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.iiiSi'ii'iiji:!"' • 







3 1833 01103 4797 







^^,,0^Y - BIOC/,4/.^^ 










Containing Biographical Sketche.s of Hundreds of Prominent Old Settlers and 

Representative Citizens of the State, with a Review of their Life 

Work; their Identity with the Growth and Development 

OF THE State; Reminiscences of Personal History 

and Pioneer Life and other Interesting 

and \'aluable Matter which should 

be Preserved in History. 



GEO. A. ogle & CO. 


440 South Dearborn Street 


Biography is the only true History. — Evursoti. 

A people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors 

will never achieve anything worthy to be remembered with 

pride by remote generations. — Macaulay. 

-^J— *! CONTENTS ^ 



Title Page 

Table, of Contents. 

3 History of North Dakota 


■-^-^ INDEX TO «^-^ 


Geography, Topography, Climate, Geology, Soil and 

Natural Resources 19 


Discovery and Early History of the Province of Louisi- 
ana; Early Explorers; Purchase by the United 
States; Division into States and Territories; birth of 
Dakota 27 

Exploring Expeditions in North Dakota and Vicinity; 
First Whites to Visit Dakota 


Indians, Indian History and Traditions 45 


Fur Trade; Coureurs des Bois; Fur Traders; Early Set- 
tlement; The Selkirk Settlement; The Fur Com- 
panies; The Rolettes; The Pembina Settlement and 
Derivation of the Name Pembina; Early Perma- 
nent Settlement; Mission of St. Joseph; Early 
Navigation of the Red River of the North; Begin- 
ning of Settlement in Various Parts of North 


The Sioux Massacre of 1862; Causes Which Led to the 
Outbreak; a Reign Terror; Suppression of the 
Uprising 72 


Territorial Government; Early Movements Toward Ob- 
taining a Territorial Government; Territorial Gov- 
ernment Granted; Territorial Officers 



Statehood; Early Movement Toward Admission to the 
Union; Huron Convention; Sioux Falls Convention; 
Other Bills for Admission; Second Constitutional 
Convention at Sioux Falls; Omnibus Bill and Ad- 
mission; Constitutional Convention at Bismarck; 
Official Vote for Governor; State Officers, Past and 
Present; Directory of State Officials; History of the 
General Assembly 9'^ 


Creation and Organization of Counties in North Dakota; 
First Officers, etc.; Public Institutions; Some First 
Items 109 


The Press; Introductory; The First Newspaper Estab- 
lished; Other Early Newspapers 120 


Educational; The Common School;' University and 
Normal School; Statistics Relating to Educational 
Matters 124 


Railroads; Northern Pacitic Railroad; Great Northern 
Railroad; Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste Marie 
Railroad; Chicago & Northwestern Railroad; Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway: History of 
Early Railroad Building in North Dakota, and the 
Present Railway Facilities 130 


Agriculture; Agricultural and Livestock Statistics; 
Assessed Valuation of Real and Personal Propir.y 
by Counties; Irrigation Matters; Review of the 
Natural Resources of North Dakota 145 



Compendium of Biography 




Aafedt, Peder O 1113 

Abbey, Abner 1360 

Abrahamsen, Abraham . 367 

Acker, Iver E 1283 

Ackerman, George M .. 714 

Akesson, Joseph B 724 

Alber, Julius E 518 

Albrecht, August 641 

Albrecht, Edward 603 

Allen, Andrew J 759 

Allen, Beecher 835 

Allen, Charles L 244 

Allen, Henry E 675 

Allen, John D 1113 

Allen, Herman D 1240 

Allin, Hon. Roger 867 

Aim, John 214 

Almen, Hon. J. M 836 

Alpin, Fred D 209 

Alquire, Frank L 1391 

Ames, Andrew J 1152 

Ames, Hon. Francis W. 577 
Amidon, Judge Chas. F. 172 

Anderberg, Andrew 459 

Andersen, Rev. Ole K.. 391 

Anderson, Andreas 1078 

Anderson, Carl F 767 

Anderson, Edgar 1046 

Anderson, Israel 1007 

Anderson, Ole 520 

Anderson, Peter B 821 

Anderson, Robert 568 

Anderson, Thomas T. . .1291 

Anderson, Wm. J 394 

Andrews, James Bu.r... 690 

Andrews, James B .502 

Anheier, Chris. H 397 

Ankarfelt, Matts 890 

Anstett, Anthony 1056 

Archer, Warren W 1046 

Arnason, Arna 1410 

Arnegard, Ole 368 

Arnold, Hon. Horace F.1097 

Atherton, A. D 872 

Atkinson, Jas. A 320 

Atwood, Truman J 440 

Aus, Easton K 562 

Ayres, A.J 252 

Ayres, M. L 1131 

Ayres, Wm. A 505 

Aylen, Ur. Jas. P 640 

Bacon, Hon. Jerry D. . .1098 
Bank of Buffalo 555 


Bagg, Frederick A 356 

Bahnsen, Chas. F 320 

Bailey, Chas. E 935 

Baird, Wm. O 272 

Baker, Levi P 506 

Baker, Wm. U 829 

Bakke, Even H 430 

Baldwin, Hon. Chas. H. 1288 

Baldwin, M. A 494 

Ball, Wilbur F 213 

Bangs, A. W 1232 

Bangs, Geo. A 222 

Bangs, Prof. Dwight F.. 964 

Bangs, Tracy R 1084 

Banner, The Hillsboro. 5J14 

Barbo, Andrew A 264 

Barker, John Ryon .1173 

Barlow, Capt. Augustus.1052 

Barlow, Hon. F. G 800 

Barnes, Edwin G 541 

Barnes, Ira M 573 

Barnes, Lucien A 893 

Barnes, Oscar G 255 

Barnes, Rev. Geo. B...1299 

Barnett, Wm. H 544 

Barnum, Edward 1203 

Barrett. James 1080 

Barrett, Oscar 523 

Barry, Wm 1405 

Bartlett, Stephen B.... 440 
Bartholomew.Judge J. M 173 

Barton, E. W 530 

Bassett, Chas. K 380 

Bates, Edward C 783 

Bates, Wm. D 816 

Baumgardner, Ed. C. . . 689 

Bayley, Sylvan E 466 

Bayliss, Joseph 478 

Beattie, James 1114 

Beattie, [as. D 624 

Beattie, John 778 

Beattie, John E 363 

Beattie, Peter 1114 

Beecher, David H 272 

Beggs, Abram L 207 

Beiseker, Arthur N 760 

Bell, Hon. James 851 

Bellemare, Dr. Maxime 266 

Bemis, Wallace W 1220 

Bender. John M 847 

Bender, Franklin 842 

Bendiksen, Thore 207 

Bentley, Dr. Wm. A . . . 216 
Benton, Col. John D ...1227 


Bergan, Hans J 574 

Berger, Anton P 369 

Berland, Andrew R 440 

Bergman, Hon. E. H...1192 
Bergmann, Rev. F. J. . .1174 

Berndt, Albert 854 

Berrigan, Patrick 1155 

Berseth, Nels M 281 

Beyer, Charles W 1039 

Biermann, Henry 393 

Billigmeier, Geo 1342 

Birder, Jacob P 903 

Birkholtz,John 313 

Bistline, Jonathan F.... 605 

Bixby, Wm. D 567 

Bjomstad, Peter 346 

Bjomstad, Nels H 349 

Bjugstad, Ole C 672 

Blacklock, Hon. Jas. T.1267 

Blackmer,JohnR 482 

Blackwell, Edward 276 

Blackwell, Russell W.S. 178 

Blake, Geo 525 

Blakemore, Robert B. . . 460 

Blanchette, Louis 960 

Blatchford, Joseph 300 

Blegen, Hans O 1108 

Blinsky, Henrv 706 

Bliss, John W'. 908 

Blouin, Jos. O 654 

Bly, Edward S 624 

Blythe, John M 904 

Boe, Amund A 1007 

Bogue, Horace P 457 

Boise, Chas. G 519 

Boise. Watson E 332 

Bole, Hugh 1184 

Boll. Frank 960 

Bolmeier, August 754 

Bond, Henry 1317 

Bond, Joseph J 320 

Booth, Albert A 848 

Borderud, A. P 518 

Borsheim, Esten A 209 

Bosard, James H 678 

Bosard, Robert H 681 

Bourassa, Horace 945 

Boyd, Hon. Jos. B 695 

Boyd, Hon. Rob't B.... 885 

Boyle. Cornelius 571 

Brakke, Louis L 264 

Brakke, Nels 505 

Branchflower, Stephen.. 1138 
Brand, John P 361 


Brandenburg, John 729 

Brauer, Gustav A 771 

Bray, Samuel 998 

Brecto, Ole 827 

Brekke, Hans J 720 

Brenna, Orjans.H 1001 

Brenner, Ernest W 1091 

Brightbill, David K 936 

Brink, Christian 270 

Brinton, Marshall 228 

Brisbin, Chas. H 955 

Brokke, Knut 484 

Brotnov, Hon. K. O.... 868 
Broughton, Albert W...1305 

Brown, Chas. V 736 

Brown, David 1036 

Brown, Frank M 364 

Brown, Harry E 714 

Brown, Hon.'Carl G....1131 

Brown, James D 313 

Brown, James G 430 

Brownlee, Duncan 599 

Brownson, Ernest R 822 

Brundage, J. B 858 

Brynjoltson, Hon. S. B. .1070 
Brynjolfson, Magnus. . .1228 

Brynjulson, Geo 773 

Buchheit, Joseph 489 

Buck, Alfred C 512 

Budge, Wm 173 

Bue,"^LarsO 1035 

Bulk, Harry 755 

Burgum, Anthony T 742 

Burke, Charles H 1272 

Burman, A 583 

Burnham, Frank J 397 

Burr, Alexander G 1128 

Buttery, John K 1322 

Button, Henry H 583 

Buttz, Hon. Chas. W... 1306 
Bye, Thor T 565 

Cain, John 907 

Caldwell, Edward 1051 

Caldwell, James 493 

Caldwell, Wm. A 302 

Callahan, John F 604 

Campbell, Dr. Frank J.. 321 
Campbell,Dr. Robert D. 436 
Campbell, James G....1136 

Campbell, Neil 639 

Campbell, Robert 859 

Campbell, Wm.N 327 

Canham, Roland N 337 



Capes, George H 1284 

Carkin. E. W. L 429 

Carlblom, Albert N 179 

Carleton, Will H 807 

Carothers, judge R. M. .1056 
Carpenter, Dr. Geo. A.. 327 

Carpenter, James 895 

Carpenter, M. Murray.. 554 

Carr, Roneldo '. . . 697 

Carr, Thos 973 

Carroll, John D 373 

Carruth, Edwin C 1021 

Carter, Frank H 299 

Cascaden, Thos 978 

Cashel, John L 730 

Cass County Democrat. 535 
Cass County State Bank. 287 

Casselton Reporter 532 

Catholic Church, Devils 

Lake 937 

Cathro, F. \V 1159 

Cavaleer, Lhas 057 

Chacev, Hon. Hetei»P. . .1212 

Chaffee, Eben \V 246 

Chaffee, Frank X 675 

Chaffee, Herbert F 246 

Chambers, George C... .1064 

Chandler, Aaron 748 

Chapman, Homer M... 392 
Chapman, Wilbur F.... 392 
Chappell. Melvin D.... 922 
Charbonneau, Bruno... 917 

Charlebois, Alex 1402 

Chase, Albert H 1284 

Chesley, James Albee. . 726 

Chezik, John 388 

Christenson, Ole 854 

Christianson, Ole 520 

Churchill, Hon. Geo. S . 2::« 

Clancy, Daniel 696 

Clapp, Isaac P 265 

Clapp, \Vm. J 251 

Clark, David 1353 

Clark, David W 628 

Clark, Dr. Sidney B.... 226 

Clark, John M 875 

Clarke, Joseph 611 

Clarke, Sidney .584 

Clementson, Ole 886 

Clough, MiloM 238 

Cochrane, Alfred K 606 

Cochrane, John M 653 

Cochrane, Robert... . 1401 

Collins, Chas. S 760 

Collins, James 500 

Colosky, Hon. Joseph. . . 937 

Colwell, Francis 817 

Comstock, Thos. C 367 

Conlon, Chas. J 876 

Conner, Chas. W 490 

Cook, Geo. R 896 

Cook, Hon. AmenzoM. 633 

Cook, John H 979 

Cooper, Charles H 1079 

Cooper, Hon. Rollin C. 379 

Cooper, T. J 293 

Copeland. R. H 803 

Coppin, Alfred 609 

Corbet, Burke 476 

Corliss, Hon. G. C. H . . . 204 

Coulter, Jos. A 665 

Court, Hon. Henry D.. 875 

Covell, Alton G ,391 

Covell, John M 713 

Cowan, Hon. John F...1216 

Cox, Charles E 1204 

Crabtree, Benjamin R.. 609 


Crafts, Frank E 435 

Crane, Peter 830 

Crane & Losee 8:30 

Crary, E. Milton 1036 

Crary, John H 1065 

Crary, \Vm. A 1073 

Crawford, Thos. W 659 

Creel, Col. Heber M....r268 
Critchfield, Dr. H. H... 719 

Cronan, Joseph E 636 

Crothers, H. S 513 

Crum, Chas. E 816 

Crvne, Gilbert S 1196 

Cu'llen, William 362 

Cummius, Wm. T. H.. . 756 
Cunningham, Hon. D.C. 980 

Currie, Alexander 917 

Currier, Hon. Chas. A.. 1046 

Curtis, Thos. A 327 

Curry, Halsey S 857 

Cuthbertson, John 785 

Cutler, H. Dwight 1026 

Dacotah Hotel, Gr. Fork 169 

Daelev, Richard 1019 

Dahl,Thor. G 361 

Dahlen, Nils E 1262 

Dahlen, S. P 1255 

Dahlstrom, Carl 909 

Dakin, G. W 688 

Dalrymple, Clark C....1232 
Dalrymple, Clifton G.. 880 

Daniels, Burrell A 955 

Daniels, Cornelius 9.-<4 

Darling, John S 991 

Darrow, Dr. Edw. M... 434 

Davidson, Rob't W 1287 

Davies, Frank C 713 

Davies Hotel, New Rock- 
ford 1042 

Davis, Frank D 956 

Davis, Dr. Homer A .... 1 123 

Davis, Lisander A 1107 

Davis, L.M 1196 

Day, Lucius C 513 

Dawson, Thos. B 1239 

De Bogart, MiloF.Van. 699 

DeBolt.Cass 338 

DeBolt, Frank P 469 

De Foe, Francis 1408 

De la Bere, Michael.... 610 

Delameter, Leonard 682 

Denning, Jacob H 616 

Dennis, Wm. H 862 

Denney, Wm. H 771 

Devine, Hon. Joseph M. 165 
Devitt, Dr. Thomas G. .1074 
Dickinson, Horace L. . .1118 

Dickson, Wm. B 804 

Digness, Chas. A 288 

Dimick, Edwin 677 

Dinnie, John 237 

Dinwoodie, John 1283 

Dinwoodie, Wm 1392 

Dodds, James T (90 

Doleshy, Frank 647 

Dompier, Bert 1341 

Dompier, Fred M 966 

Donahoe, Peter 690 

Donovan, Dr.Edward I..1381 

Dorsev, John 351 

Dorval, Hon. H. E 1300 

Douglas, George 1149 

Douglas, Hon. Jas. A.... 799 

Douglas, William 1124 

Douglas, Wm. Bruce... .1060 
Doyan, Charles H 1078 


Dresser, William C 446 

DriscoU, Hon.DennisW. 180 
Duggan, Dr. Fred J ...1114 

Dunbar, Clarence S 529 

Duncan, George 1188 

Duncan, Hon. Alex .... 949 

Duncan, Judge John 6.36 

Dundas, John B 1371 

Dunford, Henry 1388 

Dunham, A. J 219 

Dunham, Franklin S... 196 

Dunlop, Stevenson 624 

Dunn, Geo 471 

Dunphy, James 1135 

Dupont, Rev. Father. . .1110 

Dye, Maurice E 484 

Dynes, John 821 

Dysven, Martin O 1166 

Dwire, Ho.i. Timothy J. 1322 

Eakin, Zerlina S 780 

Easterbrook, John Y.. . . 477 

Eastman, Hazen B 1.382 

Eaton, Hamlin F 481 

Eberl, Frank J 1397 

Eddy, Ernest C 328 

Eddy, Ezra B. 328 

Edick, Cornelius D 321 

Edmonds, Arthur 417 

Edwards, Chandler S.. . 617 
Edwards, Maj. A. W... 183 
Edwards, Samuel M. . . . 889 

Eede, Dr. J. W 805 

Egge, Anton 1263 

Eggen, Nils 376 

Eggers, Dr. August S. . .1122 

Eielson, Ole 639 

Ellingson, Henry J 941 

Ellingson, Swen 924 

Elliott, Joseph B 1378 

Elliott, Wm 1070 

Ellis, Bayard H 1062 

Elton, James 442 

Elvick, NelsH 1163 

Emery, Walter S 213 

Engberg, Julius R 1252 

Engebretson, Asle 412 

Engelter, Hon. William 797 

Engesather, Erik 1136 

Engesather, John 1121 

Enger, Hon. F. G 928 

Engerud, Edward 339 

Engle, Hon. Mathias L. 496 

Erb, Peter 687 

Erickson, Edward 578 

Erickson, Erick 724 

Erickson, Erick G 226 

Erickson, Martin 653 

Erickson, Die..... 648 

Erickson, Thos. . .'. 615 

Erickson, Tom 646 

Erskine,Geo. Q 660 

Eseby, Ole 518 

Eshelman, Jacob S 299 

Estabrook, Hon. Frank. 1371 

Etzell, Cha.s. L 495 

Evanson, Even 1 1309 

Evenson, E 792 

Evenson, Ole H 202 

Everson, Ole N 1387 

Ewald, C. F 1169 

Eyolfson, Hon. -Stephen. 928 
Express, The Buffalo.. . 530 

Fairbanks, Wm. C 1199 

Falley, Fred 179 

Fancher, Gov. Fred B. . 159 


Fancher, Lucius B 992 

Farley, Wm 938 

Farnham, Geo. B 744 

Farnsworth, Sidney L..1137 

Farrand, John D 526 

Farrar, Robert W 560 

Farrow, Fred J 1146 

Fausett, E. 618 

Faust, Aaron 621 

Faust, lacob 490 

Fawcett, Dr. John 1138 

Faxon, John D 190 

Feetham, Frank B 1372 

Fegan, W. W 1409 

Feldman, Henry C 840 

Ferguson, Peter R 1141 

Ferris, Hon. Henrv 682 

Ferrv, Michael....' 903 

Ferry, Peter 907 

Fincher, Herbert J 664 

Fingarson, Engebrit. . . . 626 

Finlavson, Murdo A 720 

Finnie, James 992 

First Nat. Bk. Casselton 494 
First Nat. Bank, Grafton 730 
First Nat. Bk., G. Forks 294 

Fish, Dr. Henry G 789 

Fisk, Judge Charles J . . 321 

Fjeld, Knud O 938 

Fjelde, Dr. Herman O. . 227 

Flaa, Knut E 293 

Flatt, Josiah 822 

Fletcher, George F 243 

Fletcher, Samuel 530 

Fogerty, James 970 

Foley, Edward S 1087 

Foley, Henry P 461 

Folsom, Dr. Edwin .... 375 

Foran, John 867 

Forbes, Thomas R 723 

Forbes, W. I 1187 

Ford, Dennis 403 

Ford, Michael 403 

Ford, Morgan J 403 

Formanack, Frank J . . . 641 

Forrest, Richard 942 

Foster, George I 271 

Foster, Samuel 1092 

Foss, Charles J 1177 

Fosse, Ole E 556 

Fox. Prof. Edward J... 974 
Fraine, Major John H . . 221 

Francis, Elmer 1406 

Franklin. Joel 683 

Franzen, John 695 

Eraser, Olwer M 351 

Freegord, Judge A. L . .1174 

French, lesse R 750 

French, John P.,Jr 785 

French, Theodore L. . . . 830 

Frich, Carl N 1187 

Erie, Frank E 1180 

Fried, Anton 654 

Friskop, Andrew A 263 

Friskop, Peter A 529 

Frost, Alfred D 741 

Fuller, Nelson N 1093 

Furlong, Wm. H 871 

Gailfus, Courtland R. . . 963 

Galbraith, John P 1060 

Gale, Josiah H 942 

Galehouse, Wallace. . . . 586 

Gallup Carlton A 495 

Gallup, Ruel 243 

Gardiner, Robert J 1405 

Gardner, A. G 729 






Gates, Geo. C 

. 326 

Halaas, Edward T.... 

. 340 

Herrick, Franklin.... 

. 302 

Immel, Nicholas 


Gates, Horace .S ' . 

. (584 

Halbert, Hon. Horace. 

. 809 

Hartsgaard, Knud 

. 608 

Indergaard, John E.. 

. 287 

Geary, Edward C 

. 405 

Hale, John A 

. 580 

Hertsgaard, Ole J.... 

. 611 

Ingebretson, Hon. G. E.1280 


. 442 

Hall, A. A 

, 945 

Hesketh, Thos 

. 924 

Inter Ocean, Devils L 


Geddes, David G 

. 817 

Hall, Clarkson A 


Heskin, Hon. Sven N. 


Irwin, Dr. Samuel H... 

. 1064 

Getchell, Simeon 



. 747 

Hestdalen, Ole J 

. 277 

Itrich, Adolph F 

. 726 

Getzlaff, Gustav C... 


Halls, William 


Hicks, John P 


Geweke, Henry F .... 


Hallum, Hon. BorgerC 

. 244 

Hicks, Ole 

. 306 

Jacobson, Chas. f. 0... 

. 405 

Gibson, Dr. Samuel G. 


Halverson, Halver P.. 

. 671 

Hicks, Warren E.... 

. 275 

Jacobson, Geo 

. 487 

Gilbert, Henry 


Halvorsen, Esten 

. 882 

Higgs, John W 

. 956 

Jacobson, John G 


. 559 

Halvorson, Halver S.. 

Hi|h, James H 

. 686 


Gilbertson, Culbert . . . 

. m 

. 908 

Hilborn, H.A 

. 732 

Jacobson, Martin. . . . 


Gilbertson, Henry 


Hanawalt, John E 


Hilke, August 

. 421 

[acobs m Blk., Minot 


Gilbertson, Hon. Egbert 488 

Hancock, Thomas M.. 

. 204 

Hill, Barney 

Hill, Hon. George.... 

. 588 

Jahren, Rev. John H. 

. 590 

Gilby, The Bank ot . . . 


Hankinson, Hon. R. H 

. 186 

. 700 

lahr, Theodore T 

. 219 

Gilgenbach, John N... 
Gill, Hon. lames C... 
Gill, Wni. L 

. t>(i4 

Hanna, Hon. L. B.. .. 


Hill, James E 

. 701 

Jamieson, John 

. 978 

. 918 

Hansbrough, Hon. H.C 
Hansen, Ole 

. 994 

HiUman, John 


Jasper, Jos 

Jemison, James B 

. 646 

. 921 


Hjertaas, Rev. H 

. 605 

. 737 

Gilmore, Frank N .... 

, 288 

Hansen, P 

. 666 

Hoag, Simon V 

. 845 

Jenks, Cyrus H 


Goddard, Fred S 

. 400 

Hanson, Anton 

. 991 

Hoagland, John P.... 
Hocking, John S 

. 394 

Jenkins, James 

Jennings, Hon. James 
Jensen, Knute 

. 676 

Goodman, Frederick L 

. 382 

Hanson, Anton 

. 591 



Goodman, Joseph 


Hanson, Evan M 


Hockridge, James B.. 

. 998 

. 606 

Goodman, Peter P 

, 290 

Hanson, Henry 

. 824 

Hoefs, August 

. 519 

Jewell, Marshall H... 

. 184 

Goose River Bank .... 


Hanson, Hon. Andrew. 

. 202 

Hoff, Peder J 

. 685 

Johns, Dr John G . . . 

Johnson, Axtle 

Johnson, Berger M. .. 

. 454 

. 549 
, 928 

Hanson, Ole K 

Hanson, Oliver S 

. 968 

. 477 

. 910 

. 693 

Goozee, Wm. E 

Hoffman, John 

. 439 

. 632 

Gordon, Julius G 


Hardy, Ambrose H 

. 445 

Hofos, Gustat C 

. 472 

Johnson, Capt. John L 

. 276 

Gorman, Robert 


Harris, Harvey 

. 658 

Hogenson, John 

. 506 

lohnson, Carl R 

. 871 

Goss, Evan B 


Harrison, Geo. W 


Hogue, Geo. M 

. 744 

ohnson. Christian J. . 

. 288 

Goss, John F 


Harrison, John W 

Harrold, Thomas G... 


Hogue, Harry A 

Hohl, Jacob H 

. 669 

ohnson, Christian .\1.. 

. 210 

Goyne, Noah 



. 487 

ohnson. Dr. Jas. H... 

. 231 

Grafton National Bank 

. 331 

Harshman, Chas 


Holbrook. Welcome J 

. 1207 

Johnson, Dr. S. Paige 


Graham, Benjamin 

. 876 

Harvey, John 

Harvey, Wm 


Holden, Thomas 


lohnson, Edward B . 

. 201 

Graham, James 

. 960 


Holding, Randolph... 

. 472 

Johnson, Frank G . . . 

. 579 

Graham, John 


Hassell, Louis K. .... 

. 1276 

Holley, Myron J 

Holmes, Clark W.... 

. 494 

Johnson, Gunder . . 

. 418 

Grange, Marion 

. 652 

Hassing, Wm. H 

. 766 


Johnson, Henry 


Grange, Wm. F 


Hauan, Hon. Ole C... 

. 608 

Holmes, David M . . . . 


Johnson, Hon. lames. 


Grant, Robert 


Hauge, Albert 

. 672 

Holt, Martin O 

. 937 

Johnson. Hon. Martin N.1127 

Grassick, Dr. James.. 

. 501 

Haugen, Gilbert G 

. 810 

Hoke, Hon. Even H.. 


Johnson, Isaac N 



. 694 

Haugen, OleS 


Holz, Henry 


Johnson, ohn 

. 707 

Gray, A. H 

. 264 

Havrevold, Hon. L. P. 

. 913 

Honett, Frank 

. 1034 

Johnson, ohn A 

. 4C0 

Gray, Hon. Enos 

. 980 

Hawk, Hon. Wm. J... 


Honey, Charles H.... 


Johnson, ohn I 

. 584 

Green, Eli 

. 526 

Hayes, James J 

. 684 

Hong, Ole A 

. 463 

Johnson, Knudt A 

. 618 

Green, Hon. J- S 

Greene, John E 

Greene, Mansir W. . . . 

. 882 

Hayertz, Andrew 

. 667 

Hood, Albert A 


Johnson, Martin E 

Johnson, Morris 

. 277 

. 592 

Hayertz, Nicholas 

. 566 

Horn, Elbridge F.... 

. 537 

. 6?6 

. 592 

Headland, Ole E 

, 278 

Horn, ValmerP 

. 687 

Johnson, Ole A 

. 421 

Gregory, Hon. Chas. E 


Headland, John E 

. 263 

Home, Arthur E 

. 928 

Johnson, Peter 

. 780 

Greig, Dr. J. A 

Gresens,John H 


Heath, Thomas 

. 824 

Home, James A 

. 918 

Johnson, Robert F. . . . 

. 950 


Hector, Hon. Martin. . 

. 197 

Home, William 

. 913 

Johnson, ToUef 

Johnston, Hon. Wm. R 


Grest, John 

. 315 

Hednian, John P 


Hoskins,W. I 



Gribble, Wm 

. 362 

Heerman, Capt. Ed. E 


Houston, David H 


Johnston, Robert L 

. 881 

Griffith, Robert B 

. 316 

Hegge, Hon. Ole I. .. 


Hovey, James D 


londahl, John I 

. 842 

Griggs, Capt. Alexander 159 

Heglie, Hon. Andrew C 

. 250 

Howard, Hon. Gunder 

.. 352 

Jones, Henry B 

. 346 

Grinager, Hans P 

. 298 

Heglie, Peter 

. 245 

Howe, Zadok S 

. 386 

Jones, William .. 


Grinley, Benedict B... 

. 633 

Hein, August 

. 81 r 

Howells, William .... 

. 773 

Jones, William M 

. 249 

Gronke, Henry 

Gronvold, Ole C 

. 453 

Hein. Chls 




. 750 

Hein, Rev. Alphonse.. 

. 937 

Hoyt, Herman 

. 627 

Jopp, Andrew 


Gronvold, Hon. F. T.. 


Heinzmann, Rev. R. A 

. 696 

Hubbard, Newton K.. 

. 852 

Jordan, John J 

Jordet, Gilbert K 

. 446 

Grosvenor, Wallace... 

. 333 

Helgeland, Lewis S... 
Hellekson, Henry J . . 


Hudson, Judge S. A.. 

. 174 

. 580 

Groven, Edwin H 


. 433 

Huffman, Walter D.. 

. 442 

Jordet, Ole O 

. 742 

Groves, George W , . . 


Helgeson, Hon. H. T.. 


Hughes, Gen. Alexander 192 

Jorgenson, John 

. 799 

Grubbs, Robert E. L.. 

. 1310 

Helgeson, Helge 

. 519 

Hulbert, Burton 

. 785 

Jorgenson, Ole B 

. 345 

Gudger, Chas. H 

. 640 

Hem, Ole N 

. 288 

Hunger, Edward 

. 322 

Joslyn, James K 

. 465 

Guertin, J. J. Eugene.. 

. 968 

Hemmingson, Niels... 

. 429 

Hunt, John C 

. 979 

Josund, Adolf R 

. 723 

GuUicksen, Ever 

, 627 

Hendnckson, Ole 

. 846 

Hunt, Rev. Jerome... . 

. 998 

Joy, Hon. Henry N... 

. 742 

Gunderson, Hon. Erick 


Henning, Dr. J. D 

. 270 

Hunter State Bank.... 

. 761 

Joy, Willis A 

Julsrud, Karl 

. 362 

Gunderson, ludge Even. 1219 

Henschel, Wm 

. 547 

Hunter, William T.. . 

. 852 


Gunhus, Gotfred H . . . 


Herald Block, Grand 

Hurd, Chas. E 


Juno, Louis 

. 702 

Gunkel, Chas 

. 735 


. 169 

Hurd, Herbert C 

. 969 

Gutting, Michael 


Herald, The Cando.... 

. 970 

Hurlev, Hon. H. D.... 

. 284 

Kaemmer, John W ... 

. 374 

Herald, The Lakota... 


Hurley, William 

. 622 

Kain, John 

. 997 

Haagenson, Haoken... 

. 611 

Herbison, Leslie J 

. 879 

Husebye,John J. . .. 


Kasper, John 

. 617 

Haas, Peter 

, .560 

Herbrand.son, Hon. P.. 

. 421 

Hutchinson, Chas. J . 

. 403 

Kautt, N 

. 789 

Hagen, Oluf 


Herbrandson, Ole O... 

. 617 

Hutchinson, George W.. 349 

Kavanaugh, Edward. 


Haggart, Hon. John E. 

. 185 

Herman, Frank 

. 368 

Hutchinson, John H.. 


Keating, Richard 

. 338 


Herman, Wm. H.... 

. 833 

Keating, Wm. M 

. 333 

Haig, Prof. John A.... 


Herom, Andrew P 

. 890 

Ildstad, John 


Keene, Harvey E.... 

. 452 






Kellett, Geo. A 

. 494 

Lee, Hon. Severt M.. 

. 965 

Maddux. Charles J.... 


McKenzie, Dr. James D. 708 

Kelley, Clark W 


Lee, James L 

Lee, Jens 

. 197 

Maddux Block. New 

McKenzie, Duncan.... 

. 780 

Kelley, Geo. VV 

. 666 

. 809 



McKenzie, George B... 


Kellogg, Hon. A. H.. 
Kelly, Wm. A 

. 860 

Lee, os.E 

. 822 

Madsen. Morris 


McKenzie. Judge Wm 


. 250 

Lee, Steiner O 

. 823 

Mager, John F 


McKenzie. Peter D.... 

. 373 

Kelly, John 


Leech, Addison 

. .523 

Magill. Col. Samuel G. 


McKinnon, Charles... 



. 1313 

Leeson, Samuel 


Maguire. John 


McKinnon, Donald ... 

. 634 

Kerr, Dr. Theo. F . . . 

. 409 

. 370 

Maher, John W 

Mahin, Robert N., Sr. . 


McKinnon, John 

. 946 

Kerr, Joseph L 

. 469 

Lenhart, Michael M.. 

. 514 


McKissick, James M... 

. 578 

Kernkamp, Wm. K . . 

. .532 

Lenz, Jonas 


Mahnken, Charles J... 


McKone, Peter 


Ketchum, Wm. L . . . . 

. 804 

Leraas, John 

. 536 

Male, Charles 


McLachlan, Colin 

. 1045 

Kiff, .Martin W 

. 712 

Lerom, John I 


Malette, Charles A.... 


McLaren, Daniel A... 

. 630 

Kildahl, .Andrew J... 


Letson, Frank 

. 422 

Mallough, Joseph 


McLaughlin, Arthur M 

. 301 

Kmibail, Porter 



Malo, Rev. John F.... 


McLaughlin, Hon. A.H 


Kinde, Hans J 

. 270 

Leutz, Ferdinand 


Maltby. Jay H 

Mann. William 


McLean. Hon. Fred. W 


King, Chas. L 

. 707 

Lewis, Newton A 

, 203 


McLean, Hon. Henry. 


King, Frank N 

. 810 

. 803 

Mann. William H 


McLeod, Duncan C... 


King, Milton D 

. 867 

Lewis, Stephen A 

. 386 

Manseau, Philip A.... 


McMahon, Edward J... 


Kinney. Homer E.... 

. 921 

Lewis, Thomas D 

. 984 

Mares, Ernest 


McMillan, Chas. B 


Kleinogel, Thomas.. 

. 436 

Lewis, Thomas E 


Mares. Richard A . . . . 


McMillan, Donald H... 


Klessig, Max M . . . . 


Libby, Hiram A 


Maresh. John 


McMillen. Peter H.... 


Klmd worth, Henry.. 

. 705 

Lincoln, Willard H... 

. 748 

Mark, James 


Meacham. John B 

. 767 

Kline, Geo. W 

. 907 

Lindelien, John 

. 598 

Martin, Fred H 


Medberry. Chas. L 

. 621 

Klovstad, John A . . . 

. 392 

Lindsey, Draper A... 

. 470 

Masterson, Peter 

. 881 

Medelman, Henry 


Kneen, James 

Knight, Sewell H.... 
Knowles, Geo. H.... 

. 232 

Lindstrom, Anthony E 

. 732 

Martin. Herbert J 


Meilicke, Edward 

. 423 

. 499 

Lindstrom, Hon. C. L. 


Matters. Joseph 


Mellon, Levi 



Lindstrum, Louis 

. 424 

Matthews, John 


Memory, Isaac E 

. 656 


. 673 

Linn, Samuel L 

. 868 

Mattson, Mat 


Menzies. Robert 


Koehmstedt, Andrew 

:. 829 

Lippert, Geo 

Little, Clarence B.... 

. 4.53 

Mattson, Peter M 


.Merchant, Dr. M. F... 

. 607 

Koesel, Fred 


. 626 

Mav, Edwin E 


Merrick, Ensign P 



Little. Edward 

. 572 

Mayfield, Alfred C... 


Merrifield, Prof. W . . . 


Kringler, Nels E 

. 554 

Little. Frank A 

. 331 

Mavville. Nor. Luth.Ch 

. 580 

Merritt, Charles 

. 634 

Kroeger, Hon. Herman 871 

Lium, John J 

. 225 

Mayville, Nor. Luth. Cli 

Merritt, Frank J 

Messersmith, Emmel F 


Krogh, Henry 

. 427 

Lloyd, John M 

. 848 

Hanges Synod 

Mayville Tribune, The 



Kruger, Wm. F 


Lockerby, Dr. M.M.. 

. 418 


Messner, John G 

. 598 

Krumm, August 

. 220 

Lockhart, John B 


McArthur, Dugald H.. 


Metcalf, John S 



McCain, Wm. A 


Michels, Hon. [ames... 

. 1020 

Laberge, Dr.P. U.... 

. 786 

Loiland, Halvor K 

. 931 

McCanna, Hon. D. W. 


Miller, Gen. Elliott S.. 

. 189 

La Du, Gilbert 

. 277 

Long. Frank 

. 411 

McCarthy, Charles 


Miller, Joseph 

. 489 

Laidlaw. Hon. Walter A. 790 

Long, James 

. 700 

McClory, Hon. Peter J. 


Miller, Louis H 


Laidley, Caleb 

, 936 

Longfellow, Geo J ... . 


McClure. Marshall. .. 


Miller, Math 


Lake, Henry 


Looniis, Almon L 

. 257 

McClure. William A.. 


Miller, William D 


Lamb, Warren H . . . . 

. 316 

Losee, W.H 

. 830 

McConnell, Dr. J. DeW 

. 294 

Miller. William H 

. 713 

Lanberg, [ohn H 


Louberget. Gustave J. 

. 276 

McConville, Hugh A.. 

. 791 

Milligan. William J ... 

. 278 

Lander, Edward J.. 

. 363 

Loughead, Hugh 

. 671 

McCormick, Hon. James 978 

Minear. John 

. 483 

Landis, Homer D.... 

. 461 

Lounsberry, Col. C. A. 


McCoy, Thomas 

. 411 

Mitchell. A. M 

. 549 

Lang, Jacob C 

. 495 

Lovelace, Hon. E. S.. 

. 363 

McCulloch, Hon.Wm. 1 

. 189 

Mitchell. Charles H... 

. 282 

Lanlfoid, Samuel B. 

. 459 

Lovell, Thomas 

. 471 

McCumber, Hon P. J . 


Mitchell. Charles M... 

. 369 

Langelier, Henry 

. 969 

Lovell, \'erner R 

. 4:-:9 

McDevitt. George 


Mitchell. John W 

. 864 

Langer, Hon. Frank J 

. 459 

Lovett, Chas. M 

. 289 

McDonald. Angus F.. . 

. 951 

Mitchell. Winthrop.... 



Lowell, Chas. A 

. 232 

McDonald, Dr. A. D. J 


Moeller. Dr. Thor.O. E. 946 

Langworthv, Olin L. . 

. 404 

Lowell, Jacob 

. 226 

McDonald, H.J 


Moen. EgildT 

. 1025 

Laramore, John W. . 

. 460 

Lubenow, John 

. 393 

McDonald, [ohn A .. 

. 961 

Mofiett. James W 


Larin, David 

. 565 

Luce, Geo. A 

. 265 

McDonald, Rev. J. B.. 

. 600 

Montgomery. John 

Monilaws. Thomas 

. 688 

Larsen, Ole 

. 647 

Ludwig, Christ 

. 481 

McDonough, Wm. H.. 

. 548 

. 771 

Larson, Christian E.. 

.. 435 

Lueck, John F 

. 646 

McDougall, Fred. W.. 

. 922 

Monson. Mons 

. 829 

Larson, Gustav 

. . 555 

Lueder, Hernhard ... 

. 779 

McDougall, John 

. 630 

Monson, Ole 

. 839 

Larson, Hans 

. 894 

Lundy, Wm. W 


McGahan. Judge L. D. 


Mooney. Hon. Wm. J. 


Larson, Henry 

.. 815 

Luros, Theodore A . . 


McGauvran. John 

McGillivray, Hon. A. C 


Moore. D. C 

. 331 

Larson, Hon. Lars H. 

. . 445 

Lutz, Hon. Geo 

. 190 

. 382 

Moore, Eugene 

. 322 

Larson, Knud 


Lyall, Peter 

. 743 

McGilvery, Alex. H... 


Moore, Lewis J 

. 896 

Larson, Lewis O 

.. 386 

Lyall, Robert 

. 669 

McGinnis, Mathew 


Moore, Warren M.... 


Larson, .Martin 

. . 543 

Lykken, Gilmer H... 


McGlenn.Wm. R 


Moorhouse, Wm. S. . . . 

. 294 

Larson, Martin E 

.. 463 

Lyman, Charles R. . 


McGregor, John C 

McGregor, Murdo 

. 560 

Morck, Andrew 

. 827 

Larson, Xels 

.. 589 

Lymburner, James. .. 


. 783 

Morgan, Dr. Sid. O... 


. 737 
. . 574 

McGuigan, William... 
McGurren, James 

. 216 

. 289 

Morgan, Hon. David K 
Morgridge, William J 

. 98S 

Larson, Theodore.... 

Lynch, Hon. Mathew 

. 586 


Laski, Charles K 


Lynch, James 

. 417 

McHugh, Hon. Patrick 

. 760 

More. S. G 

. 565 

La Tourette, Capt.Peterll50 

Lyness, Wm. W 


Mclntire, John 

. .542 

Morehouse. Ralph E.. 

. 387 

. 1109 

Mclntyre, Arthur 

Mclntyre, Hon. Eli D. 


. 828 

Morrill. Myron H . . . . 
Morrill. Fred. B 


Lavayea, Henry E ... 

Lyons, Patrick 


. 640 

Lavik, Andrew J. . . 
Lawrence, Mathias... 


Mclntyre, Joseph J. 
Mcllvain, Col. Wm. W 

. 629 

Morrison, John 1- 


.. 648 

Macfadden, Wm. C. 

. . 645 

. 118 

Morrison, Norman 


Laxdal. Daniel J 

.. 688 

Mackenzie. Dr. J. R.. 

.. 555 

McKav, John 

. 951 

Morrow, loseph A .. 
Morrow, Robert B .. 

. 536 

Lee, Charles H 


MacLachlan. Hon. C. 


McKean, William 

. 568 

.. 351 

McKechnie, James D.. 
McKendry, Wm 

. 237 
. 863 

Morrow, Robert H... 
Morrow, William M... 

Lee, George W 

Maddock. Michael... 


. 672 





Mortensen, Lewis 

. 719 

Oftedal, Rev. Gustav. 

. 493 

Pinkham, Albert F.... 


Richardson, Hon. R. B 


Mosher, Alfred 


Oksendahl, Hon. T. H 


Pinkham, Hon. N. B.. 

. 851 


Motschenbacher, M . . 

. 886 

Olds, Franklin P 


Piper, Carl A 

. 923 

Richardson, Samuel D 

. 756 

Moug, Alexander 

. 705 

Oleson, Ole 

. 755 

Pitcher, Frank 


Richter, Albert J 

. 659 

Mourn, Ingebregt 

. 369 

Oliver, Hon. Harry S. 

. 215 

Pladsen, Sever K 

. 571 

Rigstad, Ole A 

. 612 

Mountaineer, Wahalla 


Oliver, Isaac J 

. 356 

Plain, Hon. Charles W 


Rindy, Halvor J 

. 561 

Movius, Emil A 

. 531 

Olmstead, Charles H.. 


Plain, Hon. Charles W 

Ringstad, Rev. John.. 
Robbins, Charles E . . . 

. 1296 

Movius, Ernst F 

. 641 

Olsgard, E. C 




. 647 

Movius, John H 

. 252 

Olson, Fred 

. 606 


. 481 

Roberge, Napoleon . . . 

. 1287 

Movius, William R... 

. 538 

Olson, Magnus 

. 579 

Plath, J. H.,Sr 

. 478 

Roberts, Judge Augustus 786 

Moynier, Victor 


Olson, Newton 


Plath,J.Henry, Jr 


Roberts, Peter 


MudEjett, Cant. Chas. F 

. 308 

Olson, Ole A 

. 600 

Plumley, Horatio C... 

. 20H 

Roberts, Samuel G... 

. 227 

Muir, Hon. Walter.... 

. 765 

Olson, O.B 

. 482 

Pollock, James 

. 932 

Robertson, John L 

. 717 

Muir, James 

. 695 

Olson, Olaus E 

. .591 

Pollock, Judge Chas. A 
Pollock, Richard 

. 191 

Robertson, Mrs. John P 

. 974 

Munie;, John 


Olson, Ole G 

. 1208 

. 249 

Robertson, William... 

. 406 

Murphy, Charles J 


Olson, 0. J. 

. 263 

Pollock, Robert M 


Robinson, Col. Wm. H 

. 179 

Murphy, Henry B 

Murphy, James 

Murphy, John W 


Ponto, Julius 

Porter, Charles W 


Roble, Torstein 

Rod, Hon. Ole A .... 


. 927 

Orange, George W... 

. 698 

. 27f< 

. 448 

Orr, William 


Porter, George 

. 344 

Rogne, T. K 

. 810 

. 833 

Osgood, Hon. George E. 660 
Ostern, Hans J 391 

Porter, Henry R.,M. D 
Porter, Hon. Edward F 

. 160 


Myers, J. M 

Root, Herbeit 

. 201 

Otte, Emil C 

. 748 

Porter, Menzo W 

, 725 

Rorvik, Rev. Johan R 

. 343 


. 918 

Otto, Rudolph E 

. 731 

Portland State Bank... 

. 622 

Rose, Leonard A 

. 240 

. 908 

Posey, George W 

Posv, Stephen M 


Narum, Peter H 

. 815 

Ovind, Krist J 

. 949 


Rosenkranz, August G 

Nash, Marion F 

. 840 

Owen, Eugene S 

. 846 

Potter, Franklin 

. 532 

Ross, Donald C 

. 238 

Nash, William C... 


Pottner, John 

. 364 

Rothgarn, Hans H 


Nass, TorgerG 


Page, Charles J 

. 754 

Powell, Albert M 


Rounsevell, Dr. A. P. . 


Needham, James 

. 777 

Page, Elisha B 

. 969 

Powers, Chas. L 

. 654 

Rourke, Hon. P. H... 


Neiman, Daniel S.... 

. 325 

Palmer, Henry A . . . . 

. 952 

Powles, Joseph 


Rowe, Hon. H. J 

. 476 

Nelson, John H 

. 343 

Parisean, John L 


Powles, Joseph, portrai 


Rud,Haltin C 


Nelson, John 

. 246 

Parsons, Thomas D . . 

. 220 

Powlison, Allen 

. 677 

Rude, Martin L 

. 350 

Nelson, Hon. Magnus. 

. 550 

Partridge, Charles J.. 


Powlison, Eugene Q... 

. 797 

Rukke, N. C 

. 221 

Nelson, Hon. OleG.. 

. 864 

Passage, George G... 

. 639 

Powlison, Hixson M . . 

. 720 

Ruland, Cyrus H 


Nelson, Hon. Thomas E. 970 

Pattarson, John 

. 597 

Prader, John L 

. 381 

Runck, Mathias 

. 244 

Nelson, Nels P 

. 452 

Pattee, Albert L 


Prader, Peter 

, 337 


Nelson, Osmand D. .. 

. 806 

Patterson, P. S 

. 868 

Pratt, Albert M 

, 590 

Russell, Frank 


Nelson, Steen H 

. 514 

Patten, Henry P 

. 475 

Pray, Dr. Edgar A 

. 415 

Rutherford, Christ. C. 


. 238 

Patton, Eugene M ... 
Paulsen, Josephyne M 

. 653 

Rutledge, Dr. Sam. W. 
Ryan, Dr. Joseph P.... 

Nelson, Theodore 


. 778 

Price, R. L 

. 804 

. 777 

Nesheim, Knute 0... 


Paulson, Dr. Andrew . 

. 307 

Price, William F 

. 585 

Ryder, Thomas 


. 611 

Ryerson, George L. ... 

Nesse, John E 

. 635 

Payne, Dr. Edwin B. 

. 932 

Prochaska, Frank L... 

. 889 

Newhauser, Carl 

. 747 

Peabody, George F . . 
Pease, George W . . . . 

. 434 

Progress, The Sheldon . 

. 610 

Sabourin, Alphonse . . . 

. 959 

Neverman, Henry. . . . 
Newby, Charles E.... 

. 316 

. 319 

Prom, Brynjolf 


Salisbury, George 


. 465 

Pease, John P 

. 544 

Prom, Brynjolf, portrait 


Sampson, Thomas J. .. 

. 681 

Newman, Hon. Seth.. 

. 812 

Pederson, Jens 

. 325 

Prosser, Hon. F.H.... 


Samson, Samuel 


Grafton " News and 

Pelto, John 


Purdon, Hon. James... 

. 427 

Sanborn, George H . . . 

. 256 


. 816 

Pendroy, Levi B 


Putnam, Sereno N 

. 195 

Sandager, Hon. Andrew. 305 

Newton, Geo. W 

. 345 

Pennington, Henry K 

. 562 

Punton, Thomas 


Sanders, Aaron M 


Neyhart.Alpheus F.. 

. 228 

Peoples, Hon. Hugh.. 


Sanders, Jesse J 

. 447 

Nichols, Hon. Geo. E 

. 191 

Pepper, Earl J 

. 642 

Quamme, Andrew 

Quamme, Henry 

. 571 

Sanders, O. A 


Nicholson, Hon. H. A. 


Perkins, James .... 


. 567 

Sanford, Frank 

. 208 

Nickel, Gustav A. R. 

. 345 

Perry, Hector H 

. 489 

Quarry, Dr. Harry D.. 

. 841 

Sanford, Hon. Almon C 

. 683 

Nicolson, Norman.... 

. 526 

Perry, Hon. E. P.... 

. 488 

Sanford, Hon. Chas. A. 


Niven, Donald 

. 412 

Peterson, Andrew 

. 754 

Ramberget, Crist S... 

. 737 

Sargent, Hon. E. C 

. 584 

Noack, John P 

. 777 

Peterson, Charles A.. 

. 717 

Ramsett, K. S 

. 616 

Sargeant, Malcolm L.. 

. 404 

Noltimier, August H. 


Peterson, Charles . . . 


Ramsey, Dr. Robert S. 


Satterlund, John 

. 256 


Peterson, Charles P . . 


. 977 

Satrom, Ole P 

. 600 

Noonan, John 

. 889 

Peterson, Charles F.. 

. 809 

Rasmussen, Halvor C. 


Sautebin, Edward 

. 606 

Nordin, Nils P 


Peterson, Ellis R 

. 209 

Rattle, John 

Record, TheCando... 



Northrop, Homer A.. 

. 406 

Peterson, Levi H 


. 952 

Sayer, Joseph 


Nuetzel, John 


Peterson, Mads 

. 547 

Record, The Walsh Co 

. 824 

Scanlan, Dr. William. 


Nulph, Charles A.. . 

. 416 

Peterson, Nels R 

. 452 

Redmon, Edward E... 

. 633 

Schallern, Arthur \"... 

. 839 

Nulph, Daniel 

. 416 

Peterson, Olof P 

. 3.52 

Redmon, William F... 

. 415 

Schlaberg, Frank W... 

. 405 

Nulph, Walter S 

. 418 

Peterson, Peter C... 

. 506 

Redwing, Andrew 


Schlechter, Gottfried . . 


Nurmi, Erik 


Peterson, Peter 

. 612 

Reeder, John P 

. 198 

Schlosser, George F... 


Nutting, Henry F 

. 682 

Pettes, Capt. Fred. W 


Regan, J. Austin 

. 251 

Schlosser, Louis 


Nye, Stephen A 

. 226 

Pew, William E 

. 988 

Regan, Thomas 


Schmid, Nick 


Nye, Wallace 

. 823 

Phelps, George H 

Phelps, Thomas v.... 

. 295 

. 598 

Reiton, J. P 


Schmidt, John F 

Oakland, Harris A.... 

. 993 

Philbrick, JohnF 

. 202 

Renfrew, James E 

. 428 

Schmitt, Alvin 

. 314 

Oberman, Henry J. . 

. 234 

Philip, Dr. Wm. H. M 

. 346 

Republican, Portland. 

. 598 

Schmitt, Nicholas 

. 393 

O'Conner, Timothy... 
O'Connor, Edward.... 

. 992 

Resser, William C... 
Restemayer, Hon. E. H 

Schmoker, Paul A 

Schneider, Louis 

. 381 
. 610 

Pierce, Edward 

. 762 

. 664 

O'Connor, Michael J. 


Pierce, F. H 

. 690 

Rich, Lewis K 

. 550 

Schouweiler, B. W... 

. 428 

O'Connor, Morris 

. 741 

Pierson, James R 

. 566 

Richards, W. L 


Schow, Martin 

. 811 






Schow, Robert 

. 812 

Smith, William W... 

. 623 

Swanson, Peter P 791 

Truax,John E 


ijchreiber, Albert 

. 445 

Smyhe, William .M . . . 


Sweeney, James 1313 

Truax, Judge lames \\ 

. 701 

Schroeder, Henry 

. 669 

Smyth, Dr. 1- rancis R 

. 5U0 

Swenson, Hon. S. C . . . . 636 

Trubshaw, Percy R. .. 

. 333 

. 454 

Soby,John M 


Sykes, Richard 896 

Trumbull, William.... 

. 482 

Schultze, Max 


Somdahl. Martin 

. 367 

Syverson, Loren 761 

Trygg, August 

Tucker, Harry N 

. 677 

Schwarz, \ugu t F.... 


Sorensen, Rasmus 

.. 993 

Syverson, William J ...1354 

. 496 


Sorenson, Severt 

. 514 

TurnbuU, Robert E.... 


Scotland, 1 heo. P.... 


Sorkness, Dr. Paul... 

.. 457 

Talcott, Franks 664 

Turner, Klisha B 


Scott, Allen O 


Sorley, Hon. John A.. 

. 322 

Tanner, John L 648 

Turner, Kollin J 


Scott, Dr. Milo \Vakely.l077 

Sorum, Jacob A 

. 295 

Tavis, Lawrence F 1137 

Tusten, James M 

. 805 

. 451 

Soule, Hiram A 

. 645 

Taylor, Andrew A 1203 

Tuttle, Robert M 


Scott, Hon. John W... 

. 398 

Spalding, Hon. B. F.. 

. 177 

Taylor, Benjamin 653 

Twi.idey, James 


Scott, Lafavftte W... 


Speer, A. K 

. 731 

Taylor, Charles M 623 

Twichell, Hon. T. T... 


Scott, Peter 


Spencer, Charles A. M 

. 712 

Taylor, Dr. John D 4.58 

Tvvand, James A 


Scott, Thomas 

. 842 

Spengler. George W.. 


Taylor, George 876 

Scott, Walter 


Sperry, Eugene H 

Spooriheim, E. K '. 

. 766 

Taylor, George (Bot- 

Grand Forks 


. 798 

Upham, Hon. Nathan . 

. 290 

Searle, Charles A 

. 314 

Springer, Alexander. . . 

. 411 

Taylor, Herbert B .... 477 

Scaver. William K.... 

. 818 

Springer, Cornelius 

. 423 

Taylor, Samuel 380 

Vail, Francis W 


Sebry, John 

. 708 

Springer, Hiram A 

. 399 

Tavlor, Walter C 520 

Valentine, Hon. C. X . . 

. 204 

Seller, Oscar J 

. 203 

Squire, William 

. 319 

Tavlor, William H 471 

. 301 

Seim, Iver 1 

. 629 

St. Adalbert's Cathol 

Tenipleton, Judge C. F. 3.58 

\"an De Bogart, Milo t 

. 699 

Seitz, William H... . 


. 547 

Thams, Dr. Tonnes .543 

Vanderlinden, Frank.. 


Sell, Theodore 

. 589 

. 694 

Thatcher, Truman H . . . 531 


Sergeant, Hon. Asa. . . 


.Stafford, Henry L 

. 898 

Thayer, Geo. F 983 

Van Meter, John H 


Serns, Oscar \V 

. 977 

. 255 

Theede, Henry 4.58 

\'arnuni, Zeph 

. 7.53 

Serumgard, Die 

. 973 

St. Aloysius Cathol 

Thimens, Charles B.... 3.50 


Serumgard, Siver 

Severson, Hon. Elling. 

. 574 


Stambaugh, Winfield S 

. 600 

. 387 

Thoe, Ole K. 1107 

Vennum, William A.. . 
Veon, John E 


Thorn, James W 821 

. 577 

Shanafelt, William K.. 

. 834 

Standish, William H.. 

. 753 

Thomas, Henry V 184 

Vidalin Evan. Lutheran 

Shanahan, Thomas.... 


.Stanley. Charles H.... 

. 818 

Thomas, Judge Alfred D 171 



Shank, Charles S 


St. Anthony's Mission. 


Thompson, Frank J 245 

Vidal, Dr. James W... 
Vie, John B 

. 836 

Shanks, Ur. .Martin L. 

. 326 

Stables, William 

. 772 

Thompson, Gordon 711 

. 511 

Shaver, George H 

. 627 

Star, Turtle Mountain. 


Thompson, Gullick 964 

Vie, Peter 


Shea, James K 

. 337 

State Bank of Davenport 513 

Thompson, Iver 886 

Viets, Alfred 

. 470 

Sheard, Joseph 

. 900 

State Bank of Page.... 


Thompson, James 1008 


Sheehan, Prof. Thomas 

. 749 

State Bank of Wheatlan 

d 799 

Thompson, John M 568 

Thompson, Thomas S . . 1251 

Vagness, Rasmus M... 


Sheer, Herman C 

. 835 

Stead, George 

. 913 

Von Nieda. John W.... 

. 240 

Shell, Thomas T 


Stearns, Charlie P 


Thompson, Tobias H.. .1331 

Vorachek, Frank E... 


Sherven, Andrew 


Stebbins, Hon. Samuel E 501 

Thompson, Walker D. . 675 

Vosburg, Orvill E 


Sherman, K. P 

. 857 

Steenson, Anulf 

. 381 

Thompson,William H.. 460 

Voyen, OleE 

. 314 

Shirley, Herman G 

. 266 

Steffes, Peter 

. 538 

Thompson, William J... 1124 

Shortt, Phil. H 

. 949 
. 464 

Steinbach, William.... 
Steinberg, Henry 

. 880 

Thomson, Herbert C. . . 984 
Thomson, Hon. Alex... . S93 


Shurlock, Ur. Wm. C. 

Wagar, John M 


Sibley, Charles W 

. 904 

Stenerodden, Christen. 

. 308 

Thomson, I. W .5,53 


Siegfried, Daniel F.... 

. 370 


. 863 

Thomson, John R 1264 

Wagner, Dr. Calvin M. 


Sigurdsson, Rev. J. A. 

. 725 

Stern, Alexander 

. 300 

Thordarson, Hon. John. 965 

Wald, Rev. Anders... 


Simmons, Fred B 

. 592 

Stevens, Alfred 


Thoreson, L. C 484 

Walden, Robert 


Simmons, William H.. 

. 762 

Stevens, Horace E 


Thorkelson, T. A 610 

Waldorf, T. E 


Simons, John 

. 387 

Stevenson, James 

. 847 

Thorson, Oliver 447 

Waldron, Fred J 


Simpson, Rev. James F 


Stewart, Duncan 


Thorwaldson, Ellis 1224 

Walker, Dr. P. McH.. 

. 439 

Sims, Edwin 

. 936 

Stewart, James 


Thorwaldson,Stigur. . . .1022 
Thorwaldson, Swain.... 772 

Walker, Hon. Robt. J. 
Walker, John E 

. 1039 

Sims, Charles F 

. 382 

Stewart, John 



Sincock, Benjamin S.. 

. 731 

Stewart, Joseph M . . . . 

. .549 

Thrun, H 1211 

Walker, Robert A 

. 524 

Sisson, William H.... 

. 6.52 

Stewart, Norman A... 

. 663 

Thue, Glaus R 251 

Walker, Tyler J 

. 409 

Skinner Hon William 

. 651 

Stewart, Robert B 

Stewart, William 

. 1097 

Titus, Seymour S 252 

Tobiason, Tobias R....1265 

Wall Aurelius L 


Skotland, Theodore. . . 

Wallace, Hon. Elmer D. 172 

Skulason, Bardi G.... 


Stick ley, Warren A . . 

. 749 

Tofte, Severt 1387 

Wallace, Hon. John D. 

. 834 

Slattum, Theodore 

. 416 

Stillmacher, Louis . . . 


Tofthagen, Armind M..1326 

Wallin, Judge Alfred.. 

. 214 

Slingsby, George D... 
Slotlen, Hon. Andrew. 


btone, Byron N 


Tofsrud, Hon. Ole T.... 922 
Tombs, Joseph 759 

Walsh, Martin 

Walsh, Thomas 

. 186 

Stone, Charles E 

. 535 

. 1030 



Stone, Vincent I 

. 561 

Tomlinson, Alva D 1.S.36 

Walters, Bjorn F 


Small, .Sylvester J..., 


Stoos. Mikel 


Tower City Topics 6.59 

Torblaa, Arne L 1.S82 

Walters, Conrad E.... 

. 308 

Smith, Adams C 

. ,543 

Storelee, Edward C. 

. 800 

. 331 

Smith, Benjamin H... 

. 774 

Stowers, Charles E . . . 


Torgeson,Gunder 904 

Walton, Hon. Luther L 

. 894 

Smith, I'.benezar 

. 1083 

Strand, John 

. 284 

Tors<m, Lawrence N....1228 

W.nlt.m, Ic.srph 

. 1326 

Smith, Kdwin A 

. 634 

Strehlow, William ... 

. 239 

Torrik, Rev. Ole K 302 

W;n,,|.rr ', |.il,., j 

. 374 

Smith, l-.mcrson H.... 

. 357 

Strom, Hon. H. H ... 

. 666 

Tourette, Capt. Ptter La.ll50 
Tower City .State Bank. 8,57 

W,in-lH-.iii' li, William. 

. 410 

Smith, Fayette M 


Stroiiiner, George O.. 

. 307 

War.l, I li,(ri.> 1 

. 399 

Smith, George M 

. 271 

St. Stephen's Church.. 


Towle, George E 881 

Ward, William O 

. 735 

Smith, Hon. (l.-orge N 

. 2M 

Studnicka, Rev. J. F . 

. 548 

Town, Edwin E 429 

. 654 

Smith, Hon. James 0. 

Smith, John H 

Smith, John M 

. 340 

Sugg, George A 


Townes, George L .530 

Warner, lohn C 

Warner, Walter T 

. 612 


Sullivan, Charles 

. 828 

Trainmell, lames D.... 966 



Sullivan, Michael L... 

. 12.52 

Trangsnid, B. M 616 

Warren, Benjamin F.. 


Smith, J. W 

Smith, Ihomas 

. 294 

Summers, James H . . 

. 339 

Treimiann. Col. Wm. C. 174 

Warren, Fred W 


. 549 

Sundqvist, John P 

. 959 

Trilihler, Charles 586 

Warren, Robert B 

. 8!i9 

Smith, Walter W 

. 768 

Swan, George H 

. 950 

Trott, Hon. Geo. E. S...1196 

Warrey, Judge W.I... 

. 198 



Washburn, Edwin D... 415 
Washburn, Harry M... 604 
Washburn, Millard F. . 29(5 
Watson, Hon. James N. 7ti'2 

Watson, John S 23'S 

Watson, R. H 973 

Watts, Hon. Wm. J 1178 

Wear, Dr. Isaac N 388 

Weber, Edward 355 

Webster, Daniel 743 

Webster, William 987 

Wednian, Albert W.... 281 

Weekes, JohnC 1275 

Weir, Ralph 599 

Weiser, Joel S 282 

Weldon, Albert C 738 

Wellman, Hon. D. B. 767 

Wentworth, A. L 792 

Werner, John S 718 

West, Henry 702 

West, O. H 578 

Wessel, Fritz C 339 

Weston, Elmer W 623 

Wheeler, Dr. Henry M.. 196 


Wheeler, George A 811 

Whipple, Jonah A 1251 

Whittaker, Frank E.... 507 

White, George A 622 

While, John A 1244 

White, Wil Ham H 702 

Whitfield, Harker 589 

Wiegmann. Fred 1094 

Wikey, Richard 1321 

Wikey, Samuel H 1325 

Wilcox, Joseph H 379 

Wilcox, William J 379 

Wilder, Ezra H 1087 

Wilder, William L 1122 

Willey, Ambrose B . . . . 517 
Williams, Charles H.... 790 
Williams, Edward A.... 784 
Williams, Erastus A. . . .1296 
Williams, Hon. H. M... 651 

Williams, John A 859 

Williams, Joseph 997 

Williams, Milton D 215 

Williams, Olaus W 472 

Williams,- Paul 798 


Williamson, Walter L. . 914 

Wills, James H 573 

Wilson, Charles E 249 

Wilson, George W 910 

Wilson, Harrison 774 

Wilson, Howard 357 

Wilson, James W 499 

Wilson, William A 969 

Weltschko, Mathias. . . .1173 
Winchester, JudgeW.H. 988 
Winship, Hon. Geo. B. . 166 

Winslow, Albert P 1267 

Winslow, Hon. Carmi..l243 

Winter, William F 779 

Woiwode, Charles 524 

Wold, James 35« 

Woldy, Tollef H 542 

Wood, Charles F 1295 

Wood, Hon. Warren B..1103 
Woodbury, Charles H.. 299 
Woodbury, George H.. . 424 

Woods, Alexander 1406 

Woods, A. L 824 

Woods, John 1203 


Woods, William .1163 

Worst, Hon. John H . . . . 222 

Wren, John A 815 

Wright, Alexander R. .. 400 

Wright, E. H 599 

Wright, Frank P 441 

Wright, John W 1117 

Wroolie, Simon A 678 

Wyard, J. Morley 886 

Wyard, Walter P 718 

Wyckoff, Luther 334 

Wylder, Henry H 841 

Wylder, John C 672 

Wyman, Holmes 1015 

Wyman, Hon.Lorenzo D 1008 

Yager, Hon. Edward L. 952 

Ylvisaker, I. D 680 

Young, Col. George M.. 195 

Young, Uavid M 899 

Young, George 725 

Young, John. 689 

Young, Judge Newton C. 166 
Young, Nicholas M 288 






i rf g^NORTH DAKOTA^ . | 


^* CHAPTER I. i 





The vigorous, and rapidly growing young 
state of North Dakota is located on the northern 
boundary of the Federal Union, about midway 
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and half 
way between the Gulf of Mexico and Hudson's 
bay. It is the heart of the continent. Its 
northern boundary is the forty-ninth degree of 
north latitude, which separates it from the Do- 
minion of Canada. On the, east it is bounded by 
the state of Minnesota, from which it is divided 
by the famous Red river of the North. It is 
bounded on the west by the meridian of one hun- 
dred and four degrees, five minutes west longitude 
from Greenwich, or twenty-four degrees west 
from Washington. The south boundary is the 
seventh standard parallel, which separates it from 
its sister state of South Dakota. From north to 
south it measures about two hundred and ten 
miles, and from east to west about three hundred 
and sixty, and has a total area of 74,312 square 
miles, or 47,569,680 acres. At present it contains 
some fifty-two counties, some of which are as yet 

The state has several marked geographical 
divisions, the principal of which are the Red 
river valley, the James or Dakota river valley, the 
Devil's Lake and Turtle Mountain regions, the 

Souris or blouse river country, the Missouri slope 
and the west Missouri or northwest Dakota coun- 
try. The Red River valley derives its name from 
the Red river of the North, a stream so called to 
distinguish it from another of the same name in 
the southern states. This valley, unlike many 
others in the country, is not a narrow swale or 
depression on the banks of the stream, but a broad, 
level plain from fifty to sixty miles wide, and high 
enough above the river generally to prevent over- 
flow and aflford the best of drainage, and yet it is 
bottom or alluvial land. In ancient times the site 
of the entire valley was an immense lake, as shown 
elsewhere, the waters of which, receding, left a 
rich black deposit, highly charged with decom- 
posed organic matter. The Red river is formed 
near Wahpeton by the confluence of the Otter 
Tail and Bois de Sioux rivers. Flowing north in 
a deep but narrow channel, its course extremely 
crooked, it crosses the international boundary line 
and empties into Lake Winnipeg, its waters finally 
mingling with those of Hudson's bay, through Nel- 
son river. The river is navigable from Grand 
Forks to its mouth, and prior to the coming of the 
railroads bore considerable traffic. Among its 
principal affluents within the state are the Chey- 
enne, Wild Rice, Maple, Goose, Turtle, Big Salt, 
Park, Pembina and others. 

The state, besides, is well watered and well 



drained by other principal rivers and streams, 
among which is the mighty Missouri, which rolls 
its flood of muddy water from the Rocky moun- 
tains eastwardly, entering North Dakota north of 
the central point on its western border, near Fort 
Buford. A score of miles from here it receives 
the waters of the Yellowstone, one of its principal 
tributaries, and, with greatly augmented waters, 
crosss the state diagonally, receiving, on its way, 
such affluents as the Little Knife, Little Missouri, 
Big Knife, Heart, Little Heart and Cannon Ball 
rivers, and many creeks, both large and small. 
It passes out of the state about the center of the 
south line, at the southwest corner of Emmons 
county. It is navigable for its entire length through 
the state. 

The James river, familiarly called the "J'ni" 
river by the inhabitants, is an important stream. 
It is the Riviere Jacques, of the French, the Te-han- 
san-san, of the Sioux, and also bears the name of 
the Dakota river. It has its source in Wells coun- 
ty, North Dakota, and though but a narrow stream 
winds on through both Dakotas for several 
hundred miles, emptying into the Missouri near 
Yankton. The Souris or Mouse river rises in and 
flows through a considerable part of the Dominion 
of Canada, and crosses into North Dakota about 
longitude 102 west from Greenwich. It flows in a 
wide sweep, ox-bowed in shape, through the north- 
ern part of the state, passing from thence back 
into Canada, about seventy miles east from where 
it enters, finally emptying into the Assiniboine 
river. The principal branch that empties its 
waters into the Mouse in North Dakota is the 
River des Lacs. These main rivers, with numer- 
ous creeks and branches, form the water system of 
the state. 

The state has, also, a large number of beautiful 
lakes, the most remarkable of which is Minne- 
wauken or Spirit Lake, known by the whites as 
Devil's Lake. This body of water, which is about 
forty miles long, varies in width from about three 
hundred feet to over six miles. Its waters, 
strongly impregnated with salt, magnesia, etc., re- 
minding one of the ocean, are peculiarly clear and 
pellucid. In depth it varies, in some places being 
over one hundred feet deep. Most of the shore 
line is a gently shelving beach. It abounds in ex- 
cellent fish of the pike family. Its principal sub- 
divisions are known as Devil's Heart or Dono- 
luies, Tellers, West, Fort Totten, Creel, Lamor- 
eaux, Mauvais, Mission and Hill's Bays. The 

lake has no apparent outlet, although it may have 
some underground connection with the Cheyenne 
river. It has but one considerable tributary, the 
Grand Coulee, which in dry seasons shrinks to 
comparative insignificance, but in the spring pours 
a torrent into the lake. The elevation of this body 
of water above mean tide is 1,423 feet, or 814 feet 
above the level of Lake Superior. Within half a 
dozen miles of it lies Sweetwater Lake, the waters 
of which, unlike its neighbor, is as clear and pure 
and sweet as the spring that gushes from the hill- 
side. It covers about eight thousand acres in 
Ramsey county. Other lakes are Stump, Ellis, 
Red, Rush, Twin, Long, Horsehead, Spiritwood 
and Arrowwood lakes. 

The Turtle mountains, in the northern part of 
the state, are about all the eminences that rise above 
the dignity of hills within North Dakota. They 
include an area of about eight hundred square 
miles along the international boundary line, and 
consist of ranges of hills, rising generally but a few 
hundred feet above the surrounding prairie. 
There are, however, several prominent peaks, the 
principal of which, Butte, St. Paul and Bear Butte, 
have an altitude of about 3,200 feet above tide 
water, but, as the surrounding land is high, their 
summits are but some 700 feet above the level of 
the plain. The Pembina mountains, in the north- 
east part of the state, are simply the outer terraces 
of the Red River valley, where the tributary 
streams break down from the higher table lands. 
The first rise facing the valley is about three hun- 
dred feet, and the second, about five miles further 
back, about the same. The slopes of both these 
mountains are covered with oak, ash, aspen and 
other deciduous trees. Besides these there are 
elevated buttes, sharp hills and other departures 
from the practically level character of the land. 
The principal of these are the Short JNIedicine 
Pole Hills, in Bowman county ; Les Belles Pierre 
hills, on the Cannon Ball river ; the Cheyenne hills, 
in Boreman county, and others. 


The general topography of North Dakota is 
that of a vast undulating plain. The great 
Plateau du Coteau du Missouri (plain of the hills 
of the Missouri) traverses, in a belt, the state 
diagonally, from the northwest to the southeast. 
This is not the high dividing ridge or water shed 
it was formerly supposed to be, but simply an im- 
mense elevated plain, something like the llano 


estacado, of Texas. It is broken, occasionally, by 
low hills, or ridges, and sometimes by sharp peaked 
buttes. The country west of the Missouri river is 
generally more broken by hills and buttes, but has 
the advantage of being much better watered by 
a considerable number of small streams whose 
banks are fringed with timber. Practically speak- 
ing, the eastern part of the state lacks, in a great 
degree, the natural timber of the western part. 
When the settlers first came here it was nearly a 
treeless but grassy waste. The surface, gently un- 
dulating, is generally smooth, and the sweeps of 
the ridges long and easy. The climate is not so 
severe and harsh as is the general impression to 
those who have never been within its borders. 
On this point one of the commissioners of immi- 
gration of Dakota officially says : 

" * * * Hundreds of miles north of this 
there is a country with winters no more severe 
than those of the north New England states and 
summers more suitable for the growing of grain. 
We are separated from that region by the forty- 
ninth parallel, an imaginary political boundary, 
which nature does not take into account. * * * 
Those who think Dakota is a section of the Arctic 
region slipped down out of place should look to 
the east. The south line of Dakota is the forty- 
third parallel of north latitude. Follow this line 
across the Atlantic and much of Europe will be 
found lying north of it. All of Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark and Great Britain are a full degree above 
the northern boundary of our great territory. 
Edinburgh, St. Petersburg, Stockholm and Chris- 
tiana, in the midst of a swarming population, are 
on the parallel of Sitka, Alaska. England and the 
north of Europe are made habitable by the influ- 
ence of the Gulf Stream. The Kuro-Siwo — the 
Black Ocean river of the Asiatic coast — or the 
Japanese current, gives the northwestern region 
the same mildness of climate that the Gulf Stream 
does to northern Europe, and why should not this 
country, like that, be filled with life and industry? 
Water heated ofif the coast of southern Asia sweeps 
across the Pacific ocean and tempers the climate 
of our western coast nearly up to the arctic circle. 
This river of warmth gives to British' Columbia, 
Washington and Oregon winters so mild that ice 
is a scarce article, even in Sitka, while roses grow 
in gardens along the Pacific coast at Christmas 
time. Imparting its heat to the air, it passes over 
the Rocky mountains — much lower between the 
fortieth and fiftieth parallels than further south — 

and affects the climate of a region larger than the 
original United States. Comparisons of tempera- 
ture made with the north Atlantic coast are most 
favorable to Dakota and Montana. The Missouri 
river at Fort Benton, Fort Buford, Bismarck and 
Pierre is clear of ice earlier than it is at Omaha. 
In the light of existing knowledge who will say 
that up to the sixtieth parallel this northwest is 
not as capable of being settled as Russia and Nor- 
way and Sweden south of that line? 

Glance at the physical features of this portion 
of the continent and one will see a great plain 
sloping northward. It is the latitude of the con- 
tinental water system. Nowhere else in the world 
is there such a succession of lakes and navigable 
rivers ; no other country possesses such an area of 
agricultural land so intersected by fresh water. 
Within a radius of one thousand miles is half the 
fresh water of the globe. At Grand Forks the 
Red river is less than one thousand feet above the 
sea ; follow the river to its mouth, Lake Winnipeg, 
and it has descended three hundred feet; and in a 
boat one can steam westward on the Saskathchewan 
more than one thousand miles, and then double 
the distance on other rivers. 

Follow the Red river to its source in Lake 
Traverse, and in high water a boat can reach Big 
Stone lake, the source of the Minnesota, and there 
pass to the Mississippi, thus joining Hudson's bay 
and the Gulf of Mexico. Two hundred miles to 
the east is Lake Superior and a waterway to the 
Atlantic. Two hundred miles to the west the Mis- 
souri can be reached, and the traveler can be borne 
into the shadows of the Rocky mountains, from 
whose western side another mighty river springs — 
the Columbia — and leaps to a dififerent sea. After 
the Mississippi and the Missouri, the Columbia 
drains the largest basin in the Republic. 

From Lake Superior along the northern bound- 
ary of the Republic to the Pacific ocean, the aver- 
age altitude is less than two thousand feet above 
the sea. It is the only line on which connected 
agricultural settlement can be made across the con- 
tinent. It is the cereal belt, and history shows 
that mankind gathers in largest numbers where 
food is most abundant and cheapest. Southwest 
of here is the roof of the continent; the plains of 
Colorado are almost as high as the mountains of 
Montana ; Denver, surrounded by productive 
farms, is a half mile higher than the average of 
Montana's valleys and plains. Between Omaha 
and Sacramento there is a continuous elevation of 


quite four thousand feet. Ascending every three 
hundred feet makes a difference of one degree in 

The geological structure of Xorth Dakota does 
not cover a wide range, but has many interesting 
features. The 'great interior of the state seems 
to be entirely covered by immense strata of creta- 
ceous deposits of the Quaternary and Tertiary ages. 
This formation spreads over nearly all the terri- 
tory from the Red river to the Yellowstone. These 
were formed when the great inland sea covered 
this region. When eroded by the action of the 
rivers, particularly the Missouri, cliffs of an im- 
perfect form of chalk, clay and limestone project 
from the bank. In fact, Von Bach, the eminent 
German scientist and geologist, says: "This great 
river (the Missouri) flows uninterruptedly from 
the foot of the Rocky mountains through strata of 
chalk, at least as far as the mouth of the Sioux 

After the chalk deposits were made, "the gla- 
cial drift overwhelmed the country, tearing away 
the upper layers and deposited all the Tertiary 
or upper masses of boulders, gravel, clay, sand 
and lastly, the rich, black sedimentary loam which 
forms the arable land of the present day." 

"The Red River \'alley is leveled and filled 
with a deposit of several hundred feet of heavy 
blue clay, and no rock is found near the surface." 
So says A. W. Barber, the eminent geologist. 

That the Cretaceous formation once extended 
over nearly the whole of the prairie region of 
Dakota, at the level of the few fragmentary up- 
lifts, like the hills spoken of, is scarcely doubtful, 
from the disintegration of which we have the im- 
mense bluff deposits of the Missouri valley, and 
much of the alluvium of the great plains. 

The Cretaceous formation in Dakota is divided 
into five groups by Meek and Hayden as follows: 
beginning at the lowest : 

E.VRLiER Cret.\ceou.s. — I. Dakota Group. — 
Yellowish, reddish and whitish sandstones and 
clays, with lignite and fossil Augiospermous leaves; 
thickness, 400 feet. Location, southeastern Da- 

2. Benton Group. — Gray, laminated clays, 
with some limestone; thickness, 800 feet. Near 
Fort Benton, and also near Great Bend. 

3. Xiobrara Group. — Grayish. calcareousmarl ; 

thickness, 200 feet. Bluff's on the Missouri, near 
Great Bend, etc. 

L.\TER Cretaceous. — 4. Pierre Group. — 
Plastic clays ; thickness, 700 feet. Middle part 
barren of fossils. Location, near Pierre, west to 
the bad lands, Sage Creek, Cheyenne and ^^"hite 
river regions. 

5. Fo.v Hill Group. — Gray, ferruginous, and 
yellowish sandstones (very hard) and arenaceous 
clays ; thickness, 500 feet. Location, Fox Hills, 
near Moreau river above Fort Pierre, etc. 

As will be noticed, the Fox Hills belongs to the 
upper strata, and probably indicate a former com- 
mon level of the country. Most of this portion 
has been denuded and carried away to form the 
later alluvium. 

The imperfect chalk formation of the ^Missouri 
valley belongs to one of these Cretaceous groups, 
most probably the Benton. It is seen in the bluffs 
about Yankton, and also outcrops on the Dakota 
and Sioux rivers. In the quarry it is very moist 
and of a dark bluish color, but exposure to the 
atmosphere dries the moisture and changes its color 
to a creamy white appearance. It has been used 
for building purposes to a considerable extent in 
Yankton and some other places, and answers a 
very good purpose, though it is so soft and friable 
as to be easily whittled with a pocket knife. The 
atmosphere does not seern to affect it very seri- 
ously. This formation affords in various parts of 
the American continent cinnebar, coal, occasionally 
gold, copper and chromic iron. In New Jersey 
and other localities it furnishes a valuable fertilizer 
in the form of green sand, or glanconite, made up 
of silica, protoxyd of iron, potash, soda, lime and 
water. In the Black hills and some other portions 
of Dakota it affords very good building material, 
limestones and sandstones. This geological period 
was rich in various forms of life, both vegetable 
and animal. Among the former were more than 
a hundred varieties, including the oak, maple, sas- 
safras, tulip, beech, sycamore, hickory, poplar and 
fig trees, as well as species of the redwood and 
palms. Among the animal life were the rhizopods, 
from which were formed the chalk beds, mollusks 
in numerous varieties, conchifers, gasteropods, 
ccphalopods, etc., and vertebrates, including many 
fishes in great variety, including species of the 
shark family. Reptiles were, also, very numerous, 
and many of them of great size. Swimming rep- 
tiles from ten to seventy feet long, the gigantic 
hadrosaurus, nearly thirty feet loiig, reseml)ling the 



iguanodon; and sea saurians reaching eighty feet 
in length. Gigantic turtles, the width across 
which, from tip to tip of their flippers, averaged fif- 
teen or sixteen feet. There were, also, that sin- 
gular creation, reptiles with wide-spreading wings, 
often with a breadth across the latter of twenty 
feet. This deposit, in Dakota, has been a mine of 
wealth to those seeking the fossils of the prehis- 
toric and preglacial animal life. Many of the 
museums and institutes throughout the world in- 
clude in their possessions large numbers of speci- 
mens from the drift beds of the Dakotas. 

The Tertiary age, called by geologists the age 
of mammals, is magnificently developed, also, in 
Dakota, covering, for the most part, throughout 
the twin states, the cretaceous strata. Locked up in 
its embrace are found those fossils of the gigantic 
animals, the wonder of the scientific world. Some of 
the most perfect remains of the mammoth and his 
kindred giants have been found in the drifts and 
gravel of this deposit in Dakota. And the col- 
lection of these monstrous relics that contains none 
from this part of the American continent is counted 
as incomplete. On the geological maps of the 
United States surveys it is shown that the western 
part of North Dakota was once covered by the 
fresh water Miocene lake. 


In economic geology North Dakota can make 
a proud showing in the future, when it has at- 
tained more development. Coal, natural gas, 
petroleum and building stone can be found within 
its wide-spread borders. Of the most important 
of these, coal, the commissioner of immigration of 
the territory of Dakota, in an official work pub- 
lished in 1887, says: • 

"A large part of north Dakota is underlaid 
with a deposit of lignite or brown coal, which crops 
out in many places, in veins sometimes twenty feet 
in thickness. This lignite or brown coal is of a 
soft variety, excellent for heating purposes, and 
has been tested and found to possess gas-making 
qualities superior to almost any coal discovered on 
the continent. It is defined by minerologists to be 
of the most recent geological formations, post- 
Tertiary, more recent than the anthracite or bitu- 
minous coal of the carboniferous period. 

"It retains, to a great extent, the texture of the 
wood from which it was formed, and in mining 
lignite vegetable matters are often met with in 

various stages of their conversion into mineral coal. 
Sometimes it is more altered in structure, so that 
its vegetable character is more indistinct ; the beds 
presenting stratified bodies of dark, nearly black 
substance, with a concoidal fracture. 

"The proportion of carbon in this variety of 
coal is found to vary, by different analyses, from 
fifty to seventy per cent. 

"To Mr. C. W. Thompson, of Bismarck, who 
has had a lengthy experience in the mining and 
handling of Dakota coal, this office is indebted for 
the following analysis of lignite found in this 
locality: Moisture, 12. i ; fixed carbon, 58.5; vola- 
tile, 27.0, and ash, 2.4; total, 100. Specific gravity, 

"While inferior to anthracite, or the best qual- 
ities of bituminous coal, lignite burns readily and 
furnishes the settlers of a prairie country with that 
inestimable boon, cheap domestic fuel. At present, 
because of the lack of transportation facilities, only 
the outcroppings are worked, and, generally, for 
the supply simply of the settlers of the immediate 
neighborhood. The completion of the north and 
south roads, already in course of construction, will 
place the immense coal fields of north Dakota 
within easy reach of every village, and a good 
quality of soft coal can then be had as low as $2 
per ton, and even in the more distant towns not 
exceeding $4.50 per ton. Already at some 
points * * * especially on the Little Missouri, 
in Billings county, coal mining is carried on quite 
extensively and thousands of tons are shipped as 
far east as Jamestown. It is estimated that during 
the winter of 1886-7 ten thousand tons were shipped 
into the city of Bismarck alone, where it was 
retailed at $3.50, after paying a tribute of $1 per 
ton to the only railway line thus far reaching into 
the coal fields. Recent railroad developments will 
result, at an early day, in opening to markets the 
extensive coal areas surrounding the Devil's Lake, 
Turtle Mountain and Mouse river countries, as 
also of McLean, Mercer and Emmons counties, 
which contain some of the richest deposits of coal 
yet found, but are too distant from present railway 

"In any one of the several counties of the north 
there is enough coal now in sight to supply the 
Territory with fuel for untold generations. Farm- 
ers haul wagon loads to the nearest towns the same 
as wood and sell it, the coal, at from one to two 
dollars a ton." 

Another official document from the same office 


in 1889 has the following in regard to lignite coal 
in North Dakota : 

"It is much better domestic fuel than wood. 
It is mined very cheaply from the outcroppings in 
the sides of the hills, and is more and more coming 
into general use as the common domestic fuel of 
the country. Lignite coal is largely mined for 
shipment at Sims, Morton county, and at Dickin- 
son, Stark county, on the Northern Pacitic Rail- 
road. It is also mined for local consumption at 
New England City, in Hettinger county, and at all 
of the towns in each of the counties west of the 
Missouri river. It is also mined east of the Mis- 
souri river ; at Cold Harbor and other places in Mc- 
Lean county; at the Hawley mine in Burleigh 
county ; at several points in Emmons county ; at 
several points in the Mouse river country and at the 
Pony Gulch mines in Wells county. Settlers in the 
region west of the Missouri river, where numerous 
outcroppings of coal are found in almost every 
township, are in the habit of mining their own 
fuel. A little work with pick and shovel uncovers 
a vein on the side of a hill from which a wagon can 
be loaded without much labor. Lignite coal is 
wood in the first conversion into coal. It retains 
to a great e.xtent the texture of the wood from 
which it was formed, and its vegetable character 
can often be seen in the carbonized sections of 
limbs and trunks of trees. The proportion of car- 
bon in this variety of coal will average about 50 
per cent. The existence of these extensive coal 
Ijeds is an important matter for the future devel- 
opment of North Dakota, and for the comfort and 
prosperity of the settlers, insuring them an ample 
supply of cheap fuel for all future time." 

The following article in regard to the coal sup- 
ply of North Dakota is clipped from the Grand 
Forks Daily Herald of June 27, 1899, and was pre- 
pared by Professor Babcock, of the State Uni- 
versity : 

"The existence of beds of lignite coal in North 
Dakota has been known for some time, but the 
extent of these beds and their ultimate value to 
the people of the state is appreciated by only a few. 
Though the area of the coal deposit is continually 
being increased by new finds, there is still, doubt- 
less, a vast extent of coal in North Dakota of which 
nothing certain is yet known. 

"It is quite probable that the coal deposits of 
North Dakota arc of the cast flank of the Rocky 
Mountain coal range, which has been followed over 
five hundred miles north and south. Whether the 

outcrop discovered are fragments of one large coal 
basin which has been broken up and covered with 
later formations or whether they are deposits of 
numerous woody swampc of the same geological 
period we may not determine. But it will be 
sufiicient to say that North Dakota alone has with- 
out doubt coal enough to supply herself and her 
less fortunate neighboring states for years to come. 

"The general direction of the coal deposits ap- 
pear to be from north to south. The seams gen- 
erally outcrop along the banks of streams or on the 
sides of a bluff leading to the valley below. The 
seam commonly worked appears from fifty to one 
hundred feet below the level of the surrounding 
country, and varies in thickness from seven to 
twenty feet. There is, usually, over or under this 
coal a layer of light colored clay, which may in 
some cases prove to be a fair fireclay. In some 
localities coal may be found below the layer now 
worked. In any case it is not to be expected that 
anthracite coal will be found in North Dakota, for 
the geology of the country can hardly permit it. It 
is conceded that anthracite varieties are associated 
with folding and metamorphism of strata. 

"The coal of different localities varies some- 
what in its physical as well as in its chemical prop- 
erties. Most samples have a general appearance 
between that of cannel and brown coal. In one or 
two cases it approaches true bituminous coal. 

"The deposits, for the most part, lie in the 
western and central portions of the state. A few 
miles west of Minot, Ward county, coal is found 
outcropping along the sides of the bluff. Indica- 
tions are that the coal continues for some distance 
along the valley. Coal has been mined in two or 
three places in this locality. 

"Going west of Minot, coal again appears in 
the western part of Flannery and Buford counties. 
About Williston there is evidently a considerable 
deposit. South of Williston, about Aledora, Bil- 
lings county, in the Bad Lands, coal is found but is 
not mined, so far as known. East of Medora, at 
and about Dickinson, there is a considerable amount 
of coal mined, especially from the large deposits 
of the Lehigh mine. In the banks along the val- 
ley from Sims, Morton county, to New Salem, coal 
is frequently seen. At Sims there are two or three 
places from which it has been mined. Coal occurs 
some distance north of Mandan, and along the Mis- 
souri river in McLean and Mercer counties there 
are said to be extensive beds. Near Dunseith, 
Rollett county, small deposits have been found on 


the southern slope of the Turtle mountains. A 
good quality of coal is found in Hettinger county. 

"From the localities mentioned it will be seen 
that the coal deposits of the state must cover a very 
large area. 

"A number of samples analyzed at the chemical 
laboratory of the State University gave the fol- 
lowing average results: 

Water and volatile matter 48-37 

Fixed carbon 44-71 

Ash 6-92 

Sulphur 0.34 

"The variety and value of coal depends mainly 
upon the purity and the proportion of the fixed 
carbon and volatile matter. » 

"The ash of North Dakota coal is generally not 
high. It is of a good color and very free from 
clinkers. The amount of sulphur is very small, 
in some cases being hardly more than a trace. 

"For general heating purposes the value of coal 
is often approximated by the amount of fixed car- 
bon it contains. From the analysis of North Da- 
kota coal would be not far below that of a ton of 
carbon is -44-71 • Analysis of several of the Iowa 
coals give 45-42 per cent, fi.xed carbon ; of Indiana, 
51.20; of Ohio, 58.10. Using this method of esti- 
mation the heating power of a ton of North Da- 
kota coal would not be far below that of a ton of 
Iowa coal, about four-fifths of a ton of Indiana 
coal and about two-thirds of a ton of Ohio coal. 

"As compared with wood there is no doubt that, 
for ordinary purposse, the coal is far superior at 
reasonable prices. 

"The value of coal varies widely according to 
the use to which it is to be put. F"or some pur- 
poses this coal will not be good, but for general 
manufacture and heating purposes, in which most 
of the fuel is used, the coal of North Dakota is 
well adapted. 

"North Dakota coal, though lignite, is of high 
grade. The statistics of Germany and Austria 
show that many millions of tons of this fuel are 
annually used in those countries for domestic and 
other purposes. 

"It will probably not be long before improved 
methods of burning will largely increase the use 
of this coal. Fair tests cannot be made by burning 
lignite in the common anthracite or soft coal 
burner. Lignite should be used in a burner suited 

to its peculiar characteristics. It is understood 
that experimentation in this line has already resulted 
in the production of a burner which will make lig- 
nite a much more convenient and economical fuel. 
It can only be a matter of time when the people 
have become better acquainted with this coal, and 
the proper methods of burning, till it will be much 
more extensively used. Such a cheap and abund- 
ant supply of fuel will also help wonderfully in 
establishing various manufacturing industries." 

Building stone of various kinds are found in the 
Turtle Mountain district, and boulders, remnants 
of the glacial period, are plentifully scattered over 
North Dakota. 

The commissioner of immigration in 1887, says 
in his official report for that year: 

"The discovery of valuable minerals has been 
announced from the Turtle Mountains, but coal, 
iron and oil are known to exist in quantities. A 
geological survey of the state would no doubt re- 
veal wealth of which we now have no knowledge. 

"Clays for brick making, pottery, etc., abound. 
At Dickinson, Stark county, an excellent cream- 
colored brick is made." The brick used in the state 
capitol at Bismarck is a native product, made from 
Dakota clay. 

Natural gas in considerable quantities has been 
discovered at various places throughout both the 
Dakotas. The commissioner of immigration, in his 
compilation for 1887, says of this subject : 

"Within the past year natural gas was found 
while sinking an artesian well at Jamestown, Stuts- 
man county. The flow was sufficiently strong to 
force the gas through 1,300 feet of pipe filled with 
water to the surface of the ground, where, when 
lighted, it burned brightly with a flame over a foot 
in height. This seems to settle the question of the 
existence of a strong veni of natural gas underlying 
the James river valley. A syndicate of the most 
influential and wealthy citizens of Jamestown have 
organized a stock company with the determination 
of prosecuting the work of developing natural gas 
to a profitable end. 

"In sinking wells in the oil fields to the west of 
the Black Hills a considerable flow of natural gas 
has always been encountered, though no attempt at 
a systematic investigation has ever been made. 

"It would seem then that there is no founda- 
tion for reasonable doubt of the existence of large 
bodies of natural gas underlying the Missouri, 
James and Red river valleys." 

The following conclusions by leading scientists 



as to where natural gas is liable to be found, are 
of interest. Professor Leslie, of Pennsylvania, says : 

"Where the rock formations lie approximately 
horizontal and have remained nearly undisturbed 
over extensive areas, there is always a chance of 
finding gas (if not oil) at some depth beneath the 
surface, determined by the particular formation 
which appears at the surface. And, wherever rock 
oil has been found, there and in the surrounding 
region rock gas is sure to exist." 

Professor Orton, state geologist of Ohio, in an 
elaborate report upon petroleum and inflammable 
gas, says that there is nothing to establish a ruls that 
natural burning gas can be found only in the neigh- 
borhood of deposits of petroleum, and he cites the 
wells of Indiana, located entirely without the oil belt. 
Professor Orton lays down a rule of three con- 
tions needful to the formation of a natural reser- 
voir containing gas, viz. : A range of highly 
porous rock, through which the gas traverses, as 
through pipes ; a large fissure into which it flows, 
and a cap, or hd of impervious rock or clay, which 
will prevent its escape from the reservoir. The 
Trenton, Berean and Magnesian limestone forma- 
tions have furnished the first two conditions in 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana. Other rocks may 
furnish it for other regions. The cap, or lid, is 
sometimes of shale, sometimes of dense, impervi- 
ous limestone. The professor disproves the theory 
that natural gas is the product of the natural dis- 
tillation of petroleum, but insists that the forces 
which make natural gas are at work universally, 
and therefore natural gas can be found almost 

So far the discoveries of natural gas in the 
state have been purely the result of accident, dig- 
ging wells for water being the principal means, 
except for an experiment at Fargo, where a sys- 
tematic effort to that end was made. 

Surface indications of mica are found along 
the streams and in the hills very generally through- 
out the state, although the quality and quantity of 
the hidden deposits remain practically undemon- 

The soil of Xorth Dakota presents considera- 
ble diversity, although generally of a high degree 

of fertility. In the famous Red river valley, 
claimed to be the garden spot of the north, it is a 
black alluvial mould. The valley, a broad, level 
plain from fifty to sixty miles wide, high enough 
above the river to prevent overflow, is still bottom 
land as far as the deposit of the soil is concerned. 
It is understood that it was anciently the bed of 
lake, and connected with Lake Winnipeg, and 
probably Hudson's bay. This richest of soil pro- 
duces the celebrated "No. i hard" wheat and the 
valley is evidently a farmer's paradise. In the bal- 
ance of the state the soil is the ordinary black 
prairie mould, full of organic matter, produced by 
the decay of vegetable material for centuries and 
exposure to the elements since the inception of the 
post-Tertiary period. This varies in composition, 
thickness and value in various localities, but in 
rfearly, if not quite all, most fertile and most 
abundant. Its thickness above the sub-soil varies 
from two feet to twenty. 

Xorth Dakota for a new country is well sup- 
plied with means of transportation. The North- 
ern Pacific Railroad spans it from east to west, 
touching such points as Fargo, Jamestown, Bis- 
marck and many others. The Great Northern, for- 
merly, the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba, 
also crosses the state from east to west, crossing the 
Red river of the North at Grand Forks, passing 
Devil's Lake and through many prominent cities 
and villages in the northern part of the state. 
This railroad has several branches, northerly and 
southerly from the main trunks, tapping the more 
thickly settled portions of the state. The Northern 
Pacific Railroad also has a number of lateral 
branches. The Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault 
Ste Marie railroad crosses the state of Xorth Da- 
kota diagonally from southeast to northwest, the 
northernmost station being Portal, close to the in- 
ternational boundary line. It, also, has a branch 
in the southeastern part of the state. The Chicago 
& Northwestern Railroad has a short amount of 
trackage, also, within the state. A full detail of 
these various roads with their history is included 
in this work under the head of railroads, to which 
the reader is referred. 




^ nTVT<sTni\r tistto .<sTatf.9 amtj tfrrttortr*;. "^ 



At the dawn of the nineteenth century the ter- 
ritory now embraced in the state of North Dakota 
formed a part of the province of Louisiana, then be- 
longing to Spain. At the close of the Revolution- 
ary war the United States was bounded on the west 
by the Mississippi river from its course south to 
the thirty-first parallel of north latitude. This lat- 
ter formed the boundary between the States and 
the Spanish provinces of Florida. It is related that 
in 1542, Ferdinand De Soto, with a band of Spanish 
adventurers, under commission from the king of 
his native land, discovered the Mississippi at the 
mouth of the Ouachita river. After the sudden 
death of their leader, in May of that year, his fol- 
lowers, after burying his body in the river, built a 
small vessel, and in July, 1543, descended the Mis- 
sissippi to the Gulf of ^lexico. Thus the mouth 
of this mighty river was discovered one hundred 
and thirty years prior to the discovery of its upper 
valley by the French missionary priests. 

By virtue of this and the conquest of Florida, 
Spain claimed the country bordering on the Mis- 
sissippi and the Gulf of Mexico but made no at- 
tempt to colonize it permanently. At that time it 
was understood by the various European states 

that the discovery and occupation of any part of 
the New World made a title to the country. Al- 
though thus taken possession of by Spain, the fail- 
ure of that power to consummate its discovery by 
planting colonies or settlements, made their title 
void, and the country was left to be re-discovered 
and taken possession of by other powers. 

Early in the seventeenth century the religious 
zeal of the French missionary priests led them to 
penetrate from Quebec, the vast forests and plains 
of the west and southwest of the French possessions 
in North America. Along the river of St. Law- 
rence, through the chain of Great Lakes to the 
IVIississippi pushed their way, establishing mis- 
sions and endeavoring to win the Indians to the 
true faith. This movement began in 161 1 when 
Father La Caron, a Franciscan friar, the 
friend and companion of Champlain. the father of 
the French settlements in Canada, made a journey 
to the rivers of Lake Huron on foot and by pad- 
dling a birch bark canoe. In 1632, on the estab- 
lishment of the government of New France, un- 
der the charter of Louis XIII and his great prime 
minister. Cardinal Richelieu, the work of converting 
i the heathen Indians passed from the Order of St. 


Francis to that of Loyola, the famed Jesuits. 
Burning with pious zeal and animated with a 
spirit of self-sacrifice rarely, if ever, paralleled in 
the history of missionary work, these latter, simple 
priests, penetrated the wilds of the Canadian fron- 
tier and through toil and pain, often to martyrdom, 
carried tne cross to the remote tribes of the Mis- 
sissippi and its tributaries. Bancroft the histor- 
ian says : "The history of their labors is connected 
with the origin of every celebrated town in the an- 
nals of French America ;not a cape was turned, nor 
a river entered, but a Jesuit led the way." 

In 1634, the Jesuits, Brebeuf and Daniels, fol- 
lowed by Lallemand, made a journey into the far 
west. Joining a party of Huron Indians who had 
been in Quebec and who were returning to their 
homes, they pushed their way enduring without 
complaint untold fatigues and sufferings, by lake, 
river and forests. They penetrated to the heart of 
the Huron wilderness. Near the shores of Lake Iro- 
quois, was raised the first house of the Society of 
Jesus in all that region and soon two villages 
named St. Louis and St. Ignatius sprang up amid 
the forests that were the homes of the savage. 
The mission of Brebeuf gave to the world its first 
knowledge of the water courses of the St. Law- 
rence valley. From a map published in France 
in 1660, it is shown that these pious priests had 
explored the country from the waters of the Niag- 
ara to the head of Lake Superior, and had heard or 
seen the shores of Lake Michigan. 

As early as 1635, Jean Nicolet, who had been 
one of Champlain"s interpreters, and who had come 
to Canada from his native France in 1618, reached 
the western shores of Lake Michigan. In the sum- 
mer of 1634 he ascended the St. Lawrence with a 
party of Hurons and during the following winter 
traded with the Indians at what is now Green Bay, 
Wisconsin. In 1635 he returned to Canada. He 
was married at Quebec, October 7, 1637, and lived 
at Three Rivers until 1642, when he died. Of him 
it is said in a letter written in 1640, that he had 
penetrated the farthest into these distant countries, 
and if he had proceeded "three days more on a 
great river which flows from that lake (Green 
Bay) he would have found the sea," for such 
was a common belief in those days. 

The hostility of the Iroquois or Five Nations, a 
fierce and bloodthirsty confederation of savages, 
prevented the journey of Raymbault and Picard 
to the west in 1640, but the following year, at the 
Great Feast of the Dead, held by the Algonquins, 

at Lake Nipising, the Jesuits were invited to visit 
the land of the Ojibway or Chippewa Indians at 
what is now Sault Sainte Alarie. Accordingly Sep- 
tember 17, 1641, Fathers Raymbault and Jogues 
left the Bay of Penetanguishene in a bark canoe 
for the rendezvous, where, after a passage of sev- 
teen days, they met two thousand Indians who had 
assembled to meet them. 

At this meeting the worthy fathers learned of 
many as yet unheard-of savage tribes and nations. 
This was the first mention of the Dakotahs, called 
in the Ojibway tongue Nadouechiouec, or Nadou- 
essioux. The latter name, abbreviated by the 
French, forms the present name of these fierce no- 
mads of the north, Sioux. Thus it is truly said that 
"the French were looking toward the homes of the 
Sioux, in the Great Valley of the Mississippi, five 
years before the New England Eliot had addressed 
the tribes of Indians that dwelt within six miles 
of Boston Harbor. In the ardor of his enthusiasm 
for discovery Raymbault expected to reach the Pa- 
cific Ocean, then supposed to be but a few hundred 
miles west of the Mississippi. Hovyever he was 
laid low by the hand of death, his sickness being 
brought on by hardships, dying in 1642. 

In August, 1654, two fur traders joined a band 
of Ottawas and ventured upon a long voyage into 
the far west. In two years they returned with some 
fifty canoes and two hundred and fifty natives. 
They described the vast lakes and rivers of the west 
and the tribes whose homes stretched away to the 
northern sea, and spoke of the Sioux who dwelt 
beyond Lake Superior, and who wanted to trade 
with the white people. About this time two 
French adventurers made trips through the north- 
western wilderness. These were Medard Chouart 
known as Sieur Grosseliers and Pierre D' Esprit, 
called Sieur Radisson. These two arrived at 
Chagoumikon, on the bay of the same name, in 
Wisconsin, not far from where the city of Bayfield 
now stands. From there they journeyed north and 
west and passed and passed the winter of 1659-60 
among the Dakotahs. 

In 1660, the superior of the Jesuits at Quebec, 
learning of the many savage tribes to the west of 
the mission, and burning with zeal for the ad- 
vancement of the cause of Christ and the conver- 
sion of the heathen, sent Father Rene Menard, as 
an apostle among the red men. "His hair whitened 
by age, his mind ripened by long experience, and 
acquainted with the peculiarities of the Indian 
character, he seemed the man for the mission." 



The night previous to his departure sleep deserted 
the eyes of the venerable priest. He knew that he 
was going into the land of a savage, ruthless bar- 
barian, and he thought of his friends. Two hours 
past midnight, during his lonesome vigil, he penned 
a letter, the pious simplicity of which embalms it 
in the hearts of all. Early in the morning of the 
28th of August, 1660, he, in company with a half 
a dozen other white men, departed from Three 
Rivers. October 15th he arrived at a bay on Lake 
Superior, to which he gave the name of Ste. Ther- 
esa, its discovery occurring on her fete day. They 
remained here all winter, hard pressed for want of 
food, being driven to all sorts of shifts to avoid 
starvation. At last, having received an invitation 
to visit them from the Hurons and Ottawas, 
Father Menard started for their villages, at the 
Isle of St. Michael. In some way he wandered 
from his guide, and perished in some unknown 
manner. Relics of him were found in Sac and 
Sioux villages many years afterwards but no tale 
of how he died or where came to the waiting ears 
of his friends. 

In the summer of 1663, the mournful news of 
the death of Father Menard reached Quebec. His 
successor was soon found, for the impassive obed- 
ience of the Order of Loyola brooked no opposi- 
tion tp the command of a superior. Father Claude 
Allouez was chosen to carry the cross to these 
heathens and to follow in the footsteps of Father 
Menard. Impatiently waiting for the chance to pro- 
ceed to his work, he was unable to find conveyance 
until the summerof 1665 when, in company with six 
of his own race and color and four hundred sav- 
ages, he started. He built a mission at La Pointe, 
on Lake Superior, where he taught the simple na- 
tives his religion, and took up his work among 
them. While here he was the first to hear the 
name of a mighty river, the rival of the St. Law- 
rence, that flowed to the west of his station to which 
the Indians gave the name of Messipi. 

September 13, 1669, Father Allouez having 
grown discouraged and gone to pastures new, the 
renowned Father Marquette arrived at La Pointe 
to take his place. 

The purpose of discovering the Mississippi, 
about which the nations of Indians had told so 
much, seemed to have originated with Father Mar- 
quette in the same year of his reaching the mission 
of the Holy Ghost, at La Pointe. The year pre- 
vious, he and Father Claude Dablon had estab- 
lished the Mission of St. Mary's within what is 

now Michigan. Circumstances about this time were 
favorable to a voyage of discovery among the In- 
tion. The protection afforded to the Algonquins 
or the west by the commerce with New France 
as Canada was then called, which had grown up, 
had confirmed their attachment, and created a po- 
litical interest which extended to France and to 
Colbert, the able financier of Louis XIV, and that 
monarch himself. The Intendent, Talon, deter- 
mined to extend the power of France to the utmost 
borders of Canada, and for this purpose Nicholas 
Perrot was dispatched to the west as an emissary. 
The latter proposed a congress or convention of 
Indian nations at St. Mary's Mission, and the in- 
vitation to attend extended to all both far and near. 
Perrot arrived and in -May, 1671, there assembled 
at the falls of St. Mary, a great gathering of In- 
dians from all parts of the northwest. From the 
head waters of the St. Lawrence and the Missis- 
sippi, from the great lakes and the prairies beyond, 
and from the valley of the Red river of the North, 
they came, and it was announced that there should 
be peace, and that they were all under the protec- 
tion of France. 

In the same year Pere, or Father Marquette, 
gathered the remains, of one branch of the Hurons 
at Point St. Ignace, which establishment was long 
considered the key to the West. The countries 
south of this had been explored by Fathers Allouez 
and Dablon, who had borne the cross through west- 
ern Wisconsin and northern Illinois, visiting all the 
tribes of those localities. 

The grand enterprise of the discovering of the 
Mississippi river was now on hand. May 13, 1673, 
Marquette and Joliet with five Frenchmen from 
Canada, set out from the mission on their daring 
and adventurous enterprise of exploring the coun- 
try and finding out about the strange people of the 
unknown West. The Indians gathered to witness their 
departure, and, astonished at their temerity, attempt- 
ed to dissuade them from attempting it. They al- 
leged that the Indians of the Mississippi were a 
savage and cruel race, and that the river was the 
abode of all sorts of monsters and demons that were 
sure to destroy any one who dared to move upon the 
waters. Of course these tales did not terrify Mar- 
quette or Joliet, and these bold spirits, one led on by 
religious zeal, the other by pure spirit of adventure, 
parted from their friends and started on their trip. 

By the way of Green Bay they entered the Fox 
river which they ascended till they came to a village 
of the Miamis and Kickapoos, the extreme point 



to which the explorations of the French had, as yet, 
extended. Here Marquette was dehghted to find 
"a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the town, 
ornamented with white skins, red girdles, and bows 
and arrows, which those good people had offered 
to the Great Manitou, or God, to thank him for the 
pity he had bestowed on them during the winter, 
in having given them an abundant chase." 

On assembling the chiefs and medicine men of 
the village, Marquette made them a speech telling 
them that Joliet had been sent by the Governor of 
Canada to discover new countries_, and himself by 
God to spread the light of the Gospel. He added 
that he feared not death or exposure to which he 
expected to be called on to endure. From here, 
under the guidance of two Miami Indians, the ex- 
pedition departed to cross the portage that separated 
the Fox and the Wisconsin rivers. On reaching the 
latter stream the guides left them and they pushed 
their way down the rapid waters of the Wisconsin 
to its mouth, reaching the Mississippi early in 
June, 1673. They sailed down the river until they 
reached the mouth of the Illinois. Up this latter 
stream they paddled their way through a virgin land, 
encountering many privations. In time they reached 
the forks of the Kankakee and Desplaines, and fol- 
lowing the latter reached the Chicago river and 
Lake ^Michigan. 

The rediscovery of the lower Mississippi re- 
mained for the gallant, daring and indefatigable 
LaSalle, to whose labors, privations and enterprise 
the French settlements in the Mississippi valley 
were so largely indebted. LaSalle was a poor man, 
for having relinquished his patrimony on entering 
the Society of Jesus, on his honorable retirement 
from that order had nothing. In 1667, having in 
the meantime crossed the seas to the New World in 
search of fortune, he appeared as a fur-trader, near 
what is now the city of Montreal. His business led 
him to explore both Lakes Ontario and Erie. Full 
of enthusiasm for discovery and the colonization 
of the west, he returned to his native land in search 
of help and authority. He received the title of 
Chevalier, and considerable grants of land in Can- 
ada. He returned in 1678 and the same year con- 
veyed a party from Fort Frontenac (now King- 
ston, Canada), to the neighborhood of Niagara 
Falls, in a vessel of ten tons. This was the first 
craft that ever sailed up the Niagara river. In 1679 
he launched a vessel of some seventy tons burden. 
On the 7th of August, amid salvos of artillery, the 
chants of a Te Deum, and the plaudits of the people 

and Indians, he sailed from the little harbor. He 
passed through Lake Erie and through the Detroit 
river into Lake Huron. Onward through the 
straits of Mackinac into Lake Michigan his little 
vessel ploughed its way, being the first sail craft on 
its blue waters. Coasting down its western coast, 
LaSalle, in his vessel Griffin, came to anchor at 
Green Bay. He had named his little ship in 
honor of the coat of arms of his patron, Frontenac, 
Governor of Canada. It was LaSalle's intention to 
utilize his vessel in a regular commerce with the 
Indians, but he was doomed to disappointment. 
Having loaded the Griffin with furs and peltries he 
ordered her crew to return with her to the Niagara 
river. He journeyed down to the head of Lake 
Michigan, and passing up the St. Joseph river, 
discovered a portage over swamps and logs to the 
Kankakee. He followed the latter river to the Illi- 
nois, and the last named stream as far as where 
Peoria now stands. Misfortunes now accumulated 
on the head of LaSalle. His vessel was wrecked 
on its voyage down the lakes and its stores of furs 
and pelts totally lost, and the expecte<J stores, upon 
which he had depended to found and keep his col- 
ony did not come. The men that were with him 
grew discontented and almost deserted him. Like 
a man, and a brave and energetic one, he went to 
work to carry out the object which he had come 
so far to do. He built a fort just below Lake Peo- 
ria, to which he gave the appropriate name of 
Crevecceur, Broken Heart. He sent Father Hen- 
nepin on his well known voyage up the Mississippi, 
an expedition upon which the father was' the first 
European to gaze upon the upper river and the 
falls of St. Anthony. LaSalle set his men to work 
to build a barge or boat in which to descend the 
river, but as sails and cordage were necessary he 
determined to make the journey back to Canada 
on foot, in the depth of winter, and with no food or 
drink except what the chase or the creeks and 
streams could supply. Accordingly, leaving all his 
companions, except three, he started on this almost 
unparalleled journey. He accomplished his mis- 
sion, but on returning to the fort which he had 
built, he found Tonti, whom he had left in com- 
mand, and who he had ordered to build a new fort 
on the bluff, had, on being assaulted by a band of 
Indians, fled to a village of the Pottawattomies on 
Lake Michigan. After wasting some time in a 
fruitless search for his men, LaSalle finally started 
on his long voyage down the Illinois and the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf of Mexico. April 9, 1682, he took 


possession of the whole country watered by the 
great river from its source to its mouth, in the name 
of the King of France, Louis XIV. 

