSi pr. n. m. (a cutting down, 
perh. of trees) of a place in Benja- 
min Judg. 20, 45; r. SJ'ia w. ending 
t- — , like th^ti. 

^P'yi? pr. n. m. (prob. feller, r. S^tja ; 
cf. "'PJ'^) Num. 1, 11. 

?] j3 (Qal obs.) akin to ri^, 
Arab. i-3oA.,fo cut off, hence fig. to 
use cutting words. — Pi. Ci'na to re- 
proach (cf. t)^ia); esp. to blaspheme 
2 K. 19, 6, 22. 

1^^, see tjil'^a. 
nS'lil, see nsii^a. 

T ••. •' T • 

I j3 (fut. I^^"^) akin to "rnn, 
^:^ri, ^s|, to hem in, enclose, sur- 
round; hence to hedge or wall in, the 
wag niiit Job 19, 8, T^'^^ Lam. 3, 9, 
so that one cannot go forth; to wall 
up y"nQ a breach in the wall Is. 58, 
12; 'i^S 'a to immure liosn. 3, 7; 
i:y *i*ia 'a to build a loall round some 

- •• T T 

one i. e. for protection Ez. 13, 5; ina 
wall-maker, a mason 2 K. 12, 13; cf. 
G. maurer. Hence 

^!!? (c. '^•na, w. suf. 1*Y:a Gram. § 93, 
5; pi. w. suf. ^jf^'ia) com. gend. \)wall 

of a vineyard Num. 22, 24, of a 
court Ez. 42, 10, of a city Mic. 
7, 11; a fence Ps. 62, 4. 2) a 
walled place Ezr. 9, 9; ^i^ja y^^ 
to breach a wall Is. 5, 5, 'a Jiss to 

' ' T T T 

build a wall Mic. 7, 11. 3) pr. n^ 
(enclosure) of a city in Judah 1 Ch^ 
2, 51; gent, "^^^i^ 1 Ch. 27, 28. 

TO 1) pr. n. m. (wall) 1 Ch. 8, 31. 
2) pr. n. (fortress) of a city in Judah 
Josh. 15, 58, now Jedur. 

"^t!?. pr. n. (fortress) of a city of 
Canaan Josh. 12, 13. — Also the con- 
struct form of '^'^a ; see above. 

I'in'-ina; 'r. 'Yia) f. l) wall, of a 
city Ps. 89, 41, of a vineyard Jer, 
49, 3 ; comp. iis^iDp. 2) an enclosure^ 
fold or pen, )i<:s, WTia sheep folds 
Num. 32, 16. 3) pr. n. " (wall) of a 
city in Judah, Josh. 15, 36; gentiU 
n. ^n^^ia 1 Ch. 12, 4. 

Inl'I'lB pr. n. (folds) of a city ia 
Judah, Josh. 15, 41; r. *i'ia. ' 

u'^nnlS pr. n. (two-folds or pens; 
cf. d'^nS'ro) of a city in Judah Josh» 
15, 36"!' ' 

'^^lii , see n^a 3. 

lri'^7.? f- i- Q- '^ya^ ^ wall, only in 
Ez. 42," 12; r. "i^a."" 

\Z3 jil (obs.) akin to Tia 11^ 
Chald. UJ'ia, Syr. (■i'^r-v^) ^^ '^^i^ ^*P/ 
hence ^tj'ina. 

• T 

n^ Ez. 47, 13 wrong reading^ 
for ill] but perh. it is an inter- 
change of i for t, as in 52 for 111 
Ez. 25, 7. 

nn3 (fut. nna"]) perh. akin to 

fiijia to be high, hence to lift up,&g, 

to remove (cf. Byr.]ai^to escape), 

only in Hos. 6, 13 ^Ita DS^ nha"! J<bl 




nor will the hurt remove from you 
i. e. heal; hence 

nnS f. (perh. akin to nxa, cf. Syr. 
V-at^ escape) a lifting up, escape; 
nna n'^a"'"' rnoiu "2^ a glad heart makes 
a good escape i. e. makes a happy de- 
liverance Prov. 17, 22, comp. Prov. 
15, 13. 

I| 1 3 (fut. inn'<) to bow doivn, 
vr. bs oyer some one 2 K. 4, 34; w. 
H — loc. 6oty (Zo^t'w J^^a^tt #0 ^Ae 
ground 1 K. 18, 42; prob. akin to 
Aram, .ou^., 1^3, Sam. "|»a. 

15 (w. suf. ^la, dia; r. 'iia)m.i.q. 
13 f/ie back; only ' Tj^a "''nnx Psb^rn ^n!!< 
we Aasi <AoM cast behind thy back 
1 K. 14, 9. 

15 Chaid. (c. la, Kia, w. suf. wa, 

Piia) m. i. q. Heb. ia, #Ae feacfe, fcod'y 
in general ; but used only fig. for the 
middle, midst, iaa = 'r^'ina in the 
midst of Dan. 3,, 25; fi<iaV = TjinV* 
iw^c f/ie midst of Dan. 3, 6; Xia'l^ 
e= 7|in^ /Vom ^Ae midst of Dan. 3, 26. 

15 (for nia; w. suf. "iia, ^^'la; r. 
nia) m. 1) the back, body in general 
Prov. 10, 13, comp. Is, 38, 17. 2) the 
middle, midst, siu:"ia"' ia "p from the 

' ' AT ! •• ' • ' 

midst (of men) are they driven forth 
Job 30, 5. Cf. Chald. i5<ia-')73. 
JJ<iS, see ia Chald. 

^•13 (obs.) akin to 25;;, ^p'^, to 
cleave, to dig, hence till or plough; 
also to cut off; hence 

^13 m. 1) i. q. 2a locusts, prob. 
so called for its cutting and devouring 
(r. 21a), Nah. 3, 17 '^213 2'ia locust, 
locusts, i. e. nothing but locusts (see 
Gram. § 108, 4). 2) pr. n. (cistern) 
of a place 2 Sam. 21, 18. 

^'niik m. (pL or collect.) swarm 

of locusts Nah. 3, 17. — The ending 
1-r- is perh. adjectival, as also in 
I'lin (see Gram. § 87, 1, c). 

3i13 pr. n. m. 1) prince of the 
land of Magog aiaan y^i^ Ez. 38, 2, 
oomp. Fui'f in Apoc. 20, 8. 2) son of 
Shemaiah 1 Ch. 5, 4. See aiiTa, aax; 
perh. from tixa to be high, redupl. 
xaxa perh. to be gigantic; akin to 
aia^, aax, and perh. to Yi^a;, 'Q^'^T^'J* 
FuYT)^ and Kauxaaoc;. 

h3 I (fut. n^ia;") i) i. q. "j-ia i, to 

cut or wound Gen. 49, 19, Hab. 3, 16. 
2) fig. to decide or destine, hence 13, '''la. 

J*|3 II (obs.) to bind, join, akin 
to iia II, nas<, np5>; hence I'^a. 

m3 and 113 (obs.) i. q. ^23, 

TT -T ^ TT 

223 to be curved (either concave or 
convex), arched, hence 13, 13, *»i3. 

ni5 f. 1) for 1^ (r. 8i^a) iody, 
prop, ridge, back Job 20, 25. 2) for 
^1^.^ = >^^^^ (r. ^i<^) a lifting up Job 
22, 29; pride Job 33, 17. 

ni? Chald. f. pride Dan. 4, 34. 

ni3 (only in pi. d'lia, w. suf. 'r^'^ia) 
m. prop, body, hence person^ only in 
K'thibh of Ez. 36, 13—15. 

\m\, see inia. 


T*lH akin to t15>, ^in fo flee, to 
hasten aivay Ps. 90, 10; perh. hence 

Tlii m. refuge y perh. in Ps. 71, 6 
■itia my refuge i. e. whom I hasten 
to; but see nta. 

btiil (w. suf. pi. li^Tia) m. young 
bird, esp. young dove Gen. 15, 9; 
ea^fef Deut. 32, 11; r. bn 11. Cf. 

Arab. J^j*. = Syr. C^ol- — Pro^- 
mimetic of the sound made by young 
birds in the nest, a sort of whiz, 
wheeze or whistle, as the Kamus 
suggests. Comp. E. goose, G. ^a?j.9. 




L. anser, ^t^v, "W. gwydh, called so 
for its hissing or blowing. 

"jpil pr. n. (perh. refuge, r. tsiS) a 
region, according to the Talm. pTSa, 
the ancient Gazaca, summer resi- 
dence of the Median kings 2 K. 19, 
12, Is. 37, 12 ; "jtia 1^3 river of Go- 
zan 1 Ch. 5, 26. Cf. FaoCaviTt;. 

"•13 or PI 3 (inf. w. suf. irT^iia 
Job 38, 8, imp. 'ito' for ^m^ Mic. 4, 10) 
1) intrans. to break forth, burst forth, 
of water Job 38,8, hence "jirr^a. 2) trans. 
to bear a child Mic. 4, 10; to deliver, 
Ps. 22, 10 for thou l^aTa "^na art mi/ 
bringer forth from the womb, where 
n'a is a rare form of the part, (see 
Gram. § 72,"Eem. 1). — HIph. mn 
(part, ri'iiia, fut. n^^a;?, apoc. Jiin) to 

break forth, of an army Judg. 20, 
33, comp. Ez. 32, 2; to rush hi^ into 
something Job 40, 23. — H^a is prob. 
mimet. and akin to tU^ia , Q^a I, ^eo), 
xy]xi(o, E. gush, G. guss. 

rj13 or jj^^ Chald. to rush, 
only Aph. inajj? to rush forth ^ of the 
wind Dan. 7, 2. 

^ia (w. suf. "ila Zeph. 2, 9, pi. 
B'^'ia, K'thibh fi'i'^a Ps. 79, 10, c. i.'^ia; 
prob. shortened from 'I'iSi, fem. il^lS; 
r. n*ia) m. 6o(Zy (like IS), ^ersow (of 
a single individual, perh. in Gen. 
20, 4); but esp. a body corporate or 
politic, a people, esp. of Israel Is. 
1, 4, cf. Ps. 33, 12, of other nations 
Deut. 28, 36, of the heathen Is. 8, 
23 (cf. 10 vo?, ''ia, opp. to Xa6;, d?, 
often in Sept. and in Luke 2, 32); also 
troops, of beasts Zeph. 2, 14; swarms, 
of locusts Joel 1,6. — The pi. is mostly 
used of the heathen nations e. g. 
Ps. 135, 15. 

tW^ (r. nia) f. body, hving Gen. 
47, 18, or dead, a corpse Nah. 3, 3, 

celestial Ez. 1, 11; of beasts Judg. 
14, 8. 

Q*^ i3 pr. n. (nations or gentiles) of a 
people in Gilgal Josh. 12, 23, Galilee 

Is. 8, 23, Asia Minor Gen. 14, 1. 

■ ■ 

Pl;^ also yl^ (fut. l3!]:\;> K'thibh 
Prov.23, 24) akin to \h\ I, hl'^, b^in, to 
go in a circle, to whirl or to turn 
round; hence 1) to exult (dancing 
round for joy), to rejoice Pro v. 23, 
24, comp. Ps. 32, 11. 2) to tremble 
(for fear) Hos. 10, 5; ^^^ Ps. 2, 11 
tremble ye, but it may well be rendered 
rejoice or worship ye. Cf. k-^aXkata, 

riblB, alsoTOS (r. Ji^an) f. exile, 
captivity 1 Ch. 5, 22, 'an 2!<:2^, ti^n 
to go into banishment Jer. 29, 16; 
49, 3; 'j\ii *^'b'3 equipments or out-fit 
for exile Ez. 12, 7. tibi^ stands also 
for exiles Jer. 28, 6, even when re- 
turned from banishment Ezr. 10, 8. 

V'lB pr. n. (perh. circuit, r. hM) 
of a Levitical city in Batanea, after- 
wards in Manasseh Deut. 4, 43, which 
gave name to the province Gaulanitis. 

y^^il (r. iraa) m.pit Ecc. 10, 8. 

1*1*1 (obs.) perh. i. q. 135, to protect^ 
shelter; hence 

'^J'lB pr. n. m. (perh. protected) 
Gen. 46, 24; the patron, is of the 
same form Num. 26, 48. 

^ 5 (inf SJ'ia and 5)ia, fut. ^*>y) 
perh. akin to WJi III, M1|5, to bind or 
twist, hence to writhe or to be in con- 
tortions; hence fig. of dying, to ex- 
pire Ps. 104, 29; frequently in union 
w. Wa Gen. 25, 8. — Perh. better to 
breathe out, taking 5)ia as = hW I, 

^1* lirl I (obs.) prob. akin to S^a, tl&a, 
to be gibbous, bulging; hence ris^a. — 




h13 n (Qal obs.) akin to Cl^in I, 
to enclose; only Hiph. C)'^an ^o s7mf, 
•doors Neh. 7, 3. 

nS^a f. 6o(?y, corpse 1 Ch. 10, 
12, comp. 1 Sam. 31, 12 (later Heb. 
tl^ia), akin to la, in^jia. 

I*13 I (fut. "iw;") akin to 'laiij, 
Chald. ^yi, to collect, gather together, 
Ps. 59, 4 "ib^ l^^a^ the^ join together 
against me; hence fig. like ciD&|;,fo 
meet together, to sojourn or dtcell 
Gen. 12, 10, of a whole people 
Ex. 6, 4 ; part. ^S, '^vy^^ 'I'lS sojourners 
of my house Job 19, 15, f. T^"^ 
rrn^a Ex. 3, 22 (Sept. ouaxYjvoc). 
— The place where is put w. 3 
Judg. 19,16; the person withvfixorax, 
w. D5 Gen. 32, 5, or 3 Is. 16, 4, 
or n&l; Ex. 12, 48; poet. w. ace. 
of the person Ps. 120, 5, and of 
the place Judg, 5, 17. — Hitlipol. 
*i*i5rtfi to gather oneself together 
Hos. 7, 14, to sojourn 1 K. 17, 20. 
Cf. (XYeipo). 

NH n i. q. 'li;;; to he afraid, w. 
yo of obj. in Ps. 22, 24, Job 41, 17, 
*':3Ta Num. 22, 3, poet, also w. ace. 
Beut. 32, 27 ; w. b of that for which 
one fears Hos. 10, 6. 

H3 ni (obs.) i. q. nns) VI and 
^^3>, to drink, suck; hence 'l^ia. 

1*1*^ IV (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

jli-r fo boil up, to seethe, to effervesce, 
hence "T^a; perh. trans, to excite, 
provoke Ps. 140, 3. — Cf. G. gdhren, 
E. yearn. 

~3 V (obs.) perh. i. q. I^ia, to 
roll, of round things; cf. JTna, 7Upo;, 
L. gyrus. 

^I'la (pi. c. ■''ni'a-, w. suf. I'^ni^ia; 
r. *isia m) m. i. q. n^lS prop, a suck- 

ling, hence a whelp, e. g. of a lion, 
Jer. 51 , 38 W^'nx ^y^ lions' whelps, 
1''ni"ia Nah. 2, 13 his whelps. 

^^5 (pi. fi'i'n^a, nnsia) m. i. q. ^i-ia 

1) a young animal that still sucks, a 
wMp Ez. 19, 2; fully ni^'^X isia lion's 
whelp Gen. 49, 9 ; young jackal Lam. 
4, 3; see -i-^BS.. 2) pr. n. 2 K. 9, 27, 

^55 l^a pr. n. (sojourn of Bajil) 
of a place in Arabia 2 Ch. 26, 7. 

b'jia (c. Vi'iia, pi. wlj-nia; r. W) 
m. a rounded stone or pebble used 
in casting lots (comp. <j>T)<poi and 
xXrjpo;). 1) a lot Lev. 16, 8. To cast 
lots is expressed by the following 
verbs, w. b'lia in ace, t\y^ Josh. 18, 
6, STH^ Joel 4, 3, t]'^\>UJn Josh. 18, 
8, "jna Lev. 16, 8, piBfi Is. 34, 17, 
b">L3n Prov. 16, 33; the lot falls, i. e. 
is cast, 'ail bS3 Jon. 1, 7; the lot comes 
up or out (from the shaken urn) 
upon or /or some one, b? 'a fi^l? Lev. 
16, 9, or b 'a 6tS^ Josh. 19, 1; but 
the object afiected by the lot is put 
w. b? Ps. 22, 19 or Vn Joel 4, 3. 

2) allotment, what falls to one as a 
portion, esp. an inheritance Judg. 1, 
3, Ps. 16, 5. 

"j'^^lS m. throat, only in K'thibh 
of Jer. 2, 25 for 'ji'ia. 

^N«i (obs.) prob. akin to »nia, 

DTDa I, to pour forth (cf. Arab. jSa. 
^0 sAedJ tears), to heap up; hence 

IT^i^ m. mound (cf. ^uiaK;), /wmp, 
esp. clod of earth; hence Job. 7, 5 
wy &oc?2^ is clothed w. worms and 
clods of earth, i. e. w. clotted dust; 
t^^f. in K'thibh. 

TS (pi. c. '^•ra; r. tta) m. o shearing, 
a fleece Deut. 18, 4, cf. wa; a wot<?n 
;^?c? Ps. 72, 6; Tjlj^atn ''^a ^/k2 Ariw^'s 
mowings Am. 7, 1, prob. the earUest 
in the season. 




*I^T5 (pi. 'jn-i3_^a Ezr. 7, 21, as 
though the sing, were *i^Ja; in the 
later Heh., however, the pi. is 'J^'^iSta) 
Heh. and Chald. m. receiver of the 
revenues, treasurer Ezr. 1, 8. — 
The word is said to he Persian, hut 
ta treasure (whence '{dZ.a, onr gazette, 
i. e. a store of news, also magazine) 
is really the Heh. tsa, though 13 stands 
for the Pers. ^f^ vdr (cf. 'nnm),the 
same as the Ger. -har in schatzbar, 
nachhar, E. -hour in neighbour ^ L. 
'her in mulciher, -fer in lucifer and 
Sans, -vala in dantdvala (elephant, 
prop, tooth-hearer), 

i \) m\ (ohs.) i. q. tta , to cut out, 
hew, hence rr^ta. — In Ps.71,6 *ipa is 
perh. part. fiTia w. suf. wy deliverer 
from my mother^s howels; hut see tia. 

»1T5 pr. n. (quarry, r. nta; cf. iT^'iyJ) 
of a place, whence gentil. n. ''5'lta 
Gizonite 1 Ch. 11, 34. 

»1J5 (r. m) f. a ;^eece Judg. 6, 38, 
fully "^^ati Wa cutting of the wool 
in V. 37. 

"^DiT? 1 Ch. 11, 34, see nta. 

TT3 (fut. ta;;, apoc. ra^i, inf. ta, 
tta) to shear off (wool) 1 Sam. 25, 4 ; 
to crop off (hair) Joh 1, 20; hut also 
w. the general notion to cut off, 
sever Num. 11, 31. — Niph. only 
Nah. 1, 12 ilt'ias (Gram. § 61 , Kem. 
6) they are cut off, extirpated. — 
Akin to "i^al, which see. 

tTB pr. n. m. (shearer) 1 Ch. 2, 46. 

In^'TB f. cutting or hewiyig, 'a 'i.sajt 
hewn stones i. e. squared 1 Ch, 22, 2; 
also n^ta alone Ex. 20, 25. 

^T3 I (fut. bh':') proh. akin to 
^?3> ^!$, ^5*7, 1) to cut or sfrip oyf 

(the skin), to flay Mic. 3, 2. 2) to toa*» 
or snatch away 2 Sam. 23, 21, Gen» 
31, 31; to seize Joh 24, 9. 3) fig. to 
rob, e. g. a house Joh 20, 19, fields 
Mic. 2, 2; to steal a right Is. 10, 2;. 
to plunder a person Prov. 22, 22 ; fig.^ 
to evaporate water Joh 24, 19. — 
Niph. to &e toArew m^a^ (of sleep^ 
nsTT) Prov. 4, 16. 

yfil II (ohs.) proh. mimetic, to 
^eep, tivitter, as a young hird; proh» 
hence ^tia, which see. 

^T5 m. rohhery, plunder Ez. 22, 29» 
bT^. m. rohhery Ez. 18, 18; r. bta L 

nbn (c. nbta) f. plunder. Is. 3, 14 
"ip^'fi nbta rohhery of the poor, i. e, 
what is taken from him: r. ^ta I. 

- T 

UT3 (ohs.) akin to Tta, bta, dG|, to 
cttf 0^, hence to devour; hence 

uT3 m. locust (prop, devourer) 
not yet winged Joel 1, 4. 

D|S pr. n. m. (devourer) Ezr. 2^ 48. 

• T^ (ohs.) i. q. 5)'ia , to cw^ off or 

Aet« down; hence 

^T?. (w. suf. iS'Ta) m. stem, trunk 
of a fel'ed tree, the stump, Joh 14, 8j 
then sfew in general Is. 11, 1; a sap- 
ling, even of a young tree Is. 40, 24, 
perh. as springing up from a stump 
(comp. ^^vU in Is. 53, 2, Sept. ^i^aj 
cf. Apoc. 5, 5). 

iT-i (fut. itai Is. 9, 19, 'ita'i Job 

22 , 28) akin to 1^]^ also 1^^ II, to 
cwf; hence 1) to cut down,felI(tim'ber) 
2 K. 6, 4. 2) to slaughter, kill Is. 9, 
19. 3) to divide (p";) Ps. 136, 13, 
(ih^) 1 K. 3, 25. 4) (fut. 'nta^) to c?e- 
cicle Job 22, 28 (cf. "r^nn). 5) intrans. 
to ce«se, to /at^, Hah. 3, 17 Jnba^a^ 'ita 
"!>t:5 f/ie /?ocA: is cut off from the fold. 
— Niph. to &e cwf off 2 Ch. 26, 21; 




'•n'lna i am cut off i. e. I perish 
Lam. 3, 54; to be decreed Est. 2, 1. 

1T5 Chald. same as Heb. *^n, 
(only part. pi. T^l}), ^0 determine, 
y^y^^ deciders of fate, those who cast 
nativities, Dan. 2, 27. — Ithpe. 
^ltT\i< to be cut off or out, 3. fern. 
m-i'tiny; Dan. 2, 45, and n'^T^nn in 

Dan*. '2, 34. 

'ITS (pi. d'i")ta; r. "nta) m. 1) piece, 
part, of a victim Gen. 15, 17, of the 
sea Ps. 136, 13. 2) pr. n. (perh. 
precipice) of a city in the v^restern 
border of Ephraim Josh. 10, 33; 
rdi^rjpa in 1 Maccab. 7, 45. 

5^'n73i Chald. (c. tnn) f. decree, 
decision Dan. 4, 14; r. ^n. 

!n"IT3i (r. "in) f. prop, a cutting 
off, hence prob. desolation, only in 
Lev. 16, 22 linn 7"ii<"V&t into a land 
of seclusion i. e. a desert, Sept. el; 
7TJv S^axov. 

M^T? f. 1) cw« (of the body), 
figure^ form Lam. 4, 7 (cf. SS]?). 2) 
a part cut off in the temple, i. e. a 
hall or court Ez. 41, 12; r. "nta. 

'''^15 pr. n. (Gezrite, inhabitant 
of *^n) of a people 1 Sam. 27, 8 
K'thibh •'•na. 

n'B (w. suf. 'inb perh. = "^riiTS) m. 
issuing forth, birth Ps. 22, 10; but 
see above under Wa 2. 

nriii (obs.) perh. akin to Wa, 

T T 

to gush, to burst forth (cf. Jia'n = "^iii) 
hence perh. Iina, like 'ji'ia from ST^a. 

"lin^ (c. "jinSi) m. perh. prop, eva- 
cuation , hence bellg, only of creep- 
ping animals Gen. 3, 14, Lev. 11, 
42; r. iina or perh. )'n^. 

''Tri? 2 K. 4, 31 also ""Tri^^ 2 K. 
5, 20 pr. n. m. (prob. valley of vision) 
servant of the prophet Elisha. 

^tySt Ps. 22, 10, see ri15. 

^r_li\ (obs.) akin to fiJia and 
prob. nV^ I, to glow, burn; hence 

bn^ (after the foi-m DnS; only in 
pi. d'^Vna , c. "^jjln^) f. burning or /ive 
coafe Ez. 24, 11 (black coal being 
tans, see Prov. 26, 21); fig. for the 
lightning Ps. 18, 9; b? d'^V'?? ^^'7 
iyjtt'n to hurry burning coals on 
his head, i. e. to vex one sorely 
Prov. 25, 22, comp. Rom. 12, 20. 
— Akin to xrjXso;, h.caleo (whence 
carbo), G. kohle, W. glo, E. coal, 
Gaelic gual. 

r\btlB (w. suf. '^n^na) f. same as 
bna, coal Is. 47, 14. To put out a 
coal 2 Sam. 14, 7 i. e. to destroy 
the last hope or scion of a family 
(cf. CtJiiT^upov). 

Urjli (obs.) i. q. bha, to glow, 

same as Arab. tP^ to flame; hence 

DtlS pr. n. m. (perh. live coal) 
Gen. 22, 24. 

|] [^ (obs.) perh. akin to fnna 
(which see), or to Aram, "jria, ^ti.^ 
to incline or bend. 

IPIii (obs.) perh. i. q. bna to 

burn, or i. q. Arab, j^*- to sink 
down, to lurk; hence 

"ntlB pr. n. m. (burning or a lurk- 
ing place) Ezr. 2, 47. 

''^, also 15<^5 1 Sam. 17, 52, 5^""? 
Zech. 14, 4, it^a Is. 40, 4 (c. i<''a, "^a, 

PI. niN'ia, ni^xa; r. ii) com. 
gend. a depression, valley (perh. 
akin to 7?]), 1) w. the art. ^IT\ pr. 
n. of a camping place in the region 
of Moab, Deut. 34, 6. In the names 
of places ^l is often used; e. g. 
dsn-l^ C^sa) ^^, (J^^a) (valley of son or 




8ons of Hinnom 2 K. 23, 10, also called 
G3fi *»a Josh. 15, 8 (hence Ysevva in 
N. Test.), tt'^aJi Jer. 2, 23 ; h^^ 'a (valley 
of salt) near the Dead sea, 2 K. 14, 
7; d'^^'^n ia (valley of craftsmen), 
place near Jerusalem, Neh. 11, 85; 
fi"i:?bSil 'a (perh. hyena-dell) a valley 
in Benjamin 1 Sam. 13, 18; also 
several others. — ^a a hollow differs 
from bns a dell w. a brook or tor- 
rent, and from JiSJpa and pa3) which 

' t'; • • vi" 

denote a more open and extended 

^"^ in K'thibh Gen. 25, 23, see "^ia. 

i^^5 1 Sam. 17, 52, see '^a. 

i5^'^5 Zech. 14, 4, see ''a. 

i^*^? Is. 40, 4, see ''a. 

'I'^B (r. I^a n) m. thew^ sinew or 
tendon, Gen. 32, 33; ^Q'n:^' ^ns 'T'a 
a sinew of iron is thy neck Is. 48, 4, 
i. e. thou art stiff-necked. — Cf. W. 
givythi (muscles). 

1 __l il, see roa. 

\\ 3 Chald., see Wa. 

n*'^ pr. n. (gushing forth, a 
spring) of a place near Gibeon 
2 Sam. 2, 24. 

I'ln^S pr. n. (a stream, r. Wa; 

cf. Arab. njja=u^ used before the 
names of several large rivers, as 
the Ganges) of a river in Paradise, 
perh. the Ethiopian Nile Gen. 2, 13; 
also of a stream near Jerusalem 1 K. 
1, 33. 

''tn'^?, see "iTna. 

X ^ to roll, see ^la ; hence 
5*'3 m. prop, a revolving, hence 
1) age (cf. "il^) Dan. 1, 10. 2) exul- 
tation, joy Jer. 48, 33 , Job 3, 22. 

^r^i i. q- ^'^i^ (exultation) but. only 

in the pr. n. f. ^^a'^SK 1 Sam. 25, 3, 
also shortened into Pa'iS!!^. 

Sn^"'? f. exultation, Is. 35 , 2 n^^^a 
1?'!'1 joy «w<Z shouting (see Gram. 
§ 115, 4). 

•^Dys, see rf^a. 

rt'^S Is. 35, 2, see n^^a. 

- . 7 7 f . 

InD^^ pr. n. m. (protection, r, 
•jiia) 1 K. 16, 21. 

\ ^to boil up, see *V\^ IV; hence 

'n^'S or "^3 m. lime, as effervescing 
when slacked Is. 27, 9. 

I"*? Chald. (def. H^Tp^) m. lime, 
plaster Dan. 5, 5. 

'n*'5 2 Ch. 2, 16 sojourner, see ^a. 
123''5 m. d!ws^, c^oc?, only K'thibh 
of Job 7, 5, see Uina. 

1^**^ pr. n. m. (perh. cloddy) 
1 Chi 2, 47. 

^3 (exultation, in ^J'llSX); see b']a. 

b? (pi. d^h; r. bba I) m. 1) heap 
of stones Job 8, 17, fully w. d^p^X 
Josh. 7, 26; d'l^a ruins Jer. 51, 87. 
2) a fountain, a well, so called for 
the rolling or welling up of its water, 
Cant. 4, 12; in pi. billows, rolling 
waves Ps. 42, 8. 

b? for 1) ^a in Ps. 119, 23, imp. 
Qal of b^a. 2) for nh Ps. 119, 18 
imp. apoc. Pi el of Jiba. 

^r» (w. suf. iiVa) m. bowl for oil 
Zech. 4, 2 ; r. ^ba 11 to be hollow. - — 
Prob. akin to YaoXoc, L. gaulus, W. 
caivell, E. galley, yawl, G. iolU. 

CS^3 or n"73 Chald. (part. act. 

!^1??> •^-T"j ps-^t- P^ss. i^a, 'i^a) to 
open up, reveal Dan. 2, 19. — Aph. 
'I'b^n i. q. Heb. Hiph. nba II, to 
cause to migrate, to lead atcay 
captive Ezr. 4, 10; see "i^a. 

»^^ (obs.) prob. aldn to i'na, 




v)^n n, to shear away, shave off' (the 
beard); hence 

S55 m. barber^ only Ez. 5, 1. 

I^3!5^ pr. n. (perh. fountain of 
bubbling; ba and ^I'a) of a mountain 
in Issachar 1 Sam. 28, 4. 

bSba (r. bh I; pi. D'^bba) m. 1) 
wheel, of a chariot Is. 5, 28, of a 
well Ecc. 12, 6. 2) a whirhvind Ps. 
77,19. 3) chaff' or stubble, as whirling 
before the wind Ps. 83, 14, Is. 17, 13. 

^5!pB Chald. m. a wheel Dan. 7, 9. 

^a!?^ (c. V:^5) m. 1) tfj^ee/, of a 
threshing-wain Is. 28, 28. 2) hpt'n 
pr. n. (the circuit, or the rolling 
away Josh. 5, 9) of a place near Je- 
richo Josh. 4, 19; perh. bs^arj r\'^^ 
in Neh. 12, 29 is the same. In Josh. 
12, 23 b^h is perh. to be read for 
baVa : so the Sept., Maurer, Winer, etc. 

rtsbil (w. suf. in^ah, pi. w. suf. 
firfpapa) f. skull or head Judg. 9, 53; 
fig. (like our head) for mdividual, 
Ex. 16, 16 an omer inbaba^ to the 
head, i. e. for each one. So called 
from the round shape of the head 
(r. bba I). Comp. Chald. Ktnbah, 
roXYp'^a Mat. 27, 33. 

1 ^»i (obs.) akin to ibri I, to cover 

over, enclose; hence 

*I5t! (w. suf. ^'^^) m. prop, a cover- 
ing, then skin J oh 16, 15; cf. Arab. 

ji*., Syr. I r^^^ a hide. 


< iVii I (fut. nba";, apoc. ba;i) 
akin to hba, perh. byia, #0 ma^e bare, 
to strip or Mnccwer (in Piel); fig. 
to disclose, to reveal, esp. in the 
phrase Q "jt^ hba fo uncover some- 
body's ear 1 Sam. 20, 2, i. e. to lay 
it open for whispering something 
into itj to uncover a secret Am. 3, 7, 
i. e. to disclose it; to uncover a book 

Jer. 32, 11, i. e. to lay open a rolL 
— Niph. to be discovered, laid bare 
Ez. 13, 14; fig. to be revealed, laid 
open Job 38, 17. — Pi. nba (fut. 
apoc. ba"^) to uncover (w. Jil'ns? the 
sexual parts for cohabiting) Lev. 
20, 11; to open (the eyes) Num. 
22, 31; to reveal Job 20, 27; to 
betray Is. 16, 3; to remove the 
covering (w. ^5 upon) Lam. 2, 14. — 
Pu. to be stript Nah. 2, 8. — Hilli. 
1) to uncover oneself Gen. 9, 21. 2) 
to disclose itself, e. g. the heart 
Prov. 18, 2. 

rr^H II (fut. apoc. ba-;)) perh. 
akin to S'ba I, to fling away; hence 
to drive into exile (cf. busba, late 
Heb. b^oVp exile). But esp. intrans. 
the joy of the land is chased away, 
i. e. banished Is. 24, 11, comp. Am. 
1, 5; niba"!? until the carrying 
away of Jerusalem , i. e. until the 
captivity Jer. 1, 3. — Niph. to be 
removed Is. 38, 12. — Pi. to roll along 
Jer. 33, 6; to drive forth Vs. 119,22.— 
Pu. to be banished Nah. 2, 8. — Hiph. 
to drive into exile 2 K. 25, 1 1 . — Hoph. 
to be banished Jer. 13, 19. — Very 
probably nba I and II are etymologi- 
cally one and the same, as most 
Lexicons assume. 


\ I ^'mS, see K^a. 

T , ■" 

n ^5 pr. n. (circuit) of a city in the 
mountain range of Judah Josh. 15, 51 ; 
gentil. n. 'ip'b^a Gilonite 2 Sam. 15, 12. 

nbB; see hVia. 

T ' T 

♦15 3i f. 1) i. q. ba, a well Josh. 
15, 19. 2) i. q. ba, bowl-shaped capital, 
of a pillar 1 K. 7, 41. 3) oil-bowl^ 
i. q. ba, Zech. 4, 3; cf. YauXo;, E. 

^bii Chald. (c. n!iVa;r. xba) fem. 

T ^ T ' T :' 

ea:i7e, NMba "^53 ea-i/es Dan. 2, 25, 






(only pi. ^^^') m. prop. 
round blocks, logs; hence in derision 
idols Ez. 8, 10. 

Dib? (c. pi. "^ai^a; r. dVa) m. 
covering, mantle Ez. 27,24. — Perh. 
akin to ^Xajxu;. 

■jibs Josh. 21, 27 K'thibh, seelbia. 

Sn^br*, ribil Obaa. 20 (w. — firm, c. 

T ••. T ^ T ' 

wba, w. suf. 'insiba ; r. n^a II) f. a carry- 
ing away, captivity or exile Ez. 1,2; fig. 
exiles ox captives 3 QT. 24,5, cf.Is. 45, 13. 

i^tn^bS Chald., see si^a. 

T; T ' T 

n^Ii (Qal ohs.) akin to h^S I, 
perh. prop, to he smooth, then to he 
hare, hald. Hence Pi. Tbi^ to make 
bald, to shear or shave (head, 
heard) Deut. 21, 12, 1 Ch. 19, 4; 
fig. to devastate (a land) Is. 7, 20. 
— Pu. to he shorn Judg. 16, 17. — 
Hith. 1) to shave oneself Tier. 13, 33. 
2) to cut off' the hair from oneself 
(w. double ace. , see Gram. § 54, 3, c) 
Num. 6, 19. — Akin to Syr. ^-*-^^. 

^3 Chald., see ttVa. 

• • ' T : 

'ji''b? (cf. "(i^^S; pi. d'li'ih; r. 
ii^a I) m. 1) table or tablet (for writ- 
ing), made of smooth or polished 
material (wood, stone or metal). Is. 
8, 1. 2) metal plate, mirror Is. 3, 23. 

b^'ba (pi. d-i^^bs) adj. m., h^^Va f. 
(pi. wb'^^a) turning, rolling, of a door 
1 K. 6, 34; but used most as subst. 
2) prob. a ring in Cant. 5, 14, Est. 
1, 6. 3) circuit, region Josh. 13, 2. 
4) pr. n. (circle, r. bba I) Galilee Is. 
8, 23; b^ban Josh. 20, 7, Sept. -^ 
FaXiXaia; cf. ^SS. 

n5"'bS f. circuit, district Ez. 47, 
8 ; see ^''Sa. 

D''^5 pr« «• (prob. fountains) of a 
place north of Jerusalem 1 Sam. 25, 44. 

^Z?% W' ^' i^« (peril. revealcT, 
r. n^a'f) 1 Sam. 17, 4. 

y^3 I (1 pers. perf. i^ik, 3 pi. 
il^^a Gen. 29, 3 ; imp. ba, Isia, also ba 
in Ps. 119, 22) to roll, cause to turn, 
w. ace. ^352 'a ^0 roll away (e. g. 
shame) from, upon Josh. 5, 9 ; ^X 'a, 
^? , <o roZ^ (from oneself) to or itpo?* 
(another) Prov. 16, 3, Ps. 37, 5. — 
NIph. baj, pi. ^^3, fut. h"^, 1) to be 
rolled together (as a scroll or volume). 
Is. 34, 4. 2) to roll oneself along, as 
billows Am. 5, 24. — Po'al ^bia to 
he rolled Is. 9, 4. — Hithpo. ^]?anrn 
^0 roll oneself down (w. ^?) upon 
some one, i. e. to attack him Gen. 
43, 18. — Pilp. ^aba to roll, w. ace. 
Jer. 51 , 25, — Hitlipalp. ^abanfi to 
roll oneself along, Job 30, 14. — 
Hiph. ban to roll, a stone Gen. 29, 
10. — Prob. mimet. akin to d^a, 

i^a II, ba^, b^^ I, bb:2 iv, xuXiw, w. 
chwylo, E. wheel. 

<^ ^i^ II (obs.) perh. akin to b^ri I, 

to hollow out, excavate; hence perh. 
ba, n^a 2. 

y^ Chald. m. prop, a rolling, 
hence fully b^a "jlK stone of rolling, 
i. e. great and heavy stone that had 
to be rolled along Ezr. 5, 8. 

bb^ (c. bba; r. bba I) m. 1) dung, 
ordure, as of rounded or globular 
form 1 K. 14, 10. 2) turn, circum- 
stance, occasion, but only in union w, 
3 and used as prep,, b^aa Gen. 39, 5 
(w. suf. ?i5)ba3 Gen. 30,' 27; Dsbbaa, 
Deut. 1, 37) on account of, for the 
sake of, hke HI^N. 3) pr. n. m. (perh, 
roller) 1 Ch. 9, 15. 

bbS (w. suf. ib^a Job 20, 7, pi. 
d'l^ba Zeph. 1, 17; c. ^b^a Ez. 4, 12) 
m. i. q. V^a 1, dung, ordure (of men)j 




plur. haUs or stools of dung (of men) 
Ez. 4, 15 J r. bba I. 

ibba , see Vba. 

*'?5? P^^' ^' ^' (perh. dungy, cf. 
*)^a l)Neh. 12, 36. 

U^3 (fut. fi^S'^) akin to b^al, fo 


roll or /oM together, only in 2 K. 2, 
€; hence 

DbH (w. suf. 'ia^a)m. atorapping 
together, a mass; hence unformed 
mbstance, foetus, embryo, only in Ps. 
139, 16. 

I'D y3 (ohs.) perh. akin to fi^a, 

<o wrap together, hence to he tight 
or hard, sterile; hence perhaps 

l^^iSbB adj . m., iTn^iaba f . prop, hard, 
of stony ground (akin to D^a, cf, 
CTE^^oi, Jj. sterilis); fig. unfruitful, of 
a wife Is. 49, 21, of a night without 
births Job 3, 7; shrivelled, famished 
Job 15, 34. — The *! is prob. a for- 
mative ending, as in ^53?; seep. 135. 

tf^m^ I (Qal obs.) akin to SJ^J?, 
<o /?w^ or hurl. — Hith. to fling 
oneself about, fig. to quarrel or fight 
Prov. 17, 14; to he violently excited 
Prov. 20, 3. 

• ^3 II (obs.) perh. to he stiff, 
hard; cf. Sans. Jatos (frozen), li.gelu, 
glades, callum. Hence ^^^&, perh. 
*T?ba. ^ 

!• /p^ (obs.) f &e hard or rough; 

cf. Arab, jjd^ <o he hard. — Prob.= 
5ba II, w. "1 as format, ending; see 
p. 'l35. 

'^•?'?? 1) pr. n. m. (hard or rough) 
Gileadl^VLm. 26, 29; patron, "i^^'ba 
Gileadite Judg. 11,1. 2) pr. n. (hard 
or rough country, or for ^i'ba Gen. 
31, 47) of a city and region between 

the Jabbok and the Arnon Gen. 31, 
21, Hos. 6, 8. 

13^b5 pr. n. (hill of witness) of a 
hill Gen. 31, 47. 

12^3 (only in Cant. 4, 1 ; 6, 5) 

prob. akin to Arab, j**!*., to sit, lie 
down; thy locks are as a flock of 
goats ^^"bt ^fnp 1^^^^ which lie down 
upon mount Gilead, i. e. as if hanging 
from its side or brow, cf. xaO^a&ai 
ex TTOLYtov in Soph. Antig. 411. 

rtii , see W^a. 

'.. T ' T 

D^ (r. d73al)conj. akin to 63, prop. 
accumulation , junction , addition; 
hence the following meanings, 1) to- 
gether, e. g. d'^y:: Da (L. ambo) 
both together Gen. 27, 45. 2) also, 
even, in the way of accession, e. g. 
'ns53-^35n'i ii^VsJ^a da also by his 

-AT v- : • T T -: - : - -^ 

works is a youth known Prov. 
20, 11 comp.l4, 20; in this sense, it 
stands w. tlie pronoun repeated for 
the sake of emphasis e. g. da Sf^rt 
i^^t} she even she, i. e. also she her- 
self Gen. 20, 5, ^Sit da "^aD^ia bless 

' I . T - ■ I" -: T 

me, also me Gen. 27,34 (Gram. § 121, 
3); w. neg. not even, not so much 
as, Ps. 14, 3; also yea, intensifying 
the verb, nij<^ da Jiiji'^ see, yea, see 
i. e. only just look 1 Sam. 24, 12; or 
in union w. "iS, as "^3 da even when, 
although Is. 1, 15; or adversative, 
even then, even so, i. e. yet Ez. 16, 28. 
— da and dS are akin to L. con, 
cum, cumulus, Gr. $6v, xoivoi;, y7.jxo;, 
W.gan, cym (= cyd); Sans, sam, Gr. 
a|jia, 6|xou, L. simul, G. sammt, E. 
same, Sax. sam. 

T T 

(Qal obs.) akin to 5>aa 
Chald. to absorb, drink up. — Pi. to 
swallow Job 39, 24. — Hiph. to cause 
to drink Gen. 24, 17. Hence 

i^t33 m. bulrush, prop, absorbent 




of moisture (r. 6<^a) , esp. Egyptian 
papyrus, paper-reed (papyrus Nilo- 
tica), from which also vessels and 
boats were made Ex. 2, 3, Is. 18, 2. 

^A3ill(obs.)i.q.Arab. j*»A., prob. 

Aram. >or^, Qt!?) ^o cut off, divide, 
hence to measure^ Hence laa, perh. 

~/33 n (obs.) perh. akin to dps 
ijto join) w. ending 1 (as in 'lis:?), 

Arab. j»^ and Chald. d^a to hind 
together; hence to he strong, valiant 
(comp. 'nia); hence prob. "7^5. 

"l'?33 m. prop, a dividing; hence 
a measure, prob. an ell or cuhit (r, 
laa I; comp. srniiaa), only in Judg. 
3, 16; cf. Syr. |,.j^a^ cubit. 

1y!25 (only pi. di'iaSi) m. mighty 
mew, MJarWors (comp. ^liSia; see Rodi- 
ger's note in App. to Gesen. The- 
saurus, p. 79), only Ez. 27, 11 (r. 
n??a 11); perh. dwarfs (r. ^'^a I). 

^^^S or ^I31i m. 1) prop. part, 
pass, a weaned child'Ps. 131,. 2. 2) pr. 
n. m. (weaned) 1 Ch. 24, 17 ; r. ^aa IL 

b^^? (w. suf. ^^aa, pi. d^psiaa) m. 
1) hearing, deportment or cfeseH 
(good or bad); fully ti^^T^ 'a he- 
haviour or cieserf o/* the hands 
Judg. 9, 16; in a good sense, henefit 
Ps. 103, 2; in a bad sense, punish- 
ment Is. 35, 4; to return or repay 
to one his desert h b^m n'^Uirt Lam. 

3, 64, w. h^ Ps. 94,2; w. m^a Joel 

4, 4; also ^ 'a d|;y Is. 59, 18; "w. ^? 
Joel 4,4; r. S^a I. 

nb^^S (pi. ni^aa) f. henefit 2 
Sam. 19, 37; punishment Jer. 51, 56. 

T1j3 (obs.) perh. akin to dplW 
(by transposition), #0 6e hard, firm; 

hence in Talm. t*ltaa sycamore, and 
the following. 

^T123 pr. n. (for "jitaa, prob. syca- 
more plantation; perh. only a transpo- 
sition for djDtb sycamore) of a city 

in Judah 2 Ch. 28, 18. 


P/33 I (fut. ^ba*^) akin to ^a!^^ 
bari II, 1) fo hear (a burden), hence 
baa. 2) fo tear or hehave oneself tO' 
wards any one, to requite, mostly 
construed w. ^3? Ps. 13, 6 or V Deut. 
32, 6 of the person; hence fig. t(y 
reward, recompense; in a good sense, 
to henefit, w. ace. of pers. Is. 63, 7> 
also w. SI'd Prov. 31, 12, w. nnia 1 
Sam. 24, 18, or in a bad sense, to ill 
treat, w. addition of 5>'n Ps. 7, 7, or 
TO"! Prov. 3, 30. 

T T ' 


y^ n(fut. ^sba"^) prob. akin ta 
^aa, l)intrans. to mature,to ripen (of 
fruits) Is. 18, 5. 2) trans, to make mature 
or ripe (fruits) Num. 17, 23; to wean 
IK. 11, 20 (i. e. to treat as mature^ 
or fit to be taken from the breast), more 
fully in Is. 28, 9 a^na '^blaa weaned 
from milk (Gram. § 116, 1). — Niph.^ 
to he weaned Gen. 21, 8. 

b533 (r. i)aa I; pi. d'^^aa, see 
Gram. § 93, 8,' Parad. VHI)" com, 
gend. hearer, carrier i. e. the beast 
of burden , a camel, male or female^ 
Gen. 32, 16. — Same as ba^a, Syr- 

llio!^, Arab. J^; hence xa(Jt,Tr)Xo?^ 
YttfjifAa, Irish caval, F. chameau, Copt.. 
^AHOyA , Sans, kramela. 
inb'?J3, see n^siaa. 

T \ : T ( 

<^^ pr. n. m. (camel -man)- 
Num. 13, 12. 

5^*^503 pr. n. m. (God is my re- 
compense) Num. 1, 10; Sept. and N^ 
Test. FajxaXiT^X. 



U/J? I (dhs.) akin to dial^ to join, 

gather together, combine, hence Da 
and perh. Jnaaa. — Akin to dn I, 
•yaixo;, Sans, yaman (a couple), L. 
cum, E. chum, W. c;ym (as in cym- 
daifA companion). 

UTJ^ n (obs.) perh. akin to 

- T 

Arab. *U., to strive after, long for; 
hence, according to some, njaao* 

If/Q^ (obs.) prob. akin to Chald. 
ym to dig, but perh. i. q. ynj? to 
gather; hence y&^ii Ecc. 10, 8 perh. 
may be a pit or a gathering -placey 
receptacle (comp. iTij^a). 

\/j2^ (fut. 'ib^';) akin to ^aa n, 
1) intrans. to come to an end, to cease, 
to fail Ps. 7, 10. 2) trans, to bring to 
an end, to complete, w. "bs Ps. 67, 3, 
w. ^?3 Ps. 138, 8, where to finish a 
matter for (^?3, b?) somebody, is to 
carry on his cause. 

1^5^ Chald. to perfect, only in 
part. pass. *iiaa Ezr. 7, 12 finished. 

1533 1) pr. n. f. (completion) 
Hos. 1, 3. 2) pr. n. of a people prob. 
the Cimmerians Gen. 10, 2. — This 
^aa is akin to Ki[JL|xepioi, W. Cymri, 
L. Cimbri, Crimea and Krim; the 
root perh. being ^^3 #o be dark 
(whence d'^^'^'nais darkness), as they 
anciently lived in the dark or northern 
parts of Asia, comp. Horn. Odyss. XI, 
14, 15 Iv9a 6e KifAfAspitov dv6poiv 
SyjiAOi T£ ir6Xii xe, -^epi xal ve^eXTrj 

n^123a, iin^^l^-i pr. n. m. (Jn*^ 
completes) Jar. 29, 3; 36, 10. 

15 (w. suf. isa, pi. d'^sa Cant. 4, 
13; r. "Jia) com. gend. prop, a place 
hedged or walled around, hence an 

enclosure, a garden, orchard, park, 
Gen. 2, 8, comp. Is. 39, 4. 'j'TS) -,a 
Gen. 3, 24 pleasure garden. Para- 
dise, called also Mjh^ "ja Gen. 13, 10, 
d^rt^x la Ez. 28,' 13; but p^'^i^ la 
Aer6 garden, kitchen -garden Deut. 
11, 10. 

Iij3 (fut. nba*^) akin to sa back, 

Arab. wJa. side, prop, to put behind 
or aside, to secrete (cf. 'VO(7^{aaa0ai 
in Acts 5, 3), hence to steal, w. ace. 
of thing Gen. 31, 19; to rob, w. ace. 
ofpers. 2 Sam. 19, 42; part. f. pass. 
dl'i ''naaa Gen. 31, 39 stolen by day (see 
Gram. § 90, 3, a) ; fig. to deceive (cf. L. 
tergiversari) Qt&xi.Z\,27 ', esp. w. ib to 
steal i. e. to deceive the heart i. e. to 
evade notice Gen. 31, 20: cf. xXeu- 
TSiv voov Hom. II. 14. 217. — Nipli. 
to be stolen Ex. 22, 11. — Pi. to steal 
often (see Gram. § 52, 2, Note ^), 
to pilfer, Jer. 23, 30; to deceive 
(w. n^) 2 Sam. 15, 6. — Pu. (inf. 
abs. asa Gen. 40, 15) to be stolen 
Ex. 22, 6; w. b^t, Job 4, 12 'nan ^bx 
asa'i to me a word was stolen, i. e. 
imparted to me as if by stealth. — 
Hith. to steal oneself away, i. e. tc 
slink off 2 Sam. 19, 4. Hence 

155 (pl. fi'^325) m. thief Ex. 22, 1 ; 
d'^asa ''lan ftawffe of thieves Is. 1, 23. 

•T- ~ J - ' ' 

n^?? f. (w. suf. inaaa) a theft, 

thing stolen Ex. 22, 3. 

Xnll5a pr. n. m. (perh. Copt., c£ 
Kvou<pU; prob. theft) 1 K. 11, 20. 

^tC^"^ Gen. 31, 39 (for naisa) 
part. pass. fem. constr. st. w. 1-7- 
parag. from r. SW (Gram. § 90, 3, a). 

nSa (r. "jsa) f. garden, park Job 
8, 16; pl. misa groves Am. 4, 9. 

JlS^ f. garden, chiefly in later 
Heb.j^Est. 1, 5; r. "Jia. 


- T 



Tj3 (obs.) akin to bi3, Chald. 
ttJas, Syr. iJL, to gather together; 
hence to store up or hide; hence 

T5B (only c. pi. •itaa) 1) prop, 
things collected or hidden; hence 
treasures Est. 3, 9. 2) chests for 
heeping valuables , treasure - chest 
Ez. 27, 24, where some render it 

T5? Chald. (only pi. c. ^1}^, def. 
a<;jt3a) m. treasures Ezr. 6,1; n'^a 
fc<Jt:a house of the treasures, treasury 
Ezr. 5, 17. 

"^l?? (only pi. d'lStia) m. frea- 
swries', only 1 Ch. 28, 11; from r. t3a 
w. old format, ending T^-3-; see under 
letter 3. 

j j3 (1 perf. iW'sa 2 K. 20, 6, inf. 
abs. f^ Is. 31, 5) akin to 15!^, perh. 
•jan, 153, 'J5^, to cover J guard, w. ^? 
2 K. 20, 6 J will cover over this city, 
i. e. will defend it as w. a covering; 

w. ^it 2 K. 19, 34. — Hiph. (fut. is;: 

Is. 31, 5) to defend, w. b? Zech. 9, 
15, w. n?a Zech. 12, 8; hence "jaa. 

V| j3 Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 
C)5^, {:]53* <o co?;er over, hide, hence 
t\l wing, for p)5a (&i5a), as r\2 is for 

1 llHii!! pr. n. m. (gardener) Neh. 
10, 7, written linsa in 12, 4. 



^0 foi^;, of cattle 1 Sam. 6, 

12. — Mimet. like Ar. ^, Syr. ^Jis«» 
|.ikXi ^0 call, cry (of men or cattle), 
YOY), Sans. ^At* (to mutter), L. ceva^ 
Ger. A:m^, E. cow (cf. coo and caw^ 
of birds). Hence 

»1!^3 pr. n. (lowing) of a place 
near Jerusalem Jer. SI, 39 txnsi, 

' TIT 

Vi?3 (fut. h^y^) akin to Kxa 2, 
^bri, #0 profane, hence io cfe/^fe; fig. 
fo abhor or reject, to cast away Lev. 
26, 44, w. a Jer. 14, 19.— Niph. to he 
cast away (in disgust or dishonour) 
2 Sam. 1, 21. — Hiph. to reject; his 
hull (i^TiyJ, or his cow) casteth not 
away or refuseth not (the impregna- 
ting seed) Job 21, 10. 

9, 26.' 

^?B m. loathing, only Ez. 16, 5. 

I*?H (fut. 'i:?^';) mimet. akin to 
Syr. fM^ to roar, "I>13> III, fi<'n|3 I, 
j perh. 'i^iy, to cry out, hence fo call 
out at, to scold, w. 3 of the pers. Gen. 
37, 10; to rehuJce w. the ace. or w. 3 
Ps. 9, 6, Is. 54, 9; b55<3 'a to rehuke 
(i. e. to check) the devourer Mai. 3, 
11; 5'n'rti 'a <o c/wrfe ifAe seed, i. e. 
stop it from growing Mai. 2, 3; a 
d'=?3 to rehuke the sea, i. e. make it 
quiet Ps. 106, 9 (cf. Mat. 8, 26 £tc£- 
Ti|XTf](7£ xri fiaXaaaT]). — This mimet. 
r. is akin to Sans, gri (to cry), 
•yirjpuu), L. garrio, Ger. girren, W. 
mo. Deriv. in'ns';^^ and 

rn^'^ (c. n'nSJa) f. rehuke Prov. 
13, l.^^-'^''/7 

tZ3«/3 (fut. t^^*]) perh. akin to 
iU^i, to he tossed ahout, to he shaken, 
of "the earth Ps. 18, 8. — Pu. UJ?li, 
to he violently shaken or dismayed 
Job 34, 20. — Hith. to he shaken, 
of earth- quake 2 Sam. 22, 8 Q'ri, of 
the waves of the sea Jer. 5, 22. — 
Hitlipo. yj^ann to he shaken, to stag- 
ger or reel, as one drunken Jer. 25, 
16. Hence 

TD^ll pr. n. (perh. earthquake) 
of a part of mount Ephraim Josh. 
24, 30; u:?i ^htr: valleys of Gaash 2 
Sam. 23, 30. 




ln?3 2 Sam. 14, 10 inf. constr. 
Qal of 3>53 to touch. 

Dri^a pr. n. m. (perh. their smi- 
ting or' touch, r. 5>55) Gen. 36, 11. 

ri5 (pl. c. IBS; r. t\^) m. i. q. Sa 
f^e hack or ridge ; Prov. 9, 3 ow <Ae 
ridges of the heights; fig. fto^Zy, -person, 
*iB5Si in Ais ot^n person, hy himself 
alone Ex. 21, 3. 

r|5 Chald. (pl. "JIBS; r. tiSS) m. 
wing Dan. 7, 4. 

jDH (ohs.) akin to "jna, tiSa, <o fee 
5enf, cwrve^?, winding. Hence 

■JS^ (w. suf. "^asa, pl. D'^iSS.) com. 
gend. (m. only in Hos. 10, 1, 2 K. 
4, 39) a vine Is. 7, 23; fully "iSa 
'J'?3'!? ^'^^ ^***^ <^/* w;iwe, i. e. the grape- 
\dne Num. 6, 4; iHyo 'a a field vine, 
i. e. a wild vine-like plant 2 K. 4, 
39, bearing wild cucumber. — Comp. 
5|xireXo5 (perh. = a}xcp{ and ztkio or 
elXiaao)), L. t?i^is (= vimeii) from 
rieo; but see i33>. 

Sj^^ (obs.) akin to asa, fo &e 
gibbous, curved; hence f)5, akin to 

iDIl (obs.) akin to ^Sa, n^S H, 
^B3 n, to bind, hence to be hard, 
strong, esp. of a tree; hence 

^SB m. prob. cypress, gopher-tree 
a hard tree, used for ship-building, 
yielding a kind of resin or pitch, 
only in Gen. 6, 14 ish "i^? gopher- 
timbers. — Akin to ^S3, xu7iapi<jao<;, 
L. cupressus. 

X^'^'^35 (from ^Bh) f. prop, resin 
of the gopher-tree, pitch; then trans- 
ferred to sulphur or brimstone Gen. 
19, 24. 

^ (part, of ^!ia I) m., rrna f., prop. 
dwelling or sojourning Ex. 12, 49; 

then w. Ii^a, <z sojourner Ex. 3, 22; 
inhabitant in general Job 28, 4. 

*15, once ^"^a 2 Ch. 2, 16 (r. "isial; 
w. suf. ^"na, i'na, pl. Q'^'na) m. a so- 
journer, stranger (not a native JTiTX), 
Num. 9, 14; a foreigner Gen. 15, 
13; a visitor or pilgrim Ps. 39, 13, 

*ia Is. 27, 9, see ^^^a lime. 

"na Jer. 51, 38 i. q. Iia a whelp, 

JS^^^a pr. n. m. (perh. i. q. JTia a 
grain) Gen. 46, 21. 

ivi Jm\ (obs.) mimet. akin to S^a, 
d'na, perh. S)'na, fo scrape, scratch, to 
tear off. — Of. the mimet. fpar^ia, 
L. scribo, W. crafu, ysgrafu, E. grave, 
scrape, Ger. graben. Hence 

n'^B m. S(?a& or scurvy Deut. 28, 
27; as adj. scahbedliev. 21, 20. 

^t}^ pr. n. m. (scabby) 2 Sam. 
23, 38; but a^a roaa pr. n. (hill of the 
leper) of a hill near Jerusalem, Jer. 
31, 39. 

^^^? (pl. ts'^'na'na) m. berry Is. 
17, 6; r. ^'na II = bVa I to be round. 

' ' - T -T 

in'^ii^? (only in pl. w. suff. 
?]'<nSa'i'a; r. ^^5 in) f. throat, gullet, 
but always of the external throat, 
the neck Prov. 1, 9. — Akin to 
•jlia, YapYapeojv, L. gurgulio, Ger. 
gurgel, E. gurgle, all taken from the 
rough, rolling sound in the throat. 

1Z33 j3 (obs.) perh. akin to Xt^\ 
to cast forth i. e. mud (said of the 
sea in Is. 57, 20); hence to be slimy, 
miry, hence 

ira'nS pr. n. (perh. clay soil) of 
a region in Canaan; gentil. n. ''UJa'ia 
Girgashite Gen. 10, 16. 

'J*^ (Qal obs.) mimet. akin to 
la^ia, ca^r;, i>'^r}, y^n, rnn, to scratch 
or scrape out; then to scratch in 

nia 132 

T T 

general. — Hith. to scratch oneself, 
w. 21 of instrument Job 2, 8. — Cf. 
the mimetic ^apatTw, Ital. grat- 
tare, L. radere, E. grate, scratch, W. 
carthu, Ger. kratzen; cf. n'na. 

li lii I (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 

*^y^f ^y^i io glow, fig. to he angry, 
excited. — Pi. rrna (fut. h'la';) to 
inflame, stir up ('j'Ti'a) strife Prov. 
15, 18. — Hith. to excite oneself, 
against (a) anybody Jer. 50, 24; to 
he angry Prov. 28, 4; to contend w., 
make war upon Deut. 2, 5; w. fi^l^^p 
to contend in battle Dan. 11, 25. 

M l3 n (obs.) i. q. ^-na III, fo 

swallow, gurgle; hence 11*131 1, "jl'^a. 

♦1*J5 (formed like nap) f. 1) some- 
thing swallowed down(r. nna II), esp. the 
cud, iTn^ Ji^l^fl #0 ftriw^ up the cud 
Lev. 11, 3, iTna 'iia fo swalloio the 

' ' T" - r 

cud Lev. 11, 7, both used for chew- 
ing the cud. 2) i. q. ^la'^a, a grain, 
kernel, used as the smallest weight 
and coin, a gerah, the twentieth part 
of a shekel Ex. 30, 13: r. 'Tna = bba 

' ' -T -T 

^0 6e round. 

■ji^ia (c- I'i'^Si; r. fTnaiI)m. throat, 
as the organ of speech Is. 58, 1 , of 
swallowing Ps. 69, 4; to cry w. the 
throat, i. e. aloud Is. 58, 1; neck 
Is. 3, 16; akin to n'ng"i5, which see. 

W^a f' place of sojourn, an inn, 
only Jer. 41, 17; r. nsia L 

T j3 (Qal obs.) i. q. 'nn, "I'll?, to 
cut off, sever. — Niph. only in Ps. 
31 , 23 ''ntias I am cut off. Deriv. 
•ina and 

T iB pr. n. (a waste) of an unknown 
region, hence gentil. "'^'iSi, Deut. 11, 29; 
•'na 1 Sam. 27, 8 (Q'ri 'I'lta) Girzite, 
or Gerizite. 

0**^*^^ pr, n. (always w. *lrt, mount 


of the Gerizites) of a mountain 

opposite to Mt. Ebal on its south side 
Josh. 8, 33. 

IT*]? m. i. q. d'n'np, an axe Deut. 
19, 5;" r. t^a i. q. ^tj (Gram. § 82, 1, 
Note 2). 

LJ jil (obs.) i. q. D'^ri, fo carve or 
hollow out (a vessel to hold some- 
thing), hence bl3"i5X. 


y }m\ I (obs.) akin to ^^a IV (as 
b^n to "I'ln), mod. Syr. "V^ (Stod- 
dard's Gram. p. 12) to roll; hence 
prob. b'^ia a pebble used as a /of. 


/^ _U n (obs.) akin to "n^a n> , to 
be rough, sharp; hence 

^"y^ adj. m. sharp, only as c. V"i5 
in K'thibh of Prov. 19, 19 n^an-^^a 

' T •• T : 

stern of anger; perh. for MaJi-b'ia 
as in Q'ri, cf. fJi£YaX66u}j!,o;. 

b^b, see b^ia. 

T ' T 

U Ji^I(obs.) akin to d';?i?> ^0 yjver* 
?ay, to cover over; hence 

tlS*!!* (pi. d'la'na) m. prop, crusty 
skin (cf. Talm. ti^lp); fig. body (comp. 
*Tf5) 6ocfy in Job 18, 13), Gen. 49, 14 
D'na ^I'an aw ass of body i. e. well- 
grown, stout; bone Prov. 17, 22; 
like d^5> for se//", very, 2 K. 9, 13 
nibsj^afi d'na"b&5 upon the steps them- 
selves i. e. the very steps, the bare 
steps. Hence 

U J^ II(denom of d'la) to skin, 
to flay, Zeph. 3, 3 *ij53^ ^iTa^a xb they 
do not flay (i. e. devour) in the mor- 
ning (but consume all at night). — 
Pi. to strip, to lay bare (the bones) 
Num. 24, 8; fig. to lick clean (the 
sherds) Ez. 23, 34. 

Dt)? Chald. (pi. w. suf. 'j'iiT'a'na) 
m. bone Dan. 6, 25. 




""-^l^ pr. n. m. (bony or strong) 
1 Ch. 4, 19. 

"InS (obs.) perb. akin to 'Tna H, 
^■na I, <o roZ/, bence to level, make 
smooth. Hence 

■j'lii (w. suf. la-ia Is. 21, 10, w. 
n-;-*ioc. nnj Mic.'i, 12, pi. n'is'na 

Joel 2, 24, c. niD'ia Hos. 9, 1.) m. 
(f. in Jer. 51, 33) 1) prop, a rolling, 
hence level place, area, before the 
gate of a city 1 K. 22, 10. 2) threshing- 
floor Ruth 3, 2; ''S"]*-')? son of mg 
threshing-floor Is. 21, 10, L e. my 
poor people crushed as corn in the 
threshing; fig. for grain Job 39, 12. 

l3 mimet. akin to bia, b*l2>, 
yDi?) Syr. '-iOi-.^, to break or crush; 
only intrans. Ps. 119, 20 mg soul 
breaks (•nb'^a) for longing. — Hipli. 
to break in pieces, crush, e. g. the 
teeth w. gravel stones, Lam. 3, 16. 

— Cf. our mimetic crush, crash, 
crunch, crack, F. ecraser, G. krachen. 

2? j3 I (fut. SJ^i^'i) akin to 5)^^, fo 
tear or cm^ o^ Jer. 48, 37, to curtail 
Ex. 21, 10, hence to restrain or limit 
Job 15, 4. 8; to take off (the eyes) 
tv. "jp Job 36, 7. — Niph. to be cut 
off from (IP) Lev. 27, 18; to be 
diminished Hx. 5, 11; hence to be less 
esteemed Num. 9, 7. 

• Jil n (Qal obs.) akin to ^^iS HI, 

Arab, ^y^, to swalloio (water). — Pi. 
<fut. SJ^a-^) to drink up Job 36, 27. 

^1 j3 perh. akin to a'i3, C]t!riI/o 
seize, to grasp (hence v)i'n;\!J?, SiS'nip), 
only in Judg. 6, 21 to snatch away. 

— Comp. Or. greifen, E. gripe, grab, 
grapple , grip. 

iji^ I (fut. ni;"; "w. suf. si!i;nh']) 

akin to ^5^, Chald. "n^"^, to collect Hab. 
1, 15; to snatch away Prov. 21, 7. 

I j3 II (Qal obs.) <o saw, hence 
irnap."— Pu. 'rna to be sawed asun- 
der 1 K. 7, 9. — Mimet. akin to XpOLO), 
xefpo), Sans, char (hew), E. shear. 

I jH m only in fut. Qal "la"; 
(which may be Niph.), mimet. akin 
to iTna n, 7apYap(Co>, gurgle; hence 
to chew the cud, only Lev. 11, 7; 

hence nia'na. 

vr; t- 

I j3 IV (Qal obs.) akin to b^al, 
^"na I, 'TIS n, "najj (whence perh. 
t^'nax, akin to H^a^, what is rolled 
or folded up, a letter), to roll; hence 

— Hitbpo'el *i:?iann to roll itself to 
whirl, of a tempest Jer. 30, 23 ('n'n'ianrt 
in 1 K. 17, 20, and Hos. 7, 14, belongs 
to'niiai). — Akin to Sans, char (to 
stir), L. curro, W. gyrru. 

y^^ pr. n. (circle, r. "l^na IV) of a 
city in Philistia Gen. 20, 1. 

12 j3 (obs.) 1. q. tJ^ia to crush 
or pound, esp. grains ; hence 

12*^5 (w. suf. i^b'ia) m. a crushing, 

1Z3 j3 (fut. yi'na';) akin to ^"na rv, 

perh. to yj'i^ n, 1) to drive, chase, w. 
•155^ Ex. 34, 11; #0 send away, to 
divorce (a wife) Lev. 21, 7; fo cas< 
out mire (of the sea) Is. 57, 20; to 
pillage (hence b'^Sp booty) Ez. 36, 5; 
fig. to produce fruit, hence "&)». 

— Niph. to be driven out Jonah 2, 5; 
to be swept away Am. 8, 8; to be 
driven or tossed (the sea) Is. 57,20. — 
Pi. yi'na to expel, w. ace. and yq Gen. 
4, 14. — Pu. Ui^a to be expelled Ex. 
12, 39. 

123'nB m. a putting forth (of 
fruit), hence a yield, product, only 




in Deut. 33, 14 fi^'H'?'; ^If'. produce 
of the months • r. UJia, whence also 

»^''$t'? (Pl- f^iui"?*^) ^* driving out, 
ejectment or expulsion, only in Ez. 45, 9; 
Sept. xaraSovaaTe^a ojjpressiow. 

1^l25"]l^ pr. n. m. (expulsion, r. 
tiy^) Gen. 46, 11; gentil. '^SUJ'na Ger- 
shonite Num. 3, 23. 

DTSjS pr,n.m. (expulsion, orperh. 
stranger there, as if = d^li ^S) a 
son of Moses Ex. 2, 22. 

•"JlZJia, see m-ia. 

IBS, -ttJa Gen. 19, 9, MttSi, see ti555. 

W? imp. pi. of mi ; hut siTlia in 
Josh. 3, 9 and ^UJa 2 fern, in Euth 
12, 14 (Gram. § 66^ 1). 

^^1233 pr. n. (bridge, r. "^m) of a 
district in Syria 2 Sam. 3, 3; gentil. 
*i'i!lUJa Geshurite, a people at the 
foot of Hermon Deut. 3, 14; also a 
people in the South of Palestine 1 
Sam. 27, 8. 

U ^j3 I (Qal ohs.) akin to Uisia, 
roa, fo ^wsA owi, to rain. — Pu. &';aa 
to he rained upon Ez. 22, 24, where 
Praiipa is proh. for tna^a; but seedUia. 
— Hiph. to cause to rain Jer. 14, 
22. Perh. denom. from dUJa. 

U^rt II (ohs.) perh. akin to U3a 
(vuaj), to touch; hence to be tangible ; 
hence perh. dUJa 11. 

D^3 I. (pi. d'lauja, c. ''a^a) m. a« 

viv ^*- • T :' - : •' 

out -pouring, gushing rain, heavy 
shower 1 K. 18, 41 ; dlJa 'ndia Zech. 
10, 1; ^d^ dira Job 37, 6; r. dTlia I. 

' ' , T T •;r; ' ' ~ T 

Dies II pr. n. m. (perh. tangible- 
ness, firmness) Neh. 2, 19, also *IDTlia 
in 3, 6. 

DI53 i. q. dUia raiw, perh. in Pl^^a 
Ez. 22, 24 her rain; but see d^a I. 

d^JB Chald. (w. suf. sia^ra, ^ina^a) 

m. 6o(fy Dan. 4, 30; prob. akin to 
Heb. duia II. 

— T 

^'D^3 pr. n. m. (perh. tangibleness) 
i. q. dUJa, Neh. 6, 6 ; r. d^lJa II. 

uJiA pr. n. 1) of a region in Egypt 
Gen. 45, 10. 2) a city and district in 
the mountains of Judah Josh. 10, 41. 
— If Semitic, the name prob. means 
cloddy, fertile (r. tiM), cf. Homer's Ipi- 
Pu)Xa$; perh. well-watered (akin to 
^% I)- 

H w3 (obs.) akin to Syr. v-^^a.^, 
to stroke, to caress; hence 

KB^ii pr. n. m. (perh.'a caressing) 
Neh. if, 21. 

I^i)3 (obs.) i. q. *!%, to bind; 
hence to build a bridge, whence 'l^tba j 

Arab. ^-M*. to bridge, Syr. j..a-^; cf, 

yecpupav Ce^^ai Herod. 1, 205; see 
"1S3 II. 

— T 

yZjw^ akin to t^), tm n, ^nly 
in Pi. to touch or feel, to grope for^ 
w. ace, only Is. 59, 10. 

Sn^ii, inf. Qal of Uias. 

ln5 (pi. Wfia) f. 1) wine-press, 
trough, in wh. the grapes were press- 
ed, from which the juice flowed into 
the np;: (uTToXrjViov) Joel 4, 13; T|!i'5 
Xna to tread the wine-press Neh. 13, 
15; r. t^'^\^, or perh. better from "jS;^, 
hence T\)t = ina. 2) pr. n. of a Phi- 
listine city 1 Sam. 17, 4; gentil. Tna 
Gathite, Gittite Josh. 13, 3. ^anrf na 
pr. n. (wine-press of the excavation) 
of a city in Zebulon Josh. 19, 13; 
"jla"! P>a pr. n. (press of pomegranates) 
of a city in Dan Josh. 19, 45. 

d?^^ pr. n. (two winepresses) of 
a city of Benjamin Neh. 11, 33. 

ri'^riS (prop, adj.f. from na)f. name 




of a tune or nmsical instrument Ps. 
8, 1, either brought {romGath or perh. 
popular among the vintagers; or from 


nXn^ pr. n. (perh. akin to "n^S 
v»v ^ ^^ •'■ 

bridge) of a district in Chaldea Gen. 
10, 23. 

ilijil (obs.) perh. akin to 'i'^3 
to cut in, to scoop or hollow out, hence 
perh. na; see )^\ 

t DaUtJi, the 4th letter in the 
Heb. Alphabet; hence used also as 
the numeral for 4. Its form on early 
Phenician and Heb. inscriptions is 
A or '^ , whence the Greek A and 
the Roman D. Its name th^ (Rab- 
binic pi. I'^tn^l?) is the same as lib'n 
door; and its primitive triangular 
form was prob.intended to represent a 
tent-door. The form andname (whence 
the Gr. AsXra) served to suggest by 
the initial sound the force of the letter, 
which is either d (y\) or softer as dh 
(*!) = our th in thou; Gram. § 7, 3. 

T interchanges — 1 with its kin- 
dred hnguals and dentals (or sibil- 
ants) t, D, \ b, 2S, ^, \D, n (see under 
each), e. g. V^-n = ^\}, bna = ^a3, 
t^^ = yiiib, tilt} = dbri, ^?^ = b^-n 
(cf. 8axpuov = L. lacrima, odor = 
olor = 5Cri), b^^ = b^& H, n^Q = n^S, 
P-? = p!) (cf. also 5)^13 = SJ'ia), Ci'n\y = 

ti?^ = ^^^, "T?? n = |.Lii^ = 5^, 

(cf. xtqSw = L. euro, XY)8e[A0Via = L. 
ccerimonia), ^1} = iy:(Chald. in), i<T;J'n = 

Chald. ^<5<r\^I= Syr. ||?i, b:i3=^na; 
— 2 with a, e. g. 1p^ = 1p3 (cf. 
6i(; = L. bis, 66eXo<; = 6p£X64). — 
3 w. K, as nb'JT = n^N. 

1 seems to be a formative end- 
ing (peh. akin to Xe}i,7r-a8-04 from 

Xajxiro)) in 13'ip from tpo, ^12^ in 
^'1)3^ for ^)3^ from D^^ (cf. 6|x6;, 
8[AaSo<;, 8|xiXo(; = L. simul), ibS'i 
from bS'n, 'l^TT akin to dp\D, n^?^ to 

d^s, iTii^a to uj^s, nii^aba to dba. 

-t' ••:- -T' :- -T 

Ji^*n Chald. pron. demon, f. Cj'n m.), 
akin to Heb. flT, Tiki, this Dan. 7, 8; 
used as a neuter this thing (else T^'n, 
ns'n). fct'ib fit"! this to that, i. e. to- 
gether Dan. 5, 6; N'n")^ fcfn this from 
that Dan. 7, 3, i. e. from one another. 

3CS •] (inf. r^3^^"^ Jer.3 1 , 1 2, Gram. 

§ 45, 1, b) akin to 3^5J I, 311, tta-i, perh. 
•1^1, fo meZ^ or /?om? awat/, to languish, 
esp. of the pining of the eye for grief 
Ps. 88, 10; of the spirit (UiS5) Jer. 31, 
25; of a person Jer. 31, 12. Hence 

nin^'n f. a melting away for 
anxiety, fig. dread, only Job 41, 14. 

"ji;3]$^ (r.3St'n;c.')'i3&<1)m.a|)im*«^ 
away, of the soul Deut. 28, 65. 
yi^^ i. q. ai a fish Neh. 13, 16. 

3CS •) (fut. axl'^)prob. akin to ?J!|% 
prop, to be crushed; hence fig. to he 
depressed, anxious or despondent 
Jer. 17, 8, w. ace. Is. 57, 11, w. "j^ 
Jer. 42, 16, w. b of the pers. for 
whom one is anxious 1 Sam. 9, 5; 
w. "jia of that from or on account of 




which one fears Ps. 38, 19, cf. Jer. 
42, 16; hence 

Jlik^ pr. n. m. (fearful) of the Edo- 
mite who murdered the priests at 
Nob 1 Sam. 21, 8. 

JljiiJ^n (r.a^'n)f. anxiety, depression 
Ez. 4, 16; agitation (of the sea) Jer. 
49, 23; cf. n'2KX 

n^^ (fut. njt'n^, apoc. N-i; Ps. 
18, 11) akin to fTt;'!!, to dart, to flj/ 
smftly (poet, for t)12)), of birds of 
prey Deut. 28, 49; of God,Ps. 18, 11 
and He did fly \n"y^^ on wings of the 
windi hence JT^'n and ^^^t"l. — Cf. 

' T - T T 

Sans, dhu, dhav (to haste), Gs-eiv. 

n5^*n f. prop, rapid flier, name of 
some bird of prey, prob. the gledeJjev. 
11, 14; Sept.7utp, vuUure;Y-alg.milvus, 
kite or glede, this last name being 
quite analogous, since it comes from 
glide and refers to the bird's dart- 
ing, rapid flight. 


kN * 1 (obs.) prob. akin to bV'n, 
to be tottering, to be poor. Hence 

T -; I • 

^K^ , see "Ti-n 4. 

'y^ or !H'n (pi. fi''3'n) epic, bear or 
she-bear 1 Sam. 17, 34; ^si3UJ n^ a 
bear bereaved of her young Hos. 
13, 8; pi. d^a'n she-bears 2 K. 2, 24; 

r. nsi n. 

- T 

H'n Chald. o 6ear (masc. or fem.) 
Dan. 7, 5. 

iS-il^ (obs.) perh. akin to iS^'n, 
ait, fo /Zo«^; hence 

Klll'n m. affluence, fulness; only 
in Deut. 33, 25 as thy days, so "^^"^ 
thy affluence (Sept. if) la^u^ aoo), i. e. 
let thy prosperity be as long as life. 

mImI^ I (Qal obs.) perh. mimet. 
and akin to ^Vi I, W. llavar, Bret. 

lavaret, Irish fevra ("7 = 1), whence 
perh. palaver, to speak. — Pi. (obs.) 

:3^'n (akin to Syr. > nn^, Arab, k^fj 

<o noise, fo scold), to tattle or 6fe&, to 
slander, whence na'n. — Po. iSi^ fo 

' T • 

cause to speak, to make talkative, of 
wine Cant. 7, 10. 

33*1 n (obs.) akin to Arab. 
- T 

h-»^, to be hairy, shaggy; hence 
perh. yi. 

iOri (obs.) akin to "2^, to flow 
out, to evacuate (the body) ; cf. )'^'^'^X 

ri^'n f. tattle or talk Jer. 20, 10; 
esp. report or rumour Gen. 37, 2 ; akin 
to Syr. 1^ = 1.^?; r. a^-n I. 

TTfiy^ (pi. d'^'ib'n Ps. 118, 12) f. 
1) a bee Is. 7, 18; perh. from ^'2'^ =< 
yy^ to sting (hence a stinger). 2) pr. 
n. f. of Bebekah's nurse Gen. 35,8; 
of the prophetess Judg. 4, 4 (cf. Me- 
XicJda). — Most derive this noun from 
^5'n II, hence swarmer; but pferh. 
it comes from ^^1 = 'lat fo fri^Z or 

- T -T 

hum = G. summen, hence a buzzer. 

nn •] Chald. i. q. Heb. n^T, nnt}, 
to sacriflce Ezr. 6, 3. 

tiy^ Chald. (pi. 'J'^ni'n) m. a sam- 
;^ce Ezr. 6, 3; i. q. Heb. h^t, natt. 

'ji^il'n (only pi. tJ'^S'i'ia'n; r. hi^) 
m. discharges (of the body), <?ww^ 
2 K. 6, 25 (inQ'ri), for d'^Si"' *^^n (in 
K'thibh) excrements of doves; cf, 
(ieujxa Yaatpot;. 

^^y^, m. 1) fAe mwer or hinder 
sanctuary (of the temple), else called 
d*'^'7l5 ytjp, the west chamber, prob. 
from 'na'n III to be behind; but it may 
well be from IS'n to speak, and hence 
oracle, Aquila and Symmachus ^pY)- 
{AaTiaTiQpiov, Vulg. oraculum 1 K. 

Ip-J 137 

6, 5. 2) pr. n. (pasture, r. '^5^11) 
of a city in Judah Josh. 12, 13; also 
in Gad Josh. 13, 26; also near Jericho 
Josh. 15, 7. 3) pr. n. m. (perh. oracle) 
Josh. 10, 3. 


Chald. (obs.) i. q. ps^, to 
stick or join together, hence '?|a'i5. 

^ji * \ (obs.) prob. akin to ^5t, to 
;pre88 together, hence 

nbn'n (c. nVs^, pi. fi'iVn^) f. a 
€olid mass, a cake 1 Sam. 25,18)2 K. 
20, 7. 

n^Il'n pr. n. (perh. a cake) of 
a city, only Ez. 6, 14 prob. from 
the (Arabian) desert to Diblah (in 

8yriac, ^.!l^iS9 is the name of An- 

tioch) ; but Gesenius and others con- 
sider rtba'n a corruption of rt^5*j. 

D'^^!2'n pr. n. m. (perh. double- 
cake) Hos. 1, 3. 

D^nbl'H (w. n — loc. fiia'inbs^) 
pr. n. (perh. double-cake) of a city 
of Moab Num. 33, 46; also w. n'^a 
Jer. 48, 22. 

y2r\ and P5 "7 (pS-n 2 K. 3, 3, 
nj^a-n Job 29, 10, ilpa^ 41, 15; fut. 
pa-if, inf. npa-n dobhqa Deut. 11, 
22) akin to "T]?'^, perh. Tj5^, to cleave 
to, as the tongue to palate, w. Vn 
Lam. 4, 4, w. h Ps. 137, 6; to adhere 
to a person, w. U'S Ruth 2, 8, w. 3 
V. 23, w. b (f '^i<;) Ps. 44, 26; to cling or 
^ress after, w. i^ni^ Ps. 63, 9 ; hence 
fig. to chase, to pursue, so as to hold 
fast the object of pursuit, w. ace. 
Oen. 19, 19, w. 3 Deut. 28, 60, w. 
*''niqK Jer. 42, 16.' Also absolutely 
to cleave together Job 41, 15. — 
Pu. to be firmly stuck together Job 
38, 38, w. a Job 41, 9. — Hiph. to 
cause to cleave, w. Vx Jer. 13, 11, w. 

a Deut. 28, 21 ; to chase after, pursue, 
w. ''!?Hi< Judg. 20, 45, w. ace. Gen. 
31, 23, w. a Deut. 28, 21, and then 
as in Qal, to overtake 2 Sam. 1, 6. 
— Hoph. to be made to cleave, i. e. 
to stick fast, w. ace. Fs. 22, 16. 

pn'n adj. m. (pi. d'^pa'i), ni5a^ f., 
cleaving to, w. a Deut. 4, 4; w. b 
2 Ch. 3, 12; attached or steadfast, 
Prov. 18, 24 Mfijg pa"n more attached 
than a brother. 

py^, m. 1) soldering or welding of 
metals Is. 41 , 7. 2) joints, only pi. 
d'^pa^, in coat of mail 1 K. 22, 34, 
or perh. armpits ; r. pa'n. 

pill^ Chald. (part. pi. I^'pa-n) to 
cleave together (i. q. ^a'n, pa'n) Dan. 

2, 43. 

IJ^ I perh. mimet. and akin 
to aa'n I, Arab. ^]j, Syr. < *^n^, to 

speak, in which sense it occurs in 
Qal part. act. 'na^ speaking Ex. 6, 29 
(usually in Pi el), part. pass, ^a'n spoken 
Prov. 25, 11; inf. w.suf.?]'na'n thg speak- 
ing Ps. 51,6. — Nipli. la'ii to speak to 
one another, to converse Mai. 3, 16; 
w. b? of person against whom Mai. 

3, 13; w. a about whom Ez. 33, 30, 
cf. Ps. 119,* 24. — Pi. ^a-n (in pause 
^a'n) 1) to speak, where what is 
spoken needs not follow (as it usually 
does after 1535* to sag, cf. XaXeiv and 
XsYEiv, Ger. reden and sagen, L. loqui 
and dicere) hence it may stand abso- 
lutely as in Is. 1, 2. The person ad- 
dressed may stand w. bj{i Gen. 12, 4, 
w. b Judg. 14, 7, w. D5 Deut. 5, 4, 
w. r\5f; Num. 26, 3, perh. w. b? Jer. 
6, 10. But the meaning may be mo- 
dified ace. to the prep. e. g. speaking 
to is construed w. blS; Gen. 8, 15, w. 
b Judg. 14, 7, w. a (of an inward im- 






pression or revelation) Zech. 1, 9, Hab. 
2, 1, seldom w. ace. Gen. 37, 4; 
speaking of, "w. ace. Euth 4, 1, w. 3 
1 Sam. 19, 3, w. ^? 1 K. 2, 19, w. 'bii 
C^^X) Job 42, 7; speaking against, w. 
b? Deut. 13, 6, w. a Num. 21, 7. 
2) to promise Deut. 19, 8, or to threaten 
Ex. 32, 14; to command, w. V&t Ex. 
1, 17; to warn 1 Sam. 25, 17; <o 
sm^ (a song) Judg. 5, 12; these and 
other shades of the meaning to speak 
arise as the context may suggest. 
To speak to a woman (w. a 1 Sam. 
25, 39, w. h Judg. 14, 7) i. e. to woo 
her; n^ b? ns'n to speak (so as to lay) 
on the heart, i. e. to comfort (Trapa- 
|xu0£ia0ai) Gen. 34, 3; but when ab 
occurs w. the suf. of the person who 
speaks, it means to speak to oneself, 
to soliloquise, iiab-^? f^fll'^'? 1 Sam. 
1, 13; of God, i? aits ^a'l to speak 
good about some one i. e. to promise 
it to him Num. 10, 29; bs) n5)"> -la*! 
to threaten evil concerning some one 
1 K. 22, 23; niniD "is-n to speak good 
things i. e. kindly, w. bi< Jer. 12, 6, 
w. ntt 2 K. 25, 28 ; tiib;^ n^-n to speak 
peaceably, w. Q:^ m^A some one Ps. 
28, 3, w. b&i to promise peace to, Ps. 
85, 9, also w. riX Jer. 9, 7; w. 3 fo 
bespeak peace m, Ps. 122, 8; w. h 
to speak for, on behalf of Est. 
10, 3; nti MQi2:iD''n to speak judgment 
with i. e. pass sentence on Jer. 39, 5. 
— Pu. to be spoken, promised Ps. 87, 
3 ; w. b to be bespoken, i. e. asked 
for in marriage Cant. 8, 8. — Hith. 
to converse, part. I?!!^ (see Gram. 
§ 54, 2, b) Num. 7, 89, part. fem. 
^''^'^^'ilP perh. thy things spoken (in 
converse) Deut. 33, 3; but see iTi2^. 

ljJ»*] n (Qal obs.) to drive 
(cattle to pasture), hence "^S^p, ^5^ 
perh. also to drive or snatch away 
(of the plague), hence perh. la'n and 

— destroy Ps. 127,5 , 2 Ch. 22, 10 
(^3i< in parall. 2 K. 12,11). — Hiph. 
'T^a'ifi to drive or lead, w.T\'nT\ to sub- 
jugate Ps. 47, 4; 18, 48 (parall. in 
2 Sam. 22, 48 ^''^1'ia from l^i^). 

liJ*/ III (obs.) perh. akin to- 
Arab. JXJ to be behind; hence perh^ 
•T^nn 1. 

\ml ' I IV (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 

'n'y^, Arab. ^)3, to be sharp, to sting; 
hence perh. IS'i, fT^ii'n (which see), 
and also — Pi. to destroy in Ps» 
127, 5, 2 Ch. 22, 10, but see W II. 
Comp. al^[xTQ, L. acies for sharp point 
and battle. 

"lyi (c. la-i, w. suf. 'I'nn'n, pi. Q^^a^, 
c. '''na'i ; r. 'li'i I) m. 1) speaking, speech^ 
word, hence '^a'? T'^? skilled in speech 
1 Sam. 16, 18 i. e. eloquent; the same 
meaning w. the pi. e. g. B'^'^^'H ^'^if^ Ex, 
4, 10; also a tvordJoh 2,13, Gen. 44, 18, 
Fig. command Josh. 1, 13; precept , 
of God Num. 23, 5, of a king Est, 
1, 19, as their words are commands; 
d'l'iin'nn n'niUS' the ten commandments. 

• T : - V r.- -: ' 

i. e. the decalogue Ex. 34, 28; jpro* 
mise 1 K. 2, 4; oracle Jer. 1, 4; re* 
velation Is. 9, 7; a saying Prov.4, 4; 
counsel 2 Sam. 17, 6; proposal 1 K, 
1,7; report 1 K. 10, 6; W nr^^i 
^5 rjliT^ the word of Pi^ was upon 
some one 1 Ch. 22, 8 ; w. b^< to some 
one Jer. 1, 4. — 2) the purport of a 
word, i. e. what it is the sign of, hence 
a thing or matter in general (so too, 
hbp 2, cf. X6yO(;, Ittoi;, ^y) }xa, Ger. sa^^e 
from sagen), when it means an event 
or occurrence, e. g. ntli ^a'nn Gen, 
20, 10 this matter, also pi. ta'^^a^n 
n^&^tn Gen. 15, 1 these things i. e, 
events; so the matters, acts (y^^^) 
of Solomon 1 K. 11, 41; the events 
of the days 1 Ch. 27, 24, i. e. chro- 




nicies ; the history of the tribute '^5''| 
Dah 1 K. 9, 15; the account o/" God's 
mighty deeds Job 41, 4j the matters 
0^^?) of sins Ps. 65, 4; lai'^ '^a^ 
'iai'^a a flfay's business in its day, 
i. e. regular daily task Ex. 5, 13; 
a cause (in law) Ex. 18, 16, fully 
135^573 '15'n 2Ch.l9, 6; areosow Josh. 5, 4; 
D'^'in'i b^'a a litigant Ex. 24, 14; b? 
"in'n on account of Gen. 12, 17 or ^5 
•'t'S'i Deut. 4, 21 ; ^^K ^S'n b? because 
that, before verb Deut. 22, 24. — 
Also something, any thing Gen. 18, 
14; *yy^ ^ifi there is nothing Judg. 
18, 7; "na'n-bs every thing Num. 
31, 23. 

^5^. (pl- ta'^l^'l Hos- 13, 14; perh. 
r. *>5'n II) m. a leading or driving, 
hence destruction, plague (c{. Arab. 

ji>i death) Lev. 26, 25; murrain 
among beasts, cattle-plague Ex. 9, 3. 
The pl. signifies the different kinds 
of death, the most terrible of which 
is n'la liDSi Job 18, 13 the first-born 
of death. Often w. the art. ^n'nn 
(like Wan) Deut. 28, 21, see Gram. 
§ 109, Eem. 1, ^>. — Perh. the r. is 
^y^ IV to be sharp (akin to Arab. 

»-»)i to be incurable), hence a sting 
Cjla'l^), whence perh. the quotation 
from Hos. 13, 14 in 1 Cor. 15, 65 
7100 aou, Gavare, to xevrpov; 

'nSl'n m. speaker, perh. in Jer. 5, 
13 ^3'nn the speaker i. e. the Spirit 
of God which speaks in the prophets; 
but most take it for ^^'^h (so Sept., 
Syr., Vulg.) or for ^a-n '^uj^^ he that 
speaketh] see Gram. § 109, Eem. 

11^ (w. suf. 'i'la^, d'na^; r. ^a^i n) 

VI :t' t;t' -t ' 

m. i. q. ^S'na pasture or range, 
where cattle are lead (cf. our sheep- 
ivalk) Mic. 2, 12; ft'^a^S perh. for 
fi'^a'naa as in their own range or 
pasture Is. 5, 17. 

^'Drl only in pr. n. ^li*! V*? (no 
pasture) 2 Sam. 17, 27. 

^H'n pr. n. Josh. 12, 13; see ^I'^n'n. 

i^'nd'n Chald. (only c. n'la'n) f. 
i. q. Hei). •Tna'n, cause or reasow, b? 
'^^n'nn'n to the end that Dan. 2, 30. 

♦^'^^'I? perh. n'll'n (only c. n^ia'n, 
w. ^-^ parag. "'0'??'^ I's- HO, 4; r. 
'la'n I) f . cause, suit at law Job 5, 8 ; 
cause or reason T^y^l V? because of 
Ecc. 3, 18; "Ta H'na'n b^ on accown^ 
^^af, so that Ecc. 7, 14; manner or 
orcier, ^n'na'i-b? a/'^er the manner of 
Ps. 110, 4, Sept. xata x-rjv xa^iv, cf. 
Heb. 6, 10. 

niiU'n (only pl. l^i^^a'n) f. utterancCt 
word; ^^''nina'na Jtia*; Ae receives of 
thy utterances (God's) Deut. 33, 3, 
Sept. l8e$aTo duo xuiv Xoycov a?)TOu j 
but comp. Hithp. of "nS^ I. 

H'^n'n, see n^ia^. 

^*1!IL''1 pr. n. m. (perh. pastoral 
or eloquent, r. la'nl orll) Lev. 24, 11. 

iTi'nil'n pr. n. (perh. pasture-land, 
r. ^5'n II) of a Levitical city of 
Issachar Josh. 21, 28. 

tTQrl (only pl. nl-ia'n; r. "la^ n) 
f. prop, a drift, a float, hence rafts^ 
only in 1 K. 5, 23. 

\j^'i (obs.) perh. akin to pa'n^ 
Syr. wms?, -.xi-c?, ^0 stick or ^^we/ 
hence ^a'n, perh. also n^a";}. 

T2J!2*n (in p. ttJa-n, w. suf. ^ttJa-n ; r. 
liSa'n) m. perh. what is soft and sticky, 
hence 1) honey of bees Lev. 2. 11; 
"5!'iaiafi< m^ ^*lSt^ Ps. 81, 17 from a 
rock with honey will I satisfy thee, 
or perh. from the rock of honey. 
2) honey of grapes, syrtip or must 
Gen. 43, 11. Among the Arabs this 
syrup or must is largely used (as 
our sugar or treacle), and is called 
^J dibs. 

V IV - 



InilJSl'n f. 1) lump of fat, fig. hump 
of a camel, which is a mass of fat 
Is. 30, 6. 2) pr. n. of a place (camel's 
hump) Josh. 19, 11. 

y^ (pi. di^'n, c. "'5'n; r. n^'i) m. 
41 fish Gen. 9, 2. 

iljr] (fut. nai'') perh. akin to 

T T V : .' ^ 

n^ia (1 = iu), fo increase, to multiply 
ahmidantly (like fish or grain), only 
Oen. 48, 16; hence W, a&t^, p-f, 
perh. I^'n. 

n^^J (c. na-n; r. SiS^) f. a /?s^ 
Deut. 4, 18; mostly collect, fish Gen. 
1, 26. 

1'1^'n pr. n. (fish-like or prolific, r. 
na'n) of an idol in form of a fish 
<a'n) 1 Sam. 5, 2. In the mythology 
of the country it has the feminine 
■ending, whence iXn^"^ AepxETco (w. ^ 
inserted, as often), a fish-deity having 
the form of a woman, a mermaid. 


S J I (obs.) perh. akin to ^Wt, 
^|5^, Chald. PJ^tn, to suspend, hence 
perh. fo /Zoa< or flutter; hence ^^'n. 
Comp. bW (= !1G5 = ^m), whence bs. 

b^^. (w. suf. "i^Jii^, pi. d'l^^^, c. 
*^^5i'7 ; r. b^'n 1) m. banner or standard 
<prop. a pendant) Num. 1, 52; 2, 2; 
<jf. nix I, 2. Hence 


Xj '^i II (fut. ba^"!, part. pass. ^siW) 
denom. from ^^'i, <o sei ly? or 
display a banner Ps. 20, 6, hence 
fig. ^W"! distinguished, conspicuous 
Cant. 5, 10. — Nipli. ban? to 6e 
furnished w. banners , niba'iSS Jia'^i< 

' T J • - T \ -: 

terrible as the bannered hosts Cant. 

|*i*/ (ohs.) prob. akin to '!^\'^,to 
grow, to increase; hence 

15*5 (c. 'j5'^) m. ^raz'w or corn 

Gen. 27, 28 ; but also bread Lam. 2, 
12, made from 'j^'n. 

'c * 1 prob. accord, to the Targ. 
and Sept., to gather, i. e. to brood 
over the young or eggs in order to 
shelter and cherish or to hatch them; 
said of the arrowsnake in Is. 34, 15, 
of the partridge in Jer. 17, 11 the 
partridge gathers (i. e. eggs) and has 
not laid them. — Perh. akin to *I5^^, 
cf. nafi = "irtt IL 

- T - T 

Tn (friend), only in pr. n. 'Tj^JJ^ 

"Tl, see nin. 

11 (dual, d*^^^, c. ''^"1) f. breast 
of the female for suckling Prov. 5, 
19. — Prob.= *nui (which see), Chald. 
"iSn; cf. TixGr), E. teat, W. teth. 

T\i^ (Qal obs.) prob. to go 
slowly, softly. — Hitli. •Tn'nri (for 
h'n'nnii) to move slowly. Is. 38, 15 
•iniaui-Vs |T^^^^; I will go softly all 
my years, '^WSUi ^3 being in the ad- 
verbial ace. (Gram. § 118, 2, fe)* In 
Ps. 42, 5 "D^ff?^ n'lS '1? d'n^X the 
word d^'ni< is prob. for dnb rrn-nnt^ 
(see Gram. § 121, 4) and ought to be 
rendered, I moved slowly for them 
(perh. as their leader) to the house 
of God. — Perh. mimet. akin to 
Heb. iiui^, Talm. Jl^^ to lead gently^ 
cf. our dawdle, toddle, Arab. iJtJ 

Xn (w. n^:- loo. nan-n) l) pr. n. 
(perh. low country) of a people and 
region on the Persian gulf, Gen. 10, 
7. 2) pr. n. of a people and region 
in the north of Arabia Gen. 25, 8. 

Ton Ez. 25, 13, see m 

viT : ' ' '▼ « 

d'^D^'n pr. n. of a people descend- 
ed from Javan (i. e. Greeks), perh. 
Dodoneans Gen. 10, 4; see d'^S'i"). 

3r_l^ (obs.) i. q. aint, to shinCf 
gleam; hence •ilSin'ia. 

- 1 


II J 'j Chald. (obs.) to glitter; 

'ntV] Chald. (def. XSq-n, na-) m. 
^o/fZ Dan. 2, 32; i. q. Hei). snt. 

**♦!?. (gentilic n. from m; def. pi. 
Nirj^, *in K'thibh KlJi'n) m. inha- 
bitants ofDahistan, or fromPers. 8J 
deh (a village) and so it may mean 
the colony of villagers Ezr. 4, 9, 
prob. the Aaoi on the Caspian sea, 

UFj^ (Q^-l o^s.) mimet. akin to 
Dl'n andda^ Ger. dumm, our dumb. — 
Niph. Cfn"]? to be dvmb -foundered 
or astounded Jer. 14, 9. 

IM^ akin to '11^, 1) to run, 
fo course (of the horse) Nah. 3, 2. 
2) fo n«w ow, i. e. ^0 endure or ?asf. 
Hence ^iTijn and 

T 1 • 

»^'7»l'^ (pl« "^^"^T^) f' fl *^w, a race 
Judg. 5,* 22. 

Si'^ , see a^. 


(Qal obs.) akin to a^lt, a&i^, 
a*!!*, <o /?ot(; or pine away. — Hiph. 
^'''7'!? i« q« ^'^*1?5^n ^0 consume, part. 
nin'^'i:a Lev. 26, 16; hence fn^?. 

Jn^ and «\ ^ (Qal obs.) denom. 
of W, to fish, Jer. 16, 16 d^liii^l and 
thy shall fish them; hence 

Jrji*^ m. a /?s7ier Jer. 16, 16 in 
K'tlJbh, for a^tl in Q'ri. 

JllJ^'n f. a fishing, fishery, T&y^p 
t^W^ fishing hooks Am. 4, 2. 

I*] •I (obs.) akin to ^^it, 1) to boil, 
hence ^W a ^oif. 2) fig. of the heart, 
to be warmed, moved, hence (Hke 
Syr. ?o?) to love (i. q. 1^^), hence 

iy^ (w. suf. '''TT, pi. b'l'ni'n) m. 1) 
tovc (between the sexes), esp. in the 
pi., e. g. di'til hi'n to be intoxicated 

141 ni'i 

T T 

w. embraces Prov. 7, 18; di*rT ro fime 
o/" loves i. e the tender passions Ez. 
16, 8. 2) concr. an object of love, a 
beloved Cant. 1, 13; a friend Is. 5, 1 
(cf. Syr. I??), esp. wwcfe, father's bro- 
ther. Lev. 10, 4; but in Jer. 32, 12 
^V\ stands perh. for ^i'n "jS a nephew, 
r. l^iTf, whence also 

^^*n m. 1) a boiler or pot Job 41, 12^ 
pi. d'i'75'n 2 Ch. 35, 13; cf. Syr. |?o> 
kettle. 2) a &asA;ef (compare Eng.jjofffe, 
for fruit) Jer. 24, 2,pl.d'iW2K. 10, 7^ 

^y^ , 1^'1'n (in later books, as Chr.^ 
Ezr., Neh., Zech., rarely elsewhere, as 
in Hos. 3, 5, Am. 6, 5) pr. n. m. (ver- 
bal adj. from 1^'n, beloved) David, 
1 Sam. 16, 13. Perh. for 'il'n -jS i. e. 
the Messiah, in Ez. 34, 24. — Cf. the 
proper names AiStb (iiS''"n lovely), 
OiXi^TY)c, OiXt^(jl(dv, Epaaxo;, Carua 

n'^^yn, see -^ni^. 

TVyh (fern, of ^i^) awwf, father'^ 
sister Ex. 6, 20; or uncle's wife Lev. 
18, 14; prop, female friend; 

'n^'n pr. n. m. (for 'J'i^i'n loving) 
iCh. 11, 12, for which '^'li^ in 2 Sam. 
33, 9 K'thibh. 

^ni'li'1 pr. n. m. (for *in;;'i1'n love 
of ^^^2 Ch. 20, 37. 

^'I'T^ pr. n. m. (prob. loving) 2 
Sam. 23, 9. 

^'ti'l (only in pi. d'^fi^'nW; r. ^1^; 
cf. "^h^h, pi. nix^Jib) adj. m. prop, 
pot-hke, basket-shaped, then as subst. 
1) baskets Jer. 24, 1. 2) prop. 
amatory, pi. love-apples Gen. 30, 14, 
the apples of the Atropa mandra- 
gora, which fruit the orientals still 
regard as a cpiXxpov to excite love. 

Ml • i I (inf. c. n'Tn) prob. akin 
to a^&TlT&ta'n , 1) to be sick, unwell, 
esp. of the monthly flux of woman, 
Lev. 1 2, 2 nn"Tn n'ns the uncleanness 

T T 



of her sickening, i. e. her courses. 
2) to he sad, to languish, see n.'i'n. 

n 1 * i n (obs.) perh. akin to nil3 
T T , ' ^ 

<o spm, hence (cf. Arab, ^^jb <o 7w(Ze) 
to clothe, hence !Ti*72 2. 

nH'n (r. ni-nl) adj. m., M1^ f. l)sic'kly, 
weakly, namely of a woman in her 
courses Lev. 15, 33; Is. 30, 22 Jil-n a 
menstruous cloth i. e. defiled w. men- 
strual blood. 2) sick at heart, sad 
Lam. 5, 17; wretched Lam. 1, 13. 

Pl-I •] (Qal obs.) i. q. nn-n , »Ti5, 
to drive or ^JWSi^ ai(;ay, hence Hipli. 
to thrust away, cast out Jer. 51, 34; 
fig. to rinse, cleanse, an altar 2 Ch. 
4, 6, blood-guiltiness Is. 4, 4. 

*'5'^ (c. *^y^; r. h^'i I) m. 1) languor, 
illness, hence Ps. 41, 4 *'l'n 'it3*ir ftedl 
o/" sickness. 2) what is sickening, 
hence loathsomeness, '^'O'nh I'i'n Zoa^A- 
somenesses of my bread, i.e. my loath- 
some food Job 6, 7. 

^J'n m.(intens. of'l'n, likebuSp) adj. 
/aiwit, sick at heart Is. 1, 5; r. ni"n I. 

j'^i^n in 1 Sam. 22, 18 K'thibh for 
iilk^, which see. 

T^l'n , see nix 

lyri i. q. T|?'7 to pound, to bruise 
(in a mortar) Num. 11, 8; hence rtD'ia. 

tl^'n m. 1. q. Arab. .iJU J a cocA:, 
prob. akin to '^'y^ treader (cf. ui^Tn = 
Tlj'n'n), so called for its strut or for its 
treading on the hen; hence 

r\S^5'^'n f. name of a hird, the 
hoopoe (ace. to the Sept.), but more 
likely the rock or mountain cock, a 
kind of grouse Lev. 11, 19, Deut. 
14, 18. — The name comes from 
ra'^S = t)3 rock and Tj>i'n, Arab. JU J, a 
cocA; ; or perh. better from r. TjSl'n (= 'rpi) 
w. old format, ending Cj-y- and fem. 
ending n-^, as nssnij; from "jf^J or "jT&t 


(obs.) i. q. dn-n, dia'n, (which 
see) to be dumb, fig. fo rest; hence 

n"-^'^ f. 1) stillness, hence fig. /Ae 
grave, the land of silence Ps. 94, 17. 
2) pr. n. of a place in Arabia Is. 
21, 11. 3) pr. n. of a tribe of Ish- 
maelites Gen. 25, 14. 

n^^^l adj. f. (from 'lO'l'n an obs. 
masc.) 1) still or silent, Ps. 62, 2 my 
soul is silent to God, i. e. looks to 
Him in quiet confidence. 2) subst. 
silence, as adv. silently Ps. 39, 3; 
rest, ease from pain Ps. 22, 3; de- 
votion in. Ps.65,2. — It may 
from ii^'n after the analogy of H^jSia, 
the i changing into *!. 

D13^*^ 1) adv. (r. d^"n w. adverbial 
ending d-p) silently, in silence Is. 
47, 6. 2) prob. subst. dumbness, si- 
lence Hab. 2, 19. 

pi23l2^^ pr.n. (for p^:a'n or pia^'i'?), 
only in 2 K. 16, 10. 

11"! or I'^T (perf. "j^, fut.' f^;! 
= '(^1^, only Gen. 6, 3) akin to X2i<, 
TiiJ, 1) to tread or press doiun (like 
ms), to subdue, hence to have power, 
to rule, thus prob. in Gen. 6, 3 
d^i5>V d'i5<l 'insin 'jli:;?-^^:^ my spirit 
shall not rule for ever in (or over) 
man, i. e. the divine and controling 
principle of life must be abridged in 
men (comp. Gen. 2, 7); but the Sept. 
(go {JLTj xaxajxeiVT)) and the Syr. and 
Vulg. render shall not remain or 
dwell, as if they read "j^ls^: others 
prefer shall not be humbled or debas- 
ed. 2)*j'^'n^o rM?e, w. ace. iSam. 2, 10; 
to contend (at law), w. d^ Ecc. 6, 10; 
hence to judge (in the East always 
connected w. ruHng), but in this sense 
only in the form 'j'^'n (perf. y^, fut. 
'j'1'7;)); used of God Is. 3, 13; of men 
Gen. 49, 16; in various shades of 




meaning, e. g. to vindicate or defend, 
w. ace. Gen. 30, 6; to punish, w. ace. 
Oen. 15, 14, w. a of obj. Ps. 110, 6. 
— Niph. '|113 to contend w. one another 
(before a judge) i. e. to litigate 2 
Sam. 19, 10 (cf. i:B^3). 

j" Chald. to rule or judge, 
only (part. pi. ')''5i<'n) in Ezr. 7, 25 in 
K'thibh, but 'j*'.!';^ in Q'ri. 