Thus was the Mississippi, in its lower course, re- 
discovered and taken possession of as French terri- 
tory. LaSalle called the vast empire which he had 
thus added to the French colony, Louisiana, in 
honor of the King, and the great river Colbert, 
after the minister of finance of his native land, at 
that time one of the foremost men of Europe. He 
erected a column and a cross near the mouth of the 
river bearing a leaden plate with the inscription : 

"Louis the Great, King of P>ance and Navarre, 
Reigning April 9, 1682." 
He found the three channels of the delta 
whereby the river empties into the Gulf of Mexico, 
and in May, 1683, returned to France to make re- 
port of his discovery. In 1685 he came once more 
from ^he latter country with a fleet and emigrants 
to colonize the country he had just discovered. 
Owing to the flat, level country, where land mingled 
with the water in marsh and swamp that spread for 
so many miles along the north coast of the Gulf, 
he was unable to find the mouth of the river. After 
beating about for some time in the search, he was 
finally abandoned by Beaujeau, who commanded 
a part of the fleet, who returned to France. With 
his store ship and two hundred and thirty emigrants 
LaSalle was driven ashore and wrecked in Mata- 
gorda bay, in what is now the state of Texas. La- 
Salle hastily constructed a fort of the scattered 
timbers of the vessel, and formed a colony to which 
he gave the name of St. Louis. This settlement, 
made as by an accident, made Texas a part of 

After a f-ruitless search, that extended over four 
months, in search of the river mouth, which he con- 
ducted in canoes, the restless LaSalle, in April, 1686, 
turned his steps toward New Mexico, with twenty 
companions, hoping to find the rich gold mines of 
that country, the Eldorado of the Spanish. The 
colony did not prosper in his absence, and on his 
return thither he found it reduced to about forty 
persons. He determined to travel to his settlements 
in Illinois and Canada on foot across the continent, 
and bring back emigrants and supplies. January 
12, 1687, he started with sixteen men, leaving the 
fort and settlement in charge of Sieur Barbier. 
The little party passed the basin of the Colorado 
and reached a branch of the Trinity river, where, 
March 20, 1687, the brave and gallant LaSalle was 
assassinated by three of his own party. One of his 

biographers, who calls him, truly, the father of the 
French settlements in Louisiana, says, "Not a hint 
appears in any writer that has come under our notice 
that casts a shade upon his integrity and honor. 
Cool and intrepid at all times, never yielding for a 
moment to despair, or even to despondency, he bore 
the heavy burdens of his calamities to the end ; and 
his hopes only expired with his last breath." 

In the meantime Father Louis Hennepin, a 
priest of the Recollect order of the Franciscans, 
who had been sent by LaSalle to explore the head 
waters of the-Aiississippi, in 1680, was making dis- 
coveries that have placed his name among the 
foremost of explorers. He was a native of Ath, 
in the Netherlands, and having a strong desire to 
travel embraced the church, then, next to the army, 
the surest road to advancement. For several years 
he lead a wandering life in the discharge of his 
priestly duties. In 1676 he received orders from 
his superior to embark for Canada, a welcome an- 
nouncement. On the ship that brought him across 
the seas was the gallant LaSalle with whom he 
contracted a friendship. After landing he resumed 
his labors in the church, and after many adventures 
finally went with LaSalle up the Niagara river. 
His description and drawing of the majestic falls, 
in that stream, were the first to reach Europe. 

He sailed on the Griffin with LaSalle and re- 
mained with that leader until the building of Fort 
Crevecoeur. In February, 1680, he was selected 
with two companions, to explore the L'pper Missis- 
sippi, and on the 19th of that month, with Picard 
de Gay and Michael Ako, turned the prow of his 
canoe toward the great river's upper course. The 
little party was detained by floating ice at the mouth 
of the Illinois river. On their way up the river 
they fell in with a war party of Dacotahs or Sioux, 
who took them along with them. In their company 
they journeyed northward, and finally after much 
fatigues and privation were enabled to discover the 
falls of the Mississippi to which Father Hennepin 
gave the name of St. Anthony. He afterwards re- 
turned to Europe, and published a book at L'trecht, 
in 1698, but died in obscurity, unwept and unhon- 
ored, as he had obtained a reputation for mendacity 
and double dealing, perhaps undeserved, although 
some modern writers think it the proper thing to 
deny him the credit that is his due. 

Other discoveries were made in the north about 
the same time. The first trading posts on Lake 
Superior, beyond Sault Ste. Marie, were built of pme 
logs by Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Luth, or DuLut, 


a native of Lyons, France, at Kamanistigoya, north- 
east of Pigeon river, ^linnesota. He advanced as 
far as the Lake of the Issati, now Mille Lac, which 
he named Lake Buade, from the family name 
of AL de Frontenac, governor general of New 

At the close of the seventeenth century, France, 
by right of discovery and occupation, claimed not 
only Canada and Nova Scotia, then known as New 
France and Acadia, and Hudson's Bay and New 
Foundland, but parts of Maine, Vermont and New 
York, together with the whole of the Mississippi 
valley, and possessions on the Gulf of Mexico, in- 
cluding Texas as far south as the Rio del Norte. 
The English revolution of 1688, when William of 
Orange succeeded James H upon the throne of Eng- 
land, and the peace of Ryswick in 1697, did not 
affect these possessions of France in the New 
World. At the period of the close of the great 
war which had just closed upon European soil by 
the above treaty in which so many powers were in- 
cluded, none of the possessions of France in the 
New World engaged the attention of that power 
so much as Louisiana. In 1697 D'Iberville still 
further aroused the attention of the ministry of 
the colony, and inspired the Count de Ponchar- 
train with the idea of building a fort and making a 
settlement at the mouth of the Mississippi. Two 
vessels were fitted out, one under the command of 
the Marquis de Chateau-Morand, and the other 
under DTberville. They left France in October, 
1698, to find the mouth of the river, and after touch- 
ing at Pensacola, March 2, 1699, entered the delta 
of the Mississippi. De Chateau-Morand went back 
to the island of St. Domingo, but D'Iberville as- 
cended the river as far as what is now known as 
Bayou Goula. At this point he met an Indian chief 
who handed him a letter, which was written by 
Tonti, the man who had left his post at Fort Cre- 
vecaeur, where he was placed by LaSalle, and was 
addressed to the latter as governor of Louisiana. 
It read as follows : 

"Sir: — Having found the post on which you had 
set up the King's arms thrown down by the drift- 
wood, I caused another one to be fixed on this side, 
about seven leagues from the sea, where I have left 
a letter in a tree by the side of it. All the nations 
have smoked the calumet with me ; they are people 
who fear us exceedingly since you had captured this 
village. I conclude by saying it is a great grief to 
me that we will return with the ill fortune of not 
having found you, after we had coasted with two 

canoes thirty leagues on the Mexican side and 
twenty-five on that of Florida. 

The receipt of this letter was twelve years after 
the death of LaSalle, and nineteen years after he 
and Tonti had parted at the Peoria fort. Neither 
knew what had become of the other. Both _ had 
sought the other unavailingly. The letter is inter- 
esting as shedding light on Tonti's conduct and also 
as peculiar that the Indian chief had preserved it 
for so long a time. 

D'Iberville descended the river and went to the 
Bay of Biloxi, between the Mississippi and Mobile 
rivers, where he erected a fort. JNIissions, trading 
posts and small settlements began to be foundea 
from this time on in that province. As early as 
1712 land titles were issued as far north as Kas- 
kaskia, in what is now Illinois, and regular trade 
channels were opened between Canada and Louis- 

Settlements now arose along the Mississippi at 
various points from the mouth of the Illinois river 
southward. The French determined to circumvent 
the English colonies on the Atlantic coast by build- 
ing a line of forts from the Great Lakes to the 
Gulf of Mexico, as once suggested to the French 
government by LaSalle. Part of this plan was 
carried into execution. Fort Chartres was con- 
structed on the east bank of the Mississippi about 
sixty-five miles south of the mouth of the ?vIissouri. 
This was one of the strongest fortresses on the con- 
tinent at the time, and its ruins were to be seen a 
hundred years later. It was the headquarters of the 
commandant of Louisiana. Shortly after thait 
the villages of Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher and 
others sprang into existence. A monastery and 
college was established in 1721, at Kaskaskia, a 
very important post in what is now the state of 
Illinois. The French laid claim to all the great 
Mississippi valley at this time. "France," says 
Bancroft, "had obtained, under Providence, the 
guardianship of this immense district of country, 
not, as it proved, for her own benefit, but rather 
as a trustee for the infant nation by which it was 
one day to be inherited." 

By the treaty of the Utrecht, in 1713. France 
ceded to England her possessions in Hudson's bay, 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. France still re- 
tained Canada and Louisiana. In 171 1 the affairs 
of the latter were placed in charge of a governor- 
general, but this only lasted one year. The colony, 
not meeting the expectations of the government 
of the mother country, in 17 12 was farmed out to 


a company to be carried on by private capital. 
Anthony Crozat, a wealthy merchant of Paris, un- 
dertook to handle it as a commercial affair, but 
failed. Every Spanish port on the gulf was closed 
to his commerce, and the occupation of Louisiana 
deemed an encroachment upon Spanish rights by 
that proud nation. He finally, after continued 
struggles, in 1 717, surrendered his charter. 

The Mississippi Company, one of those vision- 
ary schemes of that dreamer, John Law, was in- 
augurated the same year. Its charter invested it 
with the entire commerce of Louisiana and of New 
France, with authority to enforce its rights. In 
1 7 18 the company became recognized as the Royal 
Bank of France, and the following year, by virtue 
of the gaining of the monopoly of the trade with 
the East Indies and the south seas, became the 
Company of the Indies. 

In 1718 the u£w company sent eiglat hundred 
emigrants to Lotiisiana. These people Governor 
Bienville settled at what is now New Orleans, but 
three years later the remainder of this force, some 
two hundred, were found still encamped on the site 
of the future cit^-,, tliey not having energ_y enough to 
build houses for tlvemselves. The larger part 
had died on .account of the climate and malaria, 
so prevalent in that locality. In May, 1720, the 
bubble burst, the La\w Company went into bank- 
ruptcy, impoverisliing France, both in its public 
funds and private fortunes. The effect on the in- 
fant settlements in the New World were more 
disastrous, if it wane possible. The principal oc- 
cupation of tlie French settlers, like tlieir Spanish 
neighbors, was tlie search for immense mines of 
gold and silver, for which they neglected the enor- 
mous natural agricultural resources of tlie country, 
now the granary of the world and source of supply 
of the larger part of the cotton and sugar of com- 
merce. The contrast was strong between the col- 
onists of the Latin races and those of Anglo-Saxon 

In 1719 there arrived in Illinois one Phillipe 
Francois Renault, who had been appointed director- 
general of the mines of Louisiana. With liim he 
brought two hundred miners and artisans. The 
extent of the country explored at that time em- 
braced the headwaters of the Minnesota and the 
Red river of the North, the Arkansas, the tribu- 
taries of the Missouri and even extended to the 
Rocky mountains. 

About this time hostilities with the Indians 
broke out, and a war with Spain threatened the 

lovver part of the territory. From 1712 until 1746 
the settlers in Louisiana fought with the savages. 
In the latter year, at Butte des Morts and on the 
Wisconsin river, the Fox Indians were defeated 
and driven westward. During this time, in 1729, 
the Natchez, Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians 
rose and massacred all within their reach. Mili- 
tary operations against them were taken. The 
Choctaws were detached from the confederacy by 
the diplomacy of Le Sueur, the famous explorer, 
and the Natchez defeated. Their chief, Great Sun, 
and four hundred of his people were taken pris- 
oners and sold as slaves in Hispaniola, now the 
island of San Domingo and Hayti. Thus perished 
this interesting tribe who were, at the time, semi- 

April ID, 1732, the control of the commerce of 
Louisiajaa reverted to the crown of France, and in 
1735 Bienville returned as governor ^f or the king. 

In 1753 the first actual conflict arose between 
Louisiana and the English colonies on the Atlantic 
coast. A jealousy and rivalry had long existed. 
The French exerted every effort to prevent the 
other colonists from attempting to extend their 
settlements toward the Mississippi. The avowal 
was made for the purpose of seizing and punish- 
ing any Englishman found in the Ohio or Missis- 
sippi valleys. To carry out their purpose the 
French seized upon a piece of territory claimed by 
\'irginia, and, alive to their interests, protests were 
made by the colonists of Mrginia. Pennsylvania 
and New York. In 1753 Governor Dinwiddie, of 
\'irginia, sent George Washington, then a young 
man of twenty-one years, to the French com- 
mandant to demand by what right he invaded 
British soil in time of peace between England and 
France. Gardeur de St. Pierre, the French officer 
in command, was met near the headwaters of the 
Allegheny by the young colonist, after a difficult 
winter journey. Washington, on stating his de- 
mands, received the insolent answer that they would 
not discuss right, but that as they had discovered 
the countr\- they would hold it. 

On the return of Washington, in January; 1754, 
he made his report. Forces were raised and under 
Colonel Washington marched upon the enemy. He 
had an action in western Pennsylvania with some 
of the French troops in which ten of the latter, 
with their commander, Jumonville. were killed. 
Some twenty French were made prisoners. The 
French, receiving reinforcements, Washington was 
forced to fall back, and at Green Meadows erected a 



rude stockade, which he called Fort Necessity. Here 
he was, shortly after, confronted by a French force 
of six hundred men with a hundred or more In- 
dians, and on the 3d of July was forced to capit- 
ulate. On the 4th of July, 1754, the English 
troops withdrew from the Ohio valley. War be- 
tween England and France broke out in May, 1755. 
This war in the new world lasted, with various 
fortunes, until the loth of February, 1763, when 
the treaty of Paris was signed. By this instrument 
France renounced all her title to New France, now 
Canada, and all of the land lying east of the Mis- 
sissippi river, except the island and town of New 
Orleans. On the same day by a secret treaty France 
ceded to Spain all her possessions of Louisiana, in- 
cluding the whole country to the headwaters of the 
Mississippi and west to the crest of the Rocky 

At the treaty of peace between England and 
the United Colonies, at the close of the Revolution- 
ary war in 1783, the former ceded to the latter all 
possessions on the east side of the Mississippi. At 
the same time the British government ceded to 
Spain all the Floridas, including all territory east 
of Louisiana and south of the southern limits of 
the colonies just freed. 

At an early period after the conclusion of peace 
the people of the L^nited States began to demand 
the free navigation of the Mississippi. The Span- 
ish power, holding one bank entirely and both part 
of its course, held that they had exclusive use of 
it and demanded heavy tolls on all iiuports south 
of the mouth of the Ohio. This was a vexed ques- 
tion at the time and came, at one period, near to 
disrupting the country, the intrigues of Miro and 
Carondelet, the Spanish governors, tending to the 
separation of the western colonies from the eastern. 
All these questions were quieted by the treaty of 
Madrid, October 20, 1795, by which the free navi- 
gation of the river was assured, and the use of 
New Orleans at a port of entry or deposit. Oc- 
tober 16, 1802, these rights were revoked by 
Morales, then intendant of Louisiana, but this action 
was not acquiesced in by the governor. Indigna- 
tion ran high in the United States at this time over 
the matter. To effectually secure the rights of the 
United States in the navigation and commerce of 
the Mississippi, President Thomas Jeft'erson, in 
January, 1803, sent a message to the senate of the 
United States, nominating Robert R. Livingston 
and James Monroe ministers to the court of France, 
with full authoritv to conclude a trcatv to that 

end. By a treaty dated at Madrid March 21, 1801, 
all the territory of Louisiana had been ceded back 
to France, the latter republic, by the hands of her 
glorious first consul, having in return placed the 
son-in-law of the king of Spain, the Prince of 
Parma, upon the throne of the new kingdom of 
Eturia. The newly accredited ministers arrived in 
Paris at a critical time. The hollow peace, which 
folowed the treaty of Amiens, between England and 
France, was strained to its utmost limit. Negotia- 
tions were commenced with the French cabinet. 
War between the two great naval powers broke 
out May 22, 1803, and Napoleon, who had been 
just made consul for life, to quote the words 
of M. Theirs, in his history of the consulate and 
empire, "'sent for M. Marbois, the secretary of 
finance, and to him broached the idea of selling 
to the L'uited States outright the province of 
Louisiana." This he did for the twofold reason 
of obtaining money for his war operations and 
to cast a bone of contention between England and 
the L^nited States — "to gain the friendship of the 
people of zVmerica," as he said. Messrs. Living- 
ston and Monroe, not dismayed at their want of 
powers to sign any such treaty, entered into a 
stipulation, subject of course to the ratification 
of their government. By the terms of this pa- 
per France ceded to the L'nited States the whole 
province of Louisiana for which she was to re- 
ceive the sum of fifteen million of dollars, and 
the United States assumed, also, the payment of 
certain claims against the French government. 
These latter were by merchants and ship-owners 
of the United States who had suft'ered loss from 
the seizure of their vessels and cargoes, by the 
Directory, a former form of government in 
France. The original price paid to P'rance, 
through banking houses in Amsterdam and the 
"spoliation claims" above mentioned, brought the 
price of Louisiana up to $27,267,621.98. as ofticially 
stated. This treaty was signed April 30, 1803. 
Much opposition developed in the United States 
to the ratification of the treaty. The far-seeing 
statesmen of that day, alone, appreciated the vast 
importance of the territory thus cheaply pur- 
chased. Parts of New England, timorously 
plead against its confirmation, seeing all kinds of 
danger to the infant republic. Sober common 
sense, however, prevailed and the treaty was con- 
firmed, and December following the province was 
oflicially delivereil to the commissioners, Governor 



Claiborne, of Mississippi, and General James Wil- 
kinson, United States army. 

Thus the United States became possessed of 
a territory extending from the Gulf of Mexico 
to the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, and 
from the banks of the Mississippi river to the 
crests of the Rocky mountains. If the treaty, 
which was confirmed through the ii^fluence of 
President Jefferson, had miscarried, her dominion 
at that grand period would have been bounded 
on the west by the "Father of Waters," and the 
vast empire now a valuable part of the Great Re- 
public, west of its waters, would have been in the 
possession of a foreign power. To that act of 
Livingston and Monroe- in transcending their 
powers, which was only acquiesced in after it was 
done, was due the fact that North Dakota became 
a part of the United States. 

At that time the territory, since known by the 
name of the Louisiana purchase, included what is 
now the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, 
Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Nebraska, Kansas, parts of Wyoming and Colo- 
rado, and the territory of Oklahoma and Indian 

On the first of October, 1803. by act of con- 
gress, all that part of the new country south of 
the thirty-third degree of north latitude, was set 
ofi' and called the Territory of Orleans ; this now 
forms part of the state of Louisiana. The bal- 
ance of the new possessions, under the name of 
the District of Louisiana, was placed under the 
jurisdiction of a governor and a court known as 
that of the Indian Country. The name of this 
district was, July i, 1805, changed to that of Ter- 
ritory, and the control given to a governor and 
three judges appointed by the president and con- 
firmed by the senate of the L'nited States. 

By an act of congress, dated December 7, 1812, 
what is now North Dakota became a part of the 
Territory of Missouri and to the inhabitants of 

the new territory was granted a limited amount 
of local self-government. 

Congress, on the twenty-eighth day of June, 
1834, set off all that part of the so-called Louisi- 
ana purchase and lands otherwise acquired, lying 
cast of the Missouri river and west of Lakes 
Huron and Erie, and north of what are now the 
states of Illinois and Missouri. This territory 
was called Michigan. It included what are now 
the sovereign states of North and South Dakota, 
Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and Michigan. On 
the marking out of the boundaries of the latter 
upon admission as a state, July 3, 1836, the re- 
maining part of the territory was called that of 
Wisconsin. By act of congress, July 12, 1838, on 
the admission of Wisconsin as a state, what are 
now the Dakotas became a part of the Territory 
of Iowa, and, in March, 1849, a portion of the 
Territory of Minnesota. All of that portion of 
the Dakotas lying west of the Missouri and White 
Earth rivers all this time was called the Mandan 
country, from a powerful tribe of Indians of that 
name who resided there. All of this latter por- 
tion was included in the newly organized territory 
of Nebraska, in 1854. On the nth of May, 1858, 
Alinnesota was admitted into the Union as .1 
sovereign state and its boundaries fixed as now 
marked, leaving all that part of what is now 
known as North and South Dakota, lying between 
the western border of the new state and the Mis- 
souri and White Earth rivers, without official 
recognition, name or legal government, a sort of 
no man's land. The few setttlers within its bor- 
ders, not satisfied with this new state of affairs, 
proposed to exert themselves to obtain a form 
of territorial government antl called their land 
the territory of Dakota. The histor,y of that part 
of its history and the full account of its life as a 
territory can be found in the chapter in this 
volume under the head of Territorial Govern- 





Besides the numerous explorers and exploring 
expeditions mentioned in the former chapter there 
are others, prominent in the history of our country 
that more nearly and directly are connected with 
the farther northwest and North Dakota in par- 
ticular. One of the most interesting and import- 
ant, in a historical sense, of these was that of Ver- 
endrye. Here we find the first mention of the 
lands around the upper waters of the Missouri 
river and the aboriginal inhabitants of these lands. 
He and his party were the first white people to 
press the soil of the Dakotas, and theirs the first 
eyes to behold its beauties. On this account the 
story of their movements, their various discoveries 
and personal history is of interest, especially in 
connection with the history of the vigorous young 
state to whose annals this volume is devoted. 


\'erendrye, whose whole name was Pierre 
Gaultier \'arennes Sieur de la Verendrye, was the 
son of Rene Gaultier Varennes, also Sieur de la 
Verendrye. for twenty-two years the chief magistrate 
at Trois Rivieres, Canada, and Marie Boucher, his 

wife, the latter the daughter of his predecessor. 
The younger Verendrye became a cadet in 1697, 
and in 1704 took part in a demonstration against 
New England. The following year he was in 
Newfoundland and in 1706 went to France, join- 
ing the regiment du Brittany. He was in the 
famous battle of Malplaquet, fought in 1709, He 
returned to Canada and became connected with 
the Lake Superior region. In 1728, while Ver- 
endrye was commander at the post on the shores 
of Lake Nipigon, in the north part of Lake Su- 
perior, he met, at Mackinaw, one Father De Conor, 
a Jesuit priest. This man had been with Guignas, 
who had, the September before, built Fort Beau- 
harnois, on Lake Pepin. Part of the subject of 
the conversation of these two men, types of their 
times and country, was the connection by water 
between the lakes and the Pacific ocean. It was 
largely a matter of belief, at that period, that a 
channel of communication existed in that direc- 
tion. An Indian by the name of Ochagach, or 
Otchaga, drew a rough map of the country beyond 
Lake Superior for Verendrye and which is still 
preserved among the archives of France. Vari- 
ous rivers are shown upon this map, the most in- 
teresting being, however, a mythical one called the 



river of the west. As most of the travel and 
nearly all the transportation of heavy material at 
that time was by water, this river would solve a 
weighty problem, and its discovery would add to 
the fame as well as the purse of the discoverer, for 
trading with the Indians was part of these expedi- 
tions. Father DeGonor conversed with X'erendrye 
upon the subject of the river of the west and prom- 
ised his influence with the governor general of 
Xew France, as Canada was then called, for fitting 
out an expedition to discover and explore it. 
Charles de Beauharnois, the governor general, 
gave A'erendrye a respectful hearing and carefully 
examined the map of Ochagach, and was duly im-' 
pressed with the value of the information. Soon 
orders were issued for the fitting out of an expe- 
dition for exploration, consisting of some fifty 
men. It left Montreal in the early summer of 
1731, under the command of two sons of the Sieur 
de la Verendrye, and his nephew, De la Jemeraye, 
he being, as yet, detained by business engage- 
ments. He did not join the party until 1733. 

In the autumn of 1731, the party reached 
Rainy Lake, by way of the Nantouagan, now 
Pigeon river. At that time this stream was known 
to the French as Groseliiers river, after a noted 
explorer of this region. 

Father Messayer, who had been located at a 
mission at the mouth of the Pigeon river, on Lake 
Superior, was taken along as spiritual director. 
At the foot of Rainy Lake a post was erected and 
called Fort St. Pierre. In 1732 the party crossed 
Lake Minittie.or Lake of the Woods, and established 
Fort St. Charles on its southwestern shore. 
On the Assinaboine river, about five leagues from 
Lake ^^'innipeg, they established another post. A 
map of these regions, made by De la Jemeraye, is 
still in the possession of the French government. 
The Winnipeg river was called by them Maure- 
pas, after the famous minister of France, at that 
time in power. Their right to the possession of 
the river and surrounding country tliey protected 
by a fort of the same name. 

Here their further advance was stopped for 
want of provisions and other supplies. But an 
arrangement was made, April 12, 1735, for a new 
equipment and another son of Verendrye joined 
the expedition. This was the fourth. In June, 
1736, while twenty-one of the little force were 
camped upon an island in the Lake of the Woods, 
they were surprised by a l.iand of Xadouessioux, 
or Sioux, and all killed. The island perpetuates 

this crime in its name of Massacre island. The 
bodies were found a few days after the event and 
buried. They were all dead and had been scalped. 
Father Ouneau, according to the journal of \'er- 
endrye, a missionary priest, who was with them, 
was found upon one knee, an arrow in his head, 
his breast bare, his left hand touching the ground 
and his right uplifted to the heavens, as if calling 
for protection upon his Maker. Among the slain, 
too, was one of the sons of \'erendrye, their leader, 
who had been tomahawked. His father was at the 
foot of the same lake when he heard of the murder 
of his son, and about the same time received the 
news of the death of his nephew.Dufrost de la 
Jemeraye. The latter was a bold and enterprising 
man, and was a strong support to his uncle who 
missed him much in his subsequent wanderings. 
It was under the guidance of Jeremaye that the 
expedition had overcome the difiiculties of the 
navigation of Pigeon river in the early days of 
their exploration. These were so great as to daunt 
anyone less energetic and strong-minded than he. 

On the 3rd of October, 1738, they built a fort 
on the Assiniboine, which stream they called 
Charles river, after Charles Beauharnois, the gov- 
ernor general of New France. This advance post 
they called Fort La Reine or Queen's fort. A 
short distance from this point the river was joined 
by another, to which they gave the name of Pierre 
river after their leader. The latter fort became the 
center of trade and point of departure for all fu- 
ture exploring parties. 

By their ascending the Assinaboine river to the 
mouth of the Souris or blouse river, and then up 
the latter, these hardy explorers crossed what is 
now the international boundary line just west of 
Turtle mountains. Although this is not certain, 
the reading of the account justifying the writer in 
thinking it was further to the east. As it was, 
however, it was the first time that the foot of white 
men are known to have been planted upon the soil 
of what is now North Dakota ; the first time civil- 
ized eyes had beheld its plains, its hills and its 
valleys. That is unless there is some truth in the 
story of Coronado, one of Cortez's lieutenants' 
visit to this far-off land when upon his long expe- 
dition to the north early in the sixteenth century, 
which is very doubtful. The first authentic ex- 
pedition into North Dakota was under the com- 
mand of ^'erendrye himself, and took place in 
J 74 1. It penetrated into the land of the Man- 
tanes or Mandans, or whitebeards. a people who 



are said at that time to have had seven villages, 
with pine stockades, strengthened by a ditch, and 
were partially civilized. On the 29th of April, 
1741, an expedition under the command of the two 
elder sons of \'erendrye, left the Lake of the 
Woods and going westward followed in the tracks 
of the former expedition, arriving at the Missoilri 
river and later at the Yellowstone. These rivers 
they passed safely and came in sight of the Rocky 
mountains January i, 1743. On the 12th of the 
same month the chevalier, or second son of Veren- 
drye, ascended the mountains for some distance; 
his brother being some distance behind and in 
charge of the train. On their homeward march, 
after visiting among the various tribes of the in- 
tervening country, trying to open up trade rela- 
tions with them, the expedition reached their point 
of departure. On their way, on the upper Mis- 
souri, in what they call "the country of the Petite 
Cerise (little cherry) tribe," they planted, on an 
eminence, a leaden plate bearing the arms of 
France, and raised a monument of stones, which 
point they called Beauharnois. From there they 
returned to the Lake of the Woods. After some 
years of varied fortunes the Sieur de la Veren- 
drye died, when just about to start on a new ex- 
ploring expedition, December 6, 1749. Fie was 
singularly unfortunate, and notwithstanding his 
labors, and the toils and labors of his children, 
he died much poorer than when he embarked in 
the business of adding empire to the possessions 
of his king. He bore the main part of the expense 
of his expeditions himself, it being expected that 
he could recoup himself from trade with the In- 
dians. None of the Dakota streams or towns bear 
his name in recognition of his great services nor 
commemorate the fact of his being the first Euro- 
pean to tread its soil. 

Probably others of these semi-military, semi- 
fur trading adventures may, possibly, have visited the 
northern part of North Dakota, in the succeeding 
years, but if so we have no account of them. The 
proximity of their trading posts around Lake Win- 
nipeg and along the Assiniboine and Saskatche- 
wan rivers certainly favors the supposition. 


The next, of moment, to visit this country was, 
in all probability, David Thompson, the surveyor, 
geographer and astronomer of the Northwest 
Company. He was an Englishman by birth, prob- 

ably of humble parentage. He was, for seven 
years, a member of Christ Church Hospital school, 
in London. This was known as the Blue Coat 
School. In May, 1784, he was appointed a clerk 
to the Hudson's Bay Company, and was sent to Fort 
Churchill, then in charge of Samuel Heme, a na- 
tive of London, England. After his term of serv- 
ice with the Hudson's Bay Company had expired 
Thompson entered the employ of the Northwest 
Company, and was commissioned to proceed to the 
Missouri river country and the headwaters of the 
Mississippi and make geographical and astronom- 
ical observations. After various work done in and 
about the Saskatchewan river, on the 28th of No- 
vember, 1797, Thompson left McDonnel's post, in 
latitude forty-nine degrees, forty minutes, fifty-six 
seconds, on the Assiniboine river, for his journey to 
the Missouri. His Uttle company was made up of 
seven French Canadian voyageurs, Rene Jussome, 
the interpreter, Hugh McCracken, an Irishman, and 
A. Brossman, a servant. Taking up the trail they, 
thirty-three days after, reached the Mandan vil- 
lages on the Pekitanoni or Missouri river. Here 
Thompson and his party remained a short time, 
making observations and writing up his journal, 
surrounded' by this partially semi-civilized tribe, 
who were advanced enough in the mechanic arts 
to make pottery ; he made several short trips to the 
surrounding coimtry. In returning, he says he 
went to Dog Tent hill, which bore, north twenty- 
eight degrees east from the camp on the Missouri, 
and was distant fifty miles. From there to Turtle 
Hill, fourteen miles ; thence to the Ash House, on 
the Souris or Alouse river, twenty-four miles, and 
thence to the McDonnel post, from which he 
started, north sixty-nine degrees east, forty-five 
miles. Thompson made another trip into the 
northern part of North Dakota in the following 
spring. He had started out on a surveying ex- 
pedition on the 26th of February, 1798, with three 
Canadians and an Indian guide. They had with 
them three sleds drawn by dogs. The junction of 
the Mouse river with the Assiniboine was about 
half a mile from the McDonnel post, which was, as 
before, his point of departure. The snow was 
found quite deep, and the guide had to rest and 
be relieved every two or three hours. Following 
down the Assiniboine, on the 7th of March, the 
little party reached the junction of that stream 
with the Red river of the North, and began its 
survey. We are told in Mr. Thompson's journal, 
that, that day the sleds fell into the river, so, that 



about three o'clock in the afternoon, they were 
compelled to stop. The next day proved very 
tempestuous, snowing heavily, and it was very 
difficult to make any headway in traveling. The 
Indian guide became exhausted and Air. Thomp- 
son, who seemed to be built of sterner stuff, took 
the lead. When night overtook him he was obliged 
to bivouac in the snow, the train being behind some 
miles. lie passed the night, a very cold one, with- 
out shelter, in the open air. On Saturday, the loth 
of Alarch, it was clear, but cold, and about 8:30 
A. M". the men with the train came up, and all that 
day was spent in drying their clothes and their 

The next morning, Sunday, the nth, they 
started and walked by the compass to the tent poles 
of three lodges of Chippewas, of whom they were 
in search and who had passed a week before. 
Still pursuing the moving savages the trail was 
followed to the river, where it was lost in an im- 
mense snow drift. Shortly after noon the trail was 
recovered and the party set forth again. On Mon- 
day the Chippewas were found and two of them 
were prevailed upon to go with Mr. Thompson to 
the company's post on the Pembina river. Mr. 
Thompson says this river, which he calls the Sum- 
mer Berry, derives its name from the red berries 
which so profusely line its banks, called by the 
Chippewas, Nepin, Summer, and Minan, berry. 
This the voyaguers and others had abbreviated to 

On the 14th of March he reached the post of 
the Northwest Company, at that time in charge of 
Charles Chaboullier, and there remained some six 
days recuperating after the exhausting journey 
through the snow, and waiting for more propitious 
weather. While at this place he took the necessary 
observations and found that the post was located 
in forty-eight degrees, fifty-four minutes, twenty- 
four seconds north latitude, ninety-seven degrees, 
sixteen minutes, forty seconds longitude west 
from Greenwich. This threw it south of the 
boundary of the British possessions. March 21st 
Mr. Thompson resumed his survey of the Red 
river, proceeding southward, and in latitude forty- 
seven degrees, fifty-four minutes, twenty-one 
seconds north latitude and longitude ninety-six de- 
grees, ni»eteen minutes west, reached the trad- 
ing post of Baptiste Cadotte, where he remained 
until the advent of spring and the breaking up of 
the ice in the river. This post was east of the 
river in what is now Minnesota. From there. 

April 9, he started to survey the headwaters of 
the Mississippi river. This terminated his connec- 
tion with the annals of North Dakota. He after- 
wards became quite a noted explorer in the west 
and northwest and is spoken of by Franchere and 
by Washington Irving in their histories of the 
Astoria settlement as among the very earliest ex- 
plorers of the upper waters of the Columbia river. 
The latter tells of his arrival at Astoria in July, 
181 1, in a canoe carrying the English flag. He 
says : 

"On coming to the land, one of the crew stepped 
on shore and announced himself as David Thomp- 
son, astronomer, and partner of the Northwest 
Company. According to his account, he had set 
out in the preceding year with a tolerably strong 
party and a supply of Indian goods, to cross the 
Rocky mountains. A part of his people had, how- 
ever, deserted him on the eastern side and returned 
with the goods to the nearest Northwest post. He 
had persisted in crossing the mountains with eight 
men who remained with him. They had traversed 
the higher regions, and ventured near the source 
of the Columbia, where, in the spring, they had 
constructed a cedar canoe, the same in which they 
had reached Astoria. * * * ;Mr. Thompson 
was, no doubt, the first white man who descended 
the northern branch of the Columbia from so near 
its source." He died in 1857 at the advanced age 
of eighty-nine. 


Alexander Henry also was among the earliest 
visitors to Dakota. He was one of the partners of 
the Northwest Company and although of a limited 
education, his pen was that of a ready writer and 
his descriptions are graphic. From the unpub- 
lished journal of Mr. Henry some extracts may be 
of interest. After telling an interesting story of 
his adventures up to this time, he, under date of 
September 3, 1800, relates how he left half of the 
goods at the post he had established near the pres- 
ent site of Winnipeg, and started for the upper 
part of the Red river of the North. He was ac- 
companied by Desmarrais, Bellagard, Roger, Benoit 
La Roque, Beauchman, Le France, Barbe, Char- 
boneau, McDonnell and Parais. In his journal he 
writes under date of September 5. Friday: 

"Early this morning I sent off the canoes, when 
Dcniarrais, and myself proceeded by land ; we came 
to the Pambian (Pembina) river and crossed over 



to the old fort which was built in 1797-8 by M. 
Chabouiller, opposite the entrance of the Red river. 
On the east side of the Red river are the ruins of 
the old fort, built by Peter Grant some years ago, 
and which was the first establishment upon the Red 

"September 6th. — At the Bois Perie, near 
where we are encamped, has been a great crossing 
for many years (he means wild game). The 
ground on both sides is beaten as hard as a pave- 
ment and the numerous roads leading to the river, 
a foot deep, are surprising, and when I consider 
the hard sod through which these tracks are beaten, 
I am entirely at a loss and bewildered in attempt- 
ing to form any idea of the numerous herds of 
buffalo which must have passed here. 

"Monday, Sth. — At 8 o'clock sent the canoes 
off, while Desmarrais and myself hurried off on 
horseback. \\"e saw here the buffalo, all in mo- 
tion, crossing from the east to the west side, di- 
recting their course to the Hair hills. We chased 
several herds, and had fine sport, but only killed 
two fat cows, and took a small load down to the 
river, for the canoes to take in as they passed. 
Here I lost one of my spurs. Having brought 
the meat near the river, we set out and did not stop 
until we reached the Park river, at 2 o'clock. We 
tied our horses at the entrance of the little river, 
and went out to search for a proper spot to build, 
as thejndians would not ascend the Red river any 
higher. My men, also, began to murmur very 
much, and even Desmarrais, who is an old veteran, 
one of the first who ever came up this river. We 
went up the river about a mile and attempted to 
drink, but found the water a perfect brine. I now 
find it impossible to build here, even if the wood 
had been more proper. 

"Tuesday, 9th. — Early this morning I went out 
in search of a proper place to build. I found none so 
well situated for defense, and wood at hand, as a 
point of woods on the west side of the Red river 
within a quarter of a mile of the little (Park) river, 
a beautiful level plain whch divides us from that 

Under a later date ]Mr. Henry says : 

"January 17, 1801. — We had a terrible snow 
storm. I can now daily count from the top of 
my oak tree from twenty to thirty herds of buf- 
falo feeding out on the plains. It is surprising 
how the cow buffalo resist the cold, piercing north 
winds, which at times blow with such violence 
over these bleak plains, which cause such a drift 

that it is impossible to face it for any time. Still 
the animals will stand grazing in the open 
field. * * * 

"April 1st, Wednesday. — The river clear of ice, 
but the drowned buffalo continue to drift down by 
entire herds. Several of them were lodged upon 
the bank near the fort. The Indian women have 
cut up some of the fattest for their own use. The 
flesh appears to be fresh and good. It really is as- 
tonishing what vast quantities must have perished, 
as they form one continual line in the middle of the 
river for two days and two nights." 

On the 4th of May Mr. Henry started north 
with the result of the winter's hunt. He sent off, 
that day, three canoes with forty-five packs of 
ninety pounds each. On the 15th he planted a 
garden on the north side of the Pembina river, 
where he established a new post, at a point be- 
tween the stream and the Red river. This seems 
to be the first account we have of any white per- 
son trying to cultivate the soil of the Red river 
valley. He slept that night in the old fort on the 
south side. On the 29th he left the post in charge 
of M. Langlois and proceeded to Grand Portage 
on Lake Superior. He did not return until Sep- 

In his journal, under date of October 3, 1802, 
Mr. Henry writes the following description of the 
first Red river cart train: 

'■^I. Langlois started for Hair Hills. This 
caravan demands notice to exhibit the vast dift'er- 
ence it makes in a place where horses are intro- 
duced. It is true they are useful animals, but, if 
we had but one in the northwest we should have 
less, laziness for men would not be burdened with 
families, and so much given to indolence and in- 
solence. * * =^ But let us now take a view of 
the bustle and noise which attends the present 
transportation of five pieces of goods. The men 
were up at the break of day, and their horses 
tackled long before sunrise, but they were not in 
readiness to move before ten o'clock, when I had 
the curiosity to climb up to the top of my house 
to examine the movements and observe the order 
of march, Anthony Payet, guide and second in 
command, leads off with a cart drawn by two 
horses, and loaded with his own private baggage, 
bags and kettles, Madame Payet follojv's the cart 
with a child one year old on her back, and verymerr,y 
C. Bottineau, with two horses and a cart loaded 
with one and a half packs, his own baggage, two 
young children with kettles and other trash hanging 



to his cart. Madam Bottineau, with a young squall- 
ing child on her back, which slie is scolding and toss- 
ing about. 

"Joseph Dubord goes on foot, with liis long 
pipestem and cahiniet in his hand. Madam Du- 
bord follows her husband carrying his tobacco 

"Anthony Thelliere, with a cart and two horses 
loaded with one and a lialf packs of goods and 
Dubord's baggage. 

"Anthony LoPoint, with another cart and two 
horses loaded with two piece's of goods and bag- 
gage belonging to Brisbois, jessemin and Poul- 
liote, and a kettle suspended on each side. Jesse- 
min goes next to Brisbois with gun, and pipe in 
mouth, puffing out clouds of smoke. Mr. Poulliote, 
the greatest smoker in the northwest, has nothing 
but pipes and pouch. These three fellows, having 
taken the farewell dram and lighting fresh pipes, 
go on, brisk and merry, playing numerous pranks. 
Dom Livermore, with a young mare, the property 
of M. Langlois, loaded with weeds for smoking, and 
an Indian bag. Madame's property, and some 
squashes and potatoes, and a keg of fresh water and 
two young whelps. 

"Next comes the young horse of Livermore. 
drawing a traville with his baggage, and a large 
worsted mashqueucate belonging to Madame 
Langlois. Next appears Madame Cameron's 
young mare, kicking and roaring, hauling a tra- 
ville which was loaded with a bag of flour and some 
cabbage, turnips, onions, a small keg of water and 
a large bottle of broth. M. Langlois, who is 
master of the band, now comes, leading a horse 
that draws a traville nicely and covered with a new 
painted tent, under which is lying his daughter and 
Mrs. Cameron, extended full length and very sick. 
This covering or canopy has a very pretty effect. 
Madam Langlois now brings up the rear; follow- 
ing the traville with a slow step and melancholy 
air, attending to the wants of her daughter. The 
rear guard consisted of a long train of dogs, twenty 
in numljer. The whole forms a string nearly a mile 
long and appears Hke a large band of Assini- 

In July, 1806, Alexander Henry and his brother 
William, in company with two men and a horse, 
left Pembina for the Missouri river. At Lake 
Platz they found a Mr. Darwin located. Shortly 
after this the party reached the Mandan villages. 
Mr. Henry's description of these people should be 
published as it gives a graphic account of the 

mode of hfe at that date of these curious people, 
now almost exterminated. He, from there, went 
further west and visited the Cros \'entre tribes, 
after which lie returned to Pembina. 


About the time of the consummation of the 
Louisiana purchase, Thomas Jefferson, then presi- 
dent of the United States, determined to thoroughly 
explore the northwestern part of the newly-ac- 
quired territory, of which nothing at that time was 
known, with the purpose of ascertaining its resources 
and value. Accordingly, by direction of Ceneral H. 
Dearborn, at that time secretary of war, a party 
of men were ordered to rendezvous at the mouth 
of the Wood river, in Illinois, for that purpose. 
Captain Merriwether Lewis, of the First United 
States Infantry, and Captain William Clark, a 
brother of the famous Revolutionary General 
George Rogers Clark, were selected by the depart- 
ment to lead the expedition. This consisted of some 
forty-three persons altogether, soldiers, boatsmen, 
guides, hunters and interpreters. May 14, 1804, 
the party embarked in two pirogues and one bat- 
teau and proceeded on their long voyage up the 
Missouri river, whose turbid tide rolls down from 
the high Rockies. About twenty miles above the 
present site of the city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, the 
expedition made a halt, and there held a palaver 
or council with the Indians. This was on the Ne- 
braska side of the river, and the place was called in 
the journal of the party. Council Bluffs, from 
which the Iowa city drew its name. On the i8th 
of August, the same year, after having accomplished 
nearly a thousand miles of their journey and hav- 
ing had many strange adventures, the expedition 
landed on the Nebraska side of the river, nearly 
opposite what is now the southwest corner of 
Woodbury county, Iowa, and went into camp. 
Here they held another council and entered into a 
treaty with a party of Otoe and Missouri Indians. 
On the morning of the 20th the savages mounted 
their horses and left after receiving some presents. 
The day before this Sergeant Charles Floyd, one 
of the little party, became very sick and remained 
so all night. The next morning, which was Mon- 
day, August 20, the expedition set out on its jour- 
ney up the river. Having to use their own words, 
"a fine wind and fine weather." they made some 
thirteen miles, and at two o'clock landed upon the 
Iowa side of the river, for dinner. Here Sergeant 



Floyd died. About a mile further up the river, on 
the summit of a high bluff, his body was buried. 
with all the honors, by his comrades. This was 
the first death among the party. A short distance 
above Sergeant's Bluff, as the place of burial is now 
called, a small river, now within the limits of Sioux 
City, Clark gave the name of Floyd river. The next 
day they resumed their progress. On the 21st of 
August they passed the mouth of the Big Sioux, 
and, a few days later, the mouth of the James 
river (called in their journal Jacques river), where 
they found bluffs that contained "a great quantity 
of mineral, cobalt, cinnabar, alum, copperas and 
several other things." On the 19th and 20th of 
September they passed the Grand Bend in the Mis- 
souri, as they named it, now in South Dakota be- 
tween Hughes and Buffalo counties. They reck- 
oned the distance around it as equal to thirty miles, 
while across the narrow neck of land it was less 
than 'a mile. October 7 they passed the mouth of 
the ^Moreau river, which was known as the Cer- 
wer-cer-na, which they found to be some two hun- 
dred and seventy feet wide at its mouth, with a 
deep, clear channel. Here they found a camp of 
Arickarees. The mouth of the Grand river was 
passed by them on the 8th of the same month. 
This was known to them as the Marapa, for it 
seemed from their journal that all these streams 
had names, either in Indian, French or English, 
showing that others had been before them. About 
this region they encountered several bands and vil- 
lages of Arickarees, with whom they made a treaty 
and from whom they purchased vegetables, such as 
squashes, beans and corn. About the 12th of Oc- 
tober the expedition passed what is now the 
southern boundary line of North Dakota, and on 
the 1 8th, after many vexatious delays and some 
accidents, owing to easterly winds and some sand 
bars, they reached the mouth of the Cannon Ball 
river. Snow fell on the 21st of October when they 
were near the present site of Bismarck. Game, 
especially buffalo and antelope, were plentiful and 
considerable hunting was done by the party. The 
river now known as the Little Heart, they knew as 
the Chischeet. On the 24th, when they were, ac- 
cording to their reckoning, about 1,610 miles above 
the mouth of the Missouri river, thev encountered 
the first Mandan Indians they had seen. On the 
27th they reached some of their villages and, two 
days later, held a council with them, at which were 
present some Sioux and a member of Minneteere 
or Gros Ventre tribe. Winter now was approach- 

ing. The weather was growing cold, and severe 
temperature being likely to soon overtake them, 
the leaders of the expedition began to look around 
them for a suitable spot for the erection of winter 
quarters. On the first of November such a spot 
was found on an extensive bottom covered with a 
vigorous growth of Cottonwood trees. Here they 
built a strong stockade and constructed substantial 
cabins in which to pass the winter season. A close 
search of the journal of the expedition, and of the 
memoirs of Patrick Gass, one of its members, fails 
to disclose the exact spot of this encampment, so 
that it can not be accurately located at the present. 
From the latitude, which is given as forty-seven 
degrees, twenty-one minutes, twenty-three sec- 
onds north and longitude one hundred and one de- 
grees, twenty-five minutes west of Greenwich, 
the quarters, to which they gave the name of Fort 
Mandan, would place it on the west bank of the 
Missouri, but a few miles below the mouth of the 
Big Knife river. It has been suggested that the 
site of this place was the site afterwards occupied 
by old Fort Clark, built in 1809. The claim is also 
made, probably with a good show of probability, 
that it stood on what is now section 14, township 
144 north, range 82, west of the sixth principal 
meridian. This would place it upon the other or 
left bank of the river near where Washburn, Mc- 
Lean county, is now situated. The distance from 
this point to the mouth of the Big Knife river is 
about twenty-five miles. About the 7th or 8th of 
December an immense herd of buffalo invaded the 
bottom around the fort and whites and Indians 
indulged in a general slaughter of the beasts, both 
for provender, and for the valuable hides. On the 
loth the spirit in the thermometer froze when 
exposed to the open air ; but the men did not suffer 
materially, being able to go about readily. This 
was due to the healthful, dry, cold atmosphere. 
Christmas and New Years were celebrated at the 
fort by high festivities. Of the weather observed 
bv these pioneers in this new country we are told 
that no rain fell between November and January 
21 ; that the temperature was alternately cold and 
moderate, and that they had occasional snow 
storms. The men employed their time throughout 
the winter in constructing four dugouts or canoes, 
which they had completed by ]\Iarch I, and two 
more shortly after. 

On the 7th of April, 1805, the expedition, hav- 
ing made all preparations, broke up their winter 
quarters and entering their two pirogues and six 



canoes, started anew on their long journey into 
the unknown land. The batteau was sent back to 
St. Louis loaded with furs, peltry and curiosities. 
On the 1 2th of the same month they reached the 
mouth of the Little Missouri river. Here it is men- 
tioned by Mr. Gass, in his annals of the trip, that 
they found specimens of petrified wood, so per- 
fectly marked that they could determine the species 
of trees, some being oak, others ash or cottonwood. 
Some of the men carried off pieces for whetstones. 
Diligently pursuing their way, day by day, the 
party reached the mouth of the Yellowstone river 
and made measurements of that stream which 
proved to be the larger one of tl:fe two streams. 
The expedition passed on up the Missouri through 
the mountains and then followed the Columbia 
river to its confluence with the waters of the 
mighty Pacific. The two main branches of the 
Columbia, for many years, bore the names of 
Clark and Lewis, respectively. On their return 
trip the expedition reached the mouth of the Yel- 
lowstone August 7, 1806, from whence they moved 
onward to St. Louis, traversing the Dakotas with 
but little incident. 


Early in the century John Jacob Astor, wealthy 
merchant of New York, who had come from his 
native land, Germany, a boy, and who had grown 
rich in the fur trade, formed, what is known as the 
Pacific Fur Company. After some difficulty, an 
extensive establishment, for the center of trade 
with the Indians and as a store for the sale of such 
goods as the trappers and hunters would buy, was 
opened at the mouth of the Columbia river, in what 
is now the young state of Washington. On the 
shores of the estuary, connected with the waters 
of the Pacific, it was possible to transport much 
of the heavy material and goods by sea. Accord- 
ingly an expedition was fitted out to go round the 
Horn, the vessel carrying it being the good ship 
Tonquin. It was determined, at the same time, to 
send another party across the continent for the pur- 
pose of exploring the country and seeking out 
proper sites for trading posts, as well as to make 
arrangements for trade with the Indians. This 
latter was to follow partially in the path of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition, viz ; up the Missouri 
river. With the misfortunes of the expedition by 
ocean this history has nothing to do. 

Of the land party it is recorded that after con- 

siderable expense and trouble, Wilson Price Hunt, 
one of the principal partners in the company, 
gathered together a mixed body of men, some 
Canadian voyageurs, some Indian traders, some 
wild adventurous spirits who only cared for the 
excitement of the trip, and with this following 
pushed out into the wilderness. He left Mack- 
inaw, where he had done the most of his recruit- 
ing, August 12, 1810, took the usual route by 
Green Bay, Fox and Wisconsin rivers to Prairie dii 
Chien and thence down the Mississippi to St. Louis, 
where the party landed September 3rd. At that 
place the little party was enlarged by the addition 
of some hunters and boatsmen of a more sturdy, 
reliable type than the French Canadians, of whom 
the greater part of the force was made up. Octo- 
ber 20th the expedition pushed out on its journey 
into the known and unknown dangers that were 
before them, and by the i6th of November they 
had reached a point at the mouth of the Nodaway 
river about four hundred and fifty miles above St. 
Louis. Here they remained all winter. In the 
spring, being recruited, they proceeded in their for- 
ward movement. On the 12th of June the party 
reached a village of theArickaree Indians, which was 
within the bounds of what is now North Dakota, 
being between the forty-sixth and forty-seventh de- 
grees of north latitude, and on the banks of the Mis- 
souri river. This village, to cjuote the words of 
Washington Irving, "was divided into two portions 
about eighty yards apart, being inhabited by two 
distinct bands. The whole extended about three- 
quarters of a mile along the river bank, and was 
composed of conical lodges, that looked like so many 
little hillocks, being wooden frames intertwined with 
osier, and covered with earth. The plain beyond the 
village swept up into hills of consideraljle height, but 
the whole country was nearlv destitute of trees. 
While they were regarding the village they beheld a 
singular fleet coming down the river. It consisted 
of a number of canoes, each made of a single buffalo 
hide stretched on sticks, so as to form a kind of cir- 
cular trough. Each one was navigated by a single 
squaw, who knelt on the bottom and paddled, towing 
after her frail bark a bundle of floating wood in- 
tended for firing." At this village the expedition 
remained a short time and traded with the Indians. 
They procured horses here of the Arickarees and de- 
parted at first northwest, but soon turned southwest 
to avoid the country of the Blackfeet. On the 23d 
of July they reached what they called the banks of 
the Big river. Here they rested again but soon 



passed on into what is now probably South Dakota, 
and thus their connection with the future state of 
North Dakota ceased. The full history of this un- 
fortunate expedition and their fruitless efforts to- 
ward upbuilding a rival fur company in opposition 
to the others already in existence, is given at length 
in \\'ashington Irving's "Astoria." 


The interesting information brought back by the 
expedition under Clarke and Lewis, relating to the 
tributaries of the Missouri river, the adjacent lands 
and of the Rocky mountains, and also that of Gov- 
ernor Lewis Cass through the northeastern part of 
Minnesota, induced the government of the L'nited 
States to send out another expedition for the pur- 
pose of exploring the valley of the Minnesota river 
and the country along the Red river of the North. 

Major Stephen H. Long was in command of this 
party, which started in the summer of 1823. At- 
tached to the force were Thomas Say, zoologist and 
antiquarian ; William H. Keating, mineralogist, geol- 
ogist and historian ; and Samuel Seymour, landscape 
painter and designer. Late at night, on the 2nd of 
July, they reached Mendota, opposite Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota. After a cordial reception by the garri- 
sori and the officers at that post, on the afternoon of 
the 9th of July they commenced the exploration of 
the valley of the Minnesota river. Joseph Renville, 
a Bois Brule, or half breed, after whom one of the 
counties of Minnesota is named, Joseph Snelling, 
son of the commandant of the fort, and Beltrami, an 
Italian refugee, were joined to the expedition at this 
point. To ensure a more accurate survey of the re- 
gion part of the force proceeded by land, while the 
other portion embarked in canoes and moved by the 
water route. On the 14th both detachments joined 
and all proceeded together by land, on the south side 
of the river. On the 22nd they reached Big Stone 
Lake, which is considered the head of the Minnesota 
river. They followed the bed of a dried up stream 
for three miles, and found themselves on Lake Tra- 
verse. This latter body of water is the head of the 
Red river of the North, and the expedition was im- 
pressed with the idea that thus in sight lay the 
sources of two considerable rivers, one of which 
emptied, through the Mississippi, into the Gulf of 

Mexico, and the other, through Lake Winnipeg, 
into Hudson's Bay. Here, for the first time, the 
expedition fell in with a party of Dacotah or Sioux 
Indians, who visited them. Major Long and party 
visited one of the fur trading posts then under the 
superintendence of a Mr. Mooers. The traders of 
the Columbia Fur Company at Lake Traverse re- 
ceived the party with a salute and exhibited the most 
hospitable disposition. On the morning of the 5th 
of August, after following the crooked course of the 
Red river, the expedition reached Pembina, and were 
kindly received by Mr. Nolen, then in charge. At 
this point Major Long's party remained several days, 
spending four, of them in determining the interna- 
tional boundary line. A flag staff was planted, 
which, by a series of observations, was found to stand 
at a point in latitude forty-eight degrees, fifty-nine 
minutes and fifty-seven and one-third seconds north. 
The distance to the boundary line was measured off 
and an oak post fixed on it, bearing on the north side 
the letters G. B. for Great Britain, and on the south 
U. S. for the United States. On the 8th of August 
the United States flag was hoisted on the staff, 
the national salute was fired and due proclamation 
made that all the territory in the Red river valle> 
south of that was part of the L'nited States of 

There were other expeditions to this part of the 
country, but these are believed to be the earliest and 
most important. 

Shortly after the return of the Lewis and Clark 
expedition, the government determined to control 
the country and the fur traders and Indian tribes 
dwelling therein. With this end in view, and from 
year to year as circumstances seemed to demand it, 
forts were erected at various points, chiefly along the 
Missouri. The principal of these, some of which 
are still standing, and in full commission, were forts 
Clark, Stevenson, Berthold, Buford, Abraham Lin- 
coln, old Fort Rice, Forts Rice, Totten, Abercrombie 
and Ransom. At most of these troops were kept 
as a protection and to preserve order. Some were 
abandoned, but many of them are still in useful 
state and until late years held full garrisons. Those 
of them in full commission at this time of writing 
have enough men present to take care of them and 
protect the rights and property of the government 



:!1 = f 


The dark vail that hangs over the liistory of 
the American continent prior to the advent of the 
white man is impenetratable. Ahhoiigh science 
has fully demonstrated the fact that this is the 
elder of the continents in point of upheaval from 
the general mass, as shown by the "grand epic 
writ by the hand of the Eternal upon the ever- 
lasting rocks," the annals of its earlier inhabit- 
ants are covered, perhaps forever, by the dust of 
oblivion. Remains found scattered up and dowi, 
throughout this broad land, speak of a people far 
advanced in civilization ; ruins that vie in magni- 
tude and symmetry with those of ancient Assyria 
and "hundred gated Thebes." Conjecture runs 
rife as to who these people were, what time did 
they come here and from whence ; but no evidence 
is left upon which to build the story of the van- 
ished race or races. Theories have been advanced 
by ripe scholars to account for their presence. 
Some, like Prescott, have imagined a connection 
between them and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, 
and others to the descendant of Modoc, the Welsh 
prince, who tradition avers came to these shores 
in a very early day. But the case is hopeless ; 
their records, if they had any. are dust, and save 
for the crumbling ruins of their former cities and 
their other vast works, they are as if they never 

When the European first touched our shores, 
with the exception of the barbaric semi-civiliza- 
tion of Anahuac, now Mexico, or of Peru, they 
found the land in the hands of a wild, nomadic 
race of untutored savages. To these the early ex- 
plorers and discoverers, always imagining that they 
had landed upon the shores of China and the 
Indies, gave the name of Indians. Along the At- 
lantic coast were found tribes, often hostile to one 
another, but all the representatives of the great 
Algonquin race. Further inland lived other great 
families, like the Iroquois, but all with the same 
general characteristics. The wars and migrations 
of these wild tribes would form an interesting 
chapter in the early history of our country, were 
space sufficient to enter upon its relation. But the 
story has been told elsewhere, and this work was 
conceived with the better idea of presenting, in 
detail, the annals of the settlement and develop- 
ment of the white people upon this part of the 
great Republic. 

W'hen the pious nwssionaries of the Church 
of Rome and the enterprising fur trader of Euro- 
pean birth first pushed their way, with incredible 
toil, into the forests and prairies of the great 
northwest, they found, in what is now the states 
of Minnesota and the Dakotas, a race of red men, 
now known bv the general name of Sioux. 



These savages are of an entirely different 
g-roup from those found throughout New England 
and along the banks of the ]\Ioha\vk and Susque- 
hanna. Although they have many customs in 
common with the tribes that once dwelt to the east 
of them, vet their language and many peculiarities 
mark them as belonging to a distinct race. When 
they were first noticed by the European adventur- 
ers, large numbers were found about the head of 
Lake Superior and on throughout the lake region 
of what is now ^Minnesota and Manitoba. The 
name by which they call themselves, Dacatoh, sig- 
nifies allied or leagued. The name Sioux, often 
written Scioux or Soos, by which they are better 
known, was given them by early travelers in that 
country. For centuries there had raged a relent- 
less war between the Dacatoh and the Ojibways, 
or Chippewas, and these latter always designated 
their opponents by the name of Nadowessioux or 
Nadowaysioux, signifying enemies. The historian, 
Charlevoix, who visited the northwest in 1721, in 
his Annals of New France, says : "The name of 
Sioux, that we give these Indians, is entirely of 
our own making, or rather it is the last two sylla- 
bles of the name Nadouessioux, as many nations 
call them." There has been suggested by 
a local writer, who had excellent opportunities to 
learn of such matters, that the name Dacotah, 
instead of meaning allied, has an entirely different 
■derivation, and one so plausible that its insertion 
here may not be out of place. It is as follows: 
The Sioux Indian, like so many of his red brethren, 
has for centuries been in contact with the mission- 
aries, many of whom were French priests, and has 
been associated with the Canadian voyageurs and 
has learned to like and speak the French language, 
and they take pride in speaking the "priest lan- 
guage," as they call it. When the Anglo-Saxon 
first came among these people, on his asking what 
tribe did he, the Indian, belong to, and where did 
he live, the Dakotah, probably with wide-speep- 
ing gesture so common to the race, answered 
shortly, Sioux du Coteau, meaning Sioux of the 
Hills. His total ignorance of the French tongue, 
and his having no idea of its use by a savage, led 
the uneducated American ,or Englishman to con- 
clude that it was an Indian name, and it was 
accordingly handed down in its present form of 

The Dacotah was an allied race, however, they 
often giving themselves the name of Ocetisakowin, 
or the Seven Council Fires. The principal mem- 

bers of this league were seven tribes or sub-divis- 
ions, many of whom had their home in what is 
now Minnesota in an early day, but who, driven 
back by the advancing whites, took up their resi- 
dence in Dakota. Some of them, however, were 
found dwellers on the broad plains of the Da- 
kotas, and had been for a long time previous to the 
advent -of the white man. 

The princ;ipal sub-nations, or tribes, who made 
up the league, and who held annual councils for 
the general good, were as follows : 

Ihe M'dewakantonwans, or those who live in 
the village of the Spirit Lake, evidently Mille Lac, 
in Minnesota, where they formerly had their resi- 

The Wahpekutewans, or villages of the leaf 
shooters, a name of uncertain derivation, but prob- 
ably from the shape of their stone arrow heads, 
which were broade'r and more leaf-like in shape 
than the others. 

The Wahpetonwans, or villages in the leaves or 
woods, pointing to their abode being in the forests 
of Minnesota about the Little Rapids of the Min- 
nesota river. From there they were removed 
finally to the reservation about Big Stone lake. 

The Sissitonwans, meaning villages of the 
marsh, a people who hved at one time on the west 
bank of the Mississippi river. All these four sub- 
tribes went, also, by the general name of Isanyati 
or Isantees. This name is identical with the Issati 
of Hennepin. The name grew out of the fact that 
they once lived on or near Isantandi or Knife 
lake, one of the ]\Iille Lacs. It is asserted that the 
lake drew its name from the stone on its banks, 
which the primitive Indians sought to make into 
knives (isan). 

The other tribes in the league were the Min- 
nekanye Wogopuwans, or the villages of those 
that plant by the water. The Ihankwannas, the 
band of the end village, a people whose name, cor- 
rupted by the white people into Yanktonnias or 
Yanktons, gave its title to the city which was the 
capital of the Territory for many years, Yankton. 
This tribe dwelt in the country between the Red 
river and the Missouri, and were its sole masters 
for some time. It was sub-divided into several 
sub-tribes : Hunkpatidans ; Pabaksa, or Cut Heads ; 
Wazikutes, or Pine Shooters, and Kiyuksa, those 
who divide or break the law.. According to the 
Indian traditions, the Hohays, or Assinboine of the 
country just north of Dakota, were a part of this 



Tetonwans, who were the undisputed masters 
of the land west of the Missouri river, to the 
Rocky mountains. These, also, were closely 
allied with the Cheyennes and Arickarees, with 
whom they formed many marriage alliances. 
Among the divisions of this powerful branch of 
the Dacotah nations were the Sicauu or Burnt 
Thighs, called usually the Brule Sioux, after 
P'ather Brule, a French priest ; Itazipeho, or Sans 
Arc, without bows; the Sihasaps, feet that are 
black ; the Oehenonpa, two kettles or boilers ; 
Ogallahs, wanderers in the mountains; Minne- 
coupoux, those who plant by the water; and the 
Onkpapas, they that dwell by themselves. 

I'hese people were, evidently, banded together 
at a very early day, for, in the history of the mis- 
sion at La I'ointe, on Lake Superior, one of the 
Fathers, in writing of the Dacotahs, says : "For 
sixty leagues from the extremity of the L^pper 
Lake, toward sunset; and, as it were, in the center 
of the western nations, they have all united their 
force by a general league." This was penned al- 
most two and a half centuries ago. 

LeSueur, an early explorer in the Sioux coun- 
try, in the year 1700, says that, according to the 
Eastern Sioux, or Scioux as he spells it, the Sioux 
of the West, namely, those west of the Mississippi, 
had, at that time, more than a thousand lodges. 
He goes on to say that they do not use canoes, 
nor cultivate the earth, or gather wild rice. They 
remain generally in the prairies which are between 
the upper Mississippi and the Missouri rivers, and 
live entirely by the chase. They say, generally, 
that they have three souls, and that after death 
that the soul that has done well goes to the warm 
country, that which has done evil to the cold, and 
the third guards the body. 

Polygamy is common among them. They are 
very jealous, and sometimes fight in duel for their 
wives. They manage the bow admirably and have 
been seen several times to kill ducks on the wing. 
They make their lodges of a number of buflfalo 
skins, interlaced and sewed, and carry them wher- 
ever they go. They are all great smokers. 

This description of the savage of long ago, 
which is much abridged from the original, is a good 
picture of the Dacotah at the present. 

The subject of the claim for precedence or 
superiority among the different bands of the Sioux 
is often discussed. The M'dewakantonwans 
thought that the mouth of the Minnesota river was 
just over the center of the earth, and they, there- 

fore, should have special consideration, as they 
did occupy the gate that opens into the western 
world. The tribes of the Sissitonwans and Ihank- 
tonwans alleged that as they lived on the great 
water-shed of this part of the continent, from 
which the streams ran north, east, south and west, 
they must have been about the center of the earth, 
and they urge this fact as entitling them to pre- 
cedence. It is singular that the letonwans, who 
were much the largest band of the Dakotas, did 
not appear to claim the chief place for themselves, 
but yielded to the pretensions of the Ihanktonwans, 
whom they called by the name of \\'iciyela. which 
in its meaning may be regarded as about equiva- 
lent to "They are the people." 

From a work called Dakota .Dictionary, pub- 
lished by the United States government in 1853, 
under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institute, 
a book written by Rev. S. A. Riggs, a worthy man 
who labored for years as a missionary among the 
Siouxs, has been gathered a few facts. Mr. 
Riggs says, in speaking of the Dacotah tongue : 

"In the language as spoken by the ditterent 
bands of those properly denominated Dakotas, 
some differences e.xist. The intercourse between 
the Indewakantonwans of the Mississippi and 
lower Minnesota, and the W'ahpetonwans, W'ahpe- 
kutes and a part of the Sissitonwans family has 
been so constant that but slight variations are dis- 
coverable in their manner of speaking. In some 
instances where the W'ahpetonwans use d, some of 
the Indewakantonwans so modify the sound that 
it becomes t, and where the former use h, the lat- 
ter sometimes employ n. As a matter of course, 
some few words have currency in one band which 
are not used, perhaps, not generally known to the 
others : but none of the dialectical variations are 
of such a kind as to iniiiede the free intercourse 
of thought. 

"The Sissitonwans of Lake Traverse and the 
prairie present more differences in their speech. 
One of the most marked of these is their use of 
na for dan, the diminutive termination. As there 
is less frequent intercourse between them and the 
Isanties, their provincialisms are more numerous; 
and from their connections with the Ihanktonwans 
of the prairie they have adopted some of their 
forms of speech. 

"The chief peculiarity of the Ihanktonwan 
dialect, as compared with that of the Dakotas of 
the ^linnesota valley, is the almost universal sub- 
stitution of k for h. The Tetonwan dialect exhibits 



more striking differences. In it the g, hard, is 
used for the h of the Isanties and k of the Ihank- 
tonwans, and rejecting d altogether, they use 1 in 
its stead. 

"By the bands of Dakotas east of the James 
river, hard g is not heard except as a final in some 
syllables where contraction has taken place and 1 
does not occur. Thus, to illustrate the foregoing, 
Canpahinihona, a cart or wagon, of the Wahpe- 
tonwans, becomes cunpunminera in the mouth of 
an Indewakautonwan, canpakmekma in that of an 
Ihanktonwan, and campazmigma with a Tetonwan. 
Hda, to go home, of the Isanties, is kda in the 
Ihanktonwan dialect, and gla in the Tetonwan. 
Alany words, too, are entirely different, as for ex- 
ample, isan, a knife. The Tetonwans say milla, 
and the Ihanktonwans, minna. 

Isantanka, the name by which the people of the 
United States are designated on the Mississippi and 
Minnesota, becomes Minnahanksa or Millahanska, 
on the Missouri. In the arrangement of words in a 
sentence, the Dakota language may be regarded as 
eminently primeval and natural. The sentence, 
give me bread, a Dakota transposes to agnyapi- 
makee-ye, bread me give. Such is the genius of the 
language that in translating a sentence or verse 
from the Bible, it is generally necessary to com- 
mence, not at the beginning, but at the end; and 
such, too, is the common practice of their best in- 
terpreters. When the person who is speaking 
leaves off, there they commence and proceed back- 
ward to the beginning. In this way the connection 
of the sentence is more easily retained in the mind, 
and more naturally evolved. There are, however, 
some cases in which this method can not be fol- 
lowed. In a logical argument, if the conclusion 
is first translated, it will in some cases need to be 
repeated after the premises, but the therefore which 
connects the conclusions to the premises, very fre- 
quently in Mr. Renville's translations, comes after 
the conclusion." 

;\Ir. Riggs further says that the Dakotas have 
a sacred language known only to their war prophets, 
conjurers and medicine men. It is unintelligible 
to the common people, who imagine that those who 
use it are a very superior class of beings. It is 
not a very extensive vocabulary, the mixture of a 
few strange words with mispronounced common 
words, answers for the effect. Like the school 
boy's "hog latin," it is good only among the un- 
sophisticated and unlearned. 

Although the Dakotah has but little idea of ' 

poetry or song, he has a species of dismal chant, 
which he calls singing. A few words make a long 
song, for the interjection hi-hi-hi, often repeated, 
is only now and then broken in upon by intelligible 
words. They have what are war songs. They are 
highly figurative, ambiguous in meaning, and it is 
doubtful as to their being understood even by those 
who inflict them upon the ear. 

The religion of the Sioux is exceedingly indis- 
tinct, and they are quite reluctant to converse about 
it. They are decidedly polytheistic in their belief. 
The hunter roaming over the plain finds a granite 
boulder; he stops and prays to it, for it is \\'au- 
kawn, or mystery. At another time he will pray 
to his dog, or to the sun, moon or stars. In every 
leaf, in every stone, in every shrub he sees a god, 
he finds a spirit. He is the same in this as the 
Indians of the coast of whom Cotton blather onci. 
wrote, in his life of the preacher Eliot : "All the 
religion they have amounts to this much: they 
believe that there are many gods, who made and own 
the several nations of the earth. They believe 
that every remarkable creature has a peculiar god 
within or about him ; there is with them a sun god 
or a moon god or the . like ; and they cannot con- 
ceive but that the fire must be a kind of god, in- 
asmuch as a spark of it will soon produce very 
strange effects. They believe that when any good 
or ill happens to them, there is the favor or anger 
of«a god expressed in it." 

It is said that among the traditions of the Da- 
cotah tribes are many that are readily recognized 
by the student of the United States history as real 
events of the Revolutionary war. The remnants 
of the warlike tribes of the native Indians of New 
England and the middle states, who fled westward 
before the advancing tide of civilization, crossed 
the Mississippi and found refuge on the soil of the 
Isantee. Here was told the story of their wrongs. 
Around the campfires of the Sioux were related 
their tale of wrong and outrage, of the murder of 
their people and the robbery of their lands by the 
cruel white men. These refugees intermarried 
with the Sioux. The desire for vengeance rankled 
in the breasts of their descendants and found its 
last expression in the massacre in Alinnesota in 

"The government of these ancient people seems 
to have been a republic similar to that of the United 
States. The Oceti Sakowin made laws for the 
whole nation, defined the boundary lines of each 
settled division, and inter-tribal difficulties dealing 



only with national questions and those affecting the 
general welfare of the whole people, thus corre- 
sponding to our national congress. Each division 
was divided into several tribes, each having a 
separate chief and local council who regulated the 
affairs of each tribe. These held an annual council 
to make laws and settle difficulties between the 
various tribes, and decide disputes as to hunting 
and fishing privileges. 

"This council corresponded to our state gov- 
ernments. Each tribe was subdivided into a num- 
ber of bands or families each, imder its head chief, 
and having its own prophet. The government of 
these bands was patriarchal and the offices of chief 
and prophet were hereditary. 

"In the state and national councils the chief 
officer was elective, but was usually held for life, 
as the incumbent was nearly always re-elected. 

"As time passed on and the white men en- 
croached upon their lands from the east, the divis- 
ions on the east were forced westward and into 
the lands of the other divisions. Previous to this 
time they had not trespassed upon each other's 
lands, and their migrations were from north to 
south and return, according to the seasons, for fur, 
fish, game and wild fruits, each division traversing 
its own land, and they never journeyed east or 
west except on their own division of country. The 
refugees of the other divisions did not always 
receive a warm welcome from their brothers of the 
other divisions. When the Sissitonwans were 
driven out of Minnesota in 1862 they sought refuge 
with the Tetonwans. But dissensions in regard to 
their hunting grounds arose, and the Tetonwans 
attacked and nearly decimated the Sissitonwans, 
who were driven back east of the Missouri and to 
the lands of the Wahpetonwans, where a remnant 
of this once powerful division still exists under the 
name of the Sisseton Sioux." 

The Sioux counts years by winters, and com- 
putes distance by the number of sleeps or nights 
passed upon a journey. Their months are com- 
puted by moons, and bear the following names: 
Witeri, January, the hard moon; Wicatowi, Feb- 
ruarv, the raccoon moon ; Istawicaj'azanwi, March, 
the sore eye moon ; Magaokadiwi, April, moon 
when geese lay eggs, sometimes called W'okadiwi, 
and also Watopapiwi, or the moon when the streams 
are navigable; Wojupiwj, May, planting moon; 
Wajustecasawi, June, the moon when strawberries 
are red ; Canpasapawi and Wasunpawi, July, moon 
when choke cherries are ripe and moon when geese I 

shell their feathers ; Wasutonwi, August, harvest 
moon ; I'sinhnaketuwi, September, the moon when 
rice is laid up to dry; Wiwajupi, October, drying 
rice moon ; Takiyurawi, November, deer rutting 
month; and Tahecapsunwi, December, the moon 
when the deer sheds his horns. 

The legends of the Dacotahs are numerous. 
^Vhile some are puerile, a few are beautiful. One 
of them tells of Eagle Eye, the son of a great war 
jirophet, who lived more than a hundred years ago, 
and who was distinguished for bravery. Fleet, 
athletic, symmetrical, a bitter foe and a warm 
friend, he was a model Dakotah. In the ardor of 
his youth his aft'ections were given to one who 
was, also, attractive, whose name was Scarlet 
Dove. A few moons after she had become an 
inmate of his lodge, they descended the Mississippi 
with a hunting party and proceeded east of Lake 
Pepin. One day while Eagle Eye lay hidden be- 
hind some shrubbery, waiting for a deer, a com- 
rade's arrow pierced the leafy covert and struck 
him to the heart. With only time to lisp the loved 
name, Scarlet Dove, he Expired. 

For a few days the widow mourned and gashed 
her flesh, as was the custom upon such occasions, 
then, with the silence of woe, wrapped her be- 
loved in skins and placed .him on a temporary 
scaft'old. The Sioux do not bury their dead, but 
place them on a scaffold above the earth or in the 
tree tops. Underneath the resting place of Eagle 
Eye sat Scarlet Dove until the party was ready to 
return to their own place. Then, taking down all 
that was left of the husband of her heart, she 
patiently carried it back to their home. On her 
shoulders she carried her burden, and each night 
when the party camped she built a temporary rest- 
ing place above the earth for his beloved remains. 
When she reached the Minnesota river, a hundred 
miles from where he lost his life, the patient woman 
rested. Going into the forest, she brought poles 
forked and poles straight, and forthwith she built 
a permanent burial scaffold on a beautiful hill, 
opposite Fort Snelhng. Having placed the body 
upon this elevation, according to the customs of her 
race, with the strap with which she had carried her 
precious burden hanged herself to the scaffold and 

Another legend tells how that, previous to the 
creation of man, the great spirit, Onaktayhee, used 
to slay the buffalo and eat them on the ledge of the 
red rocks on the top of the Coteau des Prairie, 
and their blood, running on the rocks, turned them 



red. One day when a large snake had crawled 
into the nest of the bird to eat his eggs, one of the 
eggs hatched out in a clap of thunder, and the 
Great Spirit, catching hold of a piece of the pipe- 
stone to throw it at the snake, moulded it into a 
man. This man's feet grew fast to the ground, 
where he stood for many ages like a great tree, 
and therefore he grew very old ; he was older than 
an hundred men at the present day, and at last an- 
other tree grew up by the side of hmi, when a large 
snake ate them both off at the roots, and they both 
wandered off together. From these have sprung 
all the people that now inhabit the earth." 

Another of their legends tells how in the time 
of the great freshet, which took place many cen- 
turies ago, and destroyed all the nations of the 
earth, all the tribes of the red men assembled on 
the Coteau des Prairies, to get out of the way of 
the waters. After they had all assembled there 
from all parts, the water continued to rise, until at 
length it covered them all in a mass, and their flesh 
was converted into red pipe-stone. Therefore, it 
has always been considered neutral ground — it 
belonged to all tribes alike, and all were allowed 
to get it and smoke together. "While they were 
drowning m a mass, a young v.'oman, Ke-wap-tah- 
wa (the virgin), caught hold of the foot of a very 
large bird that was flying over, and was carried to 
the top of a high cliff, not far oft', that was above 
the water. Here she had twins, and their father 
■was the war-eagle, and her children have since 
peopled the earth. The pipe-stone, which is the 
ffesh of their ancestors, is smoked by them as a 
symbol of peace, and the eagle's quill decorates the 
Jiead of the brave." 

From an article written by Hon. AI. K. Arm- 
:strong, and pubhshed some years ago, we quote the 
following legends. The first is that of some of the 
tribes of the Upper Mississippi: 

"JNIany ages after the red men were made, when 
all the different tribes were at war, the Great 
Spirit sent runners, and called them all together 
at the red pipe. He stood on the top of the rocks, 
and the red people were assembled in infinite num- 
bers on the plains below. He took out of the rock 
a piece of the red stone, and made a large pipe, 
and smoked it over them all ; told them it was part 
of their flesh ; that though they were at war, they 
must meet at this place as friends ; that it belonged 
to them all ; that they must make their calumets 
from it, and smoke them to him whenever they 
wished to appease him or get his good will. The 

smoke from his big pipe rolled over them all, and 
he disappeared in its cloud. At the last whiff" of 
his pipe a blaze of fire rolled from the rocks and 
melted their surface, and at the same moment two 
squaws went up in a blaze of fire under the two medi- 
cine rocks, where they remain to this day, and must 
be consulted and propitiated whenever the pipe- 
stone is to be taken away." 

Another from the same source is one told by the 
Indians of the Alissouri: 

"The Great Spirit, at an ancient period, here 
called the Indian nations together, and, standing 
on the precipice of the red pipe-stone rocks, broke 
from its wall a piece, and made a huge pipe by 
turning it in his hand, which he smoked over them 
to the north, the south, the east and the west, and 
told them that this stone was red — that it was their 
flesh — that they must use it for their pipes of 
peace — that it belonged to them all, and that the 
war-club must not be raised on its groimd. At 
the last whiff of his pipe his head went into a great 
cloud, and the whole surface of the rock for several 
miles was heated and glazed ; two great ovens were 
opened beneath, and two women (guardian- spirits 
of the place) entered them in a blaze of fire, and 
they are heard there yet (Tso-me-cos-too and Tso- 
me-cos-to-wan-dee), answering to the invocations 
of the high priests, who consult them when they 
visit the sacred place." 

The character of the Sioux, who is now noted 
for his ruthlessness, cruelty, subtlety and general 
lawlessness, is claimed by many to have undergone 
a great change since his first contact with the white 
race. Says one of his apologists: 

"Evidences are not wanting that many of the 
early traders among them were a low and unscru- 
pulous class of men, and presented to their inex- 
perienced associates the worst phases of civilized 
life. Their advent upon the frontiers was almost 
always signalized by the introduction of whisky, or 
some kind of spirituous liquors, which made the 
Indians crazy, and incited them to the perpetration 
of crimes and atrocities for which the traders have 
been more responsible than their victims. They 
taught the Indians to use deception, duplicity and 
bad faith, by going among them to practice deceit 
and falsehood in their deahngs. Of course there 
have been among the traders many noble excep- 
tions to this . charge, men who for integrity and 
purity of character have been unsurpassed in any 
of the walks of life — men who have treated the In- 
dians with kindness and justice; and such have 



never failed to awaken a reciprocal response in the 
savage bosom. As a general rule the Indians have 
been peaceable and confiding, where the white peo- 
ple have not been the aggressors, and where their 
confidence has not been betrayed or their rights 
trespassed upon in some form." 

"In estimating their character, we must make 
allowance for the fact — too often overlooked — that 
their ill-treatment has been of long standing, and 
that revenge for the 'old grudge' has often broken 
out with desolating fury. The Indian is not so easy 
to forgive as the white man; he has more stern 
justice — less of that mercy which is the result of 
culture — in his composition ; therefore he is the 
proud and indomitable avenger upon all who cheat 
him or shed the blood of his kindred. This is a 
noble trait, when properly restrained, but when 
fired by outrage and wrong, and unrestrained, it 
becomes capable of deeds of fiendish atrocity and 

From another source we quote : 

"It has been common to write them down as 
destitute of almost every good quality, as treach- 
erous, merciless, impure and improvident — taking 
the worst phases of their character when exasper- 
ated by some provocation or excited by strong 
drink. Those the best acquainted with them are 
the most charitable in their judgment, and see in 
them many good traits, and among their best men 
many noble and exemplary characters. The In- 
dian is capable of kindness, courtesy and lasting 
friendship., Rarely has he violated these qualities 
towards those who have treated him well. Illus- 
trations of this fact almost without number could 
be gathered from the experience of the early pio- 
neers in every country. Says Major Forsyth, the 
first Indian agent at Fort Snelling: "The Sioux 
Indians were celebrated for their hospitality and 
goodness towards strangers, and more particularly 
towards the whites. Anything the white man would 
ask them was granted, if it were possible to do so. 
They knew nothing about intrigue, and supposed 
that every person who came to the country was a 
friend." Hennepin, Dr. Pond, Gen. Sibley and 
others bear the same testimony. Farther on Major 
Forsyth says: 'T am sorry to say that at the pres- 
ent day (1819) they are very much altered." The 
cause of this alteration he attributes to "too great 
intercourse with those whom we call civilized peo- 

On the other hand, a number of authorities see 
the Sioux in an entirely different hght. Says the 

Rev. Edward Duffield Neill, in his history of Min- 
nesota : 

"The Dacotahs, like all ignorant and barbarous 
people, have but little reflection beyond that neces- 
sary to gratify the pleasure of revenge and of the 
appetite. It would be strange to find them heroes. 
* =•' * While there are exceptions, the general 
characteristics are indolence, impurity and indiffer- 
ence to the future." He also gives an account of 
them diametrically opposed in almost every par- 
ticular to those quoted above 

The restless nature of these particular wards 
of the nation can readily be called to mind, the 
massacre of 1862, the troubles under Sitting Bull 
and the death of Custer and his men and the 
troubles at Broken Knee, being instances in the 
long catalogue of strife with these barbarian tribes. 

Other races of Indians once peopled the ter- 
ritory now embraced within the state of North 
Dakota. Among these were the once powerful and 
numerous people called the Mandan, whose place of 
residence was west of the Missouri, and about 
whom so many interesting tales are told by George 
Catlin, the artist explorer, who spent years in their 
villages. These singular people, of whom there is 
scarcely a trace left, were of a different race, evi- 
dently, from those who surrounded them. They 
were of a much lighter color and more agreeable 
features than Sioux, Pawnee or Omaha, and had 
a rude civilization. In the making of pottery, the 
weaving of blankets and other mechanical employ- 
ments they developed considerable skill. Alany of 
their singular customs were peculiar to them, and 
conjecture has run rife in trying to account for 
their being. Many theories have been advanced, 
as is usual in all these cases, some believing them 
to be a degenerate remnant of the prehistoric races 
of this continent ; others that they are the descend- 
ants of some white people wrecked on either coast 
and who had drifted inland. One of the accounts 
on this head, states that they are descendants of 
the female captives of a former race, who were 
spared from the wholesale destruction meted out 
to the rest of their people. The Indians of the 
plains say that the Mandans were orininally white, 
the women having long, fair hair, and the men long 
blonde whiskers. They were numerous and pos- 
sessed all the land, having cities, towns and vil- 
lages. They had farms and herds of buffalo or 
bison. The story is that they were all cut off by the 
Abenaznis, the forefathers or forerunners of the 
Indians. Onlv a few women out of the race were 



spared to become the wives of their captors. But 
and kept aloof, and when their children were 
grown lived with them apart, and thus grew up a 
separate race. If this account is reported cor- 
rectly, and probably it is, may not the white people 
of this Indian legend have some connection with 
the wanderings of that semi-civilized race, the 
Aztec, who finally settled in Mexico about the 
year 1200? They, too, were of a higher color 
than the other Indians and had considerable civili- 

Arickaree and Minneteeres, of Gros Ventre 
Indians, had many branches of their tribes in 
North Dakota, the former in considerable num- 
bers. Villages of both these tribes were met with 
by the Lewis and Clarke expeditions in 1804-5, ^""^ 
by other expeditions which went up or down the 

The Cheyennes, another of the tribes who had 

their homes in this part of the country, were at 
one time one of the powerful tribes of the north- 
west, who bore at that period the name of Sha- 
ways, and dwelt on a branch of the Red river. 
They were at deadly enmity with the Sioux who, 
in the end, proved too strong for them and after a 
long course of warfare they were driven across the 
Missouri. They, again, took root near the War- 
ricane creek and established themselves in forti- 
fied villages. Still pursued with deadly animosity 
by the Sioux, they retreated to the Black Hills, 
near the upper waters of the Cheyenne river. 
There they lost even their name and became known 
to the trapper and nomadic inhabitants of the 
northwest by the name of the river they frequented. 
Other tribes had representatives on the excel- 
lent hunting grounds of North Dakota, but the 
great bulk of the savages that peopled this part of 
our countrv were of the Sioux or Dakota tribes. 






^^ £^.'^ :^ ^^ 

^L^ "^^ "^^ W 




^ & 

Tor many years before any permanent settlers 
came to what is now North Dakota, with the idea 
of tilHng the soil, the country along the Red river 
of the North, westward toward Devil's lake and 
Turtle mountains and on down to the Missouri 
was well known to the fur trader or his agent. 
It was the fur trade, in fact, which gave early sus- 
tenance and vitality to the Canadian .provinces. Be- 
ing destitute of the precious metals, at that time the 
leading object of American enterprise, they were 
long neglected by the parent country. The French 
adventurers who had settled on the banks of the 
St. Lawrence soon found that in the rich peltries 
of the interior they had sources of wealth that 
might almost rival the mines of Mexico or Peru. 
The Indians, as yet unacquainted with the arti- 
ficial value given to some description of furs, in 
civilized life, brought quantities of the most prec- 
ious kinds and bartered them away for European 
trinkets and cheap commodities. Immense profits 
were thus made by the early trader, and the traf- 
fic was pursued with avidity. 

As the more valuable furs soon became scarce 
in the neighborhood of the settlements, the In- 
dians of the vicinity were stimulated to take a 
wider range in their hunting expeditions. They 
were often accompanied on these expeditions by 

I some of the traders or their employes, who shared 
in the toils and perils of the chase, and, at the 
same time made themselves acquainted with the 
best hunting grounds and with the more remote 
tribes with whom they came in contact. 


A new and anomalous class of men sprang up 
through this trade. They were called coureurs 
des bois, rangers of the woods. Originally men 
who had thus accompanied the Indians on their 
hunting expeditions, they now became, as it were, 
peddlers of the wilderness. These men would set 
out from Montreal with canoes well stocked with 
goods and with arms and ammunition, and would 
make their way up the many and wandering riv- 
ers, creating new wants and habitudes among the 
Indians, which they could supply. Sometimes they 
sojourned for months among the savages, assimi- 
lating to their tastes and habits with the happy facil- 
ity of Frenchmen. They adopted to a certain de- 
gree, the Indian dress, and often took to themselves 
Indian wives. 

Many of these men became so accustomed to 
the Indian mode of living and the perfect freedom 
of the wilderness, for their trips often lasted a year. 



before their canoe full of furs was brought to the 
mart, that they lost all relish for civilization and 
identified themselves with those with whom they 
dwelt, or could only be distinguished from them by 
their superior licentiousness. Their conduct and ex- 
ample, by corrupting the natives, impeded the 
work of the good Catholic father missionaries. 
To check these abuses and to protect the fur trade 
from various irregularities practiced by these loose 
adventurers, an order was issued by the French 
government prohibiting all persons from trading 
in the interior of the country, under pain of death, 
unless they had procured a license from the gov- 
ernor-general. At first these licenses were only 
granted to persons of respectability; to gentlemen 
of broken fortunes ; to old officers of the army who 
had families to provide for; or to their widows. 
By degrees private licenses were, also, granted 
and the number which could be issued in a year 
first limited to twenty-five, largely increased. 

Those who did not choose to fit out the expe- 
dition themselves, were permitted to sell their li- 
censes to the merchants. These latter employed 
the conreurs des bois to undertake the long voy- 
ages on shares, and thus the abuses of the old sys- 
tem were revived. 

At length it was found necessary to establish 
fortified posts at the confluence of various rivers 
and on the lakes, for the protection of the trade 
and for the restraint of these profligates of the 
wilderness. One of these posts became a great 
center and mart for the fur trade, that at !Michili- 
mackinac or IMackinaw. 


Washington Irving, speaking of the French fur 
trading merchant, at the various posts, in those 
primitive days in Canada, says he "was a kind of 
commercial patriarch. With the lax habits and easy 
familiarity of his race, he had a little world of self- 
indulgence and misrule around him. He had his 
clerks, canoemen and retainers of all kinds, who 
lived with him on terms of perfect sociability, al- 
ways calling him by his christian name. He had 
his harem of Indian beauties, and his troop of 
half-breed children. Nor was there ever wanting 
a louting train of Indians hanging around the es- 
tablishment, eating and drinking at his expense, in 
the intervals of their hunting expeditions." 

The Canadians had for a long time a trouble- 
some competition in the British merchants of New 

York who enticed away the Indian hunters and 
coureur des bois, and traded with them on more 
favorable terms. A still more formidable oppo- 
sition was organized in the Hudson's Bay Fur Com- 
pany, chartered by Charles II in 1670, with the ex- 
clusive privilege of establishing trading posts on 
the bay of that name and its tributary rivers. This 
is a privilege they retained for two centuries at 
least. In 1766, after the subsidence of the com- 
mercial disturbance which had grown out of the 
cession of Canada to England, fur traders began 
to push out into the wilderness. One Thomas 
Curry, we are told, established a trading post in 
the valley of the Saskatchewan and shortly after, 
influenced by his success, a rival, James Finley, 
set up a similar post in the same valley, some fifty 
miles further up the river. The trade in furs soon 
regained its old channels, but was pursued with such 
avidity and emulation by individual merchants 
that it soon transcended to its former limits. The 
trade was injured by their artifices to outbid and 
undermine each other. The Indians were de- 
bauched by the sale of spirituous liquors, which 
had been prohibited under French rule. Scenes of 
drunkenness, brutality and brawl were the conse- 
quence in the Indian villages and around the trad- 
ing posts : while bloody feuds took place between 
rival trading parties when they met in the course 
of their business in the wild land. 

To put an end to these sordid and ruinous con- 
tentions several of the principal merchants of Mon- 
treal formed, in the winter of 1783, a company to 
carry on the business. This was augmented by 
the absorption of a rival company in 1787. And 
thus was born the famous North West Company, 
that formidable rival to the Hudson's Bay Company. 
Besides these there sprang up other fur companies, 
both in Canada and in the United States. 

For many years previous to the arrival of per- 
manent settlers within the boundaries of what now 
constitutes the growing state of North Dakota 
the voyageurs and employes of the various fur 
companies ranged through its wilds and traded with 
the various Indian tribes on the Missouri, the Red 
and other rivers. These hardy men penetrated to 
all parts of the Dakotas, except the Black Hills, 
and explored it mile by mile. 

About the year 1808-10, Don Manuel Lisa, a 
Spanish gentleman established a trading post on 
the upper Missouri, for the Missouri Fur Company, 
of St. Louis. Other posts were built in various 
parts of the territory by the same company in the 


few succeeding years. Posts, also, were established 
at numerous points by the other companies. 


We are told by William H. Keating, the his- 
torian, of ]\Iajor Long's expedition, that vis- 
ited in the neighborhood of Fort Pembina, 
in 1823, that at that point lived a French trader 
who had settled there about 1780-81. If that is the 
fact, and there is no reason to doubt it, this old 
Frenchman was the first known settler in North 
Dakota. His name is not given, unfortunately, by 
the narrator. 


In 181 1, Thomas Doulgas, Earl of Selkirk, 
Scotland, obtained a grant of land from the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, for the purpose of planting a 
colony of his fellow countrymen in that then wilder- 
ness. He was a wealthy, kind-hearted and philan- 
thropic, but visionary, nobleman, and the principal 
idea he had was to benefit the poorer class of Scotch- 
men, evicted crofters and others, by removing them 
to a more congenial place, where they could improve 
their condition. He wrote several tracts for the 
purpose of urging the importance of colonizing Brit- 
ish emigrants in these distant British possessions 
to check their disposition to emigrate to the United 
States. The tract of land obtained by Earl Sel- 
kirk is thus described in the deed, altering the an- 
tique and obsolete spelling. 

"Beginning on the western siiore of Lake Win- 
ipie, at a point in fifty-two degrees and thirty sec- 
onds north latitude and thence running due west 
to the Lake Winnipigashish, otherwise called Little 
Winipie, thence in a southerly direction through the 
said lake, so as to strike its western shore in latitude 
fifty degrees, thence due west to the place where 
the parallel fifty-two degrees intersects the 
western branch of Red river, otherwise called the 
Assiniboine river, thence due south from that point 
of intersection to the height of land which separates 
the waters running into Hudson's Bay from those 
of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, thence in an 
easterly direction along the height of land to the 
source of the river Winipie, meaning by such last 
named river the principal branch of the waters 
which unite in the Lake Saginagas, thence along 
the main streams of those waters, and the middle of 
the several lakes through which they pass, to the 
mouth of the Winipie river, and thence in a northerly 

direction through the middle of Lake Winipie, to the 
place of beginning, which territory is called Ossi- 

In the fall of 1812 the pioneers of this settlement, 
a small party, arrived at about the confluence of the 
Assiniboine and Red river of the North, and com- 
menced the erection of houses for themselves and 
for the expected colonists. The jealousy of the em- 
ployes of the Northwest Company was aroused. 
They saw in the coming of permanent settlers the 
downfall of the fur trader, and upon themselves the 
restraints of law and order to which they were total 
strangers. Disguised as Indians, they drove off the 
settlers and induced them to go on to Pembina. 
The lawless coureur des bois, voyageurs, bois brules 
and other employes of the fur company, threatened 
dire disaster if they were not obeyed, and the af- 
frighted colonists acceded. Says the Rev. Edward 
D. Neill, in history of Minnesota, in speaking of thi=> 
event : 

"These men agreed to carry the children, but the 
men and women were obliged to walk. The exac- 
tions of the guides were cruel. One Highlander 
had to relinquish a gun that had been carried by his 
father at the battle of Culloden, and which was 
prized next to the family Bible, and a shrinking 
woman had to part with her marriage ring which had 
been placed upon her finger in the bloom of her 
youth, by a devoted lover in the Highlands. For 
the sake of creating alarm, the guides would run 
off with the babes and children, and the distracted 
mothers refused to be comforted, because their chil- 
dren were not to be seen any more as they supposed. 
This sport, more worthy of bears than of men, so 
shocked the nervous systems of the more delicate 
that they never recovered, and found an early grave." 

On their arrival at Pembina, which was a trading 
post, a fort having been built there by Lord Selkirk, 
that same year, they found but little accommodations, 
and the most hardy were compelled to pass the win- 
ter in tents. In the spring they returned to their 
colony, north, and resumed their interrupted labors. 
They toiled all the spring and summer in the culti- 
vation of their land, but their toil was unrewarded, 
the birds carrying oft' most of the harvest. The now 
disheartened settlers had to return to Pembina 
where they passed the winter of 1813-14. They 
were but unsophisticated hunters, the game they 
could get but little, and they almost starved. In the 
September of 1815, the colonists numbered about 
two hundred. The settlement upon the lower Red 
river near what is now the city of \Mnnipeg, they 


called Kildonan, in memory of the parish from which 
so many of them came in far away, beloved Scot- 
land. Augmented numbers, however, gave them 
increased confidence. Houses were built, a mill 
erected, and imported cattle and sheep began to 
graze the prairie. A frugal and industrious race, 
they toiled to rear their homes amid the wilderness, 
and to cultivate the soil. Here the hardy Scot, ac- 
customed to the rocks and crags of his native heath, 
was pleased to find that 

"Here no stony ground provokes the wrath of the farmer. 
Smoothly the plowshare runs through the soil, as a keel 

through the water. 
Here, too, numberless herds run wild and unclaimed on 

the prairies; 
Here, too, lands may be had for the asking, and forests of 

With a few blows of the axe, are hewn and framed into 


All this time the agents and employes of the 
Northwest Company looked with considerable dis- 
trust and suspicion upon the growing settlement, 
even going so far as to try to stir up the savages 
against the innocent settlers. Things grew from 
bad to worse. A detailed history of these unhappy 
settlers, their trials and tribulations, seems fitting in 
this place, for though the greater part of the settle- 
ments lay north of what is now the international 
boundary line, still their history is linked with that 
of Minnesota and North Dakota to a great extent, 
and around Fort Pembina was gathered a part of 
these people who were the first to make a settlement 
upon the Red river of the North, for the purpose of 
tilling the soil and the raising of cattle. 

At a meeting of the partners in the Northwest 
Compan}-. held at Fort William, at the head of 
Lake Superior, in the summer of /814, Duncan 
Cameron and Alex. JNIcDonnell were authorized to 
concoct some scheme to stop the progress of the col- 
ony and to destroy it entirely. Accordingly, the 
two emissaries named, both energetic but unscrupu- 
lous men, arrived in August, at the Northwest Com- 
pany's post, within half a mile of the settlers' vil- 
lage of Kildonan, at the forks of Assiniboine and 
Red river of the North. Cameron, a Scotchman 
himself, soon ingratiated himself with the High- 
landers. He spoke their Gaelic tongue, he was from 
their native land, he extended hospitality to their 
family and he gained the confidence of many. He 
hinted, rather than spoke, disparagingly of Earl Sel- 
kirk and his plans, and with devilish cunning sowed 
the seeds of distrust and enmity among the simple 

colonists. To more thoroughly impose upon the 
credulous Scotch, he wore a suit of regimentals, once 
the uniform of a now disbanded company of voy- 
ageurs, of which he now signed himself as captain 
and conmianding officer. By fair promises and 
specious lies, he drew off some of the colonists, who 
moved elsewhere, and unsettled the minds of many 
others. The Canadians and the employes of the 
company perceiving that the colonists were not in 
the favor of their employers, grew insolent and ag- 
gressive. One Sunday at the conclusion of relig- 
ious services, one George Campbell, a disaffected 
Selkirker (as they were called), read a command 
from Captain Cameron, demanding the surrender 
of all the field pieces in the possession of the colo- 
nists. The following day, einployes of the company, 
not receiving the guns, broke open the storehouse 
and took therefrom nine pieces of light artillery, 
mostly brass guns. Many disaffected settlers now 
left the colony, some casting in their lot with the 
Northwest Company. The Earl of Selkirk relates, 
in a statement made of these matters, that, in the 
spring of 1815, Morrison and McKenzie, members 
of the Northwest Company, told Kawtawabetay, 
chief of the Ojibways or Chippewas, at a meeting 
at Sandy lake, that they would give him and his 
people all the rum and other goods they had at Fort 
Wilham, Leach lake and Sandy lake,- if they would 
go on the war path against the Selkirk settlers. 
The chief, with a manhood which they lacked, 
turned from them in disgust. ■ 

June II, which was Sunday, in the morning, a 
mob of the employes of the company and other ruf- 
fian hangers on, ambushed themselves in a grove 
near the governor's house and commenced an at- 
tack. Four settlers were wounded, one mortally. 
Taking the governor, Miles McDonnell, prisoner, 
he was sent to Montreal. Not satisfied with this, 
the employes, now under the leadership of Alexan- 
der McDonnell, commenced a new campaign against 
the peaceful settlers, seizing their horses and cattle, 
and devastating their farms. He even went so far 
as to construct a battery of two guns over against 
the settlement. Crushed by this treatment, dis- 
pirited and dejected, the poor colonists signified their 
desire to quit, and sent word to the head of the 
Northwest Company that they would leave their 
farms and go away. 

On a beautiful day in the latter part of the lovely 
month of June, two of the Ojibway chiefs, attended 
bv some forty grim warriors, appeared upon the 
scene, and offered to escort the persecuted colonists, 


their wives, children and property to Lake Winni- 
peg. Guarded jealously from the assaults of their 
foes by these taciturn braves, the settlers again de- 
parted from their homes, like the Acadian farmers 
of Grand Pre, of whom Longfellow said they set out 
"friendless, hopeless, homeless." 

After they had embarked on the batteaux pro- 
vided for them, they looked back in sorrow and pain, 
and beheld the flame and smoke that, started by in- 
cendiary torch, was destroying their mill and the 
houses they had builded. But it was not long, 
when in their asylum on the north end of Lake Win- 
nipeg, they were visited by Colin Robertson, a prin- 
cipal character in the Hudson's Bay Company, who 
offered to lead them back to their farms and homes 
from which they had been so unceremoniously and 
cruelly ejected. This they accepted, and returned 
under his leadership, and their number was consid- 
erably augmented by some fresh arrivals from "bon- 
nie Scotland." During the winter the majority of 
them remained at Fort Pembina, and hunted the 
buffalo on the prairies of northern Minnesota and 
Dakota. Early- in the spring of 1816 they returned 
to Kildonan. In the meantime, the good Earl of 
Selkirk, hearing of the distress of his colony, crossed 
the ocean, but on his arrival in New York, in the 
autumn of 18 15, heard how they had been driven 
from their homes. He proceeded at once to Mon- 
treal, where he found some of his colonists, who had 
been seduced by the people of the Northwest Com- 
pany, in great indigence and neglect. While in that 
city he received the information that Robertson had 
taken his people back to their homes, and that they 
had again settled down to develop the land. He im- 
mediately sent back, by Laguimoniere, the courier 
who had brought the news, the word of his arrival 
in this country, and to announce his coming in tKe 
early spring. The messenger never reached his 
destination with the message. Near Fond du Lac, 
Minnesota, one night he was waylaid, beaten, robbed 
of his dispatches and his canoe, and taken prisoner. 
An Qjibway chief, in June, 1816, testified at Sandy 
lake, that a trader named Grant, offered him two 
kegs of rum and considerable tobacco if he would 
send some of his men and capture the bearer of dis- 
patches to the Red river. Shortly after this the 
messenger Laguimoniere was brought in prisoner by 
a negro and some Indians of the Ottawa tribe. 

In the spring of 1816, Duncan Cameron, on his 
return to the scene of his former persecution of in- 
nocent settlers, was placed under arrest, by Colin 
Robertson, and taken north to the shores of 

Hudson's Bay for shipment to London, to stand 

Not being able to procure military aid of the 
British government in Canada, Lord Selkirk hired 
four officers and eighty privates of the discharged 
Meuron regiment, twenty of the DeWatteville reg- 
iment and several members of the Glengary Fen- 
cibles, all of whom had served in the late war with 
the United States. His contract with these men was 
that they were to receive monthly wages for navi- 
gating the boats to the Red river settlement, to have 
lands given them if they wished to stay there or a 
free passage home if they desired to return. On 
reaching the Sault Ste. jMarie, he learned that once 
more his colony had been broken up by the lawless 
fur traders. 

It seems that in the spring of 1816, Governor 
Robert Semple, an amiable, but injudicious and tact- 
less man, who was governor of the factories and ter- 
ritories of the Hudson's Bay Company, came to the 
Red river. In April he sent one Pambrun to a 
trading post in a neighboring river, and as that party 
was returning with five boats, a quantity of furs and 
pemmican, they were attacked and captured May 12, 
by an armed party of the friends and employes 01 
the Northwest Company. They said this was in re- 
taliation for an attack made by Colin Robertson on 
their fort at at the confluence of the Assiniboine and 
Red rivers the previous fall. The lawless clement 
in all the wide country began to flock to the head- 
quarters of both of the rival fur companies. 

Un the i8th of June, 1816, a party of "North- 
westers" left Fort Qui Appele, under the command 
of Cuthbert Grant, Lacerpe, Frazer, Hooley and 
Thos. McKay. These marched toward Red river. 
Warned by friendly Indians of the approach of a 
hostile force, vigilant watch was kept for the arri- 
val of the advancing enemy. June 19, at about five 
o'clock in the afternoon, the lookouts announced the 
appearance of a body of mounted men. With a spy 
glass the governor discovered that tlie party son- 
sisted of sixty or seventy horsemen. With a reck- 
less disregard of the commonest dictates of caution 
or prudence, he proceeded to sally out of the fort 
with twenty men and met them. About half a mile 
on his road he met some of the settlers hurrying to 
the fort. These reported that the approaching party 
were armed with artillery. The governor sent back 
to the fort for a field piece. Without waiting for it 
however, he pressed on, and was soon surrounded. 
One Boucher, the reckless, drunken son of a Mont- 
real innkeeper, was put forward as spokesman by 



the hostiles. Semple inquired what they wanted. 
Boucher insolently answered, "Why did you destroy 
our fort, rascal?" With more courage than pru- 
dence, the governor grasped the bridle of Boucher's 
horse as he exclaimed, "Scoundrel, do you talk thus 
to me?" Boucher sprang from his horse and the 
party that was with hiin immediately commenced 
firing. Semple was soon wounded, and called to his 
followers to disperse and take care of themselves and 
leave him to his fate. Instead they gathered round 
their fallen chief. As they did this a volley from 
the Northwest party killed nearly all of them. The 
rest asked for quarter but this was denied and the 
rest were murdered with the exception of four or 
five. One of those thus spared, John Pritchard, has 
narrated the story of these murders by these ruth- 
less demi-savages. He says that, "the knife, axe or 
ball put an end to the existence of the wounded, and 
on the bodies of the dead were practiced all those 
horrible barbarities, which characterize the inhuman 
heart of the savages. The amiable and mild Mr. 
Semple, with broken thigh, lying on his side, sup- 
porting his head upon his hand, said to Grant, the 
leader of the attacking party, 'I am not mortally 
wounded, and if you could get me conveyed to the 
fort, I think I should live.' Grant promised he would 
do so, and immediately left him in care of a Canadian 
who afterwards told that an Indian of their party 
came up and shot Air. Semple in the breast. I en- 
treated Grant to procure me the watch or even the 
seals of Mr. Semple, for transmitting them to his 
friends, but I did not succeed. Our force amounted 
to twenty-eight persons, of whom twenty-one were 
killed." Schoolcraft, writing in 1832, says he saw 
at Leech lake, Majegabowi, and Ojibway, who was 
said to have been the identical Indian who shot Sem- 
ple as he lay wounded on the ground. 

The morning after this massacre Grant and his 
followers insisted on the abandonment of the fort 
and settlement. Next day the colonists, to the num- 
ber of some two hundred embarked in boats to be 
taken to the coast. Other murders occurred about 
this time growing out of the feud between the rival 
fur companies. In all this strife and bitterness it 
seems it was the Selkirkers who were the principal 

Previous to receiving the news of the murder o\ 
Governor Semple, the Earl of Selkirk hacj made his 
plans to go to his colony by way of Fond du Lac, 
St. Louis river, and Red lake. He now changed his 
mind. He went to Fort William, the chief trading 
post of the Northwest Company, on Lake Superior, 

and arrested the principal partners and forwarded 
them to the attorney general of Canada. 

After this stroke of justice Lord Selkirk pur- 
sued his journey as intended, and spent the summer 
of 181 7 with his colony. The harvest that year 
was luxuriant, but owing to their troubles the set- 
tlers had sown but little, and when the winter came 
on they began to be pinched for food. L'nsuited 
as they were to the rough life of settlers, hardy but 
unsophisticated in the ways of the wilderness, these 
people suffered to an untold degree, and were hun- 
gered and famished where the Indian or Canadian 
reveled in every luxury in the meat or game line. 
It became necessary for the settlers to support 
themselves through the long winter by hunting. 
They proceeded into the open prairies of northern 
Minnesota to join a camp of Indian and half- 
breed hunters. Being unprovided with snow shoes, 
they plunged on through the ever-deepening snow, 
suft'ering all kinds of martyrdom and misery. On 
Christmas eve, 1817, these half starved colonists, 
in rags, worn out by their exertions, and without 
a crumb of food among them, reached the camp 
they sought. 

While on his visit to the colony Lord Selkirk 
had made a treaty with the Crees and Saulteaux 
Indians, July 18, 181 7, by which he acquired title 
to land on both sides of the Red river of the North, 
extending as far south as the Great Forks (^now 
Grand Forks). Part of this strip was only four 
miles wide, in others, especially around Fort Doug- 
las and Fort Daer (Pembina), it was twelve. After 
remaining for awhile Lord Selkirk departed, at- 
tended by three or four persons, by way of the 
Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, going to St. 
Louis, Missouri, and from thence home. 

The American officials upon the frontier, as a 
general thing, looked, also, upon this colonization 
scheme of the Earl of Selkirk's with jealousy and 
distrust. The following letter, written by the In- 
dian agent at Prairie du Chien, in February, 1818, 
to the governor of Illinois, illustrates the feeling 
at that time rife in the far northwest. It is quoted 
from the History of the Minnesota \"alley. pub- 
lished in 1882. After opening his letter, the agent, 
hysterically, writes : 

"What do you suppose, sir, has been the result 
of the passage through my agency of this British 
nobleman? Two entire bands, and part of a third, 
all Sioux, have deserted us and joined Dickson, 
who has distributed to them large quantities of 
Indian presents, together with flags, medals, etc. 



Knowing this, what must have been my feehngs 
on hearing that his. lordship had met with a favora- 
ble reception at St. Louis. The newspapers an- 
nouncing his arrival, and general Scottish appear- 
ance, all tend to discompose me; believing, as I 
do, that he is plotting with his friend Dickson our 
destruction — sharpening the savage scalping knife, 
and colonizing a tract of country so remote as that 
of the Red river for the purpose, no doubt, of 
monopolizing the fur and peltry trade of this river, 
the Missouri and their waters, a trade of the first 
importance to our western states and territories. 
A courier who had arrived a few days since con- 
firms the belief that Dickson is endeavoring to undo 
what I have done, and secure to the British gov- 
ernment the affection of the Sioux and subject the 
Northwest Company to his Lordship." 