1^*^ m. judgment, only Q'ri of Job 
19, 29, where the K'thibh has ')*»'n; 
see "JW^U. 

riSi'n (in pause asi'n Ps. 22, 15) m. 
toax Ps. 68, 3 J r. as"!, which see. 

y •I'i (fut. ■}'!l*7^) prob. akin to 
yi^, yj^'n, fo leap, skip, dance \ hence 
fig. to rejoice Job 41, 14. 

p*l •) prob, i. q. pp"n, perh. in — 
fliph. P^y^ to bruise or crush 2 Sam. 
22, 43, but see pgX 

P*l^ Chald. (obs.) fo looTc out or 
«rOMn(?, hence pl^'n. — Akin to Sans. 
lauch (to see), Xuxtt) (Xeuaato), L. 
lux, E. fooA;, "W. dyma (see here) 
s= %ma (d = 1); see on Ijp. 135. 

H •] I (obs.) akin to 'n>l& HI, fo 
pierce (of thorns); hence perh. "I'n'^'n. 

In^ II, to move round or turn 
about, fig. <o <Mrw oneself round (L. 
versari), <o continue, hence to dwell 
Ps. 84, 11. — Akin to ^n^, "Tnn n, 
niita n, Syr. |^?. 

l" in (obs.) perh. akin to ^itj!?, 
fo arrange; hence ^'I'n 1, rrnJila. 

N •] Chald. i. q. Heb. 'nil'n H, to 
dwell Dan. 4, 9, part. pi. 'J'^'iX'n, Q'ri 
'ji'i';^ Dan. 2, 38;. hence ^'J^,' nils 

"1"!^ or^*n (pi. d'^'i'i'n, nnW; r.^^i^ 
n) m. 1) prop, a revolution or round 

of time, a period; then of man's life, 
an age, a generation, Sept. "^e^^ea. 
(Ecc. 1, 4) i. e. prob. a period of some 
30 or 40 years (comp. Job 42, 16), 
but of about 100 in the patriarchs' 
times (comp. Gen. 15, 13, 16 and Ex. 
12, 40) *, nil^ "n>i generation and 
generation i. e. every generation, 
forever Ps. 61, 7, also 'y^ ^I'i'iV Ex. 3, 

15, ^Sj nHb Ps. 10, 6, ^n "n^p Ex. 17, 

16. For ages, future generations 
ni^h is used, as in Lev. 23, 43; d">"i1^ 
is only used in fi'^'^Hl ^^ signifying 
eternity, perpetuity, as in Ps. 72, 5. 
2) a race or class of men, e. g. of 
the godly Ps. 14, 5, of the wicked 
Deut. 32, 5. 3) dwelling, hence *Ti'n 
lniai!< dwelling of ancestors, i. e. the 

grave Is. 38, 12, Ps. 49, 20 ; cf. Arab. ^1 J. 
4) also 'ix'n Josh. 17, 11, pr. n. of 
a city not far from Carmel Judg. 1, 
27; perh. in the sense of a circle, cf. 
L. urbs = orbis. 

^^"n m. \)pile of wood (r. ^W IH), 
prop, something arranged or set in 
order Ez. 24, 5; cf. r\yi-i-q. 2) r. IJl^ n, 
a ball Is. 22, 18; a circle Is. 29, 3. 

)X^^ Chald. pr. n. (circle) of a 
plain in Babel Dan. 3, 1. 

Deut.25,4(fut.U5iin;^)akinto tiy\, Ujrf, 
to tread out (grain by oxen), to thresh 
Deut. 25, 4, cf. Hos. 10, 11; to crush 
enemies Mic. 4, 13. — Niph. ttiins, 
inf. c. yi>i'nri is. 25, lO, to be trodden 
Q^t^ _ Hoph. TlJ'i'in to be threshed 
Is. 28, 27. Hence W. 

tZ3-| -1 II (obs.) perh. akin to f ^ll, 
to spring, hence 'jiui'^'n. 

125*1 •] Chald. same as «3i|^ I in 
Heb., to trample to pieces Dan. 7, 23. 


Chald. (obs.) perh. mimet. 




akin to MS'n, nna, "jntt, Arab, la-j, 
topound(ia obscene sense); cf. jauXXo), 
L. molo (whence mulier), E. to mill, 
to mall; hence NIJTi. 

rii M akin to TUti, n*ni, to push 

T T - » TT x^ 

or thrust down, to overthrow Ps. 118, 
13, part. pass. f. "w. art. «l^in'n}n 
Ps. 62, 4. — Niph. nn^i (fut^ ^m*; 
perh. for sim-; Jer. 23, 12, but see 
nh'n), fo Je thrust down Prov. 14, 32. 
In Is. 11, 12 W3 is for ih^5 from 

mi, also Is. 56, 8. — Pu. nryi (3 pi. 
•inn) to be thrust down Ps. 36, 13. 

HJH'n Chald. (r. S^n-n; pi. -Jim) f. 
prob. concubine Dan. 6, 19; perh. a 
table, as if akin to the Heb. r. n*lt3 
^0 spread out, then fig. /bod; the 
Babbins prefer instruments of music. 

nTj'i i. q. nm, Arab. ^S, to 

thrust -f only in fut. Niph. ^Tl^*] Jer. 
23, 12. 

^ty^ (in pause ''Jn'i) m. a thrust, 
push, hence a fall Ps. 56, 14; r. Jim. 


_} 'j Chald. (part, bli'n, pass. 
h^tyi) perh. akin to hill, to slink away, 
hence to be afraid Dan. 5, 19; part. 
biri"n fearful, terrible Dan. 7, 7. — 
Pa. \iny\ to terrify Dan. 4, 2. 


_l • / (obs.) perh. akin to "jW to 
grow (grain), or to "JJID to grind. Hence 

yy^ m. prob. grain^ millet Ez. 4, 
9; Syr. 1J-»»o?. 

f|ri^ akin to nr!"n, fo _pws^, 

<Aru8<; fig. to hapten, hence CjirTi 
impelled, urged on Est. 3, 15. — 
Niph. C)ti*]3 fo hurry oneself, to hasten 
2 Ch. 26, 20; w. bt? Est. 6, 12. 


J • I (fut. pW) perh. akin to 
nrrjj ^0 <Ants< ox push, to press upon, 

Joel 2, 8; part. pTh oppressor Judg;* 

- ^ * 7 

2, 18 ; Arab. ^^ J, Syr. ^.a-»»?, to repulse^ 

*'*!! (c. ''!!, w. suf. 'I'^t?) m- 1) perh. 
akin to Sans, dt (to lack), lv-8siar 
M>aw#, need, Mai. 3, 10 I'l *^\'^ n§ 
«wit7 (there be) no lack. 2) fig. ste/;^- 
ciency, enough, prop, what meets 
the want (comp. Gen. 42, 19 "fO^^S^ 
d5*ipi3 the supply (lit. famine) of your 
houses; also ^peia both weefZ and 
wse, Ger. bedarf both w?an# and 
supply) as adv. enough; w. suf. ^"t 
enough for thee, thy sufficiency Prov^ 
25, 16; d^'n meeting their want, suffi-- 
dent for them Ex. 36, 7. Hence^ 
'''113 axicording to need of, i. e. as 
much as the case demands, '''i!5 
inlbM enough to redeem it Lev. 25, 
26; aib n3^J< '^"13 as (the abundance 
of) the locust for multitude Judg. 
6, 5; fig. perh. proportion, "^"nSi in 
the supply of i. e. for, e. g. IU&5 ^'^,^ 
for the fire Hab. 2, 13; p'^'n ^"la /"or 
nothing, in vain Jer. 51, 58; but 
also 'I'la so o/ifsw as, ^isi^lj 'i^a a» 
o/ifew as #Ae trumpet (is heard) Job 39,. 
25; so too'i'na, drixs '^'na as often as^ 
they went out 1 Sam. 18, 30; w. finite 
verb, 'iSi'niS 15a as often as I speak 
Jer. 20, 8, — ' The r. is perh. akin ta 

Arab, jj desertum. 

^^, Chald. particle, originally 
a demonst. pron., like Heb. Ht, 
of which it is an altered form 
(^ = t); but used only as 1) rel. 
pron. serving for masc. and fem. and 
for sing, and plur. who, which, that 
^<nn5 '^'n &<'i'i gq the palm of the hand 
that wrote Dan. 5, 5; but also w. 
a very slight force of the relative 
(where in Heb. the mere genitive 
would stand) as in 'i^J '''n ^np stream 
which was (of) fire Dan. 7, 10 j 
dbyini^ *|"7 l><^5'^fi the temple which 
(was) in Jerusalem Dan. 5, 2. It hence 

nriT ^-n 

TT • 



stands as a sign of the genitive in 
all its uses, NSiba I'l &<l3'^^iy the king's 
captain Dan. 2, 15; Nnb^t ''"n ngiu 
God's name Dan. 2, 20, lit. his name 
who (is) (rorf; or in general, like the 
Heb. ^m (Gram. § 123), only more 
frequently employed to express any 
relation; n^an I'n ivhere (= D^ 'nuix) 
Ezr. 6, 1; 'jiii"''^^ "^"^ tcAose dwelling 
Dan. 2, 11. In Dan. 2, 9 "jfi (t/) is 
inserted between the relative and the 
noun, K^^H '|«^ '''n ivhich dream, if — . 
2) relat. conj. that Dan. 2, 23; be- 
cause that Dan. 4, 15; in this way 
used quite like 'luix and *<13, some- 
times even when an entire relative 
sentence is introduced, inb"';Pi5'''i^T ''1 
that he should give him time Dan. 
2, 16; in introducing a quotation, or 
the very words of the speaker (like 

•^3, 8ti) ")na nns-oiri-'i^ ''^^"'^^^? he 
said to him (that) *J h^ave found a 
man' Dan. 2, 25. With prefixes: ^'I'D 
(= '^^^^^^) as, as soon as, when, Dan. 
8, 7; '>'n53 after Dan. 4, 23. — N^-'i^ 
Ezr. 6, 9 prob. without, cf. P?. 

in gold, Sept. Kara^pujsa) pr. n. of 
a place near Sinai, Deut. 1, 1. 

"p3*''n pr. n. (pining or wasting, 
r. S^'n) of a city of Moab (now Dibdn) 
Num. 32, 34, for which also ^i'O^'l 
(2 = a) occurs in Is. 15, 9, perh. for 
playing on the word Oi. Also of 
a city in Judah Neh. 11, 25; written 
also nala'i^ Josh. 15, 22. 

T • ' 

J * I , see Vn. 

"jy^ (r. a^i'n) m. fisher Is. 19, 8; 
also in Q'ri of Jer. 16, 16, for which 
in K'thibh stands a^"!. 

n ^ (obs.) akin to Jiin I, Sans. 
^ T- T '^ ' 

ud, Ssuw, L. undo, W. ton (wave), to 
wet, to flow, fig. to dye; hence 

ts^ntr, "jM, ^M, i^n. 

nj'H i. q. hX'n (which see) f. Deut. 
14, 13, pi. Is. 34, 15, a bird of prey 
inhabiting ruins, prob. the kite or 
glede; r. Jixn to fly fast. 

i^'n (for iTn; r. ni^-n I) £. prop, a 
fluid or dj^e, hence ink Jer. 36, 18; 
not necessarily black, for Josephus 
says the Hebrews made use of various 
colours for writing. 

'jVJ^'n, see Tin'^'n. 
I ^ verb, see 'J^ll. 

I 'I Chald. verb, see ^^X 

']^'n m. judgment Ps. 76, 9, in 
general , place of judgment, tribunal, 
perh. in Is. 10, 2; cause for judgment 
Deut. 17, 8; wrong or ^wi/^, what is 
judged. Job 36, 17; right, justice, 
Est. 1,13; controversy, dispute Vvoy. 
22, 10; r. 'J'^'n. 

Y^ Chald.(def. iti^^, r^y^'rf)judgment, 
right Dan. 4, 34; tribunal (the Arab. 

cj'yi^ <?maw) Dan. 7, 10; sentence 

or punishment Ezr. 7, 26. 

"Jt'iI (c- 1?!?) m. a judge 1 Sam. 24, 
16; r. y^X 

"i^ Chald. m. a judge Ezr. 7, 25. 

nJ^^'n pr. n. f. (prob. strife, r, 'j'^'n) 
Gen. 30, 21. 

H'^J'^'n Chald. pr. n. (only def. pi.) 
Dinaites, an Assyrian population 
removed to Samaria, Ezr. 4, 9. 

l^l^'n 1 Ch. 1, 6 in some texts 
for nsi'i. 

p']'^ (ancient participial form from 
psi'n I) m. a look-out or watch-tower 
used by besiegers, 2 K. 25, 1 ; pjn Si^a 
b? (Jer. 52, 4), \>^_ p;:^ "jni (Ez. 26, 8), 
to rear a siege-tower against a place. 

W •], see ^a^l-n I. 





Ifi'^'n m. prop, threshing, hence 
threshinff-time Lev. 26, 5; r. ILJsi'n I. 

']il2'''n (r. ^sin n) m. 1) a kind of 
rock-goat or antelope, named from its 
springing Deut. 14, 5. 2) pr. n. m. 
(antelope or leaper) Gen. 36, 25. 

'jli^'n pr. n. m. (antelope, r. TlJ^in II) 
Gen. 36, 21. 

t|'n Ezr. 4, 15 this, fern, of T]:} 
which see. 

tl'n Chald. demonst. pron. m. 
Ezr. 5, 16, Tj-I f. Ezr. 4, 15, this, from 
*f^ and N"! (Heb. JiT) w. demonst. 
ending Tj-r- as in "^|n; cf. L. illi-Cj 
hi-c, F. ce-ci. 

"rj^ (in pause Tj^, pi. w. suf. I'^S'n 
Prov. 26, 28; r. T^D'n) adj. m. crws^etZ, 
oppressed, wretched Ps. 9, 10; hut 
proh. as subst. victim in Prov. 26, 28 

1^3'! i<5i25'; ^)5^ 'ji'uib a ^^iw^ fow^tie 
hateth its victims, or perh. ife con- 

C^«J^ (Qal ohs.) i. q. T^^i'n, ^o 6reaA; 
in pieces, to beat small, fig. to oppress. 
— Nipli. part. KS'ii broken, contrite, 
w. nb Is. 57, 15^^— Pi. tiS^; INS^ 
<o crush him Is. 53, 10; to break in 
pieces Ps. 72, 4; trample down Lam. 
3, 34; ^0 oppress Is. 3, 15. — Pu. 
fo be broken, crushed or bruised Is. 
53, 5; <o 6e humbled or contrite 
Is. 19, 10, Jer. 44, 10. — Hitli. 
(fut. XS^";, see Gram. § 54, 2, 5) <0 &e 
crushed, humbled Job 5, 4. 

^^5*^ (pl- c. ''JSS'i) adj. m. prop. 
crushed, hence small, broken in spirit, 
contrite Is. 57, 15; as subst. dust 
Ps. 90, 3. 

riD "i (fut. hS^*' Q'ri of Ps. 10, 

T T ' 

10) i. q. K5"n, r^S'n, fo cms^ or break, 
intrans. in Ps. 10, 10 K'thibh ns'Ti 

T Tl 

ty&^ and he breaks down, he sinks. 

— Niph. to be crushed Ps. 38, 9; fig. 
of the heart, to be contrite, Ps. 51, 
19. — break, e. g. bones mail? 
Ps. 51, 10. 

tlS*^ f. crushing, Deut. 23, 2 
M3'n is^isSS mutilated by crushing (of 
the testicles) ; r. t]?"?. 

'^5'^ (only w. suf. d^:?v) ™- * 
dashing to pieces, hence collect. 
breakers, only inPs. 93, 3 W'nri? ^xlp"] 
d^an <Ae /?oo<is lift up their breakers, 
i. e. scatter them against the rocks 
or on the beach • r. Ti^X 

' r T 

^J^ (obs.) i. q. n?^, "nW, pp^, 
2)jDPi, all mimetic (Gram. §30, 2, Bern.) 
to crush, fig. to be wretched; hence 

'jS'n Chald. demonst. pron. (prop, 
pl. of til} and T|^) ^Aese, but con- 
strued w. the sing, this Dan. 2, 31, 
7, 20. 

l5 'j Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 

■^^Jj '^1?^, to pierce, to penetrate (as 
the male, cf. 'n?'n); fig. to impress 
(on the memory), to remember, hence 

^"Dl Chald. (only pl, "p'ls'n) m. 
prop. i. q. Heb. "nst, «mafe,but esp. 
the male of sheep, a ram Ezr. 6, 9. 

plD*n Chald. (def. nnD^) m. re- 
corof, register Ezr. 6, 2. 

5^J?'^^'5 Chald. (only def. pl.) m. 
i. q. pp^, the records, '"■) *iSb book of 
the records Ezr. 4, 15. 

b"^ (in pause ^;n, pl. b'l^^; r. hh'i) 
adj. m. 1) moving or swaging to and 
fro, tottering; hence weak 2 Sam. 
3, 1 ; poor, lowly Ex. 23, 3 ; thin, lean 
2 Sam. 13, 4. 2) as subst. i. q. n^-J 
door, only in Ps. 141, 3 b^i-b? n^Sia 
*ir®lr5 t«7afc/^ <^ow over the door of 

T T : ' 

my lips (Sept. 6 up a), comp. Mic. 7, 5. 




-— - Cf. xaX-a;, tXt^-}jl(ov, W. tlawd 


__ to leap or spring, w. b? 
fo Zeop oyer Zeph. 1,9. — Pi. 5^1"^ 
to leap high, to hound Is. 35, 6; also 
to leap over, w. ace. of obj. 2 Sam. 
22, 30; w. b? Cant. 2, 8. 

n V-J (fut. nbn*^) akin to V^^, 

^^13 (which see), to move to and 
fro, to swing, wave; to draw (in 
a swinging way) water from a well, 
Ex. 2, 16; fig. to draw out what 
is in the heart or mind Prov. 20, 
5. — Pi. h|n to draw out, i. e. to 
-save Ps. 30, 2; cf. av-xXlo) (= ava- 

Tiy^ (r. b^"!) f. prop, something 
hanging down or pendulous; hence 
1) threadworh, the weaver's thrum, 
from the hanging down of the threads, 
Is. 38, 12; locks of hair Cant. 7, 

« (cf. Arab. 4JIj the tuft of the 

palm-branch that hangs at the top). 
•2) poverty, 2 K. 24, 14 D? n^^ 
people's poverty, prob. for f/ie poor 
people; also in pi. D!??! m'^lj Jer. 
52, 15; Y'y^ f^'i^? the poor of the 

land Jer. 52, 16. 


\ 1^*1 (fut. h^'7'^) to trouble, make 
turbid (water w. the feet) Ez. 32, 2 ; 
j. q. Syr. wj*!^?; perh. akin to nb«. 

^V'l (v. nb-n) m. ftwcZref, for draw- 
ing water Is. 40, 15. 

■'^'n (r. nb-n) m. bucket; d^^ bti 
l^b'n:a waters stream from his buckets 
i. e. his posterity shall flow on 
as the water from the buckets at 
the well , only Num. 24, 7 , where 
*i^bn doVydw is prob. in dual D'^'^Vn 
couple of buckets (so often used 

in pairs), perh. alluding to the two 


n^b*!, ^JT'b'n pr. n. m. (!^ hath 

T T : ' ITT : *^ ^ T 

saved) Neh. 6, 10, Jer. 36, 12. 

^^b'n Prov. 26, 7 for 'l^'l, from bb"n. 

Tr)1^5^ Jer. 11, 16, see n^b^. 

♦I^"'l5'n pr. n. f. (weak or wavering) 
Judg.'ie, *4; r. bH 

ri^b'n (only in pi. ni^b-n, w. -^ 
immovable) f. branches, boughs, as 
waving to and fro, Jer. 11, 16; Syr. 

|2w4.^? branches; r. hP'n. 

^y-^i (1 pers. ^Tfsr\ Ps. 116, 6, 
3 pers. !lb|-| Is. 19, 6, s^? Job 28, 4, 
*|ib^ in Prov. 26, 7 is perh. for 1^^) 
akin to bbt = b^D I, 1) to move to 

-T - T ' ' 

and fro, to be pendulous, to wave, 
hence to totter, hang loose, w. "ja, e. g. 
h&B73 fi^plTIJ 1'^btl <Ae 2 %s hang loose 
from a lame man, i. e. as useless 
things Prov. 26, 7; UJiSNp si^ f^eg' 
(miners) Aaw^ c?oi^n from men i. e. 
away in the pit Job 28, 4. 2) <o te 
sZacA: or weak, to languish, fig. of 
shallow water Is. 19, 6 ; of the eye, 
to fail Is. 38, 14; of persons, to 
be poor Ps. 79, 8. — Niph. to be 
brought low Judg. 6, 6. Deriv. b'n, 

T - ' , T • I ' V P.- 

• ^'i (obs.) perh. fo 6e f/iic/c, 
whence Chald. r^b^ gourd. Hence 

'WT^, pr. n. (gourd-field) of a city 
in Judah Josh. 15, 38. 

W 5 * i (fut. tj^'i'^) to drop or drip, 
house Ecc. 10, 18; to shed 
w. bj« Job 16, 20; to flow 
away, as it were in drops, of the 
soul Ps. 119, 28. — Prob. mimet. 
akin to t]bT, Syr. ws^?, G-. tropfen^ 

triefen, E. drop, drip, dribble, W. 


of a 





f\??. (r. C]^"?) ni« « dropping or 
dripping (from a roof) Prov. 19, 13. 

I^Sl^ll pr. n. m. (prob. i. q. 
Chald.*= ^sh^i blear-eyed) Est. 9, 7; 

r. t)H 

P^ • i (fut. pb^i^) akin to nV^ II, 
to burn, to flame, d'^pb^ burning, ar- 
rows Ps. 7, 14; w. 3 to set on fire, 
to kindle Obad. 18; d^pbtr D^nsb 
burning lips, i. e. expressing ardent 
aflfection Prov. 26, 23; fig. of anxiety, 
whicli seems to burn up the soul, 
■^35 pbl"] the poor doth burn, i. e. is 
deeply anxious Ps. 10, 2; of hot pur- 
suit, persecution, '^'^'ni< ^P^'7 thou 
didst hotly pursue after me Gen. 31, 
36; w. ace. ^apbn D''irin-b3) on the 
mountains did they hotly pursue us 
Lam. 4, 19 (comp. G. nachfeuern). — 
Hiph. to kindle (fire) Ez. 24, 10; to 
inflame, as wine Is. 5, 11, 

p^ •} Chald. to burn Dan. 7, 9. 

t^Pf.*^ f. fever, as the burning 
disease," only Deut. 28, 22 ; r. p^^. 

Jnb'^ (w. suf. "inVn, dual b'^n^'i; 
w. suf. ^pn^?, c. "irbn, pi. ninb-n, 
c. nin^l?; r. bb^, see Gram. § 94, 
2, Bem. 2) f. door Prov. 26, 14; 
the dual signifies folding - doors or 
gates Deut. 3, 5; the plural n-inb'l 
the leaves of a folding-door or gate, 
1 K. 6, 34; door Judg. 3, 23; pages 
or columns of the roll or scroll of 
a manuscript, which resembled the 
opening leaves of a folding-door, Jer. 
36, 23. The radical meaning refers 
to the fact, that doors hang and swing 
on their hinges. — Hence nbl, oeXxa. 

D"n (c. an, w. suf. I^n, 0353^ Gen. 
9, 5, pi. D"'P7, c. ■'gn) m. 1) blood 
Ex. 7, 19; ta^-bs b?i< to eat (flesh) 
w. the blood 1 Sam. 14, 32; ''p: D-i 
innocent blood 2 K. 21, 1 6; also blood- 

guiltiness, murder, esp. in this sense 
the pi. diQ'n Gen. 4, 10, Ps. 51, 16; 
Qi^'n "d^^ a man of bloods i. e. a mur- 
derer Ps.5,7; d'lja-i n^ia, '-i ^"is), /iowse 
or ci^y infamous for wtt^rcZers, 2 
Sam. 21, 1; 12 l^a-i Lev. 20, 9 his 
blood is on hitnself, i. e. he forfeits- 
his life. 2) fig. sap or juice of the 
grape (red in Palestine), hence wine 
Gen. 49, 11; perh. in Ez. 19, 10 
TjP'iS "iSas Tj^K i^Ay mother is like the 
vine in thy sap, i. e. of the same sap- 
as thine ; but others prob. better take- 
?|'^'^a here for ^nfia'na in thy likeness^ 
— d^ is prob. akin to d'lis to be redy 
but some refer it to in^'n I to floio^ 
cf. G. blut, E. blood, akin to pXuw,. 
(pXuu>, L. fluo. 


I I (obs.) perh. akin to 5?^'n> 
<o flow, hence perh. d'n blood. 

I l/J •] II (fut. n^Q'i'i, imp. 'n^yi 
Cant. 2, 17) ^0 be similar or ^iAre Ps» 
102, 7; always construed w. 5 Ps. 
144, 4, or bx Ez. 31, 8; w. pleonfistic 
V Cant. 2, 17; 8, 14 J^b-n^an be thou 
like (for thee), see Gram. § 154^ 
3,e. — Nipli. to become like, to^ 
resemble, w. ace. Ez. 32, 2; w. 3 Ps. 
49, 13. — Pi. nsan to liken, compare^ 
w. h Is. 46, 5; w. h^ Is. 40, 18; to- 
use similitudes (like bu:^) Hos. 12, 
11; to liken in one's mind, hence to- 
think or deem Ps. 50, 21 ; to meditate 
Num. 33, 56; w. b to purpose against 
some one 2 Sam. 21, 5; to remember, 
w. ace. Ps. 48, 10. — Hitli. ila^rt 

' T - • 

(Gram. § 54, 2, &) ^o »waA:e oneself like,. 
w. b Is. 14, 14. Deriv. T\^i2^, •jl'i^aX 

JiG •] III i. q. nii"n, D?3n,<o Jer 

T T ^ ' -t' 

dumb, silent; fig. io res/, Lam. 3, 49^ 
iwy eye weeps n^*in stb") ancZ rests 
not; hence trans, to make silent, to 
destroy Jer. 6, 2, Hos. 4, 5. — Niph. 




to he destroyed, of individuals Hos. 
10, 15; Is. 6, 5; of nations Zeph. 1, 11; 
of cities and lands Is. 15, 1. 

I 02-1 Chald. i. q. na^ n to be 
like Dan. 3, 25. 

n^"n (r. dr'n) f. silence, i. e. state 
•of death-like stillness, utter desolation 
Ez. 27, 32. 

in^^J'n (r. na"n II) f. resemblance, 
likeness Gen. 1, 26; ma^e 2 Ch. 4, 
3; Is. 40, 18; model 2 K. 16, 10; 
£hape, form Ez. 1, 16; as adv. like, 
■as, Is. 13, 4; w. 3 Ps. 58, 5. 

^'2^^ and ^^^"^ (r. n:^^ HI) m. still- 
ness, rest, ''^^ "'a^a in the quiet of 
uny days, i. e. quiet time of life Is. 
38, 10, Tj^ "i^n bx let there be no rest 
to thee Ps. 83, 2, i. e. bestir thyself. 

D""^*^, see tJ3. 

1''"^'^ in. i. q. Wa"!, a likeness, only 
Ps. 17* 12; r. Sl^n if. 

' ' T T 

UlC •] (3 pi. ti^^, fut. d'^'i, d^"^, pi. 
'JS^|<, laa*, imp. dl'TT mimet. akin to 
c^i^, dri'n, n^-n III, 1) to be dumb, 
silent Lev. 10, 3; w. b fo 6e silent, 
for any one, i. e. to listen attentively 
to him Job 29, 21 ; to be struck dumb, 
to be amazed Ex. 15, 16; to rest, 
leave off, of the weeping eye Lam. 
-2, 18, of the bowels Job 30, 27; to 
stand still Josh. 10, 12. — Niph. 
^33 (1^'^3 Jer. 25, 37; fut. d^7, ^53=nn 
Jer. 48, 2) to become silent, hence to 
be destroyed, of persons 1 Sam. 2, 9; 
of a region Jer. 48, 2. — Po. dTa'A 
to make silent, to quiet Ps. 131, 2. — 
Hiph. d'lH ^0 make silent, to destroy 
■Jer. 8, 14. — Cf. Gafipo;, G. dumm, 
stumm, E.dumb, W.taio; also [iutto;, 
L. mwitts, W. mud, E. wwfe, mutter: 
all taken from nature, like Awm, G. 
hummen, d^art. Hence 

t\*yi^ f. silence, stillness (of the 

winds), a ca&n Ps. 107, 29 ; S^d^"^ Vp 
njS'^ sound of a gentle murmur 
IK. 19, 12; »dm ^"ipT sng^? stillness 
and a voice I hear, i. e. a slight 
whisper (Job 4, 16), or prob. better 
silence (there is), and a voice I hear. 

jQ ' i (obs.) to dung or manure 
(so Arab. ^jj^J); but this word is prob. 
a denom. from )'C^; perh. akin to 
dilT, 6<:2W, ^0 6e foul. 

V!^ m. c?MW9', mawwre 2 K. 9, 37, 
see "j^'n. 

nj''-2^ pr. n. (dung-heap; cf. W. 
tomen dung-hill) of a city in Zebu- 
Ion Josh. 21, 35 ; r. )t2X 

0^)2 'I (fut. 5^7*;) perh. akin to 
fi?3'n I, prop, fo floiv, hence to shed 
tears Jer. 13, 17 (Chald., Syr. and 
Arab, the same); hence 

3^*-??. (w. suf. TjSJd-i) m. tear, collect. 
tears; only fig. tears of grapes and 
olives, i.e. the expressed Jm'ces, only in 
Ex. 22, 28. Gf. Sdcxpuov twv 8ev8pa)V, 
Theophr., L. arborum lachrymae, 
Plin. 11, 6. 

tlTQ"^ (r. »?3^; pi. W'Sdn Ps. 80, 
6) f. tear, collect, tears Ps. 6, 7; 
ii^'d^ 131? *i'nn wy eye ^ows doion 
tears Jer. 13, 17; see Gram. § 138, 
1, Rem. 2. 

I /h • i (obs.) perhaps akin to "idT 
to trill or i(;^jr, hence perh. ^r'llr}. 

w /3 • I (obs.) prob. akin to Arab. 

S>«J aequalis mollisque fuit (locus); 

hence prob. pb52^ (which see), though 
gen. supposed to come from 

p^*/2'l (obs.) Arab. ^l^J 
(prob. only a denom, of ^'^'i) to br 
quid:, active. 



i*J pr. n. (perh. activity, w. 
ref. to its traffic; but see below) of 
the city Damascus Gen. 14, 15, the 
capital of Syria, situated in a plain 
so fruitful and fair as to be often 
called Paradise. In order to play on 
the word pttJ^ (in Gen. 15, 2), ptp^a^ 
stands for ''pb^a'n, that is Damas- 
cus for Damascene. In 1 Ch. 18, 5 
piU^^n stands for piD53^; theDaghesh 
forte being resolved by a Syriasm 
into *i; in 2 K. 16, 10 pilJ5aW occurs; 
this is the usual Syriac form, and 
appears to have sprung from pb^l'n 
by softening ^ into ^1 (comp. yj'nn = 
Uiil'n). — Prob. from obs. r. W^'^ 

(= Arab. »S*^j to be level and soft 

i. e. fruitful and fair, cf. ^'I?^ = J^), 
w. the old adj. ending p-^ (comp. 

pPQS)) often in Arab. e. g. ^AjI>3 from 

Jifc3> S66 o^ letter n); hence the prob. 

meaning level and lovely spot, so well 
suited to that charming place. 

P^'Oyi (some Mss have pb^atf) m. 
damask Amos 3, 12, a kind of silk 
stuff, so named from pb^alJ, where it 
was manufactured. 

1*n 1) pr. n. m. (judge) of a son 
of Jacob Gen. 30, 6; of the tribe 
descended from him Josh. 19, 40; 
hence patron. ^^"^ Danite Jndg. 18, 1. 
2) pr. n. of a city, otherwise Ui'^b, to 
which the Danites gave name. Josh. 
19, 47, Judg. 18, 29. 3) perh. name 
of a Phenician deity (Eshmun), hence 
pr. n. I?*^ ilS^ (perh. Dan the piper), 
of a city 2 Sam, 24, 6 (see )'$'^) ; perh. 
shortened for 'j'i'n in Ez. 27, 20. 

"11 Chald. demonst. pron., ns'n 
def., com. gend. (Heb. nt) this Dan.' 
2, 18; M373 i. q. nxts, e. g. a^n3 ns'iS 
thus it VMS written Ezr. 5, 7; nsn ^sr 

(Heb. !n!}<t ^?) on this account, there^ 
fore Dan. 3, 16; ni'i 'i'nri&< a/'ifer this, 
afterwards Dan. 2, 29. 

bi^D^ , see bj<^3^. 

JJ*i (obs.) perh. akin to l^^ 1 
(= ')"n, w. ending 5-7-, see i^^P^), to^ 
he yielding, impressible; hence ^31^ 

nSl pr. n. (perh. whisper) of a 
city in Judah, Josh. 15, 49; r. 'ji'n. 

nnriD'n pr. n. (perh. stenchy) of a 
city of Edom Gen. 36, 32. — The r. 

may be tij'n = n3T = Arab, '^jy ta 
stink, w. old adj. ending ii3-p;see 
on nns^K, and cf. iT^t = Jilt = Aram, 

viv : - ' T T - T 

^?1J Judg. 18, 1; see )X 

^^.^?'^ Pi"- n. m. (God is judge) 
Dan. 1, 6; Ez. 14, 14 ^MX 

j J • i (obs.) perh. i. q. Arab. ^ J, to 
whisper, murmur. Hence nsn. 

?!! (prop. inf. of 5:1:^; pi. ti^S'ri) m, 
knoivledge, opinion Job 32, 10; pK 
Qhii^n Q'l^in perfect in sciences, i. e» 
all branches of knowledge Job 37, 16. 

3^^ imper. Qal of 5>^\ 

» iS^'n m. i. q. 5)'Ti in pr. names. 

n^*!! (inf. of ^':}^)i.knowledge Ps, 
73, 11; w. ace. MjlT^-ri^? «'^?'i7 prop. 
to know Pi|), i. e. the knowledge of 
the Eternal, Is. 11, 9; pi. mr'n = Di>'^ 
1 Sam. 2, 3 , see ?•} 

ro^ Prov. 24, 14 for i'^ imp. of rn;?, 
w. M cohort, (see Gram, § 48, 3, Kem.). 

bJ^^3^'n pr. n. m. (prob. knowledge 
of God) Num. 1, 14; but in Num. 2, 14 
we find it ^X!iS5"i (T = ^). 

Tji? • i (fut. 'q^'i']) akin to Tj^J, Syr. 
>^? , perh. to Tj^'n, prob. to tread or 
stamp out, hence fig. fo g-wewc^, fo go 




out, of a light, 'r\'$'-}'1 tD"^:?^") "I3 the 
lamp of the ivicked shall go out Prov. 
13, 9, i. e. their welfare shall come 
to an end ; hence to be destroyed Is. 
43^ 17. _ NIph. to become extinct, 
of the drying up of water Job 6, 17. 
Cf. extinguere aquam, Liv. 5, 16. — 
Pu. T\T^ fig. to be extinguished, de- 
stroyed, of enemies Ps. 118, 12. 

7*/ •] (obs.) 1. q. bn^, to fear; 
hence bs^Pl. 

T : ■ 

ln!^'l (prop. inf. of 'S'r^, sometimes 
used w. ace, see Gram. § 133, 1) f. 
a knowing, knowledge, Q'^«7^!S; n?'p 
knowledge of God Hos. 4, 1, n^iiin 
ini< Jer. 22, 16 tlie knowing me, i. e. 
knowledge of me (God); perception 
Prov. 19, 2; design, n?^ ^bna without 
design, unawares Deut. 4, 42; in- 
sight, wisdom Prov. 1, 4; intelligence 
Prov. 1, 7; rc5'n S^"! to know wisdom 

> ' - I- - T 

Prov. 17, 27; n?^2 wisely Prov. 13, 
16; n^'ia nh umvisely Job 34, 35. 

mD *7 (obs.) i. q. Arab. ^ J, li>i, 
<o sin^e or push against; hence 

''S'n (in pause ''B^) m. stumbling- 
block, fence, only Ps. 50, 20, Sept. 

I<S^ akin to nS'n to push, thrust, 
to press, i. e. to drive on, a flock Gen. 
33, 13; to knock at a door, w. h'S 
Cant. 5, 2. — Hith. to push oneself 
{against a door), w. ^? Judg. 19, 22. 

»T]^3^ pr. n. (perh. cattle-driving) 
of a station in the wilderness Num. 
33, 12; now el-Tobbacha. 

P^ adj. m., nis'n f. (akin to T^'n) beaten 
small, pulverised, hence fine , of dust 
Is. 29, 5; of spices Lev. 16, 12; also 
as sxxhst. particle of dust, atom Ex. 16, 
14, Is. 40, 15; fig. lank, of hair Lev. 
13, 30; thin Gen. 41, 3; shrivelled. 

withered Gen. 41, 6; slight, of voice 
IK. 19, 12, of a person, shrunken, 
dwarfed Lev. 21, 20; r. pp'n. 

P'n m. (prop. inf. of pp'n) fineness, 
hence fine cloth, only in Is. 40, 22. 

y I? *! (obs.) prob. akin to h^'^I to 
wave, of a tree; hence Arab. A^J, 
Syr. U-o? a palm-tree (for its waving); 
perh. also ba'AXuXoc, (palm -fruit) 
whence our date, F. datte. Span. 
datil. Hence 

n^P*^ pr. n. f. (place of palms) 
of a district in Arabia Gen. 10, 27. 

pj2'!J (fut. pS^) i. q. -ri?^, 1) to 
beat to pieces, to pound or crush to 
powder Is. 41, 15; of grain Is. 28, 
28. 2) to be pulverised, to become as 
powder Ex. 32, 20. — Hiph. p^n to 
break to pieces (fut. ap. pn ;>) 2 K. 23, 
6; inf. p'nfi, adv. very small, fine, 
Ex. 30, 36; fig. of utter destruction, 
thou shalt break in pieces many 
nations Mic. 4, 13; inf. py\ (for p^}) 
2 Ch. 34, 7 ; fut. w. suf. t3p'^75< for dl3'7&t 
2 Sam. 22, 43. — Hoph. to be beaten, 
out, pyr^ dnb bread (com) is beaten 
out Is. 28, 28. Deriv. p^, p'n. 

P)2 ; Chald.(i. q. Heb.pp'n), to be 
beaten skall; ^p-i (for sipn) Dan. 2, 
35 they were beaten small. — Aph. 
pr^r^ (3 fem. np^n Dan. 2, 34; 3 pi. 
iip'nri, fut. p^^ w. suf. nsp^^ part. 
pWa, f. np'qg Dan. 7, 7) to break 
in pieces Dan. 7, 19. 

^jP'i (fut. "I'pn';) akin to ^5^, 
and ^?t, fo Sore through, pierce, 
stab Num. 25, 8; fig. to curse, con- 
temn Zech. 12, 10 (cf. 8v l^exev- 
TYjaav John 19, 37). — Niph. to be 
thrust through Is. 13, 15. — Pu. 
*ip"n to be thrust through Jer. 57, 10; 
stabbed {slain), by hunger Lam. 4, 9» 

'v IV 


— Perh. akin to our dagger, Swed. 
daggert, G. degen; these may how- 
ever be akin to our dig. 

1)5^. pr. n. m. (perh. for *ip^ )^ 
swordsman) 1 K. 4, 9; cf. ^i?"13. 

^"n m. a pearl, only Est. 1,6, 
so named for its radiance; r. 'I'^'n I. 

1*5 Chald. m. i. q. Heb. 'Ti'n, age, 
generation Dan. 3, 33. 
'Tn, see *>'i'n. 

CS I •] (obs.) i. q. ^ii^i I, fig. to 
pierce the mind, or i. q. Arab. I^J, 
8)j to reject, refuse. Hence 

T^^*^?. (for 'jlK'nn, c. 'j'ix'i'n) m. 
abhorrence, Q^l'SJ 'ji&<"31^ ^o everlasting 
abhorrence Dan. 12, 2; object of 
horror Is. 66, 24. 

H J • I (obs.) perh. akin to *15^ IV, 
Arab. V)*^* ^<> ^^ sharp, pointed. Hence 

1*1!S*^^ dor^bhon (only in pi. 
WS'in'n'n dor^bhonoth) goads, ox-goads, 
Bept. Pouxevxpa, Ecc. 12, 11. 

I^'^^l dorbhan (i. q. 'jSa'n^) a 
^oaf?, 1 Sam. 13, 21. 

jTj'i (obs.) i. q. 'T]'!'^, fo sfep, 

tread: hence HS'n'ia. 

•^"t?*^*^ pr. n. m. (perh. pearl of 
knowledge, as if S^ nn) 1 K. 5, 11; 
for which also the contraction Si'n 
occurs in 1 Ch. 2, 6; but perh. for 

"'•Jl-? (cf. 5);5^5? = '^p^p). 

*'"!1'^^ (r. I1"n I) m. a prickly or 
thorny plant, caltrop, thistle Gen. 
3, 18. 

D^l'n (r. d'n'n) m. f^e sowfA (as 
bright, in opp. to "iiS^ the dark north) 
Ez. 40, 24; poet, south wind Job 
37, 17. 

'nl^'H (r. ^'y^ II) m. prop, wheeling 
about in swift circling flight, hence 
I) a sxoift or swallow (fern.) Ps. 

84, 4. 2) freeness, spontaneousness, 
"ilTn"'!^ myrrh flowing spontaneously 
i. e. jpwre Ex. 30, 23. 3) release, 
freedom, !? ^i'Ti 6<*nj3 fo proclaim 
liberty to any one Is. 61, 1; nsp 
'Ti'T^Tin the year of freedom, i. e. the 
jubilee Ez. 46, 17. 

"'^t^'^^ pr. n. m. Darius, Dan. 

".IT : IT -^ ' 

6, 1. Ancient Persian forms were 
Daryawes, Darayavush, said to mean 
preserver, Herod. 4p$£ir)<;. 

tbi^l'n Ezr. 10, 16, see ^">n in Pi' el. 

* I _ ' (^^^- 'n'^T) niimet. and akin 

to a'n'n, Arab, j-jj, Sans, trag (go), 
xpl^oj, E. fracAr, tread, tramp, G. 
tt'eten, W. troedio, Irish troigh foot 
(Gram. § 30, 2), fo sfe^, ifrea^?, t<;a//c, 
w. ace. of the way Job 22, 15; vr, 
3 to walk through, in, Deut. 1, 36; 
w. *J^ to come forth Num. 24, 17; 
w. b? to walk over, on, 1 Sam. 5, 5; 
to tread upon Ps. 91, 13. To tread 
the bow lnu:;5 Ps. 7, 13, i. e. to place 
the foot on it in order to bend it 
for stringing; D'^Sin ^y: to bend 
the arrows, perh. to set them 
against the string for shooting Ps. 
58, 8. — To tread the wine-press 
is expressed as follows, ip"] 'n Job 
24, 11; ra '•n Neh. 13, 15; ma '^ 
Is. 63, 2; nnsis'-ri, 63, 3; d^SJ?':? )']';!_ 'n 
Is. 16, 10; also "T^t^'^ alone Judg. 9,27; <0 
tread out olives, r\'^t'^Mic.6,15.— Fig. 
to trample on, to treat w. contempt, Is. 
63, 3, perh.Ps. 58, 8; w. 3 Hab. 3, 15. 
— Hiph. T|'^'^^<7 1) to cause to walk Is. 
11,15; w. 3 fo cause to walk in a way, 
to guide Ps. 107, 7; also to walk, w. 
ace. of way Job 28, 8; to make a 
treading, to tread a threshing-floor 
Jer. 51, 33; to bend the to7igue, i. e. 
get • it ready (as a bow) for sending 
hurtful words Jer. 9, 2. 2) Arab. 

^)'^' > Syr. '^i?|j ^0 tread upon, i. e. 



overtake w. ace. Judg. 20, 43. Hence 
^['^ya and 

tj^?. (w. suf. '»5';>5, dual d^S'n'n 
Trov.*2*8, 6; pi. B'^^'^'n, c. ^z'^^) com. 
gend. (m. 1 Sam. 21," 6, fem. Ezr. 8, 
21) a going, way (as action) Tjbn 
V{T}!^ to go in one's way Prov, 7, 19; 
'7 f^^?, Sept. TTOi^aai 686v, fo ma^e 
-one's journey Judg. 1 7, 8 ; also if^ay 
■or road which one walks in, e. g. 
M^^"!l 'V^r}. the king''s way, the public 
highway Num. 20, 17. To go the 
way of all the earth i. e. to die, 
Josh. 23, 14. Fig. \) manner Gen. 19, 
31; mode of life Prov. 12, 15; comp. 
1 K. 16, 26; ways of God, i. e. his 
methods of manifesting himself Job 
26, 14. 2) lot or destiny Ps. 10, 5; 
o")nsp •^'n^a after the fate of Egypt 
Is.'^lO, 24." ' 

1'aS'll (only in pi. I3*'5b3'^'n) m. 
■fl daric, a Persian gold coin, Ezr. 2, 
€9; same as "jlS'i'nK, which see. 

LTyi (obs.) akin to ^y} I, to 
shine, to be bright; hence di*W. 

piD^J'l'n 1 Ch. 18, 5, the resolved 
form of pba'n, the 1 serving for 
the Daghesh forte. 

i^J'i (obs.) = S'^l to scatter, to 
soio; hence "^^Tl*^- 

> J-] Chald. (obs.) i. q. S^-n; 

3^'^'n Chald. (pi. w. suf. ^^m^f) 
com. gend. (i. q. Heb. Sl^Tr) arm 
Dan. 2, 32; see l^'n^X. 

3^f ^. pr. n. m. perh. a false form 
for S^n-n 1 Ch. 2, 6. 

I*^ J'J (obs.) perh. akin to Tj'?'^, 
Arab. 3)^, to hasten; hence 

1'^P*''!! pr. n. m. (perh. hastener) 
Ezr. 2,'56. 


J • i I (obs.) akin to "^nt, -in-j, 
•^Jn^, fo gleam, glitter; hence "i^. 

I J • i II (obs.) perh. akin to 'nrt'n, 
fo fwrw or drive aboiU, sweep along; 
hence 'TI'Tn. 

U J *I (fut. yi-i^*;) akin to t'^\ 
Tj'Ti'n, Chald. O'i'n, Syr. wA,9J, prop, to 
tread or 5ea< out, hence 1) fo /ay 
open, to search for, to seek Ez. 34, 
6; to investigate Deut. 13, 15 (comp. 
*^l=0)' 2) in general, to be intent 
on something, hence to seek often, 
make inquiries about the welfare of 
any one Deut. 23, 7, Ps. 38, 13. — 
The constructions are various, ac- 
cording to shades of meaning, TlJ'i'n 
^N to seek for a place Deut. 12, 6; 
to inquire of God Job 5, 8, of oracles 
and idols Is. 8, 19; b TU^'n to seek or 

' 'J - T 

go to some one, w. a request Deut. 
12, 30; to search out 2 Sam. 11, 3; 
■n&i tiy^ to seek, visit, the Lord 
2 Ch. 16, 12; to care for, Deut. 11, 
12; 'nnx tti'n'n to seek after Job 39, 8; 
b? ^'^'n to inquire concerning 2 Ch. 
31, 9; ^0 investigate, Ecc. 1,13; d5a '"n 
<o inquire or asZ: /Vom some one 1 K. 
14,5; nxp '^2K.3,11; alsow. a2Ch. 
16, 12. — Niph. trn: to be sought out, 
i. q. *7(ii5, 1 Ch. 26, 31 ; to be required, 
of blood Gen. 42, 22; to allow one- 
self to be sought or visited, to grant 
access, w. h Ez. 14, 3, Is. 65, 1. Inf. 
abs. UJ'n^it for tl'^n in Ez. 14, 3. — 
Pi. only inf. uii'^^^for uil"?)^ (the "^ perh. 
serving for Daghesh forte) to in- 
vestigate Ezr. 10, 16, but the reading 
is very doubtful. 

NU •) perh. akin to "JTIJ^, XO*ir}, 
b*!?!, prop, to sprout, to be fresh and 
green Joel 2, 22. — Hiph. X'^uinh to 
cause to sprout, to produce herbage 
(it'i:^) Gen. 1, 11. Hence 




H'C'n m. first shoots, tender grass 
(Sept/'^XoTf)) Is. 66, 14; K^^ p'T'^ 
greenness of herbage i. e. green her- 
bage Ps. 37, 2. Diff. from n^^rt grass 
for mowing Prov. 27, 25, and fr. Sias) 
Aer6 running into seed Gen. 1,11.12. 

W * i perh. akin to J<i'^ <0 &e 

fresh, thriving, hence to be or be- 
come fat Deut. 31, 20. — Pi. to make 
fat, marrowy Prov. 15, 30; hence in 
sacrifices, to make or 'pronounce fat, 
i. e. to accept as well-pleasing Ps. 
20, 4; to remove ("|^^) the fat ashes 
of burnt beasts (Gram. § 52, 2, c) Ex. 
27, 3; fig. to anoint Ps. 23, 5. — Pu. 
to be made fat, of ground soaked w. 
blood Is. 34,7; of men, i.e. to become 
affluent Prov. 11,25; fig. ^0 &e satiated 
Prov. 13, 4.— Hotbp. )X^n for "j^^inri 
to be smeared w. fat, of a sword 
Is. 34, 6 , see Gram. § 54, 3, Rem. 

■jOT (pi. d'^SUi'Ti, c. ^}m) adj. m. 
fat, fertile, of a soil Is. 30, 23; full 
of sap, of a tree Ps. 92, 15; rich, 
affluent, mighty Ps. 22, 30. 

1^?. (w. suf. ^3^^) m. 1) fatness 
Judg. 9, 9; nourishing food Job 36, 
16; fig. fertility, Ps. 65, 12. 2) fat 
ashes of sacrificed animals Lev. 1,16; 
of burnt corpses Jer. 31, 40; diflf. 
from *iSX vegetable ashes ; r. 'j^ti. 

M (c. m or m, pi. d^M, 0. ^t^'^)f. 
mandate, edict Est. 1,8, Ezr. 8,36; laiv, 
fitatuteEst. 1,19: lab nn \r5t ira'^a ai 

' ' IT T •• • • 

Ais W^Af Aawd! was fire, a law (std' 
tute) to them i. e. the pillar of fire 
that guided them; or perh. a fire 
of law, referring to the burning 
mount Deut. 33, 2. — The r. is M':; = 
r\*niJ to set; and f^'^ is equal to the 
Pers. data, Osxov, ooxov, L. datum, 
E. set, something appointed, and there- 
fore in the Persian age used for ph; 
but others take it for f\'i'^, from tiT^ 

T ;' -IT 

to lay down, to set, hence a law. 

in'n Chald. (def. ttn^) f. an edict, a 
laiv Dan. 2, 9; collect, law Dan. 6, 9j 
Jih^X iTia in the laiv (i. e. worship) of 
his God ban. 6, 6. 

ty^ or Inll f. a spring, perh. for 
ni^ (r. nir|i=5t5^ to flow)', hence 'j'^m. 

ktn'n Chald. (def. .XNM) i. q. Heb. 
!!<u:^, tender grass Dan. 4, 12; of, 
Syr. 11 ?Z. 

"lljri'n Chald. (only def. pi. J^^-niiM) 
m. one skilled in the law, ajudgeTtau. 
3, 2; prob. from ITi, w. the formative- 
syllable n3(cf. lat^). InPehlvicZa^w&er 
is a judge; Pers. ^jjf^f^JlJ lawyers. 

yy}"^ pr. n. (two cisterns, dual of 
Talm. nn cistern, w. n loc. hr'^M, 
r. n^'n) of a place in the North of 
Samaria Gen. 37, 17 ; in 2 K. 6, 13 )'nx 

1^}^ pr. n. m. (perh. given, cf. 
Heb. nn, or like L. fontanus) Num. 
16, 1. 

]Th Gen. 37, 17 and 2 K. 6, 13, 

see T^"^' 


n Be, the 5th Heb. letter; hence 
used also for the numeral 5. Its 
oldest form as discovered in Pheni- 
cian and Heb. inscriptions is 5\ or 
^, whence the early Greek ^ or j^ 
and the common E. Its name Kfi 
comes prob. from Wrt to breathe and 
means vent-hole (i. e. l^3"l^^ a lattice 

^ T •. -: 

window, which its form rudely pic- 
tured); the initial sound and the 
shape suggesting the power of the 
letter, which is h (as in hiss), except 
after a vowel, where it generally 
quiesces (Gram. § 8, 3, Note l) unless 
it is marked n (with Mappiq, see 
Gram. § 14, 1). 

n interchanges — 1 , with its kindred 
feeble letters (Gram. § 7, 2, Note ^) 

», \ % e. g. n^j5 I = i<^^ II, -ins = 

1W , r\\'r} = Tj^^ , iTlb = "itiiU; — 2 with 
its kindred gutturals h, 5?, &<, e. g. 

•nna II = -iriT: i, ohi = wsi, ^nb ii 

-T - T ' -T -t' —T 

= uxb; — 3 with palatals 5, 5, p, e. 

g. nn&< = 355>, "nn^ 11 = ^573 1, n^'( = 

D -T -T' -T -t' TT 

p'^1 ; — 4 with sibilants, e. g. T]^(i = 
Tj^D, ^Vh=bb^I(cf. epTTO) = L. serjpo 
= E. creep; Aram. Shaph'el 3iib\r, 
w^oi^L = Heb. Hiph'il Intibri from 
Sf?^); — 5 with 1, e. g. n-ns III = 
^•12 ;— 6 w. n, cf. Gram. § 86 2. 

n appears as a formative prefix 
in some words, e. g. 'iiafi (= "15^) 
from "n^a, bin akin to i<mi, "nlfi to 

-t' -t tt'i-t 

T^?"!, prob. akin to the Hiph. forms. 
But as a formative ending it is most 
familiar, namely as "^-7-, 1) accented 
and marking the fem. gender, see 
Gram. § 44, 1 and § 80, 2, a (cf. the 
fem. ending -a, -rj, -a in Sans., Gr. 

and Lat.); — 2) unaccented, after 
nouns (called il-^ local, Gram. § 90, 
2), or accented after verbs (•^-7- co- 
hortative, Gram. § 48, 3). — This 
final n appears as i^-:r ^^ a very few 
cases. — In the pronouns •^iF15<, ii'B'n, 
fitti, the n— --~rs~lk sort of deraonst. 
ending (Gram, § 32, Rem. 5 and 7). 

'Hj n? ♦^j n (short forms of brt as 
closely prefixed to a noun, see Gram, 
§ 35) originally a demonst. (or rela- 
tive) pronoun, like our that (see Gram. 
§ 109, Eem. p. 245) but commonly 
called the article, since it answers 
to the Gr. 6, :f), to and our the (never 
to a or an, see Gram. § 109, Rem. 1). 
The original h very seldom appears 
(see tbii), but is incorporated into the 
first letter of the noun, which is 
then doubled as shown by daghesh 
forte, e. g. "iS'iti, "la'i^rt, which 
however is often omitted if the first 
letter has no full vowel, e. g. Uiisa^rt^ 
5'n'imH, and always if it is a guttural^ 
e. g. WW, b'^nn. Before N, *i, usually 
also before 55, M the Pathach (-^, a) 
is lengthened into Qames ( — , a)y 
e. g. Y^^Ti (never y^^T:), ^y^, -inn, 
dSin; but n is used for fi before ft 

T T ' V T T 

chd and n ch° e. g. snn, u:^nn, "i^nn 

r: o TV' T T •.•' • t: :• 

and before S> and ii when the accent 

T T 

is not on them, e. g. ta^^nn, \^'^t^.y 
h'iro'nnfi (but see more in Gram. 
§ 35, 2). The syntax of the Heb. 
article is essentially like that of the 
Greek or the German (der); and its 
use may be seen fully in the Gram. 
§§ 109—111. — di'^n (comp. Scotch 
the day, Lat, hodie) means mostly 
this day, to- day ^ as in Gen. 4, 14; 


rrobrn Is. 7, 14 (Sept. ii uapOlvo;, 
cf. Mat. 1, 23) the virgin, prob. 
pointing to the class (see Gram. 
§ 109, 3, Rem. 1, b), or perh. for 
•ir^b? (the art. as in Gr. serving for 
possess, pron.; cf. 2 Sam. 19, 27 
•j-ianri for "^"li^n); &<^=)^^lv} in Josh. 
10, 24 is for sisVn ^m thai went (the 
art. as often in Gr. used for relat. pron.). 

n» Hj ♦^j *1 interrog. particle 
(Gram. § 100, 4) introduces question 
(cf. ^), whether it is direct (Job 2, 3), 
or indirect (Ex. 16, 4); whether the 
answeris wholly uncertain, cf.Lat.-we? 
2 Sam. 18, 32, or an affirmative is ex- 
pected, cf. Lat. nonne? 1 Sam. 2, 27, or a 
negative, cf. Lat. num ? (Gen. 4, 9). In 
a disjunctive question tvhether — or? 
we find t36< — ti 0^- utrum — an?) 
Job 4, 17, at times fi — n 1 Sam. 
23, 11. — Before gutturals it is h e. g. 
T\?.^T} Ex. 2, 7, or fi e. g. PIT}^. Num. 
13, 18, '^33!!<fi; before it, also H, as 
UJ'^Nn Num. 16, 22, tStilJif^ Judg. 6, 
51; but before *^ like the article 
^O^i'sn Lev. 10, 19, also before simple 
«h'wa, as 'j^^rt Gen. 17, 17; on its 
syntax, see more under DX and in 
Gram. § 153, 2. 

ri, n prefixed, see in, rt. 

i^n Chald. interj. lo! behold! Dan. 

3, 25; Heb. fc<n, Syr. |oi, Arab. l^. 

t^t} interj. lo! Gen. 47, 23; akin 
to *]n, Stn, f^v, L. ew. 

i^n Chald. lo! '^'is 5<n ?o/ as, for 
j?ts^ as Dan. 2, 43, where it is pleonastic. 

^n^wTSn Is. 19, 6, Hiph. of n:tx 

a denom. verb, or for silT'ST?!, r. n^T. 
r^n (compound of HX and fnri) 
interj. aha! exclamation of joy Is. 
44, 16; esp. at the defeat of an 
enemy Ps. 35, 21. — Mimet. like our 
haha! W. oho! L. eia! Eia, Amer. 
Indian 'minne-Aa/m' (laughing water). 

156 inn 

t|DSD&^lr| Num. 11, 4, for ClpSbSJ 
w. article. 

^•^j ^5v7» ^®"^* "^"^V?' P^' *'''^'7» i^^per. 
of nn-i. 
.-^ . 

TS^i^in Is. 30, 5 for TliiSl'n, Hiph. 

of uiia. ' 

nnnri (only pi. d'^Shnii; r. sn;;) 
m. gifts, offerings, only in Hos. 8, 13. 

^in Hos, 4, 18, see SQT' SQnx. 

P'l^n Is. 24, 3 inf. Niph. of pp3. 

^nrj Ruth 3, 15 (r. Ity^), Gram. 
§ 69, Rem. 2. 

DJJ^^nri Num. 32, 17 (r. fct^'a), 
Gram. § 76" 2, /: 

^Dtji^^nn Num. 16, 14, see Gram. 
§ 76, 2, f. 

^5^ ^ (f^t- ^^^l^) akin to nnij, 
n|;jj, SSiit; ^0 breathe, to bloiu (Talm, 
to exhale), hence b^fi; fig. to be vain, 
2 K. 17, 15; to act or sjpeak vainly 
Job 27, 12; to have a vain hope Ps. 
62, 11. — Iii[>h. to make vain, to 
seduce to idolatry, to befool Jer. ^3, 
16. Hence 

bin (c. bnin Ecc. 1, 2 like 5>'lt 
Num. 11, 7, w. suf. ^'bli'n, pi. tJi^nn, 
c. "^Ir^*!!) m. 1) a breath of air, a 
gentle breeze Is. 67, 13 ; breath of 
the mouth Ps. 144, 4, and hence fig. 
as an image of evanescence, vanity, 
emptiness Lam. 4, 17; as adv. in 
vain Job 9,29; idols, as vain or worth- 
less Deut. 32, 21 (cf. 1 Cor. 8, 4); 
idolatry 2 K. 17, 15; pi. ts'^'bnn 
vanities Jer. 10, 8 ; esp. idols Ps. 
31, 7. 3) exhalation, mist Ecc. 6, 4; 
11, 8. 3) pr. n. m. (evanescence) of 
Adam's 2d son Gen. 4, 2; Sept.^ApsX. 

bin Ecc. 1, 2, D'^'bnin bin vamfg^ 
o/" vanities i. e. veriest vanity (Gram. 
§ 119, 2 Rem.); see bsil. 

jiiJrf i (obs.) perh. akin to Arab, 
jj^, -j^i^, to be hard, perh. hence 




*'3!2n (only pi. b'^Jat;) m. perh. 
stone - wood , ebony - wood (usually 
black), so called perh. for its hard- 
ness, only in Ex. 27, 15, in K'thibh 
D'^sain. — Akin to l^svo;, epeXo;, 
L. ebenum, E. ebony, G-. eftewholz, 

all prob. from bsx, Arab. j}|, to be 
dark; hence prob. also G. abend, E. 
cren-tide, evening (cf. D'ljJ, Ipepoi). 
^nn Jer. 4, 11, inf. Hiph. of "i^ia. 

lilinakin to fTia I, Arab. ^, 

to divide, to partition out, only in Is. 
47, 13 d'^ayj "iiah dividers of the 

' • I- T " : ' 

heavens, i. e. astrologers, who parti- 
tion the heavens for augury. The 
K'thibh is '\1J r\'2'n Cnm), Sept. 
djTpoXoYoi TOO oupavoO. 

X^n pr. n. m. (perh. exile, r. 

nan n) Est. 2, 3, also ^an v. 8, 15. 

JJ j I (obs.) i. q. T\^i^ (which see) 

to speak softly, whisper, then also of 
the silent speech or murmur of the 
heart; hence il'^an. 

n jii I (fut. n^^':^;) prob. mimet. 

T T ' ' %" 

akin to asn, ana, Syr. 1-^,01, Arab. 
Usub, T^X^oi, Sans, vach (to utter), L. 
vagio', \) to murmur, to have a deep 
tone, as harp or lyre hence "jT^sn; 
to coo, murmur, as a dove Is. 38, 14; to 
sigh, moan Is. 16, 7; to mutter, as 
enchanters (see Hiph.); to rumble, 
mutter, as low thunder, see H^t] Job 
37, 2; to growl Is. 31, 4. 2) fo 
5j9eaA:, absol. Ps. 115, 7; w. ace. 
Job 27, 4 ; fo sing, w. ace. of subj. 
Ps. 35, 28; in this sense of the verb, 
clear and distinct utterance is im- 
plied. 3) of the silent tones of the 
heart, w. ? to meditate on Josh. 
1, 8; w. b and inf. m'a^b naii'^ he 
meditates (what) to answer Prov, 
15, 28; w. ace. to think upon Is. 33, 

18 (cf. i^Yeo|; also in a bad sense, 
to devise,plot Ps. 2, 1 , Sept. ifxeXsxrja av, 
cf. Acts 4, 25. — Po*el nin (Gram. 
§ 65, 1, only inf. iah) to imagine Is. 
59, 13, but perh. inf. of r\^ri II or 
Hiph. of na\ — Hiph. to mutter, 
only part. pi, D^an^ Is. 8, \% whisperers, 
i. e. enchanters. Cf. n^iia. 

n kilter 
m\S \ II (inf. Ian Prov. 25, 4) 

i. q. na;^ II, to separate, remove (dross) 
Prov. 25, 5 ; to take away, as a violent 
wind Is. 27, 8. — Po'el (Gram. § 
65, 1) perh. iah Is. 59, 13 fo remove 
or banish; cf. a-yto, L. ago. 

•^5n (r« "^^O I) i^' nnurmuring^ 
whispering, then sighing, moaning 
Ez. 2, 10; muttering (of thunder) 
Job 37, 2; meditation (perh. a kind 
of soliloquy) or a sound Ps. 90, 9. 
I i^n Is. 59, 13 inf. absol. Po'el 
I (Gram.§65,l;75,Eem.2),r.naniorII. 

I T^jH f. meditation, thought Ps. 
! 49, 4; X. nan i. 

I ' ' T T 

I ^'^n Est. 2, 8, see xan. 

^''jn (w. suf. 'la'ian) m. i. q. nan, 
sighing, moaning Ps. 5, 2 ; complaint 
Ps. 39, 4 ; r. aan. 

'ji'^^n (c- 'P^fD. w. suf. liiian Ps, 
19, 15) m. 1) the murmur, dull sounds 
of the harp (cf. ri'^^ti Is. 14, 11), ibsr 
^I'saa 'ji'ian on fAe murmur on the 
i ^arj? Ps. 92, 4; hence, a style of 
music Ps. 9, 17, perh. a subdued 
or soft playing, as a pause, or some 
peculiar sort of harping. 2) medi- 
tation Ps. 19, 15; in a bad sense, 
plot, device Lam. 3, 62; r. nan I. 

I^^rj (r. "jan) adj. m., nj-^an f., perh. 
covered, enclosed Cr)'!i'j!), only in Ez. 
42, 12, which is very obscure. 

thj'n Jer. 13, 19 for ninban, r.nbaii. 

t:t ' t!:t' tt 

I JPl (obs.) perh. akin to "jSR, "ja^, 
to surround, to cover. 




'J^i i prob. akin to Sj^r. wjs^, 

Arab, ^sejb to flee, whence Hejrah 
(Mahomet's flight). Hence 

"^yn 1) pr. n. f. (flight) Gen 16, 1. 
2) pr. n. of a country on the Persian 
Gulf, hence gent. n. "^"1:^^ 1 Ch. 11, 
38; pi. D-i-iar; Ps. 83, 7", D^X'^'ian 1 
Ch. 5, 10 = D'l^'i^fi Hagarenes, the 
people of the country. The place is 
now called Bahrein. 

in m. i. q. Ti'^'n, shout or cry of 
joy Ez. 7, 7; r. 'infi I. 

'llS'nn Chald. (only pi. 'j'^^i^'nii, def. 
**!J''? r^'^r?) i^- prob. a guide, counsellor, 
vizier Dan. 3, 24; jobia i"a'nii f/ie 
king''s ministers Dan. 3, 27. — P^rh. 
from iTnfi (akin to 606;, L. vacZo, 
Sans. ?;«£? go) w. old ending *I3 — (as 
in 'l3T3i which see). 

I J I \ I (obs.) mimetic, akin to 
n^i I, a6cD, n!in, JTin, bbsn, fo sAowf, 

cry, roar, sing 1. q. Arab. oJb to roar, 
crash. Hence ^Ti, irr'n. 

\ }S I II (obs.) perh. to hepotver- 
ful, strong, akin to ^^N. Hence perh. 
Tnii in some pr. names. 

"^in Pi"' i^' (perh. mighty, r. ^"in 
n) of a Syrian deity (see T^'!)"']?); 
also of men Gen. 36, 35, 1 Chr. 1, 30. 

^J.i?7t!»l pr. n. m. (Hadad is help) 
2 Sani.'8, 3. 

■jTS'l'l'liri pr. n. (perh. Hadad is 
high, see •ji^S'l) of a place Zech. 12, 1 1. 

n iii perh. akin to Tn^ III, 

T T TT ' 

to stretch out (the hand), only Is. 
11, 8; to point out or lead (the 
way), guide, 1. q. Syr. v.?(ji, Arab. 

^j^; akin to 686;, L. vado, Traxeo). 
Deriv. i^n\ 

^"^h pr. n. (for insn, Ji-npn) of the 

Hindoo countrj', India, Est. 1,1; Syr. 

o,J(yi, Arab. j>iA; in Sans. Sindhavas 

(i. e. seven rivers), Scinde. 

13 J Mn pr.n. of an Arabian people, 
the Atramites, between the Him- 
yarites and the Sachalites Gen. 10, 
27; perh. for d*l "linri (Ador is exalt- 
ed); see D'^'i"!^. 

123^iri Is. 25, 10, Niph. from TlJiil. 

*^^n pr. n. m. (perh. mighty, r. 
"Tin II) 2 Sam. 23, 30; in 1 Ch. 
11,^32 ^y^n. 

^ jfi akin to T]?-!, i:if7 H, to 
tread to pieces, tread down (the 
wicked), w. nnn Job 40, 12; cf. Arab. 

^jJb to tear down (a house), to 

U jJl (obs.) akin to ta^ti, D-^SJ 
<o stamp hard, to tread or heat upon; 

Dill (only in c. dSrt, di^rn; r. dih) 
m. prop, something trodden on, hence 
foot-stool, a hassock; d'^bs'n thTy ivhat 
is stamped hard by the feet i. e. foot' 
stool, Ps. 110, 1. Cf. Chald ;iJas, Syr. 

|..A.;Das footstool, from yins to tread 

or trample. 

U Jl^l Chald. (obs.) akin to re }JL- 

sui, to cut into parts; hence 

Dlij Chald. (only pi. T'^-fv?) m. 
piece, portion, 'J'^a'nri 'ins) <o ma/fe 
pieces, i. e. cut to pieces Dan. 2, 5. 
■ — Akin to TOfxo;, Kelt, tarn (mor- 

o o V 

sel), Syr. |.iso?cn part or member; cf. 

jjlIXy] (= fAEpY], ^ = p) TwOieiv 2 Mac. 
1, 16. 

D iM (obs.) akin to NtB^, to he 

green, to sprout, Arab, j*'^) ^0 6e 
green. Hen'^e 




D*!?! (pi. D'^&tjr!) m. myrtle Is. 41, 
19; pi. Zech. 1, 8. 

HD'in pr. n. f. (myrtle) the Jew- 
ish name of Esther, Est. 2, 7. 

i*] jn (fut. c)^h;;, inf. c. si^n, w. 

«uf. «^7rj) akin to t]"}}, to thrust, pufih 
Num. 35, 20; w. "jp from and ^ info 
Job 18, 18; to overthrow Jer. 46, 15; 
to repulse 2 K. 4, 27; to drive out, 
expel, w. ^5B13, ''SB^p Deut. 6, 19; 

I jji (fut. ^"nn^) prob. akin to 
^y\ I, prop, to shine, gleam, to be 
conspicuous, hence ^vn'n a mountain 
Is. 45, 2; then fig. to be splendid, 
glorious, iuisin^a ^i^i^fi splendid in his 
apparel Is. 63, 1 ; to honour or favour 
Lev. 19, 32, Ex. 23, 3. — Niph. 
^I'nns to be honoured Lam. 5, 12. — 
Hith. to make oneself glorious^ to 
boast oneself Prov. 25, 6. 

' jS\ Chald. same as Heb. ^i'tM, 
only— Pa*, "l^fi tohonour'DaxiA, 31 . 34. 

Tin (c. "inri; pi. b'^nnrr, c. i-n^ri) 
m. ornament, splendour, pomp Ps. 
45, 4, b'ljp 'I'l'iin adornments of the 
Sanctuary, i. e. holy ornaments Ps. 
110, 3, see on fT^'if^; ^7^V? beauti- 
ful trees Lev. 23, 40; majesty, of 
Ood Ps. 104, 1 ; honour f dignity Ps. 
149, 9; r. ^'ifl. 

^*ltl (r. 1^!i) m. afformM€wf, sijfe?i- 
«owr; W3P^ "rnn orwawgnf of the 
kingdom, i. e. Palestine Dan. 11, 20; 
<if. "^asiri yy^. in y. 16 the land of 
adornment, also Zech. 9, 16. 

I*!*! Chald. m. i. q. Heb. ^i^H; 
"W. suf. '^'I'tn Dan. 4, 33 my majesty. 

^Jv. pr« n. m. (splendour) perh. 
name of the Syrian fire-god; see I'lK. 

^in, see trHn. 

•^"^7*^. (c. f^yi^\ r. -i-iri) f. i. q, 
"I'll!, orwamcnf, ^/ory Prov. 14, 28; 
yinjp n"nnn Ps. 96, 9 holy adorning 
i. e. holy-day or festive dress. 

D^'in, see D"n'^n. 

^Tl^^^'iri pr. n. m. (only another 
reading for "ilS'i'ih, which see) 2 Sam. 
10, 16. 

njTp'iin Is. 34, 6 Hothpa. of Vr-n. 

»^»1 interj. ha! ah! oh! of grief, 

Ex. 30, 2 ; akin to rfiN, "in, ^in, '''ix. 

I^pn*! 2 Ch. 29,36,see Hiph. of r.-,!lS. 

in interj. of grief, i. q. "^in, o^/ 
wo! Am. 6, 16. 

5<in m., i^'^n f. (pi. drt, n^an m., 

l\?i "^in ^0 ''^^) *^^) *^/ personal pron. 
of the third pers., but orig. a demon- 
strative (akin to 6, if), W. o (ev) he, 
/ii she) making the subject prominent; 
without the &t in pr. n. 1»T^b5< (for 
K!irT^bi<) God is he or that one. With 
the art. ttintn, it means that, e. g. 
Ksinjn \i:''i<n that man Job 1, 1, 
tfisi Q'^a^ii </iose 6iays, i<''nri n?a in 
</ia^ <me Mic. 3, 4. After a noun 
or pronoun it may be like autoi;, L. 
ipse, self, ni&< ds^ ^<sln "^nx 'jln'^ "jsV 
therefore the Lord himself (Sept. 
Kupioc auxi^) s/m?Z ^ive you a sign 
Is. 7, 14; N^in nnx fAow ar< the 
same (Sept. 6 a{)T6c) Ps. 102, 28, but 
in Ps. 44, 5 thou art He, my king 
(Gram. §121,2), comp. '^32)i"d:'i:) KiiJl-ia 
who is he that shall condemn me? 
Is. 50, 9; of. Gen. 20, 5. Often it may 
appear to serve for the 3d pers. perf. 
of n^li meaning is, was (but see 
Gram. §121, 2) e. g. i<in laBiu ^""^"^^ "•? 
for God is judge Ps. 50, 6, rrn)?? '^3 
^^'^l^ for she was barren Gen. 25, 21 ; 
or at least it includes in itself the 
verb n^n e. g. '<5^i< fc<'!«i he is my 
master Gen. 24, 65, in which case 




it stands for the logical copula 
(Gram. § 144. 1); clearly emphatic 
in such constructions as *ip5< X^Si fc<'b}n 
''b did not he say to me? Gen. 20, 5 ; 
!i3:s5'i«5i'' i<sin ^ssba iTitTi ^/ic Eternal 
owr Aiiw^, fie shall save us Is. 33, 22. — 
The pi. drt m. seems to be shortened 
from d^in (cf. Chald. suf. )in', Arah. 

^), as dni< from ti^m. — In the 
Pentateuch &<in stands for the fern, 
as well as the masc. e. g. "J^tl^ni ^"Ij!^ 
j^liTin aw^ fAe gold of that land Gen. 
2, 12, where the punctators pointed 
it (and expected ifc to he sounded) 
as ^^^'^, hut it should always he 
pronounced like the masc. hu (see 
Gram. § 32, Eem. 6). The form 
iiM"} rarely occurs except in the Pen- 
tateuch, see 1 K. 17, 15; Job 31, 11; 
Is. 30, 33. 

5^^n Chald. m., l^^tl f. i. q. Heb. 
he, she, it, Dan. 2, 22; w. substan- 
tive verb implied he is, she is, etc. 
Dan. 2, 9; for the subst. verb., Dan. 
4, 27. 


T T 

(imp. Jt'lJi, fut. J^iltTi short- 
ened for i<^'ri'2) i. q. nin to be, ibiab 
'}''^^!<■^t.1l^ lax*' to the snow he says, be 
on the earth Job 37, 6; itiiiT) DlU there 
shall it be i. e. remain Ecc. 11, 3. 
Deriv. iX^n\ 

!^5 n, n 1 \ Chald. (fut. i<^r^h 
Dan. 2, 28 for^^ln::,' pi. frib m., 'j^'ilnb 
f.) to be, i. q. Heb. n^n. Often em- 
ployed w. participle of principal verb, 
e. g. t<^31p^ Jn'ilh bsfibi? I was look- 
ing at the horns, i. e. I considered 
Dan. 7, 8. — The \ as preformative 
of the 3 person in the future (as 
above) is akin to the Syriac preform. 

J, e. g. "T^f^ '*T:K^. ^^y divelling shall 
he Dan. 4, 22, Syr. >^i.:ia:;k^ )onJ, 
the I and n being often interchanged. 

©• S- T^^ = yn^ and the y and n 
also, e. g. 3^^ = S^3, see Gram. § 7U 

^!2^»1 Chald. to be destroyed Dan, 
7, 11, Hoph. of in&IL after the Heb. 

SniD^in Chald. inf. Aph. of ^SN, 
in the Biblical or Hebraistic Chaldee,, 
to destroy Dan. 7, 26. 

TOin Lam.l , 5 Hiph. of W^ w^ 
suf. fn-^. 

I •in (obs.) 1) akin to ^"ih I 
(which see), auoaw, to sound forth, 
to sing, hence to make famous, to 
praise. 2) akin to b^li, to shine, 
hence to bloom. 

^^in m. 1) akin to oihbr\, utterance, 
sound, as ibip 'iIJi the sounding of 
his voice i. e. peal of thunder Is. 30, 
30. 2) renown or splendour of God 
Ps. 21, 6, of a king 1 Ch. 29, 25, of 
a war-horse Zech. 10, 3; bloom (of 
manhood) Prov. 5, 9. 3) pr. n. m.. 
(perh. renoAvn) 1 Ch. 7, 37; cf» 

^Titl Hiph. of rri^ I. 

n^^W, ^n^l^ih pr. n. m. 
(perh. for tt;^ ^Tin praise ye fn"^) 1 Ch, 
5, 24; 3, 24^ 

ri^^in, Jl^'lin pr. n.m.(renowB 
of fn^)'Neh. 7,^43; 8, 7. 

mn (part, nin Neh. 6, 6, imp. 
n^n Gen. 27, 29) i. q. n^rt, fniX, 
Min, i^3!^, prop. ^0 breathe, hence 
1) fig. to live, be or exist Ecc. 2, 22 f 
imp. *>1!i Is. 16, 4. 2) fo breathe 
after something, to desire; hence 
h^ii desire. 3) ^o eajjsire, die; hence 
inn ruin. 

T — 

nin f. i. q. M-n 2, r«in, Is. 47, 11. 

niln Chald. #0 6e, see fi<in. 

njn (pi. m'sirj) f. 1) desire, cupid- 
ity, C)^n;j d'^I^^'n nin A«. thrusteth 




aicat/ the desirt of (he wicked Prov. 
10, 3 (r. n^n 2). 2) ruin (only in pi.), 
calamities Ps. 67, 2; m'sin 'nn'n de- 
structive pestilence Ps. 91, 3; mischie- 
vousness Ps. 5, 10; rn'^ifn "jl^ib #ow^Me 
o/" mischiefs i. e. mischievous tongue 
Prov. 17, 4. 

OniJl pr. n. m. (perh. for drtl'iT^ 
He will ruin them, r. nirt 3) of the 
king of Hebron Josh. 10, 3. 

^'^'n interj. i. q. il&t, IJi, ouai, oi. 
1) of grief, oh! tvoe! alas, ■'Hij ^iin 
oh! my brother 1 K. 13, 30. 2) of 
threatening, ho! woe! Is. 1, 4, w. bx 
Jer. 48, 1, \v. b? Jer. 50, 27, w. b 
Ez, 13, 18 tf;oe fo.' 3) of exhortation, 
ho! Is. 55, 1. 

^•in Chald. (only fut. ^"^^ Ezr. 
5, 5; inf. Tjrja Ezr. 7, 13) 1. q. Hebr. 
Ts^n (comp. l^siK = )^bi<), <o ^0. — Cf. 
or/o}xai, T^xu). 

Xn^ I (obs.) akin to bbrt, <o he 
bright, to gleam; hence b"^!! in 

ri"li)^»l Ez. 16, 4 inf. Hoph. of 
^b^, for n'lbsin (comp. Gram. § 27, 
Kem. 1). 

♦^^^'i*^ (r. ^^^7; only pi. Jnibbin) 
f. folly Ecc. 1, 17; wickedness Ecc. 
9,3. — The ending ni" may perh. be 
a form of W, and so nibbl'n be sin- 
gular, in the same way as r\l:Q3n. 

^bls^tl Ps. 78, 63 in Pu. of bbn. 

■T ' - T 

Wbbin f. i. q. nbbin folly Ecc. 
10, 13. 

Dbin m. Is. 41, 7; see Cibn. 

U^n mimet. akin to D^n, nan, 

- t' t t' 

to roar, to be noisy (in tumult, con- 
fusion) ; hence to agitate, Deut. 7, 23 
D^ii he confounds them iv. great con- 
fusion. — Niph. (fut. dir;!) to be 
in a hubbub or agitated Buth 1, 19. 

— Hipli. to cause confusion, to make 
a hubbub Mic. 2, 12, fig. to sigh aloud 
Ps. 55, 3. 

D'i3in pr. n. m. (confusion, r, 
Dgri)^l Ch. 1, 39; Da%'1 in Gen. 
36, 22. 

pM (Qal obs.) 1) i. q. )'HV(, to 

breathe; hence fig. as in bin to be 
vain, light; hence perh. "pp, cf. Hi ph. 
2) i. q. *j*i5< 2 to toil, to earn or get 
by labour; hence "jlfi. — Hipli. 
■jinn to make light; nib3>b ^irnpii and 
ye acted lightly to go up i. e. went 
up heedlessly Deut. 1, 41. 

■jin (pi. Cl'^iin Ez. 27, 33) m. i. q. 
"jl'x wealth, riches (prop, earnings) 
Prov. 1, 13; hence worth, value, e.g. 
)')f\ &<b3 without a price, i. e. for 
nought Ps. 44, 13; as adv. enough 
Prov. 30, 15; Sept. apxei. 

^P^n 2 Ch. 3, 3, see ^b\ 

Y'li] (obs.) perh. i. q. f^sih, to 
cut, to tvound, hence perh. "j^h. 

S2?^n, see ^^n pr. n. 

^in or ^'n (pi. c. ''^nin) m. 1) i. q. 
in mountain, hence (ace. to best 
reading) 1? ^yii^ the eternal moun- 
tains Gen. 49, 26, like dbl5> nisaa 
in the other member of the paral- 
lelism; cf. in Deut. 33, 15, Hab. 
3, 6; but the Massoretic text has 
*i5 '1'1'in my parents, as far as — 
(cf. Eng. Version, after the Lat. 
Vulgate). 2) pr. n. of a mountain 
where Aaron died Num. 20, 22, 
hence called by the Arabs Jebel 
Neby Hdrun, Mount of the Prophet 
Aaron. 3) pr. n. of a point or spur 
of Lebanon Num. 34, 7. 

i^^ltl Gen. 8, 1 7 imper. Hiph. of NS;;, 
inQ'ri'5<SS"^n, theK'thibh being N^n. 

D'^riinirin Zech. 10,6 Hiph. of 




na:^, w. suf.; a mingling of d'^PlS^in 

and fi'ipiinirn. 

S^/Jirin pr. n. m. (for 5Ja;DitTJ 
M; hears) 1 Ch. 3, 18. 

I?123in pr. n. m. (deliverance) 1) 
Joshua's early name Num. 13, 8. 
2) king of Israel 2 K. 15, 30. 3) a 
prophet Hos. 1, 1. 

n^?^in pr. a. m. (}np saves) 
Neh.'^12, 32. 

Al^l I (Qal ohs.) perh. akin to 
U5*in, to haste; cf. (bOeo), Glto, W. 
ffivthio. — Pi. SHnin to make haste, 
to rush upon, only Ps. 62, 4. 

'n^'ln^n pr. n. m. (perh. survivor) 
1 Ch. 25, 4 ; r. in-^ I- 

bt)-in Is. 44, 20, see ^nri and 

b^n II. 

- T 

' ♦^'3I»1 Chald. Dan. 6, 20, inf. Aph. 

l^ni^'nTirj Chald. Dan. 2, 9 Q'ri, 
Ithpa. of )i\. 

S ill \ akin to htrt, prop, to see 

(a dream), hence to dream, only Is. 
56, 10, Sept. ivuTTVia^oiJLEVoi; cf. 
Arab, ^j^ to talk at random, esp. 
of one delirious. 

^b**-T»l Lam. 1, 8, Hiph. of 'b>K, see 
Gram. § 72, Kena. «. 

^lD?n la. 1, i6 for !l3Tn?7 Hith. of 
M'pt; Gram. § 54, 2, 6. 

DS'Tl'i^in Ez. 6, 8 inf. Niph. of 
iTit, error for dDJni'n-tn. 

tt' V « r • 

nri^Orir! Josh. 6, 17, 3 f. Hiph. 
of Kin' for nx-^ann, see Gram. § 75, 
Bem. 21, a. 

^I^^^nnri Judg. 9, 9, either irreg. 
Qal w. the interrog. fi, or for "^tn^tinnn 
Hiph. of btjri, w. n interrog. 

""Ptin 2 K. 13, 6, and ""prifl Jer, 
32, 35,"for fi^'^MnJl, Hiph. of Kian. 

bntl Ez. 20, 9 inf. Niph. of V^n, 

"•bnln Is. 53, 10, Hiph. 3 pers. 
perf. of n^n. 

tSn Ps. 144, 5 imp. Hiph. apoc. 
of nD3, for nan (see Gram. § 76, 2, h). 

Sia*^*! Deut. 24, 4, Hothp. of 
t^pB; Grain. § 54, 3, Bern. 

^n'^ln Pro v. 7, 21, 3 f. sing. Hiph. 
of nD3, w. suf. 

^n interj. like in, ""in, but used 
as subst. sighing, lamentation Ez. 
2, 10; it may be a shortening of ">n3, 

as V^ia of b^ini. 

^^n (pi. ^n, nsn) pers. pron. f. 
3 pers. sing, she Buthl, 3; as subst. 
verb, she is, ivas, e. g. n^<;'^^^ nnia~"ip 
5t*in because she was heautiful of 
appearance Est. 1, 11; sometimes 
for the^ neuter, it Ecc. 5, 18. It is 
used as widely as !J<^n, which see. 
The pi. "jn prob. was orig. )'!\fl. 

^^■'n m. shout ofjoj/, vintage-cry 
Jer. 25, 30; ivar-cry, ehout of 'the 
soldiers attacking Is. 16, 9; r. 'I'ln I 
which see. —- Prob. mimet. akin to 
^n, b^in (r. bV;^, "i = ^), E. huzzah! 
hurrah! G. hussah, hurrah (s = r), 

Arab, ^yib exulting joy, Lat. atat! 

HTiH (only pi. nln-^n Neh. 12, 8) 
f. choirs. The form is perh. cor- 
rupted for W^in, as 1 Ch. 25, 3 may 
indicate ; r. 'I'ln = nT I. 

n n (fut. rX-^T\\ apoc. ^n^ inf. 
abs. n-^n and i'^n Num. 30, 7, inf. c. 
ni'in, once n;]n Ez. 21, 15, w. pref. 
ni'^n^, part. f. h^in Ex. 9, 3) akin to 
•^^•7> f^^O prop. <o breathe, live, but 
usually 1) fo 6e, whether w. the 
meaning to exist, live, n^n&{ xb J 
should notbe3ohS,l%', or #0 Je some- 
where, e. g. n'lia? dni'ina ivhen they 




were in the field, Gen. 4, 8 ; or to 
be, as the logical copula between 
aabj. and predicate, e. g. 7'!?J!*f^1 
-inm Sinn Jin'^M and the earth was 

I T , T J T 

desolation and emptiness Gen. 1, 2. 
Construed w. h of the pers. to be to, 
€. g. 'ij^ni is<s ib '^n'^l aw<? there loas 
to him sheep and oxen, i. e. he had 
or possessed them Gen. 12, 16 (see 
Gram. p. 351); to be for something 
€. g. ni'nx^b ^irf; and they shall he 
{serve) for lights Gen. 1, 16; to prove, 
turn out to be, e. g. ^*^Ty\ ^ptnnfi 
ti'^uisx^ shew yourselves strong and 
be for (i. e. become) men 1 Sam. 
4, 9. "With D?, to be of the party of 
1 K. 1, 8; to lie with a woman Gen. 
39, 10; to be in the mind 1 K. 11, 
11; w. b? to be over for protection 
1 Sam. 25, 16. In union w. the inf. 
of another verb, it expresses, to be 
appointed, e. g. "li^b Ji^fni and it 
shall be for burning Is. 5, 5; to be 
about to, e. g. Kl'nb yj^Q'yETj "in^i and 
the sun was about to set Gen. 15, 
12; to be necessary to be done, b.s of 
duty, e. g. ^sbb nrin '^n'ji awd f/ie 
ffate must (or Aarf <o) be shut Josh. 
2, S (see Gram. § 132, Eem. 1). 
2) to come info existence, ^i6< ''fi'^l awfZ 
Mere was light Gen. 1, 3; fo become 
something w. ^ Gen. 2, 7; w. ace. 
rib^ ^"125 ''.^Pil and she became a 
pillar of salt Gen. 19, 26. ui^X^ n'^r\ 
means sometimes to behave oneself 
^3 a man i. e. to become a man, as 
•ibove in 1 Sam. 4, 9; sometimes to. 
belong to a man, as a wife whom he 
marries Deut. 21, 15. 3) to come to 
pass, occur, e. g. ib iT^fi Jip !|53J^;; vih 
we know not what has happened to 
him Ex. 32, 1 ; very frequent in the 
form ^'^•^^, e. g. G''"}n"nn 'I'lnx in-^i 
•i^Nii and it came to pa^s after these 
things Gen. 22, 1 ; also w. fut. n^ni 
and it shall come to pass Is. 7, 18. 

— Niph. •^^'^3 to be done, made to 
be Mic. 2, 4; n%^3 mfittn a <?esire 
accomplished Prov. 13, 19; so also 
prob. Dan. 2, 1 1*'b3J nn''f13 inatsi 
awflf /«s s/ee;? w^as finished upon him, 
i. e. left him; w. h to become some- 
thing Deut. 27, 9; w. nxt) of the 
author 1 K. 12, 24; to come to pass, 
happen Judg. 19, 30, so also prob. 

''O^'JlOr: ''^''T}^ -^ happened that I 
was sick Dan. 8, 27. 

ri;*! (Q'ri for h^^rt) f. ruin, ca- 
lamity Job 6, 2; r. n^ti i. q. rtin 3. 

"Tj^^n adj. (i. q. rpX) in Chald. form 
ZiOZi?? 1 Ch. 13, 12. 

^i'Ti (c- ^TK\ in-, f- only in Is. 

44, 28; pi. ci'i^s'^n, c. '^bs-'n, mbriji 

only in Hos,8, 14.) 1) prop, capacious 
building, hence a palace Am. 8, 3. 
2) r:)?^"^^ h^'yf} EternaVs palace i. e. 
the temple of the Lord 2 K. 24, 13; 
used even of the tabernacle before 
the temple in Jerusalem was built 
1 Sam. 1, 9; poet, of heaven as the 
palace of the universe Ps. 29, 9. 3) 
the sanctuary (6 vao;), between the 
porch and holy of holies 1 K. 6, 5; 
r. brn = bfi3 = bb'i. 

~ T T 

b5''»l Chald. (def. N^s^n) \) palace 
of a king Dan. 4, 1. 2) the temple, 
ta^^n^a in ^T'^. the temple that was 
in Jerusalem Dan. 5, 2. 

""P^b^n Ex. 2, 9, Hiph. 2 pers. 
imp. of Tj^^, for assonance w. ip">2*ill. 

yy*y m. brightness, then bright 
star, morning star, i. e. Lucifer 
^riyj-'ja bb"^?! bright star, son of the 
morning Is. 14, 12; r. l>bfi. — An- 
other bb^*^ is the imp. Hiph. of bb^ 
which see. 

U ri, see a^in. 

I^ss^n Hiph. of')g^ 



D^^ri pr. n. m. (confusion) Gen. 
36, 22^; i. q. ftioin 1 Ch. 1, 39. 

T^***! pr- ^' ^' (pi^o^* faithful, 
trustful, i. q. Aram. 1^''^}^; r. -j^ij I) 
1 K. 5, 11; perh. same as )^i^ artist, 

yTtl Chald. Aph. of 'jai<. 

1*'n m. a Aiw, Sept. iv, name of 
a measure for liquids, equal to 6tli 
part of a na, about 5 English quarts 
Num. 15, 4. — If Hebrew, it comea 
perh. frem r. I^lrt. 

'^H'^.n Chald. Aph. of S^ns^. 

^t^'^Tl Chald. pass, of W^f; r.&<rN. 

tin imp. Hiph. of JisS, see Gram. 
§ 76, 5, b. 

OSl|n Lev. 13, 55 inf. c. of Hothp. 
of ons, see Gram. § 54, 3. 

■'pn 2 Sam. 9, Ij Job 6, 22 j see 
*«2)n 1) 6). 

y^rj Ez. 21, 33 inf. Hiph. ace. to 
some for b1^^t^^, r. ^D&J; but perh. 
from V*1S which see. 

^5n Hiph. of n^S , w. suf. ^-r-. 

^ijn (obs.)^o take, receive, hold; 
fig. to be strong, firm, i. q. h^'^, b^lS; 
hence bD^^n, cf. I^^^n from ^nn. 

D3tl Hiph. of rtSS, w. suf. a-p. 

^BlDH 2 Ch. 29, 19,1 p. perf. Hiph. 

of )'^. 

"•pSJl Hiph. of ns5 w. suf. "13—. 

l3l i. q. "n?^, *i3r|,<o AmH, 
»?yMre,only in fut. Qal I^SfiPi, w. b. 
Job 19, 3. But perh. for si'nsrin from 
^an, which see. 

n'^Sln f. (c. n'isn w. firm—) a 
regarding, ascertaining, e. g. I^'nSin 
dJi'^SQ the discerning of their faces, 
i. e. prob. the expression of their 
looks, only in Is. 3, 9j r. 'isj. 

b»l 1) Demonstrative - particle, 
which forms the basis of h|i< and 
the Heb. article, also &^b?i, w. it» 
denominative verb !}<^<!|5» ^^^ *^® 
adv. ti^tn. The fundamental meaning 
is, there, yonder. 2) The Heb. article, 
on wh. see under 't^. 3) interrog. 
particle, which passes into the pre- 
fixed 'n, except perh. in Deut. 32, 6^ 
rTini bn as some read, but most 
prefer MliT^bH. 

i^bnifor bti, but only w. n— 

T. T _, " _ ^ 

loc, fi5<?i^ iha-P^a) to that side, yon- 
der-ward-, 1) of place, •^ij^'j^ ^& prop. 
approach yonderward i. e. stand 
off Gen. 19, 9: Snxbni d^Sfa msbni aw(f 

' ' T : ITT T ■ T ; - T : 

thou shalt proceed from there and 
beyond 1 Sam. 10, 3; ^i^^) ^i^yi 
from thee and further, i. e. beyond 
thee 1 Sam. 20, 22; b iij^bn^ from a 
distance w. respect to, i. e. beyond^ 
Am. 5, 27. 2) of time, i^^titi dl""!!^ 
h&<biil from that day and forward 
1 Sam. 18, 9, Lev. 22, 27. Hence the 
denom. verb » 

CS ^i I II only in Niph. f. part. 
Hitbusn she that had been removed 
far off Mic. 4, 7. 

inj^^n ha-l^^d, see under i<bni. 

T : IT ' + T 

^^^n 3 pers. f. perf. Hiph. of 

n&t^, Ez.'24, 12, for nnxbti. 

T T ' ' ' T -: : V 

ibn Job 29, 3 inf. Qal of bblri^ w. 
suf. i— . 

b^!?n (only pi. d'l^ii^ii; r. \hT\) m. 
rejoicings, feast of thanksgiving (at 
the vintage) Lev. 19, 24. 

Dibn, see dbri. 

T!5n demons, pron. m. and f. this^ 
m. tiin S^bssi this r«ck Judg. 6, 20; 
f. t^rj niJ3w\ari f/iis Shunamitess 2 K. 
4, 25. The form seems apoc. from 

XlTbJn m. this, nt^M ui^ixn-^at^'/io 

V T - ' V T - • T 




is this man? Gen. 24, 65. It is formed 
of n.T and bn. 

^T^.ln f. of nt^ri, this, only inEz. 
86, 35 tiisxbti'n Jit^n V"]fi<r| fAis ZawcZ 
that is desolated. 

Tj^'brj or rf?ri (pi. d'^s'i^n; r. '^^n) 

m. a ffoifig, step, only in Job 29, 6. 

niD^bn (r. 'r^^n) f. only pi. nis'^bli, 
1) goings, progress Nab. 2, 6; pro- 
cessions Ps. 68, 25. 2) wai/8, Hab. 
3, 6 his ways are as of old, cf. Heb. 
13, 8; n"^! nib'^bn the ways of the 
house, i. e. domestic afifairs Pro v. 31, 
27. 3) caravans, companies of tra- 
vellers Job. 6, 19. 
■ ■ 

^"^n or 1]^"* (fut. Tj^n;: usually 
^1^11 as if from "T];^, inf. abs. Tjl^^l) c. 
riD^, w. suf. '^Iv^^j i'^P- "H"' ^' •^T" 
naV, ?j^, sia^n Jer. 51, 50; part. 
TjVn, see Gram. § 69, Bern. 8) probab. 
akin to T|^«1, Tjxb, JT^N, ep)(Ojxai, 

Syr. <^^oi, Arab. ^^^ fo go fast, E. 
«;a?A:. I) to go, in the most varied 
senses, as a messenger Is. 6, 8 ; before 
inf. w. \ Gen. 3, 19; to he going to 
die, i. e. to be near death, w. b Gen. 
25, 32: w. another finite verb, isbll 
Jipniin iitol^i thy went and made a 
feast Job 1, 4: applied to inanimate 
objects, e. g. to spread, of a nai^e, 
2 Ch. 26, 8; to extend, of a bo/der 
Josh. 16, 8; to float, h3Pin "^bni 
ta'^!ati ''3B"?:3 «w<Z f^e arZ: floated en 
the surface of the water Gen. 7, 18; 
^0 flow, of water 1 K. 18, 35. But 
it also expresses the continuance of 
the action, hence to continue, keep 
en; in this sense '^T\ is mostly so 
used that it is combined w. the prin- 
cipal verb of the continued action 
(see Gram. § 131, 3, Eem. 3), either 
w. inf. obs. and adj., as in "r^i^ti "r^^^ 
^'laT and he went to go and growing. 

i. e. continued growing Gen. 26, 13: 
or w. two inff. abs. as in Tll^S^ laiU'^'l 
niuij and they returned to go and to 
return, i. e. continued to recede more 
and more Gen. 8, 3; or with part, 
and adj. as in '^'^'^\ "T^Vn "^b^J and he 
went going and approaching i. e. kept 
drawing nearer and nearer 1 Sam. 
17, 41: the same idea of continuance 
is expressed by the verbs JiV^, fi<S^ 
in union w. another verb, 2 Sam. 15, 
30; 16, 5. — In the following instan- 
ces the verb may perh. have an in- 
tensive meaning, Ex. 9, 23 (T^^f^Pi), 
Ps. 73, 9 (T^bnin), Ps. 91, 6 (T|bn^), and 
may be rendered to go fast, to rush] 
and the unusual form of fut. (T^^^jri, 
T\^ty^ for the usual T^^;^) may have 
something to do w. this increased force. 
— Often w. h pleonastic (Gram. § 
154, 3, e) e. g. "^b T]^x I will go for 
me, i. e. will betake me Cant. 4, 6. 
2) Fig. either a) to walk, i. e. to live, 
pursue a way of life, w. 3 of the 
way wherein Deut. 19, 9; of the rule 
whereby Ps. 89, 31, one walks, or w. 
ace. Is. 33, 15 tnip'i^ Tjbh walking 
righteous ways, i. e. living rightly ; 
also w. adj. D'^pri Ps. 15, 2 used as 
Sidy, uprightly; or p) to go away 1 Sam. 
15, 27; w. )-Q 1 K. 2, 41; w. D5??3 1 
Sam. 10, 2; nxia Jer. 3, 1; 'i.iBp Ecc. 
8, 3; w. ''S'^S'o Judg. 6, 21 ; to disappear, 
of a cloud Job 7, 9; to be gone, of 
the breath Ps. 78, 39; to depart, to 

die 2 Chr. 21, 20 (comp. Arab. .iUib 

to perish). The following usages w. 

prepp. should be noted : bx of pers. to 
whom Num. 22, 37, against whom 
1 Sam. 17, 33; also of place fo which 
Gen. 22, 2; w. b of place tvhither 
Judg. 19, 9; w. h— - local Gen. 28, 
2; w. ace. of place whither Judg. 
19, 18; but w. ace. also to walk, to 
go through Deut. 1, 19; w. "l? up to, 



on to Judg. 19, 18 ; w. "n^X b? ivhither 
2 Sam. 15, 20; w. 2 to go in (about 
in) Josh. 5, 6; #0 enter, go into Is. 
38, 10; to go among, with Ex. 10,9; 
w. nx Gen. 14, 24, w. d5 Gen. 24, 
58 to go with, accompany; also, to 
Jceep company with Job 34, 8 ; w. "^SS:^ 
to go before, to lead Ex. 13, 21; w. 
•""DriN! to follow Gen. 24, 5. — NIph. 
TjbliS prop, to make oneself go, hence 
to be gone, disappear Ps. 109, 23. — 
Pi. T\^t'} to go about, walk Ps. 115, 7; 
w. 2 to walk in, i. e. meddle with, Ps. 
131, 1; to walk, live, w. 3 of rule 
whereby Ps. 86, 11; to go, flow, as 
streams Ps. 104, 10; to glide, as ships 
Ps. 104, 26; intensive of Qal to go 
swiftly, to speed, of arrows, Hab. 
3, 11; of God Ps. 104, 3; to rove, 
to ravage, of foxes Lam. 5, 18. 
Part. T]^r!}'? rover, ravager Prov. 6, 
11. — Hiph. Tj^^in, '^'^h'^ri Ex. 2, 9; 
part. Ci'i^bn^ leaders Zech. 3, 7; 
prop, causative, hence to cause to 
go, to lead Deut. 8, 2; of things, 
to lead off, carry Zech. 5, 10; to 
make flow, of a river, Ez. 32, 14; to 
cause to recede, of the sea Ex. 14, 21 ; 
to cause to go away, i. e. to destroy 
Ps. 125, 5. — Hith. Ti^nrrJ to walk 
oneself, to take a walk (TrspiTraTeTv) 
Gen. 3, 8; to go about Ex. 21, 19; 
also w. ace. of place Job 22, 14. 
Fig. as in Qal, to walk, to live, w. 
a of the rule whereby Ps. 26, 3; to 
behave Ps. 35, 14; esp. to walk w. or 
before God Gen. 5, 22, 17, 1 (comp. 
Heb. 11, 5, 6); to flow, of wine Prov. 
23, 31 ; part. T]^<!!0?? roving, ravaging, 
Prov. 24, 34. Deriv. T^"'^n, na^'bn, 

•( iL.' Chald. akin to'^jsin, in Pa. 
to go, walk Dan.4,26. — Aph. T|^<7i< 
to go, part. pi. 'j'^^^^i^a Dan. 3, 25. 

"n^n m. 1) a way, course, then. 

concr. i. q. tl^ii '&^i< way-farer 2 
Sam. 12, 4. 2) course, stream, T^Viri 
^^^ the flow of honey 1 Sam. 14, 26. 

I^^n Chald. m. a way -tax ^ toll 
Ezr. 4, 13. 

y^n (fut. Vn^; inf. *)rt, w. sufF* 
i^ji) \)to be bright, to shine (cf. Arab. 

JA, r\kio%, W. haul sun, Ger. hell)', 
ina "i^iia in its shining, his lamp 
(suf. repeated for emphasis, see Gram* 
§ 121, 6, Bern. 3) Job 29, 3: fig. 
to make display, *iVnPi-^j< do not 
make a display, i. e. boast Ps. 75, 5, 
part, d^'bbin boasters, fools, Ps. 73, 3; 
perh. this part, may stand for bbiJip 
and therefore belong to the Po'el. 
2) to give a clear sound (mimet. akin 
to G. hallen, gellen, E. halloo), akin 
to Vr^. — Pi. b^n 1) to send forth 
tones, to sing, esp. to sing praises, to 
praise w. ace. fn^-ii^^n praise ye the 
Lord Ps. 104, 36; w. b to sing praise 
to 1 Ch. 16, 35; w. 3 of the obj. in 
whom the theme of praise is found 
Ps. 44, 9; w. ^K; to commend to some- 
body Gen. 12, 15. 2) to diffuse 
brightness, i. e. to be celebrated, in 
pr. nn.: intrans. to glory, w. 2 and 
ace. Ps. 56, 5; w. b? upon, because 
of Ps. 10, 3. — Po'el bSin to make 
foolish or mad Ecc. 7, 7; to make 
appear foolish, to put to shame Job 
12, 17. — Pu. to be praised, to be 
celebrated (in song) Ez. 26, 17; part, 
b^v^ praised one, i. e. who is alone 
worthy of praise, of God Ps. 18, 4. 

— Po'al. part, bbl'na made foolish, 
i. e. mad, raging, '^^^iM^a those mad 
against me Ps. 102, 9. — Hiph. (fat. 
bn^) to cause to shine Is. 13, 10; to 
give light, i. e. to shine Job 31, 26. 

— Hith. to make oyieself praiseworthy , 
to win op^^awse, Prov. 31, 30; to make 
a display of oneself, to boast Prov. 




20, 14; w. a, of the theme Ps. 34, 3; 
w. D5 to boast in company with Ps. 
106, 5. — Hithpo. to shew oneself 
mad i. e. to rage Jer. 25, 16; to 
he mad, to drive on furiously, of 
chariots Nah. 2, 5; w. 2 of the 
thing in or on which one is mad 
Jer. 50, 38; to feign oneself mad 
1 Sam. 21, 14. 

^?.n P^' ii« i^« (praiseworthy) 
Judg. 12, 13. 


U^S \ 1 (fut. t^ty^ Ps. 74, 6) 
akin to U'in, D^X, prop, to stamp, 
tread, hard, then to heat, smite Judg. 
5, 26; to break to pieces Ps. 74, 6; 
D^Q dVh for oys dbin (see Gram. 
§ 29, 3, b) he who smites the anvil, 
i. e. the smith Is. 41, 7; to stamp, 
as a horse's hoof Judg. 5, 22. Fig. 
X"^ "^aJibli smitten of wine, i. e. drun- 
kards (cf. oIvo7cXt]$) Is. 28, 1 ; to snap 
off Is. 16, 8. Intrans. to break up, of 
a scattered host 1 Sam. 14, 16. 

U>n n (ohs.) perh. akin to 
bbn (cf. Dba = b^a), to shine or sparkle; 
hence dbiT^, which see. 

D^ (from bli w. the ending fc^ — ) 
adv. of place, hither Ex. 3, 5; 
tf'^'!!""'? hitherto, thus far 2 Sam. 
7, 18; here, in this place Gen. 16, 13. 

D^O pr. n- m. (a smiting) 1 Ch. 
7, 35*. 

HTJ^n f. prop, a smiting, hence 
hammer, mallet Judg. 6, 26. 

Dfl or Dfl pr. n. (perh. multitude, 
r. n^n, cf. Turha in Spain, Coj9m in 
Italy) of a region where the BitJlT 
dwelt, proh. among or near the Am- 
monites Gen. 14, 5. 

Din I (r. rt^n; like fi«:, only pi. 
w. suf. BvJ^Si for fifn'^an) m. hustle or 
woise, croivdings of people JJz. 7, 11, 

where the words tiTVQ, dslTah^, dfiion 
make a paronomasia; cf. "jiian. 

on n (w.. rt-p parag. n^vT, see 
Gram.§33,Rem.7)m.pers. pron. pi. of 
it^M (w. the same manifold usage as 
JJt^in, which see) they, without emphasis 
Gen. 37, 16; emphatic, as marking 
a class, they, such as they Ps. 37, 9; 
demonst. pron. drtti fi'ip!i;!a in those 
days Gen. 6, 4; expressive of subst, 
verb, dti !i3b i<bri are ^Aej^ not ours? 
Gen. 34, 23; sometimes for the /e»w., 
as in Ruth 1, 22 (Gram. § 121, 6, 
Eem. 1), and proh. even for the 2nd 
person , as in Zeph. 2, 1 2. — With pref . 
n^na by them Hah. 1, 16; dtis such 
as they, 2 Sam. 24, 3; n^aln'b for them 
Jer. 14, 16; fnsarr^ from them Jer. 10, 
2 ; diia in Ez. 8, 6 is for dn Jia. 

Krl'l^n pr. n. m. (Pers. Aaw- 
<fafa = ocfxa Soto;) Est. 3, 1. 

M/Sn (fut. ii^tr;], part.f.n^in 

and n^a"?!!) mimet. akin to WVl, d'oSi, 
G. hummen, to hum, to make a mur- 
muring or confused sound or noise 
e. g. to growl, as a bear Is. 59, 11 j 
to snarl, as a dog Ps. 59, 7; to coo, 
as a dove Ez. 7, 16; to groan Ps. 
77, 4; to sound, as an instrument 
Jer. 48, 36; to roar, as the waves 
Jer. 5, 22; to splash, as the rain (see 
•jian 1 K. 18, 41); to make a din, 
as a crowd 1 K. 1, 41; to he inter- 
nally stirred, to he agitated Ps. 
42, 6; part, ti'^&.n '^•^^ a noisy city, 
Is. 22, 2; m'^ain noisy places or 
streets Prov. 1, 21; is;^ tiph strong 
drink is raging, i. e. produces noisy 
mirth Prov. 20, 1; to buzz about 
i. e. to behave in a noisy and disor- 
derly manner Prov. 7, 11. Deriv. 
dii, lian, n^^arr. 

ri^n. see dn n. ■ 

T •• 

UT'CTi Ez. 7, 11, see drt I. 




llSlri Chald. Ezr. 4, 23, them, used 
chiefly as ace. of "ji^vi; comp. Syr. 
.Qjj mostly ace. of .oJoi. 