The spring of 1818 at last dawned, and the 
colonists again plucked up heart and began to put 
in the crops. They watched, with eagerness, the 
development of the tender plants, and in joyous 
anticipation awaited the harvest time. Their 
hopes were again blasted, this time not by the hand 
of man, but by that scourge that, in later times, 
has repeated the work of devastation, the grass- 
hopper. Let us quote once more from Dr. Neill, 
who says: 

"One afternoon, as the harvest was ripe, 
and they were about to put in the sickle, 'behold 
the Lord formed grasshoppers, in the beginning of 
the shooting up of the latter growth,' and their 
joy was turned to mourning. The air was filled 
with these insects ; 'the earth did quake before 
them, like the noise of chariots on the tops of 
mountains, or like the noise of a flame of fire that 
devoureth the stubble,' was the sound of their move- 
ments." When the next morning arose, 'it was a 
day of darkness and of gloominess : a day of clouds 
and thick darkness,' and strong men were bowed 
down ; and like the Hebrew captives, 'by the waters 
of Babylon, they lifted up their voices and wept.' " 

The following year the calamity was worse and 
more complete, if that were possible. Ross, in his 
account of this plague, says : "They were produced 
in masses, two, three and four inches in depth. 
The water was infected by them. Along the river 
they were to be found in heaps like sea-weed, and 
might be shoveled with a spade. Every vegetable 
substance was either eaten up or stripped to the 
bare stalks ; the leaves of the bushes and the bark 
of the trees shared the same fate, and the grain 
vanished as fast as it appeared above the ground. 

Even fires, if kindled out of doors, were immedi- 
ately extinguished by them." 

Desolation reigned supreme.. "The land was 
as the Garden of Eden before them, and behind 
then a desolate wilderness. Nothing did escape 
them." They ran upon the walls of the houses, 
they invaded the homes of the settlers, and every- 
thing that was edible they devoured. As winter 
again came down upon them these poor colonists, 
with aching hearts and bewildered heads, were 
again compelled to depend upon hunting to sus- 
tain themselves and their families from starvation. 
This was a mode of life at variance with their rear- 
ing and repugnant to their finer feelings. The 
vagabond life of the hunter had no charms for 

As everything had gone into the maw of the 
voracious grasshopper, they were entirely out of 
grain and knew not where to look for seed for the 
coming springtime. In the winter of 1819-20 a 
delegation of the colonists pushed their way through 
the snows and cold, at imminent risk and great 
bodily hardship, across the prairies and through the 
forests of northern Minnesota to Prairie du Chien, 
on the Mississippi, to purchase seed wheat. This 
was a trip of seven or eight hundred miles in a 
climate not remarkable for its mildness, and the 
men were but thinly clad. They, however, suc- 
ceeded in reaching their destination. In the spring 
they were ready to return. On the 15th of April, 
with three Mackinaw boats or batteaux, manned 
by six hands each, laden with two hundred bushels 
of wheat, one hundred bushels of oats and thirty 
bushels of peas, they set out. The expedition was 
under the command and guidance of Messrs. Gra- 
ham and Laidlaw. They were detained by the ice 
in Lake Pepin, on the Mississippi, which had not 
gone out as yet, but on, the 3d of May the passage 
was open and the boats passed through. Up the 
Mississippi to the mouth of the Minnesota river 
and thence up the latter to its headwaters they 
pushed their way with toil. The road was long 
and wearisome, the labor great, but they persisted 
faithfully. F'inally they emerged into the waters of 
Big Stone lake. Pushing their w-ay through this 
thev reached its northwest shore. Here a portage 
of a mile and a half of land separated them from 
Lake Traverse. Putting improvised wooden rollers 
under their boats, they, at the expense of infinite 
toil, pushed them across the divide and again 
launched them with the proper element. Descending 
the Sioux ^\"ood river over to its junction with the 



Red river of tlie Xorth, they had the latter water- 
way for the balance of their journey. The party 
reached Pembina June 3. The trip performed by 
these boats is worthy of mention, as it is the only 
instance of heavy articles being transported from 
Prairie du Chien to the Red river settlements 
entirely by water, with the exception of the portage 
mentioned above. The cost of this expedition, 
about six thousand dollars, was borne by Lord 
Selkirk. In 1820 some Swiss were induced to 
leave their native home, by agents of the Earl of 
Selkirk, and come to his colony. Many of these, 
on reaching Port Snelling, discouraged and dis- 
heartened at the misrepresentations that had 
brought them from their mountain homes, would 
go no farther, but settled in the region where now 
stands St. Paul. The rest went on to Pembina. 
In 1823 Major S. H. Long, who visited the settle- 
ment at Pembina, as elsewhere related, found it 
to consist of some sixty log cabins, and contained 
a population of about three hundred and fifty peo- 
ple. :Most of these were half-breeds. The re- 
mainder of the people were Scotch and Swiss, who 
did not strike the members of the expedition as 
people well qualified for settlers upon the rugged 
frontier. :\Iost of the Swiss were old soldiers 
whose days of usefulness in their trade were over, 
and were unfitted by their training for agricultural 
pursuits. The Scotch were thrifty and industrious, 
but Air. Keating thought that the half bloods were 
useless as farmers. 

One of the objects of Major Long's expedition 
was the location of the international boundary line, 
and when this was finally determined it was found 
that Port Daer, or Pembina, was built upon soil 
within the jurisdiction of the United States. It 
was, therefore, dismantled and removed to the Can- 
adian side of the border. This terminated the con- 
nection of that part of the northwest with the Earl 
of Selkirk and his schemes, as most of the Sel- 
kirkers, as they were called, still loyal to their 
patron, removed to the vicinity of Fort Garry, now 
Winnipeg. Of their presence around Pembina 
naught remains. Even their burial place, if any 
existed there, is unknown. Some debris turned up 
by the plow from time to time, an old cellar or two 
or half rotten timbers here and there, are all that 
would show their occupancy. The tale of their 
trials and tribulations are all that we have to show 
for the struggle they made against adverse fate. A 
few of the Selkirkers, however, remained upon our 
soil, adapting themselves to their new country, for. 

when the United States sent a force to rebuild Fort 
Pembina in 1870, they found a few descendants of 
the Selkirk settlers still living there. 

Among other prominent figures in the his- 
tory of the early part of the century was one 
by the name of Fisher, an agent of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. For years prior to 1815 he was 
stationed at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. In 1824 
he located on the shores of Lake Traverse, at the 
headwaters of the Red river of the Xorth. and 
engaged in fur trading. He remained there until 
1826. His daughter married Joseph Rollette, the 
elder, but was afterward divorced and married 
Hercuks L. Dousman, for many years a leading and 
influential citizen of Prairie du Chien. 

As time in its course neared the middle of the 
century, communication between the Red river val- 
ley and the outside world became all the more fre- 
quent. Cart routes leading to the head of navi- 
gation on the Mississippi began to be established 
by traders who, independent of the fur companies, 
began to locate at Pembina and other points. 
Mendota, near Fort Snelling, became the objective 
point of the Red river cart trails through Alinne- 
sota for many years before St. Paul was founded. 

The aristocracy of the plains in those times con- 
sisted of the officers, traders and clerks at the posts, 
and the buffalo hunters. While the Selkirk colo- 
nists generally dressed in homespun clothing, and 
lived plainly, the men at the posts had every luxury 
that they could procure, including a stock of the 
finest liquors. The importation of some of the 
finer products of civilized life gradually became 
more common, even to silk dresses for the women 
of the posts. In dress, the trappers and voyageurs 
aud some other of the employes of the fur com- 
panies used a common sort of cloth that was im- 
ported, gray suits being much worn by them. 
With these classes there was also some admixture 
of vestments, made from the skins of animals, 
especially buckskin, and suits of this character were 
worn much by the half-breeds. Of the smaller 
kinds of fur-bearing animals the country at that 
period produced quite a variety. 

During each recurring summer ensued the an- 
nual buffalo hunt, the chief event of the year. The 
bison was a migratory animal and in winter ranged 
southward to northern Texas. The increasing 
warmth of spring, which in that latitude ensues 
early, urged these animals to take to their north- 
wardly leading trails, and they migrated in vast 
herds. The hunting parties of the Northwest 



assembled at some appointed place between June 
8 and i8. Sometimes as many as a thousand or 
more persons took part in these hunts, their cara- 
vans sometimes consisting of as many as six hun- 
dred carts. The hunters were accompanied by their 
women and children. They were mainly half- 
breeds, with some Indians and occasionally a few 
whites. Bands from some of the posts in Mani- 
toba also joined them. Sc"Duts were first sent out 
to locate the herds, and on their return, the leaders 
having heard their reports, they determined from 
them the direction of the march to the prairies. 
The bison, like other wild animals, instinctively 
avoided all localities inhabited by man. The buffalo 
ranges of the Northwest were along the Cheyenne, 
the Mouse, the neighborhood of the Turtle mount- 
ains, and the upper portion of the Red river val- 
ley. Reaching any of these ranges, the hunters 
attacked the herds on horseback, using long 
stocked guns with flint lock fire, and slew these 
animals in large numbers. The remainder of the 
herd stampeded away with a loud noise, raising a 
great cloud of dust. The men skinned the animals 
for their hides, and the women assisted in cutting 
up the meat and loading it into the carts for trans- 
portation to camp, where it was cut into strips and 
dried for winter's use, and for making pemmican. 
The tongues of the buffalo were considered a choice 
part of these animals. The hides were brought to 
the post for shipment with other peltries. 

The guns used in the Northwest were made in 
England especially for purposes connected with the 
fur trading business. They were imported by way 
of York factory and exchanging at the posts for 
peltries at certain values. They continued to have 
flint locks long after the percussion cap had come 
into general use, on account of the great distance 
to the points at which the latter might be obtained. 
If an Indian or other hunter got out of his supply 
of percussion caps, on the supposition that he used 
them, it might be a hundred or more miles from 
the nearest post, a percussion lock gun would be of 
no use, while the flint-lock gun was serviceable at 
any time. 

There were some salt springs in the country 
that were utilized to some extent by the Selkirk 
colonists and the fur companies, on account of the 
expense of importing salt. "Considerable quanti- 
ties," says Warren Upham, "were yearly made by 
the evaporation of the water of salt springs. One 
of these springs from which much salt was made 
for the Hudson's Bay Company is situated in the 

channel of the south branch of Two Rivers, about 
one and one-half miles above its junction with the 
north branch and some six miles west of Hallock. 
It is exposed only when the river runs low, and in 
such portion of the summer the work of salt-mak- 
ing was done." 

Just after the last war with Great Britain, in 
about 1815, Captain Duncan Graham, a Scotchman, 
settled in what was subsequently called Graham's 
Island, in Devil's lake, or Lake Minnewaukan. 
There he erected a trading post and remained for 
a number of years. Augustus Rock, a French- 
Canadian, established a trading post, also, on an 
island in the same lake, probably about 1819 or 
1820, and made it his home for some years. Rock 
Island is named after him. 


For years the fur trading business had been in 
the hands of various rival companies, who were 
united in but one thing, to keep the business to 
themselves and to drive out all intruders. Among 
these were the famous Hudson's Bay Company, 
the Northwest Company, American Fur Company, 
Missouri Fur Company, X. Y. Fur Company and 
others. The Columbia Fur Company was organ- 
ized in 1822, by parties formerly in the employe 
of the older organizations. The Rocky Alount- 
ain Fur Company was organized in 1826, and 
sent agents up the Missouri river. In 1832 
the American Fur Company, of which John 
In 1832 the American Fur Company, of which John 
Jacob Astor, the founder of the present Astor 
family, was the originator, became the leading one 
in the northwest, and through them the fur trading 
business took on a more permanent form. About 
1840 independent traders began t6 establish them- 
selves at various points throughout the Rod River 
valley and elsewhere. 


One of the best known employes of the Amer- 
ican Fur Company in those early days was Jean 
Joseph Rolette, most always called Joe Rolette, the 
elder. He was a French-Canadian of the province 
of Quebec, who had been educated, it is believed, 
for the priesthood', but the bold, adventurous spirit 
within him drew him into the ranks of the coureur 
des bois, wdio roamed the lakes, woods and rivers 
of Canada and the United States. His native 


ability and the advantages of superior education 
soon placed him in the foremost ranks and he soon 
became a successful trader. He was a captain in 
the British service during the last war with Great 
Britain, and helped take Prairie du Chien. He 
married a Miss Fisher, who became the mother of 
Joseph Roulette, Jr., but was afterward divorced 
from her. He died, after having been one of the 
most noted of traders, in poverty. 

Joseph Rolette, Jr., his son, was probably the 
best known of all the traders of the great North- 
western territory in that day. Taken by relatives 
of his mother to New York, he was reared and 
educated where he had the best of advantages. As 
he grew to manhood the spirit of adventure, born 
in him, came out, and he determined to join the 
band of bold spirits upon the northern frontier. 
Enthusiastic, bold, witty, well educated and shrewd 
beyond his years, he was well fitted for border life. 
He came west and took service with a company 
which had been formed in 1834, of which Henry 
H. Sible}', Ramsey Crooks, H. L. Dousman and 
Jean Joseph Rolette were partners. By them he 
was sent to the Red river valley and he made his 
appearance there in 1840-41. He rebuilt the post 
at Pembina. At the time he was but twenty-one or 
two years of age. For a young man of that time 
in life to take charge of a reckless crew of voya- 
geurs, build and defend the fort, employ and con- 
trol the half-breeds upon whom the greater part 
of the actual labor fell, successfully deal with the 
friendly Indians and combat those that were hos- 
tile, to cure, pack and ship large quantities of furs, 
keep account of all his transactions and show a 
profit on each season's work, shows he was a young 
man of no common mettle. Young Rolette started 
his first line of carts between Pembina and St. Paul. 
This scheme wa? evolved in his brain and put into 
execution in 1842, and in it a Mr. Fisher, his 
mother's brother, was a partner. In 1843 ths well- 
known Norman W. Kittson, a native of Canada, 
born j\Iarch 5, 1814, came to Pembina and took 
charge of the post, from which time, as the business 
had developed largely, Joseph Rolette served as his 
chief lieutenant. Commodore Kittson saw that 
Rolette's idea of a regular cart line to St. Paul was 
an excellent one, and immediately inaugurated an- 
other. This mode of transport and traffic grew to 
an immense size, some years reaching the unpre- 
cedented figure of six or seven thousand carts 
employed. Other posts were, about this time, 
established at St. Joseph (Hair Hills) now Wal- 

halla, at Devil's lake, and in the Turtle mount- 
ains. In 1844 a mail station was established at the 
Pembina posts by Norman W. Kittson, and it is be- 
heved he was appointed the first postmaster. 


It is recorded that Kittson gave the name of this 
post that it bears to-day, Pembina. According to 
Mr. Keating, the historian of Long's expedition, 
quoted elsewhere, this word is an abbreviation or 
corruption of the Ojibway'word, Anepeminansippi, 
or the river of the red berry. This was the name 
given to the river by the Indians on account of 
the red berry, the viburnim exycoccos of the botan- 
ists, that grew in such luxuriant abundance along 
both banks. 

In an article in the Record, a well-edited maga- 
zine published at Fargo in the interest of old set- 
tlers and historical events, exception is taken to 
this derivation. The paragraph is here quoted in 
full : 

■'In Neill's history of Minnesota it is stated that 
Pembina county takes its name from the high bush 
cranberry, called by the Ojibways Anepeminan. 
This writer investigated the origin of the word 
Pembina some years ago, especially among those 
familiar with the Indian language, and reached the 
conclusion that it came from a combination of 
Pemmican and the Latin word 'bena,' meaning 
'blessed bread.' Senator Bogy made exhaustive 
research when the bill for the creation of Pembina 
territory was before the senate, and succeeded in 
defeating the use of that name on the ground that 
it had neither local or historical significance. It 
was his opinion that if it meant anything it was 
"sanctified bread." Fred Girard, who lived forty 
years among the Indians, states that the Indians 
and breeds would assemble at stated times at St. 
Joseph for the administration of the Holy Euch- 
arist, designating the event as 'Pembina.' The 
Record believes Neill wrong. Dr. Neill gives the 
significance of the name Dakota as 'allied- tribes,' 
but Girard says 'a land of plenty,' or 'many peo- 
ple,' is better. 'Sota,' always meaning plenty in 
the language of the Sioux, 'Minnesota' means 
many waters, instead of 'smoky water" 'clear 
water,' or 'sky tinted water,' as claimed by Neill." 
By another authority the word Pembina is given 
as the shortening of the Ojibway words Nepin, or 
summer, and Minan berry, after the high-bush 


Troubles at all times kept Joseph Rolette, Jr., 
busy at his posts, trouble with all kinds of people, 
civilized and savage. In 1847 some rival traders set 
up a post not over two miles from Rolette's, and 
as they were ready to pay in whisky for furs, a 
practice not allowed by our government, they had 
the advantage of him. Others had sutfered in the 
same way, and as the government failed to protect 
him Rolette detehnnned to take the matter into his 
own hands. He gathered a few of his most plucky 
men and, with them, marched over the line, threw 
out then- goods upon the ground, burned down the 
buildings and bade the owners leave that part of 
the country, which they immediately did. In 185 1 
Joseph Rolette was elected a member of the i\Iin- 
nesota legislature, and was re-elected in 1853, 1855 
and 1S57. On the outbreak of the Civil war he 
tried to get a commission in the Union army, but 
failed, and at the close of hostdities he had lost 
most of his little fortune and n:uch of his former 
health. He died May 16, 1871. He, in 1845, mar- 
ried Angelie Jerome, a lady of half Chippewa 
blood, and was the father of eleven children, some 
of whom are now residents of the state. 


But to return to the earlier times, it is recorded 
that in 1840 Rev. G. A. Bellecourt, who had for 
some nine years been doing missionary work among 
the natives north of the border, built a church just 
north of the present site of Pembina, near the 
junction of the Red and Pembina rivers. Father 
Bellecourt, a devout and pious member of the Ro- 
man Catholic priesthood, was a native of Canada, 
and gave most of his life to work among the In- 
dians and the bois brules of the Northwest. He 
wrote a dictionary and grammar of the Indian 
tongue. He was missionary apostolic and vicar- 
general of Bishop Cretin in 1S53. He was well 
and favorably known to all and well beloved by 
both reds and whites of that region. He died in 
Memramcook, lies de la JMadeline, Canada, in 1874. 
In 1845 this good and pious missionary pushed out 
into what was for many years called the Hair Hills, 
about thirty miles west of the Red river, just 
where the Pembina river breaks from the more ele- 
vated land called the Pembina mountains, and there 
built a chapel, which was dedicated to St. Joseph. 
Later a convent sprang up there, and there Father 
Bellecourt erected a mill. This was the first mill 
west of St. Paul, on American ground. 


Most of the people in this locality, all this time, 
were not settlers in the sense that we use the word 
to-day; they came, for the most part, as agents or 
employes of the fur traders, and their stay was 
generally, precarious and uncertain. They did not 
attempt to cultivate the soil, for, with the exception 
of small vegetable gardens at the posts, the land 
was entirely untilled. They took up no land with 
the intent to settle down to develop it; they were 
hunters and trappers only. But the time was com- 
ing when this was to change, when the day of the 
hunter and trapper was to pass ; when the land that 
then lay in idleness and covered with the luxuriant 
growth of nature should be trained and tamed to 
the uses of civilized man ; when the farm and the 
cottage of the husbandman was to take the place 
of the hunting ground and the cabin of the trapper 
or the teepee of the red man. 

The pioneer of the pioneers in the Red river 
valley, and in the state of North Dakota, was. 
Charles Cavileer, who came to this point in 1851, 
as United States collector of customs. A sketch of 
Mr. Cavileer will be found in another department of 
this work. 

The next to make a settlement in what is now 
North Dakota was William H. Moorhead, a man of 
sterling virtues and excellent qualities. Of him, 
it is justly said that a history of the state without 
mentioning his many services in the development of 
the land would be incomplete and lame. He was 
a man, every inch of him, faithful to friends, for- 
giving to his enemies if they deserved it, but re- 
lentless to the evil doer. He practiced the famous 
law of the Brahmin, "Love thy friend; do justice 
to thine enemy." 

William H. Moorhead was a native of Freeport, 
Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, born September 
20, 1832. In the schools of Pittsburg and its sis- 
ter city, Allegheny, he was reared and educated, 
and there grew to early manhood. In the spring 
of 1852 he left his home in the Keystone state and 
sought in the wild northwest a wider field for his 
efforts, a place for him to expand. About the first 
of May of that year he arrived at St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, and at that place remained some two years, 
working at his trade, that of a carpenter. The 
summer of 1854 and the ensuing winter were spent 
bv him at Sauk Rapids trading with the Indians. 
In the spring of 1855 he returned to St. Paul and 
formed a company to lay out town sites in northern 



Minnesota, a favorite speculation of those days. 
This syndicate consisted of ilessrs. Moorhead, 
Hoffman, Hutchinson, Kellogg, Horn, Charles and 
Traill. All were residents of St. Paul at the time. 
William Moorhead, Joseph Charles and J. K. Hoft'- 
man formed the active part of the concern and 
started out to find the town sites. With the sur- 
veyor they went by canoe up the Mississippi and 
Crow Wing rivers to Leaf river, and by the latter 
to Leaf Lake. A portage of three or four miles 
brought them to Otter Tail lake, and at the outlet 
of this they surveyed and laid out a town. This 
they called Otter Tail City. About forty miles down 
the river they laid out another, to which they gave 
the name of Jilerriam. On returning to St. Paul 
they found that lots of this description were a drug 
upon the market, too many had them for ssfte all 
through the west, and the Eastern speculator was 
growing timorous. Although the syndicate men- 
tioned above held their property as worth $150,- 
000, they wanted for the common necessaries of 
life, and Mr. Moorhead is said to have paid his 
winter's board bill with a share of stock in the 
enterprise. In the spring, the bubble having burst, 
the financial panic of the year 1857 having set in, 
Mr. Moorehead was without anything to do.. He 
finally engaged with Joseph Rolette and James Mc- 
Fetridge, who were in St. Paul, to erect the new 
buildings at the mouth of the Pembina river, which 
they intended to build. They arrived at their point of 
destination August i, 1857. Mr. Moorhead com- 
pleted the buildings and then entered the store as 
clerk and remained until February, 1858. He made 
trips to St. Paul for supplies and made successful 
hunting expeditions in the valley until the following 
fall. He then sought the Chippewas, at Lake of the 
Woods and Lake Rosa, and was rewarded by a 
heavy trade in furs. He had now embarked as an 
independent fur trader, and that winter made a 
trip to the west, to the Turtle mountains. He 
was very successful in all his endeavors. In 1861 
he removed to what is now Walhalla, then St. Jos- 
eph, he engaged in trade with the Indians. Pie 
resided there- when the Indian massacre of 1863 
broke out in Minnesota. He was on good terms 
with the savages, but as he would not sell them 
ammunition, he thought it best to move, so went to 
Devil's lake, where he and some hundred families 
of Indians and half-breeds spent the summer of 
that eventful year and the following winter. The 
spring following he returned to his place at the foot 
of the Pembina mountains. In Alay of that year the 

tribes of Little Six, jNIedicine Bottle and Little 
Crow pitched their teepees about his place. These 
tribes numbered in the neighborhood of a thousand 
Indians. A prisoner, a son of William ]\Iyrick, 
a chUd of eight years, was bought from 
them. That fall Mr. Moorhead married Liz- 
zie Lauvier and made a wedding trip to the 
famous hunting grounds of the Souris or Alouse 
river. He built a bouse about a mile and a half 
from the present site of Towner, i\IcHenry county. 
He remained" there all winter in trade with the 
Sioux. Mr. Moorhead died at Pembina, July 3, 
1897, respected by all, and was buried with Ma- 
sonic honors on the nation's birthday. To Cjuote 
from the Pembina Express: 

"Personally, Mr. Moorhead was genial, simple 
hearted, generous. He was public-spirited, and in 
the days when Pembina was very far from civiliza- 
tion, when its population was largely made up of 
a lawless class of men, Mr. Moorhead was made 
the first sheriff, an office at that time requiring 
courage and tact of no mean order. His early life 
was amid associations of the far frontier type, and 
it would be strange indeed if the tree did not par- 
take to some extent of the qualities of the soil 
from which it grew. But at the bedside of the sick 
and dying, this rough frontiersman was as ten- 
der as a woman, as thoughtful and gentle as a 
trained nurse, and when there was suft'ering he was 
always depended upon, and it seemed but natural 
that he shoul perform the last sad offices for the 
dead. Despite his faults, he was universally liked, 
and among the old settlers a particular favorite." 

About the same time that Mr. iMoorhead came 
to the Pembina settlement the steam navigation of 
the Red river of the North began to occupy the 
minds of those interested and commenced to de- 
velop. In all this western country there has been, 
prior to the advent of railroads, an era of steam- 
boating that grew and flourished into a great in- 
dustry until the railroads killed it oft". They no 
doubt were an important factor in the advance- 
ment, settlement and civilization of the states west 
of the Mississippi river. But a few years ago, 
comparatively, the northern waters of the Missis- 
sippi were alive with craft, carrying the freight and 
transporting the passengers of that region. Now 
there are but few of the river craft. The same is 
true of all our western rivers. 

The Red river of the North, which is neither 
wide nor deep, was practically navigable from 
Wahpeton to its mouth. The river is very crooked. 



although never departing far from a straight 
meridian in its course through North Dakota. It 
travels nearly four hundred miles in traversing the 
one hundred and eighty-six miles from Wahpeton 
to the international boundary line. At ^^'ahpeton 
the river, at its ordinary stage, is 943 feet above 
sea level; the altitude of Lake Winnipeg is 710 feet, 
hence the fall of the navigable part of the river 
amounts to 233 feet. For twelve miles as the river 
runs, next below the mouth of the Goose, the stream 
crosses a morainic belt, and its bed is obstructed 
with boulders, forming the Goose rapids. The fall 
in this part of the river is twelve feet in as many 
miles. In the earlier days of steamboat naviga- 
tion these rapids were a hindrance to the passage 
of boats during the season of low water. Below 
Winnipeg an outcrop of limestone causes a lower 
set of rapids. The rise of the river during the 
highest spring floods is as follows at the different 
places named: Wahpeton, 15 feet; Fargo, 32 feet; 
Belmont, 50 feet ; Grand Forks, 44 feet ; Pembina, 
40 feet, and at Winnipeg, 39 feet. These figures 
indicate what is called the range between extreme 
low and high water. The maximum point of ex- 
treme high water is at Belmont on account of the 
narrowed channel of the river between high banks 
of compact bowlder clay; the next point of extreme 
high water level at Grand Forks is connected with 
the entrance into the Red at that place of the Red 
Lake river. The years in which extraordinary floods 
have occurred on Red river, and been recorded, are 
those of 1826, 1852, i860, 1861, 1882 and 1897. 
Down to 1890, congressional appropriations for 
improving the river in the interests of navigation 
amounted to $128,000. The first of these appro- 
priations was made in 1876. 

In October, 1858, Captain Russell Blakely, of 
St. Paul, in company with John R. Irvine, made a 
trip up the Red river. They reached the river at 
Fort Abercrombie, which they found in charge of 
Captain Nelson H. Davis and Lieutenant P. Haw- 
kins, of the Second United States Infantry, with 
their company. They made observations in regard 
to the possibilities of navigation on the stream. In 
consequence of the report made by Captain Blakely 
the chamber of commerce of St. Paul agreed to 
pay a bonus of $2,000 to the first steamboat to 
navigate the waters of the Red river. 

Anson Northrup bought the steamboat North 
Star, then running on the Mississippi river. He 
took it up the river and laid it up at Crow Wing. 
The machinery in it was old and patched. It had 

been brought originally from Maine and placed in 
the Governor Ramsey, and later in the North Star. 
All winter was put in in getting out new lumber for 
a boat, and in the spring of 1859 l^inber and ma- 
chinery was hauled across to Lafayette, at the 
mouth of the Cheyenne. Thirty-four teams were 
employed in this hauling. The boat was speedily 
put together and launched, and christened the An- 
son Northrup. The boat ran to Fort Abercrom- 
bie, from which point it left for Fort Garry, now 
Winnipeg, May 17, and arrived at the latter place 
June 5, 1859. After her return to Fort Abercrom- 
bie with twenty passengers, Captain Blakely and 
the others interested in her continuing her trips 
were coolly informed that, as it had earned the 
bonus and there was no money in running it, if 
the)- wanted it to run they could buy it. She was 
afterward purchased by J. C. Burbank for the ;\Iin- 
nesota Company. 

One of the pioneer settlers of the Red river val- 
ley, Nicholas Huffman, in a paper read at the Old 
Settlers' meeting, in 1898, says: 

"There was an old steamboat lying in the Alin- 
nesota river, six miles below Big Stone lake, which 
was intended to come over into the Red river in 
1857. There was a big flood in the JNIinnesota river 
and Captain John B. Davis thought he could run 
the Freighter, for that was the name of the boat,, 
into the Red river, but the waters went down and 
the boat was left stranded. The boat was sold at 
sheriff's sale and was bought by J. C. Burbank, of 
the stage company. There was a Welshman left 
in charge of the boat, and here he stayed nearly 
four years away from wife and children, with 
nothing to eat, only what he could hunt or fish. 

'Tn the fall of i860 we took a lot of teams, wag- 
ons and tools, under orders from Burbank, and 
took the boat to pieces and brought it to George- 
town. \\'e found the boat and the little Welsh- 
man all right. His hair had over three years' 
growth and his whiskers were long. You may be 
sure his clothes were not of the latest fashion or in 
first-class condition. Coffee sacks, window cur- 
tains, etc., had been used to keep him covered. We 
divided up our clothes with him, hut they were not 
good fits as he was so small. 

"A second trip was necessary for the machin- 
ery. There were two big boilers, but we brought 
them safely to Georgetown, where the boat was 
rebuilt. We did not reach Georgetown till after 
Christmas with the last load, and the weather was 



verv cold. The water was bad and the men suf- 
fered a great deal." 

The Minnesota Company mentioned above was 
the result of the mail contract letting in 1858, and 
was organized by J. C. Burbank, Russell Blakely 
and others. They had the contracts for carrying 
the mail from St. Paul to Fort Abercrombie ai^d 
other northwestern points. They proposed to open 
roads and put on stages to run from St;- Cloud via 
Cold Springs, Xew Munich, Melrose, Winnebago 
Crossing, Sauk Rapids, :\Iendota, Osakis, Alexan- 
dria, Dayton and Breckenridge, to Fort Abercrom- 
bie. The party left St. Cloud in June, 1859, to 
open this route. Accompanying the expedition, 
besides teamsters, bridge builders, station keepers 
and laborers, were I\Iiss Elenora and Christiana 
Sterling from Scotland, Sir Francis Sykes and 
others. Xorthrup having refused to operate the 
steamboat, those bound for the north, including the 
baronet and the ladies, caused to be built a flatboat 
at .\bercrombie and they went down the river in it 
to P'ort Garry. George W. Northrup was in 
charge of this, one of the first boats on the Red 
river. This Northrup was a noted character in this 
part of the country at the time. He was one of 
the most popular of the famous frontiersmen, and 
for years was employed as guide and hunter by 
military expeditions and hunting parties, and his 
name figures in most of the stories told by old set- 
lers in the Red river valley and the vicinity. He 
served as sergeant in Company C, Brackett's Bat- 
talion, and was killed in a combat with the Indi- 
ans on the headwaters of the Little :Missouri, July 
28, 1864. 

In the spring of i860 the steamboat was re- 
paired, rechristened the Pioneer, and, under the 
command of Captain Samuel Painter, it made trips 
all that summer. This same year the machinery 
of the Freighter, mentioned above, having been 
hauled to Georgetown, a boat was constructed 
there into which it was put, and the second 
steamer, the International, entered upon the trade 
of the river. A. W. Kellcy sawed the lumber and 
Edwin R. Abell put in the engines. C. \\ P. Lull 
operated the steamer for a few trips, but was suc- 
ceeded by Xorman W. Kittson. One of the causes 
of the complaints of the Indians which led to the 
hostilities and massacre of 1862 was the objection 
of the red men to steamboats on the rivers. They 
argued that they drove away the game and killed 
the fish, and that the noise of the whistles disturbed 
the repose of their dead ancestors. They demand- 

ed four kegs of gold money or that the boats cease 
running. In 1864 the International was sold to 
the Hudson's Bay Company. The opposition of this 
famous and powerful organization to the settle- 
ment of the valley, it being against their interests, 
proved too strong, and any development was out of 
the question until the termination of the charter of 
that company by the British government in 1869. 
In the meantime a few had made homes in the 
Red river valley, mostly French-Canadians and 
mixed-bloods. H. D. Betts was appointed by Gov- 
ernor William Jaynes to take a census of this part 
of the territory early in 1861, and by his sworn 
statement made July 26, 1861, it is seen that the 
whole number of white males in the Red river val- 
Ic}-, on the Dakota side of the river, was fifty-one, 
of whom forty-two were over twenty-one years of 
age. The number of white women was twent)--five. 
The mixed bloods amounted to two hundred and 
sixty-four males and two hundred and sixty 
females ; a total population of six hundred. 
At the St. Joseph settlement, then the most promi- 
nent, it is said by a local writer, there resided in 1861 
the following: Edward Willis and family, Charles 
Bottineau and family, Joseph Vizeno and family, 
Antoine LaFere, Roseau Gorman, Charles Gladin 
and wife, James McCay and wife, Felix LaTrue and 
family, Pierre Bottineau and wife, Zail Georgie and 
family, P. Leyufer and wife, Miban Lanna and fam- 
ilv. Marcel Billenois and family, John Melich and 
family, Baptiste Shoutts and family, Oreis Lafram- 
bes and family, Francois Vion and family, Baptiste 
Shapois and family, Basil Ladoeur and family, 
Baptiste Bonvier and family. Marcel Surp and fam- 
ily, P. Lachotte and family, Daniel Olsen and family 
and Bedeaux DeLorme and family. At Pembina 
lived Antoine Geroux and family, Peter Hayden and 
family, Joseph Rolette and family, James McFet- 
ridge and family, H. S. Donaldson, William H. 
Moorehead, Joseph LeMay and Joseph Brebois. At 
Abercrombie and vicinity were Joseph Stone and 
family, Henry Meyers, Hiram Stone, William 
Daney, James Bennett, Mark Bridges and family and 
Harry Day. Robert Slember and Harry Block lived 
at the mouth of the Cheyenne. These were nearly 
all of the white male settlers in the valley. Of the 
leading mixed blood families at that time were the 
Grants, B. DeLorme, Antoine Conlan, Joseph 
I'olcaux, B. Shorereman, P. Veneta, W. Laframbe, 
P. Wanton, A. Cocke, B. Lascurn, Antoine and 
Charles Sampeur, iNIichael and Antoine Gladin, 
Pierre and Zedore Crambeau, Joseph Amcnte, Joseph 


Zauninia, Louis Belyand, Jolm Angle, Paul Bouvier, 
JMarcel Oliver, Antolne and Francois Billenols, 
James Frednla, Joseph, Baptlste and Isadore Fein,- 
Louis \'lon, Marcel Surp, Jr., Joseph Lachotte, 
Marcel Alattelle, Antolne Zangrous antl A. ]\Ioeselts. 
These made their homes at St. Joseph. At Pem- 
hlna and down the valley resided, of the mixed 
bloods: Francis Renville,^ Francis Renville, Jr., 
A'arceni Grant, Charles Centernia, P. Plcotte, F. 
Deaman, and F. Deaman, Jr., Francis Deshlen, John, 
Francis and Joseph Coutier, Joseph Fredore, Joseph 
Dacolerts, A. Shoretts, Baptlste Larocque, Baptlste 
Lataix, Louis and Antonius Lataix, Martin, Andre, 
David, Daniel, and Elio Jerome, Michael Henem, 
both senior and junior, Andrew Henem, Baptlste, 
Morgan and Joseph Smith, Baptlste Bremo, A. Lo- 
rene, B. Davis, Benjamin Alenshaw, F. Persia, 
Joseph Larocque, Joseph Gadeon, A. Larocque, B. 
Laconte, N. Lacesar, A. Blue, Eustace Jordan, Bap- 
tlste Blue, Louis Swenia, Louis Robpeur. The local 
writer from whom these names have been gleaned, 
says of them : "There are manifestly errors in the 
spelHng of some of the names, as the enumerator 
tried to follow the French sound without undertak- 
in to follow the spelling. The list serves to show 
that many of the families now in the Turtle moun- 
tains are of American ancestry, though remotely 
connected with the old time Indian traders and hunt- 
ers." A half breed by the name of Gingrass, about 
1858, opened a store at St. Joseph, and in 1859 
Charles Bottineau did the same. In i860 W. H. 
Moorehead was appointed postmaster at St. Joseph 
now Walhalla, and occupied that office until 1864, 
when he was succeeded by John Hunt. In 1864, 
Mr. ]\Ioorhead on his removal from St. Joseph lo- 
cated on section 11, township 163 N., range 54 W., 
erecting a building which he occupied as residence, 
tavern, saloon and store. As at this time there were 
but three houses between Pembina and St. Joseph, 
and as this house was on the direct road from the 
latter place to Winnipeg, he had most excellent cus- 
tom. A United States custom house was estab- 
lished at a point that was known for some years as 
Smuggler's Point. 

In 1863 Mr. Canleer, as already mentioned, re- 
turned to Pembina, and being commissioned post- 
master, assumed the functions of that office. In 
1864 Joseph Lannon located at that spot engaging 
in the retail liquor business. Xo more white set- 
tlers came to this place for several years. 

In October, 1870, Judson La^Moure, who had 
made his residence at Elk Point, now in Union I 

county. South Dakota, removed to Pembina. On 
the establishment of a United States district court 
at the latter point he was the first deputy United 
States marshal, and was also connected with the 
United States survey department. He was one of 
the first to extensively engage in farming, and for 
three years was deputy collector of customs. Mr. 
LaMoure for many years served in the territorial 
and state legislatures and was one of the prominent 
figures in the annals of the state. 

In 1868 two men, Nicholas Hoflfman and August 
Loon, who had been the old mail carriers on the 
. Pembina-Abercrombie route, settled in what is now 
Grand Forks county, on the Red river. 

In compliance with orders. Company I, Twenti- 
eth Infantry, under Capt. Lloyd Wheaton, on :\Iay 
10, 1870, embarked on two flat boats, and floating 
with the current of the Red river, reached Pembina 
May 19. They went into camp at the confluence of 
the Red and Pembina rivers on the south bank of 
the latter. The next day Company K, of the same 
regiment, Capt. A. A. Harbach commanding, reached 
the same point. It seems that a board consisting of 
Col. George Sykes, of the Twentieth Infantry, and 
Capt. D. P. Heap, Engineer Corps, had been ap- 
pointed to sekct a point for a new fort in this re- 
gion, and had determined upon a site near St. Jo- 
seph, now Walhalla, twenty-nine miles west of 
Pembina, but this point not being approved by the 
powers that be, the captains named above and Cap- 
tain S. T. Norvell had selected, under authority, a 
site for a fort at the confluence of the Red and Pem- 
bina rivers. The troops had come thither to build 
the new post, which they did. 

May 19, 1870, Ole Strandwold, a representative 
type of the hardy Xorse race, crossed the Red river 
and settled in what is now Cass county. He came 
here from Douglas county, Minnesota. J. M. Ben- 
der, who had come into the territory the previous 
fall, came north in the spring of 1870, with ox 
teams, and made a settlement about nine miles north- 
west of Fargo. P. McMahon located in the same 
neighborhood the same year. Alorten, Lars and 
Paul Mortenson, typical Scandinavians, located the 
same year at the junction of the Cheyenne and the 
Red rivers. Warner Mattieson Satre, Olaf Hakans, 
Rustad Hakanson and C. O. Bye settled in what is 
now Cass county, also, in 1870. D. P. Harris, about 
the same time took up a claim on the west bank 
of the Red river and built a log cabin in which he 
passed the following winter. Peter Johnson was 



another settler of this year, locating about twenty 
miles south of the present site of Fargo. 

In November, 1870, Andrew McHench came to 
the territory, and for a short time remained in the 
vicinity of Fort Abercrombie. April, 1871, he and 
his family and belongings came down the Red river 
in a skiff and took up their headquarters at the 
mouth of the Elm river. On the inception of the 
new city of Fargo, he removed thither. He was the 
first county superintendent of schools, and after- 
wards was a member of the territorial legislature. 

In 1863 James J. Hill, now president of the Great 
Northern Railroad, made a visit to the Red river 
valley, by dog sleds, and upon his return to St. Paul 
sent Capt. Alexander Griggs to examine the river 
and to decide what kind of a boat would be neces- 
sary to build to control traffic. In 1870 Captain 
Griggs, who had removed to Fort Abercrombie, 
built a boat and floated down the river on an explor- 
ing expedition. On reaching the junction of the 
Red river and Red Lake river he drew his boat on 
shore, built a cabin and took up what was called 
a squatter's right. This he covered by a homestead 
entry later on. He returned to Fort Abercrombie 
and there he built the steamboat "Selkirk," which 
was launched April 23, 1871. Down the river it 
steamed, and for many years continued to ply the 
waters of that tortuous stream. 

In the winter of 1869 some families of the name 
of Hicks, located near the present village of Hick- 
son in Cass county. Among the other settlers of 
this year in that county were Charles Farrell and 
Charles Mow, who located on the Cheyenne river. 

In 1871 agents of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road, whose engineers were fast approaching the 
Red river, sought a place on that stream where both 
banks being high the railroad could pass without the 
use of a draw bridge. Alany people were convinced 
that at the point of crossing would spring up a town, 
which would, so the\- thought, be one of the great 
trade centers of the northwest. Several parties were 
watching closely the action of the railroad builders 
so that at the proper time they could locate, at least 
a part of a townsite. Among these were the Lake 
Superior and Puget Sound Land Company, a side 
issue of some of the leading spirits in the Northern 
Pacific Railroad. Others were Jacob Lowell, Jr., 
H. S. Back, and A. M. Hench. James Hales rep- 
resented the land company here. Most of these 
people had spent the winter near the mouth of Elm 
river, thinking that that would be the crossing place. 
They waited in vain. Finallv this idea was aban- 

doned, and after several deceptive feints, the road 
displayed unmistakable signs of crossing at a point 
some miles below Fargo which has since become 
known as Bogusville. Those who had been eagerly 
watching for surveyors' stakes along the banks of 
the Elm, now abandoned the hopes they had cen- 
tered in that locality, left their claims and moved up 
the river to Bogusville. Much time was consumed 
here and yet nothing decisive was done. Finally, on 
the evening of July 4, 1871, the engineers of the 
railroad made a rush for the site of the present city, 
and the Lake Superior & Puget Sound Land Com- 
pany's men took possession of nearly every claim in 
the vicinity. The land company withdrew however, 
and the railroad company received title to section six, 
while section seven was divided among S. G. Rob- 
erts, A. J. Harwood, Patrick Devitt, Gordon J. 
Keeney and Harriet Young. The railroad company 
bought the claim on the opposite side of the river; 
the town of Moorhead was laid out, and the crossing 
located. There was no town platted on the west 
side of the river at that time, but the high price of 
lots on the east side drove many squatters over, and 
before winter, Fargo in the timber, as it was called, 
had a population of some two hundred or more in- 
habitants. The first merchant was Terrence Martin, 
who opened up a small store in a tent that same fall. 
It was discovered, however, that all the ground west 
of the river was in the Indian reservation, and this 
fact was used by the land company for all it was 
worth. All people on this land were trespassers, 
and efiforts to oust them were made. Finally troops 
from Fort Abercrombie were called in and all except 
the employes of the railroad were ordered to with- 
draw. This mandate was never enforced, the gov- 
ernment extinguishing the Indian title and throwing 
the reservation open to settlement. This was con- 
summated in 1873. 

In the meantime Peter P. Goodman, who had 
lived for several years on the east side of the river, 
and who had been through the region west of it, in 
1 87 1 crossed over and made a settlement just north 
of where Fargo now stands. The same year came 
Roderick D. Nelson, who took up a squatter's claim 
before the Indian title was extinguished. Two 
miles south of Fargo, on July 5, the same year, G. J. 
Keeney located a claim. He soon removed to the 
young city and was identified with A. J. Harwood, 
in the first newspaper in the Red river valley, the 
Fargo Express. C. A. Roberts located on a claim 
near Fargo, July, 1871, but soon removed to the 
rising village. Among the early settlers of the same 



year at the same place, was Schlstedt. His mar- 
riage with Miss Christina Torgarson, in February, 
1872, was the first ceremony of the kind in Fargo. 
John E. Haggart came to the territory June 18, 1871, 
and August 8, following, took up a claim on the 
Cht'vonne. T. Martin was another of the arrivals 
of this year. 

In tlie meantime Walter Traill, agent of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, had established several 
stores on both sides of the Red river. Une of these, 
put up in 1870, at Fargo Point (now Belmont), 
Traill county, was in charge of A. H. Morgan. In 
the spring of 1871 Sargent and Clark opened a store 
at Caledonia. George E. Weston, who had been in 
charge of the company's store at Georgetown, 2^Iin- 
nesota, in April, 1870, crossed the river and took 
the first claim w'ithin the bounds of what is now 
Traill county. The following year brought a num- 
ber of pioneers into this part of the territory, among 
whom were Carl Mergenthal, ]M. L. Gunimer, Alvin 
Arnold, Christian Kaldor, Andrew Peterson, Ste- 
phen E. Randall, Ingebret Larson, Peter Paulson, 
Michael O'Flaherty, John Weller, Christian Olson, 
Anders Johnson, Rev. John Ostlund and others. 
Peter P. Goodman in 187 1 made a settlement on a 
claim in what is now Cass county. 

Among the others who came to what is now Cass 
county, in this year, 1871, were C. E. Petterson, M. 
L. ilcCormack, Jos. Greenwood, Halvor Beatru, 
Jas. Jenks, A. C. Kvello and A. H. Moore. The 
latter has the credit of erecting the first house on the 
town site of Fargo. 

Ole J. Hertzgaard and Knudt Iverson, who located 
on the Cheyenne in what is now Richland county, 
in April, 1S71, are supposed to be the first to settle 
on that stream. About the same time Peter Trana 
settled in the same neighborhood. In the same 
county among the first settlers were M. T. Rich, 
after whom the county took its name, D. W. Smith, 
J. W. islanding, J. Q. Burbank and W. E. Root. 

In what is now Steele county, the first settler was 
probably Fingal Enger, who located there in 

Settlers now began to flock int(3 the Red river 
valley, so that towns, cities and villages sprang up on 
every hand, and farms both great and small, began 
to develop. The rapid growth of this part of the 
state can be best seen by a glance at the following 
enumeration of its population in ,1880 by counties: 
Cass, 8,998; Cavalier, 6,471; Grand Forks, 6,248; 
Pembina, 4,862; Traill, 4,123; and Richland, 3,597. 
This makes a grand total in the valley of 34,299. 

In the meantime, with the advent of railroads, 
came settlers to other parts of the state. Among 
the pioneers of what is now Barnes county, was D. 
D. McFadgen. He was a native of Argyleshire, 
Scotland, who came to Canada in boyhood. In 
1870 he entered the employ of the Xorthern Pacific 
Railroad, then just in the process of construction. 
At the second crossing of the Cheyenne river he left 
the railroad crew, and at what is now X'alley City, 
set up a tent, and with his partner, Richard ^IcKin- 
non, opened a boarding house for the railroad hands. 
As the winter drew on the partners removed to the 
section house, just built, and continued their busi- 
ness. At the termination of his labors in this place 
Mr. AIcFadgen took up a claim and commenced 
farming. But few settlers came his way until 1877, 
when the tide of emigration that swept into Xorth 
Dakota carried some thither. Mr. McFadgen was 
very prominent in his count)- and served as sheriff 
for many years. 

The first settlers in Stutsman county, in the val- 
ley of the Dakota or James river, were Thomas Col- 
lins, J. B. Colby, J. F. Turner and Richard Blan- 
chard. The two latter remained but a short time, 
but Messrs. Collins and Colby took up claims on the 
river. This was in Xovember, 1871, and they spent 
the winter there. The next settler was A. W. 
Kelly. He came into the territory in July, 1864, 
with Alajor Clonney, of the Thirtieth Wisconsin In- 
fantry, who brought a body of men to build Fort 
Wadsworth. In the following year he returned 
to St. I'aul. In August, 1867, he located close to 
Fort Totten, at Devil's lake, where he erected a saw 
mill. This he operated from September 20, 1867, 
until the 23rd of the following December. In the 
spring he went to St. Paul from which he returned 
in a few months with a herd of cows. With these 
he started a dairy. In company with B. W. Smith 
and C. G. Lewis, he had a contract to furnish the 
government post both hay and cord wood. Indians 
and half breeds cut the wood, the women and squaws 
hauled it with ponies and in Red river carts. Mr. 
Kelley lived at P"ort Totten until 1872, when he re- 
moved to Jamestown. While at the fort, in addition 
to his other business, he ran a store from 1868 to 
1870. In 1872 he removed to what is now Stuts- 
man county, taking a claim on section 26. The same 
year he started the first bakery in the new town 
which had sprung up on the Pipestem river. In 
Xovember he opened one of the first stores in thai 
part of the country, and continued in mercantile 
business until 1879. He was prominent in the or- 



ganization of the county, and was chairman of its 
first board of commissioners. 

Shortly after tlie arrival of Air. Kelley George 
W. X'ennum and Alexander JNIcKechnie made their 
appearance in the same neighborhood and took up 
claims. About the same time that part of the fu- 
ture state secured accessions in the persons of H. C. 
JMiller, P. Aloran, Frank C. Alyrick and others. 

On the approach of the Xorthern Pacific Rail- 
raod to the James river, 1872, there sprang up on 
the west bank of that stream a tent village. Hill & 
Alacnider are supposed to be the first to enter into 
mercantile transactions at that point. They after- 
wards removed to Bismarck. Clark & Bill and A. 
W. Kelley were also among the merchants. \'en- 
num & AIcKechnie kept hotel in a large tent. In 
the autumn of the same year the railroad company 
established their depot on the east side ot the river 
and the business and all of the village removed to 
that side. The failure of Jay Cooke and the sub- 
sequent embarrassment of the railroad militated 
against the growth of the town for some years. 
The first building put up in the city of Jamestown, 
on its present site, was erected by Aliller. J. W. 
Goodrich was also a settler of 1872 in the rising 

William H. Mercer, a native of Center county, 
Pennsylvania, came to the Alissouri river, in what 
is now Burleigh county, in October, 1869, and en- 
gaged in hunting and trapping. About the same 
time Joseph H. Taylor, who was born in Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, came to the neighborhood of 
what was known as the Painted woods, near where 
the village of that name now stands. He also spent 
the winter in hunting, fishing and trapping. He had 
come to the territory in 1865 and had published the 
Dakota Democrat, at Yankton, for a few months. 
Some others, among them Joseph Miller and Henry 
Suttle, were living along the banks of the "Big 
Muddy" engaged in cutting fire wood to sell to the 
steamboats that plied those waters. In the spring 
of 1872, with others who came to this part of the 
territory, was Joseph Dietrich, who had come into 
the territory in 1869 and had hunted, fished and 
trapped through this region. He found a home in 
what is now Burleigh county, and for a year held 
down the townsite-of Burleigh City. He was a 
native of Xew York, lx)rn November 30, 1846, but 
reared in Wisconsin. He has remarked that of the 
eleven men who had come into Dakota with him 
eight had been killed by the Indians. In Alay, 
1872, Samuel Townsend made the first entrv of land 

in this portion of the state, filing upon a quarter-sec- 
tion now within the city limits of the city of Bis- 
marck. H. P. Bogue located on a claim in Bur- 
leigh county about the same time. 

In Alay, 1872, a party consisting of George W. 
Sweet, attorney for the Lake Superior & Puget 
Sound Land Company,, Thomas H. Canfield, one of 
the directors of the Northern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, General Rosser, chief engineer of that road, 
William Woods, John J. Jackman and E. H. Bly 
made a trip from Fargo to the bank of the Missouri 
river for the purpose of deciding upon the site of a 
town upon the shores of that stream. To this it 
was intended to give the name of Edwinton. Air. 
Jackman kept close watch and foreseeing the point 
that would be chosen for the railroad to cross the 
"Big Muddy," in company with Col. John H. Rich- 
ards, Major Wilham Woods, George Sandborn and 
others filed upon the land adjacent to the river. 
By thus doing they forced the land company back ■ 
upon sections 3, 4 and 33, upon which the city was 
originally laid out. Air. Jackman was a native of 
Alassachusetts who had located at St. Paul the pre- 
vious year. He was one of the pioneer farmers of 
Burleigh county and raised the first wheat and oats 
in that sub-division of the state of North Dakota. 

In 1872 it became obvious to the management 
of the land company that foreign capital must be 
induced to take hold of the enterprise. As a com- 
plimentary overture to Germany, the name of this 
new town site was changed to Bismarck, in honor of 
Prince Otto Von Bismarck, the German chancellor 
A map of the road was sent to Germany, and the 
Prince responded to the high honor paid him, in an 
autograph letter which is now among the choicest 
treasures of the company in its archives at New 

The original settlement of the town was a com- 
plication of conflicts, from the day Col. Sweet and 
his party arrived to found the town of Edwinton, 
until Edmund Hackett was declared mayor of Bis- 
marck, five years later. Disappointed in his origi- 
nal intention, which was to locate the town on the 
river bank. Col. Sweet fell back a mile and secured 
sections 4 and 33. Then the struggle was renewed. 
Claims. were filed by the party, headed by Col. 
Sweet, and counter-claims by the party represented 
by J. J. Jackman. Outside parties, deeming their 
rights equal to any yet presented, also settled, and 
when the time came for proving up, contests were 
so plenty and the contestants' claims so evenly bal- 
anced that a compromise was cfifected upon this 


basis : The town was laid out by J. E. Turner, an 
engineer in charge of the townsite work of the 
Northern Pacific Railway Company, and the terri- 
torial legislature then gave a deed in trust to Ed- 
mund Hackett, whom it appointed mayor of the 
newly chartered city of Bismarck. Under this trust 
deed Mr. Hackett was to apportion the lots among 
the original settlers in the following amounts: Ed- 
mund Hackett, $800 in money and two blocks of 
lots ; J. W. Proctor, two blocks of lots, and each cit- 
izen who had made any improvement on his lot, the 
lot occupied by him, upon payment of a nominal val- 
uation of from $10 to $15. This compromise was 
fully effected and title given to the land until 1877. 

The upbuilding of a western city, almost with- 
out exception, commences with a canvas tent, which 
is occupied as a saloon. In this Bismarck started 
on one higher step — her first building was a tent, 
but it was occupied as a store. 

In May, 1872, W. B. Shaw, of the firm of Shaw 
& Cathcart, arrived in Bismarck and opened a gen- 
eral merchandise store in a tent between Third and 
Fourth streets. They were, however, followed in 
a day or two by a saloon, which was built by James 
A. Emmons. Shortly afterward, R. R. Marsh built 
the Capital hotel. This was quite a pretentious 
building for that day and age, it being one hundred 
and fortv feet long bv twentv-two wide, and two 

stories in height. Following these, buildings and 
tents were rapidly erected, until the little frontier 
settlement presented a busy aspect. In its early 
day Bismarck's reputation for morality was below 
par. Its close proximity to the land of the roving, 
free-hearted, dare-devil cow-boy made it a popular 
resort for that class of western citizens, and the 
usual reign of lawlessness prevailed. Gambling 
and dissipation led to quarrels that were often set- 
tled by the bullet. All this in time passed away and 
the infant city grew, and as it increased in age and 
size the roughest element went on w^estward and 
peace and order became the rule. Thus Bismarck 
took her place in the ranks of the orderly cities of 
the stgte, and to-day is one of the best in the young 

But whygo on: after the revival ofbtisiness that 
sufl'ered in that direful crisis of the year 1873, the 
tide of emigration poured into North Dakota and 
the country fast filled up. New settlements were 
formed, new communities founded and new farms 
and ranches opened. The population of the north- 
ern part of Dakota rapidly increased, and at the time 
of the division of the territory and the admission of 
North Dakota into the ranks of the glorious sister- 
hood of states that make up our noble country it 
had a population of over 175,000. 


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The terrible uprising of the Dacotah Indians in 
the summer of 1862, and consequent death of seven 
or eight hundred defenseless settlers of Minnesota 
and the Dakotas, furnishes one of the dark spots in 
our later day history. Reaching from the Iowa line 
north to the international boundary line, and 
from the central part of Minnesota west as far as 
the white settlers could be found, massacre and de- 
vastation spread. All in the northwest, north of 
the state of Iowa, were involved. This extended 
area had a population at that time exceeding fifty 
thousand, all engaged in laying the foundations of 
their fortunes and the growth, development and 
prosperity of their states. The causes which led 
to this outbreak were complicated, and considerable 
difference of opinion exists to-day as to what was 
the real reason of the apparently unprovoked 
onslaught upon a defenseless people. 

To go back to the first cause, it may be said 
that by the treaty of Traverse des Sioux, July 23, 
185 1, between the United States and the Sissiton- 
wans or Sissitons and the Wahpetonwans, S275,- 
000 were to be paid their chiefs and the further 
sum of $30,000 was to be expended for the tribes' 
benefit in Indian improvements. By the treaty of 
Mendota, dated August 5, of the same year, the 

Al'dewakantonwan and the W'ahpekutewan Sioux 
were to receive the sum of $200,000, to be paid to 
their chiefs and for an improvement fund of $30,- 
000. These several sums, amounting in all to 
$555,000, these Indians claimed was never paid 
except in some trifling sums expended in improve- 
ments on the reservation. Thievery w?.s then rife 
among the Indian agents and political employes of 
the Indian bureau, and no doubt there was much 
that was true in these claims of the savages. The 
Indians grew more and more dissatisfied and freely 
expressed themselves in council and to the agents. 
In 1867 the Indian department at Washington sent 
out Major Kintzing Prichette, a man of large ex- 
perience and unsullied integrity, to investigate the 
cause of the ill feeling. In his report, made to the 
department the same year, the Major says: "The 
complaint that runs through all their councils points 
to the imperfect performance or non-fulfillment of 
treaty stipulations. Whether these are well or ill 
founded it is not my premise to discuss. That such 
a belief prevails among them, impairing their con- 
fidence and good faith in the government, cannot 
be questioned." 

In one of these councils, Jagmani, a chief, said: 
"The Indians sold their lands at Traverse des 


Sioux. I say what we are told. For fifty years 
they were to be paid $50,000 each year. We were, 
also, promised $30,000, and that we have not seen." 
Another chief said that the treaty of Traverse 
des Sioux $275,000 were to be paid to them when 
they came upon their reservation ; they desired to 
know what had become of it. Every white man 
knows that they have been five years upon their 
reservation, and yet we have heard nothing of it." 

As the fact of this dissatisfaction existed so 
plainly, the government was forced to appoint 
Judge Young to investigate the charges that had 
been brought against Alexander Ramsey, then gov- 
ernor of the territory of Minnesota, who was then 
acting, ex-officio, as superintendent of Indian 
affairs for that locality. 

In making a report u}X3n the matter, later, Judge 
Young makes the following statement: 

"The governor is next charged with having 
paid over the greater part of the money, appro- 
priated under the fourth article of the treaty of 
July 2T, and August 5. 185 1, to one Hugh Tyler, 
for payment or distribution to the traders and half- 
breeds, contrary to the wishes and remonstrances 
of the*[ndians, and in violation of law and the stipu- 
lations contained in the treaties ; and also in viola- 
tion of his own solemn pledges, personally made 
to them in regard to said payments. 

"Of $275,000 stipulated to be paid under the 
first clause of the fourth article of the treaty of 
Traverse des Sioux, of July 24, 185 1, the sum of 
$250,000 was delivered over to Hugh Tyler, by the 
governor, for distribution among the traders and 
half-breeds, according to the arrangement made by 
the schedule of the Traders' Paper, dated at 
Traverse des Sioux, July 23, 185 1." 

-\Iorc to the same effect was reported, but the 
concluding words of the report are significant: 

"This (the payment to traders and others not 
the Indians) has been shown to have been coii- 
trary to the wishes and remonstrances of a large 
majority of the Indians. It is, also, in violation 
of the treaty stipulations and the law making the 
appropriation under them." 

These several sums of money were to be paid 
to these Indians in open council, and soon after 
they were on their reservation provided for them 
by the treaties. In these matters the report shows 
they were not consulted at all, in open council ; but 
on the contrary, that arbitrary divisions and dis- 
tributions were made of the entire fund, and their 
right denied to direct the manner in which they 

should be appropriated. The money had evidently 
disappeared between the government treasury and 
the Indians. It was also stated in the report that 
this Hugh Tyler had deducted the large sum of 
$55,000 as brokerage, and those of the traders and 
half-breeds who objected were told that they could 
take what was oft'ered them or they would get 
nothing. The senate of the United States examined 
these charges, but, for political reasons, the charges 
were not sustained. Naturally the Indians were not 
satisfied with their treatment Ijy the accredited 
agents of the government, and this rankled in their 

Another cause for irritation among these In- 
dians grew out of the massacre of 1857 at Spirit 
Lake, Iowa. Inkpaduta, Scarlet Point, was an out- 
law of the Wapakuta, wiio had been driven from 
his tribe for the murder of one of their number, 
and led a roving life around the headwaters of the 
Des Aloines river. He had gradually gathered 
around him a little band as bad as himself, and 
they were in trouble nearly all the time, either with 
red or white men. At that time there was a small 
settlement at Okiboji, or Spirit Lake, Iowa, and 
in that vicinity did these desperadoes hang out all' 
the winter of 1856-7. Inkpaduta was connected 
with several bands of Ammuty Sioux and similar 
relations with other bands existed among his fol- 
lowers, these ties extending even to the Ihank- 
wannas or Yanktonnais, west of the James, and 
even to the Missouri river. The settlers became 
tired of the depredations of the band and finally, 
finding themselves strong enough, took their arms 
away from the Indians. Getting other guns, they 
returned to the settlement at Spirit Lake and mas- 
sacred nearly all the people thereabouts, number- 
ing about forty, and carried oft" as captive four 
women, two of whom they afterward killed and the 
other two were rescued after a time through the 
aid of friendly Indians. The government required 
that the Sioux deliver up to them for punishment 
these outlaws, and, to enforce the demands, with- 
held the annuity. Considerable opposition was 
manifested, and bad blood over this, so in a sullen 
fit Little Crow pursued Inkpaduta and his follow- 
ers with a number of Indians, and in an engage- 
ment killed three of the band, wounded another 
and took prisoners two women and a child. They 
then returned home, saying that they had done 
enough. The government, although otherwise 
advised, condoned the matter and paid the annuity 
due, without insisting upon the surrender of the 


whole band. Thus Inkpaduta escaped the pun- 
ishment which he richly deserved. 

The action of the government in resuming the 
payment of>the annuity after having said they would 
not until the band of outlaws were delivered up, 
was construed by the Indians as cowardice, or weak- 
ness. The result was that the Indians grew more 
insolent and unmanageable than ever. Their lead- 
ers here found the capital out of which they could 
manufacture the tales at council fires and stir up 
the bad impulses of naturally savage instincts. 
Little Crow, a prominent chief, was a deeper 
thinker than his tribesmen. In fact, as one writer 
phrases it, "He was the Xapoleon of his people. 
For deep cunning and unusual foresight, he takes 
a front rank among the noted Indian leaders of 
this country. With the patience of his race, he 
now laid a deep scheme for the extermmation of 
the entire white race west of the JNIississippi." 

Major Galbraith, Sioux agent at the time, says, 
after enumerating various causes that helped to 
swell the enmity in the bosom of the savages, "that 
they (the Indians) knew that the government was 
at war, and seeing the illustrated papers at all the 
•posts and trading places, could see that the tide of 
battle was setting against the 'Great Father.' '' 

The Major further adds: 

"Grievances such as have been related, and 
numberless others akin to them, were spoken of, 
recited and chanted at their councils, dances and 
feasts, to such an extent that, in their excitement, 
in June, 1862, a secret organization known as the 
'Soldiers' Lodge," was founded by the young braves 
of the Lower Sioux, with the object, as far as I 
was able to learn through spies and informers, of 
preventing the traders from going to the pay-tablfe, 
as had been their custom. Since the outbreak I 
have become satisfied that the real object of this 
lodge was to adopt measures to clean out all the 
white people at the end of the payment." 

In this Soldiers' Lodge, then at the Yellow 
Medicine agency, near Mankato, Minnesota, in the 
brain of a savage, was concocted a scheme for the 
utter extermination of the intruding race, that for 
diplomacy, forecast and judgment were worthy of 
a Xapoleon or Toussaint L'Ovcrture. He felt that 
only acting as a whole could the Indians accom- 
plish all they wished, and holding back his own 
particular followers, without allowing their zeal to 
cool. Little Crow made overtures to the surround- 
ing bands of Sioux even "as far north as Leech 
lake, and it is believed made efforts to enlist in his 

scheme the hereditary enemies of the Sioux, the 
Chippewas." "Let us wait," he said, "until the 
white men have gathered in all their crops and 
have laid in their winter stores, then we will kill 
them all and have their property." Since the con- 
federacy, presided over by Tecumseh and the 
Prophet, never has there been so well laid a plot 
against the white people. And all the time the 
settlers, with their eyes closed to the danger, never 
dreamed of the devilish scheme of this red skin gen- 
eral and diplomat. The plot was for a simultane- 
ous rising of the Indians upon a' given signal, 
and was to result in a total wiping out of the set- 
tlers, and, but for the impatience and hasty action 
of a few irresponsible braves, the loss of life would 
have been thousands instead of hundreds. 

Une lovely Sunday, August 17, 1862, four In- 
dians from the Yellow Medicine agency, who had 
been on the trail of a Chippewa, the nun-derer of 
one of their tribe, after an unsuccessful pursuit, 
reached, on their retm"n, the cabin of a man by the 
name of Robinson Jones, in the Big Woods of Min- 
nesota, in what is now the town of Acton, ]^Ieeker 
county. This man was a sort of trader in a small 
way, and is supposed to have carried on an illicit 
trade in liquors with the Indians. His family 
consisted of himself, wife, an adopted child and a 
young girl. The Indians sauntered up to the 
cabin and, after some palaver, demanded drink, 
which they obtained. They demanded more, which 
they, it is supposed, were, for some reason, refused, 
and finally went away into the leafy shades of the 
forest that surrounded the place. Jones and his 
wife shortly after left for the house of Mrs. Jones' 
son by a former marriage, Howard Baker, who 
lived about half a mile distant. At Baker's cabin 
they found one Viranus Webster and his wife. 
These young people were journeying further west 
in search of a home, and had stopped to rest. 
Claiming hospitality of the young Mr. Baker, it 
was accorded with free will, and the two families 
fraternized in the true spirit of the western pio- 
neer. Shortly after Jones and his wife arrived 
there, the men folks, who were sitting around out- 
side the house, saw three Indians, gun in hand, 
approach. On their coming up to the little group 
of white men the usual salutations took place. 
After a little time the proposition was made that 
they all shoot at a mark, and the gims of the party 
were brought out. The victory in this case, as is 
nearly always the case when marksmanship be- 
tween whites and redskins is a question, was with 



the settlers. This seemed to nettle the Indians. 
Propositions to trade guns between a red and white 
man now ensued. In the meantime the Indians 
loaded their guns while the white men stood around 
with empty weapons. Suddenly, without warning, 
one of the Indians raised his gun and fired at Jones, 
mortally wounding him. Webster was killed by 
another. Mrs. Howard Baker, hearing the firing, 
came to the door with her infant in her arms, and 
upon her appearance one of the savages raised his 
gun to shoot her, but her husband, with the chivalry 
of a knight of old, threw himself in front of the 
rifle, and, receiving the discharge, fell dead. The 
women retreated into the house. The young wife, 
inadvertently, stepped into an opening and fell into 
the cellar and thus saved her life. j\lrs. Jones was 
also shot by one of the red fiends. These latter 
soon left the vicinity to spread the news, stopping 
on their way at the Jones cabin and killing the girl 
left there. They shortly after stole a team of 
horses and wagon and made their way south. 

Whtn the news reached the red skins at the 
agency, which it did long before the whites had an 
inkling of it, it created a sensation. The gauntlet 
had been thrown, war had been declared, and they 
must go forward or give up their plans. The Sol- 
diers' Lodge was at once convened. The war spirit 
of the younger members was for an immediate 
rising. In vain Little Crow and his friends, the 
elders of the tribes, plead for delay, urging the 
want of time to perfect their plans, and to send the 
token of war to the other tribes. No, war and at 
once was the wish of the majority, and war it was. 
At early dawn the meeting broke up and the mas- 
sacre of the whites began. At the agency blood 
was shed and all the red fiends started off on the 
warpath to slay the whites. 

The story of the massacre has been written time 
and time again and by abler hands, and need not 
be here retold, except as to its connection with the 
annals of what is now the promising state of North 
Dakota. Fortunately, the tide of emigration had 
not reached this part of the country to any great 
extent, and hence the loss of life among the set- 
tlers was not very great. 

Fort Abercrombie, which was the protector of 
the valley of the Red river of the North, was first 
built in 1858, but after being held but a short time 
was abandoned and the property sold. In July, 
i860, the necessity for a post in that vicinity hav- 
ing grown greater, ^Major Day came to that point 
with a detachment of troops and rebuilt the fort. 

This was situated upon the west bank of the Red 
river, in what is now Richland county, about fif- 
teen miles north of the present site of the city of 
Wahpeton. For a year Major Day with two com- 
panies of regulars occupied the post. In July, 1861, 
he, with his command, was ordered to Washing- 
ton, D. C, and was succeeded by a Captain Mark- 
ham with two companies of regular troops. These 
were withdrawn by the exigencies of the Civil war, 
then raging, and were succeeded by Captain Inman 
with some companies of the Fourth Minnesota \"ol- 
unteer Infantry. On these troops leaving for the 
front during the wa^ with the South, they were 
succeeded by Captain John Van der Horck, with 
one or two companies of the Fifth Alinnesota Vol- 
unteer Infantry. These were at the post when the 
massacre broke out. The fort was kept up until 
1877, when it was abandoned, and the following 
year the buildings were sold and scattered among 
the early settlers of that region, who built houses 
and barns of the material. The various officers 
who filled the position of post commander at this 
fort from the time of its first upbuilding until its 
final abandonment by the government were the fol- 
lowing named : 

General Abercrombie, Major Day, Captain 
Markham, Captain Inman, Captain \'an der Ilorck, 
Captain Burger, Captain Pettier, Major Camp, 
Captain Chamberlain, General C. P. Adams, Cap- 
tain Whitcomb, i\Iajor Hall and General Slidell. 

On the 23d of August, 1862, the Indians com- 
menced hostilities in the valley of the Red river of 
the North. But part of the little garrison was at 
at the fort at the time, a part of the command being 
stationed at Georgetown, ^Minnesota, antl the east 
bank of the river, fifty miles north. They had been 
sent there for the purpose of overawing the Indians 
in that vicinity, who had threatened some ob- 
struction of the navigation of the stream and to 
destroy the property of the Transportation Com- 
pany. The interpreter at the post, who had gone 
to the Lower agency at the time of the payment of 
the Indians, returned on the 20th of August and 
reported to his commanding officer that the 
exasperation of the Indians was increasing and that 
he expected hostilities to be commenced in the near 
future. Action was at once taken to guard against 
a surprise; guards were doubled and every effort 
made to put the little post in proper shape for de- 
fense. About this time officers of the government 
were on their way with a train of some thirty 
wagons, loaded with goods and attended by about 


two hundred head of cattle, toward the lodge of the 
Red Lake Chippewas, to conclude a treaty with 
these tribes. They had arrived, about this time, in 
the neighborhood of the fort. 

On the morning of the 23d of August word was 
brought to the commander of the post that a band 
of five hundred Sioux had crossed the Otter tail 
river with the intention of cutting off and captur- 
ing the train and cattle. Word was sent at once 
to the train to come into the fort, which they quickly 
did. Messengers were also sent to Breckenridge, 
Old Crossing, Graham's Point and all the principal 
settlements telling the people to flee to the fort, 
as the garrison was too small to do much else than 
defend that post and could not afford protection 
to the scattered villages or settlers in the vicinity. 
The great majority of the settlers paid heed to the 
warning and the same evening the most of them 
had arrived at the fort and had been assigned such 
quarters as could be furnished them. Most, if not 
all. of these, dwelt upon the east side of the river, 
in Minnesota, as but few settlers had then located 
on the west side, south of Pembina, as is shown 

Several men, among them being a Air. Russell, 
however, preferred to stay at Breckenridge, and 
took possession of a large hotel building and 
therein undertook to defend themselves and their 
property, but foolishly threw away their lives in 
the attempt. 

On the evening of the same day a scouting party 
of six men moved over in the dnx-ction of Brecken- 
ridge from the fort and found that the place was 
in the hands of a large body of Indians. The little 
party were seen and pursued, but being mounted, 
while the Indians were afoot, they escaped. 

The detachment that had been stationed at 
Georgetown was ordered to rejoin at once. On 
the 24th a reconnoissance was made toward Breck- 
enridge by a detachment, and the place was found 
deserted by the Indians. The bodies of the three 
men who had undertaken its defense were dis- 
covered, horribly mutilated. When found chains 
were bound upon their ankles by which they had 
been dragged around until life had Hed. An old 
settler in the neighborhood, Nick Huffman, who 
was in the fort at the time, in speaking of this ex- 
pedition, says : 

"W hile the boys were engaged in burying the 
remains they thought they could see an Indian in 
the sawmill, so Rounseval, a half-breed, went to see 
if that was the case. The mill was half a mile 

away. He found an old lady by the name of Scott 
who had been living with her son. Her son was 
killed and her grandson taken prisoner. She had 
a bullet wound in her breast and had crawled on 
her hands and knees sixteen miles to the mill. 
She also told the boys where they would find the 
body of Joe Snell, a stage driver, three miles out 
from Breckenridge. The buried the body of Snell 
and took the old lady to the fort. On the way in 
the Indians attacked them and killed the teamster, 
named Bennett, and came very near taking Cap- 
tain Mull's wagon containing the old lady. But 
Rounseval made a charge and brought back the 
team, the old lady and the body of Bennett. They 
buried Scott the next day." 

The mail taken in the stage coach, spoken of 
above, was taken from the sacks and scattered 
about the prairies, but much of it was gathered up 
by the detachment, which was under the command 
of Judge McCauley. 

Over fifty men capable of bearing arms had 
taken refuge with the garrison and willingly 
played the part of soldiers. Unfortunately, many 
of them were destitute of arms, and the post com- 
mander had none to spare, so the men helped 
strengthen the position by building outside in- 
trenchments. Says an eye witness : "The fort was 
hard to fortify. There was a stockade along the 
river. The headquarters and barracks for one 
company were on the prairie. We fortified the 
company quarters, using the barrels of pork and 
corned beef and flour in part for this purpose, with 
cordwood and earth. The women and children 
and the sick, and the picket guards, also, had 
special provision made for them." 

"About this time some thousand or fifteen hun- 
dred infuriated savages had gathered around the 
fort, fully determined to capture the place and carry 
off the stores. On the 25th of August a messenger 
was dispatched to headquarters stating the circum- 
stances under which the post found itself and the 
danger of a severe attack. Owing to the stress of 
war at the south, most of the young, vigorous and 
able-bodied men of Minnesota and Iowa were away 
at the front. It was impossible to relieve the fort 
for some time, although steps looking to that event 
were at once placed in train. The garrison watched 
closely for the cunning advances of the Sioux and 
by sleepless vigil balked their wily foes." On the 
27th of the month a party went out from the fort 
and buried several more bodies of murdered set- 
tlers. On Saturday, August 30, a small party set 


out with the intention of proceeding to Old Cross- 
ing to reconnoiter and to collect and drive to the 
fort such live stock- as they could find. After pro- 
ceeding about ten miles they came upon a party of 
Sioux in ambush, who fired upon them. One of 
the party was killed, but the rest escaped to the 
post with the loss of their wagon, five mules and 
camp equippage. 

At two o'clock the same afternoon Indians in 
large numbers displayed themselves to the sight 
of those within the beleagured fort. At that 
time most of the stock belonging to the post, 
as well as that belonging to the settlers who 
had taken refuge therein, together with the 
cattle intended for the Chippewas, with whom 
the government was about to make a treaty, were 
all grazing upon the prairie in the rear of the fort 
over a range extending from one-half a mile to 
three miles from it. iMuch to the mortification of 
both the soldiers and the citizens, the Indians boldly 
advanced and drove off the larger part of the stock, 
the little garrison not being strong enough to move 
out and drive the savages off and at the same time 
defend the fort. The Indians got about two hun- 
dred head of cattle and a hundred horses and mules. 
They made no demonstration toward the garrison, 
e-xcept by this bold defiance. On the second of Sep- 
tember another party went out from the fort, in 
the direction of Breckenridge, but returned in the 
afternoon, having seen no Indians, but picking up 
about fifty head of the cattle driven oft' by the In- 
dians, which they had found wandering about on 
the prairie. 

At daybreak on the following morning, Sep- 
tember 2T), the garrison was suddenly called to 
arms by the report of alarm shots fired by the sen- 
tinels in the vicinity of the stock yards belonging 
to the post. The firing soon became sharp and 
rapid in that direction, developing the fact that the 
enemy were advancing upon that point in consid- 
erable force. Commands were issued for all those 
stationed outside to fall back within the fortifica- 
tions. About the same time a couple of the hay- 
stacks were discovered to be on fire. The settlers, 
emboldened by the sight and inflamed by the 
thoughts of seeing their remaining cattle carried 
off or destroyed before their eyes, rushed, with 
great hardihood and ardor for the stables, and as 
the first two entered on one side two Sioux entered 
from the other. The foremost of the white men 
killed one of the Indians and captured his gun. 
The second white man was shot in the shoulder by 

his red antagonist, but notwithstanding that shot 
the Sioux and finished him with his bayonet. Two 
horses had been taken from the stable and two 
killed. The conflict was kept up for three hours, 
during which three of the little garrison were 
wounded, one mortally, by shots from the enemy. 
The post commander was severely wounded in the 
right arm by an accidental shot from one of his 
own men. After a brisk skirmish the Indians were 
forced to retire, without having been able to effect 
an entrance into the fort or to carry oft' the stock, 
which seemed to be the main object of the attack. 
Active measures were taken to strengthen the out- 
works of the fort. The principal materials at hand 
were cordwood and hewn timber, of which there 
was a great store, and Napoleon once said, "with 
wood in plenty and earth men can intrench and 
fortify themselves well, anywhere." A breast 
work was built around the barracks. This was 
constructed with cordwood, well filled in with earth, 
and raised to a height of eight feet. This was cap- 
ped by hewn timbers, eight inches square, with 
loop holes between them from which a fire could 
be opened on the approachmg foe. This was 
designed as a keep or means of a final rallying 
place and harbor of protection in case the outer 
works were forced or the main fort destroyed by 

A second attack was made on Saturday, Sep- 
tember 6. About dawn, the Indians' favorite time 
for an onslaught, about fifty Indians, mounted on 
horseback, appeared on the open prairie, in the rear 
of the fort. It was evidently their intention, by 
boldl)' defying the garrison in this manner, with a 
small force, to tempt the troops to leave the forti- 
fication and march out to punish them for their 
temerity. By thus doing it would be giving the 
redskins the chance to take them at a disadvantage. 
Foiled in this plan, for there were shrewd and e.x- 
perienced heads within the fort who were a match 
for the Indian craft outside, the Siou): threw oft' 
all disguise and, displaying themselves in large 
numbers in different directions, entered upon a con- 
flict. Their principal object of attack in this, as in 
former instances, was the stables of the govern- 
ment. They seemed to be possessed with the idea 
of getting hold of the remaining horses and cattle 
at almost any sacrifice. 

The stables were upon the edge of the prairie, 
with a grove of heavy timber lying between them 
and the river. The Siou.x were quick to grasp the 
advantage of making their approach from the lat- 


ter direction. The shores of the river on both' sidse 
were hned with Indians for a considerable distance, 
as their war-whoops, when their preparations for 
the attack were concluded, soon gave evidence. 
They were determined, if possible, to frighten the 
garrison into cowardly inactivity, or to drive them 
from their outposts by their unearthly whoops and 
yells, which they indulged in to a large extent. 
They, in return, however, were saluted, surprised 
and partially quieted by the opening upon them of 
a six-pounder and the sharp explosion of a shell in 
their midst. A large force was now led by one of 
their principal chiefs from the river through the 
timber until they were as close to the stables as 
they could go without quitting the shelter and pro- 
tection of the big trees. In vain their chief tried 
to get them to make a rush, but the Indian nature 
recoiled from exposing themselves in the inter- 
vening opening space. Again and again their 
leader tried to induce them to charge for the tempt- 
ing stables. Once a part of the band advanced to 
storm the place, but were met with a withering vol- 
ley. This seemed to take all desire to advance in 
that direction out of them and they rapidly fled back 
to the timber, each seeking a big tree to protect 
himself from the searching fire. 

An anecdote is told in this connection that prob- 
ably should be retold here, as showing the manner 
in which the fight was continued. Walter P. Hills, 
a citizen, who had distinguished himself several 
times by riding through the Indian lines with dis- 
patches either to the headquarters or from the lat- 
ter to the fort, was the hero. It seems that he had 
but just returned to the post with dispatches the 
evening before. He took part in the engagement 
and killed an Indian in the early portion of the 
fight. Taking up a position at one of the loopholes 
of the fort, he soon found a particular antagonist 
in a brawny Sioux, who had posted himself behind 
a convenient tree. Mr. Hills, being somewhat 
acquainted with the language of his opponent, 
saluted him, and they conversed back and forth, 
each taking a shot at the other whenever the chance 
came. For over an hour they kept this up. The 
Indian, in changing his position so as to fire from 
the other side of the tree, hastily exposed his per- 
son. It was but a fleeting moment, but a party in 
the upper bastion observed it and the sharp crack 
of a rifle was heard from that direction. The Indian 
started backward and two other shots rang out, and 
the polite antagonist of Mr. Hills lay stretched out 
upon the earth, dead. That gentleman, it is added, 

felt much dissatisfaction and annoyance that any 
but his hand had sped the bullet that had found his 
enemy's life. 

Several of the enemy were shot as they skulked 
through the timber, from tree to tree. The artil- 
lery, most dreaded by the Indian, did effective 
service. A body of horsemen gathered on a knoll 
on the prairie, about half a mile away, and it was 
suspected that they had collected in order to make 
a charge. A small gun was brought to bear upon 
the group. A shell hissed and shrieked through the 
air, plumped itself down in the middle of the horse- 
men and the explosion was followed by the imme- 
diate disappearance of the whole troop. 

The desultory combat lasted until nearly noon, 
when the savage foe sullenly withdrew, carrying off 
nearly all his dead and wounded. Their loss was 
never ascertained, but from various sources it is 
believed to have been quite heavy. Our loss was 
one man killed, two wounded. Mr. Hills left the 
fort the same evening with despatches for head- 
quarters at St. Paul, where he arrived Septem- 
ber 8. 

About this time, at St. Paul, efforts were being 
instituted for the relief of the fort. Captain Emil 
Buerger was appointed by special order from head- 
quarters to organize and take command of an ex- 
pedition with that end in view. This brave and 
gallant officer, a native of Prussia, had served in 
the army of his native land for a period of some 
ten years. On coming to Minnesota he became a 
naturalized citizen. He enlisted in the Second 
Company of Minnesota Sharpshooters, and was 
wounded and taken prisoner at the hard-fought 
field of Fair Oaks, Virginia, in the spring of 1862. 
Being paroled, he was sent to Benton barracks, 
Missouri, and was there at the time the ill-fated 
Minnesota Third Volunteer Infantry was ordered 
home. That body of men being entirely without 
officers. Captain Buerger was appointed to take 
charge of it from St. Louis to St. Paul. His known 
experience aiid bravery pointing him out as the fit 
commander, he was selected to lead the expedition 
then fitting out for the relief of l-'ort Aber- 

On the gth of September he was informed by 
the commandant at Fort Snelling that the com- 
panies commanded by Captains George Atkinson 
and Rolla Banks, together with some sixty men 
from the Third Volunteer Infantry, under Sergeant 
Dcarborne, were to constitute his command. This 
made up an aggregate force of about two hundred 


and fifty men. The next day arms and equipments 
were served out, and before noon, September ii, 
Captain Atkinson's company and the company 
formed from the members of the Third regiment, 
were ready for the march. With these Captain 
JJuerger set out, leaving Captain Uanks' company 
to follow as soon as they had received their cloth- 
ing and equipments. The latter joined the main 
coulumn the next day. It was deemed expedient 
to send with this force the only remaining field 
piece belonging to the state, and Lieutenant R. J. 
JNlcHenry was appointed to the command of the 
battery and succeeded in reaching Captain Buer- 
ger's force September 13, near Clearwater. jNIuddy 
roads, rain, lack of transportation and other causes 
delayed the column. The fitting out of so many 
other expeditions and detachments at the same time 
had drawn so heavily upon a sparsely settled coun- 
try that scarcely a horse or wagon could be had 
either by contract or by impressment. In the 
meantime two companies of soldiers, under Cap- 
tains George W. McCoy and Theodore H. Barrett, 
were also marching to the relief of Fort Aber- 
crombie. They had gone to various points in the 
state of Minnesota that were threatened by the In- 
dians, and rendered excellent service. The time 
had now come for them to resume their march for 
• the point of their original destination. During the 
night of September 15, while in camp near Lake 
Amelia, on the old Red river trail, they were over- 
taken by a courier with orders to join Captain 
Buerger's column and place themselves under his 
command. On the 19th they accordingly made the 
junction with the other column. By this accession 
the force at the disposal of the commander was in- 
creased to over four hundred men. The line of 
march was now taken, and after an uneventful jour- 
ney of several days the column reached Old Crossing, 
on the Otter Trail river, between Dayton and 
Breckenridge, about fifteen miles from the latter 
place. This was on the 23rd of September. The 
next morning the march was resumed, and all were 
in expectation. Nothing occurred until the expe- 
dition had reached a point about a mile from the 
Red river, and almost within sight of Fort Aber- 
erombie. A dense smoke was observed in the 
direction of the fort. The impression was that 
they had arrived too late, ami that the fort had 
fallen beneath the attacks of the redskins, and that 
it was being reduced by tire, the Indians' favorite 
weapon in war. All hastened to an eminence, 
when the sight of Old Glory still waving above the 

still standing battlements of the post cheered their 
hearts and brightened their eyes. The Indians, 
who were well posted upon the march of the expe- 
dition, had set fire to the prairie between the com- 
mand and the post, with the design of cutting oft 
the crossing of the river by the relieving column. 
On the resumption of the march, as they still 
approached nearer the river, a band of some thir- 
teen savages appeared upon the opposite shore, 
who discharged their rifles at the marching troops, 
at a distance of fifteen hundred yards, without 
effect, and hastily and in great fear fled into the 
bushes. A detachment, consisting of twenty 
mounted men of Captain Freeman's company and 
twenty skirmishers from the Third Regiment com- 
pany, all under the command of Lieutenant Tay- 
lor, was directed to cross the river as quickly as 
possible. Fired by the sights they had seen in their 
arduous march and service, the soldiers entered 
upon this duty with an alacrity that boded ill for 
any Sioux they encountered. They crossed the river 
and followed in the direction taken by the Indians 
they had seen. Captain Buerger took the balance 
of the Third Regiment and the field piece to a 
point above where he thought the Indians would 
cross in their retreat. Finding, however, that the 
Sioux were retreating, under cover of the woods, 
across the prairie, in the direction of the Wild Rice 
river, he ordered the whole force to cross the Red 
river. This was effected in less than an hour, the 
men not waiting to be carried over in wagons, but, 
with the true spirit of the American soldier, 
plunged into the river, there breast deep, and waded 
across. By this time the Indians had retreated 
some three miles, and had reached the heavy tim- 
ber which skirted the prairie. Pursuit w'as consid- 
ered useless, and the line of march was resumed for 
the fort. About four o'clock in the afternoon of 
that September day they reached the post to the 
great joy of the garrison and the citizens therein 
beleaguered. They w'ere received with cheers and 
every demonstration of delight and enthusiasm. 
When the moving column of troops had been first 
descried from the ramparts of the fort they had 
been taken for Indian reinforcements advancing to 
the attack, and all was excitement. The reaction 
when it was discovered that it was the long-ex- 
pected, long-delayed relief column, was the greater 
for their few minutes of alarm. Charles S. Bryant, 
in his history of the Minnesota Massacre, gives the 
description of the scene of these last moments of 
the siege in the words of an eye-witness, a lady 



who had been cooped up in the fort for those per- 
ilous weeks, waiting for coming of rehef. The 
account says: 

"About five o'clock the report came to quarters 
that the Indians were again coming from up toward 
Bridge's. With a telescope we soon discovered four 
white men, our messengers riding at full speed, who 
upon reaching here informed us that in one-half hour 
we would be reinforced by three hundred and fifty 
men. Language can never express the delight of 
all. Some wept, some laughed, others hollooed and 
cheered. The soldiers and citizens here formed in 
line and went out to meet them. We all cheered so 
that the next day more than half of us could hardly 
speak aloud. The ladies all went out, and as the 
soldiers passed cheered them. They were so dusty 
I did not know one of them.'' 

That same morning, but at an early hour, a mes- 
senger was despatched again with a more urgent 
call for help. 1 he gates of the fort opened and the 
messenger, Walter Hills, mounted upon a fleet horse 
and escorted by some thirty-two volunteers, partly 
soldiers, partly citizens, emerged. The Indians were 
in ambush all around, and, every moment the little 
band expected to hear the deadly crack of the rifle 
and see the fall of some comrade or receive himself, 
the fatal missile. For some unaccountable reason, 
however, the savages withheld their fire and the 
party rode on and crossed the river, and the messen- 
ger was soon riding eastward for succor. The es- 
cort turned toward the fort, but about a mile from 
the post fell into an ambush of the Indians and lost 
two of their number. One of these was a settler 
named Edward Wright, and a soldier by the name 
of Shulty. The rest fled for the fort and by ex- 
traordinary exertion escaped and reached the gar- 

The next morning about two-thirds of the 
mounted company under command of Captain Free- 
man, escorted by a strong force of infantry, went out 
to search for the bodies of those slain the day before. 
After scouring the woods for a considerable dis- 
tance the bodies were found upon the prairie about 
eighty rods apart, mangled and mutilated to such a 
degree as to be almost deprived of human shape. 
The body of Mr. Wright had been ripped open from 
the center of the abdomen to the throat. The heart 
and liver were entirely removed, while the lungs 
were torn out and left upon the outside of the chest. 
The head was cut off, scalped, and thrust within 
the cavity of the abdomen with the face toward the 
feet. The hands were cut off and laid side by side 

with the palms downward a short distance from the 
body. The body of Shulty had been pierced by two 
balls, one of which must have occasioned instant 
death. When found, it was lying upon the face, 
with the upper part of the head completely smashed 
and beaten in with clubs, while the brains were 
scattered around upon the grass. It showed eight- 
een bayonet wounds in the back and one of the legs 
had received a gash to the bone, extending the 
whole length of the upper half. ^Ir. Wright had 
lived in the neighborhood for years. The Indians 
had been in the habit of visiting his father's house, 
sharing the hospitalities of the dwelling and receiv- 
ing alms of the family. He was well known to those 
who so cruelly mangled his lifeless form, who could 
have nothing against him except that he was of the 
hated white race. That his body had been treated 
with greater indignity than that of the soldier was 
in accord with the feelings expressed to some of the 
garrison previous to the commencement of hostil- 
ities. In conversation the Sioux declared a very 
strong feeling against the settlers in the county, as 
they frightened away the game, and thus interfered 
with the Indians' hunting. They had objections to 
the soldiers being quartered so near them, but said 
they did not blame the men as they, being soldiers, 
had to obey orders and go where they were sent. 
The settlers, on the other hand, had encroached upon 
them of their own free will and as a matter of choice, 
and therefore should be severely dealt with. 

No more Indians were seen about the fort until 
September 26, when, as Captain Freeman's company 
were watering their horses at the river, a volley was 
fired at them by a party of Sioux in ambush. A 
teamster with the expedition was hit and mortally 
wounded. The soldiers being unarmed could not 
reply, but from the log building and breastworks of 
the fort a brisk fire was opened up, and several of 
the Indians were seen to fall. At one time two 
Indians were seen skulking near the river, and 
they were fired upon by men on the fortifications and 
seen to fall. Whenever the Indians congregated 
near the fort or within range, a shell from the how- 
itzer (the Indians call a shell, rotten bullet), would 
fall among them and cause them to withdraw hur- 

A detachment composed of Captain Freeman's 
mounted men, fifty soldiers of the Third Regiment, 
and a squad in charge of a howitzer were ordered 
in pursuit of the savages and started over the 
prairie, up the river. About two miles away they 
came upon the Sioux camp, but the red warriors did 



not stay to contest its possession but fled in haste 
and consternation. A few shots were fired at them 
which they answered with yells of defiance. A shell 
from the howitzer, however, quieted their noise and 
added to the celerity of their retreat. Their camp 
was taken possession of and the valuable part of the 
result of the savages' looting taken to the fort. The 
balance was burned on the spot. This was about the 
last skirmish with the redskins around Fort Aber- 

In the meantime steps had been taken at head- 
quarters to punish the Sioux for their outbreak and 
to demonstrate to those red fiends that the arm of the 
government is long. It is necessary, in this connec- 
tion, to go back to the beginning of the massacre 
and briefly relate the formation and movements of 
the more formidable column that broke the strength 
of Little Crow's forces, and drove the Sioux to a 
complete surrender. 

When the news of the outbreak at Yellow Medi- 
cine and elsewhere reached St. Paul, there was con- 
siderable consternation. Most of the able-bodied 
young men had gone to the front to fight in defence 
of the Union ; there were no arms on hand in the 
state arsenals, nor ammunition in its magazines. 
Transportation, even, was wanting. Governor 
Ramsey energetically exerted himself to supply the 
deficiency. He telegraphed for arms and ammuni- 
tion to the war department at Washington, and to 
the governors of neighboring states. He also au- 
thorized the taking of private teams for public use, 
and other timely acts. Fortunately there were still 
at Fort Snelling portions of a couple of regiments 
not yet filled and some recruits for regiments then 
at the front. Col. Henry H. Sibley, a man well fit- 
ted for the place by years of experience among the 
Indians was appointed to the command of a column 
to march to the relief of the settlers and to punish 
the Sioux for their murders and depredations. Has- 
tily gathering some four hundred men of the Sixth 
Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, he started, August 
20, for the scene of butchery. An inspection of the 
arms and ammunition furnished his troops developed 
the fact that the guns were worthless Austrian mus- 
kets, warranted to do more damage at the breech 
than at the muzzle, and that the cartridges furnished 
were of a calibre of a size larger than the bore of the 
gun, hence useless. Under these circumstances the 
expedition went into camp near St. Peter, where all 
hands were engaged in hammering the bullets down 
to a size to fit the barrels of the guns and in the 
preparing of cannister shot for the guns of the six- 

pounder battery with them. In the meantime rein- 
forcements came in, better arms were procured and 
transportation had been arranged. The column re- 
sumed its march and went into camp near Fort 
Ridgley and took up its daily routine of drill and 
scouting work while awaiting provisions. Here the 
Colonel learned that the Indians had called in all 
their scattered bands and were concentrating to op- 
pose his forward movement and to give him battle. 
Scouting parties were sent out in all directions to 
ascertain the whereabouts of the savage foe. These 
returned with the report that there were no Indians 
below the Yellow Medicine river. In accordance 
with this Colonel Sibley sent out a party to bury the 
dead at the lower agency. This detachment con- 
sisted of twenty men in the burial party escorted by 
about two hundred men, partly mounted, all under 
the command of Major J. R. Brown. Fifty-four 
bodies were given decent burial. On their return the 
command went into camp at Birch Coulie. Usual 
precautions were taken and no immediate fears of In- 
dians were apprehended. About half past four in the 
morning of September 2, the camp was awakened by 
the shouts of attacking Sioux and by a furious fusil- 
ade of bullets. A fearful battle ensued, and for the 
numbers engaged is said to have been one of the most 
bloody in the war. The loss of men in proportion 
to those engaged was extremely large, twenty-three 
killed or mortally wounded, forty-five severely 
wounded and nearly all suffered some harm or loss. 
Nearly all the horses, ninety in number, were shot 
down. The report of the volleys of musketry was 
fortunately heard by Colonel Sibley, although in 
camp some eighteen miles away, and he marched to 
the relief of his struggling detachment. Coming 
up he drove ofif the savage foes, buried the dead and 
all returned to camp. After the battle, which 
showed Little Crow the futility of his efforts 
toward subduing the whites, all the marauding 
bands scattered around were called in and Little 
Crow and his forces commenced their retreat up 
the Minnesota river toward the Yellow Medicine. 
September 16, Colonel Sibley, whose forces had 
been largely increased, both by some independent 
companies and by the Minnesota Third Infantry, 
then home on parole, ordered the advance of the 
whole column. On the evening of September 22, 
he reached Wood lake, in what is now Yellow 
Medicine county, Minnesota. The next morning 
about seven o'clock a force of some three hundred 
yelling savages appeared firing on the troops as 
rapidly as they could. The troops under Sibley 



were cool and determined. The Third Regiment, 
veterans from the front, were not to be scared by 
noise, and needed no urging from their officers. 
The fight lasted four hours, during which we lost 
four killed and fifty wounded. The enemy's loss 
was much heavier, fourteen of their dead were left 
on the field while many bodies were carried off as 
is usual among Indians. Disaster after disaster 
came thus to foil the schemes of Little Crow. 
None of the principal places had fallen into his 
hands. Fort Ridgley, New Ulm, St. Peter, Man- 
kato were still unharmed, and at Birch Coulie and 
Wood lake the Sioux had suft'ered severe loss and 
defeat. The warriors turned against their leader 
and began to sue for peace. On the same day as 
that on which the battle of Wood lake had occur- 
red, a deputation from the Wahpeton band came 
in under a flag of truce, asking terms of peace. 
These were arranged. All the captives in their 
possession were first to be given up. Of. these 
there were one hundred and seven pure white and 
one hundred and ' sixty-two half breeds, mostly 
women and children. Other tribes soon came in 
and surrendered. 

A military commission tried most of the In- 
dians who gave themselves up, and found three 
hundred and twenty-one of them guilty of murder, 
rapine, arson, larceny and other light crimes. 
Three hundred and three were recommended for 
capital punishment, the rest to various terms of 
imprisonment. A mistaken policy upheld by 
those in the far east, who had suffered naught by 
the hands of the red fiends, stayed the hands of 
justice, and it was only by the greatest efforts that 
the people of Minnesota and the Dakotas, who had 
ilost their all, who had been driven from their 
ihomes and who had seen those nearest and dear- 
est slain by these incarnate devils, that the justice 
which should have been meted out by wholesale, 
was enforced in a retail way by the hanging of 
thirty-eight of the ringleaders, at Mankato, De- 
•cember 26, 1862. 

After the defeat at Wood lake. Little Crow 
■with the portion of the bands that still clung to his 
fortunes, retreated in the direction of Big Stone 
lake, some sixty miles westward. Sibley sent 
after them a messenger saying that he would pur- 
sue the deserters and should show them no mercy, 
that their only chance was to return at the earliest 
moment and surrender themselves and their fam- 
lies. By the 8th of October some two thousand 
of them had come in and given themselves up. 

Parties were now sent out to round up the balance 
of the savages with various success. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Marshall, with two hundred and 
fifty men took various small parties of Indians and 
kept pressing on the trail of the others. Soon 
their course led toward the Big Sioux river. 
They pursued and crossed that stream, and on the 
evening of October 16, the Lieutenant-Colonel 
and fifty of his men found themselves near Twin 
lakes, in what is now Codington county. South 
Dakota. Here they captured some thirteen braves 
with their families. Pressing on about half way 
between the Big Sioux and James rivers they made 
prisoners of quite a large number. 

It was deemed wise by the military authorities 
at Washington, and by Major General John A. 
Pope, commanding the department of the North- 
west, that a second campaaign be undertaken against 
those of the Sioux who still hung out sullenly in arms 
against the government These had all been con- 
cerned in the massacre and had fled to the upper 
prairies of North Dakota, where they had all been hos- 
pitably received and harbored by their powerful breth- 
ren of that region. Accordingly General Sully, 
commanding the district of the upper Missouri, and 
General (formerly Colonel) Sib.ley, commanding 
the district of Minnesota, were summoned to the 
headquarters of the department at Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, to confer with General Pope. It was 
decided that a large force under the district com- 
manders mentioned, should march as early in the 
summer of 1863 as was practicable. One column 
was to proceed from Sioux City, Iowa, on the Mis- 
souri river, and the other from some point on the 
Minnesota river. The objective point of both col- 
umns was Devil's lake, where it was thought the 
main body of the savages would be found. The 
force under General Sully was to be composed en- 
tirely of cavalry. Sibley's force was made up of 
the Sixth and Seventh and parts of the Ninth and 
Tenth Minnesota Infantry, and companies of the 
Minnesota Mounted Rangers, and the Third Min- 
nesota Battery Light Artillery. The latter was 
commanded by Captain Jones. In due time the 
column from Minnesota started, with Brigadier 
General Sibley in command. It pressed on to- 
ward the rendezvous at Devil's lake, through much 
distress and discomfort, the weather being very 
warm, and the prairies were parched with the 
drought. Finally they reached that point, but 
found no hostile Indians. The Red Lake Indians 
informed the General that the large camps of the 



Sioux were off to the south and west on the coteaus 
of the Missouri. This was the direction from which 
General Sully was to be expected. General Sib- 
ley, leaving his sick, footsore and weary in a 
strongly entrenched camp on the banks of the 
Upper Cheyenne, took the greater part of his 
forces and started toward the Missouri river. He 
succeeded in falling in with a large camp in which 
many of the refugees could be found,- and which 
contained several hundred warriors. He attacked 
them briskly and defeated them with considerable 
loss. As they retreated upon stronger positions 
and larger camps he pursued them, and attacked 
them wherever he could find them. Like resist- 
less fate he pushed on, rolling the panic stricken 
redmen before him until they had put the floods 
of the Missouri river between them and their foe. 
To this day the name of Sibley is a good one 
among the Sioux, who feared him as they did but 
few other men. The last battle • fought by this 
column took place about four miles south of the 
site of the present state capital, Bismarck. On 
the edge of the coteau with his flank defended by 
Apple creek, he was attacked by the Indians, July 
29, 1863. The Indians crossed over the river for 

the purpose, having received large reinforcements, 
and fiercely assailed the soldiers. It was of no 
avail, however, the redskins were beaten back dis- 
mayed, and retreated across the Missouri. Lieut- 
enant Beever, an Englishman, serving as volun- 
teer aid on General Sibley's staff, was killed here 
while carrying dispatches to Colonel Crooks. For 
a few days thereafter the column remained in camp 
at that place, and then, forage and rations grow- 
ing scarcer, and General Sully's forces not appear- 
ing. General Sibley marched his men back into 
Minnesota, and so ended the matter. 

Little Crow, the instigator of the massacre and 
the predominant figure in the whole deplorable 
affair returned to the vicinity of his old home, and 
with a small band attempted to steal some horses, 
with which he, an outlaw now, wanted to go west 
again. Chauncey Lamson, a settler who lived in the 
neighborhood of Hutchinson, caught sight of Little 
Crow and his son in the timber in the southern 
part of Meeker county, Minnesota, and shot him. 
The son fled on his father's death. Thus the mas- 
sacre commenced with Little Crow and ends with 
Little Crow; began in Meeker county, Minnesota, 
and ended in the same county. 






As has been shown in a previous chapter, that 
on the admission of Minnesota in 1858 to a place 
in the great sisterhood of states, the eastern part of 
Dakota, which had previously formed a part of 
the territory of Minnesota, was left out in the cold. 
It had no name or legal existence. The western 
part, that beyond the Missouri, still remained at- 
tached to the territory of Nebraska. 


This state of affairs could not be endured and 
the settlers, becoming restless, inaugurated move- 
ments toward obtaining a territorial form of gov- 
ernment if possible. The settlers around Sioux 
Falls determined to organize a provisional govern- 
ment and an election notice was drawn up and pub- 
lished in the first number of the Dakota Democrat, 
then just established by Samuel J. Albright. This 
was the pioneer paper of the whole of Dakota. 
The notice read as follows: 

"Election Notice. — At a mass convention of the 
people of Dakota territory, held in the town of Sioux 
Falls, in the county of Big Sioux, on Saturday, Sep- 
tember 18, 1858, all portions of the territory being 
represented, it was resolved and ordered that an 

election should be held for members to compose a 
territorial legislature. 

"Dated at , this twentieth day of Septem- 
ber, A. D., 1858." 

In accordance with the notice the election was 
held for members of the provisional legislature and 
delegate to congress. A. G. Fuller was chosen to 
fill the last named office. The legislature thus 
elected, met at Sioux Falls in the winter of 1858-59 
and organized by the choice of Henry Masters as 
president of the council, and ex-officio governor, 
and S. J. Albright, as speaker of the house. The 
session lasted but a few days. Governor Mas- 
ters died a short time after this, and is said to 
have been the first white man to die in the valley. 

In the meantime the settlers in the southern 
part of the country, called a convention to meet at 
Yankton, which assembled at the, at that time, un- 
completed store of D. T. Bramble, November 8, 
1858. Mr. Bramble was chosen chairman and M. 
K. Armstrong, secretary of the meeting. Cap- 
tain J. B. S. Todd, Obed Foote and Thomas Frek 
were appointed a committee to draft a set of reso- 
lutions. It was determined to memorialize con- 
gress for authority to organize as a territory, and 
for this purpose a committeee consisting of Captain 
J. B. S. Todd, G. D. Fiske and J. M. Stone was 



appointed to draw up the petition. The next day 
a similar meeting was held at Vermillion, of which 
J. A. Denton was chairman, and James McHenry, 
secretary. Captain J. B. S. Todd was appointed 
by the people in mass meeting assembled, at both 
places, to carry their petition to Washington, and 
lay before the congress of the nation the wishes of 
the people. In response to their desires a bill 
looking to the organization of the territory of Da- 
kota was introduced in the senate, but no action 
was taken upon the matter at that session. 

In the fall of 1859 another attempt was made 
toward territorial organization, and another legis- 
lature chosen. J. P. Kidder was elected delegate 
to congress; S. J. Albright was elected governor, 
but was returned as a member of the legislature, 
of which body he was chosen speaker of the house; 
W. VV. Brookings, elected president of the coun- 
cil, was declared ex-officio governor. Memorials 
to congress were again prepared and given to Mr. 
Kidder to lay before that body. On his arrival 
in Washington, and claiming admission to that 
congress as a delegate, it was denied him, he fail- 
ing of securing his seat by but a few votes, how- 
ever- At that time politics ran high and the 
strife between the parties intense in this country, 
then just on the eve of the most stupendous civil 
war in the history of nations. Everything in our 
national council was more or less subservient to the 
main cjuestion, slavery, its extension or non-exten- 
sion. The Republican members of congress insisted 
upon the insertion in the organic act instituting 
the new territory of Dakota, a clause prohibiting 
the introduction of slaves, as such, into the terri- 
tory. That aroused the southern members, whose 
solid opposition nullified the wishes of the people 
of Dakota. 


The now thoroughly aroused settlers again 
made a strong effort to force recognition from the 
Federal government. December 27, i860, a rep- 
resentative convention assembled at Yankton to 
take action in the matter. On the 15th of Janu- 
ary, 1861, a lengthy and earnest appeal to the gov- 
ernment was adopted by this body, to which was 
appended the names of five hundred and seventy- 
eight citizens of the wished-for territory. Copies 
were forwarded to the seat of Federal government 
at Washington and laid before both houses of con- 
gress. At this most stormy session of the national 

councils, a bill organizing the territory of Dakota 
was introduced, and most of the members from the 
southern states having in the meantime withdrawn 
on the eve of rebellion, opposition to the bill 
ceased and it passed both houses. On the 2nd of 
March, 1861, President Buchanan signed the act, 
and the Territory of Dakota at last entered upon 
its legal existence. The bill organizing the same 
was passed by the senate February 26, and the 
house March i. Dakota, at that time, embraced 
an area of over 350,000 square miles, and in- 
cluded all of Montana, Wyoming and part of 
Idaho. These were subsequently detached, the 
last change of boundaries being made in 1873 in 
readjusting the line between Dakota and Mon- 
tana. • 


No officers were appointed by the outgoing 
administration, but in May, 1861, President Abra- 
ham Lincoln commissioned William Jayne, of Illi- 
nois, first governor. About the same time the 
following territorial officers were appointed: 
John Hutchinson, of Minnesota, secretary ; Phil- 
emon Bliss, of Ohio, chief justice; Lorenzo P. 
Williston, of Pennsylvania, and Joseph L. Wil- 
liams, of Tennessee, associate justices; William 
E. Gleason, United States district attorney ; Will- 
iam T. Shaffer, of Illinois, United States mar- 
shal ; and George D. Hill, of ^Michigan, surveyor- 

W. A. Burleigh was appointed agent at the 
Yankton Indian reservation, and H. W. Gregory 
to that of Ponca. 

Governor Jayne was a resident of Springfield, 
Illinois, at the time of his appointment, and was 
engaged in the practice of his profession, medi- 
cine. He enjoyed the intimate friendship of 
Abraham Lincoln, who esteemed him highly and 
thus sought to honor. 

Governor Jayne and his secretary arrived at 
Yankton May 27, 1861, that having been desig- 
nated as the territorial capital, and opened the 
executive office in a log cabin opposite Ash's 
tavern. The surveyor-generars office was located 
at first in Bramble's building. The first official 
act of the new governor was the appointement of 
agents to take a census of the new territory upon 
which to base the apportionment for representa- 
tion in the general assembly, and the following 
were named: Andrew J. Harlan, for the district 
east of the \'ermillion river and south of Sioux 


Falls; W. W. Brookings, for the Sioux Falls dis- 
trict; Obed Foote, for the Yankton district, which 
extended westerly from the Vermillion river to 
Yankton; George M. Pinney, for the Bon Homme 
district; J. D. Morse, for the country on the Mis- 
souri river north of the Niobrara river; and 
Henry D. Betts for the country of the Red river 
valley. These gentlemen made a report, accord- 
ing to one account, showing a population in what 
is now North Dakota, entire whites, 76; of mixed 
breeds, 514, making a total of 590. In what is 
now South Dakota the same authority gives as 
the population: Whites, 1,140; half-breeds, 46; 
or a population for the entire territory, excluding 
Indians, of 1,775. Other accounts place the whole 
number of people in the entire territory at that 
time at 2,879, ^"cl the commissioner of immigra- 
tion, in his report for 1887, places it for the year 
i860 at 4,837, basing his figures upon the census 
report of the general government for the year 

On the 13th of July, following his installation 
into office, the governor made an apportion- 
ment of the Territory into three judicial districts, 
as follows: All that part of the territory of 
Dakota lying east of the line between ranges 53 
and 54 west of the fifth principal meridian, should 
be known as the first judicial district, and should 
be presided over by Hon. L. W. Williston ; all 
that part of the territory lying between the line 
dividing ranges 53 and 54 and the line dividing 
ranges 57 and 58, was designated as the second 
district, and Hon- Philemon Bliss assigned to pre- 
side over its judicial functions. The third dis- 
trict was constituted of the west part of the ter- 
ritory and presided over by Judge Joseph L. 
Williams. By a proclamation dated July 29, 
1861, the governor established legislative districts 
throughout the territory and apportioned the rep- 
resentation as follows : 

"All that portion of Dakota territory lying 
between the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers, and 
bounded on the west by the range line dividing 
ranges 50 and 51 west and that portion of Dakota 
territory lying west of the Red River of the 
North, and including the settlement at and ad- 
jacent to Pembina and St. Joseph, shall comprise 
the first council district, and be entitled to two 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded 
by the \'ermillion river on the west and on the 
east by the line dividing ranges 50 and 51, shall 

compose the second council district, and be en- 
titled to two councilmen. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded by 
the Vermillion river on the east, on the west by 
the line dividing ranges 53 and 54 west, shall com- 
pose the third council district, and be entitled to 
one councilman. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded 
on the east by the line dividing ranges 53 and 54, 
and on the west by the line dividing ranges 57 
and 58 west, shall compose the fourth council dis- 
trict, and be entitled to two councilmen. 

"All that portion of Dakota Territory bounded 
on the east by Choteau creek and on the west by 
a line west of and including that settlement known 
as the Hamilton settlement, and also that portion 
of Dakota situated between the Missouri and 
Niobrara rivers, shall compose the sixth council 
district and be entitled to one councilman. 

"All that portion of Dakota Territory situated 
between the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers and 
bounded on the west by the line dividing ranges 
50 and 51 west, and bounded on the north by the 
line dividing townships 94 and 95 north, shall 
compose the first representative district, and shall 
be entitled to two representatives. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory lying 
west of the Big Sioux river and bounded on the 
south by the line dividing townships 94 and 95, 
and on the west by the line dividing ranges 50 
and 51, and on the north by a hne drawn due east 
and west from the south end of Lake Preston, 
shall constitute the second representative district, 
and be entitled to one representative. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory lying on 
the Red river of the North, including the settle- 
ments at St. Joseph and Pembina, shall compose 
the third representative district, and be entitled to 
one representative. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded 
by the \'ermillion river on the west, and on the 
east by the line dividing ranges 50 and 51, shall 
compose the fourth representative district, and be 
entitled to two representatives. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded 
by the Vermillion river on the east and on the 
west by the line dividing ranges 53 and 54, shall 
compose the fifth representative district, and be 
entitled to two representatives. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded 
on the east by the line dividing ranges 53 and 54, 
and on the west by the line dividing ranges 57 


and 58, shall, compose the sixth representative 
district, and be entitled to two representatives. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded 
on the east by the line dividing ranges 57 and 58 
west, on the west by Choteau creek, shall com- 
pose the seventh representative district, and be 
entitled to two representatives. 

"All that portion of Dakota territory bounded 
on the east by Choteau creek, and on the west by a 
line drawn west of and to include the settlement 
known as the Hamilton settlement ; and, also, that 
portion of Dakota territory situated between the 
Missouri and the Niobrara rivers, shall compose 
the eighth representative district and be entitled 
to one representative." 

In the same proclamation the new executive 
appointed the following polling places for the use 
of the citizens in the various parts of the Terri- 
tory. To quote his own words: 

"I do hereby establish in the aforesaid districts 
the following places for voting: 

"In the first representative district, at the 
dwelhng house of Thomas Maloney, and do ap- 
point as judges of election thereat William 
Matthews, James Somers and Thomas Maloney; 
and also at the hotel of Eli Wilson, in Elk Point, 
and do appoint as judges thereat Sherman Clyde, 
William Frisbie and K. P. Ronne. In the second 
representative district, at the house of William 
Amidon, and do appoint as judges G. P. Waldron, 
Barney Fowler and John Kelts. In the third rep- 
representative district at the house of Charles Le 
May, in the town of Pembina, and do, appoint as 
judges Charles Le May, James McFetridge and 
H. Donelson ; and also at the house of Baptiste 
Shorette, in the town of St. Joseph, and do apH 
point as judges Baptiste Shorette, Charles Bot- 
tineau and Antoine Zangreau. 

"In the fourth representative district, at the 
house of James McHenry, and do appoint as 
judges A. J. Harlan, Ole Anderson and A. Eckles. 
In the fifth representative district, at the house of 
Bly Wood, and do appoint as judges Ole Olson, 
Bly Wood and Ole Bottolfson. In the sixth rep- 
resentative district, at the office of Todd & 
Frost, and do appoint as judges M. K. Arm- 
strong, F. Chapel and J. S. Presho. In the seventh 
representative district, at Herrick's hotel, in Bon 
Homme, and do appoint as judges Daniel Gififord, 
George M. Pinney and George Falkenburg. And 
in the eighth district, at the house of F. D. Pease, 
and do appoint as judges J. ^'. Hamilton, Benja- 

min Estes and Joseph Ellis, and also at Gregory's 
store, and appoint as judges Charles Young, 
James Tufts and Thomas Small." 

About this time the various candidates for the 
position of delegate to congress began to come 
forward and make efforts to capture that office. 

Prominent among the settlers at that time was 
Captain John B. S. Todd, an ex-army officer and a 
relative of Mrs. Lincoln's, a man who was a leader 
in the movement toward organization, and filled a 
foremost place in the opinions of his friends and 
neighbors ; he was the leading candidate- The oppo- 
sition to him crystallized and settled upon A. J. 
Bell as their choice. Later Charles P. Booge, 
then in business at Sioux City, but who claimed 
a residence within the territory, announced him- 
self as a candidate for the same ofifice. 

The election, which was held Monday, Sep- 
tember 16, 1861, resulted in the election of Air. 
Todd, who received 397 votes. A. J. Bell received 
78 votes and Charles P. Booge no. 

The first territorial legislature, which was 
chosen at this election, met at Yankton. March 
17, 1862, and continued in session until May 15, 
following. The membership was as follows : 

Coinif(7— John H. Shober, H. D. Betts, J. W^ 
Boyle, D. T. Bramble, W. W. Brookings, A. Cole, 
Jacob Deuel, J. S. Gregory and Enos Stutsman. 

House — George M. Pinney,, Moses K. Arm- 
strong, Lyman Burgess, J- A. Jacobson, John C. 
McBride, Christopher Maloney, A. W. Puett. John 
Stanage, John L. Tiernan, Hugh S. Donaldson, 
Reuben Wallace, George P. \\'aldron and B. E. 

On their organization the council chose the fol- 
lowing officers: J. H. Shober, president; James 
Tufts, secretary; E. M. Bond, assistant secre- 
tary; W. R. Goodfellow, engrossing and enrolling 
clerk; S. W. Ingham, chaplain; Charles F. 
Picotte, sergeant-at-arms ; E. B. Wixon, messen- 
ger, and W. W. Warford, fireman. The house, 
on organization, selected as their officers: George 
M. Pinney, speaker; J. R. Hanson, chief clerk; 
J. M. Allen, assistant clerk; D. Gifford, enrolling 
clerk ; B. M. Smith, engrossing clerk ; M. D. 
Metcalf, chaplain; James or M. H. Somers, ser- 
geant-at-arms; A. B. Smith, messenger: and Ole 
Anderson, fireman. 

The second general election was held Septem- 
ber I, 1862, and in some parts of the territory 
considerable excitement prevailed. The board of 
canvassers gave the rival candidates for the posi- 



tion of delegate to congress, William Jayne and 
J. B. S. Todd, 237 and 221 votes respectively, 
they for some reason throwing out the vote of 
Bon Homme and Charles Mix counties. The Red 
river valley apparently made no returns of this 
election. Governor Jayne was declared elected to 
congress, but a contest for the seat was instituted 
by Captain Todd before congress, and the latter, 
proving his case, was given the place. 

Captain Todd served in the capacity of dele- 
gate to the national house of representatives dur- 
ing the years 1861 and 1863. He was succeeded 
by W. F. Burleigh, whose term of service was 
from 1864 to 1869; S. L. Spink, 1869-71; Moses 
K. Armstrong, 1871-75; J. P. Kidder, 1875-79; 
G. G. Bennett, 1879-81 ; R. F. Pettigrew, 1881- 
83; J. B. Raymond, 1883-85; Oscar S. Gifford, 
1885-88; and George A. Mathews, 1888-89, suc- 
cessively filled this high office. 

Dr. William Jayne, the first governor of Da- 
kota territory, occupied the position of first mag- 
istrate for two years, being succeeded in 1863 by 
Newton Edmunds. In 1866 Andrew J. Faulk was 
appointed governor, and remained in that office 
until 1869, when he gave way for John A. Bur- 
bank. The latters term of service was fron: 
1869 to 1874. John L. Pennington, the next in- 
cumbent, served until 1878. His successor, 
William A. Howard, was appointed and quali- 
fied for the office. Governor Howard died April 
10, 1880, while still in the gubernatorial chair, 
and Nehemiah G. Ordway, of New Hampshire, 
was appointed to filll the vacancy. The latter 's 
term of service expired in 1884. Gilbert A. 
Pierce, the next appointee, filled the position from 
1884 till 1887, when he, in turn, made way for 
his successor, Louis K. Church. In 1889 Arthur 
C- Mellette became governor of the territory by 
appointment, and was the first governor of the 
state of South Dakota by election. 

Of the secretaries of the territory of Dakota, 
the first one appointed was John L. Hutchinson, 
who continued in office from 1861 until 1865 ; he 
was succeeded by S. L. Spink. The latter held 
the position until 1869. During the latter year 
Turney M. Wilkins was appointed and held the 
office until the following year, when George A. 
Batchelder was appointed to the place. Edwin 
S. McCook was appointed in 1872. He was as- 
sassinated by Peter P. Wintermute in September, 
1873. The next to fill the position was Oscar 
Whitney, who held the same from the date of his 

predecessor's death until the appointment of his 
successor, George H. Hand, in 1874. The latter 
remained in office until 1883, when he was suc- 
ceeded by J. M. Teller. In 1886 Michael Mc- 
cormack was appointed Mr. Teller's successor, 
and was succeeded, in 1889, by L. B. Richardson, 
who was the last to be appointed to that office. 

Presidential appointees who filled the import- 
ant office of chief justice during territorial days 
were: Philemon Bhss, 1861-64; Ara Bartlett, 
1865-69; George W. French, 1869-73; Peter C. 
Shannon, 1873-81 ; A. J. Edgerton, 1881-85, and 
Bartlett Tripp, 1885-89. 

Of those who acted as associate justices while 
the territory was in existence, the following is a 
list, with the date of their services. Many of them 
will be recognized as prominent members of the 
Dakota bar before and after their terms upon the 
bench, and others occupied more exalted posi- 
tions. They were: S. P. Williston, 1861-65; 
J. S. Williams, 1861-64; Ara Bartlett, 1864-65; 
W. E. Gleason, 1865-66; J. P. Kidder, 1865-75; 
J. W. Boyle, 1864-69; W. W. Brookings, 1869-73; 
A. H. Barnes, 1873-81; G. G. Bennett, 1875-79; 
G. C. Moody, 1878-83; J. P. Kidder, 1878-83; C. 
S. Palmer, 1883-87; S. A. Hudson, 1881-85; 
William E. Church, 1883-86; Louis K. Church, 
1885-87;; Seward Smith, 1884; W. H. Francis, 
1884-88; John E. Garland, 1887-89; William B. Mc- 
Connell, 1885-88 ; Charles M.Thomas, 1886-89 James 
Spencer, 1887-89; Roderick Rose, 1888-89; L. W. 
Crofoot, 1888-89; Frank R. Aikens, 1889. Of 
these Judge J. P. Kidder died while in office in 
1883, and was succeeded by C. S. Palmer, of Ver- 

Of those who filled the important position of 
United States district attorney during the twenty- 
eight years of Dakota's territorial government the 
following is the roll, together with the years of their 
services: William E. Gleason, 1861-64; George 
H. Hand, 1866-69; Warren Coles, 1869-73; 
William Pond, 1873-77; Hugh J. Campbell, 1877- 
85: John E. Garland, 1885-88; William E. Pur- 
cell, 1888-89, and John Murphey, 1889. WilHam 
Pond died while in office in 1877. 

During the same time the office of United 
States marshal was filled by the following parties: 
William F. Shaffer, 1861; G. M. Pinney, 1861- 
65; L. W. Litchfield, 1865-72; J. H. ISurdick, 
1872-77; J. B. Raymond, 1877-81; Harrison Al- 
len, 1881-85, and Daniel Maratta, 1885-89. 

The office of commissioner of railroads of the 



territory was held successively by the following 
named : William M. Evens, chairman ; Alexan- 
der Griggs and W. H. McVay, in 1886; Alex- 
ander Griggs, chairman, A. Boynton and N. T. 
Smith, in 1887; Judson LaMoure, chairman, John 
H. King and Harvey J. Rice. The latter were 
the last board prior to the admission of Dakota 
to a place in the federal union as a state. 

The surveyor-generals during the same time 
were: George D. Hill, 1861-65; William Tripp, 
1865-69; W. H. H. Beadle, 1869-73; William P. 
Dewey, 1873-77; Henry Experson, 1877-81; 
Cortez Fessenden, 1881-85; Maris Taylor, 1885- 
89, and B. H. Sullivan, 1889. 

The second legislature met at Yankton, De- 
cember I, 1862, and continued in service until 
January 9, 1863. Its membership was as follows: 

Council — Enos Stutsman, president ; W. W. 
Brookings, Austin Cole, John W. Boyle, Jacob 
Deuel, D. T. Bramble, J. McFetridge, John H. 
Shober, J. Shaw Gregory and H. D. Betts. 

House — A. J. Harlan, the speaker, who re- 
signed December 16, and was succeeded by Moses 
K. Armstrong; L. Bothun, J. Y. Buckman, H. 
S. Donaldson, M. H. Somers, Edward Gifford, 
J. A. Jacobson, R. M. Johnson, G. P. Waldron, 
Knud Larson, F. D. Pease, A. W. Puett and N. J. 

The third session of the territorial legislature 
was convened at the capital, December 7, 1863, 
and contined to transact public business until 
January 15, 1864. Its membership was made up 
of the following named : 

Council — Enos Stutsman, president; J. M. 
Stone, G. W. Kingsbury, J. O. Taylor, M. M. 
Rich, John Mathers, Lasse Bothun, Hugh Comp- 
ton, Franklin Taylor, D. P. Bradford, J- Shaw 
Gregory and John J. Thompson. 

House — A. W. Puett, speaker; L. Burgess, 
Ole Bottolfson, E. M. Bond, William Shriner, O. 
L. Pratt, John Lawrence, Henry Brooks, L. A. 
Litchfield, W. W. Brookings, Knud Larson, 
Washington Reid, P. H. Risling, E. W. Wall, 
Jesse Wherry, Peter Keegan, N. G. Curtis, Asa 
Mattison, B. A. Hill, Duncan Ross and Albert 

The fourth legislature commenced its exist- 
ence at Yankton, December 5, 1864, and remained 
in session until January 13, 1865. The following 
named were borne on its roll of membership: 

Council — Enos Stutsman, president; J. M. 
Stone, G. W. Kingsbury, J. O. Taylor, M. M. 

Rich, John Mathers, Lasse Bothun, Hugh Comp- 
ton, Franklin Taylor, D. P. Bradford, J. Shaw 
Gregory and John J. Thompson. 

House — W. W. Brookings, speaker; L. Bur- 
gess, I. P. Burgman, A. Christy, B. W. Collar, 
Felicia Fallis, J. R. Hanson, Peter Keegan, George 
W. Kellogg, P. Lemonges, John Lawrence, M. 
M. Mattheinsen, Helge Matthews, Francis Mc- 
Carthy, John W. Owens, G. W. Pratt, Washing- 
ton Reid, John Rouse, William Shriner, George 
Stickney, John W. Turner and E. W. Wall. 

The fifth session of the Dakota territorial 
legislature convened at Yankton December 4, 
1865, and adjourned the 12th of the following 
month. It had as members: 

Council — George Stickney, president; M. K. 
Armstrong, Austin Cole, G. W. Kingsbury, 
Charles LaBreeche, Nathaniel Ross, Enos Stuts- 
man, O. F. Stevens, John J. Thompson, John W. 
Turner, A. L. Van Osdel and Knud Weeks. 

House — G. B. Bigelow, speaker ; T. C. Wat- 
son, E. C. Collins, William Walter, Michael 
Curry, Michael Ryan, James Whilehorn, H. J^ 
Austin, Amos Hampton, Frank Taylor, James 
McHenry, Joseph Ellis, A. M. English, Jacob 
Branch, H. C. Ash, S. C. Fargo, W. W. Brook- 
ings, Jonathan Brown, J. A. Lewis, Charles H. Mc- 
Carthy, William Stevens, Edward Lent, George 
W. Kellogg and Charles Cooper. 

The sixth session convened December 4, 1866, 
and adjourned January 12, 1867. Its member- 
ship was as follows: 

Council — Moses K. Armstrong, president; 
Austin Cole, A. G. Fuller, G. W. Kingsbury, 
Charles LaBreeche, J. A. Lewis, D. M. Mills, 
Nathaniel Ross, O. F. Stevens, John J. Thomp- 
son, John W. Turner, A. L. \'anOsdel and Knud 

House — J. B. S. Todd, speaker; H. C. Ash, 
Horace J. Austin, D. T. Bramble, W. N. Colla- 
mer, Michael Curry, Hugh Fraley, Thomas Frick, 
I. T. Gore, William Gray, lians Gunderson, M. 
U. Hoyt, Daniel Hodgen, Amos Hanson, R. M. 
Johnson, George W. Kellogg, Vincent LaBelle, 
Charles H. McCarthy, N. C. Stevens, William 
Stevens, John Trumbo, Franklin Taylor, Eli B. 
Wixon and Kirwin Wilson. 

The seventh legislature was convened De- 
cember 2, 1867, and adjourned January 10, 1868. 
The following were the members. 

Council — Horace J. Austin, president ; \^^ W. 
Brookings, W. W. Benedict, Aaron Carpenter, 



R. J. Thomas, Hugh Fraley, R. R. Green, A. H. 
Hampton, George W. Kellogg, J. A. Lewis, 
Charles H. Mclntyre, D. M. Mills and C. F. Ros- 

House — Enos Stutsman, speaker; William 
Blair, William Brady, F. Bronson, Jacob Brauch, 
Jonathan Brown, Caleb Cummings, Michael 
Curry, F. J. DeWitt, Martin V. Farris, Felicia 
Fallas, I. T. Gore, Hans Gunderson, Amos Han- 
son, W. U. Hoyt, John L. Jolley, James Keegan, 
G. C. Moody, T. Nelson, Alichael Ryan, Calvin 
G. Shaw, John J. Thompson, J. D. Tucker and 
Thomas C. Watson. 

The eighth legislature met in session at Yankton, 
December 7, 1868, and adjourned January 15 fol- 
lowing. The roll of membership was as follows: 

Council — N. J. Wallace, president; Horace J. 
Austin, W. W. Benedict, W. W. Brookings, Aaron 
Carpenter, Hugh Fraley, R. R. Green, A. H. Hamp- 
ton, George W. Kellogg, J. A. Lewis, Charles H. 
Mclntyre, C. F. Rossteuscher and B. E. Wood. 

House — G. C. Moody, speaker; Alfred Abbott, 
C. D. Bradley, G. G. Bennett, Calvin, M. Brooks, 
Jacob Brauch, John Clementson, N. G. Curtis, J. 
M. Eves, J. Shaw Gregory, J. T. Hewlett, O. T. 
Hagin, John L. Jolley, A. W. Jameson, Hiram Keith, 
James Keegan, Lewis Larson, Knud Larson, J. La- 
Roche, Joseph Mouhn, Charles Ricker, Enos Stuts- 
man, M. H. Somers and R. T. Vinson. 

The ninth session of the territorial legislature 
was convened at Yankton, December 5, 1870. It 
continued until January 13, 1871. Its members were : 

Council — Emory Morris, president; M. K. Arm- 
strong, Joseph Brauch, W. W.Cuppett, Hugh Fraley, 
Silas W. Kidder, Nelson Miner, Charles H. Mcln- 
tyre, J. C. Kennedy, W. T. McKay, James M. Stone 
and John W. Turner. 

House — George H. Hand, speaker; Charles Al- 
len,, V. R. L. Barnes, F. J. Cross, C. P. Dow, A. P. 
Hammond, John Hancock, William Holbrough, 
O. B. Iverson, H. A. Jerauld, James Keegan, J. 
LaRoche, Nelson Learned, A. J. Mills, E. Miner, 
Noah Wherry, R. Mostow, S. L. Parker, Amos F. 
Shaw, Philip Sherman, John C. Sinclair, Ole Samp- 
son and E. W. Wall. 

The tenth legislature of the territory convened 
in regular session at Yankton, December 2, 1872, 
and adjourned January 10, 1873. The following 
named constituted the membership: 

Co»«c//— Alexander Hughes, president; D. T. 
Bramble, E. B. Crew, H. P. Cooley, J. Flick, John 
Lawrence, Nelson Miner, Joseph Alason, J. Gehon, 

Charles H. Mclntyre, O. F. Stevens, Enos Stuts- 
man and Henry Smith. 

House — A. J. Mills, speaker; Samuel Ashmore, 
Ole Bottolfson, John Becker, Jacob Brauch, New- 
ton Clark, N. B. Campbell, Michael Glynn, William 
Hamilton, James Hyde, Cyrus Knapp, T. A. Kings- 
bury, Judson La Moure, E. A. Williams, Ephraim 
Miner, George Norbeck, Joseph Roberts, A. B. 
Wheelock, O. C. Peterson, Jens Peterson, Silas 
Rohr, Martin Trygstadt, J. W. Turner, John 
Thompson, B. E. Wood and W. P. Lyman. 

The eleventh legislature convened at Yankton, 
December 7, 1874, and remained in session until 
January, 15, 1875, when it adjourned. The mem- 
bers were: 

Council — John L. Jolley, president ; A. J. Austin, 
Jacob Brauch, PhiHp Chandler, Benton Fraley,. W. 
G. Harlan, John Lawrence, A. McHench, M. Pace, 
N. W. Sheafe, O. F. Stevens, Clark S. West and E. 
A. Williams. 

House — G. C. Moody, speaker; H. O. Anderson, 
George Bosworth, Hector Bruce, J. L. Berry, L. 
Bothun, Michael Curry, Desire Chausse, J. M. Cle- 
land, Patrick Hand, John H. Haas, Knud Larson, 
Joseph Zitka, H. N. Luce, W. T. McKay, Henry 
Reifsnyder, Amos F. Shaw, C. H. Stearns, Ira 
Ellis L. Sampson, S. Sevenson, A. L. VanOsdel, 
M. M. Williaams, Scott Wright, James M. Wohl 
and O. B. Larson. 

January 9, 1877, at Yankton, the twelfth legis- 
lature of the territory met in session and continued 
to transact the public business until February 17, 
following. As the country was rapidly filling up 
the number of members increased and the amount 
of business became of larger volume. This general 
assembly was composed of the following named 
gentlemen : 

Council — W. A. Burleigh, president ; Henry S. 
Back, M. W. Bailey, William Duncan, Hans Gun- 
derson, Judson LaMoure, Nelson Miner, A. J. 
Mills, Robert Wilson, R. F. Pettigrew, J. A. Potter, 
C. B. Valentine and J. A. Wallace. 

House — D. C. Hagle, speaker ; J. M. Adams, A. 
L. Boe, H. A. Burke, J. Q. Burbank (who was 
awarded the seat held by D. M. Kelleher, during the 
session), W. H. H. Beadle, T. S. Clarkson, G. S. 
S. Codington, W. F. Durham, A. G. Hopkins, M. 
O. Hexom. E. Hackett, D. M. Inman, Erick Iver- 
son, Charles May wold, F. M. Ziebach, Hans Myron, 
John Shellberg, John Falde, D. Stewart, Asa Sar- 
gent, John Tucker, Franklin Taylor, John Thomp- 
son, C. H. Van Tassel and S. Soderstrom. 



The thirteenth legislature held its session at 
Yankton, from January 14, 1879, until February 
following. The roll of members was as follows: 

Council — George H. Walsh, president; William 
M. Cuppert, M. H.Day, Ira Ellis, Newton Edmunds, 
W. L. Kuykendall, Nelson Miner, Robert Macnider, 
R. F. Pettigrew, S. G. Roberts, Silas Rohr, C. B. 
Valentine and H. B. Wynn. 

House — John R. Jackson, speaker; Alfred 
Brown, J. Q. Burbank, P. N. Cross, D. W. Flick, 
A. B. Tockler, John R. Gamble, Ansley Gray, Hans 
Gunderson, P. J. Hoyer, Ole A. Helvig, O. I. Hose- 
boe, A. Hoyt, S. A. Johnson John Langness, A. 
Manksch, J. M. Peterson, Nathaniel Whitfield, Mi- 
chael Shely, A. Simonson, James H. Stephens, D. 
Stewart, Martin AI. Trygstadt, E. C. Walton, J. F. 
Webber and Canute Weeks. 

The fourteenth legislature held its session from 
January 11, to March, 1881, at Yankton, with the 
following list of members: 

Council — George H. Walsh, president; M. H. 
Day, Ira W. Fisher, John R. Gamble; John L. Jol- 
ley, J. A. J. Martin. J. O'B. Scobey, Amos F. Shaw, 
J. F. Wallace, John Walsh, G. W. Wiggin and John 
R. Wilson. 

House — J. A. Harding, speaker ; James Baynes, 
F. J. Cross, G. H. Dickey, L. B. French, C. B. 
Kennedy, P. Landman, J. H. Miller, Knud Nom- 
land, V. P. Thielman, A. Thorne, P. Warner, S. A. 
Boyles, W. H. Donaldson, E. Ellefson, John D. 
Hale, D. M. Inman, Judson LaMoure, S. McBrat- 
ney, I. Moore, S. Rohr, D. Thompson, A. L. Van- 
Osdel and E. P. Wells. 

On the organization of Dakota as a territory in 
1 86 1, Yankton was designated as the territorial cap- 
ital awi^ the seat of the executive and legislative 
branches tof the government. There the legisla- 
ture had up to this time held their sessions, but the 
fifteenth general assembly which met at Yankton, 
January 9, 1883, and remained convened until March 
9, following, was the last to do so. The members 
of this general assembly were the following: 

Council — J. O'B. Scobey, president ; F. N. Bur- 
dick, J. R. Jackson, F. M. Ziebach, F. J. Washa- 
baugh, S. G. Roberts, H. J. Jerauld, William P. 
Dewey, E. H. Mcintosh, G. H. Walsh, J. Nickeus 
and E. McCauley. 

House — E. A. Williams, speaker ; Ira Ellis, M. C. 
Tychsen, John Thompson, W. B. Robinson, R. C. 
McAllister, F. P. PhiHips. G. W. Sterling, W. A. 
Reinhart. E. M. Bowman, G. P. Harvey, D. M. 
Inman, H. \'anWoert, J. B. Wynn, B. R. Wagner, 

John C. Pyatt, George Rice, W. H. Lamb, J. W. 
iX'owlin, A. A. Choteau, O. M. Towner, B. W. Ben- 
son, L. J. AUred, and N. E. Nelson. This legislature 
had before them a bill authorizing the changing the 
seat of government of the territory to some more 
central and convenient point. This bill was passed 
by which was created a commission for the purpose 
of selecting and locating the new capital. This 
committee was composed of the following named 
gentlemen: Alexander McKenzie, Milo W. Scott, 
Burleigh F. Spaulding, Charles H. Myers, George 
A. Matthews, Alexander Hughes, Henry M. De- 
Long, John P. Belding and M. D. Thompson. 

The commission was convened in a session at 
the city of Fargo during the summer of 1883, to hear 
the different advantages of site as put forth by the 
various claimants for the capitalship. Excitement 
was rife, but after a long and patient hearing the 
board reached a conclusion, and June 2, 1883, lo- 
cated the future territorial capital at the, then, rising 
city of Bismarck. 

According to the act of the legislature passed at 
the last session, as above narrated, and the action 
of the committee then appointed, the sixteenth as- 
sembly was convened at Bismarck, January 13, 
1885, and continued in session in that city until 
March 13 following. A list of its members is as 
follows : 

Council — J. H. Westover, president ; A. C. Huet- 
son, Wm. Duncan, John R. Gamble, A. S. Jones, B. 
R. Wagner, A. M. Bowdle, R. F. Pettigrew, Geo. 
R. Farmer, H. H. Natwick, C. H. Cameron, J. P. 
Day, A. B. Smedley, V. P. Kennedy, F. J. Washa- 
baugh, S. P. Wells, Chas. Richardson, J. Nickeus, 
C. D. Austin, D. H. Twomey, G. H. Walsh, John 
Flittie, Judson LaMoure and P. J. McLaughlin. 

House — George Rice, speaker ; Ole Helvig, John 
Larson, Eli Dawson, Hans Myron, A. L. Van Osdel, 
Hugh'Langan, J. P. Ward, J. H. Swanton, A. J. 
Parshall, Alark Ward, C. E. Huston, H. M. Clark, 
P. L. Runkel, J. M. Bayard, H. W. Smith, W. H. 
Riddell, John Hobart, J. C. Southwick, V. \'. Barnes, 
J. A. Pickler, J. T. Blakemore, G. W. Pierce, M. L. 
Miller, G. H. Johnson, M. T. DeWoody, E. Hun- 
tington, F. A. Eldredge, A. L. Sprague, E. W. Mar- 
tin, H. M. Gregg. A. McCall, E. A. Williams, W. 
F. Steele, Henry ^^'. Coe, J. Stevens. S. E. Stebbins, 
P. J. McCumber, H. S. Oliver, T. .M. Pugh, E. T. 
Hutchinson, W. N. Roach, C. ^\^ Morgan, J. W. 
Scott. D. Stewart, H. Stong, H. H. Ruger, P. 

The seventeenth legislature, composed of the fol- 



lowing named, was in sesrion from January ii until 
March II, 1887: 

Council — George A. Mathews, president; Roger 
Allin, William T. Collins, John Cain, W. E. Dodge, 
E. W. Foster, Melvin Grigsby, Alexander Hughes, 
T. I\I. Martin, P. J. McCumber, C. H. Sheldon, E. 
G. Smith, J. S. Weiser, T. O- Bogart, A. W. Camp- 
bell, P. C. Donovan. E. C. Erickson, H. Galloway, 
G A. Harstad, J. D. Lawler, C. D. Mead, E. T- 
Sheldon, F. J. Washabaugh and S. P. Wells. 

House — George G. Crose, speaker; Fred H. 
Adams, John Bidlake, J. W Burnham, D. 
S. Dodds, Thomas M. Elliott, D. W. En- 
sign, J. H. Fletcher, F. Greene, A. A. Harkins, 
C. B. Hubbard, J. G. Jones, James M. Moore, T. F. 
Mentzer, C. I. Miltimore, John D- Patton, D. F. 
Royer, J. Schnaidt, F. M- Shook, D, Stewart, E. W. 
Terrill, J. V. White, Wilson Wise, L. O. Wyman, 
Frank R. Aikens, W. N- Berry, A. M. Cook, M. H. 
Cooper, John R. Dutch, John A. Ely, William H. 
Fellows, J. T. Gilbert, William Glendenning, W. J. 
Hawk, John Hobart, R. McDonell, F. A. Morris, 
H. J. Mallorey, J. H. Patton, A. J. Pruitt, W. R. 
Ruggles. D. W. Sprague. A. S. Steward, B. H. 
Sullivan C. B. Williams, James P. Ward, E. A. 
Williams and John Woltzmuth. 

The eighteenth and last territorial legislature 
was convened at the capital. Bismarck, January 8, 
1889. and remained in session until March 9. It 

enacted one hundred and twenty general laws, in- 
cluding thirty-four amendments and two repeals. 
Also nineteen joint resolutions and memorials. 
The membership rolls bore the following names: 

Council — Smith Stimmel, president; R. Allin, 
Ircnus Atkinson, Peter Cameron, A. W. Campbell, 
M. H. Cooper, C. I. Crawford, Robert Dollard, E. 
C. Erickson, S. L. Glaspell, James Halley, G. A- 
Harstad, Alexander Hughes, Robert Lowry, Hugh 
McDonald, John Miller, J. H. Patten, David W. 
Poindexter, Joseph C. Ryan, C. A. Soderberg, G. 
H- Walsh, F. J. Washabaugh, James A. Woolheiser 
and A. L. Van Osdel. 

House — Hosmer H. Keith, speaker; F. H. 
Adams, Frank R. Aikens, Joseph Allen, C. H. Bald- 
win, R. L. Bennett, E. H. Bergman, B. F. Bixter, 
J. W. Burnham, A. D. Clark, J. B. Cook, T. A. 
Douglas, Thomas Elliott, J.H.Fletcher, J.M. Greene, 
A. J. Gronna, S. P. Howell, Harry F. Hunter, J. G. 
Jones, I. S. Lampman, W. S. Logan, Frank Lilli- 
bridge, H. J. Mallory, P. McHugh, Edwin McNeil, 
C. J. Miller, F. A. Morris, C. C. Newman, P. P. 
Palmer, A. L. Patridge, H. S. Parkin, John D. Pat- 
ten, O. C. Potter, D. M. Powell, M. M. Price, Wm. 
Ramsdell, D. F. Royer, G. W. Ryan, H. H. Sheets, 
J. O. Smith, W. E. Swanston, C. J. Trude, John 
Turnbull, N. Upham, O. R. Van Etten, J. B. Well- 
come, D. R. Wellman, J. V. White. 



!? STATEHOOD; f"; 








At a very early day in its territorial history, Da- 
kota endeavored to be admitted into the Federal 
Union as a full fledged state. The first movement 
looking to that end came up in 1870, and was the 
natural outgrowth of a feeling that it was for the 
best interests of all that the terriory should be di- 
vided. Discussions of various kinds took place all 
over the territory at that time and finally culminated 
in the legislature, the representative of public opin- 
ion, adopting, January 12, 1871, a memorial to con- 
gress asking that body to divide the territory into 
two parts, the division to be made on the forty-sixth 
parallel of north latitude. This bill was passed by 
a unanimous vote. Similar acts were adopted De- 
cember 31, 1872; December 19, 1874, and January 
24, 1877. At the session of the thirteenth legisla- 
ture, in 1879, ^ protest was made against a talked 
of admission of Dakota as a state without the divi- 
sion desired. The general, almost universal, opin- 
ion being in favor of the division. January 7, 1880, 
G. G. Bennett, the delegate to congress from Da- 
kota, presented a bill to the national house of repre- 
sentatives, providing for the admission to the Union 
of all that part of Dakota south of the forty-sixth 
parallel as a state, and the formation of the balance, 

now North Dakota, into a territory, to be called 
Pembina. December 6, 1880, the same member 
presented a bill to the house asking for admission 
of Dakota, without division, while the same day 
Senator A. S. Paddock, of Nebraska, introduced a 
bill in the house authorizing the people of Dakota to 
form a constitution looking toward statehood. De- 
cember 19, 1881, R. F. Pettigrew, then territorial 
delegate in congress, presented to that body two bills, 
one for the admission of all that part of the terri- 
tory south of the forty-sixth degree of north latitude 
into the Union as a state, and the other for the or- 
ganization of the north half of the territory into the 
territory of North Dakota. At the previous session 
of congress, March 22, 1880, Senator Samuel J. 
Kirkwood, of Iowa, had presented a bill for the or- 
ganization of what is now North Dakota into a ter- 
ritory, to be called Pembina, and in 188 1 Senator 
Saunders, of Nebraska, introduced a bill with the 
same object. In that year the territorial legislature 
presented a memorial askmg for the division of the 
territory into three states or territories. During 
the following winter more than one hundred of the 
leading citizens of Dakota went to Washington to 
urge upon congress action upon a bill enabling South 
Dakota to form a state constitution, and to elect offi- 
cers preparatory to admission to the Union as a 



slate. Although the matter was received favorably 
by both houses of congress and the measure seemed 
for a time likely to meet with favor, political consid- 
eration caused it to be set aside. 

During the last few days of the legislative ses- 
sion of 1883 a bill was passed by both houses of that 
body, almost unanimously, authorizing South Da- 
kota to hold a convention and form a constitution, 
the expenses to be paid out of the territorial treas- 
ury. The bill died in the governors hands. He 'did 
not desire to veto it, for political reasons, but de- 
clined to sign it, giving as a reason, that, as the peo- 
ple of South Dakota were alone to profit by it, he 
could not see the justice of the whole territory pay- 
ing for it. This course provoked much indigna- 
tion among the friends of the measure. There was, 
at the same session of the legislature a bill passed that 
added to the discontent of the people of the south- 
ern half of the territory. This was for the removal 
of the capital, which was re-located at Bismarck, in 
the north half. This helped increase the desire for 
separation and the statehood of South Dakota. The 
removal of the capital provoked intense feeling, and 
meetings were held throughout the lower half of the 
territory, denouncing the legislature, and calling for 
the resignation or removal of Governor Ordway. 
The feeling for renewed and stronger efiforts looking 
toward the division of the territory and the admis- 
sion of South Dakota became intensified, and the 
jealousy that had existed between the two sections 
of the territory received increased force. 

Previous to this, on the 21st of June, 1882, dele- 
gates from ten counties in the south part of the ter- 
ritory met in convention at Canton. This meeting 
called itself the Citizens' Constitutional Association. 
Its object was to consider the subject of a consti- 
tutional convention, increase the membership of the 
legislature and other matters that might arise. An 
executive committee of seven was appointed to act 
on these lines. 


In June, 1883, in accordance with a call made by 
the committee above, a convention met at Huron, 
This was made up of one hundred and eighty-eight 
delegates from thirty-four counties, all of which 
lay in South Dakota. Assuming to speak for the 
people of the whole territory, the north half of 
which had no representative present, they adopted 
the following resolution: 

"Resolved, By the representatives of Dakota in 

convention assembled, in the name and by the author- 
ity of Dakota, that the interests and wishes of the 
people of Dakota demand a division of this territory 
on the forty-sixth parallel ; that on this measure the 
wishes of the people of Dakota who live south of this 
parallel are practically unanimous, and that this is 
their fixed and unalterable will." 

This was accompanied by an ordinance providing 
for the assembling of a constitutional convention to 
be held at Sioux Falls to enact the organic law pre- 
paratory to the admission of that part of the terri- 
tory as a state. 


September 4, 1883, the convention met at Sioux 
Falls to draft the constitution for the prospective 
state. This body held a session of fourteen days, 
and the result of their labors was submitted to the 
action of the voters in fory-two counties of the south 
half of the territory. The total vote cast was 19,150, 
of which 12,336 were in favor of the constitution, 
and 6,814 against it. But all in vain the people 
waited for the necessary congressional authority to 
organize as a state, which never came. 


In the meantime, J. R. Raymond, the delegate 
in congress for Dakota, December 11, 1883, pre- 
sented a bill before congress establishing the terri- 
tory of North Dakota, which was referred to the 
committee on territory, where it perished like other 
measures to the same end presented before. The 
following January Senator Angus Cameron of Wis- 
consin, laid a bill before the senate similar to the 
above, which shared the same fate- 
February 4, 1884, Martin Maginnis, the delegate 
from Montana, presented to congress a bill authoriz- 
ing the people of the whole of Dakota to form a con- 
stitution looking toward statehood. A few days 
previous Senator Angus Cameron, of Wisconsin, 
had presented a bill of like character to the senate. 
Both these, also were referred to the proper commit- 
tee and failed to materialize subsequently upon the 
floor of congress. During the same month two bills 
were presented in the senate by Benjamin Harrison, 
of Indiana, afterwards President of the United 
States, enabling the people of South Dakota to draft 
a constitution and to be admitted into the Federal 
Union as a state. These, also, met with the usual 
fate. The first was referred to the committee on 



territories, and never saw the light again. The 
other, aUhough passed by the senate, was hung up in 
the committee of the house. In all this agitation it 
seems to have been the people of South Dakota that 
were making the most of the effort. In many of the 
movements North Dakota was apparently not rep- 

A bill providing for the admission of South Dakota 
south of the forty-sixth degree of latitude, was again 
again presented in the senate by Hon. Benjamin Har- 
son, of Indiana, January ii, 1886, which passeed that 
that body February 5 following. On the 9th of Feb- 
ruary it was laid before the house of representa- 
tives, and by that body was referred to the commit- 
tee on territories. That committee, of which Will- 
iam AI. Springer, of Illinois, was chairman, re- 
ported back the bill adversely, ]\Iay 25 following- 


A second constitutional convention was held at 
Sioux Falls by the citizens of South Dakota, in 
September, 1885. This also adopted a state consti- 
tution, which was submitted to the voters of the No- 
vember election of that year. Out of a total vote 
of 31,791 electors, 25,226 voted in favor of the con- 
stitution and 6,565 against it. A full state 
ticket for officers of the new state was also elected 
with A. C. Mellette as governor. But congress 
proved obdurate and the admission of the state 
was again postponed. 


Other measures there were, but they all culmi- 
nated in the passage of a bill by both houses of con- 
gress in the winter of 1888-89, which was approved 
by the president February 22, 1889, which, among 
other things, divided the state into two parts and 
admitted both to the honor of statehood. This bill, 
commonly called the Omnibus bill, was as follows: 

"An act to provide for the division of Dakota 
into two states and to enable the people of North 
Dakota, South Dakota, JMontana and Washington 
to form constitutions and state governments, and to 
be admitted into the Union on an equal footing with 
the original states, and to make donations of public 
lands to such states. 

"Section I. That the inhabitants of all that part 
of the area of the United States now constituting 
the territories of Dakota, Montana and Washing- 

ton, as at present described, may become the states 
of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and 
Washington, respectively, as hereinafter provided. 

"Section 2. The area comprising the territory 
of Dakota shall, for the purposes of this act, be 
divided on the line of the seventh standard parallel 
produced west, to the western boundary of said 
territory; and the delegates elected as hereinafter 
provided to the constitutional convention in the dis- 
tricts north of said parallel shall assemble in con- 
vention, at the time prescribed in this act, at the 
city of Bismarck; and the delegates in the districts 
south of said parallel shall, at the same time, assem- 
ble in convention at Sioux Falls. 

"Section 3. That all persons who are qualified 
by the laws of said territories to vote for repre- 
sentatives to the legislative assemblies thereof, are 
hereby authorized to vote for and choose delegates 
to form conventions in said proposed states ; and the 
qualifications for delegates to such conventions shall 
be such as by the laws of said territories re- 
spectively persons are required to possess to be 
eligible to the legislative assemblies thereof; and 
the aforesaid delegates to form said conventions 
shall be appointed within the limits of the proposed 
states, in such districts as may be established as 
herein provided, in proportion to the population in 
each of said counties and districts, as near as may 
be, to be ascertained at the time of making said 
apportionments by the persons hereinafter author- 
ized to make the same, from the best information 
obtainable, in each of which districts three dele- 
gates shall be elected, but no elector shall vote for 
more than two persons for delegates to such con- 
ventions ; that said apportionments shall be made 
by the governor, the chief justice and the secretary 
of said territories ; and the governor of said terri- 
tories shall, by proclamation, order an election of 
the delegates in each of said proposed states, to be 
held on the Tuesday after the second Monday in 
May, 1889, which proclamation shall be issued on 
the 15th day of April, 1889; and such election shall 
be conducted, returns made, the result ascertained, 
and the certificates of persons elected to such con- 
ventions issued in the same manner as is prescribed 
by the laws of said territories regulating elections 
therein for delegates to congress; and the number 
of votes cast for delegates in each precinct shall also 
be returned. The number of delegates to said con- 
ventions respectively shall be seventy-five; and all 
persons resident in said proposed states, who are 
qualified voters of said territories, as herein pro- 



vided, shall be entitled to vote upon the election of 
delegates, and under such rules and regulations as 
said conventions may prescribe, not in conflict with 
this act, upon the ratification or rejection of the 

"Section 4. That the delegates to the conven- 
tions elected as provided in this act shall meet at 
the seat of government of each of said territories, 
except the delegates elected in South Daota, who 
shall meet at the city of Sioux Falls, on the 4th of 
July, 1889, and after organization shall declare, on 
behalf of the people of said proposed states, that 
they adopt the constitution of the United States; 
whereupon the said convention shall be, and are 
hereby authorized to form constitutions and state 
governments for said proposed states respectively. 
The constitutions shall be republican in form, and 
make no distinctions in civil or political rights on 
account of race or color, except as to Indians not 
taxed, and not to be repugnant to the constitution 
of the United States, and the principles of the 
declaration of independence- And said conven- 
tions shall provide, by ordinances irrevocable with- 
out the consent of the United States and the people 
of said states: 

"First — That perfect toleration of religious sen- 
timent shall be secured, and that no inhabitant of 
said states shall ever be molested in person or prop- 
erty on account of his or her mode of religious 

"Second — That the people inhabiting said pro- 
posed states do agree and declare that they forever 
disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated 
public lands lying within the boundaries thereof, 
and to all lands lying within said limits owned or 
held by any Indian or Indian tribes; and that until 
the title thereto shall have been extinguished by the 
United States the same shall be and remain subject 
to the disposition of the United States, and said 
Indian lands shall remain under the absolute juris- 
diction and control of the congress of the United 
States ; that the lands belonging to the citizens of 
the United States residing without the said states 
shall never be taxed at a higher rate than the lands 
belonging to residents thereof; that no taxes shall 
be imposed by the states on lands or property therein 
belonging to or which may hereafter be purchased 
by the United States or reserved for its use. But 
nothing herein, or in the ordinances herein pro- 
Tided for, shall preclude the said states from taxing 
as other lands are taxed any lands owned or held 
by any Indian who has severed his tribal relations 

and has obtained from the United States or from 
any person a title thereto by patent or other grant, 
save and except such lands as may have been or 
may be granted to any Indian or Indians under any 
act of congress containing a provision exempting 
the lands thus granted from taxation; but said or- 
dinances shall provide that all such lands shall be 
exempt from taxation by said states so long and 
to such extent as such act of congress may pre- 

"Third — That the debts and liabilities of said 
territories shall be assumed and paid by said states 

"Fourth — That provision shall be made for the 
establishment and maintenance of systems of pub- 
lic schools, and which shall be open to all the chil- 
dren of said states and free from sectarian con- 

"Section 5. That the convention which shall as- 
semble at Bismarck shall form a constitution and 
state government for a state to be known as North 
Dakota, and the convention which shall assemble at 
Sioux Falls shall form a constitution and state gov- 
ernment for a state to be known as South Dakota; 
Provided, that at the election for delegates to the 
constitutional convention in South Dakota, as herein- 
before provided, each elector may have written or 
printed on his ballot the words 'For the Sioux Falls 
Constitution,' or the words "Against the Sioux 
Falls Constitution,' and the votes on this question 
shall be returned and canvassed in the same man- 
ner as for the election provided for in Sec. 3 of this 
act ; and if a majority of all votes cast on this ques- 
tion shall be 'For the Sioux Falls Constitution,' 
it shall be the duty of the convention which may 
assemble at Sioux Falls, as herein provided, to re- 
submit to the people of South Dakota, for ratifica- 
tion or rejection at the election hereinafter pro- 
vided for in this act, the constitution framed at 
Sioux Falls and adopted November 3, 1886, and 
also the articles and propositions separately sub- 
mitted at that election, including the question of 
locating the temporary seat of government, with 
such changes only as relate to the name and 
boundary of the proposed state, to the reapportion- 
ment of the judicial and legislative districts, and 
such amendments as may be necessary in order to 
comply with the provisions of this act; and if a 
majority of the votes cast on the ratification or 
rejection of the constitution shall be for the con- 
stitution irrespective of the articles separately sub- 
mitted, the state of South Dakota shall be admitted 


as a state in the Union under said constitution as 
hereinafter provided; but the archives, records and 
books, of the territory of Dakota shall remain at 
Bismarck, the capital of North Dakota, until an 
agreement in reference thereto is reached by said 
states. But if at the election for delegates to the 
constitutional convention in Souh Dakota a majority 
of all the votes cast at that election shall be 
'Against the Sioux Falls Constitution,' then and 
in that event it shall be the duty of the conven- 
tion which shall assemble at the city of Sioux Falls 
on the 4th day of July, 1889, to proceed to form a 
constitution and state government as provided in 
this act the same as if that question had not been 
submitted to a vote of the people of South Dakota. 

"Section 6. It shall be the duty of the constitu- 
tional conventions of North and South Dakota to 
appoint a joint commission, to be composed of not 
less than three members of each convention, whose 
duty it shall be to assemble at Bismarck, the pres- 
ent seat of government of said territory, and to 
agree upon an equitable division of all property be- 
longing to the territory of Dakota, the disposition 
of all public records, and also adjust and agree upon 
the amount of the debts and liabilities of the terri- 
tory, which shall be assumed and paid by each of 
the proposed states of North Dakota and South 
Dakota, and the agreement reached respecting the 
territorial debts and liabilities shall be incorporated 
in the respective constitutions, and each of said 
states shall 6blige itself to pay its proportion of such 
debts and liabilities the same as if they had been 
created by such states respectively. 

"Section 7. If the constitution formed for both 
North Dakota and South Dakota shall be rejected 
by the people at the election for the ratification or 
rejection of their respective constitutions as pro- 
vided for in this act, the territorial government of 
Dakota shall continue in existence the same as if 
this act had not been passed. But if the constitu- 
tion formed for either North Dakota or South Da- 
kota shall be rejected by the people, that part of the 
territory so rejecting its proposed constitution shall 
continue under the territorial government of the 
present territory of Dakota, but shall, after the state 
adopting its constitution is admitted into the Union, 
be called by the name of the territory of North Da- 
kota or South Dakota, as the case may be; Pro- 
vided, that if either of the proposed states provided 
for in this act shall reject the constitution which 
may be submitted for ratification or rejection at the 
election provided therefor, the governor of the ter- 

ritory in which such proposed constitution was 
rejected shall issue his proclamation reconvening 
the tlelegates selected to the convention which 
formed such rejected constitution, fixing the time 
and place at which said delegates shall assemble; 
and when so assembled they shall proceed to form 
another constitution or to amend the rejected con- 
stitution, and shall submit such new constitution 
or amended constitution to the people of the pro- 
posed state for ratification or rejection, at such time 
as said convention may determine, and all the pro- 
visions of this act, so far as applicable, shall apply 
to such ct)nvention so reassembled and to the con- 
stitution which may be formed, its ratification or 
rejection, and to the admission of the proposed 

"Section 8- That the constitutional convention 
which may assemble in South Dakota shall provide 
by ordinance for resubmitting the Sioux Falls con- 
stitution of 1885, after having amended the same as 
provided in Section 5 of this act, to the people of 
South Dakota for ratification or rejection at an 
election to be held in said proposed state on the 
said first Tuesday in October. And the constitu- 
tional conventions which may assemble in North 
Dakota, Montana and Washington shall provide in 
like manner for submitting the constitutions formed 
by them to the people of said proposed states, re- 
spectively, for their ratification or rejection at 
elections to be held in said proposed states on the 
said first Tuesday in October. At the election pro- 
vided for in this section the qualified voters of said 
proposed states shall vote directly for or against 
any articles or propositions separately submitted. 
The returns of said elections shall be made to the 
secretary of each of said territories, who, witli the 
governor and chief justice thereof, or any two of 
them, shall canvass the same ; and if a majority of 
the legal votes cast shall be for the constitution, 
the governor shall certify the result to the president 
of the United States, together with a statement of 
the votes cast thereon and upon separate articles or 
propositions, and a copy of said articles, proposi- 
tions and ordinances. And if the constitution and 
government of said proposed states are republican 
in form, and if all the provisions of this act have 
been complied with in the formation thereof, it shall 
be the duty of the president of the United States to 
issue his proclamation announcing the result of the 
election in each, and thereupon the proposed states 
which have adopted constitutions and formed state 
governments, as herein provided, shall be deemed 



admitted by congress into the union under and by 
virtue of this act on an equal footing with the 
original states from and after the date of said 

"Section 9. That until the next general census, 
or until otherwise provided by law, said states shall 
be entitled to one representative in the house of rep- 
rcpresentatives in the United States, except South 
Dakota, which shall be entitled to two; and the rep- 
resentatives of the fifty-first congress, together with 
the governors and other officers provided for in 
said constitution, may be elected on the same day of 
the election for the ratification or rejection of the 
constitution ; and until said state officers are elected 
and qualified under the provisions of each constitu- 
tion and the states, respectively, are admitted into 
the union, the territorial officers shall continue to 
discharge of the duties of their respective offices in 
each of said territories. 

"Section 10. That upon the admission of each 
of said states into the union sections numbered 16 
and 36 in every township of said proposed states, 
and where such sections, or any part thereof, have 
been sold or otherwise disposed of by or under the 
authority of any act of congress, other lands equiva- 
lent thereto, in legal subdivisions of not less than 
one-quarter section, and as contiguous as may be to 
the section in lieu of which the same is taken, are 
hereby granted to said states for the support of 
common schools, such indemnity lands to be se- 
lected within said states in such manner as the leg- 
islature may provide, with the approval of the 
secretary of the interior; Provided, that the i6th 
and 36th sections embraced in permanent reserva- 
tions for national purposes shall not, at any time, 
be subject to the grants nor to the indemnity pro- 
visions of this act, nor shall any lands embodied in 
Indian, military or other reservations of any char- 
acter be subject to the grants or to the indemnity 
provisions of this act until the reservation shall have 
been extinguished and such lands be restored to, 
and become a part of, the public domain. 

"Section 11. That all lands herein granted for 
educational purposes shall be disposed of only at 
public sale, and at a price not less than ten dollars 
per acre, the proceeds to constitute a permanent 
school fund, the interest of which only shall be 
expended in the support of said schools. But said 
lands may, under such regulations as the legisla- 
tures shall prescribe, be leased for periods of not 
more than fifty years, in quantities not ex- 
ceeding one section to any one person or company ; 

and such lands shal not be subject to pre-emption, 
homestead entry, or any other entry under the land 
laws of the United States, whether surveyed or un- 
surveyed, but shall be reserved for school purposes 

"Section 12. That upon the admission of each 
of said states into the union, in accordance with the 
provisions of this act, fifty sections of the unappro- 
priated public lands within said states, to be selected 
and located in legal subdivisions as provided in 
Section 10 of this act, shall be, and are hereby, 
granted to said states for the purpose of erecting 
public buildings at the capital of said states for 
legislative, executive and judicial purposes. 

"Section 13. That five per centum of the pro- 
ceeds of the sales of public lands lying within said 
states shall be sold to the United States subsequent 
to the admission of said states into the Union, 
after deducting all the expenses incident to the same, 
shall be paid to the state debt, to be used as a per- 
manent fund, the interest of which only shall be 
expended for the support of the common schools 
within said states respectively- 

"Section 14. That the lands granted to the ter- 
ritories of Dakota and Montana by the act of Feb- 
ruary 18, 1881, entitled 'An act to grant land sto 
Dakota, Montana, Arizona, Idaho and Wyoming for 
university purposes,' are hereby vested in the states 
of South Dakota, North Dakota and Montana, 
respectively, if such states are admitted into the union 
as provided in this act, to the extent of the full 
quantity of seventy-two sections to each of said 
states, and any portion of said lands that may not 
have been selected by either of said territories of 
Dakota or Montana may be selected by the respect- 
ive states aforesaid; but said act of February 18, 
1881, shall be so amended as to provide that none 
of said lands shall be sold for less than ten dollars 
per acre, and the proceeds shall constitute a per- 
manent fund to be safely invested and held by said 
states severally, and the income thereof be used ex- 
clusively for university purposes. And such quan- 
tity of the lands authorized by the fourth section of 
the act of July 17, 1854, to be reserved for uni- 
versity purposes in the territory of Washington, as, 
together with the lands confirmed to the vendees 
of the territory by the act of March 14, 1864, will 
make the full quantity of seventy-two entire sec- 
tions, are hereby granted in like manner to the state 
of Washington for the purpose of a university in 
said state. None of the lands granted in this sec- 
tion shall be sold at less than ten dollars per acre. 



but said lands may be leased in the same manner 
as provided in section ii of this act. The schools 
colleges and universities provided for in this act 
tions shall be sold at less than ten dollars per acre, 
the said states respectively, and no part of the pro- 
ceeds arising from the sale or disposal of any lands 
herein granted for educational purposes shall be used 
for the support of any sectarian or denominational 
school, college or university. The section of land 
granted by the act of June i6, 1880, to the territory 
of Dakota, for an asylum for the insane, shaii, upon 
the admission of the state of South Dakota into the 
union, become the property of said state. 

"Section 15. That so much of the lands be- 
longing to the United States as have been acquired 
and set apart for the purpose mentioned in 'An 
act appropriating money for the erection of a peni- 
tentiary in the territory of Dakota,' approved 
March 2, 1881, together with the buildings thereon, 
be, and the same are hereby, granted, together with 
any unexpended balances of the moneys appropri- 
ated therefor by the said act, to said state of South 
Dakota, for the purposes therein designated ; and 
the states of North Dakota and Washington shall, 
respectively, have like grants for the same purposes, 
and subject to like terms and conditions, as pro- 
vided in said act of March 2, 1881, for the territory 
of Dakota. The penitentiary at Deer Lodge City, 
Montana, and all lands connected therewith, are set 
apart and reserved therefor, and are hereby granted 
to the state of Montana. 

"Section 16. That ninety thousand acres of land, 
to be selected and located as provided in section 10 
of this act, are hereby granted to each of said states, 
except to the state of South Dakota, to which one 
hundred and twenty thousand acres are granted, for 
the use and support of agricultural colleges in said 
states, as provided in the acts of congress making 
donations of lands for such purposes. 

"Section 17. That in lieu of the grant of land 
for purposes of internal improvements made to new 
states by the eighth section of the act of September 
4, 1841, which act is hereby repealed as to the states 
provided for by this act, and in lieu of any claims 
or demands by such states, or either of them, under 
the act of September 28, 1850, and Section 2479 of 
the Revised Statutes, making a grant of swamp or 
overflowed lands to certain states, which grant it is 
hereby declared is not extended to the states pro- 
vided for in this act, and in lieu of any grant of 
saline lands to said states, the following grants of 
land are hereby made, to-wit : 

"To the state of South Dakota : For the school 
of mines, 40,000 acres ; for the reform school, 40,- 
000 acres ; for the deaf and dumb asylum, 40,000 
acres ; for the agricultural college, 40,000 acres ; for 
the university, 40,000 acres ; for state normal 
schools, 80,000 acres ; for public buildings at the 
capital of said state, 50,000 acres ; and for such 
other educational and charitable purposes as the leg- 
islature of said state may determine, 170,000 acres; 
in all, 500,000 acres. 

"To the state of North Dakota a like quantity 
of land as is in this section granted to the state of 
South Dakota, and to be for like purposes and in like 
proportion so far as practicable. 

"That the states provided for in this act shall 
not be entitled to any further or other grants of 
land for any purpose than as expressly provided in 
this act. And the lands granted by this section shall 
be held, appropriated and disposed of exclusively 
for the purposes herein mentioned, in such man- 
ner as the legislatures of the respective states may 
severally provide. 

"'Section 18. That all mineral lands shall be 
exempted from the grants made by this act. But 
if sections 16 and 36, or any subdivision, or portion 
of any smaller subdivisions thereof in any township 
shall be found by the department of the interior to 
be mineral lands, said states are hereby authorized 
and empowered to select, in legal subdivisions, an 
equal quantity of other unappropriated lands in said 
states, in lieu thereof, for the use and benefit of the 
common schools of said states. 

"Section 19. That all lands granted in quan- 
tity or as indemnity by this act, shall be selected 
under the direction of the secretary of the interior, 
from the surveyed, unreserved and unappropriated 
public lands of the United States within the limits 
of the respective states entitled thereto. And there 
shall be deducted from the number of acres of land 
donated by this act for specific objects of said states 
the number of acres in each heretofore donated by 
congress to said territories for similar objects. 

"Section 20. That the sum of $20,000, or so 
much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appro- 
priated, out of any money in the treasury not other- 
wise appropriated, to each of said territories for 
defraying the expenses of the said conventions, 
except to Dakota, for which the sum of $40,000 is 
so appropriated, $20,000 each for South Dakota 
and North Dakota, and for the payment of the mem- 
bers thereof, under the same rules and regulations 
and at the same rates as are now provided by law 



for the payment of the territorial legislatures. Any 
money hereby appropriated not necessary for such 
proposed shall be covered into the treasury of the 
United States. 

"Section 21. That each of said states, when 
admitted as aforesaid, shall constitute one judicial 
district, the names thereof to be the same as the 
names of the states, respectively; and the circuit 
and district courts therefor shall be held at the 
capital of such state for the time being, and each 
of said districts shall, for judicial purposes, until 
otherwise prpvided, be attached to the eighth 
judicial circuit, except Washington and Montana, 
which shall be attached to the ninth judicial circuit. 
There shall be appointed for each of said districts 
one district judge, one United States attorney and 
one United States marshal. The judge of each 
of said districts shall receive a yearly salary 
of $3,500, payable in four equal installments, on the 
first days of January, April, July and October of 
each year, and shall reside in the district. There 
shall be appointed clerks of said courts in each dis- 
trict, who shall keep their offices at the capital of 
said state. The regular terms of said courts shall 
be held in each district, at the place aforesaid, on 
the first Monday in April and the first Monday in 
November of each year, and only one grand jury 
and one petit jury shall be summoned in both said 
circuit and district courts. 

"Section 22. That all cases of appeal or writ of 
error heretofore prosecuted and now pending in 
the supreme court of the United States upon any 
record from the supreme court of either of the ter- 
ritories mentioned in this act, or that may hereafter 
lawfully be prosecuted upon any record from either 
of said courts, may be heard and determined by said 
supreme court of the United States. And the man- 
date of execution or of further proceedings shall 
be directed by the supreme court of the United 
States to the circuit or district court hereby estab- 
lished within the state succeeding the territory from 
which record is or may be* pending, or to the su- 
preme court of such state, as the nature of the case 
may require ; Provided, that the mandate of execu- 
tion or of further proceedings shall, in cases rising 
in the territory of Dakota, be directed by the su- 
preme court of the United States to the circuit or 
district court of the district of South Dakota, 
or to the supreme court of the state of South Da- 
kota, or to the circuit or district court of the dis- 
trict of North Dakota, or to the supreme court of 
the state of North Dakota, or to the supreme court 

of the territory of North Dakota, as the nature of the 
case may require. And each of the circuit, dis- 
trict and state courts herein named shall, respect- 
ively, be the successor of the supreme court of the 
territory, as to all such cases arising within the 
limits embraced within the jurisdiction of such 
courts respectively, with full power to proceed with 
the same, and award mesne or final process therein ; 
and from all judgments and decrees of the su- 
preme court of either of the territories mentioned 
in this act, in any case arising within the limits of 
any of the proposed states prior to admission, the 
parties to such judgments shall have the same right 
to prosecute appeals and writs of error to the su- 
preme court of the United States as they shall have 
had by the law prior to the admission of said state 
into the union. 

"Section 23. That in respect to all cases, pro- 
ceedings and matters now pending in the supreme 
or district courts of either of the territories men- 
tioned in this act at the time of the admission into 
the union of either of the states mentioned in this 
act, and arising within the limits of any such state, 
whereof the circuit or district courts by this act 
established might have had jurisdiction under the 
laws of the United States had such courts existed 
at the time of the commencement of such cases, 
the said circuit and district courts, respectively, 
shall be the successors of said supreme and district 
courts of said territory; and in respect to all other 
cases, proceedings and matters pending in the su- 
preme or district courts of any of the territories 
mentioned in this act at the time of the admission, 
of said territory into the union, arising within the 
limits of said proposed state, the courts established 
by such state shall, respectively, be the successors 
of said supreme and district territorial courts ; and 
and all files, records, indictments and proceedings 
relating to such cases, shall be transferred to such 
circuit, district and state courts, respectively, and 
the same shall be proceeded with therein in due 
course of law ; but no writ, action, indictment, 
cause or proceeding now pending, or that prior to 
the admission of any of the states mentioned in this 
act shall be pending in any territorial court in any 
of the territories mentioned in this act, shall abate 
by the admission of any such state intotheunion, but 
the same shall be transferred and proceeded with 
in the proper United States circuit, district or state 
court as the case may be ; Provided, however, thae 
in all civil actions, causes and proceedings in which 
tlie United States is not a party, transfers shall not 



be made in the circuit and district courts of the 
United States except upon written requests of the 
of the parties to such action or proceeding filed in 
the proper court ; and in the absence of such request 
such cases shall be proceeded with in the proper 
state courts. 

"Section 24. That the constitutional conven- 
tions may, by ordinance, provide for the election of 
ofificers for full state governments, including mem- 
bers of the legislatures and representatives in the 
fifty-first congress; but said state governments 
shall remain in abeyance until the states shall be 
admitted into the union, respectively, as provided in 
this act. In case the constitution of any said pro- 
posed states shall be ratified by the people, but not 
otherwise, the legislature thereof may assemble, 
organize and elect two senators of the United 
States, and the governor and secretary of state of 
such proposed state shall certify the election of the 
senators and representatives as required by law; 
and when such state is admitted into the union 
the senators and representatives shall be entitled 
to be admitted to seats in congress, and to all the 
rights and privileges of senators and representa- 
tives of other states in the congress of the United 
States; and the officers of the state governments 
formed in pursuance of said constitutions, as pro- 
vided by the constitutional conventions, shall pro- 
ceed to exercise all the functions of such state offir 
cers ; and all laws in force made by said territories 
at the time of their admission into the union shall 
be in force in said states, except as modified or 
changed by this act or by the constitution of the 
states, respectively. 

"Section 25. That all acts or parts of acts in 
conflict with the provisions of this act, whether 
passed by the legislatures of said territories or by 
congress, are hereby repealed. 


Immediately upon the passage by congress of the 
above bill, which divided the territory of Dakota 
into two about equal parts upon the seventh stand- 
ard parallel, and providing for the admission into 
the federal union of all that part of the same north 
of that line as a state to be known as North Da- 
kota, steps were taken to consummate the measure. 
Delegates to a convention to form a state constitu- 
tion, in conformity with the act, were chosen. 
These met in convention at Bismarck, July 4. 1889. 

The roll of membership of this constitutional con- 
vention was the following, together with the county 
they represented. 

Roger Allin, of Walsh ; John Magnus Almen, of 
Walsh; Albert Francis Appleton, of Pembina; 
Therow W. Bean, of Nelson ; James Bell, of Walsh ; 
Richard Bennett, of Grand Forks ; Lorenzo D. Bart- 
lett, of Dickey; David Bartlett, of Griggs; Will- 
iam D. Best, of Pembina; Charles V. Brown, of 
Wells ; Andrew Blewett, of Stutsman ; William 
Budge, of Grand Forks ; Edgar W. Camp, of Stuts- 
man ; Eben Whitney Chafifee, of Cass; John Em- 
mett Garland, of Burleigh; Charles Carothers, of 
Grand Forks ; Horace M. Clark, of Eddy ; William 
J. Clapp, of Cass ; Joseph L. Colton, of Ward ; 
James A. Douglas, of Walsh ; Elmer E. Elliott, of 
Barnes ; Frederick B. Fancher, of Stutsman ; George 
H. Fay, of Mcintosh; Alexander D. Flemington, 
of Dickey; James Bennett Gayton, of Emmons; 
Benjamin Rush Click, of Cavalier; Enos Gray, of 
Cass ; Alexander Griggs, of Grand Forks ; Harvey 
Harris, of Burleigh; Arne P. Haugen, of Grand 
Forks; Marthinus F. Hegge, of Traill; Herbert L. 
Holmes, of Pembina ; Arne P. Haugen, of Grand 
Forks; Marthinus F. Hegge, of Traill; Albert W. 
Hoyt, of Morton; Martin N. Johnson, of Nelson; 
William S. Lauder, of Richland; Addison Leech, 
of Cass ; Martin V. Linwell, of Grand Forks ; 
Jacob Lowell, of Cass; Edward H. Lohnes, 
of Ramsey ; Michael K. Marrinan, of Walsh ; 
J. H. Mathews, of Grand Forks; Olney G. 
Meecham, of Foster; John McBride, of Cav- 
alier; Henry Foster JMiller, of Cass; Samuel H. 
Moer, of La Moure; James D. McKenzie, of Sar- 
gent; Patrick McHuh, of Cavalier; Virgil B. Noble, 
of Bottineau; Knud J. Nomland, of Traill; James 
F. O'Brien, of Ramsey; Curtis P. Parsons, of Ro- 
lette; Albert Samuel Parsons, of Morton; Enge- 
bret M. Paulson, of Traill ; Henry M. Peterson, of 
Cass ; Robert Al. Pollock, of Cass ; John Powers, of 
Sargent; Joseph Powles, of Cavalier; William E. 
Purcell, of Richland ; William Ray, of Stark ; Rob- 
ert B. Richatdson, of Pembina ; Alexander D. Rob- 
ertson, of Walsh; Eugene Strong Rolfe, of Ben- 
son ; William H. Rowe, of Dickey ; Andrew Sanda- 
ger, of Ransom ; John Shuman, of Sargent ; John 
W. Scott, of Barnes ; John F. Selby, of Traill ; 
Andrew Sloten, of Richland ; Burleigh Folsom 
Spalding, of Cass ; Reuben N. Stevens, of Ransom ; 
Ezra Turner, of Bottineau; Elmer D. Wallace, of 
Steele ; Abram CMin Whipple, of Ramsey ; J. Well- 


wood, of Barnes; and Erastus A. Williams, of 

The meeting was called to order and the fol- 
lowing named made officers of the convention: F- 

B. Fancher, president; J. G. Hamilton, chief clerk; 

C. C. Bowsfield, enrolling and engrossing clerk ; 
Fred Falley, sergeant-at-arms ; J. S. Weiser, watch- 
man; E. W. Knight, messenger; George Kline, 
chaplain; and R. M. Tuttle, official stenographer. 

The convention was in session some six weeks, 
adjourning August 17, 1889, during which time 
they formed a constitution which was submit- 
ted to the voters of the new state for their ratifi- 
cation or rejection. The election for this purpose 
and for the election of state officers took place upon 
October i, 1889, and out of a total vote cast of 
35,548, those in favor of the adoption of the consti- 
tution were 27,441, while those against it were 

At the same election wherein the qualified 
voters of the new state gave their endorsement to 
the constitution prepared for them, the officers for 
the state of North Dakota were also chosen. John 
Miller was elected governor; Alfred M- Dickey, 
lieutenant-governor; John Flittie, secretary of 
state; John P. Bray, state auditor; L. E. Booker, 
state treasurer; George F. Goodwin, attorney- 
general; William Mitchell, superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction; H. T. Helgesen, commissioner of 
agriculture and labor; and A. L. Carey, commis- 
sioner of insurance. Guy C. H. Corliss, Alfred 
Wallin and Joseph M. Bartholomew were at the 
same time chosen judges of the supreme court, and 
by lot it was decided that Judge Corliss should serve 
the three-year term, Judge Bartholomew the five, 
and Judge Wallin the seven-year term. The first 
board of railroad commissioners was composed of 
the following named gentlemen : George S. Mont- 
gomery, T. S. Underbill and David Bartlett. 

The judges of the district courts, chosen at the 
same time, were, for the first district, Charles F. 
Temjileton ; second district, David E. Morgan ; 
third district, William B. McConnell ; fourth dis- 
trict, W. S. Lauder; fifth district, Roderick Rose, 
and sixth district, W. H. Winchester. 


The following will show the official vote by 
counties for the office of governor, at this, the first 
state election : 



S g 


5 s 

< w 




























T, ,f„f.,,. 













kK :■■■:":■■.::::■.■.■.'. 



I orran 





McLean . . 












Ramsey • 




















All the requirements of the enabling act having 
been fulfilled, and the returns as directed for- 
warded to the president of the United States. Pres- 
ident Harrison issued, on November 2, 1889, his 
proclamation reciting the dilTerent provisions in 
the act authorizing the formation of the state, and 
showing that the same had been duly complied with, 
concluding: "Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Har- 
rison, president of the United States of America, 
do, in accordance with the act of congress afore- 
said, declare and proclaim the fact that the condi- 



tions imposed by congress on the state of North 
Dakota to entitle that state to admission into the 
Union have been ratified and accepted, and that the 
admission of the said state into the Union is now 

"In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused Ihe seal of the United States to 
be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this 
second day of November, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine, and 
of the independence of the United States of Amer- 
ica the one hundred and fourteenth. 

"By the President, Bexj.\min H.vrrison. 

"Ja.mes G. Blaine, 
"Secretary of State." 


The first officers of the state of North Dakota 
were duly qualified November 4, 1889, and entered 
upon the duties of their several offices. 

Those who have filled the various positions in 
the state government since its admission have been 
as follows, together with the years of their service: 

Governors — John Miller, 1889-90; Andrew H. 
Burke, 1891-92; Eli C. D. Shortridge, 1893-94; 
Roger Allin, 1895-96; Frank A. Briggs, 1897, who 
died while in office in April, 1898, and was suc- 
ceeded by Joseph M. Devine, who filled the posi- 
tion until January i, 1899, when he was succeeded 
by the present governor, Frederick B. Fancher. 

Lieutenant-Governors — Alfred M- Dickey, 
1889-90; Roger Allin, 1891-92: Albert D. Wallace, 
1893-94; Joseph M. Worst, 1895-96; Joseph M. 
Devine, 1897. 

Secretaries of State — John Littie, 1889-92; 
Christian M. Dahl, 1893-96; Fred Falley, 1897. 

Auditors — John P- Bray, 1889-92 (He resigned 
the office and his successor appointed to fill the va- 
cancy) ; Archie Currie, 1892; A. W. Porter, 1893- 
94; Frank A. Briggs, 1895-96; N. B. Hannum, 
1897-99 ; A. N. Carlblom, 1900. 

Treasurers — L. E. Booker, 1889-92; Knud J. 
Nomland, 1893-94; George E. Nichols, 1895-99; D. 
W. Driscoll, 1900. 

Attorneys General — George F. Goodwin, 1889- 
90; C. A. M. Spencer, 1891 -92; W. H. Standish, 
1893-94: John W. Cowan, 1895. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction — Will- 
iam Mitchell went into office in 1889, and died ]\Iarch 
10, 1890, and W. J- Clapp was appointed to fill out 

the term ; John Ogden, 1891-92 ; Laura J. Eisenhuth, 
1893-94; Emma F. Bates, 1895-96, John G. Hal- 
land, 1897. 

Conunissioners of Agriculture aiid Labor — H. T. 
Helgesen, 1889-92; Nelson Williams, who was ap- 
pointed on the failure of Mr. Adams to qualify for 
the office. He served in 1893-94 ; A. H. Laughlin 
1895-96; H. U. Thomas, 1897. 

Coniniissioncrs of Insurance — A. L- Carey, 1889- 
92; James Cuddie, 1893-94; Frederick B. Fancher, 
1895-99; Geo. W. Harrison, 1900. 

Railroad Commissioners — George S. Montgom- 
ery, T. S. Underbill and David Bartlett, 1889-90; 
George H. Walsh, George Harmon and Andrew 
Slotten, 1891-92; Peter Cameron, Ben Stevens and 
Nels P. Rasmussen, 1893-94; John W. Currie, John 
Wamberg and George H. Keyes, 1895-96; George 
H. Keyes, L- L. Walton and J. R. Gibson, 1897- 
99: John Simons, L. L. Walton and Henry Erickson, 


The following is a full directory of the state and 
congressional officers of North Dakota for the year 

Executive Department — Frederick B. Fancher, 
governor, Bismarck ; Thomas H. Poole, private sec- 
retary; Bessie Wagoner, stenographer; Joseph M. 
Devine, lieutenant-governor, La Moure. 

Department of State — Fred Falley, Bismarck, 
secretary ; Frank Lawrence, deputy ; Belle Dietrich, 

Auditor's Department — .\. N. Carlblom, auditor, 
Bismarck : A. D. Lucas, deputy ; H- L. Green, 

Treasurer's Department — D. W. Driscoll, treas- 
urer, Bismarck; M. M. Cook, deputy: J. B. Cook, 

Insurance Department — Geo. W. Harrison, com- 
missioner, Bismarck; T. J. Harris, deputy; Mae 
Hanscom, stenographer. 

Legal Department — John F. Cowan, attorney- 
general, Bismarck ; John F. Philbrick, assistant. 

Department of Public Instruction — ^John G. 
Halland, superintendent, Bismarck ; Will M. Coch- 
ran, deputy : Simon Jahr, clerk ; Margaret H. David- 
son, stenographer. 

Bureau of Labor and Statistics — H. U. Thomas, 
commissioner of agriculture and labor, Bismarck ; 
O. O. Johnson, deputy. 

Commissioners of Railroads — John Simons. \'al- 
lev Citv, chairman : L. L. Walton. Lemert ; Henrv 



Erickson, Towner; W. A. Stickley, secretary, Bis- 

La}id Departinciit — Board of University and 
School Lands comprises the superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction, governor, attorney general, secretary 
of state, state auditor; D. J. Laxdal, commissioner, 
Bismarck; C. L. Merrick, deputy; Walter Brown, 
clerk; Wm. LaMoure, stenographer. 

Department of Justice — State Supreme Court — 
J. M. Bartholomew, chief justice, Bismarck ; Alfred 
Wallin, associate justice, Fargo; N. C. Young, as- 
sociate justice, Fargo; R. D. Hoskins, clerk of su- 
preme court, Bismarck; J. ^M. Cochrane, reporter of 
supreme court. Grand Forks- 

District Judges — First district, Charles J. Fisk, 
Grand Forks; second district, D. E. Morgan, 
Devil's Lake; third district, Charles A. Pollock, 
Fargo; fourth district, W. S. Lauder, Wahpeton ; 
fifth district, S. L. Glaspell, Jamestow^n; sixth dis- 
trict, \V. H. Winchester, Bismarck; seventh dis- 
trict, O. E. Sauter, Grafton. 

Terms of Supreme and U. S. Courts — Supreme 
court, March term: Fourth Tuesday in March at 
Fargo, and second Tuesday in April at Bismarck. 
September term : Third Tuesday in September at 
Grand Forks, and first Tuesday in October at Bis- 

United States Court — At Bismarck, first Tues- 
day in ]March; Devil's Lake, first Tuesday in July; 
Fargo, third Tuesday in November- 

Militia — Commander-in-chief, Governor F. B. 
Francher, Bismarck; adjutant-general, E. S. JNIiller, 


Oil Inspector— F. B. Wickham, Glenullin. 

State Examiner — H. A. Langlie, Bismarck; dep- 
uty, R. E. Wallace, Bismarck, and W. A. Dillon, Bis- 

Cominissioner of Irrigation and Forestry — W. 
W. Barrett, Churchs Ferry. 

State Agent Prevention of Cruelty to Animals — 
Mrs. F. C. Holley, Bismarck. 

State Board of Equali::ation — Governor, auditor, 
attorney-general, commissioner of agriculture and 
lal)or, and treasurer. Sessions at capital, first Tues- 
day in August of each year. 

Historical Commission — Governor, auditor, sec- 
retary of state, commissioner of agriculture and 
labor, Wm. H. Morehead and the president of the 
North Dakota Historical Society (Col. C. A. Louns- 
bcrrv. ) 


. . United States Circuit Judges — Hon. H- C. Cald- 
well, Little Rock, Arkansas ; Hon. Walter H. San- 
born, St. Paul, Minnesota; Hon. Amos M- Thayer, 
St. Louis, Missouri. 

United States District Judge — Hon. Chas. F. 
Amidon, Fargo, North Dakota. 

United States Marshal — John E. Haggart, Fargo, 
North Dakota. 

United States Attorney — P. H. Rourke, Lisbon, 
North Dakota; deputy, E. S. Allen, Bismarck. 

Clerk of United States District and United States 
Circuit Courts — J. A. Montgomery, Fargo, North 

Deputy Clerks — R. D. Hoskins, Bismarck; H. 
N. Hamilton, Grand Forks; D. G. Duell, Devil's 

Surveyor General — E- A. Williams, Bismarck. 

National Baiik Eaminer — \\'. A. Gordon, Grand 

Collector of Customs — N. E. Nelson, Pembina. 

Deputy United States Revenue Collectors — P. 
W. Hennessey, Grand Forks; Dan AIcMillan, James- 


Bismarck — A. C. McGillivray, register; John 
Satterlund, receiver. 

Grand Forks — E. H. Kent, register; C- L. Lind- 
strom, receiver. 

Dezil's Lake — H. E. Baird, receiver; Ole Serum- 
gaard, register. 

Fargo — D. C. Tufts, receiver; C. N. \'alentine, 

Minot — A, L. Hanscom, receiver; T. E. Ols- 
gaard, register. 


United Slates Senators— Henry C. Hansbrough, 
Devil's Lake, North Dakota; Porter J. McCumber, 
Wahpeton, North Dakota. 

Representative in Congress— H. F. Spalding, 
Fargo, North Dakota. 


First Judicial District — J. ^M- Smith, Emcrado. 

Second Judicial District— W. D. McClintock, 

Yliird Judicial District— D. A. IMcLaren, Alaple- 



r,ourtli Judicial District — J. P. Williamson, Ha- 

fifth Judicial District — W. S. Hyde, Hanna- 

Sixth Judicial District^T. S. Underbill, Antel- 

Seventh Judicial District— 0\(t Axvig, Milton. 


.-Igrindtural College — Roger Allin, Grafton; 
Henr}- J. Rusch, Fargo; W. H. Robinson, Alayville; 
R. S. Lewis, Buffalo; George E. Osgood, Fargo; 
Alex Stern, Fargo; E. M. Warren, LaMoure. 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum — A. O. Wbipple, 
Devils Lake; L. A. Larson, Rugby; H. A. Nichol- 
son, Crary. 

Blind Asylum — J. T. Blacklock, Hamilton; Jobn 
Mager, Walhalla ; Herbert L. Holmes, Bathgate ; 
Benjamin James, Bathgate; J. B. Robinson, Bath- 

State School of Forestry — S. F. Swenson, Mc- 
Kinney; Lorenzo D. Dana, Bottineau; Hans A. 
Rothgarn, Willow City. 

State Hospital for the Insane — Anton P'ried, 
Wimbledon ; C. H. Shiels, Edgeley ; Harry Cornwall, 
Eldridge ; Chas. McLachlan, New Rockford ; W. A. 
Murphy, Neche. 

Industrial School — T. W. Millham, Ellendale ; 
B. R. Crabtree, Ellendale; Thomas Faus, Ellendale; 
John Shuman, Milnor; Chas- J. Sturgeon, Edgeley. 

Mayz'ille Normal School — C. M. Johnson, 
Dwight; N. D. Nelson, Mayville; B. S. Russell, 
Jamestown ; E. Y. Sarles, Hillsboro ; Henry Richter, 

Valley City Normal School — Nels Larson, 
Dazey; Amasa P. Peake, Valley City; 'Si. B. Cas- 
sell, Sherbrooke; O. T. Sharping, Enderlin ; J. 
Henry Plath, Jr., Davenport. 

State Penitentiary — John F. Fort, Bismarck ; 
Edward Braddock, Williamsport ; J. D. Moulder, 
Fargo ; R. J. Turner, Gladstone ; Geo. William Ste- 
venson, Mandan. 

Soldiers' Home — Edwin Southard, Grafton; 
Maurice L Brown, Lisbon; E. C. Geary, Fargo; Har. 
ris Gardner, Lisbon ; John D. Black, Valley City. 

State Reform School— C. A. Heegaard, Man- 
dan ; A. P. Folsom, Dickinson ; Henry Gilbert, Sen- 
tinel Butte ; C. A. Kinney, Mandan. 

University of North Dakota — H. T. Helgeson, 
Milton; Stephen Collins, Grand Forks; Wm. Mc- 

Bride, St. Thomas; Wm. Budge, Grand Forks; 
David Bartlett, Cooperstown. 

Veterinary Medical E.vaniiiiers — J. J. Clary, 
Dickey ; J. N. Sheppard, Park River; E. J. Davidson, 
Grand Forks- 

Dental Examiners — Louis S. Irgens, Valley City; 
R. B. Foster, Grand Forks; H. L. Starling, Fargo; 
H. S. Sowles, Wahpeton; D. B. McLean, James- 

Medical Examiners — 1. N. Wear, Fargo; H. j\L 
Wheeler, Grand Forks; J. P- Aylen, Sheldon; H. 
Rutledge, Grand Forks; Wm. F. Hobart, Oakes; 
H. J. Rowe, Casselton; W. R. DePuy, Grafton. 

State Board of. Pharmacy — H. L. Haussamen, 
Grafton; W. S. Parker, Lisbon; H. E. White, 

State Board of Health— John F. Cowan, attor- 
ney-general, president, e.x-officio member; Wm. J. 
Musgrove, Grafton; vice-president. Superintend- 
ent Public Health— Dr. H. D. Quarry, Grand Forks. 

District Veterinarians — First district, J. B. 
Campbell, Larimore; second district, W. F. Crewe, 
Devil's Lake; third district, T. D. Hinebaugh, 
Tower City; fourth district, S. W. Teal, Oakes; 
ffth district, C. N. Ferrier, Jamestown; sixth dis- 
trict, Wm. Mackin, Mandan ; seventh district, A. F. 
Elliott, Milton ; eighth district, R. H. Tracy, Steele ; 
ninth district, F. W. Tompkins, Oberon. 

United States Commissioners — J. A. Montgom- 
ery, Fargo; O. M. Fraser, Grafton; Fred W. Mc- 
Lean, Langdon; Peter J. McClory, Devils Lake; 
Cortland R. Gallfus, Rolla; James R. Gage, Bis- 
marck; James A- Murphy, Jamestown; R. I^L Ca- 
rothers. Grand Forks ; Chas. Adler, Lakota ; James 
V. Brooke, Cando; M. J. Barrett, Minot; John W. 
Maher, Devils Lake; F. L. Thompson, Cando; C. 
J. Maddux, New Rockford ; John H. Wishek, Ash- 
ley; W. D. McClintock, Rugby; A. J. Covell, Sykes- 
ton; Edward W. Bowen, Forman;"Mark Hawker, 
Bottineau; E. L. Richmond, Minncwaukan; H. M. 
Jones, LaMoure. 

Referees in Bankruptcy — Daniel B. Holt, 
Fargo; H. L. Whithed, Grand Forks. 


The iirst session of the legislative assembly un- 
der the new constitution of the state of North Da- 
kota was convened at Bismarck, where the state 
capital had been located, November 19, 1889. The 
membership of this memorable body was as follows : 

Senate — Lieutenant-governor, Alfred Dickey, 



president ; C. C. Bowsfield, secretary ; Judson La- 
Moure, A- F. Appleton, Roger Allin", James H. Bell, 
J. E. Stevens, M. L.McCormack, George B. Winship, 
W. H. Robinson, John E. Haggart, H. J. Rowe, H. 
R. Hartman, Andrew Slotten, Andrew Helgeson, 
Andrew Sandage, Samuel A. Fisher, J. O. Smith, 

D. S. Dodds. John iMcBride, R. D. Cowan, E. L. 
Yeager, W. E. Swanston, F. G. Barlow, Bailey 
Fuller, H. S. Diesem, M. E. Randall, J. H. Worst, 
C. B. Little, Anton Svensrud, E. H. Belyea, George 
Harman, and N. C. Lawrence. 

House — David B. Wellman, speaker : J. G. Ham- 
ilton, chief clerk; John H. Watt, R. B. Richardson, 
H. L. Norton, John Stadleman, John H. McCul- 
lough, A. N. Foss, John Montgomery, A. O. Hau- 
gerud, Alexander Thomson, Franklin Estabrook, 
Nels Tandberg, George W. Walsh, L. F. Zimmer, A. 
P. Haugen, Ole T. Gronli, Roderick J. Johnson, O. 
T. Jahr, J. F. Selby, H. H. Strom, E. S. Tyler, F. 
J. Thompson, Eli D. Mclntyre, N. B. Pinkham, 
John O. Bye, H. D. Court, Frank J. Langer, W. W. 
Beard, R. H. Hankinson, R. N. Ink, A. O. Heglie, 

E. W. Bowen, W. S. Buchanan, R. N. Stevens, J. 
L. Green, Duncan McDonald, C. J. Christianson, 
W. H. H. Roney, Chris Balkan, Ole E. Olsgard, W. 
H. Murphy, F. R. Renauld, James Brittin, G. E. 
Ingebretsen, Jr., D. P. Thomas, James McCormick, 
C. A. Currier, Luther L. Walton, George Lutz, 
John Milsted, L. A. Weland, W. B. Allen, A. T. 
Cole, George W. Lilly, W. L. Belden, E. A. 
Williams, George W. Rawlings, James Reed, A. 
C. Nedrud, A. W. Hoyt, P. B. VVickham, and C. 
C. Moore. 


One of the most important acts of this new 
legislature was the choice of two senators to rep- 
resent the interests of the state of North Dakota, 
upon the floor of the United States senate. As the 
result of this election Gilbert A. Pierce, of Bis- 
marck, and Lyman R. Casey, of Jamestown, were 
declared elected and duly accredited. H. C. Hans- 
brough, of Devil's Lake, had been chosen by the 
people of the polls to re])resent them in the lower 
house of congress. 

The gentlemen who have since held the high 
position of United States senator from North Da- 
kota have been: H. C. Hansbrough, of Devil's 
Lake, 1891-1903; William N. Roach, of Lari- 
more, 1893-99; aiul Peter J. McCumber, of 
Wahpeton, 1899-1905. 

Air. Hansboough served one term as the repre- 
sentative of the people of the new state in the 
fifty-first congress. He was succeeded in that 
office by Martin N. Johnson, whose term of serv- 
ice lasted through the fifty-second, fifty-third, fifty- 
fourth and fifty-fifth congresses. Burleigh T. Spald- 
ing, of Fargo, was the representative of North 
Dakota in the lower house in the fifty-sixth congress. 


The second session of the state legislature was 
convened January 9, 1891, and adjourned March 
6th, following. The membership was composed 
of the following named : Lieutenant-governor, 
Roger Allin, president ; C. C. Bowsfield, secretary ; 
Judson LaMoure, J. L. Cashel, John Bjorgo, N. B. 
Pinkham, Magnus Nelson, F. G. Enger, Andrew 
Bisbee, J. M. Patch, David P. Kuhn, Anton Sven- 
srud, A. C. McGillivray, S. B. Brynjolfson, H. F. 
Arnold, Roderick Johnson, A. H. Lowry, M. L. 
Engle, S. Svennungsen, Frank Palmer, B. W. 
Fuller, J. H. Worst, James Johnson, John Almen, 
M. L. McCormack, John Haggart, R. N. Ink, J. 
S. Weiser, John Bidlake, James McCormick, F. 
W. Kinter, C. B. Little and Joseph Miller. 

House — W. B. Allen, speaker; J. G. Hamilton, 
chief clerk ; Patrick Horgan, Jacob Graber, Charles 
Ebbighausen, C. A. Burton, Joseph C. Ciosky, O. 
S. Wallin, A. Hanson, E. H. Holte, G. N. Smith, 
P. S. Larson, John E. Hodgson, L. C. Hill, W. J. 
Skinner, Fred Dennett, L. P. Havrevold, H. A. 
Holtimier, George Lutz, G. H. Fay, John A. Davis, 
William McKay, S. L. Haight, A. N. Foss, E. E. 
Dailey, G. G. Beardsley, W. H. Brown, Louis 
Thompson, A. L. Loomis, D. C. Tufts, J. C. Gill, 
J. W. Cope, K. Peabody, C. J. Christianson, W. T. 
McCuUoch, Ole Axving, Charles A. Erickson. L. 
L. Walton, E. T. Kearney, John S. Richie, Will- 
iam Oscar Ward, John Satterlund, J. A. Farrah, 
Arni Bjornson, James Douglas, W. H. Daniel, M. 
F. Williams, D. C. Cunningham, H. H. Strom, 
George Osgood, H. M. Peterson, J. Moody Watson, 
M. N. Triplett. H. S. Oliver, Frank White. J. P. 
Lamb, John Burke, J. V. Brooke, Ralph Hall, 
George K. Loring, Charles Fiske, John Yegen, and 
Fred Holritz. 

The third session of the general assembly met 
at the state capital, January 3, 1893. and adjourned 
March 3, following. The roster of membership 
was as follows: 

Senate — Lieutenant-governor Elmer D. Wal- 



lace, president ; Fred Falley, secretary ; Judson La 
Moure,, S. B. Brynjolfson, William Hillier, J. L. 
Cashel, H. F. Arnold, M. L. McCormack, John A. 
Sorley, Roderick Johnson, John Haggart, N. B. 
Pinkham, E. Young, R. N. Ink, Richard McCar- 
ten, M. L. Engle, Frank White, F. G. Enger, J. P. 
Lamb, John Bidlake, John Burke, Frank Palmer, 
E. P. Day, J. M. Patch, Bailey Fuller, F. M. Kin- 
ter, J. W. Stevens, J. H. Worst, C. B. Little, Anton 
Svensrud, Charles Gregory, Joseph Miller and A. 
C. McGillivray. 

House — George H. Walsh, speaker ; J. G. Ham- 
ilton, chief clerk ; P. J. Morgan, Benjamin James, 
Robert Thexton, F. A. Holiday, N. H. Rinde, K. 
P. Levang, C. Ebbighausen, William R. Johnson, 
William O'Keefe, Andrew Johnson, J. Dexter 
Pierce, Lewis Thompson, W. T. McCulloch, S. M. 
Lee, F. W. McLean, Charles W. Plain, D. W. Mc- 
Canna, L. P. Havrevold, T. H. Oksendahl, E. H. 
Lohnes, Thomas Halvorson, J. B. Wineman, Arne 
P. Haugen, H. D. Hurley, H. H. Strom, L. H. 
Larson, O. S. Wallin, H. C. Southard, Seth New- 
man, D. C. Tufts, Elling Severson, B. F. Ritter, 
P. Kelly, A. C. Sanford, Ralph Hall, George 
Wright, O. A. Boynton, L. A. Ueland, George W. 
Towers, J. W. Caldwell, J. H. Wishek, George S. 
Churchill, J. B. McArthur, Samuel Bullard, John 
N. Dean, Borger Hallum, A. V. Benedict, John E. 
Hodgson, Theodore Johnson, Harry S. Oliver, 
Thomas M. Elliott, Hans O. Hagen, John Logan, 
W. F. Cochrane, William A. Bentley, John Yegen, 
John A. Davis, John Satterlund, J. S. Veeder, 
Louis Burkhart and L. A. Simpson. 

The fifth session of the legislature was convened 
January 8, 1895, and adjourned March 8, the same 
year. The members were: 

Senate — Lieutenant-Governor John H. Worst, 
president ; Fred Falley, secretary ; Judson La 
Moure, James Dobie, William Hillier, George Clark, 
H. F. Arnold, Frank Viets, J. A. Sorley, H. H. 
Strom, John Haggart, D. C. Tufts, E. Young, A. 
V. Benedict, R. McCarten, P. H. Rourke, Frank 
White, F. G. Enger, J. P. Lamb, Charles W. Plain, 
John Burke, C. G. Brown, E. P. Day, D. F. Davis, 
Bailey Fuller, Charles N. Valentine, J. W. Stevens, 
John H. Wishek, C. B. Little, A. L. Hanscom, C. 
E. Gregory, H. S. Parkin and A. C. McGillivray. 

House — James C. Gill, speaker; J. M. Devine, 
chief clerk : James T. Blacklock, Patrick Horgan, 
Stephen Eyolfson, Thomas Guinman, N. H. Rinde, 
A. H. Kellogg, Ole A. Rod, George Hill, William 
Flemming, Joseph A. Myers, Peter N. Korsmo, 

Joseph Colosky, Rollin N. Cooper, Nicolai Swen- 
son, Linn B. Ray, John Flack, James Jennings, 

A. B. McDonald, C. L. Lindstrom, O. T. Tufsrud, 
R. J. Walker, W. B. Wood, J. B. Wineman, Henry 
Hancock, P. Herbrandson, John L Lerum, T. E. 
Nelson, O. S. Wallin, A. W. Edwards, E. S. Tyler, 
N. A. Colby, T. Twichell, E. Gilbertson, Frank H. 
Prosser, Charles McLachlan, E. F. Porter, J. J. 
Nierling, E. J. Gleason, J. B. Sharp, Andrew 
Smith, Frank W. Brainard, H. A. Armstrong, L. 

B. Hanna, E. C. Sargent, Eric Stafne, James Pur- 
don, F. L. Dwyer, John E. Hodgson, John Cryan, 
Erick Gunderson, Morris F. Brown, Nels P. Ras- 
mussen, John Logan, George S. Roberts, Thomas 
Richards, M. Spangberg, Anton Svensrud, John 
S. Murphy, Herman Kroeger, Fred Holril2 and 
L. A. Simpson. 

The fifth session of the legislature was opened 
January 5, 1897, and adjourned March 5 following. 
The member swere the following named : 

Senate — Lieutenant-Governor Joseph M . De- 
vine, president ; J. C. Gill, secretary ; Judson La 
Moure, James Dobie, K. P. Levang, George Clark, 
Horace F. Arnold, Frank Viets, W. A. Gordon, H. 
H. Strom, J. E. Haggart, D. C. Tufts, L. B. Hanna, 
A. V. Benedict, R. McCarten, P. H. Rouke, Frank 
White, F. G. Enger, Charles Dunlap, Charles W. 
Plain, D. W. McCanna, C. G. Brown, H. M. Creel, 

D. F. Davis, B. W. Fuller, Charles N. Valentine. 
Thomas F. Marshall, John H. Wishek. C. B. Little. 
A. L. Hanscom, William E. Mansfield, John S. 
Green and A. C. McGillivray. 

House — Erastus A. Williams, speaker; Henry 

E. Lavayea, chief clerk; John D. Wallace, Alexan- 
der Duncan, H. N. Joy, Thomas Guinan, James J. 
Dougherty, David E. Towle, Julius Wirkus, Charles 
Ebbighausen, K. O. Brotnov, P. N. Korsmo, John 
McConnachie, William B. Wood, James Ryan, 
Frank Gaulke, Andrew Offerdahl, H. 'SI. Williams, 
S. N. Heskin, H. D. Hurley, Gunder Howard, O. 
W. Francis, E. E. Cole, N.' A. Colby, Egbert Gil- 
bertson, T. Twitchell, W. J. Hawk, E. C. Sargent, 
R. B. Boyd, James B. Power, John S. Johnson, R. 
H. Hankinson, John Cyran, John Carlin, Robert J. 
Mitchell, E. S. Lovelace, George W. Earl, W. H. 
McPherson, Nicolai Swenson, L. C. Goplerud, Sam- 
uel S. Aas, J. B. Boyd, John Butterwick, Ole Syvert- 
son, C. L. Lindstrom, C. A. Erickson, Charles A. 
Currier, A. G. Tanton, E. F. Porter, H. Peoples, 
John McGinnis, Frank A. Lenz, J. B. Sharpe, 
Thepdore Northrop, Eugene F. Dunton, Wesley 
Baker, William L. Belden, Thomas Richards, F. 



2kl. Hammond, John S. Murphey, Herman Kroeger, 
Donald Stevenson and Alfred \\'hite. 

The sixth general assembly met at the capital 
of the state. Bismarck, July 3, 1899, and contained 
the. following members : 

Senate — Judson La Moure, James Fuller, K. P. 
Levang, J. L. Cashel, H. F. Arnold, M. F. Murphy, 
D. W". Luke, F. \V. Ames, J. E. Cronan, R. T. 
Twichell, L. B. Hanna, A. Slotten, R. AlcCarten, 
R. S. Sanborn. A. B. Cox, R. C. Cooper, Charles 
Dunlap, \y. A. Laidlow, D. W. McCanna, O. L 
Hegge. H. U. Creel. E. F. Porter, B. W. Fuller, 
J. B. Sharp, T. F. Marshall, Wesley Baker, C. B. 
Little, \'irgil B. Noble, W. E. Mansfield, J. A. Mc- 
Dougall. A. C. McGillivray and H. F. Arnold. 

House— W. ]. Watts. J. Thordarson, L. H. 
Restmeyer, J. J. Dougherty, D. E. Towle, W. R. 

Johnson, Henry Ferris, K. O. Brotnos, J. E. Tufte, 
W. W. Glasgow, J. D. Bacon, Alex Stewart, M. 
Erickson, C. J. Ovind, O. G. Nelson, O. C. Hauan, 
P. Herbrandson, P. G. Swenson, W. D. Allen, 
Thomas Baker, G. W. Wolber, B. P. Chancey, Nels 
Brakke, E. C. Sargent, R. B. Boyd, W. W. Tous- 
ley, M. Lynch, A. W. Thomas, J. S. Johnson, A. 
Peterson, J. L. Taylor, T. J. Devine, A. H. Laugh- 
lin, G. W. Earl, D. N. Green, C. Winslow, M. B. 
Cassel, S. S. Aas, H. McLean, S. Berger, W. A. 
Clary, J. Michaels, F. L. Gronvold, Henry Hale, 
Hans Ugland. E. B. Thompson, H. J. Miner, C. A. 
Sanford, O. McHarg, C. S. Diesem, J. S. Kennedy, 
J. S. Peek, T. W. Allshouse, G. O. Gullack, Joseph 
Hare, R. M. Stevens, O. Gilbertson, P. P. Lee, D. 
Stevenson, William Engleter and D. Lish. Thomas 
Baker was elected speaker of the house. 





In response to public sentiment evinced from 
time to time, and in accordance with the time- 
honored plan of government adopted in this coun- 
try, the legislature formed and created local civil 
sub-divisions of the state for convenience of reve- 
nue, local government and judicial jurisdiction. 
Each became, as it were, a cog in the machinery 
of the popular government; a part of the state in 
its widest sense. The record of these events, with 
the individuals who first steered the counties' for- 
tunes are collected together in this chapter for con- 
venience of reference and for consistency of rela- 

Cavalier county was created from a part of 
Pembina county, January 4, 1873. Its boundaries 
were changed several times, in 1883, 1885 and 1887. 
June 16, 1884, Governor Ordway made the appoint- 
ment of the following named as a board of com- 
missioners to organize the county: Patrick Mc- 
Hugh, W. H. Mathews and L. C. Norveong. The 
first meeting of the board was held at Langton, July 
8, 1884, and it proceeded to organize by the election 
of L. C. Norveong as chairman, and Mr. McHugh 

resigning, W. J. Doyle was elected to fill his place 
on the board. The first officers chosen to carry 
on the business of the county, until the regular 
election, were as follows: W. J. Mooney, judge 
of probate and county treasurer ; Patrick McHugh, 
register of deeds and county clerk. At the August 
meeting of the board Charles B. Xelson was ap- 
pointed treasurer. 

The following November the election resulted 
in the choice of the following officers: Patrick 
McHugh, register of deeds; C. B. Nelson, treas- 
urer; H. D. AUert, superintendent of public schools; 
Clarence Hawks, sherifi:: James J. Reilly, coroner; 
\V. J. Mooney, judge of probate; James M. Stark- 
weather, county surveyor ; Albert M. Comes, county 
assessor; Charles Jackson, Joseph Hamann, W. H. 
Conn and Charles Thonim, justices of the peace. 
The county seat was located at Langdon. 

Richland county, which was named in honor 
of M. T. Rich, one of its earliest settlers and in- 
fluential and prominent citizens, was created Janu- 
ary 4, 1873, by legislative enactment. Its boun- 
daries have been changed twice, once in 1883 and 
again in 1885. The county was organized in the 
summer of 1873, commissioners for that purpose 



having been appointed by the governor. The board 
of commissioners, consisting of J. W. Branding, 
chairman, and D. Wihiiot Smith and AI. T. Rich, 
after their appointment, met at the residence of Mr. 
Rich and selected W'ahpeton for the county seat. 
They, also, appointed the following officers, to hold 
office until the first election: Hugh Blanding, 
county clerk and register of deeds; J. Q. Burbank, 
treasurer, and W. E. Root, sheriff. In November, 
1873, the following named were elected to fill the 
various county offices: John Smith, Alexander 
2^IcCall and John Kotschevar, commissioners ; J. 
M. Ruggles, county clerk and register of deeds ; 
John Q. Burbank, county treasurer and probate 
judge; Job Herrick, sheriff'; H. C. N. Myhra, as- 
sessor; J. AI. Ruggles, county superintendent of 
schools; and S. H. Fowler, John Haslehurst and 
William Weiss, justices of the peace. At the time 
of this election there were but few settlers within 
the boundaries of the county and it was made one 
voting precinct, the polling place being located at 
Wahpeton. About sixty votes were cast. At the 
presidential election of 1896 some three thousand 
ballots were deposited by voters in Richland county. 
A fine court house. was built at Wahpeton in 1881, 
but it was destroyed by fire in 1883. It was at 
once rebuilt better than before, at a cost of above 

Wells county was set off by act of legislature 
as Gingras county, January 4, 1873. The name 
was changed February 26, 1881, and the boundaries 
readjusted in 1883, and again in 1885. June 24, 
1884, the governor appointed as a board of commis- 
sioners to organize the county the following gen- 
tlemen : Marshal R. Brinton, chairman; Joseph 
P. Cox and Thomas R. Williams. They held their 
first meeting August 28, 1884. The first officers 
of Wells county were : J. J. Le Tourman, county 
clerk and register of deeds; J. J. O'Connell, sheriff; 
Charles V. Brown, assessor; D. T. Davis, treas- 
urer; Newton Athow, surveyor; Frank McCallon, 
coroner; Richard Wixey, superintendent of the 
schools, and T. C. J. Wych, probate judge. Sykes- 
ton was chosen as the county seat. The present seat 
of justice in the county is Fessenden. 

Sargent county was created by an act of the 
territorial legislature, from part of Ransom county 
and a part of the Sisseton and Wahpeton Indian 
reservation, March 3, 1883. March 8, of the same 
year, its boundaries were changed, part being set 
oft' to Hyde county. August i, 1883, the governor 
appointed, as a board of county commissioners to 

organize the count}-, the following named gentle- 
men : B. S. Haskell, chairman ; C. C. Newman and 
J. R. Herring. These commissioners met for the 
first time October 8, 1883, and proceeded to organ- 
ize. The first officers of the county were: T. C. 
Lauder, register of deeds; L. O. Berg, judge of 
probate court ; John Devlin, sheriff ; E. J. Williams, 
treasurer; James H. Vail, clerk of court. JNIilnor 
was chosen for the county seat, but in 1886 the seat 
of justice in Sargent county was removed to For- 

Mcintosh, which was set off from a part of Lo- 
gan, county, was created March 9, 1883. It was or- 
ganized by three commissioners who were appointed 
by the governor, September 25, 1884. This board, 
which consisted of Charles C. Morrell, George W. 
Lilly and Charles V. Basye, assembled October 4, 
the same year, and proceeded to the organization 
for which they were appointed. The first officers 
were : John J. Wishek, register of deeds and 
county clerk; Alanson Richards, judge of probate 
court; Alexander McDonald, sheriff; Horace S. 
Bear, treasurer; G. W. Abbott, superintendent of 
schools; C. D. Johnson, assessor; David Rickey, 
coroner; S. Basye, C. D. Johnson, W. O. Mcin- 
tosh and Isaac Lincoln, justices of the peace. Hos- 
kins was selected as the county seat. In November, 
1887, by a vote of the electors, the seat of justice 
was transferred to Ashley. 

Emmons county was created by act of legisla- 
ture, February 10, 1879. October 16, 1883, the 
governor commissioned James B. Gayton, William 
L. Yeater and Robert S. Whitney as a board to or- 
ganize the same. At their first meeting, held in 
November, they completed the act for which the}- 
were appointed and formed the first board of county 
commissioners. The first officers were: Daniel 
Williams, auditor; J. N. Ropp, treasurer, and J. 
Tape, assessor. Williamsport was chosen for the 
county seat, but some years later it was removed to 

In 1885, from parts of the counties of Stevens, 
Renville and Wallace, was created a new county 
which was to bear the name of Ward county. 
March 11, 1887, its boundaries were changed. J. 
A. Baker, Chris Rasmussen and John ^Murray were 
appointed the first board of county commissioners. 
The first meeting of the board was held November 
23, 1885, in a store building at Burlington, which 
town was chosen the county seat. The first offi- 
cers in the new county were: L. S. Foote, county 
clerk and register of deeds ; Amos T. Tracy, sheriff' ; 


Michael Muir, treasurer ; James W. Bell, probate 
judge; Mrs. Frank Spear, county superintendent 
of schools ; James Johnson, clerk of the court, and 
D. E. Preston, county attorney. A few years later 
the county seat was removed to Minot. 

Mercer county was the outgrowth of legisla- 
tion of January 14, 1875, when it was created. 
Twice since its boundaries have been adjusted, once 
in 1881 and again March 12, 1885. November 6, 
1883, the governor appointed Thomas McGrath, 
Horace C. Walker and George Williams commis- 
sioners to organize the county. At the first meet- 
ing of the board George Hawley was substituted 
for Mr. McGrath. This meeting was held August 
22, 1884. The first officers were as follows : B. 
J. Van \'leck, county clerk; S. C. Walker, register 
of deeds ; George Gordon, sheriff ; A. R. Granberry, 
judge of probate; Louis Connolly, treasurer; James 
McGrath, superintendent of schools; W. C. Fress- 
ler, coroner, and J. F. Kiebert, surveyor. Stanton 
is the county seat. 

McHenry county was created from a part of 
Buffalo county, by legislative action, January 4, 
1873. ^ri 1885 and in 1887 the original boundaries 
were changed. The organization of McHenry 
county dates from October 15, 1884, when, at a 
meeting held at V'illard postoffice, of which O. M. 
Towner was chairman and Edward Hackett secre- 
tary, the following temporary officers were appointed 
to carry on the business of the county : G. W. 
Crane, register of deeds and county clerk; F. A. 
Frisby, treasurer; Michael McLear, sheriff; W. D. 
McClintock, probate judge and county attorney ; 
Parley Teare, assessor ; C. E. Jones, county sur- 
veyor ; George T. Inkster, county superintendent of 
public schools; R. H. Copeland, coroner. By an 
act of the territorial legislature it was ordered that 
a special election be held in McHenry county, on 
the second Tuesday in May, 1885, for the purpose 
of electing county officers and for the designation 
of a temporary county seat. On holding this 
election Scripton was voted the county seat and the 
following officers were elected : A. L. Hanson, Ole 
Gilbertson and J. M. Pendroy, county commission- 
ers ; George T. Inkster, register of deeds ; Olof 
Berg, auditor; Benjamin Reed, sheriff; A. J. Oslie, 
judge of probate; G. A. Cameron, superintendent 
of schools; J. T. Bailey, county surveyor; J. A. 
Larson, assessor; H. B. Johnson, justice of the 

September 20, 1886, the county was divided into 
five commissioner districts, with the following 

board: Ole Gilbertson, J. AL Pendroy, O. AL 
Towner, E. W. Carlwright and Charles Schilling. 
Towner was made the permanent county seat at the 
election held November 2, 1886, and the i8th of 
December of that year, the records and county prop- 
erty were removed to that place. 

Stutsman county, which was named in honor 
of Enos Stutsman, one of the pioneers and promi- 
nent citizens of early days, was organized June 10, 
1873. The governor appointed A. W. Kelley, 
George W. X'ennum and George Tibbetts commis- 
sioners for the purpose. The latter left about the 
time of the organization and was replaced on the 
board by H. C. Miller. Mr. Kelley was chosen 
chairman. The following officers were appointed 
to fill the places until the election could be held: 
George W. Vennum, register of deeds ; P. Aloran, 
county treasurer ; A. McKechnie, sheriff, and F'rank 
C. Myrick, auditor. The first election was held in 
November, 1873, at which time there were built 
eighty votes cast. Stutsman county was created 
by the tenth territorial legislature, January 4, 1873. 
Its boundaries were changed from those originally 
assigned it in 1885. 

Dickey county was created by an act of the leg- 
islature, March 5, 1881, and July i, 1882, the fol- 
lowing named gentlemen were appointed by the 
governor as a board of commissioners to organize 
it : R. C. Olin, A. H. Whitney and H. E. G^schke. 
These met at the Dickey county bank at Ellendale, 
August 18, 1882, and appointed the following offi- 
cers: M. M. Chamberlain, county clerk and regis- 
ter of deeds; George Kreis, treasurer; W. H. 
Becker, county attorney and judge of probate 
court; H. J. Van Meter, sheriff; J. L. Stephenson, 
assessor; J. E. Brown, surveyor; Miss F. F. Arnold, 
superintendent of schools ; W. F. Duncan, coroner ; 
J. A. Scott and W. A. Caldwell, justices of the 
peace. Ellendale was chosen as the county seat 
temporarily. The Dickey County Leader was made 
the official organ. At the first election, held No- 
vember 6, 1882, the following officers were chosen: 
A. H. Whitney, J. A. Speilman and R. C. Olin, 
county commissioners ; A. L. Decoster, register of 
deeds; W. H. Becker, probate judge; George Kreis, 
treasurer ; C. L. Demming, sheriff ; J. E. Brown, 
surveyor ; Miss F. F. Arnold, superintendent of 
schools ; J. A. Scott, H. Gleason and N. B. Phillips, 
justices of the peace. At this same election the 
question of location of a permanent county seat 
was voted upon, and Ellendale had 162 votes and 
Keystone 62. 



Griggs county was formed from parts of Traill 
and Foster, February i8, 1881. June 10, 1882, 
Allen Breed, Rollin Cooper and William A. Glives 
were appointed by the governor a board of county 
commissioners for the purpose of organization. June 
16, 1882, the county seat was located at Hope, but 
November 7 of the same year, by a vote of the peo- 
ple, the seat of government of the county, was re- 
moved to Cooperstown, a division of the county in 
that year having thrown the town of Hope into the 
newly formed county of Steele. 