■jVJtl (c. llan, w. suf. once Q^S^vi 
w. short Ez. 5, 7; pi. fi'^atrt; 
r. !^^>7) m., f. only Job 31, 34; noise, 
sound of rain 1 K. 18, 41, of singers 
Am. 5, 23, of a crowd Job 39, 7; 
fig. a multitude Is. 13, 4; a crowd 
e. g. of women 2 Ch. 11, 23; a troop, 
Judg. 4, 7; confluence of waters, 
Jer. 10, 13; abundance, wealth Ps. 
37, 16; concr. the rich Is. 5, 13; 
^'^S'o )i'Qi^ noise of thy boivels, i. e. 
stirrings of thy sympathy Is. 63, 15. 

■ji^Jl Chald. (also ian Ezr. 5, 11) 
pers. pron. m. pi. thei/, Dan. 2, 34; 
same as the Heb. tart. 

|1D*17J»1 pr. n. (multitude, r. h^ti) 
of a city, which is to be near "^a 
aia 'jiaii in the prophet's vision Ez. 
39, 16. 

tl^'Jitl f.' sound (of a harp) Is. 

14, 11;' r. n^n. 

' ' T T 

I^^Jin 2 Sam. 14, 19 for ^^JS'^n, 
Hiph. of denom. verb )'^\ 

Sn^^n (perh. r. nan, like n^53 
from n33) f. sighing, in^an Ms 
moaning Prov. 19, 18; but better 
Ms killing, prop, to cause himi to die. 

Vri^/JH 1 Sam. 17, 35, Hiph. 
1 sing, of Snl2, w. suf. 3 sing. masc. 

^Mtl Job 24, 24, for JlSpiltl, 
Hoph. 'of "^^5^, Gram. § 67, Bem. 8. 

^/2n (obs.) perh. akin to 5<V^ 
to he full, hence plenteous, numerous, 

cf. Arab. J*j& to rain continually. 

n^^-iin, also »15^^»1 f. abundance, 

T •.. -:' T -: ' 

force, of the wind Jer. 11, 16; mul- 
titude, of a host Ez. 1, 24; cf. ttiba. 


ImmS \ (perf. Qal contracted 
only in ^ty&r} Ex. 23, 27; fut. Dh"), 
mimet. akin to nan (which see), prop. 
to make a noise, to rattle, hence to 
set in commotion, discomfit Josh. 
10, 10; to impel, urge forward, the 
wheels of a car Is. 28, 28; to scatter, 
destroy utterly, Deut. 2, 15. — NIph. 
fut. Dn*^ to be moved, prop, to be in 
a stir, as a city Ruth 1 19. 

I Uj I perh. denom. from lian, 
hence to make a noise or commotion, 
only in Ez. 5, 7 because of D?3an 
your making uproar (i. e. rebellion) 
more than the heathen; but see 
under "jlan. 

1!J3»1 pr. n. m. (perh. Mercury) 
of a Persian Est. 3, 1. 

t]''5/jn Chald. (K'thibh rj'iS^Lf) m. 
necklace, perh. chain of pearls for 
the neck or wrist Dan. 5, 7. • — 
Akin to fxavo^, [laviaxrj^, Jj. monile, 
said to be from Sans, mani (pearl), 
but perh. Semitic from "jaJi I tj 
support (cf. djJLUvo)), w. old adj. 
ending t]*^-:- (cf. "^-7- under letter D). 


- T 

(obs.) perh. akin to DGa II 

(cf. tltirj = ll?'?), Sans, mash (hew) 
L. messis, G-. meiss (a copse), fo break 
or ct*i 0^; perh. hence 

D/-2ri (only pi. d'l&an) m. broken 
twigs or sticks, brushwood, only in 
Is. 64, 1. 

D^tl 2Sam.l7,10inf.Niph.ofDGa. 

Tp^an Josh. 14, 8, a Chaldaism 
for ilDan, Hiph. of nCa, Gram. § 75, 
Rem. i7. 

1/3^1 (obs.) perh. akin to ^"la I, 

to flow, Arab, yjb to flow, pour, 

o}A(3po4, Jj.imber; perh. hence *iana. 

Drii*ll2in Job 17, 2 inf. Hiph. of 




^'iiQ w. suf. and euphonic Daghesh 
<see Gram. § 20, 2, b). 

blC^n (prop. inf. Hiph. of b^TS) 
m. dominion, might Job 25, 2. 

"kSn I pers. or demonst. pron. fern. 
<pl. of fct'^H) they, but this original 
form occurs only in connexion with 
prefixes, l^a Gen. 19, 29; l^S Ez. 
18, 14; inb therefore Buth 1, 13; 
*,nb therefore Job 30, 24; "Jin?? Ez. 
16, 47. Otherwise only Jnairj is used, 
which see. 

■jH n (w. Maqqeph -jJi Job 8, 19) 
perh. a demonst. particle «/ow, f^is, 
that, but used as, 1) interj. lo! behold! 
Oen. 3 , 22 ; more frequently Sisn 
which see. Cf. dX, \i, li.en! 2)a cond. 
particle, if Is. 54, 15, for which DX 
(a kindred word) is more usual. 
€f. dX, Syr. .f, 5v. 3) an interrog. 
particle, whether? Jer. 2, 10. 

"l*! Chald. like "jn H in Heb. but 
only w. the meanings 1 and 2, e. g. 
7o.' Dan. 3,17; if Dan, 2, 5; repeated, 
if -if, whether-or Ezra 7, 26. 

fliin ("i^n w. ii-;- parag., Gram. 
§ 33^ Bem. 7), 1) pi. of &<%^, they 
<fem.) Gen. 41, 19; themselves (aotai, 
L. ipsae) Gen. 33, 6; >^^\}^ w. article 
</iOse 1 Sam. 17, 28. Like the other 
pers. pronouns, it includes the subst. 
verb Gen. 6, 2, and serves for it Gen. 
"21, 29. Like )'n it is united w. pre- 
fixes, e. g. nsria Num. 13, 19; MSn^a 
Lev. 4, 2: hVnb Ez. 1, 5; nsri3 as 

' ' T I" T ' ' T I" T 

they, such Job 23, 14; nsnsi nsips 
such and such things 2 Sam. 12, 8. 
2) adv. of place, hither, to this place, 
Gen. 45, 8, this sense coming from 
the original demonst. meaning w. 
ii— loc. ; iishl nsn this way and 
#/mf «(?ay Josh. 8, 20; n|ni rjSip 
from thee and hither, i. e. on this 
side of thee 1 Sam. 20, 21, opp. to 

nxbn^ ?]^^; n2ri-n? hitherto, thus 
far, Num. 14, 19; here Gen. 21, 23; 
repeated fism nsn Aere ond there 
1 K. 20, 40. 

nSn (rarely nSJl Gen. 19, 2) i.q. 

)'n II, interj. Zo.' see.' (pointing out) 

Gen. 12, 19. With suf. it may seem 

to imply the verb to be (but really 

the suf. is in the ace, see Gram. 

§ 100, 5), e. g. i^^^^ 132.'7 behold us! 

(i. e. lo! we are) in thy hand Josh. 

9, 25; iSSrn (in pause ^^^f} Gen. 22, 1, 

i3iri 22, 7) behold me! 1. e. here I am; 

r^f} lo! thou art Gen. 20, 3, fern. 

t^sn Gen. 16, 11; 13^1 behold him! 

Num. 23, 17; *153?7 or si321ri Josh. 

9, 25 see us! (in pause ^liSn Job 38, 

35), !i:Sl7 ^en. 44, 16; DS^n Deut. 

1, 10; dsn Gen. 47, 1. In union with 

the participle, filT} mostly indicates the 

future, e.g. Jj|l23a *^\lt} behold! I (will) 

send Jer. 8, 17; sometimes the past. 

Gen. 37, 7, or the present Ex. 34, 11. 

TOH Hos. 4, 17, imp. Hiph. ol 

nsiJ, Gram. § 72, Bem. 9. 

nnjln (prop. inf. Hiph. of ^^15) f. 
rest, remission of tribute Est. 2, 18. 
DrjlJl Ez. 5, 13, see r. dHi. 
tr^tl Hiph. of n^3. 
tr^tl Hoph. of nsi3. 
D2n prob. pr. n. m. of the man 
to whom the valley on the S. E. 
side of Jerusalem once belonged, 
where children were sacrificed to 
Moloch; hence dSri-,5 S'^S Jer. 7, 32; 
t33f7 V3 ''a 2 K. 23, 10; dfn ''a 
(hence Y^evva Mat. 5, 22) Josh. 15, 
8 the Valley of (the son of, sons of) 
Hinnom, the west side of which 
was later called i^a-n hpn axeXSajxa, 
field of blood Acts'l, 19. — Perh. 
the name is from "jsn to weep, cry, 

I jji (obs.) perh. to lament, whine, 
akinto-jSK, nbN, Arab. JJ^. Deriv. diSi. 




^Ji \ (obs.) perh. akin to 2)33, 
to sinkf to be low; Aral). ^iJb: hence 

^SD (perh. low land) pr. n. of a 
city of Mesopotamia, perh. Ana on 
the Euphrates 2 K. 18, 34. 

b?5ri Chald. Aph. of )>h^. 

nb*^5»l Chald. inf. Aph. of bbsJ. 

tt: — ^ — s 

Tl^'Tl^ Is. 30, 28 inf. Hiph. of tfii. 

^^?n Num. 24, 7 for fittagnh, see 
r. Kiaa. 


Cn (perh. apoc. imper. Pi. of 
nbii) interj. ^msA.^ silence! Hab. 2, 
20. Adv. silently Am. 8, 3. — ■ Akin 
to our hist! whist! W. hust! L. s^.^ 

I^Q^ (Qal obs.) mimet. akin 

to fi^n, ffi^w, Arab. j^J), fo speak 
loiv, be still, silent. — Pi. (only imper. 
DfT, apoc. for n&n, Ji&ri Neh. 8, 11) to 
keep still, to be silent; see Gf^ above. — 
Hiph. (fut. apoc. Dln;^) to hush, to still, 
only Num. 13, 30. 

D'^^^On Ecc. 4, 14, see r. 1DN. 

tr^Tl Hiph. of Mb, after the 
Chald. form (G-ram. § 72, Kern. 9). 

HKi'Sn pr. n. Neh. 3, 3j perh. 
i. q. njtao q. V. 

TOpSn pr.n. 1 Ch. 9,7; see nNii5&. 

nribh 2 sing. perf. Hiph. of n^lD. 

nT?n Prov. 7, 13 for W?ti, Hiph. 
of lli (Gram. § 67, Eem. 11). 

byn Ex.33, 12 imper. apoc. Hiph. 

of nV?, for n^2>n. 

nb^'Tl Hab. 1, 15, for t^'bsr^ Hiph. 

T-: •• ''•"• ■•■ 

of rips' (Gram. 63, Eem. 4). 

HjiSn (only pi.) f. prop, slack- 
ness (r.' a^iB), interval Lam. 3, 49. 

^D< \ (fut. ri'SLl!, 1 p. Tl's^il? 
Zeph, 3, 9) akin to "Ti^X, piX, Arab. 
.iJlil , to turn, the hand 1 K. 22, 34, 
the neck or back Josh. 7, 8j also to 

turn about (intrans.) 2 K. 5, 26; to 
turn back, to flee, Judg. 20, 39; to 
turn, to change Ps. 105, 25; change 
into, w. ace. Ps. 114, 8, w. b Ps. 
66, 6; to turn (intrans,), to be changed 
to, w. ace. Lev. 13, 3. — Fig. to 
overturn, destroy Gen. 19, 21, w. 3 
Am. 4, 11; to turn away, pervert 
(words) Jer. 23, 36; also of a moral 
perverting, e. g. C3?3B<7 your perverse- 
ness! Is. 29, 16. — Nipli. -Qf^S (inf. 
abs. TpS<i5) to turn oneself about 
Ez. 4, 8 ; iiir^a tjsr'i turning himself 
about with his tongue, i. e. using a 
versatile or false tongue Prov. 17, 20; 
with 2 to turn against Job 19, 19; 
w. ^?'ls. 60, 5, bx Josh. 8, 20, h 
Lam. 5, 2 to turn to. 1 Sam. 4, 19 
iTi*i:£ irh'S liBns her pains tur^ied 
themselves upon her, i. e. came upon 
her. To be overturned, destroyed 
Jon. 3, 4; to be changed to, w. ace. 
Lev. 13, 25; w. b Ex. 7, 15. — 
Hoph. T]5r'«7 to be turned agahist, 
w. h^ Job 30, 15. — Hitli. to, turn 
oneself, of a brandished sword Gen. 
3, 24, of a moving cloud Job 37, 12; 
to be changed Job 38, 14; to over- 
turn oneself to tumble Judg. 7, 13. - 

?|Sri or TlSfl m. the reverse, 
contrary, only Ez. 16, 34; r. T\^T\. 

?j5n m. perverseness, only Is. 29, 
16 dss&v} your perverseness ;h\it]^eTh, 
inf. of TiaO- 

niD3»l f. overthrow, destruction. 
only in Gen. 19, 29-. i. q. S^MrJa. 

T]S5?»1 (redupl. from T|&57) adj. m. 
very crooked, pervet'se, tortuous Prov. 
21, 8, opp. to *iir-; cf. bpVp3). 

D5^3»1 Lev. 26, 15 for DS'iBrt 
inf. Hiph. of ^^Q I. 

^5*7 perh. pr. n. f. (brilliant) of 
an Assyrian queen Nah. 2, 8. — 
Prob. better taken as Hoph. of 3:^3. 





V T 

'1)]tD2in Josh. 9, 12 Hith. denom. 
from riT^^, Gram. § 54, 2, a. 

nblSn f. deliverance Est. 4, 14; 

r. b:£3. 

*I^ri (obs.) perh. akin to ):t'n, 
to defend, also to "j?^!; hence 
l^h m. armour Ez. 23, 24; r. "jsn. 

irsStn ex. 2, 3 mph. of -jas w. 

Daghesh euphon. in the :C, Gram. 
§ 20, 2, b. 

yipn pr. n. 1 Ch. 24, 10; perh. 
i. q. yip Ezr. 2, 61. 

"t:]5n pr. n. Ezr. 8, 12; see "jlil?. 

D]5n 2 Sam. 23, 1, see Gram. 
§ 72, Bem. 9. 

HH (w. article 1l^i^; w. M loc 
rrnln Gen. 14, 10; w. article and n 
loc' n'nnri Gen. 12, 8; w. suf. •^'Tp, 
'^y^'n, D'n^t!; pl- ^^y}y c. 'I'nii, poet. 
•i-i-il-i, w. suf. I'^in, n-i"i"in Dent. 8, 9) 
m. a mountainr (cf. Gr. 6po<;) Is. 30, 
25; collect, mountains, mountainous 
region Josh. 14,12. With the article 
"inn, a) the mountainous tract of cen- 

r T' ' 

tral PalestineGen, 12, 8; P) the moun- 
tains of Judah Deut. 1, 24 (the hill 
country, r\ opsi^r) Luke 1, 39); 7) the 
mountains east of the Dead Sea, 
Moab, Gen. 14, 10. In Ex. 19, 2 = 
Sinai, in Deut. 33, 19 = Zion. "iH is 
often found in pr. n., as, e. g. *iii 
••rD Mount Sinai Ex. 19, 11; "^fi 
*napi Mount Tabor Judg. 4, 6; in 
•jisai^n Mount Lebanon Judg. 3, 3; 
r. "^y^ to be high. 
*in, see lin. 

JJ^^n pr. n. (mountain land) akin 
to Apia, for Media magna, Great 
Media, Erania, called J^J^I el-Jebdl 

CS 'il (ob8.)perh.akinto5<"ni<II, 
*l1&t, to glow, burn; hence bi^^rt. 

t^i^Nt"l»l Est. 2, 9 part. pass. pi. 
f. Qal of nx'n w. article. 

btTlJl m. i. q. h :v-ix, bx''"l5< (which 
see), prob. hearth of God Ez. 43, 15. 
Din Judg. 20, 38 for nann imper, 
apoc. Hiph. of ns'n. 

J JM (fut. nSn:') akin to Arab. 

g^, to strike, smite down, hence to 
iill, murder Gen. 4, 8; to slag, 
slaughter, in war Is. 10, 4; #0 slaugh- 
ter, beasts Is. 22, 13; to destroy, 
plants Ps. 78, 47; poet, to Mil, of 
grief Job 5, 2. In general w. ace, 
but also w. b 2 Sam. 3, 30; w. 3 
to slay among Ps. 78, 31. — Niph. 
^y}}. io ^^ killed or slain Ez. 26, 6. 
— Pu. anh to be slain Is. 27, 7. 

yy^, m. a slaughter Est. 9, 5> 
Is. 27, *7; r, a'nri. 

n^^n f. slaughter, f^y'^j^jn T-'<^ ^^^^ 
flock of slaughter Zech. 11, 4; X'^a 
•^5'!!!'^:^' ihe valley of slaughter Jer. 
19, 6. 

n 'ii (part. rrriSi mother Cant. 
T T *^ 
3, 4; perh. fiinin parents in Gen. 

49, 26, but see "Tin) prop, akin to 
•rnti, cf. "jiaa, 1) fo conceive, to be- 
come pregnant Gen. 4 , 1 , w. b of 
the father Gen. 38, 18. 2) fig. 'for 
a mental conception, to meditate, 
purpose Ps. 7, 15. 3) to have in- 
crease, posterity, only part. pi. B'i'^1>t 
parents, perh. in Gen. 49, 26; part, 
f. m'h mother Hos. 2,7. — Pu. 
rrnh (inf. abs. i'ln Is. 59, 13) fo be 
conceived Job 3, 3; fo conceive in 

the mountains 1 Ch. 5, 26 (in the } ^^^ niind, to purpose Is. 59, 13. 
parallel passage 2 K. 17, 6, it is "^n^), H'^lH adj., only in f. 'r^y^ (c. n^) 

but it is esp. the mountainous part j pregnant Gen. 16, 11; nVb Sn^n 

of Media. | pregnant for to bear, i. e. near her 






<onfinement 1 Sam. 4, 19; fi^i^ n'nin 
ever pregnant Jer. 20, 17. Pi. niifn 
Am. 1, 13, ni^^n Hos. 14, 1; w. 'b 
of man to or 6y whom Gen. 38, 25. 

JT^n Gen. 14, 10, see nn. 

in jPI Chald. (obs.) redupl. 

Pael-form of tilti, Heb. fTn^t, to 
conceive in tlie mind, to think; 

*^»nn Chald. m. conception, 
thought; pi. fancies Dan. 4, 2. 

ilh Is. 59, 13, see trnn. 

' ' T T 

D/Ji^lln Is. 33, 10 Hithpolal for 
t3a1"inf7, r. dn, see Gram. § 54, 2, b. 

I'l'^n (w. firm -;;-) m. conception, 
only Gen. 3, 16 ^ii^t^ thy pregnancy, 
r. M-ih. 

T T 

***]1*1»1 m. perh. mountaineer, 
Highlander 1 Ch. 11, 27 ; r. "^^rt. 

riV"^n Hos. 14, 1: see nnn. 

1 '''^n (w. firm -7-) m. cowcepfiow, 
pregnancy Kuth 4, 13j r. tTin. 

D'^'lfl Ps. 75, 7 prob. exaltation^ 
prop. inf. Hiph. of r. d^l^n. 
' D'^^lln Dan. 8, 11 K'thibh, Hoph. 
of dil'n, perh. like d-^pn Dan. 7, 4. 

•^9^ . U. f' « tearing down, a ruin, 
only Am. 9, 11; r. D^ri. 

MD"^*^*! f. o tearing doivn, de- 
struction, only Is. 49, 19; r. D^n. 

U jn (obs.) akin to d'lX, d^^, 
na"! n, to rise up, to be high; hence 

D^rj m. in pr. n. d'lh n'15 (high 
place) Josh. 13, 27. 

D'^n pr. n. m. (exaltation) of a 
Canaanitish king Josh. 10, 33. 

D^^rj pr. n. m. (exalted) lCh.4,8. 

^^hn Num. 17, 10 imp. Niph. of 
Oa'ni=d>l^, see Gram. § 67, Eem. 5. 

l^l^'llH m. only in Am. 4, 3, prob. 

for I'ia'nN; a fortress, castle; r. d^iil. 
D^^a'ntl 2 Ch. 22, 5 for d-ija-litfl. 

I jri (obs.) perh. akin to r. d^J^ 
to be high; hence 

It* t P^* ^' ™^' (^&^) °^ Abraham's 
brother Gen. 11, 26; also in )y^ n^a 
Num. 32, 36, for d-in 'a Josh. 13, 27. 

D jii (fut. dnn;^ is. 22, 19 ; 
d'lfn^ Ex. 15, 7) to tear, to break or 
pull doion, a wall Ez. 13, 14, cities 
Is. 14, 17; to tear or pull out teeth 
Ps. 58, 7; to tear down Is. 22, 19. 
Fig. to destroy a people Ex. 15, 7. 
Intrans. to break in, w. bi< Ex. 19, 
21. — Nipli. to be torn down, de- 
stroyed Ps. 11, 3; fo 5e overthrown, 
of mountains Ez. 38, 20. — Pi. fo de- 
vastate or destroy Ex. 23, 24; to eaj- 
tirpate. Is. 49, 17. — Mimet. akin to 

Arab, j**^, dd'i I, y:£^, apcxajo), 
^Tqaao), G. reissen, 0. E. Hi^e. 

D'lil m.only in Is. 19, 18 d*1t^n-W 
perh. lion-city, AeovtoitoXk;, a city in 
Egypt (taking D"i?i prop, destruction 
for ZioM because he is the destroyer). 
But prob. the true reading is D'nln 
sun, or d'nJi may be simply a softer 
form of d'nrt, which see. 

t\^tl Ps. 37, 8 imp. apoc. Hiph. 

of ti£x 

inl^^ln Lev. 26, 34 for nns^n 
Hiph. of n^'n, see Gram. §75, Eem. 1, 

D^.'nri, see "iSi. 

r -: - ' 

I jn (obs.) prob. akin to tTnfi, 
op-vo[jii, 8po^, L. or-ior, to rise, to 
swell, to be high; hence '^•^ and 

"n in (only w. suf. '^'i"iii) m. moun- 
tain, only in Jer. 17, 3 '''l*iii my 
mountain, i. e. Zion. 

^I^.n I*s. 30, 8 my mountain, see 'in. 



*'*^'^n m. mountaineer 2 Sam. 23, 
33; ''"iin in v. 11. 

n^n Is. 42, 22 imp. Hiph. for 
aujri, from ^W] Gram. § 29, 4, c. 

DlCn pr. n. m. (perh. rich, 1. q. 
d^jn) 1 Ch. 11, 34; "jui^ in the pa- 
rallel place 2 Sam. 23, 32. 

Difin, also D^Jl hosham, for DTT^in 
Hoph. of dia^. 

^"ailJn Job 21, 5, see D^TIJ. 

W3?59^'n (prop. inf. Hiph.) f. a 
causing to hear, announcement, Ez. 
24, 26. 

3^D?tl imp. apoc. Hiph.ofTOTTI in 
Ps. 39, 14, but of »5;U in Is. 6,' 10. 

rfSltin Neh. 3, 13 for nismn 

: IT ' : - T 

from iiQ'gpit. 

^P''?n (prop. inf. Hiph.) m. a 
keeping quiet, resting Is. 32, 17. 

nirintCiri mth. of rm , see Gram. 
§ 75,^Eem.* 18. 

»^^^n^^?n (prop. inf. Hith.) f. 
prostration in worship 2 K. 5, 18. 

3Jl55lr|pn Hithpalpal of 25?\U. 

•^in^ninn Chald. Dan. 3, 16 inf. 
Aph. of a*in w. suf. 

rrniniTI mth. of m^: Gram. § 

T — I ' TT' " 

69, 2. 

Tj^nn m. a melting Ez. 22, 22^ 

r. -nr)?. 

MiniTiriri (prop. inf. Hith.) f. a 
befriending, affection Dan. 11, 23. 

Wn Is. 21, 14, imp. Hiph. of nnx. 

Tl'^'')nn Is. 33, 1, see Hiph. of D^n. 

Tir^n pr. n. m. (perh. verity) i. q» 
8jJb (Persian) Est. 4, 5. 


^il i \ (a secondary root, form- 
ed from the Hiph. of bbpi II), only 
Pi. bpiii (fut. Vnni) to mock, deride 
w. 3 of person i K. 18, 27; Sept. 
jxuxTYjpiCeiv; see bbtn II. 

brin, T)bT\Ti Hiph. of b^n n. 

bt^tl (only pi. D''A)nlr|) m. mockingSy 
derision, ipoet.mockers, only Job 17, 2. 
Dinn Job 22, 3, fut. Hiph. of D^P). 
n'DXl^CSritl, see PJi^iQ or na. 

rf2l3Xnn 1 Sam. 10, 13, inf. Hith. 
of &123 as "if from nn3. 

TT 7 T 

ilijii (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
wn, iliin.— Po'el TTsiii to rush against^ 
w. h^, only Ps. 62, 4; but see WM. 


I TFatd;, the sixth Heb. letter; 
hence used as the numeral for 6. 
Its form in oldest examples appears 
variously, e. g. ^, 7> Y» ?> 1 » Prob. 
representing a hook, a holdfast, which 
its name 11 denotes: hence the old 
Greek Baij, known as the Digamma 
(F , Lat. F) and the numeral (<;) for 6 ; 
see the Table of Ancient Alphabets 
and Schroder's Phoniz. Sprache, Taf. 

A. Its sound is to, a semi-consonant^ 
hence easily passing over into a vowel 
w or 6 (see Gram. § 8, 3, 5, § 24, 1), 
and seldom used w. its consonant 
force, as in "iin, iV^, "iPll^T^, and 
mostly becoming 'i at the beginning 
of a root ; as in lb* for 'ibi , Arab. 

' -T -T ' 

jjj walada (Gram. § 69). 

1 interchanges — l w. the other 



feeble letters &<, M, *> (Gram. § 7, 2, 

Note 3) , e. g. ui^ia II = iiiwsa , ni>ia i 
s= Aram. r.JiS, Zous, ^V = "nb-p, 
*yn = 'J'^'n; — 2 w. the other labials, 

e. g. ia = 25 = t]S , psin = p^n, snon 
= Chaid. wn, nsala = ns-j5a; — 

3 w. liquids, e. g. "T]^?! = Chald. 'r^^fi, 
n*:it = JTn^, ^!in = ui'Tn; — 4 w. the 

- T — T ' - T ' 

guttural 2), e. g. ^^l^ II = ^?73, b^ia 
= ^^2. — On 1 as a paragogic or obs. 
ending in some rare cases, see Gram. 
§ 90 and § 123, 6, Bern. 4. 

*1 — is old adj. ending in 1^p3, 
akin to '2-^- in f^^S*?!??? ^"T" in t]^ i:?? ; 
866 on letter 2, p. 74. 

1 (before simple Sh'wa and the 
labials t], a, 2, it generally takes the 
form 5); before an accented syllable 
and monosyllables, generally 1; but 
see the details in Gram.§ 104, 2, Kem. 
a — e) cop. conj. and, xai, uniting 
words Gen. 1, 1, and clauses or sen- 
tences Gen. 1 , 2. The following 
usages are to be noted, but see Gram. 
§ 155, 1, Rem. a — e: — 1) it serves to 
connect a species w. its genus (or a 
part w. its whole) e. g. tj^^^nil STisini 
Is. 1, 1, where the latter is a part 
under the former. 2) it denotes ap- 
position (w. more or less of empha- 
sis) and may be rendered even, e. g. 
^"^^isl ^*'? ^ watcher even a holy one 
Dan. 4, 10; Jii<V?"l '^^T}} thy inheri- 
tance, even wearied Vs. 68, 10. 3) at 
times it seems to be used rather to 
make a word emphatic than to unite 
it, e. g. b^ins^ — biai!) and the border 
— even for a border Josh. 15, 12. 
4) it sometimes connects two words 
so as to express one complex notion 
<ev 6ia 6uoTv, Gram. § 155. 1, a); e. 
g. two nouns, b'^'iSiaV^l hinkb prop. 
for signs and for seasons, i. e. for 
signs of seasons; two verbs, •I^S'^l^ 
••n'^Jt'Ti bssix how ^an I endure to see? 

Est. 8, 6; Gram. § 142, 8, a. ,5) with 
a noun repeated it helps to denote 
diversity or doubling (Gram. § 108, 
4) 2^^ nba with a double heart (cf. 
6it{>u^o;) in Ps. 12, 3, or distribu' ion 
(Gram. § 124, 2, Eem. 1) 'n^S ^.5pT 
^''^1 elders of each city Ezr. 10, 14. 
6) i — 1 = both — and, n^'i') d^'ia 
D^bl both chariot and horse are 


stunned Ps. 76, 7; also disjunctively, 
whether — or, 'iT'2 n:io51 iia^Ji ivhe- 
ther he sell him or he be found in 
his hand Ex. 21, 16. 7) it connects 
two imperatives, and makes the latter 
express a promise or threat, the ful- 
filment of which depends on com- 
pliance w. the former (Gram. § 130, 
2), e. g. Gen. 42, 18. 8) it introduces 
the apodosis (Gram. § 128, 2, c) e. g. 
sinsiui'^l!! dri^Ji d5< if or whe7i he slew 

I r : T T -: • ' 

them, then they sought him Ps. 78,34. 
9) at times, owing to difference of 
idiom in Heb. and Eng., it may seem 
to stand for but, introducing adver- 
sative clauses, e. g. iTiJO" JT^inuJ, Jam 

' *^ T T ; T ; 

black and (but) comely Cant. 1, 5; 
or for, introducing the cause, e. g. 
^n?? r!\? ''P'^r?^!'' and (for) in my house 
there is no bread, Is. 3, 7; or there- 
fore, introducing the hiference e. g. 
inn^^^X^ and (therefore) I will cast 
him away Ps. 81, 13; or that, intro- 
ducing the aim or result, e. g. •iap2!!<'i 
and (that) I may be avenged Judg. 
16, 28; or introducing clauses as in 
ba-\i:i'! tn55^^-dN" andifthouknowest 
and (that) there are among them 
Gen. 47, 6. 

1 called Waw consecutive of the 
Perfect is simply the cop. conj. and, 
so joining the ^asf as to seem to turn 
it into the future, when the verb 
in the perf. foUows another verb in 
the future tense, or in the impera- 
tive or as participle w. fut. force; 
see Gram. § 126. 6. 



•5 w.Daghesh forte, or ^ before gut- 
turals, Waw consecutive of the Future, 
the conj. and prefixed to the future 
and seemingly turning it into the 
past or present; see Gram. § 129. 

Tf] pr. n. of a region or city in 
Arabi'a Ez. 27, 19; perh. ^Aden on 
the Bed Sea. 

. Uni pr. n. (perh. a gift, r. art^) 
of a district in the country of Moab 
Num. 21, 14. 

^1 (pi. d'^l) , c. 1.15 ^' ^^^ T") "^• 
prop, a holdfast, hence a nail or 
hook Ex. 26, 32. — Perh. akin to 
t\i<, Sans, vai to bind, L. vieo, vi- 
men, dcpiQ. 

iTl (obs.) prob. akin to ^T5J, lilt 

to hind, Arab, yy^ to carry, bear a 
burden; hence 

*lt1 m. hound or la^n (w. guilt), 
guilty, only in Pro v. 21, 8. 

fc^rit*)^ pr. n. m. (Pers. perh. well- 
born)^E8t. 9, 9. 

J^ i. q. "ib^ to hear, hring 

forth; i. q. Arab. jJ^; hence 

\T\ m. child, offspring, only in 
Gen.^11, 30. 

ibl (in pause 'i^^1)m. child, only in 
2 Sam! 6, 23 Q'ri, for the K'thibh 'i^\ 

n^j5 pr. n. m. (perh. distress, r. 
ni;*) Ezr. 10, 36. 

^p3l pr. n. m. (perh. for '^DS^ 
expansion, r. nOQ) Num. 13, 14. 

(strong, r. "im) , but prob. for "^S^ri, 
cf. 1 Sam. 8, 2. 

^X^^l pr.n.f.(Pers.,^5abeauty) 
Est. 1,'9. 


T Zayin, the seventh Heb. letter; 
hence used also as the numeral 
for 7. Its name 'j'^t perh. means a 
weapon (Syr. P-."] weapon, prop. 
orwamewO, and its oldest form Z, 
and 1 in some early examples, may 
perh. rudely picture a sword or 
spear, and its sound z was sug- 
gested by the first sound in the 
name; its form and name appear 
also in the Greek Z, C (Z^xa) and 
our Z. See the Table of Ancient 

' ^interchanges — 1 w. other sibi- 
lants, e. g. "i!iT I = "\!ib T, ^r?T = 'in^, 
5!IT = w^; — 2 w. Unguals, e. g. 

-i5t = ^I5"n, nat = nar:; — 3 w. \ 
e.'g. pta = p-na, C)?t ='D?n. 

T seems at times to be a format, pre- 
fix, e. g. inClS'l^t, cf. Syr. loi^l (perh. 
Shaph' el of > ii., Aph. "JX to harm), 
prob. of Hiph*il force and akin to TJi 
in artb;B, which see; cf. "jpt. 

T is also a format, ending, e. g. in 

tnns, tT2:")B, wan (akin to u: in yia'nn), 

often in Arab, as in )«^ <o curse 

from *)A., cf. J-f>^ sterile (1. e. 

accursed); akin to adj. endings in 
Sans, -as, -is, -us, Gr. -o?, -t);, -k;, 
-0^, -u;, Lat. -OS, -es, -is, -ws," see 
under letter yj. 



^CS I or JCST (obs.) prob. akin 

•• T -T ^ 

to t]?t, to he angry, fierce; hence 

12i5T (pi. d'^nXT, c. "inj^t w. firm 
-::-) ni. 1) woif Gen. 49, 27; "inttT 
a'T3> toolves of (i. e. prowling at) 
evening Zeph. 3, 3. 2) pr. n. m. (wolf) 
of a Midianitish prince Judg. 7, 25. 

inXT dem. pron. f. this 2 Sam. 

23, 17; hM nw the mie — the 

other 1 K. 3, 23; see the masc. rrr, 
also fern. Sit. 

nin^^T this^ only in Jer. 26, 6 
K'thibh, where the Q'ri is riikt. 

^aAS (obs.) prob. mimet. akin 

to dat, fit^t, G-. swrnmew, E. hum, 
buzz; hence n*iST. 

Ijl to present with, to endow, 
w. ace. of pars, and thing, only in 
Gen. 30, 20; hence the 6 following 
words — 

inj P^' "• ^' (endower) 1 Ch. 2, 36. 
1!I1T m. gift, dowry Gen. 30, 20. 

'^'^^I pr. n. m. (perh. for Jl^vlSt 
gift of PT^) Josh. 7, 1; cf. Z£p£SaTo(; 
in Mat. 4, 21. 

ji<*''^l2T pr. n. m, (God's present) 
Neh. 11, 14. 

rrrii, ^n^^nt pr. n. m. {^^ 

presents) 1 Ch. 8, 15; 26, 2. 

I^IT (r. n^t; c. pi. iSJiat) m. 
prop, a buzzer, a fly, a musquito Is. 
7, 18; n^?3 insist death's flies, i. e. 
poisonous, Ecc. 10, 1; nsiat ^^'3 
(Ba al Zebub) lord of flies, i. e. able 
to control and avert their swarms, 
the name of a Philistine god 2 K. 1, 2. 

^OT pr. n. m. (endowed) 1 K. 

^^217 pr. n. m. (much endowed) 
Ezr. 8, 14. 

ffl^iT pr. n. f. (dowered) 2 K, 
23, 36, where K'thibh ITn^int; r. ^nt. 

bW, also blT 1 K. 8, 13 (w. 
n-;- loc n^nt Hab. 3, 11) m. 1) prop, 
a surrounded or inclosed place (cf* 
our home from hem), hence a ha- 
bitation Ps. 49, 15; the habitation 
of God, heaven Is. 63, 15; r\*i3 
^nt a dwelling-house, i. e. the Temple 
as God's dwelling 1 K. 8, 13; Hab. 
3, 11 iih'21 '1255 n^i u;^^ sun, moon 
stands homeward, i. e. stays athome> 
not coming, forth to shine. 2) pr. n. 
m. (home) Judg. 9, 28. — The pr. 
n. bsot ^?a, BssXCepouX Matt. 10,. 
25, prob. means lord of dung, blSt 
being here akin to Chald. bit dung; 
this slight change from iSint serving 
perh. to express contempt for tlie 
Philistine god, and perh. alluding to 
the connection between flies and 
dung or putrid things. 

"i^b^nr, see l^^nt. 

ri— IT (fut. nafi) akin to nnij> 
Syr. v--»»r5?, to slaughter (cf. 's^^ji^y 
to kill animals, for food Deut. 12, 15 j 
also for sacrifice 1 Sam. 1, 4; w. 
^ 1 K. 8, 63, w. i.3fib 1 K. 8, 62. 
— This verb seems to be used 
of sacrificial slaughtering not by 
the priests, but by a private person 
at his own cost Num. 22, 40, Deut. 

27, 7. — Pi. nnt (fut. nst';) to- 
sacrifice 1 K. 12, 32; to sacrifice 
largely, to slay many victims, 1 K. 
8, 5; to sacrifice repeatedly Hos. 4> 
14. Hence 

niT (w. suf. ^tpl; pi. d-^hnT, c 
*irjaT) m. 1) a slaughtering, of men 
Is. 34, 6, of beasts for food, hence a 
meal or repast Gen. 31, 54; n^^i-'^nnT 
quarrelsome feasts Prov. 17, 1; a 
sacrificing Lev. 19, 6; a sacrifice, 
the slaughtered victim Is. 1, 11; 


T T : 



opp. to fnniia l Sam. 2, 29, to SiVa? 
Ex. 10, 25; D^rVu: Mat sacrifice of 
thanksgiving, or ^Ae ;;eace offering 
Lev. 3, 1 ; ts'^a^in nST #^e yearly sa- 
crifice 1 Sam. 1, 21; nnBira hst fAe 
family sacrificial meal 1 Sam. 20, 29. 
2) pr. n. m. (slaughter) of a Midia- 
nitish prince Judg. 8, 5. 

jTirinT f. a sacrifice only in pi. 
W. suf. fiVnnt Hos. 4, 19 ; r. Jint. 

*''51 pr. n. m. (perh. buzzing) Ezr. 
10, 28; prob. a mistake for ^St as 
in Ezr. 2, 9 ; r. nnt . 

m^'lt, see nnsint. 

1^5"^^! pr. n. m. (gained) Ezr. 
^ 10, 43. 

^5 ' (^^t- ^^n) prob. akin to V^-n, 
1) to roll, to be round, cf. Chald. Vat, 
dung in balls, as of goats, etc. 2) to 
dwell (cf. nsi^); w. ace. of pers. to 
cohabit with Gen. 30, 20. Hence 

"l^bnT, also "jb^nj, ^^b^Zl] pr. n. 
m. (prob. habitation, see Gen. 30, 20) 
of the tenth son of Jacob Gen. 35, 
23; the tribe of Zebulun Num. 1, 9. 
Gent. n. "'S'^^i^T Num. 26, 27, as if 
from "j^sint. 

j— IT Chald. to gain, to buy, fc<5"n» 
•j'^aar liinsx ye are gaining the time, 
i. e. making delay Dan. 2, 8; hence 

T - : 

SJ m. sAriw of a grape, AwsA:, only 
Num. 6, 4; r. a^it ^o surround. 

"IT (pi. D'^'iT; r. l!it) m. ^rotwZ 
Prov. 21, 24; impudent Is. 13, 11; 
wanton Mai. 3, 19; impious Ps. 
119, 21. 

I^^IT (c. II'TT, as if from JTit = ^!lt; 
w. suf. i^pt 1 Sam. 17, 28) m. pride, 
haughtiness Prov. 11, 2; ^ab lilt 
jpn<?e of thy heart Jer. 49, 16? 

»1T 1) dem. pron. m. (as fem. only 

in Josh. 2, 17, perh, Judg. 16, 28; 
the reg. fem. being nstt, rarely n't, 
it, com. It, Gram. § 34) this, (pi. nbx 
these, which see) pointing to what 
is present, while K^lfn refers to what 
is fore-mentioned (Gram. § 122, 1, 
Rem.). It stands after the noun it 
defines, and as an adj. takes the 
art. if the noun be definite (see Gram. 
§ 111, 2, Eem. b), e. g. Wn dl^a 
on this day Gen. 7, 1 1 ; ni<tn nm.'n 
this woman. When it stands before 
the noun, it implies the subst. verb, 
e. g. nin;! am dl^t! f^l this (is) the 
day the Lord hath made Ps. 118, 24. 
It stands by itself, absol. this, this 
one, cf. ouTo;, e. g. la'i^ nt lis) this 
one (was) yet speaking Job 1, 17; nt 
^f I? ''?? this, an afflicted one, cried 

Ps. 34, 7. Repeated nt nt =this — 

that, the one — the other 1 K. 22, 
20; nt-^X nt &<'n)5 owe me<? <o iAe 
other is. 6, 3. — its nt ia «f;Ao (is) 
this coming? Is. 63, 1; nt 6<!irj "^a 
t<?Ao is this one? Jer. 30, 21. 2)relat. 
pron. just as our Eng. that, both a 
demonst. and a relat. e. g. Qlpa bi^ 
tert^ Pi'nb'^ lit unto the place that 
(= which) thou hast founded for them 
Ps. 104, 8. This use of til, oftener 
^It, is confined to the poetical books. 
3) as adverb of place (prop, this 
spot, cf. wSe) here Gen. 28, 17; n-ta 
hence Ex. 11, 1; Wipl ii-rp on this 
side and on that side Num. 22, 24; 
ni nan lo here! Cant. 2, 8; also of 
time now (cf. 6t^), nt nn? no?^ ^*2<s^ 
Ruth 2, 7; ipis)^;; n; "nn? (just) now 
I know 1 K. 17, 24, 0^3^ n^a? nt 
wo?^ so many jrears Zech. 7, 3; 
d'^aSJS hr now twice Gen. 27, 
36; this use frequently occurs w. 
particles of interrogation e. g. 
tnt-na what (now) then? Gen. 27, 20; 
nt hab t<;Ay then? 4) In union w. 
prefixes it expresses many demonst. 




relations, e. g. iita here Gen. 38, 21, 
then Est. 2, 13; fiTS such a one, 
Gen. 41, 38; JiTDI hts thus and thus 
Judg. 18, 4; I^tSI mts so and so 
2 Sam. 17, 15; nxt^ therefore; '^^t 
lni<Tb wherefore? Jer. 5, 7. — The 
various usages and constructions of 
the fem. HM correspond to those of 
the masc. JTr. — JlT is akin to Arab. 

IJ, Aram. |?(ji, &^'^, 'I'n, -"n, -5,Ethiop. 

se, sa; Sans, sas, sd, tat, G. <Zer, 
die, das, E. the, this, that, then, -6s, 
-6i (in 8-Se, 6-8{), L. -ce, F. ce, ci. 

» jT m. (only 1 Sam. 17, 34 in some 
texts) a corrupted form of fib a lamb. 

♦It (perh. the original form Kt, 
whence T\ikl', cf. It, ^it) dem. pron. f. 
this; used by itself in later writings 
Ecc. 2, 2 ; elsewhere always in union 
w. some pref. e. g. i^t^l ill's thus 
and thus Judg. 18, 4. 

3ijT (obs.) akin to nh^, nit, 

to shine, glitter, as gold, hence to be 
bright yellow ; hence 

liTlT (c. ntnt, but nntsi in Gen. 
2, 12, Gram. § 10, 2, Eem.) m. gold 
Ex. 3, 22. When a numeral precedes, 
bj^yj is to be supplied, e. g. tihw$^ 
nnt few (shekels) of gold Gen. 24, 22! 
Fig. perh. golden light or brilliance 
Job 37, 22; oiZ, for its golden hue 
Zech. 4, 12. 

nnT (obs.) akin to Arab. Ufcj, 
pT T ' 

Syr. 1 01], to shine; hence *1T, I'^t (for 
1'int), m. 

Uni (Qal obs.) to be foul, ran- 

cidf Arab. Ij^^; perh. akin to &<at3 

to be unclean. — Pi. to make loath- 
some j only in Vnh ifi^h IPl^'Tlt Hs 
Zi/c makes it, the food, loathsome Job 
33, 20 (see Gram. § 121, Bern. 3). 

dHT pr. n. m. (loathing) 2 Ch. 
11, 19. 

IMT (Qal obs.) akin to IliS, 
'^''Tlti, "^i^a, ^f'7 I, perh. insj, fo shine f 
hence Hiph. '^^^tJ7 to shed light, to 
shine Dan. 12, 3; fig. to teach, i. e. 
enlighten the mind, w. double ace. 
Ex. 18, 20; to warn, w. ace. of pers. 
and )'U of the thing. Lev. 15, 31, w. 
I^Q from Ez. 3, 17. — Niph. to 
be taught, admonished Ps. 19, 12; 
to take warning Ez. 33, 4; to beware 
of, w. 1^ Ecc. 12, 12. 

\Tj\ Chald. i. q. Heb. ^nt, pass. 

part, ^''•nt admonished, wary Ezr.4, 22. 

"nJlT m. brightness f of the sky 
Dan. 12, 3; r. 'nht. 

"IT (also I'^t; r. Sint) m. brightness, 
bloom, hence, the name of the month 
of bloom, Ziv, the second Hebrew 
month from the new-moon of May 
to the new-moon of June 1 K. 6, 1 ; 
fuUy in Chald. S^^i^"^? I'^t nti;;) the 
month of the brightness of floivers. 

*1T f. a form of ht and Jn&<t, this Hos, 
7, 16, relat. that Ps. 132, 12, i. q. 'nm. 

^T dem. pron. masc. or fem., sing, 
or pi. Ps. 10, 2; 17, 9 (only poet, 
for nr, ni<t) this Hab. 1, 11; as a 

relative, ^5^13 *it~!n\lj^3 in the net 

' AT T V IV : 

which they hid Ps. 9, 16; Is. 42, 24 

i^ fi3i<^h iit against whom ive have 

3-lT (fut. asit^) akin to ti^lt, t)ilS II, 
S^'n, Chald. 3t'^,fo ;^02i;, as water Is. 
48, 21: used of menstruation Lev. 
15, 25, of seminal discharge (gonor- 
rhoea benigna) in men Lev. 15, 2. 
To flow with, to have abundance of, 
w. ace. (Gram. § 138, Eem. 2), y^i. 
UJn^*! S^rt hit a land flowing with 
milk and honey Ex. 3, 8. Absol. it 

a::? f% valley flows (w. blood) 




Jer. 49, 4. Fig. to pine away^ to die 
Lam. 4, 9. Hence 

mt m. flux, menstrual Lev. 15, 
19; seminal in the male Lev. 15, 2. 

JnT (o1)s.) akin to Mb n, 'r^sib, <o 
inclose, envelope; hence at. 

1*11 proh. mimet. and akin to 
*t!i'n, Csw, L. cestus, G-. sieden, E. 
seethe, stew, all expressive of the 
hissing or sizzling (aiCw, W. sio) of 
■fcoi/iw^ water; io hoil up {y^'xth. pride), 
to act proudly toioards, w. bx Jer. 
50, 29, or w. b? against Ex. 18, 11. 
— Niph. only in part. ^'^73 for Tt3 
sodden, boiled , as subst. pottage Gen. 
25, 29. — Hiph. n^tn (fut. ^-n) <o 
seethe, prepare by boiling Gen. 25, 
129; to act insolently, wickedly, as if 
to boil over with passion Deut. 1, 
43; "la-ib *7n;) ^m who shall he so 
presumptuous as to speak Deut. 18, 
20; w. b? of pers. against whom 
Ex. 21, 14. 

nj Chald. only in Apli. inf. 
iTitii (like Heb. *T^Tii) ^o act proudly 
Dan. 5, 20. 

S llT (obs.) prob. akin to M^^n, 
snt, #0 s/ime, gleam; deriv. in'^'it. 

I* I j I (obs.) akin to ysi:£, fo sprout 
or spwrf, fo sAoof /br^A (as milk from 
a full breast), to flourish, to abound, 
€sp. of the fruits of the field; perh. 
a reduplication of It bloom, r. JTit. 
Deriv. ft 1. 

T^T II (obs.) perh. akin to 'n>l"n n, 
*>1t I, to move to and fro, to range 
about; hence t'^t 2. 

U T*T pr. n. of an aboriginal 
people, perh. same as the t3*'53tat, on 
the borders of Palestine Gen. i4, 5; 
the name is perh. rightly rendered in 
the Sept. e0v7] W^upa, as if from t>lt I. 

r\n iT pr. n. m. (perh. strong, r. 
ti)-t = yrw) 1 Ch. 4, 20. 

TC)1 or n^'JT (only pi. ni'sit w. 
firm — ; r. h*it) f. corners of an altar 
Zech. 9, 15; corner columns of a 
palace (cf. n|Q from .133), Ps. 144, 
12 let our daughters be rC*"i3 
ba^ii iT^lini;! misariTa as corner pillar Sj 
sculptured in the style of a palace, 
i. e. may they have the gi'acefulness 
and strength of palatial columns, 
representing female figures, which 
were well known in Egyptian and 
Grecian architecture and called xa- 
puatiSei; (from xapa head), because 
they bear burdens on their heads. 

^*M akin to btx, hhl, to shake or 

- t' - t' 

pour out Is. 46, 6; to put aside, re- 
move, hence Jn^sit. — Hiph. ^"'•Tii 
XGram. § 72, Eem. 9) to throw away, 
despise Lam. 1, 8. Hence 

n^^T f. removal, a putting aside, 
used only as a prep, besides, except, 
in c. n^Jlt (also "^^^^t, Gram. § 90, 
3, a) and w. suf. ?]n^^t Ruth 4, 4 
besides thee, "^t^^^it besides me Is. 
45, 5; n^^t except 2 K. 24, 14; "irt^it 
(old c. St. of nb^it) used often for 
t^^l'fj e« g- ^"p "^r^^^f except a voice 
Deut. 4, 12. 

pT I (Qal obs.) i. q. *)t^, to nourish, 
to pamper. — Hoph. "jtiiJi to be nou- 
rished, pampered, e. g. d'lina D'^p^G 
well-fed horses, only in Jer. 5, 8 in 
K'thibh, where Q'ri has I3*>3t^a 
weighted J i. e. having heavy testi- 
cles. Hence 'jitia. 

rli n (obs.) fo point, sharpen; 
then ^0 shape, form; hence "Jt, perh. 
nslt 2. Cf. "jis, 13^^. 

1*11 m (obs.) akin to Arab. ^^\y 
to deck, ^gjiy ornament, hence to deck 




out, adorn; hence perh. hsit 1, and 
pr. n. n5'»t. 

HI Chald. only in — Itlipe. fut. 
•jiTPi"^, to be well fed Dan. 4, 9. 

nSiT f. 1) harlot, prostitute (part, 
f. of W, or perh. 'Jilt HI referring to 
meretricious ornaments, cf. Ez. 23, 
40) Lev. 21, 14. 2) perh. i, q. Chald. 
I^t weapon, prop, something pointed 
(r.)'!\1 n), nii-tn f/ie lances 1 K. 22, 38, 
where others render it the harlots, 
after the Sept. at iropvat. 

nS^t Ez. 16, 34 for nst Pu. of 
fnit, see Gram. § 52, Eem. 4. 

• •IT (fut. ^^1'^) perh. akin to 5>t'^, 
^0 wove, sAa/re Est. 5, 9; to tremble 
Ecc. 12, 3. — Pilp. SJT^t io agitate, 
disquiet, part. i^'^sJtSJta fAose w;7iO 
harass thee Hab. 2,7. — Akin to 
Syr. jojff to seek eagerly. Sans, sii 
to throw, aeio), asuco, W. siglo 
shake; hence TO^it and perh. Sl^T. 

?^T Chald. (part. pi. y^)$i<1 in Q'ri, 
'Ji^'^t in K'thibh) i. q. Heb. ?sit, to 
be agitated, Dan. 5, 19 )'^^i<l ilti 
%'7i53'i)5"']ia thei/ were trembling before 

JlU^IT f. a shaking, disquieting 
Jer. 15, 4, where Q'ri is l^^??t; a 
quaking, terror Is. 28, 19. 

^|1T (obs.) 1) i. q. :n^t, C]!12£ H, fo 
/Zot^', /Zot<; owf; hence nST and iri'i'T I. 
2) perh. as in Chald. to lend, borrow; 
hence tj^'T 2. 

I*IT I. i. q. ^^b I, to be turned 
away, estranged Ps. 68, 4 (I^T for sTnt, 
Gram. § 72, Rem. 1), or to go away, 
hence part, ^t strange Is. 28, 21, 
hence stranger, foreigner Ex. 30, 33 ; 
fig. heathen, barbarian, hence ^t b^t 
strange god, i. e. idol Ps. 44, 21j iTnT 

strange woman (i. e. wife of another), 
an adulteress Prov. 5, 3 (cf. 5>^ nilii^ 
Prov. 6, 29); 0^'~\1 enemies Is. 1, 7, those 
not natives of the country being 
looked upon as hostile (cf. ^eivot;^ 
L. hostis, prop, outsider, from Ix, ex)^ 
"ipiyixb JTit 'iri^'n my breath is strange 
to my wife, i. e. offensive Job 19, 17» 
— Niph. only Is. 1, 4 ninx nta they 
have turned themselves away back- 
ward. — VLoph. to be estranged, part» 
ntiia Ps. 69, 9. On Is. 1, 7, see D^IT^ 

H) n or III (fut. 'lilt;', apoc. 
"1t;>1) akin nt&J, "Tit II, \t5II, "n^SI, 1) 
fo ^ress together Judg. 6, 38 ; fo bind, 
to gird, to bandage, perh. in Is. 1, (> 
^^i i6> (Gram. § 72, Eem. 1) they are 
not bound up or they are not pressed 
out, but see under jTnt II. 2) to crush 
an egg(n2*i2) Job 39Vl5; JTlsit part, 
pass, for n^l^lt (Gram. § 80, Rem. 2, d} 
crushed egg Is. 59, 5; to squeeze, 
to press out, to squeeze out, as a 
fleece (Jija) Judg. 6, 38; hence '"nt^ 
^it"it, "il'ta. 

• : - ' T 

rri^T Is. I, 6, see "nsit n. 

^"lil 2 K. 4, 35, see "lit I. 

i^tt (projection) pr. n. 1 Ch. 2, 33, 

/ Ij^ll I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
iiJiD to remove, hence — Niph. (fut» 
n-r";) displaced, w. b?a Ex. 28, 28. 

nijl n (obs.) i. q. ppT tobind,. 
knit; hence Mta and fT'ta. 

yJjT (part, bnt) akin to Chald. 
^h'n, fo creep, ^?idfe, IBS ibht crawlers 
of the dust, i. e. serpents Deut. 32, 
24; fig. to slink away, to be timid 
Job 32, 6; hence 

ribnt pr. n. (nbn-tri )'2Vi the snake 
stone) of a stone near Jerusalem 
1 K. 1, 9. 




ZlM ' (obs.) i.q. yrro to he dense, 
thick, strong; hence inriiT. 

"^T dem. pron. akin to MT, only in 
•>tK, which see. 

n T , see n!lt. 

'^Tl (r. 1!ltj cf. d'-i*^? from 'lil^) 
adj. m. seething, boiling up, raging, 
of waves Ps. 124, 5. 

VT (for Wt, r. nriT) Chald. m. 
brightness Dan. 2, 31; cheerfulness 
(prop, brightness of face) Dan. 5, 6. 

T^^T m. 1) fulness, exuberance, 
fi'iins f'T ^er glorious abundance, i. 
e. her full breasts (comp. fn'^ariSPi 'lilj 
in 1st clause) Is. 66, 11; cf. nbn 60, 
16. But perh. t"i7 is here only a softer 
form of Y*^^, r. tit I. 2) (ace. to 
Kimchi and Abulwalid) an animal, 
wild beast (r. tit n) Ps. 50, 11; but 
the Sept. (opaiOTT)^ and Vulg. pul- 
chritudo favour fertility, 

^J"'I W' ^- ^' (perh. abundance) 
1 ChT 4, 37. 

nt^T pr. n. m. (fulness) 1 Ch. 23, 
11. See Wit. 

^T\ pr. n. m. (for xnt) 1 Ch. 
23, 10. 

'^I pr. n. m. (agitation, r. SJ-lt) 
1 Ch. 5, 13. 

rp I 1) pr. n. (perh. flowing, melt- 
ing, r. S)1t 1) of a place in Judah 
Josh. 15, 55; gentil. pi. d'lSt 1 Sam. 
23, 19. 2) pr. n. m. (perh. lent sc. 
by God, r. t]1t 2) 1 Ch. 4. 16. 

nS"*! pr. n. 1 Ch. 4, 16. 

mip^^T Is. 50, 11 fiery darts, and 

•^ P I pl« of p.! burning arrow, 
in Prov. 26, 18 (in many MSS) for 

tl^T (c. n'l.t, pi. d'^nit, prob.from 
nntj cf. It, nijt) m. prob. shining or 

brightness (cf. 'nr|:£'^ from "irt^), hence 
olive-tree Gen. 8, 11, Judg. 9, 9, fully 
n^i^rj "jr^ Hag. 2, 19; its fruit the olive 
Is. 17, 6; n'^t 'r|'!!'J <o frea^Z olives, in 
order to press out the oil Mic. 6, 15; 
n";^ I^^IJ olive-oil Ex. 27, 20; l^^p n"^} 
oil-olive Deut. 8, 8. — Hence the pr. 
n. fi'^t^'^.^tn "in the Mount of Olives^ 
near Jerusalem Zech. 14, 4, cf. xh 
opo; Tu)V ^Xatuiv Mat. 26, 30. 

l^^t W' ^' !"• (olive-tree, Arab. 

*i^y) 1 Ch. 7, 10. 

t|T (in pause Tj^t) adj. m., list f., 
transparent, clear, of oil Ex. 27, 20; 
pure, of frankincense Ex.30, 34. Fig. 
in a moral sense, clear or pure, free 
from fault, blameless Job 8, 6, Prov. 
20, 11; r. Ti?t. 

NDT Chald. (obs.)i. q. Heb. Mat, 
to be clear, transparent ; fig. to be 
pure, in a moral sense; hence lat, 

T\Jn (fut. nSf^) akin to &ot, 
7|5t , pjDt I , <o be clear or jpwre, fig. 
to be faultless Job 15, 14; then to gain 
or td;m in a law-suit Ps. 51, 6. — Pi. 
list fo cleanse, make pure, the heart 
Ps. 73, 13, the way Ps. 119, 9. — 
Hith. ns^rri (for nstnri Gram. § 54, 
2, 6) to cleanse oneself, make oneself 
pure Is. 1, 16. 

W Chald. (c.MSt, def. i<W3t) f. 
purity, cleanness in a moral sense 
Dan. 6, 23. 

)r\^lD^iT (r. t^at) f. prop, transpa- 
rency, clearness, esp. glass or crystal 

Job 28, 17; cf. Arab. ^U.^ ^^ass, 

n^lDT (w. suf. ?;"]1St) m. i. q. 13T, 
only coll. maZes Ex. 23, 17; r. ^?t. 

1^3T pr. n. m. (prob. mindful) 
Num. 13, 4. 




^?1 pr. n. m. (pure) Ezr. 2, 9; 
r. t;?T. 

^5' (3. pi. perf. !i3t) i.q. M^t to he 
clean, pure, bright, of the skies Job 
15, 15, of stars Job 25, 5, of snow- 
Lam. 4, 7. — Hiph. t^tJi to make 
dean, to cleanse, ''BS *iin2 ^nistm and 

'at- :•!•-:- 

should I cleanse my hands w, alkali 
Job 9, 30. 

iDT I (fut. 'nbp) akin to IJ?^ 
prop, to prick or pierce, to penetrate 
{Q,i. *1DT a male) ; hence of impressing 
on the memory, to remember, w. ace. 
Deut. 8, 2; w. b Ex. 32, 13; w. 3 Jer. 
3, 16; to keep in mind, w. ^ of pers. 
and ace. of thing Jer. 2, 2; to re- 
collect Jer. 4:4,21 ; to mention (cf. Hiph. 
-i-^Stri) Jer. 20, 9. — Nipli. to be re- 
membered Job 24, 20; w. b of pers. 
for or against whom Ez. 18, 22; 
w. bx to Ps. 109, 14; also w. 'iJSib Nmn. 
10, 9; to be mentioned Job 28, 18; 
but in Ex. 34, 19 to be born a male 
(denom. of "iDT). — Hiph. ^""Stn (w. 
suf. taa-isin Ez. 21, 29) to bring to 
remembrance 2 Sam. 18, 18; to make 
mention of, w. ace. of the thing Is. 
49, 1 ; w. ^X Is. 19, 17 or w. b of pers. 
to whom Ps. 87, 4; to praise, cele- 
brate Ps. 71, 16; to offer a memorial 
sacrifice Is. 66, 3; to call to mind 
Gen. 41, 9. 

'mJ) II (Qal obs.) prop, denom. 
from "laT a male, hence to bear a 
male; i. q. Arab, ^i IV. — Niph. 
(fut. *i^Jt^) to be born a male, only 
in Ex.*34, 19. 

najDi), of men Gen. 1, 27, of animals 
Gen, 7, 3. PL Di'IDT Ezr. 8, 4. 

' ' • TS ' 

"llDT and ^^T (r. "i3t I) m. re- 
membrance Ps. 9, 7; memorial, i. e. 

nam£ Ex. 3, 15, Ps. 30, 5 iiin'^ ^^t 
7iis Ao/y name; praise, laud'Ps. 102, 13. 

llDT pr. n. son of Jehiel 1 Ch. 8, 31 
(called n;«n5T in 1 Ch. 9, 37). 

■jinST (cj-hipt, pl.d'^3'i^=t,m"3'i-i37) 
m. i. q. 15T, memorial, w. h of pers. 
for whom, e. g. ^i<*iil3i ^inb V'-iStb 
as a memorial for the sotis of Israel 
Josh. 4, 7; "jinsT i3S!}< stones of me- 
morial, i. e. of the persons whose 
names they bore Ex. 28, 12 ; nfiari 
■jilSt memorial offering, i. e. not to 
expiate but to bring to remembrance 
Num. 5, 15; a record or account 
(uTiofJivrjfxa) Ex. 17, 14; ']^^'31 ^S& 
book of record Mai. 3, 16; tnlVnat ISG 
book of chronicles Est. 6, 1 ; S'^pHaT 
memorable sayings (cf. bd?3) Job 13, 
12; a celebration Lev. 23, 24. 

'''Irl pi". n. m. (memorable) Ex, 
6, 21.* 

tV^P"^ and ^rt'^'^it pr. n. m. (Jnn 
is mindful) Sept. Za^^apia^ 2 K. 14, 
29, 2 K. 15, 8, Zech. 1, 1. 

CS^T or n^T (obs.) akin to 
nb'n, fo lift or ofrai^; (water), hence 
perh. nj<iit'i. 

J^T (obs.) akin to &tbt, bbt, Syr. 
y?, ^^^-^l, ^0 (Zrrttt? or lift out; hence 
ibtp. Cf. 5^;p^. 

ln^!?T (r. Is^t) f. baseness, abject- 
ness, only Ps.12,9 d^i< '^3Sb wh D^3 
when baseness is exalted for (i. e. 
among) the sons of men. 

blbt (only pi. ti^hibl; r. ^J^T) m. 
1. q. ?ob&, bsnbn, sAoo^, it^i^- of a 
vine, only in Is. 18, 5. 

^ c| (part, hhil) prop, to move to 
and fro; hence to wave, of a twig (cf. 
bb-n), hence hlbl ; hence fig. to shake 
or scatter about, to squander; bbiT a 



squanderer, prodigal Deut. 21, 20; 
*ibi •'^blt squanderers of flesh, i. e. 
gluttons or debauchees Prov. 23, 20. 
Since what is squandered is apt to 
be considered mean or bad, ^^T came 
to signify to he mean, had, vile Jer. 
15, 19. — Niph. bta (Gram. § 67, 
Rem. 5) to he shaken, to quahe Is. 
64, 2; also in Judg. 5, 5 (^ibn = i|bn, 
Gram. § 67, Rem. 11), unless perh. 
in this place it be frombta. — Hipli. 
b'l-tri to despise Lam. 1, 8 (Gram. § 
72, Rem. 9), cf. b^it. — Prob. mi- 
met, akin to bb^, b^D H, Vbril,2, 
Sans, sal, aaXot^, CaXir), L. salio, Bret. 
sala (to bound), "W. silio (to clean 
grain by shaking). 


^iT /^T (obs.) perh. akin to t]?1 
(w. h inserted), or better akin to 13«i^, 
l:]?b (w. formative t, cf. an^TT), to 
glow, to hum; hence 

nS;jbT (pi. ni'B^b^, c. nisr^T) f. 
glow, heat, of the hot wind {^y^\ 
es-Simum) Ps. 1 1, 6 ; of famine (comp. 
Xijxo^ aiOotj/ in Hesiod. Op. 361) Lam. 
5, 10; of anger, wrath Ps. 119, 53. 


-^1 (obs.) akin to &]^'n, to drop, 
trickle; hence 

n5!?T pr. n. f. (dropping, perh. 
myrrh) Gen. 29, 24. 

»T23T (r. fi^Qt) f. 1) thought, plan 
or plot Prov. 21, 27; counsel Job 
17, 11. 2) mischief, mme Ps. Il9j'l50; 
then esp. lewdness, incestltey. 18, 17. 
3) revolt, apostasy Hos. 6, 9. 4) pr. 
n. m. (planning) 1 Ch. 6, 5. 

n^T i. q. njat , see ^hi'xat. 

rn'I^T (r. ^aj ; c. TTpy], pi. w. suf. 
sn'^^iaT Nah. 2^ 3) f. prop, what 
has a tremulous motion or trilling 
sound (see on h'lia'n), hence a vine- 
shoot Is. 17, 10; a twig, hranch Ez. 
15, 2. 

^tf\l2^\ Ps. 17, 3 for ''nist I have 
purposed (r. Q^T), or for iriiat my 
thoughts, from inat i. q. JiHT (see 
Gram. § 91, 3, Rem.). 

Ul/2T (obs.) mimet. akin to din, 

• • • • 

d?3fi, d^t, "lat, Arab. *y^3, G.SMmmen, 
fo /mw, 6w^r, murmur, expressive of 
din or noise as of a crowd; perh, 

^T'JT pr. n. (only pi. d*i5at?3T, perh. 
noisy throngs) of a race of giants 
who formerly dwelt in the eastern 
part of Palestine Deut. 2, 20; cf. 


^''^I (c. ^'^at, pi. W'nat; r. ^at) 
m. a song Ps. 119, 54; song of praise 
Is. 24, \Q; poem, hymn 2 Sam. 23, 1; 
song of triumph Is. 25, 5; ^'^a-tn ro 
#Ae singing time (either of birds or 
vinedressers, i. e. spring) Cant. 2, 12. 

*TP'^1 pr. n. m. (song) 1 Ch. 7, 8. 

UIjT (1 pers. perf. '^Fiaat and 
■^niat Ps. 17, 3; fut. dr, pi. ^lat^ for 
sian, see Gram. § 67, Rem. 11) prob. 
akin to dtat, to hum, mutter, hence 
to meditate (cf. n^n) Prov. 30, 32, to 
consider or propose Prov. 31,16, with 
inf. e. g. WiU3J^ laP they purpose to 
do Gen. 11, 6; absol. to form apian, 
to resolve Jer. 51, 12; to plot Ps. 
31, 14; hence 

D'DT m. i. q. M5at a plan, purpose, 
only in Ps. 140, 9. 

jQT (Qal obs.) to numher, mea- 
sure out, hence to arrange, to deter- 
mine, only in — Pu. pass. part. pi. 
di553ta d'^riSJ Ezr. 10, 14 appointed 

I^t (pi. d^sat) m. time, stated 

time Ecc. 3, 1 (Arab. ^V^, Syr. 
^]), later Heb. for PS. 




VQl Chald. same asHeb. 153J. — 
Ithp. 'jB'nTrt to settle, determine to- 
gether Dan. 2, 9 Q'ri, but in K'thibh 
)'^V^ i)'^'^}^)^) in Aph., w. the same 

"j^T Chald. (def. fc<5?3t, pi. 'pi^l) 
i. q. Heb. "jTat time, but like ISJia, aw 
appointed time, season Dan. 2, 16; 
and also of sacred times, festivals 
Dan. 7, 25 ; &<5pT JHS ai <Aa^ iime 
Dan. 3, 7 , 'j'ns'l )'>D1 ^? even ifo a sea- 
son and tim& Dan. 7, 12. In pi. used 
adverbially (like Heb. d'^piSB, L. vices), 
e. g. fin^rn 'j'^S^t f^ree times, thrice 
Dan. 6, 11. 

1/3 T (fut. "ibt"^).!. q. Arab. ^3, 

Ethiop. zamara, Aram, j.ifi'l, 'I'at, 
prop, mimetic and expressive of a 
quick or sharp movement or sound, 
to vibrate (as trees when lopped, 
or shaken by wind, cf. Ibt), to twang 
or whir (as tight strings when struck 
or sharply touched, cf. ?Tn?3T, ^iata), 
comp. ^laipw, ij;cxXXtt) (see more below): 
hence it means 1) to totich or strike 
musical chords, to harp or sing (obs. 
in Qal), hence 'la? (Aram.), iTi^T, 
^iata. 2) fo cZip or ^rwwe (a vine) 
Lev. 25, 3, hence JTnlaT, rrn^ta, n'naTa. 
— Niph. to be cut or pruned Is. 5, 6. 
—Pi. ^■ni (fut. '-i^t^)intens. of Qal 1, 
to play or harp on chords Ps. 33, 2; 
then to sing or cAawi as accom- 
paniment to the instrument Ps. 9, 12, 
hence to praise, celebrate, w. h Judg. 
5, 3, w. bx Ps. 59, 18, and w. ace. 
Ps. 47, 7 ; w. a of the instrument Ps. 
98, 5. — On this very difficult root, 
see Hupfeld in Zeitschrift fiir die 
Kunde des Morgenlandes, III. p. 394, 
IV. p. 139. — As kindred mimetic 
roots, comp. Jiat, d^t, dtat, E. simmer 
(the sound of gently boiling liquid). 

L. susurro, Ger. surren, schwirren^ 
aiCto, W. sio, sisial, Gael, siansan. 

*1'?-3T Chald. (def. 6<'nal) m. music, 
playing of instruments Dan. 3,5; 

Syr. i^'v 

I^ST Chald. (pi. X^yyi) m. singer 
Ezr. 7, 24; Arab. jU^. 

IflT m. prob. a species of gazelle 
or antelope, only Deut. 14, 5; so 
called perh. for its quick motion (r, 

"i^T); cf. Arab, yiy to escape (as a 
wild goat). 

* l53T Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. "nat, 
to make 'music, to sing; hence "i^T. 

^'53T (r. ^at; only pi. w. suf. dri"''n^at) 
m. prop, vine-branch, fig. family- 
branch or member Nah. 2, 3 ; cf. iTiiat. 

tT\Xl1, see n^iiat. 

T : ' T : 

n'n^T f. sound, of musical strings 
Am. 5, 23; song, of the voice Ps. 
81, 3; fig. 'jr'nxrt n^at Gen. 43, 11 the 
land's celebrity i. e. its most famous 
or choicest fruits. 

^"l"^! pr. n. m. (sung or celebrat- 
ed) 1 k. 16, 9: perh. also for ^S'l^l 
as patron, of yy2) Jer. 25, 25. 

1'^/3T pr. n. m. (celebrated) Gen. 
25, 2.* 

tT^2\ f. i. q. JTiat (see Gram. § 
80, Rem. 2, b) song, i. e. the subject 
of song Ex. 15, 2. 

It (pi. d^it; r. ')!l'rn=')5t) m. what 

is formed or shaped (Syr. /|, p..*p, 

hence sort, kind, IJ"^!* *)?» from 
sort to sort, i. e. of every kind Ps. 
144, 13, 2 Ch. 16, 14. 

"jt Chald. (only pi. c. "iSt) m. sort 
Dan. 3, 5. 

ml J I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to ^dd 
in ^''55d, to be pendulous, to ivave, 
wabble (as a tail), hence 25T. — Pi. 




a;t, denom. of asT, to hurt or cut off 
the tail; fig. to smite the rear of an 
army Josh. 10, 19; cf. oupa, oopa7ia 

133T (pi. m'ajT , c. nis??) m. tail of 
an animal (Syr. l^riJo?; cf. |.aJaxff 
a hanging on, Chald. C]'i5D appendage) 
Ex. 4, 4; cncZ, stump, Is. 7, 4: also 
fig. for what is posterior, mean (opp. 
to m*i) Deut. 28, 44; cf. Arab. Jlj) 
«^j^ wose and tail, i. e. high and 
low. Hence the denom. Sit, see SSt. 

I UT (fut. hat"; , ap. lt;:)perh. akin 
to n-it (cf. n^t = Aram. HD'n, w.«^?), 
S^iT , L. serere, to scatter, sow, hence 

1) to beget, cohabit; then to commit 
fornication, of men w. bi< of the 
woman Num. 25, 1; of a married 
woman, to commit adultery Jer. 3, 1 ; 
of an unmarried woman, to play the 
harlot; w. ace. Ez. 16, 28 (perh. also 
Is. 23, 17, w. njt perh. with); w. 3 
Ez. 16, 17; w.bx Ez. 16, 26; w. ^'^m 
Deut. 31, 16 of the paramour. The 
husband from whom the woman 
whorishly departs is put w. 1?3 Ps. 
73,27; '^'nnx^a Hos. 1, 2; nnn^a Hos. 
4, 12; nnn Ez. 23,5 (cf.Num. 5, 19); 
b^-g Hos. 9, l;h-J (against) Judg. 19, 
12; b? (upon i. e. presuming on) Ez. 

16, 15. Part. f. Jislt a whore, harlot 
Oen. 38, 15; more fully Halt Jras: 
Josh. 2, 1. PI. ni3T Hos. 4, 14. — 

2) fig. a) used of religious apostasy, 
or unfaithfulness to God, regarded 
as whoredom or adultery, since the 
covenant between the Eternal and his 
people Israel was compared to a 
marriage union (cf. Jer. 3, 14), to go 
a whoring, w. *'"^ln&t of the idols Lev. 

17, 7 ; w. nnrn73 of the true God Hos. 
4, 12. p) Of idolatrous superstitions, 
to go a whoring after Lev. 20, 6. 
7) Of intercourse and traffic among 

the nations, to commit fornication 
Is. 23, 17. — Pu. n|!lT (Gram. § 62, 
Rem. 4) to be gone a whoring, 
n|!iT N^ ":\^y^^ Ez. 16, 34 tliey go 
not a whoring after thee. — Hiph. 
Mstii (fut. apoc. "jt^) to seduce to 
whoredom Ex. 34, 16; to cause to 
commit fornication. Lev. 19,29; also 
as in Qal, to commit fornication 
Hos. 4, 10. 

Ij uT pr. n. (perh. marsh or bog, r. 
n5T) of dwo districts in Judah, one 
in the plain Josh. 15, 34; the other 
in the mountains Josh. 15, 56. 

D^5^2T (perh. from "iSt = rtSJ) m. 
pi. whoredoms (i. e. habit of forni- 
cation, Gram. § 108, 2, a) Gen. 38, 24; 
d'liist '^ihy} d'lWit nm a whorish wife 
and bastard children Hos. 1, 2: fig. 
unfaithfulness to God, apostasy, ido- 
latry 2 K. 9, 22 ; intercourse between 
nations, foreign commerce Nah. 3, 4. 

W5T (pi. d^mst; r. njt) f. whore- 
dom, only fig. idolatry Jer. 3, 2; 
unfaithfulness or rebellion (against 
God) Num. 14, 33. 

MJT (fut. nst*]) prob. akin to 
ii3t, iTm and JTit, to scatter, hence 

tt'tt -t' ' 

1) trans, to cast aivay, reject Lam. 
2, 7 ; w. ace. and "jp, ^t'B} diblBp nst W 
and thou hast cast off my soul 
from peace Lam. 3, 17. 2) intrans. 
perh. to dissipate, evaporate (of stag- 
nant water), hence riiat , natX (which 
see). — Hiph. n''3'i?7 to cast away, to 
profane 2 Oh. 29, 19; to dismiss (w. 
■jp) from a sacred function 2 Ch. 11, 
14; to reject 1 Ch. 28, 9. The form 
*Ih'lit^if^ in Is. 19, 6 the rivers turn 
dry or stagnant is a denom. Hiph. 
from n3tX (which see), cf. ni3T. 

j Jl (obs.) perh. = nST, hence perh. 





|r JT I (Qal 01)8.) prob. akin to 
nat, to cast or throw, to hurl, hence 
to spring or leap forth (cf. p^ij). — 
Pi. p.3t fa spring forth (as the lion) 
Pent. 33, 22. 

|r J I II (obs.) perh. akin to Arab, 

^y , Aram. ptXQ , to compress, hence 
perh. pt 2; cf. ppT IH. 

n^T f. sweat, ?]^5&t n:?t3 6y the 
sweat of thy face Gen. 3, 19; perh. 
prop, agitation, r. ?^t; cf. 5>t\ 

ni3^T f. for nsit (cf. n^^5> for nb^5>) 

T-:- tt: ^ T ! " ■» : — ' 

agitation, terror, as Q'ri in Jer. 15, 
4, as K'thibh in Deut. 28, 25; r. ^^IT. 

"ll^T pr. n. m. (agitated) Gen. 
36, 27". 

T?T m. a Ziffle Is. 28, 10; adv. 
a little while Job 36, 2; r. ^2?t. 
Cf. a?ri. 

"I"*?! Chald. adj. m. nn^^t f. Zi^^e, 
small Dan. 7, 8 (Heb. 'n'^s'^); r. ISt. 

TI(/T (Qal obs.) i. q. t^S'n fo quench, 
extinguish; fig. <o ftriw^ to an end. 
— Niph. T|?t5, Job 17, 1 siS^t? ^72"^^ 
my days are extinguished i. e. brought 
to an end, where many MSS have 
1S3)13, as if from r. Tj?'?. 

U^T (fut. d35n Num. 23, 8, Wt"^ 
Prov. 24, 24; imp. n^^T for Jiia^T 
Num. 23, 7) prob. mimet. akin to C]^T, 
51t, also, to d?"!, fo fee agitated, to 
rage, fig. fo 6e angry, esp. to show 
anger against one by punishing him ; 

w. ace. e. g. m"n^ QSJT-nirx dyn fAe 

o T : -T V -: T r 

people against whom the Eternal is an- 
gry ^dX. 1, 4; w. b? Dan. 11, 30; part. 
ni?T^ d^ST an o&jecf of the Lord's 
displeasure Prov. 22, 14: hence to 
curse Num. 23, 7. — Nipli. to he 
made angry, vexed; d'^ai^Ta d'^iQ a 
vexed countenance Prov. 25, 23 (cf. 
d'^SS* in Gen. 40, 6); hence 

t3?T (w. suf. la^t) m. raging, of 
the tongue Hos. 7, 16; wrath, 
anger Is. 30, 27; esp. of God's anger 
as shown by punishment Ez. 2^, 24. 

tTC^i Num. 23, 7, see r. dSJT. 

T-! ' ' -T 

V|-/T (fut. ti^t")) akin to d?t, fo 
feoiZ or bubble up (perh. by heat, cf. 
t]5bt), to effervesce, hence to be angry 
w. i? Prov. 19, 3, w. d5? 2 Ch. 26, 19; 
fo be troubled Gen. 40, 6; to be hag- 
gard, from long fasting Dan. 1, 10 j 

v|2?T adj. m. angry, excited 1 K, 

20, 43. 

r|?T (w. suf. *iQ5>t) m. aw^er, rage 
Prov. 19, 12; judicial anger, of God 
Mic. 7, 9; rage, violence, of the sea 
Jon. 1, 15 ; r. ti^l. 

pgfl (fat. p?r, inf. pi)t, p?t) i. q. 
the older p?^, #o cry out, w. ^? Jer. 
30, 15, b Is. 15, 5, 'iSB^a 1 Sam. 8, 
18, w. ace. Hab. 1,2; to cry out 
to some one, w. ^&5 Ps. 22, '6, h 

1 Ch. 5, 20, ace. Judg. 12, 2. — 
Nipb. to be called, convoked Judg. 
18, 22; hence to assemble, as by 
a public crier 1 Sam. 14, 20. — Hiph. 
to make an outcry Job 35, 9; to 
make proclamation Jon. 3, 7; to 
cry out to Zech. 6, 8j to convoke 

2 Sam. 20, 4. 

P^T Chald. i. q. p?t to cry out 
Dan. 6/21. 

P?T m. outcry Is. 30, 19 ?|]55Vi; 

♦^lj?l f- i« q- '^p^'^j outcry, comr 
plaint Is. 15, 5; cry for help Prov. 

21, 13; boisterous shout, of a tyrant 
Ecc. 9, 17; w. gen. of obj. cry 
against Gen. 18, 20; r. p?t. 

I</T (obs.) i. q. the older ^?S, 
perh. akin to ^'n^, prop, to be pressed 



together J hence to he small, little: 
hence ^''^'T, 'i^t^, perh. nnt. 

l2T (obs.) akin to Arab, /i, /o 
6e fragrant; hence 

"pnST pr. n. (fragrance) of a city 
in north Palestine Num. 34, 9. 

riST (from C)^T 1, as niti]^ from 
yb^p) f. prop, a fluid or resinous sub- 
stance, hence ;pitch Ex. 2, 3. 

pT (only pi. t'lpt, nip'iT Is. 50, 11) 
m. 1) flame, i. e. burning arrow, 
fiery dart Prov. 26, 18; r. ppT II. 
2) fetter, bond Is. 45, 14; r. ppT in. 

"iP*^ (c. Ipf) ^^e chin (bearded) Lev. 
13, 29; the beard 2 Sam. 20, 9 (cf. 
yeveiov, also L. mentum, both used 
for chin and for beard). — Perh. 
traceable to T (format, pref., see p. 
175) and "jp ("Jip II) to be pointed, 

prominent, akin to Arab. is3 cacumen 
montis (cf. L. mentum from mineo 
to jut out), whence perh. ^evoi;, 
x6vvo(;, W. gen, Pers. jfawa, G. Ariww, 
E. chin; hence prob. the denomi- 

j)?T (fut. •jp'J'^) prob. denom. of 
"ipt, perh. to have the chin sharp or 
hanging down, hence to be old Gen. 

18, 12 (used only of persons, yib"^ of 
things). — Hiph. "pptn (cf. •j'^aVfi) 
to grow old, become aged Prov. 22, 6; 
poet, of plants Job 14, 8. 

IPI (c. IpT Gen. 24, 2, pi. D''5pT, 
c. ^3pt, pi. f.' nispt Zech. 8, 4) m. 
an old man Gen. 19, 4; also used 
as adj. 'jpjri ^'^v.n the old man Judg. 

19, 17; w. Yi older than Job 32, 4: 
also eMer, w. the notion of magis- 
terial dignity (cf. our alderman^ 
F. seigneur = L. senior), e. g. i3pt 
Vx"ii2J'' eWers o/" Israel, i. e. the chief 

men, rulers, etc. (cf. Arab. '^^ sheikh. 

old man, also a chief); pi. f. ri13p 
oW ivomen Zech. 8, 4. 

1)21 m. oM o^e, only in Gen. 48, 
10; ropt. 

njIJT f. o/fZ o^e Gen. 24, 36, Is. 
46, 4^. * 

D'^DpT m. pi. oW age, Gen. 21, 2; 
D'lipt-'jii son of old age, i. e. bom 
when the father is old (cf. ttj^uye- 
T04 in Homer) Gen. 37, 3; r. "jpT. 
On this plur. see Gram. § 108, 2, a. 

WpT i. q. Chald. t]pT, perh. akin 
to saia, to raise or lift up Ps. 145, 14. 

WjrT Chald. to raise up, hang 
up, only in ^nb^ &<nan'i j:]''pn awe? 
hung up he (the criminal) shall be 
fastened thereon Ezr. 6, 11; i. q. 


Syr. ^ax)") fo crucify. 

pjPT I (fut. pT^) 1) prob. akin 
to ppUJ, to run, distil or trickle as 
the rain Job 36, 27; to refine, to 
percolate or fiUer, of wine (see the 

Pu. and Arab. j33 t^^tne newly 
strained) ; hence fo refine, of metals, 
Job 28, 1. — Pi. ppt to refine (me- 
tals) , fig. of the purifying of God's 
servants, only in Mai. 3, 3. — 
Pu. to be strained, fined, of wine 
Is. 25, 6; to be refined, of metals 
Ps. 12, 7. 

pjr T n (obs.) prob. akin to 'ntyi^ 
to burn, flame, glow; hence pt 1, 


r_\ III (obs.) prob. akin to 
, to compress. 

pit n, Aram. p3U?, 

to tie; fig. (Talm.) to bind, oblige; 

hence pt 2. 

"HT m. stranger Is. 1, 7; see "lit I. 

'^T m. prop, what binds or hems, 
hence rim of an altar Ex. 30, 3; 
border of the ark of the covenant 




Ex. 25, 11; c^^e, of a table Ex. 25, 
24; r. nsit II or ^-it II. 

5<*^T f. for STiT (r. ^sit I) something 
strange, loathsome, hence tfntb h^h 
<o become a loathsome thing Num. 
11, 20, Vulg. nausea. 

Zl jT (Qal obs.) i. q. d'nT #0 /7o««, 
stream; akin to t)'^t in &)''T'^t; cf. 

Arab. *-»)) to flow. — Pu. ntJT <o 6e 

yZwii, iria^i? ^2^n r\?3 i^^af ^ime 
^/iey are made to flow (after the frost), 
tliey fail, i. e. in suminer they are 
dried up Job 6, 17. 

^lIl!l'nT pr. n. m. (prob. for ^^l^it 
'i)aa Babel-born) Hag. 1, 1; Sept. 

I jT (obs.) prob. akin to "7^?^ I, 
Syr. ?9*|, to grow tangled or luxuriant; 

'I'nt pr. n. (luxuriant growth) of a 
valley Num. 21, 12; of a brook 
Deut. 2, 13, which is now called 

M IT I(fut.n'nn, apoc ^n) i. q. 

TT p ■ ' " 

Aram. IJt'i'n, j??, to streiv or scatter, 
Ex. 32, 20; ]fo winnow, by scattering 
•or throwing up and do\^^l before 
the wind Is. 30, 24; ^o rowi, an 
«nemy Is. 41, 16. — Niph. to be 
scattered Ez. 6, 8. — Pi. iTnt to 

' T" 

scatter, strew Pro v. 15, 7; #o scatter 
abroad, disperse Lev. 26, 33; fig. 
to winnow, to scrutinise i. e. to exa- 
mine or test as if by winnowing 
Ps. 139, 3. — Pu. n*iT to be strewn 

' T 

Job 18, 15; part. pass. iT^It^ spread 
out Prov. 1, 17. For Jl^T in Ps. 58, 4 
see 1f\1 I. — Mimet. akin to h*iT, r^T, 
p'yf and ^J^it I, Sans, srt, stri, L. sero, 
«ferwo, aropeu), aropvofjii, G. s^rei^ew, 

E. strew, straw, W. sarnu, ystrad. 

ST^T n (Qal obs.) i.q. ^^t II (which 
see), only in Pu. JTn'T to be pressed out 
in Is. 1, 6. 

?^^T, see ?St. 

£l*'I"'l (perh. r. C)"^T w. t inserted) 
m. i. q. Syr. ji^a.*?") a heavy shower, 
onlyPs. 72, 6. — Prob. from Aram, tnt, 
I?"! {to urge or impel) w. old format. 

ending v)-r-, akin to V\-:r in ^l^§ 
(see on letter S), hence prop, a driv- 
ing shower; cf. ri3"i2^'n. 

'^^T)} (prob. redupl. from "T^ II 
i. q. 1T5<) m. girded, e. g. 'T^t/iT 
d'^snia one girt about the loins (prob. 
war-horse or a wrestler) Prov. 30, 31. 

n iT (fut. rrin) akin to ?Tnt, 
nSjf, Arab, ^^j, Aram. ri3^ ^<**J?) 
prob. to scatter (e. g. rays of light) 
hence to shine forth, of the sun in 
the morning, to rise Gen. 32, 32; 
to break forth, of light Is. 58, 10, of 
the glory of God Is. 60, 1; fig. to 
break out, of leprosy in the skin 
2 Ch. 26, 19; to come forth^ of a 
birth, cf, ITni 2 ; to sprout, of a plant, 
hence fTTTN: hence 

T : V ' 

tlfj. m. 1) scattering out or break- 
ing forth, of light, hence sun-rise, 
only Is. 60, 3 T|r!ll '^i} brightness of 
thy dawning. 2) pr. n. m. (offspring 
or dawn) Gen. 38, 30; patron, '^n'lt 
Num. 26, 13: cf. 'nnii: Gen. 46, 10. 

^n*'L see n^T 2. 

tl^n'HT pr. n. m. (H'^ shines forth) 
1 Ch^ 5, '32; cf. also Vj-nnfi 1 Ch. 

D'^'lt i. q. d-lt (after the form 
piin:^, G'^:^'5) m. perh. inundation, 
d'i'it n2Bf7733 as </ie desolation of an 
inundation Is. 1, 7; but better w. 
Sept., Vulg. and most critics to take 
D'l'nt as the pi. of "it, strangers, foes. 




U iT i. q. t]*yi, S'^T, to flow, hence 
lo flood or wash away Ps. 90, 5. — 
Po. D'lT (Gram. § 55, 1) to pour out, 
e. g. T\yDS fi'^a la'it /Ae clouds poured 
out waters Ps. 77, 18 ; hence 

D^IT m. a pouring rain, a storm 
Is. 4,6';' n"ia d*it a hail-stormls. 28,2: 
^*ip D'nt a sform o/" a wall Is. 25, 4. 

tl'i^'^T f. a gushing or emission 
(of seed), spoken of lustful stallions, 
only in Ez. 23, 20. 

2? jT (fut. S^'in) akin to In^t 
(which see), JTiT, <o scatter, spread 
out (hence proh. Si'nT ar»w), disperse 

Zech. 10, 9; as in Arab, c^y, Syr. 
'^j], to sow (seed) Job 31, 8; w. ace. 
of the seed Lev. 26, 16, w. ace. 
of the field Gen. 47, 23; w. double 
ace. Deut. 22, 9; to scatter or shed 
(seed), as a plant or tree when the 
seed is ripe Gen. 1, 29. Fig. of 
moral actions (comp. Gal. 6, 8), e. g. 
to sow, righteousness Prov. 11, 18, 
iniquity Prov. 22, 8, mischief Job 

4, 8 , the wind Hos. 8, 7 , light Ps. 
97, 11. To sow a people, i. e. to 
multiply it Jer. 31, 27. Also to plant 
a tree, w. two ace. Is. 17, 10. — 
Niph. (fut. 5>>t'i) to he sown, as a 
field Ez. 36, 9; to be scattered, sown, 
as seed Lev. 11, 37; to he propa- 
gated, as a race, Nah. 1, 14; to he 
made pregnant, of a woman Num. 

5, 28. — Pu. 25'nT to he sown, only Is. 
40, 24. — Hiph. to yield seed, w. 
5>'it, of plants Gen. 1, 11; absol. to 
conceive seed, of a pregnant woman 
Lev. 12, 2. Hence 

S^'IT (in p. S'Tt, c. SJ'nt, S'nt Num. 
11, 7; "w. suf. Vnt, pi. only in DSiy'nt 
1 Sam. 8, 15) m. 1) sowing Gen. 47, 
24; hence also the time of sowing, 
seed-time Gen. 8, 22. 2) what is 

sown, seed, of plants Gen. 1, 11; 
of com Gen. 47, 23, of men Lev. 15» 
16: also what springs from what 
is sown, a plantation Is. 17, 11 j 
a crop, of grain 1 Sam. 8, 15 j 
grain, produce Is. 23, 3; posterity^ 
of men Gen. 12, 7; family, race 
2 K. 11, 1. 

5>'nT Chald. i. q. Heb. 2>nT, seed 
Dan. 2, 43. 

?hT or ?i*lT (pi. ti^f^\, Jnir*-iT; r. 
5>t>t) f., rarely m. as in Is. 17, 5, tlie 
arm Is. 40, 11; esp. the fore-arm 
(diff. from ns;?) Job 31, 22, ppa^itov, 
L. hrachium; also the shoulder or 
fore-leg of animals Num. 6, 19, 
Fig. strength, force, might, e. g. 
'niaa ?i"iT arm of flesh, human might 
2 Ch. 3*2, 8 ; T^^;;' i^int arms (i. e. 
forces) of his hands Gen. 49, 24 j 
2>ilT yj'i&5 man of arm, i. e. powerful 
man Job 22, 8. ?i"iT -in\D Ps. 10, 
15, 't 55^a 1 Sam. 2, 31, 't'tO-n Job 

':-T ' 'it. 

22, 9, all mean to destroy power, re- 
sources, ahility, etc. ?1"it in good 
sense for help Ps. 83, 9 , or in a bad 
sense for violence Job 25, 9: see 
5l*it&t. — Perh. the r. is an obs. 
^Jnt , akin to Chald. ^{'^'^ (to hear^ 
carry), Sans, dhri, Pers. ddr, L. 
traho, G. tragen, E. draw. 

^'IT (only pi. d^:?'-it Dan. 1, 12; 
also Tr\\ Lev. 11, 37, pi. D'l^si^it Is. 
61, 11) m. seed, things soion, vege- 
tables; r. SJ'iT. 

- T 

P^T (only pi. &''335nT) m. seed- 
herbs, pulse, vegetables Dan. 1, 16; 
r. ^y^. 

y\\S (obs.) akin to n^t, d'nt, 

i. q. Arab. bJ^j, #o /7otf;, pour^ of 
water; perh. hence Cl'^t'it. 

p J ' (^^*- P"^r) *^^° *° "- J' P®^^* 
to pat , to scatter, hence #0 sprinkle, 

"Ttf 190 

dust Job 2, 12, cinders or ashes Ex. 
9, 8, coals Ez. 10, 2, water Num. 19, 
13, blood Lev. 1, 5; w. ^? to sprinkle 
upon Ex. 24, 6. Intrans. to he 
sprinkled or scattered, •^i?'?,J "^^"^^ ^? 
•ia afeo ^rey hairs are here and there 
on him Hos. 7,9. — Pu. p'n't to he 
sprinkled Num. 19, 13. 

I jT I (Qal obs.) prob. mimet. 
and akin to L. sternuo, Breton strevia, 
"W. trewu (to sneeze). — Po. "I'lit 
^Gram. § 55, Dto sneeze, only 2 K. 4, 35. 

i jT II (obs.) i. q. *i!lt II, Arab. 

J), fo fcindZ, <o ^ird! up, hence fo 
fee active, nimhle; hence ^t, 'T^T'nT. 

123^J pr. n. f. (Pers. golden) Est. 
5, 10.*'' 

r\'^T f. the little finger, perh. for 
in'iS/t (see 'l§t). Then perh. the space 
from the thumb to the little finger, 
a span Ex. 28, 16; but others perh. 
better derive it from tTnt to spread, 
hence a stretch, a span. 

sSi 1 ♦ (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 
Jlf\y to he angry; hence 

i^^nt pr. n. m. (perh. irascible) 
Ezr. 2, 8. 

Dr)T pr. n. m. (i. q. "jnit , an olive- 
tree) "l Ch. 23, 8. 

'nt^T pr. n. m. (Pers. perh. i. q, 
"ynt star, cf. ^npi<) Est. 1, 10. 



Cheth, the eighth letter of the 
Heb. alphabet; hence used as the 
numeral for 8. Its form on Phenic. 
monuments is M or '^, and on Heb. 
coins 0, whence the Sam. H and 
the Greek H. The name Sn'^li prob. 
means a harrier or fence, from r. 
fcU., v.^ to enclose or surround, and 
is the same as Hra. 

The sound of this letter, the harsh- 
est of the gutturals (see Gram., 
p. 25), seems anciently to have been 
sometimes softer, like a double h, 
sometimes rougher or stronger, kh; 
afterwards marked in Arabic by 
different characters, viz. ^ = hh, and 
^ = kh. Hence the same Heb. root 
appears in two forms in Arabic, as 
ns'H to kill, Arab. ^^ and ^^ to 
break or dash in pieces; but oftener 

the various senses of one Heb. root 
are indicated in Arab, by this double 
pronunciation, as p^H — 1 to he 
smooth, Arab. ^3^ ^o make smooth 
or hare, to shear; — 2 to smooth, to 
shape, Arab. ^^IL to form, create. 

ri interchanges — l with the other 
gutturals !5<, ti, 5>, but specially the 
.1 (see under each); — 2 with the 
palatals (because somewhat alike in 
sound), specially w. 5, as in h'^T} = b'^f, 

1-jn = ^"la; w. 3, as in nnn = nr\3, 

-T -T' ' -T -T' 

dinn = Arab. ^, ^5ri= ^i3 = 'iaa; 

also w. p, as in Tiln = 'I'lj^, h'lT = 
^y& to rise (as the sun), ICJpa = 
Chald. IL'na = »**«j. to seek; — 3 w. 
labials, e *g. 'I^n = ^^13 = 'nsiQ (cf. 
i[ir7ro; L. equus = Gael, each); — 
4 w. dentals, e. g. &],3ri = t)5a (cf. 
6pvi-^o; = 5pv 1-604); — 6 with si- 




1i)ilant8 (Ewald's Heb. Lelirb., 7th ed. 
p. 144, Note^), specially with D, as in 

pnn = psb, d^n = tano, win = >o jj», 
'jrja=Paaavo;, nt3ri = aTT0V; with:!S, 
as in dsn = fi3"jS, "nsn = IBS; also with 

-T -t' -T -T' 

;», as in i:nn = lanT^, D^in = laiiir; 
n'ni5=Aram.&<W|5,l-i^9Q^; cf.xeip- 
oupYoc = surgeon, W. chwech = E. 
sta; = L. sea? = Sans. s^asA = Heb. 
uilj, dn = Copt. 0)0 M shorn, 

H-ir is an old format, ending in 
n^na (wh. see), nVntiui, perh. nbC)3, 
prob. of adj. or dimin. force (see Prof. 
Key's paper in Philol. Society's 
Transactions, 1856, p. 295), akin to 
i-^T" in iibps, '^-:r-in 'n-7^ (see under 
letter 3), p-^ in piTS^ and p^l— in 
pi|3t5, and to Sans, -has, -x6^, L. 
•cus, G. -t<?^ or -ig, E. -ic/c, -ic, -ock, 
W. -ac^, -a^, -e^, -ig, -og, Gael. a^A. 

nn (r. ann; w. suf. ''ar;) m.&osom, 
80 named from hiding or cherishing, 
only in Job 31, 33; Chald. xan, 
{ta^in, ixain, Sam. S^; all akintoCjn 
€hald. fi<asi3>, Syr. ^a^; whence 

through the Arabic came Ital. alcovo 
= our alcove and (by insertion of the 
liquid) xoXtto^ = Ital. golfo = our 
gulf; comp. L. sinus, also G. husen, 
for both bosom and 6ay. 

CSmIJ I (Qal obs.) i. q. nanfo wrap, 
or Aidle, akin to aarj, t^Sri, 5]SH, ^art, 
^an, Uian, pan; the idea of folding, 
binding, covering, embracing, pro- 
bably lying in the syllable an, tp, tfi, 
t|p (see Gram., § 30); comp. Arab. 
Uft., .;*a-, wia., Copt. KOWn, K^Il, 
all expressive of hiding or wrapping. 
— Niph. xani to hide oneself, to lie 
hid, w. a or b^^ of the place Gen. 3, 8, 
1 Sam. 10, 22; Job 29, 8 the young 
men saw me ^ixanr and hid themselves 

AT : V ! 

i. e. gave place to me with reverence, 

V. 10 Jixana D'^T?'? ^P the voice of the 
princes was hid i. e. checked (Gram. 
§ 148, 1). With infin. it may serve 
as adverb (Gram. § 142, Rem. 1, hke 
Xavt^oLveiv with part.). Gen. 31, 27, 
nHsb n6<an3 ti-oh why hast thou se- 

- ; • T I" : - T T «' 

cretlg fled? — Pu. to be made to hide 
oneself, i. e. to slink or skulk away 
Job 24, 4. — Hiph. X'^ann (3 perf. f. 

nnxann josh. 6, 25 for ni<iann, 

Gram. § 75, Rem. 21, a) to hide or 
secrete Josh. 6, 25. — Hoph. fi<ann 
to be hidden Is. 42, 22. — Hith. i. q. 
Niph. (but intens.) to secrete oneself 
or to lie concealed Gen. 3, 8; Job 
38, 30 iiitann^ d^a psa as in the 

' 'iT - : • ■ I- I V !•.• T 

stone the waters lie hid, i. e. are 
frozen hard, or perh. better as the 
stone the waters are wrapped (i. e. 
compacted) together, favoured by 
the Vulg. durantur, Syr. _.*.^.o^.^, 

Chald. I'^yi'^'lp, and by l^iabp") they 
are held fast together, in the parallel 


i. q. Han, prob. to fold, 

cover up (whence an, bosom); then 
to embrace, to love, only in Deut. 
33, 3, where the part, aah may 
perh. be a denom. of ah, hence to 
imbosom, to caress, to cherish; but 
most take it as akin to ansj = Aram. 

aan, ^nn**, Arab. w*a., to love. 

iSlmn pr. n. m. (caressed) Hobab^ 
another name of Jethro, father-in-law 
of Moses Num. 10, 29. 

nSn (see Stan) in Qal only 
in imp. ^an hide (thee) Is. 26, 20, 
and in the deriv. '('i''3n- — Niph. 

nana (inf. nann) i. q. itans, to con- 
ceal oneself "jer. 49, 'lO; !ii<Sll 
nann^ nsnian - ^a and they have 
gone forth from the camp to conceal 
themselves 2 K. 7, 12. 




n5^^n Chald. f. wrong y harm 
Dan. 6, 23; r. bnn. 

^inn pr. n. (junction or con- 
fluence , r. I^rj I) of a river (Arab. 
yy»\^) in Mesopotamia, which flows 
into the Euphrates 2 K. 17, 6. See 

T ; 

•T^^lSin f. a stripe, weal, i. e. 
mark of a stroke or wound in the 
skin, only in Is. 53, 5; r. ^nn II. 

»Tn^!iin f. a wound, cut Gen. 4, 
23: r.'^'ian II. 

' - T 

Unn (fut. rsinri^) prob. akin 
to lanyi, Arab, h^, to heat off, leaves 
or fruits w. a stick Deut. 24, 20; to 
heat out, grain w. a flail, to thresh 
Euth 2, 17. — Niph. <o he heaten 
out, threshed Is. 28, 27. 

'^n'n Is. 26, 20, see nsr. 

•^T — P^- "• ^- C^T liicles) Ezr. 
2, 61 [inNeh. 7, 63, nfatl], 

IVnn m. a hiding, concealing, 
only in Hab. 3, 4; r. h2n. 

^5~ I (^u*- ^ar'? Ex. 22, 
25, Vnn^ Deut. 24, 6) 1) to wrap to- 
gether, twist, hind (akin to ^211 I, 
mn, bns, bns), hence bnn cor^?, bVn 
hinder, rope (cf. bin = xdcfxiXo^ = 
cahle). 2) fig. <o 6iwd[, to pledge an 
exchange or security for something 
loaned, w. ace. of pers. Job 22, 6, 
w. ace. of thing Ex. 22, 25 (comp. 
ttISS, Tia"^?). 3) to twist, hence to 
act tortuously, w. ace. Job 34, 31, 
w. b Neh. 1, 7. — Niph. bans to he 
pledged, perh. in Prov. 13, 13 (but 
see ban 11). — Pi. fo twist, to writhe 
for pain, hence to hring forth a 
child Cant. 8, 5; cf. bin. 


II (Qal obs.) i. q. ^isn II, 
to wound, hurt. — Niph. to he hurt, 
destroyed, perh. Prov. 13, 13 (see I 

ban I). — PI. fo destroy, to devastate 
Is. 13, 5. — Pu. to he hroken, of a 
yoke Is. 10, 27; to he short or gasp" 
ing, of the breath Job 17, 1. 

vDn Chald. (Pe. obs.) i. q. 
Heb. ban'n, Pa. ban to overthrow j 
destroy Dan. 4, 20; to hurt Dan» 
6, 23. — Ithpa. to he overthrown,, 
destroyed Dan. 2, 44. 

^nrj (sing, only in Is. 66, 7, pL 

d-iban, c. ''ban; r. ban i) m. prop. 
writhing, mostly in pi. for pains of 
a woman in labour ((oSivei;) Jer.. 
13, 21; pangs in general Job 21, 17; 
Ci'^ban n^UJ Job 39, 3 to cast forth 
pangs i. e. painfully to bring forth 

b^n (w. suf. ^ban, pi. D^ban, c. 

""banjosh. 17, 5; and ^ban Ps. 18,. 
5) m., but f. Zeph. 2, 6, 1) r. ban I, 
cord, rope Josh. 2, 15; a measuring-- 
line Am. 7, 17 (fully TVm ban Zech. 
2, 5), or what is marked out by 
such a line, a portion Ps. 16, 6, an 
estate Josh. 17, 5; then a district^ 
region, d^n ban '^y&^ inhahitants of 
the maritime district Zeph. 2, 5.. 
2) a snare, a toil Ps. 140, 6; ''bart 
bii<ui Ps. 18, 6, nia '^ban Ps. 11 6,' 3 
snares or meshes of Sheol (death) i. e. 
things that threaten and destroy 
life. 3) a hand, troop 1 Sam. 10, 5.. 
4) r. ban n, destruction, desolation 
Mic. 2, 10. — All the significations^ 
may come perh. from the meaning 
to hind. 

bnrt Chald. (def. xban) m. hurt^ 
harm, -iina "^nix-Nb bnn^ and there 
is no hurt on them Dan. 3, 27;^ 
damage or loss Ezr. 4, 22. 

bhrt m. 1) pledge, a'^UJ'j xb ban 
he returneth not the pledge Ez. 18, 12;. 
ban xb ban he taketh not a pledge 
v. 16. 2) perverseness, perh. inNeh'. 1^ 





7, "but prob. for bbn inf. abs. of 
Vsn L 

bnn m. prop, a rope-man, a 
denom. from ban rope, hence a ship- 
man, sailor Ez. 27, 8; collect, in 3t) 
bn'nn master of the sailors, the ship- 
captain Jonab 1, 6. 

b'^T} m. only in Prov. 23, 34, 
strengthened form of bnn rope, 
hence a cable, ship^s cable; perh. 
more hkely a mast or helm, as fast- 
ened or worked by means of rope- 
tackling; r. h'2'n I. 

nbhn f. i. q. hzn, a pledge or 
pawn Ez. 18, 7; r. bnn I. 

)r !Iin (obs.) i. q. ^an, <o he 
sharp, either of smell, to have a 
strong smell, hence l^ain a kind of 

onion (Talm.); or of colour, to be 

^ * .^ 
bright, reddish (Arab. C^aT); hence 

nbSim f. a bright - coloured 

V IV ~ "! , 

flower, a sort of lili/, also the bright 
meadow-saffron Cant. 2, 1. — From 
a masc. form bstSI!! came the fem. 
by adding In-j- (see on nS3'li<); and 
b— :- is the djmin. ending attached 
to the root y^n (see on letter h). 
n^Diinr! pr. n. m. (perh. lily of 

Pi^, for n^b^nn, from bsnn, r. ynT}) 

Jer. 35, 3. " 

piJri (inf. phri) akin to pan, 
pnsj II, pBK, T|5G , to fold the hands 
Ecc. 4, 5; to embrace, w. ace. 2 K. 
4, 16, absol. Ecc. 3, 5. — Pi. to 
clasp, hug, the rock Job 24, 8, the 
dunghill Lam. 4, 5; to embrace, w. 
ace. of pers. Gen. 33, 4, w. b of pers. 
Gen. 29, 13; hence 

p^ln m. folding of the hands, 
w. Di'i^ Prov. 6, 10. 