Traill county was created by an act of the legis- 
lature January 12, 1875, from parts of Burchard, 
Cass and Grand Forks counties. March 8, 1883, 
part of the original county was detached and added 
to the new county of Steele. Asa H. Morgan, John 
Brown and James Ostland were appointed, Janu- 
ary 12, 1875, as a board of commissioners to prop- 
erly organize the new county, and the southeast 
quarter of section 15, township 146 north, range 
XLIX west, was designated as the county seat by act 
of legislature. The first officers of the new county 
were as follows : A. H. Morgan, Halvor Berg and 
Michael O'Flaherty, county commissioners ; George 
E. Weston, register of deeds and county clerk ; Asa 
Sargent, treasurer; C. M. Clark, sheriflf; J. C. Pat- 
ten, superintendent of public instruction. The name 
of Caledonia was given to the county seat. Hills- 
boro is now the seat of justice of Traill county. 

Steele county was created by the legislature 
March 8, 1883, from portions of Traill and Griggs 
county. June 8 of the some year three commis- 
sioners to organize the new sub-division of the 
state were appointed by the governor. This first 
board of county commissioners consisted of the fol- 
lowing gentlemen: Thomas Ward, P. S. McKay 
and R. W. Berry. The first officers of the county, 
other than these, were: E. J. McMahon, register 
of deeds and county clerk ; C. A. Renwick, probate 
judge: C. J. Paul, treasurer: R. H. Simpson, county 
superintendent of schools; C. H. Ward, sheriff; H. 
D. Carpenter, assessor; Dr. W. H. M. Phillips, 
coroner, and H. L. Smith, C. Sloper and W. J. 
Skinner, justices of the peace. Sherbrooke is the 
county seat. 

Towner county, which was named after the 
Hon. f). M. Towner, of Grand Forks county, was 
formed by the fifteenth territorial legislature., March 
8. 1883. out of parts of Cavalier and Rolette counties. 
November 16, 1883, the governor made the appoint- 
ment of three commissioners for the purpose of or- 
ganizing the new county. The board consisted of 

Prosper P. Parker, chairman ; H. Curtis Davis and 
John S. Conyers. They held their first meeting 
January 24, 1884, and selected the following as the 
first officers : W. E. Pew, register of deeds ; Albert 
M. Powell, clerk of the court; John W^. Hardee, 
probate judge; John W. Roche, county treasurer; 
David W. McCanna, assessor; Clarence N. Perci- 
val, sheriflf; Frank L. Wilson, surveyor; Guy W. 
Germond, superintendent of schools; Dr. Thomas 
\\'. Conyers, coroner; John A. Bennett and Charles 
H. Ensign, justices of the peace. February 14, 
1884, the county seat was located at Cando. 

Of Ramsey county, the record of organization 
is as follows: January 25, 1883, D. W. Ensign, 
E. V. Barton and G. S. Moore, the three commis- 
sioners appointed for the purpose by the governor, 
met at Devil's Lake City. This was a town laid 
out by Ensign Benham & Co., about two miles 
southeast of the city of Devil's Lake, near the main 
lake, on sections i and 12, township 153 north, 
range 64 west. This place was chosen as the county 
seat. A substantial court house was erected and 
the town seemed to flourish. The railroad, how- 
ever, was located a short distance away, and Creel 
City (now the city of Devil's Lake) was laid out 
a few months later, when the superior advantages 
of the latter place drew the older place to it. The 
county seat was changed and the court house, as 
well as every other building of the former town, 
was removed to the site of its younger rival. The 
first officers elected were: E. V. Barton, D. W. 
Ensign and H. H. Ruger, commissioners ; J. A. 
Percival, register of deeds ; T. C. Saunders, clerk 
of the court; Charles F. Smith, sheriflf, and Capt. 
J. W. Palmer, treasurer. Ramsey county was 
created from part of Pembina county, by act of leg- 
islature. Several times its boundaries have been 

The county of Bottineau was created by act of 
legislature January 4, 1873, but not organized. Its 
boundaries as first set oflf were changed in 1883, 
and again in 1887. May 13, 1884, the governor ap- 
pointed a board of county commissioners to organ- 
ize the county. This consisted of W^illiam F. Sim- 
rail. Albert C. Barnes and Lorenzo D. Dana. These 
held their first meeting July 17, and proceeded to 
select officers to carry on the business of the county 
until the first regular election. Bottineau was 
chosen the county seat. 

Nelson county was formed by an act of the ter- 
ritorial legislature, March 9. 1883, from parts of 
Ramsey, Grand Forks and Foster counties. May 



15, of the same year, the governor appointed three 
commissioners to carry out the organization. This 
first board consisted of the following named: 
David S. Dodds, Francis I. Kane and George S. 
JMartin. At Lakota, which had been made the 
county seat, the board organized in June and ap- 
pointed the following officers : H. W. Alexander, 
register of deeds and county clerk; W. S. Tallant, 
clerk of the courts; E. L. Owen, treasurer; D. J. 
Tallant, probate judge; Josiah Pierce, sheriff, and 
M. A. Coons, assessor. 

Ransom county was created January 4, 1873, by 
an act of the tenth territorial assembly. Its boun- 
daries were changed in 1883. March 7, 1881, the 
governor appointed Frank Probert, Gilbert Hanson 
and George H. Coulton as commissioners to com- 
plete the organization. The first meeting of this 
board was held April 4, 1881, at Lisbon, that vil- 
lage having been decided upon as the seat of justice. 
The following were appointed Ransom county's 
first officers: -J. L. Colton, register of deeds; John 
Kinan, treasurer; J. P. Knight, probate judge; 
George H. Manning, sheriff; W. W. Bradley, coro- 
ner ; E. W. Knight, superintendent of schools ; A. 
M. Smith, assessor, and E. C. Pindall, surveyor. 
At a meeting of the board, held May 16, 1881, the 
Lisbon Star, a newspaper, was made the official 
journal of the county. The county drew its name 
from old Fort Ransom, wliich formerly stood within 
its limits, and which had been named in honor of 
General T. E. G. Ransom. 

La Moure county, which was named in honor 
of Hon. Judson La Moure, one of Dakota's promi- 
nent old settlers and influential citizens, was created 
January 4, 1873, from parts of Buffalo and Pembina 
counties. Twice since then its boundaries have 
been changed, in 1881 and again in 1883. January 
29, 1881, the governor appointed John R. Crum, 
Homer T. Elliott and Charles H. Potter commis- 
sioners to complete the organization. October 27, 
the same year, this board met in Grand Rapids, 
which had been selected as the county seat. The 
following were appointed the first officers of the 
newly made county: Albert E. Franks, county 
clerk and register of deeds ; C. G. Holconib, treas- 
urer ; C. W. Davis, judge of probate ; C. Carpenter, 
sheriff; George H. Merrifield, coroner; J. W. Stod- 
dard, surveyor; Miss Amy Mamtolle, superintend- 
ent of schools ; and George D. Crum, county as- 
sessor. La Moure, a rising city on the James river, 
is the county seat. 

Pembina county was created by an act of the 
7 . 

sixth general assembly, January 9, 1867. Three 
times since then have its boundaries been readjusted 
was changed, once in 1871, once in i873,andagainin 
1881. At the time of the passage of the act origin- 
ting the county, it was made to include most of the 
eastern portion of the state and the county seat was 
located at Pembina. Charles Cavileer, Joseph Ro- 
lett and Charles Grant were the first county commis- 
sioners. The county was organized August 12, 
1867. John E. Harrison was appointed register of 
deeds and county clerk; William H. Moorhead, 
sheriff; James McFetridge, judge of probate, and 
John Dease, superintendent of public instruction. 

This appears to have been the first civil organ- 
ization in North Dakota excepting the old Pembina 
county in Minnesota, which ended, so far as North 
Dakota is concerned, in 1858. Voting precincts 
were established at this time at St. Joseph, Pembina, 
Park River, Dead Island (Cavalier county). Pop- 
lar Creek (Nelson county), Sheyenne (now Cass 
and Richland counties). The voting places were 
at the custom house in Pembina ; at the store of A. 
Gingrass, St. Joseph ; at Stump Lake, in Poplar 
Creek precinct ; at Georgetown, in the Sheyenne 

The first term of court was at Pembina in 
July, 1 87 1. Judge French presided and George 
I. Foster was clerk. The following were the mem- 
bers of the grand jury for that term: D. M. Moore- 
head, R. D. George, Peter Ferguson, John F. Rob- 
inson, William H. Moorehead, L. E. Guillon, Lu- 
cene Geroux, James Hastings, James A. E. Duffie, 
Frank LaRose, Francis Columbo, John Rivelt, John 
Anderson, Daniel Olsen, Thomas Clover and 
Charles Bronson. .1^ 

Cass county was organized October 27, 1873. 
William H. Leveret, Jacob Whitman and N. Will- 
iams held a meeting at the blacksmith shop of the 
last named, which stood at the foot of Front street, 
in Fargo. They organized themselves into a board 
of county commissioners, of which Mr. \\'illiams 
was chosen chairman. Terence Martin was ap- 
pointed county clerk and register of deeds, and John 
E. Haggart sheriff. Shortly after H. S. Back was 
appointed county treasurer, and G. J. Keeney, 
county attorney. The first election, which was held 
February 14, 1874, resulted in the election of the 
following officers of the newly organized county: 
S. Y. Hoag, M. Hexom and Ole Hetzgaard, com- 
missioners; Terence Martin, county clerk and reg- 
ister of deeds: P. P. Xokken, county treasurer; 
Jolin Haggart. sheriff, and N. B. Pinkham, attor- 



ney. The question of bonding the county for $15,- 
000 to erect suitable county buildings was also car- 
ried. The whole vote cast at that time was 179. 
The first court house was erected the same year. 
In the spring of 1883 was commenced the new and 
more commodious court house. The jail had been 
completed the previous year. 

Barnes county was not organized until 1878, at 
which time Chris Anderson, Otto Becker and Chris 
Pacto were appointed county commissioners. The 
gentlemen met and chose Mr. Anderson as chair- 
man of the board. At its first session the follow- 
ing officers were appointed to fill the various county 
offices: L. D. Marsh, county clerk and register of 
deeds; J. S. W'eiser, treasurer, and John Morrison, 
sheriff. At the first election all these gentlemen 
were chosen to fill the same offices, except that D. 
D. McFadgen was elected sheriff in place of Mr. 
^Morrison. \'alley City, located at the second 
crossing of the Cheyenne, was designated as the 
county seat. A fine court house was erected in that 
place in 1880. 

Kidder county dates its organization from 
1 88 1. In the spring of that year a board of county 
commissioners, appointed for that purpose by the 
governor, met at Steele to perform the duties of 
their office. They were the following named gen- 
tlemen : John W. \'anDeusen, W. F. Steele and 
Frank Whipple. The county seat was located at 
Steele, and the following were chosen to fill the 
various offices: D. F. Allis6n, county clerk and 
register of deeds; J. D. Thompson, county treas- 
urer, and Leon McLaughlin, sheriff'. 

Burleigh county, in 1873, contained few, if any, 
settlers outside of the city of Bismarck, but felt the 
need of county government. In June of that year 
a caucus was held, of which E. A. Williams was 
•chairman and Col. C. A. Lounsbury was secretary. 
The resolution to petition the governor for author- 
ity to organize was adopted unanimously, but on the 
■question of naming the commissioners there was 
discord. Three factions were developed, and three 
sets of names were accordingly sent in to the gov- 
ernor for him to appoint as county commissioners 
to organize the new county. In order to please all, 
Governor Burbank selected one from each list and 
appointed the following board : J. V. Dunn, Will- 
iam H. Mercer and James A. Emmons. In July 
of that year the board met and appointed the follow- 
ing officers of Burleigh county : Daniel Williams, 
county clerk and register of deeds; J. S. Carvelle, 
])robate judge; John E. Wasson, countv attorney. 

and Major Wilham Woods, sheriff. A regular elec- 
tion was held in the fall of 1873, at which the result 
was close, but the following were declared elected: 
E. P. Davis, J. P. Dunn and Williana Mercer, county 
commissioners; J. H. Richards, county clerk and 
register of deeds; W. B. Watson, county treasurer; 
E. X. Corey, judge of probate, and Alexander ^Ic- 
Kenzie, sheriff'. In 1882 a fine court house was 

In January, 1881, Governor Ordway appointed 
Elijah Bouleigh, M. Lang and L. Gill a board of 
commissioners to organize the county of Morton. 
They met at r^Iandan, February 25, 1881, and or- 
ganized by the selection of Mr. Bouleigh to act as 
chairman. Frank J. Mead was appointed county 
clerk. On the 17th of ^March they again met and 
chose the following named gentlemen to fill the 
various offices: Frank J. Mead, in addition to his 
office of county clerk, was made register of deeds; 
P. 'Si. Cranberry, county treasurer ; P. O. Chilstrom, 
judge of probate; Carlos Mann, assessor; 2vlrs. F. 
H. French, county superintendent of instruction, 
and William A. Carr, sheriff'. ^^landan was made 
the county seat. 

The organization of Stark county dates from 
May 25, 1883, when H. L. Dickinson, James Collis- 
ter and James G. Campbell met for the first time as 
a board of county commissioners. Mr. Dickinson 
was chosen chairman. The following officers were 
appointed at that time: N. C. Lawrence, register 
of deeds ; R. E. Lawrence, treasurer ; William Gib- 
son, probate judge; J. L. McKittrick, clerk of courts 
and William Cushkelly, sheriff. Dickinson, so 
named in honor of the first chairman of its board of 
county commissioners, is the county seat. The 
county was created by act of legislature, February 
ID, 1879. Its boundaries were changed March 9, 
1883, and ;March 10, 1887. The commissioners 
above were appointed bv the governor. May i, 

The county of McLean was duly organized 
November i, 1883, by commissioners appointed for 
that purpose by Governor Ordway, October 16, 
of that year. These gentlemen were: John S. 
\'eeder, Charles T. Martenson and Warner F. 
Lewis. The board held its first meeting on the date 
above given at the village of Washburn. On or- 
ganization, Mr. Veeder was chosen chairman. 
\Vashburn was made the county seat, and the fol- 
lowing officers were appointed : E. W. Gray, county 
clerk and register of deeds; James Heath, judge of 
probate ; E. T. \\'inston, treasurer ; John Satterlund, 



sheriff; E. H. Belyea, coroner; J. AI. Carnahan, 
county superintendent of schools ; Dr. J. H. ]\Ioseley, 
county physician; L. AI. WaUin, James Barton, 
Charles Weller and S. L. Crossley, justices of the 

The county of Grand Forks was created by legis- 
lative enactment June 4, 1873, ^""i ^^ abortive at- 
tempt was made to organize the county the same 
year. The governor, John A. Burbank, appointed 
George B. Winship, O. S. Freeman and Ole Thomp- 
son commissioners for the purpose. These gentle- 
men transacted no business, there not being more 
than seventy or eighty people living in the county. 

In the following year, 1874, the governor ap- 
pointed D. P. Reeves, Alexander Griggs and George 
A. Wheeler county commissioners. On the evening 
of March 2, 1875, these gentlemen met at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Reeves, at Grand Forks, and proceeded 
to organize by the election of D. P. Reeves to the po- 
sition of chairman of the board of commissioners. 
The county officers, who had been previously se- 
lected, came forward with their bonds and were 
sworn into office. They were as follows: James 
Elton, register of deeds ; Thomas Walsh, treasurer 
and probate judge; Nicholas Hoffman, sheriff; 
Thomas Walsh and D. P. Reeves, justices of the 
peace and George A. Wheeler, superintendent of 
schools. The other officers appointed did not qual- 
ify. Grand Forks is the county seat. At the first 
election the following named acted as judges of 
election in various parts of the county: Eric An- 
derson, Frank Lambert, Knud Rouen, E. B. An- 
drus, Nels. P. Olsen, George Ames, Thomas C. 
Campbell, Duncan McMillan and James McCaffrey. 

The organization of Walsh county took place 
in 1881. February 11, of that year, certain territory 
consisting of the two southernmost rows of town- 
ships of Pembina, and the two northernmost rows of 
Grand Forks townships, were set off from those sub- 
divisions of the state and formed into a new county. 
To this was given the name it bears in honor of 
George H. Walsh, of Grand Forks. Governor 
Ordway July 30, 1881, appointed a board of county 
commissioners to carry out the organizaton. This 
consisted of the following named gentlemen : 
George P. Harvey, William Code and B. C. Askel- 
son. This board met August 30, 1881, at the resi- 
dence of George P. Harvey and organized by the 
election of that gentleman to the position of chair- 
maan. The following officers were appointed : N. 
Upham, county clerk and register of deeds : K. O. 
Skatteboe, treasurer ; E. O. Faulkner, judge of pro- 

bate; Jacob Remhardt, sheriff'; J. N. Nelson, asses- 
sor; Eugene Kane, surveyor; R. M. Evans, superin- 
tendent of schools, and Dr. H. H. Hamilton, cor- 
oner. After several ineffectual attempts to locate 
the county seat, the towns of Grafton, Minto and 
Kensington all competing for the honor, finally at a 
meeting of the board, held September 14, the seat of 
justice for the new county was located at Grafton. 

By an act of the tenth territorial legislature, 
dated January 4, 1873, a part of Buffalo county was 
set off and formed into a new county to which was 
given the name of Rolette, after that early 
pioneer of the state. The original boundaries 
of the same were twice changed, once in 1883 
and again in 1887. November 6, 1885, the 
governor appointed as commissioners to or- 
ganize the new county, the following named: 
James Maloney, Jasper Jeanotte and Arthur Fous- 
sard. The two last mentioned failed to qualify and 
Fred Schutte and Lemuel M. Melton, of Dunseith, 
were appointed in their stead. .The board so con- 
stituted met at Dunseith, which had been selected 
for the county seat, October 14, 1884, and Fred 
Schutte was chosen chairman. Courtland P. Clem- 
ents was appointed register of deeds ; James Elton, 
judge of probate; F. E. Farrell, county superintend- 
ent of schools ; James D. Eaton, county treasurer ; 
Barney Cain, sheriff ; Dr. Stephen Howard, coroner ; 
Gavin Hamilton, county attorney. W. A. McKee 
succeeded Elton as judge of probate. Thomas Hes- 
kett, L. E. Marchaud, Samuel Shreckengast and 
Philip T. Metier were appointed justices of the 

Williams county was created by act of legisla- 
ture January 8, 1873. In 1885 its boundaries were 
changed, parts of it going to Mercer, Dunn and Wal- 
lace counties. 

February 10, 1879, ^^'^^ the date of the act creat- 
ing the new county of Stark from original territory. 
March 9, 1883, part of it was taken off and added to 
Hellenger county,, and March 10, 1887, its bounda- 
ries were again changed. Its organization dates 
from May i, 1883, when Horace I. Dickinson, 
James Collister and James Y. Campbell were ap- 
pointed commissioners to inaugurate the county gov- 

Pierce county was created by an act of the gen- 
eral assembly, dated March 11, 1887, from parts of 
Rolette, Bottineau, and McHenry. February 12, 
1 889. an election notice was issued from the executive 
branch of the state government at Bismarck, order- 
ing an election to be held in Pierce county, for the 



purpose of electing officers to organize the govern- 
ment of that county. The election was held April 
II, 1889, at which time were chosen the following 
officers: George W. Spaun, W. R. Tuff, and H. 
Hendrickson, county commissioners ; Charles A. 
Erickson, register of deeds F. J. Sikes, sheriff"; E. 
Strommen, assessor; D. P. Thomas, probate judge; 
C. Evenson, treasurer; Frank Creek, county sur- 
veyor; G. W. Sewell, coroner; Isaac M. McBride, 
superintendent of schools ; E.Trueman.D. A. Briggs, 
and M. Nash, justices of the peace. The first meet- 
ing of the county board was held April 16, 1889, at 
which George VV. Spaun was chosen chairman. 
Rugby is the county seat. 

Oliver county is a creation of the legislature, 
dating from March 12, 1885. It was taken from a 
part of Mercer county. The same day the governor 
designated Henry Sawyer, H. E. Fisher and Lewis 
Connolly as commissioners to proceed with the or- 
ganization, and Raymond was designated as the 
county seat. 

Logan county formed from a part of Buff'alo 
county, January 4, 1873, had its boundaries changed 
March 9, 1883, a part of its territory going to Mc- 
intosh county. George Lightfoot, J. A. Wise and 
Edmond R. Weed were appointed by the governor 
April 17, 1884, for the purpose of its organization. 

January 4, 1873, at a session of the tenth gen- 
eral assembly was formed a new county, to which 
was given the name of Foster. It was formed from 
a part of Pembina. Several times the original 
boundaries have been changed, usually reducing its 
size. September 27, 1883, three commissioners were 
empowered by the governor to organize the county. 
These gentlen-ren were E. W. Brunner, Horace M. 
Clark and L. R. Casey. 

Eddy county was formed from a part of Foster 
county, March 9, 1885. April 15, of the same year, 
the following commissioners were appointed by the 
governor to organize the newly created sub-division : 
Paul J. Braman, F. J. Dunham and John Prader. 

By one of the acts of the thirteenth territorial 
legislature, passed February 10, 1879, the county of 
Billings was created. Three times its boundaries 
have been changed, in 1883, 1885 and in 1887. Oc- 
tober 25, 1883, the governor designated a board of 
commissioners for the purpose of organizing the 
county. These commissioners were C. E. Haupt, C. 
A. Boyle and Hugh J. ]McBirney. 

Benson county owes its existence to an act of the 
general assembly, March 9, 1883. It was formed 
from parts of Ramsey and DeSmet counties. The 

original boundary lines of the county have been 
changed twice, once in 1885, and again in 1887. 
The county was organized November 6, 1883, at 
which time the governor selected Hugh McGarvey, 
r\l. D. Flint and T. J. Larison as commissioners for 
the purpose. 

Boreman county was created by the tenth general 
assembly from original territory, January 8, 1873. 

Allred county was created by an act of the legis- 
lature, March 8, 1883, and was formerly a part of 
Howard county. Its boundaries were changed by 
the act of March 10, 1885. ^lost of this county 
lies within the lines of Military and Indian reserva- 
tions, and the balance is unsurveyed and practi- 
cally unoccupied. 

Bowman county, also, was created at the same 
time from a part of the county of Billings. It has 
never been organized as a political sub-division of 
the state. 

}ilarch 9, 1883, the legislature, from a part of 
Howard county, created the county of Dunn. Its 
boundaries were changed bv the act of March 10, 

The same act of March 9, 1883, created Hettin- 
ger county from a part of Stark. 

McKenzie county was also created by the same 
act of JNIarch 9, 1883, from a part of Howard county. 

Wallace county was also formed by the same act 
at the same time. 


The constitution of North Dakota makes am- 
ple provision for numerous public institutions. It 
takes the matter out of the hands of the legislative 
bodies, and settles their location, thus preventing 
contests or ill feeling. It locates the capital at Bis- 
marck, the state university and school of mines at 
Grand Forks, the agricultural college at Fargo, a 
normal school at \'alley City, appropriating fifty 
thousand acres of land for the latter ; the deaf mute 
asylum and school at Devil's Lake, the reform school 
at Mandan, a normal school at Mayville, for which 
twenty thousand acres of land are appropriated, and 
a hospital for the insane and feeble minded at James- 
town for which twenty thousand acres of land are 
set apart. It also permanently locates the following 
institutions: A blind asylum at such place in the 
county of Pembina as the electors may determine, 
with a grant of thirty thousand acres of land ; an in- 
dustrial school for manuel training, at Ellendale, 
with a gmnt of forty thousand acres; a school of 


forestry at a place in one of the comities of Rolette, 
Bottineau, McHenry or Ward, as may be deterniined 
by the electors, and a scientific school at Wahpeton, 
with a grant of forty thousand acres. It is also 
provided that no other institution of a character sim- 
ilar to any one of those located shall be established 
or maintained without a revision of the constitution. 
The educational, benevolent and reformatory in- 
stitutions of North Dakota are among the best in the 
land, and reflect great credit upon the people for 
their broad and liberal methods and expenditures in 
providing higher educational advantages, and in 
caring for the defective and criminal classes. Of 
the latter there are, however, but few, the per cent- 
age as to population being less than in any state in 
the Federal Union. The cause of higher education 
is cared for by a state university, besides several 
denominational colleges, to which aid is given in sup- 
port of normal courses. 


At the fifteenth session of the territorial legisla- 
ture, in 1883, a commission was appointed for the 
purpose of locating the capitol of the territory per- 
manently. To secure the coveted honor the citizens 
of Bismarck donated one hundred thousand dollars 
in cash and grounds of three hundred and twenty 
acres of land largely laid out in town lots, to be sold 
for the benefit of the territory. The main part of the 
building only has been erected. The North 
and south wings to complete the building 
as planned have yet to be built. It is four stories 
in height, built of native pressed brick and terra 
cotta, trimmed with white limestone facings, col- 
umns and sills. It is heated throughout by steam. 
Upon the second floor are located the offices of many 
of the state officials, among them being the governor, 
secretary, treasurer, auditor, and attorney-general. 
The third floor is taken up by the legislative cham- 
ber, which extends upward and includes a portion 
of the fourth story, and by the offices of the rail- 
way commissioners, legislative committee rooms, 
library and historical collections. The hall in use 
by the senate is located upon the fourth floor. On 
the division of the territory and the admission of the 
state to the Federal Union the capitol, which when 
finished will be one of the finest edifices in the 
northwest, became the property of the state of North 

The report of the capitol commission furnishes 
the following data concerning the financial status of 
the capitol building and grounds: 

Cash donated by citizens of Bismarck $100,000 00 

Cash received from 240 lots sold 38,849 00 

Total indebtedness, including interest to April 1, 

1889 8:^,507 46 

Total cost of capitol and grounds, including in- 
terest and indebtedness to April 1, 1889 222,356 46 

Unsold lots now owned by state, 749 — appraised 

value 85.52100 

The north half of the north half of section 9, township 
139, range 80, 160 acres, not valued. 

Capitol Park, 20 acres, and buildings, not valued. 


The State penitentiary located at Bismarck, Bur- 
leigh county, the state capital, is one of the complete 
prisons of the country. It is a well-constructed and 
suitably arranged building of brick, iron, and stone, 
and contains besides the usual cells, warden's office, 
departments for guards, officers' and guards' dining 
hall, chapel, barber shop, kitchen and storeroom. It 
stands on a tract of forty-three acres, two miles east 
of the business centre of Bismarck, and cost nearly 
one hundred thousand dollars.. The furnishings and 
appliances are of the plans adopted by the other states, 
including steel cells, water works, sewers, laundry 
and steam-heating apparatus. The prison grounds 
have been nicely laid out, and several hundred young 
trees planted, stables, root houses, and other out 
buildings erected, mostly by prison labor. The pris- 
oners have also been employed in improving the 
capitol grounds. This is one of the few peniten- 
tiaries in the land in which the convicts are not 
dressed in stripes, and the large number of "trus- 
ties" — those on good behavior — and no escapes, m- 
dicate that kind treatment is more beneficial, not to 
say humane, than to subject convicts to harsh and 
humiliating treatment. May i, 1883, the territory 
issued fifty thousand dollars in six per cent, bonds 
for the construction of the penitentiary. These were 
to run twenty years or redeemable at the option of 
the territory at any time after May i, 1888. May 
I, 1889, the state issued twenty-nine thousand dol- 
lars in four and one-half per cent, bonds for the im- 
provement of the same institution, which were made 
payable in 1917, or at the option of the state after 
May I. 1897. 


This noble institution is located at Jamestown, 
Stutsman county, and is a model of its kind. The 
buildings consist of four ward buildings, two for 
each sex. kitchen buildings, assembly hall, office 
building and residence, engine house, water tower. 



barns, etc., and cost over $276,000. Except the 
barns and stables, all the buildings are substantially 
erected of brick, on solid stone basements, in the 
most approved style of modern architecture for hos- 
pital purposes, designed with a view to securing 
the best sanitary conditions, with strict reference 
to comfort and convenience in the care and treat- 
ment of patients. The buildings are all separate 
and distinct, so that while more room, comfort and 
privacy is secured between the sexes, any extension 
may be easily made as needed. The buildings are 
connected with corridors. In case of fire or epi- 
demic diseases, the advantage of separate buildings 
is apparent. The buildings are lighted with incan- 
descent electric lights, supplied with water pipes 
throughout, steam-heating apparatus, and a perfect 
system of sewerage. It has been the constant aim of 
the management to have the furnishings perfect 
and convenient, even to the smallest details. Pic- 
tures, musical instruments, flowers and other evi- 
dences of refinement and taste are found in pro- 
fusion. The patients are kept as neat and clean as 
possible. Their minds are diverted from despond- 
ent subjects, and all are cheered and amused and 
exercised in every reasonable way, which method 
seems to be the only proper course to pursue with 
insanity. Many, with this treatment, recover. 
There is very little, if any, force used, and there are 
no jail cells or iron bars to give the impression of 
confinement or prison life. Kindness and cheerful- 
ness, judging from the results here, certainly seem 
to be the best remedies for unhinged minds. 

The location for the hospital is all that can be 
desired, commanding a view that is unsurpassed 
for beauty — the varying landscape spread out for 
miles in every direction — the James river, skirted 
with timber, winding around the foot of the bluff, 
with a grand view of the city of Jamestown and the 
valley of the James for miles around. There is 
a large farm and garden of about two hundred and 
fifty acres connected with the institution, enclosed 
with a neat wire fence, much of the work being 
done by the patients. All the vegetables used are 
grown in the garden, and the fields supply all the 
grain and hay needed for horses and cows. 

The average of insanity in North Dakota is 
much less than in most of the older states. The 
institute for the benefit of the feeble-minded is a 
part of this hospital for the insane, it being deemed 
best to unite under one head these two beneficent 

The Soldiers' Home, located at Lisbon, North 

Dakota, is one of the most beautifully situated 
homes of its kind in the United States, and added 
to its natural surroundings, the buildings are of mod- 
ern architectural beauty, and altogether form a 
comfortable retreat for veteran soldiers. The man- 
agement of the institution is of the highest order, 
and everything about the place bespeaks the true 
spirit of faithfulness in connection with the labors 

The main building of this institution is of Me- 
nominee brick, and is 50x80 feet, and was erected 
at a cost of $i8,ooo. It is finished in native wood, 
with maple floors, and the architecture is of the best 
in design and finish. In the present year, 1899, 
a hospital building has been erected, 35x57, with 
an L 28x50, built of Menominee brick and stone, 
with large basement, an elegant and commodious 
structure. In 1898 a splendid system of water- 
works was constructed. The water for drinking 
purposes is obtained from two wells twenty-five 
feet in depth, the water raised by steam power, 
while the water for irrigating purposes is obtained 
from the Sheyenne river. The grounds consist of 
eighty-five acres of land, lying within the corporate 
limits of the city of Lisbon. The Sheyenne river 
forms the west boundary of the grounds, and on 
its banks, and surrounding the buildings, is about 
forty acres of native timber, oak, ash, elm, box 
elder and fine linden trees. It is a picturesque 
spot, and suggestive of peace and security. 

The bill for the location of the home was intro- 
duced in the house February 24, 1890, and in 1891 
the land was purchased, and the buildings were 
soon in course of construction. The home was 
opened for occupancy August 2, 1893, since which 
time it has afiforded shelter to ninety old soldiers, 
and at the present time thirty-eight veterans call it 
home. Colonel William W. Mcllvain is command- 
ant of the home, and Mrs. Helen R. Mcllvaine is 
matron of the same. To a review of their lives 
space is devoted in this volume. 

William W. Mcllvaine was born in Champaign 
county, Ohio, July 15, 1835. He is of Scotch- 
Irish extraction, and his grandfather, Robert Mc- 
llvaine, was a pioneer settler of Kentucky. He was 
captured by the Indians, and was their prisoner in 
Pennsylvania two years. The father of our sub- 
ject was a native of Kentucky, and his mother was 
from \'irginia. 

While but a young child our subject went with 
his parents to Cass county, Michigan, where he 
grew to manhood on a farm, and was educated in 



Kalamazoo Baptist College. He served during the 
Kansas border disturbances in 1856 and 1857, ^"'^ 
June 20, 1861, enlisted for the Civil war, as cor- 
poral of Company D, Sixth Michigan Infantry. 
He was mustered into the service as sergeant Au- 
gust 20, 1861, and participated at Fort Jackson, 
St. Phillips and New Orleans, and he was com- 
missioned second lieutenant December i, 1862, 
after which followed the battle of Baton Rouge and 
the siege of Port Hudson. He was promoted to the 
rank of first lieutenant September i, 1863. 

Returning from the war, Mr. McIIvaine en- 
gaged in the merchandise business at Cassopolis, 
and in 1883 located in Fargo, Dakota, as a special 
land agent for the United States government. He 
began farming near Sheldon, in Ransom county, 
in 1884, and developed a farm comprising eight 
hundred acres, which place he left to accept his 
present position. 

Our subject was married in 1864 to Miss Helen 
R. Reed, a native of Cassopolis, Michigan, who was 
born September 10, 1845. Mrs. McIIvaine was a 
student of Olivet College, Michigan, and is a lady of 
culture and rare attainments. She has devoted her 
life to kindly deeds, and is an able matron and help- 
meet of her husband in the great work which they 
are doing at the Soldiers' Home. Upon the open- 
ing of the home Mr. McIIvaine was chosen com- 
mandant, and Mrs. McIIvaine matron of the in- 
stitution, and under their fostering care the in- 
stitution has been successful and meets the hearty 
approval of inspectors and is a credit to the state 
and to the city of Lisbon. The board of directors 
and those in charge are in hearty co-operation, 
as a result of which a comfortable, cleanly and 
peaceful home is afforded the inmates of the in- 

The University and Normal schools are men- 
tioned in their proper place in the chapter on Edu- 
cation and Educational Institutions, to which the 
reader is referred. 


So interwoven are the life histories of the two 
gentlemen who head North Dakota's remaining 

notable public institutions with the annals of those 
communities, that it were but repetition to write of 
them in this connection, and the reader is respect- 
fully referred to the biographical department of 
this history. Reference is made to the School for 
the Deaf and Dumb at Devil's Lake, under the 
supervision of Prof. D. F. Bangs, and the Agri- 
cultural College at Fargo, presided over by Hon. 
J. H. Worst. 


The first instrument of any kind recorded in 
North Dakota was a bill of sale, September 12, 18^)8, 
by which Baptiste Gardipee sold to William H. 
Moorhead four head of horses and an ox for the 
sum of $563. The second paper filed was one reg- 
istering his marks for animals, by Charles Cavileer, 
April 10, 1869. 

The third was a contract by which Joseph Rolette 
covenanted to sell Frank Colombo ten acres of land. 

The Pembina land office was opened December 
20, 1870, and Charles Cavileer made the first pre- 
emption entry in North Dakota, and received the 
first patent for land in the state. Hon. Judson La 
Moure made the second entry for land, Allegany set- 
tlement, October 28, 1870. Entries were made the 
same day, that of the opening of business at the 
land office, by seventeen others, among whom were 
John Hancock, Joseph Rolette, Jr., W. H. Moor- 
head, Frank Colombo and John Bagley. 

Hon. N. E. Nelson made the first homestead 
entry in North Dakota ; Charles Bottineau, the sec- 
ond ; Peter Hayden, the third ; John McMahon, 
fourth, and Joshua Park, the fifth. 

The first entry of land included in what is now 
the state was. made at the United States land office 
at Vermillion, June 15, 1868, by Joseph Rolette, 
Sr. This was the site occupied by the old post, 
established in 1797, by Peter Grant, and occupied 
by Captain Henry at the beginning of the century. 
This historic piece of land, containing about five 
acres, was purchased January 25, 1871, by James 
J. Hill, president of the Great Northern Railroad, 
and the instrument conveying it was the first war- 
rantee deed recorded of land in the state. 




k> THE PRESS; <§fE 




The inception of journalism dates, in its broad- 
est sense, from remote ages. The institution now 
known as the newspaper was preceeded more than a 
thousand years by manuscript or tablet publica- 
tions upon which the accounts of public occurrences 
in Rome were made public. These journals, often 
official in their origin, were made known by the 
name of Acta Diunia, which may be freely trans- 
lated as "Day's Doings." Their issue in the time 
of scarcity of news or gossip was but irregular, the 
editor either engaging in some other calling or in- 
dulging in the sports of the day. 

But little progress was made from this for many 
centuries. Few of the people, high or low, could 
read or write, and their interests were confined to 
the happenings of their immediate vicinity. Prior 
to 1622, the date of the first ptiblication of any- 
thing worthy of the name of newspaper, the mental 
appetite of the learned of modern Europe had sub- 
sisted upon periodical manuscript literature. In 
England, the writen newsletter, furnished only at 
fabulous prices, was, for a long time, the vogue. 
This news pamphlet was the nearest approach to 
the newspaper that had obtained up to 1622, when, 
as has been said, the first regular series of news- 
papers was born. This was entitled the "Weeklv 

News from Italic and Germanic." It was printed 
upon a mechanical contrivance, perfected by Na- 
thaniel Butler, who is the progenitor of the news- 
paper proper. The first attempt at the publication 
of parliamentary reports was made in 1641, when 
the political parties of the realm of Great Britain 
first occupied a place in the paper. The first ad- 
vertisement was inserted in 1648, was in verse form, 
and tradition truly says it paid to advertise then as 

The first daily morning newspaper was the "Lon- 
don Courant," published in 1709, and consisted of 
only one page of two columns, each five paragraphs 
long, and was made up from translations from 
foreign journals and newsletters. Fifty years from 
that date had not expired before seven millions of 
newspapers were sold in England annually. 

The revolution in journalism in the present cen- 
tury has been of so stupendous a form as to be almost 
beyond comprehension. Compare the few hun- 
dreds from the Franklin hand-press of the not long 
ago with the twenty or thirty thousand an hour of 
perfect newspapers thrown out by the perfecting 
press of to-day. Contrast the almost absolute 
l^aucity of news with the present well-filled col- 
umns of the doings in every land upon which the 
sun shines. The press, too, has increased in jwwer 
and usefulness, and to-day it stands as one of the 



most important factors in the upbuilding of the 
community or state, and the preservation of the 
rights of all. It is an instrument well calculated to 
elevate and enlighten the people as well as aid in 
the enforcement of the laws and perpetuation of 
good government. It is its mission to hold up to 
the public gaze the wrong doings or omissions of 
its public servants, to air the misdeeds of those 
guilty of crimes against law or society, and to hold 
up to admiration the great, good or noble deeds 
of those who are worthy of respectful homage. 
With the bright searchlight of modern journalism 
turned upon the life of our public men, how few of 
their unworthy acts can be hid in oblivion? 

The editor in his chair, the reporter in his 
rounds, each has a share in the great work of en- 
lightening the world. Close at their side, if in fact 
he be not all three combined, stands the printer. 
The printer, whose ceaseless placing of type on 
type makes possible the labor of the brains of men ; 
the printer, who garners up the thoughts and 
actions of men spreads them upon the blank 
page and sends them to your very door, is he, too, 
not worthy a place in history? The poet has well 
said : 

"The printer, and in most cases in the western 
states he is editor as well, is the adjutant of 
thought, and thus explains the mystery of the won- 
derful word, that can kindle a hope as no song can, 
that can warm the heart as no hope, that word we, 
with a hand-in-hand warmth in it, for the author 
and printer are engineers together. Engineers, 
indeed ! When the little Corsican bombarded 
Cadiz at the distance of five miles it was deemed 
the very triumph of engineering. But what is that 
range to this, whereby they bombard the ages yet 
to come. There at the case the printer stands and 
marshals into line the forces armed for truth, 
clothed in immortality and English. And what can 
be nobler than the equipment of a thought in sterl- 
ing Saxon, Saxon with the ring of spear on shield 
in it, and that commissioning it, when we are dead, 
to move gradually on to the latest syllable of re- 
corded time. This is to win a victory from death, 
for this has no death in it. 

"The printer is called a laborer, and the office 
he performs, toil. Oh, it is not work, but a sublime 
rite that he is performing. When he thus sights the 
engine that is to fling a worded truth in grander 
curve than missile ever before described, fling it 
into the bosom of an age as yet unborn. He throws 
ofif his coat, indeed, we but wonder, the rather, that 

he does not put the shoes from off his feet, for the 
place whereon he stands is holy ground. 

"A little song was uttered somewhere, long ago ; 
it wandered through the twilight feebler than a star, 
it died from the ear. But the printer caught it up 
where it was lying there in the silence, like a 
wounded bird, and equips it anew with wings and 
sends it forth from the ark that has preserved it, 
and it flew forth into the future with the olive 
branch of peace, and round the world with melody, 
like the dawning of a spring morning. 

"How the types have built up the broken arches 
of the bridge of time. How they render the brave 
utterances beyond the pilgrims audible and elo- 
quent, hardly feeling the free spirit, but moving 
not a word, not a syllable, lost in the whirl of the 
world, moving in connected paragraph and period 
down the lengthening line of years." 


Previous to the advent of the railroads, the few 
settlers then in North Dakota were scattered up 
and down the Red River valley, with here and 
there, but none gathered into a community large 
enough to need or support a newspaper. Of the 
founding of the first paper in the state, the "Bis- 
marck Tribune," the following is a brief account: 
The Northern Pacific Railroad entered the state 
crossing the Red river in the spring and summer of 
1872, and before the winter's frosts had set in the 
iron rails were completed to Steele, or "Seventeen 
Siding," as it was then called. The road from there 
to the Missouri river was graded most of the way. 
In April, 1873, Colonel Clement A. Lounsberry, a 
gallant officer of the Twentieth Michigan Infantry 
during the Civil war, and at the above time asso- 
ciate editor of the "Minneapolis Tribune," came to 
Fargo, in the interests of his paper, to write up the 
salient points of his observation in the country, and 
to render such services as are generally performed 
by newspaper men. He was highly pleased with 
all he saw, and determined to make his home in 
the rising territory. He then thought to carry out, 
at once, a plan he and Oscar Wall, then of the 
"Lanesboro (Minn.) Herald," had agreed upon, that 
is to establish a paper at the town that must arise 
when the railroad crossed the Missouri river. With 
him to determine a plan was to act. He immedi- 
ately returned to ]\Iinneapolis and made prepara- 
tions for the purchase of the material for the new 
office, and ^May 11, 1873, he landed at Bismarck, 
having come from the end of the railroad line by 



team. He took out a soldiers' homestead, upon 
which part of the city was afterward built, and 
commenced the erection of a building. He, with 
rare prescience , appreciated the future needs of the 
coming capital, and when the material for his office 
arrived it was found that he had provided the out- 
fit for a complete daily paper, including a Taylor 
cylinder press. These reached the incipient city 
June 14. On the 6th day of July the first copy of 
the "Bismarck Tribune," the pioneer newspaper of 
North Dakota, w^as issued. It was at that time a 
seven-column folio, very neatly gotten up, and was 
run as a weekly until 1881, when it changed to a 
daily. It has been said of it that it has never 
missed an issue. In CJctober, 1878, the paper was 
sold to Stanley Hunter, afterward author of the 
Spoopendyke papers, but he retained it but a short 
time. Colonel Lounsberry resuming its ownership 
in May, 1879. The following article in regard to 
the pioneer number of the "Tribune" has been 
gleaned from the "Record," of Fargo, of February 
and March, 1897: 

"Among the advertisements in the first number 
of the 'Bismarck Tribune,' 'on first page, next to 
pure reading matter,' was the Exchange saloon, 
where gentlemen were offered by White & Regan 
'choice liquors, wines and cigars, with quiet and 
tasty quarters and polite attention.' Morton's club 
rooms were offered for the accommodation of 
guests. 'All banking games played,' was the con- 
spicuous lines. 'The river boys will find in Paul 
Greene an old-time friend,' was the fly line in the 
advertisement of the Sazerac saloon. At the Snow 
Flake, 'Keno every night' was the leading line, and 
'Fancy drinks a specialty' took second place. O'Neal 
& Mullen advertised their concert saloon and dance 
hall, affording 'choice liquors, fine cigars and pleas- 
ant associations,' with 'special attention given to 
fancy drinks.' H. M. Mixter run the Le Bon Ton, 
with the assurance that 'this is one of the neatest 
and coziest club-rooms in the city. J. S. Ward 
assured his patrons that his billiard hall was roomy 
and tastily furnished, the liquors of the finest 
])rands, and the cigars the best. M. Tippie simply 
announced the location of his billiard hall, and him- 
self a dealer in choice wines, liquors and cigars. 
J. S. Byrnes advertised tobacco, and the Bismarck 
brewery, with A. Rose proprietor, offered fresh 
lager beer, equal to anything imported. E. A. 
Williams, John A. Stayell and Delamater & Bechett 
were the lawyers. Mrs. Slaughter announced the 
Bismarck Academy to o])en July 7. Marshall & 

Campbell were in the boot and shoe business. W. 
B. Shord & Co. took a column to advertise their 
deposit and exchange bank and general merchandise 
business. Raymond & Allen were largely repre- 
sented in their Empire supply store ad. W. A. 
Simpson was in news and fruit; Clark & Bill, dry 
goods ; Fred Strauss, then, as now, in the jewelry 
business. Dr. B. F. Slaughter gave a simple an- 
nouncement as physician and surgeon. R. R. 
Marsh kept the Capitol Hotel, for even then Bis- 
marck expected to be the capital. J. M. Rosier 
was the barber. Even W. S. Brown, the express 
agent, advertised, and all paid good, sound prices. 
Keating & Wolf advertised fruits and vegetables. 
Foster & Fagen run the bakery, and D. C. Smith 
was the photographer. J. A. Emmons was post- 
trader. F. A. Taylor, of St. Paul, was at Bismarck 
taking views. Among the advertisements left out 
of the first number of the Tribune because of the 
non-arrival of material were S. A. Dickey, post- 
trader. Fort A. Lincoln ; Edwinton Lumber Com- 
pany; Joseph Barber, gunsmith; Scott & Millett, 
livery; Asa Fisher, billiard hall; Joseph Deitrich, 
W. Sparenberg, architects ; Archer & Richards, con- 
tractors and builders; J. W. Fisher, sewing 
machines; G. G. Gibbs, blacksmith. McKenzie & 
Truedell were running a hotel. 

"By actual count July 9, 1873, the number of 
buildings in Bismarck was 147. 

"Bismarck was a wild, roaring town in those 
days. It was an all-night town, quiet during the 
day, with not a soul in the country engaged in 
farming. Howbeit, Col. C. A. Lounsberry had 
broken eleven acres of his soldier's homestead, 
within what is now the city limits, and had planted 
it to beans ; John Jackman had broken five acres on 
his claim, also in the city limits, and had planted 
sod crops ; Harry Carnhoof, Mike Smith, Jake 
Houser and Henry Suttle, J. W. Fisher, Col. Harry 
Brownson, T. F. Singhiser, and a few others, who 
had taken claims in the vicinity, had a few acres. 
Oscar and Henry Ward had claims on Apple Creek, 
five miles east of Bismarck, where Oscar ran a 
dairy and supplied the town with milk. 

"The Espiranza had come in from Benton loaded 
with furs. The Perimah, the Far West, Key West 
and Rosebud were going and coming, and the 
Stockdale lay at Bismarck. 

"There were three infantry companies on the 
hill at Fort A. Lincoln, which required two hundred 
men and seven hundred carloads of supplies to con- 




January i, 1874, a paper was established at 
Fargo, under the name of the "Express," of which 
A. J. Harwood was the editor and proprietor. In 
a short time it was purchased by E. B. Chambers, 
who changed the name of the journal to that of 
"Fargo Times." This paper was afterward ab- 
sorbed by the "Republican." 

In July, 1875, George H. Walsh, who had been 
publishing the "West St. Paul News," moved his 
plant to Grand Forks and established the "Plain- 
dealer," and presided over its destinies for two 
years, when he was succeeded by N. W. Spangler. 
From then on the paper changed hands quite often. 

The "Republican," a weekly journal, was estab- 
lished at Fargo in September, 1878, by Major A. 
W. Edwards, J. B. Hall and A. W. Hall. A year 
later Major Edwards severed his connection with 
the Republican, and November 17, 1879, established 
the "Daily Argus," the pioneer daily of North Da- 
kota, and still one of the leading papers of the sec- 
tion. In February, 1881, the "Republican" was 
changed to a daily also. 

Among the pioner papers of North Dakota was 
the "Jamestown Alert," instituted at that thriving 
town in the fall of 1878. It issues both daily and 
weekly editions. 

The "Grand Forks Weekly Herald" was first 
issued June 26, 1879, by George B. Winship, and has 
had a long and generally prosperous career. 

"The Northern Pacific Times" was established at 
Valley City in 1879 by Dr. S. B. Coe. In June, 
1882, formerly connected with the "Pioneer Press," 
of St. Paul, he purchased the paper and changed its 
name to the "Valley City Times," and made it a daily. 

The "Mandan Daily Pioneer" was established in 
1881, by Frank H. Ertel, who afterward, in 1883, 
sold it to Tuttle & Wilson, and later it passed into the 
hands of a corporation. 

The "Daily News" was instituted at Grand Forks 
in the spring of 1882, as a morning paper, with 
Hon. H. C. Hansbrough as editor. Shortly after 
it was changed to an evening paper and finally dis- 
continued, Mr. Hansbrough removing to Devil's 

The "Jamestown Capital" was first issued I'ebru- 
ary 24, 1882, as a weekly. It was changed to a 
daily in September of the same year. 

The "Mandan Times" began publication on the 
first day of July, 1882, and announced in its first 
issue that its politics would be independent Repub- 

The publication of the "Dickey County Leader" 
was commenced by Wesley Moran, the first issue 
appearing June 2, 1882. 

The first issue of the "Ellendale News" appeared 
May 31, 1883, published by S. C. McDonald. 

The "La Aloure County Progress," another of 
the early papers of the state, was established in 
1883 by William G. McKean, the first issue appear- 
ing June 30. 

The first paper published in the German lan- 
guage in North Dakota was undoubtedly the "Pio- 
neer," which was inaugurated at Jamestown in 1883, 
by A. Stimbach. 

These were among the first. To go into detail 
with each and to speak of every paper would far 
exceed the limits of this history. Now each town, 
village or hamlet throughout the wide expanse of 
North Dakota's fertile plains has its local news- 
paper, each with a history of its own. The annals 
of these journals are so interwoven with the life 
history of their editors that for a more detailed 
story of their birth, ups and downs and final tri- 
umphs, the reader is referred to the biographical de- 
partment of this work, where will be found the 
sketches of nearly all the prominent newspaper men 
in the state. 




^=f*¥*¥T=r=F?*=*****^**¥¥¥*T¥*^^=f=F¥¥¥¥¥*=F¥=f¥¥T=fT¥*¥¥¥ ¥¥*¥*¥*¥*¥*¥¥**¥ 

In no other covmtry in the world do education 
and educational matters assume the importance that 
they do in the United States. When the stern 
and rugged Puritan landed on the bleak and in- 
hospitable shores of New England, upon which he 
sought an asylum where, to use his own words, he 
"could worship God according to the dictates of 
his own conscience," he brought with him, besides 
the light of religious liberty, the seed of our noble 
educational system. Scarce had he erected his 
church altar than he began to make preparation for 
the instruction of the rising generation. Laws, 
among the first made by that little community on 
Massachusetts soil, were for the institution and gov- 
ernment of the common school. With the growth 
of years, as our country has expanded, so has the 
school system become greater, until now there is 
no state in the union but has made more or less 
ample provision for the instruction of its youth, not 
only in its humbler form, but in the walks of higher 

In this respect the state of North Dakota is, 
in no respect, behind any of the older states. In- 
vestigation into the facts and figures relative to the 
growth of the school system of the state will con- 
vince the most skeptical that few of the states have 
encouraged education to a greater degree. A very 

able article written by the governor of the territory, 
L. K. Church, in a communication with the depart- 
ment of the interior, in 1887, gives the statistics for 
that year. This, of course, was for the whole ter- 
ritory, before the division. 

The governor commenced by showing that the 
enrollment of scholars in the school, which was in 
1875, 4,428, out of a total of school age in the ter- 
ritory of 8,343, had increased to 87,131 out of a 
total of 109,475 in 1887. The whole number of 
teachers employed in 1875 was 208; in 1887 they 
numbered 4,924. The value of school property in 
1875 was $24,926, while in 1887 it had risen to the 
magnificent sum of $3,265,590. The expenditures 
for school purposes for the two years were, respect- 
ively, $32,603 and $1,633,561. The governor goes 
on to say: 

"This shows somewhat the remarkable growth 
made by Dakota and her school system during the 
twelve years, beginning with 1875 and ending with 
1887. Not only do these figures show a vast in- 
crease in the school population and a consequent 
increase in the number enrolled, but it shows that 
in proportion to the whole number, a larger per cent, 
of the children are enrolled in the schools ; and fur- 
ther, that those enrolled are attending more regu- 
larly than in the fore part of the period covered by 



these statistics. In 1875 only 53 per cent, of the 
children of school age were enrolled in the schools, 
and the same per cent, in 1879. Ii'i 1883 the per 
cent, had increased to 62, while the report of 1887 
shows that 79 per cent, of the school population 
attended school for the whole or a part of the year. 
During the year 1879 only 25 per cent, uf the school 
population were in regular attendance at school. 
The per cent, of the population attending regularly 
in 1883 increased to ^/, while in 1887 we make tha 
magnificent showing of 53 per cent, attending every 
day for the whole term of 1 12 days. In this respect 
Dakota leads nearly all of the states. 

"The whole number of teachers has increased 
from 208, in 1875, to 4,924, in 1887, but the aver- 
age wages, for the same period, shows a slight 
decrease for the male teachers, while the wages of 
the female teachers has increased from $25 in 1875 
to $30.36 in 18S7. 

"The school population multiplied thirteen times 
during the period from 1875, and at the same time 
the number of schools multiplied twenty times. In 
1875 there was one school for every forty pupils of 
school age, and in 1887 there is one school for every 
twenty-eight of the children of school age. These 
figures explain in part the more general and regu- 
lar attendance during the last years of the period, 
but only in part. Much of the increase in the at- 
tendance is doubtless due to the increase in the 
wealth of the people. ]\Iany parents in the early 
days were compelled to keep their children at home 
to work in the various capacities on the farm. The 
steady prosperity of these years has given many 
more of the comforts of life, and has enabled par- 
ents not only to do without the services of the chil- 
dren, but to provide them with books and clothing 
necessary to attend the schools. The real object 
and best results of the public school will be more 
nearly realized in that community where the largest 
proportion of the population comes most directly 
under the influence of the school. In these items 
Dakota bears comparison with any of the older 
states of the east, which surely argues that she has 
accomplished much in the few years since the organ- 
ization of her school system." 

In the official report of P. F. McClure, commis- 
sioner of emigration of the territory in 1887, that 
gentleman says: 

"Probably no state or territory in the union has 
had such a remarkable growth as Dakota. Surely, 
none has accomplished so much in the same length 
of time ; indeed, many have not achieved such head- 

way in a far longer period. What we have done is 
shown in our growth ; what we are is best shown 
in comparison with other states. 

"In school population, Dakota leads Colorado, 
Delaware, Florida, Nevada, New Hampshire, Ore- 
gon, Rhode Island, \'ermont, and all the terri- 

"In the number of her teachers, Dakota is ahead 
of Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, 
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Nevada, 
New Jersey, New Hampshire, Oregon, South Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, \'ermont and West Virginia. 

"Dakota has more days of school than Colorado, 
Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, West \lrginia or any uf the territories, 
except Arizona and Utah. 

"In the value of her school property, Dakota 
exceeds all the states and territories except Cali- 
fornia, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, ^Missouri, Ne- 
braska, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wis- 

"In the amount of expenditures for the support 
of the public schools, Dakota is in the lead of the 
same list, including Connecticut. 

"But it is in the proportion of her children en- 
rolled that Dakota stands most favorable compari- 
son. Upon careful comparison with the reports of 
the other states and territories for 1885, it is found 
that Connecticut, Florida, Massachusetts, Nevada, 
New Hampshire and Rhode Island are the only states 
that show a larger proportion of their children en- 
rolled in the public schools. Alany of them are far 
below Dakota in this most important particular. 
With the exception of the states of Connecticut, 
Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Missouri. Ne- 
vada and New Hampshire, Dakota leads the van in 
the proportion of pupils enrolled that attend regu- 

"When it is considered that Dakota's popula- 
tion is scattered over such a wide area, that she is 
supposed to be more unfavorably situated as to her 
climate, and that her soil has, until a few years ago, 
been considered useless in maintaining civilized life 
— this feature of the report is, perhaps, the most 
surprising to those unfamiliar with the work of 
education in this territory, and the most satisfactorv 
to those interested in the educational progress of 

"These are statements the people have a right to 
be proud of, and the more so when it is understood 



that every dollar of the school fund is raised by a 
direct tax, there being no fund available from the 
disposal of school lands until after statehood is at- 

The potenc}- of the coiuitry school for good, 
and its influence as a factor in our stirring national 
life, were duly recognized by the general govern- 
ment when bestowing statehood upon North Da- 
kota. By the enabling act that brought within the 
sisterhood of states that vigorous young common- 
wealth, it was endowed with half a million of acres 
of land lying within its borders, in addition to the 
regular school sections, i6 and 36, in every congres- 
sional township within the state, and five per cent 
of the proceeds of the sale of all public lands in the 
state. This was given exclusively for the cause of 
education. From these sources has arisen a fund 
which, by constitutional provision, cannot be divert- 
ed from the benefit of the schools. The interest 
arising from it is apportioned annually among the 
various districts, but the principal, protected by suf- 
ficient safeguards, must remain forever untouched. 

The amount of this fund invested in farm mort- 
gages, district school bonds and state bonds on 
June 30, 1898, was $688,774.19, and the cash on 
hand at that time was $109,506.25. The amount of 
money paid to the various districts from the state 
tuition fund for the years 1894-98 is as follows: 
For 1894, $317,564.74; for 1895, $366,258.56; for 
1896, $308,514.74; for 1897, $400,748.64; for 1898, 
$412,288.72. The fund is increasing more rapidly 
than the population, and there are now schools in 
the state whose running expenses are entirely paid 
by the money received from this fund. 

The following exhaustive and able article re- 
lating to the phenomenally rapid growth of the 
schools of North Dakota was written by Professor 
Merrifield, of the university, and published in the 
Grand Forks "Daily Herald" of June 27, 1899. It 
is worthy of a close perusal and of preservation. 

"North Dakota was admitted to statehood No- 
vember 3, 1889. Few people realize how rapid has 
been her progress along educational lines in the nine 
years intervening. June 30, 1889, the total enroll- 
ment in our public schools was 30,024; June 30, 
1898, it was 67,376, an increase in the nine years of 
142 per cent, as compared with an increase of 109 
per cent in Idaho (the state making the next largest 
gain), 71 per cent in Colorado, 61 per cent in Mon- 
tana, 41 per cent in Washington, 33 per cent in 
Minnesota, and 14 per cent in South Dakota. Dur- 
ing the same period there was a falling off in the 

school enrollment in Maine, A'ermont, Kansas and 
Nevada, ranging from a Icfes of i per cent in \'er- 
mont to 8 per cent in Kansas. Between June 30, 
1889, and June 30, 1898, the number of school dis- 
tricts in this state increased from 927 to 1,177; the 
number of graded schools, from 38 toii3; the num- 
ber of schools of all kinds, from 1,470 to 2,333 '> the 
number of school buildings, from 1,401 to 2,304, 
with an increase in value from $1,209,228 to $2,132,- 
738. In 1889 the average daily attendance was 
16,156; in 1898, 41,155. In 1889 the aggregate 
days of attendance were 1,915,370; in 1898 (and 
these statistics are most significant as indicating 
the increase in length of the school year, as well as 
of the numbers in attendance), 6,295,751. In 
1889,' 1,884 teachers were employed, at a total sal- 
ary of $309,213.94; in 1898, 3,637 teachers were em- 
ployed, at a total salary of $680,175.36. The total 
expenditure for all purposes was, in 1889, $596,- 
680.97; in 1898, $1,385,934.17. The number of dis- 
tricts having six months or more of school was, 
in 1889, 927; in 1898, 1,676. 

"That the standard of scholarship has kept pace 
with the increase in enrollment and the improve- 
ment in material equipment is evidenced by the fact 
that in 1889 the number of pupils in the state study- 
ing civil government was 449; in 1898, 20,110; the 
number studying algebra at the two dates were 202 
and 1,123, respectively; geometry, 54 and 714; 
natural philosophy, 52 and 494; Latin (none re- 
ported) and 359. 

"In 1889 no high school in the state prepared 
students for the freshman class of the state univer- 
sity. In 1898 there were nine schools which afford- 
ed such preparation. Prior to 1891, the high 
schools had no common course of study and no co- 
ordinating central authority. In October, 1891, the 
'Fargo conference' of high school principals and 
county superintendents, with the endorsement of the 
state association at its meeting the following De- 
cember, agreed to adopt the so-called Minnesota 
plan of examination and inspection of high schools. 
The essential features of this plan, including a high 
school board composed of the governor of the state, 
the superintendent of public instruction and the 
president of the state university, were embodied in 
law in 1895, and at the recent session of the legisla- 
ture a standing appropriation of $4,000 a year was 
made for the purpose of defraying the expenses of 
the high school board and for giving a small annual 
grant to the classified high schools, thereby making 
them free of tuition to all pupils resident in the 


state. Under this plan, at two appointed times each 
year (the third week in December and May) the ex- 
aminer sends to the several schools questions in 
all the branches prescribed by the high school board. 
The examination is conducted by the principals in 
acordance with prescribed rules, strict compliance 
with which is certified by the principals, and the 
written papers are then sent to the examiner to be 
read under his supervision. Certificates, which are 
accepted in lieu of entrance examinations by all col- 
leges in the state, and by most, if not all, colleges in 
the country, are in due time sent by the examiner to 
the successful examinees. Under this system an 
open highway is provided for every pupil in the re- 
motest district school in the state up to and through 
the state university. By the recent act of the leg- 
islature, North Dakota has made education, in all 
its grades, absolutely free to every child within its 
borders. With the exception of Minnesota, it is 
safe to say that North Dakota possesses the most 
completely developed system of public instruction of 
any state in the Union. 

"Twenty-one schools in the state have been class- 
ified by the high school board as state high schools. 
Seven of these (Casselton, Devil's Lake, Grafton, 
Grand Forks, Larimore, Lisbon, Valley City,) are 
classified as high schools of the first class; seven 
(Bathgate, Bismarck, Drayton, Ellendale, Hills- 
boro, Oakes, Park River) as high schools of the 
second class, and six (Buffalo, Langdon, Mandan, 
Pembina, St. Thomas, Thompson,) as high schools 
of the third class. High schools of the first 
class maintain a four-years' course of study 
prescribed by the high school board ; high 
schools of the second class, a three-years' 
course, and high schools of the third class 
a two-years' course. With the exception of 
Greek, for which substitutes in literature, mathemat- 
ics and science are offered, this course is substan- 
tially the same in quantity and quality as that pur- 
sued by the best high schools and academies of the 
New England and Middle states. 

"The institutions of higher learning have not 
lagged behind the other grades of schools in the 
general progress. Indeed, they have from the start, 
set the pace, with the glad consent and cheerful co- 
operation of the other grades. 

"In 1889 the university was the only institution 
of higher learning in actual operation in the state, 
with a faculty of ten members and an enrollment of 
one hundred and fifty-one students, all but twenty- 
four of whom were in the preparatory department. 

In 1898 there were four state educational institutions 
(the State University at Grand Forks, the State Ag- 
ricultural College at Fargo, and the state Normal 
schools at Mayville and Valley City and the two de- 
nominational colleges (the Congregational College 
at Fargo and the Red River Valley — Methodist — 
at Wahpeton), with a combined faculty of sixty- 
three members and with nearly or quite one thousand 
students in attendance. 

"During the past term the university registered 
about three hundred students, considerably more 
than one-third of them in the college department, 
eleven being in the graduate department as candi- 
dates for the master's degrees. Next October the 
university will open a law department with a suffi- 
cient attendance already pledged to assure the suc- 
cess of the school. The higher and secondary, as 
well as the common schools, are all in a most flour- 
ishing condition, the only complaint from any quar- 
ter being that present facilities are proving entirely 
inadequate to meet the demands made upon them. 

"It does not come within the proper scope of this 
article to make any estimate of the population of the 
state, based upon the present school enrollment ; but 
as current estimates are all considerably below the 
population which should belong to us as judged by 
the ratio per centage (the per cent., that is, that the 
school enrollment bears to the total population), 
elsewhere considered conservative. I venture to 
touch upon the subject in closing my article. Tak- 
ing as the basis of our calculation the enrollment 
for the school year ending June 30, 1898, 67,376, and 
using as our ratio percentage 16.8, which was cor- 
rect for 1890, we get 401,047 as the present popula- 
tion. This is undoubtedly too large, as the propor- 
tion of school enrollment to total population is nuich 
larger than in 1890. If we take the ratio percentage 
given by the United States commissioner of educa- 
tion for North Dakota in 1896, viz: 18.8, we get as 
our present population, 358,033. Using 22.19, the 
official ratio per centage of the North Central division 
of states (including North Dakota), we get 303,600 ; 
and using the official ratio percentage for the coun- 
try at large, 20.37, we get 330,761. All these calcu- 
lations indicate a population considerably larger 
than that estimated by the governor of the state and 
reported to the World Almanac for 1899, viz: 235,- 
000. Assuming the correctness of our school enroll- 
ment, I believe a conservative estimate would place 
our population in excess of 300,000 June 30, last. 
"Werster Merrifield, 
"President Universitv North Dakota." 




The State University of North Dakota was estab- 
lished by an act of the legislative assembly of the ter- 
ritory of Dakota, approved P'ebruary 27, 1883. The 
institution was first opened for the reception of stu- 
dents, September 8, 1884. Uy the division of the 
territory and the admission of North Dakota as a 
state in 1889, the institution became the State Uni- 
versity of the new commonwealth. By the terms of 
the enabling act of congress, under which the state 
was admitted, the university was given a grant of 
126,080 acres of public land. This land may not be 
sold for less than ten dollars an acre, so that the 
university will eventually have a permanent endow- 
ment, guaranteed by the state, of more than a mil- 
lion and a quarter of dollars. The university is 
supported by appropriations made biennially by the 
state legislature. At the fifth session of the legisla- 
ture in 1892, the university was given a permanent 
appropriation of two-fifths of a mill on the assessed 
valuation of the state. As this assessment is now 
in excess of $101,000,000 and is rapidly increasing 
the university receives about $40,000 a year, and a 
sum which will increase with each year hereafter. 
As the growth of the university is fully keeping pace 
with the growth of the state the increasing income 
of the university will not more than supply its rap- 
idly increasing needs. 


The University is located at Grand Forks and is 
a source of justifiable pride to the people of the whole 

The main building is of brick and stone, and is 
51 .X 150 feet in dimensions, four stories high, includ- 
ing basement. All the work of instruction, except 
in the law department, is carried on in this building, 
which contains in addition to the lecture and reci- 
tation rooms, the chai)el, the library, with 6,500 well 
selected volumes, a well supplied museum, and the 
biological, chemical, and physical laboratories. 

Davis Hall, a well furnished and commodious 
dormitory is for the accommodation of about one 
hundred young ladies. All students residing at the 
university take their meals in the dining hall in the 
basement of this building. This hall affords accom- 
miidations for about two hundred students. 

.\ combined drill room and dormitory furnishes 
accommodations for about eighty young men. The 
gymnasium an<l a dormitorv are combined. This 

building accommodates about forty or fifty students, 
mainly in the preparatory department. The build- 
ings are all heated with steam and lighted by elec- 
tricity, all in the most approved modern and scien- 
tific manner. 

A dormitory and gymnasium are combined in 
another building. This accommodates about forty- 
five students and is occupied mainly by young men 
in the preparatory department. 

A building is now in progress of erection, for the 
general heating and lighting of the institution. The 
buildings will all be heated in the most approved 
fashion by steam and lighted by electricity. 

The dormitories are all in charge of- resident in- 
structors and the morals and health of the students 
are at all times carefully looked after. The univer- 
sity maintains two hospital wards of ample capacity 
under the direction of a resident nurse. 

The charter of the university provides for the 
following colleges : 

1. The college or department of arts. 

2. The college or department of science. 

3. The normal college or department. 

4. The school of mines, the object of which shall 
be to furnish facilities for the education of such per- 
sons as may desire to receive instruction in chem- 
istry, metallurgy, mineralogy, geology, mining, mill- 
ing and engineering. 

5. The military department or school, the object 
of which shall be to instruct and train students in 
the manual of arms and such military maneuvers 
and tactics as are taught in military colleges. 

6. Such professional or other colleges or depart- 
ments as now are, or may, from time to time, be 
added thereto, or connected therewith. 

Under the provisions of this section of the char- 
ter the following departments have thus far been 
established : Department of arts, department of sci- 
ence, normal department, department of mines and 
mining, military department, and department of law. 

Under the departments of arts and science three 
courses of study of four years each are maintained, 
as follows : The classical course, the Latin-science 
course, and the science course. These all lead to 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Supplementary to 
these courses there are maintained a graduate course 
of one year for resident graduates of this institution 
and of other institutions approved by the faculty, and 
of two years for graduates of this institution study- 
ing in absentia. This course leads to the degree of 
master of arts. 

The cours* in the normal college covers two. 



years or five years including an elenK-ntar.y normal 
course of three years. 

A diploma from the normal department is the 
equivalent for two years, without examination, of a 
first grade certificate in any county in the state. 
Graduates of this department, after one year's suc- 
cessful experience in teaching, may be granted the 
state normal certificate, valid for five years, without 
further examination ; after three years' experience 
they may be granted the professional certificate, valid 
for life. 

As adjuncts to the departments named above the 
university maintains a preparatory department of 
three years, embracing the high school course of 
study prescribed by the state board. 

The law department was opened in the fall of 
1899, with Hon. Guy C. H. Corliss, formerly chief 
justice of the state supreme court, as dean. His 
assistant was John E. Blair, late of Harvard Law 
School, in 1898. Course in law covers two years, and 
degrees will be conferred on all completing the 

The government of/ the university is vested in a 
board of trustees, five in number, who hold office for 
a term of four years each. The work of instruction 
is entrusted to the faculty of the several colleges. 
The officers of the univcrsit}- are as follows : 

President of the board of trustees, Hon. David 
Bartlett, Cooperstown ; secretary, Prof. Joseph Ken- 
nedy, University. 

President of the University — Webster Merri- 
field, University. 

Secretary of the Academic Faculty — I'rof. John 
]\Iacnie, University. 

Director of the School of Mines— Prof. E. J. 
Babcock, University. 

Dean of the Law School — Hon. Guy C. H. Cor- 
liss, Grand Forks. 

Secretary of the Law School — Mr. John E. 
Blair, Grand Forks. 

The professors and instructors in all depart- 
ments number thirty-seven members. 

The university stands at the head of the educa- 
tional svstem of the state. 








Toward the upbuilding; of a country, toward its 
settlement and development, there is no luore im- 
portant factor than the railroad. In the 'fifties, and 
even in the early 'sixties, the railroad was ever prone 
to follow the paths of civilization and settlement, 
but now and for twenty years they have led the van. 
In those days they awaited the results of the efforts 
of the hardy pioneer, and only sought to run their 
lines where a heavy traffic and a successful business 
seemed assured. Prior to this, the going out into 
a new country meant greater hardships than those of 
the present day dream of, and the breaking up and 
development of any new country is hard enough 
at any time. Without the railroad the greater part 
of North Dakota would have remained as wild and 
uncultivated as it was when first the white race be- 
held its vast expanse, for at least many years. With 
out the help of railroads it would have taken scores 
of years to have placed the state where it is today, 
yea, probably a hundred years. The inflence on 
and importance to the state of the iron horse has 
been most wonderful. 


One of the earliest and prominent railroads of 
the state, the Xorthern Pacific Railroad, which 

stretches like an iron band from Duluth, on Lake 
Superior, and St. Paul, on the Mississippi, across the 
continent, to the waters of the Pacific ocean, on 
Puget Sound. The principal points on this line in 
Xorth Dakota are Fargo, Jamestown, Bismarck 
and Wahpeton. Such considerable places and 
county seats as Casselton, \'alley City, Steele, Alan- 
dan, Lisbon, La Moure, Cooperstown, Carrington, 
Minnewaukon and Leeds, are also on this road, or 
on some of its branches. 


tory of the Northern Paf'ific 
as written bv GeiiCral fames 


The following h 
Railroad Company 
H. Baker, who, at the time of writing, was state rail- 
1 way commissioner of Minnesota, and who was fully 
informed upon the subject matter. He says: 

'it has been said that the highways of nations 
are the measures of their civilization. By means of 
speedy transit, society, government, commerce, art, 
wealth, intelligence, are developed and advanced to 
their highest excellence. The thirty-one roads 
which radiated from the Roman forum into her vast 
provinces, like spokes from the nave of a wheel, 
were proof of the wisdom and grandeur of the 
Roman rule. The historian who chronicles the steps 



of civilization must tell of the substitution of turn- 
pikes for muddy lanes, of steel rails for the ma- 
cadam. In the pre-raihvay times of England, ton- 
nage by earth roads averaged twenty-six cents per 
ton per mile. The railways came and carried a ton 
of goods twenty-five miles an hour for two cents per 
mile. The value of a wagon load of wheat is to- 
tally consumed in hauling it on the earth road three 
hundred miles. The United States, with 112,000 
miles of railway, is the foremost nation in the world 
in the abundance and excellence of her highways. 
The locomotive and steel rail is tlie swift civilizer of 
the wilderness. There are between Lake Superior 
and the bright waters of Puget Sound 500,000 
square miles of rich territory, ready to be impressed 
with the prosperity, wealth and civilization of the 
East. A national railway could alone insure that 
development in this generation. Une, and even two 
lines, were not sufficient to meet the requirements 
of the situation. 

"The center and south were already supplied — 
the line of the northern zone alone remained or com- 
pletion. It is the true commercial zone. Behind 
it lie the active wealth, the commercial power, and 
the marts of commerce of this nation. New York, 
Boston, Chicago, the great lakes, the great lines of 
railway, the growing cities and power of the North- 
west, all the great motive forces of the new world, 
are on the line of this commercial zone. These 
forces await the opening of this line to pour through 
its arterial way the tides of wealth and trade. It is 
backed by all the commercial powers of the age. 
The northern route was the only original plan of a 
railway to the Pacific. The waters of the great 
lake were assumed as its necessary base, and the con- 
vexity of the earth gave it vastly the shorter line. 
Nature had depressed the very mountains them- 
selves for its passage, while the Columbia river 
and the archipelago of Puget sound seemed to be 
planned for its Pacific terminus. In the fullness of 
time, and upon its own merits, this stupendous work 
has been accomplished. It is of permanent interest 
to trace the rise and growth of so great an artery of 
national and international commercial life, which 
also insures commercial supremacy to our own state. 
1 purpose, therefore, to present the essential outline 
of its history from its inception to its completion. 

"To Dr. Hartwell Carver belongs the honor of 
being the first person who first conceived and pub- 
licly advocated building a railway across the Amer- 
ican continent, to connect the Atlantic with the Pa- 
cific ocean. In 1837 he began to advocate its feasi- 

bility in the newspapers. His first article appeared 
in the New York 'Courier and Enquirer,' for the 
insertion of which he paid the sum of fourteen dol- 
lars. At that time he was regarded as a Utopian 
project. His newspaper article, his memorial to 
congress and his pamphlet, are before me as I write. 
They evince unbounded faith in the scheme, but the 
methods proposed there are wholly impracticable. 
In 1845 he published an huiuiry into the Practica- 
bility and Benefits of a Railroad from Lake Michi- 
gan to the Pacific Ocean. In 1848 he memorial- 
ized congress for a private charter for himself and 
his friends, and based his claime as "first inceptor 
of the project.' His grandfather was that Jonathan 
Carver who e.xplored a portion of the wilderness 
of ^linnesota in 1764, and whose valuable contri- 
butions to the history of the country have been 
justly remembered by naming a county and town 
in this state in his honor. He himself claimed to 
"hail from the far Northwest, the Falls of St. An- 
thony, which,' he says, T call my present and future 
home.' His home, however, appears to have been 
in Monroe county, New York, at which place his 
communications and memorials were dated. Dr. 
Carver claims that the first suggestion of a railroad 
across the Rocky Mountains occurred to him while 
in Europe, in 1832, in passing from Milan to Swit- 
zerland, while crossing the Alps by the Simplon 
road, built by Napoleon. The peculiarity of Car- 
ver's project, like that of all others at an early date, 
was to connect the great northern lakes with the 
Pacific ocean, at Puget sound or the Columbia 

"In the year 1845 -'^sa \Miilney began to direct 
public attention to and revive interest in a railway 
to the Pacific. He was a merchant in New York 
and had spent many years in China. He made 
numerous speeches through the country, wrote 
newspaper articles and published numerous pamph- 
lets upon the subject. His scheme was to build it 
by means of the public lands based on a system of 
European emigration. His enthusiasm and practi- 
cal plans enlisted some of the best men in the coun- 
trv in the project. His celebrated meeting at the 
Tabernacle, in New York, January 4, 1847, was 
taken possession of by a mob, who declared the 
project a swindle planned by a band of conspirators 
to rob the government of its lands. He died in 
Washington in 1872. 

"Many grotesque and extravagant notions con- 
cerning a railway to the Pacific characterized the 
earlier vears of its history. Notable among these 



were Carver's extravagant ideas concerning the 
prodigious cars of two hundred feet in length he 
proposed to run; to build great arches over the 
rivers after the manner of the Romans, and to have 
a gauge of eight feet wide. Perham had an idea 
tha the could get a million of men to take $ioo 
stock each in the road and thus secure the $ioo,- 
000,000 necessary to build it. Another scheme was 
to ha\e a system of European immigration which 
should buy the lands for work upon the road, and 
thus secure the building as the line was settled. 
Another fancy was that the excavations of the road 
through the mountains would develop enough gold 
and silver to pay for the road. Memorable, too, 
were the extravagant orations of Delegate Gar- 
fielde, of Oregon, in congress and on the stiunp. 
He portrayed the mild climate of the country in 
glowing colors, and declared that the winds from 
the Japan current would follow the building of the 
road and make a banana belt from Puget sound to 
Lake Superior. It is well enough to note these 
early humors, which equal Proctor Knott's famous 
hyperbolical oration. 

"In 1854 Edwin F. Johnson, of ^^liddletown, 
Connecticut, published a book, with a map, advo- 
cating the claim of the 'Northern Route' to the 
Pacific. The question of some railway across the 
continent was at that time admitted to be of trans- 
cendant importance, and the public mind was much 
divided as to which was the best. Three routes 
were proposed ; one terminating at S^n Diego ; the 
middle one at San Francisco, and the northern at 
the Strait of San Juan de Fuca, on Puget Sound. 
Mr. Johnson advocated, with great minutia of de- 
tail and marked ability, the northern route. His 
laborious investigations covered every point in the 
controversy, and his analysis of the whole subject 
was so complete that but little has since been added, 
except by the result of trial surveys and actual loca- 
tion. Mr. Johnson subsequently served as chief 
engineer of the enterprise. Under his careful hand 
the project was no longer a visionary scheme. 

"The public mind having persistently urged the 
necessity of such a national highway, congress 
finally passed the act of March 3, 1853, which di- 
rected that the secretary of war should cause to be 
surveyed, by army engineers, the western country 
'to ascertain the most practical route from the Mis- 
sissippi river to the Pacific ocean.' Jeflferson Davis, 
then secretary of war, designated the several chiefs 
charged with the surveys, on or near the several 
parallels of latitude. These survcvs were all suc- 

cessfully conducted, except that under Captain Gun- 
nison on the line of the thirty-eighth parallel. He, 
together with thirteen of his men, were massacred 
by the Indians in October, 1853. The northern 
route was in charge of Governor I. I. Stevens, of 
Washington territory, one of the most intelligent, 
indefatigable and useful friends of the great en- 
terprise. Among his assistants we find such famil- 
iar names as Lieutenant George B. McClellan and 
Captain John Pope. Governor .Stevens' survey 
fully established, not only the feasibility, but the 
superiority of the route from the jMissouri river to 
Puget sound. The route east of the Rocky mount- 
ains, starting at St. Paul, would have been surveyed 
by Governor Stevens, but his plans were interdicted 
by Secretary Davis, who was not disposed to give 
the northern route the chance in public favor its 
merits demanded. Governor Stevens' elaborate re- 
ports settled two important points — that the passes 
of the mountains were feasible, and there would be 
be no obstructions from snow. 

"An intelligent public opinion continued to press 
the construction of a transcontinental railway. Men 
of force and character were giving the enterprise 
support. The people expected it; the time was ripe 
for its initiation. A serried girdle of railways was 
already half way across the continent to the Mis- 
sissippi river, and the pressure of social and com- 
mercial forces demanded their extension to our 
Pacific possessions. The discovery of gold, the 
defiant conduct of the residents of Utah and the 
requirements of the war department in Indian mat- 
ters all combined to quicken the public desire. But 
the war came, both to delay and expedite the colos- 
sal work. The great central route and its auxil- 
iaries werebornin the darkness of the nation's strug- 
gle, largely as a war measure, to reach and bind 
our Pacific possessions more closely to the union. 
This great work was finished jNIay 10, 1869, at 
Promontory Point, Utah. 

"The people of Alinnesota and the citizens of 
St. Paul were among the earliest and most persist- 
ent advocates of a Northern Pacific route. Meet- 
ings were held, information was gathered, and 
energetic efforts made through a series of }ears in 
its behalf. Among others, a remarkable meeting 
was held in St. Paul, July 10, 1857, of which Colonel 
William Noble was chairman and Joseph A. Whecl- 
ock, secretar)-. It was addressed liy Governor Ram- 
sey and James W. Taylor. Mr. Taylor's aildress 
was a very full and intelligent view of tlie whole 
(lucstion. The resolutions he offered were remark- 



abl\' terse and vigorous, one of which is as follows : 
'Resolved, That the great physical feat will vindi- 
cate itself— namely, that the commerce and power 
of the globe lies north of the fortieth degree of 
north latitude and that four-fifths of Europe, with 
a corresponding area of the Pacific coast of North 
America, is north of the center of Minnesota.' 
Upon the basis of this comprehensive idea, the civil 
engineer of St. Paul, Charles A. F. Morris, made 
a large map of that zone of the world, representing 
that idea and defining the line of the proposed road. 
That map is still in existence, and it is a remarka- 
ble presentation of the grand idea it embodies. 
Through all the years of its varying fortunes, the 
city of St. Paul, the people of Minnesota and her 
representatives in congress were the faithful and 
unwearied advocates of the route, and contributed 
valuable facts and information in aid of the project. 
"Josiah Perham, the first president of the North- 
ern Pacific, was a marked character. Of a specu- 
lative turn of mind, he was given to ideal schemes. 
He was the author of the gift enterprises of twenty- 
five years ago. A resident of the state of Maine, 
at an early date he badgered the legislature of that 
state into granting him and his associates a charter 
for a railroad from Maine to the Pacific ocean. 
Of course it was worthless, but he came to Wash- 
ington with his People's Pacific Railroad Company 
charter in his pocket, and on the i6tl^ of April, 
1870, petitioned congress for the right of way and 
grant of lands in aid of his pet project. Among 
others at Washington he encountered Thaddeus 
Stevens, of Pennsylvania, then, as ever, a friend of 
the northern route to the P'acific. Stevens induced 
Perham to abandon his Maine charter and get up a 
congressional bill for a Northern Pacific road. At 
that time Huntington and others were busy with the 
Union Pacific scheme. Stevens was the chairman 
of the Pacific railway committee in the house. He 
introduced a resolution into that committee propos- 
ing a northern line contemporaneously with the 
other proposed Pacific routes. The resolution 
passed. The result of it was a bill. This bill went 
to the house and was defeated by eighteen votes. 
Stevens was angry. As chairman of the committee 
he held the key to the situation. He plainly told 
Huntington and his friends that they had permitted 
the defeat of the measure. It is said that he further 
told them that he should hold their bill in his pocket 
till the Northern Pacific bill passed. The result 
was that the bill subsequently passed the house. It 
never was printed. It was read perfunctorily as 

such bills are, and the ten sections per mile were 
mysteriously increased to twenty, it went to the 
senate and unanimously passed that body. Perham 
organized his company; of the stock he had a con- 
trolling interest. He failed to accomplish an_\tliing 
and died a poor man. After his death the stock 
was gathered up, and the enterprise, in new hands, 
was warmed into new life. Thaddeus Stevens, the 
old Roman, was the real father of the Northern 
Pacific charter. Others had advocated the enter- 
prise, but under his sovereign wing the bill had its 

"On the 2d of July, 1864, Abraham Lincoln 
signed the charter for the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road. The act of incorporation was reported at the 
last session of the thirty-eighth congress by the 
select committee on public lands, of wdiich Thaddeus 
Stevens, of Pennsylvania, was chairman, and Ig- 
natius Donnelly the Minnesota member. This 
charter authorized the construction of a railroad 
and telegraph line, "beginning at a point on Lake 
Superior, in the state of Minnesota, thence west- 
erly by the most eligible route within the territory 
of the L'nited States on- a line north of the forty- 
fifth degree of north latitude to some point on 
Puget sound, with a branch in the valley of the 
Columbia river, to a point at or near Portland, in the 
state of Oregon." The charter granted the right 
of way through the public domain ; also alternate 
sections of land for twenty miles on each side of the 
road, except mineral lands, upon conditions similar 
to those contained in other like grants. Some 
amendments to this charter, relating chiefly to an 
extension of time, tlie construction of branches, and 
the issuing of bonds secured by mortgage, were 
granted subsequently. 

""The valuable, earnest and persistent support of 
the Minnesota delegation in congress to this great 
measure must not be forgotten. As early as De- 
cember 20, 1858, the Hon. H. M. Rice delivered an 
able speech in the senate in its behalf. January 7, 
1859, Hon. James Shields, then a senator from this 
state, delivered a speech in the same body in its sup- 
port. On January 5, 1869, Hon. \MlIiam Windom 
delivered a very able and extended address in the 
house in its advocacy. Alexander Ramsey was al- 
ways conspicuous for earnest efforts in its behalf; 
so was Hon. Cyrus Aldrich and Hon. Ignatius 
Donnelly. Indeed, it is very doubtful whether the 
measure would have succeeded without the patient, 
intelligent and persistent efforts of the Minnesota 
delegation in congress. Active, earnest and hope- 



ful, they carried force and conviction in each house, 
and very largely contributed to its final accomplish- 

"The congressional charter contained a provis- 
ion creating a representative commission from each 
state and territory, which should constitute the 
'board of commissioners,' and their first meeting 
was authorized to be held at 'Melodeon hall,' in the 
city of Boston. In that commission of corporators 
Minnesota was represented by Cyrus Aldrich, H. 
M. Rice, John McKusick, H. C. Waite and Stephen 
Miller. The first meeting of the commissioners was 
held at Melodeon hall, Boston, September i, 1864, 
and they proceeded to elect the first permanent offi- 
cers, with the following result: President, Josiah 
Perham ; vice-president, A\illard Sears ; secretary, 
Abiel Abbott; treasurer, J. H. Withington. Books 
were ordered opened for subscriptions to the capital 
stock, and a cash payment thereon of ten per cent. 
was reqliired. Over 20,000 shares were subscribed 
and ten dollars per share actually paid in. The 
secretary thereupon called a meeting of the sub- 
scribers to the capital stock, at No. 22 Merchants' 
Exchange building, Boston, December 6, 1864, for 
the purpose of electing thirteen directors. The total 
number of votes cast was 20.073, '^'id the following 
gentlemen were elected as the first board : 

'■Josiah Perham, J. S. Withington, A. W. Ban- 
field, Philander Reed, Ogden Holt, Richard B. 
Sewall, Willard Sears. Abiel Abbott, Nathaniel 
Greene, Jr., P. J. Forristall, John A. Bass, James 
M. Beckett and Oliver Frost. On the next day the 
new officers were elected, with Josiah Perham as 
president. On the 15th of September. 1864, the 
act of congress granting lands in aid of the con- 
struction of the road was formally accepted by the 
board and notice of the same served directly upon 
the president, Abraham Lincoln, who acknowledged 
the service in a personal letter. Thus the first act 
in the great drama of a northern railway to the 
Pacific was accomplished, and the mighty zone, 
stretching from Lake Superior to that wonderful 
archipelago, Puget sound, an empire in itself, was 
to be opened to civilization and the commercial des- 
tiny of Minnesota assured. As the railroad so 
chartered was reciuired to obtain the consent of the 
legislature of any state through which any portion 
of it might pass, previous to the commencement of 
the construction thereof, the legislature of the state 
of Minnesota passed such an act March 2, 1865, 
with a proviso that said road should construct a line 
from the main line to the navigable waters of the 

Mississippi river. The consent of the state of Wis- 
consin was given by an act approved April 10, 1865. 

"Between the date of organization, 1864, and 
the year 1869, but little was done. In 1866 J. 
Gregory Smith, of \'ermont, had become president. 
He was a man of decided ability, energy and per- 
fect faith in the success of the great enterprise. 
In that year Edwin F. Johnson was appointed en- 
engineer-in-chief, and he organized and placed in the 
field four separate corps of engineers. The meas- 
ures which had been inaugurated after the organ- 
ization to provide funds was a failure. Other lead- 
ing roads to the Pacific were oflfering better induce- 
ments in securities, for they not only had lands and 
bonds secured by mortgage, and also the bonds of 
the United States. After an ineffectual struggle 
to raise funds, application to congress was made 
December 17, 1867, when Alexander Ramsey pre- 
sented a memorial to the senate in behalf of the 
company. For two years, by facts and arguments, 
congress was urged to subsidize the road, and with 
the Northern project was now associated a Southern 
Pacific measure of like import. The enterprise, in 
different forms, was advocated by some of the fore- 
most men of the nation. The continued discussions 
were able, but the public mind had become alienated 
as to subsidies, and even land grants, as a means 
of assistance, were persistently attacked. The land 
grant was magnified in importance ; it was said to 
exceed fifty million acres, much larger in empire 
thnan the six New England states. Aid to rail- 
roads continued to agitate the people with intense 
feeling. Public opinion was against it, and con- 
gress reflected the public will. Appeals for aid 
were in vain. It became evident that if the North- 
ern continental highway was built at all, it must be 
constructed on its own merits. 

"This condition of things existing, in 1869 the 
directors proft'cred to Jay Cooke & Company, of 
Philadelphia, the financial agency of the company. 
He had, contemporaneously, been oft'ered the pres- 
idency of the Southern I'acific. But on a full ex- 
amination of the relative merits of the two enter- 
prises he had declined the oft'er. Before accepting 
the position of financial sponsor for the Northern 
line he caused a thorough investigation of the entire 
route to be made by skillful and trustworthy men. 

"On the 1st day of July, 1870, for the purpose 
of constructing and equipping a line of railroad from 
a point on Lake Superior to the headwaters of the 
Missouri, a loan -was sought to be eflfected on the 
security of a first mortgage bond on all the property 



of the company, lands included. It had been author- 
ized by a special act of congress, and to give national 
importance to the instrument it was made of record 
in the office of the secretary of the interior. The 
trustees of this mortgage were Jay Cooke and J. 
Edgar Thompson, president of the Pennsylvania 
Central Railroad Company, both of Philadelphia. 
To the placing of these securities Jay Cooke gave 
all his ability and experience. 

"While negotiations were pending for a loan, 
Cooke advanced money, and the work was actually 
begun. On the 15th day of February, 1870, a win- 
ter's day, a company coming by sleighs from 
Duluth, Superior and other points assembled near 
Thomson Junction to formally break ground. Dr. 
Thomas Fpster, of Duluth, was chosen president 
and delivered the address. The Rev. George Stutter 
offered prayer. A number of speeches followed. 
Colonel J. B. Culver, of Duluth, w-as appointed to 
fill the wheelbarrow with dirt, and Hiram Hayes, 
of Superior, to wheel it. These two cities divided 
the honors, but quarreled as to the direction it was 
to be wheeled. This was done amid great cheer- 
ing. The tools used, presented to the meeting by 
Captain Starkey, were all sent to Jay Cooke. The 
'sacred wheelbarrow' was on exhibition for some 
time. William Xettleton, Captain James Starkey, 
Luke Marvin, Colonel Belote, S. G. Sloan and J. J. 
Egan were the only persons present from St. t'aui. 
■VVork was not seriously begun until the July fol- 
lowing. Captain Starkey was the contractor on 
the first section. The first spike driven is now in 
the possession of H. C. Davis, general passenger 
agent of the Manitoba line. The first engine used 
was the 'Minnetonka,' the first engineer, Adani 
Brown ; the first conductor. Captain W . B. Spauld- 
ing, now of Brainerd ; the first brakeman, H. C. 
Davis; the first fireman, Charles Gotten, now an 
engineer, and the oldest in the train service of any 
man at present connected with the road. 

"Jay Cooke is the most conspicuous character 
whose name is connected with the Northern Pacific 
Railroad enterprise. He w-as born in Sandusky, 
Ohio, August 10, 1821. In 1838 he entered the bank- 
ing house of of E. W. Clark & Company, of Phila- 
delphia, and at the early age of twenty-one became 
a partner. In 1858 he retired from business, but 
in 1861 he established the great banking firm of Jay 
Cooke & Company. He became the protege of 
Salmon P. Chase, then secretary of the treasury, 
and under the shadow- of his great w-ing Cooke & 
Company floated and popularized the immense gov- 

ernment loans made necessary by the war, and 
thereby contributetl materially to the success of the 
Lnion arms. There was something phenomenal \n 
his management of these loans. He succeeded in 
populariznig them in the darkest days of the war, 
by methods which were as new to the financial world 
as w-ere those of Napoleon in the boldness of his 
mnitary designs. While it was said in Europe that 
our military campaigns were full of blunders, our 
financial policy w-as pronounced a miracle of suc- 
cess. His pamphlet, "How Our National Debt 
May Be a National Blessing,' will be remembered. 
He made the debt "the orphans' and widows' sav- 
ings 'fund.' His method and success constituted an 
era in the history of American finance. This finan- 
cial ability, reputation and experience he brought 
to the great work of placing the loans necessary to 
the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. 
His claim as to the value of these securities and the 
importance of the road were by many, in that day, 
deemed chimerical. But time and great results 
have vindicated the correctness of his judgment 
and the soundness of his views. It was said to 
be the dream of Jay Cooke, after the close of the 
war, to connect his house with the Rothschilds, and 
thus secure their aid to place the Northern Pacific 
bonds on the continental market. The war in 
Europe dissipated that hope. 

"On Thursday, the i8th of September, 1873, 
the banking house of Jay Cooke & Company closed 
its doors. It was represented by four great bank- 
ing houses, respectively located in Philadelphia, 
Washington, New York and the London house, 
under the control of Hugh McCullough, late secre- 
tary of the treasury. The banks were overloaded 
with railroad securities at the time, and financial 
circles were imbued with a distrust of Jay Cooke 
& Company, because of their large connection with 
the Northern Pacific securities. They had prac- 
tically became the financial sponsors for the enter- 
prise. The house had made large advances for in- 
terest and construction. Europe had not then 
accepted these securities, as was expected. The fail- 
ure precipitated Wall street into the throes of panic. 
The great Chicago and Boston fires were yet fresh 
m their eft'ects upon the country. The suspension 
fell like a calamity upon Minnesota. The firm was 
identified with an enterprise of vital importance to 
the state. It was felt that Jay Cooke was the only 
man in America who had the courage to under- 
take so great an enterprise as the construction of 
the Northern Pacific Railroad across the vast soli- 



tudes which stretch from Lake Superior to the 
Pacific ocean. He had devoted his whole energy 
and financial skill to the great enterprise, and the 
holies and prayers of the great Northwest were 
with him. But his heroic attempt could not stem 
the tide of adverse popular distrust. The sale of 
the bonds at home had been slow, and the etTorts 
to negotiate them abroad were comparatively un- 
successful. The St. Paul and Pacific main line and 
branches had defaulted in the payment of interest, 
and as their securities were mainly held in Hol- 
land and Germany, the market was prejudiced 
against any more railroad bonds. An epidemic of 
distrust generally spread among the holders of the 
bonds, who began to return them in large amounts 
to Jay Cooke, who was forced to buy them at par 
to maintain their credit. In his noble efforts to 
stay the tide of demoralization, we find the cause 
which led up to his suspension. He had now fully 
identified himself with the Northern Pacific enter- 
prise. To consummate this great achievement had 
become the main purpose of his life, and he pursued 
his object with generous and heroic ardor. It was 
an imperial civic ambition. But fortune was ad- 
verse, and he fell wounded in the great battle with 
the forces arrayed against him. His life insurance 
company and his transcontinental railroad were both 
ungenerously adjudged mistakes by the financial 
wiseacres of the day. He was said to be a man of 
vast ability, but too much controlled by his imagina- 
tion. It was said that Cooke was notable for ask- 
ing nobody's advice, and argued things out his 
own way ; that he had organized a raid upon public 
credulity through the orthodox clergy; that he 
sought to popularize his bonds through the fictitious 
boosting of advertising; that his lands were worth- 
less, his road a failure and Duluth a mistake. He 
lived to see the ungenerous verdict of that day 
happily reversed. The lands are not worthless, 
Duluth is not a failure, and his transcontinental 
railway is an accomplished face. The securities 
were just as he represented them, and those who 
had faith or fortune to hold them have realized 
dollar for dollar, while others have amassed wealth 
in exchanging the depreciated bonds for lands. 

"To the causes already recited we must add the 
array of hostile influences which arose from kindred 
projects. The Union Pacific and its associated en- 
teqirises, alarmed at the prospect of the speedy 
diversion of a greater port of the transcontinental 
travel and traffic, set up a howl of denunciation of 
the northern route. They represented the country 

as sterile and hyperborean. The great cities which 
participated in interest with the Union and Central 
Pacific route arrayed every influence which could 
aft'ect public opinion against the enterprise. They 
made it the daily subject of malicious abuse and 
misrepresentation. Jealousy gloated in lampooning 
and villifying the entire enterprise. Slander did its 
work in weakening public confidence in the securi- 
ties. Further south a bitter sectional jealousy pre- 
vailed. These combined causes, for the hour, sus- 
pended the work and swept Cooke & Company, as 
by a cyclone, out of the financial world. Sitting in 
the shadow of his great disaster. Jay Cooke has lived 
to see his favorite and colossal project arise from 
the ruins at the call of other leaders, and move for- 
ward to its grand accomplishment ; and it is 
pleasant to note that the first great sponsor of the 
enterprise, at last, from a home of competence, can 
behold the car of civilization move on its iron way 
along the northern zone, realizing the full con- 
summation of a purpose which had stirred his more 
youthful blood. 

"The effect of the closing of the banking house 
of Jay Cooke & Company was temporarily disas- 
trous to the company itself. In its fiscal re- 
sources it had leaned wholly upon Jay Cooke. 
There was a faint hope that some other financial 
arrangement might at once be made with the prop- 
erties of the company, and that, hope was held out 
to the public. But it speedily proved delusive. In- 
deed, some newspapers predicted that the great 
enterprise would now be finally closed ; that it was 
the explosion of a huge swindle, the bursting of a 
South Sea bubble. Some of the small-souled 
newspapers employed themselves by kicking the 
dead lion, in the person and fortunes of 
Jay Cooke. 

"The explosion found the company, in the fall 
of 1873, i" tlie possession of about five hundred and 
fifty completed miles of railroad. Of these, three 
hundred and fifty extended from Duluth to the Red 
river at Bismarck, and on the Pacific division one 
hundred and five miles, extending from Kalama, on 
the Columbia river, to Tacoma, on the Puget sound. 
It had earned ten million acres of land. The route 
hatl been surveyed entirely across the continent. 
Settlements were progressing finely. Indeed, all 
things were progressing favorably when the un- 
toward event of the Cooke failure overtook them. 
All the company's property of every description 
being covered by the mortgage, they had no security 
to oft'cr for a loan. The default in accruing inter- 



est was unavoidable. The paralysis of the enter- 
prise was complete. 

"George W. Cass had now become president. 
In their extremity, another appeal, May, 1874, was 
made to congress. By the conditions of the charter 
the completion of the road was required by the 4th 
day of July, 1877. They frankly declared their 
inability to complete the work. The entire sale of 
bonds had been over $30,000,000 ; on these they had 
realized, net, 83.13 per cent. Nearly the whole 
amount had been sold or taken by Jay Cooke & 
Company, under two several contracts. These con- 
tracts were terminated and the agency for that com- 
pany for the Northern Pacific railroad was at an 
end. The appeal was in vain. Congress adjourned 
without any definite action. 

'"The emperors of Russia have not been more 
determined to reach the Hellespont than the suc- 
cessive dynasties of the Northern Pacific to find a 
terminus on the IMississippi river. With this pur- 
pose in view many schemes were devised. First 
the purchase of the St. Paul & Pacific, with all its 
branches, was made in 1872. The Lake Superior 
& Mississippi (now St. Paul & Duluth) and the 
Minneapolis to St. Louis were leased. Had they 
contented themselves with holding and finishing 
these fine properties, their power and position in 
]\Iinnesota would have been assured and complete 
at an early day. What might have been will sug- 
gest itself to all. In 1876-77 a second efifort was 
made, and they secured the Western railroad by a 
lease from Sauk Rapids to Brainerd and by mak- 
ing running arrangements with the Manitoba from 
Sauk Rapids to St. Paul, thus found access to the 
Mississippi by a more direct route that by the St. 
Paul & Duluth. By a third eft'ort, under the mas- 
terly efifort of \'illard, the whole question of reach- 
ing the Mississippi and the eastern railway con- 
nections at Minneapolis and St. Paul assumed the 
great importance its merit demands. The West- 
ern railroad has been purchased, together with the 
right of way from Sauk Rapids to [Minneapolis 
lying east of the ^Manitoba line ; and now, by the 
purchase the right of way. and at least one thou- 
sand acres of land in the vicinity of the capital of 
the state, such final connections and superb ter- 
minal facilities are projected as will enable them to 
give room for all other roads now or hereafter 
making connections with the great transcontinental 
line. Like the taking of Richmond, the head of 
navigation was not reached until the hour and the 
man had come. 

"On the i6th of April, 1875, the United States 
circuit court of New York appointed a receiver of 
the Northern Pacific Railroad Company and all of 
its property. The order making this appointment 
was under proceedings brought by the trustees and 
the bondholders united. On the 12th of May, 1875, 
the trustees and bondholders applied for a final 
decree of sale, which was granted. Under the de- 
cree the road and all Its property was to be sold for 
the benefit of the bondholders, who were to become 
the preferred stockholders. It was an arrangement 
made between all the parties in interest to avoid 
litigation and secure the extension of the road. 
The scheme was devised by a committee of the 
bondholders, one of which committee was William 
Windom, of Alinnesota. and was adopted June 30, 
1S75. A committee of six stockholders was ap- 
pointed to attend the sale and purchase the property 
for the benefit of those in interest. The judicial 
sale, under decree of the court, took place August 
12, 1875, and was confirmed by decree of the court 
the 25th of that month. The committee so ap- 
pointed and purchasing became the body politic and 
corporate known as the Northern Pacific Railroad 
Company. The holders of the preferred stock were 
instructed by the committee to meet in the city of 
New York, September 29, to elect a board of direc- 
tors. The holders of the common stock, by the 
agreement, had no right to vote until after July i, 
1878. At said meeting thirteen directors were 
elected by the preferred stockholders, and subse- 
quently Charles B. \\'right was elected president; 
George Stark, vice-president, and Samuel Wilkin- 
son; secretary. The reorganization was now com- 
plete. The bonds had been transferred into pre- 
ferred stock, and the latter made convertible into 
lands at par. 

"No movement was made that year looking to 
a renewal of construction. Application was made 
to congress for an extension of time within which 
construction might be completed. The twenty-five 
miles of railroad used by the company between 
Thompson Junction and Duluth were built by the 
Lake Superior & Mississippi Railroad Company. 
To save a duplicate expenditure of money, the 
Northern Pacific had agreed to pay, for a half in- 
terest thereof, $500,000. The greater part of this 
remained unpaid. After a tedious negotiation, the 
mater was this year adjusted. The stock of the 
St. Paul & Pacific came over among the assets of 
the Northern Pacific : but the whole property had 
been encumbered by a heavy mortgage and was 



already in the hands of a receiver, and the property 
was lost to the new organization. Population was 
rapidly advancing west of the river, and many 
thousands of acres of wheat testified to the value of 
the land grant. Dalrymple, Cheeny, Grandin, and 
others had opened wheat farms which had become 
the admiration of the world. The earnings of the 
road, both gross and net, were highly satisfactory. 
The intrinsic merits of the route were being made 
apparent. Preparations were made to run the Da- 
kota division in winter, as the war department had 
asked this in view of the military situation in the 
hostile Indian country. 

"The year 1877 closed with Charles B. Wright 
as president, and the other officers remaining as be- 
fore. The year was signalized by complete success 
in running trains over the Dakota division in win- 
ter, trains on which were delayed less than those on 
the Xew York Central road. Thus was dispelled 
the illusion that Nature had placed an embargo on 
railroading in those northern latitudes. A remark- 
able trade was springing up with the territories trib- 
utary to the upper ^Missouri and Yellowstone rivers. 
Thirty steamboats were plying those waters, con- 
necting at Bismarck with the terminus of the road. 
The mining developments in the Black Hills had 
found a convenient outlet at Bismarck, and the nu- 
merous military posts and Indian agencies contrib- 
uted to an increase of business. Thousands of emi- 
grants were flocking to the Red river valley, and 
the British province of Manitoba was yielding a 
large percentage to the growing traffic of the road. 
The most important event of the year was the 
arangement made with the Western Railroad Com- ' 
pany of Minnesota to complete their line from 
Brainerd to Sauk Rapids, so as to secure a more 
direct communication with St. Paul than by the cir- 
cuitous route of the St. I'aul c^ Duluth. This 
arrangment was satisfactorily made. 

"The delay of congress in extending the time for 
the completion of the road prevented the company 
from making any arrangements for the extension 
of the line into Montana. During this year the Pa- 
cific division was extended to the Puyallup coal 
fields, thirty-one miles. 

"The year 1878 was not marked In any very 
notable event. The officers remained the same. 
Frederick Billings was chairman of the executive 
committee, and H. E. Sargent was the general man- 
ager. There was a large increase of the local busi- 
ncs. Many improvements were made in the road 
and its equipment. Wheat farming in central Da- 

kota had become very active and profitable. The 
railroad between Sauk Rapids and St. Paul was con- 
trolled by the trustees of the mortgages made by the 
first division of the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad 
Company. Upon the opening of the road from 
Brainerd to Sauk Rapids, arrangements were en- 
tered into with these trustees whereby Northern 
Pacific trains were run over this road, thus making 
St. Paul practically one of the terminal points of the 

"By the resignation of President Wright on ac- 
count of ill health, Frederick Billings had become 
president of the company. The financial year was 
changed from September to June 30. The acreage 
of wheat along the line in Dakota had doubled, and 
the quantity of land being taken by settlers was phe- 
nomenal. The work of construction had been sus- 
pended for six years, and much material had 
reached the limit of duration, and the work of re- 
newals had become a necessity. Five successive 
abundant harvests along the line had demonstrated 
the productive capacity of the soil. A better feel- 
ing prevailed. It was now the judgment of the 
stockholders that construction should be resumed at 
both ends of the line. A contract was let to Wal- 
ker, Bellows & Company for one hundred miles 
from Bismarck, westward. Work was begun in 
January. The work from the Columbia river, east- 
ward, was also initiated. The great transcontinen- 
tal enterprise was alive again. The CasseltOD 
branch was placed under contract, and the Yellow- 
stone division was also definitely located. 

"The year 1880 opened with s'even hundred and 
twenty-two miles of main track actually in opera- 
tion. An important link of twelve miles, from 
Ainsworth to W'allula, connected the Pacific divis- 
ion with the road of the Oregon Railroad & Navi- 
gation Company. During the year a system of 
grain elevators was established along the line from 
Duluth west. A foreign emigration agency was 
established in Europe. The company settled down 
in the belief that their grant of lands remained un- 
impaired until there was a declaration of forfeiture 
authorized by congress. The supreme court of the 
United States avowed this principle, and the execu- 
tive officers of the government would follow the de- 
cision. Hence less interest was felt in the extension 
asked of congress. This year began the relations . 
between the Northern Pacific and the Oregon Rail- 
road & Navigation Company, in reference to traffic 
and joint use of lines. Henrv Villard was pres'- 
dent of the latter company. Harmonious and mu- 



tually advantageous relations were temporarily es- 
tablished between the two companies. 

"It has been said that the building east from 
Ainsworth, and depending upon the precarious nav- 
igation of the Columbia river, was a suicidal policy 
and placed the company wholly at the mercy of a 
rival line. That rival company soon came into 

"We approach an epoch which is memorable in 
the history we record. Under Air. Uillings' vigor- 
ous administration the public had resumed faith in 
the enterprise. This year President Billings com- 
pleted a sale to a syndicate, consisting of Drexel, 
Morgan & Company, Winslow, Lanier & Company, 
and August Belmont & Company, of $40,000,000 of 
general first mortgage bonds. These bonds speedily 
became a favorite security. The enterprise flour- 
ished, and the work of construction advanced rap- 
idly. In the midst of events, a new power was at 
work. The hand of Henry Villard was felt. Here 
begins the close relation which now subsists be- 
tween the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company 
and the Oregon & Transcontinental Company and 
the Northern Pacific. The Transcontinental Com- 
pany is a consolidation of the steamship companies 
and the companies owning the railroads to overcome 
the rapids of the Columbia river. The Transconti- 
nental Company was organized under the laws of 
Oregon, for the general purpose of constructing rail- 
ways, and more particularly to secure harmony be- 
tween the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company 
and the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. The 
progress of the Northern Pacific had now fully in- 
vaded the Pacific coast, and was threatening the in- 
terests of these rival companies. The Oregon & 
Transcontinental Company, with Henry Villard as 
president, and Horace \\'hite as secretary, had be- 
come rich and powerful. It possessed $30,000,000 
of actual capital. 

"The glamor of romance surrounds the financial 
career of this extraordinary man. Henry Villard 
was born in Speyer, the capital of Rhenish Bavaria, 
in 1835. His father sat upon the supreme bench of 
that kingdom. He was educated at the university, 
and like most of the university students in Germany, 
was somewhat erratic in his youth. He first came 
to Belleville, Illinois, where some of his relatives still 
live. He studied law : yet, like Carl Schurz, he soon 
adopted journalism as a profession. His first con- 
spicuous task was an engagement to report the cel- 
ebrated Lincoln-Douglas political discussion. In 
1859 he went to Colorado, to write about the new 

gold discoveries for the "Cincinnati Commercial." 
In i860 he was doing political correspondence for 
the 'New York Herald,' and at that time sustaining 
confidential relations with Mr. Lincoln. He sub- 
sequently became conspicuous as a war correspond- 
ent. For two years, from 1868 to 1870, he was sec- 
retary of the American Social Science Association. 

"In person, Mr. Villard is tall and of robust 
physique. His blue eyes, brown hair, expansive 
forehead, and fresh, genial face mark the good 
humor and frankness of the man. He lives on Mad- 
ison avenue, New York, and has a country house 
at Dobbs' Ferry. His wife is a daughter of the late 
William Lloyd Garrison, the great champion of the 
anti-slavery movement. 

"While in German}-, in 1874, events occurred 
which first brought him in connection with railway 
affairs. The German bondholders of certain Amer- 
ican railway securities, which had defaulted in their 
interest, sent him to the L'nited States as their rep- 
resentative. In these financial transactions, con- 
nected with the Kansas Pacific, he met and success- 
fully encountered Jay Gould. Subsequently, in a 
vessel fitted out by John Roach, he went around the 
cape to Oregon to look after the interests of the same 
friends in the budding railways of that region. He 
soon mastered the projects and possibilities of those 
distant provinces, and became himself largely inter- 
ested in the development of eastern Oregon and 
Washington territories. He shortly became pres- 
ident of the consolidated railway and navigation 
companies on the Pacific coast, where he made both 
reputation and money. 

"His success grappled to him as with hooks of 
steel the capitalists who had been enriched by his 
genius. In the field of activity, in the prosecution 
of the interests of his own company, he encountered 
the Northern Pacific, which was now entering the 
domain where \'illard was established. The first 
speck of war arose out of the determination of the 
Northern Pacific to build a line to Portland, on the 
north side of the Columbia river, and thus crowd 
out Mllard's company, which had proposed to con- 
struct a line on the south side of the river. After a 
fruitless attempt at a compromise of their diffi- 
culties, \'illard came to New York, and conceived the 
idea of quietly purchasing, in open market, a con- 
trolling interest in the Union Pacific. 

"He thereupon organized the celebrated 'blind 
pool.' This was a daring scheme, in which his 
friends were asked to place millions of money in his 
hands for an unknown purpose. No receipt was 



given. Confidence, perfect trust, was the only basis 
of the transaction. It is without parallel in the his- 
tory of financial operations, and bespeaks the implicit 
trust of his friends in his ability and integrity. 
Eight millions of dollars were thus put into a "blind 
pool." Xorthern Pacific stock was quietly bought, 
and ere the directory was aware, the controlling in- 
terest of the line was in the hands of its reputed 
enemies. It was supposed that the \'illard coalition 
only intended to minify the great transcontinental 
highway, and use it simply as a feeder for their 
Oregon properties. The grandeur of the purpose 
was not yet understood. Alarmed at the situation, 
well did Billings write \'illard, 'Why put a pistol 
to the breast of the Northern Pacific at Ainsworth 
and A\'allula, and say, thus far and no farther.' 

"As a measure of safety, the directory deter- 
mined to issue $18,000,000 of old stock, to the orig- 
inal parties in interest, in order still to retain their 
supremacy. There was originally $100,000,000 of 
capital stock. In the reorganization it was agreed 
to classify it as follows: $51,000,000 preferred 
stock to the bondholders, and $49,000,000 common. 
Of this common, $18,000,000 was yet unissued. 
\'illard immediately brought suit (April 1881), in 
the supreme court of New York City, to restrain 
the issue of this $18,000,000. He alleged that the 
common stock represented nothing, that nothing had 
ever been paid for it ; that the preferred stock was all 
that was legitimate. Intense interest gathered about 
the contest. In the midst of it JMr. Billings, who 
was the largest stockholder in the old regime, seems 
to have parted with a majority of his stock. The 
suits were withdrawn, and the Villard combination 
remained masters of the situation. J\lr. Billings re- 
signed the presidency, which was held, temporarily, 
by A. H. Barney, bridging over the time till the 
annual election, when Henry Villard was duly in- 
staled president, Thomas F. Oakes. vice-president, 
and Herman Haupt, general manager. 

"The history of the closing years of this enter- 
prise would be incomplete without some notice of 
the man whose marked executive ability has con- 
tributed so much to its completion. Thomas Fletcher 
Oakes was born in the city of Boston, in 1841. and 
educated in its schools. In 1863 he was in a bank- 
er's office in New York. In 1866 he went west with 
Samuel Hallet, and became purchasing agent for 
the contractors on the Kansas Pacific, where he re- 
mained till the completion of the road, when he was 
appointed general freight agent of the line, and in 
1875 was made general superintendent. About that 

time Mllard was appointed receiver of the road, and 
thence dates the origin of the connection between 
the two men. Subsequently Mr. Oakes was made 
superintendent of the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf 
Railroad. When \'illard had become president of 
the Consolidated Railway cS: Navigation Companies 
in Oregon, he at once secured ilr. Oakes' services 
as vice-president and general manager of that system 
and with great vigor and energy he built most 
of the lines. \\'hen the Mllard combination had se- 
cured control of the Northern Pacific. Air. Oakes 
came at once to New York, and was made vice-pres- 
ident and executive manager. To his great ability 
and energy we are indebted for the marvelous rapid- 
ity with which the last eight hundred miles of the 
line was completed. He is the first executive officer 
of the road who made the complete overland trip 
of the line. The superintendency of all detail man- 
agement belongs to him. Mllard devised the general 
schemes, and Oakes executed the mass of details. 
The one is the financier, and the other the executive 
manager. It is a case of Napoleon and his grand 
marshal, Ney. 

"The Oregon & Transcontinental Company was 
now the principal owner of the stock of all the lines 
in Washington and Oregon, and of the Northern 
Pacific besides. Of all the combinations, Henry 
A'illard was the head. The new policy was to be 
enunciated. It soon became manifest that the Ore- 
gon & Transcontinental Company was to be used 
as a powerful auxiliary in the completion of the 
Northern Pacific. It at once gave the latter project 
the strong support of its immense capital, and ena- 
bled it to push construction without a moment's 
halt. It furnished means to build branches, which 
the Northern Pacific, under the charter, had not the 
power to do, and thus prevent the encroachment of 
rival lines. As the controller of the vast traffic of 
the comprehensive system of railroad, ocean and 
river lines already developed in Oregon and \\'ash- 
ington, it will now compel that aggregation of busi- 
ness through the main artery — the Northen Pacific. 
In this wider view of the whole matter, it will be 
seen that the Mllard association of companies proves 
to be of immense value to the nation's northern 
highway to the Pacific. It has brought to it im- 
mense support and unexampled progress. From 
Lake Superior to Puget sound the hum of activity 
has prevailed. Lateral branches, such as the Na- 
tional Park line, the Palouse branch, Fergus & 
Black Hills, Little Falls & Dakota, and Fargo & 
Southwesern, have been constructed. Duluth has 



conquered the prejudices against it, and grown with 
amaznig rapidity. Brainerd, Aloornead, Fargo and 
Eismarck have grown with marvelous strides. \ew 
cities have sprunginto existence, such as Jamestown, 
Mandan, Aliles City, BiUings, Glendive, Livingston, 
Bozenian, Spokane Falls, Ainsworth, Portland, Seat- 
tle, and Tacoma, and other cities on the Pacific slope 
have doubled their population. The lumber trade, 
fisheries and mining interests have doubled in a 
single year, under the incentive of this national 
highway. Population along the opening lines has 
increased an average of one hundred and fifty per 
cent. The volume of emigration in numbers and 
character has been a marvel, and the absorption of 
land has been on the same extraordinary scale. The 
creation of empire which is progressing under the 
spur of the completion of the Northern Pacific is 
without a parallel in the history of the world. At 
last we stand in the presence of the completion of 
this colossal enterprise. It is greater than the fin- 
ishing of a pyramid, or any of the seven wonders of 
the world which excited the admiration of antiquity. 
The dream of Carver, of Whitney, of Cook, is an 
accomplished fact. To Villard belongs the honor 
of completing this imperial work, and with it his 
name will be forever associated. 

"Into the valley of the Red river of the North, 
and for fifty miles without a curve, passes through 
the great wheat farms of the valley. From the Red 
river valley to the Yellowstone the country is gener- 
ally broad, rolling prairie, of rich farming lands, 
excepting where the Little ^Missouri cuts a deep 
gorge through the plateau, being bounded on either 
side for twelve to twenty miles by the broken forma- 
tions known as the""Bad Lands,' which aftord shelter 
for stock and abundant grazing. The Yellowstone 
country, from the east boundary line of ^Montana, 
westward to the Belt range, consists of elevated 
plateaus, with various broken mountain ranges on 
the south, all adapted to grazing, cut by broad val- 
leys, from a mile to six miles in width, through 
which the Yellowstone and its tributaries run, where 
the soil is a rich loam, well adapted to farming by 
irrigation. Central Montana is generally a moun- 
tainous country, and is cut by the main range of 
the Rocky mountains, with various collateral ranges, 
between which lie numerous fertile valleys. The 
mountains are covered with nutritious grasses, and 
are well supplied with pine timber. The soil in the 
valley is rich and productive and, wherever water 
can be oljtained for irrigation, abundant crops of 
wheat, oats, barley, rye, potatoes, etc., are raised. 

In the western part of Montana, along Clark's fork 
of the Columbia, and around Lake Pend d'Oreille, 
in northern Idaho, there is a very extensive stretch 
of valuable timber, consisting chiefly of pine and 
fir and red cedar, with considerable white pine in the 
vicinity of Lake Pend d'Oreille. F'rom this lake, 
which has an altitude of two thousand feet, down to 
Wallula, the road runs over the elevated plateau 
known as the great plateau of the Columbia, which, 
west of Spokane Falls, is generally devoid of timber, 
though the soil is rich and adapted to general 

"The climate of the country .through which the 
line passes is modified, to a greater or less extent, by 
the physical features of the country which it trav- 
erses. In Alontana the mountains flatten out to the 
northward, the general elevation of the country being 
lower than in either Wyoming or Colorado. As 
the result of this flattening of the mountain ranges 
toward the north the warm winds from the great 
gulf stream of the Pacific ocean penetrate as far 
eastward as the Missouri valley. The winter cli- 
mate of Washington Territory, Montana and west- 
ern Dakota is materially modified by these west 
winds. The winters in Montana are less rigorous 
than those in Colorado or Dakota. The snowfall is 
greater than in Colorado, but the snows remain on 
the ground but a short time, and sometimes snowfall 
a foot in depth will disappear before the warm 
'chinook' winds from the west in a single day. 
These facts account for the abundant grasses and 
remarkable advantages possessed by ^Montana as a 
cattle-raising country. The coteau that divides the 
waters of the Red river of the North from those of 
the IMissouri river, serve as a barrier to diverge the 
cold north winds coming down from the Arctic circle 
across Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Jklissouri 
valley and the country westward has a winter cli- 
mate, generally much milder than that of the Red 
river valley and of Minnesota. 

"The territory of Washington possesses two dis- 
tinctive climates. The country west of the Cascade 
range has the climate of the Pacific coast, and is 
covered with enormous forests of red and yellow 
fir and cedar, and perhaps, taken all in all, is the most 
extensive and valuable forest belt in the United 
States. The climate of the coast is remarkably 
equable and uniform. On Puget sound, which is 
never frozen over, the thermometer rarely falls be- 
low twenty degrees, and snow falls only in small 
quantities, and rarely lies on the ground long enough 
to afford sleighing. There are the wet and the dry 



seasons, which are characteristic of the Pacific slope. 
The summers are dehghtfully pleasant and bracnig 
without being very warm. 

■"East of the Columbia river, on what is known 
as the great plains of the Columbia, and along the 
east slopes of the Blue mountains, where the gen- 
eral altitude of the country is one thousand five hun- 
dred to three thousand feet, the rainfall again be- 
comes greater, and there is a stretch of country of 
perhaps two hundred miles in length by eighty in 
breadth which has no superior as a farming country 
anywhere in the United States. 

■"In the contingency of snow blockades, the 
Northern Pacific fias decided advantages for pro- 
tection over the Union and Central Pacific lines. 
While those lines have been compelled to erect and 
maintain forty miles of snow sheds, at great expense, 
the Northern Pacific will need no such structures. 
There will be no serious inconvenience arising from 
detentions by snow at an}' point west of the Mis- 
souri river. The mountain ranges are crossed at so 
low an altitude, comparatively, that little or no delay 
from snow will occur in Montana and Washington 
territories. In Dakota, where the difficulties from 
the snowfall have, in previous years, caused some 
delay, the improved appliances, and additional pro- 
tection afforded from the planting of trees, and the 
erection of snow fences, has already obviated any 
fear of serious blockades. In the unusually severe 
winter of 1882 and 1883, the trains of the Northern 
Pacific were not delayed exceeding twenty-four 
hours at any time. The Northern Pacific has adopted 
the wise plan of planting groves of trees along the 
line of its road in Dakota as permanent protection 
against drifting snow. Fifteen thousand young 
trees were set out on the right of way during the 
past year, and arrangements have been completed 
for setting out young trees along the entire -line 
through Dakota. The low altitude at which the 
Northern Pacific crosses the mountain ranges is 
another great advantage. Glendive, where the road 
strikes the Yellowstone, is due north of Cheyenne. 
The altitude of this and some other towns on the 
line is given below. Glendive, 2,070 feet, 4,000 feet 
lower than Cheyenne ; at Livingston, 4,500 feet, or 
600 feet lower than Denver ; at a point near Boze- 
nian, 5,565 feet, 500 feet lower than Cheyenne, and 
3.000 feet lower than Sherman, the highest point on 
the Union Pacific, and 2,500 feet lower than the 
highest point reached by the Central Pacific on the 
Cascade range. In general it may be stated that, 
while there are more than 500 miles of the entire 

line of road between Omaha and Sacramento which 
exceed 4,000 feet in altitude, in the 2,000 miles be- 
tween St. Paul and Portland, on the Northern Pa- 
cific road, there are not more than 250 miles which 
exceed 4,000 feet. 

"The Northern Pacific grades compare favora- 
bly with, and are perhaps better than those of any of 
the other transcontinental lines. The heavy grades 
are concentrated at the three points where the lines 
cross the mountain divides, and at these places as- 
sistant power is provided. These mountain grades 
are as follows : Crossing of the Belt range near 
Montana. 20 miles, 116 feet; main range near Hel- 
ena, same number of miles and same grade ; crossing 
of the Coriacan divide, 12 miles, u6 feet. 

"On all the other divisions of the road the grades 
are no greater than the average grades of the rail- 
roads of Wisconsin, Iowa and Alissouri, and will 
compare favorably with the average grades of the 
roads east of the Alississippi. The maximum grades 
and curves are required by law not to exceed those of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The maximum is 
only reached on the Northern Pacific in crossing the 
mountain ranges, the maximum exclusive of the 
mountain ascents being sixty-six feet. The grades 
on the other divisions are generally lighter than 
those of eastern roads, and on the Yellowstone di- 
vision, for a distance of three hundred and forty 
miles, the maximum grade is twenty-six feet, and 
the maximum curve is six degrees. 

"In this connection the following table, show- 
ing the altitude of the following points on the line 
of the road, will be of interest : 

"From Duluth or Superior City, 602 feet, to 
Brainerd, Minnesota, 1,220 feet; Fargo, Dakota, 
940 feet; Jamestown, Dakota, 1,410 feet; Bismarck, 
Dakota, 1,680 feet; Glendive, iMontana, 2,100 feet; 
;\Iiles City, Montana, 2,200 feet ; Billings, Montana, 
3,210 feet ; Livingston, Montana, 4,450 fet; Bozeman 
tunnel, Alontana, 5,565 feet; Bozeman, Montana, 
4,838 feet ; Helena, Alontana, 4,266 feet ; Mullan tun- 
nel, Montana, 5,548 feet; Missoula, Montana, 3,318 
feet; Spokane Falls, Idaho, 1,900 feet; Ainsworth, 
Washington, 340 feet ; Portland, Oregon, sea level ; 
Kalama, Oregon, sea level; Tacoma, Washington, 
sea level." 

The total length of the main line of the North- 
ern Pacific from Duluth to Puget sound is about 
two thousand miles. Its total cost will run up, for 
the main line alone, to over one hundred millions 
of dollars. It jiasses through the states of Minne- 
sota, North Dakota. Montana. Idaho, Washington 



and Oregon. The great steel bridge built by this 
road over the JNIissouri river, at Bismarck, was 
erected at a cost to exceed a million dollars, and is 
a fine piece of architectural skill. The Northern 
Pacific has many important connections and branches 
in North Dakota. Among these are the Red river 
and Winnipeg branch from the state line to the inter- 
national boundary line, with a length of ninetv-six 
miles ; the Fergus Falls branch from the state line 
to r\lilnor, forty-two miles long; branch from T'air- 
view to Bayne, about fourteen miles ; Fargo and 
Southwestern Fargo to Edgeley, one hundred and 
eight miles ; branch from Jamestown to LaMoure, 
forty-eight miles; Valley Junction to Uakes, fifteen 
miles; Sanborn to Cooperstown, thirty-seven miles; 
Jamestown to Leeds, one hundred and seven miles, 
and Carrington to Sykestown, thirteen miles. 
The length of the main line within the state is three 
hundred and seventy-seven miles, making a grand 
total of 870.42 miles in North Dakota. 


At the time of the failure of the great banking- 
house of Jay Cooke & Company in 1873, and the 
consequent bankruptcy of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road a part of that system formerly known as the St. 
Paul & Pacific, as is shown by the preceding history 
of the Northern Pacific was involved in difficulties with 
its bondholders and encumbered by a large mortgage. 
It was at the time in the hands of J. P. Farley, who 
had been appointed by the court as receiver. A syn- 
dicate, who fully recognized the magnificent possi- 
bilities of the road, was formed through the able 
tactics of James J. Hill, of St. Paul, which pur- 
chased the whole property. Mr. Hill, on having his 
attention called to it, had gone to work to investigate 
the financial condition of the road, and soon was 
master of the subject in all its details. He early 
enlisted the support of his friend, Norman W. Kitf- 
son, a man who was at one time, identified with 
North Dakota. Soon Mr. Hill induced capitalists 
to join in his plan of acquiring and developing 
the bankrupt St. Paul & Pacific, and the property 
was purchased and reorganized under the name of 
St. Paul, Alinneapolis & Alanitoba Railroad Com- 
pany. Of the new corporation, George Stevens, of 
Montreal, was chosen president, and James J. Hill, 
general manager. August 22, 1882, Mr. Hill was 
elected president of the magnificent system which 
he has since built up so phenomenally. His eleva- 
tion to the head of the company came as a just rec- 

ognition of his practical primacy in the administra- 
tion of the road from its inception. 

Work on the transcontinental line was com- 
menced in 1879, and in 1880 the Red river of the 
North was crossed and the iron horse made its ap- 
pearance in Grand F'orks. It stayed not but with 
onward steps it kept on striding across land and 
water, hill and dale, across the many rivers, the 
Rocky and other ranges of mountains onward until 
its forward progress was stopped by the Pacific 
ocean. It girdled more than half a continent with 
its iron bands, from the shores of Lake Superior and 
the banks of the Mississipjji to the salt waves of the 
Pacific. The trackage of the road, whose name has 
been changed to that of the Great Northern, is the 
largest of any in North Dakota. In it and its for- 
tunes the northern part of the state are most directly 
interested, as most of that portion is tributary to it. 
In the development of that part of the state the Great 
Northern has been one of the most important fac- 
tors. From Grand Forks westward runs the main 
line, traversing in its course the following principal 
towns and county seats : Larimore, Lakota, Devil's 
Lake, Church's Ferry, Rugby, Towner, ^linot and 
Williston. Among its principal branches within the 
state are the one from Grand Forks to I-"argo ; one 
from Wahpeton to Hope ; one from Larimore to 
Everest ; one from Larimore to Langdon ; from 
Grand Forks to Pembina and Rosenfield, where it 
makes connection with the Canadian Pacific ; from 
Grafton to Cavalier ; from Tintah Junction to Ellen- 
dale ; from Rutland to Aberdeen ; Church's Ferry 
to St. Jolm's and others. The road is finely con- 
structed and handsomely equipped and takes equal 
rank with any of the great transcontinental lines. 
Not satisfied with the trade of one continent, the 
Great Northern is reaching out for the commerce 
of Asia. Vessels of a noble type and extraordinary 
tonnage are being built to be run between the terminus 
of the railroad on the western coast and oriental 
ports, and soon the fabrics and productions of 
"Cathay. and Cipango," as the world once called 
China and Japan, will be carried to their European 
consumer across the plains of North Dakota. Within 
the boundaries of the state there are 1,116.15 miles 
of track of this great railway, divided as follows: 
State line to Ellendale ; Rutland to South Dakota 
line, 10.45 niiles ; Minnesota state line to Grand 
Forks, 75.35 miles; Grand Forks to the boundary 
line, 80.94 miles ; Grafton to W'alhalla, 47.84 miles ; 
state line to \\'ahpeton, 6.02 miles ; Alimiesota state 
line to Larimore, via Portland, 134.45 miles; Cas- 



selton to Portland Jtinction, 47.03 miles; Ripon to 
Hope, 29.50 miles ; state line to ilinot, 206.79 miles ; 
Park river junction to Hannah, 94.94 miles; Ruby 
Junction to Bottineau, 38.66 miles; Church's Ferry 
to St. John's, 55.21 miles; Addison to Rita, 11.78 
miles; ilinnesota state line to Alton, 9.83 miles; 
Minot to Montana state line, 144.15 miles, and Hope 
to Aneta, 28.07 miles. 


This rapidly growing road is another that is per- 
forming a very important part in the upbuilding and 
development of the young state. In about 188O this 
line, then known as the Minneapolis & I'acitic, ex- 
tended their Alinncsota division across the boundary 
line at Fairmount, Richland county, and constructed 
a line westward to Ransom, in Sargent county. In 
1887 this was extended some fifty-nine miles farther 
west to Monango, Dickey county, so that by the end 
of that year the road had about eighty-eight miles 
of main track in the state. This line w^as shortly 
after extended northwesterly to Braddock, making 
a total mileage of this division of one hundred and 
eighty-eight miles. In the '90s the same company 
whose name had been changed to Minneapolis, St. 
Paul & Sault Sainte Marie Railroad, constructed a 
fine line of road from Hankinson, Richland county, 
to Portal, Ward county, on the international boun- 
dary line, and beyond where it connects with the Ca- 
nadian Pacific road. This road cuts the state diag- 
onally across, passing through the counties of Ward, 
McHenry, Wells, Foster, Stutsman, Barnes, Cass, 
Ransom and Richland. It thus intersects some of the 
finest territory in the state, and is largely interested 
in its growth. This company, which was formed by 
the consolidation of several roads in 1886, wdien the 
Minneapolis & Pacific Railway, the Aberdeen, Bis- 
marck & Northwestern Railroad and the ^linneap- 
lis & St. Croix Railroad Companies were joined in 
one company, and afterward united with the Min- 
neapolis, Sault Sainte Marie & Atlantic railroad, 
and assumed the name by w^hich it is at present 
known. It has a total mileage of track within the 
state of North Dakota of 465.36 miles. One line. 

reaching from the ^Minnesota state line to P'ortal, 
has a length of 360.82 miles and the other, from 
Hankinson to Kulm, 104.54 miles. 


This, one of the greatest railroad systems in the 
United States, has as yet but little mileage with 
the state of North Dakota, its representative line 
being confined to fifteen miles of track from the 
south boundary line to Oakes, where it connects w^ith 
the Northern Pacific and the Minneapolis, St. Paul 
& Sault Ste Marie Railroad. In the near future 
new^ lines by this great corporation will be con- 
structed, and CO their part in developing the country. 


This great corporation has, also, several short 
lines within the boundai-ies of North Dakota, the 
principal being wdiat is known as the Fargo line, 
which runs from Urtonville, ^Minnesota, to the city of 
I'argo. This is a distance of one hundred and 
eighteen miles, of which about seventy are within 
the boundaries of this state. Blackmer, Fairmount, 
Tyler, Glenora, Wahpeton, Woodhull, Abercrombie, 
Enloe, Christine, Lithia, Hickson, Wild Rice, Saund- 
ers and Fargo, are the stations on this division. Two 
branches from the south cross the southern border 
of North Dakota, one running to Harlem, Sargent, 
county ; the other through Ellendale to Edgeley, in 
LaMoure countv. 



The great corporation that operates over six 
thousand miles of railroad within the United States, 
has a small amount of trackage within the state. 
One branch from Andover to Harlem, 17.20 miles; 
69.40 miles of the branch from Ortonville, Min- 
nesota, to Fargo; 31.61 miles of the branch from 
Mitchell, South Dakota; in all 1 18.21 miles of track 
represent at the present the sum total of this road's 
holdings in the state. Other lines are projected 
and beyond doubt will be completed in the near 


> > 




Agriculture has been from the beginning of time 
the true basis of the weaUh of nations. The producer, 
the individual who causes the earth to yield its pro- 
ducts for the needs and necessities of man, is a ben- 
efactor and a potent instrument in adding to the 
riches of his country. In the passage of time from 
the days "when Adam delved and Eve span" there 
have been many changes throughout the world, but 
through it all agriculture has always held the front 
rank as mighty developer of a country. The people 
of North Dakota, a majority of whom are engaged 
in the pursuits of farming life, have largely aided in 
demonstrating this fact. The marvelous growth of 
the products of its soil, millions of dollars in value 
have been added each year to the national wealth. 
In products of the field, garden and pasture, North 
Dakota must alw-ays take pre-eminence, with future 
high rank in manufacturing. The output of her 
products in the past years has had a marked effect 
upon the commerce of the world. It has turned the 
eyes of rich and poor in astonishment and wonder 
to this constant increase and development. A large 
proportion of the state is susceptible of cultivation. 
Of this a large part still is open for settlemetat and 
offers homes to the enterprising agriculturists of 
every clime. For the location of these, as yet, unde- 
veloped acres the reader is referred farther on in this 

The lands east of tlie Missouri river range in 

value from the government price of one doHar and' 
twenty-five cents per acre for a pre-emption, to five, 
dollars to ten dollars for lands proved up, but with- 
out special improvement and considered wild lands^ 
To begin farming in either North or South Dakota 
without means is not a round of pleasure ; but tliou- 
sands have succeeded — those blessed with character, 
industry and endurance. Tlte climate is one of the- 
healthiest on the planet ; the prairies are ideal land; 
to men whose fathers grew old in clearing away trees: 
and stumps. The chances were never better than 
now for energetic men to open up farms. Land is 
still vacant, in sight of moving trains and close to 
markets. North Dakota is destined largely to 
be a region of small farmers. The day when men. 
can skim over large areas is practically past. In- 
tensive, and not extensive, farming will be the 
method of the future, when every acre will be sub- 
jected to use and in diversified form. 

The raising of grain in North Dakota will never 
be abandoned, because the conditions her favor the 
production of the finest wheat in the world, the 
heaviest oats, the brightest barley and the oiliest 
flax ; and in the near future the agriculturist will 
produce everything on his farm, except groceries 
and clothing. The industrious and persistent man 
who will, can become independent. His experience 
during first years, if he starts without means, will 
be no fairv existence, but in the brilliant sunshine 



and stimulating atmosphere much can be endured 
and accompHshed. 

The people of the great territory feel proud of 
their accomplishments. Xo equal agricultural pop- 
ulation will show a greater, quicker and more sub- 
stantial development in material and moral things — 
schools, churches, banks, benevolent institutions, 
railroads, etc. — and fewer criminals and incompe- 
tents, and they unselfishly urge the landless poor of 
die older states — and of foreign lands to come 
and share the pleasant facilities and aid in getting 

Wheat is Dakota's principal agricultural product 
and will undoubtedly ever remain her chief staple, 
owing to the extremely favorable conditions which 
prevad within the territory for raising the best 
quality of wheat at the lowest possible cost per 
bushel. The report of the bureau of chemistry of 
ihe United States department of agriculture, 1884, 
contains the result of an analysis of 2,759 specimens 
of wheat, among which were included samples from 
every state in the Union, and many foreign countries. 
The chemist, says that the determination of the albu- 
minoids., in connection with the size and condition 
of the wheat, settle, so far as a chemical and physical 
examination can succeed, the peculiarities and rel- 
ative values of the samples submitted. 

The result of the analysis is to establish the fact 
by national investigation that in the two most im- 
portant desiderata, dryness and richness in album- 
inoids, Dakoa wheat Banks the best of any grown on 
American soil, and probably averages the best of all 
the world. 

The report goes on to say, "The Dakotas are 
all extremely rich in albuminoids, one containing as 
.higlh as 18.03 per cent, which is the richest ever an- 
alyzed in the United States. These experiments by 
the national government prove two facts: That a 
bushel of Dakota wheat flour will make more bread 
itlian the same quantity of wheat raised in any other 
state or territory of the Union, and that the bread 
made irom Dakota wheat flour contains more 
gluten and other of the materials which nourish and 
build up the human body, than bread made from any 
other Tvind."' 

Tlie average percentage of albuminoids in the 
wheats of all the United States and British America 
is 12.15. In Dakota the average percentage is 14.95, 
leading every state and territory. The average per- 
centage of dryness of the wheats of the United States 
and British America is 10.16. In this respect Da- 
l<ota also leads every competitor with an average ])cr- 

centage of only 8.84 of water in the composition of 
wheat grown on her soil. 

In speaking of the comparative cost of raising 
the great staple, wheat, in Xorth Dakota and else- 
where, Hon. J. R. Dodge, the statistician of the de- 
partment of agriculture at Washington, in his report 
for 1885, says: "While India is the coin- 
petitor of the United States in the world's markets, 
her importance as a competitor is greatly overrated. 
,The occurrence of a famine year would reduce to zero 
her exports. So fixed are the industrial usages of 
the people that great enlargement of the wheat area 
is next to an impossibility ; there has been no mate- 
rial increase as a result of the exportation of the sur- 
plus of the last ten years. The extension of railroad 
mileage has facilitated the shipping of the surplus 
of good years, which would otherwise have been 
pitted to eke out subsistence in famine years. It 
might not be fair to say that these shipments have 
produced no eflfect ; if any, it has been very small. 
The exports of ten years include nearly all the sum 
of India's record of exportation, and would scarcely 
equal the crop of an average year. A ten per cent, 
surplus that cannot be depended on in a crop half 
as large as ours, cannot take the place of our sur- 
plus, which is more than half as large as the India 

He is also authority for the statement that while 
the cost of production under favorable circumstances, 
and in the best localities of India, may be thirty- 
five to forty cents per bushel, wheat can rarely be 
brought to the principal markets and sold for less 
than si.xty cents. 

Consul-general Mattson, at Calcutta, says that 
the native of India can afford to sell his wheat at 
the nearest market place, if within a day's journey 
of his home, for fifty to sixty cents per bushel ; but 
when it does not bring that price, or very near it, he 
either consumes his small supply, or stores it in a 
hole under the ground until a more favorable time 
shall come. 

English wheat-growers claim that it costs about 
forty dollars an acre to grow wheat in England, and 
that they must get from forty to forty-five shillings 
a quarter, or from one dollar and nine cents to one 
dollar and thirty-six cents a bushel for their grain 
to make the growing of it profitable. 

Dakota has the soil, the climate and every advan- 
tage in her favor as a competitor for supplying Eng- 
land, the great wheat market of the world, with 
bread, and whenever our intelligciU, thinking farm- 
ers grasp the situation and till their lands as do the 



farmers of Europe, or even the farmers of the older 
.settled areas of our own country, we shall at once 
attain, and forever maintain the prestige of wheat 
producers of the globe. 

If the Dakota farmer can afford to raise wheat 
under the general haphazard style of farming, 
which brings him only a third of the yield, the land 
ought to and would produce with skillful manage- 
ment, with a reckless investment in farm machinery 
and an utter disregard of caring for it after it has 
been purchased, as has characterized operations in 
other states, and with no thought of husbanding his 
crops for a favorable market, but, acting in concert 
with all his neighbors, he throws the entire season's 
yield, as soon a^ threshed, on the hands of the grain 
speculator, which, as a matter of course, affects the 
markets disastrously — and still compete with the 
pauper-labor of India and the careful, painstaking 
farmer of Europe, what wealth and prosperity is in 
store for this same farmer when he shall, by means 
of scientific agriculture, double the yields of his 
fields ; when he shall act judiciously in creating in- 
debtedness and sensibly in housing his machinery; 
when he shall provide a storage-house for his grain 
and compel the grain buyer to seek him instead of 
putting himself entirely within the power of the ele- 
vators as now, and, last of all, when he shall diver- 
sify his crop and combine stock-raising, dairying and 
the other valuable adjuncts of farming with his 
yearly wheat ventures. 

The yield of wheat in England is from twenty- 
six to twenty-eight bushels per acre; in France, 
twenty-four^about twice as much as the yield in 
the United States. And why ? The answer is obvi- 
ous — this high yield is the sole result of science, and 
thrift, applied to farming operations. The natural 
fertility of the soil does not necessarily control the 
yield of a country. No where on the globe is there 
a wheat growing soil to compete with that of the 
Red river valley — and yet the poor, worn out lands 
of some of the Eastern states are caused, through 
skilled effort, to bring forth heavier crops than this 
favored spot. 

But the prospects are bright that North Dakota, 
with her resources but very partially developed, and 
but a infinitismal part of her area sown to grain, has 
even now taken rank far ahead of the famous wheat- 
growing states of the Union, and leads all compet- 
itors in the quality of the grain produced and the cost 
of production. The eventualities of the near future, 
wdien the millions of acres of vacant land are peo- 
pled, and add their product to augment the terri- 

tory's grand total ; when farmers apply lessons of 
science and economy to the operations of agriculture, 
and when the completion of the net-work of rail- 
roads now projected give the product of the most 
distant farm an outlet through the lakes to the sea- 
boai"d at one-fourth the present cost of transporta- 
tion, cannot fill the mind with a single hope of wealth, 
grandeur and prosperity for Dakota which will not 
be realized. 

Dakota's prairies will furnish the bread supply of 
the nation ; the best article at the lowest price. 

In Indian corn, or, to be more precise, maize, one 
of the most important crops of the United States, its 
average exceeding that of all other cereals, with a 
yield nearly double that of any other grain, North 
Dakota, as yet, does not take a high rank. The 
cultivation of corn, however, has not been attempted 
on a generous scale, although it produces the small 
hard or flint corn with success and large yield. 
Owing, however, to the greater success with the 
smaller grains. North Dakota has not shown so 
much advance in the raising of maize. 

South Dakota has established a reputation for 
its excellent quality of corn and its adaptability of 
climate and soil for its production. The success of 
corn-growing in Dakota is shown in the yield of 
various years: In i860 it was 20,269 bushels; in 
1870 it was 133,140 bushels; in 1880 it was 200,864 
bushels; in 1885 it was 7,800,593 bushels; in 1888 
it was 19,068,680 bushels ; in 1889 it was 22,832,073 
bushels, of which quantity a little over 1,000,000 
was grown in North Dakota, the total exceeding 
that of twenty other states. The crop matures 
without damage from frost or ravages from insects, 
and farmers declare that the yield, condition, aver- 
age and profit is better than in any other part of the 
country in which they have had experience. Of 
the quality of corn raised in Dakota, the same is 
true as has been said of the quality of our wheat. 
It is extremely rich in albuminoids and nitrogen 
(the nourishing properties), and in this respect is 
above the average corn grown in the east and the 
general average of the composition of American 

The production of flax in North Dakota is barely 
in its infancy as compared with the interest that 
will be devoted to this crop in the future, when 
capital shall have built up in the territory manu- 
factories to utilize the seed and the fiber. At pres- 
ent, owing to a lack of such industries, it is grown 
principally for the seed, and the fiber or straw is 
burned or wasted, and the fiber, too, being equal 



to that grown in Ireland, from which the best linens 
are made. Flax and sod corn are usually the first 
crops raised on new land. They can be sown on 
freshly turned sod with a reasonable assurance of 
a good yield under any circumstances. Flax is 
one of the best subduers that can be grown on the 
sod, and places the ground in excellent condition 
for working the next season, for any kind of a 
crop. Planted in this way it yields, ordinarily, 
from seven to fifteen bushels per acre, and in many 
instances a single crop has paid for the land, in 
addition to the cost of breaking and planting. As 
a profitable "sod crop" it is a real godsend to the 
new settler. If he can turn over forty acres of 
sod prior to, say, the 20th of June, or even later, he 
can confidently rely on ten bushels an acre, of the 
value of say $400, and can make the seed in one 
hundred days from the time when he unlimbers his 
plow on the prairie. The flax crop in the territory 
in 1879 amounted to 26,757 bushels ; in 1885 to 
2,916,983 bushels, and in 1889 to 3,288,115 bushels. 
Facts and figures as to the amount of flax grow-n in 
North Dakota in these recent years are either mis- 
leading or entirely lacking, and the government 
census of 1900 will be the only safe guide. Suffice 
to say that the state does its fair share in the rais- 
ing of this money-producing cereal. 

The amount of seed produced elsewhere in the 
United States than as stated above is so small as 
not to be taken into account by statisticians. It is 
shown that North Dakota produces over one-quar- 
ter of the entire product, and that Dakota and Min- 
nesota together more than one-half of all the seed 
raised in the country. Projects looking to the 
building up of flax mills, paper and cordage manu- 
factories — eiiforts which are certain to succeed 
sooner of later because of the profit which must 
ensue to the farmer in raising the crop could he 
find a market at home for the seed and straw. For 
the immense quantities of linseed oil, paints, oil-cake, 
straw-paper, cloth, twine (especially that which is 
used for binding the wheat crop), and other arti- 
cles manufactured from flax, annually consumed 
in North Dakota, its people now pay a tribute to 
other regions which is justly due the people of their 
state. The introduction of flax mills will add a 
new source of wealth to North Dakota, and furnish 
a wonderful impetus to the growing, by our farm- 
ers, of one of the most profitable crops. 

Oats, next after wheat in the total yield and value, 
is the prominent crop. Its use as human food is 
extending the North Dakota article, as well as all 

of that produced in the northwest, being of unusual 
excellence for making meal. It is a hardy plant, 
and upon the whole considered a very safe and 
reliable crop, being subject to fewer diseases and in- 
sect pests, and is less exhausting to the soil than 
any other of the cereals. It has been known to. 
yield as high as 119 bushels to the acre in Dakota, 
the average, however, being from 40 to 80 bushels, 
and weighing, generally, 42 pounds to the bushel. 
In i860 the crop was 2,540 bushels; in 1870 it was 
114,327; in 1880 it was 2,217,132; in 1885 it was. 
22,970,698; in 1888 it was 30,408.585 bushels, and 
only thirteen acres of each 1,000 in the territory in 
cultivation with the crop. The crop of the year 
1898 was 11,311,556 bushels for North Dakota 

Barley does remarkably well in North Dakota, 
the product being of unusual brightness and highly 
prized by brewers, who take the entire yield for the 
production of malt to be used in brewing. In 
European countries it, with rye, constitute the chief 
breadstuff^s used by the peasantry, the two cereals, 
making the black bread they eat, wheat or white 
bread being almost unknown to them. The yield 
in the territory of Dakota is given as 4,118 bushels, 
in 1870; 277,424 bushels in 1880; 2,170,059 bushels 
in 1885, and 6,400,568 in 1887. The production of 
North Dakota, alone, in 1898, was 5,123,919 bushels.. 

Ne.xt after the cereals the potato constitutes the 
principal vegetable food of the American people. 
The quality and quantity of yield of these vegeta- 
bles cannot be excelled anywhere in the Unitetl 
States. They grow to immense size, some even 
attaining a weight of six pounds ; are uniformly 
sound, very meally, and are conceded to equal those 
grown in Colorado, or any of the older states of 
union. They yield from 150 to 500 bushels to the 
acre, and are such good keepers, owing to their 
soundness, lasting until late in the summer, that 
their future commercial value is immense. The 
crop for the two Dakotas was, for i860, 9,489 
bushels. In 1870 this had arisen to 50,177 bushels; 
in 1880 to 664,086, and in 1885 to 3.868,860. The 
product of North Dakota for the year 1898 was. 
^•770,390 bushels. 

Onions are a prolific crop, growing to an enor- 
mous size, and yield from 400 to 800 bushels per 

Turnips and all other vegetables, also, do ex- 
ceedingly well, making large returns to the farmer 
who engages in their cultivation. 

The native, nutritious grasses indigenous to the 



■country are relied on mostly for forage for stock and 
to make into hay, not many farmers making much 
of an effort to cultivate the domestic grasses. Some 
timothy, some clover and some alfalfa are raised, 
but not in any large quantity. 

Careful investigation shows that the soil of Da- 
kota is a drift or alluvial loam from one to four 
feet deep, underlaid with a clay subsoil having the 
properties of holding moisture to a wonderful de- 
cree, which is given out as needed by the growing 
crops : that it contains an inexhaustible supply of 
the most important soil constituents, as soluble 
silica, lime, potash, soda, phosphoric acid, nitrogen 
and vegetable humus, and will produce for a life- 
time abundant crops under favorable climatic con- 
ditions, and the soil varies but little in different 
localities. It would seem that it contains the proper 
percentage of plant constituents to give it the pecu- 
liar chemical composition requisite for producing 
■cereals richest in albuminoids and in life-sustain- 
ing properties. By government analysis it has also 
been determined that Dakota wheat and corn take 
the first rank as regards the percentage of albumin- 
oids and nitrogen of any grown in the United 
States. In appearance the soil is dark to grayish- 
brown in color, being darkest in the lower plains 
and valleys, where it occasionally approaches to 
blackness. It is everywhere exceedingly friable 
and easily worked. 

The chemist of the national agricultural depart- 
ment, in summing up the results of analysis of sam- 
ples of soil from all parts of the United States, 
including three from widely separated sections of 
Dakota, reaches the following conclusions: 

First — The remarkable adaptability of Dakota 
soils to readily imbibe- and retain moisture. Of 
all the samples analyzed by the chemist only one 
exceeded in the percentage of hygroscopic moisture 
the lowest amount obtained from either of the Da- 
kota soils. 

Second — That as regards silica in its soluble 
state (and in this way only is it valuable as a source 
of plant food), the Dakota soil ranks third in the 
list of the thirty samples analyzed, and is, there- 
fore, particularly well adapted to the raising of 
cereal crops, which possess in a marked degree the 
capacity for feeding on silicates. And the same is 
true of the percentage shown of hydrated silica, 
which represents that which is gradually available 
for plant food. 

Third — It contains the average of four per cent, 
of ferric oxide, valuable because to its presence is 

chiefly due the retention of phosphoric acid, and 
because it tends to make clay lands easier of till- 

Fourth — In the percentage of alumina or clay 
in the soil, the samples from Dakota, containing 
an average of over eight per cent., are again third 
on the list. Its presence is valuable as furnishing 
a supply of potash, and because it has the important 
property of absorbing and retaining phosporic acid, 
ammonia, potash, lime and other substances neces- 
sary for plant food. The chemist declares the 
light clay soil, containing from six to ten per cent. 
of alumina, the best for wheat. 

Fifth — It shows an abundant supply of phos- 
phoric acid, which, the chemist says, "in general, 
even in the most fertile soils, is found in very 
minute quantities." The percentage of phosphoric 
acid found in one Dakota sample is e.xceeded in 
but one of all the samples analyzed. 

Sixth — The chemist lays down the rule that the 
percentage of lime in clay loams should not fall be- 
low .250, and in the heavy clay soils not below .500. 
The analysis of the samples from Dakota shows 
nearly double the last amount in all three instances, 
and in the case of one it ranks first on the entire list 
as regards the percentage of lime. 

Seventh — The percentage of potash varies only 
slightly in the Dakota samples, and is ample for all 
time to come. The chemist remarks that a soil 
containing .125 per cent, should furnish potash for 
a century, and that high per cent of potash makes 
up for low percentage of lime. The Dakota sam- 
ples show a percentage of potash of .720, .725 and 
.745 respectively. 

Eighth — The analysis show that the amount of 
nitrogen in the Dakota soil is very large, and agrees 
closely in the three samples, and that it is rich 
enough in this necessary soil constituent for the 
continued raising of abundant crops. Two of the 
samples of prairie soil ranks, in this respect, third 
on the list analyzed. 

Ninth — The prairie soils contains a percentage 
of humus, or organic matter, greater than twenty- 
five out of the thirty samples analyzed. The small- 
est percentage of humus obtained from an an- 
alysis of the three samples was 6. 171, and the 
greatest 10.175, while the famous black soil of the 
Ural mountains in Russia contains but 5 to 12 per 
cent. In the most fertile soils of this country 
vegetable humus occurs only in small quantities. 
It is hygroscopic ; that is, it greatly increases the 
water-holding power of soils and enables them to 



withstand prolonged drought, besides furnishing 
vahiable food for the growing plants. 


It is well known that much of the country west 
of the one hundredth meridian requires irrigation 
to insure regular success in agriculture. Over this 
vast region, which includes half of the area of the 
republic, the air is so dry that there is little or no 
dew, afid a rainfall too slight or too unseasonable 
to allow general cultivation of the soil. The an- 
nual rainfall over this great region ranges from 
twenty inches in western Dakota down to four in 
Arizona and southern California. The eastern limit 
of the arid belt approaches the Missouri river in 
western Dakota, and is classed by Major Powell as 
semi-humid, which in one season may be well 
watered, while in the next year everything not 
artificially watered will perish for the want of 
moisture. In the cycles of dry years, which alter- 
nate with wet years in recurring periods of from 
ten to twelve years, as maintained by scientific men, 
the whole of Dakota is liable to sufifer from the 
lack of moisture, the area of danger extending 
eastward beyond the Great Lakes. This year has 
been remarkable for drought across the continent 
from the lake region to the Pacific coast. 

In view of the success of irrigation in various 
parts of Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, New 
Mexico and California, public attention has been 
gradually attracted to the possibilities of extending 
water service to a large share of the arid belt. Con- 
gress has finally taken hold of the matter, and the 
work has become a national one. This season a 
senate committee visited Dakota and all parts of the 
north, west and southwest, traveling fourteen thou- 
sand miles, examining witnesses, and looking over 
sites for proposed reservoirs and canals to be con- 

Congressional aid was asked in aid of irrigation 
early in President Grant's administration, twent}^ 
years ago, and he recommended a comprehensive 
preliminary survey, but there was still plenty of 
land untaken in the humid belt, and so the matter 
rested until September, 1888, when an appropriation 
of $ioo,cxx) was given to pay for surveying and 
locating "storage reservoirs at the heads of streams 
for the purpose of irrigation." The matter was 
put into the hands of Major Powell, superintendent 
of the geological survey, and he has since devoted 
his time to the consider^ition of that work. He, 

perhaps, knowing more about the subject than any- 
other man in the country, says it is possible to re- 
claim no less than 100,000,000 acres, and year after 
year, one acre of perfectly watered land being 
worth three of land in a region of uncertain rainfall. 
To convert this enormous area, equal to more than 
two-thirds of the states east of the Mississippi, into 
a habitable and productive land, means an accretion 
of wealth to the republic of which all history con- 
tains no parallel. 

To say that Major Powell's project is new or 
unprecedented is not the case. Systems of irriga- 
tion, perhaps not on such an extensive scale, were 
undertaken and carried to success in the long-gone 
ages. J. H. Beadle, in a recent article on this sub- 
ject, says: "The oldest written records refer to it 
as a thing of course, and among the oldest draw- 
ings are those representing the Eg\-ptian raising 
water from his fields. It is scarcesly possible to 
imagine any system which has not been practiced in 
in one or more countries, from the use of the rudest 
vessel to simply dip up the water, up through all 
the grades of common hand labor to the Egyptian 
'Shadouf,' or from the simple bamboo wheel of the 
East Indian to the elaborate system of dams, reser- 
voirs, flumes and canals which made Babylonia the 
very garden of the Lord for abundance, and which 
have lately been paralleled by the British in India 
and the Americans in Utah and Colorado. Equally 
difficult would it be to find any new features as to 
water supply and its value, for in the United States 
alone is found every grade, from the rocky little 
troughs of the Aloquis Indians of Arizona, by whom 
the tiniest rill is husbanded as if water were golden, 
to the mammoth flume of Boulder county, Colo- 
rado, where a river is anchored to a mountain side 
and made to feed hundreds of artificial lakes, fish 
ponds and fountains." 

Of the age which built the pyramids it is easy 
to believe that irrigation works of equally colossal 
scale were created. A region of Asia Minor, now 
a desert waste, an area of which our own great 
Dakota would only make a part, was once fruitful 
with gardens and orchards and dense with people. 
Irrigation is mentioned in the earliest Chinese his- 
tory. In Egypt, Syria and all of eastern Asia 
agriculture has always depended upon irrigation, 
and so still depends in countries where the people 
have survived the governmental changes all along 
the path of time. The irrigation of the fields, gar- 
dens and vineyards is often spoken of in the Bible. 
The earliest systems of California and other parts 



of the west are copied from ancient niodels. The 
actual history of irrigation in our country begins 
with the Pacific Railroad, and it has already assumed 
such proportions that all the interested states and 
territories have enacted laws governing the con- 
struction of the works and the use of water. The 
remains of irrigation works in India and Ceylon 
show that water was carried for hundreds of miles 
in wide canals along mountain sides and across val- 
leys, in such quantities that, despite the great loss 
by evaporation under a burning sun, there was 
enough left to fertilize many millions of acres. 

Major Powell says the work we are going to 
do in the American west men did successfully many 
thousand years ago, and we have the advantage 
over the ancient builders in having superior, even 
superhuman, machinery, and possessing far higher 
engineering skill. They had to work without a 
steam or hydraulic power, and without the compass, 
or barometer, accomplishing their prodigious tasks 
by the simple multiplication of mere muscle. The 
loss of life involved in the construction of irriga- 
tion works in Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Persia 
must have been enormous, but the will of the Asiatic 
despots hesitated at no obstacle ; if the labor supply 
ran short, a war was undertaken and a host of 
captives took the places of the dead and helpless. 
No such gloomy incidents will mark the con- 
struction of the western American system. To 
store the waters in the mountains, to excavate the 
canals for their transport to the plains, to dig ditches 
for their distribution, to sink artesian wells and 
pump waters from the rivers to the reservoirs, will 
take much labor, time and money, but happily the 
work will not be dangerous ; there is plenty of labor, 
we can" take the time, and there will be no lack of 
money. It is the claim of some enthusiasts that 
much of the water of the Missouri and tributaries 
will be absorbed by the dry lands through irriga- 
tion, and by thus reducing the volume of the lower 
Mississippi river allow the reclamation of the lands 
now unavailable along the course of that mighty 
stream, and thus prevent disastrous floods, now so 
common along the lower part of that river. 

From government reports we learn that the 
different stages of progress in water utilization are 
six in number, to-wit : 

First — The use of the rainfall in what are prop- 
erly known as rain belts, by the most effective 
methods of cultivation, and the selection of suitable 
plants, especially those with long tap roots. 

Second — The exhaustion of the supply furnished 

by rivers and creeks in their passage through the 
plains, by means of irrigation works, such as are 
already in extensive use. There are few streams 
which cannot be used to the full amount of their 
annual discharge. 

Third — The enlargement of the existing supply 
by the storage of higher elevations of water which 
pass away in spring floods, a work now entered 
upon by congress. The building of numerous 
catch-basins throughout the plains to save the rain- 
fall which is wasted, so far as the lands nearby are 
concerned, will add greatly to the supply furnished 
by running streams. There are natural depressions 
everywhere which can be utilized at very slight cost, 
and with entire immunity from risks of dangerous 

Fourth — The sinking of galleries or tunnels 
below the surface of streams, even when they are 
practically dry, and utilizing by canals the under- 
ground currents. This is becoming a popular re- 
source. Such a plan furnishes pure filtered water 
at Cheyenne, Wyoming, for the supply of the city, 
without pumping or much expense, from a small 
stream nearly dry in summer. The utilization o£ 
surface water does not exhaust the supply for irri- 
gation. The application involves waste. The 
fugitives waters sinking into the ground pass into, 
the depressions which make the waterways, and 
gradually swell the scanty streams at lower leveby 
or course their way toward the sea through the 
sands below the river beds. Thus a part of the 
water of irrigation canals is gathered a second time 
to do the work of irrigation. This is the case 
notably in the South Platte, in Colorado, after its 
waters have been depleted by the canals above 
Denver and the Cache la Poudre supply has beea 
similarly used between Fort Collins and Greeley. 
At the latter place the cellars require protection 
from overflow, water in wells has risen nearly to 
the surface, and the waters of irrigation are par- 
tially restored to the stream to find their way to the 
South Platte. 

Fifth — P)y the use of stationary pumps of suffi- 
cient power, in lifting such underground currents 
to the surface from bed rock, for application to 
surrounding lands. 

Sixth — By artesian wells, which have hitherto 
proved too expensive for use in irrigation. It is 
probable that their cost and the uncertainty of ob- 
taining water will prevent extensive employnlent of 
this means of water supply, except in parts of Da- 
kota, Kansas and California. The artesian basin 



of central Dakota is the largest known to the world, 
and is the only large locality, probably, where water 
obtained in this way can come into general use. 

The quantity of water necessary to irrigate an 
acre depends upon the slope of the land, porosity of 
the soil, the dryness of the atmosphere, and the 
nature of the crops cultivated. Throughout the 
west the common method of measuring water is 
by what is known as the "miner's inch," viz., the 
quantity which will flow throughout an opening 
one inch square, under a given pressure. Forty 
miner's inches is considered equal to the flowage of 
one cubic foot per second, and all authorities agree 
that this amount flowing constantly through the 
season will be sufficient for about two hundred acres 
under the most exacting conditions. By economy, 
not generally practiced, however, by Americans, 
it can be made to do duty on from three hundred 
to one thousand acres per second foot, but under 
the lavish custom of Colorado a miner's inch is 
given to an acre, or a second foot to each forty 
acres. The price of water to consumers varies in 
different localities, the companies owning the canals 
cliarging by the miner's inch, the second foot, or 
by an acre irrigated. In Colorado the cost ranges 
from $1.50 to $5.00 per inch, with higher rates in 
California. The water is applied to the land by 
flooding in thin or deep sheets, and allowing it to 
stand or run oft" through small ditches ; the former 
method for grain sown broadcast, and the latter 
for crops planted in rows. The ditches vary in 
number according to circumstances, but when small 
and numerous, with the water running continually, 
very uneven and rolling surfaces can be well served. 
It loas been found that land thoroughly watered 
for a term of years requires much less, and in some 
cases none at all. This is doubtless due to the sub- 
soil becoming thoroughly soaked and then yielding 
its moisture by capillary attraction to the roots of 
growing plants. 

Land as productive as that of Dakota should 
not be allowed to remain idle. A great part of it 
can be irrigated, and irrigation means a large in- 
crease in the yield or crops. The wheat of Dakota 
is needed to feed the hungry of every land. The 
certainty of yearly crops commends the plan, not 
to speak of the increased yield. Let us move in 
the matter of lining the country with reservoirs and 
water ditches, and wait no longer for the coming 
of wet periods. Every farmer living near a stream, 
1)y means of a windmill, can get up a little system 
of irrigation of his own. The Jamestown hospital 

for the insane irrigated and fertilized twenty acres 
of garden a few years ago with waste water and 
sewage, and produced several thousand dollars 
worth of products. The rainfall of Dakota is suffi- 
cient, but it does not always come at seasonable 
times, and much of it is of no use. A lack of 
rain for two or three weeks at seedtime, or during 
the growing season, is very injurious and some- 
times fatal to crops. In general terms it may be 
said that could the Dakota farmer water his fields 
when the soil needs moisture, thirty bushels of wheat 
would be a small rather than a large yield. A vital 
question, then, to the Dakota farmer is the subject of 
irrigation. If his fields could produce twice as much 
grain — to say nothing about three or four times as 
much, as claimed by those who. have studied the 
subject — it would certainly be a great gain if he 
could manage to secure irrigation. If the valleys 
of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, California, 
Oregon, Washington and Montana are to be con- 
verted into irrigated grain fields, the vast products 
of these regions will compel the Dakota farmer 
likewise to secure irrigation, or quit farming. How 
can he get ahead with his fields averaging say fif- 
teen bushels of wheat, when the far western farmer, 
who can moisten his fields at will, is getting thirty, 
forty and fifty. The relief to Dakota is irrigation 
in the off years. Can it be accomplished? Cer- 
tainly. Had the farmers of Dakota been able to 
water their fields this year their crops would have 
been enormous instead of being merely fair. By 
tapping the artesian basins and utilizing the flow 
of rivers, by storing the rainfall and saving the 
melted snow, the fields of Dakota could be made 
to rival those of the Nile in productiveness. This 
artificial supply of water would not only produce 
wonderful crops of grain, but vegetables, grasses, 
forage, plants and small fruits ; while trees would 
spring forth in plenty and glory, covering the face 
of the country with orchards and groves, and giv- 
ing character and beauty to the landscape, not pos- 
sible now without great labor ; and then there would 
be no want of anything that is in the earth. 

The proposition to begin a general system of 
irrigation in Dakota has some opposition, in the 
belief that settlements may be retarded when the 
idea goes abroad that artificial agencies are needed 
to properly moisten the soil for agriculture. That 
is certainly not the right view to take of it. To 
succeed, man must help himself to everything that 
nature provides. When the clouds fail us we must 
make different arrangements, and supply the needed 



moisture from other sources. The Missouri river 
alone carries a volume of water sufificient, and to 
spare, to nourish the crops of an empire — water 
which now wends its way to the sea through a fruit- 
ful region, but sometimes perishing of thirst. Na- 
ture has furnished us with underground rivers 
which only need tapping to give of their abundance. 
Had tliere been a plentiful supply of moisture to 
the fields of Dakota this year, the great territory 
would have had $50,000,000 worth more of crops. 

The plan of securing flowing artesian wells, 
and pumping water from the rivers into the empty 
lake beds of Dakota, is practical. Rainfall and 
melted snow can also be diverted from the streams 
and stored in the lakes, of which there are hundreds 
— natural reservoirs in which the waters can remain 
imtil of right temperature for irrigation. Major 
Powell suggests wdiat he calls the "tank system" 
for Dakota. By this he means a pond on every 
farm, where it is possible for the storage of rain 
and snow water until needed. He says that a 
twenty-acre tank filled with water to a depth of ten 
feet will irrigate three hundred acres of land, and 
increase tlie value of the land several hundred per 
cent, .and give a wonderful increase in yield. In 
his opinion Dakota has a remarkable soil, and very 
little irrigation will be needed. It would not be 
necessary to flood tlie land, but onl\- run the water 
>over it in ditches. 

From a statistical map of North Dakota, issued 
in 1899, by the department of agriculture and labor, 
Hon. H. U. Thomas, commissioner, the following 
facts are gleaned; 

The state of North Dakota has an area of 72,312 
square miles. It has an estimated population of 
.300,000, has 2,797 miies of railroad, 590 postoffices, 
over 150 newspapers, 2,333 schools, with 3,637 
teachers. The assessed valuation of real and per- 
sonal property in the state in 1899 was $114,334,- 
428. There was invested in banking in North Da- 
kota, the same year, $16,599,110. From the same 
•eminent authority has been compiled the following 
table of the production of tlie state by counties, and 
the assessed value of the property in each civil sub- 
division of the state. These figures are for the year 

Pembina county has an assessed value of real 
:and personal property of $5,273,940. Has 305,225 
.acres of land under cultivation, and raised, in 1898, 
.3,965,344 bushels of wheat; 105,473 bushels of flax; 
1,008,887 bushels of oats; 663,626 bushels of bar- 
ley; 12,939 bushels of rye; 62 bushels of corn; 

and 108,896 bushels of pota'toes; $73,347 in value 
of live stock was sold during the same year. Pem- 
bina is the county seat. 

Walsh county, with 397,652 acres under culti- 
vation, raised, in 1898, 3,960,175 bushels of wheat; 
165,320 bushels of flax; 1,288,823 bushels of oats; 
393,042 bushels of barley; 3,738 bushels of rye; 
774 bushels of corn ; 143,445 bushels of potatoes, 
and of live stock sold $81,887 in value. It had an 
to cheese making. He introduced the Holstein cat- 
assessed valuation of real and personal property 

Grand Forks county, with 441,120 acres under 
cultivation, raised 5,676,322 bushels of wheat; 238,- 
997 bushels of flax; 1,556,832 bushels of oats; 574,- 
357 of barley; 7,090 of rye; 9,460 of corn, and 149,- 
407 of potatoes; $104,637 worth of live stock was 
disposed of. Real and personal property valued at 
$9,850,554. The county seat is at Grand Forks. 

Nelson county, of which Lakota is the county 
seat, has 177,779 acres under cultivation. There 
was raised 1,567,767 bushels of wheat; 104,202 of 
flax; 575,214 of oats; 234,049 of barley; 10,576 of 
rye; 50 bushels of corn, and 49,187 bushels of 
potatoes. The live stock amounted to $79,448. The 
assessed valuation of real and personal property 
was $2,474,091. 

Cavalier county has 800 acres of vacant gov- 
ernment land ; 185,926 acres under cultivation ; 
raised 1,455,918 bushels of wheat; 23,410 of corn; 
661,917 of oats; 215,422 of barley; 1,534 of rye; 
49,317 of potatoes; $51,993 worth of live stock sold. 
Assessed valuation of real and personal property, 
$2,497,215. Langdon is the county seat. 

Towner county has 8,000 acres of vacant gov- 
ernment land; 160,127 acres under cultivation; 
raised 1,016,473 bushels of wheat; 67,491 of flax; 
400,815 of oats; 204.003 of barley; 1,910 of rye; 
10 of corn, and 39,616 bushels of potatoes. \'alue 
of live stock sold, $27,765. YaXue of real and per- 
sonal property was $1,367,492. Cando is the seat 
of justice. 

Rolette county has an assessed valuation of real 
and personal property of $1,053,387; 73.201 acres 
of land are under cultivation, while 37,600 acres 
were vacant government land. In it were raised 
210,128 bushels of wheat; 5,321 of flax; 115,346 of 
oats; 28,741 of barley; 19.930 of rye, and 17,419 
of corn. Live stock to the value of $34,991 was 
disposed of. Rolla is the county seat. 

Bottineau had 163,360 acres of vacant govern- 
ment land. On the 136,134 acres under cultivation 


was raised 516,347 bushels of wheat; 5,338 of flax; 
178,915 of oats; 21,355 of barley; 3,733 of rye, and 
26,266 of potatoes. The value of the live stock sold 
amounted to $44,370; $1,223,795 represented in 
1899 the assessed value of property, both real and 
personal. Bottineau is the county seat. 

Ramsey county, with an assessed valuation of 
both real and personal property of $2,776,824, has 
1,200 acres of vacant government land, and 133.376 
acres under cultivation. In 1898 there were raised 
1,191,984 bushels of wheat; 125,195 of flax; 360,- 
157 of oats; 207,376 of barley; 1.935 of rye; 600 
of corn, and 45,637 bushels of potatoes. Live stock 
was sold to the value of $42,494. Devil's Lake is 
the county seat. 

Traill county, of which Hillsboro is the seat of 
justice, had 389,050 acres of land under cultivation, 
and raised, in 1898, 5,371,129 bushels of wheat; 
135,425 of flax; 1,362,620 of oats; 287,892 of bar- 
ley; 685 of rye; 32,670 of corn, and 103,616 of 
potatoes. Live stock to the value of $69,816 were 
sold. The value of the real and personal property 
in 1899 amounted to $6,263,057. 

McHenry county had 849,600 acres of vacant 
government land and only 24,417 acres under cul- 
tivation. There was raised 164,295 bushels of 
wheat ; 8,464 bushels of flax ; 73,722 of oats ; 10,639 
bushels of barley; rye, 8,716; corn, 1,578, and 12,- 
030 bushels of potatoes. Live stock worth $160,- 
122 was sold. The value of the real and personal 
property is set down as worth $769,929. Towner 
is the county seat. 

Pierce county had 240,320 acres of vacant gov- 
ernment land, and 60,866 under cultivation; 251,- 
016 bushels of wheat were raised; 51,733 bushels 
of flax; 119,577 of oats; 29,229 of barley; 
3,157 of rye; 40 of corn, and 10,635 of potatoes. 
The live stock sold amounted to $23,921. Real 
and personal property was set down as worth $665,- 
417. Rugby is the county seat. 

Griggs county, with 149,913 acres under culti- 
vation in 1898, raised 1,144,942 bushels of wheat; 
208,729 of flax; 417,763 of oats; 101,615 of barley; 
33.918 of rye; no of corn, and 19,828 of potatoes. 
Live stock sold was valued at $25,383. The real 
and personal property footed up $2,141,805. 
Cooperstovvn is the county seat. 

Steele county, with 231,695 acres under culti- 
vation, raised 2,206,649 bushels of wheat; 115,174 
of flax ; 667,386 of oats ; 275,860 of barley ; 1,946 of 
rye; 4,095 of corn, and 43,579 bushels of potatoes. 
Live stock to the value of $47,872 was sold. As- 

sessed valuation was $2,889,258. Sherbrooke is 
the seat of justice. 

Benson county, with 75,520 acres of its land va- 
cant and belonging to the government, had 145,977 
acres under cultivation. Of the crop raised in 
1,868 of flax; 15,822 of oats;656 of barley; 515 of 
143,258 of flax; 426,205 of oats; 120,605 of barley; 
2,704 of rye; 75 of corn, and 29,073 of potatoes. 
Live stock was sold to the value of $39,669. As- 
sessed value of all property was $1,833,677. The 
county seat is Minnewaukan. 

Ward county, of which ^linot is the county seat,, 
had in 1898 of vacant government land, 3,235,192 
acres. There were 10,939 acres under cultivation, 
and on these were raised 10,492 bushels of wheat; 
1,868 of flax; 15,822 of oats; 656 of barley; 515 of 
rye; 2,209 of corn, and 13,530 of potatoes. Value 
of live stock sold, $94,309. Assessed valuation of 
all real and personal property, $1,622,153. 

Williams county had but 1,068 acres of culti- 
vated land within its borders, while 2,062,482 acres- 
were vacant government land. There was raised 
in 1898, of wheat, 1.237 bushels; of oats, 14,906 
bushels; barley, 55; corn, 1,165; potatoes,. 
8,416. Live stock sold for $30,069. \'alue of 
property, $688,468. County seat, Williston. 

Wells county, of which Fessenden is the seat 
of county government, had, in 1898, of land under 
cultivation, 143,861 acres, and 182,610 acres of 
government property. That year there was raised 
890,104 bushels of wheat; 447,139 of fla.x ; 450,- 
616 of oats; 81,654 of barley; 8,290 of rye; 1,450 
of corn, and potatoes, 31,232 bushels. Live stock 
sold that year footed up to $29,315 in value. The 
assessed value of all real and personal property 
in the county is put down at $2,212,733. 

Cass county had 723,789 acres under cultivation 
and the crop of 1898 was represented by 7,916,- 
896 bushels of wheat ; 437.903 bushels of flax ; 
2,347,217 of oats: 404,720 of barley; 2^- of rye; 
185,766 of corn, and 241.270 bushels of jiotatoes. 
Live stock to the value of $184,803 was sold. The 
valuation of real and personal property for assess- 
ing purposes is reported at, $14,256,959. Fargo 
is the county seat. 

Richland county, with 332,350 acres under cul- 
tivation, produced 3,057,714 bushels of wheat; 
150,574 of flax; 1,443,664 of oats; 152,117 of bar- 
ley; 1,020 of rye; 201,593 of corn, and 104.684 of 
potatoes. The live stock amounted to $113,309. 
The assessed value of all real and personal prop- 



erty in the county was, in 1899, P'-'t down at $7,- 
859,284. Wahpeton is the county seat. 

Burleigh county, of which Bismarck is the county 
seat, as well as state capital, has 261,420 acres of 
vacant government land, and 28,103 acres under the 
plow. On these latter were raised 125,852 bushels 
of wheat ; 921 of flax ; 26,625 of oats ; 614 of barley ; 
6,007 of rye; 15,035 of corn and 12,750 bui'.els of 
potatoes. Live stock to t!ie ?mount of $125,577 was 
sold. The assessed value of all prouerty was .$2,- 

Eddy county has under cultivation some 86,954 
acres and but 3,443 acres of vacant government land. 
The crop report for 1898 showed 510,169 bushels 
of wheat; 130,792 of flax; 180,833 of oats; 15,531 of 
barley; 7,083 of rye and 20,962 bushels of potatoes. 
Live stock to the value of $26,277 was sold. The 
assessed value of real and personal property was 
set down at $1,099,584. New Rockford is the county 

Foster county, with 92,365 acres under the plow, 
had but 2,600 acres of vacant government property. 
In the county in 1898 there was raised of wheat, 
840,401 bushels; of flax, 174,926; of oats, 273,327; 
of barley, 65,646; of rye, 3,416; of com, 875 and of 
potatoes, 17,707 bushels. Live stock was sold to 
the amount of $18,411. The assessed value of all 
property was $1,576,077. Carrington is the seat of 

AIcLean county had 1,159,050 acres of vacant 
government land, and 20,988 acres under cultivation, 
and an assessed valuation of all real and personal 
property of $681,859. The crop report of 1898 
shows 75.794 bushels of wheat; 21,811 of flax; 
28,936 of oats; 3.142 of barley; 281 of rye; 3,267 
of corn and 6,379 bushels of potatoes. Live stock 
was disposed of for $35,257. Washburn is the 
county seat. 

Billings county had but 1,000 acres of land under 
cultivation, while 3,545,100 acres of land was vacant 
and belonged to the general government. 3,000 
bushels of corn and 4,000 of potatoes represent the 
crop of 1898, but $500,000 worth of live stock 
was sold. Assessed value of all property, real 
and personal, $876,178. IMedora is the seat of 

Barnes county, with 345,212 acres under cultiva- 
tion, raised 3,011,431 bushels of wheat; 319,920 
of flax; 1,099,755 of oats; 361,170 of barley; 9,697 
of rye ; 13,210 of corn and 74,933 of potatoes. Of 
live stock $72,109 worth was sold. The assessed 
value of the real and personal property was in 1899 

recorded as $5,083,630. The county seat is \'alley 

Stark county, with 2,486,800 acres of vacant gov- 
ernment land, had 41,765 acres under the plow. 
i79'309 bushels of wheat; 2,890 of flax; 53,260 of 
oats; 5,134 of barley; 1,274 of rye; 7,480 of corn 
and 14,820 bushels of potatoes was the crop of 1898, 
and live stock to the value of $111,575 was sold the 
same year. The assessed value of all real and per- 
sonal property in the county in 1899 was $2,296,838. 
Dickinson is the county seat. 

fiercer county had in 1898 of vacant government 
land, 930,235 acres and 13,734 acres under cultiva- 
tion. The crop reports for 1898 consisted of 30,- 
952 bushels of wheat; 1,325 of flax; 14,379 of oats; 
1,276 of barley; 170 of rye; 658 of corn and 1,937 
bushels of potatoes. $46,181 was the value of the 
live stock sold. The assessed value of property was 
$167,199. County seat is Stanton. 

Oliver county had 195,440 acres of vacant gov- 
ernment land and 5,766 acres under the plow. The 
crop of 1898 was represented by 19,977 bushels of 
wheat; 598 of flax; 14,146 of oats; 145 of barley; 
339 of rye; 1,122 of corn and 2,745 of potatoes. 
Live stock to the value of $25,417 was sold. The" 
total value of real and personal property for assess- 
ment purposes is reported for 1899 as $290,236. 
The county seat is Bentley. 

Morton county with 66,068 acres under cultiva- 
tion had vacant government land to the extent of 
1,380,500 acres. The crop returns for 189S were 
as follows : 280,641 bushels of wheat ; 1 1,518 of flax ;. 
106,535 of oats; 4,531 of barley; 1,746 of rye; 2S,- 
209 of corn and 33,885 of potatoes. Live stock sold 
amounted in value to $183,438. Assessed value of 
real and personal property for 1899 was $4,224,711, 
Alandan is the county seat. 

Emmons county had in 1898, 345,570 acres of 
vacant government land and 39,905 acres under cul- 
tivation. That year there was raised 75.855 bushels 
of wheat; 13.031 of flax; 35.072 of oats. 22,245 of 
barley; 3,529 of rye; 31,368 of corn and 11,289 of 
potatoes. Live stock to the value of $65,634 was- 
sokl. The assessed value of all property is set down 
at $1,317,184. Linton is the county seat. 

Kidder county, of which Steele is the county seat,- 
had by the same report 266.080 acres of vacant gov- 
ernment land, and 26.092 acres under cultivation. 
The crop raised in 1S9S amounted to 115,401 bushels 
of wheat: 29.600 of flax: 23.418 of oats; 10,411 of 
barley : 9,360 of rye ; 2,457 of corn and 5,000 bushels 
of potatoes. 829,142 was the value of the live stock 



sold. The total value of all property was $1,095,- 
167 in 1899. 

Stutsman county had 352,120 acres of govern- 
ment land as yet unoccupied and 149,146 acres under 
cultivation. In 1898 there was raised 1,153,977 
bushels of wheat; 177,677 of flax; 389,951 of oats; 
92,621 of barley; 5,904 of rye; 545 of corn 
and 37,911 of potatoes. The live stock sold 
amounted to $51,655 in value. The assessed valu- 
ation of all real and personal property in this county 
aggregated $4,825,674. Jamestown is the seat of 
justice and county government. 

Logan county had under cultivation 94.994 acres 
of land and 199,320 acres of vacant government 
land. The citizens of this county raised in 1898, 
■wlieat to the extent of 49,962 bushels ; of flax, 13,- 
129; of oats 9,075; of barley, 7,451 ; of rye, 5,200; 
of corn, 2,272; and of potatoes 3,717 bushels. They 
also sold live stock to the amount of $12,672. 
The assessed value of all property in 1899 was $837,- 
•919. Napoleon is the county seat. 

Mcintosh county made a showing of 94,994 acres 
of land under cultivation and 199,320 acres of as yet, 
■unoccupied government land. Of wheat there was 
raised 176,734 bushels; 31,288 of flax; 19,709 of 
■oats; 33,735 of barley; 4,547 of rye; 6,071 of corn 
and 9,600 bushels of potatoes. Live stock to the 
■value of $69,116 was disposed of. The assessed 
value of all real and personal property aggregated 
•$966,355. Ashley is the county seat. 

Ransonj county with 179,688 acres under culti- 
vation, showed as the result of the crop of 1898, the 

following : 964.322 bushels of wheat ; 258,629 of flax ; 
398,153 of oats; 109,042 of barley; 19,873 of rye; 
66,504 of corn and 40,767 bushels of potatoes. Live 
stock to the value of $59,829 was sold. The total 
value of all property in the county as assessed was 
reported as $2,769,371. The seat of county gov- 
ernment is at Lisbon. 

Dickey county had 132,910 acres of land under 
cultivation and harvested in 1898 the following crop : 
Wheat, 527,155 bushels; flax, 64,054; oats, 79,778 
barley, 55,149; rye, 20,345; potatoes, 36,401. The 
value of the live stock sold the same year amounted 
to $41,035. The total assessed valuation of all real 
and personal property in 1899 was $2,638,839. El- 
lendale is the county seat. 

LaAIoure county,with 141,731 acres of land under 
cultivation raised in 1898, 989,806 bushels of wheat; 
252,372 of flax; 245,301 of oats; 126,688 of barley; 
29,171 of rye ; 14,028 of corn ; and 22,343 of potatoes. 
The value of live stock sold was $117,476. The 
assessed value of real and personal property in 1899 
was $2,690,458. LaMoure is the county seat. 

Sargent county had in 1898, land under cultiva- 
tion to the amount of 118,303 acres. The crop of 
that year included 115,671 bushels of flax; 1,064,- 
121 of wheat; 255,535 of oats; 106,045 of barley; 
22,914 of rye; 84,172 of corn and 37,748 bushels of 
potatoes. Live stock to the value of $75,822 was 
sold. The assessed value of the real and personal 
property within the county amounted to $2,201,754 
in 1899. Forman is the county seat. 



CHER. In studying the lives 
and characters of prominent 
men we are naturally led to 
inquire into the secret of their 
success, and the motives that 
have prompted their action. 
Success is oftener a matter of 
experience and sound judgment and thorough prep- 
aration for a life work than it is of genius, however 
bright. When we trace the career of those whom 
the world acknowledges as successful and of those 
who stand highest in public esteem, we find in almost 
every case they are those who have risen gradually 
by their own efforts, their diligence and persever- 
ance. These qualities are undoubtedly possessed in 
a large measure by the gentleman whose name in- 
troduces this sketch, and added to these is a devotion 
to principle that may well be termed the keynote of 
his character. 

Governor Fancher was born in Orleans county, 
New York, April 2, 1852, a son of E. Tillotson and 
Julia A. (Kenyon) Fancher, also natives of that 
state, as was the grandfather, Richard Fancher, 
who spent his entire life there engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits. The father followed farming 
and stock raising in New York until 1867. when 
he removed to Washtenaw county, Michigan, and 
made his home there until going to Washington, 
D. C, in 1880, where he now resides. In his 
family were only two children. 

Governor Fancher was reared on the home farm 
and was educated in the common schools and in 
the State Normal of Michigan. In 187 1 he went 
to Chicago, where he was engaged in fire under- 
writing until coming to North Dakota in 1881. He 
took up a claim in Stutsman county, proved up the 
same and engaged in farming for some time, mak- 
ing a specialty of wheat. He also managed farms 
for other parties. In 1889 he organized the Alli- 
ance Hail Association, of which he was president 

for six years, and was also president of the board 
of trustees of the North Dakota Hospital for the 
Insane for the same length of time. 

In 1874 Governor Fancher married Miss Flor- 
ence S. Van Voorhies, a native of New Jersey, and 
a daughter of John J. Van Voorhies. Socially our 
subject is a prominent Mason and a member of the. 
Mystic Shrine. Politically he has alwa^'s affiliated 
with the Republican party, and has taken a very 
active and prominent part in public affairs, jdoing 
all in his power to insure the success of his party 
and advance its interest. In 1889 he was elected 
to the constitutional convention of North Dakota, 
and made president of the same. In 1892 he was 
nominated for insurance commissioner and was de- 
feated, but in 1894 he was re- nominated and elected 
and re-elected in 1896. Two years later he was 
the nominee of his party for governor and elected to 
that office, which he is now so creditably filling. 
Never were the reins of government in more capa- 
ble hands, for he is a progressive man, pre- 
eminently public-spirited, and all that pertains to 
the public welfare receives his hearty endorse- 

"Father of Grand Forks," is one of the most widely 
known and highly esteemed men who cast their lot 
with North Dakota. He is now a resident of the 
state of Washington, but until recent years was en- 
gaged in navigation throughout the Red river dis- 
trict, and was identified with the financial growth 
of the city of Grand Forks and vicinity. 

Our subject was born at Marietta, Ohio, in Oc- 
tober, 1838, and was a son of William and Esther 
(McGibbon) Griggs. He removed with his par- 
ents to St. Paul, Minnesota, when a boy, and later 
his family removed to Grand Forks, where his par- 
ents died. Our subject was reared and educated 
in St. Paul, and at an early age began running on 



the boats of the ^lississippi river, and at the age of 
twenty years was given command of a boat. He 
continued there until 1870, and then, in company 
with others, went up the Red river to Fargo with 
a view of estabhshing a line of boats, and during 
that year the Hill, Griggs & Company Navigation 
Company was formed. In 1871 Air. Griggs went 
to where Grand Forks is now located, and he en- 
tered a claim to the land on which the old town is 
located, and named the place Grand Forks on 
account of the junction of the two rivers. He con- 
tinued to operate a line of boats between Grand 
Forks and Winnipeg for many years and continued 
in command until 1890. He was always active in 
the upbuilding of the town of Grand Forks, and 
was one of the founders of the Second National 
Bank, of which institution he was president for many 
years. He also acted in the capacity of president 
of the First National Bank of East Grand Forks 
for some years, and established the gas works in 
company with William Budge, and was also a large 
owner in the Grand Forks Roller Mill. He served 
as railroad commissioner for some years, and was 
the third postmaster of Grand Forks and was mayor 
of the city. He assisted in building the two bridges 
across the river, and by his hearty support and in- 
fluence endeared himself to the people as a man of 
active public spirit. In December. 1892, j\lr. Griggs 
left Grand Forks on account of failing health, and 
is now engaged in boating on the Upper Columbia 

Our subject was marriel December 2y, 1865, in 
Minnesota, to Miss Ettie I. Strong, a native of 
Brooklyn. Eight children, seven of whom are now 
living, have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Griggs, 
named as follows : Lois, now Mrs. W. H. Pringle ; 
Ansel; Jennie; Esther; Bruce; James and Clififord. 
The family all reside in the state of Washington at 
present. x\lr. Griggs is an ardent Democrat and is 
a man who keeps pace with the times. 

HENRY R. PORTER, M. D., one of the most 
distinguished and honored citizens of Bismarck, 
North Dakota, and of whom a steel engraving is pre- 
sented on another page, is the only surviving sur- 
geon of the three who were with Custer's regiment 
on the fateful June day, in 1876, when so many gal- 
lant men perished in the never-to-be-forgotten bat- 
tle on the Little Big Horn. He was born in Lee 
Center, Oneida county. New York, February 13, 1848, 
and is a son of Henry N. and Helen (Poison) Por- 
ter, the former also a native of Oneida county, New 
York, the latter of Scotland. The father graduated 
from the Geneva Medical College of New York, and 
for many years was engaged in practice in that state, 
but is now living retired in Washington, D. C. The 
grandfather, Norton Porter, was also a physician 
and surgeon, and died in New York after many 
years of practice. (Jur subject has two sisters who 
are also living in Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Porter, of this review, completed his literary 

education at the seminary in \\'hitestown. New 
York, in 1868, and then commenced the study of 
medicine with his father. In 1869 he entered the 
University of Michigan, where he spent one year, 
and the following year he passed in England and 
Scotland. On his return to this country he en- 
tered the Georgetown University, D. C, and was 
graduated from the medical department of that in- 
stitution in 1872. 

The same year Dr. Porter was appointed an 
acting assistant surgeon in the United States army 
and was assigned to General Crook's command, then 
in Arizona, where he remained for a year and a half, 
during which time he was in seven or eight battles 
with the Apaches. In general orders No. 14, issued 
by General Crook, and dated, Prescott, Arizona, April 
9, 1873, the Doctor is mentioned for gallantry in the 
engagement in Superstition mountains, January 16, 
1873, and again for conspicuous service and gallantry 
in different engagements against the Tonto Apaches 
in February and March, 1873. 

Later during the year Dr. Porter was transferred 
to Bismarck, North Dakota, as post surgeon at Camp 
Hancock with General Custer, remaining with the 
command until after the death of that famous gen- 
eral. The most remarkable fight in the history of 
Indian warfare was the battle fought on the Little 
Big Horn river in Montana, between the command 
of General Custer and the allied forces of all the ren- 
egade Indians in the west under the leadership of 
Chiefs Gall and Sitting Bull, June 25, 1876. It was 
remarkable from the fact that not a single man in 
Custer's command escaped to tell the tale. Of this 
battle Dr. Porter gives the following account : 

"Our expedition left Fort Abraham Lincoln on 
May 17, 1870, under the command of General Terry, 
and proceeded overland. Mrs. Custer accompanied 
her husband on horseback as far as Heart river, a 
distance of several miles, and there bid him an aft'ec- 
tionate farewell, and returned to the garrison. We 
marched in easy stages to Powder river in Montana. 
Nothing of particular note occurred on the march 
except that one day we saw, with field glasses, a lone 
horseman at a distance of several miles. He had 
evidently seen us and was riding toward our com- 
mand. We thought of course that he was an Indian, 
as it did not seem possible that any white man could 
be off in that wilderness, hundreds of miles from 
any habitation, alone. As he came nearer we dis- 
covered that it was none other than Buffalo Bill, the 
noted scout and Indian fighter. He was one of 
General Crook's scouts and was off on an expedition 
of his own. General Crook's command was then in 
the region of the Black Hills, miles away. After 
we had gone into camp at Powder river, Reno was 
ordered out on a scouting expedition. He found a 
wide Indian trail leading in a westerly direction 
toward Rosebud river. Custer was then ordered 
to follow the trail. The Indians had been located 
by General Terry's scouts, and he told Custer to 
strike them on the 26th. Terry was sure that his 
scouts had them well located, and results demon- 

.yf^.(2 (5i& MA)^ 



strated that he was correct. Generals Terry and Gib- 
bon were to go by another route and were to strike 
the Indians in front and Custer was to close in on the 
rear. Custer started from the camp on Powder 
river on the morning of June 24. I was sent with 
him. We were on the trail all that day and night. 
The night was very dark and we lost the trail once, 
but found it again by lighting matches. 

"We proceeded until four o'clock, the morning 
of the 25th, when we camped in a deep ravine where 
the Indians could not see us. We were not allowed 
to unsaddle or unpack. Being very tired after our 
long ride, we laid down and slept, each man holding 
his horse by the bridle reins. In about an hour the 
scouts reported a large camp of Indians ahead. The 
command was ordered to get ready for action. Cus- 
ter ^ame to me and said: 'Porter, there is a large 
canT[) of Indians ahead, and we are going to have a 
great killing.' At six o'clock we started. It was 
Custer's purpose at this time to charge the Indians 
in a body, he supposing that our presenece had not 
been discovered by them. In a short time the scouts 
reported that we had been seen by the Indians. 
Custer then decided to divide the command. He 
sent Colonel Benteen with three companies to the 
left; Major Reno with three companies in the cen- 
ter; and he took three companies and was to go to 
the right, his idea being to surround the Indian 
camp. Captain JNIcDougal was left in charge of the 
pack train. It was about ten o'clock when the com- 
mand was divided. Just as we were ready to start, 
Custer came to me and said : "Doctor, I would like 
to have you go with me, as you are younger and 
more robust and Dr. Lord, the chief surgeon, is not 
feeling very well.' I replied, 'All right. I would 
much prefer going with you.' Custer then said: 
'I will see Dr. Lord and ask him to cons'ent.' We 
rode over to where Dr. Lord was, and Custer spoke 
to him about the contemplated arrangement. The 
Doctor replied : 'Not much. I am going with you.' 
The poor fellow in those few words saved my life 
and sealed his own doom. I went with Reno. We 
had proceeded but a short distance when Captain 
Cook, Custer's adjutant, came up and said: "The 
Indians are right ahead of you, and you are ordered 
to charge them as fast as possible.' 

"We went forward at a lively gait. When we 
came to the river we discovered the Indians were on 
the opposite bank. We forded the river and sud- 
denly came upon ten or fifteen redskins, and they 
were running. We then thought that we had al- 
ready won the fight. We rode some little distance 
toward the Indian camp, when suddenly a swarm of 
red devils rose up and poured a terrific fire into us. 
We dismounted and formed a skirmish line. At 
first there were only a few, comparatively, then more 
and more of the savages appeared, and the ground 
seemed to be fairly alive with them. They were all 
naked and their bodies were painted hideously. 
They all rode tlieir ponies bareback. The fire finally 
became so hot that Reno ordered his men to mount, 
and led them under cover of the woods. Then the 

Indians closed in on us, shooting through the 
branches, killing some of our men. A soldier was 
shot in the little clump of trees where I was. I dis- 
mounted and found him mortally wounded. Reno 
ordered the troops to mount and charge, and a run- 
ning fight ensued. j\ly horse was rearing and 
plunging, and I had all 1 could do to hold him. The 
Indians, in their mad pursuit of our troops, did not 
notice me in the timber. They were passing within 
ten feet of where I was. I placed laudanum on the 
wound of the soldier and bandaged it as best I could, 
and again mounted my frightened horse. As 1 w^as 
leaving the poor soldier said : 'For God's sake. Doc- 
tor, don't leave me to be tortured by those fiends.' 
Bullets were Hying thick and fast, and I turned my 
horse loose and caught up with our troops, who had 
gotten half a mile away. In that half mile ride I 
think I was the target of a thousand rifies, but I 
escaped without a scratch. We again forded the 
river and took a stand on the top of a steep hill. A 
few minutes later Benteen, with his three companies 
came up, as did AIcDougal, with the pack train. 
Benteen, after leaving us when the command was 
divided, had gone west to the river. Not seeing any 
Indians and hearing the firing he rushed back and 
joined us. We fought there the remainder of the 
day, surrounded by three thousand savages, while 
there were only three hundred of us, all told. The 
men dug rifie pits with their knives and tin cups. 
At dark the Indians stopped firing. Some of the 
men then crawled down to the river and secured 
water. W'e had been fighting in the broiling sun 
all day without a drop of water, and the wounded 
were begging for a drink. 1 had some brandy with 
me, but I told them that it would make them w^orse. 
They insisted on having it, anyway. Next morning 
the Indians again opened fire on us. Although 
Reno was ranking officer. Colonel Benteen was 
really in command, and to his coolness and bravery 
those of us who were saved owe our lives. With 
the air thick with bullets and some of them piercing 
his clothing, he stood calmly directing the troops. 
Occasionally a band of savages would dash up to 
within two or three hundred yards of us, and our 
men would then charge them. Several Indians were 
killed in these charges, and finally one of the soldiers 
killed and scalped an Indian in plain view of the 
others. This frightened them and they kept a safe 
distance away after that. A perfect storm of leaden 
hail was poured in on us all day the 26th until about 
four o'clock in the afternoon, when the firing grad- 
ually ceased. We were then frightened, as we 
thought the Indians were up to some bloodier mis- 
chief. Finally we saw them moving off in a body. 
That night most of the soldiers slept, and were much 
refreshed in the morning. After the Indians left 
we were able to procure water. We had all been 
nearly famished. During the morning of the 27th 
General Terry and his command came up. He and 
his staff' were all crying, and General Terry said : 
'Custer and his whole command are killed. We 
thought you were, too.' 



"During the two days we were surrounded by 
the Indians the inquiry among our men for Custer 
was loud, and that General's court-martial was freely 
speculated upon. After separating from us Custer 
had gone through a rough country for a distance 
of four or five miles and attacked the Indians in the 
rear. As soon as we could, several of the officers 
and myself went over to where Custer had fought, 
and found what General Terry had reported to be 
only too true. We found Custer's body stark naked, 
as white and clean as a baby's. He was shot in the 
head and breast. The body of Captain Tom Custer, 
General Custer's brother, was horribly mutilated. 
He was disemboweled, and his head had been crushed 
in by a blow from a stone hammer used by the In- 
dians. The only arrow wound I founa was in his 
head. He had the Sioux mark of death, which was 
a cut from the hip to the knee, reaching to the bone. 
His heart was not cut out, as has been reported by 
Rain-in-the-face, one of the Sioux chiefs who took 
part in the fight. I cut a lock of hair from the head 
of each officer as he lay, and gave it to their families 
on my return home. The steamer Far West was 
moored at the mouth of the Little Big Horn. She 
■was the supply boat of the expedition, and had made 
her way up the Big Horn farther than any other 
boat. After burying the dead we took the wounded 
on litters ten or twelve miles to the boat, and I was 
detailed to go down to Fort Lincoln with them. 
Colonel Smith, Terry's adjutant general, was sent 
along with the official dispatches, and he had a trav- 
eling bag full of telegrams for the Bismarck office. 
Captain Grant Marsch, of Bismarck, was in com- 
mand of the "Far West," and the steamer performed 
a feat unequaled in western steamboating. Alarsch 
put everything in the most complete order and took 
a large supply of fuel. His orders were to reach 
Bismarck as soon as possible. The steamer never 
received the credit due her, nor did her gallant cap- 
tain. The Big Horn is full of islands, and a suc- 
cessful passage is not an easy feat, but the boat made 
it without an accident, after a thrilling voyage. At 
Fort Buford and F"ort Stevenson we stopped a 
minute to tell the news, and at Fort Berthold a 
wounded scout was put off. Two of the wounded 
died, and we went ashore to bury them. We ap- 
proached home with something of that feeling that 
always moves the human heart. It was one mixed 
with sorrow and gladness. At eleven o'clock on the 
night of the 5th of July we reached Bismarck and 
Fort Lincoln, having made one thousand miles in 
fifty-four hours. Colonel Smith and myself hurried 
from the land up town, and called up Colonel Louns- 
berry, the editor of the "Tribune," and the telegraph 
operator, J. M. Carnahan, who took his seat at the 
key and scarcely raised himself from his chair for 
twenty-two hours. What he sent vibrating around 
the world is history." 

One of the officers in Reno's command has the 
following to say of Dr. Porter's services during the 
memorable fight on Reno's Hill: "The afternoon 
of the 25th, all night, throughout the 26th, the night 

of that date, and until the forenoon of the 27th, Dr. 
Porter worked as few men are ever called upon to 
work. He had no idea that he would get out alive, 
and believed every man around him was doomed. 
Still he was the same cool and skillful surgeon that 
he is today. He had a duty to perform that seldom 
falls to a man of twenty-six, and yet he performed it 
nobly. He was surrounded by the dead, dying and 
wounded. J\Ien were crying for water, for help, for 
relief, for life. For twenty-four hours there was 
no water. The sun was blazing hot. The dead 
horses were sickening, the air hea\-y with a hundred 
smells, the bullets thick, the men falling, and bluffs 
for miles around black with the jubilant savages. 
The work of the others was not like Porter's. He 
must know no fear, no trembling, no rest. He had 
every agonizing sight before his eyes. The af^ter- 
noon of the 26th, when the Indians ceased their firing 
and began to move oft', there were around Porter on 
the ground fifty dead and fifty wounded. One in 
every three was either killed or maimed. I know 
little of hospital history, but I doubt if there is much 
that overshadows Porter's experience upon the bluff 
overlooking the Little Big Horn. It I had the 
genius of a Buchanan Reed, 1 would weave it into 
a song more heroic than "Sheridan's Ride.' 

Colonel Benteen said to him : "I know of no 
doctor in the regular corps who would have per- 
formed the work which Dr. Porter did, with his small 
force of assistants ; don't think there was or is one 
in the army. There was no nonsense, no gush about 
him, only just a strict attention to duty, and as mod- 
est about it as a girl in her teens." 

Dr. Porter's military service terminated in 1887, 
but at the opening of the war between Spain and this 
country he made the offer to present ?50,ooo to the 
government and either join the army as surgeon or 
serve in the ranks, which fact shows that the patri- 
otic fire which once burned fervently within him has 
not yet died out. After leaving the service he engaged 
in the practice of his profession at Bismarck for some 
time, and for a year or so visited Washington, D. C, 
after a tour of the world in 1893-4. But there was 
a fascination for him in the scenes in which a stir- 
ring part of his career had been laid, and he returned 
to Bismarck, where he now resides. 

In 1877 Dr. Porter was united in marriage with 
Miss Lottie Viets, of Oberlin, Ohio, a daughter of 
Henry \'iets. She died in 1888, leaving one child, 
Henry \'. In his political views the Doctor is a 
Republican, but takes no active part in party affairs. 
Socially he is a Mason of high degree. He has been 
president of the Medical Society of North Dakota; 
superintendent of the board of health of Burleigh 
county; vice-president of the board of examining 
surgeons for L^nited States pensions at that point; 
and is now a member of the council of the Associa- 
tion of Acting Assistant Surgeons of the United 
States armv, and vice-president of the Society of 
\'eterans of the Indian Wars. He is a pleasant, 
genial and polished gentleman, of high social qual- 
ities and is very popular, having a most extensive 



circle of acquaintances who esteem him highly for 
his genuine worth. He has met with excellent suc- 
cess in life, becoming quite wealthy, and has trav- 
eled extensively, visiting all of Europe and a good 
part of Asia and Africa during the years of 1893 and 
1894. He has climbed the Alps in Switzerland, and 
the Pyramids of Egypt. He rode a camel over the 
Nubian desert, and shot the cataracts of the Nile. 
He saw the Pope in Rome, the Sultan in Constanti- 
nople, witnessed bull fights in Spain, and the gam- 
bling tables of Monte Carlo. A month of sight- 
seeing in Paris gave him a pretty good insight into 
the mysteries of the gayest city in the world. Over 
a month in Rome, he had time to study art and ruins 
to a limited extent, but where a life time could be 
spent profitably exploring the wonders and mys- 
teries of the Eternal city. After visiting Cairo 
ami the two oldest cities in the world, Mem- 
phis and Thebes, he sailed from Alexandria to Joppa, 
then by rail to Jerusalem, and on horseback to Jericho, 
the Dead sea, and the river Jordan. He visited 
Bethlehem and saw the place where Christ was born, 
the Garden of Gethsemane, up the Mount of Olives, 
and through the valley of Jehosophat. His trip 
through Palestine and Syria was made on horseback, 
camping at each place until everything had been 
seen. He camped, slept and lunched at Samaria, 
the plains of Jezreel, where Saul conquered the Phil- 
istines ; also on the shore of the sea of Galilee, 
Nazareth, Capernaum and Damascus. He visited 
Cypres, Rhodes and Turkey, where he saw the sul- 
tan going to prayers, and a review of ten thousand 
Turkish troops. He spent a week in Greece and 
Athens, returning again to Naples and Rome, thence 
through Spain, sailing from Gibraltar for home. 

HON. JOSEPH M. DEVINE, lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of North Dakota, was born in \\'heeling. West 
Virginia, March 15, 1861, a son of Hugh E. and 
Jane (McMurray) Devine, the former a native of 
Ireland, the latter of \Trginia. His father was edu- 
cated in Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, and became 
a professor of botany. In 1830 he came 10 the United 
States with his parents and settled in Virginia. 
His death occurred at Wheeling in 1885. In his 
family were five sons, two of whom are now resi- 
dents of North Dakota. 

In West Virginia Joseph M. Devine grew to 
manhood, and was educated in the common and 
Iiigh schools of the city of W'heeling and afterward 
graduated in the classical course at the State Uni- 
versity. The following year he came to North 
Dakota and located in La Moure county, where he 
followed farming for one year and still owns land, 
to the cultivation and improvement of which he yet 
devotes a part of his time and attention. 

In 1886 he was elected county superintendent 
of schools, and most acceptably filled that office for 
ten years. Pie was made state lecturer for the 
schools of North Dakota in 1890 and still fills that 
position. He was made chief clerk of the fourth 

session of the legislature ; in 1896 was elected lieu- 
tenant-governor and re-elected in 1898. tie filled 
the office of governor from April, 1898, to Jan- 
uary I, 1899, after the death of Governor Briggs. 
His various official duties have been discharged in 
a most commendable and satisfactory manner and 
have gained for him the confidence and respect 
of all. 

In 1896 he was elected one of the delegates 
to the republican national convention held at St. 
Louis, and was made one of the vice-presidents 
of that convention ; also appointed one of the com- 
mittee to notify the president of the action of the 

In 1897 he was made vice-president of the Na- 
tional Sound-Money League, which position is 
still held. In this capacity he has written several 
articles upon finance, which were published and 
copied extensively in eastern papers. 

His work in behalf of education in North Da- 
kota has been potent and far reaching. IMuch of 
the state's general system of education is due to 
his untiring efiforts. In his capacity of state lec- 
turer he has delivered many addresses on educa- 
tional, literary and historical subjects, which have 
been received everywhere with popular approval 
and have been extensively commented upon, both 
in this state and others. 

Since casting his first presidential ballot he has 
been an ardent supporter of the men and measures 
of the Republican party. At the age of twenty- 
two he left North Dakota and, at the special re- 
quest of the Republican state executive commit- 
tee, stumped his native state in the interests of the 
presidential campaign of that year. As a cam- 
paign speaker he is among the best in the west; 
his style been unusually clear, forceful and eloquent ; 
his arguments always comprehensive and yet com- 
pact. Truth, passion, conviction and good judg- 
ment are the qualities that have made his public 
utterances powerful and effective. He believes 
what he says and his heart is always in his words. 
As a lecturer on literary and historical subjects he 
is always in demand, and. perhaps, in this field ap- 
pears at his best. Instructive, interesting and en- 
tertaining, with a richness of illustration unsur- 
passed, and with a knowledge of the subject matter 
always full and complete and that evidences the hard 
student that he is. 

Socially Mr. Devine is a thirty-second-degree 
Mason, a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. 

HON. PORTER J. McCUMBER is one of the 
most distinguished and honored citizens of ^^'ahpe- 
ton and is now serving as United States senator 
from North Dakota. He is a prominent lawyer 
and belongs to that class whose ability and charac- 
ter are making a deep impression upon the public 
life of this rapidly developing community in which 
he resides. In this broad state, with its abundant 



room for individual enterprise, with its hearty 
appreciation of personal worth and its splendid 
opportunities for individual achievement, tlie man 
of ability finds the very largest sphere for useful- 
ness and gratification for personal ambition. His 
abilities will be discovered ; his integrity will find 
appreciation ; his public spirit will meet with recog- 
nition, and he will be forced into prominence. Sen- 
ator McCumber is an illustration of this fact. 

He was born in Crete, \\'ill county, Illinois, 
February 3, 1856, and spent his boyhood upon a 
farm near Rochester, Minnesota. After attending 
the district schools for some time, he entered the 
high school of that city, where he completed his 
literary education. He then taught school for a 
few years, and while thus employed took up the 
study of law. He graduated from the law depart- 
ment of the University of Alichigan in 1880, and 
the following year opened an office at Wahpeton, 
North Dakota, where he has since successfully en- 
gaged in practice. In January, 1882, he formed 
a partnership with B. L. Bogart, and under the 
firm name of ^IcCumber & Bogart they are still 
carrying on business. 

On the 29th of May, 1889, at Wahpeton, :\Ir. ]\Ic- 
Cumber was united in marriage with Miss Jennie 
Scheming, a native of Alinnesota, and to them have 
been born two children, Helen and Donald. So- 
cially Mr. AlcCumber is a member of Wahpeton 
Lodge, Xo. 56, F. & A. M., and politically is a 
stanch Republican. While in the line of his profes- 
sion he has won distinction and success, he has al- 
ways been ready to respond to any call for public 
duty, for years working on political lines for the 
advancement of the interests of the city, state and 
country. In 1884 he was elected to the lower 
house of the territorial legislature, and after serv- 
ing in that body for one term was elected to the 
upper house in 1886 for the same length of time. 
He also filled the office of state's attorney for Rich- 
land county for one term, and in the winter of 1899 
was chosen United States senator for a term of six 
years. With the broad spirit of Americanism shap- 
ing his views and prompting his actions, he has 
won the respect of all classes and the confidence of 
the great public. Men with minds that are as alert 
and broad as his, are never narrow ; and men who, 
like him, view public questions, the social organiza- 
tion, politics and all the relations of life compre- 
hensively and philosophically are magnificent sup- 
porters of the best interests of humanitv. 

JUDGE NEWTOX C. YOUNG is a prominent 
and successful lawyer who is now serving as asso- 
ciate judge, and is the youngest jurist ever on the 
supreme bench in Xorth'Dakota. On his admission 
to the bar he located in Bathgate, this state, and it 
was not long before his abilities became widely rec- 
ognized and he built up an excellent practice, which 
he continued to enjoy until appointed to his present 
responsible position. He is now living in Fargo. 

Judge Young was born in Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, 
January 28, 1802, and is a son of Charles S. and 
Joanna E. (^ Williams j Young, both natives of Ohio. 
Ihe father, who has followed farming throughout 
life, removed from Fulton county, Ohio, to Mt. 
Pleasant, Iowa, in 1849, ^nd is now a resident of 
Fremont county, Iowa. The grandfather, William 
Young, was a native of Belfast, Ireland, and emi- 
grated to America in 1810, locating in Pennsylvania. 
He, too, was a farmer. 

During his boyhood and youth Judge Young was 
provided with excellent educational advantages. 
After attending the schools of Tabor, Iowa, he en- 
tered the Iowa City Academy from which he was 
graduated in 1882. He graduated from the Iowa 
State University in 1886, and from the law depart- 
ment of that institution in 1887. In June of that 
latter year, he opened an office in Bathgate, North 
Dakota, where was actively engaged in practice until 
appointed to fill the unexpired term of Judge G. C. 
Corless, on the supreme bench in 1898. This ap- 
pointment was followed by his election in November, 
1898, for a full term. Prior to this time he had filled 
son.e local positions, and was state's attorney of Pem- 
bina county from 1892 until 1896. 

In 1887 Judge Young married Miss Ida B. 
Clarke, a native of Iowa City, and also a graduate 
of the State University located at that place. Her 
parents were Charles F. and Julia B. Clarke. Our 
subject and his wife have three children: Laura B., 
Horace C. and Dorothea P. 

Fraternally the Judge is a member of the JMasonic 
order, the Knights of Pythias and the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. Politically he is an ardent 
Republican and has served on the county and state 
committees. He is a genial, courteous gentleman, 
a pleasant, entertaining companion, and has many 
stanch and admiring friends among all classes. As 
an energetic, upright and conscientious lawyer and 
a gentleman of attractive social qualities, he stands 
high in the esteem of all who know him. 

HON. GEORGE B. WIXSHIP, founder and 
publisher of "The Herald," the leading daily paper 
west of the Twin cities, is one of the prominent men of 
North Dakota. He has devoted his attention to the 
growth and success of the "Herald," and after over 
twenty years of earnest labor has met with the suc- 
cess he so well deserves, and may well be proud of 
the results of his effort. Aside from his work in 
connection with the "Herald," he has found time to 
labor for the advancement and development of the 
social and financial resources of North Dakota, and 
is one of the well-known public-spirited men in the 
'state. A portrait of Mr. Winship will be found 
in connection with this sketch. 

Our subject was born in Saco. Maine, September 
28, 1847, and emigrated to LaCrosse, Wisconsin, 
with his parents in 1851, and to LaCrescent, Hous- 
ton county, Minnesota, six years later. He at- 
tended the district school until thirteen years of age,. 

ilj^:^ ^_, L^ 1^ ■ 

^^^ /T^iJodJ^ 



and then spent three years sanding brick molds, and 
setting type in the local printing otTfice. He offered 
himself as a soldier for the Civil war in i8(52, and 
was rejected on account of his youth, but in 1863 
he was accepted and became a member of the Second 
Minnesota Cavalry, in which he served till the close 
of the war. He was then engaged at various em- 
ployments, and in 1867 started to the Idaho gold 
lields with Captain Davy's expedition, but part of 
the outfit failetl to arrive at Fort Abercromb.e, and 
our subject, with others, declined to go on account 
of danger from hostile Indians, and he then spent a 
year driving a freight team from the end of tlie rail- 
road at St. Cloud to the various posts for the gov- 
•ernment, and in the spring of 1868 he engaged with 
Dr. Schultz, of Winnipeg, (who later became lieu- 
tenant-governor of the province), and the work of 
our subject was on the "Norwester," then the only 
paper published north of St. Cloud. He remained 
there about two years and then went to Pembina 
and spent a yeSr in the employ of A. W. Stiles, post 
trader. There he met William Budge, and in 1871, 
when the Blakeley & Carpenter line of stages from 
Breckenridge to Winnipeg was started, the two men 
formed a partnership, and established a stage station 
at Turtle river, fourteen miles north of Grand Forks, 
where Manvel is now located. They built rough 
stables for the accommodation of stage and other 
horses, and a rough log house furnished shelter for 
guests, and thus business prospered at Turtle river 
station. In 1873 Mr. Winship sold his interests 
to Budge and Eshelman, and went to St. Paul, 
where he stayed three years, setting type on all the 
prominent papers then established in the city. He 
:noved to Caledonia, Minnesota, in the spring of 
1877, and established the weekly "Courier," which 
he operated two years with success, and in 1879 he 
moved his plant to Grand. Forks, North Dakota, 
and established the "Herald," and has remained here 
continuously since that date. 

Our subject has taken an active interest in pub- 
lic atTairs, and has served as state senator, to which 
position he was elected in 1889, being the first state 
senator from the seventh district, and gave his best 
energies for the interests of his community. In 
politics he is an ardent Republican, and the policy 
of the "Herald" has always been for the advance- 
ment of the principles of that party. Mr. Win- 
ship was married, in 1874. to r^Iiss Mary J. Min- 
shall, of La Crescent, Ivlinnesota. Mr. and Mrs. 
Winship have one daughter iiow, Mrs. F. W. Weego, 
of Grand Forks. He is a member of the G. A. R. 
and IMasonic fraternitv. 

deceased. That which records in perpetuity the 
names and the memory of great men, and secures 
to history the deeds that shape the course and policy 
of a state or nation, is a treasure valued by all 
who stand for purity and high attainments in the 
public service. A life history of the late Judge 

Thomas will add luster to the brightest pages of the 
annals of the Dakotas, where the last twenty-three 
years of his life were spent, Fargo being his home 
from 1878 up to the time of his death, in 1896. 

Judge Thomas was born in Walworth county, 
Wisconsin, August 11, 1837. His parents were 
Salmon and Elizabeth (Stowell) Thomas, both 
native of New York, and his grandfather, George 
Thomas, was born in Connecticut. Judge Thomas 
had two sisters and one brother — the two sisters 
are now living. In New York Salmon Thomas 
was a large land-owner, and in 1835 removed to 
Walworth county, Wisconsin, where his integrity 
and personal worth soon brought him into promi- 
nence. He served in the legislature of that state 
in 1847 ^"tl 1848, and was recognized as one of the 
leading public men of the state. He died in Wal- 
worth county September 2j, 1887. and his wife died 
June 27, 1896. 

Alfred D. Thomas grew to manhood in his 
native state, and received an unusuall\- good pri- 
mary education. He graduated from the Brown 
University, Providence, Rhode Island, in the class 
of ibOi, and was soon after elected district attorney 
of his home county of Walworth, Wisconsin, serv- 
ing for six years.. He began the study of law with 
the Hon. Alanson H. Barnes, of Delavan, Wiscon- 
sin, and finished his preliminary studies in the office 
of Butler & Cottrell, of Milwaukee. He devoted his 
entire attention to his profession as a lawyer, and be- 
ing a great student, he continued after h.s gradua- 
tion to pursue a course of self-education, and thus 
to equip his mind with these powers which after- 
ward asserted themselves so effectively in the high 
duties he was called upon to discharge. 

In February, 1877, Judge Thomas visited Da- 
kota, intending to locate at Fargo, but accom])any- 
ing Judge Barnes and other friends to the Black 
Hills, he there met Senator Hearst, who formed so 
favorable an impression of his acquirements and 
natural gifts that he offered him the position of 
regular attorney for the Homestake and other min- 
ing companies of California in which the Senator 
was interested. In this capacity he was associated 
with, or pitted against, such men as Colonel Harry 
Thornton, of San Francisco ; Judge W. H. Clagett, 
of Idaho: Judge William Fullerton. of New York; 
Judge William C. Kingsley, of Denver, and Judge 
Bennett, of Salt Lake City, and during the five 
vears of his professional services to these companies 
he proved himself at least the peer of these bril- 
liant lights of the profession in the west. In 1883 
he returned to Fargo and entered the practice of 
his profession there, but his fame as a lawyer and a 
man of integrity had reached far bepond the borders 
of his state, and in 1889 President Harrison ap- 
pointed him United States district judge for the 
district of North Dakota. His known ability and 
peculiar fitness to deal with the judicial questions 
and conditions of the west added greatly to his 
labors, and he was called to preside in the federal 
courts at St. Paul, Topeka, Kansas City, Little 


Rock. Denver and various other points. His zeal 
for the service of his country was only equalled by 
his capacity to perform the duties of his high sta- 

Judge Thomas was a man of a genial nature, 
and his popularity was not a matter of wonder. His 
warm-hearted manner, combined with high attain- 
ments and force of character, won him friends and 
admirers wherever he went. While performing 
the stern duties of a federal judge, he was still a 
man of genuine sympathy, and while upholding the 
solemn dignity of the law, mercy was ever made a 
substitute for severity where the latter quality was 
not absolutely essential in the administration of jus- 
tice. In his private life none could be purer, more 
sympathetic, more lovable ; and in his face were 
registered the kindly, generous thoughts that sprang 
from tlie heart of a noble man. This narrative is 
for all to read, but in its lines, as in the features 
of his sympathetic face, only those of the little cir- 
cle encompassed by his best love can read the inex- 
pressible depths and truths of his life story. His 
death occurred August 8, 1896, within three days 
of his fifty-ninth birthday, surrounded by his fam- 
ily and friends, at his home in Fargo. His remains 
were taken back to his old home, Delavan, Wis- 
consin, where they rest in Spring Grove cemetery. 

Judge Thomas' domestic life was a particularly 
happy one. He was married to Miss Fannie E. 
Barnes, daughter of A. H. Barnes, who was for 
eight years associate judge of the territory of Da- 
kota. The marriage ceremony took place at Dela- 
van, Wisconsin, in October, 1864. Mrs. Thomas 
died November 5, 1898, in Fargo, where their two 
daughters. Mrs. Lulu Thomas Wear and Mrs. Dr. 
C. E. Wheeler, reside. Their only son, Alfred B., 
Thomas, is a resident of Duluth, Minnesota. 

HON. ELMER D. WALLACE, one of the 
most prominent men of Steele county, conducts an 
extensive agricultural business in Edendale town- 
ship, and makes his home on section seven. There 
is probably no other man in that region who. takes 
a more active interest in public affairs than Air. 
Wallace, and he has served his county and state 
faithfully and well in various official positions ancl 
has gained the confidence and esteem of his fel- 
low men. 

Our subject was born in Macomb county, 
Michigan, July 5. 1844, and was the oldest son and 
second child in a familv of four children born to 
Robert H. and Sylvia ' ( Steward ) Wallace. The 
family is of Scotch origin. When our subject was 
eight years of age the family removed to Detroit, 
where the father engaged in the general merchan- 
dise business. 