P^P?n P^- ^' ™- (embrace, perh. 
redupLfrom r. p=n; cf. ^T^st) Ha- 

baJcJcuk, one of the minor prophets 
Hab. 1, 1 ; but see p^lS.)^. 

iDniakin to l>3n I, IBS H, 
to bind or string together, to unite, 
e. g. of nations, to be allied Gen. 
14, 3; part. pass. O'lS^? ^^inn joined 
to idols Hos. 4, 17; to adjoin, to 
attach, w. bx Ex. 26, 3. Fig. to 
charm, fascinate, i. e. to make spell- 
bound Ps. 58, 6. — Pi. ^an to join 
together, connect, w. "bt^, e. g. PJ'^ari'i 
nnn5t-b&< Jiiiix n35'^'^'^n-ni< and thou 
shalt fasten the curtains the one to 
the other Ex. 26, 6 ; to form a league 
with (D25) 2 Ch. 20, 36. — Pu. ^30 
(oQce perh. *i3ri Ps. 94, 20) to be 
joined together Ex. 28, 7 ; to be com- 
pacted, of a city compactly built, w. 
l-nniJ Ps. 122, 3; to be allied, w. ace 
(for dat., see Gram. § 121, 4), ^^^n";!? 
W'siSi 5<&3 shall the throne of mischiefs 
be confederated w. thee? Ps. 94, 20. 
— In Ecc. 9, 4 'inn'; K'thibh (w. bsj) 
stands prob. for 'nari'^ Q'ri, to be 
joined. — Hiph. '^'^3^^ ^o combine 
or compose. Job 16, 4 'ay^)>V, fTiiariN 
fi^asi I would join together against 
you with words (Gram. § 1 38, Eem. 3 , 
Note ^)- — Hith. to ally oneself with 
(dSJ) 2 Ch. 20, 35 ; inf. (in Syriac style) 

ronannn Dan. ii, 23. ' 

llllrl II (obs.) i. q. bin n, to hurt. 

inn (pi. d'^'^nn) m. perh. conjuror 
Is. 47, 9; r. ^sn L 

lit! (pi. di'nsn, c. '^yp) adj. m., 
n'nsn (c. n'nsn) ^' associate Judg. 
20, 11, used as subst. a companion, 
friend Cant .1, 7; r. *i3ni. 

"inn Chald. m. companion Dan. 
2, 13, same as Heb. "(Sn. 

inn (pi. di'^nn; r. nan i) m. i) a 
society or company, of priests Hos. 
6, 9 ; 'nan n^ia ahouse in common Prov. 
25, 24. 2) a ajje// or charm Deut. 18, 11 ; 





in Is. 47, 9 Tj'^']^^'!! is thy spells or 
thy magicians (see ^^H). 3) pr. n. 
m. (association) Gen. 46, 17, also 
*isn Num. 26, 45, patron. ''^Sn Num. 
26,' 45. 

"nlun m. 1. q. *n:in, an asso- 

T - ^ •• T ' 

ciafe or partner, only in Job 40, 
30, where the pi. fi'^'^sn means 
partners in business (fishing), as 
shown by C^i^SS in next clause of 
the verse. 

5<'1l2ln Chald. (pi. w. suf. t^^'2'n) 
f. an associate, companion, then (like 
rvi5"n) fellow Dan. 7, 20 j see "inn. 

Jl'^^^Iirj (pi. m-i-) f. stripes or 
streaks (prop, bands) of the tiger, 
only in Jer. 13, 23; r. ^inriL 

rr^iltl f. society, company, only 
in Job '34, 8; r. 'nnni. 

Ilinn 1) pr. n. (alliance) Hebron^ 
a city in Judah Gen. 13, 18, now el- 
Khalil. 2) pr. n. m. Ex. 6, 18; patron. 

••annn Num. 3, 27. 

in'^Iin f. junction i. q. n'^sn^, a 
place where something is united Ex. 
26, 4; r. ^nrjl. 

r\"l5tl (w. suf. ^Pi-inn) f. compa- 
nion, ivijfe Mai. 2, 14; r. "in*^!. 

IZJZHl (fut. ^nn;:, once ^an;; 
Job 5, 18) prob. akin to n^n (cf. 
^53 = StL'S), to bind on a turban 
*l&tQ Ez. 24, 17 or ns>35a Ex. 29, 9, 
sea- weed Jon. 2, 6; to bind up a 
wound Is. 30, 26, w. b Is. 61, 1, w. 
^5 of pers. Ez. 24, 17; w. ace. of 
pers. and 3 of thing Ez. 16, 10; 
part. Uinn a binder up, a healer Is. 
3, 7; to saddle an animal, w. ace. 
Gen. 22, 3; to shut up Job 40, 13; 
to restrain, i. e. rule Job 34, 17^ (cf. 
1X3). — Pi. fo bind up a wound, to 
heal, w. ^ Ps. 147, 3; to check, re- 

strain Job 28, 11. — Pu. fo be bound 
up as a wound Is. 1, 6. 

D^'J3!lltl m. pi. perh. yarns or 
threads (r. lUiJi to bind), sold by the 
Tyrians at Carrse, Ctesiphon, Aden, 
Saba and elsewhere Ez. 27, 24. 

JliJ) I (obs.) perh. to excavate, 

hollow out (cf. Arab. »i*a^ to be 
low, hollow, of ground) ; hence TOlTV^ 
cooking-pan, also 

niin (only pi. B'^l^nn) ni. things 
cooked or baked in a pan, only in 
1 Ch. 9, 31. 

^iH (w. art. afilTT, c. '^t\, w. suf. 

"lan, pi. d!^ari; r. rian) m. festival 

(celebrated w. processions and dan- 
ces) Judg. 21, 19; either the fea^t 
Ex. 10, 9, or the festive sacrifice 
Ps. 118, 27. sn nias) Deut. 16, 10, 
jT\ i^r? Lev. 23, 39, to keep a festi- 
val, of the passover Is. 30, 29, 
of the feast of tabernacles 2 Ch. 

5, 3. Cf. Arab. ^a. a pilgrimage to 


KB^ (for n&n, r. 5517) f. vertigOf 
dizziness or trepidation Is. 19, 17. 

^Jl I (obs.) perh. akin to b^ti, 
ba'^n, to nop, spring; hence 

"Dyn (pi. d'ln^rj) m. 1) /oc?ts^, perh. 
so named from its hopping or spring- 
ing (r. nsn) Lev. 11, 22. The Sama- 
ritan name nsa'in is the same w. ^ 
inserted (see Gram. § 30, 3, Rem.). 
2) pr. n. m. (locust) Ezr. 2, 46. 

Jj^n^n also In^l^H pr. n. m. (locust) 
Neh. 7] 48 , Ezr. ^2, 45. 

^Ji] I akin to 5*in, to turn about, 
to move in a circle, hence to dance, 
prop, in a circle 1 Sam. 30, 16; to 
reel, of drunkards Ps. 107, 27. Fig. 




to celebrate a festival or holiday w. 
processions and dances Ps. 42, 5. 



(obs.) prob. akin to njDri, 

Arab. ^, to cut into, to cleave; 

^jn (like i:i)3; only in pi. c. ^^^^n) 
m. cleft, fissure; sbsn i;i5r!a iriil'i 
my (ioi'e is in <Ac clefts of the rock 
-v €ant. 2, 14; excavation for dwelling 
^ in, as still seen in the rock-homes 
of Idumea, e. g, sbsrt ^'^ana "^S^ilJ in- 
hahiting in the excavations of the 
rock Jer. 49, 16 (Gram. § 90, 3, a); 

r. nsn. 

T T 

^l^jH (only in c. pi. "I'l^l'sn) adj.m. 
girded, only inEz.23,15 ^ITX — ''tJiat! 
girded w. the girdle; r. 'nan. 

'Tl^tl (r, 'nSJi) m. a girdle 1 Sam. 
18, 4; hence 

rri^ri f. a girdle 2 Sam. 18, 11; 
apron or kilt Gen. 3, 7. 

"•^n pr. n. m. (festive, from iiH 
w. adj. ending ''— — i. q. "i-;-) Haggai, 
the prophet Hag. 1, 1. 

'^SH pr. n. m. (festive) a son of 
Gad, Num. 26, 15. 

n^?n pr. n. Ti>. (festival of i^) 
1 Ch^ 6, 15. 

r\'^5^t pr. n. f. (festive) a wife of 
king David 2 Sam. 3, 4. 

^Ji\ I (obs.) perh. akin to '2^'n, 

Arab. Jifv*., fo hop about, leap or 
spring, like a magpie, etc.; hence 

»l5^)l pr. n. f. (partridge; Arab. 

JwL, Syr. llI^J) Num. 26, 33. 

IJI i (fut. 'lin:^) perh. akin to 
*^5D, 1) fo bind around, gird, w. ace. 
of the part 2 K. 4, 29 ; w. 3 of the 
girdle Prov. 31, 17; to gird on, w. 

ace. of the thing put on Ps. 45, 4, 
fig. Ps. 65, 13; so JT^n 'nsian girt to, 
a new stvord 2 Sam. 21, 16; w. gen, 
piy n'liian girded w. sackcloth Joel 
1, 8; w. ace. both of pers. and of 
girdle Ex. 29, 9; w. b? of part Ps. 
45, 4; absol. to gird oneself Ez. 44, 
18; Av. yq of place (prob. elliptical) 
in 2 Sam. 22, 46 cm'-iaDa^ ^-ian"<1 
and they gird themselves (coming 
out) from their strongholds, but perh. 
better they limp or hobble out, i. e. 
come forth w. trembling, for ^*i5n^ 
here stands for ^ii'^n;^ in the parallel 
passage Ps. 18, 46 (comp. Mic. 7, 17). 
iri Chald. (once Heb. for ^nx 
Ez. 33, 30) numeral adj. m., JTin, 
iXiTi f. one, same as the Heb. irtK 

r —. ' T v 

and rrist (which see). Used perh. for 
our indefinite art. a, an (better for 
Tii indef.), e. g. ^T\ 13^:1 an image 
Dan. 2, 31; f. tXi'n first (placed after 
the subst. in c. state) iTnri n3^ year 
of one, i. e. first year, or year 
one Elsr. 5, 13; before numerals nn 
is adverbial (multiplicative), times, 
**? ^? '^^^^''T!? one seven times more 
than Dan. 3, 19; JTinS as owe, i. e. 
at once Dan. 2, 35. 

Irt (r. inn) adj. m., TUn f. s/iarp, 
of a sword Ez. 5, 1. 

i^'lln Chald. f. num. adj. one; 
see in Chald. 

S iPl I Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
nin, to rejoice; hence Ji^?*^* 

i^ iPi n Chald. (obs.) perh. 
akin to Heb. ?i^n, to split, cleave; 
hence perh. ''in. 

I jn (fut. W for in:j, like 

bp."^) akin to 1ia, 11J5, fo 6e sAarp, 

pointed Prov. 27, 17; fo be eager, 

quick, fierce Hab. 1,8. — Hiph. (fut. 

I in^ for in^) to sharpen, poi7it {iron); 





fig. to sJiarpen, hrighten, Prov. 27, 17 

iron becomes sharp by iron CitTj for 
*ih!^ fut. Qal), awd a man sharpens 
the face of his friend {^'n'^ for ^n^ 
fut. Hiph., see Gram. § 67, Eem. 8). 
— Hoph. to be sharpened (of the 
sword) Ez. 21, 14; hence 

Tin pr. n. m. (sharpness) a son 
of Ishmael Gen. 25, 15, but 'Ti'!) in 
some texts. 

n IM (fut. apoc. nn;! Job 3, 6) 

to rejoice or be glad Ex. 18, 9. — Pi. 
to gladden Ps. 21, 7. — Perh. mimet. 
akin to ^'iSn I, ii"!*^ I, (fBto^ yy)6£<o, L. 
gaiideo, also ^aipw Ci = p). 

Tlrtn pr. n. (sharp -flowing, r. 
tiri) of a city in Issachar Josh. 19, 21 ; 
see 'i'^V. 

'l^'ltl m. sharpness, point, only in 
ttS'^rr 'I'l^'nrt s^arp points of potsherd 
Job 41, 22; r. ^"itl. 

♦TTir! f. jog, gladness 1 Ch. 16, 
27; also Chald. in Ezr. 6, 16, w. the 
same meaning; r. "T^l^* 

■^"in Chald. (only pi. w. suf. 'ini^n) 
m. breast Dan. 2, 32 , i. q. Heb. ntrt. 

T'ln pr. n. (sharp-peak) of a city 

in Benjamin Ezr. 2, 33. 

• ■ 

y IPl, y iPl (fut. b-nrri) perh. 
akin to Arab. Jkii., #0 6e sZacAr, 
io leave off', cease, desist, w. ^ and 
inf., fo /eave off', cease nb^b #o ftwi^cZ 
Gen. 11, 8; also w. inf., e. g. 'ib'iH 
5'nfi cease ge to do evil Is. 1 , 1 6 ; w. 
subst. tan ib^ri ^/ley leave off agitation 
Job 3, 17; to rest, i. e. not to be used 
Judg. 5, 6; to fail Deut. 15, 11; to 
let alone, w. *)p Ex. 14, 12, also 
without "ja Judg. 16, 7; to abstain, e. 
g. ib s'Wa Pib^m #Aoz< shalt abstain 
/rom leaving (it) to him Ex. 23, 5; 
to desist 1 K. 22, 6. — Hiph. perh. 

(ace. to some) to cause to cease Judg, 
9, 9. 11. 13 '^fi^'^Hf^ for '^Pi^^inrn 

(Hiph. w. M interrog.), but better 
to abandon for '^tnb'nnfn (Qal w. T% 

• I I- T v ^ ^ V 

interrog.). Hence 

^1^ (^' ^'^Tl) adj. m. 1) failing^ 
frail Ps. 39, 5; forbearing Ez. 3, 
27; destitute, forsaken, d'iu;"'lS! bnn 
forsaken of men Is. 53, 3; cf. Job 
19, 14. 

^in (pause ''?yn) m. resting-place^ 
fig. the grave, only in Is. 38, 11: cf, 


^^lIlO '^'^^S- 5, 7 in some texts* 
for sibnn ; see Gram. § 20, 2, c. 

^dP^ pr. n. m. (forbearing) 2 Ch, 
28, 12. 

^nb^tl Judg. 9, 9, see 'imbiniTT 

I" : - t: ° ' ' r ; - t: •.• 

under hyi above. 

P J) i (obs.) akin to l^ti, to be 
sharp, to pierce or scratch; Arab. 
jJJA. to be sharp-eyed; hence 

pnri m. Mic. 7, 4, and plM Prov, 

15, 19 a prickly thorn, Arab, j**^ 
melongena spinosa. 

^P/}T} P^' n* <^^ t^6 Tiver Tigris 
(prob. sharp or swift-flowing, from 
r. ptJln w. ending b-^, as in Va^S; 
hence Aram. S<5;i'n, Aj::^^?, and Gr, 
Ti^piO Gen. 2, 14. 

I jjl prob. akin to ^^a, ^nS), Syr, 
9|U», fo surround, inclose; then <o 

&csef, of the sword, only in ts'irr 
diiV jninhn a sword that hems them 
in Ez. 21, 19; hence 

'lin (c. n"in, w. suf. i'n'in, w. rr 
loc. •T^'^^!> ill pause ST^I^t; pi. fi'^'^'i'^, 
c. ^yin) m. an enclosure, room or 
cAamJer Gen. 43, 30; a bed-room 
2 Sam. 4, 7j a bride-chamber Judg, 



15, 1; a store-room Prov. 24, 4; re- 
cesses or inmost parts Prov. 18, 8; 
chambers of the south Job 9, 9 , i. e. 
the farthest south, or perh. the store- 
houses of the south-wind: ma ''^i^n 

' V IT •• J - 

•chambers of death Prov. 7, 27. 

^in pr. n. Gen. 36, 30; see ^"ih. 

'n'^^n pr. n. (perh. circuit, r. 
'*y^'n w. ending Tj-7-, as in ^"iia) perh. 
of a Syrian deity, then perh. of a 
Syrian king, after whom Syria is 
called 'n |'"ni< land of Hadrach Zech. 
9, 1. ^ 

TZ3 JM (Qal ohs.) perh. akin to 

^■^i?, ^'D*^ n, 1) fo 6c fcn^Af, fresh, 
new, i. q. Aram, n'lln. 2) to 6e polish- 
ed or sharp, cf. n^^n 1. — Pi. 
^0 reweto 1 Sam. 11, 14; to restore, 
-of destroyed cities Is. 61, 4, of al- 
tars 2 Ch. 15, 8, of daily life Lam. 5, 
21, of the spirit Ps. 51, 12. -- Hith. 
to renew oneself 'Ps. 103, 5; hence 

Win adj. m. trrnn f. 1) new, of 
a, cart 1 Sam. 6, 7, a house Deut. 
20, 5, a wife Deut. 24, 5; fresh, of 
grain, etc. Lev. 26, 10; H^'irt some- 
thing neiv Jer. 31, 22; pi. niui'in 
mew things Is. 42, 9. 

IZnn (w. suf. I'yi'in, pi. Q'^uinri, c. 

itthn'; r. Ui-nn) m., perh. f. in Gen. 38, 
24, 1) the neiv moon, the new moon 
-day, the first of the lunar month, 
which was a festival among the 
Hebrews Num. 29, 6; then month 
i. e. the time from new moon to 
new moon Gen. 8, 5; d'^a'' uilh 
month of days, i. e. a full month 
Gen. 29, 14; ^'I'n-'ja a month old 
Lev. 27, 6; d'^'ij'in neio moons 2 Ch. 
2, 3. 2) perh. a sharp sword in Hos. 
5, 7 (see ti'in 2), the same as nm'^'n. 
-3) pr. n. f. (new moon) 1 Ch. 8, 9. 

n^in 1) in 2 Sam. 21, 16 a sharp 
ovnew sword, for n'^"ir| :s'nn. 2) pr. 

n. (new-built) of a city in Judah 
Josh. 15, 37. 

^'IJDiri pr. n. (new) of a city 
beyond Jordan 2 Sam. 24, 6. 

■ ' J'_,' Chald.(obs.) same as Heb. 
Xihn. Hence 

- T 

in'iri Chald. adj. new Ezr. 6, 4 
(Heb. uinn), once in Heb. pr. n. "li^cn 
iifl'in New Hazor in Josh. 15, 25. 

T - -! ' 

i^5in or mn Cham. (Pe. 
T -: T -: 

obs.) i. q. Heb. iiyn, prop, to breathe, 

then to speak; akin to Jiiri, n^tl. 

Sans, va, auo) = ata> = L. aio. — 

Pa. X^H to shew, declare, w. ace. of 

thing and D'ljD of pers. before whom 

Dan. 2, 11; w. b of pers. to whom 

Dan. 2 , 24. — Apli. i<^nn (infin. 

n;||inii) to shew or declare, w. ace. 

Dan. 2, 6, w. h of pers. Dan. 2, 16. 

iJ*]/ I (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
M*7 (to involve), to be bound, in- 
debted, whether in money or goods, 
or in moral responsibility or penalty. 

Cf. Arab. *-»^, Syr. >.:a.««, used of 
debt and of guilt. — Pi. S^h to in- 
criminate, inculpate, only in DPia?^ 
'^UJi<'n~ni< ye make my head guilty 
i. e. cause me to forfeit it Dan. 1, 
10; hence 

i'ln m. debt of money, only in 
S''U:;;i ain inVari he restores his debt- 
pledge (see Gram. § 121, 6) Ez. 18, 
7. — Perh. akin to L. culpa, as ah 
to xoXtto;. 

nilin pr. n. (hiding-place, r. •^art) 
of a place north of Damascus Gen. 
14, 15. 

Jn) I akin to a^n, HW, to make 
a circle, to mark out w. a compass, 
only in Job 26, 10; hence 

J^rt m. circle, vault or arch, MH 




ti'^yyiO the arch of heaven Job 22, 14; I nlH (pi. d'^nlh Cant. 2, 2, d''n;.rT 
■jr-n^n ain the compass of the earth \ i Sam. 13, 6) m. 1) hook Joh 40, 6; cfl 

Is. 40, 22. 

~*in (fut. "i^in^) to tie knots, to 
make intricate, hence •T^'^n (cf. Arab. 

jIa. conj. II to tie knots); w. »^'^'^)7 
fo propound a knotty question, to 
put forth a riddle Judg. 14, 12, 
Ez. 17, 2. — Prob. akin to ^5N, ^;5S, 
^nij, cf. Gr. IjjLTrXexeiv alviYjAara; 
but perh. akin to I'lt} to be sharp 
or witty, hence fo propose witty or 
s/mrp points. 


see Nin. 

mn I (Qal obs.) i. q. M^n, 

T T " 

^0 breathe, to live; see the kindred i 
roots nirt and Ji"'!!. — Pi. n^n to utter, 

T T T T T • ' 

tell, w. ace. of thing Job 32, 10, w. 
ace. or b of pers. to whom Job 15, 17, 
Ps. 19, 3; see Chald. &<in. 

I } T -J 

n^l i II (obs.) perh. akin to 

T T 

n^5> "^^i^j ^0 W'iw<i, coi? (cf. Chald. 
Ni'-iti serpent), hence to encircle. 

njn f. 1) r. r\yn I, Zi/e; hence 
pr. n. of the first woman, Chawwd, 
Eve Gen. 3, 20, as the mother of all 
living C'n-bs D^^). 2) r. nih II, a 
round tent or encampment, a hamlet 
or village Num. 32, 41. 

*^n P^' ^« (prob. villager, from 
njn 2) Mivite, Sept. Eiaio;, a Ca- 
naanite tribe Josh. 11, 3. 

T*il I (obs.) prob. akin to Win, 
HDh, to cover, to shelter; hence tina 
a haven. 


r_J*l) I (obs.) perh. to cut into, 
to hook fast; perh. akin to ni^n, M^J^, 

a ^ 

Arab. ^ fo rewc?; hence 

nn. 2) a f Aorn, thornbush Job 3 1 , 40^ 

LJ'tli Chald. perh. akin to Heb. 
n^ia, to bind, to sew. — A ph. to patch 
up, repair, only in la'^r;;^ 5<;"vax they 
repair the foundations, only Ezr. 4^ 
12; hence 

tD^ri m. thread or string Judg. 1ft, 
12; by: T]1*iia "i?" W'ina from a thread 
even to a shoe-latchet, i. e. the merest 
trifle Gen. 14, 23. 

n^'^'in pr. n. (perh. sandy, from 
hiTi) of several regions, 1) on tha 
Persian Gulf, as the eastern limit of 
the Ishmaelites Gen. 25, 18. 2) a 
land of the Cashites in the south of 
Arabia or on the coast of Abyssinia 
Gen. 10, 7. 3) perh. India and Arabia 
Gen. 2, 11. — Perh. the rh^'il of 
Gen. 2, 11, famous for its gold, took 
its name from biTi sand, and may 
point to the region where, s|s Hero- 
dotus relates (B. III. 102), the sand 
(<|;a}AjX04) was so rich in gold. 

y-ln, *?*n (fut. hi\r\^ and 
b'ln^, apoc. Vn^ Jer. 51, 29, hri'^ Ps. 
97, 4, hP^^ 1 Sam. 31, 3, inf. absol. 
h^n for bin Ez. 30, 16) akin to W^, 
b^a and b^N, 1) to move in a circle, 
to dance Judg. 21, 21. 2) to turn or 
twist oneself, to writhe in pain, esp. 
of the pains of parturition Is. 13, 8 j 
hence to bear a child Is. 45, 10 j 
hbin a travailing woman Jer. 4, 31 j 
also to tremble, to be afraid, w. 
)'^ 1 Sam. 31, 3, i5Q^ Deut. 2, 25 or 
^i'S^^ Ps. 114, 6 of the cause. 3) to 
whirl or hurl down upon some one> 
of a storm, av. b? Jer. 23, 19; of a 
sword, brandished for destruction, w, 
2 Hos. 11, 6; fig. of retribution, w. 
V? 2 Sam. 3, 29, of the hands vio- 
lently laid on, w. a Lam. 4, 6. 4) to 




he firm, strong, mighty (cf. *i^)5, 
rtlJD) , hence fig. of a man's ways Ps. 
10, 5, of prosperity Job 20, 21. — 
Hence we get the meaning to he in 
(mental) strain or intentness about 
something, i. e. to wait Gen. 8, 10. 
5) trans, to surround, enclose; hence 
^n. ^^Vt, etc. — Hipli. binn (fut. 
^■^n^ apoc. bn^) to cause to tremhle 
or quake Ps. 29, 8. — Hopli. br>in 
to be horn Is. 66, 8. — Pil. V^in, 
intensive of Qal in all its meanings; 
to dance in a circle Judg. 21, 23; 
to hring forth, hear Job 39, 1; to 
create, form Ps. 90, 2; to tremhle 
Job 26, 5; to wait or hope for, ex- 
pect, w. h Job 35, 14. — Another 
bbin (to pierce) Is. 51, 9 belongs to 
hhn. — Pul. to he horn Job 15, 7. 
— Hithpol. bbinnrt to twist oneself, 
to writhe w. pain Job 15, 20; to 
ivhirl, of a storm Jer. 23, 19; to 
wait for, w. h Ps. 37, 7. — llithpalp. 
^'j^'^OT' ^<> &6 pained, e. g. ^ri^nr^P^!* 
nxa ^^^V'?'^ and the queen wo^ greatly 
pained Est. 4, 4. — Prob. akin to 
b>ia, *i!ia V, 7upo<;, yopoc^^ xaXto;, 
xoXio), E. coil, L. gyrus, gurges, G. 
A:rei5, W. chwyl, chwym. Hence 

bin (r. b>iri) m. >Band Ex. 2, 12; 
so called for its whirling and rolling. 

P^n pr. u. (circuit) of a Syrian 
region near the source of the Jor- 
dan Gen. 10, 23, now called jiy] 
iSys^] 'Ard-el-Muleh. 

LJ'II \ (obs.) to hum, to he 
scorched; akin to n?3n, dan, ur\\ 

' T - ' - T ' -T' 

Arab. ^,to he hlack; hence 

D^n adj. m. hlach, dark-coloured 
Gen. 30, 32. 

tVyT\ (c. nain, dual. d';nbri Jer. 

39, 4; pi. niain Is. 26, 1) f. wall Ex. 
14, 22; town-wall Is. 22, 10; r. Ti'O'n I. 

D*in (fut. &5in^, bh^) prob. akin 
to fiDPr, JiDS, <o cover, protect or 
Ai(?e; hence <o pity, to have com- 
passion on, w. V? Ps. 72, 13; to he 
concerned for, w. b? Jon. 4, 10; to 
spare, w. b? Joel 2, 17. 

^ Hi I (obs.) akin to S]Bn, fo ew- 
close, shelter; hence 

Tj'in, r|n (r. tfiTi I) m. coas<, shore 
Deut. 1, 7; Aavew Gen. 49, 13; cf. ih. 

D3^n pr. n. m. (harboured, r. C]*in) 
Num. 26, 39; patron. "^aSin. 

I^'iri (obs.) to sever, divide (cf. 
y^iTi to sever, in the Talmud) i. q. 
n:sn to divide; hence 

T T ' 

y^n (pi. nl^rsin) m. l) party-wall, 
wall of separation, i. q. y^h; in 
general that which is divided and 
separated from us, the outside ; hence 
whatever is outside of our place, a 
street (as being outside the house) 
Jer. 37, 21, pi. lnl':£!in streets Is. 5, 
25; hazaars (streets of shops) 1 K. 
20, 34; the country, fields, pasture 
(as being outside the city) Job 5, 10. 
2) adv. without, abroad Deut. 23, 14; 
w. rt loc. 1 K. 6, 6; w. art. I^finn 
Judg. 19, 25; w. prep, yw? in the 
street, without Gen. 9, 22 , in the fields 
Gen. 24, 31 ; y^nh abroad Ps. 41, 7, 
and nsiinb 2 Ch. 32, 5; ■J^siha on 
the outside Gen. 6, 14 (opp. in'^ap), 
also ysinrig Bz. 41, 25; b ysina 

Gen. 19, 16 or b nssina Ez.* 40, 40 

' : T I • ' 

without; 3 1'sina-px to without, w. verb 
of motion Num. 5, 3 ; yq y>in besides, 
perh. more than, only in Ecc. 2, 25. 

Ir'l) I (obs.) akin to piJi, Arab. 

^\s^, to wrap up, enclose, surround. 
Cf. rinn. Hence 

— T 

p^in, m. (K'thibh for p^r:i) breast, 
or bosom, only Ps. 74, 11. 





ip^n Prov. 8, 29 for ipn, inf. Qal 
of r. p^n w. suf. ; cf. Gram. § 67. 
ppn pr. n. 1 Ch. 6, 60; see pjsn. 

" n (fut. yitT) to become gray, 
white; hence to turn pale, w. n*^5Q 
Is. 29, 22. — Akin to "iS5 to he 

whitish in n'iS5> lead; cf. Arab. ^Va. 
to he fulled white, of a garment; 
hence *iin 2. 

IJ Ij Chald. (obs.) same as Heb. 
•niri; hence ^^Ti, 

lin (obs.) akin to ^!l»III,^!l3 I, 
to hollow out or bore; cf. ^^IS, '^'IQ. 

*l*in m. 1) r. ^iin, a hole, in the 
lid of a box 2 K. 12, 10; socket of 
the eye Zech. 14, 12; opening, for a 
window Cant. 5, 4; cave, cavern Job 
30, 6; den Nah. 2, 13. 2) r. 'lirjj^yMfe 
linen, only pi. poet. I'n'in Is. 19, 9 
(see Gram. § 87, 1, c). 

I^ri (pi. di'iiin) m. 1) r. ^in white 
Hnen (Sept. puaaoc) Est. 1, 6; cf. 

Arab. yiyL white silk. 2) r. '^'^I^, hole 

of a serpent Is. 11, 8; dungeon Is. 
42, 22 (cf. xaiap, xwc, L. caverna). 
3) pr. n. m. (free or noble, r. "rnn 2) 
Ex. 17, 10. 

^Ijn Chald. adj. m. white Dan. 
7, 9; r. ^in. 

^t!'^'^ ni. pi. white linen, byssus- 
clothes (Sept. pujaoi;) Is. 19, 9; see 
Gram. § 87, 1, c. 

■nin, see ■'•ih. 

'''n^n pr. n. m. (hobleman) 1 Ch. 
11, 32. 

*^*1^n pr. n. m. (perh. linen- weaver) 
1 Ch. 6, 14. 

D'^^in Ecc. 10, 17, see ^h. 

D^l'^n pr. n. m. (noble-born, r. 
^y) 2) 1 Ch. 14, 1 ; also D^in 1 K. 7, 40. 

*^ln!!j D'l^rt pr. n. m. (perh. free- 
born is my father) 2 Ch. 2, 12. 

I^'l'n pr. n. (cavernous, r. "i^H) of 
a Syrian region east of Bashan Ez. 

47, 16, AupaviTi^, now called ^jj';j^ 

IuIM (fut. yiw;;, 3 f. yintn for 

yjnp) Job 31, 5, Gram. § 72, Eem. 9) 
\) to flee, to make haste 1 Sam. 20, 
38, cf. Job 31, 5; to make haste to do, 
w. b and inf. Ps. 119, 60; to make 
haste for, w. b and subst. Ps. 22, 20c 
Part. pass. w. active meaning, D'^^n 
hasty, quick; hence ready for action 
Num. 32, 17. 2) of the emotion or 
stirring up of the mind, to be eager, 
excited, inf. w. suf. Job 20, 2; to be 
addicted e. g. to feeding Ecc. 2, 25. 
— Hiph. 1) to expedite, speed on Is. 
5, 19. 2) i. q. Qal, to haste Ps. 55, 
9; to flee in haste Is. 28, 16; hence 

tV^Ti pr. n. m. (haste) 1 Ch. 
4, 4; patron. 'in^^lH 2 Sam. 21, 18. 

^P^rr pr. n. m. (hasty) friend and 
councillor of David 2 Sam. 15, 32. 

D^'lfl^n pr. n. m. (perh. alertness, 
Ui^in) Gen. 46, 23. 

Dti^n pr. n. m. (alert) 1 Ch. 1, 
45; also D^n Gen. 36, 34. 

ri*iri I (Qal obs.) akin to nnn, 
to be afraid, terrified. — Pi. n'^J7 to 
destroy, whence perh. Trt\ Ps. 74, 
19, but see n^T}. — Hipli. n^nn (fut. 
w. suf. ^TW), see Gram. § 21, 3, Hem.) 
to terrify Hab. 2, 17, but see nnn. 

il^l I II (obs.) to surround, en- 
circle; akin to Syr. u^*-**, Arab. fal*. 

to fence in, hence prob. the name of 
the letter n"in = n^n. 

Dln^H (r. tnn) m. l) signet-ring 
Gen. 38, 18, Ex. 28, 1 1 ; wornsuspended 



• -1 

upon the breast, as among the 
modern Persians , Cant. 8, 6. 2) pr. 
n. m. (seal) 1 Ch. 7, 32. 

i ^' U' ^®® ^i"- 

Dij^Tn pr. n. (God sees) of a king 
of Syria 1 K. 19, 15; hence n"'? 
^xm house of Hazael i. e. Damascus 
Am.' 1, 4. 

mTm (fut. ntrri, apoc. trrn Mic. 

T T ■■'"•■ ■'■ 

4, 11, in pause THK Job 23, 9), prob. 
Akin to ttn, fisn, prop, to divide, 
to sunder, whence perh. nm = "''in; 
fig. to discern (cf. xpivo) = L. 
cerno), to select Ex. 18, 21, hence 
■Jltn 2, roTn 2 ; used (mostly in poetry) 
for nx'^, <o see, to hole or ^o^re at 
Ex. 24, 11; fo behold a vision from 
Ood Hab. 1, 1; w. b to see for, i. e. 
on behalf of Lam. 2, 14; to contem- 
plate, TV. a Is. 47, 13; fo|)ermw Job 
€,17; fig. to prophesy Ez. 13, 8. 

i liri Chald. 1. q. Heb. ntn, <o 

■J- — • T T ' 

«ee Dan. 5, 5; inf. Xtn^ Ezr. 4, 14; 
absol. to behold, look on Dan. 2, 34. 

HTtl (c. mn, pi. mtn Lev. 9, 20) 
perh. prop, i/ie divided part (in the 
body), then the middle-part or breast 
of animals Ex. 29, 26; r. ntn = ttn 
to cut, divide. 

njn m. 1) part, of nm, seer, 
prophet 1 Ch. 21, 9. 2) for mn 2, 
€0ve7iant Is. 28, 15; but in this sense 
perh. akin to ntri, cf. H'^'^a. 

iiri pr. n. m. (sight) Gen. 22, 22. 

^TH Chald. (def. xnn, pi. c. 
m. a vision Dan. 2, 28; appearance 
Dan. 7, 20; r. ntn. 

■jITH (c. "litn) m. a vmow, e. g. 
n^ib 'ntn oibns ZtA;e the dream of a 
night-vision Is. 29, 7; esp. a vision 
from God Lam. 2, 9 ; aprophecy Hos. 
12, 11 J a revelation 1 Sam. 3, 1; r. fitn. 

t^lTH f. a vision or revelation, 
only 2 Ch. 9, 29; r. hm. 

t^^TH Chald. sight, view Dan. 4, 8. 

Win (w. -p firm; r. nm) f. 1) 
conspicuousness , n^itn ')'n]^ /torn o/" 
visibleness, i. e. conspicuous Dan. 8, 
5; a vision Is. 21, 2. 2) covenant 
Is. 28, 18, see Mth 2. 

Tin (obs.) akin to nm, ]'sn, to 

ct*f iw^o, Arab. yLto pierce through, 
transfix; hence f^tJi. — Perh. mimet. 
akin to Sans, chid, c^i^u), L. scindo, 
ccedo, G. schneiden, scheiden, E. cut, 
O. E. sAi^e, W. cnwd, cnaiv, Gael. 

^JJ^'^TH pr. n. m. (seen of God) 
1 Ch. 23," 9. 

n^jn pr. n. m. (n^ beholds) Neli. 
11, 57 

■ji^Trt pr. n. m. (vision) 1 K.h5, 18. 

"jVjn (r. ntn; Cji-itn, pi. wai'^m) 
m. a visum Job 4, 13; hence a re- 
velation 2 Sam. 7, 17; "ji'^jn ''5 valley 
of vision Is. 22, 5, i. e. Jerusalem, 
I situated on the head of a valley, the 
I seat and centre of divine revelations, 
comp. Is. 2, 3, Mic. 4, 2, Luke 13, 
33. 34. 

rtn (c. T^tn, pi. d'^nm) m. prob. 
arrow, hence lightning Zech. 10, 1 ; 
fully wVp fit PI flash of voices, thun- 
der-flash Job 28, 26; r. ttn. 

T^TH m. a boar, sioine Prov. 11, 
22; *>5'sa litn a boar out of the wood, 
i. e. a wild boar Ps. 80, 14. — Prob. 
from "itn to turn, because swine 
attack w. a wheeling or sideling 
motion (cf. verris obliquum medi- 
tantis ictum, Hor. Carm. III. 22), 
which perh. explains also the 
origin of ^oTpo^ as perh. akin to 
^opo;, 7upo;. 




"^"'tr! Pr. n. m- (boar) Neh. 10, 21. 
pin (fut. ptn;}) prob. akin to 

p^*7' "n^^!' perh. ia^(o, prop, to bind 
fast, also intrans. to he bound fast 
Is. 28, 22; to hold fast or cleave to, 
w. a 2 Sam. 18, 9; to he firm, jper- 
sist, in doing anything Deut. 12, 23. 
Trans, to strengthen Ez. 30, 21; to 
help 2 Ch. 28, 20; intrans. to be 
strong, of a people Judg. 1, 28; to 
be severe, of a famine Gen. 41, 56; 
to be pressing, of a command 2 Sam, 
24, 4; fo be stronger than, w. lia 1 
Sam. 17, 50; prevail over, w. b? 2 
Ch. 8, 3, w. ace. 1 K. 16, 22; to get 
strong or well, to recover Is. 39, 1; 
ya&ti ptn 6e strong and resolute 
i)eut. 31, 23 ; to be established, of a 
kingdom 2 K. 14, 5; to be obstinate, 
hard, of the heart Ex. 7, 13 ; to press 
upon any one, to urge, w. b? Ex. 12, 

33, w. ace. Jer. 20, 7. — Pi. p?n to 
gird, w. two ace. e. g. ^isptrix T]l?2ni5< 
w. thy girdle I will gird him Is. 22, 
21 , w. ace. of part Nah. 2, 2; to make 
strong, fortify, a city 2 Ch. 11, 11; fo 
repair, ruins 2 K. 12, 3; fo heal Ez. 

34, 4; to assist, lit. to strengthen the 
hands Judg. 9, 24, also without "l^ 
Is. 41, 7; w. isb, fo harden the heart, 
make obstinate Ex. 4, 21; w. fi'^SQ, 
fo harden the face, i. e. to be bold, 
impudent Jer. 5, 3 ; SJ"n "in^ inb ^pTH'^^ 
f^e^'' confirm for themselves an evil 
matter, i. e. persist in it Ps. 64, 6. 
— Hiph. pi'Tnrtfo6iw(i/asf, to fasten 
on; w. ^^ and 3, to make fast the 
hand on, to seize , w. the hand Gen. 

21, 18, also without n^ Ex. 4, 4, Deut. 

22, 25, w. ^ 2 Sam. 15, 5, w. bs 
Job 18, 9; w. ace. (poet.) Is. 41, 9. 
Also to retain Ex. 9, 2; to contain 
2 Ch. 4, 5; to obtain Dan. 11,21; to 
maintain, w. 3 of thing Job 2, 3 ; to 
cleave to, w. b? Neh. 10, 30; to make 

strong, w. ace. Ez. 30, 25, also intrans, 
(see Gram. § 53, 2, Eem. 1) to he^ 
come strong Dan. 11, 32; to repair 
a building Nah. 3, 14; to help, w. a 
Lev. 25, 35, w. ace. Dan. 11, 6. — 
Hilh." to be strengthened, confirmed^ 
of a new king 2 Ch. 1,1; to strength- 
en oneself Gen. 48, 2; to take 
courage 2 Ch. 15. 8; to shoiv oneself 
brave 2 Sam. 10, 12; w. ''3SP against 
any one 2 Ch. 13, 7; w. 2 2 Sam. 3^ 
6 or w. d:^ Dan. 10, 21 for some one» 

prn (pi. d^pm, c. ^ptn) adj. m., 
npmf. firm, e. g. al?-ipTri firm of 
heart, i. e. obstinate Ez. 2, 4; strong 
1 K. 19, 11; w. IP stronger Ps. 35^ 
10; violent, of a wind Ex. 10, 19 j 
severe, of disease 1 K. 17, 17, of a 
famine 1 K. 18, 2. 

pTH adj. strong or powerful Ex, 
19, 19, 2 Sam. 3, 1; r. pm. 

ptn (w. suf. ''ptn) m. strength^ 
assistance, only Ps. 18, 2; r. ptn. 

pTn m. strength, might Ex. 13, 3. 

npTtl f. prop, infin. of pir!(Gram. 
§ 45, 1, b), the being strong, e. g, 
I'nptns when he was strong 2 Ch. 12,. 
1; ^^T nptns ivhen the hand ivas 
strong, overcoming Is. 8, 11; inptns 
"in^iii^n while he is strong in his 
wealth Dan. 11, 2. 

nptn f. strength, force, nptna 
by force, violently 1 Sam. 2, 16; 
strengthening, repairing, of a build- 
ing 2 K. 12, 13; r. ptn. 

""ptn pr. n. ra. (my strength) 1 
Ch. 8,' 17. 

n^PTHj ^»^,^Pin pr. n. m. (n^ 
strengthens) 2 K. 18, 1. 9. 

ITM (obs.) akin to n^n, Chald. 
•ntn, Syr. ?].*♦, to turn round, hence 
prob. -I'^tn a boar, T^tn, n^tn^ 




riin m. (w. suf. Trj, v^- ^'^^t^ w. 

Dagh. impl.) i. q. ni'n 1, a hook or 
ring, which was put into some ani- 
mals' nostrils, and to which a string 
was fastened for leading or taming 
them 2 K. 19, 28; a hook or brooch, 
part of female toilet Ex. 35, 22, 

^'lliH m. i. q. Ti'n hook, ring, only 
pi. Ci'i^nn Ez. 29, 4 in K'thibh. 

JSOn (fut. X'jn^; inf. y&dn, 

Ian only in Gen. 20, 6) prop, to fail 
or miss, not to hit the mark, cf. 
afiapxavco (see Hiph. Judg. 20, 16); 
of the feet, to miss, i. e. make a false 
step, e. g. itttln D'^bi'^si yi< he tvho 
hurries iv. his feet misses (comp. our 
adage 'the more haste the worse 
speed') Prov. 19, 2; to miss, not to 
find Prov. 8, 36 (opp. to i<^^ in 
V. 35); Kiartn K'bi ^"^i nnpssi and thou 
shalt inspect thy pasture (flock) and 
shalt not miss (anything) Job 5, 24; 
to sin, to fail in one's duty Job 1, 
22; w. ni<an to si7i a sin Lev. 4, 3; 
w. h against any one Gen. 20, 6 ; w. 
a of that wherein one sins, whether 
a pers. Gen. 42, 22 or a thing Neh. 
9, 29 ; w. b? of the thing respecting 
which one sins Lev. 5, 5, also w. )'D 
Lev. 5, 16; to miss (by sinning), to 
forfeit Prov. 20, 2, comp. Hab. 2, 10; 
5<i3n -mix Isaip-nx his oblation 
which he hath forfeited Lev. 5, 11, 
cf. V. 7. — Pi. Nan to bear penalty 
for sin, to atone, w. ace. Gen. 31, 39; 
to make a sin-offering of Lev. 6, 19 ; 
to free or cleanse from sin, of men 
Num. 19, 19, Ps. 51, 9, of a dwelhng 
Lev. 14, 49 ; w. b? of that respecting 
which atonement is made Ex. 29, 
36. — Hiph. X'^iann, to make a miss 
or failure, i. e. not to hit the mark, 
of a slinger Judg. 20, 16; to cause 
to sin Ex. 23, 33; to make sinful, 

guilty Deut. 24, 4; to condemn as 
sinful Is. 29, 21. — Hllli. to lose 
oneself, to disappear, i. e. to miss 
one's way or be lost through 
terror Job 41, 17; to purify one- 
self by a sacred rite Num. 19, 12. 

^P^ (foi' fi<^^; w. suf. ''Nipn, pi. 
d'lxan, c. 'ixari w. firm — ) m. i) 
silt, fault Lev. 19, 17; a xun ri'^ti 
it is a siti in anyone, i. e. such a 
one is guilty Deut. 15, 9. 2) punish- 
ment of sin, penalty Lam. 3, 39 
(cf. dm); r, x-jn. 

I^tjri (only pi. d^xan, w. suf. 
iT^xisri, w. firm — ) m. a sinner (the 
form implies a habit of sinning, 
Gram. § 84, 6) Gen. 13, 13 ; or a guilty 
one 1 K. 1, 21 : r. XKn. 

' T T 

tlKtSn Heb. andChald. f. \)asin 

T T -: ■' 

Ps. 32, 1. 2) a sin-offering Ps. 40, 7. 

niJj^n f. 1) adj. sinful Am. 9, 8. 

2) as subst. i. q. T^'Jn a sin Ex. 34, 7. 

3) penalty for sin Is. 5, 18 • r. !!<ar!. 

, , ' T T 

njJj"^n Chald. f. sin-offering Ezr. 
6, 17 Vri. 

Xn5<tDlrT, once T.l^rt Num. 15, 24, 
(c. nxwr, w. suf. '•nxun, dsrxan Ex. 
32, 30, pi. n-ixari, c. n^xiin, nxun) 
f., masc. only in Gen. 4, 7, 1) sin 
Gen. 4, 7; sinfulness Prov. 14, 34; 
prob. sinner in Prov. 13, 6; idol, as 
a work or occasion of sin, e. g. the 
calf Deut. 9, 21, cf. Hos. 10, 8; "^a 
riNuri luater of sin, i. e. used in pu- 
rifying from sin Num. 8, 7. 2) sin- 
off eritig Ex. 29, 14; punishment of 
sin Zech. 14, 19 ; r. i^Dn. 

t^U^bn Ez. 33, 12, see idH. 

^LJlI (fut. nbn^) akin to 
- T 

n^ni,ndi5, n^j^, \) to hew, cut wood 

Deut. 29, 10; to fell trees Jer, 46, 
22. 2) intrans. to be cut, marked 
w. cuts, hence to be party-coloured, 





striped, of bed-coverings; part. pass. 
niaisrj striped - cloths or coverings 
Prov. 7, 16. — Pu. to be hewn, sculptur- 
ed Ps. 144, 12, comp. on H'^'IT. 

ntjtjn (only pi. niaDn) f. tapestry, 
prop, party-coloured fabrics, only 
Prov. 7, 16 ; see 3an 2. 

n^n (pi. D-iDH, also 'j'^ian Ez. 4, 
«j cf.'^Chald. ']'^Dn) f. t^Aeaf Ex. 9, 
32; n^sn nVn fat of wheat Ps. 81, 17; 
f^^n ni'^bs nbn /ai o/" kidneys of 
wheat Deut. 32, 14 i. e. the rich 
flour or farina of wheat. The sing. 
Jiurr is gen. wheat as growing in 
the field, the pi. tD^itSH as in the grains 
<Gram.§108, 4,Eem. l)Jer. 12, 13; r. 
laan II. — Prob. akin to ffttov, Sla- 
vonic zito (corn). The r. may be Dart, 
akin to laSJl II referring (as most 
fancy) to the tri^A^coZowr of the grain 
and its white meal (so in the Teutonic 
and Keltic tongues, e. g. Ger. iveizen, 
E. wheat, W. gwenith, Breton gwin- 
iz), or perh. akin to Snnn to crush 

or pound, Arab. U*. to maul, hence 
■analogous to L. triticum from tero 
<to bruise or grind); cf. ^3113. 

itStl Gen. 20, 6, Tiim Ez. 33, 12, 
inf. c, Qal of i<'^r\ ; cf. Gram, § 74, 
Kem. 2 and § 75, Eem. 21, c. 

■©^tOn pr. n. m. (perh. warrior, 
r. uiian) i Ch. 3, 22. 

LJLJn (obs.) akin to nnn, nns, 
^ina I, Syr. w4u*# , to cut or dig, fig. to 

explore; Arab. lai. to cut in; hence 
pr. n. «9''i?n. 

"'tSn Chald. m. a sin, w. suff. 
•niian Dan. 4, 24 ; r. KWn i. q. Heb. &{an. 

i^**tOn Chald. same as Heb. 

T T - 

nxisn, a sin-offering Ezr. 6, 17 

&^t3'*t3n pr. n. m. (perh. explo- 
ation, r. Dan) Ezr. 2, 42. 

P^tOH pr. n. m. (wayerer, r. ^ttrt) 
Ezr. 2, 57. 

^^S^'tiiH pr. n. m. (captive, r. t|l?ri) 
Ezr. 2, 54.' 

yLJIi (obs.) akin to 'Tjn, htn, 
Arab. JhL, to he shaky, to leaver; 
hence pr. n. b'^un. 

DUM (fut. fi-jn:])akin to dnn, 

dns, Arab. *hA., to muzzle an ani- 
mal , to close up , hence to restrain, 
only in t^^"t]L:ni< I restrain (jca-j' 
self or my anger) towards thee Is. 
48, 9. 

WUll (fut. tpn^) to seize, 

capture Judg. 21, 21, Ps. 10, 9,' hence 
pr. n. ^tS1dr^. 

I on (obs.) akin to Vdn, Arab. 

^toi, to wave; hence 

'ntin m. shoot or twig Is. 11, 1; 
switch, rod Prov. 14, 3. 

IZJUM (obs.) i. q. yins, to heat 

or pound i. q. Chald. luns to crush, 

to smite in war; hence pr. n. UJ^ltart, 

rityH Num. 15, 24, see mutXiTi. 

T — ' ' t - 

^T\i{c,. '^rj, pi. Di^ji; r. ^y} = n^h) 
adj. m., T\^T\ (pi. ni'^ri) f. alive, living 
Josh. 8, 23, opp. na; very often of 
God as ^T\ bx everliving God Josh. 
3, 10 (cf. Ps. 106, 28); also tairf'bx 
t3"'"sn Jer. 10, 10 (cf. 1 Thess. 1, 9); 
quickening or reviving, prob. in 
iTjiri n^S at quickening time, i. e. 
either nature's reviving in the spring, 
or a child's quickening in the womb 
Gen. 18, 10 and 2 K. 4, 16; fresh, 
uncooked, of flesh 1 Sam. 2, 15, 
raw Lev. 13, 14; living i. e. fresh, 
of a plant Ps. 58, 10; living i. e. 
running, of water Gen. 26, 19 (cf, 
Arab, t^j^l *Wf dead water, i. e. 




stagnant); pi. fi'^'^H the living, men 
Ecc. 4, 2; D'l'^n }''ni< ?aw{i o/" the 
living, opp. biX'yp Ps. 27, 13, also 
w. art. d'l^nri 'tt Ps. 1 42, 6. 2) sutst. 
Zi/e, Lev. 25, 36 ?;^ni< "in /i/e of 
thy brother, but in this sense mostly 
in the plur. d'^^n (Gram. § 108, 2, a) 
Gen. 2, 7 ; '^nV /or /i/e .' a form of 
salutation like our long life to you! 
= L. salve! 1 Sam. 25, 6. 3) concr. 
he who lives or remains; e. g. *l^^a 
''rV t^eZ/ fo (or of) the living one 
Gen. 16, 14. 4) before the noun (for 
emphasis) in words of an oath, as 
fi''r'^?i? '^r? living is God, i. e. as God 
liveth! 2 Sam. 2, 27; "^S^K ">»! as fAe 
Lord liveth! Jer. 44, 26; also in 
niiT] Judg. 8, 19; sometimes it 
occurs thus in the c. state, ^*'rt^J< *^'n 
hy the life of thy God i. e. as thy 
God liveth! Am. 8, 14; where 'n"!?'7 *^n 
means as the worship or way (cf. o66(; 
Acts 9, 2) ?i?;es/ i. e. by its sanction. 

*11 n Gen. 3, 22 perf. 3 sing, of 
r. ^ir\, Gram. § 76, 2, g. 

"•in Chald. (def. X^H, pi. "p'sn) adj. 
m. aZive, living Dan. 4, 31 ; pi. "pjH 
the living Dan. 2, 30; also as subst. 
life Dan. 7, 12. 

^^"^n pr. n. m. (God liveth) 1 K. 

16, 34. 

JTl^ln (r. liin) f. prob. something 
involved, ingenious, hence triclc or 
intrigue Dan. 8, 23; a riddle 1 K. 
10, 1; poetic saying, song Ps. 49, 5, 
Hab. 2, 6; like bira, a proverb, 
maxim Prov. 1, 6; a parable Ez. 

17, 2; oracle, vision Num. 12, 8. 

I I I I I (for which "^n occurs in 

T T 

Gen. 5, 5; and fT^Ji stands for 3 fern. 

' ' T T 

npi'in in Ex. 1, 16) i. q. Mlti, to live, 
be, exist, akin to ii''Hi w. ace. of 

' ' T T ' 

time Gen. 5, 5 ; w. 3 of place (ih^^) 
Lam. 4, 20, of the means 2 K. 4, 7 ; 
w. ^5 of what supports life Gen. 

27, 40; to live again Job 14, 14; to 
live afresh, get well Gen. 20, 7; w, 
•j^ of what one recovers from 2 K. 
1, 2; to revive Gen. 45, 27, also 
Judg. 15, 19. — Pi. n*n to cause to 
live, to make alive Job 33, 4; w. 
5)";?t in ace. and "J^ of the male, to 
quicken seed, i. e. to become preg- 
nant Gen. 19, 32, comp. Gen. 7, 3; 
to quicken, of com Hos. 14, 8; to 
make lively or prosperous Hab. 3, 2; 
to save alive, let live Gen. 12, 12; 
to bring to life again 1 Sam. 2, 6; 
to refresh Ps. 85 , 7 ; fig. to revive 
i. e. to rebuild, repair a city 1 Ch. 11, 
8. — Hiph. n;;nn nearly as in Pi'el, 
to keep alive Gen. 6, 19; to save 
life Gen. 47, 25; dsb ni'inhb for to 
save life for you Gen. 45, 7. 

ll"^n n (obs.) i. q. nin ii, to 

coil up, to enclose, collect; hence 
perh. ii^'n 4. 

rrri or aCl] ChaM. (imp. 
I'^n) i. q.'Heb. ii'^'n^ to live Dan. 2, 
4. — Apli. i<ni< (for x;:rifi<), part. 
iXn'o , to preserve alive (opp. to baj^) 
Dan. 5, 19. 

tVIl adj. m., r\'^ri (pi. ni-^n) f., 
lively, vigorous Ex. 1, 19; r. !^^^^L 

njn (c. n?n, •in'^ri Gen. i, 24, 
Gram. § 90, 3, b, an old form chiefly 
used in poetry Ps. 50, 10; w. suf. 
in^n) f. 1) vitality, hence life = 
yisa, and like it applied to natural 
appetite, e. g. n^n K^a to satisfy ani- 
mal craving Job 28, 39; ^^ H?Ji the 
life (i. e. vigour) of thy hand Is. 57, 
10. 2) animal, beast Lev. 11, 47; 
prop, living thing (cf. I^uiov); hence, 
collect, animals in the widest sense, 
animal kingdom Lev. 11, 46; g't^a- 
drupeds, opp. to birds, reptiles Gen. 
1, 30; toild beasts, opp. to tame ani- 
mals Gen. 1, 25, more fully T\'^tl 




rjnim wild beasts Ex. 23, 11; n^n 
nSjD 6eas^ o/" f/ie ree^s, i. e. crocodile 
Ps. 68, 31: W'n iT^ri ravenous beast 

I 7 T T T - 

Gen. 37, 20. 3) Ziviw^ creature, an 
angelic being Ez. 1, 5 (cf. Cwa, Rev. 
4, 6). 4) a ftan^ o/* m^n, a troop 2 
Sam. 23, 11. 13 (see n^n 11) = hsn^ in 
V. 16; a people, only in f^S'iaui^ 'H^^H 
Ps. 68, 11 thi/ people have dwelt 
therein; Ps. 74, 19 u;B3 n^nb 'jPln-'b^5 
^•^"itn ^ii'e wo< ^7i^ turtle-dove to tJie 
troop of eagerness i. e. to the eager 
or violent troop, or peril, better de- 
liver not to a wild beast the life of 
thy turtle-dove, h^'H standing for ^^\'^X^ 
(see Gram. § 80, Rem. 2, a); r. 1VT\ I. 

J^'T^n Chald. (def. ^T^rr\, fi^n'in, 

animal, a beast (i. q. Heb. !i!jH), 
Dan. 4, 12; t^na ri'l'in (= Heb. sn^n 
T\yiSr\) collect, beasts of the field 
Dan. 4, 20. — Prob. iXTpt} beast, 
x^To;, L. cetus, catus, catulus, perb. 
G. katze, W. cath, E. cat, are all akin. 

ty^-'n (r. n^n I) f. Zi/e, only in 
W'sh M3Sib&i widowhood of life i. e. 
widowed-life 2 Sam. 20, 3. 

j I akin to ST^n I fo live, but 
only in '^n Gen. 3, 22, and f. Sl^n 
Ex. 1, 16; see ^n II. Hence 

d^^il m. pi. (see Gram. § 108, 
2, a) life, as a state Gen. 3, 14, as 
duration Ps. 63, 5; fig. livelihood 

Prov. 27, 27; see ipi 2. 


^ 11, see b^n, hence 

b*;!!, alsob"*)! 2 K. 1 8, 17, Job 20, 18, 
Is. 36, 2 (c. b'ln; pi. n^b^n, w. suf. 
CiH'^b'^n) m. 1) power or mightZQ&h. 4, 
6; then like tV2> applied poet, to the 
vigor of vegetable life, strength, pro- 
duce ^ of a tree Joel 2. 22, cf. nb 
Job 31, 39; Is-in tws to make i. e. 

» ' . I- T T 

put forth (Gram. p. 124, Note*) 

power, do mightily Ps. 60, 14; ''^55$ 
b'^n mighty men, heroes 2 Sam. 11, 

16, also b"])! "isa 2 Sam. 2, 7. 2) fig. 
riches, wealth Gen. 34, 29; b^n nizjs* 

' ' ' . I- T T 

<o make wealth, get riches Deut. 8, 

17, Ruth 4, 11. 3) force for war, 
hence an army 1 K. 20, 25; nil? 
b'^nn captain of the host 2 Sam. 
24, 2; byj 'las Deut. 3, 18 soldiers. 
4) in a moral sense, honesty, virtue, 
worth, b"in iu:3i< honest men Ex. 18, 
21 ; P'^n )nu:x ^Ae woman of worth 
Ruth 3, 11, Prov. 31, 10; b'JJji'lS 
a person of integrity 1 K. 1, 52; 
r. i'm. 

b^i Chald. (c. b^n, w. suf. I^h^j) 
m. strength Dan. 3, 4; /brce for war, 
Aos^ or army Dan. 3, 20. 

b^n, bn (Obad. v. 20) m. i. q. 
b'ti, 1) host, army 2 K. 18, 17; 
in'Ps. 10, 10 (Q'ri) d-^XS bn host 
of afflicted ones, i. e. a wretched 
rabble, but the K'thibh S'liObn is 
better, see "-sbn. 2) fortification, 
bulwark, rampart or moat (cf. ti?^) 
2 Sam. 20, 15; r. bilH. 

?*'tl m. pain, pang , esp. of par- 
turition, always w. It'hi'^ Ps. 48, 7; 
trembling, terror Ex. 15, 14; r. bw. 

n^'^ln (r. b^n) f. a writhing, pain, 
only Job 6, 10. 

nb^rt f. i. q. b'ln 2, strength, bul- 
wark Ps. 48, 14, where many prefer 
to read fnbipi Aer bulwark. 


db'^rt, tDijbn pr. n. (perh. for 
d:? b"^)! people's fort) of a city near 
the Euphrates 2 Sam. 10, 16, 17. 

In^n Pi*' ^' (pei'h. fortress) of a 
Levitical city in Judah 1 Ch. 6, 43; 
called "jVn in Josh. 21, 15. 

T'T\ (another form for )'n, or perh. 
for )T[, as UJiJ< = TtiiJt, ti'^'3 = D52) 





m, grace, heaxdy, only in Job 41, 4; 
r. "jin. 

'^y}. m. i. q. Y^Ti^ a wall, party- 
wall Ez. 13, 10. Hence 

"lij^'^n adj. m., nsiiih f. outer 
Ez. 10, 5; civil as opp. to sacred, 
as not being within the precincts of 
the Temple 1 Ch. 26, 29. 'ji:£'^nb on 
the outside 1 K. 6, 29. 

p'^M, rarely plj Prov. 17, 23 (w. 
€uf. "^p^n Ps. 35, 13, also "^pn Job 
19, 27) m. bosom, of a person Lam. 
2, 12; p'^ns asTT fo ^ie in the bosom, 
as a wife in her husband's 1 K. 1, 
H, as a child in its mother's 1 K. 3, 
^0 ; Tjp'^H nilJJ* f/ie t«;i/e of thy bosom, 
i. e. tliy loved wife Deut. 13, 7 ; d^ 

p-n bx Jer. 32, 18, p'^n bx n^^iin 
Ps. 79, 12, to repay or return into 
the bosom i. e. to requite. Fig. breast, 
mind Job 19, 27. 2) bosom, of a 
garment Ex^ 4, 6 ; pJia IJnilJ a pre- 
sent in the bosom, i. e. given secretly 
Prov. 21, 14. 3) bosom, of a chariot, 
i. e. the inside or the enclosed part 
IK. 22,35, of an altari. e. the hollow 
where the fire burnt Ez. 43, 13. 

*^T^n P^' n. m. (nobility) Gen. 
38, 1 ; r. ^"nn 2. 

WyrH 1 K. 7, 40, see d-T^rT, d'liin. 

tS'n^M pr. n. m. (also d'i^'iri and 
tiy^n, prob. noble) Hiram, king of 
Tyre, friend of Solomon 1 K. 7, 40. 

W ri i. q. Ili^in, to hasten, only 
imper. rttU'^n inK'thibh of Ps. 71, 12; 

"©""n m. haste, used only as adv. 
hastily, speedily, only Ps. 90, 10. 

H'^n, see wn n. 

)n?n f. perh. for n^n a wild beast 
<cf. x^ToO inPs. 74, 19; but see ti^n. 

"iri^/j Gen. 1, 24 c. st^te of n^n 
w. 1— parag. (Gram. § 90, 3, 6). 

Tjij (pi. c. "^sr; r. TJ?^) m. perh. 
a man-trap, to catch one by the foot, 
only in Hos. 6, 9, as some take it; 
but see fisn. 

T T 

t^n (w. suf. "iSJn; r. T^t\) prob. 

for T].3fi (Arab. JUa-, Syr. ).alJ, of. 

nn for rotn) m. prop, what tastes 
or masticates food , the gums, palate^ 
inside of tlie mouth (cf. d'^np^'s) ; 
thus isri T]'ina in the midst of his 
mouth Job 20, 13, comp. Hos. 8, 1; 
palate, as organ of taste Job 12, 11, 
as organ of speech Prov. 8, 7; in 
Cant. 7, 9 and in Prov. 5, 3 the 
kissing mouth may be meant. 

i\mj] I to wait for, w. b Is. 30, 

T T ' ' : 

18 lb isin-bs all waiting for him 
(Gram. § 116, 1). — Pi. nsn to wait 
for, w. ace. Job 32, 4, w. b Is. 8, 
17; to tarry 2 K. 7, 9; to delay 
2 K. 9, 3; w. b and inf. to wait in 
order to Is. 30, 18; prob. 'isn in Hos. 
6, 9 stands as infin. for rs'isrt (see 
Gram. § 75, Rem. 17), as JTir (Ez. 
21, 15) for niih, and tlX^ (Job 10, 
15) for nii^^; but see T|H. 

♦^7' J (r. T]5^) f. prob. i. q. T^^i, prop. 
tasting, hence a bait, a hook or 
angle w. a bait, ii2Jj T^'^b^<^ to cast 
the hook Is. 19, 8; nsns Tj^^ fo draiu 
out w. a hook Job 40, 25. 

"^Sn Hos. 6, 9 inf. Pi. of nsri, for 
ni'sn, Gram. § 75, Eem. 17. 

Hj'^lDtj pr. n. (dusky) of a hiL 
near the desert of Ziph 1 Sam. 23, 
19; r. brn. 

' - T 

D''3rt Chald. adj. m. icise Dan. 
2, 21; esp. a wise man, a magian 
or magician Dan. 2, 12; r. drtn. 

•\mJ] \ (obs.) perh. akin to p-1Jl, 
to seize; hence perh. "^ti. 


(obs.) perh. akin to bns, 




TjVn, to he black or dark; fig. to 
sadden; cf. "TijD. Hence 

n^V5n pr. n. m. (n;j has sad- 
dened) Neh. 1, 1. 

b'^bpn (c. 'i^^^n w. ''— parag. 
Gram. § 90, 3, a) adj. m. prob. 
darkling^ of the eyes as affected by 
drinking, only in Gen. 49, 12; r. bsn. 

ri^biplDH f. prob. a troubling, 
darkening^ of the eyes as affected 
by drink, only Prov. 23, 29; r. bsil. 

UDM (fut. dsn;:) to be ivise, to 

gain wisdom Prov. 6, 6 ; to gain by 
wisdom, w. ace. Ecc. 2, 19. — Pi. to 
make tvise, teach Job 35, 11. — Pu. 
tobe made toiseVroY. 30,24; to be well 
trained, of a magician Ps. 58, 6. — 
Hiph. fi'^SHln to make wise, part. f. 
Ps. 19, 8. — Hith. to think oneself 
wise Ecc. 7, 16; to shew oneself 
wise, w. h Ex. 1, 10. — Prob. akin 
to '?|'n tasting, r. T\T^ which see; 
comp. &^:3. 

UwQ Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
dS'^ to be wise, whence 

DlDH (c. Dsn, pi. fi'^asn) adj. m., 
n^sn (pi. maan) f. wise (aocpo^), 
intelligent Is. 3, 3; sb-Dsn wise of 
heart Ex. 28, 3 ; understanding Deut. 
32, 6; discreet 2 Sam. 13, 3; cunning 
Job 5, 13. Often coupled w. "jlbD 
Deut. 4, 6; opp. to b^S Deut. 32, 6, 
b"i\S Prov. 10, 14, bids Prov. 10, 1. 
PI. d'^aari magicians Gen. 41, 8. 

n!a^n (pi. ni^an Prov. 24, 7) f. 

icisdom (cro<pia), as skill in an art 
Ex. 28, 3 ; as proficiency in learning 
Dan. 1, 17; as the principle of true 
religion, piety Job 28, 28 ; or as an 
attribute of God Job 12, 13; in 
later usage, science or knowledge Dan. 
1, 17; r. dsn. 

♦rasn Chaid. (def. xn^an) f. 

t;t ^ TtjT' 

loisdom, of God Dan. 2, 20, of mao 
Dan. 2, 30. 

"^517^5^ pr. n. m. (wise) 1 Ch» 
11, 11. 

rii/^lDn pi. f. of Jiasr; (as plur. in 
Prov. 24, 7, but sing, in Prov. 9, 1> 
wisdom Ps. 49, 4, prop, wisdoms to 
match the Wa^inn in parallel clause j 
wisdom being in these passages per- 
sonified, the usage may be poetic, 
like the plur. excellentise , Gram. § 
108, 2. 

ri113!Dln f. wisdom, only Prov. 14^ 
1; prob. pi. like W^aari, which see. 

I— in i. q. *l5r|, Arab. Jxi , to 

injure, only in Job 19, 3 in some 

bn 2 Sam. 20, 15, see b'ln. 

!5n m. unconsecration, unholiness, 
as opp. to yj'ip Lev. 10, 10; common 
use, as opp. to private Ez. 48, 15; 
r. hhn II. 



T T 

I (obs.) perh. akin to 

bbn II, to be sullied or rusty; hence 


CS^M II i. q. nbn I, to be sick, 
only in 2 Ch. 16, 12 I'^P^tia iOn^l 
and he (Asa) became diseased in his 
feet^ see Gram. § 75, Rem. 22. 

n5J!?ln f. 1) a soiling or rust, on 
a copper pot Ez. 24, 6. 2) pr. n. f» 
(sicldy) 1 Ch. 4, 5. 

D'^i^^n m. pi. necklaces Can: 7, 2; 

see "ipri. 

D^bn 2 Sam. 10, 17, see db'in. 


I (obs.) perh. to stick ofi 
or smear over, hence to be sticky^ 

greasy, fat; perh. akin to na[b, S:]b~H 

(aXefcpw, X(iro4), hence perh. S^n> 





^ y) I II (obs.) perh. akin to 
•j^b I, to be white; hence 

Sbn (w. suf. "inbn, c. nbn Ex. 23, 

19, Gram. § 93, 4) m. milk, fresh 
milk, Gen. 18, 8, opp. to S^Jt^J^ sour 
thickened milk ; r. -bn II. 

Dbn c. of abn, seeGram.§ 93, 4, Rem. 

!nbn, also nb-1 is. 34, e (w. suf. 

iabr, pi. D^'i^ij, c. inbn) m. i) fat- 
ness, fat, of victims Lev. 3, 3, of man 
Judg, 3, 22 ; fig. the best part (dtTrapyrj) 
Num. 18, 30, ■p-nxf; n^n /a^ of the 
land, i. e. its best fruits Gen. 45, 18; 
c^L:n n^n Ps. 147, 14 fat of wheat, 
i. e. its best flour or farina: also 
ni^n m'ibs nbn fat of kidneys (es- 
sence) of loheat Deut. 32, 14. PI, 
pieces of fat or fat parts Lev. 8, 26. 
2) pr. n. m. (fatness) 2 Sam. 23, 29; 
but ^bn in 1 Ch. 11, 30 and "i^bn in 
1 Ch. 27, 15. 

nbn Is. 34, 6, see !sbn. 

V ly ' ••• I" 

riS^n pr. n. (fatness) a city in 
Asher Judg. 1, 31. 

■p^DH pr. n. (prob. fruitful) of a 
city of Syria Ez. 27, 18, Aleppo; or 
else the village Chelbon, about 9 
miles north of Damascus, still noted 
for its vintage; r. nbn I. 

nSHl^n f. galbanii/m, yaX[3avr), 
Syr. I nSit, a gum of strong odor 
Ex. 30, 34. — Perh. from nbn I. 

) ^1 \ I (obs.) perh. to hide (like 
tjbj), hence 'ibn. Cf. Talm. nbn to hide. 

I^ri II (obs.) akin to Syr. 
|.^, to dig; hence 'nVn, if^hn. 

^y^. pr. n. m. (perh. concealment, 
r. ^Vn 1) 1 Ch. 11, 30; but ^i^T} in 
1 Ch. 27, 15, nbn in 2 Sam. 23* 29. 

^bn (w. suf. "^^hn: r. ^bn I) m. 
perh. prop, hidden or indefinite time, 

hence 1) duration, life, age (altov) 
Ps. 89, 48. 2) ^Ae world, nbn in'^p^ 
inhabitants of the world Ps. 49, 2, 
comp. DbisJ Ecc. 3, 11 and ala>v 
Heb. 11,' 3; Ps. 17, 14 ^bnia D-ipD 
men of the world i. e. worldly men, 
comp.theuseofxQj|xo;inJohnl5, 19. 
^bn m. mole, prop, digger (r. 
nbn h) Lev. 11, 29: cf. niB-iBn. 

n^bn pr. n. f. (mole, r. nbn U; 
cf. Talm! iTib^n weasel) Huldah, a 
prophetess 2 k. 22, 14. 

'^'nlpri pr. n. m. (long-lived or 
worldly) 1 Ch. 27, 15. 

n^n I (fut. apoc. bn-i 2 K. 
T T ' ^ 

1,2, inf. mpn) i. q. ttbn II, perh. 

akin to ^bn 2, yaXd(i>, #o slacken, 

relax; hence <o &e w;eaZ: or /eetfe 

Judg. 16, 7; fo 6e sicA; or ill Gen. 

48, 1; w. ace. of the part affected, 

"•■^V^ff^i^ ^^T} (Sept. irovYjaE too; 

roSa; auToO)/ie suffered in his feet 

1 K. 15, 23; w. ace. of the disease 

(cf. vojeTv voaov) 2 K. 13, 14, comp. 

Cant. 2, 5 ; nbin MST a sore or patw- 

ful evil Ecc. 5, 12; to feel pain, 

from a blow Prov. 23, 35; hence 

fig. to feel hurt or grieved for, w. 

b? 1 Sam. 22, 8. — Niph. nbn.3 to 

becow^ weak, exhausted Jer. 12, 13; 

to become sick Dan. 8, 27; part. f. 

nbtis ii3i3 grievous wound Jer. 14, 

17, pi. m'bna the diseased Ez. 34, 4; 

to he pained, grieved, w. b? Am. 6, 

6. — Pi. to make sick or ill Deut. 

29, 21, prob. Ps. 77, 11 iX^Tl ^Tfkn to 

sicken me is this i. e. this is my grief. 

— Pu. to be made weak Is. 14, 10. 

— Hiph. nhrri (but '^bnr! in Is. 53, 
10, see Gram. § 75, Rem. 17) to make 
ill, to afflict Is. 53, 10; used adver- 
bially (Gram. § 142, Rem. 1), e. g. 
^inl'sJi '^ri'^bljfi I have made painful 
to smite thee i. e. have smitten thee 





grievously Mic. 6, 13; to become 
sick (prop, to contract or show 
sickness, Gram. § 53, 2, Rem.) Hos. 
7, 5; fig. to sicken, make sad Prov. 
13, 12. — Hoph. nbnrj to be hurt, 
wounded, 1 K. 22, 34. — Hilli. to 
make oneself ill 2 Sam. 13, 2; to 
give oneself out to be ill, to pretend 
illness 2 Sam. 13, 5 (Gram. § 54, 3). 


S\y\\ II (Qal obs.) perh. akin 
to pbn, X7]X£U), to smoothe, to stroke. 
— Pi. (imper. apoc. bn 1 K. 13, 6) 
to flatter or court, always w. '^iQ of 
the pers. Job 11, 19; to supplicate 
Ex. 32, 11. 


I \^i I III (obs.) akin to Syr. 
w.*^M, Arab.^^li, to be sweet, comely, 

fig. to adorn; hence '^bn. 

nbn (c. n^n, pi. W^n) f. a cake 
2 Sam. 6, 19; esp. sacrificial cake 
Lev. 8, 26; so called prob. for the 
round form (comp. ^3"); r. b^niV. 

^"^Vt. (pi. J^'i^'^n; r. tabni) m. a 
dream Gen. 20, 3; fig. a fancy or 
folly, trifle Ecc. 5, 6. 

'I"l5n pr. n. (perh. strong-hold, r. 
^!in 4) of a city in Moab Jer. 48, 21 ; 
of a Levitical city in Judah Josh. 
15, 51; called also "j^^n 1 Ch. 6, 43. 

"jibn (pi. D^a'^n Joel 2, 9, ni3"^n 

Ez. 40, 16) com. gend. prop, hole (for 
light), a window Josh. 2, 1 8 ; 'il^nfi ^r3 
through (i. e. out of) the ivindow 
Gen. 26, 8; r. bbni. 

]ibn pr. n.Helon father of Eliab, 
Num. 1, 9. 

""jl^n m. peril, window-work Jer. 
22, 14, an old plur. for D^^r^^n win- 
dows (see Gram. § 87, 1, c); r. bbhl. 

W(*l^^. m. a passing by or forsaking, 
Only in Prov. 31, 8 C)i^n ^33 children 
of desertion i. e. orphans; r. v]bn I. 

mc^brt f . overthrow or (?e/eaf Ex» 
32, 18^; r. ilibn. 

"^t^ibtl Ps. 77, 11 prob. inf. Pi. of 
Jn^H I, w. 1 p. sing, suffix. 

'^^LI P^' ^' of 3- province of 
Assyria, whither a part of the ten 
tribes were transported 2 K. 17, 6; 
prob. KaXay(TfjviQ (Strabo XVI, 1) on 
the Armenian border, perh. same as 
hbs in Gen. 10, 11. 

b^nbn pr. n. (perh. full of holes, 
r. h\t\ I) of a city in Judah, now 
Sulhul, near Hebron Josh. 15, 58. 

•^^rjbn f. trembling Nah. 2, 1 1 ; 
anguish Is. 21, 3; reduplicated or 
Pilp. form from r. b^in, comp. Hith- 
palp. ^C'rDrr'' 

LJ ^) I (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
Y\t\ II, to draw out, hence perh. to 
press for information; used only in 
— Hiph. to ascertain, only in 1 K. 20, 
33 (where the Vulg. has rapuerunt 
verbum), where lMbn;^l is for IM'i^ri^;^, 
as ^plp^"] for ^p'la'n:^.^ in 1 Sam. 'l4, 
22, see Gram. § 52, Rem. 4. 

■^bn (pi. d'l^<br^ for t^^bn, Gram. 
§ 93, Rem. 6) m. 1) ornament, neck- 
lace Cant. 7, 2 ; r. nbh III. 2) pr. n. 
(ornament) of a city in Asher Joslu 
19, 25. 

^'^n (in pause '^bh , w. suf. "i^ibrt, pi. 
tj'^'^^ri) m. prostration, suffering or 
sickness Deut. 7, 15; grief Ecc. 5, 
16, where I'^bri is perh. for lb ''bri; emV^ 
calamity Ecc. 6, 2; r. nbn I. 

in^^rt f. i. q. ibn, trinket, orna-^ 
mew^, only Hos. 2, 15. rrsi, IS'".'/ 

b^b/l I (r. bbn I; pi. D-^bbh) m. 
flute or pipe Is. 5, 12 (cf. nb'^n?)^ 
hence the denom. verb, bbn V to pipe^ 
play on the flute. 

b^bn II (r. bbn II) adj. m. uncon- 




secrated, open, common or profane; also 
subst. desecration, hence w. rt — loc. 
Sn^^bri, nbbn (Mil'el) to or for pro- 
fanation or abhorrence (Gram. § 90, 
2) as exclamation of aversion (Sept. 
}XY) YEvoiTO, Vulg.aftstf/) Ood forbid! 
far be it! e. g. M^n xb nb'ibn a6o- 
mination! thou shalt not die 1 Sam. 
20, 2 ; w. b of pers. and "Jia w. inf. as 

in mn -ini3 niri'D ^b nbVn /ar 6e it 

:• - T T - -: I" 1 : t i- t ' 

for thee to act like this thing Gen. 18, 
25; also w, tX and finite verb, e. g. 
pi'n:H!<-dy: ^h M^'^b^ abhorrence to 
me! if I justify, Job 27, 5; used ab- 
solutely 1 Sam. 14,45; w. y2 of pers. 
because of whom the dread or aver- 
sion is felt, e. g. JTini^Q lb nb'ibn 

I e> .... T r T 

iiiavi<-12i< profanation (i. e. a curse) 
to me from the Lord! if I do 1 Sam. 
24, 7. In 1 Sam. 20, 9, the meaning 
is somewhat modified a profanation 
(i.e.forme) fo thee (i.e. for thy sake) 
that if I knew — I tcould not tell. 

nS'^l^n f. 1) a change i. e. a suit 
of clothes (D^'iaa) 2 K. 5, 5; also 
without di'75S Judg. 14, 19. 2) change 
of life, amendment Ps. 55, 20. 3) a 
military term, exchange of soldiers, 
•'riB'^^n mg relief Job 14, 14; niS'^bri 
^12^ KS^'1 changes and a host are with 
me, i. e. a host constantly relieved 
or renewed, one foe taking another's 
place in succession Job 10,17; WB'^^ri 
as adv. bg changes or relays, alter- 
nately 1 K. 5, 28 ; r. t]bn I. 

•^?''<n f« prop, a stripping off, 
from the bodies of the slain, spoil 
or booty Judg. 14, 19; r. ybn 11. 


^j \ (obs.) i. q. Arab. ^31:^, to 

be black, gloomy, fig. to be unhappy, 
ivretched; hence 

Tj^n (found only w. il-^ loc. 
nsbn' Ps. 10, 8, in pause n^bn Ps. 
10, 14) m. wretchedness, Ps. 10, 8, 

iisbs';' J^^bnb iij*^:^ his eyes secretly 
look out for wretchedness, i. e. for an 
opportunity to oppress the poor; as 
concr. wretched one (Sept. 6 UTto^Oi) 
Ps. 10, 14. 

nSbn, see Tjbn. 

"^^bn prob. for ^sbn (from -r^bn 
w. adj. ending 1-3- , Gram. § 86, 2, 5) 
adj. m. only in pi. D'^KSbrt the poor, 
the toiling ones (Sept. ol 7revir)T£(;)» 
only Ps. 10, 10 in K'thibh, see 


y <j 1 I akin to b^ifl, to turn or 
- T 

move round, hence to bore through, 
to perforate (w. a revolving motion, 
cf. bbn IV), cf. b-^bn, "fi^n, bbn 1, 
n|rio; fig. to writhe, to be pained (cf. 
bin 2) e. g. bbn *i3b my heart writhes 
or ac^es Ps. 109, 22. — Pi. bbn to 
stab Ez. 28, 9. — Po. bbn to pierce 
or wound Job 26, 13, part, nbbina 
Is. 51, 9. — Pu. bbn to be stabbed 
Ez. 32, 26. — Po'al. (Gram. § 55, 1) 
part, bbna pierced Is. 53, 5. — As 
some think, this root bbn I is really 
one w. b>in (which see and the 4 here 
following), since the various senses 
may be all unfolded from the idea 
of turning round (as a borer), then 
to pierce, then to open, then to begin; 
comp. Gesenii Thesaurus Ling. Heb. 

^^n n (Qal obs.) to be loose 
(of what was bound), to be free, then 
to be common, unconsecrated or pro- 
fane. — NIpli. bns (for bns, cf. Gram. 
§ 67, Rem. 5; inf. bnn, likeD^ti; fut. 
bn;^, ''?^'r\) to beunhallowed, defiledhev. 
21, 4. — Pi. fo undo, dissolve a co- 
venant Ps. 55, 21; to make common, 
of a vineyard (before held to be 
hallowed) Deut. 20, 6 ; to make public, 
i. e. to prostitute, of a daughter Lev. 
19, 29; to profane or desecrate the 


priests Is. 43, 28, the temple Mai. 2, 
11, the sabhathEx. 31, 14, the divine 
name Lev. 19, 12; to 'pollute r^:i^ the 
marf'iage-hed Gen. 49, 4; y^^^ ^'^r^ 
to undo (i. e. overthrow) to the ground 
Ps. 74, 7. Cf. bn, \hr\ 2, b-^bn. — 

' ' T T ' • T 

Pii. to he desecrated, Ez. 36, 22. — 
Hipli. (fut. Vn;], brx) fo ?oose, zmc?o 
or break (one's word) Num. 30, 3; to 

profane (the divine name) Ez. 39, 7. 

■ • 

^^n III (Qal ohs.) prob. i. q. 
^Vn II, prop, to set loose or free, to 
open up (cf. Chald. i<'nu: to loose, to 
begin). — Hiph. bnn (fut. ^n^, apoc. 
bn^) ^0 6f^in, Gen. 9, 20, also w. 
inf. Gen. 10, 8 ni^ri^ Isnn he began 
to he etc. In Hos. 8, 10 ^^n*^ stands 
perh. for sip'^n*,'"! f/mi they may wait 
(1. e. cease) from the burden (5<'u^^?a) ; 
bnn Lev. 21, 9 is for hriT\she begins. 
— Hoph. bn^n to be begun Gen. 4, 
26. Deriv. ri|nsn. 

^^M IV (obs.) i. q. Viin, /o fttm 
round, to revolve; hence n^n. 

^>n V denom. from ^^^n I a 
flute, hence part. VVn a piper Ps. 
87, 7. — Pi. (part, ^^np) fo ^ijje, 
to play on the ^i^rj 1 K. 1, 40. 

bbn (c. bbn, pi. ts-^bbn) m. l) subst. 
one thrust through Job 24, 12; in 
general, dispatched, slain, Deut. 21, 
1 ; r. b^n I. 2) adj. m. nb^n f. un- 
clean, unholy Ez. 21, 30, then defiled, 
a prostitute, Lev. 21, 7; r. bbn II. 

n]']bbh Ps. 87, 7, see r. bbn V. 

U >M I (fut. Qbn^) prob. akin 
to tabu: (n = uj, p. 191), nV^ II, «o be 
safe and sound, hence 1) to be strong 
Job 3 9 , 4. 2) to be at ease or rest, hence 
to sleep, esp. to dream Gen. 37, 5; opp. 
to ypn. — Hipli. 1) to make well or 
strong Is. 38, 16. 2) to cause to dream 

212 r|bn 

Jer. 29, 8, — Cf. Sans, svap (to rest or 

L. somnus (= sompnus), somnium. 

U^l I II (obs.) perh. akin to 
abn, to be white; hence perh. W^|n. 

Dbn Chald. (def. it^bn, pi. ""p^bn) a 
dream Dan. 2, 4. Also a Heb. pr. n. m. 
(strength) Zech. 6, 14, but '^'nbn in v. 10. 

W'J^n f. white of egg, albumen 
(r. dbn II), or perh. purslain (so the 
Syriac), only in Job 6, 6 W?3^n ^^n 
slime of albumen, or perh. purslain- 
broth, said to be very insipid. 

1D''/Jbn (c. ^"^^bn Deut. 32,13) m. 
hard stone, flint Job 28, 9 ; fully "i^:£ 
ui'^abnn the flint-rock, perh. quartz 
Deut. 8, 15. — Prob. from an obs. 
r. Dbn = dbn I (to strike) w. format, 
ending uii-^ (see on letter UJ); cf. 
our flint, prob. akin to TtXr^TTcu, L. 
plango, fligo. 

1>n pr. n. m. (strong, r. bin) 
Num. 1, 9. 

VJ'^n I (fut. tj-bn^) 1) to glide 
or move along Job 4, 15; to pass 
away , of rain Cant. 2, 11; to pass 
on, n'^^ f^s^r;?! and thou shalt pass 
on from tliere 1 Sam. 10, 3 ; to pass 
away, perish Is. 2, 18, perh. of 
flowers, to change or m^Aer Ps. 90, 5; 
to pass beyona (a law) i. e. to trans- 
gress Is. 24, 5. 2) to pass through, 
hence to transfix or pierce Judg. 5, 
26, comp. Job 20, 24; to sprout forth 
as a plant, prob. in Ps. 90, 5; to 
move or rush on, of the wind Is. 21, 
1, of a stream Is. 8, 8; to march on, 
assail J oh 11, 10, to alter Hab.l.ll, 
Ps. 102, 27. — Pi. to put away, to 
change, as garments Gen. 41, 14. — 
Hiph. to change, clothes Gen. 35, 2; to 
substitute Is. 9,9; to revive, of a tree 
Job 14, 7; w. ns, to renew strength 



Is. 40, 31; also without rrs Job 29, 

20 to recover elasticity, of a bow. 

Hence Clbn, tfiri, MB^^n. 
» • '* 

Dyjl II (obs.) perh. akin to 

sbir, n^3, to plait hair; hence perh. 

vr.* : ; 

H^n III (obs.) perh. akin to 
a^a, to cut of, to shear; hence perh. 

C]^M Chald. to pass away, of 
time Dan. 4, 13. 

STjbn (r. t]VriI)m. 1) exchange, only 
as prep, instead of, /or Num. 18, 21 ; cf. 
Syr. wa^:;k.i». 2) pr. n. (change) of a 
city in Naphtali Josh. 19, 33. 


y^n I akin to n^n I, Chald. 
*iVn, yy) II, to cover, to clothe, hence 
nilbnia; fig. to arm or equip, hence 
part. pass, ysibrj armed Num. 32, 29 ; 
Is. 15, 5 axl^ '^iJl^n ar»ne(i men or 
warriors of Moab, cf. a "^fl^?^ ^^^' 
48, 41. — Nipli. 7^n.3 ^0 rtrw oneself 
Num. 31, 3. — Hiph. 'j^'^^nn to make 
vigorous or strong Is. 58, 11. 

y^n II (fut.^ ybn:) akin to 
Chald. T|n, fo ftreaA; away, to with- 
draw, w. "jD of pers. D•^'a "J^^ri Ae Aaf A 
separated from them Hos. 5, 6; 
trans, to take or draw off Deut. 25, 
9 cf. Is. 20, 2; fo draio out (the 
breast or teat) Lam. 4, 3. — Niph. 
yhxyi to he extricated Prov. 11, 8. 9; 
to he delivered Ps. 60, 7. — PI. to 
strip or spoil Ps. 7, 5; fo pull out 
stones from a building Lev. 14, 40; 
to deliver, set free, w. ace. of pers. 
Ps. 6, 5, cf. Job 36, 15; w. "j^ of the 
danger Ps. 116, 8. 

ybn (only dual D'^^^ri; r. y\n I) 
f. the girded or strong parts, the two 

hips or loins (cf. to'^) Job 38, 3; to 
come forth from the loins of any one 
i. e. to be begotten by him Gen. 
35, 11 ; to have the hands on the loins 
i. e. to have pangs as of child-birth 
Jer. 30, 6. Cf. Chald. •p:?")n, Syr. 

y^M loms. 

ybn or ybrt (i ch. 2, 39) pr. 

n. m.* (strength) 2 Sam. 23, 26, but 
yhri in 1 Ch. 11, 27. 


7li (fut. p^n;:) perh. akin 
to p\'^, pp? (which see), prop, to 
lick, then 1) to be smooth (cf. p^n 1), 
whence 2) to lick off or consume, 
hence to plunder 2 Ch. 28, 21 ; to cut 
up, to share 1 Sam. 30, 24 ; to distri- 
bute or divide Josh. 18, 2, w. M 
of the pers. sharing Prov. 29, 24, 
w. b of pers. and 3 of thing , Job 
39, 17, ri3">32 n^ pbn-xb he gave 
not to her a share in under- 
standing; w. b? to distribute or 
appoint (in classes) over 2 Ch. 23, 18. 
— Niph. p^H3 to divide or distribute 
oneself, to be parted, of light Job 
38, 24, of a whole troop formed into 
divisions Gen. 14, 15; to be distri- 
buted or allotted of land Num. 26, 53; 
in 1 Chr. 23, 6, 24, 3 the Pi'el-form 
(found in some texts) seems to be 
intended. — PL to divide, booty Gen. 
49, 27, Is. 53, 12, a land for ex- 
ploration 1 K. 18, 6; w. b of pers. 
to divide or apportion to Job 21, 
17; w. 3 of persons among whom 
Is. 53, 12; to scatter Gen. 49, 7. — 
Pu. to be divided out or sharedls.Sd, 
23. — Hiph. P'^Vtin 1) ^^ wiafce smooth, 
mechanically Is. 41, 7; to make 
smooth the words or the tongue i. e. 
to flatter Prov. 2, 16, Ps. 5, 10; also 
w. hi< or b? of the pers. Ps. 36, 3, 
Prov. 29, 5, to offer flattery to any 
one. 2) to obtain one's inheritance 




or share Jer. 37, 12. — Hilh. to 
divide among themselves, to share 
Josh. 18, 6. Hence P^jp^n, Tphrvz 

pbn adj. m., n;D>r| (pi. n-ip^n) f. 
1) smooth, not hairy Gen. 27, 11; 
6are or Z)a?6?, plsnn *inn </ie Z^are 

' • T T V T T 

mountain Josh. 11, 17. 2) fig. 
flattering, of tlie mouth (ns) Prov. 
26, 28, of the palate (T^n) Prov. 5, 3; 
deceitful, false Ez. 12, 24. The pi. 
nipbli is perh. used as subst. /latteries 
in Is. 30, 10, Ps. 12, 3; see Jlpbn. 

pbn Chald. (w. suf. mphti) i. q. 
Heh. phT: , lot or portion Ezr. 4, 1 6, 
Dan. 4, 12. 

pb"^ (w. suf. 'ipVri) pi. ^'^pk^., c. 

"ip^ri, once "^p^f;? w. Dagh. euphonic 
Is. 57, 6) m. 1) baldness, bareness, 
of a woodless district, Is. 57, 6 '^p^J^Si 
t]pVri bna in the bare (open) places 
of the valley is thy lot, i. e. thou 
carriest on undisguised idolatry (w. 
a play on pb'n in its 2 diverse senses ^ 
in this place); fig. flattery Prov. 
7, 21. 2) portion, share Josh. 18, 
5, P^n? P^n ^** ^^^6 portions 
Deut. 18, 8; spoi? Job 17, 5; what 
is apportioned, property Josh. 14, 

4 ; hence ;?e^, ?awcZ (i. q. Syr. \,a.«» 
field, cf. i\x£X8a|xa i. e. ^(optov 
aijJLaTOC Acts 1, 19) as property 2 K. 
9, 10; also the dry land as opp. to 
the sea (D'ini^) Am. 7, 4. 3) /o^, Sept. 
{jiepK, Ecc. 2, 10 (cf. b'nia); sAare or 
interest, M^iT'a pbn Q5V']'1^5 yow 7iave 
no interest in the Eternal Josh. 22, 25. 
4) pr. n. m. (portion) Josh. 17, 2; 
patron. ''p\i'n Num. 26, 30; r. phn. 

pbn (only c. pi. ''p^n) adj. m. 
smooth, only in Q'^WX "'piiT: Jr^^^n 
five smooth stones, prop, five smooth 
ones of stones 1 Sam. 17, 40; see 
Gram. § 112, Rem. 1 ; r. p^t}. 

♦^pbn (only pi. nipVn) f. flatteries 
Ps. 12, 3; see pin, Slpbn. 

smoothness, the smooth of the neck 
Gen. 27, 16; pi. slippery placet Ps. 
73, 18; flattery Prov. 6, 24; pi. 
^V\^. flatteries. Is. 30, 10; nS'IJ 
nip^ri Ps. 12, 3 (v. 4 'n "^nsb) /Za^^er- 
iw^ %s. 2) portion of a field, w. ITid 
Gen. 33, 19, also without iTTU 2 Sam. 
14, 30. 3) npbn, pr. n. (portion) 
of a Levitical city in Asher Josh. 
19, 25; written npbn (old fern, 
form) Josh. 21, 31. 4) pr. n. (pphn 
d'l'nsn field of the swords) of a place 
near Gibeon 2 Sam. 2, 16. 

»^)?bn (only pi. nipbn) f . flatteries, 
only Dan. 11, 32; r. phu, 

rTj^^ri f. portioning, division 2 
Ch. 35,* 5*; r. pbn. 

■^pbn Is, 57, 6 for "ipbn, see Gram. 
§ 20, 2 6. 

''pb^ pr. n. m. (perh. for fl^jrbn, 
portion of ri'^) Neh. 12, 15. 

•^tP^n and '^n^pbri pr. n. m. 
(portion or lot of nij) Eilkiah 2 K. 
22, 8. 

P^P^tl (r. P^O; <^f- ^P)P^.^ see 
Gram."§ 84, 23) adj. m.,'n^hphri 
(only in pi. nipbpbn) f. smooth, used 
only as subst. 1) slippery places Ps. 
35, 6. 2) flatteries Dan. 11, 21. 

^"ipbpbri, see p'^p^n. 
^pbn ? ^P^n . see nipbn 3. 

Iw ^n (fut. xobry:) perh. akin to 
nbn I, ^aXoLU), 1) fo enfeeble, relax 
or prostrate, to overthrow Ex. 17, 
13; w. b? fo triumph over Is. 14, 
12. 2) intrans. (fut. U;bn;i) ^o le 
prostrate, to succumb Job 14, 10. 

TT^tl m. a nerveless or /*eeZ>?e wan, 




opp. to "maa, Joel 4, 10; i. q. Syr. 

on I (w. suf. T)''an, fj'^a»7, Gram. 
§ 96) m. a father-in-law Gen. 38, 
13; fern. nian. — Prob. r. n^n I, 
akin to Dps (which see), ^afx^po;, 
Copt. cyOM shorn father-in-law, see 
Ewald's Heb. Lehrbuch, § 149, 1, A, 

on II (r. Ca^ri; pi. S'^Jsn) adj. m. 
t6'a>'Wi, hot, as bread just backed Josh. 
9, 12, as garments Job 37, 17. Also 
as subst. 1) pr. n. m. (swarthy) of a 
son of Noah, whose descendants 
are enumerated in Gen, 10, 6 — 20. 
2) pr. n. of Egypt among the na- 
tives (i. q. Copt. XHMe blackland) 
Ps. 78, 51. 

Dn (w. suf. ian; r. fi^rt, Syr. 
>a^, Arab. ^ to heat) m. heat, opp. 
to ^'p cold, Gen. 8, 22. — From this 
Semitic source (the same root being 
also found in Coptic) came, through 
the Arabic, our alchymy , chymist, 
having reference to heat as the dis- 
solvent, or means of analysing sub- 
stances, hence ch3'mistry is fitly said 
to be the science of heat. 

iNGI I (obs.) prob. akin to JJ<2^, 
♦0 wrap together, to thicken or curdle; 
i, q. Arab. Ua. : hence njt^n. 

2S52n Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
Man II, to he hot, to hum; hence 

T T ' ' 

K'2!n, !5<!an Chald. f. i. q. Heb. 
narj, heat, anger Dan. 3, 13. 19. 

^2n anger or wrathT)a.n. 11, 44; 
see Jian. 

niJj^rt (r. KTari; perh. pi. WN^n 
soft curds Ps. 55, 22, see niK^anp) f. 
curdled milk Gen. 18,8; milk, slightly 

curdled or still liquid, SiXian •'nns 
rivers of milk (Sept. pouxupov) Joia 
20, 17. 

iQT\ (fut. ^^^"2, ':Drin Is. 53,2) 
perh. akin to DrH, I) to he warm 
or eager, to strive after something, 
to desire or covet Ex. 20, 17. 2) to 
take pleasure or delight in something 
Ps. 68, 17, w. h pleon. Dfib (Gram. 
§. 154, 3, c) Prov. 1, 22, w. ace. Is. 
53, 2. Part. pass. Iiori desired or 
chosen; hence a delight Ps. 39, 12; 
dii'^'ilTari their delights, i. e. idols 
Is. 44, 9. — Niph. to he desired, 
only part. ^^rt3 desirable Gen. 2, 9, 
precious Prov. 21, 20. — Pi. only 
in ''F??UJ';!1 '^Pi'7^ri 1-^3 in his shade 
I greatly delighted and sat i. e. sat 
w. great delight (Gram. § 142, 3, a) 
Cant. 2, 3; hence 

T^n m. attractiveness, pleasant- 
ness , ^?3h '''^'iHS attractive young men 
Ez. 23, 6; 'irjri-'i^b pleasant fields 
Is. 32, 12. 

rrr'jn f. i) desire or longing, Ni>3 
rrnari without a longing after, unre- 
gretted 2 Ch. 21, 20. 2) delight, 
iTn:Qri y"^H a delightsome land Jer. 
3, 19 ; TU'OT\ '•h'3 precious vessels 2 Ch. 
32, 27. 3) object of delight, in a good 
sense Hag. 2, 7; in a bad sense, lust, 
D'^^a r\'n^n womens' delight, prob. 
name of a Syrian goddess, Ana'itis 
Dan. 11, 37; r. ^^n. 

- r\ii'-2n, also nii^'^n f. pi. (cf. 

L. delicice), pleasant things, delights 
Dan. 11, 38; pleasantness, 'h *''i33 
goodly garments Gen. 27, 15, 'n ^\^ 
precious articles 2 Ch. 20, 25, 'n Dn^ 
dainty food Dan. 10, 3. ni'Tiarj ^^5< 
a man greatly heloved, a favorite 
Dan. 10, 11, without ir"»J< Dan. 9, 
23 nnx m^^i^n thou art a favorite 
(of God); r. I^n. 



I'lJ^r'T! pr- ^' !"• (pleasant) Gen. 
36, 26; also )'^^'n l Ch. 1, 41. 

M'X2n I (obs.) prob. akin to 

T T 

D^5, to bind or join, to Jiold, enclose; 
hence perh. Qh I, Jiiain, n^n, n^n, 

rrj^n n (obs.) i. q. d?2n, fo be 

T T / ^ - t' 

Aof, ^0 glow; hence Ji^H. 

rS'^n (c. n^n, pi. man ; r. en';) f. 
1) Aea^, excitement, through wine 
Hos. 7, 5; hence tvine, as heating 
Hab. 2, 15; Aeai, aw^er Gen. 27,44; 
n^n ;i;"'X Prov. 15, is or n^an Ijs's 
(Prov. 29, 22) , a man of hot temper. 
fi^rjii GiS the cup of wrath, i. e. of 
divine judgment Is. 51, 17; comp. 
Apoc. 16, 19, Job 21, 20. Fig. poison, 
on account of its inflaming effect 
Deut. 32, 24, 2) i. q. MS^^n, milk, 
only in Job 29, 6. 

TTBfi f. warmth, heat of the sun 

T - ' 

Ps. 19, 7; poet, the sun Cant. 6, 10; 
r. D^rt. 

- T 

bi^^'^il pr. n. m. (perh. God's 
anger) 1 Ch. 4, 26; r. dpn. 

n^'-H (pl.di^i^h) prop. part. pass, 
of ^"CTi, which see. 

- T ' 

Xnil^^jH, see ni^m 
bti^'jn pr. n. f. (perh. the dew 
is father-in-law) 2 K. 23, 31. 

^'I'^^H pr. n. m. (spared; r. b^h I) 
Gen. 46, 12; patron, "^b^lian Num. 
26, 21. 

1*l'!Sn pr. n. (warm or sunny) of 
a city in Asher Josh. 19, 28; also in 
Naphtali 1 Ch. 6, 61; see nsti. 

yVJn (r. Y'D'n 3) m. a violent man, 

robber, p'^rj ^iim correct ye the 
oppressor, only in Is. 1, 17; where 
others prefer to read vindicate t/e the 

oppressed (Sept. dotxoujievo;), as 
if f'il^ri. 

p^'EH (r. p'O'n) m. compassing, 
hence prob. girdle. Cant. 7, 2 *'i;5!i52n 
1\'^y^'^. the girdling s of thy hips. 

^"i'-tl (pl. t3'i'?^n; r. Gianni) m., 
fem. 2 Sam. 19, 27, 1) ass Gen. 12, 
16; so called for its strength (r. ^^rt 
III) in candying, or perh. for the 
reddish (r. ^'afl I) colour of its skin 
in southern lands; D'^i; *ii^r ass of 
body, i. e. stout ass Gen. 49, 14, 
2) prob. i. q. "npn 3, a heap or load 
Judg. 15, 16. 3) pr. n. m. (ass) Gen, 
33, 19. 

JTni/^n f. i. q. ^i^rt 2 and ^^h, 
heap or load, but only in dual d';>n'^bn 
two heaps, only in Judg. 15, 16, where 
it forms part of a paranomasia. 

lriV2T\ (like n1n5<) f. of dn i, 
mother-in-law Buth 1, 14; r. rt^n I. 

UU n (obs.)perh. akin to Chald, 
Diart, to crouch; hence 

tD^n m. prob. a species oilizard 
(Sept. aaupa, Vulg. lacerta), only in 
Lev. 11, 30. 

ntian pr. n. (perh. place of 
lizards) of a city in Judah Josh, 
15, 54. 

Y'^'Dn adj. m. salted or seasoned, 
l^'^an Is'^^a salted fodder \. e. proven- 
der sprinkled w. salt, to make it 
more relishing to the cattle, only in 
Is. 30, 24; perh. same as TO^g. 

^ID^Xjn, see '^'iian. 

y/SP! I (fut. V;^n^, inf. hb^n 

Ez. 16, 5) perh. akin to d[xaXo<;, to 
be mild, tender; hence w. b?, to pity 
Ex. 2, 6 or to spare 1 Sam. 15, 3, 
Mai 3, 17, also w. bx Is. 9, 18; also 
of things, to spare in using, w. hv 




Job 20, 13, w. Vx Jer. 50, 14, w. h 

and inf. 2 Sam. 12, 4; hence fi^^n. 

5'J2n II (obs.) akin to b^a I, 

Arab. JI^, "i^n III, h-g^, prop. 
to carry ^ then to toil, tire; hence 

nb52r! f.pify Gen. 19, 16; inbiana 
in his compassion Is. 63, 9; r. bgn. 

UOli (perf. 1 pers. "^rn'^ln; inf. 
dh, once n^n (w. b, D^n^)Is.47, 14, 
w. suf. and pref. C^sna Jer. 51, 39; 
fut. n'nij, apoc. cn;^, also the more 
intrans. form cn*^ Deut. 19, 6, fin-i 
1 K. 1, 1, pi. ^an;: Hos. 7, 7) akin to 

L-n, n^an II, en;), Arab, ^a., ,^4^., #o 
fee i(;arm, 7to^, of the day Ex. 16, 21; 
to get ivarm Is. 44, 16; impers. w. h 
of subj. e. g. B<ib dH it is warm to 
them , they feel warm Ecc. 4 , 11; 
the inf. w. pref. fi^H^ in Is. 47, 14 
may be for D^J^b for to be warm 
(Gram. § 67, Eem. 10) or perh. for 
dTsn^ for their warming (Gram. § 67, 
Eem. 11); fig. to be heated, of the 
mind Ps. 39, 4, by win«j Jer. 51, 39, 
by lust Hos. 7, 7, of cattle to be in 
heat (sexually) Gen. 30, 38, see dn\ 
— Niph. dn? to be heated, to burn, 
w. lust , d'^bxa d'^^anirr those who are 
inflamed among the terebinth-trees 
Is. 57, 5. — PI. dari to make warm, 
to hatch eggs Job 39, 14. — Hilh. 
to warm oneself Job 31, 20. Hence 
d"n (which see) and 

I'Sri (only pi. d'^S^ti) m. suns or 
sun-images (consecrated to "j^an Vs'a 
the Phenician sun-god) Lev. 26, 30; 
r. dia'n. 

012 ri (fut. D53rt^)akin tof^n, 
prop. 1) to be sharp, fig. to be bold, 
oppressive , trans, to use w. violence, 

to hurt Jer. 22, 3 ; to violate a law 
Zeph. 3, 4 ; w. b? of pers. to use vio- 
lence against Job 21, 27. 2) to cast 
doivn{w. violence) Lam. 2, 6; to shake 
off' (w. violence) Job 15, 33. — Niph. 
dians to be violently treated, to be 
exposed or disgraced Jer. 13, 22. 
Hence d^npl and 

T ; - 

tP211 (w. suf. ^p^ri, p].d^d'2n)m. 

1) violence, wrong Geu. 6, 11, ©"an ^y 
a ivitness of wrong, i.e. wrongful or 
false Ex. 23, 1. 2) fig. wealth ivrong- 
fully obtained, ill-gotten gain Am. 
3, 10. 

]^GM (fut. yqrr}., inf. n^rin 
Hos. 7, 4) akin to Dan, prop, to be 
sharp, pungent, 1) of taste, to be sour, 
of fermented bread Ex. 12, 39; to be 
acid, as vinegar, hence y^Tr, to be 
salted or seasoned, hence Y'^'O'n. 2) 
of colour, to be bright, dazzling, deep 
red, d*i752 y^^'n deep red of (in) 
garments, i. e. in purple apparel Is. 
63, 1. 3) of the mind, to be eager, 
violent, hence part, "^^h a violei'it 
man Ps. 71, 4. — Hipli. to sour, to 
ferment; only in part. njJTsrjg some- 
thing leavened, fermented, prop, ivhat 
causes to ferment Ex. 12, 19, — Hitli. 
to be bitterly or violently moved, of 
the heart Ps. 73, 21. Hence 

Y"r\! ^« 1) anything made sour, 
leavened dough (i. q. "ik'JJ) Ex. 12,15. 

2) violence or extortion Am. 4, 5. 

yon m. vinegar (from wine or 
other fermented drink) Num. 6, 3; 
sour grapes, perh. in Prov. 10, 26; 

r. yicn. 

Ir aJI I i. q. P5^, to inclose, en 

compass or gird, hence p^^H; alsf 
to turn round, to go away Cant. 5, 6 
— Hith. to turn oneself ^ to rovi 
about Jer. 31, 22. 




nlSn I (fut. ^^m) i.q. naslfo 
6e Aof, ^0 6«rw, hence (cf. d^irt) trans- 
ferred to colour, 1) to have a glowing 
colour, to be red, of wine O^n) Ps. 
75, 9; hence perh. 'Tian 1, "i^l^rt^, 
i^n. 2) <o Z>oi^, ferment (perh. hence 
">^n), #0 /bam, of the sea Ps. 46, 4 ; 
also ^ bubble, swell, rise in heaps; 
hence prob. ^oh 3, lian 2, fT^i^an, 
perh. 'nian. — Po'aral. 'ip'^^r! (see 
Gram. § 55, 3) to be in a ferment, 
or to yearn, of the rumbling of the 
bowels under strong emotion Lam. 
1, 20; also to be red, of the face in 
weeping Job 16, 16. 

iGri n (denom. from 'n^an) to 
cover w. bitumen, to 'pitch Ex. 2, 3. 

I/Qll III (obs.) perh. akin to 
b^n II, to bear or carry, to toil, 
hence prob. 'Ti^H 1. 

I/QM IV (obs.) perh. akin to 

•n^'J 1, Syr. \Jafl*#, to collect] hence 
perh. "lah 3, ^"lan 2, i^n. 

n'^Sn ass, see 'Tiart. 

^^n (r- ^I'an^ I or perh. I^n III) 
m. ctacpaXro;, bitumen, pitch Gen. 
11,3; so called prob. for its &oi7m^ or 
bubbling up as in pits near Babylon 
and in the Dead Sea, or perh. from 
its being collected from such sources : 
hence the denom. "lan II to pitch. 

^/S'n m. prob. something ferment- 
ed, hence wine Deut. 32, 14; r. *i?n I. 

^/jn Chald. (def. ^<'^pr!) m. wine 
Dan. 5, 1; i. q. Syr. {(.lia^. 

^tjn (pi. d'^'i^n) m. 1) r. 'i^n I, 
clay or loam (perh. so called from 
the idea of oozing or bubbling) , pot- 
ter^s earth Is. 45, 9; morter, cement 
Gen. 11, 3; mire, mud Is. 10, 6. 2) 

a boiling, foaming, of waves Hab. 3, 
15. 3) r. lan IV, a heap Ex. 8, 10; 
also a dry measure, a homer, about 
IIV2 bushels Lev. 27, 16. 

I'^'i^rt pr. n. m. (perh. ruddy) 1 
Ch. 1,*41; but l-n^n in Gen. 36, 26. 

tZJ^n I (obs.) perh. akin to 
l^a^ I, brn, "j^an, to be sharp, bold, 
strong; hence ui^n and its deno- 

\jQ\\ll (denom. from ^^jh) 

to arm the loins, to arm oneself in 
general, part. pi. pass, d'^ppli arm- 
ed Ex. 13, 18 (cf. I^^bn Josh. 4, 13). 

W2T\ f. (c. ty^T}), n-i-on m. (c. 
Jn'r^n) card, number five (Gram. § 
97,' 1) Gen. 14, 9; the pi. t3'i"va?»n 
fifty; dp'^'n:^ d'^'i^ian fifty righteous 
men Gen. 18, 24. — On the origin 
and affinities of this numeral term, 
see Gram. § 97, 1, Note^. 

U3"Jn I m. prob. loins, loaist,, as 
the seat of strength (r. Ilj^ari I) 2 
Sam. 2, 23 (cf. "jnb , ybn, of like 

UJ^jh II m. a fifth (cf. 5>5H a quar- 
ter), a fifth-part rate , paid as a tri- 
bute Gen. 47, 26. Hence 

lU/2 M denom. of t-qn, only in 
Pi. to fifth, i. e. to take the fifth 
part as tax or rate Gen. 41, 34. 

D'^lSOn girded, armed men Judg. 
7, 11, see Ui^n II. 

^ti'^n and ^t?^^n m., tl^^'^T}^, 
r\^"l2J''^r( f., ord. number from ^?3n, 
fifth; n'^'^onn ns^s in the fifth year 
Lev. 19, 25; a fifth part (fem.) Gen. 
47, 24. PI. irreg. w. suf. l^n^pH I^ev, 
5, 24 its fifths, i. e. its fifth part. 

ID^^'^TI^ fifty, w. suf. i^'^pn his 
fifty (men)" 2 K. 1, 9. 

r\''-r! pr. n. (citadel, fortress, r. 




fron I) of a city in Syria on the 
Orontes Num. 13, 21; gent, name 
•in^n Hamathite Gen. 10, 18. The 
Greeks called it 'ETTicpaveia; the 

Arabs still call it 8Ua. Hamdh. 

in^jn (c. ngn) f. a skin -bottle 
Gen. 21, 14; prob. from n^r; I to 
hold or enclose. — This deriv. is 
favoured by the use of man in the 
Tahnud for hag-pipe, shepherd^sbottle, 
also a sack. 

TOST] pr. n. m. (warm-spring; r. 
fi^n) 1) of a city in Naphtali Josh. 
19, 35; called also nfc<'n nJan Josh. 

21, 32, lian 1 Ch. 6, 61; also 'A|X- 
{AttoO; (near Tiberias) Joseph. Bel. 
Jud. 4, 1. 3. 2) pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 
2, 55. V 

ri^n Josh. 21, 32, see nsn. 

"jH favour, i. q. )'n, only in pr. 
names, e. g. bx'^sn, Phen. brS'^sn 

]T] (w. suf. '^sri; r. )^'n) m. 1) fa- 
vourable inclination, favour, grace, 
kindness Ecc. 9, 1 1 ; "jn k^73 Gen. 6, 
8 or 'jn Nir5 Est. 2, 15(w.'i.r53) to find 
favour in tJie eyes of any one; 
'b '^T'^^ 's 'i*!! ")C? ^0 ^^^^ the favour 
of some one in somebodg^s egesi. e. to 
cause the latter to look favourably 
on the former Ex. 3, 21. 2) grace- 
fulness, attractiveness, charm Prov. 

22, 11; )'n nbsJ^ a graceful chamois, 
Prov. 5, 19; in "jntj; a stone of favour, 
i. e. charming, precious Prov. 17,8; 
•jti ron fAe spirit of grace i. e. pious 
and tender Zech. 12, 10. 3) pr. n. 
m. (grace) Zech. 6, 14. 

^'Ijn p. n. m. (= ^nn )ri favour 
of Hadad) Ezr. 3, 9. 

i iJJl I (fut. hin^, apoc. "{rn) 
akin to-jSni, S52, njJIII. perh. "jSlT, 
xXivto, fo 6e«rf or turn, to incline. 

of the day towards sunset Judg. 19, 
9 (cf. Dl'""?! m'afi); hence to settle down 
in a place, poet, to dwell in Is. 29, 1 ; to 
encamp Gen. 26, 17, of an army Ex. 
13, 20, of locusts Nah. 3, 17; w. V? 
against, to besiege Ps. 27, 3, also 
w. 3 Judg. 9, 50, w. ace. Ps. 53, 6; 
w. ? for any one, to defend Zech. 9, 
8 ; w. b ^''30 to form a camp around 
Ps. 34,' 8. 

i iJI I II (obs.) prob. akin to 
l^ip n, to bepointed, topierce; hence 
t-\i3n. — Cf. W. gwdnu to pierce. 

riBrt (only in pi. m:n; r. •jsn I) 
compassions, mercies, only in Ps. 77, 
10. In Job 19, 17 "inisn is prob. 1 
pers. perf. Qal for "inisn and means 
I moan or sigh, r. *j3r! II; but perh. 
for 'ini'sn (Gram. § 91, 3, Rem.) my 
appeals for pity. 2) pr. n. f. (beauty) 

1 Sam. 1, 2. 

'n'^^n 1) pr. n. m. (perh. teaching 
or initiation, r. T]?r|!) of a son of Cain, 
Sept. 'Evtb^ Gen. 4, 17; patron. 
'isbn Num. 26, 5. 2) pr. n. of a city, 
otherwise unknown Gen. 4, 17. 

"1^2^ pr. n. m. (favoured, r. "jiJl I) 

2 Sam.^10, 1. 

I^n adj. m. gracious, merciful 
Ps. Ill, 4; r. "iSn I. 

ri^DH (only inpl. W*5r!; r. nsn I) 
f. akin to Chald. WDn, Syr. jiol-i*, 

Arab. kl»jiU., a trader's tented booth 
or arched stall; hence ceW or vaw/f, 
used for prisoners, only in Jer. 37, 16. 

r^'lSn f. perh. a sighing, a cry for 
pity (r. isn II) Job 19, 17; see mn. 

J Ijj I (obs.) perh. akin to niM, 
^Yyo), L. ango, to press or fasten to- 
gether. Deriv. perh. nn for npn, 
Jnin for MDh. 


- T 




- T 

I (fut. :::n::) perh. akin 

to "^sn, \) to spice f to season or 
flavour, of a fruit-tree that matures 
or mellows its fruit, hence to ripen 
Cant. 2, 13; cf. Arab. iaA^ to ripen. 
2) to embalm a corpse (by spicing) Gen. 

50, 2; i. q. Arab, hx^, to embalm. 

^' J ] [ II (obs.) perh. to be reddish, 

i. q. Arab. hXs^ to be red, of leather; 
See n::n tvheat. 

LDDi J Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
lasn II; hence 

{J<tj3n Chald. (only pi. "papn) f. i. 
q. Heb. ti^T}, W^'JT}, ivheat Ezr. 6, 9. 

D*t^pn (only pi.) m. embalming of 
dead bodies, only Gen. 50, 3 ; the plural 
refers prob. to the various parts or 
processes and ceremonies in the 
transaction (cf. Gram. § 108, 2, a). 

I'^tSjH, see K-Jsn. 

^^^?^ pr. n. m. (favour of God) 
Num. 34, 23. 

Tl'^DH (only pl.t'^^'^iri) m. initiated 
men i. e. trained or drilled (for 
war), only in Gen. 14, 14 (cf. our 
train-band)', r, "r]?n. 

nj'^in f. grace, favour, only Jer. 
, 16, 13;*r.'v3r!l. 

H'^Dn (r. nan ii; pi. d'^n'^sn 2 Ch. 

23, 9; mn-isn is. 2, 4) f. spear 1 Sam. 
18, 11. — Perh. akin to Sans, kunfas 
(lance), xovtoi;, axovxiov, L. contus. 

^J] I (fut. T\iTyi) prob. akin to 

Arab. jXX^ , to bruise or masticate, 
Chald. T\?r!, perh. to ttsrt I; hence 
1) to taste, whence T\^_ palate. 2) 
denom. of T\^ to give a taste or relish 
(cf. ifxPuo), L. imbuo); hence fig. a) 
to teach or train, comp. Tj''3H> Prov. 
22, 6 i^'^'i "^Q-b? ^?sb T|'3n im&we the 

boy (on V w. ace. see Gram. § 154, 
3, e) at the entrance of his course; 
comp. Horace in Epist. 1, 2, 68 — 70 
nunc adbibe puro pectore verba, puer, 
— Quo semel est imbuta recens ser- 
vabit odorem testa diu. P) to dedi- 
cate (perh. w. some idea of seasoning 
or flavouring and so preparing for 
use, cf. D5ti), of a dwelling house 
Deut. 20, 5, of the temple 1 K. 8, 
63. — Perh. akin to Sans, ghas 
(chew), 7£'j(o, xvaco, xvuco, G. JcaueUf 
E. gnaw, W. cnoi, Irish cnaoi. 

niDpn f. 1) dedication {pi an altar 
or building, Sept. lYxaiviff|x6c) Num» 
7,11. 2) sacrifice of dedication Num. 
7, 10; r. r^Tl. — Cf. lyxaivia John 10, 22. 

nSDH Chald. f. i. q. Heb. dedi- 
catio7i Dan. 3, 2. 

UJM (obs.) perh. akin to d3^, 
to be hard or frozen; hence 

DDm (obs.) m. perh. akin to Chald» 
D5^:s, stone; Tience perh. ^'ajn* 

D^i \ (from "jll w. adv. ending d-;-i 
cf. d'al'^) adv. prop, by favour i. e. 
Avithout fee or reward, gratuitously, 
for nothing Gen. 29, 15; in vain, 
i. e. without effect Prov. 1, 17; w. 
^Ji, dsri-'bj5 to no purpose Ez. 6, 10; 
without cause, undeservedly Job 2, 3; 
dSTT'iD'H blood without cause, i. e. 

T • •• : ' 

innocent blood 1 K. 2, 31, cf. Prov, 
26, 2. 

bi^'Dj^ Pi". n. m. (prob. for bxwn 
God is gracious) Jer. 32, 7. 

^*JDn m. prob. stone, then esp. 
hail-sione or hard-frost, only in Ps. 
78, 47 ; prob. from difl w. the dimin. 
ending V-p. So Sept. Troty^vY], Aquila 

xpuo;, Syr. fj *\^, Vulg. jprwiwa, 
but Kimchi ^"nan -irs^ "p©, others 

T T - •• • • F • ' 

say ants (H^12S) or locusts. 


I (fut. trans. 'I'n^, once 




•jirt:) Am. 5, 15; w. suf. fi:sn"; Ps. 
67J'2, iirsn-i Is. 27, 11; i^pTl^ for 
?]3n'^ Gen.' 43, 29 ; inf. w. suf. D332n 
Is. "^30, 18; fnssn Ps. 102, 14) i. q. 
n3Ji I, to incline towards, then fig. 

T T ' 

fo 6e gracious to, to favour Ex. 33, 19, 
imper. w. suf. ■'2Sr Ps. 4, 2; ^o 6e- 
stoiv graciously on, w. 2 ace. Gen. 
33, 6; to pity Prov. 19, 17; to he 
charitable Ps. 37, 21. — Niph. "jn? (cf. 
-IN3, Gram. § 67, Eem. 5) to he pitied, 
commiserated, only in Jer. 22, 23 
•'P;n:-nD how thou (f.) art to he 
pitied! but perh. better how thou 
bemoanesi thyself, from r. "(an II. — 
Pi. ')3ri to make pleasant, of the voice 
Prov. 26, 25 (cf. )'n, n:n). — Po. liin 
to he kind to Prov. 14, 21 ; to he fond 
of Ps. 102, 15. — Hopli. -(n:^ to he 
favoured, pitied Is. 26, 10. — Hitli. 
prob. to how doion oneself, then to 
seek favour, supplicate, w. "b Est. 4, 
8, w. bx 1 K. 8, 33, w. liB^ 1 K. 
fi, 59. 

II (obs.) perh. akin to MStt, 



Arab. ^^, fo groan or si^A; hence 
*,!i3rTn, perh. m'in. 

jJPl Chald. to show mercy to, 
to compassionate Dan. 4, 24 (inf. 
*ino). — Ithpa. fo intreat, supplicate 
Dan. 6, 12. 

I^n pr. n. m. (gracious) 1 Ch. 
11, 43^ 

5&^Jjn pr. n. m. (God is gracious) 
Jer. 31, 38. 

"^55^1. pr. n. m. (gracious) 1 K. 
16, ll 

n^DDrt , ^tl^yyn pr. n. m. (?n-> is 

T : : ' IT : - -: ••^ ^ t 

gracious) 'Avavia; Dan. 1, 6, 2 Ch. 
26, 11. 

^^5^! W- ^' of a- city of middle, 
Egypt, only in Is. 30, 4; called by 
Herodotus (11, 137) *Avuji<;, but by 

the poets generally MlpaxXeooc 
TToXi;, Heracleopolis , by the Arabs 
j^^Uifcl. Perh. it is the Egyptian 
name for Hercules. 

P JM (fut. &:r:->) prob. akin to 
t]33, v]2:i, C;3>', prop, to cover, to hide 
or hecloud, hence fig. to pollute Jer. 
3, 9; intrans. to he polluted, defiled, 
as a land w. blood Ps. 106, 38, or 
a person w. crimes Jer. 23, 11. — 
Hi ph. to pollute a land Num. 35, 
33 ; to make profane, to seduce Dan. 
11, 32. Hence 

CijH (pi. d^Bsn, c. "^Bsn) adj. m. 
profane or impious Is. 10, 6; also 
subst. a reprobate Job 8, 13. 

TiP.'^ ^' rejirohateness, godlessness, 
only Is. 32, 6. 

nSBin f. pollution , impiety, only 
Jer. 23] i5; r. Cisn. 

pJM (Qal obs.) akin to pSK, 
p3^, Chald. piTIJ, prop, to be pressed 
or narrow. — NIph. to strangle or 
hang oneself 2 Sam. 17, 23. — Pi. 
to strangle, throttle Nah. 2, 13. — 
Mimet. akin to Arab. 3^> ^y^- 
wal.M, Eth.hanaqa, Sans. aw^ (press), 
^Y^o), L. aw^o, G. eng, E. anguish, 
W. 2/w^, angau (death). 

^inSn pr. n. (prob. pleasant, r. 
•jSril) a city in Zebulon Josh. 19, 14. 

\\J\ I I (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 

Arab. 0.^04., to boto or bend the neck, 
comp. •T^'^pri; hence perh. to incline 
oneself, fig. to be gracious, pious; 
hence "ibn, ^i&n. — - Hitli. to shew 
oneself kind, to be merciful, w. D3? 
2 Sam. 22, 26. — - Perh. akin to 
D^n to cover or cherish. 

iDm n (Qal obs.) i. q. Chald. 
TLT:, Arab. j-»sw, to abuse or iwsM/i. — 




PI. I&n to reproach or spurn^ only 
Prov. 25, 10. Hence ^tsTi U. 

iCn I (r. ^Gni, w. suf. 'I'nDn; pi. 
d'l'TGri, c. *l'^p^t)m. 1) kindness, good- 
will Gen. 2 1 , 23 ; compassion Job 6, 14 ; 
t3? *itjn nb^ to do a kindness to 2 
Sam. 3, 8, w. nx Zech. 7,9, w. b? 

1 Sam. 20, 8. Vj< ^tsn naa fo iw- 

' •.• V IV TT 

dine favour towards Gen. 39, 21. 
2) piety, religion, l&H *'ui;x religious 
men Is. 57, 1; G'^'TOn pious deeds 

2 Ch. 6 , 42. 3) mercy or favour of 
God Ps. 5, 8; nDXl IGH faithful 
or constant mercy 2 Sam. 2, 6; Ps. 
89, 2 D'^'iDH mercies or benefits from 
God; d'^?^i<ir? 'Tl'7 '^tJP'!? ^^« ^^^^ 
mercies of David, i. e. the mercies 
bestowed on him in perpetuity Is. 
55, 3. 4) i. q. )'n, gracefulness, beauty 
Is. 40, 6 (Sept. o6$a, cf. 1 Pet. 1, 24). 
5) pr. n. m. (mercy) 1 K. 4, 10. 

ion II (r. ^GH II) i. q. Syr. |Jja^, 

reproach, disgrace Lev. 20, 17, Prov. 
14, 34 and perh. Job 6, 14. 

ln^'7'?tl P^' ^' ^' (mercy of f^^) 
1 Chi 3, 20. 

i lOn (3 pi. sion, also il'ibJl; 3 
sing. f. n^Cn Ps. 57, 2; fut. hbh^, 
•'^'?r'!l> pi- l^^'SD!!; see Gram. § 75, 
Rem. 4) akin to UiW, fo fiee, to take 
refuge, w. 2 of place, b^3 mbri^ to 
take refuge in the shadow (i. e. covert) 
of Is. 30, 2; fig. fo trttst in, w. 3 
Ps. 2, 12; also fo fee trustful Ps. 
17, 7. Hence 

nOn pr. n. m. (refuge) 1 Ch. 
16, 38. 

"jlCn or IDrt adj. m. strong Am. 
2, 9; mighty Is. 1. 31; r. "jGn. 

In^Drt f . refuge, only Is. 30, 3; r. MGn. 

"T^pln (pi. di'i^Gn; r. ^bn I) i) 
adj. m. kind, merciful Ps. 12, 2; f. 
STTiGn kind bird, fAe sfor/c Job 39, 13. 


Chald. adj. m. wanting ^ 
in weight Dan. 5, 27; r. 

2) pious, godly Deut. 33, 8; as subst. 
saint Ps. 30, 5. 3) merciful, gracious^ 
of God Jer. 3, 12. 

rri'^pn f, the affectionate or kind 
bird (L. avis pia), the stork Lev. 11 > 
19, noted for aflfection, 

HTH Ps. 57, 2, see Gram. § 75, 
Rem. 4. 

^^pn m. prop, the browser, name 

of a kind of locust 1 K. 8, 37 ; r. bcn. 

I^Pn adj. mighty Ps. 89, 9; 


yDli (fut. bbn:>) akin to bta I, 
nn, 1^;?, fo cut or eaf o^, ^o browse 
Deut. 28, 38 ; hence biDH. 

UDll (fut. dbn^) i. q. d^n, 

drin,<o sfop up, to muzzle the mouth 
of an ox Deut. 25, 4; to impede or 
stop passengers Ez. 39, 11. ' 

jw) I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
■j^n I, prop, to bind together, hence 
\) to be strong, mighty; hence "jldri, 
■jidri. 2) to be rich, to ama^s wealth; 

hence "JbH, Arab. ^)*=^ whence our 
magazine. — Niph. to be laid up, 
"jdn;^ i<bi ^:i!;<;; 5<b it shall not be stored 
up nor hoarded Is. 23, 18. 

I'Dn, see "lien. 

jpn Chald. i. q. Heb. ']dr|; 
only Aph. "jdrtri to possess Dan. 7, 
18; hence 

"jpn Chald. (def. KSdH) m. strength, 
might Dan. 2, 37. 

"ipn m. riches, wealth Prov. 15, 
6; niSJ^y:'; "ipn tt'ea^^A (i. e. plenty) of 
deliverances Is. 33, 6; r. 'jdn. 

hDM (Qal obs.) akin to P]bn, 




C)hD, to strip or peel off". — Pu. 
redupl. DQpn (perh. for CjDSpn), part. 
DSpn^ scaled, peeled off (Gram. § 55, 
7) DBpT^^ pn a scrap scaled off Ex. 
16, 14. — Prob. mimet. akin to 
axdzTO), Jj.scabo, Gr.schaben, schuppe, 
E. scab. 

J]Pn Chald. (obs.) perh. akin 
to suin to bind, to hold or stick 
together, like tough clay; hence 

rOn Chald. (def. NBpn) m. claij, 
potter's clay or earthenware Dan. 
2, 33. 43; cf. iZJ^n. 

iD) I (fut. ^Cn^ pl.!i*i&n'^)akin 
to bpn which see, prop, to be cut 
off, hence 1) to be diminished Gen. 
8, 3 ; #0 fail, to be wanting Ecc. 9, 8 ; 
w. b, Deut. 15, 8. 2) to want or lack 
Deut. 2, 7, Ps. 23, 1. — Pi. to make 
less or ?02yer, w. "(n Ps. 8, 6 (Sept. 
YjXaxTCDaai Tiapa, cf. Heb. 2, 7). — 
Hiph. "T'prtn to cause to fail Is. 32, .6; 
to suffer want Ex. 16, 18. 

Ipn Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
'ibrt; hence ^"&n. 

^"^Tl (c. '^Pn) adj. m. lacking, 
wanting, w. ace. 1 K. 11, 22; w. "jp 
Ecc. 6, 2; finb *ipri lacking bread 
2 Sam. 3, 29; sb "^ch lacking mind 
Prov. 6, 32; but perh. a subst. in 
Prov. 10, 21 lack of understanding. 

'^Ctl m. want, poverty Prov. 28, 
22; iV'-npn. 

^On m. wee^ Deut. 28, 48; r. 

•npn. ' 

•^'^r^ P^' "• ni. (neediness, r. 
^pn) 2'Ch. 34, 22. 

"p*^Pri rn* *t-anf, deficiency Ecc. 
1, 15; r.'npn. 

^P (r. 5j|l7 n) adj. m. polished or 

rubbed, smooth, fig. cfean, guiltless, 
only in Job 33, 9. 
TjH, see Cjin and 3n. 

CSSn (Qalobs.)i.q.nBn,akinto 
Ksn, ren i, fo cover, hide,— Pi. xen, 
to do covertly or secretly, only in 
2 K. 17, 9. 

( iUl I i. q. KBH, ^0 cover or veil, 
the head 2 Sam. 15, 30 or the face 
Est. 6, 12, as sign of grief. — Pi. 
to overlay w. gold, etc., w. two ace. 
2 Ch. 3, 5 (Gram. § 139, 2). — Pu. 
to be covered Is. 4, 5, but see Msn. 
— Nipli. neria to be covered Ps. 68, 
14. Hence 

nSn f. 1) covering, protection, Is. 
4, 5, but some take it here as Pu. of 
nsn; also a canopy or curtain {pi a 
bed), bridal-courch or bride^s chamber, 
Ps. 19, 6. 2) pr. n. m. (shelter) 1 
Ch. 24, 13. 


", T 

(fut. tssn;?, inf. w. suf. "^f an) 
prob. akin to tB)?, tTQ, <(j ieop, sfarf up, 
in order to flee 2 Sam. 4, 4; io Z;e 
startled, alarm edDent. 20, 3,Ps. 31,23. 
— Niph. tsrsi fo Aosfe atvay, io flee 
1 Sam. 23, 26. Hence 

■jlTSn m. haste or hurry Ex. 12, 11. 

D^Spln pr. n. m. (coverings) Gen. 
46, 21 ; f. t]Bn I. 


(obs.) prob. akin to yjtn I, 
fo enclose, or to '|B5i, "jBS, ^o &ewcZ or 
curve. Hence 

■jEn (only dual fi'^SBn, c. ^:srt, w. 
suf. 'i'^SBri) m. a /Zsf, i. e. the hand 
as bent (comp. V{2) or as holding, en- 
closing, in dual the tioo fists, xba 
dS'^iSri the fill of your two fists, i. e. 
two handfuls Ex. 9, 8; Syr. |.lda^. 

'^DSil pr. n. m. (perh. boxer, from 
•jBn) 1 Sam. 1, 3. 




flS) i I akin to nsn, to cover 
or protect, w. br, only Deut. 33, 12; 
hence prob. ?)n. 

vlSn II (obs.) perh. akin to 

ejri^ i. q. Arab, ui^., fo scrape off, 
hence perh. to lay hare; whence 5]n. 

I Dri (fut. y-S!m, 'jrBn:^Ps.37,23) 

prop, to bend(cf. Arab. joma. to bend 
wood) Job 40, 17; fig. to incline, 
to he favourably disposed, w. a to 
delight in Gen. 34, 19, Is. 56, 4, 
w. ace. Ps. 40, 7; to loill, or choose, 
to please Cant. 2, 7 ; w. fin. verb Is. 
42, 21, w. inf. and b Ps. 40, 9, inf. 
without h Job 13, 3, Is. 53, 10. Hence 

ysn (pi. d'liisn, c. "i^sn, w. suf. 
bhi^sn) adj. m., tiffin f., taking 
pleasure or delight in, loving Ps. 5, 
5 ; w. inf. and h , ntt nx"]';^ d'l^ssn 
^73p taking pleasure (for) to fear 
thy name Neh. 1, 11; ivilling 1 K. 
21, 6. 

1) prop, inclination, hence pleasure, 
delight Prov. 31, 13; will or choice, 
cherished purpose Is. 44, 28; desire, 
longing Ps. 107, 30; ysn ^3ax c?e- 
sired or precious stones Is. 54, 12; 
s^wtZy, pursuit Ecc. 2, 1; matter, 
business Ecc. 5, 7 ; r. "J^sri. 

ro"^22;3n pr. n. f. (my delight 
in her) of the mother of king Ma- 
nasseh 2 K. 21, 1; also symbolic 
name of Zion Is. 62, 4. 

iDM (fut. nbn^) prob. akin 

to IpJi, 1) to cut in, dig Jer. 13, 7; 
w. ace. Gen. 21, 30, Ex. 7, 24; 
to dig for, w. h Ps. 35, 7; to dig 
into, poet, to paiv, of spirited horses 
Job 39, 21. 2) fig. to search out, to 
epy, as an eagle its prey Job 39, 

29, a land by scouts Deut. 1, 22 
(in this sense, cf. "^pn). 

iS M (fut. ^sn^ , pi. si^sm) prob. 
akin to *ian I, to turn red, for shame, 
perh. different from ui^ia (which see), 
but both signify a change of natural 
colour as effect of shame, to be 
ashamed Ps. 35, 4; w. d^33 Ps. 34, 
6; w. "(q of cause or origin Is. 1, 29. 
— Hipli. "T^sniH to cause shame Prov. 
13, 5; 19, 26, to be ashamed Is. 54, 
4; fig. of Lebanon ignominiously 
stripped of its beauty Is. 33, 9. 

'nStji (r. ^SJi) m. a hole, only in 
nilQ 1 JJri^ to the hole of the rats , as 
some texts read in Is. 2, 20; but see 

'^ii'.l ^) P^' ^' ^' (blushing, r. 
'nSn)'Num. 26, 32; patron, '^"isn. 2) 
pr. n. (pit or well, r. *isri) of a city 
of the Canaanites Josh. 12, 17. 

D^'^S'n pr. n. (two pits or wells) 
of a place in Issachar Josh. 19, '19. 

S^'^Sn pr. n. m. (Copt. perh. priest 
of the sun) Hophra, one of the Pha- 
raohs of Egypt Jer. 44, 30; Arpirj; 
in Herod. II. 161. 

ln'nS)*lSrS (only pi. Wns^isri, r. 
'isri, see Gram. § 84, 23) f. digging 
or burrowing animals, prob. rats, 
only in Is. 2, 20, where the reading 
W'lB'iarib (in one word) is better than 

1233)1 I (Qal obs.) perh. i. q. 

Arab. J*sia. to flow together, perh. 
akin to ui^iS II to flow forth, fig. to 
be free. — Pu. u:sri to he set free, to 
be free, only in Lev. 19, 20; hence 

l2Dn II (obs.) i.q.Arab. jSil 
to stretch or lay along, of a covering 


win 225 

- T 

or a bed, hence uish; fig. to he pro- 
strate, weak, sick; hence n'Tasn, 

TZJDM I(fut. uiern, pi. siben:) i. 

q. Chald. ^tfi, perh. akin to "isn, to 
dig, then fig. to seek out Prov. 2, 4; 
to devise Ps. 64, 7. — Nipli. bEns <o 
*e searched out Obad. 6. — Pi. to 
search hard Gen. 31, 35; w. ace. to 
search out 1 Sam. 23, 23; to search 
through Zeph. 1, 12. — Pu. ^o 6e 
sought diligently, perh. in Prov. 28, 
12 but see bsn II: to he devised, Ps. 
64. 7 t'Bn^ ban a devised (i. e. ela- 
borate) device. 

UD) I II (Qal obs.) perh. akin 
to ban, fo vei/, envelop, conceal. — 
Pu. to he concealed, perh. in Prov. 
28, 12; part. bBPi^ Ps. 64, 7, but see 
ban I. — Hith. to disguise oneself 
1 Sam. 28, 8, cf. 1 K. 20, 38. 

1233(1 m. a device, a discovery, of 
a plan Ps. 64, 7 ; r. bBH I. 

^Sn (w. suf. •'ban ; r. tzn II) m. 

1) a spreading out, ban-'^naa ^ar- 
twenfs or c/ofAs spread out Ez. 27,20. 

2) couch, iban D-«n^s awon^ fAe dead 
is my couch i. e. the grave is my bed 
Ps. 88, 6, but perh. it is free among the 
dead (Sept. IXeu&epoi;, so too Vulg. 
and Sj'riac). 

n'kTSn (r. ban I) f. freedom Lev. 
19, 20. ' 

WuJSri f. prostration, illness, 
msibann t\^'3^_ the house of sickness, 
infirmary 2 Ch. 26, 21 ; r. ban II. 

"•^Sn (pi. Cjnbsn) adj. m. free, as 
a liberated slave Job 3, 19; '^'dZTi n^ib 
Deut. 15, 12, -^banb 'b Ex. '21, 26, 
to send away free, to liberate; x^;) 
''ban to go free Ex. 21, 5; free, 
exempt from taxes 1 Sam. 17, 25; 

r. ban. 

T T 

in'^ITiM 2 K. 15, 5, same as nvran, 
which see. 

yn (r. ysn I; w. suf. ""sn, pi. Qisn, 
once •'Sn in K'thibh 1 Sam. 20, 38, 
Gram.§ 87, \,h)m. 1) arrow 2 K. 13, 
17; hence d'^sn '^h;S'2 arrow-masters, 
archers Gen. 49, 23; fig. the lightning, 
God's arrow Hab. 3, 11; infliction 
Deut. 32, 23. 2) arrow-wound 5 oh 34, 6. 
3) the point of a spear, perh. in yn 
n-'pnn 1 Sam. 17, 7 K'thibh; but in 
Q'ri and in 2 Sam. 21, 19, 1 Ch. 20, 
5, we find the better reading y^ 
wood, i. e. shaft or handle. 

3iJn I, Dijn Is. 5, 2 (fut. 

- T ' •• T 

a':in:<) akin ton?;?, na;?, -j^^ni (which 
see), to hew 1 K. 5, 29, to dig out, 
a cistern Deut. 6, 11, or a wine-press 
Is. 5, 2; to mine, copper ore Deut. 
8,9; to carve, pillars Prov. 9,1; 
fig. to cleave out flames of fire, i. e. 
to flash forth forked lightning Ps 
29, 7; to slay Hos. 6, 5. — Nipli. 
S^na to he cut in, engraven Job 19, 
24. — Pu. to he carved out, shaped 
Is. 51, 1. — HiphCpart. f. rq^n-q)to 
heio dotvn, to slay Is. 51, 9. 

mI^I I II (obs.) prob. akin to 

nbn, to hind (cf. Sbn); hence perh. 


S2i»n adj. m. cut or dug out, perh. 
in Is. 5, 2, but see r. Ssn I. 

I I 


T T 

(fut. i^^r^,, apoc. yri'^) 
akin to ym, y:£n, 1) to cut off", to 
divide; w. y2i to divide between Num. 
31, 27; w. ^'Sto divide at a certain 
part Is. 30, 28 ; to divide Gen. 33, 1. 
2) to cut in two, to halve Gen. 32, 8 ; 
fig. fo reach to the half, Dni^a"! ^:sn;) vh 
they halve not their days i. e. they 
live not out half their natural life 
Ps. 55, 24. — Niph. n^ni to be divided 




2 K. 2, 8; w. h of parts, to be cut 
into (2 parts) Ez. 37, 22. 

n'12li2in(pl.n'i-i^isn) f. a trumpet 
Num. 10, 2; perh. r. 'latn to blare, 
to sound a blast. — Prob. this was 
straight, while the 'ISIIB horn was 
crooked. — Prob. a mimetic word, 
expressing the crashing, rattling 
sound of the instrument, like L. 
taratantara, G, trarara, E. tantara; 
hence prob. the denom. *l^rj to 
trumpet, to bloiv a trumpet. 

\\'^n pr. n. (inclosed place, perh. 
castle), 1) a city in Naphtali Josh. 
11, 1. 2) a city in Benjamin Neh. 
11, 33. 3) a city in Judah Josh. 15, 
23. 4) a region of Arabia Jer. 49, 28. 

inri^ln ^iiSn pr. n. rChald., new 
Hazor) of a city in the south of 
Judah Josh. 15, 25. 

t^^Wl (only c. nl^tn) f. sing, the 
middle, midst, mV^ niiiPi midnight 
Ex. 11, 4: r. nm " 

''i?)! (in pause "i^n, w. suf. i^pi, 
Gram. *§ 93, 6, Rem'. 6) m. 1) the 
middle, midst 2 Sam. 10, 4 j i. q. n1:sn, 
^\i^^ ^Vl midnight Judg. 16, 3. 2) 
half, the half Ex. 24, 6; sisi^n the 
half of us 2 Sam. 1-8, 3. 

^2in m. 1) i. q. yn arrow 1 Sam. 
20, 36. 2) i. q. i^n half Ex. 25, 10. 

minjlari ''^n pr. n. m. (midst of 
resting-places) 1 Ch. 2, 52; patron. 
•^Wna^ti "i^rj Hazi-hammanachtite 
V. 54. 

1*'i?ln I i. q. 'n^n m. an inclosure, 
a home Is. 34, 13, cf. 35, 7; r. "im 

*l^l?n II (c. -I'l^tn) m. grass Ps. 
104, 14; a leek, collect, leeks Num. 
11, 5; r. "nitn. 

(obs.) prob. akin to Syr. 

^•*, ^5-»-»»» Arab. joU., to collect, to 

enclose, hence Arab, jj^-oa. <o carr^ 
in the arms or bosom; hence 

1^^ (w. suf. "ij^rt) m. bosom Ps. 
129, V; cf. an. 

■jiin (w. suf. ijsri) m. bosom^ 
as enfolding or cherishing httle 
children Is. 49, 22 ; bosom of a gar- 
ment Neh. 5, 13; cf. Chald. S^^n^in 
hiding places. 

51] ^n Chald. (Pe'al obs.) i. q. 
Heb. tj^ip I to storm, rage. — Aph. 
tjSnfi to press, urge on; part. f. 
nsinna (Dan. 2, 15) and riBsm 
(Dan. 3, 22) urgent, severe, of a com- 
mand or edict. 

\j 1^^ i I i. q. na to cut, divide,. 
hence fig. intrans. to divide info- 
troops, part. "J^^'n dividing off info- 
sivarms, of locusts on their march 
Prov. 30, 27. — Pi. only part, ^'^^'^rya 
those who divide, i\i^. booty Judg. 5, 
11 ; but this may well be from yi'n 11^ 
and so mean archers. — Pu. to be 
divided, allotted, of portions of time 
Job 21, 21. — On this and its many 
kindred mimetic roots expressive of 
cutting, see Gram. § 30, 2. 

(^^n II (Qal obs.) denom. of 
l^n. — Pi. to shoot arrows; part. pi. 
D'^asna archers Judg. 5 , 11; but 
see yir) I. 

y^n (pi. w. suf. ?]'i^sn) m. 1) a 
little piece or fragment, fig. a small 
stone, collect, gravel, grit Lam. 3, 
16. 2) 1. q. yti arrow, fig. lightning^ 
Ps. 77, 18; r. y:£n I. 

■jillSin (only c. "ji's^rT, firsn) m. 
perh. a division or row; only in 

'^''9v"l"^'^.'^ P^* ^' (perh. row of 
palm-trees) of a city in Judah near 
the Dead Sea Gen. 14, 7, 'Pl "j'SSn 2 
Ch. 20, 2. 





l^iJl_j denom. from JT^sSsn 
(Avhich see) to blow the trumpet; 
but only in part. D-i-iIfbtng (K'thibh) 
trumpeters 1 Ch. 15, 24, where the Q'ri 
has Di*)Sinp as part. Pi. of ">sn. 

rr^^lilH f. trumpet Hos. 5, 8 ; see 

l!^M (obs.) akin to ^inn, to 
fence around, inclose; hence ^sn and 
^'^'Sn I. — Perh. akin to /opxoc, 
L. hortus, G. garten, E. garden, W. 

I«*l I (Qal obs.) .perh. akin to 
nnr:!, to sing, to sound forth bright 
and clear, hence perh. n'^:!£b2r]; then 
fig. (like bbh) to be bright or green, 
to bloom, hence "T^zjn II. — Pi. ^sri 
to bloio the trumpet, prob. in part. 
^^"isir!^ trumpeters, only in Q'ri of 
1 Ch. 15, 24, as some read. 

i^n (c. "isn, pi. D'l")^, nl-ian. 

c. ''t'itr!, m'lisr!; r. '^'iri) com. inclosed 
place; hence 1) court, yard 2 Sam. 
17, 18; esp. that around the taber- 
nacle Ex. 27, 12; also those within 
or around the temple, "^a'^SSli "i^tnn 
the inner court Ez. 40, 28, "i^nn 
M3iS"'nri the outer court Ez. 10, 5. 
2) a village, forming an enclosure Gen. 
25, 16, Josh. 13, 23. Hence 

I'nSl *l^n pr. n. (village of Addar) 
of a place in Judah Num. 34, 4; 
called also simply ^^ Josh. 15, 3. 

ni5 ^'^n pr- n. (village of luck) 
of a place in Judah Josh. 15, 27. 

nCMD "^^n pr. n. (mare-village) 
of a place in Simeon Josh. 19, 5; 
also called 

D'^D^D "I?)! (village of horses) 
1 Ch. 4, 31. 

]^T^^ n^tl pr.n. (fountain-village) 
of a place in the north of Palestine 

Ez. 47, 17; written also •jS''? ^p^ 
Num. 34, 9. 

b^W "l^n pr. n. O'ackal-village) 
of a place in Simeon Josh. 15, 28. 

■jiS^riij "Ipl pr. n. (middle vil- 
lage) of a place on the borders of 
the Hauran Ez. 47, 16. 

i^iSn, see *^^srT. 

Il"l!in l)pr.n.m. (perh. blooming, 
r. ">?nj Gen. 46, 9; patron, "^i^sn 
Hezronite Num. 26, 6. 2) pr. n. 
(court) of a city in Judah Josh. 15, 
25; called also *^i:in v. 23. 

Xn'l'n^n pr. n. (villages) of a station 
of the Israelites Num. 11, 35. 

^"I^ITl pr. n. m. (perh. blooming) 
2 Sam'. 23, 35 but Q'ri il^cn. 

D^^liain pr.n. Deut. 2, 23; see^2tn. 

nl'-^l^n pr. n. m.(village of death) 
of a settler in Arabia Felix Gen. 10, 26; 

cf. the region ZtyoyisA. Hadramawt. 

pn I, see p^n. 

pri II (r. ppn; only in pi. c. ip|3n 
prob. for ipTi, like "^ai?? for "^B? from 
d?) m. a decree Is. 10, 1; resolve 
Judg. 5, 15. 

pn (w. Maq. -pn, w. suf. ipn, 
T^Tj, also ?j;pn Lev. 10, 13, pi. d^pn, 
c.'^pn, "'p^n Ez. 20, 18; r. ppn) m. 
1) prop, what is cut in or graven, 
hence prescribed, appointed, e. g. a 
task Ex. 5, 14; dlloioance of food 
Prov. 30, 8; boundary Job 26, 10, 
pn "^bnb without bound Is. 5, 14; set 
time Job 14, 13. 2) statute Ps. 81, 5; 
also collect, body of laivs Ex. 15, 25; 
decree of God Ps. 2, 7 ; portion fixed 
by law Ex. 29, 28; a custom settled 
by law Judg. 11, 39. 

npn (Qal obs.) i. q. ppn, to 

cut into, engrave, delineate. — Pu. 
to be engraved, carved 1 K. 6, 35; to 


It \ 



be delineated Ez. 8, 10. — Hilh. to 
set bounds (cf. pn), e. g. Job 13, 27 

njsnrri ''^s'l '^uJ'n;r-b? upon (for) 
Vie roots (soles) of my feet dost thou 
set limits, i. e. dost mark for my 
feet how far they may go. 

njsn (c. nisn, pi. ni'pn) f. of ph, 
statute, law , riDBfi npn ordinance of 
the passover Ex. 12, 43, laws of the 
heavens i. e. of nature Job 38, 33, of 
God Lev. 3, 17; pi. customs Mic. 6, 
16, cf. 1 K. 3, 14; r. ppn. 

^I^pn pr. n. m. (bent), Ezr. 2, 
51; from 

V|j?M (obs.) i. q. Arab. wlSa. to 
he bent or crooked. 


(inf. w. suf. "ipn, 1p*in; 
imper. w. suf. njsn) to cut into, to 
hew, in a rock Is. 22, 16; to carve 
in or inscribe, w. b? Is. 30, 8; to 
trace, portray, w. b? Is. 49, 16; to 
ordain latvs Pro v. 8, 27; to decree 
Is. 10, 1. Part, ppn ruler Judg. 5, 

9. — Po. ppn (fut. p'^TT^) to decree 
Prov. 8, 15: part. ppT\')2 a law- 
giver Deut. 33, 21; a judge, ruler 
Judg. 5, 14; sceptre (i. q. 135^3) as the 
badge of magisterial power Gen. 49, 

10. — Pu. part, pi^n^ prop, what is 
ordained i. e. a law Prov. 31, 5. — 
llopli. pnn (fut. >ipn-> for sipn-;". Gram. 
§ 67, Rem. 8) to be engraved, w. s 
Job 19, 23. — Prob. mimet. akin to 

•^i?0» "'1=''7> Arab. ^3^, Sans, ksi 
(break), ^ktji, G. hacken, E. hack, W. 

ppn pr. n. (digging) of a town 
on the borders of Asher and Naph- 
tali Josh. 19, 34; pp^in in 1 Ch. 
6, 60. 

^'Ppn Is. 10, 1, see pn II. 


(fut. I'pn;^) prop, to dig; 

hence to search, examine Job 13, 9, 
cf. 28, 27; to explore by mining 
Job 28, 3 ; to search out, by inquiry 
Deut. 13, 15; to make a survey of 
a land, w. ace. Judg. 18, 2 ; to exa- 
mine, of food, to taste Prov. 23, 30 ; 
to test the mind 1 Sam. 20, 12. — 
Nipli. "ipna to be searched out Jer. 
31, 37; to be ascertained 1 K. 7, 
47. — Pi. to search or seek out Ecc. 
12, 9. 

"npri (pi. c. ''t'pr') m. 1) fl^ searching 
out Job 34, 24 ; ipn "ptl no searching 
out, i. e. unsearchable Prov. 25, 3; 
^pn "I'^N'i? till there is no searching 
out, i. e. so as to be numberless Job 
9, 10; 'nh 'I'npn searchings of heart, 
i. e. deliberations Judg. 5, 16. 2) 
a secret, the inmost or deepest part, 
of a thing, as of the sea Job 38, 16; 
unsearchableness of God, i. e. of his 
works and plans Job 11, 7 (cf. xa 
pa&r) TOO Geou 1 Cor. 2, 10). 

'nn(only pi. a^'n'n, Q^'n'in; ;r. ^^n) 
m. a noble, free-born 1 K. 21, 8; "']S 
d'i'i'in Ecc. 10, 17 son of nobles. 

*in Is. 11, 8 hole; see nsin. 

IN I) i (obs.) i. q. Arab. ,jy^, 
to ease the bowels; hence nx'ina a 

' T T -: - 


^^y^^ m. (only pi. c. I'^n 2 K. 6, 
25 for "^t^nn, w. suf. Cn'iN'in Is. 36, 
12, and Dnn-nn 2 K. 18, 27 in K'thibh 
(but dn^is in Q'ri) excrements, dung 
2 K. 18, 27; D'^ai"' ^'yn doves' dung 
2 K. 6, 25. 

3 JM (Qal obs.) i. q. ti^in,^© 
be sharp, to cut, cf. Chald. !:]'i^n 
knife; hence ii'nn. — Nipli. S'^na 
to wound one another, to fight 2 K. 
3, 23. — Hoph. (only inf. abs. n^inn) 
to fight 2 K. 3, 23. 


(imper. iHn Jer. 50, 21, 




fat. n-nn;;, ntit!":: Jer. 26, 9) perh. 
akin to yyi, 1) to dry up, of water 
through heat Gen. 8, 13, of the 
ground Gen. 8, 13, of the sky, devoid 
of clouds and vapours Jer. 2, 12. 2) 
fig. to he desolate, waste, of a parched- 
up region Is. 34, 10, of sanctuaries 
Am. 7,9; to be desolated, of a people 
Is. 60, 12; trans, to lay waste Jer. 
50, 21. — Nipli. S'lns to he laid waste 
Ez. 26, 19. — Purann to he dried 
Judg. 16, 7. — Hiph. a'^'nnrjfo dry 
up, of water Is. 50, 2; to make de- 
solate, of places Judg. 16, 24, of a 
people 2 K. 19, 17. — Hopll. ym 
to he desolated Ez. 26, 2. 

3 J) _[ Chald. i. q. Heb n^^n. — 

Hoph. (3 pers. f. f^a^inf^) to he laid 
tiaste Ezr. 4, 15; cf. n^n«. 

' ' T t: T 

^yyn adj. m., nn-nn f. (pi. w. art. 
nia^nn Ez. 36, 35) dry Lev. 7, 10; 
desolate, ivaste Jer. 33, 10; r. a'^n. 

in'^rt (w. suf. -la-nn, pi. nia-in, c. 
wa"ih ; r. a'^ri) f. l) a sharp or cutting 
toolJosh. 5,2; a sword Ez. 5, 2; iTDf} 

a^n ^sb Deut. 13, 16, a'nha :i^n 

V AT • : ' ' V r.- : - t 

Josh. 13, 22 to smite or kill w, 
(mouth of) a sword, cf. a*irTa bss 
Num. 14, 3. 2) r. a'nn, dryness or 
drought, only Deut. 28, 22. 

n'nn and I'^in pr. n. (desolate^ of 
whole range of Mount Sinai Ex. 17, 6. 

Il'^n m. dryness Judg. 6, 37; 
drought Gen. 31, 40; desolation Ez. 
29, 10; r. a-^n. 

Tl'2r^!n (r. ain; pi. nia'nin, 
riia'^rtfi, c wa^ri) f. wasteness, deso- 
lation Lev. 26, 31 ; pi. waste places, 
ruins Ps. 102, 7, also in Joh 3, 14 
lab n'ia"iri D'^iasn ivho huild ruins for 

IT T t: • - ' 

themselves, either restoring ruined 
palaces and cities, or building new 
ones doomed to ruin. 

n^l'nri (for Ma^Ji; r. ann) f. dry- 
ness, na'nna on the dry land Gen. 

1^1^'^n (only in pi. c. '^r'S']'!!) m- 
drought, heats, only in Ps. 32, 4; 

r. a-irt. 

" T 

Jj^JISl'nrt pr. n. m. (Pers. perh. 
ass-driver) Est. 1, 10 (na-a-jr. Est. 4,9). 

Jjl (only in fut. pi. la-in:) 
perh. akin to p"^;?, to tremhle, to haste 
or flee, onlj'inPs. 18, 46; see on ^iSIj. 

^^ J*! (prob. from ii*yn w. dimin. 

ending h- — ) m. a locust, so called 

from its motion Lev. 11, 22. Cf. 

«> ^ tf ^ 
Arab. J^^ to leap, gallop, as a horse; 

^j]yL^ a kind of wingless locust. 

nri (fut. ^yr:i) 1) to tremhle, 
quake Ex. 19, 18; to he alarmed Ex. 
19, 16; to palpitate, w. h of cause 
Job 37, 1; fig. to he anxious, w. bx 
for 2 K. 4, 13. 2) #0 come trem- 
bling, to haste, w. "jri from Hos. 11, 
10. — Hiph. ^"^"inr} to rout Judg. 
8, 12. — Prob. mimet. akin to *l?'n, 
^?'?, ^ti'^ n, Syr. Jjju, xpaodo), W. 
crz/cZ (ag^ae), E. cradle. 

T^n (pi. fi'i'i'nri) adj. m. trembling, 
anxious, w. b? /or 1 Sam. 4, 13; 
fearing, reverent, the object put w. 
a Ez. 10, 3, w. b? Is. 66, 2, w. b^t 
Is. 66, 5. 

T^n pr. n. (trembling) of a fountain, 
or of a spot near it, 'li'nn 'j'^^ Judg. 
7, 1 ; gentil. "^"Tin a Harodite 2 Sam. 
23, 25. 

16) f. 1) a trembling, terror Gen. 27, 
33; care, anxiety 2 K. 4, 13. 2) pc 
n. (trembling) of a station in the 
wilderness Num. 33, 24. 

I nn (fut. rrr^'^, apoc nn^) 




akin to "TnJi, to burn, glow, used only 
of anger; ''BK JT^Ji'] and my anger 
shall burn i. e. I will be angry Ex. 
22, 23, w. ^ Gen. 30, 2, w. ^^t Num. 24, 
10, w. b? Zech. 10, 3 ai or against any 
one. Impers. l"^ tvyn it burned to him 
i. e. he was hot or angry Gen. 31, 36; 
w. 1''3''53 it kindled in his eyes i. e.his 
eyes flashed anger Gen. 31, 35. — 
Niph. part. pi. D'^'^H!? angry, incensed, 
w. 3 against Is. 41, 11. — Hipli. 
'^'7-'^ ^^^^' s-poc. "in!!]) to let burn, 
to kindle anger, w. hy against Job 
19, 11; to show ardour, zeal Neh. 
3, 20; "r^Jiis P'^mn JTinfi ii'inx afifer 
^im Baruch zealously repaired (the 
wall), comp. Gram. § 142, 3, b. — 
Tiph. (fut. nnnn'^, Gram. § 55, 5) 
to be emulous, to rival Jer. 22, 15; 
w. nx to contend with Jer. 12, 5. — 
Hith. (fut. apoc. "^tinn) to make one- 
self hot or angry, to fret, Ps. 37, 1. 
— This r. is prob. akin to "ina 
(where see Note); cf. L. uro, ira. 

Jm JM (obs.) perh. akin to nnn, 
to protect; perh. hence 

*^T*^.^'^ P^' ^* ™^' (psrh. Pt^ is a 
shelter) Neh. 3, 8. 

"l^liri, see *i'"iri. 

t^iri (only pi. d^tJlin) i. q. Arab. 

3^' Syr. 1190^, string of corals or 
pearls, pi. necklaces Cant. 1, 10; r. 

bTltl (pi. fin^'-in Prov. 24, 31) m. 
a thorn-bush or nettle Job 30, 7; r. 

* T 

Vj^^^i^. pr. n. m. (perh. snub- 
nosed, from D^l^iri w. ending t\—_ , see 
p. 501) Neh. 3, 10; see r. d"nn II. 

■JW (c. 'jl'nn, pi. &*»;Hn; r. rrnn) 
m. 1) glow, heat, qx li"in heat of 
anger Num. 25, 4; anger Ps. 2, 5; 
pU bursts of anger Ps. 88, 17. 2) perh. 

a withered thorny sort of brushwood, 
hence a dry fagot, only in Ps. 
58, 10. 

"j^lin pr. n. (prob. 1. q. 'n n^a, 
which see) of a place near Timnath 
Serah; hence gentil. ''3"in Horonite 
Neh. 2, 10. 

Vi'^'^^ pr. n. m. (perh. early born 
r. Cj'nri II), whence gentil. '^B^'iri 1 
Ch. 12, 5 K'thibh; see t|i-)r|. 

Y^in I (r. yy^t) m. 1) rfifcA or 
fosse, of a fortress Dan. 9, 25; prop, 
part, one slightly wounded Lev. 22, 
22. 2) a decision or judgment, pa^S 
I'iinriti in the valley of decision or pu- 
nishment Joel 4, 14. 3) gold (r. ]^^n) 
only poetical Ps. 68, 14, cf. ^puao;. 

Y^in II (for 7^^n; pi. D^ZC^^in, 
w. firm -p; r. yy^ II) adj. m. 1) 
active, eager, hence industrious, stren- 
uous Prov. 12, 27. 2) r. y^n I, s/iarp, 
pointed, e. g. "j^ii^iri yy\-)2 pointed thresh- 
ing -sledge Is. 41, 15; also simply 
ysi'nrt Is. 28, 27; fig. a pointed sherd 
or s/iarp sfowe Job 41, 22. 3) pr. n. 
m. (active) 2 K. 21, 19. 

nij^'in (only pi. t^^:ryn) f. a 
sharp threshing-sledge Am. i, 3. 

Tjll (obs.) akin tol^f^Ii-^- 
Arab. '^^, to bore through e. g. gems 
or pearls for stringing; hence T*l*in 


M JM (obs.) perh. akin to fnnn, 
T]f ?, to protect; hence perh. •i;:n'nn. 

"l^iTin pr, n. m. (burning, r. nnn) 
Ezr. 2, 51. 

♦^^nin for MWn in Neh. 3, 8 
in some texts. 

^•l*?^ pr- n- m. (perh. brilliant, 
reduplicated form of G^H) 2 K. 22, 
14; but rrnpn in 2 Ch. 34, 22. 

^rj'^U (r. "T^iH) m. inflammationf 
fever,' only Deut. 28, 22. 





_ (o"bs.) to scrape, grave. 
— • Mimet., akin to f'^nl, TlJ'^n , n^n, 
D'na, Syr. u4i-«», Sans, ^arp (to hollow), 

y^cLpaxxui, L. cardo, carduus, Gr, 
kratzen, E. scratch, card, W. carthu, 
Breton karza, skarza; all suggestive 
of a scraping sound. Deriv. H'^'y) 

tD*)n TCi. \) a graver y chisel Ex. 
32, 4. 2) a stylus, metal pen, prop, 
a graving or writing instrument; 
fig. Is. 8, 1 uiiax D'nn a mail's style, 
i. e. ordinarj' style of writing known 
among the people. 

Dti'in (from linn w. the ending 
Q^— , cf. a^'^I?; only pi. Ci'^xay'in, see 
Gram. § 93, 8, Par. VIII) m. a scribe 
Gen. 41, 8, prob. one that used the 
graving or vvriting instrument, esp. 
in Egypt, one skilled in cutting or 
Avriting hieroglyphics, hence a sacred 
writer; pi. d"'3Si2inin the sacred 
scribes Ex. 8, 3. 

Db'in Chald. i. q. Heh. scribe 
Dan. 2,' 10; pi. "pXSpnn Dan. 2, 27. 

*'"}n m. glow, heat; 7\^ ^y^_ heat 
of anger Ex. 11, 8; r. n'in. 
^'^n, see fc^"ir!. 

^''^n I (prob. r. ^^'n) m. prop, 
whiteness, hence tvhite or fine bread, 
only in Gen. 40, 16 "^nh ''^G baskets 
of white bread, Sept. xava ^ovSpiTtov; 
but perh. from ^y\ to roast or bake, 
akin to Chald. itTnn cake. 

- T T -: 

"in II (from 'nih w. adj. ending 
•>— 7") pr. n. (cave-dweller, rpcoYXo- 
^UTYjt) of a troglodyte people in 
Mount Seir Gen. 14, 6; pi. n^^nHo- 
rites Deut. 2, 12. 

'^'^n, see ^"^in: r. ^in. 

— ' - ' - T 

"^^^rj (pi. S^aX:) m. i. q. Arab. 
^^^> purse or 6a^ for money 2 K. 

5, 23; prop, something carved or 
hollowed out as a receptacle ; r. W^H. 

jTj^'^H pr. n. m. (i. q. Arab. tJiJ)^ 

the autumnal rain, akin to qn'n 
autumn) Neh. 7, 24, but nnii in 
Ezr. 2, 18; patron. ''B'^'in Hariphite 
1 Ch. 12, 6 in Q'ri. 

y^t^n (pi. c. ''^'^'in; r.-jr-nni) m. 

1) a cut, slice; S^Hfi '^^*^*]'!! slices of 
curds or wetf; cheese 1 Sam. 17, 18. 

2) 1. q. Y^^n II 2, bnan is^in iron 
threshing-skdges 2 Sam. 12, 31. 

"C jH m. 1) a ploughing, 0. Eng. 
earing 1 Sam. 8, 12. 2) ploughing- 
tim£ Gen. 45, 6; r. yi'^h. 

^tp'^^tl adj. m., only n'^^^'^n f. in 
use, silent, still, hence sultry, of the 
east wind, only Jon. 4, 8 ; r. bnn I. 

Tj jn I (fut. tl'in'^) prob. akin 
to Tnn, Chald. "r\^T\_ , to roast, only in 
Prov. 12, 27 the idle man iXV,'^'^^ 
= T(y2^^ ^i&t) roasteth not his game 
("iTi^); others prefer to render it 
catcheth not his game, see "r^'^n II 2. 

^ jn II (obs.) 1) i. q. tl^S, to 

interlace, hence T]'^*7. 2) to catch, 
seize, perh. in Prov. 12, 27. 

:j jn Chald. (Pe al obs.) i. q. 
Heb. Tj'^n I, to singe, burn. — Ithpa. 
to be singed, of the hair Dan. 3, 27. 

t^^n (only pi. taiS'ih; r. ntin II) 
m. lattices, ivindow-lattices , only in 
Cant. 2, 9: cf. na^X. 

T \ -: 

^ JJ I (obs.) prob. akin to *i"^ri, 
to burn, to be sharp or stinging; 
hence prob. ^^iin thorn or nettle; cf. 
L. urtica from wro. 

U JM I (Qal obs.) prob. to shut 
in, enclose, hence D^i^n a we^, also to 




consign (to niin), hence Q';^n a curse. 
— Hipli. D'^'^nn i) to set apart for 
God (opp. bbn il) i. e. to consecrate, 
devote (to holy purpose) Lev. 27, 28. 
2) to devote (to evil or curse), i.e. to 
lay waste, destroy utterly Deut. 2, 
34; comp. L. sacrare in hoth good 
and evil sense. — Hopli. 'oiy^rj io he 
consecrated Ezr. 10, 8; to be destroyed 
Ex. 22, 19. 

D JM II akin to Arab. ^^, Syr. 
yc'fio, to break off, hence part. pass. 
Dlin (ta'nn) cut off, shortened, of a 
snubby nose, flat-nosed Lev. 21, 18 
(see C]^^*>n). — Hipli. B'^inn to cut 
asunder, to divide or split Is. 11,15. 

U iM in (obs.) akin to D-^n, to 
be high; hence 'j'i^'^n. 

D"]n pr. n. (devoted or high) of 
a place in Naphtali Josh. 19, 38. 

Din pr. n. m. (= c^in, D'nn 
flat-nosed) Ezr. 2, 32; cf. Syr. ^ojjo 
pug-nose, perh. akin to cijxoi;, L. 
simus, simia (ape); r. 0"^^! H. 

Din, Din in Zech. 14, 11 (r. 
ctin i; w. siif. wn, pi. d'^Ta'nn) m. 

1) a net (prop, enclosure) Hab. 1, 15. 

2) a curse or destruction (Sept. dva- 
Oepia) Deut. 7, 26, cf.Mal. 3, 24; /Ae 
object devoted, a devoted thing (Sept. 
dvddYjfxa) Lev. 27, 21. 

»^''?1'1 P"^' "• (desolation) of a 
royal city of the Canaanites Num. 
14, 45; formerly nB]l Judg. 1, 17. 

"jTJin pr. n. m. (mountain peak, 
r. W^n III) Hermon, the mountain 
of Anti-Libanus Josh. 11, 3; as it 
bas three summits, we find the pi. 
0^3b"]n in Ps. 42, 7 the Hermons (cf. 
the Alps). 

TClSin (from r. D-in II, w. for- 

mative ending UJ-^^-, see under letter 
U) m. a sickle Deut. 16, 9. 

"jin (for l-nn; r. "rnn) 1) pr. n. m. 
(perh. ^ noble)' 1 Ch. 2, 46. 2) pr. 

n. (i. q. Arab. yjl;^. parched, Syr* 
. j.a«) of a city of Mesopotamia Gen* 
11, 31, Haran. 

^Dhh, see 

D'^S'^n pr. n. (prob. double cave;, 
r.^^h) of a city of Moabls. 15, 5 ; hence 
perh. gentil. "^sHh Horonite Neh. 2, 10» 

1£jin pr. n. m. (perh. from IJii 

viv : - J, 

to snort and Syr. '^1 to pant; hence 
perh. snorter-panter) 1 Ch. 7, 36. 

D jFI I (obs.) i. q. Arab. j£^, 
Syr. ^JSfM, to he rough, of the skin, 
hence to be scabby. 

W J) I II (obs.) perh. to he tough, 
sticky, of clay; hence WD'nn. 

D Jil (obs.) prob. akin to "j^^jn,, 
to glow, to shine, of the sun. 

D'ln m. 1) r. Dnn I, the ifcADeut. 
28, 27. ' 2) r. D^n, the sun Job 9, 7 ; 
Jit'iri Judg. 14, 18, prop, shining, bril- 
liance. — On G"nrt in Is. 19, 18, as 
some texts read, see under tr}^}. 3) 
pr. n. (place of clay, r. Cnln 11) of a 
city in Mount Ephraim Judg. 2, 9, 
but irnC) in Josh. 19, 50. 

WD^in f. a pottery, a potter's work- 
shop, only in Jer. 19, 2; r. D'^n II. 
Others take the word to be, SMW-Wse> 
r. D-nn. 

r\^P'in Jer. 19, 2 Q'ri for MD'^tj. 

*r '171 (obs.) prob. i. q. Syr. ''^j- 
be cunning; perh, : 


in Ethpa. to 
hence SJ^rtR. 

v] JM I (fut. ti'yn;:) akin to Si'na, 
also vj'^i^ (cf. Sans, karp break, Lat, 




carpo, "E.carp) i. q. Arab, ^y^, to pull 
or pluck fruit, whence q"in autumn: 
fig. to upbraid, reproach, w, ace. Ps. 
69, 10; w. IP of the cause Job 27, 6; 
of. yyi^, bsN. 2) as denom. of tQT: 
to pass the autumn and winter Is. 
18, 6. — Pi. t^n (fut. t^r}-^) 1) to 
npbraid, scorn, reproach, w. ace. 1 
Sam. 17, 26, w. b 2 Cb. 32, 17, w. 3 
2 Sam. 23, 9; to expose, to hazard, 
as if in scorn Judg. 5, 18. — Niph. 
vj'nna to be plucked or gathered (as 
ripe fruit), of a marriageable woman, 
to be betrothed Lev. 19, 20. 

?]'^n n (only fut. f. tiX^) 
denom. of t)'n*n, to pass the autumn, 
to winter, only in Is. 18, 6. Cf. y=ip, 
deuom. of ■^')J3, to summer. 

^Oy^ pr. n. m. (perh. ripe) 1 Ch. 
2, 51. 

V|*)n (w. suf. "^B'^n) m. a pluck- 
ing of fruit (v.';:\'}'ni)Jiarvest, autumn 
also inclusive of winter, e. g. y'^'^ 
C]';ihi summer and autumn, put for 
the whole year Gen. 8, 22; C)'nnii n^a 
winter-house Am. 3, 15; fig. maturity 
of life Job 29, 4. — Prob. akin to 
xapTTOi;, L. carptura, G. herbst, E. 
crop and harvest. — Hence the denom. 
verb q-nn II. 

nB*^H (pi. mi'&'nrt, c. ma'nn Ps. 69, 

10; r. qVo ^) ^- ^) reproach or scorn, 
contumely Job 16, 10; b? MQ'nn i<ii:3 
to take up reproach against Ps. 15,3; 
also to bear reproach because of Ps. 
69, 8 ; a reproach, i. e. an object of re- 
proach Ps. 22, 7; disgrace, shame 
Gen. 34, 14. 2) parts of shame, pu- 
dejula Is. 47, 3. 

j^ jll I (fut. I'tiril) akin to Arab. 

jo^, to cut in, to scratch; part. 
yiin slightly wounded Lev. 22, 22; 
to cut to a point, to sharpen, of the 

tongue of a barking dog Ex. 11, 7; 
to decide 1 K. 20,40; part. pi. D'^iri'nn 
■fixed, determined, of days Job 14, 5; 
fig. to be sharp to the taste, to be acid, 
sour; hence W^'s:rT\ grape-kernels ; of 
the mind, to be eager, on the alert 
2 Sam. 5, 24. — Nipli. (only part. f. 
niS'ins, c. r>S"ir;3) to be decided, decreed; 
Is. 10, 23 Jis'^nsi, n^s destruction and 
a decreed thing, i. e. decreed ruin (ev 
oia 6uoiv, Gram. § 155, 1, a); decreed, 
i. e. a decree Dan. 9, 26. 

]^ jri II (fut. Yy0 ^^^'^ *^ 
Y\r\ I, to gird oneself, to be active, 
hence •j^^l^n II; 2 Sam. 5, 24 ty. 
'jr'nnn then be ihou on the alert. 

y JPl Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 
yVn, to gird oneself; hence 

Y'ln Chald. (def. NS^n, w. suf. 
jn^t^n) m. loins Dan. 5, 6; i. q. Heb. 
ybn, the liquids b and *i being inter- 

y JM (obs.) i. q. C^n, to shine y 
glitter, of the colour of gold ; hence 
prob. yiin gold, cf. '/putjoc. 

n'^'^ij (only in pi. msS'^ri) f. a 

tight cord Is. 58, 6; fig. pangs (cf. 

^ « » ^ 
^in) Ps. 73, 4; cf. Arab. ^>-aa- to 

bind fast, draw tight. — Prob. from 
l^-nn II to gird or bind tight, vr. the 
format, ending "2- — (cf. 33'^?), see 
under letter 2, p. 74. 

X?T^ (only pi. D^SS")n) m. grape- 
kernels, perh. so called for their acrid 
taste Num. 6,4; but some understand 
sour grapes; r. yyn I. 

p JM (fut. p'"irj^) mimet. akin 

to Arab, j^, to grate or gnash, to 
grind the teeth, w. ace. W^yd pfH 
Ps. 35, 16; w. 3, d-^rOJa 'n Job 16, 9. 

l^n (3 f. rr^n for mnj i. q. 




riTt, akin to bin, Sin, Din, 1) to 
17/01^, hum, of metal Ez. 24, 11, of 
persons Is. 24, 6. 2) fo be purified 
or refined by heat; then fo 6c wo&fe, 
free-bom, hence in. 3) <o be dry, 
parched up Job 30, 30. — NIph. 1113 
also in? (like bns, r. b^n), pi. siins, 
in pause nn?; fut. in;: Ez. 15, 6 
(Gram. § 67, 5) to be burnt, scorched 
Jer. 6, 29; to be dried up Ps. 102, 4; 
to get Jieated w. anger, w. a against 
Cant. 1, 6. — Pilp. inin (iiif. inin) 
to kindle strife Prov. 26, 21. 

^l'^'^ (only pi. D'^lir!) in. sun-burnt 
place, arid spot Jer. 17, 6; cf. n^:2. 

U jri (fut. ^in^) akin to tin, 

I3in (which see), y^^, Ht!*^, 1) to cut 
in, engrave letters on a tablet Jer. 
17, 1; to cut into shape, to sculpture 
wood, stone, metal 1 K. 7, 14; fig. 
to contrive, devise evil Prov. 6, 14, 
or good Prov. 14, 22; w. b? against 
Prov. 3, 29. 2) to plough (cf. Arab. 

w»7*-), of the cattle Job 1, 14, also 
of the ploughman 1 K. 19, 19, w. a 
of the cattle Deut. 22, 10; w. ace. of 
field (fig.) Job 4, 8; to cut by cruel 
scourging, w. b? Ps. 129, 3. — Niph. 
bin.3 to be ploughed Jer. 26, 18. — 
Hi ph. ^""inn, to contrive, devise, w. 
b? against 1 Sam. 23, 9. 

L^ Jl I I (obs.) to be soft, sticTcy, 
cf. bin 11; hence bm 1. 

123 jri II (obs.) to be rough, cf. 
Din I; perh. hence bin 2. 

TZ3 JM I (fut. bin;:) 1) perh. 
prop, to be inert or still, hence — 
a) as to the ears , to be deaf Mic. 7, 
16; (3) as to the tongue, to be dumb 
or silent Ps. 50, 3 ; w. "yo, to be silent 
(turning away) from Ps. 28, 1, see 
Gram. § 141. — HIpli. biinn 1) to 

be deaf 1 Sam. 10, 27. 2) to cause 
to be still, to silence Job 11, 3; to 
keep silence, to hold one's peace Gen. 
24, 21; w. b or bx in respect to 
Num. 30, 5, is. 41, 1; w. "j^ from, 
i. e. not to interrupt but let alone 
Job 13, 13; w. ace. to conceal Job 
41, 4; to be still or quiet Ex. 14, 14; 
to go away quietly from, w. "jis , Jer. 
38, 27. — Hith. binnn to keep one* 
self quiet or still Judg. 16, 2. 

123 JM II (obs.) akin to Din, 
•j^in to gloiv, shine, glitter; fig. to be 
green, to grow luxuriant, of a wood. 

IZinrt (for bin; c. bin w. — firm, 
pl. D-ibm, c. *'bln: see Gram. § 93, 

X •rr' ••TT' 0/ 

4, Rem.) m. artificer or workman, 
e. g. in wood (o'^^y), a carpknter Is. 
44, 13; in stone (pK), a mason 2 
Sam. 5, 11; in iron (Mis), a smith 
Is. 44, 12: fig. in'^nb^ ^)i2*^n workers 
of ruin Ez. 21, 36; r. bin. 

1li"5n (for bin, pl. d^bin)adj.m. 

deaf Ex. 4, 1 1 ; r. bin I. 

123*^n ni. (prob. part, bin 1 ) arti- 
ficer, in copper (nbnt), a copper- 
smith IK. 7,14; a cutting instrument 
or tool Gen. 4, 22. 

ITin (w. n-p loc. nbin 1 Sam. 
23, 16, pl. d^bin; r. tjrj II) m. 

1) a wood, thicket, forest Is. 17, 9. 

2) pr. n. (forest) 1 Sam. 23, 15. 

1li']n (pl- ^'''^'^Cl; r. bin) m. a 
craft ov trade; hence pr.n. d'^binn •'a 
valley of the crafts, a place near 
Jerusalem Neh. 11, 35; also pr. n. 
a Levite of the Tabernacle 1 Ch. 9, 
15, 2) art, artifice; Is. 3, 3 D^bin can 
ivise (skilled) in magic arts, i. e. a 
clever magician (cf. bnb "jl'S?). 3) si- 
lence, as adv. silently, secretly Josh, 
2, 1; r. bin I. 

T23*]n (pl. D^bin, c. ''bin) m. prop. 
clay, potter^s earth (r. bin I), hence 




1) potfert/, earthen- ware; IS'in ''Vs 
earthen vessel, piece of crockery Lev. 
6, 21 ; b'ln "iitii fashioner ofpotte^-y, 
a potter Jer. 19, 1. 2) potsherd Ps. 
22, 16, r. iafn II. 3) pr. n. (pottery) 
of a city of Moab Is. 1 6, 1 Ijsee ^i'^p. 

^^in 1) pr. n. m. (Chald. perh. 
•deaf) Ezr. 2, 52. 2) w. bri, pr. n. 
(perh. hill of craftsmen) Ezr. 2, 59. 

XlTdn. see under -i*ip. 

>MV -r '• 

niU"!)! f. 1) skilled ivork, work- 
manship in wood or other materials 
Ex. 31, 5. 2) w. D'^ian, pr. n. (perh. 
workshop of the nations) a city in 
the north of Palestine Judg. 4, 2. 

Il JM i. q. yi-nn, Chald. h'ln, 

akin to ^apaxTU), fo ctti in, engrave, 
inscribe, w. b?, only in Ex. 32, 16. 

il Jii (obs.) i. q. UJnri II, to 
shine, glitter; fig. to be green; hence 

ri"]n pr. n. (i. q. UJ'ih a wood, 
thicket) of a wood in Judah 1 Sam. 
22, 5. 

SlZjll (fut. a^in:, before Maq. 
-a;$n?) akin to 3^n II, Uian, Syr. 

wAjk..<», Arab. *-*-»». (to compute), perh. 
to ti^3, fo &iw(Z or weave (cf. aW); 
hence fig. to combine, to think (cf. 
D??T), m'n^na mrn fo devise devices, 
w. biJt Jer. 49, 20, w. b? against any one 
Mic. 2, 3 ; tXS^ n^n f o contrive evil Ps. 
35,4; to count for or as, w. b 1 Sam. 
1, 13, w. two ace. Is. 53, 4; w. ace. 
and 3 Job 19, 11; also to impute, w. 
ace. and b of pers. Gen. 15, 6; to in- 
vent Am. 6, 6 ; part. ntJn weaver Ex. 
26, 1; 35, 35. — Niph. nuihi to be 
reckoned 2 K. 22, 7; to be reckoned 
or imputed to any one, w. b Josh. 
13, 3; w. b? 2 Sam. 4, 2, fo &e esteem- 
ed Prov. 17, 28, w. 3 or '1:33 as Job 
18, 3, Hos. 8, 12; w. DS with Ps. 88, 

5. — Pi. to compute Lev. 25, 27; w. 
nx, to reckon vnth 2 K. 12, 16; fo 
think much of Ps. 144, 3; to ponder 
Ps. 77, 6; to purpose or plan Ps. 73, 

16, cf. Prov. 16, 9, w. b?Dan. 11, 24, 
w. btf: Nah. 1, 9; fig. of things, to 
threaten, to be about to (cf. jieXXto) 
Jon. 1, 4. — Hith. fo reckon oneself, 
w. a among Num. 23, 9. 

ZiyZjil Chald. i. q. Heb. aW 

(only part. pass. pi. 'J'^a'^uiri) to regard, 
count, w. 3 as, only in Dan. 4, 32. 

l^n m. girdle Ex. 28, 27 ; r. 1ltt\. 

uirn m. artificer 2 Ch. 26, 15; 
weaver Ex. 26, 1 ; r. auin. 

»l5'l^irM pr. n. m. (perh. for 
hS'nn aoi perh. thought of the 
judgment) Neh. 8, 4. 

nillin pr. n. m. (perh. combina* 
tion)'l Ch. 3, 20. 

"pimpn (r. a^*r|) m. 1) combination, 
reasoning; hence judgment, penetra- 
tion Ecc. 7, 25. 2) pr. n. (perh. 
alliance) of a Levitical city Josh. 13, 

17, common to Beuben Num. 32, 37, 
and Gad Josh. 21, 37, formerly of 
the Ammonites Num. 21, 26. 

']ill'©n (only pi. niaa-^an) m. a 
contriving, device Ecc. 7, 29; then 
a contrivance or invention, for war- 
like purposes, engines or instruments 
of war 2 Ch. 26, 15. 

iT'nisn, ^rr^niDn pr. n. m. (-■> 

regards) 1 Ch. 6, 30; 26, 30. 

riDIIIlCn pr, n. m. (prob. invention) 
Neh.^lb, 26. 

rr'Sll^rn pr. n. m. (perh. pur-. 
pose of Vr;i)'Neh. 3, 10. 

\ \\j\\ (fut. niljn"<) mimet. akin 

to ribrt (Dij) which see, to hush, to 
be silent Is. 62, 1 ; to be still, quiet, 
of waves Ps. 107, 29; w. ^(Q, e. g. 




- r 

''saa n\rnn-")S lest thou be still (and 
refrain) from me (see on ui'nn I) Ps. 
28, 1. — Hiph. tvqT\r\ (part. nu;n^) to 
keep silence Ps. 39, 3; to rest or 6e 
quiet Is. 57, 11 ; <o silence, to quiet, w. 
h Neh. 8, 11; imp. sim'l 2 K. 2, 3. 5. 

n^lSn pr. n. m. (thoughtfuJ, r. 
attJn) 1 Ch. 9, 14. 

T|iy3n Chald. (def. li^slyjn) m. 
darkness Dan. 2, 22, i. q. Heb. "i]^, 

^l^^n pr. n. m. (perh. naked- 
ness, cf. r. t^:^r\) Ezr. 2, 43. 

■^S^^n Is. 20, 4, see Gram. §. 87, l,c 

D^p^irn, see ptn. 

MiZJn Chald. i. q. Syr. ^.^^, 
akin to p'^h, to he needful, part. pi. 
f. )'ntri, perh. in Ezr. 6, 9; to have 
need, part. pi. m. ""prnan, w. b and inf. 
Dan. 3, 16. 

^ni^n Chald. (c. wnm) f. need, 
necessity, what is wanted Ezr. 7, 20. 

"jriirn Chald. adj. m. needful or 
necessary, only in Ezr. 6, 9 "in^n nasi 
and what is needful; from T^tn, as 
Chald. inn aw^ry from W'n. 

niD'^lDln, see nam 

D'^'lpn, see di'di^n, a^rw. 

vf'^rj, see C)ian. 

M^'t^ (^^*- "n^W P^^^- akin to 
tWn, to he hushed, inactive; hence to 
he dim, dark, of the eyes Lam. 5, 17; 
w. "j^ and inf. e. g. their eyes nas^npi 
niX'nia are too dim to see Ps. 69, 24; 
to he ohscured, of the sun Job 18, 
6, of the stars Job 3, 9, of the day 
Ez. 30, 18, of comeliness Lam. 4, 8, 
of the ground Ex. 10, 15. — Hipli. 
T^r'n io darken Am. 5, 8 ; to cause 
gloom Ps. 105, 28, w. ^ Am. 8,9; 
fig. to darken i. e. to confound Job 
38, 2. 

:j Ui I (fut. 'qOT, ^rr^ Job 7^ 
11) perh. akin to pjn, p^n, to hold 
Job 16, 5; to withhold, keep hack 2 
Sam. 18, 16; w. IP from Gen. 22, 12^ 
to preserve Job 33, 18, cf. Ps. 19, 14 j 
w. b, to reserve for Job 38, 23. — 
NIpli. '7^::t}'i to he checked, mitigated^ 
of pain Job 16, 6; to he spared, re- 
served, w. }> for Job 21, 30. 

^^^^^(only pLfciS^n) prop, adj.m, 
dark, but used only as dark 
places or darkness (Gram. § 108, 2, 
Kem. 2), only Is. 50, 10, r. "^n. 

tjlCn (only pi. D^3'rn, see Gram. 
§ 93, 8, Kem. c?) adj. m. dark, fig. 
ohscure, mean, only in Pro v. 22, 29; 

r. Tj^rr. 

T\^T[ {yr, suf. iS^uri; r. t^rn) m. 
darkness Gen. 1, 2; fig, of Sheol or 
Hades Ps. 88, 13; misery Is. 9, 1 ► 
ruin Job 18, 18; ignorance Job 37» 
19; wickedness Pro v. 2, 13, cf. ra 
axoTOi; Eom. 13, 12. 

n^^n (f. of Timlin) f. darkness, 
only in Mic. 3, 6. 

TOOT, once niD'"'©'! Ps. 139, 12 
(c. n?;rn Ps. 18, 12) t darkness Gen. 
15, 12.' ' 

^ wll (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
vbhf) (which see), V'iiS, to he relaxed, 
weak or prostrate. — Niph. (only part, 
pi. d^VdJria) to he relaxed or enfeebled, 
only in Deut. 25, 18. 

^123 n Chald. i. q. Syr. Vl^ 

prop, to blow or stir up, hence 

„ *. j7 

^Q-A-i4io tempest; hence to shatter, 

to shake or heat to pieces Dan. 2, 40. 

U WM (obs.) prob. akin to )tr^, 
to he bright; fig. to he affluent. 



iDirn pr. n. m. (prob. affluent) 
Ezr. 2/19. 

D^n, see dTlJiin. 

iVJ^n pr. n. (perh. affluence) of 
•a place in Judah Josh. 15, 27. 

nD I'JtDrl pr. n. (perh. brightness) 
of a station of the Israelites in the 
wilderness Num. 33, 29. 

b7J^n (prob. from DUin, w. the 
formative ending b-7-, as in ^^"lax, 
■^aiH; w. n — loc. ribTaTiin Ez. 8, 2: 
pi. in the Talmud, D'^^guin) m. bright 
tnetal, burnished copper, gold-brass 
Ez. 1, 4 (cf. ^aXxoXiPavov, prob. for 
■xaXxoXiTuapov Rev. 1, 15); r. dTlin. 

"j/^IOn (prob. from btn w. the 
adj. ending l-z-, cf. •jS'in; only pi. 
tais^TlJn) adj. m. splendid', fig. wealthy, 
noble Ps. 68, 32. 


(obs.) akin to firn i. q. 

Arab. ^J^'*^, to be bright or beautiful. 

"l^n m. splendour, ornament, only 
of the brilliant breast-plate of the 
High Priest Ex. 28, 15; but perh. 
*tWn is akin to l^cn bosom, hence 
perh. a corselet. 

yy^r] (fut. titrv<) i. q. p)&n, 

1) to strip off' foliage of trees Ps. 
•29, 9, the bark Joel 1,7; to make bare 
Is. 52, 10. 2) to draiv off', separate, 
hence tfli'n ; to take off' water at the 
top or surface Is. 30, 14; to skim off', 
leaving the dregs or lees undisturbed 
Hag. 2, 16; part. pi. c. iB^bn Is. 20, 4. 

5^1^ (pl- c- ''&il?»i) m. what is di- 
vided oflf, a flock of goats, only in 
1 K. 20, 27; r. C)m 


\Ut I prob. akin to pl'n, Tj'-??^, 
p'Ql HI, to hold or bind together, 

hence fig. to be attached to, to love 
warmly, w. 2, of amorous feeling 
Gen. 34, 8, of love to God Ps. 91, 
14, of God's love Deut. 7, 7 ; without 

3, Is. 38, 17 "i^a rrmi ^i'B^ Pip'-J" 

thou hast loved my soul (delivering 
it) from the pit of ruin (Gram. § 
141); w. ^ and inf. to delight or love 
to do anything 1 K. 9, 19. — Pi, 
to join, fasten together Ex. 38, 28. — 
Pu. to be fastened togetJierBx. 27, 17. 

pton (only pl. d^p'rn, d'^p-TOh) 
m. attachments, connecting rods or 
poles Ex. 27, 10. 

ptin (w. suf. "^ptn Is. 21, 4) m. 
attachment, delight 1 K. 9, l;r.p'y2Jn. 

P^n (only pl. d^p'in) m. spoke 
of a wheel i. e. that which connects 
the rim and the nave, only 1 K. 
7, 33; r. p'oin. 

lUM (obs.) i. q. -iy:i5, Arab. 

)***., to bind together, to combine; 

"WTj (only pl. d'^'iTBn) m. prop. 
gatherings i. e. of the spokes ; hence 
the nave of a wheel, only in 1 K.7, 33. 

rri^rt (c. t^yon) f. a gathering 
of waters, a cloud 2 Sam. 22, 12; 
the parallel passage (Ps. 18, 12) has 

123 iZJil (obs.) akin to rv:bp, ;ihCj3, 
to be dry, witJiered, hard. Hence 
123U?n m. i. q. Arab. j2>>-^, dry 

grass, hay Is. 33, 11; nnfiV ui^in dry 
grass of the flame, i. e. readily burnt 
up Is. 5, 24. 

Xt] (r. nnn; w. suf. drnn Gen. 
9, 2) 1) adj. m. (pl. d-mn) broken e. 
g. the bow 1 Sam. 2, 4 (see Gram. 
§ 148, 1); fig. panic-struck Jer. 46, 5. 




2) subst. fear^ dread Gen. 9, 2, cf. 
Job 41, 25; r. nnn. 

Ttn pr. n. m. (an object of 
fright, r. nnn) Gen. 10, 15; wbence 
patron. *^nn Hittite. 

niir] (fut. nnn;:) prob. akin 

to ttjin to haste, hence to snatch up 
(fire) Prov. 6, 27; w. "jp from the 
hearth Is. 30, 14; w. b?, Prov. 25, 22 
for coals iuJx*)-^^ nnn nnx thou 
hurriest (i. e. quickly layest) on his 
head (Gram. § 141); fig. to snatch or 
pluck away Ps. 52, 7. 

nrin f. terror, only Gen. 35, 5; 
r. nnn. 

5^nn m. bandage for a wound 
Ez. 30, 21 ; r. bm 

nnnn (only pi. Q'^nrinn) m. terrors, 
alarms, only in Ecc. 12, 5; r. nnn. 

*'rin (patron, of nn which see) 
m. Hittite 1 Sam. 26, 6, pi. D^nn 
2 K. 7, 6, also nn ''ia Gen. 23, 5 ; f. 

n'^nn Ez. 16, 3, pi. ni^nn i k. ii, i, 

also nn nisa Gen. 27, 46; a race of 
people dwelling in the region of 
Hebron Gen. 23, 7. 

n'^rin (r. nnn) f. terror Ez. 32, 

27: dn,"n!ia5^ on'^nna in their terror 

> T T : • T • • ; 

from their might, i. e. in the dread 
of them proceeding from their power 
Ez. 32, 30. — Also as fem. patrony- 
mic, see inn. 

• liJI I (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
^^n, nnn to cut or sever, fig. to de- 
cide. — Niph. T^T\}_ to he determin- 
ed, w. b? concerning Dan. 9, 24. 

yijl \ (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 

^ns», ^ytt^, "^ns, to hind, surround; 
hence to swathe. — Pu. and Hoph. 
to he swathed, nbnn xb bnnn thou 
wast verily not swaddled Ez. 16, 4. 
Deriv. b^~n and 

n^rin f. « bandage ^ swaddling- 
hand Job" 38, 9. 

I^lnln pr. n. (perh. concealment) 
of a city in Damascene Syria Ez^ 
47, 15. 

UZjII (fut. Dhn^) akin to bm^ 

D^n, fii:x, DSr, Arab. ^, to enclose^ 
to wrap or shut up, w. ^2?3 around^ 
to hide Job 9, 7 (cf. ^?a "isD); esp. 
to seal, w. ace. Is. 8, 16; w. 3 of 
the seal 1 K. 21, 8; w. a of the 
thing in which the seal appears Job 

37, 7; fig. to seal up, i. e. to reveal 
under seal or as a secret to be kept,, 
w. 3, Job 33, 16 dhn"> D'iGra orb 
their instruction he puts a seal; 
to complete or finish Dan, 9, 24 dhn^ 
nlt^rsn (K'thibh) for to finish the 
sins, i. e. till they are ended, where 
the Q'ri is tsnnb to complete. — 
Niph. dnna to he sealed Est. 3, 12, 
— Pi. to shut up Job 24, 16. — 
Hipli. d"'nnv} to shut up, to stop Le"vv 
15, 3. Deriv. onin, nanh. 

Dnn Chald. i. q. Heb. onn, 
to seal up ban. 6, 18. 

Dnn m. a seal, seal-ring Ex. 28> 
11; see Dni'n. 

' ^ T 

tDlnn m. perh. seal or perfection 
Ez. 28, 12; r. Dnn. 

ri53nn f. a seal, seal-ring Gen, 

38, 25 ; r. dnn. 

|»_1J i perh. akin to dnn, dnto, 

to enclose, comhine,join affinity; hence 
part. m. "jnn father-in-law (i. e. wife's 
father ; opp, dn the husband's father) 
Ex. 3, 1 ; f. nijnn mother-in-law (i. e, 
wife's mother) Deut. 27, 23. — Hitb. 
to form mutual affinity, by giving 
and taking daughters in marriage, 
w. n^^ Gen. 34, 9, w. 3 Josh. 23, 12, 
w. b 2 Ch. 18, 1. Hence 

I T T 



')r}n (c. ^nn, w. suf. ".arq, pi. 
fsnn) m. bridegroom Is. 62, 5; 
son-in-law Gen. 19, 12; in general, 
marriage - relation 2 K. 8 , 27 ; "jrin 
D'^^a'n o blood- spouse, designation 
of a newly circumcised infant Ex. 
4, 25. 

nSr^tl f. espousals, nuptials Cant. 
3, in r. W- 

VJinM (fut. tihn^) akin to nnn, 
pjiari, titt|5, fo catch, seize, as a beast 
of prey Job 9, 12. Hence 

Crin m. i^rey or rapine, poet. 
robbers, only Prov. 23, 28. 

nljll (fut. "I'nn;^) perh. akin to 
iniy, io treafc through, w. 3 Ez. 8» 
8; to break into a house, w. ace. 
Job 24, 16 J to row Jon. 1, 13; hence 

V r.- ; " 

Ilinri (fut. rn;:, in pause nm, 
nnx, w. n cohort, nnnx) prop, to cut 
up, to break or crush (see Pi.), hence 
fig. to he dismayed (cf. L. frangi 
metu, IxTrXiqTTecOai) Deut. 31, 8; 
w. '^3Qp a^ f/ie face of Jer. 1, 17; 

w. yz at Is. 30, 31. — Nipli. nni 
(fut. nn^) to be alarmed Mai. 2, 5. 
— Pi. nnri <o dismay Job 7, 14; fo 
be shattered Jer. 51, 66. — Hiph» 

nnrj (fut. nn;;, in^ri"; Hab. 2, i7 for 

•jnri"!, Gram. § 20, 3, Rem.; "^nrinrr 
Jer. 49, 37 for '^nnnn) to break is. 
9, 3; to terrify Job 31, 34, Jer. 1, 
17. — Prob. mimet. akin to Arab. 

C*i., ^t?a (which see), li.cudo, ccedes,^ 
W. cad, Gael, caf/ia (battle), E. quash,, 
squash, G. quetschen. 

rinn m. l) dismay Job 6, 2U 
2) pr. n! m. (terror) 1 Ch. 4, 13. 


Ij ^ef^, the ninth letter in the 
Heb. Alphabet, hence used as the 
numeral for 9; whence 113 (i. e. 9 + 6) 
for JT' 1 5 (see Gram. § 5, Rem. 3). Its 
name n">i: (whence 9?)Ta) prob. means 
a coiling, r. la^iu, hence perh. serpent, 
which is rudely pictured in the 
common form and in the Phenician 
0, QJ , I3. Its sound (indicated by 
t or t) is a hard t articulated at the 

c • ' 

back of the mouth, Gram. § 6, 2, 3. 

tD interchanges — 1 w. its kindred 
dentals or Unguals, e. g. "i^W II = ^V^ 

II (cf. Syr. II4 = i^an), !:)-J3 = r,^^, 
r\S'^ = Jirn = prob. nsb; — 2 w. si- 

TT TT '^ TT' 

bilants, e. g. nna = rrz\, i^:: = y,D, 

3 w. gutturals, e. g. 5)3l: = vjsn, I35n 
I = ^:r\ , "n^a II = "i!i2) il = ".^it I. . 

t3 seems to be a format, pref. in 
ina (=n'nn-p), akin to srnnpi (a 
variety of Hiph.), prop, to cause t(y 
be hot; see Gram. § 55, 5. 



see 5<-il3. 

DSLP Chald. i. q. Heb. n-;::, to 
be bright^ good, hence to be happy,, 
to rejoice, w. b? Dan. 6, 24. 

^^mp, see ^<1•J. 

Il'O Chald. (i. q. Heb. n^b) adj. m. 
good Dan. 2, 32; pleasing Ezr. 5, 17. 




55^1Iltt pr. n. m. (God is good) Is. 
7, 6; another in Ezr. 4, 7. 

^mI^ (obs.) perh. akin to ni'ld, 
to be good, pleasant; hence naro. 

bl!2tt (only pi. tJ-'b^nw; r.^aia) m. 
head-dress, turban, only iu Ez. 23, 
15 (Sept. Tiapai ^ar.xai, Ynlg.tiarcB 
tinctcB), called so prob. because dipped 
in rich dye. 

*I^Sl'^ m. a summit, mountain, 
Judg.9, 37 descending yy^^ *i^3i: Qs^g 
from the height of the land (cf. 
Qinnrr lUiX'n in v. 36), cf. Ez. 38, 12; 

r. *iai3 = ^2n n. 

— T - T 

n5^ (imper. nhp Gen. 43, 16) 
akin to Mat, Syr. w^^s?, 1) ^o slaugh- 
ter cattle Ex. 21, 37, esp. for food 
(not for sacred use as expressed by 
nat) 1 Sam. 25, 11. 2) to kill men, 
^0 massacre Ps. 37, 14; hence 

nSp (w. suf. i^na::) m. l) a slaugh- 
ter, killing of cattle Is. 53, 7; of men, 
butchering Is. 34, 2. 2) fig. slaugh- 
tered beast, i. e. butcher^ s meat, for 
a feast or meal Pro v. 9, 2. 3) pr. 
n. m. of a son of Nahor Gen. 22, 24. 

tllSt^ m. prop, slayer, butcher, 
hence 1) a cook 1 Sam. 9, 23. 2) exe- 
cutioner, then life-guard of a king, 
acting also as executioner of his 
death sentences, d'^riai:n"'ni!5 Gen. 37, 
36 (later 'aa a"! 2 K. 25, 8) captain 
of the body-guard. 

niSt3 m. Chald. executioner, hence 
body-guard Dan. 2, 14. 

nrj^ti f. a cook 1 Sam. 8, 13; 
r. nau. 

nnZl'D (r. naa) f. 1) a slaughtering 
of cattle Ps. 44, 23. 2) flesh of a but- 
chered beast, meat 1 Sam. 25, 11. 

tlJlDtp pr. n. (slaughter) of a 

place in Syria 1 Ch. 18, 8; for whicli 
we find n;:a in 2 Sam. 8, 8. 


(fut. ba^^) akin to 5)ai3, 

5a:f I, Syr. \^^ ''^^^» -^^ab. j-j-o, 
to dip, to sink into, w. ace. of object 
and a of the liquid Gen. 37, 31; 
without ace. Ex. 12, 22; also intrans. 
in 2 K. 5, 14 he went down ^aa^l 
a^a^s :5aia "j^^^a and dipped (Sept. 
Ij^aiTTiaaTo) in the Jordan seven 
times; ellipt. w. -,73 Lev. 4, 17; cf. 
yn^. — The ultimate form ai3, a:s 
of the above roots is prob. mimetic, 
akin to Beng. dub (to sink), Suu) 
and ouTTTO), G. taufen, tief, E. dip, 
dive, deep, Ital. tuff are, Irish tomam 
(plunge), W. divfn, 

•in^!?!5p pr. n. m. (T\^ has plunged 
i. e. consecrated) 1 Ch. 26, 11. 

JZIlJ (fut. SJa-J-i) akin to ba-J 
(which see), 1) to sink, press into, 
then to impress in a yielding or 
plastic substance, hence ril^'aia a st^wef. 
2) intrans. ^o sink, go deep, e. g. in 
mire, a pit, w. a Ps. 9, 16; 1 Sam. 
17, 49 in^^aa 'jaxn SJaiJW awd fAe 
sfone sa7ik (or i(;ewif cZeep) in his fore- 
head. — Pu. to be sunk, over-ivhelmed 
Ex. 15, 4. — Hoph. S^aaJn fo be sunk, 
immerged Jer. 38, 22; to be laid deep, 
settled Prov. 8, 25; hence 

ri?!llt^ (w. suf. insJaa, pi. m'3)aD, 
c. m'siau:) f. a signet, seal-ring Gen. 
41, 42 (see 2>aa); then a ring of any 
sort Ex. 25, 12; 35, 22. 

tllJ^^t^ pr. n. m. (signets or im- 
pressions) Ezr. 2, 43. 


- T 

(obs.) akin to ^a:|, lan, 
Chald. *nsip, to swell or heave up, 
project (as a hill); hence "n^aw. 

"pB'llti pr. n. m. (for •jia'n aa 




good is Kimmon) of a Syrian, father 
of Benhadad 1 K. 15, 18. 

rnti m. name of the tenth Heb. 
month, from the January to the Fe- 
bruary new-moon Est. 2, 16. — Prob. 
akin to Sans, tapas (winter), Copt. 
Trjjji; hence winter-month. 

n^t: pr. n. (perh. pleasantness, 
r. 32::) of a place in Ephraim Judg. 
7, 22.' 

^lintj (c.'^ini?, -"nf^r:; pi. a^^iinu) 
adj. m., f. n^inu (r. "isni?), bright, 
<:lean, pure, a) physically, opp. to fil- 
thy Zech. 3, 5; (5) artificially, unalloyed, 
of gold Ex. 25, 11; 7) ritually, opp. 
to N^a, Lev. 10, 10; 8) morally Ps. 
51, 12 lina ab a pure heart. Also 
perh. as subst. for in:: purity Prov. 
22, 11. 

IPI U (fut. -ino')) akin to inj, 
"^^yiS, to shine, to he bright, hence to 
be or become clean, pure, a) physi- 
<'.ally 2 K. 5, 12; p) ritually Lev. 13, 
«; 7) morally Ps. 51, 9. — Pi. "inw, 
fut. *ivi^'],fo make clear or clean, the 
heavens Job 37, 21 ; to purify, silver 
Mai. 3,3, a land Ez. 39, 12; of 
persons, ritually Num. 8, 6, morally 
Ps. 51, 4. — Pu. to be cleansed Ez. 
-22, 24. — Hith. "in-jn and *ifii3ti, to 
-cleanse or purify oneself Gen. 35, 2 ; 
see Gram. § 54, 2, b. Hence 

inb (w. suf. n^na Lev. 12, 4, 
•^■"iri:: Ps. 89, 45) 1) brightness Ex. 
■24, 10; Ps. 89, 45 l'"!"^^ S^S^rn </iOW 
7iasi caused to cease from his splen- 
dour, i. e. hast diminished it: this 
form is prob. for i"ir|t3^ or for i'^f^i:?^. 
^) purification Lev. 12, 4. 

n*^* it: f. 1) a purifying, cleansing 
(ritual) Lev. 13, 35; •'n^'^a "^^^ blood 
of petrification , of a woman after 
<:hild-birth Lev. 12, 4. 2) purity 
<moral) 2 Ch. 30, 19; r. nna. 


(Qal obs.) prob. to be miry, 

dirty, akin to Arab. 5«lb mire ; hence 
in Pilp. N*Jt<u to sweep away dirt 
(cf . "I'sD'n to clear awaj- ashes, from V~^)r 
only in Is. 14, 23 N'^xa^a rf^PX-JXai. 
'^'^yi^'^ and I will siveep her (Babylon) 
away w. the besom of destruction, 
cf,, 2 K. 21, 13. Hence 'J^'^ and 

iS"lQ Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 

iilM, to twine or bind together, of the 
bowels when hungry or perh. tightly 
girded and braced (as among Ameri- 
can Indians) for better enduring the 
want of food; hence to fast. Deriv. 

n lU (perf. 3 pi. JQis Cant. 4, 10; 
fut. aa"''] from aa'J) prob. akin to 
nas II, f^;!J, 1) to be bright, goodly, 
pleasant Num. 24, 5. 2) to be cheerful, 
hapijy, w. nb, 1 Sam. 25, 36. 3) to be 
good or ivell, to please, used impers. 
or as adj. w. h, Ps. 119, 71 ^^ nia it 
is right or well for me, i. e. it goes 
well w. me; Job 10, 3 ?|b a-ian does 
it please thee?; w. bx, 1 Sam. 20, 12; 
w. "^r^a Num. 24, 1; w. b? in later 
style Est. 1, 19. — Hiph. n-^-jn or 
2'^wri, see its forms and meanings 
under 2^. Hence 

- T 

!nit: adj.m., nnvj f. \) good{v.ak6c,), 
in the widest sense (opp. to 3?"^) as 
indicated by the root, e. g. of land 
or soil, fertile Ex. 3, 8, of cattle in 
good condition, fat Gen. 41, 26, 
Lev. 27, 10, of trees, fruitful 2 K. 
3, 19 (cf. Luke 6, 43), of fruits, fresh, 
sound Jer. 24, 2, of gold, fine Gen. 
2, 12, and so of other things a» the 
context may require or suggest, e. g. 
as affecting the senses, fair to the 
eye Gen. 6, 2, pleasant to the ear 
Ps. 45, 2, sweet to the smell Is. 39, 

Ti-'Ti^ nitt 



2, nice to the taste Gen. 2, 9. Used 
of persons, good morally Prov. 12, 
2, kind 1 Sam. 25, 15, cheerful 1 
K. 8, 36, happt/ Is. 3, 10; used of 
things, great or am^Ze Gen. 30, 20, 
right or triie Jer. 6, 16. 2) as subst. 
(see a^ia and nsiia) ^oo(Z, to xaXov, 
fAe right morally, virtue Prov. 11, 
27 (cf. Gen. 2, 9) , a good or benefit 
Job 2, 10, welfare or prosperity/ Ps. 
25, 13. — Perh. as adv. «^c?/, xaXw?, 
in Ruth 3, 13. 3) pr. n. (perh. 
fertile) of a region beyond Jordan 
Judg. 11, 3, prob. ToUjSiov in 1 
Mac. 5, 13. 

n^lilNt nit: pr. n. m. 2 Ch. 17, 8. 

n^t: m. 1) goodness, of a thing, 
Ps. 119, 66 d?u aii3 goodness of dis- 
cernment, i. e. good sense; often of 
God, benignity Jer. 31,14. 2) beauty, 
splendour Hos. 10, 11, Ex. 33, 19. 

3) joyousness, w. ab Is. 65, 14. 

4) good luck, prosperity Prov. 11, 10. 

5) collect, good things, blessings Deut. 
6, 11. 6) the best or choice Gen. 45, 18. 

» iDrlti adj. fern, of m'l: (which see 
for the meanings), often used as 
subst. like m'u 2, ^oocZ, a blessing Ps. 
86, 17; a benefit Ex. 18, 9; welfare 
Job 9, 25; Ps, 16, 2 rpb^ bs "^n^itj 
»wy happiness is wo^ «&ot'e ^Aee, i. e. 
thou art my highest good ; goodness, 
Neh. 6, igi^niniD his virtues; benig- 
nity Ps. 68, 11; bounty Ps. 65, 12. 

n^nitJ and ^n^nit) pr. n. m. 

T • IT • -^ 

(good is Pi^) of several men, a) Neh. 
2, 10; p) Ezr. 2, 60; 7) Zech. 6, 10. 
Sept. TcD^ia^. 

niLJ i. q. Chald. XVj, Arab. 

T T ' = ' 

,^yb , to twine or 6iw^, hence to spin 
Ex. 35, 25; hence niw^. Cf. nils. 

r7nLj (3 perf. ni3 for MD Is. 44, 
18 as if from Jino), to daub, smear 

over, e. g. a wall w. mortar, to plaster 
Lev. 14, 42 ; to besmear (eyes) Is. 44, 
18; part. pi. w. two ace. Ez. 13, 10^ 

ban in&< fiina tssn 6eAoW f/iem daub- 

" T • T T • 

172^ i# over (Avith) lime or ivhite-wash, 
— Niph. (inf. nisTi) fo be plastered 
Lev.- 14, 43. — Perh. akin to TsyYto, 
L. tingo, G. tiinchen, E. fi?i^e. Deriv, 

n-^i:, ninp. 

LJ'ILJ (obs.) perh. to be sticky , 
slimy; hence perh. a'^ia which see. 
Perh. also to coil; hence perh. la'^yt 
= ri*13 (serpent) name of the letter 13. 

tlStjit: (only in pi. nba-'a)^ 
fillets Ex. 13, 16, esp. prayer-fillets 
("p^ain) Deut.6,8 or Jewishphylacteries 
(<p uXaxTTjp ia,Mat.23,5), i.e. parchment- 
strips inscribed w. passages of the law, 
and at prayers worn as amulets on the 
forehead and the left wrist of the wor- 
shipper. — The r. is prob. q^ia, hence 
nBiJsa=ns^it3 (cf. rialsfrom ns::?), but 

perh.r.js a^a to coil, w. ending:]— (see 
p. 501), and fern, r-^, cf. na^'iN;. ' 


/^'*ILJ (Qal obs.) akin to by23, to 
lift, to cast; hence — HI ph. bitpn to 
throw or hurl, e. g. a spear 1 Sam. 
18, 11, a person Jer. 16, 13, a storm 
Jon. 1, 4. — Hoph. h'^^n (fut. ba^\ 
once bu3*i Job 41, 1) to be cast, as a 
lot Prov. 16, 33; to be cast out Jer. 
22, 28; to be cast doivn, prostrated 
Ps. 37, 24. — Pi I p. babp to hurl 
down Is. 22, 17; hence fibaba. — 
Prob. akin to rib'n, nbn, bbn, Sans. 

tt' tt' -t' 

tul, L. tollo, tXcxo), W. dala, towlu. 

pLJ (obs.) akin to y\Q I, to be 
soft, sticky; hence "j'^D. 

yl^^ (obs.) perh. akin to 5]SI3 11, 
to bind, collect; hence nSisii:. 

1*1 LJ I (obs.) perh. akin to ^a3, 




to wait or watch for, to expect; hence 
perh. D'IlJ, Din:?. 

HU II (obs.) akin to "^^'^ II, 
"|!)P1 1, to go round, surround; hence 
^10 I, rrriK, nrj^. 

MU III (obs.) akin to "i^l-n III, 
^>iFi II, #0 arrange, set in a row or 
order; hence "i^:: 2. 

I^ti (pi. D^'nrj, c. ■'■n^M) m. 1) a 
waU or enclosure Ez. 46, 23 ; r. *i!|l2 II. 
2) a row Ex. 28, 17; a course or 
raw^e 1 K. 7, 12; r. "nvj III. 

n^t3 Chald. (def. N'nrj) m. i. q. 
Heb. 'n>i:£, rocA:, mountain Dan. 2, 35 ; 
perh. akin to 1S130. 

TZJ'ILJ (fut. iasi-j;i) i. q. Syr. wHl!^, 

<o /?y, fo cZar^ or dash upon the prey, 
like the eagle Job 9, 26. — Hence 
Syr. yiOQ.^^ raio^, L. ^avo (t = p), 

G. j9/*aw, E.^efl-cock; perh. the bird's 
name is Sanscrit. 

Mt3 Chald. (seer. i<li3; cf. r,3^ from 

T : ^ T : ' T : • 

fcta^) f. a fasting; hence ady.fastinglg, 
without food, only in Dan. 6, 19. 

il*i^, see a^ia. 

nU in Is. 44, 18 for Mta (see r. 
truii), see Gram. §. 72, Eem. 8. 

i ij ILJ (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
iiPTn, <o rfrive or thrust; hence to 
shoot. — Pil'el n^r]a fo shoot, part. 
n^^iP ^'it^D^ shooters of the bow, i. e. 
archers, only in Gen. 21, 16; see 
Gram. § 75, Rem. 18. 

iTlntJ (only in pi. mnip) f. ^/ie 
reins, as the learned Jews say, 
tracing the word to r. WD, because 
the kidneys are covered w. fat Ps. 
51, 8, Job 38, 36. 

I^inp m. a mill, hand-mill, only 
Lam. 5, 13, 1. q. Syr. |^? ; r. "jn-J. 

'Ilnp, see ^na. , 

In'intS, see nna. 

nrjLJ, see n^.u. 

j)_iU (fut. "in-j']) prob. akin to 

Chald, root XH'n (which see) to pound, 
crush Ex. 32, 20, fig. to oppress Is. 
3, 15; esp. to grind w. hand-mill 
Num. 11, 8, fig. in Job 31, 10 ",ni2n 
"•nTTN '^riK^ let my wife he another's 
concubine, i. e. be sexually embra- 
ced by him (so the Sept., Vulg. and 
Targum), cf. a like use of [xuXXo), 
L. molo (whence mulier). Part. f. pi. 
minisln Ecc 12, 3 the grinders, i. e. 
the molar teeth. Deriv. "jinii and 

njnjD f. mill, perh. the grinding, 
said of the teeth Ecc. 12, 4. 

IMLJ (obs.) prob. akin to {Tin, 

•^'^'n'^j ^0 burn, to inflame, esp. of the 
fundament; hence 

"nrrp (only in pi. d'^'inp) m. prop. 
inflammations (of the anus) i. e. 
piles, emerods 1 Sam. 6, 1 1, mostly in 
Q'ri (for wh^'-J swellings) Deut. 28, 27. 