Mr. Wallace was educated in tlie Detroit ptib- 
lic and high schools, and at the age of fourteen 
years he was apprenticed to the druggist's 'trade. 
He entered the service of the Union armv as a pri- 
vate August 13, 1862, and was soon 'afterward 

placed on the non-commissioned staff' as hospital 
steward of the regiment, in which capacity, and as 
brigade hospital steward, he served about two years, 
when he was commissioned first lieutenant. After 
his return from the war he engaged for a time in 
the drug business, and later in the produce busi- 
ness, and in the spring of 1881 went to Dakota 
and secured land near his present home. He now 
operates a farm of one thousand eight hundred 
acres, and it is one of the best tracts in the county. 
Our subject was married in 1871 to Miss Annie 
L. Briggs, a native of Michigan. 'Two children were 
born to ^Ir. and Mrs. Wallace, as follows : Fannie 
and Clara. The latter is, at the date of this sketch, 
a student of the North Dakota University at Grand 
Forks. Mr. Wallace was elected a delegate to the 
constitutional convention for North Dakota in 1889, 
and took an active part in forming the constitution 
of the state. He served as chairman of the com- 
mittee on public debts and public works, and as such 
was instrumenta in fixing a low limit to the state 
debt, thus saving, as he thinks, millions of dollars 
to the people of the state. He was approved as can- 
didate on the fusion ticket in 1892 for lieutenant- 
governor, and was elected by a large majority, and 
as president of the senate won the respect and confi- 
dence of his constituents. He supports the inde- 
pendent party in politics, and believes prohibition 
to be the proper policy for North Dakota. 

States district judge for the district of North Da- 
kota, and a leading attorney of Fargo, was born in 
Clymer, Chautauqua county, New York, August 17, 
1856, a son of John S. and Charlotte A. (Curtis) 
Amidon, also natives of New York. The grand- 
father, Leonard Amidon, was one of the first set- 
tlers of Chautauqua county, having located there in 
1820. He followed the occupation of farming 
throughout life. The father was a L^nited Brethren 
minister, who had charge of churches in both New 
York and Pennsylvania. He was a strong anti- 
slavery man, and before the Civil war assisted many 
a poor negro on his way to Canada and freedom, 
his home being a station on the famous underground 
railroad. He cast the first vote for the Free Soil 
party in Chautauqua county. He died in New York, 
October 2, 1898, but the mother is still living. They 
were the parents of eight children, four sons and 
four daugliters, of whom the oldest son served for 
four and a half years in a New York regiment dur- 
ing the Rebellion. 

Judge Amidon was educated in New York. He 
prepared for college at the Corry high school, and 
in 1878 entered Hamilton College, Clinton, New 
York, from which he was graduated in June, 1882. 
The following August he came to Fargo, North 
Dakota, and for a year was principal of the high 
school at this place. He then entered the law office 
of Thomas & Eienton, as a student, and in 1886 was 
admitted to the bar. In January, 1887, he began 



practice as a member of the firm of Amidon & 
Bradley, which partnership existed until i88y, when 
the firm became Benton, Amidon & Bradley. Sub- 
sequently it was Benton & Amidon until i8y6, when 
our subject was appointed judge to succeed Judge 
A. D. Thomas, deceased. He was appointed city 
attorney in 1890, and held that office for two terms, 
and in 1893 was appointed a member of the commis- 
sion to revise the codes, the present codes being the 
result of their work. 

In 1892 Judge Amidon led to the marriage altar 
Miss Beulah R. McHenry, of Fargo, and to them 
have been born three children : Beulah E., Charles 
C. and John M. The Judge is a member of the 
Unitarian society of Fargo, and is what may be 
termed a gold Democrat. Before his appointment 
as judge, he took an active interest in political 
affairs, and delivered many addresses throughout 
the county and state in the interest of his party. 
The place he won in the legal profession is accorded 
him in recognition of his skill and ability, and the 
place he occupies in the social world is a tribute to 
that genuine worth and true nobleness of charac- 
ter which are universally recognized and honored. 

WILLIAM BUDGE, the efficient postmaster of 
Grand Forks, North Dakota, is a pioneer settler of 
that region. He was born in the north of Scotland, 
October 11, 1852. 

The parents of oursubject, John and Jean (Budge) 
Budge, were natives of Scotland, and the father was 
a farmer and died in Scotland and the mother after- 
ward emigrated to America, and died in this country. 

Our subject remained in his native place until he 
was sixteen years of age, and in i86g came to North- 
west territory, with the Hudson's Bay Company, 
and was employed by that company one year in the 
Northwest territory. He went to Pembina, North 
Dakota, in 1870. and began work for W. C. Nash, 
in the brick yard and after the summer" went to 
Turtle river, and there built a station for the stage 
company with George Winship, a sketch of whom 
appears elsewhere. They operated the place three 
seasons, and in 1874 he went to Grand Forks, and 
has since made his home in that city. He went to 
the Black Hills in 1876. and was engaged in freight- 
ing from Bismarck, and was thus engaged two years. 
He started a store at Kelly's Point, and conducted 
the same for some time, and then returned to Grand 
Forks and engaged in the real estate business. He 
was chairman of the county board in 1875, and' in 
1880 was appointed sheriff and resigned after six 
months' service in that capacity. He has served as 
a member of the board of trustees of the State Uni- 
versitv, and was appointed postmaster at Grand 
Forks' in July, 1898. He also conducts a grain and 
commission business in Grand Forks and is well-to- 
do. He was one of the directors of the Citizens' 
National Bank, and was president of the same for 
some time. He was also once interested in the First 
National Bank. 

Our subject was married in 1890 to Miss Min- 
nie Grow, a native of New York. Two children 
have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Budge, who bear 
the names of Alexander and Jean. He was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention, and holds mem- 
bership in the Masonic fraternity. Knights of Py- 
thias and Elks. He is a stanch Republican pulit- 

the last half of the present century the lawyer has 
been a pre-eminent factor in all affairs of private 
concern and national importance. He has been de- 
pended upon to conserve the best and permanent 
interests of the whole people and is a recognized 
power in all the avenues of life. He stands as the 
protector of the rights and liberties of his fellow- 
men, and is the representative of a profession whose 
followers, if they would gain honor, fame and suc- 
cess, must be men of merit and ability. Such a one 
is Judge Bartholomew, who occupies the supreme 
bench of North Dakota, winning high commendation 
by his fair and impartial administration of justice 

He was born in the village of Clarksville, ]\Ic- 
Lean county, Illinois, June 17, 1843, a son of George 
M. and Catherine (Heffner) Bartholomew, natives 
of Indiana and Virginia, respectively. The mater- 
nal grandfather, Michael Heffner, was a planter of 
the Old Dominion. Major-General Joseph Barthol- 
omew, the paternal grandfather, was born in New 
Jersey, March 15, 1766, but was only two years old 
when with the family he removed to Laurel Hill, 
Pennsylvania, where his father soon died. His 
mother afterward married again, and as his step- 
father was unkind to the children, he soon left home 
to make his own way in the world. As soon as he 
was able to carry a rifle he enlisted in the Revolution- 
ary army and assisted in driving back the marauding 
Indians and breaking up Tory camps. After the 
close of the war he joined General Wayne's forces 
in his campaign against the northwest Indians. In 
1790 he married Christiana Pickenpaugh. by whom 
he had ten children. He became a pioneer of Mc- 
Lean county, Illinois, and was in many engagements 
with the Indians in early days. He died in Money 
Creek township, McLean county, November 2. 1840. 
The father of Judge Bartholomew was educated for a 
civil engineer, but on account of failing health took 
up the occupation of farming. In 1830 he removed 
from Indiana to Illinois, and in 1845 became a res- 
ident of Lodi, Columbia county, Wisconsin. There 
he died in 1884, and his wife in 1890, honored and 
respected by all who knew him. In their family 
were eight children, three sons and five daughters, 
but our subject is the only one of the family now 
living in North Dakota. 

Judge Bartholomew obtained his early education 
in the common schools of Wisconsin, and later at- 
tended the State L'niversity. During the Civil war 
he enlisted in August, 1862. in Company H, Twenty- 
third Wisconsin \'olunteer Infantry, and in March, 



1865, was transferred to Company I, Forty-ninth 
Regiment of Wisconsin \'oIunteers. He participated 
in die battles of Chickasaw Bayou and Arkansas 
Post ; the engagements around \'icksburg and the 
siege of that city, and the siege of Jackson, }ilissis- 
sipi. Subsequently his command was transferred 
to the department of the Gulf and he was under 
General Banks in the Red river campaign, where the 
regiment suffered badly. He aided in capturing the 
forts at the mouth of Mobile bay, and from that time 
until mustered out was on duty in Missouri and St. 
Louis. Fortunately the Judge was never wounded 
nor taken prisoner and only lost ten days from ill- 
ness during his entire service. He was mustered 
out as first lieutenant of his companv, November 14, 

Returning to his home in Wisconsin, Judge Bar- 
tholomew commenced the study of law under Senator 
Allison, of Iowa, and was admitted to the bar in 
1869, after which he engaged in practice at Lodi, 
Wisconsin, for four years. From there he went to 
Red Oak. Iowa, where he resided for eight years, 
and in 1883, came to Dakota territory, locating in 
LaMoure, LaMoure county, where he was success- 
fully engaged in the practice of law until elected 
chief justice in 1889, being one of the first three 
members elected. He also served as state's attorney 
in LaMoure county in 1887. 

In 1878 Judge Bartholomew was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Mary S. Harrington, a native of 
Loudoun county, Virginia, and a daughter of Sam- 
uel C. and Laura (Phelps) Harrington, and by this 
union one daughter has been born. Fredonia. So- 
ciallv the Judge is a thirty-second-degree Mason, 
and a prominent member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. He has always affiliated with the Re- 
publican party and has taken a most influential and 
active part in public affairs. He assisted in organiz- 
ing the state, and has become one of its leading and 
distinguished men, holding a high position in the 
hearts of the people. He is widely known and has 
been very successful. With a thorough and com- 
prehensive knowledge of the fundamental principles 
of law, he combines a familiarity with statutory law 
and a sober, clear judgment, which makes him not 
only a formidable adversary in legal combat, but 
has given him the distinction of being one of the 
ablest jurists of the state. 

after years of long and honorable labor in some field 
of business, a man puts aside all cares to spend his 
remaining years in the enjoyment of the fruits of 
his former toil, it is certainly a well-deserved re- 
ward of his industry. 

" How blest is he who crowns in shades like these 
A youth of labor with an age of ease." 

wrote the poet, and the world everywhere recog- 
nizes the justice of a season of rest following an 
'active period of business life. Judge Hudson is 

now living retired at his home in Fargo, North 
Dakota, and his history is one that shows the ac- 
complishment of well-directed labor. A portrait 
of Judge Hudson is presented in connection with 
this" sketch. 

The Judge was born in Oxford. ^^lassachusetts, 
May 16, 1817, and is a son of Amos and Mary 
(Fisk) Hudson, also natives of that state, where 
the father was engaged in the manufacture of cot- 
ton goods and in merchandising in early life. In 
1828 he removed to EUisburg, Jefi'erson county, 
New York, where he died ten years later. He had 
a family of nine children, seven sons and two 
daughters, but only three sons are now living. The 
grandfather, William Hudson, was born in Massa- 
chusetts, in 1 75 1, and as a lieutenant in the Colonial 
army took an active part in some of the most im- 
portant battles of the Revolutionary war. 

Judge Hudson's early education, acquired in the 
common schools, was supplemented by a course at 
Union Academy, Belleville, Jefferson county. New 
York, and in 1846 he commenced the study of law 
in that county, being admitted to the bar at Utica, 
New York, in 1848. The same year he removed 
to Janesville, Wisconsin, in company with John R. 
Bennett, later a circuit judge of that state, and there 
he successfully engaged in practice for thirty-two 
years, acting as city attorney for some time. In 
1881 he came to Fargo, North Dakota, as judge of 
the third judicial district, having United States 
jurisdiction, comprising the entire territory now 
composing North Dakota. He was appointed to 
that position by President Garfield, and most cred- 
itably filled the office for four years. He then en- 
gaged in private practice until 1892, since which 
time he has lived retired. He was a distinguished 
lawyer and jurist and enjoyed an excellent practice. 

In October, 1847, J"dge Hudson married Aliss 
Sarah D. Campfield, a native of New York and 
daughter of John M. and Fanny (Harvey) Camp- 
field, by whom he had five children, who are still liv- 
ing, namely : Francis L. ; Theodore C, a clergy- 
man in the Episcopal church ; Harriet J. ; Sanford 
H., an attorney in Benson, Minnesota, and Sarah 
C. The wife and mother died in Wisconsin in 
1877. Her father, John M. Campfield, was a prom- 
inent lawyer of Jefferson county. New York. In 
his political affiliations the Judge was first a Whig 
and later a Republican. He assisted in organizing 
the latter party, and has taken an active and prom- 
inent part in promoting its interests. He stands 
deserved high in the esteem and confidence of his 
fellow citizens and is held in high regard by all who 
know him. 

gentleman is well known in Grafton and vicinity as 
a loyal citizen and successful business man. He is 
engaged in the abstract business and has the only 
set of abstract books in the county, and has been a 
resident of Grafton since 1884, and has been identi- 




fied with the business interests of that thriving city 
since that date. 

Our subject was born near Hamburg, in the 
province of Holstein, Germany, December 14, 1862, 
and is a son of xA.ugust and Anna (Koenigj Treu- 
niann, both of whom were natives of the same 
province. The mother died in 1872, and in the same 
year the father and our subject and sister emigrated 
to America and settled near Defiance, Ohio. The 
father was a sailor and ship carpenter in Germany, 
and in 1873 they moved to LeSueur county, JMinne- 
50ta, and there the father entered the employ of the 
Chicago, St. Paul, iNIinneapolis & Omaha Railroad 
Company, and was killed at ]\lankato, in 1899, while 
in the discharge of his duties. 

]\Ir. Treumann was reared and educated in Min- 
nesota, and worked in a mercantile establishment and 
kept books, and November 15, i88i, he came to 
Grand Forks, and began keeping books for a mer- 
cantile firm and filled that position for some time. 
He assumed charge of the branch store of the firm 
at Grafton in 1884, and continued with the house 
until 1885, when he engaged in the collection and 
loan business, and also served as deputy register of 
deeds. He began abstracting in 1888 and has con- 
tinued in this business since, with marked success. 
He became a member of a military company in 1885, 
and was elected second lieutenant, and in 1887 the 
company became Company C, of the National 
Guard of North Dakota. He was lieutenant- 
colonel of the First North Dakota' \'olunteer 
Infantry, and had command of the regiment 
during the campaign in the Philippines. He 
also commanded a brigade on several occasions 
and had command of the transport Grant on the re- 
turn to this country. The regiment was in thirty- 
seven engagements, including the battles of Manila 
in August, 1898 and February, 1899, and j\Ir. Treu- 
mann was with his regiment in all battles with the 
exception of those of the Santa Cruz expedition, 
■when only a part of the regiment went. He escaped 
without wounds and served eighteen months and 
was then mustered out as lieutenant-colonel of the 
regiment, September 25, 1899, and at once returned 
home and resumed his business in Grafton. He was 
"brevetted colonel of volunteers, upon the recommen- 
dation of General Lawton. 

Our subject was married November 29, 1888, to 
]Miss Elizabeth Baird. a native of Canada. Mr. and 
]Mrs. Treumann are the parents of three children, as 
follows: William K., Oscar B., and Agnes E., all 
of whom are living. !Mr. Treumann is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity in all branches, the Knights 
of Pythias, and Foresters, and was master of the 
North Dakota Military lodge at Manila. Politically 
lie is a Republican. 

congress from North Dakota, has attained distinc- 
tion as one of the ablest members of the Fargo bar. 
In this profession probably more than in any other 

success depends upon individual merit, upon a 
thorough understanding of the principles of juris- 
prudence, a power of keen analysis, and the ability 
to present clearly, concisely and forcibly the strong 
points in his case. Possessing these necessary quali- 
fications, i\Ir. Spalding is accorded a foremost place 
in the ranks of the profession in this state, and 
stands today one of the most esteemed members 
of the Fargo bar. 

He was born in Orleans county, \'ermont, De- 
cember 3, 1853, and is a son of Rev. Benjamin P. arid 
Ann (Folsomj Spalding, also natives of the Green 
Mountain state. As a Methodist Episcopal minister 
the father engaged in preaching in \ ermont and New 
Hampshire for many years, but is now living re- 
tired with our subject, having come to North Da- 
kota in 1882. The paternal grandfather, Noah 
Spalding, was a school teacher of \'ermont, and 
was a politician of some note, while the maternal 
grandfather. Rev. Moses Folsom, was a Free Bap- 
tist minister of New Hampshire and Vermont. The 
Folsom family was founded in the United States 
in 1638, the Spalding in 1619. Our subject has one 
brother and two sisters. The brother is now living 
in Salt Lake City, L'tah. The elder sister lives in 
Traill county, and the younger is a professor in 
Pomona College, California. 

In his native state, Burleigh F. Spalding was 
reared and educated until eleven years of age, when 
he left home, and for five years worked on farms in 
New Hampshire and \'ermont for his board and 
clothes and the privilege of attending school. At 
sixteen he engaged in clerking in a country store for 
forty-eight dollars per year, but later received sev- 
enty-two. For some time he worked at St. Johns- 
bury, \'ermont. and then attended the Lyndon 
Literary Institute, and later the Norwich L'niversity, 
from which he was graduated with the degree of 
B. Ph., in 1877. The following year he taught in 
an academy at Albany, \'erniont, and next read law 
for two years with Gleason & Field at Montpelier. 
He was admitted to the bar in \'ermont, March 15, 
1880. He served as clerk of the state legislature in 

On the 31st of !\Iarch, 1880. Mr. Spalding came 
to Fargo, North Dakota, and for one year was in 
partnership with S. G. Roberts in the practice of 
law. Later he succeeded to the entire practice of the 
firm and admitted Charles F. Templeton to a partner- 
ship. That connection continued for six and a half 
years, or until Mr. Templeton was appointed judge 
of the Grand Forks district. In 1891 George H. 
Phelps became a member of the firm, and in June, 
1893. Mr. Newman was also, taken in, but in 1897 
Mr. Phelps retired, and busiuess was then carried 
on under the name of Newman & Spalding until 
1898. when Mr. W. S. Stambaugh was admitted to 
the firm and the name was changed to Newman, 
Spalding & Stambaugh. This is one of the strong- 
est law firms in the state, and they enjoy a large 
and lucrative practice. 

On the 25th of November, 1880, Mr. Spalding 


was united in marriage with Miss Alida Baker, of 
Vermont, a daughter of David and Emily (Cutler) 
Baker, and by this union five children have been 
born, namely : Deane B., Frances ¥., Roscoe C, 
Burleigh M. and Carlton C. 

Mr. Spalding organized the Merchants' State 
Bank of targo, which was started as the Dakota 
Savings Bank, and re-organized in 1890. He served 
as its first president, and is quite prominent in busi- 
ness as well as professional circles. During his res- 
idence in this state he has taken a very important 
part in public affairs and is a recognized leader 
in political circles. He served as superintend- 
ent of public instruction from 1882 to 1884, 
and in 1883 was elected a member of the board 
of commissioners to relocate the capital. In 1889 
he was elected to the constitutional convention, 
served on the judicial, school and public lands com- 
mittees, and was also a member of the joint commit- 
tee to divide the archives and property of the states. 
In 1898 he w^as nominated and elected a member of 
congress over the Fusion ( Democratic, Populist and 
Silver Republican) candidate by a majority of 9.932 
votes, and is now most creditably and satisfactorily 
filling that position. He has been a delegate to nearly 
all the state and territorial conventions of the Re- 
publican party during his residence here, and in 1896 
■was chairman of the committee on resolutions. He 
was chairman of the Republican state central com- 
mittee in 1892 and was a member of the same for 
three years. In 1896 he was elected to the same 
position from Cass county, and has taken a promi- 
nent part in campaign work, being a strong and 
able debater and an orator of note. He is a thirty- 
second-degree Mason, a Knight Tmplar and a mem- 
ber of the Sons of the American Revolution. So- 
cially he is deservedly popular, as he is affable and 
courteous in manner and possesses that essential 
qualification to success in public life, that of making 
friends readily and strengthening the ties of all 
friendships as time advances. 

RUSSELL W. S. BLACKWELL, residing in 
LaMoure, La^Ioure county, is one of the leading at- 
torneys of North Dakota. He is the present state's 
attorney of LaMoure county, and is a man whose 
qualifications and character are befitting one of his 
station. He is affable, intelligent and possessed 
of an active public spirit and casts his influence 
for the better interests of those around him, and is 
highly esteemed in turn by the people. He was born 
in the village of Pocasset, on the east side of Buz- 
zard's bay, in the town of Sandwich. Barnstable 
county, Massachusetts, August 20, 1853. 

The father of our subject, Russell Blackwell, was 
born in Monument, Massachusetts, and was of Eng- 
lish-I'uritan descent. He was a sea captain in the 
American merchant marine service, and his fore- 
fathers followed the seas for two and a half cen- 
turies. He died at Bourne, November i~, 1898, 
aged seventy-five years. He was a man of more 

than ordinary ability, and was one of the prominent 
men in his native town. The mother of our subject, 
who bore the maiden name of Lydia B. Phinney» 
was also a native of Monument, ]\iassachusetts. and. 
survives her husband, and is living in the old home. 
Five children were born to this worthy couple, as 
follows : Elisha B., now engaged in the Alaskan trade 
at Seattle, Washington ; Ada, now Airs. Dr. Robert 
Newman, of New York City, ; Lillie, now Mrs. E. S. 
Ellis, residing with her mother; Lydia A., who died 
at the age of twenty months ; and Russell W. S. 
our subject. 

Air. Blackwell, when about one year of age went 
with his parents to Monument, Massachusetts, 
where he attended school for some time, and in the 
fall of 1868 removed to New York City, where he en- 
tered the grammar school and continued his studies 
in that city until 1873, when he accepted a position 
as principal of the public school at Foxboro, Massa- 
chusetts. After one year he engaged in the jol> 
printing business, and conducted the same from No- 
vember, 1874, to 1881, when he disposed of the plant- 
During that time he continued the study of law 
which had been commenced in New York City in. 
1870, and October 6, 1881, was admitted to the bar 
at Dedham, Massachusetts, and in 1882 he returned 
to New York City. He had thoroughly familiar- 
ized himself with the practice of his profession by 
handling many cases prior to his admission to the 
bar, and his success was assured. He, however, en- 
gaged in the mercantile business in New York until 
1892, when he went to North Dakota. He visited 
Jamestown, North Dakota, in April of that year, 
and began farming near there, conducting the farm 
during three summers and returning to New York, 
where he taught the grammar school No. 16, during 
the winter terms. He removed to the town of La- 
Moure, November 8, 1894, and engaged in the prac- 
tice of law, in connection with which he conducts a 
real estate and general brokerage business, and dur- 
ing the year 1894 he was elected to the office of 
state's attorney. 

Air. Blackwell was married at Foxborough, Alas- 
sachusetts, in 1874, to Airs. Fannie Thomas, a native 
of that state. Two children have been born to Air. 
and Airs. Blackwell. as follows : Waldo R., now prac- 
ticing law in New York City, having graduated from 
the University of New York in the class of 1895, 
with the degree of Bachelor of Law : and Grace W., 
who died in infancy. Air. Blackwell has always 
labored earnestly for the better interests of his com- 
munity, and while a resident of Fo.xboro, Alassachu- 
setts, was appointed justice of the peace by the gov- 
ernor of that state, which office he held seven years, 
after which he was re-appointed. He was elected a 
member of the school committee in 1878. and was 
re-elected in the same capacity in 1881, and chair- 
man of the board, serving until his resignation in 
1882. Since taking up his residence in Dakota he 
has been chosen a member of the board of insanity 
commissioners and is the treasurer of the North Da- 
kota Bar Association. He was nominated for state's 



attorney on the Republican ticket and endorsed by 
the PopuHst party. He is a man who is popular 
with the people as a public officer regardless of party 
affiliations, and is deserving of much credit for his 
labors for the public good. He is a member of 
Crystal Wave lodge, A. F. & A. M., of Brooklyn, 
Corneau Consistory of New York City, the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, and Knights of Macca- 

FRED FALLEY. America owes much of her 
progress and advancement to a position foremost 
among the nations of the world to her newspapers, 
and in no line has the incidental broadening out of 
the sphere of usefuless been more marked than in 
this same line of journalism. North Dakota has 
enlisted in the newspaper field some of the strongest 
intellects in the state — men of broad mental grasp, 
cosmopolitan ideas and notable business sagacity. 
Prominent among these is Fred Falley, the present 
secretarv of state, and editor of the "Wahpeton 

He was born in York, Clay county, Illinois, July 
I, 1859, a son of Richard and Louisa (Scranton) 
Falley, natives of Alassachusetts and Illinois, re- 
spectively. The father, who was a wagon-maker 
by trade, removed to Illinois in 1842, and there died 
in 1877. The mother departed this life in the same 
state in 1868. Our subject received a good high- 
school education in his native county, and during 
his youth learned the printer's trade at Lancaster, 
Wisconsin, under Edward Pollock, who was then 
publishing the "Grant County Herald." Coming 
to North Dakota in 1880. he located at Wahpeton, 
where he worked at his trade about four years. In 
1883 he founded the "Sargent County Teller" at 
Milnor, North Dakota, and conducted that paper 
until 1887, when he purchased the "Wahpeton 
Globe," which he is still successfully carrying on. 
It is one of the best papers published in the state 
and is the Republican organ of Richland countv. 

In 1885 Air. Falley married Miss Clara Mitchell, 
who died in 1892, leaving one son, Richard M. He 
was again married in 1896, his second union being 
with Mrs. Sadie Pyatt, by whom he has one son, 
Morgan. Fraternally ]\Ir. Falley is a member of 
the Masonic order, the Knights of Pythias and the 
Ancient Order of United \\'orkmen, and politically 
he is a pronounced Republican. He served as sec- 
retary of the state senate for several sessions, and 
in 1896 was elected secretary of state and re-elected 
in 1898. He has proved a most efficient and popu- 
lar officer, and during his incumbency has made a 
host of warm friends throughout the state. 

urer and general manager of the Beidler & Robinson 
Lumber Company, with headquarters at Alayville, 
is a gentleman of much executive ability and is 
widely known as an intelligent and public-spirited 

citizen. He is identified with various financial en- 
terprises in that part of the state, and has made a 
success of life, winning his way upward by ener- 
getic efforts and faithful service. 

Our subject was born in Chicago, Illinois, Oc- 
tober 21, 1843, antl was the eldest of a family of 
five children born to Henry and Jane (Hutchings) 
Robinson. His parents were natives of England^ 
and the mother still lives at Albert Lea, Minnesota. 
After entering upon his business career Mr. Robin- 
son was called to defend his country, and enlisted, 
in 1861, in Company F, Thirty-ninth Illinois \'olun- 
teer Infantry. Returning from the war, he began 
clerking for J. Biedler Lumber Company in Chi- 
cago, and was with that firm about twelve years, 
and in 1876 began for himself in Allerton, Iowa, 
and in 1882 disposed of his Iowa interests and ar- 
rived at Portland, Dakota, in May, and under the 
firm name of Beidler & Robinson established the 
lumber business at Portland, and in 1885 the firm of 
Beidler & Robinson Lumber Company was incor- 
porated. They now own twenty-six lumber yards 
in North Dakota and Minnesota. Soon after the 
incorporation of the company the headquarters were 
taken up in Mayville, and the business of the com- 
pany has been more than successful. Mr. Robin- 
son is also junior member of the firm of Dibley & 
Robinson, dealers in steel combination and wood 
bridges, the firm having headquarters at Fargo. 
Mr. Robinson is also Indian trader at Standing Rock 
agency at Fort Yates, North Dakota. 

Our subject was married in 1870 to Miss Lil- 
lian Abbott, of Chicago. One daughter was born 
to this union, who is now Mrs. R. H. Bush, of Grand 
Forks. Mr. Robinson was married in 1896 to Miss 
Edith Anderson. Mr. Robinson was a member of 
the senate in the first state legislature, and did very 
efficient work toward passing the prohibition bill 
through the senate. He also assisted in securing 
the location of the State Normal at Mayville. He 
is prominent in public affairs, and has been promi- 
nently identified with the Republican party of the 
state"; was a delegate to the Minneapolis national 
convention, and attended the St. Louis convention 
and was there elected national committeeman for 
North Dakota. He was chainuan of the state cen- 
tral committee during three campaigns, and at pres- 
ent is chairman of the state central committee and 
a member of the national committee. Mr. Robinson 
is a Knight Templar and thirty-second-degree 
Mason, and also holds membership in the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. 

ALBERT N. CARLBLOM, the present well- 
known state auditor of North Dakota, and a recog- 
nized leader in the ranks of the Republican party, 
was born in Cokato, Wright county, Minnesota, 
December 17. 1865, a son of John G. and Elizabeth 
(Anderson) Carlblom, both natives of Sweden. The 
father, who was a farmer by occupation, came to the 
United States in 1864, and settled in Wright county. 



IMinnesota, where he followed his chosen calling 
until 1881, when he became a resident of Sargent 
county, North Dakota, making his home there until 
called from this life in 1899. His wife had passed 
away in 1898. To them were born seven children, 
five sons and two daughters, all living in either 
North Dakota or Alinnesota. 

Our subject acquired his early education in the 
common schools of his native state and then entered 
Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, ^Minnesota, 
from which he was graduated in 1886. Prior to 
coming to this state with his parents in 1881, he 
had engaged in teaching school in Minnesota, and 
later followed the same profession in Sargent 
county. He also engaged in farming and clerking 
for some time. In 1889 he was appointed deputy 
county treasurer of Sargent county for two years, 
and in 1891 was made deputy auditor of the same 
county. He was elected auditor in 1892, and so 
creditably and satisfactorily did he fill the ofiice that 
he was re-elected in 1894 and again in 1896. In 
1898 he was elected state auditor on the Republican 
ticket and entered upon the duties of the office Janu- 
ary 3, 1899. His public duties have always been 
most promptly and faithfully discharged, winning 
the commendation of even his political enemies, and 
he has proved a most popular official. 

On the 23d of March, 1898, Mr. Carlblom mar- 
ried Miss Josephine Peterson, also a native of l\im- 
nesota. They are the parents of one daughter, \"era 
Leonore. Mr. and Mrs. Carlblom are members of 
the Lutheran church. The Republican party lias 
always found in him a stanch supporter of its prin- 
ciples, and he has been a member of both state and 
county committees, and has served as president and 
secretary of the Sargent County Republican League. 
He is widely and favorably known and has many 
friends throughout the state. 

determined by one's ability to recognize opportunity, 
and to pursue this with a resolute and unflagging 
•energy. It results from continued labor, and the 
man who thus accomplishes his purpose usually be- 
comes an important factor in business circles and 
in public life. Through such means Air. Driscoll, 
state treasurer, has attained a leading place among 
the representative men of North Dakota, and his 
well-spent and honorable life commands the respect 
of all who know him. A portrait of Mr. Driscoll 
will be found in this volume. 

He was born in Canada, Septemljer 22. 1849, 
and is a son of John J. and Julia (Dennison) Dris- 
coll. natives of Canada. The parents were married 
in Canada, where the father died during the in- 
fancy of our subject, and in 1856 the mother re- 
moved to Detroit, Michigan. There our subject 
was reared and educated and also learned the pot- 
ter's trade, which he followed until 1873. 1" 1870 
he removed to Boone countv, Iowa, where he 
worked at lijs trade for a time', and in 1875 became 

a resident of La Crosse, Wisconsin, where he was 
first engaged in selling farm implements and later 
traveled for the Deering Company. 

Coming to North Dakota in 1879, ^^r. Driscoll 
located in Pembina, Pembina county, where he be- 
came a member of the firm of Johnson, Hohner & 
Company, agricultural implement dealers. When 
Walsh county was formed, in 1881, he went to 
Acton in the interest of the same company. In 
1881 he took up his residence at Grafton, continu- 
ing in the employ of the same company until 1887. 
He was next engaged in farming and stock raising 
for eight years and then returned to Grafton, where 
he still makes his home. He is now engaged in the 
real estate business, is vice-president of the Graf- 
ton National Bank, and president of the Bates 
Carbon Book Company of that place. In business 
aft'airs he is prompt and notably reliable, and has 
met with most excellent success. 

In 1882 Mr. Driscoll led to the marriage altar 
Miss Clara K. Hogg, a native of Nova Scotia, and 
to them have been born four children, namelv: 
William J., Charles H., Nellie H. and Clara K.. all 
living. Since attaining his majority Mr. Driscoll 
has always cast his ballot with the Republican party, 
and although he has never been an office seeker, 
he was elected, in 1898, to the office of state treas- 
urer, carrying every county in the commonwealth. 
Socially he is a Royal Arch Mason, and is held in 
high esteem by all who know him. The farm of 
Mr. Driscoll, which consists of fourteen hundred 
acres, is located in Acton township, \\'alsh county, 
and is devoted to grain and stock interests. 

HON. ASA SERGEANT, one of the first set- 
tlers of Traill county, is a gentleman who commands 
respect wherever he is known. He has spent a use- 
ful career in North Dakota, and is one of the 
wealthy and influential citizens of Caledonia, and 
operates several hundred acres of rich land. 

Our subject was born in Peacham, Caledonia 
county, \'ermont, August 5, 1844, and was the 
fourth in a family of six children born to Elijah and 
Sylvia ( Watts ) Sargeant, both of whom are de- 
ceased. He enlisted in the fall of 1862 in Company 
F, Fifteenth \'erniont Infantry, and after a short 
service returned to his native state. In 1868, dur- 
ing the first "boom" of the Red river country, he 
and some relatives invested in land on the Minnesota 
side of the Red river, and in 1870 our subject went 
to look at the land purchased. He worked during 
the season in Minnesota and passed the winter in 
Pembina. In the spring of 1872 and he entered the 
employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, working in 
the store at Georgetown, and soon afterward was 
established in a store at Caledonia, and later for 
three years at Walla \\'alla. In association with 
C. M. Clark, he rented the Caledonia flouring mills 
in 1876 and later they purchased the plant. The 
mill was erected in 1872, and was the second mill 
built in what is now North Dakota. The frame of 




the structure is of oak, hewn from the native tim- 
ber, and the whole building is as sound as when 
erected thirty years ago. Ihe mill was sold some 
years afterward, but was repurchased by Mr. Sar- 
geant and Edward Braseth. They are running the 
mill at the present time. It is a one hundred-barrel 
capacity mill, and is run by steam and water power 
combined. Our subject now owns seven hundred 
acres of land, bounded on two sides by the Goose 
and the Red rivers. He is now planning a departure 
to the Pacific coast to join his family and remain 
there for some time, and perhaps make his home 

Our subject was married in 1879 to Miss 
Amanda Houghton, who went to Dakota in 1876. 
Six children have been born to ]\Ir. and Airs. Sar- 
geant, as follows : \'ie, a student of music and also 
a teacher of music ; Charles, a student of Pacific 
University, of Oregon ; Helen, deceased ; Alartha ; 
Ray, deceased, and Xeal Mr. Sargeant was elected 
to the territorial legislature in 1876, which met at 
Yankton, and he was appointed by the governor 
among the first county oflicers, as both probate judge 
and county treasurer. In the fall of 1886 he was 
elected county register of deeds and served three 
terms. He is one of the solid men of Traill county 
and is well and favorably known throughout the 
state of North Dakota. 

Colonel Cadle, adjutant-general of the Seventeenth 
Corps, commanded by the brave, popular and genial 
General P^rank Blair, in the following letter to "The 
Forum," has some words for an old comrade and 
explains how he comes to write : 

"Society of the Army of the Tennessee, Re- 
cording Secretary's office, P. O. box 35, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, March 31, 1898. — To 'The Forum': The So- 
ciety of the Army of the Tennessee desires to keep 
in its records memoranda showing the services of 
their members. Some time ago I wrote to Alajor 
Edwards and asked him to send me a sketch that 
would enable us, when he died, to print his obituary. 
He sent me a very brief statement, but knowing as 
much, or more, of his record than he modestly 
stated to me, I have written the enclosed, and if you 
think it worth while it might be printed, because it 
shows a great deal of his experience in the Army 
of the Tennessee in the war of the Rebellion. 

"He was certainly a gallant soldier in our army, 
and credit should be given to living men as well as 
dead. Therefore, I send this to you with the hope 
that it may be used, and that, as an obituary of our 
society, it may be long before it will be required. 
Alajor Edwards does not know of this communica- 
tion. Yours very truly, 

"Cornelius Cadle." 

"Major Alanson William Edwards was born in 
Lorain county, Ohio, August 2y, 1840. His father 
removed to Macoupin county, Illinois, in 1848. 
Major Edwards attended the county schools and was 

afterward, in 1856-57, a student at McKendree Col- 
lege, Illinois. He was a railroad express agent and 
telegraph operator at Gillespie, Ilhnois, when the 
war broke out. 

"He enlisted at once for the three months' serv- 
ice, but the quota of Illinois was then filled, as was 
the first call for three years' volunteers. He en- ' 
listed and was mustered in as a private of Company 
I, One Hundred and Twenty-second Illinois In- 
fantry, at Camp Palmer, Carlinville, Illinois, August 
4, 1S62. He served in the Western army, begin- 
ning at Columbus, Kentucky. He was a clerk in 
the office of the adjutant-general, district of Jack- 
son war department. General Grenville M. Dodge, 
of Corinth, Alississippi. 

"In April, 1863, by authority from the war de- 
partment. General Grenville M. Dodge, at Corinth, 
Alississippi, organized the First Alabama Union 
Cavalry from loyal refugees, driven from their 
homes in the mountains in north Alabama by Con- 
federate conscripting officers. Major Edwards was 
appointed first lieutenant and adjutant, with George 
E. Spencer as colonel, and was afterward promoted 
to captain L troop of this regiment. 

"He served with General Van Derveer as acting 
assistant adjutant-general, district of Rome and of 
Marietta, Georgia, and was near Kenesaw mountani 
with General Sherman when Sherman signalled 
Corse at Allatoona to 'hold the fort,' at the same 
time that Captain Flint, of Company E, First Ala- 
bama Cavalry, was aide to General Corse, and wrote 
at Corse's dictation the answer about 'losing his 
cheek, but was able to whip all hell yet.' 

"Alajor Edwards commanded Company AI of 
his regiment on the 'JNIarch to the sea,' and in the 
close approach to Savannah he rode with the First 
Alabama Cavalry over the torpedoes planted in the 
road by the enemy. Lieutenant F. W. Tupper, his 
successor and adjutant of the regiment, having his 
leg blown oft", and many of the regiment were se- 
verely wounded. 

"Colonel Cornelius Cadle, the adjutant-general 
of the Seventeenth Army Corps, being that moment 
in advance with the First Alabama Cavalry, directed 
the provost marshal of the corps. Major John C. 
Marvin, to bring to the front all the prisoners of 
war, and they, upon their hands and knees, dug 
into the ground and took out the torpedoes — the 
unexploded ones — that several of these prisoners 
had assisted in 'planting' a few days before. It 
happened that the Confederate sergeant who had 
supervision of the placing of these torpedoes was 
one of the prisoners, and he readily found them and 
carefully aided in clearing our way to Savannah, the 
city that was a Christmas present from Sherman to 
our president, Lincoln. 

"At Savannah Major Edwards was detached 
from his regiment by order of' General Sherman, 
and assigned to duty as acting assistant adjutant- 
general. Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, 
and served with General Corse, the division com- 
mander, until after the grand review of the armies 



at W'asliington, May 24 and 25, 1865, and was mus- 

tered out July 

1865. He was breveted major 

^larch 13, 1805, for "gallant and meritorious service 
in the field." 

"Major Edwards was present at the meeting of 
the officers of the Army of the Tennessee, called to 
organize our society at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
April 25, 1865. 

"The first post of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public was organized by Dr. B. F. Stevenson, at 
Decatur, Illinois, and several members were sent 
over the state to institute other posts. A dozen or 
so were mustered at the same time. Major Ed- 
wards, after his war service, was mustered in Post 
No. 6, at Bunker Hill, Illinois, which was one of the 
•earliest organized posts of the Grand Army of the 

"Returning to his home in 1865, he resuscitated 
the 'Union Gazette,' at Bunker Hill, Illinois, a paper 
he published before going to the war, and which was 
suspended during the war. In 1868 Major Ed- 
wards secured an interest in the 'Carlinville Free 
Democrat,' a Republican paper started by Senator 
John M. Palmer in 1856. 

Major Edwards was warden of the Illinois 
State Penitentiary at Joliet in 1871-1872. Alter 
the great Chicago fire he went into business in Chi- 
cago, and was a member of the board of trade in 
1875-1878. He went to the Black Hills in 1876, 
Jocated at Fargo in 1878. as editor of the 'Fargo 
Republican.' He established the 'Daily Argus' in 
1879. Governor G. A. Pierce, of our society, ap- 
pointed Major Edwards superintendent of the semi- 
decennial census of Dakota territory in 1885. Major 
Edwards was elected mayor of Fargo in 1886-7; was 
3. member of the legislature 1895-6. He lost 'The 
Argus' in 1890, started the 'Daily Forum' in 1891, 
purchased the 'Republican,' the first paper he started, 
and consolidated the two, and it is now issued by 
Edwards & Plumley. 

"Major Edwards was married to Elizabeth Rob- 
•ertson at Carlinville, Illinois, in 1870. They have 
5ix sons and one daughter, all living in Fargo, North 
Dakota. The sons are Harry Goodell, twenty-six 
years; William Robertson, twenty-three years; Al- 
-anson Charles, nineteen years ; John Palmer, seven- 
teen years ; George Washington, thirteen years ; 
Richford Roberts, nine years; and Marie R., twen- 
ty-four years. 

"Cincinnati, Ohio, March 31, 1898." 

the "Bismarck Tribune," the oldest newspaper in 
North Dakota— the weeklv edition being established 
in June, 1873. and the daily in April, 1881— was 
liorn in Hector, on the banks of Seneca lake, in New 
York state, April 29, 1857. His father was a news- 
paper man, and back in the '50s published the 
"'Seneca County Sentinel" at Ovid, New York. In 
1858 Mr, Jewell's parents moved to Michigan and 

were among the early pioneers in the region north 
of Grand Rapids. Air. Jewell, Sr., in order to sup- 
port his family while making an "opening" in the 
pineries, worked much of the time at the printer's 
trade in Grand Rapids, the nearest town, walking 
through a dense forest a distance of over thirty 
miles every Saturday night to spend Sunday at 
home. These were the surroundings of the first 
ten years of the life of the subject of this sketch. 
Obtaining such education as was possible in the 
"old log school house," he attended school in the vil- 
lage of Cedar Springs. Mr. Jewell's parents moved 
to Wheaton, a suburb of Chicago, where Mr. Jewell 
attended the college for a brief period. 

During his early school days in Cedar Springs 
Mr. Jewell found opportunity to work "after hours" 
in the "Clipper" office, and was thus enabled to 
learn the printer's trade. He went to Chicago and 
in 1876 was made foreman of the "Daily Courier," 
and later the telegraph editor of the "Telegraph," 
on whose presses the first issue of the "Daily News" 
was printed. Associated with Stanley Hunter, Mr. 
Jewell came to Bismarck in 1878 and secured con- 
trol of the "Weekly Tribune" from its founder, 
Colonel C. A. Lounsberry. He was associated with 
these gentlemen a few years, succeeding to their 
interests in 1883. The "Bismarck Tribune" is now 
widely known as one of the leading and most in- 
fluential newspapers in the Northwest, while the 
publishing department, which has handled the state 
printing since 1883, when the capital of Dakota was 
located in Bismarck, is one of the most complete of 
the kind in the country. 

Mr. Jewell has always taken an active part in 
politics as well as business, and is a familiar figure 
and prominent factor in all state Republican gath- 
erings. He was chosen secretary of the Repub- 
lican state committee in 1893 and again in the Mc- 
Kinley campaign of 1896. He has a wife and one 
son, and owns one of the coziest homes in the capital 

HENRY LT. THOMAS. The world instinct- 
ively pays deference to the man whose success has 
been worthily achieved, who has acquired a high 
reputation in his chosen calling, anci whose social 
prominence is not less the result of an irreproacha- 
ble life than of recognized natural gifts. It is a 
I^leasing indulgence to write the biography of a man 
of this character, such as Mr. Thomas is known to 
be. He is now serving with distinction as commis- 
sioner of agriculture and labor of North Dakota, 
and makes his home in Bismarck. 

He was born in Magnolia, Rock county, Wis- 
consin, December 10, 1853, and is a son of Asaph 
U. and Mary C. (Flint) Thomas, the former a 
native of Springfield, Massachusetts, and the latter 
of Wethersfield, Connecticut. The father was a 
machinist by trade, but the latter part of his life was 
devoted to farming. From Massachusetts he re- 
moved to Pennsylvania, and in 1847 became a resi- 



<lent of Wisconsin, where he made his home for ten 
3-ears and then went to Freeborn county, Minne- 
sota. There he spent his remaining days and died 
in April, 1883. 'Ihe wife and motner passed away 
in the same county in 1874. In their family were 
eight children, four sons and four daughters, of 
whom our subject and all of the daughters are still 
Jiving. The paternal grandfather, David Thomas, 
was born in Massachusetts, April 8, 1781, and died 
February 28, 1842. He had only one son, Asaph 
U., father of our subject. 

Henry U. Thomas, of this review, grew to man- 
hood in Minnesota, and the early education he ac- 
<iuired in the common schools of that state was sup- 
plemented by a course at the Adventist Seminary 
in Freeborn county. He continued to make his 
home in Minnesota, engaged in agricultural pur- 
.suits, until April, 1883, when he became a resident 
of Benson county. North Dakota, where he took 
up land from the government, becoming the first 
settler of Antelope valley, which he named. He 
lived there until the fall of 1885, when he was 
elected county commissioner and removed to Min- 
newaukon, the county seat. After filling that office 
very acceptably for two years he was appointed pro- 
hate judge and served in that capacity for nine 
years, or until elected to his present office in 1896. 
His official duties have always been performed in 
a most commendable and satisfactory manner, and 
have gained for him the confidence and respect of 

In January, 1889, Mr. Thomas was married in 
Fargo, North Dakota, to Miss Laura A. Spotts, a 
native of Ohio, and to them have been born seven 
■children, namely: Merrill C, Paul C, Lyle J., 
£rma M., Harold U., William H. and an infant boy 
who died August 15, 1899. The wife and mother 
is a consistent member of the Congregational church, 
which Mr. Thomas also attends. He is a thirty- 
second-degree Mason, a Shriner. and a member of 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen. In his 
political views he is an ardent Republican, and does 
all in his power for the success of his party. As a 
citizen he has at all times the good of the com- 
munity at heart, and his abilities are exerted to 
make the state of his adoption one of the best in 
the Northwest. 

HON. JOHN E. HAGGART. Few men are 
more prominent or more widely known in the enter- 
prising city of Fargo and North Dakota than John 
E. Haggart, United States marshal for North Da- 
kota. He has been an important factor in public 
afliairs and his popularity is well deserved, as in him 
are embraced the characteristics of an unbending 
integrity, unabated energy and industry that never 
flags. He is public-spirited and thoroughly inter- 
ested in whatever tends to promote the moral, in- 
tellectual and material welfare of his city, county or 

Mr. Haggart was born in St. Lawrence county, 

New York, April 19, 1846, a son of John and Mabel 
( Northrop j Haggart, also natives of the Empire 
state. The grandfather, Gilbert Haggart, was born 
in Glasgow, Scotland, and on his emigration to the 
United States located in New York, where he fol- 
lowed farming throughout life. The father was 
also an agriculturist, was major in the state militia, 
and was quite a prominent man in New York. He 
was twice married and had three sons. 

Reared on the home farm in much the usual man- 
ner of farmer boys of his day, John E. Haggart was 
educated in the country schools. In 1863 he en- 
tered the employ of the government in the coast 
construction corps and spent about a year and a half 
with the Army of the Potomac, after which he re- 
turned to New York. In 1867 he came west and 
crossed the plains, starting from Leavenworth, Kan- 
sas. The following winter was spent in southern 
Colorado and New Mexico, and he then came to 
what is now Wyoming, where he conducted a lum- 
ber yard for the LTnion P'acific Railroad until 1870. 
In 1871 he landed four miles below the present city 
of Fargo, North Dakota, and in August of that 
year took up a claim on the Sheyenne river, which 
he improved and still owns. He is one of the most 
extensive land owners in the state, having nineteen 
hundred and sixty acres in all in the home farm. 
He raises from thirty-five to forty thousand bushels 
of wheat annually, and in 1898 harvested thirty- 
seven thousand seven hundred fifty bushels. He was 
one of the thirteen to organize and put in operation 
the Fargo Southern Railroad, of which he was a di- 
rector, and is always willing to support any enter- 
prise for the good of the community. 

In 1875 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Hag- 
gart and Miss Betsy J. Hertsgaard, and to them have 
been born nine children, as follows: Gilbert W., 
iMabel E., Maggie I., John C, Estella M., Alex- 
ander M., George E., \Villiam H. R. and Daniel. 

Mr. Haggart was the first man to be made a 
Mason in this state, being initiated into the order 
in 1873, since which time he has been made a Royal 
Arch Mason, a Knight Templar, a thirty-second- 
degree Scottish Rite Mason and a member of the 
A. A. O. of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. Since 
attaining his majority he has been a stanch sup- 
porter of the Republican party and has served on the 
county and state central committees. In 1874 he 
was elected sheriiif of Cass county and filled that 
office for twelve consecutive years in a most capable 
manner. He was elected the first city marshal of 
Fargo, and in 1889 was elected to the state senate, 
of which he was a prominent and influential mem- 
ber until 1898, when he resigned to accept his pres- 
ent office, that of United States marshal for North 
Dakota. He was well qualified to fill that office, 
as he had previously served as deputy for eight 
years. He has been called upon to fill a number 
of other public positions of honor and trust, being 
a member of the state prison board and other im- 
portant boards. He also assisted in locating the 
Agricultural College at Fargo and has done much 



to help that institution, introducing in the senate 
all the bills in its behalf, including the one to secure 
the land on which the college has been erected. The 
part which he has taken in the development of the 
county and in advancing the interests of the state 
has impressed his name indelibly upon its records, 
and he well deserves mention among the honored 
pioneers and representative citizens. 

HOX. ANDREW SLOTTEX, a resident farm- 
er of section 35, in Dwight township, is one 
of the influential men of Richland county. He has 
been associated with the public affairs of the vicinity 
since his earliest residence here, and has worked 
zealously for the development of his community. 
He has acquired a comfortable fortune and a good 
reputation by the exercise of honest eft'orts, and his 
home is one of the bright places in the township. 

^Ir. Slotten was born in Norway, September 
16, 1840, and was the second in a family of five chil- 
dren born to Thore and Elizabeth Slotten. He was 
reared and educated in his native country and was 
engaged in farming there until 1867, when in the 
latter part of June he came to America, and for 
about one year remained in Wisconsin. From 
thence he went to Minnesota, and for two years 
attended the Normal School at Winona. He readily 
acquired a knowledge of the American ways and 
customs and became a valuable worker. For seven 
years he was engaged in various occupations, and 
then entered the postofifice at JMinneapolis as clerk, 
remaining in that position seven years. On leav- 
ing Minneapolis he went to Dakota and purchased 
a half section of land where he now resides. He 
is the owner of five hundred and sixty acres of land, 
and has erected a complete set of good farm build- 
ings, and engages extensively in farming, meeting 
with marked success. 

Our subject was married in ^Minneapolis, !Min- 
nesota, February 5, 1870, to Miss Lizzie Bye, the 
daughter of Taale and Goner Bye, natives of Nor- 
way, who died in their own country. !Mrs. Slotten 
was born in Norway, December 5, 1843, and emi- 
grated to America in 1869. Two children have been 
borntoMr.and Mrs. Slotten, as follows: Thorwaland 
Gunda L. Both our subject and wife are active and 
prominent members of the Norwegian Lutheran 
church. Mr. Slotten has identified himself with 
public affairs in whatever locality he has made his 
residence, and in Minnesota he was chosen sergcant- 
at-arnis of the house of representatives in 1878, and 
served during that session. After taking up his 
residence in North Dakota he early became well 
known, and was elected to the state constitutional 
convention, and the following fall was elected to 
the state senate, serving in the first legislature after 
Dakota was admitted into the union. " He was later 
elected one of the railroad commissioners of the 
state, and in the fall of 1898 he was again elected 
to the North Dakota state senate, for two vears. 
evidencing his popularity. He is associated' with 

the Republican party politicallv, and takes a very 
active mterest in the affairs of his party. He is a 
man of careful, systematic habits and of a con- 
servative turn of mind, and all matters with which 
he is connected are materially benefited when the 
management of the same is left to his care. He is 
intelligent and progressive, and any project that 
has for its tendency the development of the financial 
interests of the county or township meets with his 
sanction and hearty approval. He is a man of the 
highest integrity of character and has built for him- 
self an enviable reputation as regards business 
ability and true worth. He is a gentleman of pleas- 
ing personality and has many friends wherever he 
chooses to reside. 

all around prominent man of North Dakota, no one 
of its citizens more justly deserves the title than 
Mr. Hankinson. He has been identified with the 
development and progress of the state, and par- 
ticularly Richland county, from the early settle- 
ment of that region, and is now extensively engaged 
in farming in Brightwood township, and also con- 
ducts a real estate and loan business in the town of 
Hankinson, making his home on his elegant estate 
on section twenty-two, but is found at his office in 
Hankinson daily. He owns about two thousand 
acres of land, and his home farm is beautifully lo- 
cated on the banks of Lake Elsie, a fine body of 
water, named for his daughter, Elsie. Every com- 
fort and even the luxuries of life are afforded on 
his estate, and the buildings thereon are among the 
finest in the state of North Dakota. On another 
page is found a portrait of Mr. Hankinson. 

Mr. Hankinson was born in Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, September 7, 1841. He was reared in 
Grand Rapids, where he lived until the breaking 
out of the Civil war, when he enlisted, in Augtist, 
1861, in Company D, Eighth Michigan Volunteer 
Infantry, and was with them until January 30, 1863, 
when he was discharged on account of wounds 
received at the battle of Wilmington Island, Georgia. 
He returned to Grand Rapids and re-enlisted in the 
Thirteenth Michigan Light Artillery and served to 
the close of the war. He participated in the bat- 
tles at Pocotaligo, Port Royal, Fort Pulaski and 
Wilmington Island, and later at Antietam, South 
Mountain, Fredericksburg and minor engagements 
until the close of the struggle. He received a 
wound in the left wrist at Wilmington Island, which 
caused his discharge, and upon his re-enlistment in 
the Thirteenth Michigan Lig-ht Artillery was com- 
missioned first sergeant. He was a loyal and true 
soldier, and served for the preservation of his 

After his return from the war our subject went 
to ^Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he entered the 
service of the Northwestern Telegraph Company, 
and was with them in the capacity of superintendent 
of construction and assistant general superintendent 



of the company, until 1881. He organized the 
Northwestern Telephone Exchange Company in 
1878, and was elected general manager of the same, 
serving until March, 1880. After leaving the serv- 
ice of the Northwestern Telegraph Company in 1881, 
he settled in Brightwood township, Richland county, 
North Dakota. He has a fine estate with excellent 
improvements, and engages extensively in farming. 
He has divided his time between that line of work 
and the contracting for construction of telegraph 
lines, and has built the following lines: hVom 
Chicago to Minneapolis; from Louisiana, Missouri, 
to Kansas City, Missouri ; the line for the bankers 
and merchants from Chicago to Minneapolis. These 
have been absorbed by the Western C'nion Tele- 
graph Company. He also built the telegraph line 
for the Soo railroad and all their branches west of 
the Red river. He constructed the tirst telegraph 
line built in North Dakota, or British North Amer- 
ica, in 1871, and personally superintended the con- 
struction from Moorhead to Winnipeg, and also 
from Fargo to \'alley Center, and from thence to 
Bismarck. He has engaged in the real estate busi- 
ness in Minneapolis since locating on his farm and 
at his office in Hankinson now conducts the real 
estate and loan business and contracting. He en- 
gaged in the mercantile business from 1886 to the 
fall of 1S97. 

Our subject was married at Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, January 20, 1868, to ]\liss Sarah E. Mar- 
tin, a native of Michigan. Mrs. Hankinson died in 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, in JNIarch, 1874, leaving 
one son, Herbert L., who is now in the grain busi- 
ness in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Our subject mar- 
ried IMiss Etta M. Wilson, a native of Minnesota, 
September 27, 1876, at Minneapolis. One daugh- 
ter has been born to Ivlr. and Mrs. Hankinson, 
named Elsie E. Mr. Hankinson is a prominent 
member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
Knights of Pythias and the Masonic fraternity, 
and has passed the Knights Templar degree in the 
last named order. He was elected to the first state 
legislature in 1889, and served one term, and was 
again elected in the fall of 1896. He takes an active 
part in local affairs, and the town of Hankinson was 
named for him in appreciation of his services. 

HON. W ILLIAM T. McCULLOCH, an exten- 
sive land owner and successful farmer of Griggs 
county, is one of the pioneers of that region, and has 
acquired his possessions by judicious management 
and industrious habits. He is a man of active public 
spirit and his labors for the advancement of his 
county and township have gained him many friends. 
His present home is on section 14, in tow^n- 
ship 147, range 60. 

Our subject was born in Hamilton. Ontario, 
Canada, November i, 1842, and was a son of James 
and Elizabeth McCulloch. He removed to Blanch- 
ard township, in Pearth county, Canada, with his 
parents when he was a young child, and there grew 

to manhood, and made his home with his parents 
until twenty- four years of age, when he began farm- 
ing on rented land in Pearth county, and remained 
there in that vocation until 1880, when he went to 
Barnes county. North Dakota, and settled on land 
northwest of Sanborn, where he lived two years, 
and then removed to his present land in Griggs 
county, which he had previously entered claim to. 
He erected a shanty thereon and has resided on that 
tract continuously since 1882. He is now the owner 
of seventeen hundred acres of land in that vicinity, 
and has met with unbounded success in his calling. 
Our subject was married, at the age of twenty- 
four years, to Miss Sarah A. Sonsborn, a native of 
Canada, who was born in 1849. ^frs. AlcCuUoch 
is a daughter of Andrew and Elizabeth Sonsburn, 
and her father was a fanner by occupation. Mr. 
and Airs. AlcCulloch have been the parents of six 
children, as follows : James A., Elizabeth J., Will- 
iam A., Graham, Maggie and Norman. The eldest 
daughter, now Mrs. George Pratt, resides north of 
Cooperstown, North Dakota. Mr. AlcCulloch 
served as a state representative from 1891-95, dur- 
ing wdiich time a special session was called to make 
an appropriation for the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition. He is a man who casts his vote and in- 
fluence for the principles which he thinks will best 
benefit his county, apd he is a leader among his as- 
sociates, and as a man of extensive financial affairs 
he is recognized among the leading men of northern 
Griggs county. 

tant-general of North Dakota, has attained distinct- 
ive preferment in military and political circles, and 
is one of the representative and prominent citizens 
of Bismarck. He w^as born in AIcLean county, Il- 
linois, November 15, 1846, a son of Sanford C. !Mil- 
ler, a native of Harrisonbury, West \"irginia, who 
removed to Illinois in 1836 and died in that state. 
The mother died during the infancy of our subject 
and he never knew her given name. 

General Aliller was reared and educated in 
Bloomington, McLean county, Illinois, and when 
the Civil war broke out he enlisted, in August. i86r, 
in Company B, Tiiirty-ninth Illinois \'olunteer In- 
fantry. He took an active part in the West \'ir- 
ginia campaign, and in the engagements in the Shen- 
andoah \'alley. including the battle of Winchester, 
in March, 1862. After the battle of Antietam the 
regiment was transferred to South Carolina and was 
in the battle of Morris Island. They veteranized 
January i, 1864, and were brought back to General 
Butler's army on the James river. Later they par- 
ticipated in the battles of Petersburg and Rich- 
mond and in the famous charge on Fort Gregg, and 
were in the engagement at Appomattox just before 
the surrender of General Lee. The governrrtent 
presented the regiment with their eagle in recogni- 
tion of the gallant charge on Fort Gregg. General 
Miller was wounded in the head on Morris Island, 



in 1864, and before Richmond was wounded in the 
right arm and also in the shoulder and foot, being 
confined to the hospital for four months. He was 
mustered out as a sergeant December 16. 1865. 

Returning to Illinois, he made his home there 
until 1879, and the following jear came to James- 
town, North Dakota, where he took up a homestead. 
He did not engage in farming, but followed con- 
tracting and building there for several years. In 
1885 he was made quartermaster of the First 
North Dakota State Troops, and in 1891 was com- 
missioned colonel of the regiment. He was ap- 
pointed adjutant-general by Governor Roger Allen 
in 1895, and then removed to Bismarck, where he 
has since resided. He has met with marked success 
during his residence in this state and has also 
gained the respect and esteem of all with whom he 
has come in contact either in public or private life. 

He has been a life-long Republican and has 
taken an active part in the councils of his party. He 
is a prominent Mason, a Knight Tetiiplar and a 
member of the Mystic Shrine, and is also an honored 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic, of 
which he has been inspector general of the depart- 
ment of North Dakota. He has also been a dele- 
gate to the national encampment from North Da- 
kota, and was commander of W. H. Seward Post, 
of Jamestown, for five years. 

HON. GEORGE LUTZ, who is conducting 
an extensive business as a lumber dealer in James- 
town, is one of the leading business men of Stuts- 
man county. He has steadily pushed forward 
and his present property interests are the direct re- 
sult of careful management and persistent efforts. 

]\Ir. Lutz was born in Wurtemburg, Germany, 
December 19, 1852. His father owned and op- 
erated a flour and sawmill. Our subject attended 
the public schools of his native place and at four- 
teen years of age engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness, which he followed four years, and then was 
employed in the bank five years, and spent one year 
in the German army. For the following four years 
he was correspondent in Antwerp for a German, 
French and English importing firm, a position 
which required a knowledge of the languages of 
those- countries. He came to America in the fall 
of 1879 and landed at New York, after which he 
went to Chicago, where he accepted a position 'in 
the Chicago office of an exporting firm, with whom 
he was employed until 1882. In August of that 
year he went to Jamestown, North Dakota, and was 
employed by Hartman, Durstine & Company, lum- 
ber dealers. There were but few dwellings in the 
town at that time, and in 1884 he became manager 
of the James River Lumber Company, and was 
connected with them until 1893, when he estab- 
lished a lumber yard for himself. He purchased 
the wood yard of ToplifT & Company in 1895, 
which business he operates in connection with the 
lumber yard, and enjoys an extensive patronage. 

Our subject was married in 1887 to Aliss Ma- 
tilda Bower, who was born and raised at Burling- 
ton, Iowa. -Mrs. Lutz is a lady of rare attainments, 
and was a teacher in the public schools of Burling- 
ton for five years, and also taught one year in 
North Dakota. Her father, Philip Bower, was of 
German descent, and her mother's people also came 
from Germany before the Civil war. Mr. and Mrs. 
Lutz have been the parents of two children : Alma, 
born in 1890, and Paul, born in 1893. 

Mr. Lutz was elected as a representative from 
Stutsman county to the first state legislature of 
North Dakota, in 1890, and his efficient work and 
popularity are best evidenced by the fact that he 
was elected in the same capacity in 1892. He takes 
an active part in local affairs and for the past ten 
years has been a member of the board of education, 
and was president of the board for two years, also 
a stockholder and director of the James River Na- 
tional Bank, of Jamestown. 

JOHN D. FAXON, county auditor of Foster 
county, is one of the well-known citizens and busi- 
ness men of that region, and his name is connected 
with the history of Foster county. He is a man of 
intelligence and enterprise and at all times has shown 
an active public spirit. 

Our subject was born at Fort Ann, ^^'ashington 
county, New York, July 15, 1846. His father, 
Horace Faxon, was born in America, and was a 
contractor and builder. The family settled in 
America in colonial days, two brothers, Thomas 
and Richard Faxon, coming from England and lo- 
cating at Braintree, Massachusetts, about 1600, 
and they and their families took part in the early 
wars in the L^nited States. The mother of our 
subject, whose maiden name was Jane White, was 
of Irish-Welsh descent, although her parents were 
also born in New York state. 

j\lr. Faxon was the second in a famil\- of four 
children, and was given a common-school education. 
His father died when our subject was but seven 
years of age, and at the age of fifteen he began 
working for others during the summer months and 
attending school in the winter. He engaged at 
farming and clerking, and at the age of nineteen 
years learned the carpenter's trade, after which he 
went to Buffalo, New York, where he worked in 
the car shops of the Buffalo & Erie Railway for 
two years. He then took a position in the car shops 
at Salem, New York, where he remained ten years, 
and in 1879 went to Albany and spent one year there, 
going from thence to \'irginia City, Nevada, think- 
ing fo benefit his health. He spent some time dur- 
ing the same year at the carpenter's trade in Min- 
nesota, and built the Dalton hotel and other build- 
ings at Dalton, Minnesota. This was then a new 
town and he remained there four years, working at 
his trade as much as his health would permit. He 
went to Cass county, North Dakota, in the fall of 
1884 and after spending the winter there took land 



in Eddy county, North Dakota, on which he erected 
a house, barn and other farm buildings, and began 
the cuhivation of his land. He put in crops four 
seasons, and one only was a profitable yield, and in 
1887 fire destroyed his house, granary, together with 
_grain, and his household goods, entailing a loss of- 
two thousand dollars. He then moved to New 
Rockford, and accepted a position with the Duluth 
& Dakota Elevator Company, and in 1889 gave up 
his farming interests. He went to St. Paul in the 
fall of 1889, and in August of the following year 
went to Carrington, North Dakota, and accepted a 
position with the North Dakota Elevator Company. 
He spent six years with them, and in the meantime 
established the farm implement business. He left 
the employ of the elevator company in 1896, since 
which time he has purchased grain for his own busi- 
ness. He has a building 24x60 feet erected near the 
Northern Pacific tracks, and has been successful in 
that business. He also owns farm land in Eddy 
county. North Dakota. He was elected county au- 
ditor on the Democratic ticket in the fall of 1898, 
and has been discharging the duties of that position 
since March 6, 1899, for the term. 

Our subject was married at Salem, New York, to 
j\liss Sarah Snowden, who was born and raised at 
Albany, New York, and is a daughter of John Snow- 
den. Her father was of English birth, and was a 
machinist by trade. Airs. Faxon is a lady of good 
education, and a graduate of the high school of 
New York City. Two children have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Faxon, as follows : Helen and Ma- 
rillo. Mr. Faxon has always taken an active inter- 
est in public aff^airs wherever he has chosen his 
home, and while a resident of New York was col- 
lector of taxes in Salem. He was a candidate on 
the Democratic ticket for representative to the state 
legislature from the twenty-second district of North 
Dakota. He is a member of the state central com- 
mittee of the Democratic party, and has been chair- 
man of the county central committee for a number 
■of years. 

HON. GEORGE E. NICHOLS, one of the 
prominent and representative citizens of Fargo, 
North Dakota, and president of the Cass County 
Abstract & Guarant}- Company, has shown in his 
successful career that he has the ability to plan 
wisely and execute with energy, a combination 
which, when possessed by men in any walk of life, 
never fails to effect notable results. Fie was born 
in Windham county, \'ermont, ?klarch 25, 1856, a 
son of William E. and Jane E. (Prouty) Nichols, 
natives of Connecticut and \'ermont, respectively. 
They passed their entire lives in New England, the 
father being employed as a mechanic. 

In the schools of his native state our subject ac- 
quired his literary education. On leaving home at 
the age of fifteen years he went to ^Marshall. Michi- 
gan, where he remained for ten years, coming to 
Fargo in the spring of 1878. Here he was in the 

employ of N. K. Hubbard, proprietor of the Head- 
quarters Hotel, until 1885, and was then employed 
as deputy county treasurer under H. H. Burke' in 
which position he served for six years. In the fall 
of 1890 he was elected treasurer and filled that 
office for two terms of two years each. At the end 
of that time, in 1894, he was elected state treasurer, 
and was re-elected in 1896, serving in all four years 
with credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction 
of his constituents. In 1892 he organized the Cass 
County Abstract & Guaranty Company, of which 
he has since been president, and was also one of the 
organizers of the Fargo National Bank, of which 
he is now a director. He is a business man of more 
than ordinary ability, is far-sighted and energetic, 
and the success that he has achieved in life is due 
entirely to his own well-directed eft'orts, for he 
commenced life for himself empty-handed. Socially 
he is a Knight Templar Mason and a member of 
the Mystic Shrine, and politically he is a pronounced 

In 1882 Mr. Nichols married Miss Elizabeth I. 
Crane, who was born in Connecticut, and they have 
become the parents of four children: William C, 
Arthur A., Taniiisse and Imogene. 

Dakota has already become distinguished for the 
high rank of her bench and bar. Perhaps none of 
the newer states can justly boast of abler jurists and 
attorneys. Prominent among these is Judge Pol- 
lock, of Fargo, who now occupies the bench of the 
third judicial district. He is a native of New York, 
his birth occurring in Elizabethtown, Essex county, 
September 27, 1853. 

His parents, John and Eunice E. (Ellis) Pollock, 
were natives of Ireland and New York, respectively. 
The father, who was a teacher by profession, came 
to the new world in 1830, at the age of nine years, 
and was graduated from the Troy Conference Sem- 
inary of New York, then presided over by Bishop 
Jesse T. Peck. He was ordained as a clergyman of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, but he devoted the 
greater part of his time to teaching. He founded 
the Rainsburg Seminary at Rainsburg. Bedford 
county, Pennsylvania, where he remained for some 
years, and in 1856 went to Iowa, and the following 
year opened the Epworth Seminary at Epworth, 
Dubuque county, remaining there two years. He 
then went to DeWitt, Iowa, as principal of the pub- 
lic schools at that place, and later served as county 
auditor of Clinton county for four years, and as 
deputy treasurer eight years. In 1895 lie came to 
Fargo, North Dakota, where he died a year later. 
His wife had passed away in 1895. To them were 
born four sons ; one a resident of Dubuque, Iowa ; 
another of San Francisco, California, while our sub- 
ject makes his home in Fargo, North Dakota, and the 
fourth died in infancy. The paternal grandfather, 
James Pollock, was a farmer by occupation. 

Judge Pollock, of this review, was educated by 



his parents, and at the age of fourteen commenced 
work as depnty in the ottice of the register of deeds 
in CHnton county, iowa, where he remanied six 
years. He then entered Cornell College at Alt. Ver- 
non, Iowa, from which he was graduated in 1878, 
and the following two years was principal of the 
public schools of Lowden, Iowa, during which time 
he also studied law. He graduated trom the law 
department of the State L'niversity of Iowa, in 1881, 
and on the 15th of July, that year, opened a law 
office in Fargo, Xortli Dakota, where he has since 
engaged in practice, meeting with marked success 
in his chosen calling. He has recently been chosen 
to lecture in the law department of the State Uni- 
versity of North Dakota and has accepted. 

In 1882 Judge Polk married Aliss Martha Clin- 
ton, daughter of Rev. John W. Clinton, a native of 
Ontario, Canada, and by this union four children 
were born, namely : John C, who died at the age of 
three years and a half; Clara A.; Martha L. and 
Dewitt C. The family belong to the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and the Judge is a member of 
the Masonic order and the Bar Association. Polit- 
ically he is an ardent Republican and as an orator 
has taken an active part in campaign work through- 
out the state. In 1885 he was elected district at- 
torney and creditably filled that office for two terms. 
He was elected judge of the third judicial district 
in 1896, in which position he is now serving with 
distinction. He is absolutely fearless in the dis- 
charge of his duties, favor cannot tempt him from 
the straight path, and he has been successful in en- 
forcing the prohibition law and in reducing the 
number of divorces granted by the court. His sen- 
tences are models of judicial fairness, and he is a 
type of the law that respects and protects, not con- 
demns humanity. 

whom a portrait will be found on another page, is 
one of the ablest lawyers practicing in the state, 
is a recognized leader in the Republican party, and 
is an honored veteran of the Civil war. A native of 
Canada, he was born in Brandford, September 30, 
1846, and is a son of Christopher and Frances 
( Pike ) Hughes, who were born in the north of 
Ireland and emigrated to Canada about 1801 or 
1802. In 1846 they removed to Columbia county, 
Wisconsin, where the father entered a government 
tract of land. He was a graduate of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, Ireland, and was a civil engineer, 
which profession he followed to some extent 
throughout his entire life. He died in Wisconsin 
in 18O7, and his wife in 1871. To them were born 
thirteen children, six sons and seven daughters, of 
\yhom only our subject and four sisters are now 
living. Two of the sons died from wounds re- 
ceived in the Civil war. 

General Hughes was reared and educated in 
Wisconsin, attending first the common schools of 
that state, which at that time were much inferior 

to those of the present day. Feeling his country- 
needed his services during the dark days of the 
Rebellion, he enlisted in Company B, Seventh Wis- 
consin Infantry, which was assigned to the First 
Division, First Corps, Army of the Potomac. With 
this command he participated in the battles of 
Gainesville, the second Bull Run, the first and sec- 
ond battles of Fredericksburg, and the engagements 
at Chancellorsville and Brady Station. He was 
slightly wounded at Gainesville; was shot through 
the right arm at South J\Iountain, and in the last 
day of the battle of Gettysburg was wounded in the 
left side. Subsequently he took part in the seven 
days' battle of the Wilderness, where he was 
wounded in the right leg, and received a heavy blow 
from a musket at Spottsylvania Court House, but 
did not go to the hospital. During the battle of 
North Anne river he was seriously wounded, a shot 
entering his left side and coming out on the right. 
He lay in a helpless condition for nearly two years. 

Un leaving the service. General Hughes realized 
the necessity for a good education, and entered 
Wayland Academy, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, and 
later took a course at Bryant & Stratton's Business-' 
College, I\Iilwaukee. He was married in 1869 to 
Miss Mary E. Higinbotham, a native of Indiana, 
and a granddaughter of Judge Eckles, of Indiana, 
who was later chief justice ot Utah territory. Her 
father, Samuel Higinbotham, was a surgeon in the 
Eighty-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry during 
the Civil war, and died in the service in Tennessee. 
To our subject and his wife were born five sons and 
one daughter, namely: George A. and Edmund 
A., both residents of Fargo, North Dakota; Harry 
A., who died in 1883; William V., Frank C. and 
Helen A., all at home. 

General Hughes located at Alonticello, Iowa, in 
1868, and commenced the practice of law. The fol- 
lowing year he was elected superintendent of 
schools for the county of Jones. In April, 1871, 
he removed, with his family, to Elk Point, in the 
territory of Dakota, now the state of South Dakota, 
and soon gained high rank in his profession. In 
1872 he was elected a member of the upper house 
of the territorial legislature, and upon its organiza- 
tion was elected presiding officer of said body. In 
1880 he was appointed, by the President, superin- 
tendent of the census for the territory of Dakota. 
In 1 88 1 he was appointed receiver for the United 
States land office at Yankton, which office he re- 
signed in 1883 to accept the office of attorney-gen- 
eral. In the year 1883 he was appointed, by the 
legislative assembly, a member of the committee to 
select the site for the seat of government and to 
erect a capitol building upon such site. When the 
commission was organized he was elected as presi- 
dent. The capitol building at Bismarck was con- 
structed under his immediate direction and super- 
vision. He removed to Bismarck in 1883 with the 
other territorial officers and continued to reside at 
said place until 1899. when he removed to Fargo- 
He represented the Bismarck district in the higher 




branch of the legislative assembly for two terms, 
and was chairman of the committee on judiciary. 
Many of the most important laws enacted during 
the past thirty years in the territory of Dakota and 
in the state of North Dakota were prepared by 
him. For sixteen years he tilled the position of 
assistant counsel of the Northern Pacihc Railwa)- 
Company to the entire satisfaction of the company. 
He was also the first adjutant-general of the terri- 
tory of Dakota. During the last few years he has 
given considerable time to business atfairs, and is 
president of the Fargo-Edison Company and of the 
Hughes Electric Company, whose plants at Fargo, 
Bismarck and Dickinson furnish light, power and 
heat for those cities. 

The General is now one of the most active and 
best-known Republicans in the northwest. He has 
been a member of the territorial and state central 
and executive committees almost continuously for 
the past twenty-seven years. He was a delegati? 
to the national Republican conventions in 1872, 
1876, 1880 and in 1896. He is recognized as an 
able lawyer, a graceful, logical and forcible speaker, 
and is considered especially able in the discussion 
of legal questions before the courts. 

City, North Dakota, is one of the younger memljers 
of the Barnes county bar, but his prominence is by 
no means measured by his years ; on the contrary, 
lie has won a reputation which many an older prac- 
titioner might well envy. He was born at Lakelet, 
Ontario, Canada, December 11, 1870, and is a son of 
Richard and Jane (Eaton) Young, also natives of 
that country. The father was born in Leeds county, 
C)ntario, in 1822, and during his active business life 
was engaged in the lumber trade, in which he was 
successful. For a time he served as first lieutenant 
in the Tenth Regiment \'olunteers of Canada. He 
died in 1885, and his estimable wife, who was born 
in 1832, passed away in 1896. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject served with distinction as 
colonel of a volunteer regiment in Canada. He 
was born in Ireland in 1798, and died in Lakelet, 
Ontario, at the advanced age of ninety-three years. 

George M. Young began his literary education 
in the public schools of his native land and later 
attended the high school at Orangeville. (3n com- 
ing to the United States in 1888. he first located at 
IMineapolis, Minnesota, where he engaged in news- 
paper work. In the summer of 1890 he commenced 
the study of law in the law office of Pollock & 
Young, of Casselton, North Dakota. Later he at- 
tended the College of Law of the L^niversity of 
Minnesota, from which college he graduated. In 
1893 he returned to North Dakota, where for a year 
he was in the law office of Hon. O. W. Francis, at 
Fargo. In November, 1894, he took up his resi- 
dence in \'alley City, where he opened an office and 
•engaged in practice alone until Alay, 1899. when he 
formed a partnership with Lee Combs, under the 

firm name of Young & Combs. They do a general 
law business, but make a practice of practicing in 
the state and federal courts, doing more than any 
other firm in that line in Barnes county. Mr. 
Young is very popular and inliuential, and is now 
a member of the governor's staff. 

In January, 1899, at the home of the bride, in 
St. Charles, ^Michigan, was celebrated the marriage 
of Mr. Young and Miss Augusta L. Freeman, a 
daughter of Jared and Caroline M. (.Adams) Free- 
man. The father is a prominent lumber merchant 
of that place, and the mother is a direct tlescendant 
of President lohn Adams. 

SERENO N. PUTNAM, register of deeds of 
Eddy county, is one of the early settlers of that 
region, and has been identified with the develop- 
ment and advancement of Eddy county. He is a 
gentleman of broad mmd and well educated, and is 
entitled to a foremost place among the promoters 
of business matters. He has varied financial mter- 
ests in agricultural lines, and is one of the substantial 
men of his community. 

Our subject was born in Sherburne county. Min- 
nesota, in March, 1861. His father. Henry f. Put- 
nam, was a farmer and merchant in Minnesota. 
Our subject is a descendant of a brother 01 israel 
Putnam, of Revolutionary fame. The mother of 
our subject, whose maiden name was Caro.ine New- 
ton, was of English descent, and the family settled 
in America in colonial times. 

Our subject was the second in a family of five 
children, and was raised on a farm in his native 
state. He attended the country schools and also the 
Normal School at St. Cloud, Minnesota, and grad- 
uated from that institution in 1880. He began 
teaching school at the age of sixteen years, and fol- 
lowed that vocation most of the time for about five 
years, and in 1883 came to Eddy county, North 
Dakota. He entered claim to government land 
near Tiffany and began farming. He erected a 
6.x8 feet shanty and lived alone and followed farm- 
ing with oxen. He continued farming until 1886, 
when he was elected county supermtendent of 
schools, and was re-elected at the expiration of his 
term. He had his office on his farm, and served in 
that capacity two terms. He attended the depart- 
ment of law at the State University of Minnesota 
during the winter of 1890-91. afterwhichhefoUowed 
teaching a short time, and in the fall of 1894 was 
elected county register of deeds of Eddy county. 
He was re-elected in 1896, and again in 1898, and 
is now serving his third term in that position. He 
is an efficient officer, and enjoys popularity. 

Our subject was married in 1888 to Miss Grace 
Brown, a native of New York. Mrs. Putnam is 
a lady of good education, and is a graduate of the 
Mayville Normal School of North Dakota. She 
taught school in North Dakota several terms, and 
her father was one of the early settlers of that state 
and was a farmer by occupation. Mr. Putnam is a 



member of the Knights of Pythias lodge and of the 
Ma-sonic fraternity. He is a man who keeps abreast 
of the times on all important issues, and takes an 
active interest in the welfare of his community, and 
is de.-ervedly held in high esteem by his fellowmen. 
In political faith he is a Republican, and stands 
firmly fur tlie principles oi his party. 

FRANKLIN S. DL-NHA^I. One of the exten- 
sive farmsof township 149, range 67, in Eddy county, 
is owned and ably operated by the subject of this 
review. Mr. Dunham is one of the pioneer settlers 
of North Dakota, and has been identified with the 
farming interestsof Eddy county since taking up 
his residence there, and is now the fortunate pos- 
sessor of sixteen hundred acres of land, and is suc- 
cessfully conducting diversified farming thereon. 
He is a man of honest purpose and true citizenship, 
and is highly esteemed throughout that locality 
where he is well known and has been associated 
with the people in various important public offices. 

Our subject was born in Wyoming county, New 
York, March 2^, 1854. ■ The Dunham family came 
to America from England about 1808, and the 
mother's family was aiso of English descent. The 
father of our subject, George H. Dunham, was a 
farmer by occupation and also superintendent of 
schools of Wyoming county, New York for six years, 
and during the last twenty years of his life he was 
engaged in the insurance business, and has made his 
home at Johnsonsburgh, New York. The mother 
of our subject bore the maiden name of Louise Vir- 
gin, and was born and raised in eastern New York 
state. Our subject's brother, Fred Dunhair, is an 
attorney at law in Hatavia, New York. 

Franklin S. Dunham was the second in a family 
of three children, and was reared on a farm antl 
given a common-school education, and later at- 
tended an academy. After attaining his majority 
he rented a farm in western New York state and 
followed farming thereon eight years, and in 1883 
went to North Dakota and entered claim to govern- 
ment land in Eddy county, upon which he erected a 
claim shanty 16x16 feet. He had a limited start, 
and had only sod barns, and for the first two years 
farmed with oxen. His crops were fair but cut too 
soon, and his wheat shrunk and was almost worth- 
less, but his crop of oats was good. He was elected 
county treasurer on the Republican ticket in 1892, 
and ti'.e following year removed to New Rockford, 
and was re-elected in 1894, and in 1896 was elected 
county auditor, making his public service as a county 
officer extend over a period of six years. He also 
conducted his farm while in the city, and in the 
spring of 1899 returned to the same to reside. He 
has about one thousand acres of his land under cul- 
tivation and has all necessary machinery, and a com- 
plete set of good farm buildings, and' six acres of 
Cottonwood trees, plenty of good water, and a finely 
developed farm in every particular, and is known 
as one of the substantial' farmers of the communitv. 

Our subject was married in 1876, to Miss Clara 
North, who was born and raised in Genesee county,. 
New York. Airs. Dunham is of English descent, 
and her father, Noah North, was a farmer by occu- 
pation. Mrs. Dunham is a lady of excellent educa- 
tion, and was a teacher in her native state at the time 
of her marriage. Three children have been born to 
Mr. and Airs. Dunham, as follows : George H., Fred 
Harrison, and Clara Louise, all of whom were born 
in Dakota. Mr. Dunham is a member of the Ancient 
Order of LTnited Workmen and Modern Woodmen 
of America. Politically he is a Republican, and is a 
man who stands firm for his convictions. 

DR. HENRY M. WHEELER, one of the best 
known physicians and surgeons of the Northwest, 
enjoys an extensive general practice in Grand Forks, 
North Dakota. He was born in Sullivan county. 
New Hampshire, June 23, 1853. 

The parents of our subject. Mason and Huldalx 
(Wheeler) Wheeler, were natives of Vermont and 
New Hampshire, respectively, and the father was a 
drover and stock raiser, and went to Northfield, 
Minnesota, in 1856, and spent his remaining years 
there. Two sons composed the family of children 
born to this worthy couple, the brother of our sub- 
ject now residing in New York. 

Mr. Wheeler was reared and educated in Minne- 
sota, and attended Carlton College of Northfield, and 
then began the study of medicine under Dr. C. M. 
Thompson. He entered the University of Michigan 
in 1875, and graduated in 1877, and during the same 
year began the practice of his profession at North- 
field, Alinnesota, and in 1879 entered the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of New York City, and 
grciuated from there in 1881. He then located in 
Grand Forks, North Dakota, and has continued his 
practice there since that date. He is secretary of 
the state examining board, serving since 1894, and 
is local surgeon for the Northern Pacific and Great 
Northern railroads, which position he has held for 
many years. He has also served on the LTnited 
States pension examining board, and is a member 
of the State Medical Society of Minnesota, and was 
president of the North Dakota State Medical Society. 

Our subject was married in October, 1878, to 
Miss Adaline Murry, a native of Minnesota. Mrs. 
Wheeler died in 1881. Mr. Wheeler was married 
to Aliss Josephine E. Connell, a native of Minne- 
sota, in 1883. Our subject is a member of the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, and Knights of 
Pythias, and was grand master of the Masonic order 
in North Dakota in 1888. He is a Republican polit- 
ically and is firm in his convictions, but takes little 
part in political affairs, and has never sought public 
preferment. Mr. Wheeler has a handsome gold 
watch which was presented to him by the First Na- 
tional Bank of Northfield, Minnesota, in remem- 
brance of his services in assisting in repelling the 
attack on that bank in 1876 by the James and 
Younger brothers. A history of that famous raid 



was written by Professor Huntington, and he tells 
of the bravery and quick action of Dr. Wheeler at 
the time. He was visiting his home during a vaca- 
tion at college in Michigan, and was one ot the first 
to suspect an attempt was being made to rob the 
bank. Mr. Allen was the first to give the alarm, 
and at the same moment Mr. Wheeler stepped into 
the street from in front of his father's store where 
he had been sittting, and he shouted "robbery," and 
then turned to get his gun, but remembered he had 
left it at home, and then went to the Dompier hotel, 
where an old army carbine with three cartridges 
were secured, and he was soon at a second-story win- 
dow. His first shot was at Jim Younger, but the 
gun carried high, and Younger looked for the gun- 
ner and rode on, and Mr. Wheeler then shot at Clel 
Miller, the bullet passing through the body, severing 
the great artery and death ensued instantly. The 
third and last cartridge had fallen to the floor and 
had burst the paper and a fresh supply was then 
brought him by a friend and immediately followed 
several shots at Bob Younger by Mr. Manning, and 
the former dodged behind a stairway and returned 
the fire, and this was repeated several times, when 
Mr. Wheeler shot at Younger and the ball struck 
the robber's elbow, shattering the bone. Younger 
coolly changed his pistol to his left hand and con- 
tinued to shoot at Manning, and while Manning 
was endeavoring to get to the back of the store and 
Wheeler was re-loading his gun, Younger made his 
escape, and mounted a horse behind his brother, Cole. 
The outlaws were pursued and captured, and sen- 
tenced to life imprisonment at Stillwater, Minnesota, 
and the watch presented to Mr. \\'heeler in appre- 
ciation of his services is shown with due pride, but 
the affair is seldom mentioned by Mr. Wheeler un- 
less he is urged to do so by his many friends. 

JAMES L. LEE, LL. D. The professions are 
well represented in Wells county, and a prominent 
place among this number is held by the gentleman 
above named. He is a practicing attorney of Fes- 
senden, and has attained his high position as an 
attorney and citizen by faithful service and earnest 
study, and is a gentleman of excellent education 
and refinement. 

Our subject was born in Toledo, Ohio, in Au- 
gust, 1856. His foster father, Hiram Lee, was a 
farmer by occupation in Ohio, and was a native of 
Pennsylvania, and died in Kansas in 1897. The 
great-grandfather of our subject was born in Xew 
England, and the mother of our subject, whose 
maiden name was Elizabeth Porter, was born in 
France and emigrated to America. Our subject 
was reared by foster parents, of the name of Lee, 
who were New York people. He was reared in 
Illinois on a farm and assisted with the work of the 
place and did not attend school regularly until 
nineteen vears of age, when he attended the country 
school winters and later attended an academy. Be- 
tween 1873-76 he attended the law school at Ann 

Arbor, Michigan, and graduated in 1887 with the 
degree of LL. D. He established himself in the 
practice of his profession in Clear Lake, Iowa, in 
the spring of f878 and continued there twelve 
years, during which time he built up an extensive 
general practice, and in i88y went to Topeka, Kan- 
sas, where he practiced two years, and then spent 
some months traveling through the western states 
to the Pacific coast. He assumed charge of the 
collection department of the machine firm of D. M. 
Osborne & Company, of Chicago, and was thus 
engaged five years. He located in Fessenden, 
North Dakota, August 15, 1896, where he estab- 
lished his office and has since followed his practice. 
Our subject was married in Fessenden, North 
Dakota, March 21, 1897, to Miss Hattie Jones. 
]Mrs. Lee was born in Vexio, Sweden, and came to 
America in 1886, at the age of fourteen years. Her 
father, who was of English descent, died when she 
was five years of age. Mr. Lee is the father of 
the following children by a former marriage: Fred 
L., owner and operator of a silver mine in Idaho, 
residing at \Vallace ; Stella; and James N., attend- 
ing Central High School at Minneapolis. Mr. Lee 
is active in public affairs and is a Republican in 

HON. MARTIN HECTOR, one of Fargo's 
most popular and influential business men, is now 
president of the Fargo National Bank, which, while 
not one of the oldest banking houses of the state, 
is considered one of its most substantial. It was 
organized in 1897, and its deposits have rapidly in- 
creased until today they average with any bank in 
the state. On its organization Mr. Hector was 
chosen president, O. J. DeLendrecies, vice-president 
and W. C. McFadden, cashier. Its board of uireit- 
ors is composed of the above named gentleman, 
together with Seth Wright and Ceorge E. Nichols. 
All are well-known citizens of North Dakota and are 
numbered among Fargo's most prosperous and reli- 
able business men. They do a general banking 
business and issue foreign and domestic exchange. 

Air. Hector, the able president of this financial 
institution, has been a resident of Fargo since 1872. 
He came to the Northwest a poor boy without other 
resources than good health and a determination to 
succeed, and has worked his way upward in the 
commercial world until today he stands in the front 
rank of the successful business men' of this section, 
having become one of the wealthiest men of North 
Dakota. He is also prominent in public affairs and 
has filled a number of positions of honor and trust 
since coming to this state. He was president of the 
citv council for several years, and has done much 
to bring about the substantial improvements in 
which Fargo takes a great pride. He has never 
sought pohtical preferment or public honors, but 
holds a high position in social and business circles. 
In 1893 he was selected as a member of the board of 
commissioners from North Dakota to the World's 



Fair, and was elected president of that body. While 
devoting a great deal of time and money to that work 
( probably equivalent to $1,000), he refused to accept 
from the state any pay for his services. He is 
always willing to support any movement calculated 
to prove of public benefit and the comnumity is 
fortunate that number him among its citizens. 

JOHN P. REEDER. There are few men in 
Wahpeton, Richland county. North Dakota, m the 
past ten years who have done more for its commer- 
cial interests and its growth and development than 
the man whose name heads this review. He is a 
prominent figure in business, political and social 
circles, is at present serving as mayor of the city, 
and is one of its leading merchants. 

Mr. Reeder was born in Lake county, Indiana, 
November 11, 1863, and there he continued to 
make his home until about eighteen years of age, 
being indebted to its schools for his educational priv- 
ileges. In 1881 he removed to Minnesota, and after 
two years spent in that state he came to Wahpeton, 
where he was employed as clerk in a general store 
for about two years. He then embarked in busi- 
ness on his own account as a merchant, and today 
carries a large and well assorted stock of general 
merchandise, for which he finds a ready sale, having 
built up an excellent trade in the city and surround- 
ing country. 

In Lake county, Indiana, Mr. Reeder was mar- 
ried, in 1886, to Aliss Josephine Schreiber, a native 
of that county, and they now have a family of four 
children : John, George, Gilbert and Herman. Soci- 
ally Mr. Reeder is a prominent member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen and the For- 
esters. He is one of the most influential and pub- 
lic-spirited citizens of Wahpeton and has made a 
most efficient and popular officer, doing all in his 
power to advance the interests of the city. He has 
served as mayor continuously since 1896, and prior 
to that time was one of the county commissioners 
of Richland county for years. He was also a mem- 
ber of the school board one year, and in 1894 was 
a candidate for the legislature on the Democratic 
ticket, and came within seven votes of being elected. 
In 1895 he erected the Wahpeton opera house which 
he still owns and conducts, and has been identified 
with a number of enterprises which have proved of 
public benefit. 

gentleman is widely known as an intelligent and 
worthy citizen of Sherbrooke, Steele county, and 
his labors as county judge of Steele county are be- 
yond criticism. He is outspoken and generous and 
is always found standing on the side of right and 
justice, and working for the interests of his fellow- 

Mr. Warrey was born in Rensselaer county, 
New York, August 23. 1855, and he and his younger 

sister were the only children born to Robert and 
Hannah (Carver) Warrey. The father had been 
married previous to his union with our subject's 
mother, and was the father of three children by 
his first marriage; and the mother of our subject, 
by a previous marriage to a JNIr. Simmons, was the 
mother of three children, the family thus consisting 
of eight children. When our subject was a child 
the family removed to Binghaniton, New York, 
where the father worked at contracting and building. 
He was an architect and designer, and also worked 
at practical carpenter work, and during the Civil 
war was in charge ' of the force qf pontoon and 
bridge builders. He died when our subject was 
nine years of age, and the lad soon went to live 
with a farmer for two years, and in 1867, after the 
death of his mother, he took up his residence with 
an uncle, who was appointed his guardian. When 
seventeen years of age he became apprenticed to the 
mason's trade, but he was possessed of a desire for 
a more liberal education, and when nineteen years 
of age he accordingly entered Delaware Literary 
Institute, at Franklin, New York, where he re- 
mained four years. He worked his way through 
this institution, but his studies were continually in- 
terrupted by several terms of school which he 
taught in the village and country. He descended 
from a family of educators. A number of his 
mother's near relatives were prominent among the 
leading professors in Amherst College and other 
universities of the east. His ambition, however, 
was to perfect himself for the practice of law. He 
went to Wyandotte, Kansas, in 1880, and worked 
at carpenter work and later joined the police force, 
studying law in the meantime, but this double duty 
was undermining his health and he again began the 
carpenter work and became foreman of a crew for 
the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Railroad 
Company, building station and section houses. He 
did not gain in health, and in August, 1884, went to 
Fargo. North Dakota, and worked at carpenter work 
there for a short time and then located in Steele 
county. North Dakota. He taught school several 
winters in Steele and Cass counties, and in the spring 
of 1885 filed a claim to land in Broadlawn township, 
and until 1893 he was engaged in contract work 
with headquarters at Hope. He purchased a build- 
ing at Sherbrooke in June, 1893, and began hotel 
keeping, and also established a livery barn, and in 
1897 also engaged in the general merchandise busi- 
ness, in which work he is now engaged, and is a 
successful business man. 

Our subject was married, in 1888, to Miss Rose 
L. Wallace, a resident of Page, Cass county. North 
Dakota. Four children have been born to bless 
the home of Mr. and Mrs. Warrey, as follows: 
\'ictor I., Edward R., Lillian E. and Washington 
I. The public record of Mr. Warrey is worthy of 
note. He was elected county surveyor in 1890, and 
while serving thus was also deputy sheriff of Steele 
county, and in 1894 was elected county judge, and 
is now serving his third term, and since taking up 




his residence in Sherbrooke has twice served as 
'deputy sheritf. He is prominent in secret society 
circles and holds membership in the following 
orders : Masonic, Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, and Modern Woodmen of America. In polit- 
ical sentiment he is a Republican, and is a man of 
deep thought and deservedly popular with the peo- 
ple. A portrait of iNIr. and Mrs. Warrey appears 
on another page. 

HERBERT ROOT, deceased, was for almost 
twenty years prominently identified with the inter- 
ests of \'alley City, Barnes county, North Dakota, 
as one of its leading attorneys and business men. 
He early learned that knowledge is the key with 
which the poor boy could open the store house of the 
Avorld and cull its choicest fruits. The result is he 
became one of the most successful men of his city, 
and essentially the architect of his own fortune. 

Air. Root was born on a farm in county Holdi- 
mond, Ontario, Canada, August 12, 1848, a son of 
Isaac and Sarah (Dobie) Root, also natives of Can- 
ada. He was a direct descendant of Henry Rott, 
of Pennsylvania, the name having been changed in 
his father's time. Isaac Root was born in Lincoln 
county, Ontario, in 1808, followed the occupation of 
a farmer throughout life, and died in 1891. The 
motlier of our subject, who was born in 181 1, de- 
parted this life in 1858, and two years later the father 
married Calista Barrett, who still survives him and 
resides in Canada. 

The early education of Herbert Root was ac- 
quired in the district schools of his native province. 
Coming to the United States at the age of twelve 
years, he located at Ouincy. Illinois, and accepted a 
position as clerk with his uncle, Henry Root, then 
conducting one of the largest dry goods stores in 
that city. Our subject remained in his employ un- 
til 1869, when he entered the Methodist Episcopal 
College at Quincy, where he pursued a general 
course of study for one year. The following year 
he engaged in teaching a country school near Racine, 
Wisconsin, and in 1870 became a student at Racine 
College, where he took the classical course and grad- 
uated with high honors in 1872, standing at the head 
of his class and receiving the degrees of A. B. and 
A. M.. He also won five gold medals at that school. 
It was by his own unaided efliorts that he secured 
his collegiate education. He was next a student at 
the Nashotah Theological Seminary of Waukesha 
county, Wisconsin, and from that institution he was 
graduated in August, 1874. 

Mr. Root was then ordained a deacon in the 
Episcopal church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Wash- 
ington boulevard and Peoria street, Chicago, and as 
such was in charge of Grace church at Sterling, 
Illinois, for a time. He was next sent to Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, where he was ordained to the priesthood 
by Bishop Wells, and subsequently became assistant 
to Dr. John Fulton, dean of the Cathedral at Indian- 
apolis. Indiana, where he remained a year. He was 

then rector at Grace church, Muncie, Indiana, until 
JMarch, 1877, when he came west and for three 
years was rector of St. Paul's church at Brainard, 

In March, 1880, Mr. Root became a resident of 
\'alley City, North Dakota. His first venture here 
was in the private banking business, but in 1881 he 
assisted in organizing the First National Bank, of 
which he was cashier until January, 1882, when he 
resigned and organized the Farmers' & Merchants' 
Bank. He was president of that corporation until 
it went into voluntary liquidation in 1890, paying one 
hundred cents on the dollar. He then successfully 
engaged in farming and the practice of law, and 
while he maintained an office in the city, his home 
was in the country north of the place. He was 
prominent in business circles and occupied an envia- 
ble position in the esteem of his fellow citizens. 

On the 13th of r^Iarch, 1875, Mr. Root was uni- 
ted in marriage with Miss Harriet C. Warner, of 
Racine, Wisconsin, daughter of Eli W. and Hannah 
Warner. Her parents were from Hartford, Con- 
necticut, and were among the early settlers of Racine 
county, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Root died January 5, 1900, at St. Luke's 
hospital, St. Paul, ?iIinnesota, whither he had gone, 
accompanied by his wife, for medical advice. His 
death was due to disease of the heart, and was a 
terrible shock to a large circle of friends. His best 
obituary is found in the general epistle of St. James, 
first chapter, twenty-seventh verse. His mortal 
part lies in Mound cemetery, Racine, Wisconsin. 

EDWARD B. JOHNSON, one of the wide- 
awake and well-to-do members of the farming com- 
munity of Shuman township, in Sargent county, has 
gained an estate covering four hundred and eighty 
acres of land, by persistent industry and strict at- 
tention to business. He has been a resident of Da- 
kota nearly twenty years, and has become thoroughly 
identified with its history, and in all matters pertain- 
ing to the upbuilding of his township and county is 
always ready to aid by his support and good influ- 
ence. For the past fifteen years he has made his 
home in section 10 of Shuman township, and his 
farm is one of the well-improved tracts of land in 
that locality. 

Our subject was born in Norway, December 15, 
1854. He was but two and a half years of age when 
the family came to America, in 1857, and settled in 
Crawford county, Wisconsin, where our subject was 
reared to manhood. He attended the common 
schools, and resided there until the spring of 1880, 
when he went to Dakota, and settled in Richland 
county. He resided there five years, and then moved 
his family to their present home in Sargent county, 
having taken the land as a homestead in 1883. He 
has added valuable improvements to the place, and 
is now the owner of four hundred and eighty acres 
of land, and engages in general farming, meeting 
with success. 



Our subject was married in Crawford county, 
Wisconsin, June 25, 1879, to Miss Christina Torger- 
son, who was born in Crawford county, Wisconsin, 
September 14, 1859. .Mr. and 2^irs. Johnson are 
the parents of four children, as follows: Edward, 
Emma J., Albert, and Palmer. Mr. Johnson is 
active in all local affairs, and has served as county 
commissioner for Sargent countv for several terms, 
and is the present chairman of the board, and has 
been township assessor of Shuman township for 
several successive years, and also a member of the 
school board for several years. He is one who 
justlv deserves his prominent place among the peo- 
ple of Sargent county. 

JOHN F. PHILBRICK, assistant attorney-gen- 
eral of North Dakota, and one of the most promi- 
nent and successful lawvers of Bismarck, was born 
in Pittsfield, New Hampshire, June 9, 1855, a son of 
Richard N. and Olive J. (Green) Philbrick, also 
natives of that state. I he father is a harnessmaker 
and is now a resident of Concord, New Hampshire. 

Our subject was reared in his native state and 
acquired his early eduction in its public schools. 
Later he spent one year at Collinsville, Illinois, and m 
1877 entered Dartmouth College, from which he was 
graduated in 1881. The following year he com- 
menced the study of law in the office of ex-Gover- 
nor John P. Altgeld. in Chicago, Illinois, and re- 
mained there some months. In December, 1882, 
came to Bismarck, North Dakota, where he contin- 
ued preparing for his chosen profession, and in 
1885 was admitted to the bar. He has since suc- 
cessfully engaged in practice in Bismarck, and is 
now a member of the well-known firm of Boucher, 
Philbrick & Cochrane. 

In 1889 he was elected judge of probate and filled 
that office for two years, and in 1895 was made as- 
sistant attorney-general, in which capacity he is still 
serving with credit to himself and to the entire satis- 
faction of all concerned. In politics he is an ardent 
Republican, has been chairman of the county central 
committee of Burleigh county for the past ten years, 
and has taken an active and prominent part in the 
state campaigns. He is a most successful lawyer 
and popular official, and is widely known throughout 
the state. 

HON. ANDREW HANSON. The farming 
community of Mayville township, Traill county, has 
an able representative in the person of Andrew Han- 
son. He resides on section 10, and cultivates nine 
hundred and twenty acres of choice land. 

( )ur subject was born near Christiana, Norway, 
in 1832, and was the second in a family of eight 
children, five sons and three daughters, born to Hans 
and Christiana (Anderson) Hanson. He came to 
America in 1867 and settled in Columbia county, 
Wisconsin, where he followed farming work four 
years and then removed to Dakota in 1871. He 

worked on the boats on the Red river and at rail- 
road work to earn his livelihood, and was twenty- 
five miles from a postoffice. He began farming in. 
1871,, hving in a log cabin 12x14 feet, and has met 
with unbounded success in his calling. He has a 
good residence and other farm buildmgs on his land, 
and possesses an extensive farm of nine hundred and 
twenty acres. 

Our subject was married in 1878 to ]\Iiss Bertha 
Skogstad. Ten children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Hanson, as follows: Carrie, deceased; Nels, 
now attending Lutheran College in Iowa ; Annie, 
attending Normal School in Jtlayville ; Carrie ;. 
Hilda ; Hilman, deceased ; Tunetta ; Arthur and 
Bertha. Mr. Hanson was elected county commis- 
sioner in 1898, and he served as a member of the 
general assembly in the session of 1890-91. He is. 
one of the leading men of the county, and every en- 
terprise which tends to upbuild his community is 
heartily supported by him, and as a man of exem- 
plary character he stands high in the minds of his 
associates. He has gained his possessions single- 
handed and is enjoying the result of a well-spent 
career. He holds membership in the Norwegian. 
Lutheran church. 

OLE H. EVENSON, deceased. Credit is in- 
deed due the man who leaves his native land and 
seeks his fortune in a new country, with the good 
results which was the lot of this gentleman. He 
made a success of the pursuit of agriculture, and 
that in a country where white men had never before 
made residence. He passed through all the strug- 
gles of the pioneer and became one of the prosperous, 
agriculturists of Alooreton township, Richland 
county. He made his home on section 10, and was 
surrounded by all of the adjuncts of a model rural 

Air. Evenson was born in Norway, January 6,. 
1853. L'pon attaining his majority, in 1874, he de- 
cided to turn his way toward the new world, and 
accordingly emigrated to America, landing in New 
York in "the early part of the summer of that year- 
He soon proceeded to Dane county, Wisconsin, and 
later went to Northfield, Minnesota, where he re- 
sided four }-ears and was engaged at carpenter work. 
He went to' Richland county, North March, 
1878, and took a quit claim on one hundred and 
sixty acres of land in what is now Mooreton town- 
ship, formerly known as Center township. In the 
fall of that year he settled on his claim and has held 
continuous residence there. At the time of his death 
he was the possessor of four hundrefl acres of fer- 
tile land, with improvements that make it a comforta- 
ble and valuable estate. 

Mr. Evenson was married in Northfield. Minne- 
sota, September 10, 1877, to Miss ^Mary Thompson, 
who was also a native of Norway. Mrs. Evenson 
was born October 22. 1852. and emigrated to Amer- 
ica about 1870. Ten children were born to Mr. and 
I Mrs. Evenson, as follows : Clara, Helmer, Tillie, Ed- 



win, Harry, Ethel, ^lelvin, Ida ; Clara died in infancy 
and Edward, died in infancy. Mr. Evenson was a 
consistent member of the Lutheran church, and was 
a trustee in the same for several years. He filled 
various offices of trust in his township, and gained 
the confidence of the people of his community. He 
was supervisor and interested in educational mat- 
ters and has served as school director. 

Mr. Evenson made a visit to his native land 
during the past summer, leaving his home April 28, 
1899, and sailing from New York on the steamer 
Majestic, May 3, landing in Liverpool April 10. He 
reached Norway May 15, and after a two months 
stay returned to his home in Richland county, and 
was welcomed by his many friends. He was well 
known as a substantial farmer, industrious and hon- 
est, and in every way qualified to fill the high place 
which he occupied in his community. 

Mr. Evenson died December 22, 1899, and was 
buried in Dwight cemetery. His health had been 
failing for the last two years, and during the last six 
weeks of his life he was confined to his bed. His 
death resulted from a complicated form of consump- 
tion. At the date of his death his age was forty- 
six years, eleven months and two weeks. 

NEWTON A. LEWIS, the well-known pres- 
ident of the Merchants' State Bank and a prominent 
business man of Fargo, North Dakota, is a native of 
\'ermont, born in Orleans county, April 4, 1855, and 
is a son of Harvey and Emily l3. (Tomlinson) 
Lewis, farming people, who spent their entire lives 
in the Green Mountain state. In their family were 
four sons, three of whom are now living, but our 
subject is the only one who makes his home in the 
West. He was reared and principally educated in 
his native state, but also took a course of study at 
Gaskill Business College, Manchester, New Hamp- 

Mr. Lewis began his business career as a clerk, 
and followed that occupation in the East for three 
years, after which he was engaged in business there 
for himself one year. It was in 1882 that he came 
to Fargo, North Dakota, and here he clerked in a 
grocery store for a time. Two years were spent as 
mailing clerk in the postoffice, and he then embarked 
in the grocery business as a member of the firm of 
\'idger & Lewis. They soon became interested in a 
wholesale produce and commission business, which 
they successfully carried on together until January, 
1898, when Mr. Lewis retired from the firm, but Mr. 
Mdger still continues the business. Mr. Lewis has 
been a director of the Alerchants" State Bank since 
its organization, August 18, 1890. It began busi- 
ness with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, 
which has since been increased to one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and its first officers were Hon. B. F. 
Spalding, president; Thomas Baker, Jr., vice-pres- 
ident ; and L. S. Champirie, cashier. Mr. Spald- 
ing continued as president for about four years and 
was succeeded by Col. J. D. Benton, a sketch of 

whom appears elsewhere in this volume. Mr. Lewis 
was chosen as vice-president and also served as cash- 
ier and general manager. In 1896 H. W. Gearey 
was elected cashier, in which capacity he had serverl 
for some months previous, and is still filling that 
position. When Colonel Benton retired in 1898, Mr. 
Lewis was chosen president in his stead and Oscar 
G. Barnes, vice-president. The board of directors 
are all residents of Fargo and leading business men 
of the place. They do a general banking business 
and their annual deposits amount to about four hun- 
dred thousand dollars. The bank is one of the mcst 
solid financial institutions of the state, and iti offi- 
cers are straightforward and successful business 
men of known reliability. Mr. Lewis is also a 
stockholder of the Fargo Packing & Cold Storage 
Company, and is interested in other business enter- 
prises. Since coming to this state he has met with 
most excellent success in his undertakings and has 
become the possessor of a handsome competence se- 
cured through his own well-directed efforts. Be- 
sides the property already mentioned, he is also the 
owner of some real estate. 

In 1878 Mr. Lewis was married in Vermont to 
Miss Cora E. Baker, a native of that state. Soci- 
ally he belongs to the Knights of Pythias, and polit- 
ically is identified with the Republican party. He 
has been treasurer of the Agricultural College for 
four years, and today he is one of the best known 
men in North Dakota, especially in business circles. 
His life alifords an example to the young, in that he 
commenced life here without money or friends, but 
having a determination to succeed he industriously 
applied himself until he has acquired a handsome 

OSCAR J. SEILER, attorney at law at James- 
town, is one of the rising young men of Stutsman 
county. North Dakota. Aside from the practice of 
his profession he conducts an extensive real estate, 
insurance and collection business and enjoys the con- 
fidence of those among whom he resides. 

Mr. Seller was born near Stephensville, CJuta- 
gamie county, Wisconsin. March 20, 1870. and is 
a son of John and Amanda (Mason) Seller. His 
father was born in Germany and came to America 
at the age of twenty years and followed farming. 
Our subject's mother was born in Indiana and was 
of American parentage. 

In a family of thirteen children, eight of whom 
are now living, our subject was the seventh in order 
of birth. He was raised on a farm and attended the 
country and village schools, and at the age of sixteen 
years began to earn his livelihood. He went to 
Stutsman county. North Dakota, and worked at farm 
labor the first summer near Montpelier for one hun- 
dred dollars and the following year he spent on farms 
in the same vicinity, and in the fall of 1887 went to 
Jamestown and attended school, and the following 
spring entered the law office of L. T. Hamilton as 
clerk, and the following winter again attended 



school. He then continued in the law office five 
years, and in 1893 went to Grand Forks, North 
Dakota, where he spent one year in the life insur- 
ance business with Joe Mills, and in the fall of 1893 
lie purchased the collection business of Mr. Ham- 
ilton and entered into partnership with E. \V. 
Camp. He continued with Mr. Camp six years, and 
March 27, 1899, was admitted to practice in the 
supreme court. He then dissolved partnership with 
IMr. Camp, since which time he has conducted the 
business alone, and his practice and financial inter- 
ests have steadily increased. He is the owner of 
considerable property in Stutsman county, about two 
and a half sections of farming lands, mostly grain 
farms, and also has a residence property in James- 

Our subject was married, in 1893, to j\Iiss Rachel 
Biglow, who was born and raised in Iowa. Mrs. 
Seller is a lady of good education, a high school 
graduate, and for some time a teacher in North Da- 
kota. Her father was one of the early settlers of 
that state. Mr. and Mrs. Seller are the parents of 
two children : Linn, who was born in 1895, and Eu- 
g'ene, who was born in 1899. Mr. Seller is treasurer 
of the North Dakota Hospital for the Insane, and 
handles vast sums of money in this connection. He 
is an efficient officer, and highly esteemed as a citi- 
zen. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias 
and Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Politically 
he is a Republican. 

JL'DGE GUY C. H. CORLISS, one of the most 
learned members of the legal profession in North 
Dakota, has gained his knowledge and high station 
by dint of his own efforts. He has studied always 
with the idea of strengthening his mind and char- 
acter, and he now stands at the head of the North 
Dakota bar. Mr. Corliss has resided in Grand 
Forks since the fall of 1886, and counts every man 
as his friend who has ever known him. A por- 
trait of Judge Corliss appears on another page of 
this volume. 