H'^tp m. plaster (on a wall) Ez. 
13, 12; r. n^lW. 

t3''t3 m. clay Is. 41, 25 ; mud, mire 
Ps. 18, 43; 69, 15. — The r. is 13^13, 
or ^'r^, redupl. i<L2Xip. 

"^"O Chald. (def. fi<r"J) m. clay 
Dan. 2, 41 ; r. "jlD = "J^lb. 

n^'^P (r. n^iij H; pi. W-iil?) f. a 
wall, around a place Ez. 46, 23; aw 
enclosure, e. g. a casf fe in Cant. 8, 9 ; 
an encampment or pastoral village 
for cattle and their keepers Gen. 
25, 16, Ps. 69, 26. 

^t3 (in pause bl3, w. suf. ''^a; r. 
bVj I) m. dew Gen. 27, 28. 

bp Chald. i. q. Heb. dew Dan. 4, 12. 






C\ V^ perh. akin to nb"n, to hang 

about (in tatters), to be torn; then 
perh. to be mended in pieces or 
patches; only in part. pass. 64^^13 
spotted (as if in patches or pieces) 
Gen. 30, 32, Ez. 16, 16. — Pu. part. 
patched, Josh. 9, 5 nlitbiaa hibsp clout- 
ed sandals. 

D-^lJ^bti. see •'^s-J. 


I J /^LJ (obs.) akin to t^^Zi, to be 
fresh, young; perh. akin to QaXXto, 
TEpT)>^, L. ^ewer, W. <ywer, E. tender. 
Hence '^^a and 

» OtO (c. nbkp) m. prop, what is 
young, hence a /am6 1 Sam. 7, 9. 
Cf. Syr. |Il^ boy, |L.^ girl. 

DtSDti, see b^t:; whence 

n^pbti f. a hurling down Is. 
22, 17. 

''bp (only in pi. Q^i<^:3 for d'^^^I?, 
Gram. § 93, 6, Rem. 6) m. i. q. n^)^ 
(r. nba) lambs, in Is. 40, 11, and 
prob. as pr. n. of a place (prob. for 
D-iJ^bp n^a) in 1 Sam. 15, 4; cf. dbw. 

^^U I (obs.) akin to bti, Arab. 

Jb fo bedeio, ^Ib conj. IX fo ;^oi^ 
(of tears), Sjt. »«j»^^.^ fo distil, prob. 
also to ctaXaw, L. stillo, to fall 
gently or in drops; hence bu3. 

^ >L2 n (Qal obs.) i. q. hh^ III, 
to over-shadow, to cover. — Pi. b^B 
to cover over, w. beams or rafters 
(cf. rrn;? II) Neh. 3, 15. 

^^LJ Chald. i. q. Heb. hh'^ U. 

— Aph. b^DN^o seek or find the shade 
Dan. 4, 9. 

D ^U (obs.) akin to Syr. >qL.^, 
to oppress; hence 'j'i^bl?, perh. also 

u5iD pr. n. (oppression or lambs) 
of a city in Judah Josh. 15, 24, 
perh. i. q. d'^Nbi: 1 Sam. 15, 4, q. v.; 
also pr. n. of a doorkeeper in the 
Temple Ezr. 10, 24. 

*p'J!pt3 pr. n. m. (oppressed) Ezr. 
2, 42. 

CS/2LJ (fut. fi<X3-j^, inf. ni(Xi'J 

• •l"^ t:.' t:t 

Lev. 15, 32) prob. akin to Aram. 
5)aa, "OsQ^, to plunge; then to be 
soiled or sullied, polluted (opp. to 
^•na to be bright), esp. used of ritual 
uncleanness of persons and animals 
Lev. 11, 1 — 31, also of things Lev. 
15, 4 — 26. Fig. to be unholy (mo- 
rally), w. ^ of cause or manner Ps. 
106, 39. — Niph. j<i9p3 (2 pi. dn^i?? 
Lev. 11, 43, Gram. § 74. Rem. 4) to 
defile oneself, to become unholy, w. a 
of that wherein Ez. 20, 7, w. 'b as 
to what Ez. 20, 31: on ^3*i^a3 in 
Job 18, 3 see under Ji^ia. — Pi. iK'aa 

' T T •• • 

1) to make unclean, to profane Lev. 
15, 31; to defile, violate a woman 
Gen. 34, 5. 2) to declare unclean 
Ez. 20, 26; to unconsecrate or dis- 
qualify a priest Lev. 13, 3. — Pu. 
to he made unclean, to be defiled Ez. 
4, 14. — Hilh. (fut. !!<52l3^ Gram. § 
54, 2, b) to make oneself unclean 
Lev. 21, 1, Hos. 9, 4. — Hothpa. 
VOr^'n only in Deut. 24, 4 to he defi- 
led, ^qq Gram. § 54, 3. Hence 

i^tJtJ adj. m. (pi. d'liJt^rp), f. tii«^ 
unclean ritually Lev. 5, 2; unholy 
(morally) Job 14, 4; Ez. 22, 5 niXiQta 
dtain tlie unclean of name, i. e. of un- 
holy repute. 

IniJ/JtJ f. only in Mic. 2, 10, 
same as 

n&^"-3t3 (r, fct^::) f. uncleanness 
(ritual) Lev. 5, 3, impurity (moral) 
Ez. 39, 24; fig. an unclea'*^ thing 
Judg. 13, 7. 




nniJ i. q. K«M, prob. in Job 
18, 3 C3?'^3i?n iraD? we are become 
unclean (i. e. contemned) in your 
et/eSy but many prefer to render it we 
are stolid, taking HTaa as akin to 
DDX, Chald. Dto to shut up (the 


(fut. "iba"^) prob. akin to 

"I^S, 15^, to hide, conceal Josh. 2, 6, 
Job 3, 16; esp. under ground, to 
burp Gen. 35, 4; fig. to lay up, keep 
Job 20, 26 l-iJilSsb "j^i^-j "n^ltl'^S 
rtZ^ darkness (i. e. misfortune) is 
stored up for his treasures, where 
perh. a play on the words "J^^ia and 
"l^S^ was intended. Used ironically 
in Prov. 19, 24 the sluggard hides 
(i. e. dips) his hand in the dish. In 
Job 40, 1 3 *jl73D3 in the hidden means 
prob. in darkness. — NIph. to hide 
oneself Is. 2, 10. — Hiph. to secrete 
2 K. 7, 8. Hence Tioa^. 

JSJLJ (obs.) prob. akin to WS, 

•jS^ II, to enclose, contain; hence 

tXyC (w. suf. ?ix;i3) m. a basket 
Dent". 26, 4. 


(Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
C].;r:, Syr. ^-al.^, to be dirty or foul. 

— Pi. to sully, defile, only in Cant. 
5, 3. 

n^LJ (Qal obs.) i. q. TOP, Syr. 
1^ , perh. akin to ii^h, to wander. 

— Hipli. nran to cause to wander, 
to lead astray, only in Ez. 13, 10. 

D</tiJ (fut. fcSp'i) to taste Job 
12, 11; to relish 2 Sam. 19, 36. Fig. 
to understand Ps. 34, 9; to perceive 
Prov. 31, 18: comp. L. sapere 
(whence F. savoir), also E. taste (in- 
tellectual as well as physical). 

U)/U Chald. i. q. Heb. fi^D; 

used only in Pa. DSU to cause to 
taste, to feed Dan. 4, 22. 

UTO m. 1) ^as^e, of food Ex. 16, 
31 ; flavour Job 6, 6. 2) fig. discern- 
ment, good sense 1 Sam. 25, 33, 
Prov. 11, 22. 3) a decision or decree 
Jon. 3, 7. 

D3^t3 Chald. m. i. q. Heb. drj 3, 
a decree Ezr. 6, 14; but mostly in 
form of 

D?t3 Chald. (def. N^?!?) m. taste, 
relish Dan. 5, 2; fig. discernment, 
reason (L. rafio) Dan. 2, 14, hence 
account Dan. 6, 3 ; also decree, edict 
Dan. 3, 10 dSa n?3b KSb^ /rm^, 
<Aow hast set a decree; DSip ^:?3 a 
Zord o/" judgment, i. e. ^Wvy comw- 
se?Zor, king^s deputy Ezr. 4, 8; a 
matter Ezr. 5, 5; r. a^ip. 

I (Qal obs.) akin to Chald. 
•jsa, Arab. ^gJ9th, to stab: only in Pil. 
"jsb to be thrust through, only in Is. 
14, 19 n'nn 'i53>ba stabbed ones of the 

' VAT ••-; ; ' 



II to load, only in Gen. 
45, 17 I3s?w burden ye; akin to "j^s. 

TjtS (r. S]St3 I; w. Buf. ISQia; no 
pi.) m. collect, littles ones, young 
children, prob. called so for their 
toddling, or short and tripping steps 
Gen. 34, 29; opp. to young men and 
maidens Ez. 9, 6, also to youths 
above 20 years old Ex. 12, 37; at 
times used for a family Gen. 47, 12 
fl^*!] "^^^ according to the mouthi 
(i. e. the numbers) of the family, cf. 
2 Ch. 20, 13 Dfl^3;i1 dv}"'^:? CjQtt-Da 
also their families, viz. their wives 
and tJieir children. 

nDIj (Qal obs.) i. q. nSS, perh. 

akin to nns n (cf. *intt = nin = n"in) 

-T ^ ~T -T TT' 

nst: 246 

~ IV 

to spread; hence riBC). — Pi. nsip 

1) to spread wide, to stretch out, 
e. g. the heavens Is. 48, 13. 2) fig. 
to cause to stretch, to make to grow, 
to nurse, perh. in Lam. 2, 22, where 
others perh. rightly take it for a 
denom. of MBip 1 , and so meaning to 
hear upon the palms, to dandle or 
fondle in the arms. Hence 

riSt) (pi. hinSM) m. 1) the spread 
hand, palm, esp. as a measure of 4 
fingers, hand -breadth 1 K. 7, 26; 
Ps. 39, 6 thou hast set my days 
ninsa hand-breadths, i. e. very short; 
hence prob. nea as denom. ; see nsa. 

2) a term in architecture, a corbel 
1 K. 7, 9. 

nStJ m. i. q. naa 1, hand-breadth 
Ex. 25,' 25; r. MBia. " 

U nBu (r. nSu3, where see) m. pi. 
dandlings, caressings of infants in 
the arms, only in Lam. 2, 20; see 
Gram. § 108, 2, Rem. 2. 


^SU (fut. bb-j"^) perh. akin to 
bsrijfo besmear, to lay on, hence to 
charge, impute Job 13, 4, w. h^ of 
the pers. Ps. 119, 69; w. b? of thing 
Job 14, 17 ■'3'iS-b? VspJn^ and thou 
imputest over (i. e. more than) my 

*lp3t3 m. Jer. 51, 27, pi. w. suf. 
'T^'^'^tsa Nah. 3, 1 7, prob. an Assyrian 
military title, general, captain. The 
word, if Semitic as is likely (see 
Gram. §1,1, Note '), is best explain- 
ed perh. in Lee's Heb. Lexicon as 
akin to Chald. "lianw (cf. bxnia) good 
chief, brave captain. 



I to mince, of gait, only 
in Is. 3, 16 nssbn qisa"! T\^\>'n walking 
and mincing they go, namely the 
coquettish women in their affected 
manner; prop, to toddle, trip along, 

hence tjM (which see). — Prob. a 
mimetic r. akin to G. tappen, trippcln^ 
E. tap, trip, pitapat. 

^|S LJ II (obs.)i. q. t]!ia, which see. 

iSIj Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 
*nB^ III, 'ina, to project, to be point' 
ed or sharp; hence 

1?t2 Chald. (pi. I'i'nrj) m. i. q. 
Heb. I'l^ElS, prop, a point, hence nail 
of a man Dan. 4, 30; claiv or hoof 
of an animal Dan. 7, 19. 

^<^ LJ to be greasy or fat, hence 
fig. to be dull, stupid (cf. 'J'^xpipri Is. 6, 
10), only in Ps. 119, 70; comp. the 
like use of Tia^u^, L. pinguis. 

riStJ pr. n. f. (prob. a drop = nsb?, 
r. t)I?$)^ K. 4, 11. 

I JLJ ifo pws^ or JHve on, hence 
to persist, Prov. 27, 15 "ly,:) qb-n a 
continual dropping from the roof.^^ — 

Prob. mimetic, akin to Arab, jda, 
Syr. ?i-^. Sans, trad (to press), L. 
trudo, E. thrust. 

MLJ Chald. i. q. Heb. ^"n-J, <o 
thrust out, drive forth Dan. 4, 22. 

n lU (obs.) i. q. nVj (which 
see) fo be fresh; hence I'la. 

Di^lt: only in K'thibh of Ruth 3, 
14 for d"it3 not yet. 

n JU (Qal obs.) i. q. Chald. n^-J 
to labour, to tire; only Hiph. Tj^y^'ri 
to cause to tire, only in Job 37, 11 
a:^ ^'^'^M^ ■''^3 with rain he (God) 
burdens (or fatigues) the cloud. Hence 

rritj (w. suf. dsn'io) m. an en- 
cumbrance Deut. 1, 12; a burden Is. 
1, 14. 

^^y^ (r. n'lB) m. only in fern. 



n^'ltt, fresh, of a wound Is. 1, 6, of 
a jaw-bone Judg. 15, 15. 

U JLJ (obs.) perb. akin to ^^lu I, 
to ivait for^ to expect \ hence perh. 

D'lt: (r. ^iira I, or ^y^\ cf. trf2) 

m. prop, expectation, prospect, Q'^WSi 
yf? Is 28, 4 m prospect of harvest, 
i. e. before it came; used elsewhere 
as adv. prospectively, i. e. not yet, 
before, hence always w. fut. or inf. 
<except in 1 Sam. 3, 7 , Ps. 90, 2, 
Prov. 8, 25, where the perf. occurs), 
Gen. 2, 5; Zeph. 2, 2, w. inf. n'lb, 
where also we have itiD^ xb fi'^ttSl 
before there shall not come (for hefore 
or /esf </iere shall come), as in the 
Ger. ehe er nicht kommt (see Gram. 
§ 152, 2); Hag. 2, 15 )'2t< WiZJ D';?^^ 
from not yet to lay a stone, 1. e. he- 
fore iJie laying of a stone (comp. 
ti'-lf:^ in Is. 46, 10). 

r| J(J5 (fut. if^'Ji, tf2T. ^^^- ^^' 

27) cf. q "n I, 1) to pluck, from a tree 
or plant (cf. Spsirco). 2) to rend, tear 
in pieces, as wild beasts Deut. 33, 20, 
as enemies or warriors Gen. 49, 27; 
fig. of God Ps. 50, 22, Hos. 6, 1. 
— Nipb. to be torn in pieces Jer. 5, 

6. — Pu. tit!^, to be mangled, torn 
in pieces Gen. 37, 33. — • Hiph. to 
cause to tear up food (i. e. to give to 
eat), to feed (cf. xpe^u)) Prov. 30, 8. 
Hence JiB"!:. 


(obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

(-3^ to be fresh, hence perh. to sprout 
forth, to luxuriate; hence perh. C)'ni3, 
t\'^'a 1. — Perh. akin to OpuTTTO), G, 
treiben, E. thrive. 

Cl'^JtJ adj. m. fresh (r. Cl'ia), of a 
leaf, only in Gen. 8, 11, where it 
may mean newly plucked off, r. C)^a. 

Cj^lti m. 1) r. t{y^ fresh leaf (cf. 
n^^) Ez. 17, 9. 2) r. tj^ia, prey of 
wild beasts Job 4, 11; Ps. 76, 6 ^i™ 
S^'no mountains of prey, i. e. whence 
the enemy makes prowling inroads j 
food Prov. 31, 15. 

nS^P (r. &]^a) f. collect, what is 
torn, cattle torn by wild beasts Gen. 
31, 39; booty Nah. 2, 13. 

J^'^bS^ti Chald. m. pi. only in 
Ezr. 4, 9, Sept. Tap^aXaTot, a people 
from whom colonists were sent to 
Samaria; perh. same as the TaTroupot 
dwelling on the east of Elymais. 

Yodh, the tenth letter in the 
Heb. alphabet, hence used also for 
the numeral 10. The name 'Tii = ^'i 


(cf. di'', pi. d*^^";") means a hand, 
which is rudely figured , with 
out-stretched fingers, in the oldest 

characters, e. g. ^^s/, ffl (see Table 

of Ancient Alphabets); whence the 
Greek 'luiTa. Its force is that of y, a 
semi-consonant readily changing into 
the vowel i (Gram. § 7, 2), which is 
sounded not as inEng. but as in Keltic 
and German or French , as in pique. 
*" interchanges — 1 w. its kindred 



feeble-letters N, rt, and esp. ^ (see 
under each, also Gram. § 69). e. g. 

DD-i = r,D5i, na-i = nr^n ii, ib^ = I'b^ ; 

l-T I-t' TT tt ' vr.' TT ' 

— 2 w. the liquids "b and D, e. g. 

tj'i I = T3>b ; nx"^ = njta , n:£i = n:i3 

— T -T' TT tt' -T — T 

(Gram. § 71); — 3 w. its kindred 
palatals a, 5, p, e. g. T}'^ II = S^a (cf . 
E.yam=G.^arw), "i^^II=^Ta=^^|5, 
^i^B-i = n;r3, ;ij'iui^ = Syr. ^ 4 « 4 n ; 

— 4 w. gutturals, e. g. fi?3^ I = Ji^JiII, 

nr = n::? = nan = ^33: — sNv. 


dental or sibilant, e.g. 1!?'; II = ^?^ II, 

nni II = n'w, sn"" = axn ii. 

TT tt' -T -T 

** appears also as a formative 
ending in ^—;- and 'i-;^-, in adj. forms 
(see Gram. § 86, 2, 5) e. g. "^h^'}, "^Vs, 
•'Sn; prob. akin to Sans, -^as, Gr. 
-10^, -aTo<;, L. -ius,-em, E. -«/ (airy). 

ZiS"* 1. q. nnsj, njfij, sny, aisri, 

fo ?ow^ /or, w. b, only Ps. 119, 131. 


i \^ ' i. q. ntjs, fo he becoming, 

suitabk, w. V of person, only in Jer. ^^^ ^^' ^^' 

„' .ii'i . . common to 

10, 7; cf. Syr. ^(|.i* becoming to, 

irplirov Tivi. 
*li5<^ see "l^<^ 

: : 

^"57!J^^ ^n^3Ti^^ pr. n. m. (ni 
gives ear) Jer. 35, 3, 2 K. 25, 23; 
for which sin-'it"' Jer. 40, 8; n'^Sf 

IT ; - : ' ' T ; - I 

Jer. 42, 1. 

"T^^Jt*^ pr. n. m, (he, i. e. God, 
gives light) Judg. 10, 3 (in N. T. 
'laeipo; Mark 5, 22); patron. 1'^^<;;;| 
2 Sam. 20, 26. 

yiS I (Qal obs.) i. q. b^x, to be 
wry; hence fig. to be dull, foolish. 
— Nipli. bsi3 to be foolish, to dote 
Is. 19, 13; to act the fool'Num. 12, 11. 


^CS II (Qal obs.) akin to nbx II, 

"■ T „ T T ' 

prob. Syr. \io,towill,ivish. — H\ph. 
b-^stin (fut. apoc. bxi"') to will, to 

venture or set about (Sept. 5p)^oiJiai), 
w. b and inf., Gen. 18, 27 ; to consent 
Judg. 17, 11 ; to be content or pleased 
Josh. 7, 7. — Sanscr. val, PouXo[xai 
L. vo/o, G. wollen, Engl. i<;27^, W. 
ewyllu'^ cf. Syr. ^al:^. 

yis"" III (obs.) i. q. b^ixll, to be 

in front, to begin; hence bxla, b*ia> 

liN (obs.) prob. akin to ^ns,. 

prop, to gleam, glitter, as the surface 
of a stream in the sun-light; hence 
to flow, run fast: perh. hence 
^K^ (w. n-;- loc. nnki, pi. Cl'^"}^{> 

c. ''"iX'i; once IJO for 1X^3 Am. 8^ 
8) m. i. q. "inj river, stream Dan^ 
12, 5; esp. the Nile Gen. 41, 1; 
D';>'n:£?3 """^x^ rivers o/" Egypt, i. e. the 
branches of the Nile that form the 
Delta Is. 7, 18; fosses or moats Is» 
33, 21; channel or s/ia/"^, in a mine 
- The name was prob» 
the Egyptian (Copt. 
lOp, lApO, stream) and the Se- 
mitic; as perh. Nile is akin to bns. 

;JSl'' pn,tronym., see "I'^X^ 
122^ (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. 
j**-u J ^0 despair, to give up or forsake 

something.— Nipli.ui5<13 to despair of ^ 
desist from, w. yo of what is aban- 
doned 1 Sam. 27, 1 ; part, uixi: des- 
perate, one in despair Job 6, 26;. 
impers. to be hopeless Is. 57, 10. — 
Pi. (inf. yix^) to cause to despair, w.. 
ace. Ecc. 2, 20. 

n^ti{J<% "^fi^-mr pr. n. m. (n-t 
heals, r. nm) Zech. 6, 10; also- 
Josiah king of Judah 642—611 B.C. 
2 K. 23, 23. 

"^ -5n^J? pr. n. m. (perh. for n^-nPiX";, 
i. e. n^ spies out, r. "iin I) 1 Ch. 6, 6 \ 
but ^Snx in V. 26. 





^iiJ (obs.) i. q. Kia, hence perh. 

T T 

NniQ Ez. 43, 11, for X12^. 

(Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. 

w^J to shout (in battle), to shout afar 
or aloud; hence 23T'. — Pi. sa"^ 
to call aloud, cry out Judg. 5, 28. — 
Mimet. akin to bsx II, bs;* II, Syr. 
).^^r:a^ trumpet-call, ia|x[3o(;, 6piajx- 
(3o; (=Tpi -f- ia}ipoc), L. triumphus, 
E. hubbub, whoop, hip-hip! W. iwbwb. 

b^^'' (w. suf. rib^Qi, once f^bni 
Deut. 32, 22) m. prop, what flows or 
moves r. ^5^ I ; hence produce of the 
land Lev. 26, 4; fig. wealth Job 
20, 28. 

dH"^ pr. n. (trodden, perh. thresh- 
ing-floor, r. 02;^ or D^3) of a city 
Judg. 19, 10, afterwards Jerusalem, 
gentil. n. ''p^S'] Jebusite Gen. 10, 16, 
also for Jerusalem in *iWD*ti "P^ 
Judg. 19, 11 and without ^^^ in 
Josh. 15, 8, Zech. 9, 7. 

TZiil'], see tj.\ 

"nn^^ pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, 
chooses) 2 Sam. 5, 15. 

TIl^ pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, 
understands) Josh. 11, 1. 

oJ^lIl'^ 1) pr. n. m. (perh. he shames, 
r. Li-ia) 2 K. 15, 10. 2) pr. n. (dry) 
of a city in Gilead, fully l^'ba Ui^a;? 
Jabesh Gilead 1 Sam. 11, 1, also 

nvh-A u:3"> Judg. 21, 8; r. l:;3^ 

^■J I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 

hz^, h^Z, bba, Arab. Ji^, to flow or 
run, as a sore, hence perh. nba^ — 
lll|)h. V-^n-in i. q. Syr. V£cf, Chald. 
Vs^n (cf. N'^nn, ?^"^b'in),fo cause to 
flow or wiove on, as in a procession, 
io conduct Jer. 31, 9; io bring for- 
ward or present, gifts Ps. 68, 30. I 

— Ifopli. b^^in <o be led or brought 
Is. 53, 7; /o 6e escorted, in pomp 
and state Ps. 45, 15; to be brought 
foricard or presented, of gifts Is. 
18, 7. 

^jJ II (obs.) prob. mimet. akin 

to Sn^ (which see), b33, <o sound 
aloud or shout, esp. in joy and 
triumph; hence bsi'^, Vs^l'^. 

yj"* Chald. i. q. Heb. bn^ I. — 

— • ^ "T 

Apli. bn'^n to bring Ezr. 5, 14. 

j'y^ 1) m. a stream; d'^a ''bs') 
streams of water Is. 44, 4. 2) pr. n. 
m. (stream) Gen. 4, 20 ; r. bn'^ I. 

bl"", see Ism 

u3^5!2^ pr. n. (perh. stream or con- 
fluence of people) of acity inManas- 
seh Josh. 17, 11; for which D:^^2 in 
1 Ch. 6, 55. 

n^lLl^ f. a running sore, ulcer, 
only in Lev. 22, 22; prop. adj. f. of 
obs. ba;: ; r. bn;) I. 

UaJ (obs.) perh. akin to SN^ 
(cf. cbw akin to b^a), to long for, 
hence perh. to become attached, perh. 

DH'' (w. suf. '^22'') m. brotJier-in- 

TT ^ • T :' 

laiv, husband's brother Deut. 25, 5 
(cf. oaiQp, L. levir). Hence the denom. 

Um only in Pi. to act the 
brother-in-laio , to perform the levi- 
rate, i. e. to marry the widow of 
one's deceased brother Gen. 38, 8. 

r\^D^ (w. suf. r^-iyy^., 'iFian':; the 
fem. of 02^) f. a sister- in -laiv, a 
brother's ivife Deut. 25, 7; also a 
husband's brother^s ivife Ruth 1, 15. 

(m (obs.) prob. akin to "|^a, to 




understand; hence nsn^Pi in K'thibh 
of Job 26, 12, where the Q'ri has 


^J^j!!^ pr. n. (perh. God under- 
stands) of a city in Judah Josh. 
15, 11; of a city in Naphtali Josh. 
19, 33. 

n2!2^ pr. n. (he, i. e. God, causes 
to build) of a city in Philistia 2 
Ch. 26, 6; still called by the Arabs 
Uo Yebna. 

n^lDlS'^ , il^?!^ pr. n. m. (n^ builds) 
1 C1J9,' 8. "^ * 

WmL (obs.) prob. akin to G^3 
(which see), to tread down, trample; 
hence perh. G^3". 

Y^ (o^^-) ^^^^ *° y^^ > -^rab. 
jojj to shine, to be splendid; hence 

P5 (o^s-) akin to p^3, pJ5a, 

Arab. ^3^, to pour or ^Ms/i /br^/i, 

pm^ pr.n.(gushingout)of a stream 
near Mount Gilead, flowing into the 
Jordan Gen. 32, 23; now called 
^)5 \5'^'> Wady Zerqa. 

^n^P^l^ pr. n. m. (n;i blesses) 
Is. 8, 2.* ' " 

Um (fut. t'2'^*^, t^^, pi. si'ijn'i 

Job 18, 16, inf. c. uin*;, w. prep, bn'ia 
Is. 27, 11, inf. c. fem. form nmi Gen. 
8, 7) <o dry up, of vegetation Is. 15, 
6, of the ground Gen. 8, 14, of bread 
Josh. 9, 5 , of bones Ez. 37, 1 1 , of a 
paralysed arm, to luither 1 K. 13, 4, 
cf. Mark 3, 1 ; to he drained, to he- 
come dry, of water Job 14, 11; fig. 
to fail, of strength Ps. 22, 16. — Pi. 
^rS"] to make dry Job 15, 30, also 
Nail. 1, 4 where ^rriia?! for siSiTra^";! 

(Gram. § 69, 3, Bern. 6). — Hipli. UJ'^ain 
to make dry, to ivither, of vegetation 
Is. 42, 15; to dry up, of water Josh. 
2, 10. Intrans. to become dry, of 
vegetation Joel 1, 10; fig. of joy, to 
cease Joel 1, 12. 

Uill (Qal obs.) i. q. ^13 (which 
see), used only in — Hipli. ^li'^inin to 
put to shame 2 Sam. 19, 6. Intrans. 
to feel ashamed Jer. 2, 26; to be put 
to shame Jer. 48, 1 ; to cause shame 
or act shamefully Hos. 2, 7. 

12:5^ adj. m., 1WT, f. 1) dry Job 
13, 25. 2) pr. n. (dry) of a city i. q. 
^'^^\ 3) pr. n. m. (dry) 2 K. 15, 10. 

m.'; fut. Qal of Tai2, Gram. §. 72, 4. 

1^5? Chald. (obs.) i. q. H€:b. 
Uin\ Dei-iv. n'ii2\ 

rT^nH^ f. prop, the dry, hence dry 
ground Ex. 14, 16; the dry land, as 
opp. to the sea Gen. 1, 9; r. 'Ci'2\ 

Dto^ pr. n. m. (fragrant, r. DiaS) 
1 Ch.\*, 2. 

ni2;2.^ f. i. q. M^«^2^ the dry land 
Ps. 95, 5, Ex. 4, 9. 

T\'ii3.^ Chald. (def. i<7Vi^^^) ths 
dry land; fig. the world Dan. 2, 10. 

^Kji*] pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, re- 
deems) Num. 13, 7. 

J (only part. pi. d^^l^i'i'') i. q. 
a^ia (which see) to cut up, to plough 
Jer. 52, 16, Q'ri of 2 K. 25, 12; 

'D.y^ m. a ploughed field, only in 
Jer. 39, 10. 

nSnlZllJ^ pr. n. (high, r. fnsa) of a 
place in Gad Num. 32, 35. 

^In^!?"^'] pr. n. m. (rr^ is great) 
Jer. 35,* 4. 

nn I (Qal obs.) akin to 5>5*i, to 


be pressed or pained. — Nipli. n^^is, 


for nsi'j, only in part. m. rti^ij (pi. c. i 
*'3>I3), f. naia afflicted, grieved (pi. } 
n-iaii Lam.' i, 4), i^i'jari ■^aiia f^ose ' 
afflicted (far away) /V'owi f^e sacred 
assembly (see Gram. § 141) Zeph. 3, 
18. — Pi. to put to grief ('ni,}^ = na^)"];) 

Gram. § 69, 3, Bem. 6) Lam. 3, 33. 
— Hipli. njin to afflict, cause to be 
grieved Is 51, 23. 

nri** II (Qal obs.) i. q. nafn II, 
Syr. ^^o| to expel (cf. •^yoj); to se- 
parate or remove. — Hipli. H:"n <o 
<aA:e aivat/ or remove, only in 2 Sam. 
20, 13. 

•^3^ (w. suf. DSia"^, r. nj;! I) m. 
affliction, sorrow Gen. 42, 38. 

^^T adj. m. fearful Jer. 22, 25; 
T. "15\ 


*1^3^ pr. n. (tarrying-place, r. 'n>ia) 
of a place in Judah Josh. 15, 21. 

^^'jp adj. m. wearied, only in Job 
3, 17; r. sn. 

?''31' (r. 5>a^) m. labour, toil Gen. 
31, 42; a ivork done w. labour Job 
10, 3; gahi, earnings of labour Is. 
45, 14; pain or labour of producing 
offspring) Job 39, 16. 

*^?'''?'? (only c. n?") f. weariness, 
only Ecc. 12, 12. 

"'-53'^ pr. n. m. (an exile, r. Jn^S II) 
Num.' 34, 22. 

|J (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

^a-j , fo T^ress or crush; hence prob. 

rj; see nn3. 

2^3 (^^t. SJa'^'i) i. q. Arab. "^^ 

to pain; to labour, toil Is. 49, 4; w. 
S of the work Josh. 24, 13, also w. 
ace. Is. 47, 15; w. "^nn /or Hab. 2, 13; 
to be weary Is. 40, 31; w. a of the 
cause Ps. 6, 7, Is. 43, 22. — Pi. 

to weary Josh. 7, 3. — Hipli. 5"':'in 
to cause to be iveary, w. ace. of pers. 
and a of means Is. 43, 23. Hence 

^j'^ m. labour, wages (earned by 
toil)^Job 20, 18. 

?5*^ i. q. ^'15^ 3, adj. m. weary, 
exhausted Deut. 25, 18; fig. of words, 
weak, flagging Ecc. 1, 8; r. '$^\ 

15? Chald. (i. q. Syr. j.^) m. a 
heap, stone-heap Gen. 31, 47. 

IJ (only in '^Fi"?'5^, ni^!;) akin 

to ^^a II, i. q. Arab. ^3; to fear, to 

be afraid of w. ace. Job 3, 25 , w. 
"133^ Deut. 9, 19; hence ^^iy^. 

T (c. T^, w. suf. ^ir^, t33"i^ for 
da^r;? Gram. § 27, 3, Rem. 2, a; dual 
tl'i;^^ c. "^Ta pi- ^'^'^'^^ c. niT^^) f. 1) 
prop, the out-stretching member (r. ' 
rTT> III which see), hence the hand 

TT " 

Ex. 21, 24. The dual d'^'i^ is gen. 
used for the two natural hands 
Zech. 13, 6, rarely for the plur. e. g. 
Job 4, 3; but the pi. nin^ only for 
artificial or imaginary hands, e. g. 
tenons Ex. 26, 17, axles 1 K. 7, 32. 
2) fig. power, force Gen. 16, 12; help 
Deut. 32, 36; a slap or stroke Ex. 
9, 3. 3) fig. the side of a thing, e. g. 
the brink of a stream Ex. 2, 5 ; hence 
w. prep. ^"^ at tJie side of, near 1 
Sam. 19, 3, also w. like sense ^?3 
^;i 1 Sam. 4, 18, T"^^^ 2 Sam. 14, 
30, ^'2'^^ 2 Sam. 15, 2,' '^'i'^- Is? Num. 
34, 3; hence also tt'^y^ both sides, on 
each hand, e. g. d'^^^ ar?"i ivide on 
both hands i. e. in all directions Ps. 
104, 25. 4) fig. space or -place Deut. 
23, 13, d'^";;' places or parts Josh. 8, 
20 ; hence, part, portion Dan. 12,7; 
pi. ni^;;; parts or times (adverbially) 
Gen. 43, 34, Dan. 1, 20. 5) fig. a 
monumental pillar 2 Sam. 18, 18; 
way-mark Ez. 21, 24. — Many idio- 



matic expressions are formed w. ^"^ 
which must be explained to suit the 
context, e. g. the hand is against (3) 
somebody i. e. does him harm Gen. 
16, 12, also with (3) somebody i. e. 
to assist 2 Ch. 30, 12; the hand of 
God is (i. e. rests) on (^X, h'J) some- 
body 1 K. 18, 46, Ez. 1, 3; to turn 
(3"^y:rt) the hand against (b?) some- 
body Am. 1, 8; to give the hand 
(n; -(n:) i. e. to pledge by striking 
hands 2 K. 10, 15, also in the act of 
submission Jer. 50, 15, also w. nnn 
1 Ch. 29, 34; n^b 1^ hand to hand, 
i. e. from generation to generation, 
2ver, but w. negative, never Prov. 
11, 21; n;:i3 bg means of Num. 15, 
23, toith 1 Sam. 14, 34, near Job 15, 
23, DT^S at their side 1 Sam. 21, 14; 

' T T ; 

1^3 after the hand i. e. abilitg or 
manner of 1 K. 10, 13; D"^;!^ -p3 
between the hands, i. e. on the breast 
Zech. 13, 6 (cf. W^V^V 'p2 = on the 
forehead). — Other forms will be 
seen under the various verbs w. 
which ^^ is used, e. g. "jna, nb^a. 

T Chald. (def. it}'], av. suf. '^^'], 
dn'iy, dual )'n'^) f. i.q. Heb. ^'^.the 
hand; T3 i'^ possession ©/"Ezr. 7, 
14; n^3 nri'^fo place in the power of 
Dan. 7, 25; T"l? /'*'<Wi the power of 
Dan. 6, 28. 

5? l"* Chald. (Peal obs.) i. q. 
Heb. rrf^ I, to utter; then fig. \) to 
confess. 2) to praise. — Aph. ^<'^i^ 
(part. xniSn^ Dan. 2, 23, also contract. 
xniTa Dan. 6, 11) <o praise, celebrate. 

nbNt"?^ pr. n. (perh. poverty- 
stricken, r. bx'n) of a city in Zebulon 
Josh. 19, 15. 

'OjI'1^ pr. n. m. (honeyed) 1 Ch. 
4, 3. ' ' 

Tj"* I (obs.) i. q. ni-n, Arab. 

CD « 

jj, to loie warmly; hence T'"}^, 

I J Hi. q. STn-j II, fo cast or 

<^rot« lots, only in 3 pi. perf. in^ 
Joel 4,3,Nah. 3, 10, Obad. 11. Cf. nni^n. 

Wni"] (r. Ti^I) f. love, friendship, 
only fig. a beloved object Jer. 12, 7. 

j I i I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 


Tin I (which see), to sound forthy 
speak out. — Hiph. iTiin (fut. iTni"", 
also STiin-; Neh. 11, 17, Gram. § 53, 
Rem. 7) 1) to confess Prov. 28, 13; 
w. b? respecting Ps. 32, 5, 2) <0 
praise, i. e. /o mention aloud Gen. 
39, 35, also w. V Ps. 92, 2. 3) fo siw^, 
of a choir singing together, hence 
rrn-in. — Hilh. n^irn i) to confess, 
respecting or against oneself Dan. 
9, 4: w. ace. of charge Lev. 5, 5; 
w. b? Neh. 1,6. 2) to praise, w. h 
of pers. 2 Ch. 30, 22. — Mimet. akin 
to Sans, id (sing), vad (speak), asiou), 
aoto, aooT^, cooy], W. gwed (tell). 

ii i II (imper. ^^') akin to 
^•n^ II, Vrob. to rrn;;, nn^ II, m II, 
nu3 (which see) to throw or casi Jer. 
50,U. — Pi. rrn"^ (inf. ni^:: Zech. 2, 4) 
#0 throw, cast e. g. stones Lam. 3, 53 
(n-n;?*. for si'n::'^^. Gram. § 69, Eem. 6). 

nT'lII (obs.) to stretch forthy 


extend; hence 1\ 

^"^2 Lam. 3, 53, for sin:*) fut. Pi. of 
ti^-^l, cf. Gram. §69, Eem. 6. Cf.nn^H. 

I'n^ see ''tl!. 

Hi* pr. n. m. Goving, for )i'^1, r, 
n^^I) 1 Ch. 27, 21. 

■jil^ pr. n. m. (judge) Neh. 3, 7. 

5^*^^ pr. n. m. (much known or 
knowing) Neh. 10, 22. 

I^WT^ pr. n. m. (r. >T7'^I, praising 
or confessing, from obs. subst. HsiT^) 




1 Ch. 9, 16; also 'jin'i'; 2 Oh. 35, 15, 
and )T\'^'yi Neh. 11, iV'K'thibh. 

'^'U^ pr. n. m. (=i'n'^ loving) Ezr. 
10, 43 Q'ri. 

"T^^ (c. T^'i';) adj. m., r^y^^] f. 
(pi. WT^'i':) /oveZy, pleasant Ps. 84, 2 ; 
as subst. one beloved, a friend Is. 5,1; 
pi. m. beloved ones Ps. 60, 7 ; pi. f. loves 
or delights Ps. 45 (tiUe); r. nn^I. 

^T'?'^ P^- °- ^* (beloved) 2 K. 
22, 1.^ 

n*'"}'''!* pr. n. m. (beloved of fn^) 
a name of Solomon, given by the 
prophet Nathan 2 Sam. 12, 25. 

TVl*^ pr. n. m. (perh. he thanks 
rr) r Ch. 4, 37. 

b&??^n^ pr. n. m. (known of God) 
1 Ch. 7, 6*. 

I^ri^n^, see y\TA^\ 

UDl^, see "W 

Cj^l? pr. n. m. (prob. tearful) 
Oen. 22, 22. 

D'H^ fut. Qal of fi^^, Gram. § 67, 
Bem. 3. 

^/J'n'] 1 Sam. 2, 9 for ^ilSV] fut. 
Niph. of fi^-f Gram. § 67, Rem. 11. 

2? j I (fut. 5?^^ once S)'!;:'^ Ps. 
138, 6 Gram. § 70, Eem.; inf. abs. 
^S^, c. n?^, TO-}; imp. 5>t!, once TOn 
Prov. 24, 14) perh. akin to '^^'^ I fo 
fix or sef^fe (by the eye or mind, cf. 
L. cerno); hence 1) to know, by see- 
ing Ex. 2, 4, by feeling Gen. 19, 33, 
"by hearing Lev. 5, 1 ; hence to under- 
hand Gen. 8, 11, w. a of the means 
Ex. 7, 17; to be aware Jer. 50, 24; 
to respect, opp. to &X^, Job 9, 21; 
to be acquainted with Ps. 36, 11, 
Deut. 9, 24, part. act. ^n^ pi. w. suf. 
^ir'ii mi/ acquaintances Job 19, 13, 
part. pass. 55i*i^ known Is. 53, 3 i'^lT^ 
•^Vn knoion (i. e.the acquaintance) of 

disease as one much afflicted; to 
have sexual intimacy, of the man 
Gen. 4, 17, of the woman Gen. 19, 
8; to know of or about, w. a Gen. 
19, 33, w. b? Job 37, 16; to be know- 
ing or skilled as to any thing Gen. 
25, 27; to discern, w. 'j'^a and b Jon. 
4, 11; to know how, w. inf. Jer. 1, 6, 
also w. fin. verb Job 32, 22 (see 
Gram. § 142); absol. to know or 
have knowledge Job 8, 9; hence 
tr^'S'-i^ i. q. biaan job 34, 2. — Nipli. 
5>t|i3 (fut. S'n-1% SJ'i)!';) to be perceived, 
known Gen. 41, 21; to know oneself 
Jer. 31, 19; to be or become known, 
w. 2 of the means Ex. 33, 16, w. ^ 
Is. 19, 21, w. bx Ez. 20, 9 of pers. to 
whom. Impers. it is known 1 Sam. 
6, 3. — Pi. to cause to know, to teach, 
w. two ace. Job 38, 12. — Pu. only 
in part. S'n'^a well known, w. suf. 
''5"n;i^ mi/ acquaintance Ps. 31, 12; 
TO'niD (K'thibh) something well known 
or notorious Is. 12, 5. — Po el. 
'S'yr^ to shew or appoint, only in 
1 Sam. 21, 3 (see Gram. § 55, 1). — 
Hiph. :5'^'7iii (imp. 5>'iin) to cause to 
know, w. two ace. Jer. 16, 21; w. h 
of pers. and ace. of thing Ex. 18, 20; 
to teach i. e. to chastise, to give a 
severe lesson by punishment Judg. 
8,16, but see S'l;' H. — Hoph. S^iin 
(for ^y\r:. Gram. § 69, Rem. 7) to be 
made known, w. bj5 Lev. 4, 23 ; part, 
f. n^yi^ (Q'ri) Is. 12, 5 (see Pu.). — 
Hith! 5)!T_^nn (Gram. § 69, 2) to make 
oneself known, w. bx to Gen. 45, 1 ; 
of God, to reveal himself Num. 12, 6. 
— Prob. akin to Sans, vid (know), 
£i(5to, L. video, G. wissen, E. wit, 
Irish eidir, W. gwydh (knowledge). 

• J II (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
'^y^i SJ'na I, to cut; hence perh. to 
lacerate, only in Hipli. in Judg. 8, 
16 CJis S'l'^n and he caused to lacer- 



» I 

ate therewith the men of Succoth, 
but see Hiph. of ^^tl^ !• 

Jl ^ Chald. (fut. SJ??-^ Dan. 2,. 9) 

i. q. Heb. 3>'i^, to perceive, understand 
Dan. 2, 8; to knoiu Dan. 5, 22; part, 
pass. V'^^') known Ezr. 4, 12. — Apli. 
rnin (fut. STrr:, part, r'lin^) fo 
maAie known, w. h of pers. Dan. 2, 
15; to cause to know, w. two ace. 
Dan. 2, 23. 

pr. n. m. (intelligent) 1 Ch. 
pr. n. m. (in;^ knows) 1 



2, 28. 

Ch. 9,* 10. 

''?5n'^ (pi. D'153)^';) m. prop, a 

knowing one, hence a wizard (= G. 

Weiser, E. mse owe; cf. Arab. Jlc 

prop, intelligent, then magician) 
Lev. 19, 31; fig. a wizard spirit liev. 
20, 27; r. S^?^ I w. adj. ending "lii— . 

n^ the poetic, shortened form of 
nJIT^ (rather of JTin:>, see Gram. § 17) 
having the same meaning Ex. 15, 2; 
sometimes in union w. HlfT^ Is. 26, 4 
or la'^?7'bx Ps. 68, 19. In prop, names 
it is changed into i^, IfT^, !lii"i — . 

^i J (fut. obs. to be supplied 
from "ina, imp. ntl Prov. 30, 15, w. 

n — cohort, nsn, f. ^sn, pi. sinn, see 

T T IT' ■ IT' -"^ it' 

Gram. § 69, Eem. 2) of same sense 

as )T\2 , akin 
w^oi..., Chald 

to Arab. >^^, Syr. 

!l"7"], fo give; in Ps. 
55, 23 we have perf. w. suf. ?]an'^ 
for tjb SH^ *ni;x what he hath given 
to thee i. e. thy lot (cf. '^SPin? Josh. 
15, 19), see Gram. § 121, 4; but cf. 
3^7. Elsewhere only in imper. give! 
yield up! Gen. 29, 21; set! place! 
Deut. 1, 13; used for rousing come 
on! Gen. 11, 3. — On ^an see under 


_} ^ Chald. (imp. '2'n Dan. 5^ 
17; part.'act. Ilti"^ Dan. 2, 21; part, 
pass, aiti"^ used as a perf. tense-form 
naiH"^ she loas delivered up Dan. 7, 
11 ; IS'^fi'^ </iey t^ere <7wew Ezr. 5, 14) 
i. q. Heb. Dti^; used only in perf.,. 
the inf. and fut. being taken from 
•jns (cf. Syr. pret. wr;3i.l, fut. '\LS) 
to give Dan. 2, 21; w. h 2, 23; w. 
^'^^ Dan. 2, 38; #o gield up, as the 
body for burning Dan. 3, 28; to set 
or lag a foundation Ezr. 5, 16. — 
Ilhpe. Sti-inx to be given Dan. 4^ 
13 ; ^0 5e ^wew up, w. i;^3 Dan. 7, 25. 

l^n']' m. a ^i/Tf; fig. lot, condition, 
perh. in Ps. 55, 23; but see under 


_i (Qal obs.) denom. from 

rriiirr^ or 'i^in'^, akin to Arab. jU>, 
to become a Jeiv. — Hith. ^f^^nr% 
to make oneself a Jeio, to turn Jew,. 
only in Est. 8, 17. 

In'l' pr. n. (for ^^fT^ praise) of a 
town in Dan. Josh. 19, 45. 

*''!in!] V^' n. m. (leader, r. fT^rj) 
1 Ch. 2J'' 47. 

^ri'', ^n*' short forms of WrTi or 

: IT ■/ : - 

MiiT^, only used in prop, names;. 

see r^'^. 


i^-lil!) pr. n. m. (living one, r.. 
Nin) a king of Israel, B.C. 884—856^ 
1 K. 19, 16; also a prophet 1 K. 
16, 1. 

5<^f1^ Ecc. 11, 3 fut. apoc. Qal of 
niii, for JiiT) w. N paragogic, Gram.. 
§ 75, Eem. 3, e. 

THlSjin^ pr. n. m. (n^ keeps) a 
king of Judah, B.C. 611, 2 K. 23,^ 
31: also a king of Israel, B.C^ 
856—849 2 K. 10, 35. 

iriJjiri^ pr. n. m. (prob. Jn^ sup- 
ports, r. UJiiX II) a king of Judah, B.C. 


( ( 



877—838 2 K. 12, 1: also a king of 
Israel, B.C. 840—825 2 K. 13, 10. 
Cf. TTNi"^. 

niSln^ Chald. fut. Aph. of nSit. 
ITi'^ Chald. (i. q. Heb. .TniirT;) 
Juclea, land of Judah Dan. 2, 25; 

also the people (cf. Arab. Oj4i, oyl>) 
the JeivSj hence denom. ^^jHTi, 
see ^n\ 

»l"in^ Neh. 11, 17 for m'^ fut. 
Hi ph." of iri^, Gram. § 53, Kern. 7. 

» i ^^n^ 1) pr. n. m. (praised) 
Judah, a son of Jacob Gen. 29, 35. 

2) pr. n. of the tribe descended from 
Judah, called '"] na^ Num. 1, 27, 
'': n-i? 2 Sam. 2,7,'') -iDa Num. 1, 26. 

3) pr. n. of the country inhabited 
by the tribe Is. 3, 8. 4) pr. n. 
of the kingdom formed of Judah and 
Benjamin (after the defection of the 
other ten tribes), called iTnJiiT^ n^*ix 
in Is. 19, 17. 5) pr. n. of the whole 
of Palestine subsequent to the capti- 
vity Hag. 1, 14. 6) name of several 
other persons, e. g. Neh. 11,9. 

"'1^^'!' (pi- ta-'n^iir; and d'^'^n^hi) m., 

fem. rt^'Tin'^, a citizen of the king- 
dom of Judah, a Judean 2 K. 1 6, 6 ; 
after the captivity a member of any 
tribe, a Jeio, a JSehreio Neh. 1, 2, 
fem. a Jeivess 1 Ch. 4, 18. 

^n^n^ pr. n. m. (Jew) Jer. 36, 14. 

■""l^rr Chald. (only pi. ')^i<'i>iiT;, 
def. ^X^^Vt; , N':'!^!}!":) a Jew Dan. 3, 8. 

n^n^n'l' l) adj. f. used as adv. 
(Sept. louoaiaxi) in Jewish, i. e. in 
the Jewish tongue 2 K. 18, 26. 2) 
pr. n. f. (praised) Judith Gen. 26, 34. 

n^il^ pr. n. of the only true and 
eternal God among the Hebrews Ex. 
6, 3. This name (often shortened 
into Sn^ which see, *iJT;! — , — iJT), ~Y) 
comes from the 3d pers. sing. m. fut. 

of T\yn to he, either in Qal or in 
Hiph'il. If in Qal, it means He 
is, i. e. the Supreme Being, the 
Eternal, as may appear from Ex. 3, 
14, where God names himself t^'^i^^ 

n;;ri5< ^ujx, and simply n;^rix (cif. 6 
wv xal 6 ^v xal 6 lp-/ojxevo; in 
Apoc. 1, 4), and it should be pointed 
•T:^'.'? y^hwe; but if inHiph., itmeans 
He causes to he, i. e. the Great First 
Cause (cf. Iv aoTw ^ap ^ui|j,£v xal 
xivou(X£&a xal lafxev Acts 17, 28) 
and should be pointed TV}ty^ ydhwe 
(see Gram. §17 at end). But when 
the Jews felt the name to be too 
sacred to utter, they read '•iSx (Sept. 

Kupioc, Syr. V-»r^) ^ulg. dominus, 
Lord)] hence its vowels are put to 
iTi!T^ in the Massoretic text. — Hence 
with prefixes this name is written 

mrr^a, rrirrib, mn^a, as if there stood 

T -' T — ' T : ~' 

^'H».'^, etc. (see Gram. § 102 at end). 
But when "^iSij; precedes iTJiT^, the 
Massorites avoid repeating '^r it, give 
to rtliT' the vowels of t:\"1^bx and 
write iTin"' "^iSx Lord God, as in Is. 
50, 4. — tXSrC^ is notably found in line 
18 on the newly discovered Moabite 
Stone, set up 900 years B. C. by Mesha, 
king of Moab 2 K. 3, 4; see 5J\i:^tt. 

^I2T1» i*] pr. n. m. (fTj is giver) 1 
Ch. 2Q, 4. ' 

■jDri^rT] pr. n. m. (n|J is gracious) 
2 Ch.^17, 15; see "jsm 

3^^^^ni' pr. n. m. (Jehovah is om- 
niscient) 2 K. 11, 4. 

^*'5^^n^ pr. n. m. {jTT^ establishes) 
a king of Judah, B. C. 600, 2 K. 24, 
6: also siri^53 Jer. 22, 24. 

D'^p^^lni' pr.n. m. (TT^ sets up) king 
of Judah, B.C. 611—600, 2 K. 23, 34. 

I'^'l^in^ pr. n. m. (n^ pleads) 1 
Ch. 9, 10. * 

b'y^lT pr. n. m. (perh. for ^S^l'^in^, 




DDn^ m. name of a precious stone, 
so called perh. for its hardness (r. 
^^n^ I)> or rather for its brilliance (r. 
D^n II) a diamond or adamant Ex. 

28,' 18. 

Y rj (o^s.) i. q. Arab, jaifcj, to 
tread or trample doivn; hence 

VO,"! pr- n. (w. n-;- loc. iiiSn'i 
Deut. 2, 32 trampled place) of a city 
of Moab Is. 15, 4. 

H _i (obs.) prob. akin to ■l'^?^ to 

I be high, or to Syr. 901 (9 j«), Aph. ioif 
i to molest, hence fig. to be arrogant 
{ or aggressive; hence '^'^^^ 

^bX^H'', see brn. 

I IJJV pr. n. m. (n;' is father) 2 
I Sam.V 24. 

I Hiji^ pr. n. m. (n^ is brother) 2 
j K. 18^ 18. 

j tnj^V Chronicler to king Josiah 
I 2 Ch. 34, 8, i. q. triNii>Ti, wh. see. 

j ^^y^ pr. n. m. (H^ is might or 

j God) a prophet Joel 1, 1. 
! ICJ^V pr. n. m. (prob. In^ supports) 

! 2 K. 12, 20, also UJNin"), which see. 

I mJA (obs.) perh. akin to r. 33^ 
j to shout aloud; hence 
j !2V pr. n. m. (loud-shouting) Gen. 
I 46, 13. 

D!IlV pr. n. m. (battle -shout, r. 
nn^) of a son of Joktan Gen. 10, 29; 

mighty is tr , cf. d'lp-i-' for d'^p'jin";') 
Jer. 37, 3, but b?!)'' in Jer. 38, 1. 

mD^ini* pr. n. m. (n^ is bounti- 
ful) Tk. io, 15. 

'jlTlD'ini' pr* n. m. (JV^ is giver) 1 
Sam. 14, 6; also "jW 1 Ch. 2, 32. 

VjD in^ pr. n. m. (he increases) 
Ps. 81,' 6;' see t^i^. 

ST^l^'ini' pr. n. m. (1^^ adorns) 1 
Ch. 8, 36. * 

"j^H^^ini' pr. n. f. (n;;' is delight- 
some, r, ■(i^) 2 Ch. 25, 1. 

pll^^n^ pr. n. m. (n^ is righteous) 
Hag.^1^ 1; also pTS\^ Ezr. 3, 2. 

0*^111^ pr. n. m. (PT^ is high) a 
king of Judah, B. C. 89 T— 884, 2 K. 
8, 16; also a king of Israel, B. C. 
896—884, 2 K. 3, 1. 

S^llZJin^ pr. n. f. (n^ is the oath, 

cf. 5>5li;^bx) 2 K. 11, 2: for which 
nsa^iri'; in 2 Ch. 22, 11. 

?^^i^^ ?:rin^ pr. n. m. (Pi^ is 
help) Ex. 17, 9, Zech. 3, 1. 

tiSlTli P pr. n. m. (PT^ is judge) 
a king of Judah, B. C. 914 — 839, 1 
K. 22, 41; also DDUJl'i 1 Ch. 15, 24. 

^n^ fut. apoc. of riN*!, Gram. § 75, 
Rem. 3, e. 

Siyb^n^' Is. 52, 5 Hiph. of bb^, 
for 5lb"'b'i\' 

^^^Hr (•"• ^"^t) *^J- "^' coated, ar- 
rogant Hab. 2, 5 ; but this may perh. 

de akin to Syr. 9(ji, Aph. 901) to injure \ also of a Canaanite king Josh. 11, 1. 

or molest (cf. E. harry), and so mean 

Tjn^ Chald. fut. of t]«in. 

bri- Is. 13, 20 for brt.X":' fut. Pi. of 
br?^, Gram. § 68, Rem. 2. 

^^'?^»J? pr. n. m. (he praises God) 
2 Ch. 29, 12. 

1 b'TC or bn*"' (pi. D-ibn^; r. bn^ II, 

i akin to 33'^ which see) a blast, a 
, -T / ' 

' ZoMfZ sound, a shout or signal; hence 
i bai'^ln "j"ij5 ^^e loud-sounding or signal 
horn Josh. 6, 5; bnT"?! isiui signal- 
trumpet-, without y^^^, bn'n ~t:i^2 
when the signal-blast is drawn out 
i. e. prolonged Ex. 19, 13; bai*n HD^ 




year of Jubilee i.e. of loud and joyous 
sound, namely the fiftieth year, an- 
nounced to the people by means of 
the signal horn or trumpet Lev. 25, 
13; also without Hid, Lev. 25, 28 
^2^3 in the Jubilee. Akin to L. 
jubilum, G. jubel, E. peal. 

jZl^"^ pr. n. m. (perh. jubilant, r, 
^n^ U) Gen. 4, 21. 

512^^ m. i. q. bn^, river, stream, 
only in Jer. 17, 8; r. bs;;' L 

13TV pr. n. m. (n^ presented) 2 
Ch. sY, 13, i. q. ^ntllT;. 

"nlDTV pr. n. m. (Jn^ is mindful) 
2 K.72, 22. 

IJ^'TT' pr. n. m. (perh. fn^ lives, Xtl 
fihort^for H'^Pt) 1 Ch. 8, 16. 

ijriV pr. n. m. (ni! is gracious) 
1 Ch. 5, 35 i. q. "iJfJIfT), hence 'Icdolvvyj;. 

ritS^*^, see na\ 

3?TV pr.n. m. (rr;; knows) Neh. 3, 6. 

I'^D^V pr. n. m. i'H'^ establishes) 
Ez. 1*"2, i. q. -ps^^in-;. 

D'^P^i"' pr. n. m. (J:i;sets up) Neh, 
12, 10."^ 

I'^'^^i"' pr. n. m.(n;« pleads) Neh.11,5. 

'IlIllDV pr. n. f. (prob. n;j is glorious) 
the mother of Moses Ex. 6, 20. 

^i^** fut. Qal of bb^ to be able, see 
Gram. § 69, Rem. 3. — Also pr. n. m. 
(potent) Jer. 38, 1. 

^b^i'' Ez. 42, 5 perh. for ibsj^i 
fut. Qal of bsx. 

TribT Gen. 16, 11 for nnbii part, 
fern, of 'n?^, see Gram. § 94, Rem. 1, 

Di^ (pi. d-ia^ Gram. § 96, c. '^a';, 
poet, nia"], dual d'jai''; r. W*') m. 
rarely f. Jer. 17, 18, day, either the 
period between sunrise and sunset, 
opp. to the night Gen. 1, 14; or the 
24 hours inclusive of night (cf. vu^- 
Oirifiepov 2 Cor. 11, 25) Gen. 7, 24. 
dii is used for any special or notable 


day or season (cf. ii T^fAepa 1 Cor, 
3,13), thus e. g. it stands for a festi- 
val day Hos. 7, 5, a birth-day Job 
3, 1, day of calamity Obad. 12, day of 
battle Is. 9, 3. As an adv. (= U^i'*) 
by day Ps. 88, 2; so also Di"" Di'» 
(Gen. 39, 10), d1"»1 Dl-'-bsa (Est. 2, 
11), nl'n-bs (Prov. 21, 26),* Di-iS tji"« 
(1 Ch. 12, 22), Dl'ia Dli> (2 Ch. 24, 
11), day by day, daily, ora d'i'^s as 
day by day, i. e. daily 1 Sam. 18, 10. 
With the article (di*>r| Gram. § 109, 
Rem., § 150, 2), it means to-day 
Gen. 4, 14; ai this or that day, 
hence 01*3 immediately Prov. 12, 
16, lately Judg. 13, 10; but also, 
in the day-time Gen. 31, 40; ni'S 
according to to-day, now Is. 58, 4; 
ri?<i dl"*? as fAis (Zay i. e. as things 
are now Gen. 50, 20; also about that 
time Gen. 39, 11; di^a from the time, 
since Deut. 9, 24. The pi. d-^a^ 
(rarely in Chaldee form 'pa^ Dan 

12, 13) is used to express days Gen 
24, 55 or some days in Gen. 27, 44 
or time Is. 39, 6 or some time Gen 
40, 4; also a year, e. g. d*ia*in nnt 
the yearly sacrifice 1 Sam. 2, 19 
fia'^a^ ti^'Or^^ from year to year Ex 

13, 10. — dl'i (Syr. |IcaJ, Arab 

^yi) is from d-Ti or •la'; I to be warm 
or bright; perh. akin to ^fJ-ap, Trjfxepa. 

U'T Chald. (def. Xar, pi. ■fai'i, c. 
nal'i, "la-^, def. X^ali) i. q. Heb. rfa?/ 
Ezr. 6, 15. 

U^ (obs.) prob. akin to r. na^, 
da^ II, Jian II, to be warm or bright; 
hence dl\ 

ul^ (from, di"! w. ending d-;-, 
Gram. § 100, 3) adv. by day Ex. 13, 
21; daily Ez. 30, 16; all the day 
Ps. 13, 3. 

|J (obs.) prob. to boil or bubble 




np, to ferment; hence perh. "jl^ and 
•j*;;^ (cf. lan from nan i, 2). 

1^^ 1) pr. n. of a people and land, 
Javan, Ionia or Greece Gen. 10, 2; 
"Jl^ T]b^ /rm^ of Greece i. e. Alexander 
the great Dan. 8, 21. Patron. i3',\ 
hence B'^iJ^v} "^sa sons o/* #Ae lonians 
(cf. uls; 'Axaiuiv), if^e Crreeifcs Joel 
4, 6. 2) pr. n. of a city in Arabia, 
now Yaiodn in Yemen Ez. 27, 19. — - 
This noun is perh. akin to )'^^_ (which 
see) tvine, and may denote vine-land, 
as Greece was famed for its wines 
and the worship of Bacchus. 

"jV m. prop, bubbling or oozing, 
hence mire or mud Ps, 40, 3; ))"] 
nb^iS^ mire of depth i. e. a bog or 
quagmire Ps. 69, 3; r. ^\ 

y^'^^ pr.n.2Sam.l3,3,seeS'i3in\ 

XT / / ^ ^ , 

♦Iji'' (pi. d^il'i) f. 1) a dove Gen. 
8, 8 ; nail 133 1/oung doves Lev. 5, 7 ; 
"insii my ^ove, a term of endearment 
addressed to a female Cant. 2, 14. 
The r. is prob. Jna^ II to coo or moiirn. 
2) pr. n. m. (dove) of a prophet 2 
K. 14, 25. 

^?5? patron, of )y^, only in pi. 
ts*^?^"] lonians; see in 'j^'i. 

piV (prop. part, of p3^) m. 1) a 
sucking child Is. 11, 8. 2) a young 
twig, as it were the suckling of the 
tree, a shoot Is. 53, 2; cf. ixoa^o^. 

^1?,?.*^^ f. twig, shoot, branch Ps. 
80, 12;" r. pr. 

"JWV, see IWiir;. 

CjDV pr. n. m. (prob. He, i. e. God, 
gives increase) one of Jacob's sons 
and a patriarch Gen. 30, 24 ; &)G1i ri'^a 
(Josh, 17, 17), ClGl'i "^.ia (Num. 26, 28)^ 
also r,b1^ alone (Gen. 49, 22) =Ephraim 
and Manasseh, the tribes descended 
from Joseph; in Am. 5, 6 t^bli f^i^ 
is the ten tribes; in Ps. 80, 2 t]DTi jg 
the whole nation of Israel. 

n^Sdi'^ pr. n. m. (f^^ gives in- 
crease) Ezr. 8, 10. 

nJ^^SJV pr. n. m. (perh. for nbri'', 
let him help) 1 Ch. 12, 7. I 

1?V pr. n. m. (n^ is witness) 
Neh. 11, 7. 

"^l^T pr. n. m. {^^ is help) 1 Ch. 
12, 6.' 

y?V, see Y'$\ 

TOV pr. n. m. (|ti;i hastens, cf. 
r. t^H I) 1 Ch. 7, 8. 

p'l^i"', see p'lSl'JTi^. 

^"^y^ (part, of ns^ II) m . a fashioner 
or framer in general, then 1) a j9of- 
#er Is. 41, 25; 'nisi-i ^bs a potter' 9 
vessel i. e. earthenware Ps. 2, 9; a 
fashioner in stone or wood, a statuary 
Is. 44, 9. 2) maker, creator, of God 
Jer. 10, 16. 3) i. q. I^IX; a treasure^ 
perh. in Zech. 11, 13. 

d'^pV pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 4, 22, see 

d^'p'^i'i, t5'ip;>irT^, 

^V 2 K. 13, 17 fut. apoc. Hiph. 
for ITTi^, r. Ml*. 

V , ' T T 

K'lV (orn'n'ii)Prov. 11, 25 is water- 
ed, prob. fut. Hoph. for JT^sii : r. iTT-. 

. V ' TT 

n^V pr. n. m. (perh. = JTll'i) Ezr. 
2, 18, but C]'i'nri in Neh. 7, 24. 

•^'^''*' (part. Qal of TXy^) m. MJafer- 
ing Hos. 6, 3; hence ^7ie autumnal 
or e«r^y ram, falling heavily in Pa- 
lestine, from middle of Oct. till Ja- 
nuary, and preparing the ground for 
the seed Deut. 11, 14; opp. to Uilpb^s 
Jer. 5, 24. 

^'^V pr. n. m. (perh. for il^1"i an 
archer) 1 Ch. 5, 13. 

tnr 2 K. 8, 16, see d'nifTi. 

T , ' ' T ; 

^?'[!] niD^*^ pr. n. m. (kindness is 
returned) 1 Ch. 3, 20. 

»^T?''?'^"' P^- "• ^' (•'^T causes to 
dwell, r. ar^) 1 Ch. 4, 35. 




^'riMV Jer. 22, 23 K'thibh for 
ns^l"" part. fern. Qal of a^, w. i 
parag. (Gram. § 90, 3, a). 

niCV pr. n. m. (perh. if^ presents, 
cf. ^t) i. q. ri'^yt'i-> 1 Ch. 4, 34. 

n^lW pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 11, 46; 

see nyiii. 


tSSUJi** 1 Ch. 11, 43, see laBililfTi. 

T T ' ' T T J 

nriV pr. n. m. (n;^ is perfect) a 
king of Judah, B. C. 759 — 743, 2 K. 
15, 5. 

"ir^i"', 'lln*"' (prop. part, of "in;« I) 
m. the remainder, the rest 1 Sam. 15, 
15; gain, profit Ecc. 6, 8. As adv. 
more, further Ecc. 2, 15; w. )'0 more 
than Ecc. 12, 12; also besides Est. 6, 
6; 'XO ^nii besides that Ecc. 12, 9. 

t^'^f|V f. prop, what is redundant 
or overlapping; ^23^ ^? f^'l^f?^*!? Ex. 
29, 13, nasn )^ Tn^'^ti Lev. 9, 10, 
^isn n^n^ Lev. 8, 16, coUect. the 
lobes (the flaps) of the liver. 

T"] , T]] fut. apoc. Qal of "^tSl, Gram. 
§ 76, 2, b. 

iJ>l, Chald. (Pe. ohs.) akin to 

Heh. n^it i. q. Arab. ^'^^ to flow awap, 
to escape; only in Sliaph'el n">t^ (for 

n'lr^ = Syr. v-S]Q-^, cf. Heb. Sf^lp^) 
to deliver or rescMe Dan. 3, 28, fut. y^^^'l 
in 3, 1 7 where too inf. w. suf. tOWntiUJ. 



(obs.) perh. akin to nt3 II 

i. q. Arab, ^jj, to gather together, 
assemble: hence 

^^^? pr- n. m. (God's assembly) 
1 Ch. 12, 3 (Q'ri) in K'thibh bwX^t";. 

^^t'T"! pr- »• m. (perh. for Jn^ h:n, 
t^'^ assembles, r. nt5 11) Ezr. 10, 25. 

T**!^ pr. n. m. (perh. roaming, r. 
Wt 11)^^1 Ch. 27, 31. 

♦ »^''5t^ pr. n. m. (perh. dehve- 
rance, r. 'vuhl) 1 Ch. 8, 18. 

^^T^ Gen. 11, 6 for tian fut. Qal 
of D»T, Gram. § 67, Kem. 11. 

n;:r, ^n^3r pr. n. m. (prob. 
for n^pTN^, n^ gives ear) Jer. 42, 1; 
40, 8.'' ' 

1 see "i^tl. 

)^ (obs.) perh. akin to ?!lt, but 

same as Arab, c j^, to flow, run, as 
water; hence 

3'']']', m. sweat, only in Ez. 44, 18; 

cf. nit. 


'^*JT*^. pr. n. m. (he shines forth) 
1 Ch.^27, 8; r. JTIT. 

♦^^nt'Tf pr. n. m. (Pi^ shines forth) 

1 Ch!^ 7, 3. 

^^?1T? 1) pr. n. m. (once ^X^^lt"! 

2 K. 9, 10, God will sow or scatter, 
Y.'S'^;) Hos. 1,4. 2) pr. n. of a tOAvn in 
Judah Josh. 15, 56. 3) pr. n. of the 
city in Issachar Josh. 19, 18, where 
Ahab resided (now Zerm) 1 K. 18, 46 ; 
^^r?"^!"^ P^j? i^ie valley of Jezreel, 
Judg. 6, 33, comp. tteSiov EaopY]- 
Xwv plai7i of Esdrelon Judith 1, 8. 
Gentil. n. ^'bx?^'!'^ m. 1 K. 21, 1, 
f^"'^?"^!'': f- 1 Sam".' 27; 3, Jezreelitc. 

n^n*] pr. n. (hidden, r.TOr) 1 Ch. 
7, 34." ■" , ' ' 

|i J (fut. W) i. q. nnx, to be 

united, w. 2 Gen. 49, 6, w. n5< Is. 
14, 20. — Pi. I'n^ to make into one, 
unite Ps. 86, 11. — The fundamental 
notion lies in '^J^^t one, as ^"ifTi shows. 

TV ' • T 

nin|^ m. oneness, union, community 

1 Ch. 12,17; hence as adv. together, 
unitedly, of action Ps. 2, 2 , of place 

2 Sam. 10, 15, of time Is. 45, 8; 
alike, equally Ps. 49, 3; all, all as 
one, w. pronouns or nouns Ps. 62, 





1 ; w. a^Sb, wlioUy around Job 1 0, 8 ; r. 
"IC^ — 'iH^ Prov.' 27, 17, see r. ^"JH. 

"nlni] Job 3, 6 fut. apoc. Qal of 
mn, Gram. § 75, Eem. 3, d. 

'1'5'7-' '^"''^T '^®^- ^^^ ^2 (Gram. 
§ 121, 6, Eem. 4) adv. prop, his or 
its unions, i. e. together Is. 40, 5; 
together, of action Ps. 34, 4, of 
place Gen. 13, 6, of time Is. 1, 31 ; a- 
like, of manner 1 Sam. 30, 24; all 
together, of many Is. 10, 8 ; r. nn\ 

*l^n^ pr. n. m. (prob. for 'ji'nn;:, 
union) 1 Ch. 5, 14. 

^^*''^n!^ pr« n« m. (God gladdens, 
r. JTin) I'Ch. 5, 24. 

^•^.^^n."! pr. n. m. (n^ gladdens) 
1 Ch.'24,'20. 

'T^'5^! Jer. 49, 3, see M\ri\ 

^*^?'!"l? pr. n. m. (God quickens 
or declares, r. nin I) 2 Ch. 29, 14 

'^^^T^.! pr. n. m. (God beholds, 
r. Snm) Tch. 12, 4. 

iT'Tln'^ pr. n. m. (n^ sees) Ezr. 
10, 15. 

^KpTlj^ pr. n. m. (God strength- 
ens, foV'^XJ^m';, Gram. § 27, 3, 
Rem. 2, a) JEzekiel, the prophet 
Ez. 1, 3. 

strengthens) Hos. 1,1, Is. 1, Ij see 

also n^ptrt. • 

♦ T^Tn^ pr. n. m. (prob. may he 
cause to return, cf. Chald. ^iTli) 1 
Ch. 9, 12. 

^tV] fut. apoc. Qal of TC^t^ I, Gram. 
§ 75, Rem. 3, e. 

^^^n? pr. n. m. (God lives) 1 Ch. 
15, 18, but n^ri'i in v. 24; patron. 
''bx'iri'; 1 Ch. 26, 21. 

""""Ir (pi- ^^T^"^) a^i- "1-. '^Tr'l 

f. owe alone, an onely one, having no 
associate, of an only son Am. 8, 10, 

w. "ja Gen. 22, 2; of an only daughter 
(M'lin'^) Judg. 11, 34; lonely, deso' 
late Ps. 68, 7; forlorn, wretched, as 
suffering from loneliness Ps. 25, 16; 
fig. ^Ti'^ri'] poet, for life, as peerless 
or unique, not to be equalled or 
replaced Ps. 22, 21. 

njri^ pr. n. m. (Jn^ lives, r. t^^n I) 
1 Ch. 15, 24, i. q. )>VOr}\ 

v'^ln^ adj. m. waiting, hoping 
Lam. 3, 26; r. blj\ 

"jtj^r!'^ Hab. 2, 17 for 'jnri'i 3 masc. 
sing. fut. Hiph. of T\tTl, w. suf. 3 pi. 
fem. )-^ in pause for "j-^ (Gram. § 
20, 3, Rem.). 

-*^i_i (Qal obs.) i. q. h'^Ti, to ivait, 
^ope. — Niph.bijis (fut. bn^"^ for bm"^, 
Gram. §69, Rem. 5) to wattGen. 8, 12. 
— Pi. in*;, fut. bn;:';, l) to wait Job 29, 
21 (where si^n'^ for '^bh')), cf. Job 14, 
14 ; to hope Job 6, 11 ; w. h Job 29, 
23 or bjt Ps. 130, 7, fo ^ope zX wait 
for, cf.'is. 42, 4, Ps. 119, 74. 2) to 
cause to hope, w. b? upon Ps. 119, 
49. — Hiph. h'^liin to wait l Sam. 
10, 8; w. b for Job 32, 11, cf. Ps. 
38, 16. 

bn^ Num. 30, 3 fut. Hiph. of 
b^h II, Gram. § 67, Rem. 8. 

^^'?'"'- pr. n. m. (he hopes in 
God) Gen. 46, 14; patron. "<bjs^ri^ 
Num. 26, 26. 

^blri^ for ^hrr] 3 pi. perf. Pi. of 
bri^i, Gram. § 20, 2, c. 

UM akin to Wn, fi^n, Arab. 

^ ^ -«» 

aa-j, fo 6e t(;arm, heated; fig. ^o &e 
m {sexual) heat, to rut, fut. pi. 
sian^l (for siTanj^l) awe? ^/iey »*Mffe«? 
Gen. 30, 38, 39, also 3 pi. fem. T^'i'^rv^ 
(for Sii^rtPl, Gram. § 47, Rem. 3)." — 
Pi. to he in heat, of a flock Gen. 30, 
41; to conceive, Ps. 51, 7 in sin my 



I ( 


mother ''Sr*^'!!)!? conceived mCf see 
Gram. § 64, Rem. 3. 

^^rP Gen. 30, 39, see tr\\ 

tTPZTi'^, see Vn\ 

T I I-"' -T 

*'5ln7jrT' Ps. 51, 7, see t3^^ 

• : i-v:v ' ' -r 

*1^'^n^ m. i. q. Arab. )y*^^, a 
species of deer or stag, of a reddish 
colour, prob. a btick Deut. 14, 5; r. 
"lan I. 

- T 

'''''^n- P''* II' i^« (perb. a relative 
or connexion, r. M^ri I) 1 Ch. 7, 2. 

']t1^ fut. apoc. of nan I, Gram. § 
75, Rem. 3, d. 

?j?n^ Gen. 43, 29 for ^T}'^^ 3 p. 
fut. Qal of 'j5n I, w. suf. r\-^. 

n " ^°^^*^ ^^^ *^ ^-'^ ^' 
Arab. ,^^, ^o ^e barefoot; hence 

Cj^'' adj. m. barefooted, unshod 
2 Sam^ 15, 30. 

distributes, r. n^ri) Gen. 46, 24, 1 
Ch. 7, 13, patron. ''bx:£n;) Num. 
26, 48. 

^pTV Job 19, 23 for Ipn*^, fut. 
Hoph. of ppn, Gram. § 67, Rem. 11. 

IM (fut. ■nn'i'^) i. q. ^ni< fo 
eZe^ay, only in 2 Sam. 20, 5 (K'thibh). 

— Hi ph. "i^nin (fut. apoc. nni;i) to 

tarry, only in 2 Sam. 20, 5 (Q'ri). 

"in|] fut. apoc. Qal of riyi, Gram. 
§ 75, Rem. 3, d. 

wPl (obs.) perh. akin to ^in*;, 
to unite. — Hith. iun^Hin, see under 


^^r (P^rh. akin to in||j) m. race 
or family, \an*n ^bg the family 
register Neh. 7, 5. — Hence denom. 
Hith. iun^inn to unite oneself w. the 
family or race, i. e. to be enrolled in 

the genealogical tables (cf. Luke 2, 3 
aTroYpd<p£(j6ai) 1 Ch. 5, 1; but the 
infin. IDn^nn serves also as subst. 
register, genealogical table 1 Ch. 7, 5 ; 
ianilinn^ in the manner of a register 
2 Ch. 12, 15. 

Xty^^ fut. Qal of nm, also fut. 
Niph. of nnn. 

^^,1 pr. n. m. (perh. for H^n^ 
union) 1 Ch. 4, 2. 

^rit1|] Job 21, 13 fut. Qal of nn3; 
but in Jer. 10, 2 fut. Niph. of nnn. 

t^l^ fut. apoc. Hiph. of nc3, Gram. 
§ 76, 2, b. 

3 U (only fut. nw^"^, nt?"^, •'no'in 

Nab. 3 , 8) i. q. 3113, which serves as 
perf. of Sd;| (Gram. § 77), to be good, 
Av. IP to be better Nab. 3, 8. Impers. 
to be good, well, w. b to of pers. Gen. 
12, 13; <o 6e or seem good to somebody, 
w. ir?^ Lev. 10, 19, w. i3Bb Est. 5, 
14, w. b Ps. 69, 32; to be of good 
cheer, merry, w. ab Judg. 19, 6. — 
Hiph. n'^ia'^n (fut. n'^ia'^^ a"'i5^ once 
a'iI3;i'i Job 24, 21) to do well Deut. 

5, 25; w. suf. niN^b nai3%n ^^om 
^asf (?owe ii;eW /or to see, i. e. thou 
hast well seen (Gram. § 142, Rem. 
1), Jer. 1, 12; hence infin. absol. 
nii^n used as adv. well (Gram. § 
131,2) Deut. 9, 21 ; to improve, make 
good Jer. 2, 33; to do good Is. 1, 17; 
to benefit, w. b of pers. Gen. 12, 16, 
w. d^ Gen. 32, 10, w. nx Jer. 18, 10; 
to be good Mic. 2, 7 ; to gladden, 
make cheerful Judg. 19, 22. 

n U , Chald. (fut. a-Ji;:) i. q. Heb. 
213^, to seem good, w. b? of pers. to 
whom Ezr. 7, 18. 

n^p** pr. n. (perh. pleasantness) 
of a place 2 K. 21, 19; r. 3a\ 

nri!l2p'' pr. n. (perh. pleasantness) 



of a station of the Israelites in the 
wilderness, w. good water Num. 83, 33. 
rrtS,^ or rrO^*' pr. n. (prob. extend- 
ed, r. riDi) a Levitical city in Judah 
Josh. 21, 16; 15, 55, now called Yuttaf 
south of Hebron; prob. the iroXic 
'Iou8a of Luke 1, 39. 

nQ , pr. n. m. (prob. protection, 
enclosure, r. *isii: II) a son of Ishmael 
Gen. 25, 16; also the tribe descended 
from him 1 Ch. 5, 19. Their district 
was caUed Itoupaia, Iturea Luke 
3, 1, and lay east of the Jordan. 

fi^^^^ for K^ei;'?, Gram. § 54, 2,& 
and Rem. 3. 

Tiyi Ps. 138, 6 for S-IIJ fut. Qal 
of 2>:i^, Gram. § 70, Rem. 

^^P.*;*! for n^a^;: fut. Hiph. of 
S^\ Grain. § 70, Rem. 

^"""^.T. fut. Hiph. of ^^;», Gram. 
§ 70, Rem. 

"j?,*! (r. 15!;!; c. -p.*;!) m. wine Gen. 
14, 18; y^^T} n'^a the house of wine, 
banquet hall Cant. 2, 4; fully n'^a 
V^^ nin^5a Est. 7, 8. — Akin are 

Arab. J^^, Ethiop. wain, Armen. 
gini, oIvo(;, L. vinupt, G. wein, E. 
M?inc, W. gwin, Gael. /?ow. 

C|^^ Ez. 31, 7 fut. apoc. Qal of 
il^'^. Gram. § 76, 2, e. 

t]^ 1 Sam. 4, 13 in K'thibh, but 
only an error for 1^, as in Q'ri. 

"I]^ fut. apoc. Hiph. of M35, Gram. 
§ 76, 2, b. 

^'DD^SID* Ps. 50, 23, see Gram. §58,4. 

^2jiil"' Ps. 59, 5 for tlD5i^n^ Gram. 

AT • AT : . 

§ 54, 2, 6. 

^SS^^** Job 31, 15 for !l£55i5'' ^c 
fashioned ws, fut. Pil. of ']S|3 w. suf. 
and epenth. 5, w. the i changed to 1. 

r Im/ (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
naa fo 6e straight, even, direct. — 

Niph. nsis (fut. r\^^'^) to set one 
another right, to argue together Is. 
1, 18, w. d3> Job 23, 7; to be con- 
victed or set right, Gen. 20, 16 tnlnsia 
(for tntisia 2 perf. fem.) thou art 
reproved, or as part. fem. it is set 
right, i. e. all is settled. — Hiph. 
ty^'^in to set right, decide Is. 11, 3; 
to adjudge, w. b of pers. to whom 
Gen. 24, 14; w. "jia, to arbitrate 
Job 9, 33 ; to prove right, to justify 
Job 13, 15; to set right, admonish 
Lev. 19, 17, w. r> of pers. Pro v. 9, 
7; to chasten, punish Ps. 141, 5. — 
Hopli. n^iiii to be chastened Job 33, 
19. — Hith. »i3inh to argue, w. &:> 
Mic.6,2. — Perh. n^^ nD3, WS, nins 

are akin to Arab. ^5 fo iread! or 
trample violently; hence perh. 1) to 
be strong; 2) ^0 make level or eveii, 
hence to be 7'ight. 

♦^^^^^l' pr. n. f. (tr^ is able, r. hb"^) 
2 Ch^ 26, 3 (K'thibh)." 

■J^^^ 1) pr. n. m. (He, i. e. God, 
establishes, r. "j^S) Gen. 46, 10 ; 
patron, "ip'^s;;! Num. 26, 12. 2) pr. n. 
of a column in front of Solomon's 
temple 1 K. 7, 21. 

^mJ , once y U 2 Ch. 7, 7 (perf. 
ipl^ip^, w! suffix l^'til^sy Ps. 13, 5; inf. 
bia-', c. nbb^; fut.'^SSli prob. for 
35I'' = ?51!', hence mistaken for fut. 
Hoph., Gram. § 69, Rem. 3) akin to 

Arab. jr3, IssiS, h^ti, Chald. ^nSJ, 
prop, fo Ao?^, contain, then fo &e 
capable of, w. ace. Job 42, 2; fo fee 
afefe w. inf. Gen. 13, 6, w. finite verb 
Est. 8,6; to prevail, to succeed 1 K. 
22, 22; to control oneself Gen. 37, 4j 
to overcome, w. ace. of pers. Ps. 13, 
5, w. h Gen. 32, 26; to master (men- 
tally), to comprehend Ps. 139, 6; ellipt. 
to be able to bear or suffer Is. 1, 13. 



^J**. '?j"'chald.(fut.b3'^Dan. 
• • • ' • • "i • 

8, 29, Vd^I'i Dan' 2, 10 as in Heb.) 
i. q. Heb. bb^, to be able, w. b and 
infin. Dan. 2, 47; to prevail over, 
overcome, w. ^ of pers. Dan. 7, 21. 
b?^ Chald. fut. of b?*: Dan. 3, 29. 

n;b5% ^n^b^;* pr. n. f. (rn is 

ableM^Ch. 26/3," 2 K. 15, 2; see 

'n;D5% ^n;55^ pr. n. m. (n: 
establishes) Jer.' 27, 20; 24, 1. 

^^^05!* Ex. 15, 5 for i^^S?": fut. 
Pi. of nG3 w. suf. *l^— (see Gram. 
§ 58, 3, Eem. 1 and § 75, Rem. 13). 

Sn?!' Is. 24, 12 for n2il'» fut. Hopb. of 
nns, Gram. § 67, Rem. 8. 

^nlD]' Deut. 1, 44 iins: o^ sinD;>, 

fut. Hiph. of nns. Gram. § 67,' 8, 
Rem. 8. 

^ y"* (fut. "ib"^; inf. ^b;;, c. mb, 
mb, wT suf. I'nn'ib, once nb 1 Sam. 
4,"i9; perf. w.'suf. f^wb"; Ps. 2, 7) 

i. q. Arab. jJj, perh. akin to Tn^, 
prop, to lay or fe^ dotf?n (i. e. from 
the womb) ; hence to bring forth, to 
hear, of mothers Gen. 4, 1 , of she- 
beasts Gen. 30, 39; to lay eggs, of 
hens Jer. 17, 11. Part. fem. nnbl'i 
also in'^bi"', she uJw beat's, i. e. a 
mother Is. 21, 3, cf. Prov. 17, 25. 
Also to beget, as a father (cf. tixto, 
•yevvaco, L. pario, of both parents) 
Gen. 4, 18 ; B'^'ibi'i parents (ol xexov- 
teO Zech. 13, 3; to create, produce 
Job 38, 29. — Nipli. "ibia (pi. sn^^ii 
1 Ch. 3, 5 ; inf. w. suf. i^h^T}) to be 
horn Ps. 22, 32; w. nx before the 
subject (see Gram. § 143, 1, a) Gen. 
4, 18. — Pi. ^b"; to help to bear, to 
deliver, as a midwife Ex. 1, 16; part, 
f- f^'!!?!-'? fl midwife Gen. 35, 17. — 
Pu. "ib^ (ib^l"' Judg. 18, 29, Gram. § 
52, Rem. 4) to he bom Ps. 87, 4; to 

be created Ps. 90, 2. — Hiph. ^^Vh 
fo cause to bear Is. 66, 9; to cause 
to have a child 1 Ch. 2, 18 ; to fer- 
tilise, as the rain Is. 55, 10; to beget 
Gen. 5, 4; fo create Job 38, 28; fo 
bring forth Is. 59, 4. — Hoph. prop. 
to be begotten, hence to be born, only 
in inf. constr. n'lbti Di"^ birth-day 
Gen. 40, 20; cf. in Ez. 16, 4 Di'^a 
"^nix n'ibiih (Gram. § 71 and § 143*, 
1, a) m the day of thy being born. 
— Hilh. ^bli'nfn prob. denom. of 
r\1*iblPi family - history, hence to de- 
clare one's birth, to be enrolled on 
the family register Num. 1, 18; cf; 
ian^nri denom. of brj^ Hence 

ib'^ (pi. tr^^bi, c. 'ilb^, ''^b^ Is. 
57, 4) m. one horn, a male child Ex. 
1, 17; a lad or hoy Gen. 4, 23; pi. 
i. q. d'lSa children Ex. 21, 4, the young 
of animals Is. 11, 7; tn^z". '^'ib: 
strangers Is. 2, 6, cf. uTs; A^aiuiv. 

♦^'^b^ f* of ^!^.^ ^ ffi^^i maiden 
Gen. 34, 4 ; pi. ni'nb'; Zech. 8, 5. 

TPilh'^ (r. 'ib^) f. childhood, youth 
Ecc. 11, 9; collect, youth, young men 
Ps. 110, 3. 

"lib^ (r. nV) m. one horn Ex. 1, 
22, i. q. part, "i^ib^ born. 

l^^T P^'* '^* ^^' (^^^^^yi'^S ^^^^ night, 
r. "j^lb I) 1 Ch. 4, 17. 

'T'T (c. ^''bi, c. pi. ^tY) ™- <>w« 
torw; n'^2 Tib"; one &orn in f/ie house, 
i. e. home-bom slave (Sept. oIxoye- 
vTQOGen. 14,14; also descendant Num. 
13, 22; r. ^b\ 

^T*'?^ Prov. 4,21 fut. Hiph. of Tib, 
Gram. § 72, Rem. 9. 

^T^^ Ex. 16, 2K'thibh, fut. Hiph. 
of l^ib il. Gram. § 72, Rem. 9. 


TJ V (fut. "T^b^ imper.Tib, w. n- 
cohort. SiDb or ?;b, inf. nsb ; the perf. 
and most of the parts of this verb 




Tjelong to T\2'^ which see) to go, to 
walk. — Hiph. T]'^Vin and rp^'^fi to 
conduct, lead Deut. 8, 2; to carry 
off, take away, a babe Ex. 2, 9 ; fig. 
to cause to flow off, of water Ez. 32, 

14, See Gram. § 69, Kem. 8. — 

Akin to Arab. ^3, ^2^ to haste. 

^ ^ (Qal obs.) mimet. akin to 
}>h^, Arab. J^-^, Syr. VL»f, 6X0X6- 
Cto, Lat. ululo, ejulo, Engl, yell, hotel, 
wail, W. wylo, Gael, uallam. — Hiph. 
b''b^'^ (fut. b^''^'; Is. 52, 5, b-'b^'i Is. 

15, 2, b'^b*!'^ Mic. 1, 8) #0 ?(;ai^ Jer. 
47, 2; w. b? Jer. 48, 31, w. b Is. 

16, 7 of the cause ; fig. said of trees 
Zech. 11, 2, also of the gate, perh. 
as a place of wailing Is. 14, 31; to 
yell, as savage victors Is. 52, 5. 

^5? 1^' ^ howling, of wild beasts, 
only in Deut. 32, 10 'pt^,^ bb") nnnn!) 
and in a waste, the holding of a 
desert, i. e. a wilderness full of 
howling beasts. 

♦^^V^ (c. nbb-]) f. wailing Is. 15, 
8: r.^bb''. 

• ^ I prob. akin to TOb, S^ib II, 
to speak rashly, only inProv. 20, 25. 


#r X II (obs.) perh. akin to pb^, 

to lick up, sivallow down; hence 
perh. 3?bin, n?bin, worm; but SJb;;' II 
may well ,mean to roll or wriggle, 

being prob. akin to b^ib, Arab. ^<jJ 
(torsi t). Sans, vail (turn), elXew 
(whence 2XfAiv;, Ij.vermis, Gr.wurm, 
E. M-'orm, G. aal , E. ee/), L. w/vo, 
G. loallen, E. wallow, welter, W. 

^ C (oT^s-) ^' <3[' Arab, i^j, akin 
to C)b^j;, #0 c/tw^ #0; hence 

n£!5^ f. a sort of itching scab or 
fe^ferLev. 21, 20. 

\r '^ (obs.) mimet. akin to pj?^ 
(which see), to lick or ea^ 0^/ hence 

p5^. m. a kind of locust Nah. 3,. 
16; prop, the devourer, because of 
its voracity. 

t2^pl3^ m. a pouch or scrip, used 
by shepherds 1 Sam. 17, 40; r. I3pb.. 

D^ (r. Dn"» I ; c. D*" , often di Gen. 

T ^ -T ' - ' T 

14, 3, w. n-^ loc. n^a^, pi. D*iH^)m. 
prop, a humming, roaring, hence^ 
the sea Gen. 32, 13; then, in general,. 
a large river, e. g. the Nile Is, 1 8, 2,. 
the Euphrates Is. 27 , 1 ; pi. the- 
branches of the Nile, forming its Delta 
Ez.32,2. Also a reservoir, n^nsh C^ 
the copper reservoir, the temple laver 
2 K. 25, 13. — Fig. the west, because 
the Mediterranean sea is to the west 
of Palestine, D^ ni the west wind 

' T - 

(prop, sea-wind) Ex. 10, 19, D;i-rNQ 
the western side or district Ex. 27, 
12, n53i ivestward Gen. 28, 14; d^n. 

'Tit ' ' t • 

from or on the west Josh. 11, 2; 
b ^'^^ on the tvest of Josh. 8, 9. For 
d^ w. the pr. names of particular 
seas or lakes, see under n";i33, tibiD, 
d^pi'jiba, ra-iy, dsid, d^^is'y. d^'rr 
bilafi the great sea, i. e. the Medi- 
terranean Num. 34, 6, also called 
■jl^hiSifi d^fi the hinder sea Deut. 11,. 
24 ; *'5b'7;3ri d^n the former or eastern 
sea, i. e. the Dead Sea Zech. 14, 8» 

Q^ Chald. (def. X^s:) i. q. Heb. d^^ 
the sea Dan. 7, 2. 

D*] (only in pi. d^a^) m. warm 
springs, only in Gen. 36, 24; r. nri\ 
Warm springs are still to be found 
in that district, south-east of the 
Dead Sea. 

T T 

(obs.) perh. akin to dl"^. 




n^li, to he bright, wann; hence 

iTU (obs.) i. q. D!!'', D^"^, akin 
to ODfi, M^n, <o 6e hot, hence to 
be bright, warm; hence D"'a'J, pi. 

of C!-". 

^iJ^^'D'^, pr. n. m. (perh. God's day 
i. e. Sabbath) Gen. 46, 10. 

ni/J^, see dl\ 

tV2'^^ Gen. 7, 23 fut. apoc. Qal of 
nny, where some texts have ri!Q"i fut. 

T t' - . 

Niph. as in Ps. 109, 13, Gram. § 75, 
Bern. 8. 

D-^^a^ see Di\ 

Tpy^'D"; pr. n. f. (prob. dove, r. 
d^;' li) Job 42, 14. 

•jr;?; (c. -pri';; r. ')^^, i. q. I^JJ I) 
m. prop, what supports or defends 
(cf, djAUVO)), hence the right hand 
Gen. 48, 14; the right side, e. g. 
131^ "1 'i^ hand of his right side, his 
right hand Gen. 48, 17, •ji^a^ y^^^ 
right eye 1 Sam. 11, 2; fAe soidh, 
being on the right hand of one 
facing the east (Dni?) Ps. 89, 13; 
')""73"?3 on the south of 1 Sam. 23, 
19; y^yy^ in the south Job 23, 9. Fig. 
the right or proper place Ecc. 1 0, 2. 
2) pr. n. m. (right hand i. e. lucky) 
Gen. 46, 10; patron, ''.rp"' Jaminite 
Num. 26. 12. 

''T''T. (from, "ps;) prop. adj. m. 
right, opp. to left 2 Ch. 3, 17 
(K'thibh). Most frequently in the 
patron, of ra;32, viz. ■3ip']-"]S Ben- 
jaminite, also ellipfc. "ip^i 2 Sam. 20, 1. 

5^^^?> f^V*?^ P'^- "^' "*■ cii^ fills 

up) 2 Ch. 18, 7', 1 K. 22, 8. 

♦^V-?? Job 8, 21 for x^:q-, Gram. 
§ 75, Rem. 21, b. 

"^5^- pr. n. m. (he causes to 
reign, V. r^-o) 1 Ch. 4, 34. 

UU I (obs.) mimet. akin to 

Oian, D^n, iTatn, fo hum or »naA:c a 

- T ' ' T T ' 

noise, to roar, to rage; hence B^ the 
sea, akin to Dinn. 

- T 

II (obs.) to be pure, 

clean; hence rtD'^ri\ 

y^ (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 

"j^ait I, to support, hence yq!^ right- 
hand; whence as a denom. — Hi ph. 
')ia«»h ("p^n 2 Sam. 14, 19) to use the 
right, to be right-handed, part. pi. 
d^rT?";^ 1 Ch. 12, 2; to turn to the 
right Gen. 13, 9. 

Hj^-S^ pr. n. m. (prob. good-luck, 
r. n3^)*Gen. 46, 17. 

^'^jQp, adj. m., n-i?^'; f., right, opp. 
to left Lev. 8, 23 , cf.' "^a'^a";. 

^^J^r"! pr- "• m- (lie will with- 
holdl r. 3)313) 1 Ch. 7, 35. 

\Q I (Qal obs.) i. q. 1!|^, to 
change, alter. — Hi ph. T''?''n to 
change, alter Jer. 2, 11; where some, 
w. the same meaning, read "I'^^Ji (r. 
nils). — Hith, na^nln perh. to change 
oneself, w. 3 into, nsTin dii'DDS 
into their glory shall ye change your- 
selves, i. e. ye shall enter into their 
glory, only in Is. 61, 6; but rather 
as under "isl^ II. 

I W II (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 

nsx II, to be high, only in — Hith. 
to make oneself high, to boast or 
glory, prob. in Is. 61, 6 in their 
glory yt shall boast yourselves. 

^'''T Is. 24, 9 fut. Qal of n^Q II; 
Gram. § 67, Rem. 3. 

♦^"^'r? pr. n. m. (rebellious, r. 
nns I) *l Ch. 7, 36. 

?j^'113'' Ps. 139, 20 for T^l'irjt'', 
Gram.' § 68, 2, Rem. 




wIj (Qal obs.) i. q. ^XO-Q, to 
feel, touch. — Hiph. Uii^^rt (K'thibh) 
to allow to touch or feel, only in 
Judg. 16, 26. 

W5^ Ecc. 12, 5 fut. Hiph. for 
725??!?. r- T^y^J, Gram. § 73, Kern. 4. 
3>'n5'^ Chald. for ^T. fut. Pe. of 

T\J I (fut. nr"^, part. f. rtSi'i) 
akin to MIS) II, to he violent or cruel. 

T T ' ' 

to oppresSf of a city Zeph. 3, 1, of a 
sword Jer. 46, 16; w. suf., Iti^ dS^a 
let us oppress them altogether Ps. 74, 
8. — Hiph. tiiin (fut. nsi'i) to treat 
10. violence Ex. 22, 20; w. y2 of 
place, to drive out hy violence Ez. 
46, 18. 



n (obs.) perh. mimet. akin 
to n3i< I, to mourn, to coo ; hence 
nsi'i dove. 


ni3^ pr. n. (rest, r. risiS) of a place 
on the borders of Ephraim and Ma- 
nasseh 2 K. 15, 29; w. H-^ loc. 
nnis'i Josh. 16, 6. 

T , T ' 

D^5^ pr. n. (slumber, r. d*l5) a 
place in Judah (Q'ri) Josh. 15, 53, 
where K'thibh has d'iSi. 

• T 

^T^ Ps. 141, 5 fut. Hiph. of M3, 
Gram. § 74, Rem. 4. 

jj D_ fut. Hiph. of r. WS. 

♦'IJ^?? f'j i' q- f^i'^'i'^) sucker, shoot, 
only Ez. 17, 4; r. p3\ 

pj (fut. pi'i']) perh. akin to 
?lp3 II, to suck Job 3, 12: w. d'^T^r, 
to suck the breasts Joel 2, 16. — 
fliph. p'^a'^n, once p'^SJn Lam. 4, 3, 
to suckle Gen. 21 , 7 part. f. pi. 
nipia^a d*>^Qa niilch camels Gen. 
32, 16, sing, npj'ia t^e^nwrse Ex. 

2, 7, w. suf. inj53^ 2 K. 11, 2, pi. 
Is. 49, 23. 

Tj^llir, once W|ilIJ3! (Is. 34, 11) m. 
some unclean bird Lev. 1 1, 17 ; accord- 
ing to some, from C]UJ3 twilight, even- 
ing, and hence evening-bird, owl; 
but better according to others from 
&]^3 to blow, hence perh. a bittern 
or heron, named for the sound or 
noise it makes; cf. tn^ilJsn. 

nS!* fut. Hiph. of Md, Gram. § 
67, Rem. 8. 

inb^ fut. Qal of SSd, Gram. § 67, 
Rem. 3. 

I D (inf. I'id': ; w. b, ^Ib'^l? Is. 51, 
16, lid^^ 2 Ch. 31, 7; w. suf. ^W 
Job 38, 4) prob. akin to ^?&, prop. 
to set, fig. to found, i. e. to set some- 
thing in its permanent place Ezr. 3, 12; 
to set down, of a heap 2 Ch. 31, 7; 
to appoint, assign Ps. 104, 8; to lay 
down laws Ps. 119, 152. — Nipli. 
1di3 (fut. ^W'^) to &e settled, of in- 
habitants in a land Ex. 9, 18; to sit 
down together for consultation, hence 
to take counsel together Ps. 2, 2; to 
be founded, of a building Is. 44, 28. 
— Pi. "Id*; to found Is. 28, 16, cf. 
Zech. 4, 9 ; w. ace. of material (Gram. 
§ 134, 2) 1 K. 5, 3; to appoint 1 Ch. 
9, 22; to prescribe or enjoin, w. 
b? Est. 1,8.— Pu. to be founded 
Cant. 5, 15; w. ace. of material 1 K, 
7, 10. — Hoph. ^Wtn to be establish- 
ed; inf. used as subst. foundation 
Ezr. 3,11; part, ^d^a (Dagh. euphon.), 
e.g.^d^^ 'iWa a founded foundation^ 
i. e. firmly founded Is. 28, 16. Hence 
Tid and 

^Pl* m. foundation, hence begin- 
ning, only Ezr. 7^ 9, 

'liO'l' (pi. ti^yoi Mic. 1, 6, ni^ib") 
Lam. 4, 11) m. foundation, of an al- 
tar Ex. 29, 12, of a building Job 4, 




19, cf. Hab. 3, 13; fig. princes, re- 
:garded as the basis of society (cf. 
niny:), n'^nilb'] her princes Ez. 30, 4. 

m^D^ f. foundation, only in Ps. 
87, \] r.'^\ 

^^"l (from r. "nilb, as S'^'n'; from ni^i) 
in. only in pi. w. suf. "^yxi'^^ my tur- 
ners away i. e. those departing from 
me, only K'thibh of Jer. 17, 13, 
where Q'ri "^-^JlDI. 

*i'1D'] (r.lG^) m. corrector, reprover 
Job 40, 2, parallel to <3'':'ia. 

:|D (only fut. Ti^'^'^) i. q. ^t>, 
TiCi, to pour; intrans. to be poured, 
only Ex. 30, 32 , perh. for r\t2^\ 

» iSP]" pr. n. f. (perh. He, i. e. God, 
looks^r. n:b n) Gen. 11, 29. 

^n^^^Jp"; pr. . n. m. (n;| upholds, 
r. 1\'qt)'2 Ch. 31, 13. 


^ (Qal only in perf., perh. 
also imp. lEp Is. 29,1, perh. part. Cipii 
for C]bi"> Is. 38, 5; but the fut. has 
the Hiph. form C]'^G'Ti, apoc. tlbi^ 
ripj"^) i. q. Cl&X, HBD, to add, w. bx to 
Ez'. 23, 14, w. b Is. 26, 15, w. b? Lev. 
5, 16; to increase, w. ace. Job 42, 10; 
w. inf. to add to do anything i. e. 
to do again (on this adverbial idiom, 
see Gram. § 142) Gen. 4, 2, also to do 
further or longer Gen. 4, 12: also w. 
*Ti» to do the more Gen. 37, 5. — Niph. 
qbia fo fee added, w. br ttjpow Num. 
36, 3; to add or ^oiw oneself ^k. 1, 10 ; 
fo fee increased, e. g. in riches Pro v. 
11, 24. Part. pi. msGIS additions, i. 
6. new evils Is. 15, 9. — Hiph. Cj'^pin 
(fut. !r|'i&i'>, apoc. tibl"^, Cj&J', part.C]'^&"ia) 
of the same force and usage as Qal. 
— tpy^ in Is. 29, 14 and 38, 5 may be 
fut. as is sometimes the case after 
*^5Sil, ITliX being unterstood as subject 
(comp. is. 28, 16 "7&*i ^Mn h! I am 
lie ivho lays). The forms v)b6<i , S)tp!!<'^, 

Cl'^Dsi'^ are only varieties of Cl'^tl'', 
having arisen from the identity of 
C]5^ and C)Ci< (which see). 

JTjp^ Chald (Pe'al obs.)i. q. Heb. 
CiC\ — Hoph. (after the Heb.) qWH 
to fee added^ only Dan. 4, 33. 

lU (fut. 1 pers. "nSN, w. suf. Dt?©« 
Hos. 10, 10) akin to 'nbX, prop, to hind, 
to tame; hence to correct, chastise, 
part, ^b'l Prov. 9, 7, cf, Ps. 94, 10. 
— Nipli. ^bli to fee corrected, to take 
warning Jer. 6, 8, w. 3 of the warn- 
ing Lev. 26, 23. — Pi. ^'&'i (fut. ^'&:y, 
inf. "nb:, Ps. 118, 18, nn&] Lev. 26, 
19)) to punish or chastise Deut. 22, 18; 
to admonish Ps. 16, 7 ; to instruct Is. 
28, 26; w. yo, to dissuade from Is. 
8, 11. — Hiph. "I'^p'^ri (cf. ^i^m'n), 
w. suf. B'l^'^C'^Ji; I will correct them, 
only in Hos. 7, 12. — Nithpa el 
^&.S3 = -is«jn5 (see Gram. §. 55, 9) fo 
faA:e warning to oneself, to fee warn- 
ed, only in Ez. 23, 48. 

^b"* 1 Ch. 15, 22 for -lb''; r. n^ito. 

5^^ (only pi. t3i3?;i) m. a shovel, for 
removing the ashes of the altar Ex. 
27, 3; r. n3>^. 

' ' TT 

Y^ll^^ 1) pr. n. m. (perh. he shines, 
r. y?r)'l Ch. 4, 9. 2) pr. n. (perh. 
conspicuous) of a place 1 Ch. 2, 55, 

)• I (fut. n?'^'^) akin to 1^^ II, 
Arab, j^c^, Syr. ,^o, also to '!??, ro 

define, fix, of place Jer. 47, 7, of time 
2 Sam. 20, 5 , of punishment Mic. 6, 
9; metaph. to fix on, betroth (a 
woman) Ex. 21, 8. — Hiph. ^i^"in to 
set a time and place for a trial, to 
summon or arraign Job 9, 19. — 
Hoph. ^?>lii, only part. pi. fixed Jer. 
24, 1 ; set, of the face Ez. 21, 21. 

!• II (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
^?S II, to bring together^ assembkf 


268 riDito'' 

— NIph. 151*3 to meet iv. one another, 
■w. b Ex. 25, 22; to come together, 
w. bfi< to Num. 10,4; fo agree together 
Am. 3, 3, w. b? against Num. 14, 35. 

1'^^'], ''^?.'] pr.n.m.(perh. punctual, 
r.1?;« i) 2 Ch*. 9, 29, Q'ri and K'thibh. 

i l< i. q. Arab. ^3, fo collect, 

to snatch up; hence #0 take out, to re- 
move, only in Is. 28, 17; hence 'S'^ a 
shovel. ~— Prob. akin to &<2l'' , Aram. 

TT ' 

^Km3^^ pr. n. m. (removed by God) 
1 Ch. 9,* 6; also b^t'1S^ in Q'ri, v. 35. 

Y^3?^ pr. n. m. (prob. counsellor, 
r. y^'S I) 1 Ch. 8, 10. 

"liS?^ (only pi. d'l^iS)';) m. wood, 
forest,^ only in Ez. 34, 25 (K'thibh); 

see 'n5\ 

"1^5?^ pr. n. m. (perh. forester) 1 
Ch. 20,^5 K'thibh. 

ID^^^*^ pr. n. m. (gatherer) Gen. 
36, 18 K'thibh, Q'ri W'^^ 7. IIJ^lS) II. 

T< I (Qal obs.) i. q. 11^, t?3, to 

he strong or firm, hence bold or 
shameless. — Niph. (part. T^ia) to be 
emboldened, fierce, only in Is. 33, 19, 
where some take it as akin to t^'b in 
Ps. 114, 1. 

!• II (obs.) akin to y^";, 1!^'^ I, 

i. q. Arab, ys^ , to decide, order, com- 
mand; hence 

!^^*'!?!- pr. n. m. (prob. God's 
command) 1 Ch. 15, 18; also bx'^tS? 
1 Ch. 15, 20. 

^'»^^!?,- pr. n- m. (command of Pr;;) 

1 Ch. 24, 26. 

TT;?;], also "^IT pr. n. (perh. 
auxiliary, r. *iTy) of a city in Gad, 
on the border of Ammon 1 Ch. 6, 66, 

2 Sam. 24, 5. "it:?:! D^ sea of Tazer, 

perh. a noted pool or reservoir near 
there Jer. 48, 32. 

LjJ i. q. rTJ5> I, ITis) I, to clothe. 
only perf. w. suf. "iSDS^ Is. 61, 10. 

O^'^ Chald. 1. q. Heb. y'$'^, ta 
counsel;' ^a,rt. DS^ (= ysi'^ Heb.) a 
counsellor; pi. w. suf. ''•nii:?;^ his ad- 
visers Ezr. 7, 14. — Ithpa. D?;;m to 
consult together Dan. 6, 8. Hence ixa?. 

btX'T , see )>i<^^\ 

'^*''?*' pr. n. m. (perh. forester, 
cf. '^^J^J I Ch. 20, 5 (Q'ri), but "IJISIJ 
in K'thibh. 


1^^!! pr. n. m. (prob. troubling, 
r. )^ij 1 Ch. 5, 13. 