Our subject was born at Poughkeepsie, New 
York, July 4, 1858. His father, Cyrus K. Corliss, 
was a lawyer, and was born at Ballston Springs, 
New York, and moved to Poughkeepsie about 1840. 

Mr. Corliss was graduated from the Pough- 
keepsie high school at the age of fourteen years, 
and has attended no schools since that time.' He 
then became clerk in a store, and began the study 
of law in June, 1876, in the office of J. S. Van 
Cleef, and was admitted to the bar in September, 
1879, at Brooklyn, New York. He practiced his 
profession at his old home until the fall of 1886, 
when he removed to Grand Forks, North Dakota, 
and entered into partnership with J. H. Bosard, 
of that city, which partnership contnnied until the 
fall of 1889. when our subject was elected judge 
of the supreme court and became first chief justice. 
He served on the bench until August 15, 1898, when 
lie resigned. He was re-nominated for the supreme 

bench by all of the political parties in 1892, and had 
no opposition to his candidacy. 

Mr. Corliss was married April 6, 1883, Miss 
Effie \'. Edson, of Clifton Springs, New York, be- 
coming his wife. Four children, three sons and 
one daughter, have been born to iMr. and Mrs. Cor- 
liss. Judge Corliss was made dean of the law 
school of the University of North Dakota in the 
summer of 1889. As a practitioner he is well read, 
and as a judge he has no superiors in the state. 
He has a quick and comprehensive mind,. is earnest 
in convictions and able in his assertions, and de- 
votes himself to the interests entrusted to his care, 
and too much cannot be said of him as a practi- 
tioner and citizen. 

THOMAS M. HANCOCK, of the firm of 
Shields & Hancock, publishers of the "Edgeley 
JNIail," is a gentleman of much force of character, 
and occupies a prominent position as a citizen of true 

Our subject was born in London, England, April 
15, 1870, and was the eldest in a family of ten chil- 
dren, six sons and four daughters, born to Luke and 
Louisa (Mitchell) Hancock. His parents were mar- 
ried in their native country, England, and the father 
was a machinist by trade. Our subject received his 
early education in his native land, and came to Amer- 
ica with his parents when a young- boy, and located 
in Canada. Some time later they went to the state 
of New York, and there our subject worked at rail- 
roading, and in 1889 went to Fargo, North Dakota. 
He secured a position on the "Fargo Common- 
wealth," which paper has since been discontinued. 
He there received his first lessons in printing, and re- 
mained in their employ until the fall of 1891 when he 
went to Edgeley and assumed charge of the "Mail" 
publishing office, the following year becoming a 
partner with ^Nlr. Shields. He is the present editor 
of the paper, and supervises the news columns. He 
was appointed postmaster at Edgeley during Cleve- 
land's administration, and was an efficient officer. 

Our subject was married in Salem, South Dako- 
ta, October 6, 1894, to j\Iiss Hattie French, a native 
of ^Missouri. ]\Irs. Hancock's father, L. W. French, 
was an extensive farmer in Missouri, and is now a 
resident of Edgeley, North Dakota. One child has 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Hancock, a daughter, 
who bears the name of Gertrude ]\I. Mr. Hancock 
is a member of the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, Modern Woodmen of America, I. O. G. T., and 
the Masonic fraternity, and the auxiliary lodge, 
Order Eastern Star. He is a man of genial social 
nature, and pleasing address, and is deservedly pop- 
ular in his community, and is one of the leading 
newspaper men of that part of the state. 

HON. C. N. \'ALENTINE. Among the lead- 
ing and influential citizens of Fargo, North Dakota, 
is this gentleman, who for fourteen years has been 

As. ^ ^S-<^y^^^^^^ 



prominently identified with the interests of tlie state 
and is now serving as register of the United States 
land office. He was born in La Porte county, In- 
diana, May 14, 1850, and is a son of W'illiam and 
Samantha (Taylor) Valentine, both natives of New 
York, the former born in 1804, the latter in 181 1. 
The paternal grandfather, Alexander Valentine, also 
a native of New York, was a soldier of the Revolu- 
tionary war and later was a commissioned officer in 
the state troops. In 1849 the parents of our subject 
removed from New York to Michigan, where the fa- 
ther followed farming until. his death, which occurred 
in 1875. In his family were six sons, but our subject 
is the only one of the number living in Dakota. 

On the home farm in Berrien county, Michigan, 
C. M. Valentine was reared to manhood, and in 
the public schools of his neighborhood he acquired 
a good practical education. For a time he was en- 
gaged in the drug trade in Three Oaks, that state, 
and from there removed to Benton Harbor, Michi- 
gan, where he had charge of a lumber pier and later 
engaged in boating, and was employed as bookkeep- 
er for four years. In 1886 he came to La Moure, 
North Dakota, where he was successfully engaged 
in the drug business until February, 1897, when he 
was apointed to his present position, that of register 
of the land office at Fargo. 

On the 27th of September, 1876. Mr. Valentine 
was united in marriage with Miss Lucy Wilcox, a 
native of Wisconsin, and to them have been born two 
children : Josephine and JNIaurice. Since attaining 
his majority Mr. \^alentine has never wavered in his 
support of the Republican party and its principles, 
and being a man of recognized ability, progressive 
and public-spirited, he has been honored with some 
important official positions, having served as senator 
from the twenty-fourth senatorial district of North 
Dakota for four years, and county surveyor for the 
same length of time. Socially he is a member of 
the Masonic order and is a man of prominence in his 

THORE BENDIKSEX, a prominent merchant 
of Walcott, near where he resides on a well-improved 
estate, is an early settler of North Dakota. He has 
extensive business interests in the town of Walcott 
and is an influential and enterprising citizen of Rich- 
land county. 

Our subject was born in Norway, October 30, 
1848. He was reared on a farm in his native land, 
where he hved until 1870, when he came to America, 
crossing the Atlantic in a sailing vessel in July of 
that year. He landed at Quebec and at once pro- 
ceeded to Crawford county, Wisconsin, where he 
worked on a farm and attended school till the fol- 
lowing spring, and then engaged as clerk in a gen- 
eral store at Mt. Sterling, Wisconsin. He was em- 
ployed there about six months and then spent some 
months in Iowa, going from thence to Minnesota. 
He followed different occupations for two and a half 
years, and then returned to his native country, re- 

maining there until i88r. He then came again to 
America, and at once proceeded to North Dakota. 
He spent about nine months in Walcott, and then 
took up a homestead claim in Walcott township and 
engaged in farming for three years on that land, 
and then removed to the farm where he now resides. 
His buildings are substantial and the estate is fur- 
nished with all of the conveniences of farming, and 
he is now the owner of five hundred and fifty acres 
of land. For three years he was employed by the 
Alinnesota & Dakota Elevator Company at Wal- 
cott as wlieat buyer, and during that time engaged 
in the hardware business in that towji, and after 
operating the business one and a half years he dis- 
posed of his interests, and was wheat buyer for the 
Farmers' Grain Association, at Kindred, Cass coun- 
ty. North Dakota. On his return to Walcott in 1896 
he purchased a stock of general merchandise, and 
conducts the business in connection with his farm- 

Our subject was married in Christiania, Norway, 
January lO, 1875, to Miss Martha Thue, a sister of 
O. R. Thue, of Walcott. Mrs. Bendikseii was born 
in Norway, September 24, 1849. Mr. and Mrs. 
Bendiksen have been the parents of eleven children, 
as follows : Bernhard ; Rika : Julia ; IMaren ; Rong- 
vald ; Peder died at the age of fifteen months ; Peder ; 
Oluf; Theodor; Martin and Daniel. Mr. Bendik- 
sen takes an active part in local affairs, and has held 
all of the township offices in Colfax township, with 
the exception of justice of the peace. Politically he 
he is a Populist. He is a member of the Norwegian 
Lutheran church. 

ABRAM L. BEGGS, register of deeds of Dickey 
county, is deservedly popular throughout that re- 
gion. He was one of the pioneers of that county, and 
his career in Dakota has been a successful one and 
marked with persistent efforts to advance the civ- 
ilization of that locality. Until recently he was act- 
ively engaged in farming, and is now the owner of 
three hundred and twenty acres of land, comprising 
one of the finest farms of the county. 

Mr. Beggs was born on a farm in Dundas coun- 
ty, Ontario, Canada, July 10, 1861, and was the 
eighth in a family of ten children, born to Hugh 
and Mary (Robinson) Beggs. His father was born 
in Ireland and came to Canada when a young man. 
He followed the pursuit of agriculture and is now 
enjoying a retired hfe in Canada. 

Our subject attended the schools near his home 
until sixteen years of age, when he went to Cali- 
fornia and worked on a dairy farm for a short time, 
after which he returned home and remained until the 
fall of 1882, when he went to Ellendale, North Da- 
kota. He at once filed claim to land in the eastern 
part of the county on the James river, where he lived 
fourteen years, and which comprises his present 
farm land. He was one of the first men to settle in 
that part of the county, and his estate is now a valu- 
able one. He was elected to fill the office of register 



of deeds of Dickey county in the fall of 1896, when 
lie removed to Ellendale. His popularity is best evi- 
denced by the fact that he was re-elected in the fall 
of 1898 by the largest majority given any candidate 
on the ticket, excepting one instance where there 
was no opposition, a testimonial of his worth as a 
citizen and public-spirited man. 

Our subject was married near his home in Can- 
ada, in 1881, to Miss Manda liush, a native of Can- 
ada. Six children have been born to Mr. and Airs. 
Beggs, four of whom are now living, as follows: 
Oscar C, Ethel. Mabel and Ruth. Air. Beggs is a 
member of the Baptist church and the JNIasonic and 
Eastern Star lodges. He is a Republican in political 
sentiment and strong in his convictions. Since tak- 
ing up his residence in Dakota he has rapidly risen 
in prominence, and is one of the trusted men of 
Dickey county, and merits his high name. 

FRANK SANFORD. Barnes county's well- 
known and popular register of deeds has an inter-] 
€Sting record, and from the study of his life his- 
tory one can learn valuable lessons. The spirit of 
self-help is the source of all genuine worth in the 
individual and is the means of bringing to man suc- 
cess which has no advantages of wealth or influence 
to aid him. It illustrates in no uncertain manner 
what it is possible to accomplish when perseverance 
.and determination form the keynote to a man's life. 
Depending on his own resources, looking for no out- 
side aid or support, Mr. Sanford has become one of 
the most prosperous and influential citizens of Valley 

He was born in Liberty township, Jackson 
county, Michigan, September 25, i860, a son of 
James P. and Cornelia (Nutten) Sanford. The 
mother, who was a native of Pan Yan, New York, 
died in Michigan, at the early age of thirty-two 
years, and for his second wife the father married 
Alice McCormick, of Rochester, New York. He 
was born in the Empire state in 1830, but since a 
boy of four years has made his home in Michigan, 
and is now living on the farm which his father, Abra- 
ham Sanford, took up from the government. The 
latter removed to that state when it was still a terri- 
tory, and helped construct the old state road from 
Detroit to Chicago. He died in Jackson county, 
Michigan, in 1880, at the age of seventy-seven years 
and five months. 

Frank Sanford attended the district schools near 
his boyhood home and later was a student in the 
high school at Hillsdale, Michigan. On leaving that 
institution he went to Logansport, Indana, where he 
took a course of study in higher mathematics at the 
Smithson College and remained there until the school 
was abandoned. On his return to Alichigan he 
taught school for a number of terms in that state 
and also for one term at Momence, Kankakee county, 

On the i8th of March, 1882, Mr. Sanford first 
:set foot in \'alley City, North Dakota, and at once 

located land on section 20, township 142, range 59 
west, as a homestead. He also took up a tree claim 
and pre-empted other land. Industrious, enterpris- 
ing and persevering, he has met with well deserved 
success during his residence in this state, and is now 
the owner of a two and three-quarter sections of land 
in one body, while his wife has a section of very fine 
land in Griggs county. North Dakota. He was first 
married, November 20, 1879, to Aliss Esther Rhoades 
a native of Jackson county, Alichigan, who died on 
the homestead in Barnes county. North Dakota, June 
26, 1882, and on the 13th of October, 1886, he led to 
the marriage altar Miss Helen S. Kingsley, a native 
of New York state. 

Mr. Sanford has always taken an active part in 
political afifairs and is a stanch supporter of the In- 
dependent party. He has represented his district 
on the board of county commissioners, being elected 
in 1 89 1, and in 1894 was first elected register of 
deeds, in which otSce he is now serving his third 
term with credit to himself and to the entire satisfac- 
tion of all concerned. He is a prominent Mason, a 
member of the Alystic Shrine which meets at El 
Zagal temple, Fargo. For the success that he has 
achieved in life he deserves great credit, for it is due 
entirely to his own well-directed efforts and good 
management. During his early residence in this 
state he would return to Michigan during the winter 
and teach school in order to defray the expenses of 
improving his land. 

HORATIO C. PLUMLEY, manager and part 
owner of the "Forum," of Fargo, North Dakota, is a 
man of more than ordinary intelligence and busi- 
ness capability. He has made a success of his vo- 
cation, and is one of the influential citizens of the 
state, and his paper is widely known. He holds 
many important commissions and ever performs 
his duties faithfully and well. 

Air. Plumley was born in Addison county, Ver- 
mont, June 15, 1856, and was the son of Frederick S. 
and Sarah (Clark) Plumley. His father was a 
farmer by occupation and died in Vermont, and his 
mother died in Fargo, North Dakota. His father 
served in the legislature of the state of Vermont, and 
was a public-spirited and respected citizen. 

At the age of thirteen our subject left his native 
state and went to Alexico, New York, where he 
was educated in the Alexico Academy, and the high 
school of Syracuse. He then entered the office of 
the "Alexico Independent," as "devil," and there 
learned the trade of a printer, continuing there until 
1881, when he went to Fargo, 'North Dakota, and 
became associated with the "Argus," first as trav- 
eling solicitor and then as night editor and local 
reporter. In 1883 he was appointed managing edi- 
tor and continued with that paper until 189 1. In 
October of that year, in company with Aiajor A. W. 
Edwards, he founded the "Forum," since which time 
he has been manager of that paper. He is thor- 
oughly acquainted with the calling which he has 


<hosen. and since 1893 has been state printing expert. 
Mr. Plumley was married in 1888 to Miss Helen 
S. Green, a native of New York. He is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, and is deputy inspector 
.general for North Dakota, and secretary of the board 
of trustees of the Scottish Rite Cathedral. He is 
also a member of the Sons of the Revolution, his 
.great-grandfather and his great-great-grandfather 
serving in the American army from ^Massachusetts. 
He has been president of the State Press Association. 
He served as a member of the state prison board for 
several years, and was chief clerk of the territorial 
census for 1885. Mr. Plumley stands for the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party. 

ELLIS R. PETERSON. Industry and natural 
ability are the leadin'g powers in the agricultural 
as well as the commercial world, and in a new 
-country the display of these talents is more mani- 
fest than in a more developed region. Richland 
county. North Dakota, has many who have made 
a success of the pursuit of agriculture by dint of 
their well-directed labor, and a prominent place 
.among that class is accorded the gentleman whose 
name introduces these paragraphs. He makes his 
Iiome on section 12 in Garfield township, and al- 
though a young man is the possessor of a fine 

Mr. Peterson was born in Sweden January 5, 
1869, and was the fifth in a family of twelve chil- 
•dren born to Andrew and Anna S. Peterson. The 
mother died in Garfield township in 1894. Our 
subject came to America with his parents in 1881 
and the family settled in Richland county, where 
Mr. Peterson has made his home since. He is the 
possessor of one half-section of land in Garfield 
township, on which he has placed modern improve- 
ments and is surrounded by all the comforts of 
rural life. 

Mr. Peterson is a member of the Lutheran 
church, being secretary and organist of the local 
congregation, and is a man who is respected wher- 
ever he is known. He has filled various local of- 
fices of trust and gained the confidence of the peo- 
ple among whom he resides. He is chairman of 
the township board of supervisors and as an in- 
terested worker for education is clerk of the school 
board. He has a prosperous future in North Da- 
Tcota and his oneness of purpose in all public afifairs 
has already gained him an enviable place in the 
minds of all. 

FRED D. ALPIN, editor and part owner of the 
"Ransom County Gazette." has ably conducted the 
various departments of that paper, and has built 
for himself an enviable reputation as an editor, and 
a large patronage for his paper. He is also con- 
nected with other financial enterprises and is one of 
the substantial men of the county. He has made his 
liome in Lisbon for the past fifteen years and is 

well known as an excellent business man and true 

Mr. Aplin was born in Perry, Wyoming county. 
New York, May 5, 1858, and was the youngest in 
a family of five children born to Abner P. and Eliza 
C. (Meltcher) Aplin. When about fourteen years 
of age he began working in a printing ofilice, and 
when sixteen years of age went to Caro, Michigan, 
to complete his trade. He remained in that state 
seven years, during which time he was part owner 
of the "Advertiser." On his way to Montana, where 
relatives of Mrs. Aplin were living, our sul)ject 
stopped in Lisbon, in October, 1884, and there 
formed a partnership with H. S. Harcourt, the 
original newspaper man of Lisbon, publishing the 
"Dakota Herald." The "Dakota Herald" and "Da- 
kota Clipper" were consolilated in January, 1886, 
and the "Ransom County Gazette" was established 
under the control of our subject and W. S. Buck- 
ley. The present partnership with E. S. Kilbourne 
was formed in August, 1892. The paper is a 
Republican sheet and stands firmly for the princi- 
ples of that party. Aside from his newspaper in- 
terests Mr. Aplin is a director of the State Bank 
and director of the Lisbon Building & Loan Asso- 
ciation at Lisbon. 

Our subject was married, in January, 1883, to 
Miss Luella E. Cooper, a native of Michigan. Two 
children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Aplin, as 
follows : Louis and Harold. ]\lr. Aplin is promi- 
nent in secret society circles and is past master of 
Sheyenne Valley Lodge, No. 12, A. F. & A. j\L ; 
high priest of Lisbon Chapter, No. 7, R. A. M. ; 
T. I. AI. of Tyrian Council ; prelate of Ivanhoe 
Commandery, No. 8, Knights Templar; R. E. 
grand king of Grand Chapter of North Dakota; 
past V. M. of Lisbon Lodge of Perfection, No. 4, 
and a member of the Scottish Rites and York Rites. 
He has served as a member of the local school 
board for two terms and in 1898 was elected mayor 
of the city of Lisbon. 

ESTEN A. BORSHEIM. This gentleman is 
one of the educational workers of North Dakota 
and is the present county superintendent of schools 
of Traill county. He has devoted his career to 
the profession of teaching and has met with un- 
bounded success. He is a gentleman of excellent 
education and broad mind, and every need of the 
community in which he labors is anticipated by him 
and the standard of education advanced as far as 
lies in his power. 

Our subject was born in Kingservik, Hardan- 
ger, Norway, April 11. 1869. and was the younger 
of two sons born to Anders and Sigrid (Huus) 
Borsheim, both of whom now reside in Winneshiek 
county, Iowa. His parents located in Iowa in 1883 
and settled on a farm. 

Air. Borsheim attended the common schools and 
in 1886-87 attended Decorah Institute, and in July, 
1888, went to Dakota and visited his brother in 



Xelson county. In the winter of 1889-90 he taught 
for the tirst time in Winneshiek county, Iowa, and 
the following spring went to Traill county, North 
Dakota, and began teaching in Garfield township, 
near the village of Hatton, and then became thor- 
oughly identified with educational work in Traill 
county, being in the school room almost continu- 
ously' until the fall of 1896, when he was elected 
to the office he now holds, and his efficient work 
and popularity is best evidenced by the fact that 
he was returned to the same office in 1898. He 
has worked for a uniform series of text books and 
has met with success in that line, and he now has 
under his supervision one hundred school build- 
ings, with one hundred and twenty-six departments 
and an enrollment of scholars of thirty-six hundred 
and forty-six and one hundred and thirty teachers. 
There are four thousand scholars of school age in 
the county. The average salary of the teachers in 
the county for the year 1898-99 was forty-three 
dollars and fifty-two cents. The abolition of the 
institute and the establishment of four weeks of 
summer school has tended to raise the standard of 
instructors throughout the county. 

Mr. Borsheim was married, in 1895, to Miss 
Bertha Wambheim. Three children have been born 
to Mr. and jNIrs. Borsheim, as follows: Allie 
Lawrence, Sylvia C. and Arthur !M. Mr. Borsheim 
is a member of the Knights of Pythias and ^Modern 
Woodmen of America, and politically is a Repub- 

man in Richland county, in North Dakota, is more 
interested, financially, in the improvement and de- 
velopment of that region. He is connected with 
several important business enterprises, and is one 
of the best known and public-spirited men in that 
community. He is the possessor of twenty-two hun- 
dred acres of land, and he makes his home in section 
20, in Dwight township, and has improved his home 
farm, until it is one of the best in the vicinity. 

Mr. Johnson was born in Norway, in July, 1843. 
He came to America with his parents in 1855, and 
the family resided in Chicago two years, after which 
they removed to Houston county, Alinnesota, where 
our subject worked out the first summer at farm labor 
at five dollars per month. He clerked in a store 
during the following winter, and later returned to 
Chicago and was employed in various ways until 
the breaking out of the Civil war. In July, 1861, 
he enlisted in Company A, Fifteenth Wisconsin Vol- 
unteer Infantry, and served three years and four 
montJis as a private soldier. At the battle of Chick- 
amauga he was dangerously wounded, being shot 
through the right lung and the right arm. He was 
left on the field and taken prisoner and held ten days, 
and by agreement between Rosecrans and Bragg, an 
exchange of prisoners was effected and Mr. Johnson 
was sent to the hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, 
where he remained three months, then having im- ■ 

proved sufficiently in strength he was sent to the 
L'nited States hospital in Chicago. He remained 
there until the following April, when he was ordered 
transferred to the invalid corps, but refused to com- 
ply, and consequently was returned to his regiment, 
and remained with them through the Georgia cam- 
paign, although a suft'erer from the wound received 
in his lung at Chickamauga. He served through 
the Atlanta campaign and was recommended for a 
government position by his regimental commander 
and General Thomas, and was appointed post sutler 
at Shell Mound, Tennessee, where he remained 
until about two years after the close of the war, 
when he went to Aleridian, ^Mississippi, and engaged 
in the wholesale and retail business of clothing and 
planter's supplies. After six years he disposed of his 
business interests in Mississippi and removed to 
Chicago and engaged in the grocery trade until 1880, 
when he went to Dwight, North Dakota, and pur- 
chased a claim of one hundred and sixty acres in 
Dwight township, one mile from the town of Dwight. 
This tract was purchased at a cost of five hundred 
dollars, and is now valued at four thousand dollars. 
He engaged in the mercantile business in Dwight, 
carrying a stock of general merchandise, from 1880 
to 1898, when he disposed of the mercantile busi- 
ness. During all this time he was postmaster of 
Dwight, which office he held until the Cleveland ad- 
ministration. After disposing of his mercantile busi- 
ness he engaged in private banking and real estate 
loans in Dwight, and was again appointed postmas- 
ter under the present administration in 1S98. He 
engages in general farming, and raises some excel- 
lent horses and cattle, and his home farm where he 
resides, one-half mile from Dwight, is supplied with 
every comfort and convenience of modern farming. 
He has two thousand two hundred acres of land in 
Richland county, and is one of the well-to-do men of 
that section, and is a gentleman who has shown 
marked ability in business management. 

Mr. Johnson was married in Chicago, December 
31, 1876, to Miss Minnie Anderson, a native of Nor- 
way. Three children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Johnson, as follows: Annetta Matilda, Clar- 
ence Herbert and Myrtle C. Mr. Johnson takes 
an active part in church work, and is a member of 
the United Norwegian Lutheran church of Dwight. 
He was appointed by ex-Governor Briggs, a member 
of the board of management of the ]Mayville, North 
Dakota Normal School, which office he filled four 
years. He has held numerous township offices, such 
as treasurer, school treasurer, etc. He has always 
identified himself with the Republican party, and 
was a delegate to the convention at St. Louis, when 
\\'illiam McKinley was nominated for the presi- 
dency. He was there elected one of the notification 
committee to apprise Mr. McKinley of his nomina- 
tion, and went with that committee to Canton, Ohio, 
and all were cordially received. Mr. Johnson en- 
joys the distinction of being the first of his country- 
men to be called to serve in that capacity. He has 
on numerous occasions been chosen as delegate to 



county and state conventions, and is a prominent 
worker for the principles of his party. His career 
lias heen marked throughout by persistent efforts 
to advance the interests of his community, and he 
has acquired an enviable reputation and a host of 
friends, who will be pleased to tind his portrait in 
connection with this article. 

WILBUR F. BALL. It is to Mr. Ball's per- 
severance and indomitable energy that he owes his 
success in life. He is one of the most prominent 
lawyers of Fargo and one of the best known men 
of North Dakota. 

He was born in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, 
June 15, 184.^, and is of English descent. Repre- 
sentatives of the family took a prominent part in 
the Revolutionary war and to it belonged Marv 
Ball, mother of General Washington. Dabney 
Ball, our subject's grandfather, was a native of 
\'irginia and a farmer, who died in Washington, 
D. C. The parents of our subject, John and Sarah 
(Webb) Ball, were natives of Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, respectively. The father was a minister 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, as were also 
three of his brothers, and he preached in Virginia, 
Maryland and a part of Pennsylvania. He at- 
tended college in Baltimore, Maryland, and died 
in that state in 1845. His wife passed away in 

During his early boyhood Mr. Ball attended the 
public schools of Virginia and Pennsylvania, but 
is principally self-educated, as he began the battle 
of life for himself at the age of twelve years as 
"devil" in a printing office at Washington, D. C. 
Later he was employed on some of the old news- 
papers of that city and was in the office of the 
"\Vashington Constitution" for a time. From 
there he went to Baltimore, ^Maryland, and subse- 
quently returned to Pennsylvania, working on the 
"Titusville Gazette" for a time. He next drifted 
to Canton, Ohio, and from there to Akron, that 
state. At the opening of the Civil war he enlisted 
at Canton, in 1861, in the Nineteenth Ohio \'olun- 
teer Infantry, but was rejected on account of his 
youth. The same spring he again enlisted and went 
to the front as a member of Company A, Second 
Ohio Cavalry, with which he served for some 
months, fighting bushwhackers in southern Kan- 
sas and Missouri. He was injured by the fall of 
his horse and was discharged at Fort Scott, Kan- 
sas, in the fall of 1861. 

Returning to Meadville, Pennsylvania, ^Ir. Ball 
entered the service of the Atlantic & Great Western 
Railroad as brakeman, and after some months spent 
in the employ of that company became connected 
with the Buffalo & Erie Railroad, where he re- 
mained until the spring of 1864. During that vear 
he commenced the study of law at Ontonagon, Mich- 
igan, and on his admission to the bar, in 1865, 
opened an office at Eagle River, Michigan, where 
he engaged in practice until 1868. The following 

three years were passed at Alexandria, Minnesota, 
and in 1871 he went to Otter Tail City, where he 
founded the "Otter Tail Record" and conducted 
the same for one year. He then moved his plant to 
Detroit, Minnesota, and edited a paper there in con- 
nection with his law practice until 1876, when he 
returned to Alexandria. In 1878 he came to what 
is now Fargo, North Dakota, driving across the 1 

country, and formed a law partnership with John 
A. Stowell, then district attorney and prosecutor 
for the third judicial district, comprising all of 
what is now the state of North Dakota. Mr. Ball 
began active practice in Fargo January 19, 1879, 
and two years later was elected district attorney for 
the district last above named, which position he 
filled until 1885. In the meantime he was engaged 
in private practice witH George P. Wilson, of ^Iin- 
nesota, for seven years. Judge Wallin became a 
member of the firm in 1887. In 1888 General Wil- 
son retired from the firm and business was con- 
ducted under the name of Ball, WaUin & Smith 
until the Judge was elected to the supreme bench 
in 1889. Since then John S. Watson has been 
admitted to partnership and the firm is now known 
as Ball, Watson & McClay. Mr. Ball is one of the 
most successful lawyers of the state, and is assistant 
counsel for the Northern Pacific Railroad, with 
which he has been connected since 1872. He was 
one of the organizers and builders of the Fargo 
Southern Railroad and was one of its officers and 
directors during its existence. He is a man of good 
executive and business ability, who generally carries 
forward to successful completion whatever he un- 
dertakes, and has been a director of the Alerchants 
State Bank of Fargo for some years. 

On the 25th of December, 1865, Colonel Ball 
married ^^liss ^lary A. Menyweather, a native of 
[Michigan, and they have four children : William 
'\i.. John G., Frank A. and Sarah G. The Colonel 
has been a life-long Republican and has taken a 
very prominent part in party affairs. Socially he 
is a thirty-second-degree Mason, a member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic and the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. He is one of the most prom- 
inent and influential citizens of Fargo and is widely 
and favorably known throughout the state as a law- 
yer and public-spirited citizen. 

WALTER S. EMERY. There is no class of 
biographies which is more interesting to read than 
that of the industrious and enterprising farmer's 
boy who has risen unaided from humble circum- 
stances to a position of affluence and comfort. 
Prominent among the men of Barnes county who 
have thus laboriously toiled onward and upward is 
Walter S. Emery, a prosperous and substantial 
farmer residing on section 14,- township 142, 
range 58. 

He was born on a farm in Somerset county, 
Maine, June 26, 1861. and is a son of Edwin aiid 
Mary (Ricker) Emery, also natives of the Pine 



Tree state, where the mother still resides. In 1861, 
at the opening of the Civil war, the father was fol- 
lowing the peaceful occupation of farming, but he 
laid aside all personal interests and in response 
to his country's call for aid he enlisted in the 
Seventh Maine Volunteer Infantry. Some months 
later he was taken ill and died in the service. 

During his boyhood and youth our subject at- 
tended school and assisted in the operation of the 
home farm, remaining under the parental roof until 
the spring of 1883, when he came west. After a 
short time spent in Minneapolis he went to Turtle 
Lake, Wisconsin, where he worked in a sawmill 
one season. In the fall of that year he came to 
Barnes county. North Dakota, and found employ- 
ment on the farm where he now lives. In 1884 he 
took up a tree claim and during his residence in this 
state he has been remarkably successful, being now 
the owner of twelve hundred and eighty acres of 
rich and arable land. 

In Valley City, Barnes county, Mr. Emery was 
married, in March, 1884, the lady of his choice 
being Miss Martha B. Beal, also a native of Maine, 
born February 17, 1866. Her parents, Henry and 
Emily Beal, make their home at present in Wis- 
consin. Mr. and Mrs. Emery have eight children, 
four sons and four daughters, all born on the farm 
where they still reside. In his political viws he is 
a stanch Republican, but has never sought nor de- 
sired public office, preferring to give his undivided 
attention to his business interests. In connection 
with general farming he is quite extensively en- 
gaged in stock raising, and at present has upon his 
place forty-nine head of good horses and a large 
herd of high-grade cattle. For the success that he 
has achieved in life he deserves great credit, as 
"it is due entirely to his own industry, enterprise and 
good management. He is now one of the wealth- 
iest men in the northern part of Barnes county. 
Socially he is a member of the Knights of Pythias 
and the Ancient Order of United \Vorkmen. 

JOHN ALj\I, one of the leading farmers of 
Richland county, is an early resident of that region. 
He makes his home on section 36, of Eagle town- 
ship, and is the owner of one of the best farms of 
the locality. He has accumulated his property 
single-handed and is enjoying the fruits of his 

Our subject was born in Sweden September 14, 
1848. He was employed several years in a sawmill 
in his native coimtry, and in the spring of 1880 came 
to America. Fie went direct to Richland countv. 
North Dakota, and settled on the farm where he 
has since made his home. He has erected a com- 
])lete set of substantial farm buildings and made 
other improvements on the place, looking to the 
comfort of the family and stock. He now owns 
si.x hundred acres of land and has made a success 
of general farming. 

Our subject was married, in Sweden, October 

5, 1872. to ]\Iiss Mary Nelson. Ten children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Aim, named as follows: 
Albert. Charles, Hilda, Freda, Helma, Selma, Emma, 
Axel, Anna and Frank. Mr. Aim has passed 
through the experiences of pioneer life and sur- 
mounted the difficulties which beset the early set- 
tler, and aside from gaining a comfortable com- 
petence has acquired an enviable reputation in 
Richland county. He is industrious and systematic 
in his work and deserves his success. 

is a member of the supreme bench of North Da- 
kota. In the last half-century, especially, it is sel- 
dom that one wins prominence in several lines. It 
is the tendency of the age to devote one's entire en- 
ergies to a special line, continuallv working upward 
and concentrating his efforts toward accomplish- 
ing a desired end : yet in the case of Judge \Vallin 
it is demonstrated that an exalted position may be 
reached in more than one line of action. He is an 
eminent jurist, an able lawyer and a leader in politi- 
cal circles. 

The Judge was Ixirn in Otsego county. New 
York, February 12, 1836, a son of Charles C. and 
Dorothy (Strongitharm) Wallin, also natives of 
New York. The father was a successful physician 
and surgeon who graduated from the famous old 
medical school at Philadelphia, the Washington & 
Jefferson Medical College, and was engaged in the 
practice of his profession in his native state until 
1836, when he removed to Michigan. For fifteen 
years he practiced in that state and then, in 1851, 
went to Chicago, where he made his home until 
called from this life, in 1898, at the advanced age 
of ninety-two years. The wife and mother died in 
Michigan in 1851. The paternal grandparents of 
our subject were born, reared and married in 

Judge Wallin spent his boyhood in ^Michigan 
and attended the common schools of that state until 
fifteen years of age, when he was. apprenticed to a 
tanner and currier. He soon mastered the trade 
and worked at the same until reaching his majority. 
Feeling the need of a better education he entered 
the academy at Elgin, Illinois, in 1858, and pur- 
sued his studies there for one year, during which 
time he began the study of law. Later he entered 
the law department of the State University of 
Michigan at Ann Arbor and was admitted to prac- 
tice in Allegan county, that state, in 1864, and sub- 
sequently by the supreme court of Illinois. He 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession 
at St. Peter, Minnesota, in October, 1865, and con- 
tinued there and at Redwood Falls, Minnesota, un- 
til January, 1883, when he removed to Fargo, Da- 
kota territory. He soon became a member of the 
law firm of Wilson & Ball, of that city, and later 
of the firm of Ball, Wallin & Smith, being asso- 
ciated with those gentlemen when the state was ad- 
mitted to the I'nion in 1889. At the first election 



he was elected a member of the supreme bench and 
was re-elected in 1896, the duties of which position 
he is now most ably discharging. During his resi- 
dence in Minnesota he was elected county attorney 
■of Nicollet county and the same in Redwood coun- 
ty, and was also a candidate for district judge, but 
was defeated by Judge E. St. Julian Co.x, of that 

At Elgin, Illinois, Judge Wallin was married, 
in 1868, to Miss Ellen G. Keyes, also a native of 
New York, and a daughter of Eber and Juliette 
Gray Keyes, and by this union one daughter was 
horn, Madeleine, now the wife of George C. Sikes, 
an editorial writer on the "Chicago Record." The 
Judge has always been a stanch supporter of the 
Republican party since its organization, and while 
in Minnesota stumped the state in support of its 
principles. He is an able jurist and is held in high 
■esteem by the people of North Dakota. 

HON. HARRY S. OLIVER, postmaster of 
Lisbon, Ransom county, is a gentleman of excellent 
•characteristics and one in whom all who honor true 
citizenship can find a ready friend. He has labored 
faithfully for the better interests of the state and 
his county, and thoroughly appreciates the wants 
of his community. He has been called upon by his 
fellow citizens to occupy various important official 
positions, and in every instance has proven his ef- 
ficiency and has administered the duties of his 
various offices with rare fidelity and increasing pop- 
ularity. He is owner of a fine estate about twelve 
miles from Lisbon, and makes his home in the city, 
placing a tenant on the farm. 

Our subject was born in Chautauqua county, 
New York, July 27, 1855, and was the youngest in 
a family of eleven children born to Stephen and 
Mary (Loyd) Oliver, both of whom were natives 
of Biddenden, England. The father, his brother 
and our subject's grandfather were wholesale mer- 
chants in England and the father of our subject, 
upon coming to America, purchased a tract of land 
in New York, a portion of which is now included in 
the Chautauqua S. S. grounds. The father died 
m 1859, 'i"'^' the mother in 1866. Our subject re- 
ceived an academic education in the Friendship 
Academy, and after the death of his father his prop- 
erty was lost through the decline in oil. He went 
to work in Jamestown, New York, in a wholesale 
house and operated a hardware store in Friendship, 
Xew York, for a short time. He went to Lisbon, 
North Dakota, in 1880, and in December of that 
year purchased a farm about twelve miles from the 
city. He located there permanently in 18S1 and 
opened up a large wheat farm, which soon covered 
one thousand acres of land. The family joined him 
in 1882. In 1884 our subject became interested in 
stock raising and now has a general farm, operated 
hy a tenant. 

Our subject was married, in 1879, to INIiss Flor- 
ence Waterhouse. Two sons have been born to Mr. 

and Mrs. Oliver, as follows : Fred and Harry. Mr. 
Oliver is a stanch Republican and is firm for the 
gold standard, and is one of the few men who stood 
firm for the principles of his party in 1895 and 1896, 
as regards that issue. He served as county assessor 
in 1882 and in 1884 was chairman of the countv 
central committee and was re-elected in 1888, 1894 
and 1896. He was a member of the territorial 
legislature in 1885 and 1886 and a member of the 
state legislature in the second and third sessions. 
He was the author of the "Open Wheat Market 
Bill," providing for the right of an individual to 
erect elevators. He was also chairman of the com- 
mittee of county boundaries and Oliver county was 
named in his honor. In the special session of 1892 
he introduced and secured the passage of the "plat- 
form bill." He was chairman of the committee on 
banks and banking in 1891 and in 1892 was chair- 
man of the committee on grain grading and ware- 
housing. He has attended all but one state and terri- 
torial convention since going to Dakota and num- 
bers a large list of friends and acquaintances in all 
parts of the state. He is prominent in secret so- 
ciety circles and is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, Ancient Order of United Workmen, Modern 
Woodmen of America and Royal Arcanum, and is 
commander of the Knights Templar commanderv. 

. MILTON D. WILLIAMS, who is successfully 
pursuing agriculture in township 140, range 63, 
is one of the pioneers of that locality, and has aided 
in the development of Stutsman county. His active 
public spirit and good citizenship has never been 
called in question and he is one of the substantial 
farmers of his county. 

Our subject was born on a farm in Bedford 
county, Pennsylvania, July 29, 1849. His father, 
George W. Williams, was born and raised on the 
same farm, on which the grandfather, John Will- 
iams, settled in 1801. He was of Welsh descent, 
and was one of the first settlers of Pennsylvania. 
The mother of our subject, who bore the maiden 
name of Alargaret Deal, and was born and raised in 
Bedford county, Pennsylvania, and was of German 

Our subject was the seventh in order of birth 
in a family of ten children, and received a common- 
school education and also attended Tipton Semi- 
nary and Millersville State Normal, .^fter com- 
pleting his studies lie engaged in teaching and fol- 
lowed that profession ten years, after spending 
one summer in Nebraska. He went to Nemeha 
county, Kansas, in the spring of 1879, and located on 
a farm, where he followed that calling three years, 
and on account of ill health went to North Dakota 
in March. 1882. He selected land as a homestead 
and tree claim northeast of Montpelier. in Stuts- 
man county, and erected a small house and stable, 
and in the fall of that year was joined by his family. 
He engaged in farming there seven years, and then 
removed to section 9, in township 140, range 63, 



where he resided six years, and then purcliased the 
south half of section 18, in township 140, range 63, 
on which place he now resides and has added valua- 
ble improvements. His farm consists of four hun- 
dred and eighty acres, with about three hundred 
acres under cultivation, and Air. Williams operates 
about twenty-one hundred acres, and is one of the 
most extensive farmers of Stutsman county. He 
follows general farming, but his interests are in 
the main the raising of the cereals. He has a com- 
plete set of substantial farm buildings and all neces- 
sary farm machinery, including a steam threshing 
rig, and threshes his own gram. When he went 
to Dakota he had but a few personal effects and no 
money, but by dint of his own efforts he has be- 
come one of the substantial men of that region. 
He worked in a lumber yard during the first sum- 
mer in Dakota and also broke land for others with 
an ox-team, and engaged in that work over a great 
portion of the county. He worked for others until 
1884, when he began farming for himself. 

At the age of twenty-four years, our subject 
was married to Miss Mary E. Hartman, who was 
born and raised near Hagerstown, ^Maryland, and 
is of German descent. Airs. Williams is a lady of 
considerable education and was a teacher for one 
year. Seven children have been born to ]Slr. and 
Mrs. Williams, as follows: Margaret E., married; 
Hartman and Calvin, twins, and the latter is now- in 
South America, representing a machine company; 
Lawrence, who has recently returned from the Phil- 
ippines, and is a member of the First North Da- 
kota Infantry — these four were born on the same 
farm in Pennsylvania where their father and grand- 
father were born ; George, born in Kansas ; and Ruth 
and Elizabeth, born in North Dakota. Mr. Will- 
iams is a Populist in political faith and stands firmly 
for his convictions. He was presidential elector in 
1892, and was the nominee of the Populist party in 
1898 for the state legislature, and was chairman of 
the first Populist state central committee, and was 
active in the organization of the party. He was sec- 
retary of the state Farmers" Alliance from November, 
1889, to June, 1891. and was president of the same 
from June, 1892, to June, 1893. He was land commis- 
sioner of North Dakota from April, 1893, to July, 
1895, and was the first to be appointed in that 
capacity. He has attended as delegate every state 
convention of his party, and takes an active part 
in state and county affairs. His earnest labors have 
been given with a oneness of purpose which has 
commended him to all alike. 

WILLIAM :McGUIGAN, proprietor of one of 
the fine farms of Maple River township, Cass coun- 
ty, is one of the energetic and well-to-do citizens 
of his locality. He went to Dakota without means, 
and by persistent effort and economical methods has 
placed himself in comfortable circumstances, and is 
accorded a prominent place among those of his 

Our subject was born in county Down, Ireland, 
August 2, 1857, and was a son of Bernard and 
Susanna (Allisterj AlcGuigan, both of whom were 
natives of county Down. His father was a farmer 
by occupation and remained in his native land until 
his death, which occurred February 22, 1899. The 
mother came to the United States in May, 1899, 
and now resides with our subject. Our subject 
has six brothers and one sister, all in North Da- 
kota with the exception of one brother now residing 
in Oregon. 

]\lr. McGuigan was reared in Ireland and edu- 
cated there and later followed farming in his native 
isle until 1883, when he emigrated to America and 
went to Cass county direct, wdiere he has since fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits. He had but one dol- 
lar when he arrived there, and is now the fortunate 
possessor of three c^uarter-sections of land, all of 
which is well improved and furnishes a comfortable 
income. Our subject was married, April 2, 1891, 
to Aliss Alaggie Ross, a native of Canada. Mr. 
and Mrs. AlcGuigan are the parents of three chil- 
dren, named as follows: James E., Melvin B. and 
Alildred A. The family are members of the Pres- 
byterian church and are highly respected in the 
community in which they reside. Mr. McGuigan 
has filled some of the township offices, and is act- 
ively interested in the welfare of his adopted land. 
Politically he is independent, and is a man of pro- 
gressive ideas and is deservedly popular with his 

WILLIAM A. BENTLEY, U. D. The world 
has little use for the misanthrope. The universal 
truth of brotherhood is widely recognized also that 
he serves God best who serves his fellow men. There 
is no profession or line of business that calls for 
greater self-sacrifice or more devoted attention than 
the medical profession, and the successful physician 
is he who, through love of his fellowmen, gives his 
time and attention to the relief of human suffering 
Dr. Bentley is one of the ablest representatives of 
this noble calling in Bismarck, and is today at the 
head of the Northwestern Sanitorium in that ciy. 
His portrait is presented on another page. 

He was born in Lebanon, New London county, 
Connecticut, November 30, 1837, a son of Eleazer 
and Fidelia (Henry) Bentley, natives of Connecti- 
cut and Massachusetts, respectively. His father 
also studied medicine but never engaged in practice 
and for many years taught school. He died in his 
native state in 1865, and his wife in 1867. In their 
family were three sons and one daughter. One son 
was drowned off Long Island in 1852, and the other 
brother of our subject is now a dentist at Hopkin- 
ton, Iowa, while the sister is still a resident of Con- 

Reared in his native state. Dr. Bentley began 
his education in its public schools : and later attended 
H. A. Balcom's Private English and Classical Acad- 
emy, and Bacon's Academy at Colchester, Connect- 




icut. At the age of seventeen he commenced hfe 
as a teacher in the west and was thus employed for 
some time. He became a resident of Almnesota in 
1856 and in i860 removed to iowa, where during the 
Civil war he enlisted in November, 1861, m Com- 
pany H, Ninth Iowa \'olunteer infantry, under Col- 
onel William \'anderer, whose regiment was known 
as the Iowa Greyhounds after their march of sixty 
miles on the 5th of March, 1862, to participate in 
the battle of Fea Ridge, which commenced the fol- 
lowing day. The Doctor was in the service one year, 
and was with General Curtiss in Arkansas. Be- 
sides the battle of Pea Ridge he took part in a num- 
ber of small engagements. He was discharged on 
account of disability. 

In 1863, Dr. Bentley went to St. Paul. Minne- 
sota, where he engaged in newspaper work for some 
time. He commenced reading medicine in 1S67, 
attending a local school in St. Paul, Alinnesota, and 
in 1869 entered .Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
from which he was graduated the same year. For 
a time he was engaged in practice with Dr. Wood- 
worth, in St. Paul, and then moved to Rush City, 
Minnesota, where he remained for several years. 
In July, 1877, lie came to Bismarck, North Dakota, 
where he has since engaged in practice with marked 
success, not only in the city but throughout the sur- 
rounding country and towns along the line of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad. In connection with his 
private practice he also conducted the Northwestern 
Sanitarium as proprietor and manager. 

In i860 Dr. Bentley was united in marriage with 
INIiss Emily A. White, a native of Massachusetts, 
who died in 1894, leaving five children, namely: Hat- 
tie F., Nellie S., Emma E., Charles A. and Miriam 
H. The Doctor is a charter member of the Chicago 
Orificial Surgical Association, and is acknowledged 
to be one of the best and most skillful physicians 
and surgeons of the state. He served as physician 
at the state penitentiary for five years, and has been 
county and city physician several terms. He is 
also a prominent factor in public affairs, and was 
mayor of Bismarck for four years. He is president 
of the board of health of Burleigh county, and has 
been president of the United States pension examin- 
ing board since 1891, prior to which time he was its 
secretary for ten years. He was president of the 
board of trustees of the State Soldiers" Home during 
the period of its construction and for some time 
afterwards, and was president of the board of trus- 
tees in charge of state capital lands and property 
from 1889 to 1896. He organized the First Regiment 
Dakota National Guards, under Governor Pierce, and 
became its colonel, which rank he held for seven 
years. He was then commissioned adjutant-gen- 
eral by Governor Burke and served as such for two 
years. Socially the Doctor is a man of considerable 
prominence ; is past grand master of the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd FeUows for both North and South 
Dakota ; and past grand treasurer of the Masonic 
Grand Lodge. He is a thirty-second-degree Mason 
and is in line for the thirty-third degree. He is 

also an influential member of the Grand Army of 
the Republic and past department commander of the 
state. Politically he is a Republican, but is an ad- 
vocate of the coinage of silver on an equal basis with 
gold. While at Rush City, Minnesota, he was 
elected to the state legislature and was a member of 
the North Dakota legislature in 1893. Wherever 
he goes the Doctor wins friends and has the happy 
faculty of being able to retain them. In 1897 Dr. 
Bentley was the nominee of the opposition caucus 
in election for United States senator for the state of 
North Dakota, and received twenty-seven votes, 
which was the entire vote of the upi)osition to Sen- 
ator Hansbrough. 

ADONIJAH J. DUNHAM. The maturer years 
of this gentleman have been devoted to the pursuit 
of farming, in which vocation he has met with suc- 
cess, and is now the proprietor of a" fine estate in 
De \'illo township, Richland county. He makes 
his home on section 23, where he located many years 
ago, and has added such improvements as are found 
on a model farm. 

Our subject was born in Kings county, Nova 
Scotia, December 25, 1847, where he lived and fol- 
lowed farming until about twenty-four years of age, 
when he came to Massachusetts, and for several 
years was engaged at the trade of shoe-making. He 
moved to Dakota territory with his wife and two 
children in the spring of 1879. '"'"^ entered a home- 
stead claim to one hundred and sixty acres of land 
on section 23 of De \'illo township. He is now 
the owner of four hundred and eighty acres of land 
and has made extensive improvements on his home- 
stead farm. 

Our subject was married, in Ashland, Massa- 
chusetts, December 15. 1S72, to Miss Elizabeth E. 
Farley, who was born in Birmingham. England, 
Februry 2, 1848. Mrs. Dunham came to America 
in 1871. Eight children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Dunham, four of whom are living, as fol- 
lows : Allston E., Harry E., Nellie L. and Louis 
C. Mr. Dunham is an influential citizen of De 
\'illo township, and for three years was constable 
of that township, which office his eldest son is now 
filling. The family are held in high esteem by their 
manv friends. 

THEODORE T. JAHR. Among the public 
officials of Traill county who are efficient, honora- 
ble and highly esteemed, the name of Mr. Jahr, 
county treasurer, should be given a foremost place. 
He is a gentleman whose interests are with his com- 
munity and whose earnest lal)ors for the advance- 
ment of Traill county, together with his excellence 
of character, have gained him the entire confidence 
of those among whom he has made his home for 
many years. He is proprietor of a fine farm in 
Norway township, and his residence is located in 
section 32. 



Our subject was born in Freeborn county, Min- 
nesota, April 9, 1868, and was the second in a family 
of six children born to Troger and Ronong (Ste- 
rerson) Jahr, both of whom were natives of Nor- 
way, and now reside in Norway township, Traill 
county, North Dakota. Four of the children are 
now living and reside in Traill county. 

Our subject was the eldest son, and with his 
parents moved to North Dakota in 1882, shipping 
stock and other supplies, and the family located in 
Norway township, 1 raill county, and they farmed in 
common for some years. A division of the land 
was made in 1891 and our subject then began farm- 
ing for himself. He is now the owner of three 
hundred and sixty acres of land, which is well lo- 
cated and improved, and furnishes a comfortable 
home. An artesian well supplies an abundance of 
good water, and the' farm is admirably adapted to 
general farming. Mr. Jahr took a business course 
at Brutlat College, in Portland, North Dakota, from 
1888-90, farming during the summer season and at- 
tending school during the winter months. He was 
elected to his present office as county treasurer in 
1898 without opposition. 

Our subject was married, in 1896, to Miss Esther 
Johnson. .\Irs. Jahr was one of the best-known 
educators of Traill county, having taught there 
about ten years. Four children have been born to 
jMr. and Mrs. Jahr, as follows: Johan C. and one 
unnamed (twins), both deceased; Richard T., born 
JMay 22j 1898, and Claudie Marie, born January 
21, 1900. Mr. Jahr is a member of the United 
Lutheran church. Politically he is a Republican, 
but is a popular official regardless of party affilia- 
tions. He has served on the township board and 
takes an active part in public affairs and is rapidly 
gaining influence. 

AUGLST KRUMM, a public-spirited and enter- 
prising member of the farming community of Cass 
county, has devoted the greater part of his life to 
agriculture, in the pursuit of which he has been very 
fortunate and is the proprietor of a fine estate in 
Maple River township. 

Our subject was born in the province of Thur- 
ingen, Germany, June 27, 1858, and is a son of 
Henry and Christina (Moenchj Krumm, who were 
natives of the same province. His father was a 
farmer by occupation, and was foreman of his dis- 
trict for years. He died in his native land Decem- 
ber 16, 1899, ^"tl the mother died in 1898. They 
had three sons and three daughters, and our subject 
is the only one of the family in the United States. 

^Ir. Krumm was reared in his native land and 
educated there, and then learned the painter's trade, 
which he followed and also farming until 1882, 
when, in company with his uncle, he came to Amer- 
ica. He went direct to Cass county. North Dakota, 
and entered a homestead and pre-emption claim to 
land in Pontiac township, and began the improve- 
ment of his farm. He purchased the land on which 

he now resides in 1892, and is now the owner of 
an entire section of land, which he has under culti- 
vation, and has made a success of general farming. 
Our subject was married, in 1895, to Miss ^lary 
L. Kaut, a native of Wisconsin. Two daughters, 
have been born to Air. and Mrs. Krumm, as fol- 
lows : Jane M. and Emma L. The family are 
members of the Evangelical Association, and are 
highly respected in their community. Mr. Krumm 
is a member of the Knights of the Maccabees. He 
takes an active interest m local affairs and in polit- 
ical sentiment is a Republican. He has met with 
success in North Dakota, and enjoys the result of 
a well-spent career. 

THOiMAS D. PARSONS. "Fairview Farm," 
lin Mooreton township, Richland county, is one 
the largest estates in that region, and is under 
the management of one of the progressive, intelli- 
gent gentlemen of the vicinity, the subject of this. 
review. He is making a successs of his work and 
has been entrusted with the entire management for 
several years past. He is yet a young man, but has 
shown marked ability for business, and is enter- 
prising and careful in detail. 

Mr. Parsons was born on a farm in Steele county, 
Minnesota, December 2?, i860, and was the son of 
George and Mary (Paul) Parsons, both of whom 
were natives of Somersetshire, England. Our sub- 
ject was one of nine chilaren, as follows : Henry, 
Anna, Mary, William, Louisa, Thomas D., Charles 
H., Sarah F. and George F. 

Thomas D. Parsons was reared in his native 
county and educated in the common schools, and 
later attended Pillsbury Academy at Owatonna. 
After leaving the school room he was employed by 
the Walter A. Wood Harvester Company as trav- 
eling salesman, and was in their employ as such for 
about ten years. He entered the employ of W. P. 
Adams in 1889, and after two years asstimed the 
management of the entire farm, which comprises 
nine sections of land. During the harvest and 
threshing season one hundred to one hundred and 
twenty-five men are at work, and during the fall 
and spring forty to fifty men are under his employ. 
The farm is owned by W. P. Adams, of Chicago, 
and Mr. Adams entrusts every branch of the work 
to the management of Mr. Parsons. He has so well 
conducted the farm that he has made of it one of 
the best in the county, and his labors have been satis- 
factory in every way. 

Our subject was married, at Milford, Massa- 
chusetts, November 24, 1892, to Aliss Jennie L. 
Phipps, daughter of Waldo and Margaret (Claflin) 
Phipps, the father a native of Hopkinton, Massa- 
chusetts, and the mother of Holliston, Massachu- 
setts. Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Phipps, namely: Jennie L. and Maggie I. Jennie 
L., now Mrs. Parsons, was born in Hopkinton, 
Massachusetts, October 21. 1864. She is a lady of 
refinement and has inherited the housewifely in- 



stincts of the New England home. Two children 
have been born to bless the home of Mr. and Mrs. 
Parsons, upon whom they have bestowed the names 
of Robert Adams and Alary Margaret. Both our 
subject and wife are members of the Episcopal 
church, and Mr. Parsons affiliates with the Ma- 
sonic fraternity. He is a gentleman who is entitled 
to much credit for the labors he has put forth for 
the advancement of his community, and is held in 
the highest esteem by a large circle of acquaintances. 
It is indeed no easy task for one to conduct as large 
an estate as has been placed in his care and bring 
pleasing results in every instance, and in the hand- 
ling of those under his employ during the busy sea- 
sons he has shown great ability in a business way, 
and at the same time displayed a spirit of kindli- 
ness which has gained Inm many friends and as- 
sured him success. 

The W. P. Adams farm is widely known and 
deserves the highest praise for its high state of cul- 
tivation, good crops and its neatness in every detail, 
and is one of the very best in the state, being almost 
entirelv under cultivation. 

MAJOR JOHN H. FRAINE. This gentleman 
occupies a prominent and influential position as a 
member of the North Dakota bar. He has an exten- 
sive practice in Grafton, North Dakota, and his 
practice has brought him in contact with the most 
learned members of the profession in the state, and 
he is recognized as a gentleman of broad ideas and 
excellent qualities. He has recently returned from 
the Spanish-American war with the rank of major, 
and during his service earned Jiigh honors for loyalty 
and bravery. 

Our subject was born near Sheffield, Notting- 
hamshire, England, September 7, 1861, and is the 
son of John and Elizabeth (Cook) Fraine.the former 
a native of Ireland, and the latter of England. His 
father was an ivory-worker and came to America in 
1866 and settled in Brooklyn, and now resides in 
Waterbury, Connecticut. 

Our subject is one of the four sons who grew to 
manhood, of whom one brother and our subject 
reside in North Dakota. Air. Fraine was reared and 
educated in Springfield, Alassachusetts, and re- 
mained in that state until 1878, and then spent some 
years in travel. He came to North Dakota in 1S85 
and settled at Grafton, where he finished reading 
law and was admitted to the bar in May, 1891. He 
at. once began the practice of his profession and con- 
tinued alone until January i, 1893, when he formed 
a partnership with Judge Sauter, which existed until 
Judge Sauter was appointed district judge of the 
newly created seventh judicial circuit. Mr. Fraine 
gave his entire attention to the practice of law until 
the breaking out of the Spanish- American war, when 
he enlisted, April 26, 1898, as captain of Company 
C, First North Dakota Infantry. Prior to that he 
had been captain of Company C for five years as a 
member of the National Guard. He sailed for Manila 

in May, 1898, and served seventeen months, and 
was discharged with the rank of major of the First 
North Dakota, Second Battalion. During the serv- 
ice he participated in twenty-four engagements, in- 
cluding the battle of Manila, Santa Cruz, and was 
with General Lawton in three cam])aigns. He 
served with distinction and lienor to himself and 
country. He has met with good success as an at- 
torney and has an increasing practice. 

Our subject was married, in 1882, to Miss Marian 
Robinson, a native of Massachusetts. Mr. and 
Mrs. Fraine are the parents of one son, named John 
R. Mr. Fraine is prominent in secret society cir- 
cles, and holds membership in the Masonic fra- 
ternity. Order of Elks and the Independent Order 
of Foresters. He is independent in political faith, 
and wields his influence for good local government. 

NELSE C. RUKKE belongs to that class of en- 
terprising and intelligent farmers whose homes are 
places of social and mental comfort, and whose work 
as developers of the country is a credit alike to 
themselves and the community. His estate is in 
Pilot Alound township, and his pleasant residence 
is situated in a picturesque spot on the banks of the 
Sheyenne river, in section i. He was the first set- 
tler of that township, and is widely known and 
highly esteemed. 

Our subject was born in Norway, December 4, 
1840, and was the seventh in a family of twelve chil- 
dren, si.x sons and si.x daughters, born to Christian 
and Ture (Syverson) Rukke, both of whom died 
in Minnesota. A brother of our subject. Sever, was 
a member of the Si.xth Minnesota Volunteer In- 
fantry during the Civil war, and died in camp at 
Helena, Arkansas. 

Mr. Rukke came to America with his parents 
when three years of age, and the family located on 
a farm in Rock county, Wisconsin, where he re- 
ceived his first educational training, and in 1857 
removed with his parents to Brown county, Minne- 
sota, and there grew to manhood and assisted his 
father on the farm until the breaking out of the 
Civil war. He efilisted in Company E, Second 
Minnesota \'oIunteer Infantry, at St. Peter, Minne- 
sota, in April, i86i, and the regiment was consigned 
to the Fourteenth Army Corps, under command of 
General George Thomas. Mr. Rukke served 
four years, and was wounded at the storming of 
Missionary Ridge, November 24, 1803, and in con- 
sequence was confined in the hospital at Evansville, 
Indiana, si.x months. He participated in the battles 
of Mill Spring, Kentucky; Corinth, Mississippi; 
Shiloh ; Perry ville, Kentucky ; Chickamauga, Chat- 
tanooga and others, and marched three months with 
Sherman from Dalton to Atlanta. 

After his return from the war Mr. Rukke pur- 
chased a half-section of railroad land near his 
father's farm in Minnesota, and there engaged in 
farming for some years. He was elected county 
treasurer of Brown countv, Minnesota, in 1870, and 


was elected in the same capacity three times, and 
after leaving that office he removed to St. Paul, 
where he became traveling representative for the 
"Walter A. Woods Harvesting Alachine Company, 
tnider Fuller & Johnson, general agents for the 
Northwest. He remained with them about six years, 
and then went to North Dakota and secured a posi- 
tion with JJayam & Hoiland, at .Mayville. He was 
in their employ one year, and in 1884, in company 
with Mr. Hoiland, engaged in the machine busniess 
at Cooperstown, and were the pioneers in that line. 
The following year our subject disposed of his in- 
terests to Knute Thompson & Finley, and he re- 
moved to his farm, where his family had resided 
since locating in the state. He has continued farm- 
ing since, and is now the owner of five quarter- 
sections of well-improved land, all of which is located 
in Griggs county. 

Our subject was married, in 1868, to Miss Guro 
Odegard, a native of Norway, who was born May 9, 
1850, and was a daughter of Thore and Guro 
Odegard. Mrs. Rukke's father now resides in 
Cooperstown, North Dakota, and the mother died 
in that city in i8y6, aged seventy-six years. Eight 
children have been born to j\lr. and Mrs. Rukke, as 
follows : Christian W. died at the age of five years ; 
Agnes T. ; Christian W. ; Elma died at the age of 
twelve years ; ; Guy V. ; Seward died at the age of 
three years ; Nellie G. and Elma S. JMr. Rukke is 
prominent in public affairs in his township and coun- 
ty, and served on the first board of county commis- 
sioners oftcr the county was organized, and has been 
chairman of the board of supervisors of his town- 
ship for the past six years. He is a member of 
Rockwell I'ost, G. A. R., at Cooperstown, North 
Dakota. Politically he is a Republican, and stands 
firmly for the principles of his party. 

GEORGE A. BANGS. ' Among the younger 
professional men of Grand Forks county, North Da- 
kota, who are rapidly attaining prominence, may be 
meiuioned Mr. Liangs, of Grand Forks. He is a 
gentleman of good education, energetic and pro- 
gressive, and enjoys the highest' esteem of his fel- 
lownien. His success has been unbounded since 
taking up the practice of law, and he has built up 
a large and remunerative practice and is one of the 
substantial citizens of that city. 

Our subject was born in Le Sueur comity. [Min- 
nesota, November i, 1867, and was a son of Alfred 
W. and Sarah D. (Plowman) Bangs. A brother 
of our subject, Tracy R. Bangs, is also well known 
in North Dakota, and a sketch of his life appears 
elsewhere in this work. Mr. Bangs was reared and 
educated in his native county and attended the high 
school, and studied law first in his father's office, 
and in 1882 went to Grand Forks, North Dakota, 
as a clerk in the land office. He also held a claim 
to land in that vicinity and remained in the land 
office until 1892. He then spent two vears in the 
study of law in the office of Tracv R.' Bangs and 

C. J. Fisk, and was admitted to practice in the fall 
of 1893. He had purchased an interest in the 
above named firm, and after being admitted to the 
bar remained with them until July, 1895, when 
Tracy R. Bangs retired from the firm, antl it then 
existed as George A. Bangs and C. J. Fisk until 
Judge Fisk was chosen for the bench. I\lr. Bangs 
was appointed city attorney in 1896, and is now 
serving in that capacity. He was elected state's at- 
torney for Grand Forks county in iSyS and is acting 
in that office. 

Our subject was married, in 1889, to Miss Maria 
A. Griggs, a niece of Captain Griggs, a sketch of 
whom appears on another page of this volume. Mrs. 
Bangs died March 10, 1891. Mr. Bangs was mar- 
ried in North Dakota to Miss Nenia Gilbreath, a 
native of that state. He is a member of the Knights 
of Pythias and at present is grand chancellor of the 
state. He also holds membership in the Order of 
Elks. Politically he is a Democrat, and is firm in 
his convictions, but takes little part in political 
movements. He is one of the learned members of 
his profession, and is deservedly popular with the 

HON. JOHN H. WORST. Faithfulness to 
duty and strict adherence to a fixed purpose in life 
will do more to advance a man's interests than 
wealth or adventitious circumstances. The success- 
ful men of the day are those who have planned 
their own advancement and have accomplished it 
in spite of many obstacles and with a certainty that 
could have been attained only through their own 
efforts. This class has a worthy representative in 
John H. Worst, ex-lieutenant-governor of North 
Dakota, and president of the Agricultural College 
at Fargo. A portrait of President Worst is pre- 
sented on another page. 

He was born in Ashland county, Ohio, December 
23. 1850, and is a son of George and Margaret (Mar- 
tin) Worst, natives of Ohio and Pennsylvania, re- 
spectively. The father, who was a farmer by occupa- 
tion spent his entire life in the Buckeye state, where 
two of his sons still reside. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject, Henry Worst, was a native of 
Berks county, Pennsylvania, and a pioneer of Ohio, 
where he continued to make his home until called 
from this life. 

The early education of our subject was acquired 
in the public schools of Wayne county, Ohio, and 
was supplemented by a course at Smithville Acad- 
emy. Ohio, at Salem College. Indiana, and Ashland 
I'niversity. In his native state he taught school 
and engaged in farming for ten years, and during 
the following four years edited the "Fairfield County 
Republican," of Fairfield. Lancaster county. Ohio. 
In September, 1883. he came to Bismarck, North 
Dakota, and the following year brought his family 
to this state, locating on land in Emmons county. 
When tlie county was organized in 1883 he was ap- 
pointed county superintendent of schools, and served 



as such for six years. In 1889 he was elected the 
first senator from the twenty-sixth district, compris- 
ing the counties of Emmons, Kidder, Logan and 
Mcintosh, and filled that office for five years with 
credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of his 
constituents. At the end of that time, in 1894, he 
was elected lieutenant-governor on the ticket with 
Roger Allen, as chief executive, and served his fel- 
low citizens in that capacity for two years, during 
which time he was appointed president of the Agri- 
cultural College at Fargo. He has most capably 
filled that office ever since, and in connection witla 
his son Clayton is engaged in cattle raising. 

Mr. Worst was married, in 1872, to Miss Susan 
Wohlgamuth, also a native of Ohio, and three chil- 
dren bless their union: Olive J., Clayton L. and 
Lloyd W. During our recent war with Spain the 
elder son served as sergeant of Troop G, Third 
United States \'olunteer Cavalry. Mr. Worst has 
been a life-long Republican, and has canvassed the 
state in the interests of his party during every cam- 
paign. He is a Scottish Rite Mason, wise master 
of Rose Croix ; prelate of the commandery, and past 
chancellor commander of the Knights of Pythias. 
He is one of the best known and most highly 
esteemed men of the state, and his popularity is well 
deserved, as he has always done all in his power to 
advance its interests and promote general pros- 

JOH\ J. LIUAI, a public-spirited and enter- 
prising member of the farming community of Rich- 
land county, has devoted the greater part of his life 
to agriculture, in the pursuit of which he has met 
with great success. He is proprietor of a fine 
estate in Walcott township, wherein he makes his 
home on section 21. 

Our subject was born in Norway, July 7, 1850. 
He was reared on his father's farm, and resided in 
liis native land until July, 1870, when he came to 
America in a sailing vessel, landing at Quebec, 
Canada. He at once went to Dunn county, Wis- 
consin, where he lived two years, and then went to 
Eau Claire, where he remained until 1875, going 
irom thence to Richland county. North Dakota. 
He selected a farm on the Wild Rice river, in Wal- 
cott township, and has since made his home there. 
He now owns eight hundred and eighty acres of 
land, and is one of the substantial farmers of that 
-vicinity. He has improved his estate, and the 
buildings upon it are substantial and convenient in 
construction and neat in design, and every comfort 
of rural life is supplied for the fajnily and the 
stock, while ample storage is provided for the 
products of the farm. 

Our subject was married in Richland county, 
North Dakota, to Miss Olena Branno, a native- of 
Norway. Mr. and Mrs. Lium have been the par- 
ents of twelve children, two of whom died in in- 
fancy. The surviving children bear the following 
■names: Olena, Mary, Sophia, Julius O., Gustav 

A., IMena, Amelia J., Olaf, Bennie and Elder L. 
Mr. Lium is a promment member of his community, 
and works for the advancement of his township and 
county. He has held various offices of trust in 
Walcott township, and is held in the highest esteem 
by his associates. He has l^ecome thoroughly 
identified with American progress and is a worthy 
citizen of Richland countv. 

JACOB LOWELL, an honored pioneer and 
highly-esteemed citizen of I'"argo, pre-empted a part 
of the land on which the city now stands and has 
been prominently identified with its development 
and progress for almost thirty years. He has seen 
the wild lands of the state transformed into beauti- 
ful homes and farms, its hamlets grow into villages 
and flourishing towns, and all of the interests and 
evidences of advanced civilization introduced. 

Mr. Lowell was born in Somerset county, Maine, 
May 7, 1843, a son of Jacob and Climena (Thomp- 
son) Lowell, also natives of the Pine Tree state, 
where the father engaged in business as a lumber- 
man and was also couector of customs for some 
time. Coming to Fargo, North Dakota, in 1871, 
he took a claim near his son, but died in Stillwater, 
Minnesota, in 1884. The wife and mother died in 
Fargo. In their family were four children, three 
sons and one daughter, but our subject is the only 
one now living. The grandfather, Jacob Lowell, 
spent his entire life in [Maine. 

The subject of this sketch was but eleven years 
of age when, with his parents, he removed from 
Maine to New Hampshire, and in 1854 they became 
residents of Stillwater, Minnesota, where he grew 
to manhood. He completed his literary education 
at Hamlin L'niversity, Red Wmg. Minnesota, where 
he was a student in 1861 and 1862, and in 1865 
and 1866 attended a business college at St. Paul. 
In 1868 he entered the law department of the ]Mich- 
igan University at Ann Arbor, and on the com- 
pletion of the course was admitted to the bar. 

In 1870 Mr. Lowell came to North Dakota, by 
way of St. Cloud and Abercrombie, and after spend- 
ing' the winter on Elm river, came to the present site 
of Fargo in the spring of 1871. Here he pre- 
empted one hundred and sixty acres on section 18, 
Fargo township, and began to break and improve 
his land, but did not follow farming, most of his 
time being devoted to locating settlers in the neigh- 
borhood. Fargo was laid out in 1874, and he took 
an active part in promoting its interests. He en- 
gaged in the practice of law until 1882, when he re- 
tired from that business. He was the first county 
attorney appointed by the governor, and held that 
position a short time, and later served as county 
superintendent of schools. He was also a member 
of the constitutional convention in 1889. He has 
handled consideraljle real estate and has met with 
most excellent success in business affairs, becoming 
one of the substantial and prosperous residents of 
the citv. 


In June, 1874. Mr. Lowell was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Lucy Dinsniore, a native of ^ilaine, 
who died in August, 1878. Three children were 
born of that union, Anna L., Jacob, Jr., and Al- 
pheus J., but only Jacob is now living. Mr. Low- 
ell was again married, in September, 1892, his 
second union being with Etta ^L Thompson. 

Fraternally Mr. Lowell is a Knight Templar 
Mason and a member of the Mystic Shrine. In 
his political affiliations he is a Republican, but has 
never sought public office, preferring to give his 
undivided attention to his business affairs. His 
father was one of the first county commissioners of 
Cass county, which was organized in 1873, and 
served one year. All of that body are now deceased. 
When our subject located in Fargo his nearest 
neighbor was fourteen miles away, and is the 
oldest settler now living in North Dakota with the 
exception of Martin Skow, who located here in 
June, while our subject came in October, 1870. 
He is widely and favorably known and is recognized 
as a valued citizen of the community with whose in- 
terests he has been long and prominently identified. 

STEPHEN A. NYE is the well-known editor 
and proprietor of the "Times-Record," of \'alley 
City, North Dakota, the leading journal of Barnes 
county and the official organ of the Republican 
party. He was born in Mt. Sterling, Brown county, 
Illinois, July 20, 1862, and is the eldest in a family 
of five children. His father, Stephen Nye, a native 
of Montpelier, \'ermont, made the journey overland 
to California during the gold excitement in that 
state, and on his return east settled in the vicinity 
of ^luscatine, Iowa, where he engaged in farming 
for a short time, being one of the early settlers of 
that region. He wedded Miss Mary Pigman, who 
survives him, and is now living in Mt. Sterling, 

Our subject received a high-school education in 
his native city and at the age of fifteen entered the 
"Brown County Democrat" office as an apprentice 
to the printer's trade, which he subsequently fol- 
lowed in various cities of the East until coming to 
Fargo, North Dakota, in 1882. Here he worked 
on the "Daily Argus" for two years and then went 
to Devil's Lake, where he took up land. At inter- 
vals he worked on the "Inter Ocean" at that place, 
and in October, 1886, established "Churchs Ferry 
Sun." He left there to take charge of the "Devils 
Lake Inter Ocean" in the fall of 1899, and was con- 
nected with that paper until January i, 1899, when 
he purchased the "Times Record" at \'alley City, 
which he is now so successfully conducting. He 
is an able journalist and good business man and has 
already succeeded in making his paper one of the 
best published in this section of the state. 

In 1896 Mr. Nye was united in marriage with 
^liss .-\nna E. Gundlach. of Menominee, Wisconsin, 
and to them have been born two children, Stephen 
G. and Ruth. Mr. Nye is a prominent member of 

the Masonic order, belonging to \"allev City Lodge, 
No. 7, F. & A. M. : Sheyenne Chapter, No. 5. R. 
A. ]M. ; Cvrene Commanderv, K. T., of Devil's Lake ; 
Elzayne temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Fargo. He 
is also a member of Crofton Lodge, No. 3, I. O- 
O. F. ; the Ancient Order of United Workmen and 
the St. Paul Typographical Union. 

ERICK G. ERICKSON. The maturer years of 
this gentleman have been devoted almost exclusively 
to the calling of a farmer, and he has acquired a 
valuable knowledge of this occupation in performing 
the duties and labors incident to the management 
of a large estate. He owns and occupies a pleasant 
and remunerative tract of land in section 3, of Nor- 
way township, Steele county, and enjoys a com- 
fortable home and enviable reputation. 

Our subject was born near Christiania, Norway, 
January 5, 1840, and was the only child born to- 
Gilbert and Marte ( Hanson ) Erickson. At the age 
of sixteen years he learned the carpenter's traae, 
and in 1862 he and his father came to America, the 
mother having died in their native land. They first 
resided in Spring Grove, Houston county, Minne- 
sota, and our subject plied his trade there for over 
ten years. He later resided in Allamakee county^ 
Iowa, and about 1878 went to Dakota to make a 
home for his family. He went direct to Fargo, 
and during the working months for about six 
years followed carpenter work in that vicinity. He 
filed claim to his land in 1883, and in the spring of 
the following year removed his family to the new 
home, where they have since remained. His sons 
operated the farm for some time and our subject 
continued at his trade. From time to time he pur- 
chased additional land, and is now the owner of 
seven hundred and fifty acres, forming a fine 

Our subject was married in 1862 to Miss Anne 
Olson. Seven children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Erickson, as follows : Gilbert, deceased ; 
Michael, now residing at home; Mary, now Mrs. 
O. Feld, of Mayville; Gilbert, residing at home; 
Emma, deceased ; Christina, residing at home ; and 
Oscar, deceased. Mr. Erickson served as township 
clerk about seven years, and in the fall of 1898 was 
appointed county commissioner for the fourth dis- 
trict to fill the office made vacant by the election of 
O. W. Williams as county treasurer. Mr. EricK- 
son is an influential citizen and is held in high 
esteem by his fellow men. He is a member of the 
Lutheran church, and in political sentiment is a 

SIDNEY B. CLARK, M . D. The medical 
fraternity has many able representatives in Cass 
county, North Dakota, and one who occupies a 
prominent position in this number is Sidney B. 
Clark. He has been engaged in the practice of his 
professor in Buffalo, Clark county, comparatively 


few years, but has gained a remunerative patron- 
age and the confidence of the people among whom 
he labors. He is a skillful practitioner, intelligent 
and possessed of untiring perseverance and ener- 
getic character. 

Our subject was born in Fox count}', Wisconsin, 
July lo, 1870, and was a son of Silas and Susan F. 
(Cooper) Clark, natives respectively of New York 
and Wisconsin. His father was a merchant and 
went to Wisconsin in an early day and engaged 
there in merchandising many years. He enlisted in 
1861 in the Eighteenth Wisconsin Volunteer In- 
fantry, and served with the regiment until the bat- 
tle of Shiloh, where he was wounded in the thigh, 
and was later discharged from the service on ac- 
count of disability. He re-enlisted about one year 
later, and was commissioned captain, but had only 
gone as far as Milwaukee, Wisconsin, when the war 
closed. He went to Fargo, North Dakota, in 1895, 
and founded the Clark Produce Company, of which 
he was the head until his death, June 25, 1899, aged 
fifty-three years. He was among the leading busi- 
ness men of Fargo, and was a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity and G. A. R. Our subject has two 
brothers, Clifford and Silas W., who now conduct 
the business of the Clark Produce Company at 

Our subject was reared and educated in St. 
Paul, Minnesota, in the high school and the State 
University, and began the study of medicine in 
Chicago in 1891, and the following year entered 
the College of Physicians & Surgeons of Chicago. 
He was graduated from that institution in 1895, and 
then spent one vear in hospital work in Chicago. 
He went to Buffalo. North Dakota, in the sprmg 
of 1896, since which time he has conducted a gen- 
eral practice successfully. He is a member of the 
North Dakota State ^.ledical Society, and was a 
member of the Cook County Medical Society, of 
Illinois. He is assistant county physician for his 

Our subject was married, in 1897, to Miss Helen 
A. Young, a native of Vermont. Mr. Clark is a 
member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen 
and Brotherhood of American Yeomen. He is one 
of the rising young men of North Dakota and is 
deservedly held in high esteem throughout Cass 

SAMUEL G. ROBERTS, a prominent attorney 
of Fargo, North Dakota, who has borne an im- 
portant part in the development and upbuilding 
that city, was born in Brooks, Maine. March 10, 
1843. and was reared and educated in that state, sup- 
plementing the knowledge he acquired in the com- 
mon schools by an academic course. In 1861, at 
the opening of the Civil war. he enlisted in Com- 
pany B. Seventeenth Massachusetts \'olunteer In- 
fantry, and was in active service with that regiment 
untilAugust 10, 1864, when he was mustered out. 
Coming to Stillwater, Minnesota, he again enlisted, 

in 1865, in Company A, Ninth United States Vet- 
gan \ olunteers, known as Hancocks corps, and 
was with that command on guard duty at Wash- 
ington, D. C, and Indianapolis, Indiana, for one 
year. During his previous service he took part in 
the battles fought in North and South Carolina, 
mostly small engagements, and was wounded at 
three different times. He rose to the rank of first 

After his final discharge, Mr. Roberts remained 
in Indianapolis for over a year, and then returned 
to Minneapolis, where he studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1870. He was engaged in prac- 
tice there for two years, and then, in January, 1872, 
came to Fargo, North Dakota, taking up a quarter- 
section of land on which the city now stands. Form- 
ing a partnership with S. G. Comstock, he engaged 
in the practice of law at Moorhead, Minnesota, lor 
some time, and then returned to I^'argo. where he has 
followed his chosen profession almost continuously 
since. He was interested in the founding of the 
First National Bank, and was one of its stockholders 
for years. He also assisted in starting the Fargo 
foundry and the Republican Newspaper Company, 
which have since gone out of existence. 

In October, 1872, Mr. Roberts married Mrs. 
Jennie Baldwin, a native of Canada, and they have 
one daughter, Ruth, now attending the State Uni- 
versity. In his political views Mr. Roberts has been 
a life-long Republican, and he assisted in organizmg 
the partyin this state. He has ever taken an active 
and prominent part in public affairs, serving as a 
member of the territorial council in 1879 and 1883, 
a member of the territorial committee on emigra- 
tion m 1875 and 1876, states attorney for Cass coun- 
tv in 1877 and 1878, and county superintendent of 
schools for some time in the early "705. He also 
served as municipal judge during the existence of 
that office in 1896, and has been a member of the 
city council three terms and city attorney three 
terms. He is one of the most i)ublic-spirited and 
enterprising men of Fargo, and has proved a very 
popular official. 

HERMAN O. FJELDE, M. D. Although a 
man in his profession, and a resident of Abercrom- 
bie comparatively few years, this gentleman has 
gained a reputation which places him among the 
foremost practitioners of the county. He is a for- 
eign-lwrn citizen, but has become thoroughly 
identified with American customs and progress, and 
has made a success in his adopted land. 

Mr. Fjelde was born in .Aalesund. Norway, April 
13, 1866, and was reared in his native city and edu- 
cated in the Latin school, going from thence to 
Christiania in the fall of 1887. where he completed 
a philosophical course in the Royal University of 
that city. He graduated after a two-years" course 
in 1889 and in May of that year came to America. 
He at once proceeded to Minneapolis. Minnesota, 
where he took up the study of medicine in the med- 


ical department of the State University, graduating 
with the class of 1895. He practiced with Dr. 
Kniit Hoegh prior to his graduation and soon after- 
ward went to Alartell, Wisconsin, where he practiced 
his profession until June, 1897. Since that time he 
lias been a resident practitioner of Abercrombie, 
Richland county, and enjoys an ever-increasing 
and remunerative practice. 

Our subject was married at ^Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, April 18, 1896, to Aliss Fredrikke Ander- 
sen, a native of Norway, who was born in Chris- 
tiania. Mrs. Fjelde took a course in her native land 
in massage treatment and is a graduate from Chris- 
tiania in Swedish movements and massage. She 
also belongs to the National Order of the Red 
Cross in the old country. She is the originator and 
owner of the Abercrombie Hospital, which is a 
credit to Richland county. She is also an adept on 
the piano and has no superior in North Dakota. 

One child has been born to Mr. and JNIrs. 
Fjelde, who bears the name of Jakob H. Mr. 
Fjelde is prominent in social circles of the village 
and vicinity and is highly esteemed as a physician 
and citizen. 

MARSHALL BRINTON, county judge of 
Wells county, North Dakota, is a gentleman of ex- 
emplary character, and is widely and favorably 
known. He is the owner of one of the finest farms 
in the vicinity of Fessenden, and until recently re- 
sided thereon and engaged extensively in general 
farming and sheep culture. He is a man of intel- 
ligence and active public spirit, and has been a potent 
factor in promoting the political and social welfare 
of that region. A portrait of Judge Brinton is pre- 
sented on another page. 

Our subject was born on a farm near Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, in 1839, and represents the 
eighth generation descended from William Brinton, 
who went to Pennsylvania with William Penn in 
1682. William Brinton participated in the battle of 
Brandywine. The father of our subject, Joseph E. 
Brinton, was a farmer by occupation, and the mother 
of our subject, who bore the maiden name of Mary 
^Marshall, came from England in 1816, at the age of 
three years, and settled in Pennsylvania. The pa- 
ternal grandmother of our subject was of Irish 

Marshall Brinton was the eldest in a family of 
seven children, and was raised on a farm and at- 
tended the common schools and the high schools and 
received a liberal education. After leaving home 
he first worked in the milling business, and manu- 
factured flour for the city 'of Wilmington ; then 
<lrifted westward and north and located in the cop- 
per mines of Michigan, and was connected with 
mining properties there several years. He taught 
school several terms in Michigan,' and clerked in the 
office of the mining company, and then assumed 
charge nf the surface work, and later furnished lum- 
ber, wood and fuel, under contract, for the mining 

company. He was in ^lichigan from 1872-83, ex- 
cept nine months spent in the Black Hills, in 1879, 
and spent two thousand dollars prospecting and 
made nothing. He was postmaster at Delaware 
Mine, iMichigan, several years, and was elected 
township superintendent of schools, and later made 
a member of the board of county school superintend- 
ents, or school examiners, as they are known in that 
state. He settled in Wells county, North Dakota, 
in township 146, range 69, in 1884, and his farm was 
one and a half miles from Sykeston. He took a pre- 
emption in 1883 and built a claim shanty and began 
farming, and the following year located perma- 
nently on the place. His buildings were the best 
in the county at the time and were destroyed by fire 
in 1890, the fire starting by accident. He then re- 
moved to the homestead on section 32 in the 
same tow^nship and range, where he continued farm- 
ing until 1896, and then removed to Fessenden. He 
was employed as clerk in the county offices there, 
and in May, 1897, was appointed county judge to 
fill a vacancy, and in 1898 he was elected to the 
same office, which he is now filling. He has three 
hundred and twenty acres of land in Wells county, 
on which he has arrangements for the operation of 
general farming, and his barn is a substantial, com- 
modious structure, 64x92 feet, while the land is equal 
to any in the county. 

Mr. Brinton was one of the organizers of Wells 
county, and was the first public officer in the county, 
being appointed county commissioner by Governor 
Ordway. He was the first acting county superin- 
tendent of schools, and organized the first seven 
schools of the county, and was elected a second 
time as superintendent. He is a member of the 
Congregational church, and is active in church 
work, and organized Sunday-schools in northern 
Michigan while a resident of that state. He is 
prominent in secret society circles, has held all the 
chairs in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
:is a ]\Iaster JMason, and a member of the Knights 
of the Maccabees, and is record-keeper for the local 
lodge of the last named order. In politics he is a 
Republican, and during the 1896 campaign and 
since, he has taken a leading and active part in the 
affairs and interests of the Republican party of 
Wells countv. 

ALPHEUS F. NEYHART, one of the pioneer 
settlers of Cass county, living in retirement in Cas- 
selton, is well known and highly esteemed by all. 
He has various financial interests, including mining 
property in Idaho, and at the time this sketch was 
written he, with two of his sons, Frank and 
Ralph, are at Cape Nome prospecting for gold. 
He also owns a farm in Seneca county. New York. 
He is an ex-soldier and can review a brave and 
loyal service in defense of the Union, and his entire 
career has been well spent and he now enjoys a 
comfortable competence. 

Our subject w'as born in Tompkins county. New 

%a^L.<JucU ^^^^-^^^^^^^^' 



York, October 19, 1840, and was a son of Henry 
and Anna C. (Snyder) Xeyhart. His father was 
a native of Monroe county, Pennsylvania, and his 
mother was born in the state of Xew York. The 
father was a carpenter by trade and passed most of 
his life in New York state, where his death occurred. 
Our subject had one brother and two sisters and 
one half-brother. 

Mr. Neyhart was reared and educated in New 
York and enlisted in 1864 in Company F, One Hun- 
dred and eighty-eight New York Regiment, and 
served until the close of the war. His service was 
mostly before Richmond and he participated in the 
battle of Hatches Run and some minor engage- 
ments. After his discharge from the service he 
went to the oil regions of Pennsylvania and re- 
mained there thirteen years engaged in the oil busi- 
ness. He went to California in 1874 and spent two 
years mining in the southern part of that state and 
then returned to Pennsylvania. He went to Cass 
county. North Dakota, in 1S78 and purchased land 
adjoining the town of Casselton, and in about one 
year his family joined him there. He was inter- 
ested in the hardware trade there for some years 
and also followed farming. 

Our subject was married in New York, in 1869, 
to Mary E. Eager, a native of New York City. 
Six children have been born to I\Ir. and Mrs. Ney- 
hart, as follows : Charles H. ; Arthur R., who 
served with the Thirteenth Minnesota Volunteer 
Infantry in the Philippines as sergeant ; Frank A., 
who is also a member of the Thirceenth Minne- 
sota, in Company L, as quartermaster-sergeant ; 
Ralph, Edith M. and Stanley. Mr. Xeyhart is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and in political 
sentiment is a Republican, but does not take an in- 
terest in political matters. He is a man of practi- 
eral ideas, keeps pace with the times, and has made 
a success of his calling and merits his high standing. 

JAMES H. JOHNSON, :\I. D. The profession 
to which this gentleman belongs is well represented 
in Ransom county and a prominent position among 
the members is accorded Mr. Johnson. He has been 
a practitioner in North Dakota for the past fifteen 
years and is widely known as a skilled physician and 
surgeon. He is established in Lisbon and is also 
surgeon of the Soldiers' Home. 

Our subject was born in Niagara county. New 
York, December 20, 1839, and was the eldest in a 
family of five sons born to Richard and Laura 
(Cole) Johnson. His father was a blacksmith by 
trade and prospered in his business and afforded 
our subject an excellent education. 

James H. Johnson was reared in Wilson, on the 
banks of Lake Ontario, and sailed several seasons 
on the Great Lakes. He enlisted in Company G, 
Seventh New York Cavalry, September 9, 1861, 
and the following spring the regiment was mustered 
out without active service. He entered the Buft'alo 
Medical LTniversity in 1862 and left his studies in 

October, 1864, when he was appointed surgeon 
steward and took service on the sloop of war, San 
Jacinto, where the ser\'ice consisted mostly in chas- 
ing blockade runners. On Xew Year's morning, 
1865, while engaged in that service off Bahama Isles, 
they ran on a reef, and were in peril for two days, a 
landing being efifecled on Noname Cay, where they 
remained sixteen days, when the government sent 
ships for their release. Returning to his home after 
the expiration of his service, our subject resumed 
his studies and graduated with the class of 1866. 
He located in Kalamo, Michigan, in 1868, and went 
from thence to Whitehall, Michigan. He went to 
North Dakota in 1885 and soon afterward estab- 
lished his practice in Libson. 

Our subject was married, in 1869, to Miss Cyn- 
thia Herring, a native of Michigan. Two sons 
have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Johnson: R. Roy 
and Burt. The elder son is a dentist of Lisbon and 
a graduate of the dental department of the Xorth- 
western University. Our subject is president of the 
board of pension examiners and has served on the 
county and city boards of health. He is a member 
of the Knights of Pythias, G. A. R., Sons of the 
Revolution and ^lasonic fraternity, having passed 
the degrees of the Knights Templar and ^lystic 
Shrine in the last named order. Politically he is 
a Democrat. 

WTLLIAM C. RESSER,- a member of the law 
firm of Mills, Resser cS: Mills, of Fargo, Xorth Da- 
kota, is a man who thoroughly loves his profession 
and is eminently gifted with the capabilities of mind 
which are indispensible at the bar. In preparing a 
case for trial every fact, however insignificant, is 
carefully studied and its possible relevancy to the 
merits of the case weighed and considered. He is 
thoroughly familiar with authority and never at a 
loss for a precedent. 

A native of Illinois, Mr. Resser was born in 
Cleveland, Henry county, October 6, 1859, and is 
a son of Charles and Catherine (Sutch) Resser, 
who were born in Pennsylvania and in 1848 re- 
moved to Illinois, where both died. By occupation 
the father was a farmer. Our subject passed his 
boyhood and youth in Illinois and is indebted to its 
public schools for his educational privileges. In 
1878 he commenced the study of law with Sheppard 
& Alarston, of Cambridge, Illinois, and was admitted 
to the bar in Illinois in 1881. In March, of that 
year, Mr. Resser came to Fargo, North Dakota, 
where he opened an ofifice and began practice alone. 
In 1888 he formed a partnership with V. S. Stone 
and Seth Newman, under the firm name of Stone, 
Newman & Resser. On the death of Mr. Stone, in 
1891, the name was changed to Newman & Resser. 
That connection continued until 1893, when ^Ir. 
Resser entered into partnership with H. F. Miller, 
and was engaged in practice with him until Feb- 
ruary, 1897. He was then alone until January 20, 
1899, when the firm of ]^Iills, Green & Resser was 


organized, and in July, 1899, this firm was suc- 
ceeded by Mills, Resser & Mills. They enjoy a 
large and'lucrative practice and are numbered among 
the leading law firms of the city. 

Mr. Resser was married, in 1881, to Miss Alice 
T. Dimick, also a native of Illinois, and to them have 
been born three children: Duane C, Helen and 
William C. The Republican party finds in Air. 
Resser a stanch supporter of its principles ; he has 
been a member of the county centra! committee and 
does all in his power to insure the party's success. 
In 1887 he served as city attorney of Fargo and was 
a member of the city council in 1885 and 1886. He 
«lrew up the city charter which was passed by the 
legislature in 1887 and takes an active and com- 
mendable interest in all enterprises calculated to ad- 
vance the interests of city, county or state. 

JAMES KNEEN, one of the most successful 
and energetic business men of La Moure county, 
has been a resident of La Moure for the past fifteen 
vears and enjoys an ever increasing patronage. He 
is a man of practical nature and broad mind and 
every enterprise for the welfare of his community 
meets with his hearty support and he is highly es- 
teemed throughout that locahty. 

Our subject was born in Liverpool, England, 
January 25, 1852, and was a son of Thomas and 
Mary (Cheshire) Kneen. His parents were mar- 
ried in England and came to America a few years 
later. They were the parents of twelve children, our 
subject being the second in order of birth, and his 
father was a maker of nautical instruments in Eng- 
land and also in America for some time. He died 
in Shelton, Connecticut, in 1884, and the mother 
survives him and is now living in Shelton. 

Our subject came to America with his parents 
when a child of sixteen months and from New York 
the family went to Derby, Connecticut, where he 
attended school and after completing his education 
secured a position with Wallace & Company, ma- 
chinists, where he learned the trade and also tool 
making, and during the last years in which he was 
employed thus he lield contracts in the bolt works. 
He continued thus until 1885, when he went to La 
jNIoure, North Dakota, and engaged in the hardware 
business, which line he handled for some time, after- 
ward establishing a general merchandise store. He 
has been eminently successful since taking up his 
residence there. 

Our subject was married, in Derby. Connecticut, 
in 1874, to Miss Sarah Allice, a native of New York^ 
who was born July 4, 1852. Two children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Kneen : Evangeline, who 
died in infancy, and Robert R., who is now attend- 
ing the La Moure high school. Mr. Kneen is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity and Independent 
Order of (Jdd l'\>llows. He takes an active part 
in public affairs and has held numerous offices of 
trust in Dakota. Politically he is a Republican and 
is a man who is strong in his convictions for right. 

ASMUXD K. TWETO, who is extensively 
engaged in business in Abercrombie. Richland coun- 
ty, IS a striking example of what may be accom- 
plished by energetic effort, supplemented by hon- 
est dealings. He has gained a comfortable com- 
petence by dint of his own efforts and has placed 
himself among the substantial men of Richland 
county. Aside from his business interests in Aber- 
crombie, he is the owner of eight hundred acres of 
land in Abercrombie and Eagle townships and makes 
his home in the town. 

Our subject was born in Norway May 6, 1859. 
He resided in his native land until about fourteen 
years of age, when he came to America with his 
parents, Knudt and Anna (Flaaten) Tweto. The 
family settled in Dakota county, Minnesota, where 
the}- remained two years and then removed to Worth 
county, Iowa. After six years in Iowa, they lo- 
cated in Richland county, North Dakota, in 1879. 
and made their home in Lagle township, where the 
father died in the fall of 1888. 

Our subject engaged in farming and in addition 
to that line engaged in the hotel and saloon busi- 
ness in company with I. A. Johnson for three years, 
when he sold his interests. He organized the Farm- 
ers Mercantile Company, of Abercrombie, and was 
president of the organization two years. He be- 
came engaged in the farming implement business 
in 1888, anl has since added Hour, feed, grain, live 
stock and lumber, and handles an extensive and re- 
munerative business. 

Our subject was married, in Abercrombie town- 
ship, Richland county, November 18, 1887, to Miss 
Nellie Erickson, of Willmar, Minnesota. Mr. and 
Mrs. Tweto are the parents of four children, as 
follows: Alma, Oscar, Alabel and Alvina. Mr. 
Tweto is an active member of the Norwegian Lu- 
theran church and assisted largely in the erection 
of the church edifice in Abercrombie. He is liberal 
and public-spirited and is highly esteemed for his 
energ}' and integrity. 

CHARLES A. LOWELL, a pioneer settler of 
Cass county, resides at Casselton and is now re- 
tired from active farm life. He is interested in two 
sections of land in Cass county and has made a suc- 
cess of the pursuit of agriculture, now enjoying the 
result of his efforts and esteemed by his fellowmen. 

Our subject was born in Washington county, 
Minnesota, November 24, 1858, and was a son of 
Albert and Abbie B. (Read) Lowell, both of whom 
were natives of Maine. His father was a farmer by 
occupation and went to Minnesota in 1852 or 1853 
and settled in Washington county, where he en- 
gaged in farming and lumbering and later in the 
iiotel business until his death in 1888. The mother 
died in 7890, leaving three sons and one daughter. 
Our subject and one brother in Stillwater, Minne- 
sota, are the only ones of the family now living. 

Mr. Lowell was reared and educated in Wash- 
ington county, Minnesota, and remained there until 



1876, when he went to Fargo, North Dakota, and 
made his home near his uncle, Jacob Lowell. He 
■entered claim to land in Maple River township, as 
a homestead, in 1878, and resided thereon for some 
years, and in 1894 went to Casselton, where he has 
since lived. He conducts general farming on two 
sections of land in that vicinity and has met with 
remarkable success in his vocation. 

Our subject was married, in 1881, to Sarah 
Ross. j\Irs. Lowell died in 1886, leaving two chil- 
dren, Abbie and Lilly. Mr. Lowell was married to 
Maud Whitman, a native of Wisconsin, in 1894. 
Three children have been born to this union, as 
follows : Maude, Elinor and Margaret. Mr. Lowell 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity and Modern 
Woodmen of America and in the first named is a 
Mystic Shriner. He is interested in the welfare of 
his community and keeps abreast of the times, but 
does not take part in political ati'airs and has never 
sought public preferment. He is a gentleman of 
the best of character and well merits his success. 

inent real-estate dealer of Casselton, is an early set- 
tler of Cass county and is entitled to special men- 
tion as a citizen of true worth. He is also inter- 
•ested in operating several sections of land in Cass 
county, and has met with success in general 

Our subject was born in Erie county, Pennsyl- 
vania, April 23, 1863, and was a son of George T. 
and Sarah C. (Lawrence) Churchill, natives of Con- 
necticut. His father was a banker and general 
merchant and was vice-president of the old Key- 
stone National Bank, of Erie, Pennsylvania, and 
still resides in that city. The great-great-grand- 
father of our subject. Captain Charles Churchill, 
was a native of New England, Parish Weathers- 
field, Connecticut, and was born December 31, 
1723. He was appointed captain of militia in 1762 
by the general assembly of Connecticut. He en- 
listed as captain in one of the militia companies 
who turned out to repel the invasion of New 
Haven, July 5, 1779, and he also enlisted as captain 
of the Sixth Militia, probably the same regiment 
in which he first enlisted, and was appointed captain 
by the general assembly. He was a son of Ensign 
Samuel Churchill of the English navy. The great 
grandfather of our subject, Samuel Churchill, was 
also a native of Connecticut. The grandfather of 
our subject, Josiah Churchill, was a native of Con- 
necticut, and was a minister of the Presbyterian de- 
nomination and died in Pennsylvania. The father 
■of our svibject is a prominent citizen of his commu- 
nity and has served as a member of the city council 
and as coimty commissioner. 

Our subject was one of a family of three children, 
two sons and one daughter, all of whom are now 
living. Mr. Churchill was reared and educated in 
Erie, Pennsylvania, and in 1880 purchased land in 
Cass county, and the following year went to Erie, 

Cass county, and followed farming there until 1899, 
when he moved to Casselton and established his pres- 
ent business. He followed general merchandising 
and real estate business in Erie, Cass county, while 
a resident of that place and has been successful in 
every enterprise in which he has engaged. He now 
operates anil owns three sections of land in Cass 

Our subject was married in 1884 to Miss Lulu 
Knapp, a native of Wisconsin. Mrs. Churchill's 
parents, Nathan and Angelina (Green) Knapp, were 
natives respectively of Canada and Wisconsm. Her 
father served four years in the Civil war with the 
Eleventh Iowa \'olunteer Infantry, in Com])any B, 
and participated in the battles of Bi'dl Run and Sliiloh 
in 1862. He now resides in Washington. Mrs. 
Churchill is a great-great-granddaughter of Abra- 
ham Lighthall, who served as a sergeant, corporal 
and captain in the Revolutionary war, enlisting from 
Albany, New York, in the Fourth Tryon Company 
Regiment of New York, in 1780. He was born in 
Jefterson county. New York. He was appointed by 
General Washington as captain of a company of 
three hundred friendly Indians, and was captured 
by the Indians, escaped and returned to Washington, 
and served as aide to General Washington during 
the remainder of Washington's life. He was six 
feet, seven inches in height, and was of powerful 
physique. Mr. and Mrs. Churchill are the parents 
of one son, George E. Mr. Churchill served as a 
member of the lower house in 1893, and was chair- 
man of the insurance committee, and a member of 
other important committees, including the ways and 
means committee. He has been identified with the 
movements of the Republican party throughout his 
career, and is stanch in his political faith. He is 
intelligent and progressive and well merits his suc- 
cess and high standing. 

JOHN S. WATSON, a leading and successful 
attorney of Fargo, North Dakota, and a member of 
the well-known firm of Ball, \\'atson & McClay, was 
born in Fountain county, Indiana, February 20, 
1857. His parents, Samuel E. and Elizabeth M. 
(Brown) \\'atson, were natives of Kentucky and 
Virginia, respectively, but for many years have been 
residents of Indiana. The father is a merchant. 

Our subject was educated in Waliash College, 
from which he was graduated in 1878. Later, for 
two years, he was employed as a teacher in that in- 
stitution and the following year was spent as a stu- 
dent in the law office of Hon. P. S. Kennedy, of 
Crawfordsville, Indiana. In Mav, 1881. he was ad- 
mitted to the bar and the same month came to 
Jamestown, North Dakota, where he at once opened 
an office and engaged in practice until coming to 
Fargo, in 1892. \\\xh W. F. Ball he formed a 
partnership, which still exists, and they are now at 
the head of a large and lucrative practice. Mr. 
Watson was prosecuting attornev for Stutsman 
county. North Dakota, in 1883 and 1884, and in 1887 



was made attorney for the Xortliern Pacific Railroad 
in the James river valley, in which position he con- 
tinued imtil 1892. Since then he and Air. Ball have 
controlled all the business of the company in North 
Dakota and western Alinnesota and also that of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. I'aul Railway in this 
state. JMr. Watson is not only a good lawyer, but 
is a good business man as well, and has served as 
vice-president of the James River National Bank, of 
Jamestown, for some years. His powers as an ad- 
vocate have been demonstrated by his success on 
many occasions, and he is an able lawyer of large 
and varied experience in all the courts. He has met 
with most excellent success during his professional 
career and stands high at the bar of this state. He 
takes no active part in political affairs, but is always 
willing to support any enterprise for the public 
good. Socially he is a Knight Templar Mason. 

•In 1884 Mr. Watson was united in marriage 
with i\Iiss Lizzie E. Wells, a native of Wisconsin, 
and to them has been born one child, Constance. 

ROBERT M. POLLOCK. Not by gift, pur- 
chase or influence can one rise at the bar, but solely 
by merit must he gain his reputation, his ability win- 
ning him greatness and enabling him to pass on the 
highway of life many who had accomplished a part 
of the journey ere he started out. Through his. own 
well-directed efforts j\lr. Pollock has become one of 
the prominent lawyers of Fargo and has become a 
leader in public affairs. 

He was born in Racine county, \\'isconsin, De- 
cember 16, 1854, a son of James H. and Eveline 
(Halstead) Pollock, of New York. The father, 
whose life was devoted to farming, removed to Wis- 
consin in 1848 and there made his home until his 
death. He had nine children, four sons and five 
daughters, seven of whom are now living, and five 
are now residents of North Dakota. 

During his boyhood and youth our subject at- 
tended the public schools of his native state, and 
then taught school for three years, during which 
time he also read law. Subsequently he entered 
the law office of Judge Elbert O. Hand, of Racine, and 
in 1879 was admitted to practice at the bar of ^Ms- 
consin. In 1880 he came to Casselton, North Dakota, 
and opened an office, being engaged in practice there 
for seventeen years. While there he was city attor- 
ney, mayor, a member of the board of education, 
was a member of the constitutional convention in 
1889, and in 1891 was appointed by Governor 
Burke as a member of the compilation commission 
to compile the laws of the state. He also served as 
state's attorney for Cass county for four years from 
January, 1893. He removed from Caselton to Far- 
go in January, 1897, and here he has since success- 
fully engaged in practice. In 1891 he formed a 
partnership with H. G. Scott which still exists, and 
they retain a clientage of so representative a char- 
acter as to alone stand as evidence of their profes- 
sional ability and personal popularity. 

!Mr. Pollock was married, in December, 1881, to 
Aliss Christine Corse, at Racine, Wisconsin, and 
their family consists of seven children, namely : Eve- 
lyn H., Alina, James W., John C, Hal., Robert B. 
and Flew. In his political affiliations Mr. Pollock 
is a pronounced Republican and has taken an active 
part in the campaigns of the state. Socially he be- 
longs to the Alasonic fraternity and the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. 

HENRY J. OBER.MAN, who is filling the office 
of county auditor of Dickey county. North Dakota, 
in an efficient and public-spirited manner, is one 
of the rising young men of that region. He is 
possessor of one of the most valuable tracts of land 
in the northern part of the county, consisting of one 
section, on which he conducted farming for many 
years, and from a limited start has acquired a com- 
fortable competence, mainly by his own eft'orts and 
honest dealings. 

Mr. Oberman was born in Joliet, Illinois, June 
I, 1S64, and was the ninth in a family of ten children 
born to John F. and Wilhelmina (Brinkman) Ober- 
man. Both parents were natives of Germany, and 
the father was a quarryman by occupation. The 
mother of our subject died when he was but five 
years of age. 

Our subject finished his education in the schools 
of Joliet and in 1882 went to Ellendale, Dickey 
county, Dakota, and filed claim to land thirteen miles 
north of the county seat, but at present owns one 
section of land in Porter township. 

Our subject was married in Alonango, Dickey 
county. North Dakota, in 1891, to Aliss Francis E. 
Scott, a native of Iowa, who was born in 1872. One 
son has been born to Air. and Airs. Oberman, whom 
they have named Frederick S. Mr. Oberman is a 
member of the Knights of Pythias and Alodern 
Woodmen of America. He has served his township 
in many of the offices of importance, and his present 
position is gaining for him the confidence of the peo- 
ple among whom he has resided for so many years. 
Personal matters are at all times cast aside for the 
more important issues of his community and county, 
and he labors for the general welfare of the people 
with a oneness of purpose which places him foremost 
in the rank of esteemed citizens. 

FION. GEORGE N. SAIITH, one of the weaUh- 
iest and most influential citizens of Cass county, re- 
sides on section 17, in Rush River township, 
and in company with his brother, operates an exten- 
sive tract of land. He went to Dakota with limited 
means, and by dint of energy and perseverance, sup- 
plemented by the strictest integrity, he has accumu- 
lated a fortune and an enviable reputation. A por- 
trait of Air. Smith is shown on another page. 

Our subject was born in Wyoming county. New 
York, April i, 1849. When quite young he re- 
moved to Kalamazoo county, Alichigan, with his 




parents, in 1854, and settled near Schoolcraft, 
JMichigan, where he was reared to manhood. He 
was educated at the Kalamazoo Baptist College, 
later at Parson's Business College in that city, and 
remained in Kalamazoo county till the sprmg of 
1879, when he went to Dakota and located in Cass 
county, in what is now Rush River township, where 
he has since been a resident. He assisted in the 
organization of the township, and named it. He 
purchased, in company with his brother, Forrester 
H. Smith, one section of land, section 17, township 
141, range 51. They have steadily increased their 
acreage, and are now the owners of five sections of 
land in Cass county, and our subject is also interested 
in a large tract of land in South Dakota. He and 
his brother have erected a set of fine farm buildings 
on the home farm in section 17, and enjoy all the 
comforts of rural life. In the spring of 1872 they 
shipped from Michigan twenty-two cars of stock and 
emigrant movables, and at that time sixty-three 
men, women and children, went to settle in North 
Dakota with them. The first year our subject and 
brother with the aid of five men and fifteen head, of 
horses and mules, seeded six hundred acres of wheat 
and oats, and broke six hundred and forty acres of 
land, put up seventy-five tons of hay, harvested 
twelve thousand three hundred bushels of wheat, 
and five thousand bushels of oats and back-set six 
hundred and forty acres of prairie. Only during 
harvest time were more men employed. They have 
been possessed of untiring energy and a capacity for 
well-directed labor, that has placed them at the front 
as agriculturists. 

George N. Smith was elected to the legislature 
in the fall of 1890, and served one term, giving very 
efficient service for his community. He has held 
many of the township offices in Rush River township 
and is thoroughly identified with the upbuilding and 
general welfare of that locality. He is liberal and 
contributes to the various religious denominations, 
and no charitable cause worthy of support, or needy 
person, is refused aid when it is asked. He has 
gained his fortune steadily and well merits his 

JAMES D. McKECHXIE. An honorable posi- 
tion as a worthy citizen and public official of Foster 
county is due the gentleman above named. He is the 
present sheriff of that county and is a young man 
in whom the people repose confidence. 

Our subject was born in Bristol, Quebec, Canada, 
March 29, 1864. His father, Archibald A. McKech- 
nie.was born in Scotland and was a farmer through- 
out his career. He came to America when eighteen 
years of age with his parents. The mother of our 
subject, wlio bore the maiden name of Matilda 
Walker, was born in Ireland. 
• Air. McKechnie was the fourteenth in order of 
birth in a family of sixteen children, and is now the 
smallest of the eleven sons, and he weighs over two 
hundred pounds. He was reared on a farm in Pon- 

tiac county and received educational advantages, 
and at the age of eighteen years began working for 
others and followed railroad clerking five years. He 
went to Carrington, North Dakota, in 1884, and 
hired out at different employments, and conducted a 
dray line in Carrington from 1893 to 1898. He also 
conducted farming for nearly nine years, but did not 
meet with success and gave up the project in 1893. 
He clerked in a general store in 1898, and in the fall 
of that year was elected to his present position. 

Our subject was married November 29, 1887, 
to I\Iiss Agnes Williams, who was born and raised 
in Kentucky. Mrs. McKechnie's father, William 
Williams, was of American and Canadian descent, 
and was a farmer by occupation. One daughter has 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. McKechnie, upon whom 
they have bestowed the name of Clara B. Air. Mc- 
Kechnie holds membership in the Knights of Pyth- 
ias, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, and the Woodmen of 
the World. He takes great interest in affairs gen- 
erally and is deservedly popular with the people. 
Politically he supports the principles of the Repub- 
lican party. 

JOHN DINNIE, widely known as a worthy citi- 
zen of Grand Forks, North Dakota, is the present 
mayor of that city, and is identified with its advance- 
ment in social and financial affairs. He is one of 
the leading business men of the place and has won 
his way to the front steadily and now stands as a 
man of public spirit and commendable character. 

Our subject was born near the St. Lawrence 
river in Dundas county, Ontario. Canada, August 
24, 1853. His parents. John and Mary (Gow) Din- 
nie, w^ere born in Scotland and emigrated to Can- 
ada in 1849 ^"fl settled in Dundas county and en- 
gaged in farming. They still reside on the old home 
place. Three sons and six daughters were born to 
them, and the sons now reside in North Dakota. 

Air. Dinnie received his early training in Canada 
and then learned the trade of a brick and stone ma- 
son, and in 1 88 1 went to Grand Forks county. North 
Dakota and followed his trade there for some years. 
He engaged in the manufucture of brick in i88g 
and the following year his brother, James A. Din- 
nie. became a partner in the business, and the firm 
took the name of Dinnie Brothers and still exists 
and follows brick manufacturing. The Grand Forks 
Brick. Coiiipany was organized in 1894, and our sub- 
ject is the director of the same. They also conduct 
an extensive business in contracting and building, 
and also farming. 

Air. Dinnie was married in 1876 to Aliss Ellen 
Schwerdfegar, a native of Canada. Eight children, 
two sons and six daughters, have been born to Mr. 
and Airs. Dinnie. Air. Dinnie served as alderman 
from the fifth ward in Grand Forks four years, and 
in 1896 he was elected mayor of the city. His pop- 
ularity is evidenced by the fact that he was returned 
to the office in 1898, and had no opposition to meet 



in his election. He is a member of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, and 
Elks. He is loyal and determined in his adherence 
to the right and to his friends, and occupies a promi- 
nent place among the leaders of aii'airs of Grand 
Forks, North Dakota. 

DONALD C. ROSS. The motto "merit al- 
ways commands its reward" is well exemplified in [ 
the career of Mr. Ross, the present efficient and ' 
popular county tr