^•^ (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. Jc^, 
akin to Si^y, to go up, ascend or 
reach the height; hence to be eminent, 
helpful. — Hiph. to profit or help 
Jer. 2, 8; to assist, w. "b of pers. Is. 
30, 5, of thing Job 30, 13; to be pro- 
fited Job 21, 15; hence 

b?;|! (only pi. d'i^3)'i, c. ^^5::) m. 

1) i. q. Arab. J^j, prop, climber, 

hence the chamois, rock or mountain 
goat Ps. 104, 18; d''^3?'^ii ^yn rocks 
of the wild goats, near Engedi 1 Sam. 
24, 3. 2) pr. n. f. (wild goat) Judg. 
4, 17. 

♦^^?^ (c. nbs)^) f. 1) a female 
chamois, wild she-goat, "jn h^??;^ a 
graceful chamois, pet name for a 
dear wife Prov. 5, 19. 2) pr. n. m. 
(female chamois) Ezr. 2, 56; but xb?^ 
in Neh. 7, 58 ; r. b'2i\ 

^;f^- pr. n. m. (perh. climber) 
Gen.V6, 5; r. b?\ 

n51^3)'' Dan. 8 , 22 for tia"it5>n. 
Gram. § 47, Rem. 3. 


ly (obs.) prob. mimet. akin to 
nax, nss I, to call or cry, to screech; 
hence ^^^i, J^3S^ 

1?|! (for n.5?!!; r. nss I) prop, subst. 
i. q. "jSa aw answeHng (as in "money 
answereth all things"), then as prep. 
because of (prop, in answer or return 
for) Ez. 5, 9; also w. inf. D2ta<« 1?^ 
because of your rejecting Is. 30, 12; 
w. perf. "^3 ']?'2 on account that Num. 
11,20; nm 1?'^ because that Gen. 22, 16; 
tw ord?er fXa^, so that, w. fut. Ez. 12, 
12. )'^1'2ri )^1 because, even because 
<emph'.)' Lev. 26, 43, also l^^^a )T. 
Ez. 36, 3. 

■j?^ (r. ■]?:;; only pi. ts^??"!) m. but 
epicoene, the ostrich, so named for 
its cry, only Lam. 4, 3 (Q'ri); but 

nO?^ (cf. b^;", f. nb?::) f. the female 
ostrich f always ^iW*!!! na (sing.) 
daughter of the ostrich, the ostrich 
Deut. 14, 16 ; ns?;: ni33 (pi.) daughters 
of the ostrich, ostriches Is. 13, 21; 
see r. )'$\ — • Cf. aTpoui^iov (= L. 
struthio) from atpuCw (= L. strido), 
akin to Gr. strauss, W. es^rys, Irish 
struth, E. ostrich. 

^ySj^ pr. n. m. (perh. responsive) 
1 Ch.'s, 12. 

^^3'''5'' Is. 15, 5 for S|-I5>'15>"' Pilp. 
of 'IW III fo raise up a cry. 

V]!/'' (fut. t^^^,, also Cl?'; Is. 44, 
12) i. q. r. t]^2>, whence &1.'^5, fo &e 
wearied, exhausted, w. travel Is. 40, 
31, through thirst Is. 44, 12. — Hoph. 
^Cj^tin) only part. tjS^ wearied out 
Dan. f», 21. Hence 

Cj?^ (pi. t3">B>1) adj. m. wearied, 
faint Is. 40, 29, loom out, exhausted, 
of a people Is. 50, 4. 

jTjJ^'' (w. pref. r|^"^3) m. aw ex- 

269 15; 

hausting or SM?i/i course, only in Dan. 
9, 21;r. C15\ 

yy"' (fut. y?'"';) akin to nsJl, 
■^rW I, prop, to fasten or ^x; hence 
1) to set firmly, as the eye, w. b? 
M2)ow some one Ps. 32, 8; to resolve 
firmly, w. b? 2 Sam. 17, 21 or bx 
Jer. 49, 20 against any one. 2) to 
advise Judg. 19, 30; to admonish Va. 
16, 7. Part, yyi'^ counsellor Is. 9, 5; 
fern, nst^i"^ 2 Ch. 22, 3, pl.d''SS>1'' Job 3, 
14. — Niph. y^is (fut. Y^^*^) to advise 
one another, to take counsel together, 
w. 1"nn^ Ps. 71, 10; w. dS 1 Ch. 13, 1 
or nVls. 40, 14, or hi< 2 K. 6, 8 with; 
to counsel oneself, to be advised 1 K. 
12, 28, cf. Prov. 13, 10. — Hith. 
VS^rti i. q. Niph. to consult one 
another, to plot together, w. b? agaimt 
Ps. 83, 4. 

^P?.- V^' T^- ^' (beel- catcher, 
supplanter,r.3iD:^I) 'Iaxd)p, Jacob, the 
father of the Israehtes Gen. 25, 26; 
hence for the people of Israel Is. 27, 
6; for the ten tribes Hos. 12, 3, and 
after their captivity, for the kingdom 
of Judah Nah. 2, 3. 

ni^p?'^ pr. n. m. (perh. Jacob- 
ward)" i Ch. 4, 36. 

lU?!! pr. n. m. (perh. perverse, r. 
•jj?:?)'l'ch. 1, 42. 

\gr (obs.) perh. akin to iTiS HI, 
to sprout or flourish; hence *1S> 

1?!^. Hag. 1, 14 fut. apoc. Hiph. 
of ^^5 ni. 

1?"! (r. *!?'') m. 1) a luxuriant 
spot, covered w. trees, a brake or 
thicket Is. 21, 13; a ivood or forest 
Deut. 19, 5, cf. Ps, 96, 12. 2) fig. 
ivild honey (prob. for "i?;! ta'n forest 
honey, the {xeXi o^YptOv of Mat. 3, 4), 
often stored up by wild bees in ca- 
vities of trees and rocks and ground, 





only in Cant. 5, 1. 3) perh. pr. n. in 
Ps. 132, 6 for D"i"i5-' n^'ip. 

1 Ch. 9, 42. 

»"0?- (^- "^"^^-j pi- ^1"'?'^; r. ^?^) f. 

1) forest Ps. 29, 9. 2) i. q. -i?;^ 2, wild 
honey, only in 1 Sam. 14, 27 ^5^n n'^r^ 
prob. /Ae z^^iW sor^ of honey, the const. 
St. being here used for simple appo- 
sition (see Gram. § 116, 5, cf. Ewald's 
Ausfiihrl. Lehrb., § 287, 1, a), but Sept., 
Syr. and Vulg. make it honey-comb. 

D^r^'n^^ '^'13^^ pr. n. m. (perh. 
woods of weavers) 2 Sam. 21, 19. 

'^'^T?'] pr. n. (forests, r. "12?^) Josh. 
15, 10. 

•^T^*!]?- pr- n. m. (perh. }^^ causes 
to rest] r. 'uJ:;!^') 1 Ch. 8, 27. 

ITO:, ^ti;: pr. n. m. (perh. for 
f^^^?:, '^^ makes, r, iit^) Ezr. 10, 37 
K'tiiibh, but lUjr:' in Q'ri. 

biSl^iD?;; pr. n. m. (God makes) 
1 Ch. 11/47. 

♦^t*^?? pr. n. m. (fn^ redeems, 
r. fTTQ) 1 Ch. 8, 25. 

T T 

(fut. ns'^';!, apoc. t)'i^l Ez. 
31, 7) akin to S'S;;;, prop. #0 shine; 
hence fig. to be fair or beautiful 
Can. 7, 2. — Pi. JiQ'^ #0 make beauti- 
ful, adorn Jer. 10, 4. — Pol pal (Gram. 
§ 55, 4) to be made very fair, only 
in Ps. 45, 3 n'^B'^S'i thou art much 

' T ■•T : T 

fairer D1&5 "133^ than men. — Hitli. to 
beautify oneself Jer. 4, 30. — Akin to 

Sans. 6/ia(shine),cpa(o, Syr. ]|.s (bright), 
Chald. rs"^,, G. fein, E.fine. Hence 
ns*' (c. ne;!) adj. m., nB;i (c ns^ 
pi. nis^, c. t^S"i) {. beautiful (y.ak6c,) 
Cant. 1, 8 ; w. t^i^ys beautiful of aspect 
1 Sam. 17, 42; w. "iNin beautiful of 
figure Gen. 29, 17; of a country Ps. 
48, 3; of a voice Ez. 33, 32; of the 
-works of God Ecc. 3, 11. 

njS'HS^ adj. f. (redupl. from 

r. fns^) very beautiful, only Jer. 46, 20. 

iS^, XiS^ Ezr. 3, 7, pr. n. (beauty) 

of a sea-port in Dan, 'Iotitty)^, Joppa 

Josh. 19, 46; now \SC Ydfd, 

\ \^ (Qal obs.) mimet. akin to- 
ns5, tilS (which see), to puff, blow. — 
Hith. riB!'ri7 to sigh or pant, only in 
Jer. 4, 31. Hence 

nS^ (era*) adj. m. panting, eager y 
perh. in Hab. 2, 3, but see under 

r^iQ; ti'cn ns'i'] and breathing out 
violence Ps.27, 12, cf. ifXTivetov d7r£i- 
Xrj^ xal ^ovoo Acts 9, 1. 

""£1 m. renoivn, only Ez. 28, 7; 
r. ns'^, whence also 

T T' 

^B^_ (in pause *iBi^, w. suf. '^^p"^) m. 
beauty or ^/ory of a king Is. 33, 17 j 
loveliness of a woman Ps. 45, 12. 

T^l 1) pr. n. (bright, r. 2?E^) a 
place in Zebulon, now Ydfd n^ar 
Nazareth Josh. 19, 12. 2) pr. n. m. of 
king of Lachish Josh. 10, 3. 3) pr. n. 
a son of David 2 Sam. 5, 15. 

''^rt?- pr. n. m. (He, i. e. God, de- 
livers) 1 Ch. 7, 32; patron, ""tba;;" 
Josh. 16, 3. 

Hii". 1) pr.n.m. (perh. he shall be 
turned, r. ti:t) father of Caleb Num. 
13,6. 2)pr. n. m. son of Jether lCh.7,38. 

t/S (Qal obs.) akin to ns;» 

(which see), to shine, hence to appear. 
— Hiph. ^"is'^h to cause to shine 
Job 37, 15; to shine, to give light 
Job 3, 4, cf. 10, 22; to shine forth, 
to appear, of God Deut. 33, 2; fig. 
w. "bs, to favour Job 10, 3. Hence 

n^'S]* f. splendour, beauty, only 
Ez. 28,7. 17. 

"nS* Ps. 105, 24 fut. apoc. Hiph. 
of irne. Gram. § 75, Eem. 16. 




riS^ Gen. 9, 27 fut. apoc. Hiph. 
of nns, Gram. § 75, Rem. 16. 

rniijJ (obs.) perh. to sever, to 

single out, cf. nrs; hence perh. msits. 


JnE)'^_ pr. n. m. (extension, r. nriB) 
Ma^eO, Japheth, a son of Noah Gen. 
5, 32 and ancestor of wide-spreacl 
races, chiefly westward and north- 
ward Gen. 10, 2 — 5. 

nriS^ 1) pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, 
opens, r. hriQ) Judg. 11, 12. 2) pr. 
n. a place in Jiidah Josh. 15, 43. 

bl^"nri57 pr. n. (God opens) of 
a valley in Zebulon Josh. 19, 14, 
and in Asher (v. 27). 

CS^ (fut. X^.^ imp. K^; inf. 
abs. NS;) , c. rxs ; part. f. once XS'^ 
for ns^^ Ecc. 10, 5, and nsii 
Deut. 28, 57 for Pit^ii Ps. 144, 14) 
akin to Aram. K^"^ , \L^, to go or 
come Old Gen. 24, 11; w. "jp of place 
whence Job 3, 11, also w. ace. Gen. 
44, 4 (cf. l^eXGsIv y^copav, L. egredi 
urbem); w. 2 hg or at Jer. 17, 19; 
to go Old to, w. bx Ex. 33, 7 , w. b 
Num. 31, 27, w. 3 1 Sam. 28, 1, w. 
ace. Gen. 27, 3; to march out, of 
warriors 1 Sam. 23, 15, cf. Am. 5, 3; 
to come forth, of the child at birth 
Gen. 25, 25 ; fig. to be descended or 
begotten Gen. 35, 11, cf. Gen. 10, 
14; to get out, escape, w. "jp Prov. 
12, 13, also w. ace. Ecc. 7, 18; to 
spring forth, of plants 1 K. 5, 13, 
cf. Dan. 8, 9, of water Deut. 8, 7; 
to rise, of the sun Gen. 19, 23; to 
be exported 1 K. 10, 29; to be ex- 
pended, of money 2 K. 12, 13; to 
stick out or project Neh. 3, 25; to 
extend or reach along, of a boundary 
Josh. 15, 3; to close or end, of a 
year Ex. 23, 16. — Hipli. J<*irn 

(part, x^^ia, once K^i^a Ps. 135, 7> 
to lead forth, w. 'yo Ex. 13, 14; to- 
bring forth vegetation Gen. 1, 12, 
cf. Ps. 104, 14; to produce, as an ar- 
tisan Is. 54, 16; to make rise, of the 
stars Is. 40, 26; to separate, w. "fo^ 
Jer. 15, 19; to send forth or publish 
a report Num. 14, 37; to draw out 
Ex. 4, 6; to exact money 2 K. lo, 
20. — Hoph. XS!in to be led forth 
Gen. 38, 25; to be brou^ght out or 
made to flow forth Ez. 47, 8. 

CS22 . Chald. (Pe'al obs.) to go 
out or come to an end. — Shapli. 

Nl£""4J and '^T^^ (in Targum) to bring 
to an end, finish-, intrans. Jf^t'^b to be 
finished Ezr. 6, 15, usually but errone- 
ously put under i<:VSi; cf. Gram. § 55, 6. 

t^"* Ecc. 10, 5 for nN^t'i fem. part. 
Qal of r. X^^, see Gram. § 75, Rem. 2 1 , c. 

^^ (Qal obs.) akin to 3^3 and 
perh. STU^, to set, establish. — Hilh. 
ssill'r.}! to set oneself, take a stand l 
Sam. 17, 16; to stand up for, w, by- 
2 Ch. 11, 13, w. b Ps. 94, 16; w. 
•^ssb to present oneself before Ex. 8, 1 6; 
to withstand or oppose Deut. 9, 2, 

n^ Chald. (Pe'al obs.) to be- 

• • • 

set or firm, sure. — Pa. to make 
sure or speak to. certainty Dan. 7,. 
19, where xnsi^ is prob. inf. for i<au\ 

J^ (Qal obs.) akin to ll?3, 3>sy 
pT^ II, to set or place. — Hiph. ii'^^rr 
(Gram. § 71) to set, place a person 
Gen. 43, 9, a thing Deut. 28, 56;. 
fig. to establish Am. 5,15; to appoint 
or leave Gen. 33, 15. — Hopli. i^^f}' 
to be left Ex. 10, 24. 

^n^^^ m. 1) prop, what shines (r. 
^m), oil Num. 18, 12. Hence '^33 
^O^'^O '^6 sons of oil, i. e. anointed 
ones e. g. kings and priests Zech. 4,. 




14, 2) pr. n. m. (shining) Ex. 6, 18; 
patron, '^y^^^'^, Izharite Num. 3, 27. 

?^;S^ (w. suf. •'»!»:£';; pi. c. '^5^:2':; 
r. 5^^) m. prop, what is spread out; 
1) a bed Ps. 63, 7; bridal-bed Gen. 
49, 4. 2) a /?oor or stor^/ 1 K. 6, 5. 

P^ll^ Ps. 41, 9, see p^;! 11. 

pniS'' pr. n. m. (he sports) the 
son of Abraham and Sarah, laaax, 
Isaac Gen. 21, 3; also (in later and 
softer form. Gram. § 2, 4, Bern.) 
prfb"^ Ps. 105, 9. The name stands 
for all Israel in Am. 7, 9. 

nnSS*;. pr. n. m. (splendid, r. "ins) 1 
Oh. 4, 7 K'thibh, but in Q'ri i. q. ^n^. 

>3t2'4^ Chald. fut. Ithp. of 3)?^; 
comp. Gram. § 54, 2, a. 

Tl^X^I*^ Josh. 9, 4 fut. Hith. of 
•*i''S or ->!lk m, see Gram. § 54, 2, a. 

^"^'41 (pi- c. '^X'lS')) adj. m., come 
-ow^ or descended (as offspring), only 
in 2 Ch. 32, 21. 

l!l''2I^ Chald. adj. m. established, 
fixed Dan. 6, 13; certain, sure Dan. 
2, 45. ai2i;i-'ja adv. of a truth, cer- 
,tainly Dan. 2, 8. 

?^^^ f. a floor or sfory 1 K. 6, 5 

J^)L (Qal obs.) i. q. 52^, Arab. 

_j-e^, fo scf or spread. — Hiph. T^"^ 
(Gram. § 71) to spread out, as a bed 
Ps. 139, 8. — Hoph. 5)^n to be spread 
out, w. r»np) under Is. 14, 11. 

p^ I (fut. trans. pS"] Gram. 
§ 71; in trans, apoc. p^^ 1 K. 22, 35; 
imp. p-l 2 K. 4, 41 and pbS": Ez. 24, 
3 ; inf. nps) akin to pS3, r|03, PpJ I, 
to pour out Gen. 28, 18 ; to pour out 
metal, to cast Ex. 25, 12, part. pass. 
■p!iS^ cast 1 K. 7, 24. — Pi. to pour 
out\ K. 4, 5 (K'thibh). — Hipli. 
^nly in fem. part. fp^lQ pouring 

out, only in Q'ri of 2 K. 4, 5. — 
liopli. to be poured out Lev. 21, 
10; to be cast, of metals t K. 7, 23; 
part. 'p'^'O molten work 1 K. 7, 16; 
hence p'£=\'>2. 

P^ II (inf. np|:) perh. akin to 

pis III, a^^ , to be firm, compressed; 
part. pass, p^lli^ hardened Job 41, 16, 
fastened Ps. 41, 9; fo harden Job 38, 
38. — Hoph. only in part, p^p made 
firm or strong Job 11, 15. 

pi^ III akin to :x:|^; only in 

Hiph. P^p"^ (Gram. § 71) to set, place 
2 Sam. 15, 24; w. ^isb Josh. 7, 23. 

p^^. IK. 22, 35 fut. apoc. of pS;" I. 

n'l^II']' f. a casting of metal, only 
1 K. 7, 24; r. p:Sr^ I. 

'Ip-I^ 2 K. 4, 40 3 pi. fut. of p:s.1 1. 

1^ I (only fut. -is^ apoc. n:^^';) 

akin to "n^lE, 1'^^, prop, fo press 
together, hence to straitenj but 
usually intrans. to be pressed or 
straitened Prov. 4, 12, Job 18, 7; 
impers. to be distressing, perplexing 
to w. h, Gen. 32, 8 lb "iS^T atid he 
was distressed. 

\^ II (fut. apoc. ^^:?, nii^^l 
Gen. 2, 7, also 'nS'] Gram. § 71 ; part. 
^^'i'l, used also prob. for 'i^'ist in Zech. 
11, 13) akin to ^n, "n^p, prop, to 
cut; hence to form or fashion, as a 
wood-carver Is 44, 9 , as a smith Is, 
54, 17, as a potter Is. 64, 7: to create, 
of God Gen. 2, 19, w. ace. of material 
Gen. 2, l\to produce or arrange Ps. 
74, 17; to devise or design 2 K. 19, 
25, w. b? against Ps. 94, 30. Part. 
'i^i'i a potter Is. 29, 16; a statuary 
Is. 44, 9; a creator Is. 43, 1. In 
Zech. 11, 13 "1211 is prob. rightly 
taken by many (both ancient and 
modern) for ^^iti treasurer or "n^lX 



treasury (see Maureri Comment, in 
!oc.). — Niph. ^^13 to be formed Is. 
43, 10. — Pu. 1S^ to be predestined, 
of days Ps. 139, 16. — Ilopli. "i^^n 
!to be fashioned Is. 54, 17. Hence 

yl'^^ (w. suf. i^'4') m- 1) prop- " 
■shaping, hence thought, as a fashion- 
ing in the mind Is. 26, 3; fully 
:sb ^:2;] Gen. 8, 21. 2) frame or cow- 
^titution of menPs. 103, 14; a device, 
pattern in pottery Is. 29, 1 6 ; an image 
Hab. 2, 18. 3) pr. n. m. (form) Gen. 
46, 24, patron. i"]S'] Jezerite Num. 

1^^ (only pi. D"'")^':') prop. part, 
pass, formed or fashioned; hence pi. 
parts formed, the body or frame, as 
made up of the several members, 
only in Job 17, 7 ; r. -1^7 II. 

*)22'' Gen. 2, 14, fut. of ->:£•' II. 

12; fut. apoc. of n^; I or l"n^ I; 

Gram. § 78. 

^'4_|J Ex. 32, 4 fut. apoc. of -i^:t n. 

"•H-i^ pr.n.m. (fashioner, r. "1^7 II) 

1 Ch. 25, 11. 

Ili^ (fut. na-; Gram. § 71, pi. 
•J|^S^fo^ !in:2'^, Gram. § 20, 2, c) akin 
to r. nsr, n!i:£, <o ?/wr?r, ftZa^re, w. a, 
•*^5:Jn ■'?^p3 njiri;^ and it blazes in the 
thickets of the wood Is. 9, 17; to be 
burned^ w. ^&^a Is. 33, 12. — Nipli. 
to be consumed by fire Jer. 2, 15; to 
burn, w. S a^ or against, of anger 

2 K. 22, 13. — Hipli. ni^n (once in 
K'thibh n'^rh 2 Sam. 14, 30; fut. 
apoc. na;;' Lam. 4, 11) to set fire to 
anything (a m 'n) Jer. 17, 27, w.b? 
Jer. 11, 16; to burn in the fire (^xa) 
Josh. 8, 8 ; also (without UJN) to burn 
Jer. 51, 30. 

^n^^ Is. 33, 12 fut. Qal of n^; 
which see. 


^\C (obs.) akin to ap3, Arab. 

w»\i, fo Ji^, excavate; hence 

^P?. (w. suf. ^n;p-; Deut. 15, 14, pi. 
D"'3;5"), c. "^ap"^) m. prop, excavation 
(sometimes in the ground or rock); 
hence 1) that into -which the must 
or new wine flows from the winepress, 
the ivine-vat (uttoXiqviov, L. lacus) 
Prov. 3, 10. 2) the ivine-prcss itself, 
in which the grapes were trodden 
2 K. 6, 27. 

bij^ilDp'; pr. n. (God gathers) of 
a place in South Judah Neh. 11, 25; 
but bjt^ap in Josh. 15, 21; r. -jrai?. 

Ip (fut. "ip:: Is. 10, 16, np-i"^ 
Deut. 32, 32; inf. Tip"]) akin to ^^3 II 
(which see), to burn, blaze Is. 65, 5; 
part. pass. Ilp^ as subst., a burning 
mass on the hearthls. 30, 14. — Hopli. 
^P^n (only fut.) to be Jcindled, to bum 
Lev. 6, 2 ; fig. (cf. rrnn) of anger Jex. 
15, 14. 

1 1? ^ Chald. (only part. f. def. 
XPi'np;; and &<Pi-!*ip;^) i. q. Heb. ^p^, 
to burn, blaze Dan. 3, 6. 

KHpf Chald. (cn^ip"^) f. a burning 

"Ip" fut. of T-p 11 to boio. 

Q'^'^Pt P*"' °- (Pi'"^' people's burn- 
ing) of a city in the mountains of 
Judah Josh. 15, 56. 


Y (obs.) prob. akin to Jnp^ 1. 


q. Arab. ^^3, to revere or obey; hence 
np^ pr. n. m. (pious) Prov. 30, 1. 
S • ip (obs.) akin to np"; , perh. 

axouo), G. achten i. q. Arab. iJj to 
obey; hence 

nnp? or tirjlj!* (only c. nnp-i, w. 
Dagh. euphon. ,Gram. § 20, 2, b) f. 





obedience Gen. 49, 10 (but see rt!l|5); 
DX-nns)i a mother's obedience, due 
to her Prov. 30, 17. 

^*1p']' m. a burning Is. 10, 16; 

t3lp|| m. t6'^a< 15 rejected or /oaf^- 
6<f, a vomiting, perh. in Job 8, 14; 
r. D^fp. 

D^pl' m. w;Aaf exists, hence a Ziv- 
i«^ 6eiw^ Gen. 7, 4; r. Dp or d|3\ 

tiip^ (also Ui^ip;: Ps. 91, 3; pi. 
CiyiJip"^ Jer. 5, 26) m. a layer of snares, 
a foivier Hos. 9, 8 ; r. ;i;p^. 

bi^'^ri^p'^ pr. n. m. (prob. God's 
reverence, r. np;;) 1 Ch. 4 18. 

nj^'; fut. of npb; Gram. § 66, 
Bern. 2. 

inj^.^ fut. Hoph. of np^; Gram. 
§ 66, Eem. 2. 

I'Cp^ pr. n. m. (made small) the 
father of several races in Arabia 
Gen. 10, 25. 

D^p^ pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, raises) 
1 Ch. 8^ 19. 

"I'^'p^ adj. m. dear, precious Jer. 
81, 20*; r. ^p\ 

^'''j^;^ Chald. (def. S^'^'^p^) adj. m. 
vrecious; hence weighty, difficult Dan. 
2, 11; eminent, noble, of a grandee 
Ezr. 4, 10; r. "np";. 

U jr (obs.) prob. akin to d^p q. v. 
» P';2p'] pr. n. m. (perh. existence 
of fr;j) 1 Ch. 2, 41. 

Dy^p*] pr. n. (who assembles the 
people) 1 Ch. 23, 19. 

D^^'Jp'^ pr. n. (perh. people's ex- 
istence) of a Levitical city inEphraim 
1 K. 4, 12; but O^^np in Josh. 21, 22. 

D3?!lp'' pr. n. (the people's pos- 
session, for WJ J^Sp^, r. i^SpI) of place 
in Zebulon Josh. 12, 22. 

J?jP I (fut. 2>P::) i. q. 5p:, to 
move away or tear oneself aicay; 
then to be dislocated^ of a limb Gen^ 
32, 26; fig. to be alienated, of the 
soul, w. "iri Jer. 6, 8; w. b?p Ez, 
23, 18. 

J^^r^ II (Qal obs.) prob. akin tc 
?!!p I, Y^p III, SpPi, to transfix or 
pierce, — Hiph. ^^'^p-in to impale or 
crucify (dvaaxoXoTciCsiv) Num. 25, 4.. 
— Hoph. 5>p^n to be impaled 2 Sam. 
21, 13. 

HI? ' ^®® HD? !!• 

f )c (Qal only in fut. 'jrp'i^i, "irp-^^ 
I'p^;: Lev. 9, 24, •j^p^' 1 K. 3, 15) i. q, 
Y^pll, to awale Gen. 28, 16. In the 
perf. only y"ipn, the Hiph. ofjr^pll. 

Y|5; 1 K. 3, 15 for 7pi'^,r. ■}rp\ 

Ij? (fut. ^p"^";, ^pi.'i Ps. 72, 14,. 

^PD Ps. 49, 9) i. q. Arab. p5» r^-^ 
prop, to be heavy (cf. "152); hence,, 
fig. ^0 6c dear, precious, costly Ps. 49, 
9; w. ''.r^a 1 Sam. 26, 21, av. b Ps. 
139, 17; to be worth, yv. ht-Q Zech. 
11, 13 nn'^bs;^ ^vn^i luJx which I 
was worth on their estimate. — Hiph. 
*>''p'"ifi to make precious or scarce Is. 
13, 12; to withhold w. )-q Prov. 25,. 
17. Hence 

^P^ adj. m. rt'np'^ f. grave, calm 
(prop, weighty, opp. to light) of 
disposition Prov. 17, 27 (Qri), where 
K'thibh has ip cool; costly, precious 
1 K. 10, 2; highly prized, of God's 
favour Ps. 36, 8; dear, beloved Ps. 
45, 10. Subst. splendour Job 31, 26^ 
cf. Ps. 37, 20. 

'^P? (c. ^ip"? Est. 1,4) m. precious-^ 
ness Prov. 20, 15; value, price Zech. 
11, 13; honour Ps. 49, 13; magni- 
ficence Est. 1, 4, 




"^p"!* Chald. m. weight or treasure 
Dan. 2, 6; honour Dan. 2, 37. 

rrnj^^ (only pi. nilj?")) f. splendid 
one, a star, perh. in Zech. 14. 6, but 
see 'j'ii<Sp and Maureri Comment, 
in loc. 

^'y^l 1 Sam. 28, 10 for r|!?|5^ fnt. 
Qal of "sT^js I w. suf. Tj^r- 

^P iyaqosh) like "jb^s Gram. 
Parad. B (perf. 1 pers. ''Fiyijp^ Jer. 
50, 24) i. q. \i;p3, ^"ip, to lay snares, 
w. b Ps. 141, 9. Part.Ti:|?i"i a fowler Ps. 
124, 7. The fut. ';^tp'] in Is. 29, 21 
is prob. from Tlilp. — Nipli. t'^ii to 
be snared Is. 8, 15, w. 3 (of snare) 
Prov. 6, 2 ; fig. to be ensnared Deut. 
7, 25. — Pu. to be utterly snared 
(part. D'lfflpili for D'^uip;'^, Gram. § 52, 
Kem. 6) Ecc. 9, 12. 

1Dj5|] fut. apoc. Qal of n^p. 

'j^TDp;' Is. 29, 21 prob. 3 pi. fut. 
Qal of xSip. 

T®F?^ pr. n-m. (fowler) Gen. 25, 2. 

il|r (obs.) perh. akin to uip^ #o 
tiwfZ or snare; perh. hence 

^^r^P^ pr- n- (perh. God's bind- 
ing) of a city in Judah Josh. 15, 38; 
also in Arabia Petrea 2 K. 14, 7. 

J^^'' Gen. 1, 4, see X'n'^. 

:- ' ' vi- 

es J (2 pers. pi. tarx'n'^, once 
dnN-i"^ Josh. 4, 24; fut. ^t1■l^ X">">; 

V T : ' ' T .' T . ' 

imp. K-ni ; inf. 6t*l"; Josh. 22, 25, rt&<"i'i 
w. b once N"ib for ^^"^ 1 Sam. 18, 
29) perh. akin to rtsj'n to look at or 
eye w. uneasiness or shyness (cf. 
TWb Is. 41, 10, ucpopciw, L. suspicor) 
1) to fear, to be afraid Gen. 3, 10; 
to dread w. ace. Num. 14, 9; w. ya 
Ps.3,7, w. i.5Qp 2 K. 1, 15, w. 'iSS^ia 
1 Sam. 18, 12; w. }> for Josh. 9, 24; 
to be afraid of doing anything, w. 

inf. and )> Gen. 19, 30; w. "pa Ex. 3, 
6; to fear lest, w. -,5 Gen. 31, 31. 2) 
to fear or reverence, parents etc. 
Lev. 19, 3; God Ex. 14, 31, w. 
^.35^p Ecc. 8, 12. — Niph. x-iia (fut. 
K};^) to be feared Ps. 130, 4. Part. 
S<"ii5 «?rea^/ttZJoel2, 11; awful Dent. 
28, 58; fearful Ex. 15, 11: f. pi. 
m's^'nis wonderful or stupendous deeds, 
of men Ps. 45, 5, of God Deut. 10, 
21: also as adv. wondrously Ps. 65, 
6, cf. nlxbss. — Pi. x"i-> to make 
afraid 2 Sam. I4. 15. Hence 

^"i!}^ (c- ^T,j Pl- ^''^T) partici- 
pial adj. m., fem. «lfi<^'^ (c. nx")"^ 
Prov. 31, 30) fearing, reverencing, 
w. ace. Ex. 9, 20 ; w. gen. (B'^rf^X i<y} 
Gen. 22, 12; fearful, timid Deut. 20, 
8. Joined w. the pers. pron. it has 
all the force of a finite verb, e. g. 
ink isbfit fi<"ii I fear him Gen. 32, 12. 

^"^.r.! ^'^- fut. apoc. Qal of nx-n; 
Gram. § 75, Eem. 3, c, 

n^J*!^ f. prop, infin. of KV 
(Gram.*§ 45, 1, b), as in Neh. 1, 11; 
then subst. fear, terror Jon. 1, 10; 
terribleness Ez. 1, 18; reverence, awe 
Gen. 20, 1 1 tj^libx nxn'^ fear of God, 
i. e. religion or godliness Job 4, 6. 

^H*l^ Josh. 24, 14 for siX^"! imp. 
pi. of tin^, see Gram. § 75, Rem. 21, 
a, Note ^ 

^K^"* 2 Sam. 11, 24 for ^^iiHiph. 
of JTh;; (as if X"^^) to shoot; see Gram. 
§ 76, Rem. 22. 

^U^*^!^ for sixn'i'^, fut. pi. Qal of x:^\ 

X^^ll pr. n. (dreadful) of a city 
in Naphtaii Josh. 19, 38. 

n^^lSl^^ pr. n. m. (dread of rr) 
Jer. 37, '13. 

n*!*" pr. n. m. (adversary, r. y^'^) 
Hos. 5, 13, 

1^'' 1 Sam. 15, 5 for nnx"! fut. 

•.IT ' - -.- 





apoc. Hiph. of n"ii<; see Gram. § 68, 
Bern. 1. 

b?!aT pr. n. m. (for b?3 nH^ 
Baal contends) a surname of Gideon 
Judg. 6, 32, also n\t3a'i';' 2 Sam. 11, 21. 

D3?I1T' pr. n. m. (prob. people's 
contention) prop. Jarobam (Sept. 
'lepopoafx, Jeroboam) founder of the 
kingdom of Israel B. C. 975—954 

1 K. 11, 26; another king of the 
10 tribes, B.C. 825—784 2 K. 13, 13. 

mZJI^n'' pr. n. m. (for nu:3 nS-i 
shame, i. e. the idol Baal, contends) 
i. q. brs^i^ 2 Sam. 11, 21. 

J I (fut. 1"i'«, apoc. I'r^, in 
pause I'y^ Ps. 18, 10; imp. "1^1, n':'i, 

once ^^"^ Judg. 5, 13; inf. ^1"^, c. 

tylX w. suf. '^mi, once iTi~i Gen. 

46, 3) to go down, descend 15x. 19, 

24, the place whitJier being put w. 

hz Ex. 19, 18, b^^ 2 Sam. 11, 10, b 

Cant. 6, 2, a Ex. 15, 5, w. Jl— loc. 

Gen. 12, 10, or w. ace. Ps. 55, \6, 

also w. gen. e. g. "Tia '''I'l'i'^ thcee 

going down to the pit or grave, i. e. 

the dying Ps. 28, 1. Eig. of mere 

things, a stream Deut. 9, 21, a way 

Num. 34, 11, the day Judg. 19, 11, 

tears Lam. 3, 48; to come or fall 

down, of a wood cut down Is. 32, 

49, a reverse of fortune Deut. 28, 43. 

— Hiph. ^I'lin to cause to go or 
come down Gen. 42, 38 ; to let down, 
by a cord Josh. 2, 15; to subdue 

2 Sam. 22, 48; to bring or carry down 
Gen. 37, 25 ; to throw down Hos. 7, 12. 

— Hoph. ^'yn to be led down Gen. 
39, 1 ; to be taken £?owwNum, 10, 17; 
to be thrown down Is. 14, 15, Hence 

*^*!!?. pr. n. m. (descent) Gen. 6, 15. 

'I'n"!^ pr. n. (prop, descending, i. e. 
a rushing current r. Tn;^) the river 
of Palestine which flows down full 
of rapids from the foot of Anti-li- 

banus till it is lost in the Dead Sea, 
6 'lopSavYj; the Jordan, "(T^^^. (on 
the art. omitted only in poetry, see 
Gram. § 109, 3) Gen. 13, 10; yi^ 
"l^n");^ Ps. 42, 7, "i^W 'nsa 2 Sam. 18, 
23, the land, the region, of Jordan. 
Perh. in Job 40, 23 "j';:^;: may be 
appellative in its sense, either a 
Jordan or a torrent. — This name 
may be mimet. (expressive oirushing) 
and so prove akin to 'Iap5avo(; (a 
river in Crete), 'Pooavoi;, W. rhyd 
(stream), Gael, sruth (a current)^ G. 
rauschen, E. rushvig. 

t^T. Ps. 7, 6 irreg. for Cj'n"!'; or 
V\^y^ fut. Qal of pj^'n, comp. ilj>r\r\ 
Ps.'73, 9. See ?)^> 

Ml (fut. rxy^^, w. suf. trr^} 
Num. 21, 30; inf. nn*;, nii'^, &<'i'T; 
2 Ch. 26, 15; imp. 'n'y) prob. akin 
to tnr^ II, \) to cast Josh. 18, 6; to 
shoot arrows 1 Sam. 20, 36, cf. 2 K. 
13, 17; w. ace. of pers. Ps. 64, 5^ w. 
h at Ps. 11, 2; hence TTfr^ archer 
i Ch. 10, 3; to lay a foundation (cf. 
paXXeaOai o^aru) Job 38, 6 ; to found 
or erect a pillar, i. e. to set it down 
in its place Gen. 31, 51. 2) to cast 
or shed (water or rain), hence to wet 
or irrigate Hos. 6, 3; part. iTni'^ 
rain, autumnal or spring-rain Deut. 
11, 14. — Niph. only fut. rTn^"^ to be 
shot through Ex. 19, 13. — Hiph. fTnin 
(fut. rrni'i, apoc. "li^T 2 K. 13, 17) 

1) to throw, cast Job 30, 19; to shoot 
1 Sam. 20, 20, w. ace. of pers. Ps. 
64, 8, vf. h at 2 Ch. 35, 23. Part. 
iTnl^a an archer in 1 Sam. 31, 3; 
diJ^'iia archers 2 Sam. 11, 24 K'thibh. 

2) to wet, pour; hence iT^'^a (i. 
q. iT;^'i'^) the early rain, falling m 
autumn and spring Ps. 84, 7 3) to 
point out, show Gen. 46, 28 (prop, 
to throw out the hand); hence to 
instruct or teach Ex. 35, 34; w. ace. 




of pers. and of thing Ps. 119, 33; 
w. ace. of pers. Job 6, 24; w. ace. 
of thing Is. 9, 14; \v. 3 in Ps. 25, 8, 
w. bx respecting 2 Ch. 6, 27; w. "ja 
of thing Is. 2, 3 ; w. ^ of pers. and 
ace. of thing Deut. 33, 10. 



(only in fut. Irt^itn) 

prob. akin to t^-n;;, 2>'i;i, r^'n'^^ to 
tremble , quake, only in Is. 44, 8 ; 
where liTin may perh. stand for 

IJ^i"!^ 2 Ch. 26, 15 infin. Qal for 
il'i from illi; see Gram. § 75, Kem. 

s r T ' u / 

2 and § 23, 3, Rem. 3. 

^^T^^ pr. n. (for bX'Sl'n'; God's 
foundation, r. ST^'J) of a desert 2 Ch. 
20, 16. 

ty\y^ pr. n. m. (prob. i. q. H'^^ 
moon) 1 Ch. 5, 14. 

1^^^ Prov. 29, 6 for -p;» fut. Qal 
of ■|3'^I,Gram.§ 68, Rem. 9. 

TH'll Prov. 11, 15 fut. Niph. of 
5Jni or »»-> I. 

Y^i; Is. 42, 4 fut. Qal for y'i"^ 
from y;:n. 

pi*^^ m. ^reen fHw^, green plant, 
only in Job 39, 8; r. p'^^ 

Kir^n^ also tltTl-; pr. n. f. (pos- 
session) 2 K. 15, 33; 2 Ch. 27, 1. 

uD^*")'^ pr. n. (seat or possession 
of peace i. e. prob. Db^: peace w. 
Ii"^ foundation as in bMTi,, or w. 
^r^"!"] possession) the chief city of 
Palestine, lepoujaXi^fji, Jerusalem 
Josh. 10, 1; for which we get also 
in later looks n'^V*ri1';i Jer. 26, 18 as 
if a dual form, and once db© in Ps. 
76, 3; see Gram. § 17. 

Dbir^l"' Chald. i. q. Heb. D^i'^'^:, 
Jerv^ale^n Ezr. 5, 14; for which 
C)b^5n"p in Dan. 6, 11, 


(obs.) prob. akin to IT^K, 
to wander or travel onward; hence 

TT\^ (w. suf. 'qJi'^T) m- th^ moon 
Gen. 37, 9, prop, the tuanderer (cf. 
'ri^n ">)^^ tiT ^^*fi wzoon travelling in 
splendour Job 31, 26) so called from 
its course and chano^es. riTi ijjj^ {w 
f Ae sight of the moon, i. e. so long as 
it shines Ps. 72, 5. tTT^ takes the 
art. in prose, but not usually in 

TT;':^ (pi. dW7, c. ^n'n^; r. nn;") 
m. 1) prop, time of the moon's course, 
a month, a lunar month Ex. 2, 2; 
hence same as ^L'^fl the more usual 
word. 2) pr. n. of an Arabian people 
in the vicinity of Hadramaut Gen. 
10, 26. 

ri"1^ Chald. a month Dan. 4, 26. 

\TVy^ pr. n. (odoriferous or balmy, 
r. Tp^) of a city in Benjamin famed 
for its palms and balsams, Jericho 
Num. 22, 1 ; also in'^'y^ in Josh. 2, 1 
and i^r,^^'^ in 1 K. 16, 34; cf. "Ti^ 

Dni'l' pr. n. m. (he is compas- 
sionated or loved) 1 Sam. 1, 1. 

5^^*J1^'^^ pr. n. m. (God compas- 
sionates) 1 Ch. 2, 9; patron. ib><pn'i*' 
Jerahmeelite 1 Sam. 27, 10. 

^r}*!*!! pr- n. ni. (perh. trusty, 
akin to Chald. yn'i to trust in) 1 
Ch. 2, 34. 

LJ J (fut. isn*''^, ::>y\ Job 16, ii) 

prob. akin to "ly^ , afin, y^il, Arab. 

i9j5 to throw doion headlong; hence 
to throiv or cast doion; fig. w. ^^ b?, 
to deliver into the poioer of Job 16, 
1 1 ; also intrans. to he rash, headlong 
Num. 22, 32. 

^^''*7'? pr. n. ni. (prob. founded 
of God) i Ch. 7, 2. 


'D!^^'^ (r. S"^*!) m. 1) an adversary 
Ps. 35, 1. 2) pr. n. m. (opponent) 
Ezr. 8, 16. 

''•?'^'?? pr.n.m. (contentions, r.a'^'n) 
1 Ch. 11, 46. 

n**1^, ^n^^^ pr. n. m. (prob. 
founded by n;)'l Ch. 26, 31; 23, 19. 

nn'^*^^ or in*'^*;', see iny^. 
ni•J^'^^ ni7J^'^^ see n'ia^\ 

ri!?'''7? (*"• 35!!^) f. hanging or 
curtain of a tent Is. 54, 2 ; fig, pi. 
tents Hab. 3, 7. 

rii3>'''n^ pr. n. f. (curtains) 1 Ch. 
2, 18. 

T| J (obs.) i. q. T]5'7, 'o be tender; 
esp. of the tender flesh of the loins 
and thighs ; hence 

TjT (c.'Tj'n,;] Gram. § 93, 5, w. suf. 
■'S;}'!, dual n^^y;) f. the thigh Ex. 28, 
42; "Tji"^ J!<:i^ ^0 come out of the thigh 
of i, e. to be begotten Gen. 46, 26; 
in animals, the haunch, ham Ez. 
24, 4. 2) fig. of mere things, shank 
or stem Ex. 25, 31; side of a tent 
Ex. 40, 22, of an altar Lev. 1, 11. 

Tjt)!! Is. 7, 4 fut. Qal of t^5'H, Gram. 
§ 67, Rem. 3. 

♦^5*!]? (w. suf. instil, du. I3':r3^!', 
c. ^T\i^^) f. i. q. T^::;^ 2i only fig. sic?c, 
of a country Gen. 49, 13; the rear 
Ex. 26, 22; inner parts or recesses 
Jon. 1, 5; remote parts Is. 14, 13. 

i^T Chald. f. the thigh Dan. 2, 
32; i.^q. Heb. 'r^'n\ 

U J (obs.) i. q. dti5<, Diin, <o he 

^ISyi Ez. 10, 17 fut. Niph. of d^-n I. 

M^"^^ pr. n. (height, r. d"!^) of a 
city in Judah Josh. 10, 3; also of a 
Levitical city in Issachar Josh. 21, 
29, but na"i in Lev. 19, 21. 

278 'jlp-;.': 

^'^''^'!!'^. pr. n. m. (heights, r. D'n^) 
1 Ch. 8, 14; but nia^i"!-; in 1 Ch. 24, 
30 and niai'n^ in i^ Ch. 7, 8. 

'^SS'n^ pr. n. m. (perh. dwelling on 
high, r'. d^^) Ezr. 10, 33. 

n^/-n\ ^n'')^'^^ pr. n. m. (r.^ 
is exalted) Ispefxiac, Jeremiah, the 
prophet Jer. 1, 1; 27, 1. 

• 1 akin to ?TT>, to tremble, to 
shake through fear, only in Is. 15, 4; 

T^.'l Zeph. 1, 12 and St); 1 K. 16, 
25 int. apoc. Hiph. of TJ^ 11. 

S^t)."! Gen. 21,12 fut. Qal of S^^ H; 
but 55-1"^ in Job 20, 26 fut. apoc. of tiS'^. 

^^^T. P^. n- (God heals) of a 
place in Benjamin Josh. 18, 27. 

P J (inf. p'-i^ Num. 12, 14) mimet. 

akin to P|5'nII,p!inl,Ethiop. waraqa, 
to spit Deut. 25, 9. — Prob. akin to 
Ep£UYO|xai, Jj.ructo, ^. retch, G.twwf- 
gen, perh. also to ^axa Mat. 5, 22, 

Syr. \.£>h spittle, hence like xara- 

TTTUffTOi expressive of great contempt. 

|r _ J (obs.) i. q. Arab. j3)3) to P'^^^ 

forth leaves, sprout; to become green, 
of plants. Hence 

P"^^ ^^' P-"'^ ^' ^^^^^ *'* green, 
collect, greens, herbs 2 K. 19, 26. 
p'}'^ 11 garden of greens or vegetables 
Deut. 11, 10; p'^'^ nn'ifit a portion 
of green herbs Prov. 15, 17. 

P'y^, m. greenness, ni;J3 p'n^-bs 
aZ^ greenness of Jierb , i. e. all green 
herbs, every green plant Gen. 1, 30; 
verdure, foliage Ex. 10, 15; r. p'n\ 

llp*^.*] m. 1) greenish-yellow of 
decaying vegetation Deut. 28, 22 

(Arab. ^^^i). 2) paleness, ghastliness, 
of the face Jer. 30, 6 ; r. p"n\ 




y^P^^m.greenish-J/ellow; only in 
TP"'" •'g pr. n. of a place in Dan 
Josh. 19, 46 ; r. p"}\ 

DiJP'l^ pr. n. (perh. for D? :f^'y^ 
the people is spread out) of a town 
in Judah 1 Ch. 2, 44 :r. rpn. 

PTIF?'!'? (i-. P:^:) a«3j. m., nip-^i^-n"! 
f. pi. greenish, yelloivish Lev. 13,49; 
as subst. yelloivness, of gold Ps. 68, 
14 (cf. Etliiop. tvareq gold). 

125"!"^ Jer. 49, 1, also 123 I 

— T "T 

<hence tin'r'i-:; fut. ^Tl; imp. tin 
Deut. 1, 21, '^^ Deut. 2, 24; tn"^, 
nuj"!"" Deut. 33, 23; inf. n;i3"i, w. suf. 
•irrrn) akin to b":!!*, 1) to seize or 
talce hold of, hence to take into "pos- 
session- 1 K. 21, 15;- hence fig. to in- 
herit Num. 27, 11; bni"> an heir Jer. 
47, 1 ; w. ace. of pers. fo he Jwir to 
Gen. 15, 3. 2) to possess, w. ace. of 
pers. #0 possess in place of, ^o rfis- 
possess Deut. 2, 12. — Nipli. t'lia 
<fut. t'ti;";) #0 6e dispossessed or maf?e 
j)Oor Gen. 45, 11. — Pi.t'^.") to possess, 
overrun Deut. 28, 42; fo ^e< <Ae 25^0- 
perty of, dispossess, w. ace. of pers. 
Judg. 14, 15. — llipli. t^yiin (fut. 
tji'i'i"') to cause to possess, w. two 
ace. Judg. 11, 24, cf. Job 13, 26; w. 
P of pers. Ezr. 9, 12 ; to possess Num. 
14, 24; to dispossess, w. ace. of pers. 
Num. 14, 12, cf. Judg. 1, 29; hence, 
to make destitute, poor 1 Sam. 2, 7. 

n^'^l* f. a possession Num. 24, 18. 

niS'1^1' f. a possession Deut. 2, 5 ; 
an inheritance Jer. 32, 8. 

12|] (but often "iSn\i. q. m2 Sam. 
14, 19, Arab. j**il, Chald. ^n'^X, Syr. 
t.^) m. prop, existence (to eivai, 
ouaiot), hence swfisfance Prov. 8, 21; 
else as adv. particle, w. force of the 
substantive verb there is or exists 

(Gram. § 152, 1) e. g. Ps. 58, 12 
y")i<3 D^aBiJ D^riby-t;;^ </tere exists 
a God judging in the earth. "iu:x TiJ"] 
d'^nait ^/lere are those who say '^eh.b, 
2 ; w. b fo of pers. fo have, e. g. ''Va;;; 
fAere is to me=l have Kuth 1, 12; 
^- ^tl'p ^^^ there is the bread of the 
sanctuary i.e. the consecrated bread 1 
Sam. 21, 5.— With suf. ?;t':) thou art 
Judg. 6, 36, irj:;^ he or it is Esth. 3, 
8, Q?y:') ye ane Gen. 24, 49. — Perh. 
r. iivb"^, but prob. primitive and akin 
to Sans, as, ia-Ti, L. esse,, B. 
is, Gael, is, W. ys or oes. 


U ' (fut. STT;:; inf. abs. SITU 
Jer. 42, 10 for Slu:^, c. HT^, w. suf. 
'^n^^; imp. nuj, fnnt; part. f. once 
hnbl"' Nah. 3, 8 also nnti"', w. 1-7- 
parag. '^natl'i Lam. 4, 21 K'thibh) akin 
to D^;^ to set or place, hence 'l)to take 
a seat, to sit Gen. 27, 19; w. b of place 
Ps.llO,l;w.bof subj .to sit for oneself 
i. e. to sit (see Gram. § 1 54, 3, e) Gen. 2 1 . 
16; to he seated, w. a of place 2 Sam, 
7, 1, w. b? 1 K. 1, 35, w. ace. Ps. 80, 
2 ; w. b of pers. to wait for or ivay- 
lay Judg. 16, 9; w. or t^if/i, to asso- 
ciate Ps. 26, 4. 2) <o remain Gen. 
49, 24; w. 3 in 2 Sam. 10, 5; w. ace. 
of place Ruth 2, 7; w. b of pers. 
remain for Hos. 3, 3; hence to dwell 
in, inhabit Gen. 13, 6; w. ace. Gen. 
4, 20, cf. Ps. 22, 4, w. 3 in of place 
Deut. 2, 10, w. b? on Lev. 25, 18, w. 
bVi or b at, by Ez. 3, 15, Judg. 5, 17, 
w. d5 Gen. 27, 44, n^l tvith Gen. 34, 
16. — Niph. at'i: to be inhabited Ex. 
16, 35; part. f. nn^l'a Ez. 26, 17. — 
Pi. 2'^P"' to set or pitch a tent Ez. 25, 
4. _ Hiph. n'^ui'!!! <o seai or place 1 
Sam. 2, 8 ; <o cause to dwell Ps. 4, 9, 
w. two ace. Ps. 113, 9, w. 3 of place 
Gen. 47, 6, w. b? Hos. 11, 11 ; fo marry 
i. e. to settle a wife in one's house 
Neh. 13, 27; to cause to be inhabited 




Is. 54, 3. — Hopli. 2'il!i to he made 
to divell Is. 6, 8; to he inhabited Is. 
44, 26. 

.n^jniZi;] pr. n. m. (father's seat) 
1 Ch.^2V 13. 

ni*©!!! niT"' pr. n. m. (dwelling 
at rest)" 2 Sam. 23, 8. 

n!^l2D^ pr. n. m. (he praises) 1 Ch. 
4, 17. 

HD^ '^^''^? pr. n. m. (his seat at 
Noh) 2 Sam.' 21, 16 (K'thihh), where 
theQ'ri has Sbn i3Ui'](my seat at Nob). 

Dnb '^imJ'' pr. n. m. (perh. re- 
turned to bread) 1 Ch. 4, 22. 

D3^!l123'' pr. n. m. (perh. the people 
retm-ns) 1 Ch. 11, 11 r. ^^ni;. 

plllZJ'^ pr. n. m. (he forsakes) Gen. 
25 , 2 ; r. pn^. 

riDjJIillD^ pr. n. m. (perh. seat of 
hardship) 1 Ch. 25, 4. 

I Vij (obs.) prob. akin to iTiTX 
T T o ^ 

(which see), Syr. \so\ , to be or exist; 

prop, to have being or firmness; 
hence perh. yi^ and n^^li^m. 

Il^lT^ pr. n. m. (he returns, r, SlUi) 
Num.26, 24; patron. ""S^^ Jashuhite. 

1^123"^ for tj:^ fut. Qal of nTJ, 

T T ^ - t' 

Gram. § 67, Bern. 9. 


pr. n. m. (level, r. M^iij I) 

Gen. 46, 17. 

n;;niti]' pr. n. m. (humbled by 
n;) Tch. 4, 36. 

^fP? pr. n. m. (i. q. t^)t'^) 1 Sam. 
14, 49.' 

?^^.'! 1) pr. n. m. (for 'S'^ti'n'^ he 
delivers) Joshuah, Sept. Irjaou^ (cf. 
Mat. 1, 21), Neh. 8, 17; also a high 
priest Neh. 7, 7. 2) pr. n. of a place 
in Judah Neh. 11, 26; r. yt\ 

ro^lZJ^ (w. n-pparag.nn^ini::' Ps. 
3, 3) f. 1) help Ps. 9. 15; deliverance, 

salvation Is. 56, 1; victory 1 Sam. 

14, 45; welfare, prosperity Job 30> 

15. PI. ni^'^iii'^^ victories OY deliveran^ 
ces Ps. 18, 51 , cf. Is. 26, 18. 2) concr.. 
a saviour Ps. 62, 3 ; r. su:\ 

riw (obs.) i. q. wij, nn^, nn^u,. 
to fail or sink, through hunger;, 

5^*?!! (w. suf. ?]Jiu;;^) m. the sinking 
at the stomach through want of 
proper nourishment, only in Mic^ 

6, 14. 

^n*lS^ Ecc. 12, 4 fut. Niph. of nn^^ 
Gram. § 67. Eem. 5. 

PJ ilT'' a later and rare form for 
T ; • 

pH^"^, which see. ' 

U^ (Qal obs.) to stretch out^ 
— Hipli. D'l^rin (i. q. Chald. :itii<, Syr. 
w.^.A,oj) to stretch or hold out, as a^ 
sceptre, w. h of pers. Est. 4, 11. 

"'^r pr, n. m. (perh. 1. q. ^U? gift> 
the father of king David 1 Sam. 16,1.. 

'^'©!' in Q'ri of Ps. 55, 16 for X^-^^ 
fut. Hiph. of X^3 II, cf. Gram. § 75,. 
Kem. 21, c. 

S^'IT"' pr. n. m. (he restores) 1 Chr. 

7, 1 (K'thibh). 

U^^^ Jer. 49, 20 for C)'ji"i fut. 
Hiph. of t3T3^, Gram. § 67, Rem. 8. 

n^l?:, Ti^^l pr. n. m. (perh. 
existence of n;^) 1 Ch. 7, 3; 12, 6. 

bX'-S^i::;' pr. n. m. (prob. God 
founds) 1 Ch. 4, 36. 

ri/^^ti^ (only pi. T'i^^t']) f. 1) 
desolations, devastations, prob. in 
K'thibh of Ps. 55, 16 iu^h'J nia'^Tli'i 

' I" T 

desolations upon them ! but see N\y3 II 
for the Q'ri. 2) m'73'i^7 n^a pr. n. 
(place of solitudes) of acity inMoab 
Num. 33, 49; r. tit\ 

1*1^*''©^ m. a desert or waste Is. 
43, 19; r.''cm\ 



IS^ti*' m. an old man Job 12, 12, 

• T ' ' 

X 7 

.^^: r. ^'ii'*. 

' - T 

i. q. Syr. 

*'ID^^1' pr. n. m. (perh. like an old 
man) 1 Ch. 6, 14. 

b'^^^. Job 27, 8 fut. apoc. of nh^ I. 

U W (only fut. di-n) akin to 
Q^ay:, tan;;, to be desolate or laid waste 
Gen. 47,^19; 3 pnrs. pi. f. Jn3^«J''ri 
Ez. 6, 6. 

□123*' (only fut. n^^'^5^ Judg. 

- T '' '' ' 

12, 3, dli;^;?^ Gen, 50, 26) i. q. Wb, to 
set or Zay Judg. 12, 3 (K'tliibli). 

Difi^ fut. Qal of QT3^. 

&^*J211D1' pr. n. m. (desolation) 1 
Ch. 4^ 3. 

bj^?M; pr. n. m. (God hears) 
the son of Abraham and Hagar, 
Js/j»meZ Gen. 25, 12; patron. •^bxs'^a'Ji'i 
Ishmaelite 1 Ch. 2, 17. 

n;fJ^:, ^n;mjp: pr.n.m.(PT: 
hearsVl Ch. 12, 4; 27,' 19. 

'•'^//iir'^ pr. n. m. (perh. conser- 
vative," r. ^aiB) 1 Ch. 8, 18. 

j w (Qal obs.) prob. akin to tt"^, 
to be sapless, withered, old, opp. to 
lli'in. — Nipli. to be old, not fresh, of 
grain Lev. 26, 10; to be of long stand- 
ing , chronic, of disease Lev. 13, 11; 
to become ancient, as an inhabitant 
Deut. 4, 25. 

i\U (fut. ysn"^/, inf. ■jlUJ': Ecc. 5, 
11) prob. akin to "jX^, -jr^U, nan III, 
to rest, to fall asleep Gen. 2, 21; to 
sleep Prov. 14, 6; ni!an yji^x I shall 
sleep the death, i.e. diePs. 13,4. — Pi. 
to put or send to sleep, only in Judg. 
16, 19. 

■^^^ adj. m. ^}t'^ t old, last year's, 
of grain Lev. 25, 22; ancient, of a 

gate Neh. 3, 6, of a pool Is. 22, 11: 

r. p:. 

"l^^ (pi. t3"':'i";, c. ■'3^3':; r. Y^i-;) 
adj. m., njir*; f. sleeping 1 Sam. 26, 7; 
■^.33 n^-iN "<.3Ty^ those that sleep in the 
la7id of dust, i. e. the dead Dan. 12, 

2. 2) pr. n. m. (sleeper) 2 Sam. 23, 32. 
nD">r^ pr. n. (ancient) of a city in 

Ephraim 2 Ch. 13, 19. 

W;, see ^:. 

J\U (Qal obs.) i. q. ?iy3, Arab. 
^3 to be wide, roomy (cf. n*^), fig. 

to be well off or prosperous; also ^o 
&e /Vee. — Niph. SX^s (fut. y^jr) to 
be set free or af large, to be saved 
Ps. 80, 4; part. 'SiSVi victorious Zech. 
9, 9, cf. Ps. 33, 16. — Hipli. 'J^iS^'n 
(fut. ?">yi'i'', also S'l-iTirr; see Gram. § 
53, Rem. 7, apoc. SJiLI"") to cause to 
be at large, to deliver or help Ps. 3, 
8; w. ']13 from Ps. 7, 2; w. 3 of means 
Hos. 1, 7, w. b in Ps. 72, 4 ''.anb ?iyji'« 
'j1"'nSi Ae causes help for the children 
of 'the needy. Part. S'^'yiii^ a saviour 
Judg. 3, 9. Hence 

>'U?^;;, rarely 3?TC^; J (w. suf. '^'^t^, 
r^j±-\ Ps. 18, 36, ?j>u:'^ Ps. 85, 8) m. 
prop, broad or ivide place, freedom 
Ps. 12, 6; deliverance, salvation Hab. 

3, 13; safety, welfare Job 5, 4. 

>* u?^ Gen. 4, 4 fut. apoc. Qal of nm 

"'^"P? pr. n. m. (saving or salutary) 
1 Ch. 2, 31. 

n;?^?'? pr. n. m. (help of fn;!) 1 
Ch. 3, *21.* 

•in''3?'^r^ pr. n. m. (salvation of 
Pt^) the great prophet Isaiah, Hjaia; 
Is. 1, 1. 

Vi| w (obs.) perh. akin to Syr. 
\^A» to rub off, nsTT II, to make 
bare or smooth, to polish; hence to 
shine, perh. hence 





or nsir^ 

••• : T 

m. a kind of 

precious stone, Syr. ovsua-., laam;, 
yosper Ex. 28, 20, Ez. 28, 13. 

nStp^ pr. n. m. (perh. bald, r. 
}1B'^ II) 1 Ch. 8, 16. 

"5123^ pr. n. m. (perh. hiding, r. 
•jBir) I'Ch. 8, 22. 

v2j (fut. ^yi*!^ , once n'i"' 1 Sam. 
-r " ■ 

6, 12) akin to ^m, "1^:3, fo be straight 
or direct, of a way that does not 
turn 1 Sam. 6, 12; fig. w. ''r^a to be 
right in the eyes of, i. e. to please 
Num. 23,27. 2) to be even (opp. bj^^), 
fig. tranquil Hab. 2, 4. — Pi. to make 
or keep straight Prov. 9, 15; to lead 
straight on, of an aqueduct 2 Ch. 32, 
30; to make level or even, of a way, 
Is. 40, 3; to approve or declare right 
Ps. 119, 128. — Pii. ^i2'^ to be made 
even or beaten out flat, of gold in 
plates 1 K. 6, 35. — Hipli. ^'^t'^t} 
(liyiin Ps, 5, 9) to make level Ps. 5, 
9 ; to make straight i. e. look straight 
Prov. 4, 25 let thine eyelids ii"i'^'>a^^ 
Tj'1^5 look right on before thee. Hence 

"iti^ (pi. t5'>7^":, c. i^ip^) adj. m., 
nw (c. nn^T';', pi. nii'^:) f., straight 

Job 33, 27, esp. of a way Is. 26, 7 ; 
W^/if, w. ''3*^?3 Judg. 17, 6; upright, 
of God Deut. 32, 4, of men Job 1, 1. 
-^ ■''^^"? right -hearted Ps. 7, 11; 
nniaba D'^'^uJ? upright in their hearts 
Ps. 125, 4 ; 'r^;^ ^d"^^ upright of conduct 
Prov. 29, 27; level, even, of a way 
Ezr. 8, 21. 'lUi^n -iBD Josh. 10, 13 
book of tJie upright, prob. a lost col- 
lection of ancient Heb. poetrj', which 
perh. celebrated the praises of God- 
fearing and just men. — In Ps. Ill, 
8 = ^ra"^ rightness or as adv. rightly, 
of. Gram. § 84, 1, § 106, 2, a, Eem. 

*^'®!! Pi'- ^' T^- (uprightness) 1 Ch. 
2, 18." 

'ItD^ (w. suf. 1"iy3^) m. strnighinesSf 
evenness, of a way Prov. 2, 13; fig. 
uprightness 1 K. 9, 4; rightness or 
right, ^^Jj'a more than right Prov. 
11, 24; duty Job 33, 23; r. ^'l3\ 

^^!y^^, pr. n. m. (prob. God- 
wrestling, r. JTnb 1, cf. Gen. 32, 29; 
or perh. God's prince, r. iT^ia 2) the 
second name of Jacob, given him by 
God Gen. 32, 29; name also of his 
descendants Ex. 5, 2 ; even of the ten 
tribes as a separate kingdom 2 Sam. 
2, 9. Patron, m. '^bx'ib'; 2 Sam. 17, 
25 Israelite, f. n'^bxnii)7 Lev. 24, 10 

n5j!^*II23^ pr. n. m. (perh. upright 
God-ward) 1 Ch. 25, 14. 

n^^"] (c. n'yi:n) f. uprightness, 
only in 1 K. 3, 6; r. 'l^\ 

"pllp^ m. prob. a dimin. of "iVJ;; 
■= ^lU;^, hence perh. darling honest 
one, a poetical and fond or pet name 
for bx"ii^'] Deut. 32, 15. 

HDI^^ 1 Sam. 6, 12 for na-i'in 3 
pi. f. Pi. of ^t'^, see Gram. § 47, 
Eem. 3. 

mW (obs.) prob. akin to "d^ri, 
t:iu:^% htj^, m^;5, to be sapless or 
withered, dry or hard; hence 

^IZJ^ adj. m. i. q. t'^^'^, prop. 
withered or dry; fig. o?c?, a^e<Z or an- 
cient 2 Ch. 36, 17. — Akin to Aram. 

^i^iip, wJk»A.jk.xi (old), perh. to old L. 
cascus and Oscus (ancient). 

*1lD125iS^ pr. n. m. (in K'thibh = 
*nDb n:*^ there is hire, but in Q'ri = 
12'*^"^ he is hired) Sept. laaa^ap, 
Issachar, a son of Jacob and Leah 
Gen. 30, 18. 


see WUJ. 

^nri^^ fut. apoc. Hithpal'el for 
n'ihri^7,'r. nn^; see Gram. § 75, 
Rem. 18. 




l^plppriti^ Nah. 2, 5 fut. Hith- 
palpal of pp'r, comp. Gram. § 67, 8. 

T\^ Chald. i. q. Heb. n&t, Syr. iJ, 
sign of accusative case ; w. suf. "JlJin'j 
Dan. 3, 12. 

i^r))^ Deut. 33, 21 fut. Qal of nnjt, 
for nrx;:, Gram. § 76, 2, c. 

l^i\^ Chald. i. q. Heb. ^XO^, to 
mt Dan. 7, 9. — A ph. nnin fo cawse 
to dwell Ezr. 4, 10. 

)*_J (obs.) i. q. Arab, jjy, 


to ^I?^{, to pierce or siicA: in; hence 

com. gend. a peg, pin, nail Ez. 15/6', 
a'lxn nn"] web-pin, whereby the web 
was fastened to the wall Judg. 16, 
14; a small spade or shovel (to dig 
with) Deut. 23, 14; fig. a prince, on 
whom the state is conceived to de- 
pend Zech. I'', -tr. 

n3ir\"' Mic. 6, 2 fut.Hith. of ns"^; 
Gram. § 69, 2. 

DID^ (pi. D"'^1■n^ w. suf. T^ah";) 
m. an orphan Ex. 22, 23 ; a fatherless 
child Job 24, 9 ; r. Dri\ 

'^T\'] m. a searching out Job 39, 
8 ; r. "i!in I. 

"j^iri^ Chald. Dan. 4, 9 fut. Ithpe. 
of "jsit. * 

I li_l (obs.) i. q. Arab. ^3, to 
beat 10. a club; hence nniD. 

"T^r}^ pr. n. (prob. excelling, r. 
in;^) a Levitical city in south of 
Judah, now ^Attir Josh. 15, 48. 

TF}^ Chald. adj. m., &<";i''n;^ f. sur- 
passing, extraordinary Dan. 2, 31; 
the fern. •T^'^Pi;^ used as adv. very, 
exceedingly Dan. 3, 22. 

vlj I (Qal obs.) akin to ^nfi, 
b^n II, to jest, mock. — Hiph. b'^inn 

to mock, deride, w. 3 of pers. Judg. 
16, 10. — Hopli. to be deceived, made 
a jest Is. 44, 20. 


^Ij II (obs.) akin to nVn, bbn I, 

to be high; hence 

Sn^XT"'^ pr. n. (hilly) of a place in 
Dan Josh. 19, 42. 

UiJ (obs.) prob. akin to OTT^ i, 

q. Arab. *Xji , to be desolate, bereaved; 
hence Din^. 

, T 

or;;, pi. si^arn"), in pause ^laPi';, fut. 
Qal of D^n. 




see Wor\. 

TVZT)^ pr. n. m. (orphanhood, r. 
OC^) I Ch. 11, 4^ 

jlj (obs.) akin to njFi I, "jnj 
(which see), to reach out or extend i. 
q. Arab. ^^^ , to be perennial or con- 
stant, of the flow of water; hence 

5]J^"'-Sr)^ pr. n. m. (God bestows, r. 
n3P. I) 1 Ch. 26, 2. 

1?^''? pr- n. (peril, strong or per- 
manent, r. "iH^) of a city in Judah 
Josh. 15, 23. 

li_! I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
^r© II, ^IlJ:^, to fall or run over (some 
measure), to surpass or exceed. — 
Niph. inia to be left over, to remain 
Gen. 44, 20; part. m. nW3, f. n^nSs 
remnant Ex. 28, 10. — HIpli. T^hiJi 
(fut. apoc. ^r\^^) io cawse <o abound, 
w. a iw Deut. 28, 11; to let remain 
over Ex. 10, 15; to spare Ps. 79, 11; 
to go beyond, excel Gen. 49, 4. 

ll^^ II (obs.) prob. akin to "1B|3II, 

•nirj^, to bind or tie; hence 'nrvj, Wn. 

^in"* , see '^r\i\ 

^t)^^ (w. saf. *'^n'^, pi. Q''")n';) m. 
1) r. in;;" II, a cord or sfnw^ Judg. 



16, 7. 2) r.^n^ I, abundance'Ps. 1 7, 14 ; as 
adv., abundantly Is. 56, 12; remainder 
or residue Judg. 7,6; excellence Prov. 
17, 7; as adv. over and above, besides 
Num. 31, 32. 3) pr. n. m. (perh. ex- 
cellence) Ex. 4, 18, butnn'^ in Ex. 3, 1. 

5^'^ln'] pr. n. m. (perh. excellence) 
2 Sam.' 17, 26, but "in;; in 1 K. 2, 5. 

n"ir^'] f. 1. q. "iP^"; abundance, wealth 
Is. 15^, 7; r. "in;;!. 

^^tyi pr. n. m. (perh. excellent) 
Ex. 3, 1, father-in-law of Moses; but 
^n;: in Ex. 4, 18. 

1*l'1]n*] m. excellence Ecc. 2, 13; 
gain, emolument ^cc, 1, 3; r. ir;I. 

^^^^. patronym. from ^n|^ 2 Sam. 
23, 38.' 

I'^r^l pr. n. m. (perh. excellent) 
1 Ch. 7, 37, but "in;^, in v. 38. 

DU^ri"^ pr. n. m. (prob. residue 
of the people) 2 Sam. 3, 6. 

t^^'t^^, see n'nn'i''. 

V IV V r.- 

DlUn'' Chald. fut. Ithpe. of dsi\rr. 

T : • ^ 

4l» ' (obs.) perh. akin to T\'r}'n, 
ron (which see), to assail, subdue. 

T\ty] pr. n. m. (perh. subjection) 
Gen. 36, 40 (r. rn^). 


^ Kdph, the 11th Heb. letter; 
but used as the numeral for 20 (Gram. 
§ 5, 4, Bem. 3). The name t]3 (or 
q3) means a bent or hallow hand or 
palm, which also is rudely pictured 
by the earliest form or figure M, 
whence the Greek )I or K and its 
name Karua (see the Table of An- 
cient Alphabets). As D it has an 
aspirated sound, kh or Gr. y, but 
as S (w. Dagh. lene) simply k or 
Gr. x; see Gram. § 6, 3, and Note ^. 

— On final "] see Gram. § 5, 3. 

'D interchanges — 1 with the 
other palatals i\, '^, p (see under each) ; 

— 2 w. labials, e. g. n^3 HI = n^ia 11, 

' ° T T T r ' 

*i^3 I = "1^3 II;— 3 w. gutturals, e. g. 

C]^3 = C]\Ui<, "11133 = ^m="lU:^, 5J_33 = 5>2n 

= Arab, jli = nsni = nsi^H, "iDDl = 

-in^ = ina I = "i!i^, ins = ids? ; — 

-T -T '-T -T' 

4 w. dentals e. g. the *^3" in i^bN; is "^Pr 
in ''nbiap, ?]- in ^"^nx is the JiPi- of 
MPIX, dS- in fi^iSX is nn- in DFIX (cf. 
n|5U: = nn^ and see Gram. § 44, 1, 

Note ^ and § 33, 3, Note *, also 
Ewald's Heb. Lehrb. § 190, d, 7th 
ed.) ; — 5 w. sibilants e. g. nSS == HS^^ 

t]^& = 'r^iasn, "isis = "i^ui V ='nfin II j 

comp. on letter rt, p. 190. 

tl- is an old formative or adj. 
ending in some Avords (see onH, p. 191)^ 

as in t^DQ, 'T\'2'0, T|3n, prob. akin to GD5, 
nnD, "jan II, so in Chald. t^'n, Tj^ (which 
see and T\j>i<), so also in T]T3a, '7\'^0, 

Tj^i'ia, 'r]'^5^n, Tj'io? (cf. nbSa). 

3 (3 often before monosyllabic or 
paroxytone words and pron. suffixes- 
(see Gram. § 102, 2, c) e. g. UTS, DfiS,. 
d33, see also io3) a prefix particle 
variously used to express similarity^ 
comparison or proportion, whether as 
adv. or as prep., just as the connexion 
may demand (see Gram. § 1 54, 3, /")» 
Hence it means 1) as, like, as if, 
tt)?, u)^£i, e. g. a banquet like the 
banquet (nn'i'pSi) of the king 1 Sam. 
25, 36. This similarity may be as to 
size Josh. 10, 2, as to number Gen. 



13, 16, as to time Ps. 89, 37, as to 
•event or hap 2 Sam. 3, 33, also 
as to appearance Dan. 10, 18, as to 
wisdom Gen. 41, 38. Hence in ge- 
neral, with words of number, mea- 
sure, time, about, e. g. about ten 
(irys) years Ruth 1, 4; hence 
perh. at (of time), e. g. T^Y^ti nllin? 
at or about midniglit Ex. 11, 4. In 
such cases the Kaph of comparison 
<*l'i"'^'nii t\'3) retains only a slight 
trace of its proper force. Here then 
belongs a) 3 meaning so, as well as, 
when as adv. of quality it is connect- 
ed w. "jS (thus "jS-S as -so) Ps. 127, 
4, or w. another 3 (thus 3" 3, also 
31 "3) for comparison, e. g. njturiSi 
tti;:x3 as the sin-offering so the tres- 
pass-offering Lev. 7, 7; nXJl UJB53 
")2l^ ^3331 as the father^s soul even 
so the sow's soul Ez. 18, 4. p) 3 mean- 
insr 'i^ter, according to, when it 
indicates a rule or standard e. g. 
according to our likeness (Isn^iTS'iS) 
<jen. 1, 26. 2) The comparison may 
be w. an object conceived of in its 
highest possible perfection, without 
reference to any particular instance, 
•e. g. nai< Tli'^XS Neh. 7, 2 a very 
faithful man, i. e. so as a faithful 
man alone can be (see Gram. § 134, 
3, f, cf. (b; aXrjGu);); he behaved 
himself ^'^'nn^S 1 Sam. 10, 27 very 
quietly, i. e. as only a quiet person 
does. Perh. in the same way 3 stands 
before an adj. in BsHr}? Ecc. 8, 1, 
before a part, in d''33J<nri3 Num. 11, 
1, M;i^3)3 Cant. 1, 7, h^J33 Ex. 22, 24, 
before an adv. in a?733 1 Ch. 16, 19, 
or before a subst. in ni!a3 Lam. 1, 

•/IT - ' 

20, ^3 Is. 13, 6 i.e. very wise, very 
complaining, utterly fainting, very 
little or feiv, as a very usurer, as 
death itself, as very ruin. The old 
grammarians without much reason, 
called this D2:s>n q? (3 of identity) 

or d!i"»;3rt t)3 (3 of confirmation). 3) 
the comparing together of two acts, 
as happening together or depending 
one on the other; hence the 3 serves 
for a particle or adv. of time, e. g. 
when he heard i^'O'^^ (prop, according 
to his hearing) that I raised my voice 

then he left 3T3?*^ (prop, and he 

left, see Gram, § 126, 6, Rem. 1, 
Note') Gen. 39, 15. In this way it 
may be generally rendered before 
infinitives, rarely w. verbal-nouns 
2 Ch. 12, 1, and participles Gen. 40, 
10. 4) before a noun in order to 
compare two propositions, e. g. as 
the former time ("iVrx'^ii nss) brought 
contempt on the land of Zebulon 
. , . .so the latter time (p^ini^ni) will 
bring honour Is. 8, 23. But more 
usual is IS- ^ms Num. 2, 17. At 
times we have 3" 3, e. g. t^^ "^ribS 
nn? ''HbDi) as my strength then, so 
my strength noiv Josh. 14, 11. For 
this 3~3 at times stands 'j3~3 Josh. 
2, 2lj also 351-3 1 Sam. 30, 24. — 
As to derivation, 3 is prob. connected 
w. the pronominal root "'S, though 
perh. only shortened from )'3 (see 
Gram. § 102, 2, Note^). See ia3, ^33, 
na3, na3, '■,3J3, n3r3, 13. 

T : ' T - ' ' - : ' •.•!•.•;' • 

3 Chald. i. q. Heb. as like Dan. 
7, 4; as it were Dan. 6, 1. 

iUCS3 (fut. Si^S";) akin to 33)5 I, 
Syr. \.£iD to hurt; prop, to pierce 

(cf. Chald. 313 a thorn), hence then 
to be sore Gen. 34, 25; feel pain, to 
suffer Ps. 69, 30; be sick or sad 
Prov. 14, 13; w. ^$ of cause Job 14, 
22. — Hiph. to cause pain, to wound 
Job 5, 18; to sadden w. ace. Ez. 13, 
22 : of mere things, to war or destroy 
2 K. 3, 19. Hence 

SJ^3 m. pain (of body) Job 2, 13; 
grief Is. 17, 11; w. sV Is. 65, 14. 

> * 




(Qal obs.) akin to nns, 

T T . 

nsn)?, to he dejected, sad. — Nipn. to 
get sad, downcast Dan. 11, 30; w. 
anb Ps. 109, 16. — !lX33 in Job 30, 8 is 
prob. Niph. of xas. — Hiph. to af- 
flict, sadden, w. n)? Ez. 13, 22. — 
Cf. E. to cow, coward. Hence 

njS3 adj. m., pi. d'^ttS dejected, sad 
Ps. id, 10 in Q'ri. 

1^^' I perh. akin to *Tn3 11 to 
surround, only in Ps. 22, 1 7 where "^"ifiitS 
is perh. for ^"^XS; but it is better to 
take n!^3 here as for'n^iSI (cf. fi&t'n = 
fi1"i) to dig or pierce, and so to read 
*l'^^i^ piercers of or Ji^KS ^Aet/ pierce 
(so Sept. lopu^av, Syr. a2^)J:2, Vulg. 
foderunt). Yet if we follow the com- 
mon reading '''^^0 as f/ie ?iow, the 
sense is good e. g. as the lion {they 
surround, as in 1st clause) my hands 
and my feet. 

iJSw II (obs.) perh. i. q. Talm. 

*i55i ^0 be dirty, esp. of water, hence 
perh. "nxs turbid stream Am. 8, 8; 
but this "IJ^S most likely stands for 
^bf^S, as some texts read. Perh. hence 
'njJ^i) f. dirt, muddiness, perh. 
once in Am. 8, 8 ; but see "nj^S II. 

"^^^.5 I*s. 22, 17, perh. for ^lli^O; 
see '1X3 I. 

^mAmJ (obs.) i. q. Arab. LS, to 

make round, as a ball. Hence perh. 

ar-is for 3333 (cf. nsiiia for nsasi:); 
but see 313. 

^33 7 l33 Is. 24, 20 (fut. 

•• T ~ T 

'133'^) prop, to be heavy, weighty (opp. 
to bbj? to be light) Job 6,3; hence 
fig. 1) to be heavy, w. b? Judg. 1, 35; 
to be a burden, w. br 2 Sam. 13, 25; 
to be wealthy, w. 3 Gen. 13, 2; to &e 
severe, of a battle, w. ^X Judg. 20, 34 ; 

to be heavy or <?w??, of the senses Gen* 
48, 10, of the mind Ex. 9, 7; to be 
in honour Job 14, 21; to be glorious^ 
of God Is. 66, 5. — Niph. ^333 1) to 
be honoured or esteemed Gen. 34, 19;. 
part. pi. f. ni"i335 as subst. glorious 
things Vs. 87, 3 ; m. 3'''n333 (w. Dagh. 
euphon.) noble, wealthy Is. 23, 8; of 
fountains, abounding in water Prov. 
8, 24. 2) to shoio oneself glorious, to- 
be glorified Is. 26, 15; w. 3 Ex. 14, 4. 

— Pi. 133 1) to honour Ex. 20, 12; 
w. h, to do honour to Ps. 86, 9; w» 
"l^ Ps. 3, 9, w. 3 Dan. 11, 38, w. ace. 
Is. 43, 23, of the means. 2) to make 
heavy, dull or insensible 1 Sam. 6, 6. 

— Pu. 133 to be honoured Is. 58, 
13. — Hi ph. T^srrt 1) to make heavy y 
as a yoke, w. hs Neh. 5, 15; to make 
plentiful Hab. 2, 6 ; to »waA;e heavy f 
dull, of the senses Is. 6, 10. 2) to 
wiaAie honourable Jer. 30, 19; to gain 
or ^ei honour 2 Ch. 25, 19. — Hith. 
to honour or magnify oneself, , to 
6oas^ Prov. 12, 9; to maAre oneself 
numerous Nah. 3, 15. Hence 

15? adj. m. (c. 133 Ex. 4, 10,. 
133 Is"! 1,4; pi. 6^13^, c. ''133) 
heavy, weighty Ps. 38, 5; sore or 
grievous Gen. 12, 10; abundant, 
numerous Num. 20, 20; heavy, dull, 
sluggish Ex. 4, 10; difficult Ex. 18, 
18;/iarfZ, of the heart Ex. 7, 14. 

133 (w. suf. '1133 Lam. 2, 11) m. 
the liver, so called for its heaviness 
Lev. 3, 4. — Perh. akin to t^^at-oc 
(^rap), as L. caput is = G. haupt,, 
E. AeatZ. 

1123 adj. m. but only used in £► 
ni33, for which see JlllSS. 

133 glory, see 1133. 

11113 m. 1) heaviness, weight Prov, 
27, 3; fig. violence, of war Is. 21, 15, 
or of fire Is. 30, 27. 2) a multitude 
Nah. 3, 3. 





WID? f« heaviness, difficulty, 
only in Ex. 14, 25. 

( )3^ (fut. nia'^) perh. akin to 

T T V : • ^ 

nsn, iiss, fo cover or hide; hence to 
go out or 6e quenched, of fire Lev. 
6, 5, of a light 1 Sam. 3, 3, of anger 
2 K. 22, 17; of foes, to perish Is. 43, 
17. — Pi. ^0 extinguish, quench Is. 
1, 31; of anger Jer. 4, 4, of love 
Cant. 8, 7. 

prop, weight (cf. pipo^ o6$yj(; 2 Cor. 
4, 17),r. ^ns; fig. abundance, riches 
Is. 66, 12; glory, honour, Sept. i56Sa, 
of men 1 K. 13, 3; majesty or glory, 
of God Ex. 33, 18, Ps. 19, 2; esp. 
.-.•n-) ni23 (Sept. 66Sa Kupiou) Is. 
59, 19, the brightness or fiery splen- 
dour in Avhich the Divine Majesty 
appeared on Sinai Ex. 24, 16, in the 
tabernacle Ex. 40, 34, in the temple 
1 K. 8, 1 1 (cf. Luke 2, 9), called by 
the later Jews the i^Jir^i, see ']zxb. 
Poet, for heart or soul, as being the 
noblest part of man Gen. 49, 6, cf. 
Ps. 16, 9. —In Ps. 73, 24 ^133 stands 
as adv. ace. for loith or into glory 
(see Gram. § 118, 1). 

oTI^SS (for n^23 as fern, of obs. 
m. 133, see Gram. § 94, 1, Parad. 
Vni) f. 1) adj. splendid, gorgeous Ps. 
45, 12. 2) subst. important, precious 
things Judg. 18, 21; r. 133. 

5-31D pr. n. (prob. pledged or 
bound, r. bni) 1) of a city in Asher 
Josh. 19, 27. 2) of a whole district 
of twenty cities in Galilee 1 K. 
9, 13. 

"plus pr. n. (prob. fortress, r. ins) 
of a place in Judah Josh. 15, 40. 

yy^ (r. "133) m. prop, a plaiting 
or braiding, hence a mattress or 
quilt, only 1 Sam. 19, 13. 16. 

'^''45 (pl. t3'''n''33) adj. m. great, 
mighty (cf. Arab, j^), of water Is. 

17, 12, of wind Job 8, 2, of God 

Job 34, 17; D"!^;! "T^S? ^rmf of age 
Job 15, 10; r. 133. 

^5^ (Q^l obs.) akin to bss, 
bsn, Arab. J-T, to bind, combine; 
hence b!l33, — Pu. ^313 (for ^33 w. 
1 inserted for Dagh. f.) to be girded, 
only in part. ^31313 (Gram. § 56). 

^r^r! (c. pl- ''I???) ni. a bond or 
fetter Ts. 105, 18.* 

jZl^ (obs.) akin to ^33, Chald. 
ps, to bind, to fasten. Hence ^133, 

W«i*J (Qal only part. m. Dl") 
mimet. akin to ia33 and to D^3 

- T 

(which see), prop, to tread, trample 
w. the feet; hence to wash clothes 
(cf. irXuvsiv) by treading them in a 
tub, so differing from yni to ivash 
the body (cf. Xousiv). Part. 033 a 
washer or fuller Is. 7, 3. — Pi. D33 
(033 Gen. 49, 11) to wash clothes 
Ex. 19, 10; part. D33p i. q. 033 a 
fuller Mai. 3, 2; fig. to cleanse or 
purify as by washing Ps. 51, 4. — 
Pu. to be ivashed Lev. 13, 58. — 
Hothp. OStn (for OSSnri Gram. § 
54, 3) to be cleansed or ivashed Lev. 
13, 55. 

>^^W (obs.) akin to 53a, S3)?, 
to be gibbous or bulging up; hence 


153 (Qal obs.) i. q. ->3a (which 

see), to bind together, to weave or 
plait; hence to be strong or great. 
— HIpIi. to make great or many, to 
multiply Job 35, 16; part. 1*^33^ as 




•ubst., w. h pref. ■»''3i3^^ adv. abun- 
dantly Job 36, 31. Hence ^"^23 and 

^22) 1) ni. great space or length, 
a stretch; hence adv. of time, long 
ago, already Ecc. 1, 10; Syr. j-as. 
2) pr. n. (length or strength) of a 
river in Mesopotamia Ez. 1, 3. 

m'^IJD f. a sieve, only in Am. 9, 9; 
so named because plaited or woven, 
r. *.33. 

rrj^S (only c. nn23) f. length; 
Yy< nyi:2 the stretch of ground Gen. 
35, 1 6, denoting some measure which 
cannot now be determined; yet in 
Gen. 48, 7 Ave find the Sept. adding 
(as if they took n"n33 for n22*i a 
ride or drive) iTriroopoiJio; a horse- 
run, i. e. an ordinary stage of about 
10 miles, which a horse can run at 
one heat. 

W^^ (fut. iraa-^) akin to 033, 
CBS, to tread or trample on Zech. 
9, 15; then fig. to subdue, the ground 
Gen. 1, 28, sins Mic. 7, 19 (prob. here 
to cleanse, like D23); to subjugate 2 
Ch. 28, 10; to force a woman Est. 
7, 8. — Nipli. to be subdued, as a 
land Num. 32, 22; te be forced, 
of a woman Neh. 5, 5. — Pi. to 
tmbdue 2 Sam. 8, 11. — Hiph. to 
subjugate Jer. 34, 1 1 in K'thibh. 

^-iw (obs.) prob. akin to ^13, 
VQ^, to glow or bum; hence "J'^ns. 

^^^ (obs.) prob. i. q. 033, to 
tread on, hence to leap on (as the 
nun on the ewe), to propagate, as 
abeep; hence ©33, Mb33, also by 
transp. nios and nab3. 

^S33 m. a footstool, because 
trodden on 2 Ch. 9, 18; r. )C3S. 

» ' - T 

uHS m. a he-lamb, a young ram 
(torn one to three years old Num. 7, 

15; pi. t:^p33 lambs Is. 5, 17; r. 
'J33. See also 3ir3. 

- T V r.' 

nirns, nbns Lev. u, lo (of. 

T ; • ' T : - ' ^ 

nb33, pi. nii?3S) f. an eioe-lamb, 
from one to three years old 2 Sam. 
12, 3: prob. sheep in Gen. 21, 28. 
See also fiab3. 

I^Zli) m. prop, a burning place 
(r. "i'33), a furnace, for burning lime 
or smelting metals Gen. 19, 28; dif- 
ferent from "nJiiPi an oven for baking. 
— Of. xafjLivo;, L. caminus, culina 
(= E. kiln) from xaiu> = L. candeo 
= W. cynnu (burn). 

'13 (pi. D'^'n?) com. gend. a pail 
1 K. 17, 14; tub 1 K. 17, 12; r. ^^12 1, 
Cf. xa5o(;, L. cadus, E. caddy. 

3 j3 Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
3T3, to lie, to deceive; hence 

S'lS Chald. adj. m., ns'ns f. lying, 
deceiving Dan. 2, 9. 

MiJ I (obs.) i. q. "1!13 (which 

see), to cut or hollow out; hence 
prob. "IS. 

) J— i*!! (obs.) prob. akin tol)?^, 
to burn, glow or sparJde; hence nn^s, 
13"n3. — Prob. akin to Sans, chad 
(to blaze), L. candeo, E. kindle, 

'''13, see "••». 

^'IS Chald., see ''•n. 

^313 m. prop, p, glowing or 
sparkling gem (r. ins U), a rw6^ or 
carbuncle Is. 54, 12. 

1 J^ (obs.) perh. akin to in3, fo 
fctWfZ; hence perh. 113 in 

^''9"?r'?7? P^- «• "^- (Pei-li- hand- 
ful of sheaves) Gen. 14, 1. 

n3 (i. q. Chald. ns, see next page) 
only in Jnrs and hs-^X; usually 




TQ adv. thus, so, ouxco;, referring 
either to what precedes Gen. 15, 6; 
or more frequently, to what follows 
Deut. 7, 5. It is used as a particle 
1) of time, now, e. g. fi3 iy till now, 
hitherto Ex. 7, 16; doubled, !13"^5 
n'3~n?'i hitherto and hitJierto, i. e. in 
the mean time 1 K. 18, 45. 2) of 
place, here Ruth 2, 8 ; TXS — Ms here 
— there Num. 11,31; nb-n? to there, 
yonder Gen. 22, 5; Mbl MS hither 
and thither Ex. 2, 12. 3) of manner, 
this way, that way Is. 20, 6 ; Jiba — SibSi 
in <Ats manner — in that manner 
1 K. 22, 20. — As to derivation, nb 
may perh. be for !in3, but prob. is 
akin to 3, ir, ",3, see Gram. 102, 2, 
Note 1. 

TO Chald. i. q. Heb. !lb, MS-njJ 
hitherto Dan. 7, 28. 

11/ \D (fut. nnD"^, apoc. nrin 
Job 17, 7, Gram. § 75, Rem. 3, h) 
i. q. "1X3, fo 6e weary, faint Is. 42, 
4 ; of a light, to he feeble or c?m (see 
nns) of the eyes, to he dim or cZw/^ 
of sight, by age Gen. 27, 1, by 
trouble Job 17, 7. — Pi. nn3 to 
make faint, to depress Ez. 21, 12; 
to rehuke, w. 3 1 Sam. 3, 13. Hence 

nn? f. 1) adj. (fromobs. m. nns) 
feehle, expiring, of a dim wick or 
light Is. 42, 3; depressed, of the mind 
Is. 61, 3; pale, faint, of hue or colour 
Lev. 13, 21 , often w. 3>a3. 2) subst. 
mitigation of a wound, i. e. healing, 
only Nah. 3, 19; r. t\ra. 

^ri2j Chald. (only part, bns) 
akin to Heb. ^^13, bb^, <o he able, e. 
g. bns T|'^™ri art thou able? Dan. 
2, 26; pi. I'lbns, w. \ Dan. 5, 8. 

IjJ^ (Qal only in part, inb) 
prob. akin to ']!|3, to perform ov exe- 

cute any charge or service, hence 
to minister or serve, esp. in sacred or 
divine things, to he a priest ("(rtb which 
see); whence prob. as a denom. we 
get — Pi. ins 1) to act as priest, to 
minister before God (Sept. Upareueiv) 
Ex. 28, 1. 2) to dress as a priest, i. e. 
to deck oneself w. fine apparel, as 
the priests did, only in Is. 61, 10. 

"in-^ (prop. part. ofJtiS; pi. Canb) 
m. a server or minister in sacred 
things, a priest (Sept. Upeu;) Gen. 
14, 18, Ex. 2, 16; of idols 2 Ch. 23, 
17, but esp. of the Lord 1 Sam. 14, 3; 
the Chief or High Priest (Sept. 6 
ap7i£p£U(;) being variously styled 
^'^^'^T} V^^ Lev. 21, 10, tx^ri -,n3 2 
K. 25, 18, n'^aJan irrbn (the anointed 
priest) Lev. 4, 3. Next to him was 
nr^an )ry3 priest of the second rank 
Jer. 52, 24; pi. na^psan lanb 2 K. 23,4. 

■jHS Chald. (def. KaJiS, pi. y^itrs) 
m. i. q. Heb. "jJib, a priest Ezr. 7, 12. 

nSnS (pi. m'sriS 1 Sam. 2, 36) f. 
priestly office, priesthood Ex. 29, 9; 
r. ins. 

1? Chald. (pi. "p!]3) f . a window 
Dan. 6, 11; prop, a hole, r. 113. . 
'IS i. q. Jib, see ib'^X or flb'^X. 

mI'Im) (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

Ui., to shine or twinkle \ hence perh. 

3D13, but see 333. 

T ' - T 

I2"13 pr. n. of a country in con- 
nexion w. Egypt and Cush Ez. 30, 5; 
perh. for 313 Nubia. 

3?I213 Ez. 27, 10 (in pause ys-iB, 
c. 5313 1 Sam. 17, 5, pi. D'i53l3; r. 
533) m. a helmet Is. 59, 17. The 
form appears to be a con/usiDn of 
533 and 5313. 

\'\Li (obs.) prob. akin to Tia I, 
1*13 I, nn3 (which see), to pierce, to 
wound, hence to destroy; hence T^S, 


T T 



yifS, '^I'T'S. —— Prob. mimet. akin 

to Sans. f<Uh (to wound), XT)5to, L. 

c€tdo, cades, Q. schaden, E. scathe, 

cut, W. cwt, cad, Irish ca^Aa. 

■"■•^■^ « " 

I I W (Qal obs.) akin to Syr. (as 
r r , 

Arab. ^/, perh. to u:n3, Gr. xaiw, 

to 6i<m or 6rand; cf. "^3 I. — Niph. 

to be burned or scorched Is. 43, 2. 

113 Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. a^^3, 
3?^i to'hollow out, to pierce; hence 13. 

j_nw (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 
^5 coiy . X (tenax fuit), to be strong, 
potcerful; hence hS 1. 

ni3 (see n's) m. strength Dan. 11, 6. 

rT^I.? f. a burning or branding 
Ex. 2^,25; r. ni3. 

:SDi3 (c. S2'i3; pi. t:''25'i3j r. SM 

or ni2) i. q. Arab, v^y , a star Gen. 
37, 9; fig. a prince Num. 24, 17. 
bis Jer. 33, 8 K'thibh, see V3. 

/^n^ prob, akin to N^3, Arab. JU^ 
to hold or measure Is. 40, 12. — Pilp. 
^3^3 to contain 1 K. 8, 27; to sustain, 
endure Mai. 3, 2; to support or 
defend, as advocate Ps. 112, 5, as 
nourisher, w. two ace. Gen. 47, 12. 

— Polp. (cf. Gram. § 55, 4) bsbs to 
be sustained w. provisions I K. 20, 27. 

— Ilipli. b'^^n to hold or contain 1 
K. 7, 26; h'*pn)> na")p amplitude to 
contain i. e. holding much Ez. 23, 32; 
to bear or endure Jer. 6, 11. 

U* laJ (obs.) i. q. Arab. Jf to group, 
akin to C^a (which see), to join, to 
cluster together; hence fTa''3. 

713^3 (like aaiS) m. a ball or pellet; 
perh. collect, beads, made of gold, 
and worn as an ornament Ex. 35, 22 ; 
r. 1^3. 

j^J (Qal only part.")?; forfut. id 
ilSSIS'' = 123313"' in Job 31, 15 be- 

r.- jr.:: 

longs to the Pil. ^il^) i. q. "iSS, akin 
to Dip, to stand or exist (hence "jS,. 
",13^). — Niph. fDj, fut. 'jiS';, i) fo &e 
set up, to be high, of the day; hence 
in part. Gi'^f} "jl'ss high noon (aTaOepov 
?j{jLap) Prov. 4, 18. 2) to stand firm 
Mic. 4, 1] to be established Judg. 16,. 
26. 3) in a moral sense, to be firm, 
steadfast Ps. 51, 12; of things, to be 
settled Gen. 41, 32; to be certain, stive 
Deut. 13, 15; part, "jlss (m.) adv. cer- 
tainly 1 Sam. 26, 4 , .13133 (f.) subst. 
certainty Vs.b, 10. 4) to be prepared,. 
•jisn (imp.) hold thyself ready! Ez» 
38, 7; w. b of pers. Prov. 19, 29, also 
of thing Ps. 38, 18. — Pil. "JSIS 1) to 
place or set up, to establish 2 Sam. 
7, 13. 2) to confirm Ps. 7, 10; to 
establish or found (a city) Ps. 107, 
36; to prepare 2 Sam. 7, 24; to 
create Ps. 8, 4; to make ready or fo 
aim, as arrows Ps. 11, 2; fig. 'fo 
direct or apply, the mind (3b) under- 
stood, w. b Job 8, 8. — Pol. 1313 to 
be establislied Ps. 37, 23; to be form- 
ed Ez. 28, 13. — Hlph. 'J"'3ti (ISsn 2 
Ch. 29, 19 for 13i3'^3n we prepared^ 
•j-isnil 2 Ch. 29, 36 w. art. as rel. 
pron., cf. Gram. § 109, Kem.) to set 
up, as a throne Ps. 103, 19; to founds 
of the heavens Ps. 65, 7; to C07i- 
firm or establish, of dominion Is. 9, 
6; to prepare or make ready Gen. 43, 
25 ; to aim or direct, of missiles Ps. 
7, 14, of way or course Jer. 10, 23 j 
to apply (3b the mind) 2 Ch. 12, 14. 

— Hoph. ]y\i^ to be established Is. 
Id, 5 \ to be prepared Is. 30, 33; to 
be set in order, arranged Zech. 5, 11. 

— Hilhpol. ■)3i3rrt Prov. 24, 3, also 
ISllii (Gram. § 54, 2 b) to prepare 
oneself Vs. 59, b\ to be established Is. 
54, 14. Hence 




*^S pr. n. (perh. a settlement or 
colony) of a Phenician city 1 Ch. 18, 
8; but "^n-ia in 2 Sam. 8, 8, prob. 
now Beirut. 

15^ (pl- ^''?^3) ni. caJce, used in 
sacred offerings Jer. 7, 18; r. "jlS 
(Chald. Pa. )'C) to prepare, hence 
something made up; cf. out confection. 

W* Im) (obs.) prob. akin to n&3, to 
enfoldy to keep or hold in, to contain, 
hence perh. b13 and 0*^2; but see D23. 

0*13 (pl. mob) f. prob. a holder or 
receptacle, r. W3 or b33, 1) a cup 
Gen. 40, 11; hence lot or portion, con- 
sidered as meted out by God Ps. 11, 6. 
2) jproh.pelican or cormorant, sonsLmed 
from its pouch (see 0*13) Lev. 11, 17, 

^■|*l— J (obs.) to be high, pointed 
or towering, crag-like; hence v]3. — 
Prob. akin to Sans, kapala, xecpaXi^, 
xu^T^, Jj. caput, cippiis, G.kopf, kappe, 
gipfel, E. cap, O.E. cop (head), gable, 
W. coppa. 

y\iLJ I (obs.) mimet. and akin to 
^i^3I,!Ti3 I, ^?fi<, -nsip I, 1J53, ^!jn n 
and "nJiu: V, to dig, cut or pierce 
through; hence 15|3, 'TIS, ^1*3, *i3 2, "13. 

n^ II (obs.) perh. akin to ltJ13, 
ttJDN, fo ^^ot^ or 6wrn. 

*li3, see *i3. 

"^^3 m. a furnace, for smelting 
Prov. 17, 3; r. 'isiS. 

1^^ "''^^ pr- n. (smoking furnace) 
of a city in Simeon 1 Sam. 30, 30; 
also simply ']iy$ in Josh. 16, 42. 

TD^IIS Ezr. 1, 1 Cyrus, see «3^3. 

m*l3 (obs.) prob. akin to ^si3 II, 
TliDX, Sans, pws^ (bum), to be sun- 
burnt, to be swarthy or black; prob. 

12^3 1) pr. n. (prob. sun-burnt) of 

Ethiopia Gen. 2, 13; mentioned in 
connexion w. Egypt Nah. 3, 9 and 
Libya 2 Ch. 12, 3. 2) pr. n. m. 
(swarthy) Gen. 10, 6. — Comp. Ai6iotp 
= ai0(o to burn and w^p face. 

*'12J^i) 1) m. a Cushite, Ethiopian 
Jer. 13, 23; pl. ti^)^^^ 2 Ch. 14, 11; 
also D"i's'j:3 Am. 9, 7; fem. n^iusis 
Num. 12, i. 2) pr. n. m. (swarthy) 
Zeph. 1, 1. 

■jlT^^ pr. n. (from ttjsis, swarth- 
land) perh. eastern Arabia, more 
prob. Ethiopia itself Hab. 3, 7. 

D^nr^n ^m^ pr. n. m. (perh. 
Cushan of double fraud) Judg. 3, 8. 

rr^lDiS f. i. q. Syr. I^J^aa, pro- 
sperity; only pl. miiris prosperous 
circumstances, only Ps. 68, 7 ; r. "1^:3. 

iinw (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
&13, to conserve or keep safe. — N iph. 
to be kept, reserved, as treasure, only 
in part. m. r\i33, as subst. treasure 
2 K. 20, 13. — Perh. akin to Sans. 
kut (to hide), xeuGw, W. cudhio (to 
hide), cadw (to keep). 

M3 pr. n. (perh. hiding place) of 
an unknown province, whence the 
Assyrian king sent colonists to the 
land of Samaria 2 K. 17, 30. 

»1W3 pr. n. 2 K. 17, 24, i. q. ms. 

r\^ri13, see ninb. 

^J_mJ (Qal only part.) akin to 

Dyjn, a^n n, i. q. Arab. '-'jS', prop. 
to bind together, to combine or devise, 
hence to fabricate, to lie; part. m. 
Sp as subst. a liar Ps. 116, 11. 

— Pl. 3;t3 1. q. Syr. »-^|.o, to lie, to 
deceive Job 6, 28; w. b, of pers. Ps. 
78, 36, w. 3 2 K. 4, 16; fig. of mere 
things, to deceive i. e. to turn out 
contrary to expectation Is. 68, 11. 

— Nipli. to be or become a liar 






Prov. 30, 6] to be false Job 41, 1. — 
Hipli. to convict of lying (cf. p"*"?^?, 
5*^?) Job 24, 25. Hence 

nT3 (pi. D'^nts, c. ''513) m. a lie 
or falsehood Is. 28, 15; fig. pi. idols, 
as cheats Ps. 40, 5, cf. Ez. 13, 6. 

K^T3 pr. n. (deceptive) of a place 
1 Ch.'^4, 22; 1. q. a''j3 and n'^TDK. 

''21T3 pr. n. f. (false) Num. 25, 15. 

S'^TSl pr. n. (deceptive) of a place 
in Judah Gen. 38, 5 ; i. q. a''T3K. 

lT3 (obs.) prob. akin to *i;rj5, to 

hind fast or hard, Arab. yJ to force; 
hence fig. to be strong or brave, also 
CTMc/; hence "IJ3X. 

nS, once )ll3 Dan. 11, 6 (w. suf. 
•'HS, TjniD; r. ni3) m. 1) strength, 
might Job 6, 1 1 , hence Jib ~ xb weak- 
ness Job 26, 2; ability, capacity Da.n. 
1, 4; ns "IS? to reserve force i. e. to 
have strength for something Dan. 
10, 8; also in a bad sense, violence 
Ecc. 4, 1 : fig. strength of the earth, 
i. e. its produce Gen. 4, 12; wecUth, 
riches, as means of power Job 6, 22. 
2) sort of lizard, prob. the gecko, so 
named for its cry (cf. i^J^Sfct) Lev. 11, 

80; cf. S. ArttcA, Arab. ^, xod$, xiq^, 
L. coaxo, E. quack. 

il_lw (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
tfna, ^0 conceal or /ade. — Pi. ^ns 
<o conceal, w. ',», Jer. 38, 14. — 
Nipli. to hide itself, to lie hidden 2 
Bam. 18, 3 ; to ditappeur or be cut off 
Zech. 11, 9; w. y"}^ )^ Ex. 9, 15.— 
Hiph. to hide away Job 20, 12; to 
cause to vanish i. e. to do away with 
(cf. dcpavtCeiv) Ex. 23, 23. 

rilj^ (obs.) perh. i. q. rjsis, to 
be vigorous; perh. hence nib. 

^Tj^ i. q. Arab. J^^f (whence 

al-cohol), to streak or colour, esp. w, 
dark pigment (aTi{A(JLi, L. stibium) to 
paint the inner sides of the eyelids, 
only in Ez. 23, 40, where Sept. has 


1Z3m3 prob. akin to ^ri3, to 
conceal or deceive, hence fig. (cf. n;T3) 
to waste away or fail Ps. 109, 24. — 
Niph. to dissemble oneself, to feign 
Deut. 33, 29. — Pi. ujhs to fail, of 
produce Hab. 3, 17; to feign, to act 
cunningly, of the conquered to their 
conquerors, w. h Ps. 18, 45; to deny 
Gen. 18, 15, w. 3 or b of pers. Job 
8, 18; 31, 28; to lie, speak falsehood, 
■w. b 1 K. 13, 18. — Hilh. to fawn 
on, flatter, w. b 2 Sam. 22, 45. Hence 

"^n? (w. suf. ■'rbns or "i^rns) m, 
lying, deceit Ps. 59, 13; fig. wasting, 
leanness Job 16, 8. 

IZJnS (only in pi. d'^^n?) adj. m. 
false, apt at deceiving, only in Is. 30, 
9; r. Tljn3. 

"•S I (for 'i^lS; r. n;i3) m. a brand, 
a mark burnt into the skin, only 
Is. 3, 24. 

^li II (pronom. stem, akin to 3, 
see Gram. § 102, 2, Note 1) relat. 
conj., in the widest sense. Its mean- 
ings (comp. Gram. § 155, 1, c) may 
be set forth as follows; — 1) the 
usual relat. conj. that, oxi (like *i^i<) 
marking the relation of the ante- 
cedent clause or sentence (protasis) 
to the consequent (apodosis). Thus 
a) in indirect speech after the verbs 
to see, to say, to know, to believe, to 
remember, to forget, etc., the conse- 
quent (apodosis) standing w. ^^3 is 
considered as if an object in the ace, 
e. g. 3ia "IS ta^ri'bi* ^t'^?^ and God saw 
that it was good (jen. 1, 12; "laab 3'ia 
j<^-i3 it is good for a man that 
he bear Lam. 3, 27; in which 




cases the ^'3, introducing the second 
member is considered as object in 
the ace, namely, as the object that 
God saw, as the object that one finds 
to be good. But also P) in direct 
speech (as mark of quotation, like 
6x1 often) where we do not want 
the conj. that, e.. g. i^\ na'i^Kini 
T]^?V STtiJa "nnx-is and they said to 
her (that) we will return w. thee to 
thy people Ruth 1, 10. Hence also it 
is used after 55^3 Gen. 22, 16, and 
after forms of oaths 1 Sam. 20, 3; 
7) even at the beginning of a sen- 
tence or discourse, where the "^3 
marks the apodosis of a sentence 
that is suppressed or has to be sup- 
plied Job 28, 1. 6) After other 
particles (adverbs, prepositions, in- 
terjections), where the particles 
have severally the force of whole 
clauses or sentences, and the ^S 
indicates the apodosis; e. g. after 

tDiTSK Job 12, 2, h:n Ps. 128, 4, x'^n 

1 Sam. 10, 1, n in *i2n 2 Sam. 9, 1, 
tlN 1 Sam. 21, 6, OSX Am. 9, 8, )^^ 
Num. 11, 20, b? Deut. 31, 17, 1? 
Gen. 26, 13, SpS? 2 Sam. 12, 10, nnn 
Deut. 4, 37. 2) as a causal particle, 
OTi, because (when the cause or 
reason precedes) Gen. 3, 14; for 
(when the cause or reason follows) 
Ps. 6, 3; when there are several 
causes, we have ^^ — ^"3 Is. 6, 5; 
131 — ^3 Gen. 33, 11. — This causal 
meaning of the "^3 is the most usual, 
and it (or the meaning that, under 
1 above) really holds good in most 
of the cases (under 3 below), where 
we may be tempted to render it as 
a particle of time, when. 3) as relat. 
particle of time, Sxe, when, w. the 
past Ps. 32, 3; w. the present Ps. 8, 
4; w. the fut. Gen. 4, 12. ^3 in'^l 
and it came to pass when or that 
Gen. 6, 1. In this sense it may stand 

as the apodosis to a protasis, mean- 
ing so, then, when the antecedent 
clause has the conditional particles 
Qi< Job 8, 6, xb DN Is. 7, 9, !|b Job 
6, 2, ''bilV Gen. 31, 42, i^^it Num. 22, 
33, "nm Ecc. 8, 12, "ym ^y^ Gen. 22, 
16. In this meaning it is used a) 
where ''S indicates the consequent 
of a reason not specially indicated, 
and is to be rendered wherefore, thai, 
e. g. I have not done anything (^S) 
that {wherefore) they put me into 
prison Gen. 40, 15; p) where the 
causal sense because may seem to be 
adversative and to stand for but 
(simply owing to the negative in the 
context, see Gram. § 155, p. 331) e. g. 
Gen. 45, 8, although Ex. 13, 17, but 
yet Is. 28, 27. — Prob. ''3, like ^tR, 
was first a relative or demonstrative 
pronoun, but that sense is nowhere 
certain now, though passable in some 
cases, e. g. Gen. 4, 25 where the Sept. 
makes it 8v, asif=^^^^. Perh. the 
r. is akin to Sans, kas, Pers. Jci, L. 
qui, quia, quod, Gael, cia, ciod. 

ulSl "^3 these united particles com- 
bine more or less the force of both, 
but often (owing to our different 
idiom) the one or the other remains 
untranslated. Hence the significations 
are a) such as retain the force of 
each particle, and these are, that if 
Jer. 26, 15; for if Deut. 11, 22; but 
if, only after negative Lam. 3, 32; 
P) such as conjoin the two words 
into one notion, so that they both 
refer to the one clause, e. g. but, 
after neg. Ps. 1, 2; unless, after neg. 
before a verb Gen. 32, 27; except, 
after neg. before pronoun Gen. 39, 9 ; 
that (the force of the fix being lost, 
as shown in the Q'ri) 2 Sam. 15, 21 ; 
because or for Job 42, 8. 

"O'^? ^3 (see Gram. § 155, 2, d) 




lit. for therefore; hence for, because 
that I have seen thy face Gen. 33, 10. 

T'S m. wound or hurt (cf. L. ccedes); 
fig. calamity, only in Job 21, 20; 
r. 1!|3. 

only Job 41, 11; r. ^"is II. 

■J^ITS (r. 113) m. 1) a javelin 1 
Sam. 17, 6, Jer. 6, 23. 2) pr. n. 
(lance) of a place near Jerusalem, 
fully 'jT*'3 'j'na 1 Ch. 13, 9. 

"1*11^3 m. war, slaughter, only in 
Job 15, 24; prob. from noun ^"O 
w. format, ending "Ti", as in ^iinss 
(see under letter "i); perh. akin to Arab. 

jjj' VII conj. prceceps ruit. 

"I^^S pr. n. (prob. statue or pillar, 
r. -iJlS, Pi. l.";3, cf. Dilp, Pi. D.^p) i. 

q. Arab, ^jly*' , Syr. .o|.a, the planet 
Saturn, worshipped by idolatrous 
Israelites, an image of it being carried 
about w. them in the Wilderness, 
only in Am. 5, 26. 

li^lD , also *1*^? (pi. D'^'ll^S 2 Ch. 
4, 6 ; m'-i^s 1 K. 7, 38) m. a basin 
or pot; for fire, a fire-pan Zech. 
12, 6; for water, a wash-basin Ex. 
30, 18 ; a platform, pulpit, prob. of a 
hollow or cup-like shape 2 Ch. 6, 
13; r. n!l3 I. 

''^"'S m. a wiser, only Is. 32, 5; 
r. ^13 {to retain) w. adj. ending 'i-^, 
grasping; see "^^S. 

Tib"? (only pi. nie^"'?) m. s^e^^e- 
hammer, axe, only in Ps. 74, 6; r. 
5)^3. — Akin to Chald. xcbp a c/m6. 

n'^''3 f. prop, a group, cluster, 
hence the Pleiades, the seven stars 
Job 38, 31 ; r. D^IS. 

CS m. 1) a purse, for money 
Prov. 1, 14; a bag, used by mer- 
chants for small weights Deut. 25, 

13. 2) a cup Prov. 23, 31 (Q'ri bl'^) ; 
r. b^lS. 

T'D (only dual D';;n''S);r.'nWI) m. 
a /ire-crock or jpan for cooking, only 
in Lev. 11, 35; perh. only in dual 
because it consisted of two hollow 
or concave parts (top or lid and 
the body). , 

^i^"*? (r. *Ti:5) m. prop, an 
upright, hence a distaff, which stood 
erect holding the flax, only in 
Prov. 31, 19. 

■jiiri^lD Ecc. 2, 13 for ')'i"ir';3 
Gram. § 24, 1, Rem.. 

n!D3 (for ii3 ns) so and so, thus 

X IT ^ T _ t' ' 

and thus, i. q. n's (which see), e. g. 
thou shalt do to Aaron and his sons 
thus (1133) Ex. 29, 35. In Aram, it 
assumes the form 7^3 so. 

^35 (for ^TB^ ^' ^^T^ ^- ^??» 
duartD';;]33 2 K."5, 23; pi. fi'i'iSS, c. 

i'n33, in another sense also ^'133, c. 
m'l33) f. prop, a round, hence \) a 
circuit of land Neh. 12, 28; esp. 
B^n ">?? the circuit of Jordan, the 
district through which it flows into the 
Dead Sea Gen. 13, 10; called also 
ISS?! the circuit Gen. 13, 12 (yj tts- 
pi^copo; Tou 'lopoavou Mat. 3, 5, now 
called ^jxJ I el-Ghori. e. the ravine or 
gorge). 2) a round cake, w. 'drh, a cake 
or loaf of bread Ex. 29, 23; pi. c. 
W">33 Judg. 8, 5. 3) a talent (so 
called for its round form), a weight 
equal to 3000 shekels of the sanctuary 
Ex. 38, 25; dual t]&3 d';;i33 (for 
d'^'n33) two talents of silver (prop, as 
toVilver, Gram. § 118, 3) 2 K. 5, 23. 
1?? Chald. (pi. "^"133) a talent 
Ezr. 7, 22. 

^3, once ^13 Jer. 33, 8 (w. Maq- 
qeph -^3, w. suf. i^; r. bbs I) 
m. prop, a subst. completeness, to- 
tality, all i. q. V'^bs, 0X0;. 1) the 




tvhole, but mostly rendered as an 
adj. all, whole, in constr. state w. 
A definite sing, noun (Gram. § 111, 
1, Eem. 2), the tuhole of, all, "bs 
ynxri all the earth Gen. ^, 19, but 
rarely when the noun is not defin. 
«. g. uiBs-bsn!) a^'bsa w. ivhole of 
heart and to. whole of soul, i. e. with 
his whole heart and his whole soul 
2 K. 23, 3 ; w. suf. 1^)3 his whole, i. e. 
the whole of him Gen. 25, 25; T^bs 
•<AoM (f.) whole Is. 14, 29, nV^ Is. 22, 1 '; 
thus at times after the noun, e. g. 
;ri'i)3 ^x-ib"^ Israel, his ivhole, i. e. the 
whole of Israel 2 Sam. 2, 9 ; rarely 
in apposition after the noun e. g. 
Van TOTn the whole vision Is. 29, 11. 
2) distributively of several things 
<mostly ^vithout the art.) all, ever?/, 
■each e. g. \i:'^6<3h Vs evert/ one teas 
ashamed Is. 30, 5; bisa in^ his hand 
against the whole i. e. every man 
■Gen. 16, 12. 3) w. a pi. defin. noun, 
<dl, all the, D']i5ii"b2 all the nations 
Is. 2, 2; rpnitibss-bsa// thy wonders 
Ps. 9, 2 ; w. pi. suf. !13^3 aZ^ o/" ws, 
^11 we Gen. 42, 11, CD^ Deut. 1, 
•22, o|3 Is. 31, 3. 4) w. sing, collective 
defin. nouns, the whole of, oil, 
•OlNri-b3 the whole of mankind, all 

T T T T ' ' 

men Gen. 7, 21; also without art. 
but still defin. Gen. 46, 15. 5) w. 
«ing. noun without the art., every, 
■each, n']2~b3 every house Is. 24, 10; 
-also, any one, any thing Ruth 4, 7 ; 
Av. negative, rn3 V3 "iDnr N"b thou 
shalt 7iot lack anything ther'ein Deut. 
«, 9. 6) every or each kind, e. g. 
"^S^'bs every Hwrf o/* trare Neh. 13, 
16. 7) as adv. wholly (iravTw;), a^ 
together Ps. 39, 6; ni5"b3 wholly as 
long as Job 27, 3; 'Xa nas'" b3 tvholly 
as Ecc. 5, 15. For tk's occurs D'r\b^ 

T •, -IT •.. 

2 Sam. 23, 6; and for 1^3, nabs Gen. 
42, 36 and n3nb3 1 K. 7, 37.'l^This 
word common to all Semit. tongues 

may be akin to oXo;, old L. sollus^ 
totus, G. all, E. whole, all, Keltic holl^ 
oil, ol, uile. 

bb Chald. (w. Maq. -bs, def. xbis, 
w. suf. "(in^S) i. q. Heb. , 1) w. sing. 
the ivhole Ezr. 6, 11. 2) w. pl.,aW Dan. 
3, 2; w. suf. all of— Dan. 2, 38. 3) any 
one Dan. 6, 8 ; w. xb, wo one Dan. 2, 
10. 4) as adv. wholly, altogether, e. g. 
ns'n-bnp-bs wholly because of this. 

N^3 (1 pers. ''n5<b3 for 'inxbs 
Ps. 119, 101, fut. xbD";) akm to b^iS, 
nbs which see, \) to hold or confine^ 
shut up Jer. 32, 3; part. pass, xbs 
s/mf 7^jp Ps. 88, 9. 2) fo restrain, keep 
backls. 43, 6. — Nipli. to be restrained 
w. "iP Gen. 8, 2. — Perh. akin to 
§ans. khal (to check), y.(oX»j(o , xXsioj, 

L. ce?o, "W. ceZw (to hide). Hence 
i<blS (w. suf. ixrs, pi. D'l&tbs) in. 

viv ^ i_ ' . ■ ' » 

1) enclosure (r. fi<b3), a prison Jer. 
52, 33; fully 6<b3 n^S 2 K. 17, 4; pi. 
d'l&tbs "inn (Gram. § 108, 3) Is. 42, 
22. 2) demarcation, in dual tz^xbs 
fiwo kinds or soHs Lev. 19, 19. 

^^b3 Dan. 9, 24, see Pi. of nbs II. 

.. — ' ' T T 

IS&^P!D pr. n. m. (perh. restrained, 
r. xbs w. format, ending ^ — , as in 

T T "^ T ' 

n'np?; see p. 74) 2 Sam. 3, 3. 
b^b^bS, see t<b3 2. 

•»'■: • ••••••• 

Z1^3 (obs.) akin to ^bn II, to 
weave plait; hence 3^b3. 

^ r'W I (obs.) perh. mimet. akin 

to Arab. Sjf kalaba (to bark), uXax- 
TEO), L. latro^ G. kldffen, Engl. cZap, 
yelp; h nee perh. sbs dog. 

^ y^ II (obs.) perh. akin to 
Arab. ' ^-JLT, <o 6e fierce or JoZcZ; perh. 

12bS pr. n. m. (perh. bold, brave) 
Caleb ^ Num. 13, 6 ; patron. '<ab3 




1 Sam. 25, 3; perh. also name of a 
place 1 Ch. 2, 24, but here prob. we 
should read nn^Bx-bx nba xa 

T T : V V •• T T 

Caleb tcent in to Ephratha (his wife, 
V. 19), Sept. ^XGeXaXep eU 'E(ppa6a. 

nbS (pi. h^^h'3, c. 'isbs ; r. sbs I 
or ^33 11) m. a dog (prop, the yelper 
or assailer) Is. 56, 10; used as a term 
of reproach 2 K. 8, 13; fig-, a male 
prostitute, a sodomite Deut. 23, 19; 
comp. xuve; Apoc. 22, 15. 

i \ /^iiJ I i. q. fi<b3, to hold, contain^ 
restrain, but only in the forms Tho^^ 
[= Vihz'^) Gen. 23, 6; ^snbs (= '^S'^ni^^S) 

1 Sam. 25, 33 ; sibs (= ."ixba) 1 Sam. 
6, 10; but elsewhere xbs (which see); 
comp. Gram. § 75, Rem. 21. 

TT^D II (fut. nbD% once nb^'i as 
if a verb k"^ 1 K. 17, 14; apoc. Ijs;;, 
Vs-' Job 33, 21) akin to itbs, b^S, Jfo 
he complete, finished Ex. 39, 32 ; hence 
to he prepared , i-eady Prov. 22, 8 ; 

1v r.- *■ •• " T T T T •• T : T 

was prepared for him on the part of 
the king Est. 7, 7 ; to he fulfilled, of 
prophecy Dan. 12, 7; to he finished, 
of time Gen. 41, 53; to he spent, of 
food 1 K. 17, 16; to come to an end 
i. e. to he destroyed, by judgments 
Jer. 16, 4; to waste away Ps. 73, 26; 
to fail, of the sight Job 11, 20; to 
pass aioay or vanish Ps. 37, 20. — 
PI. (1 pers. "ini^^S) Ez. 6, 12, 'in^^S 
Num. 25, 11; inf. c. nib? also his 

2 Ch. 24, 10, once i<b3 Dan. 9, 24; 
fut. apoc. bs"^) to complete, finish 
Gen. 2, 2; to prepare, get ready Vroy. 
16, 30; to fulfil or execute on, w. 3 
Ez. 6, 12; to finish an act Gen. 44, 
12; w. IP Ex. 34, 33; <o destroy 
utterly Gen. 41, 30 ; to cause to fail, 
of the eyes Lev. 26, 16; to pass or 
spend, of time Ps. 90, 9. — Pii. nbs 

(Jibs Ps. 72, 20, Gram. § 52, Eem. 4) 
to he completed, finished Gen. 2, 1, 

»1^3 f. conclusion, completion; 
hence adv. utterly, completely Gen. 
18, 21, also hVsb 2 Ch. 12, 12; dc- 
struction, utter ruin Dan. 11, 16^ 
fibs nizjr fo t^orA; complete destruction 

T T T T -*■ 

Jer. 4, 27; w. 3 Jer. 30, 11, w. n^5 
Jer. 5, 18, to make an end of. 

nbS (r. hb3 II) adj. m., nbs f. 
pining, failing, of the eye Deut. 28, 32» 


IM^«J(obs.) perh. akin to H^3, 
to he stable, firm; hence perh. ^insibs, 

nblD (r. bbsl) f. 1) a bride, spouse 
Cant. 4, 8; Syr. ]^»^a. 2) a daughter ^ 
in-laiu Gen. 38, 11. 

»15!D m. completion, perh. in 2 K, 
13, 17; but see Pi. of nbs II. 

' ' T T 

Dnb3 2 Sam. 23, 6 for dbs. 
Gram. § 91, 1, Eem. 2. 

riDnbS 1 K. 7, 37 for fe Gram» 
§ 91, 1, Rem. 2. 

i^^Jil (r. Jibs) m. prop, confine-^ 
ment, hence a prison (Q'ri) Jer. 37, 
4. In the K'thibh stands Ut'^bD, also 
in Jer. 52, 31. 

^^^3 (r. abs) m. 1) prop, net-work; 
hence a basket for fruit Am. 8, 1; 
a cage for birds Jer. 5, 27. 2) pr. n. 
m. (perh. a cage) 1 Ch.4, 11. — Prob. 
akin to xaXu^r), xXa)[36^, xXou^o;^ 
xXop6^, Gael, cliah (basket). 

"^n^^w pr. n. m. (perh. plaited) 
1 Ch. 2, *9; but sbs in v. 18. 

^n^bS, '"iTj^bS pr. n. m. (perh. 
firm, r. Pibs) Ezr. 10, 35 (Q'ri and 

nb^bS (only pi. nibilbs; r. b>3l) f. 
pi. bridal state or charms, only in 
Jer. 2, 2; cf. nbs. 




li^3 (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

Il5 (invaluit planta), Chald. n^p 
(trunk or stem), to be firm or strong ; 

nbS ni. 1) haleness, strength Job 
30, 2'^'haie old-age Job 5, 26. 2) pr. 
n. (strength) of a city and province 
in Assyria Gen. 10, 11. 

"•bS (in pause "^bs; pi. d'^^3 for 
D'^^S, as if from n^S, c. ^bs) m. prop, 
awy f/iw^ prepared or madff ttp (r. 
n'-3 II) , or perh. better what holds 
or contains (r. nbs I = b^3) , hence 
1) a vessel or utensil Gen. 31, 37; 
garment Deut. 22, 5; baggage, ^-qxb 
nibsn f^e baggage-master 1 Sam. 17, 
22 ; harness or ^/oAres of oxen 2 Sam. 
24, 22. 2) instrument or <oo/, Is. 32, 
7 W^V^ I'^bs ''bD as to a miser, his 
foofe are evil; ^"^TlJ ''33 instruments 
of song 2 Ch. 34, 12. 3) weapons 
Gen. 27, 3; D'^^d 5t'r3 armour-bearer 
I Sam. 14, 1; Dibs n-^a armoury or 
arsenal Is. 39, 2. 4) a vessel or 6oai 
Is. 18, 2. 

"'b3 m. grasping one, a miser, 
only Is. 32, 7 ; see "ib-^S. 

Jj^'^bS, see Ui^ibs. 

n^bD (P^ob. fern, of "'bs, as n^"nN 
from^'i'nX; pi. nrbs, c. ni^S) f. prop. 
a vessel in the body; used only in 
pi. the reins, kidneys Ex. 29, 13; fig. 
the imvard parts, i. e. the soul or 
seat of emotion and purpose Job 19, 
27, Ps. 7, 10; the kernel or best part 
(of any thing) e. g. fian ni^bs nbn 
fat of tvheat kernels Deut. 32, 14. 

"iVbS (c. 'ji'^bs) m. 1) a pining or 
failing, of the eyes Deut. 28, 65. 
2) consumption, destruction Is. 10,22 ; 
r. Jibs II. 

T T 

"iVbS pr. n. m. ^ pining, r. MbslI) 
Kuth i, 2. 

b^bS (c. b-^bs) adj. m., hVbs (c. 
nb-ibs) f. complete, perfect, hence 
iS'^ nb^bs perfect of beautt/ Bz.27, 3; 
as an adv. wholly Is. 2, 18; as subst. 
the ivhole, ^I'lyn-b^bs Wiofe of the 
c% Judg. 20, 40. 2) subst. i. q. n?:? 
a holocaust or whole burnt-offering, 
a sacrifice wholly consumed by fire 
Lev. 6, 15; hence used in apposition 
w, nbisJ Ps. 51, 21; r. bbs I. 

b3-?l5 pr. n. m. (sustenance) 1 K. 

5, 11.* 

■ > 

"P^'S I (3 pi. sibbs Ez. 27, 4) 
akin to r:b3 n, to make ready, to 
perfect Ez. 27, 4; hence to deck 
esp. w. crown or garland, to crown, 
hence n^3, nb^ibs; akin to Syr. 

T - ' T J ' " 

■ ■ 

y^3 II (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
bb5 II, bbjs n, xtqXsO);, fo kindle or 
glow; hence perh. — Hipll. only in 
'ib'ibsJi tJiey cause to glow or flash, of 
the eyes, only in Samaritan text of 
Gen. 49, 12. 

■ « 

/ ^mJ Chald. (Pe. obs.) i. q. Heb. 
bbs I to complete. — Shapli. bbri" 
to finish Ezr. 5, 11 ; inf. nbbauj Ezr. 
5, 3. — Ishtaph. V^ZT\ be finish- 
ed Ezr. 4, 13. 

bbS pr. n. m. (perfection) Ezr. 
10, 30.' 

U^D (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. jSj; 
to wound. — Nipli. to be insulted 2 
Sam. 10, 5; to be ashamed Num. 12, 
14, w. IP Ez. 16, 27; to be put to 
shame, i. e. to be disappointed Ps. 
35, 4, w. "jri Jer. 22, 22, w. 3 Ps. 69, 
7. — Hiph. "crhzt) (once ti'^bsn 1 Sam. 
25, 7) fig. to reproach (prop, to hurt 
w. words) Job 19, 3; ^o chide or vex 
Euth 2, 15, cf. Judg. 18, 7; fo put to 




shame Ps. 44, 10. — Hoph. to he 
annoyed or vexed 1 Sam. 25, 15; to 
be put to shame, disappointed Jer. 
14, 3. Hence rrabs, wabs. 

la ^3 pr. n. (perh. barren, akin 
to 'Tiapa which see) of a region men- 
tioned along w. Assyria, only in Ez. 
27, 23. According to the Targum, 
a Median district, but not otherwise 
known; Sept. Xap|xav, perh. for 
Kapjiavia (Carmania Deserta) on 
the Persian gulf. 

♦l^bS (pi. m'ja^S Is. 50, 6) f. re- 
proach Job 20, 3; shame Ps. 69, 8; 
nabs UJab to put on shame, as a gar- 
ment Ps. 109, 29. 

ri^^5? f- reproach, only in Jer. 
23, 40; r.'nbs. 

nsb?, also njb? Am. 6, 2, isbs 

Is. 10,' 9 (prob. also n|3 Ez. 27, 23) 
pr. n. of an Assyrian city Gen. 10, 
10, which the ancients render by 
Ctesiphon , on the east bank of the 
Tigris, north-east of Babylon. — 
Perh. akin to Ji:]? cane or reed, w. 
b inserted, as in ",3NbiiJ = "jiss;^, see 
also Dba. 

^D^3, see Jiibs. 

^ I ^iJ (obs.) mimet. akin to dbs, 
xoXaTTTO), G. Jdopfen, Engl. e??ap, cft^, 
hence fo strike; hence C]b'i3. 

""Jr^b? 1 Sam. 25, 33, see r.nbsi. 

» »"-3, see Jia. 

i * I W J perh. akin to Syr. oiVia 
(fo /bi/, of the eyes) <o pine after, 
long for, only in Ps. 63, 2. — Perh. 
akin to Sans, kam (to desire), Pers. 
fX desire, xdfAw, xa}xva>. 

n^3 (for n:a3) prop, like what? 
then Aow great? of space Zech. 2, 6 ; 
hoio long? of time Ps. 35, 17; how 
many? of number Gen. 47, 8; how 

often? of repeated action Ps. 78, 40; 
see rro. 


Dni3!3 pr. n. m. (prob. pining, r. 
Rg3) 2 Sam. 19, 38; for which D?^,1?33 
Jer. 41, 17 (K'tliibh) , "jnas 2 Sam*. 
19, 41. 

iri'OS, Oni/JS, see dn^s. 

^7J3 (w. grave suf. , and before 
nouns; but 1^3 w. light suf.) i. q. 
nas, the prep. 3 w. the indefinite 
io = na, hence 1) like 3 indicating 
similarity, e. g. 'j55< I'aS as a stone 
Ex. 15, 5; w. suf. "liiiDS as iNeh. 6, 
11; dWas ?|ii23 as thou, so they 
Judg. 8, 18. 2) as conj. i. q. "ims, 
like as Is. 41, 25; when, as soon as 
Gen. 19, 15. 3) as adv. thus, e. g. 
ias n^S3Gi<Ii(;i// declare thusVs.73,15. 

D5*1'-23 Job 12, 3 as to you, see ias. 

■]1'^5 , see "j'^as. 

12; 1/33 pr. n. (prob. burning; r. 
iriaS) of a Moabitish idol 1 K. 11, 7; 
hence lb*i?D3 D? people of Chemosh, 
i. e. the Moabites Num. 21^ 29. 

TQw (obs.) i. q. Arab, y^, to 
form into balls or grains; hence 



jGw (obs.) perh. akin to 'j'?;^, i. 
q. Arab. ,j^, Syr. — ^a, to hide, to 
lay up or store away; hence D'lS^sp. 
Also to preserve, to season; hence l^s. 

1*323 m. prop, spice, seasoning; then 
esp. cumin Is. 28, 25. — Hence xujJii- 
vov, L. cuniinum, G. kiimmel, our 

wGjJ (only part. pass. D?33) 
prob. akin to T\^'3, to lay up, to re' 
serve, only in Deut. 32, 34. 

1/22 I (Qal obs.) akin to ^^3, 
"i^H I, d>in, <o ^/ow, burn; then fo 6e 
scorched or sivarthy. — Niph. ^o 6tf 




burnt, scorched, of the skin Lam. 5, 
10; ftg. to be warm, hot, of affection, 
w. b? or bN, ^0 yearn 1 K. 3, 26, 
Gen. 43, 30, cf. ^an i. 2, 

I'D 3 II (obs.) akin to 'i?3, fo 
|)?ai^, weave; hence "i^?^, ">^3?, 

"itS^ (only pi. Q''")^?) m. an idol- 
priest 2 K. 23, 5; either because the 
burner of the sacrifices, or because 
clothed in black (comp. Syr. jjicas 
prop, sadness; then a priest, as 
wearing dark clothing); r. '^^S I. 

^•^^^5 (only in c. pi. '^^'^'^^13; r. 
*ia3 I) m. darkenings, obscurations, 
only in Job 3, 5, prob. eclipses of 
the sun (cf. ^'''^S'J:, but w. t in place 
of a). Some of the ancients took 3 
for the prep, and '^'yy^ for bitter- 

\jQ^ (obs.) i. q. yins, 1?3 I, 
to glow, burn; hence prob. \!:ia3 pr. 
n. of the fire-god of the Moabites. 

ilCw (obs.) i. q. Dps to hide; 
hence nni2DD. 

15 place, see "jS II. 

")? I (r. "i^S; pi. n^33)adj.m.W^M, 
erect, firm; fig. upright, honest Gen. 
42, 11; correct Ezr. 10, 12; w. neg. 
*)5 fi<b wof H^^f Prov. 15, 7; also as 
adv. rightly, well 2 K. 7, 9. 

1? n (r. -,53; w. suf.^33) m. a stand, 
base, pedestal 1 K. 7, 29; )^ ?^ia?P 
pedestal-work IK.7,31; '"n'n "jS socA;e^ 
o/* the mast Is. 33, 23 ; place or o/7?ce, 
*i3S my place Gen. 41, 13, 133 b? m Ais 
jpZoce or stead Dan. 11, 20. 

"jS in pronom. particle akin to 3, 
{13, ns, usually adv. used as in com- 
parisons, thus, so (&C,, ouTO)!;), e. g. 
Gen. 1, 7 15 Tn'^l and it was so, i. e. 
as God had ordered; Gen. 29, 26 

15 Jii^JS"^ fi<b it is not done thus. It 
stands with other particles to indi- 
cate the comparison, e.g.")? — 3 as — so 
Ps. 127, 4; -jS — *li^K3 as — 80 Num. 2, 
17; *i'J:K3 — "iS. so — as Gen. 18, 5; 
ias— -13 SO —as Ex. 10, 14. There are 
distinct and manifold meanings of "JB 
as adv. in connexion w. prepositions 
e. g. ■)? ^Hy: Lev. 14, 36 .or -jS ^yj^ 
Gen. 15, 14, after so, afterwards; ^sa 
in such (way), so, ^Aew Ecc. 8, 10; yjh 
for so, therefore Ex. 6, 6, also w. ad- 
versative sense, pet therefore, never- 
theless Jer. 5, 2, esp. in passing from 
rebukes to consolations Is. 10, 24; 
•jS'b? on account of so, therefore 
Gen. 2, 24; "jS'l? until so, as yet, 
hitherto Neh. 2, 16. 

15 IV (pi. t3'^33) m. a gnat or midge; 
so prob. in ."jD'ias like a gnat Is. 
51, 6: r.M:3 II. 

' ' T T 

15 Chald. i. q. Heb. )'2 III, so, thus 
Dan. 2, 25. 

sSJIj Chald. (obs.) perh.i.q.Heb. 
n33 #0 ^i</e; hence perh. X«33, n53. 

mS I (Qal. obs.) i. q. Chald. 

T T 

&t33, Arab, ^jif, to surname, give a 
title of respect. — Pi. to name w. 
respect, to honour Is. 45, 4, w. 3 of 
the title Is. 44, 5 ; to flatter Job 32, 21. 

S \jmm II (obs.) perh. akin to D53, 
to bite or sting. — • Akin to xvaw, 
xviv{>, G. kneipen, E. gnaw, gnat, W. 
cnou (bite). Deriv. perh. "jS IV. 

n53 i. a plant OY shoot, something 
set, only in Ps. 80, 16; r. "jaS. 

nSS pr. n. (perh. cane or reed) 
of an Assyrian city Ez. 27, 23; prob. 
i- Q' •^•?^? which see. 

riil23, see n53. 

1155, see n53 Chald. 

Si23 (pi. m-i-3 1 K. 10, 12; also 




w. suf. "^yfi^ Ez. 26, 13) m. a harp, 
lyre Gen. "^31, 27; r. ^53. — Prob. 
mimet. akin to y^^, Arab. ^]^ lyre, 
xivupa, xivopi<;, G. knarren, Kelt. 
crynu, Jcema. 

^n^DS Jer. 22, 24 i. q. ')''5^'in'^ 
which see. 

^jriibS? Is. 33, 1 inf. Hiph. of n^3, 
w. 3, for ^r.ibpfnS; but prob. only a 
mistake for V|ni^?3, r. nVsi. 

UJw (obs,) perh. i. q. MiS II, to 
pierce, sting; hence 

DI'!D f. a gnat, coll. gnats, only Ex. 
8, 13. 14; but perh. only a mistake for 
0*^53 as in the Sam. codex. See.')3 IV. 

&^'-3S Chald. so, thus, in this man- 

Ti" : ' ' 

ner Ezr. 4, 8. Prop, as is said, from 
*i^'^33, dropping the final "i, as is 
common in the Talmud. — Perh. from 
fi<l3 w. the adv. ending fi<52, hence it 
may mean namely; generally refer- 
ring to what follows. 

|Ji^ (obs.) i. q. "lis to set, place; 
hence "jS II, !-i33. 

\jil pr. n. m. (perh. for iT^3S3, 
whom rr set up) Neh. 9, 4. 

n^DDSj ^»^,^???l pr. n. m. (n;! hath 
set up) 1 Ch. 15, 22. 27; also *in^353 
2 Ch. 31, 12, K'thibh 51.1^3513. 

WJ^ akin to b^lS, u:33 (hence 
x6voo), to collect treasures or stones 
Ecc. 2, 8 ; 3, 5 , also water Ps. 33, 7 ; 
to assemble men Est. 4, 16; also to 
cover up or hide, hence 03D73, — Pi. 
to gather together persons Ps. 147, 2. 
— Hith. 033nri to collect or compose 
oneself in bed Is. 28, 20. 

? jD (Qalobs.) akin to fijni, )^r\I, 
3J'^3, to bend or bow down the knee, 
to be low; then to compress or fold 
up. — Niph. to be brought downy 
subdued 1 Sam. 7, 13; w. i;;nrtD Ps- 

106, 42; w. ^BT3 Judg. 11, 33; to 
humble oneself, to submit Lev. 26, 41 ; 
w. ^3S^ 2 Ch. 34, 27; W. ^33^ 1 K. 
21, 29; w. ^:e|!:q 2 Ch. 33, 12.— Hiph. 
5*" ill to bring down, humble Job 
40, 12; to subdue 2 Sam. 8, 1. — 
Akin to Sans, ganu, yovo, yvoljxtttco, 
L. genu, G. knie, E. knee, Kelt, dun. 

n>*j3 (w. suf. "n^yss) f. prob. 
bundle or bale, collect, wares, only 
Jer. 10, 17; r. 5)_33. 

l-^ * S 1 ) pr. n. m. (prob. low-lander) 
of the son of Ham, and father of 
the Canaanites or Phenicians Gen. 
9, 18. 2) pr. n. (low-land) Canaan 
Ex. 15, 15; fully 1333 Y^)< Gen. 13, 
12; and applied to the region west 
of Jordan Num. 33, 51; Phenicia, or 
north-western Canaan Is. 23, 11 ; Phi' 
listia Zeph. 2, 5; ')?'33 n£\!3 the speech 
of Canaan (prob. the name given in 
Egypt to the Hebrew or Semitic 
language) Is. 19, 18; i. q. "j^'^S U^5< a 
Canaanite Hos. 12, 8. S)amerchantf 
w. suf. «i*'33!'33 her merchants Is. 23, 
8, the Canaanites or Phenicians being 
the most famous traders in early 

♦^5-— P'"' ^' °^* (P^^^- traffic) 1 
Ch. 7, io*. 

■^5553 (pi. D'iSSJSS Neh. 9, 24; f. 
n'i3S533 Gen. 46, 10) m. 1) a Canaanite 
Gen. 38, 2; hence '^SSJSSri y-ji^ land 
of the Canaanite Ex. 3, 17; fip^ 
■>3S>33n the place of the Canaanite Ex. 
3, 8. 2) a merchant Prov. 31, 24. 

^|j3 (Qal obs.) akin to 335, 

i. q. Arab, ub!^, to cover, protect. — 
Niph. to hide oneself, only in Is. 30, 
20; hence 

CljS (c. C)33, dual B'^SSS, c. ''SSS, 
pi. niB33, c. mass) f. prop, covering, 
hence 1) a wing Is. 10, 14; hence 




C]53 b3>a Prov. 1, 17, Q-'sasn bra 

't T - - ' ' • i-T : - - I- 

Ecc. 10, 20 owner or master of 
wings, i. e. a bird or /bw;/. Poet. 
n^n ''B:3 wings of the wind, i. e. w. 
wind-like swiftness Ps. 18, 11; '^23? 
"irjTi: wings of the dawning , i. e. the 
beams of the rising sun Ps. 139, 9. 
Fig. extremity, comer of a land Is. 
24, 16; wing of an army Is. 8, 8; 
battlement or pinnacle of a building 
Dan. 9, 27 (cf. irrepuYiov too Upou 
Mat. 4, 5) ; flap, skirt of a garment 
1 Sam. 24, 5. 

IJw (obs.) mimet. to make a 

tremulous sound, to trill; hence *1133 
(which see). 

tT\j'3, also tTi"!S3 1 K. 15, 20: 
n nD3 Josh. 11, 2, pr. n. (perh. harp- 
like) of a city inNaphtali near the sea 
or lake of GaUlee Deut. 3, 17 ; hence 
n"iS3 Di Num. 34, 11, nllSS D-> 
Josh. 12, 3, called in N. Test, the 
sea of Tiberias John 21, 1 or lake 
of Gennesaret Luke 5, 1 ; r. *i33. 

1Jj3 Chald. i. q. Heb. D_33, to 
gather togetJier, assemble Dan. 3, 2. 
— Ithp. to be assembled Dan. 3, 3. 

nj? (prob. for nfi<3S), r. nas, cf. 
naa; only in pi. w. suf. T^nias, for 
•*l'inifi<33) f. surname, official title; 
fig. one bearing a common title or 
appointment, a colleague, only in Ezr. 
4, 7. — This very obscure word may 
perh. mean an appointment or office 
(cf. r. ')!13, whence "jS II), the kindred 

r. in Sam. ►f ^>1 (S^SS) denoting to 
appoint or establish. — On the use 
of the fem. in this term (as in nns), 
see Gram. § 107. 3, c. 

Wil Chald. (i. q. Heb.) a colleague, 
•only pi. w. suf. nn^as his colleagues 
Ezr. 5, 6; *)inni33 their colleagues 
BzY. 4, 9. 

D!j) m. only in Ex. 17, 16, taken 
by many for a shortened form of KB3 
throne, but prob. only an error for 
D a banner. The Sam. text has 5<&3. 

iN w J I (obs.) 1. q. riDS, to cover; 
hence KD3. 

iSu3 II (obs.) akin to DOS, to 

T T 

number, to determine, of the settling 
of a feast-day (cf. nr^, whence n;?io) ; 
prob. hence 

5<03 Prov. 7, 20, also flCS Ps. 81, 

•••IV \ ' VIV 

4, i. q. Syr. jias, a set time, festival, 

perh. the new or the full moon , so 
named from its marking off time 
(r. fi<C3 11), or perh. from its orb being 
then covered (r. 5tD3 I). 

5<&3, also HDS Job 26, 9 (w. suf. 
"'XpS, ^Xp3, pi. niitpS; r. 5<D3 I or 
nrs) m. a chair or throne (Opovoi;), 
esp. a high seat, prob. covered or 
over-hung w. a canopy 1 K. 10, 18; 
nsbp^an xsa Deut. 17, 18 or n^aV^n '3 
Est.'l, 2 or riD^lbari 3 1 K.1, 46, 
tJie royal throne; seat of the high 
priest 1 Sam. 1, 9; seat of judgment, 
tribunal Ps. 122, 5; a seat or chair, 
in general 2 K. 4, 10. 

'''103 Chald. m. a Chaldean, only 
in Ezr. 5, 12; see ""^b?. 

nD3 akin to fc<r- II, nbs, to 

^ .p T T ' T t' 

cover; in Qal only part, rtob cow- 
cealing Prov. 12, 23; pass, constr. 
■1^03 covered Ps. 32, 1. — Niph. to 
be covered Ez. 24, 8 ; v^. a of covering 
Jer. 51, 42. — Pi. n&3 (1st pers. 
■^niss, but inss Ps. 143, 9, ''ni&S Ez. 
32, 7; fut. apoc. 65*^1) 1) to cover, w. 
ace. and 3 Lev. 17, 13, w. b Is. 11. 9, 
w. b? Ps. 106, 17, w. double ace. Ez. 
16, 10. Fig. to cover sin, i. e. to 
forgive it Ps. 85, 3 ; to conceal Prov. 
10, 18; to hide from, w. "^a Gen. 



18, 17, also w. •'.SBTa Job 23, 17. 2) to 
cover oneself, w. ace. of covering 
Jon. 3, 6 or w. 3 Gen. 38, 14. — Pu. 
nS3 (but J1&3 Ps. 80, 11) to he covered 
Gen. 7, 19; w. 3 Ecc. 6, 4 or w. ace. 
Prov. 24, 31. — Hitli. to wrap up or 
hide oneself J w. 3 Is. 59, 6 or w. ace. 
Jon. 3, 8; in Prov. 26, 26 n&SFl is 
for nssnn, Gram. § 54, 2, h. 

riDS, see N53. 

nn^DlD (r. riDS) f. o cutting or 
lopping off, pruning of plants, perb. 
in Is. 5, 25 ; but see nn^lO. 

"^^03 (only c. '^!1D3) m. a covering, 
of skins Num. 4, 6; r. tnbS. 


MOD f. 1) rt covering, cover Job 
26, 6; fig. nia'i^ WDS a covering of 
the eyes, i. e. a propitiating gift, 
amends Gen. 20, 16. 2) a garment 
Deut. 22, 12. 

MwS mimet. akin to ns;^, n^J?, 

»^J5, 7^)5, 5JTa, nn, tn, ^"la (which 

see), io cut or lop off, of plants Is. 
33, 12. 

b''p3 (pi. dib'i&3) m. 1) r. bD3 I, 
a fool Ps. 92, 7, opp. to dart Prov. 
10, 1 ; implying also impiety Prov. 
15, 20. 2) r. bdS II, prop, the strong 
one, hence, the name of the constel- 
lation Orion Job 9, 9; regarded by 
the Orientals as the image of a giant, 

hence Arab. )Ua., Syr. (j-aJ-^, Chald. 
xys?, i. e. the giant. The pi. Orions 
seems to be used of any of the larger 
constellations Is. 13, 10. 3) pr. n. 
(perh. strength, r. b&3 II) of a city 
in southern Judah Josh. 15, 30. 

Wb''p3 f. folly, only Prov. 9, 13; 

r. bD3 I. 

POD I (only fut. bbS"^) i. q. Arab. 

J-T, prob. akin to bsD, to he foolish, 

only Jer. 10, 8. 

bos II 

- T 

V IV \ 

(obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

jiJ^ to hind together, to he firm. 

bp3 (pi. D-ibw) m. 1) r. bD3 I, 
folly' ilcc. 7, 25. 2) r. Vos II, loin, 
flank Job 15, 27. 3) confidence Ps. 
78, 7 ; r. ^DS II. 

nbCS f. 1) r.bosl, folly Ps. 85,9. 
2) r. Vds n, hope, confidence Job 4, 6. 

nbp? (only in pi. c. ni^D3) f. 
flanks; see ^i3Pi nibp3. 

^i5p5 m. name of the ninth month 
among the Hebrews, beginning w. 
the new moon of December Zech. 
7, 1. — Perh. so named as the time 
of nature's inertness or exhaustion, 
perh. from an obs. r. bD3 = b^;3, w. 
old formative ending 1-r-, akin to 
3-7-, t|-77 ; see on letter 3, p. 74. 

1^!3C3 pr. n. (confidence) of a 
place in Judah Josh. 15, 10. 

1'1^p3 pr. n. m. (strong) Num» 

r\1!5p3 pr. n. (prob. strength) of 
a place in Issachar Josh. 19, 18. 

^iSri"lnibp5 pr. n. (flanks of 
Tabor) of a place in Zebulon Josh* 
19, 12. 

Tlbpl pr. n. (only pi. d'lnV&S), 
perh. rich or strong) of a people^ 
prob. the KoX^oi, Colchians, a co~. 
lony originally from Egypt Gen. 10^ 
14. — Perh. from r. b&3 11 w. old 
ending "n- — (see on lett. h, p. 191);. 
as to the absence of the sin K 6X^01,. 
comp. L. asinus = F. dne = 5vo4. 

UOw (fut. thy^) akin to dta, ta 
shear, only in Ez. 44, 20; hence 
dd'iS and 

t^t3p3 (pi. d'^a&3 Ez. 4, 9) f. spelty 
a species of grain , like wheat, but 
smooth and not bearded, as if shortk 
Is. 28, 25. 


- T 



003 (fut. Db^) akin to y^]^, to 
distribute, assign or reckon, only in 
Ex. 12, 4. 


- T 

(fut. Clbp"^) perh. akin to 

Arab. Juf, 1) to be pale ov white; hence 
t)D3. 2) fo Zow^- a/fer, w.b of object Job 
14,15. — Nipli. I) to turn pale from 
shame, only part. r]&:3 Zeph. 2, 1. 
i) to long after Gen. 31, 30. Hence 
CipS (in p. ClCQ; w. suf. "^QtS) m. 

1) silver, prop, paleness Gen. 23, 15. 

2) moneg Ex. 22, 6 ; pi. p'^mpieci s of 
monft/, coins Gen. 42, 25 ; also w. ^J5'^ 
understood, e. g. r,C3 Cl^N thousand 
shekels o/'.';t/ucr Gen. 20, 16; r. tjD3. 

"jCil Chald. m. i. q. Heb. f]D|, 
SiVrer i)an. 2, 35. 

K^SC3 pr. n. (prob. white) of a 
place on the way between Babylon 
and Jerusalem Ezr. 8, 17. — Perh. 
akin to KaaTiio^. 

nC5 (only in pi. WnM; r. nD2) 
f. pilioivs, cushions Ez. 13, 18. The 
form is analogous to nb^ from fib"!. 

b?3 Is. 59, 18; see b?. 

"i!^3 Chald. adv. perh. akin to Chald. 
•j5<3, here; hence now, at this timeBan. 
2, 23; "S'S "1? w«^i/ wo?<; Ezr. 5, 16. 

tID?? Chald. adv. (perh. fem. of 
",53) only in n3353-1 aw(i SO /bH^ Ezr. 
4, 10; also contracted, n:^3^ Ezr. 4, 17. 

0^3 (fut. OSD"^) to be vexed Ps. 
112, 10; to be angry Ez. 16, 42; w. 
bx of pers. 2 Ch. 16, 10. — Pi. D?3 
to provoke, irritate Deut. 32, 21. — 
Hipli. to vex, grieve 1 Sam. 1, 7; fo 
make angrt/, -w.jI Dent. 31, 29. Hence 

D?ID (pi. Ci^pS'S) m. i. q. TI5?3, 1) 
anger Deut. 32, 19; pi. bursts of 
anger 2 K. 23, 26. 2) vexation, irri- 
tableness Ps. 6, 8; D?3 nilix a /Vef/wZ 
or ill-tempered woman Prov. 21, 19. 

*TC?ID m. i. q. b?3, 1) rtw^cr Job 
10, 17. 2) vexation Job 5, 2. 

ri3?3, see n3S3. 

TiS (w. suf. •'B?, dual d-^BS, pi. 
niDS; r. t)B3 1) f. prop, bend or hollow, 
hence 1) the hollow hand, the palm 
Lev. 14, 15; also the hand in ge- 
neral Deut. 25, 12. To put one's soul 
in one's hand, i. q. to expose oneself 
to great danger Judg. 12, 3. The 
dual form D']D3 (c. ''BS, w. suf. ''B3, 
?]'^Q3) stands not only for the two 
hands Job 36, 32, but also for the pi. 
Hag. 1, 11. PI. ms? palms Dan. 10, 10 ; 
in full D'^'n^ m"B3 palms of hands 1 
Sam. 5, 4. 2) foot or paiv, among beasts 
Lev. 11, 27. 3) sole, ba"n 5)3 sole of 
the foot Deut. 2, 5; pi. niB? Josh. 
3, 13. 4) a pan, a hollow vessel'^xxxn. 
7, 14; pi. niB3 Ex. 25, 29; r^lsn C)? 
the bend or dish of the sling, where 
the stone is placed 1 Sam. 25, 29 ; 
•^n^n q3 the hollow of the thigh, the 
hip-pan or socket Gen. 32, 26. 5) 
handle of a bolt; pi. nlB3 Cant. 5, 5. 
6) r. t|S3 II, branch of the palm-tree, 
pi. mWLev. 23, 40. 

TjS i- <!• Syr. |.s).£ (whence Kr^cpaf; 
for nsxpoc in John 1, 43) m. a rock, 
a crag or cliff, only pi. D'^SS Jer. 4, 

29 ; see r. tl^lS. 

S iD3 (fut. nss"^) akin to nS3, 

T T '''' 

to extinguish anger, only in Prov. 
21, 14. 

ilBlD (only pi. n^'BS) f. a branch, 
of palm-tree, only in Lev. 23, 40; 
r. C1B3 II. See 5)3 6. 

ilBS (w. suf. inB3) f. a palm-top 
or branch Job 15, 32; f^ay:'] fiB3 
the palm-branch and the bulrush, 
fig. for the lofty and the lowly or 
mean Is. 9, 13 ; r. t]B3 H. 

*|12S m. 1) a cup, prob. covered 




w. a lid 1 Ch. 28, 17. 2) hoar -frost, 
covering the ground Ex. 16, 14; r. 
"IDS I. 

- T 

C^SIS m. a cross-beam or a tie, 
on\y Hab. 2, 11; r. DE3. 

I'^SS (pi. D"'n'^23; r. "iS3 II) m. 

1) prop, akin to Tizs (which see), a 
strong one, hence a young lion Judg. 
14, 6, noted for prowess Ps. 34, 11. 

2) i. q. "123, a village Neh. 6, 2. 

n"l'^53 pr. n. (village) of a city 
in Benjamin Josh. 9, 17. 

/^y^ prob. akin to &1S3 I, to 

tend, i. q. Chald. bsj?, to fold, double 
up Ex. 26, 9; part. pass. b^lSS rZo?^6^e6Z 
Ex. •28, 16. — Nipli. to be doubled, 
repeated Ez. 21, 19. Hence ii^??? 

^23 (dual C^^ss) m. a doubling; 
ispT bs3 the duplicate of his jaw, i. e. 
his two rows of teeth Job 41, 5; 
n^^Cinb D'^bss two folds are to ivisdom, 
i. e". it is manifold, full of compli- 
cations Job 11, 6; double, twice as 
much Is. 40, 2. 

\SJmJ i. q. Arab. ^^, to twist or 
hend, w. b? towards, only in Ez. 17, 
7 ; hence 

123 m. hunger, prop, twisting or 
writhing (in the stomach) Job 5, 22. 

US^ (obs.) akin to ^BJ?, tSJ?, 

yPi?, <o iie or bind together, to con- 
nect: hence D"^a3. 

' • T 

sijSiJ I (inf. Cl's) akin to nS3, 
Sna, to bend, curve, to be concave; w. 
ytiVC\, to hang down tlie head Is. 58, 
5; intrans. to be bowed down, Ps. 57, 
7 "iirss r,S3 my soul succumbed; part. 
D"«D1S3 those bowed dotvn, bent double 
through affliction Ps. 145, 14. — 
Niph. (fut. 5)rx) to bow oneself, w. ^, 

Mic. 6, 6. Deriv, qs. — Prob. akin 
to xuTTTto, xa(X7rT(o, xafxvw, L. 
cumbo, cavus, Breton kao (cave), W. 
cau (hollow). 


^^ II (obs.) akin to t]!l3 (which 
see), to project or inount upwards, to 
be high or lofty; hence fiB?, nas. 

I^W I. i. q. Arab. yiX, yii, to 
cover, w. pitch Gen. 6, 14; fig. to 
forgive sins (prop, to cover over), 
whence "iS's. — Pi. "153 (fut. IS?";) to 
cover over, hide, hence to forgive sin 
Ps. 65, 4 ; w. b? Jer. 18, 23 ; w. ^ of pers. 
Deut. 21, 8, Ez. 16, 63; w. ^3?a 2 Ch. 
30, 18; to expiate an offence, to atone 
for Dan. 9, 24; w. b? Lev. 5, 26, w. 
ri?3 Ex. 32, 30, w. p Num. 6, 11; to 
make atonement for an offender, w. 
b^ Ex. 30, 15, w. "l^S Lev. 16, 6, w. 
3 Lev. 17, 11; also of inanimate 
things, to expiate or cleanse Deut. 
32,43, w. br Lev. 16,18, w. a of means 
Lev. 7, 7; to appease or placate Gen. 
'32, 21; to avert, of evil Is. 47, 11. — 
Pu. to be covered, obliterated, of writ- 
ing Is. 28, 18; to be hidden, expiated. 
Is. 6, 7; to be forgiven Ex. 29, 33, 
w. h Num. 35, 33. — Hith. to be ex- 
piated 1 Sam. 3, 14. ^- Nithp. "1S33 
for ^S3r3 (see Gram. § 55, 9) to be 
expiated or forgiven, only in Deut, 
21, 8. 

l23 II (obs.) prob. akin to "133, 
"i3n, to bind or combine, hence to 
be strong, vigorous; hence "i"*??. — 
Peril, hence also ^ecpupa (bridge), as 
a binding or joining, cf. ^eifupav 
Csoyvuvai, L. pontem jungere; see 

- T 

"123 (pi. d'l'iSS; r. "1B3 II) m. 
village, hamlet, prob. a row or group 
of dwellings (cf. Arab. ^ Kefr) 
Cant. 7, 12. 

*5ir3^n iss 





''Si^^n *1B3 pr. n. (village of the 
Ammonite) of a place in Benjamin 

Josh. 18, 24 J in Q'ri naiarn 's. 

13b m. 1) i. q. -1S3 (r. -1B3 II) a 
village 1 Sam. 6, 18. 2) pitch, as a 
material for covering with (r. 112 1) 
Gen. 6, 14 (cf. Chald. XlB^S, Syr. I i^ a^:, 

Arab.^). 3)ci/press-floiver(Y.OT:po'i), 
al- Henna of the Arabs, used for 
covering or tinging women's nails 
w. a reddish hue (r. IBS I) Cant. 1, 
14; pi. D'^iBS) Cant. 4, 13. 4) a ransom 
(Xutpov), prop, covering (r. 1B3 1) Ex. 
21, 30; irsi "IBS ransom for his life 
Ex.30, 12; TjlBS tht/ ransom Is. 43, 3. 

1B3 (only pLD'^lBS) m. expiations, 
atonement Ex. 29, 36; d'^iBStn fil'i 
(Za^ o/* atonement Lev. 23, 27; b'^iS; 
fi'ilQSii the ram of expiations Num. 
5, 8 ; r. IBS I. 

JniES f. a cover, only of the lid 
of the ark, hence the mercy -seat or 
propitiatory Ex. 25, 17 (Sept. iXa- 
aTrjpiov, cf. also Heb. 9, 5), from the 
notion of placating, see Pi. IBS; 
r\l'3|h rr^a the place of the propitia- 
tory, the holy of holies 1 Ch. 28, 11; 
r. "IBs I. 

\J^Zi (Qal obs.) i. q. UJSS, to 

tread or press doivn. — Hi ph. ui^BSfi 
io trample doivn, only in Lam. 3, 16. 

Al23 (obs.) akin to r\B^, i. q. 
Chald. nES, to bind or begird, to 
surround, hence to deck; hence perh. 


ilJUmJ Chald. <o bind, fetter ;ip2irt. 

pass, inflected as perf. sinss they 
were bound Dan. 3, 21. — Pa. inf. 
MnBS to bind Dan. 3, 20 ; part. pass. pi. 
'j'^nBD^ bound or fettered Dan. 3, 23. 

iiris?, ^5n3| (pi. d-iinss; r. 

nSS) ra. 1) from riBS a Jcnop or chaplet 

(i. q. HB^), w. the old ending "V— (see 
on letter *i), the crown or capital of 
a column Am. 9, 1 ; a circlet or hiop 
of a candelabrum Ex. 25, 31. 2) pr. 
n. of a maritime region Am. 9, 7; 
hence IIRBS "^X island or sea-board of 
Caphtor Jer. 47, 4; perh. Crete or 
Cyprusin the Mediten-anean, or perh. 
better Cappadocia which did once, 
as Herodotus tells, include Pontus 
on the Black Sea, the name, Ka:r- 
Trao-oxia, being possibly vkin to 
nss = ihBS. PI. D->"}hES Caphtorites 
Gen. 10, U. 

13 (pl- ^'^'IS) «!• l)<5t lamb, vigorous 
and fat Deut. 32, 14; so called prob. 
from its running round or skipping 
about (r. 11? H). 2) prob. culti- 
vated land (r. lis I) hence pasture or 
meadow-land Ps. 65, 14. 3) fig. (only 
pi. talis) a battering ram, an engine 
of war for making breaches in walls, 
by butting or dashing against them 

(r. lis II) Ez. 4, 2 (cf. Arab. j^T, 
xpio;). 4) pillion or saddle, a litter 
(r. lis 11); ^^sn 13 the cameVs litter 
Gen. 31, 34. 5) pr. n. (perh. pasture) 
of the district between Phrygia and 
Lydia, Caria; hence gentil. n. "'IS a 
Carian 2 Sam. 20, 23 (K'thibh). 

13 m. prop, a hollow or deep 
vessel (r. 1>iS I); hence name of a 
measure (Sept. xopo;) a cor 1 K. 5, 
2; for both dry and liquid things, 
containing 10 Ephahs = 11 '/g bushels 
or 888/4 gallons, equal to a lisn. 

iN IjIJ Chald, (Pe. obs.) prob. akin 
to riiS I* 1^3 I, to pierce, hence to 
be pained, grieved. — Itlip. to be 
distressed, of the spirit Dan. 7, 15.. 


_W (obs.) prob. mimet. akin to 

C]1> (which see), SiJ? II, to grip, grasp 

or seize, hence to bear; hence prob. 







Sr^Sl*^? Chald. f. prop, wrapper, 
hence a mantle, cloak Dan. 3, 21; see 
r. b23. 

— T 

ji l3 I i. q. "'''Si to pierce, to 
dig (a well) Gen. 26, 25; to excavate 
(a pit) w. V Jer. 18, 20, w. ^^Sib Ps. 
57, 7, w. b? Job 6, 27; fig. to devise 
or prepare, as if by digging Pro v. 
16, 27 ; like ii^a, to open the ears Ps. 
40, 7. — Niph. to he diggedVs. 94, 13. 

n '3 II prob. akin to nt&^, r\':p I, 

T T T T T 

to buy, purchase Deut. 2, 6; "7^2X1 
(1 pers. fut. w. dagh. euphon. for 
?^*^s^^'^) and I bought her Hos. 3, 2. 

n '3 in akin to &<"i3, nna II, 

T T • r T T 

to feed', hence to make a feast or 
banquet, only in 2 K. 6, 23. 

n*'!D (only pi. c. nHs) f. a pit, 
cistern; D'^S* Ths shepherds^ cisterns, 
only in Zeph. 2, 6; r. ri"Si I. 

n"l3 f. a feast or banquet, only 
2 K. 6, 23; r. JTIS III. 

3^13 (pi. D'ln^^s, D'^n'is) m. i) 

Cherub, a symbolical being, com- 
pounded of four forms, man, ox, lion, 
eagle, prob. as the symbols of intelli- 
gence, might, courage and swiftness ; 
the guardians of Paradise Gen. 3, 24; 
forming the escort or throne-bearers 
of God Ps. 18, 11. Hence He is called 
Di::"".3n n«;i'' He who sitteth {upon) 
the Cherubim Ps. 80, 2 . prob. r. "DTO. 
2) pr. n. m. Ezr. 2, 59. 

XT^ Chald. (def. xn'^iS) m. a 
herald Dan. 3, 4; r. T^iS. 

I w Chald. mimet. akin toi<"ii5l, 

— • • T 'T ' 

Syr. ^j-s, xr^puajw, to cry out, pro- 
claim. — Aph. to make proclamation 
Dan. 5, 29. 

^^^ m. collect, perh. executioners 
(part, of "i^iS to stab w. the adjective- 

ending •'-7-); or prob. gentil. of "iSS, 
Carians 2 K. 11, 4. 19, a kind of 
royal body-guards, named together 

w. D-ii^in. 

ri''*li) pr. n. (prob. dug or hollow- 
ed out, r. nro I) of a brook near 
Jordan 1 K. 17, 3; prob. now Wady 
el-Qelt (wJiJJ) near Jericho. 

n^r\"''l5j ^^^1? f. a cutting off; 
then separation, divorce; nn'^is lEO 
a bill of divorce Deut. 24, 1 ; pi. w. suf. 
ST^nn'^'ns her divorces Jer. 3, 8 : r. n"i3. 

^ j3 (obs.) akin to ^ro II, nsiS^ 
i. q. Syr. y^^to surround: akin to 
xipxo?, xpixo?, L. circus, W. cyWu 
Deriv. T|'^'13P), perh. tti'^aS"}?. 

^3*13 (w. suf. i33'^3) m. a margin,, 
border Ex. 27, 5. — From T\'^D w. for- 
mat, ending n^ — (as in n^'^n), see- 
on letter 2, p. 74. 

03*15 m* i. q« Syr. jias^as, Arab, 

*r^, Sept. xpoxo;, the crocus^ saf- 
fron, only in Cant. 4, 14. — The word 
is prob. Sans, kankom, the Indian 

123''^3"l3 pr. n. (perh. fort or bor- 
der of Kemish = uilias) of a famous 
city on the Euphrates Is. 10, 9; called 
by the Greeks KipxT^aiov, by the 
Arabs U««J^. — Perh. the name ia 
tb'yz w. old adj. ending u;i-^ (as in. 
Tli"'a|n. see on letter t), akin to xpo- 
xoei; Oi- xpoxoeifioiv, L. crocinus, 

03*13 pr. n. m. (perh. Persian, 
for eagle) of a eunuch Est. 1, 10. 

rrnlD*]!) (only pi. ni"i3-i3) f. prop. 
runners, hence dromedaries, only i» 
Is. 66, 20; r. -I3"i3 Pi. of "inS II. 

U j3 I (obs.) perh. akin to "ins 11^ 
as CiQ to i^S I, to gloiv, hence to be 
bright red; hence prob. b'^ais. 

U j3 II (obs.) prob. akin to n«3 1 




nsx (as fiTra to t^t), to dig, cultivate; 
hence ^^"^3 and 

D13 (w. suf. "ir-S, pi. ft'»a^3, c. 
•tia'iS; r. ons II) m. but fern, in Is. 
27, 2, 3, prop, cultivated land, hence 

1) garden f orchard, n*)T Q"i3 o^ire- 
garden Judg. 15, 5; D'^a^S T]"!^ <Ae 
tt'a^ of (i. e. among) orchards, opp. 
to a desert road Job 24, 18. 2) a 
vineyard Ex. 22, 4; fully "irn n'^s 
the orchard of wine Is. 27, 2 , where 
some texts read *ipn 'a pleasure 
garden, liari '^^"J? in Am. 5, 11. 

01)3 (denom. from D"i3, as "ip"3 
from "i|3a) m. a vinedresser Is. 61, 5. 

''12'l!D pr. n. m. (vineyard-man) 
Gen. 46, 9 ; as patron. Carmite Num. 
26, 6 Cip-)? = •'^a")?). 

j''13"l!3 m. crimson, crimson cloth 
2 Ch. 2, 6; in the earUer Heb. "^W, 
nsbin are the terms for this colour. 
— ^"Perh. from r. d">3 I w. old for- 
mat. ending ^"^—7- (as in b'^i''riB, see 
under letter h); but perh. from Sans. 
krimila (cochineal). 

bt3*l5 (r. nnsi II; w. suf. "i^c"]? 
2 K. 19. 23) m. 1) i. q. D'}^ a garden, 
orchard, prop, cultivated ground or 
park (opp. to the desert) Is. 29, 17; 
ba"i3!i yyt, the cultivated land Jer. 
2, 7 ; i*^"}? "I5t! its (Lebanon's) park, 
prop, its forest-garden 2 K. 19, 23. 

2) fig. garden-fruits Lev. 23, 14; 
brl5 b'^5 crushed garden-grain, i. e. 
choice early corn in groats or coarse 
meal Lev. 2, 14. 3) pr. n. (a park) 
of a fruitful promontory on the Me- 
diterranean Sea, on the south-west 
border of the tribe of Asher, beauti- 
ful in forests and flowers, Carmel 
Josh. 19, 26; often w. art. ^3"^?^! 
(Gram. § 109, 3) lit. the Park, Carmel 
Am. 1, 2; fully bansn in Mount 
Carmel 1 K. 18, 19. In Cant. 7, 6 
the head of a lovely woman is com- 

pared to Carmel. 4) pr. n. of a city 
south-east of Hebron near the Dead 
Sea Josh. 15, 55; w. H-;- loc. 
nba"i3 1 Sam. 25, 5; hence gentil. n. 
•1^^*13 Carmelite 1 Sam. 30, 5; fem, 
n'^^a'13 Carmelitess 1 Sam. 27, 3. 
— 3a"i3 is d"i3 w. old format, ending 
b-^T", as in bsb; see letter b, p. 312. 

y^ pr. n. m. (i. q. Arab, ^jl^ 
lyre) Gen. 36, 26; see *Tii3. 

i^D'^S Chald. (w. suf. n^Cns Dan. 

.. : T ^ "SIT 

7, 9; pi. "j^DIS) f. a throne Dan. 5, 
20; i. q. B-eh. fitB3 (the *1 inserted 
for the Dagh. f,). 

UD nS (for t3&3 Pi. of 063, w. 

the "I for* the Dagh. forte, as in :s^ 
for ts'^aa:) to eat off, devour, only in 
Ps. 80, 14; see Gram. § 56. 

• j3 (fut. SJ^S"^) akin to S53 
(which see), to hoto down 2 Ch. 7, 3; 
w. \ Est. 3,2, w. ijsb Ps. 22,30 of the 
pers. before whom; used w. rt^ntJTTii 
Ps. 95, 6; w. D']3'i3-b? to kneel Judg. 
7, 5; to bend, of the knee Is. 45, 23. — 
Hiph. ?'''^3«7 to cause to succumb, to 
prostrate enemies Ps. 17, 13; fig. 
to afflict Judg. 11, 35. Hence 

S^'^ID (only dual o'^^'ns) f. the leg 
from the knee to the ankle, prop, 
the bent part, of quadrupeds Ex. 12, 
9, of locusts Lev. 11, 21. 

CS'^S m. cotton -stuff, only in 

Est. 1, 6. — Akin to Pers. j-Vj^J*, 

ff '. * , 
Arab, j^-/, xapTtaaoi, Ji.carbasus, 

Sans, karpdsa cotton, also to E. 

carpet; perh. akin to r. C)'^n I (^0 

pluck), w. old format, ending D-r 

(see on letter d). 

I j3 I (obs.) akin to JTIB I, 
*i!|3 I, to dig, to cultivate. 

I J^ II (Qal obs.)mimet. akin to 
"1^5 II, 5^5 I, to go round, to roll, to 





turn; to dance or skip about — Pi. 
*»5'^3 to turn about, w. i3B^ before 
2 Sam. 6, 14; hence JT^^^S) and "133. 
•t — Perh. akin to Yopoi, ^op6(;, L. 
gyrus, curro, W. gyrru. 

123'nS, mostly "^"^^IS pr. n. m. (Pers. 
JSTwrttsA, prob. sun or fire, perh. akin 
to *Ti3 w. ending Tli-j-, as in TlJ.l^'^'n) 
of a king of Persia, Cyrus Ezr. 1, 2. 

TZj j3 (ohs.) akin to b'^JD, <o 6e 
convex, bulging; hence 

123'1!D m. a belly, only in Jer. 51, 
34. — Akin to Syr. ^iOj-s, Arab. 
cr>^» W. cro^A (womb). 

JJ^DIC'niD pr. n. m. (Pers. perh. 
black) Est. 1, 14. 

n J2j (1 pers. perf. ^lnp3, fut. 
nSs'i) 1) to cut off a branch Num. 
13, 23; to cut down or fell trees 
Deut. 19, 5 ; to hew down idol images 
Judg. 6, 25; to cut off the foreskin 
Ex. 4, 25, hence W*i3 cut or maimed 
Lev. 22, 24, fully nsB^b ^"13 Deut. 
23, 2 maimec? in fAe ma?e member-, 
i. e. unmanned: d'^iyib r>*i3 io cwf w 
ft<70 Jer. 34, 18; to destroy Jer. 11, 

19. 2) fig. ni^i3 m^iS to make a co- 
venant Gen. 15, 18, prop, to cut a 
covenant (cf. Gr. 3pxia tIjx'^eiv), 
referring to the cutting up of the 
ratifying victim, w. d5 Ex. 24, 8, 
w. n«; Ps. 105, 9 of the pers. with 
whom; w. b to, where the covenant 
is prescribed or dictated 2 Sam. 5, 3; 
also w. h for, i. e. in favour of Ezr. 
10, 3 ; w. ?? against Ps. 83, 6 ; some- 
times r^*''l3 is omitted, as in 1 Sam. 

20, 16; ona ti^-rrnrni and thou 
madest a covenant for thyself from 
them Is. 67, 8; instead of H'^^iS is 
found rI5l9^^ fidelity in Neh. 10, 1, l^'n 
word in Ps. 105, 9,. Hag. 2, 5. — Niph. 
to be cut down Job 14, 7 ; to be cut 

off, of persons Gen. 9, 11; to be 
destroyed, of a land Gen. 41, 36 ; to 
come to nothing, of a hope Prov, 
23, 18; to be exiled Zech. 14, 2; to be 
masticated Num. 11, 33; to be cut 
asunder Josh. 3, 13. — Pu. THS 
and n"n3 to be cut off Ez. 16, 4; to be 
cut down Judg. 6, 28. — Hiph. n'^'^Svi 
(1st pers. ''tn^Dn) to cut off, destroy 
Lev. 17, 10; to withdraw favour, w. 
d35a from 1 Sam. 20, 15. — Hoph. 
to be cut off, to perish Joel 1, 9. — 
Prob. mimet. akin to la'^n (which 
see), 1^'nn I, ^apaaati). 

niri'ni) (prop. part. pass, of ri'^S) f. 
pi. hewed beams, planks 1 K. 6, 36. 

^Sn'nS m. 1) prob. a Cretan or 
perh. Cyprian 2 Sam. 8, 18. These 
islanders had prob. immigrated into 
the coast of Philistia, and there be- 
come known to the Hebrews. PI. 
Ci^'n'nS Ez. 25, 16. 2) prob. execur 
tioner (r. n'ns, cf. haw 2); hence the 
body-guards of the Jewish king were 
called 'in5?53r?1 ^f^'^Sr] 1 K. 1, 38, the 
executioners and the combers, or perh. 
Cretans and Philistines, who served 
as foreign mercenaries. 

M3 (pi. d^ab3) m. a he-lamb 
Lev. 3, 7; i. q. iDiS, which see. 

nS^S) f. a she-lamb Lev. 5, 6; 
i. q. nbas. 

i^J (obs.) i. q. Arab, ^jij; to 

cut in, hence perh. to encroach; perh. 

1^55 P^' ^' ^^' (perh. encroacher) 
son of Nahor, Abraham's brother 
Gen. 22, 22; perh. the father of 
the race of Chaldeans. 

^^? gentii. n. from "1^3 (but 
only pi. di-riir?, once d'^^^bS Ez. 23, 
14 in K'thibh) 1) Chaldeans, the in- 
habitants of Chaldea or Babylon Ez, 
23, 23; hence d'^^ia? Wa^gDan. 9, 1^ 




'? )wh Dan. 1, 4; whence also Ba- 
bylon 'is called ci'i'ni^? lifita n-ni^sn 
Is. 13, 19. 2) Chaldea Is. 48, 20; 
w. n loc. n^'^'^to Ez. 16, 29; fully 
D^"^? 7"1X Jer." 25, 12; ta'^T^? n3 
inhabitants of Chaldea (see on r\2) 
for Chaldea Is. 47, 1; sometimes it 
is used not merely of the region on 
the Khahor, but also of Babylon, 
see Ez. 23, 23. 3) astrologers Dan. 
2, 2, because Chaldea was the cradle 
of astrology. — In Assyr. inscriptions 
Kaldi = XaX6aio; = ^-niz:? = modern 
Kurds, the letters ilJ, r, X being 

■^■nto Chald. (def. Hfit-nia?, S^^^'^b?, 
pi. "pi^'niDS, c. "^K^iz:? and K^^^ilJS) m. 
i. q. Heb. '''nip?, a Chaldean Dan. 3, 
8 ; an astrologer, magician Dan. 2, 5. 

ni233 prob. i. q. SiDS, to be co- 

T T ^ ^ 

vered w. fat, hence to be sleek, only 
in Deut. 32, 15. 

b"'*©5 na. a» aa;c, only in Ps. 74, 6 > 
prop, a feller, r. blTS in Pi'el. 

y'lZJS (fut. Viia"^ Prov. 4, 16 
K'thibh, else only fut. Niph.) perh. 
akin to ^«:n, Arab. ^yS, to totter, 

fig. to fail Ps. 31, 11; niV^s ft'^s'ia 
tottering or trembling knees Is. 35, 3 ; 
to faint, collapse Lam. 5, 13; <o stumble 
Is. 59, 10, w. a against Lev. 26, 37 ; 
fig. fo 6e wavering or /aiw^ in mind 
Job 4, 4. — Nipli. byiD? (fut. by:3"i) 
#0 become weak, faltering, part. ^^33 
1 Sam. 2, 4; fo stumble Prov. 24, 16. 
— Pi. to cause to fall, to fell Ez. 
36, 14 (but the Q'ri is bstO to be 
bereaved). — Hiph. to cause to 
falter or faWLam. 1, 14; fig. to cause 
to stumble, in a moral sense, to sub- 
vert Mai. 2, 8. — Hoph. to be 
made to stumble, to be overthrown 
Jer. 18, 23. 

^!p m. a stumbling or fall, 
ruin, only in Prov. 16, 18. 

D'EJS (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
ayix, to speak softly or mutter; fig. 
to pray w. low voice (cf. Syr. «.a.jLsZ| 
for XeiTOUpYeTv Acts 13, 2, and for 
6e7)atv TTOisTv PhU. 1, 4). — Pi. t^ 
to mutter charms, to practise magic 
2 Ch. 33, 6 ; part. m. tll2??p a sorcerer 
Deut. 18, 10; f. MS^Dia Ex. 22, 17. 

Cj^? (only pi. D'^B^JS) m. sorcery^ 
incantation Is. 47, 12. 

!r|'©5 m. a sorcerer, only in Jer. 
27, 9."^ 

"I U3 (fut. 'i\I:d-«) akin to "^t^ 
■>rj^ II, ^0 be straight or upright, 
hence proper or W^/if, w. *i3Eb Est. 
8, 5; fo s^oof Wj? or sprout, to thrive, 
of seed Ecc. 11, 6. — Hiph. to cause 
to prosper Ecc. 10, 10. Hence 

iTHlpS ni. i. q. Syr. li-*-3, su^cess^ 
prosperity Ecc. 2, 21; advantage, 
profit Ecc. 5, 10. 

iQIjZJ (fut. ariS^') prob. akin t<x 
aian, nsn I, prop, to carve or engrave 
on a wooden tablet; then to ivrite 
Deut. 10, 2, w. b? Ex. 34, 1, w. ^ 
Jer. 36, 2, w. 3 Josh. 23, 6; "IDD 3n3 
fo write a letter, w. bx 2 K. 10, 6, 
w. b? 2 Ch. 30, 1, or w. b Dent. 
24, 1, <o or for some one ; w. bx in 
respect to Judg. 8, 14; to deicribi 
by writing Josh. 18, 4; to prescribe 
or enjoin 2 K. 22, 13; <o subscribe, 
as witness Jer. 32, 12. — Niph. to 
be written Job 19, 23. — Pi. to write, 
subscribe Is. 10, 1. — Hence sns, 

nSTlS Chald. (fut. ^ro') i. q. 
Heb., to write Dan. 5, 5;^ to write 
down, to record Dan. 7, 1. 




'D.TO (c. 2r.3 w. — firm) m. a 

T : ^ T I T ' 

writing or letter 2 Ch. 2, 10; srs 
n'nn <Ae writing of the latv, the decree 
Est. 4, 8j o book Dan. 10, 21 ; a later 
Heb. word: r. SnS. 

" T 

3^)3 Chald. m. a writing, in- 
scription Dan. 5, 8; Sns i<\ ^^ 
toitliout prescription i. e. without limit 
or at pleasure Ezr. 7, 22 ; a document, 
edict Dan. 6, 9. 

t^Iirilp f. a writing, a mark, only- 
used of a brand on the skin, only in 
Lev. 19, 28; r. an3. 

D'^^rilp Jer. 2, 10, see 

O""^? 1) gent. n. m. pi. of the 
city ns, KfxTiov , L. Citium (now 
Chethi) in Cyprus, but in the 0. T. 
only the pi. occurs, d'^FiS, d'^'^ns Jer. 
2, 10 ; then Cyprians in general 
Gen. 10, 4, Is. 23, 12. 2) the inhabit- 
ants, put for the land, hence Cyprus 
Is. 23, 1; then in the widest sense 
(cf. fi'i'^K) for isles and coasts of the 
Mediterranean Num. 24, 24. 

n^'t^S adj. m. beaten (r. rrs) ; 
n^ira ."jpiy beaten oil Ex. 27, 20, 
obtained from the olives beaten in 
a mortar, and finer than what was 
got from the olive-press. 

^*_1— J (obs.) prob. akin to brirt, 
"ins, to surround or enclose; hence 

bnb (w. suf. >i3^n3) m. a wall 
only in Cant. 2, 9. 

bn3 Chald. (pi. def. St^bns Ezr. 
5, 8, cf. *i3a) m. a wall Dan. 5, 5. 

"^ <r*? pr. n. (prob. fortified, r. 
briS w. old format, ending X&^ — ) of 
a town in Judah Josh. 15, 40. 

Uij J (Qal obs.) perh. akin to nns, 
aon, 2ST1, i. q. Syr. >c£o, fo ma/fe 
spofs, to soil; to carve or mark; 

hence perh. cns, QPiS'a. — Niph. 
t3Pi33, fo fte ivritten, graved, so as not 
to be washed out, only in Jer. 2, 22, 
where most prefer to read thy ini- 
quity is stained or foul, after the 
Sept., Syr. and Vulgate. Perh. hence 
Dr]5 m. gold (poet, for ^f^t), perh. 
what is cut out of the quartz Prov. 
25, 12; I^Blx 3 gold of Ophir Is. 
13, 12; tSilN '3 gold of Uphaz Dan. 

10, 5; but the r. may rather be an 
obs. dri3 = d^n to shine; hence perh. 
bright gold. 

jij^ (obs.) akin to "j-JSJ, "j.srn n to 
stretch out, to spin; hence akin to 
Ethiop. cadana to cover or clothe. 

Wri3, also riDhS Ex. 28, 39 (usual 
c. nshs.'w. suf.' in'iPiS Gen. 37, 23; 
pi. nisFis Ex. 28, 40, also m'ans Ex. 
39, 27, used too for pi. c. Gen. 3, 21; 
w. suf. dril'^ns Lev. 10, 5) f. prop, a 
covering, a shirt or tunic, worn ^ext 
the skin Lev. 8, 7; worn also by fe- 
males Cant. 5, 3. — Akin to ^itoov, 

Chald. "jHS), "ins, Syr. jCj^, Arab. 

^jjUT flax, linen, also Jla9 cotton, 
cotton cloth; hence perh. alsoE. gown, 
Irish guna, W. gion, 

riD'r^S, see nihs. 

VJ4_1^ (obs.) perh. akin to C)D5, 
to cover, hence perh, to load or 
burden; hence 

CjlnS (c. qns, perh. Cjns in Is. 

11, 14, dual d-^EnS, w. suf. IW? 
Ex. 28, 12; pi. only fig. niSns, c. 
ni'sns) f. the shoulder, of each arm, 
as the place for burdens (opp. to 
d3'JJ the place between the shoul- 
ders, the back) Is. 46, 7 ; Tmx^ C]n3 
rebellious shoulder, refusing to carry 
the burden or to obey Neh. 9, 29; 
"iifins ra between his two shoulders. 



i. e. the upper part of the back 
1 Sam. 17, 6 ; fig. the side, border, 
of a building 1 K. 6, 8, of the sea 
Num. 34, 11, of a country Josh. 15, 
8; qnaa Ciir to fly on the shoulder, 
i. e. to rush (as birds of prey) upon 
the border, to invade Is. 11, 14. 
2) pi. shoulder -pieces of the High 
priest's ephod (cf. Fr. epaulette) Ex. 
28, 7. 3) pi. side -spaces or flanks, 
of a gate Ez. 41 , 2. 4) shoulder 
pieces, at the ends of an axle 1 K. 
7, 30. 


L_lW (Qal obs.) akin to ItlS, 
•iws', to surround; hence ins a crown. 
— Pi. 1) to hem in or environ, to 
assail Ps. 22, 13. 2) to wait, prop. 
check oneself Job 36, 2. — Hiph. 1) 
to circumvent Hab. 1,4; to encompass, 
in a friendly sense, w. a Ps. 142, 8. 
2) to wear a croion, m"! I'T'n?!: 5'^^''"'? 
the prudent put on knowledge as a 
crown Prov. 14, 18. Henc*^ 

"ir)3 m. a croivn or diadem Est. 
6, 8. — ■ Hence xiSapt;, xixapii;, L. 

ri*;n3 (pi. ninns) f. capital, crown 
of a column 1 K. 7, 19. 

lLTj3 (fut. uins";) akin to nro, 
io pound, hray, smash, only in Prov. 
27, 22: hence TlJrsa. 

nijW (1 fut. nbx Deut. 9, 21; 
imp. pi. inb) i. q. bnsi, Chald. «Jn3, 

mimet. akin to nnri, "Tn3> Arab. jJT, 
Lat. cudo, to heat to pieces, pound 
Deut. 9, 21; part. pass, nsns crusJied, 
castrated Lev. 22. 24; then <o hammer, 
forge Joel 4, 10; fig. fo beat or fcrea/f 
doi^;?/. a host, to rout Ps. 89, 24. — 
Pi. nns to hammer, forge, w. h Is. 
2, 4: fo 6reaA; i*p 2 K. 18, 4; fig. 

I to crush a land, i. e. to destroy its 
cities and resources Zech. 11, 6. — 
Pu. to be dashed to pieces, w, 3 2 Ch. 
15, 6. — Hipli. (fut. Jins:) to beat in 
pieces a hostile force, to rout Num. 
14, 45. — Hopli. (fut. ro-^, pi. 5in3f! 
to be smashed, of a gate Is. 24, 1 2, of 
an image Mic. 1,7; fig. <o be destroyed, 

\ of heroes Jer. 46, 5, dying men Job 

I 4, 20. 

/^ Ld'medh is the 12th Heb. letter; 
but as a numeral it stands for 30. Its 
name n?aV=n^^g means prob. beater 
or chastiser, hence es]).staff or goad for 
urging oxen, an ox-goad (cf. PouttXt^c, 
also pouxevrpov), which instrument is 
rudely pictured in its forms ^ , ^> 
Sam. 2, (see the Table of Ancient Al- 
phabets); the name and the form, 
slightly changed, appear also in the Gr. 
Aa|JtP5a,whence, through theRomans, 
our L, which has the same sound. 

^ interchanges — 1 w. its kindred 
liquids -Q, 3, \ e. g. bnj; = BHS, bnn = 
nnn,nnb=nri^ = Sam.nn3,ar}b=an3, 

yr^ = yh} , J^3^!? = "3'>V?' ^''^ = 1"^ I. 
•jn3 = Syr. "^ZU ; mb?^ = ni-JJ?, nbx 
= nx, bh 1 = ina IV, yhn = Chald^. . 

•jr-nn (cf . Chald. n-i^ni? = Syr. ^-a^jio 
= {jiap7apiTY)(; , Xeipiov = L. lilium, 
E. colonel sounded as cornel); — 2 w. 
its kindred Unguals (Gram. § 6, 4) "i, 
13, n, e. g. ui^b = Tiin^ I, nbn i = oin. 


^?'? = "IS*! (cf. Sttxpoov = L. lacrima, 
6ai^p = L. levir, L. calamitas = ca- 
damitas), nsb = nra = nrn, C]^5 
« qa? (cf. L. lingua = dingua = E. 
<on^Me); — 3 w. palatal "^^ e. g. "isb 
= IS-' I, Chald. Xins = ttllT' (= Syr. 

jooiJ), pi. linV = "jin^ (cf. it. planus 

s= It. piano, {jl6Xi4 = {1.671;). — b as 
3 in r. np) (n^":), Gram. § 66, Eem. 2. 
5 is formative in sundry words; 
— 1) as final (prob. adjectival, akin to 
ending -las in Sans., -lus in Lat., and 
-Xo; in 0£iX6<;, 6}i,aX6;, cxotteXo; = 
Ji. scopulus) in some words, e. g. b-^ 
or b — in b^Drn, b^:n, b — in b^'ns, 
\>^-:- in b'^a'ps, b-'rrB, b-^ in b35na, 
the ending having prob. a diminutive 
force, as in the last (cf. xutteXXov). — 
2) as medial (prob. intensive) e. g. 
■jDxbu: = )^^^^, taiua = Arab. ^Ub bal- 
sam = PaXaa}X0(;, n'n = qn = xoX- 
iro; = It. golfo = E. ^tt//. — 3) as 
initial (prob. only euphonic) e. g. uxb 
= ::::&<, Dxb = dtsx, ^bb = iii^ I (cf. 

-T' -T -t' -T TT 

XoL^vir) = S*/vr), G. Ze&er = E. liver = 
Keltic avi = L. jecur = ^Trap). 

5 (but b usually before the tone- 
syllable, i. e. before monosyllabic 
and barytone words e. g. 2'nb, HlJib, 
see Gram. § 102, 2, c) pref. prep, 
(short for bx), w. suf. ''b, ?jb, "r^b, ib, 
nb, !i3b, Dsb etc. (see Gram. § 103, 2), 
having the same meaning of direction 
or motion to as bx (which see), but 
more used in figurative senses (see 
Gram. § 154, 3, d and e). -— A) as 
implying motion or direction, to, unto, 
for or towards, el<;, either locally w. 
verbs of coming or going (i<ia, Tjbn, 
3^)5, etc.) Is. 60, 4, or mentally 
w. verbs of waiting, hoping, etc. (bh^, 
•'^;p. fisr*) etc.) Is. 42, 4, cf. 51, 5. 
Hence 1) unto, as far as (in full b "15), 
e. g. nra^b unto satiety Ez. 39, 19, 
tbisb for ever Gen. 3, 22, oni^b till 

T I ' ' ' T J 

their death Ps. 73, 4. — Of number, 
up to, as many as 2 Ch. 5, 12 ti'^^tTD 
D'i"ibyl nx^b priests as many as 120 
(cf. eU fxupioo;). 2) <o, /or, in^o, w» 
verbs of making, becoming, etc., im- 
plying change of state or quality 

(ii3a, n^ri, -,1^3, Q!iia, ns^' ®*<^-) ^^"^ 

2, 7, 22, Joel 3, 4. 3) Like our ^0 or 
for, against, etc. to express the idea 
which the dative case indicates irv 
Greek, Latin and German, w. verb* 
implying some benefit or the contrary 
(dat. commodi vel incommodi, Gram. 
§ 154, 3, e) esp. w. verbs of giving^ 
taking, telling, etc. ("jriS, npb, "iST** 
^^J<)Gen. 14,21, Deut. 5,28, Ps. 37,12. 
— This dat. commodi is often pleo- 
nastic (or nearly so), as in ^b"Tjb 
go for thee, i. e. for thy benefit Gen. 
22, 2, T^b rrna flee thou , i. e. for thy 
safety Gen. 27, 43, ?]b n^a'i be thou 
like Cant. 8, 14. — Also to express 
belonging to or possession, as in "'b ui.7 
there is to me, i. e. I have Gen. S3, 
1 1 ; hence the so-called Lamedh 
auctoris, e. g. l^'ib 'ilatp a psalm 
(belonging) to David, i. e. a psalm 
of David Ps. 3, 1 , the ideas of be- 
longing to and possessing being much 
akin, as seen also in Icjti }jloi for e^w^ 
and in est mihi for habeo; Job 33, 6 
lo! J, even as thou, bxb belong to God 
or am God''s. 4) Hence said to serve 
also for a sign of the genitive relation, 
like our of, e. g. "'UJ'^b "js a son of 
Jesse 1 Sam. 16, 18, b^i<u:b D^Bsn the 
spies of Saul 1 Sam. 14, 16; but these 
and other examples said to express 
the genitive belong more properly 
to the dative, as in No. 3 above: 
see more on this usage in Gram. § 11 5. 
5) As sign of the accusative, but only 
by a sort of abuse of its force in 
No. 3, which appears esp. in later 
style (as in Chald. and Syr.), e. g. 
b npb in Jer. 40, 2, b b=X in Lam. 

J I- T ' » , - T 



4, 5, b a-nn in Job 5, 2, b nVJ 2 Ch. 
17, 7,' cf/Num. 10, 25, Ps. 135, 11 
(see Gram. § 154, 3, e). 6) Said to 
be a sign of the Lat. ablative of 
agent, hy or from, e. g. bxb r^^na 
blessed ly (prop, fo) (roJ Gen. 14, 19, 
b Siauis i^ t<?a5 heard hy i. e. reported 
/o Neh. 6, 1, cf. Ex. 12, 16; but such 
constructions answer rather to the 
Gr. dative of agent w. passive verbs 
(cf. Ij5^£6r) ToTc dp^aiOK; Mat. 5, 21), 
and so belong to No 3 above. 7) As 
to or for, in regard or respect to, and 
similar shades of to and for (cf. £ic) 
to suit our idiom, e. g. luijib as fo 

' *=■ •■•IS 

wealth 1 K. 10, 23, tr^'O^o in respect 
to days Job 32, 4 (cf. Ps. 1 2, 7), fi'^Uiinpb 
as for the saints, marking case ab- 
solute Ps. 16, 3 (cf. Is. 32, 1); w. 
verbs of speaking, ordering, com- 
plaining, etc. concerning, about, e. g. 
Gen. 20, 13, Ps. 3, 3, Ps. 91, 11, Is. 15, 
5; of class or sort, according to, like 
to, after, e. g. ii'^pV cifter its kind 
Gen. 1, 11, 'Ti•^tb perh. such 05 Is. 8, 23, 
nV'xbb as if not her own (prop, for not 
hers) Job 39, 16. B) v^^here rest (prop, 
consequent on motion implied) is to 
be understood, at, in(cf. eU for Iv); 
1) of place, e. g. nnsb at the door 
Gen. 4, 7, HQ^^b in Mizpah Hos. 5, 1, 
nJj'^Db in the dungeon Is. 51, 14; 2) of 
time, e. g. 'ij^iab in the morning Am. 
4, 4, "^rd^ in the evening 2 Ch. 2, 3; 
3) of state or condition, e. g. naab in 
security, i. e. safely Ps. 4, 9. C) often 
prefixed to the Infin. (as a verbal 
noun) to denote purpose, result or 
obligation (cf. our for to do, £i<; to 
iroisTv, L. ad faciendum, m'tjrb, cf. 
Gram. § 132, 3, Rem., also § 142, 2), 
w. various shades of meaning not 
unlike those under A above, e. g. 
Knab for opening Cant. 5,5, Dl^ii 
•nbyb to day (he is resolved or bound) 
for remaining Is. 10, 32, Cnx^b of 

their coming out Ex. 16, I, I'Pir'nb 
till his knowing Is. 7, 15, m'anb on 
account of turning away Is. 10, 2, 
y^^ niisb at the turning of evening 
i. e. at even-tide Gen. 24, 63, ^txb 
for to say or in saying. 

5 Chald. prep, same as in Heb. 
to, for, into] 1) of place Dan. 2, 17; 
2) sign of case, for dative Dan. 2, 5, 
for genitive Ezr. 5, 1 1 , for accusative 
(often, as in Syr.) Dan. 2, 10; 3) as 
prefix to Infill, after verbs of speak- 
ing, ordering, etc. Dan. 2, 25. — On 
its supposed use as prefix (prefor- 
mative in reality) to the future in 
&<inb Dan. 2, 20 and 29, see under Niri. 

^0, rarely tXlO as in Gen. 37, 13, 
perh. lb in 1 Sam. 2, 16 (akin to xb, 
■^b, "lb, in &<b!ib, "^Ky, ""bsib), prop, 
subst. nothing or nothingness (cf. ba I, 
DniJ), prob. in Job 6, 21 Kb on-i-jn 
ye are become nothing, also Job 31, 
23 ba^x xb / am nothing able; but 
else only used as adv. of negation 
(Gram. § 152, 1) no, not, absolute or 
objective negative, while hi< is the 
subjective or conditional (cf. ou or 
oux and jxirj, Lat. non and ne), 1) N'b 
is used w. perf. tense as in Gen. 2, 5, 
or w. fut. esp. prohibiting, as in xb 
nb^n thou shalt not steal Ex. 20, 15 
(but absh bx in dissuading, see Gram. 
§ 127,3,c), never w. imperative mood; 
often alone, a verb being understood, 
as in Gen. 19, 2, Job 23, 6. 2) it 
serves to express negative compounds 
(like our un-, in-, im-) e. g. Dsn xb 
unwise Deut. 32, 6, T? i^b unmighty 
Prov. 30, 25, bx ^ib a no-god i. e. an 
idol Deut. 32, 21 (cf. y? 5<b Is. 10, 
15), D?'? xb no-little i. e. much Is. 
10, 7. 3) used for i<bln in questions 
expecting an affirmative answer, e. 
g. bajr'S xb shall we not receive? Job 
2, 10, cf. Lam. 3, 36. 4) for xbs 


without, e. g. n'^33 5<b without sons 
1 Ch. 2, 30, Tj';?n fc^b tvithout a way 
Job 12, 24. 5) for ona wo< ycf, e. g. 
Ps. 139, 16, 2 K. 20, 4. — fi<b often 
occurs w. prefixes; — 1) tiba in not, 
in various senses — a) not in, i. e. 
before, Job 15, 32 lai'^ i<b3 before 
his day, or beyond,he\. 15, 25 n? fiiba 
beyond the time; P) no< /br, of price 
Is. 55, 1, of. 2 K^ Is. 45, 13; — 7) Mof 
with i. e. without, Ez. 22, 29 aS'ji^ xba 
without justice. 2) xbsi L. nonne? 
not 80? expecting answer yes, e. g. 
Gen. 4, 7. — Jtb is prob, a mimetic 
or primitive word, akin to bx, "px, 
Sans, md (not), na, G-r. jxtq, vr^-, L. 
non, we, in-, E. «o, way, mw-, W. wa, 
m, an-, the liquids /, m, w being apt 
to interchange (see Ewald's Lehrbuch 
d. Hebr. Sprache, § 320, a. Note ^). 

t^b Chald. i. q. Heb. i<\> , I) no, 
not Dan. 2, 5; w. ti interrog. 5<bn = 
Heb. xbn, L. nonne? Dan. 3, 24. 2) 
nothing, onlj^ in Q'ri of Dan. 4, 32 
Nbs OS nothing, but nVs in K'thibh. 

"^^T ^J pr. n. (no-pasture) of a 
place in Gilead 2 Sam. 17, 27, but 
-lai "ft in 9, 4. 

"''S!? S V pr. n. m. (not my people) 
symbolical name given to Hosea's 
son Hos. 1, 9. 

TP2TT\ ^b pr. n. f. (not coip- 
passionated, r. Dnn) symb. name of 
Hosea's daughter Hos. 1, 6. 

^b 2 Sam. 18, 12 for lb or K^lb in 
the Q'ri, but tkh not in K'thibh. 

«JsN ^ (obs.) prob. miniet. akin 
to 2nb, nab II, to burn, to be parched; 
hence na^ixbr) drought. 

'^*'1^ 1 Sam. 2, 33 for 3-^Xxnb, 
infin. Hiph. of n^nx I; Gram. § 53, 
Rem. 7. 

314 b^b 


\ iN^ (fut. nxb-;, apoc. fi<b;i) 
prob. mimet. akin to *vrf?, Chald. 

i<rb , prop, to gasp or pant , then to 
be tired or faint Job 4, 5; w. b and 
inf. Gen. 19, 11 K:iab !i&tb^l and they 
wearied (i. e. failed) to find. — Niph. 
to tire oneself 3 QY. 9, 4; to be tired 
or weary Is. 16, 12; to be exhausted, 
fem. part, nxbs Ps. 68, 10; fig. to 
loathe Ex. 7, 18. — Hiph. nxbn (3 
pers. f. nxbin Ez. 24, 12 for nr.xbn) 
to make weary Job 16, 7; <o weary 
out i. e. patience Is. 7, 13, cf. Job 
16, 7. Hence n5<bm and 

nXj3 pr. n. f. (languid) of a wife 
of Jacob Gen. 29, 16. 

li^b Job 33, 30 for *iii<nb, infin. 
Niph. of -ilX; cf. Gram. § 23, 4. 

1215^5 m. i. q. isb, only in DXra 
Judg. 4, 21 m secret, stealthily. 

Uis7 akin to 'drh II, 'Jiib I, wax, 
to conceal or ^ide 2 Sam. 19, 5; fig. 
to utter privily or softly, perh. Job 
15, 1 1 ancZ a t<;or(i laxb 7ic (God) speaks 
privily w. thee, but most refer uxb 
here to I3X, which see. — Prob. akin 
to Sans, lud (to hide), XaOo), L. lateo, 

131^^ m. gentleness, but used only 
as adv. gently Is. 8, 6; see ax. 
■^lOlJ^b Gen. 33, 14, see DX. 

•liN'^ (obs.) prob. akin to "bn, 
T^bll, also to nb'^^, TjV^, to go (on 
some business or errand, cf. our col- 
loquial "to be on the go") or trans. 
to send or dispatch (like Ethiop. 
AatI laakha to send), as a messen- 
ger or minister; hence T]xbi3, n^xbp 
etc. — Perh. akin to Sans, lagh (to 
move), L. legare. 

^^-J V^' »• "1- (to God 1. e. 
devoted to Him) Num. 3, 24. 





iwS y (obs.) prob. akin to d^!*, 
any n, to join or unite, to combine; 

Db<b (w. suf. 'i^sxb, •'Siixb Is. 51, 4, 
pi. d"'sxl3) m. 1) a people or nation, 
as joined or banded together (r. oxb, 
cf. 8^(xo; from okisi) Gen. 25, 23. 
2) pr. n. m. plur. of an Arab people 
Gen. 25, 3; perh. the 'AXXoufxatoTai 
of Ptolemy 5, 7. 

^b (w. Maq. -3^, w. suf. '^3^. ^3^, 
pi. m'ab; r. 32^) m. the heart, i. q. 
2ab, so named prob. on account of 
its caul or covering 2 Sam. 18, 14, 
Ps. 45, 6 ; regarded as the chief part 
or seat of life, hence equal to T1:E3 (opp. 
^b3, "iX^i), the life or soul Ps.73, 26, 
Jer. 4, 18. Hence the expressions 
the heart lives Ps. 22, 27, sleeps and 
loakes Ecc. 2, 23, is sick Is. 1, 5; 
hence also 3^, like ^'£3, may denote 
self, as in Gen. 17, 17 "iaba "ipx^^ 
and he said in his heart i. e. in him- 
self, cf. Hos. 7, 2 (seeGram.§ 124, l,c). 
But its uses are very manifold, com- 
prised substantially under the follow- 
ing heads. — 1) as the seat of the 
various feelings, affections and emo- 
tions; e. g. of love Judg. 16, 15, Deut. 
4, 29, of trust Prov. 31, 11, joy Ps. 
104, 15, contrition Ps. 109, 16, despair 
Ecc. 2, 20, esp. fortitude or courage 
Gen. 42, 28, 1 Sam. 17, 32. 2) as the 
seat of thinking and of the moral 
sentiments, as determining a person's 
dispositions and character; e. g. of 
thought Prov. 23, 7, purity Ps. 51, 
12, sincerity 1 K. 3, 6, fidelity Neh. 
9,8, perverseness Ps.101,4, obduracy 
Ex. 10, 1, duplicity Ps. 12, 3 aV> 3^2 
113'n'; (Gram. § 108, 4), pride w. h'li 
Is.^9, 8, w. nsh Ez. 28, 5. 3) as the 
seat of volitio7i and determination, 
e. g. 1 Sam. 14, 7, Is. 63, 4; also of 
knowledge and understanding, e. g 

Is. 10, 7, Judg. 16, 17, hence 3^ ipsn 
the wise of heart Ex. 28, 3, 3b "ion 
void of unterstanding Prov. 7, 7, 
3b 11IJ3X men of intelligence Job 34, 
10, cf. ch. 36, 5 3b ns might of in- 
telligetwe, of God. 4) fig. the middle 
or midst, hence 3b2 in the central or 
inner part, e. g. of the sea Ex. 15, 8, 
of the heavens Deut. 4, 11; comp. 
xapSi'a T^; YYJi Mat. 12, 40. — Hence 
as denom. Niph. 33 a"] and Pi. 3ab, 
see 33b. See 33b. 

Sb Chald. (w. suf. '^ab) i. q. Heb. 
3b, heart Dan. 7, 28. 

sN J ^ (obs.) perh. akin to Sans. 
labh (to seize), XajSiQ, Gael, lamh 
(hand), W. llaw (hand), to seize or 
raven; but more prob. mimet. akin 
to W. llev (cry), Irish liuvam (to call 
aloud), G. leucn, E. to low, hence to 
bellow, to roar. Hence fit'^ab = *i3b, 
a lion= G. leu = lowe. 

rilKI^J 1) lionesses T^fCii. 2, 13, see 
•'Sb. 2) pr. n. of a city in Simeon Josh. 
15, 32; more fully n'iitsb n'^2 Josh. 
19, 6. 

D5<lb Ps. 57, 5 for D''fi<3b lions, 
see "la?. ^ 

mlmm ^ (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 

Arab. wJ to wrap or enfold, Aram. 
C]Sb, waa^, to cover in, to envelop, 
as the heart in the TtepixapSiov, 
hence 3b, 33b, na'^sb. Used only as 
a denom. verb from 33b. — Niph. 
33b3 to become intelligent (cf. L. cor- 
daius), only in Job 11, 12 3!I33 ^li^X'] 
ibji"] D•^^^ ^t■^B -I'^S'i 33^*; both a hollow 
(i. e. stupid) tnan will become wise 
and a wild ass^s foal loill be bom a 
human being i. e. the one will happen 
as soon the other, viz. never; but 
most prefer to render it and vain 
(empty-headed) man is void of 




understanding, yea a human being, 
is a wild ass^s c<flt, human ignorance 
being set in strongest contrast w. 
divine wisdom; mark the play (paro- 
nomasia) on 2123 and 23*1''. — Pi. 

' T •• T . 

1) ^0 take away or steal the heart (see 
Gram. § 52, 2, c), to captivate, by love, 
only in Cant. 4,9. 2) denom. of HS'^nb, 
to prepare or make cakes, only in 
2 Sam. 13, 6, 8. — Perh. akin to 
UJab, Xo|^6(;, L. loha, E. to lop (wrap), 
y^^.llih (flexible). 

'2.Zh (c. 22b, w. suf. "122^, once 
pi. ni22b 1 Ch. 28, 9, once w. suf. 
yryy^ Nah. 2, 8 ; r. 22^) m. the heart, 
same as 2^ of which 22b is the full 
or uncontracted form. 

Dllb Chald. (w. suf. Ti22V, fn22>) 
m. the heart Dan. 2, 30, i. q. Heb. 
:2b, 22b. 

n!Il!5 (prop. ^12 I w. pref. b, to or 
in separation; often w, suf. "^"n^b, 
?]'n2b etc.) adv. apart, separately Ex. 
26, 9; I'l'n^b 5y themselves Gen. 21, 
28 = n^'n2b*in V. 29; 1>i2b &^ /um- 
se^/", a/bwe Gen. 2, 18; Ps. 71, 16 
?j'n2b rirj^nii ]f% righteousness, thine 
only; Is. 26, 13 ?]2 n2b by thee only. 
Also as prep. (Gram. § 154, 2) e. g. 
•j^a l^b apart from, i. e. besides Ex. 
12, 37, w. b? Ezr. 1,6; also "12^10 
Gen. 26, 1, w. suf. 'i'n2b'a besides him 
Deut. 4, 35; '^\r^5 12^73 besides what 
Num. 6, 21. ' 

I )a^ ^ I (obs.) mimet. akin to 
T T ' ' 
N2b (which see), to low, to roar; 

hence '^2b lion. 

i\ml^ II (obs.) prob. mimet. 
akin to 2&tb, 2rib, 2iib, "J^b II, to 
burn or parch; hence 

nSb f. a flame, only in Ex. 3, 2 ; 
cf. ninb. 

nSlb f. <Ae Acar< (i. q. 2b), only 

in Ez. 16, 30 TjOS^; fo^^ Pl- ^'^^^ ^^ 
7, 10, see 2b. 

njisb, see nabb. 

ID^^b or lli^S (pi. c. ''Ui2b) m. 1) 
clothing, a garment (mostly poet, for 
n^ia) Job 24, 7, esp. splendid attire 
Is. 63, 1; fig. the covering or scales 
of the crocodile Job 41, 5. 2) a ivife 
or spouse (this fig. sense often used 
in Arabic, cf. axeuo; in 1 Thes. 4, 4 
and 1 Pet. 3, 7, prob. for the vagina), 
only in Mai. 2, 16; r. y:2b. 

lli^^b Chald. m. a garment Dan. 
3, 21 'j'in"iu3i2b their garments; r. ^2b. 

LjZl^ (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. fauJ,. 
to cast doivn or prostrate. — Nipli. fo 
be throivn doion, to fall or perish, only 
Prov. 10, 8. 10 and Hos. 4, 14. 

"'Sb (r. n2b I) m. a lion; but 
only in pi. m. d'^i<2b lions Ps. 57, 5, 
or in pi. f. ni&t2b Hostesses Nah. 2, 13 
(see Gram. § 93, Eem. 6); samfe as 

Jj^''Ilb (r. i<2b) com. gend. lion or 
lio7%ess Gen. 49, 9, w. '^'nx Num. 24, 9. — 
Akin to Copt. AABOl, Xkiiis, L. leo, 
G. loive, E. lion, Irish leovan, W. /Zett;. 

^^?b (for n^2b) f. a lioness, only 
in Ez. 19, 2; see ''2b. 

n^^n^ (only pi. ni22b) f. prob. 
pancakes, or other fancy kinds of 
bread (Sept. xoXXupiSs^j done up 
like rolls or twists (r. 22b) 2 Sam. 
13, 6; hence the denom. Pi. 22b 2 
to bake cakes. 

D'^Sb Dan. 11, 43, see C;''2lb. 

j!Zl7 1 prob. akin to Copt. aAh Y» 
dXcpo;, L. albus, to be white, hence 
adj. ")2b; perh. also to make bricks, 
as denom. of H32b, in Gen. 11, 3 
and Ex. 5, 7. 14;" but see pb II. 
— Illph. 1) to make white, fig. to 
purify Dan. 11, 35 "j^bb for V2bnb 




(see Gram. § 53, Kem. 7). 2) to he 
white (see Gram. § 53, 2) Is. 1, 18. 
— Hith. fig. to purify oneself, to he 
cleansed Dan. 12, 10. 

1^ V II (obs.) prob. akin to afn^, 
Tdh II (cf. ins = nns, see on letter 

T T *■ I - T T T ' 

3), to hum, parch or hake, perh. in 
Gen. 11, 3 fi"^??^ "^SSi^? ^«^ ws ftwrw 
(or ftaZre) bricks, cf. Ex. 5, 7 ; but see 
pb I. Hence prob. n32^, nanb, njhb. 

■jSb 1) (pi. d-^SS^) adj. m., nasV 
<pl. manb) f. t<;Ai^e Gen. 30, 35, 
Lev. 13, 24.- 2) pr. n. m. (white) of 
Jacob's father-in-law, Lahan Gen. 
24, 29. 50; r. "jnb I. 

■j^b (c. -ja^, perh. for 'jsV, Gram. 
§ 93, 4, Rem.) adj. white, only in 
Gen. 49, 12; r. ^Il) I. 

"]!ilb in title of Ps. 9, 1 Wia-b? 
•)Sb, prob. for -JS^ niab?-b? (see Ps. 
46, l)on virgins^ voices for the hoys, 
i. e. to be sung by boys in the style 
of girls. 

HDlSb (r. "Jib I) f. 1) poet, the moon, 
ns^^n Cant. 6, 10, prop, the white or 
pale, cf. iiaHv} tJie heat i. e. the sun 
(in same verse). 2) pr. n. m. (white- 
ness) Neh. 7, 48. 

THyoh (pi. ft'^ai^i) f. a brick or tile, 
burnt or baked in the sun Gen. 11,3; 
r. )'2\ n. — Not likely from r. p^ I, 
as if named for mere whiteness of 
colour ; but rather from the process 
of baking in the sun or kiln, comp. 
G. hackstein, W. pohvaen, Ital. terra 
cotta, E. brick = F. brique = fricot 
= L. frigo = E. fry = F. frire = 
Sans, hhriff = cppuYO) = "E. parch. 

nSlilb (r. )'2h I) f. 1) whiteness, 
brightness or lustre, only in Ex. 24, 
10. 2) pr. n. (white-town) of a city 
in Judah Josh. 10, 29; also of a station 
of Israel in the wilderness Num. 33, 20. 

npnb (prob. for np^, Gram. § 80, 
Rem. 1 , <i) f. prob. tlie storax-tree 
(7) axupa^), which yields a sweet- 
smelling gum (to arupa?, L. storax) 
used for incense (r. "j^b II) Gen. 30, 
37; some mistake it for the white 
poplar, as from r. "j^b I, so Sept. 
XeuxYj in Hos. 4, 13. 

njib or njinb (Sept. X^pavo;, 
Xipavwti;,. Syr. l^JoiLl:^) f. l) 

frankincense^ a sweet-scented resin 
or gum burnt as perfume Cant. 3, 6, 
or sacred incense Lev. 2, 1 , cf. Is. 60, 
6. — Most prob. not from r. )^h I, 
as if remarkable for its white colour, 
which is not the fact, but from r. 
"jab II to burn; cf. Guo; = L. thus 
(both from Gua> to burn), akin to 
Sans, dhumas (fume). 2) pr. n. (perh. 
incense) of a town near Sliiloh Judg. 
21, 19; now Lubban. 

■jiDSb (r. "jab I) pr. n. (mostly w. 
art. "Jisasn the white mountain. Gram. 
§ 109, 3) Lebanon, Aipavo;, Syr. 

^^-^ Josh. 9, 1, the celebrated 
mountain on confines of Syria and 
Palestine, consisting of two lofty 
ranges (Lebanon and Antilebanon) 
separated by the vallej'' el-Buqd^a 
(n^pan). The name "il'sa^fi (in poet. 
"psab Ps. 29, 6) refers to the perpetual